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Selective studies in musical analyses of Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs : a structuralistic approach in… Lillos, Brian Martin 1977

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SELECTIVE STUDIES IN MUSICAL ANALYSES OF BEAVER INDIAN DREAMER SONGS: A STRUCTURALISTIC APPROACH IN ETHNOMUSICOLOGY by BRIAN MARTIN LILLOS B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Music  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y , 1977 (c)  B r i a n M a r t i n L i l l o s , 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  for  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department of  Musir  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  Date  It  1 February  1977  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l approach which i l l u m i n a t e s the s t r u c t u r e o f one genre o f Beaver I n d i a n music - - s p e c i f i c a l l y , Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  The a n a l y t i c a l approach o r  developed here d e r i v e s from p r e v i o u s i n q u i r i e s i n ethnomusicology  scholarship  methodology  i n the a r e a o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t  and from a n a l y t i c a l models e x t r a c t e d from  s t r u c t u r a l i s m and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h music.  The scope o f the t h e s i s  r e s t r i c t e d t o the s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f f o r t y - f i v e Beaver dreamer songs.  No o t h e r genre o f Beaver I n d i a n music i s  is  Indian  scrutinized  s t r u c t u r a l l y and no o t h e r North American I n d i a n music i s d i s c u s s e d  here.  The methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s .  Chapter I i n t r o d u c e s the problem.  development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s  Chapter II  i n ethnomusicology  examines  from 1880 t o  the 1900,  from 1900 t o 1930, from 1930 to 1940, from 1940 to 1954, and from 1954 t o the p r e s e n t .  Chapter III  p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f the c e n t r a l  and methods o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m by d i s c u s s i n g s t r u c t u r a l i s t approaches s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods. analysis.  structuralist  tenets  ideologies,  towards f o r m u l a t i n g methods o f i n q u i r y ,  and  Chapter IV c o r r e l a t e s s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h m u s i c a l  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Chapter IV r e v e a l s i d e o l o g i c a l  correlations,  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a p p r o a c h , and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r u c t u r a l ism and musical a n a l y s i s .  Chapter V p r e s e n t s  and c u l t u r e o f the Beaver I n d i a n s . include discussions  on:  previous  an o v e r v i e w o f the music  Sub-sections scholarship,  within this geographic  Chapter  location  i i  and general e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s t o r y o f the B e a v e r , music and the s u p e r n a t u r a l , uses o f m u s i c , Beaver I n d i a n m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , and a d d i t i o n a l notes on t h e m u s i c .  Chapter VI i n v e s t i g a t e s the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver  I n d i a n dreamer songs v i a the methodology developed i n Chapter IV. c o n t e n t s o f t h i s Chapter a r e : structural  s e l e c t e d musical t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , s e l e c t e d  a n a l y s e s , a c o m p a r a t i v e study on the s t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l  o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs, and a d d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l Chapter VII  The  genres  descriptions.  concludes the s t u d y .  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h r e e f o l d .  First, i t  some knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver dreamer songs.  presents  Indian  Second, i t p r e s e n t s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f sound m a t e r i a l  h i t h e r t o unanalyzed.  T h i r d , i t develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l  approach f o r the study o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n non-Western music a t e c h n i q u e which has n o t been u t i l i z e d b e f o r e i n the a n a l y s i s North American I n d i a n music.  —  o f any  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I. II.  Introduction  1  The Development o f S t r u c t u r a l S t u d i e s i n Ethnomusicology  6  A. B. C. D. E. F. III.  V.  25  A. B.  26 30  S t r u c t u r a l i s t Ideologies S t r u c t u r a l i s t Approaches Towards F o r m u l a t i n g Methods of Inquiry S t r u c t u r a l i s t Methods Summary  3 6  The C o r r e l a t i o n o f S t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s  40  A. B. C. D.  41 43 44 61  Ideological Correlations C o r r e l a t i o n s i n Approach Methodological Correlations Summary  The Music and C u l t u r e o f the Beaver I n d i a n s :  A A  An Overview  66  Previous Scholarship Geographic L o c a t i o n and General E c o l o g i c a l C o n d i t i o n s H i s t o r y o f t h e Beaver Music and the S u p e r n a t u r a l Uses of Music Beaver I n d i a n M u s i c a l Instruments A d d i t i o n a l Notes on the Music  67 69 70 72 75 76 77  The C o n s t r u c t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s o f Beaver I n d i a n Dreamer Songs  86  A. B. C. D. E. F. G. VI.  7 10 12 15 17 20  The I d e o l o g i c a l and T h e o r e t i c a l Bases o f S t r u c t u r a l i s m  C. D. IV.  Developments, 1880-1900 Developments, 1900-1930 Developments, 1930-1940 Developments, 1940-1954 P r e s e n t T r e n d s , 1954-1976 Summary  A. B. C. D.  Selected Musical T r a n s c r i p t i o n s Selected S t r u c t u r a l Analyses S t r u c t u r a l M u s i c a l Genres o f Beaver I n d i a n Dreamer Songs: A Comparative Study A d d i t i o n a l Musical Description - iii -  87 * A±  L  u  VII.  Conclusion  Appendix Selected Bibliography Annotated  Discography  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many persons have a i d e d me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , both a c a d e m i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y .  I would l i k e t o thank Mr. Hans B u r n d o r f e r  (music l i b r a r i a n ) f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s ; P r o f e s s o r Thomas Blom ( E n g l i s h grammarian) f o r h i s  editorial  a s s i s t a n c e ; M i s s C l a r e Warner f o r t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t ; P r o f e s s o r  Robin  R i d i n g t o n ( s y m b o l i c a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e sound m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s ; P r o f e s s o r E l 1 i Kongas Maranda ( s t r u c t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) f o r her c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s r e g a r d i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s ; P r o f e s s o r Dale Kinkade ( l i n g u i s t ) f o r h i s i n f o r m a t i v e o p i n i o n s on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c - m o d e l s t o m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s ; P r o f e s s o r Doreen B i n n i n g t o n ( e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m ) f o r h e r . c r i t i c a l comments on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the t h e s i s ; a n d , P r o f e s s o r Donald McCorkle ( h i s t o r i c a l m u s i c o l o g i s t ) f o r h i s e d i t o r i a l comments.  Most i m p o r t a n t ,  however, has been t h e i n v a l u a b l e h e l p o f my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r  David  Ming Yueh L i a n g , whose c r e a t i v e approach towards s c h o l a r s h i p , a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e on e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , and o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h i n g a b i l i t i e s e n a b l e d me t o c o n c e i v e t h i s t o p i c . and s p o n s o r s h i p  Moreover, h i s  encouragement  i l l u s t r a t e both h i s s c h o l a r l y i n t e g r i t y and p a t i e n c e .  A t a much l e s s f o r m a l l e v e l , I would l i k e t o thank my w i f e f o r her spiritual  guidance w i t h o u t which I would have stopped months ago.  As  w e l l , I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a d e a r f r i e n d , Robin R i d i n g t o n , f o r opening my mind t o t h e r e l e v a n t n o n - l i t e r a t u r e o f the Beaver I n d i a n s .  - v -  CHAPTER I  Introduction  Late i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c h o l a r s began t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t t n the music o f peoples o u t s i d e the Western t r a d i t i o n .  This  has i n c r e a s e d over the p a s t n i n e t y y e a r s ; the advent o f the  interest gramophone,  the use of non-Western m u s i c a l phenomena by s e v e r a l t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Western-composers,  and the growth and p o p u l a r i t y o f a n t h r o p o l o g y  as  a formal d i s c i p l i n e have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development o f a f i e l d o f s t u d y known today as e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y . study has been and i s s t i l l non-Western music.  The purpose o f t h i s f i e l d o f  to achieve a b e t t e r understanding  W i t h i n the areas s c r u t i n i z e d by  of  ethnomusicologists,  the g e n e r a l agreement t h a t non-Western music i s not " p r i m i t i v e " but  is,  i n f a c t , h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i s e v i d e n c e t h a t s t e p s have been made towards a c h i e v i n g t h i s  goal.  The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t non-Western music possesses a s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l t o each c u l t u r e , p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s  problems f o r  ethnomusicologists.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l Western t e c h n i q u e s o f a n a l y s i s  have  proved e x t r e m e l y e t h n o c e n t r i c i n the e x a m i n a t i o n o f non-Western music and have, a t t i m e s , r e s u l t e d i n m i s l e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the s t r u c t u r e  - 1 -  2  o f non-Western m u s i c J  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem has been  e x t r e m e l y apparent i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f music  from n o n - l i t e r a t e  cultures. The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l Western methods f o r a n a l y z i n g nonWestern music and t h e g e n e r a l agreement t h a t non-Western music i s h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d have c o l l e c t i v e l y generated t h e c e n t r a l concerns o f t h i s thesis.  That i s , t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e v e l o p and u t i l i z e  an a n a l y t i c a l  approach which i l l u m i n a t e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n  dreamer songs - - a music whose c u l t u r e has no s e t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s or "music t h e o r y " l i k e those known and understood i n t h e West. will  A c e n t u r y from now t h i s a t t e m p t t o i n i t i a t e a methodology which f a c i l i t a t e the comprehension, a p p r e c i a t i o n , and communication o f  structural  i n f o r m a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs w i l l  be superseded by t h e works o f o t h e r s c h o l a r s .  From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f  1976, however, t h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s a s c h o l a r l y a t the M a s t e r ' s  obviously  attempt,  l e v e l , t o g a i n a knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f music  p r e v i o u s l y unanalyzed. The methodology used i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs d e r i v e s from p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h e a r e a o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r i e s i n ethnomusicology and from a n a l y t i c a l models e x t r a c t e d from s t r u c t u r a l i s m and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m u s i c .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the proposed  methodology emanates from t h e approach t o the s t r u c t u r a l study o f n o n Western music r e v e a l e d i n t h e works o f such s c h o l a r s as Mantle Hood. F u r t h e r , i t b u i l d s from p r o p o s a l s which c o r r e l a t e s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s made by such s c h o l a r s as Bruno N e t t l .  Thus, the  3  theoretical  framework f o r t h e proposed methodology i s d e r i v e d from  structuralism.  Its  i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s , however, stems from a b e l i e f  t h a t non-Western music must be approached on i t s own terms and t h a t a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s d e s i g n e d t o examine t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s p e c i f i c non-Western music s h o u l d be an outgrowth o f e x t e n s i v e o r a l o f such a m u s i c .  analysis  As a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e two, t h e proposed methodology  i s based upon l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s ; t h e s e begin w i t h the s i m p l e s t (phoneme) and work t o the most complex (morpheme). The scope o f the t h e s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f one genre o f Beaver I n d i a n m u s i c , namely, dreamer songs.  And the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the proposed methodology t o the s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e dreamer songs i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d t o the m u s i c a l parameters o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n a p p a r e n t i n t h e s e songs.  No o t h e r genre o f  Beaver I n d i a n music i s s c r u t i n i z e d s t r u c t u r a l l y d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h i s t h e s i s and no o t h e r North American I n d i a n music i s d i s c u s s e d .  Similarly,  no a t t e m p t i s made t o a p p l y the proposed methodology t o the e x a m i n a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n music as a c u l t u r a l  phenomenon.  R a t h e r , o n l y those  a s p e c t s o f music as a sound phenomenon which have been deemed o f e m p i r i c a l v a l u e and which can be e v a l u a t e d o b j e c t i v e l y a r e examined by t h e proposed methodology.  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f  t h e s e dreamer songs i s g a i n e d by examining the dreamer songs o f t h r e e Beaver I n d i a n shamans (dreamers) whose songs are c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f dreamer songs from t h e Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e .  The t o t a l number o f  songs a n a l y z e d i s f o r t y - f i v e and as a body o f sound m a t e r i a l they r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the music a v a i l a b l e t o the r e s e a r c h e r .  4  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h r e e f o l d .  First, i t  presents  some knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e of Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  Second, i t p r e s e n t s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f sound m a t e r i a l  h i t h e r t o unanalyzed.  T h i r d , i t develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l  approach f o r the study o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n non-Western m u s i c ; t h i s approach i s b u i l t from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f s t r u c t u r a l studies i n ethnomusicology.  The t e c h n i q u e i t s e l f has not been u t i l i z e d  b e f o r e i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f N o r t h American I n d i a n musicThe remainder o f the t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s :  Chapter  II  p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i v e account o f t h e r e s e a r c h p e r t i n e n t t o the d e v e l o p ment o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y ; C h a p t e r I I I  p r e s e n t s an  o v e r v i e w o f the c e n t r a l t e n e t s and methods of s t r u c t u r a l i s m ; C h a p t e r IV p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s  and  s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c l o s e s the proposed methodology f o r t h e s t u d y ; C h a p t e r V p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f the music and c u l t u r e o f the Beaver I n d i a n s ; Chapter VI p r e s e n t s s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs; C h a p t e r VII  p r e s e n t s a c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t u d y .  5  Footnotes  For t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e term s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music means the way i n which m u s i c a l elements (sound phenomena) a r e assembled i n a s p e c i f i c m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f non-Western music t h e r e f o r e e n t a i l s an a n a l y t i c procedure i n which attempts a r e made t o d e c i p h e r the component p a r t s o f a song and deduce how they f i t t o g e t h e r . T h i s a n a l y t i c procedure and subsequent u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r non-Western music i s s i m i l a r t o the way i n which many c o m p o s i t i o n s t u d e n t s i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e t a u g h t the c o m p o s i t i o n a l procedures o f the g r e a t composers. For example, i n o r d e r t o understand the c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s o f J . S. Bach many s t u d e n t s are shown t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l w i t h which Bach was w o r k i n g and the way i n which he arranged t h i s m a t e r i a l i n t o a c o h e s i v e e n t i t y - - a musical composition. In t h i s sense l e a r n i n g the c r a f t o f m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i s analogous t o d i s c o v e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e way i n which the m u s i c a l elements from a p a r t i c u l a r non-Western music are assembled.  CHAPTER  II  The Development o f S t r u c t u r a l S t u d i e s  in  Ethnomusicology  An h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e development o f s t r u c t u r a l  studies  i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y from the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t o the p r e s e n t day r e v e a l s the way i n which s c h o l a r l y achievement i s the p r o d u c t o f an on going d i a l e c t i c - - a d i a l e c t i c which w i l l  c o n t i n u e to b u i l d upon,  m o d i f y , and r e a s s e s s the achievements o f p r e s e n t day i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; j u s t as i t has done i n t h e p a s t .  A major development i n t h i s  dialectic  o c c u r r e d midway i n our c e n t u r y .  P r i o r t o t h i s time s t r u c t u r a l  studies  i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y were l a r g e l y t h e b y - p r o d u c t o f s c h o l a r l y attempts t o d i s c o v e r and a n a l y z e t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s as such they r e v e a l c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y .  1  o f non-Western Such s t u d i e s  music;  include  Ellis'  i n v e n t i o n o f t h e c e n t s s y s t e m t o measure m a t h e m a t i c a l l y the i n t e r v a l s and the p i t c h e s from v a r i o u s non-Western m u s i c a l s c a l e s , structural  Fillmore's  t r e a t m e n t o f s c a l e p a t t e r n s i n Omaha m u s i c , von  Hornbostel's  and H e r z o g ' s s t r u c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n between mode and s c a l e , and R o b e r t ' s and H e r z o g ' s s t r u c t u r a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m u s i c a l phrase i n North American Indian musics. investigations  S i n c e about 1955, s c h o l a r s  have c o n t i n u e d  fruitful  i n a l l o f these areas and have, i n a d d i t i o n , attempted  t o examine m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e per se i n non-Western m u s i c .  - 6 -  These attempts  7  i n c l u d e M a n t l e Hood's e x a m i n a t i o n o f Javanese modal s t r u c t u r e s and Bruno N e t t l ' s proposed c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models and musical a n a l y s i s .  Endeavors  l i g h t on s t r u c t u r a l  A.  Developments,  such as these have thrown v a l u a b l e new  studies.  1880-1900  The impetus f o r the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y seems to have come from H e l m h o l t z ' s t u d i e s on the a c o u s t i c s o f sound and h i s b a s i c c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s c a l e systems natural  laws o f sound p r o d u c t i o n ( H e l m h o l t z 1875).  d e r i v e from the His w r i t i n g s  helped  g e n e r a t e an i n t e r e s t i n the study o f sound p a t t e r n s - - i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p i t c h p a t t e r n s o f non-European m u s i c .  The i n t e r e s t shown i n p r i m i t i v e  and O r i e n t a l music by A l e x a n d e r J . E l l i s , an E n g l i s h p h o n e t i c i a n , may s e r v e as an example.  With the a i d o f A l f r e d James H i p k i n s  measured and compared the p i t c h systems  Ellis  o f numerous s t r i n g and wind  i n s t r u m e n t s and p l a c e d p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on i n t e r v a l s and s c a l e types ( E l l i s 1884).  The t o o l used most o f t e n by H i p k i n s and E l l i s was E l l i s '  c e n t s s y s t e m o f t o n a l measurement, e s s e n t i a l l y a d i v i s i o n o f the o c t a v e i n t o 1200 " c e n t s " ; t h e s e " c e n t s " were d e r i v e d from a c t u a l f r e q u e n c y by l o g a r i t h m i c a l f o r m u l a (McLeod 1966:2). identical  The E l l i s system a l l o w s a l l .  i n t e r v a l s t o be e x p r e s s e d i n i d e n t i c a l whole numbers  (Kunst  1955:11-16). Ellis'  use o f e x a c t sound measurements f o r t h e m u s i c a l parameter  o f p i t c h broke new ground i n the s t r u c t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p i t c h phenomena i n non-Western music.  H i s mathematical measurements o f t h e  J  8  a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f non-Western p i t c h systems c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s t r u c t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f non-Western m u s i c a l s c a l e s and i n t o n a t i o n systems.  The study i t s e l f i s exemplary o f t h e i n t e r e s t shown by  i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e s a l i e n t or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f p i t c h systems  by the use o f e x a c t sound measurements.  scholars  non-Western  Ellis'  work  must be p r a i s e d f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f interval  s i z e s and s c a l e t y p e s ; when viewed from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f  and c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f non-Western m u s i c , E l l i s offers l i t t l e assistance  1976  however,  to s c h o l a r s w i s h i n g t o d i s c o v e r and  i n t e r p r e t the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components and groups t h e r e o f m o d i f y one a n o t h e r m o t i v i c a l l y . W h i l e E l l i s f o c u s e d h i s e n e r g i e s on p i t c h , J . C. F i l l m o r e broadened t h a t f o c u s i n h i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d attempt t o d e s c r i b e the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Omaha music i n terms o f Western t o n a l i t y .  In  a n a l y s i s , p u b l i s h e d i n an addendum t o Fletcher's and La F l e s c h e ' s  his 1893  p u b l i c a t i o n on the Omaha ( F l e t c h e r and La F l e s c h e 1893), F i l l m o r e announced h i s d i s c o v e r y o f what he c a l l e d " l a t e n t harmony" and p a i n s t a k i n g l y demonstrated i t s presence i n Omaha m u s i c .  In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s c a l e  p a t t e r n s o f the songs he found t h a t w h i l e some adhered t o p e n t a t o n i c major and minor forms o t h e r s e x h i b i t e d d i v e r g e n t p a t t e r n s :  "There  remained some v e r y p u z z l i n g cases o f songs whose tones c o u l d n o t be reduced t o e i t h e r the major o r the minor s c a l e s , whether complete or i n c o m p l e t e , because c h r o m a t i c tones were u s e d " presence o f m o d u l a t i o n :  (1893:290-91).  F i l l m o r e assumed the  "Since these melodic a b e r r a t i o n s  . . . are  e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y accounted f o r by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r n a t u r a l harmonic r e l a t i o n s , and i n no o t h e r way, I am f o r c e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l l  9  e f f o r t s t o reduce p r i m i t i v e m e l o d i e s t o s c a l e s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the n a t u r a l harmonies i m p l i e d i n them must prove f u t i l e "  (pp. 2 9 1 - 9 2 ) .  Working from t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , F i l l m o r e harmonized the m e l o d i e s ,  somewhat  i n the s t y l e o f hymns, and p r e s e n t e d t h e r e s u l t s to the I n d i a n s f o r verification.  He r e c o r d s t h a t the I n d i a n s , upon h e a r i n g t h e i r songs  p l a y e d on the p i a n o , "were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h o u t the a d d i t i o n o f t o the m e l o d i e s " ( p . 2 9 2 ) .  chords  And f u r t h e r , o n l y c e r t a i n h a r m o n i z a t i o n s  satis-  f i e d them; F i l l m o r e f a i t h f u l l y r e c o r d e d and p u b l i s h e d t h e s e h a r m o n i z a t i o n s . Fillmore's analysis  gave more m u s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n than t h a t n o r m a l l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p i t c h - c o n s c i o u s f o l l o w e r s o f E l l i s .  He n o t e d , f o r  example, t h a t the rhythm o f Omaha music was p o l y m e t r i c , employed compound rhythm, and had s y n c o p a t i o n between drummer and s i n g e r .  He d e s c r i b e d  the m u s i c a l form as b e i n g b a s i c l i t a n y , and noted t h a t the p r e v a l e n t m e l o d i c l i n e was d e s c e n d i n g .  H i s a n a l y t i c a l attempts t o g a i n a s t r u c t u r a l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c a l e and harmony i n Omaha music are commendable. B u t , the development o f h i s a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a centric.  proved e x t r e m e l y e t h n o -  These c r i t e r i a used Western methods f o r a n a l y z i n g  non-Western  m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than d e t e r m i n i n g a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a from the concepts i n h e r e n t t o non-Western m o d a l i t y .  As a r e s u l t , h i s a n a l y t i c a l  f i n d i n g s have been d i s m i s s e d by o t h e r s c h o l a r s .  Thus, u n l i k e E l l i s '  r e s e a r c h which p r o v i d e d a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n upon which l a t e r s c h o l a r s c o u l d b u i l d toward a f i n e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p i t c h phenomena, the f r u i t s o f F i l l m o r e ' s r e s e a r c h have been l a r g e l y d i s m i s s e d .  T h i s i s not t o  however, t h a t F i l l m o r e made no c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s ethnomusicology.  in  On the c o n t r a r y , h i s r e s e a r c h e s p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e  c a v e a t t o any who would i n n o c e n t l y e v a l u a t e non-Western m u s i c a l by the s t a n d a r d s  say,  o f the West.  phenomena  10  B.  Developments, 1900-1930 In comparison w i t h the attempts made t o a n a l y z e the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s  o f non-Western music p r i o r t o 1900, a gradual d e s c r i p t i v e r e f i n e m e n t took p l a c e i n the f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y .  This  t r e n d reached i t s most p r o d u c t i v e stage i n 1928 w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f two s h o r t a r t i c l e s , one by E r i c h M. von Hornbostel and the o t h e r by George Herzog.  Von Hornb o s . t e l s " A f r i c a n Negro M u s i c " 1  (1928) i s a  f i n e example o f t h i s r e f i n e m e n t , f o r i n t h i s work he d e s c r i b e d nonWestern music as l a c k i n g i n harmony b u t p o s s e s s i n g c e r t a i n " n a t u r a l " t r a i t s such as downward m e l o d i c m o t i o n , g r e a t v a r i a n c e i n i n t e r v a l s i z e , no norm o f i n t o n a t i o n , and modes o f p e c u l i a r types ( l a t e r c a l l e d p e n t a t o m ' c outlines).  These modes he suggested were consonant o n l y a t t h e f o u r t h ,  f i f t h , and o c t a v e w i t h t h e r e s t o f the tones b e i n g q u i t e f r e e . analysis  This  i m p l i e d t h a t no s u c c e s s i o n o f f i x e d degrees c o u l d e x p l a i n  non-Western music and t h a t melody had t o be c o n s i d e r e d as an u n d i v i d e d entity.  He broke the p i t c h e s o f the mode down i n t o predominant  ( t o n i c and d o m i n a n t ) , s a t e l l i t e s ( l e a d i n g t o n e s ) , and s e r v a n t s t o n e s ) , a l l o f which have d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s :  tones (passing  "The p o s i t i o n o f the  d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a r i e s both w i t h i n the m e l o d i c u n i t y and towards each o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e the mode and the melody" (von H o r n b o s t e l  1928:36).  A c c o r d i n g t o von H o r n b o s t e l , s c a l e may be c o n s i d e r e d as a f i x i n g o f r e l a t i v e p i t c h , w h i l e mode i s r a t h e r a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the m e l o d i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e n o t e s , i n which r e l a t i v e p i t c h i s an outcome o f t h a t function.  Von H o r n b o s t e l ' s  a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d to the  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s c a l e and mode s e r v e d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n s i n non-Western m u s i c .  T h i s was t h e f i r s t approach t o t a k e  ethnomusicologists  11  o u t o f the e t h n o c e n t r i c p o s i t i o n espoused e a r l i e r by F i l l m o r e ; a l t h o u g h i t does n o t a p p l y t o t h e music o f a l l s o c i e t i e s o r t o an  understanding  o f a l l a s p e c t s o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e , i t d i d o f f e r t h e f i r s t c l u e t o the n a t u r e o f p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the music o f some c u l t u r e s . In the same y e a r t h a t von H o r n b o s t e l p u b l i s h e d h i s i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e , George Herzog - - h i s s t u d e n t and d i s c i p l e - - attempted t o summarize t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f the music o f the North American I n d i a n s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the B a s i n and C a l i f o r n i a I n d i a n s (Herzog,1928). c o n t i n u e s the r e f i n e m e n t demonstrated by von H o r n b o s t e l .  His work  For example,  Herzog i n i t i a t e d a s e t o f a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f the musics from t h i s geographic r e g i o n .  The a s p e c t s he  chose t o examine were manner o f s i n g i n g , m e l o d i c r a n g e , rhythm, m u s i c a l f o r m , and accompaniment and t i m e . c l a r i f i e d von H o r n b o s t e l ' s ships.  The r e s u l t s o f H e r z o g ' s  research  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o d a l i t y and p i t c h r e l a t i o n -  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Herzog p r o v i d e d e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s w i t h a  more d e f i n i t i v e r e a s o n i n g and s c a l e i n non-Western  f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l l y between mode music.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f both these s c h o l a r s '  works f o r the development  o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s i n ethnomusicology s h o u l d not be u n d e r p l a y e d . T h e i r r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t s t r u c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s e x i s t between mode and s c a l e i n music.  non-Western  I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r , however, t h a t t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n e x i s t s  as a b y - p r o d u c t o f von H o r n b o s t e l ' s and H e r z o g ' s e f f o r t s t o d i s c o v e r the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f non-Western music and t h e r e b y c h a r a c t e r i z e i t stylistically;  i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a methodology f o r a n a l y z i n g m u s i c a l  s t r u c t u r e per se i n non-Western  music.  12  C.  Developments, 1930- 40 The f o l l o w i n g  decade  -witnessed a greater ethnomusicological  concern f o r those m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t y l e .  Consequently,  s e v e r a l f a c e t s o f music t h a t had not been g i v e n s c r u t i n y p r i o r t o t h i s time were examined as p a r t of an a l l - o u t attempt t o see what m u s i c a l elements b e s t d i s t i n g u i s h one s t y l e from a n o t h e r .  S i g n i f i c a n t achievements  i n terms o f s t r u c t u r a l r e a l i z a t i o n s were made d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . major t h r u s t came from Helen H. Roberts and George Herzog.  The  The b a s i c  t e n e t o f t h e i r i n q u i r y was t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e b e l i e f t h a t s a l i e n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s i n m u s i c a l parameters o t h e r than p i t c h may h o l d the key t o more d e f i n i t i v e s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . forth in detail  by Helen H. R o b e r t s .  T h i s i d e a was f i r s t put  She defended her endeavors w i t h  the argument t h a t w h i l e " c e r t a i n s i m p l e s t y l i s t i c p a t t e r n s seem to r e c u r , i n most m u s i c , . . . the b e s t c r i t e r i a f o r r e c o g n i z i n g m u s i c a l s t y l e and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m u s i c a l s t y l e s from one a n o t h e r l i e i n r e a l i z i n g the minute s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n and r e n d i t i o n " (1932:103). In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , Roberts assembled her i d e a s i n Form i n P r i m i t i v e Music ( 1 9 3 3 ) , where she presented anew method i n ethnomusicology the " t r a i t l i s t " .  --  A f t e r a n a l y z i n g songs o f t h e L u i s e n o , G a b r i e l i n o ,  and C a l a l i n e n o I n d i a n s o f C a l i f o r n i a , she o r g a n i z e d her i n f o r m a t i o n into a l i s t of t h i r t y - s i x s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s or s a l i e n t features, noting the presence o r absence o f t h e s e i n each song.  Modal diagrams i n d i c a t i n g  p i t c h as w e l l as the approximate d u r a t i o n a l l e n g t h o f each t o n a l a r e a  13  were i n c l u d e d .  By t h i s method, she was a b l e t o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the song l i t e r a t u r e o f the C a l i f o r n i a I n d i a n s (McLeod 1966:10). In the same y e a r , Herzog a s s i m i l a t e d many o f R o b e r t s '  principles  w i t h some o f h i s own c r i t e r i a i n t o a d e s c r i p t i v e d e v i c e and used i t his analysis  o f the music o f t h e Maricopa I n d i a n s (Herzog 1933).  in  His  t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n v o l v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t y l e and i n c l u d e d types o f a c c e n t , the " f l o w " o f t h e melody, a s i m p l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about the p a t t e r n s o f r h y t h m i c f i g u r e s , and even more g e n e r a l i z e d  statements.  These statements r a i s e d i s s u e s such as " s i m p l i c i t y o f t o n a l  structure"  and " c l e a r l y b a l a n c e d s t r u c t u r e " a t the formal l e v e l  (p.271).  made a comparison o f Maricopa music w i t h the Yuman s t y l e , t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and " b a r - b y - b a r "  He then  giving  v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e songs w i t h  a d e s i g n a t i o n o f mode beneath each song. By 1935, H e r z o g ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s had become s t i l l in his discussion  more  encompassing;  o f the Ghost Dance and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o B a s i n  (1935) he i n c l u d e d a m b i t u s , p h r a s e - b y - p h r a s e  formal a n a l y s i s ,  music  a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e x t , some s u g g e s t i o n s about t h e " t o n i c " as a phrase e n d i n g , and t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t c l o s i n g phrases i n P l a i n s songs o f t e n o c c u r an o c t a v e below the r e s t o f t h e song.  Of most i m p o r t a n c e , however,  was h i s seminal attempt t o d e f i n e e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a m u s i c a l p h r a s e , an a t t e m p t which l e d him t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the t e x t , t h e p a t t e r n of rests  ( s i l e n c e s ) , a c c e n t u a t i o n , and d i v i s i o n s  movement must p l a y a r o l e i n such a d e f i n i t i o n .  of melodic or rhythmic H e r z o g ' s endeavors  determine t h e n a t u r e o f a m u s i c a l phrase are o f g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l  to  importance  because they c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i r s t s e t o f a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  14  the p h r a s a l  s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music which do not r e l y  totally  upon concepts d e r i v e d from the p r i n c i p l e s i n h e r e n t i n Western t o n a l i t y . In 1936, Helen H. Roberts p u b l i s h e d y e t a n o t h e r study o f the music o f North American I n d i a n s , M u s i c a l Areas i n A b o r i g i n a l North A m e r i c a . Her d e s c r i p t i o n s , which f o l l o w e d many o f H e r z o g ' s s u g g e s t i o n s , were "stylistic".  Using both m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n and the music  i t s e l f , she attempted t o g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d e l i n e a t e e i g h t m u s i c a l  areas.  She d i s c u s s e d m e l o d i c a r c , f o r m , r a n g e , types o f i n t e r v a l s f r e q u e n t l y used, g e n e r a l s t y l e , s c a l e s , and r h y t h m i c and m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r .  In  a d d i t i o n , she d i s c u s s e d o t h e r s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s such as t h e C a l i f o r n i a " r i s e " , a process s i m i l a r t o the tendency o f Eskimo s i n g e r s to g r a d u a l l y move p i t c h l e v e l s upward. The r e a d e r can see from the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1930 t o 1940 r e p r e s e n t s f o r  ethnomusicology  a f u l l - s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f music.  non-Western  The comprehensive t e c h n i q u e s needed f o r t h i s type o f r e s e a r c h  were put f o r w a r d d u r i n g t h i s time p r i m a r i l y by George Herzog and Helen H. R o b e r t s .  In the m a i n , t h e i r methodologies f o r d i s c o v e r i n g the s a l i e n t  f e a t u r e s o f non-Western music were h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n comparison w i t h methods f o r m e r l y used and c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the development of s t r u c t u r a l studies i n ethnomusicology.  That i s , not o n l y were e a r l y  r e a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g mode and p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s c l a r i f i e d f u r t h e r but a l s o c r i t e r i a were p r e s e n t e d f o r the s t r u c t u r a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f musical phrase.  However, t h e s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was  gained  through t h e r e s e a r c h e s o f Roberts and H e r z o g , w h i l e i m p o r t a n t i n the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , e x i s t e d o n l y as  15  a by-product of s t y l i s t i c i n q u i r y .  In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s  were s i m i l a r i n t h r u s t t o t h a t which had come b e f o r e . understandings  o f non-Western music were s t i l l  That i s , s t r u c t u r a l  p e r i p h e r a l and no method  had y e t been p r e s e n t e d w i t h the e x p r e s s aim o f a n a l y z i n g m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l procedures.  Such endeavors would n o t b e g i n u n t i l  the m i d -  fifties.  D.  Developments, 1940-54 A f t e r Roberts and H e r z o g , v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s c o n t i n u e d t o s e a r c h f o r  methodologies t o c h a r a c t e r i z e non-Western music s t y l i s t i c a l l y .  Jaap  Kunst d e s c r i b e d the music o f Nias as h a v i n g t r i t o n i c m e l o d i e s , t h r e e - b e a t measures, and the use o f s t e r e o t y p e d g r a c e - n o t e s t a k i n g up h a l f o f a 6/8 bar (1940). (1942).  He d e a l t w i t h t h e music o f F l o r e s i n a s i m i l a r manner  The work o f Bruno N e t t l  (1956) - - s i m i l a r i n t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e n t  t o t h a t o f Kunst - - d e s c r i b e s American I n d i a n m u s i c a l s t y l e s and uses a methodology s i m i l a r t o t h a t l a i d down by Helen H. R o b e r t s .  A t the  same t i m e , perhaps t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s , e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s s h i f t e d t h e i r f o c u s more toward t h e s t u d y of music as a c u l t u r a l  phenomenon and attempted i n s t e a d t o enhance t h e i r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f non-Western music through the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y t e c h n i q u e s more a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l than m u s i c o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e .  This  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach t o the study o f non-Western music assumed e i t h e r o f two f o r m s .  The f i r s t approach i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h o s e s c h o l a r s who  attempted t o determine t h o s e a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e which c o l l e c t i v e l y m a n i f e s t m u s i c , f o r example, David M c A l l e s t e r , who p u b l i s h e d P e y o t t e  16  Music and Enemy Way Music i n 1949 and 1954 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and Jaap who p u b l i s h e d The C u l t u r a l Backgrounds  o f Indonesian  Music i n  Kunst,  1949.  Both M c A l l e s t e r and Kunst e x p l o r e such m a t t e r s as the f e e l i n g o f n a t i v e peoples f o r t h e i r songs, t h e s t i m u l i under which they c r e a t e t h e i r songs, and the r o l e which music p l a y s i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n s .  Such s c h o l a r s  M c A l l e s t e r and Kunst contend t h a t these type o f e x p l o r a t i o n s  as  will  a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s those a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e which m a n i f e s t m u s i c .  The  second a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach t o the s t u d y o f non-Western music  is  r e p r e s e n t e d by s c h o l a r s who a t t e m p t t o r e a l i z e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s musical patterns.  through  These s c h o l a r s f o c u s on music as a " c u l t u r e i n d i c a t o r " .  B a s i c a l l y , t h i s approach i n ethnomusicology  r e p r e s e n t s an attempt t o  move t o a g r e a t e r knowledge o f a c u l t u r e through an i n t e n s e study o f a s i n g l e aspect of t h a t c u l t u r e - - music. p a r t i c u l a r t r e n d are A l a n M e r r i a m ' s Acculturation"  Most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  "The Use o f Music i n  this  Studying  (1955), and Klaus Wachsman's "The T r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f  F o l k Music from One S o c i a l Environment t o A n o t h e r "  (1954).  The p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n s t o which t h e s e s c h o l a r l y endeavors themselves may be f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s :  addressed  how i s music a c q u i r e d by  c h i l d r e n ? what a r e the s y m b o l i c , m e t a p h y s i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s  associations  o f a p a r t i c u l a r music? what a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f music? and what are the a e s t h e t i c forces of music.  In the y e a r s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1940 t o 1954,  m u s i c o l o g y was comprised m a i n l y o f s t u d i e s such as t h e s e . with anthropological biases w i l l o f sound phenomena a l o n e .  Inevitably,  deem as i r r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r a l  studies  considerations  Obviously then, t h i s anthropological perspective  o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s s e v e r e l y hampered the development o f structural  ethno-  studies during t h i s period.  17  E.  Present Trends,  1954-1976  In comparison w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s d u r i n g which s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n was gained as a b y - p r o d u c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  i n t o the s a l i e n t  f e a t u r e s o f non-Western music and d u r i n g which the r e l e v a n c e o f s t r u c t u r a l studies  t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  scholars,  o f non-Western music was r e f u t e d by some  the p e r i o d s i n c e 1954 r e p r e s e n t s a time o f r e l a t i v e methodological  prosperity for structural studies.  I t r e p r e s e n t s a time i n  ethnomusicology  when s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s per se were u n d e r t a k e n , methodologies  were  p r o p o s e d , and t h e s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f sound phenomena was a c c e p t e d as a v a l i d a r e a o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l  research.  Two works, one by  M a n t l e Hood, the o t h e r by Bruno N e t t l , were, by and l a r g e , f o r the o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s phenomena.  responsible  For example, Hood's s t u d y ,  The  N u c l e a r Theme as a_ Determinant o f P a t e t i n Javanese Music ( 1 9 5 4 ) , by means o f i t s s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f m o d a l i t y , demonstrated the u s e f u l ness o f a s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r y . Approaches musical  i n Ethnomusicology"  And N e t t l ' s a r t i c l e ,  "Some L i n g u i s t i c  ( 1 9 5 8 ) , through i t s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a  s e m i o t i c s may be a t t a i n e d by c o r r e l a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l  models w i t h m u s i c a l a n a l y s e s ,  linguistic  generated enthusiasm f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n  of s t r u c t u r a l i s t methodologies.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Hood's study  s t r u c t u r a l l y the modes and known t h e m a t i c m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s i n  examined  Javanese  music i n an attempt t o d i s t i n g u i s h  between i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l passages and  f i x e d melodies.  o f modal s t r u c t u r e s and m o t i v i c  relationships  His u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n t h i s music was gained by means o f a s t r u c t u r a l i s t i c  method t h a t d i d not s e a r c h f o r t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f Javanese  music  but r a t h e r f o r h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t c h e s o f the melody. By so d o i n g Hood was a b l e t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Javanese  improvisational  18  techniques.  The t h r u s t o f N e t t l ' s s t u d y , by c o m p a r i s o n , was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  Using a n a l y t i c a l models d e r i v e d from s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s he p o s t u l a t e d a system f o r s t u d y i n g m u s i c a l  semiotics.  And, he argued t h a t a system  based on such p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d r i d m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s o f such n o n - o b j e c t i v e and n o n - s y s t e m a t i c  in  ethnomusicology  judgements as the presence  or  absence o f t o n a l i t y i n non-Western music ( N e t t l 1958:39). Hood's approach t o examining the s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music been adopted by many s c h o l a r s . M. K o l i n s k i  has  The works o f N. J a i r a z b h o y (1972) and  (1969) may s e r v e as examples.  To e x p l a i n the modal  structure  and i m p r o v i s a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s o f North I n d i a n music J a i r a z b h o y (The Rags o f North I n d i a :  T h e i r S t r u c t u r e and E v o l u t i o n )  u t i l i z e s Hood's concept  f o r s t r u c t u r a l l y determining h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r v a l s o f modes.  between p i t c h e s  K o l i n s k i , l i k e J a i r a z b h o y , i s concerned w i t h  d e t e r m i n i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t c h e s and i n t e r v a l s o f modes i n o r d e r t o understand t h e i r m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e .  He i s n o t ,  concerned i n t h i s study w i t h i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l  These  techniques.  however,  studies  and o t h e r s l i k e them have been o f paramount importance t o the development of s t r u c t u r a l studies  i n ethnomusicology.  That i s , t h e f i n d i n g s  Hood, J a i r a z b h o y , and K o l i n s k i p r o v i d e a most v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t the m u s i c a l systems o f non-Western  cultures —  of  into  s p e c i f i c a l l y those c u l t u r e s which  have engaged i n a b s t r a c t t h e o r i z i n g on the s u b j e c t o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i r m u s i c . 3 Seeger active  (1961) and B r i g h t  (1963) were the f i r s t o f t h e s c h o l a r s  t o p r a i s e N e t t l ' s t h e o r i e s - - t h e o r i e s based on the  o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e by a methodology d e r i v e d from s t r u c t u r a l models.  T h e i r a r t i c l e s , which b a s i c a l l y are p h i l o s o p h i c a l  currently  analysis linguistic  statements,  t o some e x t e n t echo N e t t l ' s s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the apparent  ability  19  o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models t o o b j e c t i f y s t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l  analysis  and t h e r e b y m i n i m i z e s u b j e c t i v e judgements about such t h i n g s  "tonality"  and "harmony".  Recent e x c u r s i o n s  i n t o m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r a l i s m may be found  i n N a t t i e z (1971, 1972a, 1972b, 1973) offer l i t t l e stress  as  and Asch (1972).  i n the way o f new o r r e f i n e d m e t h o d o l o g i e s ;  Both  scholars  r a t h e r , they  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the s t r u c t u r a l i s t paradigm as t h e l o g i c a l model  f o r the development o f m u s i c a l s e m i o t i c s .  The major attempts t o demonstrate  m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r a l i s m , however, have been p r o v i d e d by Ruwet (1966) and Arom ( 1 9 7 0 ) .  Ruwet b a s i c a l l y f o l l o w s H a r r i s '  (Harris  and s t r e s s e s  1951)  taxonomic d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i s m  t h e n o t i o n o f segmentation based on u n i t s  of  r e p e t i t i o n ; i n a d d i t i o n , Ruwet e m p h a t i c a l l y urges the f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f such s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s as " m o t i f " and " p h r a s e " .  Methodologically,  Ruwet,  who draws h i s examples from the Western a r t music t r a d i t i o n , advocates a procedure where m u s i c a l segments a r e r e w r i t t e n one beneath t h e o t h e r so t h a t formal s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t r u c t u r e and r e p e t i t i o n , f o r example, are i s o l a t e d and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y p l o t t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r  segments.  Arom a p p l i e s Ruwet's procedure t o non-Western m u s i c , i s o l a t i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s and o p p o s i t i o n s ( F e l d 1974:198-99).  of a l a r g e r inventory of musical  The purpose o f both t h e i r s t u d i e s  properties  has been t o  r e l a t e sound phenomena which appear s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l form o f a c o m p o s i t i o n .  T h i s method o f i n q u i r y i s one o f t h e  f i r s t attempts i n ethnomusicology compositions structural  t o examine the s t r u c t u r e o f m u s i c a l  by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a method d e r i v e d from c o r r e l a t i n g  l i n g u i s t i c models w i t h m u s i c a l  analysis.  20  F.  Summary P r i o r t o 1954 i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western  was a b y - p r o d u c t o f s c h o l a r l y o f non-Western m u s i c .  music  endeavors t o a n a l y z e the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s  As a r e s u l t , t h e s t r u c t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g  d u r i n g t h i s time was, a t most, p e r i p h e r a l .  achieved  S i n c e 1954, however, s t r u c t u r a l  s t u d i e s have come t o r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n terms o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f non-Western m u s i c . been f o l l o w e d s i n c e 1954:  Two b a s i c approaches  have  one i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f  h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t c h e s o f modes w h i l e the o t h e r  is  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i t h musical a n a l y s i s .  The s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h i s area o f s t u d y d u r i n g the p a s t  n i n e t y y e a r s r e p r e s e n t s a genuine accomplishment i n the development o f structural  studies in ethnomusicology.  A t the p r e s e n t moment a g r e a t  deal o f e x c i t e m e n t f o c u s e s upon the a n a l y s i s  of musical s t r u c t u r e  t e c h n i q u e s and t e n e t s d e r i v e d from s t r u c t u r a l i s m . which w i l l  It is this  be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  using  structuralism  21  Footnotes  1 The term s a l i e n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f non-Western music has a s p e c i a l i z e d meaning i n t h i s t h e s i s . O v e r a l l , i t i s synonymous w i t h the term " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s " and as such denotes t h o s e elements o f non-Western music which can be used as c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g non-Western music from one a n o t h e r and from Western m u s i c . The term i s a product o f e a r l y ethnomusicological i n q u i r y . In t h i s c o n t e x t i t s i g n i f i e s those " s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s " i n non-Western music such as the tendency o f Eskimo s i n g e r s t o move the p i t c h l e v e l s upward, d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f a song. S i n c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1930, however, t h e 'term has assumed a more p r e c i s e meaning. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f non-Western music s i n c e 1930 has i n c l u d e d such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s : basic p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the m u s i c ; n a t u r e o f the m e l o d i e s u s e d ; n a t u r e o f the harmonies u s e d ; t e x t u r e and o r c h e s t r a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y the s e a r c h f o r t h e s e s a l i e n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s has i n c l u d e d s t u d i e s on performance p r a c t i c e s . For the purposes o f t h i s study o n l y two forms o f t h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach to t h e study o f non-Western music w i l l be examined. Other forms w e r e , i n f a c t , i n e v i d e n c e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . However, t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e n t and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l impact somewhat p a r a l l e l the approaches d i s c u s s e d h e r e . ^ By c o n t r a s t , t h e music o f the Beaver I n d i a n s , which w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n c h a p t e r V I , i s a p r o d u c t o f a n o n - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e which possesses no " t h e o r y o f m u s i c " as i s known and understood i n the West.  22  REFERENCES CITED  Arom, S. 1970  A s c h , M. 1972 B r i g h t , W. 1963  " E s s a i d'une n o t a t i o n des monodies a des f i n s Revue de m u s i c o l o g i e , 5 5 ( 2 ) : 172-216.  "A Grammar o f S l a v e r y Drum Dance M u s i c , " SEM M e e t i n g s , T o r o n t o . "Language and M u s i c : 7 ( 1 ) : 26-32.  d'analyse",  Proceedings of  areas f o r c o o p e r a t i o n " ,  Ethnomusicology,  E l l i s , A. J . 1884 " T o n o m e t r i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s on Some E x i s t i n g non-harmonic S c a l e s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the Royal S o c i e t y o f London, 37: 368-385. Feld,  S. 1974  " L i n g u i s t i c s and E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y " , 197-217.  E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , 18:  F l e t c h e r , A. C. and L a F l e s c h e , F. 1893 "A Study o f Omaha M u s i c " , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and E t h n o l o g i c a l Papers o f t h e Peabody Museum, 1 ( 5 ) : 237-307. H e l m h o l t z , H. 1875  On the S e n s a t i o n s o f Tone.  Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , New Y o r k .  H e r z o g , G. 1928  " M u s i c a l S t y l e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Twentyt h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f A m e r i c a n i s t s , pp. 455-458.  1933  " M a r i c o p a M u s i c " , i n L e s l i e S p i e r , Yuman T r i b e s o f the G i l a R i v e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , C h i c a g o , pp. 271-280.  1935  " P l a i n s Ghost Dance and G r e a t B a s i n M u s i c " , A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 37: 403-417.  American  23  Hood, M. 1954  The N u c l e a r Theme as a_ Determinant o f P a t e t i n Javanese M u s i c . G r o n i g e n , Amsterdam.  H o r n b o s t e l , E. von 1928 " A f r i c a n Negro M u s i c " ,  A f r i c a , 1(1):  30-62.  J a i r a z b h o y , N. 1972 The Rags o f North I n d i a n M u s i c : T h e i r S t r u c t u r e and E v o l u t i o n , Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Middletown C o n n e c t i c u t . K o l i n s k i , M. 1969 '"Barbara A l l e n ' : Tonal versus M e l o d i c S t r u c t u r e , p a r t E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , 1 3 ( 1 ) : 1-73. Kunst, J . 1940  Music i n N i a s .  II",  Leyden, Amsterdam.  1942  Music i n F l o r e s , A Study o f The_ Vocal and I n s t r u m e n t a l Music Among The T r i b e s L i v i n g i_n F l o r e s . Leyden, Amsterdam.  1949  The C u l t u r a l Background o f Indonesian M u s i c . P u b l i c a t i o n LXXXII o f the Royal T r o p i c a l I n s t i t u t e , Amsterdam.  M c A l l e s t e r , D. 1949 Peyotte Music. V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , Volume X I I I , New York. 1954  McLeod, N. 1966 M e r r i a m , A. 1955  Enemy Way M u s i c : A Study o f S o c i a l and E s t h e t i c Values As Seen i n Navaho M u s i c . Papers o f the Peabody Museum o f American A r c h a e o l o g y and E t h n o l o g y , Volume X L I .  Some Techniques o f A n a l y s i s f o r Non-Western M u s i c . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y .  "The Use o f Music i n S t u d y i n g A c c u l t u r a t i o n " , American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 57: 28-34.  Nattiez, J . J . 1971 " S e m i o l o g i e de l a m u s i q u e " , 1972a  Doctoral  Musique en j e u , 5.  "What can S t r u c t u r a l i s m do f o r Musi c o l o g i e ? " , o f SEM M e e t i n g s , T o r o n t o .  Proceedings  24  Nettl,  1972b  " I s a d e s c r i p t i v e s e m i o t i c s o f music p o s s i b l e ? " , S c i e n c e s , 23: 1-7.  1973  " L i n g u i s t i c s : A New Approach f o r M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s ? " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f the A e s t h e t i c s and S o c i o l o g y o f Music, 1 ( 1 ) ~ 2 2 - 3 1 .  B. 1956  1958  Music i n P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e . Cambridge.  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  Language  Press,  "Some L i n g u i s t i c Approaches t o M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F o l k Music C o u n c i l , 10: 37-41.  R o b e r t s , H. H. 1932 " M e l o d i c C o m p o s i t i o n and S c a l e Foundations i n P r i m i t i v e Music", American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 34: 79-107. 1933  Form i n P r i m i t i v e M u s i c .  1936  M u s i c a l Areas i n A b o r i g i n a l North A m e r i c a . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y p u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y number 12, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven.  Ruwet, N. 1966 Seeger, C. 1961  W. W. Norton and Company, New York.  "Methodes d ' a n a l y s e en m u s i c o l o g i e " , m u s i c o l o g i e , 20: 65-90.  Beige revue de  " S e m a n t i c , L o g i c a l and P o l i t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s B e a r i n g Upon Research i n E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y " , Ethnomusicology, 5 ( 2 ) : 77-80.  Wachsman, K. 1954 "The T r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f F o l k Music from One S o c i a l E n v i r o n ment to A n o t h e r " , J o u r n a l o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F o l k Music C o u n c i l , 6: 41.  CHAPTER  The I d e o l o g i c a l  III  and T h e o r e t i c a l Bases o f  Structuralism  The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o r e v e a l the t e n e t s and methods c e n t r a l to s t r u c t u r a l i s m , an i n t e l l e c t u a l back t o the p h i l o s o p h i e s  o f Descartes  t r a d i t i o n which can be t r a c e d  and Rousseau but which r e c e i v e d  i t s major impetus i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y from the Genevan Ferdinand de S a u s s u r e .  The task i s not easy  l i k e most i n t e l l e c t u a l movements,  since  linguist  structuralism,  i s d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e .  First,,  s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s a mode o f thought o r an i d e o l o g y common to as w i d e l y s e p a r a t e as mathematics and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . represents  disciplines Next,  an approach towards f o r m u l a t i n g methods o f i n q u i r y .  i n i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s i t has been e x t r e m e l y  eclectic.  it And,  for  A g a i n , none o f those who c a l l  analysis  them-  s e l v e s o r a r e c a l l e d " s t r u c t u r a l i s t s " has e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d t h e fundamentals  o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m e x c e p t i n the most a l l u s i v e o r p a r t i a l  ways. F i n a l l y , the l i t e r a t u r e o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s v e r y w i d e l y  dispersed  and very o f t e n i n a c c e s s i b l e , not o n l y i n terms o f p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n but a l s o  linguistically.  T h i s c h a p t e r attempts t o d i s c l o s e the i d e o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l bases o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m by examining  structuralist ideologies,  - 25 -  discussing  26  the approaches  s t r u c t u r a l i s m employs when f o r m u l a t i n g methods o f  and r e v e a l i n g s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods.  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between an  and a method o f i n q u i r y i s c l e a r l y a r t i f i c i a l  ideology  i n t h a t nowhere does one  f i n d o n l y a system o f b e l i e f s or o n l y a system o f methods an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement.  inquiry,  concerning  These i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c e t s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m  a r e s e p a r a t e d i n t h i s manner f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y o n l y .  Any r e f e r e n c e s  t o " i d e o l o g y " and " a p p r o a c h " are concerned w i t h c e r t a i n i d e o l o g i c a l assumptions  r e g a r d i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement and any d i s c u s s i o n  "method" p e r t a i n s t o s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s used by to v e r i f y t h e i r  of  scholars  assumptions.  The term " s t r u c t u r a l i s m " i s l i m i t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o c e r t a i n common themes and approaches  found i n t h e works o f a s m a l l group o f  c h i e f among whom are Roman J a k o b s o n , Jean P i a g e t , and Claude In the c o n t e x t o f t h e i r s t u d i e s  the a n a l y t i c a l concerns o f  scholars, Levi-Strauss.  structuralism  r e s t s o l e l y w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g and a p p l y i n g a body o f methods to any g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n o f human b e h a v i o r w i t h t h e express out i t s s t r u c t u r a l  A.  Structuralist  components.  Ideologies  Three i d e o l o g i e s are i n h e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r a l i s m . all  purpose o f f e r r e t i n g -  They a r e :  that  p a t t e r n s o r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o r a r e " s o c i a l c o d e s " , w i t h  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f "language  p r o p e r " ; t h a t man has an i n n a t e  i n g c a p a c i t y which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the  structur-  structures  o f a l l types o f s o c i a l phenomena can be f o r m e d ; and, t h a t r e l a t i o n s between phenomena o r u n i t s t h e r e o f can be reduced t o b i n a r y  oppositions.  27  The f i r s t o f these i d e o l o g i e s i s concerned w i t h v i e w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o r as " c o d e s " , each p o s s e s s i n g the components o f  language.  That i s , a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y such as myths, r i d d l e s , systems o f k i n s h i p and m a r r i a g e , e t c e t e r a a r e thought t o c o n s t i t u t e languages i n a formal sense.  Hence, t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s may be reduced  t o the same s e t o f - a b s t r a c t r u l e s t h a t d e f i n e and govern what we n o r m a l l y t h i n k o f as language  (Lane 1970:14).  In o t h e r words, each s o c i a l  i s b e l i e v e d t o have a r e p e r t o r y o f p o s s i b l e terms ( p h o n o l o g i c a l  "code"  structure)  as w e l l as a s e t o f r u l e s g o v e r n i n g the ways i n which t h e s e terms can be " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r ( s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ) and " m e a n i n g f u l l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r (semantic s t r u c t u r e ) . An example o f t h i s concept i s p r o v i d e d by the " c o d e s " o f and m a r r i a g e t h a t are p r a c t i c e d w i t h i n any g i v e n c u l t u r e .  kinship  All  those  members o f a s o c i e t y who stand i n a k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n ( o r k i n s h i p  relations)  t o o t h e r members c o n s t i t u t e the l e x i c o n , o r r e p e r t o r y , o f p o s s i b l e  terms.  The r u l e s about who may and who may not marry whom comprise the syntax o r grammar.  And, the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s e r v e d o r the message r e v e a l e d  by t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n denotes i t s semantic s t r u c t u r e ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 55-79).  1963:  The s t r u c t u r a l model which f o l l o w s attempts t o make c l e a r the  concept t h a t s o c i a l codes possess the components o f language and may, i n t u r n , be reduced t o the same s e t o f a b s t r a c t r u l e s t h a t d e f i n e and govern what we n o r m a l l y p e r c e i v e as  language.  SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP AND MARRIAGE P h o n o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e - a l l those members o f a s o c i e t y who stand i n a k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n or k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s to o t h e r members c o n s t i t u t e the l e x i c o n , o r r e p e r t o r y , o f p o s s i b l e terms.  28  Syntactic Structure  Semantic  - the r u l e s g o v e r n i n g who may and who may not marry whom comprise the s y n t a x , or grammar. the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s e r v e d or t h e message r e v e a l e d by t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n denotes i t s semantic s t r u c t u r e .  Structure  The second i d e o l o g y o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t h a t i n man t h e r e i s i n n a t e , g e n e t i c a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d and determined mechanism t h a t a c t s a structuring force.  Moreover,  t h i s inherent q u a l i t y or capacity  as is  so designed as t o l i m i t the p o s s i b l e range o f ways o f s t r u c t u r i n g . t h i s i s the case (and i t i s s t i l l i n the v a r i o u s  being v i g o r o u s l y  debated by  an  If  scholars  d i s c i p l i n e s ) , then we can imagine a h i e r a r c h y i n which  the i n n a t e s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y generates a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e  for  a p a r t i c u l a r type o f a c t i v i t y - - language, myth, k i n s h i p systems,  or  m u s i c , which i n t u r n produces  the o b s e r v a b l e p a t t e r n o f s p e e c h ,  story,  The diagram which f o l l o w s attempts to show t h e t h r e e b a s i c  levels  marriage, or  sound.  3  o f such a h i e r a r c h y as w e l l as t h e manner i n which these apparent  levels  o f s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t on one a n o t h e r . INNATE STRUCTURING CAPACITY generates  S t r u c t u r e of| Language  Structure Myth  produces  produces  Speech, course  Dis-  Myths  of  Structure Kinship  of  BEHIND OR BELOW EMPIRICAL REALITY  produces  Patterns of M a r r i a g e and Family R e l a t i o n s  OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA  29  T h i s model makes c l e a r , p e r h a p s , t h e reason f o r t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t emphasis  upon t h e e s s e n t i a l  i n d i v i s i b i l i t y of a l l social  emanating from any g i v e n s o c i e t y .  phenomena  I f phenomena are s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  created  and c i r c u m s c r i b e d i n the way the diagram s u g g e s t s , then we would e x p e c t to f i n d homologies,  o r correspondences  i n s t r u c t u r e , between one  i n s t i t u t i o n o f human b e h a v i o r and a n o t h e r ; upon t h e s e homologies s t r u c t u r a l i s t s have l a i d much The t h i r d and f i n a l  the  stress.  ideology of s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t h a t l o g i c a l l y  and i l l o g i c a l l y ( w i t h i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s )  pairs  of-complementary  i n t e r a c t i n g u n i t s can be d e s c r i b e d o r accounted f o r i n terms o f t h e i r o p p o s i t e r e l a t i o n s t o one a n o t h e r .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the " r e l a t i o n s "  d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h e model e x i s t a t t h e l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e  though  they a r e , o f c o u r s e , r e f l e c t e d a t the l e v e l o f o b s e r v a b l e e m p i r i c a l reality.  In a b s t r a c t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s can be reduced t o one o f  binary  o p p o s i t i o n , and the t e r m , b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n , can be used i n two somewhat d i f f e r e n t senses.  The f i r s t sense i s p r e c i s e l y analogous t o t h a t i n  which a l o g i c i a n a s c r i b e s [p i n l o g i c i a n s '  t r u t h values to a p r o p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e  n o t a t i o n ] , such t h a t i t i s e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e , and  c o n v e r s e l y such t h a t " n o t p" f a l s e or t r u e . of c l a s s e s  "p"  [/vp  in l o g i c i a n s '  notation] is  either  T h i s sense i s f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e l o g i c a l  when the u n i v e r s e o f d i s c o u r s e  calculus  i s s a i d t o be d i v i d e d i n t o  the c l a s s x and i t s complement A/X ( " n o t x " ) , two m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and e x h a u s t i v e c a t e g o r i e s .  In t h i s c o n t e x t a s t r u c t u r a l  might d i v i d e t h e members o f a group i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s  anthropologist " m a r r i e d " and  " n o t m a r r i e d " ; t h i s d i v i s i o n would c o n s t i t u t e a b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n . second sense i n which t h e c o n c e p t i s used i s f a r l e s s r i g o r o u s  The  i n terms  30  o f formal l o g i c and i n c l u d e s the b u l k o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s structural analysis.  The t i t l e o f L e v i - S t r a u s s  1  found i n  f i r s t volume on mythology,  The Raw and The Cooked ( 1 9 6 9 ) , i s an i n s t a n c e o f t h i s sense, as the b u l k o f the o p p o s i t i o n s  he employs i n i t :  Sun/Moon, a n t - e a t e r / j a g u a r .  and " ^ x "  f o r example, f i r e / w a t e r ,  These a r e n o t l o g i c a l p a i r s o f  exhaustive, mutually exclusive categories  are  complementary,  i n the sense i n which  i s , but are shown by t h e a u t h o r t o be p e r c e i v e d as  "x"  such,  w i t h i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s , by the groups who employ the terms i n t h e i r myths  (Lane  1970:16).  To r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m :  a l l patterns  human b e h a v i o r are s o c i a l c o d e s , w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  of  language;  man has an i n n a t e s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y , which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l types o f s o c i a l phenomena can be formed; and, s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s can be reduced t o b i n a r y  B.  S t r u c t u r a l i s t Approaches  Towards  oppositions.  F o r m u l a t i n g a Method o f  Inquiry  P r o b a b l y t h e most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t method i s the emphasis Anglo-American  i t g i v e s t o w h o l e s , to t o t a l i t i e s .  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , in  s o c i a l s c i e n c e , s t r u c t u r e has been used as an a n a l y t i c a l  concept t o break down s e t s atomistic exercise.  i n t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s , an e s s e n t i a l l y  As s t r u c t u r a l i s t s understand and employ the term  s t r u c t u r e , a new importance has been g i v e n t o the l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y o f the whole over i t s p a r t s .  They i n s i s t t h a t the whole and the p a r t s  can be p r o p e r l y e x p l a i n e d o n l y i n terms o f the r e l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t between the p a r t s .  Thus, the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t  method, and i t s fundamental t e n e t , l i e s i n i t s attempt t o study  not  31  s i m p l y t h e elements o f a whole b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , the complex network o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t u n i t e t h o s e elements (Lane 1970:14). i n t h e t h r e e volumes e n t i t l e d M y t h o l o g i q u e s Levi-Strauss  For example,  (1964, 1966, 1968)  which  has w r i t t e n about the myths o f A m e r i n d i a one i s g i v e n n o t  o n l y the t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f a s e r i e s of myths and the r e c u r r e n t e p i s o d e s and f i g u r e s t h a t o c c u r i n them, but a l s o (and more i m p o r t a n t l y ) an account o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f myths t o one a n o t h e r , and the r e l a t i o n s of episodes  t o wholes.  A n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i s  the  f a c t t h a t s t r u c t u r a l i s m seeks i t s s t r u c t u r e s n o t on the s u r f a c e , a t the l e v e l o f the o b s e r v e d , but below o r b e h i n d e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . ^  In  o t h e r words, w h i l e phenomena such as myth, s p e e c h , p a t t e r n s o f m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s  can be seen and h e a r d , t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t s h o l d t h a t  what the o b s e r v e r a c t u a l l y sees i s not t h e s t r u c t u r e , but s i m p l y t h e e v i d e n c e and p r o d u c t o f s t r u c t u r e . Levi-Strauss,  (See diagram on page 28.)  i n h i s " O v e r t u r e " t o The Raw and the Cooked o f f e r s  s u p p o r t f o r t h i s approach t o a n a l y s i s .  He s a y s :  We s h o u l d not e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e men t h e m s e l v e s , who produce and pass on these myths, c o u l d be aware o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and mode o f o p e r a t i o n , though t h i s would n o t be u s u a l , but r a t h e r p a r t i a l and i n t e r m i t t e n t . (Levi-Strauss 1969:11) In an attempt t o g i v e the r a t i o n a l e f o r such a s t a t e m e n t he compares the s i t u a t i o n to t h a t o f men u s i n g t h e i r own language.  He f u r t h e r  states: Though they c o n s i s t e n t l y and c o n s t a n t l y a p p l y i t s p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammatical laws [ i t s s t r u c t u r e , i n o t h e r words] i n t h e i r s p e e c h , they w i l l n o t , u n l e s s they a r e v e r s e d i n l i n g u i s t i c s , be c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f them. Nor, i f asked would they be able to supply these laws. ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1969:12)  32  The p r i n c i p l e s e v i d e n t i n both these statements are the same, s t r u c t u r a l i s t s argue, f o r a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . the o b s e r v e r  In b r i e f t h e n , what  sees i s not the s t r u c t u r e but s i m p l y t h e e v i d e n c e and p r o d u c t  o f the s t r u c t u r e ; hence, the n e c e s s i t y structures  the  for structuralists  t o pursue  behind o r below e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y .  Further, s t r u c t u r a l i s t analysis  i s c e n t r a l l y concerned w i t h  synchronic  as opposed t o d i a c h r o n i c s t r u c t u r e s ; t h a t i s , i t s f o c u s i s upon r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s a moment i n t i m e , r a t h e r than through t i m e . time as a dimension  For the s t r u c t u r a l i s t ,  i s n e i t h e r l e s s nor more i m p o r t a n t than any o t h e r  t h a t might be used i n a n a l y s i s .  H i s t o r y i s seen as the s p e c i f i c mode  o f development of a p a r t i c u l a r system whose p r e s e n t , or s y n c h r o n i c must be f u l l y known b e f o r e any account can be g i v e n o f i t s or d i a c h r o n i c nature.  Moreover,  the s y n c h r o n i c  atemporal  than s t r i c t l y a h i s t o r i c a l  (Lane  evolution,  s t r u c t u r e i s seen as  c o n s t i t u t e d o r determined not by any h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , network o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s .  nature,  but by the  Hence, s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s  rather  1970:16-17).  P a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s , s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s e f f e c t i v e l y a n t i causal.  The language o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s  no use o f the n o t i o n s  i n i t s pure form makes  o f cause and e f f e c t ; r a t h e r , i t r e j e c t s  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the world i n favor of "laws of  this  transformation".  By these a r e meant the l a w - l i k e r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t can be observed one p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n changes i n t o a n o t h e r . s t r u c t u r a l i s t s are saying i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h i s : of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s  as  What the  i f we compare two p a t t e r n s  (once a g a i n they may be myths, or k i n s h i p  relations,  o r p a t t e r n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y , o r any o t h e r such) s e p a r a t e d by time o r space  ( i n o t h e r words the same s o c i e t y a t two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s  in  33  h i s t o r y , o r two s o c i e t i e s a t the same p o i n t i n h i s t o r y ) , we observe differences in their respective structural configuration.  Traditionally  we s h o u l d argue t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r o r f a c t o r s caused the one t o d i f f e r from the o t h e r .  The s t r u c t u r a l i s t would a r g u e , i n s t e a d , t h a t  we can o n l y say t h a t a c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e i s seen t o be t r a n s f o r m e d a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e , and t h a t r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s  p e r m i t us t o say  t h a t a g i v e n s t r u c t u r e i s always t r a n s f o r m e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, g i v i n g us not c a u s a l  thus  laws ( s i n c e t h a t concept has not been invoked)  laws of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (Lane  atemporal, a n t i - c a u s a l )  but  1970:17).  No s i n g l e one o f the aforementioned p r o p e r t i e s  of s t r u c t u r a l i s m .  into  (holistic,  i s by i t s e l f a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  synchronic,  characteristic  Most have s e p a r a t e l y been h e l d as items o f b e l i e f  o r r u l e s o f procedure i n o t h e r p h i l o s o p h i e s  and methods.  What i s d i s t i n c t i v e  i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f them.  C.  Structuralist  Methods  As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , the purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  is  t o d e c i p h e r the s t r u c t u r a l components o f a g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n o f human behavior.  The method by which t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t s a t t e m p t such an  endeavor i s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y t i c a l models o f s t r u c t u r a l  linguistics  and proceeds a t t h r e e b a s i c l e v e l s - - p h o n o l o g i c a l ; s y n t a c t i c ; and semantic.  A t the p h o n o l o g i c a l  l e v e l an attempt i s made t o r e a l i z e  the c o n s t i t u e n t u n i t s o f an i n s t i t u t i o n .  This  is conceptually equivalent  t o r e c o g n i z i n g the components o f a r e p e r t o r y o f p o s s i b l e terms components o f the p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e ) .  (the  Once t h i s has been done the  a n a l y s t t r i e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h which o f t h e s e components  (phonetic  phenomena)  34  are s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , o r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f t h e i r apparent a b i l i t i e s t o generate s t r u c t u r e .  This task i s  accomplished  through the laws o f complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e a n a l y s i s , a process  i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o p p o s i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n  between p h o n e t i c phenomena are examined.  On the b a s i s o f t h e s e a n a l y t i c a l  f i n d i n g s d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made between p h o n e t i c phenomena which are e i t h e r phonemes ( s i g n i f i c a n t components), phonemic v a r i a n t s s i g n i f i c a n t components), and a l l o p h o n e s  (non-significant  (less-  components).  And from t h i s e v i d e n c e , the phonemic s t r u c t u r e ( t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t components)  can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e  ( t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t components). The second l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , namely the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l , a t t e m p t s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e way i n which t h e components  (phonetic  phenomena) from the p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l a r e grouped t o g e t h e r and t h e way i n which t h e s e component-groups  modify one a n o t h e r .  This i s  accomplished  by examining the r e c u r r e n c e o f groups o f same p h o n e t i c phenomena  through-  out the p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e and d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e component-groups  i n terms o f t h e i r a p p a r e n t a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e s t r u c t u r e .  The a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e component-groups  a r e t h e same as those used a t the p h o n o l o g i c a l  level:  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . Once t h e component-groups  have been a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o these c r i t e r i a  the s t r u c t u r a l i s t can d i s t i n g u i s h between morphemes ( s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f p h o n e t i c phenomena), morphemic v a r i a n t s ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f p h o n e t i c phenomena), and allomorphemes ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f  35  p h o n e t i c phenomena).  And s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  the way i n which components  he can d e c i p h e r t h e r u l e s  governing  (and groups t h e r e o f ) from t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  s t r u c t u r e have been " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r .  In b r i e f t h e n ,  the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l o f i n q u i r y attempts to d e c i p h e r t h e grammatical r u l e s or c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a g i v e n Simply s t a t e d , a n a l y s i s the r u l e s governing  structure.  a t the semantic l e v e l  the way i n which components  from the p h o n o l o g i c a l  and s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s have been " m e a n i n g f u l l y " In o t h e r words, t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s  t r i e s to d e c i p h e r  strung  together.  attempts t o f i n d o u t t h e s o c i a l  f u n c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n o f human b e h a v i o r .  4  The diagram which f o l l o w s a t t e m p t s t o make c l e a r the t h r e e l e v e l s a t which s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s I.  Phonological  proceeds:  S t r u c t u r e ( r e p e r t o r y of  terms)  a) c o n s t i t u e n t u n i t s o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a r e  recognized  b) c o n s t i t u e n t u n i t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p h o n e t i c phenomena a c c o r d i n g t o the law o f complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n c) p h o n e t i c phenomena are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another as e i t h e r phonemes, o r a l l o p h o n e s , o r v a r i a n t s d) p h o n e t i c and phonemic s t r u c t u r e s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d one a n o t h e r II.  from  S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e ( r u l e s o f grammar) a) s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e c u r r e n t sequences o f phonemes a r e r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e laws o f complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s b) morphemes, allomorphemes, and v a r i a n t s a r e determined from the above i n f o r m a t i o n c ) r u l e s g o v e r n i n g the way i n which components from t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e have been " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r a r e deduced  36  III.  Semantic S t r u c t u r e ( s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o r message r e v e a l e d ) a) an a t t e m p t i s made t o d e c i p h e r t h e r u l e s g o v e r n i n g which elements o f the p h o n o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s can be " m e a n i n g f u l l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r  In summary, t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t method t r e a t s an i n s t i t u t i o n o f human b e h a v i o r l i k e a f o r e i g n language which must be d e c i p h e r e d .  The  t a s k i s c a r r i e d o u t by p e r f o r m i n g a p p r o p r i a t e experiments i n o r d e r to determine the b a s i c "words"  or u n i t s , the syntax o r grammar, and the  meaning o f the f o r e i g n b e h a v i o r .  In a d d i t i o n , the s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i t i o n e r  u t i l i z e s a n a l y t i c a l models which e n a b l e him t o d e s c r i b e h i s  findings  i n terms which o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s can u n d e r s t a n d ; t h a t i s , procedures  the  the s t r u c t u r a l i s t uses can be f o l l o w e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y by  other s c i e n t i s t s .  T h i s f a c i l i t y w i t h which s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n can  be communicated a v o i d s a c l a s s i c p i t f a l l  o f e a r l i e r times - - a s e t o f  b r i l l i a n t i d e a s f l o w i n g from t h e pen o f one o r a n o t h e r s o c i a l  scientist,  which can be admired but not c a r r i e d f u r t h e r by the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n  of  thinkers.  D.  Summary The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r has been t o p r e s e n t an o v e r v i e w o f  s t r u c t u r a l i s m - - the c e n t r a l themes i n h e r e n t i n i t s i d e o l o g y , t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f i t s a p p r o a c h , and the major c r i t e r i a i t s a n a l y t i c method.  The f i n d i n g s may be summarized as f o l l o w s :  of the  i d e o l o g y o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t h a t a l l p a t t e r n s o f human b e h a v i o r are s o c i a l codes w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f language;  t h a t man has  an i n n a t e s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y which determines t h e l i m i t s w i t h i n which  37  the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l types o f s o c i a l phenomena can be formed, and t h a t structural  r e l a t i o n s can be reduced to b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s .  The  the s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i t i o n e r uses when a t t e m p t i n g to f o r m u l a t e  approach methods  o f i n q u i r y i s a n t i - c a u s a l ; i t i s a l s o h o l i s t i c as opposed t o a t o m i s t i c , synchronic cal.  as opposed t o d i a c h r o n i c , and atemporal as opposed t o a h i s t o r i -  The methods o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  examine i n s t i t u t i o n s o f human  b e h a v i o r a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , and semantic l e v e l s o f A l s o , the methods view the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  structure.  o f o p p o s i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n  t h a t e x i s t between the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r e , and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t s from n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  u n i t s on the b a s i s o f the laws  o f complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e The o v e r a l l purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  may be seen as the attempt  t o d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l forces of a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n .  features.  p r i n c i p l e s or  And s y n t h e t i c a l l y , t h i s  underlying  structuralism  s h o u l d be seen more as a manner o f t h i n k i n g r a t h e r than the o f t h a t t h i n k i n g - - a manner o f t h i n k i n g which s t r i v e s  manifestation  to break up the  l i n e a r and c a u s a l way o f t h i n k i n g t h a t has dominated Western  tradition  since A r i s t o t l e . Is  i t possible  to c o r r e l a t e t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m with musical  in ethnomusicological  research?  analysis  Would such a c o r r e l a t i o n be a p p l i c a b l e  t o the s t r u c t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n dream songs?  Which  a s p e c t s o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m would be i n v o l v e d i n the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h m u s i c a l a n a l y s e s o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs? These q u e s t i o n s that follows.  and o t h e r l i k e them w i l l  be d e a l t w i t h i n the c h a p t e r  38  Footnotes  Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s , Roman J a k o b s o n , and Jean P i a g e t have s e p a r a t e l y developed the most s p e c i f i c , extended and s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods and t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t v i s i o n t o human phenomena. For t h i s r e a s o n , I have used t h e i r works as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t enterprise. Some s c h o l a r s have p r e f e r r e d t o use Noam Chomsky's terms f o r s t r u c t u r e which e x i s t s a t the l e v e l o f the observed and s t r u c t u r e which i s a p p a r e n t below o r behind e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . Chomsky's terms are " s u r f a c e " s t r u c t u r e and " d e e p " s t r u c t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y (Chomsky 1957). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter 4: a c h a p t e r which d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the c o r r e l a t i o n o f music and s t r u c t u r a l i s m . 3  ^ The a c t u a l method by which t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s proceeds has never been e x p l a i n e d t o me. That i s , throughout my r e s e a r c h I have y e t t o e n c o u n t e r a source which e x p l a i n e d , i n even an a l l u s i v e o r p a r t i a l way, the method o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s a t t h e semantic l e v e l . Hence, r a t h e r than make s p e c u l a t i v e assessments r e g a r d i n g i t s procedure I have w i t h h e l d comment.  39  REFERENCES CITED  Chomsky, N. 1957  Syntactic Structures.  Mouton and Company, The Hague.  Lane, M. 1970 S t r u c t u r a l i s m . B a s i c Books, New York. L e v i - S t r a u s s , C. 1963 S t r u c t u r a l A n t h r o p o l o g y . B a s i c Books, New Y o r k . 1964  Mythologiques:  l e cru et l e c u i t .  PI o n , P a r i s .  1966  Mythologiques:  du m i e l aux c e n d r e s .  1968  Mythologiques: Paris.  T o r i g i n e des manieres de t a b l e .  1969  The Raw and The Cooked.  PI o n , P a r i s .  Harper and Row, New York.  PI o n ,  CHAPTER IV  The C o r r e l a t i o n of Structuralism with Musical  Analysis  Several attempts to c o r r e l a t e s t r u c t u r a l i s m with musical  analysis  in ethnomusicological research have been undertaken in recent years. For the most part scholarship has existed at a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l : the works of Nettl (1958), Asch (1972), and Nattiez (1973) serve as examples.  Scholars such as Arom (1970), however, have attempted to  c o r r e l a t e s t r u c t u r a l i s m with musical analysis f o r a more p r a c t i c a l  purpose:  namely, the development of a method of analysis which w i l l contribute to the understanding of s p e c i f i c aspects of p a r t i c u l a r non-Western music. purpose.  The goal of t h i s chapter i s s i m i l a r to Arom's methodological That i s , t h i s chapter attempts to c o r r e l a t e c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l i s t  i d e o l o g i e s , approaches, and analytical-models with musical  analysis,  and then attempts to explain the way in which these c o r r e l a t i o n s form the basis of a method f o r analyzing the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer s o n g s J  The absence of an appropriate or equivalent ethnomusico-  1ogical terminology to explain these c o r r e l a t i o n s has necessitated the adoption and adaptation of a l i m i t e d but e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l i s t terminology.^  The terms are as f o l l o w s :  phonological l e v e l of musical s t r u c t u r e : features of a musical composition - 40 -  a l l the auditory  41  s y n t a c t i c l e v e l of musical  structure:  the o r d e r i n g and grouping phonetic musical components  analysis:  of a u d i t o r y  analysis:  m u s i c a l components less-significant, morphemic m u s i c a l  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  durations  individual  significant, musical  features.  the d e f i n i t i o n o f m u s i c a l  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t ,  s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  musical  less-  features.  Correlations  Of the t h r e e s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s c h a p t e r , o n l y two w i l l human b e h a v i o r  musical  composition.  the d e f i n i t i o n o f  analysis:  component-groups  Ideological  features  such as p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and  phonemic m u s i c a l  concerning  the r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i n g l e  contained w i t h i n a given musical  A.  the " r u l e s "  be d i s c u s s e d  (manifestations  here:  of s o c i a l  examined i n the  previous  f i r s t , all institutions  of  a c t i v i t y ) f i n d an analogy  in  the s t r u c t u r a l components  o f language;  second, man has an i n n a t e  structuring  c a p a c i t y which determines  the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l 3  types o f s o c i a l  phenomena can be formed.  In a m u s i c a l  c o n t e x t , the  former suggests t h a t because music i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , music can be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the same s e t o f a b s t r a c t r u l e s t h a t d e f i n e and govern language.  T h i s i s not to say t h a t music i s  t h a t music and language are s t r u c t u r a l l y i d e n t i c a l : repertory of possible r u l e s governing  sounds (a p h o n o l o g i c a l  language,  but r a t h e r  both possess a  structure)  and a s e t o f  the way i n which these sounds o r words may be " l e g i t i m a t e l y "  42  s t r u n g t o g e t h e r (a s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ) , and " m e a n i n g f u l l y " s t r u n g t o g e t h e r semantic  structure).^  Thus, i n the same way t h a t systems o f  kinship  and marriage r e p l i c a t e the s t r u c t u r a l components o f language  (see  page 27), so music r e p l i c a t e s the same s e t o f a b s t r a c t r u l e s  that  d e f i n e and govern  (a  language:  Music as an I n s t i t u t i o n o f Human B e h a v i o r  Phonological  Structure:  a l l the a u d i t o r y f e a t u r e s o f a  m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e the p h o n o l o g i c a l j u s t as the words o f a language  structure  constitute its  phonological  structure. Syntactic Structure:  the " r u l e s " g o v e r n i n g  and g r o u p i n g o f m u s i c a l components  the o r d e r i n g  from the p h o n o l o g i c a l  s t r u c t u r e resemble the syntax o r grammar o f a Semantic S t r u c t u r e :  the e x t r a - m u s i c a l meanings  associated  w i t h the performance o f a p a r t i c u l a r m u s i c a l are l i k e t h e semantic s t r u c t u r e o f a  language.  composition  language.  The second s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g y holds t h a t i n man t h e r e i s  an  i n n a t e , g e n e t i c a l l y determined and t r a n s m i t t e d mechanism below o r behind e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y t h a t a c t s as a s t r u c t u r i n g f o r c e .  Moreover,  t h i s i n h e r e n t q u a l i t y o r c a p a c i t y l i m i t s t h e p o s s i b l e range o f ways of s t r u c t u r i n g .  Thus, h i e r a r c h i e s e x i s t i n which the i n n a t e  c a p a c i t y generates  structuring  a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type o f  a c t i v i t y - - language,  myth, o r music - - which i n t u r n produces  p a t t e r n o f s p e e c h , s t o r y , or sound.  the  T r a n s f e r r e d to the study o f  observable music,  t h i s i d e o l o g y suggests t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e below o r  43  behind t h e e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y o f t h e s e n s o r i l y o b s e r v e d : ( t h e a u d i b l e sound phenomena)  i s the p r o d u c t o f m u s i c a l  r a t h e r than the s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f .  what i s  heard  structure  The f o l l o w i n g diagram r e v e a l s  the  t h r e e b a s i c l e v e l s o f t h i s h i e r a r c h y as w e l l as the manner i n which they i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r .  (The diagram i s an a d a p t a t i o n o f the  s t r u c t u r a l i s t model shown on page  28.)  [INNATE STRUCTURING CAPACITY  0  generates  BELOW OR BEHIND EMPIRICAL REALITY  STRUCTURE OF MUSIC  produces  1  OBSERVABLE PATTERNS OF SOUND  B.  OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA  C o r r e l a t i o n s i n Approach The s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis  on wholes  o r t o t a l i t i e s , concern f o r s y n c h r o n i c as opposed to d i a c h r o n i c  structures,  and r e j e c t i o n o f laws o f cause and e f f e c t i n f a v o r o f " l a w s o f  transforma-  tion".  In a m u s i c a l c o n t e x t , the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i m p l i e s t h a t the  a n a l y s t study the r e l a t i o n s h i p s the i n d i v i d u a l components o f the m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e share w i t h one a n o t h e r , i n a d d i t i o n to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s individual  components  t o the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e .  In o t h e r words,  o f the  the  s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o the d i s c o v e r y o f the m u s i c a l  44  components a p p a r e n t i n a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , but extends i n c l u d e the a n a l y s i s (the a n a l y s i s  i t s e l f to  o f the t e n d e n c i e s o f m u s i c a l component i n t e r a c t i o n  of motivic r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) .  o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i n s i s t s  The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  t h a t the p r e s e n t n a t u r e o f a  m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n must be f u l l y known b e f o r e any account can be g i v e n of i t s e v o l u t i o n or d i a c h r o n i c nature.  The r e m a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach r e j e c t s the i d e a t h a t the causes o f changes in structural configurations  can be p i n p o i n t e d .  I t emphasizes  the n e c e s s i t y t o t r y t o d e c i p h e r the p a t t e r n s o f s t r u c t u r a l  C.  Methodological  instead  change.  Correlations  The d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y t i c a l - m o d e l s and m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s . the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t w i l l a t two l e v e l s o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e :  be suggested here take p l a c e  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  For the sake o f c l a r i t y , these two l e v e l s o f m u s i c a l discussed 1.  Specifically,  and the s y n t a c t i c a l . structure w i l l  separately. A t the P h o n o l o g i c a l  Level of Musical  Structure  In s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s a p h o n o l o g i c a l  structure is  the  r e p e r t o r y o f p o s s i b l e words c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n any g i v e n language 1970:26). all  be  A p p l i e d t o m u s i c , the p h o n o l o g i c a l  the a u d i t o r y f e a t u r e s  composition. phonological  (musical  components)  structure  comprises  of a given musical  The purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s structure is twofold:  (Lane  a t the l e v e l  of  to i d e n t i f y the components o f an  i n s t i t u t i o n o f human b e h a v i o r , such as words, and to d e f i n e these a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and  units  non-significant  45  features.  A p p l i e d to music t h i s purpose i s analogous t o d e c i p h e r i n g t h e  s i n g l e m u s i c a l components  such as p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s and  durations  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a g i v e n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , and l a t e r d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l components  these  according to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , . l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t ,  and  5  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical  features.  The former i s known as  phonetic  m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s c a l l e d phonemic m u s i c a l  analysis.  In i t s attempt t o d e c i p h e r the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  contained  w i t h i n a composition, phonetic musical a n a l y s i s musicologically-oriented analysis:  a process  u t i l i z e s a u r a l and v i s u a l  i n which t h e a n a l y s t  t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n as w e l l as reads the t r a n s c r i b e d v e r s i o n to d i s t i n g u i s h  listens  o f t h e song  between d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s . ' '  Once the components o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e have been  d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s manner, the second s t a g e o f t h i s l e v e l o f may be implemented - - phonemic m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s . m u s i c a l components  analysis  Here the i n d i v i d u a l  are a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t ,  s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  features.  same as i n s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s : s i m i l a r i t y of d i s t i n c t i v e features.  less-  The c r i t e r i a used are the  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and In o t h e r words, the a n a l y s t  examines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o p p o s i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n which e x i s t between the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components. o f the a n a l y s i s  The f i n d i n g s  from t h i s  determine which m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l may be j u s t i f i a b l y  c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i f i e d t o be deemed e i t h e r main n u c l e i phonemes),  stage  secondary n u c l e i  m u s i c a l components  (musical  (musical  phonemic v a r i a n t s ) , o r  allophones).  w i t h i n a song) may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  non-nuclear  On the b a s i s o f these  the p h o n e t i c m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( a l l the m u s i c a l components  (musical  findings,  contained  from the phonemic m u s i c a l  structure  46  (the s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l components).  That i s , the a n a l y s t i s a b l e t o  p e r c e i v e n o t s i m p l y a l l the a u d i t o r y f e a t u r e s  ( s i n g l e musical  components)  apparent i n a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , but a l s o to c a t e g o r i z e and c l a s s i f y t h e s e m u s i c a l components a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r a l  significance.  The diagram which f o l l o w s s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the  methodological c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m with musical a n a l y s i s the p h o n o l o g i c a l  l e v e l o f musical  at  structure:  Phonological Musical S t r u c t u r e : a l l auditory features apparent w i t h i n a g i v e n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . Phonetic Musical A n a l y s i s : an attempt to d e c i p h e r the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a given musical composition. analytical criteria: a u r a l and v i s u a l oriented analysis analytical findings: used.  musicologically-  pitches, intervals,  durations  Phonemic M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s : an attempt t o d e f i n e the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical features. analytical criteria: complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s analytical findings: the d i s t i n c t i o n between m a i n , s e c o n d a r y , and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s ; and, the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e p h o n e t i c and phonemic m u s i c a l s t r u c tures. In an attempt t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e s e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e x e r p t s from a s t r u c t u r a l i s t m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s song a r e o f f e r e d .  The complete a n a l y s i s  correlations,  o f a Beaver I n d i a n dreamer  o f t h i s song appears  in  Chapter V I , and t h e symbols f o r the m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n may be found on pages 89  through  92.  47  DREAMER SONG BY CHARLIE YAHEY  48  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  G, F. D, Bb, C, E  i n t e r v a l s used:  M2, m3, M3, p4  d u r a t i o n s used: P.  Phonemic M u s i c a l  j \  J  , J. , J  ,<J. ,  0  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e i a r e G and D secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are F and Bb n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are C and E  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second the i n t e r v a l which i s not c o n s i d e r e d a nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h  durations:  the d u r a t i o n s which l e n d themselves t o b e i n g main n u c l e i o f rhythm are * and #• the d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d secondary n u c l e i o f rhythm are # and d . the d u r a t i o n s which do not r e c u r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d . n u c l e i o f rhythm are o- , o , and  l>  mode:  49  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  The graph which f o l l o w s r e p r e s e n t s an  attempt t o p l o t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a i n , secondary, and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s .  The numbers on the g r a p h ,  reading  h o r i z o n t a l l y from l e f t to r i g h t , i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l notes o f the musical  sections.  50  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * Stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main p i t c h n u c l e i , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are n o t a t e d w i t h an " X . "  51  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  *  H i i  - { " t ^ ' f l U  Hi  •*  "-g  U  .  L  .  I.,  •'HI-.-  * Stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main d u r a t i o n n u c l e i , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary d u r a t i o n n u c l e i , and n o n - n u c l e i o f d u r a t i o n are n o t a t e d by an " X " .  52  2.  A t the S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l The term " s y n t a x "  components  i s d e f i n e d as the r u l e s which determine which  from the p h o n o l o g i c a l  t o g e t h e r (Lane 1970:27).  Structure  s t r u c t u r e may be " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t r u n g  S i m i l a r l y , the syntax o f a m u s i c a l  structure  would be the " r u l e s " c o n c e r n i n g the o r d e r i n g and g r o u p i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  from the p h o n o l o g i c a l  The purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s  l e v e l of musical  at t h i s level  structure.  i s to e l u c i d a t e  these s o - c a l l e d " r u l e s " o r , i n a m u s i c a l s e n s e , to deduce the t e n d e n c i e s o f component i n t e r a c t i o n ( m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) m u s i c a l components  ( p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and  amongst groups o f  durations).  The way i n which t h i s purpose i s sought i s as f o l l o w s . a n a l y s t attempts to r e c o g n i z e the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l components  from the p h o n o l o g i c a l  F i r s t , the  musical  l e v e l are grouped t o g e t h e r .  This  is  a c c o m p l i s h e d by s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t i n g the s e q u e n t i a l r e c u r r e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components structure.  throughout  the phonological  Once the m u s i c a l component-groups  l e v e l of musical  have been determined i n  t h i s manner, an attempt i s made t o d i s c o v e r t h e way i n which these m u s i c a l component-groups  modify one a n o t h e r ; t h a t i s , an attempt i s  made t o determine which m u s i c a l component-groups  possess  significant,  l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s .  The a n a l y t i c a l  c r i t e r i a used here are the same as those used p r e v i o u s l y : d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . s h i p s o f o p p o s i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n between m u s i c a l  complementary  Once the r e l a t i o n component-groups  have been e v a l u a t e d , the f o l l o w i n g may be r e c o g n i z e d : m o t i v e s ; o m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s ; and n o n - m o t i v i c m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s .  abstract  On the b a s i s  o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o t i v i c m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s may  53  be r e c o g n i z e d .  More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, the t e n d e n c i e s o f m u s i c a l  component i n t e r a c t i o n may be deduced from t h i s type o f m o t i v i c  analysis.  The diagram which f o l l o w s w i l l make more c l e a r the c o n c e p t s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  homology between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l  a t the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l  of musical  regarding  analysis  structure.  Syntactic Musical S t r u c t u r e : the " r u l e s " c o n c e r n i n g the o r d e r i n g and g r o u p i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components from t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . preliminary stage: s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n of the s e q u e n t i a l r e c u r r e n c e o f groups o f m u s i c a l components throughout t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f m u s i c a l structure. Morphemic M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s : the d e f i n i t i o n o f m u s i c a l component-groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l features. analytical criteria: complementary- d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s analytical findings: r e c o g n i t i o n o f motives, a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c , and n o n - m o t i v i c m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s . d i s t r i b u t i o n of m o t i v i c musical materials. deduction of tendencies of component i n t e r a c t i o n . In an attempt t o c l a r i f y f u r t h e r t h e s e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e x e r p t s from a s t r u c t u r a l i s t m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s song a r e o f f e r e d . song d i s c u s s e d Musical  o f a Beaver I n d i a n dreamer  These e x e r p t s have been taken from the Beaver  i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " A t the P h o n o l o g i c a l  Structure."  correlations,  Level  Indian of  54  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l R e c u r r e n t Sequences o f I n d i v i d u a l  Structure  M u s i c a l Components:  (Only  those  p h o n e t i c phenomena which are b r a c k e t e d t o g e t h e r are c o n s i d e r e d recurrent  sequences.)  55  Morphemic M u s i c a l  Motives ( s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l  2  -  Analysis  component-groups):  JS  Abstract M o t i v i c Material ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t musical  Non - M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l NIL  component-groups)  component-groups):  56  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  57  * Motives are i n d i c a t e d by square b r a c k e t s and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s are r e p r e s e n t e d by double square b r a c k e t s .  58  Tendency o f Component I n t e r a c t i o n component-groups  ( t h e way i n which m u s i c a l  modify one a n o t h e r ) :  S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s song by C h a r l i e Yahey would be an e x c e p t i o n i n much o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Western music i n s o f a r as v i r t u a l l y a l l the musical material contained w i t h i n i t i s m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d . manner o f r e a l i z i n g the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l  The s i m p l e s t components  o f t h i s song are r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y to one a n o t h e r and t o the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i s to r e - f a m i l i a r i z e o n e s e l f w i t h the findings  o f the p h o n e t i c , phonemic and morphemic  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  analysis.  i n t h i s song are the p i t c h e s G,  F, D, Bb, G, E; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , mninor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; the  durations  The s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s a r e G a n d F, the l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s F and Bb, and the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s are C and E.  In terms o f  i n t e r v a l s , the m a i n ' n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the nucleus  i s a major second, and the non-nucleus  and )>  ,  The  w h i l e the  Pi  \  secondary n u c l e i a r e * and o  secondary  is a perfect fourth.  d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are $  \  are  , and the n o n - n u c l e i a r e *  1  ,o •  The mode used i s G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d .  The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c  c o n t o u r (as r e c o g n i z e d from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s  outlined  by the p i t c h e s G and D spread a p a r t and descending over two o c t a v e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p ,the above m u s i c a l phenomena shares w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s :  the two main p i t c h n u c l e i ,  w h i l e they o u t l i n e the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r , are spaced a p a r t .  In t h i s  space,  59 they are complemented by the p i t c h e s F and Bb.  T h i s g i v e s the m e l o d i c  c o n t o u r o f t h e song a c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l l o w s i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f the mode (major and minor t h i r d s ) w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e major second.  The r e s u l t o f  the  to be p r e s e r v e d ,  establishing  two main p i t c h n u c l e i (G and D) and complementing them w i t h  secondary  p i t c h n u c l e i (F and Bb) i s two c o n t r a s t i n g m e l o d i c m o t i v e s :  These motives are then t r a n s p o s e d down a f o u r t h and f i f t h and r e s t a t e d . and e)  R h y t h m i c a l l y , t h e d u r a t i o n s X and  respectively  as w e l l as J  are a s s i g n e d t o the f o u r p i t c h e s G, F, Bb, D and t o g e t h e r  1  produce  the two motives o f the song:  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l works between the p i t c h e s G and D ( i . e . , complements them w i t h the p i t c h e s F and Bb) and p r e s e r v e s  the  intervallic  s t r u c t u r e o f major and minor t h i r d s i n a s i m i l a r manner t o the above.  60  However, both r h y t h m i c motives (*>• J stated separately.  and J ©I ) are combined r a t h e r than  For example:  Another manner o f r e v e a l i n g the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  contained  w i t h i n t h i s song i s t o o u t l i n e the c o m p o s i t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e s f o r a tune with a s i m i l a r structural character.  F i r s t , a q u a d r a t o n i c mode w i t h the  same a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e has to be chosen.  Next, the f i r s t  and t h i r d as w e l l as the second and f o u r t h p i t c h e s o f t h i s mode s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d the r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f main p i t c h n u c l e i and secondary pitch nuclei.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s s t a g e , the main p i t c h n u c l e i s h o u l d be  spaced a p a r t and p l o t t e d descending o v e r two o c t a v e s .  The spaces  between  the main p i t c h n u c l e i s h o u l d then be f i l l e d i n w i t h the secondary p i t c h nuclei  i n a manner t h a t u t i l i z e s the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , a  minor t h i r d , and a major s e c o n d , and develops two s e p a r a t e motives o f pitch.  T h i s endeavor s h o u l d a l s o produce an a s c e n d i n g - d e s c e n d i n g  c o n t o u r between the p i t c h n u c l e i .  melodic  Each o f these m o t i v e s o f p i t c h s h o u l d  then be a s s i g n e d d i f f e r e n t , e a s i l y memorable rhythms which t o g e t h e r w i t h the m o t i v e s o f p i t c h s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e motives f o r the song.  These  then be r e p e a t e d once a t t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h below r e s p e c t i v e l y .  should The  a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l (which a l s o comprises the c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a ) s h o u l d u t i l i z e the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p i t c h e s and make use o f both  rhythms.  The c o m p o s i t i o n s h o u l d cadence on the l o w e s t note o f t h e s o n g , which s h o u l d be the i n i t i a l  p i t c h o f the mode.  61  D. Summary The c o r r e l a t i o n s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a n a l y s i s  form the b a s i s o f a method f o r examining the s t r u c t u r e  9  o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  The i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s made  between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and music suggest a method o f m u s i c a l which uses s y s t e m i c a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  analysis  That i s , t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s  i m p l y t h a t sound i n Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs i s s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way t h a t a s y s t e m i c method w i l l  produce d e f i n a b l e m u s i c a l u n i t s  and  e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o p p o s i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n between these m u s i c a l units.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s made between s t r u c t u r a l i s t approaches  musical a n a l y s i s  suggest a method o f m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s  which i s  and concerned  w i t h examining the complex network o f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t between the m u s i c a l components o f a Beaver I n d i a n dreamer song, r a t h e r than s i m p l y w i t h examining the m u s i c a l components on an i n d i v i d u a l  basis,  and w i t h f o c u s i n g on the p r e s e n t n a t u r e o f a Beaver I n d i a n dreamer song, r a t h e r than a n a l y z i n g i t s mode o f development through t i m e .  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s made between s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y t i c a l - m o d e l s and m u s i c a l analysis  s u g g e s t a method which works from a manner o f a n a l y t i c a l  based on l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s morphemic).  thinking  b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s i m p l e s t o f s t r u c t u r a l  (phonemic)  and p r o g r e s s i n g  to the most complex  F u r t h e r , t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest a method which attempts  to d e c i p h e r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s  structural  through the use o f a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a such as  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . S y n t h e t i c a l l y , the method developed from these c o r r e l a t i o n s may be d e s c r i b e d as a s p e c i f i c type o f m o t i v i c m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s :  one t h a t  62  attempts to d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r a l  relationships  which e x i s t between m u s i c a l components and m u s i c a l component-groups  in  Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. Now t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l have been shown and the subsequent methodology  d i s c l o s e d , l e t us  analysis use  t h i s methodology to i l l u m i n a t e the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  P r i o r to t h i s , however, i t w i l l  be n e c e s s a r y  to p r e s e n t an o v e r v i e w  o f Beaver I n d i a n music and c u l t u r e so t h a t the r e a d e r may have a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e music t h a t w i l l  undergo s t r u c t u r a l  scrutiny.  63  Footnotes  T h i s c h a p t e r was w r i t t e n a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. I t does n o t r e p r e s e n t an attempt to i n v e n t an a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e f o r the sake o f i n v e n t i o n . Rather, the methodology t h a t w i l l be proposed l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r grew from e x t e n s i v e o r a l a n a l y s i s o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs as w e l l as the a u t h o r ' s understanding of s t r u c t u r a l i s m . T h i s s i t u a t i o n - - the use o f n o n - m u s i c a l terms t o e x p l a i n m u s i c a l phenomena - - i s a n a l o g o u s , i n p a r t , to attempts by e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h grammarians t o d e s c r i b e the w o r k i n g o f t h e i r n a t i v e language u s i n g a t e r m i n o l o g y and syntax borrowed from L a t i n and Greek. Their a p p l i c a t i o n o f o l d and i r r e l e v a n t t e r m i n o l o g y to a new and n o t - u n d e r s t o o d phenomena proved e r r o n e o u s . However, such an a p p l i c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t s t e p s toward comprehension. As we " t e s t " a new phenomena, we " t e s t " the v o c a b u l a r y we use t o comprehend i t , and through the p r o c e s s o f t r i a l and e r r o r , o f e x c e p t i o n s p r o v i n g r u l e s , we come t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e c i s e grasp o f what l a y s b e f o r e us. 3 The t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g y which holds t h a t a l l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s can be reduced t o p a i r s o f b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n has been d e l e t e d from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The reasons f o r o m i t t i n g t h i s i d e o l o g y are twofold: the c o m p l i c a t e d n a t u r e o f the b i n a r y - o p p o s i t i o n - p r o c e d u r e tends to c l o u d t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l as w e l l as m u s i c o l o g i c a l terms a l r e a d y e x i s t f o r e x p r e s s i n g such s t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . °* The a n a l y s i s o f sound phenomena a t the semantic l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e has been o m i t t e d from t h i s t h e s i s . Although s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of music as a sound phenomena can p r e s e n t much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f Beaver I n d i a n m u s i c , the scope o f the proposed methodology i s n o t e x p a n s i v e enough to e n a b l e one t o d i s c o v e r , i n t e r p r e t , and l a t e r a s s e s s the " s o c i a l message" r e v e a l e d by t h i s music. In b r i e f , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f Beaver song i s beyond the l i m i t s o f t h e methodology t h a t w i l l be proposed.  5 The a t t e m p t here i s to d i s t i n g u i s h between those m u s i c a l components which generate m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s ) from those which do not ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s ) . With r e s p e c t to the m u s i c a l parameters o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n t h i s concept r e f e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t the p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f m u s i c a l  64  s t r u c t u r e , to those components o f e i t h e r m u s i c a l parameter t h a t generate m o t i v e s ( i . e . , " c o r e " a u d i t o r y f e a t u r e s such as i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i , p i t c h n u c l e i , e t c e t e r a ) and t h o s e t h a t do n o t . ^ The v i s u a l stage o f the a n a l y s i s can o n l y proceed w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the a c c u r a c y and type o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n t h a t has been made. That i s , v a r i a n c e may o c c u r between a c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t has been t r a n s c r i b e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner and a n o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n which has been t r a n s c r i b e d v i a mechanical means ( i . e . , the melograph). ^ Each o f the s u b s e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d s i n g l e m u s i c a l u t t e r a n c e s i s c o n s i d e r e d a p h o n e t i c phenomenon. That i s , each m u s i c a l component w i l l , after further structural scrutiny, constitute either a significant o r n u c l e a r m u s i c a l component ( m u s i c a l phoneme), a l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t o r secondary n u c l e a r m u s i c a l component ( m u s i c a l phonemic v a r i a n t ) , o r a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t o r n o n - n u c l e a r m u s i c a l component ( m u s i c a l a l l o p h o n e ) . ^ The l i n g u i s t i c c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r these m u s i c a l terms are r e s p e c t i v e l y morphemes, morphemic v a r i a n t s and allomorphemes.  Q The i m p e t u s , however, f o r the development o f t h i s method came from e x t e n s i v e o r a l a n a l y s i s o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs and e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s i n ethnomusicology - - s p e c i f i c a l l y , Hood's attempt t o d i s c o v e r h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m u s i c a l components o f Javanese p i t c h systems (Hood 1 9 5 4 ) , N e t t l ' s c h a l l e n g e t o develop a m u s i c a l s e m i o t i c s ( N e t t l 1958), and Arom's c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i t h m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s a t ' t h e s y n t a c t i c l e v e l o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e (Arom 1970).  65  REFERENCES CITED  Arom, S. 1970  A s c h , M. 1972  Hood, M. 1954  " E s s a i d'une n o t a t i o n des monodies a des f i n s Revue de m u s i c o l o g i e , 5 5 ( 2 ) : 172-216.  "A Grammar o f S l a v e r y Drum Dance M u s i c " , o f SEM M e e t i n g s , T o r o n t o .  d'analyse",  Proceedings  The N u c l e a r Theme as a_ Determinant o f P a t e t i n Javanese Music. G r o n i g e n , Amsterdam.  Nattiez, J . J . 1973 " L i n g u i s t i c s : A New Approach f o r M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s ? " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f the A e s t h e t i c s and S o c i o l o g y o f Music, 1 ( 1 ) ~ 2 2 - 3 1 . N e t t l , B. 1958  "Some L i n g u i s t i c Approaches to M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s " , J o u r n a l o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F o l k Music C o u n c i l , 10: 37-41.  CHAPTER V  The Music and C u l t u r e o f the Beaver I n d i a n s :  An Overview  T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s some i n f o r m a t i o n on the Beaver I n d i a n people and t h e i r music.  In the paradigm o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t h i s  endeavor w o u l d , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , be c l a s s i f i e d i n the c a t e g o r y o f g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the music o f a n o n - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e . S i m p l y s t a t e d , the attempt here i s t o d i s c u s s  b r i e f l y the meaning  o f Beaver I n d i a n music t o the Beaver I n d i a n s and t o d e s c r i b e c o n c i s e l y , i n m u s i c o l o g i c a l t e r m s , t h i s music as s o u n d .  1  No e f f o r t w i l l  be made  here to attempt a comprehensive study o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver dreamer songs.  (This task w i l l  be attempted i n Chapter V I . )  However,  some comments r e g a r d i n g t h e g e n e r a l formal o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Beaver dreamer songs w i l l  Indian  Indian  be o f f e r e d here as s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e f o r the  s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Beaver m u s i c . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r encompasses That i s , d i s c u s s i o n s  two d i f f e r e n t a r e a s .  r e l a t e d t o Beaver I n d i a n music as a c u l t u r a l  phenomenon r e l y on methods common t o c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y w h i l e e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s music as a sound phenomenon u t i l i z e the g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n g i v e n by such s c h o l a r s as Herzog M c A l l e s t e r ( 1 9 4 9 ) , and N e t t l  (1954).  (1928),  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r  - 66 -  67  d e a l s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f Beaver I n d i a n music and c u l t u r e : p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p , geographic l o c a t i o n and general e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s t o r y o f the B e a v e r , music and the s u p e r n a t u r a l , uses o f m u s i c , m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , and a d d i t i o n a l notes on the music.  A.  Previous  Scholarship  Investigations  i n t o North American I n d i a n c u l t u r e have been very  numerous d u r i n g the p a s t hundred y e a r s .  Further, ethnomusicologists  and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a l i k e have devoted much energy to the study o f A m e r i n d i a n music.  However, few a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have c a r r i e d - o u t compre-  h e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f Athabascan I n d i a n s , much l e s s o f the Beaver.  No  one, i n f a c t , has y e t examined t h e i r music from an e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view.  What f o l l o w s i s an a t t e m p t t o r e v i e w the s c h o l a r s h i p  t h a t has taken p l a c e i n the area o f Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e and music during t h i s century. One type o f source a v a i l a b l e on the Beaver I n d i a n i s the p u b l i s h e d accounts o f e a r l y f u r - t r a d e r s , p r o s p e c t o r s , and Hudson's Bay Company p o s t managers who l i v e d i n the Peace R i v e r c o u n t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a .  These vary i n q u a l i t y ( i . e . , a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l s o f  s u b j e c t i v i t y ) ; however, most c o n t a i n some f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s the Athabascan I n d i a n s .  Contributions include:  Bowes  1  of  (1964) r e p o r t s  on p o v e r t y c u l t u r e and w i n t e r s t a r v a t i o n o f Athabascan I n d i a n s between the y e a r s 1793 through 1962; B r y c e ' s the Hudson's Bay Company; G o d s e l l ' s  (1968) h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e o f (1938, 1943) accounts o f h i s  e x p e r i e n c e s as a f u r - t r a d e r w i t h the Athabascan I n d i a n s ; Lamb's  personal (1957)  i n f o r m a t i o n on Beaver I n d i a n c h i l d b i r t h , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the s t a t u s  68  o f women, and the s u p e r n a t u r a l ; and  Rich's  (1938) j o u r n a l o f the Hudson's  Bay Company, n o t a b l e f o r i t s d e r o g a t o r y remarks about the Beaver. Another type o f source p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on Athabascan  Indians  d e a l s w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Peace R i v e r c o u n t r y (Bowes 1964; K i t t o 1930; A l l e n 1958).  The o n l y s o u r c e , however, which d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h  the h i s t o r y o f the Beaver I n d i a n s i s James MacGregor's Foot Davis (1952).  work, Twelve  I n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e today on the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Northern Athabascan  Indians.  t r e a t i s e by the same name i s an example.  C o r n e l i u s Osgood's (1936)  Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ,  have p r e f e r r e d t o o f f e r g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Athabascan culture.  Diamond Jenness  geographic  (1932), Angus Sherwood ( 1 9 5 8 ) ,  however,  Indian  Pliny Early  Goddard ( 1 9 1 6 ) , and Alden Mason (1946) have been n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t o r s i n this area. tribal  The b a s i c c o n t e n t o f the works o f these men i s r e s p e c t i v e l y :  l o c a t i o n s , economic c o n d i t i o n s , s u b s i s t e n c e and p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e ;  g e n e r a l remarks on c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ; b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Beaver c u l t u r e and a c o l l e c t i o n o f Beaver myths; and cultural  g e n e r a l remarks on  practices.  The r e m a i n i n g sources on Athabascan  Indian c u l t u r e deal w i t h more  s p e c i f i c t o p i c s ; i . e . , some examine one a s p e c t o f Athabascan  Indian  c u l t u r e and o t h e r s examine one c u l t u r e - - S e k a n i , B e a v e r , o r C a r r i e r . The s u b j e c t s and c o n t r i b u t i n g s c h o l a r s are as f o l l o w s :  the a c c u l t u r a t i o n  o f the Athabascan I n d i a n s d u r i n g the time o f the f u r - t r a d e - ( 1 9 4 6 ) ; Athabascan k i n s h i p systems k i n s h i p systems  - - H o i j e r (1956);  Beaver  - - R i d i n g t o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; anthropometry o f B e a v e r ,  and C a r r i e r I n d i a n s - - B o i l e a u ( 1 9 3 6 ) ;  Honigman Indian Sekani,  the r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s o f the  Beaver - - R i d i n g t o n (1970); myths o f the C a r r i e r I n d i a n s - - Jenness  (1934);  69  the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f the C a r r i e r I n d i a n - - Jenness  (1943);  C a r r i e r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - - Duff ( 1 9 5 1 ) ; the p h y s i c a l environment as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f Beaver I n d i a n b e h a v i o r - - R i d i n g t o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; the h i s t o r y , p h y s i c a l appearance, m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and r e l i g i o n o f the Sekani  I n d i a n s - - Jenness  (1937).  W h i l e much has been w r i t t e n on the Beaver I n d i a n p e o p l e , s c h o l a r s h i p on Beaver I n d i a n music has been l i m i t e d . ethnomusicological 1971).  Only two sources e x i s t :  ( N e t t l 1954), the o t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  N e t t l ' s study d i s c u s s e s  one  (Ridington  g e n e r a l s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f Athabascan  I n d i a n music w h i l e R i d i n g t o n ' s work attempts to e x p l a i n the i n n e r , p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning o f shaman s i n g i n g among the Beaver  B.  Indians.  Geographic L o c a t i o n and General E c o l o g i c a l C o n d i t i o n s The Beaver I n d i a n s a r e Athabascan speakers who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  l i v e d a l o n g the Peace R i v e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a between the Rocky Mountains and Lake Athabaska (see Maps 1 and 2 o f the a p p e n d i x , pages 241 and 242).  T h i s geographic r e g i o n encompasses  approximately  75,000 square m i l e s w i t h i n which t h r e e types o f l a n d are p r e v a l e n t - m o u n t a i n s , t a i g a ( b o r e a l f o r e s t - m u s k e g ) , and g r a s s p r a i r i e s .  All  share  a s u b - a r c t i c c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e i n which the summer months a r e m i l d and the w i n t e r months a r e b i t t e r l y c o l d .  As w e l l , a l l a r e r i c h i n  b i g game and f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s . The Beaver I n d i a n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been nomadic hunters and depended almost e x c l u s i v e l y on b i g game a n i m a l s such as the moose f o r 2 subsistence.  The i n e v i t a b l e s c a r c i t y o f b i g game a n i m a l s  coupled w i t h  the harsh c l i m a t e has f o r c e d the Beaver t o l i v e under d i f f i c u l t e c o l o g i c a l  70  conditions. resources  That i s , r e g u l a r and p r e d i c t a b l e access to p o t e n t i a l food  i s the weakest l i n k i n Beaver I n d i a n e c o l o g y and i s  consequently  3  the f o c a l concern t h a t u n d e r l i e s a l l forms o f  behavior.  For the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s , a g r i c u l t u r a l development o f t h i s a r e a has moved from e a s t t o w e s t , pushing the I n d i a n s b e f o r e i t or a s s i m i l a t i n g them t o n o n - I n d i a n s t a t u s .  (The h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g way o f l i f e  has  been m a i n t a i n e d by those Beavers who remained i n the bush c o u n t r y n o r t h o f t h e Peace R i v e r and i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e Rocky  Mountains,  a l t h o u g h the p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t r y i n 1942 by the A l a s k a  highway  and the subsequent development o f o i l f i e l d s and power p r o j e c t s i n the a r e a has r e l i e v e d them o f dependence on h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g . )  At the  time the m u s i c a l examples were c o l l e c t e d (1965 through 1968), t h e r e were about t h r e e hundred Beaver I n d i a n s l i v i n g on f o u r r e s e r v e s w i t h i n t h i s g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n , w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y - f i v e t o one hundred p e o p l e per r e s e r v e .  The r e s e r v e s are as f o l l o w s :  Prophet R i v e r Band,  Halfway R i v e r Band, Doig R i v e r Band, and B l u e b e r r y R i v e r Band  (see  Map 3 o f the a p p e n d i x , page 2 4 3 ) .  C.  H i s t o r y o f the Beaver A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the e i g h t e e n t h  century,Algonkian-speaking  Cree I n d i a n s o c c u p i e d the f o r e s t e d c o u n t r y west o f Hudson's Bay and t r a d e d w i t h t h e newly formed Hudson's Bay Company a t F o r t C h u r c h i l l . To the n o r t h , A t h a b a s c a n - s p e a k i n g west o f Hudson's Bay.  Chipewyans  hunted the b a r r e n grounds  The Beaver l i v e d a l o n g the Peace R i v e r and perhaps  extended e a s t t o t h e Athabaska R i v e r .  Goddard suggests t h a t a r e c e n t  Cree expansion i n t o the Athabaska R i v e r c o u n t r y drove t h e Beaver i n t o  71  t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n and may account f o r the s e p a r a t i o n o f Beaver from S a r s i .  L i n g u i s t i c e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e two Athabascan  languages s e p a r a t e d o n l y r e c e n t l y (Goddard 1916: 209).  The S a r s i  taken on a P l a i n s - b i s o n h u n t i n g way o f l i f e and borrowed customs  have from  the s u r r o u n d i n g A l g o n k i a n s w h i l e the Beaver remained s u b a r c t i c moose and woods-bison drainage  h u n t e r s . Beaver c u l t u r e resembles t h a t o f o t h e r MacKenzie  Athabaskans.  The Beaver I n d i a n s have been i n v o l v e d i n t r a d e w i t h Europeans Hudson's Bay Company)  s i n c e about 1789.  (the  B e f o r e t h a t they were i n f l u e n c e d  by the Cree I n d i a n s who had a c q u i r e d manufactured goods from the same t r a d i n g company.  There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the f i r s t f i f t y y e a r s o f the  t r a d e p e r i o d between t h e Europeans  and t h e Beavers p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d  the e c o l o g y o f t h e a r e a and the I n d i a n s ' way o f l i f e .  Before t h i s  t i m e , t h e r e appear t o have been numerous b u f f a l o a l o n g the Peace R i v e r but h u n t i n g w i t h f i r e a r m s and t h e e x p o r t a t i o n o f d r i e d b u f f a l o meat t o d i s t a n t company p o s t s n e a r l y e x t e r m i n a t e d the s p e c i e s by 1830 1952:  (MacGregor  206-207). In the c e n t u r y f o l l o w i n g 1860, the Beavers came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h  C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s who r e i n f o r c e d the e f f o r t s o f the Hudson's Bay Company t o e l i m i n a t e f i g h t i n g between bands and i n t r o d u c e a b e l i e f i n rewards and punishment f o r "good" b e h a v i o r .  P r i e s t s o f the French  O b l a t e m i s s i o n a r y c o n v e r t e d most o f t h e I n d i a n s t o C a t h o l i c i s m but t h e i r impact was s u p e r f i c i a l because t h e nomadic and d e c e n t r a l i z e d way of l i f e  imposed by e c o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y meant t h a t no permanent r e s i d e n t i a l  m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d .  The p r i e s t s met w i t h the I n d i a n s o c c a s i o n a l l y  but y e a r s went by w i t h o u t m i s s i o n a r y c o n t a c t .  T h e i r c h i e f impact on  72  Beaver c u l t u r e i s seen i n the c o n t e n t o f a prophet r e l i g i o n t h a t began around 1860 and i s today what t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r " I n d i a n  religion".  I t has developed i n t o an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f song, r i t u a l ,  dreamers,  and o r t h o d o x y . D e s p i t e the changes  brought by c o n t a c t w i t h Europeans,  the  Beavers  remained e n t i r e l y dependent on e x p l o i t i n g the n a t u r a l environment and f o r a p e r i o d from about 1830 t o 1920 were o b l i g e d t o conduct t h e i r l i v e s w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by a r e s o u r c e base t h a t c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f moose.  R e c e n t l y ( 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 ) , the Beaver I n d i a n s have moved  i n t o houses b u i l t by the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch o f t h e Canadian  Government,  but p r i o r to 1962 the Beaver l i v e d f o r the most p a r t i n i s o l a t e d l o g - c a b i n o r t i p i - b u s h communities.  And u n t i l  the government attempted t o  initiate  an I n d i a n day school program i n the e a r l y 1960s, they l e d r e l a t i v e l y nomadic l i v e s , u s i n g horses  D.  i n summer and dog teams i n w i n t e r .  Music and the S u p e r n a t u r a l A l l p e o p l e , i n no m a t t e r what c u l t u r e , must be a b l e t o p l a c e t h e i r music f i r m l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e i r b e l i e f s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and a c t i v i t i e s , f o r w i t h o u t such t i e s , music cannot e x i s t . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e must be a body o f t h e o r y connected w i t h any music system - - not n e c e s s a r i l y a t h e o r y o f the s t r u c t u r e o f music sound, a l t h o u g h t h a t may be p r e s e n t as w e l l , but r a t h e r a t h e o r y o f what music i s , what i t does, and how i t i s c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h the t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , both n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l , i n which man moves. ( M e r r i a n 1967: 3) For the B e a v e r , the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t about music and  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t o t a l w o r l d i s i t s o r i g i n i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l sphere.  W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some songs are borrowed from  n e i g h b o r i n g p e o p l e s , ^ a l l t r u e and p r o p e r songs owe t h e i r o r i g i n to  73  a v a r i e t y o f c o n t a c t s e x p e r i e n c e d by humans w i t h beings w h i c h , though a p a r t o f t h i s w o r l d , are superhuman as w e l l as t r i b a l  powers and s k i l l s .  5  and the source o f both i n d i v i d u a l In b r i e f , the d e r i v a t i o n o f such  songs i s the s u p e r n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e which comes from dreaming, an e l a b o r a t e process o f m e d i t a t i o n s t i l l  p r a c t i s e d i n Beaver c u l t u r e today.  Dreams are c r y s t a l i z a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y , . . . dreams o f m a t u r i t y are s p e c i a l because they show the Beaver h i s m e d i c i n e s w i t h t h e c l a r i t y o f wisdom t h a t adds a new d i r e c t i o n t o the innocence o f c h i l d h o o d and t o the i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the v i s i o n i t s e l f . . . . The knowledge t h a t comes through dreaming i s a b s o l u t e becuase i t comes from a l e v e l o f s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t i s deeper than c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . Dreams r e v e a l the o f t e n hidden s i g n i f i c a n c e o f events and the immediacy o f t h e i r imagery i s a c c e p t e d as an important g i f t . ( R i d i n g t o n 1971: 123) The b a s i c c o r r e l a t i o n between Beaver I n d i a n music and dreaming l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t songs a r e c o n c e i v e d by the dreamer o r bestowed upon him by h i s g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s when he i s dreaming. songs a r e s y m b o l i c o f the d r e a m e r ' s  In t h i s  s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e and hence  deemed c a p a b l e o f conveying the imagery o f a dream i n t o the realm.  Songs are the medium through which s u p e r n a t u r a l  i s communicated.  conscious  experience  Both songs and dreams are paths t h a t t a k e one i n t o  the r e a l m where symbol and e x p e r i e n c e merge. t h a t the melody  respect  R i d i n g t o n has i n d i c a t e d  o f a song r e p r e s e n t s t h e t u r n s o f t h e mind on the pathway  t o the deepest l e v e l o f a d r e a m e r ' s s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i l e the rhythm o f the song r e p r e s e n t s h i s f o o t s t e p s on the path ( R i d i n g t o n ,  1971).  I t i s f r u s t r a t i n g t o have t o use words to d e s c r i b e what must e s s e n t i a l l y be heard o r e x p e r i e n c e d , but the r e a d e r must use  his  i m a g i n a t i o n and perhaps some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h I n d i a n music t o see how songs become the medium o f h i s i n n e r j o u r n e y .  As one f o l l o w s the t u r n s  o f the song one i s l e a r n i n g t h e i n n e r paths o f the mind.  74  In Beaver Indian c u l t u r e t h e r e are two types o f song r e l a t e d t o dreaming and two r e s p e c t i v e types o f dreaming. i n g i s a s y m b o l i c mental s y n t h e s i s  The f i r s t type o f dream-  of a dreamer's  pre-adolescent  vision  q u e s t ^ and p o s t - a d o l e s c e n t m a t u r i t y , and generates m e d i c i n e songs  (mayine).  In t h i s type o f dream, the dreamer r e c a l l s h i s v i s i o n q u e s t e x p e r i e n c e and h i s i n d i v i d u a l animal f r i e n d .  These r e p r e s e n t h i s  ( o b j e c t s s y m b o l i z i n g the powers o f m y t h i c a n i m a l s ) .  "medicines"  The wisdom o f  his  p o s t - a d o l e s c e n t m a t u r i t y e n a b l e s him to i n t e r p r e t t h e s e m e d i c i n e s . For example, they may be i n s t r u c t i o n s as to what s i t u a t i o n s and food to a v o i d .  Thus, m e d i c i n e songs stem from the deepest realms o f a  s u b j e c t i v i t y - - his sub-conscious. a n i m a l s w i t h i n the man and they w e l l  person's  They are the songs o f the medicine up and reach out o n l y when he,  o r one c l o s e t o him, i s i n some way c l o s e to d e a t h . The second type o f dreaming r e l a t e d t o song c o n c e p t i o n accounts f o r dreamer songs (nachene y i n e ) and i s done o n l y by a shaman. type o f dreaming i n v o l v e s a s u b j e c t i v e mental p r o c e s s  This  i n which the  s p i r i t o f the shaman l e a v e s h i s body, goes to heaven, and r e t u r n s w i t h wisdom.  During h i s j o u r n e y t o heaven the g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s g i v e a song  t o the shaman which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a v e h i c l e f o r the shaman to communicate t h e i r prophecy to o t h e r p e o p l e . The u l t i m a t e source o f dreamers' songs i s i n the animal w o r l d f o r they a r e t h e p r a y e r s t h a t a n i m a l s s i n g when they have hard t i m e s . The dreamers i n heaven have heard the a n i m a l s d a n c i n g and s i n g i n g and s e n t the songs down i n t o t h e dreams o f the shaman, who then g i v e s them to the people v i a song. ( R i d i n g t o n 1971: 126) There i s much more t h a t c o u l d be s a i d about the p e n e t r a t i o n o f dreaming and s i n g i n g  i n t o e v e r y a s p e c t o f Beaver l i f e -  B r i e f l y , however,  75  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between dreaming, the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d , and music Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e may be e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s .  The Beavers  in  believe  t h a t a l l songs o r i g i n a t e i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d and t h a t the o n l y way to o b t a i n t h e s e songs from t h e g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s i s by dreaming. T h i s dreaming i s a process  i n r e l a t i o n to song c o n c e p t i o n i n which e i t h e r  an i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i v e l y c o n t a c t s h i s p e r s o n a l  g u a r d i a n s p i r i t and  is  g i v e n a song ( m a y i n e ) , o r a shaman's s p i r i t j o u r n e y s t o heaven and back and d u r i n g the course o f i t s j o u r n e y r e c e i v e s a song from the spirits  (nachene y i n e ) .  guardian  These songs, i n t u r n , convey the imagery  dream i n t o the c o n s c i o u s  of'  realm and a l l o w t h i s type o f e x p e r i e n c e t o be  communicated.  E.  Uses o f Music As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h r e e types o f songs are apparent i n  Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e .  They are "Cree songs" (borrowed s o n g s ) , m e d i c i n e  songs ( m a y i n e ) , and dreamer songs (nachene y i n e ) .  "Cree songs" a r e  never used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the powers o b t a i n e d by the dreamer from the g u a r d i a n s p i r i t .  R a t h e r , they are used p r i m a r i l y f o r s o c i a l  events  such as the "give-away d a n c e " , a c o m p e t i t i v e give-away o r p o t l a t c h . M e d i c i n e songs r e p r e s e n t songs o f p e r s o n a l power and a r e seldom sung  Q in public.  R i d i n g t o n s a i d t h a t the o n l y time t h a t he heard them was when  an o l d man was p r e p a r i n g t o d i e ( R i d i n g t o n 1971: 125). for curing, locating ( i . e . , as i n p r a y e r ) .  They are used  a n i m a l s when h u n t i n g , and c o n t r o l l i n g the weather Dreamer songs o r songs c o n c e i v e d by a shaman, on  the o t h e r hand, are g e n t l e r songs than m e d i c i n e songs i n t h a t they reach  76  out to touch the s u b j e c t i v i t i e s of others through sharing a common experience.  These songs can be used in e i t h e r of two contexts - -  prophecy or dance.  In prophecy the shaman sings the song by himself  in an attempt to reveal his dream.  In dance, however, a group of Beaver q  Indians sing the song and dance to i t .  In both contexts the l i f e  cycle ( b i r t h , marriage, puberty, and the f i r s t k i l l of every major species of game) and ceremonies of prayer, hunting, and the weather are applicable. F.  Beaver Indian Musical  Instruments  Aside from the human v o i c e , the sound instruments of the Beaver are comprised of two types of membranophones.  The f i r s t i s a s i n g l e -  headed, adjustable snare drum approximately twelve inches in diameter. I t i s beaten with a s t i c k and i s used i n group singing and dancing situations.  (For i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the physical appearance of the  instrument and the way in which i t i s played see plates one through four of the appendix.  The other membranophone i s a double-headed  barrel drum (without snare) approximately twelve inches in diameter and four to s i x inches deep.  I t i s held by a leather thong, beaten  with a s t i c k , and used by the dreamer i n the context of prophecy. i l l u s t r a t i o n s , see plates f i v e and s i x . )  (For  There i s l i t t l e information  c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e about ownership of musical instruments or about musical instrument c o n s t r u c t i o n .  However, o r i g i n a l photographs of a  dreamer and a Beaver youth, l a c i n g a new skin onto the snare drum are included i n the appendix (see plates seven through twelve).  .  77  G.  A d d i t i o n a l Notes on the Music  Musical  Style  Beaver I n d i a n music e x i s t s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the r e a l m o f monophonic m o d a l i t y and s y m m e t r i c a l rhythm.  The b a s i c u n i t , the song,  l a s t s between twenty seconds and t h r e e m i n u t e s .  usually  These songs are sung  e i t h e r by a s o l o p e r f o r m e r o r i n u n i s o n by a c h o r u s . ^  Both v a r i e t i e s  o f performance i n c l u d e drum accompaniment which proceeds s t e a d i l y i n q u a r t e r notes a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y J = 152-160.  M e l o d i e s a r e , f o r the  most p a r t , c a s c a d i n g and u t i l i z e a range o f e i t h e r a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h o r two o c t a v e s ; however, a s m a l l group o f songs use a m e l o d i c range s m a l l e r than one o c t a v e .  S c a l e s are p r e d o m i n a t e l y q u a d r a t o n i c or  p e n t a t o n i c and m e l o d i c movement i s , by and l a r g e , i n major and minor t h i The f i n a l  tones i n songs are u s u a l l y the l o w e s t p i t c h e s o f the songs,  and m o d u l a t i o n ^ to a n o t h e r mode o r w i t h i n a mode i s i n f r e q u e n t d u r i n g a song.  Vocal t e n s i o n i s apparent but not to the e x t e n t i t i s i n o t h e r  I n d i a n music (as f o r example:  Copper Eskimo m u s i c ) , and the use o f wide  v o c a l v i b r a t o on p i t c h e s l o n g e r i n d u r a t i o n than occurs f r e q u e n t l y .  d o t t e d - q u a r t e r notes  The drum accompaniment i n the dreamer songs ( i . e . ,  i n the prophecy c o n t e x t ) i s p i t c h e d , w h e r e a s i t i s not a s s i g n e d a r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e p i t c h i n dreamer songs ( i . e . , i n the dance c o n t e x t ) .  The  tempo and rhythm f o r each song a r e i n t r o d u c e d , i n the manner o f an i n t o n e m e n t , by a s o l o drum. syllables.  Song t e x t s a r e comprised o f n o n - l e x i c a l  And, most songs are s t r o p h i c i n f o r m ; however, some are  through-composed. o f the m e l o d i c l i n e ;  Dynamics  vary a c c o r d i n g t o r e g i s t e r and the shape  i n g e n e r a l , the l o u d e s t volume o c c u r s i n the  78  uppermost r e g i s t e r and v i c e v e r s a .  With r e g a r d to dynamics and melody,  the l o u d e s t volume per m u s i c a l phrase i s apparent a t the h e i g h t o f a m e l o d i c l i n e ; however, t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f a melody c a s c a d i n g from the uppermost r e g i s t e r t o the l o w e s t r e g i s t e r i s poco a poco diminuendo.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Performance Two b a s i c m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s are apparent i n the performance o f Beaver I n d i a n music.  One o c c u r s w i t h the s i n g i n g o f dreamer songs i n  the c o n t e x t o f prophecy w h i l e the o t h e r takes p l a c e w i t h the performance o f dreamer and Cree songs i n the c o n t e x t o f dance.  The former  i n v o l v e s a s o l o i s t i c s i t u a t i o n i n which a male shaman s i n g s and p l a y s the double-headed b a r r e l drum.  The s i n g e r u s u a l l y stands w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g  and t h e l i s t e n e r s n o r m a l l y s i t on the ground i n a s e m i - c i r c l e and f a c e the s o l o i s t .  The shaman holds the drum w i t h h i s l e f t hand and beats the  drum head w i t h a s t i c k which i s h e l d i n the r i g h t hand.  The drum i s  s u p p o r t e d by the f i n g e r s through c l u t c h i n g a p l i a b l e l e a t h e r handle (thong) a t t a c h e d t o the t o p s i d e o f t h e drum frame.  (See  P l a t e s f i v e and s i x o f the Appendix f o r an example o f the way i n which the drum i s p o s i t i o n e d f o r p e r f o r m a n c e . ) The performance o f dance songs e n t a i l s t h e s i n g i n g o f a Cree o r dreamer song i n unison by a chorus comprised m a i n l y o f young a d u l t s . These songs are most f r e q u e n t l y l e d by the r e s i d e n t shaman (dreamer) and are o f t e n r e s p o n s o r i a l  but seldom a n t i p h o n a l .  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the  shaman stands d u r i n g the s i n g i n g o f t h e s e songs; the c h o r u s , always s i t s on the ground.  Every s i n g e r  however,  ( t h e shaman i n c l u d e d )  plays  the s i n g l e - h e a d e d a d j u s t a b l e snare drum (see P l a t e s t h r e e and f o u r o f the A p p e n d i x ) .  T h i s membranophone  i s s u p p o r t e d by the f i n g e r s o f one  79  hand which grasp f o u r t i g h t l y s t r u n g l e a t h e r cords t h a t a r e a t t a c h e d t o the i n s i d e o f t h e drum frame (see P l a t e one o f the A p p e n d i x ) . o t h e r hand h o l d s  The  the b e a t e r which i s a wooden s t i c k and i s used t o  s t r i k e the s k i n head o f the drum (see P l a t e two o f t h e A p p e n d i x ) . e n t i r e music-making  process  i s meant t o accompany the dance.  f o l l o w i n g account i s an attempt t o d e s c r i b e the p h y s i c a l  The  setting  which t h i s m u s i c a l s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s as w e l l as i t s s y m b o l i c  This  in  meaning.  The Beavers dance, u s u a l l y i n a l a r g e t i p i , c l o c k w i s e o r as they s a y , " f o l l o w i n g the sun" around a f i r e . The f i r e i s the c e n t r e o f t h e c i r c l e and i t s column o f smoke j o i n s heaven and e a r t h , the a x i s o f s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Extending h o r i z o n t a l l y out from t h e f i r e i s a c i r c l e o f p e o p l e . The s i n g e r s and drummers are m a i n l y young a d u l t s , the h u n t e r s . They s i t i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s u n r i s e , j u s t as they s l e e p i n t h e i r own camps toward t h e s u n r i s e . O l d e r men s i t toward the n o r t h , and t h e v e r y o l d , as w e l l as the dreamer, s i t toward the s u n s e t . Women and c h i l d r e n s i t a l o n g the s o u t h e r n c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f t h e c i r c l e and the door i s g e n e r a l l y the d i v i d i n g l i n e between men and women. The s i n g i n g and dancing goes on f o r t h r e e or f o u r n i g h t s , and d u r i n g the day the dreamer may dream f o r t h e people o r t a l k t o them about h i s dreaming. ( R i d i n g t o n 1971: 126-127)  80  Instrumentation The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n music i s r e s t r i c t e d t o two types o f membranophones and the human v o i c e .  Ensembles, as  previously  m e n t i o n e d , i n c l u d e s o l o v o i c e w i t h drum accompaniment and u n i s o n w i t h drum accompaniment.  chorus  81  Footnotes  1 My knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r music and c u l t u r e was o b t a i n e d from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . I n f o r m a t i o n about the meaning o f Beaver I n d i a n music t o t h e Beaver I n d i a n s was g i v e n t o me by Dr. Robin R i d i n g t o n , s y m b o l i c a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and c a r r i e r o f many Beaver I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s . I a c q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Beaver c u l t u r e (such as geographic l o c a t i o n and h i s t o r y o f the Beaver) from a l a r g e number o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l documents on Athabaskan I n d i a n t r i b e s . And, I g a i n e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s music as a sound phenomenon by l i s t e n i n g t o the tape r e c o r d e d m u s i c a l examples and c o n s u l t i n g my transcriptions. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have never made any " f i r s t hand" c o n t a c t w i t h the Beaver. Hence, the e v i d e n c e I am p r e s e n t i n g i s a s y n t h e s i s o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s w r i t i n g s , f i e l d work, and t a l e s . ^ U n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1830 the Beaver l i v e d from B u f f a l o meat. S i n c e t h a t t i m e , however, t h e i r major s t a p l e has been t h e moose. The p e r i o d i c s c a r c i t y o f t h i s animal has been caused by: an uneven p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose, i l l n e s s t o a h u n t e r , bad weather (poor h u n t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ) , animal d i s e a s e , bad l u c k , and i n r e c e n t t i m e s , b i g game trophy hunters. ^ The t h r e a t o f s t a r v a t i o n i s a common theme i n Beaver stories.  Indian  ^ The Beaver have borrowed many songs from the Cree I n d i a n s . These songs are known i n Beaver c u l t u r e s i m p l y as "Cree songs" and have not as y e t been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s t a n d a r d body o f Beaver song l i t e r a t u r e used f o r p e r s o n a l and s h a m a n i s t i c power. I n s t e a d , " C r e e songs" are used f o r s o c i a l e v e n t s . M u s i c a l l y , these songs are s h a r p l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Beaver songs by t h e i r syncopated rhythms. Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e i s t o t e m i c . Hence, c e r t a i n animals are e l e v a t e d t o the r o l e o f p r o t e c t o r and f r i e n d o f t h e B e a v e r s . 5  ^ As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , Beaver I n d i a n s b e l i e v e a l l songs o r i g i n a t e i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l as composer does n o t e x i s t . In o r d e r t o understand t h i s b e l i e f h e l d by the B e a v e r , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to r e c o g n i z e t h a t they do n o t share t h e same sense o f " t h e i n d i v i d u a l as c r e a t o r " as do we North A m e r i c a n s . ^ The v i s i o n q u e s t i s a f e a t u r e o f p u b e r t y r i t e s common among some North American I n d i a n s ; i t c o n s i s t s o f s e n d i n g a boy t o t h e woods  82  w i t h o u t food o r any implements o t h e r than a bow and arrow u n t i l he has heard from a s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e . In the case o f the Beaver I n d i a n such a s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e would be i n the form o f a w i l d a n i m a l . ^ While m e d i c i n e songs are seldom sung i n p u b l i c , they a r e always i n a p e r s o n ' s mind and i n h i s dreams. Once the shaman has r e c e i v e d the song from heaven and sung i t i n a prophecy c o n t e x t i t can pass i n t o the domain o f p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , r e t a i n the power and wisdom bestowed upon i t by t h e g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s , and be used i n a dance. ^ To my knowledge, no p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l music e x i s t s i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . n M o d u l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r mode o r w i t h i n a mode, f o r the purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , r e f e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y t o a change i n mode e i t h e r by i n t r o d u c i n g a new s c a l e ( i . e . , new p i t c h e s and i n t e r v a l s ) o r by p r o g r e s s i n g to a n o t h e r degree o f the e x i s t i n g s c a l e and a s s i g n i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e to the p i t c h e s and i n t e r v a l s p r e s e n t .  83  REFERENCES CITED  Allen,  Ralph 1958  Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y .  Doubleday, New Y o r k .  B o i l e a u , Grant J . C. 1936 Anthropometry o f the B e a v e r , S e k a n i , and C a r r i e r I n d i a n s . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, B u l l e t i n 8 1 , Ottawa. Bowes,  Gordon 1964  Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s (19793-1962).  P r e s c o t t , Vancouver.  B r y c e , George 1968 Duff,  The_ Remarkable H i s t o r y o f the Hudson's Bay B u r t F r a n k l i n , New Y o r k .  Wilson 1951  Goddard, P. 1916  "Notes on C a r r i e r S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n " , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 2: 28-34.  Anthropology  E. "The Beaver I n d i a n s and Beaver T e x t s " , A n t h r o p o l o g y Papers o f t h e American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Volume 10, Parts 4-6.  G o d s e l l , P. H. 1938 Red Hunters o f the Snows. 1943  Company.  A r c t i c Trader.  Robert H a l e , London.  MacMillan, Toronto.  H e r z o g , George. 1928 " M u s i c a l S t y l e s i n North A m e r i c a " , Proceedings o f the T w e n t y - t h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f A m e r i c a n i s t s , pp. 455-458. H o i j e r , H. 1956  "Athabascan K i n s h i p Systems", 58: 308-333.  American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t ,  Honigmann, J . J . 1946 "Ethnography and A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the F o r t Nelson S l a v e " , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , 33: 44-66.  84  J e n n e s s , Diamond 1932 The I n d i a n s o f Canada.  N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, Ottawa.  1934  "Myths o f t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s " , F o l k l o r e , 47: 97-285.  J o u r n a l o f American  1937  The Sekani I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. o f Canada, B u l l e t i n 84, Ottawa.  1943  The C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f the B u l k l e y R i v e r . Bureau o f American E t h n o l o g y , B u l l e t i n 133, Washington, D. C.  N a t i o n a l Museum  K i t t o , F. H. 1930  Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y , Canada.  A c l a n d P r i n t e r , Ottawa.  Lamb, W. K. 1957 S i x t e e n Years i n the I n d i a n C o u n t r y . M a c M i l l a n , T o r o n t o . M c A l l e s t e r , David 1949 Peyotte Music. V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , Volume X I I , New Y o r k . MacGregor, James G. 1952 The Land o f T w e l v e - f o o t D a v i s . A r t , Edmonton.  The I n s t i t u t e o f A p p l i e d  Mason, Alden J . 1946 "Notes on the I n d i a n s o f the G r e a t S l a v e Lake A r e a " , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , 32: 106-143. M e r r i a m , A. 1967 Nettl,  Ethnomusicology  of Flathead Indians.  A d l i n e , Chicago.  B. 1954  North American I n d i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s . American F o l k l o r e Society, Philadelphia. Osgood, C o r n e l i u s 1936 "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the N o r t h e r n Athabascan I n d i a n s " , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , 7: 89-104. R i c h , E. E. 1938  Ridington, 1968  (editor) J o u r n a l o f Occurrences i n the Athabasca Department by George Simpson. Champlain Record S o c i e t y , London. Robin The Environmental C o n t e x t o f Beaver I n d i a n B e h a v i o r . D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y .  85  1969  " K i n C a t e g o r i e s Versus K i n Groups; A T w o - S e c t i o n System W i t h S e c t i o n s " , E t h n o l o g y , 8 ( 4 ) : 460-467.  1970  "The Inner Eye o f Shamanism and Totemism", R e l i g i o n s , 10(1): 49-61.  1971  "Beaver I n d i a n Dreaming and S i n g i n g " , 1 3 ( 1 ) : 115-128.  History of  Anthropologica,  Sherwood, Angus 1958 "Some Remarks about the Athabascan I n d i a n s " , 1: 51-56.  Anthropologica,  CHAPTER VI  The C o n s t r u c t i o n a l  P r i n c i p l e s o f Beaver I n d i a n Dreamer Songs  The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t some knowledge and unders t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. the a t t e m p t here w i l l  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  be t o d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t , by means o f the  methodology developed i n Chapter IV,  the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t  w i t h i n and between the m u s i c a l parameters o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n i n dreamer songs. will  these  In an endeavor to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k the f o l l o w i n g  be put f o r w a r d :  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d Beaver I n d i a n dreamer  songs; s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s  o f t h i s m u s i c ; and, a comparative  study o f the s t r u c t u r a l genres o f t h i s m u s i c . i s t h e bounded corpus o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  For the most p a r t ,  this  That i s , no attempt w i l l  be  made here t o d i s c u s s r e l a t e d m u s i c a l phenomena such as the c u l t u r a l determinants of musical s t y l e . will  be made.  However, a d d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l  These are the c o l l e c t i v e r e s u l t o f general  descriptions  stylistic  inquiries  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs and the structural  analyses  of t h i s  music. i - 86 -  87  A.  Selected Musical  Transcriptions  Notes on the  Transcriptions  The Sound M a t e r i a l The sound m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s was c o l l e c t e d by Dr.  Robin  R i d i n g t o n , s y m b o l i c a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and f a c u l t y member o f the  Anthropology-  Sociology  I t was  Department a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  d u r i n g t h e summers o f 1965, 1966, 1967,  recorded  1968, the s p r i n g o f 1966 and the  w i n t e r o f 1971 a t B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , Halfway R i v e r , and Doig R i v e r .  The  machine Dr. R i d i n g t o n used t o r e c o r d t h i s music was an Uher 4000 Report monophonic,  reel-to-reel  tape r e c o r d e r .  Working c o p i e s were made on an  Uher V a r i o c o r d 263, s t e r e o p h o n i c , r e e l - t o - r e e l  machine.  The sound m a t e r i a l i t s e l f i s comprised o f f o r t y - f i v e Beaver dreamer songs.  L,  Indian  These songs were r e c o r d e d i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g  i n the c o n t e x t o f prophecy - - and r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  eighty-five  p e r c e n t o f the musical r e p e r t o i r e o f C h a r l i e Yahey, J o h n n i e and C h a r l i e Jumbie^ - - the r e s i d e n t , e l d e r l y male shamans  --  Chipesia, (dreamers)  o f the Beaver I n d i a n c u l t u r e a t t h e time the m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l was r e c o r d e d . (Approximately f i f t e e n percent of Yahey's,  J u m b i e ' s , and  Chipesia s 1  dreamer songs were o m i t t e d because o f the poor sound r e p r o d u c t i o n on some o f the o r i g i n a l  recordings.)  Of the f o r t y - f i v e dreamer songs t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s o n l y nine w i l l  be p r e s e n t e d and l a t e r a n a l y z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  r e m a i n i n g t h i r t y - s i x songs are c o n t a i n e d i n the Appendix. reason f o r t h i s endeavor i s as f o l l o w s : that w i l l  The The  the n i n e dreamer songs  be p r e s e n t e d here are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s t r u c t u r e  (  88  o f the o t h e r t h i r t y - s i x songs.  (The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n w i l l  e x p l a i n e d i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " S e l e c t e d S t r u c t u r a l  Analyses".)  For the sake o f c l a r i t y , songs a r e numbered one through five.  be  forty-  And song t i t l e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o the number a s s i g n e d each  song, the name o f the i n d i v i d u a l shaman t h a t dreamed the song, and the time and p l a c e o f r e c o r d i n g .  For example, Song 1:  Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , J u l y 29,  The Purpose o f t h e  Dreamer  1965.  Transcriptions  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s are an attempt to d i s p l a y v i s u a l l y Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  They a r e a l s o i n t e n d e d as  the p r i m a r y documented source m a t e r i a l f o r the s t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l analysis  o f t h i s music.  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s may serve o t h e r  However, they are not meant t o be performed p r i o r to  purposes.  understanding  Beaver I n d i a n music and c u l t u r e as w e l l as l i s t e n i n g to m u s i c a l examples o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  Even then they may prove  inadequate i n t h i s r e g a r d as a m u l t i t u d e o f i n t a n g i b l e m u s i c a l  properties  i n h e r e n t i n Beaver music c o u l d n o t be n o t a t e d . The Methodology All  Used i n T r a n s c r i b i n g Beaver I n d i a n Music  the m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was  manually and w i l l form.  appear i n i t s p h o n e t i c as w e l l as i t s  transcribed  phonemic  With r e g a r d t o the f o r m e r , i t i s a method o f m u s i c a l  c r i p t i o n which attempts t o n o t a t e a l l the a u d i t o r y m u s i c a l contained w i t h i n a composition.  features  In r e f e r e n c e t o the l a t t e r ,  o n l y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s are i n d i c a t e d .  trans-  however,  89  The N o t a t i o n a l  Procedures  Pitch The Beaver I n d i a n music used i n t h i s t h e s i s  is notated at  a c t u a l p i t c h ( o r as near as the w e l l - t e m p e r e d system o f Western tuning a l l o w s ) .  Key s i g n a t u r e s  are o m i t t e d here i n f a v o r o f a c c i d e n t a l s  because the presence o f the former o f t e n i m p l y  - s p e c i f i c modal  s t r u c t u r e s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r degrees o f the s c a l e . Rhythm Rhythmic meter ( i . e . , bar l i n e s ) i s not u t i l i z e d here due t o the p r e c o n c e i v e d Western n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the placement o f a c c e n t e d beats w i t h i n a measure.  Rhythmic d e n s i t y ( t h e common denominator  o f p u l s e o r beat) i s i n d i c a t e d i n beats per minute and a l l are e x p r e s s e d i n monomial symbols.  durations  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f r h y t h m i c  v a l u e s to one a n o t h e r are r e p r e s e n t e d by the f o l l o w i n g : $ Rhythmic p r o p o r t i o n s between l o n g , medium, and s h o r t d u r a t i o n s )  , $  ,  (the d i s t i n c t i o n  are i n d i c a t e d a c c u r a t e l y  i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ; however, d e c i s i o n s such as the f o l l o w i n g are not embarked upon:  J  \  J 3  J  '  s h o u l d the t h r e e p i t c h e s D, E, and F be n o t a t e d as or  J .  s  J  J>  /  „ 3  J  .  \  J 3  E i g h t n o n - p i t c h e d s o l o drum beats are i n d i c a t e d a t the o f each t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  J  i  beginning  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an a r b i t r a r y attempt t o show  the intonement o f rhythm by the drum a t the s t a r t o f e v e r y song. Once the melody begins and the drum becomes p i t c h e d i t i s n o t a t e d as such.  ?  90  Song Text The t e x t o f each tune i s o m i t t e d because i t i s solely of non-lexical  syllables.  And, i n instances  comprised where  i s s t a t e d d u r i n g t h e course o f a song n e i t h e r t h e o r i g i n a l its  prophesy t e x t nor  translation is offered. Diacritical  Markings f  mf P dim. poco a poco  l o u d i n volume medium l o u d i n volume s o f t i n volume g r a d u a l l y s o f t e n i n volume ( u s u a l l y with descension o f melodic l i n e )  gradually  coincides  l o u d e r i n volume  g r a d u a l l y s o f t e r i n volume  f a l s e t t o = weak, t h i n sounds t h a t a r e a r t i f i c i a l l y produced by t h e v o c a l i s t - - i . e . , those notes which l i e above h i s n a t u r a l s i n g i n g r e g i s t e r n a t u r a l v o i c e = t h e n a t u r a l sounds t h a t a r e produced by t h e vocalist. The t i m b r e o f these sounds ( i . e . , head v o i c e , t h r o a t v o i c e , and c h e s t v o i c e ) vary according t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n g e r s . In t h e cases o f C h a r l i e Yahey, C h a r l i e Jumbie, and Johnnie C h i p e s i a t h e f o l l o w i n g general r u l e a p p l i e s : • f/eaJ  3  Voice.  • Thfiotd •tilled Voice  rit. a tempo  gradually  slower  return to the o r i g i n a l  tempo  Voice  91  b r e a t h mark e d i t o r i a l phrase mark ( a l l p i t c h e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n are not tongued and are s t a t e d i n one breath) J  = staccato  J J  s l u r or t i e = end o f a m u s i c a l  ^  section or  strophe  = note i s s h o r t e r than v a l u e i n d i c a t e d = note i s l o n g e r than v a l u e i n d i c a t e d  PROPHECY = o r a t o r y ( o c c a s i o n s  ij}  0(3(2  (capital lett e r s A to Z)  for  prophesy)  = the name o f a m u s i c a l s e c t i o n o r  consult corresponding the t r a n s c r i p t i o n  strophe  f o o t n o t e a t the end o f  moti ve ll  1  = abstract motivic material = non-motivic  material  Embellishment o f P i t c h a portamento o r gradual g l i s s a n d o i n the shape the l i n e . I t encompasses a l l the p o s s i b l e m i c r o t o n e s between the two p i t c h e s a s s i g n e d .  92  a portamento o r gradual g l i s s a n d o i n the shape o f the l i n e . I t encompasses a l l the p o s s i b l e m i c r o t o n e s between the two p i t c h e s a s s i g n e d . the p i t c h f l u c t u a t e s no more than 50 c e n t s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the shape o f the 1 i ne. the p i t c h f l u c t u a t e s no more than 50 c e n t s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e shape o f the line. the p i t c h i s s h a r p e r than the note i n d i c a t e d . The degree o f sharpness may vary between 1 and 50 c e n t s . the p i t c h i s f l a t t e r than t h e note i n d i c a t e d . The degree o f f l a t n e s s may vary between 1 and 50 c e n t s . a wide v o c a l v i b r a t o . The r a t e o f the v i b r a t o corresponds w i t h the speed o f the drum. a p i t c h s l i d e s r a p i d l y upwards a t the end o f i t s d u r a t i o n . In comparison to the portamento, t h i s e m b e l l i s h m e n t takes p l a c e much f a s t e r and does n o t proceed d i r e c t l y to a n o t h e r p i t c h . a p i t c h s l i d e s r a p i d l y downward a t the end o f i t s d u r a t i o n . In comparison t o the portamento, t h i s e m b e l l i s h m e n t t a k e s p l a c e much f a s t e r and does n o t proceed d i r e c t l y t o a n o t h e r p i t c h . a speech d e r i v e d m u s i c a l tone as opposed t o a m u s i c a l l y d e r i v e d t o n e . The a c t u a l p i t c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . I t s approximate p i t c h i s i n d i c a t e d by an " x " and i t s d u r a t i o n i s shown by the note stem.  94  J  j ] jj  -4—0-4—*  ^  m  *  na  "  j j j  jj  ] j  j  U - H f j -  0-0-0  4-0  4-4  0  0-4—0—4-0-  J  J  J  3  a  ;  P w  j  J  J  w w w  * 0  J  J  J  w  JJJJJJJIJJJJ JJ^WJ-^  3 Si}  A * *' n  ^:  i  i  JJ  JJJ  J  Hf  P  J  J  J  t  f  f  H  i  J JJ J Jj JJ  J  J  J  J J J  J  J  -U14J-J-J-  J  J  J  J  J  £  95  * The q u a r t e r - n o t e t r i p l e t s an e i g h t h - n o t e t r i p l e t s which o c c u r i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n are an approximate manner o f n o t a t i n g d u r a t i o n a l v a l u e s , That i s , r h y t h m i c v a r i e t i e s such as n  J  J.  J> 1  3 would s t i l l  be n o t a t e d  ; \  respecti vely.  ,u 3  /  96  Song 7:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , J u l y 29, 1965  S o l o Male V o i c e  Double-Headed B a r r e l Drum  ii J J j j J J j 3 J- JJJJJJJJ ))  o  *3 /):  \ \  g-ww  A O  9  rho  \ff  smm  *->  O  fe  dim. poco A. tfHHW  111  jauxy  <  JJ  1 1 ]  J J 3J 3J  11  Q  i  +  97  98  Song 9:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966  99  100  Song 13:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l e y Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966  J fc  S o l o Male V o i c e  Double-Headed B a r r e l Drum  i  f  f  1  \r)  y]  i  T  f f  ,  f  f  *  i  <  «  «  z  \  ~  ^  ~  Art  I  f km  1~ >fcjgjf » o—l—«HH  101  j  .  mf  i-SSu—fl 9  r ff id  f  fin  poeo  Aim.,  '  II  | i f = w t f #  ^ ^ — ^  mm  102  Song 28:  Dreamer Song by J o h n n i e C h i p e s i a , Halfway August 8, 1965  River,  S o l o Male V o i c e  Double-Headed Drum  Barrel-  f  j t - j 3 3 j j j j i  >rvr-rv  T f l — j r y — y j 33 1 3 33 j  1  I  ft  -P  J X J X J  s ^  1 -  u.'i  »'! !  iim-ge  V^T^ y •» * e t *  nil  i  V I I I  Ml  jig  103  J y»> P /); I [(Hi(|H  t  i  •  A  ! J )j 1  \ 1)  O  O  3  U'Hffit±  dim.  + — / # — #  J  f i>  * — # # #  — # —  9—**n  »»  I S m  2  : 1! J J  AS(^  etteept S  J!JJ  ddr««Jl © £ s t a p l e  * The p i t c h o f t h i s song g r a d u a l l y r i s e s - ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f tone by t h e end o f - t h e s o n g ) . As w e l l , t h e tempo g r a d u a l l y - a c c e l e r a t e s . I t reaches J = 184 by t h e end o f t h e song.  104  Song 35:  Dreamer Song by J o h n n i e C h i p e s i a , Halfway August 8, 1965  River,  S o l o Male V o i c e  Double-Headed Drum  /)••  '  j j j \  r*  Barrel  U  M  \\\ \ \\ \\ w \ \  ' > > > / -» > > > >  105  I "  gi  f — 1  _j  J>  '  Some.  fC]  <K  /K 7  Song 30:  Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway August 8, 1965  River,  vl>»>/l»o S o l o Male V o i c e  Double-Headed Drum  0 :  I  1  j  >  /  Barrel  H  »p  M  * *  l j  )  ir *  \)  If  J  i i ii*  I  v  \  n  *  *  *  if  106  107  Song 39:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, B l u e b e r r y August 7, 1967  River,  108  -  ? °>  -«  ft  1  k  r "  y  JWJ  M  r  J/JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJIJJ^  109  SduujL  as  Song 42:  (^1  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, Doig Auqust 1967  River  S o l o Male V o i c e  Snare-Drum  U  JJJJMJ)  , })))}))) f ;J JJ u  mm  (  J) J) \ ) ) ) ) \  JJJ J  &  n o  y j ) J J J ) III Til—nm  Pt JJJJ JMJJJ1U  H  ) I J ?J|t,11  fill  in I ll " I  )  I ! 3 3 g 3 £  m  ^  o w  o v  o w  f ; r < s - >  ^  ^  |v ?  r t i l  ^  ^  ^  ^  I 1111  i 1 n n 1 1 U L  u u f i  ^  ^  ^  112  B.  Selected Structural  Analyses Notes on the A n a l y s e s  The a n a l y s e s which f o l l o w u t i l i z e the method developed i n Chapter IV —  a method o f a n a l y s i s  founded, f o r the most p a r t , on c o r r e l a t i o n s  between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s .  To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the  a n a l y t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s method are t o f e r r e t o u t t h e s t r u c t u r a l musical  r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h i n and between the m u s i c a l  o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n i n Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  The  i t s e l f proceeds a t two l e v e l s o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e — and the s y n t a c t i c .  parameters analysis  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  These l e v e l s o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e u t i l i z e  phonetic,  phonemic, and morphemic a n a l y s e s which a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y aimed a t d e c i p h e r i n g the r e p e r t o r y o f m u s i c a l components  ( t h e p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and  durations  u s e d ) , d e f i n i n g t h e s e m u s i c a l components a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l  features  (main,  secondary,  and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s ) , and r e a l i z i n g the t e n d e n c i e s o f musical component and m u s i c a l component-group  interaction  ( m o t i v e s , a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l , and n o n - m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l ) .  Synthetically,  the method developed i n Chapter IV may be d e s c r i b e d as a s p e c i f i c type of motivic a n a l y s i s :  one t h a t attempts to d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t h i e r a r c h i -  c a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between m u s i c a l components m u s i c a l component-groups The songs t h a t w i l l  i n Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. be a n a l y z e d here are o f f e r e d i n t h e i r t r a n s c r i b e d  form i n the s e c t i o n p r e v i o u s . 35, 39, and 42.  and  They i n c l u d e songs 2, 7, 9, 13, 28,  Each o f these songs i s c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  the s t r u c t u r e o f o t h e r songs by the same p e r f o r m e r .  For t h i s  30, of  reason,  113  each song a n a l y z e d here has been a s s i g n e d a s t r u c t u r a l genre. o f C h a r l i e Yahey i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s t r u c t u r a l genres:  The music  structural  genre I i n c l u d e s songs 1, 2 , 3, 4 , 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18,  19,  20, 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 24, 25 and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by song 2 ; s t r u c t u r a l genre  II  i n c l u d e s songs 5, 6,. and 7 and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by song 7; s t r u c t u r a l genre III  c o n t a i n s o n l y song 9; and, s t r u c t u r a l genre IV i n c l u d e s  13 and 14 and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by song 13.  The music o f Johnnie  by comparison, i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t r u c t u r a l genres:  represented  i n c l u d e s songs 29, 35, 37, 38 and  r e p r e s e n t e d by song 35; and, s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I  genres:  genre I i n c l u d e s songs 39, 40, 4 1 , 4 3 , 44, 45 and i s  by song 39; s t r u c t u r a l genre II  is  c o n t a i n s o n l y song 30.  The music o f C h a r l i e Jumbie i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s t r u c t u r a l structural  Chipesia,  structural  genre I i n c l u d e s songs 26, 27, 28, 3 1 , 32, 33, 34, 36 and i s by song 28; s t r u c t u r a l genre II  songs  c o n t a i n s o n l y song 42.  represented  114  Song 2:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , J u l y 29,  1965  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I o f thei.Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey)  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  G, F, D, Bb, C, E  i n t e r v a l s used:  M2, m3, M3, p4  durations  Structure  used:  Phonemic M u s i c a l  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e i are G and D, secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are F and Bb n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are C and E  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor t h i rds. secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a major second, the i n t e r v a l which i s not c o n s i d e r e d a n u c l e u s is a perfect fourth  durations:  the d u r a t i o n s which l e n d themselves to being main n u c l e i o f rhythm are and J# the d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d secondary n u c l e i o f rhythm are J and J the d u r a t i o n s which do not r e c u r f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r e d n u c l e i o f rhythm are , , and Jl.; Q  ;mode:  115  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  The graph which f o l l o w s r e p r e s e n t s an  a t t e m p t t o p l o t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a i n , secondary, and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s .  The numbers on t h e g r a p h ,  reading  h o r i z o n t a l l y from l e f t t o r i g h t , i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l notes o f the musical  sections.  Section A  . ¥4 So b*( 51 £5 5"<+  "Pitct, Nuclei A. . i u - i U K of P . U L  J  How-Made* t> Xn-htudU J ;  Vurifi'oM.1 Nutki  +~ 4— /Vo*- (V^/e*^  &kr<J*ls  . i.  —t—-i  116"  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * Main p i t c h n u c l e i are stemmed n o t e s , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are n o t a t e d as an " x " .  117  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * Main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are stemmed n o t e s , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , and n o n - n u c l e i o f d u r a t i o n are r e p r e s e n t e d by an " x " .  118  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  R e c u r r e n t Sequences o f I n d i v i d u a l  Structure  M u s i c a l Components:  (Only  those  p h o n e t i c phenomena which a r e b r a c k e t e d t o g e t h e r a r e c o n s i d e r e d recurrent  sequences.)  Section A 1  fltunEfcelfMei'  Scco iV.u-N^fei of ViitL  flow-Mallear X*hfv&ls  I  ^  5  J*L.  f -J> 1 ^ g  T  «o  ((  It. f >  »«• i f  Ii n  •  Zch^C Sd**£ AS  V:.-  119  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motive ( s i g n i f i c a n t musical  component-groups):  A b s t r a c t - M o t i v i e M a t e r i a l ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t musical-component  N o n - M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical-component NIL  groups):  groups):  120  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  IF Jsi5t-l6o  7  ^PP=PTT M  Ml  M  J>:/H  j)  f**°  dL  ~!—H  peto  < H  i , ! j * /IT  <&Un.  -0-+—  n, /A  7  Ir  *  #^  #  # »  »—#-  121  * Motives are i n d i c a t e d by square b r a c k e t s and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s are r e p r e s e n t e d by double square b r a c k e t s .  122  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Formula:  M e l o d i c Contour (taken from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e i n the parameter of p i t c h ) :  123  Tendency o f Component  Interaction  which m u s i c a l component-groups  ( t h e way i n  modify one a n o t h e r ) :  S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s song by C h a r l i e Yahey would be an e x c e p t i o n i n much o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Western music as v i r t u a l l y a l l the m u s i c a l material contained w i t h i n i t i s m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d .  The s i m p l e s t  manner o f r e a l i z i n g the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l  components  o f t h i s song are r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y to one a n o t h e r and to the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i s to r e - f a m i l i a r i z e o n e s e l f w i t h the o f t h e p h o n e t i c , phonemic and morphemic The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  findings  analysis. i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  G, F, D, Bb, C, E; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; t h e  durations  The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s G and D, F and Bb, and C and E r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r v a l 1 i c a l l y , the main  n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary n u c l e u s s e c o n d , and t h e non-nucleus  is a perfect fourth.  may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are $ are )  and J  , and the n o n - n u c l e i  i s a major  The d u r a t i o n s  and J» w h i l e the secondary are  ,  are  , o .  which nuclei  The mode used i s  G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d .  The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r  (as r e c o g n i z e d from t h e phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s G and D spread a p a r t ^ and descending o v e r two o c t a v e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s .  The two imain n u c l e i ,  w h i l e they o u t l i n e the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r , are spaced a p a r t . space they are complemented by the p i t c h e s F and Bb.  In  this  T h i s g i v e s the  124  m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f the song a c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l l o w s t h e i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f the mode (major and minor to be p r e s e r v e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the major second. o f e s t a b l i s h i n g two main p i t c h n u c l e i w i t h secondary p i t c h n u c l e i  thirds)  The r e s u l t  (G and D) and complementing them  (F and Bb) produce two c o n t r a s t i n g m e l o d i c  moti ves: 1.  2.  These motives are then t r a n s p o s e d down a f o u r t h and f i f t h and r e s t a t e d .  R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s  and  respectively  as w e l l as  and c) are a s s i g n e d t o the f o u r p i t c h e s G, F, Bb, D and t o g e t h e r  J produce  the two motives o f the song:  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l works between the p i t c h e s G and D ( i . e . , complements them w i t h the p i t c h e s F and Bb) and p r e s e r v e s  the  i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f major and minor t h i r d s i n a s i m i l a r manner to the above.  However, both r h y t h m i c motives  ( J.  and  J J  ),  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e d o t t e d q u a r t e r - n o t e , are combined r a t h e r than s t a t e d s e p a r a t e l y .  For example:  125  Another manner o f r e v e a l i n g the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  contained  w i t h i n t h i s song i s to o u t l i n e the c o m p o s i t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e s f o r a tune w i t h a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r .  F i r s t a q u a d r a t o n i c mode  w i t h the same a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e has to be chosen. the f i r s t and t h i r d as w e l l as the second and f o u r t h p i t c h e s o f  Next, this  mode s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d the r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f main p i t c h n u c l e i and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s stage the main p i t c h  n u c l e i s h o u l d be spaced a p a r t and p l o t t e d descending o v e r two o c t a v e s . The spaces between the main p i t c h n u c l e i s h o u l d then be f i l l e d i n w i t h t h e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i i n a manner t h a t u t i l i z e s the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , a minor t h i r d , and a major second and d e v e l o p s two s e p a r a t e motives o f p i t c h . an a s c e n d i n g - d e s c e n d i n g  T h i s endeavor s h o u l d a l s o produce  m e l o d i c c o n t o u r between the p i t c h n u c l e i .  Each o f t h e s e motives o f p i t c h s h o u l d then be a s s i g n e d d i f f e r e n t , e a s i l y memorable rhythms which t o g e t h e r w i t h the motives o f p i t c h s h o u l d p r o v i d e the motives f o r the song.  These s h o u l d then be r e p e a t e d  once a t t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h below r e s p e c t i v e l y . material  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c  (which a l s o comprises the c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a ) s h o u l d  the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p i t c h e s and make use o f both rhythms.  utilize  The c o m p o s i t i o n  s h o u l d cadence on the l o w e s t note o f t h e song, which s h o u l d be the initial  p i t c h o f the mode.  126  Song 7:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , J u l y 2 9 ,  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre II  o f the Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey)  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  Eb, C, Bb, G, F  i n t e r v a l s used:  M2, M3, m3, p4  d u r a t i o n s used:  o  Phonemic M u s i c a l  1965  ,  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s C secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are Eb and G n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are F and Bb  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a major second n o n - i n t e r v a l l i e n u c l e i are a major t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f o u r t h  durations:  the d u r a t i o n s which l e n d themselves to being main n u c l e i o f rhythm are J , o ( o r l o n g e r ) , and J the d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d secondary n u c l e i o f rhythm are J , J* , and no n o n - n u c l e i o f d u r a t i o n are apparent  127  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  128  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the stemmed n o t e s , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and nonn u c l e i o f p i t c h a r e n o t a t e d as an " x " .  129  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * The main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are r e p r e s e n t e d by stemmed n o t e s , and secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are i n d i c a t e d by non-stemmed notes.  130  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  Structure  R e c u r r e n t Sequences o f I n d i v i d u a l M u s i c a l Components:  ..... t-...:.  Section A  i  fihifi fitck Piucltus  1  mm* - +JL 1  ti**-Nuclti of Pitck  ' Secondary"Pucotioua-tfatly  M'* ?iU  filutlt  .SecpkJ&rij flckrt/affi't Mucleui ' dewMucfeac Xi*ki'</*h  6  i'  7 S <? to H  !  •>  I.  131  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical M a t e r i a l : Motives:  Abstract Motivic Materials:  Non-Motivic M a t e r i a l : NIL  Analysis  132  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials  133  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Melodic  Formula:  Contour:  134  Tendency o f Component j I n t e r a c t i o n :  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  Eb, C, Bb, G, F; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , major s e c o n d , minor t h i r d , and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; the d u r a t i o n s o , J  ,  , J  , JV  The  s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s are C, Eb and G, and F and Bb r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main n u c l e u s i s a  minor t h i r d , the secondary n u c l e u s i s a major s e c o n d , and t h e n o n - n u c l e i are a major t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are of , o n u c l e i are  , and  .  The d u r a t i o n s which may be  ( o r l o n g e r ) , and J  w h i l e the secondary  The mode used i s C-Eb-F-G-Bb and o u t l i n e s the  a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , major s e c o n d , and minor t h i r d .  The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r (as  recognized  from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s Eb, C, G, and C spread a p a r t and d e s c e n d i n g o v e r a minor t e n t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s .  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s  i s spaced a p a r t over the e n t i r e t y o f each s e c t i o n .  In t h i s space  i s complemented by the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (Eb and G) as w e l l one o f t h e n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h ( B b ) .  (C)  it as  The r e m a i n i n g non-nucleus o f p i t c h  (F) complements the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (Eb and G).  For example:  main p i t c h nucleus complemented by secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s  Eb  135  main p i t c h nucleus complemented by n o n - p i t c h n u c l e u s  main p i t c h n u c l e u s complemented by secondary n u c l e u s G and non-nucleus F  Bb  pitch  4=1 secondary  p i t c h nucleus G complemented by non-nucleus  F  T h i s g i v e s the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f t h e song a c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t .  As w e l l ,  t h i s a l l o w s the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode (minor t h i r d s and major seconds) to be p r e s e r v e d .  The r e s u l t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g one p i t c h  and complementing i t w i t h e i t h e r a secondary non-pitch nuclei 1.  (Bb) produces  pitch nuclei  nucleus  (Eb) o r a  two c o n t r a s t i n g m e l o d i c m o t i v e s :  136  I 0  (The second motive i s  0  the o n l y one which i s t r a n s p o s e d f o r  and t h i s o c c u r s a t the f o u r t h below.) o> j  ,  • and  J  as w e l l as ) , J. , and  to the above m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l .  restatement  R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s  J  ,  are r e s p e c t i v e l y a s s i g n e d  C o l l e c t i v e l y they produce the motives  o f t h e song: 1.  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d i n two ways: motive one but a s s i g n i n g  by r e p e a t i n g  i t a d i f f e r e n t rhythm, b*^*  \?£> )»0  and . by complementing motive two w i t h the secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s G and combining the main and secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i .  137  Song 9:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer, 1966  (.Representative o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre III  o f the Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey)  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  C, B, A, G, E  i n t e r v a l s used:  m2, M2, p4, p5, m3  d u r a t i o n s used: Phonemic M u s i c a l  o  , d«, J  . J . . J .  -ft  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h nucleus i s E secondary p i t c h nucleus i s A n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are C, B, G  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i e n u c l e u s i s a major second secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a p e r f e c t fourth non-nuclear i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t f i f t h , minor s e c o n d , and minor t h i r d . .  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are J ( o r l o n g e r when f o l l o w e d by ) and and X ^ secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i a r e J> and . n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s , are notes l o n g e r i n d u r a t i o n than J t h a t are n o t f o l l o w e d by  s>  mode:  138  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  139  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are i n d i c a t e d by stemmed n o t e s , and the n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are r e p r e s e n t e d by nonstemmed n o t e s .  140  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * Stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main and secondary n u c l e i o f d u r a t i o n whereas non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s .  141  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  R e c u r r e n t Sequences  Section  of Individual  Musical  Components:  T""T  f\  f  fflAiM.iiJeH<i((ie.  Structure  *  3  </•  S  -  6  7  /7  Utotleut  ^toitJdcj JjJteftMllic A/we feu*  /flaw* "Pur«fIOWLI A/*Lcle.f  Se&u<Ue<j 3>«r«f fowd  <H  W  Nuclei  j  ¥7 <+l M  s'o Si St- S3  SS  /* Mlo  tl VL  11 %*\  2J- M  17  18  24  3 o  3, J ^  73 3  w  ,^  142  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motive:  Abstract Motivic Material: 1.  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  2.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  S i 3.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  143  144  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  * Motives are e n c i r c l e d w i t h f u l l l i n e s ; a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s shown by d o t t e d l i n e s ; the r e m a i n i n g m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l i s considered non-motivic.  145  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Melodic  Formula:  Contour:  I  tr  t.\  »—•  '(^)  '—  1  146  Tendency o f Component  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  CInteraction:  i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  C, B, A, G, E; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major s e c o n d , minor s e c o n d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , p e r f e c t f i f t h , and minor t h i r d ; the d u r a t i o n s o , J . , J  , J»  ,  J , and fl. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s are E, A, and C, B, and G r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the  main n u c l e u s i s a major s e c o n d , the secondary n u c l e u s i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and the n o n - n u c l e i a r e a p e r f e c t f i f t h , minor s e c o n d , and minor The d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are J  third.  , fl and  J  (or l o n g e r when f o l l o w e d by fl) w h i l e the secondary n u c l e i are X fl, and the n o n - n u c l e i are notes l o n g e r than J fl.  and  t h a t a r e not f o l l o w e d by  The mode used i s E-G-A-B-C and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i e  s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , two major seconds, and a minor second.  But,  i f measured between the main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i the f i r s t t h r e e notes o f t h e mode encompass a p e r f e c t f o u r t h .  The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r  ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the f i r s t note and the p e n u l t i m a t e tone o f the phonemic s t r u c t u r e ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s A and E spread a p a r t and encompasses a range o f o n l y a minor s i x t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s a s , f o l l o w s . (E)  i s spaced i r r e g u l a r l y over the e n t i r e t y o f the song.  by the secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s the  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s It is  complemented  (A) and c o l l e c t i v e l y the two produce  secondary i n t e r v a l ! i c nucleus  (perfect fourth).  147  The secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s  (A) i s complemented by the n o n - n u c l e a r  p i t c h G and t o g e t h e r they produce the main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s .  The r e m a i n i n g n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h (C and B) complement the secondary p i t c h nucleus  (A) and produce the r e m a i n i n g i n t e r v a l s used i n the song w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f the p e r f e c t f i f t h .  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s p i t c h usage the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s n e i t h e r c a s c a d i n g nor d e s c e n d i n g .  R a t h e r , i t works between A and E u t i l i z i n g the p i t c h  G and a l s o f u n c t i o n s above A u s i n g the p i t c h e s B and C.  The c o n t o u r  may be d e s c r i b e d as a back and f o r t h movement between two f o c a l w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l d i v e r s i o n to a p i t c h i n between o r above.  The  i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode i s not kept i n t a c t throughout song.  points  the  That i s , i t d e v i a t e s from the o r i g i n a l o r d e r i n g o f i n t e r v a l s by  c o n t i n u a l l y sounding the i n t e r v a l o f a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f the main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (E and A ) , the main and secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i (M2 and p4) and the main durational nuclei (  , and J ) produces the f o l l o w i n g m o t i v e :  148  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (E and A ) , the main and secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i nuclei  ( X  (M2 and p4) and the, secondary  durational  and J*) produce the f o l l o w i n g m o t i v e :  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d from both the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s and rhythms o f t h e s e m o t i v e s .  For example:  A b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l d e r i v e d from the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f motive number 1.  AA  m  A b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l d e r i v e d from the rhythm o f motive number 2.  i  V  ip iii  The n o n - m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d i n p i t c h , i n t e r v a l , and rhythm to be c o n s i d e r e d m o t i v i c o r a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l .  149  Song 13:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966  (•Representative  o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre IV o f the Music o f C h a r l i e  Phonological  Phonetic Musical  Level of Musical  Eb, Gb, B, Ab  i n t e r v a l s used:  m3, M3, M2  used:  Phonemic M u s i c a l  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  durations  Yahey)  o  , o ,  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s Eb secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s i s B n o n - n u c l e i o f p i t c h are G and Ab  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i e n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s (have f u n c t i o n o f ' n e u t r a l t h i r d ' ) secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a major second n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s do n o t e x i s t  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i a r e d Lv^ secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e u s i s the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n i s o ( o r l o n g e r )  ;  a n c  mode:  m  150  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  151  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i and the non-stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s .  152  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main and secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i and the non-stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s .  153  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  R e c u r r e n t Sequences  of Individual  Musical  Structure  Components:  154  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motives:  Abstract Motivic Material: 1.  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  i  4*  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  3. . J  7  "  -  V  156  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i f i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  •CO  ff*rr f f f •  ff  f C f fflEP^ff v V ^ i vAg_g  T T \i f - m f S f (iff  a f ff^F=atf  157  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Melodic  Formula:  Contour:  158  Tendency o f Component  Interaction:  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  Eb, Gb, B, A; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , and major s e c o n d ; the d u r a t i o n s  (or l o n g e r ) , J , J  o  , and J\  The s i g n i f i c a n t ,  l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s are Eb, B, and Gb and Ab respectively. thirds  I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main n u c l e i are major and minor  ('neutral  t h i r d s ' ) and the secondary nucleus i s a major second.  The d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are d secondary n u c l e u s i s  and J  and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n i s o  The mode used i s Eb-Gb-Ab-B-(Eb) and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g  (or  w h i l e the longer).  intervallic  s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , minor t h i r d , and a major t h i r d . The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s Eb and B spread a p a r t and descending r e s p e c t i v e l y o v e r a major t e n t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h t h e o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . (Eb) and the secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s e n t i r e t y o f each s e c t i o n .  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s  (B) are spread a p a r t o v e r the  In t h i s space the main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s comple-  mented by the n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h Gb and the secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s  B.  The secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s , on the o t h e r hand, i s complemented by the n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h Ab.  159  T h i s g i v e s the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f the song a d e f i n i t e d c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t and a l l o w s t h e i n t e r v a l s o f the mode to be p r e s e r v e d .  The r e s u l t o f  e s t a b l i s h i n g one p i t c h n u c l e u s and complementing i t w i t h a n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h produces  the m e l o d i c m o t i v e :  As w e l l , the r e s u l t o f complementing the secondary p i t c h n u c l e u s w i t h a n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h produces a second m e l o d i c m o t i v e :  (Both these motives are r e s t a t e d i n t h e i r t r a n s p o s e d times.  fl  several  Each time they r e c u r they a r e sounded a major o r minor t h i r d  below the time p r e v i o u s . ) as  versions  R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s J  and J  are r e s p e c t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o the above m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l .  they produce the motives o f the song:  as w e l l Collectively,  160  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d i n t h r e e ways:  by  transposing  a motive and a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e ;  by t r a n s p o s i n g  a motive, a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c structure  and e x t e n d i n g i t s  slightly,  duration;.  and,by a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e and i t s m e l o d i c  contour.  161  Song 28:  Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8,  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I o f the K'usic o f J o h n n i e  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  D, F, C, A  i n t e r v a l s used:  m3, M2, p4, M3  d u r a t i o n s used: Phonemic M u s i c a l  Chipesia)  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  (or  longer)  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e i are D and A secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are F and C n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s are n o t a p p a r e n t  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i e n u c l e i are major and minor thirds ('neutral t h i r d ' ) secondary i n t e r v a l ! i c n u c l e u s i s a major second non-nuclear i n t e r v a l i s a p e r f e c t fourth  durations:  main n u c l e i o f d u r a t i o n are ^ and J secondary n u c l e u s o f d u r a t i o n i s n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are )• and o ( o r longer)  mode: I  1965  162  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  163  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main p i t c h n u c l e i and the nonstemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i .  164  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , and t h e n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are n o t a t e d w i t h an " x " .  165  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  Structure  R e c u r r e n t Sequences o f I n d i v i d u a l M u s i c a l Components:  Section /j  i & ^ A n j Tuf<rita.((('t Aiuc(e«.s  Xukev&l  A/o\- Nuclear  Se.et(°n ~B>  TrfcL Mucki ff)tx<».£iiiepuxll<t Mucin J Secck<la.C'jjM'f<siSa//t'c A/aifettf SecoK<l&(>y  ./Vofc.-flluxJea.?DwaiioKS Seef/om  StUriC-  j) £ f ]  AS  Sec/t'oi-  ~h  166  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motives:  Abstract Motivic  Materials:  1.  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  2.  d e r i v e d from motives 1 and 2  3.  d e r i v e d from motives 1 and 2  NIL  168  169  Cadential  Melodic  Formula:  Contour:  1 71  Tendency o f Component  Interaction:  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components o f t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  D, F, A, C; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and major s e c o n d ; the d u r a t i o n s  °  (or longer), J  .-L.J  .J . 1  The main n u c l e i o f p i t c h are D and A w h i l e the secondary n u c l e i are F and C. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t major and minor t h i r d s fourth respectively. are J  and J  are J* and  o  ('neutral  intervals  are  t h i r d s ' ) , a major s e c o n d , and a p e r f e c t  The d u r a t i o n s which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i  w h i l e the secondary n u c l e u s (or l o n g e r ) .  is  and the n o n - n u c l e a r  The mode used i s D-F-A-C and o u t l i n e s  durations  the  a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d .  The o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r (as r e c o g n i z e d from the  phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s D and A spread a p a r t and descending over a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . (D and A) are spaced a p a r t . p i t c h e s F and C.  The two main p i t c h n u c l e i  In t h i s space they are complemented by the  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e f o u r p i t c h e s produces  m e l o d i c m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l f o r the song. as w e l l as major seconds. m e l o d i c motive 1  For example:  I t i s comprised o f minor  the thirds  172  m e l o d i c motive 2  rv > R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s ^  tw^ and J  as w e l l as  are a s s i g n e d t o the  above m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l and t o g e t h e r they produce the two motives o f the song: motive 1  motive 2  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l works between the p i t c h e s D and A i n a s i m i l a r manner t o t h e motives ( i . e . , the p i t c h e s D and A are complemented by t h e notes F and C, the i n t e r v a l s o f a major s e c o n d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g d u r a t i o n s .)  For example:  173  As a r e s u l t o f the arrangement o f p i t c h i n t h i s song the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s c a s c a d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g .  However, due to the r e s t a t e m e n t o f s i m i l a r  m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l w i t h i n one m u s i c a l s e c t i o n the c a s c a d i n g o f the melody i s not e a s i l y  recognized.  174  Song 35:  Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8,  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre II  Phonological  Phonetic Musical  o f the Music o f J o h n n i e  Level o f Musical  Chipesia)  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  C, Eb, Bb, G  i n t e r v a l s used d u r a t i o n s used Phonemic M u s i c a l  Analysis:  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s C secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are Eb and G n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h i s Bb  i n t e r v a l s:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a p e r f e c t fourth n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s a r e a major t h i r d and a major second  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i a r e secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are J* , P n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n i s o (or l o n g e r )  mode:  1965  175  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  176  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main p i t c h n u c l e u s , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and the n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s are n o t a t e d by an " x " .  177  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , the nonstemmed notes r e p r e s e n t secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s a r e n o t a t e d by an " x " .  178  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  R e c u r r e n t Sequences  of Individual  Musical  Structure  Components:  179  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motives:  Abstract Motivic Material: 1.  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  2.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  3.  d e r i v e d from a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e m a t e r i a l s 1 and 2  1  MM  180  Non-Motivic M a t e r i a l : NIL  181  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  Iff /r. \\\ \ \\ \\ —h-—rrr  TI  4*  /**  // /  \)\  '  j_yL4J_J4EEE —  *—*  -—*—-  Additional  Findings:  M e l o d i c Contour:  183  Tendency o f Component  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  .Interaction:  i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  C, Eb, G, B; the i n t e r v a l s o f a minor t h i r d , major t h i r d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and major s e c o n d ; the d u r a t i o n s  o  (or l o n g e r ) , J - J  J . J  .J>.  The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h e s are C, Eb and G, and Bb r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r v a l 1 i c a l l y , the main n u c l e u s  a minor t h i r d , the secondary n u c l e u s  i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and the non-  n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are a major t h i r d and a major second. which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are J», J n u c l e i are  and  fl,  is  , and ^  and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n i s  The  durations  w h i l e the o  (or  secondary  longer).  The mode i s C-Eb-G-Bb and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g  i n t e r v a l l i c structure  o f a minor t h i r d , major t h i r d , and minor t h i r d .  The phonemic m e l o d i c  c o n t o u r i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s C and G spread a p a r t and  descending  o v e r one o c t a v e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s .  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s  spaced a p a r t over the e n t i r e t y o f each s e c t i o n . complemented by the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h (Bb).  In t h i s space i t  is  (Eb and G) as w e l l as the  T h i s g i v e s the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f the song  a minimal c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t i n i t s d e s c e n s i o n  over one o c t a v e .  And,  the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode i s d i s r u p t e d v i a t h i s means. r e s u l t o f g r o u p i n g p i t c h e s i n t h i s manner produces melodic motives:  is  The  two r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  184  Rhythmically,  the d u r a t i o n s <7 , / , and 6* as w e l l as > »  r e s p e c t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o the above m e l o d i c m o t i v e s .  and J  are  C o l l e c t i v e l y , they  produce the motives o f the song: motive 1  motive 2  These motives are s t a t e d once i n each s e c t i o n . m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each s t r o p h e i s d e r i v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  The remainder o f m u s i c a l  is abstract motivic.  And,  manner:  d e r i v e d from motive 1 ( i n t e r v a l , p i t c h , p a r t i a l  duration)  -V,  %  y  f  i  1 :  —I  —1  d e r i v e d from motive 2 ( p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , p a r t i a l  interval)  it  185  d e r i v e d from motives 1 and 2 ( p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , and p a r t i a l  d e r i v e d from motive 1 ( i n t e r v a l , p i t c h and p a r t i a l  interval)  duration)  186  Song 30:  Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8,  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre III  o f the Music o f J o h n n i e  P h o n o l o g i c a l Level o f M u s i c a l  Phonetic Musical  Eb, C, A  intervals  m3, T  used:  d u r a t i o n s used: Phonemic M u s i c a l  Chipesia)  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  o  1965  .A.J.J. ^  Analysis:  pitch:  main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s C secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are Eb and A n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s do n o t e x i s t  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s i s a t r i t o n e n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are n o t apparent  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are J and J secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e u s i s o» n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are o and  187  Scale of Phonetic Phenomena  :  188  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main p i t c h n u c l e u s and the nonstemmed notes r e p r e s e n t secondary p i t c h n u c l e i .  189  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i ' , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i , and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s a r e n o t a t e d by an " x " .  190  S y n t a c t i c Level o f Musical  R e c u r r e n t Sequences  of Individual Musical  Structure  Components:  191  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motive:  Abstract Motivic  Materials:  1.  d e r i v e d from i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f motive number 1  2.  d e r i v e d from i n t e r v a l ! i c s t r u c t u r e and rhythm o f motive number 1  3.  d e r i v e d from i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e and rhythm o f motive number 1  192  4.  d e r i v e d from motive number one and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l 1 , 2 , and 3 - - a l l p i t c h e s g r a v i t a t e to the p i t c h C  Non-Motivic M a t e r i a l : NIL  193  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Melodic  Formula:  Contour:  195  Tendency o f Component  Interaction:  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  of t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  C, Eb, A; the i n t e r v a l s o f a minor t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f i f t h ; , and  fl.  the  The s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  are C, and Eb and A r e s p e c t i v e l y .  pitches  I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main n u c l e u s  i s a minor t h i r d and the secondary n u c l e u s i s a t r i t o n e .  The  durations  which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are J  and J , the secondary  i s J * and t h e n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are  (or longer)  used i s A-C-Eb and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g minor t h i r d and a minor t h i r d .  durations  o  and fl .  nucleus The mode  i n t e r v a l l i e structure of a  The m e l o d i c range encompasses a t r i t o n e .  The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s o u t l i n e d b y . an upward and downward movement ( t o the degree o f a minor t h i r d ) from the p i t c h C. The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s h a r e s w i t h m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s .  the o v e r a l l  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s  (C) i s spread a p a r t and complemented by the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i and A ) .  Throughout  mode remains i n t a c t .  (Eb  t h i s procedure the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the And, the r e s u l t o f t h i s s e l e c t i o n and  arrangement  o f p i t c h and i n t e r v a l i s the f o l l o w i n g m o t i v e :  R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s  r  and a  are a s s i g n e d to t h i s m e l o d i c motive  and t o g e t h e r produce the s i n g l e motive o f the song.  196  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l works from the p i t c h C i n a s i m i l a r to the m o t i v e .  manner  That i s , i t u t i l i z e s , f o r the most p a r t , the i n t e r v a l  o f a minor t h i r d .  For  example:  197  Song 39:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , August 7,  1967  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I o f the Music o f C h a r l i e Jumbie)  Phonological  Phonetic Musical  Level of Musical  Structure  Analysis:  p i t c h e s used:  G, Bb, D, F  i n t e r v a l s used:  M3, m3, M2, p4, p5  d u r a t i o n s used:  o (or  Phonemic M u s i c a l  longer),  Analysis:  pi t c h e s :  main p i t c h n u c l e i are G and D secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are Bb and F n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s do n o t e x i s t  intervals:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor thirds secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t f o u r t h s and fifths  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are J' and fl secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are J and J n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are o> and o ( o r longer)  198  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  200  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f  Duration):  201  S y n t a c t i c Level o f M u s i c a l  R e c u r r e n t Sequences  of Individual Musical  Structure  rnmnnrmntc-  202  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Moti ves:  Abstract Motivic Material: 1.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  203  2.  d e r i v e d from motive number 1  3.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  4.  d e r i v e d from motives 1 and 2  Non-Motivic NIL  Material:  204  ° •*  •  • — ^ ••  ——•—•—  • f  .J •""•"•"bS'  206  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  Formula:  m Melodic  Contour:  207  Tendency o f Component  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components  -Interaction:  i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s  G, Bb, D, F; t h e i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , p e r f e c t f i f t h ; the durations J,,  J ,  .  o  (or  longer),  The s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s s i g n f i c a n t p i t c h n u c l e i are G  and D, and B and F r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r v a l 1 i c a l l y , the main n u c l e i are  major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary n u c l e u s  i s a major second and the  n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t f o u r t h s and f i f t h s . which may be c o n s i d e r e d main n u c l e i are J» and $ n u c l e i are J  and J  and the n o n - n u c l e i  are  o  durations  w h i l e the  (or longer)  The mode used i s G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g o f a minor t h i r d , m a j o r t h i r d , and minor t h i r d .  The  secondary and  .  i n t e r v a l l i c structure  The phonemic m e l o d i c  c o n t o u r i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t c h e s G and D spread a p a r t and descending  over  two o c t a v e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s .  The two main p i t c h n u c l e i  spaced a p a r t and complemented by the p i t c h e s F and Bb.  are  T h i s g i v e s the  m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f the song a c a s c a d i n g e f f e c t and a l l o w s the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e mode, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the major s e c o n d , to be preserved.  The r e s u l t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g two main p i t c h n u c l e i  and complementing them w i t h secondary p i t c h n u c l e i  (F and Bb)  (G and D) produces  t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g m e l o d i c motives o f which two work s t r i c t l y i n major and minor  thirds.  . .  208  R h y t h m i c a l l y , t h e d u r a t i o n s J» , J ,  and d  are a s s i g n e d t o t h i s m e l o d i c  m a t e r i a l and c o l l e c t i v e l y they produce the t h r e e motives o f the song.  i. M  —  ' 11 v 11r  f  •=  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l works between the p i t c h e s G and D i n a s i m i l a r manner to the motives o f the song.  That i s , they u t i l i z e major  and minor t h i r d s f o r one type o f m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l and major seconds  210  Song 42:  Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, Doig R i v e r , August 1967  ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre II  o f the Music o f C h a r l i e Jumbie)  Phonological Level of Musical  Phonetic Musical  Structure  Analysis: C, A, D, Eb, G  i n t e r v a l s used  M2, m2, M3, m3, p5  d u r a t i o n s used Phonemic M u s i c a l  Analysis  pitches:  main p i t c h n u c l e u s i s D secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are C and Eb n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s are A and G  i n t e r v a l s:  main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor seconds secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s non-nuclear i n t e r v a l i s a perfect f i f t h  durations:  main d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e u s i s J secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are o* and J n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are o ( o r l o n g e r ) and J)  mode:  *a  rlr  *>x  .tW  211  S c a l e o f P h o n e t i c Phenomena:  I  212  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f P i t c h ) :  * The stemmed notes r e p r e s e n t the p i t c h n u c l e u s , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and t h e n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s are n o t a t e d w i t h an " x " .  213  Phonemic M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e (Parameter o f D u r a t i o n ) :  * The main and secondary d u r a t i o n a l n u c l e i are i n d i c a t e d by stemmed n o t e s , and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are n o t a t e d by non-stemmed n o t e s .  214  S y n t a c t i c Level o f Musical  ^  ^  ^  ^  Structure  ^  I  /flat*. f*fer utfk tluclii | &to*<kw Twhr Mucin  t -.-4--  jiok-fiacieac fdthti  /fauVu&l'ioHx.i Nude*} ;  • _  i  ' !  215  Morphemic M u s i c a l  M o t i v i c Musical  Analysis  Materials:  Motives: 1.  5  2.  Abstract Motivic  Materials:  1.  d e r i v e d from motives 1 and 2  2.  d e r i v e d from motive number 2  216  217  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c M u s i c a l  Materials:  218  219  Additional  Findings:  Cadential  7  Melodic  Formula:  0 0  Contour:  o o 6  220  Tendency o f Component  .Interaction:  The i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l components i n t h i s song a r e :  the p i t c h e s C,  A, D, Eb, G; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major s e c o n d , minor s e c o n d , minor major t h i r d , and p e r f e c t f i f t h ; J , and  fl.  the d u r a t i o n s  O  third,  ( o r l o n g e r ) , d » , cl ,  The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and  p i t c h e s are D, C and Eb, and A and G r e s p e c t i v e l y .  non-significant Interval 1 i c a l l y ,  the main n u c l e i are major and minor s e c o n d s , the secondary n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , and the n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l i s a p e r f e c t f i f t h . The d u r a t i o n which may be c o n s i d e r e d a main nucleus i s d  w h i l e the  n u c l e i are J  (or  and fl .  and <J» and the n o n - n u c l e a r d u r a t i o n s are  o  secondar-  longer)  The phonemic m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s p a r t i a l l y c a s c a d i n g over a  minor n i n t h .  The mode used i s A-C-D-Eb-G and o u t l i n e s the a s c e n d i n g  i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , major s e c o n d , minor second, and major t h i r d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above m u s i c a l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . (D)  i s i r r e g u l a r l y spaced a p a r t .  The main p i t c h n u c l e u s  I t i s complemented by the  secondary  p i t c h n u c l e i (D and Eb) and u t i l i z e s the major and minor seconds from the p r e s c r i b e d mode.  The r e s u l t i s the f o l l o w i n g m e l o d i c m o t i v e :  The secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (D and Eb) on the o t h e r hand are complemented by the n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s (A and G) and make use o f a minor t h i r d from the mode to e s t a b l i s h a second m e l o d i c m o t i v e :  221  T h i s m o t i v e , u n l i k e the f i r s t , i s t r a n s p o s e d when i t r e c u r s as motivic material.  R h y t h m i c a l l y , the d u r a t i o n s d » , J  and ^  abstract  are a s s i g n e d  t o both m e l o d i c motives and c o l l e c t i v e l y account f o r the two motives  of  the song:  The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l which i s d e r i v e d from the f i r s t motive e x i s t s as a s h o r t e n e d and somewhat r h y t h m i c a l l y a l t e r e d v e r s i o n o f motive 1:  However, the remaining a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d from motive 2 by t r a n s p o s i t i o n and r h y t h m i c a l t e r a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y .  222  And, u n l i k e the m a j o r i t y o f the songs p r e v i o u s l y a n a l y z e d , n o n - m o t i v i c material  i s apparent i n t h i s song.  For example:  223  C.  S t r u c t u r a l Musical Comparative  Genres o f Beaver I n d i a n Dreamer Songs:  A  Study  A t an a u r a l l e v e l most o f t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y appears s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r .  analyzed  That i s , the predominance o f major and  minor t h i r d s , the c a s c a d i n g melodies descending o v e r a range  greater  than one o c t a v e , the m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a e , and the s t r o p h i c forms are e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d as s t r u c t u r a l t e n d e n c i e s i n the m a j o r i t y o f Beaver I n d i a n music. analysis  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between v a r i o u s  genres are a p p a r e n t . realized.  However, a t a deeper l e v e l  of s t r u c t u r a l  structural  musical  In f a c t , f o u r g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r a l groupings can be  The purpose here i s  to r e v e a l these c o r r e l a t i o n s and  The f i r s t c a t e g o r y , and the one which comprises the sound m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s t h e s i s  variants.  the m a j o r i t y o f  (exactly eighty percent),  composed o f s t r u c t u r a l genres I and IV o f C h a r l i e Yahey,  is  structural  genre I o f Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and s t r u c t u r a l genre I o f C h a r l i e Jumbie. All  songs c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e s e genres are s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r i n the  f o l l o w i n g ways:  each makes use o f a q u a d r a t o n i c mode w i t h the  ascending  i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d ( t h e e x c e p t i o n i s s t r u c t u r a l genre IV o f C h a r l i e Yahey as  it  u t i l i z e s a major second i n p l a c e o f the l a s t minor t h i r d ) ; the i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary n u c l e i are major and t h e n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t f o u r t h s for transpositional  purposes);  seconds,  (which are used o n l y  melodies adhere t o the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e  o f t h e mode w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the major second; main p i t c h n u c l e i are spread a p a r t and descend o v e r two o c t a v e s and are complemented by  224  secondary p i t c h n u c l e i ; c o l l e c t i v e l y , the main and secondary  pitch  n u c l e i produce two m o t i v e s , w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g rhythms, t h a t move predominantl y i n major t h i r d s , minor t h i r d s , and major seconds; the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l ho  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each song i s r e l a t e d ( i . e .  5A>  non-motivie material e x i s t s ) ;  the a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d from both motives as are the cadential  f o r m u l a e ; the m u s i c a l form i s always s t r o p h i c and the songs  u s u a l l y cadence on the l o w e s t note o f the p i e c e ; the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s are c a s c a d i n g and descending over a range g r e a t e r than one o c t a v e . In c o m p a r i s o n , the second group, which i s comprised o f s t r u c t u r a l genre II  o f C h a r l i e Yahey and s t r u c t u r a l genre II  o f Johnnie C h i p e s i a ,  i s the same as the f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l c a t e g o r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o v e r a l l m u s i c a l form.  As w e l l , i t shares s i m i l a r i t i e s  w i t h group one i n m e l o d i c c o n t o u r and a m b i t u s , however, i t i s  dissimilar  i n modal s t r u c t u r e and the arrangement o f p i t c h throughout each s t r o p h e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a l l m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each song are related (i.e., non-motivic material exists) A  material  and the a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e  i s d e r i v e d from both motives as i s the c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a .  A l s o , the m u s i c a l form i s always s t r o p h i c and the songs always on the l o w e s t note o f the p i e c e .  cadence  On the o t h e r hand, the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r  i s l e s s o b v i o u s l y c a s c a d i n g i n t h i s group a l t h o u g h the m e l o d i e s do descend o v e r a range l a r g e r than an o c t a v e .  U n l i k e the songs p r e v i o u s l y  discussed  the c o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s group a l l u t i l i z e p e n t a t o n i c modes w i t h t h e ascending i n t e r v a l - l i e s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , two major seconds ( c o l l e c t i v e l y a major t h i r d ) , and a minor t h i r d .  M e l o d i e s do p r e s e r v e t h i s i n t e r v a l l i c  s t r u c t u r e , however, they adhere t o i t l e s s  than the songs o f group one.  Main i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are always minor t h i r d s but secondary and n o n - n u c l e a r  225  i n t e r v a l s vary.  For example:  song seven uses major seconds and p e r f e c t  f o u r t h s r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e song t h i r t y - f i v e r e v e r s e s  this order.  m a j o r i t y o f songs use one p i t c h nucleus and complement i t w i t h p i t c h n u c l e i as w e l l as n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s .  The  secondary  M o t i v e s are d e r i v e d from  t h i s arrangement o f p i t c h and a l s o from the complementation o f  secondary  p i t c h n u c l e i by n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s - - a p r a c t i c e which i s not u t i l i z e d i n the songs from group one. Group t h r e e i s made up o f the songs from s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I C h a r l i e Yahey and s t r u c t u r a l genre II comprises  This  music  a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r p e r c e n t (two songs) o f the sound m a t e r i a l  used i n the t h e s i s .  And, the o n l y s i m i l a r i t i e s t h i s s t r u c t u r a l  shares w i t h the p r e v i o u s cadential  o f C h a r l i e Jumbie.  of  group  two i s the f a c t t h a t melodies descend o v e r a l l ,  formulae are m o t i v i c a l l y d e r i v e d and songs cadence on the l o w e s t  note o f the c o m p o s i t i o n .  The v a r i a n t s may be d e s c r i b e d as  follows:  each makes use o f a p e n t a t o n i c mode w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e a s c e n d i n g v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s o f a minor t h i r d , two major seconds,  a minor  inter-  second  and a minor t h i r d , a major s e c o n d , a minor s e c o n d , a major t h i r d ; the i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor seconds,  the secondary  nuclei  are p e r f e c t f o u r t h s and major and minor t h i r d s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the n o n - n u c l e a r i n t e r v a l s are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  p e r f e c t f i f t h s , minor  seconds,  minor t h i r d s and p e r f e c t f i f t h s ; melodies do not adhere s t r i c t l y to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s o f the modes; main p i t c h n u c l e i are complemented, by and l a r g e , by secondary p i t c h n u c l e i and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s ; c o l l e c t i v e l y , they produce the motives f o r each song; the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l  contained  w i t h i n each song i s not t o t a l l y r e l a t e d ( i . e . , n o n - m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l  is  p r e s e n t ) ; as w e l l , a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e m a t e r i a l s are d e r i v e d i n d i v i d u a l l y  226  r a t h e r than s y n t h e t i c a l l y from the m o t i v e s ; m u s i c a l non-strophic  form v a r i e s  to s t r o p h i c ; m e l o d i c ambitus d i f f e r s from a minor  from sixth  to a minor n i n t h ; m e l o d i c movement i s p r i m a r i l y i n major seconds; contour varies  melodic  from segmented c a s c a d i n g t o a back and f o r t h movement  between two f o c a l p o i n t s o f  pitch.  The r e m a i n i n g s t r u c t u r a l group i s comprised o f one song by C h a r l i e Yahey ( s t r u c t u r a l  genre I I I ) .  S t r u c t u r a l l y , i t shares s i m i l a r i t i e s  w i t h the songs p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d ,  however, i t a l s o possesses c e r t a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s own.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h groups  one and two are as f o l l o w s :  the i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e u s o f a minor t h i r d  i s used; the melody adheres s t r i c t l y to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the p r e s c r i b e d mode; a l l the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s are r e l a t e d ( i . e . , n o n - m o t i v i c material  i s a b s e n t ) ; main p i t c h n u c l e i are complemented by secondary  n u c l e i to produce the m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s f o r the song; the m u s i c a l is strophic.  pitch  form  As w e l l , group f o u r shares a s i m i l a r m e l o d i c c o n t o u r  (back  and f o r t h movement between a f o c a l p o i n t o f p i t c h ) to group t h r e e .  And,  the c a d e n t i a l formulae o f a l l f o u r groups i s m o t i v i c a l l y d e r i v e d . v a r i a n t s f o r group f o u r may be e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s : i s t r i t o n i c and has the a s c e n d i n g  The  the mode used  i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f two minor  t h i r d s ; the m e l o d i c ambitus i s a t r i t o n e and the o v e r a l l c o n t o u r o f the melody i s n o t d e s c e n d i n g ; the secondary  i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus  is a tritone;  o n l y one motive i s used f o r the song; and, the song does not cadence on i t s lowest note. In summary, Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs as m a n i f e s t by the music o f C h a r l i e Yahey, Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and C h a r l i e Jumbie may be grouped into four s t r u c t u r a l categories.  By and l a r g e a l l u t i l i z e m o t i v i c a l l y  227  d e r i v e d c a d e n t i a l formulae and s t r o p h i c m u s i c a l forms.  However,  group i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r by the i n d i v i d u a l  each  treatment  o f mode, the s e l e c t i o n o f p i t c h n u c l e i , the complementation o f p i t c h n u c l e i by secondary and n o n - n u c l e a r p i t c h e s , the d e r i v a t i o n o f a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s from m o t i v e s , m e l o d i c adherence t o the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s o f modes, m e l o d i c movement, m e l o d i c range, and m e l o d i c c o n t o u r . Some v a r i a n c e i n the use o f the above m u s i c a l phenomena must be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each o f t h e s e t h r e e p e r f o r m e r s .  D.  A d d i t i o n a l Musical Throughout  Description  the course o f t r a n s c r i b i n g and s t r u c t u r a l l y  Beaver I n d i a n music a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s was r e a l i z e d . analysis,  This  characteristics  i n f o r m a t i o n was not d i r e c t l y deduced from the s t r u c t u r a l  the s e c t i o n on m u s i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , o r the c h a p t e r on Beaver  I n d i a n music and c u l t u r e . three.  analyzing  The d i s c u s s i o n  R a t h e r , i t i s the s y n t h e t i c p r o d u c t o f a l l  here i s an attempt t o r e v e a l t h e s e f i n d i n g s  i t i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : dynamics; a r t i c u l a t i o n and p h r a s i n g ;  and  p i t c h ; rhythm; r e g i s t r a t i o n ;  vocal techniques; a c o u s t i c a l  i m p r o v i z a t i o n ; e m b e l l i s h m e n t ; song t e x t ; f o r m ; and,,musical  factors;  cognition.  Pitch The melodies o f Beaver music u s u a l l y begin i n the uppermost o f the s i n g i n g  register  v o i c e and cascade down t o the l o w e s t note o f the song.  They commonly u t i l i z e a range o f e i t h e r a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h o r two o c t a v e s , however, a few songs u t i l i z e as s m a l l a m e l o d i c ambitus as a p e r f e c t fifth.  M e l o d i c movement i s p r i m a r i l y i n major and minor t h i r d s , b u t ,  228  p e r f e c t f o u r t h s , f i f t h s and major seconds are a l s o commonly used.  Scales  a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , e i t h e r p e n t a t o n i c o r q u a d r a t o n i c a l t h o u g h t r i t o n i c and h e p t a t o n i c modes are i n e v i d e n c e . nonexistent  The use o f a c c i d e n t a l s i s  virtually  ( i . e . , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new p i t c h t o an e s t a b l i s h e d  mode) as i s m o d u l a t i o n t o another mode d u r i n g the course o f a song. M o d u l a t i o n w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode, on the o t h e r hand, does take p l a c e and i s u s u a l l y a t the p e r f e c t f i f t h  above.  With r e g a r d t o temperment no mechanical p i t c h measuring was u s e d . ^  And, from the a u r a l a n a l y s i s  device  t h a t was c a r r i e d o u t no f i x e d  t u n i n g system was r e c o g n i z e d ( i . e . , the p i t c h " A " can v a r y 50 c e n t s e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from 440 c y c l e s per s e c o n d ) .  Within strophes  however, t h e temperament o f the p i t c h e s i s m a i n t a i n e d . ^ temperment o f p i t c h appears  sizes  (sections),  W h i l e the  to f u n c t i o n on a s l i d i n g s c a l e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  100 cents the s i z e o f m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l s remains permanently Interval  in  fixed.  seem very s i m i l a r to Western temperment w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  o f t h e major and minor t h i r d s .  Occasionally  they appear f l a t and  r e s p e c t i v e l y and g i v e t h e appearance o f b e i n g " n e u t r a l  sharp  thirds".  In r e f e r e n c e to i n t o n a t i o n t h r e e b a s i c c o n v e n t i o n s were deduced via aural analysis.  They a r e :  notes above "D" on the s t a f f - l i n e are  u s u a l l y sung s h a r p ; notes below " E " on the s t a f f - l i n e are f r e q u e n t l y sung f l a t ( e s p e c i a l l y " A " to " F " below the s t a f f ) ; the notes i n between are u s u a l l y sung more " i n t u n e " .  A l s o , p i t c h e s t h a t are sung a t a  l o u d volume are f r e q u e n t l y sharp whereas p i t c h e s t h a t are sung s o f t l y are o f t e n f l a t .  The s h a r p e n i n g  o r f l a t t e n i n g o f a note i s seldom more  than a q u a r t e r o f a tone and can range from one t o f i f t y c e n t s . r e m a i n i n g phenomenon  The  r e l a t e d to i n t o n a t i o n i s the speech d e r i v e d m u s i c a l  229  tone.  I t o c c u r s when a new s y l l a b l e i s s t a r t e d and i t s e x a c t p i t c h i s  v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o determine a u r a l l y . Rhythm The tempo f o r Beaver music seldom v a r i e s from J always e s t a b l i s h e d by the drum.  = 152-160 and i s  In cases where v a r i a n c e o c c u r s  i s e i t h e r as a " r i t a r d " a t the end o f a s t r o p h e o r as a gradual  it "acceler-  ando" from s e c t i o n t o s e c t i o n . 8 The d u r a t i o n s used i n t h i s music are as f o l l o w s : The ones t h a t are used c o n s i s t e n t l y a r e : J \  o .  The shortest durations ( P  , J> ,  ) are u s u a l l y  appoggiaturas  or grace notes depending on whether they o c c u r on the beat o r b e f o r e i t respectively.  By and l a r g e these d u r a t i o n s l e a d d i r e c t l y to a note  t h r e e t o ten times i t s v a l u e .  The l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n s  u s u a l l y appear a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f a m u s i c a l  ( phrase.  The rhythm o f the drum accompaniment t o the dreamer songs i s p l a y e d i n steady q u a r t e r n o t e s . be syncopated ( J . two ( ).fl))  ).  fl),  always  The v o c a l p a r t , on the o t h e r hand, can  s y m m e t r i c a l ( J ) ) ) ) , or a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the  General t e n d e n c i e s seem to vary from song to song  and from p e r f o r m e r t o p e r f o r m e r . Registration Three r e g i s t e r s are a p p a r e n t i n Beaver I n d i a n v o c a l music. are:  _ (  -e-o.  high r e g i s t e r middle r e g i s t e r *low r e g i s t e r  They  230  The u p p e r  register  is  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a head v o i c e q u a l i t y , w h i l e  m i d d l e and low r e g i s t e r s voice q u a l i t i e s . o f the high  are  r e s p e c t i v e l y e p i t o m i z e d by t h r o a t and  The o c c a s i o n a l  register  the  but i t i s  pitch is  always  sung above  produced  the notated  chest  limits  "falsetto".  Dynamics Three  basic  levels  of  loudness  l o u d , medium l o u d , a n d s o f t .  They  in  which  t h e manner o f a d i m i n u e n d o  section  (the cascading  end s o f t l y . notes  Notes  the high  Phrasing  is  the l e a s t  Staccato legato  is  t h e m o s t common.  p h r a s e s and i s normally  single  usually  utilized  appearance  in  lasts  register pitches  They  i n t o one  begin  loud  sounded  only  once.  sounded  middle  of  "mf"  the and  per musical  phrase.  t o be p r e - d e t e r m i n e d and a r e o f  is  and i s  in  tones.  short comparison,  not l i m i t e d to a  Phrases are not determined  lengths.  Accentuated  o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y and a r e c o n f i n e d t o the b e g i n n i n g derived musical  while  runs o u t of b r e a t h , r a t h e r , varying  loudest  "p".  r e s t r i c t e d to  The l e g a t o n o t e ,  long melodic phrases  and  the  markings  The s t a c c a t o n o t e  musical  are f r e q u e n t l y in  are:  another  used method o f a r t i c u l a t i n g p i t c h  the p o i n t a t which the performer  and t o speech  music.  f o r an e n t i r e  Songs u s u a l l y  a t t a i n t h e dynamic  and  this  graduate  usually  o f a song and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y ,  Articulation  used i n  usually  of a melody).  sung i n  and b o t t o m r e g i s t e r s  is  are  they  by appear  notes  of a melodic  phrase  231  Vocal  Techniques Vocal t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e the use o f head, t h r o a t , and c h e s t v o i c e  as w e l l as f a l s e t t o .  They n o r m a l l y o c c u r i n accordance w i t h the v o c a l  r e g i s t e r s mentioned e a r l i e r .  Vocal t e n s i o n i s u t i l i z e d m i n i m a l l y i n  Beaver I n d i a n s i n g i n g and o n l y o c c u r s when the s i n g e r i s e i t h e r : singing  i n the uppermost r e g i s t e r , o r  enunciating non-lexical  syllables  a t the end o f a song somewhat i n the manner o f h e i g h t e n e d speech. V i b r a t o i s common i n t h i s music.  I t u s u a l l y takes p l a c e on p i t c h e s  l o n g e r i n d u r a t i o n than a d o t t e d q u a r t e r n o t e .  The w i d t h of the v i b r a t o  can be as much as 50 c e n t s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from the i n i t i a l Its  pitch.  speed u s u a l l y corresponds w i t h the drum b e a t s .  Acoustical  Factors  M u s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s f o r prophecy o r dance a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d in a large t i p i ,  a l t h o u g h l a r g e l o g c a b i n s have been used more r e c e n t l y  and t h e s e events a r e a l s o h e l d out o f doors when the weather p e r m i t s . An i n t e r e s t i n g a c o u s t i c a l phenomenon o c c u r s d u r i n g the performance o f dance songs.  The s i n g e r s t r a d i t i o n a l l y h o l d the drum i n f r o n t o f  t h e i r mouths(see  p l a t e s 3 and 4 o f the appendix)  any e v i l  i n order to prevent  s p i r i t s from e n t e r i n g t h e i r bodies and a l s o to stop women  from s e e i n g t h e i r i n n e r s p i r i t .  A c o u s t i c a l l y , t h i s p r a c t i c e produces  s y m p a t h e t i c v i b r a t i o n s from the drum head t o the f a c e which r e s o n a t e i n the s i n g e r s '  o r a l c a v i t y and upper c h e s t .  Improvi z a t i o n From the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e ( i . e . , the tape r e c o r d e d m u s i c a l examples) no e v i d e n c e was found o f i m p r o v i z a t i o n i n dreamer songs.  232  As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , the r e p e t i t i o n o f m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l remains  exact  from s t r o p h e t o s t r o p h e , from p e r f o r m e r t o p e r f o r m e r , and a l s o when p r o p h e t i c songs are u t i l i z e d i n the c o n t e x t o f dance. Embel1ishment The e m b e l l i s h m e n t o f p i t c h i s f r e q u e n t i n Beaver m u s i c , b u t , such i s not the case w i t h rhythm. i s embellished i n t h i s music:  The f o l l o w i n g a r e the ways i n which p i t c h a portamento o r gradual  glissando  (up  o r down) which encompasses a l l the p o s s i b l e m i c r o t o n e s between the two a s s i g n e d p i t c h e s ; the f l u c t u a t i o n o f p i t c h up and down (no more than 50 c e n t s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n ) w i t h i n one b e a t ; the s h a r p e n i n g  or f l a t t e n i n g  o f a p i t c h between one and f i f t y c e n t s ; a r a p i d s l i d e up o r f a l l  off  from a p i t c h a t the end o f i t s d u r a t i o n ( t h i s e m b e l l i s h m e n t t a k e s  place  much f a s t e r than the portamento and does not proceed d i r e c t l y to a n o t h e r p i t c h ) ; a wide v o c a l v i b r a t o which u n d u l a t e s a t the speed o f t h e drum and t r a v e l s a d i s t a n c e o f no more than 50 c e n t s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from the i n i t i a l  p i t c h ; a speech d e r i v e d m u s i c a l tone as opposed t o a m u s i c a l l y  derived musical  tone.  Text The t e x t o f a l l dreamer songs i s comprised o f n o n - l e x i c a l  syllables.  Form S t r o p h i c form i s common t o Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. through-composed  songs are a l s o i n e v i d e n c e .  The l e n g t h o f the  i n most dreamer songs which are s t r o p h i c i s u s u a l l y the same.  However, sections  233  Musical  Cognition  In r e f e r e n c e t o the way i n which music i s l e a r n e d i n Beaver c u l t u r e n o t h i n g i s known.  However, i t can be assumed t h a t o r a l t r a d i t i o n  a major r o l e i n the t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h i s  behavior.  serves  234  Footnotes  The sound m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s comprised e n t i r e l y o f the songs o f these t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e i r s o c i e t a l r o l e — shaman — d i c t a t e s a l m o s t one-hundred p e r c e n t o f t h e m u s i c a l p r a c t i c e s i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . For t h i s reason t h e i r music was s e l e c t e d f o r s t r u c t u r a l analysis. B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on these p e r f o r m e r s i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x , page 257. 1  2 The p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w i l l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, w i l l al analyses.  be p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The phonemic o n l y appear as p a r t o f the s t r u c t u r -  3 In the p a s t some e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s have attempted t o f i t nonWestern rhythms i n t o a Western framework r a t h e r than n o t a t i n g t h i s music s t r i c t l y as i t sounds (England 1964). T h i s p r a c t i c e has l e d t o the m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f many rhythms i n d i g e n o u s to non-Western music. 4 S t r u c t u r a l m u s i c a l genres are d e t e r m i n e d , by and l a r g e , by the modal s t r u c t u r e o f each song. F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the modes used i n each song, modal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and mode groupings may be o b t a i n e d by c o n s u l t i n g the A p p e n d i x , pages 258 and 259. L i n e a r l y , between t h e p i t c h e s G and D t h e r e are a t l e a s t f i v e notes o f s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n . 5  6 The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were p l a y e d a t p i t c h s e p a r a t e l y on the piano and the f l u t e t o deduce an approximate u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f temperament-and intonation. No d e v i c e s such as a s t r o b o c o n o r melograph were u t i l i z e d . 1 The e n t i r e p i t c h o f a melody may r i s e o r f a l l a q u a r t e r o f a tone (50 c e n t s ) from one s t r o p h e t o a n o t h e r . I t may change s i m i l a r l y from one song t o a n o t h e r . 8 Each phrase i s p l a y e d f a s t e r than the one p r e v i o u s . This e s t a b l i s h e s a f e e l i n g o f " r u s h i n g toward the end" o f the song much l i k e Chinese Amoy music.  235  REFERENCES CITED  E n g l a n d , C. 1964 "Symposium on T r a n s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s : A Huwke Song With M u s i c a l Bow", E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , 8: 223-277.  CHAPTER  VII  Conclusion  The f o r e g o i n g study attempted t o develop and u t i l i z e an a n a l y t i c a l approach i l l u m i n a t i v e o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. Chapter I r e v e a l e d t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music does not always conform t o Western m u s i c o l o g i c a l  e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h a t the compre-  hension and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s music depends the d i s c o v e r y o f a v i a b l e s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . o f the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s  Chapter I I ,  in ethnomusicology,  upon a survey  disclosed  t h a t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l procedures o f non-Western music were not s t u d i e d fully until  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1955 and t h a t w h i l e s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s  have been  pursued a v i d l y s i n c e 1955 they have been a p p l i e d , by and l a r g e , t o  high  a r t c u l t u r e s which possess w r i t t e n knowledge on the t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r music.  Chapter III  and methods o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m .  p r e s e n t e d an overview o f the c e n t r a l Chapter IV c o r r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c  of s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h musical a n a l y s i s  tenets  aspects  and thereby developed a method  f o r examining the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  The method  developed i n t h i s c h a p t e r was, i n e s s e n c e , seen as a s p e c i f i c type o f motivic analysis structural  aimed a t d i s c o v e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the h i e r a r c h i c a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the m u s i c a l  - 236 -  component-groups  237  i n Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  Chapter V p r e s e n t e d an o v e r v i e w o f  Beaver I n d i a n music and c u l t u r e so t h a t the r e a d e r c o u l d have a f u l l e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f the music to undergo s t r u c t u r a l s c r u t i n y .  Chapter  a p p l i e d the method developed i n Chapter IV to the s t r u c t u r a l o f f o r t y - f i v e Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs and s u b s e q u e n t l y s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r u c t u r e o f these songs.  VI  analysis  presented  Synthetically,  these s i x c h a p t e r s developed a method w h i c h , through i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , p r e s e n t e d some knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs; put f o r w a r d m u s i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f sound m a t e r i a l h i t h e r t o u n a n a l y z e d ; and, developed a method f o r the purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s  t h a t has never b e f o r e been used i n the a n a l y s i s o f any  North American I n d i a n music. The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e v e a l e d t h e a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s  of  to d i s c o v e r and i n t e r p r e t the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l  p r i n c i p l e s o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  However, i t a l s o  revealed  i n d i r e c t l y t h a t much m u s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s o u t o f the bounds o f s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s .  I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r t h a t no attempt was made  i n t h i s t h e s i s to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between words and m u s i c , to c o n c e i v e o f music as language, o r t o d i s c o v e r c u l t u r a l basis of musical p a t t e r n s .  b e h a v i o r s on the  As w e l l , i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t no  attempt was made t o recommend t h a t s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods r e p l a c e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f a n a l y s i s .  On the c o n t r a r y , the s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods  here were developed from p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p  presented  in ethnomusicology.  i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s e n t i r e e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l  Further,  investigation  does not r e p r e s e n t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c models to m u s i c a l R a t h e r , i t demonstrates the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m to musical  analysis. analysis  238  f o r t h e express  purpose o f g a i n i n g some knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs. The t h e s i s  i t s e l f has f a c e d many problems.  The t h r e e most t r o u b l e -  some o f t h e s e problems emulated from the complex network o f d e f i n i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and f e e l i n g s which appear t o encompass  the term s t r u c t u r a l i s m .  The f i r s t problem developed from attempts to c o n v i n c e the r e a d e r t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s was not an attempt to present a Straussian  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f music - - t o e x p r e s s  model designed t o r e a l i z e common denominators between v a r i o u s  of musical  an a n a l y t i c a l  structure  c u l t u r e s o f the w o r l d - - but r a t h e r , was an attempt t o  develop a methodology c a p a b l e o f i l l u m i n a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  The second problem developed from attempts to  e x p l a i n the f a c t t h a t music i s not a language the s t r u c t u r a l components o f language.  but t h a t music possesses  The t h i r d p r o b l e m , and the most  troublesome o f the t h r e e , a r o s e from the c o n f u s i o n c r e a t e d by the use of s t r u c t u r a l i s t terminologies to e x p l a i n s t r u c t u r a l musical  relations.  These problems h i n d e r e d the conveyance o f the more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f this thesis:  namely, the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer songs.  For t h i s r e a s o n , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on s t r u c t u r a l i s m and m u s i c a l a n a l y s i s  --  r e s e a r c h t h a t would enable a c l e a r e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o e x i s t between t h e s e two i n t e r r e l a t e d a r e a s o f study - - would b e n e f i t n o t o n l y a study o f t h i s n a t u r e but a l s o e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , i n  general.  The r e l e v a n c e and r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s e n t i r e gamut o f e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l by s c h o l a r s  on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  to the  r e s e a r c h w i l l , no doubt, be e v a l u a t e d The study i t s e l f has not o n l y  p r e s e n t e d m u s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver I n d i a n dreamer  239 songs but a l s o put f o r w a r d a method f o r d i s c o v e r i n g and v e r b a l i z i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s music t o people o u t s i d e the immediate community of producers.  To the l a t t e r ,  the r e a d e r must d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f whether  t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s a v i a b l e way o f a d d i n g to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  non-Western music or whether i t i s n o t h i n g more than an i n t e l l e c t u a l c a s t l e i n the sky t h a t has proved q u i t e i n e f f e c t u a l i n h a n d l i n g the e a r t h y s t u f f o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y - - namely, the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver dreamer songs.  Indian  APPENDIX  Map 1  Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Athabascan T r i b e s (Murdoch 1972)  Indian  Map 2  Geographic L o c a t i o n o f the Beaver I n d i a n s ( R i d i n g t o n 1968)  Map 3  G e o g r a p h i c . L o c a t i o n o f Beaver I n d i a n (Honigman 1946)  Bands  P l a t e s 1 and 2  The P h y s i c a l Appearance o f the Beaver S i n g l e - F r a m e Snare Drum  Indian  P l a t e s 3 and 4  A Group S i n g i n g S i t u a t i o n i n which the S i n g l e Frame Drum i s used  P l a t e s 5 and 6  P h y s i c a l Appearance o f t h e Double-Headed B a r r e l Drum  P l a t e s 7 through 16 C h a r l e y Yahey F i t t i n g a New S k i n onto a Snare Drum B i o g r a p h i c a l Notes on the P e r f o r m e r s Modes' Used, Modal R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Mode Groups Additional Musical  Transcriptions  -  240 -  241  Map 1  \$i  ESKIMO  KOYUKON  INGALIK  I T A NA N A  /  KUTCHIN /  TANAINA k TENA JESNX  O  — X  ,/  HARE  5ATUDENE TUTCHONE  J NOT  //MOUNTAIN ESKIMO  | TELU3WKNIPE  ~-SJ.AVE  V „  SEKANI  TSI  BEAVER  I /  CHffEWTAN  CARWEH j \  SARSI  ck E E  SHUSW/ ILJ^CKFOC  ( Murdoch 1972 )  ( Ridington 1968 )  243  Map  3  Beaver Indian Reserves (Map after Honigmann 1946)  244  Plate 1  245  246  Plate  247  248  P l a t e  g  Plate 6  251  8  P l a t e  P l a t e  9  Plate  11  254  P l a t e l!+  255  Plate 15  256  P l a t e  16  257  B i o g r a p h i c a l Notes on the Performers  Very l i t t l e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e on C h a r l i e Yahey, J o h n n i e C h i p e s i a , and C h a r l i e Jumbie due l a r g e l y t o the f a c t t h a t I was not the d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t o f t h e i r music.  However, i t  is  known t h a t a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e men were e l d e r l y (over f i f t y y e a r s ) the sound m a t e r i a l was r e c o r d e d (1964).  C h a r l i e Yahey was  when  considered  o v e r e i g h t y y e a r s o f age a t the time the f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out and i s s t i l l  b e l i e v e d t o be l i v i n g i n the area t o d a y .  The s o c i e t a l r o l e o f each o f t h e s e s i n g e r s (dreamer).  was t h a t o f a shaman  And, each t r a v e l l e d f r e q u e n t l y between t h r e e s e t t l e m e n t s  ( B l u e b e r r y , Doig and Halfway R i v e r s ) According to Ridington  (1975),  s e t t l e m e n t o f Prophet R i v e r .  on the Beaver Indian  Reserve.  however, they i n f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d the As w e l l , C h a r l i e Yahey was  considered  to be the b e s t s i n g e r i n Beaver Land and J o h n n i e C h i p e s i a was to be the b e s t s t o r y t e l l e r .  thought  I t i s not known whether t h e s e a c c o m p l i s h -  ments are r e l e v a n t t o the a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r p r o p h e s i e s . Some e v i d e n c e has been p r e s e n t e d r e c e n t l y ( R i d i n g t o n 1968) a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the Beaver I n d i a n s by A n g l o - C a n a d i a n  culture.  on the However,  the i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s phenomenon on t r a d i t i o n a l Beaver I n d i a n  music  (dreamer songs) appears m i n i m a l .  this  That i s , the performance o f  m u s i c , i t s s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the p r a c t i c e o f dreaming were still  very much " i n t a c t " d u r i n g the summers o f 1964 through  And, i t i s thought t o s t i l l  exist.  1968.  258  Modes Used, Modal R e l a t i o n s h i p s , and Mode Groups C h a r l e y Yahey Group I  Group  Group  - a l l modes are q u a d r a t o n i c and share the same content G  mT M3 m/  E  i3 M3 m3  D  ^  A  m3 M3 i3  G  <  B b  G  D  B  C  E  (  s  o  n  g  1.2,3,4,9,10,11,12)  S  8  S O n  9  S  >  1 5  a  n  d  16  >  F Ab C Eb m3 M3 m3  (songs 1 7 , 1 8 . 1 9 , 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 5 )  D_F_A_C m3 M3 m3  (song 24)  C Eb_G_Bb F m3 M3 m3 p5  (songs 5,6,7)  II  III A C E G B i3M3m3M3  Group IV  intervallic  , ( s o n  „„ 9  9 )  - both modes are s i m i l a r i n i n t e r v a l l i c c o n t e n t  WV*  <> <*»<>"> b D  Johnnie C h i p e s i a Group I  Group  Group  - a l l modes a r e q u a d r a t o n i c and have the same i n t e r v a l l i c content D_F_A__C m3 M3 m3  (songs  26,27,28,32,36,39)  A_C_E_G m3 M3 m3  (songs  31,33,34)  C Eb_G_Bb F m3 M3 m3 p5  (songs  29,35,37,38)  A_C_Eb m3 m3  (song 30)  II  III  C h a r l i e Jumbie Group I  - both modes a r e q u a t r a t o n i c and have t h e same i n t e r v a l l i c structure W e  Group  ( S 0  "9  S  10,43,44,45)  II  (+ Mode Groups c o r r e s p o n d to S t r u c t u r a l M u s i c a l G e n r e s . )  260  ADDITIONAL MUSICAL TRANSCRIPTIONS  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s which f o l l o w r e p r e s e n t the remainder o f t h e sound m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s . f o r t h e s e songs i s i d e n t i c a l VI.  The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  t o the songs p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter  That i s , a l l songs i n c l u d e s o l o male v o i c e w i t h b a r r e l -  drum accompaniment.  (The e x c e p t i o n s are songs 40 and 41  which C h a r l i e Jumbie uses the snare-drum.)  For the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  presented here, only the voice part i s notated. ment i s o m i t t e d .  in  The drum accompani-  The p i t c h o f the drum, however, i s shown i n  p a r e n t h e s i s a t the end o f the song t i t l e .  A s i d e from these  minor a l t e r a t i o n s , th^^nlpJiationaT procedures used here e x a c t l y w i t h those used i n Chapter  VI.  correspond  261  —•—-—•——  ff/^J^x^  ITfflfflT?"  —ffi  r  c  c  if  c  L  L  C  C  P ' T ^ T "  ^ ^ — n u  0  — - M f — L ^ H - J ^ J  r  — 1 — — r - r  —  op,  —  -L  ^  Y  1  i  $  ±  ? L\—  * — t i  y  —  >  , \  ^  f »' J *'  f  ~~ 0  1  1 — j - ? — i  1  f  1 f  U—r Py)  —  1  —  Y\$ii\  j -  '  i r  r r  1  f  ,  h r  -  —  0  0  11  f1y) f1 f  —*>  ' t \tM  i — i  f  Sony  2:  f / W fm  (?Uf>k±J?i  263  264  A* Jim.  a  *L.  A  *  V  !  v-  O  r 1  *  fi^W^-r:  0(0  „  ^>  pate  , ; V *  Y  peeo  w  f  Ot  AA  i7oCo  >  ?  5  ^  ~~z  H  -~ ^-^jui  Ht i~  w  ^  Aft V  s-firo|>Ae_fl>) «  , * f  M. A^  265  266  SO***.  * As-fig,  $OIUJ  processes  fiom  /fee fespeq  Sony 7:  CiUi  t*  CU hf f  £1  «_  iosfaofU tU-h*f»  268  269  270  —(£^7^  ^ ••  —  i  r> \ \ \\}  }  — M T T — i  r  —  ^  u  * i  •*  ^  * P'^^^rTP^^  f l L C U U t t  -—I  SornH^CiUi  in  j  _  Ch*pte? -  TJ1  ^  ;  .  Son* m Vreawirrinir^^  &uet. *  if W I ' f b p T n 5^  p6to  x . i•  L JU[ 1  1 11111  ^  n  \f)\} J  —1 i  3  i  t  i t  -  272  ^  *  >  274  ^  z  ~  £  (9  J « « . p » e »  «-  poeo  *  TTT  t i t l e  SB  peeo  •*  ^  i  J-  1ST-  ^  !6o  r  P*  v  v  ^  *>  275  276  •  6 c» 9-  ^ *~  •  278  279  a  o  x, e>  o  *  280  — y  .  .  .  L  .  ? -  —  L  \  .  reus C M w o  —  ^  »»  t I or 5»iropne  —  .  L  ~—. . MM** PK» ^oj_ ******  .  _ . < S \  ta  —  1  J  Igl-  7»w  —  A*ysH^+^^  y  ffi) r c c c c r t c  ) |  1  v y j  6  i—1— >  —1 K  b  r ,  « r*. u  * — ,  n  M  M—*  n  \ \ ft  1 1  y- n  i  1  ^  n M — n  r  ^  Di  i  ^  7—-  281  282  284  33  fcjJJ.' 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" D i f f i c u l t i e s of comparative musicology, w i t h s p e c i a l regard t o the h i s t o r i c a l and s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f f o l k m u s i c " , i n George Herzog, Papers by V a r i o u s A u t h o r s on F o l k M u s i c , M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e p r i n t s , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y .  T r u b e t z k o y , N. S. 1957 P r i n c i p e s de p h o n o ! o g i e . Tsuge, G. 1970 Wachsman, 1954  Klincksiek, Paris.  "Rhythmic A s p e c t s o f the Avaz i n P e r s i a n M u s i c " , 1 4 ( 2 ) : 205-227.  Ethnomusicology,  K. "The T r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f F o l k Music from One S o c i a l Environment t o A n o t h e r " , J o u r n a l o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F o l k Music C o u n c i l , 6: 41.  W a l l w o r k , J . F. 1969 Language  and L i n g u i s t i c s .  Heinemann, London.  W o l f f , K. 1960 Z i f f , Paul. 1960  E m i l e Durkheim.  Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Semantic A n a l y s i s .  Columbus.  C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York.  309  ANNOTATED DISCOGRAPHY  R i d i n g t o n , Robin Beaver I n d i a n Dreamer Songs, tape r e c o r d i n g s c o l l e c t e d between 1964 and 1968, u n p u b l i s h e d . An e d i t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e s e songs ( i . e . , t h a t which was used as the sound m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n the a p p e n d i x .  

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