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An analysis of Beaver Indian and Alaskan Eskimo myths Marach, Veronica 1976-02-21

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AN ANALYSIS OF BEAVER INDIAN AND ALASKAN ESKIMO MYTHS A COMPARATIVE APPROACH by VERONICA MARACH A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 1976 (c) Veronica Marach In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. n c Anthropology and Sociology Department of OJ  The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date fU^J^ **  /cm ii ABSTRACT The methods of analysis of Pierre and Elli Kongas Maranda, Robert P. Armstrong and Vladimir Propp were tested by applying them to two sets of corpora. The corpora consist of ten Beaver Indian myths and ten Alaskan Eskimo myths.'""' The abstracts generated by each method of analysis were then compared and contrasted with each other. The introduction delimited the field of oral tradition, especially that of myth and presented a historical discussion of the methods of folkloric analysis commencing with functionalism. The three methods of analysis were compared with Piaget's theory of structuralism. Each method was also discussed in terms of Levi-Strauss' definition of logic. Each analyst's method of determining the component parts of a myth were examined. Finally the introduction included an outline of conclusions reached in this study, and posed several questions, the answers' to which becam® apparent in the succeeding chapters. The three chapters following the introduction were Propp's, Armstrong's and the Marandas' analysis. Each chapter described the analyst's approach and included the analysis of the Beaver Indian and the Alaskan Esmimo myths and their findings. Included also was a comparison and contrast of previous results and a discussion in terms of the analysts' general rules of procedure. Finally the results were examined in terms of Piaget's con cept of structuralism, and in conjunction with this,, their logic discussed in terms of Levi-Strauss's concept as outlined in the introduction. The conclusion drew together the findings of the preceeding chapters. It compared and contrasted the results of each method of analysis, discusses the inherent logic and kind of structuralism applied as defined by Piaget. This final section also examined each culture through the dif ferent analytical approaches. iii . ... The-Marandas' method of analysis revealed more about the Beaver and Alaskan cultures than did Propp's and Armstrong's method of analysis.; ". . With regards to the Beaver culture, Propp's method of analysis focused attention on lack of food, cannibalism and kidnapping. Beaver cultures also put great emphasis on winning through the use of cunning and trickery as opposed to the use of force. Punishment rather than reward was often employed to conclude.a myth. With regards to the Alaskan culture, Propp's method of analysis brought attention to the concern over a lack of people,. Villainous actions revolved around kidnapping. Force was not used unless necessary and in defense. Great emphasis was placed on reward rather than punishment at the conclusion of a myth. With regards to the Beaver culture, Armstrong's method of analysis emphasized killing in terms of resistance and attack.. Information getting ' was also.considered important, as was the acceptance or avoidance of one's obligations. With regards to the Alaskan culture, Armstrong's method of analysis also .emphasized, information getting. The acceptance of one's obligations also seemed important.. Few concrete statements were made about either culture based on Armstrong's method of analysis. The Marandas' method of analysis helped reveal a great deal.about both cultures. For example, in the Beaver culture the concept of time was noted; kin relationships were emphasized; the conflict over loyalty to blood relatives as opposed to non blood relatives was brought out; rules regarding marriages were implied; the fact that the Bear has special respect and a place in their lives was brought out; rules on incest were implied; we were 3 iv given some insight on how food is preserved and prepared; rules with regards to. cannabalism were also implied} the subject of dreaming, of powerful medicine and the importance of the spirit helper was brought out; the land . was part of the people and they would go to war over the threat of losing their land.. Finally, the different spheres of the universe were emphasized in the corpus, "such as the sky world, land and the underworld. The place ment-of natures elements, ie. sun, moon, etc, are central to the culture as their memory and daily routines are based on them. Deep messages were realized in the Beaver culture. Such questions as man's origin,'born from one or two, the finality of death and rebirth versus resurrection were posed. In the Alaskan culture the concept of time was also noted; emphasis was given to the heavenly bodies, such as the sun, moon and nature's elements,,, such?'as the wind and rain. These played an intricate role in their everyday life, so much so that often inanimate objects were personified,.. . The different spheres such as sky world, land and underworld were also emphasized in.the corpusthe importance of the family was made apparent; who makes marriage decisions and rules with regards to marriage and divorce were implied; authority was. also a subject that was important in the culture^ as was the concept of. a non-hierarchial leadership; the importance of magic powers or of spirit powers were also brought out in the corpus. Deep messages were brought out in the Alaskan myths as well, and concerned questions such as man's origin and the finality of death. There seemed to be more contradictions in the Alaskan myths;than in the Beaver myths. For example, statements regarding authority versus a non-hierarchial leadership. This may be due to the fact that the Alaskan myths were taken from a larger geographical area than were the Beaver myths. 4 V Furthermore, the myth, Adventures of Raven, did not seem to fit, in with the other Alaskan myths, and was perhaps borrowed. Thus, the Mararidas' method of analysis was shown to be the more structured in its theory and more productive in its practice.,. This method of analysis helped give many insights into the Beaver and Alaskan culture and has revealed some profound underlying messages. VI CONTENTS ABSTRACT I INTRODUCTION 1 II APPLICATION OF PROPP'S METHOD OF ANALYSIS 1. Introduction 23 2.i) Analysis of Beaver Myths 29 ii) Results of Beaver Analysis 53 3-i) Analysis of Alaskan Myths 66 ii) Results of Alaskan Analysis 88 4.ij Comparison and Contrast of Results 9ii) General Discussion of Analysis 111 III APPLICATION OF ARMSTRONG'S METHOD OF ANALYSIS 1. Introduction 2.i) Analysis.of Beaver Myths ii) Results.of Beaver Analysis 3..i) Analysis.of Alaskan Myths ii) Results of Alaskan Analysis 4.i) Comparison and Contrast, of Results ii') General Discussion of Analysis IV APPLICATION OF MARANDAS' METHOD OF ANALYSIS 1. Introduction 214 2.i) Analysis of Beaver Myths 222 ii) Results of Beaver Analysis 263.i) Analysis of Alaskan Myths 282 ii) Results of Alaskan Analysis 313 4»i) Comparison and Contrast of Results 331 ii) General Discussion of Analysis 348 V CONCLUSION 367 BIBLIOGRAPHY 388 APPENDICES I & II 390 129 132 158 166 187 193 199 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose of this thesis is two-fold. First, the operational approaches to myths of Pierre and Elli Kongas Maranda, Robert P. Armstrong, and Vladimir Propp shall be tested by applying them to two sets of corpora,.. Second, the abstracts generated by each method of analysis shall be compared and contrasted with each other. One corpus consists of ten Alaskan Eskimo myths compiled by Ruth McCorkle and published by Robert D. Seal in 1958. The other corpus used con sists of ten Beaver Indian myths selected at random from those collected by Robin Ridington in 1966. Before describing each operational approach and its application to the corpora, we shall define the field of oral tradition,, particularly that of myths, and then briefly introduce some of the important perpetrators of folkloric exploration. Although Propp, Armstrong and the Marandas are in cluded among these, their interpretations of folklore will be discussed in chapters 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Next, the development of the different analytical approaches shall be outlined giving the reader a general picture of where each method of analysis discussed here fits into the overall"history of the development of folkloric analysis. The study of folklore as a branch of cultural anthropology is fairly recent, and many people often use the terms folklore, folktales,,, myths and legends indiscriminately. Folklore includes fairy tales,, myths, legends, folktales., riddles, songs, jokes, or any other oral narrative that is pur poseful and passed on from generation to generation. Carvalho-Neto dif ferentiates between folklore, ethnology, and ethnography by defining the characteristics of a folkloristic act: it is cultural, belongs to any people,. is anonymous, non-institutionalized, old, functional and prelogical. The ethnographic act, he says, has all these characteristics but anonymity and non-institutionalization. In this way he is able to illustrate that folklore does not study culture as a whole, but instead as a specific type of cultural act. (Carvalho-Neto, 1971:91)• Boas questions whether folklore mirrors society or compensates for lacks in that society. Bascom thinks that folklore is important in composing the culture of a people. It sanctions and validates religious,, social, political, economic and educational institutions.* At the same time folklore provides socially approved outlets against.the restrictions which the sustaining institutions impose upon the individual within that culture, (Dundes, 1965:277). Dundes, in an opinion similar to Bascom' s,,; says the function of folklore is to educate the young, promote a feeling of group solidarity, provide socially approved ways of establishing a class hierarchy,, act as a vehicle.of social protest, escape from reality and convert dull work into play. (Dundes, 1965:277). Since we are testing three operational approaches to myths,, let us consider Malinowski's and other anthropologists views in regards to myths,.. Malinowski draws a simple but clear distinction between myths., legends, and tales, A tale is.a seasonal performance and an act of sociability., a legend is. a semi-historical account of the past, A myth, he declares, is the most important category of folklore. The myth is employed when an important rite ceremony, social or moral rule demands justification* Furthermore, he sees it as a statement of primeval reality which exists in contemporary life, and a charter for social action. The function if fulfills is closely related to a tradition which strengthens and endows it with a greater value and prestig 3 by tracing it back to a more elevated and more supernatural, existence,. Moreover, he sees the function of a myth as codifying belief, safeguarding and enforcing morality, and vouching for the efficiency of ritual* Myths contain practical rules for the guidance of man,. They also record incon sistencies in his history, Malinowski claims the importance of myth is..its character of a retrospective and ever present live actuality in a culture.. It is not a fictitious story nor a historical account of the past,. Myth functions where there is a sociological strain, a difference,in rank and power. Furthermore, myth presents the idea of fate, of the inevitable, and depicts the yearning for immortality and a resignation to the transcieney of life (Malinowski, 1954:143-148). Eliade, too, conceives myth as a complex cultural reality that explains how such a reality came into being. He alleges that myths describe the many and sometimes dramatic appearances of the sacred or supernatural phenomena of the world. He sees the actors in myths as supernatural beings., i and says that myths relate not only to the origins of the world,, plants,, animals and man, but also to the.primeval events in consequence of which . man became.what he is today mortal, sexed, and organized in a society,. Eliade.also states that myth is always related, to creation and therefore if the mythology of a culture is understood, so is the creation of that culture., He sees, the function of myth as revealing models and giving meaning to the world and human life. It is through myth that the world can be comprehended as an articulate, intelligible and significant cosmos. Myths reveal by whom, why,.and under which circumstances a people were created,, They furthermore compose sacred history, and serve as a reminder that glorious events still partly recoverable, once took place on earth. (Eliade, 1968:5-6). 4 Burridge interprets myths as reservoirs or articulate thought on the level of the collective, and both he and Eliade see the purpose of myth as providing a logical model capable of overcoming a real contradiction.. Mary Douglas explains.this same idea in a different way*: She sees the function of myth as.portraying the contradictions of the unsatisfactory compromises which compose social life. The nature of mythy she states.,, is to mediate these contradictions. Levi-Strauss claims that "myth is the same as language,, but at the same time different from it, functioning on a high level of abstraction, where meaning succeeds practically at'taking off from.the linguistic ground on which it keeps rolling." (Levi-Strauss, 19b7:206)>. Furthermore,,.he says that myth always refers to historical events but that their operational value lies in the specific.patterns described, which are timeless -— it.explains past, present, arid future. This concept is best•explained by Levi-Strauss' use of langue and parole. In any culture a langue is a given; a total system or word convention and usages, a frame of reference. Parole, as grammatical conventions, with tones and accents, is selected from the total system of langue, and by placing these in a particular order.y information is transmitted. The idea that something equivalent to langue and parole is alike in one sense yet opposite and interdependent in the other,;, also is found in many other anthropologists' writings. Myth, Levi-Strauss says,, is an intermediary between langue and parole. More specifically,, he finds a meaning in the way.in which the elements of the myth are combined;. These elements or gross constituent units, or mythemes,, obtained by breaking down a myth, into its shortest possible sentences, are found at the sentence level'. 5 Each mytheme contains a relation, and true constituent units are bundles of these relations as opposed to considering each relation between the gross constituents units separately. Levi-Strauss proceeds to explain that "relations pertaining to the same bundle may appear diachronically at remote intervals, but when they have been grouped together the myth has been reorganized according to a different time referent of a new nature:,, corres ponding to the prerequisite of the initial hypothesis —— namely a two dimensional time referent which is simultaneously diachronic and synchronic,, and which accordingly integrates the characteristics of langue on-the one. hand and those of parole on the other" (Levi-Strauss, 1967:208);. Leach, as well as Levi-Strauss, understands that there are certain binary concepts or principles that are considered to be a part of man's nature, and.which are found in many anthropologist's writings. According to Leach, system•(parts of speech) opposes syntagm (sentences),, metaphor (recognition of .similarities) opposes metonomy (recognition of contiguities),, paradigmatic series oppose syntagmatic chains. In reference to this, then, Leach does not see the idea of binary principles as new,. Furthermore, he points out that.Frazer's theory of homeopathic magic, based on the law of similarity, opposes his theory of contagious magic, based on,the law on contact, and is rather similar to Levi-Strauss' distinction between langue and.parole. Leach brings together all the different forms of terminology that have been used to explain the principle of binary opposition found in structural analysis. He indicates that Barthes opposes system and syntagm,, system referring to a complete language, and also to denote the parts of speech of that language, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc., and the term 6 syntagm referring to an assemblage of non verbal signs, corresponds to a sentence in a verbal language. Leach points out that "where Barthes opposes system and syntagm, the corresponding contracts in Levi-Strauss are metaphor and metonym or sometimes paradigmatic series and syntagmatic chain respectively, whereas the former derive from language.,- and the latter from speech. (Leach, 1970:48). Furthermore, Leach finds that Jakobson believed that metaphor relied upon the recognition of similarity while metonymy relied upon the recognition of contiguity. Leach then,- points out that "Fraser*s homeopathic contagious distinction is practically identical to the Jakobson-Levi-Strauss metaphoric-metonymic distinction" (Leach, 1970:49) We can also add Levi-Strauss' two dimensional time referent which integrates system and syntagm, or parole and langue. Levi-Strauss calls these synchronic and diachronic, respectively. Diachronic organization of a myth arranges its components in historical sequenceswhile the synchronic organization enables one to arrange the components without this particular time referent. He illustrates this concept by employing the analogy of a musical score, which is read both diachronically along the horizontal axis and then synchronically along the vertical axis. The score becomes synchronic when both the .horizontal and the vertical axis are read simultaneously to transform a one dimensional interpretation of myth to a two dimensional, interpretation. Or more simply a synchronic perspective of something may be Obtained by reading two graphic coordinates simultaneously^. As we can see here then, a diachronic perspective should serve as a point of departure in any investigation„ Putting the above together, we have two groups of dimensions - the metaphoric-paradigmatic-similarity-synchronic and the metonymic-syntagmatic-contiguous-diachronic. 7 . One of our concerns as analysts is with the nature of the logic inherent in the method of analysis. Levi-Strauss searches ..for the principles of thought formation which are universally valid for all human minds, and sees myths as a collective dream, capable of interpretation so as to reveal its hidden meaning. He claims that "man has always been thinking equally well; the improvement lies not in the progress of man's mind, but in the discovery of new areas to which man may apply himself1'.-*. (Levi-Strauss, 1967:227).. Boas also said that there is no primitive mentality, but basic mental pro cesses in the world. Burridge sees Levi-Strauss as attempting to.illustrate the universality of the process of articulate thought, and understands him. as saying that "symbols, things and particular relations may differ from culture to culture but the address of the human mind towards them is the same" (Burridge, 1967:100). According to Levi-Strauss it is this sameness found at that level of abstraction which resolves different relations into cor responding relations that constitutes the structure.. All three methods of analysis discussed here are at a different stage of sophistication in terms of the logic applied';, Additionally all three methods of analysis are a form of structural analysis as opposed to functional analysis. Levi-Strauss states that the paradigmatic structural, analysis comes closest to employing transcendental logic;.. A short his torical discussion of the development of these approaches, commencing with functionalism and an ensuing discussion of the logic involved, will clarify this.... Functionalism concentrates more on individual symbolic meanings rather, than the special structural positions which give individual symbols their meanings. It cannot thus apply the principle of substitutability, 8 unravel transformations or disclose rules (Maranda and Kbngas Maranda, 1971:XVii). Radcliffe-Brown sees functionalism as "the attempt to see, social life of a people as a whole, as a functional unity.." (Radcliffe-Brown, 1952:185). He distinguishes between structure and function by using an animal organism as an analogy.? He explains that the animal organism is an integrated living group of cells, existing as a whole, and arranged in a structure. In other words, the total sets of relations within the organism form the structure, and it is through the continuous functioning of the orga nism that the continuity of the structure is preserved (Radcliffe-Brown, 1952:179)* Carvalho-Neto quotes Radcliffe-Brown as saying that function is the contribution made by part of an activity to the entire activity of which it is a part. Malinowski, who, according to Carvalho-Neto is the originator of the functionalist school, claims function to be the role which the very institution plays in the total scheme of culture, where "institution is any fixed model of thought or conduct upheld by a group of individuals (society) that can be communicated, that enjoys general accept ance, and whose violation or change produces a certain disquiet in the indi vidual or the group" (Carvalho-Neto, 1971:37). Folklore has a function in a. culture, and myths have a function within the folklore of that culture,, but we are not only considering the activities that either myth or folklore performs .within its particular frame of reference. We are interested in considering both the. functions and their sets of relations-. This, in other words,.entails a large overview making consideration of the relative positions.of.individual sets of relations possible. Functionalism tends to concentrate on individual symbolic meanings rather than on the special structural position which gives these symbols their meanings (Leach, 1970: )• 9 The starting point of formalism occurred when a concern with the literary developed into a concern with a narrative's distinguishing features, or motifs. Pure formalism at first ignored form in order to comprehend con tent. Content analysis, or formalism focused on the component parts them selves, which were obtained by a sophisticated awareness of the comparative implications. In other words, a method of contingency analysis was used in determining,the relative content of a myth. Firstly the categories involving empirical.considerations were determined, this usually consisting of a com plete text or. a particular passage of it. Then the items searched for and their occurrences within the text were noted by symbols. Significant con tingencies were extracted by comparing the percentages of the pimber of occurrences of the noted items and symbols. A contingency ratio thus re vealed, the interrelationships of these significant contingencies. Content analysis depends on its categories for validity, and the validity of the categories selected depends upon the analysts skill is separating these different categories (Sebeok, 1957:132). Sebeok differentiated between con tent and structural analysis. In content analysis the investigator makes statements about the .meaningsof the component parts of a tale,, while in structural analysis he determines the relationship of. these components parts to that of the .whole. He sees the distinction between the two techniques as. lying mainly, in the presence or absence of strict criteria of relevance, Richmond proposed that "content analysis, which involves relatively loose criteria of relevance, is on a much lower level of abstraction than is structural analysis, thus appearing vaguer, more fluid, more arbitrary,, more subjective," (Sebeok, 1957:132). Since a fairly large amount of subjectivity is incorporated into content analysis from the outset, it cannot be reproduced or tested very easily. 10 According to Nathorst, Levi-Strauss sees formalism drawing a sharp distinction between form and content, as only form is considered compre hensible and lends itself to analysis. For example, Kluekholm considers the advantage in studying form to be that the results can be tested and verified;empirically. The formalistic approach helps to reveal features common to many of its divergent genres. He states that content may vary but. form remains stable. Erlich contented that formalism became structuralism when the formalists disagreed with the concept of form versus content which cut folktale into two parts a crude content and a superimposed form:. Instead of-being explored as separate entities, the parts of a tale were' viewed as components of a dynamically integrated whole.. Levi-Strauss thus claims that in structuralism the opposition arbitrarily introduced in formalism has been overcome. Form and content are of the same nature and are mutually dependent upon one another. Since the analysis under consideration are basically viewed from a structuralist perspective, a more detailed examination of structuralism is. in order. Piaget sheds a great deal of light on this complex subject.. Firstly he, states, that "what structuralism is really after is to discover natural structures" (Piaget, 1970:30). He states that any kind of a ' structure, whether mathematical, biological, psychological, etc.; is composed of three basic ideas;, a) the idea of wholeness,, b) of transformation and c)..of self-regulation. He goes on to say that all structuralists differen tiate between structures., wholes, and aggregates, "composites formed of elements that are independent of the complexes into which they enter", (Piaget., 1970:7)• .The elements of a structure are subordinated to laws and it is in terms of these laws that the structure is defined. Furthermore, 11 the properties of the .whole are different from the elements which do not exist in isolation. Piaget further clarifies the idea of wholeness when..he points out that there is another type of whole other.than the atomistic compounding of prior elements, or emergent totalities.,, as with these two.options there is a risk of bypassing the very important question of the nature the laws of composition of a whole (Piaget, 1970:7-©*)'. The concept of this other kind of whole is operational strucuralism,.. In this the. relationships among the elements are the prime considerations,, rather than the elements themselves. In other words, "the logical procedures by which the whole is formed.are primary" (Piaget, 1970:8-9)».. Piaget states that if we look at structuralism in this light, we can avoid the trap of choosing "between.strucureless genesis on the one hand and ungenerated wholes or forms on the other". (Piaget, 1970-9). With regards to transformations, Piaget relates this idea to the idea of wholeness, by stating that the character of structured wholes de^ pends on their laws of composition which are defined as governing the transformations of the .system which they structure. (Piaget, 1970:10)? Furthermore, Piaget says that because the elements, of a structure undergo transformation or change, it is easy to think of the laws of transformation as. immutable, or innate, especially if one is not thinking of the whole in terms.of operational.structuralism. They should be thought of as being simultaneously structured and structuring, for although they are stable they are still subject to change. The third basic property of structures is self regulation,, which entails self maintenance and closure. Piaget believes that "the trans formations inherent in a structure never lead beyond the system but always engender elements that belong to it and preserve its laws" (Piaget, 1970:14)* 12 Self regulation can be achieved in three ways, noted in order of increasing complexity.. Firstly we have an operational system which is a perfect re- . gulation because it excludes errors before they are made;. Secondly.we have those transformations which are governed by laws which are not operations because they are not entirely reversible, but depend upon the interplay of anticipation, correction and are called feedback. Thirdly Piaget points out that "there are regularities in the non-technical sense of the word, which depend upon far simpler structural mechanisms, on rhythnic mechanisms such as pervade biology and human life at every level;.; Rhythm too is self-regulating, by virtue of symetries and repetitions" (Piaget, 1970:16),. With this in mind, let us consider what Piaget says regarding structuralism in the social sciences. He differentiates between two kinds of structuralism —— global and analytical. He sees global structuralism as dealing with emergent .totalities, where the whole is taken as a primary concept.,, or atomistic compounding, where a whole arised from the union of various elements.. He sees analytical structuralism as searching for the details of transfor mational interactions.(Piaget, 197Q:97). To quote Piaget, "whereas global structuralism holds to systems of observable relations and interactions., which are regarded as sufficient unto themselves, the peculiarity of authentic (analytic) structuralism is that it seeks to explain such empirical systems by postulating "deep" structures from.which the former are in some manner derivable. Since structures in this sense of the word are ultimately logical - mathematical models of the observed social relations, they, do not themselves belong to the realm of "fact" ... The search for deep structures is a direct consequence of the interest in the details of transformational laws (Piaget, 1970:98). 13 All three methods of analysis discussed here are at different stages.in terms of the logic applied. Piaget sees the structuralism of Levi-Strauss .as analytical as opposed to global, Levi-Strauss illustrated the development of progressive change in the application of these principles of logic in his article "The Deduction of the Crane" in Structural Analysis of Oral. Tradition,, edited by Pierre andElli Kongas Maranda* (Levi-Strauss states that.the paradigmatic structural analysis comes closest to employing transcendental logic). Levi-Strauss sees structural analysis or the logic applies to investigate myths as deductive, as opposed to inductive. He differentiates between, two .types of deduction direct or indirect empirical deduction and transcendental deduction. Empirical deduction is based on observation and experiments — on the perception of similarities and contiguities,. Direct, empirical.deduction is based on analogies, indirect on an inversion of these analogical contents. Transcendental deduction is based on the following through of associations. The process by which indirect empirical deductions, becomes transcendental deduction is sometimes confusing. Before transcendental deduction can.be employed, an indirect empirical deduction must be made, whether, based on accurate observation or imagination:*, Trans cendental deduction,, states Levi-Strauss, does not rest on the truth or falseness of a situation, but stems from ah awareness of a logical necessity; it rests on a relation.between concepts no longer bound to external reality but connected according to their compatibilities and incompatibilities in the architecture of.the mind" (Levi-Strauss, 1966:407). In other words, the awareness of a certain logical necessity, that of attributing certain properties to a given subject, takes the indirect empirical deduction one 14 step further because it has previously connected this subject with other properties, or characteristics on the basis of a set of correlative analogies, and,then inverted them. Thus transcendental deduction acquires the features a posteriori.of empirical deduction. Leach also distinguishes two analytical trends in the structural study of folklore, one from Levi-Strauss and the other from Propp,:, or one trend.using.transcendental deduction and the other using empirical deduction respectively. . Propp's study lays out the linear sequential structure of Russian_fairy tales, whereas Levi-Strauss finds the structure of the corpus in question in paradigms or minimal units as well as in their syntagmatic combinations to form sequences (Leach, 1970:50)., Dundes further explains or interprets what. Leach has said and further clarifies the difference between the two types of a structural analysis that have been mentioned. -Firstly we have Proppian analysis which is the formal organization ©f a myth as.described by chronologically ordering rhe linear events in the text.. This, process is called syntagmatic which is taken.from the idea of syntax in the study of language in reference to Levi-Strauss' concept of parole and lahgue. Secondly we have.a type of structural analysis which is based on a binary principle of opposition which underlies the myth. This latter type of analysis.is not. similar to: sequential analysis, but instead the elements are. taken out of a^ given order and are regrouped in one or more analytic schema, Dundes explains that Levi-Strauss calls these patterns or'organiza tions, in this kind., of structural analysis paradigmatic,, meaning borrowed from the.study of paradigms in the study of language... It is in this second type of analysis that oppositions are mediated and conflicts resolved through the employment of, as Levi-Strauss defines it, transcendental logic. 15 Furthermore, the linear sequential structure or manifest content.is the more obvious, the paradigmatic or latent structure is the more important.. (Dundes,. 1968:xii). Levi-Strauss emphasized that it is every analysts duty to penetrate, the superficial linear structure to the real underlying para digmatic schema. He also stated that the syntagmatic approach,, although duplicated more, easily, tends to be empirical and inductive,, while in. con- • trast, the paradigmatic approach, while difficult to replicate,, is specu lative and deductive. Dundes thinks that the subject of content is one of. the most importantdifferences in emphasis.between syntagmatic .and.-para digmatic, .analysis. He. states that "where the text is isolated from its. social and cultural context, a formalisitc structural analysis, is as sterile as motif ...hunting and. word (Dundes, 1968:xii). Although Levi-Strauss tries to. relate the paradigms he finds to the world in general,,, it. is perhaps, too subjective. The...subjectivity must be contained within a more reliable framework, so that results obtained can be compared arid the analysis-re produced. ..Furthermore, paradigmatic analysis as applied by Levi-Strauss may fall into the trap of becoming timespace bound. For example,, the variables subject to change are the corpora and the culture in consideration.. There is. nothing that.can be sued, as a point of reference as his principle of binary oppositions would depend upon the analyst's interpretation in .re lation to..his own logical framework, and therefore, there is.no way of determining..the amount _of change in his method of analysis. The completeness and accuracy of this type of analysis may be proportionate.to the .amount and kind of the. analyst's knowledge of the culture in question,. as-'-well as the culture's relative and coincident position in a changing world., ..Mary..Douglas has an idea similar to the above. She states that structural, analysis cannot but reveal myths as synchronic structures 16 outside time. She finds that Levi-Strauss' analysis contain biases built into the methods of analysis and consequently feels that we cannot deduce anything from.the analysis about the attitudes to time prevailing in the cultures in question. If myths have an irreversible order which is signi ficant, this, part of the.meaning will escape the analysis,. She emphasizes that structural methods of analysis.should be tested against a background of known ethnographic material, so that we can see the thoroughness of the method., the relevance of the formulae, how it helps the understanding of the culture in question, and lastly the degree of replicability of the method. (Mary Douglas., 67:65). Dundes also notes the potential for error in. the. structuralist method when he says it is important that a text from ethnographic.material be. logically related to the culture in which the analysis is.applied. Since each, culture exhibits a certain logical frame work, to incorporate, a new concept from another logical framework,' sometimes it must first be translated into terminology that can be encompassed by the first.particular logical framework in question. Another translation back through the process should facilitate an accurate communication,. However, not all.concepts can be incorporated into all logical frameworks. Thus many, basic errors begin at this initial level, and are often compounded at further stages of their analysis, and an accurate conclusion or statement becomes impossible. Mary Douglas..sees two objectives in analyzing a piece of folklore,. The. first is to.analyse what has been said, (content) and the second is'to analyse the languages seen.as an instrument of what is said (form). These two.objectives aim at discovering a particular structure as opposed to being reductionist of yielding a compressed statement of the theme. She sees 17 Levi-Strauss as claiming to reveal the formal structure of myths but never putting aside his interest in what the myth discourse is about. Therefore, she .sees a reductionist tendency built into Levi-Strauss' structuralism. When..applying Levi-Strauss' method of structuralism the anthropologist must apply his prior knowledge of the culture to his analysis. This does little good if we know very little about the culture from which a myth is taken. Melville Jacob's viewpoint is another Very relevant to this exercise.; He concludes that a normative or evaluative approach should be avoided because any. non-native of a specific culture lacks sufficient cultural background as well, as necessary heritage and aesthetic values to be able to give an accurate interpretation, of the approach as applied to that culture. ..The.field of oral tradition has been described, the main perpetra tor of folkloric exploration discussed, and an outline of the development of the different analytical approaches given from functionalism to structuralism.. We shall, now take.a more intense look at the three operational approaches and the two corpora to which they are applied as mentioned at the beginning of this introduction. ... An in depth.study of ten myths from each culture may reveal what is.not already, obvious from a subjective viewpoint, and might lend insight into, the„construction and narrative art of folktales. We believe that the aesthetic.value of a myth is not determined by any of its component parts in isolation, but by their synthesis into an integrated whole. The dismantling of a myth into its component parts for the purpose of discovering some general principal by which to explain the raison d'etre of a myth or of folktales in general, is characteristic of recent folkloric studies. These component parts that make up the whole of the myth have been 18 the object of study and are still of concern in the methods discussed here... In trying to. discover a. stable level on which these component parts can be worked raises a problem. On the one hand to what extent can we break down a myth without destroying a core that is vital to the culture in which.it is found,, yet on the other hand, in order to compare myths cross culturally a relatively constant and sophisticated level of abstraction must be obtained,. This, .includes a breakdown into component parts. Perhaps the abstracts generated.in.this analysis will reveal the interrelationships of these parts in relation to the entire whole, as well as determine a level of abstraction that avoids reducing a myth to only its component parts. The way in which the component parts of a myth are determined is of paramount importance. Therefore any anthropologists determination of such should be.made clear at this point. Conceptually these component parts are single incidents or actions that can have an interdependent existence. The following, analogy may exemplify.this concept. Each component part of a tale is similar to a sentence structure subject, verb and object as opposed respectively to. actor action..and actor object. In other words it,is each action of the dramatis, personae that .defines the component parts of the tale,; The Marandas reveal their concept of single incidents to be verbal propositions, contingent upon the reduction of the tale into separate actions revolving around the first criterion or main actor. Either of these verbal propositions^can either exist.by themselves as an episode,, depending upon the mediating aspect, within the myth. Each episode is described by a model; This model is., contingent upon the final outcome of a particular episode as opposed to its initial state. Each step through this transition is described by a single incident or verbal proposition and the outcome of each episode is 19 determined-by the.use of a mediator which is "the especially fitted agent which ensures.the passage from an initial state to a different final outcome" (Maranda, E.K....and P., 1969:8). . . . , Armstrong describes these single incidents as units of behaviour, or an act"which consists of three parts, an actor, an action and another actor who.is the recipient of the action. Lastly, Propp refers to these single incidents as the smallest narrative units or motifs, which are de scribed in. terms of their functions. "Function is understood as an act of a character, defined from the point of view of its significance for the course, of the action" (Propp, 1968:21). In other words, the functions of the dramatis personae are the basic components of a tale, A number of functions, constitute a move, several of which may be found in one tale. Mediation, or the connective incident, as Propp defines it is also pertinent to.this method of analysis although used in a slightly different context than in. Marandas' method of analysis. In the Marandas' analysis the medi-ative aspect is. necessary for determining the type of model, it is not . necessary for each move in. Propp1s analysis. More emphasis is put upon the mediative aspect.in the Marandas' method of analysis than in the other two types, of analysis. However, the important point is that the characteristics for a. move, in Propp's analysis are similar to those for an episode in Marandas' analysis, The difference lies in the fact that episodes are described by. five of these descriptive, types of models (0 to IV inclusive) and.there can be.any number of these in a tale, depending upon the mediation in the tale. Also,, moves are. described in a numerical linear sequence., 1,, 11, 111,., etc.. There, can be many, moves in one tale, but usually the number of moves depends upon more functions than just mediation; However, the difference mentioned in each method of analysis are inherent in each. Propp's methods 20 seem.to be more linear in comparison to Marandas' and lends itself to pro ducing fewer moves than Marandas1 analysis does episodes. Since each individual method of analysis will be discussed in detail at the beginnings of chapters 2, 3 and 4, a very brief outline of each shall suffice at this point. Marandas' method of analysis.is based on the excerpt in abridged form, "Structural Models in Folklore" from Structural Models in Folklore and Transformational Essays by E. Kongas Maranda and P. Maranda. Each myth' is separated into.episodes, established by the reduction of the tale into different actions or verbal propositions revolving around the main actor, that dramatis personae who is mentioned most often in the myth.,, who is dis covered, through the means of a frequency and contingency table, Each verbal proposition contains a complete act within itself, and in order to become an episode, a reason to.attempt mediation, or an attempt itself (whether successful, or not) must exist. Thus, if the tale is long, there may be as many^as.twelve episodes. After all the tales have been subjected to this method of analysis, .the models abstracted are compared and contrasted,.. Armstrong.uses a simplified metalanguage to interpret folktales. His ..model used as the., basis for the segmentation of the myths is divided, into, six basic and general categories, such as objectives pertaining to permission, and prohibition, resistance and attack, the conduct of affairs., etc These are stated in terms of units of behaviour which consist of three, parts,..ah actor designated by X, and action and an additional actor.,, designated by Y, towards or against whom the action is directed'. A new act is initiated when there is any change in the actor or action constellation of the tale. The main unit of concern contained within the nine basic 21 categories is designated by a symbol of action or what Armstrong calls dramatic behaviour. These symbols, once abstracted from the texts,, form metalinguistic strings. . These are.then compared and contrasted with each other. The..final method of analysis is taken from Propp, The Morphology of the Folktale. .In his type of analysis the organization of a tale is described as following the chronological order of the linear sequence of elements in the text. This differs from Armstrong's method in that Armstrong's categories are not necessarily applied in a chronological order,, whereas this is essential to a replicable interpretation of Propp,. His method of analysis utilizes the alphabet following A through Z. The functions of A to Z and variations of them represent the acts of the dramatis personae defined in relationship to the cause of the action. For instance the A's and variations Of, it. represent, different forms of yillany, the B's and its variations re present, different forms of mediation, arid so on. The myths are also separated into different moves, these being contingent upon each new act of villany or each new lack.. Functions that end a move are those employed as a denouement., such.as marriage, reward, the.liquidation of misfortunes or escape from pur suit. The series of metalinguistic strings thus abstracted are compared and contrasted. . The conclusion will contain three different considerations;., Firstly, each analyses method of-analysis will be compared and contrasted in relation to what the. other methods reveal, and the questions posed in the introduction. Secondly, the corpus of Beaver and Alaskan myths will be examined separately as seen from each analyst's viewpoint. Thirdly, the three analytical frameworks 22 will be compared and contrasted. What each approach makes explicit as seen through the application to two different corpora will be made apparent.. Thus the abstracts generated in each.case can be contrasted and compared with the other two. Some questions to be kept in mind while working the analyses are whether or.not the methods of analysis reveal the rules governing formation, organization and development of a myth, and the mechanisms for shortening or lengthening a myth, arid the kind of structuralism applied,. Also we might be aware whether or not the analyses reveal universal questions such as the finality of death, the origin of man, whether on a conscious or unconscious level.. Hopefully the results obtained may lead to a fuller understanding of the problems of composition and dissemination of oral, tradition,.. The three methods of analysis were chosen because each separately supplied, a foundation for its further practice and examination,.,.. These approaches invite application to corpora and therefore criticism as well. They served for a time to define legitimate problems and methods of a research field for. succeeding generation of folklorists. Furthermore,.the three methods of analysis.have been sufficiently unprecedented to attract.an enduring group of adherents away from competing types of folklore analyses,./ Simultaneously, they are open ended enough to leave many problems for the practitioners, to resolve. Propp's, Armstrong's and the Marandas' analyses help form a base in their field, without which progress in this area would be severely retarded.. 23 CHAPTER II APPLICATION OF PROPP'S METHOD OF ANALYSIS II 1.) INTRODUCTION The title of Propp's book, Morphology of the Folktale, gives us the first understanding of his concept of the study of folklore, as "the word morphology means the study of forms. In botany, the term morphology means the study of the component parts of a plant, of their relationship,to each other and to the whole —— in other words, the study of a plant's structure" (Propp, 1968:XXV). Propp's method of analysis is derived from a group of fairy tales contained in a collection of four hundred texts by A. N. Afansev. Fairy tales, according to Propp are those tales classified by Aarne tinder., numbers 200 to 749 or "any development proceeding from the function villany (A) or lack.(a) through intermediary function to marriage (w) or to other functions employed as a denouement" (Propp, 1968:92),, Propp's method of separating the tale into its component parts is somewhat vague. Therefore, this should be clarified or standardized now in relation to the following applications a of his analysis,... Propp's tales are separated into.thirty-one functions. Function, according to Propp is "an act of a character defined from the point of view of its significance for the course of the action of a tale as a whole" (Propp, 1968:21), Moreover, "functions are composed of various themes, a series of motifs, something organically whole,..that can be singled out from a number of other themes and studied independently" (Propp, 1968:9). However, a theme is composed of a subject, verb and predicate and the subject and object define the theme while the verb forms the composition. Propp states that the extraction of themes from a tale is left to the analyst, since purely objective abstrac tion has not yet been refined. 24 Motifs, according to Propp, are the simplest narrative unit that represents a logical whole, and a complex Of such compose a theme (Propp, 19.68:12-18). Since motifs can move in and out of themes., Propp states that motifs are of a primary concern, themes secondary* Although Propp states that motifs.can be further reduced to different elements., which do not represent a logical, whole, it is with motifs that he concerns himself.. These make up the component parts of a tale. In his analysis the makeup of the. theme.was used as a guideline in determining the motifs,. Since one motif is used from each function for each move in setting out the linear sequence of a tale, this is a rather stable and replicable method of de termining motifs. Propp begins is analysis by defining the method and materials.,. His first four rules are very important, and are as follows: l) "Functions of characters serve as stable, constant elements in a tale,, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled. They constitute the fundamental com ponents of a tale" Propp, 1968:21). The dramatis personae may change but their act ions.or functions do not (Propp, 1968:20). Thus, as Propp states,,, a. tale often, attributes identical actions to various characters,; What the dramatis personae do. is an important question. Propp states that the functions of. the dramatis personae are basic components of a tale,.. but the definition of them does not depend upon the. dramatis' personae who carries out the function, nor can.an action be defined separately from its place in the course of ..the. narration (pg.2l). In other words, the dramatis personae are like a catalyst, necessary for, but not affecting or becoming a part of the. outcome, because what.is done is of concern, rather than who does it,, or how. 2) "The number of functions known to the fairytale is limited" (Propp, 1968:21). As mentioned earlier, there are thirty-one functions, each 25 of. which contain a number of motifs. 3) "The sequence of functions is always identical" (Propp, 1968:22). This rule must be applied if we are to complete a uniform analysis. Two different dramatis personae can fulfill the .same function. This however would more than likely be found in two different places in.the myth. Also, we can find the same action at different places in a. tale. These two examples would constitute two different functions and therefore have two different meanings although.the actions and even the dramatis personae are the same.. Thus as Propp states,, the order of the functions found in the tale is.very important although he does allow that, there are a few exceptions to this rule. Furthermore,, he says that "the means by which functions are fulfilled influence one another and that identical forms adapt themselves to different functions:.:. A certain form is. transferred to. a different position, acquiring a new meaning,, or simultaneously retaining an. old one" (Propp, 1968:70)• Moreover, the sequence of functions is important because if, for instance,, a character such...'as a donor is missing from a tale, the form of his appearance can oftentimes be transferred to the next character in line,, 4) "All fairy tales are of one type in regard to their structure" (Propp, 1968:22)., In other words, tales with identical, functions can be considered as belonging to one type, and according to Propp, on this basis an index of types can be created. Propp continues the explanation of his method of analysis by erir-umerating the functions.of the dramatis personae.. He gives a brief summary of each function's essence.and its symbol. Some of these are described in the following paragraph. Propp's tale usually begins with a preparatory section, .the first of which is ah initial situation. Here the members of a family are enumerated 26 or the future, hero is introduced.. There are eight other morphological elements in the preparatory section,, all of which prepare the way for the most important function in the tale, villany or a lack. However., Propp does not include the initial situation, or a preliminary misfortune when he discusses his seven functions. Of these remaining functions he states that "all seven functions of this section are never encountered within one tale" and therefore an absence cannot be considered an omission (Propp, 19.68:108). Furthermore, Propp creates three sets of pairs within his section of eight, functions, interdiction and violation, reconnaissance and receipt of information, and deceitful persuasions arid submission to suchv By. means of these functions the actual movement of the tale is begun (Propp,..1968:30). . Since not all myths begin with, a misfortune,, some are considered to be at the. same state as a morphological equivalent, of seizure.., Propp points out that insufficiency, as does seizure, determines the next point in the complication (Propp, 1968:35). The second function, mediation., is also important as it brings the herb into the tale. Here Propp differen tiates between, hero seekers and victimized heroes. Seeker heroes usually have a search, as.their goal and leave home of their own accord. .Victimized heroes usually start on a jourriey and leave home willingly* An example will clarify the above. If _a Chief's daughter is kidnapped,, and the narrative follows a brother's search for her, the hero is the brother,, a seeker-herov However,.if the daughter is kidnapped and the thread of the narrative is linked to her fate, she. is a victimized hero. Propp emphasizes that the morphological significance of the hero is very important^ since his intentions create the .axis of the narrative. A hero he states, "is that character who either directly suffers from the action of the villain in.the complication (the one who senses some kind of lack) or who agrees to liquidate the 27 the misfortune or lack of another person. In the course of the action.the hero.is the person who is supplied with a magical agent and who makes use of it or is.served by it" (Propp, 1968:50). Another important group of functions are D (the first function of the.donor) E (reaction of the hero) and F (the acquisition or receipt of a magical agent), wherein the hero is tested, interrogated, etc., before he receives a magical agent or helper. Propp differentiates between.two types of connections, based on the form of transmission of a magical agent* Simply.put, in type 1 the donors are unfriendly or deceived, in type II the donors.are friendly and provisional. Propp notes that objects of transmission are.not necessarily connected to forms of transmissions,.. In other words, a horse is not always given, sometimes it is seized;., Propp carefully differentiates between the H (the heroes struggle with, the.villain) arid I (Victory oyer the villain) function and the M (difficult task) and N (resolution of a difficult task).-.. In distinguish ing ..between HI, MN or DEF Propp reminds us that it is possible to define a function according to Its consequences. He gives the following summation: "all tasks .giving rise to a search must be considered in terms of B, all tasks giving.rise. to.the receipt of a magical agent are considered as D. All other tasks are considered as M. (Propp, 1968:67),. The fairy tale reaches its climax with function K (initial misfor tune, or lack liquidated). From here the tale is usually brought to a close by. terminal functions such as K itself, or escape from pursuit,, Rs,; or marriage unless another move is initiated with another villany or lack,, Propp notes that many functions join together into one of seven spheres of action. These are the spheres of action of the ..villain,, which is composed of functions A (villany), H (fight with hero) and Pr (pursuit). 28 The other six are the sphere of action of the donor, of the helper, of a princess, the dispatcher, the hero, and the false hero. According to Propp, these spheres of action can be distributed among the tale charac teristics in three different ways. Firstly, the sphere of action corresponds to the characters involved; secondly, one character is involved in several spheres of action, and thirdly, a sphere of action can be shared by several characters (Propp., 1968:81). When. Propp discusses the tale as a.whole, he emphasizes that a development from A through H is considered as one move, arid each new villariy or lack.within the same tale constitutes a new move,. Propp states that singling out a move with exactitude is possible, although not always easy., as moves may interweave, repeat each other several times and so on.. These, highlights of Propp's method of analysis, as discussed above.,,, may be useful for reference when applying his analysis. 29 II 2. i PROPP, BEAVER ANALYSIS AND NOTES #1. The Frog and the Owl Move Initial situation introduction 1 AJ 1 H 1 § 1 C kidnapping of a person announcement of misfortune connectives consent to counteraction 1 T departure from dispatch of hero from home Old man Owl's daughter is missing Old Man Owl tells his wife his wife makes many comments Old Man Owl decides to ask Little Owl to help find her 1 *D other requests, with preliminary Little Owl asks for drymeat before helpless situation of person he leaves on his search making the request 1 E' request fulfilled 1 K F2 object of the search is pointed out Old Man Owl feeds him well Little Owl finds Old Man Owls daughter's footsteps leading into the lake but he is unable to follow them 1 TD departure (of the hero) Old Man Owl sends his son (second donor) to find his sister 1 E reaction of acting hero his dialogue with the other birds-, and the forewarning. Woodpecker Bird advises Owl Boy not to go to the end of the lake 30 Move 1 KF2 the object of the search is He hears his sister and tells his pointed out father where to find her 1 T departure of the real hero Old Man Owl leaves in search of his daughter His son leads Old Man Owl to where he heard his sister crying 1 GJ Hero is led 1 H Hero struggles with villain Old Man Owl fights with the Frog Chief to free his daughter 1 IJ victory over the villain Old Man Owl defeats Frog Chief 1 KF object of the search is captured return of the hero 19 IIAA declaration of war II Pr pursuit of hero II Rs rescue Old Man Owl seizes his daughter and escapes He returns home with his daughter The Frogs declare War on the Birds The Frogs make war so that they can recapture Old Man Owl's daughter Old Man Owl is saved from being destroyed II U punishment of Villain(s) The Frog army is defeated and punished, and only one frog is spared to tell the story . . 31 - . Old Man Owl could be called the seeker-hero, as he implements the search, for.his daughter, at his wife's suggestion. Because he is old,, he is at first unable to search for her, and sends two others in his stead* . . The function of departure is transferred twice, onee to Little Owl and once, to Owl Boy. Although Propp states that a donor is usually acquired accidentally, in this case Old Man Owl makes a direct request to Little Owl* The donor appears in the tale a little sooner than in the Russian fairy tales,,, but the order.has remained astDEF because Little Owl and Owl Boy were also performing those functions that were specific for the hero in this tale.;., Thus we. have two donors, Little Owl and Owl Boy. The third attempt to rescue Old Man Owl^s daughter is successful. This trebling effect of DEF is quite common in fairy tales. Propp gives an example of trebling of entire moves girl abducted, two ...elder brothers set out to look for her and fail to find her first and second moves, in the third move the youngest brother succeeds in finding his sister. In this myth, two people (one the father's friend,, the other, father's son) set out to search for Old Man Owl's daughter and fail., and Old Man Owl succeeds in the third attempt. (It is interesting to note the switch in emphasis from brothers in the Russian stories to Father.,. Son and others in the Beaver myths). The two DEF sequences are not considered separated moves in this myth because they are not carried through to degree of ..completion, nor is there a new lack or a new villany.. Upon looking at the. two metalinguistic strings, it also appears that DEKF is a weaker form of *DEKF1. The return of Old Man Owl with his daughter is tantamount to forcing the Frogs to.declare war. The .two.functions have a cause-effect relation ship, but with a new A function another move is created. 32 #2 The Boy Wabshu Move 1 °^ Initial situation 1 B death of parents 1 request for favour after death 3 1 E favour to a dead person 1 F the agent is not transferred 1 7f*~ deceitful persuasions by the villain 3 1 § the hero gives in to the persuasions of the villain g 1 A demand for delivery, enticement abduction 5 1 B transportation of banished hero 1 ^ departure of the hero 2 1 D greeting and interrogation 2 1 E friendly response agent pointed out introduction . Wabshu's mother dies Wabshu's mother requests her husband to find a good step-mother for Wabshu, one from where the sun is at dinner time Wabshu's father tries to find a good mother but is unable to, so he buys a wife from where the sun sets Wabshu's father finds a wife from where the sun sets Wabshu's stepmother persuades him to shoot rabbits in the head Wabshu does as she bids. His step mother then puts the rabbits under her dress so that they scratch her, legs Wabshu's father pretends to take hirru. hunting, but takes him by canoe to a deserted island instead. Wabshu's stepmother wanted to get him into trouble Wabshu is taken by canoe Wabshu travels by canoe to the island Nahata inquires why Wabshu is crying and comforts him Wabshu responds positively Nahata points out ducks, geese arid pitch in which to catch them 33 1 KJ liquidation of misfortune through Wabshu escapes, leaving his father application of cunning to perform the difficult task of survival as he had done return of the hero Wabshu takes the canoe and leaves his father on island for ten days to force him to survive as he was, However, his father dies instead 1 U punishment of villain Wabshu kills his stepmother II initial situation Wabshu takes up with the monster Onli Nachi 17 II A threat of cannibalism Onli Nachi threatens to his Wabshu's people II H hero struggles with villain Wabshu tries to prevent Onli Nachi from chasing people II I victory over villain Wabshu argues and struggles with Onli Nachi and finally shoots her II K liquidation of misfortune threat of cannabalism extinguished II T1 new physical appearance Wabshu changes into Usakindji", and then changes into stone Notes: ... . ... Wabshu. becomes, the. victimized hero in this tale as he suffers from the. action.of the villain in the complication. It is interesting to note that this tale conforms tb_Propp's rule regarding parent senders., Propp describes.a daughter transported-from home by the father,, upon banishment by the.stepmother. In this case we have a son, banished through his stepmother's trickery. 34 In this myth we have an example of the DEF sequence before the A function. The donor in this section is Wabshu's mother, whereas the donor in the second DEF sequence is Nahata. This first donor introduces the main dramatis personae, and also seems to be an intensified version of inter diction and violation. The appearance of Nahata is a very good example of what Propp calls a. weakened form of testing. Direct testing and interrogation are absent,. Nahata appears in a dream and comforts him. In this example, Wabshu is not. really, given the choice, of answering rudely, thereby receiving nothing from the donor, as Nahata appears in a dream. However, Wabshu demonstrates his positive response when he awakes by acting upon the advise of Nahata*, The narrative peaks when Wabshu escapes. He does this by way of canoe,, the. same mode of transportation by which he came to the island,* Propp states, that "a return is generally accomplished by means of the same form as an arrival" (Propp, 1968:55) There, are two separate tales found here in this rather than one,. each with one move, rather than one tale with two moves,. Although a new Villany facilitates a.new.move, the course of events are entirely separate from.one another in each tale. There are two separate themes,, and one is not a variant of the other. However, it is difficult to compare themes and variants..here in relation to Propp as. he really sees fairy tales as a chain of variantsAlso the second myth seems to be a rather incomplete version of another longer myth, with no relation to the previous myth except that the Heroes are the same characters, and joined by two words., "after that",., This is similar to the continuing tales of Usakindji, where each new ex perience is considered a new tale. 35 #3 Usakindji and The Wolverine Man Move 1 ^ initial situation introduction 17 1 A threat of cannibalism 1 B mediation connective incident 1 T departure Usakindji discovers a trap set to catch people initiative, he decides to find out who set the trap Usakindji puts himself into the pit to await Wolverine Man 1 § connectives Usakindji pretends to be dead 1 G the hero is carried Wolverine Man carries Usakindji home to his family 1 H contest 1 I the killing of the villain without a fight Usakindji pretends he is dead until he sees an opportunity to kill Wolverine Man and his family Usakindji kills them before they have a chance to fight back 1 K direct acquisition through force or cunning Usakindji has used both. He has succeeded in changing the form of Wolverine Man to a smaller version Usakindji, is the victimized hero as he suffers from the action of the villain in the complication. The hero is also the person who senses some kind of lack. In..the initial situation Usakindji senses that something is wrong, or it could be interpreted as something missing. However, the threat of Cannibalism.is stronger, therefore, used instead of a function for a lack, .... Propp states that the initial situation always contains the family of either the hero or the villain. The family situation in this myth is 36 centered around the. villain, rather than around the hero, and is found towards the end of the myth rather than in the initial situation. Although.function C, consent to counteraction, seems appropriate in this myth, Propp states that it is not found in tales with a victimized hero. . Propp sees a victimized hero as unable to demonstrate any volitional decision. . Even though the difference between a victimized hero and a seeker hero is sometimes dubious in these twenty myths, and the victimized hero sometimes does seem able to make a free decision, we will apply Propp's rule, and exclude C whenever we have a myth with a victimized hero.. A fine distinction, can be seen in this case, however, Usakindji does not embark on a journey, but merely an adventure. The choice of function B, mediation used in this case presents a Conflict because B 1-4 is applicable to hero seekers while B 5r7 is appli cable to victimized heroes, as the function that comes closest to describing this action is B 3« There Is no return of the hero in this myth just as there is no departure. A DEF. sequence or any part of it is absent; The story ends at the.peak of the narrative., which leads one to consider that, this is a shortened version of a longer myth. Despite the fact that the next myth carries on with. Usakindji's adventures, it does not mean to say that this myth is by any means complete. Transfiguration does not really, occur as this function refers to the hero.. Therefore, we might look at this action in terms of another function,, such as.punishment of the villain, or as the liquidation of the initial misfortune. 37 #4 Usakindji and the Geese and the Fox Move Initial situation introduction 1 a° lack of food Usakindji is hungry 1 B mediation 1 ^ departure of hero initiative, he decides to seek food and develops a plan to catch fowl Usakindji acquires a large sack, which he fills with moss to ensure the curiosity of the geese and ducks as he walked by 1 K direct acquisition through the application of cunning Usakindji fools the geese and catches them for his food connectives •to ut a abundance of food, and lack of food description of how Usakindji prepares them Fox appears, and sees that Usakindji has much food, and he none II deceitful persuasions of the villain the Fox convinces Usakindji that he is lame II @?~ hero reacts to the persuasion of the villain Usakindji believes him II H2 a competition II I victory for the Fox II return of the hero II U punishment of the villain Usakindji and the Fox race to the end of the lake Usakindji loses the race because the fox outwitted him Usakindji limped back to find the geese gone Usakindji pursues the Fox with fire Fox escapes, although his fur is singed. 38 .. Usakindji is the victimized hero in this myth simply because he is.definitely not a seeker hero. He is on a continuing journey, and en counters numerous adventures en route. Therefore, there is no C function' present either.. Although we find no donor, there is an implication that the acquisi tion of the big pack could have been given him by a donor in order that he could capture.his food, the geese. However, no detail, is mentioned. Function a5~ is used to depict Usakindji's abundance of food in relation.to Fox's lack, of food. This function is employed because it best describes the situation in relation to/the rest of the narrative as well as retiari Usakindji as the hero. In other words, the means by which functions are fulfilled influence one another, arid identical forms adapt themselves to different., functions (Propp, 1968:70). As Propp notes, the actions of the dramatis personae as defined from relative to the meaning for the hero and for the. course of the action are more important than considering any function independently. It is difficult to determine whether or not we have one or two moves;,. or one or two tales. According to Propp, if the hero acquires the object of his.quest through battle or cunning, we have an H function, but if the hero acquires an agent for the purpose of further searching as the result of an unfriendly encounter, we have a D function. Based on this premise,,., the myth as been divided into two moves because although DEF sequence does occur.,, with the. geese arid ducks seen.as unwilling donors, the K function is the climax and end of the first move, rather than DEF preparing for the Fox's entry.into the tale. Although Usakindji's gain of geese and ducks is pre cisely the.reason for the fox's deceitful persuasions, this is a linear con tinuation of the myth. There is no mention of Usakindji wanting to obtain 39 the fowl for the purpose of further searching. However, the implication could be that Usakindji cannot continue his journey unless he has food, but on.the other hand, he manages to obtain the object of his quest through cunning with no apparent throught to another journey. At this point there is no new villany or lack as far as Usakindji is concerned.;. His gain initiates Fox's interest in him. Based on the given information^, the over abundance of food that Usakindji is left with arid the lack of food that fox has is .taken to an a5~, thus creating a new move. Another version of the same myth would more.than likely change the analysis somewhat, and definitely have, a direct bearing on whether it is a single tale with two moves,,, or a two move tale, or even two separate tales. For instancej in this.version of the narrative, the second move is less intertwined with.the first than inmost stories, arid in fact it is possible that this should be a separate story altogether, and be viewed as another adventure that Usakindji exper iences as he travels. introduction Usakindji is. hungry He meets a bear , The bear agrees to keep him company Usakindji kills and eats the bear 1 K""" direct acquisition through the Usakindji tricks the bear and application of cunning alleviates his lack of food #5 How the Animals Got Their Fat Move 1 °^ initial situation 1 a6 lack of food 2 1 D greeting, interrogation o 1 E positive reaction 7 1 F1 the agent is eaten 40 Move II o; initial situation and connective 15 II A imprisonment, and detention 5 plundering II connectives II release II T departure II H2 hero struggles with villain Usakindji leaves the food he is eating and goes to the toilet Usakindji becomes trapped by a tree and the birds devour the rest of the bear meat Usakindji tells the tree that some day it will be used by people Usakindji is freed by the tree' after the birds finish eating Usakindji prepares the hot bear fat to take with him Usakindji and Muskrat argue, and call each other names II I2 victory over villain Usakindji wins the argument II K acquisition through force Muskrat is forced to cool the fat, but he spills it while trying to cool it II other forms of material gain at the denousment Although Usakindji loses his fat., all the animals receive some This-story is again another of Usakindji's adventures as he proceeds along his journey. Therefore, he is more a victimized hero than a seeker hero... The DEE sequence is. more obvious in this story, although the hero is not tested or.interrogated in. any way. Conversely, it is the hero that greets the donor. According to Propp, the donor usually approaches the hero.. However, Propp also mentions that a sudden independent appearance of a magical agent or 41 helper are most often encountered without the slightest preparation, which are rudimentary forms of this function. The sentence "I'll feed you now and. you feed me in the winter" signifies that the hero plans on obtaining the bear's flesh for food for the coming winter. Move one ends rather abruptly and move II begins and is a continua tion of_move one. This is obviously one tale,. and the applicable functions divide the story into two moves. Propp observes that an element which is usually encountered.under one heading, bear and villain, and is suddenly met under another;!donor is called a transposition of forms. Transpositions of this sort,; he states, play a great .role in the creation of tale formations. Sometimes they are taken for a new theme, although they are derived from old ones as the result, of. a certain transformation. This is another reason why it is important that.the. characters.be defined according to their meaning to the hero and the course of the action of the myth. If the rule was not followed closely,., transpositions.would not be determined with any accuracy. Although Usakindji does not acquire some material reward at the end of. the.myth, he transfers the fat to the animals in the myth,. In this way function W is transferred to the other dramatis personae brought into the story. 42 #6 The Woman Who Married the Bear Move i y initial.situation interdiction 1 6" interdiction violated introduction women suggest that she return home with them she decides to stay and pick berries 1 n deceitful persuasions of villain a Bear persuades the woman to go with him 1 Q- hero reacts to the persuasions of the villain she agrees to accompany him 1 A kidnapping the Bear takes her far away 1 B announcement in various forms the girls brother dreams of his sister, her parents are upset 1 C consent to counter-action the woman's brother decides to search for his sister 1 ^ departure of hero from home an implication that the brother leaves home 1 H fight in an open field the brother entices the bear out of his den 1 I"*" victory in open field he kills the bear 1 K acquisition achieved with help of an enticement or decoys II a lack of individual The woman's brother throws a bear hide over the entrance to lure the bear out, and his sister follows her husband woman loses husband 43 Move 3 II D request for favour after death 2 IIE friendly response 1 return home of the hero I § connectives II F agent not transferred II U punishment Woman's husband requests that she never remarry she agrees the woman returns home with her brother description of woman's life after her return home the woman fails to keep her promise to her dead husband. the woman and her new husband are killed by bears The hero in this .tale is the woman's brother.;. He decides to liquidate the lack of ah other, per son, and since he has a search as his goal,, he is a seeker hero. As Propp notes, if two persons leave home, one in search of another,, the route followed by the story and on which the action is developed, is the route of the seeker. The myth does not really seem well defined in terms of two separate moves, as the.second move especially is poorly: developed. However, they have been treated as two. moves since there seem to be two different themes,, one embedded.in a larger one. The emphasis on the need for a husband is brought out here. _Although the brother is the hero in move 1, there is no mention of him in.move II, His sister becomes the hero in this move, Usually the hero remains the-same if there are two moves, and perhaps if this second move :was more complete, and the dramatis personae might also be more complete, and tie 44 in-with. their appropriate functions. It is also interesting to note that this myth begins with the woman already involved in gathering berries. Had the story begun with the members of the younger generation absenting themselves from home,.we would have had a B3 morpholopical element as well as the others we have. #3 Usakindji arid Moon Man Move initial situation introduction I S reconnaissance by the hero to obtain information about the villain Usakindji follows the tracks to find out who they belong to 1 £ hero receives information about the villain Usakindji discovers Moon Man who has big feet and no teeth 1 n deceitful persuasions by the villain Moon Man persuades Usakindji to stay at his camp 1 Q hero ei gives in 17 1 A threat of cannabalism 1 B mediation 1 D first function of dbnar ) 1 E reaction of hero Usakindji agrees to camp with Moon Man Usakindji realizes something is wrong when he sees Moon Man eye his moccassins Usakindji anticipates Moon Man's plan and acts accordingly Usakindji is his own donor and decides to outwit Moon Man 1 KF direct acquisition through the application of cunning instead of throwing Usakindji's moccasins in the fire, Moon Man destroys his own, and threat of cannabalism liquidated. 45 villain pardoned Usakindji pardons Moon Man and helps him by giving him another pair of moccasins and a pair of teeth leave taking at road Usakindji and Moon Man part ways marker other forms of deception Usakindji has made Moon Man a pair of or coercion teeth against his wishes hero gives in or reacts Moon Man wears the teeth mechanically to deceit of villain threat of cannabalism The village people are in danger as Moon Man has teeth competition Usakindji has Moon Man continue on his journey, and pass through the village where he is to suck people's fingers victory in contest Moon Man fails to suck the fingers, and bites them instead... Usakindji has outwitted Moon Man punishment of villain Moon Man is chased into the sky,, where he stays material gain T.here is now a moon in the sky 46 Usakindji is again the victimized hero by definition. The presence of a DEF sequence is questionable. Although Moon Man would well be. a hostile donor, it is Usakindji that gives Moon Man another pair of moccassins and another pair of teeth. We have a hero acting as a donor, giving to the villain. However, the hero is also assisting himself, as his purpose in giving Moon Man teeth and another pair of moccasins, for instance, is..to..instigate his defeat. As Propp notes, "the hero often gets along, without .any helpers... He is his own helper, as it were" (Propp, 1968:82), and.in some cases takes on the attributes as well as the functions of the helper. .Function U or punishment is an interesting function in that it could be applicable to both Move 1 and Move II. Moon Man is punished finally for trying to deceive Usakindji and also for chewing the people's fingers.. Since Moon Man went unpunished in Move 1, this move is completed at the end of Move II. ... The HI function, contest and victory, at first seems more like an MN function, a difficult task and its solution, However,, if we consider that firstly a difficult task is assigned to the hero, not the villain, and secondly, a difficult task does not usually include dealing with the villain, but with another character or object quite separate from the main dramatis personae and objects. Even though the struggle between Usakindji and Moon Man is rather vague, and indirect, it is more a contest of wits than the performance of a difficult task. We have the same function in both move 1 and 11, that of the threat of cannabalism. We should make the point that this does not mean that these two acts are the same. Functions are defined according to their consequences, and independently of their dramatis personae, or the manner in which they are fulfilled. (Propp, 1968:66). k7 #8 Usakindji and Mosquito Man Move Initial situation 1 ^ 1 V reconnaissance by the hero to obtain information about the villain Introduction Usakindji follows the tracks to find out who they belong to 1 Q delivery of information Usakindji discovers they belong to Mosquito Man 1 & lack of food, means of existence Usakindji has no food and no way and ability to cook it to cook it by fire 1 & initiative Usakindji decides to learn how to cook 1 D first function of donor Mosquito Man states that he is going to cook food 1 E positive reaction r 8 1 r agent is seized Usakindji kills and steals the bear while Mosquito Man is away 1 K direct acquisition through cunning Usakindji feasts on the bear connectives II " threat of cannabalism the next day Mosquito Man sees Usakindji and asks him for help with his beavers Mosquito Man threatens to kill Usakindji and use his skin II hero struggles with villain Usakindji tricks Mosquito Man into going under the ice to get his axe II I killing of villain without a fight Usakindji kills Mosquito Man by keeping him under the ice so that he freezes to death 48 Move ii K direct acquisition through cunning Usakindji acquires the beaver through his cunning and liquidates the threat of villany ii u punishment Mosquito Man is chopped into tiny pieces connectivesj trebles three explanations; how mosquitoes were created, why there are so many mosquitoes in beaver houses, and why the moose cannot hear anyone coming Usakindji is again the victimized hereo. In introduction of the tale the implication is made that Mosquito Man is one of the many man eating monsters that Usakindji killed, and this tale tells of one of his many experiences with these monsters. Propp states that the significance of function B lies in the fact that the heroes departure from home is caused by it. However, in this tale as in many of the other Usakindji tales, Usakindji is already away from home,, and happens upon a situation. Nevertheless, the rest of the plot is based on his decision at this point. Function.U or punishment would also be interpreted differently, as W, or material gain. Rather than considering mosquitoes as a punishment, they are also viewed as an advantage to man since they assist him in hunting moose. #9 Why the Moose is Wary of Man Move 1 initial situation introduction 1 Ol1 lack of helper the boy lacks a totem 49 dispatch the father sends his son in search of a totem consent to counter-action the son.igoes in search of a totem departure of hero the boy leaves home, route of hero first function of the donor the boy meets moose and lives with them positive reaction boy is with the moose a long time the object of the search is transferred the boy learns the ways of the moose return of the hero the boy returns to his parents lack of game (food) Boy Moose and his brother are hunting departure of hero the boy runs away from his brother with the moose attempt to destroy hero Boy Moose's brother nearly kills him transformation from animal to boy Boy Moose changes into a boy so that his brother can recognize him recognition of hero his brother recognizes him leave taking they part ways. The boy returns to the Moose and the brother returns home lack of game Boy Moose's brother is hunting, therefore, a lack of game is insinuated 50 recognition of hero Boy Moose's brother finds him asleep connectives dialogue between Moose Boy and his brother new physical appearance the boy changes into a moose forever leave taking Moose Boy and his brother part ways forever The hero in this tale is Boy Moose. Because he is sent out on a quest he is a seeker hero. We find the seeker hero in this story as Propp suggests., he should be found, with his family in the initial situation. The ABC complication seems to run together in this story,, and there seems to be insufficient facts to merit all these funtions, whereas in other instances we find that there seem to be sufficient functions to cope with all the facts. However the above complication is a complete'representation of the brief facts given. In moves II and III the lack is more implied than it is stated, and the body of the two moves are rather incomplete, and both are lacking a K function. It is also interesting to note that each successive move is less complete. The DEF sequence is also poorly outlined,, although the core of the functions are present in this move of the myth. There is certainly ample opportunity for elaboration on the function of the donor, and the receipt of a magical agent, helper, totem. It is also interesting to note that the functions, departure and return of the hero, form a pair. The hero usually returns the same way he departed. How ever, in this myth, the Moose Boy does not return to his people, but remains where he is. Move III a in § in 11 in < 51 #10 Usakindji, Bear and Chicadee Move 1 initial situation introduction i £ reconnaissance Usakindji wonders where all the trails lead 1 £~ the hero receives information about the villain Usakindji discovers that the trails are bear trails, and that the bears eat dried berries 1 Tj deceitful persuasions of the villain The Bear persuades Usakindji to search for berries for him Q the hero reacts to the persuasions of the villain Usakindji believes the Bear, and the Bear then escapes from him OL lack of food Usakindji is left without food 6 call for help Usakindji asks for help from the Chicadee 10 1 0 the offer of a magical agent as an exchange Usakindji offers the Chicadee a collar that will keep him warm i E friendly response the Chicadee agrees to help find the Bear r 2-1 f the object of the search is pointed out The Chicadee points to the Bear's hiding place 1 § connectives i w1 1 I1 1 K hero struggles with' villain the killing of the villain without a fight direct acquisition through cunning dialogue between the Bear and Usakindji The bear tries to outwit Usakindji Usakindji kills the Bear as he emerges from his hiding place Usakindji fools the Bear and captures him for his food 52 Usakindji is the victimized hero by definition; He encounters ad ventures while travelling rather than leaving hom in search of someone. Although this story is lengthy in comparison with some of the others., it appears more straight foreward and complete than most of the other Beaver myths. The Ghicadee is a true type II donor in this tale, Propp states that a sudden independent appearance of a magical agent or helper are most often encountered without the slightest preparation (Propp, 1968:46),. Actually Chicadee is more a helper than a donor, because he only assists Usakindji. in finding the Bear, he does not. give Usakindji an agent. However, Propp notes that living things, objects and quantities are founded.upon the functions of the dramatis personae and must be viewed as equivalent quantities.. Function B mediation, is used slightly differently in this tale than in, for instance, tale #6. In the latter,tale B funtion introduces the hero, whereas in this tale the hero is well into the tale*. Both B functions in each tale announce the misfortune, but both in different ways* In tale #6, the misfortuen is made known to the hero in the form of a dream which affects his departure from home; in this tale, the hero announces his dilemma to the environ ment at hand, which results in the helper appearing on the scene. We notice that the tale has a long prepatory section, and a fairly comprehensive first half, using most of the functions. Howeverj after the climax of the story is reached, the tale ends very rapidly, as do all the other Beaver tales. 53 II 2.ii) PROPP'S RESULTS - BEAVER MYTHS If we refer to table 1 we can more easily see the metalinquistic strings that Propp's analysis, as applied.to the Beaver myths, discloses,, vie can easily see that all Beaver tales employ at least one morpholopical element in their prepatbry sections. The function is always used tf, indicate the beginning of the myth, but we also find that six Beaver tales employ other prepatory functions, as well. For example, each prepatory .function is used at least once in all the ten tales, except the preliminary misfortune caused by a deceitful agreement. Propp's pairs, interdiction and its violation, reconnaissance by one of the dramatis personae and the receipt of information, and deceitful per suasions by one of the dramatis personae and submission to such, firstly, always go.together, and secondly, if one pair is used, the use of a second pair is usually unnecessary. Propp further states that if several pairs are used., one can.always expect a double morphological meaning. (Propp, 1968:109). The accuracy of this statement is exemplified by tale #7. However, several pairs are not used in the same move, nor are the same pair used twice in the same move. We do find, only once, and in tale #7, that, the same pair is used twice in one tale, but each time in a separate move,, further demonstrating that these prepatory functions operate in the same mutually exclusive manner as do the main functions. In the Beaver tales we do not find that the absentation of either el ders or youngers. We do find the intensified form of this function, death of parent (s) in tale #2. We find an intensified form of interdiction and its violation in. this tale as well. This pair does not appear in any of the other tales. Reconnaissance by the hero and receipt of information by the hero is 54 employed three times, each in different myths. Furthermore, it is always reconnaissance by the hero and receipt of information by him that makes this function as tight as it is. The function tj, trickery, is found seven times in the Beaver tales, with function 8,, complicity, also found an equal number of times. However, 7)1, deceitful persuasions by the villain appears six out of seven times, and )j3« other forms of deception, occurs only once, with ^2 not appearing at all. The counterpart to 7}1 is found only three times, while 93 is employed more appropriately in the remaining cases. The pair to 7J.2 is not used. One of the reasons.for the looseness in the last pair of functions is found in its definition. In other words, Yjl, £\2, tj3 are not as accurately matched to Ql, Q2, 03, respectively as are the other two pairs of functions. Trickery and complicity seem to be the most important function in the prepatory section. It will be interesting to note whether or not this observation is upheld throughout the rest of the analysis. We.found that function A, villany, occurred ten different times in the ten myths.. Furthermore, of the twenty-five A functions, only six were utilized.. In other words, the majority of these functions were not applicable to the action.in the Beaver tales. One of the functions, however, was used several times. For example, A17, the threat of cannibalism, was found five times in the myths (Usakindji was the hero threatened in four out of five cases), while Al, the kidnapping of a person.was found twice. Functions A5, plundering, A8, demand for delivery, A15t imprisonment, and A19, declaration of war, were each found only once. The functions that are absent from the Beaver myths seem to support each other. For example, anything related to magic is missing, thus we find that functions A2, seizure of a magical agent, Aii, forcible seizure of such, A7, evocation of disappearance, All, casting of a spell, and A18, vampirism are absent. We also find very little said directly of marriage, therefore, no 55 no tale revolves around the topic, and accordingly we do not find a villany such as Avii, Al6, or Axvi. Propp states that there are some functions that rarely occur inde pendently, such as All, transformation, and A12 false substitution. Although these functions do not occur concomitantly with another function in the Beaver myths, we find fuctions A5, plundering and A15 imprisonment, occurring concomitantly once in tale #5. As far as function a, .lack or insufficiency, is concerned, we find that six of the nine.found in the Beaver, myths fall into the category of other forms. Interestingly enough,.all six concern a lack of food. Also a5 mentions a lack of food,.but in addition, it is concerned, with how to prepare the food. The other two functions deal with a lack of an individual, one a husband, the other a helper, The helper in this case is not thought of as being magical in that it is above and beyond everyday occurrences, rather it is a part of a young Indian's life. Functions a3, lack of wondrous objects, and AJ+, the egg of death (or love), are not present in the Beaver myths. Both are much more speci fic than the other four functions. B function, the connective incident, or mediation is found in all ten. myths.. According to Propp, this. function does a number of things, for example; it makes known the. misfortune or lack, the hero is approached, and allowed to depart or is dispatched, it brings the hero into the tale, and lastly,. the_hero's departure from home is caused by the action at this point in the story. .Obviously not all these functions can occur simultaneously. For example,_although each. B.function always involves the hero, it does not neces sarily, introduce him into the story. In nine out of ten times the hero is already involved in the tale. Only once does B4F announcement of misfortune in various forms, bring the hero into the tale. According to Propp, Bl to B4 56 are used in tales with a seeker hero, while P/" to B1 are used in tales with a victimized hero. However, in,the Beaver myths we find that, in myths #5 and 10 functions B^, release, and B1* call for help, are used respectively with the victimized heroes. Thus this does, not follow Propp's rule. All tasks or actions showing initiative have.been interpreted in. terms of B, mainly for lack of a more appropriate function. It is interesting to note that in £©ur of the Usakindji tales we have employed a general B function, and the other two have been used incorrectly according to Propp's rule. The other four tales, #1, 2, 6 and 9, which are not Usakindji tales, employ the B function, according to Propp's rule. All mediating functions have been utilized except two, B^, hero released, and B', a lament. Finally, we should point out that each myth contains only one mediating function. We do not have two moves in one tale, each with a B function. The B function always occurs in the more complete of the two moves in each tale consisting of more than one move. C function, consent to counteraction, is used with the seeker hero only, and according to Propp's rule should then be found in tales #1, 6 and 9, which accurately they are. As Propp observes, although the hero does not always request permission to go on a search, as is the case with these myths, a volitional decision precedes the search. Because consent to counteraction is found in con junction with a seeker hero, the difference between the victim hero and the seeker hero becomes rather important in these tales. Usakindji could easily be a seeker hero.in tales 7 and 8, as in these two tales he makes a decision to track someone. However,.his decision to track Moon Man and Mosquito Man occur in the prepatory section of both myths, and the morphological element, reconnaissance, is employed in both instances. Therefore, the Usakindji tales are all defined in terms of victimized hero myths. We would have a very, different result if Usakindji was considered a seeker hero. However, Usakindji is a victimized hero 57 because something happens to him enroute, and he merely accommodates the action. Due to this difference in positioning, C function is found only three times in the Beaver tales. Function ^ , departure, represents dispatch of the hero, and shows his route regardless of whether.or not he is a seeker or victimized hero, and is found tent-times in seven myths. In two of the seeker tales, departure is employed three times in tale #1 and twice in tale #9. In both these tales departure indicates another aspect of the myth, but since a new lack or villany was not introduced, a new move was not created. Instead they both continue actions based on the initial villany. This function is also used in three of the Usakindji tales #3, 4, and 5 for lack of a better funcion. In all three tales, the motif depicts Usakindji's decision to trap the villain, and his sub sequent preparation. C, consent to counteraction, and ^ are found together in tales #1, 6 and 9 only. Interestingly enough, these are the only tales that are hero seeker tales. The functions T is also employed whether or not spatial transference takes place. In terms of T function, only tale #2 indicates a unique action. (In this case Wabshu is a banished hero, transported by his father). Usually this spatial transference in which the hero is transferred, delivered or led to the whereabouts of the object of search is defined in terms of G function, which is also considered as a natural continuation of T . We find function G only twice in the Beaver myths. In tale #1 we find that Old Man Owl is led to his daughter, and in tale #3 we see that the hero is carried. The other four morphological elements of this function are not utilized. Therefore, unless the object of a search lies either vertically or horizontally far away, departure is utilized as opposed to the function for spatial trans ference. As far as the ABC complication is concerned, this complete sequence is found in three tales; #1, 6 and 9» These three tales, we might note, are 58 the only seeker hero tales.in the Beaver Corpora. The victimized hero tales, according to Propp would not carry C function. Of these tales the sequence AB^ is found in three tales out of.seven, AB is.found four times; AT is not found at all, nor is BT . A function alone is found six times out of a total of seventeen possibilities. Thus it seems that this ABC^ sequence or the ABT was completed as often as we might assume. Thus far the seeker tales seem to be more complete according to Proppian analysis. We find that D function, or the first function of the donor appears ten times in the Beaver myths, twice in myths #1 and 2, once in the other tales except #3 and 4, where it does not appear at.all. Of the fifteen available functions, we have utilized only six. Although we have fourteen motifs besides function D from which to choose, Function D is employed three times for lack of an appropriate function in relation to the Beaver myths. Both forms of D' are also-general forms of this function. „ . Propp states, that.the donor is usually encountered accidentally. However, this does not hold true in the Beaver tales, except for tale #10, and perhaps #5, where Usakindji meets a bear. In tale #2, Nahata appears, not accidently, but deliberately. In tale #9, Boy Moose may have come across his totem accidentally, but we are given no indication of this in the myth. In other tales, the donor is already involved in the action of the tale. Further more, in none of the tales does the donor give the hero a magical object which permits the liquidation of.the misfortune. We find that the donor in most of the tales supplies the hero with information. Even in tale #10, the donor supplies the. hero, with information in exchange for a collar. Propp.notes that eoften the.hero copes without any helpers, and becomes his; own helper. In these circumstances, the hero takes on the characteristics of the donor. For example, one of the attributes of a helper 59 is his prophetic wisdom. When a helper is absent from the tale, this quality-is transferred to the hero, with the result being a prophetic hero. We come close to this idea in tale #6, move 1, when the girl's brother dreams of his sister's whereabouts. However, in the Beaver tales, the donor is usually separate from either the hero or the villain except in tales #5 and #8, where the villain is also a donor, and in tale #7 where the hero is his own donor. Propp also points out that converse of the above idea, where a helper may perform those functions whicM. are specific for the hero. This occurs in tale #1. Little Owl and Owl Boy search for Old Man Owl's daughter, but"do not find'her. When the hero, Old Man Owl searches for his daughter, he finds her. The reaction of the hero, or E function, also occurs ten times in the Beaver myths, but we employ only four of the twelve available motifs. We find that a D function does not always have a corresponding E function, or positive or negative reaction of the hero. For example, in tales #1, 6 and 10 this discrepancy is exhibited only once by each, while in the other seven tales the hero reacts according to the actions of the donor. Function F, the provision or receipt of a magical agent or helper, occurs only six: times in the^Beaver myths, and four of the sixteen available functions are utilized. F2 or the function in which the agent is pointed out is employed twice, once in tale #2 and once in.#10.. Both these tales inter estingly enough, have productive donors. F~i the agent is not transferred, is also utilized twice in these myths, once in tale #2 and in tale #6. In both instances, the request for a favour after death is not fulfilled, although the circumstances are different. 7 8 Functions F , the agent is drunk or eaten, and F , the agent is seized, are employed once each in the myths. Although both these functions 60 the hero killing and eating a bear, in tale #8, Usakindji steals the bear from the villain. The other four F functions are fulfilled by function K, which will be discussed along with function K, therefore, each DEF sequence" is completed. DEF is an interesting sequence and is called a sphere of action of the donor. This sometimes occurs as what Propp refers to as an inverted sequence, where these three functions occur before the villany. Propp states that the usual tale presents a misfortune at first and then the receipt of a helper who liquidated it, whereas an inverted sequence gives the receipt of a helper at first and then the misfortune which is liquidated by him. In tale #2, we have a slightly different example. A request for a favour after death is made, but is not fulfilled, which forms the basis of the myth. When we consider the DEF functions together, a large variety of combinations..become apparent. Propp distinguishes between two types; Type 1 exhibits unfriendly or deceived donors "who unwillingly furnish the hero with something" (Propp, 1968:48). Type II exhibits friendly donors with the ex ception of those who surrender a magical agent unwillingly or after a fight. In the Beaver tales we find five type two sequences and one type one sequence in tale #8. Moreover, tales #3 and #7 might have also been type one sequences had they been more complete. We see that function H, struggle, and aits- counterpart, I, defeat of villain, are found nine times in nine myths. The first two motifs, fight in an open field, and a competition are used exclusively, with H"*" found three times and H six times. A .general function H was not necessary here, as the two motifs were general enough to include all interpretations encountered in the myths. Functions Y?> a game of cards, and H\ weighing, were not 6l appropriate in these stories. We find that functions I"*"^ inclusive sequentially correspond to functions H"*"^ inclusive. Besides this, we have two more I functions from which to choose, ie. the killing of the villain without a fight, and the expulsion of the villain. However, it is interest ing to note that the HI functions remain in relatively tight pairs, except in one instance, where we have H2 1^, and in this case the myth states that Wolverine Man cannot fight back. However H2 T2 would.also be acceptable. We should point out that in five of the six H2 functions, competition or contest entails the outwitting of an antagonist as opposed to a straight foreward battle. Although the hero loses the competition in tale #4, dis harmony is not created, as Usakindji is able to take revenge. MN, a difficult task and its solution sometimes found by itself in tales, or as a move II sequence, does not occur in the Beaver myths. Function K, the liquidation of lack or misfortune is found ten times in seven Beaver corpora. Of the 13 available motifs, also including the general function, only two are employed, K1, direct acquisition through the 3 application of force or cunning, employed nine times, and K , acquisition achieved with the help of an enticement of decoys, employed once. The major ity of the motifs were not as" appropriate as K"* seemed to be. For example none related to the use of magical agents were used; therefore, motifs such as misfortune, is done away with instantly through the use of a magical agent, K , poverty, is done away with through the use of a magical agent, and K , the breaking of a spell, were employed. It is interesting to note that K"* is used in all the Usakindji tales except tale #7, where KF is used. We find that this combined function occurs in the three tales that do not employ K function. KF"*, the object of the search is transferred, is employed twice in two different tales, while KF2, the object of the search if pointed out, 62 7 occurs twice in one tale, and KF', the object of the search is captured, is used once. We might take notice that k and KF do not occur together in the same tale. Also, KF, in.four out of five instances, completes a DE sequence conversely. Function K is more often found in conjunction with HI than with DEF. In only one tale do we find both DEF |HI and K to gether in the same move. According to Propp, the function, or return of the hero, is accomplished in the same form as an arrival. We find ten "T functions, or departures, and only five returns. However, in only two tales do we have a departure without a return. In these Usakindji tales, it is implied by the nature of the myth that Usakindji would merely continue on his journey. In the Beaver tales the return was not as obvious as the departure, and therefore, was only employed where mentioned in the myth. According to Propp, the return of the hero is accomplished in the same form as aedeparture. Considering the five tales that employ,T and -l , the hero does in fact return in the same way that he departed, although as stated earlier, not as much mention is given this action. Propp also states that a return indicates a surmounting of space, which is not always true in the case of a departure, as this also designates the route of the hero, whether or not there is a spatial transference of the hero. Therefore, these two functions do not seem to be exactly correlated and thus they would not be expected to.appear equally. In myths #7, 8 and 10, which are all Usakindji tales, we do not find either a departure or return function. Tale #4 is the only Usakindji tale that employs this pair appropriately. The functions of pursuit and rescue will be considered together, although the motifs for each are not sequentially correlated. Pursuit, or Pr an attempt to destroy the hero, is found in tales #1 and 9, while rescue, or Rs^, rescue or salvation from being destroyed, and Rs^, series of transformations 63 into animals, plants, and stones, are present in tales 1 and 9 respectively. Although there are seven pursuit motifs and ten rescue motifs from which to choose, some of these seem to be too particular to fit the Beaver corpora. It is also interesting to note that neither of the tales in which pursuit and rescue are found are Usakindji tales. Recognition of the hero or function Q is found only twice in one tale. In this instance, the hero was recognized by his brother only after he assumed his human form, as opposed to that of the moose. Actually, this function is employed for lack of a better one, as this function does not seem particularly important to the main part of the tale in which it is found. Furthermore, Q does not correspond to function J,, branding or marking of the hero, as Propp mentions it does in some cases. Transfiguration is also.only.used twice., on^e in tale.#2 and once in tale #9. In both cases, T1, new physical appearance, is employed. The other motifs of this function, such as the building of a palace, new garments, humorous and rationalized forms, do not manifest themselves. Punishment, U, of the villain occurs seven times in the six Beaver . tales. Propp states that usually only the villain M the second move and the false hero are punished, while the first villain is punished only in those cases in which a battle and pursuit are absent from the story. (Propp, 1968:63). Otherwise, the villain is killed in battle or perishes during pursuit. The few Beaver myths we have indicate compliance with this. For example in tale #7, we see that Moon Man is punished in the last move, whereas he is pardoned in the first move. In five out of six instances, the villain is punished in the second move as opposed to the first move. In the one myth where the villain 64. is punished in the first move, rather than the second move, there is a ques tion as to whether this should be two separate myths. Furthermore, we see that function U does not occur in either of the one move tales, nor in the one three move tale. However, this three move tale is a rather incomplete version of a multi-Hnove tale. Function W, wedding and accession to the throne, also forms the denouement alone with U. Two W motifs are found in two different myths, one in conjunction with a U function and one not. Both W functions refer to W°. monetary reward and other forms of material gain at the denouement, as opposed to the other six motifs. It is interesting to note that the myths end with a form of punishment more often than they do a form of marriage. This W function in both myths refers to a general gain for others, ie, in Tale #5, the animals are given their fat, and in tale #7, the moon is placed in the sky. Of Propp's thirty-one functions, six are not utilized. These are 0, unrecognized arrival, L, Claims of false hero, M, difficult task and N, solution, J, branding or marking of the hero, and Ex, exposure of the false hero. One might., also note that 0L form a pair as do MN and J Ex. With regards to MN, Propp notes that HI is a typical first move while MN is a typical second or repeated move. In the Beaver two move tales, HI is found only twice in the first move, in the other five tales, HI is fbund in the second move. It is interesting to note also that the DEF sequences is found in three of the five tales' first moves. Since the distinction be tween MN, HI, and DEF is sometimes very vague, we can understand how DEF can also be considered along with MN and HI. 0 and L are not employed in the myths as none of the stories con tinue in any detail after the climax of the tale. Usually the Beaver tales 65 are resolved rather quickly after this point. J and Ex are also, to a degree, another elaboration that the Beaver myths do not indulge in. Although Ex is supposedly connected with Q, recognition, it is not found as a pair in the Beaver tales. X, for unclear or alien forms, is employed once in the Beaver myths in tale #2. This function could be regarded as a form of reward more than anything else, as the end of the tale states that Wabshu performed a service to mankind, in that he killed all the monsters that ate people, thus making the earth a safer place on which to live. Also, he prophesied that some day Usakindji would return. Propp does not have a function for this. Thus, from only thirty-one functions, a relatively detailed analysis has been completed. 66 II 3.i) PROPP, ALASKAN ANALYSIS AND NOTES Move 1 °^ Initial situation Introduction, description of the Bear I A 17 threat of cannibalism the Bear chases the man with the intent to devour him B3 departure the man trys to escape 1 H hero struggles with villain the Bear attempts to catch the man 1 I the killing of the villain without a fight the man lures the bear between two ice cakes where he becomes stuck. The man then kills the bear 1 K liquidation of misfortune through cunning threat of bear liquidated The hero in this tale is the man, a victimized hero because he is the character "who either suffers directly from the action of the villain in the complication or who agrees to liquidate the misfortune or lack of another person" (PrOpp, 1968:50). Function B3, departure, for the connective incident is employed when the man decides that he should flee from the bear. Since this is a fairly simple tale, there is no dispatch of the hero from home, or a designation of his route. It ends when the climax is reached. At first the HI situation seems more like a DEF sequence, with the bear.as a hostile donor. However, as Propp states, the two forms can be dis tinguished from each other by their results. "If the hero obtains an agent for the purpose of further searching, as the result of an unfriendly encounter, 67 this would be element D, whereas on the other hand, if the hero receives through victory, the very object of his quest, we have a situation H". (Propp, 1968:52). The HI situation is also like a Pr Rs situation, but then is not due to its position in the tale. If this pair of functions were found in another tale perhaps they might have another morphological meaning. As Propp says, "the means by which functions are fulfilled influence one another and that identical forms adapt themselves to different functions. A certain form is transferred to a different position, acquiring a new meaning, or simultaneously retaining an old one" (Propp, 1968:70). #2 The Beginning of the Winds Move 1 °^ initial situation 1 A1 lack of child 2 1 B dispatch 1 C consent to counteraction t 1 1 departure of hero 1 route shown to hero 1 D first function of the donor introduction the parents have no children wife requests that husband go to the tundra for wood with which to carve a doll Husband agrees to above Husband leaves home path of light appears Husband walks to a small tree on the tundra 68 Move 1 E Positive reaction of hero hero follows path of light 1 F" the agent is. -prepared return of the hero the Husband takes a piece of the wood Husband returns K 4 liquidation of misfortune Both Husband and Wife are happy-Direct result of previous action with the doll and treat it as a child II T=^ departure of doll, therefore, (X lack of such the doll leaves home II oh route shown to the hero Doll comes to path of light and follows it II K*"^ release from captivity Doll finds the reindeer, wind and the weather II o trebling II return of the hero the doll returns to the village II T new physical appearance Doll becomes a human 0 * II I ° forms of material gain, trebled He teaches the Eskimo people the custom of wearing masks, gives them winds, and teaches parents to make dolls for their children The hero in this tale, according to Propp, is the man, or husband. He is a seeker hero as a search is his goal and he also attempts to alleviate he and his wife's childless situation. It is "the hero's intentions that create the axis of the narrative," and the hero "who agrees to liquidate the lack of another person" (Propp, 1968:50). If the man is left as the hero 69 throughout the myth, it becomes difficult to decide what Boy - Doll is. The. Boy - Doll may be viewed as an extension of the father. Because he cannot perform supernatural feats, Boy-Doll does them. Propp states that when a helper is absent from, the tale this quality is transferred to the hero, the result being a.prophetic hero. If this quality cannot be trans ferred for some reason,, to the hero, then, someone else must perform the tasks for him. The Doll-Boy performs the actions for the husband that he is unable to do. Thus the man's actions are transferred onto the Doll-Boy. Conversely a helper at times may perform those functions which are specific for the hero. Another reason Doll-Boy is not considered a donor in the second move is because, with his freeing of the winds and reindeer, and with his return, the tale ends abruptly. It is. implied that he becomes a normal child. It is interesting to note that not until move two, when the return of the hero, and the liquidation of misfortune are put into their correct i-sequence do they prove to be.productive functions of the tale. The lack in move one and move two, although about the same character, are different in that in move. one the husband and wife are lacking a child;'.} in move.two they are lacking the doll. The liquidation of the lack in move one is realized .by the K function, whereas.in move two function a and K do not seem to form a pair", and the lack of Doll is not dealt with, rather Doll re turns of his own accord after the reindeer and the wind have been released. By implication, then, it seems that a lack of the reindeer and wind should also be given consideration in the analysis. However, since the acting hero finds them along his journey as.opposed to searching for them, they are not considered as initially lacking. 70 #3 Little Man of the Tundra Move initial situation introduction of father and mother moon l ce ll a 6 lack of information ) lack of stars and information) There are two moons and no stars Father moon is curious as to what lies over the Northern horizon 1 Bfc announcement of misfortune Father Moon complains that they only travel from east to west and never from north to south 1 C consent to counteraction he decides to find out what lies over the horizon 1 ^ departure of the hero from home Father Moon leaves for the Northern horizon 1 H Hero struggles with villain, or fight in an open field Father Monn feels the grip of a terrible hand 1 IJ victory over villain Father Moon receives a warning from Little Man of the Tundra 1 K 10 release from captivity Father Moon is set free 1 4r return of hero He returns home 11 f command Little Man of the Tundra commands that Father Moon never again leave his place in the sky 11 6 violation Father Moon does so anyway at a later date 11 B announcement of misfortuen Father Moon grows bored with his present situation of travelling across the sky 71 Move 11 G consent to counteraction He decides to see what lies beyond the south horizon 11 T hero leaves home, departure Father Moon leaves Mother Moon 11 H fight in an open field Father Moon struggles with Tundra 11 I 1- victory in open battle Father moon loses 11 U"~ Punishment of villain Father Moon is punished for dis obeying Tundra l&ll T hew physical appearance Father Moon is ground up into dust - stars The hero in this tale is Father Moon, a seeker hero, as his inten tions create the axis of the story. Although he does not agree to liquidate both lacks he is necessary for its execution. Father Moon inadvertently later liquidates the lack of stars by exploring the southern horizon. Both lacks occur at the same time, but are separated for the purpose of the analysis. In other words, on the one hand, the lack of information occurs in the two moves. In the first move Father Moon wants to determine what is over the northern horizon; in the second move he wants to find out what is over the southern horizon. On the other hand,, the lack of stars is only dealt with in addition to the lack of information .in the second move. Both lacks are liquidated by one action, the.destruction of Father Moon, one in a negative manner and the other in a positive or constructive fashion. 72 Little Man of the Tundra is construed as the villain simply because of his functional position in relation to Father Moon. Furthermore, the punishment of the villain is also.considered in this same light, as in this case it is the hero that is categorized as the villain. A negative sign after the function U best indicates that punishment of the villain did not occur, but instead, punishment of the hero. In other words, the function was slightly modified to suit the changes in the roles of the dramatis personae. We must also consider that we have a reversal of roles. In Move 1 Father Moon is the. hero, and Tundra, the villain. In move 11 Father Moon becomes the villain and Tundra the hero. As Propp states, the position of the dramatis personae in relation to each other, and their position in the tale defines what their function will be. 73 #4 The Poor Boy and the Northern Lights Move 1 <=< 1 a} 1 d7 Initial situation lack of a family the possibility of rendering service Introduction Poor Boy has no family and no one to take care of him The rich woman supplies Poor Boy with food 1 E friendly response Poor Boy accepts the woman's charity 1 f1 the gift is of a material nature He receives food and clothing connectives Poor Boy receives new boots, pants and parka 1 AJ kidnapping of a person Poor Boy is kidnapped by Walrus departure Poor Boy is taken through the air by Walrus 11 D first function of the donor Poor Boy is taken to the place of Walrus spirits 11 E negative reaction of hero Poor Boy does not want to stay there 11 F the agent is transferred Poor Boy remembers the song of his spirit helpers 11 B' lament or plaintiff song Poor Boy sings his song 11 K misfortune is done away with through the use of a magical agent Poor Boy begins to leave the sky 74 Move return- of the hero Poor Boy finds his way back to his village 11 W r0 forms of material gain at the denouement Poor Boy gains the ability to help his people and himself, and he also gains a family The hero in this tale is Poor Boy, more a victimized hero because the action happens to him. He does not have a search as his goal, but we find him in the initial situation, lacking a family as well as adequate food, coping as best he can. Move 1 is interrupted with the kidnapping of Poor Boy. Function A is considered more appropriate than function G, transference to a designated place, because Poor Boy.resists at the time of abduction, and also, the myth repeats the last sequence of the first move while continuing with the story plot. Furthermore, G is a natural continuation of the function , departure, which is not present in the first move. We find that the DEF sequence is before the mediating function, which is necessary before Poor Boy can leave the Walrus' abode. The sole pur pose of the DEF sequence is to supply Poor Boy with this mediating function. The final function W^, other forms of material gain at the denouement, concludes both move 1 and 11. Poor Boy does not gain a family until he acquires a magical agent or helper. Although at the beginning of the tale it is stated that he has no mother or father, Poor Boy finally acquires a mother. Perhaps this is considered a basic family unit. W function does not relate back to Poor Boy's kidnapping as it does to his lack of a family in move 1. In move 11 function W is more general in that he gains the ability to assist his people. 75 We might also note that although Poor Boy's return is through the air, the same means by which he departed, his return is described in more detail than his departure. Usually we find that the departure is more elab orately described. This is an interesting change, and we wonder whether another version would uphold this observation. #5 The Dwarfs of Hawkins Island Move 1 initial situation introduction 1 f interdiction the Dwarfs tell the men not to harm them 1 7 *D other requests with preliminary helpless situation of persons making request The Dwarfs ask the Man to help them kill a whale and a Bear .1 fulfillment of request The Men help the Dwarfs 1 6' interdiction, violated The Men kidnap the Dwarfs 1 A1 kidnapping of a person the men kidnap the Dwarfs as they want to be lucky 1 D5 request for mercy The Dwarfs plead for freedom; The men are unable to leave the camp 1 freeing of a captive The men free the kidnapped Dwarfs so that they can return home 1 F1 the agent .is.transferred The men receive the gift of luck 1 K8 breaking of spell The men are able to return home 1 return of the hero(s) The men return home to their village 1 W° material gain Inference that anyone who laid eyes on Dwarfs became lucky 76 The heroes in this story are the two men, and are considered more victimized heroes than seeker heroes because they encountered adventure along the course of their journey rathern than leaving horn in search of something or someone. Furthermore, they fit Propp's definition stating the hero is that character who either directly or indirectly suffers from the action of the villain in the complication or who agrees to liquidate the misfortune or lack of someone or something. Also the heroes are supplied with a magical agent, luck. In this tale, since there does not appear to be any actual villain, and since the heroes are not committed to liquidate any definite 'lack, they were determined by their receipt of a magical agent, luck due to having seen the small people. In the initial situation, we find the two men hunting. According to Propp, we should, therefore, know that since the initial situation intro duces the members of a single family as well as the hero, the two men might be father and son or brothers, and the heroes of the tale. However, another version of the myth might prove or disprove this point. Also in the initial situationwe find the two men hunting, which indicates a lack of food, but at the close of the tale., the two men do not return with food, they return with luck, which may be considered a more indirect way of catching game. This tale appears to be somewhat broken up by the separation of the pair interdiction and violation. However, the interdiction creates the move ment of the tale and leads to the eventual villany by the heroes. According to Propp, it would seem that the hero and heroic action and the villain and villanous action are mutually exclusive, but this tale is somewhat different, in that the villanous action is attempted by the heroes. Furthermore, the Dwarfs are the donors as well as those kidnapped. They are not the heroes, nor are they the villains, interestingly enough. We 77 find that the two characters in the tale are performing the functions neces sary, which are usually specific for other characters. The DEF sequence is defined as such rather than as an HI situation because the two men, who are both hero and villain, attempt to kidnap the donors (Dwarfs). Rather than a struggle between villain and hero, this is a test of the hero by the donor. We discover two cases of doubling rather than trebling in the tale; for example, two heroes and two dwarfs. Also, the two DE situations are an example of doubling. The DEF sequence is completed in its third appearance in the tale. We have, in conclusion, a rather straight foreward one move myth. 78 #6 The Mountain Which Fought a Battle Move 1 ^ initial situation 1 A^- declaration of war 1 C volitional decision 1 H2 contest p 1 I victory in a contest Introduction The mountains decide to battle to determine who is the most powerful. They spew rocks at one another The two surviving mountains decide to find out who is the stronger They spew fire and rocks at one another, and continue until their energy is spent The mountain Makusinkaia is the victor This short tale, upon first reading, would seem to deny any applica tion of Propp. However, the hero in this tale can be determined as that character who actually suffers from the action of the villain in the complication or who agrees to liquidate a_misfortune. The Makusinkaia mountain agreed to duel to find out who was the., stronger of the mountains. We find no spatial transference to the mountains, therefore, neither departure nor transference, to a designated place are employed. This tale contains four functions, and it almost seems incomplete. The three most important functions which compose the core of the tale are A, and the_pair HI. This pair is employed as opposed to MN because the confronta tion consists of ..an. actual, battle between.the mountains. No mountain is labelled as either the.hero or the villain although it is determined that Makusinkaia is the hero of the tale. 79 #7 The Chilkat Blanket Move 1 ^ initial situation 1 771 1 eJ deceitful persuasions of the villain hero reacts to persuasions of villain Introduction, many women are picking berries in the forest A youth persuades the Chief's daughter to live with him She agrees to go with the youth 1 A1* detention She is unable to leave of her own free will 1 E1 call for help She calls to a fisherman for assistance 1 *D request, with preliminary helpless situation of person making the request The fisherman says she must be his wife 1 E? fulfillment of request The chief's daughter agrees to his request 1 E1 fight in an open field Gonaquade't (the fisherman) meets Bear-husband in battle 1 IJ victory in open bafttle Gonaquade't kills the Bear by hitting him on the forehead with his club 1 G^ the hero rides She rides in the fisherman's boat to his home connectives She is happy and they have a son 1 D 1 E"1 1 FK 10 requests reaction of hero to request released from captivity Mother requests to return home, and Gonaquade't requests that she not forget him The chief's daughter agrees to his request Gonaquade't releases her after receiving a beautiful chilkat blanket 80 Move 1 I 1 W° 11 (fi 11 C 11 return of the hero reward lack of knowledge volitional decision route of hero She returns home with her son Raven is collection knowledge to make life on earth possible Raven is doing this of his own accord He travels all over the world 11 D 11 E 11 jf &1 11 W 0 greeting friendly response the agent is transferred reward Raven greets Gonaquade't Gonaquade't treats Raven very courteously Gonaquade't gives Raven the blanket and ... . Raven in turn takes it to the people The hero in move one of this tale is the Chief's daughter as the action of the story is developed after her. She is also a victimized hero as she encounters adventures without going in search of them. As Propp states, had there been a seeker sent after her, the route - followed by the story and on which the action is developed, would have been that of the hero seeker; however, the narrative is instead developed after the victimized hero. The hereof move 11 is Raven. He is a seeker hero. Although he is not looking for a lost person, he is looking for knowledge. His departure from home was due to a search as opposed to being on a journey and encountering a situation. 81 Because there are two different heroes, the Chief's daughter in move one, ahd Raven in move two, we question whether or not this myth could be also interpreted as two separate myths. The mediating function does not bring the hero into the tale, but the donor. Also the woman is seen in the initial situation with a group of other women, not her immediate family. The first of two DE sequences is interesting, because it is question able as to whether or not this is actually a DEF sequence. Nevertheless, the two sequences are similar in other ways. In both cases the Chief's daughter makes a request of Gonaquade't, and he makes a request of her. In each case she fulfills the request made of her, and then hers is granted. The second DEF sequence could be considered a doubling of the first DE sequence, as it Is not separate enough, nor is there an A or a funcion to accompany it to comprise a new move. The second DEF sequence introduces the chilkat blanket into the tale. .We. find that the HI pair is also interesting as the donor fights the villain on behalf of the hero and is victorious. This incident complicates the narrative. Had the hero fought her own battle and won, the tale would have consisted of a straight foreward HI complication. #8 The Moose, The Sheep and The Cariboo Move 1 ^ initial situation 1 CL lack of agreement 1 C volitional decision introduction No one can decide who will be chief They decide to have contests 82 Move 1 H2 competition Sheep vans in counting hairs, Sheep has hardest bones, Sheep is able to survive cold weather better than Moose or Cariboo 1 H victory Sheep wins all competitions 1 K liquidation of misfortune or lack Sheep suggests that they give up the idea of one chief and become brothers. Moose and Cariboo agree It is difficult to determine the hero in a tale such as this. On the one hand all three dramatis personae try to liquidate the misfortune. None of them suffer from the action of a villain, nor are any of them suffering from the action of the villain. It is not until the three engage in three competi tions that we are able to determine that Sheep not only is the victor, but he also presents an acceptable solution to their dilemma. The complication is one of HI rather than MN as their confrontation is more competitive with one another than it is anything else. They are not solving a difficult task, rather they are vying with one another to become chiefAlthough Propp states that a competitive situation requires a hero and a villain, the dramatis personae are„not that clearly defined, and this tale illustrates that a hero.and villain are not as important as a competitive situation. The form of this myth is similar to tale #6. It is interesting to note that the former tale is reduced to an argument between two mountains as to whom is superior, while this myth deals with the superiority of three animals. The sequence H12 describes both confrontations, even though in tale #6 the mountains battle it out, and in this tale they reach an agreement-by peaceful means. It is interesting to note that of the twelve available motifs for 83 function K, the general form is used, as there is not a motif that is more suitable in this case. #9 Alder People and Sun People Move 1 °^ initial situation introduction 1 declaration of war Alder people killed woman's people 11 aJ lack of husband The mother's daughter has no husband l&ll B announcement of misfortune in various forms The mother cries for a long time l&ll C volitional decision Woman wants revenge through her daughter's husband. Mother refuses daughter's suitors l&ll M difficult task The Sun Man is unable to obtain the daughter unless he is able to do something great l&ll N solution Sun Man causes the rivers to boil and heats the mountains 11 K 11 W liquidation of misfortune promised marriage Sun Man is successful in impressing the woman. The mother has now found a suitable"husband for her daughter The woman gives her daughter to Sun Man 1 IT punishment The woman is unable to persuade Sun Man into taking revenge 84 The initial situation finds us with a basic family unit, a woman and her daughter. In this tale the hero, according to Propp, would be the woman as she is the character who plans to revenge her brothers' deaths by firstly liquidating her daughter's misfortune, which is lack of a husband. She would be more a seeker hero than a victimized hero even though she does not leave her home. In this tale Propp's rule defining a function according to its consequences would be applied in determining the MN complication. If the receipt of a magical agent follows the solution of a task, it is the donor testing the hero, but if the receipt of a bride and a marriage follow, then it is an example of MN. However, it is not the hero that marries, but the hero's daughter. We can see that in this story it is very important to the mother to find her daughter a husband, so that he can be of assistance to both of them. The mother is perhaps too old to find another husband. This is an interesting tale in that there are two moves closely interwoven with each other., . The villany and the separate lack that are both clearly mentioned in the initial situation determine the two moves, and the denouements for.the two moves also help in defining them, otherwise each incident that ..occurs in the myth has a double purpose. The tale is at first deceptive because of the thirteen additional incidents, the purpose, of which is to lengthen the myth. After these are considered, the tale appears rather simple, but is eventually revealed to be very compact and succinct. 85 #10 Adventures of Raven Move 1 initial situation o ±QA^ theft of daylight 1 B introduction of villain and family introduction A rich man kept the daylight, the sun and the moon A discussion of the rich man's servants who took care of his ' beautiful daughter 1 C consent to counteraction /is 1 1 departure of hero connectives 1 n7 other requests Raven decides to capture the day light Raven leaves homeaand travels many miles Raven arrives at his destination, and talks to the chief's daughter. Raven thinks the Chief's daughter is beautiful and asks her to marry him 1 E the hero's reaction 1 Or the hero is carried Raven has to make other plans by which to retrieve the daylight Raven changes into a spruce needle which the Chief's daughter drinks 1 D' other requests Raven, as grandson of Chief, re-three boxes containing the stars, sun and moon respectively hero's reaction Raven cries each time he is refused and therefore upsets the Chief who does not like to see his grandson unhappy. 86 Move 1 F"*" the agent is transferred Raven receives the stars, sun and the moon respectively o 1°K liquidation of misfortune Raven frees the three items, and through cunning throws the sun into the sky 1 -i return of hero Raven returns home The initial situation prepares the setting of this tale and intro duces us to' Raven, the seeker hero. B function, mediation, does not bring the hero or his family into the tale in this case, but does elaborate on the extent of the misfortune as well as introduce the villain and his family to the story. The transformations in this myth are not considered the same as function T, transfiguration, mainly because the transfiguration is temporary, while function T indicates a more permanent change. Furthermore, although Raven may assume a new role with his new form, his purpose does not change. There has. been no liquidation of the problem, and his goal remains the same. The only change is in Raven's appearance, which has little bearing on the overall plot of the narrative. As we may. recall, it is not important who acts, but the action itself that is important. The Chief's daughter could be considered a deceived donor, because she unwillingly and unknowingly furnished the hero with a means of gaining access to the stars, sun and moon. It is interesting to note that the DEF sequence is used twice in this tale and both after the initial situation. Applying the functions in this manner seem to be the most efficient method of describing the tale according to Proppian analysis. The sequence is not 87 completed until Raven's second attempt to attain the stars, sun and moon. Raven returns home not only by the same route he came, which was through a hole in the sky, but he also goes through the sam transformations; although his departure and journey to his destination is more descriptive of his transformations, his return journey indicates similar transformations, as the tale mentions that he put. on his raven skin again. We must assume, therefore, that he changed into man.and walked when he was tired of flying, and changed into Raven and flew.when he.was tired of walking. We find that trebling is very prevalent in this story. Propp notes that trebling may occur among individual details of a tale as well as among individual functions, and pairs of functions. The repetition, he further notes, is usually uniform, for instance, three tasks demand three solutions. He also notes that in cases such as this the last task and solution are the most difficult. Upon analysis this is.a much simpler tale than it appears to' be. The various" roles that Raven assumes at first tend to make the plot more complicated than it actually is. 88 II 3 ii) PROPP'S RESULTS - ALASKAN MYTHS If we refer to tale 11 we are able to see the metalinguistic string that Propp's analysis, as applied to the Alaskan myths, discloses. It becomes apparent that all the Alaskan tales employ at least one morphological element in their prepatory sections, and usually it is simply^ , initial situation. This function appears in all the Alaskan tales. We find only three pairs of other morphological elements in.these tales, which are two interdictions and their violations,.and one pair of trickery and complicity. It is interesting to note that in both instances, where an order or interdiction was given and its violation occurred, we find that the pair is. separated by other functions and does not quite conform to.Propp's rules of application. Also these morpho logical elements are both found within the tale, rather than in the initial situation. Elements of trickery, deceitful persuasions of the villain, 7^~i end elements.of. complicity,.the hero.reacts to the persuasions of the villain, Q1, are found in the initial situation of tale #7. Absent from the tales are any of the morphological elements related to reconnaissance and delivery. Nor do we find absentation of family members, or preliminary misfortune caused by deceitful agreement. The Alaskan tales enter the actual movement of the story rather quickly and therefore a very brief initial situation is given, as opposed to an extensive introduction. Villany, function A occurs seven times in.ten myths. Of the twenty four available motifs from which to choose, A1 occurs twice, as does A1? declaration of war, A\ theft of daylight, A^, threat of cannibalism, and A1^ imprisonment or detention, occur only once each. Thus we have a total of five 89 functions out of a total of twenty-four that are applicable in the Alaskan tales. Many A functions do not appear at all. -uFor instance.,, functions re lated to magical elements, such as A2, seizure of a magical agent, A11, 7 11 forcible seizure of such, A , evocation of disappearance, A , casting of a 18 spell, and A , vampirism are absent. Although the subject of forced matrimony does not form the villany of a myth, the subject of matrimony appears in five of the Alaskan tales. In tales #3 and 10 a direct request to engage in marriage is made; in two of the other tales, we find a married couple, and in tale #9, a mother is in search of a husband for her daughter, on which the actual movement of the second move in this tale is based. As far as function a., lack... or .insufficiency is concerned, we find a • total of eight, four a"'", lack of bride of individual, and four a^ lacks in other forms. In regards to a"*", we find that in two cases in the same myth this refers to lack of a chile, in another case, a lack of a husband is lamented, while in the third instance, a lack of a family or parents is expressed. We do not find the lack of a bride, interestingly enough. Function a^ is re vealing in that most of all these lacks are concerned with an abstract idea, the majority of them instigated by curiousity. The only material lack is that of the stars. The lack of daylight was dealt with by the function of villany. The connective incident, or mediation designated as B function, is found seven times in six offthe ten myths. As mentioned in chapter 11 I-, this function accomplished a number of things, such as making known the misfortune' or lack, the introduction or dispatch of the hero. In every instance here the hero is already involved in the action of the tale when function B is applied. However, the mediating function does introduce, in one instance, the villain and his family as opposed to introducing the hero and his family, as we would 90 expect. announcement of misfortune in various forms, occurs three times in two tales,, (twice in.one), and here, both times Father Moon is complaining. B7 lament or plaintive song.is employed only once also in these Alaskan tales. In tale #9, B^ is used rather than B? because it follows Propp's rule, and 2 3 also because it is more general than the other motifs. _B.. and B-^, dispatch and 5 6 release, are each employed once respectively, while B and B , transporation of banished hero or condemned hero released, spared, employed respectively, are not present in any of the tales. ... .. As mentioned previously, B1 and B^ are employed in conjunction with a seeker hero, while B^ and B^ are used in conjuctiori with victimized heroes. This rule was the deciding factor in determining whether or not the mediating function in tale #9 was an announcement in a 'various form' or a lament. We find only two instances out of seven that do not follow this rule. Only once do we use a general.B function because we lack a more appropriate one. Furthermore, the connective incident appears twice in only one myth. C function, consent to counteraction, according to Propp, should be used with a seeker hero only. We find that C is found eight times in seven myths, and therefore Propp's rule is applied correctly a total of twelve out of thirteen times. In the Alaskan tales there is sometimes not enough detail to warrant use of both B and C functions. Propp notes that this C function is not always expressed in words in a tale, and is sometimes rather difficult to find. For.example, in tale #9, the mother makes no overt decision to find her daughter a husband, but the fact that she searches for a husband indicates that she has, in fact, made a decision. The function 1* represents dispatch of the hero and designates his route regardless of whether he is a victim or seeker hero. It is found six times in five stories, four of which are seeker tales. Propp notes that in 91 certain tales a spatial transference of the hero is absent and the entire action takes place in one location. If there is no spatial transference nc T is not used. However,T is not used in tales #1, 5, 6 and 9i and we have spatial transference of the hero in #1. This is more than likely due to the shortness of the tale and this function is taken up by the mediating function. Although Propp states that T departure, follows consent to counteraction we find that there are four examples where either is used in which this does not occur. Only in tales #2, 3, 7 and 10 do we find the two functions together. Tales #4, 6 8 and 9, which contain either one or the other function are all less complete than the four former £ales. It is also interesting to note that the first four tales are seeker hero tales. We might make the inference that the seeker tales are generally longer than the victimized hero stories. In tale #7, spatial transference is taken up by the G function, which is an ex-2 tension of departure. This is found four different .times in the. tales, G where the hero rides or is carried twice., and G^, the. route is shown to the o hero. In regards to G , the hero in each case is transported by his donor. We find that in tale #7, G function is interchanged-with.the complication HI. In both instances where we employed G^ a path of light is shown to the hero. Here we find that G function in move 1 of tale #2 is interchanged with DEF sequence. In all instances except tale #7 we also employ departure and return. This function was only utilized if the object of a search was outside what would be considered in these instances reality.-We should discuss the ABCT complication at this point. This complete sequence is found in tales #2, 3 and 10, all of which are seeker hero tales, and are relatively long tales in comparison to the others. According to Propp's rule, we would not expect to find a victimized hero tale with this complete complication; however, we do not find the sequence ABT either. AB, AT and A 92 alone are found in tales #1, 4, 5 and move 1 of tale 7» and move II of tale 2, while AC^ and AC are found in tales #6, 8 and move 11 of tale 7» The sequence ABC is found only in tale #9. Thus it seems, and perhaps somewhat by definition that the seeker hero tales are longer. It is interesting to note, however, that the longest tale contains both a seeker and victimized hero. Vfe find that D function, or first function of the donor appears ten times in five Alaskan myths, but we have employed only four of the available. 7 fourteen motifs. D, the general form of this function is used twice and D another general form of this function, is found five times in three tales. 7 We have actually employed only three specific functions in these tales, d » helpless situation of the donor ..without a stated request; the possibility of i 2 5 rendering service, and D » greeting and interrogation, and D , request for mercy. Propp states that often the hero is encountered accidentally. Thisf holds true in five different instances in four myths. In four other cases, the meeting of the hero and donor is not accidental. The donors are well aware of the situation and in one instance, the meeting is planned and pre pared for in advance. In most cases, we find that the donor supplies the hero with material objects. In only three instances do we find that the donor supplies things such as in tale #5, and a means to an end in tales #7 and 10. In other cases, we find the donor taking on the functions of the hero. Tale #2 raises a question in this respect. At first it seems that Doll-Boy becomes the donor in move 11, acting on behalf of the hero, but because the tale ends fairly shortly after Doll-Boy returns, and also because of the relative posi tions of the dramatis personae in the myth, the donor is taken to be absent from move 11. In most of the Alaskan tales the donor, if there is one, is a 93 separate character, except in tale #9, where in move 11, the donor and villain are the same dramatis personae. The reaction of the .hero,.E function, also occurs tent times in the Alaskan tales, and we employ only four of the eleven available motifs. In only five cases do we find that the corresponding E function is used in conjunction with D function. In three instances, the hero reacts negatively and in two instances, we find that the D and E functions are unmatched. However, these are very minor points and not particularly relevant for this present study. It is interesting to note that we find DE occurring before the a function in one example, in tale #5. ;It also completes the action between interdiction and results in its violation. Function F, the provision or receipt of a magical agent or helper occurs six times in the Alaskan myths,..and utilizes, three of the sixteen available functions. ._F"^., the transference, of the agent, is used three dif--| -3 ferent times and f , the gift of a material nature, is used twice, and F^.?  the preparation of the agent, is employed only once. We do not find F~ in these tales. When we consider the three DEF functions together, the potential combinations, as mentioned previously, are very great. To recapitulate, the first type exhibits friendly or deceived donors, which are not really donors, but personages who unwillingly furnish the hero with something. The second type most often presents friendly donors with the exception of those who sur render a magical agent unwillingly or after a fight (Propp 1968:48). According to Proppian analysis,. all the Alaskan tales containing a DEF sequence are type 11 tales, these being more straight foreward than the type 1 tales. 94 We also do not find an inverted sequence, where the DEF sequence occurs before the villany. We do, however, find a. partial sequence or the i DE portion in tale #5. As a matter of interest, DE occurs twice before its j"" completion on the third appearance later in the tale, after progressing through Propp's given order of functions. DE occurs only four times as opposed to six complete DEF occurrences, and DF, EF do not occur at all. Therefore, it does seem that the functions DEF form a sequence in the Alaskan tales as Propp indicated. The function H struggle, and its counterpart, I, defeat of the villain,are found only six times in five myths. The general function H is employed once in six cases, while only two of the four available H motifs are used in the five remaining cases, H1 in tales #3 twice, and in tale #7 once, with H2 used once in tales 6 and 8. Y? and are not employed as they were too specific, and neither subject they referred to, weighing or cards, is mentioned in any of the Alaskan tales. It is the H function that determines the fate of the characters in volved in a dispute. I function merely completes the action. For example, of the eight available I functions, including also the general function, only three are used. I-* is used in conjunction with H in tale #1, while in the remaining cases, the corresponding I function is used with its H function. Only in one example do we find a negative use of I, which indicates the loss of a struggle.by the hero. Although Father Moon is crushed by Tundra, the initial lack of stars is alleviated, thus his defeat is not in vain. It is interesting to note that in only two cases out of six is a. dispute settled with words. In the other four tales some form of physical force is applied. Cleverness or outwitting an enemy does not seem"to be em phasized in dealing with an opponent in the Alaskan tales, although tale #1 is 95 an example to the contrary. Function M, the proposal of a difficult task to the hero and Function N, the resolution of this task, are found once in Alaskan tale #9. MN are considered the most appropriate functions because a receipt of a bride follows the solution of a task. Propp refers to this as defining a function according to its consequences; Propp sums this up when he says "all tasks giving rise to a search must be considered in terms of B, all tasks giving rise to the receipt of a magical agent are considered as D, all other tasks are considered as M, with two varieties: those connected with matchmaking and marriage and tasks not linked with matchmaking (Propp, 1968:68). Function K, the liquidation of lack or misfortune (which indicates the peak of the narrative), is found nine times in eight Alaskan tales. Of the thirteen available motifs, six are employed. The general function K is employed twice, as are motifs K"* 'and K"^. Both K and Y?~ are somewhat general, and consist of four out of nine applications of this function. In both appli cations of K"*" it is cunning that is used rather than force. Also it is interest ing to note that the magical element is also made reference to in the Alaskan 5 8 tales, for example, Y? and K both refer to such. Although the corresponding villainous functions do not preceed the climaxing of the narrative along the 11 xvii 18 2 ii same lines, for example, A , A , A » A , A , the element of magic is indeed exposed at this point in the tale. Only once is there a negative result, found in tale #2, which is necessary for the perpetuation of another move, where the situation is rectified. Function KF is employed only once in the Alaskan tale #7. The narrative climax is reached upon Gonaquedet's release of the chief's daughterj and at the same time,^ the completion of the DEF sequence is effected. We can see that K function and DEF are employed as separate functions and that KF is 96 not used to tie them together. However, it is interesting to note that HI or MN and K appear as often as do DEF and K together, and that DEF, HI and K do not appear together in their complete forms. We come closest to this in tale #7 when we have DE, H,DE,I;KF. Propp states that the return j- , is generally accomplished by the same means as arrival, and the two functions should be considered together* In the Alaskan tales the return function is found once more than is the de parture function. Upon closer examination, we see only four pairs of depar ture and return together, the others are found by themselves. Firstly, let us consider the departures with no returns. In tale #3, Father Moon does not return, but is destroyed by Tundra; in tale #7, move 11, Raven continues his journey. Looking at the returns with no departures, we see that in tale #2 function a and f are both applicable, but function a is used in order to create a new move. In tale #5, the hunters have already left home, as the story begins with their discovery of the dwarfs. In tale #7, G function rather than T indicates the route of the hero, and there are not enough details to warrant ••<> the two functions, T and G. Propp's statement, the hero returns in the same manner that he leaves, holds true, although in these tales it seems that less elaboration is given to return than a departure. Tale #7, the details of the chief's daughter's return is an example. (in four tales, we do not find either function present at all.) Propp also states that 1 is found in the form of function Pr, pursuit. However, this does not apply in the Alaskan tales, and Pr or its partner, Rs rescue, are not used at all. Transfiguration is found twice in the Alaskan tales, although the general function is used rather than any of the four motifs. Tale #2 might have been interpreted as a T~* motif, as the Doll does take on human qualities, but the transition from inariimateitp animate is never explained, and further-97 more, the complete transition from wood to flesh does not seem to occur. Punishment of the villain, function U, is found twice in Alaskan tales #3 and 9* In both instances, the negative result of the function is employed, and we might note, in two rather different ways. In tale #3, it is the hero who receives punishment, but this is not in vain as his death creates the stars. In tale #9, U~ again refers to the hero, but this time to indicate that her request for revenge is not fulfilled. In this latter case another function might have been more appropriate had it been available. Function W, wedding, appears six times in.five.tales, and two.of the available seven functions are utilized. W°, monetary reward or other forms of material gain at the denouement, is found five times. In every instance the gain is ultimately not for the hero alone, but for his people. For example, Doll brings the winds, Poor Boy is able to find sufficient food and good weather, the Chief's DAughter makes the Chilkat Blanket which Raven gives to the Eskimo people, men through the hunters, receive luck from the Dwarfs. promised marriage, was found once in tale #9, where Sun marries a woman's daughter after completing a difficult task. No gain in social status is mentioned, as does Propp's motifs, such as W , wedding and accession to the throne. Functions other than Pr and Rs, such as 0, unrecognized arrival, L, claims of a false hero, Q, recognition of hero, Ex, exposure of false hero, aj?e not used in the Alaskan tales. Since Pr and Rs, 0 and L, Q and Ex are con sidered pairs of functions, it seems logical that if one function of a pair is not found, then the other also would not likely be found. J. the branding or marking of the hero, sometimes found in conjunction with functions Q and Ex was also absent from these tales. Thus from thirty one functions, only twenty are utilized in the Alaskan tales. 98 II 4, i) COMPARISON AND CONTRAST OF RESULTS This section will clarify what each application of Propp to the Beaver and Alaskan myths reveals. Every Beaver and Alaskan tale begins with-a function from the prepa-tory section. The tables of metalinguistic strings illustrates this. We can see that the Beaver corpora use the function^, initial situation, in every tale, while the Alaskan corpora uses this function insall but tale #5, Propp states that although all characters may be introduced via the initials-situation, the hero, false hero, dispatcher and princess (victim) are usually only intro duced via this function. He distinguishes between two basic forms of initial situations; a) a hero seeker with his family and b) the victim with his family. Furthermore, Propp states that an initial situation demands the presence of the members of a family (Propp, 1968:85). However, looking at the Beaver and Alaskan corpora, we see that of the thirteen initial situations in the Beaver corpora, only five comply with Propp's rale. It is interesting to note that all six tales about Usakindji break Propp's rule. In looking at the Alaskan Eskimo myths, five of the ten initial situations conform to his rule. Beaver myth #2 is of particular interest as Wabshu agrees to try forming another family with only Nachi. Also Alaskan myth #10 illustrates another variation of Propp's rule in that we see the villain and his family, rather than the hero or victim. We can also see that one motif from every function in the prepatory section except h , preliminary misfortune caused by a deceitful agreement, is employed in the Beaver tales. In the Alaskan tales, however, yit interdiction and (5 , its violation; 7|, trickery and ©, complicity are the only other motifs found. We find that the Beaver tales use a total of one hundred sixty-one 99 functions, thirty-four of which are from the preparatory section, whereas the Alaskan tales use a total of one hundred twenty-three functions with nine teen functions from the preparatory section. This accounts for a difference of approximately twenty-seven percent to fourteen percent in the use of pre paratory functions in the Beaver and Alaskan myths respectively as opposed to a difference of twenty-one percent to twelve percent from the remaining functions respectively. Thus we can see that the Beaver tales employ a much greater proportion of the functions from the preparatory section than do the Alaskan tales. For example, trickery and complicity play an important part in the preparatory section of the Beaver tales, whereas, although it is not as obvious, interdiction and its violation is more prevalent in the Alaskan tales. Propp's analysis illustrates aadifference in the way fehe beginning of a tale is handled by both cultures. The above seven functions are considered more as morphological elements than true functions. Propp regards the true functions as initiating the complication of the tale. The first true function (A) villany, and (a) lack, or insufficiency are found eighteen times in the Beaver myths and fifteen times in the Alaskan myths. The function villany appears more often than a lack in the Beaver myths, whereas in the Alaskan myths, a lack appears more often than a villany. In regards to the function viilany, in both corpora A"*"> A19, A-17, and A15 are found. A"*, kidnapping of a person, twice in both corpora, A19, declaration of war, twice in the Alaskan tales, and once in the Beaver tales, A^7, threat of cannibalism, once in the Alaskan tales and five times in the Beaver tales, A1-* . once in both corpora, with the Beaver tales also sharing this function with A , plundering in various forms. Only A* and A are found singly in the Alaskan and Beaver tales respectively. All other motifs of villany do not appear in either corpora. Since there are twenty-three motifs 100 included in the function villany, the fact that seventeen are not found in either corpora is quite spectacular. The outstanding motif brought out here is the threat of cannibalism in the Beaver tales. I It is interesting to note that a^, lack in other forms, occurs most often in both corpora. In the Beaver myths this function is found six out of nine times, and each time specifically as.a lack of .food... The other three motifs are a , lack of individual (husband), a , lack of helper and a?, lack of the means of existence, each occur once. In the Alaskan myths is found four out of eight times, referring to general things such as lack of information, objects and agreement. The other four motifs refer to lack of an individual, such as a child, parents and husband. The subject of matrimony seems quite important in both corpora, not as an A function but in the form of a lack. As we see above, in both the Beaver and Alaskan tales, an a1 is a lack of a husband rather than a bride. Furthermore, the subject of a family constellation or parts of it, such as widow and son, childless parents, an orphan, seem rather important. In both corpora, this subject is touched on, six times in the Alaskan tales, and five times in the Beaver tales. We should also take note that in the Beaver tales the family constellations are one and two generations only, whereas in the ; Alaskan tales we have two tales #7 and 10 that are three generations. Although Propp's motifs do not really bring out this difference in the two corpora, it seems like an important difference. According to Propp, function B, mediation , and its seven motifs bring the hero into the tale. The first four motifs are supposed to introduce the hero seeker, while the last three are supposed to introduce the victimized hero. In the Alaskan and Beaver myths we find ten and seven mediating functions 101 respectively, or, a mediating function in every Beaver myth and only seven mediating functions in seven Alaskan myths. All-mediating motifs are employed except B^ and ^ in the Beaver myths, and B^ ^ and ? in the Alaskan myths. In the Beaver myths we have used function B, the connective incident four dif ferent times in tales #3, 4, 7 and 8, all of which are Usakindji myths with a victimized hero. Here the B function was used for lack of a more adequate motif, and an actor's initiative was generally described by the connective 5 incident. Tale #2 utilizes one of the last three motifs, B , transportation of the banished hero. There are only three Beaver myths that contain a seeker hero, #1,' 6, and 9, all of which are applying a proper motif, according to Propp.1. Tale #5 and 10 which have a victimized hero, are applying motifs from the seeker hero section, however. Alaskan myths utilize B function only once with a seeker hero. The Alaskan seeker hero tales are #'s 2,3,6,7,8,9 and 10, quite the reverse situation from the seven Beaver victimized hero tales. It is interesting to note that seeker hero tales #2,3 and 9 apply Propp's rule, tale #10 applies B function, and #'s 6, 7 and 8 do not have a mediating function at ali. Furthermore, the tales that have a victimized hero either apply one of the first four motifs of B function, or do not apply one at all. In short, we find that four of the Beaver myths and three of the Alaskan myths conform to Propp's ruling in regards to the victimized and seeker hero aspect of the mediating function. Whether or not the mediating function actually introduces the hero as Propp claims is another matter. In both Beaver and Alaskan stories, the hero is introduced in the initial situation in eight of the ten stories. Furthermore, in the Beaver myths the lack or misfortune is made known by B function in five of the ten stories, whereas in the Alaskan stories, a lack or misfortune is made known by B function in six of the tales../ Moreover, three of 102 these tales do not have a B function. Although Propp says that the misfortune or lack is often made known to the hero in a round-about way, in the Beaver and Alaskan tales the misfortune or lack seems to happen directly to the hero. C function, consent to counteraction, Propp says, is characteristic of those tales in which the hero is a seeker. This definition actually de fines whether or not this function will be used, and therefore, it is found only in the three Beaver hero seeker myths and eight times in the seven Alaskan hero seeker myths. The departure function designated as T , departure of the hero from home, whether a seeker or a victim, is a significant function, and is found ten times in the Beaver myths and six times in the Alaskan myths. Departure is not used if there is no spatial transference of the hero. In the Beaver tales this function is found in only two of the Usakindji tales as usually he is enroute, but departure is found in all the other tales. In the Alaskan tales the departure function seems to be distributed rather evenly between the seeker and victimized hero tales in that five out of seven seeker tales and one of three victimized, hero, tales. Propp's rule that C function is found only in seeker tales defines in which tales the ABcT complication will be found. In the Beaver myths it is found in tales 1, 6 and 9 only. These three tales are,as pointed out previously, the only seeker tales in the Beaver corpora. The ABct com plication is found in Alaskan tales 2, 3 and 10. These three tales are also seeker hero tales, the other seeker tales were rather short and were, therefore, less complete. None of the victimized hero tales in either the Beaver or Alaskan tales were complete with this sequence. Perhaps this suggests that the seeker hero tales are a more complete version of the tales, or perhaps they are simpler in that they are more straight forward. Let us consider the DEF functions together, as they also form a 103 sequence. Propp differentiates between two types of connection, and simply put, type 1 are unfriendly or deceived donors, type 11 are friendly donors. In the Beaver myths, the complete sequence is found five times in five stories, in the Alaskan myths, six times in five stories. Tales #2 and 10 of the Beaver corpora are type 11. The donors are friendly. Tales #5, 6 and 8 are type 1, the donor is deceived. However, in the Alaskan myths all the tales are type 11. These types tend to be more straight foreward, and less inclined towards any complications. The first function of the donor of the above sequence seems to be the more interesting function. Since it is the donor that tests or interro gates the hero, the ways in which he interacts with the hero in both corpora should be noted more carefully. In the Beaver myths we do not find a hostile creature attempting to destroy the hero in the DEF sequences, but we do see the donor being tricked at the end of the sequence in function F by the hero in tales #5, and 8. In the Alaskan tales there is one element of trickery in tale #10. Raven has to outwit the Chief in order to gain the sun and moon. Tale #7 is straight foreward in the respect as are the other Alaskan tales. Propp also says of the donor that it is usually omeone other than the agent being eaten or searched for, transferred, etc. In one Beaver myth the donor is also Usakindji's food. In the Alaskan myths, however, this does not occur. According to Propp, often DEF occurs before function A. This is referred to as an inverted sequence, which produces a helper prior to the mis fortune which is liquidated by him. This occurs once in the Beaver myth #2, but the first sequence is incompleted in that function F is negative. Also, the functions DE occur prior to function A in the Alaskan myth #5. Both in verted sequences found in the corpora are in different ways, incomplete. 104 We see that the sequence DEF in the Alaskan myths appears as a complete sequence six out of eight times, whereas it appears as a complete sequence seven out of ten times in the Beaver myths. Included in the last figures are two KF functions, a combination of two functions that also occur once in the Alaskan tales. Moreover, we have two negative responses to a donor in the Alaskan tales, and three.in.the Beaver tales. It is further interesting to note that in the Alaskan tales 6/15 D functions, 5/l2 E functions and 3/l? F functions are employed in com parison to the 6/15 D functions, 4/l2 E functions and 5/17 F functions em ployed in the Beaver myths. Of these used, the general function is sometimes employed for want of another more accurate motif, especially in the Beaver tales. Also we see that both.corpora have many motifs in common, but also many not in common, especially in regards to the F function. In fact, none of these motifs overlap. It is interesting to note that in neither corpora do we find a.situation where an agent appears of its own accord, and offers its services. It is.the agent that is pursued and found, and never vice versa. The spatial transference of the hero to the whereabouts of an object of search designated by function G, is a natural continuation of function f . Propp clarifies this difference by pointing out that if the hero walks to his destination or isn't spatially transferred, G is not used. The object of search must lie in another place either horizontally or vertically before the use of G function is necessitated. In the Beaver Indian tales,-G2 and. GP are found once each and in the Alaskan Indian tales, G2 and GA are found only once each. . In these latter tales, #2, the hero follows a path through the air as well. This aspect adds a different dimension to the Alaskan tales which is not present in the Beaver tales. Here Propp's analysis brings out this difference in the two corpora. 105 Combat between the hero and the villain is defined as a struggle and designated by function H. Its counterpart, defeat of the villain is de signated by function I. These two functions should be discussed as a pair in relation to the two corpora. Firstly, the pair is found nine times in the Beaver myths as opposed to six times in the Alaskan myths. In the Beaver myths, H1 I1 is found three-times, H2 I2 five^times and H2 1^ once.- In the Alaskan myths H1 I1 is found three times, H2 I2 twice, and H I-> once. These are always. found together in both myths. _The motifs playing at cards, or weighting seem to be rather specific motifs and are not relevant at all q i to either the Beaver or Alaskan corpora. By the same token I and F4", loss at the above two motifs are not relevant to either of the corpora. 1^, ex pulsion of the villain. is also not referred to,, but conceivably could be as this motif is more general than either I or I . Thus the two corpora are very similar in their dealing with a struggle between a hero and a villain. However, it is also general enough to be misleading. .Let us take a closer look at how struggle for lack of a more descriptive motif is interpreted by both the Beaver and the Alaskan corpora. In the Beaver tales,struggles seem to be more violent than in the Alaskan tales. For example, of the nine Beaver HI situations, seven result in death for the villain, whereas, three out of six result in the death of the villain in the Alaskan tales. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that in all three of the Alaskan tales in which a character is killed, only once does the hero outwit his foe in order to de feat him; in the other two situations, a physical struggle ensues first. In the Beaver stories, a physical struggle between two opponents before the death of the foe occurs only twice; in the five other instances, there is no actual struggle between the hero and his opponent, as the hero is able to outwit his foe, and kill him without a struggle. The emphasis on cunning and outwitting 106 ones enemy, appears to be very important in the Beaver myths in comparison to the Alaskan tales. Even in one of the Beaver tales where the foe is not killed, trickery and cunning are the axis of the denouement. Thus Propp's analysis brings to light another rather important difference between the two corpora. At this point, we should also discuss the pair of functions dif ficult task M, and its solution N. This pair of functions is found only once in the Alaskan tales. If we reiterate the differences between three kinds of tasks, MN may be more easily differentiated from the other functions. As Propp says "tasks giving rise to a search are considered in terms of B, all tasks giving rise to the receipt of a magical agent or helper are considered as D, and all other tasks are considered as M. MN and HI are mutually ex clusive and are sometimes more difficult to differentiate. A move with HI is a typical first move and a move with MJ is a typical second or repeated move. Each is capable of existing separately, but a combination always takes place in the order named (Propp, 1968:104). We find that this does not apply in the Beaver and Alaskan corpora. MN is employed only once in the Alaskan tales, with HI in the other fifteen cases. Interestingly enough, Alaskan tale #9 is the only tale where a receipt of a bride and marriage have occurred, and it is another small example which follows Propp's rule. In another in stance HI is used twice in one Alaskan tale, once in each move. In five of the seven Beaver two move tales, HI is used in the second moves alone, with i neither MN or HI in move 1. lfe might note also that in many cases, move 1 does not employ either HI or MN, and that HI usually occurs in the second or third move. Thus in both the Beaver and the Alaskan tales, we find an in teresting use of these functions. 107 The narrative reaches its peak with function K, the liquidation of the misfortune or lack. The Beaver myths employ it eleven times, and the joint function KF five times. Alaskan tales employ K nine times and KF once. In every case except tale 1 of the Beaver stories, KF completes a DEF sequence. In the Beaver tales, KF deals with the object of a search in four out of five cases, with one incident referring to cunning rather than force. In the Alaskan tales, the one KF motif employed refers to release from captivity. Looking at the motifs used by each corpora, we find that the Beaver myths use three of the thirteen motifs (including K) available. K^"T direct acquisition through force or cunning, is employed nine out of 3 eleven instances, K, loss through force of cunning and K , acquisition through decoys were each applied once. The Alaskan myths.utilized seven of the c g thirteen motifs, these being K , misfortune done away with, K , breaking of a spell, K10, release from captivity, K\ liquidation of misfortune, K7, ob ject of search is captured, each once. K1 is employed twice, and K itself three times. This latter motif was employed for lack of a better described motif. The difference in the two corpora in relation to their emphasis on cunning, use of wit and trickery is again emphasized. Propp states that function A and K form pairs, in that more often than not, both A and K are found in the same tale and move. This stands to reason', as""A or a is necessary to begin a tale and K signifies its climax. In the Beaver myths all the ten A functions but one are accompanied by a K or KF function, while only four of the nine 'a' functions are accompanied by a"K or KF function. In the Alaskan tales also six A functions except one are accompanied by a K or KF function, while five of the 'a' functions are accompanied by a K or KF motif. Both corpora are similar in that the function of villany seems to demand a response more so than does a lack. 108 The function \ return is usually completed in the same way as is I, arrival. In the Alaskan myths we find as many departures as arrivals. However, we find a departure without an accompanying a rival in one tale and in another we find an arrival without a departure. Perhaps this is due to an incomplete story. In the Beaver tales we.have a rather large discrepancy between the functions of departure and return.- The tales in which there is a departure but no return are #'s 1, 3 and 9, only one of which is a Usakindji tale. In six of these tales, #'s 3»4,5,7,8 and 10, four do not utilize either function, as the tales are quite clear in depicting Usakindji as continuing along his journey. No mention is made of his leaving home, or returning to it for that matter. Thus the'Usakindji tale in the Beaver myths account for the rather large discrepancy between the functions departure and return. Although return is not covered by as much detail in either corpora, it is interesting to note that, in both, the hero.always returns in the same manner that he departed. The pair of functions, Pursuit and Rescue, are not found at all in the Alaskan myths, and are found only twice in.the Beaver myths. Of the many motifs from which to.choose, we find Pr^ attempt to destroy the hero,.coupled with a transformation into other animals,..Rs^,. and a rescue from.being des troyed, Rs^. Here we find quite a difference in the metalinguistic strings of the Beaver and Alaskan tales in comparison to Propp's appendix of meta linguistic strings. This indicates either a stylistic difference in the tales or a shortening of the Alaskan and Beaver tales, as Propp's sequence of functions indicates that this area of the tale is quite significant. Furthermore, we do not find function Q, recognition of the hero in the Alaskan myths. We find it twice in the Beaver myths, both in one story. The function transfiguration is found twice in both corpora and one motif, T\ new physical appearance, of four available is used in every case. 109 We might note that although there is a physical change designated, they are of different natures. In the Beaver myths, the mortal becomes immortal, and man changes into animal and back again with relative ease. In the Alaskan myths, an inanimate human form is brought to life, and one form is destroyed to create another. Here Propp's method of analysis further inquiry regarding one motif. Function U, punishment of the villain in Propp has no variations in motifs. U occurs only once in the Alaskan tales, and in this instance, the villain is transformed. In the Beaver myths, U occurs seven times. One would expect that there would be a variety of motifs from which to choose, as in the Beaver tales we find that in three out of seven cases, the villain is killed, and in the other four, the villain is transformed or banished. Re garding the villain, Propp states that "usually only the villain of the second iwe and the false hero are punished, while the first villain is punished only in those cases in which a battle and pursuit are absent from the story. Otherwise, he is killed in battle or perishes during the pursuit" (Propp, 1968:63). This statement seems to be somewhat strict in applying to the corpora. We see that in seven instances in the Beaver myths, and two instances in the Alaskan myths, all of which are two move tales, the villain, in six out of nine cases., is punished in the second move, rather than the first move. Only in 'one instance does U occur in move 1, however, there is no battle or pursuit in this move., there is_a battle in the. second move... In the other two cases, we find U~ in the first move. Thus even in this regard the Beaver and Alaskan myths generally follow Propp's ruling. Function W, wedding and accession to the throne, is not relevant to either corpora. W^, monetary reward and other forms of material gain at the denouement, is found five out of six times in the Alaskan tales and W"*"» 110 promised marriage, only once. In the Beaver tales \P is found only twice. It is interesting to note that the reverse situation with the two corpora in terms of punishment and reward. The Beaver tales contain seven punish-ment motifs and two reward motifs, while the Alaskan tales contain six reward motifs and one punishment motif. Functions that are foreign to both corpora are 0, unrecognized arrival, L, claims of a false hero, Ex exposure of false hero and J, branding or marking the hero. The Beaver myths utilize two more functions than do the Alaskan myths. Generally we found that Propp's functions were applicable to the material. This section has helped to clarify the similarities and differ ences between the results obtained in the application of Propp's method of analysis to the two corpora. Ill II 4, ii) GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ANALYSIS Let us look at a more general view of Propp's rules in relation to the two corpora. The hero is the most important dramatis personae in any of the myths,.. The selection of the hero.then should be firstly reiterated; "he is that character who either directly suffers from the action of the villain in the complication (the one who senses some kind of lack), or who agrees to liqui date the misfortune or lack of another person. In the course of the action, the hero is the person who is supplied with a magical agent (a magical helper), and who makes use of it or is served by it" (Propp, 1968:50). Propp also differentiates between a seeker hero who has a search as his goal, and a victimized hero, whose departure marks the beginning of a journey as opposed to a search. The hero in Propp's method of analysis is the main character in a ; total of seven because his intentions create the axis of the narrative. Nearly all the other functions are complementary to this one, except the function villany, and that of the false hero, which are in direct opposition to the hero. .We expect the hero to take on certain roles or attributes, positive as opposed to negative attributes a villain or false hero is supposed to assume. Questions, such as whether or not the hero and villain are always in. conflict and opposition, and whether they do assume their expected roles can be looked at in terms of Propp's spheres of action. These seven characters coincide with various functions which are joined together by what Propp calls spheres of action. For example, the sphere of action of the hero includes function C, consent to counteraction, t , departure, E, reaction to demands of a donor, W, wedding, while the sphere of action of the villain includes function A, villany, H, fight with the hero, and Pr, pursuit. The other 112 spheres of action are as follows; that of the donor, the helper, the prin cess (victim), the dispatcher and false hero. We see immediately that the villain is accorded the villanous actions and is placed in direct opposi tion to the hero. However, upon further study, we find that their spheres of action overlap because one dramatis personae is involved in more than one sphere of action. According to Propp these spheres of action may be dealt with in three ways. Firstly, a sphere of action directly corresponds to the character, secondly one character is involved in several spheres of action and lastly, a single sphere of action is distributed among several characters. In both the Alaskan and the Beaver tales, we find that the hero is most highly differentiated, with the villain second and the victim third. The dispatcher, helper and donor in both corpora play a somewhat ambiguous role, although more so in the Alaskan tales. In neither corpora do we find a false hero. When considering the hero and villain in the Beaver tales, these two spheres of action do not overlap, whereas, they do twice in the Alaskan tales. Thus we see that the hero and villain need not be in direct conflict with one another, and that the characteristics of the hero in some cases can also be those of the supposed villain. In the Alaskan tales the sphere of action of the hero is more apparent, whereas, the sphere of action of the vil lain is not. We find that generally the Beaver tales seem to have a greater dif ferentiation of character than do the Alaskan tales, with the Beaver tales usually engaging three main dramatis personae in the plot, and the Alaskan tales engaging only two. Furthermore, we have discovered that the main characters in both are more differentiated than the less important characters therefore, appearing as separate entities rather than becoming involved in 113 several spheres of action. Therefore, in reference to Propp's three rules regarding the distribution of the spheres of action, we find that the sphere of action of the hero usually corresponds to only one dramatis personae, whereas, one dramatis personae may be spread among two or more more general spheres of action in regards to the dispatcher, donor and helper. Also we find that in\the Beaver tales there are many more separate dramatis personae or in other words, generally one character per sphere of action, as opposed to the Alaskan tales. Jh the latter case, usually a dramatis personae shares at least two spheres of action. For instance, the hero in the Beaver tale appears in the sphere of action of the her© 7/l7 or 41 percent of the time, while in the Alaskan tales only 4.15 or 27 percent of the time. This also applies to the dramatis personae corresponding to the spheres of action of the villain and the victim. Let us consider Propp's second suggestion, that one character is involved in two or more spheres of action. In the Beaver tales we find the hero and the victim three times, the hero and dispatcher three times, hero and helper once, and no other double combinations, while in the Alaskan tales we find the hero and victim three times, hero and dispatcher zero, hero and helper three times, hero and villain twice. We also find combinations of three spheres of action — in the Beaver tales this occurs only once; the herb, dispatcher and helper, are the same dramatis personae, while in the Alaskan tales, this occurs several times. For example, the hero and dispatcher and helper occurs once, the hero dispatcher and victim occurs twice, the dispatcher helper and donor occurs oncethe donor, helper and victim occurs twice, and finally the villain donor and helper occurs once. This overlapping of charac ters in several spheres of action, especially in the Alaskan tales, illustrates a lesser differentiation or a greater utilization of the present characters 114 in comparison with the Beaver tales. As we can see, Propp's last method of distributing the spheres of action among the characters, ie, that case in which a single sphere of an action is distributed among several characters is not really applicable in either of the two corpora. There are not enough dramatis personae in the corpora for this * The table on page 8 will clarify the above. Because of the same dramatis personae is used more often in more than one sphere of action in the Beaver tales, we might tend to conclude that the dramatis personae would also be differentiated in the separate moves within the same tale. In other words, for example,, the hero in move one would be different from the hero in move two. However, we find that in the Beaver tales this occurs only three times as opposed to five times in the Alaskan tales. On the one hand, in the Beaver tale number two, the vil lains and victims in move 1 and.11 are different, while in tale 8, the helpers are different. On the other hand, in the Alaskan tales, we find the dramatis personaw differing from move 1 to move lllfive times. In tale number two, the victim and hero differ, in tale #4, the donor and helper differ, and in tale number seven, the donors differ'. We also note that only once in the Alaskan tales is the hero, who is the most important character, different in the two moves, while the villain is different only once in jtwo moves. These are interesting differences in the two sets of corpora brought out by Propp's method of analysis, and ties in with his queries about how myths are made. "Each new act of villany, each new lack creates 'a new move" (Propp,' 1968:92), Propp states that singling but each move in a tale with .exactitude is always possible and that "the many ways in which these moves may be combined are as follows; a move may directly follow another, a new move begins before 115 i the completion of the previous move, and. may or may not be completed before or after the previous move, or a move may be interrupted in its turn, re sulting in many moves to a tale. A tale may begin with two villanies or lacks simultaneously, or it may have two heroes, either seeker or victimized, (Propp, 1968:92). We find that in our analysis of the Beaver tales, all the eight two or more move tales are of the simplest type, where the second move directly follows the first move. In two cases, we have a function in the first move that connects it to the next move. The rest of the moves are quite discon nected from each other. In tale number two, we have a situation where it is difficult to decide whether this is one tale with two moves or two separate tales. There is only one dramatis personae, the hero, that remains the same in each move which ties them together, in'the Alaskan tales there are only fives tales with two moves. Three of"these are straight foreward, and two are somewhat more complicated. In tale number three, although two lacks are present simultaneously, ^onem>has„t.o_.be resolved before the other. The single final transformation applies to both, thus tying the two moves together at the denouement. In tale number nine, we again find war and lack of a husband occurring at the same time, thus indicating two different'moves,"but there." are also two separate concluding functions, which complete and separate these two moves. There are a few basic functions that tie both these moves together; This appears to be an interesting addition to Propp's different kinds of moves. The differences can be more easily seen by referring to the tables on pages 124-121. Thus we see that the Alaskan tales seem to have more variety and are more interlocked in the way in which the moves are. combined, although at first they appear simpler. The Beaver myths are longer-, employ more functions and a more straight foreward. 116 Propp also states certain specific circumstances under which stories can be considered a single tale with two or more moves, or more than one tale, each with single moves. For example, Propp lists the fol lowing criteria, stating when we have a single tale; l) if the tale con sists of one move, 2) two moves, with one ending positively and the other negatively, 3) in the trebling of entire moves'] 4) if a magical agent is obtained in the first move and used in the second, 5) if up to the con clusive liquidation of misfortune, there is suddenly a new lack which pro vokes a new quest, 6) where two villanous acts are present together in the complication, and 7) where the first move• includes a fight with a dragon and the second begins with a theft of booty by brothers, casting the hero into a chasm followed by a claim by the false hero and difficult tasks. Propp's eighth and final example of a single tale are those tales in which the heroes part at a road marker.; All others, he claims, comprise two or more tales (Propp, 1968:95). Looking at the two corpora we see that all the Beaver tales except the single move tales, confirm to his fifth point. Beaver tale #7 has an additional feature in that the first move ends nega tively with the second move ending positively, and Beaver tale number 9 has the added feature where the hero parts with his brother at a road marker. However, in this tale, we did not have two separate heroes, but only one. Perhaps there is room for this point to be further clarified. We find more variety in the five Alaskan tales that are more than single moves. Three of these conform to Propp's fifth point, while two tales conformed generally to point six. In Alaskan tale #3 there are two 'a' functions, two lacks rather than two villanous actions, and in tale #9 we have a villany and a lack. The important point is that these two functions are occurring simultaneously. Furthermore, tale #9 also conforms to Propp's second example, in which move 1 117 ends negatively, and move II positively. In neither corpora do we find the following;.trebling of.entire moves, although the trebling of functions is found in both the corpora or a group.of functions is found in the Alaskan tales,. a magical agent in.move.I which is used in the second, or point seven which involves a fight, theft, casting.of hero into a chasm, etc. Propp. sees this latter example as the most complete and perfect form of the tale because of. the. enumeration Of most, of the functions of the tale. We do not find..these particular examples in our corpora, although the sequenc ing of. functions is of course similar. We have found that both corpora are similar in. .their breakdown into moves and tales. Propp also notes that there are Certain pairs y-frrf-Oi AK, MN., HI.and Pr-Rs that are usually found together, and a certain disharmony results when the first half does not evoke the usual response, or else re places^ it with a response that is completely different and unusual for the tale norm (Propp, 1968:110), We see that there is very little disharmony. HI.and.MN are always in pairs as are Pr and Rs and the preliminary motifs. Although A. and K,_or. t| do.not always.appear together, the missing motif is never replaced with an.inappropriate motif. , Propp states that the distinction between theme and variant is im possible to determine., and. therefore,. the entire sphere of fairy tales ought to be.examined as a chain of variants. He further states that were we able to unfold the.picture of transformations, it would be possible to satisfy ourselves that all of the tales can be morphologically deduced from the tales about the kidnapping of, a princess by a dragon. Here he is referring only to the Russian fairy tales. Were we able to apply this idea to the two corpora, the question arises as to whether each corpora would have a separate theme, 118 or whether it would be deduced to the same one. .. . Thus we have taken some of Propp's rules and tested them against the. two corpora., and have found that they generally hold up, and help re-( veal some pertinent information about the Beaver and Alaskan tale formation. 119 B 4C Propp's purpose of structural inquiry directs its questions to "the problem of the similarity of tales throughout the world", and "to discover the basic form of fairy tales in general" (Propp, 1968:l6). This he states will be accomplished by breaking a tale into its component parts. His inquiry does not concern itself with discovering what Levi-Strauss refers to as the universal logic of mankind. His underlying concepts of structuralism tend to be global as opposed to analytical. This global application is not formalistic, but structural in the sense that he is concerned with both the form and the content of an integrated whole, whether this whole is one myth or a corpus. Let us consider Piaget's three key ideas that form the base of structualistic thought in relation to Propp's method of analysis. In terms of the idea of wholeness, Propp sees the whole tale or folklore itself in terms of the atomistic compounding of different elements, as opposed to emergent totalities or the procedures by which the whole itself came into being. Here we have the first distinction that makes Propp's analysis more like Piaget's concept of global strucuralisms opposed to analyti cal. In terms of Piaget's concept of transformation, Propp states that one must study the transformations of the tales in order to discover the basic forms of fairy tales in general. Here Propp is concerned with the transformations, rather than the laws of transformations, which are simultaneously structured and structuring, whereas, the transformations themselves are always dynamic, or changing. Piaget points out that fehe elements of a structure must be dif ferentiated from the transformational laws which apply to them. Thirdly, in terms of self-regulation, Piaget refers to a reversible or perfect regulation as opposed to self imposed constraints on the system. Analytical self-regula tion can be achieved through an operational system that is mathematically logical, and that according to Piaget, excludes errors before they are made. 120 Other transformational laws that depend upon feedback-or other non-technical operations are global in their approach. Propp's method of analysis again would best fit into the last category, in that application of his analysis depends upon trial and error in terms.of classification and defining functions. Propp states for instance, that the correspondence between a type (theme) and a text is often approximate (Propp, 1968:11). Generally we see that Propp's structuralism holds to systems of observable relations and elaborate interactions rather than seeking to explain the empirical systems by postulating deep underlying structures. (Piaget, 1970:98). According to Levi-Strauss' categories, we would describe Propp's logic as direct empirical deduction as opposed to induction, indirect em pirical deduction or transcendental deduction. Propp's method of analysis j is empirically oriented, easily replicated, descriptive and belongs to the realm of fact, and deals with concrete data. Propp's method does not reveal deep structures on another level than the one that is obvious, although he is very aware that there are abstract bases fchat lie at the core of these con crete facts that he finds are necessary to elucidate. As he says, "the pro blems of the description of the tale have been relatively neglected in favour of the concept of the tale as something finished or given. Only at the pre sent time is the idea of the need for an exact description growing ever wider... and the tale continues to be studied without such a description (Prop, 1968:13). Furthermore, he says "if we are incapable of breaking the tale into its com ponents we will not be able to make a correct comparison"(Propp, 1968:15). Propp has called the sequence of functions at the close of his analysis metalinquistic strings. This kind of structuralism yields a&linear sequential analysis of the myth, as the functions are described in chronological 121 order from the beginning of the tale to its completion. In this sense, the approach can also be viewed as diachronic, as opposed to synchronic. We have a one dimensional description of the myth along a horizontal axis. This gives us the basic structure or framework from which to view the myth, on an overt or manifest level, and on the empirical and replicable level at the same time. Synchronic interpretation takes us to another level of understand ing, one of latent meaning, which, for instance, might enable one to view the meaning of the myth in relation to the culture in which it is found. We can see the myth from a different perspective rather than from the way it is normally seen, as telling a story that is historical in two aspects; one tells a story from the beginning to the end, and two, told in the present about the past. Levi-Strauss states that we cannot see the synchronic structure of a myth unless we have firstly, the diachronic structure. In other words, "the synchronic-diachronic structure of the myth permits us to organize it into diachronic sequences which should be read synchronically"; (Levi-Strauss, 1967:226). Here Propp's method of analysis gives us a starting point from which to take something from a descriptive level to a more cognitive level. If Propp's method of analysis enables us to divide the tales into more moves, it would be easier to see the individual tales metalinguistic strings synchronically as well as diachronically. As it is, some tales only have one move, which leaves us with only one dimension. However, we can look at an entire Beaver or Alaskan corpus synchronically. We have a number of vertical columns, and as Levi-Strauss would say, each of which includes several relations belonging to the same bundle (Levi-Strauss, 1967:211). If we want to verbally repeat the myth or tell a story, we read horizontally from left to right., but if we want to gain another perspective.or understanding of the corpus, we might read the columns vertically from left to right. Thus we can see the corpus as a whole from another perspective. 122 However, according to the Marandas, the determination of narrative units must be found in the corpus itself (Kbngas Maranda & Maranda, 1971:X). In Propp the determination is more controlled than allowed to occur. Here determina tion is the key word, as in Propp's method of analysis, his motifs within a structural framework determines the narrative units found in the corpus and a synchronic viewpoint is less spontaneous. Furthermore,iJiDropp's analysis can be termed syntagmatic as opposed to paradigmatic, where the elements of a myth are taken out of one and re grouped into another frame of reference. With this kind of abstraction, paradigm can be constructed with fragments of a syntagmatic chain, and meta phors can take over the function of metonyms and vice versa. In other words, syntagmatic chains can be formed from a paradigmatic series. In applying this concept to Proppian analysis we can illustrate this distinction by using one motif from each function, for example, kidnapping from villany, dispatch from mediation, etc. The motifs abstracted could not be, for example, kid napping, expulsion and murder, all of which are three forms of the same system or paradigm. This same distinction can be illustrated by the metaphoric -metonymic perceptual opposition. Using Propp, we see that one metalinguistic string read horizontally is metonymic while all the A functions and its vari-antsnof the metalinguistic string of one corpora could be considered metaphoric. As Leach says, "if we take a special case and consider the arrangements be tween its component parts algebraically, we can arrive at the total system — a theme and variations — a set of paradigms (metaphors) (Leach, 1970:50). Levi-Strauss points out that this opposition is not necessarily an either or distinction, but that there is usually an emphasis on one or the other found in any communication. 123 Thus Propp's method of analysis has been described, applied to two sets of corpora. The results have been compared and contrasted, and his method of analysis has been discussed in relation to some of Levi-Strauss' and Piaget's simpler but basic principles. Hopefully, this exercise will give one a greater understanding of what Propp was trying to do. We can see from the foregoing that Propp made an extensive contri bution to the progress of folkloric study. As Levi-Strauss said, "History leads to everything on condition that it be left behind" (Levi-Strauss, 1966:262). BEAVER MYTHS MYTH M0\/E. D £ F ABCtDETFGO H L M J i N L Q Ex T u w 1. 1 ^ A1 R* r. T r.3 H' I' "t D7 E «r2 r| A* LL 2. 1 K' I u li * A17 if' V K1 7' LA/ 3. 1 A"R t S Wl I5 K' W. 1 u ft t k' i II H2 1* U. s 1 «* H f/2 21 0 W l 1 ty'«T V 6>' A' C t M' t| (J LL" 1/ 7)J ©3 A'7 f K' u w° & 1 K' II A17 I1 U t 1 1/ • t < III *i 0 $ T' < . 10 / t K1 -3—_2 I I I I ALASKAN MYTHS H I MYfH / MOVE D £ -F °< ASCTp'gF^QLMjM K -l Pr Rs L Q £y I U W •i I <=<. An B3 H I5 K' : 2 I Q< ft' B1 C t P F F3 i_l -= — " I„AO I A' ! 3 I ^Jj4Ct H1 T1 K'° +  ; i| ffc&B* G 1- • ' r' UTT' 1 iv i ^ gj d1 e f'  ;0 A1 t DTP' &7 K5 4 ; W! 10. <x V C e t K" °£ £!.Vc M N ^ g« , W °< A1* ft C * D7£" Gz D7E"F' K' 4r ;  126 MOVES - ALASKAN MYTHS / i, eft"! j T'VJ°1 3, , ^laJ'S" C f H11 I ,1 A1 f D I' F' &1 K51 Vjb S U 7 / * rj'e'A^d'D'E1 v'I'P'E KF6^ W6 // oJ°C f & Ezf'w0 I ii al K w' ID. 127 MOVES - BEAVER MYTHS / / * A13" Cf f, GJH' I' KF7i L>(^ D £ KF f D£ KF) li AnH'l' K r 3. il M'^'^J'U 5. I cka± ^ e? 1 K> <*• i ^ y'J'A1 o' A{B* cf //'r 1/ 6°An H2-!2 UW* il An^I2KU§S in a6(J>£r'< 128 DRAMATIS PERSONAE IN SPHERES OF ACTION BEAVER MYTHS Villain Donor Helper Princess (Victim) Dispatcher Hero False Hero X—* X X X X—X 2 X X % I* XT X •x X—^ x-X-X—* x— X -rt—*-X—X X—X X ;fc—* ALASKAN MYTHS Villain Donor Helper Princess £vic-Kfv\) Dispatcher Hero False Hero 2 X—* X X, X X X X 3 5" i» 7 2 X—x :( < J< X XT X x x X X X XXX X X-^< Xr rX XT —X 10 X X x 129 CHAPTER III APPLICATION OF ARMSTRONG'S METHOD OF ANALYSIS III 1) INTRODUCTION The title of Armstrong's short paper, "Content Analysis in Folkloristics", enables us to see what Armstrong's work is about. He states that his method of analysis was derived partly from the writings of H. Burke, "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action", •w concerning analysis of dramatic behaviour, and partly from the two bodies of folklore through which he worked out the details of the analytic method. The two bodies of folktales used were "from the Bush Negores of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana and the Dakota Indians of the United States" (Armstrong, 1959:162). Armstrong rejects the idea of Stith Thompson's motifs. Instead he tries to devise a way of defining natural units of the story intermediate between the single word and the total story (Armstrong, 1959:154). Armstrong searches for "relative units, ones defined in terms of the contents within which they are found rather than determined in accordance with the criteria of a lateral and arbitrarily postulated system" (Armstrong, 1959:155)* He uses a dramatic model as the basis for the segmentation and compartmentali-zation of the tales. He bases it, as he says, "in nouns oi? in the assertion • i -patterns of the language, as for example, in some carefully established actor-action phase, or in whatever segment of an utterance flow might be said to constitute a sentence. Armstrong states that the rational behind this is based on the fact that in stories only, as opposed to rhymes, there is a unique feature he calls virtual action, for instance, "the presence of not only an aesthetic objective, which may be defined as whatever the story teller may have wished to achieve, but objectives arising from the depicted actors themselves" (Armstrong, 1959:163). Armstrong conceives the act to 130 consist of three parts — an actor, designated X, an act designated Y by one of several objectives or actions, and an additional actor or recipient toward or against whom the action was directed, designated Y. These units of con cern have three properties; a) subtotal (units shorter than the whole text) and comparable, B) concerned with internal rather than external (pragmatic) objectives, c) manifest rather than latent" (Armstrong, 1959:163)• A new act is determined when an alteration in the actor-action constellation occurs through 1) a shift in the initiation of the activity with the actor or re cipient remaining constant, or through the addition or deletion of one of the actors. The exception to this is "in that case where a second actor merely reacts to the move of the initiation actor. In this case, the second actor neither supplements nor resists the activity initiated with respect to him or in his presence" (Armstrong, 1959:l63)» 2) there is a change in other element of the tale, such as purpose, scene, the time or place, 3) when a segment of dramatic behaviour does not succeed the preceeding consequence of the objec tive. Reference to Armstrong's tables of objectives on pages -2H-3, gives the categories of objectives used in this analysis. Each of the individual words in a category of objectives, such as objectives pertaining to Resistance and Attack, will be referred to as an element., action or objective.. The,objective resist, protest belonging to M1 for instance, will be referred to together as a group of objectives. Furthermore, Armstrong gives each objective a positive negative or neutral connotation. We will also refer to this as a valence. This concept is applied to the material starting from the beginning of the tale and working through to its completion. The medial units, or those which manifest dramatic objective or action, are searched out. Such intro ductory and terminal remarks, without any manifest dramatic objective, will be included ,in the units which respectively follow or preceed them" 131 (Armstrong, 1959:166). At the end of the tale, we will have a number of con stellations. The percentage of each objective found in the tale is illustrated firstly by organizing the objectives vertically on the left side of a grid, with the numbers of the constellations 1 - n horizontally along the top of the grid. From this can easily be seen the number of objectives found in each actor-action-recipient constellation. The relationship of each objective to the others in each tale is determined by a simple arithmetical calculation -that of the percentage of occurrences of each objective in the tale. An in dividual model is thus created for each tale that can be compared to an overall model for the corpus which can, in turn, be compared to other corpora models. The model is composed of nine letters, each of which depicts an objective category. The letters are ordered lineally and sequentially, commencing with the objective category occurring most often to the category occurring least often in the tale. 132 III 2, i) ARMSTRONG, BEAVER ANALYSIS AND MOTES #1. The Frog and the Owl X Old Man Owl 0 lose Y daughter X Old Lady Owl p_2 berates Y Old Man Owl X Crow R3 informs Y Birds X Frogs Ml attack Y^ Birds X Old Man Owl S3 requests (of) Y Little Owl X Birds M2 defeat Y Frogs X Little Owl R2 investigates Y Old man Owl's daughter X Woodpecker Boy R communicates (to) Y Owl Boy X Owl Boy R2 discovers Y Old Man Owl's daughter X 01 Y Old Man Owl retrieves daughter 133 Thus we have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; XOY, XD2Y, XS3Y, XR2Y, XRY, XR2Y, X01Y, XR3Y, XM1Y, XM2Y II 3 5 b 7 ? <? I'D A D M s c O 0 o, R R «3 E 3 There are five objective components in this myth: D ^ 10% M - 20% S - 10% 0-20% R - 40% The overall model for this tale is R (MO) (DS). Since M and 0, and D and S both occur the same percentage of times in the myth, they are bracketed to indi cate this. In this tale the objectives pertaining to the acquisition and dissemina tion of information are found most often. Three of these relate to acquisi tion, and one to communicate. The objectives pertaining to resistance and attack and to the acquisition and loss of property are the next two most im portant objectives in the myth. Both the objectives pertaining to resistance 134 and attack are negative, and entail the actions attack and defeat while the objectives pertaining to acquisition and loss of property consist of one negative action, lose, and one positive action, retrieves. Finally, a negative objective, berate, pertaining to praise and condemnation, is found once as is a positive objective, direct, pertaining to permission and pro hibition. 135 #2 The Boy Wabshu X Wabshu's mother Si directs Y Wabshu's father X Father B2 searches (for) Y new wife X Father 02 acquires Y wife X Step Mother SI directs Y Wabshu X Wabshu M3 kills Y Rabbits X Step Mother M4 accuses Y Wabshu X Father Al punishes Y Wabshu X Nahata i A Aids Y Wabshu X Father B2 seeks. Y Wabshu X Wabshu B2 repays Y Father X Wabshu M3 kills Y Step Mother X Onli Nachi S invites Y Wabshu X Onli Nachi Ml attacks Y People X Wabshu M3 kills Y Onli Nachi X Wabshu .. M2 protects Y people 136 Thus we have the actor-action-recipient constellation: XS1Y, XB2Y, X02Y, XS1Y, XM3Y, XM4Y, XA1Y, XAY,, XB2Y, XB2Y, XM3Y, XSY, XM1Y, XM3Y, XM2Y I 13 4 5 t> 7 § 3 -/6 /I 12- 13 14 16 A Ai D m h —f Ha s 5, 5 c O' Ox R E 6 \ 8z 3, There are five objective components in this myth. A - 13% M - 40% S - 20% 0 - 7% B - 20% The overall model for this myth is M (S B) A 0 In this myth the objectives pertaining to resistance and attack are found twice as often as are any of the other objectives. Of these objectives we find that all of the six except one neutral objective are the negative expression of the verb. Three of these are kill, from the group kill, destroy, and reduce. The objective attack, and the objective accuse from intimidate, 137 accuse are both used once each. Also, objective protects from the neutral group of objectives save, preserve, protect is employed once. Objectives pertaining to permission and prohibition, and acceptance and avoidance of obligation are found next and equally as often. The first category of objectives is found three times, with the element direct from the group of objectives prescribe, summon, direct, appearing twice and the element invite, from the group permit, invite, appearing once. The latter objectives distribution is similar in that of the three objectives employed two are positive, both elements seek, from the group seek, encounter, and the third is a neutral element repay from the group pay, repay. Objectives pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment appear twice, with the negative element punish employed once, and the neutral element aid from the group aid, befriend, plan good, are also used once in the tale. The objectives pertaining to the acquisition and loss of property concerns a positive acquisition, the action acquires from the group acquire, obtain, profit, enrich. 138 #3 Usakindji and the Wolverine Man X Usakindji R2 discovers Y Wolverine Man X Wolverine Man M2 captures Y Usakindji X Wolverine Pup R2 discovers Y Usakindji X Wolverine Man DI reprimands Y Pup X Usakindji M3 reduce Y Wolverine Man Thus we have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; X12Y, XM2Y, XR2Y, XD1Y, XM3Y 139 I 3. 3 H 5 A D P. M Mi 5 C 0 R We have three objective components in this myth. M - 40% R - 40% D - 20% The overall model is (MR) D The objectives pertaining.to resistance and attack and the acquisition and dissemination of information.are both found an equal number of times in the myth. The former objective utilizes the negative aspects of its category, with elements capture, from the group overcome, defeat, conquer, capture, and reduce, from the group kill, destroy, reduce. Here reduce rather than kill is used because, although Usakindji kills Wolverine Man and his family, he also reduces them to tiny pieces. The element discover, from the group dis cover, investigate, is employed in both instances in the latter objective. From the objectives pertaining to praise and condemnation, the negative aspect of this category is employed in the final constellation of this myth. The element reprimand, from the group scold, reprimand, is used. 140 #4 Usakindji and the Geese and the Fox X Usakindji discovers Y Geese X Fox B3 outwits Y Usakindji X Geese D approve (of) Y Usakindji X Usakindji M3 Kills Y Seese X Loon Ml resists Y Usakindji X Geese M3 escapes (from) Y Usakindji X Red Fox R2 discovers Y Usakindji X Usakindji 0 loses Y Geese X Usakindji Al punishes Y Fox X Usakindji M challenges Y Fox 141 Thus we have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; XR2Y, XDY, XM3Y, XM1Y, XM3Y, XR2Y, XMI, XR3Y, XOY, XA1Y A Ai , D D M, M S C 0 p R E b e3 The myth has six objective components A -D - 10% M -0 - 10% R -B -The overall model of this myth is M R (A D 0 B) The objectives pertaining to resistance and attack are found twice as often as the next most frequent category of objectives. All four objectives are from four different groups. The two negative actions^utilized are kill, from the.group of objectives kill, destroy, reduce, and the objective challenge. The two neutral actions utilized were resist, from the group resist, protest and escape, from the group release, free, rescue, escape. 142 The category of the objectives pertaining to the acquisition and dissemination of information is employed twice. The objective discover, from the group investigate, discover, is used in both instances. Four different categories of objectives are found only once each in the tale. They are action punish from the category pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment; the action approve from the category praise and condemnation; the action lose from the group lose, give in the category pertaining to the acquisition and loss of property; and finally the action outwit from the group welch, outwit, deceive in the category pertaining to the acceptance and avoidance of obligation. 143 #5 How the Animals Got Their Fat X Usakindji S invites Y Bear X Usakindji 0 loses Y Bear X Usakindji A befriends Y Bear X Usakindji M3 released (from) Y Tree X Usakindji B3 deceives Y Bear X Usakindji M3 kills Y Bear X Usakindji Rl convinces Y Muskrat X. Usakindji D2 berates Y muskrat X Usakindji C enjoys Y Bear X Usakindji 0 loses Y Fat X Usakindji M2 Captured (by) Y Tree X Usakindji 02 enriches Y animals We have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; XSY, XAY, XB3Y, XM3Y, XCY, XM2Y, XOY, XM3Y, XR1Y, XD2Y, XOY, X02Y 144 A D M S S G c 0 0 0 £ b &3 There are seven objective components in this myth. A - &f0 D - &fo M - 25% S - 8% 0 - 25/0 R - 8% B - 8% C - 8% The overall model is (M 0) ( A D S R B C ) The categories of objectives pertaining to resistance and attack, as well as acquisition and loss of property are the most prevalent objectives in. this myth. Two objectives of the first category are of the negative aspect, kill from the group kill, destroy, reduce, and capture, from the group overcome, defeat, conquer, capture. The neutral objective, release is from the group release, free, rescue, escape. In the second category of objectives, acquisition and loss of pro perty, is found the only negative objective in this category, lose from the group lose, give. We also find the positive objective, enrich from the group acquire, obtain, profit, enrich. 145 There are five other categories of objectives, each from which one objective or element is employed. From the category of objectives pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment, the element befriend from the group aid, befriend, plan good is used; from the objectives pertaining to praise and condemnation, the element berate from the group humiliate, defame, berate, discredit, ridicule, humble oneself, is used; from the category of ob jectives pertaining to permission and prohibition the element invite, from the group permit, invite is employed; from the category of objectives pertaining to the acquisition and dissemination of information, the element convince from the group prove, convince, verify is employed; from the category of objectives pertaining to the acceptance and avoidance of obligation, the element deceive from the group welch, outwit, deceive is employed. Lastly, the category of Objectives pertaining to gratification and deprivation utilizes the element of enjoy from the group gratify indulge, enjoy. In this tale we have utilized all the categories of objectives except one, that pertaining to conduct of affairs. The personification of the tree in this tale enables us to use it as a recipient in the constellations. Fat is also interpreted as a recipient but it could also be considered as another form of the Geese. 146 #6 The Moman Who Married the Bear X Women S3 request (of) Y girl X Girl B2 ignores Y Women X Bear S invites Y girl X Girl Bl accepts Y Bear X Brother R2 discovers Y sister X Brother M challenges Y Bear X Brother M3 kills Y Bear X S Y Bear ... forbids wife X Parents R5 remember Y daughter X Brother B2 seeks Y sister X wife Bl contracts (with) Y Crazy Man X Bears M3 kill Y couple We have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; XS3Y, XB2Y, XSY, XB1Y, XR5Y, XB2Y, XR2Y, XMI, XM3Y, XSY, XB1Y, XM3Y 147 i • 2.. 3 ^ 5 y i % q <o. 11 ;z A D M S S 5 c 0 R 6 5 6, B2 There are four component objectives in this myth. M - 25% S - 25% R - 17% B - 33% The overall model is B (MS) R The category of objectives pertaining to acceptance and avoidance of obligation is the most utilized category in this myth. One negative objective, the element ignore, from the group ignore, avoid is used, and two positive ob jectives, contract and seek are utilized, from the group contract, undertake, and seek, encounter respectively. The element accept from the group acknow ledge, accept is utilized as a neutral objective. The category of objectives pertaining to resistance and attack and permission and prohibition are both used three times each in the tales, lh the first category of objectives, the element kill from the group kill, destroy, reduce is used twice and the element challenge is used once. They are both related to attack. The latter category of objec tives utilizes the elements request from the group beg, request; invite from the group permit, invite, and the element forbid from the group prescribe, bar, forbid. The first two elements of this latter category are related to permission, the latter element to prohibition. 148 The category of objectives pertaining to'the acquisition and dis semination of information both utilize positive aspects of this category, the elements discover from the group discover, investigate and the element remember. It is interesting to note that in this myth, even though there are many actor-action-recipient constellations, we have only four objective com ponents . #7 Usakindji and Moon Man X Usakindji R2 discovers Y Moon Man X'3 Moon Man S invites Y Usakindji X Usakindji Bl accepts Y Moon Man X Moon Man A conspires Y Usakindji X Usakindji B3 outwits Y Moon Man X Usakindji A aids Y Moon Man X people A befriend Y Moon Man X Moon .Man Ml attacks Y people X. - people Al punish Y Moon Man 149 Thus we have the actor-action-recipient constellation of; XR2Y, XSY, XB1Y, XAY, XB3Y, XAY, XAY, XM1Y, XALY I 2 3 5 U 7 S 9 A A A A A, D M 5 S 0 E & B, There are five component objectives in this myth. A - 44% M - 11% S - 11% R - 11% B - 22% The overall model for this myth is A B (MSR) The category of objectives pertaining to the distribution of reward assistance and punishment is by far the most used objective in this tale. From the negative group of objectives hinder, conspire, prevent, discourage, the element conspire, and the objective punish are used, as well as two elements, aid, and befriend, from the group of objectives that also include the element plan good. The next category of objectives found half as many times in the tale pertains to acceptance and avoidance of obligation, with one form of acceptance element accept from the group acknowledge, accept, and one form of avoidance of obligation demonstrated by the element outwit, from the group welch, outwit, deceive. 150 The other three categories of objectives are each found once in the tale. They are objectives pertaining to resistance and attack, with the ob jective attack utilized in this case; to permission and prohibition with the objective invite, from the group permit, invite, and relating to permission, being employed here, and lastly, to the acquisition and dissemination of in formation, employing the objective discover from discover, investigate. #8 Usakindji and Mosquito Man X Usakindji M3 kills Y Monsters X Mosquito Man S3 requests (of) Y Usakindji X Usakindji R2 discovers Y Mosquito Man X Usakindji A aids Y Mosquito Man X Usakindji M3 kills Y Bear X Mosquito Man Ml attacks Y Usakindji X Mosquito Man 0 loses Y Bear X Usakindji S provides (himself) Y Bear X Usakindji B3 outwits Y Mosquito Man X Usakindji M3 reduces Y Mosquito Man 151 The actor-action-recipient constellation is; XM3Y, XR2Y, XM3Y, XOY, XCY, XS3Y, XAY, XM1Y, XB3Y, XM3Y A \ A D M tl3 ti, Hi S Ss C C 0 0 £> & There are seven component objectives in this myth. A -M -S -C -0 -R -B -The overall model isM(ASCORB) The category of objectives pertaining to resistance and attack are employed four times as often as any other category of objective. Three of these groups of objectives pertain to attack, and are from the group kill, destroy, reduce. They use elements kill twice and reduce once. Reduce is employed here as Usakindji chops Mosquito Man into little pieces after he causes his death. The objective attack is used once in the myth. 152 From the objective categories pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment a neutral objective, that of element aid, from the group aid, befriend, plan good is used. From the objective category pertaining to permission and prohibition a positive aspect of this category, element request from the group beg, request, is used. The category of objectives pertaining to gratification and depriva tion employ the element provide from the neutral group of provide, put at ease, alleviate, comfort, please. The story does not indicate that Usakindji indulges himself but only that he has found food for himself. The two categories of objectives pertaining to acquisition and loss of property and acceptance and avoidance of obligation both employ negative objectives — the former using element lose, from the group lose, give, and the latter element outwit, from the group welch, outwit, deceive. Lastly, the category of objectives pertaining to the acquisition and dissemination of land, employs the element discover from the group discover, investigate, in the myth. 153 #9 Why the Moose is Wary of Man X Father E Prepares Y Son X Boy Bl contracts (with) Y Moose X Moose M5 acquiesce Y Boy X Boy C puts at ease Y parents X Boy R3 teaches Y Brother X Boy M3 escapes Y Moose X Brother B2 encounters Y Boy Moose X Boy Moose Bl contracts (with) Y Moose Thus the .actor-action-recipient constellation is; XEY, XB1Y, XM5Y, XCY, XR3Y, XM3Y, XB2Y, XB1Y 1 3 M- 5 b 7 A 9 M M3 5 C C o R £ E & bz 6, 154 There are five component objectives in this myth. M - 25% C - 13% R - 13% E - 13% B - 37% The overall model is B M (C RE) The category of objectives pertaining to acceptance and avoidance of obligation is the most common category used. All three objectives refer to the acceptance of obligation through the employment of two elements contract, from the group contract, undertake, and an element encounter from seek, encounter. The category of objectives pertaining to resistance and attack are found to be the second most commonly employed category in this tale, with the neutral element escape from the group release, free, rescue, escape used once and the.negative element.acquiesce from the group accede, acquiesce, surrender, also found once. Armstrong portrays these as negative qualities of this cate gory, but in this tale Boy-Moose moves of his own accord. However, from the objectives available, these best fit his actions. We find one objective.from each of the categories pertaining to gratification and deprivation, the acquisition and dissemination of information, and the conduct of affairs. These are the elements put at ease from the group provide, put at ease, alleviate, comfort, please; teach, from the group enlighten, inform, teach, leam, and the objective prepare, respectively. 155 #10 Usakindji, Bear and Chickadee X Usakindji R2 discovers Y Bear X Bear S invites Y Usakindji X Usakindji Bl contracts Y Bear X Usakindji A aids Y Bear X Usakindji A conspires (against) Y Bear X Bear M3 escapes Y Usakindji X Usakindji B2 seeks Y Bear X Usakindji 03 bargains (with) Y Chickadee X Chickadee A aids . Y Usakindji X Chickadee R2 discovers Y Bear X Usakindji B3 outwits Y Bear X.. Usakindji M3 kills Y Bear X Usakindji A rewards Y Chickadee 156 The actor-action-recipient constellation is; XR2Y, XSY, XB1Y, XAY, XAY, XM3Y, XB3Y, X02Y, XAY, XR2Y, XB3Y, XM3Y, XAY A A A A A D M Ma S 5 C 0 R Rz E 3 62 e3 There are six component objectives in this myth. A - 30% M - 15/o S - 8% 0 - $fo R - 15% B - 23% The overall model is A B (M R) (0 S) The category of objectives pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment is the most commonly used category in this myth. Two positive objectives of assistance, the elements aid from the group aid, befriend, plan good, were found twice, along with the element conspire, from the group hinder, conspire, prevent, discourage and the objective reward. 157 Three categories of objectives pertaining to acceptance and avoid ance of obligation are next found in the text. Two of these categories relate to the acceptance of obligation and employ the element contract, from the group contract, undertake, while one objective relates to the avoidance of obligation. The element used to best describe this situation was outwit, from the group welch, outwit, deceive. We next find two categories of objectives, one pertaining to re sistance and attack and the other to the acquisition and dissemination of information in the tales. The former category employs two different objec tives, one element escape, the other kill. The latter category used one objective in both instances, as well as the same element discover. Lastly, the category of objectives pertaining to permission and prohibition and acquisition and loss of property both employ one objective each. The first used the action invite, and the second uses the action bar gain. 158 III 2, ii) ARMSTRONG'S RESULTS - BEAVER MYTHS By totaling the percentage of each general category of objectives represented by a neutral letter, we reach the relative total number of times each category was employed in the analysis. A - 115 D - 48 M - 281 S - 92 C " 31 0 - 80 R - 174 E - 13 B - 163 The overall model for the Beaver corpus isMRBASODCE. A general model was prepared from a random cross-section of myths all of which underwent analysis by Armstrong's method. The general model is MBRASOEDC. We can see that the Beaver model is quite similar to the general model. The category pertaining to the acquisition and dissemination takes priority over the category pertaining to acceptance and avoidance of obligation.when applied to the Beaver myths. Only one other difference occurs and this concerns the objectives pertaining to the conduct of affairs. In the model it is placed before the objectives pertaining to praise and condemnation, while in the Beaver corpus it appears last, after the objectives pertaining to gratification and deprivation. Let us consider each category of the objectives separately. The category of objectives pertaining to the distribution of reward, assistance and punishment offers us only four groups of objectives from which 159 to choose, one positive aspect of the objective, one neutral and two negative aspects of this objective. We find in the Beaver corpus that of these one hundred fifteen objectives or thirteen of a total one hundred four actions, that we have utilized all four groups of objectives, with the group of ob jectives consisting of actions aid, befriend, plan good, using a total of seven actions. The two actions, aid and befriend are employed here, with the former action employed five times as .opposed to action befriend, employed twice. The objective punish is next most important in this category, being utilized four times. The objectives reward and conspire are both found once. Thus aid is the most frequently used action in this category. The category of objectives pertaining to praise and condemnation con sist of six groups of objectives, three of which are used. Neither of the positive aspects of these objectives are used, nor is one negative aspect. We see that "of the one group of objectives humilitate, berate, defame, etc., be rate is utilized twice. From the group of objectives scold and reprimand, the action reprimand is used. Finally, the objective approve is used. Although this would seem to have a positive connotation, Armstrong has assigned it a neutral valence. We find that both extremes of this category, the objectives pertaining to praise or to absolute condemnation are not employed. Berate is the most, commonly used action in this category. The category of objectives pertaining to resistance and attack is interesting in that Armstrong found only two numerical connotations here, neutral and negative. Only three out of four groups of objectives or six actions are found to be neutral as opposed to all six negative groups of objectives, or twenty three negative actions. The most common neutral ob jectives are taken from the group release, free, rescue, escape of which the action escape is used three times and release only once. Of the other three groups 160 of neutral objectives, the first two groups contain the actions resist and protects respectively, while the objectives pertaining to do justice, vindi cate, etc. are not utilized. The one group of objectives that was by far utilized more than any of the others consisted of the actions kill, destroy, and reduce. They used a total of twelve out of one hundred four actions. Of these twelve actions, kill is used ten times, reduce twice and destroy zero. In each case, where the action reduce is employed, we might note that the victim is already dead at the hands of the actor when he chops him into pieces. The next most frequently used objective is attack, found four times in the corpus, followed by the group of objectives containing actions overcome, defeat, conquer and capture. This group is employed a total of three times, the action capture employed twice, defeat once, while overcome and conquer are not used. There is one group of objectives that is employed twice in the cor pus which is challenge. The last two group of objectives, both of which employ one action each, are intimidate, accuse, and accede, acquiesce, surrender. From these groups accuses and acquiesce are employed respectively. Thus, in this category, the most common objective is kill. The Category of objectives pertaining to permission and prohibition contain three positive aspects of this objective, one neutral and one nega tive objective. We see that one positive objective insist is not used, while the group of objectives prescribe, summon, direct is employed twice (with the action direct used in both instances) and the group of objectives beg and re quest are used three times with request used in each case. From the negative group of objectives prescribe, bar, forbid, the latter objective is found only once. Lastly, from the neutral group of this category, permit and invite is 161 the most commonly employed action, being used a total of five out of eleven times, and