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Igbo ubo-aka : its role and music among the NRI people of Nigeria Ezegbe, Clement Chukuemeka 1977

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T H E I G B O U B O - A K A : I T S R O L E A N D M U S I C A M O N G T H E N R I P E O P L E O F N I G E R I A b y C L E M E N T C H U K U E M E K A ^ E Z E G B E B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f N i g e r i a , 1973 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S M A S T E R P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T F O R T H E D E G R E E O F O F M U S I C i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p t . o f M u s i c ) W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r , 1977 (c) C l e m e n t C h u k u e m e k a E z e g b e , 1977 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes i s fo r f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of M u s i c The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 30, 1977 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach t o ubo-aka m u s i c a l phenomena i n terms o f the r o l e o f t h e i n s t r u -ment as a communication medium w i t h r i c h and v a r i e d t r a d i t i o n o f i t s own among the N r i p e o p l e i n Igbo c u l t u r e o f s o u t h e a s t e r n N i g e r i a . The Igbo ubp-aka i s a p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t m e t a l prongs which a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t uned w i t h a bowl-shaped gourd r e s o n a t o r . T h i s s t u d y i s needed i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s o f ubp-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n w h i c h are f a c i n g t h e p r o s p e c t o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n i n t h e f a c e o f s o c i a l change. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e s t s p r i m a r i l y on my e x t e n s i v e f i e l d work i n the music o f N r i p e o p l e from 1966 t o 1975 and on c u r r e n t f i e l d r e c o r d i n g s by Gwamniru Ezegbe and L e v i O j i who a r e my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s from 1976 t o 1977, i n a d d i t i o n t o c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on N r i c u l t u r e from many N r i p e o p l e . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e whole t h e s i s by p r e s e n t i n g t h e method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e p r o b l e m s , t h e purpose, t h e academic r e a s o n f o r t h i s s t u d y , l i t e r a r y s u r v e y and t h e scope o f t h e s t u d y . Chapter 2 d e s c r i b e s t h e N r i p e o p l e and t h e i r c u l t u r e as they r e l a t e t o ubo-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . C h a p t e r 3 i s an o r g a n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e i n s t r u -ment based on t h e systems o f Draeger and Hood. The d e t e r m i n a n t s and t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s o f ubq-aka music a r e d i s c u s s e d i n e t h n o g r a p h i c c o n t e x t w h i c h c o n c l u d e s the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l back-ground t o ubo-aka m u s i c . C h a p t e r 5 d i s c u s s e s t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e a n a l y s e s u s i n g P r o f e s s o r L i a n g ' s " g r a p h i c space n o t a t i o n " s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r ubo-aka music. I n t h e a n a l y s e s , 30 m u s i c a l examples t h a t b e s t t y p i f y ubo-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n N r i were s e l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e m u s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s c o v e r i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scale-modes, the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y , t h e i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r and t h e speech t o n e s and t h e rhythms o f melody and speech. C h a p t e r 6 c o n c l u d e s the s t u d y w i t h recommendations and shows t h a t (1) t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e Igbo t o n a l language, (2) t h e rhythms o f melody and words do not always agree and (3) t h a t t h e m u s i c a l parameters can change bu t not the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s as d e f i n e d by t h e s o c i e t y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES . v i i LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. NRI PEOPLE 9 H i s t o r i c a l Description 11 Social Organization 18 Age-grade System 2 0 Ozo T i t l e 23 Eze N r i : The King of the People 25 Religious B e l i e f s and Practices 33 The Order of Priesthood 38 The Folklore of Ubo-aka 45 Summary 55 Footnotes 57 I I I . UBO-AKA AS AN INSTRUMENT 59 Physical Characteristics 60 Tone Production 65 Technique and Art of Playing 71 The Diagramatic Representation of Ubo-aka .. 74 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of.Ubo-aka i n A f r i c a and Beyond 83 i v Summary 86 Footnotes 91 IV. THE SOCIO-CULTURAL ROLE OF UBO-AKA MUSIC ... 92 Ubo-aka Socio-'cultural determinant 92 Igbo Tonal Language 92 Aesthetics 94 Age and Sex 96 Ubo-aka Music and S o c i a l i z a t i o n 97 The P a t r i l i n e a l Nature of Social Organization 99 Social Functions and A c t i v i t i e s 100 Religion 101 Current Events 102 Ethics 103 Marriage and Funeral 104 Praise and Proverbs 105 Age-grade A c t i v i t y 107 Musicianship and Social Status 108 Soci a l Interaction Among Ubo-aka Players I l l Non-Native Influences 112 Contemporary Situation 115 Summary 116 Footnotes 118 V. TRANSCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES 11.9 Transcriptional Methodology 119 v A n a l y t i c a l Methodology 123 Musical Parameters 124 L i n g u i s t i c Analysis 125 Functional Analysis 126 Religious Music 127 Passing on Information 133 Death Music 14 3 Ethics 152 Sayings 160 Marriage Music 166 Praise Music 172 Age-grade A c t i v i t y 18 0 VI CONCLUSION 188 BIBLIOGRAPHY 19 3 APPENDICES 2 01 I IGBO TONAL ORGANIZATION 202 II NOTES ON TAPE RECORDING 205 III SOME ADDITIONAL TEXTS 210 IV THE TRANSCRIPTIONS 212 VITA v i LIST OF TABLES Page I . The T r a d i t i o n a l Weekdays 13 I I . L i s t o f S i m i l a r Words i n I g a l a and N r i 13 I I I . L i s t of N r i Gods 34 IV. The Measurement o f Ubp-aka Keys 69 V. D e d u c t i o n s From Echezona's A n a l y s i s 70 V I . D i f f e r e n t Names and F e a t u r e s o f Ubp-aka i n Some P a r t s o f A f r i c a and World 87 V I I . F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f R e l i g i o u s M u s i c .... 134 V I I I . F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f I n f o r m a t i o n M u s i c ... 142 IX. F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of Death M u s i c 151 X. F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of E t h i c a l M u s i c 3.61 X I . F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f M u s i c a l S a y i n g s 167 X I I . F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f M a r r i a g e M u s i c 173 X I I I . F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f P r a i s e Music 181 XIV. F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f Age-grade M u s i c 187 v i i LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1. The Position of N r i i n Igbo Culture of Nigeria . . . 10 2. Approximate Extent of Nri Hegemony AD 900 - 1911 27 3. Skeletal Structure of Nri Social Organization 35 4. The P r i n c i p l e of Transverse Vibration of Rods 61 5. The Boundaries of the Manual 72 6. The Application of Hood's Organogram to Ubo-Aka 76 7. Ubo-Aka Wooden L i d 77 8. The Fixing of the Prongs 78 9. The Laying Out of Maker's Tuning 82 10. The Approximate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Ubo-Aka in A f r i c a 88 11. Liang's Graphic Space Notation 120 12. The Main Melodic Contour Typology Prevalent in Four Ubo-Aka Religious Music 128 13. Correlation Between Melodic Contour Movement and Speech Tones 132 14. Major Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c Melodic Contour Typology i n Four Ubo-Aka Information Pieces 136 15. Correlation Between Melodic Contour Movement and Speech Tones i n Information Pieces .... 140 16. The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Melodic Contour Typology of Death Music 145 17. The Melodic Contour and Speech Tone Correlations i n Death Music 149 v i i i 18. Main Melodic Contour Characteristics i n E t h i c a l Music 154 19. The Correlation Between Melodic Contour and Words i n E t h i c a l Music 158 20. The Melodic Contour Movements of the Proverbial Music 16 3 21. The Correlations Between the Melodic Contour and Speech Tones i n Proverbial Music 165 22. Examples of Melodic Contour Typology i n Marriage Music 169 23. The Correlations Between Melodic Contour and Speech Tones i n Marriage Music 171 24. The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Melodic Contour Typology i n Praise Music 175 25. The Correlation Between the Melodic Contour and Speech Tones i n Praise Music 17 8 26. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Melodic Contour Typology for Age-grade Music 182 27. The Relationship Between the Melodic Movement and the Speech Tones i n Age-grade Music .. 185 LIST OF PLATES 1. Nri Ozo Man Playing Ubp-Aka, 28 2. An Nri Elder With Ichi Marking on the Face 41 3. The Ubp-Aka 6 3 4. The Features of the Resonator 66 5. The Decorated Ubp-Aka 6 7 6. The Mbichi-Ubp (Muting Technique) 75 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h e a u t h o r i s w i t h a l l h u m i l i t y o f m i n d , g r a t e f u l t o t h e m a n y p e r s o n s w h o s e h e l p a n d c o n c e r n h a v e b e e n i n v a l u -a b l e i n t h e c o n d u c t a n d u l t i m a t e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r M . Y . L i a n g , my t h e s i s a n d a c a d e m i c a d v i s o r t h r o u g h o u t my y e a r s o f g r a d u a t e s t u d y a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r h i s c o m p r e -h e n s i v e a n d s c h o l a r l y o r i e n t a t i o n a n d l e c t u r e s w h i c h i n i t i a t e d me i n t o t r u e s c h o l a r s h i p a n d c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y i n t h e f i e l d o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y w i t h r e l a t e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s , a n d f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e ' g r a p h i c s p a c e n o t a t i o n ' u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s d e s i g n e d s p e c i a l l y b y P r o f e s s o r L i a n g f o r u b o - a k a m u s i c . F u r t h e r , I o w e a d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r E v a n K r e i d e r , a n d P r o f e s s o r D o r e e n B i n n i n g t o n b o t h m e m b e r s o f my g u i d a n c e c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , d e d i c a t i o n , h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s a n d p r o o f r e a d i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a u t h o r e x p r e s s e s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o s e v e r a l p e r s o n s e n d o w e d w i t h t h e r a r e g i f t o f c o o p e r a t i o n : t h e e n t i r e s t a f f o f O d i n a n i M u s e u m , N r i , t h e p r e s e n t E z e - N r i ( t h e K i n g ) : N r i j i m p f p I I a n d t h e N r i t r a d i t i o n a l p r i e s t s f o r t h e i r u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n o n N r i c u l t u r e , t h e u b p - a k a p l a y e r s i n N r i e s p e c i a l l y O k e c h u k w u M m a n k o , N w e k e N w a k u , J o h n ^ g b a t a l u , A b e l O k e k e O k a f o r , G a b r i e l O b i d i k e , E d w i n O b i a n d o t h e r s ; my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s : L e v i O j i , A n t h o n y O r a e k i a n d O b e d A j a g u f o r c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t a p e r e c o r d i n g s o n u b o - a k a m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n ; E u g e n e O k a n y , A s h o k M a l h o t r a a n d P a w a n B a s s i f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . My t h a n k s g o s p e c i a l l y t o A s h o k M a l h o t r a f o r h i s h e l p a n d g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g s o f t h e f i g u r e s , a n d R e v a L a n d e r f o r h e r d i l i g e n c e , p a t i e n c e a n d e x p e r t i s e i n t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , I am i n d e b t e d t o G w a m n i r u , my b e l o v e d w i f e , f o r h e r o u t s t a n d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d c o n c e r n i n o r g a n i z i n g a n d m a k i n g a v a i l a b l e c u r r e n t f i e l d r e c o r d i n g s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a n d t o my m o t h e r , w i f e , d a u g h t e r a n d m a n y f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t my s t u d y a n d r e s e a r c h i n t h i s U n i v e r s i t y . x i D E D I C A T E D TO MY M A S T E R : D A N I E L C . E R I N N E H e p l a n t e d me i n m u s i c , t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f N i g e r i a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a t e r e d , a n d G o d g a v e t h e i n c r e a s e . x i i C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N I n a n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h i s n a t u r e , t h e m e t h o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a p p r o a c h t o m u s i c a l p h e n o m e n a . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s n e e d e d b e c a u s e u b o - a k a m u s i c , a s a c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e d i u m i s c o n t e x t s e n s i t i v e w i t h r i c h f o l k l o r e a n d p o e t i c s o n g t e x t s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e f o l k w a y s o f N r i p e o p l e a r e o r a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d , p r e s e r v e d a n d p e r p e t u a t e d . T h u s u b o - a k a m u s i c i s a m e a n s b y w h i c h N r i m e n i n t e r p r e t a n d c o m m u n i c a t e t o o n e a n o t h e r t h e i r c o n c e p t o f l i f e a n d a l l t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e m u s i c i s a t r a d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t o f d a i l y l i f e , p h i l o s o p h i e s , b e l i e f s a n d e t h i c a l v a l u e s o f N r i w h i c h e x p r e s s e s t h e g e s t a l t o f N r i p e o p l e a n d t h e i r c u l t u r e . T h e m u s i c i s t h e r e f o r e n o t a n i s o l a t e d s o n i c o r d e r b u t r a t h e r a s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l m a t r i x b e h i n d i t b y w h i c h N r i p e o p l e c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d . S ome i n s i g h t i n t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u b Q - a k a u n d e r d i f f e r e n t n a m e s i n A f r i c a a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n s w h i c h c a n l e a d t o n e w p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s . A s a r e s u l t , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o s t u d y u b o - a k a m u s i c a s a h u m a n b e h a v i o u r a n d p r o v i d e s t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c c o n t e x t : t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s i n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d y i n g t h e m u s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s . T h i s a p p r o a c h 1 2 i s i n l i n e with Nketia's view i n the study of any aspect of African music which enables us to get nearer to our ultimate goal of contributing to the study of man as a "music maker and music user" (1962:4). Thus he recommends a combination of musicological and anthropological methods i n studying African music for "the study of music i n culture ignores neither music nor culture, neither formal structure nor function but unites both i n a comprehensive statement of meaning" (1962:1). This study i s necessary and urgent i n the l i g h t of the importance of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l role of ubo-aka music i n Nri and i n the enti r e Igbo culture, which i s f a s t d i s -appearing i n the face of c u l t u r a l transformation and contem-porary s o c i a l change. The transmissional system of ubo-aka i s p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable to such transformations and acculturation. Its music i s not written and has simply been handed down from one generation to another through o r a l transmission and rote learning. As a r e s u l t , t h i s study uses a newly devised notational system s p e c i a l l y for the trans-c r i p t i o n of ubo-aka music with provisions for d e t a i l s of performance technique, e.g., which thumb plays which note and how. The proposed notational system i s Liang's "graphic space notation" an innovated notational system for ubo-aka class of instruments throughout A f r i c a and the Caribbeans which i s very useful and l a t e n t l y functional for the instrument. 3 Although anthropological and s o c i o l o g i c a l studies of Nri people have been conducted extensively by Northcote Thomas, a government anthropologist (1910-14), G. T. Basden (a missionary) (1910-1938) , C. K. Meek, an ethnologist (1931) , M.D.W. Jeffreys (1934) , Thurstan Shaw, an archaeologist (1959-1960) and M.A. Onwuejeogwu, a s o c i a l anthropologist, none of them had studied Nri music. To date, there seems to have been no study of Nri music with the exception of the f i e l d work by the writer from 1966 to 1975, both as a music undergraduate and research fellow at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. On the other hand, a substantial pioneer organological study of Igbo musical instruments was done by Echezona i n his Ibo Musical Instrument i n Ibo Culture i n which he c l a s s i f i e d Igbo musical instruments on the basis of the "systematik" of Sachs and Hornbostel: the idiophones, aerophones, membranophones and the chordophones — and devoted a chapter to the organology of ubo-aka with a b r i e f discussion touching upon the aspects. His study i s more of a generalized ethnographical study rather than ethnomusico-l o g i c a l , which i s creditable and serves as a basis for further inquiry i n the f i e l d . In addition, some scholars i n A f r i c a n music have studied ubp-aka under d i f f e r e n t names among s p e c i f i c peoples of A f r i c a and the Caribbean, namely: G. Kubik (1964), three Yoruba members of the Mbira-sanza by Thieme (1967) , the Matepe mbira music of Rhodesia by Andrew Tracey, mbira class of African instruments by Hugh Tracey 4 (1970), the o r i g i n a l A f r i c a n m b i r a w i t h i n the l o w e r Zambezi v a l l e y by Andrew Tracey (1972), the B r a z i l i a n m b i r a by Thiermann (1971), t h e C a r i b b e a n marimbula by Thompson (1976) , an ethnography o f m b i r a among the Shona p e o p l e o f R h o d e s i a by B e r l i n e r (1974) and m u l t i - p a r t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e m b i r a music o f Shona p e o p l e by Kauffmann (19 7 0 ) . The most compre-h e n s i v e o f a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s i s B e r l i n e r ' s The S o u l o f M b i r a :  an ethnography o f t h e m b i r a among the Shona p e o p l e o f  Rhodesia. T h i s s t u d y d i s c u s s e s m b i r a ( o r ubo-aka) i n i t s "broad c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t " w i t h the aim " t o i n c r e a s e the r e a d e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a r t of m b i r a music and t o d e f e n d and d i s p e l w e s t e r n m i s c o n c e p t i o n s , r e g a r d i n g A f r i c a n m u s i c " ( B e r l i n e r 1974: 1-14). On the whole, B e r l i n e r ' s t h e s i s f o c u s e s on a s o c i o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e m b i r a dza vadzima, t h e m b i r a of t h e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s , w h i c h i s one o f many t y p e s o f Shona mbiras and has o m i t t e d any " t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n " on music w h i c h B e r l i n e r acknowledged ( B e r l i n e r 1974: 1 3 ) . A l t o g e t h e r , B e r l i n e r ' s t h e s i s i s an e x c e l l e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y o f m b i r a w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y and f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n the f i e l d . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e music and t h e r o l e o f the Igbo ubo-aka as an i m p o r t a n t m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t w i t h r i c h and v a r i e d t r a d i t i o n o f i t s own among the N r i p e o p l e o f s o u t h e a s t e r n N i g e r i a . Ubo-aka i s a p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e w i t h e i g h t m e t a l prongs and a gourd r e s o n a t o r as shown i n P l a t e I . The word N r i has t h r e e main r e f e r e n c e s i n N r i t r a d i t i o n : 5 (1) i t i s the name of a p r i e s t l y people i n Igbo culture who are the d i r e c t descendants of N r i , the eldest son of Menri and t r a d i t i o n a l l y the ancient ancestor of the people; (2) i t i s also the name of a t e r r i t o r y occupied by Eze Nri (the king) and his people; and (3) i t i s also the name of a r i t u a l p o l i t i c a l t i t l e which i s the highest t i t l e e x clusively for Eze N r i . As used throughout this theis, Nri refers to the people as well as the t e r r i t o r y they inhabit. The choice of Nri people rests primarily on t h e i r role as the p r i e s t l y core i n Igbo culture exerting dominant c u l t u r a l influence on a wide extent of the peripheral Igbo areas. This i s so because of the extensive hegemony of Nri i n Igboland since (circa AD900-911), u n t i l the interruption of B r i t i s h admin-i s t r a t i o n i n 1911 when Eze Nri (the King of Nri) was ordered to abolish a l l the codes which bound a l l v i l l a g e s and towns in Nri sphere of influence with the exception of the r i t u a l influence which continues (Onwuejeogwu 1972: 44) . Among the Igbo people of Nigeria, the Nri are foremost i n retai n i n g their c u l t u r a l heritage as based upon the t r a d i t i o n s of th e i r ancestors. To date, the deeply rooted c u l t u r a l legacy of Nri s t i l l e xists i n the face of s o c i a l change — hence the Nri people constitute the key to the study of any aspect of Igbo culture. The r e l a t i v e importance of Nri i s further emphasized i n the following statement: Where then can ancient Ibo law and custom, r e l i g i o n and language be best studied? In my opinion the conditions are most favourable at Nri, the home of the p r i e s t l y c u l t .... (Basden 1966B: xx). 6 With the role of Nri i n Igbo culture, the significance of any aspect of Nri music i n Igboland and perhaps comparat-i v e l y i n African framework has much to commend i t . Thus N r i music i s a r e l i a b l e guide to every aspect of the t r a d i t i o n a l music of Igbo people and possibly to the study of both African and Caribbean music that might have been influenced by Igbo culture through c u l t u r a l contact i n the past. Today there are traces of African musical practices among the countries of West Indies where many west Africans were shipped during the era of slave trade. For example, ubo-aka ex i s t s among the Caribbeans under d i f f e r e n t shapes and generic names, e.g., the Caribbean marimbula(Thompson 1975: 78-95) and the B r a z i l i a n mbira (Thiermann 1971: 90-94). There i s no doubt that the results of th i s study can form a basis for further ethnomusicological inquiry i n a broad c r o s s - c u l t u r a l per-spective and which may serve as a guide i n resonstructing the c u l t u r a l history and patterns of migration of many African people. The academic reason for th i s study l i e s i n the fact that ubo-aka with i t s l i n g u i s t i c tonal structure, r i c h f o l k -lore and poetic song texts, has the poten t i a l f o r being included i n African music education i n schools, colleges and higher i n s t i t u t i o n s of learning. Thus the ubo-aka i s a potential instrument for teaching the t r a d i t i o n a l scales, melodic and rhythmic patterns, i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the Igbo tonal language because of i t s eight metal keys which 7 are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y tuned and representative of the Igbo t r a d i t i o n a l modal structure. In t h i s way, the study of t h i s instrument w i l l increase our knowledge and understanding of ubp-aka music and the cr o s s - c u l t u r a l matrix associated with i t , not only among Nri people but also the whole of A f r i c a and the Caribbeans where the instrument i s i n use. This study w i l l also preserve for purpose of reference and sub-sequent research, a large number of t y p i c a l items of o r a l t r a d i t i o n and forms of Igbo music and African music i n general. Limitations of this study exists because of a lack of previous l i t e r a r y surveys i n the f i e l d . As a r e s u l t much of ubp-aka music has been l o s t following the death of many t r a d i t i o n a l performers i n the past and p a r t l y due to the e f f e c t of s o c i a l change which prevents the modern youths from active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ubp-aka music. There i s no discussion on the history and evolution of the instrument i n the absence of written records. Probably, future archaeological and anthropological research may reveal the past history of t h i s instrument to engender further inquiry i n the f i e l d . On the whole, while not exhaustive, the scope of t h i s study covers the following: (1) the ethnographic context of Ubp-aka music and i t s relationship to Nri culture including the s o c i o l o g i c a l background of texts, associated events, cosmological and theological ideas, the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l roles and values; (2) the organology of ubp-aka, including design, construction and tuning, art of playing, d i s t r i b u t i o n and 8 o t h e r p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t and (3) s e l e c t e d t u n e s o f u b o - a k a m u s i c i n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f m o d a l i t y , r h y t h m , c o r r e l a t i o n b e tween m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e and s p e e c h t o n e , t r a n s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o m u s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . 9 CHAPTER II NRI PEOPLE This chapter attempts to discuss Nri people with reference to t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background as they relate to ubo-aka music. The need for this arises because the approach i n t h i s investigation i s to study music i n context. Thus i t provides the extramusical content, the deep structure which i s of paramount importance i n an ethno-musicological inquiry of this nature. Among the Igbo of Nigeria, Nri people occupy an area surrounded by Agulu, Adazinnukwu, yiiao, Enugwu-ukwu and Nise towns within the old Awka Division (now known as Njikoka Division) i n south eastern Nigeria. The area i s nearly surrounded by streams and lakes, and i s situated 400-600 feet above sea l e v e l i n the depression of Idemili Lake (Ezu-oye-tolo) on l a t i t u d e 6.08°^ and longitude 6.0 2 o E about eighteen miles east of Onitsha as shown i n F i g . 1. Nri comprises two major v i l l a g e s , Agukwu and Akamkpisi. Agukwu comprises three maximal lineage segments and which are sub-v i l l a g e s , namely Uruoji Obeagu and Agbadani; Akamkpisi com-prises three sub-villages: Diodo, Uruofolo and Ekwenanuka. On the whole, Nri people l i v e within the r a i n forest b e l t of north equatorial region of West A f r i c a which i s topographic-a l l y a t h i c k l y forested depression, almost surrounded by high ridges and water. The following lakes e x i s t : Ezu Idemili, Nwantukpo and Ulasi (Onwuejeogwu 1972: 42). The hottest periods are within the months of March and A p r i l , 10 FIG. 1 THE POSITION OF NRI IN IGBO CULTURE OF NIGERIA L A Nsukka 7°N-• Adanl tEnugu f \ »Nnewl ^ lhia[a« / *•"* tOrsu • Orlu N Awgue '.Okigwe ^ ft,ll,P°V • - . "v Umuahlat #Bende • -; 0werr l . \ P Ohof.o ( \ EzlnihiHee/ X 0 R A T \ T A \ " " »Akaeze / Aflkpo* 6<H Arochukwu •Ahoada * . • • Ozuzu / i*Elele < \IKWERRE (/ -7 X J fr\ . D I°-^Nd 'ortHorWGrV Boundary of Ibo Territory Major Oracles Other Towns a Villages 6°E I 20 40-s=k= SO 8p Miles 8°E cl/aend. (Ilogu 1974: XVI) 11 c o l d e s t i n D e c e m b e r , a n d t h e h e a v i e s t r a i n s o c c u r i n t h e m o n t h s o f J u n e a n d J u l y . T h e o c c u p a t i o n s . , i n c l u d e m o s t l y s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g o f y a m , c o c o - y a m , m a i z e , c a s s a v a a n d v e g e t a b l e s ; d o m e s t i c a t i o n o f g o a t s , s h e e p a n d p o u l t r y w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s l i v e s t o c k t e n a n c y ; t r a d i n g o n t o b a c c o , c l o t h i n g , f i s h , i v o r y , e t c . , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r e d o m i n a n t p r i e s t l y f u n c t i o n s a n d b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l a n d m o d e r n . T h e l i n e o f i n q u i r y i n t h i s s t u d y p r o c e e d s f r o m a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f N r i i n c l u d i n g t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s , t h e f o l k l o r e o f u b o - a k a a n d a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s o f m u s i c i n N r i l i f e . T h u s C h a p t e r I I b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e c u l -t u r a l s i t u a t i o n a n d c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s u m m a r y . H i s t o r i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n N o t m u c h i s k n o w n a b o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f N r i p e o p l e . W h a t e v e r l i t t l e i s k n o w n i s m o s t l y b a s e d o n o r a l t r a d i t i o n a n d t h e r e c e n t f i n d i n g s o f I g b o - U k w u e x c a v a t i o n " 1 " . T h e p a u c i t y o f d a t a o n t h i s s u b j e c t m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t t o a r r i v e a t d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d a s a r e s u l t , o p i n i o n s d i f f e r o n t h e s u b j e c t . F o r e x a m p l e , s o m e s o u r c e s l i n k t h e o r i g i n o f N r i w i t h t h e I g a l a K i n g d o m o f n o r t h e r n N i g e r i a , o t h e r s w i t h t h e N i l e v a l l e y o r w i t h t h e I s r a e l i t e s w h o l e f t E g y p t d u r i n g t h e e x o d u s ^ . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e s p e c u l a t i o n s m i g h t t h r o w s o m e l i g h t o n t h i s t o p i c . A c c o r d i n g t o o n e s o u r c e , N r i , I g a l a a n d o t h e r U m u e r i p e o p l e w e r e f o u n d e d b y E r i w h o l a t e r 12 se t t l e d i n northern Igboland. As the legend goes, his sons 3 founded Nri and other Umueri people (Jeffreys 1956: 119) . On the other hand, Nri o r a l t r a d i t i o n while admitting c u l t u r a l r elationship between Igala and Nri, does not support the hypothesis that Nri people originated from Igala. Probably, the two cultures descended from a common ancestor as one account from Umueri clan states: We are a l l descended from E r i , but Igala went one way, Aguku [Agukwu-Nri] another, Amanuke another, Nteje another, and Igbariam another. This separating of Igala from us happened so long ago that now we do not hear Igala nor can they hear our language. (Isi c h e i 1976: 4) Nri people admit to a passage through Igala lands p r i o r to s e t t l i n g i n t h e i r present loca t i o n . In fact, c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n cannot be denied i n such a s i t u a t i o n . Further, a b r i e f statement c o l l e c t e d from the palace of Eze Nri about the o r i g i n of N r i , i s very illuminating: Nri which neans Menri, was the oldest son of E r i who had f i v e brothers: Aguleri, Onoja (Igboariam), Nsugbe, Nteje, Amanuke and a s i s t e r , Adamgbo. The o r i g i n of E r i and his fore-fathers, i s not clear to us. But we know that Nri and his brothers passed through Igala i n the North i n t h e i r downward movement. Nri was th e i r leader. In his journey, aft e r passing through Nkpumenyilenyi (the present Enugwu-ukwu town), he f i n a l l y s e t t l e d to our present home named after him as Nri town; his permanent abode from where he reigned over Igbo land and beyond. We have been God's chosen p r i e s t l y people f o r a long time to the present day, and we are the source head of Igbo people. This i s why our p r i e s t l y function i s widely recognized throughout Igbo land and beyond, a sacred duty handed down to us by our ancient fathers. ( N r i P r i e s t s at Obu Eze, Sept.1972) 1 3 Today, e v i d e n c e o f c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t between I g a l a and N r i i s found i n t h e s i m i l a r i t y between th e names o f t r a d i t i o n a l week days and some v o c a b u l a r i e s among N r i and I g a l a p e o p l e as shown i n T a b l e s I and I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . N a t i v e Week Days I g a l a Name N r i Name F i r s t Day Eke Eke Second Day Ede Oye T h i r d Day Afo A f o F o u r t h Day Ukwo Nkwo (Boston 1968: 208) TABLE I . THE TRADITIONAL WEEK DAYS N r i I g a l a Meaning A f a I f a A p r i e s t l y o r a c l e and r i t u a l . I t a I t a N a r a t i v e s by a s p e c i a l p r i e s t t h a t e x p l a i n s m y s t e r i e s o r h i d d e n f a c t s . Oke Oke G r e a t or b i g . O k o l o b i a A b o k o l o b i a A grown-up young man. Onoja O n o j i e A name of one o f the a n c e s t o r s . Onu-ebo Ebo A s h r i n e - a r e a f o r c o n f e s s i o n and p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t i t l e h o l d e r s . ( B o s t o n 1968: 32-206) TABLE I I . LIST OF SIMILAR WORDS IN IGALA AND NRI I n a d d i t i o n , ubo-aka i n terms o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t among the descendants 14 of E r i , namely N r i , I g a l a , A g u l e r i , Nsugbe, Nteje, Amanuke, Igboariam e t c . Further, Eze N r i (King of N r i ) i s a t t i r e d i n white I g a l a c l o t h at h i s coronation, and at the King's b u r i a l ceremony, aka beads and okwechi c l o t h from I g a l a must be provided which support the hypothesis t h a t there i s ancient connection between the sacred k i n g s h i p s of N r i and I g a l a 4 ( I s i c h e i 1973: 27-30). On the other hand, Basden's hypothesis t r a c e s the o r i g i n of Igbo people to the N i l e V a l l e y area of the Middle East (1966B: 414). This i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by h i s d i s c u s s i o n on s i m i l a r i t i e s between the I s r a e l i t e s (the Hebrews) and the Igbo people based p r i m a r i l y on the a f f i n i t y 5 between the n a t i v e law and the Mosaic system (Basden 19 66B: 411). The s i m i l a r i t i e s under d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e the f o l l o w -ing examples: the p r a c t i c e of r e p e t i t i o n of words to express a s i n g l e i d e a by e i t h e r r e d u p l i c a t i n g verbs or adding t h e i r cognate nouns such as, ona atumu ntamu ( i . e . , he murmurs a murmer), ogalu aga (he passed by a pass), e t c . ; the p r o v i s i o n of a c i t y of refuge f o r a sinner or an offender to which the c u l p r i t runs i n order to save h i s or her l i f e . This i s a common p r a c t i c e between the Igbo people and the I s r a e l i t e s as i t i s w r i t t e n i n the book of Deutroncmy 4:41-43. Thus among the Igbo people, N r i town i s the t r a d i t i o n a l c i t y of refuge where sinners and the r e j e c t e d ones are accepted, v i r t u a l l y p u r i f i e d , f o r g i v e n and r e h a b i l i t a t e d . The law of Deutronomy which s t a t e s t h a t "the woman s h a l l not wear t h a t which p e r t a i n e t h unto a man" i s i n l i n e w i t h an Igbo taboo 15 f o r a woman t o wear ogodo (a l o i n c l o t h w h i c h i s t i g h t l y r o l l e d and passe d around the w a i s t and between t h e l e g s t o h o l d and h i d e a man's p r i v a t e p a r t ) w h i c h i s an a b o m i n a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s p u r i f i c a t i o n and pardon by N r i p r i e s t s . T h i s taboo a g a i n s t "what p e r t a i n e t h unto a man extends t o m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s such as ubo-aka, o j a ( f l u t e ) , i g b a drums wh i c h a r e s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d f o r men's use. The b a s i s o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s r e s t s p r i m a r i l y on t h e c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Igbo t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n which share i d e n t i c a l t r a i t s w i t h the f a i t h o f the I s r a e l i t e s w hich i n c l u d e , t h e knowledge and the a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e supreme God, b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , the p r e v a l e n t p r a c t i c e o f s a c r i f i c e s i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h e making o f image t o r e p r e s e n t God, t h e w o r s h i p o f b e i n g s o t h e r than God r e s u l t i n g i n p o l y t h e i s m and i d o l a t r y , a d e f i n i t e acknowledgement o f God as the supreme c r e a t o r " y e t e n t h r o n e d i n a m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r b e l i e f s " w hich l a t e r d e v e l o p e d i n t o 7 animism (Basden 1966B: 414). On t h e b a s i s o f t h e above d i s c u s s i o n on s i m i l a r i t i e s and the p r i e s t l y r o l e o f N r i i n Igbo c u l t u r e , one may be j u s t i f i e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g N r i p e o p l e w i t h t h e I s r a e l i t e s who l e f t Egypt d u r i n g t h e exodus. The p e o p l e w h i l e i n s e a r c h o f the promised l a n d might p o s s i b l y have s t r a y e d southwards t h r o u g h I g a l a i n t o t h a t p a r t o f e a s t e r n N i g e r i a t h e y occupy today as one o f t h e Igbo p e o p l e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e word, Igbo, i s d e r i v e d from a c o r r u p t i o n o f the word, Hebrew, by b e i n g m u t i l a t e d t o Ubru, I b r u , t h e n t o Uburu, a name o f an Igbo town, and l a t e r from Heebo t o I g b o 8 ( N j a k a 1974: 1 7 ) . 16 I n 1938, f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e h i s t o r y o f N r i p e o p l e and Igbo c u l t u r e was r e v e a l e d by a chance f i n d i n g . A t Igbo-Ukwu, a town n i n e m i l e s from N r i a man was d i g g i n g i n h i s compound when he d i s c o v e r e d a number o f r e m a r k a b l e bronze works o f a r t . T h i s was e x c a v a t e d by P r o f e s s o r T h u r s t o n Shaw i n 1959 who p u b l i s h e d t h e f i n d i n g s i n 1970 i n h i s book, Igbo-Ukwu: An account o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  d i s c o v e r i e s i n e a s t e r n N i g e r i a (2 v o l s . ) ( I s i c h e i 1973: 22) . The f i n d i n g s were o b t a i n e d from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s i t e s a t Igbo-Ukwu town. The f i r s t i n c l u d e s a b u r i a l chamber o f a r u l e r o r a r e l i g i o u s d i g n i t a r y i n a s e a t e d p o s i t i o n , r i c h l y d r e s s e d and surrounded by t r e a s u r e r s such as e l e p h a n t t u s k s , b r o n z e r o d s and c a r v i n g s , e t c . R e v e a l e d a t t h e second s i t e was a s t o r e - h o u s e o f beads, bronze bowls and numerous bronze o b j e c t s . The t h i r d s i t e was a p i t c o n t a i n i n g p o t t e r y o f a l l k i n d s and a r e m a r k a b l e bronze roped vase (Shaw 1970: v o l s . 1 and 2 ) . ^ The method of r a d i o carbon d a t i n g d a t e d t h e f i n d i n g s t o t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , A.D., w h i c h i n t h e absence o f c o n t r a r y e v i d e n c e may i n d i c a t e a thousand y e a r - o l d o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s a n c i e n t c u l t u r e i s l i n k e d w i t h d i v i n e k i n g s o f N r i p e o p l e because o f t h e f o l l o w i n g arguments: the system o f b u r i a l i s s i m i l a r t o t h e modern b u r i a l o f an Eze N r i ; t h e i c h i f a c i a l s c a r s on t h e b r o n z e human f a c e r e c a l l t h e " f a c i a l s c a r i f i c a -t i o n " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t i t l e d men of N r i ; t h e e l e p h a n t t u s k i s a common t r a d i t i o n a l symbol o f t h e t i t l e d men t h r o u g h o u t Igbo c u l t u r e ( I s i c h e i 1976: 12-13); and t h e roped vase sugges 17 the "roped bronze p o t " s t i l l made i n t h e a r e a w h i c h a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e roped bronze r i t u a l p o t t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o o r a l t r a d i t i o n , was t a k e n by an N r i man who f l e d and founded the town o f O r a e r i n e a r Igbo-Ukwu. F u r t h e r , d a t i n g o f t h e f i n d -i n g s t o t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y A.D. i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e c h r o n o l o g y of M.A. Onwuejeogwu, an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who d i d d e t a i l e d f i e l d work i n N r i c u l t u r e . He dat e d the m i g r a t i o n o f a s e c t i o n o f N r i t o O r a e r i between 909 and 1049 A.D. (Onwuejeogwu 1972: 10) . However r a d i o carbon d a t i n g s are n o t w i t h o u t c o n t r o -v e r s y . F o r example, a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d . 1 0 (Lawal 1973: 1 ) . The f a m i l i a r i t y of a n c i e n t Igbo-Ukwu c u l t u r e s as shown i n the f i n d , l e d some c r i t i c s t o q u e s t i o n t h e a n t i q u i t y o f the s e a r t i f a c t s . And, t h e r e i s doubt as t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g i n e q u a t o r i a l r e g i o n s . There i s a l s o a tendency t o a s s o c i a t e the bronze work w i t h those o f B e n i n and I f e o f N i g e r i a , b u t P r o f e s s o r T h u r s t a n Shaw argues t h a t b o t h m e t a l l i c a n a l y s i s and workmanship o f t h e bronze o b j e c t s a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f B e n i n and I f e ; he o n l y admits t o t h e s e o b j e c t s b e l o n g i n g t o a West A f r i c a n c o m p l e x 1 1 (Onwuejeogwu 1 9 7 2 : 5 ) . A l t o g e t h e r , the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Igbo-Ukwu f i n d i n g s w i t h N r i i s s t i l l u n d i s p u t e d . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , a r c h a e o -l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the knowledge o f N r i h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e . Today, what i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t N r i a re Igbo p e o p l e who are t r a d i t i o n a l l y r i t u a l i s t s , s h a r i n g a common a n c e s t o r w i t h Umueri and I g a l a p e o p l e . The e x a c t o r i g i n o f N r i i s n o t y e t known. 18 S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n The two dominant themes o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f N r i a r e the umunna and ikwunne c o n c e p t s w h i c h a p p l y t o a l l p eople i n Igbo c u l t u r e (Onwuejeogwu 1972: 18-19). The umunna concept r e f e r s t o the f a t h e r ' s l i n e a g e w h i c h i s dominant i n Igbo s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i l e the ikwunne concept s t r e s s e s t h e mother's l i n e a g e b u t s u b o r d i n a t e w i t h i n t h e p a t r i l i n e a l framework. Ikwunne m a i n l y s e r v e s as a r e m i n -der o f the o r i g i n a l home o f the mother, thus e f f e c t i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l l i n k between the mother's f a t h e r ' s home and t h e f a t h e r ' s home th r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and r e l a t i v e s . The e n t i r e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n emphasizes male dominance o v e r f e m a l e s . Thus each l i n e a g e i s made up o f a number o f umunna, a t e r r i t o r i a l l y k i n - b a s e d u n i t whose n a r r o w e s t r e f e r e n t s are t h e c h i l d r e n o f the same f a t h e r b u t o f d i f f e r e n t mothers; i t s w i d e s t r e f e r e n t s are t h e p a t r i l i n e a l members who must not marry from among themselves (Uchendu 1965: 39-40). Based on t h i s fundamental s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a r e t h e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t -i o n s such as age-grade system, t i t l e i n s t i t u t i o n s , s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , i n i t i a t i o n s c h o o l s , m a r r i a g e r e g u l a t i o n s and k i n g -s h i p system w h i c h are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e o c r a c y and generon-t o c r a c y . E c o n o m i c a l l y , t h e s m a l l e s t p r o d u c i n g and consuming u n i t i s ugwulu (the i n d i v i d u a l s i n g l e o r compound f a m i l y ) w h i l e t h e b i g g e s t p r o d u c i n g and consuming u n i t i s t h e umunna. Thus, the N r i p e o p l e d e r i v e t h e i r s p i r i t o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m 19 and c o - o p e r a t i o n from t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h encourage i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as group achievement w i t h i n t h e communal c o n t e x t o f umunna c o n c e p t . On t h e w h o l e , t h e b a s i c p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o l l o w s t h e s t r u c t u r e of p a t r i l i n e a l umunna w i t h a h i g h l y d i f f u s e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d p o l i t i c a l power w i t h i n t h e segmentary p a r a -meters o f each umunna. I n t h i s way t h e umunna system encourages p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i a l o g u e , e q u a l i t y , communalism and e g u a l i t a r i a n i s m a t a l l l e v e l s o f l i n e a g e segments. On the o t h e r hand, i c h i - e c h i c h i ( t i t l e t a k i n g ) such as ozo o r i s a -ekwu, encourages i n d i v i d u a l i s m and g i v e s p r e s t i g e and a con-s i d e r a b l e amount o f r i t u a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l power and a u t h o r i t y t o t h e h o l d e r . The e n t i r e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d and r a nked under t h e r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y o f Eze N r i , the k i n g ( t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) . I t i s under t h i s b a s i c s o c i a l framework t h a t ubo-aka music i s l e a r n e d , t r a n s m i t t e d and p e r p e t u a t e d . F o r example, t h e e a r l i e s t e x p o s ure t o ubo- aka music i s w i t h i n one's umunna where a c h i l d can i n t e r a c t e a s i l y w i t h h i s o r h e r r e l a t i v e s who p l a y t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . Most o f t h e l e a r n e r s g e t t h e i r t e a c h e r s from w i t h i n r e s p e c t i v e umunna. A t t i m e s when a y o u t h v i s i t s h i s ikwunne ( i . e . , t h e mother's o r i g i n a l home) he can l e a r n from t h e r e l a t i v e s o f h i s mother who know how t o p l a y . A c c o r d i n g t o custom, c h i l d -r e n a re r e q u i r e d t o be v i s i t i n g t h e i r ikwunne f o r purposes o f meeting t h e i r mother's r e l a t i v e s . D u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s ubp-aka can be t a k e n t o t h e mother's f a t h e r ' s home f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g the mother's r e l a t i v e s t h e r e b y p r o m o t i n g d i a l o g u e and m u t u a l 20 u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s ikwunne v i s i t c o n t i n u e s l a t e i n t o a d u l t age. I n ev e r y s i t u a t i o n ubo-aka i s always p l a y e d o n l y by men as s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between ubo-aka music and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be p r o v i d e d l a t e r under t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s o f t h e i n s t r u -ment . Age-grade System Age-grade system i s one o f t h e arms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n i n N r i t r a d i t i o n . I t i s o r g a n i z e d on v i l l a g e b a s i s w i t h l o o s e t i e s between c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e t s i n n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s . T h i s t r a d i t i o n i n i t i a t e s and c l a s s i f i e s i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e age s e t s f o r purposes o f d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d u t i e s as w e l l as s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l framework of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the town. I n d i v i d u a l s b o r n w i t h i n a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d f a l l i n t o one age-grade a l t h o u g h t h i s v a r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t Igbo communities. F o r i n s t a n c e , a t I h i a l a a l l c h i l d e r e n born w i t h i n a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d a r e grouped i n t o one age-grade ( I l o g u 1974: 2 6 ) . F u r t h e r i n N r i , each age-grade i s t h r e e y e a r s o l d e r t h a n t h e one i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e e d i n g i t . Membership i s open t o b o t h male and female w i t h i n each age group. However, females have no d e f i n e d age l i m i t s i n c e t h e i r a d m i s s i o n i n t o the f o l d s t r i c t l y depends on when she i s m a r r i e d . The s o c i a l s t a t u s o f members o f one age-grade can v a r y , b u t t h i s does not d i s r u p t the e q u a l i t y w hich members share and e n j o y . Thus t h e r e i s no s o c i a l d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n on c l a n b a s i s w i t h i n the system e x c e p t f o r 21 d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female p r i v i l e g e s . I n t e r e s t e d persons below t h e age l i m i t o f an age group may be a l l o w e d t o h o l d membership on c o n d i t i o n t h a t one's e l d e r b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r i s not i n t h e same group. Any p e r s o n h o l d i n g member-s h i p s h o u l d have a good c h a r a c t e r , o t h e r w i s e , he i s dropped from t h e group. Each o f t h e groups must have o n y e i s i - o g b o (a l e a d e r ) from among themselves who must be the f i r s t t o h o l d the h i g h e s t t r a d i t i o n a l t i t l e such as t h e o z o - t i t l e . He c h a i r s a l l m e e t ings o f the p e e r . I n the p a s t , r e c o r d s o f meetings were k e p t by memory but nowadays w r i t t e n m i n u t e s are k e p t . Other o f f i c e r s o f the group i n c l u d e a s e c r e t a r y , f i n a n c i a l s e c r e t a r y and t r e a s u r e r . There a r e s e v e r a l t r a n s i t i o n a l phases undergone by e v e r y age-grade i n i t s l i f e t i m e . There i s t h e e a r l y s t a g e p r i o r t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age when members a r e l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d by e l d e r s o f each v i l l a g e w i t h such d u t i e s as c l e a n i n g t h e s t r e a m s , market s q u a r e s , v i l l a g e s q u a r e s and b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n t o masquerade s o c i e t i e s . A t t h i s p r e l i m -i n a r y s t a g e , t h e y a r e n o t r e c o g n i z e d as l e g i t i m a t e a l t h o u g h they may be h o l d i n g m e e t i n g s . B u t between t h e ages o f e i g h t e e n and twenty-one, age g r o u p i n g i s o f f i c i a l l y i n s t i t u t e d and a c c o r d e d due r e c o g n i t i o n by the community. A t t h i s a d u l t s t a g e , t h e e l d e r s g i v e s p e c i a l names t o t h e s e t s . The d e t e r m i n a n t f o r t h e g i v e n names a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , b e h a v i o u r s and i n c l i n a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e group d u r i n g t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e . Some o f t h e g i v e n names are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y : Qkuana (the f i r e o f t h e s o i l ) , Amu-oku 22 (the mantle of f i r e ) , Ndukaku ( l i f e i s g r e a t e r t h a r w e a l t h ) , Udokafulukwe(peace i s seen and a c c e p t e d ) , Amakekwu (however you t a l k ) , e t c . A t t h i s l e v e l , an e l d e r l y man from one o f the o l d e r age-grades, i s a t t a c h e d t o the new group as p a t r o n and a d v i s o r who a l s o t e a ches and e x p l a i n s omenani, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l customs, norms and mores. S h o u l d t h e r e be q u a r r e l s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g among the group, he must be c o n s u l t e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t and c l a r i f i c a t i o n s . The a c t i v i t i e s of the group i n c l u d e s e r v i n g as n i g h t g u a r d s , c o l l e c t i o n o f dues and f i n e s , p r o s e c u t i o n o f o f f e n d e r s , membership i n masquerade s o c i e t y , p r o t e c t i o n o f p u b l i c m o r a l i t y , e t c . They a l s o engage i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as music making, o r g a n i z a t i o n o f dance, drumming p r a c t i c e s , i n s t r u -m e n t a l music performance and s i n g i n g . E v e r y member knows how t o p l a y a t l e a s t one o f the t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l i n s t r u -ments such as ubo-akwara ( h a r p ) , ubo-aka (thumb p i a n o ) , i g b a (drum), ekwe (wooden drum), o j a ( f l u t e ) , ngedegwu ( x y l o p h o n e ) , oyo (shaker) o r can s i n g v e r y w e l l . I n o l d e n days, b e f o r e the coming o f t h e Europeans, members engaged i n p u b l i c w r e s t l -i n g matches a t eke market square o r a t t h e K i n g ' s p a l a c e . The ogene music o r t h e xylophone music w i t h f l u t e , u s u a l l y accompanied w r e s t l i n g c o n t e s t . The v i c t o r was always a t t h e l i p s o f women and w e l l w i s h e r s , and became t h e p r i d e o f h i s p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and umunna. Among N r i p e o p l e today, t h e l i s t of the age-grades a r e as f o l l o w s s t a r t i n g w i t h the youngest t o t h e o l d e s t p r o c e d u r -a l l y : Ndukaku, Udokafulukwu, Qkuana, Amuoku, Akum, A k p a l i , 23 Atigwe, Abakari, Amakekwu, Qkpatu, Iruenyi, Nri buenyi, Iruatu, Iruagu and Irugo (the oldest ) . The existence of a group ceases only when a l l the members s h a l l have died. On the whole, the age-grade system, apart from i t s r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l functions, provides an avenue for t r a i n i n g i n team s p i r i t , mutual understanding, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , s o c i a l i z a t i o n and companionship, and "provides impetus towards achievement, ambition and hardwork because no one l i k e s to be l e f t behind by the members of h i s own set" (Ilogu 19 74: 27) . Qzp T i t l e Q z o - t i t l e i s a very important s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n Igbo land. Among Nri people, the i n s t i t u t i o n grew out of two major factors: the need for pries t s who would supervise the cul t of the ancestors and keep the family (or umunna)ofo (a symbolised wooden s t a f f of truth and j u s t i c e ) ; and out of economic needs of the peasant society wherein holders could invest t h e i r wealth of crops and livestocks. In thi s connec-tion, t i t l e - h o l d e r s derive much dividends from the fees of new candidates and thus secure for themselves means of l i v e l i -hood i n old age when they are too old to work. (Ilogu 1974: 31). The QZQ man pays heavily to hold the t i t l e ; about -N800 (approximately $1,200). The number of shares of an ind i v i d u a l i s determined by the number of ofo one has bought in such a way that one could s e l l or buy ofo and so get less or more shares — a kind of stock and shares (Okonkwp and Onwuejeogwu 1972: 6 2). 24 Thus, the c o n t r o l l i n g factors are b i r t h r i g h t and money, par-t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r for t i t l e s must be paid for; they are not free g i f t s bestowed as honours for service rendered to the community (Basden 1966: 130). A d e f i n i t i o n of the t i t l e i n Nri t r a d i t i o n by Okeke Okonkwo, an Nri man who i s a t i t l e holder, throws further l i g h t on this topic: A t r a d i t i o n a l QZQ man i s the person who can be the chief p r i e s t of a temple obu. Obu i s a place we communicate with our ancestors. In obu there are okponsi and ofo i n the a l t a r . There we o f f e r things to our dead ancestors c a l l e d n d i - i c h i e . Only the oldest man of the obu as a person who took the QZQ t i t l e can o f f i c i a t e . (Okonkwo and Akunne 19 72:6). The o z o - t i t l e d man i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r i e s t i n the society. He shares i n the s p i r i t of the land through his relationship with ana (the earth goddess), communicates with the s p i r i t of ancestors and upholds the omenana (the ordin-ances of the land). It i s believed that the ancestors are between the a l u s i (forces) and that they can allow these ancestor forces to harm or reward th e i r children according to how our l i v e s are led i n this world. Therefore the t i t l e holder must l i v e a righteous l i f e and "uphold p u b l i c l y and pri v a t e l y the morality of the land and observe a l l the taboos, r e l i g i o u s ceremonies and r i t u a l s of a l l the gods and goddesses of his community" (Ilogu 1974: 31). He i s expected to be holy and just, and must not gossip or t e l l l i e s . Thus he practices annually a r i t u a l of s e l f - c l e a n s i n g known as i s a - i l e whereby he partakes of a white cock s a c r i f i c e d 25 for the cause of truth and j u s t i c e to wash his tongue, and undergoes a r i t u a l confession of deeds at the onu-ebo p u r i f i c a t i o n ceremony held once annually before the gods p r i o r to pnwa-asatp (a harvest f e s t i v a l of the eighth month). As a r e s u l t , high e t h i c a l l i f e s t y l e i s expected of him i n his words and actions. For example, when an p z p man plays ubo-aka what he communicates through the music i s expected to be highly e t h i c a l , s p i r i t u a l and r e l i a b l e , and f u l l of wise statements which may be a l l e g o r i c a l , proverbial or idiomatic and suitable for teaching mores and norms of the society. One of the pzp t i t l e d men by the name of Okechukwu Mmankp of Agbadana v i l l a g e , Nri i s shown i n Plate I playing the ubp-aka. A close look at his feet shows akali-pkpa (white thread rings worn around both ankles of the feet) which are one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symbols for recognizing an pzp man throughout Igbo land. Eze-Nri: the King of the People Eze Nri once ruled over a large extent of Igbo land, but i n contemporary times his p o l i t i c a l influence i s waning. The extent of Nri hegemony in the past approximately extended fron c i r c a 900 to 1911 A.D. as shown i n F i g . 2. (Onwuejeogwu 1972:30). According to Northcote Thomas, a government 13 anthropologist, the King had great authority i n Igboland. He i s the s p i r i t u a l potentate over a large extent of the Igbo country and so great i s the awe which he inspires that recently when probably for the f i r s t 26 time i n history an Eze-Nri entered the native court of Awka while a s i t t i n g was going on, the whole assembly rose and prepared to f l e e . (Thomas 1913: 48). Today, he i s s t i l l the head of Nri people, and rules over Nri town i n matters r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l with r i t u a l i s t i c authority over a l l Umu-Nri and Umueri clans. He reigns with the help of a cabinet of twelve e l d e r l y t i t l e -holders known as nze-mabo selected out of s i x v i l l a g e s of Nr i . These elders are also among the gu i l d of t r a d i t i o n a l high p r i e s t s of N r i . Eze Nri maintained an exalted p o s i t i o n among Nri people and throughout Igbo land. This high p r i e s t l y p o s i t i o n was attested to i n the past by homage paid to him from d i f f e r e n t parts of Igbo especially during igu-aro and onwasatp f e s t i v a l s . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n for the monarchy today i s l i m i t e d to the descendants of Ifikwuanim, namely, Agbadani, Obeagu and 14 Uruoji v i l l a g e s of N r i . Some families however, do not take part i n the divine kingship. Accession to the throne i s by rotation from one family i n one v i l l a g e to another usually determined by r i t u a l i s t i c p r i e s t s a f t e r consultations with ancestral s p i r i t s . There i s normally seven years of i n t e r -regnum between one reign and another. At the death of a King, the v i l l a g e from which arises the next King i s known but the actual successor to the throne i s not known u n t i l c e r t a i n inexplicable events i n form of omens occur i n the l i f e of the prospective candidate. The omens comprise the following 27 FIG. 2 APPROXIMATE EXTENT OF NRI HEGEMONY AD 900-1911 1 / ' Extent in about V / the 16th century 1 N r i 2 Oreri '•; Extent at about the 3 Igbo-Ukwu c r " l of the 19th century — % , O i r p r t i n n nf N r i / i % i Igbo culture area cultural influence (Onwuejeogwu 197 5: 50) 27 FIG. 2 APPROXIMATE EXTENT OF NRI HEGEMONY AD 900-1911 (Onwuejeogwu 1975: 50) 28 PLATE 1. ——• _ _—. j NRI Q_ZQ MAN PLAYING UBO-AKA. 29 phenomena: sudden deaths i n h i s f a m i l y , l o s s o f w e a l t h and m y s t e r i o u s c o l l a p s e o f w a l l s o f h i s compound no m a t t e r how s t r o n g l y b u i l t and w e l l m a i n t a i n e d . I n a d d i t i o n t h e would be E z e - N r i must have h e l d the h i g h e s t t i t l e i n t h e town. Other r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e : c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e o r a c l e t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e c a n d i d a t e i s , i n f a c t , t h e c h o i c e o f N r i f a t h e r s , u n d e r g o i n g a p r o c e s s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h e a d s h i p i f t h e o r a c l e i s i n f a v o u r , agreement o f t h e e l d e r s o f the town t o have him as K i n g and a j o u r n e y t o a l l the towns h a v i n g a n c e s t r a l c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h N r i t o w o r s h i p t h e i r gods and r e c e i v e homage from them. A t t h e c o r o n a t i o n Stage, the p r o c e d u r e i s as f o l l o w s : t h e would be Eze N r i i s p r e p a r e d f o r b u r i a l and b u r i e d w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y : ...At h i s a c c e s s i o n he goes t h r o u g h a s y m b o l i c d e a t h t o humanity and r e b i r t h as d i v i n i t y . He i s b u r i e d i n a s h a l l o w grave and then exhumed and p a i n t e d w i t h w h i t e c l a y , a symbol o f i n n o c e n c e and i m m o r t a l i t y . ( I s i c h e i 1976: 10) A t t h i s s t a g e , h i s w i v e s and f a m i l y mourn f o r him as i f he were dead. B u t by s u n s e t , he i s t a k e n o u t o f t h e g r a v e , and a banana stem i s used t o r e p l a c e t h e c o r p s e . The c a n d i d a t e i s t hen washed w i t h w a t e r s p e c i a l l y from a s a c r e d l a k e a f t e r which he i s w h i t e n e d w i t h nzu (white c l a y ) . He t h e n becomes an mmo (a g h o s t o f t h e dead) and i s f o r e v e r s a c r e d . H i s e l d e s t w i f e i s a l s o w h i t e n e d w i t h nzu, and b o t h o f them use o n l y w h i t e i g a l a c l o t h . F u r t h e r , the w i f e p u t s on a w h i t e head t i e . The K i n g , i n a d d i t i o n remains b a r e f o o t e d b u t wears 30 a copper a n k l e t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t p a r t o f the c o r o n a t i o n r i t u a l o f Eze N r i i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f A t t a o f I g a l a e s p e c i a l l y i n the symbolism o f b u r i a l o f the c a n d i d a t e and the t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n i n t o d i v i n i t y . On the c o r o n a t i o n day e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e c e r e m o n i a l enthronement by t h e a r c h - p r i e s t s , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l r e j o i c i n g w h ich f e a t u r e t h e pkanga-eze (the r o y a l band), u f i e music (the r o y a l , sonorous wooden drumming), i n d i v i d u a l drum ensembles and s o l o m u s i c i a n s such as a k p e l e (horn) p l a y e r s , e k p i l i ( r a t t l e ) b a l l a d s i n g e r s , ubo-aka (mbira) p e r f o r m e r s , ubp-akwara (wooden harp) p l a y e r s a l o n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t dance groups, a l l i n p r a i s e o f the new K i n g . From now onwards, he i s s a l u t e d w i t h c l a p p i n g o f hands and a d d r e s s e d by t h e t i t l e lgwe (the s k y ) . He t a k e s a new name a t h i s a c c e s s i o n . F o r example, t h e p e r s o n a l name of the p r e s e n t E z e - N r i i s T a b a n s i Udene b u t on h i s c o r o n a t i o n , he took a new name: N r i j i m o f o -nke-abua. He r e c e i v e s and g r e e t s h i s g u e s t s o r v i s i t o r s by s t r i k i n g a m e t a l gong monotone t o whi c h p e o p l e p r e s e n t a t t h e p a l a c e respond w i t h hand c l a p p i n g a f t e r each s t r o k e . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f Eze N r i i s w e l l remembered a l o n g N r i p e o p l e a l t h o u g h t h e e x a c t p e r i o d o f t h e i r r e i g n ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t King) has been l o s t i n a n t i q u i t y : N r i - I f i k w u a n i m , Nri-Namoke, N r i - B i f e , N r i - F e n e n e , N r i - J i m p f o , N r i - A l i k e , Nri-Enwenatam, N r i - A f i a , N r i - E z i m o l o , Nri-Anyagbo, N r i - E z e l e a n i , N r i - O b e a l i k e and t h e p r e s e n t K i n g : N r i - J i m p f o I I . The K i n g does a number o f d u t i e s w h i c h a r e m o s t l y 31 coin-p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l . H i s p o l i t i c a l d u t i e s p r i s e the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f N r i town w h i c h i n c l u d e s s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s , assignment of i t i n e r a n t p r i e s t s t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f Igbo l a n d f o r r i t u a l s ; c o r o n a t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s and k i n g s i n Igbo c u l t u r e , and i n t e r v e n t i o n i n wars between two towns o r w a r r -i n g p a r t i e s . He i n t e r v e n e s by the h e l p o f an egbo (a w r e a t h of palm f r o n d s ) w h i c h the K i n g r a i s e s and throws between 15 combatants as a symbol o f c e a s e - f i r e . The i n t e r v e n t i o n t a k e s p l a c e whenever a war i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y p r o l o n g e d , un-j u s t i f i e d o r i n v o l v e s much b l o o d s h e d and s u f f e r i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , he l o o k s a f t e r the a k a - N r i on h u m a n i t a r i a n ground. These a k a - N r i a re dw a r f s who were r e j e c t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Igbo l a n d . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the K i n g r e h a b i l i t a t e s them i n h i s p a l a c e by t e a c h i n g them t r a d e s and m o s t l y p r i e s t l y d u t i e s . He performs h i s p r i e s t l y f u n c t i o n m o s t l y d u r i n g i g u -a r o ceremony and onwasato f e s t i v a l . I g u - a r o i s an an n u a l event e v e r y F e b r u r a r y u s u a l l y f i x e d by t h e K i n g and h i s c a b i n e t o f h i g h p r i e s t s a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . Then, n o t i c e s and i n v i t a t i o n s a r e s e n t t o a l l p e o p l e s w i t h i n N r i sphere o f i n f l u e n c e . I t l a s t s f o r a day d u r i n g w h i c h the K i n g c a l e n d a r s the t r a d i t i o n a l t h i r t e e n l u n a r months i n t h e y e a r by a r r a n g i n g them i n seasons f o r s a c r i f i c e s , i n i t i a t i o n s , f e s t i v a l s , p l a n t i n g and h a r v e s t i n g , w h i c h a r e de t e r m i n e d a n n u a l l y . On t h e s c h e d u l e d day, he o f f i c i a t e s w i t h n d i - n z e ( t h e t i t l e d men) and adama ( t h e a r c h p r i e s t s ) ; he 32 b l e s s e s the k o l a - n u t s , t h e whole y e a r w i t h t h e seasons and o f f e r s s p e c i a l p r a y e r s o f p r o t e c t i o n and p r o s p e r i t y f o r a l l Igbo p e o p l e . Then he e x p l a i n s t h e omenani-Igbo ( i . e . , t h e Igbo t r a d i t i o n , customs and b e l i e f ) and g i v e s a b r i e f a c c o u n t of t h e h i s t o r y and t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f N r i p e o p l e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by announcing th e seasons o f t h e y e a r a f t e r w h i c h d e l e g a t e s from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f Igbo l a n d pay homage t o t h e K i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f many dance gr o u p s , s i n g e r s , r o y a l m u s i c i a n s and s o l o - p e r f o r m e r s o f s t r i n g , p e r c u s s i o n and w i n d i n s t r u m e n t s . The onwasato f e s t i v a l i s an a n n u a l s a c r i f i c i a l f e a s t t o t h e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s t o mark and c e l e b r a t e the h a r v e s t o f new yams. I t i s u s u a l l y h e l d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e i g h t h month o f t h e y e a r w h i c h f a l l s i n September a n n u a l l y . E i g h t days p r i o r t o the f i r s t day o f f e s t i v a l , t h e o z o - t i t l e h o l d e r s v i s i t a s a c r e d p l a c e c a l l e d onuebo w h i c h i s a p l a c e f o r s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n , c o n f e s s i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e i r u p r i g h t n e s s t o c o n v i n c e t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e y have n e v e r committed any abominable a c t s o r e v i l a g a i n s t t h e laws and customs o f N r i . Thus, they pass t h r o u g h th e onuebo i n a p r o c e s s i o n w i t h o u t t a l k i n g t o one a n o t h e r . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t any o f them who i s g u i l t y o f any abominable a c t and p r e t e n d s t o pass through the t e s t , must d i e b e f o r e the f e a s t . The E z e - N r i i s exempted from t h i s p r o c e s s o f p u r i -f i c a t i o n and a t t e s t a t i o n by v i r t u e o f h i s s a n c t i t y and d i v i n i t y . I n s t e a d , he o f f e r s a s a c r i f i c i a l g o a t known as eghu-Nri-ma N r i t o pzo t i t l e - h o l d e r s as soon as t h e y r e t u r n from onuebo. Other s a c r i f i c e s i n c l u d e s a c r i f i c e o f yams and a b i g cock w i t h a g a l l o n of palm wine known as nni-umu-ada o f f e r e d on eke day by t h e daughters o f each f a m i l y t o t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . On nkwo day, known as u b p c h i -pkuku-mmp, t h e t i t l e d and n o n - t i t l e d men a l o n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f N r i o f f e r s a c r i f i c e s o f appeasement and i n v i t a -t i o n s t o a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s w i t h cocks and g o a t s , e t c . A t t h e K i n g ' s p a l a c e , two main s a c r i f i c e s t a k e p l a c e : f i r s t , i s the s a c r i f i c e t o t h e s p i r i t s o f l a t e K i n g s , f o l l o w e d by t h e s a c r i f i c e t o l a t e o z o - t i t l e h o l d e r s known as n d i c h i e -p r a . T h i s r i t u a l i s conducted by the o l d e s t t i t l e d p r i e s t i n t he town. The K i n g ' s opening r i t u a l f o r t h e f e s t i v a l b e g i n s w i t h h i s d r a w i n g e i g h t l i n e s w i t h nzu c h a l k on each s h r i n e i n h i s p a l a c e . Then, p r a y e r s a re o f f e r e d w i t h l i b a t i o n s f o r h i s s u b j e c t s e s p e c i a l l y f o r a l l N r i n a t i v e d i b i a (the p r i e s t l y d o c t o r s ) , n d i - pkpu~uzu ( t h e b l a c k s m i t h s ) , and n d i - n w a n y i - d i - i m e (the pregnant women) f o r c o n t i n u e d d i v i n e g uidance and p r o t e c t i o n . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by g e n e r a l r e j o i c i n g a t the K i n g ' s a r e n a which f e a t u r e s u f i e music ( r o y a l wooden drum), Igba-eze (the r o y a l b and), dance groups and s o l o p e r f o r m e r s o f p j a ( f l u t e ) , a k p e l e (horn) ngedegwu (xylophone) ubp-aka ( p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e ) ubp-akwara ( c h o r d o -phone), p d u - e n y i ( e l e p h a n t t u s k ) , e t c . , w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t i l l v e r y l a t e i n t h e e v e n i n g when the crowds g r a d u a l l y d i s p e r s e . R e l i g i o u s B e l i e f s and P r a c t i c e s The p r i n c i p a l God among N r i p e o p l e i s known by s e v e r a l names: Chukwu-Okike o r C h i - O k i k e r e f e r s t o "God t h e c r e a t o r of t h e U n i v e r s e " ; Chineke means "the God t h a t c r e a t e s " 34 Chukwu means "the g r e a t God". He m a n i f e s t s H i m s e l f as the Au t h o r o f l i f e , l i g h t , knowledge, heaven and e a r t h . He i s a l m i g h t y , o m n i p r e s e n t and o m n i s c i e n t ; t h e Aut h o r o f c h i w h i c h He g i v e s t o each man a t the time o f h i s o r h e r b i r t h . Under the C r e a t o r , a r e o t h e r gods which a r e i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between God and man. These gods have a s s i g n e d powers from the "Great God 1 f o r s p e c i f i c d u t i e s . They are w o r s h i p p e d w i t h s a c r i f i c e s as gods o f t h e l a n d . The l i s t of t h e gods a r e shown i n Ta b l e I I I a c c o r d i n g t o rank: T a b l e I I I . LIST OF NRI GODS Rank No. Name o f God Meaning  1. Chineke o r God t h e C r e a t o r o f t h e G r e a t God. Chukwu 2. Anyanwu The Sun God. 3. Ana The E a r t h Goddess. 4. Ngene Mother Goddess o f P r o t e c t i o n . 5. I y i a z i God o f Oath and S o l e P r o t e c t o r o f N r i p e o p l e . 6. Anuoye Goddess o f P r o t e c t i o n . 7. Arc- God of Year and P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t D i s e a s e s and P o i s o n i n g . 8. I d e m i l i Goddess o f Water, P r o t e c t i o n and R e t r i b u t i o n . 9 . A k w a l i Goddess o f P r o d u c t i v i t y . 10. Ogwugwu Goddess o f F e r t i l i t y . 11. I f e j i o k u God o f Good H a r v e s t and Yam F o r c e . 35 F i g . 3. SKELETAL STRUCTURE OF NRI SOCIAL ORGANIZATI ON. A = EZE NRI (King) B 1 - 1 2 = NDI NZEBAMQ (The C o u n c i l ) B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 B 7 B 8 B 9 B 1 0 B 1 1 B 1 2 C = AGUKWU ) C 2 = AKAMKPISI ) N r i T o w n D 1 - 6 = ONUKU ) or ) V i l l a g e OGB E ) E 1 - 3 = UMUNNA , 1 - 3 = NGWULU N.B. Age-grade o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f each l e v e l o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . 36 The r i t u a l theme d e v e l o p e d from the c o n c e p t i o n o f the Cosmos. To N r i p e o p l e the U n i v e r s e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major deparmments: uwa and mmo w i t h a l u s i as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . Uwa i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d made up o f i g w e - n a - a l a (the firmament and the e a r t h ) . T h i s uwa i s o c c u p i e d by mmadu (human b e i n g s ) , anumanu (an i m a l s ) and agu ( f o r e s t s ) . Mmo t h e dead a n c e s t o r s ) a re t h e men who l i v e d on e a r t h and founded t h e l i n e a g e s . I f a dead p e r s o n was good and p o p u l a r i n terms o f good m o r a l b e h a v i o u r and u p r i g h t n e s s d u r i n g h i s l i f e on e a r t h , he becomes n d i - i c h i e ( a c a n o n i z e d f a t h e r ) ; b u t i f he was bad and w i c k e d he becomes ajo-mmo (an e v i l s p i r i t ) . I n t h i s connec-t i o n , the s p i r i t w o r l d o r the l a n d of t h e s p i r i t i s ana-ndi-mmo. Ekwensu ( t h e d e v i l ) and the a l u s i (the gods o r t h e m a t a p h y s i c a l f o r c e s ) always i n t r u d e i n t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e members o f t h e l i n e a g e , b u t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r s u c c e s s depends on t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e dead c a n o n i z e d members ( n d i - i c h i e ) . T h i s i s why s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p has t o be m a i n t a i n e d between the l i v i n g l i n e a g e members and t h e dead a n c e s t o r s by t h e l i v i n g ones o f f e r i n g s a c r i f i c e s (which i s c a l l e d Ho-mmo o r in-ieya-mmo) t o the dead a n c e s t o r s . UbQ-aka music i s a f f e c t e d by the s e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s e s p e c i a l l y when t h e music i s r e l i g i o u s i n c h a r a c t e r . I n a m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , the p l a y e r s a l l u d e t o t h e powers o f t h e s e f o r c e s on human b e i n g s , i . e . , the punishment t h a t f o l l o w s when a god i s d i s p l e a s e d o r b l e s s i n g s t h a t come o u t o f obedien c e t o Chineke ( t h e g r e a t God), e t c . A t t i m e s , ubo-aka m u s i c may be i n the form o f a p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n on one's c h i who i s b e l i e v e d t o be always w i t h a p e r s o n and c o n t r o l s h i s o r h e r 37 d e s t i n y . I n cases o f o v e r - i n d u l g e n c e i n ubo-aka p e r f o r m a n c e , e l d e r s a t t r i b u t e the causes t o the bad i n f l u e n c e o f ekwensu (the d e v i l ) , an o f f e n d e d n d i - i c h i e (dead a n c e s t o r ) o r agwu (the t r i c k s t e r a l u s i ) w hich can con f u s e an i n d i v i d u a l . On t h e whole, uwa, mmo and a l u s i i n t e r a c t i n a com-p l i c a t e d web o f cosmic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t r a d i t i o n a l d o c t o r -d i v i n e r c a l l e d ' d i b i a - a f a 1 can by m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e a f a symbolism c o n t r o l l e d by agwu (the t r i c k s t e r a l u s i ) i n t e r p r e t t h e n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o u l d b y s y m b o l i c m a n i p u l a t i o n s e f f e c t t h e c o n t r o l o f the a c t i o n s o f ekwensu (the d e v i l ) . Each a l u s i ( i . e . , t h e gods o r the m e t a p h y s i c a l f o r c e s ) has i t s own c h i e f p r i e s t and p r i e s t s who c o n t r o l the a c t i o n s t h r o u g h r i t u a l s . The t h e o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y on which N r i c u l t u r e r e s t s , i s i d e n t i f i e d by many d i v e r s e c o n c e p t s . F o r example, ana the e a r t h goddess o f m o r a l i t y , f e r t i l i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y i s t h e s p r i n g and s o u r c e o f l i f e w i t h m e t a p h y s i c a l powers. Thus t h e r e i s t h e co n c e p t o f a j a - a n a , the sand o f e a r t h , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s the e a r t h - f o r c e t h a t p u n i s h e s whoever d e f i l e s t h e l a n d . Ana i s a l s o a m e r c i f u l goddess sometimes by g i v i n g w a r n i n g s and s i g n s o f h e r d i s p l e a s u r e b e f o r e she p u n i s h e s an o f f e n d e r . O f f e n c e s such as nso o r a l u (taboos) provoke h e r anger beyond c o n t r o l ; i n c e s t i s a good example. I n such a c a s e , she can cause t h e de a t h o f t h e o f f e n d e r a f t e r p u t t i n g the o f f e n d e r i n t o p r o c e s s e s o f d i s g r a c e and m i s f o r t u n e s . As a c u s t o d i a n of m o r a l i t y , she purges t h e community o f a l l u n c l e a n l i n e s s and i m m o r a l i t y . I t i s a t a n a - N r i t h a t i s u b u - n s o - a n a (the con c e p t 38 o f d i s s o l v i n g i n i q u i t i e s , p u r i f i c a t i o n and a b r o g a t i o n o f taboos) are c a r r i e d out by t h e r i t u a l p r i e s t s — a p r a c t i c e by which N r i men a r e known over a v a s t a r e a o f Igbo l a n d . The Order o f P r i e s t h o o d I n Igbo l a n d , N r i town i s well-known as a s a c r e d c i t y o f p r i e s t s . As a r e s u l t , p r i e s t h o o d i s r e g a r d e d as a h i g h c a l l i n g among N r i p e o p l e . The p r i e s t s l e a d an i n c o r r u p -t i b l e l i f e d e v o i d o f p o i s o n i n g , w i t c h c r a f t and a l l s o r t s o f u n c l e a n l i n e s s . They are t h e g u a r d i a n s o f N r i t r a d i t i o n and Igbo c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l . The p r i e s t s , i n the p a s t , a t t e n d e d t h e ceremonies w h i c h c o n f e r r e d major t r a d i t i o n a l t i t l e s i n many towns e a s t and west o f t h e N i g e r ; hence N r i c o u n t i n u e s t o be an i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s c e n t r e i n Igbo l a n d . F u r t h e r , i n t h e i r v i s i t s , they s p e c i a l i z e d i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n o f towns from a l l i n -i q u i t i e s committed a g a i n s t ana (the d e v i n e e a r t h ) . (Leonard 1906: 34.) I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the p r i e s t s p o s s e s s an orb o f o f f i c e : a s h o r t wooden s p e a r c a l l e d p t o n s i w h i c h t h e y must c a r r y i n a l l i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s ceremonies and r i t e s o f i n t e r c e s s i o n , p u r i f i c a t i o n , a b s o l u t i o n , s a c r i f i c e , i n i t i a t i o n and c o r o n a t i o n . I n most o f t h e i r i t i n e r a r y , t h e y t r a v e l i n the company o f a k a - N r i (the dwarfs) who are t r a i n e d as a s s i s t a n t d o c t o r s and p r i e s t s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e g r e a t s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l r o l e o f N r i p r i e s t s i n Igbo l a n d , N r i men have the i c h i f a c i a l s c a r s c a r v e d on t h e i r f a c e s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y because N r i p e o p l e a r e n e i t h e r m o l e s t e d , 39 k idnapped n or k i l l e d because o f t h e i r g r e a t p r i e s t l y r o l e i n Igbo c u l t u r e : C e r t a i n groups of i n d i v i d u a l s , p r o t e c t e d by r e l i g i o u s s a n c t i o n s were immune from a t t a c k wherever they went. They i n c l u d e r i t u a l e x p e r t s o f N r i o r men h o l d i n g t i t l e s . ( I s i c h e i 1976: 65) However, i c h i m arking i s not c o n f i n e d t o N r i p r i e s t s a l o n e , t i t l e d and n o n - t i t l e d men i n some o t h e r p a r t s o f Igbo l a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who s h a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h N r i p e o p l e , a l s o have the i c h i f a c i a l s c a r s f o r immunity under t h e c l o a k o f N r i c i t i z e n s h i p . I t i s a l s o a symbol o f g a l l a n t r y and man-hood r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o males, b u t i t i s more p o p u l a r and common among N r i p e o p l e t h a n the r e s t o f Igbo. The i c h i s c a r s were done by s p e c i a l a r t i s t s o r c a r v e r s from Umudioka, a n e i g h b o u r i n g town. The m a r k i n g c o v e r s t h e upper p a r t o f t h e f a c e from the temple t o the f o r e h e a d and s t o p s a t t h e b r i d g e o f t h e nose. I t was a p a i n f u l p r a c t i c e i n d e e d . I n o l d e n days, i t was s a i d t h a t t h e mother whose son was u n d e r g o i n g t h e i c h i m arking c o n t i n u e d t o mourn f o r him because c f u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e x e r c i s e . Some men were s a i d t o have b l e d t o death d u r i n g the p r o c e s s , b u t whoever endured and s u r v i v e d was a g r e a t p r i d e t o h i s p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e ad B a i k e ' s n a r r a t i v e o f 1856 on i c h i m a r k i n g o f N r i p e o p l e : I i n q u i r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r a supposed d i s t r i c t o r t r i b e mentioned by C l a r k e and some o t h e r w r i t e r s as I t s h i o r B r e t s h . . . I t s h i w h i c h means ' c u t - f a c e ' r e f e r s t o c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s who are marked by numerous c u t t i n g s on the f o r e h e a d w h i c h g r e a t l y d i s f i g u r e the countenance. I 40 f e l l i n w i t h one of th e s e I t s h i who con-f i r m e d a l l t h e s e and t o l d me t h a t i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e f a m i l i e s o f w e a l t h y . (Onwuejeogwu 1972: 5 0 ) . I n B a i k e ' s s t a t e m e n t ' i t s h i ' may r e a d n s h i o r i c h i , and B r e t s h s h o u l d r e a d G b u r u c h i ( c u t - f a c e ) . However, w i t h the advent o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e p r a c t i c e was dropped. I n the p a s t the i c h i r i t u a l ceremony went w i t h s p e c i a l music o f encourage-ment and endurance, u s u a l l y sung by the U m u d i o k a - i c h i c a r v e r and responded t o by men around. An N r i man w i t h i c h i m a r k i n g i s shown i n P l a t e 2, p l a y i n g h i s ubo-aka. Other r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e t h e l i f e r i t e s undergone by e v e r y N r i w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o r e o f s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The l i f e r i t e s a r e : namely, b i r t h , i n i t i a t i o n , m a r r i a g e and f u n e r a l ceremonies w i t h s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f music f o r each e v e n t . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , music i s a s o c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d phenomena among N r i p e o p l e : p a r t and p a r c e l of l i f e i n N r i . When a new c h i l d i s born i r r e s p e c t i v e o f sex, i t i s an o c c a s i o n f o r r e j o i c i n g f o r the umunna and t h e w e l l - w i s h e r s . S a c r i f i c e s o f t h a n k s g i v i n g a r e g i v e n t o t h e goddess o f f e r t i l i t y and r e p r o d u c t i v i t y by a p r i e s t w i t h i n t h e umunna. There a r e s p e c i a l b i r t h songs sung by N r i women t o announce t h a t a f e l l o w woman has s a f e l y g i v e n b i r t h t o a new baby: a k i n d o f m u s i c a l announcement f o r the good news. The words o f one o f them i s as f o l l o w s : 41 PLATE 2. AN NRI ELDER WITH ICHI MARKING ON THE FACE. 42 0 w e l u e f e j e nku, gbaghalu ya na Qmulu nwa • s i e n n i " " " " chuo i y i " " " I f e O-mene g i gbaghalu y a na omulu nwa E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n Whoever has chance t o f e t c h f i r e wood, Leave i t f o r she has g i v e n b i r t h . Whoever has a chance t o cook Leave i t f o r she has g i v e n b i r t h Whoever has a chance t o f e t c h w a t e r from a stream Leave i t f o r she has g i v e n b i r t h t o a c h i l d ( t h r e e times) Whatever she has done t o you Leave i t f o r she has g i v e n b i r t h . There i s a l s o t h e r i t u a l o f i b u - a f a (naming a c h i l d ) which i s a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n f o r g e n e r a l r e j o i c i n g , f e a t u r i n g v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l music by groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e p a r e n t s and t h e o l d e r r e l a t i v e s amidst f e a s t i n g and d a n c i n g t o g i v e m e a n i n g f u l names to t h e baby: names a r e n o t m e r e l y c o n s i d e r e d as t a g s by means of w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , b u t are i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s e v e n t s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as t h o s e o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e s o c i a l group (Wiesch-h o f f 1941: 212). The d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r g i v e n names a r e market days, e.g., Nwafo, t h e c h i l d of Af o i f the c h i l d i s b o r n on A f o day, Mgboye, th e time o f Oye i f b o r n on Oye market day; the w i s h e s o f t h e mother o r f a t h e r : Obinna meaning the h e a r t 43 of t he f a t h e r , a male name i f f a t h e r w i s h e s a son t o be b o r n ; g r a t i t u d e t o God i n case o f Chukuemeka: God has done w e l l , a t h a n k s g i v i n g name f o r b l e s s i n g s o r f a v o u r r e c e i v e d from God, e t c . I n i t i a t i o n ceremony i s an o t h e r i m p o r t a n t phase i n the l i f e o f e v e r y y o u t h i r r e s p e c t i v e o f sex. I t i s u s u a l l y a r i t u a l f o r p a s s i n g from boyhood o r g i r l h o o d i n t o a d u l t l i f e . F o r example, a t N r i town t h e r e i s u f i e — a k w a l i y e a r l y , a pu b e r t y r i t e f o r g i r l s i n t e n d e d t o s e c u r e the good w i l l o f t h e gods t o g r a n t happy home l i f e t o a young woman and who by t h i s r i t u a l becomes q u a l i f i e d t o marry. D u r i n g t h i s r i t u a l , "a goat i s k i l l e d , p u t i n t o b a s k e t , and an o t h e r b a s k e t i s f i l l e d w i t h yams and c a r r i e d t o t h e mothers o f maidens co n c e r n e d . S a c r i f i c e s and p r a y e r s are o f f e r e d by the r i t u a l p r i e s t " ( I l o g u 1974: 4 6 ) . I n the case o f boys, t h e y a r e i n i t i a t e d f i r s t i n t o t h e mmonwu c u l t , an a d m i s s i o n i n t o t h e w o r l d o f s p i r i t , and l a t e r i n t o t h e age-grade by t h e r i t u a l p r i e s t s . To the u n i n i a t e d , mmonwu i s a ghost o f t h e dead. Women are n o t q u a l i f i e d t o be i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e mmonwu s e c r e t s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r advanced i n i t i a t i o n c o n t i n u e s i n t o f u l l a d u l t l i f e f o r men i n connefction w i t h t a k i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l t i t l e s such as ibu-amanwulu and i c h i - QZQ, e t c . M a r r i a g e can be ar r a n g e d on t h e b a s i s o f polygamy: a symbol of h i g h s o c i a l s t a n d i n g o f the man; and monogamy: a symbol o f r e s p e c t a b l e and r e s p o n s i b l e c h a r a c t e r . Monogamy i s more p o p u l a r m o s t l y because o f economic l i m i t a t i o n s r a t h e r than due t o norms o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . Members o f each age-grade 44 r e g a r d m a r r i a g e as a n e c e s s i t y i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y as f u l l -f l e d g e d members o f t h e s o c i e t y . The t r a d i t i o n a l m a r r i a g e law s t i p u l a t e s l i n e a g e exogamy, and a pe r s o n may n o t marry w i t h i n the segment o f h i s o r h e r mother's o r f a t h e r ' s p a t r i l i n e a g e . A p p r o v a l o f p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s i n c h o i c e o f m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . I n some extreme c a s e s , p a r e n t s choose w i v e s f o r t h e i r sons i n o r d e r t o conform t o the t r a d i t i o n a l norm. Thus i t i s an a l l i a n c e between two f a m i l i e s r a t h e r t h a n a c o n t r a c t between two i n d i v i d u a l s . (Uchendu 1965: 5 0). On t h e f i x e d day f o r m a r r i a g e t h e b r i d e p r i c e must be p a i d i n cash t o the f a m i l y o f t h e would-be w i f e . There i s no f i x e d p r i c e hence t h e r e i s u s u a l l y l o n g n e g o t i a t -i o n and b a r g a i n i n g between two f a m i l i e s . When t h e b r i d e p r i c e i s p a i d , t h e r e f o l l o w s g e n e r a l r e j o i c i n g a m i d s t m u s i c , dance and f e a s t i n g . I n Igbo s i t u a t i o n , chances o f d i v o r c e a r e v e r y narrow because o f t h e deep commitment o f t h e two f a m i l i e s . But cases o f proven b a r r e n e s s o r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s can be a b a s i s f o r d i v o r c e i n r a r e c a s e s . To N r i women, m a r r i a g e i s one o f the g r e a t e s t b l e s s i n g s f o r i t i s the o n l y means by whi c h they v a l i d a t e t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s i n Igbo l a n d . M a r r i a g e ceremony i s a s o c i a l e v e n t w h i c h i n v o l v e s e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y and umunna w i t h i n t h e town . Once d e a t h i s announced, i t i s an o c c a s i o n f o r con-g r e g a t i o n a l mouring i n sympathy w i t h t h e be r e a v e d f a m i l y . Women mourn more o p e n l y than men. When an a d u l t d i e s , more s e r i o u s ceremonies a r e performed such as wake-keeping d u r i n g the n i g h t o f d e a t h . Throughout the f o l l o w i n g day, one c o u l d 45 see a weeping crowd o f men and women amidst d i f f e r e n t ensembles of f u n e r a l music t o c o n s o l e the bereaved. Everyone i s e x p e c t e d t o s t a y a t the home o f the bereaved f a m i l y u n t i l t h e b u r i a l ceremony t a k e s p l a c e . B e f o r e b u r i a l , t h e p r i e s t p e r forms a g o a t - s a c r i f i c e t o t h e gods and t o the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s f o r acceptance o f the dead i n t h e s p i r i t - w o r l d . N r i p e o p l e , as o t h e r Igbo, b e l i e v e i n l i f e a f t e r death and i n r e - i n c a r n a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s concern f o r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s o u l s o f the dead i n t h e s p i r i t w o r l d . Good b u r i a l i s a c c o r d e d t o ever y i n d i v i d u a l e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f a good p e r s o n t o ensure h i s o r h e r peace and r e s t i n t h e l a n d o f the s p i r i t s and a p e a c e f u l r e t u r n t o t h e w o r l d i n event of r e - i n c a r n a t i o n . B u r i a l i s u s u a l l y done by one's age-grade members. In t he case o f a dead ozp-man, the f u n e r a l ceremony i s v e r y e l a b o r a t e i n v o l v i n g f i r s t and second b u r i a l w i t h i n a y e a r ' s i n t e r v a l . I n such s i t u a t i o n s cows i n s t e a d o f g o a t s may be s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e gods and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . A dead ozp-man a f t e r b u r i a l i s r e g a r d e d as n d i - i c h i e ( i . e . , c a n o n i z e d dead a n c e s t o r ) who can be w o r s h i p p e d o r c o n s u l t e d t h r o u g h s p i r i t medium by h i s l i n e a g e members. The F o l k l o r e o f Ubp-aka A c c o r d i n g t o N r i o r a l t r a d i t i o n , t h e e x a c t o r i g i n o f ubp-aka i s a m y s t e r y . B u t i t has been one o f t h e t a l k i n g i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s which i s l o v e d by men and s p i r i t s , and used f o r communication: 46 E r i , t h e g r e a t s p i r i t u a l a n c e s t o r t a u g h t i t t o h i s c h i l d r e n : N r i , N s u g b e , A g u l e r i , U m u l e r i , N t e j e a n d I g b o a r i a m a s a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e n o n l y . N r i t h e n t a u g h t u s t h r o u g h h i s t w o s o n s : I f i k w u a n i m a n d M a m o k e . S i n c e t h e n we u s e i t f o r t e a c h i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o m f o r t . T h e s p i r i t s , l i k e m e n , l o v e t o h e a r t h e v o i c e o f u b o - a k a . T h e r e f o r e , w h o -e v e r p l a y s t h e i n s t r u m e n t , m u s t b e , f i c a r e f u l n o t t o o f f e n d t h e s p i r i t s . T h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t f r o m N r i e l d e r s , i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t -o r y . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t t o d a y , l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t U b o - a k a i s s t i l l a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t a m o n g t h e U m u e r i c l a n : N t e j e , A g u l e r i , N s u g b e , N a n d o , I g b o a r i a n , N r i a n d U m u l e r i p e o p l e w h o a r e t h e d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t s o f E r i . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e o f t h e g r e a t p e r f o r m e r s o f u b o - a k a a m o n g U m u e r i c l a n t o d a y , i s E z i g b o O b i l i g b o o f N t e j e ; h e o c c a s i o n a l l y c o m e s t o N r i t o p l a y a n d s i n g i n p r a i s e o f t h e K i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e a b o v e o r a l n a r r a t i v e s h o w s t h a t u b o - a k a m u s i c h a s a l o n g h i s t o r y a m o n g U m u e r i c l a n , a n d t h a t i t h a s b e e n a m a s c u l i n e i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h p l e a s e s m e n a n d s p i r i t s , h e n c e w o m e n a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o p l a y i t a s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r u n d e r t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s . O n e o f t h e f o l k t a l e s c o n t a i n s a p e n a l t y f o r o f f e n d i n g o r d i s a p p o i n t i n g t h e s p i r i t s i n u b p - a k a p e r f o r m a n c e . I t i s a b o u t a m a n w h o w a s a g r e a t u b p - a k a p l a y e r o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y s k i l l a n d d i s p l a y . H e m a d e t h e m i s t a k e o f p l a y i n g t h e i n s t r u -m e n t a t m i d n i g h t . M i d n i g h t a s w e l l a s n o o n h o u r s a r e c o m m o n l y r e g a r d e d i n I g b o c u l t u r e a s d r e a d f u l p e r i o d s f o r t h e c o m i n g o u t o f b o t h e v i l a n d g o o d s p i r i t s o f t h e d e a d a n c e s t o r s , 47 i n c l u d i n g g h o s t s o f t h e dead i n g e n e r a l . As t h e l e g e n d goes: A g r e a t ubo-aka p l a y e r was p l a y i n g v e r y l a t e i n the n i g h t so much t h a t he f o r g o t h i m s e l f . He p l a y e d so w e l l t h a t he c a r r i e d h i s g r e a t s k i l l f u l d i s p l a y v e r y l a t e i n t o t h e m i d n i g h t . As he was p l a y i n g , he d i d n o t know t h a t he was surrounded by the s p i r i t s who l o v e t o hear and watch g r e a t s k i l l s on the i n s t r u m e n t . But when he suddendly stopped t o go and s l e e p , the s p i r i t s grew annoyed f o r t h e d i s -c o n t i n u i t y and caused death on h i m . 1 ' T h i s f o l k t a l e i s p o s s i b l y a d e t e r r e n t t o i n d i v i d u a l s who o v e r - i n d u l g e i n p l a y i n g ubo-aka o r o t h e r r e l a t e d i n s t r u -ments such as o j a ( f l u t e ) , ubo-akwara (seven s t r i n g harp) which a r e b e l i e v e d t o p o s s e s s the power o f a t t r a c t i n g s p i r i t s . O v e r - p l a y i n g i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e o f e v i l s p i r i t s . There a r e a l s o many s t o r i e s o f s i m i l a r a c c o u n t s where i m e - n d e l i ( m i d n i g h t ) i s r e p l a c e d w i t h mgbachi (noon hours) and t h e c o n v e r s e . As a r e s u l t , p l a y i n g ubo-aka a t m i d n i g h t o r noon hour i s frowned a t by the e l d e r s , p a r e n t s and umunna o f the p e r f o r m e r . I t i s a commonly h e l d o p i n i o n w i t h i n N r i t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f t h a t over i n d u l g e n c e i n performance can s p o i l one's b r a i n t h r o u g h the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e e v i l s p i r i t s . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the e l d e r s always a d v i s e whoever o v e r p l a y s ubo-aka i n the f o l l o w i n g Igbo words: Nnwa a n y i j i l i nwayo maka ubo emebie g i i s i . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n : Our c h i l d be c a r e f u l , g i n case ubo s p o i l s your head. 48 Moreover, ubo-aka sometimes appears i n the s t o r i e s r e l a t e d t o o r a l h i s t o r i c e v e n t s i n the m i g r a t i o n s and move-ments o f t h e a n c e s t o r s o f N r i . The f o l l o w i n g o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g : N r i w i t h h i s group a f t e r s u r v e y i n g the l a n d around Anambra r i v e r , p r oceeded on h i s way t o t h e l a n d named l a t e r a f t e r h i s b r o t h e r , Amanuke who came back t h e r e and s e t t l e d . Here N r i and h i s r e l a t i v e s w o r s h i p p e d the s p i r i t s o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s through r i t u a l s and s a c r i f i c e s w i t h music of i g b a , ekwe and ogene, t e a c h i n g , i n s p i r i n g and c o m f o r t i n g one a n o t h e r w i t h ubo-aka, opu and o j a . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the a f o N r i w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t s a t Amanuke, N r i c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s j o u r n e y and a r r i v e d a t Nkpume-e n y i l e n y i w hich i s the p r e s e n t Enugwu-ukwu town. Here he d i s c o v e r e d to h i s annoyance t h a t h i s o n l y d a u g h t e r O f i o b a was pregnant; t h u s , he r e j e c t e d and abandoned h e r o u t o f anger t h e r e and a r r i v e d a t l a s t i n the a r e a known today as N r i town from where he r e i g n e d over a l a r g e a r e a i n Igbo l a n d . The above o r a l t r a d i t i o n throws f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h e r o l e o f ubo-aka and music i n g e n e r a l , among N r i p e o p l e . Ubo-aka i s p r i n c i p a l l y a communication medium a l o n g w i t h o t h e r t a l k i n g i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h w h i c h they t a u g h t , i n s p i r e d and com-f o r t e d one a n o t h e r as they are s t i l l used today i n N r i . P r o b a b l y , N r i used the t a l k i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o communicate messages, the mores and norms of the s o c i e t y t o h i s r e l a t i v e s as they are among N r i p e o p l e today. The i n s t r u m e n t s f o r s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l s a r e i g b a (drum), ekwe (wooden drum) and ogene (metal gong) wh i c h shows t h a t ubo-aka has n e v e r been a r i t u a l - i n s t r u m e n t i n N r i t r a d i t i o n d e s p i t e taboos t h a t s u r r o u n d i t . B e s i d e s , t h i s o r a l h i s t o r y shows t h a t t h e m u s i c a l i n s t r u -merits have a long t r a d i t i o n i n N r i . Music i n the L i f e of Nri People Music plays important roles i n the d a i l y l i f e of Nri people. As a r e s u l t , i t i s context sensitive i n order to be meaningful. The following description of the role of music i n Igbo culture applies also to Nri culture. Music, vocal or instrumental, plays a very large part at i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies of youths to manhood or to the t r i b a l mysteries. Dances and songs of a r e l i g i o u s or ceremonious nature play a large part i n r e l i g i o n where they constitute acts of worship or accompaniment to such acts. The extemporized words or songs, the swell of the music, rhythmic motions of dance and the gregarious f e e l i n g that every body i s taking part i n the same action.heighten the r e l i g i o u s s e n t i -ment. Other acts of a r i t u a l nature, such as processions around the town before the actual b u r i a l processions are l a r g e l y musical. (Echezona 1965:4). In t h i s connection, a l l that l i e s hidden i n the music of Nri are a l l the components of Nri culture which form the c u l t u r a l matrix that evolved from the deep well of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and practices. This explains why music i s cl o s e l y associated with r i t u a l s . Dance music i s predominantly connected with r i t u a l s . For women i t i s mainly vocal while for men, i t i s mostly instrumental and a l i t t l e vocal. The singing i s generally either antiphonal or responsorial which i s very common among women and g i r l s . I t i s not r e s t r i c t e d only to the singing or dancing group; others can parti c i p a t e i n the singing eithe by nodding or clapping of hands when they are deeply involved 50 T h i s s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s e s p e c i a l l y when the words o f music i s s t r o n g l y s e n t i m e n t a l and t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y a p p e a l i n g . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o observe t h a t the source o f enjoyment i n v o c a l music i s not so much t h e wor d i n g as t h e v o i c e q u a l i t y o f the s i n g e r s e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e s o l o i s t s . A good v o i c e i s d e s c r i b e d as onu-oqene (the v o i c e o f a m e t a l gong). W i t h i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , the case i s d i f f e r e n t ; t h e enjoyment l i e s more on t h e t a l k i n g a b i l i t y o f the i n s t r u m e n t e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f s o l o i n s t r u m e n t s l i k e ubo-aka, ubo-akwara, a k p e l e (horn) and o j a ( f l u t e ) , and how w e l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a re s k i l l f u l l y p e r f o rmed o r combined i n ensembles as w e l l as f u l -20 f i l l i n g t he d e s i r e d s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . Dance i s a c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o u r d e t e r m i n e d by t h e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f o f the p e o p l e . F o r example, i t has s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the mores, norms and r e l i g i o n o f the p e o p l e . There a re dances s t r i c t l y f o r women and men e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s . Among women dances some are s t r i c t l y f o r m a r r i e d women and t h e u n m a r r i e d r e s p e c t i v e l y : eqwu—ndi-agbala o r eqwu-ndi—inyom (Agukwu o r A k a m k p i s i o r Agbadani, e t c . ) , f o r m a r r i e d women; and eqwu— umu— agboghobia (Agukwu o r A k a m k p i s i o r Obeagu, e t c . ) and e g w u - u f i e - a k w a l i f o r 21 the u n m a r r i e d . The same t h i n g o b t a i n s i n men's dances. F o r example, the a b i a dance i s s t r i c t l y f o r a m a r r i e d man w i t h c h i l d ; a m a r r i e d man w i t h o u t c h i l d must n ot dance t o t h e music b u t can p l a y i n t h e ensemble i f he i s a good p e r f o r m e r o f any of the i n s t r u m e n t s . There a re r i t u a l dances (egwu-ozo) s t r i c t l y 51 f o r t h e t i t l e d men, w h i l e the widows o f the t i t l e d men s t r i c t l y dance t h e aja-ana dance o f p u r i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e the gods. Masquerade dances a r e f o r men o n l y ; women must n ot p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the o l d e s t woman i n town who i s crowned t h e nne-mmonwu (the mother o f t h e masquerade). Symbolism p r o b a b l y i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some dance movements. Each nuance, each l i t t l e body movement, each g e s t u r e o f t h e arms may be i n t e r p r e t e d , as s i g n i f y i n g f e r t i l i t y , the r e t u r n o f t h e a n c e s t o r s , the f l i g h t o f b i r d s o f perhaps some n a t u r a l phenomenon. However, e v i d e n c e o f symbolism i s 22 i n c o n c l u s i v e as n o t e d , i n an Igbo-dance p l a y . D i s c o v e r i n g the s p e c i f i c symbolism o f movement where i t e x i s t s , can be v e r y d i f f i c u l t . Most dance s t e p s and o t h e r movements a r e not r e p o r t e d t o have names ...A l t h o u g h the dances range from a b s t r a c t symbolism t o r e a l i s t i c m i m i c r y , d r a m a t i c c o n c e r n t o comic r e l i e f , most o f t he movements p r o b a b l y s y m b o l i z e f e r t i l i t y , p o t e n t i a l i t y , and i n s t i n c t -u a l energy. The s y m b o l i c p o r t r a y a l o f f e r t i l i t y i s acknowledged b u t o t h e r w i s e r e p o r t s o f s y m b o l i c meanings a r e few and f r a g m e n t a r y . (Hanna 1968: 21) Dance music i s a means o f promoting mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a t i o n s among t h e p e o p l e , group o f dancers and p e r f o r m e r s . I t o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n i n g i n team s p i r i t , exchange o f i d e a s , g e t - t o g e t h e r , knowing one an o t h e r ' s temperament, a t t i t u d e s , l i k e s and d i s l i k e s d u r i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n , l e a r n i n g , d e m o n s t r a t i o n and pe r f o r m a n c e . P u b l i c dances f o r t h e u n m a r r i e d women p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r men s p e c t a t o r s t o s e l e c t b r i d e s o r l o v e r s ; t h e women 52 themselves r e a l i z e t h i s hence they appear t h e i r b e s t on such o c c a s i o n s , and r e a l l y dance and s i n g t o the g a l l e r y i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t and w i n a l o v e r . Dance i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c s o c i a l f e a t u r e s : dances are g e n e r a l l y done i n groups r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l l y ; however, o c c a s i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l dances o c c u r when one e m o t i o n a l l y dances t o ubo-aka m u s i c , ubo- akwara m u s i c , drumming, o r e k p i l i m u s i c . But s o l o dances a r e m o s t l y performed by masquerades such as the a k u e b i l i s i , agbogho_ mmonwu, i z a g a and o t h e r s ; they are g e n e r a l l y accompanied by f a i r l y l a r g e ensembles o f s i x or more i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . L a r g e groups o f dancers a r e p r e f e r r e d ; groups numbering l e s s t h a n seven dancers a r e r a r e l y t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . The u s u a l f o r m a t i o n i n dances i s the c i r c l e . Thus dancers can move outwards, i n -wards, f o r w a r d s o r backwards w i t h o u t bumping i n t o one a n o t h e r o r they may meet a t t h e c e n t r e f o r s p e c i a l d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s . When the number o f dancers i s i n c r e a s e d , s p a t i a l e x p a n s i o n t a k e s p l a c e w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y any r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r o u t i n e s . Some men's dances have been known t o form i n t o two rows, w i t h a l e a d e r i n f r o n t who demonstrates each s t e p b e f o r e the whole t r o u p e j o i n s i n . Even i n t h i s f o r m a t i o n each i n d i v i d u a l dancer c u t s out a c i r c l e o f o p e r a t i o n f o r h i m s e l f . Age p l a y s a major p a r t i n dance groups. Most p e o p l e i n a dance group u s u a l l y b e l o n g t o the same age-grade. I n g e n e r a l , sex d i v i s i o n i s the norm; men and women dance i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s . Young p e o p l e may mix sexes i n dances b u t i n t h a t c a s e boys g e n e r a l l y l e a d and g i r l s f o l l o w . Men's dance groups may n o t 5 3 have female members e x c e p t i n those r a r e c a s e s where a woman of d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e v i l l a g e may have t a k e n some t i t l e s . She may be a member o f the group b u t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s may she a c t u a l l y t a k e p a r t i n d a n c i n g i n p u b l i c . I n women's groups however, t h e r e may be a man who i s a f u l l - f l e d g e d member a s s i s t i n g w i t h s u c h t h i n g s as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e , and p e r f o r m i n g c e r t a i n a c t i o n s f o r b i d d e n t o women by t r a d i t i o n such as e v o k i n g t h e s p i r i t o f a n c e s t o r s t o p r o t e c t t h e da n c e r s from e v i l w i t c h d o c t o r s and r a i n makers. F o l k songs p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e community because o f t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . There a r e , f o r example, o c c a s i o n a l songs w h i c h a re songs f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s such as b i r t h , r e l i g i o u s w o r s h i p , war, i n i t i a t i o n , m a r r i a g e and f u n e r a l s ; i n c i d e n t a l songs which a re songs i n t r o d u c e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y d u r i n g an a c t i o n o r duty, u s u a l l y c a s u a l , such as work songs, c r a d l e songs and l u l l a b i e s ; and t h e r e c r e a t -i o n a l songs which a r e sung m a i n l y f o r r e l a x a t i o n and e n t e r -t a inment such as m o o n l i g h t , f o l k t a l e , masquerade, w r e s t l i n g songs, e t c . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are music and songs s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d f o r the K i n g , t h e r o y a l f a m i l y , v a r i o u s age g r a d e s , f o r c h i l d r e n , s p i n s t e r s , h e r o e s , m a r r i e d women, t r a d i t i o n a l p r i e s t s and t i t l e d men. Me n t i o n must be made o f the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f some m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . F o r example, a p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t c a l l e d ogene ( m e t a l gong) i s used by p r i e s t s o r m e d i c i n e men to h e a l stammering; i f a c h i l d i s stammering o r cannot speak and communicate w e l l , ogene i s a means o f making him speak w e l l . 54 In t h i s c a s e , the c h i l d i s p r e s e n t e d t o a s h r i n e and g i v e n water out o f t h e gong which produces c l e a r t ones when b e a t e n . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t c o n s t a n t d r i n k i n g o f w a t e r o u t of such a sonorous i n s t r u m e n t b e f o r e t h e s h r i n e b a n i s h e s stammering. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t i s t h e drum w h i c h assumes a p o s i t i o n o f g r e a t e s t s o c i a l r o l e . I t c o n s t i t u t e s the p i v o t around w h i c h t h e s o c i a l l i f e t u r n s . S o c i a l o c c a s i o n s such as m a r r i a g e , naming ceremonies, f u n e r a l s , c o r o n a t i o n , t i t l e - t a k i n g and i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies must f e a t u r e drumming. I n t h i s way, among the N r i p e o p l e t h e r e are drums t h a t t a l k , w h i s p e r , c r y , dance, f i g h t and l o v e . T a l k i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , such as ubo-aka, ubc—akwara, a k p e l e , Qdu-enyi, i g b a , o j a , u f i e , c o n s t i t u t e the t r a d i t i o n a l commun-i c a t i o n media. The s t a t u s o f t h e m u s i c i a n i n t h e s o c i e t y i s non-p r o f e s s i o n a l g e n e r a l l y . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t nobody can l i v e by b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n . R a t h e r , i t . i s t a k e n as a s o c i a l p r a c t i c e i n which everybody p a r t i c i p a t e s . P e r f o r m e r s p l a y out o f enjoyment, f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and f o r s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n s such as r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s , f u n e r a l s , a n n u a l f e s t i v a l s , m a r r i a g e ceremonies, w r e s t l i n g matches, c o r o n a t i o n , e t c . On the o t h e r hand, good m u s i c i a n s h i p i s r e c o g n i z e d and a c c o r d e d much r e s p e c t as a s p e c i a l g i f t from t h e gods. A good drummer as w e l l as a h i g h l y s k i l l e d ubo-aka o r ubo-akwara p e r f o r m e r a r e t h e r e f o r e r e c o g n i z e d , r e s p e c t e d and admired by many i n the s o c i e t y . M u s i c i a n s h i p i s s i m p l y n o t an i n d e x o f s o c i a l r ank. 55 Altogether, the music of Nri i s controlled by Igbo language because of the inherent tonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the language. This tonal i n f l e c t i o n of the words or language c a l l to mind corresponding succession of musical tones which organize themselves into patterns of speech and rhythm as w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n the language of ubo-aka music. Summary This chapter discusses Nri people and t h e i r culture. The discussion on the history of Nri i s li m i t e d due to the scarcity of written records. Oral t r a d i t i o n s have l i m i t a t i o n s because they give l i t t l e or no indicati o n of how long ago these events took place. Nevertheless, they have much to contribute i n ordering thoughts and speculations on the patterns of migration and the phenomena of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l influence on the ancient culture of N r i . The recent Igbo-Ukwu excavation, has revealed the antiquity of Eze Nri as already discussed. Basden's hypothesis on the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Igbo and the I s r a e l i t e s should not be taken as f i n a l but rather as a base for further inquiry. The s o c i a l organization which operates within the skele t a l structure has much to contribute i n understanding the culture of the people. Music has close r e l a t i o n s h i p with the s o c i a l structure i n terms of i t s role i n s o c i a l events, i n s t i t u t i o n s and kingship. The theological philosophy of Nri as a p r i e s t l y c u l t i n Igbo culture, constitutes the pivot around which the entire 56 c u l t u r a l matrix turns; a very important determinant as w i l l be seen l a t e r . As a r e s u l t , every aspect of N r i culture i s based on the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and practices. Discussion on the. f o l k l o r e of ubo-aka, throws some l i g h t on the long history of the instrument i n Nri t r a d i t i o n as one of the t r a d i t i o n a l instruments of ancestors. The instrument i s p r i n c i p a l l y a communication medium within the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l parameters. Music i n Nri i s e s s e n t i a l l y composed of several com-ponents of Nri t r a d i t i o n s . A study of the incidence of music shows that music-making i s s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y determined. It was noted how a variety of musical types are created for use i n various recognized s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . To the N r i , music i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r culture, and must not be performed out of context. In songs and t a l k i n g instruments, l i n g u i s t i c influence i s prevalent. Both the melody and rhythm are controlled by the outlines of the intonation and the r e l a t i v e duration of the s y l l a b l e s of verbal text for meaning. It i s therefore, a f e r t i l e ground for anthropological, socio-l o g i c a l , l i n g u i s t i c and ethnomusicological i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y studies. The discussion here does not pretent to be exhaustive. It probably succeeds i n introducing Nri people by presenting Nri culture i n broad perspective and provides the s o c i o c u l t u r a l background needed i n any ethnomusicological study of t h i s nature. 57 Footnotes 1. Igbo-ukwu excavation was by Thurstan Shaw, and published in his Igbo-ukwu: An account of archaeological discov-eries i n eastern Nigeria i n 2 vols. 1970. 2. Exodus the second book i n the Old Testament i s the b i b l i c a l account about how Moses led the I s r a e l i t e s out of t h e i r bondage i n Egypt. 3. E r i i s believed to be the common ancestor of Igala, Nri Nteje, Aguleri, Nsugbe, Igboariam or Onoja and Nteje peoples of Nigeria. This i s based on o r a l t r a d i t i o n of Nri, Agala and Umeri cultures. 4. Sacred kingship referes to the r e l i g i o u s kingdoms of Igala and Nri which are o f f i c e s of high priesthood and d i v i n i t y . The d i v i n i t y of the kings i s attained during t h e i r r i t u a l b u r i a l at the coronation, and t h e i r believed subsequent transfiguration into s p i r i t s . 5. Mosaic Law refers to the Law of Moses as contained i n the Old Testament. 6. Deuteronomy i s the book of law i n the Old Testament of Jewish r e l i g i o n which contains the Ten Commandments of God to the Jews under Moses; one of the f i v e books of Moses. 7. Animism i s native worship, and the b e l i e f that a l l kinds of organic l i f e , even inanimate objects have souls which can be worshipped. 8. Ubru, Ibru and Uburu are names i n Igbo culture alledged to have been a corruption of the word Hebrew which l a t e r led to the word Igbo. This i s speculation. 9. Bronze roped vase was one of the precious objects found at the Igbo-ukwu excavation by Professor Shaw. I t contained b e a u t i f u l Igbo carvings dated ninth century A.D. (Shaw 1970). 10. Radio carbon dating i s one of the s c i e n t i f i c methods of dating excavated a r t i f a c t s used mostly by archaeologists. Professor Thurstan Shaw used i t i n dating his findings i n Igbo-ukwu excavation. 11. Benin and Ife_ bronze are one of the high works of t r a d i -t i o n a l a r t i n Nigerian culture. 12. Gerontocray, means government by elders of a community based on age and b i r t h r i g h t . 58 13. N r i hegemony r e f e r s t o the kingdom o f N r i and t h e e x t e n t of Igbo area s under Eze N r i (the K i n g o f N r i ) . 14. The r i g h t t o t h e monarchy does not e x t e n d t o t h e d e s -cendants o f Namoke, one o f t h e sons o f N r i . Namoke i s the p r o g e n i t o r o f A k a m k p i s i v i l l a g e i n N r i . They l o s t the r i g h t t o be Eze N r i because when Namoke was Eze N r i , h i s p e o p l e n e g l e c t e d and d i s r e g a r d e d him t o the e x t e n t t h a t when he was about t o d i e , he vowed t h a t Eze N r i must never a g a i n come from A k a m k p i s i , and handed ov e r t o Agukwu v i l l a g e o f N r i , the orb o f l e a d e r s h i p and k i n g s h i p . Today, N r i s a c r e d k i n g s h i p i s l i m i t e d t o the sub v i l l a g e s o f Aguku a r e a . 15. Egbo i s a l o n g w r e a t h o f palm f r o n d s w h i c h t h e K i n g o f N r i , and h i s h i g h p r i e s t s use i n s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s between w a r r i n g v i l l a g e s and towns i n Igbo l a n d . The egbo i s r a i s e d and thrown between t h e combatants as a symbol o f cease f i r e . 16. T h i s i s an o r a l account o f ubo-aka c o l l e c t e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l e l d e r s o f Agbadani, N r i by t h e a u t h o r i n 1972. 17. An ubo-aka l e g e n d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s p i r i t s was s u p p l i e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e l d e r s o f Agukwu, N r i t o the a u t h o r . 18. T h i s i s a common a d v i c e t o those who o v e r i n d u l g e i n ubo-aka performance w i t h i n N r i t r a d i t i o n . I t a r o s e from the g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t over p l a y i n g can d i s r u p t t h e common sense o f the i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f bad s p i r i t s . 19. T h i s o r a l h i s t o r y of m i g r a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d from the p a l a c e o f Eze N r i by t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g f i e l d w o r k i n 19 71 as r e l a t e d by one o f t h e p r i e s t s . 20. Ubo-aka i s a p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e w i t h a gourd r e s o n a t o r ; ubo-akwara i s a p l u c k e d chordophone w i t h seven wooden s t r i n g s ; a k p e l e i s a s i d e - b l o w n aerophone made ou t o f a cow's h o r n o r h a r e ' s hoof, 9 j a i s a n o t c h e d wooden f l u t e w i t h about t h r e e h o l e s , w h i c h i s end-blown. 21. E g w u - u f i e - a k w a l i i s the t r a d i t i o n a l dance o f f e r t i l i t y a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f g i r l s i n t o p u b e r t y . 22. Symbolism i s the c o n c e p t o f symbol as something w h i c h s t a n d s f o r , r e p r e s e n t s , o r s e r v e s as a t o o l f o r compre-he n d i n g the r e f e r e n t . (Smith 1952: 13-14.) 59 CHAPTER III UBO-AKA AS AN INSTRUMENT A general view of the organology of ubo-aka i s presented with reference to physical and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l mani-festations. The physical descriptions are based primarily on the systems of Draeger and Mantle Hood. 1 Discussion proceeds on the basis of Draeger's descriptive framework as outlined i n The P r i n c i p l e of a  Systematization of Musical Instruments (1948), and incorporates four main d i v i s i o n s : physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , tone product-ion, technique of playing and tuning. aka with descriptions, i s shown i n F i g . 7 using Mantle Hood's organogram as designed in his The Ethnomusicologist (1971). The organogram makes i t possible to include "not only the history and description of instruments but also equally important but neglected techniques of performance, musical function, decoration and a variety of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l consid-erations" (Hood 1971: 124). I t combines the 'systematik' of Sachs and Hornbostel, and the labanotation with a l l the features associated with a musical instrument. For example, the four main d i v i s i o n s of the 'systematik' were expanded to include the electrophone with the following representative In addition, a diagramatic representation of ubo-2 symbols: Idiophone =1 ; Membranoph ; Aerophone = .( ) ; and Elec trophone =, one =J ; Chordoph one 60 On the whole, the d i s c u s s i o n c o v e r s t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o n s t r u c t i o n and t u n i n g , p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e and t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n terms o f h i s t o r y , d i s t r i b u t i o n and g e n e r i c names t h r o u g h o u t b l a c k A f r i c a , the C a r i b b e a n s and B r a z i l . P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ubo-aka i s a p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e w i t h a gourd r e s o n a t o r ; t h e d i a m e t e r i s not g e n e r a l l y l e s s than seven i n c h e s a l t h o u g h i t v a r i e s w i t h the n a t u r a l s i z e o f gourd. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d s i z e . On t o p o f the gourd i s f i t t e d a round wooden l i d w i t h two o p e n i n g s on e i t h e r s i d e . Two p a r a l l e l wooden o r m e t a l b r i d g e - r o d s a r e p l a c e d a t one end o f the wooden l i d on wh i c h e i g h t e v e n l y spaced m e t a l prongs o f about o n e - f i f t h o f an i n c h a p a r t a r e f i t t e d . The prongs a r e h e l d i n p o s i t i o n w i t h e i t h e r a m e t a l s t r i n g o r akwala (wooden s t r i n g ) e x t r a c t e d from t h e f i b r e s o f a r a p h i a palm. They a r e t i e d inbetween t h e two b r i d g e - r o d s t o t h e wooden l i d , and l e f t f r e e t o v i b r a t e a t t h e o t h e r end. The s e t o f prongs w h i l e f a c i n g t h e p l a y e r r e s e m b l e s t h e l e t t e r "V" w i t h a l o n g stem on the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e i n such a way t h a t t h e l o n g e s t prong i s a t t h e extreme r i g h t , t h e s h o r t e s t a t the extreme l e f t and the second t o t h e l o n g e s t prong, about i n t h e m i d d l e as shown i n P l a t e 1. The f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e body t o be s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n a r e t h e e i g h t f l a t m e t a l prongs w h i c h a r e l o n g i t u d i n a l i n shape w i t h v a r y i n g l e n g t h and s i z e i n terms of r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r . B e s i d e s , t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d 61 l e n g t h f o r each p r o n g . A t times the prongs a r e r u s t y b u t the p l u c k e d t i p s are u s u a l l y f l a t t e n e d and smooth because of c o n s t a n t f r i c t i o n between the thumbs and t h e t i p s o f prongs. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the q u a l i t y o f t h e s u r f a c e i s p a r t l y r u s t y , smooth and s h i n y . The v i b r a t i o n p a t t e r n has been s t u d i e d by Echezona through a c c o u s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the prongs i n h i s Ibo M u s i c a l 3 I n s t r u m e n t i n Ibo C u l t u r e 1963. The f i n d i n g s show t h a t the p a t t e r n i s based on t r a n s v e r s e v i b r a t i o n o f r o d s as shown i n F i g . 4. p i o p2 F i g . 4. THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSVERSE VIBRATION OF RODS I n F i g . 4A, t h e prong o s c i l l a t e s as a whole between 1 2 the d o t t e d P and P upwards and downwards. The f i x e d end forms a node w h i l e the f r e e end i n i t s u n r e s t r i c t e d m o t i o n becomes the c e n t e r o f a v e n t r a l segment. The o t h e r node must t h e r e f o r e o c c u r a t a d i s t a n c e of a h a l f segment, o r one-t h i r d o f t h e l e n g t h o f the v i b r a t i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e prong, below t h e f r e e end, t h e remainder o f t h e prong f o r m i n g a whole segment ( f i g u r e [ 4 b ] . L i k e w i s e when the t h i r d p a r t i a l a r i s e s , t h e prong forms two and o n e - h a l f v e n t r a l segments, w i t h the f i r s t node l o c a t e d 62 at o n e - f i f t h of the length from the free end, while each of the e n t i r e segments occupies two of the remain-ing f o u r - f i f t h s (figure [4c]). (Echezona 1963: 99) . These patterns of v i b r a t i o n are approximate since they s t r i c l y apply to a cantilever section whereas the ubo-aka prongs are sections clamped at one end and supported about i n the middle. As a r e s u l t , these patterns may be regarded as an approximate picture because the length of prong between simply supported and clamped ends i s small com-pared to the f u l l length. The activators are the two thumbs with or without the thumb n a i l s . At times, the two fore fingers are used i n case of p a i n f u l thumbs or for special dynamic e f f e c t of softness. But the t r a d i t i o n a l activators are the two thumbs hence the Europeans, on watching the playing technique, c a l l i t 'thumb piano' (Berliner 1974: 90). The assembly of the activators i s based on voluntary muscular co-ordination of the thumbs and to some extent on the basis of the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n . For example, i n the case of wounded, pa i n f u l or deformed thumbs, other fingers can be trained to pluck the prongs. In terms of shape, the activator i s the natural thumb shape which i s knob-like. Thus the material of the activator i s either the s k i n - f l e s h of the human thumb or the calcium carbonate of the finger n a i l s when finger n a i l s are grown for the purpose. Plectrums have never been used but i t i s possible 64 t h a t i n t h e absence of grown thumb n a i l s , s p e c i a l p l e c t r u m s can be d e s i g n e d f o r t h e thumbs as among the p l a y e r s o f m b i r a 4 dza vadzimu o f Shona p e o p l e o f Rhodesia ( B e r l i n e r 1974: 101) . The p l e c t r u m can be d e s i g n e d i n such a way as t o p o s s e s s f i n g e r n a i l - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o produce the twanging e f f e c t o f t h e n a i l s . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e a c t i v a t o r i s dependent on the p l a y e r , and t a k e s the form o f a s u d d e n l y a p p l i e d and r e l e a s e d impact l o a d . The r e s o n a t o r i s made of oba(gourd) and c u t i n such a way t o l o o k l i k e a bowl. The r e s u l t a n t sound comes from a v i b r a t i o n o f t h e r e s o n a t o r . I n t h i s way the r e s o n a t o r m a g n i f i e s t h e t o n e s o r i n c r e a s e s the volume by s e r v i n g as the 'sound c a r r i e r ' . The b o w l - l i k e form o f t h e r e s o n a t o r i s shown i n P l a t e 2. I t i s v e r y smooth and n a t u r a l l y brown i n c o l o u r . Sometimes, i n t r i c a t e t r a d i t i o n a l d e s i g n s a r e c a r v e d o r p a i n t e d on the r e s o n a t o r f o r a e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s . I t i s a l s o i n some cases p a i n t e d i n s p o t t e d w h i t e and b l a c k c o l o u r s w h i c h are m o s t l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o u r s f o r the s p i r i t s and t h e dead as shown i n P l a t e 3. The f e a t u r e of t h e r e s o n a t o r i s s y m b o l i c o f t h e stomach hence among N r i p e o p l e , a smooth and w e l l rounded stomach e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f a b e a u t i f u l l a d y o r a pregnant woman, i s d e s c r i b e d as afo-oba (the stomach o f the gourd) w h i c h i s v e r y even, smooth and r o t u n d . However, the o r i g i n of the shape cannot e a s i l y be d e t e r m i n e d s i n c e i t i s n o t d e s i g n e d by t e c h n o l o g y . The d e t e r m i n a n t i s s i m p l y the n a t u r a l shape and s i z e o f t h e gourd. The m a t e r i a l i s c o r k - l i k e , porous and l i g h t . I t d e r v e s a l s o as t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - b u o y f o r swimmers i n the l a k e s because 65 i t i s always a f l o a t . Tone P r o d u c t i o n The mode o f a c t i v a t i o n i s by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p l u c k -i n g , b e a t i n g and r u b b i n g on t h e k e y s . But i s i s p r i n c i p a l l y by p l u c k i n g . The s o u r c e o f energy i s man power u t i l i z e d t h r o ugh a hammer-like m o t o r - a c t i o n on t h e prongs; i t i s by d i r e c t c o n t a c t . T h i s d i r e c t c o n t a c t i s n o t c o n t i n u o u s as i t depends on the p r i n c i p l e s o f t o u c h and r e l e a s e w i t h o u t m e c h a n i c a l power o u t s i d e human c o n t r o l . The number o f a c t i v a t e d sound b o d i e s a t t h e moment o f tone p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h are i n m u t u a l dependence are s e v e r a l : t h e e i g h t m e t a l prongs the gourd r e s o n a t o r , and i n some c a s e s , f i x e d r a t t l e s on t h e body of the r e s o n a t o r o r s t o r e d beads i n t h e bowl o f t h e r e s o n a t o r . A l l t h e s e v i b r a t e i n sympathy whenever one o r more prongs a r e p l u c k e d . T h e r e f o r e , the number o f sound b o d i e s per p l a y e r a l o n g w i t h t o t a l number of sound b o d i e s a r e v a r i a b l e . The a c t i o n o f tone p r o d u c t i o n comes from one p e r s o n who can o n l y p l a y s i n g l y because the ubo-aka as d e f i n e d by s o c i e t y i s a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t . The number o f sounds p o s s i b l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i s n o t f i x e d . A t t i m e s , p l a y e r s can produce m e t a l i c sounds out o f the prongs and p e r c u s s i v e e f f e c t when rhythms a r e b e a t e n o u t on t h e wooden l i d w i t h t h e s y m p a t h e t i c r a t t l i n g o f beads a t t a c h e d t o t h e r e s o n a t o r or l e f t i n s i d e t h e gourd b o w l . I t depends on the e f f e c t t h e p e r f o r m e r wants. F u r t h e r , a p e r -former w i t h sharp thumb n a i l s n o r m a l l y produces twanging e f f e c t most o f t h e time w h i l e those p l a y i n g w i t h t h e t i p o f 66 PLATE 4 . THE FEATURES OF THE RESONATOR 67 PLATE 5. THE DECORATED UBO-AKA 68 the thumb produce round and l i g h t l y muted tones. On the other hand, a combination of plucking, beating and rubbing produces multiple sounds that resemble the e f f e c t of ensemble performance. In th i s connection, the number of simultaneous sounds i s variable and composite. The accompanying voice i s rare, but where there i s a vocal solo, i t i s only the male solo voice with i t s range and tone colour that i s heard. The main determinant of musical f l e x i b i l i t y i n tone production, i s the range of the musical parameters of the instrument. This i s achieved by v a r i a t i o n , combination, re-combination and exchange of keys of the musical instrument. The duration, dynamic range and i n t e n s i t y are variable, and therefore cannot e a s i l y be determined. In the case of duration, i t depends most of the time on the length, the thickness and the f l e x i b i l i t y of the vi b r a t i n g substance. Thus the longer and l i g h t e r the prong when excited, the longer the duration of tone; but the shorter and thicker the prong becomes, the shorter the duration. Also the degree of i n t e n s i t y of v i b r a -t i o n determines the span of duration. Dynamic e f f e c t depends mostly on the nature of touch and the playing technique. For example, the piano dynamic e f f e c t can be achieved by sof t playing techniques of both the l e f t and r i g h t thumbs through relaxing the tension i n the prong by degrees. When the finger n a i l i s used, a twanging and piercing e f f e c t r e s u l t s but when the knob of the thumb plays, i t i s often s o f t and round i n e f f e c t . Thus the degree of tension on the prongs controls the dynamic shading a l l the time. C o n v e r s e l y , degrees o f f o r t e e f f e c t a r e a c h i e v e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e t e n s i o n s t e p by s t e p . I n t h i s way i n t e n s i t y v a r i e s w i t h t h e energy o f v i b r a t i o n whenever the a c t i v a t i o n i s heavy. T h i s l e a d s always t o h i g h i n t e n s i t y w h i c h causes l o u d n e s s , c o a r s e n e s s and r e v e r b r a t i o n . A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o f r e q u e n t r e t u n i n g o f t h e k e y s , c o n t r i b u t e t o m u s i c a l f l e x i b i l i t y . The range o f melody i s v a r i a b l e , depending p a r t l y on t h e s e l e c t e d tones t h a t form the melody and the l i n g u i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f t o n e s . However, the range i s always d e t e r m i n e d by the m u s i c a l parameters o f t h e s e t o f prongs w h i c h v a r y w i t h d i f f e r e n t t u n i n g s . F o r example, t h e ranges o f t h e ubo-aka measured by Echezona and D a r i u s Thieme showed marked d i f f e r e n c e . The measurement o f t h e keys i n c e n t s i s shown i n Table IV as f o l l o w s : NOTE CENTS LENGTH IN INCHES • C B A G F E D C 1225 1100 928 695 490 398 205 15 1.44 1.5 1.57 1.7 1.8 1.86 1.95 2.1 (Echezona 1963: 101) Tabl e IV. THE MEASUREMENT OF UBO-AKA KEYS. The range a c c o r d i n g t o Echezona's a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s an o c t a v e o f C i n the 'note' column, and p r o b a b l y c a l c u l a t e d 70 from the m i d d l e C. B u t a l o o k a t the ' c e n t s ' column d i s a g r e e s w i t h such an assumption. F o r example, 15 c e n t s i s n o t commen-s u r a t e w i t h t h e v a l u e o f m i d d l e C wh i c h i s 4,800 c e n t s on the b a s i s o f E l l i s ' c e n t system (Sachs 1962: 24-25). On t h e o t h e r hand, a note w i t h 15 c e n t s would be t o o low i n p i t c h t o be a u d i b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , where i t i s assumed t h a t the low 'C' r e f e r s t o the m i d d l e ' C , t h e f o l l o w i n g l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n s a re o b t a i n a b l e from t h e a n a l y s i s : —1 Notes I U l l i s ' Cents D i f f e r e n c e Echezona's R e s u l t i C B A . G F . E D c = c 4 = 1200 = 1100 = 900 = 700 = 500 = 400 = 200 = 4800 + 25 = + 28 = - 5 = - 10 -- 2 = + 5 = + 15 = 1225 1100 928 695 490 398 205 (4815) T a b l e V. DEDUCTIONS FROM ECHEZONA'S ANALYSIS On t h e o t h e r hand, D a r i u s Thieme's f i n d i n g s a r e s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Another common N i g e r i a n i n s t r u m e n t o f m b i r a f a m i l y i s t h e ubo-aka... the t u n i n g i s s t e p w i s e c o v e r i n g a span o f an Augmented 7 t h r o u g h l y C# t o B#. (Thieme 1967: 45-46) Thieme's ac c o u n t i s (not as d e t a i l e d as Echezona's) w i t h no e x p l a n a t i o n as t o how he a r r i v e d a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s . However, the two a n a l y s e s do agree on t h e s t e p w i s e t u n i n g o f 71 ubo-aka even though they disagree s l i g h t l y on the range of an octave. In t h i s connection, there i s no standardized range of the set of keys esp e c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of d i f f e r e n t tunings by d i f f e r e n t makers and i n d i v i d u a l performers. Thus the d i s p a r i t y continues i n the absence of standardization. Registration of an instrument according to Draeger, i s determined by the production of the same pit c h i n d i f f e r e n t timbres. This does not however apply to ubo-aka because there i s no variety i n t i b r e when i t has only one manual of keys made of the same material. Such timbral difference could have been possible i f i t had two or more manuals as i n the case of nyunga-nyunga mbira of the Shona people of Rhodesia (Kauffman 1970:82). The tone colour depends on a number of factors: the material of the v i b r a t i n g prongs whether s t r i p s of i r o n , s t e e l or zinc; the thickness of the prong; the extent of smoothness or roughness of the prong; the f l e x i b i l i t y of the prong and the voice qu a l i t y of the tuner who tunes to imitate human speech tones. In the l i g h t of a l l these combinations of factors i n each ubo-aka the tone colour i s therefore v a r i a b l e . Technique and Art of Playing The instrument i s held i n both hands i n a horizontal position i n such a way that the thumbs can comfortable pluck the prongs. The other fingers are generally hooked behind the wooden l i d through the two holes i n order to hold the i n s t r u -ment. The gourd resonator i s usually rested between the knees or the laps while playing, and sometimes l a i d on the laps or leant against something as well for extra support. Occasionally, i t can be held away from the rest of the body and played at the same time. Performance can be done s i t t i n g or standing; but s i t t i n g i s preferred for good relaxation and concentration. Beginners must know -the boundary between the l e f t and rig h t thumbs as shown i n F i g . 5. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 _ t h e prongs Left Thumb Right Thumb Fig.5.' THE BOUNDARIES ON THE MANUAL The f i f t h prong which i s the second-longest about i n the middle, i s common to both thumbs; thus, the l e f t and the r i g h t thumbs can play t h i s i n turns as i t i s not possible simultaneously. The instrument i s then played i n any of the positions already discussed with the l e f t and r i g h t thumbs plucking the notes i n alternate rhythmic movements. I t i s clear a u r a l l y that many tunes are simply played with alternating beats i n the l e f t and r i g h t hands on the basic of a motor-action. Repetition of rhythmic and melodic patterns i s a common practice which often characterizes the sounds. A continuous r e p e t i t i o n of a single tone i s also a common feature. When playing i s accompanied with singing, the perfor-mer picks his melody from the melodic patterns of the prongs 73' as well, thus the melodic combination of tones of the prongs dictates the vocal l i n e . In short, the vocal parts sung to Ubo-aka music are i n disguise the melodic representations and adaptations of patterns heard and recognised i n the ubo-aka part. I t i s worth mentioning that the playing pattern can be repeated with d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g points and at d i f f e r e n t tempo, re s u l t i n g i n many d i f f e r e n t tunes. But i n r e a l i t y , these d i f -ferent tunes arise from a single melodic pattern of thumb move-ments. They sound l i k e many d i f f e r e n t compositions but r e a l l y are the same, only the s t a r t i n g notes d i f f e r from time to time. Andrew Tracey described t h i s phenomena as 1kaleidophonic 1 i n the following words: ... there are very d i f f e r e n t tunes contained i n one song. A comparison springs to my mind with the kaleidoscope -the same b i t s of glass, looked at d i f f e r e n t ways can pro-duce quite d i f f e r e n t pictures. So with t h i s music which I c a l l "kaleidophonic". (Tracey 1970:50) Throughout, the thumbs pluck the prongs rhythmically i n alternate movements. When the thumb plucks d i s t i n c t l y , i t i s described i n Igbo language as itu-ubo; when the tone i s round, smooth and s l i g h t l y muted, i t i s described as ibi-ubo; when the plucking i s rough and heavy with the e f f e c t of coarse-ness i n tone qu a l i t y as a r e s u l t of heavy pressure on the prongs, i t i s described as ntija-ubo which i s bad playing. But occasionally, few sandy ef f e c t s occur as a r e s u l t of loose and rusty prongs. This e f f e c t can be created i n t e n t i o n a l l y for a percussive dance-rhythm which corresponds to dance footings. Another important technique of performance i s when the player lays one of two of his fingers across the prongs to mute the prongs while the thumbs pluck as shown i n Plate 6. This i s described as mbichi-ubo. In addition, the fingers that have been passed i n between the sof t wood and the calabash can be used to beat out some rhythms simultaneously along with the usual plucking. This technique i s described as iti-igba-nubQ (drumming on ubo-aka) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that B e r l i n e r observed this drumming technique among mbira players i n Rhodesia (Berliner 1974: 65). The personality of the performer i s variable because i t i s as conditional as i t i s psychological. For example, an iko l o b i a (a young man) performer tunes and plays i n a way that suits the i n t e r e s t of the youths: more secular than s p i r i t u a l . But an OZQ t i t l e - h o l d e r or ndi-nze who are the p r i e s t s think more about the s p i r i t u a l and moral content of ubo-aka music when they play. The Diagramatic Representation of Ubo-aka 5 The v i s u a l representations on the organogram include the following d e t a i l s : the name of the instrument, socio-c u l t u r a l functions of the instrument, the external and the i n t e r n a l shape of the instrument, the relationship between the performer and the instrument, part of the instrument played, part of the body that plays the instrument, owner of the i n s t r u -ment, sex symbolism and associations, p o s i t i o n of the performer and the instrument, hardness scale (hs) of loudness, (Hs) of quality, (Hs of density, (Hs) of technique, (Hs) of f i n i s h e s , (Hs) of motifs, (Hs) of values, (Hs) of p i t c h , etc. as shown in F i g . 6. 75 PLATE 6. THE MBICHI-UBQ (MUTING TECHNIQUE) t 76 M r r HSM ro #8 OUJLLUJ The square shape i d e n t i f i e s t he i n s t r u -ment as an i d i o p h o n e ( D i v i s i o n I i n t h e S y s t e m a t i k ) , s p e c i f i c a l l y a p l u c k e d i d i o p h o n e w i t h a r e s o n a t o r . D e s c r i p t i o n : = i n s t r u m e n t p l a y e d i n h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n ; UAWJUJ = i n s t r u m e n t h e l d between p l a y e r ' s hands; • « = i n s t r u m e n t p l u c k e d o r p l a y e d by the l e f t and r i g h t thumb (or h a n d s ) ; 0 = i n s t r u m e n t p l a y e d w h i l e s i t t i n g ; #8 = i n s t r u m e n t , has e i g h t prongs (or k e y s ) ; HSMlO = m a t e r i a l o f t h e prongs i s m e t a l ; M = i n s t r u m e n t p l a y e d by male o n l y ; RV = p i t c h i s r e l a t i v e o r v a r i a b l e ; 5 = i n s t r u m e n t body made o f wood. (Hood 19 7.1: 144-174) F i g . 6. THE APPLICATION OF HOOD'S ORGANOGRAM TO UBO-AKA C o n s t r u c t i o n and Tuning The assemblage o f m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s the oba (a d r y c a l a b a s h o r g o u r d ) , akwara (a wooden r a f f i a p a l m - s t r i n g ) o r akwara-igwe ( a m e t a l s t r i n g ) , m e t a l s t r i p s o f e i t h e r i r o n o r s t e e l , o s i s i - o k w e ube o r egbu (t y p e s o f s o f t w h i t e wood), nma (a k n i f e ) , n k p i s i (a l o n g p o i n t e d m e t a l n e e d l e ) , a n w i l i n w a (a sandy l e a f — a k i n d o f n a t u r a l sand p a p e r ) , two m e t a l rods o r wooden rods f o r t h e b r i d g e , n t u (metal n a i l s ) . 77 Oba or agbugba (the gourd) which varies i n diameter can be cut lon g i t u d i n a l l y or l a t i t u d i n a l l y into two equal halves. The seeds with the c e l l u l o s e inside are a l l removed. Then the cut-edge i s smoothed with anwilinwa by rubbing the sandy leaf several times against the edge to make i t even. A plank of okwe, egbu or akpu wood i s constructed i n such a way to f i t the top end of the calabash as shown i n F i g . 7. Fi g . 7. UBQ-AKA WOODEN LID. The two semi-circular holes or openings are cut on opposite sides of the soft wooden l i d so that the fingers of the r i g h t and l e f t hands can f i t well into them. On top of the f i t t e d white sof t wood i s a bridge constructed out of two short p a r a l l e l metal rods or wooden rods of about 2" - 3" long l a i d h o r i z o n t a l l y about 1 1/4" apart. Between the two p a r a l l e l bridges are nine holes bored by a red-hot s t e e l needle usually prepared by the blacksmiths. Then on the bridges are the eight metal prongs arranged i n a v e r t i c a l p o s ition p a r a l l e l to one other and evenly spaced at approxi-mately 1/4" apart. Through the nine bored holes, the eight prongs are secured to the wooden l i d and fixed to position 78 by tying them firmly with a piece of akwara (a wooden string) or a metal s t r i n g through the holes as shown i n F i g . 8. A A = f i r s t bridge B = fixed s t r i n g C = 2nd bridge B C F i g . 8. THE FIXING.. OF THE PRONGS. Echezona's description of t h i s stage of construction i s also very il l u m i n a t i n g : The pieces of metal (prongs) are fixed i n i n p o s i t i o n by tying them with a piece of s t r i n g through the holes. These strings are the types which are often found on a palm-wine tree akwara. Two pieces of metal about one-tenth of an inch i n diameter are put across on either side of the s t r i n g and under the pieces of metal. This raises the play-able part and gives i t springness. (Echezona 1963: 95). Thus the bridges help to raise the free end of the prongs i n a playing p o s i t i o n . Today, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of bic y c l e spokes, motor cycle spokes and the umbrella frames saves the blacksmiths the trouble of cutting s t r i p s from s t e e l or i r o n . The r i g h t length of each prong can therefore be cut out of these spokes, then flattened and used as the prongs. The lengths of the prongs produce variable pitches: the l o n g e r the prong, t h e lower t h e p i t c h ; the s h o r t e r the prong, the h i g h e r the p i t c h . F o r example, t h e more each prong i s moved towards t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r o p e n i n g s , the lower the p i t c h , and the more each prong i s pushed backwards away from t h e o p e n i n g s , t h e h i g h e r t h e p i t c h . B e a r i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n mind, t h e maker tunes t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o i m i t a t e the t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n o f t h e human v o i c e w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t can t a l k . We s h a l l come t o t h i s l a t e r under the l i n g u i s t i c d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e t o n e s . The t u n i n g o f ubo-aka prongs ( i n common w i t h e v e r y o t h e r m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t ) can t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d as depending upon t h r e e p r a c t i c a l p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s : l e n g t h , w e i g h t and f l e x i b i l i t y . Each one o f t h e s e t h r e e a f f e c t s the p i t c h o f the prong. The more o f each q u a l i t y , the deeper the p i t c h : i f a prong i s e i t h e r l o n g e r , h e a v i e r o r more f l e x i b l e , i t w i l l be deeper i n p i t c h and t h e c o n v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e (Andrew Tracey 1969: 9 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e ubo-aka m u s i c i a n s tune t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s i n i r r e g u l a r o r d e r t h r o u g h some system o f t h e i r own which i s u s u a l l y l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . Two l e v e l s o f t u n i n g can be o b s e r v e d : the i n i t i a l t u n i n g by t h e maker and t h e day-to-day t u n i n g b e f o r e p e r f o r m -i n g . The maker's t u n i n g b e g i n s w i t h the making and the arrangement o f t h e p r o n g s . Thus i n the making, he b e a r s i n mind t h e l e n g t h , w e i g h t and f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o n g s . The e n t i r e sequence o f making t h e prongs runs as f o l l o w s . On the wooden l i d , the maker marks the p o s i t i o n s , t h e b o u n d a r i e s and the e x t e n t o f t h e p r o n g s . Then c h o o s i n g a c e r t a i n p r ong, he 80 c u t s a p p r o p r i a t e l e n g t h s o f s t r i p s o f i r o n , s t e e l o r w i r e . A s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , s o m e t i m e s t h e s p o k e s o f u m b r e l l a , b i c y c l e , m o t o r c y c l e s o r t h e o r d i n a r y g a l v a n i z e d i r o n l e n g t h s a r e u s e d i n m a k i n g t h e p r o n g s . W i t h t h e h e l p o f a h e a v y h a m m e r , t h e w i r e s a r e b e a t e n f l a t t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t e t h i c k n e s s n e e d e d . T h e e d g e s a r e t h e n f i l e d o r g r o u n d t o a n a g r e e a b l e s h a p e d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p r o n g a n d t h e t o n e i n t e n d e d . B e s i d e s , s t r i p s o f p r o n g s m u s t b e f i l e d t o m a k e t h e m s m o o t h a n d s a f e f o r p l u c k i n g . T u n i n g p r o c e s s p r o c e e d s a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : t h e p r o n g i s p l a c e d o n t h e b r i d g e - r o d s a t t h e r i g h t p l a y i n g l e n g t h s a s m a r k e d o n t h e s o u n d b o a r d , a n d p l a y e d t o a s s e s s t h e t o n e . T h e e x a c t t o n e m a y n o t r e s u l t a t t h i s i s o l a t e d s i t u a t i o n o f a c t i v a t i o n . C h a n c e s o f a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e r i g h t p i t c h a r e m a n y . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t u n i n g c a n c o n t i n u e b y f i l i n g o r g r i n d i n g i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s n a m e l y , t h e s i d e s , t h e f l a t - t o p o r t h e h i n d e r e n d s i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t c h a n g e s i n l e n g t h , w e i g h t a n d f l e x i b i l i t y . A d j u s t m e n t s b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w t o n e s m a y c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h e r i g h t p i t c h r e s u l t s . I n s o m e c a s e s , t h e m a k e r f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e t t h e r e q u i r e d t o n e b e c a u s e o f e i t h e r o v e r f i l i n g o r f l a t t e n i n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a n e w p r o n g h a d t o b e b e a t e n o u t f o r a f r e s h s t a r t . T o b e o n t h e s a f e s i d e , i t i s m u c h b e t t e r w h e n a p r o n g i s s h a r p e r a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e ; t h e r e i s a l m o s t n o l i m i t t o t h e e x t e n t o f f l a t t e n i n g a p r o n g . W h e n a l l t h e p r o n g s a r e a r r a n g e d a s s h o w n i n F i g . 8 , t h e m a k e r p l a y s t h e m i n r e l a t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e y a r e i n t u n e o r n o t . He c a n p l a y o n e o f h i s b e s t s o n g s o n i t , a n d 81 l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o a s c e r t a i n whether i t sounds as u s u a l i n l i n e w i t h h i s normal f i n g e r i n g . I n t h i s way, t h e wrong prong can e a s i l y be d e t e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s u n t i l t he r i g h t p i t c h r e s u l t s i n a s s o c i a t i o n . The l a y i n g out o f the maker's t u n i n g i s shown i n F i g u r e 9. The p e r f o r m e r ' s t u n i n g i s p r i m a r i l y l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d w i t h i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u -ment. I t i s u s u a l l y a d a i l y t u n i n g - u p a c t i v i t y depending on what the p l a y e r wants t o communicate. The s t a t e m e n t s he wants t o make t h r o u g h t h e p r o n g s , determine t h e t u n i n g arrangements. However, t h e r e i s no s p e c i a l t u n i n g f o r c e r t a i n songs w h i c h i s b i n d i n g on the p l a y e r s . I t i s always p e r s o n a l and l i n g u -i s t i c . The t u n i n g i s m o s t l y by s h o r t e n i n g and l e n g t h e n i n g the prongs t h r o u g h f o r w a r d and backward p u s h i n g u n t i l t h e r i g h t p i t c h r e s u l t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , he r e a d j u s t s t h e prongs s l i g h t l y f o r each s u c c e e d i n g tune i n o r d e r t o communicate a c c u r a t e l y , u n l e s s he s i m p l y wants t o b e a t o u t some dance rhythms w i t h o u t any i n t e n t i o n t o t a l k t h r o u g h t h e p r o n g s . The t u n i n g t e c h n i q u e o f t h e Igbo ubo-aka i s l i m i t e d when compared w i t h t h e t u n i n g d e v i c e s i n A n g o l a , Cameroun and R h o d e s i a where a method o f l o w e r i n g a tone i s by a d d i n g e x t r a w e i g h t o f a s m a l l amount o f s t i c k y wax on t i p s o f t h e prongs (Tracey 1969: 9 8 ) . T h i s method makes i t p o s s i b l e even t o make a l l the prongs e q u a l i n l e n g t h as on t h e b i g Cameroon's t i m b i l i w h i c h i s tuned by a d d i n g v a r y i n g amounts o f wax (Tracey 1969: 9 8 ) . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , w a x i n g saves the t r o u b l e o f hammering, f i l i n g and s h o r t e n i n g t h e l e n g t h , FIG. 9. THE LAYING OUT OF MAKER'S TUNING 83 a d e v i c e unknown t o ubp-aka p l a y e r s i n Igbo l a n d . I n c o n c l u s -i o n , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e makers and t h e p l a y e r s tune on t h e b a s i s o f sound knowledge o f p h y s i c a l and a c o u s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h i s l a t e n t l y f u n c t i o n a l . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ubp-aka i n A f r i c a and Beyond Ubp-aka-has a l o n g h i s t o r y w h i c h cannot e a s i l y be a s c e r t a i n e d because of s c a r c e w r i t t e n documents on t h e s u b j e c t . B u t a r c h a e l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s have thrown some l i g h t on t h i s m a t t e r . F o r example, e x c a v a t i o n s i n Zimbabwe uncovered : numerous i r o n implements some of w h i c h resemble p a r t s o f m b i r a . The f i n d s were d a t e d 9 t h t o 10th c e n t u r y A.D. (Andrew Tracey 1970:1). The d e s c r i p t i o n o f ubp-aka under the name ambira appeared f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n 16 09, i n f a t h e r Jao dos S a n t o s ' E t h i o p i a  O r i e n t a l : These K a f f i r s have a n o t h e r m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t a l s o c a l l e d Ambira... i t i s a l l made o f i r o n i n s t e a d o f gourds b e i n g composed o f narrow f l a t r o d s o f i r o n about a palms? i n l e n g t h tem-p e r e d i n the f i r e so t h a t each has a d i f f e r e n t sound. There a r e o n l y n i n e o f t h e s e r o d s , p l a c e d i n a row c l o s e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e ends n a i l e d t o a p i e c e o f wood w h i c h i s shaped l i k e a bowl above w h i c h the o t h e r ends of the rods are suspended i n the a i r . The K a f f i r s p l a y upon t h i s i n s t r u m e n t by s t r i k i n g the l o o s e ends o f t h e rods w i t h t h e i r thumb n a i l s w h i c h t h e y a l l o w t o grow l o n g f o r t h a t purpose and they s t r i k e t h e keys as l i g h t l y as a good p l a y e r s t r i k e s t h o s e o f h a r p i s c h o r d . ( T h e a l 1901: 202) . 84 The ambira of the K a f f i r s of Mozambique i n the l i g h t of the above physical description, are close to Igbo ubo-aka except the difference i n the number of prongs: the eight and nine metal prongs of the Igbo and the K a f f i r s respectively. The bowl-shaped wooden resonator i s l i k e l y to be a gourd reson-ator which naturally looks l i k e a bowl. A description of ubo-aka with a gourd resonator was contained i n the f i r s t published drawing of mbira i n 186 5 by David Livingstone (Berliner 1974: 110). The account of his hearing ubo-aka during his travels i n Black A f r i c a , runs as follows: ...David Livingstone heard i t played by a native poet who had joined his party composing i n honour of the white man and playing and singing whenever a h a l t i s made. (Theal 1901: 201) . In Niger delta areas of south-eastern Nigeria, the Igbo slaves probably spread the ubo-aka to the inhabitants of these regions and l a t e r to West Indies, the Carribeans and B r a z i l . This view i s shared by Echezgna i n the following statement: Ubo was introduced to Niger Delta by the Ibo slaves who were taken there awaiting shipment to America. They s t i l l c a l l the instrument ubo, despite the fact-that they do not normally speak Igbo. (Echezpna 1963: 90). Among the Igbo people today,ubo-aka i s known by d i f f e r e n t names such as ikpa among Aba, Owerri and Okigwe areas ubp-oba or ubo-aka among Nri, Nsukka, Udi, Onitsha, Enugu and 85 a l a r g e a r e a o f Igbo l a n d ; b u t ubo-aka i s the most p o p u l a r name f o r the i n s t r u m e n t . I n w e s t e r n N i g e r i a , two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f ubo-aka e x i s t among the Yoruba p e o p l e . They a r e c a l l e d a g i d i g b o and molo w i t h d i f f e r e n c e i n o r g a n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . F o r example, a g i d i g b o has f i v e m e t a l prongs w i t h a l a r g e wooden box r e s o n a t o r w h i l e molo p o s s e s s e s f i v e bamboo p l a y i n g thongs w i t h a d e c o r -a t e d gourd r e s o n a t o r o f s m a l l s i z e (Thieme 1967: 42-43). A p a r t from i t s wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Congo and R h o d e s i a -Mozambique areas (Kauffmann 1970: 7 4 ) , i t i s a l s o found i n l a r g e s c a l e under d i f f e r e n t names i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s o f the w o r l d : t h e Congo square o f New O r l e a n s under t h e name, m a r i m b a - b r e t t (Cable 1886: 519); Cuba and H a i t a , where i t i s c a l l e d marimba, malimba or marimbula ( C o u r l a n d e r 1942: 240); J a v a , w i t h t h e name kowangan (Kunst 1949: 431-2); B r a z i l , where i t i s c a l l e d marimbula (Thiermann 1971:: 9 0 ) ; the C a r r i b e a n Lands where i t i s p o p u l a r l y known as marimbula o r marimbola (Thompson 19 75: 140-148) e t c . I n a d d i t i o n , the A l u r and o t h e r t r i b e s o f west N i l e c l a i m t h a t sanza r e a c h e d them from Congo (Wachsmann 1953: 327). The g e n e r i c names f o r ubo-aka have been s t u d i e d and c o m p i l e d by the f o l l o w i n g s c h o l a r s : G e r h a r d K u b i k i n h i s " G e n e r i c names f o r t h e m b i r a " (1974); Hugh Tr a c e y i n h i s "The M b i r a C l a s s o f A f r i c a n I n s t r u m e n t s i n R h o desia" (1970); Andrew Tracey's "The O r i g i n a l A f r i c a n M b i r a " (1972); D a v i d Thiermann i n h i s "The M b i r a i n B r a z i l " (19 7 1 ) ; D a r i u s Thieme i n h i s 86 "Three Yoruba Members o f t h e Mb i r a - S a n z a f a m i l y " (19 67) e t c . A s e l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t names f o r ubo-aka i n some p a r t s o f b l a c k A f r i c a and the w o r l d , i s shown i n Ta b l e V I . There i s no doubt t h a t from the few examples i n T a b l e V I , t h a t ubQ-aka under g e n e r i c names, i s a p o p u l a r i n s t r u m e n t i n b l a c k A f r i c a and some o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . T h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s and f e a t u r e s may v a r y i n most cases due t o a d a p t a t i o n s t o e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e f o l l o w i n g m i g r a t i o n s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e o f the e x t e n t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , a map showing an approximated d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ubp-aka t h r o u g h o u t b l a c k A f r i c a 7 i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g . 10. Summary The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ubo-aka i s d i s c u s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f Draeger's and Hood's o r g a n o l o g i c a l systems. These c o n c e p t s p r o v i d e d the s t e p s f o r o r d e r i n g t h o u g h t s about the p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l t r a i t s o f the i n s t r u m e n t , u s i n g the n i n e d e s c r p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e organograph. There i s no doubt t h a t the systems used i n t h i s c h a p t e r h e l p e d i n many ways. They p r o v i d e d t h e means o f d i s c u s s i n g e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t i n d e t a i l s . Thus, t h e y have d e s c r i p t i v e scope. The s u i t a b i l i t y o f Draeger's system l i e s i n i t s scope f o r a comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n on the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h a t t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l g u i d e f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g t h e f e a t u r e s a l o n g w i t h e x t r a - m u s i c a l a s p e c t s . On the o t h e r hand, Hood's 87 GENERIC NAMES COUNTRY TRIBE/PEOPLE NO. OF PRONGS RESONATOR Ubo-aka • • N i g e r i a Igbo 8 gourd Ubo-oba II II ft II I k p a II II II II A g i d i g b o II Yoruba 5 wooden box Molo II II n gourd Akembe Uganda I t e s o / L a n g o 12 wooden box Alikembe II A l u r 8 - 1 2 H II Sanza II A l u r / L a n g o 8 it II C h i t a t a Mozambique A s h i r i m a 7 b o a r d + gourd r e s o n a t o r Kidongo Congo Logo 10 - 12 wooden box Lukembe Congo/Uganda Bawo/Alur 10 Malimba T a n z a n i a Wagogo 22,23,32 l a r g e wooden box Marimba W a k i s i 8 wooden box< M b i r a Rhodesia the p e o p l e 8 - 2 0 II I I Gabon it it II II it A n g o l a i i it it n i i Marimbula H a i t i / C u b a ) ) B r a z i l / ) C a r r i b e a n s ) II H 3 - 8 II ti Kowangan I n d o n e s i a Javanese 5 - 8 h a t - l i k e bowl TABLE V I . DIFFERENT NAMES AND FEATURES OF UBO-AKA IN SOME PARTS OF AFRICA AND WORLD6 88 F i g . 10. T H E A P P R O X I M A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F U B O - A K A I N A F R I C A ( I n d i c a t e d w i t h B l a c k D o t s ) 88 F i g . 10.. THE APPROXIMATE. DISTRIBUTION OF UBO-AKA IN AFRICA ( I n d i c a t e d w i t h B l a c k Dots) 88 F i g . 10. THE APPROXIMATE. DISTRIBUTION OF UBO-AKA IN AFRICA ( I n d i c a t e d w i t h B l a c k Dots) 89 system i s more a d a p t a b l e t o o r d e r l y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c h a r -a c t e r i z a t i o n on the b a s i s o f n u m e r i c a l c a t e g o r y o f the ' s y s t e m a t i k ' . I t has a l s o t h e advantage o f economy o f s pace, f i g u r a t i o n and p e r s p e c t i v e . However, the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the two systems cannot be d e n i e d . F o r example, Hood's system uses too many symbols w h i c h are not e a s i l y memorable f o r q u i c k r e c o g -n i t i o n and r e f e r e n c e w h i l e Draeger's system poses a problem w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f p e r f o r m e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and c o n d i t i o n w h i c h cannot always be a s c e r t a i n e d . But s i n c e t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on a s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e s e problems do n o t a r i s e because the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d p h y s i c a l and s o c i o -c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s f o r a c l e a r i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , a c o m b i n a t i o n of the two systems meets the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a d e t a i l e d o r g a n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f ubp-aka. The t e c h n i q u e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and t u n i n g are n o t d i f f i c u l t p r o v i d e d the c o r r e c t m a t e r i a l s a r e a v a i l a b l e . There-f o r e , the maker has t o c o n s i d e r e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n terms of c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . Tuning, r e q u i r e s some knowledge of c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e , p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e , a u r a l p e r c e p t i o n and l i n g u i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t . I n the p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e , i t has been shown t h a t a number o f f a c t o r s have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , com petence i n the o r g a n o l o g i c a l knowledge of the i n s t r u m e n t and knowledge o f p l a y i n g and f i n g e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s are t h e p r e -r e q u i s i t e s . F u r t h e r , a c q u i r e m e n t of s k i l l s f o r s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s , t r e a t m e n t o f tones and dynamics w i t h a sense o f rhythm, are f a c t o r s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y i n p erformance. 90 The wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ubo-aka under d i f f e r e n t names and s h a p e s , i s e v i d e n t i n many p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d e s p e c i a l l y i n A f r i c a and t h e C a r r i b e a n s . T h i s r e s u l t e d from m i g r a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f p e o p l e s i n the p a s t . A l t o g e t h e r , t h i s i n s t r u m e n t has been s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y by e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s e s p e c i a l l y i n s e v e r a l p a r t s of A f r i c a and t h e C a r i b b e a n s . Among N r i p e o p l e , i t i s an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h l o n g h i s t o r y and r i c h t r a d i t i o n . 91 Footnotes 1. Organology, i s the science of physical description and the study of structures of musical instruments which has expanded to include the techniques of performance, musical -function, decoration as d i s t i n c t from construction and a variety of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l considerations (Hood 19 71: 124). I t i s a term borrowed from the b i o l o g i c a l sciences where i t refers to the study of physiological organs of plants and animals. 2. Systematik, i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system for musical i n s t r u -ments by Sachs and Hornbostel based on Dewey decimal system under the following four main d i v i s i o n s : 1. Idio-phone, 2. Membranophone, 3. Chordophone, 4. Aerophones. The subdivisions are based only on those features which can be i d e n t i f i e d from the v i s i b l e form of the instrument (Sachs and Hornbostel 1961: 10-12) . 3. Ibo was an alternative s p e l l i n g f o r 'Igbo' i n the c o l o n i a l days. I t i s an angl i c i z e d form of 'Igbo 1. To-date, over-whelming majority of Igbo people prefer the form Igbo which i s the indigenous form, i n co n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to 'Ibo' which i s wrong i n the context of Igbo language. 4. Mbira dza vadzimu i s the mbira of the ancestral s p i r i t s which i s one of the many types of mbiras among the Shona people of Rhodesia. I t i s one of the oldest types of mbira among the people with hand-forged iron reeds and a board resonator. 5. Organogram i s an organological system devised by Mantle Hood, an ethnomusicologist. This i s a diagramatic representation of a musical instrument with physical and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l descriptions, categorized on the basis of the 'systematik'. 6. The generic names for ubp-aka i n some parts of A f r i c a and the world, i s compiled from combined sources of publications by the following ethnomusicologists: Darius Thieme (1967), David Thiermann (1971), Kunst (1949), Andrew Tracey (1972), Hugh Tracey (1970), Gerhard Kubik (1974), Paul B e r l i n e r (1974), Thompson (1975), etc. 7. The d i s t r i b u t i o n map of ubp-aka or mbira i s from Berliner's thesis: The Soul of Mbira: An Ethnography of the Mbira  Among the Shona People of Rhodesia, 1974, Ph.D. disseration i n music, Wesleyan University, p.52. CHAPTER IV THE SOCIO-CULTURAL ROLE OF UBO-AKA MUSIC Ubp-aka music i s p r i m a r i l y a communication medium because t h e e i g h t prongs o f the i n s t r u m e n t are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y tuned t o i m i t a t e t h e r i s e and f a l l o f human speech tone as d e f i n e d by Igbo t o n a l language. As a r e s u l t , the music o f ubo-aka i s used t o convey i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f c u r r e n t happenings, m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , p r a i s e , p r o v e r b i a l and i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , r e l i g i o u s , f u n e r a l and m a r r i a g e s t a t e m e n t s , as w e l l as b e i n g p a r t o f age grade a c t i v i t i e s such as wake-keeping, n i g h t w a t c h i n g and v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , ubo-aka music i s used f o r s o c i a l i -z a t i o n . I n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , s e l e c t e d p o e t i c song t e x t s o f music examples f o r each s o c i a l c a t e g o r y are p r o -v i d e d w i t h b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n s . The l i n e o f i n q u i r y i n t h i s c h a p t e r proceeds from the d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s i n c l u d i n g t y p e s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , l e a r n i n g t o p l a y the ubo-aka, m u s i c i a n s h i p and s o c i a l s t a t u s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e p l a y e r s and th e a u d i e n c e w i t h d i s c u s s i o n on t h e contemporary s i t u a t i o n . Ubo-aka S o c i o - c u l t u r a l D e terminant Igbo T o n a l Language The p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t o f ubo-aka music as a communication medium i s l i n g u i s t i c because o f t h e t o n a l c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f Igbo Language w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e t u n i n g . T h i s t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n of t h e words o r language c a l l t o mind c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u c c e s s i o n s of m u s i c a l tones w h i c h o r g a n i z e themselves i n t o p a t t e r n s o f speech and rhythm. Thus as a t o n a l language, the r e l a t i v e p i t c h a t w h i c h a s y l l a b l e i s u t t e r e d a f f e c t s t h e meaning. A word may have one meaning i f u t t e r e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y low p i t c h , a n o t h e r meaning, i f u t t e r e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p i t c h , and w i t h p o s s i b l y more meanings depending on t h e l e v e l s o f i n f l e c t i o n s . F o r example, the f o l l o w i n g Igbo words i l l u s t r a t e t he e f f e c t o f t o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s depending on how the s y l l a b l e s a r e r a i s e d and lowered w i t h a c c e n t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n m u l t i - m e a n i n g s : akwa ( h i g h - l o w tone-band) = c l o t h akwa ( l o w - h i g h tone-band) = egg akwa ( h i g h - h i g h tone-band)= c r y i n g , weeping o r mourning akwa (low-low tone-band) = a bed y eze ( h i g h - m i d tone-band) = t o o t h , t e e t h eze ( h i g h - l o w tone-band) - K i n g i s i ( h i g h - h i g h tone-band)= head i s i ( h i g h - l o w tone-band) = s m e l l i s i ( low-low tone-band) = b l i n d n e s s . As a r e s u l t , t h e meaning o f an Igbo word depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , on t h e d e s c e n d i n g o r a s c e n d i n g l i n g u i s t i c i n t o n a t i o n hence, i f a word i s t o be i n t e l l i g i b l e , t he i n d i v i d u a l s y l l a b l e s cannot be sung a r b i t r a r i l y h i g h o r low. T h i s i s q u i t e u n l i k e the p r a c t i c e " i n European language where we e x p e c t a c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f speech a c c e n t and m u s i c a l a c c e n t i n song b u t we do n o t e x p e c t t h e melody o r song t o f o l l o w the 94 i n t o n a t i o n o f speech" ( L i s t 1963: 1 6 ) . The ap p a r e n t c o r r e -l a t i o n between the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r and the r i s i n g , f a l l i n g and s t e p p i n g speech t o n e s , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n ' d e t a i l i n the a n a l y s i s o f music examples. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t u n i n g o f the i n s t r u m e n t , t h e p l a y e r s u s u a l l y go about the town c o l l e c t i n g c u r r e n t news w h i c h they compose i n t o ubo-aka music. "Then i n the e v e n i n g s when p e o p l e come back from work and are perhaps s i t t i n g around e n j o y i n g t h e i r palm wine" i n t h e m o o n l i g h t o r r e s t i n g a t t h e obu (the p a t r i l o c a l g u e s t -room and t e m p l e ) , the p e r f o r m e r s " e x t e m p o r i z e b o t h the music and the words t e l l i n g p e o p l e such news as t h e y have g a t h e r e d . " I n those t i m e s , t h e r e were no t r a d i t i o n a l newspapers o r r a d i o s as i n the contemporary s i t u a t i o n . So, i t i s well-known t h a t i f p e o p l e h e a r f a i n t s t r a i n s o f ubo-aka music i n t h e e v e n i n g s , " t h e y d r i f t n e a r e r so as t o he a r the l a t e s t news," m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , and p r o v e r b i a l and i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h p e o p l e can d e c i p h e r from t h e m u s i c a l s t a t e m e n t s o f ubo-aka. Thus, an ubo-aka p l a y e r i s a t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t who composes h i s poems o u t o f c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p a s t i n c i d e n t s , s t o r i e s , s a y i n g s and b e l i e f w i t h i n t h e parameters o f h i s s o c i a l environment (Echezona 1963: 106). A e s t h e t i c s The b a s i c meaning o f a e s t h e t i c s i n v o l v e s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o 'sense p e r c e p t i o n ' based on a s o c i e t y ' s under-s t a n d i n g o f i t s c r e a t i v e , a r t i s t i c o r s k i l l f u l p r o c e s s e s which i n v o l v e s m o r p h o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l assessments (Kauffmann 1969: 507-8). I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e s t u d y o f the 95 Igbo concept o f a e s t h e t i c s i n ubo-aka music can s t a r t w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f sense p e r c e p t i o n . F o r example, the meaning o f v a r i o u s Igbo sense v e r b s i s v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g : i f u means t o s e e , metu means t o t o u c h , d e e - n i l e means t o t a s t e , i s i means t o s m e l l , and ny. means t o h e a r . The whole c o n c e p t i s based on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h a t b e l o n g s t o one sense a l o n e ; movement can be seen, h e a r d and tou c h e d . A l t h o u g h the ubo-aka p l a y e r s say t h a t f e e l i n g i s more i m p o r t a n t t o them t h a n h e a r i n g , the l i s t e n e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e i r h e a r i n g i s more i m p o r t a n t . A l s o , t h e r e a r e Igbo words f o r d e s c r i b i n g a work o f a r t . F o r example, ikwa-nka i s used t o d e s c r i b e a b e a u t i f u l d e c o r a t e d o b j e c t , a w e l l - t o l d s t o r y , o r a h i g h l y s k i l l e d music performance such as a d i s p l a y o f v i r t u o s i t y on the ubo-aka. Such a h i g h l y s k i l l e d c r e a t o r , p e r f o r m e r o r a r t i s t i s c a l l e d onye-nka. C r e a t i v i t y i s based on d o i n g t h e " e x t r a - o r d i n a r y " so t h a t i n ubo-aka music, t h e ikwa-nka o r ima-mma of i t depends on t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f ikwa-nka i n a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n e x t r a - o r d i n a r y p l a y i n g s k i l l , b e a u t i f u l d e s i g n s on t h e ubo-aka, m u s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e o c c a s i o n and s u c c e s s f u l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n . As w e l l , t h e o v e r - a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e r f o r m e r : f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , appearance, t h e t o u c h o f the thumbs on t h e prongs, and o t h e r communicative r e l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s i g n a l s , symbols, and t e c h n i q u e s a r e a l l s i g n i f i c a n t i n a c h i e v i n g the a e s t h e t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n as d e f i n e d by t h e s o c i e t y ' s m u s i c a l t a s t e and a p p r e c i a t i o n . 96 Age and Sex Only men are a l l o w e d t o p l a y t h i s i n s t r u m e n t because o f i t s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e o f t a l k i n g i n the p u b l i c . T h i s i s so because o n l y men, as de t e r m i n e d by t h e p a t r i l i n e a l n a t u r e o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a re a l l o w e d t o a d v i s e and t e a c h the p u b l i c o r i n f o r m the community o f news i n t h e open. Women are n o t a l l o w e d t o p l a y t h e ubo-aka f o r many reaso n s as d e f i n e d by the s o c i e t y . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t ubp-aka can make a woman sensuous by e x p o s i n g h e r t o many l o v e r s because o f t h e a t t r a c t i v e power o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . S e c o n d l y , i t can cause a woman t o wander from p l a c e t o p l a c e i n s e a r c h o f news wh i c h may l e a d t o waywardness and d i s r e g a r d t o the do m e s t i c r o l e o f women i n t h e s o c i e t y . Women a r e e x p e c t e d t o be a t home a t the r i g h t time and t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y . They a r e n o t supposed t o t e a c h o r comment p u b l i c l y on s o c i a l i s s u e s w h i c h i s a male r o l e and w h i c h i s one o f the f u n c t i o n s o f ubp-aka music from time t o t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a b e l i e f t h a t a woman can be c a r r i e d away and be exposed t o the i n f l u e n c e o f e v i l s p i r i t s which may cause b a r r e n e s s and m i s f o r t u n e o r even l e a d t o u n f a i t h f u l n e s s . I n extreme c a s e s , women may n o t be a l l o w e d t o to u c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y one i n h e r i t e d from a s a c r e d dead a n c e s t o r and w h i c h can be used as a s p i r i t u a l medium. As a r e s u l t , women have never p l a y e d t h e ubp-aka i n N r i c u l t u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, c h i l d r e n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f sex who have n ot passed t h e age o f p u b e r t y , a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o p l a y 97 the i n s t r u m e n t . P l a y i n g ubo-aka i s b e l i e v e d c a p a b l e o f s p o i l -i n g t h e i r b r a i n s t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e v i l s p i r i t s and can draw them away from homes, t h e r e b y e x p o s i n g them t o bad company. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s always t o be a v o i d e d because c h i l d r e n as de-f i n e d by the mores and norms o f t h e s o c i e t y are supposed t o remain c l o s e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r b o t h d o m e s t i c work and m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n . On t h e whole, women and c h i l d r e n can o n l y l i s t e n t o th e music o r dance t o i t . A woman can o n l y dance and l i s t e n t o the music when she i s t h r o u g h w i t h h e r d o m e s t i c work i n the eve n i n g s o r d u r i n g t h e f e s t i v a l s o f g e n e r a l r e j o i c i n g such as pnwa-asato (the f e s t i v a l o f t h e e i g h t h month) o r i g u - a r o ( c o u n t i n g the y e a r ) . Ubo-aka Mu s i c and S o c i a l i z a t i o n ' The meaning o f t h e term ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' has been c o n t r o v e r s i a l among a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . F o r example, some under-s t a n d i t t o mean "the p r o c e s s by w h i c h c u l t u r e i s t r a n s m i t t e d from one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r " ; o r how a younger p e r s o n a t t a i n s a d u l t h o o d and the e x p e r i e n c e s o f h i s o r h e r s o c i e t y , age-grade and sex. P e o p l e l i k e K l u c k h o l m u n d e r s t a n d i t t o mean ' c u l t u r a l i z a t i o n ' (1935) w h i l e H e r s k o v i t s s u g g e s t e d ' e n c u l t u r a t i o n ' (1948) ( W h i t i n g 1968: 545). However, f o r our d i s c u s s i o n , we can (by d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g ) use i t as a p r o c e s s by w h i c h c u l t u r e i s f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r m a l l y l e a r n e d o r t r a n s -m i t t e d b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e e a r l y e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d t h r o u g h manhood. 98 T h e r e f o r e t h e e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h the ubo-aka music i s e f f e c t e d t h r o u g h t r a n s m i s s i o n o f m u s i c a l o r a l t r a d i t i o n t o t h e c h i l d from t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f c h i l d r e a r i n g by t h e mother, the b a b y - s i t t e r , and t h e community a t l a r g e . I n t h i s p r o c e s s t h e words, t o n e s , v o c a b u l a r i e s , t h e m u s i c a l s t y l e and t h e r h y t h m i c c o n c e p t o f t h e s o c i e t y i s i n c u l c a t e d i n t o t h e c h i l d . The mother, t h e baby n u r s e , o r a r e l a t i v e a c h i e v e s t h i s by t a k i n g t h e c h i l d t o a p l a c e where the ubo-aka i s p l a y e d i n the e v e n i n g s . The t a k i n g o f t h e i n f a n t t o the performance i s o f t e n n o t so much f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d as i t i s f o r the d e l i g h t and e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f t h e a d u l t who t a k e s him t o the s p o t . B u t the c h i l d l e a r n s f i r s t by a s s i m i l a t i o n u n t i l a time when he can l e a r n t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e and a c t i v e p a r t i c u p a t i o n . Thus, a t the s t a g e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the music such as by d a n c i n g t o t h e tempo o f ubo-aka m u s i c , he i s a b l e t o l e a r n t h e r h y t h m i c c o n c e p t s , s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s and form s t r u c t u r e s o f ubo-aka music g r a d u a l l y w i t h o u t f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Even some mothers who dance t o t h e ubo-aka m u s i c , c a r r y t h e i r i n f a n t s w i t h i n ubo-aka m u s i c a l environment w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n f a n t grows g r a d u a l l y i n t h e knowledge o f t h e t o n e - c o l o u r , t h e r h y t h m i c c o n c e p t s , m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e , tempo, and s t y l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f ubo-aka music. As t h e c h i l d grows w i t h t h e knowledge of t h e Igbo language, he i s b e t t e r a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the language o f ubo-aka and t h e r e b y b e g i n s t o l e a r n t h e mores and norms o f the s o c i e t y . F o r example, much o f what th e w r i t e r knows • about t h e t e c h n i q u e of performance had been i n c u l c a t e d t o him d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d by w a t c h i n g the p l a y e r s ' performances and l i s t e n i n g t o t h e ubo-aka m u s i c . Thus th e w r i t e r grew w i t h the music and c o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e t o n e - c o l o u r o f ubo-aka from a d i s t a n c e . The a d u l t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, l e a r n a l o t about the mores and norms o f t h e s o c i e t y through l i s t e n i n g t o the i n f o r m a t i o n , s t o r y - t e l l i n g , p r o v e r b i a l and i d i o m a t i c s t a t e -ments conveyed t h r o u g h the language o f ubo-aka music. Thus the s o c i e t y ' s f o l k w a y s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y from one g e n e r a -t i o n t o a n o t h e r . The p i v o t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ubQ-aka music w i t h the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n l i e s on t h e r o l e o f ubo-aka as a symbol o f m a s c u l i n i t y and manhood w h i c h a r e b o t h p a t r i l i n e a l l y d e f i n e d and d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s phenomenon o f ubo-aka i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e two dominant themes o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among N r i p e o p l e : t h e umunna and t h e ikwunne c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e based on the p r i n c i p l e s o f l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e w i t h emphasis on m a s c u l i n i t y o v e r f e m i n i t y . The p a t r i l i n e a l n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s where t h e i n s t r u m e n t can be p e r f o r m e d . F o r example, the ubo-aka p l a y e r as d e f i n e d by t h e s o c i a l law may p e r f o r m o n l y i n h i s umunna o r . ikunne w i t h i n a r e a s d e f i n e d by t h e system o f p a t r i l i n e a g e . As a r e s u l t t h e p l a y e r may o n l y p e r f o r m a t the obu ( f a t h e r ' s temple, guestroom) b u t never i n s i d e the nkpuke (mother's h o u s e ) . The p e r f o r m e r can a l s o p e r f o r m i n the mbala (open p l a c e ) w h i c h i s n e u t r a l o r a t the obu-Eze ( K i n g ' s p a l a c e ) o r a t t h e age-grade assembly o r d u r i n g t h e QZQ-t i t l e ceremony (the men's t i t l e o f honour and h i g h s o c i a l s t a t u s ) b u t never a t the g i r l s ' i n i t i a t i o n ceremony o r the female age-grade m e e t i n g , e t c . Even d u r i n g s o c i a l ceremonies such as 100 m a r r i a g e o r f u n e r a l , the p e r f o r m e r s i t s w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f t h e males and never w i t h i n the a r e a o f t h e f e m a l e s . On t h e whole, what c o n s t i t u t e s good, w e l l a c c e p t e d ubo-aka music i s d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s f u l f i l l m e n t o f i t s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s : t he a b i l i t y t o t a l k and communicate c l e a r l y i n Igbo language, i n a d d i t i o n t o f u l f i l l i n g a l l the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c r o l e s a t t h e r i g h t t i m e and a t the r i g h t p l a c e as d e f i n e d by the s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r , the w a l k i n g pace, dance rhythm and r h y t h m i c sense o f the p e r f o r m e r a f f e c t t h e tempo, s t y l e and form o f each s o c i a l c a t e g o r y o f ubo-aka music. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e music w i t h i t s r o l e o r f u n c t i o n i s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t dependent on t h e p e r f o r m e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n . F o r example, the f u n e r a l music i s always slow and moody i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e the f e e l i n g o f sympathy; m a r r i a g e music i s always l i v e l y w i t h l e a p i n g and j o y f u l rhythm w i t h s e v e r a l r e p e t i t i o n s o f the same m e l o d i c i d e a s from time t o t i m e ; r e l i g i o u s music i s v e r y calm and r e v e r e n t and pro c e e d s a t a m o d e r a t e l y slow tempo; p r a i s e music i s v e r y e n e r g e t i c , l i v e l y , f a s t and n o b l e w h i l e t h e p r o v e r b i a l and i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s a r e f u l l o f r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e same m e l o d i c p a t t e r n i n o r d e r t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e message. S o c i a l F u n c t i o n and A c t i v i t i e s The s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f ubo-aka music can be w e l l under-s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s meaning t o t h e f o l k s who make and enj o y t h e music. There i s no a b s o l u t e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e music as such; i t i s always c o n n e c t e d w i t h words and, t h e r e f o r e , i t 101 i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f d i f f e r e n t moods and s i t u a t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , ubo-aka music can be l o o k e d a t i n terms o f i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s i n s o f a r as i t a c t s as a s t i m u l u s t o a c t i o n and r e -a c t i o n among N r i p e o p l e . Thus i t seems i m p e r a t i v e t h a t b e f o r e a p e r s o n can u n d e r s t a n d the music, he o r she must u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e x t o f performance as d e f i n e d by t h e s o c i e t y . Thus i n N r i t r a d i t i o n , the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f ubp-aka music can be s t u d i e d under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : r e l i g i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , e t h i c s , m a r r i a g e , f u n e r a l , p r a i s e , p r o v e r b s and age-grade a c t i v i t i e s . R e l i g i o n R e l i g i o u s music n o r m a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e gods o f t h e l a n d o r the s p i r i t w o r l d as a means of p r a y i n g t o t h e a n c e s t -o r s o r c a l l i n g f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e gods t o c o u n t e r a c t e v i l i n the s o c i e t y . Sometimes, i t r e f e r s t o r i t u a l ceremonies o r h i d d e n e v i l s and c o n s p i r a c y among the p e o p l e . T h i s t y p e o f music can be p l a y e d by any p i o u s i n d i v i d u a l i n the s o c i e t y who may be a man w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t i t l e s . The p o e t i c t e x t o f music Example 1 i s v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g . Example 1. N*IRU IYIO ( B e f o r e the god o f oath) Igbo Language E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n N i r u i y i o B e f o r e t h e god o f o a t h ) ^ t i m e s Kejebe e j e b e L e t us i m m e d i a t e l y go ) N i r u i t a o B e f o r e the r e v e a l i n g - d i v i n e r o f s e c r e t s K e j ebe e j e b e L e t us i m m e d i a t e l y go N'iru mmo B e f o r e t h e s p i r i t K ejebe e j e b e L e t us i m m e d i a t e l y go N i r u a l u s i B e f o r e t h e god (the m e t a p h y s i c a l f o r c e s ) 102 Kejebe ejebe Let us immediately go Kejebe ejebe Let us immediately go Alu erne E v i l happened Niru A l u s i Before the god 2 Kejebe ejebe Let us immediately go. The above ubo-aka music i s about a r e l i g i o u s oath-taking r i t u a l which would take place the next day during which accusers stand facing the i y i or a l u s i (the god of oath) before the o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t to take the oath against an accusation of having stolen a goat i n the neighbourhood which everybody i s denying. I t i s believed that the t h i e f w i l l be k i l l e d through metaphysical forces i f he takes the oath by fa l s e pre-tence. Current Events This includes statements or comments on l o c a l news which re l a t e to d a i l y incidents that involve individuals or groups i n the society. For instance, the text of music Example 7 i s as follows: Example 7. ALU KA OMELU (He has done e v i l ) Igbo Language English: t r a n s l a t i o n Alu ka ome He has done e v i l n'e n'uwa i n the world Alu ka ome He has done e v i l Qfu i f e He w i l l see, something Alu ka ome He has done e v i l O lua ana He has d e f i l e d the land Alu ka omelu He has done e v i l zobe ya and i s hiding i t . The above ubo-aka music refers to the e v i l done by a member of the community who committed adultery awith his neighbour's wife which i s an abomination i n the community. As 103 the information goes on through the ubo-aka music, the hearers begin asking one another who did this e v i l i n the midst of which the name i s released. This generates further discussion and gossip about the in d i v i d u a l beyond the e v i l he has done and stimulates a re-examination of his character and past deeds. Ethics Good behaviour and high moral values are stressed i n the society through various communication media. Thus individuals with good character and high moral standards are worthy of respect and emulation. In t h i s connection, moral i n s t r u c t i o n begins with the tr a i n i n g of a c h i l d i n order to produce well-behaved individuals i n the society. The follow-ing text of music example 17 i s cle a r . Example 17. EZIGBO NWA (The good child) Igbo language English t r a n s l a t i o n Ezigbo nwa ka ubo A good c h i l d i s c a l l e d by the n'akpo instrument (three times) Ejegwo egwu na We have danced at eke market eke square Ezigbo nwa ka ubo A good c h i l d i s c a l l e d by the n'akpo instrument Anyi ejegwo egwu We have danced at nkwq market na nkwp day Ezigbo nwa ka A good c h i l d i s c a l l e d by the ubo n'akpo instrument Ka obala anyi Let the c h i l d be useful to us na g i Okwa n'anyi We are the people t a l k i n g n1ekwu Ezigbo nwa ka A good c h i l d i s c a l l e d by the ubo n'akpo instrument. 104 The e t h i c a l value of t h i s text l i e s i n teaching the children who usually love to l i s t e n to ubo-aka music that i t i s only when a c h i l d i s well behaved that he or she i s useful to the community. Ind i r e c t l y , the text reminds mothers who come i n the evenings to l i s t e n to ubo-aka music of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r a i s i n g well-behaved children for the good of the society. Marriage and Funeral Often, ubo-aka music includes statements that re f e r to courtship, fai t h f u l n e s s , obedience, j o y f u l experiences and expectations i n married l i f e . For example, the text of music Example 23, represents love and expectations i n married l i f e . Igbo language English t r a n s l a t i o n Nee obim nuwa Look at my heart i n t h i s world Nee obim Look at my heart Ibu obim nuwa You are my heart i n t h i s world Ego d i n'uno Money i s at home J i d i nuno Yam .is at home Ngotelu g i akwa I w i l l provide you with clothing. I t i s a courtship song which can lead to marriage with the approval of the parents of the intended couple. In addition, the poetic text shows the economic security and guarantee expected of the man who wants to marry. This i s necessary because the suitor i s expected to be economically viable, among other requirements, i n order to q u a l i f y for marriage. Ubo-aka music i s normally not a part of funeral ceremony proper, instead, i t i s simply a way of expressing 1 0 5 s y m p a t h y t o t h e b e r e a v e d w h o m a y b e p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s o f t h e p e r f o r m e r . S o m e t i m e s i n d i v i d u a l s u s e u b o - a k a m u s i c i n m o u r n i n g f o r t h e i r l o v e d o n e s w h o p a s s e d a w a y . T h e t e x t o f m u s i c E x a m p l e 13 e x p r e s s e d s y m p a t h y f o r t h e b e r e a v e d . E x a m p l e 1 3 . I F U I F E ONWU NEME ( Y o u s e e w h a t d e a t h d o e s ) I g b o l a n g u a g e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n I f u i f e o n w u n ' e m e Y o u s e e w h a t d e a t h d o e s n ' e m e n ' u w a W h a t i t d o e s i n t h e w o r l d I f u i f e p n w u n ' e m e Y o u s e e w h a t d e a t h d o e s ) n ' u w a ) j_ . D i b e n a o m e r a g o T a k e h e a r t f o r i t h a s ) h a p p e n e d ) I f e p n w u n ' e m e W h a t d e a t h d o e s I f e o n w u n ' e m e , d o W h a t d e a t h d o e s , b e c o n s o l e d . T h i s i s t o c o n s o l e a n d e x p r e s s s y m p a t h y t o t h e b e r e a v e d f a m i l y . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e u b p - a k a p l a y e r p l a y s w i t h t e a r s r o l l i n g d o w n h i s c h e e k s i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t t h e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l a n d e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t . T h e w e e p i n g p l a y e r i s v e r y m u c h a p p r e c i a t e d a n d r e s p e c t e d i n t h e s o c i e t y . P r a i s e a n d P r o v e r b s P r a i s e s o n g s a r e c o m p o s e d p u r p o s e l y f o r m a k i n g t h e s o c i e t y a w a r e o f t h e g r e a t d e e d s o r n o b l e r o l e s o f h e r o e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . M o s t o f t h e t i m e s , p r a i s e s o n g s a r e p o l i t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d i n o r d e r t o p r o m o t e t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e h e r o . I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , s u c h c o m p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n i n h o n o u r o f r i c h m e n o f h i g h s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h e p o o r h a v e n e v e r b e e n p r a i s e d i n s o n g s a s t h e r i c h h a v e b e e n . O f c o u r s e , i t 106 i s usually the poor person who composes i n praise of the r i c h . The text of Example 27, i s i n praise of the King. Example 27. ODOGWU N'AGHA (The great i n war). Igbo Language Eze n'ulu onum Odogwu n'agha Eze okwa g i na edozi obodo Eze okwa g i na e d o z i l i anyi okwu Odogwu n 1agha Eze ogbu e f i ogalanya Odogwu n'agha Eze lgwe ka ana Eze okwa g i n'achi ayi Odogwu n 1agha English t r a n s l a t i o n The King l i s t e n to my voice You the great i n war The King you are the repa i r -er of the community The King you are the one who se t t l e s disputes for us The great i n war The King, you the k i l l e r of cows, the r i c h The great i n war The King, the sky that i s higher than the land The King, you are the one who rules us The great i n war This i s a praise song for the Eze-Nri (the King of Nr i ) , i n which the noble, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l role of the King i s epitomized by the ubo-aka player. Odogwu n'agha ( i . e . , the great i n war) i s metaphorically stated r e f e r r i n g to the s o c i a l e v i l s i n the society which the King fi g h t s , and not to warfare because the King, by t r a d i t i o n , does not go to war, neither does he encourage war; instead, he s e t t l e s disputes among other peoples and towns within Nri hegemony. This music i s s p e c i f i c a l l y for the King and must be performed i n the King's palace only during v i s i t s by the musician or on s p e c i a l f e s t i v a l occasions such as igu-aro f e s t i v a l (counting the year) or at the onwa-asato f e s t i v a l (the feast of the eighth month) usually celebrated at the King's palace. 1 0 7 P r o v e r b s o r s a y i n g s a r e b r i e f s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y w i s d o m a n d d e e p m e a n i n g . T h e m e a n i n g s a r e u s u a l l y o f m o r a l a n d e t h i c a l v a l u e s ) a n d a r e d i d a c t i c i n n a t u r e . I n N r i t r a d i t i o n , c o n s t a n t u s e o f p r o v e r b s i s a s i g n o f e x p e r i e n c e , o l d a g e a n d w i s d o m . F o r e x a m p l e , k a a b i a  k a a b i a n a l u awQ e p u n ' p d u ( i . e . , p o s t p o n i n g , p o s t p o n i n g p r e -v e n t e d a t o a d f r o m h a v i n g a t a i l ) . T h i s i s u s u a l l y a n a d v i c e t o t h o s e w h o a r e f o n d o f p o s t p o n i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s o r a c t i o n s ; i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i n d e c i s i o n o r p o s t p o n e m e n t c a n h i n d e r a p e r s o n f r o m a c h i e v i n g w h a t h e c o u l d h a v e a c h i e v e d h a d h e a c t e d p r o m p t l y . T h e t e x t o f E x a m p l e 2 1 i s v e r y e d u c a t i v e . E x a m p l e 2 1 . OKU RUA NWATA ( W h e n f i r e b u r n s a c h i l d ) I g b o L a n g u a g e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n O k u r u a n w a t a W h e n f i r e b u r n s a c h i l d n k e i z i z i t h e f i r s t t i m e , 0 m a l u i f e . h e k n o w s s o m e t h i n g . T h i s s o n g h a s a n e t h i c a l v a l u e o f w a r n i n g u s t o l e a r n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a n d a d v i s e s u s n o t t o s u f f e r t h e s a m e m i s f o r t u n e t w i c e . A g e - g r a d e A c t i v i t y T h i s i n c l u d e s m u s i c f o r w a k e - k e e p i n g , n i g h t g u a r d , r e c r e a t i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e a g e - g r a d e s a r e c a l l e d o c c a s i o n a l l y t o k e e p w a t c h o v e r p r e c i o u s a s s e t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y s u c h a s b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , f a r m s o r b a r n s o f y a m , e t c . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e t e x t o f E x a m p l e 29 i s f o r n i g h t -w a t c h . 108 Example 29. QDU ONYE N'AGA (Who i s p a s s i n g ? ) Igbo Language E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n Qdu onye n'aga-u Who i s p a s s i n g ? Okwa moto n'aga-u I s i t motor t h a t i s p a s s i n g A y i n'aga-u We are the p e o p l e p a s s i n g Okwa mmonwu n'aga-u I t i s t h e masquerade t h a t i s p a s s i n g N d i n'aga-u Who a r e t h e p e o p l e p a s s i n g ? Okwa a n y i n'aga-u We are t h e p e o p l e p a s s i n g Ogbo a n y i n'aga-u I t i s our age-grade t h a t i s p a s s i n g The n i g h t - w a t c h music i s n o t a v e r y s e r i o u s m u s i c . I t s purpose i s t o h e l p keep awake t h e night-watchman t h r o u g h -out t h e n i g h t w h i l e g u a r d i n g p r e c i o u s t h i n g s such as t h e barn o f yams, f l o c k o f sheep o r g o a t s , o r a r i c h farm w i t h r i p e - c r o p s , e t c . A l s o t h e sound o f t h e music i s an i n d i c a t o r t o t h e t h i e f t h a t somebody i s w a t c h i n g and thus d i s c o u r a g e s him from s t e a l i n g . M u s i c i a n s h i p and S o c i a l S t a t u s L e a r n i n g the Ubo-aka Some ubo-aka p l a y e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the s p i r i t s t e a c h them how t o p l a y t h r o u g h dreams. W h i l e a man i s p l a y i n g the ubo-aka i n a dream, a s p i r i t may appear t o him as an i n s t r u c t o r and may t e l l t h e l e a r n e r w h i c h note t o p l a y a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . Or, i f t h e s p i r i t i s not d i r e c t i n g t he l e a r n e r w h i l e he i s p l a y i n g , t h e s p i r i t may be p l a y i n g the ubo-aka h i m s e l f i n t h e dream, w h i l e t h e l e a r n e r watches h i s f i n g e r s a t t e n t i v e l y . D u r i n g n ightdreams t h e s p i r i t i s b e l i e v e d t o be a b l e t o t e a c h a man v a r i o u s f i n g e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , s t y l e s , v a r i a t i o n s , ornament-a t i o n s and i m p r o v i s a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e 109 l e a r n e r upon waking up from s l e e p can b e g i n t o p r a c t i s e what the s p i r i t had t a u g h t him i n t h e dream. The s p i r i t can appear as an o l d man, p r o b a b l y the a n c e s t o r w i t h o n l y v i s i b l e hands p l a y i n g the. ubo-aka. However, t h i s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h dreams i s not g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d e x c e p t when i t r e l a t e s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a h i g h l y s k i l l e d p e r f o r m e r whose s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the gods o r t h e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . I n most c a s e s , t h e p l a y e r s a c h i e v e t h e i r m a s t e r y o f the i n s t r u m e n t t h r o u g h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , some p l a y e r s a t t r i b u t e t h e i r s k i l l t o t h e h e l p o r i n f l u e n c e o f an a n c e s t o r who i s h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n ubo-aka p e r -formance. As a r e s u l t , whenever a p l a y e r p l a y s e x a c t l y l i k e any o f h i s a n c e s t o r s o r dead r e l a t i v e s , t h e o l d men b e l i e v e i t i s h e r e d i t a r y o r i n extreme cases t h a t t h e a n c e s t o r o r t h e dead r e l a t i v e i s r e - i n c a r n a t e d i n t h e p l a y e r . I n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g i s a p o p u l a r way o f l e a r n i n g how t o p l a y the ubo-aka i n w h i c h t h e n o v i c e l e a r n s i n f o r m a l l y by o b s e r v i n g and i m i t a t i n g the t e c h n i q u e s o f o t h e r good p l a y e r s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . Here t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ( a l r e a d y d i s -cussed) p l a y s a v i t a l p a r t , such as i n e a r l y l i f e an i n f a n t i s bounced on t h e back o f i t s mother when she dances o r l i s t e n s t o ubo-aka music w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e c h i l d grows up w i t h t h e b a s i c concept o f t h e r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c movements, and a u r a l p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h goad.him on t o seek t o p l a y t h e ubo-aka when he grows. D i r e c t t e a c h i n g i s a l s o p o s s i b l e between f a t h e r and son, o t h e r r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s w i t h i n one's umunna o r ikwunne; i n t h e case o f f r i e n d s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o get a t e a c h e r w i t h i n 110 the community. The t e a c h i n g i s by d e m o n s t r a t i o n and d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n based on r o t e l e a r n i n g . The l e a r n e r watches t h e f i n g e r movements i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n and t r i e s t o rep r o d u c e t h e f i n g e r i n g p a t t e r n s phrase by phrase a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r ; when t h e s e c t i o n s a r e mas t e r e d , t h e l e a r n e r b e g i n s t o combine t h e s e c t i o n s i n t o a whole p i e c e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c l o s e f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t e a c h e r and h i s s t u d e n t i s econom-i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d and payment may be made by d o i n g some manual l a b o u r f o r t h e t e a c h e r f o r each l e s s o n . However, t h i s d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n i s v e r y r a r e . Most p e r f o r m e r s l e a r n by i n -d i r e c t t e a c h i n g ( w a t c h i n g and memorizing t h e f i n g e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s of v a r i o u s p e r f o r m e r s ) and then g o i n g home t o p r a c t i s e on t h e i r own ubp-aka. Among N r i p e o p l e , music making g n e r a l l y i s n o t r e c o g -n i z e d as a p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s c o n c e i v e d as an appendage t o one's o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n . Everybody i s e x p e c t e d t o know how t o p l a y one t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t v e r y w e l l , o r know how t o s i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, v i r t u o s i t y o r a h i g h l y s k i l l e d performance i s r e c o g n i z e d and r e s p e c t e d a t the r i g h t time and a t t h e r i g h t p l a c e . T h i s i s why p l a y i n g t h e ubp-aka i n the hours o f morning and a f t e r -noons i s f o r b i d d e n because t h e y a r e hours o f work e i t h e r i n t h e farms o r i n any o t h e r m e a n i n g f u l o c c u p a t i o n . I t has no economic v a l u e t o t h e p e r f o r m e r s e x c e p t i n the case o f t h e makers o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t who combine the making w i t h c a r p e n t r y , b l a c k s m i t h i n g and b a s k e t r y as a means o f l i v e l i h o o d . I l l As a r e s u l t , t h e ubo-aka p l a y e r s p e r f o r m p u b l i c l y o n l y i n the ev e n i n g s e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the m o o n l i g h t when t h e community ( i n c l u d i n g themselves) must have r e t u r n e d from t h e i r farm work o r o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l d u t i e s t o r e l a x and l i s t e n . The s o c i a l s t a t u s o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s o c i e t y i s d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y by one's o c c u p a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n , s p e c i a l s k i l l and c h a r a c t e r . But as f a r as s k i l l i n music performance i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e time and t h e s i t u a t i o n o f performance. Too much p l a y i n g o f ubo-aka i s frowned a t by t h e e l d e r s f o r f e a r i t m i g h t r e n d e r t h e p e r f o r m e r u s e l e s s e c o n o m i c a l l y i n t h e s o c i e t y . As a r e s u l t , such a s u s p e c t e d p e r f o r m e r i s always k e p t under t h e e a g l e eyes o f t h e e l d e r s o f h i s umunna t o c o n t r o l the e x c e s s . I f i t t u r n s o u t t h a t o v e r - p l a y i n g i s d i s t u r b i n g one's m e a n i n g f u l o c c u p a t i o n , the e l d e r s o f the umunna can s e i z e t h e i n s t r u m e n t o r i n some extreme c a s e s , d e s t r o y t h e i n s t r u m e n t and p l a c e a taboo on t h e i n d i v i d u a l c oncerned. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Ekwensu (the e v i l s p i r i t ) on t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o d i s -t u r b h i s o c c u p a t i o n and r e n d e r him u s e l e s s . S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n Among Ubo-Aka P l a y e r s There i s no o r g a n i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n among t h e ubo-aka p l a y e r s b u t t h e feedback from the l i s t e n e r s engenders c o m p e t i t i o n among i s o l a t e d ubo-aka p l a y e r s . F o r example, t h e l i s t e n e r s i n the p r e s e n ce o f one p e r f o r m e r can be d i s c u s s i n g t h e g r e a t s k i l l i n s t y l e , v a r i a t i o n and i m p r o v i s a t i o n o f an o t h e r p e r f o r m e r whom the y v i s i t e d t h e p r e v i o u s n i g h t . A t t i m e s , t h e p e r f o r m e r s d i s -g u i s e themselves i n the crowd t o l i s t e n and memorize a n o t h e r ' s 112 technique of performance. In some cases performers send t h e i r wives or children to watch others play to comment on the standards when they return. The ubo-aka being a solo instrument, i s not played i n an ensemble. No two ubo-aka players play together. The only possible occasion when the players can come together to hear one another d i r e c t l y i s at the King's palace, marriage or funeral ceremonies where they organize themselves to play i n turns. But even these exceptions are not intended i n the s p i r i t of competition although the tendency for r i v a l r y cannot be ruled out altogether. There i s no unhealthy r i v a l r y . Non-Native Influences The root of the contemporary s i t u a t i o n stems from early c u l t u r a l contact with the Europeans which generated s o c i a l change. For example, as early as 1441, the Portuguese arrived i n Nigeria and traded with the Oba of Benin (King of Benin) whom the Eze-Nri according to o r a l t r a d i t i o n crowned. At t h i s time the f i r s t negro slaves were also brought to Portugal. (Lane 1956: 19). Through this early trade relat i o n s h i p , the Spanish guitar along with other European goods such as b e l l s , clothing, etc. were introduced l a t e r i n Nigeria. This Spanish guitar captured the i n t e r e s t of many t r a d i t i o n a l ubp-aka and ubp-akwara players with the r e s u l t that most of them bought the guitar and practised both from time to time. Gradually, some of the players turned to guitar playing, abandoning some indigenous musical instruments. Nevertheless, many people continued with the playing of ubp-aka, ubp-akwara 113 drums and o t h e r n a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s i n Igbo l a n d . The f i r s t e n t r y o f a B r i t o n i n t o N i g e r i a was r e c o r d e d i n 1823 (Lane 1956: 2 0 ) . But between 1800-1900, B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t s a r r i v e d i n N i g e r i a and c o n f r o n t e d e x i s t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l kingdoms such as kingdoms o f B e n i n , I f e , Oyo, O n i t s h a , N r i , Opopo i n t h e s o u t h , and i n t h e n o r t h t h e e m i r a t e s o r kingdoms 'of Bornu, Kano, K a t s i n a , Daura, Sokoto, Z a r i a , e t c . , m o s t l y t h r o u g h t r a d e and m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s (Crowther 1966: 120-131). T h i s was a p e r i o d o f m a i n l y p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r e , t r a d e , i n t e r -t r i b a l wars and conquest, w i t h the p r a c t i c e o f i n d i g e n o u s r e l i g i o n s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e I s l a m i z e d n o r t h and t h e C h r i s t i a n -i z e d s o u t h (Damachi 1972: 22-24). However, i t was n o t u n t i l 1830 t h a t Europeans d i s c o v e r e d the c o u r s e o f the l o w e r N i g e r R i v e r w h i c h h e l p e d them t o know the i n t e r i o r of N i g e r i a ( I s i c h e i 1973: 1 8 ) . T h i s paved t h e way f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s i n N i g e r i a ; the C.M.S. M i s s i o n was e s t a b -l i s h e d i n Igbo l a n d 1857 ( I l o g u 1974: 56) and i n 1885, the f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c Church was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Igbo l a n d by t h e H o l y Ghost F a t h e r s ( I s i c h e i 1973: 144-147). I t was w i t h i n t h e f i r s t decade o f t h i s c e n t u r y t h a t B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s took c o n t r o l o f Igbo l a n d t h r o u g h an 3 imposed system o f d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Uchendu 1965: 4 6 ) . Under t h i s system, E z e - N r i i n 1911 was o r d e r e d t o a b o l i s h a l l the codes and r u l e s o f 'abomination and a v o i d a n c e ' w h i c h bound a l l v i l l a g e s and towns i n N r i sphere o f i n f l u e n c e (Thomas 1914: 2 ) . The system o f d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t 114 o f a l l - p u r p o s e n a t i v e c o u r t s w h i c h d e r i v e t h e i r revenue from i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n . The n a t i v e c o u r t a r e a s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by B r i t i s h d i s t r i c t c o mmissioners w i t h the h e l p o f h a n d - p i c k e d w a r r a n t c h i e f s who r e p r e s e n t e d each v i l l a g e group. "The t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s seldom passed t h i s t e s t and so were, f o r t h e most p a r t , l e f t o u t " (Nwabueze 1963: 7 0 ) . I n tho s e d a y s , Eze N r i was s u b j e c t e d t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Awka N a t i v e C o u r t a r e a . Under t h e c o l o n i a l u m b r e l l a , C h r i s t i a n i t y f l o u r i s h e d a t a f a s t pace t h r o u g h o u t Igbo l a n d . D u r i n g t h i s c o l o n i a l e r a , the C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s i n t h e i r b i d t o w i n c o n v e r t s condemned and d i s c o u r a g e d e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n as p a g a n i s t i c , h e a t h e n i c and p r i m i t i v e . As a r e s u l t , t h e e n t i r e Igbo c u l t u r e which i s founded on r i t u a l s was b a d l y a f f e c t e d . A l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f Igbo t r a d i t i o n a l music were l a b e l l e d p r i m i t i v e and d e v i l i s h . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n many c o n v e r t s d i s -a s s o c i a t i n g themselves from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e ( I l o g u 1974: 56-75). I n p l a c e o f t h e n a t i v e m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s such as ubp-aka, i g b a (drums, opu ( h o r n s ) , o j a ( f l u t e s ) , e t c . , the ch u r c h i n t r o d u c e d Western i n s t r u m e n t s such as the organ and a c c o r d i a n w i t h Western hymns and tunes f o r w o r s h i p . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the M i s s i o n s c h o o l s , t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d the Western m u s i c a l c o n c e p t s and c o n t r o l l e d t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n under t h e p r o t e c t i o n of c o l o n i a l government. However, t h e y d i d not w i n c o n v e r t s by f o r c e . The u p h o l d e r s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n such as t h e p r i e s t l y c u l t o f N r i c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k w a y s which i n c l u d e t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l p r a c t i s e 115 d e s p i t e the i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r the s u r v i v a l o f what remains o f N r i t r a d i t i o n a l music t o - d a t e . I n N r i t o - d a y , t h e r e a re the f o l l o w i n g C h r i s t i a n Churches: Ang-l i c a n Church, Roman C a t h o l i c Church, A p o s t o l i c Church, Sabbath Church and some s p i r i t u a l and h e a l i n g p r a y e r houses w i t h l a r g e f o l l o w i n g s . Contemporary S i t u a t i o n Though t h e F e d e r a l Government o f N i g e r i a encourages t h e r e v i v a l o f i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e t h r ough the m i n i s t e r i e s o f c u l t u r e , i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n , y e t the contemporary s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t o f n e g l e c t and g r a d u a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e by Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . I n t h e f i e l d o f music f o r i n s t a n c e , the f u n c t i o n s o f t a l k i n g i n s t r u m e n t s such as ubo-aka, ubo-akwara, a k p e l e and o j a a r e b e i n g r e p l a c e d by s e r v i c e s o f t h e modern mass media: t h e r a d i o which b r o a d c a s t s i n b o t h Igbo and E n g l i s h languages w i t h much v a r i e t y o f music f o r t h e a u d i e n c e ; t e l e v i s i o n programs; newspapers w i t h w i d e r coverage o f news, i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l ; and by European e q u i v a l e n t s o f s p a r s e music e d u c a t i o n i n a few s c h o o l s where music i s t a u g h t . As a r e s u l t , the e l i t e as w e l l as p r e s e n t - d a y y o u t h s l o o k down on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . They a r e out o f t o u c h w i t h the i n d i g e n o u s music and have l o s t t h e r i c h f o l k l o r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h most o f t h e m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n caused the mass exodus o f youths from v i l l a g e s t o t h e c i t i e s f o r s c h o o l i n g and employment. T h i s has d i s o r g a n i z e d t o some e x t e n t t h e f o l k w a y s which t r a i n t he youths t h r o u g h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n 116 i n t h e i r umunna d a i l y communal l i f e — t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l environment under which the mores and norms of the people are learnt (Mobogunje 1968: 124-130). The following statement on the e f f e c t of B r i t i s h administration on Igbo culture i s an eye-opener to one of the root causes of the contemporary s i t u a t i o n : Again, what i s not r e a l i z e d as i t should be i s that Native law and custom received i t s death blow when the B r i t i s h Administra-tion became operative i n Ibo country. (Basden 1966B: XIII) However, i n Nri to-day, there i s the Odinani Museum, a branch of the I n s t i t u t e of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where numerous Nri c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s are pre-served and displayed. Nevertheless, there are s t i l l many Nri people most of whom are already advanced i n age, who practise the t r a d i t i o n s under Eze N r i . To-day, the e l i t e prefer l i s t e n i n g to the organ, accordian or the guitar rather than l i s t e n i n g to Ubo-aka. They also f e e l i t i s primitive and very degrading for them to play such a l i t t l e instrument. Instead, they would l i k e to buy the ubo-aka as a decorative piece which i s usually hung on the walls or displayed i n a show-case i n s i t t i n g rooms. They regard the t r a d i t i o n a l ubo-aka players as primitive people who have refused to change with time. Summary There i s no doubt that ubo-aka i s an important t r a -d i t i o n a l musical instrument with r i c h and varied t r a d i t i o n of i t s own among Nri people of eastern Nigeria. Its s o c i o - c u l t u r a l role i s very il l u m i n a t i n g as a medium of communication. A study 117 of t h e i n c i d e n c e o f ubo-aka music i n terms o f i t s r o l e shows how a v a r i e t y of m u s i c a l t y p e s are c r e a t e d f o r use i n v a r i o u s r e c o g n i z e d s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . To N r i p e o p l e , ubo-aka music i s a symbol of t h e i r c u l t u r e . The l i n g u i s t i c d e t e r m i n a n t on w h i c h the music p r i m a r i l y r e s t s , i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e as b o t h t h e melody and rhythm a r e con-t r o l l e d by t h e o u t l i n e s o f t h e i n t o n a t i o n and the r e l a t i v e d u r -a t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e s o f t h e v e r b a l t e x t i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t the meaning. Because of the c u l t u r a l m a t r i x b e h i n d t h e m u s i c , we can see why the c o n c e p t o f e x t r a m u s i c a l c o n t e n t i s o f p a r a -mount importance i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f ubo-aka m u s i c . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o d a t e , ubo-aka music i s n o t w r i t t e n ; much of what i s s t i l l p e r f o rmed today i s r e t a i n e d t h r o u g h o r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n . No s t u d y on t h e music of N r i p e o p l e has been done e x c e p t the f i e l d w o r k and t h e r e s u l t i n g s t u d y by the p r e s e n t a u t h o r h i m s e l f . T h i s o u t s t a n d i n g l a c k o f w r i t t e n documents and a r t i c l e s on ubo-aka music has l i m i t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e w r i t e r ' s p e r -s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d . I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t ubo-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , a t p r e s e n t , i s f a c i n g t h e p r o s p e c t o f d o m i n a t i o n and t o t a l d i s -placement by e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h e f a c e o f s o c i a l change through t h e v e h i c l e of C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , Western methods and c o n c e p t s , u r b a n i z a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and modern e d u c a t i o n a l systems w h i c h a r e W e s t e r n - o r i e n t e d . T h i s may r e s u l t i n a t o t a l l o s s o f i t s r i c h t r a d i t i o n a l o r a l l i t e r a t u r e and c o n c e p t s i f n o t h i n g i s done. 118 F o o t n o t e s D e t a i l s o f t o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Igbo language are p r o -v i d e d i n Appendix I o f the t h e s i s . D e t a i l s o f music examples and t e x t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o names o f p e r f o r m e r s , c o l l e c t o r , date c o l l e c t e d , p l a c e o f performance and tape number a r e p r o v i d e d c o l l e c t i v e l y under the documentation o f tapes and music examples. B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l Government o f N i g e r i a from 1900 - 1960 a f t e r w h i c h N i g e r i a won independence on October 1, 1960. 119 CHAPTER V TRANSCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s o f ubo-aka music are c l o s e l y i n t e r w o v e n . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l method-o l o g y was c o n c e i v e d on t h e b a s i s o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e music w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a new system o f n o t a t i o n . P r o f . L i a n g ' s ' g r a p h i c space n o t a t i o n ' t h a t i s most s u i t a b l e f o r ubp-aka m u s i c . The ' g r a p h i c space n o t a t i o n ' i s shown i n F i g . 11. T r a n s c r i p t i o n a l Methodology W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F i g . 11, the scale-mode o f each Ubo-aka c o m p o s i t i o n i s a r r a n g e d v e r t i c a l l y (on t h e l e f t s i d e ) a c c o r d i n g t o p i t c h l e v e l s w i t h t h e ' h i g h e s t p i t c h ' on t o p and 'the l o w e s t ' below. The 'Western' s t a f f n o t a t i o n w i t h t r e b l e c l e f may be p l a c e d i n some c a s e s above the g r a p h i c space n o t a t i o n f o r n o t a t i n g t h e v o c a l p a r t s t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y accompany th e ubo-aka m u s i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, where t h e r e i s no v o c a l accom-paniment, i t i s o n l y t h e ' g r a p h i c space n o t a t i o n ' s c o r e t h a t i s used w i t h a column on t o p f o r ubo-aka language. S i n c e t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d i z e d p i t c h f o r ubo-aka m u s i c , a s s i g n i n g any p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h f o r each o f the music would amount t o f a l s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F o r example, i n ubo-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , a p e r f o r m e r can p l a y one p i e c e o f music i n d i f f e r e n t keys f o l l o w i n g the f l e x i b l e adjustment o f t h e keys 120 121 f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . T h i s l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s m o r e a p p a r e n t w h e n t w o o r m o r e d i f f e r e n t p e r f o r m e r s p l a y t h e s a m e p i e c e r e s p e c t i v e l y o n i n d i v i d u a l u b o - a k a s i n c e t h e r e i s n o e n s e m b l e p l a y o f u b o - a k a i n N r i c u l t u r e . E v e n t h e i n t e r v a l i c r a n g e o f t o n e s ( w h i c h i s e x p e c t e d t o b e w i t h i n t h e s a m e r a n g e ) m a y v a r y s l i g h t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e b a n d s o f t h e s p e e c h t o n e s i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c u r e o f I g b o t o n a l l a n g u a g e . A s a r e s u l t , a l l ' D o ' s 1 a r e t r a n s c r i b e d b a s e d o n t h e c o m m o n p i t c h o f C i n t e r m s o f s o l e m i z a t i o n a s f o l l o w s : d o i C t i B l a A s o l G f a F m i E r e D d o C • On t h e w h o l e , t h i s C - b a s e d t r a n s p o s i t i o n i s v a l u a b l e f o r e a s y r e a d i n g , q u i c k r e f e r e n c e a n d c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s n o u s e o f b a r - l i n e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o t a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o c o n c e p t o f f i x e d p o s i t i o n s f o r a c c e n t e d a n d u n a c c e n t e d t o n e s i n u b o - a k a m u s i c . T h u s a c c e n t u a t i o n o c c u r s a l m o s t a t w i l l f o r s p e c i a l e f f e c t , t o p r o d u c e a d a n c e r h y t h m o r p e r c u s s i v e d y n a m i c s , e t c . S e c o n d l y , t h e l e n g t h o f a p i e c e i s n o t t i m e d b e c a u s e U b p - a k a m u s i c i s 122 not s o c i a l l y c o n f i n e d t o any s p e c i f i e d t i m e - d u r a t i o n , r a t h e r the s o l e d e t e r m i n a n t f o r p i e c e d u r a t i o n i s t h a t o f f u l f i l l -i n g the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f each song t y p e . The p e r f o r m e r and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a udience d e t e r m i n e from time t o time how l o n g a p i e c e w i l l l a s t . A t t i m e s , the p e r f o r m e r d e t e r m i n e s t h i s t i m e span a r b i t r a r i l y based on p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , s t a m i n a o r a r t i s t i c d e c i s i o n . The audience can sometimes urge the p e r f o r m e r t o c o n t i n u e a p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r p i e c e . L i k e w i s e , a dancer can p r o l o n g h i s o r h e r ubo-aka dance, f o r c i n g t h e p e r f o r m e r t o p r o l o n g a p i e c e a g a i n s t h i s w i l l u n t i l j u s t i c e i s done t o t h e dance. Thus a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s combine t o make t h e d u r a t i o n of any p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e i n c o n -s i s t e n t . The f o l l o w i n g d i a c r i t i c a l markings a r e used when-e v e r a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : • r e s t . n ote and b e a t p l a y e d by the r i g h t thumb. note and b e a t p l a y e d by t h e l e f t thumb. lo w e r e d tone ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y a semitone) when p l a c e d above a n o t e . r a i s e d tone ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y a semitone) when p l a c e d above a n o t e . i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h p l a y e d by the l e f t thumb. i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h p l a y e d by t h e r i g h t thumb. r e p e a t once. p l a y t h r e e t i m e s between the p o l e s . 123 > p l a y f o u r t i m e s between the p o l e s , p l a y f i v e t i m e s between the p o l e s , end o f a p i e c e , a c c e n t u a t i o n . muted note p l a y e d by the l e f t thumb. muted note p l a y e d by r i g h t thumb. — - l o n g r e s t i n t h e v o c a l p a r t . - p l a c e d below a t o n e , i n d i c a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n s o f dance s t e p s or f o o t i n g s . * The r e p e a t s i g n s t y p i f y the t r a d i t i o n a l system of c o u n t i n g i n s i n g l e s u s i n g s t i c k s , f i n g e r s o r c o w r i e s most o f t h e t i m e . Thus the number o f t i m e s can i n c r e a s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the number of s t r o k e s on e i t h e r s i d e s o f t h e p o l e s . A n a l y t i c a l Methodology I n C hapter IV of t h i s s t u d y , t h e a n a l y s i s o f ubo-aka music s t a r t e d w i t h t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s under th e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s : NO. CATEGORIES REP. SYMBOL 1. R e l i g i o n R 2. I n f o r m a t i o n F 3. Death D 4. E t h i c s E 5. S a y i n g s S 6. M a r r i a g e M 7. P r a i s e P 8. Age-grade A c t i v i t i e s A These s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s r a i s e the f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n s t o be answered by the r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s 124 of the analysis: 1. Do these s o c i o - c u l t u r a l groupings possess musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are peculiar to them respec-t i v e l y ? ' 2. To what extent are these groupings confined to the li m i t a t i o n s of the i r musical .parameters? 3. What are the factors that enable the composer or the performer to select c e r t a i n tone complexes that are used i n the groupings? . 4. Are there s t y l i s t i c differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s among the groupings? If so, what are they and what are the determinants? Bearing these questions i n mind, the primary objective of thi s analysis i s therefore to f i n d out (1) whether or not the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l roles of each of the song types determine, influence or control the sonic structure, and (2) what are the factors that l i e behind the scores. Altogether, each category of ubo-aka music w i l l be analyzed on the basis of the following procedures: 1. Analysis of the musical parameters. 2. L i n g u i s t i c analysis. 3. Functional analysis. Musical Parameters The analysis of the musical parameters focuses on the melodic contour typology using whenever possible Kolinski's 125 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of melodic structures on the basis of pen-dulums and flexures (1965: 98-99) which are applicable to graphic contour analysis. By t h i s , a l l the possible types of melodic contour i n ubo-aka music can be i d e n t i f i e d and grouped for each of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l categories. A tonal analysis w i l l be made for each s o c i o - c u l t u r a l category i n order to determine the scales i n use, pitch d i s t r i b u t i o n and dominant tones and t y p i c a l scales for each category. For example, the 'Tonal Analysis' for r e l i g i o u s music w i l l be presented i n the following format: THE FREQUENCY OF TONE OCCURRENCE PIECE NO. G A B C D E F G SCALE-MODE Rl R2 R3 R4 TOTAL L i n g u i s t i c Analysis L i n g u i s t i c analysis i s important because ubo-aka music i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y determined. The following a n a l y t i c a l considerations are examined and discussed: 1. Possible speech tone combinations and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with melodic contour movement are graphed or matched as follows: 126 I, I I L _ J I I I I I I I I SPEECH TONE 2. The relationships between l i n g u i s t i c and rhythmic structures. Functional Analysis The tables for the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are provided i n order to understand the context of performance and function of each category of ubo-aka music. Althgether, the 30 pieces to be analyzed are grouped under the eight s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s . These selected 30 pieces out of the available 35 compositions are the most representative and t y p i c a l of ubp-aka musical repertoire i n terms of t h e i r important roles, formal structure, prevalence and meaning i n Nri t r a d i t i o n . These cateogries of musical types w i l l be discussed under the a n a l y t i c a l procedure as outlined i n the proposed methodology. The conclusions and subsequent comparative study of the categories, , w i l l be based on the re s u l t s of the findings. In addition, notes on the MELODIC PITCH LEVEL 127 music, performers and c o l l e c t o r s are provided i n Appendix II corresponding to the numbers of the music examples and tapes for easy reference. The transcriptions are provided i n Appendix IV. The analysis proceeds from the r e l i g i o u s songs to the music for Age-grade a c t i v i t y . In terms of importance, the r e l i g i o u s music i s the most important of a l l the categories because r e l i g i o u s associations with r i t u a l s constitute the pivot around which the entire system of Nri culture revolves. Religious Music Rl N'iru l y i o (Before the god of oath) Example 1. R2 0 Chi Anom N'onwu Example 2. (My ancestral s p i r i t , I am i n death) R3 Iga Adi (You w i l l live) Example 3. R4 Iga Adi Ndu Di Enu Example 4. (You w i l l l i v e and be great) These four r e l i g i o u s songs are important because they j o i n t l y r e f l e c t the items of worship, b e l i e f , prayers and blessings that constitute the dominant t r a i t s i n the theological philosophy of Nri people. The f i r s t two ref e r to the gods and the f a i t h N r i people have i n them as sole protectors; the l a s t two r e f l e c t prayers and blessings which a holy or s p i r i t u a l father bestows on the f a i t h f u l and we l l -behaved sons of the land. The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c melodic contours that are featured i n these four r e l i g i o u s songs are shown i n F i g . 12. 128 129 OBSERVATIONS OF THE MELODIC CONTOUR OF FOUR RELIGIOUS SONGS PIECE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS R l (a) S t a n d i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f f o u r tones (b) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f , s i x tones R2 (a) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f f i v e t o n e s . R3 (a) Downward v e r t i c a l movement o f t h r e e t o n e s . (b) F a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . (c) Concave c o n t o u r movement o f t h r e e t o n e s . R4 (a) E q u i d i s t a n t concave movement o f t h r e e tones (b) F a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f f o u r tones (c) Long z i g z a g c o n t o u r movement o f n i n e t o n e s . A c l o s e s t u d y o f t h e f o u r r e l i g i o u s songs shows the f o l l o w i n g d e d u c t i o n s : 1. There i s no d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n o f m e l o d i c move-ment t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the r e l i g i o u s , music; c l u s t e r s o f tones range from t h r e e t o n i n e . 2. G r a v i t a t i o n i s t o w a r d s ' G 1 i n R l , ' C ' i n R2,'G'in R3 and 'G' i n R4. 130 3. The determinant for the directions of the melodic contours i s not yet known. 4. The i n t e r v a l i c structure includes: major 2nds, minor 3rds, major 3rds, perfect 4ths, perfect 5ths. The analysis of the frequency of tone occurrence which w i l l help us determine the major tones and the scale-modes prevalent i n r e l i g i o u s music, i s as follows: * PIECE NO. C D E F G A B SCALE - MODE Rl 86 83 - - 162 161 4 - tone scale R2 35 66 37 - 39 - - 4 _ " » R3 133 25 170 - 53 76 - 5 - " R4 28 - 65 - 168 94 - 4 _ » " TOTAL 282 174 272 - 422 331 -A look at the frequency of tone occurrence shows (1) that the most frequently used tone i s 'G', followed by 'A' and 'C r e s u l t i n g i n C, G, A tones as the, peg-tones on which ubo-aka r e l i g i o u s music hangs, and (2) that the scale-mode i n use ranges from four to f i v e tones. L i n g u i s t i c Analysis The possible speech tone combinations and t h e i r correlations with melodic contour movement are evident i n the 131 r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y and speech tones a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them as shown i n F i g . 13. W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F i g . 13, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the l i n g u i s t i c and r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e s a r e as f o l l o w s i n quaver b i t v a l u e : M e l o d i c Rhythm - R2 J J • • o o o Speech Rhythm M e l o d i c Rhythm - R3 o - chia - nom n'o-- nwu J J > J ' / J J J J J J o • • o • • Speech Rhythm 1 — ga d i tue mu - go 1> | 1^  [\ # • • • 1-- ga-- d i tu'e m'u-go I n summary, i t i s the l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ubo-aka keys t h a t c o n t r o l and d e t e r m i n e the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement s i n c e t h e c o r r e c t t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e words c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y i n F i g . 13. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e i s the m e l o d i c accompaniment p a t t e r n i n R l w h i c h has. no l i n g u i s t i c meaning a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v o c a l p a r t ; the i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s i m p l y p r o v i d e s r h y t h m i c and dance f o o t i n g accompaniment. F u r t h e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e rhythms of melody i n R2 and R3, i t i s not always the speech rhythm c o n t r o l s t h e melody s i n c e t h e r e i s agreement i n R2 b u t not i n R3 i n terms o f b e a t d u r a t i o n . 132 FIG. 13. CORRELATION BETWEEN MELODIC CONTOUR MOVEMENT AND SPEECH TONES R2 MELODIC PITCH LEVEL WORDS R3 MELODIC PITCH LEVEL WORDS R4 MELODIC PITCH LEVEL WORDS Rl MELODIC PITCH LEVEL O go 1 - ga - d i G - A E > D \ -o C V E A D \ \ C > k B \ A \ G • i B A G E y C |G E / D C r _ INSTRUMENTAL ACCOMPANIMENT 133 Functional Analysis F i n a l l y , the functional analysis r e f l e c t s the speci-f i c a t i o n s of the so c i o - c u l t u r a l role and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l i g i o u s music as defined by the society as shown i n Table VII. Passing on Information F l Eke Elue (The eke market day has arrived) Example 5 F2 Ife Neme Nuwa (Things happen i n thi s world) Example 6 F3 Alu Ka Omelu (He has done e v i l ) Example 7 F4 Onye-Ori (The thief) Example 8 The above pieces of ubo-aka music are about four areas of public concern i n Nri t r a d i t i o n . F l reminds the community of the approach of eke market day which i s of both commercial and r i t u a l i n t e r e s t to Nri people. For example, the evening and the morning hours p r i o r to eke day, -are generally when the peasant community harvest f r u i t s and vegetables or gather some of th e i r live-stock for sale i n the market. Priests on the other hand, perform sp e c i a l r i t u a l s to the gods because eke i s the f i r s t day of the 'native week of four days' i n Igbo land. There i s no concept of a written calendar i n the t r a d i t i o n a l society. As a re s u l t , the community i s reminded of or informed about important dates or days by means of spoken dialogue, public announcements or through ta l k i n g i n s t r u -ments such as ubo-akwara, ubo-aka, drums, etc. F2 i s simply a r e f l e c t i o n on events that happen i n thi s world. This r e f l e c t i o n TABLE VII FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF RELIGIOUS MUSIC PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE Rl Heralding the ceremony of oathtaking Meant f o r the accusers Commoner & belong-i n g to the accused group Mo d i s t -o r t i o n of the news, no accus-ing f i n g -ers or mention of names •Severe punish-ment by the gods to a pre-tender who takes the oath I n d e f i n i t e and v a r i a b l e . R2 Personal s u f f e r i n g The performer i n d e f i n i t e Honesty & s i n c e r i t y Help from the gods r e s u l t i n g i n r e l i e f - P r i v a t e meditat-ion R3 Father-son. r e l a t i o n s h i p Beloved son V a r i a b l e F a i t h f u l -ness, hu m i l i t y , t r u t h f u l -ness v i r t u e s B l e s s i n g s from the gods & the ancestors + s e c u r i t y to the r e c e i v e r P r i v a t e medita-t i o n R4 n 11 n n Protections from the gods Fortune & wealth n n 135 i s never i n i s o l a t i o n b u t i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h any r e m a r k a b l e event t h a t i s c u r r e n t i n the s o c i e t y . F o r example t h e ubo-aka p l a y e r u s u a l l y has some s p e c t a c u l a r e vent t h a t r e c e n t l y happened i n t h e community o r i n a d j o i n i n g towns w h i c h he wants t o pass on t o t h e p e o p l e around him o r t h e community. A t t i m e s , t h e e v e n t may be i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a q u a r r e l between b r o t h e r s o r husband and w i f e w h i c h e i t h e r l e d t o permanent s e p a r a t i o n , s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o r i n extreme cases t o b l o o d s h e d o r d e a t h . D e t a i l s o f the e v e n t as i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a r e n o t always embodied i n the m u s i c , b u t t h r o u g h i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e , ubo-aka music can s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e i n c i d e n t d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n and t h e v i c t i m s o f the i n c i d e n t are c l e a r l y known. The F3 as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d under the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e , i s an i n f o r m a t i o n on a man who committed a d u l t e r y w i t h h i s n e i g h b o u r ' s w i f e w h i c h i s an a b o m i n a t i o n i n N r i c u l t u r e . F4 i s about a t h i e f i n the community who s t o l e h i s n e i g h b o u r ' s goat and was caught. I t i s a common p r a c t i c e t o i n f o r m t h e s o c i e t y about such wrong d o i n g . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , p e o p l e who have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t e a l i n g a r e always d e r i d e d and k e p t under communal s u r v e i l a n c e . I n extreme c a s e s , p e o p l e a v o i d m a r r y i n g i n t o such f a m i l i e s f o r f e a r o f c o n t a m i n a t i n g t h e i r l i n e a g e . The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s f e a t u r e d i n t h e f o u r p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e shown i n F i g . 14. 136 FIG. 14 MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC MELODIC CONTOUR TYPOLOGY IN FOUR UBQ-AKA INFORMATION PIECES a — c y I A \ (G V o 137 138 OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOUR INFORMATION PIECES REFERENCE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS F 1 (a) Rising, f a l l i n g , r i s i n g + tour of f i v e tones. s t a t i c con-(b) Rising, f a l l i n g , s t a t i c + tour of f i v e tones. r i s i n g con-(c) Rising and f a l l i n g contour of three tones. F 2 (a) S t a t i c , f a l l i n g + r i s i n g four tones. contour of (b) F a l l i n g , s t a t i c , f a l l i n g contour of f i v e tones. + r i s i n g (c) S t a t i c , f a l l i n g , r i s i n g , s t a t i c of s ix tones. f a l l i n g + F 3 (a) F a l l i n g , r i s i n g , f a l l i n g f i v e tones. contour of (b) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g contour tones. of three (c) Extended f a l l i n g contour of three tones. (d) F a l l i n g , r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , r i s i n g , s t a t i c + f a l l i n g nine tones. s t a t i c , contour of F 4 (a) Long s t a t i c , r i s i n g , s t a t i c , f a l l i n g + v e r t i c a l r i s i n g contour of eight tones. (b) S t a t i c , f a l l i n g + r i s i n g f i v e tones. contour of Altogether, the melodic contours of the information pieces show the following deductions: 1. A l l the pieces employ the r i s i n g , f a l l i n g and 139 s t a t i c c o n t o u r movements. 2. There i s g r a v i t a t i o n towards t h e t o n a l c e n t r e : C i n F l ( a ) , A i n F2, C i n F3, and A i n F4. 3. The d e t e r m i n a n t f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e con-t o u r s i s n o t y e t known. 4. The i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s : major 2nds, minor 3 r d s , major 3 r d s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y of tone o c c u r r e n c e i s as f o l l o w s : PIECE NO. C D E F G A B SCALE - MODE F l 50 - - - 8 50 - 3 - tone s c a l e F2 25 - 46 - 27 91 8 -5 - tone " F3 44 47 - 52 - 47 8 - 5 - tone " F4 11 13 - - 119 . 117 - 4 - tone s c a l e TOTAL 130 60 98 - 201 266 8 On t h e whole, t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used tone i s 'A 1, f o l l o w e d by 'G' and C. The l e a s t t one o f o c c u r r e n c e i s B used o n l y i n F2. 'F' i s n o t used a t a l l . The scale-mode i n use ranged from 3-5 tone scale-mode w i t h f i v e - t o n e s c a l e d o m i n a t i n g . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s , the p o s s i b l e speech tone c o m b i n a t i o n s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement a r e e v i d e n t i n F i g . 15. The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e u n d i s p u t e d when t h e words a r e pronounced f o l l o w i n g s t r i c t l y , 140 FIG. 15 CORRELATION BETWEEN MELODIC CONTOUR MOVEMENT AND SPEECH TONES IN INFORMATION PIECES F l w > U Eh Hi-ke 1 c \ A \ - l u - go F2 > W X u Eh H CM WORDS F3 IB •\ •-|G \ \ , f SE V V \ 1c -o ne me 1 - f e ne - me n'u - wa G \ F E__ D \ \ V, K > v c b WORDS: A - l u F4 WORDS r D C A o-EL J -ny'o - r i ' o -kwagi' 141 the r i s e and f a l l o f t h e m e l o d i c movements t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y above the Igbo words. I n t h i s way, any p e r s o n who i s r e a d i n g Igbo language f o r t h e f i r s t time can pronounce th e words c o r r e c t l y by f o l l o w i n g t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r . I n a d d i t i o n , u s i n g the quaver v a l u e , the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between the r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e and l i n g u i s t i c rhythm i n F i g . 15 a r e as f o l l o w s : M e l o d i c Rhythm - F l J L i n g u i s t i c Rhythm: J J J E - ke J 1 J f ! 7 E-k'e - l u - g o e - l u . - go M e l o d i c Rhythm - F2 J J • • 0 • L i n g u i s t i c Rhythm 1 ; f e J n'e } me 1- f e n'e - 9 me M e l o d i c Rhythm - F3 ; 11 ? y • • O • 0 A - l u ka o-me L i n g u i s t i c Rhythm ^ J x { The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e " i n f o r m a t i o n m u s i c " are t a b u l a t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f f u n c t i o n s as shown i n T a b l e V I I I . A l t o g e t h e r , i t i s t h e l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Igbo t o n a l language t h a t governs th e d i r e c t i o n of the m e l o d i c rhythm i n terms o f note v a l u e . F o r example, the m e l o d i c and l i n g u i s t i c rhythms o f i n F l and F2 d i f f e r i n t h e d u r a t i o n o f note v a l u e c o m p a r a t i v e l y w h i l e i n F3, t h e r e i s e x a c t agreement FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS' OF INFORMATION MUSIC PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE Fl Heralding the eke market day Nri people Commoner Truth & reliab-i l i t y Getting the community prepared - Evening prior to eke market day F2 Reflections on current e v i l deeds in the society The community Tradit-ional priest Truth, no accus-ing fingers or false-hood Getting the community correctly i n -formed of the e v i l and to make them hate such e v i l deeds Evening hours pre-ferably in the moonlight time or during an import-ant social gather-ing Getting the community i n -formed of an e v i l deed The community Commoner Truth and r e l i -a b i l i t y Denouncement of such e v i l by the community - Evening hours F4 Introducing the thief to the community The community Commoner Truth and r e l i -a b i l i t y without bias Getting the thief punished, hated and des-pised by the community Evening hours 1 4 3 b e t w e e n t h e r h y t h m s o f w o r d s a n d m e l o d y . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s o f t h e m u s i c a l p a r a m e t e r d o n o t a l w a y s c o n f o r m t o t h e r h y t h m o f w o r d s . D e a t h M u s i c D l Onwu A m a r o D i k e E x a m p l e 9 ( D e a t h d o e s n o t k n o w t h e g r e a t ) D2 O n a Nmo E x a m p l e 10 (He h a s g o n e t o t h e s p i r i t w o r l d ) D3 A l u Erne M u o E x a m p l e 1 1 ( E v i l h a s h a p p e n e d t o me) D4 E W U N w a n n e m , K a m a l u I f e M e l u n u E x a m p l e 12 . ( O h , my b r o t h e r l e t u s k n o w w h a t h a p p e n e d ) D5 I f u I f e Onwu N ' e m e E x a m p l e 1 3 ( Y o u s e e w h a t d e a t h d o e s ) D l i s f u n e r a l m u s i c w h i c h p h i l o s o p h i z e s o n t h e g r e a t n e s s o f d e a t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d e a t h o f a h e r o i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t i s o f a d i d a c t i c n a t u r e , t e a c h i n g p e o p l e t h a t d e a t h i s n o r e s p e c t e r o f p e r s o n s a n d t h a t h o w e v e r g r e a t we a r e , d e a t h d o e s n o t d e s c r i m i n a t e , a n d w i l l c o m e w h e n i t w i l l . T h i s m u s i c i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f d e a t h . D2 i s m o s t o f t h e t i m e a p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n o r l a m e n t a t i o n o n t h e d e a t h o f a d e a r o n e , p r o b a b l y o n e ' s b r o t h e r , s i s t e r , s o n , d a u g h t e r , w i f e o r p a r e n t . I t i s u s u a l l y v e r y m e a n i n g f u l w h e n p l a y e d i m m e d -i a t e l y a f t e r b u r i a l i n l i n e w i t h N r i t h e o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e d e a d i n t h e s p i r i t w o r l d . D3 i s n o r m a l l y a p e r s o n a l l a m e n t a t i o n o v e r t h e d e a t h o f a d e a r o n e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e v i l o r m i s f o r t u n e h a s h a p p e n e d t o w h o m e v e r l o s t h i s o r h e r l o v e d o n e . D4 i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r u m o u r a b o u t t h e d e a t h o f a 144 l o v e d one w h i c h i s y e t u n c o n f i r m e d hence th e i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t whether t h e rumour i s t r u e o r f a l s e . D5 i s as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d under the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e i s a r e f l e c t i o n on the e v i l deed o f d e a t h e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a premature d e a t h , the d e a t h o f a newly m a r r i e d c o u p l e o r when ones o n l y son d i e s o r i n c a s e s o f many deaths i n one p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n such s i t u a t i o n s , d e a t h i s p e r s o n i f i e d as a w i c k e d f o r c e . A l l t h e s e p i e c e s o f ubo-aka music r e p r e s e n t the c a r d i n a l c o n c e p t , a t t i t u d e and b e l i e f about death i n N r i t r a d i t i o n . The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y o f t h e f i v e p i e c e s o f d e a t h music i s shown i n F i g . 16. OBSERVATIONS ON THE FIVE PIECES OF DEATH MUSIC PIECE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS D l (a) S t a t i c , f a l l i n g , s t a t i c + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . (b) S t a t i c , f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . J D2 (a) I V e r t i c a l downward movement of t h r e e t o n e s . (b) V e r t i c a l downward movement of f o u r t o n e s . D3 (a) Long f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . (b) F a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + extended f a l l i n g + l o n g r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . (c) Long f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f seven t o n e s . 145 FIG. 16 THE CHARACTERISTIC MELODIC CONTOUR TYPOLOGY OF DEATH MUSIC D l (a) (b c K A O- o-«\ / \ G > >- 4 \ E V l a ) (b) 146 147 OBSERVATIONS ON DEATH MUSIC CONTD. PIECE-NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTION D4 (a) S h o r t f a l l i n g + l o n g r i s i n g + s h o r t f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f f o u r t o n e s . (b) Long s t a t i c + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . • ( O S h o r t s t a t i c + l o n g f a l l i n g + extended s h o r t f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f f o u r t o n e s . (d) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g z i g -zag c o n t o u r o f f i v e t o n e s . D5 (a) R i s i n g + extended r i s e + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . (b) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g c on-t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . (c) R i s i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s of t h e "death m u s i c " show the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. A l l t h e examples employ t h e r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , and s t a t i c c o n t o u r movement w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f D2 w h i c h has o n l y t h e d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement. The c l u s t e r s o f tones range from t h r e e t o e i g h t t o n e s . 2. There i s g r a v i t a t i o n towards 'E' i n D l , 'G' i n D2, 'A' i n D3, *E'in D4,'C' i n D5. 3. The i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s : minor 2nds, major 2nds, minor 3 r d s , p e r f e c t 4ths and minor 6 t h s . 1 4 8 T h e f r e q u e n c y o f t o n e o c c u r r e n c e i s a s f o l l o w s : P I E C E N O . C D E F G A B S C A L E - MODE D l 9 - 23 - 59 46 - 4 - t o n e s c a l e D2 9 1 88 1 1 - 1 0 1 9 1 - 5 - " II D3 59 5 8 - - 44 1 6 4 - 4 - " n D4 43 32 82 67 90 - - 5 - " II D5 64 5 7 50 - 8 9 - 5 - t o n e s c a l e T O T A L 2 6 6 2 3 5 1 6 6 6 7 3 0 2 3 1 0 -T h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o n e i s A , f o l l o w e d b y G , C a n d D w h i l e t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o n e , i s F . F u r t h e r , t h e s c a l e - m o d e r a n g e s f r o m f o u r t o f i v e t o n e s c a l e . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r m o v e -m e n t a n d t h e t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e w o r d s a r e s h o w n i n F i g . 1 7 . W h e n t h e w o r d s a r e r e a d a g a i n s t t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o -l o g y , t h e y f o l l o w a n d r e t a i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c t o n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s f o r m e a n i n g a s d e f i n e d b y I g b o t o n a l l a n g u a g e . F u r t h e r , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r h y t h m s o f u b o - a k a m e l o d y a n d t h e w o r d s i s p r o v i d e d b e l o w f o r a c l o s e s t u d y : R h v t h m o f M e l o d y - D l 0 0 • • R h y t h m o f t h e s p o k e n w o r d s 4 4 m] • • O - n w u ' a - m a - r o d i - k e - J . . R h y t h m o f M e l o d y - D2  R h y t h m o f w o r d s O - n a ' m - mo J 149 FIG. 17 THE MELODIC CONTOUR AND SPEECH TONE CORRELATIONS IN DEATH MUSIC D l c R A O o- ; \ G \ E • \ o WORDS: y. / D2 /• ' i _ _ , - \ / / — / \ Onw.uq.;a.-raa-rp' -dxkie Onwu n * e-gbu nu c i A G E D WORDS: S- na'rn- mo D3 A I G E" / P' D DS: • - ..-Gwa .jftij. - fe me -fa) nu kam - malu (b) 1 G -•-1 F / 1 ° A 1 C V WORD!: D4 W 0 R D S : E-^ wu nwan-nem kam ma l u i - f e me-nu TABLE IX. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DEATH MUSIC EIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE DI Teaching the power of death The mourning community Variable Not to be performed outside funerals Accepting the power of death as a necessary end ' - During funerals D2 Speculations on death and the s p i r i t world The mourning community Variable Only for funerals Vishing the 3ead a peace-ful rest - it n D3 Personal lamentation The berea-ved and mourning. community Variable Sincerity and no pretence Sympathy - i i n D4 Inquiry about rumours of death Neighbours of the performer Variable Not to be performed in the funeral ceremony Validation of funeral rumour Variable D5 A reflection on the evi l s of death The mourning community Variable To be performed in connec-tion with death only Jnderstanding the evils and sowers of death — During funerals 152 Rhythm o f Melody - D3 Rhythm o f words Gwa m'i •= fe- me' - nu ka'm ma-lu Gwa mi'- fe me-lu- na Rhythm of Melody - D4 Rhythm of words Kam-ma l u i T f e me-hu * Ka mu ma l u i - f e me-- nu1-A l t o g e t h e r , the t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e words c o n -t r o l t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r as shown i n F i g . 17. But t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between the r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n o f melody and the words i s v a r i a b l e . F o r example, t h e rhythms o f word and melody melody c o r r e l a t e e x a c t l y i n D l ( a ) w h i l e i n t h e D2, D3 and D4, t h e r e a r e d e v i a t i o n s i n terms o f d u r a t i o n o f b e a t . E t h i c s E l E2 E3 Nwakaego A t u l u Ime (Nwakaego i s pregnant) A g a d i Nwanyi (Old woman) D i Nwe Uno (The husband t h a t owns the house) E4 Ezigbo Nwa Ka Ubo N'akpo Example 14 Example 15 Example 16 Example 17 (It i s the good c h i l d that the thumb piano c a l l s ) E l i s a music of humiliation to a young g i r l by name Nwakaego (child i s greater than money) who got pregnant outside marriage. A s i t u a t i o n such as t h i s , brings shame and disgrace not only to the v i c t i m but also her parents and r e l a t i v e s . This ubo-aka music redicules the g i r l , pointing out 153 t h a t whenever she i s reminded o f h e r p r e m a r i t a l sex and pregnancy, she weeps. E2 i s a l a m e n t a t i o n on the wickedness o f an o l d woman who caused e n i m i t y between a son and h i s w i f e . T h i s i s a r a r e s i t u a t i o n i n N r i c u l t u r e because o l d men and women a r e e x p e c t e d t o be h o l y , k i n d , generous and p e a c e f u l . O c c a s i o n a l l y a s i t u a t i o n l i k e t h i s can a r i s e where t h e r e i s h a t r e d and m a l t r e a t m e n t i n a f a m i l y . T h i s ubo-aka music denouces such e v i l s i t u a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h an o l d woman. E t h i c a l l y , t h i s music i s r e m i n d i n g t h e aged n o t to b a c k s l i d e i n t o h a t r e d and wickedness a g a i n s t the wiv e s o f t h e i r sons. E3 i s t e a c h i n g about the h i g h sense o f r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y e x p e c t e d o f f a t h e r s o r husbands i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; Here i s an example o f a man who l e f t h i s f a m i l y f o r a l o n g time w i t h o u t adequate arrangement f o r f e e d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g h i s h o u s e h o l d . Such a p e r s o n i s always an o b j e c t o f r i d i c u l e b e f o r e h i s age-grade and t h e e n t i r e community. E4 i s e t h i c -a l l y , e x t o l l i n g t h e good b e h a v i o u r o f a good c h i l d w h i c h encourages good b e h a v i o u r and manners i n c h i l d r e n , sons and da u g h t e r s . The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s o f the e t h i c a l m u s i c i s shown i n F i g . 18. OBSERVATIONS ON THE MELODIC CONTOUR TYPOLOGY ' PIECE CONTOUR NO. TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTION  E l (a) Descending + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . 154 FIG. 18. MAIN MELODIC CONTOUR CHARACTERISTICS IN lETHICAL MUSIC ., . c A \ A G V \ "•s F \ / \ E \ / • D V C (b) c A F E •- / \ D \ / / C iv V c A G f-F \ 0 1 E 4 / \ / • D / 4 C • D C A 10-G E "•s — J / / O 155 FIG. 18 CONTD. 1 (a) (b) E3 G •v A E \ A , '\ D \ so 4 V \ C V A (a) F E D •-C p B \ - J* A V \ s / G V F -t-e 1— * E D C 1 B r A / \ / G / • V • 156 .OBSERVATIONS ON THE MELODIC CONTOUR TYPOLOGY CONTD. PIECE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTION (b) (c) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . E2 (a) (b) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . Long d e s c e n t + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . E3 (a) (b) F a l l i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f t h r e e t o n e s . F a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l -i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f t e n t o n e s . E4 (a) (b) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + v e r t i -c a l l o n g r i s e + extended r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f seven tones The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s o f the e t h i c a l music show t h e f o l l o w i n g d e d u c t i o n s : 1. A l l the p i e c e s employ t h e r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , and s t a t i c c o n t o u r movements o f t h r e e t o t e n c l u s t e r s . 2. There i s g r a v i t a t i o n towards *C 1 i n E l , 'E' i n E2, 'C i n E3 and *G' i n E4. 3. The i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s : major 2nds, minor 3 r d s , major 3rds, p e r f e c t 4 t h s , p e r f e c t 5 t h s . 157 f o l l o w s : The a n a l y s i s o f f r e q u e n c y o f tone o c c u r r e n c e i s as PIECE NO. C D E F F A B C SCALE . MODE E l 19 31 44 24; 42 9 10 7 - tone s c a l e E2 32 6 48 - 83 87 - • — 5 - " E3 100 148 100 - • 98 9 - - - ; 5 - " E4 23 35; 4 4 11 13 5 - ; TOTAL 174 220 196 28 234 118 5 10 On t h e whole, the most f r e q u e n t l y used tone i s G, f o l l o w e d by D, C, E, A and F w i t h 'B' as t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used t o n e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e scale-mode ranges from f i v e t o seven-tone s c a l e . The examples of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m e l o d i c movement and the t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e words i n e t h i c a l music a re shown i n F i g . 19. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e m e l o d i c and l i n g u i s t i c rhythm a re shown below: 1 J J J ] J J J M e l o d i c Rhythm - E l ( a ) NWa-ka - e go a - t u l u - i - me Speech Rhythm M e l o d i c Rhythm E2(a) Speech Rhythm J l i f t SI IS Nwa - ka -e- go a-tu lui-me isum i A -ga- d i nwa-nyi e-me'a - ,lu 2 J : ; ; j N j .r A- ga-di nwa-nyi e-me'a - l u 158 FIG. 19. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MELODIC CONTOUR AND WORDS IN ETHICAL MUSIC E l c 9 V A \ A G V \ r F \ E \ / D V C E D 7] 5 -Ih WORDS: Mgbe mu ya" gwa yab-be-be a- kwa E2 E3 fa fh) D C A O-G / / v. E -6 S: A- ga-di" i fa nwa-nyi e mea - ^lu cr — mea - -u na v be - ya 1 1 G IE D \ WORDS: Di - nwe'u - no 159 FIG. 19 CONTD. F E D -•-C p B \ V / A V \ / G V E- z i gbo nwa k'u - bo n'a- kpo M e l o d i c Rhythm - E3(a) Speech Rhythm 160 J J 1 ,Di nw-Vu — nc? J J J Di nw'ii - no M e l o d i c Rhythm - E4 (a) J J S J J 1 r • • • O o • • o | E - z i gbo nwa K'u - bo n'a- kpb Speech Rhythm J j, ^ J j J1 J A c a r e f u l s t u d y o f the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r and t h e r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e t h i c a l m u sic, shows t h a t t h e t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f Igbo language c o n t r o l t h e o u t l i n e o f the melody. T h i s i s e v i d e n t when the Igbo words are r e a d a g a i n s t the m e l o d i c movements i n F i g . 19, and found t o be f o l l o w i n g t h e r i s e and f a l l o f t h e t o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the words w h i l e s e r v i n g as a g u i d e t o t h e c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f t h e words. F u r t h e r , t h e rhythms o f melody and speech do n o t always a g r e e . F o r example i n E l ( a ) and E3(a) t h e m e l o d i c and speech rhythms d i f f e r i n d u r a t i o n and r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e w h i l e i n E2(a) and E4(a) t h e r e i s agreement between the rhythms of words and melody. The f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s shown i n T a b l e X. S a y i n g s S I S2 S3 Enenie Nwa I t e Ogbanyualugi Oku ( I f a s m a l l p o t i s n e g l e c t e d , i t can e x t i n g u i s h y o u r f i r e ) Ebe Onye B i Ka Ona Awachi ( I t i s where one l i v e s t h a t one mends) K a b i a , K a b i a N a l u Awo Ya Epuna Odudu ( P o s t p o n i n g , p o s t p o n i n g p r e v e n t e d a t o a d from h a v i n g a t a i l ) Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 TABLE X. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF ETHICAL MUSIC PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE El Anti-premarital sex relation The un-married • folks Variable Certainty Chastity Population control Variable but mostly in the evenings E2 E v i l deed The community Variable Deterrent and peace in families - Evening hours E3 Husband1s responsibility The community Variable Must be within the mores and norms of the society Increase in family love, peace and responsibil-i t y Evening hours _E4 Good behaviour and a careful child rearing ti » M Good citizens and good behaviour n 162 S4 Oku Rua Nwata Nke I z i z i Omalu I f e Example 21 (When f i r e burns a c h i l d t h e f i r s t t i m e , he l e a r n s something) These s a y i n g s o r p r o v e r b s a r e d i d a c t i c i n n a t u r e , i n t e n d e d f o r a d m o n i t i o n and f o r t e a c h i n g t r u t h . S p e a k i n g Igbo language w i t h o u t p r o v e r b s i s a mark o f i n e x p e r i e n c e and i n -p r o f i c i e n c y so much t h a t such d i f f i c i e n c y i s sometimes l i k e n e d t o e a t i n g w i t h o u t s a l t . On t h e o t h e r hand, when one uses p r o v e r b s i n speech, he i s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d as one of t h e sages. These p r o v e r b s a r e most u s e f u l i n making d i p l o m a t i c s t a t e -ments and a r e a l m o s t i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n t h a t sense t h r o u g h o u t Igbo l a n d . The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movements o f the f o u r p r o v e r -b i a l music a r e shown i n F i g . 20. OBSERVATIONS OF THE MELODIC CONTOUR OF PROVERBIAL MUSIC PIECE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS S I (a) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r of seven t o n e s . (b) R i s i n g + l o n g s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + l o n g s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . S2 (a) Long s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . S3 (a) R i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f f i f t e e n t o n e s . S4 (a) Long s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f t h i r t e e n t o n e s . The d e d u c t i o n s from t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s o f t h e p r o -v e r b i a l music a re as f o l l o w s : 163 FIG. 20 THE MELODIC CONTOUR MOVEMENTS OF THE PROVERBIAL MUSIC i A 0- -o —v-G \ E V \ \ b V (b) 1 1 A G *-P V -•-V 164 1. The r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r movements ar e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h c l u s t e r s o f tones r a n g i n g from seven t o f i f t e e n t o n e s . 2. There i s g r a v i t a t i o n towards 'C i n S I ( a ) , 1 E 1 i n S l ( b ) , 'C i n S2, ' C i n S3, 'C i n S4. 3. I n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e s : minor t h i r d s , m ajor t h i r d s , p e r f e c t 4 t h s , p e r f e c t 5 t h s . The f r e q u e n c y o f tone o c c u r r e n c e i n p r o v e r b i a l music i s as f o l l o w s : FREQUENCY OF TONE OCCURRENCE PIECE NO. C D E ; F G A B SCALE - MODE SI 10 - . 49 - 68 18 - 4 - tone s c a l e S2 16 - • 46 - 60 4 - 4 _ II ii S3 5 - 60 - 57 36 4 _ H II S4 13 - • 63 - 48 45 - 4 _ n II TOTAL 44 - 218 - 233 103 -A l t o g e t h e r , t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used tone i s G, f o l l o w e d by E, A and C. The scale-mode i s f o u r - t o n e s c a l e . T h i s i s the f i r s t t i me t h e r e i s a common scale-mode i n a m u s i c a l t y p e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o -l o g y and speech t o n e s a r e shown i n F i g . 21. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e rhythms o f melody and speech a r e as f o l l o w s : 165 FIG. 21 THE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE MELODIC CONTOUR AND SPEECH TONES IN PROVERBIAL MUSIC A o- -Q G -A *\ E V > \ C V -• DS: s E-ne- m-• e nwa-•,\ - i - te S I S2 A -«- -•s E C V WORDS: S3 A E ^ + 2 WORDS: K'a-bia ka - b i a na l u - a wo e - pu nao - du-du S4 A o- o- -O G '-\ \ • E \ C WORDS: 0 - ku rua nwa-ta'n- k e i - z i - z i o ma - l u 1 - fe 166 M e l o d i c Rhythm - S l ( a ) / J N J V j J Speech Rhythm E - ne-ni-iiwa-i •E- -ne-rii-e •r $ I $ I i E - n e - n i - e n w a i - t e t e • • • Ka - b i a ka . S S J J- 7 b i a na-lu-a-,wo Speech Rhythm On the whole, the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y o f t h e p r o v e r b i a l music i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d because i t f o l l o w s s t r i c t l y t h e t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e words. F u r t h e r , the rhythms o f words and melody do n o t always agr e e . F o r example, t h e r e i s marked d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d u r a t i o n o f b i t v a l u e between t h e m e l o d i c and speech rhythms i n S I ( a ) and S3(a) w h i l e t h e r e i s c l e a r agreement i n S 2 ( a ) . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e X I . M a r r i a g e M u s i c M l Agbogho Ya Anu D i (A g i r i s h o u l d marry) M2 Nee Obim (Here i s my h e a r t ) M3 Mgboye Enwee D i (Mgboye has got a husband) Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 • • • m • • • • • • • • • • E- be o- nye b i k' p - na - wa-chi Speech Rhythm 1 • • . 7 J J M e l o d i c Rhythm - S3(a) . • • • O 0 • • • • • • TABLE XI .FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF MUSICAL SAYINGS PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE SI Advice on pre-caution Community Variable Correct usage Understanding and precaution Flexible Evening hours S2 A lesson on responsibility. it n • it High sense of responsibility n n l i S3 A lesson on decision making n n n Prompt decisions II n n S4 Advice on pre-caution II n n - Precaution n n n ' 1 6 8 I n N r i c u l t u r e , m a r r i a g e i s t h e b e s t w a y b y w h i c h a w o m a n v a l i d a t e s h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h e t h r e e e x a m p l e s h e r e a r e a b o u t c o n c e p t s o f m a r r i a g e i n N r i t r a d i t i o n . M l , r e m i n d s g i r l s t h a t t h e y o w e i t a s a d u t y t o g e t m a r r i e d . M2 i s a b o u t a f f e c t i o n a n d p r o m i s e s i n c o u r t s h i p w h i c h l e a d s t o m a r r i a g e a n d M3 i s j o y f u l m u s i c a b o u t a g i r l b y n a m e M g b o y e w h o r e c e n t l y , g o t m a r r i e d , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t f o r a w o m a n t o g e t a h u s b a n d i s g o o d i n t h i s w o r l d . T h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y o f m a r r i a g e m u s i c i s s h o w n i n F i g . 2 2 . O B S E R V A T I O N S ON T H E M E L O D I C CONTOURS OF M A R R I A G E M U S I C P I E C E N O . CONTOUR T Y P O L O G Y D E S C R I P T I O N M l ( a ) Z i g - z a g m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . ( b ) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . M2 ( a ) D e s c e n d i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + S t a t i c c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . ( b ) F a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f f i v e t o n e s . M3 ( a ) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f s i x t o n e s . ( b ) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f s e v e n t o n e s . D e d u c t i o n s f r o m t h e m e l o d i c m o v e m e n t s o f m a r r i a g e m u s i c a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1 . A l l t h e p i e c e s e m p l o y t h e r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r m o v e m e n t s o f s i x t o e i g h t t o n e c l u s t e r s . 169 170 2. There i s grav i t a t i o n towards 'A' i n Ml, 'D' i n M2 and 'A' i n M3. 3. I n t e r v a l i c structure includes: major 2nds, minor 3rds, major 3rds, perfect 4ths, perfect 5ths, and minor 7ths. THE FREQUENCY OF TONE OCCURRENCE IN MARRIAGE MUSIC PIECE NO B SCALE MODE Ml M2 M3 TOTAL 8 17 33 29 88 18 23 48 135 23 28 33 19 11 45 8 5 61 75 13 4 - tone scale 6 - " 5 - tone scale In summary, the most frequently used tone i s D follow-ed procedurally by A, G,. C, F, B and E, with the scale-mode ranging from four to six tones. The relationships between the melodic movements and the speech tones are shown i n F i g . 23. This i s followed by the re l a t i o n s h i p between the rhythms of melody and speech. Melodic Rhythm - Ml(a) JX • J 1 O • o o • • Speech Rhythm Melodic Rhythm - M2(a) Speech Rhythm A-gbo-gho ya-nu di A-gbo-gho ya-nu-di J na 1 - bu o- bi mu u r n J . s 1 - bu o-bi mu. n'u-wa u - wa 171 FIG. 23 THE.CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MELODIC CONTOUR AND SPEECH TONES IN MARRIAGE MUSIC M l B WORDS: Agbogho yanu - d i M2 c O \ B A \ G f F \ A E v V / \ D V 0 mu na u - wa ! • — G F E D C v V M3 yeanua - d i 1 7 2 M e l o d i c R h y t h m - M 3 ( a 1 \X f \N \ d i , ^ - gbo - y ' a n u ' a -M--gbo - y a - n u ' a - d i A l t o g e t h e r , t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y o f t h e S p e e c h R h y t h m m a r r i a g e music i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d as i t f o l l o w s the r i s e and f a l l o f t h e speech tones b u t the rhythms o f melody and words do n o t agree e s p e c i a l l y i n M2(a) and M3(a) when t h e rhythms a r e compared. I n t h e case o f Ml ( a ) t h e r e i s p a r t i a l agreement i n t h e f i r s t f o u r b e a t s b u t d i s a g r e e s from t h e f i f t h b e a t onwards. P r a i s e M u s i c P I N w o k a f p N w a A g u o m u O d o g w u E x a m p l e 2 5 ( N w o k a f o , t h e s o n o f A g u o m u , t h e g r e a t ) P 2 N w e k e D i k e A n a ( N w e k e t h e g r e a t o f t h e l a n d ) P 3 O d o g w u N a A g h a ( T h e g r e a t i n w a r ) E x a m p l e 26 E x a m p l e 2 7 P i i s p r a i s e i n h o n o u r o f a o n e - t i m e g r e a t n a t i v e d o c t o r b y n a m e N w o k a f o w h o c o u l d p e r f o r m g r e a t f e a t s i n h i s d a y s . I t i s a c o m m o n s t o r y t h a t a t h i s d e a t h , i t w a s h a r d t o c o n v i n c e p e o p l e t h a t h e w a s d e a d b e c a u s e o f h i s g r e a t m y s t i c p o w e r s . P 2 i s i n p r a i s e o f a t r a d i t i o n a l r a i n - m a k e r b y n a m e Nweke I t u l u v e r y m u c h f e a r e d a n d r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s p o w e r s i n c a u s i n g r a i n . T h i s p o s i t i o n e a r n e d h i m a l o t o f h a t r e d b e c a u s e e v e n w h e n h e i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e , p e o p l e a c c u s e h i m o f c a u s i n g r a i n t o s p o i l t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . P 3 i s a p r a i s e m u s i c f o r t h e k i n g f o r h i s g r e a t n e s s i n f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t TABLE XII. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF MARRIAGE MUSIC .PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE Ml Essence of marriage for g i r l s The spinsters Variable - Good behaviour by g i r l s in order to qualify for marriage Evenings or during festivals M2 Courtship and assurance of economic security i n marriage it M Sincerity Parents approval Evenings M3 The joy in having a husband n High res-pect for the married ones Best wishes for the married for raising a family of their own Par tner sh ip in labour, occu-^ -pation and l i f e Evenings 174 s o c i a l e v i l s throughout Igbo land. Therefore, t h i s music should not be taken for praising his greatness i n warfare for Eze Nri by t r a d i t i o n had never been a warrior but rather he i s a peace maker and the s p i r i t u a l potentate i n Igbo land. The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c melodic contour typology of praise music i s shown i n F i g . 24. OBSERVATIONS ON THE MELODIC CONTOURS OF PRAISE MUSIC  PIECE NO. CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTION PI (a) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c contour of eight tones. (b) Rising + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g contour of seven tones. P2 (a) F a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g contour of f i v e tones. (b) Descending contour of four tones. (c) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g contour of f i v e tones. P3 (a) F a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g contour of ten tones. (b) Rising + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g contour of ten tones. Altogether, the melodic contour typology of praise music shows the following deductions: 1. The r i s i n g , f a l l i n g and s t a t i c contour move-ments are common to a l l the pieces with clusters of tones ranging from four to ten tones. 175 FIG. 24 THE CHARACTERISTIC MELODIC CONTOUR . TYPOLOGY IN PRAISE MUSIC P I G •- -• F E r— \ o- o D / / • C (b) G F r E / <•— \ D i ,o-C V « (c) A O G F \ E C 176 FIG. 24 CONTD. ( a ) c A G • \ •* +. • F \ / y / E \ / \ 1 D V J k t -o C • (b) c (X A / s G V s •\ A F y \ \ r E \ I \ D \ o-J \ \ C • 177 2. There i s g r a v i t a t i o n towards 'C i n P I , 'C i n P2, and 'C i n P3. 3. The i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s : major 2nds, minor 3 r d s , major 3 r d s , p e r f e c t 4ths and p e r f e c t 5 t h s . THE FREQUENCY OF TONE OCCURRENCE IN PRAISE MUSIC PIECE NO. C D E F G A B i C SCALE - MODE P I 37 58 5 2 17 - - -: 5 - tone s c a l e P2 18 - 37 3 37 23 - -- 5 _ II II P3 52 203 - 50 209 17 - 6 6 - tone s c a l e TOTAL 107 258 42 55 263 40 - 6 I n summary, th e most f r e q u e n t l y used tone i n p r a i s e music i s G, f o l l o w e d p r o c e d u r a l l y by D, C, F, E and A w i t h a range o f f i v e t o s i x t o n e - s c a l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement and speech tones i n p r a i s e m usic, i s shown i n F i g . 25. F u r t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e rhythms o f melody and words are shown below f o r comparison: • • • • M e l o d i c Rhythm - P l ( a Speech Rhythm O 4 §t ' O Nwo - kar - fo nw'a- guo -m'o - do-gwu .J j ; ; J. J : Nwo - ka - fo nw'a-guo m'o - do gwu M e l o d i c Rhythm - P2(a) « J J J J • • O • • Nwe - ke d i ce'a - na Speech Rhythm \ m Nwe • ke I i di-ke 'a- na 178 FIG. 25 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE MELODIC CONTOUR AND SPEECH TONES IN PRAISE MUSIC P I G -• 1 a F E V / r- \ O D \ / C V - y .N WORDS: G T r E / * — D i £>-C >J s P I WORDS: J i - de k i - j i n i - n i n - mo P2 A jtra. G • / >*— '•s F T \ E V • C WORDS: NWe - ke di 1 - ke'a - na A G F \ E > C WORDS: Di - ke j i ' o - ge 179 FIG. 25 CONTD. (a) c A G • i M F \ 1 / \ A E v / v 1 \ D \ n / y> t o \ G > \ s / \ V • P3 WORDS 180 M e l o d i c Rhythm = P3(a) J J o Speech Rhythm E- ze n'u luo - ram E ze ya d i n - du 1 J On t h e whole, i t i s t h e t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s o f the Igbo words t h a t c o n t r o l t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement i n p r a i s e music. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e rhythms o f melody and words do n o t always agree as shown i n t h e examples P I ( a ) and P2(a) where t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t i n t h e d u r a t i o n o f b e a t , w h i l e i n example P3(a) t h e r e i s p e r f e c t agreement between the rhythms o f the two. F u r t h e r , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p r a i s e m u s i c i s shown i n T a b l e X I I I . M u sic f o r Age-grade A c t i v i t y A l A2 A3 Ogbp A n y i , Ogbo Odogwu Example 28 (Our Age-grade, t h e age-grade o f t h e g r e a t ) Odu Onye Naga? (Who i s p a s s i n g ? ) Uyawul Yawul I t o l u g o (Hey! Have you r e a c h e d t h e growth) Example 29 Example 3 0 These t h r e e p i e c e s o f music r e f l e c t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f the c o n c e p t o f age-grade i n N r i t r a d i t i o n . A l e x p r e s s e s the g r e a t n e s s o f an age-grade i n t h e S o c i e t y because t h e p h i l -osophy b e h i n d t h e f o r m a t i o n of age-groups encourages and e x p e c t s g r e a t achievement and a h i g h sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among members o f the same age i n o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e t h e i r use-f u l n e s s , r e s p e c t and r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e community. A2 i s a n i g h t watch-man's music as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d under the s o c i o -TABLE XIII FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF PRAISE MUSIC PIECE NO. ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION RECIPIENT SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS ECONOMIC VALUE PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE PI The praise of hero The hero and the community Variable To be merited by the hero Acceptance and respect for the hero and encouragement to be hero in one's occupa-tion or pro-fession High stand-ards and perfection in occupat-ions or pro-fessions Evenings or festivals P2 II it it i i n P3 Specially for the King's praise The King & Royal family and community it Noble and reverent High respect and obedience to the King Evenings and festivals 182 183 c u l t u r a l r o l e . A3 r e f l e c t s c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h age-grade members o c c a s i o n a l l y ask one another t o t e s t q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s and a b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n f e a t s i n w r e s t l i n g , masquerading, d a i l y o c c u p a t i o n o r m a r r i a g e p l a n s and t i t l e - t a k i n g . I n some c a s e s , t h i s c h a l l e n g i n g music can be d i r e c t e d t o non members o f the age-grade o r t o the growing youths t o h u r r y and q u a l i f y f o r membership and o t h e r m a s c u l i n e f e a t s and a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s o c i e t y . The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y of age-grade music i s i n F i g . 26 f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . .OBSERVATIONS ON THE MELODIC CONTOUR TYPOLOGY OF AGE-GRADE MUSIC p I E C E NO. : CONTOUR TYPOLOGY DESCRIPTION A l (a) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g c o n t o u r o f seven t o n e s . A2 . (a) R i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . (b) S t a t i c + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l -i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f seven t o n e s . A3 (a) R i s i n g + s t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f e i g h t t o n e s . (b) S t a t i c + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + r i s i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r o f seven t o n e s . On t h e whole, d e d u c t i o n s from t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movements show t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. The r i s i n g + f a l l i n g + s t a t i c c o n t o u r move-ment i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o a l l t h e age-grade music w i t h a range o f c l u s t e r s o f 184 2. There i s gravitation towards 'E' i n A l , 'E' i n A2(a), *E' i n A2 (b) , 'C i n A3(a) and G i n A3(b). 3. The i n t e r v a l i c structure includes the follow-ing: major 2nds, minor 3rds, major 3rds and perfect 4ths. The analysis of the frequency of tone occurrence i s as follows: FREQUENCY OF TONE OCCURRENCE IN AGE GRADE MUSIC  PIECE NO. C D E F: G A : B SCALE - MODE Al A2 A3 ; 2 204 3 30 23 42 12 9 42 60 85 56 24 41 10 68 -3 - tone scale 6 - " 6 - tone scale TOTAL 206 33 77 51 201 141 -Deductions from the frequency of tone occurrence show that the most frequently used tone i s *C' followed procedurally by G, A, E, F with *D* as the least i n use. Altogether, the scale-mode ranges from 3 - 6 tone scale. The relationships between the melodic contour movement and the speech tones are shown i n F i g . 27. In addition, the relationships between the rhythms of melody and speech are shown below: 185 FIG. 27 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MELODIC MOVEMENT AND THE SPEECH TONES IN AGE-GRADE 1 MUSIC A Ps 4 / f \ V V WORDS: QX gboa-nyib-gbp-dcr-gwu-o 1 186 Melodic Rhythm - Al(a) 1- S £ J J 1 1 • o • o • • • Speech Rhythm Melodic Rhythm - A2(a)J J Speech Rhythm  Melodic Rhythm  Speech Rhythm • • O o • O O O-duo- - nye na - ga u - u' / • • J \ • 1 • y -p-du' o nye na - ga u \ 1 J x • 1-to-- lu -go 1--to- lu go r s / On the whole, the melodic contour typology of age-grade music i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y determined as they follow the r i s e and f a l l of the tonal i n f l e c t i o n s i n Igbo words. The relationships between the rhythms of melody and speech tones show exact agreement i n a l l the three examples: A l , A2, and A3 for the f i r s t time. The analysis of function i s shown i n Table XIV. -TABLE XXV FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF AGE-GRADE MUSIC, PIECE NO. Al A2 A3 ETHNOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICATION To increase the morale of the age-grade Night watch-fulness Challenge on maturity i n age RECIPIENT Members of the group and community the The con-cerned individ-uals SOCIAL STATUS OF PERFORMER Variable Variable Variable SOCIAL NORM EXPECTATIONS Occasional perfor-mance-Personal Members within the same age-grade most of the time Increase in the morale of the group Warding off sleep and scaring thieves away Showing maturity ECONOMIC VALUE Corpora-tions Maintenance of security Encourages hard work PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE Age grade meetings or during festivals and ceremonies Night hours Evenings or during age-grade meetings 188 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y , a t t e m p t s t o answer the p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l d i s c o u r s e ; espec-i a l l y t he q u e s t i o n on whether the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s of ubo-aka music p o s s e s s m u s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e p e c u l i a r t o them r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t he a n a l y s i s of t h e m u s i c a l parameters w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y , f r e q u e n c y o f tone o c c u r r e n c e and i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t he f i n d i n g s show t h a t a l l t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s , d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n the s o c i e t y have a l o t i n common i n terms o f m u s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F o r example, t h e r e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c employment o f d e s c e n d i n g , a s c e n d i n g and s t a t i c m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y common t o a l l t h e m u s i c a l t y p e s . T h i s common c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e s , f r e q u e n c y o f tone o c c u r r e n c e and i n t h e use o f c o m b i n a t i o n s o f scale-mode. A l s o i n terms of s t y l i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o n e s , r e p e t i t i o n o f m e l o d i c f i g u r e s and r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s are common f e a t u r e s which a r e v e r y c l e a r i n t h e s c o r e s . I n terms o f t h e s c a l a r s t r u c t u r e t h e r e a r e combina-t i o n s o f scale-modes among t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the p r o v e r b i a l music t h a t c o n f i n e d i t s e l f o n l y t o f o u r - t o n e s c a l e mode i n a l l t h e examples. The use o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r mode on t h e c o n t r a r y , i s not p e c u l i a r t o 189 p r o v e r b i a l m u s i c . F o r example, 7 5% o f the r e l i g i o u s music used f o u r - t o n e s c a l e , 25% of the ' i n f o r m a t i o n m u s i c ' i s i n f o u r - t o n e s c a l e w h i l e 40% o f the de a t h music bases a l s o on t h i s mode. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p r a i s e , age-grade and e t h i c a l music w h i c h d i d n ot use t h e s c a l e , a t o t a l o f 36.6% of the e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r employed t h e f o u r - t o n e scale-mode. Moreover, t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e f o u r - t o n e s t r u c t u r e i s not u n i f o r m t o a l l t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s . I t i s o n l y i n the p r o v e r b i a l music t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n s remain c o n s i s t e n t o f C, E, G, A. I n the same way, f i v e - t o n e scale-mode i s common t o the r e l i g i o u s , i n f o r m a t i o n , d e a t h , e t h i c a l , m a r r i a g e and p r a i s e m u s i c a l t y p e s and a l s o r e p r e s e n t s 36.6% o f t h e e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e . On the o t h e r hand, t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e mode i s p e c u l i a r t o i n f o r m a t i o n music and t h e age-grade music r e p r e s -e n t i n g 6.6% o f t h e e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e . F u r t h e r , the s i x - t o n e scale-mode i s common t o age-grade and m a r r i a g e music o n l y c o n s t i t u t i n g 13.3% o f t h e whole r e p e r t o i r e . The o n l y s c a l e -mode t h a t i s p e c u l i a r t o a m u s i c a l type i s t h e seven-tone s c a l e i n e t h i c a l music w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s 3.3% o f t h e whole r e p e r t o i r e , and 50% o f the e t h i c a l music a l o n e , b u t t h i s i s not enough t o jump i n t o c o n c l u s i o n t h a t ubo-aka e t h i c a l music i s t he o n l y t y p e t h a t uses seven-tone scale-mode i n N r i c u l t u r e because of t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the numbers o f examples. I n a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v a l i c s t r u c t u r e s such as minor 2nd, major 2nd, minor 3 r d , major 3 r d , p e r f e c t 4 t h and 5 t h are common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n m a j o r i t y of c a s e s . The o n l y two p e c u l i a r 190 i n t e r v a l s a r e the minor 6 t h i n dea t h music and minor 7 t h i n m a r r i a g e music. N e v e r t h e l e s s what t h e s e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s share i n common i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms o f s o n i c frame-work a l o n e . I n vi e w of t h i s , t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s o n i c o r d e r a l o n e i n t h e s e g r o u p i n g s a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o c l a s s i f y o r d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e them. Throughout t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s , t h e d e d u c t i o n s from a t o t a l o f 35 examples o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t y p o l o g y and the speech t o n e s , show t h a t a l l t h e examples o f m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movements a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d as th e y f o l l o w t h e r i s e and f a l l o f Igbo t o n a l language f o r e x p r e s s i o n and mean-i n g . Even the tones t o whi c h o t h e r s g r a v i t a t e s h o u l d n o t be c o n c e i v e d as an i s o l a t e d t o n a l c e n t r e i n a modal s t r u c t u r e b u t r a t h e r as c e n t r e s o f l i n g u i s t i c themes wh i c h a re t h e c a r d i n a l words. F o r example, i n R 4 ( a ) , the mode i s 'Do' mode and n ot ' S o l ' mode b u t t h e g r a v i t a t i o n o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movements tends t o 'G' whi c h c a r r i e s the major word (or words) i n t h e t e x t : I g a - a d i (You w i l l l i v e ) . Other examples i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : F i g . 15: 'C i n F(a) c o n t a i n i n g 'Eke" w h i c h i s t h e l i n g u i s t i c theme; F i g . 17: 'G' i n D2(a) c o n t a i n s t h e speech theme"mmo"(the l a n d o f t h e dead) e t c . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t can f a l l on t h e t o n a l c e n t r e p r o p e r j u s t as i t can f a l l on any tone on the b a s i s o f t h e i m p o r t a n t v e r b a l message t h a t r e v o l v e s around o r on i t as i n F i g . 12: R2(a) where t h e g r a v i t a t i o n i s towards 'C' whi c h i s c o i n c i d e n t a l l y t h e t o n a l 191 c e n t r e "a nom n'onwu" (I am i n d e a t h ) . I n t h i s way t h e g r a v i t a t i o n s a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s show t h a t t h e r e i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the rhythms o f melody and speech e i t h e r i n p a r t o r i n f u l l (or not a t a l l ) as the case may be. Thus t h e d e d u c t i o n s o u t o f t wenty-f i v e examples o f m e l o d i c and speech rhythm g r o u p i n g s , show t h a t 40% agreed i n r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n w h i l e the r e s t d i s a g r e e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t always t h a t rhythms o f melody and speech agree and y e t t h e words can be u n d e r s t o o d c l e a r l y w h i c h shows t h a t t h e d e v i a t i o n s whenever they o c c u r are n o t f a r removed t o e f f e c t d i s t o r t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s f l e x i b i l i t y i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m u s i c a l parameters as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , l a c k o f s t a n d a r d -i z a t i o n i n t u n i n g o f t h e keys o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n c o n s i s t e n c y and changes i n s o n i c framework. On t h e whole, d e d u c t i o n s show t h a t t h e m u s i c a l parameters can change but not t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r o l e s and a l l t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the e x t r a m u s i c a l c o n t e n t by w h i c h th e m u s i c a l t y p e s a r e s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d and i d e n t i f i e d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on t h e a n a l y s i s o f f u n c t i o n . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y does n o t c l a i m t o be e x h a u s t i v e , i t p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i -a t i o n o f ubo-aka m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n N r i c u l t u r e , and s e r v e s as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y i n t o t h e m u s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t and the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e m u s i c a l c u l t u r e s o f N i g e r i a , A f r i c a and t h e C a r i b b e a n s . 192 I t i s f e l t t h a t some of t h e a r e a s n o t t r e a t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n b u t w h i c h c o u l d be t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t of f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . a r e e v o l u t i o n , h i s t o r y , c o m p o s i t -i o n a l t e c h n i q u e , t h e o r y and m e l o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f ubo-aka music. 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E d i t e d by D a v i d S i l l s . The M a c m i l l a n Co. and The Free P r e s s 14: 545-546, Watermann, R i c h a r d A. 1952 " A f r i c a n I n f l u e n c e on t h e Music of the A m e r i c a s , A c c u l t u r a t i o n i n The A m e r i c a s . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . 200 Websters New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e E n g l i s h 1951 Language. S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : G & C Merriam Co. W i e s c h h o f f , H.A. 1941 " S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Names Among t h e Ibo o f N i g e r i a " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 43: 212 201 APPENDICES Page I IGBO TONAL ORGANIZATION 202 II NOTES ON TAPE RECORDING 205 III SOME ADDITIONAL TEXTS 210 IV THE TRANSCRIPTIONS 212 1. Religious Music 213 2. Information 231 3. Death 244 4. Ethics 256 5. Sayings 267 6. Marriage 272 7. Praise 278 8. Age-grade Music 300 202 APPENDIX I IGBO TONAL ORGANIZATION THE ORTHOGRAPHY The o f f i c i a l o r t h o g r a p h y uses t h e Roman l e t t e r s w i t h d i a c r i t i c marks i n a d d i t i o n t o c o m b i n a t i o n s o f some s p e c i f i c l e t t e r s f o r s p e c i a l t o n a l e f f e c t s . ( R e f e r t o the Igbo A l p h a b e t below.) IGBO ALPHABET: a b gb d e f g gh h i j k 1 m n o o P r s sh t u u w y z gw kw nw ny. kp V VOWELS a e i i u u o ENGLISH EQUIVALENT h a t n e t meet s i t b o l d f o o d mug ho t IGBO a l a (land) nne (mother) j i (yam) i t a ( o r a c l e ) obodo (town) une ( m u s i c a l bow) umu ( c h i l d r e n ) oyo (shaker) CONSONANTS The sound i s t h e same as i n E n g l i s h : b, d, f , g, h, j , k, 1, m, n, p, r , s, t , v, w, y, z, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o l l o w -i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s ch, gw, gb, gh, kw, nw, ny, and n (as i n n ) F o r example: ch as i n c h u r c h kw as i n Quarker gh as i n hugh nw as i n nwanyi (woman) kp as i n akpa (bag) gb as i n egbe (gun) I n a d d i t i o n "kp" sounds o p e n - e x p l o s i v e "gb" sounds m u t e - e x p l o s i v e . TONAL INFLECTION Igbo Language i s t o n a l w hich depends on t h e r i s e and f a l l i n p i t c h of v a r i o u s s y l l a b l e s i n a word f o r meaning. F o r example, t h e b i - s y l l a b i c morpheme: "1-gwe" has t h r e e d i f f e r e n t meanings depending on t h e t o n a l i n f l e c t i o n : 1 gwe = ( h i g h - mid tone) sky / \ 1 gwe = ( h i g h - low tone) i r o n ^ \ 1 gwe = (low - low tone) m u l t i t u d e , many F u r t h e r example: Eze = ( h i g h - low) K i n g Eze = ( h i g h - mid) t e e t h , e t c . On t h e whole, t h e r e a r e t h r e e tones i n Igbo Language namely 1. H i g h Tone ( i n d i c a t e d by t h e Acute Accent^) 2. Low Tone ( i n d i c a t e d by t h e Grave A c c e n t M 3. Mid Tone (or S t e p Tone) ( b l a n k o r i n d i c a t e d by a dash a b o v e ) . 204 The H i g h and t h e Low tones can be e i t h e r preceeded o r f o l l o w e d by each o t h e r , b u t t h e mid tone o r t h e s t e p s t o n e u s u a l l y f o l l o w s t h e h i g h tone from w h i c h i t s t e p s down. These t h r e e l e v e l s o f tones a r e n o t f i x e d ; t h ey are b e t t e r c o n c e i v e d as bands o f tones t o accommodate p i t c h a p p r o x i m a t i o n s by d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s . 205 APPENDIX II NOTES ON TAPE RECORDING Tape 1:A, No. 1, Ref. No. Rl (Example 1) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: N'iru Iyio Agbadana-Nri Okoye Akpagu Clement Ezegbe September, 197 0 Tape 1:A, No. 2, Ref. No. R2 (Example 2) O Chi Anom N'onwu Obeagu-Nri Isaiah Okeke Clement Ezegbe November 10, 1966 Tape 1:A, No. 3, Ref. No. R3 Iga Adi Uruoji-Nri Muokwe Ichoku Clement Ezegbe January 3, 1970 Tape 1:A, No. 4, Ref. No. R4 Iga Adi Ndu Di Enu Agbadana-Nri Okoye Akpagu Clement Ezegbe September, 1970 Tape 1:B, No. 1, Ref. No. F l Eke Elue Agbadana-Nri Ayika Ejiaka Clement Ezegbe June 4, 1968 Tape 1:B, No. 2, Ref. No. F2 Ife Ne'me N'uwa Agbadana-Nri Ayika Ejiaka Clement Ezegbe June 4, 1968 (Example 3) (Example 4) (Example 5) (Example 6) 206 Tape 1:B, No. 3, Ref. No. F3 (Example 7) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Alu Ka Omelu Uruoj i - N r i Nwangene Obed Echeta Clement Ezegbe July 15, 1972 Tape 1:B, No. 4, Ref. No. F4 T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Onye-ori Agbadana-Nri Okoye Akpagu Clement Ezegbe September, 197 0 Tape 2:A, No. 1, Ref. No. Dl T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Onwu Amaro Dike Obeagu-Nri Abel Okeke Okafo Levi O j i March 14, 1977 Tape 2:A, No. 2, Ref. No. D2 T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Qna Mmo Diodo (Akamkpisi)-Nri John Agbatalu Levi O j i February 16, 1977 Tape 2:A, No. 3, Ref. No. D3 T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Alu Erne Muo Urupji-Nri Nwangene Obed Echeta Clement Ezegbe July 15, 1972 Tape 2:A, No. 4, Ref. No. D4 (Example 8) (Example 9) (Example 10) (Example 11) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Ewu Nwannem Kamalu Ife Agbadana Onwura Nwokike Clement Ezegbe July 6, 197 5 (Example 12) Melunu Tape 2:A, No. 5, Ref. No. D5 (Example 13) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Ifu Ife Onwu Neme Uruoj i - N r i Muokwe Icheoku Clement Ezegbe January, 1970 207 Tape 2:B, No. 1, Ref. No. E l (Example 14) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Nwakaego Atulu Ime Agbadana-Nri Nweke Nwaku Gwamniru Ezegbe February, 1977 Tape 2:B, No. 2, Ref. No. E2 (Example 15) A g a d i Nwanyi Urupj i - N r i Muokwe Icheoku Clement Ezegbe January 3, 1970 Tape 2:B, No. 3, Ref. No. D3 (Example 16) D i Nwe Unp Agbadana-Nri A y i k a E j i a k a Clement Ezegbe June 4, 1968 Tape 2:B, No. 4, Ref. No. E4 (Example 17) Ezigbo Nwa Ka Ubo Nakpp Agbadana-Nri Nweke Nwaku Gwamniru Ezegbe February, 1977 Tape 3:A, No. 1, Ref. No. SI (Example 18) Enenie Nwa Ite Ogbanyualugi Oku Obeagu-Nri Isaiah Okeke Clement Ezegbe November 10, 1966 Tape 3:A, No. 2, Ref. No. S2 (Example 19) Ebe Onye B i Ka Qna Awachi Obeagu-Nri Isaiah Okeke Clement Ezegbe November 10, 1966 Tape 3:A, No. 3, Ref. No. S3 (Example 20) Kabia, Kabia N'alu Awp Ya Epuna Odudu Obeagu-Nri Abel Okeke Okafp Levi Oj J March, 1977 208 Tape 3:A, No. 4, Ref. No. S4 (Example 21) T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: T i t l e : Place: Performer: Collected by: Date: Qku Rua Nwata Nke I z i z i Omalu Ife Uruoji-Nri Muokwe Icheoku Clement Ezegbe January 3, 1970 Tape 3:B, No. 1, Ref. No. Ml (Example 22) Agbogho Ya Nu Di Agbadana-Nri Nweke Nwaku Gwamniru Ezegbe February, 1977 Tape 3:B, No. 2, Ref. No. M2 (Example 23) Nee Obim Agbadana-Nri Ayika Ejiaka Clement Ezegbe June 4, 1968 Tape 3:B, No. 3, Ref. No. M3 (Example 24) Mgboye Enwee Di Agbadana-Nri Okoye Akpagu Clement Ezegbe August 15, 1971 Tape 4:A, No. 1, Ref. No. PI (Example 25) Nwokafo Nwa Aguomu Odogwu Agbadana-Nri Okoye Akpagu Clement Ezegbe August 15, 1971 Tape 4:A, No. 2, Ref. No. P2 (Example 26) Nweke Dike Ana Uruoji-Nri Nwangene Obed Echeta Clement Ezegbe July 5, 1972 Tape 4:A, No. 3, Ref. No. P3 (Example 27) Odogwu Nagha Agbadana-Nri Ayika Ejiaka Clement Ezegbe January, 1969 209 T a p e 4 : B , N o . 1 , R e f . N o . A l ( E x a m p l e 2 8 ) T i t l e : Q g b o A n y i Q g b o O d o g w u P l a c e : U r u o j i - N r i P e r f o r m e r : G a b r i e l O b i d i k e C o l l e c t e d b y : L e v i O j i D a t e : M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 7 7 T a p e 4 : B , N o . 2 , R e f . N o . A 2 ( E x a m p l e 2 9 ) T i t l e : Q d u O n y e N a g a ? P l a c e : A g b a d a n a - N r i P e r f o r m e r s : ( 1 ) N i c h o l a s O k e c h u k w u M m a n k p ( u b o - a k a ) ( 2 ) B e n e d i c t E z e g b e ( v o i c e ) C o l l e c t e d b y : L e v i O j i D a t e : M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 7 7 T a p e 4 : B , N o . 2 , R e f . N o . A 3 ( E x a m p l e 3 0 ) T i t l e : U y a w u ! U y a w u l I t o l u g o P l a c e : A g b a d a n a - N r i P e r f o r m e r : N i c h o l a s O k e c h u k w u M m a n k o C o l l e c t e d b y : L e v i O j i D a t e : M a r c h , 1 9 7 7 210 A P P E N D I X I SOME A D D I T I O N A L I g a - A d i I g a a d i I g a a d i t u e mu u g o I g a a d i k a n k a u w a I g a a d i n ' e n w e i f e O n y e o r i O n y e o r i o k w a g i n ' e z u e g h u a n y i O n y e - o r i o k w a g i n ' e z u e f i a n y i O n y e - o r i n g a k a k a i g a e j e l i l i O n y e - o r i o k w a g i n ' e g w u j i a n y a O n y e - o r i n g a k a i g a e j e l i l i . O n w u A m a r o D i k e O n w u a m a r o d i k e Onwu n a e g b u n u O n w u a m a r o d i k e . N w a k a e g o A t u l u Ime N w a k a e g o a t u l u i m e M g b e mu y a a g w a y a o b e b e a k w a I f e n a erne n ' e n u u w a t a I T E X T S Y o u w i l l l i v e Y o u w i l l l i v e a n d a d o r n me w i t h e a g l e f e a t h e r s Y o u w i l l l i v e a n d a t t a i n o l d a g e o f t h e w o r l d Y o u w i l l l i v e a n d b e p o s s e s s i n g t h i n g s Y o u t h i e f y o u a r e t h e o n e t h a t s t e a l s o u r g o a t s Y o u t h i e f , y o u a r e t h e o n e t h a t s t e a l s o u r c o w Y o u t h i e f y o u m u s t g o t o p r i s o n Y o u t h i e f y o u a r e t h e o n e t h a t h a r v e s t s o u r y a m s Y o u t h i e f y o u m u s t g o t o p r i s o n . D e a t h d o e s n o t k n o w t h e b r a v e D e a t h k i l l s D e a t h d o e s n o t k n o w t h e b r a v e . N w a k a e g o i s p r e g n a n t W h e n s h e i s t o l d , s h e c r i e s T h i n g s h a p p e n i n t h i s w o r l d t o d a y 2 1 1 N w a k a e g o K p a c h a l u a n y a . M3 M g b o y e E n w e D i M g b o y e e n w e d i M g b o y e a n u a d i D i oma d i mma n ' u w a . P I N w o k a f o N w a A g u o m u O d o g w u N w o k a f g n w a A g u o m u o d o g w u J i d e k a i j i N i r u mmo. P 2 N w e k e D i k e A n a N w e k e d i k e a n a N w e k e d i k e j i o g e N w e k e , i k e n a a l i o j i N w e k e g i j i d e k a i j i . A l O g b o A n y i Q g b o A d o g w u O g b o a n y i , o g b o o d o g w u O g b o a n y i o g b o n e t u e g o O g b o a n y i o g b o n ' e n w e e g o . N w a k a e g o , b e c a r e f u l . M g b o y e h a s g o t a h u s b a n d M g b o y e i s m a r r i e d A g o o d h u s b a n d i s g o o d i n t h i s w o r l d . N w o k a f o , t h e s o n o f A g u o m u , t h e g r e a t H o l d f a s t t o y o u r b e h a v i o u r B e f o r e t t h e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . N w e k e , t h e g r e a t o f t h e l a n d N w e k e , t h e g r e a t t h a t h o l d s t h e t i m e N w e k e , t h e p o w e r t h a t c l i m b s t h e i r o k o t r e e N w e k e , h o l d o n t o y o u r b e h a v i o u r . O u r a g e - g r a d e i s t h e ' g r e a t a g e - g r a d e O u r a g e g r a d e i s t h e a g e -g r a d e t h a t g i v e s m o n e y O u r a g e - g r a d e i s t h e a g e -g r a d e t h a t h a s m o n e y . 212 T H E T R A N S C R I P T I O N S 213 Rl N ' i r u I y i o Example 1 VOICE LANGUAGE UBO-AKA G • * * • F * E D • • • C • - • • B A * * O 0 G • • • • G • • 1 « F * E D • • C • f B A 0 0 o 0 # 0 0 G • • • 214 i R l Contd. y J J 10 G • • F # E D • • • C • • • B A 0 O # 0 o o G • • • 7 l be* j e - b e rt't-TlU-^.Uio G 0 • • F 1 * E D • • C • • • B A o * • O o • o 0 G • • • 215 2 1 6 i R l Contd. 1—•-— 1 ' i d * j e - be je- be rt i _ ruji-Pio G • = • F E D • • C • • B A O o o o 0 G • • • 217 i R l Contd. G • • F E D • • • C • • • B A 0 o 0 o G • • • G • • F E D # • C • • B A 0 0 o o 0 o G • • • 218 R 1 Contd, ^ 3 -fc=fc 2 J i «_ lU-TUl-G • 1 • F fe t E D • • • C • • • B A 0 O 0 0 t 0 G • • • 3 •y.O ke-je- b& j e ^ be- ke-je- be je<- be* G • « 1 1 = F 1 E D • • C • • B A O 0 O 1 O O / G • • < • 219 220 i R l Contd. rucu - Lit-si 2 ke-je-be je-be-G F • • —" • E D • • C • • • B A 0 O o o o G • • • G • F E D • C B A 0 o G • R2 221 C h i Anom No'nwu Example 2 LANG: o - cks im fe - W G • • • E • • D o o o o o C O o o 0 - cKi . Q-YKL . 0 chia.— norarYo G • • • • • E • • • D O 0 o C o • R2 C o n t d . 222 LA1S(G: G « • • E • • • D O 0 o o o o G O 0 o o - C h i - r u o e k ^ t - f e one TOT G • • • • • E • • • D 0 o o C o o G • • • E • • • D O o 0 o o C 0 o G E • • D O O o o C O o o o 223 R3 LANG:' Ig a A d i Example 3 E O 0 o • 111* D — • 1 * * C • • • 9 B A • G • f E 0 o 1 o D • r E C • • = • B A • • * • E 0 O o o D • G • • a • B A G • • E o o' 0 D • — C B • • • • A • 224 B 225 R3 c o n t d . E O O o o D = * C = • • • • B A o p G • 226 R3 c o n t d . E O O o D C • • • • B A • G • -E o o o 1—I o D C • • • B A - • <• • E O o o D • c | • • • m B A • G 1- <\0u c U jrv - IX-E . 227 R4 I g a A d i Ndu D i Enu Example 4 ^ N G ; _ _ _ . . . 1 ~ 3 0 - . - .dirt, - .clu- ' I 7 a a * - e ll B t A * G • • • • • • F E • • • D t C 0 • B f A o 0 0 G • • • • • F E • • D * C t -fp, • B A 0 0 o 0 o G • • • • • F E • • 0 • D C • 1A O o o o o o 3G • • • • • IF E • D -C • 228 R4 Contd. B A o o G • • • • • • F E • • • D C • B A o o o o G • • • • • F E • • D C • B A O o 0 G • • • • • F E • m • D C • • r r O o o l G • • 0 • • r E • m • D V • 229 R4 Contd. B 0 0 A 4 o o 0 G • • m 9 • 0 • F E • • D • 0 C • • • B = 0 ; A o o 0 o o o o o G • • • • F E • • • D * C « B > • 0 A 0 o o o 0 G • • • - 9 • F E • • D • C 0 • 9 B 1 A o o O 0 1 G • • • 0 9 I F E • 0 D « • 230 R4 Ccn t d i B - — A O o • G • • • • • F E • • 0 D C • B A 0 O o o G • • • • • F E • • D C B A O o o o o G • • • • F E • • • D C • 1" 9 0 1 A • 0 o f |G • • • • F E • • D 4 t • * \aaak F l 231 Eke E l u e Example 5 ( * c 3 • * • • » • A • • • G * * X t ® <2> S > 4 fl C • * • • • • A • • • G # >• • X 111 * » ® ® (5 • C • • • • • A • • • • G ;>-X 1 0 • ft c • * • • A • m • • G * >• X * 232 F l Contd. c — • • • • • A • • • • G - o X IS $5 - r i c • • • A • • • G O O O O X - • & 0 ff| /•Tt c • • • • A • • • • G o X > 0 .» * 5 2 c • • A • G X 9) R 19 0 2 3 3 F 2 I f e N'eme N'uwa Example 6 .K i „ ^ J . . B « * A t • • • * * • • G • • E o * o C • * o B r H • A • • m m m G • E o 9 o C 0 9 £ — wot — k& B A • • - • • G • ..1 E o C o O B 6 A # • G • • E O o C o o F2 Contd. 234 B A • • * • • G • E o o o C B A • • • • -G • E o C o 0 B • A • • • • • • • G • • E * o • C • B # A • 0 • • G • E i $ o o C * F2 Contd. 235 B A • • • • • G • E o C B A • • G • • E o o C o o -B A • • • • G • • E o o C o o B T A • • 0 • G • E O o C o o F2 Contd. 236 B <5 A * • • • 'o G • • E o C o o B A • • G • • E O o C o o B A • • • • • • G • E o o o C B A • • • G E o o C o F3 237 Alu Ka Gmelu Example 7 u - - r - i • V -• F • E • • • m • • D O 0 o C o o LP. A-ln,U/i.n-mP, 9 - LcUL - nXL-G • 9 • F E • • • • D o o o C O o o A o G • • • • _F E — • • m D o o o C O A 5 A -Lu l i n o - I I I z,o- be, o 238 F3 Contd. i G • — • • — F • E • • • • D 0 o o o C o o o o o a • • • • I — • • • • a o o o 0 0 1 o • • E • • D C o o o M 0 I G 1 E ID 1 a Contd. 240 i • i • 1 r J j i J -1 i i a T I j i rue - 3 ^ - gRXT cu ruji ' D D C B A O O o o G • • • • J r i b - KOI cjc r f i e - . S ^ - CL- OJJL o D • C B A O o G • • • • - • D i C B A O O o o G • • • • F4 Cohtd. 241 i i J J - r .1 J i IB TJZ—ryeb-'r"?- jooa cjt rre - zw&> cjku. r x - r u j i D > • C B A O O O o o G © • • • 1 I J O r rujeio- T i b - KWCL -D C • B A O O o 0 o G • • • • -^ 1 \" I CL-ruji i ft « D C B A O O o o G • • • • • Contd. 242 243 F4 Contd. # D C B A O o o o G • • 4 • • • • D C B A O O o o G • • • D C B A O O G • • DI 244 Onwu Amaro D i k e Example 9 LANG; ' QlWa-WVO cLl-l<&-0 n.WUUim f.-qbutta 0>qi^ ?Q-Wfl-YO fll-ke A • • c • — z • o • A O o o o o o o G • • • • • • • • • • * • E 4 • • • flwu rtae- QburiLiQ-ri LWllQ • irjq-r n C o A o O o O o O G • • • • • • • • • • E • • • • • 1 o o a O O o o o o o o f Z • • • • • 0 • • • • E • • • D2 245 Ona Mmo Example 10 c - 1 • • 1 r • • A • • • • • G • • • E » » D • • • b O o c • • • A • • — • • G • • • E • D - 0 o c • • • • A • - • — • • G • — • • E : • D O 0 O o c • • f A • • 1 • • G • • • • E 1 * D 0 0 D2 Contd. c • • • • A • • * • • • • G • E m • D o o 0 o C A G E D r A G E D D3 247 A l u Eme Mu Example 11 — • D • • • • C 0 • m A o o o # O o G > o 9 O 9 # « • D • • • C • • • A O • # o o o • 0 o G - • o • 9 l U l , * 5 D • • • • • C • — • • A O • O O O G 0 • 4 O D - • • - • C • • A O O O o o G O o 248 D3 contd. • D • • • • • 4 • C • • A O o # o O G • o o -D • • C — • • • A O O o o o G o A - lu e D • • C • • A O O o O O G O o tn.ft - ma Wo- cU - bg, , kJo - cU - ba. - o 249 D4 Ewu Nwarmem Ka malu I f e Melunu Example ]2 G • m r i r " • • — F o • O o E o o D • C • • G • > 9 1 • F o « o E O o o D • C « • G • • — • • F O • O o E O 0 o D > C • 250 D4 c o n t d . Q - 2.Q 0/ • roe, - r u L o G • • F 0 O o o E 0 o o D • • C • G • • _ • m p F o o o E o o o D • C • G © — F O o E o o D • • • • C • • G • • • • — F O O o E O o o D • C • 251 D4 c o n t d , E-U5UL ! ' i ruOon.-nem Q -_ c i t e-- gtou. niOoh n e m G — F. 0 4 o o E 0 0 o o 0 o D C • • o • G • • • • t • • F o o E 0 o 0 D C • G • • 1 • F o 9 o • o E O o o o D i • • C 4 • • G * « F « o o E O o o o o D » * « C » » • • • • 2 5 2 D 5 I f u I f e O n w u N ' e m e . E x a m p l e ] 3 LANG: 1 - - f i n - { e b - q i O i x a e -G E O o o o D • • • • C • • • • • • A - - W i -VP - n>ou- qe - me - nu • i ' 1 * 1 i * i i i i i . n ' l G E o o o o D • • • C • • m A o G E D • • • • C O • • • A o o G E 0 O o o D • • C • • • A o 253 D5 Contd. - -nra - c |uK3 G o E O O O D • • • • C • • • A G • O o E • o o D • • • C • • • • A « n.ft - me n'n- v^a. ae - me-G O f E O - 4) D • • • C • 9 • • A » 3 254 D5 Contd. i G o o E o * o D • • • • C • • • • A G E O 0 o D • • C • • • • A - o G E O O 0 o D • • • C • • • • A - fe Q - fl>ju- aq me G E O O o o o o D • • • • C • • • • A D5 c o n t d . 255 G E D i G » E O o o o D # • C • • • A O G E O 0 o D • • C • • • A & - wioa E O o E l 256 Nwakaego A t u l u Ime LANGfjwct -! late- go a Example ]4 i 1 1 1 1 1 o i — " t - " 4 — i i 1 r — i — i 4 O O k u f o 1 - fa a l e - r o e n J b - n k - u J c L t c u c .0 A 0 G m F 0 o E • • • • D • • t 9 C • t c • A 1 G • • • • • F o E • • • • • D « • « C • • • .1-!c f .o 1 ' * B A * * o 1 * IG • • • F O o E • • D • • # • • 1 * 1 1 • 257 E l c o n t d . c O A O G • • • F o E • 0 • • • D • • f • C t c * A / G • F 0 O E • • • • • D ( • • • C # • • • c • o A 0 o G 0 • • F o E • 0 0 0 D • « 0 C 0 • 0 Ic ff « 0 1 A * G m 0 • F o o o E 0 0 0 ID 0 0 9 0 * 1 1 0 9 0 0 258 E l c o n t d . F E c A G • • • F o E • • • D • C • E2 LANG: ' 259 A g a d i Nwanyi Example 15 D C 0 A 0 0 o o 0 G • • • • • E o o o D • C * 0 A o o o O G I • • * • • E 0 9 - • D - • -C o o A O o o o o G • • • 0 E o p • Q o A o o o G • • • • E O 0 o 260 E2 c o n t d . 1" • c • o A O o o o G • • r • E o f o D • C o f A O o o o G • • • • • E o • • o o D 1^ c o o o A O O O o O O G • • • • • E o 0 D 9 C o o 0 o A o o o G • • • • 0 E O O o 0 261 E2 c o n t d . ' i D • — C • o A o o o o G • • * • • m E O • o o D • C 6 A o o o o o G • • • E D • C • O • A o o o G • • • * • E f o * D = C o A O o o o G • • • E O o o 2 6 2 E3 D i Nwe Uno Example ]6 G 2.) 1 1 l / V * • • • E * • • • • • D O o o o C b 0 o A o G • • E • • • D o o o o o C O o o o A o G • • • • E • • • • D - o o o C o p o A O o G • • • E • • • D o 0 p o C O P p o A E3 Contd. G • • .0 ,0 E • • • 1 0 0 D O o 0 C 0 o f o * * A f » G • • 0 E • • • • * • D O o o o o C o * o o * A * E3 Contd. 264 G • • • E • 4 • • D o o o C O 0 o • o 0 A o G • • • E • t • • • D O o 0 o o o C 0 0 o o A $ G • • • E • • D O o o o 0 o C O 0 o o A G E • • D O o 0 o C o A 265 F4 E z i g b o Nwa Ka Ubo N'akpo Example ]7 C _ .1 LANG; F E D • • • • • • C 0 o o E • A O G • F jrrri o E O -D - - - • • • • • C O O o B - -A O O o G • F _ : E D • -• • - m C o 0 o B • A G JL I F o I E o 1 D • • • C — 0 B • • - r A O o -1 ' • • • E4 Contd. 266 LANG: A -ry\\'e> - je fob - quia nie F E D • • O • C o o o B A o o G • • F O E D • • • • • • C o o o B • A o G • Q - kwanAt — ru|i afe - k-^ it F o E o D • • • • C O O o B A o o o G IF 1 E 1 D • • • 1 C O o o B • A o • 267 SI Enenie Nwa I t e Ogbanyualugi Oku Example 18 p . o - '.qbi 5 A O o • G • • t > • • • E • • • • C • • A O G • • • • 9 • • • • E • i • • C -5 I A o i G • • • • • • • • E • • • • • • C f E 268 S2 Ebe Onye B i Ka Ona Awachi Example 19 I C O J ? - O A -A • G • • • • • • • • o E o o o o C • 1 A o / G • • • • • E o o o o » o 1 C • f « A • G • • • • E o o o o 0 C • • 1 A G E C S3 269 K a b i a K a b i a Example 20 fa 4 i 1 A t O 0 • G 9 • • • • E 0 • • • • • • C » m 9 I - bicLaciLu. CL - uio Qy — coen!o -qe — A < o o G • • • • • 9 E i • • • • 9 • € i iulL -A — O o - - O o o o G • 9 9 • • E • • 9 • • • c • A G • • E • • C 270 S4 Oku Rua Nwata Nke I z i z i Example 21 t).IOL TUbd <cei 7f \ - 9 -It0! Lu * i -— A o o O * o _ G • • • • E 0 o o C 0). • A O O o o G • • E O 0 o o C • • A o o o o G • • • E o o o C • • A O o o o G • • • E O 6 O o C 271 S4 Contd. A ft G • • • • • • E o 0 o 0. o C • • — A O o o o G • • E o o o o 0 • C --A 0 0 o G • • • • E o o o 0 o o o C A G E C M3 272 Mgboye Enwee D i Example 24 LANG G o O F • E D • • C • • • • r • • • • • O o o o o a § 0 o § • • 1 • • • S • • • • • I G o o o F • • • • • • • • • 1" 0 0 o 0 F E o D • • j c | • • SA I • • • • • 273 M3 c o n t d . i G o o F • E D • • C • • • • l A • • • 1 G o o o 0 1 F 1 E o o 1 D • • • • • | A • • • e G j o o F| E| DJ • • c | . • • • • • • • -o 0 o o F E 1 ° • • [ c ~ • - • I- • • • • 274 M3 c o n t d . 1 i G O o o F • E D • • C • • • • • • • • 275 M2 Nee Obim Example 23 c 0 B A G • • F 5 E D • • • • • • • • • c * B V • • -A 0 0 0 G • • F y 0 0 E 4 D • • • • • c « 0 B « • A O G • • • F O E • D • • • m • 276 M2 c o n t d . LANG: c 0 5 o B 4 A G • • F o o E D • • • • • • • • A. bg na. di c » o B » • A O o G • • • • F o E D • • * • • • ChO c -a— • o o B A G • F O o E * D • • • • • • • • c B r G • F O E D • • • • 277 Ml Agbogho Ya Nu D i Example 22 I D 1 • • « • • • • C 0 o B t • • A b 0 - o o • D • t m • • • • • C o o B • A o o o o o no-D • • • • • C o o B • • A o CD o o D • • • C B • A O O P I 278 Nwokafo Nwa Aguomu Odogwu Example 25 G 1 VW • F » • o E o o D o o o o o C # • • G • • F — T -E D « o o o o o o C • • • • G J *• • n I K -F -E O D o 0 o o o O o o C • • • G • • • • F c • E D o o o • . o o C • • • • 4 * • 279 PI c o n t d . i G • • f • F • • E D O o o o 0 o o C • • 4 G • F • : E D O O o o o o o C « • • • G F E D C 280 P2 Nweke D i k e Ana Example 26 A "i O o G • o • • F E • • • • C ^ fce—f V , 3 e , o A r i • o t G • • • • • F E • • • • C • • • A O o G • • • F o • E • • C • 281 P2 co n t d , A o 9 o G • • • • • • F o E • • • • C • • A 1 o O 4> G • T • • F E • • C • • • A O G • • • o F E 9 • • • C • • A O o o O G • • • F E • • • C • • 282 P2 c o n t d . i A o G • • • • F E • • • C • Example 27 c — 4 B A o G 1 • • • • • • F o E b o o o o c • i C B A o o o G • • • • • F O o E D O o C • 283 i P3 Odogwu N'agha 284 P3 Contd. c B A - -G • • • o F o E D O o o o o C • • c B A G • • • • • F o E D o o o o o o C • P3 Contd. 285 t6— •ml— rta,- qHxL C B A G • • • • • F O O E D O O O O C • y 1 1 I' I" 11 I w •• i r • • « « 0 - d j d < j u v L ( ] h -c B A G • • • f ) • F O E D O O O O O 0 C • 286 i i Contd. c B A G • • • • • F O 0 E D O o o - o C • 287 288 i P3 Contd. - • 9— I - Que, kiu> — c u r u t 7 r j vj rl C B A G • • • • • F O o E D O o o o o C • c B A G • • • • • F o E D o o o o o C • 289 i i P3 Contd. c • • B • A O G • • • • • • F E D O o o o C • • • Jp. ^ ^ fe?— 4> c • i B • A O O O o G • • • • m F o E D o o * C • « 290 P3 Contd. c B A o G • • • • • • F O o E D O o o C • Q 0 C B c A O G • • • • • • F o E D O o o C • • 291 292 P3 Contd.' c B A G • • . m • • F o E D O O o o o C • • . J-J j — c B A G • • • • • F o E D O o 0 o o 0 C • 29 3 Contd. CjL tl£y - J©" LU CC-nA)L O-Z^ C B A G • • • • • • F O o E D o o o o C • c B A G • • • • F o E D o O 0 o o o C • 294 i Contd. tr \l ll Is \" v i = 5 = 0 -r c B A G • • • • F E D O 0 0 o o C • • 295 Contd. ± • 1 CL- OXLO • •" *• * • •) ^ c B A G • • • • F o E D O o o o o o c • •75 B E c B A G • • • • • • F O E D O O O 0 C • • 296 t Contd. r • • • •, «p 0- do-qwaoa,- cfua c o o B A G • • • • • F o E D O o o o — C • r B A o o G • • • • • F O 0 E D o o o C • 297 P3 Contd. c - * B • A G • • • • • F o E D • o o C • • • c • O B » A o G • • • • • F o E D • o 0 o o C > • P3 Contd. 298 c B • A G • • o • • • F o E D O o o • o o o C • c * B * A G • • • • • F E • D O O O o o 0 © o o C • • 299 P3 Contd. c B A G • • • • • F 8 E D 0 o o o o o C • IS c B A G • • F E D O O o o o C • 300 A l Ogbo A n y i , Qgbo Odogwu Example 2 8 4 A 0 o 0 o 0 G • • • • z> m • :=> • • • E • • • • o n u A o o O G • • • • • • • =3 • • E • • • • » A 0 G • • • * • E • • 0 • • 302 A2 Contd. A o o o G • .1 • • F o o o E 0 o o o D • • • F 2 o o o G • • • • • • F E 0 - o D C * F" — r -1 (J t o ckL -A o o o G • • • • • • F E o o D C 303 Contd. fe I A. -nui r\fl. - 30. A 0 0 0 G • • • • • • • F 0 E 0 0 F •5- E E 5 A O O G • • • • • • • F O E O D C ^ 5 5 A O O O G • • • • • • F E O O D C 304 A2 Contd. 305 A3 LANG: 306 Uyawu Yawu' I t o l u g o Example.30 A t G O o 1 0 o o 0 o F o E o D C • • A • • • • • • A o G o o o o o F o E. o D o C A • • • • • A o G o o o F o o o o E o D o o 0 C • A • • • • • 1 A 0 o o [G o 0 o IF 0 0 0 IE o D o 0 o C I - • • • • • 307 A3 Contd. A o G O 0. F o o o 0 E o D o o o o C • A • • • • • A G o o o o o F o o o E 0 D o o C • • • • • A O < G o 0 • F 0 0 o E D o o 0 C • A • • • 1 j A I s r E • D C A 

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