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Bella Coola Indian music : a study of the interaction between Northwest Coast Indian musical structures… Kolstee, Anton Frederik 1977

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BELLA COOLA INDIAN MUSIC: a study of the i n t e r a c t i o n between Northwest Coast Indian musical structures and t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l context. by ANTON FREDERIK KOLSTEEB.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE. STUDIES (Dept. of Music) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1977 ANTON FREDERIK KOLSTEE, 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  this  written  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  representatives. thesis  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  The  for  this  that  study. thesis  i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  Music  University of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  te  It  permission.  Department o f  D a  fulfilment of  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  July  19. 1977  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT The t h e s i s attempts to f i l l one of the many gaps i n the research of Northwest Coast Indian musics by providing the f i r s t study of B e l l a Coola songs as they have been preserved on tape.  The work i s based on my own f i e l d recordings and  notes, the wax c y l i n d e r recordings and contextual reconstrucr t i o n s of T.F. Mcllwraith, tapes made by the B.C. Indian Language Project, by Mildred V a l l e y Thornton, by P h i l i p Davis, and by the B e l l a Coola. themselves. Part One o f the study describes the ethnographic context of the songs.  A discussion of the s i t u a t i o n s i n which  they were used, the performance  organization ( p r i n c i p a l per-  formers, instruments and so on) with which they were a s s o c i ated, and the two types of compositional processes employed to create them i s included. Part Two consists of an analysis of the music's tural characteristics.  struc-  Modal and formal processes, drum rhythms,  language-melody i n t e r a c t i o n s , and s t y l e change (over a 51 year period) are examined.  Dance, language, and h i s t r i o n i c s played  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n determining c e r t a i n of the music's butes.  attri-  The hierarchy of the music's s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  was found to strongly r e f l e c t that of t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l categories. F i n a l l y , Part Three provides 73 o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s that encompass a broad spectrum o f the B e l l a Coola ceremonial and non-ceremonial  repertoires. i  I  TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  iv  INTRODUCTION  1 PART ONE: THE ETHNOGRAPHIC OF THE SONGS  I. II. III.  CONTEXT  THE FUNCTION OF MUSIC IN BELLA COOLA SOCIETY  14  BELIEFS ABOUT COMPOSITIONAL PROCESSES .  30  THE PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION OF BELLA COOLA MUSIC  40  PART TWO: THE INTERIOR LOGIC OF BELLA COOLA SONGS IV.  TRANSCRIPTIONAL METHODOLOGY  48  V.  ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS  54  VI.  MODAL. STRUCTURE IN BELLA COOLA MUSIC  146  VII.  DRUM RHYTHMS  167  V I I I . FORM AND TEXT: A SELECTIVE STUDY OF THEIR INTERACTION IX. X.  CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN A BELLA COOLA MOURNING SONG OVER A 51-YEAR PERIOD  172 183  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS A. The C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Groupings  191  B. N e t t l ' s North American I n d i a n M u s i c a l Styles Revisited  197  ii  PART THREE: THE TRANSCRIPTIONS XI.  XII.  CEREMONIAL SONGS A.  Headdress Songs  205  B.  Mourning Songs  C.  Kusiyut Dance Songs  266  D.  Entrance Songs  295  E.  Hamatsa Songs  298  F.  Shaman Songs  301  ...  247  NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS A.  Love, Songs  306  B.  Lahal Songs  322  C.  Animal Songs  328  D.  Game Songs  337  NOTES  340  BIBLIOGRAPHY  343  APPENDIX I . APPENDIX I I .  A Note on the Performers and the Collectors  353  The Averages of the Structural Characteristics  355  APPENDIX I I I . Some a d d i t i o n a l Song Texts  iii  359  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study would not have been possible had I not hadthe good fortune o f meeting andrbeing a s s i s t e d by the following  persons.  My sincerest thanks to Prof. David Aberie> Dept.  of Anthropology and Sociology (U.B.C), who i n d i r e c t l y  initi-  ated the study by introducing me to the problem o f B e l l a C o o l a c u l t u r a l retentions, borrowings, and innovations.  I am i n -  debted also to Mr. James Wilson, former Executive Director of the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority, f o r g i v i n g me the opport u n i t y to undertake a study o f several non-metropolitan B r i t i s h Columbia musical communities during the summer o f 1975, thereby allowing me to conduct my B e l l a Coola f i e l d work i n August of the same year. I would also l i k e to acknowledge the assistance o f Chief Ivan T a l l i o , Sandra T a l l i o , and the Band Council o 4 B e l l a Coola.  I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r having allowed me to pursue my  f i e l d research amongst them and f o r their, h o s p i t a l i t y .  Above  a l l , however, my h e a r t f e l t thanks to Agnes Edgar, Dan Nelson, F e l i c i t y Walkus, and Margaret Siwallace f o r permitting me to record t h e i r singing - f o r l e t t i n g me t r a v e l back i n time with them. forget.  Those l a u g h t e r - f i l l e d yet serious sessions I w i l l never The information concerning the s o c i a l context o f the  songs, supplied by F e l i c i t y Walkus and Margaret Siwallace, i s also g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  The kindness shown to me by the  Godfrey and Louise T a l l i o family, Harvey and Eva Mack, and Bob T a l l i o , likewise deserves mention. iv  The  B e l l a Coola  song, t e x t s and t r a n s l a t i o n s - i n c l u d e d  i n t h i s study were generously- provided, by Mr. Henk Nater, R i j k s u n i v e r s i t e i t , Leiden.,  Holland.  My thanks a l s o t o Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy (B.C.  I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , V i c t o r i a , B.C.) f o r s u p p l y i n g  a d d i t i o n a l musical  and e t h n o g r a p h i c  data and.for having  asked  me t o be a p a r t o f t h e i r v a l u a b l e p r o j e c t . F u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , t o the. sample were- made by P r o f . P h i l i p D a v i s , Rice. U n i v e r s i t y , Texas., who k i n d l y made a v a i l a b l e the tapes of. h i s study and T.F.  Songs (1967).  The tapes  e n t i t l e d B e l l a Coola  Tales  o f t h e l a t t e r and. those made by  M c l l w r a i t h were r e c o r d e d  f o r me and sent by-Maria Forde,  Audio V i s u a l A r c h i v i s t , Canadian E t h n o l o g y S e r v i c e , N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man; muchas g r a c i a s , My s i n c e r e s t thanks.to and  Maria. P r o f . Ming-Yuen L i a n g , my  teacher  t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n a l and c r e a t i v e guidance  throughout my e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l  studies.  The c i p h e r  analytical  methodology employed i n P a r t Two o f t h i s , study was d e v i s e d by Prof. Liang.  N a t u r a l l y any d e f e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s  a n a l y t i c a l procedure a r e my own.  Thanks a l s o t o P r o f .  Eliot  Weisgarber, P r o f . Gregory B u t l e r , and P r o f . M i c h a e l  Kew f o r  forming  interest  a p a r t o f my t h e s i s committee and f o r t h e i r  i n my work. F i n a l l y I would l i k e t o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge t h e l o v e and  encouragement p r o v i d e d  by my w i f e M a r i b e l l who, l i k e  Bella  C o o l a music, c o n s t a n t l y i n t r o d u c e s me t o new l e v e l s o f t a s t e and  sensitivity. v  1  INTRODUCTION Although- a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of Northwest Coast Indian music has been recorded during t h i s century, by anthropologists, by l i n g u i s t s , by musicians, and even by the native people themselves, only a small p o r t i o n of t h i s data has been transcribed or analyzed.  This t h e s i s , the f i r s t attempt  to study tape-  recorded B e l l a Coola Indian music, i s intended to f i l l one of the many resultant gaps i n our knowledge of Northwest Coast Indian music as a whole^ The f i r s t and only p r i o r study of B e l l a Coola Indian music was made i n 1886 without the benefit of recording equipment.  This early monograph was-made-possible i n 1885 when a  Norwegian c o l l e c t o r of ethnographic m a t e r i a l , F i l l i p  Jacobsen,  convinced nine B e l l a Coola singers to accompany him to Germany for what turned out to be a s i g n i f i c a n t thirteen-month tour. Among those who  heard these singers were the comparative  music-  o l o g i s t C a r l Stumpf and the anthropologist Franz Boas, the l a t t e r i n B e r l i n , t h e former i n Halle on November 18, Both men were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y stimulated by these  1885.  performances.  According to Rohner, Boas's experience served as a c a t a l y s t i n s p i r i n g him to begin h i s l i f e - l o n g studies of Northwest Coast Indians (Boas 1969:17).  ,  Using Jacobsen as an i n t e r p r e t e r , Stumpf worked with one of the singers f o r four days a f t e r the. performance i n Halle i n order to a u r a l l y transcribe seven songs.  Along with two  2  songs transcribed by Boas i n B e r l i n , Stumpf published  his  study e n t i t l e d "Lieder der B e l l a k u l a Indianer" i n 1886. Stumpf*s study i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n questions r e l a t i n g to intonation and scale and t h e i r possible cance f o r the reconstruction o f c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y .  signifiA f t e r de-  s c r i b i n g each song, he compares h i s f i n d i n g s with those he made while a group of Zulu singers v i s i t e d H a l l e , also i n 1885  (1886:101).  Finding that both employed pentatonic  scales  most frequently, he concluded that, with the a i d of anthropol o g i c a l data, they would perhaps both be traced u l t i m a t e l y to A s i a t i c sources (1886:103). Stumpfs monograph o c c a s i o n a l l y includes value judgments.  ethnocentric  In one case he a t t r i b u t e s what he considers  to be f a u l t y intonation to the fact that the singers were singing only by " f e e l i n g " and that they were, r e c e i v i n g presents f o r t h e i r work (1886:96).  In h i s summary, however, Stumpf.  adopts a posture o f c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m .  He suggests that these  people should not be termed "wild" simply because they, unlike members of Western European c u l t u r e , "sing between tones" (1886: 103). Unfortunately,  none of Stumpf s songs were encountered  i n the data with which I worked.  This i s perhaps due more to  the fact that the B e l l a Coola musical r e p e r t o i r e has shrunk dramatically since 1886 than to defects i n Stumpfs or Boas's transcriptions.  Since they were made without the benefit of  3  y  tape-recorded data and because Stumpf and Boas tended to impose Western European metrical concepts and key signatures into them, these t r a n s c r i p t i o n s must be approached  cautiously.  Only s i x of Stumpf s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are B e l l a Coola songs.  Two  of the remaining three were borrowed from the  Kwakiutl while the t h i r d was acknowledged to be a Haida melody. to  Since Stumpf's songs were not tape-recorded, I attempted  sing some of these melodies f o r the singers, i n an e f f o r t  to determine whether or not these were f a m i l i a r . was unsuccessful.  This attempt  Because the musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of.  Stumpfs t r a n s c r i p t i o n s cannot be e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i e d , they have not been included i n t h i s study. Although a substantial amount of ethnographic  litera-  ture concerning the B e l l a Coola has been compiled since the time of Stumpfs study, few of these works are valuable, f o r reconstructing the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context of B e l l a Coola music. Aside from a few references i n Stumpf (1886) and Boas (1898), the only good source f o r ethnographic data relevant to B e l l a Coola music i s Thomas F. Mcllwraith's 2 volume work, The Bellas Coola Indians (1948). P r i o r to h i s B e l l a Coola f i e l d work (1922-1924), Mcllwraith studied anthropology at Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y with two of the three leaders of e a r l y twentieth-century B r i t i s h anthropology: Haddon and Rivers (Eggan 1968:473).  Alfred  Haddon, by having organized the Torres S t r a i t s expedition of 1898-1900, had taken B r i t i s h anthropology away from i t s nine-  4 t e e n t h - c e n t u r y "arm-chair" p o s t u r e (Eggan 1968:473).  Haddon  was an E n g l i s h z o o l o g i s t whose i n t e r e s t s , i n a n t h r o p o l o g y i n cluded  attempts t o a p p l y " . . .  science  b i o l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n s t o the  o f a r t " ( T a y l o r 1959:481).  Haddon f e l t  that  l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s c o u l d best-be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g then r e c e n t  doctrine of evolution  t o the.  ( T a y l o r 1959:481).  While i n B e l l a C o o l a , M c l l w r a i t h  " . . . was  n i t e l y under the i n f l u e n c e , o f " t h i s E n g l i s h s c h o o l pological thinking  (1948 I : v i ) .  fluence," Mcllwraith in  z a t i o n must p r e s s onward and t h e l i f e  the  suffer,  culture civili-  o f the I n d i a n  will  soon  This negative a p p r a i s a l of the  c u l t u r e , premature from the s t a n d p o i n t  1970's, p l a y e d  Mcllwraith  of anthro-  f o r Indian  "evolution!/: "Though the i n d i v i d u a l may  future of Indian  defi-  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s " i n -  d i d not see a p l a c e  d i s a p p e a r " (1948 I : x i i ) .  ethno-  a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining  of  how  approached h i s d a t a .  Rather t h a n d e s c r i b i n g - B e l l a C o o l a c u l t u r e as he found i t i n 1922, M c l l w r a i t h  decided to r e c o n s t r u c t  Bella  Coola c u l t u r e i n p r i m a r i l y synchronic or a h i s t o r i c a l The aim o f h i s study " . . . B e l l a Coola l i f e ture"  first  terms.  was t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n  on  as i t was b e f o r e the breakdown o f t h e i r c u l -  (1948 I : v i ) .  What M c l l w r a i t h  never d e f i n e s ,  however,  i s what he means c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y by " b e f o r e t h e breakdown o f their culture."  S i n c e h i s work i n c l u d e s r e f e r e n c e s  t o the  1870's and 1880's (1948 1:197) and t o the 1880's and 1890's (1948  11:359), one wonders when t h i s "breakdown" o c c u r e d .  Although dates are o c c a s i o n a l l y mentioned, in. h i s study, some obvious points o f chronology are. absent. Mcllwraith never gives.the ages of the men with. whom, he worked.  Since octagenarians with whom he spoke would have,  been i n their.twenties when the great, smallpox epidemic struck the Northwest Coast i n 1862 (Duff 1964:42),  he could have esta-  blished t h i s date as. a temporal, frame of reference..  He. could  also have employed the. year 1885 as_such a referent, since t h i s was the year of the t r i p to Germany mentioned above. However Mcllwraith's study includes no s i g n i f i c a n t mention of t h i s t r i p , the l a s t survivor of which ( B i l l y Jones) died i n the 1940' It i s my b e l i e f that-Mcllwraith was c l o s e r i n time to the "breakdown" of B e l l a Coola culture than, he thought..  White  contact, established f i r s t in. June and J u l y of 1793 by George Vancouver and Alexander, MacKenzie, did. not. immediately the winter ceremonials.  alter,  As Wilson Duff has pointed out, " . . .  p o t l a t c h i n g and winter dances d i d not die. e a s i l y ; i n . f a c t the main e f f e c t of early white contacts was to stimulate them to greater vigour" (1964:102). The main force working against the potlatches. and the winter ceremonials, and therefore, against the songs.,, masks, dances and so on, was the church.  However i t was not u n t i l  1883 that a mission was established, in. Bella, Coola.  Beginning  i n 1883 and.continuing into 1884 a Methodist minister, the Rev. William Henry Pierce, attempted.to  dissuade the. B e l l a Coola  from maintaining t h e i r ceremonial customs.  According to C l i f f  6 Kopas, a long-time  resident of B e l l a Coola who  worked with  Clayton Mack and the l a t e Andy Schooner i n preparing h i s nonscholarly hut valuable account of B e l l a Coola's h i s t o r y , Pierce convinced a Chief Tactalus to burn h i s whistles, robes, headdresses, and scarves (1970:217). preach i n 1885,  Although Pierce did not  thereby allowing Chief Tactalus to lead the  expedition to Germany, missionaries were a c t i v e i n B e l l a Coola from 1886 aries  onward (Kopas 1970:218).  The e f f o r t s of the mission-  were given o f f i c i a l sanction i n 1884 when Section  of the Indian Act declared p o t l a t c h i n g i l l e g a l . i s reasonable  114  Ithink i t  to suggest therefore that the "breakdown" of the  winter ceremonials  and the potlatches did not r e a l l y begin  u n t i l the 1880's. Thus Mcllwraith's study informs us about two  periods  i n B e l l a Coola musical h i s t o r y , one beginning we know not when but ending i n the 1880's and the other spanning the years to  1924  1922  during which time Mcllwraith conducted h i s f i e l d work.  Mcllwraith's work i s valuable f o r musical ethnography because of the f i e l d experiences upon which i t i s based. During h i s f i r s t t r i p to B e l l a Coola, Mcllwraith soon learned a mixed language c o n s i s t i n g of Chinook (the l i n g u a franca of the Northwest Coast during t h i s period) and Coola.  Bella  He worked c l o s e l y with two prominent B e l l a Coola  Captain Schooner and Jim P o l l a r d , who  men,  fortunately f o r him were  confined to the v i l l a g e during the f i s h i n g season of Mcllwraith's p o s i t i o n i n the community was  1922.  promptly r a i s e d  7  when h i s close friendship with Captain Schooner resulted i n h i s being adopted into the Schooner family. On h i s return to B e l l a Coola i n September of 1923, however, he learned that- Captain Schooner had died.  Schooner  had played an important r o l e i n the winter ceremonial productions.  Mcllwraith, as an adopted member o f the Schooner  family, was chosen to take h i s place. stances  Through these circum-  he became a prompter (a r o l e to be more f u l l y d i s -  cussed i n connection with performance organization) during the 1923  and 1924 ceremonial seasons.  From t h i s unique  position  as one of the three p r i n c i p a l performers, he was able to understand and document ceremonial l i f e i n a manner that would have been impossible without p a r t i c i p a t o r y experience. As a prompter, Mcllwraith became well-informed about p  B e l l a Coola song texts.  Consequently h i s second chapter i n  Volume I I , e n t i t l e d "Songs," discusses music l a r g e l y i n terms of song texts and performance organization. Another important c o n t r i b u t i o n of Mcllwraith's i s the over 100 wax c y l i n d e r recordings he made o f Jim P o l l a r d ' s 3  singing.  I was able to transcribe eleven of these songs ( f o r  the most part the remainder are o f such poor q u a l i t y today that t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s precluded) f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the present sample. Unfortunately Mcllwraith's work gives us no i n d i c a t i o n of the t o t a l musical r e p e r t o i r e ' s s i z e during t h i s period.  He pre-  sents only a selected p o r t i o n o f the song texts which he c o l l e c t e d and recorded  P o l l a r d almost e x c l u s i v e l y since " . . .  8  few people were q u a l i f i e d t o s i n g i n t o t h e machine" (1948 I I : 267).  I t i s c l e a r from the above and-other  passages t h a t  M c l l w r a i t h p r e f e r r e d t o work w i t h a s m a l l number o f c o n s u l tants.  Rather than work p a t i e n t l y w i t h o t h e r s i n g e r s who  had p r o b a b l y never  seen a phonograph p r i o r t o M c l l w r a i t h ' s ,  he chose i n s t e a d t o work w i t h t h e man t o whom he had become most accustomed - Jim P o l l a r d .  Unfortunately therefore h i s  r e c o r d i n g s o n l y r e f l e c t a p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f songs t h a t were s t i l l  b e i n g sung i n 1923-1924.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s made toward t h e enrichment  o f B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l ethnography s i n c e M c l l w r a i t h ' s  have been i n t h e realm o f t a p e - r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l .  As a r e s u l t  t h i s study must r e l y h e a v i l y on M c l l w r a i t h ' s work i n o r d e r t o 5 r e c o n s t r u c t t h e f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h e songs. The  73 t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n P a r t Three o f t h i s  t h e s i s were n o t a t e d from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s .  My f i e l d r e -  c o r d i n g s o f August 1975, tapes made by the B e l l a C o o l a thems e l v e s (from t h e 1960's onward), and r e c o r d i n g s made by t h e B.C.  I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t i n 1971, 1972, and 1975, form t h e  b u l k o f t h e sample.  The remainder  o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were  made from M c l l w r a i t h ' s wax c y l i n d e r r e c o r d i n g s , from made by M i l d r e d V a l l e y Thornton '  tapes  i n 1946, and from the tapes  t o P h i l i p D a v i s ' s study e n t i t l e d B e l l a C o o l a T a l e s and Songs (1967).  A complete l i s t  o f c o l l e c t o r and song c o r r e s p o n -  dences i s i n c l u d e d i n P a r t Two o f t h i s The  t h e s i s w i l l attempt  study.  t o show, wherever p o s s i b l e ,  9 the s o c i a l determinants o f B e l l a C o o l a music. p a r t , Northwest  Coast I n d i a n m u s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p has not y e t  adopted t h i s p o s t u r e . I n d i a n musics may wing  F o r the most  S t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h Northwest  Coast  be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o the t h r e e f o l l o -  approaches:  1.  those t h a t have c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y on the music i t s e l f , f o r example, F i l l m o r e (1899), Barbeau (-1934, 1955, 1957), George (1962), Herzog (1934, 1949), K i e f e r (1969), N e t t l (1954), Roberts and H a e b e r l i n (1918), Roberts and Swadesh (1955), and Stumpf (1886).  2.  those t h a t have c o n c e n t r a t e d on p u r e l y organological, l i n g u i s t i c , or h i s t o r i c a l d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o music, f o r example, Gunther (1966), Swanton (1912), Deans (1891), Meek (1972), N i b l a c k (1971), R a v e n h i l l (1938), Drucker (1965), G a l p i n (1903), and M c l l w r a i t h (1948).  3.  t h o s e t h a t have d e s c r i b e d the music and i t s c o n t e x t but have not attempted t o f i n d s y s t e m a t i c correspondences between t h e s e two spheres, f o r example, Boas (<t'888(a), 1888(b), 1896, 1970), Densmore (1939, 1943), S t u a r t (1972), and H a l p e r n (1968).  What i s m i s s i n g i n t h e s e works i s an examination o f the d i a l e c t i c between e x t r a - m u s i c a l f a c t o r s (such as language, performance  dance,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and so on) and the  structural characteristics.  music's  T h i s study has found, f o r example,  t h a t m e l o d i c embellishments are i n c e r t a i n cases the r e s u l t o f the need f o r B e l l a C o o l a music  to accomodate l i n g u i s t i c  f a c t o r s ; drum rhythms i n some songs were found t o change s t r u c t u r e s as a r e s u l t o f a l t e r a t i o n s , i n the dance; the sounds o f drones and w h i s t l e s were found t o symbolize sounds o f s u p e r n a t u r a l - b e i n g s and  so on.  the  Thus these a s p e c t s  o f B e l l a C o o l a music can o n l y be f u l l y understood when they are viewed  from both m u s i c a l and  frames o f r e f e r e n c e s .  s o c i a l (extra-musical)  An a n a l y s i s o f the above-mentioned  m u s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s o n i c o r d e r a l o n e would not r e v e a l these s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between the music and i t s t o t a l c o n t e x t . T h i s study does not c l a i m to be t o t a l l y  exhaustive  w i t h r e s p e c t to u n c o v e r i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s between B e l l a C o o l a music and  society.  The  interconnections posited  here  are based on the e x i s t i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e and on the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from the present-day these s i n g e r s were composers, however. composer s t i l l  been l i v i n g i n 1975,  l e a r n e d much more about  Had  None o f ,  any B e l l a C o o l a  I l i k e l y would have  the e f f e c t o f the non-musical  on the a c t u a l f o r m a t i o n o f the m u s i c a l Had  singers.  sphere  structures.  f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s allowed i t ,  I would have  stayed l o n g e r i n B e l l a C o o l a and c o u l d thus have r e c o r d e d more music and more e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a .  A comprehensive  treat-  ment o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and dance and. between music and language  c o u l d t h e r e b y have been p r o v i d e d .  A g r e a t l i m i t a t i o n e x i s t s simply because so much o f the B e l l a C o o l a c u l t u r e has been l o s t .  F o r example,  elderly  11 B e l l a C o o l a c o n s u l t a n t s i n . the. 1.970*.s. did. not even know o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a s e c r e t s o c i e t y ( t h e A l k ) about  which.  w  M c l l w r a i t h was  a b l e to record, a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of: musir  c a l and-ethnographic- d a t a (Kennedy and Bouchard. 1977:20). While t h e r e were thousands o f songs (Stumpf  1886:93) f o r a  g r e a t number o f f u n c t i o n s i n former t i m e s , the present, r e p e r t o i r e c o n s i s t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred placed  songs t h a t a r e  (by the. s i n g e r s themselves) i n t o g e n e r a l i z e d , f u n c t i o n -  a l groupings. t h e r e a r e now  W i t h i n the K u s i y u t Dance songs,  for.example,  o n l y s i n g l e examples o f songs such, as the  T h u n d e r b i r d , Fungus, Cedar Bark, and Echo, whereas in, the former K u s i y u t song corpus, t h e s e t y p e s formed t h e i r own.  sub-styles of  A comparison o f M c l l w r a i t h ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  the w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l dances  (and t h e r e f o r e song t y p e s ) w i t h  the song t y p e s included- here reveals,, the g r e a t e x t e n t o f the c u l t u r a l l o s s (1948.1:1-266).. F i n a l l y , as a statement by a n o n - n a t i v e and by a nonspeaker o f the B e l l a C o o l a language, the study o b v i o u s l y cons t i t u t e s o n l y one k i n d o f window through which we and u n d e r s t a n d B e l l a Coola-music.  can observe  However i t . i s hoped t h a t  the work w i l l prove u s e f u l t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a i n t h e i r ongoing e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e the i d e n t i t y and d i g n i t y o f t h e i r While the t e r m i n o l o g y used to a n a l y z e the music, may  culture. be t h e  s u b j e c t o f f u t u r e r e v i s i o n s , the e m p i r i c a l d a t a s h o u l d prove u s e f u l f o r the comparative work t h a t s t i l l i n Northwest  Coast m u s i c a l s t u d i e s .  remains, t o be done ;  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n  12 P a r t Three w i l l have a more immediate p r a c t i c a l  significance,  In f a c t , b e f o r e r e a d i n g on, the r e a d e r i s . a d v i s e d to these melodies  i n o r d e r to b e t t e r understand  m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n to be s t u d i e d here.  experience  the n a t u r e o f the  13  P A R T  T H E  ONE  E T H N O G R A P H I C 0 F  T H E  S O N G S  C O N T E X T  14  I.  THE FUNCTION OF MUSIC IN BELLA COOLA SOCIETY  Having had no o v e r - a l l name f o r themselves p r i o r to white contact, those Indians who  inhabited the v a l l e y of the  B e l l a Coola River on the c e n t r a l coast of B r i t i s h  Columbia  are now known by an a n g l i c i z e d pronunciation of a term (B/lx^»la) formerly applied to them by t h e i r western neighbors the B e l l a B e l l a .  Nineteenth century epidemics reduced the  population of the B e l l a Coola, estimated to be 2000 i n 1835, to 249 i n 1929.  At t h i s w r i t i n g there are approximately 650  B e l l a Coola Indians occupying one v i l l a g e on the south side of the B e l l a Coola River mouth. Surrounded  on a l l sides by "foreign"' language  families,  the Wakashan on the south, west, and north, and the Athabascan to the east, the B e l l a Coola form an i s o l a t e d enclave of the Salishan language family.  Jorgensen believes that the B e l l a  Coola s p l i t o f f from Coast S a l i s h and moved northward Dale Kinkade however holds that " . . .  (1969:52).  the p o s i t i o n of the  B e l l a Coola v i s - a - v i s Coast S a l i s h and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i s s t i l l not e n t i r e l y clear; i t seems l i k e l y to me that i t s p l i t off from common S a l i s h f i r s t , and that the d i v i s i o n between the Coast and the I n t e r i o r was l a t e r " (1976:2).  A non-  l i n g u i s t cannot choose between these views. Vi/hatever may have been the exact nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n ship, one thing i s c e r t a i n .  B e l l a Coola culture has been  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d as a r e s u l t of i t s proximity to the  15  Wakashan-speaking peoples - e s p e c i a l l y the B e l l a B e l l a . , Speaking about the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between the B e l l a Coola and the l a t t e r , Mcllwraith noted that:  Although l i n g u i s t i c differences prevented free exchange of ideas, and a c t i v e h o s t i l i t y was not unknown, there was considerable intermarriage between the two t r i b e s . The B e l l a Coola recognized the s i m i l a r i t y of culture between them i n f a c t , whereas a C a r r i e r was despised f o r lack of knowledge of ceremonial and dramatic matters, a B e l l a B e l l a was respected f o r h i s superior l o r e i n that respect. The B e l l a Coola believed that many of t h e i r r i t e s have been obtained from them. (1948 1:19)  The musical r e s u l t of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was that B e l l a Coola ceremonial music departed from the p r e v a i l i n g Salishan ceremonial pattern which " . . . consisted of semicompetitive 'guardian-spirit singings', i n which various: i n d i v i d u a l s , not only shamans but men with hunting or war power, sang the songs taught them by t h e i r t u t e l a r y spirits-, while f r i e n d s and neighbors formed a chorus" (Drucker 1963: 169).  Instead, B e l l a Coola ceremonial music began to serve  the needs of competitive and elaborate ceremonial i n s t i t u t i o n s based l a r g e l y on wealth, status and rank.  As with the B e l l a  B e l l a , t h i s development was made possible p r i m a r i l y by the abm abundant sea food resources of t h e i r environment  which allowed  them a more sedentary l i f e , a greater population, and a degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , including nearly f u l l - t i m e musicians.  16 Rank among the B e l l a Coola was achieved g e n e a l o g i c a l l y and economically.  Genealogically, i t was necessary f o r a  c h i l d to i n h e r i t an a n c e s t r a l name and a number of prerogatives believed to have been handed down from the very f i r s t s e t t l e r s of B e l l a Coola.  These s e t t l e r s , i n many cases i n  animal form, were believed to have been created by the supreme being A l k  , w  ntam who  sent them down to populate the B e l l a  Coola v a l l e y (Mcllwraith 1948  1:4).  not enough without an economic base.  Genealogical p o s i t i o n  was  I n h e r i t i n g such a name  did not ensure that i t s owner would one day become a c h i e f . This depended on h i s own or h i s parents* a b i l i t y to d i s t r i b u t e valuable presents at any kind of ceremonial (Mcllwraith 1948 1:163). Thus through genealogical and economic competition everyone came to know h i s r e l a t i v e place i n the order of rank.  At the lowest l e v e l of t h i s order were slaves, who  e i t h e r were taken i n b a t t l e or were given to the B e l l a Coola chiefs as presents, or were repayments of gambling debts (Mcllwraith 1948  I: 158-159).  at times may have comprised  According to Mcllwraith, slaves  as much as t h i r t y or f o r t y per  cent of the B e l l a Coola population (1948 1:158).  Although  slaves never attained a p o s i t i o n of rank, i t was o c c a s i o n a l l y possible f o r them to gain a c e r t a i n amount of status.  In  c e r t a i n instances slaves were given valuable dance prerogat i v e s by generous masters and could thus achieve a c e r t a i n l e v e l of influence (Mcllwraith 1948  1:160).  Commoners were  17  midway between the chiefs and the slaves.  While the difference  between slaves and commoners must have been great, a f i n e l y graded continuum separated the commoners from the chiefs.. Public displays of wealth and ancestral  prerogatives  were conducted every year from October to March under the auspices of two It was  secret s o c i e t i e s , the Sisawk and the  the members of these s o c i e t i e s who  Kusiyut.  i n h e r i t e d , commis-  sioned, composed, or received from a neighboring t r i b e a l l B e l l a Coola ceremonial songs. Although a man  l a c k i n g the marks of c h i e f t a i n s h i p  may  have been a member of the Sisawk society, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s s o c i e t y and c h i e f t a i n s h i p was was  so close that i t  thought of as a society of chiefs (Mcllwraith 1948  Sisawk prerogatives, names, dances, songs, masks and though the p o t e n t i a l property  1:181).  so  on,  of members of an ancestral  family, had f i r s t to be properly v a l i d a t e d .  This v a l i d a t i o n  procedure involved a two-week to four-month period of seclusion i n the back of a house and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of presents;.  The  l a t t e r were u s u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d during a potlatch, where guests from f o r e i g n t r i b e s could witness the important event and thereby carry the fame of the i n i t i a t e further than would an a l l - B e l l a Coola ceremony (Mcllwraith 1948  I:180-181).. Aside from t h e i r  use during potlatches, generally i n October, Sisawk dances were employed at funerals and occasionally at gatherings of l e s s e r importance. The  second B e l l a Coola secret society, the Kusiyut, was  a  18 more democratic  i n s t i t u t i o n , which dominated ceremonial  from November to March.  life  Although a duly v a l i d a t e d a n c e s t r a l  prerogative was necessary f o r membership, the amount of wealth needed to v a l i d a t e a Kusiyut prerogative was  " . . . nothing i:  comparable to that required f o r a potlatch; i n f a c t , poor  men  are of&en persons of great importance within the ranks of the society" (Mcllwraith 1948  11:3).  While Sisawk names were i n  use during potlatches or other ceremonial occasions only, Kusiyut names were those used commonly. The Kusiyut s o c i e t y was the Sisawk.  ofma more dramatic nature  than  Kusiyut s o c i e t y members were believed to have been  i n intimate contact with supernatural beings during t h e i r ceremonial season.  Mcllwraith informs us that each Kusiyut  dance portrayed:  . . . a performance given by one of the supernatural beings i n the house above, or some of the other aspects of h i s a c t i v i t i e s . Each earthly dancer has a patron or supernatural being, u s u a l l y the one who c a r r i e s out the dance of which h i s own i s a model, and between patron and protege there e x i s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p by means of which the l a t t e r receives the power necessary to perform. (1948 11:6)  In order to ensure that the secrets of t h i s s o c i e t y were maintained,  executive Kusiyut members (termed "marshalls" by  Mcllwraith) employed spies to keep them informed of suspicious non-initiates.  I f an u n i n i t i a t e d person were to discover  c e r t a i n Kusiyut secrets, he would either be i n i t i a t e d into the society or be k i l l e d (Mcllwraith 1948  11:14-18).  19 A t h i r d s e c r e t s o c i e t y , the A ' a l k , whose c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t i e s were l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r than those of the Sisawk and K u s i y u t , had a l r e a d y d i s i n t e g r a t e d and merged w i t h the former p r i o r t o M c l l w r a i t h ' s f i e l d work (1948  1:273).  M c l l w r a i t h notes t h a t A ' a l k songs somewhat resemble types and d i v i d e s them i n t o two  Sisawk  f u n c t i o n a l categories::  (a)  those used a t p o t l a t c h e s whose themes were drawn from a n c e s t r a l myths, and  (b)  those used f o r non-ceremonial o c c a s i o n s whose themes were drawn from c u r r e n t events? (1948 11:284).  As M c l l w r a i t h ' s f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n f i r m , the songs o f the second f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r y were extremely important i n t e a c h i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g the " u n w r i t t e n laws" o f B e l l a social  Coola  life:  I f a man has caught t e n salmon and kept them a l l f o r h i m s e l f , h i s m i s e r l i n e s s i s commented Upon i n the song; i f a w i f e has d e s e r t e d h e r husband f o r another man, the a c t i o n s of the two a r e m e r c i l e s s l y r i d i c u l e d ; i f a c h i e f has f a i l e d t o d i s p l a y gener o s i t y i t i s l i k e w i s e r e c o r d e d , and r e f e r e n c e i s made t o e r r o r s i n dance r i t u a l . (1948 1:279)  No A ' a l k songs are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y .  In f a c t ,  e l d e r l y c o n s u l t a n t s i n the 1970s= d i d not even know o f the e x i s t e n c e of such a s o c i e t y (Kennedy and Bouchard 1977:20). The B e l l a C o o l a c e r e m o n i a l songs i n t h i s sample were a l l o r i g i n a l l y used i n the above-mentioned Sisawk and K u s i y u t ceremonial contexts.  The  s i n g i n g o f t h e s e songs was  an  i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of the v a l i d a t i o n o f an a n c e s t r a l p r e r o g a t i v e .  20 For t h i s reason a group of professional singers evolved. These singers d i d almost nothing hut sing and compose; only during the busy f i s h i n g season were they not t o t a l l y devoted to musical a c t i v i t i e s .  During l u l l s i n the f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y ,  however, they were involved i n the performances of non-sacred dances f e a t u r i n g Sisawk. Kusiyut, and A'6'alk songs (Mcllwraith 1948 1:287-288). Membership i n t h i s singing group was r e s t r i c t e d to those with natural musical a b i l i t y and to those possessing ancestral prerogatives.  The most powerful among t h i s group were those  men who combined genealogical and musical qualifications-. Although women formed an important a u x i l i a r y choir during a t o t a l ceremonial performance, they were not members of the p r o f e s s i o n a l singing group. Since mistakes i n the performance of Sisawk or Kusiyut ceremonies would s e r i o u s l y lower the esteem of a society v i s a-vis i t s counterparts i n other v i l l a g e s , the singers took advantage of every opportunity to rehearse (Mcllwraith 1948 11:52). Mcllwraith c i t e s several examples of errors i n ceremonial rites.  In one instance the singers took great delight i n  t e l l i n g him of how they " . . . completely forgot a song text !  and substituted a d e s c r i p t i o n of a mask used at the r i t e i n question" (1948 11:271). 1  The remaining types of errors mentioned by Mcllwraith are non-musical, a c h i e f s seat could break, a dancer might f a l l , a dancer's mask might drop, a f i r e could break out (causing concealed dancers to appear to the uninitiated),, a  21  sidewalk on which the dancers danced could break, and so on. I f a mistake was not a major one, the feared Cannibal, Scratcher, and Breaker dancers would rush out and f r i g h t e n the u n i n i t i a t e d audience mistake.  i n order to d i s t r a c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away from the When a major error occurred the offender was often  k i l l e d (1948 IT: 266)). In Kusiyut ceremonies singers were so important that they were paid even before the makers of the masks.  Payment was i n  the form of: presents of small value which were considered more important f o r t h e i r symbolic value, to indicate that the host had f u l f i l l e d h i s obligations-,,, than f o r t h e i r a c t u a l worth (Mcllwraith 1948 11:56). Singing was so v i t a l to B e l l a Coola ceremonial l i f e that s p e c i a l rites? were administered to c h i l d r e n during infancy to b r i n g them musical success and a b i l i t y .  Mcllwraith describes  three such r i t e s , two performed by the parents and one by a good singer (1948 IT:701-703).  The parents* r i t e s c a l l e d f o r a  r o b i n or varied thrush to be rubbed l i g h t l y against the infant's throat i n one case, while i n the other a s p e c i a l decoction was applied to i t s back.  A f t e r the l a t t e r procedure, the c h i l d  wore a small bag containing four grouse g a l l bladders aroxuid h i s neck f o r s e v e r a l months (Mcllwraith 1948 1:703). were also used to promote m u s i c a l i t y i n a d u l t s .  Birds  A v a r i e d thrush,  considered by the B e l l a Coola the f i n e s t animal songster, was employed during t h i s r i t e . In order to teach the c h i l d r e n of B e l l a Coola c h i e f s the p r i n c i p l e s of the p o t l a t c h , a s p e c i a l "play p o t l a t c h "  22  (nus?a*xqamx) was held during February.  Although the main  purpose of t h i s play potlatch was to i n s t r u c t the c h i l d r e n i n the methods of present-giving, i t a l s o served to teach them the dances and songs of the Sisawk, Kusiyut and A l k  w  societies;.  A  child's; parents would decide which type of dance he was to perform.  The songs that each c h i l d learned were composed  e s p e c i a l l y f o r these occasions and were remembered from year to year. Turning now to the sample being studied here,, we may say unreservedly that the Headdress songs belonged society.  to the Sisawk  Although the majority of Mourning songs were likewise  Sisawk-owned i t i s possible that some may have been intended f o r Kusiyut commemorative r i t e s .  This p o t e n t i a l problem f o r the  f u n c t i o n a l grouping of these songs i s , however,, o f f s e t somewhait by Mcllwraith's noting that Kusiyut mourning songs resembled Sisawk- ones (1948 11:41). Since Mourning songs d i d not have to be newly composed every ceremonial year, they l i k e l y represent the oldest segment of the B e l l a Coola ceremonial r e p e r t o i r e .  Mcllwraith has  pointed out that many of these Mourning songs were borrowed from the B e l l a B e l l a , who were acknowledged by the B e l l a Coola to excel i n composing songs of t h i s type (1948 1:466).  Bella Bella  Mourning songs were also retained from year to year (Mcllwraith 1948 11:44). Sisawk prerogatives were displayed by means of the Headdress dance.  A Headdress consisted of " . . . a c i r c l e t of  g r i z z l y bear claws, surmounted i n front by a small forehead mask; from the inner side of the c i r c l e t there r i s e a number of s e a - l i o n whiskers over which i s scattered eagle down" (Mcllwraith 1948 1:205-206).  Usually, some s i x or nine weasel skins, i n two  t i e r s , hung from the back of the headdress.  As w i l l be demon-  s t r a t e d i n Part Two, the t h i r t e e n Headdress songs i n t h i s sample r e f l e c t the f a c t that they were composed e s p e c i a l l y f o r the s o c i e t y of c h i e f s . Rather than examining every one of the almost twenty Kusiyut song f u n c t i o n a l contexts documented, I w i l l describe the context of the only s u r v i v i n g sub-type within t h i s l a r g e r category the Hamatsa songs.  Three form part of the Kusiyut sample  c o l l e c t e d here. Of a l l former Kusiyut dances, the Hamatsa or Cannibal Dance was the most feared by the u n i n i t i a t e d (Mcllwraith 1948 11:71). This dance was not c a r r i e d out with the same rigour i n B e l l a Coola as i t was among the B e l l a B e l l a , F o r t Rupert, and Rivers I n l e t people, from whom the dance was o r i g i n a l l y borrowed.  As  part of t h i s dance, a Hamatsa dancer had the prerogative of " . . . eating corpses, b i t i n g the l i v i n g , eating dogs or raw salmon, or b i t i n g himself" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:71).  I t should  be pointed out that most of these a c t i v i t i e s belonged to the realm of h i s t r i o n i c s .  The dancer and h i s society were u l t i m a t e l y  attempting to convince an u n i n i t i a t e d audience that a supernatural patron, a g r i z z l y bear, eagle, or wolf, had taken possession of the dancer; thus c o n s t i t u t i n g proof of the close r e l a t i o n s h i p  24 between t h i s s o c i e t y and the supernatural.  I f a l i v i n g person  was to be b i t t e n , he would l a t e r be paid with presents a p t l y termed "Bandages" (Mcllwraith 1948  11:86).  The r o l e of Hamatsa songs i n t h i s context was c r u c i a l to the success of such a ceremony:  The assumption i s that X has had the nature and i n s t i n c t s of an animal enter into him; i f t h i s c a n n i b a l i s t i c incubus can be driven out by beating time, he w i l l be restored to sanity . . . A f t e r four rounds of beating, there suddenly appears beside X the head of an eagle, wolf, or bear, according to h i s prerogative. T h i s i i s h i s c a n n i b a l i s t i c incubus, driven from him by the successful beating of time. (Mcllwraith 1948 11:79)  Music here represents i n a symbolic manner the power of c u l t u r a l l y - o r g a n i z e d sound over man's i n s t i n c t u a l or animal drives.  We can also observe here how a musical pattern, i n  t h i s case the "beating of time" mentioned above, i s i i n f l u e n c e d by i t s f u n c t i o n a l context.  The rhythmic pattern i s repeated  four times because four i s the magico-religious number of the Northwest Coast which, although not i n v a r i a b l e employed, dominates much of t h i s culture area's ceremonial procedure. Mcllwraith c i t e s numerous examples of the use of the number four i n the Hamatsa dance: the dancer has four guardians, he remains- concealed f o r four days p r i o r to the ceremony, he dances to four songs, h i s cheeks are rubbed four times, and so on (1948 11:79-84). Of the two Entrance songs included i n the sample, one i s :;• of Rivers Inlet o r i g i n and the other i s a B e l l a Coola song. These songs were sung while the singers f i l e d into the dance  h a l l , i n canoe-like formation,  p r i o r to a Kusiyut  ceremony.  Part Two of t h i s study includes reference to how the B e l l a Coola Entrance song r e f l e c t s t h i s function i n i t s two-part structure,. Two  Shaman*s songs, a l l that could be c o l l e c t e d of t h i s  fast-disappearing B e l l a Coola song type, have been placed with the ceremonial song types.  This was done because these songs,  aside from t h e i r use i n shamanistic to accompany the host of a Kusiyut  r i t u a l , were often employed ceremony's concluding dance  (Mcllwraith 1948 11:56). Shaman songs were used p r i m a r i l y to cure p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l ailments.  Their texts are often esoteric and u s u a l l y  concern aspects of the healing procedure being applied. Non-ceremonial songs d i f f e r most from the ceremonial by the f a c t that they were communally rather than p r i v a t e l y owned and could therefore be sung by anyone.  Pour non-ceremonial  song types are included i n t h i s study: love, Lahal, Animal, and Game songs., Although the psychological and b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of Love songs i s perhaps rather s e l f - e v i d e n t , these songs were occas i o n a l l y used f o r other purposes than those f o r which they were o r i g i n a l l y intended'.  Mcllwraith describes one such example as  follows:  When.visiting a f o r e i g n t r i b e , a man sometimes l i v e s with a woman and, on parting, composes and sings a song describing her charms. One man did t h i s a f t e r l i v i n g with a Kitlobe woman, and on h i s return to B e l l a Coola found that some of h i s fellows had learned i t i n some unexplained  26  manner; they used to sing i t to him, much to t h e i r amusement, i n part to h i s own, and somewhat to the annoyance of h i s wife. (1948 1:429)  Women also composed Love songs hut these were u s u a l l y of a mocking nature, '" . . . sung only by a group of girls^' when on a p i c n i c or fern-gathering expedition'" (Mcllwraith 1948 11:332).  The Love song of K i t t y King included i n Part  Three of t h i s study,; w r i t t e n a f t e r her husband l e f t her f o r a younger woman, i s of such a mocking nature, Lahal songs were sung by the contestants as they played t h i s extremely popular gambling game.  B a s i c a l l y , the game  consists of guessing the l o c a t i o n of two bones hidden i n the hands of a player on one of the two teams into which the contestants were divided.  Each team, supported by drummers, sings-  songs c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of wordless choruses.  These songs  had a dual purpose: they served to r e i n f o r c e the s o l i d a r i t y and "luck" of the singing'group while at the same time they were meant to taunt and demoralize the opposition by means of sheer musical energy. The eight Animal songs included i n t h i s study o r i g i n a l l y had a number of uses.  In some cases, they were employed  during hunting and f i s h i n g i n order to a t t r a c t a desired  1  animal or they were sung to an animal simply i n order to communicate with i t .  Many of these songs had an important function  i n the t e l l i n g of s t o r i e s . both men andaanimals  In t h i s contex* they were sung by  who often accomplished supernatural or  magical feats: through the singing of these melodies (Boas, 1898:90-99)  27  Mcllwraith notes that Animal songs '" . . . describe events which took place long, long ago, when man and supernatural beings were; i n c l o s e r contact than a t present; when man was able to understand the speech and actions of the b i r d s , the mammals,, and the fish"* (1948 11:385). the  As the analysis i n Part Two w i l l confirm,  extra-musical meanings associated with c e r t a i n aspects of  Animal song structures d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s the age Mcllwraith r e f e r s to above - an age when few d i s t i n c t i o n s : were made between the  sounds of nature and the sounds of man. Three Game songs, other than Lahal, round out the sample.  The f i r s t , the Indian Paint-Brush Flower song, was sung by one of two opposing teams of young B e l l a Coola g i r l s i n order to make a chosen g i r l from the other team laugh: " I f she smiled or laughed, she had to go back, but i f she kept a s t r a i g h t face, she got to take the tsa7yamuus back to her team, and they sang the  song and t r i e d to make a g i r l from the f i r s t team smile"  (Turner 1973:211). The secondaand t h i r d Game songs are e s s e n t i a l l y the same song.  The Gat's Cradle Game song, a s t r i n g game song, was  modelled a f t e r the mocking V i s i t o r ' s song.  Speaking of s t r i n g  f i g u r e s , Mcllwraith informs us that: "Songs accompany many of the  f i g u r e s , and the singing of these i s considered an e s s e n t i a l  part of the construction" (1948 11:543).  Mcllwraith does not  describe the Cat's Cradle s t r i n g figure i n h i s d e t a i l e d e x p o s i t i of annumber of these f i g u r e s . The ceremonial and non-ceremonial contexts described above  28 are not a p p l i c a b l e to the contemporary c o n t e x t o f these  songs.  The  1975  s i n g i n g group I encountered  d u r i n g my  c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r s i n g e r s : Agnes Edgar, Margaret  S i w a l l a c e , and Dan  performs  infrequently.  Nelson.  f i e l d work i n  Felicity  Walkus,  T h i s group r e h e a r s e s  Since t h e r e are no l o n g e r any  and  winter  c e r e m o n i a l s o r p o t l a t c h e s , the songs which these s i n g e r s s i n g are now  sung out o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t .  performance songs,  In a  typical  t h e y s i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n Sisawk and K u s i y u t  depending In 1972  upon which dances are t o be and 1973  F e l i c i t y Walkus) won  performed.  t h i s group and t h e i r dancers  the Songhees F e s t i v a l  as the best n a t i v e p e r f o r m i n g group.  i n Victoria,  has t o perform  B.C.,  Unfortunately a lack of  funds has p r e c l u d e d t h e i r a t t e n d i n g sebsequent To the b e s t o f my  ( l e d by  Songhees f e s t i v a l s .  knowledge t h e o n l y r e g u l a r chance t h i s group  i s d u r i n g the annual  " I n d i a n Days" i n l a t e  August o f every y e a r . The most d i s t r e s s i n g  a s p e c t o f B e l l a C o o l a music  today  l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t no younger people a r e b e i n g t r a i n e d t o c a r r y on t h i s a l r e a d y i m p o v e r i s h e d t r a d i t i o n . most young people cannot C o o l a language.  do so because few  speak the  I t i s hoped t h a t a language  to be taught by Mr.  Even i f i n t e r e s t e d ,  training  Bella program  Henk Nater b e g i n n i n g September, 1977,  will  succeed i n r e v e r s i n g t h i s t r e n d . As w i l l emerge more f u l l y i n P a r t Two c o n n e c t i o n w i t h my  transcriptional  the key t o the s i n g i n g group.  o f t h i s study i n  methodology, Agnes Edgar i s  At the time o f t h i s w r i t i n g  she  29 i s approximately 89 years of age. The youngster of the group, Margaret Siwallace, i s 69 years of age. As a l i v i n g  tradition  therefore, B e l l a Coola music i s i n very r e a l danger of extinction. Unless a B e l l a Coola musical education program i s inaugurated soon, the chain of o r a l t r a d i t i o n "by means of which these songs have been passed down from generation to generation w i l l be permanently broken.  30  II.  BELIEFS ABOUT COMPOSITIONAL PROCESSES  S i n c e t h e r e a r e no l o n g e r any B e l l a C o o l a composers, must t u r n t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c stand B e l l a C o o l a concepts  we  l i t e r a t u r e i n order to under-  c o n c e r n i n g how  music was  created.  I n o r d e r t o examine t h i s t o p i c e f f e c t i v e l y , i t w i l l a g a i n be i m p e r a t i v e t o r e l y h e a v i l y on M c l l w r a i t h ' s study. The  ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s two  types o f compo-  s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t were f e l t t o generate B e l l a music, one  e s o t e r i c and the o t h e r e x o t e r i c .  The  Coola  first  of these  i n v o l v e d a v i s i t a t i o n from a s u p e r n a t u r a l a n i m a l o r b e i n g may  or may  who  not have g i v e n the r e c i p i e n t s h a m a n i s t i c power.  shaman u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d h i s power from a m y t h i c a l woman who  A gave  him a name, f o u r songs, and sometimes the a b i l i t y t o cure a s p e c i f i c d i s e a s e ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948  1:547).  Boas d e s c r i b e d such  a v i s i t a n t i n the f o l l o w i n g terms:  She wore a r i n g o f r e d cedar-bark around h e r neck. She was t u r n i n g round a l l the time. Songs were coming from a l l p a r t s o f h e r body. A l t h o u g h she d i d not open h e r mouth, i t sounded as though a g r e a t many people were s i n g i n g . She gave him a song, o r , as the n a r r a t o r expressed i t , "she threw a song i n t o h i s body". (Boas 1898:44)  S i c k persons were a l s o p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s of natural aid.  super-  I f the s i c k r e c e i v e d s u p e r n a t u r a l a i d , t h e y were  cured once they had  l e a r n e d the songs g i v e n to them by  the  31 supernatural.  Not to do so was  considered extremely dangerous.  Songs were not only received from supernatural men i n one case a man  " . . .  was  or animals;  cured by a tree which gave him a  y o d e l - l i k e shaman's song, i m i t a t i n g the creaking and waving of i t s branches" (Mcllwraith 1948  1:555).  As the f o l l o w i n g quotation i l l u s t r a t e s , Mcllwraith  was  rather s k e p t i c a l concerning the value of the above-mentioned supernatural sources of music:  What i s the explanation of the songs which shamans believe they hear? In t h i s case, f o r example, a r e l i a b l e woman asserted that she had heard two, though she had since forgotten them as they had no s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . B e l l a Coola shaman songs are of a simple type, with few words, and with tunes of no great d i f f i c u l t y , a l l c l o s e l y akin to one pattern. Hence they could e a s i l y be invented by anyone. Ai person who recovers from a severe i l l n e s s i s expected, both by others, and by himself, to have had such an experience, consequently i t i s easy f o r him to i n t e r pret the confused thoughts of a sickness as a v i s i t a t i o n from a supernatural being. Thus i t seems probable that a shaman deludes himself as w e l l as others with regard to the songs. (1948 1:551-552)  Mcllwraith's claim could be p a r t i a l l y refuted by the f a c t that the three shaman melodies i n t h i s study are by no means " a l l c l o s e l y akin to one pattern". markedly d i f f e r e n t .  On the contrary, they are  Furthermore the f i r s t shaman melody, i n my  opinion, ranks with the best of the Sisawk and Kusiyut melodies and was  l i k e l y therefore not e a s i l y invented by S'any.one".  More germane to the present d i s c u s s i o n of B e l l a Coola compositional processes, however, i s to say that i t under-  32 e s t i m a t e s the importance processes.  o f the power o f i l l u s i o n t o  creative  By s i m p l y r e j e c t i n g the l i t e r a l meaning o f s t a t e -  ments c o n c e r n i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l v i s i t a t i o n s - , M c l l w r a i t h has f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e the p o s s i b l e m u s i c a l v a l u e o f such  self-  t r a n s c e n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s as dreams, h y p n o t i c t r a n c e s , v i s i o n quests and so on.  What i s c r u c i a l t o t h e s e c o n t e x t s i s not  whether the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s i n v o l v e d a r e r e a l but r a t h e r t h a t the persons who  have undergone such e x p e r i e n c e s have a c t u a l l y  l e a r n e d something from them which t h e y a r e a b l e t o b r i n g back t o "sober r e a l i t y " .  Numerous examples of such s t a t e s o f  c r e a t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n , wherein  the " r a t i o n a l mode" of t h i n k i n g  i s t e m p o r a r i l y suspended, may and s c i e n t i s t s throughout  be found i n the w r i t i n g s o f a r t i s t s o history.  Even a n o n - B e l l a C o o l a composer, Beethoven, has acknowl e d g e d n o n - r a t i o n a l sources of m u s i c a l i d e a s as the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r t o h i s f r i e n d T o b i a s von H a s l i n g e r r e v e a l s :  On my way t o Vienna y e s t e r d a y , s l e e p o v e r t o o k me i n my c a r r i a g e . *. . While thus slumbering I dreamt t h a t I had gone on a f a r journey, t o no l e s s a p l a c e t h a n S y r i a , on t o Judea and back, and t h e n a l l the way t o A r a b i a , when a t l e n g t h I a c t u a l l y a r r i v e d a t J e r u s a l e m . . . Now d u r i n g my dream-journey, the f o l l o w i n g canon came i n t o my head . . . (Shapero 1952:51)  I t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o reproduce  Beethoven*s n o t a t e d  canon h e r e i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the u n d e r l y i n g s i m i l a r i t y between h i s d r e a m - i n s p i r e d  e x p e r i e n c e and the B e l l a C o o l a  t r a n s c e n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by M c l l w r a i t h and  Boas.  self-  33 I n b o t h the r e c i p i e n t has a p a s s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the i n coming m u s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . appeared  Thus the m y t h i c a l woman  who  t o Boas's shaman "threw a song i n t o h i s body" w h i l e  Beethoven's canon "came i n t o h i s head".  What i s common t o  t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s i s t h a t t h e y b o t h y i e l d some m u s i c a l which may  l a t e r be r e c a l l e d and  employed i n "everyday  product life".  What i s d i f f e r e n t about them i s the c u l t u r a l l y - d e t e r m i n e d n a t u r e o f the a u r a l o r v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n s r e c e i v e d . I have made t h i s e x c u r s i o n i n t o the r e l a t i o n o f music t o n o n - o r d i n a r y s t a t e s of consciousness t  M c l l w r a i t h ' s statement  i n o r d e r t o show t h a t  c o n c e r n i n g the shaman's d e l u d i n g h i m s e l f  and o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u p e r n a t u r a l m u s i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n i s one-sided.  Such a v i e w p o i n t o v e r l o o k s the f a c t t h a t , i n c e r t a i n  c a s e s , these e s o t e r i c e x p e r i e n c e s a c t u a l l y generated  new  arrangements o r combinations; o f p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g m u s i c a l configurations. Although  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t most B e l l a C o o l a songs were  c r e a t e d by the s e c u l a r or e x o t e r i c means o f m u s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n to be o u t l i n e d below, we e s o t e r i c means.  The  cannot  l a t t e r was  c a t e g o r i c a l l y d i s m i s s the a type o f B e l l a C o o l a compo-  s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s which f e a t u r e d as i t s main t e c h n i q u e a p o s t u r e of extreme r e c e p t i v i t y .  The amount g a i n e d from such a " p a s s i v e "  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s depended upon the p i e n t ' s s t a t e of m u s i c a l and  reci-  imaginative readiness.  As p o i n t e d out a t the o u t s e t of t h i s study, the  prevailing  S a l i s h a n c e r e m o n i a l p a t t e r n c o n s i s t e d of the s i n g i n g of those songs taught the s i n g e r s by t h e i r t u t e l a r y s p i r i t s  (Drucker 1963:169)'  34 Thus S a l i s h a n music, and t h e r e f o r e the music of the B e l l a C o o l a p r i o r t o t h e i r m i g r a t i o n , was teric  generated  e s s e n t i a l l y "by the  c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d above.  however d i d not s u i t the needs of the "new"  eso-  These p r o c e s s e s  ceremonial year i n  B e l l a C o o l a , every one of which r e q u i r e d hundreds o f new  songs;  songs which had t o be c r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r v a r i o u s dances and o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t s .  Furthermore,  these songs had  to  accommodate l e n g t h y t e x t s t a k e n from the a p p r o p r i a t e a n c e s t r a l myths.  E s o t e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s c o u l d not p r o v i d e  songs made t o such s e c u l a r and s p e c i f i c This: new  c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of  s p e c i a l i z e d song makers who posed  requirements.  met  s e c r e t l y t o d e c i d e which p r o -  songs would be most s u i t a b l e f o r any upcoming ceremony.  M c l l w r a i t h d e s c r i b e d the a c t i v i t i e s o f these " c o m p o s i t i o n a l committees" as f o l l o w s :  F o r s e v e r a l days the s i n g e r s work a t the songs.. The p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n a r e i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l t y p e s . A t n i g h t , as he walks: i n the the f o r e s t , o r a t any o t h e r time, a s i n g e r cons t a n t l y t r i e s t o compose a tune. Others do the same, and a t i n t e r v a l s t h e y meet, e i t h e r i n some l o n e l y spot o r i n the back-room of a house. Each s i n g e r who has composed a t t u n e b e a t s out i t s t i m e , humming as he does so; t h e n a n o t h e r g i v e s h i s tune, and perhaps a t h i r d . A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n , which i n some cases becomes acrimonious-, i t i s d e c i d e d what two tunes a r e the b e s t f o r the so-and-so. Words a r e t h e n s u p p l i e d , a m a t t e r of l e s s d i f f i c u l t y , a l l the singers a s s i s t i n g . I n t h i s way t h e f o u r t e e n songs r e q u i r e d a r e p r o v i d e d . (1948 1:199)  A c e r t a i n degree  of o r i g i n a l i t y was  expected o f these  35 composers.  As M c l l w r a i t h i n d i c a t e s , i t seems t h a t this- need  f o r a c e r t a i n amount o f " o r i g i n a l i t y " is- a t r a i t which d i s t i n g u i s h e d B e l l a C o o l a music from i t s B e l l a B e l l a c o u n t e r p a r t :  O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e y re-use one a song from a p r e v i o u s y y e a r , but t o do t h i s i s t o admit l a c k o f creative a b i l i t y . The u s u a l p r a c t i c e i s t o compose new tunes and t o adapt them t o words b e a r i n g on t h e proper theme, sometimes i n c l u d i n g snatches from o l d songs. The B e l l a B e l l a a r e s a i d t o use the same compositions from y e a r t o y e a r , and r e c e n t l y some o f t h e s e , b o t h tunes and f o r e i g n words, have been adopted by the B e l l a C o o l a . Long ago t h e marshals would have p r o h i b i t e d t h i s custom even i f the u s e r had l e g i t i m a t e l y o b t a i n e d t h e f o r e i g n p r e r o g a t i v e by m a r r i a g e . (1948 11:44)  The  f a c t t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s were employed t o compose: t h e  c e r e m o n i a l songs was kept s e c r e t from t h e u n i n i t i a t e d .  They  were l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o l d e s o t e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s was s t i l l  i n use.  The s i n g e r d e c e i v e d t h e audience  by p r e -  t e n d i n g t o r e c e i v e a c a l l from h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l p a t r o n . L a b e l l i n g a t y p i c a l K u s i y u t s i n g e r X, M c l l w r a i t h p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h i s d e c e p t i o n was achieved:-  The f i c t i o n i s always: c a r r i e d out t h a t t h e c a l l has brought him a song, which he pretends t o s i n g o r r e c i t e t o t h e s i n g e r s who appear t o be l i s t e n i n g intently. U s u a l l y he says n o t h i n g , o r t a l k s about something e l s e , though sometimes t h e d e c e p t i o n is;; furthered? by X f i r s t l e a r n i n g the words from t h e m u s i c i a n s and r e p e a t i n g them as i f t e a c h i n g . (1948 11:67)  T h i s d e c e p t i o n d i d n o t c a r r y over i n t o  non-ceremonial  36 song type p r o d u c t i o n .  I t was  common knowledge t h a t  L a h a l , Animal and Game songs were composed by men  love,  (and some-  times by women) and not g i v e n t o them by the s u p e r n a t u r a l . Perhaps the most c o n c r e t e example of a c o m p o s i t i o n a l method g i v e n by M c l l w r a i t h i n v o l v e s the making of p e t r o g l y p h s . Speaking about  these r o c k c a r v i n g s , he -includes a  significant  r e f e r e n c e t o m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n : "Some o f them were made, l o n g ago, by c h i e f s when t h e y were composing tunes; t h e y p i c k e d out the r o c k i n time t o the music f o r m i n g i n t h e i r minds'" (1948  1:178).  A l t h o u g h M c l l w r a i t h ' s statement  implies that  the p e t r o g l y p h s were i n f l u e n c e d by the music (and not  vice  v e r s a ) i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t the movement of work a l s o a c t e d as a rhythmic  c a t a l y s t , u r g i n g the c a r v e r t o s i n g and  To the b e s t of my  knowledge no t r a d i t i o n a l B e l l a C o o l a  songs a r e b e i n g composed today.  A c c o r d i n g t o the s i n g e r s , the  l a s t B e l l a C o o l a song t o be "composed" was Mourning Song.  compose.  Margaret  L a c k K i n g George's  S i w a l l a c e informed me  K i n g George (her mother's f a t h e r ) d i e d i n 1948,  that a f t e r  Jack  Joe Saunders  S r . ( h e r f a t h e r ) , t o l d the s i n g e r s t o "compose" an a p p r o p r i a t e mourning song.  I n t h i s case the s i n g e r s u t i l i z e d  one  of Jack -  K i n g George's m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s , the T h u n d e r b i r d song,  as  a model. As the m u s i c a l comparison  between these songs i n P a r t  Two  of t h i s study w i l l r e v e a l , t h i s mourning song i s a c t u a l l y a v a r i a n t of the T h u n d e r b i r d song.  I t f o l l o w s the  Thunderbird  song model i n o r d e r t o symbolize Jack K i n g George's stature.  social  However the s i n g e r s do not f o l l o w t h i s model s l a v i s h l y .  37  They c l e a r l y make enough changes to i d e n t i f y t h i s song as "being one  o f Mourning and not a K u s i y u t Dance song. L i k e a l l c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t s t h e r e f o r e , B e l l a C o o l a songs  were not immaculately  conceived.  The  s i n g e r s who  "composed"  the above-mentioned mourning song took a p r e - e x i s t i n g m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e and adapted i t t o d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s procedure  circumstancea.  of re-composing a r c h e t y p a l  ( d e f i n e d i n terms o f exemplary models) m u s i c a l p a t t e r n s a t t h e h e a r t o f the B e l l a C o o l a c o m p o s i t i o n a l  lies  process.  By u s i n g exemplary models o r a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s as p o i n t s . f o r "new"  starting  songs, the B e l l a C o o l a song-makers c o u l d commu-  n i c a t e a number o f i d e a s through m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e a l o n e . Through t h e i r s e l e c t i v e use o f a f a m i l y ' s m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s , f o r example a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n of any g i v e n song owned by f a m i l y , t h e y c o u l d u t i l i z e f a m i l y themes ("signature t o i n d i c a t e song ownership and  social status.  The  a  melodies")  Thunderbird  song m a t e r i a l i n J a c k K i n g George's Mourning song s e r v e d p r e c i s e l y t h i s purpose.  In' t h i s r e s p e c t the songs f u n c t i o n e d  as the s o n i c c o u n t e r p a r t s o f the c a r v e d and found  painted c r e s t s  on totem p o l e s , boxes, t i b h e f f r o n t s o f houses and  so  on.  I f a p o w e r f u l B e l l a C o o l a c h i e f had a c q u i r e d a B e l l a song through m a r r i a g e ,  through  t r a d e , o r through war  the composers c o u l d "recompose" t h i s song by changing and by s l i g h t l y a l t e r i n g i t s m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . t  h  e  (Hml), F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me  f o r example, i t s text  Speaking  Hamatsa motives i n the f i r s t Hamatsa song i n t h i s t h a t "they change  Bella  about  sample notes  38 t h e r e , we don't."  The "they" i n t h i s quote r e f e r s t o t h e B e l l a  B e l l a , from whom t h i s song was borrowed.  Thus a l t h o u g h we do  not know how o r when t h i s Hamatsa song was a c q u i r e d , we do know t h a t i t s t e x t i s now i n the B e l l a C o o l a language changes i n i t s melody were made.  and t h a t s m a l l  When i t s B e l l a B e l l a  prototype  i s l o c a t e d , we w i l l be a b l e t o examine e x a c t l y how t h i s song was "recomposed" and t h e r e b y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a r e p e r toire.  The d i s p l a y o f such a B e l l a B e l l a song must s u r e l y have  enhanced t h e name o f i t s p o s s e s s o r .  F o r here was a man who c o u l d  e x h i b i t n o n - m a t e r i a l as w e l l as m a t e r i a l w e a l t h and power. More s p e c i f i c  extra-musical references are also  found.  B e l l a C o o l a composers c o u l d re-use drum rhythms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n dance g e s t u r e s as w e l l as motives the movements o f a n i m a l s .  that  symbolized  As t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e V i s i t o r ' s  song w i l l show, even t h e a c t o f f a l l i n g down was p o r t r a y e d sonically.  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t such programmatic elements  were  r e t a i n e d and r e - u s e d from y e a r t o y e a r . B e i n g non-composers, t h e present-day s i n g e r s a r e a b l e t o shed l i t t l e  light  C o o l a song-making.  on the use o f a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s i n B e l l a Some support f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s however,  comes from w i t h i n t h e songs themselves.  They r e f l e c t i n  m i n i a t u r e what t h e B e l l a C o o l a c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s was p r o b a b l y l i k e over time. The most fundamental  f o r m a l process w i t h i n t h e s t r o p h e s  o f t h e s e songs i s t h e v a r i a t i o n s form i n which a theme, t h e exemplary model f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e song, i s w h o l l y o r p a r t i a l l y varied.  I n e v i t a b l y however, some u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l  simi-  39 l a r i t y , be i t rhythmic o r modal, between t h e theme and i t s v a r i a n t s i s maintained.  Governed "by t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f what  a mourning song s h o u l d sound l i k e , the composers  o f Jack K i n g  George's Mourning song l i k e l y t r e a t e d the T h u n d e r b i r d song as t h e y would a theme i n the v a r i a t i o n s form. c r e a t e d the "new"  By so d o i n g t h e y  out o f the " o l d " , t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g a  m e a n i n g f u l l i n k w i t h past p r a c t i c e s .  I t i s perhaps u l t i m a t e l y  t h i s need f o r c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n , the need f o r the B e l l a C o o l a t o somehow remain i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , t h a t b e s t accounts f o r t h e i r use o f exemplary models i n song-making.  40  I I I . THE PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION OF BELLA COOLA MUSIC  S i n c e non-ceremonial B e l l a C o o l a music was most o f t e n sung s o l o and unaccompanied,  t h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e tli®  performance o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e songs w i l l r e s t r i c t the c e r e m o n i a l r e p e r t o i r e .  i t s e l f to  I n t h e l a t t e r c o n t e x t we f i n d a  m u s i c a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e performance o f t h e songs and a u t i l i z a t i o n o f m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t t y p e s not found i n t h e non-ceremonial sphere.  I t i s c l e a r that the  most complex and s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f performance was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e songs o f t h e Sisawk and K u s i y u t  initiated.  J u s t as t h e need f o r new and i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d c e r e m o n i a l song t y p e s l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a s p e c i a l group o f composers o r song makers, a s p e c i a l i z e d manner o f o r g a n i z i n g performances (unknown t o S a l i s h a n musics) had t o be developed f o r B e l l a C o o l a c e r e m o n i a l music. U n l i k e non-ceremonial music, c e r e m o n i a l songs were r e h e a r s e d t h o r o u g h l y p r i o r t o performance.  On t h e n i g h t o f a  ceremony each s i n g e r brought h i s own b e a t i n g - s t i c k , a s t o u t b a t o n about two f e e t l o n g t o pound on the f l o o r i n time w i t h h i s s i n g i n g , t o a f i n a l r e h e a r s a l ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 11:269). A t t h i s time d e c i s i o n s were made c o n c e r n i n g who would p l a y the s k i n - c o v e r e d drum and who would f i l l p r i n c i p a l performers.  the r o l e s of the three  M c l l w r a i t h notes t h a t the skin-covered  drum was a r e c e n t b o r r o w i n g from t h e C a r r i e r people (1948 11:270). I n former times a box drum was employed  as t h e l e a d i n g p e r -  41  cussion The  instrument. three  p r i n c i p a l performers t o he  chosen had  t o assume  the f o l l o w i n g r o l e s :  1.  sankwots'am: the l e a d e r who r e g u l a t e d the time "by b e a t i n g h i s s t i c k on the f l o o r ; the group or chorus surrounded him i n a semic i r c l e ; the l e a d e r was the b e s t m u s i c i a n among the s i n g e r s .  2.  altaia: the announcer, who had t o have a p o w e r f u l v o i c e , b e l l o w e d out the words o f each t e x t u a l s u b d i v i s i o n so t h a t a l l c o u l d hear; he s a t i n the middle of the group.  3.  tsulkim: the prompter, who s a t b e s i d e the announcer, whispered to him the words of a g s u b d i v i s i o n which might have been f o r g o t t e n .  The was  most important f u n c t i o n o f these p r i n c i p a l performers  t o ensure a minimum o f e r r o r i n a l l important  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948  11:271).  The  rites  presence o f a l e a d e r , however,  a l s o a l l o w e d a measure o f spontaneous o r c h e s t r a t i o n . Siwallace  t o l d me  Margaret  t h a t the l e a d s i n g e r would o c c a s i o n a l l y  u t i l i z e an a n t i p h o n a l  t e c h n i q u e she  song around the room".  He  described  as " t h r o w i n g  d i d t h i s by p o i n t i n g t o c e r t a i n p a r t s  of the room, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e s e c t i o n s alone s h o u l d A good dancer c o u l d a a l s o and  t h e r e b y "conduct" the  means of h i s movements:  the  assume t h i s l e a d e r s h i p  sing.  function  ensemble; i n the f o l l o w i n g case  by  42 The c l e v e r dancer who has heen commissioned t o l e a d t h e o r c h e s t r a o f s t i c k - b e a t e r s stands near the door and t h e m u s i c i a n s take t h e i r time from h i s movements; f i r s t , he s l o w l y r a i s e s both arms and a l l beat time s o f t l y , t h e n , as he l i f t s h i s arms h i g h e r , t h e n o i s e i n c r e a s e s , and he sways from s i d e t o s i d e a s i f c a r r i e d away by t h e music; as he does so t h e men towards whom he l e a n s i n t e n s i f y t h e i r b e a t i n g , w h i l e those on t h e o t h e r s i d e decrease. Back and f o r t h he sways f o l l o w e d by the b e a t i n g ; n e a r i n g t h e c l i m a x he t r e a d s m i n c i n g l y , whereat t h e n o i s e r i s e s t o t h u n d e r p i t c h , then jumps t w i c e , and as he s t r i k e s t h e ground t h e drums beat and a l l t h e s t i c k s come down w i t h a f i n a l e a r s s p l i t t i n g c r a s h . ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 1:;!  U n f o r t u n a t e l y M c l l w r a i t h d i d not t a p e - r e c o r d h i s B e l l a C o o l a sample w i t h i n these c e r e m o n i a l  contexts.  We c a n t h e r e -  f o r e o n l y s p e c u l a t e about how many more non-musical f a c t o r s such as were d e s c r i b e d above d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d the sound o f B e l l a C o o l a songs i n t h e p a s t . Another a s p e c t  of ceremonial  performance o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t  added t o t h e t o t a l sound o f t h e songs was t h e use o f a d r o n i n g cry.  The l a t t e r was a m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e o f women which, i n  o r d e r t o be employed, had t o be v a l i d a t e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  presents  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 1:264).  T h i s h i g h - p i t c h e d drone,  used i n b o t h Sisawk and K u s i y u t dances, symbolized the T h u n d e r b i r d gesture. of  and was t h e r e f o r e n o t a m u s i c a l l y - i n s p i r e d  I t s purpose was t o add f u r t h e r t o t h e i m p r e s s i v e n e s s  t h e ceremony and thereby  tiated.  t h e sound o f  i n c r e a s e t h e wonder o f t h e u n i n i -  I n the p r e s e n t sample t h e drone i s used o n l y i n t h e  Thunderbird  song.  Here Margaret S i w a l l a c e , whose f a m i l y owns  the song, d i s p l a y s h e r i n h e r i t e d r i g h t t o employ t h e drone.  43 B e l l a C o o l a aerophones a l s o symbolized supernatural beings. Kusiyut  One  the sounds o f  of the most i n g e n i o u s  w h i s t l e , used bellows  of t h e s e ,  made of mountain goat  T h i s b l a d d e r - w h i s t l e , h i d d e n beneath the arm-pit dancer, was elbows.  bladder.  of a  sounded by means o f p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d : b y  a  Kusiyut  the  dancer's  To the u n i n i t i a t e d t h i s sound c o n s t i t u t e d p r o o f o f  presence of the dancer's s u p e r n a t u r a l  the  patron.  Other K u s i y u t w h i s t l e s , s m a l l e r and more r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape t h a n the l a r g e c o n i c a l Sisawk w h i s t l e s , were sounded o u t s i d e of the v i l l a g e .  I n the Hamatsa dance these  whistles  announced the a r r i v a l of the s u p e r n a t u r a l woman Snitsmana ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948  11:72).  M c l l w r a i t h ' s account of t h i s w h i s t l i n g  includes valuable information concerning  how  they were  played:  The n o i s e which h e r a l d s h e r coming i s produced by the w h i s t l e s of f o u r Kukusiut who throughout the n i g h t range the f o r e s t s and mountains w i t h i n e a r - s h o t o f the v i l l a g e . By bending t h e i r heads up and down, t h e y a r e a b l e t o i n c r e a s e the weirdness and e l u s i v e ness of the sound. The f o u r t r a v e l i n s i n g l e f i l e ; the l e a d e r blows, and when h i s b r e a t h i s n e a r l y exh a u s t e d he p r e s s e s the hand o f the second man, who s t a r t s w h i s t l i n g f o r t h w i t h , w h i l e the o r i g i n a l l e a d e r drops to the r e a r . As the second becomes weary, he s i g n a l s i n the same way t o the t h i r d , and so on; i n t h i s way the w h i s t l i n g i s c o n t i n u o u s , and the u n i n i t i a t e d a r e convinced t h a t i t cannot be caused by m o r t a l s , even i f such an i d e a s h o u l d o c c u r t o them.  (1948  11:72)  R a t t l e s and tional effects.  bull-roarers contributed further orchestraWhile r a t t l e s were sounded by the  b u l l - r o a r e r s were used o u t s i d e of the dancing r o a r e r , a l s o used i n the p l a y p o t l a t c h , was  area.  dancers, The  bull-  a l o n g t h i n wooden  44 i d i o p h o n e a t t a c h e d t o a s t r i n g ; i t was performer's  t w i r l e d above the  head.  Sisawk w h i s t l e s d i f f e r e d from K u s i y u t w h i s t l e s by l a r g e r and  cone-shaped.  being  M c l l w r a i t h noted t h a t Sisawk w h i s t l e s  were known v a r i o u s l y as the b r e a t h , v o i c e , wind, o r h e a r t of a c h i e f (1948  1:188').  C o n s t r u c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e i r  K u s i y u t c o u n t e r p a r t s , Sisawk w h i s t l e s a l s o f e a t u r e d d i f f e r e n t performance mannerisms:  As he dances, c l a d i n h i s c e r e m o n i a l costume and head-dress, w h i s t l i n g i s heard from without the house. A number o f Sisawk a r e making the n o i s e and they modulate i t so t h a t i t appears to draw n e a r e r and n e a r e r Cgmphasis minej . T h i s i s e f f e c t e d e i t h e r w i t h w h i s t l e s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s or by b l o w i n g harder. The dancer rushes out of the house. The w h i s t l i n g c o n t i n u e s i n a s e r i e s o f s h o r t b u r s t s , as i f a c o n v e r s a t i o n were b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n t h a t language ^emphasis minej (1948 1:220)  T h i s Sisawk w h i s t l i n g s i m u l a t e d a d i a l o g u e between the dancer and  one  of h i s deceased r e l a t i v e s  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948  1:220).  The need f o r a c o n t e x t u a l l y - s e n s i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards B e l l a C o o l a music i s a g a i n underscored instruments  here.  cannot be e x p l a i n e d without  f u n c t i o n a l context.  The  sounds o f  r e f e r e n c e to  these their  I t i s the demands o f the l a t t e r , f o r example,  which prompted the i n n o v a t i o n s o f the m u s i c a l performance mannerisms d e s c r i b e d above.  Thus the dynamics employed by  the  Sisawkvfwhisties a r e s o c i a l l y , not m u s i c a l l y , inspired'. Another a s p e c t of performance o r g a n i z a t i o n which d i r e c t l y  45 i n f l u e n c e d the sound o f B e l l a C o o l a music was hand  clapping.  F e l i c i t y Walkus p o i n t e d out t h a t p r i o r t o the s i n g i n g o f Simon Johnson's Headdress song, a dancer would c i r c l e the dance  hall  w h i l e members o f the audience were c l a p p i n g out the drum rhythm o f the song,. |Jj jt lc 1  M c l l w r a i t h noted that guests  a s s i s t e d the s i n g e r s by c l a p p i n g t h e i r hands i n time t o A i a l k dances (1948 Few  1:277).  of the above-mentioned  contemporary s i n g i n g group.  e f f e c t s a r e employed by the  Only the once f r e q u e n t l y - h e a r d  drone remains, and o n l y i n the T h u n d e r b i r d song.  The  traditional  t r i a d o f l e a d e r , announcer, and prompter, so important t o the t o t a l sound o f former m u s i c a l performances, has f a l l e n disuse.  The o n l y drum i n the accompaniment  membranophone p l a y e d by Dan N e l s o n .  into  i s a rectangular  Deer-hide i s n a i l e d t o  the upper s i d e o f the wooden frame o f t h i s drum, which i s sounded by a s m a l l wooden s t i c k .  The remainder o f the s i n g e r s use the  batons d e s c r i b e d above; a t p r e s e n t , however, these batons are made o f bamboo. The use o f w h i s t l e s i n c e r e m o n i a l songs has l o n g been abandoned. B e l l a Coola. office.  I found o n l y f o u r c e r e m o n i a l w h i s t l e s w h i l e i n One  of these was  s t o r e d i n the B e l l a C o o l a Band  T h i s was a Sisawk w h i s t l e which n e i t h e r the l a t e Andy  Schooner nor I were a b l e t o sound. Three Hamatsa w h i s t l e s a r e owned by F e l i c i t y Walkus;.  She  informed me t h a t two o f t h e s e , d e f i n i t e l y i n newer c o n d i t i o n t h a n the t h i r d , were made by white men.  These a r e double  46 w h i s t l e s t i e d t o g e t h e r by s t r i p s of cedar bark.  By  placing  the ends of both w h i s t l e s i n one's mouth, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o play v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s with t h i s instrument.  Two  of F e l i c i t y ' s  w h i s t l e s (the o l d one and one of the newer ones) produced  the  i n t e r v a l of a minor t h i r d , w h i l e the t h i r d w h i s t l e sounded a major t h i r d .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, one o f the c h i e f  t e r i s t i c s of the Hamatsa m e l o d i e s  i n t h i s sample i s t h e i r t e n -  dency t o o s c i l l a t e between major and minor t h i r d s . no o t h e r song type employs semi-tones q u e n t l y as do the Hamatsa  charac-  Consequently,  ( h o r i z o n t a l l y ) as  fre-  songs.  Whether t h e r e i s a c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n between t h e s e f a c t s cannot y e t be determined.  two  M c l l w r a i t h tended t o i g n o r e  the p o s s i b l e m u s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w h i s t l e s , always d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r sound as " n o i s e " .  Perhaps r e s e a r c h on the music  and  i n s t r u m e n t s o f the B e l l a B e l l a , from whom the B e l l a C o o l a a c q u i r e d these w h i s t l e s , w i l l be a b l e t o i n f o r m us whether the i n t e r v a l s they produced  were as important f o r song s t r u c t u r e  as t h e y were f o r song f u n c t i o n . , Having r e c o n s t r u c t e d the f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f B e l l a C o o l a songs w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the e x i s t i n g g r a p h i c d a t a , we may  now  ethno-  t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the songs  themselves.  P a r t Tv/o w i l l b e g i n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f how  performance  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the contemporary s i n g i n g group  i n f l u e n c e d the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l methodology employed.  the  47  P A R T  T H E  I N T E R I O R  B E L L A  . C O O L A  TWO  L O G I C S O N G S  OF  48 IV.  TRANSCRIPTIONAL  METHODOLOGY  In a study o f t h i s t y p e , ana-lysis b e g i n s a t the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l stage.  The t r a n s c r i b e r must c o n s t a n t l y make ana-  l y t i c a l d e c i s i o n s about what w i l l go i n t o a " s c o r e " and what w i l l not.  Many o f my  d e c i s i o n s were made on the b a s i s o f  what I l e a r n e d d u r i n g my  r e c o r d i n g sessions i n B e l l a Coola.  B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f contemporary performance mannersisms on my  t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l procedure,  I will  briefly  s k e t c h i n some n e c e s s a r y background i n f o r m a t i o n . D u r i n g the 1920's these songs were s t i l l l a s t a c t i v e male composers.  sung by the  I f they knew the songs, women  s i t t i n g b e s i d e the male s i n g e r s c o u l d j o i n i n .  Once these  l a s t male m u s i c i a n s had passed away however, i t was  (with  o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s ) up to the women to c a r r y on the t r a dition.  As F e l i c i t y Walkus p o i n t e d o u t : "We  d i d n ' t know what  to do, we  almost c o m p l e t e l y f o r g o t the songs."  Edgar who  p r o v i d e d the r e m a i n i n g l i n k w i t h the p a s t because  i t was  she who  I t was  Agnes  had remembered most o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r e p e r -  toire. What I saw  and heard w h i l e d o i n g my  f i e l d recordings  and t r a n s c r i p t i o n s confirmed, t h a t Agnes Edgar had assumed the position of leader.  On most o f the songs, Agnes would take  the i n i t i a t i v e w h i l e the o t h e r s , depending knew the song, would o c c a s i o n a l l y f a l l g i n a new  i d e a prematurely.  on how  w e l l they  s l i g h t l y behind o r be-  The r e s u l t i s a ragged  unison  49 marked by q u i t e a few s t a g g e r e d e n t r i e s .  Naturally  these  s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d as " c a n o n i c " i n any way.  In these  cases I have s i m p l y n o t a t e d what seemed t o be the norm. Most o f t e n , Agnes's s i n g i n g f u n c t i o n e d as--the l a t t e r . song p r o g r e s s e d , these " h e t e r o p h o n i c " elements  As a  decreased i n  number. Another  f e a t u r e o f the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s which must be  e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r r i n g to Agnes Edgar's concerns rhythm and my  use o f bar l i n e s .  p o s i t i o n i n the group I n terms o f melo-  d i c rhythm, the l e n g t h of. a tone i s g e n e r a l l y determined Agnes's s i n g i n g .  At times a group mean i s employed.  by  When  {  an a r e a i s r h y t h m i c a l l y u n c e r t a i n i t i s shown i n the  follo-  wing manner:  . TTTT Although  some are s y m m e t r i c a l l y - d e s i g n e d , these songs  are c h i e f l y o f asymmetrical  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n terms o f rhythm.  Time s i g n a t u r e s are t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y a v o i d e d but when approp r i a t e a r e surrounded  by b r a c k e t s (e.g. (7/8)) t o i n d i c a t e the  h y p o t h e t i c a l n a t u r e o f the d i v i s i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , metronome  markings a r e q u a l i f i e d by the c o n t r a c t i o n o f c i r c a 80)  (e.g. c a .  so as t o emphasize t h e i r b e i n g o f an approximate  only.  nature  50 The  bar. l i n e s I have employed a r e broken  to indicate  t h a t they do not r e f e r t o s t r i c t l y r e g u l a r d i v i s i o n s - o f rhythm. These broken  l i n e s r e p r e s e n t a s l i g h t pause f o r b r e a t h .  In  c a s e s where the pauses a r e o b v i o u s l y a q u a r t e r o r an e i g h t h n o t e i n v a l u e , t h e r e s t i s w r i t t e n i n and i s then f o l l o w e d by a s o l i d bar l i n e . What o f t e n happens however i s t h a t t h e b r e a t h d i v i s i o n s become extremely  f l e x i b l e i n terms o f d u r a t i o n .  type o f f r e e rhythm r e s u l t s when everyone  A  breaths i n together,  checks t o make sure Agnes i s p r e p a r e d , and then attempts t o coordinate t h e i r e n t r i e s .  T h i s use o f f r e e rhythm i s l e s s  n o t i c e a b l e and. i s found l e s s o f t e n i n the f a s t e r songs. might be expected, t h e Mourning songs u t i l i z e t h i s  As  parlando-  rubato e f f e c t t o such an e x t e n t t h a t i t may be s a i d t o be one o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h i s song type. B e l l a C o o l a I n d i a n music does not have a s t a n d a r d i z e d or absolute p i t c h .  As a r e s u l t a song c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e t h e  t r i a d C, E, and G, f o r example, might d u r i n g the next  perfor-  mance be sung as C sharp, E sharp, and G sharp, o r B, D sharp, F sharp, and so on.  What i s permanent i n these songs i s the  i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between tones.  Thus such a c o n f i g u -  r a t i o n o f p i t c h e s i s b e t t e r r e g a r d e d i n terms o f s o l e m i z a t i o n (Do, M i , S o l ) o r c i p h e r n o t a t i o n (1, 3, 5 ) . So as t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t i i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the m e l o d i e s  i t was d e c i d e d t o t r a n s -  pose a l l Do's (1*s) t o t h e common p i t c h denominator C. A l l  51  Mi's  (3*s) w i l l be n o t a t e d as E., a l l S o l ' s (5's) as G and so  on.  T h i s t r a n s p o s i t i o n t e c h n i q u e I. s h a l l term  transcriptions.  C-centered  Among t h e s c h o l a r s who have worked w i t h N o r t h -  west Coast I n d i a n musics, o n l y George Herzog  ( s e e e.g. 1934)  has employed a s i m i l a r t r a n s p o s i t i o n t e c h n i q u e f o r h i s t r a n s criptions. Many o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n t h i s study would have been extremely a c c i d e n t a l - f i l l e d had I. n o t a t e d l i t e r a l l y t h e not i n f r e q u e n t c a s e s i n which they dropped These f a l l s  by a  semitone.  ( t h e B e l l a C o o l a songs-do not r i s e ) a r e here sim  p l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g symbol:  j  D i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f songs t h a t have these f a l l s by a semitone  r e v e a l t h a t they a r e not s t r u c t u r a l l y  significant  s i n c e they do n o t appear a t t h e same p l a c e s i n o t h e r v e r s i o n s and may not even reappear. music  I n the c o n t e x t o f B e l l a C o o l a  they l i k e l y r e s u l t from one o f two f a c t o r s :  1. they a r e perhaps due t o the f a c t t h a t one o f the s i n g e r s i s o f t e n f l a t i n t o n a t i o n a l l y ; t h i s i s acknowledged by t h e o t h e r s i n g e r s .  2.  they may o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f b r e a t h f a t i g u e due to the age and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s i n g e r s .  U l t i m a t e l y the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t o f C-centered t r a n s c r i p t i o n s l i e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make music comparative  analysis.  The method proposed  amenable t o  and u t i l i z e d i n  52  t h i s study suggests t h a t by s i m p l y d e s c r i b i n g the o r i g i n a l starting pitch  (o.s.p.) p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i p n and then  by p r e s e n t i n g t h e t r a n s p o s e d melody, t h e e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t can g a i n a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o h i s own m a t e r i a l w h i l e s i multaneously  r e n d e r i n g h i s d a t a u s e f u l t o o t h e r s c h o l a r s who  may wish t o compare i t w i t h t h e i r own f i n d i n g s . So as t o d e f i n e t h e d i a c r i t i c a l markings employed i n the m u s i c a l examples t o f o l l o w , a complete l i s t  o f them i s  p r e s e n t e d below:  TRANSCRIPTIONAL  o.s.p.  :original starting  DIACRITICS  pitch  : i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s t a f f w i l l n o t display pitch :denotes an a r e a o f rhythmic u n c e r t a i n t y :ascending and d e s c e n d i n g  portamentos  :ascending and descending portamentos f o l l o w e d by an a c c e n t e d tone  :song drops by a semitone  (7/8)  •.hypothetical m e t r i c a l d i v i s i o n  53 : s i n c e phrases w i t h i n the songs a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a l i n rhythmic v a l u e and are d i v i d e d by s l i g h t pauses f o r b r e a t h , broken b a r l i n e s w i l l s e p a r a t e them. : p l a c e d over a note t h a t i s sung a p p r o x i mately a 1/4 tone h i g h e r than w r i t t e n . : p l a c e d o v e r a note t h a t i s sung a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 1/4 tone lower than w r i t t e n . t i n melody a tone o f i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h ; i n drum, one b e a t . : i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e drum p l a y s a c o n t i n u o u s tremolo. :steady " q u a r t e r s " i n drum as d e n s i t y  referent.  :pause o f s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h t o warrant i t s b e i n g measured i n seconds ( e . g . 3 s e c o n d s ) ; u s u a l l y a s o c i a l not a m u s i c a l pause.  :used o n l y i n the T h u n d e r b i r d song; i n d i c a t e s the presence o f a h i g h - p i t c h e d drone, gradually f a l l i n g i n pitch. : s i g n i f i e s t h a t o n l y one s i n g e r has sung t h i s tone; a tone which v a r i e s from the group mean. I t may be added h o r i z o n t a l l y o r v e r t i cally.  54 V.  ANALYSIS OP THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS  P a r t One. o f t h i s study has shown t h a t the B e l l a C o o l a group t h e i r songs, a c c o r d i n g to f u n c t i o n , t h a t i s , a c c o r d i n g to  the purposes f o r which t h e y a r e used.  This, f a c t r a i s e d  an  important q u e s t i o n f o r the. a n a l y s i s , namely, to. what e x t e n t are  t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p i n g s bounded by musical, c h a r a c t e r -  istics?  I n o t h e r words, do a l l Headdressvsongs partake, i n .  a Headdress  song s t y l e that, i s d i f f e r e n t from a K u s i y u t Dance  song s t y l e and so on? This l i n e of inquiry w i l l  also, seek to determine  whether o r not the f u n c t i o n a l and t h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l  signifi-  cance o f any g i v e n song type i n f l u e n c e d the n a t u r e o f i t s musical structures.  F o r example,  were the songs used by the  s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s g i v e n s p e c i a l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s so as t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from songs, used i n non-ceremonial  (less  prestigious) contexts? The 72 songs t o be a n a l y z e d occupy t e n f u n c t i o n a l categories.  F i v e o f these., the Headdress,  Mourning,  K u s i y u t Dance, E n t r a n c e , and Hamatsa song t y p e s form the c e r e m o n i a l song r e p e r t o i r e .  The non-ceremonial song t y p e s  i n c l u d e Love, L a h a l , Animal and Game songs.  Shaman songs  form an i n t e r m e d i a t e type s i n c e they were used i n both ( w i n t e r ) c e r e m o n i a l and non-ceremonial c o n t e x t s . P i t c h i n the a n a l y s i s w i l l be f r e q u e n t l y to  i n terms o f c i p h e r n o t a t i o n .  referred  Thus a d e s c e n d i n g d i a t o n i c  s c a l e b e g i n n i n g on the C above m i d d l e C would be  indicated  55 as  follows:  1. S o l e r a i z a t i o n Do 2.  Si  Sol  Fa  Mi  Re  Do  3  2  1  Cipher-notation 1  3.  La  7  6  5  4  G  F  Pitch C  1  B  A  E  D  C  As i s common i n c i p h e r n o t a t i o n , p i t c h e s l y i n g below middle C a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . a s such by t h e f a c t t h a t a dot i s p l a c e d underneath t h e i r n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s . ( e . g . The  numerical equivalents  1 6 5).  o f p i t c h e s l y i n g an octave o r more  above m i d d l e C r e c e i v e a dot above them (e.g. 2 1 6 5 ) . A list  o f t h e songs, t h e i r p e r f o r m e r s , and t h e i r , c o l -  l e c t o r s precedes t h e a n a l y s i s , o f t h e songs b e l o n g i n g f u n c t i o n a l category.  The code t o t h e a b b r e v i a t e d  t o each  information  concerning  t h e . p e r f o r m e r s and c o l l e c t o r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Ap-  pendix I .  When a p p l i c a b l e , tape numbers a r e p r o v i d e d .  In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l and musical  s i g n i f i c a n c e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , we w i l l f i r s t  examine t h e  l e s s " s o c i a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s " and p r i m a r i l y communally-owned non-ceremonial songs.  56 NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS A.  Game Songs  G1  Indian Paint-Brush Flower Song  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.)  G2  Cat's  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.)  Cradle  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  V i s i t o r ' s Song  Few tape. of  B e l l a C o o l a Game- songs have been, p r e s e r v e d on  The. B.C.  I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , d u r i n g t h e course  t h e i r ethnographic  recorded  f i e l d work among t h e B e l l a C o o l a , have  two such songs.  I was a b l e t o r e c o r d one Game song,  the V i s i t o r ' s Song (G3), from the. Band O f f i c e , tapes made a v a i l a b l e t o me d u r i n g my s t a y i n B e l l a C o o l a . will  However, as  emerge more f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h i s  t o r ' s song i s an extremely  c l o s e v a r i a n t o f the Cat's  VisiCradle  Game song (G2).  As a r e s u l t we w i l l be a b l e t o examine o n l y  two  T h i s s m a l l sample w i l l a l l o w us to. make o n l y  Game songs.  t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about Game song type G1i I n d i a n P a i n t - B r u s h  Flower S o n g — T h i s  t h r e e p i t c h e s , C, A, and E .  characteristics.  song u t i l i z e s  only  I n c i p h e r . n o t a t i o n t h e s e w i l l be  *  p o r t r a y e d as  1  6  3.  Every, •'measure" i n t h i s song ends on  the t e r m i n a l note E o r 3» by means o f t h e descending sion 1 6  3.  Although tatively,  progres-  3 i s not the most important  i t becomes t h e most important  i t s a c t i n g as t h e melodic  pitch  quanti-  p i t c h by v i r t u e o f  center of gravity.  During the  57 c o u r s e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s such c e n t e r s o f m e l o d i c g r a v i t y he r e f e r r e d t o as home t o n e s .  I t d e s e r v e s mention  will  that I  w i l l n o t d e f i n e home tones s t r i c t l y i n terms o f a s c a l e ' s lowest tone.  The lowest t o n e s . i n these songs a r e n o t nece-  s s a r i l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t . t o n e s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y f r e q u e n c y o f occurence) o r q u a l i t a t i v e l y t i o n a l importance).  ( i n terms o f  ( i n terms o f d i r e c -  Home tones w i l l be made i d e n t i f i a b l e  by t h e i r b e i n g e n c l o s e d i n squares  (e.g. 1  6 (31 ).  The p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h h i e r a r c h y found i n G1, 1 may be termed  i t s modal s t r u c t u r e .  t h e r e f o r e , t h i s mode s h a l l be termed G1 i s b u i l t  6 [3] ,  With 3 a s t h e home tone a Mi mode.  e n t i r e l y from two p h r a s e s .  Unlike the  m a j o r i t y o f B e l l a C o o l a m e l o d i e s , t h i s song i s i s o m e t r i c a l l y designed, i n "8/4" time.  The f i r s t  phrase, "measure" one,  f e a t u r e s p e n d u l a r movement between t h e p i t c h e s C(1) and A ( 6 ) . The  second phrase, i n measure two, has t h e same p e n d u l a r *  movement but i t b e g i n s on 6(A) r a t h e r than on 1 (C) as d i d the f i r s t  phrase.  Both phrases end on t h e same c l o s i n g p a t -  tern.  T h i s c l o s i n g p a t t e r n c o n s i s t s o f t h e p i t c h e s 6(A) and  3(E).  I t i s always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e rhythm  t  A s i d e from s l i g h t l y a l t e r i n g t h e o r d e r o f p i t c h e s found i n measure one, t h e second measure a l s o v a r i e s i t s melo d i c rhythm as example 1 i n d i c a t e s :  r  '  n  J  EXAMPLE 1  H  >v  ^  ft  v ^  58 Some o f these, rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s may o f the need f o r the music to accomodate the f o r t u n a t e l y I was  not  be the r e s u l t  song's t e x t .  a b l e to study language-melody  a c t i o n s i n t h i s song s i n c e no  t e x t was  i d e a i n a song I w i l l  r e f e r to measure one  t h i s song (see example 2 ) .  Measure two  me.  musical  as the theme o f  will  therefore  termed a v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s theme (see example 3 ) . v a r i a t i o n s , form, o c c u r s w i t h i n one  inter-  a v a i l a b l e to  D e f i n i n g the term, "theme" as the c e n t r a l  strophe o f t h i s song.  w i t h these i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  be  discussed.  Chapter V I I I w i l l  between the show how  r e h e a r s e d f r e q u e n t l y , f o r g e t f u l h e s s ;and  G2 and w i l l be and  G3 - C a t ' s C r a d l e  and  examined t o g e t h e r  and moves to 2(D)  these songs are error l i k e l y  also  strophes.  V i s i t o r ' s Songs - These songs musically  same t e x t .  Both songs have o n l y two 1(C)  strophes.to  because they are c l o s e  because they employ the  In a l l  slight variations  accomodate d i f f e r e n t s t a n z a s o f text.#;i S i n c e  c o n t r i b u t e to d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between  The  strophes w i l l  between s t r o p h e s r e s u l t from the need f o r the  not  All  deal  strophes.  l a t t e r are f o r the most p a r t r e p e a t e d l i t e r a l l y . significant discrepancies  be  This  subsequent d i s c u s s i o n o f form i n t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l  cases,  Un-  main p i t c h e s .  G2 b e g i n s  above d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the  on  song.  I t has  a one-measure ending, more spoken than sung, t h a t i n -  cludes  tones o f u n c e r t a i n p i t c h .  " p i c k - u p " , G3 however the  l i k e w i s e has  but  song b e g i n s on 6(A)  Except f o r an e i g h t h  two  pitches.  note  In t h i s case-  and moves to the  1(C)  above.  59  EXAMPLE ^  2  G1 Theme  \  V  V  —7*  EXAMPLE G1 V a r i a t i o n i. •  \  .  \ >- - *  1  >  _  1  1 1>  • ,  \—  1  EXAMPLE  £ ^ E>>  5  1  ^  1 .  • I '  t  , -II  \—\-i—'4—  9  —  *  f  —  „  \  .  " f a l l i n g down" m o t i v e s  ±_  .  60 G3  . . .  -  f e a t u r e s the same spoken ending as G 2 .  S i n c e the t e r m i n a l  tones i n t h e s e songs are o f i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to G1.  d i s c u s s p i t c h h i e r a r c h y i n the same manner as was  done f o r  The home, tones, i n these songs w i l l t h e r e f o r e not be  de-  f i n e d i n terms, of. m e l o d i c g r a v i t y but r a t h e r i n terms o f f r e quency o f o c c u r e n c e . The  first  f o u r measures o f each p i e c e employ o n l y  one p i t c h , C i n G2 and A i n G 3 .  Each s h o r t e r than any o f the  p r e c e d i n g f o u r measures, measures 5 and 6 i n both songs move up to the second p i t c h - t o D i n G2 and t o C. i n G 3 . measures 7 are o f i n d e f i n i t e . p i t c h .  Both  The p i t c h e s G i n G2 and  A i n G 3 , by v i r t u e of. t h e i r , f r e q u e n c y o f appearance,  are  t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d the home tones o f these songs.  Thus the  s c a l e s o f t h e s e songs i n c i p h e r n o t a t i o n w i l l be n o t a t e d as follows:  The rhythm. In and  c e n t r a l f o r m - g i v i n g element  Two  i n both songs i s  rhythmic motives generate a l l rhythmic  G2 t h e s e are (a) £ j * i  and  (b) } ) U  , i n G3  (a)  activity. J  Both rhythmic m o t i v e s i n G3 a r e more f l e x -  (b)  i b l e i n d u r a t i o n because paniment.  G 3 , u n l i k e G 2 , has no drum accom-  As a r e s u l t rhythmic motive  i n measure 2 o f G3 and the f i r s t  (a) o c c u r s as  note i n motive  (b) i s l o n g e r  by an e i g h t h than i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n G 2 . Both songs b e g i n w i t h an i n t r o d u c t o r y measure t h a t  61 employs v a r i a n t s o f rhythmic motive ( a ) :  EXAMPLE G2  (a) ^ ) . . ^  G3  (a)  £  i  4  (b)  )  )  IU  Cb) ).  i  N  Measures 2 and 3 i n b o t h songs use both m o t i v e s i n t h e i r unaltered  forms:  EXAMPLE G2  (a)  G3  (a) > V  U  5  (b) ) )  J  h  (b) 1. )  J  k  Measures 4 i n these songs add a q u a r t e r note t o motive ( b ) : EXAMPLE  1^ i  G2  (a)  G3  (a) >V  6 (b.,) )  i  (  b i  )  i  } y <  ).} )  K  T h i s new v a r i a n t o f motive (b) now appears i n both measures 5, b r i n g i n g w i t h i t t h e second tone i n each song. M o t i v e (b) i n G3 now assumes t h e same shape as i t s counterp a r t i n G2 however:  62 EXAMPLE G2  (bp  i  i  G3  (b.,)  )  )  i i  ^1 7  j  \  In measures 6 o f each song, motive motive  (a) i s i n t a c t but  (b) has now been t r u n c a t e d r a t h e r than l e n g t h e n e d :  EXAMPLE  The  G2  (a)  G3  (a)  \\ I \ \ I  8 (b ) 2  (bo)  \  i  i .  T  3 \  spoken endings o f t h e s e songs (measures 7) seem  to parody t h e m e l o d i c rhythm o f t h e s i x t h measures i n an abb r e v i a t e d manner (see example 9 ) . spoken,  These h a l f - s u n g , h a l f -  endings a r e best e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e i r  text.  In b o t h G2 and G3 a v i s i t o r i s asked where he o r she i s going, t h e y r e p l y : "Down t h a t way".  The l o c a l people  warn: "You'd b e t t e r watch out or. y o u ' l l  s l i p and bump your  head on t h e walk".  I t i s most p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d e s c e n d i n g  motives t h a t end these songs a r e attempts of f a l l i n g s o n i c a l l y  then  (see example 9 ) .  to p o r t r a y the a c t  The f a l l  itself i s  most c l e a r l y symbolized by t h e l o n g portamento t h a t  extends  from t h e t h i r d tone o f each e n d i n g down,-to t h e two a c c e n t e d ("bouncing") e i g h t h n o t e s . formed  The f a c t t h a t t h i s , e n d i n g i s p e r -  i n a j o v i a l and c a s u a l manner l e n d s support t o t h i s  hypothesis. S i n c e t h e words o f t h e C a t ' s C r a d l e song a r e i d e n t i c a l  63 to t h e V i s i t o r ' s song and. deal, w i t h c o n t e n t u n r e l a t e d , to t h e s t r i n g game, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e V i s i t o r ' s song was used as a model f o r t h e C a t ' s C r a d l e . s o n g . q u i r e o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f these songs.  I was n o t a b l e t o a c I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g  f o r example t o observe whether o r not t h e Gat's C r a d l e song c o n s i s t e n t l y r i s e s by a major second. it  That i s , whether o r n o t  r i s e s by a major second i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f  from  the V i s i t o r ' s song and i t s r i s i n g minor t h i r d . U n l i k e G1, G2 and G3 do n o t have a c e n t r a l m e l o d i c idea.  Rhythmic motives  (a) and (b) combine, in. these songs t o  form t h e f o l l o w i n g rhythmic theme o r compound.rhythmic m o t i vic  structure:  I t i s the successive a l t e r a t i o n  and fragmentation, o f t h i s rhythmic theme t h a t g e n e r a t e s f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e i n these songs.  A sense o f u n i t y i s imparted by t h e  f a c t t h a t each v a r i a n t o f t h i s rhythmic theme ends on t h e p a t tern  ) j"f .  T h i s type, of. v a r i a t i o n form d i f f e r s from  found i n G1 because  that  i n G2 and G3 o n l y rhythm i s v a r i e d .  Given such a l i m i t e d number o f Game songs we can. o n l y s p e c u l a t e about  Game song type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  On t h e b a s i s  o f t h e t h r e e songs c o l l e c t e d we can say t h a t t h e y tend t o be b r i e f i n d u r a t i o n (G1 =38"; G2 =37", G3 =37"), slow  ( i n com-  p a r i s o n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e sample) and s i m i l a r i n average tempo (G1 A=ca.63, G 2 ) = c a . 6 5 , G3'=ca.68), f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y by rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l i m i t e d t o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (two and t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e s ) .  64 B.  Animal  Songs  A1  Hummingbird  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A2  W i l d Canary  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A3  First  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A4  Deadwood Worm  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A5  Peamouth and  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  S p r i n g Salmon  Bullhead  Fish  A6  Trout  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A7  American D i p p e r ' s  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.  A8  Boy's F i s h i n g  (J.P./T.F.M., 721030, D9(a))  Except f o r song A8 which was c o l l e c t e d by M c l l w r a i t h , the Animal songs to be examined here were r e c o r d e d - b y the I n d i a n Language  Project.  B.C.  S i n c e the. l a t t e r was a b l e to r e c o r d  seven Animal songs i n 1975, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t M c l l w r a i t h ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f f o u r represents, o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the Animal songs s t i l l  b e i n g sung i n the 1920's.  U n l i k e ceremonial, songs, Animal songs d i d not have to be newly composed e v e r y y e a r .  They were communally  r a t h e r than  p r i v a t e l y owned. T h i s study i n c l u d e s no Animal song t e x t s .  However we  l e a r n from M c l l w r a i t h * s t r a n s l a t i o n s t h a t the t e x t s o f t h i s  _  65  song type are g e n e r a l l y b r i e f  .  (1948  II.: 334-336.).  Perhaps  due t o i t s s h a m a n i s t i c o r nonr-Bella C o o l a o r i g i n , the words o f one Animal  song d e s c r i b e d by M c l l w r a i t h " . . . are p r a c -  t i c a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and the B e l l a C o o l a do not p r o f e s s t o understand them" (1948, II.: 426). Songs A5, A6., and A8 have e s s e n t i a l l y the same v a r i a t i o n s form as was two  found i n the Game songs.  rhythmic, motives,  (a)  and  A8 encompasses measures one and two p l o y s the p i t c h e s C, A, and E.  (b) i  )  A8. i s b u i l t .  from  The theme o f  (see example 10).  It  em-  S i n c e the t e r m i n a l note o f  t h i s descending " t r i a d " , E, a c t s as the m e l o d i c c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y , the song's modal s t r u c t u r e w i l l be p o r t r a y e d as 1  6 f3~l «  Measures 3 and 4 c o n s t i t u t e - a s i m p l e v a r i a t i o n of. t h i s theme. The v a r i a t i o n a l t e r s the rhythm and p i t c h o r d e r .of motive  (a)  i n measure 3 and l e n g t h e n s i t by an e i g h t h note i n measure 4 (see example 10).  Measures 5 and 6 o f t h i s song r e p e a t the  theme o f measures 1 and  2.  The v a r i a t i o n s o f A5 and.A6 are p u r e l y rhythmic. Peamouth and B u l l h e a d F i s h ' s song. (A5) i s based on.the D, C, A and E. i  6 L3J .  The  The  pitches  song f e a t u r e s the d e s c e n d i n g p r o g r e s s i o n  The p i t c h D(2) a c t s as an a u x i l i a r y tone to C ( 1 ) .  P i t c h e s o f t h i s o r d e r w i l l be b r a c k e t e d when the modal s t r u c t u r e s are p r e s e n t e d i n c i p h e r n o t a t i o n , e.g., Each t h e m a t i c statement two measures.  i n t h i s song  (2) 1  6 l^l .  (A5) c o n s i s t s , o f  Measure one i s l e v e l i n c o n t o u r and c o n t a i n s  the f o l l o w i n g p e n d u l a r movement between 6 and  i  1:6  1  (2) 1  6.  66 The  second measure's descending  progression 1  6 [|]  closes  t h i s theme s i n c e the r e p e a t b r i n g s back the c o n t e n t s o f measure  1. The v a r i a t i o n o f A5's  theme, measures. 3 and 4 ( i g -  n o r i n g r e p e a t s f o r e x p l a n a t o r y p u r p o s e s ) , does not a l t e r modal s t r u c t u r e o f the f i r s t d i c a t e s , i t i s the melodic  two measures.  the  As example 11 i n -  rhythm o f the theme t h a t i s v a r i e d :  EXAMPLE  11  A5 Theme:  *  )  Variation:  S i m i l a r l y i t i s the melodic s u r e s 1 to 3) t h a t i s v a r i e d . i s u n a l t e r e d i n the v a r i a t i o n Songs A1, A2, A3,  A4,  rhythm o f A6's  I t s modal s t r u c t u r e ,  theme (mea( 2 ) jjj  6,  (measures 4 to 7 ) . and A7 have a form u n l i k e any  examined thus f a r i n the a n a l y s i s .  I n these songs themes are  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s h o r t r e p e a t e d rhythmic motives  which, though  r e l a t e d t o the themes, have a s i g n i f i c a n c e q u i t e independent the l o n g e r thematic  ideas.  The  best i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s form t y p e . a c l u e as t o why  (A7)  I t w i l l . a l s o p r o v i d e us w i t h  these r e p e a t e d rhythmic motives  are found i n these The  American D i p p e r ' s song  of  (motivic areas)  songs.  theme o f A7, measures 1 to 3, i s c o n s t r u c t e d from  67  10  EXAMPLE Theme - A 8  m.1  ^  Variation  .3  /  S  S  +—*~  EXAMPLE  12  Theme - A7  \ \ \ x 1rrr \ \' \ 7  68 t h r e e p i t c h e s , G, E, and C.  Except f o r the f i r s t  measure's  •  •  •  descending p a t t e r n 5  3  1 t h e song employs o n l y t h e home tone  E o r 3, thus y i e l d i n g a modal s t r u c t u r e o f  5 GO  1 ( s e e ex-  ample 1 2 ) . The r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s m u s i c a l meaning.  employed i n t h i s  song have e x t r a -  These m o t i v e s , found i n measures 4 t h r o u g h  7, i m i t a t e the a c t i o n o f the American i t s beak i n t o t h e water.  D i p p e r b i r d as i t d i p s  As example 13 i l l u s t r a t e s ,  the B e l l a  C o o l a s i n g t h e words "go" and "down" t o p o r t r a y t h i s a c t i o n i n the t e x t  (Randy Bouchard: The  personal  same r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s  S p r i n g Salmon song  communication). (a t h i r d lower) i n the F i r s t  (A3), enhanced by t h e portamento,  symbolized t h e salmon's l e a p i n g .  This hypothesis i s streng-  thened by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Boy's F i s h i n g song an i d e n t i c a l motive motives A7.  may have  ( s e e example 1 4 ) .  (A8) employs  I n A3 t h e s e r h y t h m i c  (mm.1-4) b e g i n r a t h e r t h a n end t h e song as t h e y d i d i n  The remainder  o f A3 employs a v a r i a t i o n  form.  The r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s o f songs A1, A2, and A4 a l l f o l l o w t h e themes o f t h e s e songs.  They may a c t as a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n  f o r t h e theme, as i n A1, o r t h e y may i m m e d i a t e l y  precede t h e  theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n as i n A2 and A4 ( s e e example 1 5 ) . Thus w i t h r e s p e c t t o f o r m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e r e a r e two main t y p e s o f Animal  songs: t h o s e t h a t use a theme and v a r -  i a t i o n s form and t h o s e t h a t have themes c o n t r a s t e d w i t h r e p e a t e d rhythmic motives.  The l a t t e r may form m o t i v i c a r e a s ( a s i n A7  and A3) o r t h e y may be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e themes and t h e i r s i n g p a t t e r n s (A1, A2, A4, and A 8 ) .  clo-  Had t e x t s been a v a i l a b l e  69  Theme -A2  3=  "animal" motive  c l o s ii nn sg  pp a a tt t e r n  Theme -A4 •  \  >  y  r  <- y«-  \  \ V V• '  \> I "animal" motive  -V  closing pattern  70 f o r these songs i t i s l i k e l y t h a t more i n s t a n c e s , o f e x t r a m u s i c a l meaning, i n . c o n n e c t i o n w i t h these rhythmic would h a v e b e e n found. c  i n H i s Animal  motives  M c l l w r a i t h noted two. such examples  song sample.  t a t e d t h e sound o f a heron  I n t h i s case t h e motives  imi-  (1948 11:273) and o f a p i g e o n  (1948 11:275). Grouping these songs a c c o r d i n g t o modal s t r u c t u r e g i v e s a d i f f e r e n t view o f t h e Animal  song r e p e r t o i r e .  Six  o f these songs a r e based on " t r i a d i c " s t r u c t u r e s , t h e modal patterns 1 6  3 and 1  5  3.  The r e m a i n i n g  from t h e i n f i x e d f o u r t h s and f i f t h s 2  1  6  two a r e b u i l t and  2  1  5.  As example 16 shows, 37.5# o f t h e s e songs have f o u r - t o n e s c a l e s , 12.596 have, f i v e - t o n e s c a l e s , and t h e r e m a i n i n g 50% have t h r e e - t o n e  scales.  EXAMPLE  A1  [2J  1  A2  (2)  1  A3  2  A4  (2),  1  00  A5  (2)  1  6  A6  2  A7  (4)  5  3  16  S  (6)  tH 1  [[J 1  3  0  6  71 A8  1  [fj  6  These songs use e v e r y p i t c h o f t h e anhemitonic pentat o n i c s c a l e as a home tone so no c l e a r preference, for. one- t y p e o f modal s t r u c t u r e i s apparent.  Three songs employ t h e M i  mode, two t h e L a mode and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e use t h e Do, Re, and S o l modes. 1  6  3  The f r e q u e n t use o f t h e i n t e r v a l l i c  structure  i s worthy o f mention however a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  t h i s song t y p e . The most common drum accompaniment i n Animal songs cons i s t s o f t h e rhythmic- p a t t e r n w i t h which most Animal motives a r e a s s o c i a t e d ||: k Jt ? :|| .  T h i s p a t t e r n i s found i n t h e accom-  paniments o f A1, A2, A3, and A7. H a l f o f t h e songs  (A1, A2, A6, and A7) a r e l e v e l i n  c o n t o u r w h i l e a d e s c e n d i n g c o n t o u r a c c o u n t s f o r . the o t h e r half  (A3, A4, A5, and A8).  Animal songs t e n d t o be l e n g t h i e r ,  f a s t e r , and s l i g h t l y w i d e r i n range than t h e Game songs ( s e e Appendix I I ) .  C e r t a i n l y t h e most i d i o s y n c r a t i c f e a t u r e c o n c e r n s  the r e p e a t e d rhythmic m o t i v e s t h a t  (due t o t h e i r  a s s o c i a t i o n s ) I have termed Animal m o t i v e s .  extra-musical  These k i n d s o f  motives a r e not found i n o t h e r non-ceremonial songs.  72 C.  L a h a l Songs  L1  Dan N e l s o n ' s ( p a r t 1)  (Group 1/A.K.)  L2  ( p a r t 2)  (Group 1/A.K.)  L3  Jim P o l l a r d ' s  (J.P./T.F.M., 721031, VII D23(b))  14  Kimsquit  (J.P./T.F.M., 721031, VII D30(c))  Only two L a h a l songs (L1 and L2) remain i n the p r e s e n t day B e l l a C o o l a r e p e r t o i r e . p a u s i n g b r i e f l y between each. ed h y b r i d songs.  Dan N e l s o n s i n g s t h e s e as one  song  Songs such as t h i s s h a l l be term-  I r e c o r d e d t h i s song, u s i n g a Sony TC-270  t a p e - r e c o r d e r and Agfa Magnetonband tape (18cm./730mm.), on  11 August 4,  1975,  a t the home o f F e l i c i t y Walkus.  Songs L3  and L4 were t r a n s c r i b e d from M c l l w r a i t h ' s r e c o r d i n g s . Not u n e x p e c t e d l y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r o f t e n b o i s t e r o u s c o n t e x t , L a h a l songs a r e the f a s t e s t and most p u r e l y o r i e n t e d songs i n the e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e . built  A l l L a h a l songs a r e  from compound rhythmic m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e s .  each c o n s t r u c t e d from two r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s . (a)) I two.  rhythm-  L1 and L2 a r e  L1's m o t i v e s  o\ - £ a r e heard i n measures one  and (b) ) ) / )  V a r i a n t s o f t h e s e m o t i v e s accompany the remainder o f the  theme (see example 17): EXAMPLE mm.  and  1-2  )  y  j _ £  motive (a)  17  \ I \  \ \ h  (motive ( b ) ~  73 EXAMPLE  mm. mm.  3-4  '  '-  \\  > —> x  t  V  motive ( a l )  motive ( b l )  motive (a2)  motive (b2)  )  5-6  '  17 c o n t .  V  i  J ^ £  >  )  < ^  Between t h i s statement o f the theme (mm.1-6) and i t s restatement  (mm.8-13), Dan s i n g s a.measure o f n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y  pitched falsetto  "whoops":  "whoops" i s i n i t i a l l y  ; t h e rhythm o f these  r e m i n i s c e n t o f motive (a) (see example  17(a)). The theme i s now r e p e a t e d i n measures 8 t h r o u g h 13. I t i s based on t h e f o u r - t o n e d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n  2  1 6  5.  The  melody f e a t u r e s two descending major seconds, one between 2 and 1 and t h e o t h e r between 6 and 5 .  A f t e r t h e 2 t o 1 movement i n  measures one and two, t h i s d e s c e n d i n g second i s i m i t a t e d a f o u r t h below.  F i r s t by means o f t h e i n f i x e d f i f t h  by t h e i n f i x e d f o u r t h  1  2  6 {jjT| and then  6 [ 5 ] ( s e e example 1 7 ( a ) ) .  The most  u n s t a b l e tone i n t h i s melody i s 6, i t always r e s o l v e s t o the home tone [5} .  Thus t h e t o t a l modal p r o f i l e o f t h i s theme i n  cipher notation i s 2  1(6)0.  theme ends w i t h an a s c e n d i n g oi of  Almost every measure o f t h i s  d e s c e n d i n g portamento  i n d e t e r m i n a t e p i t c h (see example. 1 7 ( a ) ) .  t o a note  The l a t t e r a r e  o f t e n found i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e p i t c h G and may t h e r e f o r e be s u b t l y r e i n f o r c i n g t h e home t o n e . The remainder o f t h e L1 fragments t h e theme, i n t e r r u p t i n g i t w i t h more "whoops".  F o l l o w i n g t h e r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e theme,  74  measure 14 has another, statement o f the n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y k *. >L ^  p i t c h e d f a l s e t t o whoops: - k i x x and  .  Measures. 15  16 see the r e t u r n o f m o t i v e s (a) and ( b ) . These-are  f o l l o w e d by more whoops in. measure 17. 21 r e s t a t e the f i r s t  Measures 18 through.  f o u r measures o f the six-measure, theme.  Measure 22 ends the song w i t h t h r e e whoops: L2- expands the modal s t r u c t u r e o f LI by i n c l u d i n g the  p i t c h E.  I n t h i s song the D (2) p l a y s a l e s s  important  r o l e s t r u c t u r a l l y than i t d i d i n L1 (see example 18).  D. i s ~  simply an upper n e i g h b o u r o r a u x i l i a r y tone of. C (1) i n measures one and two.  In measure 5 C moves down a f o u r t h to the  home tone G, a r r i v i n g to i t by means o f a d e s c e n d i n g portamento and  a c c e n t i n g , i t upon a r r i v a l .  T h i s descending, f o u r t h i s now  i m i t a t e d by means o f G o r 5's changing, tones, A(6) measure f o u r (see example 18).  ^E(3) i n  Thus f a r t h e r e f o r e the tones  1, 5 and 3 have been emphasized.  Measure 5 s t r e n g t h e n s t h e  p o s i t i o n o f the p i t c h A(6) through the movement 5  6  1 .6.  The importance o f G(5) i s once a g a i n r e a f f i r m e d i n measure s i x however as 6 r e s o l v e s t o 5 by means o f 3.  Measure 7 has 6 a g a i n  moving to 3 t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c i n g . t h e . modal c e l l which t h i s song i s based. first  3  upon  Measures 8, _9, and 10 r e p e a t the  t h r e e measures o f the p i e c e i n which 1 and 5 were promi-  nent (see example 18). f a l s e t t o whoops: Two Motive (a) of  1 |lp  As i n L1, the song ends on a s e r i e s o f  £k)e.k^>c:L.kkjc .  rhythmic m o t i v e s generate a l l the p h r a s e s i n L2. and motive (b) ^ o — > ] t  •  The theme  t h i s song (mm.1-3) employs motive (a) i n measures one and  76  two and motive (b) i n measure t h r e e . the  variation  4 through 7,  o f t h i s theme, use motive (a) i n measure 4,  motive ( a l ) J* i.. 6, and motive  Measures  i n measure 5, motive (b) i n measure  ( a ) . 5 i n measure 7 ('  ' ).  The l a t t e r  mo-  t i v e i s used' i n measures e i g h t and n i n e w h i l e measure 10 uses motive (b) (see example. 18).. Both L1 and L2 have a tremolo drum, accompaniment.  Since  L3 and L4 a r e unaccompanied  (Pollard  M c l l w r a i t h ' s r e c o r d i n g s ) we  cannot d i s c u s s t y p i c a l o r c h a r a -  cteristic  drum rhythms  i n Lahal  sang w i t h o u t the. drum, on  songs.  L3 and L4 are a l s o based on compound r h y t h m i c m o t i v i c structures.  As i n L2, L3 r e p e a t s a motive (a)  ,)  then extends i t to c r e a t e a motive (b) v a r i a n t s o f these primary motives. ( a l ) )\ i  o r (a2) ) J  a n t s are ( b 1 ) ) ) ) ) ) ?  \  M o t i v e (a) may  (b2)^J.-£  and  There a r e  o r (a3) ) ) ) and  , )  . >^  used b r i e f l y i n L3, i n measures 27, 28, and  be sung as  Motive (b)'s v a r i \.  .  Falsetto i s  61.  L4 a g a i n demonstrates the rhythmic i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f the  B e l l a Coola.  time (mm.  1-3).  2/8  + 4/8.  + 3/8  The rhythmic theme o f t h i s song i s i n "9/8" The i n t e r n a l Measures  s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h i s theme i s  4 through 7 f e a t u r e a v a r i a n t o f t h i s  rhythmic theme: 8/8(4/8 + 2/4)  + 5/8(2/8 + 3/8).  19 i l l u s t r a t e s , measures 8 through 11 use the 9/8 the  theme but v a r y i t s i n t e r n a l  structure.  As example framework o f  77 EXAMPLE  theme: mm. 1-3  19  •  •  •  f i r s t variant: mm. 4-7  '  ' u  transition: mnti 8-10  '  ' '  i.  second,variant: mm. 11-16  • J  •  •  /•  '•  •••  «- .-» «-  •  X  w  J  v \  •  •  As w i t h the Animal songs, L a h a l songs a r e s p l i t between l e v e l and L 2 ) .  (L3. and L4) and descending  J  melodic  equally  contours  (L1 -  Both f i v e - t o n e (L2 and L3) and f o u r - t o n e s c a l e s (L1  and L4) a r e employed:  EXAMPLE  20  (6)  L1  L2  (2)  L3  3  L4  (3)  (2)  Q]  (6)  GO  6  (5)  3  78 Although-two songs a r e based on t h e S o l mode, we can generalize l i t t l e Lahal  about Lahal' modal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . More  songs would be needed b e f o r e  c o u l d become n o t i c e a b l e .  any s i g n i f i c a n t  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note however  how o u r modal s t r u c t u r e s have grown s i n c e we l e f t functionally significant  trend  song type,  the l e a s t :  t h e Game songs.  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two and t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e s .  Then t h e  Animal songs were found t o employ-predominantly t h r e e tone s c a l e s .  The L a h a l  The l a t t e r  and f o u r -  songs c o n t i n u e t h i s , p r o g r e s s i o n  are based on f o u r and f i v e - t o n e Though o n l y f o u r L a h a l  as they  scales. songs were examined, t h e i r unique  t r a i t s make them one o f t h e most r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . B e l l a C o o l a song t y p e s .  They a r e t h e f a s t e s t B e l l a . C o o l a songs, they  a l o n e f e a t u r e t h e use o f f a l s e t t o , and they tend t o be f o r m a l l y organized  by rhythmic themes t h a t i n t u r n a r e composed u s u a l l y  o f two rhythmic m o t i v e s . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these songs i s t h a t they l a c k meaningful t e x t s . u a l motives".  They c o n s i s t o f w o r d l e s s choruses o r " t e x t -  Though t e x t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  i n t h i s study, i t i s important t o note t h a t t h e L a h a l  later  melodies  r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t they a r e a s s o c i a t e d , w i t h w o r d l e s s choruses only.  The s h o r t rhythmic motives t h a t o r g a n i z e  songs a r e i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r t h e s h o r t up  the wordless choruses.  Lahal  s y l l a b i c u n i t s t h a t make  79 D.  Love Songs  Lv1  K i t t y King  (Group 1/A.K.)  Lv2  Susan  Kelly  (Group 1/A.K.)  Lv3  Steam  Schooner  (Group 1/A.K.)  Lv4  Jim P o l l a r d  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Lv5  Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Lv6  Sam Schooner  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Lv7  Chinook/Haida?  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Lv8  B e l l a Coola  (A.S./P.D., 72-  Lv9  Steam Schooner  Lv9(a)  Steam  1681  BC 9-29)  (Group 1/A.K.) Schooner (J.P./T.F.M., 72Lv10  Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d  1031 V I I D33(c)) (J.P./T.F.M., 721031 VII D33(a))  80 Love songs are the t h i r d b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d group i n the entire repertoire. are l a r g e r .  I was  Only the Headdress and K u s i y u t Dance samples a b l e to r e c o r d f o u r Love songs sung by the  p r e s e n t - d a y s i n g i n g group.  One o f t h e s e , Steam  Schooner's Love  song (Lv3), was a l s o r e c o r d e d w i t h an E n g l i s h t e x t .  This version,  c r e a t e d and sung by F e l i c i t y Walkus, w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the chapter e n t i t l e d interaction".  "Form and T e x t : a s e l e c t i v e study o f t h e i r  F e l i c i t y o f t e n performs t h i s song a t weddings.  T h i s v e r s i o n p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t a m b a s s a d o r i a l r o l e f o r B e l l a C o o l a music by making i t much more a c c e s s i b l e t o the n o n - n a t i v e listener.  F e l i c i t y found t h i s song's t e x t p a r t i c u l a r l y  suited f o r translation into English.  well^  I t i s the o n l y E n g l i s h  language v e r s i o n o f a B e l l a C o o l a song. Love songs are u n i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t they a l l a theme and v a r i a t i o n s form.  employ  Three t y p e s o f t h e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n  procedure are found:  1.  1.  v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal s t r u c t u r e w i t h v a r i a t i o n i n the theme's m e l o d i c rhythm (Lv1, Lv3, Lv4, Lv7, Lv8, Lv10).  2.  v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal isorhythmic).  3.  s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal s t r u c t u r e w i t h s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n o f m e l o d i c rhythm (Lv2, Lv6, Lv9T.  v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal  s t r u c t u r e o n l y (Lv1-  structure with v a r i a t i o n  i n the theme's m e l o d i c rhythm - The theme and v a r i a t i o n s form found i n the Love songs d i f f e r s from t h a t found i n the Game,  81 Animal, and L a h a l m e l o d i e s .  The theme o f Lv1, f o r example,  has  more p i t c h e s , has a wider range, and i s more l y r i c a l and i s l o n g e r i n d u r a t i o n than any theme we have p r e v i o u s l y  examined  (see example 21). Both the theme and the v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s song a r e f o u r measures i n l e n g t h .  On the rhythmic l e v e l the song i s a s e t o f  v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e m e l o d i c rhythm o f measure 1: I t i s always the second h a l f o f t h i s r h y t h m i c motive t h a t i s varied.  As example 21(a) shows, s u b s t a n t i a l l e n g t h e n i n g  o f the  motive o c c u r s a t the c l o s e o f t h e theme and i t s v a r i a n t :  EXAMPLE 21(a)  Theme:  m.1 m.2 m.3  s  \ \ \ y  \  >  /  \  s  1 •  s  \ \V .  \  O  s  \  i )J ) ] t h  m.4 Variant:  m.5 m. 6  J J ) ). JU )  )  JJJ i  m.7 m.8  Thus p u r e l y on the rhythmic l e v e l the song c o n s i s t s o f  82  EXAMPLE  21  83 v a r i a t i o n s on a rhythmic motive.  We  have a l r e a d y observed  type o f rhythmic motive v a r i a t i o n procedure  this  i n the songs p r e -  v i o u s l y a n a l y z e d . . What makes t h i s group o f Love songs n o t i c e a b l y different  from the l a t t e r concerns  the f o l l o w i n g non-rhythmic  a s p e c t s o f melody: p i t c h , contour, and  range.  B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the non-rhythmic f e a t u r e s o f Lv1 i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the p i t c h Eb i n t h i s song's theme o c c u r s o n l y once.  Every o t h e r statement  on the p i t c h C (see example 22).  o f the theme begins  Consequently  the p i t c h  w i l l not e n t e r i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f Lv1's modal Lv1 encountered  i s the f i r s t  structure.  s i x - t o n e ( h e x a t o n i c ) song we  thus f a r i n the a n a l y s i s .  The  descending movements, ,1 t o 5 (C t o G) and  have  song i s based 5 to  [7]  C (see example 22).  means o f the p a t t e r n  2 16  (5  have the p r o g r e s s i o n 3  The  from  5.  2  Measure 3 r e p e a t s t h i s down-  i t even f u r t h e r , down to 2; 1  6  5  3  2.  thus  T h i s added f o u r t h  2) r e t a i n s the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i t i a t e d i n  measure 2 by the 2.  two  In measure 2, 1 descends to 5 by  ward p r o g r e s s i o n and extends we  on  (G t o C ) .  f i r s t measure a t t a i n s the h i g h C (1) v i a an octave l e a p middle  Eb  The new  2  f o u r t h (5  1 6 3  5  p a t t e r n , i . e . , maj.2, min.3,  2) c o n t i n u e s t h i s i n t e r v a l l i c  maj.  sequence  as i t i s composed o f a min.3 and a maj.2 (see example 23). C i p h e r n o t a t i o n a l s o a l l o w s us t o show t h i s symmetry.  In o r d e r  to do t h i s we w i l l have to have r e c o u r s e t o the concept o f a movable Do mentioned a t the o u t s e t o f t h i s  analysis.  84 EXAMPLE 23  m.2  2  1  6  N/  v maj.2  m.2  C:  min.3  2  1  G:  5  v  maj.2  3  v\ y  min.3  maj.2  6  5  (3  2  '1  6  As example 23 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h i s phrase stood as two o v e r l a p p i n g  2  Do and the o t h e r h a v i n g G as Do. 5 t o [7]  (G t o C) i s completed 5  gression  4  2  1.  5  1 6  2  2)  5  can a l s o he under-  p a t t e r n s , one w i t h C as  The descending movement  from  i n measure 4 through the p r o -  The l a t t e r a g a i n p r e s e r v e s the maj.2,  min.3, maj.2 i n t e r v a l l i c p a t t e r n begun i n measure 2. i s the p i t c h F(4) d o i n g i n a b a s i c a l l y anhemitonic song (and m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n ) ?  But what  pentatonic  Here i t i s once more u s e f u l t o  t u r n t o the c i p h e r a n a l y t i c a l methodology i n o r d e r t o demonstrate the u n d e r l y i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between these d i f f e r e n t o f Lv1's melody. Do, the 5  5  4  2  By a g a i n employing 1  w i t h F a c t i n g as Do (see example 24).  theme  o f a movable  p r o g r e s s i o n can be understood  EXAMPLE 24  Lv1  the concept  components  as  2 '1  6  85  Thus t h e theme o f t h i s song (mm.1-4) c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f a descending octave ( 1 lapping  2 The  1  6  5  t o 1,0 s u b d i v i d e d  v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s theme (mm.5-3) i s p r i m a r i l y con5 t o |TJ .  a  1  5  3  2  progression  measure 7 simply see  over-  progressions.  cerned w i t h t h e descending f i f t h 6  by t h r e e  (  2  6  has t h e movement 6  example 20).  Measure 5 f e a t u r e s  5 w i t h G as Do) w h i l e 5 (2 t o 1 w i t h G as Do;  Measures 9 and 10 a r e i d e n t i c a l t o measures  3 and 4 o f the theme. The  six-tone  s c a l e used i n Lv1,  r e f l e c t s a bi-(anhemitonic) pentatonic organization.  (6) 5(4) 3(2) IT). not a d i a t o n i c tonal  Elements o f anhemitonic s c a l e s w i t h C as Do and  w i t h P as Do a r e p r e s e n t . sounded c o n s e c u t i v e l y .  At no time a r e the p i t c h e s E and P  Only when t h e p i t c h e s a r e assembled i n t o  a combined s c a l e does t h e d i a t o n i c hexachord (6) 5 (4) 3 (2) (TJ surface.  A s i m i l a r modal s t r u c t u r e i s found i n the i s o r h y t h -  mically-constructed  Love song o f Mrs.  Jim P o l l a r d  (Lv5).  2.  v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal s t r u c t u r e o n l y - Every phrase  i n Mrs.  Jim P o l l a r d ' s Love song (Lv5)  ) ) )  ) )/  ^-  *  m  e  a  s  u  r  e  employs t h e m e l o d i c rhythm  8 v a r i e s t h i s rhythm o n l y  slightly  86 ) )\  .  Although o t h e r songs have approximated i t ,  t h i s song i s the f i r s t  authentic isorhythmically-constructed  song we have examined. Lv5 i s based on the same d e s c e n d i n g o c t a v e ( 1 t o found i n Lv1.  The upper  [T] )  f o u r t h o f t h i s octave (C to G o r 1 to  5) i s a g a i n expressed by the m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n (measure 1 - see example 25).  2  1 6  5  Measure 2 i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l measure  t h a t reaches the lower f i f t h  o f the o c t a v e (G t o C, o r 5 t o  through the t r i i d i c  pattern  1  the o c t a v e (5 t o Q)  i s now  5  3  Q]  •  (TJ)  The lower f i f t h  of  a r t i c u l a t e d by Ithe p i t c h e s G, F,  and C o r 5  4  2  [T].  as a  2  1  6  5  p a t t e r n w i t h F as Do t h a t i m i t a t e s measure  2  6  5  w i t h C as Do  3.  1  D,  As i n LvT the l a t t e r i s best c o n s i d e r e d 1's  (see example 25).  s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n o f theme's modal s t r u c t u r e w i t h s l i g h t  variation  o f m e l o d i c rhythm - Very l i t t l e modal o r rhythmic  variation  t a k e s p l a c e i n songs Lv2, Lv6, and Lv9.  example, c o n s i s t s o f o n l y two  long phrases.  term i t s theme, the second i t s v a r i a t i o n  Dv2,  The f i r s t  for I shall  (see example 26).  Measure 1, l i k e many opening measures i n these songs, i s u n s t a b l e i n terms o f p i t c h .  As a r e s u l t i t uses the melodic  rhythm o f the theme but does not succeed i n r e a c h i n g the E p r e s e n t i n every o t h e r statement  o f the theme (mm.4,7,10).  i s l i k e l y t h a t the o r i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p i t c h  ( B ) was b  the s i n g e r s s i n c e the whole song drops by a semitone through the f i r s t  measure.  (3) It  too h i g h f o r half-way  Example 26 t h e r e f o r e i l l u s t r a t e s  the theme as i t i s found i n measures 4, 7, and  10.  88 Both p h r a s e s i n Lv2 have 38 b e a t s , d i v i d e d as 1 group of  2 p l u s 12 groups o f 3.  The drum o u t l i n e s t h e s e i n t e r n a l  s u b d i v i s i o n s o f the p h r a s e .  As example  26 shows, the theme's  phrase i s d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : 1 group o f 2 and 12 groups o f 3. N o t i c e how its  the theme's v a r i a t i o n a l t e r s t h i s p h r a s i n g by p l a c i n g  2-beat f i g u r e e x a c t l y i n t h e m i d d l e o f the 12 groups o f 3;  thus y i e l d i n g the symmetrical p a t t e r n 6 groups o f 3, 1 group o f 2, 6 groups o f 3. Lv2's theme, u n l i k e most Love songs, i s b a s i c a l l y in  contour.  I t b e g i n s and ends on the home tone G o r  level  flTl.  Though a s c e n d i n g s t e p s outnumber d e s c e n d i n g s t e p s (6 t o 5 ) , the i n t e r n a l c o n t o u r o f the theme c o n s i s t s o f the d e s c e n d i n g p r o *  gression  *  3  *  (2)  i  1  (.6)  i  Qj.  The v a r i a t i o n i m i t a t e s t h i s p r o -  g r e s s i o n but b e g i n s on 2 r a t h e r than 3. v a r i a t i o n (m.5 theme.  i n example  The f i r s t  26) i s a condensed v e r s i o n o f the  The " i n a u t h e n t i c " c l o s i n g p a t t e r n ( 6 5 )  n a t e s measure 5 soon g i v e s way t i o n i n measure 6.  h a l f o f the  to a renewed  v e r s i o n o f the v a r i a -  The v a r i a t i o n i s based on the  p a t t e r n found i n the o t h e r Love songs.  which t e r m i -  2  1  6  |_5J  W i t h o u t an E i n t h i s  v a r i a t i o n however, the p i t c h C d i m i n i s h e s i n importance.  Thus  the  complete modal s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n w i l l be p o r t r a y e d  as  2  (1)  6  [ | J .  More so t h a n any o t h e r song type d i s c u s s e d t o t h i s p o i n t , Love songs show a d i s t i n c t tendency t o use one type o f modal the  pattern  trates,  2  1  6  5, as a modal b a s i s .  As example  26  cell,  illus-  s i x o f the t e n Love songs (Lv1, Lv2, Lv5, Lv8, Lv9,  Lv10) employ  t h i s modal c e l l .  The remainder o f the songs use the  89  t r i a d i c c e l l s 631  and  531.  EXAMPLE  26  Lv1 C:  ,21  (6) P:  5, 2  U)  3  1  (2)  JT|  6  5  2  (1)  Lv2  (3)  6  m  Lv3  3  1 6  Lv4  [7]  3  (2);  3  (2)  Q]  6  5,  (6)  Lv5 C:  22  1  (6)  5  U K  P:  2  i  Lv6 (2)  1  (6)  (2)  |T]  (6)  Lv7 5  3  5  11  90 Lv8 2  1  C6)  2  1  ( 6 )  E  Lv9  Lv10  (6)  5  [ J ]  t  [7]  2  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e s e Love songs i s t h e i r p r i m a r i l y d e s c e n d i n g motion.  Only t h r e e Love songs a r e l e v e l  (Lv2, Lv6, and Lv8) i n c o n t o u r . Pour songs employ f o u r - t o n e ( t e t r a h o n i c ) s c a l e s and f o u r employ  five-tone  (anhemitonic p e n t a t o n i c ) s c a l e s .  two  (Lv1 and Lv5) have s i x - t o n e s c a l e s .  Do,  S o l , and Re a r e used as home t o n e s .  Only  As w i t h t h e L a h a l songs,  The Love songs have t h e h i g h e s t average range i n t h e e n t i r e B e l l a Coola r e p e r t o i r e ,  14 semitones.  Jim P o l l a r d ' s  Love song (Lv4) has t h e w i d e s t range (20 semitones) o f any B e l l a C o o l a song. panied.  H a l f o f t h e Love songs (Lv6 t o Lv10) a r e unaccom-  Three t y p e s o f accompaniment a r e found, Lv3 o u t l i n e s  the melody's d e n s i t y r e f e r e n t rhythm o f i t s melody  (  ( k's )  A le A - J* ?  groups o f t h r e e q u a r t e r s (Lv2: A 3 1 and  A  \k  t  Lv1 i m i t a t e s t h e m e l o d i c  ) ; Lv2, Lv4, and Lv5 o u t l i n e , Lv4: A A \  , Lv5: A W  ).  M c l l w r a i t h n o t e d t h a t a l l men's Love songs were o r i g i n a l l y sung unaccompanied  (1948 11:331).  I t i s possible therefore that  91 the drum accompaniments  to Love songs a r e r e c e n t  innovations.  Since Love songs were l a r g e l y sung to e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l ment i n an i n t i m a t e atmosphere, drum accompaniment judged t c be too h a r s h f o r such o c c a s i o n s .  senti-  was perhaps  However some were o f  a d e r i s i v e n a t u r e ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 11:531-334) and some were sung by a group o f men w i t h t h e " s u i t o r " t a k i n g the l e a d i n g part  (1948 11:332).  drum accompaniment,  These c o n t e x t s may have been r e i n f o r c e d by the b e a t i n g o f s t i c k s o r even h a n d - c l a p p i n g .  With t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f Love songs we l e a v e the nonc e r e m o n i a l portion- o f the B e l l a C o o l a r e p e r t o i r e .  Though each  o f the f o u r song t y p e s have unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which s e r v e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from t h e o t h e r s , two t y p e s o f non-cerem o n i a l song s t y l e s may  be p o s t u l a t e d .  The f i r s t  type i s made up  o f the Game and Animal songs w h i l e the second i n c l u d e s the L a h a l and Love songs.  Compared t o the l a t t e r , the iJoimer are s h o r t e r  i n d u r a t i o n , s l o w e r i n tempo, have narrower ranges and have a more l i m i t e d t o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  M e t a p h o r i c a l l y - s p e a k i n g , the  communally-owned Animal and Game songs a r e the " f o l k songs" o f B e l l a C o o l a music w h i l e the l i v e l y Love and L a h a l songs are t h e " p o p u l a r songs" o f the r e p e r t o i r e .  C o n t i n u i n g t h i s analogy, the  ( f o r the most p a r t p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d ) c e r e m o n i a l songs to be s t u d i e d next r e p r e s e n t the " c l a s s i c a l " o r " h i g h a r t " p o r t i o n o f the B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l  repertoire.  92  CEREMONIAL SONGS  E.  Shaman Song3  12  S1  Shaman Song (1946) ( p a r t 1)  (Group 2/M.V.T.)  S2  ( p a r t 2)  (Group 2/M.V.T.)  Shaman Song  S3  (1924)  (J.P./T.F.M., 721031 V I I I D34(a))  Shaman songs have been p l a c e d w i t h t h e c e r e m o n i a l  song  t y p e s because they were f r e q u e n t l y sung i n w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l contexts.  M c l l w r a i t h noted t h a t they were o f t e n sung a t t h e  c o n c l u s i p n o f a K u s i y u t dance i n o r d e r t o " c l e a r t h e house" (1948  11:56). M c l l w r a i t h r e c o r d e d n i n e Shaman songs w h i l e i n B e l l a  Coola.  Seven o f t h e s e were fragments o f songs, t h e remainder  o f which had been f o r g o t t e n (1948 11:299-305).  I was a b l e t o  t r a n s c r i b e one o f these (S3) f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t M i l d r e d V a l l e y Thornton  study.  r e c o r d e d one " h y b r i d " ( i . e . two songs  sung as i f one) Shaman song i n 1946 ( t r a n s c r i p t i o n s S1 and 32). T h i s h y b r i d song, owned by Simon Johnson, was n o t i n c l u d e d i n 13 Mcllwraith's recordings. On no r e c o r d i n g a v a i l a b l e t o me does t h e p r e s e n t - d a y s i n g i n g group s i n g a Shaman song.  S1 and S2 were o n l y sung when  the l a t e Andy Schooner and t h e l a t e Hank K i n g were s t i l l p e r -  93 forming w i t h the group  i n the e a r l y 1970's.  S i n c e the  m u s i c a l l y - r e s p e c t e d Hank K i n g l e d the s i n g e r s a t t h i s time i t was  most l i k e l y due t o h i s i n i t i a t i v e t h a t the song  a c t i v e i n the r e p e r t o i r e .  remained  I suspect t h e r e f o r e that h i s p a s s i n g  away s i g n a l l e d the r e t i r e m e n t o f t h i s song (S1 and  S2).  I f the Shaman songs i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study are any i n d i c a t i o n o f what the former Shaman r e p e r t o i r e was we may  assume t h a t i t was  a heterogeneous  like  then  body o f songs.  Such  an i n f e r e n c e i s harmonious w i t h the f a c t t h a t these m e l o d i e s were not n e c e s s a r i l y composed ( o r arranged) by m u s i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s as were o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l songs.  Furthermore,  these songs  had t o r e f l e c t unique e s o t e r i c e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l guardians. M u s i c a l resemblances  between Shaman songs might  d e t r a c t e d from the d e s i r e d e s o t e r i c  effect.  S1 - T h i s melody i s one o f the most s t r i k i n g and easily-remembered  of a l l B e l l a Coola melodies.  o f rhythmic and melodic "economy.  have  consequently I t i s a model  L i k e many songs d i s c u s s e d  p r e v i o u s l y i t a c h i e v e s s t r o n g r h y t h m i c u n i t y by employing rhythmic theme which i s o n l y s l i g h t l y  varied:  EXAMPLE 27  rhythmic theme:  variant:  \  J  •  j  a  94 The had  a theme, a m o t i v i c  theme i n S1 i n c l u d e s two 28).  song i s c l o s e s t i n form to the Animal songs t h a t  i s two  a r e a and  The  statements o f the  "rhythmic theme" (see  and  example  i s then f o l l o w e d by two  short  ( t r a n s i t i o n a l ) m o t i v e s t h a t p r e p a r e the c l o s i n g p a t t e r n  (see example 28).  The  l a t t e r employs the m e l o d i c rhythm  the v a r i a n t shown i n example 27 The  song has  t i a l l y of  5,  only three pitches  the d e s c e n d i n g t r i a d  5  The  and  The  jj].  Every  theme c o n s i s t s e s s e n -  {T].  3  3,  The  c l o s i n g pattern  v a r i e s t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s l i g h t l y but n e v e r t h e l e s s the purposes o f c o n t r a s t .  of  above.  phrase ends on the home tone C o r Q .  for  triadic  measures i n l e n g t h ; t h u s the m e l o d i c theme  T h i s theme i s r e p e a t e d  rhythmic  a closing pattern.  effectively  G o r 5 o f the theme i s sung  an octave lower i n the c l o s i n g p a t t e r n t h u s y i e l d i n g the m e l o d i c progression  5  3 [ T j .  S1 b e g i n s w i t h  an i n t r o d u c t i o n which f e a t u r e s a v a r i a n t  o f i t s theme p l u s the c l o s i n g p a t t e r n found throughout the (see example 29).  T h i s i s the f i r s t  example o f an i n t r o d u c t i o n  based on a v a r i a n t o f a song's theme. have had  an i n t r o d u c t i o n thus f a r has  Salmon song.  The  only other  been A3,  song to  the F i r s t  Spring  However, A 3 s i n t r o d u c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f animal  motives o r a m o t i v i c  f  area.  U n l i k e the l a t t e r ,  c l e a r l y foreshadows the m a t e r i a l to  S1 s  closing pattern.  S2 now  paniment found i n SI and  begins.  1  introduction  follow.  S2 - There i s a s i x second pause a f t e r the r e p e a t and  song  of S1 s 1  theme  I t changes the drum accom-  i s slower ('=ca.71)than S16  (i=ca.78 ).  95  S1  EXAMPLE  - Intro IS-*  — d s—>  >  i  ^  29  —y  —|—|—?-4-  closing  pattern  96 S1's  accompaniment o u t l i n e d the q u a r t e r note d e n s i t y r e f e r e n t  o f i t s melody.  R e s t s were found o n l y at the ends o f phrases  and w i t h i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l rhythmic motives (||: A. 1. • l| S2's  accompaniment i s a continuous, tremolo throughout. S2 i s b u i l t  (see example 30).  from a two-part theme, and The  the a s c e n d i n g f i f t h • embellishes  first  the  1 Q.  a closing pattern  p a r t o f the theme (a) c o n s i s t s , o f  G - D or-5  2.  The  the 2 i n the p r o g r e s s i o n  p a r t o f the theme (b) r e t u r n s to G(5) 2  ).  p i t c h E or 3 • • •  5  2  (3)  2.  The  T h i s repeated  second p a r t  second  v i a the p i t c h e s D and  T h i s second p a r t o f the theme, i s r e p e a t e d  s l i g h t e s t rhythmic a l t e r a t i o n  simply  (see  with  ( b ) l i n example  The  only  30).  ( b ) l , a c t u a l l y a "decapitated"  o f the theme, echoes the f i n a l h a l f o f the theme.  C:  version  closing  pattern  (c) c o n s i s t s o n l y o f the descending f o u r t h C to G o r  1 to [i].  Another s l i g h t v a r i a n t o f the theme's second p a r t  lows ( ( b ) 2 ) and  i s a g a i n accompanied by the c l o s i n g p a t t e r n ( c ) .  In o v e r - a l l form then, S1 hybrid  song.  I t i s not known why  and  S2 must be c o n s i d e r e d  these two  T h i s p r a c t i c e was  t h i s manner.  We  have observed a . L a h a l h y b r i d song and w i l l be  E n t r a n c e and Mourning h y b r i d  r e s t r i c t e d to Shaman songs. encountering  songs.  S3 i s s i m i l a r i n form to those Animal songs  thematic and m o t i v i c a r e a s . are  not  M o t i v i c areas,  m o t i v i c a r e a s may  or two  begin  pitches.  We  songs (e.g. A3)  rhythmic  have noted how o r end  songs (e.g.  o r S1 where the m o t i v e s were r e p e a t e d  once, they were not  designated  areas.  mo-  these  In songs such as A1  as m o t i v i c  having  i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d ,  s e c t i o n s o f songs t h a t f e a t u r e s h o r t r e p e a t e d  t i v e s on u s u a l l y one  a  m e l o d i e s were wedded  in  S3 - L i k e S1,  fol-  A7). only  97  98 EXAMPLE \  [  32  S3 - M o t i v i c Ares  *T  t tt  T  11 m \ \ \ \ \  e  v i  ,.,  V  ,  h ii.  hV  II  .„  99 B e f o r e the m o t i v i c a r e a e n t e r s i n measure 7, S3 p r o ceeds as have many o t h e r songs examined thus f a r .  I t s theme  spans measures 1 t o 3; except f o r v e r y s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s i t i s r e p e a t e d i n measures 4 to 6 (see example 31).  I have  termed  these s i x measures the song's thematic a r e a so as t o c o n t r a s t i t w i t h the m o t i v i c a r e a to f o l l o w . S3's theme u t i l i z e s t h e p i t c h e s G, 5  2.  A, G and D o r  1  6  I t s c o n t o u r i s p r i m a r i l y descending w i t h 2 b e i n g the most  common t e r m i n a l note.  The p i t c h A, the most important  pitch  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n the theme, c o m p l e t e l y dominates the song's motivic area. as  01)  H]  Thus the song's modal p r o f i l e w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  5  2.  The m o t i v i c a r e a i s based almost e n t i r e l y on e i g h t h notes  (see example 32).  e i g h t h s , the l a s t  The b a s i c motive c o n s i s t s o f  o f which i s f o l l o w e d by a descending p o r t a -  mento  T h i s motive  motives found i n songs A3 and A8: rhythmic motive  echoes  the two  i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the animal • )^  .  S3's  primary  e i g h t h s found a t the b e g i n n i n g o f  each o f i t s thematic a r e a ' s p h r a s e s : i i " 3 ) . ) and so on.  two  T h i s primary rhythmic motive  ,  1^  )  / ^ j ^  ( i " ^ ) i s preceded  by  e i g h t e i g h t h notes on the p i t c h A f o l l o w e d by a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n that i n c l u d e s notes of u n c e r t a i n p i t c h The  song ends w i t h the primary rhythmic  (see example 32). motive.  Given such a l i m i t e d number o f Shaman songs t h a t show d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we must remain c o n t e n t w i t h an incomp l e t e account about what c o n s t i t u t e d a Shaman song s t y l e .  The  songs examined here c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e t h a t h e t e r o g e n e i t y may have been a common f a c t o r .  100 P.  Hamatsa Songs  Hm1  C h a r l i e Snow's Hamatsa Song  (Group  Hm2  Man-Eater Dance ( J e f f r e y Snow)  (Group 2/M.V.T.)  Hm3'I  G r i z z l y Bear Dance ( T a l l i o Hans)  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Only one Hamatsa song  (Hm1) i s s t i l l  present-day B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e .  1/A.K.)  i n c l u d e d i n the Hm1's  melody i s "14-  'from R i v e r s I n l e t , i t s t e x t i s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a  language.  M c l l w r a i t h r e c o r d e d o n l y t h r e e Hamatsa songs, one o f these was f o r a K w a k i u t l dancer.  A l l t h r e e o f M c l l w r a i t h Hamatsa songs  were composed d u r i n g the 1923-24 K u s i y u t season 309).  (1948 11:308-  U n f o r t u n a t e l y these were o f such poor q u a l i t y on M c l l -  w r a i t h ' s r e c o r d i n g s t h a t t r a n s c r i p t i o n was p r e c l u d e d . Though Hamatsa songs do not show any p a t t e r n i n g i n terms o f modal s t r u c t u r e , t h e y do share common f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Each Hamatsa song c o n t r a s t themes w i t h motives, a l b e i t i n d i f f e r i n g ways. songs.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t they a r e most l i k e the Animal  T h i s m u s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y between Hamatsa and Animal  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r t u i t o u s .  songs  The h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g Animal  songs was t h a t I'ahimal motives" symbolized b i r d and f i s h movements. ^ 1  had  The s u g g e s t i o n here i s t h a t s i n c e each Hamatsa dancer  an animal's c a n n i b a l i s t i c incubus (an e a g l e , a w o l f , a bear's  101 and so on), perhaps Hamatsa m o t i v e s .  s i m i l a r animal i m i t a t i o n s account f o r the  The motives may  dancer's movements. Northwest  a l s o accent c e r t a i n o f the  I t i s hoped t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f o t h e r  Coast I n d i a n musics w i l l be a b l e to p r o v i d e more d a t a  on t h i s t o p i c .  B e i n g non-"composers", t h e B e l l a C o o l a s i n g e r s  were a b l e t o s u p p l y l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n about m u s i c a l  symbolism.  Each Hamatsa song j u x t a p o s e s themes and motives rently.  M o t i v e s i n t e r r u p t the theme i n Hm1,  theme i n Hm3,  Hm1  and they b e g i n and end song  diffe-  they f o l l o w the  Hm2.  - C h a r l i e Snow's song's thematic m a t e r i a l o c c u r s i n measures  1, 4, 8, and 9.  As example 33 i n d i c a t e s i t i s i n t e r r u p t e d  Hamatsa motives i n measures 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. share both thematic and m o t i v i c a t t r i b u t e s . rhythm minor  by  Measures 8 and 9 They employ the  o f the motives but echo the theme's opening descending second. The theme o f Hm1  d i f f e r s from i t s motives by b e i n g  l e n g t h i e r , f e a t u r i n g p r i m a r i l y descending motion, i t s use o f minor one p i t c h semitones.  seconds.  and  through  In c o n t r a s t the motives employ o n l y  (and are t h e r e f o r e l e v e l i n c o n t o u r ) and they l a c k The Eb and G# i n Hml's theme are not important  s t r u c t u r a l l y except as embellishments f o r the p i t c h e s E and The p i t c h D a c t s as an a u x i l i a r y tone f o r the more important p i t c h C. therefore  The (2)  song's modal s t r u c t u r e i n c i p h e r n o t a t i o n i s 1  6  (5)  GO*  A.  102  EXAMPLE ^ —  33  Theme - Hm1 t  f  -  motive h (  \>(  f  ~  ~  ^  —  -  r  t  •  \  X  n  ••  V  7 —<  ^ .  2  Up - ^ f  motive .  \ *  ^  theme c o n t . \ S  \ S  1  «XA  s —  ,  v  4  S —  t r a n s i t i o n a l motive  .  v  <>  •  +.  — ~  —  "  \ "  a\y T  ^  ^-4^"  +.  1 y  motive  i *  LU —  u  :  103 Hm2  - T h i 3 song b e g i n s and ends w i t h a m o t i v i c a r e a t h a t i s  made i d e n t i f i a b l e by i t s use o f the rhythmic motive (see example 34).  I t i s connected  $S  i .  to the thematic a r e a by means  o f a t r a n s i t i o n a l passage i n measure 4.  The  song's thematic  c o n s i s t s o f a two-measure theme which i s r e p e a t e d  area  literally  (see example 35). As d i d Hm1, In Hm2  Hm2  i n i t s melody.  however, these o c c u r i n the m o t i v i c a r e a and not i n the  theme.  U n l i k e i t s r o l e i n Hm1,  s t r u c t u r a l importance While  f e a t u r e s minor seconds  the p i t c h Eb i n Hm2  assumes  through i t s c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the E n a t u r a l .  the E n a t u r a l i s the o n l y E i n the thematic a r e a , the Eb  dominates the m o t i v i c a r e a .  Throughout the e n t i r e song the E.  o c c u p i e s 16 q u a r t e r s w h i l e the E n a t u r a l i s p r o l o n g e d f o r 13 quarters.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s d i a l e c t i c between the E n a t u r a l  and the Eb, the song c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d from two view modally. is have  3  ((b) (6)  points of  With Eb ;as Do the m o t i v i c a r e a ' s modal s t r u c t u r e 2)  [TJ  £|]  6.  3  1.  U s i n g C as Do i n t h e thematic a r e a  we  Because o f the more dominant r o l e p l a y e d  by the A as compared t o the F i n t h i s song I d e c i d e d t o employ the  Hm3  (6)  G[]  3  1  interpretation.  - T h e ' G r i z z l y Bear Dance's motives  theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n . has a two-part varied.  are e x t e n s i o n s o f i t s  As example 36 i n d i c a t e s , Hm3's theme  theme, ( a and b ) , the second p a r t o f which i s  B o t h r t h e theme and the v a r i a t i o r i l s ( b 1 ) modal s t r u c t u r e s  c e n t e r around  the home tone Re o r [2J.  The  theme by means o f  104  Theme -Hm3 \ (a)  111 (c)  EXAMPLE  34  EXAMPLE  36  ^  (b) y  I  closing—-pattern^  ., closing pattern  Vis I f  *  WW  1  7 (b)l  motives r ^  o  >  variation  e>  -7T  &-  105 the  pattern  3_» [2]  6 and t h e v a r i a t i o n by means o f  3*.  Although t h i s song does n o t u t i l i z e minor seconds as d i d Hm1 and Hm2, i t does share a common rhythmic f e a t u r e w i t h Hm2, the 36). the  rhythmic motive The most u n i f y i n g  a.  (see measures  1 and 2 i n example  f e a t u r e o f t h e s e songs however l i e s i n  f a c t t h a t t h e y a l l c o n t r a s t themes w i t h s h o r t rhythmic  motives.  The use o f minor seconds i n t h e s e songs as m e l o d i c  i n t e r v a l s i s a l s o noteworthy.  No o t h e r song type.employs  minor  seconds i n such c o n s p i c u o u s r o l e s as do the Hamatsa songs Hm1 and Hm2.  Hamatsa w h i s t l e s must a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  c r e a t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t i v e Hamatsa song s t y l e . It w i l l out  be r e c a l l e d t h a t the Hamatsa dance was not c a r r i e d  w i t h the same r i g o u r i n B e l l a C o o l a as i t was among t h e  B e l l a B e l l a , P o r t Rupert, and R i v e r s I n l e t p e o p l e , from whom the dance was o r i g i n a l l y borrowed.  T h i s e x p l a i n s why, even d u r i n g  M c l l w r a i t h ' s f i e l d work, few B e l l a C o o l a Hamatsa songs a r e found. With Hm1 s melody 1  an acknowledged  borrowing from R i v e r s  Inlet  we seem t o be l e f t w i t h o n l y two " a u t h e n t i c " B e l l a C o o l a Hamatsa songs.  I suspect however t h a t t h e B e l l a C o o l a Hamatsa song s t y l e  i s b a s i c a l l y a B e l l a B e l l a song s t y l e .  A study o f B e l l a  Bella  Hamatsa songs i s needed t h e r e f o r e b e f o r e we can p r o v i d e a comp l e t e account o f the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t h i s song type.  106 G.  Entrance  Songs  E1  Rivers Inlet  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  E2  B e l l a Coola  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  E n t r a n c e songs were communally r a t h e r than owned.  They were sung w h i l e t h e dancers e n t e r e d the dance h a l l  i n carioe-like formation. E2 was to E1.  privately  F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me  that  used when the s i n g e r s ( t e m p o r a r i l y ) f o r g o t the melody I t was  perhaps  the norm then to u t i l i z e the B e l l a  melody (E1) most f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g e n t r a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . a l l important B e l l a C o o l a ceremonies by B e l l a B e l l a c h i e f s , and  song  were i n v a r i a b l y  t h i s song (E1) was  show r e s p e c t f o r these p r e s t i g i o u s  likely  Bella Since  witnessed  sung to welcome  visitors.  E1 - T h i s song's f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t i n the Shaman song S2.  I t has a two-part  theme, the second p a r t  o f which (b) i s r e p e a t e d w i t h s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n c l o s i n g p a t t e r n (c) (see example 37).  found  (b1), and  a  As i n S2 t h i s r e p e a t e d  second p a r t (b)1, which I have termed a " d e c a p i t a t e d " v e r s i o n o f the theme, echoes the l a s t h a l f o f the theme. The 6  song i s based  f i r m l y on the La mode.  i s e s t a b l i s h e d . b y means o f the descending t r i a d  ascending fourth  3  \s\ . 3  3  1  00  D p l a y s an important r o l e as a  •  p a s s i n g tone between  The home tone  •  and  1 (m.1  •  - 3  •  (2)  •  1) and a c t s as  and  108 an upper n e i g h b o u r i n g tone f o r 1 (see mm.2-3 i n example 3 7 ) .  E2 - T h i s song may be a n o t h e r h y b r i d t y p e .  Its first  (mm.1-3) i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f E1's melody. in  example 38 the resemblance  3 i s particularly  striking.  however, t h i s  As i n d i c a t e d  between both songs* measures 2 and Only t h r e e measures o f t h i s  v a r i a n t o f E1 a r e sung b e f o r e (accompanied theme e n t e r s i n measure 4.  section  possible  by a r i t a r d ) a new  On M i l d r e d V a l l e y Thornton's t a p e s  song i s sung w i t h o u t these opening t h r e e measures.  T h e r e f o r e u n l e s s t h e s e measures c o n s t i t u t e a " f a l s e s t a r t " we must c o n s i d e r E2 a h y b r i d song, t h a t i s , as two songs sung as i f one. The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i r s t "songs" i n E2 l i e s the  first  i n t h e i r d i f f e r i n g tempos as 3 = ca.71 i n  p a r t changes  t o 3=ca.  d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are s l i g h t e r . based on L a as a home tone.  131 i n t h e second.  the descending progression  The modal  Both s e c t i o n s use f o u r - n o t e s c a l e s The two "songs" approach L a by means •  of  and second  3  •  (2)  •  I  1  [ 6 ] . The second?  p o r t i o n , w h i l e p r e d o m i n a n t l y concerned w i t h t h e d e s c e n d i n g 5 t h 3  [T],  does expand  t h e range o f t h e f i r s t  i n c l u d i n g the movement  p o r t i o n o f E2 by  [£] 3 (m.9).  The theme o f E2, begun i n measure 4, i s a two-part structure. varied 39).  As i n E1, the second h a l f o f t h i s theme (b) i s  (b1) and f o l l o w e d by a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n ( c ) (see example The song c l o s e s on a n o t h e r v a r i a n t o f the theme. Though we have examined o n l y two E n t r a n c e songs  this  109 EXAMPLE  39  Theme - E2 (b)  (a)  - n i M  v—  M  (b)1  (,"( \  i' T " r  ^  >> •  ^  •  /  i n n  :  r  (c) c l o s i n g  pattern  x:  110 sample l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t s the major p o r t i o n o f t h e r e c e n t  Entrance  Song r e p e r t o i r e , s i n c e o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f such songs were needed. 3  (2)  38). tones.  The 1  two  songs employ the same modal c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ,  , and  share common m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s (see example  They both l a s t  1'15"  and have i d e n t i c a l ranges  o f 12  semi-  Since E1 i s a R i v e r s I n l e t melody i t i s p o s s i b l e - t h a t  t h i s song t y p e ' s s t y l e was speaking p e o p l e s .  As was  l a r g e l y borrowed from the  Kwakiutl-  the case w i t h the Hamatsa songs, the  t e s t i n g o f such a h y p o t h e s i s i s a t p r e s e n t p r o h i b i t e d by a l a c k of c o n t r a s t i n g data.  111 H.  K u s i y u t Dance Songs  D1  Echo Song (Schooner F a m i l y )  (Group 1/A.K.)  D2  Milha (Mrs. Reuben  (Group 1/A.K.)  D3  Schooner)  Mystery Dance  (Group 1/A.K.)  ( C a p t a i n Bob)  D4  Bella Bella  (Group 2/M.V.T.  D5  Fred T a l l i o  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D6  Mask Dance  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D7  •• Clown's Dance  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D8  Mystery Dance  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D9  Fungus Dance  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D10  D o c t o r i n g t h e Dance  (Group 2/B.O.T.  D11  (Mrs. Dick Snow) R i c h a r d Edgar  (Group 2/B.O.T.  112 D12  A l b e r t Hood  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  D13  Jim P o l l a r d  (J.P./T.F.M. 72-1029 V I I D4(9))  Boys Dance Songs  (L.H./T.F.M., 72-1030 V I I D9(b))  D1 5  C h i l d ' s Dance Song  (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1030 V I I D9(d))  D16  Steve S i w a l l a c e  (J.P./T.F.M., 72-1030 V I I D14(9))  D17  Thunderbird  (Group 1/A.K.)  D18  Cedar Bark  (Group 2/M.V.T.)  T  n  e  K u s i y u t Dance songs a r e t h e b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d  type i n t h i s study.  song  Four o f t h e s e , D1, D2, D3 and D17, remain  a c t i v e i n t h e contemporary  repertoire.  Except f o r t h e two Mystery Dance songs, every song was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t dance.  I t i s possible  therefore  t h a t the songs a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each dance formed s u b - s t y l e s o f t h e i r own w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r K u s i y u t Dance song r e p e r t o i r e .  The  two Mystery Dances i n t h i s study show no such p a t t e r n i n g however. K u s i y u t Dance songs a r e l o n g e r i n d u r a t i o n than any song type examined  thus f a r .  T h e i r average d u r a t i o n i s two minutes.  There a r e f o u r n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s d u r a t i o n a l norm,  113 D14 - 41", DI5 - 22", D4 -  59" and D10 - 31".  These f o u r songs,  the Boys Dance Song (D14), the C h i l d ' s Dance Song (D15), the B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song (D4) and the D o c t o r i n g the Dance Song (D10) may be grouped t o g e t h e r f o r a n a l y s i s because o f t h e i r m u s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l s i n g u l a r i t i e s . stream" K u s i y u t songs. as pedagogic songs.  These a r e not "main-  D14 and D15 were most l i k e l y employed  The B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song (D4) i s a l s o  known as the F a r e w e l l Song - i t was used t o say goodbye t o visiting Bella Bella dignitaries.  The D o c t o r i n g the Dance Song  (D10) was, a c c o r d i n g to F e l i c i t y Walkus, used to encourage the dancer to dance. D14 and D15 both use a theme and v a r i a t i o n s form. D4 has a 3 measure theme t h a t i s v a r i e d once o n l y w h i l e v a r i e s i t s 2rmeasure:theme two t i m e s . theme t h a t i s r e p e a t e d f i v e t i m e s , ||: 1  D4  D15  Song D14 has a 1 measure jjj] : l|  .  It i s  f o l l o w e d by 2 t r a n s i t i o n a l measures based on the theme's p i t c h e s and c o n t o u r .  Two measures o f rhythmic m o t i v e s (  s i m i l a r t o the animal song motives, and a 1 measure p a t t e r n ( 1 [§] 5  closing  ) t e r m i n a t e the song.  D10 i s one o f the most l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d songs i n t h e repertoire.  R h y t h m i c a l l y i t i s throughcomposed.  The song modal  s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f two statements o f the descending t r i a d  0  5  1 .  D13 may a l s o b e l o n g to t h i s group o f m a r g i n a l K u s i y u t Dance songs. song was s t i l l transcribed.  Since the tape o f t h i s song d e t e r i o r a t e d w h i l e the i n p r o g r e s s , o n l y a fragment o f i t c o u l d be L i k e D4, D14, and D15, t h i s Dance song p a r t a k e s  114 i n a more simple type o f K u s i y u t t h r e e p i t c h e s , the almost e n t i r e l y  song s t y l e .  descending p a t t e r n  These f i v e m a r g i n a l K u s i y u t t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e s i n the o f the two  of Kusiyut  Tj  As example 40  5 3 1 and  EXAMPLE  1  (6)  D10  D13  D14  D15  and  D13,  0 5  ;  5  1  6  ;  D13's  D15.  D14,  and  3  D15)  They are a l s o set  (2)  1  [6j o r  and  apart  that 3  the n o n - t r i a d i c p a t t e r n 5  5.  (2)  J.  i s based  they (2)  shows they are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r  o f the t r i a d i c p a t t e r n  D4  and  Dance songs by the f a c t  based on the modal p a t t e r n  16  [7],  Dance songs i n c l u d e a l l the  song type (D10,  are not  and  D14,  f i v e - t o n e s c a l e s (D4).  from the m a j o r i t y  6.  2  on the rhythmic motive ) ) !•  t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e groups i t w i t h D10,  one  5  I t u t i l i z e s only  40  3  0 2  1  0  0 5  3  0  use 2"1  115 Example 44 i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e main body o f K u s i y u t Dance songs a r e m o d a l l y u n i f i e d  ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f D8)  through t h e i r use o f the f o u r - t o n e p a t t e r n  •  •  •  3  2  1  EXAMPLE 41  GO  D1  3  (2)  D2  3  (2)  D3  3  (2)  D5  3  (2)  1  16  D6  3  (2)  Q  6  (1)  6  3  (2)  1  (6)  5  O  1  (6)  (2)  i  (2)  1  13  (2)  [j]  '6  D7  1  •  6  D8  D9  D11  3  3  D12  D16  3  a 3  0 0  6:  116 D17  (3)  (2)  1  6  D18  3  (2)  1  |6  g]  Though every one o f t h e f o u r p o s s i b l e home tones i n this  3 2 16  p a t t e r n a r e u t i l i z e d , L a and Do a r e most f a v o r e d .  L e v e l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s a r e most common, a c c o u n t i n g f o r 78% o f the t o t a l K u s i y u t Dance m a t e r i a l . There a r e t h r e e f o r m a l types found i n t h e main body o f K u s i y u t Dance, t h a t i s , i n a l l K u s i y u t songs except those a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d - D4, D10, D13, D14, and D15. The f i r s t  form type i s t h e theme and v a r i a t i o n s  found i n songs D5, D7, D12 and D18. v a r i a t i o n procedures. three-measure adjustment  Except f o r t h e s l i g h t  EXAMPLE 42  Theme:  Variant:  theme and a rhythmic  noted i n example 42, the theme and i t s v a r i a n t a r e  isorhythmic:  D12  D12 f e a t u r e s t h e most b a s i c  D12 has a three-measure  variation.  form  117 T h i s song's accompaniment i s i n 7/8  time  o n l y the l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f the t h i r d measure's m e l o d i c rhythm i s not s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h i s drum accompaniment.  The modal d i s -  c o n t i n u i t i e s between the theme and the v a r i a n t are  stresses  slight.  [6j more so than d i d the theme. The  second form type f e a t u r e s more complex t y p e s o f  v a r i a t i o n procedures.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t songs S2,  E1,  and E2 were found to have 2 p a r t themes, the second p a r t o f which were s l i g h t l y v a r i e d - thus y i e l d i n g the f o r m a l p a t t e r n (a) (b) (b)1 and  (c) w i t h (c) s i g n i f y i n g a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n (see  examples 30, 37 and 39).  The K u s i y u t Dance songs do not  s l i g h t l y v a r y the second p a r t s o f t h e i r themes. these second s e c t i o n s  (D5) i l l u s t r a t e s one o f these  The 2-part theme o f D5 o c c u p i e s the  f o u r measures o f the song  (see example 43).  s e c t i o n (a) c o n s i s t s o f c o n j u n c t motion the descending major second to  3  e m b e l l i s h o r ornament the E.  i n t r o d u c e s two new  They develop  substantially.  F r e d T a l l i o ' s Dance song v a r i a t i o n techniques.  merely  2. The  The  theme's  first  first  o n l y and s i m p l y p r e s e n t s  The p i t c h F here s e r v e s o n l y second p o r t i o n o f the theme  p i t c h e s i n t o the song's modal s t r u c t u r e , C  and A o r 1 and 6 are added.  Do r a t h e r than Re i s the t e r m i n a l  note o f t h i s second p a r t o f the theme, the t o t a l modal c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f which may  be p o r t r a y e d as  3  (2)  shown i n example 43, these two p a r t s o f D5's  (6).  As  theme are based  on  118  119 c l o s e l y r e l a t e d m e l o d i c rhythm p a t t e r n s . Measures 5 through 8 o f D5 c o n s t i t u t e a v a r i a t i o n o r expanded v e r s i o n o f the second p a r t o f i t s theme.  This variant  f e a t u r e s the same m e l o d i c c o n t o u r found i n the theme's second p a r t : the p a t t e r n  •  •  •  •  •  3  2  1 6  2  1.  The main d i f f e r e n c e  however i s t h a t the v a r i a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y p r o l o n g s the p i t c h e s 6 and 2 (see example 44). T h i s f i r s t v a r i a n t i s f o l l o w e d by a second (mm.9-11) which f e a t u r e s o n l y the d e s c e n d i n g p o r t i o n o f . . . . . . . . the 3 2 1 6 2 1 p a t t e r n , the p r o g r e s s i o n 3. 2 1 Having dominated  o n l y the middle  s e c t i o n o f the f i r s t  variant,  the p i t c h A c l e a r l y becomes the c e n t e r o f melodic g r a v i t y i n the second  (see example 45).  immediately  The opening theme r e a p p e a r s  f o l l o w i n g t h i s second  variation.  S i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , i n which s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n s ( u s u a l l y the f i n a l h a l v e s ) o f a theme's modal and m a t e r i a l are developed and expanded may D7,  D8,  D11,  be f u l l y  D16,  D17  and D18,  D17,  rhythmic  be found i n D2,  D3,  the T h u n d e r b i r d song,  d i s c u s s e d when i t I s compared t o a mourning song  D6, will  later  i n the a n a l y s i s . The t h i r d form type, found i n two D1  and D9),  material. to  songs,  i n v o l v e s the c o n t r a s t o f thematic and m o t i v i c It will  be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s was  c h a r a c t e r i z e most o f the Animal D9's  of  K u s i y u t Dance  the form'type  found  songs.  theme i s a 2-part s t r u c t u r e which,  l i k e the songs  the second form type d i s c u s s e d above, expands i t s second  through m e l o d i c rhythmic and modal v a r i a t i o n .  As example 46  half  120 EXAMPLE  j  D5 - 1 s t v a r i a t i o n  ^  47 ^ 7 M / —C  44  2  1 6  -  2  1  Y  f  *  T  H  V.  r>  '  5  i>M >. *  ^ — ^ — — 4 _ 4 — * — ^  • V  v  f  PU HFH= 7  f  '  f  f  1  " EXAMPLE  45  y , r ^ T , 7 \ A ,r\ M M w  \ \ \\  \ \  )  A  \  \  n\\  \  %  \ \=~ ~ ^ — — T _L  Ld  i -  '  121  indicates, tremolo  t h e thematic a r e a ( ( a ) (b) (b)1) i s accompanied by-  throughout.  new rhythmic  The m o t i v i c a r e a i n t r o d u c e s a c o m p l e t e l y  c h a r a c t e r t o t h e song through  q u a r t e r - n o t e p a t t e r n |i: k  i t s useeof t h e  k k k 2:||(see example 46). I t s  narrow range and c o n j u n c t motion a l s o a c t as an e f f e c t i v e to the c o n t e n t s o f the thematic  foil  area.  As i s the case w i t h most o f these songs however, we can only a t t a i n a p a r t i a l understanding  o f t h i s Fungus Dance song,  when we examine a m u s i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n  alone.  l i k e l y t h a t t h i s m o t i v i c a r e a corresponded Fungus Dance i t s e l f . reflect  I t i s very  t o a change i n t h e  That m u s i c a l c o n t r a s t s o f t h i s o r d e r  and a r e i n f a c t s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h changes i n t h e f u n c -  t i o n a l c o n t e x t s o f these songs may be demonstrated by r e f e r e n c e to the Echo song (D1). So t h a t I c o u l d observe  how B e l l a C o o l a music and dance  i n t e r a c t e d , Sandra T a l l i o arranged  f o r me t o see a v i d e o - t a p e o f  a performance h e l d d u r i n g an " o c c u p a t i o n " o f t h e B e l l a  Coola  16  I n d i a n Agent's o f f i c e . significance areas became  I t was d u r i n g t h i s v i e w i n g t h a t the  o f t h e Echo song's c o n t r a s t i n g thematic and m o t i v i c apparent.  D u r i n g t h e m o t i v i c a r e a o f t h i s song (mm.1-16; see example 49) the dancer, wearing  t h e i m p r e s s i v e Echo mask, danced  what may be termed t h e dance p r o p e r . :||  T h i s s e c t i o n i s accompanied  mostly by a  ||: k \\  rhythmic p a t t e r n i n the drum.  the thematic  a r e a e n t e r e d i n measure 17 however, t h i s  ment changed t o a c o n s t a n t t r e m o l o .  When  accompani-  T h i s dramatic rhythmic  shift  122 EXAMPLE  46  D9 Theme Area (a)  s  (b)  +-  4 r e i r \ .  e  •  \  r  r  f  (h)  —=>  -y—•—  Motivic  y  3:  • —^  •  Area  >  >  ^ """>.'  r 7i r r / r ?  T  T  T  T  1  t  t  T  T  1  /  /1  123 EXAMPLE  47  124 as w e l l as the c o n t r a s t s i n range, tempo, and the movement from d i s j u n c t to c o n j u n c t motion between the m o t i v i c and a r e a s , was  thematic  s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h a dramatic change i n the dance.  J u s t as the thematic a r e a e n t e r e d , the dancer t u r n e d h i s back to the audience, c r o u c h e d a n d  proceeded  s i x Echo mouthpieces f o r another. u n t i l the m o t i v i c a r e a was  about  to change one o f the  He remained  i n this  position  t o r e - e n t e r and then s y n c h r o n i z e d  h i s " r e t u r n " w i t h i t s reappearance. l a t e r i n t h i s study, an examination o f the  interaction  between t e x t and melody i n B e l l a C o o l a music w i l l  show how  these  thematic and m o t i v i c a r e a s i n the Echo ;song are f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e d by means o f t e x t u a l o r l i n g u i s t i c  contrasts.  As a whole the K u s i y u t Dance songs are a group.  Songs D4,  non-ceremonial  D10,  songs.  v a r i a t i o n form based  D13,  D14,  and D15  heterogeneous  a r e i n f a c t more l i k e  They a r e b r i e f , they employ a simple l a r g e l y on rhythmic v a r i a t i o n s and f o r  the most p a r t they use o n l y t h r e e - t o n e s c a l e s .  As mentioned  above, these songs h a d , f u n c t i o n s q u i t e u n l i k e the main body o f K u s i y u t Dance songs.  The l a t t e r ,  though modally u n i f i e d • • •  t h e i r e x t e n s i v e use o f the f o u r - n o t e p a t t e r n p l a y e d a wide spectrum One  3  dis-  n o t e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the t o t a l K u s i y u t Dance transcriptions.  the sound o f the K u s i y u t w h i s t l e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n 17  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h performance drone was  16,  of formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  song sound i n former days i s not p r e s e n t i n the T h i s was  2  through  organization.  a l s o r e s t r i c t e d to K u s i y u t songs.  The use o f the I t i s o n l y used  the T h u n d e r b i r d song i n contemporary p r a c t i c e .  Thus w h i l e a  with  125 study o f the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s does not r e v e a l a homogeneous song s t y l e , former performance o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s drones, and so on) l i k e l y p r o v i d e d environment. played  The f a c t  differently  certainly  that Kusiyut  Kusiyut  i n d i c a t e s t h a t some degree o f s o n i c sonic u n i t y within)  desired.  r  sonic  w h i s t l e s were shaped  than t h e i r Hamatsa and Sisawk  between (and c o n c o m i t a n t l y was  a uniquely  (whistles,  and  counterparts  differentiation the s o n g j t y p e s  126 I.  Mourning Songs  M1  Raven's Song  (Group 3/M.S.)  M2  Margaret S i w a l l a c e  (Group 3/M.S.)  M3  Alec Pootlass  (Group 3/M.S.)  M4  Mrs. J . P o l l a r d  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  M4(a)  Mrs. J . P o l l a r d  (J.P./T.F.M. -  M1 (a)  VII D37; 72-1031)  M5  Alex C l e l l a m i n  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  M6  C a p t a i n Schooner  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.)  M7  Ximkila  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.)  M8  Sunxwkila  (Group 1/B.C.I.L.P.)  Mourning songs a r e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from o t h e r B e l l a C o o l a songs because o f two t r a i t s : use o f f r e e rhythm.  t h e i r l e n g t h , and t h e i r  That they a r e t h e l e n g t h i e s t  songs i n t h e  r e p e r t o i r e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e complex t e x t s they had t o convey.  M c l l w r a i t h was s p e a k i n g about song t e x t s Cwhen he  s t a t e d t h a t mourning songs " e x c e l a l l o t h e r B e l l a C o o l a  127  c o m p o s i t i o n s i n l e n g t h , c o m p l e x i t y , and w e a l t h o f (1948 11:293).  detail"  T h e i r use o f f r e e rhythm a r i s e s from the  t h a t these songs were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any dance and of  one p a r t i c u l a r modal s t r u c t u r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h As example 4 8 i l l u s t r a t e s ,  the Mourning songs. songs use i s based  f o u r - t o n e s c a l e s , t h r e e use on a t h r e e - t o n e  (2)  M1  scale.  Ml(a)  5^  M2  (2)  3  (2)  3  (2)  (3)  2  1  (2)  1  (6)  (2)  1  [7]  M6  M7  LU  [I]  3  M3  and 4(a)  1  .3  T  3  (6)  [?  0 0  five  o f these  f i v e - t o n e s c a l e s and  EXAMPLE 4 8  M5  because  the e m o t i o n a l c o n t e x t " w i t h i n which they were sung. No  M4  fact  tl  3  one  128  M8  (2)  1  (6)  5  0  La and S o l a r e the most f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d home tones, both a c t i n g as t h e melodic Do  c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y i n t h r e e songs.  i s the home tone i n two songs w h i l e Mi i s used  o n l y once as  a home tone. N o . c l u s t e r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to f o r m a l types i s e v i d e n t . M1 and M1(a) combine t o form t h e o n l y h y b r i d song i n the song type.  M1 simply r e p e a t s a 2-part theme t h r e e times  variation.  without  M1(a) c o n s i s t s o f a 2-part theme, which i s v a r i e d  once, and a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n . M3 f e a t u r e s o n l y a theme and i t s c l o s i n g p a t t e r n . example 49 shows, t h i s theme i s b u i l t  from two rhythmic  As  motives  (a and b) which a r e s l i g h t l y v a r i e d from measure to measure. Further m o t i v i c v a r i a t i o n occurs i n the remaining  strophes o f  M3. M4 and M4(a)' s-ttheme i s preceded based  on the theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n .  by a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n  The l a t t e r i s developed,  r e s u l t i n g i n what l u s h a l l terra a thematic e x t e n s i o n . songs (M4 and M4(a)) w i l l be compared l a t e r i n t h i s M5 c o n t r a s t s : i t s theme w i t h motives.  These  These two study.  motives  however a r e e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n .  As  shown i n example 50 both the theme and i t s v a r i a t i o n c l o s e on the descending  fourth  1  [|] » t h i s f o u r t h i s g i v e n s e p a r a t e  a r t i c u l a t i o n i n c l o s i n g p a t t e r n s ((b) and ( b ) l ) f o l l o w i n g t h e theme and i t s v a r i a n t .  T h i s thematic  "area" i s l i n k e d to the  129 EXAMPLE  v  Theme - M3  /  \  \  ?  I >  ^  closing  L  ^  ,<  ( a )  >  —v/  49  n ^  4  —  \  I 4  4  I I  ^ l>  I  .[  U  -  ' 4 = 4 L 4 > ^ 4 = ,  i  pattern \  *  ,M  b)  ^ 1  130 motives by means o f the t r a n s i t i o n a l motive example 50).  These motives  0  1 ((c) i n  ( ( d ) i n example 50), v a r i a n t s o f  the theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n , are f o l l o w e d by the two measures t h a t i n t r o d u c e d them.  In t h i s way  they are f o r m a l l y s e t o f f  from the thematic a r e a . Songs M6, M8's  M7,  and M8  employ a theme and v a r i a t i o n s  format.  v a r i a n t s are based on the m e l o d i c rhythm o f i t s theme's  second p a r t - a procedure d e s c r i b e d d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s o f the p r e c e d i n g song t y p e s . I t i s l a r g e l y through m e l o d i c rhythm and c o n t o u r l a r i t y t h a t f o u r o f these mourning songs may M1(a), M2,  rhythms.  Example 51 shows the v a r i a n t s o f one  present.  and M8  be s a i d to be  related.  song rhythmic motive.  M7  simi-  show t y p i c a l mourning song m e l o d i c t y p i c a l mourning  Considerable contour s i m i l a r i t y i s also  A second common phrase i s absent o n l y i n M1(a).  Example 52 i l l u s t r a t e s these  similarities.  M c l l w r a i t h adds support to the h y p o t h e s i s advanced Chapter Two  in  o f t h i s study t h a t such s i m i l a r i t i e s between m e l o d i e s  r e s u l t e d from the use o f exemplary  models i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l  process:  The tunes o f mourning songs are u s u a l l y remembered from y e a r t o y e a r , and the s i n g e r s may merely a l t e r words t o make an o l d song a p p l i c a b l e . In some c a s e s , such c o m p o s i t i o n s are changed so s l i g h t l y t h a t they become v i r t u a l l y p o s s e s s i o n s o f an a n c e s t r a l f a m i l y , and may then be p r e s e r v e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s u n t i l soon the h i s t o r y o f the names i s f o r g o t t e n . ( 1 9 4 8 1:466)  131 EXAMPLE  51  M1 (a)  m.2  M2 m. 1  2  \  \  M7 m.S  M8 m. 1  l< f  \  V -  •• / / f ' •  ^  p  f  f  \  \  \  \ ~ \  -  g  — Y ~  EXAMPLE )  I  M7  M8  52  r  M2  ~A—r^—-f—\  o  (~  f  \ V \  p  v-^—  m  S i n c e such " p o s s e s s i o n s o f an a n c e s t r a l f a m i l y " were l i k e l y passed through a number o f f a m i l i e s through time, i t may  be t h a t more than one f a m i l y c o u l d l a y c l a i m to such  archetypal musical patterns.  Perhaps  c h i e f ' s mourning songs  alone had t h e s e a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s i n former  days.  Adding f u r t h e r c o m p l e x i t y to t h i s problem  i s the f a c t  t h a t m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s a l s o c r o s s e d song s t y l e Such was  boundaries.  the case when Jack K i n g George, Margaret S i w a l l a c e ' s  g r a n d f a t h e r , d i e d i n 1948. a mourning song.  The  s i n g e r s were asked to compose  In d o i n g so they employed one o f George's  m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s , the T h u n d e r b i r d Song (D17), as a model. By comparing  these songs (see example 53), we a r e g i v e n a r a r e  o p p o r t u n i t y to observe something s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s " i n music.  o f the B e l l a C o o l a "compo-  As example 53 shows, M2  regarded as a s p e c i a l v a r i a n t o f D17 sition".  M2 1. 2.  than as a "new  i s better compo-  a l t e r s i t s p r o t o t y p e i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: I t i g n o r e s the r e s t s tin D17 a more f l o w i n g melody.  thereby c r e a t i n g  I t employs more h a l f and whole notes than does D17. A m e d i t a t i v e q u a l i t y emerges i n M2's measure f i v e because o f i t s f i n a l •whole note.  3.  M2 uses a p a r l a n d o - r u b a t o e f f e c t not found i n  4.  M2 r e p l a c e s the descending f o u r t h s i n D17 w i t h minor t h i r d s .  5.  M2 i s r e s t r i c t e d to a range o f 7 semitones o r a f i f t h w h i l e D17 had a 12 semitone o r octave range.  134 6.  Accompanied by a s m a l l s t i c k t a p p i n g out a s o f t t r e m o l o , M2's accompaniment i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the f o r c e f u l drum tremolo used i n t h e T h u n d e r b i r d Dance.  The q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y  arises  as to why  a  single  K u s i y u t Dance song s h o u l d share t r a i t s found i n f o u r mourning songs.  S i n c e Jack K i n g George's mourning song (M2) was m o d e l l e d  a f t e r D17, songs.  t h e s e t r a i t s are o b v i o u s l y not r e s t r i c t e d to mourning  No o t h e r K u s i y u t Dance songs examined here f e a t u r e t h e s e  t r a i t s however.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^  found i n M l ( a ) , M2, the  M7,  M8,  and D17, were m u s i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e s ,  use o f which was r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n  presence i n the Mourning songs c e r t a i n l y a unifying  element.  With D17  famililies.  Their  gives h a l f of t h i s  sample  a p a r t o f t h i s group, i t i s d o u b t f u l  t h a t these c o u l d be termed mourning song s t y l e Because o f t h e i r l e n g t h and use o f f r e e  characteristics.  rhythm however, mourning  songs do form a d i s t i n c t i v e and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e song t y p e . It i s precisely  these a s p e c t s o f performance o r g a n i z a t i o n  serve to s e t o f f t h e t r a i t s found i n M l ( a ) , M2, the  T h u n d e r b i r d Song (D17).  characteristics  and M8  from  Though the l a t t e r shares common  w i t h the 4 Mourning songs, t h e s e t r a i t s have a  d i f f e r e n t meaning  i n the Mourning songs than they do i n the  K u s i y u t Dance c o n t e x t . bird  M7,  that  The p r e s e n c e o f the drone i n the Thunder-  song was perhaps the most o b v i o u s s i g n t h a t D17 was not a  mourning  song.  135 J.  H1  Headdress Songs  Sam P o o t l a s s  (Group 1/A.K*)  H2  Andy Schooner  (Group 1/A.K.)  H3  Tallio  Hans  (Group 1/A.K.)  H4  Agnes Edgar  (Group 1/A.K.)  H5  F e l i c i t y Walkus  (Group 1/A.K.)  H6  Charlie  (Group 1/A.K.)  H7  -  ;  Snow  George Nelson  (Group 1/A.K.)  H8  Simon Johnson  (Group 1/A.K.)  H9  Mrs. W i l l y  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  H10  Dick Snow  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  H11  North Vancouver  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  H12  Bella Bella  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  H13  Winass  (Group 2/B.O.T.)  Tallio  136 Formerly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dances o f t h e Sisawk s o c i e t y , the s o c i e t y o f c h i e f s , Headdress songs were t h e most h i g h l y t r e a s u r e d o f B e l l a C o o l a song t y p e s .  More t h a n any o t h e r  song type, the Headdress songs dominated t h e r e c o r d i n g s I was a b l e to make i n August o f 1975.  E i g h t such songs were r e c o r d e d .  The r e m a i n i n g f i v e were t a k e n from B e l l a C o o l a Band O f f i c e  tapes.  As was the case w i t h t h e K u s i y u t Dance w h i s t l e s , t h e presence o f a w h i s t l e shaped and p l a y e d i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y Sisawk manner must have c o n t r i b u t e d t o c r e a t i n g a unique Sisawk s o n i c environment.  I n o r d e r t o determine whether a d i s t i n c t i v e  Headdress song s t y l e e x i s t e d however, we must a g a i n l i m i t ourselves to the contents o f the a v a i l a b l e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s .  Though  r e c o r d e d out o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t , these songs may o f f e r a c l u e as to what, i f any, were t h e s a l i e n t  characteri-  s t i c s o f a Headdress song s t y l e . Headdress songs a r e t h e f a s t e s t and l e n g t h i e s t dance songs.  (average d u r a t i o n =  (average tempo -)=ca.113)  c a . 2'30"  ) B e l l a Coola  I n terms o f m e l o d i c c o n t o u r they a r e v i r t u a l l y  i d e n t i c a l t o the K u s i y u t dance songs.  Both f e a t u r e  primarily  l e v e l c o n t o u r s (app. 18% l e v e l ) . Headdress songs a r e most u n i f i e d , and t h e r e f o r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from o t h e r song t y p e s , through t h e i r similarities. on t h e modal  easily  modal  E l e v e n o f t h e t h i r t e e n Headdress songs a r e based cell  1  6  3.  As example  o f these use L a as a home tone.  54 i l l u s t r a t e s ,  eight  137 EXAMPLE 54  H1  (6)  H2  C:  l5l  3  5  11  G:  3  H4  (2)  H5  (2)  H6C  (2)  H7  (2)  H8  ( 2 )  H9  (5)  3  (2)  H11  3  (2)  H12  3  (2)  H13  LU  (2)  (7)  1  (7) 3  (5)  3  (5)  3  (6)  LU  (2)  H10  1  LU  (2)  H3  (2)  LU  0 (7)|6  (5)  138 Since H13 a l s o uses L a as a home tone, n i n e o f t h e t h i r t e e n Headdress songs a r e c e n t e r e d on t h e L a mode. the K u s i y u t Dance songs a l s o f a v o r e d 1  [6] modal  3  (2) Q  6  Though and  3  (2)  s t r u c t u r e s , t h e y d i d not c e n t e r on L a as o f t e n as  the Headdress songs. Four-tone s c a l e s a r e t h e most predominant, a c c o u n t i n g f o r s i x o f t h e t h i r t e e n Headdress m e l o d i e s .  Five-rtone  scales  are found i n f i v e o f the songs w h i l e s i x and t h r e e - t o n e  scales  account f o r one song each. These Headdress songs encompass t h r e e t y p e s o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . H.11, a North Vancouver Headdress song, stands q u i t e o u t s i d e o f t h e main body o f B e l l a C o o l a Headdress songs. T h i s song was borrowed from Squamish I n d i a n s who worked cannery a t K i m s q u i t d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1917 t o 1918. example  As shown i n  55, i t c o n s i s t s o f a theme and one v a r i a t i o n .  narrow range (7 semitones), i t s b r e v i t y tempo ( 3 =ca.  184  ina  Its  (39"), and i t s f a s t  )» a r e a l l t r a i t s connected more w i t h non-  c e r e m o n i a l B e l l a C o o l a songs. Seven o f t h e Headdress songs have t h e form type I have termed 2-part themes w i t h v a r i a t i o n and development o f t h e theme's-second p a r t .  H1, H2, H7, H9, H10, H12, and H13 u t i l i z e  t h i s type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As w e l l as b e i n g a good example o f  t h i s f o r m a l t y p e , H1 has one o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s i n the e n t i r e Looking f i r s t  modal  repertoire.  a t t h e m e l o d i c rhythm o f t h i s song, n o t i c e  how t h e second h a l f o f t h e theme (b) i n example  56 i s f o l l o w e d  139  EXAMPLE  55  140  by a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n i  phrase:  ) j  ) 1 .  (c) t h a t echoes the c l o s e o f the S e c t i o n (b)1  1 8  v a r i a n t o f ( b ) ' s m e l o d i c rhythm. more d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to ( c ) . in  (c) to  i .  \. y  employs a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  The  closing pattern  I t changes the $ \. (C)1  ; l a t e r v e r s i o n s o f the  H1 i s the o n l y s i x - t o n e Headdress song. theme and and  C.  i t s c l o s i n g p a t t e r n use  melodic c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y d u r i n g these f i r s t  t r a y e d as  figure  pattern  use  two-part  G. E,  (6)  5  3  Q] .  (2)  The  p i t c h , C i s the  t h r e e measures o f  p i t c h B.  (5)  Beginning with  the movement  introduces 3  (2)  Qj  .  2  jTJ.  The  Though every new  strophe  statement o f the  theme i s from t h i s p o i n t i n t r o d u c e d 57),  the p i t c h C c o n t i n u e s  the t r i a d C, E, G,  the  the c l o s i n g p a t t e r n  (a) p o r t i o n o f  by the p i t c h B (see  a r i s e concerning  the  example  the modal s t r u c t u r e  (a) where i s the home tone, on C,  (b) should  section ,  (c).  A number o f q u e s t i o n s  where?  new  to p l a y an important r o l e i n a l l  subsequent s e c t i o n s (b) and  of t h i s p i e c e :  ends w i t h  the  Q,  ( b ) l ' s second h a l f i m i t a t e s t h i s movement by means o f (3)  por-  v a r i a n t o f the theme's (C)1,  2  D,  Thus f a r the song's modal s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be  second h a l f however, s e c t i o n s ( b ) l and  pattern  (c)1 i s  © }  The  f i v e p i t c h e s , A,  Though G i s the most f r e q u e n t l y - s o u n d e d  the p i e c e .  (b)  on B,  or e l s e -  the song be approached from the  standpoint  o r the t r i a d G, B,  (c) i s the  p i t c h B merely a v e r y low  C or a C  D,  flat?  o r both?  of  141 (a)  In a song o f t h i s type I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e home tone  should be d e f i n e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r a t h e r than  qualitatively.  That i s , i n terms o f frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e r a t h e r than i n terms o f melodic g r a v i t y .  So d e f i n e d , t h e p i t c h G|j[] w i l l be  d e s i g n a t e d as the home tone o f t h i s  (b)  By employing  piece.  t h e concept o f a movable Do, i t becomes  p o s s i b l e t o r e g a r d t h i s song as an example o f what I s h a l l modal m o d u l a t i o n .  As example 58 i l l u s t r a t e s ,  term  i t i s o n l y when  we examine t h i s song from the s t a n d p o i n t o f C as Do changing t o G as Do, t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f the melody,, (the p a t t e r n (6)  5  3  (T) ) emerges:  EXAMPLE 58 Measures 1 t o 3 C:  5  (6)  5  3  4 to 5  (2)  |T|  5  [Tj  G: 6  (c)  (2) 5 I  1  6 (7)  pi  (6)  5  3  (2)  |T|  3 i _  S e v e r a l checks o f the t r a n s c r i p t i o n by m y s e l f and by  o t h e r s c o n f i r m s t h a t the p i t c h e s C and B a r e sung as d i s t i n c t p i t c h e s i n t h i s song.  When t h e song drops by a semitone,  as i t  does i n measure 6, the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e m a i n t a i n e d . Dissimilarly,  i n Andy Schooner's  o c c u r s o n l y once. s h i f t s to the c e l l (see example 59):  Headdress song  In t h i s song the modal c e l l 1  [jf] 3  (H2), 5  Q]  "modulation" 1  inC  i n G by means o f g r a d u a l f l a t t e n i n g :  142 EXAMPLE 59 Measures 1 to 5  C:  5  The  0  10  6 to 9  1  t h i r d and f i n a l f o r m a l type found  songs i n v o l v e s the c o n t r a s t o f thematic H3,  i n t h e Headdress  and m o t i v i c a r e a s .  H4, H5,--H6, and H8 a r e examples of. t h i s form t y p e .  song, i n t h e K u s i y u t Dance corpus, c o n t r a s t thematic  a l s o belongs  Songs  The Echo  t o t h e songs t h a t  and m o t i v i c a r e a s . • I t i s important  ;  t o note i n  t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t , as F e l i c i t y Walkus informed me, the Echo song was used i n both K u s i y u t and. Sisawk c o n t e x t s . Though t h e Animal songs a l s o c o n t r a s t e d themes and motives, songs.  they d i d so on a s m a l l e r s c a l e than do t h e Headdress G e n e r a l l y , thematic  and m o t i v i c s e c t i o n s a r e l o n g e r i n  Headdress songs than they a r e i n the Animal songs. T a l l i o Hans's Headdress aong (H3) b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s t h i r d formal type. the thematic variation.  As example 60 shows,  a r e a o f t h i s song (mm.1-4) i n c l u d e s a theme and a T h i s theme a r e a i s l i n k e d t o t h e m o t i v i c a r e a by  means o f a c l o s i n g p a t t e r n i n measure 4.  The m o t i v i c a r e a  (mm.5-12) b e g i n s w i t h two i n t r o d u c t o r y motives(mm.5-6). m o t i v i c a r e a proper found  (mm.7-12) i s framed by a t r a n s i t i o n a l  i n measures 7 and 12.  The motive  As was the case i n t h e Echo song  these two areas a r e made even more d i s t i n c t by t h e i r  differing  143 60  EXAMPLE  \  H3 - Theme Area  u  r M i l l v  Variation  £  1  s>  ,  ^—i  f  )  _y=5 —>j •  ^  a  ^  2  ^  f=  —  \-  \  \  >  !j  I  ]  -  \ •> |  —  n ^  —  1 \  \ \  \  y j . — • — * • > ) CHL_^— - ~^ Motivic v  —  1  i  H  ^—<  \ i i , , t r  >  ^  ,  - M ,\  -vll i  KZJ-—*—*—| 1. o n l y  v  /'  .i  j  \\  ^  ^ I  —  -  ^  <S>  ^  1—  u  ^  \  , T u ,  £ — ^ — f  1  \  .|  1  —  1  1  144 accompaniments. the thematic (  L  1 and  The steady  " q u a r t e r - n o t e " accompaniment o f  a r e a ( i c - r * . ) i s changed t o an i n t e r m i t t e n t p a t t e r n ^ 1 1  ) i n the motivic area.  Again as was the case i n t h e Echo song t h e c o n t r a s t between thematic dance.  and m o t i v i c areas a l s o i n v o l v e s changes i n t h e  I n F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress song (H5),  f o r example,  the m o t i v i c a r e a (mm.20-25, mm.45-51) i s unaccompanied and d i f f e r e n t i n c h a r a c t e r t h a n i t s thematic  c o u n t e r p a r t because o f  new c h o r e o l o g i c a l movements o c c u r r i n g a t t h i s Though t h i s form type i s found songs i t i s unique t o t h i s song t y p e . and motives i n t h e animal of t h i s type. song t y p e s .  time.  i n o n l y f i v e Headdress The c o n t r a s t o f themes  songs may be c o n s i d e r e d a s i m p l e r form  Animal symbolism might form a l i n k between t h e two More evidence  o f such symbolism w i l l be needed how-  e v e r b e f o r e we can t r a n s c e n d  s p e c u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g such  s h i p s between these two song t y p e s . o r d e r o f c o n t r a s t found  relation  The Echo song r e v e r s e s the  i n t h e Headdress songs by p l a c i n g i t s  m o t i v i c a r e a b e f o r e i t s thematic  one.  As mentioned above, t h i s  song may be r e l a t e d t o t h e Headdress songs through  the f a c t that  i t was used i n both the K u s i y u t and Sisawk c e r e m o n i a l  contexts.  Thus a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s serve t o i d e n t i f y Headdress songs as somehow s o n i c a l l y unique. p e r v a s i v e and u n i f y i n g t r a i t type  C e r t a i n l y t h e most  i s modal s t r u c t u r e .  so c o n s i s t e n t l y bases i t s e l f on t h e p a t t e r n  Though t h e 2-part f o r m a l procedures,  No o t h e r song 3  (2)  1 [6j.  themes and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s a r e t h e most common t h e c o n t r a s t o f thematic  and m o t i v i c  areas  145 assumes i t s h i g h e s t development i n the Headdress songs.  Sisawk  w h i s t l e s and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f performance o r g a n i z a t i o n , must a l s o have p l a y e d a r o l e i n c r e a t i n g a t y p i c a l l y Headdress song "sound". One p o i n t has c l e a r l y emerged d u r i n g our e x a m i n a t i o n of. these v a r i o u s song t y p e s .  Though t h e r e i s some p a t t e r n i n g  e v i d e n t i n groups o f songs b e l o n g i n g t o any g i v e n song t y p e , no one song can e x e m p l i f y the whole song type t o which i t b e l o n g s . Each song type i s a heterogeneous u n i t t h a t n e v e r t h e l e s s r e v e a l s a combination o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c unique t o i t s e l f .  features  Performance o r g a n i z a t i o n ( o f which much has-  been l o s t ) c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g song type s t y l e s from each o t h e r .  B e f o r e summarizing t h e s e f i n d i n g s and  discussing their implications,  I w i l l examine some t o p i c s t h a t  r e q u i r e treatment o u t s i d e o f the song's f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p i n g s .  146  VI.  MODAL STRUCTURE IN BELLA COOLA MUSIC  As the a n a l y s i s i n C h a p t e r F i v e has i n d i c a t e d ,  a  number o f modal s t r u c t u r e s c o e x i s t w i t h i n the boundaries any g i v e n song t y p e .  of  In o r d e r to examine these modal t y p e s  p u r e l y i n terms o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and  diffe-  r e n c e s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o abandon the f u n c t i o n a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e employed i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r .  By  grouping  these m e l o d i e s a c c o r d i n g t o modal s t r u c t u r e a l o n e , we w i l l  be  a b l e t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a concept i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter Two  - the concept o f m u s i c a l a r c h e t y p e s o r exem-  p l a r y imo d e l s . F o r h e u r i s t i c purposes  I s h a l l borrow the word  "cell"  from b i o l o g i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y i n o r d e r t o r e f e r t o the most b a s i c modal a r c h e t y p e s i n the B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e . the e x c e p t i o n o f o n l y f o u r songs (G2,  G3,  A6,  and D14), a l l  B e l l a C o o l a m e l o d i e s are based on t h r e e - t o n e modal These c e l l s c o n s i s t o f a home tone and two  s u p p o r t i n g tones may  o f g r a v i t y w i t h i n a song,  cells.  (a m e l o d i c c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y )  a l l i e d o r s u p p o r t i n g t o n e s , e.g.  t h e s e two  With  1^,H]^3.  a c t as temporary  Though  melodic centers  they w i l l i n e v i t a b l y y i e l d to the  g r e a t e r a t t r a c t i o n and power o f t h e home tone.  I n songs h a v i n g  f o u r o r more tones, these modal c e l l s are ornamented by p r e f i x e s , i n f i x e s , and s u f f i x e s .  The  l a t t e r a r e b r a c k e t e d i n the  c i p h e r a n a l y t i c a l method employed here, e.g. (2)  1 [?] (5)  3.  (2)  1 [Tj 3  or  147 There a r e two main c e l l  types i n the B e l l a Coola  r e p e r t o i r e , t h e f i r s t t y p e s a r e based on t h i r d s , o r on t h i r d s and f o u r t h s .  The second t y p e s a r e based on seconds, o r seconds  and t h i r d s , o r on seconds The and  1  5  this  study.  first cell 3.  and f o u r t h s .  type i n c l u d e s t h e modal c e l l s  1  6  3  These two c e l l s a r e found i n 70% o f t h e songs i n •  Modal c e l l  1 (the p a t t e r n s  1  6  3,  on) i s composed o f t h e p i t c h e s A, C, and E.  •  •  3  1  6,  This c e l l  and so i s the  most f r e q u e n t l y used o f a l l B e l l a C o o l a modal c e l l s , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 45% o f t h e m e l o d i e s i n t h i s sample.  As shown below, a l l  t h r e e p o s s i b l e c e n t e r s o f m e l o d i c g r a v i t y w i t h i n modal c e l l 1 are  utilized  as home t o n e s :  Modal C e l l 1  1.  Home tone:  (a)  1  La  OH  ^ 3  (minor  third/fourth)  (major t h i r d / m i n o r t h i r d )  2.  Home tone:  Do  (major t h i r d / m i n o r t h i r d )  148 3.  Home tone:  1  1.  6  L3J  Home tone:  (a)  Mi  third/fourth)  La  1  I6I  H2  H3  (minor  1  3  16  types  3  (2)  (5)  3  (5)  3  H10  H5  (2)  H6  (2)  H7  (2)  H8  (2)  Ml  (2)  A2  (2)  D12  (2)  UJ  149 0>)  3  1  A4  3  (2)  E1  3  E2  3  (2)  D18  • 3  (2)  D1  3  (2)  •  •  •  D5  D11  2.  •  •  (3)  •  (3)  •  •  3  (2)  •  •  3  (2)  •  •  3  (2)  •  •  M2  3  (2)  M7  3  (2)  H11  3  (2)  Home tone:  types  (2)  •  D3  El  (3)  Do  5•  6  types  150  H9  (5)  H12  3.  3  (2)  3  (2)  hi  6  6  (5)  H4  (2)  D6  (2)  6  D2  (2)  6  (3)  D16  (2)  L3  (2)  6  (5)  Home tone:  1  A5  Li]  Mi  6  I3J  types  (2)  til  G1  D17  •  *  (3)  (2)  (3)  (2)  A8  Hml  6  ( 5  ill  151 Modal c e l l  2 i n c l u d e s t h e p i t c h e s C, E, and G.  c e l l i s t h e s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s o f 2.5% o f t h e songs. modal c e l l  1, modal c e l l  This  As w i t h  2 uses a l l t h r e e o f i t s p o s s i b l e home  tones:  Modal C e l l 2 -  1.  Home tone:  (a)  Do  5  3  Q  (minor t h i r d / m a j o r t h i r d )  (major t h i r d / f o u r t h )  2.  Home tone:  Mi  (minor t h i r d / m a j o r t h i r d )  (a)  (b)  3.  5 ^  Home tone:  EE  1  0^3*-  Home tone:  third)  (fourth/minor  third)  Sol  (a)  (b)  (fourth/minor  Do  1  (minor t h i r d / m a j o r  third)  152 (a)  5  Lv1  (6)  5  0  types  5  (2)  hi  Lv7  3  (2)  Ml  M1 (a)  3  (2)  3  (2)  5  (4)  (6)  D15  S1  Lv5  (6)  5  5  (b)  2.  M4  3  (2)  Lv4  3  (2)  Home t o n e :  (a)  (4)  (6)5  Mi  5  HI  1  5  l2]  1  A7  D10  types  types  C6)  [±\  153  3.  (b)  1  D8  (2)  1  (6)  5  M8  (2)  1  (6)  5  Home tone:  5  GO  type*  ±  Sol  (a)  1  0  3  M6  (2)  1  (6)  UU  3  L2  (2)  1  (6)  til  3  Lv6  (2)  1  (6)  hi  3  D4  (2)  1  (6)  UJ  3  (b)  5]  3  types  1  types  H1  (6)  N  3  Hm2  (6)  111  3  The  second group o f c e l l  geneous assemblage.  (2)  1  - (7)  1  t y p e s i s a much more h e t e r o -  These c e l l t y p e s , found i n 64^ o f t h e non-  154 c e r e m o n i a l songs, form t h e s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s o f 30% o f the t o t a l number o f songs i n t h i s study.  T h i s second group o f  c e l l s i s dominated by a c e l l c o n s t r u c t e d from seconds and fourths.  Modal c e l l  3 o c c u r s as a f o u r t h over a major  and as a major second over a f o u r t h . are of  the C - c e n t e r e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l methodology  Modal C e l l 3  ( f o u r t h / m a j o r second)  (a)  2  (a)l  5  6  HI  2 ^ [ 3  (a)2  2.  sub-types  " s p e l t " d i f f e r e n t l y i n terms o f c i p h e r n o t a t i o n  c r i b e them.  1.  This c e l l ' s  (major s e c o n d / f o u r t h )  (a)  (a)l  2  ^ J _ * [ 2  second  because  used t o t r a n s -  155 •  (a)  2  Lv2  (3)  (a)l  5  Lv10  (6)  6  types • 2  2  (a)2  6  Lv3  1  D7  (1)  •  (a)  2  Lv8  (3)  5  2  J_  5  2  Li  3  •  types  m  D13  6  (i)  types  d  6  6  5  0  4  • 2  • Lv9  2  L1  2  M3  • 2  A3  2  •  GO types  (6)  I  (6)  (6)  • 1  156 S2  (3)  M5  (3)  5  (a)l  S3  (i)  Modal c e l l third.  This c e l l  Hodal C e l l  1  L5.  2  types  2  5  0  4 c o n s i s t s o f a minor t h i r d o v e r a major i s used i n o n l y one B e l l a C o o l a song:  4  1  H13  (minor t h i r d / m a j o r  5  (2)  Modal c e l l  1  (7)  5 i s built  range o f a major t h i r d  L6J  5  from two major seconds.  Modal C e l l 5  (#4)  Its  i s the narrowest found i n the three-  cells:  D9  second)  3  \B  1  (6)  157  (4)  A1  m  3  (6)  Hm3  (6)  14  (5)  As mentioned above, f o u r songs have two-tone cells.  modal  Three o f t h e s e use a minor t h i r d w h i l e the f o u r t h i s  based on a major second. s i x t h and f i n a l  cell  T h i s o n e - i n t e r v a l modal c e l l i s the  found i n the r e p e r t o i r e .  Modal C e l l 6  G2  2  [T]  G3  GO  6  A6  D14  \Y\  (2)  1  6  [7j  The s i x modal c e l l s six  (b5)  d e s c r i b e d above thus c o n s t i t u t e d  modal o p t i o n s open t o the B e l l a C o o l a composer.  "composing" a c e r e m o n i a l song he would l i k e l y  When  have used  either  modal c e l l 1 o r 2 as a s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s s i n c e t h e s e a r e found i n 70% o f the songs examined h e r e .  A non-ceremonial song  would p r o b a b l y have been based on one o f the second group o f  158 c e l l types.  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t 64% o f t h e  non-ceremonial  songs u t i l i z e d modal c e l l s t h r e e t o s i x .  Songs c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e - t o n e modal c e l l s o n l y a r e found i n 16% o f t h e songs.  I n these songs t h e modal c e l l s 5 |j]  c l e a r l y g r a v i t a t e t o one home tone a s , f o r example, 1  i n t h e American D i p p e r ' s song (A7) and  1  6 0  i n the  I n d i a n P a i n t - B r u s h Plower song (G1):. In  t h i s sample, B e l l a C o o l a composers p r e f e r r e d u s i n g  four-tone scales.  The most common procedure  i n f i x a modal c e l l , 1 I 6 I.  e.g., A2:  (2)  1 [6] 3  was t o p r e f i x o r o r A4:  3  (2)  I n these two examples (A2 and A4) t h e p i t c h D, a p r e -  f i x i n A2 and an i n f i x i n A4, i s o b v i o u s l y o f secondary  impor-  tance t o t h e modal c e l l members 1, 6, and 3 ( s e e example 15)• In  some c a s e s however, a s i n F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress song  (H5), non-modal c e l l members ( p r e f i x e s , i n f i x e s o r s u f f i x e s ) may a c t as temporary c e n t e r s o f melodic  gravity.  T h i s modal  t e c h n i q u e , which occ\'.rs i n H5*s m o t i v i c a r e a , s h a l l be termed modal c e l l m u t a t i o n . on modal c e l l  The theme a r e a o f H5(mm.1-19) i s based  1,- w i t h L a as a home tone  20 however, t h e m o t i v i c a r e a e n t e r s . p i t c h e s A and D o r 6 and 2.  (1 [£>] 3)«  I t employs o n l y t h e  In this motivic section  25), Re o r 2 i s c l e a r l y t h e home tone  6  [2I  [§] 3  cell  r e t u r n s ( s e e example 6 1 ) . I t deserves mention t h a t  t h i s c e l l mutation  o c c u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h changes i n t h e  Headdress dance d u r i n g t h i s m o t i v i c a r e a (mm.20-25). mutation  (mm.20-  I * a c t s as  such u n t i l measure 26 when t h e thematic a r e a ' s modal 1  I n measure  p r o c e s s o c c u r s o n l y once i n H5.  This  During the r e t u r n o f  159 EXAMPLE  61  160 the m o t i v i c a r e a i n mm.45-51, the p i t c h D r e c e i v e s emphasis for  o n l y the f i r s t two measures o f the m o t i v i c s e c t i o n .  example 62 shows, the r e m a i n i n g measures are now p i t c h C o r 1 o f the modal c e l l  c e n t e r e d on the  1 [6] 5«  F i v e - t o n e s c a l e s are used i n o n l y 26% o f t h e sample.  Of t h i s 26%  t  tonic scale.  85%  As  total  are based on the anhemitonic  penta-  S i x - t o n e and two-tone s c a l e s were r a r e l y  used,  a c c o u n t i n g f o r f i v e and f o u r p e r cent o f the s c a l e t y p e s respectively.  A second modal t e c h n i q u e was  described i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Chapter F i v e ' s a n a l y s i s o f the f i v e - t o n e Love song Lv5 and the s i x - t o n e Headdress song H1. termed modal m o d u l a t i o n .  It will  nique o c c u r s when a modal c e l l cell  employing  mic 1  sphere.  [6] 3  Thus two  was  be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s t e c h -  based on C as Do changes t o a  a p i t c h o t h e r t h a n C as  Further f l e x i b i l i t y  T h i s technique  Do.  was made p o s s i b l e through the r h y t h -  songs based on the modal c e l l  are i n v a r i a b l y endowed w i t h d i f f e r i n g  by t h e i r m e l o d i c rhythm c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  1 type  (2)  "personalities"  Though an e x h a u s t i v e  study o f B e l l a C o o l a m e l o d i c rhythm i s not w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s study, some p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i t s o r g a n i zation w i l l  be p r e s e n t e d below.  The e% idence I n t h i s sample does not i n d i c a t e s t r o n g r  p a t t e r n i n g between e n t i r e m e l o d i c rhythm s t r u c t u r e s .  However  the rhythmic motives t h a t make up the m e l o d i c rhythmic may  be grouped  and compound. bly  into three basic configurations*  triple,  These t h r e e "rhythmic c e l l " t y p e s almost  i d e n t i f y themselves a t the o u t s e t o f these  songs.  phrases duple, invaria-  161 T r i p l e motives- are- the most commonly used motives, i n the  sample.  songs. pattern  They are the. opening m o t i v i c u n i t s , i n 66% o f the  As shown below, o f the s e v e r a l t r i p l e motive, t y p e s , the )  1  i s the most f r e q u e n t l y employed:  ) i  - M1, M2, m,  W  *  - M7,  i  3  y i  M8, A2, A7, Lv4, H5, L2, S2, D2, D7, D11, D15, D17, D18 G2,  G3  H8, H9, Hm3,  Lv10, D13  - D1, Lv2 )  )  H3,  H11,  A 3 , D14,  - M4,  Hm1,  L3  -  - A5  - Lv8  - D4  3  >  » ) .  -  A1,  -  H12  Lv6  D16,  S1,  Lv1  .162 Duple m o t i v e s a r e the main, rhythmic c e l l s o f 25% o f the  songs i n the. sample.  groups o f two,  ^ '.  ^ s  thus y i e l d i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o u r - b e a t  I s  AO  T  Lv3  > A.  - B8,  H13  y y  -  o •  \ *  1 \  '  y  ).  V  \  H  *  *  \ \  y  *  y  Lv9  1  -b3  y  ,  J.  \  - H2,  H  H  _ G1  *  y  D.13  " D6  )  yy  '  Hm2  - M3,  '  patterns:  -X  - A8,  '  \ \  y  These motives u s u a l l y c l u s t e r i n  D5  * *  \ \  *  •  y  y  s.  s  - H4  l l J I  Four songs based on duple m o t i v e s have more i d i o s y n c r a t i c opening m o t i v i c  structures.  The l o n g d u r a t i o n a l  values  163 t h a t b e g i n these songs a r e used t o i n t r o d u c e and c l o s e m e l o d i c rhythmic p h r a s e s , they a r e not the e s s e n t i a l  u n i t s o f rhythmic  movement.  - H1.  \  The main motive  - H6,  o f Song H7, a song based on t r i p l e m o t i v e s ,  i s v i r t u a l l y t h e same as t h a t o f H1.  I n f a c t the f i r s t  "measures" o f b o t h these songs show a s t r o n g m e l o d i c patterning rarely These f i r s t  encountered between songs i n t h i s  measures a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n example 63.  rhythmic sample. The  r e m a i n i n g measures i n these songs a r e d i s s i m i l a r . The are  f i n a l 9% o f t h e songs use compound m o t i v e s .  most o f t e n i n i t i a l l y  w  m  s s  }  s * s  T  s u b d i v i d e d as 2 + 3:  .  -ii4.  - A6, A4  These  164  EXAMPLE  —7  r\ -J  -J-  /L  \  -4  b•  *  •  \ n  ^ — "  63  n } ^ s^ i  ^  „ I  <~>  1  165  ),  '  H  *  J  3  -  D12.  -  H10.  - L1.  °  I t i s from these t h r e e t y p e s o f rhythmic motives the  m e l o d i c rhythmic p h r a s e s i n t h e s e songs a r e b u i l t .  that Though  some songs c o n s i s t e n t l y employ d u p l e ' ( e . g . G1) o r t r i p l e  (e.g.  A3) m o t i v i c u n i t s throughout, w i t h the r e s u l t b e i n g t h a t they are  based on symmetrical phrases (8/4 i n G1 and 3/4  the  most common rhythmic procedure i s t o use combinations o f  rhythmic motives w i t h i n a song. (A2),  i n A3),  Thus i n the W i l d Canary  song  the t r i p l e motive ) i> i s c o n t r a s t e d i n the second measure  w i t h the compound m o t i v i c u n i t  3  3^*^  (2 + 3 +  2).  Another example i s found i n Susan K e l l y ' s Love song (Lv2) i n which the t r i p l e rhythm time m o t i v e s 1motive  3  motives may  ^\  and 3  i  (mm.  o r may  o f the melody, dominated  3, 6, 9,  12).  These c o n t r a s t i n g rhythmic  not be g i v e n f u r t h e r support a t the l e v e l o f  drum accompaniment.  motive closing pattern  triple  , i s r e g u l a r l y i n t e r r u p t e d by the d u p l e  \  f o r c e d by the Vi  by the  The duple motive  p a t t e r n i n the drum.  w  • '*  i n Lv2 was  In H5 however, the  reintriple  i n the drum c o n t i n u e s t o sound w h i l e the duple )  i.  i  i  i s sung above i t :  166 H5  (m.6)  )  i .  i  i  I  There were v a r i o u s manners i n which the predominant motivic  s t r u c t u r e s o f these songs were g i v e n  at the l e v e l o f drum accompaniment. considerations that w i l l  further articulation  Having o u t l i n e d some b a s i c  c o n c e r n i n g B e l l a C o o l a m e l o d i c rhythm, a t o p i c  require  such as dance and  further i n t e g r a t i o n with extra-musical language i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s , we  examine the rhythmic s u b s t r u c t u r e drum accompaniment.  will  factors  next  o f B e l l a C o o l a music - i t s  167 ,VII  DRUM RHYTHMS  Though 28% o f the songs i n t h i s sample a r e sung unaccompanied, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r composers used one o f t h e f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f drum p a t t e r n s t o be o u t l i n e d below w h i l e c r e a t i n g them.  Even such " o f f i c i a l l y " unaccompanied  mourning songs a r e o f t e n accompanied by l i g h t  songs as  stick or feet  tapping. The use o f an u n d e r l y i n g b a s i c r e g u l a t i v e beat o r time l i n e i s e s s e n t i a l t o B e l l a C o o l a music.  I n s i t u a t i o n s where  box o r s k i n - c o v e r e d drums were n o t a v a i l a b l e , o t h e r means were found.  W h i l e i n canoes, p a d d l e s were used t o o u t l i n e t h e b a s i c  rhythmic p a t t e r n s ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 1:178). c l a p p i n g , r a t t l e s , and l i g h t  On shore, hand-  s t i c k s were u t i l i z e d .  While  c a r v i n g p e t r o g l y p h s , c h i e f s were s a i d t o have " p i c k e d out t h e r o c k i n time t o the music f o r m i n g i n t h e i r minds" 1948 1:178).  (Mcllwraith  What was l i k e l y o c c u r r i n g here i s t h a t the c h i e f s  were u s i n g one o f t h e f o u r b a s i c drum rhythms as a rhythm o f work.  Such a r e p e a t e d rhythmic p a t t e r n must have  inspired  the c h i e f s t o s i n g and compose. The drum rhythms employed by t h e composers o f the accompanied basic types: and 4. it  songs i n t h i s sample may be grouped i n t o 1.  imitative.  continuous,  2.  ostinato,  3.  ;  four  tremolo,  As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  below,  i s n o t uncommon t o f i n d two o r more o f these t y p e s w i t h i n  the c o n f i n e s o f a s i n g l e song.  168 The c o n t i n u o u s type o f drum rhythm a c c e n t u a t e s the d e n s i t y r e f e r e n t o f any song.  T h i s r e f e r e n t , not n e c e s s a r i l y  the s m a l l e s t rhythmic u n i t , u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f even " q u a r t e r s " . In  as many cases as p o s s i b l e , t h e songs were t r a n s c r i b e d so  that  !'quarter-note" d e n s i t y r e f e r e n t s  prevailed.  T h i s rhythmic type may have: (a) some r e s t s a t t h e ends of  phrases  (eg.  (e.g. S1), (b) r e s t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f phrases  L v 3 ) , o r ( c ) may have no r e s t s whatsoever  (e.g. H2).  T h i s c o n t i n u o u s type o f drum rhythm i s used i n 45% o f the accompanied songs. type.  I t i s t h e most commonly used drum rhythm  K u s i y u t Dance songs e s p e c i a l l y f a v o r e d t h e use o f con-  t i n u o u s drum rhythm. The  second type o f drum rhythm, t h e o s t i n a t o  i s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h melodic rhythm. number o f sub-types.  ||:lcl?:||  o r , the f i r s t  beat o f every group o f t h r e e ,  two b e a t s , 2(b) ||: A A.  songs based on duple motives, the f i r s t is  struck: 2(c)  I t has a  I n songs w i t h a t h r e e - b e a t s t r u c t u r e i t  w i l l accentuate e i t h e r the f i r s t 2(a)  pattern,  .  In  o f every group o f two  ||; A  T h i s type a l s o i n c l u d e s compound rhythms.  Songs w i t h  "5/8"  rhythm (e.g. A6) a r e d i v i d e d 2 + 3: 2(d)  || A.  "7/8"  p a t t e r n s ( e . g . D12) a r e d i v i d e d 2 + 3 + 2: 2(e) ||: A A- k.x\\  :  A . :||  ;  O s t i n a t o - t y p e drum p a t t e r n s a r e used i n 35% o f t h e accompanied songs.  The Love, Animal, and Headdress songs make  f r e q u e n t use o f these accompaniment t y p e s - e s p e c i a l l y  types  2(a) and 2 ( b ) . The  t h i r d type o f accompaniment, tremolo, i s c l o s e s t  169 to what may  be c o n s i d e r e d rhythmic c o u n t e r p o i n t .  i n o n l y s i x (11%)  o f the accompanied songs.  Tremolo may  used p a r t i a l l y w i t h i n a song, as i n the Echo song throughout The  I t i s found be  (D1), o r  an e n t i r e song as i n the T h u n d e r b i r d song  (D17).  s i n g e r s knew o f no e x t r a - m u s i c a l meanings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t h i s drum rhythm t y p e . The  f o u r t h type o f accompaniment, i m i t a t i v e ,  m e l o d i c rhythms (a) e x a c t l y , example, the American  imitates  (b) c l o s e l y , o r ( c ) l o o s e l y .  D i p p e r ' s song  t a t i o n , the Hamatsa song (Hm1)  For  (A7) f e a t u r e s e x a c t i m i -  accompaniment i m i t a t e s the m e l o d i c  rhythm c l o s e l y w h i l e the B e l l a B e l l a Headdress song's (H12) rhythms i m i t a t e i t s m e l o d i c rhythms o n l y l o o s e l y .  Only  drum  four  songs {1% o f the accompanied songs) use the i m i t a t i v e type o f drum rhythm. Combinations  o f these rhythmic t y p e s , rhythmic "modu-  l a t i o n s " , a r e found f r e q u e n t l y and are o f t e n a r e s u l t o f the need f o r the songs to r e f l e c t changes i n the dance.  The most  common procedure i s f o r a song t o b e g i n w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s type rhythm, u s u a l l y 1 ( c ) .  T h i s c o n t i n u o u s type o f drum rhythm i s  most o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the o s t i n a t o t y p e s 2(b) and (see examples H3,  H6,  D2).  Combinations  a r e found i n most o f the song t y p e s . songs use these rhythmic o t h e r song t y p e .  2(c)  o f rhythmic p a t t e r n s  However t h e Headdress  "modulations" more o f t e n than  any  F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the Headdress songs  employ more than one accompaniment t y p e .  These rhythmic  "modulations" s e r v e d to f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m a t i c and m o t i v i c a r e a s .  170 The Echo Dance song  (D1) f o r example b e g i n s w i t h an  o s t i n a t o type o f accompaniment (mm.1-16). tremolo  (2(a)) i n i t s motivic area  In the thematic a r e a (mm.17-20) i t changes to  (type 3 ) .  T h i s rhythmic m o d u l a t i o n i s a d i r e c t  o f the n a t u r e o f the Echo dance.  The dancer, wearing  result  the  i m p r e s s i v e Echo mask, performs the dance p r o p e r d u r i n g the m o t i v i c a r e a o f the song.  Once the thematic a r e a i s reached  however the dancer t u r n s h i s back t o the audience,  crouches,  and changes the mouthpiece o f the mask ( f o r which t h e r e are six i n t o t a l ) .  Here the drum modulates to tremolo i n o r d e r t o  h e i g h t e n the suspense  o f t h i s " o r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " scene  as  w e l l as to a l l o w the p o w e r f u l m e l o d i c theme t o s u r f a c e . Similarly, Headdress song left  i n the m o t i v i c a r e a s o f F e l i c i t y Walkus's  (mm.20-25 and mm.45-50), the drum i s f i r s t  out e n t i r e l y and then changes from the type 2(b) p a t t e r n  o f the t h e m a t i c a r e a to a type 2(a) p a t t e r n i n the m o t i v i c a r e a i n o r d e r t o c o i n c i d e w i t h new  dance g e s t u r e s i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g  this motivic section. A s l i g h t change i n the c o n t i n u o u s drum accompaniment ( 1 ( c ) ) o f H1  i l l u s t r a t e s how  t e x t i s emphasized accompaniment.  a small portion of t h i s  song's  through a b r i e f a l t e r a t i o n i n the song's  The o n l y change i n t h i s song's accompaniment  o c c u r s i n measure 18 where the c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n 1(e) b r i e f l y g i v e s way  to a 2(c) type accompaniment  rhythmic a l t e r a t i o n  c o i n c i d e s w i t h perhaps  phrase i n t h i s song's t e x t : Chapter  Eight).  A-l  .  This s l i g h t  the most important  "so i t ' s me".(see example 66 i n  171 Thus rhythmic  "modulations"  not be simply understood  i n B e l l a C o o l a music s h o u l d  as " a e s t h e t i c " p r e f e r e n c e s .  not p u r e l y m u s i c a l l y * - i n s p i r e d drum t e c h n i q u e s .  These are  They r e s u l t  from the need f o r t h i s music t o be "harmonized" w i t h i t s t o t a l socio-cultural  context.  172 VIII.  FORM AND TEXT: A SELECTIVE STUDY OF THEIR INTERACTION  I d e a l l y an e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t , a l i n g u i s t , n a t i v e c o n s u l t a n t a r e r e q u i r e d f o r an e x h a u s t i v e o f t e x t and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o music.  and a study  I t i s not always  p o s s i b l e , however, t o i n c l u d e such a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f consensus  makers i n a study.  S i n c e M c l l w r a i t h was n o t  an e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t h i s c h a p t e r on B e l l a C o o l a songs d e a l s s o l e l y w i t h some o f t h e t e x t s o f t h e songs i n h i s recorded m a t e r i a l .  As a r e s u l t a l l o f h i s r e f e r e n c e s t o  song s t r u c t u r e s a r e a c t u a l l y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e x t u a l p r o cesses.  Stumpf p r o v i d e s t e x t s s u p p l i e d by Franz Boas  but does n o t d i s c u s s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o melody  (1886).  T h i s study t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t  attempt  to examine t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between these two spheres i n B e l l a C o o l a music.  I t remains  a s e l e c t i v e study, however,  because i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r me t o r e t u r n t o B e l l a C o o l a w i t h my t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a l i n g u i s t  i n o r d e r t o undertake  the time-consuming t a s k o f c o r r e l a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s w i t h m u s i c a l ones.  S i n c e many o f t h e words employed i n the songs  are e i t h e r e s o t e r i c o r d i f f e r i n sound from t h e i r spoken c o u n t e r p a r t s , such a p r o j e c t must always i n c l u d e a n a t i v e consultant. Thus a s y s t e m a t i c study o f a l l t h e song t e x t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sample was o f n e c e s s i t y p r e c l u d e d h e r e . I n s t e a d t h e study w i l l be based  on M c l l w r a i t h ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  173  on one song t r a n s l a t e d and sung i n E n g l i s h by F e l i c i t y Walkus, and on seven t e x t s t r a n s l a t e d  and p l a c e d under t h e m u s i c a l  u n i t s by Mr. Henk Nater, R i . j k s u n i v e r s i t e i t J u s t as t h e songs a r e b u i l t  (Leiden).  from one o r both o f t h e  f o r m - b u i l d i n g elements.-«motive and theme so a r e t h e t e x t s . T e x t u a l motives, v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as meaningless  syllables,  w o r d l e s s choruses, and n o n - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s a r e o f two t y p e s : m e a n i n g f u l and meaningless. When they a r e m e a n i n g f u l t h e t e x t u a l motives may r e f e r to t h e name o r t o an a c t i o n o f t h e animal o r s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g w i t h which they a r e a s s o c i a t e d .  I have e a r l i e r noted  m e l o d i c motives may i m i t a t e animal g e s t u r e s .  that  The t e x t u a l  motives  found i n t h e Hamatsa song and t h e G r i z z l y Bear Dance denote t h e a c t i o n s o f the C a n n i b a l dancer and t h e word f o r g r i z z l y  bear.  Ha ma may i n t h e Hamatsa song r e f e r s t o t h e a c t i o n o f e a t i n g w h i l e nan i n t h e G r i z z l y Bear dance i s t h e B e l l a C o o l a word f o r g r i z z l y bear.  Another example i s found i n Mrs.  Jim P o l l a r d ' s  Mourning song where t h e t e x t u a l m o t i f ananay i s an e x c l a m a t i o n 19 o f p a i n o r sorrow. ^ The r e m a i n i n g t e x t u a l motives a r e meaningless B e l l a C o o l a today.  f o r the  They may have had meaning i n e a r l i e r times,  e i t h e r as e s o t e r i c language t a t i o n s o f animal sounds.  employed by t h e shaman o r as i m i M c l l w r a i t h c i t e s two examples o f the  l a t t e r type o f w o r d l e s s chorus.  One c o n s i s t e d  " . . . of a  s e r i e s o f g r u n t s which a r e s a i d t o be t h e v o i c e o f a heron" (1948  11:273) w h i l e t h e o t h e r employed " . . . an o f t - r e p e a t e d  174 xaam which i s s a i d t o he the note o f the p i g e o n " (1948  11:275).  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f these t e x t u a l are indeed meaningless  on a semantic l e v e l .  less functionally significant  motives  They are n e v e r t h e -  i n t h a t t h e i r presence a l l o w s  the s i n g e r to t h i n k about what v e r s e he must next s i n g .  They  a l s o p r o v i d e r e l i e f from the i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d v e r s e s and, i n songs w i t h o u t t e x t s , they a c t as c o n v e n i e n t " h a n d l e s " by means o f which the m e l o d i e s may  be  sung.  The o t h e r component o f B e l l a C o o l a t e x t s i s the theme.  The  textual  themes, not u n e x p e c t e d l y , are i n t i m a t e l y bound up  w i t h the use c a t e g o r i e s w i t h which they are a s s o c i a t e d .  Thus  themes i n animal songs d e a l w i t h animals, l o v e songs express e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s and so  on.  M c l l w r a i t h n o t e d t h a t a l l c e r e m o n i a l songs s h o u l d be textually tri-partite  i n structure.  The B e l l a C o o l a had names  f o r these t h r e e s e c t i o n s , the word kogulo meant the f i r s t the second o r middle p a r t was was  a?ox.  The  part,  as.iko.t,; and the t h i r d or l a s t  t e x t u a l motives were known as  siutnaios.;Mcllwraith  t r a n s l a t e d the l a t t e r as " j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r the songs"  (1948 I I :  269). Though these t e x t u a l d i v i s i o n s have not been r e t a i n e d today, the m a j o r i t y o f the t r a n s l a t i o n s are F o r g e t f u l h e s s might  strictly tri-partite.  account f o r some o f the b i - p a r t i t e  texts,  t h a t i s , those w i t h two v e r s e s o n l y . On the b a s i s o f the d a t a a v a i l a b l e to me,  textual  motives and themes seem t o be r e l a t e d to the songs i n f o u r ways:  175  1.  songs may have t e x t u a l m o t i v e s o n l y ,  2.  they may have t e x t u a l themes o n l y ,  5.  they may have t e x t u a l m o t i v e s and themes t h a t a r e c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the m u s i c a l t h e m a t i c and m o t i v i c a r e a s , o r  4.  t h e y may  have t e x t u a l themes and m o t i v e s t h a t  are used a l t e r n a t i v e l y from s t r o p h e to s t r o p h e . The L a h a l songs and t h e North Vancouver Headdress song (H11) e x e m p l i f y the " f i r s t  c a t e g o r y above.  These songs have no  meaningful t e x t u a l u n i t s . Steam Schooner's Love song (Lv3), t r a n s l a t e d and sung i n E n g l i s h by F e l i c i t y Walkus,  i s an example  o f a song w i t h o u t  20 t e x t u a l motives.  T h i s song a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the two ways i n  which words are s e t to B e l l a C o o l a music (see ex. 64).  The most  common t e c h n i q u e i s t h e s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g i n which one note i s used f o r each word's s y l l a b l e s .  The words are p r e s e n t e d neu-  m a t i c a l l y when the s y l l a b l e s a r e each a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two o r more t o n e s .  A l t h o u g h the neumatic t e c h n i q u e i s used  i n t h i s song, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y employed  sparingly  i n conjunction with  the two most important words i n the t e x t , mountain and  darling.  We w i l l a g a i n t u r n t o the Echo song i n o r d e r t h i s time to i l l u s t r a t e a song whose t e x t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g m u s i c a l framework. example  exactly  As demonstrated i n  65, the t e x t u a l m o t i v e s and themes o f the Echo song  accompany the m u s i c a l t h e m a t i c and m o t i v i c a r e a s p r e c i s e l y . The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e t e x t u a l themes i n example s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y .  The g r e a t  structural  65  176  EXAMPLE  ~\  I  wish  I  wish  r  '~r~^'  to  ma:  my  v  could  could  po:  cry  heart  or  is  \  \  through/this  mou:  stop  ach-  l  f o r you  1  ling  you dear  i  t my  my  V my  my  i dear  ^  :  dear  4  ling  l  =  t o come  i> 1  dar:  for  n-tain , "  ling  I i  dar:  n-tain  \  i n g f o r you  1 V i  cry  ing  r-  dar:  cry  ach- i n /  ach-  f  my  \ \  \  d a r - l i n g stop  is  mou:  Y\  3 heart  through t h i s  f for  heart  dar-ling  \  is  see  signs  \  \  \  see  r—--\ke  stop c r y  [  64  stop  1 k po:  po:  or  or  177 EXAMPLE  65  o. s.p.  1  ' 1 ( 1  hu  ha  3 =ca.157  fc  ha:  I  ha  hu  1  hu  ' M III M ^ l M ^\ n y\ Y?y|^f M \ 1 1  5. 21  \  *  ha:  hu  ha- ha  ha hu  V  hu  "  fe  —  ^ — \  1•  r t  \  _ :> c  k z  1  1  -  r —rf—i H — H  ha-ha \p  .  \  1  .  1 L1  \f |  i 1  1  hu  hu  ha  \  1  1  —  ha  = - 4  i—| H  =  hu  1  1  f / h n  M  ha - ha  r  hu  hu  \'-l\^i\h  1  ha £  t  r  +  f  _,  ha -  , r-k y^x j ^ -M 1—l V  kulh7 hear  ,  —  15,  1  hu  ha-ha  M  t5>  ,  T  ^  + ^  acn- san - t a and listen  —  1  + ia -  178  I  \  sa to  wi:  wa our  \  nmc s t a t -- nmc mothers  remX =5-  -i  .  1  ^  x  ^-  4 = = ¥ = 4 cti kw'alh-tn - t a by the (Echo's) c r e s t  //  \  \  1  I  t  tnm -muts-m - l h i : are irritated  i l h -qnlh- a they  ts  >  saw  v-  su s u  179 EXAMPLE  66  6 i  - h i -nu:  v  sz ha  hu - y a - ha  \  l\\ ya  hu-  ha  ha:  hu- y a  i  ha:  ha  CD alh-7ay-uts t h a t ' s what  tulhs i -h i } b i r t h t o us  J  - hi-nu 5.  M i <U.i  J nli  hu - y a  i  3  -hi-nu:  t u u t s i nu-7us - qnamks i n g s the woman who gave  "it - J r  i^—hi>nu: . 1  3 P I  hu- y a -ha  rr  i - h i -nu:  tu she  hu - y a ha:  wa s c l h k w a l h - t n tain c t i nut h a tt i s o u r ccrreesstt v>  nu: 10. 10.  kwlaax s u T ' a y c I the sun .  hu:  \  ha:  ha- ha  i  - h i -nu:  )•)••] \ \ M i M hu-  ya  hu- y a  ha- ha  ha-  i  ha  hi-nu:  180  \  Y. —s——e—y i-  i - n i - nu:  \\  \  \)  v  kwlu ka so i t ' s me  ^(3) ti  1^  _  i-  h i - nu:  stu  I ) •  v  ^  **  j  *  xaycs i f aye are s l a n t i n g 1  '  i-  • _1_ (4) * ^ < g -t ayc t i wa  ~dr  +  '  ya  ha - ha  i  h i - nu:  .ha:  fete \  hi  -nu:  r  -r-—5—'i  hi-nu-^nu:  J> " > J. - x i t su ^ — t ' a v e towards me £ W  - h i -nu:  ha  hu:  nts  ; l ] V \ 7 <•  \ \\  s i - x i - laa the reason why  "75"  -  -<s>—^  ^—  < an - 7ap- sulia the v i l l a g e s  hu - ya  i  w  a  x  i  181 d i f f e r e n c e s between the B e l l a C o o l a language p r e c l u d e a one-to-one correspondence i n both  and  between the  English statements  languages. L a s t l y t h e r e are songs whose t e x t u a l themes and  are  used a l t e r n a t e l y from s t r o p h e to s t r o p h e .  f r e q u e n t l y i n c e r e m o n i a l songs. d r e s s song first  In C h i e f Sam  motives  T h i s type o c c u r s P o o t l a s s ' s Head-'  (H1), f o r example, the two-part m u s i c a l theme i s  sung to the t e x t u a l motives i h i n u and hyaha.  As shown i n  example 66, the t e x t u a l theme e n t e r s d u r i n g the r e p e a t o f the first  s t r o p h e (mm.6-10).  Even w i t h i n t h i s t e x t u a l theme, t e x -  t u a l motives are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h m e a n i n g f u l l i n g u i s t i c Here they t r u l y f u l f i l l the  units.  t h e i r function of " j o i n i n g together  songs". T h i s song a l s o shows how  o v e r - a l l form i s s l i g h t l y  v a r i e d by some m e l o d i c adjustments made i n o r d e r to accommodate the t e x t u a l themes.  Measure 7 f e a t u r e s the f i r s t  ment (marked by ( 1 ) ) .  such a d j u s t -  Here the grace note, not found i n measure  2, has been added t o a l l o w the s y l l a b i c u n i t 7ay s e p a r a t e culation.  arti-  Measure 9 breaks the h a l f - n o t e o f measure 4 i n t o  an  e i g h t h and a d o t t e d .quarter f o r the same r e a s o n .  The added grace  notes found i n measures 20 and 21  (4)) accommo-  (marked (3) and  date the s y l l a b l e t i . Although the i n f l u e n c e o f t e x t on m e l o d i c v a r i a t i o n embellishment  may  seem minimal,  form i s s i g n i f i c a n t . music  The  i t s importance  and  in articulating  t e x t s are as much a p a r t o f B e l l a C o o l a  p r o p e r as are the m e l o d i e s and rhythms.  In f a c t  the  182 r e p e t i t i o u s o v e r - a l l form o f the m e l o d i c and rhythmic u n i t s i s b e s t r e g a r d e d as a grand o s t i n a t o themes" o f the t e x t s .  21  accompaniment to the " s o c i a l  183  IX. C o n t i n u i t y and Change i n a B e l l a C o o l a Mourning Song o v e r a 51-year p e r i o d :  Two y e a r s 1923  songs recorded, by T..F. M c l l w r a i t h . during, the pp t o 1924  were s t i l l  b e i n g sung i n 1975.  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e songs may  The  t h e r e f o r e be compared i n  o r d e r t o study c o n t i n u i t y and change i n t h i s music. an examination  o f Steam Schooner's Love Song's two  w i l l c o n f i r m , these songs are w i t h o n l y a few identical  (see Lv9 and L v 9 ( a ) ) .  As versions  exceptions  T h i s , c o u l d be due t o the  f a c t t h a t t h i s song i s c o n s t r u c t e d almost i s o r h y t h m i c a l l y , thus making i t e a s i e r t o remember o v e r time. .Even the tempo markings, c a . 144 i n 1924, and  and  1'29"  (M4  and c a .  the t o t a l l e n g t h s o f the songs, 1'23"  i n 1924,  Mrs.  (per q u a r t e r ) i n 1975  1975  are v i r t u a l l y the same.  Jim P o l l a r d ' s Mourning song's two  and M4(a)),  in  153  versions  perhaps because they employ the more f l e x -  i b l e f o r m a l p r o c e s s I have termed theme and  extension,  a l l o w us t o examine change more e f f e c t i v e l y than does Steam Schooner's Love- song. Example 67 p l a c e s both v e r s i o n s o f the. song t o g e t h e r . I have i n c l u d e d an. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . o f the 1975 ever a meaningful  t e x t where-  correspondence- c o u l d be maintained, between  B e l l a C o o l a and E n g l i s h .  The  songs were not p r e s e n t e d i n  t h e i r e n t i r e t y because the 1924 (4*03") than the 1975  version i s considerably longer  song (2'11").  Bar l i n e s common t o both  184 EXAMPLE  67  Introduction  ZZ2I T9T5" oh  my  dear  v 1924  1 /  oh  s  /  y f  \  \> i\  f  C.  M  f  *  \  \  '  1  y i  1  i  f  — >—*—•—=—-= —f-  » 1  S.  *.  my  \  i>  '  .  \>-  1 1  dear oh  h  -^  i  \  '  1 —f  f  my ^  -p  de-ar ^—*—^—•?  Theme  "7  closing  pattern  r my  so:  :n  \  so:  . i n  :n  185  thematic e x t e n s i o n  f  •  f  i  - development o f c l o s i n g  ;f  \  s *w  p  m  pattern  - ^ * *2 i r— y r  1975 ha- h i -  ha - h i - haw  haw  a - na:  1924  Introduction  —f  f—'  f ~" >  — n a -  yi  x  hi -  - - i> r t> !=• u + "" t i U ' i f  T~ — \  \  1  haw  jar-:  (text  —k  1  \  l  c—•  1  *\r r  e  z.  1  untranslatable)  \  10. «_  ^  V  > y '  f—s  1  186  f/1975  T  -K-  h  e  m  f-  •—^  my  \  closing pattern  e  f-—  so:  y-  .  *  h ' l n *' v \ ^ —  \/"r  f  *N thematic  \ \ \> —  f  "  :n ^5r-p  \  \  \  1  1  v .  v  \  <•—•  \  x  so-  n  f ^ T ^  \  u  -  1  extension  ^ — ,  If-  Z3  1 f  n-  \ — 1 1  s-f  "  \ i - u i> •=4==  ^  v  1  \s^f  ± ,  ^  f T ^ V—=  rv  \  \  4  (theme . v a r i a n t ;  1  ^  187  188 songs have been r e t a i n e d as much as p o s s i b l e . match up written  s i m i l a r m e l o d i c u n i t s , phrases are i n a fragmented manner.  In o r d e r to  occasionally  When t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y , a  dashed l i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the m e l o d i c fragments are  sung  concurrently. Both v e r s i o n s 2 type 3  (2)  3  [T]  (2)  are based on the f o u r - t o n e modal 5.  [j], i s r e s e r v e d  The  third in this cell,  f o r the  i n the theme's i n t r o d u c t i o n and theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n ' s 1  5.  but  descends i n the  (see  The  extension  1975  measure 10 and  The  I t deserves mention here t h a t the v e r s i o n , the p i t c h A,  onwards.  I t i s not  second s i n g i n g o f any  u n u s u a l f o r the  areas  initial  present-day of  songs.  t e x t by the  1924  introductions neumatic  version.  f o r example, i s  reduced to a h a l f - n o t e  (m.1).  Not  1975  version  by measure 3 o f the  1975  o n l y are P o l l a r d ' s rhythmic g e s t u r e s e l i d e d .  portamento t h a t c l o s e s the  1924  i n t r o d u c t i o n , and  or  Pollard's  e l a b o r a t i o n o f the p i t c h C i n measure one,  measure f o u r i s t r u n c a t e d  by  strophe.  l i e s i n the more e x t e n s i v e  i n the  HI.  5  rhythm are u s u a l l y complete  given  m e l i s m a t i c treatment o f the  (2)  i s sung as a G i n  most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the  o f both t h e s e v e r s i o n s  the  theme's i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  "development" o r thematic e x t e n s i o n  Adjustments i n i n t o n a t i o n and  The  material  fourth  s i n g i n g group t o " e r r " i n t h i s manner at the o u t s e t  the  pattern  are based on  descending (prefixed)  f o u r t h ascends i n the  example 67).  p i t c h o f the  song's theme.  the  cell  Pollard's version. The  rising  i s found i n  189 t h r e e o t h e r l o c a t i o n s i n t h i s e a r l i e r v e r s i o n , i s employed o n l y once (m.10) i n the 1975 Here we t r a d i t i o n and  see the d i f f e r e n c e between a l i v i n g  one  the s i n g e r o f the composers.;  song.  t h a t i s merely b e i n g p r e s e r v e d . 1924  v e r s i o n , was  musical Jim P o l l a r d ,  the l a s t o f the B e l l a  Coola  H i s g r e a t e r neumaticism r e s u l t s from the f a c t  he knew the norms o f B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l  that  elaboration i n t u i t i v e l y .  S i n c e he l i k e l y composed the music o f t h i s song, h i s w i f e s u p p l y i n g the words, he was  a b l e to f r e e l y extend and  decorate  23 its  components. The  two  v e r s i o n s o f the song's theme and  i t s accompanying  c l o s i n g p a t t e r n show the g r e a t e s t c o n t i n u i t y o v e r time. the newer r e n d i t i o n s i m p l i f i e s the o l d model somewhat. and  i t s concomitant d i s j u n c t motion i n P o l l a r d ' s 1924  been omitted The  i n the 1975  The  1924  the theme's i n t r o d u c t i o n and  counterpart 1924  essentially  song d e l a y s i t s development  until  the theme i t s e l f have been sung  extension  d i f f e r s from i t s contemporary  i n much the same way  as d i d the two  introductions.  "development" a r e a i s l e n g t h i e r , c o n t a i n s more m e l o d i c  embellishments, and song.  has  When i t e n t e r s , i n measure 11 o f the o l d e r v e r s i o n ,  the a r e a o f thematic  The  theme  G  o f the theme's c l o s i n g p a t t e r n , p r o v i d e more  c o n t r a s t i n g data.  twice.  The  song.  "development" o r e x t e n s i o n a r e a s ,  prolongations  Again  T h i s 1924  i n measure 15.  f e a t u r e s more r h y t h m i c v a r i e t y than the  development i n c l u d e s a v a r i a n t o f the theme The  descending p a t t e r n  3.2  1  i n this  1975  190 v a r i a n t , sung t o the rhythmic •  the model f o r the ) J",  •  pattern*^; ^ j .  , may  3^2_^1  movement sung to the rhythm  i n the theme o f the 1975  song.  Thus the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between these two l i e s i n those a r e a s t h a t a r e most amenable t o m e l o d i c rhythmic  elaboration.  t i n u i t y over time.  The  have been  •  versions and  theme i t s e l f shows the g r e a t e s t con-  I t i s the a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n around which  the e n t i r e song r e v o l v e s .  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n a r e a s  are t h e r e f o r e the s e t t i n g f o r the jewel which i s the theme. Though s m a l l d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s between the two of The  versions  the theme a r e p r e s e n t , i t s s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e i s i n t a c t . i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n areas show the g r e a t e s t change.  These seem t o have c o n s t i t u t e d the v a r i a b l e a s p e c t o f the l e c t i c between v a r i a b i l i t y C o o l a song.  The  and n o n - v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s  s i n g e r s o f 1975,  p r i m a r i l y concerned  Bella  a l l "non-composers", a r e  w i t h r e t a i n i n g as much o f the  sound h e r i t a g e as p o s s i b l e .  dia-  traditional  Not b e i n g song-makers, they do  not  e x p l o i t the v a r i a b l e o r " i m p r o v i s a t o r y " a r e a s i n t h i s music. Thus w h i l e the p r o d u c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l p r o c e s s e s remain,  the means o f p r o d u c t i o n have been f o r g o t t e n .  To the b e s t o f my  knowledge t h i s i s not t r u e f o r the Northwest  Coast as a whole.  Thus a r e v i v a l o f t h e s e dynamic p r o c e s s e s i n  B e l l a C o o l a music remains p o s s i b l e .  191 X.  SUMMARY AND  IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS  A. The C o r r e l a t i o n o f the S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Groupings . One  o f the main f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study i s . t h a t the  h i e r a r c h y o f the music's s t r u c t u r a l . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  strongly  r e f l e c t s the h i e r a r c h y of, the f u n c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which the songs were used.  The most complex m u s i c a l processes: i n the  sample a r e r e s e r v e d f o r the. Headdress, Mourning., Hamatsa Dance songs o f the p r e s t i g i o u s Sisawk and K u s i y u t  and  societies..  These songs a r e the l e n g t h i e s t i n the r e p e r t o i r e , they employ the  most complex modal and f o r m a l . p r o c e s s e s , and t h e i r  are  l o n g e r and more i n f o r m a t i o n - f i l l e d , than those found i n  the  remainder o f the song t y p e s . Ceremonial songs were a l s o g i v e n more " s o n i c  by performance o r g a n i z a t i o n . ticipation, of  texts  status"  W h i s t l e s , drones, audience p a r -  s p e c i a l i z e d l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s and l i k e l y a group  o t h e r sound phenomena not y e t uncovered by the r e s e a r c h , a l l  served to enhance largest  and r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s .  Thus the  s t y l i s t i c d i v i s i o n i n the r e p e r t o i r e i s a. microcosmic  r e f l e c t i o n o f the s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t e d between those who  were i n i t i a t e d . i n t o a s e c r e t s o c i e t y and those who  were n o t .  As shown i n Appendix I I , the non-ceremonial song c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f e a t u r e a w i d e r a r r a y o f m u s i c a l c o n t r a s t s than those of  the c e r e m o n i a l song t y p e s .  fastest  Non-ceremonial songs i n c l u d e the  ( L a h a l 3 =ca.143) and s l o w e s t (Game 3=ca.65) average  tempos found i n the sample,  the s h o r t e s t songs (Game = 37", >  Animal =56"), the g r e a t e s t c o n t r a s t i n s c a l e s (two-tone to s i x -  192 t o n e ) , and i n c l u d e t h e songs w i t h the s m a l l e s t tones) and l a r g e s t  (Game = 7 semi-  (Love = 14 semitones) average ranges.  non-ceremonial song t y p e s a l s o tend t o employ l e s s  The  portamento  than do the c e r e m o n i a l . In  terms o f s c a l a r s t r u c t u r e , non-ceremonial m e l o d i e s  (Love and L a h a l ) a r e more o f t e n f i v e - t o n e than the b a s i c a l l y f o u r - t o n e c e r e m o n i a l songs (see App. I I ) .  Non-ceremonial  songs a r e based l a r g e l y on modal c e l l s 3 - 6 . the  While 64% o f  non-ceremonial m e l o d i e s use modal c e l l s 3 - 6 , 70% o f t h e  c e r e m o n i a l songs a r e b u i l t on modal c e l l s  1 and 2; 60% o f t h e  c e r e m o n i a l songs a r e based e n t i r e l y on modal c e l l statistic  g a i n s added  1.  This  s i g n i f i c a n c e as a c e r e m o n i a l song  last  trait  because c e r e m o n i a l songs outnumber t h e non-ceremonial ones by a r a t i o o f almost two t o one. When compared t o the c o n t r a s t i n g tempos, l e n g t h s , s c a l e s , and ranges o f t h e non-ceremonial songs, t h e c e r e m o n i a l songs form a more u n i f i e d s e t o f m a t e r i a l . a l i k e w i t h ) = c a . 95 b e i n g t h e average.  Tempos a r e more  The l e n g t h s o f these  songs a r e a more d i f f i c u l t - v a r i a b l e t o e s t i m a t e s i n c e t h e s e were at the  one time e n t i r e l y a f u n c t i o n o f the l e n g t h o f t h e dance and text.  Even t h e c o n t r a c t e d v e r s i o n s o f these songs  sung  today, however, a r e l o n g e r than those o f t h e non-ceremonial songs. Another common t r a i t o f t h e c e r e m o n i a l m e l o d i e s i s t h e i r f r e q u e n t use o f f o u r - t o n e s c a l e s i n a l l song t y p e s .  These  songs a l s o have l e s s d i v e r g e n t ranges than do the non-ceremonial.  193 T h e i r average range o f 10 semitones f a l l s midway between the extreme ranges o f t h e non-ceremonial songs. The song t y p e s w i t h i n these c e r e m o n i a l and non-cerem o n i a l r e p e r t o i r e s a r e made m u t u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by e i t h e r a combination o f d i f f e r i n g s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and/or by i d i o s y n c r a t i c f e a t u r e s .  Naturally t h e i r divergent  functional  s e t t i n g s made them i d e n t i f i a b l e t o the a u d i e n c e s -of w i n t e r ceremonials.  Our i n t e r e s t h e r e , however, i s t o examine  whether o r not t h e s e song t y p e s were a l s o coded i n s t r u c t u r a l terms i n o r d e r t o make them r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r As Appendix I I i n d i c a t e s , the m u s i c a l  function.  distinctions  between a Headdress and a Game o r Animal song a r e immediately apparent.  The d i f f e r e n c e between a K u s i y u t Dance song and a  Sisawk Headdress song i s based on few d i s p a r i t i e s .  Prom t h e  m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s we l e a r n e d t h a t t h e Thematic and M o t i v i c Areas form type was one song t r a i t the  t h a t would serve t o d i s t i n g u i s h  songs o f t h e s e two s o c i e t i e s from each o t h e r .  The manner  i n which t h e s e songs were most c l e a r l y kept d i s t i n c t however was by means o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c e r e m o n i a l w h i s t l e s used i n each. As mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h performance o r g a n i z a t i o n , these w h i s t l e s were a l s o sounded i n d i s s i m i l a r ways. Most o f t h e song t y p e s were c l e a r l y demarcated from the  o t h e r s through such i d i o s y n c r a t i c t r a i t s .  The Mourning songs  were made s o n i c a l l y unique by t h e i r f r e q u e n t use o f f r e e rhythm, t h e i r l e n g t h , and because they were o f t e n sung unaccompanied.  The L a h a l songs f e a t u r e d , a s i d e from t h e i r f a s t tempo  and q u a s i - i s o r h y t h m i c c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e use o f f a l s e t t o which  194 no o t h e r song type i n the sample d i d .  The Love songs were  m u s i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d hy a wide range, p r i m a r i l y motion,  descending  f r e q u e n t use o f the f i v e - t o n e s c a l e and t h e i r e x c l u -  s i v e r e l i a n c e on modal c e l l s 2 and made d i s t i n c t by t h e i r employing  3.  The Hamatsa songs were  minor seconds more o f t e n and  i n more conspicuous r o l e s than any o t h e r song t y p e , by  their  unique w h i s t l e s , and by t h e i r f r e q u e n t use o f portamento. The E n t r a n c e songs are more d i f f i c u l t  to d i s c u s s i n  terms o f i d i o s y n c r a t i c f e a t u r e s s i n c e o n l y two were r e c o r d e d . The  presence  attempt  of a Rivers I n l e t Entrance  song p r e c l u d e s any  to d i s c o v e r what the norms o f B e l l a C o o l a  song c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were. under-represented  The  Entrance  Shaman and Game songs are a l s o  i n the sample.  Thus the average  characteris-  t i c s p o s t u l a t e d f o r these song t y p e s are p r e s e n t e d i n a s u g g e s t i v e manner o n l y and  should t h e r e f o r e be approached  More d a t a w i l l be needed b e f o r e we  cautiously.  can determine  whether the  s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n o f these s p e c i f i c song t y p e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study i s an adequate sample upon which to base s t y l i s t i c  gene-  ralizations. In summary, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t these songs were c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e through t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t a l o n e , they were g i v e n f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t i o n a t the l e v e l o f m u s i c a l structure.  While  some song t y p e s were o b v i o u s l y o f  differing  s t r u c t u r e , the d i f f e r e n c e u s u a l l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the amount o f functional  (and t h e r e f o r e s o c i a l ) s e p a r a t i o n between them, o t h e r s  were made d i s s i m i l a r through more s u b t l e , i d i o s y n c r a t i c f e a t u r e s . Thus, i n o r d e r to be f u l l y understood,  B e l l a C o o l a music  195 cannot be t o r n away from i t s c o n t e x t and examined i n terms o f musical structure alone. attempted  Wherever i t c o u l d , t h i s work has  t o show t h a t many B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l  are u l t i m a t e l y b e s t understood  characteristics  as means to s o c i a l ends,  w h i s t l e s , song type d i s t i n c t i o n s , and performance sitional specialization).  They owe  (drones,  and compo-  t h e i r e x i s t e n c e to the  changes undergone by B e l l a C o o l a s o c i e t y when i t f i r s t  encountered  i t s p r e s e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment.  Likely  a r r i v i n g with t h e i r Salishan guardian s p i r i t  they soon  r e q u i r e d and heard t h e i r neighbours meet more s e c u l a r ends. maritime  s i n g songs d e s i g n e d to  Given a s e d e n t a r y l i f e ,  r e s o u r c e s , and a concomitant  abundant  d i v i s i o n of labor,  C o o l a c h i e f s became p a t r o n s o f the a r t s . societies  songs,  Bella  They formed  secret  (some o f which were borrowed from t h e B e l l a  Bella)  and h e l d y e a r l y w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l s t h a t r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i s t s i n music,  dance, c a r v i n g and  so  Though many song t r a i t s performance  on. ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the sphere  o r g a n i z a t i o n ) must have been borrowed  B e l l a C o o l a song makers soon developed t h e i r own t a t i o n o f Northwest Coast m u s i c a l s t y l e s .  The  of  initially, interpre-  fact  that  m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , a t i l e a s t i n the c e r e m o n i a l songs,  was  screened by a c o m p o s i t i o n a l committee i s evidence t h a t a t r u l y d i s t i n c t i v e B e l l a C o o l a c o n f i g u r a t i o n was B e l l a C o o l a v i s u a l a r t was  made unique  desired.  Just  through i t s e x t e n s i v e  use o f a medium c o b a l t b l u e (Holm 1965:26), i t i s l i k e l y one o r more o f the s t r u c t u r a l  as  characteristics  w i l l be found to be a s p e c i f i c a l l y B e l l a C o o l a  that  d e s c r i b e d above trait.  196  The i n t e r e s t i n g tions,  borrowings,  the Northwest  study o f B e l l a C o o l a m u s i c a l r e t e n -  and i n n o v a t i o n s , however, cannot b e g i n  Coast has been more comprehensively  until  researched  musically. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the music  of t h i s area - a  music which has been u n d e r e s t i m a t e d and misunderstood many f o r too g r e a t a p e r i o d o f time. l i s t e n e r s do not understand  The  f a c t that non-native  the meanings o f the song t e x t s  p r o h i b i t e d a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s music. i n t e n d e d to be h e a r d as ends i n themselves  levels  their of  m u s i c a l v a l u e t h a t w i l l not r e v e a l themselves  ethnocentric  listener.  has  Though not  a p a r t from  f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t , these songs have t h e i r own intrinsic  by too  t o the  197 B.  N e t t l ' s North American I n d i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s R e v i s i t e d The  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n a  number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l assumptions c o n t a i n e d i n Bruno N e t t l ' s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e Northwest Coast m u s i c a l a r e a i n h i s North American I n d i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s (1954).  Firstly,  Nettl's i n -  c l u s i o n o f B e l l a C o o l a music among S a l i s h a n musics would seem to  be based more on l i n g u i s t i c  N e t t l used  than on m u s i c a l  criteria.  S t u m p f s n i n e songs as h i s B e l l a C o o l a sample, i n  s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h r e e o f these were borrowed from t h e K w a k i u t l and Haida p e o p l e s .  As p o i n t e d out i n P a r t One o f  t h i s study, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e B e l l a C o o l a have borrowed not o n l y many o f t h e i r c e r e m o n i a l s from t h e i r neighbours on the North C e n t r a l Coast  ( e s p e c i a l l y from t h e B e l l a B e l l a ) but  a l s o many o f t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s , zation techniques.  songs, and performance  organ-  I t i s therefore the contention of t h i s  t h e s i s t h a t B e l l a C o o l a music s h o u l d be grouped w i t h N e t t l ' s more complex l e v e l o f Northwest Coast m u s i c a l s t y l e s i n which he i n c l u d e d t h e K w a k i u t l , Makah, T s i m s h i a n , Secondly, tribal  N e t t l has tended  and Nootka.  to o v e r - s i m p l i f y the i n t r a -  song type d i s t i n c t i o n s by a v e r a g i n g out t h e m u s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l f u n c t i o n a l t y p e s so as t o produce a t y p i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a l l components. statistical  profiles f a i l  these  t o r e v e a l t h e v a r i e t y o f song type  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n Northwest Coast toires.  As a r e s u l t  Indian musical reper-  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t a s t a t i s t i -  198  cal  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e music o f t h i s a r e a s h o u l d a t l e a s t  the c e r e m o n i a l  treat  and non-ceremonial r e p e r t o i r e s s e p a r a t e l y i f i t  wishes t o d e s c r i b e l a r g e s t y l i s t i c  divisions.  W i t h i n t h e non-ceremonial song g r o u p i n g  a further dis-  t i n c t i o n s h o u l d be made between t h e Love and L a h a l songs on the one hand and t h e Game and Animal songs on t h e o t h e r .  As  Appendix I I i n d i c a t e s , t h e m u s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these two  groups o f songs d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  i n any way exact, f u t u r e comparative  I f they hope t o be  s t u d i e s on. the music o f  t h i s a r e a must a t l e a s t be s e n s i t i v e t o these fundamental  sty-  l i s t i c differences. Some o f N e t t l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  song t r a i t d i -  f f u s i o n w i t h i n North America must a l s o be commented upon. like Nettl, phonal  i t does not seem p r o b a b l e  and r e s p o n s o r i a l t e c h n i q u e s  t o me " . . . t h a t  Unanti-  as w e l l as polyphony came  from Mexico, o r t h a t a t l e a s t the s t i m u l u s f o r them came from the e v i d e n t l y complex music o f t h e A z t e c s and Mayas" (1954:41). N e t t l made, these k i n d o f d i f f u s i o n i s t  i n f e r e n c e s because he  d i v o r c e d North American I n d i a n music from i t s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n t h i s study. Northwest Coast  Had he conducted  f i e l d work on t h e  o r consulted the ethnographic  data  compiled  by Boas o r M c l l w r a i t h ( t o mention o n l y a few s o u r c e s ) he would have r e a l i z e d t h a t these m u s i c a l  " c o m p l e x i t i e s " , were i n t h i s  c u l t u r e a r e a made p o s s i b l e by m u s i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r on t h e Northwest Coast  Musical  e v o l v e d n o t out o f  199  a d e s i r e to t r e a t sounds as t h i n g s out  i n themselves but  o f the need for. music to p a r t a k e i n a  competitive  well-orchestrated  c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t designed to e s t a b l i s h  reinforce social distinctions.  that a c e r t a i n Kusiyut  had  present,  authentic  natural assistance.  I t i s questionable  t h i s drone should be  termed, as N e t t l d e s c r i b e s  phonic t e c h n i q u e (1954:12). polyphony.  and  Thus the u t t e r a n c e - o f  n i n g c r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the T h u n d e r b i r d was by c o n f i r m i n g  rather  At best  therefore  the  a drothere-  superwhether  it, a  poly-  drone i s pseudo-  I t s f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s more i n a  so-  c i a l than a m u s i c a l realm. N e t t l a l s o employs the  terms r e s p o n s o r i a l and  phonal i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Northwest Coast s i n g i n g ques.  He  ponsorial  does not  d e f i n e t h e s e terms however.  s i n g i n g does not  techni-  Actual  res-  o c c u r among the B e l l a C o o l a .  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t N e t t l ' s use  o f the  It  term would a p p l y to  i n t e r a c t i o n between the announcer and c h o i r ) i n the  anti-  the  the audience (and  the  s i n g i n g o f the w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l songs.  How-  e v e r the announcer merely s u p p l i e s the words to upcoming textual divisions. he  shouts them.  contain i s not was  He  does not  Mildred  this interaction.  audience,  V a l l e y Thornton's tapes, from As w i t h the  an a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e .  created  s i n g t h e s e to the  The  1946  drone t h i s announcing  r o l e o f the  announcer  to ensure a minimum number o f e r r o r s i n the  i n g o f t e x t s and participants.  to maximize the number o f p o t e n t i a l  sing-  singing  200  The use o f the term a n t i p h o n a l s i n g i n g must a l s o  he  q u a l i f i e d i f i t i s t o he used to r e f e r to B e l l a C o o l a p e r formance o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The B e l l a C o o l a l e a d s i n g e r  who  p o i n t e d to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the h a l l and thereby asked s e p a r a t e p o r t i o n s o f the audience t o s i n g was, S i w a l l a c e ' s words, "throwing the song around T h i s t e c h n i q u e was  i n Margaret  the room."  t h e r e f o r e much l e s s f o r m a l i z e d than the  one w i t h which a n t i p h o n a l s i n g i n g i s most o f t e n that i s , s i n g i n g i n a l t e r n a t i n g choruses.  associated,  Furthermore i t  i s not u n l i k e l y t h a t e x t r a - m u s i c a l f a c t o r s p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h i s "throwing the song around Thus polyphony,  the room" t e c h n i q u e .  r e s p o n s o r i a l s i n g i n g , and a n t i p h o -  n a l s i n g i n g are not y e t " f u l l - g r o w n " m u s i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n B e l l a C o o l a Indian' music.  In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o the  strict  d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s e terms, they do not even e x i s t i n N o r t h west Coast I n d i a n music.  They a r e , r a t h e r , m u s i c a l t e c h -  n i q u e s i n embryo t h a t cannot be f u l l y understood r e f e r e n c e to s o c i a l  without  factors.  In an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n o v e r a decade a f t e r American  Indian Musical Styles, e n t i t l e d  c o n s i d e r e d : A C r i t i q u e o f N o r t h American  North  '•Musical/ Areas  Re-  I n d i a n Research"  (1969), N e t t l does not e s s e n t i a l l y change h i s o r i g i n a l  po-  s i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g h i s methodology and the concept o f musica l areas.  In t h i s a r t i c l e ,  a c t u a l l y a review o f h i s  work, N e t t l m a i n t a i n s h i s "arm-chair" p o s t u r e .  own  Although  201  he now admits  t h a t h i s treatment  of tribal  s t y l e s as homo-  geneous u n i t s i s open t o q u e s t i o n , he s t i l l wants p r o o f t o the c o n t r a r y s i n c e " . . . thus f a r i t has not been proved wrong i n many o f t h e cases e x p l o r e d h e r e " (1969:183).  I  b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s study o f B e l l a C o o l a I n d i a n music a t l e a s t c o n s t i t u t e s the necessary proof f o r c l a i m i n g that Northwest Coast  I n d i a n t r i b a l r e p e r t o i r e s can no l o n g e r be  c o n s i d e r e d as homogeneous i n s t y l e . A s i m i l a r c l a i m can be made f o r t h e o t h e r component of  N e t t l ' s Eskimo-Northwest Coast m u s i c a l a r e a ,  music. from still  "Eskimo"  Though he had d e c i d e d t o s e p a r a t e "Eskimo" music  t h a t o f the, Northwest Coast  i n t h e 1969 a r t i c l e ,  Nettl  t r e a t e d "Eskimo" music as a homogeneous m u s i c a l a r e a .  My e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the music o f t h i s " a r e a " , made p o s s i b l e through my a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e ongoing (Pt.  s t u d i e s of Alaskan  Barrow) and Coppermine musics by P r o f . Ming-Yueh L i a n g  and P r o f . Doreen B i n n i n g t o n , has taught me t h a t t h e term "Eskimo" music h i d e s more than i t r e v e a l s .  The c o n t r a s t i n g  s t y l e s o f A l a s k a n , Coppermine and Hudson's Bay I n u i t  musics,  to mention o n l y a few o f t h e l a r g e r s t y l i s t i c a r e a s ,  cannot  be grouped t o g e t h e r and t r e a t e d as a homogeneous m u s i c a l area. I n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g to o u t l i n e a new model f o r North American I n d i a n m u s i c a l s t y l e s , N e t t l suggests t h e (almost d e s p e r a t e ) (1969:184).  i d e a o f "good" and "bad" m u s i c a l  areas  He d e f i n e s "good" a r e a s as those t h a t have t h e  ) 202 " . . . "had"  t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e q u i r e d degree o f homogeneity" areas as those  work so w e l l "  " . . .  i n which t h i s concept  (1969:184-185).  l o o k the s i n g l e most important  submission  be  I t c o n t i n u e s to  v a r i a b l e i n North  I n d i a n (and I n u i t ) music - i t s f u n c t i o n a l I t i s my  doesn't  Such a s o l u t i o n must  viewed as s i m p l i s t i c and unworkable.  and  over-  American  context.  t h a t the concept  of a musical  a r e a would be b e t t e r d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t s o f the songs.  That is., a c c o r d i n g  to the purposes f o r which the songs were used.  Thus B e l l a  C o o l a music-would be grouped w i t h o t h e r Northwest Indian musical r e p e r t o i r e s that included winter and non-ceremonial song t y p e s .  However we  Coast  ceremonial  need to know  much more about the make-up o f n o n - B e l l a C b o l a Northwest Coast  I n d i a n m u s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e s b e f o r e such a m u s i c a l  c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d and  a new  model proposed.  area  203  P A R T  T H E  T H R E E  T R A N S C R I P T I O N S  204  CEREMONIAL SONGS  205  H.1  C h i e f Sam P o o t l a s s ' s Headdress Song  2'39"  Co.- IISL  206  207  208^  IflM 1 \1~ 1 I I ^  /  =>  M  lb  —t-—i 1—I  \ — \ — \  pM  1—T  %~  ^  /—-  ^  f  Vl i  ^  —  hi >  7*—  v \ i2  :  —  \  nu  \  209 H.2  2'32»  Andy Schooner's Headdress Song  — 7  1  —G  , • M H I l"h 1 —  1  — '  v- +  +•  ^  v_  i r ura:  M-  1  — * — • — /  -  \—  - - - -e-  >  /  <g  \  •j  »  \  <g»  \  g?  1  \V\  i •i •i  /  ^ — «/ — /* — /  j  J  :  /  ' 4i4  1—• • • • • •  '  -/  1  -v  5  —v!  /*  /  =  210  »0. ^  i  n  i  y  /  \m  * i  /  /  •  * * * * * *  • • V  I '  •  •  '  •  0  0  u  !?.< \ \ ) \ jC,U-,h \ l,h Y  ^  /  -  v M  /  £  <g  1  ^  -  1  *  /  >  /  *  /  /  /  /  1  ^  b ^  ^  211  I K i l l ; \ r\ '  3i  •  \: \  \  \  \\  l«> 3->) j I  <S"  ^  \\  1  0  s /  /  \ \ \  /  /  &  '  f  \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \  /  •  ^-  i  \ \ \. \ \ \  V_"Z*~  O  1  \  "7". "7*  "7"  ,  '—--  1  212  H3  T a l l i o Hans's Headdress Song  Co.-\a5  5£  drum:  lz>  >  l i  ( 1 i ((>(>' \  2'59"  '  ;  *9  213 ff?'°- b I I \ { [ ( , H/ /* • • { \ \\ f f £ ^f—fe—i ^—>f 1 t ^ t ^ >f 1 ~ I 13-15. I t *r I I I \ U u \ ' " ' li ! f t = ^ .|| \ I K i 1 \ \\\ ?  s  ,  V "  -  /  /  f  U •  \  <  E  =  »  v  >  1  1  -r--.  V  l  V  *  _i  «ur  ^  —  g  /  1  y  T  \ .  r  ... '  ^  s  v  ~V-  *  ~~7~"  J  M  i. iiW  '  \  —  cj  • — '  Lt/  a.onlj  ' \—' < > )—+.—9  \ v^  • y  \ >  ^  ii nrv» = gP i \ i i \ \ i l | I I ,\\ \\\ 1  =  -k 3—^-—^—i—*—^—j.—^  ~»  ^  \ \  o  •  — y — i - — I — s s t J > 1 — > — i  F  o—t-  ^ i > ^ t  214  J.  L—f w  11  w  "1  1  v  iM,i >v  j i —  d •  j  "7 <s/ w  \  1  /  Li\ zzz^z  11 1 1 Ufc  5  j  1  1  ^—*7—7~ —=/—*7—T~ 2f— — 3 f —  xl  ,  1 j  ^ •  _-  \ \  \. \  a  t  1 ' ; ;  ;  l  i  \  I  1 1  215  i r  e  - \  \  \  \  \  ,i  \  - A ^ — ^ — — 5 — * — ^ — * — £  J  /  T  y  =—J  ^ — T  -<o  ^  —  "  T  t  \ \ i \! M 1  fa? 1 /  .tf>G>  ^  T  —  \ ^  < S L _  1 /  —  /• 7Z —  v: *'l 1 ^  i  —  .ft  5Z — 7  s  *  i-  .,  i '  *  1  4  >  1  \4=^=^F ^— *—*  ^  *  —  V :7 3f-4  f ft 14 f' f i  >  i \  *T  i-  v  \\ ?  * — £ — i  i*  1  7  216  H4  Agnes Edgar's Headdress Song  1'27"  l(U I& ( II \ \ \ f- » T \ r? L I - 1 I i> \ l \ 1= 11 X ^ \ T 1\ 1\\ 1 ( 1 \ \ * 4— 11 11 1 T T — U  ,  7  +  +  &  f^—S  *  *  £  f  *  G—  \V  / =. id.dram;  136  |HV  — y — • — f —  f-*—<  £—r—f—f  0  —  \ \ \  —?—1—?-  1  \ t '  \  \  f  f  ?—f—f—  f  * —  1  \  ?  ;  1  5. -**  ^  f-  1 T ' •  '  '  »  - N I — - 9 -  + ZJ  *  P —n  »—7-  T'f > Zl 1  217  n —  > °  •  >  > tf  n  1 •  1  ' \ \ f-  7 T  »>  >  • VC 1  >  "1  X " i if  f  ^  11  ^  a  a  Y  ^  7  7  7  i l l 1  £ ^ £^—i—  — 0  ©  ©  "7 •  '-—*5  IO.  * f  ^  • /g  '  ©  Q  1  T  |[ . t Hi t T -T ^—1—1 \ \~\——\ \— \— T  T  = rr • 4fc x  >  - 7 — >  >  4f  a  a  0—|  p  J—4-4-^-  >  ^  >  ^ — ' f t  7  ^  \ i \i  7  11 M 1 ' 4>  OP  "7  >  _ -_f  I'  ~  *h  1  218 H5  F e l i c i t y Walkus's Headdress Song  y  -4  ^  -  r  i  i •• i 1—I • r  -/  3'45"  i  •  am: V  -H  1  t  1  *  -J  w  f  1  f i  * f — i —  >f  * •  :  ^  ^  \  •yt T P ' -=  T  V  5  y  y .< T  T * i T  A  [  1  r  1- 1  nil  r  T  1  T T  1  V  *f  '\  —Y * T T  I't 1  *  (_}  V  1  =^rt  r =  t a  T  =fca  tnv  219  L  t  V—\  *  + w J. j  y  sj?  «ir "7  . y  1  »  y  «  «  I \  y  —^— —I lT i3 t3 1 ± 1  -V3—I  i  ? II  '[ z - y y  t x  h  /  ^  1  h  -^  w  —y  t  t  T  r  *  ^ _ J t — ^  t T T  qp  l  s  s  /  s s  i  y  1  1  f  —"2—1—T — 4 — | —  l  /  fe:  T  >  V  —<9-  1  1 * pp.  \.  > — y  y  t  i Pf.  1[  I  ^  v> t  *  1  /  ao. 1  "7  T  .  — y  e  1  ^  t — ^ — y — 4 —  4  r  "  1  +  > * — » * — *1  ;|  —y  i  * F  y  i  y  i  7 : ? |  ti {  220  "Pas-  -v  A-  Y ?. 1  f f H f f 11 Y t  "< I  • If T * f T * T tT t' I ,  \  ,3Q->  I  ,  1  \  o.  * —  1  1  7 1  i l l  1  , T<TT< s  7  "  *  r—W-=fa  7  V^ 1  O  \  S  O  —A  y"^ \ 7T-  1  If f J1 f f f Y i  221  —  o  p  /  B:—t 7  — ^  « O  y  1  ^  zz—i—zz  zz  I  e  £_  \  O  -Hr-H /  s s  i  r  y  y  y  L  s  >  s  T\ M t J' I11 7.  1 1  1  7  li  f  7  «Y "  So ! =  y  f S:  '  "1 *k  1 I  > -  y  J  1  fif Y — * — yy f \, \  i  J  V  ^  '  Pp. $ — 4 — A — 4 — i -  .  „  —y—y—i- y  y  —.—i—~  ^  T *1  J  /  1  y  '  1  '  ti  \\\ l  n  1*1—t  r  7  ' ' { "7  7  *f f '  >  >  y  x  7  11  ?  1 1  11-  vl  4|  222  /  ^  1  ^)—^-  —0  1  f  f  ;  1  ..  h  1  1 — &  i  I —^—j-^  r  T  t '  r  \  f  \  *  \  —  J—^—^—±J—  j  -f-  «  — y  £ y y i  ——1  y — ^ - 4 — ^ — y {y  =  1  —  —  J  '  —  y i y >f  223  H6  C h a r l i e Snow s Headdress Song  M . —i  —  4X  _  /  :  %  ^ — ^ * >* / ^> 1—\—(-4 \ — c _ — j : — ^ — — — | — s , * ,—_^.  —  \ ; .  -r—>— { {  CO. »BJO  # 7^  —  i •V  /  1'54"  f  >  I  T  ,  .-I  '  I  ^4  n  f  ±  —  \  fcK  u  Y  2  \  \  1  7 — \  rJ  — F — * — /  a  I  \ < * T  a  -v  I  l  = »  r  -  I  t  !  ,  '  -6  t  —  ;  S  s  y  1  s  v-^- ' - ^  r  '  - Y i v 1  £  —  r3 •  < "  —  \  1  4 4 *— — t  %  \  l  *  ~r  " i n  [  £ |  <  l l  a  -7  —  t  *—*  i 1  —  J  i  *  —  f>  1 -  1  "tempo  B r  —  224  — t — t — 1 — n  —/\  —  >  - ) — > — ^ — —  n  y  ' ir  y  y-*v]  ,  —  i*'-," 4  1  r=v  *  1  r  ttt-\—(—kr  — v — > —  |  — y . r - ^ t  ?  1  1  •*Tto-^ 4  ' i i\  i  n  1  cV+. ^  -7  h-^P  1  ->  ^ ~  * — — « ~  ^  a  — Y  3 1  '  .  T  1  -> tt  —i  ^J^V-J [  d  '  7  T7  — y — f — — y ^  i I i  »  \  \| 11  —  "tempo .  —  Y  ^  1 w —^ 1 ^  1 — — > — — * — y  1 h  -  _w ^  ^ i — ^ — ^ r f ^  t  \—^—^5—n—  225  "  *  M ^  -  ,  i  k  \  ,  yrr>|  G  f  1  U  =  1 1  _____—4_  \ —X  rlt  I T  ^  1  =3  r—  --rv,_-» \  U  J  ^  «>—  _  r-.  ^  ^ .  '  i  ' ^  '  =  1  ,—  -  i  \—-}—<*t— *> 1 t  <x "tempo 7  -r=-  1  >—  1 T  1 J  226 H7  George N e l s o n ' s Headdress Song  =-t—B e>  -i ZJ.  p  3*15"  — ^ — ~  *  1 ^  _ r  .  <  o — i  ;  ,  >  u  1  1  1  4,'urn: ~ft  1L  T  T  :  I  \ \ 1  -  v  \> M  1  vy 1 W f t f  VX  f  \  ~)  W  f  V_»  v_»  *****  r  t  -  V  \  vx  i  vx  J  —  vx  6  =  -jX  ^  1  T-  -  ,  —  '  ^  {  f  ^  f  ^  t  \1  i  M *  —  •  — >  v  ¥  —  . , i1 1—y——^, —  ^  5  >^>  ^ I  *  T  T  i  —  1  T  T  <  11  «"*>  =F=t=fe= • x  J  ^  , — i-  •  vx  f *  "  ;  1  — F —  -  \x  \  T  1  <_»  "7 {  xx>  V  (  SX-  M —<-  J \  ^  l  1  , n  V  1  r  T  1  I.  * — £  ^  —  —  |  —  —  s x-  V  ^  /  w  \y  — ¥ — t -  f  y t f  /  Y  &  * TT  2  W'  y  <  T  227  ~7X  * — f — T — * — — ^  It ^ -vfe—  'f ?-  1 = 2  7  '1  V  -Op—  V  M—  s  I \> \ k  T'  * — A 1— i•,  i  \ ^ '^-.\ ,1  a4-  o  1  • —  —  g —  1^4=  —^—^4—y—^Pf—^4—^4-  I V > l> >  2-  XT  ^ o  -1—tJ  .1  1  1  1  M l  '  1' H U H  \ f  s  >  v  4 = N = i  —^—T T T  f ty  L  ^  '? •? -T  i l l  1  T t ft T Y *y iy—y i t yy t 1  11  1"  1  228  \M K 1  \  M  1  \  1  1  1  1.1 1  1  {  \ \ \ >  1  1  1  T-  a  M  I  :  i bl H i  F [ 1 O I  T  ^  11 ! 1  W  -**  5  z1  \  V  -  b ss  .| J  J  v V *") 1  G-  35 »  ii- I  1 1 l-O,.-  —1-4- '  T  \  {  O  I  l j—^  229  w- I  —\  ^  lb—t-^  V  V 1  \/  V  { \ * Y T  7  '  i  j  T  1  r  U ^ l p O  V—4  \y  w  v_t  \s  / v/ \y  ? *>  / v_-  1 '( \ i \ \ ^ t ' \ ^ N l  * i  c  230 H8  Simon Johnson's Headdress  -M  |  —  \ s  \k\ .r. i \ \ \ \ ,i y y £ > ^—i • \ {  K "J?  y  -ff  3'33"  >  i  drum:  S\  1  _i  Song  vc  _r  —  =  —  =  —  -  ^—_J  _*  — f — Y i ^ — ^ - — t - ><L ^ ^ >C >^ { j-  f  y -y-—<5>  y 4  __  1  *  * <*  I H- \ 1  4=  Ilk r.? \- I  1 \ TH ,|  3  [  ^  ;  V  v  V  -  1  \  n |  1  * rL_y_l  ' — "  _J  \ J J J  T, ( T T'VT Ttl\(H _f  V  / V  V  6  V  '  \/  V-  11VX  V  i  \X / VY \X /  l  V  XX V/ \  231  -J^  >  t  1  \  rp  <  I  >  •  t  rP T  \  T-  1  1 \.,|  -fc-5  [  1  d-^L  J  i-fc--  T *  . r —  .  V '  1 \ %- ' •  g>  >  T  b \ i  \ i  1 y  \ = ± =  4  Y—^-4-  - — ^  r  a  TX T X * T  1 '0  l  i  5.  ?  " +  T'l  M  — y  T  ~ "  \ , 3  \  ,  b  T *  is  i*  p  T =  [ = =  T *  1  ^  7 1  \  v>  1  ?  T  ^— 7 — f 1  iI  \  P I  ~ n  —\f  —  f  L  r  1  '—  M  V  1*  T  {  t  GG  V  \  \  1  t  t  x  \ *T—"a  1  MT T  41 -V  \ .\? 1  f  f  7  1  J5  1  £|  T  T  1  232  u/ -f  \  \  _—^—*—\—*—i—u  vx  v..  \  o f ,  Ix Vx  V T \  V^ ^  VX VX  '\ '[ X  L— 3 — J  T T  1  /  1  \  V F  1  vx \, \X  X T  L_  vx  <  VX VX  „|  VX  4-  / \ X V. X /  #=£^= X * \ V  1  1  L.— 3 — J  _ _ i  J  1/  Vx  T  7—•>  \x  Ii  VX  T  1—  .  l  •.<•>'—  *X  1  s,,  1  V  \—\  VX  "7  1  3  M  T  I i~ \  xn T '  vx ^ vx  ^  ^  w  • /  y  —  <  VX / Vx  T  11  \  T  1  ^  VX  T  1  X  T  y  /  "V  ^  3 — J  l  '  i  f^t-  ^  1  vx-  ** j:  vx T vx vx  T \  V  T T  vx  1 ( 1  1  VX VX / T  \ ,\ <  ~x / vx vx  T VM'  1  X  3  vx  VX*  1  /  =)  '7  vx"  T 'T T ^ •#= _  O  1  X  1  U \? \  1t  x  X.  t  1  233  30  -F-  *r  -r-M-4  |  221  « >,< 1 T¥-f—¥ T T,* T* T \ * fT^'- KT— Xy H,P¥i c  ? |T)1 > ; ) , D ) i f ) \ >  IN  3 —1 '  1 ? 1  F  {  f  '  f  3  f  y  1T  234  \  ' \  M  1  \ —  -<©  /  ^  i _Z_^ t:  ]_  L— i  —  f  —  \  *  |l  lz>  v  T  (  /  '  v  v  y  ' \ k J F J ^  V *1 r-  = ^M  V  5  T \  y t - — — ^  v  \  *  i  )_  \  a - _:  HO  1  \  1  y  3  ^  £==t  1  \ SM f  s  v  -*=  v  s-^  = f< ]  o  V_  '  i  ^  /  \ i-s—,  V/  /  iV \  c  /  /  \y \s  (v  0— ^ -4  235, H9  Mrs. W i l l y T a l l i o ' s Headdress Song ^  -J. - t •5 1  • — — / ^ M M . < •—p  1  1  i  — /  y  '  V  2'56"  V  T  n „  -—-)  T  T  , «=_  y 1  •/ h i i i  >.  T t  L  n (  \x  '  /  r vy  \> /  12 5  \  S_  _±  \  \  £  i  f  p  •  O  \  \  i  \  \ \ \ ' \ \ \  11  ±_  f  H  .  I  O S  M  f  '  /  •  V \  ffS^S  {  \j  236  i  -c — 7  y f  77 '  It  \~r^  -i  ^ —  >  g>  / i  M  M  y ^1  ^  ^ *_  r?  y~t  ^  ^"? Y  /•  777 1 1 c h—1—\  7  \  l  '  V t  t  t  [  \ \  i l  \  ^ — ^  p  ,  \  l  y y  t  s f  t  \c H c  t  >  l  v  1  f  r \  *  / s —77-  T T7 T  ^  (  —T—T—*—t—  \ \  v  —  f~p =7^7- s s , • 1 1 • 1 v\ , I-I—C  1  ^  \  <==»» 1 **—^—f-  P  M  .  fx-  1  ""f  r  ^  4" >  N  4:  f  =»=  ±-  1  i  i  237  I-  4;  1  V  f  /  ^ - t  -vx  f  <~>  \< —  VX \) VX VX  f  ^  1  O  |t  1 ^  ?T  x"  \  0  SjX  1/ /  VX  S  ^' 1 \x . \CT vxT I y —\" T L  —7^a. J.*  xj^=- • '  Si  >*—  (  I V vx\~) \ rx vxyv^vx-Oax rM^f^F  f—1—>  1  VX .  vx •  T  T  1  vx  T  / /  \\  VX  T  , , **—y—=5  \  vx ^  T  1  ,2__ •  :  *~ f  1 1 11  [ M l 11  1  ^  s "J 1  s  Mill"  V JL Vx  1  1* '  fl  vx vx / VX vx" "}  i  rM 1 \ \ n M kx  Mil  7  VX  { ^ ^  ^  fj  3 ^ =  < y—=>H-  ^  \  vx  A  Vx  \  /  T 1 *  *" > n \  vx  1  >—V--  T  \  vx  \  * •  1 %x vx 1  r 1/ T  1 1 l> 1 1 Vx-  1- T  "  Vx J VX  t  1 1 1 ^=  \x ) VX  1  VX "") \x VX 1 Vx 1 Vx  \ VX  HM> /  238  -f -k  p —  ?  °  1  ?  *  —f—f——f—*  tl  1  1  xx —^  I  T  L  i  .  i  l M xx  /  xx  'f  f - ^  = •'  l  T  V  V  x-- x-j ** • o-  -QM  i i  J|  f~  T  7  \x  |  ~) v t  \  f  x—-5  rj^rr  i  ^-4  \  f  =  U  XX / XX XX / XX \X—n / — 4 ^— J 1 X — Y *1f ' > ^ ^ •^  ' \ \' \[  1 1  g  \ i \ l  n  H  XX T ) \x / 1 v 1 " XX / vv vx'7x^xx')ix •p  —  ? r  & i  i  s  f  i \?  >  I  s  vx'y xTv - Txv «» -= M  t  Y—t—^—^ L Y  \ ?  ^ —  239  H10  Dick Snow's Headdress  —j ->  -  XX  i. T  :  —  ^  1 '03"  M  v  &  Song  *  /  —  V  V  V  I  *v  \X  —  s  i  U W  Vv- \x \X \X \v  V T  f  *  v T T\T  —  V  —  \x  —  \x  I —  T'  a  v .  -<=cr-l  sX  I  , M  V  vx  |-  y  f f  1 \ \\,  , i .  V V /  Tt^J•  ^ "  < ^  V  V  V  x  x;t  r 1/ /  t  S  J> S  i is i  f-i  Sx  v  xx- xx  -  xx  s  V  7  = H1  xx  V  /  1.  V  si  [  >  , f  '  V V T tTITT f ' i-  r-t=  1  \y v T  \  j  n  r^-^—  \ y  T T i r l  1  * *  \ •  —  I  /•  M „ ^ v — t  —  ,  ^  ?  —  /'  y*•  f  f  V  V  V  Y  p  r  1  *  >  1  rK  *  M  V  f-~^  l  \  y-vl?.  -  u \ Xv  XX  /  XX  Y  i  >f  ^  ^  Vx  XX  >f  \ / -1  -  1 •  240  J L  \  —72-  O  ~Y  *  "  —:  v/  \~  I  I  rr - W - J —  :  vx  y y  T T  V —  z>\ ' ' ' ' v  \\ T  /  1  T  1  ^  1—|—-  Vx-" NX  1T  VX  \x- •  V/  vx  -  1  {  v x vx v y "7  t f T T T1r 1  241 H11  N o r t h Vancouver Headdress Song  i -•  i Y ° i T -k^>  '  1 —ff  \  \—\  f  '  '  \  ;  \s V  \X  H  »x  X*  ' •  y  T  >  y  xx  xx  T  T  M V  \  I  I  >  Sx XX \x y •  1  .  xx- VX  '  ^X  XX  T  >=  V  V V V  TTT  | ^ S <  \J<  \x  x  X X  x  9-  \  1  1  x  vx  TT T T  X v  , \  \  ,\  M  ;  —  T T T T T 'i  |  1  i  [M  \f V ^ V S/ \x i  \A \ j g ^ i  s s /  \  i  HI  ^ Y Y Y t —  O'  ^ •  > >  XX  X X  M  \MT  1  J. . 1  1  1 J 7 1  pr—4  -—^^-^—Y—^-^—f  —14-  ^x  39  -  T  1 , |  s s J \  v_^_ \x \x \x V»  T T V T1  —  ^  f  —  242  H12  B e l l a B e l l a Headdress  H T  4r-  Song  ia  \ t  drum'. C ' V o ^ e d ' ' u n i s o n  1 '43"  ^  r  ' (n  k  rbi-'Hiir?)  fitelpclic  5.  1  1 ^  ^  y  <  /' y  ^  I  •X-  U \ x  t — V  \ x  * x  -^x-  V V \  /  v /  \  1  /  "NX"  1  f  U—f—,—^-1  ** -f—?  b u  \ i  VX  V  V/  ;  VX  •  1  =HF^  ^x  \X  VX  Vx  ^  243  ML  t  M  i  \> V  '  '  V  V  \{  V  -4Jp—• / T  L  v \  t  \  I ' s  1  \  *- ' \ \  s .  *"  vy  \y  V x-  1:  1v  '  -  .  — y . v \  1  T  \ s  M^ V V ' \ 1 '' \  i l l  —  •  f  ,-M->--  •  \  \ \  \*  V  V  v  \v  yf  •  \• .  v  \y  = ^  -  Y X  SX  • ff-Y  1  \/  \s  V ' C ' \  SS  \/  \  \  I  =±x  V V V MMv V M M ^ iM  ±  244  AZ  1  ^  xx  i t — v  y  w  v  y-  » y  x /  v v  \  ^ y * t  -a  s  -i  ^  '  '  *  vx  vy  X/  nX  1V  —  x<  /  u  J£  — 7 — / -  >rC-  s  \  \x  X x  ^ V ^ ^  —v—  J  \  1  XX  XX  ^  >C  /  x  ' -  *f-  v  ^  —  ^  —  *  —  *  -  2  245  H13  Winass's Headdress Song  1 '34"  3= irunv.  3  -7-7-  ^  z t  7E  ¥ *y ^ Y y y 1 > ^>y¥|=g >.^^ c  ^  c  c  —  •2: I  "2  .  *  1  ±=3  i  ±3  246  1—Y  V  !'\  >  247 M1  B e l l a C o o l a Raven Mourning Song  ll  f ' o /  i - ^ ^ V  f  -  * i h  \ c , y  2 09"  >  t n  ^  \  u  M  ^  ky  •Vr  •sMl(a)  H '>  LB 0  b  , y ^4L^M  °ll \  WljlW  o —  1—:  \>  ^  ^  a  r  \ \ f  -  n 1_  r {' ( ' * \  \  f i ' M [,~{ M ( (  I z z i ^ z :  248  f  *  y  p  f  I  \  +  •  *  1 1  > ^""\  u  +•—  ^7 1  \  y  \  \f  I.  1  1  249  250 >  A l e c Pc>otlass's Mourning Song  rH  > + • + + -  )°' f' s  4-  2*48"  +-  M  M  M  !  M  i  l  IN *  M  •*  x . •  *—_r-^  b >  V \  —  \  i —  3  f  \  1/  \  \  ^  —  ^  \  »  *—^—p-,  1  \  1  \  -^—>>r-r-  \ \ 1  —  G\ ' M i l i I \ \ '  IH \ ^ t\  ^  G\  \ \ \ V C 'L ' V \ " ;  jfrr  p\'  tr• b \ \ \ \ i 1  M  [  \  \\[  Q  251  252  M4  I —  Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d ' s Mourning Song  2 ' 11 "  3E  y  v  is  H  C M  i  M  G\M  £ 1  M  (  \ ^M P-  ^  M  9  \ iHf 3  k  ^  i\  i  ^  v—y-  i i M v i^M^f ttz.  v  1  \  '  '  r .  ,=  i i \ ^M M i I  3 £ 1 ;  \y  1  f  '  \  f -  f  '  - p  f  '  \ \ 2  253  \ /  * f  - f  Kx  ) i  V  \  M  "  * — f X K  \  _r=>  1  \  u  1 —  \  y  IL'f \ b  ^  \  X  1  1  z?  y  f ~>  "5  \s \ V - V I T  o—t—f-—**—^—r  1  x  •  U" \ \ \ VV V V  \—"*>  1 1  .  —•  1  —y  =  —  ^ \>  T  v  ILT I \ H ^ ^  V I  s  \ ^s  ^ x — x — >  "~~^»  -X  1  ao. 1 f S  1  ' \y \ \ J  -v  1  l> " v  \  -1  t  .  '  1  x • v\  Vi  :  255  256  l \  G G ' \> M b \ ' \ \ \ ' V 0 7  .1 O  1  k  y •—  n  ' 1 i> G G  i  1  y  y-\  V t  ^ — ^ y ^ ^ \ , /T  \ T •GG \  1  x^y  rf  \ \' \  n \t '  V  _  >  /•  ;  \  1  *  7 — y  G \ G G G M GG \  50.  G  \M>; 4  -y—  6 5fL *  '  \\  x  \  :  \  \ G£ ' V \ ^  f r  x  y  v—y-  x  •  x  f f / s- * /1 11 \ f f - — ' c  vv  v vv G v v  n  257  258  M5-; A l e x a n d e r C l e l l a m i n ' s Mourning Song  *  r  vA  s  S  L  - #  sv  V  T  I  T l  T T  I  "  —  I  T  J  f  { |  1  I  y  v. /  M  f  "  y  ( |  = M = ^  >( -f  1 U  1 1  T  r  =  ^  >  ^  M M  >f >f i ^' 'f  1  —^  V  V I) I  . . — r ^ ? — - —  1  >  .  \ »• 11 t t t l• f T *  Y  <•  —j  ^ — - . \  \  t  l  —ff  n  —*  1 * 56"  -.—-r- V  T  \  > -\ \ V-4  —Y~l  T  1  ^  V•A •  •  Y Y  ^ I  ti  i  > 1• /  N' '  T \  1r  ^ - 4 -  1  "sr V 1  VV  • r—* * ^  — — ^  v V  n 7  *  259  —  —  —  7  —  I  —  f  \  \  —  —  1  X  ~Y - r  -1'  1  ^ v l  T  {  X  1  1 v  V  j  —  —  1  7  V  V-M  X  -  >  S •  'x  1  vx  vx  T —i—\  T  t *  vx  x**" g > 1 — y — f M  I  T  vx  I  '  Y  H  R (  vx  7  U[  VX  Vx  1 V T*' \  l-f  T=  r — ^ — M  *  "vx*  Vx*  x? n  V  r  '  7  n  /  ^  ^—^  s •  '  1  \  1  o > >  "VX /  V  > ^ T\=\^' I  •x  j  -V—X  VX  X "--v  .  7  v^  v/  T \ I? l>- " ^  IT  vx  x—,\  '(•" \ V = ± = $=^=^  11  /  . —  r-r  "  i  1  \/  vx  1  1  X -N \  S  GG T T T= T V  - x - . \ -  v_x  *  I \M  1  V  x  4  A  }=f  1  1  Y  *  =  260  •x  "V  y-  M6  C a p t a i n - S c h o o n e r ' s Mourning Song  4'40"  1 i /• \\  ,-A ] \ i \ \ \ \ \ I V \ H —^  ^*—\  LK  I\  1  n  ik! Ifr \ I  \>  ' * ' * y ) \ )  I t M _ r\ I \ ^ i j \' ' M ;  r r f*^\  '  ri^ i i \ \ \ ., 1 T"L> ^ * — 1 — ^ — * — — * jL__1  —  /  L  g  >  ^  ^  -  —  \ = C T  [  \  i—\  U  " ' \  •  ^  >  >  \  > M  5 ^  <P  \  '  *  /  -v  -  \  "  \  \  \? \  \  \ \  1  I  r?  i i \\\\\\ \\ , < < ^ — i ^ ^ ^ / >• • } I I —O  1  &  \ \ J*\  / . s U l <_ 1 t  \  -  ~ ' M "  [IT (•__,  ^-x  1  \  0  1  *•  '/ 5  • x  /y  y  • \  \  \  7  1  t  i  1  6—Z.  1  20T  -  1  \  ' \  f'  V  M  -  ' r r A' \  1  262  —*~~\—^  ifp H  x  y  —i—^—*—^—*—*—^—  i n i ,, j u ^  i  irV l \ , , if c,; * * * •• \ \>  —  ^  , r „„ .^M,  >  \  \ tii  !  1  l  —  1  ! t i  M  rP j , \ , V \ >\— iJ -\^ s ?I— © — ^ — o — i i ^\ \ -M1 IT i) M i M l \ .  ^  ^  —  *  —  ^  —  >  ^  _  ^  \  rp *  A  \  ,  •  ,  II.  f = \  A 1l | \ , „ , \ 1 1 i I V \ \ \ *c J \ \ \ r  1  x1  H i •  —  263  M7  X  i m k i l a  '  s  Mourning Song  ^  M  M M VM " \ ^  2'23"  264 M8  I V  Sunxwkila's Mourning Song  \  \  M  \  '  3'11"  {  \  O.  0  \  \  V  \  \  V  265  266 D1  Echo Dance Song (Schooner F a m i l y )  2-21"  0.«5  i •i ( e•  is -ca-157 •Irmn -  1  Gi  _  -y w  1  !  ± ± __ * _± -d? X tJ9 w #•  : >54..\-J.O 4/rOIYl.  1  ix  -*r  X  ,  J  I  I  I  4- -4- -V "  w  267  r\ i f \  i]  — f — f — ' J  n \  1  _____  \?  *  J—r-r.  \ \ \\ \  o — —  * ^  i^H^  T  1  1  4-  \ \, \ 1 \ R  ^  1  4  1ST  1 ^  >y  I  T  J  1  p>—| •a M •?  >q|^EH  1 1 T  9  1  1 ^  T  n -> i  ^4* — r  C  |  J  i\ i— 4 7  >  «-  9  T  \\  7  1  P ^  I  ^ G\ £  _ _ ? {|  _  *j  _  —  1  ^  _  7  268 D2  V 02"  H i U i a Dance Song (Anna Schooner)  i  i i i v i  1  1  x9  ^ '( Y  vv i ' \ \ \  \ \ V  l V "-I V V> \r  T |  y  I X  I t I  <  1  V  4=  >-V  if v >f i l l  MJ?  S3  —  1  1  EH  3  1  :  U  3  f  1  j  1 !f >(  269  r  > '. ,  M  V,_  s—y  y  r l ) ,  f ^  '  ^  f  '  1  '  • - .  1 — > • — — <  1  1  ^'  X  T •  <  M i  \ I  •  1  '  M  T  i  s  V M  {  \ L  f  M  J  H 'f  Y  V  V /'  ,  M  M  H  T  f  />.  ,  ^ — \ — p  T  W \ W  ^  t  Yt<  .  \  f  s  'Mi  v  I  ^  1  v -  M V —\  |  Y >f *  It 4  *  I V  M  I  M  —:  *- \  V  >f Y i  1  '  \t  -H^  "'  ~ ) — * — 1  l> I ' M 1 >( 1 1 1  T  V V  YI i \  f  H F H l> .V b l>  i  T  \ \  ^  •V  \•—«  T  . yr  v t-  t—i -ir  ...  \—  270  -  -7  I  >  <  P=F  ,  >  "*  > —> \  NX  \<x  77  1 1 1 ^' " T  | 1  1  r  *  x.  2  —  /=.  -r-7"—^  *  y  .  t  /  vx  z  ±  ^  =  j  >r-  y  ?  D3  Mystery Dance ( C a p t a i n Bob)  2'05"  •  —  n  \  —  f  ^  ' ^  —  —  f  n  >  \  '  —  \>-  *  —  —  \  -  ^  t  \#=^  tin.  7 /  —Y  r  Y  1  i  c  i i  f ^  T  ' H i  i  \  1  \  -r-i-  l  1  '  '  py  4  —!  1  1  *.L .....  K  V11  r  —_—_  X  11  1  1  1 /  1  =  vv.\ \ 1  1  i  1  1 1  s fn —v  \  •  >  .  >  v  -/  —  \  \  " *-> \  7  . — »  I  f  1  1 1  1  y-  s  >  /  "  ^  ^  ^  \f  1  '  1  =  »  272  \  Si  \  -  ^-  \ ,—9-  \ s~  -A  ~\  \—  \  T 4  —p-T-f  1  vy  =  1  Q  —  —  1  '  ;  V  \ \  1  1 1  y*". V  1  -1  r  1 1  x  vvu  ;  1  *~\  ?  j t |  1  1  1  1  1  1  \ r { |  "  \ '  _i  1  1 ---  V  _3-\  C_-  - b — b  -\5—V  7 —-p—rA— 1  r • 1  I  5T3  rr l)^  A x^-y  1  1  <TM  /f  ^  1  rvx  t  ri—r^H-  1  tM ' ' H I —  0  1 1  ^  _+ V +  , V-\\  \—*  Vx  —  f  -vm^  ;  1 -  — 1  1  1  J  —I  1  \  ,  .  \ \ s •s  M  •  s  s  •> V  \• \\x/  t  1I  -  xW  4-  •  1  1  1  1  273  1  -J  ^  »  i  ^  \  1  ^  |  W  ^' V M  ^  1  1 1  1  1  >  W  l  1  —  /  TTT T  I  .. -M  -  "•  .-II..  1  . 1 , 1  .,,—„.,-  274  D4  B e l l a B e l l a Dance Song ( F a r e w e l l Song)  59"  rrH (A f a — ' , f f  I V  — ^  vx  I T T 4?  I  «,x  V  )  V  }  V  vx  V  '  Vx  \ f  vx  V  ) •  v  \  vx  '  /  S-r  t  T  vx\/vx  r-X  V,/  - I --**  1  vx  vx  T TX  \  vx  Vx"  VX  Vx  [XX)  r  1  Vx  v  •  fr4  (?  Vx  v  Tt i*  '  Vx  '\ i  vx-  --x  x  \  ^  1  vx*  v  S.x  Vx  '  \  '  Vx v / '  =  ^  p  275  D5  F r e d T a l l i o ' s Dance Song  2'31"  )-<_.-|TSL  dram: V/  \S  / /  V\ "  H — I . 7*—f :  f  —-  (  f—  T^'*'  H  f^T'—^—f~—-  >^  II  \ \  ' \ \  -C_^—^—^—^—l—d—f.—/  T  1  '  f  M IV1 \ 7  K - >  '  —  *  H  '  /  •  Hi^ /  ^ <!  9  f  j  v i r n <i  1  =  *r>  \ V V v v \> i  • '—/>  1 1  f—*  1  ?  1  ri?f A A \-\ \ ^  JL  1  H  =  - —  ^-^  -1  1  1  ' " \  f  '  f  1  '  ^ — I  "?  \ v f IVH H \ "  1  j |  •  11  '  1  276  < • > ' ' ' '  It  \  S  lb—V '  M i  Iv  \  i  ."  1  1  s  ^  M  f ' i f•y n T H V M 1  *nH  \'\—\  ' •\  \ Is  T  ^  y  1  UM  *—  M  1 1  L_  r f i — L / — — , ' g . ^r-^ Y  Hi  ^  1  f—y—~f ' ti 1 rf  "  f^A  J  ,  \  J  r  —\—f—*—?—+—^—/  n -  1 1  —* r  i [  —i — i  —/ v  U  i  /—  1  /  n i l  —°r f / **  r'^n 1 1  —  277  ,  iM H  , ,  H  ^ 1  ,r\  \  i\  i'  __  J  =  M  > • < > • <  l  l  i  >  1  •= —  M  1  ?  M+  x -  \  vl I  on  — ^ 1 1  '  '  ST'  f  \> \  f  ( '  (  (  V \ \>\> I l>  rt T  1  1  '•  f  S  pM  '  '  ^  1  f-*—v-  1  *• \ 1  1  -ib—2—  11  Y 1  1  f-  M  +—f  VIM  f  > ^  &  Vv '  \ f  '/  'HI 1  1  n  1  1  1 1  278 D6  1 • 46"  Mask 'Dance (Dick Snow)  -Mp — 31  drum".  11 T i f  11  \/ ^ \/  \r»  Srf'  (t  •  v  v y  \  • -7 * / ' ' 1—f—'  >  •* n w * ' \ I  V  XX  XX  XX  T  XX  I A  1  f  XX  t  \x '  Y J  XX 1 »X  T  W  XX  Ti > H \  ff  '  1  '  vY- T  XX  W  XX  m  ~ P j — * — ' v  f  VX  vX  1 VX  \x  T T  v  Vx  \X  XX  ]  V X  \  rr  Ix  xx  f  X.  3  —  r  \  F =  9 11  '  XX  1 VX  Xx 1  *  Xx  XX  Vx 1 XX  XX-  v 'y f v  >'  T  XX  rr •  >—  '  H  1  xx •  . / T V //  T T T '  XX  1  T T'  v/  ;*7  x,  T 1  '\ T T  >-^|  V/  XX  / T V  »  y—y  1  XX  1  \ \\\ \ V '  1  \ M  SX  y  A\A I  TT T TT T T  \ i  X»X  y x•  1  •L  t  '  V^  ' —  TY T T •  Sx  > -  VX  279 D7  Clown's Dance Song  s  • -X3 -k & /  1M6"  •>  c  y- \ \ n  = -ca-lll  A_rum;  f  ,W  \ \'\ \ \ i fO  V \v \  ?  M W  c77  -4/  1  Vx  V  K«  :  1  1  1  —\—k-k—i—I—\——i—7—i—f^f^o  nj \ l ^^i x  „  Y  \ \  1  - f ; " > it-\—^—|— —  — 1 _ _  1  —  f*y.  ' W V i v\ 1  ' [ l 1  i  r ^ f  1  H  >  \ (~,  .  • )—  280  —  L i  1  1  •  •  \ '  '• '"f  L  -  u  ^  T s  i  \ M  i I \ i  •1  — ;  I i  T V  1  '  =  1  \ n\  1  \  \  \  \  \  \ \  \  I  M'1 >  281  D8  Mystery Dance  2'30"  Arum:  -n  i  i  f \ t  1  \  r (T i  —J  >  \  1 1  1 _ y—?3—-»  1  ^  \  \  ^ ^ ^ ^ <_>  \  U>i  \  ^--A—xr-t-4-  IV  .  j  \  11  ]  .W^-^;  1  T  l  \  •  \;,\  \  T ' t ' t ' 't  \  \  ?  \ \  \  \  \  r  . |  x  !  x  I  \  = x^l  \  1 ^ 4 =  I  !  282  /  \  i  -*•=» 3 —  g  *  -7-  r  Ay  n  t i T  %  i  °  *'  ^  *'  t  1  1  T  1  1  -  ^  O  /  t  t  (  " " -,"*' \  _ _  v _ »g  11  3  U-M—^  -  L  1  1  x-l—\ V  y  '' '  1  rP 1 \ \ \ p» -  1  M  4- ' -h '  1  1  i - t - x  h  \  1-  r  II  T & '  ^ * =^  — —  t  g  7 ?  {  _»^v  •\\  v  >^—y—A  V»v  \  U  v  I \ \—\—\ ->-?~4— '  ^  '  m  ^  I  H  i  \  (K Y^'  '  >  •  —<2—> —> ^  —-N  f  /  1  x—. )  ' — v  \  / •.— &  4 { -2:—) c  0  )  )  ' — ^ b * b r — ^  y  \—i ^ 0 — —  1  283  \ \ \ \  e^f  1 V  O  \' > ' Lo^) \ 1 1  1 1  j  1  1  x 3  1 |r  M  It \ \ r'^; *  - =  \  \  \  \  \ n,\  \  \  =  /^>,—) { 4 -^—>—  -H-  1  —  f4^-4 ?"1 ^  \  1  —1 1  —  \  =>=  1  |m  1 1  !-  { '  "C*]  i  :  =  1 1  284 D9  Fungus Dance (Anny T a l l i o )  > ~  '  \  VI  r  1'58"  - 4 f it-T I  rr  • V>b I  il  ,^- . f  f r  r?  \  x =  "Vrcjra-  n:  1  _ —  I-  -4 NX  "V '  y- —y ' ' 1 -4=  1  \  >. f  ' \ \>\ - M 11 J  „  ^  1  r ^ *•  -  \  I M  1  o . \  1  l  y  y  V l> v  1  7—  y 7  SKI  «  1 - ^ — ?  7—  Iv  )-—f—f—r /> ' 7 - • \\\ v  .  ~  vx  »- \ t  v>  ^x  T  T  /  1  '  —  .  f — * *  1 \x  \  1 1  VX  \ t  ,  / 9 .  i  \\ \x  VjX  \ \ * i  /  •  J  1  =  285  D10  K—e.  I  51"  D o c t o r i n g the Dancer Song (Dick Snow)  II  I \t \ 7  I  i \ \  -r-  •  e  -  ,  \ \ v \ \ \\ \ \  g r •—m.  •  e.  5\_  O.  /  x  286  D11  2'03"  R i c h a r d ' s Edgar's Dance Song  • • f  f  *  *  y.  tL  *  ^  £. e.  y  C  yg  •  tSk 1  f  f  j  +  ,  * V * . V-  Si  \ V \ \\ \\ VtT  »t  i^UHvi  ,  1  287  -f->—**  +-  -— >—•  ([  \ ^-A  —  II  *•  \  +-  Y\  71 J i f f\ \ n\ 1  /  r UW1 1( \ 1 , 1 1  \  c<<$ 5  1  ii T  V T 1t  t  288 D12  1 '14"  A l b e r t Hood's Dance Song  f  ft.  y  y  J  y  v  r ~ T  •  :  *  • \  y-  y  \  . y — y ^ — y  \ iy  T  y  y •  r V T  *  V •  >r •  Y V  Y i Y T' Y •Y V T \ Y' T 1 Y Y'  _£  _E  I ' M  "t  1  T  1  1  T T  TV T T •V T  Y t ' "t t T'  Y '( 1  ''("  T  T 'Y ' f Y  289  r  \ \> vx  vx  " VX  •  T  t—1"  - —  v  VX  •  vx  •  T—V- T x  \ \$  1  SX ^  w  v /  V T f  — — ^ •  I T  .  V ,  v ,  •  |L  VX  V x '  V x  T T T  «  V,  I  Vx  Vx  V y  *  T ' ^ PI*  VX  Vx  "  ? —  VX  VX  Vx  •  x  vx  .  'f  vx  ^  VX  1  vx  \  VX  w  I 1  vx  V X  T T \  VX •  V /  I  •  X x-\  ' \>  ' I \  I •M  —  -Sr—*—r^?—1 '? IT  vx  VX-  T T T T' Y T  I ? ) \ \ M 71 vx  vx- ^  vx  1  T' \ T \ ' T T  / " - x  \ M V _  ^x  vX  •  \  vx  •  T=fc?4=  » U ^  vx  vy  v x  M t •  vx  vx  T ' T T V»T T T r  290 Jim P o l l a r d ' s Dance S ong  D13  mr. \ ^ • )  + •>  '  \  ,=^F M l ,  \  >  o  >  o  -  \ i—T~T1  — ; — *  ,J> M  1  \  \—T  \  1 1  •  , •? — 1 — r ~ % \—-?— 1 M i JMJ. 1  " " - LI J  \—t—£—  rl> -  (fragment)  —  i  Hr~ \—\—r^r> \ \ \ (•,ii  —  - i — I  7—\  ^  \  \  i i i i i i - ^  DH  Boys .Dance Song ( L o u i e  l_  f  \—^  \ \  >• -  / \  ^  \  ^  Hall)  \ ;  .  zn-  '  *  / . i*  i t -  .1  t  .  A  — \  o i l . \ \ ..  - f - 5 - ^ — ^ — "  41"  V  ii "  \  £> n  >  -»\ *5  M =  . \  < •  6  i  D15  C h i l d ' s Dance Song ( J i m P o l l a r d )  ^  H  r — * — •  1  HO  —i >> J  D \M  v  ,  '  J  j .  22"  ;  \  \  -y-  —  1  1  —s  ,•  i -  f '  , ; )  ;  ^ —  =  292  293  294 D18  t  !  Cedar Bark Dance Song  14711  ;  rl  '-r-|  1  h'\ 77 r l rk \ MM 1  ^  > •  \  \  >  zzzzzz:  2 r> 1 T \\  \  3  \ \ \ \  r  y  l  1  \  ^  295 E1  E n t r a n c e Song ( R i v e r s I n l e t )  • !  Jr  r-  '  '  - 0  l - f  x_«v-6_  •y  ~n  • 1* 7  f'  f  n j  LA X \ '  14-  -x.  1  KM  lx-x  n i v i • M H=  \  \X  1M5"  /  T  vx  vx  v  V f  Vx  r  T f  I  VX  VX  v\ t  VX  V /  Y \  vx  2-4 VX  ?  vx  vx  T \  T  vx  X  1 11  VX>  \ \\ \  l  -7-4  V  T  V  T T  •  vx  V  i  VX  v.,  '1  l=fe  - — x — — \ — •  -*x"  VX  M- r MM  T •  VX  y  VX  1/  NX  v V V  VX  -\ M  VX  Iv  vx  VX  ix  VX-  vx  \—i——\—1—l  Vx-  1  '  T T  • 1  V X V X  Mi >  \x  V y  'M—— MMfri=*  I ^ M X X X T 1• T v  -k  VX  r~?  1  -7  Vx  V/  Vx  U  VX  vx  rv  ^  1  296 E2  E n t r a n c e Song ( B e l l a  tt>  n  y *—•>—r  \ v >  i  1 '16"  Coola)  /  >  \  /ImtnU  -  T  TTT  1  —  Y  T  'f  Y  T  Y  T  Y  =3  ¥\  lit.-  Y  1  \  ¥  \ \ Y  ' L i t e a.  =0  + <^  *  X  —  >  —  \  .  *  \  1  y  y  — X  y  X  y  x  T  '  s  *  '  +—^  - »  y  Y  y — y  I  Y  y — y _  ¥  t  \ -y-  3>z  297  2  r  - K  \  f f r-f  A. •  x  n 1 t TT T  \ xT  Y * i  i  u  i  vr  r  X -  r r r-^ TT ^ J  298  Harasi t s a Song ( C h a r l i e Snow)  H1  2-05"  : ( ( — <° ( k (  1 1  \  \> Ix'x ox-6,1^. i  d r u m :  V  -H—rt  i;  \  -\>  V  1  ^  V •  \f  S<f *  Vr*  ^  Vx  VX  Vx  vx  \ v v x v ^  V  •  H y  \x  vx  v/  v  ,f  ;  •  VX  vx  V/  vx .  ,-X  1  VX  X  I X  t x  N>  1  VX  Xf  t  V  \/  V  'f  V"  v/ X.  •  VX  f  "NX  \j  V_X  Vx  l /  f  )  V X  >  )  \) '  V X  f  )  V X  N X  -X  x  1  1 —  Xf  V /  VX  VX  XT  \x  A-  w ?S-  ; V \M > —-J^rji  VX  1 \ ' V i v a u ' u - r f r f H x x A\) i n Mi n V "4 ^ " \s ' 1) 3 ) 1 ;  Vx  J -  ^ - 13 3 3 ••! 3 i ; 1 :t_t' ; \X  \X  rt  M  "(  T|  1  ;  \- „ >. >  >  ^  v  -f  x  V V '  k  Vx  T  M  \>  —  Vx  f  x»  299  300  H3  G r i z z l y Bear Dance  i  1  1  /  .  _  \  \  ^  x  «  \  „ n  w  - ) t — V - f  T  M  ^  i o  \ \ \  cl  \ \  r—f  l  f ^  l  0  o  *  I n  -.  7  x 4 x  i  3  \  •  •  7  ^ - 4 - 4 — — ^ — h - i — ^ t/f •  '1 M  >  l  c  l  \  n „ ?, n i—*•  n — o — ^ — — — „  ?  1 *  >  ,< - — — — f — f — n r ^ - f —  n \  1 2 "  i  \ > \ \\\ m  V  '  u  t M'  >  v  *-^ri——+——  '\  ln  1  1  >  \  1 7 —  301  S1  Sham an's Song  2'41"  v1  x = <a..T^  ^r \  1  v  V^  \  f \  n  drurn:  —ti  -41  L  rX  1  v  y  y  y  y  \ /  \  "V 1' T -v A T  x  v v y  \  ' \ ^  y\v\  X' \\ '  1 r l  ^  y  *?1 I l  — 3  5. \  H i ^  ?J  n  1\  1  \f  n  ^  J L r—*—f—*—^ n \ T l  i  H i  ^ =  ' 11  o7  5 •—x  \  x \  ^———\  \f  \ 1  1  1  ^  \  1  tl\  ^ /^ s^/ —  y  ^  ^ it  1 M 7  7  /  V  v  **•  ^  \x*  P  7  V  |  /  \  i  _ ^ — g — —  V  S  \ n S  X  \  ;  "  \  x->  u ,  \  302  1  h  V  „  \  3  r.-  —  \ \  1  1  \  lp  —  fv.x  T '  fr-.  P M '  y - v  f l yV [  K/ 15.  l \ \H I  \*  '1  T  x  T  "  ?  *  S2 V — t 7 ^ f — * — y  V  \> \  ;  7  \  "  7  7  =  '  p_  NX  NX  \  T TV^4  \ X  NX  NX  NX  '  \  ^  \ * \  o  : l  -  U  1  ;=/exx.7i  Q*  '  *•  k \>  / "V  V  \  » •  303  \I'M  \? \>+  2a ~—/ '4-  s 4  x •—•-  V  +  *-,p p r  np v pp  rem T  1  * As-  n i p H-i *  —  v i  '> * f. ,  * > > i  > t  >  *—*  ij  j  II  304 S3  Shaman's Song (Jim P o l l a r d ,  \ \, \ \ \ y \\  i re- f i v i \  2 • \ ,i H __4  ^  f  M \I  i t —  ___ /r—;  1924)  — * —  —  e—Z-  -  *  \ \ r I, VMVVVVVV- ^  if—U  i"V J » .  ;  ;  v  •  ;  y  y  y  y  ,  „  ;  \ — ^  \i | H v  \-—*——J  >  >  >  \  '{  \  h - v i .» >I-  ^  ^ *  f)  ,  =  305  X I I . NON-CEREMONIAL SONGS  306  Lv1  K i t t y K i n g ' s Love Song  • \ I  °  1 '49"  »•  x-l  \ I  V  \  \  '"  xr  \X  \x-x.  x  \  'K±><"\  I  *  .  x^x  x  drum:  -77 -#  NX  vX  I T  T  \ /  vS -  j  ;  '  -7-—\-4-\—|  11  vx  vx  v  y  x  \\\ \ )  1  %  ix  •  t Y T  2  j  v x  \x  t \t \  \<  *  \  1  \ /  Vx  i  j  L  (  vx  vx  >.c  . JE  ?  >f E g z 3  I  \  1 1  7-  /  \x>  y  \~ I M P  1  i  •  \.X •  VX  IT  vX  1  j - ^.  m.  1  I T  1 :  vx  1  T  .  io,  vx  /  *•»  \ X  i  zzzzz:  ,  /  x/  \ 1  j . 4-  ^  *4--\  vx  vx  t 1 V f f  T T  k^-i  .  /  11  307  308 Lv2  1 '42"  Susan K e l l y ' s Love Song  \  -s-d-  —  -V  __2_  <S^-  -v—e-  drum  HL) v a  >( T i >(-11 >f I 1  >L \ \ r l — -  I  *  oj->  ^ - ^  1  f  1 1  Mn  T * —^—4  .)  1  <__-c  ~ 11  i\n\  T  l  T T h ( 11  1 1  <S^  ~ 11  £  _  , l c  \  *  1  y 1x y i i ^ 1 i  (r  7 7  T  T  ,  — y  1  1  ^:^M^  / <L> l  _9  N  f fr  }  -n lly ii  7 *ix  cr-7-  -y i  r cr t  309  J  A-^-J ( -  *  -  y ?? v7 V  7 7 — v 77  ^il^Ziyl  24-4  t—Tec  •7 7 1—1 1 f—f ' — a) y — 1 — \ — \ — y 7 7—v 7 7 — 2 7 — y : 7 v "> Yi ^ z e Y 1t^  t  ^ It  1. + a..  -v—y-  - f e — / - 4 -  7 " Kx  1  <*  v—~*2  — — 4  x7 7 ^ 7 7  v 7 ^ — v 7 7 ^ ? ^ s<  ^ 1 . Y' 1 1 \C  Y<^ \ I t y  i  310  Lv3  Steam  Schooner's Love  1 14"  Song  1  drum:  f \ X\ Yi Y \ T \ 'T  72  /• f  1  f~-\  <  nv T  K  T.  f '.  Vx  \X  T  1  •>< , - >c  1  4  VX  T  X  >.c  V /  3=  J  V  T  ¥  ¥  x.  -I  ¥  f ~x—  1 . f-\ \ H j — ^  ^  1  T  i. *  4—  V  X  T -\ r T  \ .\ T  ¥  v  „:  y >f y >r- y g  ¥ v >t ¥ ¥ y  Fn H  Y  ~ >f '1  t  t  t  V  ^  V  T  T  \ ,  V  T  1  1  '  311  Z  f  ' " V ^ X  \v  h -  t  •vx  \  X  \  <  \  M  \  -,  ^r,  ~  \  \ T  I  \  V  ^ \  ^  O  rP ^ ' f  \  V  I 'I  ^M' -^  :  1 VX  I  .  f  Sx'  V  \ y  ' \  vx  V  V  vx  \ X  \\  ^  vx  VJ  W"? >—  7  r  —  „  I .,  „  —  312 Jim P o l l a r d ' s Love Song  Lv4  A i v^U  \  \  \  y  O  -  . 107  drum-. -# _^  \S  I  A-  \  s  r:  N,x-  )  V T*  ?  f  \s  vy  J  N>*  \/  t  \  - V  t  J > f M  :—  y  v  1 1  v  -  7  VX  1  E  Vx  /  -*  •  t\\  V  t  vx  vx  /  i f  r  1 \  vx  /  t  VX  V.X"  \  1  = ^  v  *  B  c  —  —  M  4  —  11 < '{— A  "1  =4M  :  V X  7  Vx  r  1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — "?~~7  £  rz~X  •  \ M  11  1  y  ,  -'11 U  -  v  y  vx  }  Vx  Vx  T ^ T T l\ T  t^f  1"  \  3  >——  v  ^  1  •v  f  M M  a  ' - < ^ y  3  —  1'24"  1 " ~~\~ "1  \  V  1  VX  V*  l  \  y  Y  1 v  VX  /  v x  Vx  f V ' \ 1  \ \ ) \  /  ^p  L  1 '1  '" V  ~7  7  1"  y  t m  /  Y  y  /  1  Y  1  313  —— Hr— h p ) (• c ) T r —^—v—" T T — H -i—1 V '—-H?— -\—^  r 7  — \  1 —  \ '  -N \  \  \  V  v/  T '1  11  )C  J {  y  v  4£L  *5  / y v  \r- /!  f V'T T  X | X )f 1 X  -4  s  1  A  1  \ \ ,-,\ \ \  f>S  • *>> \  X ^  6!  1T Y  1  X  X  *  f O ^ >  M  \  1 V( T  |r \ (  ^"V =  r  T  ^ j  7 =  =  ±  1  J  J  ><, y |  314 Lv5  56"  Mrs. Jim P o l l a r d ' s Love Song  „, , /O-S.p-  drum:  1 ^ |  l  H  i  —  i  ' \ \ \ : —  l  >(• l ly  , — \ — i —  ;— - — ; * —j 7 —\^\ ;v —  1:  I  i  T  1  i V  I  1  u , —  1  1  ^ ; ; 3\  y ?  1  TI  ; .{ —4-. 1  j z z z  mm \  V  \  r  f  315 Lv6  Same S c h o o n e r s Love  1MO"  Song  1  -o—+-  ^—•—>—=—  \ \  f  \  \. \\  -x-  4  X  \  J ^ 7-  ^  1  T  V  ^  K  "V '\  1  T  1  -TT  o _  ^—  \] xx \ 1'. \ •f  X  ¥  T  i  ^  ¥  T  4  X  T  ^  ><  T '1  X  ^  316  Lv8  Love Song (owned by one o f the 1885 dancers)  - V=Sz>  o  —*  1  '  jr-:—*  b  M  ' ~~ s •  l  1  f ^—t—\— (l  Zi  -  7  2'11"  318  319  320  322 L1  1»12"  L a h a l Song (Dan Nelson)  -V  V ^  •  1 >  raw:  -v  /  y-  0; ' \ *f—»-  ii  ^  \ ,  •  •  4-  +  -7--7*  1  323  -> x  X  K /is.  \ '  o /' \  '  -»  X X X x XX X X X X X v  / —  y y y*  HIM 1 f  — i f  >  x  y  y  x  f ]|f Cp  * -  bcie'f  4Vven  pa.u.se  L a  324 L2  26"  L a h a l Song(Part Two o f L1) o.s.p. \>  v  *-  \  i>  v  '  i?  ^  \?  ^ y—y—y~  6  X  •  ^  >- . ± z  Ho, 21  4TWI.  i>  . 325 L3  L a h a l Song ( J i m P o l l a r d ,  —k-—-—II  >  '  ' — i  l ^ l i u -/  >  >  1  tf H \ \  r  1'25"  f — r  s  /  I , y  V  -* 1  \  >  r  r  It H \  7  /  HM  Tl  , iX  j *~  n—  " \ -  •  >  1 \  llP  \ \ \ , \'\ M=  1  1  1  V  *  1  y /  y-M  •  •  1  \  W T y *7  \ "  /  "f  1  M V \ 1 " \=*=»  7 l f n\VT i-M ] • —  It  y -s\ 1  \ i V 1>=M=^ 1  1  1  ; ;  '  y y  7  \M 1 \ M M 1 Ml> 1  v - i MY \  3  '  \ '' M M  *—  t-Q **  '  M 'MMM  I \  y  l> \> \  \ o  y>v\  l> M 1 M M  I V> W M ,  u  '^f  t >  v  l I ' i i l l ' H i m ' l I  r  1924)  L  '  ? l  t  \ \ \ r: ^ x i ^—^  •> r~f—i U \> \ i• f*. (M 4=»  326  ?-—,  ~i——^—f—* M*— L  -4f  W 71  v  \  *  *  •  \ \  -  fc=? \r*  i  1 /  i \  \  i  . J \ i P H I ^ ' *  1>V \ \ ^ >  —  1  M  i  •> - -\  ,  x  '  x -  < — i  -  1  1  ,1 V  ' ^ s \ s y  /  1  i  ''ui  M 1 \ \ ' ' \' ^ 4  1  \  \> \> \ —l  s s s | s *  1  H \ \  ? • * *-\ \ \  1  i  \ •  \ \\r\\  "r  r  i \  r) \ \\  If  \'^Ty  f—* *  It h  I'f  \  — > • — *  n u  f—\—r—*—>  x  V \ \  —  i  '  327  L4  L a h a l Song (Jim P o l l a r d ,  35"  1924)  o- s-p-  Z2I ;=oj..t3a.  >  0 0  H  1  \ 0 0 *  H i  I  /  /  /»• /  ' P SM  /  •  f  i  fw 7  328  529  IB  -  $  -hH^  y  J  0  \/  \>  \;  \X  vx  /  \  • i \> v/  1 1  V  / \f  vx  /  >  •'  p v ^  <=5  \ \ \ V\\  x • /v, >; \ I  £r—k  ^—f—f—r^f  i . \  w  ? \ f '  4  /  V/  T \  1  1  \  \ \  vx  vx  "I  A  1  Jrt-->  ^—Y—t-^  vx  330 A2  1M9"  W i l d Canary Song  , \/o.*.p.  \  )^ ctx. 6y  \\  \  \ \ '' I  \ \  ram: -X  K-  u. s.  ^<  X-  ^ — X  — » — 1 1—  ^>  f  I  i  •  [  — ^  n  i  \1  n  f-4  rift \ 'i \ \ \ 14\ - f  \  3f  ^  :  ^—5  -  '  -  ;  •-  4 — ^  —^  1  l  1  £-  L  h  i  ;  —  n  1 s  \  ^  V  /*T  T  \ ^  1 s—I— /i  —  /  -X-  *  —  1  1  , V \  —  3  >»<-'  T  L  1  332 A4  Deadwood Worm's Song  f> y o.s. P. ~—f-^ -ftr-*— = F =  27"  f—f  " -  ^  ^—a—^—%—t—t  \—^  y  —ft ~Mr  ^_^  -—\  ->  333  334  A6  Trout  Song  34"  I o.S.p.  \ \ \ \ ' VH  f i  yam:  ~>f *  W  f  x~x-  f  I  \  '  \  '  11  \  3=3  ^ 1  X  K > , < • — ¥ ^  /  31-  V  vx  vx .  T T  '  1  vx  vx •  T T  1 U x ,.'|H V/ vx <r - ^ :  TT  1  T  L  )  ^  • >. >  V • « X VX •  335  ~k  vf 1  f — f — \ "  \ \ \  f  \  T  f  f  * 1  ? •  \M=M ' \  f v  ~—v  y i  =a /1  I  ti—7—  >  i  1  1  i  \ \  /  7  1  >  t  ^  •'  336 A8  Boys F i s h i n g  18"  Song  o-s.p.  s  *  *  •v—y-—y-  y  >  y  *  f  -y  ^=r=Y  J  ^  \  V  s—q  Droning C r y ( J i m P o l l a r d , 1924)  ..^  3  v..  Answering C r y  3  32:  ^« CA.- if a.  \  ZZZZZZZZZ2I  \ M l M=f  t o t a l duration: ca.  19"  337 G1  I n d i a n P a i n t - B r u s h Flower Song  A  a  \>  — \ — 1 > //  \  r.  • " VX  \ y  NX*  x  Vx-  T  If—  I  2 •>  \  VX  Y  x  x  l» U  y  "  V G  VX"  Vx»  A  vx.  T  I  .  Vx-  vx  T  T  \x-  VX  x  Vx-  Vx-  T  1  f  .  1  T  - J  V \- \ •  1  VX"  1  T T \  u  vx  VX  Y  x^A  T  V  - '  T  Vx*  VX  *  f \~ X '  v \  \  "  \X  T  VX"  t x ^  \ — ~ -  f  y  x  i?  Vx-  x -  T  X  i>  V  v X  x -  n  V  Y  ^ >  r  T  V  T  Vx-  I- T T  •vx  V  1  *\x  -y  38"  X x  T  =*  V vx  VX  Vx  T  T T  VX"  V  =i  338  539  CD  V i s i t o r ' s Song  G3  -N -4 -v  ^ H=—'  V  —7  ^! > —  / \K i^  >» . —  J - > "( •  =  >  1  37"  >  ^3 • —  >.  \ \ \ V. , ^ \ \  »  7 Y  \  \  V  r k  •  •  •  M  f  ,  ' l\ \ \ \ ' l v i \ v \i  -  ,  ,[|  340 NOTES  1. F o r a good summary o f t h i s e t h n o g r a p h i c see Kennedy and Bouchard 1977:38-40. 2. I w i l l use the term " t e x t " t o r e f e r t o r a t h e r than m u s i c a l f a c t s .  literature  linguistic  3. M c l l w r a i t h ' s wax c y l i n d e r r e c o r d i n g s are housed i n , the a r c h i v e s o f the N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, Ottawa. These have been t r a n s f e r r e d t o magnetic tape, numb e r s 72-1029 to 72-1033 i n c l u s i v e . 4. I s h a l l employ the term " c o n s u l t a n t " as one would the term " i n f o r m a n t " i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p a r l a n c e . 5. I use " f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e x t " t o r e f e r , t o the s i t u a t i o n s i n which music i s used i n B e l l a C o o l a s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , the term f u n c t i o n i s here i n t e n d e d to denote use. 6. P h i l i p D a v i s ' s study B e l l a Coola. T a l e s and Songs(1967) i s a l i n g u i s t i c not an e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l work. I t i n c l u d e s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f f i v e Love songs sung by the l a t e Mrs. Anna Schooner. S i n c e f o u r o f these were a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n my f i e l d r e c o r d i n g s , o n l y one forms p a r t o f t h i s sample. S i n g i n g s o l o and unaccomp a n i e d , Mrs. Schooner sang these songs i n a much f r e e r manner r h y t h m i c a l l y than d i d the p r e s e n t - d a y s i n g i n g group. I n h e r m i d - e i g h t i e s when she sang t h e s e songs, she not u n e x p e c t e d l y had t o s t r a i n i n o r d e r t o perform them. N e v e r t h e l e s s h e r s i n g i n g i s permeated w i t h a charm and d i g n i t y t h a t can o n l y be e x p e r i e n c e d and never t r a n s c r i b e d . 7. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f the B e l l a C o o l a terms i n the t e x t are from Kennedy and Bouchard(1977). The song t e x t s i n Appendix I I I , s u p p l i e d by Henk Nater, form a n o t a b l e exception.  341 8. Many examples o f these s t a t e s o f c r e a t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n , are c i t e d i n K o e s t l e r ' s The Act o f C r e a t i o n (1975) and The C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s (1952), ( G h i s e l i n , e d . ) . 9. U s i n g w r i t t e n t e x t s , M c l l w r a i t h assumed t h i s r o l e i n the w i n t e r ceremonies o f 1925-1924; he d e s c r i b e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as b e i n g "wearying i n the extreme." The s p e l l i n g s o f the B e l l a C o o l a terms f o r t h e s e p e r f o r m e r s are M c l l w r a i t h ' s (1948 11:270-27-1). 10. The s e v e n t y - t h i r d t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s not a song. I t i s a d r o n i n g c r y u t t e r e d by Jim P o l l a r d on M c l l w r a i t h ' s tape 72-1051, song 2 9 ( c ) . The d r o n i n g c r y was used by women when masked f i g u r e s appeared i n the dance h a l l . I t was answered by the c r y o f the messenger-servants. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e c r i e s , which a r e sung c o n c u r r e n t l y , are p r e s e n t e d a f t e r the Boys F i s h i n g song(A8) i n P a r t Three o f t h i s study. 11. A l l o f my l i v e r e c o r d i n g s were made w i t h t h i s equipment at the same l o c a t i o n on August 4 and 5, 1975. A copy o f t h e s e r e c o r d i n g s has been d e p o s i t e d with, the N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, E t h n o l o g y D i v i s i o n . 12. The B e l l a C o o l a p r e f e r t o c a l l the shaman an Doctor".  "Indian  13. To the b e s t o f my knowledge, Simon Johnson was not a shaman. M c l l w r a i t h g i v e s us no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the s i n g e r s o f h i s shaman song r e c o r d i n g s , Lame C h a r l i e and Jim P o l l a r d , were shamans. I t was d i f f i c u l t t o gather information concerning t h i s e s o t e r i c occupation. I r e c e i v e d the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t i s viewed somewhat p e j o r a t i v e l y today. 14. Whether o r not t h i s t e x t i s a d i r e c t , t r a n s l a t i o n the B e l l a B e l l a i s unknown. The t e x t s o f Hm1 and are p r o v i d e d i n Appendix I I I . 15. The i m i t a t i o n o f b i r d song may a l s o have p l a y e d a f o r m a t i v e r o l e i n the " c r e a t i o n " o f these animal motives.  from Hm3  342 16. There i s no l o n g e r an I n d i a n Agent i n B e l l a  Coola.  17. The sound o f the K u s i y u t . a p p e a r s on no r e c o r d i n g s a v a i l a b l e to me. M c l l w r a i t h d e s c r i b e d the sounds o f the w h i s t l e s as n o i s e ; t h i s l i k e l y a c c o u n t s f o r why he n e v e r r e c o r d e d t h e i r sound. 18.  A more c o n c r e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how these 2 p a r t themes a r e o r g a n i z e d can be o b t a i n e d by comparing them to the p a r t s of. an a n i m a l . The (a) p a r t o f the theme may be. c o n s i d e r e d i t s head, the (b) s e c t i o n i t s body, and the. (c) s e c t i o n ( i t s c l o s i n g , p a t t e r n ) i t s t a i l . I t i s t h e r e f o r e the body and the t a i l t h a t are v a r i e d and "developed" i n t h i s form type.  19.  T h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s a l s o found i n S a l i s h , and R w a k i u t l musics.  20.  F e l i c i t y Walkus found t h i s song p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d f o r an E n g l i s h language v e r s i o n , o t h e r s simply d i d not t r a n s l a t e as w e l l .  21.  Appendix I I I c o n t a i n s a d d i t i o n a l song, t e x t s t r a n s l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by Henk N a t e r .  22.  A l t h o u g h i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t more such correspondences e x i s t , M c l l w r a i t h ' s r e c o r d i n g s are now o f such poor q u a l i t y t h a t o n l y a s m a l l number were t r a n s c r i b a b l e .  23.  I n t h i s song, Mary P o l l a r d (Jim's w i f e ) mourns the death o f h e r son (by a former husband) who d i e d i n a l o g g i n g a c c i d e n t i n A l s a s k a . When.she h e a r d o f h i s death, Mary f e l t p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . She f e l t t h a t she had made him l e a v e when she l e f t h i s f a t h e r f o r J i m s P o l l a r d (Margaret S i w a l l a c e : p e r s o n a l communication). T h i s f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the song's t e x t :  Oh my dear, My son I caused him to take o f f My son, Ananay my dear  Nootka,  and  543 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barbeau, C. 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I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , V i c t o r i a , B.C. O r i g i n a l : S i s s a u c h dansen. Ymer (1895) 15:1-23.  Jorgensen, Grace 1970  A Comparative E x a m i n a t i o n o f Northwest Coast Shamanism. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: M.A. T h e s i s ( A n t h r o p o l o g y ) .  Jorgensen, Joseph G. 1969  S a l i s h Language and C u l t u r e . Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s .  K i e f e r , Thomas M. 1969  "Continuous G e o g r a p h i c a l . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M u s i c a l P a t t e r n s : A T e s t Case from the N o r t h west C o a s t , " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , v o l . 71 no. 4 , 701-70*T  348 Kinkade, Dale 1976  Koestler,  "The S a l i s h a n Languages." Paper, presented, a t the Northwest Coast S t u d i e s Conference, May 12-16, 1976, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Arthur  1975 Kopas,  The A c t o f C r e a t i o n .  London: Pan Books, Ltd,  Cliff  1970  B e l l a C o o l a . Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s L t d .  Lomax, A l a n 1968  F o l k Song S t y l e and C u l t u r e . Washington: American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f S c i e n c e , P u b l i c a t i o n no. 88.  Meek, Jack 1972  " P r i m i t i v e M u s i c a l Instruments o f t h e N o r t h west Coast," The Midden, v o l . 4, no. 3, 11-17.  M c l l w r a i t h , Thomas F. 1948  Nettl,  The B e l l a C o o l a I n d i a n s . 2_yolum.es. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s .  Toronto;  Bruno  1954  N o r t h American I n d i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : American.Folklore Society.  349 Nettl,  Bruno  1969  "Musical-Areas Reconsidered: A C r i t i q u e o f N o r t h American I n d i a n Research," Essays i n M u s i c o l o g y . E d i t e d by Gustave Reese and Robert Snow. U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 181-189.  N i b l a c k , A l b e r t P. 1971  Ravenhi11, 1938  "Music," The_Coast I n d i a n s o f Southern A l a s k a and N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. U.S. N a t i o n a l Museum Report f o r 1888. New York: Johnson R e p r i n t C o r p o r a t i o n , 329-332. A l i ce "Songs, Dances and M u s i c a l Instruments," The N a t i v e T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Victoria, B.C.: The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 89-92.  R o b e r t s , Helen 1970  " M u s i c a l Areas i n A b o r i g i n a l North America," Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, Number 12. New Haven: Human R e l a t i o n s Area P i l e s P r e s s , 3-41. F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1936.  R o b e r t s , Helen and Herman K. H a e b e r l i n 1918  "Some Songs o f t h e Puget Sound S a l i s h , " The J o u r n a l o f American F o l k - L o r e . v o l . 31, no. 122, 496-520. ; " •  R o b e r t s , Helen and M o r r i s Swadesh 1955  Songs o f t h e Nootka I n d i a n s o f Western Vancouver IslandJ P h i l a d e l p h i a : Transactions o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 45, p a r t 3, 199-327.  350 Shapero, H a r o l d 1952  "The M u s i c a l Mind," The.^Creative. Process, E d i t e d by Brewster G h i s e l i n . Berkeley: University of California Press,49-54.  S t o t t , Margaret 1975  B e l l a C o o l a Ceremony and A r t . Ottawa:. N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man Mercury S e r i e s , Canadian Ethnol o g y Paper No. 2 1 .  S t u a r t , Wendy B. 1972  Gambling Music of_ the Coast S a l i s h I n d i a n s . Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man M e r c u r y ; S e r i e s , Canadian E t h n o l o g y S e r v i c e Paper No. 3."  Stumpf, C a r l 1886  "Lieder der B e l l a k u l a Indianer," V i e r t e l j a h r s c h r i f t f u r M u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t . 2:4.05-426.  Swanton, John R. 1912  "Haida Songs," A m e r i c a n . E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y Publications, v o l . 3. E d i t e d by Franz Boas. L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 3-63.  T a y l o r , Donna 1959  " A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s on A r t , " Readings i n Anthropology, V o l . I I . E d i t e d by Morton H. F r i e d ,  478-490.  "  '  351 Thornton, M i l d r e d V a l l e y 1966  I n d i a n L i v e s and Legends. Vancouver; Press L t d .  Mitchell  T u r n e r , Nancy J . 1973  "The Ethnobotany o f the B e l l a C o o l a I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia," S y e s i s 6;195-220.  Virchow, R u d o l f 1886  Die A n t h r o p o l o g i s c h e Untersuchung d e r B e l l a Coola.. B e r l i n : Verhandlungen der B e r l i n e r G e s e l l s c h a f t ftlr Anthropologic, Ethnologie, und U r g e s c h i c h t e , 206-215. (Manuscript t r a n s l a t e d by D i e t r i c h B e r t z f o r the B.C. I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1977)  352  A P P E N D I X E S  353 APPENDIX I. A NOTE ON THE PERFORMERS AND The  of  COLLECTORS  songs p r e s e n t e d here are sung by t h r e e  and by f o u r s o l o i s t s . problem  THE  To add f u r t h e r c o m p l e x i t y to the  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  taped s o u r c e s .  groups  the songs come from a v a r i e t y  To economize, the f o l l o w i n g l i s t  of  a b b r e v i a t i o n s has been c r e a t e d :  Performers Group 1 =  Agnes Edgar F e l i c i t y Walkus Margaret S i w a l l a c e Dan  Group 2 =  Nelson  Agnes Edgar Hank K i n g Dan  Nelson  F e l i c i t y Walkus all  Group 3  o f Group 1 except f o r Dan  Soloists: A.S.  =  Anna Schooner  J.P. =  Jim P o l l a r d  L.H.  =  Louie H a l l  D.N.  =  Dan  Nelson  Nelson  354  Sources o f Taped M a t e r i a l  B.C.I.L.P.  =  B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy. Dates, o f r e c o r d i n g : 1971, 1972, 1975.  P.D.  =  P h i l i p Davis. Date o f r e c o r d i n g : September, 1966.  M.V.T.  =  M i l d r e d V a l l e y Thornton. r e c o r d i n g : 1946.  B.O.T.  =  B e l l a C o o l a Band O f f i c e t a p e s . o f r e c o r d i n g unknown.  T.F.M.  =  Thomas F. M c l l w r a i t h . d i n g : 1922-1924.  M.S.  =  Margaret S i w a l l a c e . unknown.  A.K.  =  Anton K o l s t e e . Dates o f r e c o r d i n g : August 4-5, 1975.  Date o f  Date  Dates o f r e c o r -  Date o f r e c o r d i n g  The a b b r e v i a t i o n s l i s t e d above a r e c o r r e l a t e d , w i t h  the  songs i n the. c h a p t e r - e n t i t l e d . The.. A n a l y s i s o f .the. F u n c t i o n a l Groupings.  There the p e r f o r m e r s a r e . l i s t e d : before, the, c o l l e c -  t o r s and a r e s e p a r a t e d  from, them by means o f a diagonal, l i n e .  Thus the. Headdress, song of, C h i e f , Sam P o o t l a s s . (H1) i s . i d e n t i f i e d as H1  (Group 1/ A.K.)•  355  APPENDIX I I THE AVERAGES OF THE STRUCTURAL average duration  CHARACTERISTICS melodic movement  % using portamento  SONG TYPES  average tempo  Headdress  i =ca.113  2'30"  77% l e v e l 2 3 % descend  71%  Mourning  } =ca.82  3' 00"  1/2 1/2  level descend  90%  Kusiyut Dance  J=ca.99  2'03"  22% descend 78% level  44%  Entrance  )=ca.89  1M5"  1/2 1/2  level descend  50%  Hamatsa  !=ca.85  1 '22"  2/3 1/3  descend level  100%  Shaman  J=ca.78  1 '00"  100%  level  66%  Love  )=ca.97  1 '27"  7 0 % descend 30% l e v e l  40%  Lahal  l=ca.143  1«00"  1/2 1/2  descend level  33%  Animal  }=ca.84  56"  1/2 1/2  descend level  12%  Game  )=ca.65  37"  1/2 1/2  descend level  33%  356  SONG TYPES  rhythmic ac c ompaniment  % oxscale types  Headdress  type 1 ( c )  f o u r tone - 46% f i v e tone - 38% s i x . tone - 8% t h r e e tone - 8 %  Mourning  unac c omp a n i e d  f o u r tone - 56% t h r e e tone - 11% f i v e tone - 33%  Kusiyut Dance  type 1 ( c )  f o u r tone - 65% t h r e e tone - 23% f i v e tone - 12%  Entrance  type  f o u r tone - 100%  Hamatsa  t y p e s 1 ( c ) ; 2(b) 4(b)  f o u r tone - 66 2/3% f i v e tone - 33 1/3%  Shaman  types 1(a);3  t h r e e tone - 66 2/3% f o u r tone - 33 1/3%  Love  type 2 ( a ) ; 2(b)  f i v e tone - 50% f o u r tone - 30% t h r e e tone - 20%  Lahal  type 3  f i v e tone - 50% f o u r tone - 50%  Animal  type 2(b)  t h r e e tone - 50% f o u r tone - 38% f i v e tone - 12%  Game  type 1 ( c )  t h r e e tone - 50% two tone - 50%  1(c);(b)  357  SONG TYPES  % employing modal c e l l s 1  2-  Headdress  84%  8%  Mourning  37%  50%  13%  -  Kusiyut Dance  55%  22%  11%  -  Entrance  100%  -  Hamatsa  33 1/3%  Shaman  -  Love  -  Lahal  3  33 1/3%  33 1/3%  Game  33 1/3%  6  6%  6%  -  50%  50%  5  8%  33 1/3%  Animal  4  12.5%  -  -  -  33 1/3% -  66 2/3% -  50%  -  33 1/3% -  12.5% -  33 1/3% -  12.5% 12.5%  66 2/3%  358  SONG TYPES Headdress  Mourning  Kusiyut Dance  Entrance  Hamatsa  average range ( i n semitones) 9  10  9  12  9  idiosyncratic  feature(s)  84% modal c e l l 1 Sisawk w h i s t l e s  use o f p a r l a n d o - r u b a t o l e n g t h ; unaccompanied 78% l e v e l Kusiyut w h i s t l e s  hybrid range  songs  use o f minor seconds Hamatsa w h i s t l e s  Shaman  10  esoteric  texts  Love  14  wide range 10% descend  Lahal  12  use o f f a l s e t t o f a s t tempo  Animal  8  Animal m o t i v e s  Game  7  brevity narrow range  359 APPENDIX I I I SOME ADDITIONAL SONG TEXTS H.1  C h i e f Sam P o o t l a s s ' Headdress (Wordless  H.2  chorus: huyaha,  Song  ihinuhu)  Alh7ayuts t u tuu  That's what she s i n g s ,  Tsi  The woman who gave b i r t h t o u s :  nu7usqnamktulhs  Wa s c l h k w ' a l h t n t a l h  That  C t i nukwlaax  ... t h e sun ...  su t ' a y c .  ... i s our c r e s t  Stu n t s kwluka  So i t ' s me,  S i x i l a a x a y c s t'ayc  The r e a s o n why ... a r e s l a n t i n g ,  T i an7apsulh  t'ayc  ... t h e v i l l a g e s ...  T i Waxit su t ' a y c .  (Towards me,) Waxit.  Andy Schooner's Headdress  Song  (Wordless  chorus: huhu... h i h i . . .  ayaha7uwa... h i y a . . . )  Ka y a ma t s ' n t'ayc  He might be good  Yaw  To be t e a s e d ;  ska pcucwtsamim su t'ayc  T i a y a y l a y c l h t'ayc  He has a l r e a d y done so,  T'alh7alhqwaxwalus s u t'aye.  Wanted t o be a raven;  TI'alhinawitaw,  Go ahead p e o p l e ,  An7anustsayanmip  t'aye  L i s t e n t o him:  T l ' a p u t s l h t s ' n t'ayc  He'll  start  Sa wa smsmamalhas t ' a y c .  T e l l i n g a myth.  360 Ti  That shames him,  siums k'u t'ayc  The  Aya s a t s ' a l a h l h su t'ayc, H.3  Tallio  Hans' Headdress  Echo.  Song  (Wordless chorus: ayahuhiyahu  ayahu... h i y a h i y a  a h a h i i . . . ya hawi...) Tsictsik'lits anaxwaw  Poke the totempole,  Yaw  a l h t i lhmaynuclhits;  The one t h a t I e r e c t e d ;  Yaw  ska puntimutlhap.  Here you w i l l  1  Sa a l h k ' c i i x w t s a w i t a w  Keep l o o k i n g  Alh  At my  t i sq'upayats t'ayc,  The H.4  suffix  -nuc  receive  gifts.  smoke.  ( " c a u s a t i v e " ) i s an o l d e r form o f - n i c ,  Agnes Edgar's Headdress  Song  (Wordless c h o r u s : a h a y i y a ( w ) . . . h i y a . . . ) Takan kw t ' a l h i  yaw  Ala  su.  taqw'lh awa  Somebody has 2x  arrived  Downriver t h e r e .  Wana k ' y u k i t s ya,  I'll  S p u x i t s ya.  And put f e a t h e r s on  Nuk'ciktaxwaw  Look i n t o  Wa  Where the eagle-down i s ,  nuspuxtatum  Ta mnaakaslhts  ay.  My  go and see who  it is, him/her,  (the b a s k e t )  father's  (basket).  361 H.5  F e l i c i t y Walkus* Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: hayahahaw... hayahayahu... y i y a . . . ) Nulhcut smt axw  H o l l e r a t him,  Laqut su t ' a y c .  Laqut he i s .  T i a y u t s su t'ayc  He  Ska s c w t l ' u s l a y c l h a w .  That they won't have enough  said  to s e r v e .  H.6  Ulh t'ayc tuu,  To t h i s one t o o ,  U l h t i itskw t u u t c ,  To t h a t one t o o ,  U l h t'ayc t u u ,  To t h i s one t o o ,  Ulh n t s . tuu.  To me t o o .  T s l h l i t s ' m t s ' n t'ayc  He's p l u c k i n g h i s own f e a t h e r s ,  Laqut su t ' a y c .  Laqut.  C h a r l i e Snow's Headdress Song (Wordless chorus: wu h i wuhuya ha h i ...) Alatsicwap'17uks  Why  Axw  Not come s t r a i g h t  sak'ayalhap  do you  U l a s u l h t s awa su  Into my house  Ska nukw'psttimutap  To f i l l  y o u r s e l v e s up  Ska x s l c t i m u t a p ?  .And get f a t ?  Wa s i c s i 7 a y u t s a p  When you have  said  362 (That) he's on the  Unikwalhamalh t'ayc  middle (of the f l o o r ) Ka s p u x l h i t s a l u t ' a y c .  I'll  put eagle down on him,  Sm7aylhtum kwalu t u u  I t has happened  to him  before  H.7  Wa nuskwlutsulmc t ' a y c  ? ? ? ? ?  S7alhtamlhuk'liwalh*,um t'ayc,  Making him  George Nelson's Headdress  repulsive.(?)  Song  (Wordless c h o r u s : ahuwa haw... h i y a h i y a . . . ha7uwaw, yaya y i y a ha... ) T l ' a l h i n a w i t a w (Tl'alhinanaxwaw) Come ye  H.8  S7an7apsulhap.  Citizens.  Anustsayanmip t ' a y c  L i s t e n to t h i s  T i nunusq.'aaxm.  The one t h a t ' s c r y i n g .  Aylhtum kw su t ' a y e ,  I t happened  Umc7it  (To) Umc7it.  su t ' a y c .  Simon Johnson's Headdress  to him,  Song.  (Wordless c h o r u s : ayahahaw... h i h i h i . . .  )  Unamktsuttxw7it  B r i n g him out,  T i yayxuts t'ayc.  T h i s one who to  Asp'amklis t ' a y c  one,  knows  talk.  He kept h i t t i n g  how  363  M.2  T i a l h i m i s su t ' a y c .  What he has w i t h him.  A l h y u t s x a k'u  T e l l a s t o r y (your  Ala  I n your house.  sulhnu.  Ska papqtsutnu  Name y o u r s e l f  Ca nunulhkw'amkicw.  Your " h i g h names".  story)  Jack K i n g George's Mourning Song (Wordless chorus:  ananayaw=exclamation o f sorrow)  Nunusq'aaxma7itaya wa suyuncwnu  C r y w i t h her, Sky,  Yaw  With t h i s woman c r y i n g .  ska alh7naycutsicwaya  tsi  7nanimut. Yaw ta  s k a sak'ayalhtum kw t'ayc  T h e y ' l l take t h e c h i e f  staltmcaya  U l h t a a s 7 a t s i m i s t s k i yaw  To a boat o f N u a k i l a .  Nuakila. Yaw  s k a sak'ayalhtum kw  T h e y ' l l take  Icwapatsut  Icwapatsuyut U l h t u ask'inwasmis t s k i  yaw  To Smawn's c l o u d .  Smawn. A l h p l p l x a n i t u m kw t i n u l h t n i k t a  Abalone i s on the c e n t e r p o l e i n t h e sky  Yaw  s k a alh7nimuttum kw  Umq'umklika.  Umq'umklika b r i n g s the gifts.  364 Lengthened forms o f r e s p . suncwnu and D.1  Echo Dance Song (Schooner f a m i l y ) (Wordless  chorus: ha hu haha hu...  )  Kulh7 acw sant anawi t  Hear and  Sa wa  To our mothers.  statnmts  ats.  listen  Ilhq nlhatnmmutsmlhim  They are  C t i kw'alhtnta  By the  1  D.2  Icwapatsut',  saw.  Alh7acwsnmctxw i s u  He  Ti  The  numimyalsikan.  (Echo's) c r e s t .  should  listen,  one w i t h b i g ears.  Ilhq'nlhatnmmutsmlhim  They are  C t i kw'alhtnta  By the  saw.  irritated  irritated  (Echo's) c r e s t ,  M i l h a Dance Song Spucwpuxlits'lhim  its'ika  Aya . t i k w n i k l h i t s t ' a y c .  They put chorus  eagle;down  On the ( p o l e ) I'm  walking  on. Numnlhimutiklhits  Halfways I r e s t e d  Aya  On  t a s k w n i k l h i t s ay,  the  ( p o l e ) I'm  walking  on, Ulh t i syanalusas  L e a d i n g to the best p a r t  Aya t i suyuncw su t ' a y c .  Of the  Smkw'pstayclhts  F a s t I got b e t t e r ,  iluts'ika  Alh  ta  skalaaqwsmlhits  Lha  slhiixwnuclhits  ay.  When I My  world.  saw  cherished  one.  365 D.5  C a p t a i n Bob's Mystery (Wordless 1sta Wa  Dance  chorus: ha7ay... yahiyaa7ay... So i t i s  a l h 7 a y a kuka  Because he's mad' a t h i m s e l f ,  silhcwayctimutas ayiya  Alhquxiixwtimut  uhu...)  That he has h i s head  t s ' n t'ayc  covered, Ti  snuslq.'ayalsaw  The one who  ayiya.  knows e v e r y -  thing.  D.17  Nutl'ikmaktnra t s ' n t'ayc  He r a n away w i t h  Ti  The a c t i v e  snutl'xmulhlayaltaw  ayiya,  something,  man;  T i a l h t s a l c l i w a m l h i m t'ayc  They c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e  Yaw  What h i s name  ska paaxaynuclhim  ayiya.  T h u n d e r b i r d song (Margeret (Wordless  out  was.  SiwallaceK  chorus: aya aya... )"  Yaw  ska scwmcwmaltwalaycs  There w i l l  Yaw  a l a suyuncw a t s .  In  Yaw  ska s c a l t w a l a y c s  There w i l l be bad weather  Yaw  a l a suyuncw a t s .  In  Yaw  ska  It w i l l  Yaw  a l a suyuncw a t s .  slk'laltwalaycs  suyuncw i s a lengthened  In  the  form o f suncw  x"  lightning  sky.  the  the  be  sky. c o o l down sky. "sky"  366 Hm.1  C h a r l i e Snow's Hamats'a Song (Wordless  chorus: hamamay... )  Alhxilcustimut  He has appeared,  itaw  T i pacpakwaya t'ayc  The  Hamats'a,  U l h t i k'isnumawstnms t'ayc  To the one h e ' l l  share  (food) w i t h , The  T i pacpakwaya t ' a y c . Hm.3  Tallio  Hamats'a.  Hans' G r i z z l y Bear Dance  (Wordless  c h o r u s : huya h i . . . nan7u... nan nan... )  I s t a n t s a l u t s ' n t'ayc  It's  me  (Grizzly)  Yaw s t a g * a a x a l i t s su t'ayc.  That has many t e e t h "bunched up".  Lv.1  K i t t y King's (Wordless  Lovesong  chorus: aya...  ayahayahaw...)  2. Nuk'caaxamaats'it (2x)  Look back t o me  Ay k a uslhmaynucicw  When you g e t on top  Icmntanu awcwts.  Of where you're  3. Kw'alhtnakamaat'it (2x)  Make a s i g n  Ka umatmits  Where I ' d get  Ti  My a c h i n g h e a r t .  skmalaycalhts.  1. P c u l h c u l h l a maa su (2x)  going.  It i s a beautiful place  Ka icmntanu awcwts,  To where you a r e g o i n g ,  Aya  My f r i e n d .  samatmc.  367 I v.. 2  Lovesong  from Kimsquit  (Susan  Kelly)  (Wordless c h o r u s : aya... h i y a . . . anaanaw... ) Alatsicwlhts lmastuks  F o r what r e a s o n w i l l I  Tu wayc skwankwanaatalhts.  Be c r y i n g ?  Ka nulhnusanmaamaks  Two p e r s o n s  Aya k a i l u s l h t s a n t .  Have passed me by.  Wa s i l h c w a y c t i r a u t a s  The r e a s o n why ... i s  1  going crazy (Ti) slq'ayats t'ayc.  ... my mind ...  Inicwayclhts'lmastuks  I p r e t t y n e a r l y want  Ska  To j u s t f l o a t  p'iixlatimutalhts.  Ka a l h i i l h a n m l h t s  When I w i l l be  tuts'  (At t h a t l o n g p o i n t ) .  ( A l h t a tsakwaya f a x ) . Agnes Edgar "Tm7ayutslhts  says about  t h i s v e r s e ( i n the e n d ) :  l u t s ' c t'axw" = " I j u s t s a i d  up) those (words) . 11  around.  A c c o r d i n g t o Margeret  (= made Siwallace i t  s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by: Ka  When t h e y ' l l f i n d me  slqu'ayamklhtsant  A l h t u s u l u t su t'axw. Lv.3  Steam-Schooner's K'ilhmntnaqw'stsay A l h t i smt t ' a y c ,  F l o a t i n g i n t h e water.  Lovesong I can't see ( I wish I c o u l d see) 2x  Through t h i s mountain,  368 Ka Lha  To make s i g n s  qaaxt'usmits  To my l o v e d one.  nulhkw'iikmmalhits  Q(ayay t i s l q ' a t s t'ayc  My poor h e a r t i s a c h i n g  Ulh  For you, my dear.  i n u , numaw.  Stop c r y i n g ,  T s a y u t s x , kntaw  2x  Ska kwanatnu t s ' y a .  Stop c r y i n g  darling, (Don't c r y ,  darling). Kmalayc t i s l q ' a t s  My poor h e a r t i s a c h i n g  Ulh  F o r you,  i n u , numaw;  dear.  Q'ayay t i s l q ' a t s t'ayc  My poor h e a r t i s a c h i n g  Ulh  For you,  i n u , numaw.  dear.  * s l q ' a t s i s a lengthened form o f s l q ' t s "my s o u l , h e a r t " Lv.4  Jim P o l l a r d ' s Love Song (Wordless chorus: aya y a y a . . . ) A l h 7 a y t s ts'akw  I wish I was l i k e  C t s i stantapilhm tsc  A bat:  Ska s i c s i q w ' a t s  To f l y around,  Ska  To l o o k around  icaasnuctits  Ta l h k w ' a m k l h t i t s t'axw. Lhaaxuya U k i s t i n .  -*  Poor  Ta skwanatalh  t'axw.  Augustine.  Long Jack was t h e one  Long Jack kw su kuks T i acwsniclhtan  F.or my l o v e d ones.  2x  Who h e a r d Them c r y i n g .  369 Lhaaxuya  Poor  Ukistin.  Augustine.  l h a a x u y a i s the Chinook J a r g o n word f o r "poor, Lv.9  pitiful"  Another Lovesong (Steam-Schooner) (Wordless  chorus: ayaya...  ayaw ayahaw... )  A l h k ' c i c w a y a l h t u tuu  Do you ever l o o k  Stampusanu t ' a y c ,  At the one you grew up w i t h ,  Tsactsakwaya  A tall  T i n u s k u t ' i n i t'ayc.  This nuskut'ini.  Ka t l ' a p n u a l h tukw'  I f ever y o u ' l l  Ulh  A c r o s s the  t a txwnayaax t'awx,  Tl'apmtsinu Ska kwntsinu  I'll  tuts' tuts'.  And  one,  river,  go and f o l l o w get you  I f ever y o u ' l l  Ulh  To the c l o u d s , I'll  Asuk'anmts t u t s ' Ska kwntsinu  tuts . 1  And  go  be a wind get you back.  * p r o b a b l y a member o f the Nazko t r i b e "Nazko I n d i a n s " )  you  back.  Ka t l ' a p n u a l h tukw* t u sk'inwax t'axw,  go  (Carrier  nasku-t'en  

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