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Bella Coola Indian music : a study of the interaction between Northwest Coast Indian musical structures… Kolstee, Anton Frederik 1977

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BELLA COOLA INDIAN MUSIC: a study of the interaction between Northwest Coast Indian musical structures and their functional context. by ANTON FREDERIK KOLSTEE-B.Mus., University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE. STUDIES (Dept. of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1977 ANTON FREDERIK KOLSTEE, 1977 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th is thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of M u s i c  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e J u l y 19. 1977 ABSTRACT The thesis attempts to f i l l one of the many gaps i n the research of Northwest Coast Indian musics by providing the f i r s t study of Bella Coola songs as they have been preserved on tape. The work i s based on my own f i e l d recordings and notes, the wax cylinder recordings and contextual reconstrucr tions of T.F. Mcllwraith, tapes made by the B.C. Indian Language Project, by Mildred Valley Thornton, by Phili p Davis, and by the Bella Coola. themselves. Part One of the study describes the ethnographic con-text of the songs. A discussion of the situations i n which they were used, the performance organization (principal per-formers, instruments and so on) with which they were associ-ated, and the two types of compositional processes employed to create them i s included. Part Two consists of an analysis of the music's struc-tural characteristics. Modal and formal processes, drum rhythms, language-melody interactions, and style change (over a 51 year period) are examined. Dance, language, and histrionics played significant roles i n determining certain of the music's a t t r i -butes. The hierarchy of the music's structural characteristics was found to strongly reflect that of their functional categories. Finally, Part Three provides 73 original transcriptions that encompass a broad spectrum of the Bella Coola ceremonial and non-ceremonial repertoires. i I TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v INTRODUCTION 1 PART ONE: THE ETHNOGRAPHIC CONTEXT OF THE SONGS I. THE FUNCTION OF MUSIC IN BELLA COOLA SOCIETY 14 I I . BELIEFS ABOUT COMPOSITIONAL PROCESSES . 30 I I I . THE PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION OF BELLA COOLA MUSIC 40 PART TWO: THE INTERIOR LOGIC OF BELLA COOLA SONGS IV. TRANSCRIPTIONAL METHODOLOGY 48 V. ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS 54 VI. MODAL. STRUCTURE IN BELLA COOLA MUSIC 146 VII. DRUM RHYTHMS 167 VIII. FORM AND TEXT: A SELECTIVE STUDY OF THEIR INTERACTION 172 IX. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN A BELLA COOLA MOURNING SONG OVER A 51-YEAR PERIOD 183 X. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS A. The C o r r e l a t i o n of the St r u c t u r a l and Functional Groupings 191 B. N e t t l ' s North American Indian Musical Styles R e v i s i t e d 197 i i PART THREE: THE TRANSCRIPTIONS XI. CEREMONIAL SONGS A. Headdress Songs 205 B. Mourning Songs ... 247 C. Kusiyut Dance Songs 266 D. Entrance Songs 295 E. Hamatsa Songs 298 F. Shaman Songs 301 XII. NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS A. Love, Songs 306 B. Lahal Songs 322 C. Animal Songs 328 D. Game Songs 337 NOTES 340 BIBLIOGRAPHY 343 APPENDIX I. A Note on the Performers and the Collectors 353 APPENDIX II. The Averages of the Structural Characteristics 355 APPENDIX III. Some additional Song Texts 359 i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study would not have been possible had I not had-the good fortune of meeting andrbeing assisted by the follow-ing persons. My sincerest thanks to Prof. David Aberie> Dept. of Anthropology and Sociology (U.B.C), who indirectly i n i t i -ated the study by introducing me to the problem of BellaCoola cultural retentions, borrowings, and innovations. I am i n -debted also to Mr. James Wilson, former Executive Director of the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority, for giving me the oppor-tunity to undertake a study of several non-metropolitan B r i t i s h Columbia musical communities during the summer of 1975, thereby allowing me to conduct my Bella Coola f i e l d work i n August of the same year. I would also l i k e to acknowledge the assistance of Chief Ivan T a l l i o , Sandra T a l l i o , and the Band Council o4 Bella Coola. I am grateful for their having allowed me to pursue my f i e l d research amongst them and for their, hospitality. Above a l l , however, my heartfelt thanks to Agnes Edgar, Dan Nelson, F e l i c i t y Walkus, and Margaret Siwallace for permitting me to record their singing - for l e t t i n g me travel back i n time with them. Those laughter-filled yet serious sessions I w i l l never forget. The information concerning the social context of the songs, supplied by F e l i c i t y Walkus and Margaret Siwallace, i s also gratefully acknowledged. The kindness shown to me by the Godfrey and Louise T a l l i o family, Harvey and Eva Mack, and Bob T a l l i o , likewise deserves mention. i v The B e l l a Coola song, texts and translations- included i n t h i s study were generously- provided, by Mr. Henk Nater, R i j k s u n i v e r s i t e i t , Leiden., Holland. My thanks also to Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy (B.C. Indian Language Project, V i c t o r i a , B.C.) f o r supplying a d d i t i o n a l musical and ethnographic data and.for having asked me to be a part of t h e i r valuable project. Further contributions, to the. sample were- made by Prof. P h i l i p Davis, Rice. U n i v e r s i t y , Texas., who k i n d l y made av a i l a b l e the tapes of. h i s study e n t i t l e d B e l l a Coola Tales  and Songs (1967). The tapes of the l a t t e r and. those made by T.F. Mcllwraith were recorded f o r me and sent by-Maria Forde, Audio V i s u a l A r c h i v i s t , Canadian Ethnology Service, National Museum of Man; muchas gracias, Maria. My sincerest thanks.to Prof. Ming-Yuen Liang, my teacher and t h e s i s advisor, f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n a l and creative guidance throughout my ethnomusicological studies. The cipher a n a l y t i c a l methodology employed i n Part Two of this, study was devised by Prof. Liang. Naturally any defects i n the presentation of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l procedure are my own. Thanks also to Prof. E l i o t Weisgarber, Prof. Gregory Butler, and Prof. Michael Kew f o r forming a part of my t h e s i s committee and f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n my work. F i n a l l y I would l i k e to g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the love and encouragement provided by my wife M a r i b e l l who, l i k e B e l l a Coola music, constantly introduces me to new l e v e l s of taste and s e n s i t i v i t y . v 1 INTRODUCTION Although- a significant amount of Northwest Coast Indian music has been recorded during this century, by anthropologists, by linguists, by musicians, and even by the native people them-selves, only a small portion of this data has been transcribed or analyzed. This thesis, the f i r s t attempt to study tape-recorded Bella Coola Indian music, i s intended to f i l l one of the many resultant gaps in our knowledge of Northwest Coast Indian music as a whole^ The f i r s t and only prior study of Bella Coola Indian music was made i n 1886 without the benefit of recording equip-ment. This early monograph was-made-possible i n 1885 when a Norwegian collector of ethnographic material, F i l l i p Jacobsen, convinced nine Bella Coola singers to accompany him to Germany for what turned out to be a significant thirteen-month tour. Among those who heard these singers were the comparative music-ologist Carl Stumpf and the anthropologist Franz Boas, the l a t t e r i n Berlin, the former i n Halle on November 18, 1885. Both men were professionally stimulated by these performances. According to Rohner, Boas's experience served as a catalyst inspiring him to begin his l i f e - l o n g studies of Northwest Coast Indians (Boas 1969:17). , Using Jacobsen as an interpreter, Stumpf worked with one of the singers for four days after the. performance in Halle in order to aurally transcribe seven songs. Along with two 2 songs transcribed by Boas i n Berlin, Stumpf published his study entitled "Lieder der Bellakula Indianer" i n 1886. Stumpf*s study i s primarily interested i n questions relating to intonation and scale and their possible s i g n i f i -cance for the reconstruction of cultural history. After de-scribing each song, he compares his findings with those he made while a group of Zulu singers vi s i t e d Halle, also in 1885 (1886:101). Finding that both employed pentatonic scales most frequently, he concluded that, with the aid of anthropo-logical data, they would perhaps both be traced ultimately to Asiatic sources (1886:103). Stumpfs monograph occasionally includes ethnocentric value judgments. In one case he attributes what he considers to be faulty intonation to the fact that the singers were singing only by "feeling" and that they were, receiving presents for their work (1886:96). In his summary, however, Stumpf. adopts a posture of cultural relativism. He suggests that these people should not be termed "wild" simply because they, unlike members of Western European culture, "sing between tones" (1886: 103). Unfortunately, none of Stumpf s songs were encountered in the data with which I worked. This i s perhaps due more to the fact that the Bella Coola musical repertoire has shrunk dramatically since 1886 than to defects i n Stumpfs or Boas's transcriptions. Since they were made without the benefit of 3 y tape-recorded data and because Stumpf and Boas tended to im-pose Western European metrical concepts and key signatures into them, these transcriptions must be approached cautiously. Only six of Stumpf s transcriptions are Bella Coola songs. Two of the remaining three were borrowed from the Kwakiutl while the third was acknowledged to be a Haida mel-ody. Since Stumpf's songs were not tape-recorded, I attempted to sing some of these melodies for the singers, i n an effort to determine whether or not these were familiar. This attempt was unsuccessful. Because the musical characteristics of. Stumpfs transcriptions cannot be empirically verified, they have not been included in this study. Although a substantial amount of ethnographic l i t e r a -ture concerning the Bella Coola has been compiled since the time of Stumpfs study, few of these works are valuable, for reconstructing the socio-cultural context of Bella Coola music. Aside from a few references i n Stumpf (1886) and Boas (1898), the only good source for ethnographic data relevant to Bella Coola music i s Thomas F. Mcllwraith's 2 volume work, The Bellas Coola Indians (1948). Prior to his Bella Coola f i e l d work (1922-1924), Mcllwraith studied anthropology at Cambridge University with two of the three leaders of early twentieth-century B r i t i s h anthropology: Haddon and Rivers (Eggan 1968:473). Alfred Haddon, by having organized the Torres Straits expedition of 1898-1900, had taken B r i t i s h anthropology away from i t s nine-4 teenth-century "arm-chair" posture (Eggan 1968:473). Haddon was an E n g l i s h zoologist whose interests, i n anthropology i n -cluded attempts to apply " . . . b i o l o g i c a l deductions to the science of a r t " (Taylor 1959:481). Haddon f e l t that ethno-l o g i c a l f indings could best-be interpreted according to the. then recent doctrine of evolution (Taylor 1959:481). While i n B e l l a Coola, Mcllwraith " . . . was d e f i -n i t e l y under the influence, of " t h i s E n g l i s h school of anthro-p o l o g i c a l thinking (1948 I : v i ) . As a r e s u l t of t h i s " i n -fluence," Mcllwraith did not see a place f o r Indian culture i n "evolution!/: "Though the i n d i v i d u a l may s u f f e r , c i v i l i -z ation must press onward and the l i f e of the Indian w i l l soon disappear" (1948 I : x i i ) . This negative a p p r a i s a l of the future of Indian c u l t u r e , premature from the standpoint of the 1970's, played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining how Mcllwraith approached h i s data. Rather than describing- B e l l a Coola culture as he f i r s t found i t i n 1922, Mcllwraith decided to reconstruct B e l l a Coola culture i n p r i m a r i l y synchronic or a h i s t o r i c a l terms. The aim of h i s study " . . . was to c o l l e c t information on B e l l a Coola l i f e as i t was before the breakdown of t h e i r c u l -ture" (1948 I : v i ) . What Mcllwraith never defines, however, i s what he means c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y by "before the breakdown of t h e i r c u l t u r e . " Since h i s work includes references to the 1870's and 1880's (1948 1:197) and to the 1880's and 1890's (1948 11:359), one wonders when t h i s "breakdown" occured. Although dates are occasionally mentioned, in. his study, some obvious points of chronology are. absent. Mcllwraith never gives.the ages of the men with. whom, he worked. Since octagenarians with whom he spoke would have, been in their.twenties when the great, smallpox epidemic struck the Northwest Coast i n 1862 (Duff 1964:42), he could have esta-blished this date as. a temporal, frame of reference.. He. could also have employed the. year 1885 as_such a referent, since this was the year of the t r i p to Germany mentioned above. How-ever Mcllwraith's study includes no significant mention of this t r i p , the last survivor of which ( B i l l y Jones) died in the 1940' It i s my belief that-Mcllwraith was closer i n time to the "breakdown" of Bella Coola culture than, he thought.. White contact, established f i r s t in. June and July of 1793 by George Vancouver and Alexander, MacKenzie, did. not. immediately alter, the winter ceremonials. As Wilson Duff has pointed out, " . . . potlatching and winter dances did not die. easily; in.fact the main effect of early white contacts was to stimulate them to greater vigour" (1964:102). The main force working against the potlatches. and the winter ceremonials, and therefore, against the songs.,, masks, dances and so on, was the church. However i t was not u n t i l 1883 that a mission was established, in. Bella, Coola. Beginning in 1883 and.continuing into 1884 a Methodist minister, the Rev. William Henry Pierce, attempted.to dissuade the. Bella Coola from maintaining their ceremonial customs. According to C l i f f 6 Kopas, a long-time resident of Bella Coola who worked with Clayton Mack and the late Andy Schooner i n preparing his non-scholarly hut valuable account of Bella Coola's history, Pierce convinced a Chief Tactalus to burn his whistles, robes, headdresses, and scarves (1970:217). Although Pierce did not preach in 1885, thereby allowing Chief Tactalus to lead the expedition to Germany, missionaries were active in Bella Coola from 1886 onward (Kopas 1970:218). The efforts of the mission-aries were given o f f i c i a l sanction in 1884 when Section 114 of the Indian Act declared potlatching i l l e g a l . I t h i n k i t i s reasonable to suggest therefore that the "breakdown" of the winter ceremonials and the potlatches did not really begin u n t i l the 1880's. Thus Mcllwraith's study informs us about two periods in Bella Coola musical history, one beginning we know not when but ending in the 1880's and the other spanning the years 1922 to 1924 during which time Mcllwraith conducted his f i e l d work. Mcllwraith's work i s valuable for musical ethnography because of the f i e l d experiences upon which i t i s based. During his f i r s t t r i p to Bella Coola, Mcllwraith soon learned a mixed language consisting of Chinook (the lingua  franca of the Northwest Coast during this period) and Bella Coola. He worked closely with two prominent Bella Coola men, Captain Schooner and Jim Pollard, who fortunately for him were confined to the village during the fishing season of 1922. Mcllwraith's position in the community was promptly raised 7 when his close friendship with Captain Schooner resulted in his being adopted into the Schooner family. On his return to Bella Coola i n September of 1923, however, he learned that- Captain Schooner had died. Schooner had played an important role i n the winter ceremonial pro-ductions. Mcllwraith, as an adopted member of the Schooner family, was chosen to take his place. Through these circum-stances he became a prompter (a role to be more f u l l y dis-cussed in connection with performance organization) during the 1923 and 1924 ceremonial seasons. From this unique position as one of the three principal performers, he was able to un-derstand and document ceremonial l i f e i n a manner that would have been impossible without participatory experience. As a prompter, Mcllwraith became well-informed about p Bella Coola song texts. Consequently his second chapter in Volume II, entitled "Songs," discusses music largely i n terms of song texts and performance organization. Another important contribution of Mcllwraith's i s the over 100 wax cylinder recordings he made of Jim Pollard's 3 singing. I was able to transcribe eleven of these songs (for the most part the remainder are of such poor quality today that transcription i s precluded) for inclusion i n the present sample. Unfortunately Mcllwraith's work gives us no indication of the total musical repertoire's size during this period. He pre-sents only a selected portion of the song texts which he col-lected and recorded Pollard almost exclusively since " . . . 8 few people were q u a l i f i e d to sing i n t o the machine" (1948 I I : 267). I t i s c l e a r from the above and-other passages that Mcllwraith preferred to work with a small number of consul-tants. Rather than work p a t i e n t l y with other singers who had probably never seen a phonograph p r i o r to Mcllwraith's, he chose instead to work with the man to whom he had become most accustomed - Jim P o l l a r d . Unfortunately therefore h i s recordings only r e f l e c t a portion of the t o t a l number of songs that were s t i l l being sung i n 1923-1924. The most s i g n i f i c a n t contributions made toward the enrichment of B e l l a Coola musical ethnography since Mcllwraith's have been i n the realm of tape-recorded material. As a r e s u l t t h i s study must r e l y heavily on Mcllwraith's work i n order to 5 reconstruct the fun c t i o n a l context of the songs. The 73 t r a n s c r i p t i o n s included i n Part Three of t h i s t h e s i s were notated from a v a r i e t y of sources. My f i e l d r e -cordings of August 1975, tapes made by the B e l l a Coola them-selves (from the 1960's onward), and recordings made by the B.C. Indian Language Project i n 1971, 1972, and 1975, form the bulk of the sample. The remainder of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were made from Mcllwraith's wax c y l i n d e r recordings, from tapes made by Mildred Valley Thornton i n 1946, and from the tapes ' to P h i l i p Davis's study e n t i t l e d B e l l a Coola Tales and Songs (1967). A complete l i s t of c o l l e c t o r and song correspon-dences i s included i n Part Two of t h i s study. The t h e s i s w i l l attempt to show, wherever possible, 9 the s o c i a l determinants of B e l l a Coola music. For the most part, Northwest Coast Indian musical scholarship has not yet adopted t h i s posture. Studies dealing with Northwest Coast Indian musics may be grouped according to the three f o l l o -wing approaches: 1. those that have concentrated p r i m a r i l y on the music i t s e l f , f o r example, Fillmore (1899), Barbeau (-1934, 1955, 1957), George (1962), Herzog (1934, 1949), K i e f e r (1969), N e t t l (1954), Roberts and Haeberlin (1918), Roberts and Swadesh (1955), and Stumpf (1886). 2. those that have concentrated on purely organological, l i n g u i s t i c , or h i s t o r i c a l data i n r e l a t i o n to music, f o r example, Gunther (1966), Swanton (1912), Deans (1891), Meek (1972), Niblack (1971), Ravenhill (1938), Drucker (1965), Galpin (1903), and Mcllwraith (1948). 3. those that have described the music and i t s context but have not attempted to f i n d sys-tematic correspondences between these two spheres, f o r example, Boas (<t'888(a), 1888(b), 1896, 1970), Densmore (1939, 1943), Stuart (1972), and Halpern (1968). What i s missing i n these works i s an examination of the d i a l e c t i c between extra-musical fac t o r s (such as dance, language, performance organization, and so on) and the music's s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This study has found, f o r example, that melodic embellishments are i n c e r t a i n cases the r e s u l t of the need f o r B e l l a Coola music to accomodate l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s ; drum rhythms i n some songs were found to change structures as a r e s u l t of al t e r a t i o n s , i n the dance; the sounds of drones and whistles were found to symbolize the sounds of supernatural- beings and so on. Thus these aspects of B e l l a Coola music can only be f u l l y understood when they are viewed from both musical and s o c i a l (extra-musical) frames of references. An analysis of the above-mentioned musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as sonic order alone would not r e -veal these s i g n i f i c a n t interconnections between the music and i t s t o t a l context. This study does not claim to be t o t a l l y exhaustive with respect to uncovering these r e l a t i o n s h i p s between B e l l a Coola music and society. The interconnections posited here are based on the e x i s t i n g ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e and on the information gathered from the present-day singers. None of , these singers were composers, however. Had any B e l l a Coola composer s t i l l been l i v i n g i n 1975, I l i k e l y would have learned much more about the e f f e c t of the non-musical sphere on the actual formation of the musical structures. Had f i n a n c i a l conditions allowed i t , I would have stayed longer i n B e l l a Coola and could thus have recorded more music and more ethnographic data. A comprehensive t r e a t -ment of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and dance and. between music and language could thereby have been provided. A great l i m i t a t i o n e x i s t s simply because so much of the B e l l a Coola culture has been l o s t . For example, e l d e r l y 11 B e l l a Coola consultants in. the. 1.970*.s. did. not even know of the existence of a secret society (the A l k w ) about which. Mcllwraith was able to record, a considerable amount of: musir c a l and-ethnographic- data (Kennedy and Bouchard. 1977:20). While there were thousands of songs (Stumpf 1886:93) f o r a great number of functions i n former times, the present, reper-t o i r e c o n s i s t s of approximately one hundred songs that are placed (by the. singers themselves) in t o generalized, function-a l groupings. Within the Kusiyut Dance songs, for.example, there are now only single examples of songs such, as the Thunderbird, Fungus, Cedar Bark, and Echo, whereas in, the former Kusiyut song corpus, these types formed sub-styles of t h e i r own. A comparison of Mcllwraith's reconstruction of the winter ceremonial dances (and therefore song types) with the song types included- here reveals,, the great extent of the c u l t u r a l l o s s (1948.1:1-266).. F i n a l l y , as a statement by a non-native and by a non-speaker of the B e l l a Coola language, the study obviously con-s t i t u t e s only one kind of window through which we can observe and understand B e l l a Coola-music. However i t . i s hoped that the work w i l l prove u s e f u l to the B e l l a Coola i n t h e i r ongoing e f f o r t to preserve the i d e n t i t y and d i g n i t y of t h e i r c u l t u r e . While the terminology used to analyze the music, may be the subject of future r e v i s i o n s , the empirical data should prove usefu l f o r the comparative work that s t i l l remains, to ; be done i n Northwest Coast musical studies. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n 12 Part Three w i l l have a more immediate p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , In f a c t , before reading on, the reader i s . advised to experience these melodies i n order to better understand the nature of the musical t r a d i t i o n to be studied here. 13 P A R T O N E T H E E T H N O G R A P H I C C O N T E X T 0 F T H E S O N G S 14 I. THE FUNCTION OF MUSIC IN BELLA COOLA SOCIETY Having had no over-all name for themselves prior to white contact, those Indians who inhabited the valley of the Bella Coola River on the central coast of B r i t i s h Columbia are now known by an anglicized pronunciation of a term (B/lx^»la) formerly applied to them by their western neighbors the Bella Bella. Nineteenth century epidemics reduced the population of the Bella Coola, estimated to be 2000 i n 1835, to 249 i n 1929. At this writing there are approximately 650 Bella Coola Indians occupying one village on the south side of the Bella Coola River mouth. Surrounded on a l l sides by "foreign"' language families, the Wakashan on the south, west, and north, and the Athabascan to the east, the Bella Coola form an isolated enclave of the Salishan language family. Jorgensen believes that the Bella Coola s p l i t off from Coast Salish and moved northward (1969:52). Dale Kinkade however holds that " . . . the position of the Bella Coola vis-a-vis Coast Salish and Interior Salish i s s t i l l not entirely clear; i t seems l i k e l y to me that i t s p l i t off from common Salish f i r s t , and that the division between the Coast and the Interior was later" (1976:2). A non-linguist cannot choose between these views. Vi/hatever may have been the exact nature of this relation-ship, one thing i s certain. Bella Coola culture has been significantly altered as a result of i t s proximity to the 15 Wakashan-speaking peoples - especially the Bella Bella. , Speaking about the relationship "between the Bella Coola and the l a t t e r , Mcllwraith noted that: Although l i n g u i s t i c differences prevented free exchange of ideas, and active h o s t i l i t y was not unknown, there was considerable intermarriage between the two tribes. The Bella Coola recog-nized the similarity of culture between them i n fact, whereas a Carrier was despised for lack of knowledge of ceremonial and dramatic matters, a Bella Bella was respected for his superior lore i n that respect. The Bella Coola believed that many of their r i t e s have been obtained from them. (1948 1:19) The musical result of this relationship was that Bella Coola ceremonial music departed from the prevailing Salishan ceremonial pattern which " . . . consisted of semi-competitive 'guardian-spirit singings', i n which various: individuals, not only shamans but men with hunting or war power, sang the songs taught them by their tutelary spirits-, while friends and neighbors formed a chorus" (Drucker 1963: 169). Instead, Bella Coola ceremonial music began to serve the needs of competitive and elaborate ceremonial institutions based largely on wealth, status and rank. As with the Bella Bella, this development was made possible primarily by the abm abundant sea food resources of their environment which allowed them a more sedentary l i f e , a greater population, and a degree of specialization, including nearly full-time musicians. 16 Rank among the Bella Coola was achieved genealogically and economically. Genealogically, i t was necessary for a child to inherit an ancestral name and a number of pre-rogatives believed to have been handed down from the very f i r s t settlers of Bella Coola. These settlers, i n many cases i n animal form, were believed to have been created by the supreme being A l k , w ntam who sent them down to populate the Bella Coola valley (Mcllwraith 1948 1:4). Genealogical position was not enough without an economic base. Inheriting such a name did not ensure that i t s owner would one day become a chief. This depended on his own or his parents* a b i l i t y to distribute valuable presents at any kind of ceremonial (Mcllwraith 1948 1:163). Thus through genealogical and economic competition everyone came to know his relative place i n the order of rank. At the lowest level of this order were slaves, who either were taken i n battle or were given to the Bella Coola chiefs as presents, or were repayments of gambling debts (Mcllwraith 1948 I: 158-159). According to Mcllwraith, slaves at times may have comprised as much as t h i r t y or forty per cent of the Bella Coola population (1948 1:158). Although slaves never attained a position of rank, i t was occasionally possible for them to gain a certain amount of status. In certain instances slaves were given valuable dance preroga-tives by generous masters and could thus achieve a certain level of influence (Mcllwraith 1948 1:160). Commoners were 17 midway between the chiefs and the slaves. While the difference between slaves and commoners must have been great, a f i n e l y graded continuum separated the commoners from the chiefs.. Public displays of wealth and ancestral prerogatives were conducted every year from October to March under the auspices of two secret societies, the Sisawk and the Kusiyut. It was the members of these societies who inherited, commis-sioned, composed, or received from a neighboring tribe a l l Bella Coola ceremonial songs. Although a man lacking the marks of chieftainship may have been a member of the Sisawk society, the relationship between this society and chieftainship was so close that i t was thought of as a society of chiefs (Mcllwraith 1948 1:181). Sisawk prerogatives, names, dances, songs, masks and so on, though the potential property of members of an ancestral family, had f i r s t to be properly validated. This validation procedure involved a two-week to four-month period of seclusion i n the back of a house and the distribution of presents;. The l a t t e r were usually distributed during a potlatch, where guests from foreign tribes could witness the important event and thereby carry the fame of the i n i t i a t e further than would an a l l - B e l l a Coola ceremony (Mcllwraith 1948 I:180-181).. Aside from their use during potlatches, generally i n October, Sisawk dances were employed at funerals and occasionally at gatherings of lesser importance. The second Bella Coola secret society, the Kusiyut, was a 18 more democratic institution, which dominated ceremonial l i f e from November to March. Although a duly validated ancestral prerogative was necessary for membership, the amount of wealth needed to validate a Kusiyut prerogative was "i: . . . nothing comparable to that required for a potlatch; i n fact, poor men are of&en persons of great importance within the ranks of the society" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:3). While Sisawk names were in use during potlatches or other ceremonial occasions only, Kusiyut names were those used commonly. The Kusiyut society was ofma more dramatic nature than the Sisawk. Kusiyut society members were believed to have been i n intimate contact with supernatural beings during their ceremonial season. Mcllwraith informs us that each Kusiyut dance portrayed: . . . a performance given by one of the super-natural beings i n the house above, or some of the other aspects of his a c t i v i t i e s . Each earthly dancer has a patron or supernatural being, usually the one who carries out the dance of which his own i s a model, and between patron and protege there exists a relationship by means of which the l a t t e r receives the power necessary to perform. (1948 11:6) In order to ensure that the secrets of this society were maintained, executive Kusiyut members (termed "marshalls" by Mcllwraith) employed spies to keep them informed of suspicious non-initiates. If an uninitiated person were to discover certain Kusiyut secrets, he would either be i n i t i a t e d into the society or be k i l l e d (Mcllwraith 1948 11:14-18). 19 A t h i r d secret society, the A'alk, whose ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s were l e s s spectacular than those of the Sisawk and Kusiyut, had already disintegrated and merged with the former p r i o r to Mcllwraith's f i e l d work (1948 1:273). Mcllwraith notes that A'alk songs somewhat resemble Sisawk types and divides them into two f u n c t i o n a l categories:: (a) those used at potlatches whose themes were drawn from an c e s t r a l myths, and (b) those used f o r non-ceremonial occasions whose themes were drawn from current events? (1948 11:284). As Mcllwraith's following observations confirm, the songs of the second f u n c t i o n a l category were extremely important i n teaching and r e i n f o r c i n g the "unwritten laws" of B e l l a Coola s o c i a l l i f e : I f a man has caught ten salmon and kept them a l l f o r himself, h i s miserliness i s commented Upon i n the song; i f a wife has deserted her husband f o r another man, the actions of the two are m e r c i l e s s l y r i d i c u l e d ; i f a chief has f a i l e d to d i s p l a y gene-r o s i t y i t i s likewise recorded, and reference i s made to errors i n dance r i t u a l . (1948 1:279) No A'alk songs are included i n t h i s study. In f a c t , e l d e r l y consultants i n the 1970s= did not even know of the existence of such a society (Kennedy and Bouchard 1977:20). The B e l l a Coola ceremonial songs i n t h i s sample were a l l o r i g i n a l l y used i n the above-mentioned Sisawk and Kusiyut ceremonial contexts. The singing of these songs was an indispensable part of the v a l i d a t i o n of an ancestral prerogative. 20 For this reason a group of professional singers evolved. These singers did almost nothing hut sing and compose; only during the busy fishing season were they not to t a l l y devoted to musical a c t i v i t i e s . During l u l l s i n the fishing a c t i v i t y , however, they were involved i n the performances of non-sacred dances featuring Sisawk. Kusiyut, and A'6'alk songs (Mcllwraith 1948 1:287-288). Membership i n this singing group was restricted to those with natural musical a b i l i t y and to those possessing ancestral prerogatives. The most powerful among this group were those men who combined genealogical and musical qualifications-. Although women formed an important auxiliary choir during a total ceremonial performance, they were not members of the professional singing group. Since mistakes i n the performance of Sisawk or Kusiyut ceremonies would seriously lower the esteem of a society v i s -a-vis i t s counterparts i n other villages, the singers took advantage of every opportunity to rehearse (Mcllwraith 1948 11:52). Mcllwraith cites several examples of errors i n ceremonial r i t e s . In one instance the singers took great delight i n t e l l i n g him of how they "! . . . completely forgot a song text and substituted a description of a mask used at the r i t e i n question"1 (1948 11:271). The remaining types of errors mentioned by Mcllwraith are non-musical, a c h i e f s seat could break, a dancer might f a l l , a dancer's mask might drop, a f i r e could break out (causing concealed dancers to appear to the uninitiated),, a 21 sidewalk on which the dancers danced could break, and so on. If a mistake was not a major one, the feared Cannibal, Scratcher, and Breaker dancers would rush out and frighten the uninitiated audience i n order to distract their attention away from the mistake. When a major error occurred the offender was often k i l l e d (1948 IT: 266)). In Kusiyut ceremonies singers were so important that they were paid even before the makers of the masks. Payment was i n the form of: presents of small value which were considered more important for their symbolic value, to indicate that the host had f u l f i l l e d h i s obligations-,,, than for their actual worth (Mcllwraith 1948 11:56). Singing was so v i t a l to Bella Coola ceremonial l i f e that special rites? were administered to children during infancy to bring them musical success and a b i l i t y . Mcllwraith describes three such r i t e s , two performed by the parents and one by a good singer (1948 IT:701-703). The parents* rit e s called for a robin or varied thrush to be rubbed l i g h t l y against the infant's throat i n one case, while i n the other a special decoction was applied to i t s back. After the la t t e r procedure, the child wore a small bag containing four grouse g a l l bladders aroxuid his neck for several months (Mcllwraith 1948 1:703). Birds were also used to promote musicality i n adults. A varied thrush, considered by the Bella Coola the finest animal songster, was employed during this r i t e . In order to teach the children of Bella Coola chiefs the principles of the potlatch, a special "play potlatch" 22 (nus?a*xqamx) was held during February. Although the main purpose of this play potlatch was to instruct the children i n the methods of present-giving, i t also served to teach them the dances and songs of the Sisawk, Kusiyut and A l k w societies;. A child's; parents would decide which type of dance he was to perform. The songs that each child learned were composed especially for these occasions and were remembered from year to year. Turning now to the sample being studied here,, we may say unreservedly that the Headdress songs belonged to the Sisawk society. Although the majority of Mourning songs were likewise Sisawk-owned i t i s possible that some may have been intended for Kusiyut commemorative r i t e s . This potential problem for the functional grouping of these songs i s , however,, offset somewhait by Mcllwraith's noting that Kusiyut mourning songs resembled Sisawk- ones (1948 11:41). Since Mourning songs did not have to be newly composed every ceremonial year, they l i k e l y represent the oldest segment of the Bella Coola ceremonial repertoire. Mcllwraith has pointed out that many of these Mourning songs were borrowed from the Bella Bella, who were acknowledged by the Bella Coola to excel i n composing songs of this type (1948 1:466). Bella Bella Mourning songs were also retained from year to year (Mcllwraith 1948 11:44). Sisawk prerogatives were displayed by means of the Head-dress dance. A Headdress consisted of " . . . a c i r c l e t of grizzly bear claws, surmounted i n front by a small forehead mask; from the inner side of the c i r c l e t there rise a number of sea-lion whiskers over which i s scattered eagle down" (Mcllwraith 1948 1:205-206). Usually, some six or nine weasel skins, i n two t i e r s , hung from the back of the headdress. As w i l l be demon-strated i n Part Two, the thirteen Headdress songs i n this sample reflect the fact that they were composed especially for the society of chiefs. Rather than examining every one of the almost twenty Kusiyut song functional contexts documented, I w i l l describe the context of the only surviving sub-type within this larger category -the Hamatsa songs. Three form part of the Kusiyut sample collected here. Of a l l former Kusiyut dances, the Hamatsa or Cannibal Dance was the most feared by the uninitiated (Mcllwraith 1948 11:71). This dance was not carried out with the same rigour i n Bella Coola as i t was among the Bella Bella, Fort Rupert, and Rivers Inlet people, from whom the dance was originally borrowed. As part of this dance, a Hamatsa dancer had the prerogative of " . . . eating corpses, biting the l i v i n g , eating dogs or raw salmon, or biting himself" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:71). It should be pointed out that most of these a c t i v i t i e s belonged to the realm of histrionics. The dancer and his society were ultimately attempting to convince an uninitiated audience that a supernatural patron, a grizzly bear, eagle, or wolf, had taken possession of the dancer; thus constituting proof of the close relationship 24 between this society and the supernatural. If a l i v i n g person was to be bitten, he would later be paid with presents aptly termed "Bandages" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:86). The role of Hamatsa songs i n this context was crucia l to the success of such a ceremony: The assumption i s that X has had the nature and instincts of an animal enter into him; i f this cannibalistic incubus can be driven out by beating time, he w i l l be restored to sanity . . . After four rounds of beating, there suddenly appears beside X the head of an eagle, wolf, or bear, according to his prerogative. Th i s i i s his cannibalistic incubus, driven from him by the successful beating of time. (Mcllwraith 1948 11:79) Music here represents i n a symbolic manner the power of culturally-organized sound over man's instinctual or animal drives. We can also observe here how a musical pattern, i n this case the "beating of time" mentioned above, isiinfluenced by i t s functional context. The rhythmic pattern i s repeated four times because four i s the magico-religious number of the Northwest Coast which, although not invariable employed, domi-nates much of this culture area's ceremonial procedure. Mcllwraith cites numerous examples of the use of the number four i n the Hamatsa dance: the dancer has four guardians, he remains- concealed for four days prior to the ceremony, he dances to four songs, his cheeks are rubbed four times, and so on (1948 11:79-84). Of the two Entrance songs included i n the sample, one i s :;• of Rivers Inlet origin and the other i s a Bella Coola song. These songs were sung while the singers f i l e d into the dance h a l l , i n canoe-like formation, prior to a Kusiyut ceremony. Part Two of this study includes reference to how the Bella Coola Entrance song reflects this function i n i t s two-part structure,. Two Shaman*s songs, a l l that could be collected of this fast-disappearing Bella Coola song type, have been placed with the ceremonial song types. This was done because these songs, aside from their use i n shamanistic r i t u a l , were often employed to accompany the host of a Kusiyut ceremony's concluding dance (Mcllwraith 1948 11:56). Shaman songs were used primarily to cure physical and sp i r i t u a l ailments. Their texts are often esoteric and usually concern aspects of the healing procedure being applied. Non-ceremonial songs d i f f e r most from the ceremonial by the fact that they were communally rather than privately owned and could therefore be sung by anyone. Pour non-ceremonial song types are included i n this study: love, Lahal, Animal, and Game songs., Although the psychological and biological function of Love songs i s perhaps rather self-evident, these songs were occa-sionally used for other purposes than those for which they were originally intended'. Mcllwraith describes one such example as follows: When.visiting a foreign tribe, a man sometimes lives with a woman and, on parting, composes and sings a song describing her charms. One man did this after l i v i n g with a Kitlobe woman, and on his return to Bella Coola found that some of his fellows had learned i t i n some unexplained 26 manner; they used to sing i t to him, much to their amusement, i n part to his own, and somewhat to the annoyance of his wife. (1948 1:429) Women also composed Love songs hut these were usually of a mocking nature, '" . . . sung only by a group of girls^' when on a picnic or fern-gathering expedition'" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:332). The Love song of Kitty King included i n Part Three of this study,; written after her husband l e f t her for a younger woman, i s of such a mocking nature, Lahal songs were sung by the contestants as they played this extremely popular gambling game. Basically, the game consists of guessing the location of two bones hidden i n the hands of a player on one of the two teams into which the con-testants were divided. Each team, supported by drummers, sings-songs consisting primarily of wordless choruses. These songs had a dual purpose: they served to reinforce the solidarity and "luck" of the singing'group while at the same time they were meant to taunt and demoralize the opposition by means of sheer musical energy. The eight Animal songs included i n this study orig i n a l l y had a number of uses. In some cases, they were employed during hunting and fishing i n order to attract a desired 1 animal or they were sung to an animal simply i n order to commu-nicate with i t . Many of these songs had an important function i n the t e l l i n g of stories. In this contex* they were sung by both men andaanimals who often accomplished supernatural or magical feats: through the singing of these melodies (Boas, 1898:90-99) 27 Mcllwraith notes that Animal songs '" . . . describe events which took place long, long ago, when man and supernatural beings were; i n closer contact than at present; when man was able to under-stand the speech and actions of the birds, the mammals,, and the fish"* (1948 11:385). As the analysis i n Part Two w i l l confirm, the extra-musical meanings associated with certain aspects of Animal song structures directly reflects the age Mcllwraith refers to above - an age when few distinctions: were made between the sounds of nature and the sounds of man. Three Game songs, other than Lahal, round out the sample. The f i r s t , the Indian Paint-Brush Flower song, was sung by one of two opposing teams of young Bella Coola g i r l s i n order to make a chosen g i r l from the other team laugh: "If she smiled or laughed, she had to go back, but i f she kept a straight face, she got to take the tsa7yamuus back to her team, and they sang the song and tried to make a g i r l from the f i r s t team smile" (Turner 1973:211). The secondaand third Game songs are essentially the same song. The Gat's Cradle Game song, a string game song, was modelled after the mocking Visitor's song. Speaking of string figures, Mcllwraith informs us that: "Songs accompany many of the figures, and the singing of these i s considered an essential part of the construction" (1948 11:543). Mcllwraith does not describe the Cat's Cradle string figure i n his detailed expositi of annumber of these figures. The ceremonial and non-ceremonial contexts described above 28 are not applicable to the contemporary context of these songs. The singing group I encountered during my f i e l d work i n 1975 consisted of four singers: Agnes Edgar, F e l i c i t y Walkus, Margaret Siwallace, and Dan Nelson. This group rehearses and performs infrequently. Since there are no longer any winter ceremonials or potlatches, the songs which these singers sing are now sung out of t h e i r o r i g i n a l context. In a t y p i c a l performance they sing approximately f i f t e e n Sisawk and Kusiyut songs, depending upon which dances are to be performed. In 1972 and 1973 t h i s group and t h e i r dancers (led by F e l i c i t y Walkus) won the Songhees F e s t i v a l i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., as the best native performing group. Unfortunately a lack of funds has precluded t h e i r attending sebsequent Songhees f e s t i v a l s . To the best of my knowledge the only regular chance t h i s group has to perform i s during the annual "Indian Days" i n l a t e August of every year. The most d i s t r e s s i n g aspect of B e l l a Coola music today l i e s i n the f a c t that no younger people are being t r a i n e d to carry on t h i s already impoverished t r a d i t i o n . Even i f inter e s t e d , most young people cannot do so because few speak the B e l l a Coola language. It i s hoped that a language t r a i n i n g program to be taught by Mr. Henk Nater beginning September, 1977, w i l l succeed i n reversing t h i s trend. As w i l l emerge more f u l l y i n Part Two of t h i s study i n connection with my t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l methodology, Agnes Edgar i s the key to the singing group. At the time of t h i s w r i t i n g she 29 i s approximately 89 years of age. The youngster of the group, Margaret Siwallace, i s 69 years of age. As a l i v i n g tradition therefore, Bella Coola music i s i n very real danger of extinction. Unless a Bella Coola musical education program i s inaugurated soon, the chain of oral tradition "by means of which these songs have been passed down from generation to generation w i l l be permanently broken. 30 I I . BELIEFS ABOUT COMPOSITIONAL PROCESSES Since there are no longer any B e l l a Coola composers, we must turn to the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e i n order to under-stand B e l l a Coola concepts concerning how music was created. In order to examine t h i s t o p i c e f f e c t i v e l y , i t w i l l again be imperative to r e l y h e a vily on Mcllwraith's study. The ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e reveals two types of compo-s i t i o n a l processes that were f e l t to generate B e l l a Coola music, one eso t e r i c and the other exoteric. The f i r s t of these involved a v i s i t a t i o n from a supernatural animal or being who may or may not have given the r e c i p i e n t shamanistic power. A shaman u s u a l l y received h i s power from a mythical woman who gave him a name, four songs, and sometimes the a b i l i t y to cure a s p e c i f i c disease (Mcllwraith 1948 1:547). Boas described such a v i s i t a n t i n the following terms: She wore a r i n g of red cedar-bark around her neck. She was turning round a l l the time. Songs were coming from a l l parts of her body. Although she d i d not open her mouth, i t sounded as though a great many people were singing. She gave him a song, or, as the narrator expressed i t , "she threw a song in t o h i s body". (Boas 1898:44) Sick persons were also p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s of super-n a t u r a l a i d . I f the s i c k received supernatural a i d , they were cured once they had learned the songs given to them by the 31 supernatural. Not to do so was considered extremely dangerous. Songs were not only received from supernatural men or animals; i n one case a man " . . . was cured by a tree which gave him a yodel-like shaman's song, imitating the creaking and waving of i t s branches" (Mcllwraith 1948 1:555). As the following quotation i l l u s t r a t e s , Mcllwraith was rather skeptical concerning the value of the above-mentioned supernatural sources of music: What i s the explanation of the songs which shamans believe they hear? In this case, for example, a reliable woman asserted that she had heard two, though she had since forgotten them as they had no social significance. Bella Coola shaman songs are of a simple type, with few words, and with tunes of no great d i f f i c u l t y , a l l closely akin to one pattern. Hence they could easily be invented by anyone. Ai person who recovers from a severe i l l n e s s i s expected, both by others, and by himself, to have had such an experience, consequently i t i s easy for him to inter-pret the confused thoughts of a sickness as a v i s i -tation from a supernatural being. Thus i t seems probable that a shaman deludes himself as well as others with regard to the songs. (1948 1:551-552) Mcllwraith's claim could be p a r t i a l l y refuted by the fact that the three shaman melodies i n this study are by no means " a l l closely akin to one pattern". On the contrary, they are markedly different. Furthermore the f i r s t shaman melody, i n my opinion, ranks with the best of the Sisawk and Kusiyut melodies and was l i k e l y therefore not easily invented by S'any.one". More germane to the present discussion of Bella Coola compositional processes, however, i s to say that i t under-32 estimates the importance of the power of i l l u s i o n to creative processes. By simply r e j e c t i n g the l i t e r a l meaning of s t a t e -ments concerning supernatural vis i t a t i o n s - , Mcllwraith has f a i l e d to recognize the possible musical value of such s e l f -transcending experiences as dreams, hypnotic trances, v i s i o n quests and so on. What i s c r u c i a l to these contexts i s not whether the supernatural beings involved are r e a l but rather that the persons who have undergone such experiences have a c t u a l l y learned something from them which they are able to b r i n g back to "sober r e a l i t y " . Numerous examples of such states of creative i n s p i r a t i o n , wherein the " r a t i o n a l mode" of thinking i s temporarily suspended, may be found i n the writings of a r t i s t s o and s c i e n t i s t s throughout h i s t o r y . Even a non-Bella Coola composer, Beethoven, has acknow-ledged non-rational sources of musical ideas as the following l e t t e r to h i s f r i e n d Tobias von Haslinger reveals: On my way to Vienna yesterday, sleep overtook me i n my carriage . *. . While thus slumbering I dreamt that I had gone on a f a r journey, to no l e s s a place than S y r i a , on to Judea and back, and then a l l the way to Arabia, when at length I a c t u a l l y a r r i v e d at Jerusalem . . . Now during my dream-journey, the following canon came into my head . . . (Shapero 1952:51) I t i s not necessary to reproduce Beethoven*s notated canon here i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the underlying s i m i l a r i t y between h i s dream-inspired experience and the B e l l a Coola s e l f -transcending experiences described by Mcllwraith and Boas. 33 In both the r e c i p i e n t has a passive r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n -coming musical information. Thus the mythical woman who appeared to Boas's shaman "threw a song in t o h i s body" while Beethoven's canon "came int o h i s head". What i s common to these experiences i s that they both y i e l d some musical product which may l a t e r be r e c a l l e d and employed i n "everyday l i f e " . What i s d i f f e r e n t about them i s the culturally-determined nature of the a u r a l or v i s u a l perceptions received. I have made t h i s excursion into the r e l a t i o n of music to non-ordinary tstates of consciousness i n order to show that Mcllwraith's statement concerning the shaman's deluding himself and others with respect to supernatural musical i n s p i r a t i o n i s one-sided. Such a viewpoint overlooks the f a c t that, i n c e r t a i n cases, these e s o t e r i c experiences a c t u a l l y generated new arrangements or combinations; of previously e x i s t i n g musical configurations. Although i t i s l i k e l y that most B e l l a Coola songs were created by the secular or exoteric means of musical production to be outlined below, we cannot c a t e g o r i c a l l y dismiss the esoteric means. The l a t t e r was a type of B e l l a Coola compo-s i t i o n a l process which featured as i t s main technique a posture of extreme r e c e p t i v i t y . The amount gained from such a "passive" r e l a t i o n s h i p with the creative process depended upon the r e c i -pient's state of musical and imaginative readiness. As pointed out at the outset of t h i s study, the p r e v a i l i n g Salishan ceremonial pattern consisted of the singing of those songs taught the singers by t h e i r t u t e l a r y s p i r i t s (Drucker 1963:169)' 34 Thus Salishan music, and therefore the music of the B e l l a Coola p r i o r to t h e i r migration, was generated e s s e n t i a l l y "by the eso-t e r i c compositional processes described above. These processes however did not s u i t the needs of the "new" ceremonial year i n B e l l a Coola, every one of which required hundreds of new songs; songs which had to be created s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r various dances and other f u n c t i o n a l contexts. Furthermore, these songs had to accommodate lengthy texts taken from the appropriate a n c e s t r a l myths. Esoter i c compositional processes could not provide songs made to such secular and s p e c i f i c requirements. This: new ceremonial context resulted i n the cr e a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d song makers who met s e c r e t l y to decide which pro-posed songs would be most su i t a b l e f o r any upcoming ceremony. Mcllwraith described the a c t i v i t i e s of these "compositional committees" as follows: For several days the singers work at the songs.. The p r i n c i p l e s governing t h e i r composition are i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l types. At night, as he walks: i n the the f o r e s t , or at any other time, a singer con-s t a n t l y t r i e s to compose a tune. Others do the same, and at i n t e r v a l s they meet, ei t h e r i n some lo n e l y spot or i n the back-room of a house. Each singer who has composed attune beats out i t s time, humming as he does so; then another gives h i s tune, and perhaps a t h i r d . A f t e r much discussion, which i n some cases becomes acrimonious-, i t i s decided what two tunes are the best f o r the so-and-so. Words are then supplied, a matter of l e s s d i f f i c u l t y , a l l the singers a s s i s t i n g . In t h i s way the fourteen songs required are provided. (1948 1:199) A c e r t a i n degree of o r i g i n a l i t y was expected of these 35 composers. As Mcllwraith i n d i c a t e s , i t seems that this- need f o r a c e r t a i n amount of " o r i g i n a l i t y " is- a t r a i t which d i s t i n -guished B e l l a Coola music from i t s B e l l a B e l l a counterpart: Occasionally they re-use one a song from a previousyyear, but to do t h i s i s to admit lack of creative a b i l i t y . The usual practice i s to com-pose new tunes and to adapt them to words bearing on the proper theme, sometimes i n c l u d i n g snatches from old songs. The B e l l a B e l l a are s a i d to use the same compositions from year to year, and re c e n t l y some of these, both tunes and f o r e i g n words, have been adopted by the B e l l a Coola. Long ago the marshals would have prohibited t h i s custom even i f the user had l e g i t i m a t e l y obtained the f o r e i g n prerogative by marriage. (1948 11:44) The f a c t that s p e c i a l i s t s were employed to compose: the ceremonial songs was kept secret from the u n i n i t i a t e d . They were l e d to believe that the old esot e r i c compositional process was s t i l l i n use. The singer deceived the audience by pre-tending to receive a c a l l from h i s supernatural patron. L a b e l l i n g a t y p i c a l Kusiyut singer X, Mcllwraith provides a d e s c r i p t i o n of how t h i s deception was achieved:-The f i c t i o n i s always: c a r r i e d out that the c a l l has brought him a song, which he pretends to sing or r e c i t e to the singers who appear to be l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y . Usually he says nothing, or t a l k s about something e l s e , though sometimes the deception is;; furthered? by X f i r s t l e a r n i n g the words from the musicians and repeating them as i f teaching. (1948 11:67) This deception did not carry over into non-ceremonial 36 song type production. I t was common knowledge that love, Lahal, Animal and Game songs were composed by men (and some-times by women) and not given to them by the supernatural. Perhaps the most concrete example of a compositional method given by Mcllwraith involves the making of petroglyphs. Speaking about these rock carvings, he -includes a s i g n i f i c a n t reference to musical composition: "Some of them were made, long ago, by c h i e f s when they were composing tunes; they picked out the rock i n time to the music forming i n t h e i r minds'" (1948 1:178). Although Mcllwraith's statement implies that the petroglyphs were influenced by the music (and not v i c e versa) i t seems probable that the movement of work also acted as a rhythmic c a t a l y s t , urging the carver to sing and compose. To the best of my knowledge no t r a d i t i o n a l B e l l a Coola songs are being composed today. According to the singers, the l a s t B e l l a Coola song to be "composed" was Lack King George's Mourning Song. Margaret Siwallace informed me that a f t e r Jack King George (her mother's father) died i n 1948, Joe Saunders Sr. (her f a t h e r ) , t o l d the singers to "compose" an appropriate mourning song. In t h i s case the singers u t i l i z e d one of Jack -King George's musical prerogatives, the Thunderbird song, as a model. As the musical comparison between these songs i n Part Two of t h i s study w i l l r e v e a l , t h i s mourning song i s a c t u a l l y a variant of the Thunderbird song. I t follows the Thunderbird song model i n order to symbolize Jack King George's s o c i a l stature. However the singers do not follow t h i s model s l a v i s h l y . 37 They c l e a r l y make enough changes to i d e n t i f y t h i s song as "being one of Mourning and not a Kusiyut Dance song. Like a l l creative products therefore, B e l l a Coola songs were not immaculately conceived. The singers who "composed" the above-mentioned mourning song took a p r e - e x i s t i n g musical structure and adapted i t to d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l circumstancea. I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s procedure of re-composing archetypal (defined i n terms of exemplary models) musical patterns l i e s at the heart of the B e l l a Coola compositional process. By using exemplary models or archetypal patterns as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . f o r "new" songs, the B e l l a Coola song-makers could commu-nicate a number of ideas through musical structure alone. Through t h e i r s e l e c t i v e use of a family's musical prerogatives, f o r example a c e r t a i n portion of any given song owned by a family, they could u t i l i z e family themes ("signature melodies") to i n d i c a t e song ownership and s o c i a l status. The Thunderbird song material i n Jack King George's Mourning song served p r e c i s e l y t h i s purpose. In' t h i s respect the songs functioned as the sonic counterparts of the carved and painted c r e s t s found on totem poles, boxes, tibheffronts of houses and so on. I f a powerful B e l l a Coola c h i e f had acquired a B e l l a B e l l a song through marriage, through trade, or through war f o r example, the composers could "recompose" t h i s song by changing i t s text and by s l i g h t l y a l t e r i n g i t s musical structure. Speaking about t h e Hamatsa motives i n the f i r s t Hamatsa song i n t h i s sample (Hml), F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me that "they change notes 38 there, we don't." The "they" i n t h i s quote r e f e r s to the B e l l a B e l l a , from whom t h i s song was borrowed. Thus although we do not know how or when t h i s Hamatsa song was acquired, we do know that i t s text i s now i n the B e l l a Coola language and that small changes i n i t s melody were made. When i t s B e l l a B e l l a prototype i s located, we w i l l be able to examine exactly how t h i s song was "recomposed" and thereby integrated into the B e l l a Coola reper-t o i r e . The d i s p l a y of such a B e l l a B e l l a song must surely have enhanced the name of i t s possessor. For here was a man who could exhibit non-material as well as material wealth and power. More s p e c i f i c extra-musical references are also found. B e l l a Coola composers could re-use drum rhythms associated with c e r t a i n dance gestures as well as motives that symbolized the movements of animals. As the analysis of the V i s i t o r ' s song w i l l show, even the act of f a l l i n g down was portrayed s o n i c a l l y . I t i s l i k e l y that such programmatic elements were retained and re-used from year to year. Being non-composers, the present-day singers are able to shed l i t t l e l i g h t on the use of archetypal patterns i n B e l l a Coola song-making. Some support f o r t h i s hypothesis however, comes from within the songs themselves. They r e f l e c t i n miniature what the B e l l a Coola compositional process was probably l i k e over time. The most fundamental formal process w i t h i n the strophes of these songs i s the v a r i a t i o n s form i n which a theme, the exemplary model f o r the res t of the song, i s wholly or p a r t i a l l y v a r i e d . Inevitably however, some underlying s t r u c t u r a l s i m i -39 l a r i t y , be i t rhythmic or modal, between the theme and i t s variants i s maintained. Governed "by t h e i r conception of what a mourning song should sound l i k e , the composers of Jack King George's Mourning song l i k e l y treated the Thunderbird song as they would a theme i n the v a r i a t i o n s form. By so doing they created the "new" out of the " o l d " , thereby maintaining a meaningful l i n k with past p r a c t i c e s . I t i s perhaps u l t i m a t e l y t h i s need f o r c o n t i n u i t y of t r a d i t i o n , the need f o r the B e l l a Coola to somehow remain i n contact with t h e i r ancestors, that best accounts f o r t h e i r use of exemplary models i n song-making. 40 I I I . THE PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION OF BELLA COOLA MUSIC Since non-ceremonial B e l l a Coola music was most often sung solo and unaccompanied, t h i s exposition of the tli® performance organization of the songs w i l l r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to the ceremonial r e p e r t o i r e . In the l a t t e r context we f i n d a musical d i v i s i o n of labor with respect to the performance of the songs and a u t i l i z a t i o n of musical instrument types not found i n the non-ceremonial sphere. I t i s c l e a r that the most complex and s t r i c t l y regulated organization of performance was reserved f o r the songs of the Sisawk and Kusiyut i n i t i a t e d . Just as the need f o r new and i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d ceremonial song types l e d to the formation of a s p e c i a l group of composers or song makers, a s p e c i a l i z e d manner of organizing performances (unknown to Salishan musics) had to be developed f o r B e l l a Coola ceremonial music. Unlike non-ceremonial music, ceremonial songs were r e -hearsed thoroughly p r i o r to performance. On the night of a ceremony each singer brought h i s own beating-stick, a stout baton about two feet long to pound on the f l o o r i n time with h i s singing, to a f i n a l rehearsal (Mcllwraith 1948 11:269). At t h i s time decisions were made concerning who would play the skin-covered drum and who would f i l l the r o l e s of the three p r i n c i p a l performers. Mcllwraith notes that the skin-covered drum was a recent borrowing from the C a r r i e r people (1948 11:270). In former times a box drum was employed as the leading per-41 cussion instrument. The three p r i n c i p a l performers to he chosen had to assume the following r o l e s : 1. sankwots'am: the leader who regulated the time "by beating h i s s t i c k on the f l o o r ; the group or chorus surrounded him i n a semi-c i r c l e ; the leader was the best musician among the singers. 2. a l t a i a : the announcer, who had to have a powerful voice, bellowed out the words of each text u a l s u b d i v i s i o n so that a l l could hear; he sat i n the middle of the group. 3. tsulkim: the prompter, who sat beside the announcer, whispered to him the words of a g s u b d i v i s i o n which might have been forgotten. The most important f u n c t i o n of these p r i n c i p a l performers was to ensure a minimum of error i n a l l important r i t e s (Mcllwraith 1948 11:271). The presence of a leader, however, also allowed a measure of spontaneous orchestration. Margaret Siwallace t o l d me that the lead singer would oc c a s i o n a l l y u t i l i z e an antiphonal technique she described as "throwing the song around the room". He did t h i s by p o i n t i n g to c e r t a i n parts of the room, i n d i c a t i n g that these sections alone should sing. A good dancer couldaalso assume t h i s leadership function and thereby "conduct" the ensemble; i n the following case by means of h i s movements: 42 The clever dancer who has heen commissioned to lead the orchestra of stick-beaters stands near the door and the musicians take t h e i r time from h i s movements; f i r s t , he slowly r a i s e s both arms and a l l beat time s o f t l y , then, as he l i f t s h i s arms higher, the noise increases, and he sways from side to side as i f c a r r i e d away by the music; as he does so the men towards whom he leans i n t e n -s i f y t h e i r beating, while those on the other side decrease. Back and f o r t h he sways followed by the beating; nearing the climax he treads mincingly, whereat the noise r i s e s to thunder-p i t c h , then jumps twice, and as he s t r i k e s the ground the drums beat and a l l the s t i c k s come down with a f i n a l e a r s s p l i t t i n g crash. (Mcllwraith 1948 1:;! Unfortunately Mcllwraith did not tape-record h i s B e l l a Coola sample within these ceremonial contexts. We can there-fore only speculate about how many more non-musical f a c t o r s such as were described above d i r e c t l y influenced the sound of B e l l a Coola songs i n the past. Another aspect of ceremonial performance organization that added to the t o t a l sound of the songs was the use of a droning cry. The l a t t e r was a musical prerogative of women which, i n order to be employed, had to be validate d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of presents (Mcllwraith 1948 1:264). This high-pitched drone, used i n both Sisawk and Kusiyut dances, symbolized the sound of the Thunderbird and was therefore not a mus i c a l l y - i n s p i r e d gesture. Its purpose was to add further to the impressiveness of the ceremony and thereby increase the wonder of the u n i n i -t i a t e d . In the present sample the drone i s used only i n the Thunderbird song. Here Margaret Siwallace, whose family owns the song, displays her i n h e r i t e d r i g h t to employ the drone. 43 B e l l a Coola aerophones also symbolized the sounds of supernatural beings. One of the most ingenious of these, a Kusiyut whistle, used bellows made of mountain goat bladder. This bladder-whistle, hidden beneath the arm-pit of a Kusiyut dancer, was sounded by means of pressure applied:by the dancer's elbows. To the u n i n i t i a t e d t h i s sound constituted proof of the presence of the dancer's supernatural patron. Other Kusiyut whistles, smaller and more rectangular i n shape than the large c o n i c a l Sisawk whistles, were sounded outside of the v i l l a g e . In the Hamatsa dance these whistles announced the a r r i v a l of the supernatural woman Snitsmana (Mcllwraith 1948 11:72). Mcllwraith's account of t h i s w h i s t l i n g includes valuable information concerning how they were played: The noise which heralds her coming i s produced by the whistles of four Kukusiut who throughout the night range the f o r e s t s and mountains within ear-shot of the v i l l a g e . By bending t h e i r heads up and down, they are able to increase the weirdness and e l u s i v e -ness of the sound. The four t r a v e l i n single f i l e ; the leader blows, and when h i s breath i s nearly ex-hausted he presses the hand of the second man, who s t a r t s w h i s t l i n g forthwith, while the o r i g i n a l leader drops to the rear. As the second becomes weary, he signals i n the same way to the t h i r d , and so on; i n t h i s way the w h i s t l i n g i s continuous, and the u n i n i -t i a t e d are convinced that i t cannot be caused by mortals, even i f such an idea should occur to them. (1948 11:72) Rattles and b u l l - r o a r e r s contributed f u r t h e r orchestra-t i o n a l e f f e c t s . While r a t t l e s were sounded by the dancers, b u l l - r o a r e r s were used outside of the dancing area. The b u l l -roarer, also used i n the play potlatch, was a long t h i n wooden 44 idiophone attached to a s t r i n g ; i t was t w i r l e d above the performer's head. Sisawk whistles d i f f e r e d from Kusiyut whistles by being l a r g e r and cone-shaped. Mcllwraith noted that Sisawk whistles were known v a r i o u s l y as the breath, voice, wind, or heart of a c h i e f (1948 1:188'). Constructed d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e i r Kusiyut counterparts, Sisawk whistles also featured d i f f e r e n t performance mannerisms: As he dances, cl a d i n h i s ceremonial costume and head-dress, w h i s t l i n g i s heard from without the house. A number of Sisawk are making the noise and they modulate i t so that i t appears to draw  nearer and nearer Cgmphasis minej . This i s effected e i t h e r with whistles of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s or by blowing harder. The dancer rushes out of the house. The  w h i s t l i n g continues i n a s e r i e s of short bursts, as  i f a conversation were being c a r r i e d out i n that  language ^emphasis minej (1948 1:220) This Sisawk w h i s t l i n g simulated a dialogue between the dancer and one of h i s deceased r e l a t i v e s (Mcllwraith 1948 1:220). The need f o r a c o n t e x t u a l l y - s e n s i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards B e l l a Coola music i s again underscored here. The sounds of these instruments cannot be explained without reference to t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l context. I t i s the demands of the l a t t e r , f o r example, which prompted the innovations of the musical performance mannerisms described above. Thus the dynamics employed by the Sisawkvfwhisties are s o c i a l l y , not musically, inspired'. Another aspect of performance organization which d i r e c t l y 45 influenced the sound of B e l l a Coola music was hand clapping. F e l i c i t y Walkus pointed out that p r i o r to the singing of Simon Johnson's Headdress song, a dancer would c i r c l e the dance h a l l while members of the audience were clapping out the drum rhythm of the song,. |Jj jt lc 1 Mcllwraith noted that guests a s s i s t e d the singers by clapping t h e i r hands i n time to A i a l k dances (1948 1:277). Few of the above-mentioned e f f e c t s are employed by the contemporary singing group. Only the once frequently-heard drone remains, and only i n the Thunderbird song. The t r a d i t i o n a l t r i a d of leader, announcer, and prompter, so important to the t o t a l sound of former musical performances, has f a l l e n i n t o disuse. The only drum i n the accompaniment i s a rectangular membranophone played by Dan Nelson. Deer-hide i s n a i l e d to the upper side of the wooden frame of t h i s drum, which i s sounded by a small wooden s t i c k . The remainder of the singers use the batons described above; at present, however, these batons are made of bamboo. The use of whistles i n ceremonial songs has long been abandoned. I found only four ceremonial whistles while i n B e l l a Coola. One of these was stored i n the B e l l a Coola Band o f f i c e . This was a Sisawk whistle which neither the l a t e Andy Schooner nor I were able to sound. Three Hamatsa whistles are owned by F e l i c i t y Walkus;. She informed me that two of these, d e f i n i t e l y i n newer condition than the t h i r d , were made by white men. These are double 46 whistles t i e d together by s t r i p s of cedar bark. By p l a c i n g the ends of both whistles i n one's mouth, i t i s possible to play v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s with t h i s instrument. Two of F e l i c i t y ' s whistles (the old one and one of the newer ones) produced the i n t e r v a l of a minor t h i r d , while the t h i r d whistle sounded a major t h i r d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, one of the c h i e f charac-t e r i s t i c s of the Hamatsa melodies i n t h i s sample i s t h e i r ten-dency to o s c i l l a t e between major and minor t h i r d s . Consequently, no other song type employs semi-tones ( h o r i z o n t a l l y ) as f r e -quently as do the Hamatsa songs. Whether there i s a causal connection between these two f a c t s cannot yet be determined. Mcllwraith tended to ignore the possible musical s i g n i f i c a n c e of whistles, always describing t h e i r sound as "noise". Perhaps research on the music and instruments of the B e l l a B e l l a , from whom the B e l l a Coola acquired these whistles, w i l l be able to inform us whether the i n t e r v a l s they produced were as important f o r song structure as they were f o r song function., Having reconstructed the f u n c t i o n a l context of B e l l a Coola songs within the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the e x i s t i n g ethno-graphic data, we may now turn to a consideration of the songs themselves. Part Tv/o w i l l begin with a di s c u s s i o n of how the performance organization of the contemporary singing group influenced the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l methodology employed. 47 P A R T T W O T H E I N T E R I O R L O G I C O F B E L L A . C O O L A S O N G S 48 IV. TRANSCRIPTIONAL METHODOLOGY In a study of t h i s type, ana-lysis begins at the tran-s c r i p t i o n a l stage. The t r a n s c r i b e r must constantly make ana-l y t i c a l decisions about what w i l l go into a "score" and what w i l l not. Many of my decisions were made on the basis of what I learned during my recording sessions i n B e l l a Coola. Before describing the influence of contemporary performance mannersisms on my t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l procedure, I w i l l b r i e f l y sketch i n some necessary background information. During the 1920's these songs were s t i l l sung by the l a s t a c t i v e male composers. I f they knew the songs, women s i t t i n g beside the male singers could j o i n i n . Once these l a s t male musicians had passed away however, i t was (with only a few exceptions) up to the women to carry on the t r a -d i t i o n . As F e l i c i t y Walkus pointed out: "We didn't know what to do, we almost completely forgot the songs." I t was Agnes Edgar who provided the remaining l i n k with the past because i t was she who had remembered most of the t r a d i t i o n a l reper-t o i r e . What I saw and heard while doing my f i e l d recordings and t r a n s c r i p t i o n s confirmed, that Agnes Edgar had assumed the p o s i t i o n of leader. On most of the songs, Agnes would take the i n i t i a t i v e while the others, depending on how well they knew the song, would occasi o n a l l y f a l l s l i g h t l y behind or be-gin a new idea prematurely. The r e s u l t i s a ragged unison 49 marked by quite a few staggered e n t r i e s . Naturally these should not be interpreted as "canonic" i n any way. In these cases I have simply notated what seemed to be the norm. Most often, Agnes's singing functioned as--the l a t t e r . As a song progressed, these "heterophonic" elements decreased i n number. Another feature of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s which must be explained by r e f e r r i n g to Agnes Edgar's p o s i t i o n i n the group concerns rhythm and my use of bar l i n e s . In terms of melo-dic rhythm, the length of. a tone i s generally determined by Agnes's singing. At times {a group mean i s employed. When an area i s rhythmically uncertain i t i s shown i n the f o l l o -wing manner: . TTTT Although some are symmetrically-designed, these songs are c h i e f l y of asymmetrical construction i n terms of rhythm. Time signatures are therefore generally avoided but when appro-p r i a t e are surrounded by brackets (e.g. (7/8)) to i n d i c a t e the hypothetical nature of the d i v i s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , metronome markings are q u a l i f i e d by the contraction of c i r c a (e.g. ca. 80) so as to emphasize t h e i r being of an approximate nature only. 50 The bar. l i n e s I have employed are broken to in d i c a t e that they do not r e f e r to s t r i c t l y regular divisions- of rhythm. These broken l i n e s represent a s l i g h t pause f o r breath. In cases where the pauses are obviously a quarter or an eighth note i n value, the r e s t i s written i n and i s then followed by a s o l i d bar l i n e . What often happens however i s that the breath d i v i -sions become extremely f l e x i b l e i n terms of duration. A type of free rhythm r e s u l t s when everyone breaths i n together, checks to make sure Agnes i s prepared, and then attempts to coordinate t h e i r e n t r i e s . This use of free rhythm i s l e s s noticeable and. i s found l e s s often i n the f a s t e r songs. As might be expected, the Mourning songs u t i l i z e t h i s parlando-rubato e f f e c t to such an extent that i t may be said to be one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of t h i s song type. B e l l a Coola Indian music does not have a standardized or absolute p i t c h . As a r e s u l t a song c o n s i s t i n g of the the t r i a d C, E, and G, f o r example, might during the next perfor-mance be sung as C sharp, E sharp, and G sharp, or B, D sharp, F sharp, and so on. What i s permanent i n these songs i s the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between tones. Thus such a configu-r a t i o n of pitches i s better regarded i n terms of solemization (Do, Mi, Sol) or cipher notation (1, 3, 5). So as to f a c i l i t a t e the recognition of s i m i l a r i t i i e s and differences between the melodies i t was decided to trans-pose a l l Do's (1*s) to the common p i t c h denominator C. A l l 51 Mi's (3*s) w i l l be notated as E., a l l Sol's (5's) as G and so on. This t r a n s p o s i t i o n technique I. s h a l l term C-centered t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . Among the scholars who have worked with North-west Coast Indian musics, only George Herzog (see e.g. 1934) has employed a s i m i l a r t r a n s p o s i t i o n technique f o r h i s trans-c r i p t i o n s . Many of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n t h i s study would have been extremely a c c i d e n t a l - f i l l e d had I. notated l i t e r a l l y the not infrequent cases i n which they dropped by a semitone. These f a l l s (the B e l l a Coola songs-do not r i s e ) are here sim ply indicated by the following symbol: j D i f f e r e n t versions of songs that have these f a l l s by a semitone reveal that they are not s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t since they do not appear at the same places i n other versions and may not even reappear. In the context of B e l l a Coola music they l i k e l y r e s u l t from one of two f a c t o r s : 1. they are perhaps due to the fac t that one of the singers i s often f l a t i n t o n a t i o n a l l y ; t h i s i s acknowledged by the other singers. 2 . they may occur as a r e s u l t of breath fatigue due to the age and phys i c a l condition of the singers. Ultimately the greatest benefit of C-centered trans c r i p t i o n s l i e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to make music amenable to comparative a n a l y s i s . The method proposed and u t i l i z e d i n 52 t h i s study suggests that by simply describing the o r i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p i t c h (o.s.p.) p r i o r to the t r a n s c r i p t i p n and then by presenting the transposed melody, the ethnomusicologist can gain a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o h i s own material while s i -multaneously rendering h i s data u s e f u l to other scholars who may wish to compare i t with t h e i r own fin d i n g s . So as to define the d i a c r i t i c a l markings employed i n the musical examples to follow, a complete l i s t of them i s presented below: TRANSCRIPTIONAL DIACRITICS : o r i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p i t c h :indicates that the s t a f f w i l l not display p i t c h :denotes an area of rhythmic uncertainty :ascending and descending portamentos :ascending and descending portamentos followed by an accented tone :song drops by a semitone •.hypothetical m e t r i c a l d i v i s i o n o.s.p. (7/8) 53 : since phrases within the songs are not nec e s s a r i l y equal i n rhythmic value and are divided by s l i g h t pauses f o r breath, broken bar l i n e s w i l l separate them. :placed over a note that i s sung approxi-mately a 1/4 tone higher than written. :placed over a note that i s sung approxi-mately a 1/4 tone lower than written. t i n melody a tone of i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h ; i n drum, one beat. :indicates that the drum plays a continuous tremolo. :steady "quarters" i n drum as density referent. :pause of s u f f i c i e n t length to warrant i t s being measured i n seconds (e.g. 3 seconds); u s u a l l y a s o c i a l not a musical pause. :used only i n the Thunderbird song; i n d i c a t e s the presence of a high-pitched drone, gradu-a l l y f a l l i n g i n p i t c h . : s i g n i f i e s that only one singer has sung t h i s tone; a tone which varies from the group mean. I t may be added h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y . 54 V. ANALYSIS OP THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS Part One. of t h i s study has shown that the B e l l a Coola group t h e i r songs, according to function, that i s , according to the purposes f o r which they are used. This, f a c t r a i s e d an important question f o r the. an a l y s i s , namely, to. what extent are these f u n c t i o n a l groupings bounded by musical, character-i s t i c s ? In other words, do a l l Headdressvsongs partake, in. a Headdress song s t y l e that, i s d i f f e r e n t from a Kusiyut Dance song s t y l e and so on? This l i n e of i n q u i r y w i l l also, seek to determine whether or not the f u n c t i o n a l and therefore, s o c i a l s i g n i f i -cance of any given song type influenced the nature of i t s musical structures. For example, were the songs used by the secret s o c i e t i e s given s p e c i a l musical structures so as to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from songs, used i n non-ceremonial ( l e s s p r e s tigious) contexts? The 72 songs to be analyzed occupy ten f u n c t i o n a l categories. Five of these., the Headdress, Mourning, Kusiyut Dance, Entrance, and Hamatsa song types form the ceremonial song r e p e r t o i r e . The non-ceremonial song types include Love, Lahal, Animal and Game songs. Shaman songs form an intermediate type since they were used i n both (winter) ceremonial and non-ceremonial contexts. P i t c h i n the analysis w i l l be frequently r e f e r r e d to i n terms of cipher notation. Thus a descending dia t o n i c scale beginning on the C above middle C would be in d i c a t e d 55 as follows: 1. Soleraization Do S i La Sol Fa Mi Re Do 2. Cipher-notation 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3. P i t c h C 1 B A G F E D C As i s common i n cipher notation, pitches l y i n g below middle C are distinguishable.as such by the fa c t that a dot i s placed underneath t h e i r numerical equivalents.(e.g. 1 6 5). The numerical equivalents of pitches l y i n g an octave or more above middle C receive a dot above them (e.g. 2 1 6 5). A l i s t of the songs, t h e i r performers, and their, c o l -l e c t o r s precedes the analysis, of the songs belonging to each fu n c t i o n a l category. The code to the abbreviated information concerning the.performers and c o l l e c t o r s i s presented i n Ap-pendix I. When app l i c a b l e , tape numbers are provided. In order to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l and musical s i g n i f i c a n c e systematically, we w i l l f i r s t examine the les s " s o c i a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s " and p r i m a r i l y communally-owned non-ceremonial songs. 56 NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS A. Game Songs G1 Indian Paint-Brush Flower Song (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.) G2 Cat's Cradle (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.) V i s i t o r ' s Song (Group 2/B.O.T.) Few B e l l a Coola Game- songs have been, preserved on tape. The. B.C. Indian Language Project, during the course of t h e i r ethnographic f i e l d work among the B e l l a Coola, have recorded two such songs. I was able to record one Game song, the V i s i t o r ' s Song (G3), from the. Band Office, tapes made av a i l a b l e to me during my stay i n B e l l a Coola. However, as w i l l emerge more f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s discussion, t h i s V i s i -t o r ' s song i s an extremely close variant of the Cat's Cradle Game song (G2). As a r e s u l t we w i l l be able to examine only two Game songs. This small sample w i l l allow us to. make only t e n t a t i v e generalizations about Game song type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . G1i Indian Paint-Brush Flower S o n g — T h i s song u t i l i z e s only three pitches, C, A, and E. In cipher.notation these w i l l be * portrayed as 1 6 3. Every, •'measure" i n t h i s song ends on the terminal note E or 3» by means of the descending progres-sion 1 6 3. Although 3 i s not the most important p i t c h quanti-t a t i v e l y , i t becomes the most important p i t c h by v i r t u e of i t s a c t i n g as the melodic center of gravity. During the 57 course of t h i s a n a lysis such centers of melodic gra v i t y w i l l he r e f e r r e d to as home tones. I t deserves mention that I w i l l not define home tones s t r i c t l y i n terms of a scale's lowest tone. The lowest tones.in these songs are not nece-s s a r i l y the most important.tones q u a n t i t a t i v e l y ( i n terms of frequency of occurence) or q u a l i t a t i v e l y ( i n terms of d i r e c -t i o n a l importance). Home tones w i l l be made i d e n t i f i a b l e by t h e i r being enclosed i n squares (e.g. 1 6 (31 ). The p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h hierarchy found i n G1, 1 6 [3] , may be termed i t s modal structure. With 3 as the home tone therefore, t h i s mode s h a l l be termed a Mi mode. G1 i s b u i l t e n t i r e l y from two phrases. Unlike the majority of B e l l a Coola melodies, t h i s song i s i s o m e t r i c a l l y -designed, i n "8/4" time. The f i r s t phrase, "measure" one, features pendular movement between the pitches C(1) and A(6). The second phrase, i n measure two, has the same pendular * movement but i t begins on 6(A) rather than on 1 (C) as did the f i r s t phrase. Both phrases end on the same c l o s i n g pat-tern. This c l o s i n g pattern c o n s i s t s of the pitches 6(A) and 3(E). I t i s always associated with the rhythm t Aside from s l i g h t l y a l t e r i n g the order of pitches found i n measure one, the second measure also v a r i e s i t s mel-odic rhythm as example 1 i n d i c a t e s : r n EXAMPLE 1 ' J H >v ^ ft v ^ 58 Some of these, rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s may be the r e s u l t of the need f o r the music to accomodate the song's text. Un-f o r t u n a t e l y I was not able to study language-melody i n t e r -actions i n t h i s song since no text was a v a i l a b l e to me. Defining the term, "theme" as the c e n t r a l musical idea i n a song I w i l l r e f e r to measure one as the theme of t h i s song (see example 2). Measure two w i l l therefore be termed a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s theme (see example 3). This variations, form, occurs within one strophe of t h i s song. A l l subsequent discussion of form i n t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l deal with these i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the strophes. The l a t t e r are f o r the most part repeated l i t e r a l l y . In a l l cases, s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancies between the strophes w i l l be discussed. Chapter VIII w i l l show how s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s between strophes r e s u l t from the need f o r the strophes.to accomodate d i f f e r e n t stanzas of text.#;i Since these songs are not rehearsed frequently, forgetfulhess ;and e r r o r l i k e l y also contribute to d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between strophes. G2 and G3 - Cat's Cradle and V i s i t o r ' s Songs - These songs w i l l be examined together because they are close musically and because they employ the same text. Both songs have only two main pitches. G2 begins on 1(C) and moves to 2(D) above during the course of the song. I t has a one-measure ending, more spoken than sung, that i n -cludes tones of uncertain p i t c h . Except f o r an eighth note "pick-up", G3 likewise has but two pitches. In t h i s case-however the song begins on 6(A) and moves to the 1(C) above. 59 EXAMPLE 2 —7* ^ G1 Theme \ V V EXAMPLE 5 G1 V a r i a t i o n i. \ \ . > • , • I t , -II • >- - * 1 1 \— 1 f ' \—\-i—'4— EXAMPLE 9 \ £ _ 1 — ^ — „ ± _ ^ E>> 1 * 1 . 1> . . " f a l l i n g down" motives 60 . . . -G3 features the same spoken ending as G 2 . Since the terminal tones i n these songs are of i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to discuss p i t c h hierarchy i n the same manner as was done f o r G 1. The home, tones, i n these songs w i l l therefore not be de-f i n e d i n terms, of. melodic g r a v i t y but rather i n terms of f r e -quency of occurence. The f i r s t four measures of each piece employ only one p i t c h , C i n G2 and A i n G 3 . Each shorter than any of the preceding four measures, measures 5 and 6 i n both songs move up to the second p i t c h - to D i n G2 and to C. i n G 3 . Both measures 7 are of i n d e f i n i t e . p i t c h . The pitches G i n G2 and A i n G 3 , by v i r t u e of. their, frequency of appearance, are therefore considered the home tones of these songs. Thus the scales of these songs i n cipher notation w i l l be notated as follows: The c e n t r a l form-giving element i n both songs i s rhythm. Two rhythmic motives generate a l l rhythmic a c t i v i t y . In G2 these are (a) £ j * i and (b) } ) U , i n G3 (a) J and (b) Both rhythmic motives i n G3 are more f l e x -i b l e i n duration because G 3 , u n l i k e G 2 , has no drum accom-paniment. As a r e s u l t rhythmic motive (a) occurs as i n measure 2 of G3 and the f i r s t note i n motive (b) i s longer by an eighth than i t s counterpart i n G 2 . Both songs begin with an introductory measure that 61 employs variants of rhythmic motive (a): EXAMPLE 4 G2 (a) ^ ). . ^ (b) ) ) N G3 (a) £ i i Cb) ). IU Measures 2 and 3 i n both songs use both motives i n t h e i r unaltered forms: EXAMPLE 5 G2 (a) U J (b) ) ) h G3 (a) >V J (b) 1. ) k Measures 4 i n these songs add a quarter note to motive (b): EXAMPLE 6 G2 (a) 1^ i (b.,) ) i } y < G3 (a) >V i ( b i ) ). } ) K This new variant of motive (b) now appears i n both measures 5, bringing with i t the second tone i n each song. Motive (b) i n G3 now assumes the same shape as i t s counter-part i n G2 however: 62 EXAMPLE 7 G2 ( b p i i i ^1 G3 (b.,) ) ) i j \ In measures 6 of each song, motive (a) i s i n t a c t but motive (b) has now been truncated rather than lengthened: G2 (a) G3 (a) The spoken endings of these songs (measures 7) seem to parody the melodic rhythm of the s i x t h measures i n an ab-breviated manner (see example 9). These half-sung, h a l f -spoken, endings are best explained i n terms of t h e i r text. In both G2 and G3 a v i s i t o r i s asked where he or she i s going, they re p l y : "Down that way". The l o c a l people then warn: "You'd better watch out or. y o u ' l l s l i p and bump your head on the walk". I t i s most probable that the descending motives that end these songs are attempts to portray the act of f a l l i n g s o n i c a l l y (see example 9). The f a l l i t s e l f i s most c l e a r l y symbolized by the long portamento that extends from the t h i r d tone of each ending down,-to the two accented ("bouncing") eighth notes. The f a c t that t h i s , ending i s per-formed i n a j o v i a l and casual manner lends support to t h i s hypothesis. Since the words of the Cat's Cradle song are i d e n t i c a l EXAMPLE 8 \\ I (b 2) i \ T \ \ I (bo) i . 3 \ 63 to the V i s i t o r ' s song and. deal, with content unrelated, to the s t r i n g game, i t i s evident that the V i s i t o r ' s song was used as a model f o r the Cat's Cradle.song. I was not able to ac-quire other versions of these songs. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g f o r example to observe whether or not the Gat's Cradle song c o n s i s t e n t l y r i s e s by a major second. That i s , whether or not i t r i s e s by a major second i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f from the V i s i t o r ' s song and i t s r i s i n g minor t h i r d . Unlike G1, G2 and G3 do not have a c e n t r a l melodic idea. Rhythmic motives (a) and (b) combine, in. these songs to form the following rhythmic theme or compound.rhythmic moti-v i c structure: I t i s the successive a l t e r a t i o n and fragmentation, of t h i s rhythmic theme that generates formal structure i n these songs. A sense of uni t y i s imparted by the fac t that each variant of t h i s rhythmic theme ends on the pat-tern ) j"f . This type, of. v a r i a t i o n form d i f f e r s from that found i n G1 because i n G2 and G3 only rhythm i s varied. Given such a l i m i t e d number of Game songs we can. only speculate about Game song type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On the basis of the three songs c o l l e c t e d we can say that they tend to be b r i e f i n duration (G1 =38"; G2 =37", G3 =37"), slow ( i n com-parison to the res t of the sample) and s i m i l a r i n average tempo (G1 A=ca.63, G2)=ca.65, G3'=ca.68), formally organized p r i m a r i l y by rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s and characterized by a l i m i t e d tonal organization (two and three-tone s c a l e s ) . B. Animal Songs 64 A1 Hummingbird (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A2 Wild Canary (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A3 F i r s t Spring Salmon (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A4 Deadwood Worm (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A5 Peamouth and (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. Bullhead F i s h A6 Trout (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A7 American Dipper's (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P. A8 Boy's F i s h i n g (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1030, D9(a)) Except f o r song A8 which was c o l l e c t e d by Mcllwraith, the Animal songs to be examined here were recorded-by the B.C. Indian Language Project. Since the. l a t t e r was able to record seven Animal songs i n 1975, i t i s reasonable to assume that Mcllwraith's c o l l e c t i o n of four represents, only a portion of the Animal songs s t i l l being sung i n the 1920's. Unlike ceremonial, songs, Animal songs did not have to be newly composed every year. They were communally rather than p r i v a t e l y owned. This study includes no Animal song texts. However we le a r n from Mcllwraith*s t r a n s l a t i o n s that the texts of t h i s _ 65 . song type are generally b r i e f (1948 II.: 334-336.). Perhaps due to i t s shamanistic or nonr-Bella Coola o r i g i n , the words of one Animal song described by Mcllwraith " . . . are prac-t i c a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and the B e l l a Coola do not profess to understand them" (1948, II.: 426). Songs A5, A6., and A8 have e s s e n t i a l l y the same v a r i -ations form as was found i n the Game songs. A8. i s b u i l t from two rhythmic, motives, (a) and (b) i ) . The theme of A8 encompasses measures one and two (see example 10). I t em-ploys the pitches C, A, and E. Since the terminal note of t h i s descending " t r i a d " , E, acts as the melodic center of gra-v i t y , the song's modal structure w i l l be portrayed as 1 6 f3~l « Measures 3 and 4 constitute- a simple v a r i a t i o n of. t h i s theme. The v a r i a t i o n a l t e r s the rhythm and p i t c h order .of motive (a) i n measure 3 and lengthens i t by an eighth note i n measure 4 (see example 10). Measures 5 and 6 of t h i s song repeat the theme of measures 1 and 2. The v a r i a t i o n s of A5 and.A6 are purely rhythmic. The Peamouth and Bullhead Fish's song. (A5) i s based on.the pitches D, C, A and E. The song features the descending progression i 6 L3J . The p i t c h D(2) acts as an a u x i l i a r y tone to C(1). Pitches of t h i s order w i l l be bracketed when the modal str u c -tures are presented i n cipher notation, e.g., (2) 1 6 l ^ l . Each thematic statement i n t h i s song (A5) consists, of two measures. Measure one i s l e v e l i n contour and contains the following pendular movement between 6 and 1:6 1 (2) 1 6. i 66 The second measure's descending progression 1 6 [|] closes t h i s theme since the repeat brings back the contents of mea-sure 1. The v a r i a t i o n of A5's theme, measures. 3 and 4 ( i g -noring repeats f o r explanatory purposes), does not a l t e r the modal structure of the f i r s t two measures. As example 11 i n -dicates, i t i s the melodic rhythm of the theme that i s varied: EXAMPLE 11 S i m i l a r l y i t i s the melodic rhythm of A6's theme (mea-sures 1 to 3) that i s varied. I t s modal structure, (2) jjj 6, i s unaltered i n the v a r i a t i o n (measures 4 to 7). Songs A1, A2, A3, A4, and A7 have a form unlike any examined thus f a r i n the an a l y s i s . In these songs themes are contrasted with short repeated rhythmic motives which, though r e l a t e d to the themes, have a s i g n i f i c a n c e quite independent of the longer thematic ideas. The American Dipper's song (A7) best i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s form type. It w i l l . a l s o provide us with a clue as to why these repeated rhythmic motives (motivic areas) are found i n these songs. The theme of A7, measures 1 to 3, i s constructed from A5 Theme: * ) V a r i a t i o n : 67 EXAMPLE 10 Theme - A 8 m.1 ^ Variation .3 / S S +—*~ EXAMPLE 12 Theme - A7 \ \ \ x71rrr \ \' \ \\ \p 68 three pitches, G, E, and C. Except f o r the f i r s t measure's • • • descending pattern 5 3 1 the song employs only the home tone E or 3, thus y i e l d i n g a modal structure of 5 GO 1 (see ex-ample 12). The rhythmic motives employed i n t h i s song have ex t r a -musical meaning. These motives, found i n measures 4 through 7, imitate the a c t i o n of the American Dipper b i r d as i t dips i t s beak i n t o the water. As example 13 i l l u s t r a t e s , the B e l l a Coola s i n g the words "go" and "down" to portray t h i s a c t i o n i n the text (Randy Bouchard: personal communication). The same rhythmic motives (a t h i r d lower) i n the F i r s t Spring Salmon song (A3), enhanced by the portamento, may have symbolized the salmon's leaping. This hypothesis i s streng-thened by the f a c t that the Boy's F i s h i n g song (A8) employs an i d e n t i c a l motive (see example 14). In A3 these rhythmic motives (mm.1-4) begin r a t h e r than end the song as they d i d i n A7. The remainder of A3 employs a v a r i a t i o n form. The rhythmic motives of songs A1, A2, and A4 a l l follow the themes of these songs. They may act as a c l o s i n g pattern f o r the theme, as i n A1, or they may immediately precede the theme's c l o s i n g pattern as i n A2 and A4 (see example 15). Thus with respect to formal considerations there are two main types of Animal songs: those that use a theme and var-i a t i o n s form and those that have themes contrasted with repeated rhythmic motives. The l a t t e r may form motivic areas (as i n A7 and A3) or they may be in t e g r a t e d with the themes and t h e i r c l o -sing patterns (A1, A2, A4, and A8). Had tex t s been a v a i l a b l e 69 Theme -A2 3 = i n s p a t "animal" motive c l o s g tern Theme -A4 • > y r <- y«-\ \ \ V V • ' \> I -V "animal" motive c l o s i n g pattern 70 f o r these songs i t i s l i k e l y that more instances, of extra-musical meaning, in. connection with these rhythmic motives would have cbeen found. Mcllwraith noted two. such examples i n His Animal song sample. In t h i s case the motives i m i -tated the sound of a heron (1948 11:273) and of a pigeon (1948 11:275). Grouping these songs according to modal structure gives a d i f f e r e n t view of the Animal song r e p e r t o i r e . Six of these songs are based on " t r i a d i c " structures, the modal patterns 1 6 3 and 1 5 3. The remaining two are b u i l t from the i n f i x e d fourths and f i f t h s 2 1 6 and 2 1 5. As example 16 shows, 37.5# of these songs have four-tone scales, 12.596 have, five-tone scales, and the remaining 50% have three-tone scales. EXAMPLE 16 A1 (4) 3 [2J 1 (6) A2 (2) 1 tH 3 A3 2 1 0 A4 (2), 1 00 A5 (2) 1 6 A6 2 [[J 6 A7 5 S 1 71 A8 1 6 [fj These songs use every p i t c h of the anhemitonic penta-tonic scale as a home tone so no c l e a r preference, for. one- type of modal structure i s apparent. Three songs employ the Mi mode, two the La mode and the remaining three use the Do, Re, and Sol modes. The frequent use of the i n t e r v a l l i c structure 1 6 3 i s worthy of mention however as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s song type. The most common drum accompaniment i n Animal songs con-s i s t s of the rhythmic- pattern with which most Animal motives are associated ||: k Jt ? :|| . This pattern i s found i n the accom-paniments of A1, A2, A3, and A7. Half of the songs (A1, A2, A6, and A7) are l e v e l i n contour while a descending contour accounts for. the other h a l f (A3, A4, A5, and A8). Animal songs tend to be len g t h i e r , f a s t e r , and s l i g h t l y wider i n range than the Game songs (see Appendix I I ) . C e r t a i n l y the most i d i o s y n c r a t i c feature concerns the repeated rhythmic motives that (due to t h e i r extra-musical associations) I have termed Animal motives. These kinds of motives are not found i n other non-ceremonial songs. C. Lahal Songs 72 L1 Dan Nelson's (Group 1/A.K.) (part 1) L2 (part 2) (Group 1/A.K.) L3 Jim P o l l a r d ' s (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1031, VII D23(b)) 14 Kimsquit (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1031, VII D30(c)) Only two Lahal songs (L1 and L2) remain i n the present-day B e l l a Coola r e p e r t o i r e . Dan Nelson sings these as one song pausing b r i e f l y between each. Songs such as t h i s s h a l l be term-ed hybrid songs. I recorded t h i s song, using a Sony TC-270 tape-recorder and Agfa Magnetonband tape (18cm./730mm.), on 11 August 4, 1975, at the home of F e l i c i t y Walkus. Songs L3 and L4 were transcribed from Mcllwraith's recordings. Not unexpectedly, considering t h e i r often boisterous context, Lahal songs are the f a s t e s t and most purely rhythm-oriented songs i n the e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e . A l l Lahal songs are b u i l t from compound rhythmic motivic structures. L1 and L2 are each constructed from two rhythmic motives. L1's motives ( a ) ) I and (b) ) ) / ) o\ - £ are heard i n measures one and two. Variants of these motives accompany the remainder of the theme (see example 17): EXAMPLE 17 mm. 1-2 ) y j _ £ \ I \ \ \ h motive (a) (motive (b)~ 73 EXAMPLE 17 cont. \ \ V t motive (bl) > ) < ^ motive (b2) Between t h i s statement of the theme (mm.1-6) and i t s restatement (mm.8-13), Dan sings a.measure of n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y pitched f a l s e t t o "whoops": ; the rhythm of these "whoops" i s i n i t i a l l y reminiscent of motive (a) (see example 17(a)). The theme i s now repeated i n measures 8 through 13. I t i s based on the four-tone descending pattern 2 1 6 5. The melody features two descending major seconds, one between 2 and 1 and the other between 6 and 5 . A f t e r the 2 to 1 movement i n measures one and two, t h i s descending second i s imitated a fourth below. F i r s t by means of the i n f i x e d f i f t h 2 6 {jjT| and then by the i n f i x e d fourth 1 6 [5 ](see example 17(a)). The most unstable tone i n t h i s melody i s 6, i t always resolves to the home tone [5} . Thus the t o t a l modal p r o f i l e of t h i s theme i n cipher notation i s 2 1(6)0. Almost every measure of t h i s theme ends with an ascending oi descending portamento to a note of indeterminate p i t c h (see example. 17(a)). The l a t t e r are often found i n the v i c i n i t y of the p i t c h G and may therefore be subtly r e i n f o r c i n g the home tone. The remainder of the L1 fragments the theme, i n t e r r u p t i n g i t with more "whoops". Following the restatement of the theme, mm. 3-4 ' ' ' - > —> x motive (al) mm. 5-6 ) V i J ^ £ motive (a2) 74 measure 14 has another, statement of the n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y pitched f a l s e t t o whoops: - k i x x k *. >L ^ . Measures. 15 and 16 see the return of motives (a) and (b). These-are followed by more whoops in. measure 17. Measures 18 through. 21 restate the f i r s t four measures of the six-measure, theme. Measure 22 ends the song with three whoops: L2- expands the modal structure of LI by i n c l u d i n g the p i t c h E. In t h i s song the D (2) plays a l e s s important r o l e s t r u c t u r a l l y than i t did i n L1 (see example 18). D. is~ simply an upper neighbour or a u x i l i a r y tone of. C (1) i n mea-sures one and two. In measure 5 C moves down a fourth to the home tone G, a r r i v i n g to i t by means of a descending portamento and accenting, i t upon a r r i v a l . This descending, fourth i s now imitated by means of G or 5's changing, tones, A(6) ^E(3) i n measure four (see example 18). Thus f a r therefore the tones 1, 5 and 3 have been emphasized. Measure 5 strengthens the p o s i t i o n of the p i t c h A(6) through the movement 5 6 1 .6. The importance of G(5) i s once again reaffirmed i n measure s i x however as 6 resolves to 5 by means of 3. Measure 7 has 6 again moving to 3 thereby reinforcing.the. modal c e l l 1 |lp 3 upon which t h i s song i s based. Measures 8, _9, and 10 repeat the f i r s t three measures of the piece i n which 1 and 5 were promi-nent (see example 18). As i n L1, the song ends on a serie s of f a l s e t t o whoops: £k)e.k^>c:L .kkjc . Two rhythmic motives generate a l l the phrases i n L2. Motive (a) and motive (b) ^ o — > ] t • The theme of t h i s song (mm.1-3) employs motive (a) i n measures one and 7 6 two and motive (b) i n measure three. Measures 4 through 7, the v a r i a t i o n of t h i s theme, use motive (a) i n measure 4, motive (al) J* i.. i n measure 5, motive (b) i n measure 6, and motive (a).5 i n measure 7 (' ' ). The l a t t e r mo-t i v e i s used' i n measures eight and nine while measure 10 uses motive (b) (see example. 18).. Both L1 and L2 have a tremolo drum, accompaniment. Since L3 and L4 are unaccompanied ( P o l l a r d sang without the. drum, on Mcllwraith's recordings) we cannot discuss t y p i c a l or chara-c t e r i s t i c drum rhythms i n Lahal songs. L3 and L4 are also based on compound rhythmic motivic structures. As i n L2, L3 repeats a motive (a) ,) , ) and then extends i t to create a motive (b) There are variants of these primary motives. Motive (a) may be sung as (al) )\ i or (a2) ) J \ or (a3) ) ) ) . Motive (b)'s v a r i -ants are ( b 1 ) ) ) ) ) ) ? and ( b 2 ) ^ J . - £ >^ \. . Falsetto i s used b r i e f l y i n L3, i n measures 27, 28, and 61. L4 again demonstrates the rhythmic inventiveness of the B e l l a Coola. The rhythmic theme of t h i s song i s i n "9/8" time (mm. 1-3). The i n t e r n a l subdivision of t h i s theme i s 2/8 + 3/8 + 4/8. Measures 4 through 7 feature a variant of t h i s rhythmic theme: 8/8(4/8 + 2/4) + 5/8(2/8 + 3/8). As example 19 i l l u s t r a t e s , measures 8 through 11 use the 9/8 framework of the theme but vary i t s i n t e r n a l structure. 77 EXAMPLE 19 theme: mm. 1-3 • • • f i r s t v a r i a n t : mm. 4-7 ' ' ' • • • • u «- .-» «- J t r a n s i t i o n : mnti 8-10 ' ' ' • • X i. J w J second,variant: mm. 11-16 v \ • • / • • • As with the Animal songs, Lahal songs are s p l i t equally between l e v e l (L3. and L4) and descending melodic contours (L1 -and L2). Both five-tone (L2 and L3) and four-tone scales (L1 and L4) are employed: EXAMPLE 20 L1 (6) L2 (2) (6) GO 3 L3 3 (2) Q] 6 (5) L4 (3) 78 Although-two songs are based on the Sol mode, we can generalize l i t t l e about Lahal' modal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . More Lahal songs would be needed before any s i g n i f i c a n t trend could become noticeable. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note however how our modal structures have grown since we l e f t the least : f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t song type, the Game songs. The l a t t e r were characterized by two and three-tone scales. Then the Animal songs were found to employ-predominantly three and four-tone scales. The Lahal songs continue this, progression as they are based on four and five-tone scales. Though only four Lahal songs were examined, t h e i r unique t r a i t s make them one of the most r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . B e l l a Coola song types. They are the f a s t e s t Bella. Coola songs, they alone feature the use of f a l s e t t o , and they tend to be formally organized by rhythmic themes that i n turn are composed usually of two rhythmic motives. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these songs i s that they lack meaningful texts. They consist of wordless choruses or "text-u a l motives". Though text w i l l be discussed more f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s study, i t i s important to note that the Lahal melodies r e f l e c t the f a c t that they are associated, with wordless cho-ruses only. The short rhythmic motives that organize Lahal songs are i d e a l l y suited f o r the short s y l l a b i c u n i t s that make up the wordless choruses. 79 D. Love Songs Lv1 K i t t y King Lv2 Susan K e l l y Lv3 Steam Schooner Lv4 Jim P o l l a r d Lv5 Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d Lv6 Sam Schooner Lv7 Chinook/Haida? Lv8 B e l l a Coola Lv9 Steam Schooner Lv9(a) Steam Schooner Lv10 Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d (Group 1/A.K.) (Group 1/A.K.) (Group 1/A.K.) (Group 2/B.O.T.) (Group 2/B.O.T.) (Group 2/B.O.T.) (Group 2/B.O.T.) (A.S./P.D., 72-1681 BC 9-29) (Group 1/A.K.) (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1031 VII D33(c)) (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1031 VII D33(a)) 80 Love songs are the t h i r d best represented group i n the en t i r e r e p e r t o i r e . Only the Headdress and Kusiyut Dance samples are l a r g e r . I was able to record four Love songs sung by the present-day singing group. One of these, Steam Schooner's Love song (Lv3), was also recorded with an English text. This version, created and sung by F e l i c i t y Walkus, w i l l be presented i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "Form and Text: a s e l e c t i v e study of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n " . F e l i c i t y often performs t h i s song at weddings. This version plays an important ambassadorial r o l e f o r B e l l a Coola music by making i t much more accessible to the non-native l i s t e n e r . F e l i c i t y found t h i s song's text p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l ^ suited f o r t r a n s l a t i o n into E nglish. I t i s the only E n g l i s h language version of a B e l l a Coola song. Love songs are u n i f i e d by the f a c t that they a l l employ a theme and v a r i a t i o n s form. Three types of thematic v a r i a t i o n procedure are found: 1. v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure with v a r i a t i o n i n the theme's melodic rhythm (Lv1, Lv3, Lv4, Lv7, Lv8, Lv10). 2. v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure only (Lv1-isorhythmic). 3. s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure with s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of melodic rhythm (Lv2, Lv6, Lv9T. 1. v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure with v a r i a t i o n i n the theme's melodic rhythm - The theme and v a r i a t i o n s form found i n the Love songs d i f f e r s from that found i n the Game, 81 Animal, and Lahal melodies. The theme of Lv1, f o r example, has more pitches, has a wider range, and i s more l y r i c a l and i s longer i n duration than any theme we have previously examined (see example 21). Both the theme and the v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s song are four measures i n length. On the rhythmic l e v e l the song i s a set of v a r i a t i o n s of the melodic rhythm of measure 1: It i s always the second h a l f of t h i s rhythmic motive that i s varied. As example 21(a) shows, substantial lengthening of the motive occurs at the close of the theme and i t s v a r i a n t : EXAMPLE 21(a) Theme: m.1 m.2 m.3 m.4 Variant: m.5 m. 6 m.7 m.8 \ \ \ \ \V s y / s . O s \ \ 1 \ \ > s • i ) J ) ] t h J J ) ) . J J J J U ) ) i Thus purely on the rhythmic l e v e l the song consists of 82 EXAMPLE 21 83 v a r i a t i o n s on a rhythmic motive. We have already observed t h i s type of rhythmic motive v a r i a t i o n procedure i n the songs pre-v i o u s l y analyzed.. What makes t h i s group of Love songs noticeably d i f f e r e n t from the l a t t e r concerns the following non-rhythmic aspects of melody: p i t c h , contour, and range. Before discussing the non-rhythmic features of Lv1 i t should be pointed out that the p i t c h Eb i n t h i s song's theme occurs only once. Every other statement of the theme begins on the p i t c h C (see example 22). Consequently the p i t c h Eb w i l l not enter into the discussion of Lv1's modal structure. Lv1 i s the f i r s t six-tone (hexatonic) song we have encountered thus f a r i n the a n a l y s i s . The song i s based on two descending movements, ,1 to 5 (C to G) and 5 to [7] (G to C). The f i r s t measure at t a i n s the high C (1) v i a an octave leap from middle C (see example 22). In measure 2, 1 descends to 5 by means of the pattern 2 1 6 5. Measure 3 repeats t h i s down-ward progression and extends i t even further, down to 2; thus we have the progression 2 1 6 5 3 2. This added fourth ( 5 3 2) r e t a i n s the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i t i a t e d i n measure 2 by the 2 1 6 5 pattern, i . e . , maj.2, min.3, maj. 2. The new fourth (5 3 2) continues t h i s i n t e r v a l l i c sequence as i t i s composed of a min.3 and a maj.2 (see example 23). Cipher notation also allows us to show t h i s symmetry. In order to do t h i s we w i l l have to have recourse to the concept of a movable Do mentioned at the outset of t h i s a n a l y s i s . 84 EXAMPLE 23 m.2 2 1 6 5 3 2 v N / v v \ y maj.2 min.3 maj.2 min.3 maj.2 m.2 C: 2 1 6 5 (3 2) G: 2 '1 6 5 As example 23 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h i s phrase can also he under-stood as two overlapping 2 1 6 5 patterns, one with C as Do and the other having G as Do. The descending movement from 5 to [7] (G to C) i s completed i n measure 4 through the pro-gression 5 4 2 1. The l a t t e r again preserves the maj.2, min.3, maj.2 i n t e r v a l l i c pattern begun i n measure 2. But what i s the p i t c h F(4) doing i n a b a s i c a l l y anhemitonic pentatonic song (and musical t r a d i t i o n ) ? Here i t i s once more usefu l to turn to the cipher a n a l y t i c a l methodology i n order to demonstrate the underlying s i m i l a r i t i e s between these d i f f e r e n t components of Lv1's melody. By again employing the concept of a movable Do, the 5 4 2 1 progression can be understood as 2 '1 6 5 with F act i n g as Do (see example 24). EXAMPLE 24 Lv1 theme 85 Thus the theme of t h i s song (mm.1-4) consists e s s e n t i a l l y of a descending octave ( 1 to 1,0 subdivided by three over-lapping 2 1 6 5 progressions. The v a r i a t i o n of t h i s theme (mm.5-3) i s p r i m a r i l y con-cerned with the descending f i f t h 5 to |TJ . Measure 5 features a 6 5 3 2 progression ( 2 1 6 5 with G as Do) while measure 7 simply has the movement 6 5 (2 to 1 with G as Do; see example 20). Measures 9 and 10 are i d e n t i c a l to measures 3 and 4 of the theme. The six-tone scale used i n Lv1, (6) 5(4) 3(2) IT). r e f l e c t s a bi-(anhemitonic) pentatonic not a diatonic tonal organization. Elements of anhemitonic scales with C as Do and with P as Do are present. At no time are the pitches E and P sounded consecutively. Only when the pitches are assembled into a combined scale does the di a t o n i c hexachord (6) 5 (4) 3 (2) (TJ surface. A s i m i l a r modal structure i s found i n the isorhyth-mically-constructed Love song of Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d (Lv5). 2. v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure only - Every phrase i n Mrs. Jim Po l l a r d ' s Love song (Lv5) employs the melodic rhythm ) ) ) ) ) / ^- * m e a s u r e 8 varies t h i s rhythm only s l i g h t l y 86 ) ) \ . Although other songs have approximated i t , t h i s song i s the f i r s t authentic isorhythmically-constructed song we have examined. Lv5 i s based on the same descending octave ( 1 to [T] ) found i n Lv1. The upper fourth of t h i s octave (C to G or 1 to 5) i s again expressed by the melodic progression 2 1 6 5 (measure 1 - see example 25). Measure 2 i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l measure that reaches the lower f i f t h of the octave (G to C, or 5 to (TJ) through the t r i i d i c pattern 1 5 3 Q] • The lower f i f t h of the octave (5 to Q) i s now a r t i c u l a t e d by Ithe pitches G, F, D, and C or 5 4 2 [T]. As i n LvT the l a t t e r i s best considered as a 2 1 6 5 pattern with F as Do that imitates measure 1's 2 1 6 5 with C as Do (see example 25). 3. s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of theme's modal structure with s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of melodic rhythm - Very l i t t l e modal or rhythmic v a r i a t i o n takes place i n songs Lv2, Lv6, and Lv9. Dv2, f o r example, consists of only two long phrases. The f i r s t I s h a l l term i t s theme, the second i t s v a r i a t i o n (see example 26). Measure 1, l i k e many opening measures i n these songs, i s unstable i n terms of p i t c h . As a r e s u l t i t uses the melodic rhythm of the theme but does not succeed i n reaching the E (3) present i n every other statement of the theme (mm.4,7,10). I t i s l i k e l y that the o r i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p i t c h (B b) was too high f o r the singers since the whole song drops by a semitone half-way through the f i r s t measure. Example 26 therefore i l l u s t r a t e s the theme as i t i s found i n measures 4, 7, and 10. 88 Both phrases i n Lv2 have 38 beats, divided as 1 group of 2 plus 12 groups of 3. The drum ou t l i n e s these i n t e r n a l subdivisions of the phrase. As example 26 shows, the theme's phrase i s divided as follows: 1 group of 2 and 12 groups of 3. Notice how the theme's v a r i a t i o n a l t e r s t h i s phrasing by p l a c i n g i t s 2-beat f i g u r e exactly i n the middle of the 12 groups of 3; thus y i e l d i n g the symmetrical pattern 6 groups of 3, 1 group of 2, 6 groups of 3. Lv2's theme, unlike most Love songs, i s b a s i c a l l y l e v e l i n contour. I t begins and ends on the home tone G or flTl. Though ascending steps outnumber descending steps (6 to 5), the i n t e r n a l contour of the theme consists of the descending pro-* * * i i gression 3 (2) 1 (.6) Q j . The v a r i a t i o n imitates t h i s pro-gression but begins on 2 rather than 3. The f i r s t h a l f of the v a r i a t i o n (m.5 i n example 26) i s a condensed version of the theme. The "inauthentic" c l o s i n g pattern ( 6 5 ) which termi-nates measure 5 soon gives way to a renewed version of the v a r i a -t i o n i n measure 6. The v a r i a t i o n i s based on the 2 1 6 |_5J pattern found i n the other Love songs. Without an E i n t h i s v a r i a t i o n however, the p i t c h C diminishes i n importance. Thus the complete modal structure of t h i s v a r i a t i o n w i l l be portrayed as 2 (1) 6 [ | J . More so than any other song type discussed to t h i s point, Love songs show a d i s t i n c t tendency to use one type of modal c e l l , the pattern 2 1 6 5, as a modal basis. As example 26 i l l u s -t r a t e s , s i x of the ten Love songs (Lv1, Lv2, Lv5, Lv8, Lv9, Lv10) employ t h i s modal c e l l . The remainder of the songs use the 89 t r i a d i c c e l l s 631 and 531. EXAMPLE 26 Lv1 C: , 2 1 (6) 5, U ) 3 (2) J T | P: 2 1 6 5 Lv2 (3) 2 (1) 6 m Lv3 1 6 3 11 Lv4 3 (2); [7] (6) 5 Lv5 C: 2 2 1 (6) 5 U K 3 (2) Q ] P: 2 i 6 5, Lv6 (2) 1 (6) Lv7 5 3 (2) |T] (6) 90 Lv8 2 1 C6) E Lv9 2 1 ( 6 ) [ J ] t Lv10 (6) 5 2 [7] A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of these Love songs i s t h e i r p r i m a r i l y descending motion. Only three Love songs are l e v e l (Lv2, Lv6, and Lv8) i n contour. Pour songs employ four-tone (tetrahonic) scales and four employ five-tone (anhemitonic pentatonic) scales. Only two (Lv1 and Lv5) have six-tone scales. As with the Lahal songs, Do, Sol, and Re are used as home tones. The Love songs have the highest average range i n the en t i r e B e l l a Coola r e p e r t o i r e , 14 semitones. Jim Pol l a r d ' s Love song (Lv4) has the widest range (20 semitones) of any B e l l a Coola song. Half of the Love songs (Lv6 to Lv10) are unaccom-panied. Three types of accompaniment are found, Lv3 ou t l i n e s the melody's density referent ( k's )t Lv1 imitates the melodic rhythm of i t s melody ( A le A - J* ? ) ; Lv2, Lv4, and Lv5 o u t l i n e groups of three quarters (Lv2: A 3 1 , Lv4: A A \ , Lv5: A W and A \ k ) . Mcllwraith noted that a l l men's Love songs were o r i g i n a l l y sung unaccompanied (1948 11:331). I t i s possible therefore that 91 the drum accompaniments to Love songs are recent innovations. Since Love songs were l a r g e l y sung to express personal s e n t i -ment i n an intimate atmosphere, drum accompaniment was perhaps judged tc be too harsh f o r such occasions. However some were of a d e r i s i v e nature (Mcllwraith 1948 11:531-334) and some were sung by a group of men with the " s u i t o r " taking the leading part (1948 11:332). These contexts may have been re i n f o r c e d by drum accompaniment, the beating of s t i c k s or even hand-clapping. With t h i s discussion of Love songs we leave the non-ceremonial portion- of the B e l l a Coola r e p e r t o i r e . Though each of the four song types have unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which serve to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from the others, two types of non-cere-monial song s t y l e s may be postulated. The f i r s t type i s made up of the Game and Animal songs while the second includes the Lahal and Love songs. Compared to the l a t t e r , the iJoimer are shorter i n duration, slower i n tempo, have narrower ranges and have a more l i m i t e d tonal organization. Metaphorically-speaking, the communally-owned Animal and Game songs are the " f o l k songs" of B e l l a Coola music while the l i v e l y Love and Lahal songs are the "popular songs" of the r e p e r t o i r e . Continuing t h i s analogy, the ( f o r the most part privately-owned) ceremonial songs to be studied next represent the " c l a s s i c a l " or "high a r t " portion of the B e l l a Coola musical r e p e r t o i r e . CEREMONIAL SONGS 92 E. Shaman Song3 12 S1 Shaman Song (1946) (part 1) (Group 2/M.V.T.) S2 (part 2) (Group 2/M.V.T.) S3 Shaman Song (1924) (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1031 VIII D34(a)) Shaman songs have been placed with the ceremonial song types because they were frequently sung i n winter ceremonial contexts. Mcllwraith noted that they were often sung at the (1948 11:56). Mcllwraith recorded nine Shaman songs while i n B e l l a Coola. Seven of these were fragments of songs, the remainder of which had been forgotten (1948 11:299-305). I was able to transcribe one of these (S3) f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the present study. Mildred V a l l e y Thornton recorded one "hybrid" ( i . e . two songs sung as i f one) Shaman song i n 1946 ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n s S1 and 32). This hybrid song, owned by Simon Johnson, was not included i n 13 Mcllwraith's recordings. On no recording a v a i l a b l e to me does the present-day singing group sing a Shaman song. S1 and S2 were only sung when the l a t e Andy Schooner and the l a t e Hank King were s t i l l per-conclusipn of a Kusiyut dance i n order to "c l e a r the house" 93 forming with the group i n the early 1970's. Since the musically-respected Hank King l e d the singers at t h i s time i t was most l i k e l y due to h i s i n i t i a t i v e that the song remained active i n the r e p e r t o i r e . I suspect therefore that h i s passing away s i g n a l l e d the retirement of t h i s song (S1 and S2). i n d i c a t i o n of what the former Shaman re p e r t o i r e was l i k e then we may assume that i t was a heterogeneous body of songs. Such an inference i s harmonious with the fa c t that these melodies were not n e c e s s a r i l y composed (or arranged) by musical specia-l i s t s as were other ceremonial songs. Furthermore, these songs had to r e f l e c t unique e s o t e r i c experiences with supernatural guardians. Musical resemblances between Shaman songs might have detracted from the desired e s o t e r i c e f f e c t . S1 - This melody i s one of the most s t r i k i n g and consequently easily-remembered of a l l B e l l a Coola melodies. I t i s a model of rhythmic and melodic "economy. Like many songs discussed previously i t achieves strong rhythmic unity by employing a rhythmic theme which i s only s l i g h t l y varied: I f the Shaman songs included i n t h i s study are any EXAMPLE 27 rhythmic theme: variant: • \ J j 94 The song i s c l o s e s t i n form to the Animal songs that had a theme, a motivic area and a c l o s i n g pattern. The t r i a d i c theme i n S1 i s two measures i n length; thus the melodic theme includes two statements of the "rhythmic theme" (see example 28). This theme i s repeated and i s then followed by two short rhythmic ( t r a n s i t i o n a l ) motives that prepare the c l o s i n g pattern (see example 28). The l a t t e r employs the melodic rhythm of the variant shown i n example 27 above. The song has only three pitches 5, 3, and jj]. Every phrase ends on the home tone C o r Q . The theme consists essen-t i a l l y of the descending t r i a d 5 3 {T]. The c l o s i n g pattern varies t h i s configuration s l i g h t l y but nevertheless e f f e c t i v e l y f o r the purposes of contrast. The G or 5 of the theme i s sung an octave lower i n the c l o s i n g pattern thus y i e l d i n g the melodic progression 5 3 [ T j . S1 begins with an i n t r o d u c t i o n which features a variant of i t s theme plus the c l o s i n g pattern found throughout the song (see example 29). This i s the f i r s t example of an i n t r o d u c t i o n based on a variant of a song's theme. The only other song to have had an i n t r o d u c t i o n thus f a r has been A3, the F i r s t Spring Salmon song. However, A3 fs intro d u c t i o n consisted of animal motives or a motivic area. Unlike the l a t t e r , S1 1s introduction c l e a r l y foreshadows the material to follow. S2 - There i s a six second pause a f t e r the repeat of S1 1s theme and c l o s i n g pattern. S2 now begins. It changes the drum accom-paniment found i n SI and i s slower ('=ca.71)than S16 (i=ca.78 ). 95 S1 - Intro IS-* i —y EXAMPLE 29 c l o s i n g pattern — d s—> > ^ — | — | — ? - 4 -96 S1's accompaniment outlined the quarter note density referent of i t s melody. Rests were found only at the ends of phrases and within the t r a n s i t i o n a l rhythmic motives (||: A. 1. • l| ). S2's accompaniment i s a continuous, tremolo throughout. S2 i s b u i l t from a two-part theme, and a c l o s i n g pattern (see example 30). The f i r s t part of the theme (a) consists, of the ascending f i f t h G - D or-5 2. The p i t c h E or 3 simply • • • • embellishes the 2 i n the progression 5 2 (3) 2. The second part of the theme (b) returns to G(5) v i a the pitches D and C: 2 1 Q. This second part of the theme, i s repeated with only the s l i g h t e s t rhythmic a l t e r a t i o n (see (b)l i n example 30). This repeated second part ( b ) l , a c t u a l l y a "decapitated" version of the theme, echoes the f i n a l h a l f of the theme. The c l o s i n g pattern (c) c onsists only of the descending fourth C to G or 1 to [i]. Another s l i g h t variant of the theme's second part f o l -lows ((b)2) and i s again accompanied by the c l o s i n g pattern ( c ) . In o v e r - a l l form then, S1 and S2 must be considered a hybrid song. It i s not known why these two melodies were wedded i n t h i s manner. This p r a c t i c e was not r e s t r i c t e d to Shaman songs. We have observed a.Lahal hybrid song and w i l l be encountering Entrance and Mourning hybrid songs. S3 - Like S1, S3 i s s i m i l a r i n form to those Animal songs having thematic and motivic areas. Motivic areas, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , are sections of songs that feature short repeated rhythmic mo-t i v e s on u s u a l l y one or two pitches. We have noted how these motivic areas may begin songs (e.g. A3) or end songs (e.g. A7). In songs such as A1 or S1 where the motives were repeated only once, they were not designated as motivic areas. 97 98 EXAMPLE 32 \ S3 - Motivic Ares [ *T t t t T 11 m , . , v i \ \ \ \ \ , h i V II i. h V .„ e  99 Before the motivic area enters i n measure 7, S3 pro-ceeds as have many other songs examined thus f a r . I t s theme spans measures 1 to 3; except f o r very s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s i t i s repeated i n measures 4 to 6 (see example 31). I have termed these six measures the song's thematic area so as to contrast i t with the motivic area to follow. S3's theme u t i l i z e s the pitches G, A, G and D or 1 6 5 2. I t s contour i s p r i m a r i l y descending with 2 being the most common terminal note. The p i t c h A, the most important p i t c h q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n the theme, completely dominates the song's motivic area. Thus the song's modal p r o f i l e w i l l be described as 01) H] 5 2. The motivic area i s based almost e n t i r e l y on eighth notes (see example 32). The basic motive consists of two eighths, the l a s t of which i s followed by a descending porta-mento This motive i s reminiscent of the animal motives found i n songs A3 and A8: • ) ^ . S3's primary rhythmic motive echoes the two eighths found at the beginning of each of i t s thematic area's phrases: i i " 3 ) . ) , 1 ^ ) / ^ j ^ and so on. This primary rhythmic motive ( i " ^ ) i s preceded by eight eighth notes on the p i t c h A followed by a c l o s i n g pattern that includes notes of uncertain p i t c h (see example 32). The song ends with the primary rhythmic motive. Given such a l i m i t e d number of Shaman songs that show d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we must remain content with an incom-plete account about what constituted a Shaman song s t y l e . The songs examined here c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e that heterogeneity may have been a common f a c t o r . 100 P. Hamatsa Songs Hm1 C h a r l i e Snow's Hamatsa (Group 1/A.K.) Song Hm2 Man-Eater Dance (Group 2/M.V.T.) (J e f f r e y Snow) Hm3'I G r i z z l y Bear Dance (Group 2/B.O.T.) ( T a l l i o Hans) Only one Hamatsa song (Hm1) i s s t i l l included i n the present-day B e l l a Coola musical r e p e r t o i r e . Hm1's melody i s "14-'from Rivers I n l e t , i t s text i s i n the B e l l a Coola language. Mcllwraith recorded only three Hamatsa songs, one of these was fo r a Kwakiutl dancer. A l l three of Mcllwraith Hamatsa songs were composed during the 1923-24 Kusiyut season (1948 11:308-309). Unfortunately these were of such poor q u a l i t y on M c l l -wraith's recordings that t r a n s c r i p t i o n was precluded. Though Hamatsa songs do not show any patterning i n terms of modal structure, they do share common formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Each Hamatsa song contrast themes with motives, a l b e i t i n d i f f e r i n g ways. In t h i s respect they are most l i k e the Animal songs. This musical s i m i l a r i t y between Hamatsa and Animal songs i s not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r t u i t o u s . The hypothesis concerning Animal songs was that I'ahimal motives" symbolized b i r d and f i s h move-ments. 1^ The suggestion here i s that since each Hamatsa dancer had an animal's c a n n i b a l i s t i c incubus (an eagle, a wolf, a bear's 101 and so on), perhaps s i m i l a r animal imitations account f o r the Hamatsa motives. The motives may also accent c e r t a i n of the dancer's movements. It i s hoped that future studies of other Northwest Coast Indian musics w i l l be able to provide more data on t h i s t o p i c . Being non-"composers", the B e l l a Coola singers were able to supply l i t t l e information about musical symbolism. Each Hamatsa song juxtaposes themes and motives d i f f e -r e n t l y . Motives in t e r r u p t the theme i n Hm1, they follow the theme i n Hm3, and they begin and end song Hm2. Hm1 - C h a r l i e Snow's song's thematic material occurs i n measures 1, 4, 8, and 9. As example 33 i n d i c a t e s i t i s interrupted by Hamatsa motives i n measures 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. Measures 8 and 9 share both thematic and motivic a t t r i b u t e s . They employ the rhythm of the motives but echo the theme's opening descending minor second. The theme of Hm1 d i f f e r s from i t s motives by being le n g t h i e r , f e a t u r i n g p r i m a r i l y descending motion, and through i t s use of minor seconds. In contrast the motives employ only one p i t c h (and are therefore l e v e l i n contour) and they lack semitones. The Eb and G# i n Hml's theme are not important s t r u c t u r a l l y except as embellishments f o r the pitches E and A. The p i t c h D acts as an a u x i l i a r y tone f o r the more important p i t c h C. The song's modal structure i n cipher notation i s therefore (2) 1 6 (5) G O * 102 EXAMPLE 33 ^ Theme - Hm1 motive — f t - \>( h ( f ~ ~ ^ — - r • t \ X n •• V 7 — < ^ motive theme cont. . v . 2 . \ \ \ «XA s — , <> • a\y T ^ ^ - 4 ^ " * S S v +. +. Up ^ 1 4 S — \ 1 i L U - ^ f — ~ — " " y * — u : t r a n s i t i o n a l motive motive 103 Hm2 - Thi3 song begins and ends with a motivic area that i s made i d e n t i f i a b l e by i t s use of the rhythmic motive $S i . (see example 34). It i s connected to the thematic area by means of a t r a n s i t i o n a l passage i n measure 4. The song's thematic area consists of a two-measure theme which i s repeated l i t e r a l l y (see example 35). As did Hm1, Hm2 features minor seconds i n i t s melody. In Hm2 however, these occur i n the motivic area and not i n the theme. Unlike i t s r o l e i n Hm1, the p i t c h Eb i n Hm2 assumes s t r u c t u r a l importance through i t s competition with the E natur a l . While the E natural i s the only E i n the thematic area, the Eb dominates the motivic area. Throughout the e n t i r e song the E. occupies 16 quarters while the E natural i s prolonged f o r 13 quarters. As a r e s u l t of t h i s d i a l e c t i c between the E natural and the Eb, the song could be interpreted from two points of view modally. With Eb ;as Do the motivic area's modal structure i s 3 ((b) 2) [TJ 6. Using C as Do i n the thematic area we have (6) £|] 3 1. Because of the more dominant r o l e played by the A as compared to the F i n t h i s song I decided to employ the (6) G[] 3 1 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Hm3 - The'Grizzly Bear Dance's motives are extensions of i t s theme's c l o s i n g pattern. As example 36 in d i c a t e s , Hm3's theme has a two-part theme, (a and b), the second part of which i s varied. Bothrthe theme and the variatiorils(b1) modal structures center around the home tone Re or [2J. The theme by means of 104 EXAMPLE 34 Theme -Hm3 \ (a) EXAMPLE 36 ^ (b) y o * e> -7T &-1 1 1 I Vis I 1 WW (c) c l o s i n g — - p a t t e r n ^ f 7 (b)l v a r i a t i o n ., motives c l o s i n g pattern r ^ > 105 the pattern 3_» [2] 6 and the v a r i a t i o n by means of 3*. Although t h i s song does not u t i l i z e minor seconds as did Hm1 and Hm2, i t does share a common rhythmic feature with Hm2, the rhythmic motive a. (see measures 1 and 2 i n example 36). The most u n i f y i n g feature of these songs however l i e s i n the f a c t that they a l l contrast themes with short rhythmic motives. The use of minor seconds i n these songs as melodic i n t e r v a l s i s also noteworthy. No other song type.employs minor seconds i n such conspicuous r o l e s as do the Hamatsa songs Hm1 and Hm2. Hamatsa whistles must also have contributed to the creation of a d i s t i n c t i v e Hamatsa song s t y l e . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the Hamatsa dance was not c a r r i e d out with the same rigour i n B e l l a Coola as i t was among the B e l l a B e l l a , Port Rupert, and Rivers I n l e t people, from whom the dance was o r i g i n a l l y borrowed. This explains why, even during Mcllwraith's f i e l d work, few B e l l a Coola Hamatsa songs are found. With Hm11s melody an acknowledged borrowing from Rivers Inlet we seem to be l e f t with only two "authentic" B e l l a Coola Hamatsa songs. I suspect however that the B e l l a Coola Hamatsa song s t y l e i s b a s i c a l l y a B e l l a B e l l a song s t y l e . A study of B e l l a B e l l a Hamatsa songs i s needed therefore before we can provide a com-plete account of the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s song type. 106 G. Entrance Songs E1 Rivers I n l e t (Group 2/B.O.T.) E2 B e l l a Coola (Group 2/B.O.T.) Entrance songs were communally rather than p r i v a t e l y owned. They were sung while the dancers entered the dance h a l l i n carioe-like formation. F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me that song E2 was used when the singers (temporarily) forgot the melody to E1. It was perhaps the norm then to u t i l i z e the B e l l a B e l l a melody (E1) most frequently during entrance procedures. Since a l l important B e l l a Coola ceremonies were i n v a r i a b l y witnessed by B e l l a B e l l a c h i e f s , t h i s song (E1) was l i k e l y sung to welcome and show respect f o r these p r e s t i g i o u s v i s i t o r s . E1 - This song's formal organization i s i d e n t i c a l to that found i n the Shaman song S2. I t has a two-part theme, the second part of which (b) i s repeated with s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n (b1), and a c l o s i n g pattern (c) (see example 37). As i n S2 t h i s repeated second part (b)1, which I have termed a "decapitated" version of the theme, echoes the l a s t h a l f of the theme. The song i s based f i r m l y on the La mode. The home tone 6 i s established.by means of the descending t r i a d 3 1 00 and ascending fourth 3 \s\ . D plays an important r o l e as a • • • • • passing tone between 3 and 1 (m.1 - 3 (2) 1) and acts as 108 an upper neighbouring tone f o r 1 (see mm.2-3 i n example 37). E2 - This song may be another hybrid type. I t s f i r s t section (mm.1-3) i s strongly reminiscent of E1's melody. As indicated i n example 38 the resemblance between both songs* measures 2 and 3 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . Only three measures of t h i s possible variant of E1 are sung before (accompanied by a r i t a r d ) a new theme enters i n measure 4. On Mildred Valley Thornton's tapes however, t h i s song i s sung without these opening three measures. Therefore unless these measures constitute a " f a l s e s t a r t " we must consider E2 a hybrid song, that i s , as two songs sung as i f one. The greatest difference between the f i r s t and second "songs" i n E2 l i e s i n t h e i r d i f f e r i n g tempos as 3= ca.71 i n the f i r s t part changes to 3=ca. 131 i n the second. The modal d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are s l i g h t e r . Both sections use four-note scales based on La as a home tone. The two "songs" approach La by means • • • I of the descending progression 3 (2) 1 [6]. The second? portion, while predominantly concerned with the descending 5th 3 [T], does expand the range of the f i r s t portion of E2 by inc l u d i n g the movement [£] 3 (m.9). The theme of E2, begun i n measure 4, i s a two-part structure. As i n E1, the second h a l f of t h i s theme (b) i s varied (b1) and followed by a c l o s i n g pattern (c) (see example 39). The song closes on another variant of the theme. Though we have examined only two Entrance songs t h i s 109 EXAMPLE 39 Theme - E2 (a) (b) ( b ) 1 - n i (,"( i ' T " : i n n >> • ^ • / x: v— M M \ r ^ r (c) c l o s i n g pattern 110 sample l i k e l y represents the major p o r t i o n of the recent Entrance Song r e p e r t o i r e , s i n c e only a l i m i t e d number of such songs were needed. The two songs employ the same modal configurations, 3 (2) 1 , and share common melodic patterns (see example 38). They both l a s t 1'15" and have i d e n t i c a l ranges of 12 semi-tones. Since E1 i s a Rivers I n l e t melody i t i s possible-that t h i s song type's s t y l e was l a r g e l y borrowed from the Kwakiutl-speaking peoples. As was the case with the Hamatsa songs, the t e s t i n g of such a hypothesis i s at present prohibited by a lack of contrasting data. 111 H. Kusiyut Dance Songs D1 Echo Song (Group 1/A.K.) (Schooner Family) D2 Milha (Group 1/A.K.) (Mrs. Reuben Schooner) D3 Mystery Dance (Group 1/A.K.) (Captain Bob) D4 B e l l a B e l l a (Group 2/M.V.T. D5 Fred T a l l i o (Group 2/B.O.T. D6 Mask Dance (Group 2/B.O.T. D7 •• Clown's Dance (Group 2/B.O.T. D8 Mystery Dance (Group 2/B.O.T. D9 Fungus Dance (Group 2/B.O.T. D10 Doctoring the Dance (Group 2/B.O.T. (Mrs. Dick Snow) D11 Richard Edgar (Group 2/B.O.T. 112 D12 Albert Hood (Group 2/B.O.T.) D13 Jim P o l l a r d (J.P./T.F.M. 72-1029 VII D4(9)) Boys Dance Songs (L.H./T.F.M., 72-1030 VII D9(b)) D1 5 Child's Dance Song (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1030 VII D9(d)) D16 Steve Siwallace (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1030 VII D14(9)) D17 D18 Thunderbird Cedar Bark (Group 1/A.K.) (Group 2/M.V.T.) T n e Kusiyut Dance songs are the best represented song type i n t h i s study. Four of these, D1, D2, D3 and D17, remain active i n the contemporary r e p e r t o i r e . Except f o r the two Mystery Dance songs, every song was associated with a d i f f e r e n t dance. I t i s possible therefore that the songs associated with each dance formed sub-styles of t h e i r own within the l a r g e r Kusiyut Dance song r e p e r t o i r e . The two Mystery Dances i n t h i s study show no such patterning however. Kusiyut Dance songs are longer i n duration than any song type examined thus f a r . Their average duration i s two minutes. There are four notable exceptions to t h i s durational norm, 113 D14 - 41", DI5 - 22", D4 - 59" and D10 - 31". These four songs, the Boys Dance Song (D14), the Child's Dance Song (D15), the B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song (D4) and the Doctoring the Dance Song (D10) may be grouped together f o r an a l y s i s because of t h e i r musical and f u n c t i o n a l s i n g u l a r i t i e s . These are not "main-stream" Kusiyut songs. D14 and D15 were most l i k e l y employed as pedagogic songs. The B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song (D4) i s also known as the Farewell Song - i t was used to say goodbye to v i s i t i n g B e l l a B e l l a d i g n i t a r i e s . The Doctoring the Dance Song (D10) was, according to F e l i c i t y Walkus, used to encourage the dancer to dance. D14 and D15 both use a theme and v a r i a t i o n s form. D4 D4 has a 3 measure theme that i s varied once only while D15 varies i t s 2rmeasure:theme two times. Song D14 has a 1 measure theme that i s repeated f i v e times, ||: 1 jjj] : l| . I t i s followed by 2 t r a n s i t i o n a l measures based on the theme's pitches and contour. Two measures of rhythmic motives ( s i m i l a r to the animal song motives, and a 1 measure c l o s i n g pattern ( 1 [§] 5 ) terminate the song. D10 i s one of the most lo o s e l y structured songs i n the re p e r t o i r e . Rhythmically i t i s throughcomposed. The song modal structure consists of two statements of the descending t r i a d 5 0 1 . D13 may also belong to t h i s group of marginal Kusiyut Dance songs. Since the tape of t h i s song deteriorated while the song was s t i l l i n progress, only a fragment of i t could be transcribed. Like D4, D14, and D15, t h i s Dance song partakes 114 i n a more simple type of Kusiyut song s t y l e . I t u t i l i z e s only three pitches, the descending pattern 5 2 [7], and i s based almost e n t i r e l y on the rhythmic motive ) ) !• J . ; D13's three-tone scale groups i t with D10, D14, and D15. These f i v e marginal Kusiyut Dance songs include a l l the three-tone scales i n the song type (D10, D13, D14, and D15) and one of the two five-tone scales (D4). They are also set apart from the majority of Kusiyut Dance songs by the f a c t that they are not based on the modal pattern 3 (2) 1 [6j or 3 (2) Tj 6. As example 40 shows they are characterized by t h e i r use of the t r i a d i c pattern 5 3 1 and the non-triadic pattern 5 2"1 and 1 6 5. EXAMPLE 40 D4 (2) 1 (6) 0 3 D10 5 0 1 D13 ; 5 2 0 D14 1 6 0 D15 5 3 0 115 Example 44 i l l u s t r a t e s how the main body of Kusiyut Dance songs are modally u n i f i e d (with the exception of D8) • • • through t h e i r use of the four-tone pattern 3 2 1 6: EXAMPLE 41 D1 D2 3 (2) 3 (2) 1 GO • 6 D6 3 (2) D7 D3 3 (2) D5 3 (2) 1 16 Q 6 (1) 6 3 0 D8 D9 3 D11 3 D12 (2) 1 (6) 5 0 O 1 (6) (2) i a (2) 1 1 3 3 D16 3 (2) [j] '6 116 D17 (3) (2) 1 6 g] D18 3 (2) 1 |6 Though every one of the four possible home tones i n t h i s 3 2 1 6 pattern are u t i l i z e d , La and Do are most favored. Level melodic contours are most common, accounting f o r 78% of the t o t a l Kusiyut Dance material. There are three formal types found i n the main body of Kusiyut Dance, that i s , i n a l l Kusiyut songs except those already discussed - D4, D10, D13, D14, and D15. The f i r s t form type i s the theme and v a r i a t i o n s form found i n songs D5, D7, D12 and D18. D12 features the most basic v a r i a t i o n procedures. D12 has a three-measure theme and a three-measure v a r i a t i o n . Except f o r the s l i g h t rhythmic adjustment noted i n example 42, the theme and i t s variant are isorhythmic: EXAMPLE 42 D12 Theme: Variant: 117 This song's accompaniment i s i n 7/8 time only the l a t t e r portion of the t h i r d measure's melodic rhythm i s not synchronized with t h i s drum accompaniment. The modal d i s -c o n t i n u i t i e s between the theme and the variant are s l i g h t . stresses [6j more so than did the theme. The second form type features more complex types of v a r i a t i o n procedures. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that songs S2, E1, and E2 were found to have 2 part themes, the second part of which were s l i g h t l y varied - thus y i e l d i n g the formal pattern (a) (b) (b)1 and (c) with (c) s i g n i f y i n g a c l o s i n g pattern (see examples 30, 37 and 39). The Kusiyut Dance songs do not merely s l i g h t l y vary the second parts of t h e i r themes. They develop these second sections s u b s t a n t i a l l y . v a r i a t i o n techniques. The 2-part theme of D5 occupies the f i r s t four measures of the song (see example 43). The theme's f i r s t section (a) c o n s i s t s of conjunct motion only and simply presents the descending major second 3 2. The p i t c h F here serves only to embellish or ornament the E. The second portion of the theme introduces two new pitches into the song's modal structure, C and A or 1 and 6 are added. Do rather than Re i s the terminal note of t h i s second part of the theme, the t o t a l modal configu-shown i n example 43, these two parts of D5's theme are based on Fred T a l l i o ' s Dance song (D5) i l l u s t r a t e s one of these r a t i o n of which may be portrayed as 3 (2) ( 6 ) . As 118 119 c l o s e l y r e l a t e d melodic rhythm patterns. Measures 5 through 8 of D5 constitute a v a r i a t i o n or expanded version of the second part of i t s theme. This variant features the same melodic contour found i n the theme's second • • • • • part: the pattern 3 2 1 6 2 1. The main difference however i s that the v a r i a t i o n considerably prolongs the pitches 6 and 2 (see example 44). This f i r s t variant i s followed by a second (mm.9-11) which features only the descending portion of . . . . . . . . the 3 2 1 6 2 1 pattern, the progression 3. 2 1 Having dominated only the middle section of the f i r s t v a riant, the p i t c h A c l e a r l y becomes the center of melodic gra v i t y i n the second (see example 45). The opening theme reappears immediately following t h i s second v a r i a t i o n . Similar v a r i a t i o n procedures, i n which selected portions (usually the f i n a l halves) of a theme's modal and rhythmic material are developed and expanded may be found i n D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D11, D16, D17 and D18, D17, the Thunderbird song, w i l l be f u l l y discussed when i t I s compared to a mourning song l a t e r i n the a n a l y s i s . The t h i r d form type, found i n two Kusiyut Dance songs, D1 and D9), involves the contrast of thematic and motivic material. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that t h i s was the form'type found to characterize most of the Animal songs. D9's theme i s a 2-part structure which, l i k e the songs of the second form type discussed above, expands i t s second h a l f through melodic rhythmic and modal v a r i a t i o n . As example 46 120 EXAMPLE 44 4 j D5 -1st v a r i a t i o n ^ 7^7 M 2 1 6 v / - • 5 V >. * f 7 f ' f f ' —C ^ — ^ — — 4 _ 4 — * — ^ 2 1 Y f * r> 1 i > M PU HFH= T H ' " V. EXAMPLE 45 y , w r^T, 7 \ A ,r\ M M \ \ \ \ \\ % ) \ \ n\\ \ \ \= ~ ~ ^ — — T A _ L Ld i -121 i n d i c a t e s , the thematic area ((a) (b) (b)1) i s accompanied by-tremolo throughout. The motivic area introduces a completely new rhythmic character to the song through i t s useeof the quarter-note pattern |i: k k k k 2:||(see example 46). I t s narrow range and conjunct motion also act as an e f f e c t i v e f o i l to the contents of the thematic area. As i s the case with most of these songs however, we can only a t t a i n a p a r t i a l understanding of t h i s Fungus Dance song, when we examine a musical t r a n s c r i p t i o n alone. It i s very l i k e l y that t h i s motivic area corresponded to a change i n the Fungus Dance i t s e l f . That musical contrasts of t h i s order r e f l e c t and are i n fac t synchronized with changes i n the func-t i o n a l contexts of these songs may be demonstrated by reference to the Echo song (D1). So that I could observe how B e l l a Coola music and dance interacted, Sandra T a l l i o arranged f o r me to see a video-tape of a performance held during an "occupation" of the B e l l a Coola 16 Indian Agent's o f f i c e . I t was during t h i s viewing that the si g n i f i c a n c e of the Echo song's contrasting thematic and motivic areas became apparent. During the motivic area of t h i s song (mm.1-16; see example 49) the dancer, wearing the impressive Echo mask, danced what may be termed the dance proper. This section i s accompanied mostly by a ||: k \\ :|| rhythmic pattern i n the drum. When the thematic area entered i n measure 17 however, t h i s accompani-ment changed to a constant tremolo. This dramatic rhythmic s h i f t 122 EXAMPLE 46 D9 Theme Area (a) s +-(b) e • \ r r f 4 r e i r \ . —=> (h) -y—•— 3 : y • —^ • / /1 Motivic Area > > ^ """>.' r 7i r r / r ? T T T T 1 t t T T 1 123 EXAMPLE 47 124 as well as the contrasts i n range, tempo, and the movement from disjunct to conjunct motion between the motivic and thematic areas, was synchronized with a dramatic change i n the dance. Just as the thematic area entered, the dancer turned h i s back to the audience, c r o u c h e d a n d proceeded to change one of the six Echo mouthpieces f o r another. He remained i n t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l the motivic area was about to re-enter and then synchronized h i s "return" with i t s reappearance. l a t e r i n t h i s study, an examination of the i n t e r a c t i o n between text and melody i n B e l l a Coola music w i l l show how these thematic and motivic areas i n the Echo ;song are f u r t h e r delineated by means of textual or l i n g u i s t i c contrasts. As a whole the Kusiyut Dance songs are a heterogeneous group. Songs D4, D10, D13, D14, and D15 are i n f a c t more l i k e non-ceremonial songs. They are b r i e f , they employ a simple v a r i a t i o n form based l a r g e l y on rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s and f o r the most part they use only three-tone scales. As mentioned above, these songs had,functions quite unlike the main body of Kusiyut Dance songs. The l a t t e r , though modally u n i f i e d through • • • t h e i r extensive use of the four-note pattern 3 2 1 6 , d i s -played a wide spectrum of formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . One noteable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t o t a l Kusiyut Dance song sound i n former days i s not present i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . This was the sound of the Kusiyut whistles described e a r l i e r i n 17 connection with performance organization. The use of the drone was also r e s t r i c t e d to Kusiyut songs. I t i s only used with the Thunderbird song i n contemporary p r a c t i c e . Thus while a 125 study of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s does not reveal a homogeneous song s t y l e , former performance organization p r a c t i c e s (whistles, drones, and so on) l i k e l y provided a uniquely Kusiyut sonic environment. The fa c t that Kusiyut whistles were shaped and played d i f f e r e n t l y than t h e i r Hamatsa and Sisawk counterparts c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e s that some degree of sonic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between (and concomitantly sonic unity within) the songjtypes was desired. r I. Mourning Songs 126 M1 Raven's Song (Group 3/M.S.) M1 (a) M2 Margaret Siwallace (Group 3/M.S.) M3 Alec Pootlass (Group 3/M.S.) M4 Mrs. J . P o l l a r d (Group 2/B.O.T.) M4(a) Mrs. J. P o l l a r d (J.P./T.F.M. -VII D37; 72-1031) M5 Alex Cl e l l a m i n (Group 2/B.O.T.) M6 Captain Schooner (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.) M7 Ximkila (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.) M8 Sunxwkila (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.) Mourning songs are e a s i l y distinguishable from other B e l l a Coola songs because of two t r a i t s : t h e i r length, and t h e i r use of free rhythm. That they are the lengt h i e s t songs i n the rep e r t o i r e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the complex texts they had to convey. Mcllwraith was speaking about song texts Cwhen he stated that mourning songs "excel a l l other B e l l a Coola 127 compositions i n length, complexity, and wealth of d e t a i l " ( 1 9 4 8 11 : 2 9 3 ) . Their use of free rhythm a r i s e s from the f a c t that these songs were not associated with any dance and because of the emotional context"within which they were sung. No one p a r t i c u l a r modal structure i s associated with the Mourning songs. As example 4 8 i l l u s t r a t e s , f i v e of these songs use four-tone scales, three use five-tone scales and one i s based on a three-tone scale. EXAMPLE 4 8 M1 ( 2 ) 1 [ I ] 3 LU ( 6 ) Ml(a) 5^ 3 ( 2 ) 3 ( 2 ) T [ ? M2 M3 0 M4 and 4(a) 3 ( 2 ) M5 (3) 2 1 0 M6 ( 2 ) 1 ( 6 ) tl 3 M7 .3 ( 2 ) 1 [7] 128 M8 (2) 1 (6) 5 0 La and Sol are the most frequently u t i l i z e d home tones, both acting as the melodic center of grav i t y i n three songs. Do i s the home tone i n two songs while Mi i s used only once as a home tone. No.clustering with respect to formal types i s evident. M1 and M1(a) combine to form the only hybrid song i n the song type. M1 simply repeats a 2-part theme three times without v a r i a t i o n . M1(a) consists of a 2-part theme, which i s varied once, and a c l o s i n g pattern. M3 features only a theme and i t s c l o s i n g pattern. As example 49 shows, t h i s theme i s b u i l t from two rhythmic motives (a and b) which are s l i g h t l y varied from measure to measure. Further motivic v a r i a t i o n occurs i n the remaining strophes of M3. M4 and M4(a)' s-ttheme i s preceded by a short introduction based on the theme's c l o s i n g pattern. The l a t t e r i s developed, r e s u l t i n g i n what l u s h a l l terra a thematic extension. These two songs (M4 and M4(a)) w i l l be compared l a t e r i n t h i s study. M5 contrasts: i t s theme with motives. These motives however are extensions of the theme's c l o s i n g pattern. As shown i n example 50 both the theme and i t s v a r i a t i o n close on the descending fourth 1 [|] » t h i s fourth i s given separate a r t i c u l a t i o n i n c l o s i n g patterns ((b) and (b)l) following the theme and i t s variant. This thematic "area" i s li n k e d to the 129 EXAMPLE 49 v Theme - M3 / ( a ) , <b) ,M -> / \ \ I I \ I . [ U ' 4 = 4 ? > 4 4 I i L 4 > ^ 4 = , —v ^ c l o s i n g pattern L n ^ \ ^ ^ ^ 4 — * l> I 1 130 motives by means of the t r a n s i t i o n a l motive 0 1 ((c) i n example 50). These motives ((d) i n example 50), variants of the theme's c l o s i n g pattern, are followed by the two measures that introduced them. In t h i s way they are formally set o f f from the thematic area. Songs M6, M7, and M8 employ a theme and v a r i a t i o n s format. M8's variants are based on the melodic rhythm of i t s theme's second part - a procedure described during the analysis of the preceding song types. It i s l a r g e l y through melodic rhythm and contour simi-l a r i t y that four of these mourning songs may be said to be r e l a t e d . M1(a), M2, M7 and M8 show t y p i c a l mourning song melodic rhythms. Example 51 shows the variants of one t y p i c a l mourning song rhythmic motive. Considerable contour s i m i l a r i t y i s also present. A second common phrase i s absent only i n M1(a). Example 52 i l l u s t r a t e s these s i m i l a r i t i e s . Mcllwraith adds support to the hypothesis advanced i n Chapter Two of t h i s study that such s i m i l a r i t i e s between melodies resulted from the use of exemplary models i n the compositional process: The tunes of mourning songs are u s u a l l y remembered from year to year, and the singers may merely a l t e r words to make an old song applicable. In some cases, such compositions are changed so s l i g h t l y that they become v i r t u a l l y possessions of an ancestral family, and may then be preserved f o r generations u n t i l soon the h i s t o r y of the names i s forgotten.(1948 1:466) 131 EXAMPLE 51 M1 (a) m.2 2 M2 m. 1 \ \ l< \ V -M7 m.S f • • / / f ' • g o M8 m. 1 ^ p f f - — Y ~ \ \ \ \ ~ \ EXAMPLE 52 ) M2 ~A—r^— -f—\ (~ f r p I \ V \ v-^— M7 M8 m Since such "possessions of an ancestral family" were l i k e l y passed through a number of f a m i l i e s through time, i t may be that more than one family could l a y claim to such archetypal musical patterns. Perhaps c h i e f ' s mourning songs alone had these archetypal patterns i n former days. Adding further complexity to t h i s problem i s the f a c t that musical prerogatives also crossed song s t y l e boundaries. Such was the case when Jack King George, Margaret Siwallace's grandfather, died i n 1948. The singers were asked to compose a mourning song. In doing so they employed one of George's musical prerogatives, the Thunderbird Song (D17), as a model. By comparing these songs (see example 53), we are given a rare opportunity to observe something of the B e l l a Coola "compo-s i t i o n a l process" i n music. As example 53 shows, M2 i s better regarded as a s p e c i a l variant of D17 than as a "new compo-s i t i o n " . M2 a l t e r s i t s prototype i n the following ways: 1. It ignores the r e s t s tin D17 thereby crea t i n g a more flowing melody. 2. It employs more h a l f and whole notes than does D17. A meditative q u a l i t y emerges i n M2's measure f i v e because of i t s f i n a l •whole note. 3. M2 uses a parlando-rubato e f f e c t not found i n 4. M2 replaces the descending fourths i n D17 with minor t h i r d s . 5. M2 i s r e s t r i c t e d to a range of 7 semitones or a f i f t h while D17 had a 12 semitone or octave range. 134 6. Accompanied by a small s t i c k tapping out a soft tremolo, M2's accompaniment i s q u a l i -t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the f o r c e f u l drum tremolo used i n the Thunderbird Dance. The question n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s as to why a single Kusiyut Dance song should share t r a i t s found i n four mourning songs. Since Jack King George's mourning song (M2) was modelled a f t e r D17, these t r a i t s are obviously not r e s t r i c t e d to mourning songs. No other Kusiyut Dance songs examined here feature these t r a i t s however. It i s possible that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^ found i n Ml(a), M2, M7, M8, and D17, were musical prerogatives, the use of which was r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n f a m i l i l i e s . Their presence i n the Mourning songs c e r t a i n l y gives h a l f of t h i s sample a u n i f y i n g element. With D17 a part of t h i s group, i t i s doubtful that these could be termed mourning song s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Because of t h e i r length and use of free rhythm however, mourning songs do form a d i s t i n c t i v e and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e song type. It i s p r e c i s e l y these aspects of performance organization that serve to set o f f the t r a i t s found i n Ml(a), M2, M7, and M8 from the Thunderbird Song (D17). Though the l a t t e r shares common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with the 4 Mourning songs, these t r a i t s have a d i f f e r e n t meaning i n the Mourning songs than they do i n the Kusiyut Dance context. The presence of the drone i n the Thunder-b i r d song was perhaps the most obvious sign that D17 was not a mourning song. 135 J. Headdress Songs H1 - Sam Pootlass (Group 1/A.K*) H2 Andy Schooner (Group 1/A.K.) H3 T a l l i o Hans (Group 1/A.K.) H4 Agnes Edgar (Group 1/A.K.) H5 F e l i c i t y Walkus (Group 1/A.K.) H6 Charlie Snow (Group 1/A.K.) H7 ; George Nelson (Group 1/A.K.) H8 Simon Johnson (Group 1/A.K.) H9 Mrs. W i l l y T a l l i o (Group 2/B.O.T.) H10 Dick Snow (Group 2/B.O.T.) H11 North Vancouver (Group 2/B.O.T.) H12 B e l l a B e l l a (Group 2/B.O.T.) H13 Winass (Group 2/B.O.T.) 136 Formerly associated with the dances of the Sisawk society, the society of c h i e f s , Headdress songs were the most highly treasured of B e l l a Coola song types. More than any other song type, the Headdress songs dominated the recordings I was able to make i n August of 1975. Eight such songs were recorded. The remaining f i v e were taken from B e l l a Coola Band O f f i c e tapes. As was the case with the Kusiyut Dance whistles, the presence of a whistle shaped and played i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y Sisawk manner must have contributed to creati n g a unique Sisawk sonic environment. In order to determine whether a d i s t i n c t i v e Headdress song s t y l e existed however, we must again l i m i t our-selves to the contents of the a v a i l a b l e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . Though recorded out of t h e i r o r i g i n a l ceremonial context, these songs may o f f e r a clue as to what, i f any, were the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i -s t i c s of a Headdress song s t y l e . Headdress songs are the fa s t e s t (average tempo -)=ca.113) and lengthiest (average duration = ca. 2'30" ) B e l l a Coola dance songs. In terms of melodic contour they are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the Kusiyut dance songs. Both feature p r i m a r i l y l e v e l contours (app. 18% l e v e l ) . Headdress songs are most u n i f i e d , and therefore e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from other song types, through t h e i r modal s i m i l a r i t i e s . Eleven of the t h i r t e e n Headdress songs are based on the modal c e l l 1 6 3 . As example 54 i l l u s t r a t e s , eight of these use La as a home tone. 137 EXAMPLE 54 H1 (6) l 5 l 3 (2) 1 (7) H2 H3 H4 H5 H6C H7 H8 H10 H11 H12 H13 C: G: (2) 3 (2) (2) (2) (2) ( 2 ) H9 (5) 3 (2) (2) 3 (2) 3 (2) (2) 5 11 LU LU LU 0 (6) LU 1 (7) 3 (5) 3 (5) 3 (5) (7)|6 138 Since H13 also uses La as a home tone, nine of the th i r t e e n Headdress songs are centered on the La mode. Though the Kusiyut Dance songs also favored 3 (2) Q 6 and 3 (2) 1 [6] modal structures, they did not center on La as often as the Headdress songs. Four-tone scales are the most predominant, accounting f o r s i x of the t h i r t e e n Headdress melodies. Five-rtone scales are found i n f i v e of the songs while s i x and three-tone scales account f o r one song each. These Headdress songs encompass three types of formal organization. H.11, a North Vancouver Headdress song, stands quite outside of the main body of B e l l a Coola Headdress songs. This song was borrowed from Squamish Indians who worked i n a cannery at Kimsquit during the years 1917 to 1918. As shown i n example 55, i t consists of a theme and one v a r i a t i o n . I t s narrow range (7 semitones), i t s b r e v i t y (39"), and i t s f a s t tempo ( 3 =ca. 184 )» are a l l t r a i t s connected more with non-ceremonial B e l l a Coola songs. Seven of the Headdress songs have the form type I have termed 2-part themes with v a r i a t i o n and development of the theme's-second part. H1, H2, H7, H9, H10, H12, and H13 u t i l i z e t h i s type of organization. As well as being a good example of t h i s formal type, H1 has one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g modal structures i n the entir e r e p e r t o i r e . Looking f i r s t at the melodic rhythm of t h i s song, notice how the second h a l f of the theme (b) i n example 56 i s followed 139 EXAMPLE 55 140 by a c l o s i n g pattern (c) that echoes the close of the (b) phrase: i ) j ) 1 . 1 8 Section (b )1 employs a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d variant of (b)'s melodic rhythm. The c l o s i n g pattern (c) 1 i s more d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to ( c ) . I t changes the $ \. © } f i g u r e i n (c) to \. y i . ; l a t e r versions of the (C)1 pattern use H1 i s the only six-tone Headdress song. The two-part theme and i t s c l o s i n g pattern use f i v e pitches, A, G. E, D, and C. Though G i s the most frequently-sounded p i t c h , C i s the melodic center of g r a v i t y during these f i r s t three measures of the piece. Thus f a r the song's modal structure could be por-trayed as (6) 5 3 (2) Q] . The variant of the theme's second h a l f however, sections (b)l and (C)1, introduces the new p i t c h B. Beginning with the movement (5) 3 (2) Q , section , ( b ) l ' s second h a l f imitates t h i s movement by means of the pattern (3) 2 jTJ. The strophe ends with the c l o s i n g pattern 2 Qj . Though every new statement of the (a) portion of the theme i s from t h i s point introduced by the p i t c h B (see example 57), the p i t c h C continues to play an important r o l e i n a l l subsequent sections (b) and ( c ) . A number of questions a r i s e concerning the modal structure of t h i s piece: (a) where i s the home tone, on C, on B, or e l s e -where? (b) should the song be approached from the standpoint of the t r i a d C, E, G, or the t r i a d G, B, D, or both? (c) i s the p i t c h B merely a very low C or a C f l a t ? 141 (a) In a song of t h i s type I believe that the home tone should be defined q u a n t i t a t i v e l y rather than q u a l i t a t i v e l y . That i s , i n terms of frequency of occurrence rather than i n terms of melodic gravity. So defined, the p i t c h G|j[] w i l l be designated as the home tone of t h i s piece. (b) By employing the concept of a movable Do, i t becomes possible to regard t h i s song as an example of what I s h a l l term modal modulation. As example 58 i l l u s t r a t e s , i t i s only when we examine t h i s song from the standpoint of C as Do changing to G as Do, that the underlying structure of the melody,, (the pattern (6) 5 3 (T) ) emerges: EXAMPLE 58 Measures 1 to 3 4 to 5 6 C: 5 (6) 5 3 (2) |T| 5 [Tj (2) 1 (7) pi (6) 5 3 (2) |T| G: 6 5 3 I i _ (c) Several checks of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n by myself and by others confirms that the pitches C and B are sung as d i s t i n c t pitches i n t h i s song. When the song drops by a semitone, as i t does i n measure 6, the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s are maintained. D i s s i m i l a r l y , i n Andy Schooner's Headdress song (H2), "modulation" occurs only once. In t h i s song the modal c e l l 5 Q] 1 i n C s h i f t s to the c e l l 1 [jf] 3 i n G by means of gradual f l a t t e n i n g : (see example 59): Measures 1 to 5 142 EXAMPLE 59 6 to 9 10 C: 5 0 1 The t h i r d and f i n a l formal type found i n the Headdress songs involves the contrast of thematic and motivic areas. Songs H3, H4, H5,--H6, and H8 are examples of. t h i s form type. The Echo song, i n the Kusiyut Dance corpus, also belongs to the songs; that contrast thematic and motivic areas. • I t i s important to note i n t h i s connection that, as F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me, the Echo song was used i n both Kusiyut and. Sisawk contexts. Though the Animal songs also contrasted themes and mo-t i v e s , they did so on a smaller scale than do the Headdress songs. Generally, thematic and motivic sections are longer i n Headdress songs than they are i n the Animal songs. T a l l i o Hans's Headdress aong (H3) best i l l u s t r a t e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s t h i r d formal type. As example 60 shows, the thematic area of t h i s song (mm.1-4) includes a theme and a v a r i a t i o n . This theme area i s li n k e d to the motivic area by means of a c l o s i n g pattern i n measure 4. The motivic area (mm.5-12) begins with two introductory motives(mm.5-6). The motivic area proper (mm.7-12) i s framed by a t r a n s i t i o n a l motive found i n measures 7 and 12. As was the case i n the Echo song these two areas are made even more d i s t i n c t by t h e i r d i f f e r i n g 143 EXAMPLE 60 \ H3 - Theme Area r M i l l u j . i ^ — v V a r i a t i o n , £ 1 , f -vll i - M ,\ H 1 \ \ \ \ s> —^i KZJ-—*—*—| ^ — < y j . — • — * • > ) 1. only \- CHL_^- v — - ~^ v Motivic ) \ i i , , t r n \ \ , T u , _y=5 > ^ a 2 > ^ ^ ^ <S> £ — ^ — f 1 — —>j • ^ ^ 1 — I - ^ u 1 f= — i !j - — — ^ ^ 1 — 1 1 /' \ \ I ] \ •> | \ \ . | 144 accompaniments. The steady "quarter-note" accompaniment of the thematic area ( ic - r * . ) i s changed to an intermittent pattern ( L 1 and ^ 1 1 ) i n the motivic area. Again as was the case i n the Echo song the contrast between thematic and motivic areas also involves changes i n the dance. In F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress song (H5), f o r example, the motivic area (mm.20-25, mm.45-51) i s unaccompanied and d i f f e r e n t i n character than i t s thematic counterpart because of new choreological movements occurring at t h i s time. Though t h i s form type i s found i n only f i v e Headdress songs i t i s unique to t h i s song type. The contrast of themes and motives i n the animal songs may be considered a simpler form of t h i s type. Animal symbolism might form a l i n k between the two song types. More evidence of such symbolism w i l l be needed how-ever before we can transcend speculation concerning such r e l a t i o n ships between these two song types. The Echo song reverses the order of contrast found i n the Headdress songs by p l a c i n g i t s motivic area before i t s thematic one. As mentioned above, t h i s song may be r e l a t e d to the Headdress songs through the fac t that i t was used i n both the Kusiyut and Sisawk ceremonial contexts. Thus a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s serve to i d e n t i f y Headdress songs as somehow s o n i c a l l y unique. C e r t a i n l y the most pervasive and u n i f y i n g t r a i t i s modal structure. No other song type so c o n s i s t e n t l y bases i t s e l f on the pattern 3 (2) 1 [6j. Though the 2-part themes and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s are the most common formal procedures, the contrast of thematic and motivic areas 145 assumes i t s highest development i n the Headdress songs. Sisawk whistles and other aspects of performance organization, must also have played a r o l e i n creating a t y p i c a l l y Headdress song "sound". One point has c l e a r l y emerged during our examination of. these various song types. Though there i s some patterning evident i n groups of songs belonging to any given song type, no one song can exemplify the whole song type to which i t belongs. Each song type i s a heterogeneous unit that nevertheless reveals a combination of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or i d i o s y n c r a t i c features unique to i t s e l f . Performance organization (of which much has-been l o s t ) contributed a great deal to d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g song type s t y l e s from each other. Before summarizing these findings and discussing t h e i r i m plications, I w i l l examine some t o p i c s that require treatment outside of the song's fun c t i o n a l groupings. 146 VI. MODAL STRUCTURE IN BELLA COOLA MUSIC As the analysis i n Chapter Five has indicated, a number of modal structures coexist within the boundaries of any given song type. In order to examine these modal types purely i n terms of t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e -rences, i t w i l l be necessary to abandon the f u n c t i o n a l frame of reference employed i n the previous chapter. By grouping these melodies according to modal structure alone, we w i l l be able to gain a better understanding of a concept introduced i n Chapter Two - the concept of musical archetypes or exem-plary imo dels. For h e u r i s t i c purposes I s h a l l borrow the word " c e l l " from b i o l o g i c a l terminology i n order to r e f e r to the most basic modal archetypes i n the B e l l a Coola musical r e p e r t o i r e . With the exception of only four songs (G2, G3, A6, and D14), a l l B e l l a Coola melodies are based on three-tone modal c e l l s . These c e l l s consist of a home tone (a melodic center of gravity) and two a l l i e d or supporting tones, e.g. 1^,H]^3. Though these two supporting tones may act as temporary melodic centers of gr a v i t y within a song, they w i l l i n e v i t a b l y y i e l d to the greater a t t r a c t i o n and power of the home tone. In songs having four or more tones, these modal c e l l s are ornamented by pre-f i x e s , i n f i x e s , and s u f f i x e s . The l a t t e r are bracketed i n the cipher a n a l y t i c a l method employed here, e.g. (2) 1 [Tj 3 or (2) 1 [?] (5) 3. 147 There are two main c e l l types i n the B e l l a Coola r e p e r t o i r e , the f i r s t types are based on t h i r d s , or on t h i r d s and fourths. The second types are based on seconds, or seconds and t h i r d s , or on seconds and fourths. The f i r s t c e l l type includes the modal c e l l s 1 6 3 and 1 5 3. These two c e l l s are found i n 70% of the songs i n t h i s study. • • • Modal c e l l 1 (the patterns 1 6 3, 3 1 6, and so on) i s composed of the pitches A, C, and E. This c e l l i s the most frequently used of a l l B e l l a Coola modal c e l l s , accounting f o r 45% of the melodies i n t h i s sample. As shown below, a l l three possible centers of melodic g r a v i t y within modal c e l l 1 are u t i l i z e d as home tones: Modal C e l l 1 1. Home tone: La (a) 1 OH ^ 3 (minor third/fourth) (major third/minor t h i r d ) 2. Home tone: Do (major third/minor t h i r d ) 148 3 . Home tone: Mi 1 6 L3J (minor third/fourth) 1. Home tone: La (a) 1 I6I 3 types H2 1 16 3 H3 H10 H5 H6 H7 H8 Ml A2 D12 (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) UJ (5) 3 (5) 3 0>) A4 E1 E2 D18 D1 D3 D5 D11 M2 M7 H11 149 3 1 E l types 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) • • 3 (2) (2) 3 3 (2) (3) (3) (3) 2. Home tone: Do 5 • 6 types 150 H9 (5) 3 (2) h i 6 H12 3 (2) 6 (5) H4 D6 D2 D16 L 3 (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) 6 6 (3) Li] 6 (5) 3. Home tone: Mi 1 6 I3J types A5 (2) G1 • * D17 (3) (2) A8 Hml (3) (2) til 6 ( 5 i l l 151 Modal c e l l 2 includes the pitches C, E, and G. This c e l l i s the s t r u c t u r a l basis of 2.5% of the songs. As with modal c e l l 1, modal c e l l 2 uses a l l three of i t s possible home tones: Modal C e l l 2 -1. Home tone: Do (a) 5 3 Q (minor third/major t h i r d ) (major t h i r d / f o u r t h ) 2. Home tone: Mi (a) (minor third/major t h i r d ) (b) 5 ^ EE (fourth/minor t h i r d ) 3 . Home tone: Sol (a) (fourth/minor t h i r d ) (b) 0 ^ 3 * - 1 (minor third/major t h i r d ) 1 Home tone: Do 152 (a) 5 5 0 types Lv1 (6) 5 (4) 5 (2) h i Lv7 3 (2) Ml C6) M1 (a) 3 (2) (6) D 1 5 S1 Lv5 (6) 5 (4) 3 (2) [±\ (b) 5 types M4 Lv4 3 (2) 3 (2) (6)5 2. Home t o n e : Mi (a) 5 H I 1 types A7 D10 5 l2] 1 153 (b) 1 5 GO type* D8 (2) 1 (6) 5 ± M8 (2) 1 (6) 5 3. Home tone: Sol (a) 1 0 3 types M6 L2 Lv6 D4 (2) 1 (6) (2) 1 (6) UU 3 til 3 (2) 1 (6) h i 3 (2) 1 (6) UJ 3 (b) 5] 3 1 types H1 (6) N Hm2 (6) 3 (2) 1 - (7) 111 3 1 The second group of c e l l types i s a much more hetero-geneous assemblage. These c e l l types, found i n 64^ of the non-154 ceremonial songs, form the s t r u c t u r a l basis of 30% of the t o t a l number of songs i n t h i s study. This second group of c e l l s i s dominated by a c e l l constructed from seconds and fourths. Modal c e l l 3 occurs as a fourth over a major second and as a major second over a fourth. This c e l l ' s sub-types are " s p e l t " d i f f e r e n t l y i n terms of cipher notation because of the C-centered t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l methodology used to trans-c r i b e them. Modal C e l l 3 1. (fourth/major second) (a) 2 6 H I (a)l 5 2 ^ [ 3 (a)2 2. (major second/fourth) (a) 2 ^ J _ * [ 2 (a)l 155 (a) • 2 6 types L v 2 ( 3 ) • 2 ( i ) 6 (a)l 5 2 m types L v 1 0 ( 6 ) 5 2 J_ D13 5 2 Li ( a ) 2 6 3 d types L v 3 • 1 6 D7 ( 1 ) 6 5 GO (a) • 2 4 0 types L v 8 ( 3 ) • 2 ( 6 ) I L v 9 • 2 (6) L1 • 2 (6) M3 • 2 A3 • 2 1 156 S2 (3) M5 (3) 1 L5. (a)l 5 2 types S3 ( i ) 0 5 2 Modal c e l l 4 consists of a minor t h i r d over a major t h i r d . This c e l l i s used i n only one B e l l a Coola song: Hodal C e l l 4 1 5 (minor third/major second) H13 (2) 1 (7) L6J 5 Modal c e l l 5 i s b u i l t from two major seconds. I t s range of a major t h i r d i s the narrowest found i n the three-c e l l s : Modal C e l l 5 D9 (#4) 3 \B 1 (6) 157 A1 Hm3 14 (4) 3 m (6) (6) (5) As mentioned above, four songs have two-tone modal c e l l s . Three of these use a minor t h i r d while the fourth i s based on a major second. This one-interval modal c e l l i s the s i x t h and f i n a l c e l l found i n the r e p e r t o i r e . Modal C e l l 6 G2 2 [T] G3 GO 6 A6 (2) \Y\ 6 D14 1 [ 7 j (b5) The six modal c e l l s described above thus constituted si x modal options open to the B e l l a Coola composer. When "composing" a ceremonial song he would l i k e l y have used e i t h e r modal c e l l 1 or 2 as a s t r u c t u r a l basis since these are found i n 70% of the songs examined here. A non-ceremonial song would probably have been based on one of the second group of 158 c e l l types. This i s indicated by the fa c t that 64% of the non-ceremonial songs u t i l i z e d modal c e l l s three to s i x . Songs c o n s i s t i n g of three-tone modal c e l l s only are found i n 16% of the songs. In these songs the modal c e l l s c l e a r l y g r a v i t a t e to one home tone as, f o r example, 5 |j] 1 i n the American Dipper's song (A7) and 1 6 0 i n the Indian Paint-Brush Plower song (G1):. In t h i s sample, B e l l a Coola composers preferred using four-tone scales. The most common procedure was to p r e f i x or i n f i x a modal c e l l , e.g., A2: (2) 1 [6] 3 or A4: 3 (2) 1 I 6 I. In these two examples (A2 and A4) the p i t c h D, a pre-f i x i n A2 and an i n f i x i n A4, i s obviously of secondary impor-tance to the modal c e l l members 1, 6, and 3 (see example 15)• In some cases however, as i n F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress song (H5), non-modal c e l l members (prefixes, i n f i x e s or s u f f i x e s ) may act as temporary centers of melodic g r a v i t y . This modal technique, which occ\'.rs i n H5*s motivic area, s h a l l be termed modal c e l l mutation. The theme area of H5(mm.1-19) i s based on modal c e l l 1,- with La as a home tone (1 [£>] 3)« In measure 20 however, the motivic area enters. I t employs only the pitches A and D or 6 and 2. In t h i s motivic section (mm.20-25), Re or 2 i s c l e a r l y the home tone 6 [2I I* acts as such u n t i l measure 26 when the thematic area's modal c e l l 1 [§] 3 returns (see example 61). I t deserves mention that t h i s c e l l mutation occurs simultaneously with changes i n the Headdress dance during t h i s motivic area (mm.20-25). This mutation process occurs only once i n H5. During the return of 159 EXAMPLE 61 160 the motivic area i n mm.45-51, the p i t c h D receives emphasis f o r only the f i r s t two measures of the motivic section. As example 62 shows, the remaining measures are now centered on the p i t c h C or 1 of the modal c e l l 1 [6] 5« Five-tone scales are used i n only 26% of the t o t a l sample. Of t h i s 26%t 85% are based on the anhemitonic penta-tonic scale. Six-tone and two-tone scales were r a r e l y used, accounting f o r f i v e and four per cent of the scale types r e s p e c t i v e l y . A second modal technique was described i n conjunction with Chapter Five's a n a l y s i s of the five-tone Love song Lv5 and the six-tone Headdress song H1. This technique was termed modal modulation. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that t h i s tech-nique occurs when a modal c e l l based on C as Do changes to a c e l l employing a p i t c h other than C as Do. Further f l e x i b i l i t y was made possible through the rhyth-mic sphere. Thus two songs based on the modal c e l l 1 type (2) 1 [6] 3 are i n v a r i a b l y endowed with d i f f e r i n g " p e r s o n a l i t i e s " by t h e i r melodic rhythm c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Though an exhaustive study of B e l l a Coola melodic rhythm i s not within the scope of t h i s study, some preliminary observations concerning i t s organi-zation w i l l be presented below. The e% ridence In t h i s sample does not i n d i c a t e strong patterning between e n t i r e melodic rhythm structures. However the rhythmic motives that make up the melodic rhythmic phrases may be grouped into three basic configurations* t r i p l e , duple, and compound. These three "rhythmic c e l l " types almost i n v a r i a -bly i d e n t i f y themselves at the outset of these songs. 161 T r i p l e motives- are- the most commonly used motives, i n the sample. They are the. opening motivic units, i n 66% of the songs. As shown below, of the several t r i p l e motive, types, the pattern ) 1 i s the most frequently employed: ) i - M1, M2, m, M8, A2, A7, Lv4, H5, L2, S2, D2, D7, D11, D15, D17, D18 W * - M7, G2, G3 i 3 H8, H9, Hm3, Lv10, D13 y - D1, Lv2 i ) ) - H 3 , H 1 1 , A 3 , D 1 4 , D 1 6 , S 1 , L v 1 - M4, Hm1 , L3 - A5 - Lv8 - D4 3 - A 1 , L v 6 > » ) . - H12 . 1 6 2 Duple motives are the main, rhythmic c e l l s of 25% of the songs i n the. sample. These motives u s u a l l y c l u s t e r i n groups of two, thus y i e l d i n g the following four-beat patterns: ^ ^ I AO T -X '. ' s s - A8, Lv3 > A. - B8, H13 y y o • \ \ \ - Hm2 * ' y y - M3, D.13 Lv9 1 \ yy ) " D6 ' ' y y , 1 - b 3 ) . V J. \ - H2, D5 \ H H H _ * * * * y * * \ \ \ \ G1 * • y - H4 y y s. s l l J I Four songs based on duple motives have more i d i o s y n -c r a t i c opening motivic structures. The long durational values 163 that begin these songs are used to introduce and close melodic rhythmic phrases, they are not the e s s e n t i a l u n i t s of rhythmic movement. \ - H1. - H6, The main motive of Song H7, a song based on t r i p l e motives, i s v i r t u a l l y the same as that of H1. In fac t the f i r s t "measures" of both these songs show a strong melodic rhythmic patterning r a r e l y encountered between songs i n t h i s sample. These f i r s t measures are i l l u s t r a t e d i n example 63. The remaining measures i n these songs are d i s s i m i l a r . The f i n a l 9% of the songs use compound motives. These are most often i n i t i a l l y subdivided as 2 + 3: w m T . s s } s * s - i i 4 . - A6, A4 164 EXAMPLE 63 —7 r\ b • \ n n ^ i - J - J - * ^ — " ^ } ^  s /L \ • „ I <~> 1 -4 165 - D12. ), H J - H10. ' * 3 ° - L1. It i s from these three types of rhythmic motives that the melodic rhythmic phrases i n these songs are b u i l t . Though some songs c o n s i s t e n t l y employ duple'(e.g. G1) or t r i p l e (e.g. A3) motivic u n i t s throughout, with the r e s u l t being that they are based on symmetrical phrases (8/4 i n G1 and 3/4 i n A3), the most common rhythmic procedure i s to use combinations of rhythmic motives within a song. Thus i n the Wild Canary song (A2), the t r i p l e motive ) i> i s contrasted i n the second measure with the compound motivic unit 3 3^*^ (2 + 3 + 2). Another example i s found i n Susan K e l l y ' s Love song (Lv2) i n which the t r i p l e rhythm of the melody, dominated by the t r i p l e time motives 1- and 3 i , i s r e g u l a r l y interrupted by the duple motive 3 ^\ (mm. 3, 6, 9, 12). These contrasting rhythmic motives may or may not be given further support at the l e v e l of \ w drum accompaniment. The duple motive • ' * i n Lv2 was r e i n -forced by the Vi pattern i n the drum. In H5 however, the t r i p l e motive i n the drum continues to sound while the duple c l o s i n g pattern ) i . i i i s sung above i t : 166 H5 (m.6) ) i . i i I There were various manners i n which the predominant motivic structures of these songs were given f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t i o n at the l e v e l of drum accompaniment. Having out l i n e d some basic considerations concerning B e l l a Coola melodic rhythm, a to p i c that w i l l require further i n t e g r a t i o n with extra-musical f a c t o r s such as dance and language i n future studies, we w i l l next examine the rhythmic substructure of B e l l a Coola music - i t s drum accompaniment. 167 ,VII DRUM RHYTHMS Though 28% of the songs i n t h i s sample are sung un-accompanied, i t i s l i k e l y that t h e i r composers used one of the four basic types of drum patterns to be outli n e d below while creat i n g them. Even such " o f f i c i a l l y " unaccompanied songs as mourning songs are often accompanied by l i g h t s t i c k or feet tapping. The use of an underlying basic r e g u l a t i v e beat or time l i n e i s e s s e n t i a l to B e l l a Coola music. In s i t u a t i o n s where box or skin-covered drums were not a v a i l a b l e , other means were found. While i n canoes, paddles were used to o u t l i n e the basic rhythmic patterns (Mcllwraith 1948 1:178). On shore, hand-clapping, r a t t l e s , and l i g h t s t i c k s were u t i l i z e d . While carving petroglyphs, c h i e f s were said to have "picked out the rock i n time to the music forming i n t h e i r minds" (Mcllwraith 1948 1:178). What was l i k e l y occurring here i s that the c h i e f s were using one of the four basic drum rhythms as a rhythm of work. Such a repeated rhythmic pattern must have i n s p i r e d the c h i e f s to sing and compose. The drum rhythms employed by the composers of the ; accompanied songs i n t h i s sample may be grouped into four basic types: 1. continuous, 2. ostinato, 3. tremolo, and 4. i m i t a t i v e . As w i l l be discussed more f u l l y below, i t i s not uncommon to f i n d two or more of these types within the confines of a s i n g l e song. 168 The continuous type of drum rhythm accentuates the density referent of any song. This referent, not n e c e s s a r i l y the smallest rhythmic u n i t , u s u a l l y consists of even "quarters". In as many cases as possible, the songs were transcribed so that !'quarter-note" density referents prevailed. This rhythmic type may have: (a) some res t s at the ends of phrases (e.g. S1), (b) r e s t s at the beginnings of phrases ( e g . Lv3), or (c) may have no r e s t s whatsoever (e.g. H2). This continuous type of drum rhythm i s used i n 45% of the accompanied songs. It i s the most commonly used drum rhythm type. Kusiyut Dance songs e s p e c i a l l y favored the use of con-tinuous drum rhythm. The second type of drum rhythm, the ostinato pattern, i s more c l o s e l y associated with melodic rhythm. I t has a number of sub-types. In songs with a three-beat structure i t w i l l accentuate e i t h e r the f i r s t beat of every group of three, 2(a) ||:lcl?:|| or, the f i r s t two beats, 2(b) ||: A A. . In songs based on duple motives, the f i r s t of every group of two i s struck: 2(c) ||; A This type also includes compound rhythms. Songs with "5/8" rhythm (e.g. A6) are divided 2 + 3: 2(d) ||: A. A . :|| ; "7/8" patterns (e.g. D12) are divided 2 + 3 + 2: 2(e) ||: A A- k.x\\ Ostinato-type drum patterns are used i n 35% of the accompanied songs. The Love, Animal, and Headdress songs make frequent use of these accompaniment types - e s p e c i a l l y types 2(a) and 2(b). The t h i r d type of accompaniment, tremolo, i s clos e s t 169 to what may be considered rhythmic counterpoint. I t i s found i n only s i x (11%) of the accompanied songs. Tremolo may be used p a r t i a l l y within a song, as i n the Echo song (D1), or throughout an e n t i r e song as i n the Thunderbird song (D17). The singers knew of no extra-musical meanings associated with t h i s drum rhythm type. The fourth type of accompaniment, i m i t a t i v e , imitates melodic rhythms (a) exactly, (b) c l o s e l y , or (c) l o o s e l y . For example, the American Dipper's song (A7) features exact i m i -t a t i o n , the Hamatsa song (Hm1) accompaniment imitates the melodic rhythm c l o s e l y while the B e l l a B e l l a Headdress song's (H12) drum rhythms imitate i t s melodic rhythms only l o o s e l y . Only four songs {1% of the accompanied songs) use the i m i t a t i v e type of drum rhythm. Combinations of these rhythmic types, rhythmic "modu-l a t i o n s " , are found frequently and are often a r e s u l t of the need f o r the songs to r e f l e c t changes i n the dance. The most common procedure i s f o r a song to begin with a continuous type rhythm, u s u a l l y 1(c). This continuous type of drum rhythm i s most often contrasted with the ostinato types 2(b) and 2(c) (see examples H3, H6, D2). Combinations of rhythmic patterns are found i n most of the song types. However the Headdress songs use these rhythmic "modulations" more often than any other song type. F i f t y - f i v e per cent of the Headdress songs employ more than one accompaniment type. These rhythmic "modulations" served to f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d i f ferences between thematic and motivic areas. 170 The Echo Dance song (D1) f o r example begins with an ostinato type of accompaniment (2(a)) i n i t s motivic area (mm.1-16). In the thematic area (mm.17-20) i t changes to tremolo (type 3). This rhythmic modulation i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the nature of the Echo dance. The dancer, wearing the impressive Echo mask, performs the dance proper during the motivic area of the song. Once the thematic area i s reached however the dancer turns h i s back to the audience, crouches, and changes the mouthpiece of the mask ( f o r which there are s i x i n t o t a l ) . Here the drum modulates to tremolo i n order to heighten the suspense of t h i s " o r a l transformation" scene as well as to allow the powerful melodic theme to surface. S i m i l a r l y , i n the motivic areas of F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress song (mm.20-25 and mm.45-50), the drum i s f i r s t l e f t out e n t i r e l y and then changes from the type 2(b) pattern of the thematic area to a type 2(a) pattern i n the motivic area i n order to coincide with new dance gestures introduced during t h i s motivic section. A s l i g h t change i n the continuous drum accompaniment (1(c)) of H1 i l l u s t r a t e s how a small portion of t h i s song's text i s emphasized through a b r i e f a l t e r a t i o n i n the song's accompaniment. The only change i n t h i s song's accompaniment occurs i n measure 18 where the continuous pattern 1(e) b r i e f l y gives way to a 2(c) type accompaniment A-l . This s l i g h t rhythmic a l t e r a t i o n coincides with perhaps the most important phrase i n t h i s song's text: "so i t ' s me".(see example 66 i n Chapter E i g h t ) . 171 Thus rhythmic "modulations" i n B e l l a Coola music should not be simply understood as "aesthetic" preferences. These are not purely musically*-inspired drum techniques. They r e s u l t from the need f o r t h i s music to be "harmonized" with i t s t o t a l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context. 172 VIII. FORM AND TEXT: A SELECTIVE STUDY OF THEIR INTERACTION Id e a l l y an ethnomusicologist, a l i n g u i s t , and a native consultant are required f o r an exhaustive study of text and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to music. I t i s not always possible, however, to include such a configuration of consensus makers i n a study. Since Mcllwraith was not an ethnomusicologist h i s chapter on B e l l a Coola songs deals s o l e l y with some of the texts of the songs i n h i s recorded material. As a r e s u l t a l l of h i s references to song structures are a c t u a l l y descriptions of textual pro-cesses. Stumpf provides texts supplied by Franz Boas but does not discuss t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to melody (1886). This study therefore represents the f i r s t attempt to examine the i n t e r a c t i o n between these two spheres i n B e l l a Coola music. I t remains a s e l e c t i v e study, however, because i t was not possible f o r me to return to B e l l a Coola with my t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a l i n g u i s t i n order to undertake the time-consuming task of c o r r e l a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s with musical ones. Since many of the words employed i n the songs are e i t h e r e s o t e r i c or d i f f e r i n sound from t h e i r spoken counterparts, such a project must always include a native consultant. Thus a systematic study of a l l the song texts asso-c i a t e d with the sample was of necessity precluded here. Instead the study w i l l be based on Mcllwraith's t r a n s l a t i o n s , 173 on one song t r a n s l a t e d and sung i n English by F e l i c i t y Walkus, and on seven texts translated and placed under the musical u n i t s by Mr. Henk Nater, Ri.jksuniversiteit (Leiden). Just as the songs are b u i l t from one or both of the form-building elements.-«motive and theme so are the texts. Textual motives, variously r e f e r r e d to as meaningless s y l l a b l e s , wordless choruses, and non - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s are of two types: meaningful and meaningless. When they are meaningful the textual motives may r e f e r to the name or to an action of the animal or supernatural being with which they are associated. I have e a r l i e r noted that melodic motives may imitate animal gestures. The textual motives found i n the Hamatsa song and the G r i z z l y Bear Dance denote the actions of the Cannibal dancer and the word f o r g r i z z l y bear. Ha ma may i n the Hamatsa song r e f e r s to the action of eating while nan i n the G r i z z l y Bear dance i s the B e l l a Coola word f o r g r i z z l y bear. Another example i s found i n Mrs. Jim Pol l a r d ' s Mourning song where the textual motif ananay i s an exclamation 19 of pain or sorrow. ^ The remaining textual motives are meaningless f o r the B e l l a Coola today. They may have had meaning i n e a r l i e r times, e i t h e r as esote r i c language employed by the shaman or as imi-t a t i o n s of animal sounds. Mcllwraith c i t e s two examples of the l a t t e r type of wordless chorus. One consisted " . . . of a ser i e s of grunts which are said to be the voice of a heron" (1948 11:273) while the other employed " . . . an oft-repeated 174 xaam which i s said to he the note of the pigeon" (1948 11:275). It i s l i k e l y that the majority of these textual motives are indeed meaningless on a semantic l e v e l . They are neverthe-l e s s f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n that t h e i r presence allows the singer to think about what verse he must next sing. They also provide r e l i e f from the i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d verses and, i n songs without texts, they act as convenient "handles" by means of which the melodies may be sung. The other component of B e l l a Coola texts i s the textual theme. The themes, not unexpectedly, are intimately bound up with the use categories with which they are associated. Thus themes i n animal songs deal with animals, love songs express emotional states and so on. Mcllwraith noted that a l l ceremonial songs should be t e x t u a l l y t r i - p a r t i t e i n structure. The B e l l a Coola had names for these three sections, the word kogulo meant the f i r s t part, the second or middle part was as.iko.t,; and the t h i r d or l a s t was a?ox. The textual motives were known as siutnaios.;Mcllwraith translated the l a t t e r as " j o i n i n g together the songs" (1948 I I : 269). Though these textual d i v i s i o n s have not been s t r i c t l y retained today, the majority of the t r a n s l a t i o n s are t r i - p a r t i t e . Forgetfulhess might account f o r some of the b i - p a r t i t e texts, that i s , those with two verses only. On the basis of the data a v a i l a b l e to me, textual motives and themes seem to be r e l a t e d to the songs i n four ways: 175 1. songs may have tex t u a l motives only, 2. they may have t e x t u a l themes only, 5. they may have t e x t u a l motives and themes that are coincident with the musical thematic and motivic areas, or 4. they may have t e x t u a l themes and motives that are used a l t e r n a t i v e l y from strophe to strophe. The Lahal songs and the North Vancouver Headdress song (H11) exemplify the " f i r s t category above. These songs have no meaningful textual u n i t s . Steam Schooner's Love song (Lv3), translated and sung i n E n g l i s h by F e l i c i t y Walkus, i s an example of a song without 20 textual motives. This song also i l l u s t r a t e s the two ways i n which words are set to B e l l a Coola music (see ex. 64). The most common technique i s the s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g i n which one note i s used f o r each word's s y l l a b l e s . The words are presented neu-ma t i c a l l y when the s y l l a b l e s are each associated with two or more tones. Although the neumatic technique i s used sparingly i n t h i s song, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y employed i n conjunction with the two most important words i n the text, mountain and d a r l i n g . We w i l l again turn to the Echo song i n order t h i s time to i l l u s t r a t e a song whose text u a l organization coincides exactly with i t s corresponding musical framework. As demonstrated i n example 65, the tex t u a l motives and themes of the Echo song accompany the musical thematic and motivic areas p r e c i s e l y . The t r a n s l a t i o n s of the textual themes i n example 65 should not be interpreted l i t e r a l l y . The great s t r u c t u r a l 176 EXAMPLE 64 I wish ~\ could see through t h i s mou: n-tain I wish could see through/this mou: n-tain r '~r~^' r—--\- f f r- \ , " = ^ : to ma: ke signs f o r my dar: l i n g to come my po: or heart i s ach- i n g f o r you my dear v \ \ \ \ Y\ I i i> 1 4 stop cry d a r - l i n g stop cry dar: [ \ \ \ \ \ 1 V i l 1 V 1 k l i n g stop cry d a r - l i n g stop cry dar: l i n g my po: or fo r you dear my po: or heart i s ach- in/ 3 l i t i heart i s ach- ing f o r you my dear 177 EXAMPLE 65 o. s.p. fc 1 ' 1 ( 1 I 1 3 =ca.157 ha hu ha: ha hu hu 'M III M ^ l M ^ n y Y?y|^f M \ 1 1 \ \ 5. 21 \ V " ha- ha hu ha: ha hu hu ha-ha hu fe * — ^ — \ r t 1 • 1 _ :> . - i = - 4 , c r — rf—i i — | — _, \ — ha hu k . 1 H — 1 hu ha-ha \p H 1 ha , H 1 ha - ha r-k £ , y ^ x j ^  \ 1 \ z 1 1 1 L1- \f | - M 1 V 1 1 — l t r T ^ — 1 15, + + + t5> ^ M M kulh7 acn- san - t a -hear and l i s t e n 1 = f ia -hu ha - ha hu hu f / h n r \ ' - l \ ^ i \ h 178 I \ \ wi: sa wa to our - nmc su s t a tmothers rem-X =5--i . 1 ^ > t t s i l h -qnlh- a they tnm -muts-m - l h i : are i r r i t a t e d x ^-4 = = ¥ = 4 c t i kw'alh-tn - t a saw by the (Echo's) crest // \ \ 1 I v-179 EXAMPLE 66 i - h i -nu: 6 v sz hu -ya- ha ha l\\ \ \ hu- ya ha: i - hi-nu hu: 5. hu -ya ha: r r 3 ha hu- ya ha: ha i - h i -nu: i -hi-nu: CD alh-7ay-uts tu tuu t s i nu-7us - qnamk-that's what she sings the woman who gave tulhs i - h i - nu: }birth to us 10. wa sclhkwalh-tn- t a i n c t i nu-that i s our crest v > J M i <U. i " i t r - J kwlaax suT'ayc i ^ — h i > n u : i - h i -nu: I the sun . . 1 J n l i 3 P I )•)••] \\Mi M hu- ya -ha ha: hu- ya ha- ha i hi-nu: hu - ya ha- ha hu- ya ha- ha 180 Y. \ w —s——e—y ^ — -<s>—^ i - n i - nu: i - h i - nu: stu nts \ \ \ \) I ) \ \\ ; l ] V \ 7 <• v • v ^ ** j * ' -r-—5—'i kwlu ka s i - x i - l a a - xaycs if 1 aye so i t ' s me the reason why are s l a n t i n g i - hi-nu-^nu: ^(3) < • _1_ (4) * ^ < g J> " > J . t i an - 7ap- sulia - t r a y c t i wa - x i t su ^ — t ' a v e towards me W a x i £ the v i l l a g e s ~dr + ' 1 ^ _ "75" i - h i - nu: i - h i -nu: hu - ya .ha: ha hu: ya ha - ha fete \ i - h i -nu: 181 differences between the B e l l a Coola language and En g l i s h preclude a one-to-one correspondence between the statements i n both languages. L a s t l y there are songs whose textual themes and motives are used a l t e r n a t e l y from strophe to strophe. This type occurs frequently i n ceremonial songs. In Chief Sam Pootlass's Head-' dress song (H1), f o r example, the two-part musical theme i s f i r s t sung to the textual motives i h i n u and hyaha. As shown i n example 66, the textual theme enters during the repeat of the f i r s t strophe (mm.6-10). Even within t h i s textual theme, tex-t u a l motives are contrasted with meaningful l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . Here they t r u l y f u l f i l l t h e i r function of " j o i n i n g together the songs". This song also shows how o v e r - a l l form i s s l i g h t l y varied by some melodic adjustments made i n order to accommodate the textual themes. Measure 7 features the f i r s t such adjust-ment (marked by (1)). Here the grace note, not found i n measure 2, has been added to allow the s y l l a b i c u n i t 7ay separate a r t i -c u l a t i o n . Measure 9 breaks the half-note of measure 4 into an eighth and a dotted .quarter f o r the same reason. The added grace notes found i n measures 20 and 21 (marked (3) and (4)) accommo-date the s y l l a b l e t i . Although the influence of text on melodic v a r i a t i o n and embellishment may seem minimal, i t s importance i n a r t i c u l a t i n g form i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The texts are as much a part of B e l l a Coola music proper as are the melodies and rhythms. In fa c t the 182 r e p e t i t i o u s o v e r - a l l form of the melodic and rhythmic u n i t s i s best regarded as a grand ostinato accompaniment to the " s o c i a l 21 themes" of the texts. 183 IX. Continuity and Change i n a B e l l a Coola Mourning Song  over a 51-year period : Two songs recorded, by T..F. Mcllwraith. during, the pp years 1923 to 1924 were s t i l l being sung i n 1975. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of these songs may therefore be compared i n order to study c o n t i n u i t y and change i n t h i s music. As an examination of Steam Schooner's Love Song's two versions w i l l confirm, these songs are with only a few exceptions i d e n t i c a l (see Lv9 and Lv9(a)). This, could be due to the f a c t that t h i s song i s constructed almost isorhythmically, thus making i t e a s i e r to remember over time. .Even the tempo markings, ca. 144 (per quarter) i n 1975 and ca. 153 i n 1924, and the t o t a l lengths of the songs, 1'23" i n 1975 and 1'29" i n 1924, are v i r t u a l l y the same. Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d ' s Mourning song's two versions (M4 and M4(a)), perhaps because they employ the more f l e x -i b l e formal process I have termed theme and extension, allow us to examine change more e f f e c t i v e l y than does Steam Schooner's Love- song. Example 67 places both versions of the. song together. I have included an. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . o f the 1975 text where-ever a meaningful correspondence- could be maintained, between B e l l a Coola and E n g l i s h . The songs were not presented i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y because the 1924 version i s considerably longer (4*03") than the 1975 song (2'11"). Bar l i n e s common to both 184 EXAMPLE 67 Introduction ZZ2I T9T5" oh my dear oh my s / y f *. f f * 1 ' y \ \> i\ C . M \ \ 1 i i f v 1924 1 / » — >—*—•—=—-= —f-S. dear 1 \ i> ' . \>- 1 1 oh my de-ar —f f ^ -p ^ — * — ^ — • ? "7 -^ h i \ ' 1 Theme c l o s i n g pattern r my so: :n so: :n \ . i n 185 thematic extension - development of c l o s i n g pattern f • f i \ ; f p s *mw *2 i r r ^  * — y -1975 ha - h i - haw ha- h i - haw a - na: 1924 Introduction —f f ~" f—' x \ T~ — \ jar-: ^ 1 > — n a - y i h i - haw 1 - - i> r t> !=• (text untranslatable) u + \ \ > y ' f—s  1 — k 1 " " t i U ' i f 10. «_ l c — • 1 *\r r e z. V 186 f/1975 T h e m e c l o s i n g pattern -K- f- •—^ f-— y- Z3 <•—• x \ n-\ my so: * . :n so- n ^ — f \/"r f " ^ 5 r - p f ^ T ^ \ \ — 1 h ' l n *' v \ \ u - 1 *N thematic extension ^ — , \ \ 1 v . v \ 1 f 1 s-f " \ \ \> 1 \ i - 1 u i> •,±=4== If- — ^ v \s^f ^ f T ^ V — = rv \ \ 1 ^ 4 (theme .variant; 187 188 songs have been retained as much as possible. In order to match up s i m i l a r melodic u n i t s , phrases are o c c a s i o n a l l y written i n a fragmented manner. When t h i s i s necessary, a dashed l i n e i n d i c a t e s that the melodic fragments are sung concurrently. Both versions are based on the four-tone modal c e l l 2 type 3 (2) [T] 5. The t h i r d i n t h i s c e l l , the pattern 3 (2) [j], i s reserved f o r the song's theme. The material i n the theme's intro d u c t i o n and extension are based on the theme's c l o s i n g pattern's descending (prefixed) fourth (2) 1 5. The fourth ascends i n the theme's introduction, 5 HI. but descends i n the "development" or thematic extension areas (see example 67). I t deserves mention here that the i n i t i a l p i t c h of the 1975 version, the p i t c h A, i s sung as a G i n measure 10 and onwards. I t i s not unusual f o r the present-day singing group to " e r r " i n t h i s manner at the outset of songs. Adjustments i n intonation and rhythm are u s u a l l y complete by the second singing of any given strophe. The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the introductions of both these versions l i e s i n the more extensive neumatic or melismatic treatment of the text by the 1924 version. P o l l a r d ' s elaboration of the p i t c h C i n measure one, f o r example, i s reduced to a half-note i n the 1975 version (m.1). Po l l a r d ' s measure four i s truncated by measure 3 of the 1975 version. Not only are P o l l a r d ' s rhythmic gestures e l i d e d . The r i s i n g portamento that closes the 1924 introduction, and i s found i n 189 three other l o c a t i o n s i n t h i s e a r l i e r version, i s employed only once (m.10) i n the 1975 song. Here we see the d i f f e r e n c e between a l i v i n g musical t r a d i t i o n and one that i s merely being preserved. Jim P o l l a r d , the singer of the 1924 version, was the l a s t of the B e l l a Coola composers.; His greater neumaticism r e s u l t s from the f a c t that he knew the norms of B e l l a Coola musical elaboration i n t u i t i v e l y . Since he l i k e l y composed the music of t h i s song, h i s wife supplying the words, he was able to f r e e l y extend and decorate 23 i t s components. The two versions of the song's theme and i t s accompanying c l o s i n g pattern show the greatest c o n t i n u i t y over time. Again the newer r e n d i t i o n s i m p l i f i e s the old model somewhat. The G and i t s concomitant disjunct motion i n P o l l a r d ' s 1924 theme has been omitted i n the 1975 song. The "development" or extension areas, e s s e n t i a l l y prolongations of the theme's c l o s i n g pattern, provide more contrasting data. The 1924 song delays i t s development u n t i l the theme's i n t r o d u c t i o n and the theme i t s e l f have been sung twice. When i t enters, i n measure 11 of the older version, the area of thematic extension d i f f e r s from i t s contemporary counterpart i n much the same way as d i d the two introductions. The 1924 "development" area i s l e n g t h i e r , contains more melodic embellishments, and features more rhythmic v a r i e t y than the 1975 song. This 1924 development includes a variant of the theme i n measure 15. The descending pattern 3 . 2 1 i n t h i s 190 variant, sung to the rhythmic p a t t e r n * ^ ; ^ j . , may have been • • • the model f o r the 3 ^ 2 _ ^ 1 movement sung to the rhythm ) J", i n the theme of the 1975 song. Thus the basic d i f f e r e n c e s between these two versions l i e s i n those areas that are most amenable to melodic and rhythmic elaboration. The theme i t s e l f shows the greatest con-t i n u i t y over time. I t i s the archetypal pattern around which the e n t i r e song revolves. The i n t r o d u c t i o n and extension areas are therefore the s e t t i n g f o r the jewel which i s the theme. Though small d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s between the two versions of the theme are present, i t s s k e l e t a l structure i s i n t a c t . The i n t r o d u c t i o n and extension areas show the greatest change. These seem to have constituted the v a r i a b l e aspect of the d i a -l e c t i c between v a r i a b i l i t y and n o n - v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s B e l l a Coola song. The singers of 1975, a l l "non-composers", are p r i m a r i l y concerned with r e t a i n i n g as much of the t r a d i t i o n a l sound heritage as possible. Not being song-makers, they do not e x p l o i t the v a r i a b l e or "improvisatory" areas i n t h i s music. Thus while the products of t r a d i t i o n a l B e l l a Coola musical processes remain, the means of production have been forgotten. To the best of my knowledge t h i s i s not true f o r the Northwest Coast as a whole. Thus a r e v i v a l of these dynamic processes i n B e l l a Coola music remains po s s i b l e . 191 X. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS A. The C o r r e l a t i o n of the S t r u c t u r a l and Functional  Groupings . One of the main findings of t h i s study is. that the hierarchy of the music's s t r u c t u r a l . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s strongly r e f l e c t s the hierarchy of, the f u n c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which the songs were used. The most complex musical processes: i n the sample are reserved f o r the. Headdress, Mourning., Hamatsa and Dance songs of the pr e s t i g i o u s Sisawk and Kusiyut societies.. These songs are the len g t h i e s t i n the r e p e r t o i r e , they employ the most complex modal and formal.processes, and t h e i r texts are longer and more i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d , than those found i n the remainder of the song types. Ceremonial songs were also given more "sonic status" by performance organization. Whistles, drones, audience par-t i c i p a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z e d leadership functions and l i k e l y a group of other sound phenomena not yet uncovered by the research, a l l served to enhance and r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . Thus the la r g e s t s t y l i s t i c d i v i s i o n i n the r e p e r t o i r e i s a. microcosmic r e f l e c t i o n of the s o c i a l d i f ferences that existed between those who were i n i t i a t e d . i n t o a secret society and those who were not. As shown i n Appendix I I , the non-ceremonial song charac-t e r i s t i c s feature a wider array of musical contrasts than those of the ceremonial song types. Non-ceremonial songs include the f a s t e s t (Lahal 3 =ca.143) and slowest (Game 3=ca.65) average tempos found i n the sample, the shortest songs (Game = 37", > Animal =56"), the greatest contrast i n scales (two-tone to s i x -192 tone), and include the songs with the smallest (Game = 7 semi-tones) and la r g e s t (Love = 14 semitones) average ranges. The non-ceremonial song types also tend to employ l e s s portamento than do the ceremonial. In terms of scal a r structure, non-ceremonial melodies (Love and Lahal) are more often five-tone than the b a s i c a l l y four-tone ceremonial songs (see App. I I ) . Non-ceremonial songs are based l a r g e l y on modal c e l l s 3 - 6 . While 64% of the non-ceremonial melodies use modal c e l l s 3 - 6 , 70% of the ceremonial songs are b u i l t on modal c e l l s 1 and 2; 60% of the ceremonial songs are based e n t i r e l y on modal c e l l 1. This l a s t s t a t i s t i c gains added s i g n i f i c a n c e as a ceremonial song t r a i t because ceremonial songs outnumber the non-ceremonial ones by a r a t i o of almost two to one. When compared to the contrasting tempos, lengths, scales, and ranges of the non-ceremonial songs, the ceremonial songs form a more u n i f i e d set of material. Tempos are more a l i k e with )= ca. 95 being the average. The lengths of these songs are a more d i f f i c u l t - v a r i a b l e to estimate since these were at one time e n t i r e l y a function of the length of the dance and the text. Even the contracted versions of these songs sung today, however, are longer than those of the non-ceremonial songs. Another common t r a i t of the ceremonial melodies i s t h e i r frequent use of four-tone scales i n a l l song types. These songs also have l e s s divergent ranges than do the non-ceremonial. 193 Their average range of 10 semitones f a l l s midway between the extreme ranges of the non-ceremonial songs. The song types within these ceremonial and non-cere-monial r e p e r t o i r e s are made mutually distinguishable by e i t h e r a combination of d i f f e r i n g s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and/or by i d i o s y n c r a t i c features. Naturally t h e i r divergent f u n c t i o n a l settings made them i d e n t i f i a b l e to the audiences -of winter ceremonials. Our i n t e r e s t here, however, i s to examine whether or not these song types were also coded i n s t r u c t u r a l terms i n order to make them representative of t h e i r function. As Appendix II in d i c a t e s , the musical d i s t i n c t i o n s between a Headdress and a Game or Animal song are immediately apparent. The difference between a Kusiyut Dance song and a Sisawk Headdress song i s based on few d i s p a r i t i e s . Prom the musical a n a l y s i s we learned that the Thematic and Motivic Areas form type was one song t r a i t that would serve to d i s t i n g u i s h the songs of these two s o c i e t i e s from each other. The manner i n which these songs were most c l e a r l y kept d i s t i n c t however was by means of the d i f f e r e n t ceremonial whistles used i n each. As mentioned i n connection with performance organization, these whistles were also sounded i n d i s s i m i l a r ways. Most of the song types were c l e a r l y demarcated from the others through such i d i o s y n c r a t i c t r a i t s . The Mourning songs were made s o n i c a l l y unique by t h e i r frequent use of free rhythm, t h e i r length, and because they were often sung unaccom-panied. The Lahal songs featured, aside from t h e i r f a s t tempo and quasi-isorhythmic construction, the use of f a l s e t t o which 194 no other song type i n the sample did. The Love songs were musically characterized hy a wide range, p r i m a r i l y descending motion, frequent use of the five-tone scale and t h e i r exclu-sive r e l i a n c e on modal c e l l s 2 and 3. The Hamatsa songs were made d i s t i n c t by t h e i r employing minor seconds more often and i n more conspicuous r o l e s than any other song type, by t h e i r unique whistles, and by t h e i r frequent use of portamento. The Entrance songs are more d i f f i c u l t to discuss i n terms of i d i o s y n c r a t i c features since only two were recorded. The presence of a Rivers I n l e t Entrance song precludes any attempt to discover what the norms of B e l l a Coola Entrance song c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were. The Shaman and Game songs are also under-represented i n the sample. Thus the average c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s postulated f o r these song types are presented i n a suggestive manner only and should therefore be approached cautiously. More data w i l l be needed before we can determine whether the small c o l l e c t i o n of these s p e c i f i c song types included i n t h i s study i s an adequate sample upon which to base s t y l i s t i c gene-r a l i z a t i o n s . In summary, despite the f a c t that these songs were c l e a r l y d istinguishable through t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l context alone, they were given further d e l i n e a t i o n at the l e v e l of musical structure. While some song types were obviously of d i f f e r i n g structure, the dif f e r e n c e u s u a l l y corresponding to the amount of fu n c t i o n a l (and therefore s o c i a l ) separation between them, others were made d i s s i m i l a r through more subtle, i d i o s y n c r a t i c features. Thus, i n order to be f u l l y understood, B e l l a Coola music 195 cannot be torn away from i t s context and examined i n terms of musical structure alone. Wherever i t could, t h i s work has attempted to show that many B e l l a Coola musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are u l t i m a t e l y best understood as means to s o c i a l ends, (drones, whistles, song type d i s t i n c t i o n s , and performance and compo-s i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ) . They owe t h e i r existence to the changes undergone by B e l l a Coola society when i t f i r s t encountered i t s present geographical and c u l t u r a l environment. L i k e l y a r r i v i n g with t h e i r Salishan guardian s p i r i t songs, they soon required and heard t h e i r neighbours sing songs designed to meet more secular ends. Given a sedentary l i f e , abundant maritime resources, and a concomitant d i v i s i o n of labor, B e l l a Coola c h i e f s became patrons of the a r t s . They formed secret s o c i e t i e s (some of which were borrowed from the B e l l a Bella) and held y e a r l y winter ceremonials that required s p e c i a l i s t s i n music, dance, carving and so on. Though many song t r a i t s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the sphere of performance organization) must have been borrowed i n i t i a l l y , B e l l a Coola song makers soon developed t h e i r own i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of Northwest Coast musical s t y l e s . The f a c t that musical composition, a t i l e a s t i n the ceremonial songs, was screened by a compositional committee i s evidence that a t r u l y d i s t i n c t i v e B e l l a Coola configuration was desired. Just as B e l l a Coola v i s u a l a rt was made unique through i t s extensive use of a medium cobalt blue (Holm 1965:26), i t i s l i k e l y that one or more of the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described above w i l l be found to be a s p e c i f i c a l l y B e l l a Coola t r a i t . 196 The i n t e r e s t i n g study of B e l l a Coola musical reten-t i o n s , borrowings, and innovations, however, cannot begin u n t i l the Northwest Coast has been more comprehensively researched musically. I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l contribute to a better understanding and appreciation of the music of t h i s area - a music which has been underestimated and misunderstood by too many f o r too great a period of time. The fa c t that non-native l i s t e n e r s do not understand the meanings of the song texts has prohibited a f u l l understanding of t h i s music. Though not intended to be heard as ends i n themselves apart from t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l context, these songs have t h e i r own l e v e l s of i n t r i n s i c musical value that w i l l not reveal themselves to the ethnocentric l i s t e n e r . 197 B. Ne t t l ' s North American Indian Musical Styles Revisited The findings of t h i s study c a l l into question a number of methodological assumptions contained i n Bruno Ne t t l ' s p o r t r a y a l of the Northwest Coast musical area i n h i s North  American Indian Musical Styles (1954). F i r s t l y , N e t t l ' s i n -c l u s i o n of B e l l a Coola music among Salishan musics would seem to be based more on l i n g u i s t i c than on musical c r i t e r i a . N e t t l used Stumpfs nine songs as h i s B e l l a Coola sample, i n spi t e of the f a c t that three of these were borrowed from the Kwakiutl and Haida peoples. As pointed out i n Part One of t h i s study, i t i s c l e a r that the B e l l a Coola have borrowed not only many of t h e i r ceremonials from t h e i r neighbours on the North Central Coast ( e s p e c i a l l y from the B e l l a Bella) but also many of t h e i r instruments, songs, and performance organ-zation techniques. It i s therefore the contention of t h i s t h e s i s that B e l l a Coola music should be grouped with N e t t l ' s more complex l e v e l of Northwest Coast musical s t y l e s i n which he included the Kwakiutl, Makah, Tsimshian, and Nootka. Secondly, N e t t l has tended to over-simplify the i n t r a -t r i b a l song type d i s t i n c t i o n s by averaging out the musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l f u n c t i o n a l types so as to produce a t y p i c a l configuration of a l l components. As a r e s u l t these s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e s f a i l to reveal the v a r i e t y of song type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within Northwest Coast Indian musical reper-t o i r e s . The findings of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that a s t a t i s t i -198 c a l evaluation of the music of t h i s area should at l e a s t t r e a t the ceremonial and non-ceremonial r e p e r t o i r e s separately i f i t wishes to describe large s t y l i s t i c d i v i s i o n s . Within the non-ceremonial song grouping a further d i s -t i n c t i o n should be made between the Love and Lahal songs on the one hand and the Game and Animal songs on the other. As Appendix II in d i c a t e s , the musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these two groups of songs d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I f they hope to be i n any way exact, future comparative studies on. the music of t h i s area must at l e a s t be s e n s i t i v e to these fundamental sty-l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Some of Ne t t l ' s observations concerning song t r a i t d i -f f u s i o n within North America must also be commented upon. Un-l i k e N e t t l , i t does not seem probable to me " . . . that a n t i -phonal and responsorial techniques as well as polyphony came from Mexico, or that at le a s t the stimulus f o r them came from the evidently complex music of the Aztecs and Mayas" (1954:41). N e t t l made, these kind of d i f f u s i o n i s t inferences because he divorced North American Indian music from i t s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context i n t h i s study. Had he conducted f i e l d work on the Northwest Coast or consulted the ethnographic data compiled by Boas or Mcllwraith (to mention only a few sources) he would have r e a l i z e d that these musical "complexities", were i n t h i s culture area made possible by musical s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Musical d i v i s i o n of labor on the Northwest Coast evolved not out of 199 a desire to t r e a t sounds as things i n themselves but rather out of the need for. music to partake i n a well-orchestrated competitive ceremonial context designed to e s t a b l i s h and r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . Thus the utterance-of a dro-ning cry indicated that the Thunderbird was present, there-by confirming that a c e r t a i n Kusiyut had authentic super-natural assistance. I t i s questionable therefore whether t h i s drone should be termed, as N e t t l describes i t , a poly-phonic technique (1954:12). At best the drone i s pseudo-polyphony. I t s f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s more i n a so-c i a l than a musical realm. N e t t l also employs the terms responsorial and a n t i -phonal i n connection with Northwest Coast singing techni-ques. He does not define these terms however. Actual res-ponsorial singing does not occur among the B e l l a Coola. I t i s possible that N e t t l ' s use of the term would apply to the i n t e r a c t i o n between the announcer and the audience (and the choir) i n the singing of the winter ceremonial songs. How-ever the announcer merely supplies the words to upcoming textual d i v i s i o n s . He does not sing these to the audience, he shouts them. Mildred V a l l e y Thornton's tapes, from 1946 contain t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . As with the drone t h i s announcing i s not an aesthetic preference. The r o l e of the announcer was created to ensure a minimum number of errors i n the sing-i n g of texts and to maximize the number of p o t e n t i a l singing p a r t i c i p a n t s . 200 The use of the term antiphonal singing must also he q u a l i f i e d i f i t i s to he used to r e f e r to B e l l a Coola per-formance organization. The B e l l a Coola lead singer who pointed to d i f f e r e n t parts of the h a l l and thereby asked separate portions of the audience to sing was, i n Margaret Siwallace's words, "throwing the song around the room." This technique was therefore much l e s s formalized than the one with which antiphonal singing i s most often associated, that i s , singing i n a l t e r n a t i n g choruses. Furthermore i t i s not u n l i k e l y that extra-musical f a c t o r s played a r o l e i n t h i s "throwing the song around the room" technique. Thus polyphony, responsorial singing, and antipho-nal singing are not yet "full-grown" musical techniques i n B e l l a Coola Indian' music. In f a c t , according to the s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n s of these terms, they do not even e x i s t i n North-west Coast Indian music. They are, rather, musical tech-niques i n embryo that cannot be f u l l y understood without reference to s o c i a l f a c t o r s . In an a r t i c l e written over a decade a f t e r North  American Indian Musical Styles, e n t i t l e d '•Musical/ Areas Re-considered: A C r i t i q u e of North American Indian Research" (1969), N e t t l does not e s s e n t i a l l y change h i s o r i g i n a l po-s i t i o n concerning h i s methodology and the concept of music-a l areas. In t h i s a r t i c l e , a c t u a l l y a review of h i s own work, N e t t l maintains h i s "arm-chair" posture. Although 201 he now admits that h i s treatment of t r i b a l s t y l e s as homo-geneous u n i t s i s open to question, he s t i l l wants proof to the contrary since " . . . thus f a r i t has not been proved wrong i n many of the cases explored here" (1969:183). I believe that t h i s study of B e l l a Coola Indian music at l e a s t c o n s t i t u t e s the necessary proof f o r claiming that -Northwest Coast Indian t r i b a l r e p e r t o i r e s can no longer be considered as homogeneous i n s t y l e . A s i m i l a r claim can be made f o r the other component of N e t t l ' s Eskimo-Northwest Coast musical area, "Eskimo" music. Though he had decided to separate "Eskimo" music from that of the, Northwest Coast i n the 1969 a r t i c l e , N e t t l s t i l l treated "Eskimo" music as a homogeneous musical area. My experience with the music of t h i s "area", made possible through my as s o c i a t i o n with the ongoing studies of Alaskan (Pt. Barrow) and Coppermine musics by Prof. Ming-Yueh Liang and Prof. Doreen Binnington, has taught me that the term "Eskimo" music hides more than i t reveals. The contrasting s t y l e s of Alaskan, Coppermine and Hudson's Bay Inuit musics, to mention only a few of the l a r g e r s t y l i s t i c areas, cannot be grouped together and treated as a homogeneous musical area. Instead of attempting to ou t l i n e a new model f o r North American Indian musical s t y l e s , N e t t l suggests the (almost desperate) idea of "good" and "bad" musical areas (1969:184). He defines "good" areas as those that have the 202 ) " . . . t r a d i t i o n a l l y required degree of homogeneity" and "had" areas as those " . . . i n which t h i s concept doesn't work so w e l l " (1969:184-185). Such a s o l u t i o n must be viewed as s i m p l i s t i c and unworkable. I t continues to over-look the s i n g l e most important v a r i a b l e i n North American Indian (and Inuit) music - i t s f u n c t i o n a l context. I t i s my submission that the concept of a musical area would be better defined according to s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the f u n c t i o n a l contexts of the songs. That is., according to the purposes f o r which the songs were used. Thus B e l l a Coola music-would be grouped with other Northwest Coast Indian musical r e p e r t o i r e s that included winter ceremonial and non-ceremonial song types. However we need to know much more about the make-up of non-Bella Cbola Northwest Coast Indian musical r e p e r t o i r e s before such a musical area could be accurately described and a new model proposed. 203 P A R T T H R E E T H E T R A N S C R I P T I O N S 204 CEREMONIAL SONGS 205 H.1 Chief Sam Pootlass's Headdress Song 2'39" Co.- IISL 206 207 208^ IflM 1 \ ~ 1 1 I I v \ \ \ \ X ^ ^ /—-f ^ ^ 7*—: i2 —t-—i p / 1—I 1 — T M V l i — — nu M=> \ — \ — \ %~ > lb hi 209 H.2 Andy Schooner's Headdress Song 2'32» — 7 1 , • M H I l"h 1 ^ = R —G i r u r a : — 1 — ' v - + +• v _ M-1 > / <g » <g» g? ^ — « — * — 1 : -/ / / / / — * — • — / \ — - - - - -e-\ \ \ \V\ ' 4i4 j / • • j J • • • ! • i i i 1—• • • 5—v-' 1 -v /* / 2 1 0 »0. ^ i n i * i \m • • V * * * * * * 0 ^ y / / / • I ' • • • ' 0 u !?.< \ \ ) \ jC,U-,h \ l,h Y / ^ v M £ ^ * / * / - / <g1 - 1 / > / / / 1 ^ b ^ 211 I Ki l l ; \ r\ ' \ 3i • ^ <S" 1 & ' f • ^-\: \ \ \ \\ \\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ i l«> 3->) j I \ \ \ \ \ \. \ \ \ 1 V_"Z*~ "7". "7* "7" O 1 0 s / / / / / \ , '—--212 H3 T a l l i o Hans's Headdress Song 2'59" ( 1 i ((>(>' \ ; ' *9 Co.-\a5 d r u m : 5£ lz> > l i 213 ff?'°- b I I \ { [ ( ?, H/ /* • • { s cj / s \ . , 1 1 r V " 1 V y 1 ... ' v ~V- ~~7~" ^f—fe— i —^>f t ^  t ^  >f 1 -~ I 13-15. I - / V -r--. * T ^ * M \ \\ f f £ t * r I I I \ U u J \ ' " ' / _ i «ur i. iiW li ! f f l ' t = U \ \ ^  .|| \ I K i 1 \ \\\ • < E = > — ^ — g L t / • — ' ' \—' < > )—+.—9 • y \ > » v a.onlj \ v ^  ^ ii nrv» = gP i \ 1 i i \ \ i l = F | I I ,\\ \\\ -k 3—^ -—^ —i—*—^ —j.—^  o • o—t-~» ^ \ \ ^ i > ^ t — y — i - — I — s s t J > 1 — > — i 214 iM,i J. j d • j i — w w "1 v "7 <s/ w / ^ — * 7 — 7 ~ > ^ • 1 v _ -— = / — * 7 — T ~ L—f 111 \ 1 i\xl L z z z ^ z 2 f — — 3 f — , \. \ a t 11 1 1 Ufc ; 1 ; ;' ^ 1 j j 1 \ \ l i \ I 1 1 5 215 i r e - \ \ \ \ \ \ , i \ \ ? i \ \ ., i - A ^ — ^ — — 5 — * — ^ — * — £ * — £ — i * — ^ 4 J / T y =—J > 1 > ' ^ — T T t * T — i — - < o ^ — " v i- <SL_ 1 / / • 7 Z — V: 7 v: *'l 1 5 . f t Z — 7 7 \ \ i 1 \! M T * fa? 1 \4=^=F 3f-4 ^ / . tf> G> ^ ^ 1 — i * f ft 14 'f f i-^ ^— *—* s i*1 216 H4 Agnes Edgar's Headdress Song 1'27" — U , 7 + + & f^—S * * £ f * G— \V l ( U I (& II \ \ \ / =. id.- 136 dram; |HV f-r? —?—1—?-» T \ — y — • — f — f-*—< £—r—f—f 0 — L I -X ^ 1 1 \ \ \ I i> \ l \ 1= 1  \ t ' \ T \ \ f f ?—f—f— f * — \ ? 1 \ 1 \ \ 1 ( 1 \ \ ; * 1 1  111  T T -** ^ f- ' ' » - N I — - 9 -4—1 5. + * Z J P —n » —7-1 T ' • T' 1 f > Zl 217 n > > > • ° n tf 1 1 • f ^ ^ a a 7 7 7 — ' \ \ f 7- T > » > > • VC 1 X " i if "1 " 7 • 1 1 ^ Y i l l 1 £ ^  £ ^ — i — — 0 © © '-—*5 IO. * f ^ • / g ' © Q 1 T |[ . t Hi t T -Ti —^1—1 \ \~\——\ \— \— T T = - 7 — > > > rr 4f a a 7 7 • 4fc x 4> OP "7 1 0—| p J—4-4-^-> > ^ ^ _ 1 1 M 1 ' > - _ f *h ^ — ' f t \ i \ i I' ~ 218 H5 F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress Song 3'45" y r i i •• i -4 ^ -am: -/ 1—I • r i • V w - J -H 1 t 1 * 1 f f i >f * f — i — * • : (_} * ^ ^ 1 *f \ [ r '\ r = •yt T P ' T T * i T I ' t -= V 5 A 1 1-— Y * T T t T 1 nil a = f c a r y y .< T T 1 T T 1 V V 1 = ^ r t tnv 219 L t * V—\ + + w J. sj? «ir "7 1 " 1 1 j y t — ^ — y — 4 — r 4 . . y » y « « y ^ I \ i ? I T * I I 1 / ^ v> w " 7 e —^ I T 3 3 1 — y t x '[ z ao. 1 / - y y t -h h i ^ — y t y -V3—I ± — — l i t 1 ^ 1 * 1 * fe: Pf. pp. 1[ t T t r t T T ^ _ J t — ^ > — y y —<9-\. T V / > * — » * — * > 1— y y y 7 qp l s s / s s i 1 1 1 f l — " 2—1—T ; | i i i : ? | — 4 — | — * F ti { 220 "Pas--v A-Y ?. 1 "< I f f H f f 11 Y t ^  , \ ,3Q-> I , If T * f T * T t 1T t' 1 I ^ \ o. 1 • * — 7 7 7 r—W - = f a — A V^ O \ S O y"^ \ 7T-1 1 , T<TT< i l l 1 1 If f J1 f f i f Y I s " * 221 — p o / y 1  ^ zz—i—zz zz 1 ^ —.—i—~ B:—t T * 1 7 « OI — ^ e £ _ \ O . f V J J f J „ ^ S: 1 —y—y—i--Hr-H y fif Y—*—y y f / s s i Pp. ' \, \ ' ' ' ' ' { r 7 «Y "1 *k 1 ti "7 n 7 ' $ — 4 — A — 4 — i -/ y y y y > S o s s 7 L i " 1 I 1*1—t *f f | != > - r > y y y 7 > y x 7 T \ 1 1 1 1 1 M l i t 7. 'J I-\\\ 11 l ? 1 1 11- v l 4 | 222 / 1 . . 1 1 — & —0 ^  )^—^  1 ; - h 1 i r r \ \ = f f I —^—j-^ T t ' f \ * — 1 — — J — ^ — ^ — ± J — J j ——1 ' — - f - « — y £ y y i y — ^ - 4 — ^ — y { y y i y >f H6 C h a r l i M . 223 e Snowfs Headdress Song 1'54" / % ^ — ^ * >* / ^ > 1—\—(-4 \ \ - r — > — —i 4 — _ : — X CO. »BJO # — c _ — j : — ^ — — — | — s , * ,—_^. ; . { { — ; — , i •V / 7^  > I T ' ' , . - I I I I \ < * T a -v I l -6 t t = » ! ^ 4 7 — \ 1 -7 a l l < J n r r J u y ' £ | [ " i n ~ r * i - f ± — \ 2 Y 1 - Y £ — — \ l \ % — t — * — *—* f> fcK \ \ S s s r i v < r3 • 4 4 — F — * — / v-^ - '-^ 1 " * — t — 1 a "tempo 1 i 1 1 -B r — 224 —/ — t — t — 1 — n n - ) — > — ^ — — ? — y . r - ^ t 1 , \ — > ttt-\—(—kr r — v — > — ' ir — i | y y y-*v] * i*'-,"r=v4 1 1 1 • * T t o - ^ 4 ' i i \ n 1 cV+. --7 ^ h - ^ P 1 -> 1 J^^ V-J 7 T 7 — y — f — — y ^ -> ^ * — — « tt—i [ d ' i I i » \ \| 11 — ~ ~ a "tempo ^ 3 — . 1 w — ^ 1 _w — Y 1 Y ^ 1 ^ h - ^ ' . 1 — — > — — * — y ^ i — ^ — ^ r f ^ t \—^—^5—n— T 225 " * - , \ , y r r > | 1 U - - r v , _ - » \ -r=-M i k G f U 1 ^ i ' ^ ' 1 ^ = 1 r-. = ,— = 3 1 ^ -\ ^ _ ^ . \—-}—<*t— i r — rlt _____—4_ —X J «>— ' *> 1 t <x "tempo 1 >— I T 7 1 T 1 J 226 H7 George Nelson's Headdress Song 3*15" =-t—B e> * _ r — ^ — ~ 1 ^ . o — i < ; , > -i 4, ZJ. p u 'urn: ~ft 1 1 1 VX vy 1 W W 1 \> M \ ~) V_» v_» ***** 1 L T T : I \ \ 1 - v - f -f f t f f , M i . , i 1 \ 1 r t - ; " * ' * • — v — > 1—y——^ , V \ i 1 , — ^ — ^ { ^ ^ t — ¥ — ^ — i — f f 5 >^> ^ I 1 T T < T — F — i -v x J v x v x «"*> 1 1 = F = t = f e = • T 1 * T T 1 1 M l , n I. V r 1 T v x J • x <_» ( -jX \ x "7 xx> SX- J —<- * — £ ^ — — | — — & 2 / w \y / s x- V ^ W' y 6 = ^ 1 T - \{ V \ ^ — ¥ — t - f y t f Y * TT < 227 ~7X * — f — T — * — — ^ '1 s I \> \ k ^ It ^ ' f T ' M 1 •, i 4 -\ ^  '^ -.\ ,1 - v f e — 1 = 2 ?-7 V V — * — A — i a o • — 1 — g — 1^ 4= —^—^4—y—^Pf—^4—^4-> XT I ^ o \ f s > v 4 = N = i -Op— 2 - V> l> - 1 ' H U H 1 f ty . 1 1 1 M l —^—T T T '? •? -T -1—tJ 1 ' 1 i l l L T t1 ft 11 T 1" * i Y y iy—y t y y t -228 1.1 { \ \ \ \ M K 1 M > a T-1 \ \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M I : i bl H i \ b .| 1 1 l-O,.-F [ 1 O ^ 1 W V- ss JJ v V *") — 1 - 4 - ' O I I T 1 1 ! z 1 1 T \ { l 35 » ii- I j—^ -** G-5 229 —\ w-I j 1 V — 4 U ^ l p O ? *> ^ V V 1 \ / V ' \y w v_t \s / v/ \y / v_-l b — t - ^ { \ * Y T 7 i T r * i 1 '( \ i \ \ ^ t ' \ c ^ N l 230 H8 Simon Johnson's Headdress Song 3'33" | \ 1 \k\ .r. i \ \ \ \ , i -M — drum: s _ i > y y £ y K "J? vc _r _* > ^—i • \ { i — = — = — - ^—_J -ff — f — Y i ^ — ^ - — t - ><L ^ ^  >C >^  { S\ j - f y -y-—<5> y 4 1 __ * * < * 4= I 1 H- \ Ilk r.3? \- I \ n | 1 \ TH1 ,| ^ ; - ' — " * r V v _f V / V V ' L _ y _ l 1 _ J \/ V - VX V \X / VY \X / \ J J J V XX V/ \ [ V T, ( V T 6 T T 11 'V Ttll\i(H 231 1 \ \ M l \ = ± = - J ^ > 1 J d-^L 1 — g> %- ' • , 3 i b \ i 4 t \ 1 1 T-rp 1 \.,| \ L f T * T . . r r — ~ " > ? — y 1 y \ i Y — ^ - 4 -5. - — ^ a r , * p -fc-5 < i-fc--I > " + \ b is i [ = = [ • t T ' l rP T T X T X * T T * T = T * T ^ 1 1 ' 0 V \ 1 \ .\? 1 —\f 7 v> ^ ~ n P I \ \ t t x 4 — 7 — f ' — \ *T—"a 1 f f 1 - V 7 J5 V 1 1 ? 1 M 1* G G 1 1 ' \ T i I V T { t M T T £ | T T 1 232 u / \ \ \ o f , V l T „ | - f _—^—*—\—*—i—u \—\ •.<•>'— 4-vx v.. Ix Vx V^  ^ VX VX / *X VX VX VX VX / \ X V. X / V T \ '\ '[ X T T 1 1 T #=£^= L— 3 —J L.— 3 — J X * \ V 1 1 7—•> 1 s,, 1— J _ _ i \x vx \, \X VX "7 VX* VX / Vx VX / VX VX / 1 1 ( 1 V vx- / 1 . 1 X T 1 T 1 1 T T 1 T "V T T T 1 L_ 3 1 Ii 1/ \ M I i ~ \ \ 1 \ ,\ < f^t- ** j: =) vx vx ^  vx w • / vx ~x / vx vx i vx vx T vx vx '7 vx" Vx V xn T 1 ' T V M ' T l ' T T 'T T ^ •#= < F ^ X y ^ X y ^ \ ^ _ O 1 X x X. ^ 3 — < 3 — J 1 U \? \ 1 t t 1 233 30 |  -F- -r-M-4 221 r T 1 T T, T T \c * fT '^ T X H,P¥i * ¥-f—¥ * * - K — y « >,< ? |T)1 >;),D) i f ) \ > IN 3 —1 ' 1 ? 1 F { f ' f3 f y 1T 234 \ ' \ M 1 \ 1 \ \ \ — * / a - _: -<© 1 H O L— i i 5 ^ — f — * -*= ^ \ T V * 1 £ = = t i t : ] ) = ^ r - 3 1 M \ M = f ] _Z_^ _ _ v v V ' v v y \ s S f o < y t - — — ^ V _ y v v s-^  ' i ^ / \ / / / i-s—, V/ \y \s | l T ( ' \ k J F J ^ i V \c (v 0— ^ -4 lz> / 235, H9 Mrs. W i l l y T a l l i o ' s Headdress Song 2'56" -J. ^ • — — / ^ M M , . < • — p «=_ - t — / •5 1 i 1 1 T V y 1 • / y n „ -— - ) >. n h i i i r \x / vy \> / \j ' V T T L T t ( ' 12 5 \ \ \ 11 \ \ \ ' \ \ \ { S_ _± £ i ±_ f p • O f . O S f ' / • ffS^S \ \ i \ H I M V \ 236 -c — 7 77 i y g> / N 4" <==»» 1 f i ""f > P * * — ^ — f - > — ' M M M \ \ l l v v r It \~r^ y ^ 1 ^ ^ *_ ^ — ^ t y y t 1 f \ * - i r . r? /• , p s f / s —77-^ y~t ^ ^"? Y \c H c t ^ T T 7 T — > ^ fx-7 7 7 7 1 1 —C ( f~p =7^ 7- s s , • 1 1 • 1 c h—1—\ 1 v \ , I-I-1 \ l ' V t t t — T— T—*— t — \ [ \ \ i l \ \ f 1 i i ^ 4: =»= ±-237 I- 1 f <~> 0 \ ^ < y—=>H-4; V / \< VX \) VX VX O SjX 1/ / VX VX 7 Mil f l vx vx / VX vx" "} -vx ^ - t — ^ f 1 ^ | t ^ { ^ ^ i f 1 x" ?T 3 ^ = fj S Si s s "J 1 rM 1 \ \ n M M i l l " 1 \C vx I y ^' 1 \x V J Vx vx ~) \ x vxyv^vx-Oax kx —a. J. . T T L —\"1 T I L V \ 1 r r M ^ f ^ F 7^  xj^ =- • ' 1* ' ^ 1 : , , ,2__ > — V - -* >*— ( 1 f—1—> *~ f **—y—=5 • *" > n [ M l 1 1 1 1 1 \\ \ \ A \ \ \ \ * • VX . vx • vx / / VX vx ^ vx Vx / vx vx 1 %x vx 1 11 T T T T T T 1 * 1 T r 1/ T 1 1 l> 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 ^ = Vx- 1- T " Vx J VX \x ) VX VX "") \x VX 1 Vx 1 \ HM> Vx VX / 238 -f — ° ? ? — f — f — — f — * f~ -k p 1 * t l 1 1 l M i xx xx / xx \x ~) v x —-5 rj^rr I —^ f - ^ 'f | t f i ^ - 4 f T i l = • ' \ \ = U X  / X  X  / X  \X / —n L . T V V T 7 ^ — J 1 X—Y * 1 f ' — 4 x-- x-j *  • o- > ^ ^ • ^  g n -Q M i i J | ' \ \' \[ 1 1 \ i \ l H X  T ) \x / 1 v 1 " X  / v  vx'7x^ xx')ix — ? & s f s •p t Y — t — ^ — ^ L Y \ ? ^ — r i i i \? > vx'y xv xv «-» I T -T = M 239 H10 Dick Snow's Headdress Song 1 '03" — j * * * si > — -> & v -M I XX * v \ X Vv- \x \X \X \v W U [ I ' j I — r^-^— n i. T V T v T T\T T' V V T tTITT f ' : — * — f — s — — — a r-t= 1 ^ / V V V i V \x \x V / • > i -\ y v \ y 1 T T T i r l r K v . , M , i . 1 \ \ \ , , f \ 1 M „ ^ v , ^ -<=cr-l sX v x y V V / |- ^ " < ^ \ • V V V V /' * * — t — ? — I f f T t ^ J • x x;t y * • r 1/ / S J> S f-i s 7 f f V f-~^ y-vl?. t i is i = H Sx v- xx xx- xx V xx V / 1 1 M l \ - u \ ^ V V V XX / XX Xv Vx XX- 1 • 1. Y p r Y i >f ^ >f \ / -1 240 J L \ O —72-~Y * " : rr — : v/ \~ vx y y / - W - J — 1—|—-1 { V Vx-" NX VX \x- • V/ vx - vx vx vy "7 I I T T — ^ 1 T t f1 T T T 1 r z>\ ' ' ' ' v \ \ T T 11 241 H11 North Vancouver Headdress Song 39 i Y ° i T i -• \ \—\ f pr—4 1 J 7 1 HI -k^> 1 —ff ' ' ' ; \ H \ > > > i i 1 \ X \s V »x I I X X XX \ x X X X v —14- -—^^-^—Y—^-^—f ^ Y Y Y t — ' X* J . . . 1 1 ^ • O' x 9-[ M ,\ ^ x • > y y xx x x M M V xx- VX ' ^X XX \ 1 1 \f V ^  V S/ \x M ; i — - — ^ — T T T \ M T T > = V T T T T T ' i T f 1 \ A \ j g ^ i x , \ \ 1 , | Sx XX \x y • s s / | ^ S < | s s J \ v_^ _ V V V \J< \x v x \x \x \x V» 1 T T T T T T T T T V T 1 242 H12 B e l l a B e l l a Headdress Song 1 '43" H T \ t i a ^ r ' (n k 4 r -drum' . C ' V o ^ e d ' ' u n i s o n fitelpclic rbi-'Hiir?) 5. 1 1 < /' y ^ ^ ^ y I •X-/ f ** -f—? U—f—,—^-1 \ x \ x * x -^x- v / / U b u \ i ; • = H F ^ "NX" V X V / V V X 1 ^ x \X VX V x ^ t — V V V \ \ 1 1 243 M L M i — \ - . — • *- ' \ \ s . y . v \ 1 \> V ' ' ' T V V V \{ \ s *" vy \y \v V x- • \ • . \y t M^ i l l V 'V \ '1' \ 1 : I s' f ,-M->-- Y -1 v v y f v = ^ -4Jp—• / T 1 • \ \ \ X \* V V SX • ff-Y \/ \ s SS \/ I L v \ 1 'V 'C \ \ \ =±x t \ V V V MMv V M M ^ iM ± 244 AZ ^ 1 » -i / ' ' * s \ J —v— x x y w y - x / y v x v y X / n X \ x X x 1 XX X X i t — v v v v \ — u 1 V ^ V ^ ^ \ ^ ^ y * t x< J£ >rC- >C ^ — 7 — / - / x ' --a s *f-v2 ^ — ^ — * — * -245 H13 Winass's Headdress Song 1 '34" 3= irunv. 3 - 7 - 7 - 7 ¥ * ^c y >>c ¥ >.c^^  ^ z t E Y y y 1 ^ y |=g ^ — I "2 . * 1 •2 : ±=3 ± 3 i 246 1—Y V !'\ > 247 M1 B e l l a Coola Raven Mourning Song 2 f09" f ' o / ll i - ^ ^ V - > ^ \ \ c , y * i h t n u M ^ ky •Vr H • s M l ( a ) , ^ ^ ' L0B y ^ 4 L ^ M o — 1—: r a - n r {' ( ' * > b°ll \ \> \ f \ 1_ \ \ I z z i ^ z : WljlW f i ' M [,~{ M ( ( 248 f * y p + • * > ^ " " \ ^7 + • — y I. 1 f I \ 1 1 u 1 \ \ \f 1 249 rH > Alec Pc )°' sf' 250 >otlass's Mourning Song 2*48" > + • + + - 4- +-M M ! M M i l IN * •* x . • *—_r-^ — ^ — ^ » *—^—p-, -^—>>r-r-M b > V \ \ \ \ 1 \ \ 1 \ \ 1 i — ^ — IH3 \ ^ G \ ' M i l i I \ \ ' t\ \ \ G \ \ \ \ V C 'L; ' V \ " f 1/ jfrr p\' Q tr• b \ \ 1 \ \ i M [ \ \ \ [ 251 252 M4 Mrs. Jim Po l l a r d ' s Mourning Song 2 ' 11 " 3E I — y v is C M H M i M ( M i i \ 9 G \ M £ 1 \ ^ M k \ i H f 3 P- ^ ^ ^ v — y -ttz. 1 ' ' r . ,= i i M v i ^ M ^ f 3 £ 1 ; i i \ ^ M M i I \ y v 1 \ f ' \ f - f ' - p f ' \ \ 2 \ / 253 ) i V ao. * \ _r=> 1 f S s ^ 1 z? y "5 f ~> . f " M 1 1 V I \> 1 \s \ V T- 1 V I * — f X K ^ x — x — > \ ^s o — t — f - — * * — ^ — r x • — • - f Kx \ \ 1 u v U T" 1 \ \ \ V V V V "~~^» — \ \—"=*> — y -v 1 \ -1 . x • v\ : ILT I \ H ^ 1 1 1 l> " v t ' 1 Vi - X ^ y ^ \ X — IL'f \ b ' \y \ \ J 255 256 l \ G G ' \> 7 M b \ ' \ \ \ ' V 0 .1 k n ' 1 1 i> G G i n ; _ O 1 y •— y y--^ — ^ y ^ ^ \ , /T V t x ^ y r f \ \' \ > /• * 7 — y \ V \t ' 1 \ \ T • G G \ 1 G \ G G G M G G \ \ M > ; G f r \ G £ ' V \ ^ 50. x y x • x 4 - y — v—y-6 5fL * ' x \ f f / s- * / 1 \ f f - — ' c \ \ \ : vv v v v G 1 1 v v n 257 258 M5-; Alexander Clellamin's Mourning Song 1 * 56" * —* S s vA \ ^ — - . \ —j > > ^ . r l —ff t = M = ^ M M - # L T T <• Y \ »• 1 1 t t t l • f T * V sv J y v. / y I T f { | f M >( -f 1 1 >f >f i ^ ' 'f 1 ^ - 4 -T I " 1 I " ( | 1 U V I) I — I . . — r ^ ? — - — -.—-r-—^ V > 1 • / V N' ' "sr V n l T 1 T r = ^ T \ T ^ > -\ \ V • A 1 1 T \ 1 1 V V r • r—* * V - 4 • • ^ I i ^ n — — ^ 7 — Y ~ l Y Y t i v V * 259 — — 7 — — I — f \ \ — 1 — X x S • * S X - N \ 1 X "--v V -1' j V 1 v V 7 1 I \M G G i " 1 \ vx \ / / vx v x 7 vx - r ~ Y 1 { T 1 V - M ^ v l 1 X — — X - > . — 1 T V - x - . \ - . 1 T T 1 T= x — , \ o > > v_x 'x1 vx vx r-r v / v^ 7 V "VX / VX Vx l-f 11 '(•" \ V = ± = $ =^=^ 1 V T*' \ T 7 = r — ^ — M n T \ I? l>- " ^  - V — X j VX vx I [ * "vx* Vx* / I T T >^T=^ \ \ U' ^ — ^ ^ 4 —i—\ x**" g > 1 — y — f ' s • x ? A }=f •x T t * I M I ' H n r ' 1 1 T Y R ( V Y * = 260 •x "V y-M6 Captain-Schooner's Mourning Song 4'40" \\ ,-A ] \ i \ \ \ \ \ I V \ H 1 i /• ^ - x —^ ^*—\ ' * ' * y ) \ ) L K I \ 1 I t M _ r\ I \ \ = C T n ^ i j [ \ ' ' M ; * " \ \? \ \ & ik! r r f * ^ - ' > \ - \ \ J*\ 1 4 Ifr \ I \> \ \ ' \ \ ~ ' M " 1 0 \ -ri^ i i \ \ \ . , > M / . s U l 1 i 1 T"L> ^  * — 1 — ^ — * — — * i — \ 1 jL__1 L - — 5 ^ U ^ / - t — / g > ^ ^ <P • > - v \ \ 1 T <_ * • 6—Z. 1 2 0 - 1 • x /y y \ [IT I " ' \ \ \ r ? i i \\\\\\ \\ , < — O '/ • \ \ \ ' \ 5 7 f' V (•__, < ^ — i ^ ^ ^ / >• • } I 1 I 1 t M -' r r A' \ 11 262 —*~~\—^ x y — i — ^ — * — ^ — * — * — ^ — i f p H i i n i ,, j u ^ irV l \ , , , r „ „ . ^ M , — ^ — > 1 if c,; * * * •• \ \> \ \ tii 1 ! l M ! t i rP , \ , V \ \ i \ I . A \ , i \ \ M j ^ ^ — * — ^ — > ^ _ ^ • > — J - ^ s ? — © — ^ — o — i ^ -1 IT i) M i M l \ \ II. , f = \ rp * A 1 l | \ , „ , \ 1 1 i I V \ \ \ r * c J 1 \ \ \ x 1 H i • — 263 M7 X i m k i l a ' s Mourning Song 2'23" ^ M M M V M " \ ^ 264 M8 Sunxwkila's Mourning Song 3'11" I V \ \ M \ ' { \ O . 0 \ \ V \ \ V 265 266 D1 Echo Dance Song (Schooner Family) 2-21" 0.«5 i • i ( e • is -ca-157 •Irmn -Gi 11 1! _ _± ± ± __ -*r 4- -4- -V -y * -d? X tJ9 X w #• w i x , J I I I " w : >54..\-J.O 4/ r O I Y l . 267 — f — f — ' J * J—r-r. * ^ o — — r\ i f \ i ] n \ \ \ \\ \ i ^ H ^ 1 \? T 1 1 _____ 4- ^ 4 \ \, \ R 1 1 \ 1ST 1 1 1 T > q | ^ E H ^ >y J 1 1 7 \ \ i\ 7i —4 £ ? _ _ _ _ — ^ _ p>—| 1 1 ^ «-•a M •? 9 9 n -> i > ^ G \ {| I T T T C | J P ^ * j 1 7 ^4 * — r I 268 D2 H i U i a Dance Song (Anna Schooner) V 02" i : 1 i i i v i 1 v v i ' \ \ \ S 3 — 1 1 \ \ V T | l V "-I V V> \r V 4= 3 EH x9 I X < >-V ^ '( Y y I t I if v >f i l l f 1 j 1 !f >( M -1 1 U 3 J? 269 r > - ... V,_ . '. , s—y y yr ^ ^ ' f ' f ' , />. M v t- i H F H l> .V b l> M H Y • V \t It 4 'f V V /' t—i T 1 ' T T "' r l ) , • - . -ir \ • — « 1 — > • — — < • ~ ) — * — -H^ * ^ — \ — p 1 , —: M v -T \ 1 1 V V 1 M I V H M M V \ Y I i \ \ *- \ { f T — \ T \ — I I \ L • | f ^ ^ ' X < V l> I 'M 1 W \ W >( 1 1 1 >f Y i 1 T i Y >f ^ t Yt< M i 1 M V M M ' M i ^ ' s * f J . \ f s v I 270 -r-7"—^ r y ? 2 - > < — * >r- x. P = F -7 /=. , > "* > —> \ 77 1 1 1 ^  ' " NX \<x y / vx I T 1 1 | * .t z ± ^ = j D3 Mystery Dance (Captain Bob) 2'05" • — n — f ^ — f — > \ ' — * — — \ - ^ t - r - i -tin. 7 \ ' ^ n \>- \ # = ^ i / —Y 1 Y c T f ^ i r i i ' H i \ l 1 1  4 — ! py \ ' ' 1 1 *.L ..... K V 1 1 r 1 11 1 vv.\ \ — _ — _ 1 1 1 1 s X / 1 = i 1 1 fn —v \ • > . > v - / — \ \ 7 " *-> \ 1 y- s > / " ^ ^ ^ \ f . — » 1 1 1 I f 1 1 ' = » 272 \ ^ - - , _+ V + -A \ s~ , — 9 - Si ~\ \— —p-T-f = Q 1 f V-\\ 0 T 4 r i — r ^ H - r • 1 C_-- b — b 1 \ \ \ 1 v y \—* -\5—V 1 1 1 1 V x 1 1 1 1 A x^-y 7 —-p—rA—1 y*". V x * ~ \ ? tM ' ' H I ^ — ^ — 1 1 1 -1 r ; v v u j t | 1 1 1 — — 1 1 rvx I 1 1 1 <TM ; ' V \ \ \ ' " 5 T 3 1  \ { | r ; - v m ^ _ i 1 1 1 t V 1 rr l ) ^ \ , . • M \ • / f _3-\ \ \ s • s s s •> V \\x/ 1 - - - - — 1 J — I t - x W 4- • 1 I 1 1 1 1 273 ^ » 11 ^ ' V M ^ i 1 1 ^ \ 1 1 1 -J ^ | 1 > — W W / l T T T T I .. -M - " • .-II.. 1 . 1 , 1 . , , — „ . , -274 D4 B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song (Farewell Song) 59" r r H (A f a — ' , f f V «,x V,/ S-r v i* 1 - I v--** V x Vx ^ vx* — ^ I V T t \ T t • v '\ i1 v v x v x v x \ / v x ' v x v x v x v x vx ' vx- - - x S.x V x Vx v / ' I T T V T T X r 1 x \ ' \ ' = ^ p 4? ) } r-X ' / ) • (? f r 4 V V V x V x Vx" V X V x I V \ f \ [XX) 275 D5 Fred T a l l i o ' s Dance Song 2'31" )-<_.-|TSL dram: / / \ S V/ —- -1 1 H — I . V \ " = 7*:—f f ( f— f ^ T ' — ^ — f ~ — - >^ ? H 1 T^'*' H I I ' \ \ \ \ - — 1 i \ V V v v \> ri?f A A \-\ \ ^  H i ^ -C_^—^—^—^—l—d—f.—/ • '—/> / • / ^ <! ^ - ^ 1 1 j v i r n <i 1 1 = 1 1 JL f — * ' f ' — * ' *r> 9 f ' " \ f ' f ' ^ — I "? T M I V 1 H \ j | v f I V H H \ " 1 1 K - > • 1 1 \ 7 1 ' 276 < • > ' ' ' ' S \ It J J s ^ M ^ ^ y lb—V ' M - -i \ i ." 1 1 rf , 1 f—y—~f ' ti 1 \'\—\ ' • \ *— H i T \ Is 1 U M M 1 Iv \ " L_ r f i — L / — — , ' g . ^r-^ r Y f ' i f • y n n -1 —\—f—*—?—+—^—/ T H 1 V M * n H —* 1 f^A r 1 i 1 —/ v /— / —°r f / ** i [ U n i l r ' ^ n — i 1 — i 1 — 277 i M , , , ^ 1 ,r\ M M l i l H H \ i' i\ > • < > • < > __ 1 J — = ? M + • = 1 x - vl I o n ' ' f ST' f ( ' ( ( rt \ — ^ 1 1 \> \ V \ \>\> I l> T 1 1 1 '• f S ' ' ^ 1 f-*—v- f- +—f f > ^ & \ f '/ n 1 p M 1 *• \ M V I M Vv ' ' H I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - i b — 2 — 1  Y 1 278 D6 Mask ' Dance (Dick Snow) 1 • 46" -Mp3 1— drum". 11 \r» \/ ^ \/ Srf' v y v >- V ^  ' I 11 T i f • ( t \ y x • -7 * / ' ' 1—f—' > y f • m A \ 1 A \ F = ~ P j — * — ' y—y r 9 V Sx •* n w * ' \ • XX XX XX XX 1 »X XX XX 1 v \ \ \ \ \ V 1 1 ' ' — 3 — 1 1 XX xx v/ Xx xx • I T Y •L T T T T 1T T T 1 T T T T T' t \ i \ M » / T V x, ; * 7 . / T V / / XX X»X \x ' SX XX W vX \x 1 VX Vx \X XX Xx 1 VX XX XX- Vx 1 XX VX I T Y T i > H T T ' \ T T T 1 1 T T T A f J \ ff ' ' > - ^ | ] rr f ' * ' > ' rr • 1 >— XX XX W VX V/ V X Ix X. XX XX XX ' 1 t vY- T v \ v 'y f v T H 279 D7 Clown's Dance Song 1M6" s / • •> c f ,W \ \'\ \ \ i fO -X A c 3 -k & = -ca-lll _rum; 77 y- \ \ n V \ v \ ?M W -4 / V x 1 1 K« V 1 1 : — \ — k - k — i — I — \ — — i — 7 — i — f ^ f ^ o \ (~, r ^ f f*y. nj \ lx^^i \ \ 'WVi v\ „ 1 1 Y > H 1 - f ; " > i t - \ — ^ — | — ' [ l • )— — 1 1  — 1 _ _ — i . 280 — 1 1 L \ ' • • i L '• '"f - u ^ T s i \ M i I \ i •1 — ; 1 I T ' 1 = i V \ n\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I M ' 1 1 > 281 D8 Mystery Dance 2'30" Arum: -n i i f \ t 1 \ r ( T i > —J \ 1 1 y — ? 3 — -_ 1 1 » ^ \ \ \ \ U > i \ j \ ] 11 I \ ^ ^ ^ ^ <_> -^-A—xr-t-4- . W ^ - ^ ; 1 l T • = IV \;,\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ r . | x x x ^ l \ I 1 ^ 4 = . T ' t ' t ' 't ? ! ! / \ i 7 ? -7-2 8 2 T & ' h 4- ' -h ' M '' ' 1 11 -*•=» 3 g g * { ^ * = — — 1-^ \ 1 y % i t t ( 1 1 t — r r 1 1 3 i - t - x A y x - l — \ U - M — ^ " " -,"*' \ t T i n V - ° * ' ^ * ' t U v _ _ 1 1 II T rP 1 \ \ \ p» 1 1 - _ » ^ v > ^ — y — A I \ \—\—\ ->-?~4— - v_ »g ^ O /  L •\\ v V»v \ ' ^ ' m I ^ H i \ ' •  1 ( K > —<2—> —> / x—. ) \ 4 { -2:—) 0 ) ) y \—i Y^' ^ — - N f ' — v / •.— & c ' — ^ b * b r — ^ ^ 0 — — 1 283 \ \ \ \ 1 V e^f O " C * ] \' > ' Lo^) \ | m -1 1 1 1 j 1 1 - = 1 1 I t \ \ \ \ \ \ \ n,\ \ \ = x 3 !-r ' ^ ; * /^ >,—) { 4 -^—>— 1 1 { ' =>= | r M 1 \ \ -H-—1 1 1 1 — i 1 f ? " 1 :  4^ -4 — ^ = 284 D9 Fungus Dance (Anny T a l l i o ) 1'58" r - 4 f i t - T r r ,f^f r-r?. \ x = > ~ ' \ V I I • V>b I i l n : "Vrcjra-_ — 1 1 - 4 NX y-I- "V ' 1 1 —y ' ' 1 \ > . f r ^  *• - o . \ y y y 7— -4= ' \ \>\ 1 1 J- M I M \ 1 l 1 V l> v 7 SKI „ ^ « 1 - ^ — ? 7— Iv ) ~ . — . , -—f—f—r /> ' 7 f — * * / 9 . - • \ \ \ v 1 1 1 \ i \ \ * vx v> ^x / \x VX \x VjX / • »- \ t T T 1 ' \ t \ \ i J1 = 285 D10 Doctoring the Dancer Song (Dick Snow) 51" I K—e. • g r •—m. • e e. - , O. / x II I \t 7\ \ \ v \ \ \ \ \ \ I i \ \ 5\_ -r-286 D11 Richard's Edgar's Dance Song 2'03" f • • f tL ^ £. e. C • tSk 1 f f j + , , 1 * * y. * y yg * V * . V-S i \ V \ \\ \\ i ^ U H v i VtT » t 287 -f->—** +--— >—• *• — / +-I I \ Y\ ([ \ ^-A 71 J i f f n r UW ( c<<$ \ \ \ \ 1 , 1 1 1 1 \ 5 1 1 i i T V T 1 t t 288 D12 Albert Hood's Dance Song 1 '14" f ft. J • y y y : * y - y . y — y ^ — y y y • * r ~ T v • \ \ \ i y T r V T V • > r • Y V Y i Y T' Y •Y V T \ Y' T 1 Y Y' _£ _ E I ' M 1 1 T T T V T T • V T T "t T 1 Y t ' "t t T' Y 1 ' ( ' ' ( " T 'Y ' f Y 289 r \ \> " v - — 1 \ \$ — — ^ v x v x • VX • V X v x • S X ^ w v / • ^ x 1 V X V x • v x 1 V X w • t—1" T T— V - T V T f T' \ T \ ' T T x / " - x x \ I X x - \ V _ . V , v , • v x vx- ^ \ M ' I \ ' \> VX- V , . v x I v x V X • v X \ v x v x • I T T T T T' Y T 'f1 T T T=fc?4= I ? ) \ \ M 71 — I • M \ » U M t v x V X V x ' V x I V x V y * v x ^ V X V X • V / ^ v y v x • v x v x |L T T T T ' ^ P -Sr—*—r^?—1 '? IT ? — I* T ' T T V » T T T r v x « V x V X V x " V X D13 Jim P o l l a r d ' s Dance S mr. \ \ \ ,=^F 290 ong (fragment) M l , , • ? — 1 — r ~ % \—-?— ^ • ) > o -" " J- LI 1M i J M J . 1 + •> ' > o \—t—£— rl> \ - i—T~T1 1 \—T Hr~ \—\—r^r-— ; — * 1 1 \ — i — > \ \ \ (•-, i i i i i i i i - ^ ,J> M • - i — I \ 7 — \ ^ \ \ D H Boys . Dance Song (Louie H a l l ) l_f \ \ / \ \ . A . / . i 41" * £> n > -»\ *5 \ — ^ ^ \ ^ ; — \ i t ->• - oil. \ \ .. .1 V \ . \ M = - f i - 5 - ^ — ^ — " zn- ' * t ii " < • 6 D15 Child's Dance Song (Jim Poll a r d ) 22" HO 1 r — * — • 1 1 — s , • H — i > > J j . ; \ — f i - , ; ) ; ^ v ' \ - y - ' ^ — D \ M , J = 292 293 294 D18 Cedar Bark Dance Song ! 14711 t ; ' - r - | r l 1 h' 77 r l rk \ \ MM 1 \ \ \ \ ^ ^ > > • z z z z z z : 3 r l 2 r> 1 T \ \ \ \ \ \ y 1 295 E1 Entrance Song (Rivers I n l e t ) 1M5" • ' - 0 ' l - f f f ' -x . 1 l x - x KM ! Jr x_«v-6_ ~n • y n \ n i vi • M H= • 1* 7 \X j / vx vx v r Vx VX I VX VX V / vx r-14-2-4 LA X \ ' T V f T f v\ t Y \ VX vx vx vx 1 VX> VX VX v., NX V/ VX V y ' T \ T X 1 1 ? l \ \ \ \ l = f e '1 v V V T T • M- r r ~ ? 'M—— 1 - 7 - 4 - — x — — \ — • • T • -*x" V V V v x y MM MMfri=* VX VX 1/ VX VX V X V X VX vx ^ - 7 T T T i I^M 1 X X X T 1 - \ M M i • T v r v 1 -k > Vx \x vx VX i x VX- vx Vx- Vx Iv \ — i — — \ — 1 — l 1 U 296 E2 Entrance Song ( B e l l a Coola) 1 '16" tt> y *—•>—r  > i / > \ v \ n /Imtn-U - — 1 T Y ' f Y Y Y T ¥ Y ¥ Y T T T T T = 3 \ \ \ \ l i t . - 1 ' L i t e a. =0 + <^ X T ' * s ' +—^ * — > — . * - » \ 1 \ y y y y y y — y y — y _ \ -y-3>z — X X x Y I Y ¥ t 297 2 v-r i r r - K X -f f r-f A. • r r r-^ x x Y * n u 1 t T T T TT ^ J \ \ T i i 298 H1 Haras itsa Song (Charlie Snow) : ( ( — <° ( k ( — x ^ \- „ 2-05" \ i x ' x ox-6,1^. d r u m : —rt \> I- 1 1 \> k V V ' T | V S<f * \f Vx Vx VX Vx vx > >. > "( \X vx . Vx - X -H- i; -\> \ T \ v v x v ^ rt t x x V 1 M M H J -^ V • Vr* -f v V • \x y vx v/ v ^ 1 1 — N> v/ \ x w V" X . A- ?S-1 ; V \M ^ ; - ; 13 3 3 ••! 3 i ; , f 1 :t_t' 1; \X • V X vx V / , - X V X 1 X I X X f VX \/ V V ' t • > —-J^rji f f V X V X V x x» 1 \ ' V i v a u ' u - r f r f H x x A\) i n Mi n V f"4 ^ " ; \s \j f ) > \) ) ) ' 1) 3 ) f 1 " N X V _ X V x l / V X ' V X V X N X X f V / VX V X XT 299 300 H3 G r i z z l y Bear Dance 1 ' 1 2 " i i 1 * \ > \ \ \ \ m '1 M t M' x x 4 x 1 \ \ i 3 V / . _ ^ « > > > v , < - — — — f — f — n r ^ - f — *-^ri——+—— n \ \ cl \ \ \ \ \ \ l c l \ u '\ 1 1 \ „ n w n — o — ^ — — — „ n „ ?, n i—*• l n > 1 7 — - ) t — V - f ? r—f f ^ * • • T M i l l I n ^ o 0 o -. 7 7 ^ - 4 - 4 — — ^ — h - i — ^ t / f • 301 S1 Sham an's Song 2'41" x = <a..T^  drurn: —ti v 1 1 ^r \ v \ V ^ f \ n rX v y y y y \ / \ x v v y ' \ ^  -41 X ' L 1 "V 1' T -v A T \ y \ v \ 1 \\ ' ^ = r l y ^ 5. — 3 5 •—x x —^——-\ \ \ \f \ P / 1 ^ \ *?1 I H i ? J ^ n n 1 1 \ 1 \ 1 v V 1 t l \ \ \ -. \f **• y ^ / s/ — l J L r—*—f—*—^  n \ ^ ^ ^ it ^ ^ ^ S X \ \ x-> T l i H i ' 1 o 7 11 7 M 7 | i \ \ n ; " u \x* 7 V / V S _ ^ — g — — , 1 V „ r.-302 — — h 3 \ 1 \ \ l p \ f v . x fr-. 1 T ' ' y - v P M K/ f [ l y V 15. x ? l \ \ H " I \ * T '1 T * S2 V — t 7 ^ f — * — y 7 7 7 U - \ ^ Q* ' *• / " V » • V ; \> \ \ " ' = o : p _ NX NX \ X NX NX N X ' \ * \ k \> V \ ;=/exx.7i l \ T T V ^ 4 1 303 \ I ' M \? \> + 2a x •—•-s ~—/ V 4 '4- + *-,p p r n p v p p ij v j i '> * f. , I I rem T 1 * As-* > > i > t > * — * n i p H-i * — 304 S3 Shaman's Song (Jim P o l l a r d , 1924) i re- f i v i \ \ \ f, \ \ \ y \\ \ \ 2 • \ ,i H M \ I \ i v | H i t — — * — \-—*——J '{ f) ___ /r—; __4 ^ — - e—Z- * > > > \ \ ^ * , if—U \ \ r I, VMVVVVVV- ^ h - v i .» = i"V J » . ; ; v • ; y y y y , „ ; \ — ^ >I- ^ 305 XII. NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS 306 Lv1 K i t t y King's Love Song 1 '49" • \ I \ x - x . x I »• x - l \ I . x ^ x x ° d r u m : -77 'K±><"\ \ V \ \ * '" N X v X \ / v x • y / x r \ X v x v x v x • \ . X • x / V X v X \ X -# I T t Y T t 1 11 V f f \ 1 T IT 1 i T vS2- ; ' v x j L ( ^ j . 4- j - ^ . zzzzz: j j 1 \\\ \ ) * 4 - - \ ? . J E i m. % \< * >.c >f E g z 3 \ T T I \ 1 1 1 I T 1 1 - 7 -— \ - 4 - \—| k ^ - i 1 7-, : io, i x v x v x \ x \ / . Vx v x / \x> y / v x . v x / *•» 11 t \ t \ i \~ I M P 1 307 308 Lv2 Susan K e l l y ' s Love Song 1 '42" \ — -V <S^--s-d- __2_ -v—e-drum  H L ) i \ n \ l } f fr v a >( T i >(-11 >f I 1 T T T h ( 11 T 7 7 T 1 1 >L \ \ oj -> 1 1 1 \ ^ : ^ M ^ r l — - * ^ - ^ <__-c <S^ £ _ * _9 / <L> l 1 ~ 11 ~ 11 , c l 1 N , 7 *i x -n c r - 7 -I f 1 1 T * —^—4 y 1 x y i i ^ 1 i — y l l y i i -y i M n .) ( r r c r t 309 •7 7 1—1 1 f—f ' — J - * A-^-J (-y ? ? v 7 V 7 7 — v 77 a) y — 1 — \ — \ — y 7 7—v 7 7 — 2 7—y : 7 v "> ^ i l ^ Z i y l t—Tec Yi t ^ z e ^  It Y 1 t ^ i 2 1. + a.. 4 - 4 -v—y-- f e — / - 4 -v—~*2 x 7 7 ^ 7 7 v 7 ^ — v 7 7 ^ ? ^ s< 7 " Kx 1 <* — — 4 ^ 1 . Y' 1 1 \C Y<^  \ I t y 310 Lv3 Steam Schooner's Love Song 1 114" drum:  f 'T X- Y Y Y ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ \ \ i \ T \ \ .\ T7 2 /• f f~-\ < f '. i. * x . -I f v ~ x — „: 1 ¥ v >t ¥ ¥ y y >f y >r- y g . f-\ \ , 1 F n nv Vx \X V X V / 4 J V V 4—1 \ H j — ^ 1 ^ V ^ V ' H T T 1 T 3= 1 ~ >f ' 1 V T T K •>,<- >c X >.c X T T t t t T T. 1 T -\ r T 311 Z f ' " V ^ X X \ < ^ \ \ 7 W"? >— h \ v \ M \ r - -, ^r, ~ — „ I ., „ — •vx \ t \ \ \ T I ^ \ V rP ^ ' \ V I 'I ^ O f ^ M ' - ^ : 1 V X Sx' \ y v x V v x v x I . f V ' \ V \ X V J 312 Lv4 Jim A i P o l l a r d ' s Love Song 1'24" \ \ \ y O — f f ^ \ y , y • rz~X v^ U a 3 - . 107 drum-. _^ ' - < ^ y M M 1 \S N,x- ) \s v y J N>* \ / } 1 \ M 1 \ = v x v x / V X V . X " ^ -# I V T * t \ - V t 1 1 1 1 t 1 \ v * — A - \ s ? J > f M 1 3 E £ B — c 4 M — r: : — >—— v "1 : A =4M 11 < '{— v y v v 7 •- - ' 1 1 U L ^ V X V x / V X V x 7 V x V x 1 V X V X / v x V x ~7 p 7 1" t ^ f T - ^ -1" v 1— 1— 1— 1 — " T T r l \ l T V * f V ' \ ?~~7 r 1 " ~~\~ "1 \ 1 1 '1 'V"y -* • V t vx vx t\\ \ \ \ ) \ t m / i f V / y Y 1 v / Y y / 1 Y 1 313 ——7 Hr- — h — \ 1 — " T T — T r r p ) (• c ) • *>> \ 1 -4 A —^—v— H -i—1 Vs '— -H?— -\—^ \ ' 1 f > S \ \ ,-,\ \ \ -N \ \ * f O ^ > ^"V 7 V v/ J y v / v y \r- /! \ M \ = r = ± = J 11 T '1 { f V ' T T 6 ! 1 T Y 1 1 V ( T T 1 J )C X | X )f 1 X X ^ X X | r( \ ^ j ><, y | 4 £ L * 5 314 Lv5 Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d ' s Love Song „, , /O-S.p-56" d r u m : l 1 ^  | l >(• l l y I 1 y ? 1 f H i — i ' \ \ \ , — \ — i — 1 1 u , — TI : ; ; j \ \ ; ^ ; ; 3 \ ; . { — — - — * — 7 — ^ v — — 4 - . 1 1: I i T 1 i V j z z z mm \ V \ r 315 Lv6 Same Schooner 1s Love Song 1 M O " ^—•—>—=— \ \ f \ \. \\ -o—+--x-X 4 V K ^ ¥ i ¥ X 4 >< X ^ \ T "V '\ 1 1 T T ^ T T ^ T '1 J 7 - - T T ^ o ^ ^ _ — X ] xx 1'. 1 \ \ \ • f 316 Lv8 Love Song (owned by one of the 1885 dancers) 2'11" - V-— * j r - : — * ' ~~ s • f —^t—\—7 =Sz> o 1 ' b M l 1 Zi -(l 318 319 320 322 L1 Lahal Song (Dan Nelson) 1»12" 1 V ^ > 1 - V • raw: -v / y-0; ' \ \ , • • 4- + - 7 - - 7 * *f—»-i i ^ 323 -> x \ ' ' o /' \ X -» K /is. XX X x XX X X X X X v / — > x y y x y y y * HIM 1 f f ]|f Cp — i f * -b c i e ' f pa.u.se 4Vven L a 324 L2 Lahal Song(Part Two of L1) o.s.p. 26" v *-\> \ i> v ' i ? ^ \? i> ^ y—y—y~ 6 X ^ • >- . ±z Ho, 21 4T W I . . 325 L3 Lahal Song (Jim P o l l a r d , 1924) 1'25" — k - — - — I I > ' ' — i r f — r v t > '^f ' ' ' n— l ^ l i u l I ' i i l l ' H i m ' l - / > > r I / s I , y y>v\ \ o 7 y y y -s\ 1 t f H \ \ I V> W M , 1 l> M 1 M M r r M 'MMM 1 V > I \ / 7 > V 1 - * 1 y \ ' ' M 1 M 1 \ l> \> \ T l H M \ i V 1>=M=^  * — 1 y / y-M WTy *7 t-Q3** v - i u \M 1 MY \ , i \ M M 1 Ml> 1 \ " X j *~ 1 • * • • 1 \ / " f 1 It H \ 1 n\VT • M V \ 1 " \=*=» 7 l f ? l \ \ \ r: ^ I t 1 \ ; ; " \ -llP \ \ \ , \'\ M= i - M ] — L ' t x i ^ — ^ •> i f . ( r~f—i U \> \ • * M 4=» 326 ~i——^—f—*LM*— ?-—, f—\—r—*—> 1 -4f — > • — * \ \'^Ty "r n u \ • \ \\r\\ H \ \ 1 W v \ r 71 f—* * 1 ? s s s | s * • * *-\ \ \ ' ' u i i 1 I t h i \ 1 M r) \ \ \ i \ ^ 4 1 \ \ ' ' ' \ 1 * * • 1 / / ' ^ s \ s y . J \ , 1 I'f \> \> \ i i P H I ^ ' V —l \ \ i \ \ i — x , x - < — i - * x — i If - 1 M 1>V \ \ ^ fc=? \r* i •> - -\ ' > V \ \ ' 327 L4 Lahal Song (Jim P o l l a r d , 1924) o- s-p-35" Z2I ; = o j . . t 3 a . > 0 0 \ 0 0 * I / / /»• / / • f fw H 1 H i ' P SM i 7 328 529 IB -hH-w y 0 4 ?J \ f ' <=5 \ \ \ V\\ \/ V / \f vx / - $ ^ £r—k x • /v, >; \ I ^—f—f—r^f • ' > "I 1  p v ^ \> \; • i \> \X vx / v/ V/ / \ \ \ vx vx J rt -A -> vx i . \ \ 1 1 T \ 1 1 ^ — Y— t - ^ 330 A2 Wild Canary Song 1M9" , \/o.*.p. \ \ \ \ \ \ ' ' I \ \ )^ ctx. 6y ram: -X K-u. s. ^ 3 ^< X- ^ — X -X-— » — 1 1— • \ 1 ^ > f i [ i n 1 l h ; 1 1 — — * — I n — ^ f - 4 £-L i — n 1 T T L 1 rift \ 'i \ \ \ 4 1 \ , V \ \ ^ - f \ : - ' • - —^ 1 s 1 s—I— \ ^ V /*T /i / >»<-' 3f ^ — 5 - ; 4 — ^ 332 A4 Deadwood Worm's Song 27" f> y o.s. P. -ftr-*— ~—f-^ f—f " - \—^ -—\ -> = y F = —ft ~Mr ^_^ ^ ^—a—^—%—t—t 333 334 A6 Trout Song I o.S.p. 34" \ \ \ \ ' V H f i yam: ~>f * X f x~x- f I W \ ' \ ' \ ^ K >,<•—¥^  3=3 1 / V 1 Ux ,.'| 31-H • vx vx . ' vx vx • V/ vx < r - ^ : ^ >. > V • « X VX • 11 T T 1 T T T T 1 T L) 335 ~k f — f — \ " f f ? • * y =a 1 i / > i i / vf \ \ \ \M=M ' \ I 1 ~ — v t i — 7 — 1 \ \ 7 1 > 1 f \ T f v 1 t ^ •' 336 A8 Boys F i s h i n g Song 18" o-s.p. s * * •v—y-—y-y * f > y -y ^=r=Y J ^ \ V s—q Droning Cry (Jim P o l l a r d , 1924) 3 ..^ v.. Answering Cry 32: 3 ZZZZZZZZZ2I \ \ M l M=f ^« CA.- if a. t o t a l duration: ca. 19" 337 G1 Indian Paint-Brush Flower Song 38" A a  // — \ — 1 > \> n i> i ? \ — ~ - " * u V V V Vx- \x- \X VX vx 1 *\x 1 T Y V f T f \~ X ' r. \ \ x x ^ > x - \ v \ V f . 1 • " y l» U y" V G - ' VX NX* Vx- v X y VX" VX V X I- T T r T t T Y T - J x x - X x x ^ x ^ A V \- \ • 1 Vx- VX" Vx» vx. Vx* V x - VX" X x 1 •vx I f — -y 2 T A T T T T T T =* \ I . x \ V •> V X V x - vx Vx- V X V x vx VX" I Y T T T T T T V =i 338 G3 539 V i s i t o r ' s Song 37" -N CD -4 V -v ^ ^! > >» . J - > "( • > > 3^ • > . H=—' — — = 1 — —7 / \ K i ^ \ \ \ V . , ^ \ \ » 7 Y \ \ V f , , r k • • • ' l \ \ \ \ ' l \ i v i \ v , [ | M -340 NOTES 1. For a good summary of t h i s ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e see Kennedy and Bouchard 1977:38-40. 2. I w i l l use the term "text" to r e f e r to l i n g u i s t i c rather than musical f a c t s . 3. Mcllwraith's wax c y l i n d e r recordings are housed in, the archives of the National Museum of Man, Ottawa. These have been tr a n s f e r r e d to magnetic tape, num-bers 72-1029 to 72-1033 i n c l u s i v e . 4. I s h a l l employ the term "consultant" as one would the term "informant" i n anthropological parlance. 5. I use " f u n c t i o n a l context" to refer, to the s i t u a t i o n s i n which music i s used i n B e l l a Coola society. Simi-l a r l y , the term function i s here intended to denote use. 6. P h i l i p Davis's study B e l l a Coola. Tales and Songs(1967) i s a l i n g u i s t i c not an ethnomusicological work. I t includes t r a n s l a t i o n s of f i v e Love songs sung by the l a t e Mrs. Anna Schooner. Since four of these were already contained i n my f i e l d recordings, only one forms part of t h i s sample. Singing solo and unaccom-panied, Mrs. Schooner sang these songs i n a much f r e e r manner rhythmically than did the present-day singing group. In her mid-eighties when she sang these songs, she not unexpectedly had to s t r a i n i n order to perform them. Nevertheless her singing i s permeated with a charm and d i g n i t y that can only be experienced and never transcribed. 7. Unless otherwise indicated, phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the B e l l a Coola terms i n the text are from Kennedy and Bouchard(1977). The song texts i n Appendix I I I , supplied by Henk Nater, form a notable exception. 341 8. Many examples of these states of c r e a t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n , are c i t e d i n Koestler's The Act of Creation (1975) and The Creative Process (1952), ( G h i s e l i n , ed.). 9. Using written texts, Mcllwraith assumed t h i s r o l e i n the winter ceremonies of 1925-1924; he described t h i s experience as being "wearying i n the extreme." The s p e l l i n g s of the B e l l a Coola terms f o r these performers are Mcllwraith's (1948 11:270-27-1). 10. The seventy-third t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s not a song. I t i s a droning cry uttered by Jim P o l l a r d on Mcllwraith's tape 72-1051, song 29(c). The droning cry was used by women when masked f i g u r e s appeared i n the dance h a l l . I t was answered by the cry of the messenger-servants. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of these c r i e s , which are sung concurrently, are presented a f t e r the Boys F i s h i n g song(A8) i n Part Three of t h i s study. 11. A l l of my l i v e recordings were made with t h i s equipment at the same l o c a t i o n on August 4 and 5, 1975. A copy of these recordings has been deposited with, the National Museum of Man, Ethnology D i v i s i o n . 12. The B e l l a Coola prefer to c a l l the shaman an "Indian Doctor". 13. To the best of my knowledge, Simon Johnson was not a shaman. Mcllwraith gives us no reason to believe that the singers of h i s shaman song recordings, Lame Ch a r l i e and Jim P o l l a r d , were shamans. I t was d i f f i c u l t to gather information concerning t h i s e s o t e r i c occupation. I received the impression that i t i s viewed somewhat p e j o r a t i v e l y today. 14. Whether or not t h i s text i s a d i r e c t , t r a n s l a t i o n from the B e l l a B e l l a i s unknown. The texts of Hm1 and Hm3 are provided i n Appendix I I I . 15. The i m i t a t i o n of b i r d song may also have played a formative r o l e i n the "creation" of these animal motives. 342 16. There i s no longer an Indian Agent i n B e l l a Coola. 17. The sound of the Kusiyut.appears on no recordings a v a i l a b l e to me. Mcllwraith described the sounds of the whistles as noise; t h i s l i k e l y accounts f o r why he never recorded t h e i r sound. 18. A more concrete understanding of how these 2 part themes are organized can be obtained by comparing them to the parts of. an animal. The (a) part of the theme may be. considered i t s head, the (b) section i t s body, and the. (c) section ( i t s closing, pattern) i t s t a i l . I t i s therefore the body and the t a i l that are v a r i e d and "developed" i n t h i s form type. 19. This expression i s also found i n S a l i s h , Nootka, and Rwakiutl musics. 20. F e l i c i t y Walkus found t h i s song p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l -suited f o r an E n g l i s h language version, others simply did not t r a n s l a t e as w e l l . 21. Appendix I I I contains a d d i t i o n a l song, texts and t r a n s l a t i o n s provided by Henk Nater. 22. Although i t i s probable that more such correspondences e x i s t , Mcllwraith's recordings are now of such poor q u a l i t y that only a small number were t r a n s c r i b a b l e . 23. In t h i s song, Mary P o l l a r d (Jim's wife) mourns the death of her son (by a former husband) who died i n a logging accident i n Alsaska. When.she heard of h i s death, Mary f e l t personally responsible. She f e l t that she had made him leave when she l e f t h i s fath e r f o r JimsPollard (Margaret Siwallace:personal communication). This f e e l i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the song's text: Oh my dear, My son I caused him to take o f f My son, Ananay my dear 543 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barbeau, C. Marius-.- -1934 " A s i a t i c Survivals i n Indian Songs," The Musical Quarterly, v o l . 20, no. 1, 107-116. 1955 "Indian Songs of the North P a c i f i c Coast," Music i n Canada. Edited by S i r Ernest MacMillan. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 34-44. 1957 "Indian Songs of the Northwest," The Canadian  Music Journal, v o l . 2. no. 1, 16-25. Boas, Franz -1888(a) "On Certain.Songs, and. Dances of the Kwakiutl of B r i t i s h Columbia," The Journal of American  Fo Ik-Lore, v o l . 1, no. 1, 49-64. "~ ' 1888(b) "Chinook Songs," The Journal of American  Folk-Lore. v o l . 1, no. 3, 220-226. 1891 "The B i l q u l a , " London:. B r i t i s h . Association f o r  the Advancement of Science, 17:2-18. 1896 "Songs of the Kwakiutl Indians," Internationales  Archiv ftlr Ethnographie. v o l . 9. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1-9. 1898 The Mythology of the B e l l a Coola Indians. New York: American Museum of Natural History Memoirs, 2:25-127. 1955 P r i m i t i v e Art. New. York: Dover, Pu b l i c a t i o n s . 1969. The Ethnography of Franz Boas. Edited by Ronald Rohner. Chicago:, The Un i v e r s i t y Press. 1970 "The Dances and Songs of the Winter Ceremonial," The S o c i a l Organization and the Secret S o c i e t i e s  of the Kwakiutl I n d i a n s . New. York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 431-500. F i r s t published i n 1895 544 Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard (B.C. Indian Language Project) 1977 "The: B e l l a Coola Indians," To appear i n Handbook, of American Indians, Volume I I I : The Northwest Coast. Davis, P h i l i p 1967 B e l l a Coola Tales and Songs. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, Ethnology D i v i s i o n Archives, Manuscript no. 1045. Deans, James 1891 "A Weird Mourning Song of the Haidas," The American Antiquarian, v o l . 13, 52-54. Densmore, Frances 1939 Nootka and Quileute Music. Washington: Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 124. 1943 Music of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Washington: Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 136. Drucker, P h i l i p 1963 Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: The American Museum of Natural History. 1965 "Musical Instruments," i n Cultures of the North P a c i f i c Coast. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 42-45. 345 Duff, Wilson 1964 The Indian^History o f B r i t i sh C olumbia. V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l , Museum, of Natural History and Anthropology, Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia Memoir No. 5. Eggan, Fred. 1954 "Social. Anthropology and the Method of Controlled Comparison," American Anthropologist, 56:743-760. E l i a d e , Mircea 1964 Shamanism; Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, Bollingen Series LXXVI. Fil l m o r e , John C. 1893 "A Woman's Song of the Kwakiutl Indians," The Journal of American F o l k l o r e , v o l . 6, no. 20, 285-290. '. 1899 "The Harmonic Structure of Indian Music," American Anthropologist, v o l . 1, no. 2, 297-318. Galpin, Francis W. 1903 "The Whistles and Reed Instruments of the American Indians of the North-West Coast," Royal Musical Association Proceedings, v o l . 29, 115-138. G e l l a t l y , Marjorie G. 1940 Fourteen Northwest Coast Indian Songs_Tran- scribed Into Musical Notation. M.A. Thesis, (Music Education^, University, of Washington. 346 George, Graham 1962 "Songs of the S a l i s h Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia," Intern a t i o n a l Folk Music Journal, v o l . 14, ' "~ ! G h i s e l i n , Brewster (ed.) 1952 The Creative Process: A Symposium.r Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press. Goeken 1886 Das Religiflse leben der Bella-Cooler Indianer. B e r l i n : O r i g i n a l Mittheilungen aus der Ethno^  logischen Abtheiiung der Konigiichen,Museen 1:183-186. Guedon, Marie-Francoise 1972 "Canadian Ethnomusicology: Selected Bibliography and Discography," ETHNOMUSICOLOGY 16(3):465-478. Gunther, Erna 1966 "Musical Instruments," Art i n the L i f e of the Northwest Coast Indians. Portland: The Portland Art Museum, 134-142. Halpern, Ida 1962 "Kwa-kiutl Music," International Folk.Music Journal, v o l . 14, 159-160. 1968 "Music of the B.C. Northwest Coast Indians," Proceedings_of the Centennial.Workshop of  Ethnomusicology. Edited by Peter Crossley-Holland. V i c t o r i a : Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 23-41. 1976 "On the Int e r p r e t a t i o n of 'Meaningless.r-Non-s e n s i c a l S y l l a b l e s ' i n the Music of the P a c i f i c Northwest Indians," ETHNOMUSICOLOGY: 20(2): 253-271. 347 Herzog, George 1934 "Appendix: Songs," Folk-Tales of the Coast S a l i s h . Edited by Thelma Adarason. New York: Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society, v o l . 27, 422-430. 1949 " S a l i s h Music." Indians of the Urban North-west. Edited by Marian.W. Smith. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 93-109. Holm, B i l l 1965 Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form. Seatt l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, Jacobsen, B. F i l l i p 1977 The Sissauch Dance. Manuscript t r a n s l a t e d by Wenche Hemphill, f o r the B.C. Indian Language Project, V i c t o r i a , B.C. O r i g i n a l : Sissauch-dansen. Ymer (1895) 15:1-23. Jorgensen, Grace 1970 A Comparative Examination of Northwest Coast Shamanism. The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: M.A. Thesis (Anthropology). Jorgensen, Joseph G. 1969 S a l i s h Language and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Publications. K i e f e r , Thomas M. 1969 "Continuous Geographical. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Musical Patterns: A Test Case from the North-west Coast," American Anthropologist, v o l . 71 no. 4 , 701-70*T 348 Kinkade, Dale 1976 "The Salishan Languages." Paper, presented, at the Northwest Coast Studies Conference, May 12-16, 1976, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y . Koestler, Arthur 1975 The Act of Creation. London: Pan Books, Ltd, Kopas, C l i f f 1970 B e l l a Coola. Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press Ltd. Lomax, Alan 1968 Folk Song Style and Culture. Washington: American Association f o r the Advancement of Science, P u b l i c a t i o n no. 88. Meek, Jack 1972 "Primitive Musical Instruments of the North-west Coast," The Midden, v o l . 4, no. 3, 11-17. Mcllwraith, Thomas F. 1948 The B e l l a Coola Indians. 2_yolum.es. Toronto; U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press. N e t t l , Bruno 1954 North American Indian Musical Styles. P h i l a d e l p h i a : American.Folklore Society. 349 N e t t l , Bruno 1969 "Musical-Areas Reconsidered: A C r i t i q u e of North American Indian Research," Essays  i n Musicology. Edited by Gustave Reese and Robert Snow. U n i v e r s i t y of Pittsburgh Press, 181-189. Niblack, Albert P. 1971 "Music," The_Coast Indians of Southern Alaska  and Northern B r i t i s h Columbia. U.S. National Museum Report f o r 1888. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 329-332. Ravenhi11, A l i c e 1938 "Songs, Dances and Musical Instruments," The Native Tribes of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: The King's P r i n t e r , 89-92. Roberts, Helen 1970 "Musical Areas i n Aboriginal North America," Yale U n i v e r s i t y Publications i n Anthropology, Number 12. New Haven: Human Relations Area P i l e s Press, 3-41. F i r s t published i n 1936. Roberts, Helen and Herman K. Haeberlin 1918 "Some Songs of the Puget Sound S a l i s h , " The Journal of American Folk-Lore. v o l . 31, no. 122, 496-520. ; " • Roberts, Helen and Morris Swadesh 1955 Songs of the Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver  IslandJ P h i l a d e l p h i a : Transactions of the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l Society, v o l . 45, part 3, 199-327. 350 Shapero, Harold 1952 "The Musical Mind," The.^Creative. Process, Edited by Brewster G h i s e l i n . Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 4 9 - 5 4 . Stott, Margaret 1975 B e l l a Coola Ceremony and Art. Ottawa:. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethno-logy Paper No. 21. Stuart, Wendy B. 1972 Gambling Music of_ the Coast S a l i s h Indians. Ottawa: National Museum of Man Mercury;Series, Canadian Ethnology Service Paper No. 3." Stumpf, C a r l 1886 "Lieder der B e l l a k u l a Indianer," V i e r t e l j a h r -s c h r i f t f u r Musikwissenschaft. 2:4.05-426. Swanton, John R. 1912 "Haida Songs," American.Ethnological Society  Publications, v o l . 3. Edited by Franz Boas. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 3-63. Taylor, Donna 1959 "Anthropologists on Art," Readings i n Anthro-pology, Vol. I I . Edited by Morton H. F r i e d , 4 7 8 - 4 9 0 . " ' 351 Thornton, Mildred V a l l e y 1966 Indian Lives and Legends. Vancouver; M i t c h e l l Press Ltd. Turner, Nancy J . 1973 "The Ethnobotany of the B e l l a Coola Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia," Syesis 6;195-220. Virchow, Rudolf 1886 Die Anthropologische Untersuchung der B e l l a -Coola.. B e r l i n : Verhandlungen der B e r l i n e r Gesellschaft ftlr Anthropologic, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte, 206-215. (Manuscript t r a n s l a t e d by D i e t r i c h Bertz f o r the B.C. Indian Language Project, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1977) 352 A P P E N D I X E S 353 APPENDIX I. A NOTE ON THE PERFORMERS AND THE COLLECTORS The songs presented here are sung by three groups and by four s o l o i s t s . To add further complexity to the problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the songs come from a v a r i e t y of taped sources. To economize, the following l i s t of abbreviations has been created: Performers Group 1 = Agnes Edgar F e l i c i t y Walkus Margaret Siwallace Dan Nelson Group 2 = Group 3 Agnes Edgar Hank King Dan Nelson F e l i c i t y Walkus a l l of Group 1 except f o r Dan Nelson S o l o i s t s : A.S. = Anna Schooner J.P. = Jim P o l l a r d L.H. = Louie H a l l D.N. = Dan Nelson 354 Sources of Taped Ma t e r i a l B.C.I.L.P. = B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Language Project, Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy. Dates, of recording: 1971, 1972, 1975. P.D. = P h i l i p Davis. Date of recording: September, 1966. M.V.T. = Mildred Valley Thornton. Date of recording: 1946. B.O.T. = B e l l a Coola Band O f f i c e tapes. Date of recording unknown. T.F.M. = Thomas F. Mcllwraith. Dates of recor-ding: 1922-1924. M.S. = Margaret Siwallace. Date of recording unknown. A.K. = Anton Kolstee. Dates of recording: August 4-5, 1975. The abbreviations l i s t e d above are correlated, with the songs i n the. chapter-entitled. The.. Analysis of .the. Functional Groupings. There the performers a r e . l i s t e d : before, the, c o l l e c -t o r s and are separated from, them by means of a diagonal, l i n e . Thus the. Headdress, song of, Chief, Sam Pootlass. (H1) is. i d e n t i -f i e d as H1 (Group 1/ A.K.)• 3 5 5 APPENDIX II THE AVERAGES OF THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS SONG TYPES average tempo average duration melodic movement % using portamento Headdress i =ca.113 2 ' 3 0 " 77% l e v e l 23% descend 71% Mourning } =ca . 82 3 ' 0 0 " 1 / 2 l e v e l 1 /2 descend 90% Kusiyut Dance J=ca . 9 9 2 ' 0 3 " 22% descend 7 8 % l e v e l 44% Entrance )=ca . 8 9 1 M 5 " 1 /2 l e v e l 1 /2 descend 50% Hamatsa !=ca . 85 1 ' 2 2 " 2 / 3 descend 1 /3 l e v e l 100% Shaman J=ca . 7 8 1 ' 0 0 " 100% l e v e l 66% Love )=ca . 9 7 1 ' 2 7 " 70% descend 30% l e v e l 40% Lahal l = c a . 1 4 3 1 « 0 0 " 1 / 2 descend 1 / 2 l e v e l 33% Animal }=ca . 84 5 6 " 1 /2 descend 1 / 2 l e v e l 12% Game )=ca.65 3 7 " 1 /2 descend 1 /2 l e v e l 33% 356 SONG TYPES rhythmic ac c ompaniment % ox-scale types Headdress type 1(c) four tone - 46% -f i v e tone - 38% six. tone - 8% three tone -8% Mourning unac c omp ani e d four tone - 56% three tone - 11% f i v e tone - 33% Kusiyut Dance type 1(c) four tone - 65% three tone - 23% f i v e tone - 12% Entrance type 1(c);(b) four tone - 100% Hamatsa types 1(c); 2(b) 4(b) four tone - 66 2/3% f i v e tone - 33 1/3% Shaman types 1(a);3 three tone - 66 2/3% four tone - 33 1/3% Love type 2(a); 2(b) f i v e tone - 50% four tone - 30% three tone - 20% Lahal type 3 f i v e tone - 50% four tone - 50% Animal type 2(b) three tone - 50% four tone - 38% f i v e tone - 12% Game type 1(c) three tone - 50% two tone - 50% 357 SONG TYPES 1 % employing modal c e l l s 2- 3 4 5 6 Headdress 84% 8% 8% Mourning 37% 50% 13% -Kusiyut Dance 55% 22% 11% - 6% 6% Entrance 100% - -Hamatsa 33 1/3% 33 1/3% - - 33 1/3% -Shaman - 33 1/3% 66 2/3% -Love - 50% 50% -Lahal 33 1/3% 33 1/3% - 33 1/3% -Animal 50% 12.5% 12.5% - 12.5% 12.5% Game 33 1/3% - 66 2/3% 358 SONG TYPES average range ( i n semitones) i d i o s y n c r a t i c feature(s) Headdress 9 84% modal c e l l 1 Sisawk whistles Mourning 10 use of parlando-rubato length; unaccompanied Kusiyut Dance 9 78% l e v e l Kusiyut whistles Entrance 12 hybrid songs range Hamatsa 9 use of minor seconds Hamatsa whistles Shaman 10 eso t e r i c texts Love 14 wide range 10% descend Lahal 12 use of f a l s e t t o f a s t tempo Animal 8 Animal motives Game 7 bre v i t y narrow range 359 APPENDIX I I I SOME ADDITIONAL SONG TEXTS H.1 Chief Sam Pootlass' Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: huyaha, ihinuhu) Alh7ayuts tu tuu T s i nu7usqnamktulhs Wa sclhkw'alhtntalh C t i nukwlaax su t'ayc. Stu nts kwluka Sixilaaxaycs t'ayc T i an7apsulh t'ayc T i Waxit su t'ayc. That's what she sings, The woman who gave b i r t h to us: That ... i s our crest ... the sun ... So i t ' s me, The reason why ... are sl a n t i n g , ... the v i l l a g e s ... (Towards me,) Waxit. H.2 Andy Schooner's Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: huhu... h i h i . . . ayaha7uwa... hiya...) Ka ya ma ts'n t'ayc Yaw ska pcucwtsamim su t'ayc T i ayaylayclh t'ayc T'alh7alhqwaxwalus su t'aye. TI'alhinawitaw, An7anustsayanmip t'aye Tl' a p u t s l h ts'n t'ayc Sa wa smsmamalhas t'ayc. He might be good To be teased; He has already done so, Wanted to be a raven; Go ahead people, L i s t e n to him: H e ' l l s t a r t T e l l i n g a myth. 360 T i siums k'u t'ayc Aya sa t s ' a l a h l h su t'ayc, That shames him, The Echo. H.3 T a l l i o Hans' Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: ayahuhiyahu ayahu... hiya hiya a h a h i i . . . ya hawi...) Tsictsik'lits 1anaxwaw Poke the totempole, Yaw a l h t i lhmaynuclhits; The one that I erected; Yaw ska puntimutlhap. Here you w i l l receive g i f t s . Sa alhk'ciixwtsawitaw Alh t i sq'upayats t'ayc, Keep looking At my smoke. The s u f f i x -nuc ("causative") i s an older form of -nic, H.4 Agnes Edgar's Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: ahayiya(w)... hiya...) Takan kw t ' a l h i yaw Ala taqw'lh awa su. Wana k'yukits ya, Spuxits ya. Nuk'ciktaxwaw Wa nuspuxtatum Ta mnaakaslhts ay. 2x Somebody has a r r i v e d Downriver there. I ' l l go and see who i t i s , And put feathers on him/her, Look into (the basket) Where the eagle-down i s , My father's (basket). 361 H.5 F e l i c i t y Walkus* Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: hayahahaw... hayahayahu... yiya...) Nulhcut smt axw Laqut su t'ayc. T i ayuts su t'ayc Ska scwtl'uslayclhaw. Ulh t'ayc tuu, Ulh t i itskw tuu t c , Ulh t'ayc tuu, Ulh nts. tuu. T s l h l i t s ' m ts'n t'ayc Laqut su t'ayc. H o l l e r at him, Laqut he i s . He said That they won't have enough to serve. To t h i s one too, To that one too, To t h i s one too, To me too. He's plucking h i s own feathers, Laqut. H.6 Charlie Snow's Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: wu h i wuhuya ha h i ...) Alatsicwap'17uks Axw sak'ayalhap Ula sulhts awa su Ska nukw'psttimutap Ska xslctimutap? Why do you Not come str a i g h t Into my house To f i l l yourselves up .And get fat ? Wa sicsi7ayutsap When you have said 362 Unikwalhamalh t'ayc Ka spuxlhits a l u t'ayc. Sm7aylhtum kwalu tuu Wa nuskwlutsulmc t'ayc S7alhtamlhuk'liwalh*,um t'ayc, (That) he's on the middle (of the f l o o r ) I ' l l put eagle down on him, It has happened to him before ? ? ? ? ? Making him repulsive.(?) H.7 George Nelson's Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: ahuwa haw... hiya h i y a . . . ha7uwaw, yaya y i y a ha... ) Tl'alhinawitaw (Tl'alhinanaxwaw) Come ye S7an7apsulhap. C i t i z e n s . Anustsayanmip t'ayc T i nunusq.'aaxm. Aylhtum kw su t'aye, Umc7it su t'ayc. L i s t e n to t h i s one, The one that's crying. It happened to him, (To) Umc7it. H.8 Simon Johnson's Headdress Song. (Wordless chorus: ayahahaw... h i h i h i . . . ) Unamktsuttxw7it T i yayxuts t'ayc. Bring him out, This one who knows how to t a l k . Asp'amklis t'ayc He kept h i t t i n g 363 T i a l h i m i s su t'ayc. What he has with him. Alhyutsxa k'u T e l l a story (your story) Ala sulhnu. In your house. Ska papqtsutnu Name yourself Ca nunulhkw'amkicw. Your "high names". M.2 Jack King George's Mourning Song (Wordless chorus: ananayaw=exclamation of sorrow) Nunusq'aaxma7itaya wa suyuncwnu Cry with her, Sky, Yaw ska alh7naycutsicwaya t s i With t h i s woman crying. 7nanimut. Yaw ska sak'ayalhtum kw t'ayc T h e y ' l l take the c h i e f t a staltmcaya Ulh t a as7atsimis t s k i yaw To a boat of Nuakila. Nuakila. Yaw ska sak'ayalhtum kw T h e y ' l l take Icwapatsut Icwapatsuyut Ulh tu ask'inwasmis t s k i yaw To Smawn's cloud. Smawn. Alhplplxanitum kw t i n u l h t n i k t a Abalone i s on the center-pole i n the sky Yaw ska alh7nimuttum kw Umq'umklika brings the Umq'umklika. g i f t s . 364 Lengthened forms of resp. suncwnu and Icwapatsut', D.1 Echo Dance Song (Schooner family) (Wordless chorus: ha hu haha hu... ) Kulh7 acw sant anawi t Sa wa statnmts ats. Ilhq 1nlhatnmmutsmlhim C t i kw'alhtnta saw. Alh7acwsnmctxw i s u T i numimyalsikan. Ilhq'nlhatnmmutsmlhim C t i kw'alhtnta saw. D.2 Milha Dance Song Spucwpuxlits'lhim i t s ' i k a Aya . t i kwniklhits t'ayc. Numnlhimutiklhits Aya t a skwniklhits ay, Ulh t i syanalusas Aya t i suyuncw su t'ayc. Smkw'pstayclhts i l u t s ' i k a Alh t a skalaaqwsmlhits Lha s l h i i x w n u c l h i t s ay. Hear and l i s t e n To our mothers. They are i r r i t a t e d By the (Echo's) crest. He should l i s t e n , The one with big ears. They are i r r i t a t e d By the (Echo's) crest, chorus They put eagle;down On the (pole) I'm walking on. Halfways I rested On the (pole) I'm walking on, Leading to the best part Of the world. Fast I got better, When I saw My cherished one. 365 D.5 Captain Bob's Mystery Dance (Wordless chorus: ha7ay... yahiyaa7ay... uhu...) 1sta alh7aya kuka Wa silhcwayctimutas ayiya Alhquxiixwtimut ts'n t'ayc T i snuslq.'ayalsaw ayiya. Nutl'ikmaktnra ts'n t'ayc T i snutl'xmulhlayaltaw ayiya, T i alhtsalcliwamlhim t'ayc Yaw ska paaxaynuclhim ayiya. So i t i s Because he's mad' at himself, That he has h i s head covered, The one who knows every-thing. He ran away with something, The active man; They couldn't fig u r e out What h i s name was. D.17 Thunderbird song (Margeret SiwallaceK (Wordless chorus: aya aya... )" There w i l l be l i g h t n i n g In the sky. Yaw ska scwmcwmaltwalaycs Yaw a l a suyuncw ats. Yaw ska scaltwalaycs Yaw a l a suyuncw ats. Yaw ska s l k ' l a l t w a l a y c s Yaw a l a suyuncw ats. There w i l l be bad weather In the sky. It w i l l cool down In the sky. suyuncw i s a lengthened form of suncw "sky" x" 366 Hm.1 Charlie Snow's Hamats'a Song (Wordless chorus: hamamay... ) Alhxilcustimut itaw T i pacpakwaya t'ayc Ulh t i k'isnumawstnms t'ayc T i pacpakwaya t'ayc. He has appeared, The Hamats'a, To the one h e ' l l share (food) with, The Hamats'a. Hm.3 T a l l i o Hans' G r i z z l y Bear Dance (Wordless chorus: huya h i . . . nan7u... nan nan... ) Is t a nts a l u ts'n t'ayc Yaw stag*aaxalits su t'ayc. I t ' s me ( G r i z z l y ) That has many teeth "bunched up". Lv.1 K i t t y King's Lovesong (Wordless chorus: aya... ayahayahaw...) 2. Nuk'caaxamaats'it (2x) Ay ka uslhmaynucicw Icmntanu awcwts. 3. Kw'alhtnakamaat'it (2x) Ka umatmits T i skmalaycalhts. 1. Pculhculhla maa su (2x) Ka icmntanu awcwts, Aya samatmc. Look back to me When you get on top Of where you're going. Make a sign Where I'd get My aching heart. It i s a b e a u t i f u l place To where you are going, My f r i e n d . 367 I v.. 2 Lovesong from Kimsquit (Susan Kelly) (Wordless chorus: aya... hiya... anaanaw... ) Alatsicwlhts 1lmastuks Tu wayc skwankwanaatalhts. Ka nulhnusanmaamaks Aya ka i l u s l h t s a n t . Wa silhcwayctirautas (Ti) slq'ayats t'ayc. Inicwayclhts'lmastuks Ska p ' i i x l a t i m u t a l h t s . Ka alhiilhanmlhts tuts' (Alh t a tsakwaya f a x ) . For what reason w i l l I Be crying? Two persons Have passed me by. The reason why ... i s going crazy ... my mind ... I pretty nearly want To just f l o a t around. When I w i l l be (At that long p o i n t ) . Agnes Edgar says about t h i s verse ( i n the end): "Tm7ayutslhts l u t s ' c t'axw" = "I just said (= made up) those (words) 1 1. According to Margeret Siwallace i t should be replaced by: Ka slqu'ayamklhtsant Alh tu sulut su t'axw. Lv.3 Steam-Schooner's Lovesong When t h e y ' l l f i n d me Fl o a t i n g i n the water. K'ilhmntnaqw'stsay Alh t i smt t'ayc, 2x I can't see (I wish I could see) Through t h i s mountain, 368 Ka qaaxt'usmits Lha nulhkw'iikmmalhits Q(ayay t i slq'ats t'ayc Ulh inu, numaw. Tsayutsx, kntaw Ska kwanatnu ts'ya. 2x Kmalayc t i slq'ats Ulh inu, numaw; Q'ayay t i slq'ats t'ayc Ulh inu, numaw. To make signs To my loved one. My poor heart i s aching For you, my dear. Stop crying, d a r l i n g , Stop c r y i n g (Don't cry, d a r l i n g ) . My poor heart i s aching For you, dear. My poor heart i s aching For you, dear. * s l q ' a t s i s a lengthened form of s l q ' t s "my soul, heart" Lv.4 Jim Pollard's Love Song (Wordless chorus: aya ya ya... ) Alh7ayts ts'akw C t s i stantapilhm tsc Ska sicsiqw'ats Ska i c a a s n u c t i t s Ta lhkw'amklhtits t'axw. -* Lhaaxuya U k i s t i n . Long Jack kw su kuks T i acwsniclhtan 2x Ta skwanatalh t'axw. I wish I was l i k e A bat: To f l y around, To look around F.or my loved ones. Poor Augustine. Long Jack was the one Who heard Them crying. 369 Lhaaxuya U k i s t i n . Poor Augustine. lhaaxuya i s the Chinook Jargon word f o r "poor, p i t i f u l " Lv.9 Another Lovesong (Steam-Schooner) (Wordless chorus: ayaya... ayaw ayahaw... ) Alhk'cicwayalh tu tuu Stampusanu t'ayc, Tsactsakwaya T i nuskut'ini t'ayc. Ka tl'apnualh tukw' Ulh t a txwnayaax t'awx, Tl'apmtsinu tuts' Ska kwntsinu t u t s ' . Ka tl'apnualh tukw* Ulh tu sk'inwax t'axw, Asuk'anmts tu t s ' Ska kwntsinu t u t s 1 . Do you ever look At the one you grew up with, A t a l l one, This nuskut'ini. I f ever y o u ' l l go Across the r i v e r , I ' l l go and follow you And get you back. I f ever y o u ' l l go To the clouds, I ' l l be a wind And get you back. *probably a member of the Nazko t r i b e ( C a r r i e r nasku-t'en "Nazko Indians") 

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