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Su-chou T’an-tz’u : an ethnomusicological study of the structural elements of the Chinese southern singing-narratives Tsao, Pen-Yeh Benny 1977

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SU-CHOU T 'AN-TZ 'U: AN ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE CHINESE SOUTHERN SINGING-NARRATIVES by PEN-YEH BENNY TSAO B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Music We accept t h i s t he s i s as conforming to the r equ i r ed standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1977 (cT) Pen-Yen Benny TSAO, 1977 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e fe rence and s tudy. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion f o r e x t en s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copy ing o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l l owed w i thout my w r i t t e n pe rm i s s i on . Department o f Music The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT S t o r y t e l l i n g i s a popular enter ta inment i n a l l pa r t s of Ch ina , and there are almost as many s t y l e s as l o c a l i t i e s . Along the Yangtze R i v e r , w i th Su-chou as the c e n t e r , the main types of s t o r y t e l l i n g i s p'ing-t'an, the Su-chou s t o r y t e l l i n g . P'ing-t'an3 performed i n the Su-chou d i a l e c t , i s a c o l l e c t i v e term denot ing two forms of s t o r y t e l l i n g : p'ing-hua3 n a r r a t i o n w i thout mus ic ; and t'an-tz'u the s i n g i n g n a r r a t i v e . The music of the l a t t e r i s the main concern o f the present study. The methods of t h i s study can be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s . In the I n t r oduc t i on of t h i s t h e s i s , the general h i s t o r y of Chinese s t o r y -t e l l i n g i s o u t l i n e d ; and the r e l e v a n t r e f e rence sources and the purpose, methods and scope of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are d i s cu s sed . Chapter I i s concerned w i t h the h i s t o r y and development of t'an-tz'u.. Chapter II i s subd iv ided i n t o two s e c t i o n s . Sec t i on A d i s cu s se s the f ou r s t r u c -t u r a l elements i n vo l ved i n t'an-tz'u performances: n a r r a t i o n , comic i n s e r t i o n s , s i n g i n g , and in s t rumenta l p l a y i n g . Sec t i on B dea l s w i th the t r a d i t i o n a l process of the t r a i n i n g of p r o f e s s i o n a l t'an-tz'u s i n ge r s . Chapter I I I i n c ludes the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of twelve t'an-tz'u p i e c e s , s e l e c t e d from eleven schools o f s i n g i n g s t y l e s . These p ieces a re . analyzed i n C h a p t e r T V , w i th p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the degrees of c o r r e l a t i o n between Su-chou speech-tones and t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g . i i i To my knowledge: (1) This i s the f i r s t comprehensive analysis made on the structure of t'an-tz'u music in Western l i t e r a t u r e ; (2) the twelve t'an-tz'u pieces to be analyzed have not previously been transcribed into s t a f f notat ion; and (3) the study on the degrees of cor re la t ion between Su-chou speech-tones and t'an-tz'u music i s the f i r s t attempt made on th i s form of Chinese southern s ing ing-narrat ive. It i s hoped that th i s invest igat ion w i l l lead to further ethnomusicological studies on the various ex i s t ing forms of Chinese s inging-narrat ives, on which work has hardly begun. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . . • 1 Chapter I. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF T 'AN-TZ 'U . . . . . . . . . 11 I I . SU-CHOU T 'AN-TZ 'U : THE COMPONENTS OF IT 'S PERFORMANCE 23 A. Shuo, ChU, Ch 'ang, and T ' a n : The Four S t r u c t u r a l Elements i n T ' a n - t z ' u Performance . . . 23 1. Shuo 25 2. Chu . . . 27 3. Ch'ang . . 27 4. T ' an 31 B. The T r a i n i n g o f P r o f e s s i o n a l T ' a n - t z ' u S ingers 32 I I I . TRANSCRIPTIONS . . 40 A. Notes on T r a n s c r i p t i o n s 40 1. Sources 40 2. S pec i a l T r a n s c r i p t i o n a l Procedures . . . . . . 43 B. T r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f Twelve T ' a n - t z ' u P ieces . . . . . 48 ( • IV. ANALYSES . . . . . 301 A. Notes on Ana lyses 301 V Chapter Page B. Su-chou Phonology 308 C. Analyses . 312 1 . The Texts . . . . . . . 312 2. The Music . . . 318 3. Summary and Conc lus ion . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 475 ' SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY 488 APPENDIX 1 - GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE VOCAL MELODIC CONTOUR IN THE TWELVE T 'AN-TZ 'U PIECES 491 APPENDIX 2 - GLOSSARY . . . 528 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. The Seven Speech-Tones i n Su-chou D i a l e c t 310 2. 49 P o s s i b l e Speech-Tone Combinations and T h e i r Speech-Tone Contour Movements . . . . 313 3. Textua l A n a l y s i s - L i ne - S tanza S t r u c t u r e 314 4. Textua l A n a l y s i s - T e x t u a l Un i t . 315 5. Textua l A n a l y s i s - Speech-Tone D i s t r i b u t i o n 318 6. I n t e r v a l Count i n Chih-chen miao-jung 320 7. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Chih-chen miao-jung 321 8. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Chih-chen miao-jung 324 9. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Chih-chen miao-jung 326 10. Inst rumenta l Melod ic Formulae i n Chin-chen miao-jung 328 11. I n t e r v a l Count i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin . . . . 332 12. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 333 v i i Table Page 13. Sca le Ma te r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin . .- • 336 14. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 338 15. Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin . . . . 342 16. I n t e r va l Count i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu . . . . . . . . . 347 17. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu . 348 18. Sca le Ma te r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu 352 19. Cadence S t r u c tu re i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu 354 20. Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu . . 357 21. I n t e r v a l Count i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 364 22. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 365 23. Sca le Ma te r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 369 24. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u . .. 371 v i i i Table Page 25. Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u . . • 375 26. I n t e r v a l Count i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a l . 381 27. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Huo Ting-chin szu-tiao 382 28. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Huo Ting-chin szu-tiao . . . . 385 29. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o 386 30. Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Huo T i n g - c h i n szu-tiao 388 31. I n t e r v a l Count i n K'u-t'a 392 32. . P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n K'u-t'a 393 33. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n K'u-t'a 396 34. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n K'u-t'a 397 35. Inst rumenta l Melodic Formulae i n K'u-t'a 399 36. I n t e r v a l Count i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu . 402 37. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Li-mao huan t 'ai-tzu 403 •1 . i x Table Page 38. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n ' Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 406 39. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 407 40. Instrumental Melod ic Formulae i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 409 41. I n t e r v a l Count i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh . . . . . . . . . 413 42. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Lin Ch 'ung t'a-hsueh 414 43. Sca le Ma te r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i tches, i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh . . . . 416 44. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh . . . . . . . 417 45. Instrumental Melod ic Formulae i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh 418 46. I n t e r v a l Count i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui 421 47. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui 422 48. Sca le Ma te r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui- 425 49. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui . . . . . . . . 427 50. Instrumental Me lod ic Formulae i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui . . 429 X Table Page 51a. I n t e r v a l Count i n Shou-t'ang . . . . . . . 433 b. I n t e r v a l Count i n Tu Shih-niang 433 52a. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Shou-t'ang 434 b. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones in Tu Shih-niang 435 53a. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Shou-t 'ang . . . 439 b. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Tu Shih-niang 440 54a. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n S h o u - t ' a n g 442 b. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Tu Shih-niang . 443 55. Inst rumenta l Melod ic Formulae i n Shou-t'ang and Tu Shih-niang 447 56. I n t e r v a l Count i n Ying-ying pai-yueh 451 57. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Ying-ying pai-yueh 452 58. Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Ying-ying pai-yueh 454 59. Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Ying-ying pai-yueh 456 60. Inst rumenta l Melodic Formulae i n Ying-ying pai-yueh. . . 457 x i Table Page 61. I n t e r v a l Count i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces 461 62. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Su-chou Speech-Tones i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces 462 63. Ra t i o o f Occurrences o f Ascending and Descending Melod ic Movements o f D i r e c t i o n a l Speech-Tones 465 64. Melod ic Contour Movements o f the 49 P o s s i b l e Speech-Tone P a i r Combinations i n Su-chou D i a l e c t 466 65. Three-note M o t i v i c Germs Used i n the Instrumental Pa r t s o f the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces 469 x i i LIST OF FIGURES F igure Page 1. Developmental Process from Pien-wen to T'an-tz'u . . . . 14 2. Textual Un i t i n T'an-tz'u Music 3 0 5 3. G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s o f the Do-, Re-, M i - , S o l - , La-modes 206 4. Vary ing Degrees o f Emphases i n 13 D i r e c t i o n a l Speech-Tone Leve l s 311 5. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Chih-chen miao-jung . 322 6. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin - ^35 7. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu 351 8. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u 367 9. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Huo T i n g - c h i n g s z u - t i a o 383 10. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n K'u-t'a 394 x i i i F igure Page 11. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 404 12. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh 415 13. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui 424 14. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Shuo-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g . . .. 437 15. S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh . 453 16. S c a l a r Representa t ion o f the Most F requent l y Used F i r s t Four P i t c h e s f o r the 7 Speech-Tones i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces . . . 463 x i v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES Page 1. Lo-chu Cadence, Ying-ying pai-yueh 304 2. Tien-tzu i n LS3, Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 317 3. Ch'i-chu Ending i n Chih-chen miao-jung . • 325 4. Lo-chu Cadence i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 331 5. Rhythmic Syncopat ion o f the San-hs ien P a r t i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 341 6. 8 - S y l l a b l e L i ne - S tanza S t r u c t u r e i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu 345 7. Heterophony i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 374 8. t) Sounds i n the P ' i - p ' a and San-hs ien Pa r t s as Rhythmical Accents i n K'u-t'a 398 9. Lo-chu Cadences o f Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu and Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 402 10. Rhythmic Syncopat ion o f the San-hs ien Pa r t i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui 429 11. Instrumental Heterophony i n Shou-t'ang 445 12. San-hs ien Syncopat ion i n Ying-ying pai-yueh 457 13. Methods o f S i ng ing En te r i n g Tones i n T'an-tz'u 464 XV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My debts are many: I am g r a t e f u l to P r o f e s s o r E l l i o t M. Weisgarber (Composit ion and Japanese music) f o r h i s suggest ions on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ; P ro fe s so r Gregory -G. B u t l e r ( H i s t o r i c a l mus ico logy, Baroque music) f o r h i s c r i t i c a l comments on the grammar and o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f the t h e s i s ; P ro fe s so r Jan W. Wal l s (As ian s t u d i e s , Chinese language and l i t e r a t u r e ) f o r h i s a s s i s t ance i n the grammar and t e x t u a l f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n s of the twelve t'an-tz'u p i e c e s ; Miss Tung-king Ng (As ian s t ud i e s l i b r a r i a n ) f o r her a s s i s t ance i n a c q u i r i n g source m a t e r i a l s ; and Mr. Bernard Chan and Mr. Beng-ch 'eng Lee {t'an-tz'u s p e c i a l i s t s ) f o r t h e i r va luab le f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s . My deepest g r a t i t u d e i s owing to P ro fe s so r Ming-yueh L i a n g , my s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , gu idance, and encouragement, w i t hou t wh i ch , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been completed. My s p e c i a l thanks are owing to P ro fe s s o r Jan W. Wal l s who had t i r e l e s s l y a s s i s t e d me whenever I needed he l p . F i n a l l y , I am g r a t e f u l to my parents f o r t h e i r understanding and suppor t . Th i s work i s ded icated to them. 1 INTRODUCTION Shuo-shu, Chinese s t o r y t e l l i n g , i s a form o f popu lar e n t e r t a i n -ment i n a l l par t s o f Ch ina. I t has a long h i s t o r y da t i ng back probably to the Spr ing and Autumn and the Warr ing S tates per iods (770-221 B.C. ) . By the time o f the T 'ang pe r i od (A.D. 618-907), shuo-shu had a l ready a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n . Along w i t h the growth o f urban cente r s dur ing the Sung and Yuan dynas t ie s (960 - 1368), shuo-shu developed to become a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r ade . Sess ions o f shuo-shu were held r e g u l a r l y i n the teahouses and enter ta inment cen te r s c a l l e d the wa-tzu. From the Ming and C h ' i n g t imes (1368 - 1911 ) to the p re sent , shuo-shu has been gene r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two t ype s , the nor thern and southern, accord ing to t h e i r geograph ica l p o p u l a r i t y and the d i a l e c t s used. The p re sen t -day northern shuo-shu i n c l ude s li-hua ta-ku, hsi-ho ta-ku, yueh-t'ing ta-ku, ching-yin ta-ku, mei-hua ta-ku, and o t h e r s ; the southern shuo-shu c o n s i s t s o f p''ing t'an (p'ing-hua and t'an-tz'u), nan-tz'u, hsien-tz'u3 and mu-yu shuo, among o t h e r s . P'ing t'an, i n Su-chou d i a l e c t , i s the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e among the va r i ou s forms o f southern Chinese S t o r y t e l l i n g . ^ Needless to say, s t o r y t e l l i n g has been a s i g n i f i c a n t and i n t e g r a l pa r t o f the s o c i a l l i f e o f the Chinese people. The s i g n i f i -cances o f s t o r y t e l l i n g are as f o l l o w s . (1) I t s very ex i s t ence i s the r e s u l t o f c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . As an o r a l - p e r f o r m i n g a r t , anonymity 2 i s common to most o f the s t o r y t e l l i n g r e p e r t o i r e . The o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i s a long process i n v o l v i n g a l t e r a t i o n , a d d i t i o n , and omiss ion by the s t o r y t e l l e r s , and the v e r i f i c a t i o n and acceptance by the general masses. Because o f t h i s , the contents and forms o f s t o r y -t e l l i n g best r e f l e c t the c o l l e c t i v e s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l m e n t a l i t y i n a s o c i e t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r pe r i od and l o c a l i t y . (2) The recogn i zed t r a d i t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r form o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i s perpetuated through o r a l - a u r a l means: the s t o r y t e l l e r s t r an smi t t h e i r s k i l l s through o r a l - a u r a l methods and the genera l masses judge and s e l e c t the contents and s t y l e s o f s t o r y t e l l i n g , a l s o through o r a l - a u r a l p rocesses . (3) S t o r y t e l l i n g i s r e g i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . The great v a r i e t y o f d i a l e c t s i n China has r e -s u l t e d i n c e r t a i n forms o f s t o r y t e l l i n g popu lar on l y w i t h i n a de f ined geograph ica l a r e a , i n which the p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t i s understood. Th i s r e g i o n a l i s m i s r e s pon s i b l e f o r the many forms o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i n e x i s t ence today. (4) S t o r y t e l l i n g i s o r i e n t e d toward the a t t r a c t i o n s o f people from a l l l a y e r s o f s o c i e t y . S t o r y t e l l e r s are t r a i n e d to be ab le to assess a c c u r a t e l y the compos i t ion o f the audience and adapt the s t o r y f o r i t a c c o r d i n g l y by s u i t a b l e language and manner o f pe r -formance. Among t'an-tz'u per formers , there i s thus a s a y i ng : "What the conno i s seur l i k e s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a ccep tab le to the layman; and what the layman l i k e s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y accep tab le to the 2 conno i s seu r . " (5) S t o r y t e l l i n g i n China has been an important t oo l o f educat ion f o r people o f the lower s o c i a l s t r a t a . Dur ing the d yna s t i c epoch, the m a j o r i t y o f Chinese people were i l l i t e r a t e . S t o r y -t e l l i n g , t h e r e f o r e , was not on ly a popu lar en te r ta i nment but a l s o a 3 means o f educat ing them i n the h i s t o r y and convent ions o f Ch ina. (6) The c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f the s t o r y t e l l e r s have i n f l u e n c e d both the form and content o f w r i t t e n l i t e r a t u r e i n China. Th i s i s most 3 ev ident i n the c o l l o q u i a l s ho r t s t o r y . A lthough a l a r ge number, o f e n t r i e s o f a n a r r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r can be found i n the c o l l e c t e d poetry e d i t i o n s da t i ng from before the • T 'ang t ime, such as Shih-ching (The Book o f Odes), Ch'u-tz'u (The Songs o f C h ' u ) , Wu~yen ku-shih (The F i v e - S y l l a b l e Anc ient Poems), Han-yueh-fu (The Han C o l l e c t i o n o f P o e t r y ) , and the New Han-y'ueh-fu,storytelling as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t form o f spoken n a r r a t i o n and music i s g e n e r a l l y 4 t raced back to the T 'ang p e r i o d . Pien-wen3 l i t e r a t u r e handed down to us from the Tun-huang caves , r e vea l s t ha t the Buddhist monks o f the T 'ang had a l r eady succeeded i n us ing s t o r y t e l l i n g as a v e h i c l e f o r spreading Buddhism. These Buddhi s t monks t o l d and sang s t o r i e s about the l i f e o f Buddha and o t he r Buddhist d e i t i e s , as we l l as n o n - r e l i g i o u s 5 h i s t o r i c a l and cu r r en t events and f o l k t a l e s . The formal s t r u c t u r e Of pien-wen c o n s i s t s o f a mixture o f prose s e c t i on s and verse s e c t i o n s , the former r e c i t e d and the l a t t e r sung. The verse s e c t i on s are con -6 s t r u c t e d l a r g e l y o f 7 - s y l l a b l e 1 i he - s t an za s . The growth o f urban popu l a t i on under the Sung r e s u l t e d i n a g rea te r c oncen t r a t i on o f s t o r y t e l l i n g a c t i v i t y i n the c i t i e s . S t o r y -t e l l i n g was he ld a t enter ta inment center s (wa-tzu) i n a d d i t i o n to temples and teahouses. P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m o f the Sung s t o r y t e l l e r s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n the e s tab l i s hment o f v a r i o u s .shuo-she ( s t o r y -t e l l i n g g u i l d s ) and c h i a ( schoo l s o f s t o r y t e l l i n g ) . ^ Repe r t o i r e o f 4 s t o r i e s became the p r i v a t e p roper ty o f a s t o r y t e l l e r ' s f a m i l y o r o f a s c hoo l . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a s e l e c t e d number o f s t o r i e s , methods o f compos i t i on , and s t y l e s o f performance became p r o f e s s i o n a l trademarks g o f the Sung s t o r y t e l l e r s . F o l l ow ing the t r a d i t i o n o f pien-wen, the s t o r y t e l l i n g o f t h i s p e r i o d developed a long two branches: those w i t h 'a mixture o f n a r r a t i o n and s i n g i n g , such as t'ao-chen, hsiao-shuo, hsu-s h i h k u - t z u - t z ' u and chu kung-tiao; and those w i t h n a r r a t i o n o n l y , 9 l i k e the chiang-shih, shuo-ching, and ho-sheng. The T 'ang-Sung t r a d i t i o n o f s t o r y t e l l i n g cont inued dur ing the YUan and Ming d yna s t i e s . Of the s eve ra l forms o f Yuan-Ming s t o r y t e l l i n g , ya-tz'u, tz'u-hua, and t'ao-chen are b e l i e v e d to be o f the s i n g i n g -n a r r a t i v e t ype , and chiang-shih, o f the n a r r a t i v e - o n l y t y p e . ^ Between the pe r i od o f 1522-1566, the term t'an-tz'u appeared, a l though i t probably i s not e x a c t l y the same as the t'an-tz'u i n t oday ' s u s a g e . ^ Neve r the le s s , i t can be v e r i f i e d t h a t the l a t e Ming t'an-tz'u was a form 12 o f s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n s t rumenta l accompaniment. The pien-wen o f the T 'ang time was c a l l e d pao-ch'uan du r i ng the Ming and was popu lar i n southern China. The development o f u r b a n i z a t i o n cont inued dur ing the C h ' i n g dynasty. Large commercial c i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r Shanghai, were ga the r -i ng p laces f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s . I t has been s a i d t ha t no 13 famous s t o r y t e l l e r had not been to Shanghai. Shu-ch'ang, r e c i t a l 14 h a l l s s p e c i a l l y f o r s t o r y t e l l i n g , were b u i l t . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the nor thern and southern forms o f s t o r y t e l l i n g has been made 15 from the Ch ' i n g to the p resent . For both forms, s t o r y t e l l i n g w i t h { 5 n a r r a t i o n on l y i s c a l l e d ta-shu ( the " b i g " s t o r y ) and t h a t w i t h a mixture o f s i n g i n g and n a r r a t i o n i s c a l l e d hsiao-shu ( the " s m a l l " s t o r y ) . These two terms a re s t i l l i n use today. Ta-shu u s u a l l y r e l a t e s long h i s t o r i c a l events and hsiao-shu g e n e r a l l y t e l l s s t o r i e s of s o c i a l l i f e and s t o r i e s w i th wel l -known l ove themes, a long w i t h s i ng ing and in s t rumenta l accom-paniment. P'ing-t'an, the Su-chou s t o r y t e l l i n g , c o n s i s t s o f the ta-shuo ( i . e . , p'ing-hua) and the hsiao-shu ( i . e . , t'an-tz'u). The l a t t e r , the s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e o f t'an-tz'u i s the sub jec t of the present t h e s i s . Comprehensive s tud ie s on Su-chou t'an-tz'u are s c a r ce . The few pub l i shed t'an-tz'u s t ud ie s i n c l ude Chao Ch ing-shen ' s T'an-tz'u hsuan ( S e l e c t i on s o f t'an-tz'u). Chang Yuan - shu i ' s T'an-tz'u chung chung (About t ' a n - t z ' u ) , Chen Ju-heng ' s Shuo-shu shih-hua (The h i s t o r y o f [Chinese] s t o r y t e l l i n g ) , I T ' a n g ' s " P ' i n g - t ' a n c h i - c h ' i y in -y 'ueh" {P'ing-t'an and i t s mus i c ) , and the shor t a r t i c l e , "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' o u -chueh" (Magic formula o f p ' i n g - t ' a n performance), by P 'an Po - y i n and Chou L i a n g . ^ Except f o r those s t ud i e s by I T ' a ng , and P 'an Po - y i n and Chou L i ang , o the r above-mentioned works tend to be more concerned w i t h the l i t e r a r y o r i g i n , development, and t e x t u a l formal s t r u c t u r e o f t'an-tz'u. There are.no mus ica l examples or analyses of any k ind i n these works con-cern ing the music o f t'an-tz'u. I Tang ' s study i s the on ly one which d i scus ses the o r i g i n , development and t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f some o f the schoo l s o f t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g i n conjunc -t i o n w i t h mus ica l examples and t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . However, h i s mus ica l examples and appended t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are too o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d f o r usefu l s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . The a r t i c l e by P 'an Po-y in and Chou L iang i s extremely u se fu l i n t ha t i t g i ves i n s i g h t s i n t o the standards se t by the p r o f e s s i o na l t'an-tz'u performers through the s o - c a l l e d magic formulae (k'ou-chueh). These k'ou-chueh are the g u i d e l i n e s f o r and f i n a l a s se s s -ment o f the s k i l l s o f a t'an-tz'u performer. A l s o r e l e v a n t are two s t ud i e s by Vena H r d l i c k o v a , one on the p ro -f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of Chinese s t o r y t e l l e r s and t h e i r g u i l d s and the o the r on the techniques of Chinese s t o r y t e l l i n g . ^ A l though her researches i n t o the northern forms o f s t o r y t e l l i n g f u r n i s h a l a r g e pa r t o f her sources , much o f her f i n d i n g s are a l s o a p p l i c a b l e to the present study o f t'an-tz'u. The t h i r d r e l e v a n t a r t i c l e w r i t t e n i n Eng l i s h i s t ha t by Jaroslav PrSsek, who is mainly interested in the early development o f 18 Chinese popular f i c t i o n s . Because of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t o r y t e l l i n g and popular f i c t i o n , PrSsek devotes a large portion of his a r t i c l e to the development o f s t o r y t e l l i n g dur ing the pe r i od between the 19 T 'ang and Sung dyna s t i e s . S i nce l i t e r a r y s t ud i e s o f t'an-tz'u and i t s predecessors have been made by o ther s cho la r s and are ou t s i de the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , the present I n t r oduc t i on and Chapter I s e r ve , f o r the reade r s , as a h i s -20 t o r i c a l and c h r ono l o g i c a l l i n k a g e to the study o f t'an-tz'u music. Mus ica l and phono log ica l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are made o f twelve t'an-tz'u pieces s e l e c t e d from eleven r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n g i n g schools (Chapter I I I ) . Each i s subsequent ly ana lyzed i n Chapter IV. The ana lyses a re both q u a l i -t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e ; the l a t t e r approach i s thought to be a u se fu l way o f showing the general tendenc ies o f t'an-tz'u pe r fo rmer s ' p re ferences 21 f o r such mus ica l v a r i a b l e s as melod ic i n t e r v a l s , p i t c h e s , and r e g i s t e r s . 7 S ince the aud ience ' s understanding o f the t e x t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a s ucce s s f u l s t o r y t e l l i n g performance, the c o r r e c t d i c t i o n and tonal i n f l e c t i o n o f t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g shou ld adhere r a t h e r f a i t h f u l l y to the corresponding l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the normal speech-tones. S tud ies concern ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Chinese tona l language and vocal music have focussed main ly upon the 22 t h e a t r i c a l genres o f Peking opera and K'un drama. Whi le there i s a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n dea l i n g w i t h the convent iona l t reatment o f proper d i c t i o n and tonal i n f l e c t i o n o f t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n the performances o f these t h e a t r i c a l genres, the convent iona l use o f Su-chou speech-tones i n t'an-tz'u performance s t i l l remains l a r g e l y w i t h i n the o r a l - a u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f the s i nge r s themselves. The pr imary purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e r e f o r e to i n v e s t i -gate the va r i ou s s t r u c t u r a l elements i n the music o f t'an-tz'u and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n between Su-chou speech-tones and t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g w i l l be sub jec ted to c l o s e s c r u t i n y . I t i s hoped tha t through t h i s s tudy, the essence o f t'an-tz'u music can be e x t r a c t ed so tha t a grammar o f i t s musical s t r u c t u r e can be p o s t u l a t e d . I t i s a l s o hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l generate f u r t h e r sy s temat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the music o f t h i s and va r ious o t h e r contemporary forms o f Chinese s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e , so t ha t t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the genealogy w i t h i n the l a r ge category o f S i n g i n g - N a r r a t i v e s can be e s t a b l i s h e d . 8 FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION Chen Ju-heng, Shuo-shu h s i a o - s h i h (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1936); and h i s Shuo-shu shih~hua (Pek ing: T so - sh i a chu 1 u-pan- she, 1958); Cheng Chen-to, Chung-kuo su-wen-hsueh s h i h (Pek ing : T so - ch i a c h ' u - p a n -she, 1954), 13-17; Chiang T s u - y i , Chung-kuo jen-min wen-hsueh-shih (Shanghai: P e i - h s i n shu-chu, 1951), 19-26; Feng M ing - ch i h , Chung-kuo ming ohien wen-hsueh chiang-hua (Hong Kong: Shanghai shu-chu, 1957), 14-23; J a r o s l a v Prusek, "The Beginnings o f Popular Chinese L i t e r a t u r e Urban Centres - The Crad le o f Popular F i c t i o n , " A r c h i v O r i e n t a l n i 36 (1968), 67-121; and Yeh Te-chun, Sung-luan-Ming chiang-ch'ang wen-hsueh (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1959), 1-8. 2 •• P 'an Po - y i n and Chou L i a n g , "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh, " Ch'u-i 3 (1962), 55-56. Although the rever se i s undoubtedly t r ue ( i . e . , i n f l u e n c e s from the w r i t t e n to the o r a l t r a d i t i o n s ) , the main f low has always been from the o r a l to the w r i t t e n , as seen throughout the h i s t o r y o f Chinese l i t e r -ary genres. 4 Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit. (1958), 10; Cheng Chen-to, Op. cit., 9-13; Chiang T s u - y i , Op. cit., 177-195; Feng M ing - ch i h , Op. cit., 19-23, 61-63; Haros lav Prusek, Op. cit., 69. 5 The Tun-huang caves are s i t u a t e d i n Kansu P rov ince o f the Peop le ' s Republ ic o f Ch ina. Dat ings o f the var ious pien-wen found i n the Tun-huang caves and t h e i r form and content are s t ud i ed by C h ' i u Chen-ch in , Tun-huang pien-wen shu-lun (Taiwan: Shang-wu y i n - s hu - kuan , 1970). Th is t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e has l ed to the general b e l i e f t ha t most o f the l a t e r forms o f s t o r y t e l l i n g , i n c l u d i n g t'an-tz'u, are d i r e c t l y evolved from the J'ang pien-wen. ^Chou M i , "Chu se c h i i - j e n " (a l i s t o f s k i l l e d performers dur ing the Sung t ime) i n Wu-lin chiu-shih, Chapter 6, quoted i n Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit. (1958), 86-87, 89-92. 8 P r u s e k , Op. cit., 73-74. 9 Yeh Te-chun, Op. cit., 8-15, 28-30; Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit. (1958), 33-94; and Cheng Chen-to, Op. cit., 62-154. 1 0 Y e h Te-chun, Ibid., 30, 39-50; Chen Ju-heng, Ibid., 100-118; a l s o , "fien Ju-cheng, Hsi-hu yu-lan chih-y'u, Chapter 20, r epub l i s hed by Chung-hua shu-chu (Peking) o f the 1547 e d i t i o n (1958), 354-371. 9 Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit. (1958), 118-123. Among the few e x i s t -ing Ming t'an-tz'u t e x t s , on ly Chen-chu-t'a (The pear l pagoda) and Y u - c h ' i n g - t ' i n g (The jade d ragonf l y ) are wel1-known t 'an-tz'u s t o r i e s . Whether they are Ming products i s quest ioned by Chao Ching-shen, i n h i s T'an-tz'u hslXan (Shanghai: Shang-wu y i n - s hu - kuan , 1937), 4. Whi le no f u r t h e r s tud ie s of the dates o f these two t'an-tz'u works have been made -s i n c e , the probable dates can be s a i d as l i k e l y from l a t e : Ming to e a r l y C h ' i n g . 12 Chen Ju-heng, Ibid., 119; T ' i e n Ju -ch eng, Op. cit. 1 3 C h e n Ju-heng, Ibid., 13, 131. 14 At l e a s t a dozen or so " f i r s t - r a t e " shu-ch'ang e x i s t e d i n Shanghai i n the l a t e n i ne teen th - cen tu r y ; the names of these shu-ch'ang are l i s t e d i n Shanghai ch'un-ch'iu (The sp r i ng s and autumns of Shanghai ) , (Hong Kong: Nan- t ien Book Company, 1968), V o l . 3, 61. 15 A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the var ious contemporary forms of s t o r y t e l l i n g can be found i n Chen Ju-heng, Ibid., 130-257; and Fu H s i - h u a ' s book on the v a r i e t y of nor thern s t o r y t e l l i n g , P e i - c h i n g ch'uan-t'ung ch'u-i tsung-lu (Pek ing: Chung-hua shuo-chi i , 1962). i c Chao Ching-shen, Op. cit.; Ch 'ang Yuan - sh in , " T ' a n - t z ' u chung-chung" , Hua-tung t i - f a n hsi-ch'u chieh-shao (Shanghai: Wen-i ch ' u -pan - she , 1953), 121-126; Chen Ju-heng, Op. c i t . (1958), 170-182, 188-219;' I T ' a ng , " T ' a n - t z ' u c h i - c h ' i y i n - y u e n , " Chiang-su nan-pu min-chien hsi-ch'U shuo-ch'ang-yin-yueh chi (Pek ing: Y in-yueh ch ' u - pan - she , 1955), 93-119; and P 'an Po -y in and Chou L i ang , Op., cit., 51-57. ^ V e n a H r d l i c k o v a , "The P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g of Chinese S to r y -t e l l i n g and the S t o r y t e l l e r s ' G u i l d s , " Archiv O r i e n t a l n i 33 (1965), 225-249; and her "The Chinese S t o r y t e l l e r s and S ingers of B a l l a d s : T h e i r Performances and S t o r y t e l l i n g Techn iques , " The T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c Society of Japan, Se r ie s 3, Vol . 10 (1968), 97-115. ^ J a r o s l a v Prusek, Op. cit. 19 Other mi sce l l aneous re fe rence sources p e r t i n e n t to the present study are i n c l uded i n Se lec ted B i b l i o g r a p h y . 20 See Footnotes 1 and 5. 21 The p a r t i c u l a r methods and procedures of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses are d i scus sed i n Chapters I I I and IV r e s p e c t i v e l y . 22 ' Chou T e - c h ' i n g , Chung-yuan yin-yUn ( c a . 1324). [See H a t t o r i Sh i r o and Todo Ak i ya su , Chugen on'in no kenkyu, V o l . 1 (Tokyo, 1958), f o r the c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of the t e x t ] ; Wei L i a n g - f u , Wei L i a n g - f u ch'u-lu [This Ming study can be found i n Ch'ung. ting ch'u-yUan, a 1925 r e p r i n t , 10 ed i t ed by Cheng N a i - c h ' i e n ] ; Chih An, Ch'ang-lun [Refer to Hsin ch'u-y'uan, a c o l l e c t e d e d i t i o n o f w r i t i n g s o f the Y'uan-Ming-Ch' ing d y n a s t i e s , e d i t e d by Jen Ne, pub l i s hed i n 1940 by Shanghai Chung-hua shu-chu] ; Ch 'en Ch 'ung-s u i , Tu-ch'u hs'u-chih [Re fe r to Ch'ung t i n g ch'u-y'uan, Op_. c i t , , f o r a r e -p r i n t o f t h i s Ming s t u d y ] ; L i Y'u, H s i e n - c h ' i n g ou-eh'i 1 R e f e r , to the 1946 r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s C h ' i n g w r i t i n g , put out by the Pe i - yeh - shan - fang of Shanghai ] ; Chao Yuen- ren, "Tones, i n t o n a t i o n , s i n g i n g , c h a n t i n g , r e c i t a -t i v e , and atona l compos i t ion i n Ch inese , " For Roman Jakobson (The Hague: Houton, 1956), 53-59; L indy L. Mark and L i Fang -kue i , "Speech Tone and Melody i n Wu-ming Fo lk Songs," Essays o f f e r e d to G. H. Luce (Ascona, S w i t z e r l a n d : A r t i b u s As iae ,_1966) , 167-186; L i u , Ma r jo r y , "The I n f l uence of Tonal Speech on K ' u n - c h ' i i Opera S t y l e , " S e l e c t e d Reports i n Ethno-musicology; V.C.L.A., V o l . I I , No. 1 (1974), 63-86; L i u W e n - l i u , K'un-ch'u yen-chiu ( T a i p e i : C h i a - h s i n s h u i - n i kung-szu wen-hua c h i - c h i n - h u i yen -ch iu l u n - j e n , No. 183, 1969), 45-77; Su Hsueh-an, Ching-ch'u sheng-ym (Shanghai: Wen-i c h 1 u-pan-she, 1963); Yang Y i n - l i u , Chung-kuo yin-y'ueh shih-kang (Shanghai: Wan-yeh s h u - t i e n , 1953), 230-264; Yu P in - sheng , Kuo-chu yin-y'un chi ch'ang-fa yen-chiu (Taiwan: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1972). Other s t ud i e s on speech tones and music w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h concern ing c u l t u r a l areas o the r than China are i n c l uded i n S e l e c ted B i b l i o g r a p h y . 11 CHAPTER I HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT T'an-tz'u, the Su-chou s i n g i n g n a r r a t i v e , i s popular along the lower Yangtze R i ve r a rea , where the Su-chou d i a l e c t i s commonly understood. With Su-chou as the c e n t e r , the geographica l p o p u l a r i t y o f t'an-tz'u per fo rmers ' patron was San-huang, to whom two days o f the yea r were consec ra ted : the twenty - f ou r th day o f the f i r s t l una r month and the e i gh th day o f the tenth l una r month. San-huang, whose exact o r i g i n and r e l a t i o n s h i p to t'an-tz'u are not known, was s a i d to have the v i r t u e o f y i e l d i n g to o t he r s . Wang Chou-sh ih, a famous t'an-tz'u performer du r ing the C h ' i e n - l u n g pe r i od (1736-1796) o f the Ch ' i n g dynasty, when i naugu ra t i n g the f i r s t t'an-tz'u g u i l d i n Su-chou (1776), named San-huang as the patron i n o rder t ha t h i s v i r t u e o f y i e l d i n g might serve as a model f o r t'an-tz'u pe r fo rmers . Opinions concern ing the o r i g i n s o f t'an-tz'u vary somewhat. They gene r a l l y f o l l o w three l i n e s o f thought: (1) the roots o f t'an-tz'u l i e i n the T 'ang pien-wen; (2) the Sung chu-kung-tiao i s the d i r e c t predecessor o f t'an-tz'u; and (3) the d i r e c t predecessor o f t'an-tz'u i s tao-chen, o f the Ch ' ing-Yuan-Ming dynas t ie s ( c i r c a ten th to n ineteenth cen tu r i e s ). Without a doubt the pien-wen o f T 'ang i s the e a r l i e s t v e r i f i a b l e e x i s t i n g source which shows c l o se r e l a t i o n s h i p to the present t'an-tz'u. Pien-wen l i t e r a t u r e i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f manuscr ipts d i s c o ve red i n a rock cave near Tun-huang. These manuscr ipts were w r i t t e n i n Ch inese, T i b e t a n , and Ind ian. The manuscr ipts i n Chinese alone are es t imated somewhere between 30,000 and 40,000. Whi le a po r t i on o f these manuscr ipts deal w i t h the f i c t i o n a l i z e d famous episodes o f the Buddh i s t legend, a l a r ge number o f the c o l l e c t i o n deal w i t h s e c u l a r themes, such as h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary events o r pure f i c t i o n s . The language used i s c o l l o q u i a l . I t s a l t e r n a t i n g prose (nar rated) and verse (sung) s e c t i o n s , i t s main ly 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e , i t s c o l l o q u i a l i s m and s e c u l a r i s m , and i t s p a r t i c u l a r o rder o f pe r f o rmance—wi th a sho r t opening poem before the s t o r y - p r o p e r — s t i l l 4 remain i n the performances o f t'an-tz'u. The Sung chu-kung-tiao ( n a r r a t i v e songs i n va r ious modes) were a c t u a l l y s u i t e s o f songs w i t h i n t e r m i t t e n t n a r r a t i v e passages. Accord ing to Yeh Te-chun, a noted s c h o l a r on l i t e r a t u r e s o f the Sung-Yuan-Ming d y n a s t i e s , the o r i g i n o f 5 chu-kung-tiao can be t r aced back to the pe r i od o f 1068-1085. S i ng ing i n chu-kung-tiao was f i r s t accompanied by drum, c l a p p e r s , and f l u t e dur ing the Sung dynasty and l a t e r by gongs, c l a p p e r s , p ' i - p ' a , and cheng dur ing the Yuan dynasty.^ Although i t s l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e had very l i t t l e i n common w i t h e i t h e r pien-wen o r t'an-tz'u, the f a c t that i t conta ined a mixture o f prose and verse s e c t i o n s , t h a t i t was one o f the most popu la r form o f s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e s , t h a t i t used the p'i-p'a as one o f i t s accompanying i n s t rument s , and t h a t the southern m ig ra t i on o f the Northern Sung ( c i r c a 1127) around the area o f t oday ' s Su-chou and Hang-chou, have l ed to the hypothes i s t h a t many o f the then r e g i ona l southern forms o f s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e s were s t r o n g l y 13 i n f l u e n c e d by chu-kung-tiao. Whi le the t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t'an-tz'u shows a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t ha t o f pien-wen, the music o f t'an-tz'u 8 may have an oppos i te tendency. J Tao-chen, a l s o a form o f Sung s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e s , was popu lar u n t i l the C h ' i n g time ( i . e . , from the tenth to the l a t e n ineteenth c en tu r i e s ) i n southern China. S i nce there i s no tao-chen t e x t s found up to da te , not much i s known concern ing i t s exact t e x tua l s t r u c t u r e . Accord ing to Wang P ' e i - l u n and Chen Ju-heng, contemporary t rave logues i n d i c a t e tha t (1) tao-chen was ma in ly performed by b l i n d s t o r y t e l l e r s w i t h p ' i - p ' a as the accompanying i n s t rument ; (2) i t a l s o c on s i s t ed o f a mixture o f prose and verse s e c t i o n s ; and (3) the verse s e c t i on s were sung i n 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the geography, t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e , and manner o f performance between t'an-tz'u and tao-chen thus l ead to the b e l i e f t h a t the d i r e c t predecessor o f 9 t'an-tz'u is tao-chen. While t'an-tz'u i s undoubtedly r e l a t e d to pien-wen, chu-kung-tiao, and tao-chen, to a t t r i b u t e a s i n g l e predecessor o r to draw a u n i -l a t e r a l genealogy f o r t'an-tz'u would both be o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s . The e v o l v i n g o f t'an-tz'u must have been a long accumulat ive process . The f o l l o w i n g diagram proposes a more r e a l i s t i c concept o f the developmental process o f t'an-tz'u ( F i gure 1 ) . The term t'an-tz'u was f i r s t mentioned i n T ien J u - c h ' e n g ' s t r a ve l ogue , Hsi-hu yu-lan chih-yu (1547), o f which he w r i t e s : " A t t ha t t ime , there were var ious en te r t a i nmen t s , such as . . . and t'an-tz'u. The e a r l i e s t t'an-tz'u t e x t i n e x i s t e n c e i s Yang Shen's E r h - s h i h - i s h i h 14 PIEN-WEN TAO-CHEN 4r ~7 CHU-KUNG-TIAO NATIVE SU-CHOU STORYTELLING TRADITION T 'AN-TZ 'U F igure 1 Developmental Process from Pien-wen to T'an-tz'u (Note: Arrows represent d i r e c t i o n s o f i n f l u e n c e s ) . t'an-tz'u ( c i r c a 1506-1522) wh ich, acco rd ing to Chang Yuan-shui and Chao Ch in - shen, was f o r s i n g i n g on ly and i t s t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e was not q u i t e the same as the p resent t'an-tz'u.^ Around the end o f Ming dynasty (1628-1644), a t'an-tz'u t e x t e n t i t l e d Pai-she-chuan (The wh i te serpent) appeared. I t i s the e a r l i e s t known Ming t'an-tz'u t e x t to have been 12 performed i n the same manner as t oday ' s t'an-tz'u. The Ch ' i n g dynasty (1644-1911) has l e f t many t'an-tz'u t e x t s , among which the most o f t en performed today are San-hsiao (Three s m i l e s ) , Y u - c h ' i n g - t ' i n g (The jade d r a g o n f l y ) , and Chen-chu-t'a (The pear l pagoda). The seve ra l b i b l i o -g r aph i ca l c o m p i l a t i o n s o f the Ch ' i n g t'an-tz'u t e x t s l i s t more than th ree hundred e n t r i e s , many o f which were w r i t t e n by women; f o r example, T'ien-yu-hua (by Tao Chen-Huei) , Feng-shuang-fei (by Chen h u e i -y i n ) , Pi-sheng-hua (by C h ' i n H s i n - j u ) , Tsai-sheng-yuan (by Chen Tuan-15 13 sheng and He Hs i an -yeh ) , and so f o r t h . As Cheng Chen-to c o r r e c t l y po in t s out , one should r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between two k inds o f t'an-tz'u tex t s i n e x i s t ence today. The f i r s t k i nd c o n s i s t s o f t e x t s ma in ly f o r reading purposes. The above mentioned t ex t s w r i t t e n by women, f o r example, and the m a j o r i t y o f the l a t e Ming and C h ' i n g t'an-tz'u t e x t s are a c t u a l l y l i t e r a r y works and t h e r e f o r e not f o r performance. The second k i n d , c o n s i s t i n g o f no more than twenty s t o r i e s , was meant to be pe r -formed. Near ly a l l o f them have anonymous au tho r sh ip . A p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y i s i d e n t i f i e d acco rd ing to the s i n ge r who i s known to have 14 s p e c i a l i z e d i n the performance o f t ha t s t o r y . Ma J u - f e i , f o r example, i s recogn ized as the o r i g i n a l i n t e r p r e t e r o f Chen-chu-t'a w h i l e the ac tua l o r i g i n a l author i s never mentioned. The s t o r y content o f t r a -d i t i o n a l t'an-tz'u r e p e r t o i r e dea l s mainly w i t h s o c i a l l i f e and l o v e . In China today, i n o rder to make t'an-tz'u r e f l e c t contemporary l i f e and i deo logy , new compos i t ions have the common theme Of r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t rugg le s and f a c t o r y and commune l i f e . Th is aspect w i l l be d i s cu s sed l a t e r i n t h i s chap te r . Among the dozen o r so t r a d i t i o n a l t'an-tz'u p ieces performed today, two approaches toward s t o r y t e l l i n g can be de tec ted : i n the f i r s t approach s t o r i e s are t o l d i n the t h i r d person from the po i n t o f view o f the n a r r a t o r ; i n the second, s t o r i e s are t o l d not on l y by the n a r r a t o r but a l s o by the cha rac te r s i n the s t o r i e s . Chang Yuan-shui and Chao Ching-shen have noted tha t the f i r s t approach i s h i s t o r i c a l l y e a r l i e r than the second, because the l a t t e r i s a much more comp l i ca ted 15 approach which adopts the techniques o f dramatic c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . 16 Characters i n a s t o r y are d i v i d e d i n t o the sheng (young and o l d men), tan ( g i r l , young and o l d women), ching (male h e r o i c c h a r a c t e r s ) , and ch'ou (comic c h a r a c t e r s ) . As mentioned e a r l i e r , Wang Chou- sh ih , a wel l -known t'an-tz'u performer o f the middle to l a t e e i gh teenth c e n t u r y , i s remembered as the founder o f the f i r s t g u i l d o f t'an-tz'u per fo rmers . A f t e r Wang, dur ing the time, o f Ch ia - ch ing (1796-1821), the re were the s o - c a l l e d " f o u r g r e a t s " : Ch 'en C h i h - c h ' i , Yao Hs iang-chang, Yu Hs iu - shan , and Lu Ch ih-chen. Fo l l ow ing them, there were another " b i g f o u r " : Ma J u - f e i , 1 g Yao Sh ih-chang, Chao Hs iang-chou, and Wang S h i h - c h ' u a n . E a r l y i n the n ine teenth centu ry ( c i r c a 1820), the term hsien-sheng was used to r e f e r to female t'an-tz'u per formers . Among the recorded wel l -known hsien-sheng, there were: Yang Yu-shen, Lu H s i u - c h ' i n g , Chu S u - l a n , Wu S o - c h ' i n g , Chu P ' i n g - l a n , Ch 'en Yueh-o, Wang Yueh-o, Chiang Yueh-o, and so f o r t h . ^ The term has not been used s i n c e the e s tab l i shment o f the Peop l e ' s Repub l i c o f China i n 1949. The wel l -known t'an-tz'u performers o f today i n c l u d e : L i u T ' i e n - y u n , Chou Y U n - j u i , Hsu L i - h s i e n , Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g , Yang Chen-yen, Chang Ch ien -kuo, Chang C h i e n - t ' i n g , Ch 'en H s i - a n , Yang J e n - l i n , Chiang Yueh -ch ' uan , Chu Hu i - chen , Hsu YUn-18 c h i h , Wei Han-y ing , Hsueh H s i a o - c h ' i n g , Chu H s u e h - c h ' i n , and o the r s . T'an-tz'u performers have, s i n ce 1776, o rgan i zed t h e i r own g u i l d s , o f wh i ch , Kuang-yu-she was the l a r g e s t . E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1776 by Wang Chou-shih i n Su-chou, Kuang-yu-she. had the most p r e s t i g i o u s t'an-tz'u performers as i t s members. Ma J u - f e i , Yao Sh ih-chang, Chao Hs iang-chou, and Wang Sh ih -ch ' uan were a l l members o f Kuang-yu-she. 17 In 1906, Kuang-yu-she made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t s members by e s t a b l i s h i n g the Kuan-yu S choo l , which aimed to improve and p rov ide the oppor tun i t y f o r f r ee educat ion f o r members' c h i l d r e n . Funding f o r the school was acqu i r ed through annual p u b l i c t'an-tz'u performances i n which a l l e s t a b l i s h e d t'an-tz'u performers be long ing to the g u i l d took p a r t . The o the r l a r g e g u i l d a t the same time was the Jun^yu-she o f 19 Shanghai, which was l a t e r combined w i t h the Kuan-yu-she i n 1906. The ex te rna l f u n c t i o n o f t'an-tz 'u g u i l d s was to impose r e s t r i c t i o n s on non-member l o c a l t'an-tz'u performers and performers from ne ighbour ing r e g i on s , so t ha t the l i v e l i h o o d o f the guild-members cou ld be secu red . A request f o r pe rmi s s i on had to be made f o r m a l l y to the l o c a l g u i l d before t'an-tz'u performances cou ld be he ld by non-members. Even when permiss ion was g ran ted , the non-members were not a l lowed to perform at p laces where the stages were e l e va ted . I n t e r n a l l y , t h e g u i l d e x e r c i s e d r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s so t ha t d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n cou ld be taken 20 aga in s t une th i ca l conduct o f i t s members. In Ch ina , a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n (1949), the g u i l d s no longer e x i s t . I n s tead , t'an-tz'u performers are o rgan i zed by the government i n t o two a s s o c i a t i o n s , the Su-chou p'ing-t 'an kung-tso-che hsieh-hui (The Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n worke r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n ) and the Shanghai-shih p'ing-t'an kai-chin hsieh-21 hui (The P'ing-t'an improvement a s s o c i a t i o n o f the C i t y o f Shangha i ) . T'an-tz'u performances have g e n e r a l l y been he ld i n s p e c i a l s t o r y t e l l i n g r e c i t a l h a l l s , shu-ch'ang. A t y p i c a l shu-ch'ang holds about 80 to 100 persons. In f r o n t o f the e l e va ted stage are rows o f t ab le s and c h a i r s . Shanghai dur ing the f i r s t h a l f o f the twen t i e t h 18 century before the r e v o l u t i o n (1949) had at l e a s t a dozen o f the so-c a l l e d " f i r s t r a t e " shu-ch'ang, such as Ts'ang-chou shu-ch'ang, Ta-lu shu-ch'ang, Tung-fang shu-ch'ang, Yu-ming-lou shu-ch'ang, Chung-hua-lou shu-ch'ang, Nan-yuan shu-ch'ang, Ch'ing-ch'un-lou shu-ch'ang, Wu-22 yuan shu-ch'ang, to name on ly a few. Two d a i l y t'an-tz'u performances were he l d . The f i r s t o f these s t a r t e d a t 5 p.m. i n the a f ternoon and 23 the second, i n the evening a t 9 p.m., each l a s t i n g one to two hours. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the performer does not wear a s p e c i a l stage costume. There i s no stage s e t o the r than a t a b l e , and a few c h a i r s . T'an-tz'u i s presented from a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n . The stage-props used dur ing the performance i n c l ude a f a n , a hankerchief,, a teapot and teacups on the t a b l e , and sometimes even the accompanying i n s t rument s . The number o f performers i n a t'an-tz'u performance v a r i e s from one {tan-tang), two {shuang-tang), to s e v e r a l , but seldom more than f i v e . In tan-tang performances, the performer u s u a l l y p lays the san-hs ien (a p lucked t h r e e - s t r i n g e d chordophone) to accompany h imse l f . He s i t s behind a t a b l e p laced c ro s sw i se . In shuang-tang performances, there i s a d i s -t i n c t i o n between the "upper-hand p o s i t i o n " {shang-shou) who n a r r a t e s , s i n g s , and p lays the s an -h s i en , and the " lower-hand p o s i t i o n " {hsia-shou) who supplements i n n a r r a t i o n and p lays the p ' i - p ' a (a p lucked f o u r -s t r i n g e d chordophone). The shang-shou u s u a l l y takes the r o l e s o f male cha rac te r s and the hsia-shou u s u a l l y p lays the female cha r a c te r s . The shang-shou s i t s a t the r i g h t s i de o f the t a b l e , which i s p laced perpen-d i c u l a r to the s tage , and the hsia-chou s i t s a t the l e f t s i de o f the t a b l e . In performances i n v o l v i n g more than two persons, there i s 19 24 u s u a l l y on l y one shang-shou, the r e s t being a l l hsia-shou. In the e a r l y 1950 ' s , the number o f shu-ch'ang grew to more than s i x t y - s e v e n i n Shanghai, t h i r t y - t w o i n Su-chou, wh i ch , by conserv -25 a t i v e e s t ima te s , served an audience o f t h i r t y m i l l i o n . S ince the r e v o l u t i o n o f 1949, the government o f the Peop l e ' s Repub l i c o f China has been s t r e s s i n g the importance o f c r e a t i n g s t o r i e s r e f l e c t i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e and contemporary l i f e i n f a c t o r i e s , communes, and c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s . T r a d i t i o n a l t'an-tz 'u works which used to take months to complete, have been shortened through e d i t i n g so tha t each takes on l y severa l hours. These are c a l l e d the chung-p'ien t'an-tz'u (t'an-tz'u o f medium l e n g t h s ) . The contemporary t'an-tz'u performers have a l s o a l t e r e d a l o t o f t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s , such as f i x e d phrases f o r d e s c r i b i n g young s cho l a r s and b e a u t i f u l l a d i e s , to s u i t the r e a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n o f contemporary Chinese peop le. Fu r t he r -more, the s k i l l o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i s no l onger kept s e c r e t by the s t o r y -t e l l e r ' s f a m i l y and the g u i l d : any person w i t h p o t e n t i a l , who passes the entrance examinat ion can j o i n one o f the two famed Su-chou s t o r y -t e l l i n g per forming t r oup s , the Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n - t ' u a n o r the Shanghai-shih p'ing-t'an-t'uan.^ 20 CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES I T ' a n g , Op. ait., 93; see a l s o " T ' a n - t z ' u , " under the c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n o f Yin-y'ueh l e i , i n Ch'ing-pai lei-ch'ao, r epub l i shed i n Chung-kuo yin-y'ueh s h i h - l i a o , v. 4 (Taiwan: Ting-wen shuo-chu, 1975), 2541-2543. 2 Chang Yuan- shu i , Op. c i t . , 121. I T ang, Op. ait., 93, has the f o l l o w i n g quo ta t i on from the w r i t i n g on the San-huang p o r t r a i t : "Our patron was T 'an-po o f San-wu. For h i s v i r t u e o f y i e l d i n g to others a t three occa s i on s , we r e s p e c t f u l l y c a l l him San-huang." 3 For example, the f i r s t op i n i on i s supported by C h ' i u Chen-ch ing, Op. ait., 107-108, and Cheng Chen-to, Chung-kuo wen-hs'ueh yen-chiu (Pek ing : T so -ch ia ch ' u -pan - she , 1957), 1365; the second i s championed by Chao Ching-shen, Op. cit., 2; and the t h i r d , by Yeh Te-chun, Op. cit., 63, and Yu Kuo-en, Wang C h ' i , Hsiao T ' i a o - f e i , Chung-kuo wen-hs'ueh-shih (Pek ing : Jen-min wen-hsueh ch ' u -pan - she , 1964), 1129. 4 o ^ J a r o s l a v Prusek, "Tun-huang L i t e r a t u r e , " Dictionary of O r i e n t a l Literatures, V o l . I (New York: Ba s i c Books, 1974), 185-187; a l so r e f e r to Footnote 6 o f I n t r o d u c t i o n . The sho r t opening poem i n t'an-tz'u i s c a l l e d k'ai-p'ien. 5 Yeh Te-chi in, Op. cit., 15. 6 Yeh Te-chun, Ibid., 17-18. ^ T ' i e n J u - c h ' e n g , Op. cit., 361. 8 The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f mus ica l s t r u c t u r e between chu-kung-tiao and t'an-tz'u, though ou t s i de the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , i s one o f the important areas f o r f u r t h e r s tudy. A t p re sen t , however, no s tud i e s have been made on t h i s a spect . 9 Yeh Te-chun,, Op. cit., 28-36, 63; I T ' ang , Op. cit., 94-95; Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit., (1958), 115; Wang P ' e i - l u n , Hsi-ch'u t z ' u - t i e n (Taiwan: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1969), 370; see a l s o T ' i e n J u - c h ' e n g ' s t r ava logue , Op. cit., Chapter 20. ^ T ' i e n J u - c h ' e n g , Ibid., 361. Chang Yuan- shu i , Op. cit., 121-122; Chao Ch ' i n g - s hen , Op. c i t . , 3-4. 21 12 Cheng Chen-to, i n h i s book Chung-kuo su-wen-hsueh shih, Op. cit., 350, has mentioned tha t he has a hand cop ied ve r s i on o f Pai-she-chuan dated approx imate ly the middle o f seventeenth cen tu r y . 1 3 Compi la t ions o f C h ' i n g t'an-tz'u t e x t s are d i scus sed by Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit., (1958), 170. The f o l l o w i n g three sources are 1 i s t e d : (a) Cheng Chen-to, " H s i - t i so tsang t ' a n - t z ' u mu - l u , " i n Chung-kuo wen-hsueh yen-chiu, Op. c i t . , 793-798; (b) L i ng Ching, " T ' a n - t z ' u mu- l u , " Tung-wu hsueh-pao 3 (7, 1935); (c) L i C h i a - j u i , "Shuo t ' a n - t z ' u , " L i - s h i h yu yen-chiu, v. 6 (3, 1936). Chao Ching-shen, Op. cit., a l so has i n c l uded 26 t'an-tz'u p i e c e s . A more recent p u b l i c a t i o n , e n t i t l e d Wu-yun-chi, compi led by Chi P i n g -ch ' e n ( T a i p e i : Hua-she t ' a n - t z ' u - s h e , 1961), i n c l ude s 133 sho r t t'an-t z ' u t e x t s from musical excerpt s and K ' a i - p ' i e n . 1 4 C h e n Ju-heng, Op. cit., (1958), 171; and Cheng Chen-to, Chung-kuo wen-hsueh yen-chiu, Op. c i t . , 1120. 15 Chang Yuan- shu i , Op. cit., 122; Chao Ching-shen, Op. c i t . , 6. ^^Ch'ing-pai lei-ch'ao, Op. cit., 2540-2542; and f o r a more d e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h i c a l account o f the Ch ' i n g famous t'an-tz'u pe r fo rmers , see Chen Ju-heng, Op. cit., (1958),. 173-180, 188-198. ^Ch'ing-pai lei-ch'ao, Op. c i t . , 2543-2544. 18 Source from p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan, a p r o f i c i e n t t'an-tz'u per former. 1 9 I T ' ang , Op. cit., 95-96; Chen Ju -heng , Op. cit., (1958), 173-180; and Chang Yuan-shu i , Op. cit., 125-126. 20 Chen Ju-heng, Shuo-shu hsiao-shih, Op. cit., 82. 21 Chang Yuan- shu i , Op. cit., 126. 22 Shang-hai ch'un-ch'iu, Op. c i t . , 61. 23 Ch'ing-pai lei-ch'ao, Op. cit., 2540. Dur ing the 1960 s, t'an-tz'u performances were he ld r e g u l a r l y two o r th ree times a week i n the even ings , each l a s t i n g about two hours. The exac t s i t u a t i o n o f the more recent t'an-tz'u performance i n China i s not c e r t a i n due to un-a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 22 " S e e a l s o Chang Yuan- shu i , Op. cit., 122-123; I T ' ang , Op. cit., 100; and Chao Ch ing-shen, Op. cit., 8-15. 2 5 I T ' ang , Op. cit., 93. Source from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan, who was s e l e c t e d to e n r o l l i n the Shanghai-shih p'ing-t'an-t'uan i n 1962. There are a t l e a s t two amateur t'an-tz'u a s s o c i a t i o n s ope ra t i ng ou t s i de of mainland Ch ina . In Hong Kong, there i s the Ya-yiln-chi, and i n Taiwan, there i s the Wu-yun-chi. Both of these two a s s o c i a t i o n s are s t i l l f a i t h f u l to the t r a d i t i o n a l t'an-tz'u r e p e r t o i r e . 23 CHAPTER II SU-CHOU T 'AN-TZ 'U : THE COMPONENTS OF ITS PERFORMANCE A. SHUO, CHU, CH'ANG, AND T'AN: THE FOUR STRUC-TURAL ELEMENTS IN T'AN-TZ'U PERFORMANCE T'an-tz'u performers c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v e f o r the u l t i m a t e goal of a ch i ev i ng ching, the h ighest s t a t e o f p e r f e c t i o n . ^ Ching, a t'an-tz'u per fo rmers ' term, means s t i l l n e s s and pureness i n the a r t o f s t o r y t e l l i n g . I t a p p l i e s to every aspect r e l a t e d to performance, be i t n a r r a t i o n , i n -s e r t i o n s o f comical passages, s i n g i n g , or i n s t rumenta l accompaniments. I t has to do w i t h the vocal q u a l i t y of the per fo rmer , h i s f a c i a l expres -s i on and body movements, and even the o v e r a l l p lan o f h i s s t o r y t e l l i n g performance. Clean and c o r r e c t d i c t i o n w i t h f u l l c o n t r o l o f the vo i ce a t a l l t imes i s o f pr imary importance. S i t t i n g e r e c t , but not s t i f f , i s a v i s u a l c r i t e r i o n f o r a ch iev i ng ching. Furthermore, the use of hand and f a c i a l gestures and upper to r so movements i s l i m i t e d to those which f i t the s t o r y . The s l i g h t e s t movement made has to be meaningful to the s t o r y so t h a t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be f u l l y understood by the aud ience. The eyes a lone should " speak, " t e l l i n g whether the c h a r a c t e r i n a s t o r y i s good or e v i l , happy or sad. The abso lu te c o o r d i n a t i o n between n a r r a t i o n , f a c i a l e xp re s s i on , and hand and body movements i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a good t'an-tz'u performance. In the o r a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d t'an-tz'u "magic f o r -mu lae j " the re i s thus the f o l l o w i n g phrase: "Where the mouth reaches, 24 both the hands and eyes must f o l l o w . " Wang Chou-sh ih, the e a r l i e r men-t i oned famous e i gh teen th century t'an-tz'u performer and the founder of the f i r s t t'an-tz'u g u i l d , i n t e r p r e t s the concept o f ching w i t h the f o l -lowing remarks: The v i r t u e s o f good s t o r y t e l l i n g are to be ab le to t e l l a f a s t paced s t o r y w i t hou t sounding unsteady and a slow paced s t o r y w i thou t sounding d i s c o n t i n u o u s ; to t e l l i t i n a r e l axed manner w i thou t ap-pear ing to sag; to make a c l o s e l y k n i t t e d p l o t w i thout being o v e r l y tense; to speak and s i n g i n a b r i g h t and c l e a r vo i ce w i thou t shout -i n g ; t o whi sper w i t hou t being i n a u d i b l e ; . . . .3 The a b i l i t y to improv i se i s the key to succe s s fu l t'an-tz'u pe r -formances. The t r a d i t i o n a l t'an-tz'u r e p e r t o i r e conta in s wel l -known s t o r i e s which the audience would probably a l ready have come to know by hea r t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e the p r e s e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r than the s t o r y , t h a t matters to the aud ience. A s t o r y which normal ly l a s t s on l y a few hours, i n a s k i l l f u l t'an-tz'u pe r fo rmer ' s hand, can be extended to weeks. In the famous t'an-tz'u s t o r y Chen-chu-t'a (The pear l pagoda), f o r example, there i s a passage d e s c r i b i n g the female cha rac te r Chen T s 1 u i - o ' s h e s i -t a t i o n to walk down the s t a i r s to meet her beloved Fang - ch ' i n g to g i ve him the pear l pagoda as a g i f t to mark t h e i r engagement vow. I t was s a i d that j u s t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n a lone took th ree days to be t o l d . ' The f o u r s t r u c t u r a l elements i n t e g r a l to t'an-tz'u performance a re : shuo, chu, ch'ang, and t'an. Shuo is the verba l n a r r a t i o n o f a s t o r y ; chu. i s the i n s e r t i o n o f c o m i c - r e l i e f passages i n a s t o r y ; ch'ang i s the s i n g i n g i n t'an-tz'u; and t'an, the in s t rumenta l accompaniment. There i s an a d d i t i o n a l element i n v o l v e d , the tso ( a c t i n g ) wh i ch , o f cour se , i s pa r t o f ^ the shuo, chu, ch'ang, and t'an. The r e l a t i v e o rder o f importance o f these elements i s s t a t ed i n the "magic f o r m u l a " : 25 " N a r r a t i o n i s o f pr imary importance; second i s the s i n g i n g ; and t h i r d , 6 the c h i a - h s i n g (another term f o r i n s t rumenta l p l a y i n g ) . " 1. Shuo. The n a r r a t i o n i n t'an-tz'u c o n s i s t s o f piao ( n a r r a t i o n through the n a r r a t o r ' s own person) and pai ( n a r r a t i o n through a s t o r y c h a r a c t e r ' s own person). Piao i s g e n e r a l l y spoken i n Su-chou d i a l e c t w h i l e pai i s sometimes i n Su-chou d i a l e c t , sometimes i n an i m i t a t i o n o f the Peking reg iona l d i a l e c t . Piao, a l s o termed p i a o - p a i , where the n a r r a t o r de-s c r i b e s the events and cha rac te r s i n a s t o r y , occupies the major p o r t i o n o f a t'an-tz'u performance. Through piao, the n a r r a t o r prov ides the b i o g r aph i ca l background o f a c h a r a c t e r and h i s outer appearance, the i nner thoughts and emotions o f t h a t c h a r a c t e r , as w e l l as the d e s c r i p -t i o n s o f the progres s ion o f s t o r y event s . P i a , used l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , c o n s i s t s of severa l d i s t i n c t types o f v e r b a l i z a t i o n s f o r which the f o l -lowing terms are used: kuan-pai, szu-pai, ku-pai, and oh'en-pai. Kuan-pai, o f f i c i a l d i a l o gue , i s used f o r formal verba l exchanges between government o f f i c i a l s or between s cho l a r s i n the s t o r y . I t i s i n i m i t a -t i o n o f the Peking reg iona l d i a l e c t . Szu-pai, personal d i a l o g u e , i s used when s t o r y cha rac te r s are t a l k i n g to themselves and i s a powerful t o o l f o r the n a r r a t o r to b r i n g the audience i n t o the c h a r a c t e r s ' i nne r psy-chology. Ku-pai, murmuring d i a l o g u e , i s used f o r a c h a r a c t e r ' s s e l f -i n t r o d u c t i o n . The main d i f f e r e n c e between szu-pai and ku-pai l i e s i n the d i a l e c t used: the former uses Su-chou d i a l e c t and the l a t t e r uses i m i t a t i o n Peking reg i ona l d i a l e c t , ch'en-pai, suppor t ing d i a l o g u e , i s i n Su-chou d i a l e c t and i s used f o r c h a r a c t e r judgement, speaking e i t h e r i n 26 the nar rator ' s or a story character ' s own person. In addit ion to the above -piao and pai, there are two more types of ve rba l i za t ions : fu-tsan, r ec i t a t i on of poetry, and hsiang-t'an, loca l r u s t i c t a l k . The former, in imitat ion Peking regional d i a l e c t , i s the descr ipt ive introduction to the f i r s t appearance of a story character. ' 7 The l a t t e r , in d ia lects according to the geographical or ig ins of the characters, i s used mainly as a comical 8 element in s t o r y t e l l i n g . Clear d i c t i on and log ica l progression are of primary importance in shuo, as one of the "magic formulae" says: "unclear narrat ion makes l i s -teners puzzled and a poorly explained story makes l i s tene r s jump up and g down." A t'an-tz'u performer i s also expected to have the a b i l i t y to imitate such sounds as those of horses, b i rds , dogs, water, thunderstorms, drums, cannons, e t c . ^ Stereotyped verbal expressions have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used to describe standardized characters such as a beaut i ful woman having "eyebrows l i k e wil low leaves and eyes l i k e almonds," or a hero having "a t i g e r ' s back and a bear's wai s t . " Audience's f a m i l i a r i t y with the t r ad i t i ona l t'an-tz'u s tor ies forces the performer to reshape his presentation cont inua l ly . The most important s k i l l of improvisation i n -volves the proper treatment of kuan-tzu, the climax of the story. A t'an-tz'u narrator must have a good plan for his performance so that the story culminates at the kuan-tzu. At th i s point, the narrator halts the per-formance and t e l l s the audience: " I f you want to f i nd out what happens next, come and j o i n me tomorrow." A well-planned kuan-tzu i s often enough to decide the degree of the performer's mastery of the ar t of t'an-tz'u. To plan too many kuan-tzu i s ca l l ed ying mai kuan-tzu, to f o r c i b l y 27 s e l l kuan-tzu, and i s f a t a l to a pe r f o rmer ' s c a r e e r . " 1 2. ChU. The c o m i c - r e l i e f passages, chu, are regarded as the " j e w e l s " o f s t o r y t e l l i n g . The "magic f o rmu la " thus says: "Chu i s the jewel o f shuo-shu, w i thout i t there i s no s t o r y ; and a good chu can mend a hundred m i s -12 t a ke s . " The chu not on l y r e l a xe s the audience when the s t o r y gets too tense , but a l s o a l l ows f o r making s o c i a l comments on mean c h a r a c t e r s , such as co r rup t o f f i c i a l s and h y p o c r i t i c a l Confucian s c h o l a r s . The ove r -use of chu, T ike the overuse o f kuan-tzu, i s cons idered degrading the a r t of t'an-tz'u. I f the audience i s composed mainly of women and people from middle or upper-middle c l a s s e s , the language and content of chu. can -not be as coar se as i t can be w i t h an audience from lower s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The r e s t r a i n e d and f l e x i b l e use o f chu a r e , t h e r e f o r e , fundamental to the i n s e r t i o n of c o m i c - r e l i e f passages i n t'an-tz'u performances. 3. Ch 'ang. Ch'ang, the s i n g i n g i n t'an-tz'u, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use o f r e f i n e d language. Gene ra l l y sung i n Su-chou d i a l e c t , ch'ang s t r e s se s c o r -r e c t d i c t i o n and vocal c a r r y i n g power. The "magic f o rmu la " thus warns: "For the l i s t e n e r s , to have at tended a performance f u l l o f d i s t o r t e d d i c -14 t i o n i s l i k e not having been there a t a l l . " No matter how me lod ious l y the s i nge r s i n g s , i f the words a re not c l e a r , the s i n g i n g i s meaningless to the audience. Another "magic f o rmu la " says: "Loud and S t i f f i s worse 15 than coarse but f l e x i b l e . " Th i s means t ha t a performer who does not have a good vo i ce but s ings w i t h f l e x i b i l i t y accord ing to t e x t u a l mood 28 changes i s a b e t t e r s i n g e r t h a n one who has a good v o i c e bu t f a i l s t o c o r r e l a t e h i s s i n g i n g w i t h t h e t e x t . S i n g i n g i n t'an-tz'u o c c u r s a t two p l a c e s : a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r f o r m a n c e and i n between n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e s . The f o r m e r i s c a l l e d k'ai-p'ien, w h i c h i s a sung poem i n t r o d u c t o r y t o t h e s t o r y t e l 1 i n g - p r o p e r , and t h e l a t t e r r e f e r s t o t h e m u s i c a l e x c e r p t s i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g t h e v e r b a l n a r -r a t i v e p a s s a g e s . The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two l i e s i n t h e i r t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n : k'ai-p'ien s e r v e s as an o p e n i n g s y n o p s i s t o t h e s t o r y p r o p e r w h i l e m u s i c a l e x c e r p t s s e r v e g e n e r a l l y as s t o r y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h d i a l o g u e - l i k e pa s sages sung i n c h a r a c t e r ' s own p e r s o n . K'ai-p'ien i s composed m a i n l y o f 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s w i t h t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e s o f t h e f i r s t , s e c o n d , and f o u r t h l i n e - s t a n z a s rhymed. The most f r e q u e n t l y rhymed vowel sounds i n c l u d e : u , i a , 0, i 0 , u , a , i a , u a , 3 f ) , t r ) , and orjJ M u s i c a l e x c e r p t s have a s i m i l a r t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e , b u t w i t h l e s s r e g u -l a r i t y t h a n t h a t o f t h e k'ai-p'ien. In p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s a r e u s u a l l y sung i n d i v i s i o n s o f 2+5 o r 4 + 3 . ^ T h e r e a r e many s c h o o l s o f t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r -vey made i n 1955 , t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a hund red o r so t'an-tz'u 1 g s c h o o l s o f s i n g i n g . In r e a l i t y , howeve r , o n l y a b o u t a dozen s c h o o l s o f s i n g i n g a r e f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d a f t e r 1950 , e l e v e n o f w h i c h a r e a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I V . B i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l on t'an-tz'u s i n g e r s and t h e i r s c h o o l s i s f a r f r om a d e q u a t e . W i t h l i m i t e d d a t a , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s a t e n t a t i v e o u t -19 l i n e o f t h e more commonly known t'an-tz'u s c h o o l s . 29 (a) The School o f YU. YU Hsiu-shan of the l a t e e i gh teenth century was the founder o f the s t y l e o f the Yu s choo l . The s i n g i n g , when used f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i s o f t en a p p l i e d i n female r o l e s . Chu H u i -chen i s among the best YU s t y l e i n t e r p r e t e r s around. The Yu school r epe r -t o i r e i nc ludes Rung-yuan (Enmity w i t h i n the roya l c o u r t ) , An-t'ang jen-mu (Reunion i n the nunnery) , among o the r s . (b) The School o f Ma. Th i s school o f s i n g i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d by Ma J u - f e i o f the n ine teenth cen tu ry . I t s most famous r e p e r t o i r e is Chen-chu-t'a (The pea r l pagoda). I t s l ack o f mus ica l a c t i v i t y i n s i n g i n g i s probably the main reason f o r the smal l number o f contemporary f o l l o w e r s . The Hs'ueh school o f s i n g i n g i s s a i d to have developed from t h i s o l d e r Ma s t y l e and i s today r e p l a c i n g the Ma s t y l e o f s i n g i n g . (c) The School o f Ch ' en . The Ch 'en s t y l e developed at about the same t ime as the Yu and Ma s t y l e s , of the l a t e e i gh teenth cen tu r y ; however, i t s i naugura to r i s . not known. The s i n g i n g , when used f o r c h a r -a c t e r i z a t i o n , i s used f o r o l d male c h a r a c t e r s . One o f i t s more w e l l -known p ieces i s L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh ( L i n Ch ' ung ' s snow w a l k ) . (d) The School o f Hsiieh. Th i s s t y l e o f s i n g i n g was developed by Hs'ueh H s i a o - c h ' i n g from h i s teacher Shen Ch ien-an, one o f the i n t e r p r e t e r s o f the Ma s t y l e . I t s use i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s has no l i m i t s . I t i s used both i n male and female r o l e s . Other than Hs'ueh h i m s e l f , contemporary s ingers o f t h i s school i n c l u d e Ch 'en Hs i -an and Chou Y i i n - j u i . Tai-yu fen-kao (Ta i -yu burns her poem) and H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu ( N i g h t - r a i n i n H s i ao -hsiang) are among i t s b e t t e r known p i e ce s . 30 (e) The School of Hs'ii. Hsu Y i in -ch ih i s s a i d to have developed t h i s s t y l e . The r e p e r t o i r e o f the Hsu school i n c l ude s Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu ( Swi tch ing the p r i n c e w i th a racoon) and San-hsiao (Three s m i l e s ) . ( f ) The School of Chiang. The Chiang s t y l e o f s i n g i n g was developed by Chiang Yueh-ch 'uan from the Yu and Ma s i n g i n g s t y l e s . The s i n g i n g , when used f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i s s u i t a b l e f o r young male r o l e s . I t s r e p e r t o i r e i nc ludes L i n Ch'ung c h i u - t i e n yeh-t'an ( L i n Ch 'ung ' s n i gh t v i s i t to the tavern ) and Tu-Shih-niang (Courtesan Tu Sh i h -n i ang ) . (g) The School o f L i . Th i s s t y l e was developed by Hsu L i -h s ien on the bas i s o f the Chiang s t y l e . I t i s most ly used f o r female r r o l e s . The r e p e r t o i r e i nc ludes Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u (New poem about Mu- lan ) , Tai-yu fen-kao ( Ta i - y i i burns her poem), and Liu-shih nian-tai t i - i - c h ' u n (The f i r s t s p r i n g i n s i x t y y e a r s ) . (h) The School o f C h ' i . The C h ' i s t y l e was developed by C h ' i L i e n - f e n g . I t s s low pace i n s i n g i n g i s found un su i t ab l e f o r many o f t o -day ' s t'an-tz'u compos i t ions on contemporary l i f e i n Ch ina, and t h e r e f o r e fewer and fewer young t'an-tz'u s i nge r s are l e a r n i n g t h i s s t y l e . W i th in i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e , the most o f t en sung p iece today i s Huo Ting-c h i n szu-tiao (Huo T i n g - ch i n mourns her husband). ( i ) The School of C h ' i n . On the ba s i s of the var ious e x i s t i n g s t y l e s such as Yu, Ma, Chiang, and L i , Chu Hsueh -ch ' i n developed t h i s s i n g i n g s t y l e . I t s r e p e r t o i r e i n c l ude s H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu ( N i g h t - r a i n i n H s i ao - h s i ang ) , L o u - t ' a i - h u i (Meeting on a t owe r ) , and Lu-wei ch'ing-ch'ing (The green, green reeds ) . 31 ( j ) Other " S c h o o l s . " There are o ther s o - c a l l e d " s c h o o l s , " such as the Yen, Hs iao-yang, and Chou, which do not a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e schools i n a s t r i c t sense. These " s choo l s " have a l i m i t e d number o f f o l -lowers and most o f t h e i r i n t e r p r e t e r s are b e t t e r known f o r t h e i r n a r r a -t i v e a b i l i t y . They are never the le s s recogn ized as " s c h o o l s " of s i n g i n g by the t'an-tz'u goers. 4. T ' a n . San-hs ien (the p lucked t h r e e - s t r i n g e d chordophone) i s the funda-mental accompanying inst rument i n t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g . In shuang-tang performances, a p ' i - p ' a (a plucked f o u r - s t r i n g e d chordophone) i s added to the accompanying ensemble. Performances i n v o l v i n g more than two s inger s have an a d d i t i o n a l p ' i - p ' a or an erh-hu (a two - s t r i n ged bowed chordophone) i n the accompanying ensemble. S i nce the main f u n c t i o n of t'an-tz'u i s to t e l l a s t o r y , the s i z e o f i n s t rumenta l ensemble i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to no more than f i v e so t h a t the sound o f inst ruments w i l l not overpower t ha t o f the v o i c e . The r e l a t i v e importance among i n -struments i s commented upon by Wu T i ao -me i , a t'an-tz'u performer of the e a r l y twen t i e th cen tu ry : " . . . [Among the i n s t r umen t s ] , san -hs ien i s the host [ i . e . , the main instrument] and the r e s t are a l l ' g u e s t s ' [ i . e . , the suppor t ing i n s t r umen t s ] . Among the ' g u e s t s , ' p ' i - p ' a i s the most 20 important. . . . " The ba s i c f u n c t i o n c f i n s t rumenta l p l a y i n g i n t'an-tz'u is,, o f cou r se , to support the v o i c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s best expressed by the f o l l o w i n g : "The happiness and sadness o f t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g are supported by the san-hs ien and p ' i - p ' a l i k e c louds i n the background o f the moon. . . . I f the ins t ruments a re together w i t h 32 the v o i c e , they e x i s t harmoniously as one. I f harmony i s not observed, they become separate elements, one aga in s t the o the r . . . . To compare the former w i t h the l a t t e r i s l i k e comparing the s a i n t w i t h the com-21 moners." S t y l e s of in s t rumenta l p l a y i n g are a s s oc i a t ed w i t h schools o f s i n g i n g . For example, the school o f Ch iang ' s s i n g i n g s t y l e would have one p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s t rumenta l opening w h i l e that of the 22 C h ' i would have another. The re fo re , the audience recogn izes a pa r -t i c u l a r school o f t'an-tz'u performance not on ly through the r e p e r t o i r e , the s i n ge r , and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n g i n g s t y l e , but a l s o through the p a r t i c u l a r in s t rumenta l opening. Accord ing to Mr. Bernard Chan and Mr. B. C. Lee, both a u t h o r i t i e s on Su-chou s t o r y t e l l i n g , the contemporary p r o f i c i e n t t'an-tz'u i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s and t h e i r instruments a re as f o l l o w s : (a) San-hs ien: Chiang Yueh-ch 'uan, Chou Y i i n - j u i , Hs'ueh Hs iao -c h ' i n g , Hsu L i - h s i e n , Chu H s u e h - c h ' i n , and Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g . (b) P ' i - p ' a : Chang Ch ien-kuo, Yang Chen-yen, and Kuo P i n g -c h ' i n g . (c) Erh-hu: L i u T ' i e n - y u n . B. THE TRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL T'AN-TZ'U SINGERS S tud ies on the t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t'an-tz'u s i nge r s are v i r t u a l l y nonex i s ten t . The present s e c t i o n i s based main ly on the "magic formulae" passed down by generat ions o f t'an-tz'u performers. These o r a l l y t r an sm i t t ed i n s t r u c t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s p rov ide s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t s 33 i n t o the l e a r n i n g and teach ing process o f t'an-tz'u per forming techn iques . A l s o o f importance are the i n te r v i ews w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan and co r re spon -dence w i t h Mr. B. C. Lee who prov ided much f i r s t - h a n d i n f o rma t i on on t h i s aspect . There i s a l s o a shor t a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g the " s ke tch -books " (chiao-pen) o f s t o r y t e l l e r s . Fu r ther re fe rences are the two a r t i c l e s by Vena H rd l i c kova concern ing the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f s t o r y t e l l e r s i n 23 gene ra l . The p r o f e s s i o n o f t'an-tz'u was t r a d i t i o n a l l y passed down from 24 one generat ion to the next . E s t a b l i s h e d t'an-tz'u performers s e l e c t e d a few p o t e n t i a l young boys o r g i r l s from t ime to time as a p p r e n t i c e s . The acceptance o f an app ren t i ce was a s e r i ou s ceremonial event i n which incense was burnt and the app ren t i ce was to kneel i n f r o n t o f the master and the p o r t r a i t o f San-huang,and touch h i s forehead on the ground to show re spec t . There was a l s o a c o n t r a c t to be s igned which f o r m a l l y i n -d i c a t ed the s t a r t i n g o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . T'an-tz'u performers l ea rned t h e i r s k i l l o f s t o r y t e l l i n g through o r a l - a u r a l means. The t r a i n i n g was long and strenuous and c o n s i s t e d o f f ou r s tages . The f i r s t stage began by having the app ren t i ce serve numerous household d u t i e s a t the mas te r ' s house where room and board were f r e e . Th is cou ld l a s t from severa l months to more than a yea r . I f the appren-t i c e was c l e v e r and had i n i t i a t i v e , he would have found some way o f ob-se r v i ng i n s e c r e t the mas te r ' s performances. Ma J u - f e i , f o r example, remembered t h a t when he s t ud i ed w i t h Kuei C h ' i n - j u n g , Kuei o f t en d e l i b e r -a t e l y sent him o f f to buy th ings a t the moment o f d e l i v e r i n g kuan-tzu-shu], the c l i m a x - p o i n t s i n a performance. With Ma's d e t e rm ina t i on , he managed 34 to arrange f o r h i s f r i e n d s to f u l f i l l the mas te r ' s o r d e r s , w h i l e he 25 s e c r e t l y stayed f o r K u e i ' s performances. When the master had enough t r u s t i n h i s a p p r e n t i c e ' s commitment, the second stage began, i n which the app ren t i ce learned to r e c i t e and sang a s t o r y h imse l f . Th is stage i n vo l ved the ted ious work o f i m i t a t i n g the master word by word, sentence by sentence, w i t h the c o r r e c t vocal q u a l i t y , s t r e s s e s , a ccen t s , f a c i a l e xp re s s i on s , and body movements. The general o u t l i n e o f the s t o r y , i t s c h a p t e r s , and p laces o f kuan-tze were taught by the master. When the master was s a t i s f i e d t ha t h i s app ren t i ce had learned the ba s i c technique of s t o r y t e l l i n g , i t was t ime f o r the t h i r d s tage, i n which the app ren t i ce was to ga in p r a c t i c a l exper ience through t a k i n g minor par t i n p u b l i c performances. Whi le exact i m i t a t i v e l e a r n i n g was impor tant , p r a c t i c a l exper ience was perhaps even more c r u c i a l , so the "magic fo rmu la " says: "To memorize the mas te r ' s words a thousand times i s not as e f f e c t i v e as seeing the master i n a c t ua l performance, and to see the mas te r ' s performance a thousand t imes i s not as e f f e c t i v e as pe r -forming i t y o u r s e l f . " During t h i s s tage o f t r a i n i n g , the app ren t i ce was a l lowed on ly to s i ng the k'ai--p'ien a t the beg inn ing o f a s t o r y t e l -l i n g performance. The app ren t i ce was expected to develop h i s a b i l i t y i n i m p r o v i s a t i o n , f o r the mechanical i m i t a t i o n o f the mas te r ' s performance would not get him f a r . When the app ren t i c e had proven to the master t h a t he had equipped h imse l f w i t h a l l the necessary techniques o f r e c i t -i ng and s i n g i n g , he then was a l lowed to progress to the f o u r t h and f i n a l s tage , the g radua t i on . At t h i s p o i n t , the t e rm ina t i on of app ren t i ce sh i p 35 27 was u s u a l l y marked by a p u b l i c performance and a g raduat ion ceremony. The g raduat ion from a p p r e n t i c e s h i p d i d not mean t ha t the l e a r n i n g had been completed. The "magic fo rmu lae " again reminded the performers to keep p e r f e c t i n g t h e i r techn iques . One " f o rmu l a " thus speaks o f the three n e c e s s i t i e s o f l e a r n i n g from observ ing o ther pe r f o rmer ' s p r e s en t a -t i o n s , l e a r n i n g from the a c t i n g s k i l l s o f t h e a t r i c a l performances, and l e a r n i n g from read ing books to widen one ' s r e fe rence sources and improv-28 ing one ' s educat i ona l background. T'an-tz'u performers were a l s o reminded o f the hardship o f t h e i r c a r e e r : "One who endures f a i l u r e w i l l be 29 s u c c e s s f u l . " The s t o r y t e l l e r s were s a i d to have the s o - c a l l e d chiao-pen ( s ke tch -books ) , w r i t t e n by the performers themselves. These were regarded as p r o f e s s i o n a l s e c r e t s and were guarded c l o s e l y w i t h i n the s t o r y t e l l e r s ' f a m i l i e s . Accord ing to Ssu Su, who was ab le to make f r i e n d s w i t h and to examine some s t o r y t e l l e r s ' s ketch-books , they conta ined the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s ve r s i on o f the s ke l e t on o f a s t o r y , the number o f i t s c hap te r s , the 30 p laces to i n s e r t chu, o r what kuan-tzu were to be used. The q u a l i t y o f chiao-pen v a r i e d acco rd ing to the pe r f o rmer ' s educat i ona l background. Most of them were f u l l o f mistakes i n grammar and w r i t i n g , some were i n -31 t e l l i g i b l e to no one but the w r i t e r h imse l f . In a l l , the uneven q u a l i -t i e s found i n chiao-pen l ead to the ques t i on of t h e i r a c tua l p r a c t i c a -b i l i t y . Whi le the chiao-pen was d e f i n i t e l y a p r a c t i c a l reminder f o r the person who wrote i t , as t ime went On, from one generat ion to the nex t , the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y must have d im in i shed a c c o r d i n g l y w h i l e the symbol ic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c r e a s e d ; t ha t i s , i t had become a symbol f o r i t s possessor 36 of the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f h i s ve r s i on o f the s t o r y as be long ing to a c e r t a i n school o r a c e r t a i n master. In contemporary Ch ina , the ba s i c o r a l - a u r a l methods o f t'an-tz'u t r a i n i n g remain, but many o f the o l d fash ioned customs such as the unne-c e s s a r i l y long years o f t r a i n i n g and the ceremonial r i t e s between masters 32 and app ren t i ce s are no longer i n p r a c t i c e . Because the educat i ona l background o f the young t'an-tz'u s tudents i s s t a n d a r d i z e d , w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s such as the p r i n t e d t'an-tz'u t e x t s become ever more important . The two s t a t e c on se r va t o r i e s of t'an-tz'u, l o c a ted i n Su-chou and Shanghai, have gathered a l l t'an-tz'u p r o f e s s i o na l performers on t h e i r s t a f f so t h a t the students can l e a r n a wide r e p e r t o i r e from the best teachers r a t h e r than the o l d e r t r a d i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g j u s t one school o f s i n g i n g and r e c i t i n g . In the absence o f s ec recy , mutual l e a r n i n g and a s s i s t a n c e has become the t r a d i t i o n among t oday ' s t'an-tz'u performers and s tudent s . 37 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER II ^"Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh , " Op. c i t . , 52. 2Ibid., 54. 3 There are a l t o g e t h e r f ou r t een v i r t u e s of s t o r y t e l l i n g c i t e d by Wang, i n a book le t pub l i shed by the Kuang-yu-she i n which Wang a l s o wrote four teen taboos of s t o r y t e l l i n g . The o r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n i s ex -t remely hard to come by today. My t r a n s l a t i o n s are made from the one quoted by Chen Ju-heng, Op. c i t . (1958), 174-175. 4 Chen Ju-heng, I b i d . , 108. 5 Because tso i s an i n t e g r a l pa r t o f the shuo, chu, ch'ang, and t'an, t'an-tz'u performers do not regard tso as a separate category . 6 " Su -chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh , " Op. c i t . , 54; chu i s not s p e c i -f i c a l l y mentioned. I presume chu and shuo' are regarded c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n t h i s "magic f o rmu l a . " ^The opening f u - t s a n o f a performance has the musical counte rpa r t k ' a i - p ' i e n which i s the s i n g i n g o f an opening poem. o Based on Chen Ju-heng, Shuo-shu shih-hua, Op. c i t . , 172; I T ' a n g , Op.' cit., 97-99; and i n t e r v i ews w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan. 9 "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh , " ' Op. cit., 54. ^1 T ' a ng , Op. c i t . , 102; and Cheng Ju-heng, Shuo-shu h s i a o - s h i h , Op. c i t . , 106. ^ S o u r c e from i n t e r v i ews w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan. 12 "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chUeh, " Op. cit.,55. 13 Source obta ined from i n t e r v i e w s w i th Mr. Bernard Chan. 1 4 " S u - c h o u p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou - chueh , " Op. c i t . , 54, 55. . 15Ibid. ^ S p e c i f i c examples can be found i n Chapter IV. Rhyming p a i r s i n Chinese w r i t i n g s are l i s t e d i n I T ' a n g , Op. c i t . , 104, and Chao Ch i n -sheng, Op. c i t . , 15. 38 ^ A , f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n can be found i n Chapter IV, Ana ly ses . 1 8 I T ' a n g , Op., cit., 119. 19 In fo rmat ion i s based on i n t e r v i ews w i t h Mr. Bernard Chan. Other re fe rences i n c l ude I T ' ang , Op. cit., 106-110; Ch'ing-p'ai lei-ch'ao, Op. c i t . , 2541; and Chen Ju-heng, Shuo-shu shih-hua, Op. c i t . , 198-200. The analyses of the musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e leven schoo l s o f s i n g i n g can be found i n Chapter IV of t h i s t h e s i s . "A school o f t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g " r e f e r s to a t r a d i t i o n which con ta in s the common t r a i t s s t y l i z e d by a group o f t'an-tz'u s i n g e r s . These t r a i t s i n c l ude the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t'an-tz'u s t o r y or s t o r i e s and the voca l/ i n s t rumenta l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t r a d i t i o n of a school i n t'an-tz'u i s commonly i n i t -i a t e d by an e s t a b l i s h e d t'an-tz'u per former, whose i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y has been s u c c e s s f u l . When he has taught severa l d i s c i p l e s who a l s o s p e c i a l i z e i n the same t r a d i t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t ha t s t o r y , they not on l y i d e n t i f y themselves, but one a l s o recogn ized as be-long ing to one s c h o o l , which i s u s u a l l y named a f t e r the f ounde r ' s surname. 20 Quoted by Chao Ching-shen, Op. cit., 8. 110-111 21 T r a n s l a t e d from Chen Ju-heng, Shuo-shu h s i a o - s h i h , Op. cit., 22 Ins t rumenta l passages of twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces are analyzed i n Chapter IV. 23 "Su-chou p i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh, " Op. cit.;wSsu Su, "Shuo-shu yu wu c h i a o - p e n , " Ch'u-i 4 (1962), 44-45; Vena H e r d l i c k o v a , Op. cit.. 24 The word generat ion i s used i n a general sense. The t r an sm i s -s i on of t'an-tz'u was u s u a l l y not from f a t h e r to son o r f a t h e r to daughter; r a t h e r , i t was passed down from master to h i s a p p r e n t i c e s , most o f whom d i d not have blood r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the master. The accep-tance r i t u a l ceremony, the long years o f t r a i n i n g a t the mas te r ' s house, and the s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e were a l l pa r t o f the process of e s t a b l i s h i n g a k ind o f p s e u d o - f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the master and apprent i ce s so tha t the more determined apprent i ces were s e l e c t e d to c a r r y on the s c h o o l - t r a d i t i o n o f the master. 25 Cheng Ju-heng, Shuo-shu shih-hua, Op. cit., 190-191. "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh, " Op. cit., 57. 27 Chao Ching-shen, Op. cit., 1, 14; and Ch'ing-pai lei-ch'ao, Op. cit., 2543. Acco rd ing to Chen Ju-heng, i n h i s Shuo-shu shih-hua, Op. cit.. 155-156, the r i t u a l ceremony of the t e rm ina t i on o f t r a i n i n g i n nor thern s t o r y t e l l i n g c o n s i s t e d of incense burn ing , k n e e l i n g , and the p re sen t i ng o f the th ree props o f s t o r y t e l l i n g from the master to the graduate: a 39 wooden s l a b , a f a n , and a handkerch ie f . Whether a s i m i l a r ceremony was held i n t'an-tz'u i s s t i l l to be re searched. "Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n k ' ou -chueh, " Op. cit., 29 ^ I b i d . Ssu Su, Op. cit., 44-45. 31 ' S i m i l a r comments on chiao-pen a n d ; f a n - t z ' u have been made by Mr. B. C. Lee, i n one of h i s correspondences to me. See page 33 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l acceptance ceremony between the master and h i s app ren t i ce s . 40 CHAPTER I I I TRANSCRIPTIONS A. NOTES ON TRANSCRIPTION 1. Sources The twelve musical and phono log i ca l t'an-tz'u t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f the present t h e s i s are based on fou r Hong Kong Art-Tune reco rd s , s e r i a l numbers ATC 25, 26, 27, and 170. 1 These Art-Tune records are r e - r e co rded cop ies from the ones made by the China Record Company o f 2 P e o p l e ' s Repub l i c o f Ch ina. The China records o f these twelve 3 t'an-tz'u p ieces were i s sued dur ing the pe r iod of 1955 - 1961. A l l r eco rd ing s were made under s t ud i o c o n d i t i o n s and the o v e r a l l sound q u a l i t y i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l l p ieces were sung by wel l-known t'an-tz'u s i nge r s who represent e leven schoo l s o f s i n g i n g . The t o t a l p l a y i n g t ime of these twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces l a s t s one hour and f o u r , minutes. In a l p h a b e t i c a l o rde r , these t'an-tz'u p ieces are as f o l l o w s : (a) Chih-chen miao-jung (Chih-chen draws a p o r t r a i t o f her husband), sung by Chou Y u - c h u a n i n t h e s t y l e o f chou s c h o o l ; (b) Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n ( F ang - ch ' i n g w r i t e s a l e t t e r to home), sung by Wei Han-ying i n the s t y l e o f Ma s c h o o l ; (c) H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu ( N i g h t - r a i n i n H s i ao -h s i ang ) , sung by Chu Hs 'ueh-ch ' in i n the s t y l e of C h ' i n s c h o o l ; (d) Hsin Mu-lan tz'u (New poem about Mu- lan ) , sung by Hsu L i - h s i e n i n the s t y l e of L i s c h o o l ; (e) Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o (Huo T i n g - ch i n mourns her husband), sung by Chou Y i i n - j u i i n the s t y l e of C h ' i s c hoo l ; ( f ) K'u-t'a (The pagoda), sung by Hs'ueh H s i a o - c h ' i n g i n the s t y l e o f Hs'ueh s c h o o l ; (g) Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u ( Sw i tch ing the p r i n ce w i t h a racoon) , sung by Hsu Yun-ch ih i n the s t y l e of Hsu s c h o o l ; (h) L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh ( L i n Ch ' ung ' s snow-walk), sung by L i u T ' i e n - y i i n i n the s t y l e of Ch 'en s c hoo l ; ( i ) M i - s h i h hsiang-hui (Meeting i n a s ec re t room), sung by Yen Hs ' ueh- t ' i ng i n the s t y l e of Yen s c h o o l ; ( j ) Shou-t'ang (The h a l l o f l o n g e v i t y ) , sung by Chu Hui-chen i n the s t y l e o f Chiang s c h o o l ; (k) Tu S h i h - n i a n g (Courtesan Tu Sh i h - n i ang ) , sung by Chiang Yueh-ch 'uan i n the s t y l e o f Chiang s c h o o l ; (1) Ying-ying pai-yueh ( Y i n g - y i ng prays to the moon), sung by Yang J e n - l i e n i n the s t y l e o f Hsiao-yang s choo l . The t e x t s f o r the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces can be found both on the Art-Tune record j a c k e t s and i n a pub l i shed c o l l e c t i o n of t'an-tz'u t e x t s , e n t i t l e d Wu-yun chi ( C o l l e c t i o n o f Wu- tunes ) . 4 On c l o s e r examin-42 a t i o n , the p r i n t e d t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s on Art -Tune record j a c k e t s do not always c o r r e l a t e to the s y l l a b l e s t h a t are sung. The t e x t s from Wu-y'un tihi, on the c o n t r a r y , c o r r e l a t e e x a c t l y to the s y l l a b l e s that are sung. Textua l re fe rence i s t h e r e f o r e based on t ha t o f Wu-y'un tiki. The s y l l a b l e s o f the twelve t'an-tz'u t e x t s are p h o n e t i c a l l y 5 s p e l l e d out w i t h the symbols used i n the IPA system. These phonet ic s p e l l i n g s are based on a pub l i shed phono log i ca l re search repo r t by the D i a l e c t a l Research Team of Chiang-su P rov ince arid Shanghai C i t y . ^ Th i s r e p o r t i s the r e s u l t o f th ree y e a r ' s r e s e a r c h , from November 1956 to September 1959, under the j o i n t s u p e r v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y o f Educat ion and the Department o f Advanced Educa t i on . Phonet ic s p e l l i n g s i n IPA are made f o r 2,601 s y l l a b l e s f o r each o f the twelve sub - reg iona l d i a l e c t s ; Su-chou d i a l e c t i s c l a s s i f i e d under geograph ica l reg ion 1, s ub - reg i ona l d i a l e c t 13. With the a s s i s t ance o f Mr. Bernard Chan, a p r o f i c i e n t young t'an-tz'u s i n g e r , the phonet ic s p e l l i n g s drawn from the above mentioned Research Report are compared to those of the recorded performances: l i t t l e d i s c repancy was found between the two. Only i n r a r e cases , a l t e r a t i o n o f phonet ic sounds occurs to enable smoother, e a s i e r p ronounc ia t i on s of the t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n s i n g i n g . These changes are noted a c c o r d i n g l y i n the phono log i ca l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the t e x t s . 2. S pec i a l T r a n s c r i p t i o n a l Procedures T r a n s p o s i t i o n . A l l twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces are t r a n s c r i b e d i n the key o f C.^ The o r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h of each p iece i s i n d i c a t e d a t the top l e f t hand immediate ly above the score-page ( i . e . , the second page o f each t r a n s c r i p t i o n ) . Numbering L i ne - S t an za s . For easy r e fe rence i n the a n a l y s i s , l i n e - s t a n z a s , represented by l e t t e r s LS, are numbered accord ing to t h e i r order o f appearance w i t h i n the t e x t . The f i r s t l i n e - s t a n z a i n a t'an-tz'u text i s thus LS I , the second LS2, and so f o r t h . Each l i n e -stanza i s marked o f f by two v e r t i c a l l i n e s drawn across the system of vocal and in s t rumenta l p a r t s , one dotted and the o the r s o l i d ( i . e . , || ). D i v i s i o n s w i t h i n each l i n e - s t a n z a are marked o f f by v e r t i c a l dotted l i n e s drawn across the system. L e t t e r s Vd and Id stand f o r vocal and in s t rumenta l d i v i s i o n s ( i . e . , V stands f o r v o c a l , I stands f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l , and d stands f o r d i v i s i o n ) . LSI Vd2 or LSI Id2 thus r e f e r s to vocal d i v i s i o n two o f l i n e - s t a n z a one o r i n s t rumenta l d i v i s i o n two o f l i n e - s t a n z a one. , Order ing o f Vocal and Instrumental P a r t s . S ince a t'an-tz'u s i n ge r t r a d i t i o n a l l y accompanies h imse l f on the san-hs ien (a p lucked t h r e e - s t r i n g e d chordophone), the san-hs ien pa r t i s arranged immediately below the vo i ce p a r t . I f the p ' i - p ' a (a p lucked f o u r - s t r i n g e d chordo-phone) i s used i n the t'an-tz'u accompanying ensemble, i t s pa r t i s 44 t r a n s c r i b e d under t h a t of the s an -h s i en . Erh-hu (a bowed two - s t r i nged chordophone) and yuan (a plucked f o u r - s t r i n g e d bass chordophone) are r e l a t i v e l y recent a d d i t i o n s to the t'an-tz'u accompanying ensemble, t h e i r pa r t s be ing under tha t o f the p ' i - p ' a , w i t h erh-hu pa r t above yuan p a r t . 8 Dens i ty Referent . The standard den s i t y r e f e r e n t o f the twelve t'an-tz 'u p ieces i s t h a t o f the e i gh th - no te p u l s a t i o n , i n d i c a t e d by i t s f requency per minute ( e . g . , / = 80 ) . S p e c i a l Symbols, (a) Vocal p a r t ——J_JT—*\f J"J{ Portamenti from one p i t c h to another -^ H J E - — I nd i ca ted p i t c h approached from an h igher or lower i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h Ss—X^, X** Upward or downward g l i d e s from i n d i c a t e d p i t c h or heightened speech-tones to a h igher or lower i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h — - j l — I nd i ca ted p i t c h begins and ends on an i n d e f i n i t e lower or h igher p i t c h —X- Heightened speech-tone, p i t ched 45 Heightened speech-tone, p i t c h l e s s A vocal q u a l i t a t i v e change; sudden t r a n s i t i o n from ches t - tone to f a l s e t t o Strong t r i l l - l i k e v i b r a t o on the i n d i c a t e d p i t c h ; v i b ra to - r ange no more than a minor second P i t c h prolonged w i t h v i b r a t o P i t c h prolonged w i th non -v ib ra to to v i b r a t o Gradual downward p i t c h movement ending w i t h v i b r a t o I nd i ca ted p i t c h ends w i t h a r a p i d p i t c h d e f l e c t i o n A tone s l i g h t l y h igher or lower than the i n d i c a t e d p i t c h Non-1egato, accented p i t c h e s ; achieved by g l o t t a l stops 46 (b) Instruments S p e c i a l i n s t rumenta l techniques are i n d i c a t e d w i t h the g f o l l o w i n g s i g n s : ( i ) S p e c i a l p ' i - p ' a f i n g e r techniques are i n d i c a t e d w i t h s igns adopted from the Chinese p ' i - p ' a n o t a t i o n : J* P e r cu s s i v e sound produced by h i t t i n g the su r f ace o f p ' i - p ' a ' s sounding board w i t h the r i g h t hand second f i n g e r J Ha r m o r n c s Rapid repeated notes on a p i t c h produced by the p l uck i ng s o f the second, t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , and thumb o f the r i g h t hand once around ( i . e , , i J J 3 ) Rapid repeated notes on a p i t c h produced i n the same manner as J£ , on l y repeated more than once ( i . e . , . < ^ ^ ^ Tffi e t c . ) ^ To r a i s e a p lucked p i t c h by p re s s i ng and pushing the s t r i n g towards the r i g h t s i de o f the p l a y e r w i t h the second, t h i r d , or f o u r t h f i n g e r o f the l e f t hand ( i . e . | ^ Same as ^ , on l y much q u i c k e r ( i . e . , Jg, The oppos i te o f - - l e f t hand presses and pushes the s t r i n g towards p l a y e r ' s r i g h t ; r i g h t hand then p lucks the s t r i n g , and a f t e r p l u c k i n g , l e f t hand re tu rn s the s t r i n g to i t s normal p o s i t i o n w i thou t r e l e a s i n g the ho ld on the s t r i n g ( i , e . . > r- ) 47 X JE» and on three crossed s t r i n g s , producing p i t c h l e s s pe rcus s i ve sounds; s t r i n g s are crossed and kept crossed by the l e f t hand R ight hand techn ique; p i t c h l e s s sound produced by p l u c k i n g the s t r i n g w i t h the second f i n g e r w h i l e the unders ide o f the s t r i n g i s covered by the f l e s h o f the thumb ( i i ) San-hs ien Equ i va l en t to p ' i - p ' a o r ^ ^ Downward g l i d e X Equ i va l en t to p ' i - p ' a *J ( i i i ) Erh-.hu /// - £ _ Bowing techn ique , tremolo -4*H> V i b r a t o y ? Upward or downward portament i A-TRANSCRIPTIONS OF TWELVE T'an-tz'u PIECES (a) Chih-chen miao-jung (Chih-chen draws a p o r t r a i t o f her husband) Chou Yu-chuan ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) Hsueh Chun-ya ( p ' i - p ' a ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 2 band 2 ATC-27 (Art -Tune Company) 33 50 Chih-chen miao-jung O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = + G f = 132 Du ra t i on = 5 ' A/2? vo i ce i v H r ft ffl P f ^ f f f h (» f f 7 | - f l t j » 9* \z±: U — i z san-hs ien 71 T 7 7 7 -*— » * • 1 * p ' i -p 'a vo ice san-hs ien 7 ' "7 "7 7 ' 7 ~7 ~7 7 7 ^7= 7 7 7 p ' i -p ' a -4-» * 51 7 =7- r L i l i' \ ® 7 7 7 7 T "7 7 7 ^ j' 1 1 1 — < J 7= V 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7= id =7z 7 7" V ==y ? P 1 7 T T ¥ mm 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 —1 7 7 7 = f -1 n A ft • - - -t i 52 '±1 7 7 V Ursa* 2-E * * * * 1 — • — z z — r ~ r r *-—+-"7 ~7' 7 7 "7 7 7 7 V 7 0 T ~7 7 ^ C5Z 4-"fesr f i H t i ' i *r i1 • i t- n f[ fl H i r f l fl 53 54 55 C \ l S E t r » r > • » ' T vG vol -i^VL r r P [• r -7 y -7 g 7 ~7 111 r T fi n r i 7 7 V 7 7 V ^ H H H f n ' J 1 • * i ' y » (9 ' [\ 7 *7 T V ^ -7=?= ^ 4-7 7 7 7 7 7 x ==F=F:  * ' J H n n ri=s — — 56 57 58 -9-1 Stn r 1-0 7 -7 V = ^ = I T -nan. J — Y—»-7 ~7 7 4 | ) 7 7 7 V 7 7 7 - 7 7 7 7=^ • 4 *k Pi rt f l r -rffi FI r n i l r EE Jy—— ——•—*-=4? 7 7 7 m A. p •=7-—7~ 7 Y 7 7 7 7 7 1-? ' J t\\tU Jit I \ 7 I V ft 1 !_ HP 60 61 .p, , , = r ~7 " ) '—7 —» t — \ 1 ; 1 9 v * # * / / 7 7 7 7 V ~p —^£ £ 3 £3 -# 1-^ 3 t " — * J » QD 7 7 V 4 7 7 7 -* *-„ te-v > r 7 i 7 7 7 7 7 - 7 V - 7 7 7 7 7-- — i - 5 f \s r f r 2 : A . — K = — - — - A l J . ) vi i \ \ 62 63 64 65 0 ca V > -7T y ^ -#-—# - 7 7 7 ~7 7 V " 7 . V ~7 i * P *, M * 7 7 - 7 7 7 V 7 y v 7 -=7- * ^ 5 : 1 — 66 7 7 7 7 ' 7 V V i s : \9? -tsST-7 V T 7" 7 =7= =7= 3 : i -_ r 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = 7 -# '-T+ * 0~t # -rv-• • • f t 3 : 3 ^ 4 9 • W + 2 Z H ~r r r 7 V 7 i 67 T T • 7 7 - -7 7 7 V — f m f * * + 0 * -^ 3 7 7 7 ; # 1 7 7 7 = 7 = ^ 7 V N 5= * - * * 41 » l b 11 ^ i M I — •3 — D-y 7 ) ' — 3 > * 7 7 "7 ~T - ^ 7 -I 2 Z — :—e£P-= f = f I • -t-R 68 69 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT •6Q 4 . :&t # £ t %• ?b A. ife — J L . A , It X Jp" % e 4 £ /c - J? ^ 5V f ^ m >f \ C l o s i n g my eyes, I see my husband through m e d i t a t i o n , As i f th ree spr ings ago a t our f i r s t meet ing. T r a d i t i o n a l p o r t r a i t u r e s t a r t s w i t h a pe r son ' s nose, Because the nose i s the Ea r t h - S t a r o f one ' s l i f e , And the o l d say ing t e l l s t ha t a l l th ings came from the e a r t h . I p a i n t you , my husband, your f i n e l y o u t l i n e d eyebrows, your dark h a i r , and your broad fo rehead, I p a i n t y ou , my husband, your w i t t y , a t t r a c t i v e eyes. I p a i n t y ou , my husband, your square-shaped face and b le s sed ea r s , ^ i ^ ti jk ^ ^ f > i f ® 4 & & J l 3 -& # - fe ^ £ 70 Your l i f e - s p a n decided by the t h i n l i p s . I p a i n t you, my husband, an e l egan t head-piece w i t h two r i bbon s , C lothed i n dark navy -b lue . In your hand i s a h s i a n g - f e i f a n , The pendant o f which i s a ra re t r ea su re o f Han, D i f f i c u l t i t i s to p a i n t the jade d r a g o n - f l y . I p a i n t you , my husband, s i t t i n g i n a c o i l e d d ragon - cha i r , Your p o r t r a i t i s about a f o o t l o n g , As .though you were a l i v e . (b) Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin ( Fang - ch 1 i n g w r i t e s a l e t t e r to home) Wei Han-ying ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) t r a n s c r i b e d from de 2 band 3 ATC-27 (Art-Tune Company) 33 72 O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h T = 112 Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin D Durat ion 6 ' 3 0 " s an -h s i en v o i c e s an -h s i en v o i c e s an -h s i en vo i ce san -h s i en 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 81 f 7 *> 2 83 84 85 fi!———f* HZ1 V I . L E fe "7 f i i - 1 . "T JJ n I M r J l^ f . l f feM L-H 5L_i 3. 1 <-i U—r Nil I D J ^ r = * i — # — -- *7 w*—— —3? *-f - 7 -» -r-! — * -r ! _ - - I Z — Z -1 — Z - l •7 7 ~7 7 86 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT £ 1 Before I even begin to w r i t e a l ready I am sad, J u s t as I am about to w r i t e two streams o f t ea r s f a l l , And now t h a t I am w r i t i n g ah, i t breaks my hea r t . I w r i t e how I journeyed to Hsiang-c h ' u c i t y a t my mother ' s request , A f t e r f o u r t y days or so I a r r i v e d a t H s i ang - ch ' u . T£, -h-tr - l b i . , r J u s t i n t ime f o r my u n c l e ' s b i r t hday c e l e b r a t i o n . ikA.^Jt&Jk^ I had 3^ no means o f p re sen t i ng a b i r t h d a y g i f t , ^2.^  i^jj ' ^ / ^ L ^ C j A n d w e n t t n e r e f o r e t 0 s e e m y a u n t -87 ^ ^ v § ~ ~ I w r i t e one o r two l i n e s about my a u n t ' s snobbishness. * t $ ^  t CD j I a l s o w r i t e two or three l i n e s about p ledg ing the jade pagoda f o r the wedding engagement, Ye t , I am a f r a i d t ha t my g r e y - ha i r ed mother w i l l worry. Your son f e l l i l l dur ing the j ou rney , and met robbers , I almost l o s t my l i f e a t midn ight i n a s t range p l a c e . Fo r tuna te l y the heaven and ea r t h and my ancestors took p i t y on me, My sav iour P i Yun-p 'eng saved me and e sco r ted me to the c a p i t a l . Old Mrs. P i was so k i n d , She had not f o r go t ten the he lp we gave to her i n the pa s t , 88 I T Si) , ' J & If , 4 ^ , She k i n d l y i n v i t e d me to s t ay and study f o r the examinat ion . She presented f i v e hundred t a e l s o f wh i te g o l d , On top o f t h a t , the re are twenty s h i n -i ng p e a r l s f o r me to keep. I have sent the se rvan t P i C h ' i n to You, T e l l i n g him to serve you a t T ' a i -p 1 i n g v i l l a g e . I am anxious to r e t u r n , but unable t o , Not u n t i l t h i s f a l l w i l l I be able to come home. Hope you w i l l take care o f your h e a l t h , I worry t ha t you might not be warm enough i n the daytime and y e t too c o l d a t n i g h t , 89 3 ^ i - . P lease keep y o u r s e l f warm day and n i g h t . I pray f o r your h e a l t h , Under the Yuan-hsiao lamp, three pages have been w r i t t e n . He takes the l e t t e r and reads i t from beg inn ing to. end, Sending i t to the former prime m i n i s t e r ' s o l d sh r i ne - temp le a t T ' a i - p ' i n g v i l l a g e . 90 (c) Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu ( N i g h t - r a i n i n Hs iao-hs iang) Chu Hsueh -ch ' i n ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) Kuo P i n - c h ' i n g ( p ' i - p ' a ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i d e 2 band 1 ATC-170 (Art-Tune Company) 33 \ 91 Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu Orig inal f i r s t p i tch = C J= 108 Duration = 8'36" san-hsien/t p ' i - p ' a • J vo i ce san-hsien/ p ' i - p ' a ) 1 i i * * * a Ca 7* ^ r*f r 1* 1 j v y y y i ^ -n 92 Y Y y y y r * v Y. CI fyd) =Y=^= H H t r * — LWJ U l 1 — T_ -f x • y h h — ¥ Y~ _ 'v-  L I VR | V V V ! - r — t — t — r — r — ? — g-^y L f * f l ff ^'-^r —y-«r j — i — z _ 7 7 T J If V Y >— ^ 3 « » 0 „ r .ft v Y . y^Y 7 y y jy gjgj i f l n ft i * 93 i t i i t v y T T Y T 7 — ^ ^ BE 7- 7 7 7 7-3 7 » * # * 7 ~ tnfc -4—» m r 7 7 7 y V 7 i i f t f f i f f t f j f l f i n n n n n n m 2 3 : t i ---—. -^ri ^ *f —»- £ 7 • » r T - ^ T — * T — - r , 7 Xi i-— ' 7 7 ^ 7 t b. h- 7 r O. 1 ^ 7 i 1 = 4 p * 7 ^ ' T • . 1 > f i * si i —« ^ •- U »' —4—• • . — ; p -{<>—~ L  J — j a — -i • P J ——j— A* * 4 ft i« — t * ^—W—p 4 ' > * —T— 1 i — * 7 -? » 0 II ^ -ts'fj. va oa— tS.7, ^ 5 J J--V r : 2 J 1-4- =^ - 4 — ! ^ r f f • 1*1 * 3 Note: Added phonet i c sounds which are not p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l s y l l a b l e are i n d i c a t e d w i th square b r a c k e t s . 95 96 97 2 T "7 7 7 ^ T> 7 7 7 7 7 J = ? = ? f -r -r - 7 *-r -r -r -r - 7 -r i • S r1  ( f l ^ f f*-i f f 1 ' , • 9 1 i i 1 — 98 99 100 7-7 -L7 P JLi J JL m I ft : 3 Z = -3& 5 r *— N A-3 ® 2E Ui esd?, S I J w 3 p:D f'V 7 mm 7 7 7 m m 1 Tj J > * mm ML m V ft. > u » — * 101 i '/ 7 7 - 7 - 7 '7=^r 1= * 5 fe: *3 • — # -5r * Hh « #" / A 7 7 «f - 7 7 y - b C tfV W'*? L^ M. — —U. 4 ^ -_jF " 7 --5-33 7 ^ 7 / f 1 / / 7 7 w —>i — - • ^ i s * J > 102 103 105 106 107 109 n o i n 1 - 1 -0 - ^—~r—-7 -7 1 -m ™7 —7 • >K ' s.—« —r> ==;• 1 1 =4 * • 5 6 - e -t^iftj I —a—^ / -— -^^ f / / k m 7 #t-V-- • - r — - P — = l - 3 l j 5 e T £ i 1 ^ > * • 1 ffi E i * .: a W -— — J r — - i 1 -tot) torj -uaitii'ar 7 7 » i * Pi .—4-LX Y — X - - \ fflf r- ^ f i —y • — ~ 7 ~ —W— i j * i h-i 1* ^ — — "' 1 ! -v a my —-Mm. — r r — i t —-7 =9 — w. — ^ X Mm IA. — U. -3—5 t M i / ' / / / V { J •ff—f _ J < / — = * - * -i — 112 113 114 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT Smoky, smoky c louds hover over Hsiao-hsiang, M i s t y , m i s ty pa le y e l l o w moon. Dark, dense fog surrounds Hsiao-hsiang, C o l d , c o l d emerald gauze windows. af *4J #j -f-f ®* Wind, screaming wind passes through a thousand lang-kan bamboos, ^ - © C ^ ^ . / ^ - " ^ - ^ Green, green grass w i t h a few f a l l i n g c he r r y - app l e blossoms. "jjw) tf^ti S i c k , weary, there i s one g r i e v i n g beauty, Cold and l o n e l y w i t h two l i t t l e se rvant g i r l s . Q £ i c S T h i n , t h i n s i l k e n garment, 115 # 7 ^ - % ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ L e a n and pa le i s her f a c e . B^fSt^X^Btkl^^^ Re s t l e s s eyes f u l l o f sadness, f^^^jL K n i t t e d > k n i t t e d b r o w s f u 1 1 o f ha t red . frj^ t^j ^ ^ © - ^ j Q u i e t l y , s i t t i n g q u i e t l y i n a hsiang-1^ j fei c h a i r , "^ Mo^ i^^ ^ 1^ ijjT l^k ^  S o f t l y , l e an i n g s o f t l y a ga i n s t the 0 i v o r y bed. fie 4 * _ > ^ > ^ — D i m l y , d imly a weeping cand le burns. XPJ< Co l d , f r e e z i n g c o l d h a l f a cup o f medi c ine- soup. She i s b rea th ing h e a v i l y , >^ Heart beat ing hard, One cough a f t e r another , ^-3z Tears streaming down, B lood s t a i n i n g her t h i n s i l k e n garment. ^ Anxious and v a c i l l a t i n g , ^ - v ^ j ^ i ^ ^ _ /\'A£L.Q-^ - "-it- She s i g h s , lament ing her l o n e l i n e s s . $>p.^^ j^^fi\Jlij{~ E v e r s i n c e 1 l e f t my homeland, #H ~$-t£i£. ^y^Mfs S a d l y ' s a d 1 y have I l i v e d i n t h i s s t range p l a c e . ^ J ^ J ^ ^ ^ I ^ A d i s t a n t road a thousand m i l e s away. ^ > C M^jF_A)\-£-J /£ I never can see through the white c loud to my f a m i l i a r homeland. She i s confused and dim, ^ ffj> $k / \ ~ "f^" ^ ^tzy^- A ^ o n e s n a d o w t 0 w n o m a 1 1 th ings are so d i f f e r e n t . N ight l a t e , n i gh t i s so melancholy, ^ f J ^ J ^ S i l e n t , so s i l e n t tha t i t saddens ^ ^ ^ ^ e i ^ l ^ f ^ - H e a r t h a t w i n d s c r e a m i n g ' 117 If 1% ^^MjfJi That r a i n pour ing down. ^ ^ " T i - l i n g - l i n g , " the bronze pot never ceases to d r i p , ^J'^^X" ^ k j ^ " T a - l e n g - l e n g , " the i r o n - h o r s e r a t t l e s . ^ a ^ i to] fifr A. P i f % j / ^ j r j ^ j f y " T u - l u n g - l u n g , " the w ind ' s gust shakes 7 the c u r t a i n - hook s , :-tfj-i/^ ^ fig 5j^si ^ " H s i a o - l i - l i , " r a ind rops h i t the c o l d windowpane. °"T "iS j l £ * - t - " T i n g - t a n g - t a n g , " the c l o c k s t r i k e s ~~J\ t h r e e , h f ^ ^ ^ ^ T ^ S . " P ' u - t u n g - t u n g , " the watchtower h i t s f i v e . ^ ( ^ j - ^ y ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ S j ^ i j j - The beauty cannot bear the c o l d w ind, /\ ^iMfj- N i g h t l o n 9 , l o n g n i 9 n t _ r a i n : s n e i s j 1 hea r t -b roken , JA^^^XjIz^ 7^>^>^/W$ From t h i s n i gh t on , she i s never to recover . (d) Hsin Mu-lan tz'u (New Poem about Mu-lan) Hsu L i - h s i e n ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) Chou Yun - ju i (erh-hu) Yang Chen-yen (yuan) Ch 'en Hs i -an ( b e l l s ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 1 band 1 ATC-26 (Art -Tune Company) 33 119 1.21 — i — 7 7 ? ? 7 7 7 7 7 7 ? = — • — — ^ — » . -4' r * HP ft T r 7 t T 7 f i < > y ^ ^ r J f=¥ :—*~r, = r *U I 1 v 7 ?r>? = 7 7 3= V 7 V ' 7 -1?— * J . L J : y v ?= -. — • i 4 u J ; fcjj V(3 : *> 1—7-I S I -7- -7-122 \lT 7 4 ^7 i E. s sr , Y 1 ~ """ 1 \ 1— =£= f«» t a w — / 1 a» 1 > ! J 1~4 1 -> <~> 1 f ' ' ' ' i ' —> r—»-1 •7 1 i i J ' ' | I V y r f f t r / # / # i - : X-® •/ |! . _ J •-7 : — -4 ' 2 1 ' 1 / - r r ^ r i ! J % - - - 9 -'^ i * * \ * — j -& rt ^ g .E a ip. T" l 1 1 --k^ A-^-—^ i t I ' r U = t = = ; 11 J . > * —1 ; V- / 123 ± 7 ^ y V 7 7 7 7 *7 7= — # -3 r) = 7 = j p = =7= V 7 7 i m p 'fa ^ p. fa 4>1 1 * I f }" V 7 7 j; j 7 7 j 7 ^ — f V 7 7 , ta ^——+——f^-l 6 u ti/zf -tTL- •3 T' 7 r 1 — 7 — 7 - ^ 7 -1E| 5 5z 7 | 7 * 7 7 7 -  | 7 7 7 = 7 -124 f •f—* 7 — S — T - 7 7 7 — i -=f V w 1 U u J M 6Y ^ ! ""7 *•» »r, ^7 '5 w M f"» i • 8 — p — r n- i—, I - ? — r : P | ' ' v ' ' • j 1 h -• T » *7 *-7 *"1 >-7 « - 7 »-7 1 —7- -7— 7 7 7 — i ^ r* V ' ' / r • r f \ i - ^ i • i i 7 7 7 7—*-J—^—sPl i — 0 — — / «7 • • ? — 5 — . - 7 *7 -f — ^ i t * |—w. — A J M ! G L v. 1 ^ i 1 n n 1 £ / ' I ' J v fa—" — H J "3 *7_X 7 >-— I : r 3 n i . : f c r 1 A ? ^ ! — i k {—+ ^ 7 \ r | ] ! I . ^ u - z — : . -* * i-* ; j 1 "Is- 1 ~9 1-o @ • __&—n •-> 1> -7 -? >-? <-? — ! f — - T — T* —-r—r«—1—z—~ j — — 4 E s» l^m _ 1 <! M r-, '"» •-» v-r r" "1—r _^ ^ 0 0 i f f — i ' -^  • — — i > * j_ j - T_ —J ^ _ i ' mm —it— J r & gj p — =U± • i 17 'Mi *3 ! 7 ^ r - l » — Sr*-* ' "7 -1 i J 1 I I i 11/ — -tf 11 7 1 t — T ~ / J i - >w « h 1 rf" ^ 4 1 i -r - x >-Tf T» *-J * K ^ , > •-7 0 1 D | ^ ~ t 7 r . ^ -a*, _ ; 1 £ -f— • *s • \ I ' I - \ y - -. -*-j 1 r ' t •—> »•» f r r r <~-r •->•—> <—} v / L u j _ . — i t . f t f 126 s > I -r — : 4 * _ * 7 7 — 7 — 7 V 7 7 — t ^ s : ^ h_ W -n_ ^ — 7 — L i s ! rth-'—' J n * ' r > -4 : [ - l 4= -L i -} i • 1 s . f - i 1 -v. " i ' fc. ~~ i i - i — • 1 -; | i ~0~ 1 <-,<-}*-> j - —J-1 ' T 1 1 —V 1 ^  ' * J t r f \ .»* Op ^ J L3? v< JI *v « -s — • S « = < •> , a * I 7 7 ^ 1 i -7 "> r~| ir—«i • : r— 1  ! | Is— 3 S i . -^ — 2 s — 1 1 •f= W= — i , ; «.—I *•—1* * - * J * J _ I f S i j r 9 •i V « i I 1 111 1 W ""7 1 1 >. T r 7 V 7 k-i >' ' 1 ' • ±=i 127 =rf 7 7 0 V V V y 7 v 7 ^ 2^ E5j Z^EES 7 * -EEEEI EEt ? = =zrz^ : i ^ = • -rf 7 7 7 7 7 7 f =7=1 O- ;c_ — o^ — a . NJU_ <^ <*. V 7 -7=7= — - — * --V m-7 7 7 ^ 7 7 .5= f 7 7 7 7 7 ~? 7-__ ^ 7 — * T -11 ^ J --V--7-- N -fe -7-7 7 7 : 7 7 -7- > 7 i 2 f f f i 7 T 7 7 V L A V 7 7 129 7 7 ? 47- h r v. M m m 4} - 4 - — r - ± -i s : flfli'* ruin R t " 7 r T* H I 1 ^  I^ 7 ^ 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Y 7 • 7 7 7 ~ = =7= p r ? r =E M ^ - J F = _JL. 7 7 7 _ a J 7. 7 7 r V _ »_ 130 — jj—=* 7 T 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 • — j! i ft i - u i 'it i r ; : r r r i — • — p - q - ^ .« ft V I I m W-.z [ '1J J J- J ; 1 ) | 1 I ' l l 1 1 f = £ — 7 7 7 r 7 — — p — ^ — 7— 7 r T^j^ 1 U3 7 7 7 T 7 ^ 7 7 = f p f p f • 7 7 7 =9=7= 7 7 7 131 -L") V—17 7 • fit u r - r-r-i w s* — E — e-£-1* 5 -j I I J J ! IJ: r r i r r» 7 s. ' ^ J I i .  i --")*-? 7—^?—**7 7 M • 7 — 7 — r 1 t » 1 * 1 i- ^  U l ^ i " ' U r ^' *^ fat 2o(j 3 tsar . J '• : —H V» ^ 7 "7 V "7 7 v 7 v V > ?! n 1 1 7* r 1 r * f -f t t t ' . p» / ^ | 1 1 * 1 *» 1 S 1 , : ^ - ^ : — ? r f - H 7 V 7 7 7 =?• r r * 7 7 1 1 ( 1 r r r r r ' r T" 7 T 1 — J J H 4 «= ' i I ! I | ~i— Ijfcz: « -0— — 7 i" ^ : — 7 — V 7 7 V 7 — 7 7 tNi — s  p i j ^ • " 7 >; t 1" •e J -I-* — J -*- 7 < f i • 1 7 ^ *_4 -* M • <r a s i ^ •— i _ ff J i ' - 4 ^ - — - — — « 1= — ^ • J — 7 1 »*7 i ! >-7 *# • - / - 7 I -. 1 u . „ j i — — —<v i ' / ' ' ' i — f * ^ - 4 -— 1 1 — B • *» ^ — 1 -t f « — —f T — -r— » —f -ih-* 4 — -1 '- ' '- 1— 4-— * 7 ( -v-* 1—' ' / ~ i — — 1— ^ \ v. t £a 1 t p l • J -4 -4=-*—y y 7 7 7 7 7 — ^ — ? — r ' 1 * ^ — 7 7 — 133 1e£ 7-7 7 7 7= q - — l l -4— --^ y j» v |» y==p is t t~ 7 7 ^ 7 = j7 7 737 7 7 7 7 7 3D 3 7 7 7 7 = 7 N r y 1 ^ = ^ 7 7 1> N 7 7 I T ^ i r i i i **"ri 7 7 7 7 7 r 7 f> i n s i 134 Y 7 7 = 7 f r e e " t i n e *** -Hr.—• - -~ - T t$,'f fit*. ; * s * - t ig-3 ff 7 7 7 ^ 7 7 7 7= 7 y v y 7 ? ' /7% 7 7 7 = ~ ' p» K. p» + ^ i -4 I'' 7 7 7 = 7 = 7 7 V /: 7^ i 5 ^ree tJrrve 7 > 5= = 135 1 * pr -F 7 7 7 7 7 7 * 7 7 y y y 7 v =f t - — t — 7 7 7 7 7 7 \ 7 N N 7 7 7 * 7 7 = 7 = ' T 7 7 t- y -E--E - t ^ 15 1 J>. 7 7 7 7 = 7 7 ? 7 7 7 - 7 7 7 7 7 r 7 7 7 7 136 4 Pr«f ti^e H i bi f r y — — — i — 3 £ I B f 7 7 7 z — : = 7 — F I-7 7 | 7 7 /7S 7 y 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 i i m Lor) _5_ |)o? a^tj — — rj 3 - D~3- >j y 7 ^ 7 7 7 7 7 * T = g : ^3L A A 1 iL /// S7* =_====£ 4 «~ 4- 4- = = = = ) l 4 J 1 7 7 7 137 ^ , — ~ = zz i 4, 7 V 7 = ^ 7 = 7 7 5 & 4 7 V y : : 7 7 7= V' 7 7 V 7 7 7 4 m 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 •tsar iii 5 : -=4 1 p"| i ^ 1 1 ^ — j ^ j ; 4 -JZZ ZJZ 7 » m >• r 41 aF^ 138 -f 7 — N r -"* - r — y -i k*-1 1 <S '** T 7 ^ - ^ — - l ± ^ T X -*-~^\ f -*? * ! f r T i — \n i f 1» ^ I i 1 i < i -l T <; <*> V T r -i 1 l 1 \ J i 1 l _ j I 1 J * $ /|rj7 F re t - t ime h f - = :  T -j «-r ^ T i 3 It-* : i : 1 J Q BV, BB' ff" 4 V J i ^ 4 < r 7 7 '' * / i t * r h # # ) 7 t I ' l l U P # JI — — i r = T T»_> -4-r * f f - V 139 140 141 f — — — ^ .—« f - ^ L i * . 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( d> - T i j - P - — — F — i -^r 7 7 7 -7=1 • ^ ' 7 j | *T -\ J •r ! _r . r 1 " I 7 I 1 l±jj if r. i > — * r — * 7 — P— — t — —^  +: *— -f — f — 1*< —K I — i s it j ' ' —;r i 7— * y l V P i I r 1 0 / * f «f *r "* ' ' — , - U ^ — 1 -#— ^! to ' 1 J >-/—Z i ! 7 it*=fc?=t ><* »-tf=T 7-^ —f m m 1 -3 > r * i 4 J i 1 ) —^1 SF=M 1 Hi m r 161 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT The busy l oon sounds day and n i g h t , F u l l o f gloomy anxious thoughts , Mu-i% \ l an s i ghs deeply . ^ 13J J ' I j /-N ; The Khan i s s t a r t i n g a war w i t h Ch i na , ^ 1" ^ f-<^ "3" , 0 u r Emperor has sent ten orders to e n l i s t t roops . %>hW5l*% f k k f t „ . • ^ 1 y > Each bears my f a t h e r ' s name, Father i s too o l d to f i g h t a b a t t l e , "ji <ij ^ * " ^ } - X /^ _} ; He does not have a grown-up son, Mu-lan does not have an o l d e r b r o t h e r , Why d i d I have to be a g i r l ? She gets a whip from the ea s te rn market, a horse from the western market, 162 Mu-lan wishes to change he.r dress i n t o her f a t h e r ' s war- robe. C l imb ing the mountains and c r o s s i n g the r i v e r s , Mu-lan goes to the long journey i n p l ace o f her f a t h e r w i t h s p i r i t s h i gh , <o) > H e a r the e a r l y morning sound o f the rush ing Ye l l ow R i v e r , And c ro s s the long dark r i v e r a t n i g h t . The drums shake the mountains, The wind r i p s through the war-f l a g s . L i k e wind and thunder, Mu-lan f i g h t s the i n v a d e r s , ^ V ^ ?5 ^ A z ^ jTu G a l l o p i n g on horseback, w i th long spear i n hand. > 1 I h + - I I 163 A m i l l i o n m i le s o f f r o n t i e r i s l e f t behind, Her shimmering war-robe i s s t a i n e d w i t h b lood . V i c t o r y f i n a l l y comes ten years l a t e r , The Emperor s i t s i n the Great H a l l . A dozen t imes , he summons Mu- lan, And g ives her p l e n t y o f rewards, But Mu-lan does not wish to be a gene ra l . She wishes to have the f a s t e s t horse, To r e tu rn home e a r l y . When f a t h e r and mother hear o f Mu-l a n ' s r e t u r n , They come out to g reet the he ro ine , % v 1 1 U ) \% - & \ |L £ So k * J \ »(¥1 /t When s i s t e r hears about Mu- lan ' s r e t u r n , She hu r r i ed l y ^pu t s on her make-up, When l i t t l e b ro the r hears o f Mu-l a n ' s r e t u r n , He cheers and jumps up and down, With a sharpened k n i f e he chases the p i g and the goat, Happiness beams on the faces o f the whole f a m i l y . Opening my e a s t - s i d e door, S i t t i n g on the wes t - s i de bed, Tak ing o f f the war - robe, P u t t i n g on my o l d d re s s , 165 Combing my h a i r , And p u t t i n g on a y e l l o w f l o w e r , S m i l i n g I walk out to meet my company o f s o l d i e r s , The whole company i s s t a r t l e d . For ten y e a r s , £e 5p We d i d n o t k n o w t h a t t h e g e n e r a l was a gi r l , Who says t h a t a g i r l i s not strong? 166 (e) Huo Ting-chin szu-tiao (Huo T i n g - c h i n mourns her husband) Chou Yun - ju i ( v o i c e , p ' i - p ' a ) Hsu L i - h s i e n ( san-hs ien) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i d e 2 band 2 ATC-170 (Art-Tune Company ) 33 \ 1G7 Huo Ting-chin szu-tiao Original f i r s t p i tch =+B J-72 Duration = 7' p i - p a w / - 7 r -»i — 1 — • N» 1 • 1 J * 1—J • 1W san-hsien p ' i - p ' a — r - ^ ^ f " — f 1 - - — i t a . *•= -/ — > — < ' — 1 - j ' r 1 F * J — ; 4 -4 « *mT~m7~ ^mZ ? ^ ^ J F san-hsien p ' i - p ' a 168 vo i ce sar i -ns i en p ' i - p ' a — • — » vo i ce san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a v o i c e V 7 7 san -h s i en p ' i - p ' a f 1 ^  J r 169 170 171 172 j r — — _ ' Wi—z—5—7-^* * i i 11 1 r r r i-j—J > i-r r r r r F # H p—*—*—i— / r r , -r r P rn 1 — p — — T rr P r h—i=s— t 11 i i y t ^ 1 ^ si . s. 1 — A3? 7 = —*»•— b - — f e " - — 1 H & — _ B —•£ — •£ "E If r f r r f / 7 / 7 7 7 £ 173 174 7 ^ 7 * fl E r r p L . . | T ^ r-krf-' T ^ J * i> i — 4 . j\. JTJ ^ y l i ; + — * —1 — M - d .— ^ * • i f\ U r j ' | l 1 i j * J r—J 1 — # ..._^ _J 175 176 177 178 • r I r l T • 4 /1\ 179 180 181 182 183 r 1 : v • T * K » 3 5 * . — , m*. r- i — — w L j H ^ 4 - | — d I—i > H ; « J . • 185 186 187 188 189 190 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT °0 ^ ~"~ $ , P i t i f u l me, c r y i n g a loud my husband's name, p IS) 2 ' l £ B ' l ^ £ 12 6 f » q With my t h r oa t choked and mouth muddled. Remember the t h i r d l una r month o f t ha t y e a r , We met i n the backyard o f my home. Sx?c G ^ { x 3^ , Before depa r t i ng you t o l d me, L^^ L ^ ^0 f T h a t r 1 g h t a w a y y o u w e r e t 0 send the match-maker, To my home to ask f o r my hand, Who would have known t ha t you had met {j§j il^ l) c a l am i t y a f t e r you returned home, ^ J^L. Because o f me you were sent to j a i l to s u f f e r , 191 Ax l£, \ ^ nf W% a ? # W i th i n a few days you passed away. i ' t 13 t H i - f a t e d me, I t h i n k o f you a thousand times a day, -tj f i r S. fc-^rs*) -S:--rt v**T (^"^ 9 . I wa i ted and wa i ted w i t hou t hear ing any news from Ch 'ang-an. i %A I1? ^ «i rjjL ^ K - f r j M> ^ x_i vffl ^ My heart aches when near your c o f f i n , ~~ /(L^ fL* ^ T* ^ ^ > 1 b r e a l < d o w n w n e n 1 s e e t n e wooden t a b l e t bear ing your name, I w i l l f o l l o w you even to Hades to j o i n you, my beloved husband. 192 ( f ) K'u-t'a (The pagoda) Hsueh H s i a o - c h 1 i n g ( v o i c e , p ' i - p ' a ) Chou Yun - ju i ( san -hs ien ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 1 band 2 ATC-170 (Art-Tune Company) 33 \ 193 K'u-t'a O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = + G «T = 104 Dura t i on = 3 '30 ' p ' i - p ' a san-hs ien vo ice p ' i - p ' a san-hs ien ' ' ' J J J ~ U— 4 , * . frL M i l J^fr » * «» — A , — * a y v Y Y 194 T i r - ^ i -W 7 r '.p- l l f J.' W J ^ s Kt<0 »)1 1 X - -< *r ^ ^ ^ n tff i~H 1 i r ut\ ft ?—— L .. H / / ' ' 1 7 a* T - J :  t — k v K v b S—?~ « M * U—je. *9 - J ^ H i ji =m T 7 r \ v V V V 7 ft H A V JS ' * ' v v y V V *f V i 1 7 7 7 7 rig M MA 7 7 / 7 7 7 7 i T 5 v K 1 r R - B =1 «r ^>—= -F —p-fr— >r Y fiT i J 1 ' J 1 V V 7 J ^ i f • 1 V V V V V V 1 1 7 # i i 7 - - — « — •A'l'll i - ~ T f T T T l v • V V V 1 4 7 1 f 7 \ ^ -^- 4- -i — f - - t — I — 4 —-4- ^ — f — • - V — V - = f 195 r 3 v ' v Y Y Y Y r=^d — 1 I # ; 1 |> —-f ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ ^ t ^ . — * * * - * y - ¥ Y — y Y Y Y — ¥ Y H a — a ^ ^ -f i y ; en fa ^  J J JJJ- J J- *J. Kurt h l i i Jilj.i i ¥j Y — y «*j 4©_I j i 4 4£== 1 ^ I'M 1 A % f\ ft h Y V T Y Y y T V Y Y n fH n fi fn n5! ^  196 197 193 It - " _ —I" ~ T r . , ,• ft h c — s — k — < — k — 7 @H4=f — i — -J— I— /—f —1—1———J ^ -J 3 h 1 ^ — ^ — i • -yJ 3 — - V - ^ — J J-J - J -f l A r c r •^T ^ • — M = — — X "Uh; l ; i p [> i n T 1 " DJ i ui i: -t'.'L a; t f i i - ' i fe 1 ; h-199 200 SSL =2t •bs;ar ^ -t-a y«.;r> — > — : — j • j i — 0 * f\ ft Y id? <^  ? ^ k A k R i S . v » i i —zp—J-JJ n "JJ1 ii !l f i g ) h K S S h 1 j j) j \ X fl rj nh 1 V V Y Y 7 = ^ 201 202 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT 7 \ With no supernatura l power how can you c a l l y o u r s e l f a t r e a s u r e , You, i gno rant pagoda, are no b e t t e r than a puppet. I f you can not t e l l me, Where s h a l l I seek an answer? $L ^ f t The robber confes ses , Saying: njj fj> ^  X^iL. ij^Jj^ In the m i d d l e o f tne n i9 n t> t n e r e -* was no one anywhere. The wind was s t r ong , Snow was heavy, One cou ld not see the sky nor the ea r th through the darkness , 203 -1 %M^^r^V\^H y B i r d s h id i n the l o n e l y t r e e , F i shes trapped i n the sha l low pond, • ^ / ^ j S j S ^ i ^ IE Jp. L o n g n i g h t a n d c o l d f r o s t> No c a r t s and no boats , t2. ^ No companion, No h e l p , bp v j " ^ R i s k i n g my l i f e , ^ b . | n ) ^ LU^^^J'^^: AS i f I were a hungry t i g e r sea rch ing f o r the sheep, ^ ft6) g-^ b. tit ^ The f a t e o f the sheep was sea led . !T* AiyjJg_ Chiu-sung p a v i l i o n fades i n t o the p a s t , &% ^ f- J ^^Jc y severed, C / The red s i l k e n thread o f marr iage i s 204 BJy rOl3^&f~-jt^} A marr iage broken o f f i n such a way i s r a r e l y seen, >t >k :/| A n x i e t y , Tears , ^itO. ^ ^ . v ^ ^ f t . ^ Tears streaming down l i k e pea r l : With t e a r f u l eyes , she looks a t the > pear l pagoda, Her heart saddens and aches, As i f a thousand sharp knives were s tabb ing a t he r , She nea r l y f a i n t s . 205 (g) Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu ( Sw i t ch i ng the p r i n ce w i t h a racoon) Hsii Y i in -ch ih ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 2 band 1 ATC-27 (Art-Tune Company) 33 i 206 Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = + C Durat ion = 6 ' 3 0 ' J". 126 207 1 f L fa • —?—=z—; N R , J 7—^—7— —=Z 7 1 ~7 7 > | ic'Y ! -» i . 1 I 1 "3 2 *' y 1 ;% 1 U'X TO i k i f fl ..ft ^ J *l r r , : /' 1 ,* r - H -v- -^ ' — 7 — 7 —7 1 — 7 * 1 ; •t-- f f o ' ' — -i f . . f \ l ; *T 1 t'<\, !~K—— ft r-! —r~> •—> —-? 1 * «• 7 —7 — 1 r —I y + •+ 7 " V -1 +-1 — T -ar^ f= ^ J — = — — ) H p pi f r ' C 1 I / I | l / • (; i — • » -; # « K f 208 209 1= / 7 y 7 = ^ = 5 3 I n h r l |31 ZdjJ-I 4 1 4 —+-j \ n r r i — 4* ^ ^ = 4 J- 0 3 3 4> * *• 4 r f f l r ,n n t i • n a 9 - — 0 i i 3 v v s ^7 y -? 5d3 -m* \ 1—*Lrf_ •4-* — 210 i t <K 3 * 0 i - — * »=—~i £ £ a -+ -t- -+ 4F" £ 7 7 v 7 -y-^y-1 1 1 * — 4 * V ~7 V 7- i -*—\v- r— te ff 5? 211 212 3 3 E r l N CP g r J J-- * y £7 7 "7- V 7 7 7 "7 T : 0 r M r nt • l\+0> # 4 M J —-4 —0 -4 -9 fi rS. : «H« •* •+ •* — * — — i -4 r- -* 1 V if? \r - t ' e t - t»l U/i, 213 214 -y y ^ ~7> "p - y i H X t\ Pi f i r j f r ^ 1 EES 1 p _ fcf 1 J i ±d>' V*j) Vfjj 2-1 — 1 r3 r f l 1 f r - j Tfc =1—1 F T f - ^ » — J i £17 y v - 7 7 y -7? -7? -7? 3 : 1 ^ 0 J is: \ 1 * 4 ' < m 215 216 217 " 7 ~7 V J . P i 1 — J 1 4 — * ~ * — - \ A * o \ > ril t l x P ~? ~7 V T ~? 7 ~7 ~? Seel *> 2 * * * ^ » — <T 1 1= I >• 3 £ v -13 f=. i " - # - I ; b Ail i - A r ? ) v P^ES 218 219 220 221 FREE TRANSLATI dfe ^ A ^ .a ffcp /f| # . /c- /t-7 . */J ^ I f . , it f JE- f E # j $'] ir ^ S U ^ | i J\ £^  t t ^ « |» 1 OF THE TEXT The c l e v e r w i t t y cou r t s l a v e - g i r l K 'ou-kung, Fo l l ow ing her M i s t r e s s 1 o r d e r , walks towards the Royal Garden. She i s ho ld ing a box, her hear t v a c i l l a t i n g , One s t ep , one thought, and one h e s i t a t i o n . Th ink ing how wrong M i s t r e s s L i u ' s doing i s , To p l o t to s t e a l the baby boy. To take a racoon w i t h i t s s k i n and t a i l removed, And swi tch i t f o r the baby p r i n c e . H u r r i e d l y r e p l a c i n g the baby w i t h the racoon, 222 4 p~ ^9 M i s t r e s s L i u has ordered me to throw Aj-.f i t i n t o the pond. 3 ^ !x3^ fr^ <-^ - Though on l y a s l a v e - g i r l , I know jj^ r i g h t from wrong, W% * d o n o t w a n t m y n a m e t o s c o r n e c i ^ at i n h i s t o r y . ^ «tr M ^ Heart beat ing f a s t and thoughts ^ running w i l d , , J/^ i E . J ^ j B/^) 4^-? She i s undecided and i r r e s o l u t e , i L & /fg <jv Because i t i s wrong to d isobey the M i s t r e s s ' o r de r ; but a l s o wrong to go a ga i n s t her own con sc i ence , \t__i§_ ^ |^  tj| I t i s hard to decide between the two. g . ^ ^ ^ j| ^ e a u ^ - u n i n moonl ight sh ines so c r u e l l y , ^ ?t&kji) ^ , T h e d a r k s h a d o w o f a weary s i a v e - g i r l , J^k J 7 ^ ^ ^ Lowering her head, It, 223 As she s l ow l y walks a long the f l owery path. Suddenly the baby p r i n c e c r i e s , As though a thousand knives are s tabb i a t her h e a r t , She does not have the hear t to throw i t i n t o the water . 224 (h) Lin Ch'ung t'a-hsueh ( L i n Ch 'ung 1 s snow-walk) L i u T ' i e n - y u n ( v o i c e , erh-hu) Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) Chou Y i i n - j u i ( san -hs ien ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 1 band 3 ATC-25 (Art-Tune Company) 33 226 /\ mm * J ** ** -7 - 7 • M ? t- -r T *y -r T -'—f mm* • —A F-? i—J id s k U l r 2 r 0 ' # j " 7 ^ "F 7 ^ ^ 1^  — r 7 ~ P — j i i * " If] # P • ' % h 7 ' -r~\ * » — i 1 - 7 •f - 7 -<-f -* -r ' T 7 r —V 4F / ' f ' * r 1 0 4^-—f k a — J f m <m 7 • "> 7 7 ^ mm T> * ' 1 7 7 ' ( * * * i 1 r 9k. <>~-t -— ' f &—: r H — 4 t i** • 2 -> H 'm *1 1 i- 0—|- . -7 H • — < T—yr =r— » ^  j—1 hi i 1 » | -\ * 0 ' 9 *-> J"- imr —4-' ' I -# T J 228 Note: ° Added phonet i c sounds which are not p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l s y l l a b l e are i n d i c a t e d w i t h square b r a c k e t s . 229 230 i ' 1 7 V y 7=*E IP 7 V I—— life aJ Cj n, r y 7 F 231 232 r 13 /> » * - — i ! i 1 / j — * 1-» *f r ~ 7 — — ? k r - T^'~f—~ \ -4 > M — # j " T " — r < > t • . t I ,J ~*7 * 7,—— 3 \ u 1 j c u ^ * i = 6 1 ! 1 I I'1 i / 7 , i - ; _ _ : T r --n —_ . -H SC-=T-P 7 7 J . I J i i J r r - r -^> > f "T — — % — ? — ? — i 7 —p i—X-T— * i . i <-» .» f • » 4 V) • *i ' 1-*— * 1 • / 1 1 I^ T— * — ; * •rr . ^ — ^ 4—* 233 i n _ 7 _ J 7 — ^ r» ^ " * ' L _ - r Z^L 7 — iO • o | * T T 7 7 r t = -—A zz P 7 w * i « s =f ^ = f 1 / ' / ' ' 1 1 * mmr • 1 fl ! — j — - ± — > •» ^ — ^ — * -i t^TZS 5 * — -> ' ]• ._ 4 V 234 ~f " 1"— 1—'» r - ~ i i 1 1 — r - — & £ > • ——W— — N — I «y w w -a ^ — n r.V 1—7* / / T+J "J jmj = i i trF= r | — H i—i-^ 1 ' ! Hi ; J ^ ^ J ! 235 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT f \ % ^ f i ty\< Z/ ^' ^  Snow- fa l l covers the whole mountain, tf$Z] l ^ v f " ^ <I7 ~ Going aga in s t the wind and snow there i s a hero. The r e d - t a s s e l s on h i s hat are snow-s t a i n e d , % i t j^ L H i s b l a c k overcoat guards aga i n s t the northern wind. Cary ing a gourd w i t h h i s spear , he walks i n wide s t ep s , Looking a t the va s tnes s , he i s f i l l e d w i t h vengeance. rTC • ^  J. i „ 2 - r i Where i s he to go i n t h i s never-ending ' l a n d , 7^ In t h i s c o l d e a r l y morning w i t h a long journey ahead. 236 ( i ) Mi-shin hsiang-hui (Meeting i n a s e c r e t room) Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 1 band 3 ATC-27 (Art-Tune Company) 33 \ 237 Mi-shih hsiang-hui O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = 4-G Durat ion = 5 ' J" = 126 v o i c e san -h s i en v o i c e s an -h s i en v o i c e san -h s i en Note: Passages marked w i t h the s i g n i n d i c a t e verbal n a r r a t i o n s . 238 7 7 7 7 7 T 7 ^ J * j U »* « I / 1 I I 5" T 1" fe^-7 7 7 7 7 7 T Vdrj t S ' l t i l ts'^J p3l A S / 7 7 7 7 ^ ? JZL ^ 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 fe lap Aotj ^ .ta h i " ^ R r d F l r^l ^ • : -f / t - ^ - ^ - i - - ^ / l i 4-J 7f I f f f f 7 7 7 0 . p s 3 ir -7-^-7 239 p i i l i l 7 7 7 7 7 4 7 • > 7 Y 7 . 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 s ? 1 J 4 -i J i f t us: * — i 7 7 V 7 *T 1 _ 25 7 240 =£ !*1 A * fo ft'.{ £ J " 1 - 7 -7 T 7 7 = S 1 1 1 1- o—o 0 - ^ -I 1—1 w _ ' i f -± -V - 7 7 - 7 7 -7- T ~y -V ^ fl *»0f J 3^  fa d E T l t , r - S < - ^ - 1_ 7 7 7 4 * to <^  $^ 7 7 7 > 241 242 —-f-4 ti t91 IE . E i t ) J /—«=?—F =7 n—r~r~i - - 7 7 V 7 7 7* -A ^ u -^P=-^-—. 5*--Z-4 - ) } 1 / > J # t I 1 4 ^ v—^—*—* *— f-T|H^ ^ 4 -4-—r "h j i . ' i y J / ~i • —* -» -» ^ —rr'- W N N — T *N — — C < 1 — . j 5I3 fl {o- V\ 2*k ts*) ^ "4 I ! - 7 - » — > - » -7 "-7 • - 7 - 7 , ( f r r f < ' 1 : : 1-— 7 ^ -* • XT" - i . r_u=i . « 1 / - k - - - , - f i F l f =^ —4 • Pa H 1 —v~ k)—^—<• - — - — ----—i < \ i ) -243 M ~ 7 7 -77 7 7 - 7 7 7 - 7 7 V 7 = ^ m 7 7 7 "7 "7 7 7 I 4 * * * ' ± J ' 4 V 7 7 • (JLi • — T V 7 7 7 7 J + 101 SI fe J4« s ~2 1-v <x. 7 - 7 ^ 7 7 - 7 7 7 7 7 - 7 7 7 < ( l 1 V T 1 * ~ Note: Added phonet i c sounds which are not p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l s y l l a b l e are i n d i c a t e d w i t h square b r a c k e t s . 244 A 7 7 -4 0- * 4* 4 •£ *?* **» » i Kus zig £ — ~ - : i> ! -7 ' — r '—7 • — r — 7 7 7 Y fh- 1 - — 5 — ^ y ' / M / ) ! i _ . f ( 1 7 7 7 7 7 - 7 7 - 7 7 7 —f-7 v 7 y > P I S / ' 7 7 7 7 7 7 T i f t -4—*—+ 245 246 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT — *3[ ~fk. Q j | - ^ l ^ y ^ W l t n a d e eP S 1 9 n 1 t u r n m y b a c k » '% ^k. 5£^[j/o 9 ^ T e a r f u l eye s g l a r i n g w i t h a n g e r . 44 ifyif ^ 4 ISLtA. ^ fa ^ 1 ~ ' My v o i c e i s f u l l o f s a d n e s s , And t h e s adne s s sounds u n b e a r a b l e . A l l j u s t , t o move h e r h e a r t , To s o f t e n h e r f e e l i n g s , T h e r e f o r e my c r y i n g and p l e a d i n g were a l l u n t r u e . We two l o v e r s once t ook an o a t h , To c a r e and l o v e f o r each o t h e r . I f I we re t o d i e f o r y o u , I w o u l d n o t c o m p l a i n a b i t . 247 ^S^^^^Jk.^J.^A Today, you and I meet to r e l i v e the ' C V j t ; pa s ty J ^~ - " J r 19 y , To renew our vow, y j \ ^ ^|Lb ' t j ^  S o t n a t m Y s u f f e r i n g s would not be ^ 2 wasted. ^k^fS. i>^t/?z>d; H e r e 1 a m ' f u l 1 o f s i n c e r i t y , j/^ -$f3^J> - ^ v ^^I^^C^ There you a r e , c o l d as i c e , ' iLJL^/tj^ ^f-^J? M y s u f f e r i n 9 ^ a l l i n v a i n . J3 . fe^^rJ^^Vr A ^ j ^ Y o u r hear t i s l i k e the green bamboo ) .. snake, ^irJ^J^Aj^j C r ue l e r than the b e e - s t i n g , /^J^j/j§ ^ ^4%: -^ 4^^ 81' 1 m U S t h a V e b e e n b 1 1 n d n 0 t t 0 r e c ° 9 n i z e t h i s be fo re . ^ y ^ c ^ p / ^ l l j ^ ± - t f e _ j 1 s h a l l be executed. 0 xj"- Ji^ ~$^Q^ C^J/CTN^j ' j 3 " ^ N o t f o r a ^ ^ " ^ n o r a l o v e r , 248 I s h a l l be put to the extreme punishment. The sudden blade w i l l draw my b l o o d , But on ly my body w i l l d i e , not my w i l l , I w i l l f i n d my j u s t i c e i n the c ou r t o f the Other World. 249 ( j ) Shou-t'ang (The h a l l o f l o n g e v i t y ) Chu Hui-chen ( vo i ce ) Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) Chang C h i e n - t i n g ( san-hs ien) L i u T ' i e n - y l i n (erh-hu) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i de 1 band 2 ARC-27 (Art-Tune Company) 3 3 ^ Shou-t'ang O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = A Dura t i on = 3' T 108 * P i t c h f on the p ' i - p ' a i s s l i g h t l y h i ghe r i n the recorded performance. 251 - r f — I - < H - i 7-^ ;l a f } F F f =7 -7 *V =? ? ^ * / — i - ,5__i- * — , * i = -+ N= f- ff=- N 1 ) ' 3J * | /') J ' . j . > 1 i ~ - ^— - Y f \ ^ ( ( r " •. i i—F-\ ——=? r- c_. -» r» Y '-I -l—*-' 4- 4- • . 252 254 r f — - — f—p^ -; < " ' ' ' • » 7 / r r r [ — 1 — i—f—'. -i -•> 1 v ^ i ff* * f ^ / V =71 7" i -y - X -giu i # i i i u .'! - H - = - ^ & ^ M*i : — = * — ^ /—•*- -1 - r 1 ~7 255 S r f - - 1 V ; r ts ^—^ ^ -1 - * t — — f FHIft . —f-n—r — 5; --—^— —!—1—t—u—*—/-4—: \ — > 1 \ rn •i J t *~—j.—/ 0 ; —J-1 - ^^Ttf -r •»>,.—, 1 [ J t—v _ _ ^ — i X— K--1 r ' ""'] J. H U 1^1 l. 1 ! z f e ±= 1 y-^ j T.. | / J r 1 / \ / f r| f—r / — — 256 257 258 259 i ~7 7 7 7 7 7 7 O X * n i g ? i Z c 1 I / ^ ^ T ^ 7-ra ] ^ 6X ) L = F = - H ^ 2 : — / — i - 7 > . T 7 f» 7 7 ±7: — * — 7 -260 •4. 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 I ! T P 3 = ^ 1- , l M T f i | l i -Flf l f ! . \ f f l h i SEE P —~=9 1" V -f 1 r —«t i 7 ; — - 4 1—i-h rV - 4 -^—' ' / 1 4 w T*~ t-f — 7 7> V fe a 261 r 0 • pf $ WE / V / r i 7 !*• 5$ 7 7 7 7 7' 7 7 7 7^ 7 "7 7 7 P 7 7 7 V = ^ = -t~ -t -f- -f £ 5 7 -7 W V - 7 -7 7 ! tat u E t 0 * 0 ~f / ' / \ i + -f-4 5 t -=7- 7 V 7 ^ V ^7 ~7 7 • > 7 7 262 263 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT s , ' ^ ) ^ 2^ ^ vT> ®. ^CIS ^ P a i r s o f swallows gather about on the pa in ted c e i l i n g - b e a m , ^.^'^ & ^fj J | 0 n t n e water , a p a i r o f mandarin ducks entwine t h e i r necks, In a l a d y ' s chamber one sees on l y the sm i l e of the new b r i d e , ^^L|j7 Z ^ 1 3 , 1 ^ T^^i±'lh_1^ But not the deser ted one c r y i n g by the r oad - s i de . H s i a n g - l i e n came from a proper f a m i l y , Her hometown was a t Ching-chou o f the Kuei-Yang county. Zzp Her f a t h e r - i n - l a w i s Ch 'en Y l ian- te. Her husband's f a m i l y was q u i t e poor. \ *X ^ ^ 1 k ? ^ W # J i - F o r t una te l y my parents had a big It t d o w r y ' 264 \y ;W &L T N , I t helps f o r the d a i l y o i l , s a l t , and r i c e . 265 (k) Tu Shih -niang (Courtesan Tu Sh ih -n iang) Chiang Yueh-ch ' i ian ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) Yang Chen-yen ( p ' i - p ' a ) t r a n s c r i b e d from s i d e 1 band 1 ATC-27 (Art-Tune Company) 33 \ 2 6 6 Tu Shih-niang O r i g i n a l f i r s t p i t c h = 4- C f = 138 Durat ion 6 ' 3 0 " v o i c e san - f-hs ien £ p ' i-p'a M. + T+ V — f c i « —_—t.t ft i ? f • tr^ -M-r ~ 5* vo i ce s an -h s i e n •/ 7 ,r t 1"7 7 7 'f 1 V "I V 1 p ' l - p a: 267 7 7 V * K- —^tf iV 7 V 7 ddU. 23 V ' X - cC •4V 71 7 7 7 7 7 7 7=7: IP u — ^ — V X 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 fj r- 7 r ^  J 4 * ^ VV JL 7 7 7 f 7 ^ 0 , r 5 £17 i - 1 \<o-—• a. ft --£fc 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 f n N V 1 * 268 269 « M * m 49 1 ! 2 ^ *> sau — J*. 4* £ 3==E = k . . . • i j f i-11 • [ f ; — — i — — i 3E3 7 7 7 y 7 7 7 7 7 7 77?: 3 3 a. • i 0 4 ^ - I I i - f f t r — — < 0 h < * M — ^ ' 1 UJ--*J4--4-y 7 7 V 7 7 7 i s ' ! 7 V 7 ! £3-i i V V r ^" r t y it 7 7==? E 1E pip -+ m 270 0 7 v y 7 = - ^ t». 7 V 7 f y y - y r 7zsy 7 7 I V T g rt fa 6'Y t$n 2oi] L;K — sc — fe-te > A- ^ 7 7 is 7 7" 7 7 7 7: ~ - — > V f — \ 111 1 1 f 0 . 7 - y . 7 7 7 - -I J JLi — o. 1 ft i s : p ' E SSI y y 7 v - " 7 7 fed ^ [ I I ^ ^ 1» k 271 Hi n V »-» -4 '' I -j IP , . r / . ri fl ff r ( f i f M l i f — V -Vr L -{ r—i- — ^ U P» £7 \i\Jua*— a, —"-^—t"—f^" ' 1 -L-3i 7 : ' . ) f " , L * { • / / j / 1 \ ^ — I - 3^--t '—*— r J' Vr sj --U—u—t-r-- — t ^ - ^ — — (ft ' ' < : < ? f ^_ 4 7 J / 7 7 / p 2 7 2 m -* +z iff • 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = ^ oJ 7 1_ l lr U 4 v ^ La i / y t. t •\* f;oi MO-. -F=?= I 7 / r J \ 7 7 7 7 / I I t \ I -f—r-£3 • 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 ^ i i t'a V 7 -tftfr ™ ii ni^ : 273 2 l 201 T-9 — T N — ^ - f ^ — — y — " j | • '* >\ i 1 " ' - '1 Y - J *-» r -7—T >— y ^ > y 7 r / 1 \\l A . i i v- -f- f 1 • • V 1 — j ( -y f iU 1 1 1 / 7 7 / 7 / /; i rt r r SftT so- — a. - A 7 7 ' 4 iilJ id 1 f 1 . 1 1 1 £ 3 _ J L . *» 1 p «-* i / 1 I 7 7 7 -0^> 0, rf>7 7 7 ' 1 1 7 7 y v 7 • rJEp K T r ttf 274 275 276 is: x i 1 • ? 7 v y\ i rrn',-»s t~=—r ' • c-|*^'r i j —*-r 4 , T J 4 E = -— fc*-l»-» m -*— 1 1 £3 3^ K — r 7 7 7 7 = ^ 7 5-22 WU. -t# 2£ ) r — - - — s p 7 7 7 7 7 — 7 r-=-V —: 1 by h t : — ~ T 7 - + 7 - ! 4 -* — ^ i tin i h r 277 278 Z\7L 2IOS 7 7 V > 7 V 1- - T f g 3 ^ Pol fr* ¥ 7 7 7 L I ^ £x7 7 7 • 7 ? 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7> ?-=5»-^-3E 3 * 55 £ 2 EE i f X JTii 7 7 7 — f s 3 - 7 7 7 3z: i t 279 V — t — f — 3 f>3Q -tlMJ-fe] sag a«j t'o bo? 2»j|— — IJ — — j 7 f 7 7 7 7 j'j 1 imu 7 £ 7 7 7 V ^ F ? ~ 7" S3? L-o. 7 r 7 —I. » <• <r A JL 11 LJLUU.IUJ 11111 u £27 *) tz 7 7 V \ rrf—*• I' 1 h • < f f r f ^ 1 p 1 r < f j —1 v — - J t c 280 7 '< 7 -u. N p 7 7 ^ 7 ^ 7 7 7 m I 7 / '/ 7 V / / 7 j , f }1 r F| | — r • •••••• L 1 / / i -r-v <-V* Lfc n\ 2J tfctt\ 3fc PP il_u ii-l Mill its* Svt} Zft. '& ',37 ?'i ^> -r dLE f ovj 7 7 V - T ^ p 7 7 7 ~ f 7 7 7 1 f t - f f Tf f f i f r 281 I it •D -or) 7 7 7 2 :  z i = f : •tss: — sr jv. ^ 7 7 7 7 7 7 m s—**-a * •i I V l W tSU 231 ILiit 7 7 7 7 ^ 7 f» 3 : -7-i r Idp 1 "T; »V'3 fa? ! - A. ~ ~ 7 — = a— j _ J L 7 7 7 > > " *4 4 X—1 Pe? LE IT J r r ji Pa* ?a? jj1' '•]•! r r r ^ 11V 7 /—=7—/ 7— ' f t i flif 282 2 8 3 1 / 4- J l p f f 213 1H111 IS JH7 7 - 7 7 7 7 7 7 ft.. y r r j -E. 284 zo — o ?y r f p 7 * r 7 =p 7 7 ~7 7 7 -i-j r r r M 7Xa * -* o _o = Z = r 7 = -o £51 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 f ft H-f t11 •111 f f f . r T i t i j 286 •- — — — , f r - 5 «-Poos r?t / 1 / r •»—7— i i y * ,_i—4—t-— * , t , 1 . i TZt f t; i- I-287 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT £to j l L 3 f l i i i + B e a u t i f u l , e legant Tu Sh ih -n iang , l3 *tf^  % ^ °f ^ So r ry to have landed i n a p leasure house. She i s l i k e a f l owe r blown o f f by the w i nd , Without a p lace to s e t t l e her tea r s never end. "I^ lr y ^ To be a courtesan i s not her w i l l , ^ * Q l o — V She wishes to leave the p leasure house and be a good w i f e , %\]Pb$Jtf\?v \ Never mind the ha rdsh ip . 7ft^*tl$i^1 ® £^, 0ne day she meets scholar Li• F a l l i n g i n l o v e , she wants to be l i k e ^ 1 ^ t t ^- ^ ^ , Meng- l i ang . -^.•^lilt^ ^ ^ ( ^ t^H^.^^'b ^ She buys her own freedom from the p l ea su re house, 288 ^_ jzj {> / 1 ^ "fc / I 0 Under the moon l i gh t , t oge the r they s a i l a long the Ch 'ang-ch iang R i v e r . t l f %i ^JM&fa 3&^l£3t, 0 n e n i " 9 h t Sh ih -n i ang s ings a song, °IAL ^ j i t ^ ^0 ^3 ^ o W n i c h sounds very melodious. frfj ^IE)Vf tSL W h 0 c o u l d k n o w t h a t t h e m e r c h a n t i n the next boat , so a t t r a c t e d by her v o i c e , $fej)lL%~\ I s p l o t t i n g to separate the p a i r . 7^ % -Scho la r L i i s no th ing but a greedy man, -± ^ "% i l i . ^ ~ " " ^ T ' k ^ " l ^ > > ] ^ ^ H e 1 S u n c ' e s e r v i n 9 °' f r S h i h - n i a n g ' s t rue l o v e , i L ^ S l ^ - S " Say ing i t i s a l l r i g h t to l e t another have Sh ih -n i ang . Tu Sh i h -n i ang , ft'ifli, s o b i t t - -«) ^ ^ ^ i ^ t - O i f lVf&| , R e 9 r e t s she ever t r u s t e d L i . 289 4]3 %. ' ^ be loved! \ ^ "jt^ |L i ; £ 3 1 o n l y h a t e t h a t 1 w a s s o b 1 i n d > )?> VJ> ^ ^ f l f ) " ^ You are such a d e c e i t f u l person. -J- 3J->iii^ £§«. |^ D l d y o u k n o w t h a t s h i n - n i a n g n a s s o m e sav ings o f her own? %\ if, I f 1$ tl.lj I ^ ^ ' BP £ 3) , T o d a y , i n f r o n t o f y o u , One by one, % t A H p r i c e l e s s , \f\ — jk^^ "IX ' ' * throw them i n t o the Ch 'ang-chiang R i v e r ! (3 ^ i C -ar^J^-KA '-3 ^ The courtesan having been dece i ved , — \ l - ^ . J t i ^ ' ^ t t . She jumps i n t o the deep r i v e r , H e a r t l e s s S cho l a r L i f i l l s w i t h r e g r e t on l y too l a t e . They are kept i n my t reasure -box. P i ece by p i e c e , (1) .Ying-ying pai-yueh ( Y i ng - y i ng prays to the moon) Yang J e n - l i n ( v o i c e , san-hs ien) t r a n s c r i b e d from de 2 band 3 ATC-26 (Art-Tune Company) 33 291 vo i ce san-hs ien vo i ce san-hs ien vo i ce san-hs ien Ying-ying pai-yueh f i r s t p i t c h = G Durat ion = 2 ' 3 5 " «T = 96 *~p —— Vt— •7 -4 i. W m 3 T 3f . — **• fcu-7 7 7 7z^g 1 r r » bu-Gil id i ' . r y ^ Q -t£<Q -tf'/ 7 7 7 z5£ 7 7 ft r 7 7 r r T 7 7 r ^ tfE-t*3 t'il "t'tl, . r Note: F" V i n d i c a t e s f a l s e t t o passages. Added phonet ic sounds which are not p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l s y l l a b l e are i n d i c a t e d w i t h square b r a c k e t s . 292 — * -1 y y y y f • V 1 1 y y y y y y : 7-y y y y y y y y r 1 T v y yft r y v —y-fyja? fa* M | ^ — r F-ft —^j-t f 1 v j { r * -J —J i 2_J_J. 1 JJ K ' i i j ' j J -Q j i j " • -/Lv V *r *r V y r f l 1 / *v 1 |-tS 0* . | S i v ft 1 i—"7 7 - ? 7 n h f\ r r = ffi 7 — 3 — 2 V * J > « -293 7 7 7 7 r r y y y y y y =^=^ for 7 r r yE y y y =^  —I — ^ - J —J- ~~f~ Eg JSL 7 7 f 7 r y y v r y 294 M. J*l / r .ft r >F¥rlk J U i ^ ^ Z'r ^ T T -|5L Y Y Y Y Y Y V Y Y Y _ i * * J \ !F n fl f» h - ^ i — . — ^ • • ^ ^ _ K = ^ 1 K\ <- 4^ 4^ I*- -.^ 1 V ' * J J J < (23 Y v v y 1 1 J 1 j : h h f\ • y — — — g j i J 1-* 1 1 7 7 7 7 \ ^ * ab-^— j rtdu. «'o<j -t«'of) — 1 v « r V icy r j j — J — J j J i : -* "5 r * : _ J — = # = = ! T T Y 2 9 5 iJ 1 j J ^ . ^ Ji^ N tt?D ta: nave - ' V A - t * t : ' t i *r • *f 7 7 V i r J l ' -^1 7 7 * * 1 .-*f-*i*h #* 7 ; ML •> Y Y v » r Y Y Y v y Y y -^rjl Y—y-T Y y =5 Y v 7 y r ) /L — : — - r -——r m W A. > : z—± T - Y, 1——/ —W*""* \ j\J J 1 J O J : | fvp? fu *v i — ; i —V ! 11 r *r V 7 7 "ir -1^1 . —i—i = V ; Hd4 mr 296 FREE TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT y / •> . Step by s t e p , J\ ^ ^ ^ Walking towards the p a v i l i o n , -£) , A d d a b i t ' -!2L o • Add a b i t more incense. % ^ w ^ , T % Y i n g - y i n g bows, 11 Q ^ * L Bows to the moon, - ^ i .» Sweet l y , f i i i i & ^ PEL U 7 . Sweet ly t e l l s the heavens. C l e v e r , C lever s e r v a n t - g i r l Hung-niang S o f t l y , S o f t l y c a l l s out f o r Y i n g - y i n g - j - - i a °#) % S t ^ ^ , Young Mis s ! Wait a w h i l e , Le s t the M i s t r e s s f i n d o u t , and A n g r i l y , A n g r i l y beat your l i t t l e s e r v a n t - g i r l . L i g h t dew, Be c a r e f u l not to s l i p , The moving moon, Moon- l i gh t sh ines on the f l owery fence . 299 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I I I For s p e c i f i c re ferences o f reco rd s i de number and band number o f each t'an-tz'u p i e c e , see i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 2 China records o f these t'an-tz'u p ieces are d i f f i c u l t to a c q u i r e . Acco rd ing to Dr. M.Y. L i a n g , the reasons a r e : (1) China Record Company u s u a l l y puts out a l i m i t e d number o f cop ies o f each recorded performance; and (2) As a r u l e , China records are main ly d i s t r i b u t e d d o m e s t i c a l l y . The Art-Tune Record Company u s u a l l y i s sue s i t s f i r s t cop ies o f the r e - r e c o r d i n g o f China records 1-3 year s l a t e r than the f i r s t i s s ue -da te o f the China records . Subsequent Art -Tune i s sues are a l l based on the same primary source and have the same s e r i a l number. No i s s ue -da te s are g iven by the Art-Tune Record Company. Dates a re g iven by Mr. Bernard Chan.. Mr. Chan i s an amateur t'an-tz'u s i n g e r and a l s o a c o l l e c t o r o f t'an-tz'u r e co rd i n g s . ^Chi P i n g - c h ' e n , Wu-yun chi ( C o l l e c t i o n o f Wu-tunes) (Taiwan: T ' a n - t z ' u A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961), 9-10, 12, 22, 28, 45, 71-72, 98, 114-115. Wu-yun here r e f e r s to t'an-tz'u. 5 The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonet ic A lphabet s p e l l i n g . c Chiang-su-sheng ho Shang-ha i - sh i fang-yen t i a o - c h ' a s h i h - t a o -tsu ( c o m p i l e r ) , Chiang-su-sheng ho Shang-hai-shi fang-yen kai-k'uang (Research Report o f the D i a l e c t s i n Chiang-su p rov ince and Shanghai C i t y ) (Nanking: Chiang-su Peop l e ' s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969). ^ T r a n s c r i p t i o n i n o r i g i n a l p i t c he s i s d e l i b e r a t e l y avo ided. Even w i t h the same s i n g e r , the s t a r t i n g p i t c h o f a t'an-tz'u p i ece may vary from one performance to another, depending upon the s i n g e r ' s na tu ra l voca l range, h i s age, h e a l t h , and emotional s t a t e , and the l e v e l o f audience a p p r e c i a t i o n . 8 Dens i t y r e f e r e n t i s the f a s t e s t , r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g pu l se s p e r c e i v a b l e i n a p iece of music. For a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n on den s i t y r e f e r e n t , r e f e r to Mantle Hood, The Ethnomusicologist (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1971), 114-116. 300 Chinese n o t a t i o n a l symbols f o r s p e c i a l techniques are based on the f o l l o w i n g : L i ng Fe i - h s i ung and Chou Jun-hua, Tsen-yang t'an p'i-p'a (How to p lay p ' i - p ' a ) (Hong Kong: H s i n - ch ' eng Book Company, 1966), 3-70; L i u Min, Ju-ho t'an san-hsien (How to p lay s an -h s i en ) . (Hong Kong: Ch in -h s i u P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969), 7-16; and Yii T ' i n - s o n g , Erh-hu tzu-hsueh-fa (Teach y o u r s e l f to p l ay erh-hu) (Hong Kong: H s i n - ch ' eng Book Company, 1971), 45-51. 301 CHAPTER IV ANALYSES A. NOTES ON ANALYSES In the course o f the upcoming ana l y se s , the f o l l o w i n g terms w i l l be used. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n . The term i s used i n connect ion w i t h the seven Su-chou speech-tones and t h e i r p i t ch - occu r r ence s i n t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g . The p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a speech-tone i n c l ude s the t o t a l occurrence o f p i t c h e s and the o v e r a l l range o f t ha t speech-tone. Operat ing Dens i t y . The term r e f e r s to the ove r l app ing area o f the seven Su-chou speech- tones ' p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n : For example, — +4 given the f o l l o w i n g p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f sol^ to sol ( ), mi^ to sol (/| ), sol-^ to mi ( \J ), soZ-j to sol ( \|"), la-^ to sol ( \\ )» -ii" -i sol-^ to mi ( j ), and mi-^ to sol ( the opera t ing den s i t y i s the area between Za-j to mi, the common range o f the seven speech- tones ' p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Upper and Lower P i t c h - L i m i t s . They r e f e r to the h i ghes t and lowest p i t che s w i t h i n a speech - tone ' s p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n . 302 Speech-Tone L e v e l . The f i v e speech-tone l e v e l s o f the seven 2 Su-chou speech-tones are 1 to 5. Vocal D i v i s i o n . A vocal d i v i s i o n i s t ha t o f the grouping o f s y l l a b l e s w i t h i n a sung l i n e - s t a n z a ; f o r example, a 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e -3 stanza may be sung i n d i v i s i o n s o f 4+3, 3+4, o r 6+1. Me lod ic Contour Movement^. Melodic contour movement i s the general shape and d i r e c t i o n o f a vocal d i v i s i o n . The l a r g e three ca tego r i e s o f melod ic contour movements ( i . e . , upward, downward, and h o r i z o n t a l ) have the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : Upward Melod ic Contour Movements ^ Gradual r i s i n g contour movement F a l l i n g - r i s i n g contour movement; the f i n a l p i t c h i s lower than the i n i t i a l one F a l l i n g - r i s i n g contour movement; the f i n a l p i t c h i s h igher than the i n i t i a l one U Is A / *S i n d i R i s i n g - f a l l i n g - r i s i n g contour movements; dots cate notes o f the same p i t c h * • 1/V \J\? F a l l i n g - r i s i n g - f a l l i n g - r i s i n g contour movements; dots i n d i c a t e notes o f the same p i t c h 303 General contour i s o f symmetrical f a l l i n g -r i s i n g shape Downward Melodic Contour Movements Gradual f a l l i n g contour movement R i s i n g - f a l l i n g contour movement; the f i n a l p i t c h i s h igher than the i n i t i a l one R i s i n g - f a l l i n g contour movement; the f i n a l p i t c h i s lower than the i n i t i a l one v/\ F a l l i n g - r i s i n g - f a l l i ng contour movements; dots i n d i c a t e notes o f the same p i t c h s^yl /^/V R i s i n g - f a l l i n g - r i s i n g - f a l l i ng contour movements; dots i n d i c a t e notes o f the same p i t c h I^S^ General contour i s o f symmetrical r i s i n g -f a l l i n g shape H o r i z o n t a l Melodic Contour Movements H o r i z o n t a l contour movement Ho r i z on t a l contour movement w i th a s l i g h t p i t c h - d i p in-between 304 Hor i zon ta l contour movements w i t h two prolonged p i t c h e s . C h ' i - c h u and Lo-chu. They are the b a s i c formal s t r u c t u r e o f 5 t'an-tz'u t e x t u a l u n i t . L i t e r a l l y t r a n s l a t e d , ch'i-chu means the opening l i n e - s t a n z a ( s ) and lo-chu means the c l o s i n g l i n e - s t a n z a . The former ends w i t h a comma and the l a t t e r , w i t h a f u l l s t op . In t'an-tz'u mus ic, c h ' i - c h u c on s i s t s o f an i n s t rumenta l opening a n d - u s u a l l y one o r two sung 1 i ne - s t anza ( s ) w i thout candence, and lo-chu c o n s i s t s o f an in s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n and a sung l i n e - s t a n z a which candences a t i t s penu l t imate and l a s t s y l l a b l e s . Lo-chu Cadence. The lo-chu cadence i s the musical c l o s u r e o f the penu l t imate and l a s t s y l l a b l e s o f t h a t l i n e - s t a n z a . The s t e r e o -typed melod ic formulae f o r lo-chu cadences c o n s i s t o f a p reparato ry pa t t e rn w i t h a b r i e f r e s t a t the end and the r e s o l u t i o n o f t ha t pa t t e rn on a g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c h . ^ Example 1. Lo-chu cadence, Ying-ying -pai-yueh, LS8 o f the vocal p a r t . t d?-"»f}- - o r j t prepa ra t i on -ts'S!. j i i r e s o l u t i o n 305 Textual U n i t . A complete t e x t u a l u n i t c o n s i s t s o f a minimum o f two l i n e - s t a n z a s (a c o u p l e t ) , one ch'i-chu and one lo-chu. Textual u n i t s c o n s i s t i n g o f three l i n e - s t a n z a s (a t r i p l e t ) have two ch'i-chu and one lo-chu. Textual un i t s w i t h f ou r l i n e - s t a n z a s ( quad rup l e t ) , f i v e l i n e - s t a n z a s ( q u i n t u p l e t ) o r more, are l e s s common. Regardless o f the number o f l i n e - s t a n z a s to a t e x t u a l u n i t , on l y the l a s t l i n e - s t a n z a can be a lo-chu, the r e s t are a l l ch'i-chu.. In t'an-tz'u mus ic, the t e x t u a l u n i t s t r u c t u r e o f ch'i-chu. and lo-chu remains to be the ba s i c u n i t s t r u c t u r e . T'an-tz'u music i s composed o f r e p e t i t i o n s o f t e x tua l un i t s o f ch'i-chu and lo-chu. A t y p i c a l t e x t u a l u n i t i n t'an-tz'u music i s s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s : vo i ce in s t rument ( s ) * Ch 'i-chu « opening LSI accompaniment Lo-t r a n s i t i o n j vo i ce i n s t rument ( s ) chu LS2 accompaniment > t r a n s i t i o n * F igure 2 Textual Un i t i n T'an-tz'u Music G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h . G r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s are those e s s e n t i a l p i t c h e s o u t l i n i n g the modal s ke le ton o f a mode. T h e i r s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n a mode enables them to have a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r ce towards o the r p i t c h e s . ] 306 In Chinese music, the f i v e modes based on the pen ta -anhemi ton i c . s ca l e system have the f o l l o w i n g g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s ( i n d i c a t e d w i t h squares ) : do-mode do re mi so l l a do re-mode re o r re mi so l mi so l l a do 1 l a do 1 re re mi-mode mi so l l a do re me sol-mode so l o r so l l a do' l a do 1 re mi re^ mi^ sol so l la-mode l a do 1 re mi so l l a 1 Figure 3 G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s o f the Do-, R e - , M i - , S o l - , La-modes Sca le M a t e r i a l . S ca le ma te r i a l c o n s i s t s o f p i t c h e s which are used i n a sung l i n e - s t a n z a . Octave S ca l e M a t e r i a l . Octave s c a l e ma te r i a l o f a t'an-tz'u p iece i nc ludes a l l n o n - r e p e t i t i v e p i t che s w i t h i n an oc tave . F igure 3 i s based on Su T s ' u n g - y i n , " C h i e n - t ' a n wu - sheng - t i ao - sh i h chung ko y i n - c h i te h s i an -hu - kuan -h s i " (D i s cus s ion on the mutual r e l a t i o n -sh ips among the va r ious degrees o f the pen ta ton i c s c a l e ) Min-tsu yin-y'ueh yen-chiu lun-wen chi ( S tud ie s i n Ethnomus ico logy) (Pek ing: Music P u b l i c a -t i o n s , 1957), 31-39. 307 Me lod ic Formula. This term i s used to denote the r e g u l a r i t y o f the usage o f s te reotyped melodic pa t te rn s i n lo-chu cadences and i n s t rumenta l passages.^ Instrumental melodic formulae i n t'an-tz'u serve the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : (1) as in s t rumenta l opening o f a t'an-tz'u p i e c e ; (2) as i n s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n between ch'i-chu and lo-chu; (3) as i n s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n between ch'i-chu and ch'i-chu; (4) as i n s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n between lo-chu. and ch'i-chu; (5) as i n s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n between vocal d i v i s i o n s o f a sung l i n e - s t a n z a ; and (6) as i n s t rumenta l c l o s i n g f o r the e n t i r e t'an-tz'u p i e c e . g Three-note M o t i v i c Germ. M o t i v i c germs composed o f combina-t i o n s o f th ree notes w i t h i n the penta-anhemiton ic s c a l e system p lay an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n t'an-tz'u music. The f i v e most ba s i c th ree -note m o t i v i c germs are d o - r e - m i , r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - l a , s o l - l a - d o , and l a -do^ - r e \ composed o f major seconds and minor t h i r d s . Each o f these f i v e t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs i s capable o f hav ing a t l e a s t f i v e v a r i a n t s . For example, by r e - a r r ang i ng the no te -o rde r o f d o - r e - m i , f i v e v a r i a n t s can be o b t a i n e d : do -m i - r e , r e -do -m i , r e -m i - do , m i - r e - d o , and m i -do - re . Each o f these v a r i a n t s can undergo f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n by t ranspos ing one o r two o f i t s notes an octave h igher o r l ower . Furthermore, combinat ions o f two three-note mot i v i c germs y i e l d f u r t h e r v a r i a n t t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs; f o r example, do-re-mi and r e - m i - s o l can be combined to g ive two th ree-note m o t i v i c germs o f d o - r e - s o l and d o - m i - s o l . 308 Fur the r m o d i f i c a t i o n of these t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs by re -a r rang ing no te -o rde r or by octave t r a n s f e r r i n g y i e l d s more v a r i e t i e s . The r e s u l t a n t po s s i b l e v a r i e t y of t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs i s t he re f o re i n f i n i t e . B. SU-CHOU PHONOLOGY The phonology of the Su-chou d i a l e c t has been s tud ied by the D i a l e c t a l Research Team o f Chiang-su P rov ince and Shanghai C i t y . ^ Th is s e c t i o n t he re f o re i s a summary s e r v i ng as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n s between Su-chou speech-tones and t'an-tz'u music. 1. Consonants Twenty-s ix consonants are p resent i n the Su-chou d i a l e c t : p p' b m f v t t ' d n .1 t s t s 1 s z k k" ' ' g fj 2. Vowels F o r t y - f i v e vowels are found i n the Su-chou d i a l e c t : 1 i u y °5 i or) 1 *1 Y iY a? i a ? a i a wa a ? i a 7 ae i ae 9? ia? E UE O 7 i o ? 0 U0 0 i o 2U. i i a i a ua a i a ua 90 • if) uat) y»g 3. Speech-Tone System ^ There are seven speech-tones i n the Su-chou d i a l e c t , w i t h - \ Vf- j / 3 3 ; £ Z speech-tone contours | ( l e v e l ) ; /] ( r i s i n g ) ; J . » •' N ( f a l l i n g ) ; V| ( f a l l i n g - r i s i n g ) ; ~j and -| ( e n t e r i n g ) . Each numeral represent s a speech-tone l e v e l , t h a t i s : 5 — h i g h , 4—mid h i gh . 3 - -mid , 2- -mid low, and l - - l o w . These speech-tone l e v e l s are not ab so lu te p i t c h e s ; r a t h e r , they are r e l a t i v e , because p i t che s may vary between i n d i v i d u a l s accord ing to sex and age. Two numerals i n d i c a t e the speech-tone contour movements:N means t h a t the tone s t a r t s a t the middle and ends i n low; or \ | 4-12 has a tona l movement s t a r t i n g from mid-high to low, then ending a t mid- low. Table 1. The Seven.Speech-Tones i n Su-chou D i a l e c t Speech-tone Contour Movement A 4+ 31 r — . :n=:: r : n -i ~. . ^  : : : •: :n~: l:£ X " 1 evel r i s i n g f a l l i n g f a l l i n g - r i s i n g e n t e r i n g The seven speech-tones c on t a i n f ou r d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones ( i . e . , speech-tones t ha t move from one tona l l e v e l to a d i f f e r e n t one) ' 5 , v^J ^  ' , N| > a n d \ | 4 ' 2 ' J t ^ s P 0 5 5 " " 3 ^ to emphasize one speech-tone l e v e l over the o the r i n these d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones f o r d ramat ic e f f e c t s . Th i s i s ach ieved ma in l y through the ex tens ion or r educ t i on of the time taken f o r a speech-tone t o move from one l e v e l to another. For example, speech-tone /P^ i s u t t e r e d i n the normal 311 manner, emphasizing l e v e l 3 (F i gu re 2a ) ; or f o r dramatic e f f e c t s , e i t h e r l e v e l 3 i s prolonged (F igure 2b) , or l e v e l 1 i s p ro longed, w i t h a l e s s conspicuous r i s i n g t a i l - e n d i n g approaching l e v e l 3 (F i gu re 2c ) . S i m i l a r tona l emphases are t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r o ther d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones. F i gu re 4. Vary ing Degrees o f Emphases i n 13 D i r e c t i o n a l Speech-Tone Leve l s a. Normal speed, emphasizing l e v e l 3 5 speech tone l e v e l s 4 f b. Dramatic speed, emphasizing l e v e l 3 5 4 speech tone l e v e l s 4 time c. Dramatic speed, emphasizing l e v e l 1 5 i speech tone l e v e l s 4 t 3 f time 312 S ince the b a s i c u n i t i n normal speech-phrases i s t ha t of a p a i r o f speech- tones , the seven Su-chou speech-tones should have f o r t y - n i n e p o s s i b l e combinat ions of speech-tone p a i r s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s these speech-tone p a i r s and t h e i r po s s i b l e tona l c on t ou r s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the normal and dramatic speech emphases d i scussed above (Tab le 2 ) . 1 1 C. ANALYSES 1. The Texts Among the twelve t'an-tz'u p i e c e s , are s i x k'ai-p'ien ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a , c , d , e , g, and k) and s i x t'an-tz'u e xce rp t s 12 ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n s b, f , h, i , j , and 1 ) . The e n t i r e sample c o n s i s t s of 303 l i n e - s t a n z a s and 2,213 t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s . L i ne - S tanza S t r u c t u r e . S i x t y - e i g h t percent o f the t o t a l 303 l i n e - s t a n z a s have the 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e . Fourteen po i n t two percent have the 8 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e , most o f which occur i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yU ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n c ) . L i ne - s tanzas composed of t h r ee , f i v e , n i n e , or ten s y l l a b l e s are l e s s common. In some ca se s , two consecut i ve l i n e - s t a n z a s are needed t o form a complete sentence ; the p a i r i n g s are made between: (1) 3 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a and 5 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a ; (2) 3 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a and another 3 - s y l l a b l e l i n e -s t anza ; and (3) 5 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a and another 5 - s y l l a b l e l i n e -13 s t anza . The d i f f e r e n t types of l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e s , t h e i r frequency of occurences i n the 303 t o t a l l i n e - s t a n z a s , and s p e c i f i c examples are as f o l l o w s (Table 3 ) : 313 TABLE 2 49 P o s s i b l e Speech-Tone Combinations and T h e i r Speech-Tone Contour Movements 44 13 31 52 412 5 2 44 * — 13 / t »— A J " 31 > S V s V 52 Y V X V J " ' 3 = ' -s. J " 412 s •—f— • — « — # — • — \T J " 5 • > » — 2 J " A 3= - » * Note: Dots i n d i c a t e p l ace s where speech-tones occu r . 314 TABLE 3 Textua l A n a l y s i s — L i n e - S t a n z a S t r u c t u r e L i ne - S tanza S t r u c t u r e (Number o f S y l l a b l e s per L i ne - S tanza ) Frequency (%) 7 ( e . g . , Chih-chen miao-jung, LSI) 68.0 8 ( e . g . , Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu, LSI) 14.1 10 ( e . g . , Tu S h i h - n i a n g 3 LS7) 3.0 3 ( e . g . , Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u , LSI4) 3.0 5 ( e . g . , K'u-t'a, LSI 1) 2.2 9 ( e . g . , Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin, LSI 1) 1.2 3- 5* ( e . g . , Y i n g - y i n g pai yueh, LS I -2) 3.4 5- 5* ( e . g . , M i - s h i h hsiang-hui, LS5-6) 3.0 3- 3* ( e . g . , K'u-t'a, LS8-9) 2.T * P a i r i n g o f l i n e stanzas Textual U n i t S t r u c t u r e . The p r e v a i l i n g t e x t u a l u n i t s t r u c t u r e s are the coup le t ( i . e . , one ch'i-chu and one lo-chu) and the t r i p l e t ( i . e . , two ch'i-chu and one lo-chu) . A l l twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces begin t h e i r f i r s t t e x t u a l u n i t w i t h a c o u p l e t o f ch'i-chu and lo-chu. Textua l u n i t s composed o f t r i p l e t s occur g e n e r a l l y i n the middle o f a t ' a n - t z f u p i e c e , and always a t the end o f a t'an-tz'u k ' a i - p ' i e n . Textual un i t s made up w i t h more than t h r e e - l i n e * s tanzas are not so common; f o r example, K'u-t'a ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n f ) i s the on l y t'an-tz'u p iece having t e x t u a l un i t s made up o f seven and f i f t e e n l i n e - s t a n z a s (LS23-29 and 315 i LS5-19, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . There are a l t o g e t h e r 112 t e x t u a l u n i t s among the twelve t'an-tz'u p i e c e s ; the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e x t u a l u n i t s f o r each t'an-tz'u p iece i s as f o l l o w s (Table 4 ): TABLE 4 Textua l A n a l y s i s — T e x t u a l Un i t T'an-tz'u T i t l e Number o f LS Textual Un i t s Chih-chen miao-jung 17 7 Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin 31 13 Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu 42 19 Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 47 15 Huo Ting-chin szu t i a o . 15 6 K'u-t'a 29 5 Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 23 9 Lin Ch 'ung t'a-hsueh 8 4 Mi-shih hsiang-hui 26 11 Shou-t'ang 10 .5 Tu Shih-niang 34 .13 Ying-ying pai-yueh 21 5 316 Ana l y s i s o f Speech-Tones. Su-chou d i a l e c t d i s t i n g u i s h e s two forms o f read ing f o r c e r t a i n s y l l a b l e s , accord ing to the wen ( l i t e r a r y ) p ronunc i a t i on and the pai ( v e rnacu l a r ) p r onunc i a t i on . T'an-tz'u s i n ge r s u s u a l l y p r e f e r the former; f o r example, the s y l l a b l e ^J~(to walk) i s sung as h l r j a cco rd i ng to the wen p r o n u n c i a t i o n , r a t he r than accord ing to the pai p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces have the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s sung i n w e n p r o n u n c i a t i o n s : / ^ fy^r (moon), ^ C ' . l * ' ( e ye ) , A , ^ " ( p e r s o n ) , i f . ^ ' ( e a r h ^ T K-^Uo w a l k ) , • ^ t p y i ( t o go) , 7^ d * ' ( b i g ) , #C ±f i * 4 4 (home), ^ s s ^ ( i i f e ) , //^ tCVaf^ifalse), /7j^  fi-i»7l(also), / f^) W 3 ( t o hear f r o m ) , / ^ j 5 ^ ? 5 i ( dea th ) , / 3 z ^ l ( s u n ) , t i n ( f a t h e r ) , ^ i ^ n i g h t ) , and ' ^ W 1 * (flower). A l t e r a t i o n s o f s y l l a b l e sounds are made by t'an-tz'u s i n ge r s main ly to improve awkward p ronunc i a t i on s o f t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n s i n g i n g ; f o r example, the p ronunc i a t i on f o r the l a s t s y l l a b l e i n LS4 o f Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n g ) , 1 2 T . • l ( to r e c i t e ) , i s a l t e r e d to f 3 read . t), e <j . Th i s phone t i ca l change g ives a vowel u n i t y between 1 2 ^ °Fd!) and the preced ing syllable 2 ^ (deep) ( i . e . , 31} f o r both s y l l a b l e s ) , thereby improv ing the o r i g i n a l awkward vowel sound s h i f t s from srj to '» L . T i e n - t z u (word-padding) i s another means to improve t e x t u a l awkwardness i n p r onunc i a t i on s ; f o r example, the f i f t h s y l l a b l e yCh 2[ ( i s ) o f LS3 i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin ( t r a n s -c r i p t i o n b) i s a t i e n - t z u which smoothes the two s t rong sounding s y l l a b l e s ~ | f P ' 1 ^ (brush) and l § / f c l ^ ' 3 ( to break) ( i . e . , ~ | t " P ' 3 ? * s t rong 317 7~F cL^ )• Furthermore, t h i s tien-tzu/Q_ 2 L prov ides a weak s t rong rhythmica l v a r i e t y f o r the o r i g i n a l r e g u l a r p ro sod ic rhythm o f a 7 - s y l l a b l e l i n e - s t a n z a (Example 2 ) . -Example 2. Tien-tzu i n LS3, Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin ( T r a n s c r i p t i o n b) * P i J l \, •-> o s A n d now tha t I have w r i t t e n , ah, i t ' breaks my hear t p ro sod ic rhythm before t ' i e n - t z u pro sod i c rhythm a f t e r t'ien-tzu * t ' i e n - t z u s y l l a b l e i n d i c a t e d w i t h b r a c k e t s . rn TI rr ; r ; mri r The 2,213 s y l l a b l e s have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f speech-tones: ^ ( 2 8 . 6 % ) , / ] (24.3%) , \ ] (15.8%), \ (8 .1%) , \ J (9 .0%), "j (9 .1%) , and ^ ( 5 . 1 % ) . Speech-tones used as the l a s t s y l l a b l e s o f lo-chu ( i . e . , the end o f a t e x t u a l u n i t ) are main ly the | and y\ speech-tones. These s y l l a b l e s commonly have vowel sounds o f , , 93, oC , JSC , a.., 9«., and ;2f . The t o t a l number o f occurrences o f each speech-tone and the number o f occurrences o f speech-tones used as the l a s t s y l l a b l e i n lo-chu i n the twelve t'an-tz'u t e x t s are t abu l a ted below (Table 5 ): 318 TABLE 5 Textua l Ana ly s i s - - Speech-Tone D i s t r i b u t i o n Speech-Tone Number o f Occurrences Number o f Occurrences as the La s t S y l l a b l e o f lo-chu 1 633 58 I'3 A 538 52 350 2 • 180 199 -Y 201 -I 2 -112 2. The Music (a) Chih-chen miao-jung (Chih-chen draws a p o r t r a i t o f her husband) ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Chih-chen miao-jung i s sung by Chou Yu-chuan, the i n augu ra to r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f Chou s c h o o l . The male vo i ce encompasses an o v e r a l l melodic range o f one octave p lu s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . Vocal p r oduc t i on i s t ha t o f a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d na tu ra l che s t v o i c e . Near ly a l l ch'i-chu show a f a l l i n g melod ic contour movement w h i l e the lo-chu g e n e r a l l y descend to a low p i t c h ( s o l , ) on t h e i r 319 penu l t imate s y l l a b l e s and c l o se t h e i r l a s t s y l l a b l e s on a p i t c h a f ou r t h above (do) . Three r e cu r r en t melodic motives can be recogn i zed : The f i r s t appears i n the middle o f a vocal d i v i s i o n ( e . g . , LSI V d l , LS3 V d l , LS4 Vd2, LS8 Vd2 e t c . ) ; the second appears most ly as the lo-chu c a d e n t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n and at the end o f a vocal d i v i s i o n ( e . g . , LSI Vd2, LS4 V d l , etc.) ; and the t h i r d u s ua l l y occurs a t the beg inn ing o f a l i n e -s tanza ( e . g . , LS6 V d l , L S 7 V d l , e t c . ) . A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the l eng then ing o f a s y l l a b l e i n s i n g i n g by p ro long ing the vowel ending o f t h a t s y l l a b l e w i t h g l o t t a l s tops ; f o r example, s y l l a b l e nt^ (LS6 Vd4) i s lengthened i n s i n g i n g by repeat ing the vowel # through g l o t t a l stops ( i . e . , «\0 - 0 - 0 - z - 0 e t c . ) . (1) ~ ; and (3), I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 242 melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n Chih-chen miao-Qung have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the va r i ou s i n t e r v a l s (Table 6 ): 320 TABLE 6 * I n t e r v a l Count i n Chih-chen miao-jung I n te r va l Frequency (%) P i t che s m2+ 0.8 m i - f a m2 + 0.4 fa-mi M2 + 16.9 do-re re-mi f a - s o l s o l ^ - l a ^ M2 + 38.3 re-do m i - re s o l - f a l a ^ - s o l ^ l a - s o l t i -| - la - j m3 + 9.9 r e - f a m i ^ - s o l ^ m i - so l l a^ -do m3 + 18.5 do-la-j s o l -m i ^ so l -m i M3 + 1.7 do-mi M3 + 3.3 mi-do p4 + 2.1 do - f a so l -j-do p4 + 3.7 d o - s o l s o l - r e p5 + 1.2 mi- la-| s o l - do m6* 2.0 mi^-do l a ^ - f a m6 + 1.2 do-mi -j Column 1 l i s t s the upward and downward melodic i n t e r v a l s ; column 2 l i s t s the frequency o f occurrences i n the t o t a l 242 melodic i n t e r v a l s ; and column 3 names the ac tua l p i t che s on which these i n t e r v a l s occur . Table 6 shows t ha t the most f r e q u e n t l y used melodic i n t e r v a l s are those o f downward major seconds. Downward minor t h i r d s and upward major seconds are a l s o o f t en employed. 321 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r ~ J N speech-tone have a range from s o l ^ to s o l ; f o r speech-tone / j ' 3 , the range \ l , mi-| to f a ; f o r \ , do to s o l ; f o r \ \ , do , do to l a ; and f o r - j 2 , la-| to m i . i s mi^ to m i ; f o r to s o l ; f o r TABLE 7 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Chih-chen miao-jung* Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences mi do r e , sol l a s o l p l a p t i p f a 14 12 6 2 1 '3 mi 8 / re do m i p l a p fa 7 6 1 \ il mi do mi -j s o K , l a , f a re 11 6 4 2 1 \ mi do, sol f a 5 3 1 V 4-11 do m i , sol f a 3 2 1 • s re sol dOp l a mi 3 2 1 3 do 2 1 a-j, sol 1 The seven Su-chou speech-tones are l i s t e d i n column 1 and t h e i r p i t c h -d i s t r i b u t i o n s a n d occur rences are l i s t e d i n columns 2 and 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 322 The above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the seven speech-tones are p laced together on a v e r t i c a l p i t c h - s c a l e so t h a t the r e l a t i v e p i t c h l e v e l s o f the seven p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s can be v i s u a l l y compared (F i gure 5 ). do 1 l a so l f a mi do l a , so l mi-| do. 1 13 52 i t 5/ Figure 5 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Chih-chen miao-jung F igure 5 shows t h a t Chih-chen miao-jung has an ope r a t i n g d e n s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s from do to m i , a major t h i r d i n range. The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tone p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : 323 5" 3/ speech tone "j has the h i ghes t upper p i t c h - l i m i t ( l a ) ; speech-tones \ J 4 i ' a n d - \ have t n e n e x t h i ghes t upper p i t c h - l i m i t ( s o l ) ; ,3i i ' 3 speech-tone J has an upper p i t c h - l i m i t on f a ; and speech-tones I and ix have the lowest upper p i t c h - l i m i t (mi ) . The above upper p i t c h -l i m i t s i n Chih-chen miao-jung correspond to the speech-tone l e v e l s : ~~\^~ —(4-4-speech-tones w i t h a high i n i t i a l speech-tone l e v e l ( i . e . , , ~| , ^ | * ' \ \ | r i ) a l s o have h igh upper p i t c h - l i m i t s i n t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g ; speech-tone w i t h a middle i n i t i a l speech-tone l e v e l ( i . e . , \ | ) has a middle ranged upper p i t c h - l i m i t ; and speech-tone w i th low i n i t i a l speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , J , ? and \ ) have the lowest upper p i t c h - l i m i t , 13 The lower p i t c h - l i m i t f o r d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones ( i . e . , J ' > \ \ , and \ ) a l s o c o r r e l a t e w i t h speech-tone l e v e l s ; speech-tones w i t h speech l e v e l 1 have the lowest lower p i t c h l i m i t (mi^) and speech-tones w i th speech l e v e l 2 have a h i gher lower p i t c h - l i m i t ( d o ) . ^ Melod ic Contour Movements. E ighty-one percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases w i t h i n the 45 vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic movement, 7.1% have the upward melodic contour movement, and 11.9% have a h o r i z o n t a l contour movement. The upward melodic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : » > a n c ' • The downward melodic movement has these v a r i a n t s : \J\k » /"V » > ~^ \^> ^ \ , , and VS. The h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement does not have v a r i a n t s . The upward and downward melodic contour move-ments s tay w i t h i n a range from major t h i r d to an octave. Most o f the lo-chu cadences have a downward melod ic contour movement f o r the c a d e n t i a l p r epa r a t i on ( i . e . , ) and a h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement f o r the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n ( i . e . , ^ ). Sca le Ma te r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e ma te r i a l i n Chih-chen miao-jung c o n s i s t s o f p i t che s l a so l fa mi re do l a ^ . The p iece i s i n the do-mode. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table 8 ) l i s t s the s c a l e ma te r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c h e s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n Chih-chen miao-jung. TABLE 8 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Chih-chen miao-jung IS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 l a so l so l l a so l f a mi mi f a mi l a so l f a mi so l mi f a mi mi mi mi so l f a mi 1 so i l f a mi l a so l f a mi so l f a mi so l mi re 1 re 1 re [dol re IdoI do l a re do l a re |do 1 l a re 5 mi re do l a l sol -| 6 sol mi re do l a l SOl-j re \Mf re 0Q| l a re 1 re [dol sol do la, sol re S s ] la-, so l 1 do] l a 1 JspJ 4 re do la, Isol 4 dol l a , so l 1 re [cRTI la-j |sol 4-J so l SOl-| do 1 la-j |sol 4 mi mi mi mi mi mi. G r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s are i n d i c a t e d w i t h squares. 325 Textual Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textual u n i t s i n Chih-chen miao-jung are composed o f e i t h e r coup le t s (LS 1-2, 6-7, 8-9, 10-11) o r t r i p l e t s (LS 3-5, 12-14, 15-17). Ch'i-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s end w i t h a descending p i t c h - o r d e r o f m i - r e - d o . Lo-chu cadences end on p i t che s do and mi-j. Cadent ia l p rep -a r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a melodic formula based on the descending p i t c h o rde r o f do- la- j - so l - j which i s r e so l ved on do, thus having a s t rong cadence from sol-] to do. Less f requent i s the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n on p i t c h mi-,. The seven lo-chu cadences are t abu l a t ed as f o l l ows (Table 9 ): Example 3 Ch'i-chu Ending i n Chih-chen miao-jung (a) LSI Vd2 (b) LS3Vd2 326 TABLE 9 Cadence S t r u c tu re i n Chih-chen miao-jung Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e Ct'du.'*"2 tSog**) ga^H-C ^ . l J ' ) 2 ( f ) ' 3 13 /.so. )-ks'i»)—»g — K — <=* * * ? 7 y 7 ( -V-x — i t> r j i j - ft 0—r-57 7 7 7 V 7 7 * Cadent ia l p r e p a r a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d w i t h b r a c k e t s . 327 ( i ) Instruments S p e c i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying instruments i n Chih-chen miao-jung c o n s i s t o f a p ' i - p ' a and a s an -h s i en . The l a t t e r i s p layed by Chou Yu-chuan h imse l f . The san-h ien pa r t i s much s i m p l e r than t h a t o f the m e l o d i c a l l y prominent p ' i - p ' a p a r t . The p ' i - p ' a employs three s p e c i a l techn iques : (1) ^ on p i t c he s do and s o l ; 1 1 1 0 (a) ZZ> on p i t c he s r e , m i , s o l , t i , do , re , mi ; and (3) on p i t che s m i , f a , s o l , do^, r e^ . Th i s i s the on l y t'an-tz'u p iece t ha t 15 employs p ' i - p ' a harmonics {X )• Whenever p i t c he s do and so l are p lucked s imu l t aneou s l y , p i t c h so l i s p l ayed as a harmonic ( e . g . , L S 2 I d l , L S 3 I d l , LS4 IdT). X , ZZL , and on g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s do, m i , and so l emphasize the s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e o f the do-mode. ZL and % ^ on n o n - g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s c r e a t e temporary melodic tens ion and are r e so l ved immediately to the g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s ( i . e . , fa to m i , re^ to do, t i to do^). San-hs ien uses no s p e c i a l techn ique. V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p between P a r t s . V e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between in s t rumenta l pa r t s and vo i ce are most ly o f the i n t e r v a l s o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h . Un i s on -p l a y i ng between par t s i s common. I n t e r v a l s o f second and seventh are used o c c a s i o n a l l y , c r e a t i n g temporary harmonic t e n s i o n , and are immediately r e so l ved i n t o i n t e r v a l s o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , o r e i g h t h . While the p ' i - p ' a i s p layed throughout the e n t i r e p i e c e , the san-hs ien i s p layed i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . There i s l i t t l e . s a n - h s i e n accompaniment under v o i c e . 328 Instrumental Me lod ic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the in s t rumenta l melodic formulae i n Chih-chen miao-jung are ana lysed i n Table 10. The numbers 1 to 6 i n column 1 represent the s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s which the i n s t rumenta l melodic formulae p l a y : (1) i n s t rumenta l opening; (2) t r a n s i t i o n between ch'i-chu. and lo-chu;-(3) t r a n s i t i o n between ch'i-chu and ch'i-chu; (4) t r a n s i t i o n between lo-chu and ch'i-chu; (5) t r a n s i t i o n between vocal d i v i s i o n s i n a sung l i n e - s t a n z a ; and (6) i n s t rumenta l c l o s i n g o f a t'an-tz'u p i e c e . Column 2 and 3 l i s t the var ious i n s t rumenta l formulae o c c u r r i n g i n Chih-chen miao-jung i n terms o f t h e i r bases i n the th ree -note m o t i v i c germs. D i f f e r e n t types o f formulae are l i s t e d w i t h c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . TABLE 10 Instrumental Me lod ic Formulae i n Chih-chen miao-jung Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) A LSI I d l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a + B san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a (2) C LS2 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a D LS5 Id l p ' i - p ' a san -hs ien 329 Table 10 ( cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Three Note M o t i v i c Germs (3) (4) LS7 Id l A ' . LS9 Id l A" LSI 1 Id l C + B LS14 Id l D' LS4 Id l san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS13 Id l E' LS16 I d l E" LS3 Id l san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS6 Id l F + A + B LS8 Id l F (fragment) LS10 Id l F + A LS12 I d l F' s o l -m i -do r e - m i - s o l + B d o - s o l - r e , r e - s o l - m i m i - r e - d o , r e - m i - s o l + A B 330 Table 10 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three Note M o t i v i c Germs LS15 Id l F + A + B (5) 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a LSI Id3 A + B LS3 Id3 F LS4 Id3 A LS11 Id3 A LS16 Id3 F 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a LS2 Id3 A + B LS12 Id3 F' LS 17, Id2 A + B (6) LS17 Id5 F (fragment) Table 10 shows that the e n t i r e i n s t rumenta l par t s i n Chih-chen miao-jung are based on the m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f e i g h t th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f d o ^ - r e ^ - d o \ r e - m i - l a , r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - d o , m i - r e -do , s o l - l a - d o , 331 s o l - r e -do , and s o l - m i - d o . These seven th ree -note m o t i v i c germs prov ide the bas i c s ke l e t on for " the f i v e in s t rumenta l melodic fo rmu lae , (b) Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n ( Fang -ch ' i ng w r i t e s a l e t t e r to home) ( i ) Voice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n i s sung by Wei Han-ying i n the s t y l e o f Ma s c h o o l . The male vo i ce encompasses an o v e r a l l melodic range o f an octave p lus a minor t h i r d . Vocal p roduct ion i s t ha t of a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . The musical s e t t i n g o f the t e x t i s l a r g e l y s y l l a b i c . Vocal d i v i s i o n s show the f o l l o w i n g r e cu r r en t t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs: s o l - m i - d o , s o l - m i - r e , do-la-|-do, and m i - r e - do . For lo-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s , Wei c h a r a c t e r i s t i c -a l l y dwel l s upon the penu l t imate s y l l a b l e before the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n o f the l a s t s y l l a b l e . each o f which i s always used w i t h va ry ing degrees of e x t e m p o r i z a t i o n . Example 4 . Lo-chu cadence i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin LS3 vo ice san-hs ien 332 I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 288 melodic i n t e r v a l s i n Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 11 ). TABLE 11 I n t e r v a l Count i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin I n t e r v a l Frequency (%) P i t c h e s m2+ 2.4 d o - t i -j fa -mi M2+ 9.0 re-mi f a - s o l s o l -j-1 a-j l a - t i M2+ 29.5 re-do m i - re 1 a-j - s o l -j m3+ 15.3 mi -j - s o l 1 m i - s o l m3i 24.3 do-la-| r e - t ^ dol-j-mi-j so l -m i M3+ 2.0 do-mi M3+ 2.8 mi-do P4+ 2.1 s o l i - d o la-j - r e P4+ 3.8 do-sol-j re - l a - j s o l - r e 1 a-j -mi -j P5+ 1.7 do- so l la-j -mi P5+ 1.4 r e - s o l -j m6t 2.0 mi-|-do m6+ 1.4 do-mi .j m7i 2.0 re-mi^ f a - s o l -j ml 04- 0.3 so l -mi .j 333 The above t a b l e shows tha t the most f r e q u e n t l y used melodic i n t e r v a l s are those of downward major seconds and minor t h i r d s . Upward minor t h i r d s are a l s o used qu i t e o f t e n . ha P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r speech-tone l ' * • • s a range from s o l ^ to s o l ; f o r speech-tone , the range i s mi.-j • 31 \ si 412. to s o l ; f o r \ J , mi^ to s o l ; f o r \j , sol-j to s o l ; f o r ^ , Ta^ to l a ; f o r "J , s o l ^ to s o l ; and f o r a. , s o l ^ to s o l . TABLE 12 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n ' Fang-chHng hsieh chia-hsin Speech-Tone 13 A Number o f Occurrences 19 17 13 10 8 3 13 10 9 7 5 Table 12 (cont inued) Speech-Tone Number of Occurrences \ 3\ A-Jl - i f do re mi so l so l 1 mi t i so l do re s o l 1 t i do so l re l a l a 1 l l l a , 1 ' '"1 1 l a , t i - j , mi do l a r e , so l so l 1 mi do so l l a , so l 1 re . _ L mi 12 11 8 6 4 3 1 14 8 3 2 1 11 8 7 3 1 7 4 3 2 1 5 3 2 1 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on of the above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u -t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s ( F i gu re 6 ) . do 1 + so l S O 4 la , so l mi • do 1 + 2r 13 3/ F igure 6 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin F i gu re 6 shows tha t Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n has an operat -ing den s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s from la-j to s o l , a minor seventh i n range. The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tone p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s are a l l on the same p i t c h , s o l , except that o f U , which i s on p i t c h l a . No c o r r e l a t i o n between speech-tone l e v e l s and upper p i t c h - l i m i t s can be found. The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s of the d i r e c t i o n a l speech- tones , however, do correspond to the speech-tone l e v e l s : speech-tones w i t h 336 s p e e c h - l e v e l 1 have t h e l o w e s t l o w e r p i t c h l i m i t (mi-j) and s p e e c h - t o n e s w i t h s p e e c h l e v e l 2 have a h i g h e r l o w e r p i t c h - l i m i t s ( so l - j and l a - j ) . M e l o d i c C o n t o u r Movements. S i x t y - f o u r p o i n t s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e v o c a l m e l o d i c p h r a s e s w i t h i n t h e s i x t y - f o u r v o c a l d i v i s i o n s have t h e downward m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement, 2 1 . 2% have h o r i z o n t a l c o n t o u r movement, and 1 4 . 1 % have t h e upward m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement. The upward m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement has t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : ^ , \jr , and . The downward m e l o d i c movement has t h e s e v a r i a n t s : , , and . The h o r i z o n t a l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement does n o t have v a r i a n t s . The lo-chu c adence s have a downward m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movement f o r t h e i r c a d e n t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n ( i . e . , ) and a h o r i z o n t a l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r f o r t he c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n ( i . e . , ). S c a l e M a t e r i a l and Mode. The o c t a v e s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin c o n s i s t s o f p i t c h e s s o l f a mi r e do t i - j l a - j . The p i e c e i s i n do-mode. T a b l e 13 l i s t s t h e s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i -t a t i o n a l p i t c h e s i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin. TABLE 13 S c a l e M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Fang-ch 'ing hsieh chia-hsin LS S c a l e M a t e r i a l 1 s o l mi r e do 2 s o l mi r e c § s o l -j mi.| 3 r e do t 1 l l a l s o l ^ 4 s o l mi J r e l do mi -j Table 13 (cont inued) LS Sca le Ma te r i a l 5 6 7 8 9 TO 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 sol fa sol sol sol sol sol sol sol sol fa sol sol sol sol sol sol sol sol fa sol sol sol mi mi mi re [do] do mi [fe] re mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi re re Ho" do do Ire I Ml re fre| |cfo"| re do re do re [do] do re [do] re do re [do re do do do do re re re re re do do do t i . t i t i . re do l a l a la la l a l a l a la la la la l a la la l a l a l a t i -j 1 a t i i 1 a la ti.j l a so l -|| mi .j jsol | mi.| WoT TsoT (soT sol • [soT sol IsoT fsol^. sol mi • II m i l +i m i l mi 1 V ""1 3 m i i m i n +J m i l sol. mi • 338 A temporary s h i f t to re-mode occurs i n LS 4, 9, 12, 14, 25, and 26, which emphasize p i t c h re by the th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f la-j-mi-]Ee] and s o l - m i - [ r e ] . The r e tu rn o f do-mode i s ach ieved by emphasizing the g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c h so l i n LS 5, 13, 15, and 27 (see Table 1 3 ) . Textual U n i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textua l u n i t s i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh- c h i a - h s i n are composed o f coup le t s (LS 4 -5 , 12-13, 14-15, 19-20, 21-22, 23-24, 28-29, and 30-31) and t r i p l e t s (LS 1-3, 6 -8, 9-11, 16-18, and 25-27) . Ch'i-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s end most ly on p i t c h e s do, mi-j, and l a - j , and lo-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s end on p i t c h s o l - j . Lo-chu cadences are based on the descending p i t c he s o f l a ^ and s o l ^ . The t h i r t e e n lo-chu cadences are t abu l a t ed as f o l l o w s (Table 14): TABLE 14 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin Penul t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e LS 3 y v v 7 > Pa-339 Table 14 (continued) Penultimate and Last Sy l lab les Cadence Structure ' C S V * ) i * ' 3 ' n LS ft . : . — — -4/ w—w ! L___U — — " ——i : 7—-i • 1* « > (•fa,—a.— &.-«. — «—». ) >y'>£ •• . 1 l« 13 « " " <• : ^ . k r i i i m ' U — — ( di — — * — i — t — i ) x)2T . • j i s r r r : : *r—"? -t V AL&/£ _- • ¥ — *? y % r1" I L . , . v .-k E i ^ 1 J1 ' - i — - — = — 340 Table 14 (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e T T - i + h j ? | > J 1 — : — < — — — — ! - 5 ^ ( < £ - E - f c - E - e ) t S £ - . 341 ( i i ) Instruments Spec i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying in s t rument i n Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n i s the s an -h s i en , p layed by Wei Han-ying h imse l f . No s p e c i a l san-hs ien technique i s employed. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f ea tu re o f the san -hs ien pa r t i s the f requent use o f accents on p i t c he s d o 1 , mi , and s o l , o f t en r h y t h m i c a l l y syncopated. V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . Because there i s a lmost no san-hs ien accompaniment under the v o i c e , Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n i s b a s i c a l l y monophonic. Instrumental Melodic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the in s t rumenta l melod ic formulae i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh c h i a - h s i n i s as f o l l ows (Table 15) . Example 5 Rhythmic Syncopat ion 0 f the San-hs ien P a r t i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin US / X i i TABLE 15 Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) A + B (2). (3) LSI I d l s o l - m i - d o , do^Tre^ydo^, r e ^ - s o l - d o , do - r e -do LS2 Id l A + B LS5 I d l A LSI 3 Id l A LSI5 I d l A LS20 Id l A LS21 Id l A LS24 Id l A LS26 Id l A LS29 Id! A LS31 I d l AB LS2 Id! AB LS7 Id l AB Table 15 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (4) LS10 Id l AB LS17 Id l AB LS26 Id l LS4 Id l s o l - l a - m i + A + B LS6 Id l C + A + B LS9 Id l C + A + B LS12 Id l C + A + B LS14 Id l C + A + B LS16 Id l C + A + B LS19 Id l C + A + B LS21 Id l C + A + B LS23 Id l C + A + B LS25 Id l C + A + B LS28 Id l C + A + B LS30 Id l C + A + B 344 Table 15 (cont inued) Funct iona l Types o f Roles Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (5) 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a LS12 Id2 A ( 3 ) * - 7 LS4 Id2 A LSI2 Id2 A (fragment) LS14 Id2 A (fragment) LS19 Id2 A (fragment) 6-4 l i n e - s t a n z a LS9 Id2 D r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - r e 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a LS16 Id2 D LD21 Id2 B (fragment) (6) LS31 Id2 C Word-padding. 345 The i n s t rumenta l p a r t in •Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin i s based oh s i x th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f do - r e -do , re - s o l - d o , r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - r e , s o l - m i - d o , and s o l - l a - m i . These s i x th ree -note m o t i v i c germs prov ide the b a s i c s ke l e t on f o r the f ou r melodic formulae o f the san-hs ien p a r t . (c) Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yueh ( N i g h t - r a i n i n Hs iao-hs iang) Chu H sueh - ch ' i n , the i naugu ra to r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f C h ' i n s c h o o l . The female vocal melod ic range encompasses an octave plus a minor s i x t h . Vocal p roduct ion i s t h a t o f a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . Most o f the l i n e - s t a n z a s begin w i t h p i t che s mi o r so l and end w i t h p i t c h e s do o r s o l - j . The l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e o f Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yueh i s composed o f e i g h t s y l l a b l e s , w i t h the s y l l a b l e s arranged i n the o rde r o f e i t h e r abb bacde o r abb cde fg . Among the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces ana lyzed, t h i s i s the on l y p i ece which has most o f i t s l i n e - s t a n z a s composed o f e i g h t s y l l a b l e s . ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yueh i s sung by Example 6 8 - S y l l a b l e L ine -S tanza S t r u c t u r e i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu LSI b '1 lot) u ; i b a c d c 346 Example 6 (cont inued) LS5 6dU S.,4f 4\#> A H § * f ^ c d e f y Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a tu re i n Hsiao hsiang yeh-yu i s the use o f onomatopoeic s y l l a b l e s such as - t i c ) ? 5 " I'"}'3 L-;!]'3 (LS34), i f c ^ L 3C J | l £ ' 3 (LS35), t o ? r Loo/' ton ' * (LS36), i i ^ L i S ? 1 L)5?^ (LS37), t i g * 4 tof t £ * * (LS38), and p c ^ - f c o ' ] ^ *«9 * f (LS39) . These onomato-poeias are sung w i t h the rhythmic pa t te rn s o f (LS34, 36, 37) , ft/ f (LS35), J* «l j * (LS38), and ,R f (LS39). Three cha rac -t e r i s t i c r e c u r r i n g melod ic motives can be r ecogn i zed : (1) j A / f i j ^ x '-™$t\t ^ ] ru-Melod ic motive ( 1 ) , f i r s t o u t l i n e d i n LSI Vd2, appears mainly i n the beginnings o f lo-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s (LS2 V d l , LS4 VdT, LS6 V d l , LS10 V d l , LS14 V d l , LS16 V d l , LS21 V d l , and LS29 V d l ) . Melod ic motive (2) occurs i n the beg inn ing o f ch'i-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s (LS8 Vdl and LS20 V d l ) . Me lod ic motive (3) i s a c t u a l l y a v a r i a n t o f motive ( 2 ) , and i t appears i n the beg inn ing o f the second vocal d i v i s i o n o f a ch'i-chu. (LSI3 Vd2, 347 LS26 Vd2, LS38 Vd2, and LS40 Vd2). A l so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e . l o - c h u c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n : the l a s t s y l l a b l e i s sung i n two succes s i ve s i x t e e n t h notes on p i t c h . s o l - j , w i t h a crescendo inbetween ( e . g . , LS8 V d l ) . I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 459 melodic i n t e r v a l s i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n (Table 16): TABLE 16 I n t e r va l Count i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu I n t e r va l Frequency (%) P i t che s M2+ 13.4 do- re re-mi f a - s o l s o l - l a l a - - t i M24- 25.9 f r e -I do " l a l m i - re 1 a-j-sol -j l a - s o l m3+ 18.6 so l I-*1 1 m i - s o l la-j-do l a - d o 1 t i - j - r e m3l 22.2 do- l a l d o 1 - l a r e - t i - j sol-j -mi -j M3+ 0.6 do- mi M34- 2.8 mi -do p4t 3.5 / do-l fa - r e r e - s o l s o l - d o 1 sol-j -do m i - l a p44- 8.5 do- sol-j re - la - j s o l - r e l a -mi p5+ 0.4 do- so l p5+ . 0.6 r e - so l -j mi- la-j m6+ 1.0 m i - do 1 348 I n t e r v a l Frequency (%) P i t che s m64- 0.9 do-mi.j m7+ 1.4 re -mi^ 8th+ 0.2 s o l - s o l -j S i m i l a r to Chih-chen miao-jung and Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin, the p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r v a l s are the downward major seconds and minor t h i r d s , Upward major seconds and minor t h i r d s are a l s o common. P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n . P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-1 H 4 4 tones i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu are as f o l l o w s : so l -j to do f o r | ; mi^ to. 1 f o r X m i l t 0 5 0 1 f o r " " J ^ j l 412- • , . • , „ -i 5" tones I and i 3 - are a l s o sung as heightened p i t c h l e s s speech-tones ( i . e . , k> ). do 1 f o r y j ' ; i ^  to so l f o r \J S ' , sol-j to so l f o r ; mi^ to do i 412. 5~ f o r V| ; s o l ^ to l a f o r | ; and mi^ to so l f o r 1 z . Speech-TABLE 17 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsiao-hsiang. yeh-yU Speech-Tone Number o f Occurrences 30 24 16 15 349 Table 17 (cont inued) Speech-Tone i3 3 ' 51 if 12. P i t c h mi l a do t i l a do so l re mi so l mi-| t i n 1 do1 .1 mi 1 do, so l so l - j , la-j re mi f a so l re do l a n , mi 1 *1 so l do so l re so l Number o f Occurrences • j , l a - j , do' 9 7 4 2 18 16 12 11 8 7 6 3 1 14 7 6 5 2 1 7 6 5 2 1 11 7 5 3 350 Table 17 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences mi.|, mi 2 do, so l 8 5 l a , , t i - j , mi 3 so l - j , l a 1 do 7 i l so l 3 mi 2 r-mi - j , 1 a 1 , t i •,, <g> 1 1 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the above p i t c h - d i s t r i -but ions i s shown as f o l l ows (F igure 7 on page 351). The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e shows tha t Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu has a wide range o f o p e r a t i n g d e n s i t y , from so l -j to s o l . Both o f the upper and lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f the seven speech-tones do not show a c l e a r c o r r e l -a t i o n to the speech-tone l e v e l s . Me lod i c Contour Movements. Seventy-two p o i n t s i x percent o f the voca l melod ic phrases w i t h i n the s i x t y - f o u r voca l d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement and 27.4% have the upward melodic contour movement. No h o r i z o n t a l contour movement can be found. The 351 do l a so l 1 do so l -mi-do n 4/1 13 31 52 •r F i gu re 7 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu upward melodic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : ^ , , yj1 , , A^v» , ' V^ t ^ , , and SL\? . The downward melodic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , , VS ' ^ \ ' ' V> ' V^N' Vv>> , and f \ . Sca le M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu c o n s i s t s o f p i t che s do 1 l a so l mi re do t i - . The p iece i s i n sol-mode. Table 18 l i s t s the s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-ytt. 352 TABLE 18 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu LS Sca le Ma te r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21' 22 23 24 25 26 27 do 1 do' do' do 1 l a so so so so so so l a so so so so l a so so so so so so l a so so so so do 1 l a so l mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi re re re fre re re re re re re re re re re re re re do do t i -j 1 a do (do) do do t i do Idol da do do do re | do| do re re re re re IrH Ho t i do M do t i do t i 1 1 do do jdo) t i - ! do t i do m do 1 l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a ' l a l a l a l a l a l a l a s o l . lsol sol sol TsoT IsoT s o l . s o l -s o l -s o l . so l s o l so l so l so l so l so l so l 353 Table 18 ( cont inued) LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 do 1 l a so l mi re do t i s o l mi re do t i so l mi re JdcT re Idol t i re I do) re do t i re do t i re do so l so l so l mi mi mi mi so l mi so l mi re do] mi do 1 l a s o l f a mi l a so l f a mi do 1 l a so l . mi s o l mi so l mi re do irei Ido re [do] t i - | re do t i So 1 re re [dol l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a l a 1 a l a l a so l ioT so l Isol so l so l so l so l so l soT so l so l so l mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi i m i l Tex tua l U n i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textua l un i t s i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu are composed o f coup le t s (LS 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 22-23, 24-25, 26-27, 28-29, 30-31, 32-33, 34-35, 36-37, 38-39) , t r i p l e t s (LS 40-42), and q u i n t u p l e t s (LS 17-21). Lo-chu cadences end on p i t c h sol-|. Cadent i a l p r epa ra t i on c o n s i s t s o f two melod ic formulas based on the descending p i t c h o rde r o f do-1 a-j-sol-j and r e - l a ^ - s o l - j both o f which r e s o l v e on so l - j . Only the l a s t t e x t u a l u n i t (LS 42) has i t s c aden t i a l r e s o l u t i o n on a heightened p i t c h l e s s speech-tone. The n ine teen lo-chu cadences are t a b u l a t e d as f o l l o w s (Table 1 9 ) : 354 TABLE 19 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu Penul t imate and L a s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e by % 'tfe'O a a: 1 3 P L S * V J *,5.»J \i 4/ i y y E «r : : — 1 Muru'o ; ) LS/O ! V L J U ' a -0 LSI* F c : O t f i • ' / ^ U U ? — H r»—^ r z z a — — = \ IJ 4 i ' m ^ J ' t—; 355 Table 19 (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e Cis'***) **** J_t__L > fsr— U l ^ 1 1 « - — a . f L5 3i* _ — -356 Table 19 ( cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t , S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e n -6 {id} v v ( i i ) Instruments S p e c i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying inst ruments i n H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu c o n s i s t of a p ' i - p ' a and a s an -h s i en . The l a t t e r i s p layed by Chu Hsueh -ch ' i n h e r s e l f . The p ' i - p ' a employs f i v e s p e c i a l techn iques : (1) Z** on p i t che s s o l , l a , t i , d o 1 , r e 1 , and m i 1 ; (2) J l , 1 1 fb 1 on s o l , l a , t i , do , and so l ; (3) Y$ on m i , f a , s o l , l a , mi , and 1 f9" 1 1 1 so l ; (4) Ifu, on s o l , l a , do , mi , and so l ; and (5) X • JI a n d , as d i s cu s sed i n the a n a l y s i s of Chih-chen miao-jung serve the f un c t i o n s o f e i t h e r o u t l i n i n g the s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e of the sol-mode o r c r e a t i n g temporary melodic t e n s i o n . and Jfij^ are more o f an ornamental na tu re , a l though they too serve the same f unc t i o n s as the CJ% and JL. X sounds (LS34) serve as an a i d to the s e r i e s o f onomatopoeic s y l l a b l e s , which de s c r i be the sounds of r a i n drops and the wind (LS 33-38). A rhythmic dev i ce of repeated t r i p l e t s i s a l s o used i n the p ' i - p ' a pa r t 357 to serve the same f u n c t i o n as t h e ' X sounds; tha t i s , the rhythmic p a t t e r n o f ffl H 7 ffl Fffl 4*7% e t c . (LS33). The san-hs ien does not employ s p e c i a l techn iques . V e r t i c a l Re l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . V e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l i c r e -l a t i o n s h i p between ins t rumenta l pa r t s and vo i ce i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu has the same tendency as Chih-chen miao-jung--intervals o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h , as we l l as un i s on - p l a y i n g predominate. In g e n e r a l , p ' i - p ' a c a r r i e s the main i n s t rumenta l melody throughout the p iece wh i l e san-hs ien i s m e l o d i c a l l y a c t i v e on l y i n i n s t rumenta l passages. Instrumental Melodic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the in s t rumenta l melodic formulae i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu i s analyzed as f o l l ows (Table 2 0 ) : ' TABLE 2 0 Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) LSI I d l san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a { s o l - m i - d o , d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 m i - s o l - d o 1 , s o l - l a - d o 1 s o l , - r e - d o , r e - s o l - d o , d o ^ r e ^ d o 1 "I I i "i t io .1 m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , mi ^ l a - s o l , m i - l a , s o l , m i - s o l - d o 358 Table 20 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (2) LS2 Id l san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS4 I d l mi - la - , -do, d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 l a - d o 1 - m i 1 , mi ^ l a - s o l , m i - l a - s o l s an -h s ien | so l - la-|-do p ' i - p ' a LS6 Id l I LS8 I d l s o l - l a - d o 1 + B D + B D + B LS10 I d l D + B LS12 I d l D + B LS14 Id l D + B LS16 I d l D (Fragment) LS23 I d l D + B LS25 I d l D + B LS29 Id l D + B LS31 Id l D (Fragment) 359 Table 20 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles . Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (3) (4) LS33 Id l D + B LS35 Id l D (Fragment) LS27 Id l D LS39 Id l D LS3 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS5 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS7 Id l I E LS9 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a s o l - l a - d o , re -mi -do m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , m i 1 - l a - d o 1 + B s o l - l a - d o , re -mi -do m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , s o l 1 - m i 1 - d o 1 + B + B s o l - m i - d o , s o l - l a , - d o , re-mi-do •1 1 A 1 -1 1 i + B mi - r e -do , mi - l a - s o l [ ] 360 Table 20 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LSI 1 Id l - E ' + B LS13 I d l II E + B LSI 5 I d l • E ' + B LSI 7 Id l II E + B LS22 Id l san-hs ien p 1 i - p ' s { s o l - l a - d o , r e - l a , - d o , r e - s o l - d o + m i - r e - d o , re - la -| -do, r e - s o l - d o [ E " ' ] LS24 Id l E .+ B LS26 Id l in E LS28 Id l E " LS30 Id l E + B LS32 Id l E + B LS34 I d l E + B LS36 Id l E + B B 361 Table 20 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles (5) Types o f Formulae (6) Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LS38 I d l E + B LS40 Id l E + B 3-5 l i n e - s t a n z a LSI Id3 E + B LSI 3 Id3 san -h s i en p ' i - p ' a LS26 Id3 F LS38 Id3 F d o - s o l - r e , m i - s o l - r e r e - m i - s o l , m i - d o 1 - r e LS42 Id4 sun-hs ien p ' i - p ' a f mi-1 ^ mi-1 a - s o l , m i - re -do a - s o l , m i - s o l - r e f a - m i - r e There i s a c l o s e resemblence i n the opening in s t rumenta l passages o f Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu, K'u-t'a, Mi-shih hsiang-hui, and Ying-ying pai-yueh; compare the f o l l o w i n g : 0 f 4 h i fti' us-J k r n ,4 ^ 1 u I —s-f—s k t a ,^ r m-f W-y W r n Q > *• ^ ; n — >-The i n s t rumenta l pa r t s i n Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu have f i f t e e n t h r e e -note mo t i v i c germs Of do - r e -do , r e -m i -do , r e - m i - s o l , r e - l a - j - d o , r e - s o l - d o , m i - r e - do , m i - s o l - r e , m i - s o l - d o , m i - l a - s o l , f a - m i - r e , s o l - m i - d o , s o l - r e - d o , s o l - l a - d o , s o l - l a - m i , and l a - d o ^ - m i 1 . These th ree -note m o t i v i c germs y i e l d seven i n s t rumenta l formulae upon which the e n t i r e i n s t rumenta l pa r t s are s t r u c t u r a l i z e d . (d) Hsin Mo-lan t z ' u (New Poem about Mu-lan) ( i ) Vo i ce General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hsin Mo-lan tz'u i s sung by Hsu L i - h s i e n , the i n a u g u r a t o r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f L i s c h o o l . The female 363 vo i ce encompasses an o v e r a l l range o f an octave p lu s a p e r f e c t f i f t h . Vocal p roduct ion i s t ha t o f a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . A d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re i n Hsin Mo-lan tz'u i s i t s tempo change i n r e l a t i o n to the var ious moods dep i c ted i n the t e x t . Tempi vary from f ree time ( i . e . , no p e r c e i v a b l e r e g u l a r rhy thmica l pu l se s ) to X = 76 ppm (pu l ses per m inu te ) , J* =126 ppm, J*= 132 ppm, J = 144 ppm, and S" = 152 ppm. At LS 10, f o r example, a tempo change from S = 126 ppm to J* = 144 ppm. c o r r e l a t e s to the t e x t u a l mood change from the med i t a t i v e one of Mo- lan ' s i n dec i s i v ene s s as to how she i s to deal w i t h the Emperor 's o rder o f e n l i s t i n g her aged f a t h e r i n t o the army, to one o f d e c i s i v e n e s s — M u - l o n ' s d e c i s i o n o f j o i n i n g the army i n p l a ce o f her f a t h e r , i n the d i s gu i s e o f a man. L i ne - s t anza s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r exp re s s i ve nature are o f t e n sung w i t h f r e e - t i m e ( e . g . , LS M and 14). Accelerandos and retardandos are a l s o f r e q u e n t l y used to support the t e x t . The accelerando a t LS29 Id l s t rengthens the anxious e x p e c t a t i o n o f Mu- lan ' s r e t u r n . The f a s t e s t tempo ( J* = 152 ppm) occurs a t LS30, Mu- lan ' s home-coming p r e -pa ra t i on and c e l e b r a t i o n . Most o f the l i n e - s t a n z a s begin and end on p i t che s do, m i , o r s o l . Four r e c u r r e n t melodic motives are found: (e.y L S I V d l ; L S 6 V U , ; L S j O v a L , ; L S U V c t ; ; LSlS\fdLt e t c ) (1) -f- ^ K i k 1 tyn (2) 364 (3) Cejl • L S i V U ; •• LS 12. \l<kl; L-S t5Vd, ; e t c . ) - # — (4) The most unique f e a t u r e i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u i s i t s use o f a smal l male vocal ensemble between LS44 and LS46, sung by the accompanying i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . Th i s c e r t a i n l y i s r a re i n t'an-t'zu performances. I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 504 melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Tab le 21 ) : TABLE 21 I n t e r v a l Count i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u I n t e r v a l Frequency (%) P i t c h m2+ 1.8 m i 1 - f a 1 , t i - d o 1 , m24- 6.9 d o ^ - t i , f a 1 - m i 1 , fa -mi M2+ 11.1 d o ^ r e 1 , f a 1 - s o l 1 , s o ^ - l a 1 , l a - t i M24- 36.3 r e 1 - d o 1 , m i 1 - r e 1 , m i - r e , s o l 1 - f a 1 , s o l - f a , l a - s o l , t i - l a m3+ 9.7 nrP-sol1, m i - s o l , l a - d o 1 m34- 16.5 d o 1 - l a , r e ^ t i , s o l - m i , s o l 1 - m i 1 365 Tab le 21 (cont inued) I n t e r v a l Frequency (%) P i t c h M3+ 1.2 d o 1 - m i 1 M3+ 1.3 l a W P4+ 3.4 d o 1 - f a 1 , r e 1 - s o l 1 , s o l - d o 1 , l a - r e 1 P4+ 4.2 r e ^ l a , m i 1 - t i , f a 1 - d o 1 , s o l 1 - r e 1 P5+ 0.6 l a - m i 1 P5+ 1.6 m i 1 - l a , s o l 1 - d o 1 m6+ 2.0 m i - d o 1 , l a - f a 1 m64- 1.6 d o 1 - m i , s o ^ - t i m7-r 1.4 r e - d o 1 , m i - r e 1 m74- 0.4 r e 1 - m i , s o ^ - l a P i t c h D i s t r i b u t i o n . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-1 -\W tones i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u are as f o l l o w s : mi to so l f o r | ; re to s o l 1 f o r ^ and ^ J 5 ' ; so l to l a 1 f o r y j r i ; mi to s o l 1 f o r \ and ; and mi to m i 1 f o r ' • TABLE 22 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences do 1 s o l 1 1 .1 re , mi 22 21 9 366 Table 22 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences so l 7 l a 4 m i , f a 1 2 t i 1 / 13 do 1 r e 1 mi so l m i 1 s o l 1 l a r e , t i , f a 1 do 1 19 16 13 12 8 6 5 1 18 '• \ 31 so l m i 1 s o l 1 f a 1 r e , l a 14 8 4 2 1 \ S2. s o l 1 do 1 s o l r e 1 , m i 1 , l a 1 7 6 2 T V d o 1 , s o l 1 1 .1 m i , s o l , mi l a , t i , r e 1 7 2 1 Table 22 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences r do 1 r e 1 s o l 1 s o l , t i 8 6 4 3 & m i , l a , f a 1 2 ' 1 • • t m i 1 5 do 1 4 l a , r e 1 3 mi 2 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on o f the above t a b l e i s as f o l l ows ( F i gu re 8 ): do' 1 l a so l m i 1 d o ] i s o l , mi, r e j 4t < 31 r doi F igure 8 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u F igure 8 shows tha t Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u has an ope ra t i ng den s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s from sol to m i 1 , a major s i x t h . Speech-tones ~]^» / j ' 3 » NJ3' , \J*IA"> ' A N D 1^" N A V E N I G N U P P E R p i t c h -l i m i t s ( p i t che s s o l 1 . a n d l a 1 ) w h i l e speech-tone n has a lower upper p i t c h - l i m i t (on m i 1 ) . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t o f the d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones show a c l o s e r c o r r e l a t i o n to the speech-tone l e v e l s : p i t c h re f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and p i t che s mi to so l f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2. Me lod ic Contour Movements. Seventy-one percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases w i t h i n the 99 vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement, 18% have the upward melodic contour movement, and 11% have the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour move-ment. The upward melodic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : , V* , \J , S ^ X * , \S , ^ , - X * , and \J> • The downward melodic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , V/Nk > /^/^ , 'X/** » v / v ^ 4 > and ( ~ \ . H o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement has no v a r i a n t s . Most o f the lo-chu cadences have a downward melod ic contour movement f o r the c a d e n t i a l p r epa r a t i on and a h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement f o r the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n . S ca le Ma te r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e ma te r i a l i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u c o n s i s t s o f p i t che s s o l 1 f a 1 m i 1 r e 1 do 1 t i l a s o l . The p i e ce i s i n sol-mode. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s the s c a l e ma te r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u (Table 2 3). 369 TABLE 23 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 so l f a 1 m i 1 re do 1 l a 2 so l f a 1 mi1 re do 1 t i l a so l 3. s o l f a 1 m i 1 re do 1 l a 4 re Ido1 t i l a so l 5 so l f a 1 m i 1 re t i l a so l mi re 6 so l m i 1 re do 1 t i l a so l 7 l a 1 s o l 1 fa1 m i 1 do 1 t i l a so l mi 8 re do 1 t i l a s o l | 9 m i 1 re do 1 t i l a so l mi 10 so l re Ido1 t i 11 so l f a 1 m i 1 re Ido^l l a so l mi 12 so l f a 1 mi1 re Ido1 t i l a so l 13 so l .1 mi re Ido1 l a so l 14 t i l a so l| f a mi 15 f a 1 rm re Ido1 so l f a mi re do l a ^ 16 so l re Ido1 17 so l f a 1 mi1 re |do' l a so l 18 so l f a 1 m i 1 re do 1 19 so l f a 1 . m i 1 mi re do 1 l a so l 20 so l mi1 re Idol 21 so l f a 1 m i 1 re Ido1! l a |sol 22 so l f a 1 mi1 re do 1 l a so l f a mi 23 so l .1 mi re Ido1 l a f so f l - f a mi 24 mi1 t i l a |sol mi 25 so l re do 1 26 so l fa1 mi1 re 15o*1 l a so l • f a mi 27 so l m i 1 re Ido1 28 do 1 t i l a so l mi 370 Table 23 (cont inued) LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 l a 1 s o l 1 so l so l s o l so l s o l r e 1 .1 1 mi re s o l 1 f a 1 m i 1 r e 1 .1 1 mi re m i 1 r e 1 m i 1 r e 1 s o l 1 f a 1 m i 1 r e 1 s o l 1 f a 1 m i 1 r e 1 m i 1 r e 1 m i 1 r e 1 m i 1 Ire re do go do do do |do do do do do do Tdo £ o Ido do do do do t i l a feol l a IsFf l a sol l a fsoT l a l a Isol l a so l l a Tso] l a so l t i l a Isol l a [ so! t i l a jsol t i l a l a mi mi mi mi mi mi mi do mi re Textua l Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textual un i t s i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u are composed o f coup le t s (LS 1-2, 6-7, 8 -9, 10-11, 16-17, 18-19, 20-21, 22-23, 27-28) , t r i p l e t s (LS 3-5, 24-26, 45 -47 ) , quadrup let s (LS 12-15), and o c t u p l e t s (LS 29-36, 37-44). Lo-chu cadences end on p i t che s s o l , do, and r e . Cadent i a l p repa ra t i on c o n s i s t s o f a melodic formula based on the descending p i t c h o rder of d o ^ l a - s o l and r e 1 - l a - s o l . 371 Only a t LS47, the l a s t lo-chu cadence i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u, the c a d e n t i a l p r epa r a t i on and r e s o l u t i o n are based on the t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germ o f l a - d o ^ - r e . The f i f t e e n lo-chu cadences are shown below (Table 24) : TABLE 24 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e Cadence S t r u c t u r e C-tS0+n > 2' 3 tsar** LS 3-) ft sr. 4 LS f L i l t Table 24 (cont inued) 372 Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e Cadence S t r u c t u r e 7 \ Li >1J L * / 7 5 0 ~*7 * ^Kd" - — O 1 n i ? mar, —(A) *- l.S_*l_ C pa? W> 373 ( i i ) Instruments The accompanying i n s t rumenta l ensemble o f Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u i s the l a r g e s t among the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces ana lyzed. I t c o n s i s t s o f a p ' i - p ' a , a s an - h s i en , an e rh -hu , an y'uan, and a p a i r o f b e l l s . The p ' i - p ' a employs th ree s p e c i a l techn iques : (1) on p i t c h e s r e , m i , f a , l a ; (2) on p i t c he s s o l - j , l a - j , do, r e , m i , f a , s o l , d o 1 ; and (3) non-p i tched pe r cu s s i v e sounds ( i . e . , 1* ). The f un c t i o n s o f ^ and have been d i scus sed i n e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s . K sounds at LSI6 Id3 are i m i t a t i o n s o f the drum r o a r i n g which c o r r e l a t e to the t e x tua l d i s c r i p t i o n o f the b a t t l e scene. The san -hs ien p a r t i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c t i v e than those o f the o the r t'an-tz'u p i e c e s . 1 ^ I t uses % on p i t che s mi and f a . Two r e cu r r en t deco ra t i v e ornamental f i g u r e s are found i n the erh-hu p a r t , - — and = ^ No p a r t i c u l a r f i n g e r techniques are used i n the yuan p a r t . The a d d i t i o n o f the b e l l s between LS30 and LS41, p layed i n r egu la r e i g h t - n o t e s , helps to c rea te a happy atmosphere f o r Mu- lan ' s homecoming. V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . In g e n e r a l , the p ' i - p ' a pa r t c a r r i e s the main i n s t rumenta l melody which i s mod i f i ed i n the san -hs ien p a r t , and the yuan prov ides g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s o u t l i n i n g the sol-mode. S i m i l a r to p r e v i o u s l y ana lyzed p i e c e s , i n t e r v a l s o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i gh th and unison p l a y i n g are common occur rences , 374 Th i s p i e c e , however, does have a s t r onge r sense o f heterophonic tex tu re due to i t s l a r g e r accompanying.ensemble and m e l o d i c a l l y a c t i v e erh-hu and san -hs ien pa r t s (Example 7 ). . Example 7 . Heterophony i n Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u (a) LSI Vdl san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu yuan 0: y y * t 375 (b) LS2 Vdl vo i ce san-hs ien P.' i - p ' a erh-hu yuan 4 — r — 7 -Instrumental Melod ic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the i n s t rumenta l melodic formula i n Hsin Mu-la tz'u are as the f o l l o w i n g (Table 25 ): TABLE 25 Instrumental Melod ic Formulae i n Hsin Mu-lan tz'u Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) A LSI I d l s an -h s ien do -m i - r e , s o l -m i -do p ' i - p ' a ' d o - s o l - m i , s o l -m i -do + erh-hu . do -m i - r e , so l -m i -do 376 Table 25 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (2) (3) san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS2 Id l B LS4 I d l B LS5 Id l A ' LSI 1 Id l A LS19 Id l s an -h s i en p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS21 Id l C LS23 I d l C LS28 Id l C LS30 Id l C LS8 I d l B (fragment) f do - so l -do s o l - m i - d o , m i - re -do do - so l - j -m i , m i - s o l - d o , d o - l a - s o l , m i - re -do f s o l -m i -do so l -m i -do sol-|- la-j-do 377 Table 25 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (4) LS13 Id l C (fragment) LS14 Id l C (fragment) LS3 I d l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS5 Id l D LS7 Id l D LS10 Id l D + C LSI6 Id l C LS18 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS20 Id l C LS22 Id l F + C s o l - l a - d o 1 , r e -m i -do , r e - m i - s o l , m i - r e - d o , s o l ^ - l a ^ - d o , r e -m i -do , m i ^ r e - s o l 1 sol-j-1 a-j-do, mi - re - so l - j + A + B s o l - r e - m i , m i - s o l - do r e - m i - f a , m i - r e - d o 1 , d o ^ s o l - m i r e - m i - f a , m i - r e - s o l , s o l -m i -do + C 378 Table 25 (cont inued) Funct iona l Types o f Roles Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LS24 I d l F + C LS27 I d l F LS29 I d l c LS37 I d l F LS45 Id l F (5) 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a s LSI Id3 A LS4 Id3 • A (fragment) LS46 Id2 A (fragment) 2-5 l i h e - s t a n z a s LS2 Id5 A (Fragment) LS3 Id3 F san -hs ien f a - m i - r e p ' i - p ' a f a - m i - r e erh-hu f a - m i - r e LS5 Id3 A (fragment) 379 Table 25. ( cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (Word-padding) - l i n e - s t a n z a proper (6) LS2 l d3 B (fragment) The e n t i r e i n s t rumenta l pa r t s o f Hsin Mu-lan tz'u are based on the m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i r t e e n th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f do -m i - r e , do-s o l - m i , d o - l a - s o l , r e -m i -do , r e - m i - f a , r e - m i - s o l , m i - r e - d o , m i - s o l - d o , m i - r e - s o l , f a - m i - r e , s o l - r e - m i , s o l - m i - d o , and s o l ^ - l a ^ - d o . These three-note m o t i v i c germs prov ide the bas ic ma te r i a l f o r the s i x i n s t rumenta l melodic fo rmulae. The i n f l u e n c e of the Chiang school {Tu shih-niang) on Hsu L i - h s i e n ( the s t y l e o f L i school ) i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the i n s t r u -mental openings o f Tu Shih-niang and Hsin Mu-lan tz'u, which are almost i d e n t i c a l : Tu Shih-niang p ' i - p ' a Hsin Mu-lan tz'u 380 (e) Huo Ting-chin s z u - t i a o (Huo T i n g - c h i n mourns her husband) ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Huo Ting-ching s z u - t i a o i s sung by Chou Yun - j u i i n the s t y l e o f C h ' i s c h o o l . The male v o i c e , i n f a l s e t t o throughout t h i s p i e c e , encompasses an o v e r a l l melod ic range o f an octave p lus a minor seventh, the w ide s t range among the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces ana lyzed. L i ne - s tanza s move s l ow l y from one to the nex t , w i t h l o n g , smooth melod ic phrases which are o f t e n broken up by i n t e r m i t t e n t b rea th i ng s . P ro l onga t i on o f the vowels o f s y l l a b l e s i n s i n g i n g are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r those long melodic phrases . Most o f the l i n e - s t a n z a s s t a r t w i t h a high r e g i s t e r e d p i t c h o f do 1 o r m i 1 and g r adua l l y descend to a lower p i t c h o f so l or s o l - j . Four r e c u r r e n t melodic motives can be recogn i zed : O) (3) ; (2) 1 EE} The f i r s t melodic motive occurs a t LSI V d ] , LSI Vd3, LS5 V d l , LS6 V d l , LS8 Vdl and Vd7, LS9 V d l , LSI 1 Vd2, LSI3 V d l , LS14 V d l , and LS15 V d l ; the second, LS2 V d l , LS3 Vd5, LS6 Vd3, LS8 V d l , LS10 V d l , and LS14 V d l ; the t h i r d , LS2 Vd2, LS4 Vd2, and LS10 Vd2; and the f o u r t h , LS2 Vd3, LS4 Vd3, LS7 Vd4, LS10 Vd3, and LSI5 Vd4. 381 I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 316 melodic i n t e r v a l s in Huo Ting-c h i n szu-tiao have the f o l l o w i n g frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 2 6 ) : TABLE 26 I n t e r va l Count i n Huo T i n g - c h i n szu-tiao I n t e r v a l Frequency (%•) P i t che s m24- 1.3 do1 - t i f a r mi -j M2+ 17.0 do1 - r e 1 r e 1 -mi1 re-mi l a - t i M2+ 28.0 r e - do r e 1 - d o 1 mi- re m i 1 - r e 1 l a^ - so l - j l a - so l t i - l a m3t 11.4 mi -j - s o l 1 mi - s o l la-|-do l a - d o 1 m34- 19.6 do- l a l do1- l a r e ^ t i r e - t i - | s o l -m i M3+ 7.4 do 1 - m i 1 M34- 2.5 m i 1 ^do 1 m i - do l a - f a t i - j -so l -j p4+ 2.8 do 1 - f a 1 r e 1 - s o l 1 sol-|-do-| l a -•re1 p44- 6.3 do 1 - s o l do- SOl-| r e 1 - l a p5+ 0.3 do- so l l a - m i 1 p54- 2.0 m i 1 - l a s o l - do m6+ 0.3 l a - f a 1 m6+ 1.1 do1 -mi do-mi-j P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-1 -444 tones i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o are as f o l l o w s : do to fa f o r | ; 1 a-j to f a 1 f o r ) ^ ; re to nri 1 f o r >J3' ; so l to s o l 1 f o r \ j * 2 ; do to m i 1 f o r \| ; mi to r e 1 f o r ; and do 1 to m i 1 f o r ~\ X . TABLE 27 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Huo Ting-ohing szu-tiao Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences n d o 1 r e ' 11 7 m i 1 5 do, re 3 s o l , l a , f a 1 1 do 1 17 / r e 1 10 s o l , mi , f a 1 6 2 do, r e , 1 A r 3 ( d o1 r e 1 s o l 1 a , m i 1 r e , mi 7 4 3 2 1 \ Cl d o 1 s o l , l a , s o l 1 3 1 V 412. do 1 m l 1 do, l a , r e 1 7 2 1 383 Tab le 27 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences ' . r m i , do 1 4 i r e 1 2 so l 1 d o 1 , m i 1 • 2 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen t a t i on o f the above p i t c h d i s t r i b u -t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s (F igure 9 ): so l mi r e ' d o 1 so l mi re I do l a . 31 HZ f F igure 9 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Huo Ting-ching szu-tiao 384 F igure 9 shows t h a t Huo Ting-ohing szu-tiao has an ope r a t i n g d e n s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s from do 1 to r e 1 . Cons ider ing the wide o v e r a l l melod ic range, such a narrow area o f ope ra t i ng den s i t y i s c e r -t a i n l y con t r a r y to e x p e c t a t i o n . I t i s , however, reasonable to d i s r e ga rd the p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the two occurrences o f speech-tone ~i , and to seek another ope ra t i ng den s i t y f o r the o the r s i x speech-tone p i t c h -d i s t r i b u t i o n s . I t i s the area o f so l to r e 1 , a p e r f e c t f i f t h . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tones Vj^  , ]~ * > and \ | 3 ' c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r r e l a t i v e speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , ^ has the h ighes t upper 1 H^ t 1 p i t c h - l i m i t on so l , | has the next h i ghe s t upper p i t c h - l i m i t on f a , U4'2 1 and \ l have a lower upper p i t c h - l i m i t on mi ). The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s f o r speech-tones /] , "f*~ , and - j * - do not show c o r r e l a t i o n to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s f o r d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones }\^ , v j ^ ' > and c o r r e l a t e to speech-tone l e v e l s 1 and 2 ( i . e . , lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f la-| to re f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and so l f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2 ) . Melod ic Contour Movements. E i g h t y - s i x percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases w i t h i n the f i f t y - n i n e vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melodic contour movement, 11% have the upward melodic contour movement, and 3% have the h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement. The upward melodic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : , ' » a n c ' • T n e downward melodic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , ^\ , ^ "•"Sfc > \s*Si > » a n d 385 f\ . No v a r i a n t s are found i n the h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour move-ment. The lo-chu cadences have the downward melodic contour movement f o r both o f the c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on and the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n , the l a t t e r c o n s i s t s o f the downward v a r i a n t s o f ^ \ o r . Sca le M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n Huo Ting-ching s z u - t i a o c o n s i s t s o f p i t che s m i 1 r e 1 do 1 t i l a so l f a m i . The p iece i s i n do-mode. Table 28 l i s t s the s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n Huo-Ting-chin s z u - t i a o Table 28). -TABLE 28 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 sol f a 1 s o l ' f a 1 f a 1 mi re re mi re mi re mi re mi re re mi re mi re mi re mi re mi . re mi re mi re do do do do do do do do do do do do t i t i l a I sol l a sol l a IsoTI l a sol t i l a |soT] la IsbTf t i l a sol t i l a fsoTT l a |sol l a sol mi mi mi mi mi mi mi do Tdo'l i l a [sol | fa mi Ido4! t i l a Hon mi l a IsoTI t i l a [soil l a sol mi m re do re do re do re re re re do l a , Isol l a , |sol. l a , Isol • re 1 do [ re do re 1 do 1 t i 1 a '1 1 IsbT l a , sol. 386 Textua l Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textual un i t s i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o are composed o f e i t h e r coup le t s (LS 1-2, 3-4, 11-12) o r t r i p l e t s (LS 5-7, 8-10, 13-15). Lo-chu cadences end on p i t c h sol-|. Cadent i a l p r epa ra t i on c o n s i s t s o f a melod ic formula based on the descending p i t c h o rde r o f d o - l a ^ s o l ^ , which i s r e so l ved to e i t h e r l a - j -do - so l - j , i f the l a s t lo-chu s y l l a b l e has a / \ ' ^ speech - tone ; o r d o - s o l ^ , i f the l a s t lo-chu s y l l a b l e has a "I*4 speech-tone. The s i x lo-chu cadences are t abu l a t ed below (Table 2 9 ) . TABLE 29 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o Penu l t imate and L a s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e $\ & — 1 < ) Li 2-) - — — - — ' — s " - ^ S ~*f~~m? *) *7 *r ^ i ' ' ' 1_i.5.7 . .__ : zz=z:-t _ ^ ...^ »_ «_ *7 r * ^ ^ f) : 1 w «-r *7 *-* * j 3u- a. fou. — — -387 Table 29 (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e i \.L*.J£ —^—-—-( i i ) Instruments Spec i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying ins t ruments i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o c o n s i s t o f a p ' i - p ' a and a san -h s i en . Contrary to t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , the s i n g e r p l ay s the p ' i - p ' a , r a t h e r than the s an -h s i en , to accompany h imse l f . The p ' i - p ' a p a r t employs C!X . on r e , m i , f a , s o l , and l a ; ^ on do, s o l , and d o 1 ; on so l and m i 1 ; and , J^ . on mi , l a , and r e 1 . No s p e c i a l f i n g e r techniques are used i n the san-hs ien pa r t which c o n s i s t s o f cont inuous p luck ing s o f e i g h th - no te s , most ly on p i t che s do, m i , and s o l . V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . The v e r t i c a l i n t e r -v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between in s t rumenta l pa r t s and the vo i ce p a r t i s the same as p r e v i o u s l y ana lyzed t'an-tz'u p ieces ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a, b, c , d. The p ' i - p ' a pa r t c a r r i e s the main melodic l i n e i n i n s t rumenta l passages, but i s i n a c t i v e under v ,o ice -par t . Although the san -hs ien i s 388 played throughout the e n t i r e p i e c e , i t i s never m e l o d i c a l l y prominent. Instrumental Me lod ic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the i n s t rumenta l melod ic formulae i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o are shown as i n the f o l l o w i n g (Table 30) : TABLE 30 Inst rumenta l Melod ic Formulae i n Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note Melodic Germs ( ] ) A LSI Id l • + san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a m i - s o l - d o , d o 1 - l a - m i , m i - r e 1 - d o , d o 1 - l a - so l B san -hs ien • d o - s o l - r e , m i - s o l - d o , do-la-|- so l ^ p ' i - p ' a j m i - r e - d o , 1 a-j-do-sol i , (2) LS2 Id l C san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS4 Id l s o l - r e - m i , s o l - r e - m i , l a 1 - s o l 1 - m i 1 + la^-soT-j-mi-i C + B (fragment) LSI2 Id l C LS14 Id l C (3) LD6 I d l C 389 Table 30 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note Melod ic Germs (4) (5) LS9 Id l C LS14 Id l C + B (fragment) LS3 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS5 Id l D + C LS8 Idl san-hs ien D + ,. , p i - p a san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a + B LSI 1 Id l D + C LS13 Id l D + C 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a LSI Id5 C LS3 Id6 san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a so l -j - d o - r e , r e - m i - s o l , re-do-mi s o l - d o - r e , r e - m i - s d l + C re - so l -m i - , m i - s o l - d o + ^ + l a - d o 1 - m i , m i - s o l - d o 1 d o - s o l - r e , m i - s o l - d o l a - m i 1 - r e 1 , m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , d o 1 - l a - s o l + A so l -do -mi . m i - r e - d o , m i - s o l - r e 390 Table 30 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note Melod ic Germs LS8 Id7 G 6-1 l i n e - s t a n z a LS2 Id6 A (fragment) LS7 Id5 A (fragment) LS10 Id5 A (fragment) LS12 Id6 A (fragment) LSI5 Id6 A (fragment) 4-3 1 i ne - s t anza LS5 Id3 - G LS13 Id3 G ( 6 ) ' LSI 5 Id7 D The in s t rumenta l pa r t s o f Huo. T i n g - c h i n szu-tiao i s based on e leven th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs o f d o 1 - l a - m i , d o - l a - s o l , d o - s o l - r e , • r e - m i - s o l , r e - d o - m i , m i - s o l - d o , m i - r e - d o , m i - s o l - r e , l a - s o l - m i , l a - d o 1 - m i , and la -mi - r e . These m o t i v i c germs prov ide the s k e l e t a l m a t e r i a l f o r the seven in s t rumenta l melod ic formulae used i n Huo T i n g - c h i n szu-t i a o . ( f ) K'u-t'a (The pagoda) ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . K'u-t'a i s sung by Hsueh H s i a o -c h ' i n g , the i naugura to r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f Hsueh s c h o o l . The male vo i ce encompasses an o v e r a l l range of an octave p lus a minor t h i r d . Vocal p roduct ion i s t h a t o f the na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the vo i ce pa r t i s the s t rong e i gh th -no te rhythmica l p u l s a t i o n due to i t s s y l l a b i c s i n g i n g s t y l e . P ro l onga t i on o f t e x tua l s y l l a b l e s i n s i n g i n g occurs on l y a t lo-chu cadences ( i . e . , LS2* 4, 19, 22, 28 ) . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a tu re i s the long s e r i e s o f ch'i-chu l i n e -stanzas sung w i thout i n s t rumenta l t r a n s i t i o n s ( i . e . , LS5-18, 25-28) . A l l l i n e - s t a n z a s beg in on the p i t c h o f so l o r do. Vocal d i v i s i o n s show a narrow melod ic range, most ly w i t h i n a p e r f e c t f i f t h ( i . e . , do to so l or sol-| to do ) . Repeated notes w i t h i n a vocal d i v i s i o n i s a l s o common i n K'u-t'a', some vocal d i v i s i o n s are a c t u a l l y composed o f the r e p e t i t i o n o f one s i n g l e p i t c h , u s u a l l y on do ( e . g . , LS8, 11, 23 ) . The e n t i r e vocal p a r t i s based on f i v e th ree -note m o t i v i c germs: do-sol-|-do ( e . g . , LS3) , do- la- j -do ( e . g . , LS4) , s o l - m i - r e ( e . g . , LS2 ) , so l -m i -do ( e . g . , L S I ) , and do-do-do ( e . g . , LS2). 392 I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 116 melodic i n t e r v a l s in K'u-t'a have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 31) TABLE 31 ' I n t e r v a l Count i n K'u-t'a I n t e rna l P i t c h M24-M2+ M24-m3t m3+ M3+ M3+ p4t p44-p5+ m6i m7+ m7+ rermi sol-j -1 a-| do m i - re la-j -so l - j l a - j - t i ^ l a - s o l y-mi -j so l -m i sol-j-do d o - l a 1 mi-| so l -1 a-j P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-tones are:, sol-j to so l f o r j , mi^ to mi f o r / j and \j , la-j to so l f o r \ | f \ sol-j to so l f o r ^ sol-j to mi 1 * f o r and la-j to mi f o r i 1 TABLE 32 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n K'u-t'a Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences 13 5-1 do so l l a - j , re mi so l 1 do re mi so l 1 1 mi do l a l s o l 1 1 re do l a ^ , so l r e , mi do so l re . s o l - j , la-j 35 6 4 3 2 24 7 5 4 3 1 16 5 4 2 1 10 , 3 1 7 5 2 1 394 Table 32 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f O c c u r r e n c e s * ' _ do 13 l a l • 3 mi 2 SOl-j 1 I* do 2 l a p r e , mi 1 The v e r t i c a l r ep re sen ta t i on o f the above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s c on s t r uc ted below ( F i gu re 10): so l mi do l a l so l 91 4ti /5 1 mi do. F igure 10 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n K'u-t'a 395 F i gu re 10 shows t h a t K'u-t'a has an ope ra t i ng d e n s i t y o f p i t c h -d i s t r i b u t i o n s from la-| to m i , a p e r f e c t f i f t h i n range. The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s c o r r e l a t e w i t h the speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , mi to s o l f o r speech-tone l e v e l s 4 and 5; mi f o r speech-tone l e v e l 3 ) . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones J , \J , , and \\ are a l s o g e n e r a l l y i n accordance w i t h speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , 1 f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and so l -j to 1 a-j f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2 ) . mi Melod ic Contour Movements. F o r t y - f o u r ' p e r c e n t o f the vocal melodic phrases w i t h i n the t h i r t y - t h r e e vocal d i v i s i o n s have the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement, 31% have the downward melodic contour movement, and 25% have the upward melod ic con -tour movement. The upward melod ic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : , , and The downward me lod ic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , , \ » / " ^ | > » '\J^ , and ./> . The h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour has three v a r i a n t s : —> , —v-v-^  , and ,• » . Lo-chu cadences have a down-ward melodic contour movement f o r c aden t i a l p r epa ra t i on and a h o r i z o n -t a l melod ic contour movement f o r c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n . S ca le M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n K'u-t'a c o n s i s t s o f p i t c h e s so l mi re do t i - j l a ^ so l - j . The p i e ce i s i n do-mode. Table 33 l i s t s the s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n K'u-t'a. LS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 396 TABLE 33 e M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n K'u-t'a Sca le Ma te r i a l so l mi so l mi so l so l mi so l mi so l mi s o l mi so l mi so l mi s o l mi s o l mi so l mi re do '1 do do re do |3o re [do] [do Ido] re fHol .HO re Ida] do do do re Ido | do t i 1 re re do do t i m Idbl re [do 1 Ba) re [do] do t i l a , l a , l a n re do t i , l a , so l 1 la-| so l l a , [soT '1 l a , so l so l la-j. s o l l a , so l so l so l la-j so l la-j |sol so l la-j |sol so l la-j so l l a , la-j so l l a , la-j [sol mi-mi mi • mi-mi-mi • 397 Textual Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textual u n i t s i n K'u-t'a are composed o f coup l e t s (LS 1-2, 3 -4 ) , t r i p l e t (LS 20-22) , seven l i n e - s t a n z a s (LS 23-29) , and f i f t e e n l i n e - s t a n z a s (LS 5-19). A l l lo-chu cadences end on p i t c h so~\y Cadent i a l p r epa ra t i on i s based on the descending two p i t c h o f la-j and so l - j . The f i v e lo-chu cadences are as f o l l ows (Table 3 4 ) : TABLE 34 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n K'u-t'a Penul t imate and Las t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e X 311 C^- 4^ LS 2 (9* *-x —: » -7 -I — I I ) A*. _ 398 ( i i ) Instruments Spec i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying inst ruments i n K'u-t'a c o n s i s t o f a p ' i - p ' a and a s a n - h s i e n , the former i s p layed by the s i n ge r . The p ' i - p ' a used £u on p i t c h e s r e , m i , s o l , and l a ; $ on s o l ; on m i , l a , and d o 1 ; and '•J sounds. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the use o f ^ sounds. I t p rov ides not on l y a t imbre v a r i e t y i n the p ' i - p ' a p a r t , but a l s o a rhy thmica l accent . Example 8 . Sounds i n the P ' i - p ' a and San-hs ien Pa r t s as Rhythmical Accent s i n K'u-t'a > The san-hs ien uses ft on p i t che s do, r e , l a , and do and X sounds ( i . e . , same as o f p ' i - p ' a ) . V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . V e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between in s t rumenta l pa r t s and vo i ce are m o s t l y o f t h i r d , 399 f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h . Un i s on -p l a y i n g i s , l i k e p r e v i o u s l y d i s cu s sed p i e c e s , common. P ' i - p ' a c a r r i e s the main i n s t rumenta l melod ic l i n e throughout the ins t rumenta l passages w h i l e the san-hs ien p a r t i s more a c t i v e under vo i ce and g e n e r a l l y i n unison w i t h the vocal l i n e . Instrumental Melodic Formulae. The c l o s e resemblance between the i n s t rumenta l openings o f K'u-t'a and Hsiao-hsian ye-yueh, Ying-ying 18 pai-yueh, and. Mi-shih hsiang-hui has been c i t e d e a r l i e r . The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the in s t rumenta l melod ic formulae i n K'u-t'a are ana lyzed i n Table 35. TABLE 35 Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n K'u-t'a Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) (2) (3) A + LSI Id l p ' i - p ' a san-hs ien P ' i - p ' a san-hs ien s o l - m i - d o , m i - s o l - d o 1 d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 s o l - m i - d o , m i - re -do s o l - r e 1 - d o 1 , d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 LS2 Id l A (fragment) + B (fragment) LS6 Id l A (fragment) + B (fragment) LS21 Id l A 400 Table 35 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (4) (5) (6) LS3 Id l p ' i - p ' a san-hs ien LS5 Id l C + B LS20 Id l p ' i - p ' a san-hs ien LS23 Id l C + A m i - r e - d o , s o l - r e - m i , s o l -m i -do m i - r e - d o , r e - m i - s o l + A m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , n r i ' ' - l a - s o l , m i - s o l - do m i - r e - d o , m i - l a - s o l , mi - re -do LS29 Id3 B (fragment) + A The above a n a l y s i s shows tha t the e n t i r e i n s t rumenta l par t s i n K'u-t'a a re based on the m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f s i x t h r ee -no te m o t i v i c germs o f r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - d o , m i - r e - do , m i - l a - s o l , s o l - m i - d o , and s o l - r e - d o . These m o t i v i c germs prov ide the ba s i c s k e l e t on f o r the f o u r in s t rumenta l melod ic formulae i n K'u-t'a. (g) Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu ( s w i t c h i n g t h e p r i n c e w i t h a r a c c o o n ) ( i ) V o i c e G e n e r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu i s sung by Hsu* Y l i n - c h i h , t h e i n a u g u r a t o r o f t h e s t y l e o f Hsli s c h o o l . The ma le v o i c e encompasses an o v e r a l l m e l o d i c range o f one o c t a v e p l u s a m a j o r s e c o n d . The mos t u sed r a n g e , however , i s t h e o c t a v e f r o m mi t o m i 1 . V o c a l p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t o f a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n a t u r a l c h e s t - v o i c e . H s l i 1 s s i n g i n g has a s o o t h i n g q u a l i t y . In g e n e r a l , v o c a l d i v i s i o n s s t a r t on p i t c h e s d o , m i , and s o l . M e l o d i c movement f r o m d o 1 t o l a p r e v a i l s i n most o f t he v o c a l d i v i s i o n s . S i x r e c u r r e n t m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e : C«.%.LSIV<LI^ __^AI) (3) (5) ( 4 ) ( 6 ) _\ <?. r—, _ C«-v LSZ tfdi^ LI+ via.3> A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e p e n u l t i m a t e s y l l a b l e i n lo-chu c a d e n c e s : t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l s o f a lo-chu o f p e n u l -t i m a t e s y l l a b l e i s . m e l o d i c a l l y a c t i v e . Compare, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g lo-chu c a d e n c e o f Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu t o t h e m e l o d i c a l l y n o n - a c t i v e lo-chu c a d e n c e i n Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin: 402 Example 9. Lo-chu Cadences o f Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu and Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin LS5 ^ lO^.i U_ ix w n J " •tS PU M- — w. — M. — M . — vl Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu LS2 0=P} fii* . fi 0— gf— fi I n t e r v a l , Count. The t o t a l 292 melodic i n t e r v a l s i n li-mao huan t'ai-tzu have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n (Table 3 6 ) : TABLE 36 I n t e r v a l Count in.Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu I n t e r va l P i t che s M2+ M24-m3t m34-M3+ p4+ p4+ p5 i p5+ m6t m64-d o 1 - r e 1 r e 1 - d o 1 1 -1 re -mi m i 1 - r e 1 s o l - l a t i - l a m i - s o l t i - r e 1 .1 do - l a re - t i s o l -m i d o 1 - m i 1 s o l - t i .1 r e - s o l s o l -do l a - r e 1 d o ^ s o l do - so l .1 r e 1 - l a s o l - r e 1 .1 ml - l a re - s o l m i -do 1 do 1 -m i P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . The p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven .1 speech-tones i n li-mao huan t'ai-tzu are as f o l l o w s : so l to mi f o r — t Vh 1 11 ^  1 I $i 1 \ , mi to so l f o r A , do to re f o r \J , re to mi f o r \ J " and \ | " , so l to m i 1 f o r "] , and re to do 1 f o r i 2 - . TABLE 37 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences i3 31 \1 I 4-12-do 1 so l m i 1 l a re t i 1 mi s o l 1 do 1 r e 1 m i 1 l a , t i so l r e 1 mi , l a do 1 do so l ..1 m i , mi r e , t i , re 1 22 13 6 5 4 1 13 12 6 5 4 1 8 3 2 1 8 4 2 1 404 Tab le 37 (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences \ do1 6 \ s o l , m i 1 4 l a 3 r e 1 2 re 1 d o 1 , r e 1 5 1 m i 1 , ^ 2 s o l , l a 1 so l 4 l a 3 r e , m i , do 1 1 The v e r t i c a l r ep re sen ta t i on o f the above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s (F igure 11 ): s o l 1 .1 ^ mi + 1 I re do 1 so l mi re do 31 n F i gu re 11 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu 405 F i gu re 11 shows t ha t Li-mao huan t ' z i - t z u has an ope ra t i ng d e n s i t y between so l and d o 1 , a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tones "j4*" , \ •» VJ*'1" » - ^ » ~j ^ » a n d "I* c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , speech-tone l e v e l s 4 and 5 have a r e l a t i v e l y high upper p i t c h l i m i t o f m i 1 , speech-tone l e v e l 3 has the upper p i t c h l i m i t a t r e 1 , and speech tone l e v e l 2 has the upper p i t c h - l i m i t o f d o 1 ) . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t o f speech-tone /| does not correspond i n respect to the r e l a t i v e upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f o the r speech-tones . The lower p i t c h l i m i t s f o r d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones o f y\ , \j , \ .., and ^ a l s o c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , speech-tone l e v e l 1 has the lowest p i t c h o f do, 2 a t the p i t c h o f r e , and 3 a t the p i t c h o f m i ) . Me lod ic Contour Movements. S i x t y - n i n e p o i n t two percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases w i t h i n the f i f t y - f o u r vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement, 20.2% have the upward melodic contour and 10.6% have the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic con tou r . The upward melod ic contour movement has the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s ^ , \j# > /t^jjl » and \jjf -. The downward melod ic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , , ^ " ^ f r , and /*V The h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement has no v a r i a n t s . Lo-chu c a d e n t i a l p r epa r a t i on has the downward melodic contour movement, r e s o l v i n g to upward or h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movements. Candent ia l r e s o l u -t i o n s w i t h the h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement are more common than the upward t ype ; seven out o f the n ine lo-chu c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n s are o f the h o r i z o n t a l t ype. 406 S ca l e M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u c o n s i s t s o f p i t c he s m i 1 , r e 1 , d o 1 , t i , l a , s o l , m i . The piece i s i n sol -mode. Table 38 l i s t s the s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a -t i o n a l p i t c he s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a i n Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu. TABLE 38 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u LS Sca le Ma te r i a l 1 mi re do 1 l a 2 mi re do 1 l a so l 3 do ' l a so l nri 4 mi re do 1 t i l a so l 5 re do 1 t i Ta so l mi 6 mi re do 1 l a so l 7 do 1 l a so l mi 8 mi re do 1 l a so l 9 do 1 . l a so l mi 10 mi re do 1 l a so l mi re 11 re do1 l a so l mi 12 mi do 1 l a so l mi 13 re 1 |do l a so l mi 14 mi re do 1 l a so l mi 15 1 do '| t i l a so l mi 16 re do 1 t i l a so l mi 17 re 1 do 1 l a so l mi 18 re do 1 t i l a so l 19 re do 1 l a so l mi 20 mi1 mi1 re do 1 t i l a so l mi 21 22 re do ' l do 1 l a l a so l so 1 mi | nri 23 mi1 I r i l do 1 1 l a so l mi [rei 407 Textual Unit Structure and Cadence Structure. Textual units in Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu are composed of couplets (LS 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12), t r i p l e t s (LS 21-23) and quadruplets (LS 13-16, 17-20). In general, ch'i-chu l ine-stanzas end on the descending portimento from p i tch do 1 to l a or sol to mi. „ Nearly a l l lo-chu cadences end on pitch s o l . Only the l a s t lo-chu cadence ends on p i tch re. The nine lo-chu cadences are tabulated as follows (Table 39): TABLE 39 Cadence Structure in Li-mao huan t'ai-tzu Penultimate and Last Sy l lab les Cadence Structure G ^ >> i f > _ ^ f / -**—r—1—i>—vh *-\—r - j—K -y=jg= A — ^ — yj^eL+j J ] j . ^ j p L - U -u (a»9_ g _ 3 3 — rj «j — rj — •] D 9 — ) W ^ I _ J ^ _ i _ ^ l _ _ p — — f — * — - — b ~ Y - y — * J ( K — t - t _ E _ £ ) . J - ! 4_i>JP__^ — — 'iZZir.—r:f—:L> *r-*f •? — 1 j p ^ ^ - . - z ^ U — 7 , 1 — (P«. • ^ ) 4 L 9 -ft t * , a - ' — f — f — ^ " i — r ~ r ~ ? ~ T ^ 408 Table 39 (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e 0/s s ' ) -fat}^ 3h j £ 3 1 .In / M ^ j ^ r r ^ r j v» (vE- e — E E — E e - B _ E _ .6 B-i-g ) «'3-r3f "0 ( i i ) Instrument S p e c i a l Instrumental Techniques. V e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between san -hs ien and v o i c e shows s i m i l a r tendenc ies as the e a r l i e r analyzed t'an-t'zu p ieces ( i . e . , i n t e r v a l s o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h , as w e l l as some unison p l a y i n g ) . The san -hs ien i s p layed throughout the e n t i r e p i e c e . Under the voca l p a r t , the san-hs ien u s u a l l y s t r e s s e s the g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s o f do and so l o f do-mode i n the p a t t e r n o f o r i t Ins t rumenta l Melodic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the san -hs ien me lod ic formulae i n Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u are ana lyzed i n Table 40 . TABLE 40 Ins t rumenta l Me lod ic Formulae i n Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs 0) LSI I d l r e 1 - d o 1 - l a , l a - s o l - r e , l a - s o l - m i , A l a - s o l - d o 1 , + so l -m i -do 1 1 1 do - r e - d o 1 B s o l - d o 1 - f o 1 , (2) LS2 Id l A (fragment ' + B LS4 Id l A (fragment] + B LS6 Id l A (fragment] + B - LS8 Id l "A (fragment] + B LS10 Id l A (fragment] + B LSI2 Id l A (fragment] + B LS16 Id l A (fragment] + B (fragment) LS20 Id l A (fragment] + B (fragment) (3) LS14 Id l A (fragment] + B (fragment) LS15 Id l A (fragment] + B 410 Table 40 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LS18 Id l A (fragment) + B (fragment) LS22 Id l A ' (4) LS3 Id l A (fragment) + B LS5 Id l • • • , A (fragment) + B LS7 Id l A (fragment) + B LS9 Id l A (fragment) + B LS11 Id l A (fragment) + B LS13 Id l A (fragment) + B LSI 7 Id l A (fragment) + B LS21 Id l A (fragment) + B (5) 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a s LSI Id3 A (fragment) + B LS2 Id3 A (fragment) + B 411 Table 40 ( cont inued) Func t i ona l Types o f Roles Formulae Three Note M o t i v i c Germs LS6 Id3 A (fragment) LS8 Id3 A (fragment) 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS4 Id3 A (fragment) LS21 Id3 A " LS23 Id LS23 Id2 A ' " (6). LS23 Id6 A (fragment) B (fragment) Tab le 40 shows tha t the san -hs ien pa r t o f Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u i s based on the m o d i f i c a t i o n s of seven th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f l a -s o l - d o 1 , r e ^ - d o ^ - l a , l a - s o l - r e , l a - s o l - m i , s o l - m i - d o , s o l - d o 1 - d o 1 . , and d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 . These mo t i v i c germs make tip f o r the two melodic formulae which serve a l l s i x f unc t i on s i n the e n t i r e p i e c e . 412 (h) L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh ( L i n Ch 'ung ' s snow walk) (i) Vo i ce General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh i s sung by L i u T ' i e n - y u n i n the s t y l e o f Ch 'en s c h o o l . The male vo i ce encompasses a melodic range o f one octave p lus a p e r f e c t f i f t h . Vocal p roduc t i on i s t ha t of the na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . However, there i s a c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c vocal qua l i t y - change o c cu r r i n g a t LS2 Vd3, LS3 Vd2, LS4-Vd2, and LS5 Vd2: the sudden b r e a k - i n t o f a l s e t t o from c h e s t - v o i c e 7 i s 2 . v«L3 ( e . g . , •). A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t ha t the s y l l a b l e s o f a l i n e - s t a n z a are sung w i t h a d i scont inuous manner, o f t e n one, two, o r ' t h r e e s y l l a b l e s c o n s t i t u t e s a vocal d i v i s i o n ( e . g . , LSI Vd3, LS2 Vdl -and Vd2, LS4 V d l ) . Three r e c u r r e n t melodic motives are found: (2) Cf^-iss vdLa., Lis: vdU) and (3) I n t e r v a l Count, The t o t a l s i x t y - f i v e melodic i n t e r v a l s i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 41 ) : 413 T A B L E 4T I n t e r v a l Count i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh I n te r va l Frequency (%) P i t c h e s M2+ 16.9 do- re so l - l a M24- 26.8 mi - re so l -f a l a - s o l t i -j -1 a-j m3+ 13.8 m i - s o l l a l -do t i i - r e m3+ 8.7 do- l a l so l -mi M3+ . 4.6 do- mi • M34- 6.2 m i - do p4+ 3.1 l a l - r e p4+ 3.1 l a - mi'i p5+ 3.1 m i - l a l so l -do m6+ 1.5 mi -do •m6+ 4.6 do- mi-j m74- 4.6 r e - mi'i 8th f 3.0 r e - r e l m i - mi-j P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s , P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven , re-j to r t speech-tones are as the f o l l o w i n g : mi-j to so l f o r ~j f o r \ ' , mi -j to so l f o r \| , mi-j to 1 a-j f o r \| , l a ^ f o r \\ - i 5~ sol-j to mi f o r | , and la-j to re f o r ^ . 414 TABLE 42 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Lin.Ch'ung t'a-hsueh Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences do 7 , _ 44- so l 4 re 3 mi-. 1 13 mi •, 4 A r e l 3 re • 2 do, ' r e , mi 3 \ l a 1 2 mi-. , so l - j , t i - j , so l 1 \ r mi-. 1 i J4(X l a l 3 l a ] 3 1 re , mi 2 sol 1 1 1 Z l a ] , do, re 1 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s are con s t r uc ted below (F i gu re 12): 415 so l mi J, re do l a l so l mi • re . 4-f V 43- -4-a-si F igure 12 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Lin Ch'ung t'a-hsueh F igure 12 shows t h a t L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh has an ope ra t i ng d e n s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r speech-tones ~\*^ J ' 3 , \ j 3 ' ' N51 -\S , 19 , , , and ~ 1 A from la-j to r e . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f the seven speech-tones do not c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s : upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tones "1 and NJ are high comparing to t h e i r r e l a t i v e speech-tone l e v e l s ; and upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f speech-tones \ j - and \ J ^ ' Z a r e l o w i n r e spec t to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones c o r r e l a t e somewhat more c l o s e l y to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s : lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f re-j f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and mi-j f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2, Melod ic Contour Movements. F i f t y - s e v e n po i n t seven percent o f the vocal melodic phrases w i t h i n the twenty - f ou r vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melodic contour movementsi 26.9% have the upward 416 melodic contour movement, and 15.4% have the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement. The upward melodic contour movement has the v a r i a n t s o f ^ , , and ; and the downward melodic contour movement has the v a r i a n t s o f , ^ " " " ^ , , and • The h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement has no v a r i a n t s . S ca le M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh c o n s i s t s o f l a so l f a mi re do t i ^ l a ^ . The p iece i s i n re-mode. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s the s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s o f each l i n e - s t a n z a i n L i n - t s ' a n g t'a-hs'ueh (Table 43'). TABLE 43 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 mi re do SO.l-j 2 mi [rel do la-j mi-| 3 l a so l mi Ire I do t i - | la-| s o ^ l mi-| 4 mi Ire | do la.j s o ^ mi-| r e l 5 l a so l mi ]re| do , la-| s o l ^ 6 mi [ re l do ** s o l . fa-j mi^ 7 mi [re"| do t i ' i )la-|l K l mi-| K t 8 mi Trel do l a ] so l mi Ire,! 417 Textua l Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textua l u n i t s i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh are a l l composed o f c o u p l e t s . Lo-chu cadences c o n s i s t o f a c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on based on the s i n g l e p i t c h re and a b r i e f break before the r e s o l u t i o n on the same p i t c h an octave l ower , re- j . The f o u r lo-chu cadences are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table 4 4 ) . TABLE 44 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e J ("'9 ^ Lit, '3 ) ( i i ) Instruments S p e c i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying i n s t rumenta l ensemble i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hsueh c o n s i s t s o f a p ' i - p ' a , a s an - h s i en , and 418 an erh -hu. The p ' i - p ' a uses on p i t che s do 1 and m i 1 , JE^ on p i t che s s o l , l a , t i , d o 1 , and r e 1 , and $ on m i , s o l , l a , and d o 1 . The san-hs ien uses few s p e c i a l techniques except % a t p laces where support o f the long he l d notes i n the vo i ce p a r t i s needed, ( e . g . , on p i t c h e s do and re a t LSI I d3 ) . No s p e c i a l techniques are used i n the erh-hu p a r t . V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . The v e r t i c a l i n t e r -v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between in s t rumenta l and vo i ce pa r t s i s the same as p r e v i o u s l y ana lyzed p i e c e s . The p ' i - p ' a c a r r i e s the main i n s t rumenta l melod ic l i n e w h i l e the san -hs ien and erh-hu pa r t s are secondary i n melod ic prominence. Inst rumenta l Me lod ic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the in s t rumenta l melod ic formulae in L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh are shown as the f o l l o w i n g (Table 45): TABLE 45 Inst rumenta l Me lod ic Formulae i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs 0 ) LSI I d l < A san -hs ien l a - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - d o , re -mi -do + p ' i - p ' a erh-hu l a - s o l - m i , m i - s o l - d o , s o l -m i - do m i - re -do B san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu s o l - j - r e - d o , do-re-do so l - j -m i -do , m i - re -do . s o l - m i - d o , m i - re -do 419 Table 45 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (2) (3) (4) (5) LS2 I d l s an -h s ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS4 I d l C LS6 I d l C s o l - m i - r e , l a - s o l - l a s o l - m i - r e , l a - s o l - l a l a - m i - r e , l a - s o l - l a LS3 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu LS5 Id l D + B 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS2 Id3 san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a s o l - m i - d o 1 , s o l -m i -do • do -m i - re , s o l - m i - d o 1 , s o l -m i - do do -m i - r e , m i - s o l - d o 1 , s o l -m i -do 1 + B m i - s o l - l a , m i - re -do s o l - r e - m i , re-mi-do [ m i - s o l - l a , mi - re -do erh-hu LS4 Id3 E ? LS8 Id3 E (2+ 2 ) - 3 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS2 Id5 420 Table 45 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f - Formulae Three Note M o t i v i c Germs F san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a m i - r e - d o , 1 a, - s o l , -?1 a n 1 1 mi - r e - do , l a - s o l - l a erh-hu m i - r e - d o , 1 a-j-sol -j-1 a-j LS4 Id5 F LS8 Id5 F 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS3 Id3 E LS5 Id3 E LS6 Id3 E 3-4 l i n e - s t a n z a s G san -hs ien p ' i - p ' a erh-hu • l a - | - t i - | - r e , so l -j-1 a - j - t i -j l a - t i - r e 1 , s o l - l a - t i k l a - t i - r e , s o l - l a - t i (6) — The above a n a l y s i s shows t h a t the i n s t rumenta l pa r t s i n L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh are based on s i x t e e n th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs o f do -m i -r e , do - re -do , r e -m i - do , m i - r e - d o , m i - s o l - l a , m i - s o l - d o , s o l - m i - d o , s o l - m i - r e , s o l r r e - d o , s o l - r e - m i , s o l - l a - t i , l a - j - t i - j - r e , l a - s o l - l a * 421 l a - m i - r e , l a - m i - s o l , and l a - s o l - m i . These s i x t e e n m o t i v i c germs make up the seven melod ic formulae f o r the whole i n s t r umenta l p a r t s . ( i ) M i - s h i h hsiang-hui (Meeting i n a s e c r e t room) ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M i - s h i h hsiang-hui i s sung by Yen H s l i e h - t ' i n g , the i naugura to r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f Yen s c h o o l , the male v o i c e encompasses a melodic range o f an o c t a ve . Vocal p roduct ion i s by c h e s t - v o i c e . Near ly a l l vocal d i v i s i o n s begin on p i t che s do, m i , and s o l . Repeated notes on do i n vocal d i v i s i o n s a re f requent . S i m i l a r to K'u-t'a, vocal d i v i s i o n s show a narrow melod ic range w i t h i n a p e r f e c t f i f t h ( i . e . , sol-j to do o r so l -j to r e ) . L i k e K'u-t'a, the vo i ce p a r t i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui i s based on on ly a few t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs: do-mi^ -do, do-sol-|-do, do- la - j -do, and m i - r e - d o . I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 166 melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 4 6 ) : TABLE 46 I n t e r v a l Count i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui I n t e r v a l P i t c h e s m2+ M2+ M24-d o - t i 1 re-mi s o l ^ - l a - j l a - j - t i - j re-do m i - re t i - j - l a - j 422 Table 46 (cont inued) I n t e r va l P i t che s m3.f m3i M3+ M34-p4f p4+ p5+ p 5 l m6+ m6+ m7-t-m7+ mi - j - so l -j 1 a-j-do d o - l a . so l - j -mi^ mi-|-la-| sol-j -do r e - m i n s o l - l a 1 so l -mi l a ^ r e re - la -| m i - t i la-j -mi 1 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-q.4- I ' 3 mi -j to re f o r A tones are as f o l l o w s : so l -j to mi f o r "j to mi f o r ^J5' , mi-j to so l f o r N j ^ 2 - , s o l ^ to mi f o r to mi f o r ~j ^  , and mi^ to re f o r ~ \ z . mi 1 mi-TABLE 47 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences do 36 1 so l -j 9 re 8 Table 47 (cont inued) 423 Speech-Tone P i t ch Number o f Occurrences A id 31 M 4 l l l a , mi so l - j , do mi-j re l a p t i - , so l - j , do l a , '1 mi mi - j , re do mi so l mi-j, so l - , , l a - , , t i - , , re do , a l s o l - j , mi s o l 1 l a p do mi-1 mi mi 1 do so l - j , re 5 4 18 6 5 1 11 4 2 1 5 3 2 1 7 2 8 6 3 2 4 3 1 424 The above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the seven speech-tones show the f o l l o w i n g v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on s ( F i gu re 1 3 ) : so l mi re so l . mi-4f n HI F igure 13 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui The above f i g u r e shows t ha t M i - s h i h hsiang-hui has an ope ra t i n g d e n s i t y between sol-j to r e . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s f o r the seven speech-tones c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s : so l f o r speech-tone \|* i 3 mi f o r " j * * , \ J * ' 2 » » a n ( * \| 3 > a n d re f o r The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s f o r the d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones a l s o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s : mi-| f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and mi -j to s o l ^ f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2. and „ X 1 425 Melod ic Contour Movements. F i f t y percent o f the voca l melod ic phrases w i t h i n the twenty -n ine voca l d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement, 32.5% have the h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement, and 17.5% have the upward melodic contour movement. The upward melodic contour movement has the v a r i a n t s o f \ ^ , ^\*# » a n d ^ * S - ^ " • The downward melod ic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : " " " " ^ , , , ^ / ^ * » , and Y~X . The h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour has i t s v a r i a n t s o f — * • , — v ^ - ^ , and The lo-chu cadences have a downward melod ic contour movement f o r t h e i r c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on s and the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement f o r t h e i r c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n s . Sca le M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e ma te r i a l i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui c o n s i s t s o f so l mi re do t i - j la-j so l -j - I t i s i n do-mode. The s ca l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t che s i n each l i n e - s t a n z a i s shown as f o l l o w s . ( T a b l e 4 8 ) : TABLE 48 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t che s i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui LS Sca le Ma te r i a l 1 2 3 4 do so l -so l mi re do t i - j |la-| I sol-| mi re re do doj t i - j la-j [sol-j 426 Table 48 (cont inued) LS Sca le Ma te r i a l do l a l do l a l do l a l do t i - 1 a l do do . t 1 l l a l do l a l do do t j l l a l do l a l do l a l do ^1 l a ] do 1 a l Ido do 1 : 11 l a 1 do 1 a l do l a 1 do ^1 l a ] 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 !9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 re mi re mi mi [re] mi re do mi re |do 1 do l a so l s o l . s o l . s o l . so l s o l -s o l so l s o l . so l [sol-so l s o l . so l -so l so l l a , so l mi mi. mi mi • mi • mi • mi mi. mi mi. mi. 427 Textua l Un i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textual u n i t s i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui are composed o f coup le t s (LS 1-2, 3-4, 8-9, 10-11, 22-23) and t r i p l e t s (LS 5-7, 12-14, 15-17, 18-20, 24-26). L i ne - s t anza 21 i s p e c u l i a r i n t ha t i t i s a lo-chu w i thou t a preceding c h ' i - c h u . Near l y a l l lo-chu c aden t i a l p r epa ra t i on s have t h e i r bases i n the t h r e e -note m o t i v i c germ of la^-do^so l - j which r e s o l ve on p i t c h s o l - j . L i n e -s tanza 21 i s d i s t i n c t from other s i n t h a t i t s c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on i s based on the descending p i t c he s o f re and do and i t s c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n i s on p i t c h do. The e leven lo-chu cadences are shown below (Table 4 9 ) : TABLE 49 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui Penu l t imate and Las t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e ,JLSA cms?* :> tsai] 4 4-( v\t>i-o— o — o - o > & 4 4 > vat) t\»f fr") * 9 9 ^ (bifj ft 428 Table 49 (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e IS* ( 1 - 1 2: (ma? i * - r 7 = -— -H i -6'. -»• 429 ( i i ) Instruments S pec i a l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying instrument i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui i s the s an -h s i en , p layed by Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g h imse l f . Whi le there i s no s p e c i a l san-hs ien techn ique used i n t h i s p i e c e , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f the san-hs ien pa r t i s the use of accen t s , which i s s i m i l a r to those o f Fang-ch'ing hsieh chia-hsin. Example 1.0. I S 3 Rhythmic Syncopat ion 0 f the San-hs ien Pa r t i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . S i nce there i s l i t t l e san -hs ien p l a y i n g under the v o i c e s , the t e x t u r e i s b a s i c a l l y monophonic. Inst rumenta l Melodic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the san -hs ien melod ic formulae \x\ chih-chen miao-jung are ana lyzed i n Table 50. TABLE 50 Inst rumenta l Melod ic Formulae i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui Func t i ona l Roles Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) LSI Id l s o l - m i - r e , r e - m i - s o l , do^ - r e^ -do 1 s o l i - s o l - d o 1 , d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , r e 1 - s o l - d o 1 430 Table 50 (cont inued) Funct iona l Types o f Roles Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (2) LS2 Id l A LS4 Id l A + B LS7 Id l A (fragment) + B LS9 Id l A (fragment) L S l l I d l A (fragment) LS14 Id l A (fragment) LSI7 I d l A (fragment) LS26 Id l A (fragment) (3) LS6 Id l A (fragment) LS16 Id l A (fragment) LS25 I d l A (fragment) + B (4) LS3 I d l c m i - s o l - d o , s o l - r e - m i + A + B LS5 Id l C + A + B. Table 50 (cont inued) Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (5) (6) LS8 Id l C + A + B LS10 Id l C + l a - s o l - m i , m i - s o l - l a + B + C LS12 Id l C + D + B + C LS15 Id l C + D + A + B LS18 Id l C + D + A + B LS21 Id l A + B LS22 I d l A + B LS24 Id l A + B 4-3 1 i ne - s t anza LS21 Id2 r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - r e , s o l - d o - r e LS26 Id3 m i - s o l - d o , re-do-mi There are e leven th ree -note m o t i v i c germs i n M i - s h i h hsiang-hui: d o ^ - r e ^ - d o 1 , r e - m i - s o l , r e ^ - s o l - d o 1 , r e - d o - m i , m i - s o l - l a , m i - s o l - r e , 432 m i - s o l - d o , s o l - m i ^ r e , s o l - j - s o l - d o 1 , s o l - d o - r e , and l a - s o l - m i . These e leven m o t i v i c germs are the bases o f the s i x formulae used i n Mi-shih hsiang-hui. ( j ) Shou-t'ang (The h a l l o f l o n g e v i t y ) and (k) Tu s h i h - n i a n g (Courtesan Tu Sh ih-n iang) . ( i ) Vo i ce 'j General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Shou-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g are both sung i n the s t y l e o f Chiang s choo l , the former performed by Chu Hui-chen and the l a t t e r , by Chiang Yu'eh-ch'Uan. Chiang Yueh-ch ' l ian i s the i naugura to r o f the Chiang school o f t 'an-tz 'u s i n g i n g and Chu Hui-chen i s one o f Ch i ang ' s p u p i l s . The male vocal range o f Chiang i s an octave plus a p e r f e c t f o u r t h and the female vocal range o f Chu i s an octave plus a minor t h i r d . Both s ingers use the na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . P i t c h e s do, m i , and s o l , o f t e n sung i n broken t r a i d i c pa t te rn , a re prominent i n both p i e c e s . -I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l one-hundred and twenty melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n Shou-t'ang and fou r hundred and n i n e t y - f i v e melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 51 a and b ) : TABLE 51a • I n t e r v a l Count i n Shou-t'ang I n t e r va l Frequency (%) P i t c h e s m2\ 0.3 M2+ 17.3 M24- 39.5 m3+ 12.8 m3+ 18.5 M3+ 4.7 M3+ 2.3 p4+ 2.3 p4+ 1.4 p5+ 0.1 p54- 0.7 m6+ 0.1 f a-j -mi -j f a - j - s o l i re-mi re -do m i - r e m i - so l f a - s o l m i - j - s o l i do-la-, r e - t i do-mi mi-do r e - s o l do - so l do - so l mi -1 a mi 1 1 a-j - s o l ^ l a^ -do sol-|-mi'i l a j - t i - j t i -j-1 so l -mi 1 s o l - r e 1 do I n t e r va l TABLE 51 b I n t e r v a l Count i n S h i h - n i a n g Pi tches m2+ m2+ M2+ M24-m3+ m3+ M3+ M3+ p4f p4+ f a-| -mi i fa-mi f a - s o l so l r l a i l a - , - s o l , t i - l a *1 -do do-mi mi-do r e - s o l do - so l -mi. sol-j-do 1 SOl|-tl ' -j s o l -m i Table 5 ib (cont inued) 434 I n t e r v a l Frequency (%) P i t c h e s p5+ p5+ m6+ m6+ 8th 0.4 do- so l la-|-mi 1.3 mi-la-| 2.0 mi-j-do 1.2 do-mi-j 0.2 mi -mi -j P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-tones i n Shou-t'ang are as f o l l o w s : do to so l f o r | , fa-j to so l f o r /j , sol-j to mi f o r \J , do to so l f o r ^ , so l -j to so l f o r \ \ , do to s o l f o r ~] , and mi-] to re f o r ^ i . P i t c h - d i s t r i --J4-4 11 3 but ions i n Tu-Shih-niang a re : do to so l f o r \ , mi-j to f a f o r ^ , mi.| to so l f o r NJ 3 , do to so l f o r , s o l ^ to mi f o r \J^'X > so l -j to so l f o r J , and so l -j to mi f o r -j z. . TABLE 52a P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Shou-t'ang Speech-Tone Pi t ch Number o f Occurrences 4 4 mi 12 so l 6 re 5 do 4 435 Table 52a (cont inued) Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences 13 do 7 / so l 5 f a 3 re 2 fa-|, so l -j 1 do 6 • - • 31 \ l a ^ , mi 2 so l - j , re 1 : . mi 3 SI • ' • \ so l 2 do 1 so l 4 I do 2 so l mi 1 1 5" so l 3 • . i do 2 1 X m i i , re 1 TABLE 52b P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences mi 34 do 25 so l 3 r e , f a 2 436 Table 52b (cont inued) 437 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on s o f the above t ab l e s are drawn below (F i gu re 14) : so l mi- +-do * sol.j + fa mi 1 l Hi 5 1 ¥1 so l f a -mi do s o l l f -mi-j + /3 31 -4/1 Shou-t'ang Tu Shih-niang F igure 14 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Shou-t'ang and Tu Shih-niang The o p e r a t i n g den s i t y f o r Shou-t'ang i s between do and r e , f o r Tu S h i h - n i a n g i s between do and m i . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f the speech-tones i n Shou-t'ang^ g e n e r a l l y c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s : " j ^ , ~\S » V*' a n d ll^' 2 a 1 1 n a v e s o 1 a s t n e i r upper p i t c h - l i m i t , ^ and J^*' have so l and mi as t h e i r upper p i t c h -l i m i t s , and 1 has the lowest upper p i t c h - l i m i t a t r e . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g do not show d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n s to t h e i r 438 speech-tone l e v e l s . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones o f o /] a n d . Vf i n Shou-t'ang c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-tone l e v e l s ( i . e . , fa-j f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and so l^ f o r speech-tone i i 3 l e v e l 2 ) . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f the d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones /] , I 3 ' ,14-12 N and \\ in Tu S h i h - n i a n g c o r r e l a t e to t h e i r speech-rtone l e v e l s ( i . e . , mi^ f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and s o l ^ f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2) \\$* \\Sl L i ke the 1 speech-tone i n Shou-t'ang, the ) speech-tone i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g a l s o has a r e l a t i v e l y h igh lower p i t c h - l i m i t , on do. Me lod ic Contour Movements. N inety-one p o i n t th ree percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases w i t h i n the twenty-seven vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement, 4.3% have the upward melod ic contour movement, and 4.4% have the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement. The seventy-seven vocal d i v i s i o n s i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g c on t a i n 77.9% vocal melodic phrases i n the downward melodic contour movement, 13% w i t h the upward melodic contour movement, ;and 9.1%-with the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement. In Shou-t'ang, no v a r i a n t s are found i n the upward and h o r i z o n t a l me lod i c contour movements; the downward melod ic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : ^Njj , / \ , , . V , / " ^ » ^ - ^ ^ , and f~\ . In Tu S h i h - n i a n g , the upward melod ic contour movement has the v a r i a n t s o f • ^  , \jf , \*s\sf , and ^ j f . The downward melodic contour movement has these v a r i a n t s : , /""V , . ' ' Z^"—*} » a n c l • N o v a r i a n t s are found i n the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement. The lo-chu cadences o f both p iece s have the downward melodic contour movement f o r t h e i r 439 c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on s and the h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement f o r t h e i r c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n s . S ca l e M a t e r i a l and Mode. Both Shou-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g have the octave s c a l e mate r i a l of so l f a mi re do t i - j la-j sol-]. Both p iece s are i n do-mode. The s c a l e m a t e r i a l and g r a v i t a t i o n a l p i t c he s f o r each l i n e - s t a n z a o f Shou-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g are t abu l a t ed below (Table 53 a and b ) : TABLE 53a Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Shou-t'ang LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 so l mi re do so l mi re [do] so l mi re [Ho Bb" so l mi re |db mi re mi mi re do so l mi re do so l mi re do mi re do l a , l a , la-j |sol -j la-j Isol-jl fa-j mi.| mi. 1 a-j [sol -j do t i - j 1 a-j Isol -j so l mi 1 a-j sol-j fa-| m i 1 fa-j |mi-j 440 TABLE 53b Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 1 so l mi re M 1 a l 2 so l mi re @o| l a l s o l . 3 s o l mi re do l a . s o l . m i . 4 so l mi re do la-, s o l , f a , | 5 so l mi re do l a l s o l . 1 1 mi, 6 s o l f a mi re do l a l s o l , m i . 7 mi re |db~ 1 a l s o l , mi-, re-, 8 so l mi re do l a l so l , m i . 9 mi re do 1 a l s o l . 1 f a l mi , \ 10 so l mi re do l a l s o l . I 11 mi re |yp_l la-, so l , mi -, 12 mi re do 13 mi re do l a l s o l . 14 s o l mi re do la-, s o l , 15 mi re do l a l s o l , 16 s o l mi re do la-. s o l . mi-, re-, 17 so l f a mi re [do] l a . s o l . mi-, 18 mi re do s o l . mi , 19 do so l , mi -! 20 mi re do i i 21 mi re do l a , s o l . 1 f a l mi,] 22 mi re Idol l a 1 s o l . 441 Table 53b (cont inued) LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 23 mi re [do] 24 mi re @^  t i 1 l a , s o l ^ m i . 25 so l mi re Rio-26 mi do t 1 l l a , Iso^l 27 mi re do " l l a , so l -j m i . 28 do s o l . 29 mi re [do~| 30 mi re l a , sol-j mi i 31 so l mi re [do 1 : 11 l a , 1501,1 l m i l l 32 so l mi re [do_ l a , l S O l l l mi-j 33 mi re do l a , l S O l l l M i l 34 mi re do l a , s o l . m i . Textua l U n i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . A l l t e x t u a l un i t s i n Shou-t'ang are composed o f coup le t s . Textua l u n i t s i n Shih-niang are made up w i t h coup le t s (LS 1-2, 3-4, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-15, 23-24, 25-26) , t r i p l e t s (LS 5-7, 16-18, 19-21, 32-34) , and q u i n t u p l e t (LS 27-31). Near ly a l l ch'i-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s end w i t h a descending me lod ic p a t t e r n from do to la-, o r sol-, to mi^ w i t h a portamento from the f i r s t p i t c h to the second. Lo-chu cadences i n Shou-t'an^.and Tu Shih-niang have t h e i r c aden t i a l p r epa r a t i on s based on the descending p i t c h - o r d e r o f r e -do - l a - , - s o l 442 and r e s o l u t i o n s on p i t c h do o r a th ree -note pa t t e rn o f f a , - s o l , - m i , . In both p i e c e s , the l a s t lo-chu s y l l a b l e s w i t h a | speech-tone are re so l ved on p i t c h do and those o f / ) ' ^ speech-tone are r e so l ved w i t h the th ree -no te p a t t e r n o f f a , - s o l , - m i , . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t s the lo-chu cadences o f Shou-t'ang (Table 54a) and Tu S h i h - n i a n g (Table 54 b ) : TABLE 54a Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Shou-t'ang .-Penu l t imate and L a s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence' S t r u c t u r e A. # i± — _ 1 — — •ft- -c . V 1 K«*E E fiVoT _ . ! f r-nui" 7 H T ~ u V ~ * - ; — ; . : —y : , 1 443 TABLE 54b Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Tu Shih-niang Penul t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e 444 Table 54b (cont inued) Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s Cadence S t r u c t u r e rt Li U zzzzS? •3 - •> .1 , t i c l ^ z ^ p z z ^ p ^ f C*;3 3 A ( i i ) Instruments Spec ia l Instrumental Techniques. The accompanying ensemble i n Shou-t'ang c o n s i s t s o f a p ' t - p ' a , a s an -h s i en , and an e rh -hu , w h i l e t ha t o f Tu Shih-niang c o n s i s t s o f a p ' i - p ' a and a san -h s i en . The p ' i -p ' a i n Shou-t'ang employs th ree s p e c i a l techn iques : (1) on p i t che s r e , m i , and f a ; (2) on p i t che s m i , f a , and s o l ; and (3) f£ on p i t che s re and m i . The p ' i - p ' a i n Tu S h i h - n i a n g employs f i v e s p e c i a l techn iques : (1) v** on p i t che s f a , so l , and re ; (2) on p i t c h s o l 1 ; (3) | ^ on p i t c h t i , m i 1 , s o l 1 , and l a 1 ; (4) J j ^ . on p i t che s m i 1 and l a 1 ; and (5) on p i t c h m i 1 . No 445 s pec i a l techniques are used i n the san-hs ien par t s f o r both p i e c e s . The erh-hu i n Shou-t'ang embe l l i s he s p i t c he s s o l , l a , and do^ by the j*r j*j = and j $' use o f g race -no te s , ^= V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between P a r t s . V e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between in s t rumenta l pa r t s and vo i ce p a r t i n Shou-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g show s i m i l a r i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s to p r e v i o u s l y ana lyzed p ieces ( i . e . , i n t e r v a l s o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , and e i g h t h ) . Of ' p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the th ree i n s t rumenta l t e x t u a l l a y e r s found i n Shou-t'ang: (1) the main i n s t rumenta l melodic l i n e o f the p ' i - p ' a , (2) the embel l i shment o f the p ' i - p ' a melod ic l i n e on the e rh -hu ; and (3) the melodic o u t l i n e o f the p ' i - p ' a p a r t on the s an -h s i en . Example 11 Inst rumental Heterophony i n Shou-t'ang p ' i - p ' a erh-hu san-hs ien (a) a n t i c i p a t i o n i n the e rh -hu , o f p ' i - p ' a ' s l a - s o l ; (b) de lay i n the e r h - hu , o f p ' i - p ' a ' s m i - r e . -r-ft C<0 - * }—0 V5 7 J J 0 >\ —; ^ f - *r f — h * — ^ • / L~ **~ ±=£ — K -XI-r % y v v-y K V V **7 f*. . - r l : j . _ n . — # — 446 Instrumental Melodic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the i n s t rumenta l melod ic formulae i n Shou-t'ang and Tu S h i h - n i a n g are ana lyzed i n Table 55 on the f o l l o w i n g pages. Table 55 shows tha t the i n s t rumenta l pa r t s o f shou-t'ang are based on t h i r t e e n th ree -note m o t i v i c germs o f d o - s o l - m i , d o - m i - r e , d o - m i - s o l , d o - r e - s o l , r e - m i - s o l , r e - f a - m i , m i - s o l - d o , m i - r e - s o l , m i ^ - r e ^ - d o \ s o l -mi -do, s o l - f a - m i , s o l - r e - m i , and l a - r e - m i ; and those o f Tu S h i h - n i a n g have seventeen th ree -no te mot i v i c germs: d o ^ - m i - l a , d o - s o l - m i , d o - s o l - l a , -d o - r e - s o l , d o -m i - r e , d o - m i - s o l , do^ - re^ -do^ , r e - s o l - r e , r e - m i - s o l , r e ^ - t i -do^, m i ^ - r e ^ - d o \ m i - s o l - r e , m i - s o l - d o , f a ^ - m i ^ - r e \ s o l - m i - r e , s o l - r e - m i , and l a - s o l - m i . These m o t i v i c germs p rov ide the ba s i c s k e l e t a l ma te r i a l f o r the f i v e in s t rumenta l formulae i n Shou-t'ang and Tu Shih-niang. (1) Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh ( Y i n g - y i n g prays to the Moon) ( i ) Vo ice General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh i s sung by Yang J e n - l i e n , the i naugura to r o f the s i n g i n g s t y l e o f Hs iao-yang s choo l . The male v o i c e encompasses an o v e r a l l range o f two o c t a ve s , which i n -c ludes the one octave range o f f a l s e t t o passages (LS 1-2, 9-10, 14-15) and the one octave p lus a minor t h i r d o f the ches t - tone passages. The f a l s e t t o passages are m e l o d i c a l l y more a c t i v e than the narrow ranged, a lmost h o r i z o n t a l melodic movement o f the che s t - t one passages. The r e c u r r e n t vocal melod ic mate r i a l o f Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh show a c l e a r r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n : a l l f a l s e t t o passages repeat the melod ic mate r i a l TABLE 55 Instrumental Melodic Formulae i n Shou-t'ang arid Tu Shih-niang Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1 ) (2) . A LSI Id l p ' i - p ' a d o - s o l - m i , m i - so l -do erh-hu • m i - r e - s o l , m i^ - re^ -do 1 san-hs ien do -m i - re , so l -m i -do LS2 Id l A LS4 Id l A (fragment) LS6 I d l A (fragment) LS8 Id l A (fragment) LS10 Id l A (fragment) LSI I d l f 1 1 san-hs ien d o - s o l - m i , m i - s o l - d o , do - r e -do p ' i - p ' a < f a 1 - m i 1 - r e 1 , m i 1 - s o l 1 - d o 1 , r e ^ t i - d o 1 LS2 Id l A LS4 Id l A , LS6 Id l A LS9 Id l A (fragment) LSI 1 Id l • A (fragment) L S I 3 Id l A (fragment) LS I5 Id l A (fragment) --J Table 55 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (-3) (4) LS3 Id l p ' i - p ' a erh-hu san-hs ien LS5 Id l B + A LS7 Id l p ' i - p ' a erh-hu san-hs ien do -mi - re , mi -do- re + A l a - r e - m i , r e - m i - s o l d o - m i - s o l , r e -m i - s o l mi - re-do mi—re—do' + B mi- re-do LS24 Id l A LS6 Id l A LS7 Id l A LS3 Id l san-hs ien p ' i - p ' a LS5 Id l B + A LS8 Id l B + A do -m i - re , l a - s o l - m i d o - m i - s o l , r e - m i - s o l + A oo Table 55 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Types o f Types o f Roles Formulae Three-Note Mo t i v i c Germs Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LS9 Id l LS10 Id l B B (fragment) • LS12 Id l B (fragment) LSI4 Id l B (fragment) LS16 I d l B LSI9 I d l B + B LS22- Id l B LS25 Id l B LS27 I d l B LS32 Id l B (5) 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a s 4-3 l i n e - s t a n z a s . ^ LSI Id3 LSI Id3 A A Table 55 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Rol es Types o f Formulae Three-Note Mo t i v i c Germs Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LS6 Id3 A (fragment) LSI7 Id3 A - . D 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS2 Id3 p ' i - p ' a do -mi - re , s o l - f a - m i erh-hu • d o - r e - s o l , s o l - r e -m i san-hs ien { d o - r e - s o l , s o l - r e -m i C D . 2-5 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS32 Id3 san-hs ien f d o - s o l - l a , d o - r e - s o l , s o l - r e - m i p ' i - p ' a I d o - s o l - m i , r e - m i - s o l , s o l - r e - m i 5-5 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS14 Id3 san -hs ien f s o l - m i - r e p ' i - p ' a 1 d o^ -m i - l a (6) E i' • LS10 Id4 p ' i - p ' a j m i - r e - do , re - f a -m i erh-hu I m i - r e - do , re - f a -m i i . E LS34 Id3 san-hs ien "j m i - s o l - r e p ' i - p ' a 1 m i ^ - r e ^ - d o \ r e - s o l - r e • -p> O 451 o f m i 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 - l a - s o l and m i - s o l - l a - d o ^ - l a - s o l ; and a l l ches t - tone passages repeat the m o t i v i c pa t te rn s o f do-do-do and d o - s o l , - d o - r e -d o - l a i - s o l , . I n t e r v a l Count. The t o t a l 100 melod ic i n t e r v a l s i n Ying-ying pai-yueh have the f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c y - d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 56 ) : TABLE 56 I n t e r v a l Count i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh I n t e r v a l P i t c h M2+ M24-m3+ m3+ M3> p4f p4+ p5+ m6+ do- re re-mi f a - s o l r e 1 - d o 1 re-do m i 1 - r e 1 m i - re l a - s o l m i - s o l m i i - s o l - j la-j-do l a -do d o 1 - l a d o - l a , s o l , - m i , 1 1 1 1 1 do - m i 1 sol - j -do 1 do- so l do - so l m i -do 1 1 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s . ' P i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the seven speech-tones i n Ying-ying pai-hueh a r e : sol-, to s o l f o r | , mi-j to so l f o r ' * , sol-j to so l f o r ^ 3 ' and , do to so l f o r \ J ^ X an ~j ^ , sol-j to re f o r ' -| z . ^ 452 TABLE 57 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Seven Speech-Tones i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh Speech-Tone P i t c h Number o f Occurrences i 3 3 I 1 4'^  i2-l do mi so l f a so l re do so l re nri-,, so l - , , mi do so l - , , mi '1 so l so l so l do 1 do so l m i , f a do . so l so l - j , do re 14 6 4 3 2 1 8 7 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 453 The v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on o f the above p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s (F i gu re 15 ) : s o l + re do s o l mi-1 t F igure 15 S c a l a r Representat ion o f P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Speech-Tones i n Ying-ying pai-yueh The above f i g u r e shows t ha t Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh has an ope ra t i ng d e n s i t y o f p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s from do to r e . . The upper p i t c h - l i m i t s o f the seven speech-tones show the general tendency o f having the same 31 \ $1 . ' V » and i ' i . . M I v\ ±-1 ( i . e . , p i t c h so l f o r speech-tone l e v e l s 3 to 5) and a lower upper p i t c h -l i m i t f o r speech-tone -] z , on p i t c h r e . The lower p i t c h - l i m i t s o f d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones have p i t c he s mi.| to s o l -j f o r speech-tone l e v e l 1 and s o l , to do f o r speech-tone l e v e l 2. 454 Me lod ic Contour Movements. F i f t y - o n e p o i n t n ine percent o f the vocal melod ic phrases i n the twenty -n ine vocal d i v i s i o n s have the downward melod ic contour movement, 40.7% have the h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour movement, and 7.4% have the upward melodic contour movement. No v a r i a n t s are found i n the upward melod ic contour movement. The downward melod ic contour movement has f ou r V a r i a n t s : " * V ^ , / / ^ \ » , and / ' " ^ . The h o r i z o n t a l melod ic contour movement a l s o has no v a r i a n t s . The lo-chu cadences have the downward melodic contour movement f o r t h e i r c aden t i a l p repa ra t i on s and the h o r i z o n t a l contour movement f o r t h e i r c aden t i a l r e s o l u t i o n s . S ca l e M a t e r i a l and Mode. The octave s c a l e m a t e r i a l i n Ying-21 y i n g [ p a i - y u e h c o n s i s t s o f mi re do l a , s o l , fa-,, m i , . The p iece i s i n do-mode.. . TABLE' 58 Sca le M a t e r i a l and G r a v i t a t i o n a l P i t c h e s i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh LS S ca l e M a t e r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 . . J rrr4 mi re do I la Isol 1 mi do^ l a Isol| fa mi do re do l a , Isol,I • t mi re [do] [do] Ta, [sbT mi-Table 58 (cont inued) 455 LS Sca le M a t e r i a l 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 so l s o l s o l mi re [do | l a , |so1, m i 1 r e 1 Ido l^ l a sol do l a Isoll fa do mi re do l a , Isol, |sol m i 1 r e 1 Ido^j l a - so l 1 do l a [soil fa sol fa mi re Idol mi re do 1 a, ] s o l , do l a 1 H5; s o l f a mi re |do1 s o l s o l . mi re do l a , [sol-. mi mi mi mi [mi 1 mi. Textua l U n i t S t r u c t u r e and Cadence S t r u c t u r e . Textua l u n i t s i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh are composed o f quadrup let s (LS 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 14-17, 18-21). LSI3 i s a three s y l l a b l e word-padding l i n e - s t a n z a . Lo-chu l i n e - s t a n z a s have t h e i r c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on s based on the descending t h r ee -no te m o t i v i c germ o f r e - d o - l a , which r e so l ve s on p i t c h s o l , . The f i v e lo-chu cadences are t abu l a ted below (Table 59 ) . 456 TABLE 59 Cadence S t r u c t u r e i n Ying-ying -pai-yueh Penu l t imate and La s t S y l l a b l e s 'J22-. / ^ C ? -V-Cadence S t r u c t u r e L5t f i l l (<i?>*<>5 oj) -5_Z<2 1 ./ * £r fime - c 5 f i Z . _A_L^JLL : — — -( i i ) Instrument •- . Spec i a l Instrumental Techniques. Ying-ying pai-yueh has on l y one accompanying i n s t rument , the s an - h s i en , p layed by Y a n g , J e n - l i e n h imse l f . The san -hs ien uses & on p i t c he s s o l , l a , and re^ . Syncopated accents are used i n san-hs ien passages, p r o v i d i n g rhythmic v a r i e t y (Example 12 ). 457 Example 12. San-hs ien Syncopat ion i n Ying-ying pai-yueh LSI3 V e r t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a r t s . There i s l i t t l e o r no san-hs ien p l a y i n g under v o i c e . Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh t h e r e f o r e has a mono-phonic t e x t u r e . Instrumental Melod ic Formulae. The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f the i n s t rumenta l passages i n Y i n g - y i n g pai-yueh are as f o l l o w s ( T a b l e 60 ) ' TABLE 60 V Instrumental Me lod ic Formulae i n Ying-ying pai-yueh Funct iona l Roles Types o f Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (1) A LSI I d l s o l - m i - d o , d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 s o l - r e ^ d o 1 , d o ^ r e ^ d o 1 (2) . . . LS4 Id l -A (fragment) LS8 Id l A (fragment) L S l l I d l A (fragment) 458 Table 60 (cont inued) Funct iona l Types o f Roles Formulae Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs LSI7 i d i ; A ( fragment) (3) LS3 I d l A (fragment) LS6 Id l A (fragment) LS7 Id l A (fragment) LS10 I d l A (fragment) L S l l I d l A (fragment) LSI2 I d l - A ( fragment) LSI5 I d l A (fragment) LS16 Id l A (fragment) LSI7 I d l ".:. A ( fragment) •LSI9 I d l " • A (fragment) • - . LS20 I d l r A (fragment) -459 Tab le 60 (cont inued) Func t i ona l Types o f Roles Formula Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs (4) LS5 Id l C m i - s o l - d o , s o l - r e - m i , m i - l a - s o l + A LS9 Id l C + A LSI 3 I d l [ - -C + A LS18 Id l , C + A (5) • ... * 6-1 l i n e - s t a n z a s LS2 Id3 - D „ r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - r e LS8 Id3 E s o l - l a - s o l LS7 Id2 D L S l l Id3 E • • ,. - LS15 Id2 D ' . LSI7 Id3 E ' • LS21 Id3 E (6) LS21 Id4 C (fragment) 460 The f i v e san-hs ien melodic formulae used in Ying-ying pai-yueh have t h e i r b a s i s on n i ne . th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs o f d o 1 - r e 1 - d o 1 , r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l - d o , 'mi.-la-.sol-, m i - s o l - r e , s o l - m i - d o , s o l - r e 1 - d o 1 , . s o l - r e - m i , and s o l - l a - s o l . 3. Summary and Conc lus ion ;• V ' •.*•'.';,'.; . \ " (a) T'an-tz'u vocal p roduct ion i s g e n e r a l l y t h a t o f a s t r a i g h t -forward na tu ra l c h e s t - v o i c e . Vocal techn iques i n c l u d e , portamento, v i b r a t o , adopta t ion of heightened speech-tones i n s i n g i n g , and p ro l onga t i on o f the vowel sounds o f a s y l 1 ab le - through g l o t t a l i z a t i o n s , a l l o f which f u n c t i o n to '." c l a r i f y and enhance the d i c t i o n of t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n s i n g - , i n g . These techniques p lace s p e c i a l emphasis on c e r t a i n . t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s , p rov ide rhythmic and me lod ic v a r i e t y and e l a b o r a t i o n , and above a l l , c r ea te a more f l u e n t vocal me lod ic l i n e . v (b) Of the 3,163,melodic i n t e r v a l s the downward major seconds and minor t h i r d s show a h igher f requency o f occurrences (Table 61). . " 461 TABLE 61 I n t e r v a l Count i n the. Twelve T'an-tz'u P i e c e s - -I n t e rna l Frequency (%) m2-r 0.40 , m24- 2.10 M2+ 12.80 M2+ 30.80 m3+ 13.10 m3+ 20.10 MS-I- '. 2.10 MS* • ; 2.30 p4t 3.60 p4+ 5.20 p5+ 0.80 p54- 1.40 m6+ 1.70 m6+ 1.70 M6+ 0.06 ' M6+ 0.03 . 0.40 0.90 M7+ 0.01 M7+ 0.31 -8th+ 0.19 (c) The p i t c h e s most f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f the seven Su-chou speech-tones are t abu l a t ed below (Table 62 ) , w i t h numerals r ep re sen t i ng the o rde r o f occurrences from the h i ghe s t to the lowest f r e q u e n c i e s . 462 TABLE 62 P i t c h - D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the Seven Su-chou Speech-Tones i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces N P r t d ^ Speech-Tone r e l mi'i f a , so l -j T a. 1 1 1 do re -mi f a so l 44 ( I D ' ' , ' -(5) (6) (10) ( 1 ) (4) (2 ) (8) (3) 13 ( 1 2 ) (5 ) (14) (4) (6) (11) (1 ) (2 ) (3 ) (10) (7) 31 (7) ( 3 ) ' (5) (9) ( 1 ) (4) (2) (9) ( 6 ) . 52 ( I D (9 ) (4) (5) (7) (1 ) (6) (2 ) (8) (3) / 412 (10) (7 ) (4) (5) (8) ( 1 ) (4) (3 ) (5) (2) 5 (7) (5) (2) (6) ( 1 ) " ( 5 ) (3 ) (9) . (4 ) 2 (3 ) (4) (2) (6) (1 ) (3 ) (2 ) (3 ) P i t c h Speech-Tone l a t i / do 1 r e 1 mi .,. f a 1 44 (8) (7) (9) (TO) : (12) 13 (13) (14) (8) (9) (13) (13) 31 (10) (8) (11) (12) • 52 (10) (10) ... • 412 (7) (6) (10) (9) 5 (9 ) (8) " 2 (5) (5) 463 In a l l ca se s , the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g f i r s t f ou r p i t c h e s o f each speech-tone ( i . e . , p i t c he s w i t h numbers 1 to 4 o f each speech-tone i n Table 62) c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y o f the p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t ha t speech-tone, which i s approx imate ly seventy percent o r more o f the t o t a l occur rences . These p i t che s o f which the v e r t i c a l s c a l a r r ep re sen ta t i on i s drawn below are t he r e f o r e viewed as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e tendencies f o r p i t c h - p r e f e r e n c e s o f the speech-tones in t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g . CFigure 16 ) -s o l "K mi t-do l a l s o l mi . 1 9 rx F igure 16 S c a l a r Representat ion o f the Most Frequent ly Used F i r s t Four P i t c h e s f o r the 7 Speech-Tones i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces The ope r a t i n g d e n s i t y o f the p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the seven speech-tones i s between do and m i , a major t h i r d i n range. With the except i on o f the p i t c h - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f speech-tone > , the o t h e r s i x speech-tones occur a t a cor respond ing segment o f the s c a l e w i t h h i ghe r frequency than a t o t he r segments (see F igure 1 6 ) : speech-tones w i t h 464 l e v e l s 4 and 5 have t h e h i g h e s t u p p e r p i t c h - l i m i t , on s o l ; s p e e c h - t o n e s w i t h l e v e l 3 have a medium h i g h u p p e r p i t c h - l i m i t , on m i ; s p e e c h - t o n e s w i t h l e v e l 2 have a l ow t o medium l o w p i t c h - l i m i t f r o m s o l , t o d o ; . and s p e e c h - t o n e s w i t h l e v e l 1 have a l ow l o w e r p i t c h - l i m i t on s o l , . (d) In t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g , e n t e r i n g t one s | and 1^ a r e o f t e n t r e a t e d w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; a s y l l a b l e w i t h a ~] s p e e c h - t o n e -somet imes i s sung a t a r e g i s t e r s i m i l a r t o o r e ven h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e ~|*" s p e e c h - t o n e . The e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f e n t e r i n g t o n e s f r o m o t h e r t o n e s in t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g seems t o be t h a t o f t i m e d u r a t i o n . So l o n g as e n t e r i n g t o n e s a r e k e p t s h o r t , - t h e r e l a t i v e l e v e l s i n t h e norma l s p e e c h a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d i n s i n g i n g . The i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f e n t e r i n g t one s i n t'an-tz'u a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h i s r h y t h m i c d e v i c e has the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s (Example 13 a , b,.,and c ) : Example 1 3 . Methods o f S i n g i n g E n t e r i n g Tones i n T'an-tz'u ( a ) ; (b) 2o? ; ( c ) i *.'a.7 (e ) The a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c c o n t o u r movements f o r d i r e c t i o n a l s p e e c h - t o n e s / j , ^ , \j , and a l s o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f s p e e c h - t o n e l e v e l c hange s . The r a t i o s 465 between the occur rences o f ascending and descending melod ic contour movements o f d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones are as f o l l o w s . (Table 63 ) TABLE 63 Ra t i o o f Occurrences o f Ascending and Descending Me lod i c Movements o f D i r e c t i o n a l Speech-Tones Speech-Tone Rat io o f Ascending and Descending Me lod ic Contour Movements • : : • 13 • 1 ^  36 : 1 31 . ; ' r > i : 6 .7 i - ': • V- - 52 1 : 6.47 412 1 : 8.30 v ( f ) The f o r t y - n i n e speech-tone p a i r combinat ions i n Su-chou d i a l e c t have the f o l l o w i n g cor respond ing melod ic contour movements i n t'an-tz'u s i ng ing . (Table 6 4 ) The melod ic contour movements o f the above speech-tone p a i r s i n t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g show a s t r i k i n g c o r r e l a t i o n to the speech-tone contour 22 movements. There a r e , however, a few d i s c r epanc i e s f o u n d . . ;In t'an-tz'u s i n g i n g , the r e l a t i v e r e g i s t e r s o f s y l l a b l e - p a i r s w i t h speech-tone l e v e l s 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 4 and 5, and 5 and 2 are not always adhered t o ; very o f t e n , they are sung a t the same p i t c h - l e v e l . The s y l l a b l e - p a i r —14-4- I '3 1 1 ^  * o f ~ A ' ^ o r e x a m P ' ' e > a r e o f t en sung w i t h the /[ . s y l l a b l e having the same i n i t i a l p i t c h as t h a t o f the | s y l l a b l e , thus 466 TABLE 64 Melod ic Contour Movements o f the 49 P o s s i b l e Speech-Tone P a i r Combinations i n Su-chou D i a l e c t 44 13 31 52 412 s 2 44 » — • — * ^ . . . t—»— 13 »* n_. 31 IT > « • * _r •iT 52 l r a ' _r • — # — - L T "• s n r — S 412 u -l r ' n-n_ or 5 < £ - ^ * * • -~S n_r* -2 •j- v • • — » — • * Note: i n d i c a t e s heightened speech-tones w i t h o u t mus ical p i t c h e s . r e s u l t i n g i n a h o r i z o n t a l melodic contour ( i . e . , • — ) . These melodi contour movements due to t h i s tendency are i n d i c a t e d w i t h the a s t e r i s k i n Table 64 . In some cases, there i s a musical a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the speech-tone contour o f the second s y l l a b l e o f a s y l l a b l e - p a i r , a t the • /^JL tr-end o f the f i r s t sung s y l l a b l e . The speech-tone p a i r | and | f o r i n s t a n c e , may have the r i s i n g melodic movement a t the end o f the I con tour , a n t i c i p a t i n g the second s y l l a b l e w i t h the h i gher speech-tone l e v e l 5. The second s y l l a b l e i s not sung u n t i l the melod ic contour s t a r t s to f a l l . S i m i l a r mus ica l a n t i c i p a t i o n over the l i n -g u i s t i c a l q u a l i t y o f speech-tone p a i r s i s found i n combinat ions o f y\ - /\ , and | - sj . S y l l a b l e - p a i r s w i t h the same n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones ( i . e . , | and "1 , and , and I2 and ) are o f ten sung w i t h d i r e c t i o n a l me lod i c contour movements. Th i s i s most l i k e l y the r e s u l t o f mus ica l r a t h e r than l i n g u i s t i c a l n e e d s — f o r a more a c t i v e and smoother voca l melod ic l i n e . (g) The sample has e i g h t p ieces i n do-mode, three i n sol-mode, and one i n re-mode, none o f which ends on t h e . f i r s t s ca l e -deg ree o f the mode which i t i s i n . P ieces i n do-mode end on p i t c h m i ; i n s o l -mode, on re and m i ; and i n re-mode, on mi . Th is tendency i s probably due to the f a c t t h a t t'an-tz'u music i s never performed as a separate e n t i t y ; i t e i t h e r precedes n a r r a t i o n , l i k e the k'ai-p'ien, o r occurs i n the middle o f n a r r a t i o n , as mus ica l i n t e r l u d e s . The end ing on s ca le -deg rees other, than the f i r s t degree o f a mode p rov ides a l e s s 468 s t rong sense o f f i n i s h so t h a t the commencement o r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f n a r r a t i o n w i l l not be too sudden and abrupt . .. (h) Lo-chu cadences o f the twelve t'an-tz'u p i ece s can be grouped i n t o f ou r f o rmu la - t ype s : (1) those w i t h c a d e n t i a l p r epa r a t i on s based on two descending p i t c he s l a , and s o l , , r e s o l v i n g on s o l , ; (2) those w i t h c aden t i a l p r epa ra t i on s based on l a , and s o l , , r e s o l v i n g on do; (3) those w i t h c aden t i a l p repa ra t i on s based on l a , and s o l , , r e s o l v i n g on m i , ; and (4) those w i t h a s i n g l e p i t c h e d c a d e n t i a l p r epa ra t i on on r e , r e s o l v i n g on re,., an octave lower. A l l lo-chu c a d e n t i a l p repa ra t i on s end w i t h a b r i e f pause, so t h a t the c a d e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n s o f the l a s t s y l l a b l e s can be e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . " \ . . . . t -*" ( i ) S p e c i a l i n s t rumenta l techniques o f p ' i - p ' a , s an - h s i en , and erh-hu are used f o r th ree purposes: (1) to ornament and f o l l o w the vocal l . ine; i i (2) to o u t l i n e the s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e o f the mode; and (3) to p rov ide r e a l i s t i c sound e f f e c t s suppor t ing the t e x t s ( i . e . , ^ 9 and )^ sounds). T'an-tz 'u musical t e x t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y monophonic, when there i s on l y one accompanying in s t rument ( i . e . , the s an - h s i en ) ; o r he te rophon i c , when there i s more than one accompanying in s t rument . V e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between pa r t s a re the t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , s i x t h , o r e i g h t h , as w e l l as un ison p l a y i n g . ( j ) " . T'an-tz'u i n s t rumenta l pa r t s are based on the cons tan t m o d i f i -c a t i o n o f a few melod ic formulae which stem from the th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs w i t h i n the penta-anhemiton ic s t r u c t u r e . T h i r t y - t h r e e commonly 469 used v a r i a n t th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs are used i n the sample, based on the f i v e ba s i c t h ree -no te m o t i v i c germs o f do - r e -m i , r e - m i - s o l , m i - s o l -l a , s o l - l a - d o 1 , and l a , - d o - r e (Table 6 5 ) . TABLE 65 Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs Used i n the Instrumental Pa r t s o f the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces Ba s i c Three-Note M o t i v i c Germs V a r i a n t Three -Note M o t i v i c Germs . (1) do-re-mi do-mi- re re-mi-do re-do-mi mi - re -do (2) r e - m i - s o l m i - s o l - r e m i - r e - s o l s o l - r e - m i s o l - m i - r e (3) m i - s o l - l a m i - l a - s o l s o l - l a - m i l a - s p l - m i l a - m i - s o l - •. (4) s o l - l a - d o 1 d o - l a - s o l l a - s o l - d o 1 (5) l a , - d o - r e r e - l a , - d o r e 1 - d o 1 - l a (6) (1) + (3). do - l a , -m i l a - d o1 - m i 1 (7) (2) + (3) r e - m i - l a l a - m i 1 - r e 1 l a - r e - m i l a - s o l - r e (8) (1) + (2) r e - s o l - d o s o l - r e - d o - s o l - d o - r e m i - s o l - do do-so l -mi • .• . • -• , „ • • • do-mi - so l s o l -m i -do (6) to (8) are combinat ions o f the ba s i c f i v e th ree -note m o t i v i c germs i n the penta-anhemiton ic s t r u c t u r e . 470 (k) The in s t rumenta l passages, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s i n the music o f t'an-tz'u, a l s o serve t o p rov ide the necessary i n t e r m i t t e n t T f e s t s f o r the "s inger, "dur ing the normal l eng th of one to two hours o f a t'an-tz'u performance. ' (a) Fac to r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the u n i t y o f t'an-tz'u music a re : (1) the u n i f o r m i t y of l i n e - s t a n z a s t r u c t u r e , t e x t u a l u n i t s t r u c t u r e o f ch'i-chu and lo-chu, and the l i n g u i s t i c compos i t i on of t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t of the l a s t lo-chu s y l l a b l e s ; and (2) the c o r r e l a t i o n between mus ica l and t e x t u a l s t r u c t u r e , the employment of s te reotyped melod ic formulae i n the vocal and i n s t rumenta l p a r t s , the u n i f o r m i t y of lo-chu cadences, and the techn ique of m o d i f i c a t i o n on the th ree -note m o t i v i c germs w i t h i n the penta-anhemiton ic system. ' ; ' Th i s study has shown t h a t the music of t'an-tz'u i s a h i g h l y •'.«,-''•»;. • :-••'•V. ••' • *•"•. '. ' • • • s t r u c t u r a l i z e d a r t form/ The general framework of the music i s p r e -determined by the inherent speech-tone c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Su-chou d i a l e c t , the prosod ic s t r u c t u r e of the t e x t s , the penta-anhemitonic •* s t r u c t u r e , and most impor tant , by the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y of the t'an-tz'u p e r f o r m a n c e - t r a d i t i o n . Whi le con s i de rab l e a t t e n t i o n i s pa id to the p l a c i n g o f t e x t u a l s y l l a b l e s i n t h e i r proper phonet i c i n f l e c t i o n s , the mus ic , i n t u r n , i n f l uence s the ve rba l i n f l e c t i o n s o f the t ex t s ' ; ; ( e . g . , tien-tzu, a l t e r n a t i o n of s y l l a b l e sounds, p ro l onga t i on of ... vowel end ing s , e t c . ) , but never t o such an ex ten t as t o make the s y l l a b l e s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . The essence o f t'an-tz'u l i e s i n the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t r u c t u r a l elements o f the t e x t and the mus ic . The c lo se c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two are mani fested most e v i d e n t l y between the r e l a t i v e speech-tone l e v e l s and the cor respond ing mus ica l p i t c h - r e g i s t e r s ; the speech-tone contour movements and the cor respond- , i ng melodic contour movements; and the t e x t u a l u n i t s t r u c t u r e and i t s s t r i c t adherence i n t'an-tz'u musical cadences. . The n e a r l y i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e cho ices o f speech-tone combinat ions , s c a l e m a t e r i a l and modes, m o d i f i c a t i o n s on the th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs, as w e l l as <• the p h y s i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f the s i n ge r ( e . g . , n a t u r a l v o i c e range, t imbre , personal p r e f e r ence s , technique of m o d i f i c a t i o n , ' e t c . ) , g i v e n , r i s e to the va r i ou s schools o f s i n g i n g s t y l e s w i t h i n t h i s genre of Chinese s t o r y t e l l i n g . Regional f a m i l i a r i t y and f o l k l o r i c i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of i t s music and t e x t make Su-chou t'an-tz'u one o f the most popular en te r ta inment s f o r the Chiang-nan p o p u l a t i o n . , Th i s t h e s i s has s t u d i e d , w i t h i n i t s in tended scope, some of :, the c e n t r a l i s sue s concern ing the musical s t r u c t u r e o f t'an-tz'u. Other r e l a t e d and e q u a l l y important i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are needed before a f u l l comprehension of t h i s Chinese southern s i n g i n g - n a r r a t i v e can be a r r i v e d a t , such as: (1) c o l l e c t i n g and annota t i ng t'an-tz'u t e x t s . , and the p e r f o r m e r ' s ohiao-pen; (2) f i e l d s t ud i e s and reco rd ing s of t'an-tz'u performances of both t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary works ; •(3) i n - dep th s t ud i e s on the development and change o f the concept s , c on ten t s , and t h e i r s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s between t h e - t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary t'an-tz'u r e p e r t o i r e ; (4) f u r t h e r s t ud i e s on the mus ica l s t r u c t u r e o f t'an-tz'u, such as .the rhy thmica l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the 472 text and music, and the treatment of textual verbs, adject i ves , and adverbs in s inging; (5) a compilation of thematic catalogue concerning the tradit ional -usage of melodic motives and types of modif icat ions on the penta-anhemitonic three-note motivic germs used in both.the singing and instrumental accompaniments of t'an-tz'u; and (6) comparative musical and l i t e r a r y studies on the re lat ionships between t'an-tz'u and other forms of s inging-narrat ives and regional theat r i ca l s , including -pien-wen, ohu-kung-tiao'^ and tao-chen so that the -genealogy of t'an-tz'u w i t h i n ' the large; oral-performing genre can be establ ished. . 473 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER IV The use o f c i phe r no t a t i on i n do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do , e t c . i n a n a l y s i s i s a method i n t roduced by Dr. M.Y. Liang, c a l l e d " c i p h e r a n a l y t i c a l methodology". Dr. L iang has found t h i s method best expresses the concept o f "movable do " . See a l s o foo tnote 7 of Chapter I I I . ~V*~ -, A'5, \ } 3 ' , e t c . are the seven Su-chou speech-tones; see Sec t i on B, Su-chou Phonoloy. 2 Refer to S ec t i on B, Su-chou Phonology. 3 See p. 43 f o r the method of marking o f f vocal d i v i s i o n s . ^Graphic r ep re sen t a t i on o f the me lod i c contour movements f o r each of the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces can be found i n Appendix 1. 5 6 7 ' ' Refer these terms under t h e i r app rop r i a te headings. o See under the heading of Lo-chu Cadence f o r melodic formulae i n lo-chu cadences. g Th i s p a r t i c u l a r use of the term " t h r e e - n o t e m o t i v i c germ" i s suggested by Dr. L iang who f i n d s tha t Chinese music i s b a s i c a l l y a con -t i nuous m o d i f i c a t i o n on the th ree -no te mot ives w i t h i n the penta ton i c s c a l e system. Th i s view i s a l s o shared by Su T s ' u n g - y i n , Op. cit., Su f i n d s tha t the th ree -no te m o t i v i c germs are the ba s i s f o r a l l Chinese r eg i ona l mus ic , i n p a r t i c u l a r , vocal mus ic . ^Ch iang - su - sheng ho Shang-ha i - sh i fang-yen t i a o - c h ' a c h i h - t a o -t s u . Op. cit. Other s t ud i e s on Su-chou phonology i n c l ude Chao Yuen-ren, S t u d i e s i n the modem Wu-dialects ( Pek i ng : Ts ing-hua Co l lege Research I n s t i t u t e , . 1928); and L i ao Hs l i - tung, Su-chou yin-yUn (Nanking: Chiang-su jen -min ch ' u -pan - she , 1958). 1 1 Refer a l s o to the Summary and Conc lu s i on f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the speech-tone contours (Table 2) and t h e i r corresponding melod ic contours (Table 64) . 474 19 The d i f f e r e n c e s between a t'an-tz'u k'ai-pien and t'an-tz'u excerpt have been d i scussed e a r l i e r , p. 28. 13 See Table 3 and t e x tua l t r a n s l a t i o n ( a t the end o f the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ) f o r r e f e rence . ^ A s d i s cu s sed i n Sec t i on B, Su-chou Phonology, d i r e c t i o n a l speech-tones are those tones which have two or th ree speech-tone l e v e l s ; speech-tones , \ J ? ' , v l * ' \ and M r i are a l l d i r e c t i o n a l speech tones . I t i s p o s s i b l e , i n a d i r e c t i o n a l speech- tone, t o emphasize one speech-tone l e v e l over the o the r f o r d ramat ic e f f e c t s . 15 Mr. Bernard Chan i n d i c a t e s t h a t the use o f harmonics i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s t y l e of Chou s c hoo l . 16 See t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses o f ( f ) , ( i ) , and ( 1 ) . 1 7 H s l i L i - h s i e n i s known f o r her s k i l l i n san -hs ien p l a y i n g . 18 See a n a l y s i s ( c ) , Hsiao-hsiang yeh-yu. 19 There i s no p i t c h range f o r the th ree occurrences o f speech-tone V l 4 7 2 , s i n ce they are a l l on p i t c h l a , . 20 21 ' For the purposes of f i n d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between speech-tones and mus ic , the p i t c h occurrences of the speech-tones i n the f a l s e t t o passages have been transposed down an octave to c o i n c i d e w i th those i n the c h e s t - v o i c e passages. 2 2 R e f e r to Table 2, Chapter IV, Su-chou Phonology, p. 313. 23 The s i x f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s o f t'an-tz'u i n s t r umenta l passages are d i s cu s sed e a r l i e r ; see p. 307. 475 S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 476 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. 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" T ' a n - t z ' u y e n - c h i u , " Ming-su ts'ung-shu, V o l . 62. T a i p e i : Tung-fang wen-hua kung-y in - she, 1970. Chao, Yuen-ren. S t u d i e s i n the Modern W u - d i a l e c t s . Pek ing : Ts ing-hua Co l lege Research I n s t i t u t e , 1928. "Tones, I n t o n a t i o n , S i n g i n g , Chant ing , R e c i t a t i v e , Tonal Compos i t ion, and Atonal Composit ion i n Ch inese, " For Roman Jakobson. The Hague: Mouton, 1956, 53-59. Chen, Chung-hsien. "Soochow S t o r y t e l l i n g , " China R e c o n s t r u c t s 10 (1961), 19-21. Chen, Ju-heng. Shuo-shu h s i a o - s h i h . Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1936. . • Shuo-shu shih-hua. Pek ing : T so - ch i a c h ' u pan-she, 1958. Cheng, Chen-to. Chung-kuo su-wen hsueh shih. Pek ing : T so - ch i a c h ' u -pan-she, 1954. Chung-kuo wen-hs'ueh yen-chiu. Pek ing : T so - ch i a ch ' u -pan she, 1957. Ch ' en , C h i a - k ' a n g . Szu-shen chiu chin shih she-mo tung-hsi. Pek ing : Wen-tzu k a i - k e ch ' u -pan - she , 1957. C h i , Nan. "New S t o r y - t e l l i n g , " Chinese L i t e r a t u r e 3 (March, 1965), 93-98. 479 Ch i a , I. Ming-chien wen-hs'ueh lun-chi. Pek ing: T so -ch ia Ch 'u-pan-she, 1963. Chiang, T s u - y i . Chung-kuo jen-min wen-hs'ueh-shih. Shanghai: P e i ' h s i n shu-chu, 1951. C h ' i u , Chen-ch in. Tun-huang pien-wen shu-lun. Taiwan: Shang-wu y i n -shu-kuan, 1970. Chung-kuo k 'o -hsueh-yuan. Chung-kuo wen-hs'ueh shih. Pek ing : Jen-min wen-hsueh ch ' u -pan - she , 1962. Feng, M ing -ch ih . Chung-kuo min-chien wen-hs'ueh ohiang-hua. Hong Kong: Shanghai shu-chu, 1957. Fu, Hs i -hua . Vei-ching ch'uan-tung ch'u-i tsung-lu. Pek ing : Chung-hua shuo-chu, 1962. Herzog, George. "Speech Melody and P r i m i t i v e Mus ic , " Musical Quarterly 20 (1934), 452-466. Hood, Mant le. The E t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t . New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1971. H r d l i c k o v a , Vena. "The P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g o f C h i n e s e _ S t o r y t e l l i n g and the S t o r y t e l l e r s ' G u i l d s , " A r c h i v O r i e n t a l n i 33 (1965), 225-249. . "The Chinese S t o r y t e l l e r s and S ingers o f B a l l a d s : T h e i r "Pe r fo rmances and S t o r y t e l l i n g Techniques, " The T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c Society of Japan S e r i e s 3, V o l . 10 (1968), 97-115. I, T ' ang . " T ' a n - t z ' u ch i c h ' i y i n - y ' ueh , " Chiang-su nan-pu min-chien h s i - c h ' u shuo-ch''ang-yin-yueh chi. Pek ing: Y in-yueh c h ' u -pan-she, 1955.-. L i a o , Hsu-tung.. Su-chou yin-yun.i Nanking: Chiang-su jen-min c h ' u -pan-she, 1958. 480 L i n g , F e i - h s i ung and Chou, Jun-hua. Tsen-yang fan p'i-p'a. Hong Kong: H s i n - ch ' eng s h u - t i e n , 1966. L i s t , George. "Speech Melody and Song Melody i n Cen t ra l T h a i l a n d , " Ethnomusicology 5 (1961), 16-32. _. "The Boundaries o f Speech and Song," Ethnomusicology 7 (1963), 1-16. L i u , Mar jo ry . ."The In f luence o f Tonal Speech on K ' un - ch ' u Opera S t y l e , " Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, U.C.L.A., V o l . I I , No. 1, 2 (1974), 63-86. L i u , Min. Ju-ho fan san-hsien. Hong Kong: Ch i n - h s i u P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969. L i u , W e n - l i u . K ' u n - c h ' u yen-chiu. T a i p e i : Ch i a - h s i n c h u i - n i kung-szu wen-hua c h i - c h i n - h u i yen - ch i u lun-wen, No. 183, 1969. Mark, L indy L. and L i , Fang-kue i . "Speech Tone and Melody i n Wu-ming Fo lk Songs," Essays Offered to G.H. Luce. Ascona, S w i t z e r l a n d : A r t i b u s Asiae , 1966, 167-186. Mok, Robert T. "Heterophony i n Chinese Mus i c , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fo lk Music Counc i l XVIII (1966), 14-23. Prusek, J a r o s l a v . "The Beginnings o f Popu la r Chinese L i t e r a t u r e Urban Cent re s—The Cradle o f Popular F i c t i o n , " A r c h i v O r i e n t a l n i 36 (1968), 67-121. Sp r i n ge r , George P. "Language and Music: P a r a l l e l s and D ivergences , " For Roman Jakobson. The Hague: Mouton, 1956, 504-513. Ssu, Su. "Shuo-shu yu wu c h i a o - p e n " , Chu-i 4 (1962), 44-45. Su, HsUeh-an. Ching-chu sheng-yun. Shanghai: Wen-i ch ' u -pan - she , 1963. 481 Sun, T s ' u n g - y i n . " C h i e n - t ' a n wu-sheng-t iao s h i h chung ko y i n - c h i te hs ian-hu k u a n - h s i , " Min-tsu yin-y'ueh yen-chiu lun-wen chi, V o l . 2. Pek ing : Music P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957, 31-38. Yang, Y i n - l i u . Chung-kuo yin-y'ueh shih-kang. Shanghai: Wan-yeh s h u - t i e n , 1953. Yu, Chang-kyun. Ssu-sheng t'ung-k'ao. T a i p e i : Chinese Ma te r i a l and Research A ids Se r v i ce Center , 1973. Yu, Kuo-ssu;Wang, C h ' i ; and Hs iao, T ' i a o - f e i . Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-, shih. Pek ing : Jen-min wen-hsueh ch 'u -pan she, 1964. Yu, P in - sheng. Kuo-chu yin-yun chi ch'ang-fa yen-chiu. Taiwan: Chung-hua shuo-chu', 1972. Yu, T ' i n - s o n g . Erh-hu t z u - h s u e h - f a . Hong Kong: H s i n - ch ' eng Book Company, 1971. Wang, Chung-min;~Wang, ChMng-shu; and Hs iang, Ta. Tun-huang -pien-wen chi. Pek ing : Jen-mij i wen-hsueh ch ' u -pan - she , ' 1957. ' Yeh, Te-chun. Sung-Yuan-Ming.chiang-ch'ang wen-hsueh. Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1959. 482 5> * 3f ICi^  .J: i-K a t ti! k' f t i f 1 483 ^- t^-'MM § * I L / ' f ^ - • ^ ;^ 485 & , . t§l u ^ # f $ j . ^ t % „\. 488 S E L E C T E D D I S C O G R A P H Y 489 SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY The f o l l o w i n g Art -Tune r e co rd s , produced by the Art-Tune Record Company (Hong Kong), are the mus ica l sources f o r t h i s t h e s i s : ATC-25 Monophonic L i n Ch'ung t'a-hs'ueh ( L i n Ch 'ung ' s snow-walk) L i u T ' i e n - y u n ( v o i c e , e r h - hu ) , Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) , Chou Yun - j u i ( s an - h s i en ) . ATC-26 Monophonic Ying-ying -pai-yueh ( Y i n g - y i n g prays to the moon) Yang J e n - l i n ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) ; Hsin Mu-lan t z ' u (New poem about Mu-lan) Hsu L i - h s i e n ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) , Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) , Chou Yun - j u i ( e r h - hu ) , Yang Chen-yen (yuan), Ch'en Hs i -an ( b e l l s ) . ATC-27 Monophonic Chih-chen miao-jung (Chih-chen draws a p o r t r a i t o f her husband), Chou Yu-chUan ( v o i c e , s an - h s i en ) , Hsueh ChUn-ya ( p ' i - p ' a ) ; Fang-ch'ing h s i e h c h i a - h s i n ( Fang - ch ' i n g w r i t e s a l e t t e r to home) Wei Han-ying ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) ; Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u ( S w i t c h i n g the p r i n ce w i t h a racoon) Hsu Yun-ch ih ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) ; M i - s h i h hsiang-hui (meeting i n a s e c r e t room) Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) ; Shou-t'ang (The h a l l o f l o n g e v i t y ) Chu Hui-chen ( v o i c e ) , Chang Chien-kuo ( p ' i - p ' a ) , Chang C h i e n - t i n g ( s a n - h s i e n ) , L i u T ' i e n - y u n ( e rh -hu ) ; Tu S h i h - n i a n g (Courtesan Tu Sh ih -n iang) Chiang Yueh-ch 'Uan ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) , Yang Chen-yen ( p ' i - p ' a ) . ATC-170 Monophonic H s i a o - h s i a n g yeh-yu ( N i g h t - r a i n i n Hs iao-hs iang) Chu Hsueh -ch ' i n ( v o i c e , s a n - h s i e n ) , Kuo P i n - c h ' i n g ( p ' i - p ' a ) ; 490 Huo T i n g - c h i n s z u - t i a o (Huo T i n g - c h i n mourns her husband) Chou YUn-ju i ( v o i c e , p ' i - p ' a ) , Hsu L i - h s i e n ( s an -h s i en ) ; K'u-t'a.(The pagoda) Hsueh H s i a o - c h ' i n g ( v o i c e , p ' i - p ' a ) , Chou Yun - ju i ( s an -h s i en ) . 491 APPENDIX 1 Graphic Rep re sen ta t i on o f the Vocal Me lod ic Contour i n the Twelve T'an-tz'u P ieces Notes The p l o t t i n g o f the voca l me lod ic contour movements i n the twelve t'an-tz'u p ieces i s as f o l l o w s : 1. The v e r t i c a l p i t c h - a x i s encompasses g e n e r a l l y a range o f two o c t a ve s , from C below midd le C (MC) to C above middle C; and the v e r t i c a l a x i s below the p i t c h - a x i s i s the 5 l e v e l s o f Su-chou speech- tones . 2. On the v e r t i c a l p i t c h - a x i s , the va r i ou s p i t c he s o c c u r r i n g i n a t'an-tz'u p iece are p l o t t e d a long the p i t c h - a x i s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e t ime-du ra t i on s are i n d i c a t e d by the h o r i z o n t a l t ime a x i s ( i . e . , one square equal s to one 8th n o t e ) . Vocal d i v i s i o n s a re separa ted by one square. B rea th ing s w i t h i n a vocal d i v i s i o n are i n d i c a t e d i n the graph by a d i s c o n t i n u e d con tou r l i n e . L i n e - s t a n z a s y l l a b l e s are marked w i t h dots on the contour l i n e s . The co r re spond ing speech-tones are p l o t t e d below these do t s . 492 - - l h -1 hi 1 M +1 —j * J _ - J\ -1 IS >- -—Al i- l F 1 - 1 r H h - i — P U - - i -« \ u - -1 v -- I -1 " \ 1 I 1 \ i~* i -/ V i V - " 1 v-1 V V i > |. _ — 1 ' 4-j-- ) — —|— — i i i — | t~ 1" T i i 1 1 1 1 1 — — - - r 1 1 1 i 495 4 9 6 < — 3 *n ' n vr 4 - -4 r, .. J j L - 4 : Jit-'s i u- • " T ..... r 1 i rV-1 r f _1 ! 4: 1 • •  --h— -— \l " 4 ^ '4 ri 4 A- Yrf-m 4\ / 7 f I T # ^ L. .1 1 \ • L J i — u V_ _ ML. j.. ; T 1 — M -1 l - '• T : —\—i—:—r ! 1 | "j 4 4 i i • ! i 4-4 1 i r r * 1 1 r1 f -45+*, - I ; 1 T I — r r ~r. " . • _ j — —i-i i / !-4 i v -4 »*»•,-— 4 1 1 4 ~,—r r -j—1 __ — Mr- -4 - 1 —u j 1 1 i S U-L i 1 ' 1" ._• i ' '• i \ 1 1 L i 1 - J — u 1 ] •' : ') 4 T ^ . T r i —j 1 : : 12-' 4 - 4 : 1 ! 1 i j i i i —:—r —i 1 4-1-4~ 1 1 i i 1. III1 -^4-4-1 1 11 1 1 •i j i i 1 i i 1 1 1 4 -—;—L. ; i Vr 4 4 1 i •4 : i = • ! i ! 1 . 1 1 'J. 4^-1- —r* - -j j-! 1 T-r-ttT--11 i i • • M M - ! 1 ! 1 ' 1 1 1 i ;~r »• • . 1 I ; r^— - i J - 1 i 1 ! 4 V 4 / 4 V w 7 « \ / / •ii  * •. •• 1 i i 7 - •  . 1 i ; 1 • i —I—r 1 1 !' i i i ! ! ! \ \ \ \ - 1 1 * 1 —JL | 1 • M i i : 1 • 1 ! | [ 1 I' ! 1 . 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 i i ! ; i 444-hr 1 1 —I— +4 4 4 4 i 4 T T T 1 1 —r~ rT" 1 ; ! i i i ! ; i ; III ' I I I , i : 1 444 - 4 ^ - i ; 1 1 : ! ! T ;--—f —i— i -itttnr i ' 1 I ' l l -- r r 1 1 1 i 1 T - r ^ 4 . I ! Ill-i i , ; i : .: • : i—;— ;' ; ! . i • 1 j ! -U U-4 i -! !'!•!.-—1 ! ! • - 4 4 - -- 4 i i 1 | 1 M i : i 1 1 —!—;—— WW< ' : , —:1—1—:j(—: • "t 1 II 1 . i ; I ; 1 1 1 M ! : ! • > I 1 !.• i i 1 —M_ 1 1 4 4 4 ^ -- 1 ; j | -i ! ' • M 1 i 1 " H ! ; : • i 1 -5 :<'*<•-u t i ; '• 1 • ! i !i i ! : : 1 ; 1 i 1 | i u r 4i -A V.!, 4+ + 4 -T T V 4 ": ' :  1 ~ r t 1 1 h r - H -1—i-r 4 4 4 i1 1 : i T T M " ll.il • ! i j : : ! . i i '1 1 ; i i 1 1 _ _x 1 1 1 •1 i 1 4 4 -H— -•• i : ! | . i M i l l 4 4 - - 4 —! -j— 1 i-R | ^ - i — 1 1 i 4 4 4 - -1 1 1 1 1 -4 u 4 .1.... • 4 V f - V \ V-+ - 1 I 1 U -— — 1 t _j—1-•H-1 i < 1 ! : i • ! 1 • | i 74 " A " M W F ? 1 1 1 • i 1 • ' 1 / ' 1 i 1 i 1* I i - 4 — V i —H-»i.. i 4 - 1 -4 T . 1 -1 Lit,..'., - 4 4 4 -r 1 i 1 4 4 — i _ 4 4 1 4 9 7 498 m 4 ± --fsf-TT hfdarig4y I 33 33 i i i i i i m 14-4 U s -i — r as T T T i-T TTT S3 ffl 3B T T T T r t T T rr rtr-I ; !" -U4-r^ <r L£4 -M-S i : 1 Ti I T T T 8 SIE T T 499 500 t c r i ir 4H? -i— — \ S 4>i - — • i--V • H . L -4 4 4 4 V if- - f • ! 4 -< — t u -1 .4 -V-rH-- 4 - i -- V T 44t y V \: — 1 W - / / - - V 4^  n 4" j -I L_ 1 . . . . _ _ —rn r i—i V \ i _ „4- .. i : I T" ; . . . . . . . . 1 1 i i 1 i 44 1 : i I —H i 1 -4-44- — i — , 1 l II <r tc 1 -frH ! • .: -Li -j- - i-ft ' i : • • • t -i—*— —u_ -r •Hsi i | i 4 --"4' 1 • 1 1 . . j . . . . . . . . . | I --4-4U5^0 i 1 ! 1 1 i 1 I ! ! ! i ! -i s a 1 1 : i • -44- i ! - t i 44 - 1 1 1 '•—!—1—1  i I *-~ i ! 4 ' v| I l "1—|—i-XpTi——i—i , ! 1 •- 1 -4 -T i f •[• 1 • j -44f4?4=: ! ' i 1 1 1 i i . - -ti f t " 1 i H-1 -—r - J - T ~ i ~i—m K ! 1 | i i i • ; i • ! • : : * -4-4-•i i 4 i J . . = 4 ± lut-i iV ,, i -t4-i . 4 - ! i - .1. - 1 1 i I 1 ; 1 ' I j ! 1 -H A-! i i I i | --ff-—n— - i i 1 1 1 4 I 444-4-4,<- 1 1 1 -M i 1 i i I 1 " — ,—, j ! \ - j --4--1—!—f i" 1 4 1 1 i i 1 i 11 1 -• i — T ~ n ~~~x ._4 -w • i i k f t i i i i 1" 1 I 4 -4 41 i * 4 - 4 - 4 4 4 4 -• ; ' • i nf 4 —; T-— "A A - \ H r\i i n • \ ; : ! - 1 — i i 1— 1 ; -U- i -rff " Ill : i i i • , i H 1 • • 1i' 1 i i 4 i i a j \ l • | 1 1 i -1 4-i • : ifc-! i i 1 i i LU — i i ~rt-H i ; T- • •.II i : CS32- i l 4 i i i i 4-4 i i -• •il 1 4 i / U"51 i i i i i ; I 1 4 - • - V 1 4 -4-i f| i i i | | I V "T 4 1" V 4 V - _ 1 1 Kf 4 I 1 i —t rr * IT" ! 1 i 1 I j ; 1 4 I 4 J 1 i \ , i -+ , : ' C •' ; j 1 i i i i i 1 — i i — I \ ——i—l-1 r ~4 -V 4 X- Yr A J - — V4— -A —V - . ¥ V _t 7 4 i_ I 501 502 503 504 505 506 508.. S 5 i t i s X _U_ no ! ! I "TTT U -3S trrt T 510 i T 1 \ — <- 1 >-J V -< — \ j : — _ 1 X —i 1 1 i 1 >• !• ! i \ V-i -\ > t \ I t > i ; s lo 1 L-j * y i 1 i <L 1 JJ ~~1 ! 1 S- TV 1 ! 1 I 1 LJ_ 1 I — i - K 1 i ! , r l i i ^— ! ' 1 1 " 1 f 1 •\ - f r ' j 1 1 1 / j 1 i 1 \ 1 i_ 1 1 i I 1 1 1 ' 1 i i i . i I i ; i I | ! ! i 1 i 1 ' j i i i i i ' i I ! 1 I M i i i i 1 j ! I ; J 1 ' ! i i 1 i 1 1 1 1 i i i i 1/ i i l — 1 1 ' i i 1 ! : V I | 1 ' i I • ! •. i ! i 1 < ' 1 ! | 1 * A i ! 1 • i i I ! i , i | ! 1 :. i 1 1 1 . i .! I i 1 i ' » 1 \ ' 1 M l \ V i 1 i \ t ) i i : i I 1. !_/' 1 \ V i i • V J i • 1 • ! l ' 1 1 i i •- • — 1 ! I| ! 1 i i : 1 ' ' • ! i « 1 1 1 1 ! • 1 1 :., I ! ' i I i I i I i . i i ; i 1 1 I ! ' ; ; ' i .! i i j ! i 11 I 1 ! ! I i i ! ! 1 1 1 T ; 1 i i i • —t— 1 . 1 ! 1 I! 1 i i 1 ! ' 1 1 ! l 1 i n ! T ! • ' ! 1 •• i ! L " l is 1 1 1 1 • 1 Vr' \ ! | ! W « \ 1 / T L ! ' 1 •'• i ' 1 • I i 1 i i i I 1 L i i | | i : ! ; « • i 1 i 1 i i L 1 M M 1 1 1 i • 1 i i — i — • 1 I !• 1 M M ) l i i I j 1 ! ; 1 i ' ! ! | ! 1 I ! | i * i tit} / i j 1 j i i 1 l ^f*- i ! "1 i 1 i I I H—1 i ; j i .i j ! i i | • ! M M i .1... 1 J 1 i 1 1 i 1 I I I ! i 1 i 1 i i i ; 1 > • i ! ! J i 1 i i . i- ! i i 1 M 1 r - 1 1 ! 1 ! 1 i ! i l 1 1 1 i M i 1 1. 1 M h i i 1 i i i i i • < \ \S: i i • i 1 - • - i i ] i 1 j 1 v_ \ i ! ; i 1 \ 1 ' • • i i i 1 1 \ 1 I \ / J L, j ' 1 M i l l — H i i ! I » . 1 \ y Y 4* ~I-L M My 511 -\ l£ -1-, j Y /] < • \ t 1 •h k --J i • 1 J r \ / I \ i / \ / v • i i i 1 1 '.a 1 , 1 / 1 ! \ •i 1 j ! i 1 I . 1 I— t 1 . i •1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 ! i 1 1 1 1 l | 1 1 ' 1 1 ; 1 1 .- 1 1 i 1 1. 1 c . i i 1 1 1 ! ! i ! c — j — I ! i i i '• i 1 1 i \ ~ 1 l I 1 ! ! 1 1 1 1 ! ! i M i ' M I.! I " 1 I i i j I 1 1 M i l 1 1 i i 1 i 1 1 1 1 i M l / M M ! 1 1 1 1 M 1 M • i 'i M 1 II ! 1 1 •1 1 1 ! 1 M M M M M i l M M 1 ! 1 1 1 ! - • i i - r i. ; i ! i 4-4-i 1 i 1 1 i 1 ! 1 1 1 '! ! | i i 1 ! 1 1 i 1 1 ! ! 1 1 1 1 - r r * < i . i. 1 i j — 1 — i — 44-^ v- u-rt ai 1 | 1 1 ! 1 1 1 r r h 1 1 ! | I ' M M M T Y 1 i i . ; i 1 | 1 i 1 i 1 i —i— i i i 1 I I f i ' i i -4-2.4- I 1 i i i —i— . . . i . - r i | —i—r— i : -i p T T I I j 1 i - i - r H . ! ! IX L i ! i < JL. 1 1 ~ r 1 — —^1— l . — I — 1 —1 *7 * 1 ,»y 1 1 1 1 i i 1 i.i 1 I { 1 i ! I —t— — — 7— , 1 i 1 1 i 1 : . i ; ! •r 1 | I 1 1 1 '* l I 1 1 1 ! : 1 i I ! 1 - I 1 t ' 1 ! | —i— 11 i 1 I 1 i i 1 i i ! I 4— i • 1 I i 1 | i i I | • i 1 I- 1 1 1 i 1 i 11 1 • i 1 ! 1 ! ! i i i | 1 1 1 1 j i I i h , i | ! i 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I , I 1 I l 1 i r r r i 4 U r\ 1 \ 1 \ m JM»_. A L r l 1 M | 1 i M / i 1 I*" 4- -HV 1 v/vt/ H— 512 ^ - : : : : : : : - : : : - - r - r : : : : : : : ============:-5======: is"? ' j sr.'" i T; J cxi ' : u >*J»|—. m> J » i „ X>- ~t ^ J -4 - ,^yj I H - J H I - - | f_ ... •• XT' -tt|:HEEEEil~||~|=: 1 — <  Mj —j_ . - - 1 • <H H '- ! S - T - -F r__/. -l ; L -\~ ' " ~r~\ \ v - - A S i f f i - 7 - j X _ ' * f L • 3-1 /-JE A 1 -*pJ -_ _ , [ _ _ _j i + fe- — j i 1 1 ^ + = = = ± ± - - + ~ ^ - | :•• ^ E : -» • • y * l f ^ T 1 **** * f T j i u 1 1 . ; 5 f . . ; E r : - f - — h — -+*\ -* r x ~r- 1 i t f r W - T -fe-1—i—'—i 1 — i :—; 1 1—1 '—1— W f f l h i H i O l P i I I 1 • 1 1 . 1 t 1 ! i f l f H r - r + r f h T h T T - "I . M, M l , 1—1—, UJ—-1 1 M ! 1 +-t T , y : - - h f-.K-i - r - l i — ••' "TT • 1  * , l\l 1 M I | | v \-rT— \ | ! ' • T A 1 ~ I M ' ! I i I I .i. 1;; -HT+A^V / - ^ / / ^ f - \ V / / , A \ r // Mr^^tT] _l . I 1—i—i [ I T i —I—j— : r 1— - f f - : - I 4 4 f - - 4 T -——:—1 •—i 1—;—r—1—l— 1 1 • 1 1 '1 M i 1 •- 1 ! ! h ! ! i * . . •• I I ! ' ' ! I • ' T i III ! I i ^ , . -r-r-n r ~ ~h M i1 ! : i . -'-1 ;~; j i ••1 -ny*t> H L<Xi j I | 1 L 1 • i-i i ! i i l-l r 1 i M i j j : i I I 1 1 1 • ! 1 " \ -1—/u^- »» > ' i i—i 1 1 1 — n  '—l 1 ! ! 1 M ^ - - - A • • ' M l ! l ' l — H — * \ t»-i i * " \ — — n — n i l 1 •, • ' . 1 1 1 1 1 . . . ' ! - . • • 1 i ^" f" ' "I r—|—i—1—1 !—j— — | — M ~ T — - r - + X-rK-v^M^ I ! —j—| . .—I—:—.—, j -hi H - ! i ' 1 hi 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 M 1 1 t I . 1 J L i \ \A—•—' i—i 1 i ^#m>< \\\\\\\M ! . 1 r-h L- 1 1 r--~ j ' j ! . 1 j 1 1 , : i 1 __. • i - l — H - M - H — — , — i — — — 1 .—i • ! ! 1 1 _1_ j. - ; 1 . 1 1 -4- • J M|!| • 1 i ! 1 1 _}_ ' |M| j . V I 1 —•—j—i j— —— * _ J U _ L - i - r - j 1 j - f - H — M + M - H 1 I I I " • - ' • M i l ! ' I -" 1 i 1 i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 .1 . • 1 1. 1. 1 1 1 1. 1 M 1 M 1 'II 514 4 i ' i 1 - r i - TTT I / I L L iii 1 S 1 TT l i i ! I EE i I I I TT -r-t-i-.i ; i 2 ! I I i I 4U rat —r ; i l ! ! T T T "I j i I ! I .1 i l l ! / \ ITT , t l t l l 1 7: ! ; I i I 1 1 I M T T ! I ! I I I I T T XX rTTT TTTT I I I I T-H-T T T T T 44 : V II L5 TT1 r i i 5 S 2 K c N I ! I I ! i ] 2 5* 515 517 518 519 T T" i ' _, 1 <L LTJL , ^ ^  p s i r •ft x~ A — • jM j •"• i j ± 1 .! _ A ! i *J_ , L. u 1 —... p i T - i _  . J S 4 4 ? — 7 V t S A \ 4 W V V r L r11 1 j t i L ] ^ L|_ jjr _ / ! / \ J V 1 i , ^  i 4 1 1 1 1 1 +1- T - 1 -p ITT i t lis I tLrr - i i ! "tr v r 1 -| 1 T i 1 r - - 4 T 4 J ' i i " i i 1 4-1- - i , r • 41- - - - , 1 \ \ ! j 4J4 "-q= : f l J F 4 i I —w * ¥ 1 N j 1 1 ! / 1 1 i l l 1 i i 1 1 1 i 1 1 j ! . . .. 1 : MM. i r t . ~J 4 1 • 1 • i r i [ • i l ! J \ - ' - -•1 1 ; i 1 r M 1 i ' r "1 1 ~ 4- ~ 1 • ' \ 1 .1 \ 71 1 i , 1 1 -J- -\U / .rJ O - r l :74\M \ ^ \ • \ '• ' i -|V7 / - " - r 4- / / 1 V / W ' ! M r ' • M " 1 1 M M i i I l i i ! M i . 1 1 1 . u 1 i 1 1 1 ; ; , 1 1 1 i i j _L 1 M 1 I I . : iJ . M l I 1 M l , " , i ! 1 I ! 1 1 ' 1 1 1 ' M i l •| • 1 1 • M 1 1 I ! i ! i i • M 1 1 , ,1 J . 1 i i .... , , i i : j ; S i ' U>.^ -<5. M M \ 1 • 1 1 1 | <s16 ! M M 1 i i 1 M i 1 —1—1 • M 1 **1 1 • ; i 1 1 1 J " \J 1 ^ ' J ' 1 1 p — __ 1 1 1 1 1 1 M j_ ! i ! ! 1 - i i i>-«K— -A—U- 1 i h 4 4 4 - ^ -t / I - 1 H i 1 . 1 i 1 M i 1 i 1 1 1 L M r 1 n III ! • < M I N I ! 1 1 \ 1 i 1 ! , . | , - y . ' 1 M —• \ ' Tl ' i .J - ! 7- • / i - f t - i fcr-vF — - w - 1 { 1 * 1 • i i ! ;/ .. I_JL 1 1 1 i ; ( 1 ; I i 1 1 ; i 1 j ; i 1 • i : 1 •| : i M l 1 — , — , — 1 j -4—e--520 - r -c —*r* . — 1 I 5 —< L i .-< A M f •i J, L ! J M - 1 / I V i - r -• 1 1> —• — T 1 i / > y / / \ / / l/ V \ i — i \ n nvr 1 / 4 *--H+l + h r 11:1 II 1 1 i i . 4- 444-i i ; '44-i i : i i 111 i t ' ! 1 i i ; ! • i i - 1 ! ! i I .! | 1 i 1 i —i— — i — Mi i 1 ! ! 1 I 1 1 i ! i j JShou I an —1 444- 1 n i < 1 i • i — i — i H— 1 ! j ' i — ! — i — • — • — 1 — 1 I '! I. i i : i • j- i -fT i i—t—i— 1 : I I i • i i ; j i i I i ! 1 i ! 1 1 1 1 i I i 1. 1 1 1 i i i • i 1 1 1 rt K+.h; 1 owe r 111 1 i — ' 1 1 l r i •* | i l i i i i i ! I i 1 — 1 — 1 1 1 i i •1 i i 1 1 j_ j | i l l 1 l" 1 ! 1 i i is, ) . i i i .—i—, I ! I i n n i ! i 1 i j. i • • i i • i : 1 1 ; i .. —I—i— _ i — ! i r 1 1' i i i i — K 4 4 - i > i i i i I j ~l in 1 h- L TTTl r "TY / ! i — i — — : \ i 1 i i \, f i i ! - r i i L i ! | i i |. i i i 1 1 Y ! 1 ! 1 i i 1 I ! i 1 i 1 11 1 • 1 1 i 1 1 4— 111 - 1 i I MM i | ! 1 i 1 1 A • I \ M i I j \ \ i V A \ I 1 i MM | II! \ i V J \ l 1 V , 1 A ! M ii ! Ii t I r-t-r~ 1 — — 4- i r — 1 i M 1 V '—I—i—;—i—i—r.—|— M M' M 1 M . i i M i M f 521 T i B f f i I I I 1 1 8 T T rrn-m 5 LI-T T s i i ffi i l l ! T - T T T T T 1 M r s i I I I I I I 1' I I T T - I — i r r n I ! i 5 iixn: i T r T T T t -i—i—i—r i I 522 1 £ i n' i Itr 1 LA r in T J y — i / 0 j -/ (A I \ 7 -T f— _4_ 1 i I 1 i 1 1 ' - f 1 ! 1 1 TTr . • • M i l ! 1 M€ -4—t—! 4 4 4 — i i i ! 1 1 1 -4-{4ftiHE i i 4 ^ - 4 - U 1 - 1: -•rHrtl 1 ! i i i j 1 r f l i 44-4 •1 h H i i 4 r ~ -i 1 1 1 • J | ! ' i a an •i i i 4 4 4 -i i 1—|—j— H/ ! ! 1 i ! 1 i I I 1 ! ! - f f f f . — i — i = T 4 - " 1 • I I 1 ! 1 1 4 - j - -44 1 U«-r—I 4 4 4 ^ 4 4 4 r 1 • i i-i — r -v/y-- -4--1 - T " 4—,—i—i-C-i i ' 1 ! m 4444-4 - r - - , i T h -i T- £ - 1 i ' i 1 1 /+> -•--44-1 1 1 1 i 1 Wp " f ; i ' 1 i ! 1—i—' i : i ; ' i i -d4+-= 4 \ 4 f -i i i - H i i | -K -H-i 1 aft. i 1' _i I V 1 1 h - p -i i 1111-<»• i i M •i 4-L-M— 4 - -t44 - . J ! \ — * J _ . ! j . !- | —|—| 1—1 - >—I—H r r - -H--- 44-— 1 ' i l l ' . _ ^ j_ * _ m rr~ 1 1 (~~ T"rr 1 "T T-f \ 111 i j > , -YiV4+-7 r-— •+-/ 524 525 V 527 APPENDIX 2 GLOSSARY A An - t ' ang jen-mu gj^  Q Chang Chien-kuo Chang C h i e n - t ' i n g ^ i§L ch 'ang Ch'ang-chou Ch'ang-shu Chen -chu - t ' a Ch 'en Hs i -an ch ' e n -pa i Ch 'en S h i h - c h ' i T Chao Hsiang-chou y ^ ^ ^ S >tfj ± D-N J Ch 'en Yueh-o c h ' i - c h u c h i a ^ Ch i a - ch ing - j ^ ± ^ c h i a - h s i n g C ^ ^ f ch i ang - sh i h ^ Chiang Yueh-ch'u 'an 7 ^ B ;f<_. Chiang Yiieh-o ^ ch iao-pen ^ C h ' i en- lung Chih-chen miao-jung A i : ch ing ±L ch i ng c h i n g - y i n - t a - k u C h ' i n g Chou Yun - j u i ch ' ou Chu H sueh - ch ' i n Chu Hui -chen chu -kung - t i ao Chu P ' i n - l a n 3 1? Chu Su - l an C h ' u - t z ' u cl "5 ft) chu c h u n g - p ' i e n t ' a n - t z ' u erh-hu F F a n g - c h ' i n g h s i e h c h i a - h s i n H h s i e n - t z ' u H s i n M u - l a n t z ' u h s i a o - s h u o F e n g - s h u a n g - f e i Jf| 1fg f u - t s a n % t * \ ^ Han y i i e h - f u 5 ^ j^j^  jj^ Hang-chou jffij ^jj he - sheng — ^ -h s i - h o - t a - k u rt£> > & j 7 ^ H s i a o - h s i a n g y e h - y u >£/U , ^ # 7 ) h s i e n - s h e n g ^ZJ Hsu L i - h s i e n ^[J^ >j d J \ hs l i - sh ih k u - t z u - t z ' u Hsli Yun-chih hs ia-shou Hs'ueh H s i a o - c h ' i n g Huo T i n g - ch i n s z u - t i a l J Jun-yu-she K k ' a i - p ' i e n k 'ou-chueh ku-pai k u - t z u - t z ' u K ' u - t ' a kuan-pai kuan-tzu ^ *k ftp Kuang-te Kuang-yu-she Kung-yuan Kuo P i n g - c h ' i n g L 1 i - h u a - t a - k u Li-mao huan t ' a i - t z u L i n Ch 'ung c h i u - t i e n yeh - t * an L i n Ch'ung t ' a -h s t ieh L i u - s h i h n i e n - t a i t i - i - c h ' u n L i u T ' i e n - y u n l o - c h l i L o u - t ' a i - h u i Lu Chih-chen Lu H s i u - c h ' i n g Lu-wei c h ' i n g c h ' i n g $ a a Ma J u - f e i me i -hua- ta -ku Mi - s h i h hs iang-hui 'jfik h%_^^\ ^b-Ming B>£] n a n - t z ' u P pai Pai -she-chuan Pi-sheng-hua p iao pien-wen p i n g - t an mu-yu-shu 6 pao-chlian ^ ^ P ' i - P ' a | | p ' i ng -hua y^-p s San-hs iao * ~ •=» > san-hs ien TJZ^  536 San-huang fe Shanghai - k : Shangha i - sh ih p ' i n g - t ' a n k a i - c h i n h s i eh -hu i _ j t r _ Lb , § £ %l£$r Shangha i - sh ih p ' i n g - t ' a n - t ' u a n shang-shou K sheng Sh i h - ch i n g 1^4"v^5. Shou - t ' ang P shu-ch ' ang "jfe; >e shu-she 537 shuo-shu shuang-tang shuo-ching Su-chou Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n kung-tso-che hs ieh -hu i = £ ^ J £ J L ^ | £ ^ Su-chou p ' i n g - t ' a n - t ' u a n Sung Szu-an szu-pa i T ta-shu Tai-y 'u fen-kao 1 i ^ tan 0 " tan - tang 4t T'ang «2, t ' a o - chen t i e n - t z u T ' i e n Ju - ch ' eng Tsa i - sheng-yuan tso Tun-huang t z ' u - h u a T ' i en - yu -hua 4% i ^ 4*£ Tu Shih-niang j " - ^ j t -7. w wa-tzu Wang Chou-shih Wang Shi h-ch ' l ian Wang Yiieh-o Wei Han-ying Wu S o - c h ' i n g Wu Tiao-mei 18 Wu-yen ku - sh ih -30L. ^ ti. y a - t z ' u Yang Chen Yang J e n - l i n Yang Yu-chen Yangtze Yao Hsiang-chang Yao Shih-chang I Yang Chen-yen ^ J 5 Yen H s u e h - t ' i n g y i n g mai kuan- tzu Y i ng - y i ng pa i - yueh Y u - c h ' i n g - t ' i n g YU Hsiu-shan yuan Yuan y u e h - t ' i n g - t a - k u 

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