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Selective studies in musical analyses of Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs : a structuralistic approach in… Lillos, Brian Martin 1977

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SELECTIVE STUDIES IN MUSICAL ANALYSES OF BEAVER INDIAN DREAMER SONGS: A STRUCTURALISTIC APPROACH IN ETHNOMUSICOLOGY by BRIAN MARTIN LILLOS B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1977 (c) B r ian Mar t in L i l l o s , 1977 In presenting th i s thes is in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of this thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permiss ion. Department of Musir  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date 1 February 1977 ABSTRACT This t he s i s develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l approach which i l l u m i n a t e s the s t r u c t u r e o f one genre of Beaver Indian music - - s p e c i f i c a l l y , Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The a n a l y t i c a l approach or methodology developed here de r i ve s from previous s cho l a r s h i p i n the area o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r i e s i n ethnomusicology and from a n a l y t i c a l models e x t r a c t e d from s t r u c t u r a l i s m and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h music. The scope o f the t h e s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d to the s t r u c t u r a l examination of f o r t y - f i v e Beaver Indian dreamer songs. No other genre of Beaver Indian music i s s c r u t i n i z e d s t r u c t u r a l l y and no o ther North American Indian music i s d i scus sed here. The methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s may be desc r ibed as f o l l o w s . Chapter I in t roduces the problem. Chapter II examines the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology from 1880 to 1900, from 1900 to 1930, from 1930 to 1940, from 1940 to 1954, and from 1954 to the present . Chapter I I I presents an overview o f the c e n t r a l tenets and methods o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m by d i s cu s s i ng s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s , s t r u c t u r a l i s t approaches towards fo rmu la t ing methods o f i n q u i r y , and s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods. Chapter IV c o r r e l a t e s s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h mus ical a n a l y s i s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Chapter IV revea l s i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s i n approach, and methodological c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r u c t u r a l -ism and musical a n a l y s i s . Chapter V presents an overview of the music and c u l t u r e of the Beaver Ind ians. Sub-sect ions w i t h i n t h i s Chapter i nc lude d i s cu s s i on s on: previous s c h o l a r s h i p , geographic l o c a t i o n i i and general e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s t o r y of the Beaver, music and the s upe rna tu r a l , uses of music, Beaver Indian musical i n s t rument s , and a d d i t i o n a l notes on the music. Chapter VI i n v e s t i g a t e s the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs v i a the methodology developed i n Chapter IV. The contents o f t h i s Chapter a r e : s e l e c t e d musical t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r a l ana ly ses , a comparative study on the s t r u c t u r a l musical genres o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs, and a d d i t i o n a l musical d e s c r i p t i o n s . Chapter VII concludes the study. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t he s i s i s t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , i t presents some knowledge and understanding o f the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Second, i t presents t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f sound mate r i a l h i t h e r t o unanalyzed. T h i r d , i t develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l approach f o r the study of musical s t r u c t u r e i n non-Western music — a technique which has not been u t i l i z e d before i n the a n a l y s i s of any North American Indian music. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. I n t r oduc t i on 1 I I . The Development of S t r u c t u r a l Stud ies i n Ethnomusicology 6 A. Developments, 1880-1900 7 B. Developments, 1900-1930 10 C. Developments, 1930-1940 12 D. Developments, 1940-1954 15 E. Present Trends, 1954-1976 17 F. Summary 20 I I I . The I deo l og i ca l and T h e o r e t i c a l Bases o f S t r u c t u r a l i s m 25 26 30 A. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Ideo log ies B. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Approaches Towards Formulat ing Methods of Inqu i ry C. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Methods D. Summary 3 6 44 61 IV. The C o r r e l a t i o n o f S t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th Mus ica l Ana l y s i s 40 A. I deo l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s 41 B. C o r r e l a t i o n s i n Approach 43 C. Methodolog ica l C o r r e l a t i o n s A A D. Summary V. The Music and Cu l t u re of the Beaver Ind ians: An Overview 66 A. Previous S cho l a r sh i p 67 B. Geographic Locat ion and General E c o l o g i c a l Cond i t ions 69 C. H i s t o r y o f the Beaver 70 D. Music and the Supernatura l 72 E. Uses of Music 75 F. Beaver Indian Mus ica l Instruments 76 G. A d d i t i o n a l Notes on the Music 77 VI. The Con s t r u c t i ona l P r i n c i p l e s o f Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs 86 87 A. Se l ec ted Mus ica l T r a n s c r i p t i o n s B. Se lec ted S t r u c t u r a l Analyses * u C. S t r u c t u r a l Mus ical Genres o f Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs: A Comparative Study LA± D. A d d i t i o n a l Mus ica l De s c r i p t i o n - i i i -VI I . Conclus ion Appendix Se lec ted B i b l i o g r aphy Annotated Discography ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many persons have a ided me i n the p repa ra t i on o f t h i s t h e s i s , both academica l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . I would l i k e to thank Mr. Hans Burndor fer (music l i b r a r i a n ) f o r h i s a s s i s t ance i n a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l source m a t e r i a l s ; P ro fe s so r Thomas Blom (Eng l i s h grammarian) f o r h i s e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; Miss C l a re Warner f o r t yp i ng the manuscr ip t ; P ro fe s so r Robin R id ington (symbol ic a n t h r opo l o g i s t ) f o r p r o v i d i n g the sound m a t e r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s ; P ro fe s so r E l 1 i Kongas Maranda ( s t r u c t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) f o r her c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s regard ing the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m and mus ica l a n a l y s i s ; P ro fe s so r Dale Kinkade ( l i n g u i s t ) f o r h i s i n f o rma t i v e op in ions on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c - m o d e l s to mus ica l a n a l y s i s ; P ro fe s so r Doreen B inn ington (educat ion cu r r i cu lum) f o r h e r . c r i t i c a l comments on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the t h e s i s ; and, P ro fe s so r Donald McCorkle ( h i s t o r i c a l mu s i c o l o g i s t ) f o r h i s e d i t o r i a l comments. Most impor tant , however, has been the i n v a l u a b l e help o f my s u p e r v i s o r , P ro fe s so r David Ming Yueh L i ang , whose c r e a t i v e approach towards s c h o l a r s h i p , a b i l i t y to concep tua l i z e on e thnomus ico log i ca l problems, and out s tand ing teach ing a b i l i t i e s enabled me to conceive t h i s t o p i c . Moreover, h i s encouragement and sponsorship i l l u s t r a t e both h i s s c h o l a r l y i n t e g r i t y and pa t i ence . At a much l e s s formal l e v e l , I would l i k e to thank my w i f e f o r her s p i r i t u a l guidance w i thout which I would have stopped months ago. As w e l l , I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to a dear f r i e n d , Robin R i d i n g t on , f o r opening my mind to the r e l e van t n o n - l i t e r a t u r e o f the Beaver Ind ians . - v -CHAPTER I I n t roduc t i on Late i n the n ineteenth century scho la r s began to take an i n t e r e s t tn the music of peoples out s ide the Western t r a d i t i o n . This i n t e r e s t has i nc reased over the past n i ne ty y ea r s ; the advent of the gramophone, the use of non-Western musical phenomena by severa l twent i e th - cen tu ry Western-composers, and the growth and p o p u l a r i t y of anthropology as a formal d i s c i p l i n e have a l l c on t r i bu ted to the development of a f i e l d of study known today as ethnomusicology. The purpose of t h i s f i e l d of study has been and i s s t i l l to achieve a b e t t e r understanding of non-Western music. Wi th in the areas s c r u t i n i z e d by e thnomus i co l og i s t s , the general agreement that non-Western music i s not " p r i m i t i v e " but i s , i n f a c t , h i gh l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i s evidence tha t steps have been made towards ach iev ing t h i s g oa l . The r e c o g n i t i o n t ha t non-Western music possesses a s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l to each c u l t u r e , presents se r ious problems f o r e thnomus i co log i s t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l Western techniques of ana l y s i s have proved extremely e t hnocen t r i c i n the examination o f non-Western music and have, at t imes , r e s u l t e d i n m i s lead ing in fo rmat ion concerning the s t r u c t u r e - 1 -2 of non-Western m u s i c J Th i s p a r t i c u l a r methodolog ica l problem has been extremely apparent i n the examination of music from n o n - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l Western methods f o r ana l y z i ng non-Western music and the general agreement t h a t non-Western music i s h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d have c o l l e c t i v e l y generated the c e n t r a l concerns of t h i s t h e s i s . That i s , the purpose o f t h i s study i s to develop and u t i l i z e an a n a l y t i c a l approach which i l l u m i n a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs - - a music whose c u l t u r e has no se t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s or "music theory " l i k e those known and understood i n the West. A century from now t h i s attempt to i n i t i a t e a methodology which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the comprehension, a p p r e c i a t i o n , and communication o f s t r u c t u r a l i n fo rmat i on o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs w i l l obv i ou s l y be superseded by the works of other s cho l a r s . From the s tandpo int of 1976, however, t h i s study represents a s c h o l a r l y a t t e m p t , a t the Mas te r ' s l e v e l , to gain a knowledge and understanding of music p r e v i o u s l y unanalyzed. The methodology used i n the s t r u c t u r a l examination of Beaver Indian dreamer songs de r i ve s from prev ious s c ho l a r s h i p i n the area of s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r i e s i n ethnomusicology and from a n a l y t i c a l models e x t r a c t ed from s t r u c t u r a l i s m and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h music. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the proposed methodology emanates from the approach to the s t r u c t u r a l study of non-Western music revea led i n the works of such scho la r s as Mantle Hood. Fu r the r , i t b u i l d s from proposa ls which c o r r e l a t e s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th musical a n a l y s i s made by such s cho la r s as Bruno N e t t l . Thus, the 3 t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the proposed methodology i s de r i ved from s t r u c t u r a l i s m . I t s i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s , however, stems from a b e l i e f t h a t non-Western music must be approached on i t s own terms and t ha t a n a l y t i c techniques designed to examine the s t r u c t u r e o f a s p e c i f i c non-Western music should be an outgrowth of ex ten s i ve o r a l a n a l y s i s o f such a music. As a s yn thes i s o f the two, the proposed methodology i s based upon l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s ; these begin w i th the s imp le s t (phoneme) and work to the most complex (morpheme). The scope of the t h e s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d to the s t r u c t u r a l examination of one genre of Beaver Indian mus ic, namely, dreamer songs. And the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the proposed methodology to the s t r u c t u r a l examinat ion of these dreamer songs i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d to the musical parameters o f p i t c h and du ra t i on apparent i n these songs. No o ther genre of Beaver Indian music i s s c r u t i n i z e d s t r u c t u r a l l y dur ing the course of t h i s t h e s i s and no other North American Indian music i s d i s cus sed. S i m i l a r l y , no attempt i s made to apply the proposed methodology to the examinat ion of Beaver Indian music as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon. Rather, only those aspects o f music as a sound phenomenon which have been deemed o f e m p i r i c a l value and which can be eva luated o b j e c t i v e l y are examined by the proposed methodology. The understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of these dreamer songs i s gained by examining the dreamer songs o f three Beaver Indian shamans (dreamers) whose songs are cons idered r ep re sen ta t i v e o f dreamer songs from the Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . The t o t a l number o f songs analyzed i s f o r t y - f i v e and as a body of sound ma te r i a l they represent approx imately e i g h t y - f i v e percent o f the music a v a i l a b l e to the re searcher . 4 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t he s i s i s t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , i t presents some knowledge and understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Second, i t presents t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f sound ma te r i a l h i t h e r t o unanalyzed. T h i r d , i t develops and u t i l i z e s an a n a l y t i c a l approach f o r the study of mus ica l s t r u c t u r e i n non-Western mus ic; t h i s approach i s b u i l t from prev ious research i n the area of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology. The technique i t s e l f has not been u t i l i z e d before i n the a n a l y s i s o f North American Indian music-The remainder of the t h e s i s i s organized as f o l l o w s : Chapter II presents a d e s c r i p t i v e account o f the research p e r t i n e n t to the deve lop-ment of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology; Chapter I I I presents an overview of the c e n t r a l tenets and methods of s t r u c t u r a l i s m ; Chapter IV presents the c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th mus ical a na l y s i s and subsequently d i s c l o s e s the proposed methodology f o r the s tudy; Chapter V presents an overview o f the music and c u l t u r e of the Beaver Ind ians ; Chapter VI presents s e l e c t ed s t r u c t u r a l analyses of Beaver Indian dreamer songs; Chapter VII presents a conc lu s i on o f the study. 5 Footnotes For the purposes of t h i s s tudy, the term s t r u c t u r e of non-Western music means the way i n which musical elements (sound phenomena) are assembled i n a s p e c i f i c musical compos i t ion. S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of non-Western music t he re f o re e n t a i l s an a n a l y t i c procedure i n which attempts are made to dec ipher the component par t s of a song and deduce how they f i t together . Th is a n a l y t i c procedure and subsequent under-s tand ing of the s t r u c t u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r non-Western music i s s i m i l a r to the way i n which many compos i t ion students i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s are taught the compos i t iona l procedures of the great composers. For example, i n order to understand the compos i t iona l techniques of J . S. Bach many students are shown the mus ica l ma te r i a l w i th which Bach was working and the way i n which he arranged t h i s ma te r i a l i n t o a cohes ive e n t i t y - - a musical compos i t ion . In t h i s sense l e a r n i n g the c r a f t o f mus ica l composit ion i s analogous to d i s c o ve r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the way i n which the musical elements from a p a r t i c u l a r non-Western music are assembled. CHAPTER II The Development of S t r u c t u r a l Stud ies i n Ethnomusicology An h i s t o r i c a l survey o f the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t ud i e s i n ethnomusicology from the l a t e n ine teenth -centu ry to the present day revea l s the way i n which s c h o l a r l y achievement i s the product of an on going d i a l e c t i c - - a d i a l e c t i c which w i l l cont inue to b u i l d upon, modi fy, and reassess the achievements of present day i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; j u s t as i t has done i n the past . A major development i n t h i s d i a l e c t i c occurred midway i n our century . P r i o r to t h i s time s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology were l a r g e l y the by-product o f s c h o l a r l y attempts to d i s cove r and analyze the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s 1 of non-Western music; as such they revea l con s ide rab le d i v e r s i t y . Such s tud ie s i nc lude E l l i s ' i n ven t i on o f the centssystem to measure mathemat ica l l y the i n t e r v a l s and the p i t che s from var ious non-Western musical s c a l e s , F i l l m o r e ' s s t r u c t u r a l t reatment o f s ca l e pat terns i n Omaha mus ic, von Ho rnbo s te l ' s and Herzog ' s s t r u c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n between mode and s c a l e , and Rober t ' s and Herzog ' s s t r u c t u r a l de te rminat ion of musical phrase i n North American Indian musics. S ince about 1955, s cho la r s have cont inued f r u i t f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n a l l of these areas and have, i n a d d i t i o n , attempted to examine musical s t r u c t u r e per se i n non-Western music. These attempts - 6 -7 i n c l ude Mantle Hood's examinat ion o f Javanese modal s t r u c t u r e s and Bruno N e t t l ' s proposed c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models and musical a n a l y s i s . Endeavors such as these have thrown va luab le new l i g h t on s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s . A. Developments, 1880-1900 The impetus f o r the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethno-musicology seems to have come from Helmhol tz ' s t ud ie s on the acou s t i c s o f sound and h i s ba s i c content ion t ha t s ca l e systems de r i ve from the na tu ra l laws of sound product ion (Helmholtz 1875). His w r i t i n g s helped generate an i n t e r e s t i n the study of sound pat terns - - i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p i t c h pat te rns of non-European music. The i n t e r e s t shown in p r i m i t i v e and O r i e n t a l music by Alexander J . E l l i s , an Eng l i sh p h o n e t i c i a n , may serve as an example. With the a i d of A l f r e d James H ipk ins E l l i s measured and compared the p i t c h systems of numerous s t r i n g and wind instruments and p laced p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on i n t e r v a l s and s ca l e types ( E l l i s 1884). The t o o l used most o f ten by H ipk ins and E l l i s was E l l i s ' centssystem of tona l measurement, e s s e n t i a l l y a d i v i s i o n of the octave i n t o 1200 " c e n t s " ; these " c e n t s " were de r i ved from ac tua l frequency by l o g a r i t h m i c a l formula (McLeod 1966:2). The E l l i s system a l lows a l l . i d e n t i c a l i n t e r v a l s to be expressed i n i d e n t i c a l whole numbers (Kunst 1955:11-16). E l l i s ' use o f exact sound measurements f o r the musical parameter o f p i t c h broke new ground i n the s t r u c t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p i t c h phenomena i n non-Western music. His mathematical measurements o f the J 8 a c o u s t i c a l p r ope r t i e s o f non-Western p i t c h systems c o n t r i b u t e d to a s t r u c t u r a l understanding o f non-Western mus ica l s ca le s and i n t o n a t i o n systems. The study i t s e l f i s exemplary o f the i n t e r e s t shown by s cho la r s i n d i s c o ve r i n g the s a l i e n t or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f ea tu re s o f non-Western p i t c h systems by the use o f exact sound measurements. E l l i s ' work must be p ra i sed f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s t r u c t u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r v a l s i z e s and s ca l e t ypes ; when viewed from the pe r spec t i ve of 1976 and cu r ren t s t r u c t u r a l understanding of non-Western mus ic, however, E l l i s o f f e r s l i t t l e a s s i s t ance to scho la r s wi sh ing to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l musical components and groups the reo f modify one another m o t i v i c a l l y . Whi le E l l i s focused h i s energ ies on p i t c h , J . C. F i l l m o r e broadened t ha t focus i n h i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d attempt to de sc r i be the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Omaha music i n terms o f Western t o n a l i t y . In h i s a n a l y s i s , pub l i shed i n an addendum to Fletcher's and La F l e s c h e ' s 1893 p u b l i c a t i o n on the Omaha ( F l e t c h e r and La F lesche 1893), F i l l m o r e announced h i s d i s covery of what he c a l l e d " l a t e n t harmony" and p a i n s t a k i n g l y demonstrated i t s presence i n Omaha music. In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s ca l e pat terns o f the songs he found t ha t wh i l e some adhered to pentaton ic major and minor forms others e x h i b i t e d d i ve rgent pa t t e r n s : "There remained some very p u z z l i n g cases of songs whose tones cou ld not be reduced to e i t h e r the major or the minor s c a l e s , whether complete or incomplete, because chromatic tones were used" (1893:290-91). F i l l m o r e assumed the presence of modulat ion: " S ince these melodic abe r ra t i on s . . . are e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y accounted f o r by re fe rence to t h e i r na tu ra l harmonic r e l a t i o n s , and i n no o ther way, I am fo rced to the conc lu s i on tha t a l l 9 e f f o r t s to reduce p r i m i t i v e melodies to s ca le s w i thout re fe rence to the natu ra l harmonies imp l i ed i n them must prove f u t i l e " (pp. 291-92). Working from t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , F i l l m o r e harmonized the melod ies , somewhat i n the s t y l e of hymns, and presented the r e s u l t s to the Indians f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . He records tha t the Ind ians , upon hear ing t h e i r songs played on the p iano, "were not s a t i s f i e d w i thout the a d d i t i o n of chords to the melod ies " (p.292). And f u r t h e r , on ly c e r t a i n harmonizat ions s a t i s -f i e d them; F i l l m o r e f a i t h f u l l y recorded and pub l i shed these harmonizat ions . F i l l m o r e ' s a na l y s i s gave more musical i n fo rmat ion than t ha t normal ly a s soc i a ted w i th the p i t ch - con s c i ou s f o l l o w e r s o f E l l i s . He noted, f o r example, t ha t the rhythm of Omaha music was p o l y m e t r i c , employed compound rhythm, and had syncopat ion between drummer and s i n ge r . He desc r ibed the musical form as being bas i c l i t a n y , and noted t ha t the p reva len t melodic l i n e was descending. His a n a l y t i c a l attempts to ga in a s t r u c t u r a l understanding o f s ca le and harmony i n Omaha music are commendable. But , the development of h i s a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a proved extremely ethno-c e n t r i c . These c r i t e r i a used Western methods f o r ana l y z i ng non-Western musical s t r u c t u r e r a the r than determin ing a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a from the concepts inherent to non-Western moda l i t y . As a r e s u l t , h i s a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s have been d i smissed by other s c ho l a r s . Thus, u n l i k e E l l i s ' research which prov ided a s o l i d foundat ion upon which l a t e r s cho la r s cou ld b u i l d toward a f i n e r understanding of p i t c h phenomena, the f r u i t s of F i l l m o r e ' s research have been l a r g e l y d i smi s sed . This i s not to say, however, t ha t F i l l m o r e made no c o n t r i b u t i o n to s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology. On the c o n t r a r y , h i s researches prov ide an e f f e c t i v e caveat to any who would i nnocen t l y eva luate non-Western musical phenomena by the standards of the West. 10 B. Developments, 1900-1930 In comparison w i th the attempts made to analyze the s a l i e n t fea tu res of non-Western music p r i o r to 1900, a gradual d e s c r i p t i v e ref inement took p lace i n the f i r s t t h i r t y years of the twen t i e th - cen tu r y . Th is t rend reached i t s most p roduct i ve stage i n 1928 w i th the p u b l i c a t i o n of two shor t a r t i c l e s , one by E r i c h M. von Hornbostel and the other by George Herzog. Von Hornb o s . t e l 1 s " A f r i c a n Negro Mus ic " (1928) i s a f i n e example of t h i s re f inement , f o r i n t h i s work he desc r ibed non-Western music as l a c k i n g i n harmony but possess ing c e r t a i n " n a t u r a l " t r a i t s such as downward melodic mot ion, g reat va r i ance i n i n t e r v a l s i z e , no norm of i n t o n a t i o n , and modes o f p e c u l i a r types ( l a t e r c a l l e d pentatom'c o u t l i n e s ) . These modes he suggested were consonant on ly a t the f o u r t h , f i f t h , and octave w i t h the r e s t of the tones being qu i t e f r e e . Th is a na l y s i s imp l i ed tha t no success ion of f i x e d degrees cou ld e xp l a i n non-Western music and t h a t melody had to be cons idered as an und iv ided e n t i t y . He broke the p i t che s o f the mode down i n t o predominant tones ( t o n i c and dominant), s a t e l l i t e s ( l ead ing t one s ) , and servants (pass ing t one s ) , a l l o f which have d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s : "The p o s i t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a r i e s both w i t h i n the melodic un i t y and towards each other c h a r a c t e r i z e the mode and the melody" (von Hornbostel 1928:36). Accord ing to von Hornbos te l , s ca l e may be cons idered as a f i x i n g of r e l a t i v e p i t c h , wh i l e mode i s r a t he r a determinat ion of the melodic f u n c t i o n o f the notes , i n which r e l a t i v e p i t c h i s an outcome of that f u n c t i o n . Von Ho rnbo s te l ' s a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s c on t r i bu ted to the r e c o g n i t i o n t ha t s c a l e and mode serve d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l f unc t i on s i n non-Western music. This was the f i r s t approach to take ethnomus ico log i s t s 11 out o f the e t hnocen t r i c p o s i t i o n espoused e a r l i e r by F i l l m o r e ; a lthough i t does not apply to the music of a l l s o c i e t i e s or to an understanding o f a l l aspects o f mus ica l s t r u c t u r e , i t d i d o f f e r the f i r s t c l ue to the nature of p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the music o f some c u l t u r e s . In the same year t h a t von Hornbostel pub l i shed h i s important a r t i c l e , George Herzog - - h i s s tudent and d i s c i p l e - - attempted to summarize the s a l i e n t features of the music of the North American Ind ians , w i th the except ion of the Bas in and C a l i f o r n i a Indians (Herzog,1928). His work cont inues the ref inement demonstrated by von Hornboste l . For example, Herzog i n i t i a t e d a set of a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r determin ing the s a l i e n t fea tu re s of the musics from t h i s geographic r eg i on . The aspects he chose to examine were manner of s i n g i n g , melodic range, rhythm, musical form, and accompaniment and t ime. The r e s u l t s of Herzog ' s research c l a r i f i e d von Ho rnbo s te l ' s understanding of moda l i ty and p i t c h r e l a t i o n -sh ip s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Herzog prov ided ethnomus ico log i s t s w i th a more d e f i n i t i v e reasoning f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l l y between mode and s ca l e i n non-Western music. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of both these s c h o l a r s ' works f o r the development of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology should not be underplayed. The i r research prov ided i n fo rmat ion t ha t c on t r i bu ted to the r e a l i z a t i o n tha t s t r u c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s e x i s t between mode and s c a l e i n non-Western music. I t should be made c l e a r , however, t ha t t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n e x i s t s as a by-product of von Ho rnbo s t e l ' s and Herzog ' s e f f o r t s to d i s cove r the s a l i e n t f ea tu re s o f non-Western music and thereby c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s t y l i s t i c a l l y ; i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a methodology f o r ana l y z i n g mus ica l s t r u c t u r e per se i n non-Western music. 12 C. Developments, 1930- 40 The f o l l o w i n g d e c a d e -witnessed a g reate r e thnomus ico log ica l concern f o r those musical fea tu res tha t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t y l e . Consequently, severa l f a ce t s of music t ha t had not been given s c r u t i n y p r i o r to t h i s time were examined as pa r t of an a l l - o u t attempt to see what mus ical elements best d i s t i n g u i s h one s t y l e from another. S i g n i f i c a n t achievements i n terms o f s t r u c t u r a l r e a l i z a t i o n s were made dur ing t h i s t ime. The major t h r u s t came from Helen H. Roberts and George Herzog. The bas i c tenet of t h e i r i n q u i r y was t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e b e l i e f t h a t s a l i e n t musical fea tu res i n musical parameters o ther than p i t c h may hold the key to more d e f i n i t i v e s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . Th is idea was f i r s t put f o r t h i n d e t a i l by Helen H. Roberts. She defended her endeavors w i t h the argument t ha t wh i l e " c e r t a i n s imple s t y l i s t i c pat terns seem to r e c u r , i n most music, . . . the best c r i t e r i a f o r r ecogn i z i ng musical s t y l e and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g musical s t y l e s from one another l i e i n r e a l i z i n g the minute s t y l i s t i c f ea tu re s o f musical compos i t ion and r e n d i t i o n " (1932:103). In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , Roberts assembled her ideas i n Form i n P r i m i t i v e  Music (1933), where she presented anew method i n ethnomusicology - -the " t r a i t l i s t " . A f t e r ana l y z i n g songs o f the Lu i seno, G a b r i e l i n o , and Ca l a l i neno Indians o f C a l i f o r n i a , she organ ized her i n fo rmat ion i n t o a l i s t o f t h i r t y - s i x s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s o r s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s , no t i ng the presence or absence o f these i n each song. Modal diagrams i n d i c a t i n g p i t c h as we l l as the approximate du ra t i ona l length o f each tona l area 13 were i n c l uded . By t h i s method, she was ab le to desc r ibe c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the song l i t e r a t u r e o f the C a l i f o r n i a Indians (McLeod 1966:10). In the same y e a r , Herzog a s s i m i l a t e d many of Robert s ' p r i n c i p l e s w i t h some o f h i s own c r i t e r i a i n t o a d e s c r i p t i v e dev ice and used i t i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the music o f the Maricopa Indians (Herzog 1933). His t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n vo l ved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t y l e and i nc luded types of accent , the " f l o w " of the melody, a s imple g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about the pat terns of rhythmic f i g u r e s , and even more gene ra l i z ed statements. These statements r a i s e d i s sues such as " s i m p l i c i t y o f tona l s t r u c t u r e " and " c l e a r l y balanced s t r u c t u r e " a t the formal l e v e l (p.271). He then made a comparison of Maricopa music w i th the Yuman s t y l e , g i v i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and " ba r -by -ba r " verba l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the songs w i t h a de s i gna t i on o f mode beneath each song. By 1935, Herzog ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s had become s t i l l more encompassing; i n h i s d i s cu s s i on of the Ghost Dance and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Bas in music (1935) he i nc luded ambitus, phrase-by-phrase formal a n a l y s i s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t e x t , some suggest ions about the " t o n i c " as a phrase end ing , and the statement t h a t c l o s i n g phrases i n P l a i n s songs o f ten occur an octave below the r e s t o f the song. Of most importance, however, was h i s seminal attempt to de f i ne e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a mus ical phrase, an attempt which l ed him to conclude t ha t the t e x t , the pa t te rn of r e s t s ( s i l e n c e s ) , a c cen tua t i on , and d i v i s i o n s o f melodic o r rhythmic movement must p lay a r o l e i n such a d e f i n i t i o n . Herzog ' s endeavors to determine the nature of a mus ical phrase are o f g reat h i s t o r i c a l importance because they c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t se t of a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r determin ing 14 the phrasal s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music which do not r e l y t o t a l l y upon concepts de r i ved from the p r i n c i p l e s inherent i n Western t o n a l i t y . In 1936, Helen H. Roberts pub l i shed ye t another study of the music of North American Ind ians , Mus ical Areas i n A b o r i g i n a l North America. Her d e s c r i p t i o n s , which fo l l owed many of Herzog ' s sugges t ions , were " s t y l i s t i c " . Using both musical instrument d i s t r i b u t i o n and the music i t s e l f , she attempted to geog raph i ca l l y d e l i n e a t e e i g h t mus ica l areas. She d i scussed melodic a r c , form, range, types of i n t e r v a l s f r e q u e n t l y used, general s t y l e , s c a l e s , and rhythmic and met r i c c ha r a c t e r . In a d d i t i o n , she d i scussed other s t r i k i n g featu res such as the C a l i f o r n i a " r i s e " , a process s i m i l a r to the tendency of Eskimo s inger s to g r adua l l y move p i t c h l e v e l s upward. The reader can see from the preceding d i s c u s s i o n , the h i s t o r i c a l per iod from approx imately 1930 to 1940 represents f o r ethnomusicology a f u l l - s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f non-Western music. The comprehensive techniques needed f o r t h i s type of research were put forward dur ing t h i s time p r i m a r i l y by George Herzog and Helen H. Roberts. In the main, t h e i r methodologies f o r d i s cove r i n g the s a l i e n t fea tu res of non-Western music were h i gh l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n comparison w i t h methods fo rmer ly used and con t r i bu ted g r e a t l y to the development of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology. That i s , not on ly were e a r l y r e a l i z a t i o n s regard ing mode and p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s c l a r i f i e d f u r t h e r but a l s o c r i t e r i a were presented f o r the s t r u c t u r a l determinat ion o f musical phrase. However, the s t r u c t u r a l i n fo rmat ion t ha t was gained through the researches o f Roberts and Herzog, wh i l e important i n the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology, e x i s t e d on ly as 15 a by-product of s t y l i s t i c i n q u i r y . In t h i s respect t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s were s i m i l a r i n t h r u s t to t h a t which had come before . That i s , s t r u c t u r a l understandings of non-Western music were s t i l l pe r i phe ra l and no method had ye t been presented w i t h the express aim of ana l y z i ng mus ical s t r u c t u r e i n order to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s or a r c h i t e c t u r a l procedures. Such endeavors would not begin u n t i l the mid-f i f t i e s . D. Developments, 1940-54 A f t e r Roberts and Herzog, va r ious s cho la r s cont inued to search f o r methodologies to c h a r a c t e r i z e non-Western music s t y l i s t i c a l l y . Jaap Kunst desc r ibed the music of Nias as having t r i t o n i c me lod ie s , th ree -beat measures, and the use o f s tereotyped grace-notes t ak i ng up h a l f of a 6/8 bar (1940). He d e a l t w i th the music of F l o re s i n a s i m i l a r manner (1942). The work of Bruno N e t t l (1956) - - s i m i l a r i n t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e n t to t ha t o f Kunst - - de sc r ibes American Indian musical s t y l e s and uses a methodology s i m i l a r to t ha t l a i d down by Helen H. Roberts. At the same t ime, perhaps to the disadvantage o f the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s , e thnomus ico log i s t s s h i f t e d t h e i r focus more toward the study of music as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon and attempted i n s tead to enhance t h e i r understanding of non-Western music through the implementat ion o f s c h o l a r l y techniques more an th ropo l og i ca l than mus i co l og i ca l i n na tu re . This an th ropo l og i ca l approach to the study of non-Western music assumed e i t h e r of two forms. The f i r s t approach i s represented by those s cho la r s who attempted to determine those aspects o f c u l t u r e which c o l l e c t i v e l y mani fes t mus ic, f o r example, David M c A l l e s t e r , who pub l i shed Peyotte 16 Music and Enemy Way Music i n 1949 and 1954 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and Jaap Kunst, who pub l i shed The C u l t u r a l Backgrounds of Indonesian Music i n 1949. Both M c A l l e s t e r and Kunst exp lo re such matters as the f e e l i n g o f na t i ve peoples f o r t h e i r songs, the s t i m u l i under which they c rea te t h e i r songs, and the r o l e which music p lays i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n s . Such scho la r s as McA l l e s t e r and Kunst contend t ha t these type of e x p l o r a t i o n s w i l l a c cu r a t e l y assess those aspects of c u l t u r e which man i fe s t music. The second an th ropo l og i ca l approach to the study o f non-Western music i s represented by s cho la r s who attempt to r e a l i z e c u l t u r a l pa t te rns through musical p a t t e r n s . These s cho la r s focus on music as a " c u l t u r e i n d i c a t o r " . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s approach i n ethnomusicology represents an attempt to move to a g rea te r knowledge of a c u l t u r e through an in tense study of a s i n g l e aspect of t h a t c u l t u r e - - music. Most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t rend are Alan Merr iam's "The Use of Music i n Studying A c c u l t u r a t i o n " (1955), and Klaus Wachsman's "The T ran sp l an ta t i on of Folk Music from One S o c i a l Environment to Another" (1954). The pr imary quest ions to which these s c h o l a r l y endeavors addressed themselves may be formulated as f o l l o w s : how i s music acqu i red by c h i l d r e n ? what are the symbo l i c , metaphy s i ca l , and r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i on s of a p a r t i c u l a r music? what are the f unc t i on s o f music? and what are the a e s t h e t i c fo rces of music. In the years from approx imately 1940 to 1954, ethno-musicology was comprised mainly of s tud ie s such as these. I n e v i t a b l y , s tud ie s w i th an th ropo l og i ca l b iases w i l l deem as i r r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r a l con s i de ra t i on s of sound phenomena a lone. Obvious ly then , t h i s an th ropo l og i ca l pe r spec t i ve of e thnomus ico log ica l s tud ie s seve re l y hampered the development of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s dur ing t h i s p e r i o d . 17 E. Present Trends, 1954-1976 In comparison w i th the previous per iods dur ing which s t r u c t u r a l i n fo rmat ion was gained as a by-product of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the s a l i e n t fea tu res of non-Western music and dur ing which the re levance of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s to the understanding of non-Western music was r e fu ted by some s c h o l a r s , the per iod s ince 1954 represents a time of r e l a t i v e methodological p r o s p e r i t y f o r s t r u c t u r a l s t ud i e s . I t represents a time i n ethnomusicology when s t r u c t u r a l s t ud i e s per se were undertaken, methodologies were proposed, and the s t r u c t u r a l examinat ion o f sound phenomena was accepted as a v a l i d area o f e thnomus ico log i ca l re search . Two works, one by Mantle Hood, the o ther by Bruno N e t t l , were, by and l a r g e , r e spon s i b l e f o r the occurrence o f t h i s phenomena. For example, Hood's s tudy, The  Nuclear Theme as a_ Determinant of Pa te t i n Javanese Music (1954), by means of i t s s t r u c t u r a l examination of moda l i t y , demonstrated the u s e f u l -ness of a s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r y . And N e t t l ' s a r t i c l e , "Some L i n g u i s t i c Approaches i n Ethnomusicology" (1958), through i t s suggest ion t ha t a mus ical semiot i c s may be a t t a i n e d by c o r r e l a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i th musical ana l y se s , generated enthusiasm f o r the fo rmu la t i on of s t r u c t u r a l i s t methodologies. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Hood's study examined s t r u c t u r a l l y the modes and known thematic musical ma te r i a l s i n Javanese music i n an attempt to d i s t i n g u i s h between imp rov i s a t i ona l passages and f i x e d melod ies . His understanding of modal s t r u c t u r e s and m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s music was gained by means of a s t r u c t u r a l i s t i c method t ha t d i d not search f o r the s a l i e n t f ea tu re s o f Javanese music but r a t h e r f o r h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t che s of the melody. By so doing Hood was ab le to ga in an understanding o f Javanese imp rov i s a t i ona l 18 techn iques. The t h r u s t of N e t t l ' s s tudy, by comparison, was qu i t e d i f f e r e n t . Using a n a l y t i c a l models de r i ved from s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s he po s tu l a ted a system f o r s tudy ing mus ical s em io t i c s . And, he argued t ha t a system based on such p r i n c i p l e s cou ld r i d musical a n a l y s i s i n ethnomusicology of such non -ob jec t i ve and non-systemat ic judgements as the presence or absence of t o n a l i t y i n non-Western music (Ne t t l 1958:39). Hood's approach to examining the s t r u c t u r e of non-Western music has been adopted by many s cho l a r s . The works of N. Ja i razbhoy (1972) and M. K o l i n s k i (1969) may serve as examples. To e x p l a i n the modal s t r u c t u r e and improv i sa to ry techniques of North Indian music Ja i razbhoy (The Rags  of North I nd i a : The i r S t r u c t u r e and Evo lu t i on ) u t i l i z e s Hood's concept f o r s t r u c t u r a l l y determining h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t che s and i n t e r v a l s of modes. K o l i n s k i , l i k e J a i r a zbhoy , i s concerned w i th determin ing h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t che s and i n t e r v a l s of modes i n order to understand t h e i r melodic s t r u c t u r e . He i s no t , however, concerned i n t h i s study w i th imp rov i s a t i ona l techn iques. These s t ud i e s and others l i k e them have been of paramount importance to the development of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology. That i s , the f i n d i n g s o f Hood, J a i r a zbhoy , and K o l i n s k i prov ide a most va luab le i n s i g h t i n t o the musical systems o f non-Western c u l t u r e s — s p e c i f i c a l l y those c u l t u r e s which have engaged i n ab s t r a c t t h e o r i z i n g on the sub ject of s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i r music.3 Seeger (1961) and B r i g h t (1963) were the f i r s t of the s cho la r s c u r r e n t l y a c t i v e to p r a i s e N e t t l ' s t heo r i e s - - t heo r i e s based on the a n a l y s i s of musical s t r u c t u r e by a methodology de r i ved from s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models. The i r a r t i c l e s , which b a s i c a l l y are p h i l o s o p h i c a l s tatements, to some ex tent echo N e t t l ' s suggest ions regard ing the apparent a b i l i t y 19 of s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models to o b j e c t i f y s t r u c t u r a l mus ica l a n a l y s i s and thereby minimize s u b j e c t i v e judgements about such th ings as " t o n a l i t y " and "harmony". Recent excurs ions i n t o musical s t r u c t u r a l i s m may be found i n N a t t i e z (1971, 1972a, 1972b, 1973) and Asch (1972). Both s cho la r s o f f e r l i t t l e i n the way of new or r e f i n e d methodolog ies; r a t h e r , they s t r e s s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the s t r u c t u r a l i s t paradigm as the l o g i c a l model f o r the development of musical s em io t i c s . The major attempts to demonstrate musical s t r u c t u r a l i s m , however, have been prov ided by Ruwet (1966) and Arom (1970). Ruwet b a s i c a l l y f o l l ows H a r r i s ' taxonomic d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i s m (Ha r r i s 1951) and s t re s se s the not ion o f segmentation based on un i t s of r e p e t i t i o n ; i n a d d i t i o n , Ruwet empha t i c a l l y urges the f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f such s t r u c t u r a l un i t s as " m o t i f " and "ph ra se " . Me thodo l o g i c a l l y , Ruwet, who draws h i s examples from the Western a r t music t r a d i t i o n , advocates a procedure where musical segments are r e w r i t t e n one beneath the o ther so that formal s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t r u c t u r e and r e p e t i t i o n , f o r example, are i s o l a t e d and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y p l o t t e d i n r e l a t i o n to other segments. Arom a p p l i e s Ruwet's procedure to non-Western mus ic , i s o l a t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n s and oppos i t i on s of a l a r g e r i nventory of musical p r ope r t i e s (Fe ld 1974:198-99). The purpose of both t h e i r s tud ie s has been to r e l a t e sound phenomena which appear s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t to the o v e r a l l musical form of a compos i t ion. Th is method of i n q u i r y i s one o f the f i r s t attempts i n ethnomusicology to examine the s t r u c t u r e o f mus ica l composit ions by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a method der i ved from c o r r e l a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i th musical a n a l y s i s . 20 F. Summary P r i o r to 1954 in fo rmat ion on the s t r u c t u r e o f non-Western music was a by-product o f s c h o l a r l y endeavors to ana lyze the s a l i e n t f ea tu re s o f non-Western music. As a r e s u l t , the s t r u c t u r a l understanding achieved dur ing t h i s t ime was, a t most, p e r i p h e r a l . S ince 1954, however, s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s have come to represent a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n terms of e thnomus ico log ica l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and have con t r i bu ted g r e a t l y to the b e t t e r understanding of non-Western music. Two ba s i c approaches have been f o l l owed s i nce 1954: one i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a determinat ion of h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p i t che s of modes wh i l e the other i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i th mus ical a n a l y s i s . The s cho l a r s h i p i n t h i s area of study dur ing the past n ine ty years represents a genuine accomplishment i n the development of s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology. At the present moment a g reat deal of exc i tement focuses upon the a n a l y s i s of musical s t r u c t u r e us ing techniques and tenets der i ved from s t r u c t u r a l i s m . I t i s t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter . 21 Footnotes 1 The term s a l i e n t mus ical f ea tu re s of non-Western music has a s p e c i a l i z e d meaning i n t h i s t h e s i s . O v e r a l l , i t i s synonymous w i th the term " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mus ica l f ea tu re s " and as such denotes those elements o f non-Western music which can be used as c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g non-Western music from one another and from Western music. The term i s a product o f e a r l y e thnomus ico log i ca l i n q u i r y . In t h i s contex t i t s i g n i -f i e s those " s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s " i n non-Western music such as the tendency o f Eskimo s ingers to move the p i t c h l e v e l s upward, dur ing the course of a song. S ince approx imately 1930, however, the 'term has assumed a more p r e c i s e meaning. The a n a l y s i s o f the s a l i e n t f ea tu re s of non-Western music s ince 1930 has i nc luded such con s i de ra t i on s as: bas i c p r i n c i p l e s under l y ing the formal o r g an i z a t i on of the music; nature o f the melodies used; nature o f the harmonies used; t e x t u r e and o r c h e s t r a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y the search f o r these s a l i e n t mus ical f ea tu re s has i nc luded s tud ie s on performance p r a c t i c e s . For the purposes o f t h i s study on ly two forms of t h i s anthropo-l o g i c a l approach to the study o f non-Western music w i l l be examined. Other forms were, i n f a c t , i n evidence dur ing t h i s t ime. However, t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e n t and methodolog ica l impact somewhat p a r a l l e l the approaches d i scussed here. ^ By c o n t r a s t , the music o f the Beaver Ind ians , which w i l l be analyzed i n chapter V I , i s a product of a n o n - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e which possesses no " theory o f music" as i s known and understood i n the West. 22 REFERENCES CITED Arom, S. 1970 "E s sa i d 'une no ta t i on des monodies a des f i n s d ' a n a l y s e " , Revue de mus i co l o g i e , 55(2): 172-216. Asch, M. 1972 "A Grammar of S lavery Drum Dance Mus ic , " Proceedings of  SEM Meet ings, Toronto. B r i g h t , W. 1963 "Language and Music: areas f o r c o o p e r a t i o n " , Ethnomusicology, 7 (1 ) : 26-32. E l l i s , A. J . 1884 "Tonometr ica l Observat ions on Some E x i s t i n g non-harmonic S c a l e s " , Proceedings of the Royal S oc i e t y o f London, 37: 368-385. F e l d , S. 1974 " L i n g u i s t i c s and Ethnomusico logy" , Ethnomusicology, 18: 197-217. F l e t c h e r , A. C. and LaF lesche, F. 1893 "A Study of Omaha Mu s i c " , A r chaeo log i ca l and E thno l og i c a l  Papers o f the Peabody Museum, 1 (5 ) : 237-307. He lmho l tz , H. 1875 On the Sensat ions of Tone. Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , New York. Herzog, G. 1928 "Mus i ca l S t y l e s i n North Amer i c a " , Proceedings o f the Twenty-t h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Amer i c an i s t s , pp. 455-458. 1933 "Maricopa Mus i c " , i n L e s l i e S p i e r , Yuman T r ibes of the G i l a R i v e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P re s s , Chicago, pp. 271-280. 1935 " P l a i n s Ghost Dance and Great Basin Mu s i c " , American  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 37: 403-417. 23 Hood, M. 1954 The Nuc lear Theme as a_ Determinant o f Patet i n Javanese  Music. Gronigen, Amsterdam. Hornbos te l , E. von 1928 " A f r i c a n Negro Mu s i c " , A f r i c a , 1 (1 ) : 30-62. Ja i r a zbhoy , N. 1972 The Rags o f North Indian Mus ic: The i r S t r u c t u r e and Evo l u t i on , Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , Middletown Connect i cu t . K o l i n s k i , M. 1969 ' " B a r b a r a A l l e n ' : Tonal versus Melodic S t r u c t u r e , pa r t I I " , Ethnomusicology, 13(1): 1-73. Kunst, J . 1940 Music i n N ias . Leyden, Amsterdam. 1942 Music i n F l o r e s , A Study of The_ Vocal and Instrumental Music  Among The Tr ibes L i v i n g i_n F l o r e s . Leyden, Amsterdam. 1949 The C u l t u r a l Background of Indonesian Music. P u b l i c a t i o n LXXXII of the Royal T r o p i c a l I n s t i t u t e , Amsterdam. M c A l l e s t e r , D. 1949 Peyotte Music. V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, Volume X I I I , New York. 1954 Enemy Way Music: A Study of S o c i a l and E s t h e t i c Values As  Seen i n Navaho Music. Papers o f the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume XLI. McLeod, N. 1966 Some Techniques of Ana l y s i s f o r Non-Western Music. Doctora l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y . Merriam, A. 1955 "The Use o f Music i n Studying A c c u l t u r a t i o n " , American  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 57: 28-34. N a t t i e z , J . J . 1971 "Semio log ie de l a musique", Musique en j e u , 5. 1972a "What can S t r u c t u r a l i s m do f o r Musi c o l o g i e ? " , Proceedings  of SEM Meet ings, Toronto. 24 1972b " I s a d e s c r i p t i v e semiot i c s of music p o s s i b l e ? " , Language Sc iences , 23: 1-7. 1973 " L i n g u i s t i c s : A New Approach f o r Mus ical A n a l y s i s ? " , I n t e r na t i ona l Review of the A e s t h e t i c s and Soc io logy of  Mus ic, 1 ( 1 ) ~ 2 2 - 3 1 . N e t t l , B. 1956 Music i n P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , Cambridge. 1958 "Some L i n g u i s t i c Approaches to Mus ical A n a l y s i s " , Journa l  o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fo lk Music C o u n c i l , 10: 37-41. Roberts , H. H. 1932 "Me lod ic Composit ion and Sca le Foundations i n P r i m i t i v e Mus i c " , American An th r opo l o g i s t , 34: 79-107. 1933 Form i n P r i m i t i v e Music. W. W. Norton and Company, New York. 1936 Mus ica l Areas i n A b o r i g i n a l North Amer ica. Yale U n i v e r s i t y p u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology number 12, Ya le U n i v e r s i t y Press , New Haven. Ruwet, N. 1966 "Methodes d ' ana l y se en m u s i c o l o g i e " , Beige revue de  mus i co l og i e , 20: 65-90. Seeger, C. 1961 "Semant ic, L o g i c a l and P o l i t i c a l Cons iderat ions Bear ing Upon Research i n Ethnomusicology", Ethnomusicology, 5 (2 ) : 77-80. Wachsman, K. 1954 "The T ran sp l an ta t i on of Folk Music from One S o c i a l Env i r on -ment to Anothe r " , Journa l of the I n t e r na t i ona l Folk Music C o u n c i l , 6: 41. CHAPTER I I I The I deo l og i ca l and Theo re t i c a l Bases of S t r u c t u r a l i s m The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to revea l the tenets and methods c e n t r a l to s t r u c t u r a l i s m , an i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n which can be t raced back to the ph i l o soph ie s of Descartes and Rousseau but which rece i ved i t s major impetus i n the twent i e th century from the Genevan l i n g u i s t Ferdinand de Saussure. The task i s not easy s i nce s t r u c t u r a l i s m , l i k e most i n t e l l e c t u a l movements, i s d i f f i c u l t to de s c r i be . F i r s t , , s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s a mode of thought or an ideo logy common to d i s c i p l i n e s as w ide l y separate as mathematics and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . Next, i t represents an approach towards f o rmu la t i ng methods of i n q u i r y . And, i n i t s e s tab l i shment of t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and techniques f o r a n a l y s i s i t has been extremely e c l e c t i c . Aga in , none of those who c a l l them-se lves o r are c a l l e d " s t r u c t u r a l i s t s " has e x p l i c i t l y formulated the fundamentals of s t r u c t u r a l i s m except i n the most a l l u s i v e or p a r t i a l ways. F i n a l l y , the l i t e r a t u r e of s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s very w ide l y d i sper sed and very o f ten i n a c c e s s i b l e , not on ly i n terms o f p lace of p u b l i c a t i o n but a l s o l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . This chapter attempts to d i s c l o s e the i d e o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l bases of s t r u c t u r a l i s m by examining s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s , d i s c u s s i n g - 25 -26 the approaches s t r u c t u r a l i s m employs when fo rmu la t i ng methods of i n q u i r y , and r e v e a l i n g s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods. Th is d i s t i n c t i o n between an ideo logy and a method of i n q u i r y i s c l e a r l y a r t i f i c i a l i n t h a t nowhere does one f i n d only a system of b e l i e f s or on ly a system of methods concern ing an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement. These i n t e r r e l a t e d f a ce t s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m are separated i n t h i s manner f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y on l y . Any re ferences to " i d eo l o g y " and "approach" are concerned w i t h c e r t a i n i d e o l o g i c a l assumptions regard ing an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement and any d i s cu s s i on of "method" pe r t a i n s to s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l techniques used by scho la r s to v e r i f y t h e i r assumptions. The term " s t r u c t u r a l i s m " i s l i m i t e d i n t h i s chapter to c e r t a i n common themes and approaches found i n the works o f a smal l group o f s c h o l a r s , c h i e f among whom are Roman Jakobson, Jean P i a g e t , and Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s . In the context of t h e i r s tud ie s the a n a l y t i c a l concerns of s t r u c t u r a l i s m r e s t s o l e l y w i th f o rmu la t i ng and app ly ing a body of methods to any g iven i n s t i t u t i o n o f human behavior w i th the express purpose o f f e r r e t i n g -out i t s s t r u c t u r a l components. A. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Ideo log ies Three i d e o l o g i e s are i nherent i n s t r u c t u r a l i s m . They a r e : t ha t a l l pat te rns o r i n s t i t u t i o n s of human behavior are " s o c i a l codes " , w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " language p rope r " ; t ha t man has an innate s t r u c t u r -ing c apac i t y which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e s of a l l types of s o c i a l phenomena can be formed; and, t h a t r e l a t i o n s between phenomena or un i t s thereof can be reduced to b inary oppo s i t i o n s . 27 The f i r s t of these i deo l og i e s i s concerned w i t h v iewing i n s t i t u t i o n s of human behavior as " c ode s " , each possess ing the components of language. That i s , a l l man i fe s ta t i on s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y such as myths, r i d d l e s , systems o f k i n s h i p and marr iage, e t ce te ra are thought to c o n s t i t u t e languages i n a formal sense. Hence, t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s may be reduced to the same se t o f - a b s t r a c t r u l e s t ha t de f i ne and govern what we normal ly t h i nk o f as language (Lane 1970:14). In o ther words, each s o c i a l "code" i s be l i e ved to have a r epe r to r y of p o s s i b l e terms (phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e ) as we l l as a set of r u l e s governing the ways i n which these terms can be " l e g i t i m a t e l y " strung together ( s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ) and "mean ing fu l l y " s trung together (semantic s t r u c t u r e ) . An example of t h i s concept i s prov ided by the "codes" of k i n s h i p and marriage tha t are p r a c t i c e d w i t h i n any g iven c u l t u r e . A l l those members of a s o c i e t y who stand i n a k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n (or k i n sh i p r e l a t i o n s ) to other members c o n s t i t u t e the l e x i c o n , or r e p e r t o r y , of po s s i b l e terms. The r u l e s about who may and who may not marry whom comprise the syntax or grammar. And, the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n served or the message revea led by t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n denotes i t s semantic s t r u c t u r e ( Lev i - S t r au s s 1963: 55-79). The s t r u c t u r a l model which f o l l ows attempts to make c l e a r the concept t ha t s o c i a l codes possess the components o f language and may, i n t u r n , be reduced to the same se t o f a b s t r a c t r u l e s t ha t de f i ne and govern what we normal ly pe rce i ve as language. SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP AND MARRIAGE Phono log ica l S t r uc tu re - a l l those members of a s o c i e t y who stand i n a k i n sh i p r e l a t i o n or k i n sh i p r e l a t i o n s to other members c o n s t i t u t e the l e x i c o n , or r e p e r t o r y , of p o s s i b l e terms. 28 S y n t a c t i c S t r u c tu re - the r u l e s governing who may and who may not marry whom comprise the syntax, or grammar. Semantic S t r uc tu re the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n served or the message revea led by t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n denotes i t s semantic s t r u c t u r e . The second ideo logy of s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t h a t i n man there i s an i nna te , g e n e t i c a l l y t r an sm i t ted and determined mechanism tha t act s as a s t r u c t u r i n g f o r c e . Moreover, t h i s i nherent q u a l i t y or c apac i t y i s so designed as to l i m i t the po s s i b l e range o f ways of s t r u c t u r i n g . I f t h i s i s the case (and i t i s s t i l l being v i g o rou s l y debated by s cho la r s i n the var ious d i s c i p l i n e s ) , then we can imagine a h i e ra rchy i n which the innate s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y generates a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type of a c t i v i t y - - language, myth, k i n s h i p systems, or mus ic, which i n turn produces the observable pa t te rn o f speech, s t o r y , marr iage, or sound. 3 The diagram which f o l l o w s attempts to show the three ba s i c l e v e l s of such a h ie ra rchy as we l l as the manner i n which these apparent l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t on one another. INNATE STRUCTURING CAPACITY generates S t r u c tu re of| Language S t r u c tu re o f Myth S t r u c tu re of K in sh ip BEHIND OR BELOW EMPIRICAL REALITY produces produces produces Speech, D i s -course Myths Pat te rns of Marr iage and Family Re l a t i on s OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA 29 This model makes c l e a r , perhaps, the reason f o r the s t r u c t u r a l i s t emphasis upon the e s s e n t i a l i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f a l l s o c i a l phenomena emanating from any g iven s o c i e t y . I f phenomena are s imu l taneous l y c reated and c i r cumsc r ibed i n the way the diagram suggests, then we would expect to f i n d homologies, or correspondences i n s t r u c t u r e , between one i n s t i t u t i o n of human behavior and another; upon these homologies the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s have l a i d much s t r e s s . The t h i r d and f i n a l ideo logy of s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t ha t l o g i c a l l y and i l l o g i c a l l y (w i t h i n s p e c i f i c context s ) p a i r s of-complementary i n t e r a c t i n g un i t s can be desc r ibed or accounted f o r i n terms of t h e i r oppos i te r e l a t i o n s to one another. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the " r e l a t i o n s " de sc r ibed e a r l i e r i n the model e x i s t a t the l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e though they a r e , o f cour se , r e f l e c t e d at the l e v e l o f observab le e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . In a b s t r a c t these r e l a t i o n s can be reduced to one o f b i na r y o p p o s i t i o n , and the term, b ina ry o p p o s i t i o n , can be used i n two somewhat d i f f e r e n t senses. The f i r s t sense i s p r e c i s e l y analogous to t ha t i n which a l o g i c i a n a s c r i be s t r u t h values to a p r o p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e " p " [p i n l o g i c i a n s ' n o t a t i o n ] , such t ha t i t i s e i t h e r t rue or f a l s e , and converse ly such t h a t "not p" [/vp i n l o g i c i a n s ' n o t a t i o n ] i s e i t h e r f a l s e or t r u e . This sense i s f u r t h e r e xemp l i f i ed i n the l o g i c a l c a l c u l u s of c l a s se s when the un iver se of d i s cour se i s s a i d to be d i v i d e d i n t o the c l a s s x and i t s complement A/X ( "not x " ) , two mutua l l y e x c l u s i v e and exhaus t i ve c a t ego r i e s . In t h i s context a s t r u c t u r a l a n t h r opo l o g i s t might d i v i d e the members of a group i n t o the ca tego r i e s "ma r r i ed " and "not m a r r i e d " ; t h i s d i v i s i o n would c o n s t i t u t e a b ina ry o p p o s i t i o n . The second sense i n which the concept i s used i s f a r l e s s r i go rous i n terms 30 of formal l o g i c and inc ludes the bulk of b inary oppos i t i on s found i n s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . The t i t l e of L e v i - S t r a u s s 1 f i r s t volume on mythology, The Raw and The Cooked (1969), i s an in s tance of t h i s sense, as are the bulk o f the oppos i t i on s he employs i n i t : f o r example, f i r e / w a t e r , Sun/Moon, an t - ea te r/ j agua r . These are not l o g i c a l p a i r s o f complementary, exhaus t i ve , mutua l ly e x c l u s i v e ca tego r i e s i n the sense i n which " x " and " ^ x " i s , but are shown by the author to be perce ived as such, w i t h i n s p e c i f i c c on tex t s , by the groups who employ the terms i n t h e i r myths (Lane 1970:16). To r e c a p i t u l a t e the i deo l o g i e s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m : a l l pat te rns o f human behavior are s o c i a l codes, w i th the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of language; man has an innate s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y , which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e of a l l types of s o c i a l phenomena can be formed; and, s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s can be reduced to b inary oppo s i t i o n s . B. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Approaches Towards Formulat ing a Method of Inqu i ry Probably the most d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t method i s the emphasis i t g ives to wholes, to t o t a l i t i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i n Anglo-American s o c i a l s c i e n c e , s t r u c t u r e has been used as an a n a l y t i c a l concept to break down sets i n t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t e lements, an e s s e n t i a l l y a t o m i s t i c e x e r c i s e . As s t r u c t u r a l i s t s understand and employ the term s t r u c t u r e , a new importance has been g iven to the l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y o f the whole over i t s p a r t s . They i n s i s t t ha t the whole and the par t s can be p rope r l y exp la ined on ly i n terms o f the r e l a t i o n s tha t e x i s t between the p a r t s . Thus, the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of the s t r u c t u r a l i s t method, and i t s fundamental t e n e t , l i e s i n i t s attempt to study not 31 s imply the elements o f a whole bu t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , the complex network o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t ha t un i t e those elements (Lane 1970:14). For example, i n the three volumes e n t i t l e d Mythologiques (1964, 1966, 1968) which Lev i - S t r au s s has w r i t t e n about the myths of Amerindia one i s g iven not on ly the t r a d i t i o n a l exp lana t i on of a s e r i e s of myths and the r e cu r r en t episodes and f i g u r e s t ha t occur i n them, but a l s o (and more impor tan t l y ) an account of the r e l a t i o n s of myths to one another, and the r e l a t i o n s of episodes to wholes. Another d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re o f the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i s the f a c t t h a t s t r u c t u r a l i s m seeks i t s s t r u c t u r e s not on the s u r f a c e , a t the l e v e l of the observed, but below or behind e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . ^ In other words, wh i l e phenomena such as myth, speech, pa t te rns of marriage and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s can be seen and heard,the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s ho ld tha t what the observer a c t u a l l y sees i s not the s t r u c t u r e , but s imply the evidence and product o f s t r u c t u r e . (See diagram on page 28.) L e v i - S t r a u s s , i n h i s "Ove r tu re " to The Raw and the Cooked o f f e r s support f o r t h i s approach to a n a l y s i s . He says: We should not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t the men themselves, who produce and pass on these myths, cou ld be aware of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and mode of o p e r a t i o n , though t h i s would not be u s u a l , but r a t he r p a r t i a l and i n t e r m i t t e n t . ( Lev i - S t r au s s 1969:11) In an attempt to g ive the r a t i o n a l e f o r such a statement he compares the s i t u a t i o n to tha t of men us ing t h e i r own language. He f u r t h e r s t a t e s : Though they c o n s i s t e n t l y and c on s t an t l y apply i t s phono log ica l and grammatical laws [ i t s s t r u c t u r e , i n other words] i n t h e i r speech, they w i l l not , unless they are versed i n l i n g u i s t i c s , be con sc i ou s l y aware of them. Nor, i f asked would they be ab le to supply these laws. ( Lev i - S t r au s s 1969:12) 32 The p r i n c i p l e s ev ident i n both these statements are the same, the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s argue, f o r a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . In b r i e f t hen , what the observer sees i s not the s t r u c t u r e but s imply the evidence and product of the s t r u c t u r e ; hence, the nece s s i t y f o r s t r u c t u r a l i s t s to pursue s t r u c t u r e s behind o r below e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . Fu r the r , s t r u c t u r a l i s t a na l y s i s i s c e n t r a l l y concerned w i th synchron ic as opposed to d i a ch r on i c s t r u c t u r e s ; t ha t i s , i t s focus i s upon r e l a t i o n s across a moment i n t ime, r a t he r than through t ime. For the s t r u c t u r a l i s t , time as a dimension i s n e i t h e r l e s s nor more important than any other t h a t might be used i n a n a l y s i s . H i s t o r y i s seen as the s p e c i f i c mode of development of a p a r t i c u l a r system whose present , or synchron ic n a t u r e , must be f u l l y known before any account can be g iven of i t s e v o l u t i o n , or d i a ch r on i c nature . Moreover, the synchron ic s t r u c t u r e i s seen as c o n s t i t u t e d or determined not by any h i s t o r i c a l p roces s , but by the network o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . Hence, s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s r a the r atemporal than s t r i c t l y a h i s t o r i c a l (Lane 1970:16-17). P a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s , s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s e f f e c t i v e l y a n t i -c au s a l . The language of s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s i n i t s pure form makes no use of the not ions of cause and e f f e c t ; r a t h e r , i t r e j e c t s t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the wor ld i n favor o f " laws of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " . By these are meant the l a w - l i k e r e g u l a r i t i e s t ha t can be observed as one p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n changes i n t o another. What the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s are say ing i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h i s : i f we compare two pat te rns of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s (once again they may be myths, or k i n sh i p r e l a t i o n s , or pat terns of power and a u t h o r i t y , or any other such) separated by time or space ( i n other words the same s o c i e t y a t two d i f f e r e n t po in t s i n 33 h i s t o r y , or two s o c i e t i e s a t the same po i n t i n h i s t o r y ) , we observe d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y we should argue tha t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r or f a c t o r s caused the one to d i f f e r from the o the r . The s t r u c t u r a l i s t would argue, i n s t e a d , t h a t we can on ly say tha t a c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e i s seen to be transformed i n t o another s t r u c t u r e , and t ha t repeated observat ions permit us to say tha t a given s t r u c t u r e i s always transformed i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, thus g i v i n g us not causal laws ( s i nce tha t concept has not been invoked) but laws of t rans fo rmat ion (Lane 1970:17). No s i n g l e one o f the aforementioned p r ope r t i e s ( h o l i s t i c , s ynch ron i c , a tempora l , a n t i - c a u s a l ) i s by i t s e l f a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s t r u c t u r a l i s m . Most have sepa ra te l y been held as items of b e l i e f or r u l e s of procedure i n other ph i l o soph ie s and methods. What i s d i s t i n c t i v e i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r combination o f them. C. S t r u c t u r a l i s t Methods As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the purpose of s t r u c t u r a l a na l y s i s i s to dec ipher the s t r u c t u r a l components of a g iven i n s t i t u t i o n of human behav ior . The method by which the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s attempt such an endeavor i s de r i ved from the a n a l y t i c a l models of s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s and proceeds a t three ba s i c l e v e l s - - p h o n o l o g i c a l ; s y n t a c t i c ; and semantic. At the phono log ica l l e v e l an attempt i s made to r e a l i z e the c o n s t i t u e n t un i t s of an i n s t i t u t i o n . This i s c oncep tua l l y equ i v a l en t to r ecogn i z i ng the components of a r epe r to r y of p o s s i b l e terms (the components of the phonet ic s t r u c t u r e ) . Once t h i s has been done the ana l y s t t r i e s to d i s t i n g u i s h which of these components (phonet ic phenomena) 34 are s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , or n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of t h e i r apparent a b i l i t i e s to generate s t r u c t u r e . This task i s accomplished through the laws of complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re a n a l y s i s , a process i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s of oppo s i t i on and c o r r e l a t i o n between phonet ic phenomena are examined. On the bas i s of these a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made between phonet ic phenomena which are e i t h e r phonemes ( s i g n i f i c a n t components), phonemic v a r i a n t s ( l e s s -s i g n i f i c a n t components), and a l lophones ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t components). And from t h i s ev idence, the phonemic s t r u c t u r e (the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n t components) can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the phonet ic s t r u c t u r e ( the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t components). The second l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , namely the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l , attempts to recogn ize the way i n which the components (phonet ic phenomena) from the phono log ica l l e v e l are grouped together and the way i n which these component-groups modify one another. This i s accomplished by examining the recurrence o f groups o f same phonet ic phenomena through-out the phonet ic s t r u c t u r e and determin ing the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these component-groups i n terms o f t h e i r apparent a b i l i t y to generate s t r u c t u r e . The a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a used f o r determin ing the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these component-groups are the same as those used a t the phono log ica l l e v e l : complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re s . Once the component-groups have been analyzed accord ing to these c r i t e r i a the s t r u c t u r a l i s t can d i s t i n g u i s h between morphemes ( s i g n i f i c a n t groups of phonet ic phenomena), morphemic v a r i a n t s ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f phonet ic phenomena), and allomorphemes ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f 35 phonet ic phenomena). And subsequent ly , he can dec ipher the r u l e s governing the way i n which components (and groups the reo f ) from the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e have been " l e g i t i m a t e l y " strung together . In b r i e f t hen , the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l o f i n q u i r y attempts to dec ipher the grammatical r u l e s or c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of a given s t r u c t u r e . Simply s t a t e d , a n a l y s i s a t the semantic l e v e l t r i e s to dec ipher the r u l e s governing the way i n which components from the phono log ica l and s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s have been "mean ing fu l l y " s trung toge the r . In o ther words, t h i s l e v e l of a n a l y s i s attempts to f i n d out the s o c i a l 4 f u n c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n o f human behav io r . The diagram which f o l l ows attempts to make c l e a r the three l e v e l s a t which s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s proceeds: I. Phono log ica l S t r u c tu re ( repe r to r y of terms) a) c o n s t i t u e n t un i t s of an i n s t i t u t i o n are recognized b) c o n s t i t u e n t un i t s are c l a s s i f i e d accord ing to s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t phonet ic phenomena accord ing to the law of complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n c) phonet ic phenomena are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another as e i t h e r phonemes, o r a l l ophones , o r v a r i a n t s d) phonet ic and phonemic s t r u c t u r e s a re d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one another I I . S y n t a c t i c S t r u c tu re ( r u l e s of grammar) a) s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e cu r r en t sequences of phonemes are recognized accord ing to the laws o f complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e fea tu re s b) morphemes, allomorphemes, and v a r i a n t s are determined from the above i n fo rmat ion c) r u l e s governing the way i n which components from the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e have been " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t rung together are deduced 36 I I I . Semantic S t r u c t u r e ( s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o r message revea led ) a) an attempt i s made to dec ipher the r u l e s governing which elements of the phono log ica l and s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s can be "mean ing fu l l y " s trung together In summary, the s t r u c t u r a l i s t method t r e a t s an i n s t i t u t i o n o f human behavior l i k e a f o r e i g n language which must be dec iphered. The task i s c a r r i e d out by performing appropr i a te experiments i n order to determine the bas i c "words" or u n i t s , the syntax or grammar, and the meaning o f the f o r e i g n behav ior . In a d d i t i o n , the s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i t i o n e r u t i l i z e s a n a l y t i c a l models which enable him to desc r ibe h i s f i n d i n g s i n terms which other s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s can understand; tha t i s , the procedures the s t r u c t u r a l i s t uses can be f o l l owed independent ly by o ther s c i e n t i s t s . This f a c i l i t y w i t h which s t r u c t u r a l i n fo rmat ion can be communicated avoids a c l a s s i c p i t f a l l of e a r l i e r times - - a se t of b r i l l i a n t ideas f l ow ing from the pen o f one or another s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , which can be admired but not c a r r i e d f u r t h e r by the next generat ion of t h i n k e r s . D. Summary The purpose of t h i s chapter has been to present an overview of s t r u c t u r a l i s m - - the c e n t r a l themes inherent i n i t s i deo l ogy , the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f ea tu re s of i t s approach, and the major c r i t e r i a of i t s a n a l y t i c method. The f i n d i n g s may be summarized as f o l l o w s : the ideo logy of s t r u c t u r a l i s m holds t ha t a l l pat te rns of human behavior are s o c i a l codes w i th the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f language; t ha t man has an innate s t r u c t u r i n g c apac i t y which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which 37 the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l types o f s o c i a l phenomena can be formed, and t ha t s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s can be reduced to b ina ry oppo s i t i on s . The approach the s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i t i o n e r uses when attempt ing to formulate methods of i n q u i r y i s a n t i - c a u s a l ; i t i s a l s o h o l i s t i c as opposed to a t o m i s t i c , synchron ic as opposed to d i a c h r o n i c , and atemporal as opposed to a h i s t o r i -c a l . The methods of s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s examine i n s t i t u t i o n s o f human behavior a t the p h o n o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , and semantic l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e . A l s o , the methods view the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f oppo s i t i on and c o r r e l a t i o n tha t e x i s t between the aforementioned l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e , and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t un i t s from n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t un i t s on the bas i s of the laws o f complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . The o v e r a l l purpose of s t r u c t u r a l a na l y s i s may be seen as the attempt to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s or under l y ing fo rces of a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . And s y n t h e t i c a l l y , t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m should be seen more as a manner of t h i n k i n g r a t h e r than the man i f e s t a t i on o f t h a t t h i n k i n g - - a manner o f t h i n k i n g which s t r i v e s to break up the l i n e a r and causal way of t h i n k i n g tha t has dominated Western t r a d i t i o n s i nce A r i s t o t l e . Is i t p o s s i b l e to c o r r e l a t e t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th musical a na l y s i s i n e thnomus ico log ica l research? Would such a c o r r e l a t i o n be a p p l i c a b l e to the s t r u c t u r a l examinat ion o f Beaver Indian dream songs? Which aspects of t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m would be i nvo l ved i n the c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i t h musical analyses of Beaver Indian dreamer songs? These quest ions and other l i k e them w i l l be d e a l t w i th i n the chapter t h a t f o l l o w s . 38 Footnotes Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s , Roman Jakobson, and Jean P iaget have sepa ra te l y developed the most s p e c i f i c , extended and sys temat ic a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods and the s t r u c t u r a l i s t v i s i o n to human phenomena. For t h i s reason, I have used t h e i r works as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s t r u c t u r -a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e . Some scho la r s have p r e f e r r ed to use Noam Chomsky's terms f o r s t r u c t u r e which e x i s t s a t the l e v e l of the observed and s t r u c t u r e which i s apparent below or behind emp i r i c a l r e a l i t y . Chomsky's terms are " s u r f a c e " s t r u c t u r e and "deep" s t r u c t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y (Chomsky 1957). 3 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s t ideo logy w i l l be d i scussed f u r t h e r i n Chapter 4: a chapter which deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i th the c o r r e l a t i o n o f music and s t r u c t u r a l i s m . ^ The ac tua l method by which t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s proceeds has never been exp la ined to me. That i s , throughout my research I have ye t to encounter a source which e xp l a i ned , i n even an a l l u s i v e or p a r t i a l way, the method of s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s a t the semantic l e v e l . Hence, r a the r than make s p e c u l a t i v e assessments regard ing i t s procedure I have w i thhe ld comment. 39 REFERENCES CITED Chomsky, N. 1957 S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s . Mouton and Company, The Hague. Lane, M. 1970 S t r u c t u r a l i s m . Bas i c Books, New York. L e v i - S t r a u s s , C. 1963 S t r u c t u r a l Anthropology. Bas i c Books, New York. 1964 Mythologiques: l e cru e t l e c u i t . PI on, P a r i s . 1966 Mythologiques: du miel aux cendres. PI on, P a r i s . 1968 Mythologiques: T o r i g i n e des manieres de t a b l e . PI on, P a r i s . 1969 The Raw and The Cooked. Harper and Row, New York. CHAPTER IV The Correlat ion of Structural ism with Musical Analysis Several attempts to corre late structural i sm with musical analysis in ethnomusicological research have been undertaken in recent years. For the most part scholarship has existed at a theoret ical l e v e l : the works of Nettl (1958), Asch (1972), and Nattiez (1973) serve as examples. Scholars such as Arom (1970), however, have attempted to corre late structural ism with musical analysis for a more pract ica l purpose: namely, the development of a method of analysis which w i l l contribute to the understanding of spec i f i c aspects of pa r t i cu la r non-Western music. The goal of th i s chapter i s s im i la r to Arom's methodological purpose. That i s , th i s chapter attempts to correlate certa in s t r u c t u r a l i s t ideologies, approaches, and analytical-models with musical analys i s , and then attempts to explain the way in which these correlat ions form the basis of a method for analyzing the structure of Beaver Indian dreamer songsJ The absence of an appropriate or equivalent ethnomusico-1ogical terminology to explain these correlat ions has necessitated the adoption and adaptation of a l imi ted but essential s t r u c tu ra l i s t terminology.^ The terms are as fol lows: phonological level of musical structure: a l l the auditory features of a musical composition - 40 -41 s y n t a c t i c l e v e l of musical s t r u c t u r e : the " r u l e s " concern ing the o rde r i ng and grouping of aud i t o r y fea tu res phonet ic musical a n a l y s i s : the r e c o g n i t i o n of s i n g l e musical components such as p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and dura t ions conta ined w i t h i n a given musical compos i t ion. phonemic musical a n a l y s i s : the d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l musical components accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f e a t u r e s . morphemic musical a n a l y s i s : the d e f i n i t i o n of musical component-groups accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s -s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f e a t u r e s . A. I d eo l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Of the three s t r u c t u r a l i s t i deo l o g i e s examined i n the prev ious chapte r , only two w i l l be d i scussed here: f i r s t , a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s of human behav ior (man i fe s ta t i on s of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y ) f i n d an analogy i n the s t r u c t u r a l components o f language; second, man has an innate s t r u c t u r i n g c a p a c i t y which determines the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e of a l l 3 types of s o c i a l phenomena can be formed. In a musical con tex t , the former suggests t ha t because music i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , music can be analyzed i n terms of the same se t of a b s t r a c t r u l e s t ha t de f i ne and govern language. Th is i s not to say tha t music i s language, but r a the r t ha t music and language are s t r u c t u r a l l y i d e n t i c a l : both possess a r epe r to r y of po s s i b l e sounds (a phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e ) and a set of r u l e s governing the way i n which these sounds or words may be " l e g i t i m a t e l y " 42 st rung together (a s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ) , and "mean ing fu l l y " s t rung together (a semantic s t r u c t u r e ) . ^ Thus, i n the same way t ha t systems of k i n s h i p and marriage r e p l i c a t e the s t r u c t u r a l components of language (see page 27), so music r e p l i c a t e s the same se t of a b s t r a c t r u l e s t ha t de f ine and govern language: Music as an I n s t i t u t i o n of Human Behavior Phonolog ica l S t r u c t u r e : a l l the aud i t o r y fea tu res o f a musical compos i t ion c o n s t i t u t e the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e j u s t as the words of a language c o n s t i t u t e i t s phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e . S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e : the " r u l e s " governing the o rde r ing and grouping of musical components from the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e resemble the syntax or grammar of a language. Semantic S t r u c t u r e : the ex t ra -mus i ca l meanings a s soc i a ted w i th the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r musical compos i t ion are l i k e the semantic s t r u c t u r e of a language. The second s t r u c t u r a l i s t ideo logy holds t h a t i n man there i s an i n na te , g e n e t i c a l l y determined and t r an sm i t ted mechanism below or behind e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y t h a t acts as a s t r u c t u r i n g f o r c e . Moreover, t h i s i nhe rent q u a l i t y or c apac i t y l i m i t s the po s s i b l e range of ways of s t r u c t u r i n g . Thus, h i e r a r c h i e s e x i s t i n which the innate s t r u c t u r i n g c apac i t y generates a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type of a c t i v i t y - - language, myth, or music - - which i n turn produces the observable pa t te rn o f speech, s t o r y , or sound. T rans fe r red to the study of mus ic, t h i s ideo logy suggests t h a t there e x i s t s a mus ical s t r u c t u r e below or 43 behind the e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y o f the s e n s o r i l y observed: what i s heard (the aud ib le sound phenomena) i s the product of mus ica l s t r u c t u r e r a the r than the s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g diagram revea l s the three bas ic l e v e l s of t h i s h i e ra rchy as we l l as the manner i n which they i n t e r a c t w i th one another. (The diagram i s an adaptat ion of the s t r u c t u r a l i s t model shown on page 28.) [INNATE STRUCTURING CAPACITY generates 0 STRUCTURE OF MUSIC BELOW OR BEHIND EMPIRICAL REALITY produces 1 OBSERVABLE PATTERNS OF SOUND OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA B. C o r r e l a t i o n s i n Approach The s t r u c t u r a l i s t i n q u i r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis on wholes or t o t a l i t i e s , concern f o r synchron ic as opposed to d i a ch r on i c s t r u c t u r e s , and r e j e c t i o n of laws of cause and e f f e c t i n favor of " laws of t rans fo rma-t i o n " . In a musical c on tex t , the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c imp l i e s t h a t the ana l y s t study the r e l a t i o n s h i p s the i n d i v i d u a l components o f the musical s t r u c t u r e share w i t h one another, i n a d d i t i o n to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the i n d i v i d u a l components to the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . In other words, the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the d i s covery of the musical 44 components apparent i n a musical compos i t i on , but extends i t s e l f to i nc lude the a n a l y s i s of the tendencies of musical component i n t e r a c t i o n (the a n a l y s i s of m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach i n s i s t s t ha t the present nature of a musical compos i t ion must be f u l l y known before any account can be given of i t s e v o l u t i o n or d i a ch ron i c nature. The remaining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s t r u c t u r a l i s t approach r e j e c t s the idea tha t the causes of changes i n s t r u c t u r a l c on f i g u r a t i o n s can be p i npo i n ted . I t emphasizes i n s t ead the nece s s i t y to t r y to dec ipher the pat terns of s t r u c t u r a l change. C. Methodolog ica l C o r r e l a t i o n s The d i s cu s s i on which f o l l ows deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i th the c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i s t a na l y t i c a l -mode l s and musical a n a l y s i s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the methodolog ica l c o r r e l a t i o n s t ha t w i l l be suggested here take p lace a t two l e v e l s of musical s t r u c t u r e : the phono log ica l and the s y n t a c t i c a l . For the sake o f c l a r i t y , these two l e v e l s o f musical s t r u c t u r e w i l l be d i scussed s epa ra te l y . 1. At the Phono log ica l Level of Musical S t r uc tu re In s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s a phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e i s the repe r to ry of po s s i b l e words conta ined w i t h i n any g iven language (Lane 1970:26). App l i ed to music, the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e comprises a l l the aud i t o r y fea tu re s (musical components) of a g iven musical compos i t ion . The purpose of s t r u c t u r a l i s t a na l y s i s a t the l e v e l of phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e i s two fo ld : to i d e n t i f y the components of an i n s t i t u t i o n of human behav io r , such as words, and to de f ine these un i t s accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t 45 f e a t u r e s . App l i ed to music t h i s purpose i s analogous to dec iphe r i ng the s i n g l e musical components such as p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s and dura t ions conta ined w i t h i n a given musical compos i t i on , and l a t e r d e f i n i n g these musical components accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , . l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and 5 n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f e a tu re s . The former i s known as phonet ic musical a n a l y s i s wh i l e the l a t t e r i s c a l l e d phonemic musical a n a l y s i s . In i t s attempt to dec ipher the i n d i v i d u a l musical components conta ined w i t h i n a compos i t i on , phonet ic musical a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e s aura l and v i s u a l m u s i c o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s : a process i n which the a n a l y s t l i s t e n s to the compos i t ion as w e l l as reads the t r a n s c r i b e d ve r s i on o f the song to d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s . ' ' Once the components o f the phono log ica l musical s t r u c t u r e have been d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s manner, the second stage of t h i s l e v e l of a na l y s i s may be implemented - - phonemic musical a n a l y s i s . Here the i n d i v i d u a l musical components are analyzed accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s -s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f e a tu re s . The c r i t e r i a used are the same as i n s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s : complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re s . In o ther words, the ana l y s t examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f oppo s i t i on and c o r r e l a t i o n which e x i s t between the i n d i v i d u a l musical components. The f i n d i n g s from t h i s stage o f the ana l y s i s determine which musical ma te r i a l may be j u s t i f i a b l y cons idered s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i f i e d to be deemed e i t h e r main nuc l e i (musical phonemes), secondary nuc l e i (musical phonemic v a r i a n t s ) , or non-nuclear musical components (musical a l l ophones ) . On the bas i s of these f i n d i n g s , the phonet ic musical s t r u c t u r e ( a l l the musical components conta ined w i t h i n a song) may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the phonemic musical s t r u c t u r e 46 (the s i g n i f i c a n t musical components). That i s , the a n a l y s t i s ab le to perce ive not s imply a l l the aud i t o r y fea tu res ( s i n g l e musical components) apparent i n a mus ical compos i t i on , but a l s o to ca tego r i ze and c l a s s i f y these musical components accord ing to l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The diagram which f o l l ows should f a c i l i t a t e the understanding of the methodolog ica l c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th musical a n a l y s i s a t the phono log ica l l e v e l o f musical s t r u c t u r e : Phono log ica l Mus ica l S t r u c t u r e : a l l aud i t o r y fea tu res apparent w i t h i n a g iven musical compos i t ion. Phonet ic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : an attempt to dec ipher the i n d i v i d u a l musical components conta ined w i t h i n a g iven musical compos i t ion. a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a : aura l and v i s u a l m u s i c o l o g i c a l l y -o r i en ted ana l y s i s a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s : p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , durat ions used. Phonemic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : an attempt to de f ine the i n d i v i d u a l musical components accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t mus ical f e a t u r e s . a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a : complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y of d i s t i n c t i v e features a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s : the d i s t i n c t i o n between main, secondary, and non-nuc lear p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and du r a t i on s ; and, the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the phonet ic and phonemic musical s t r u c -tu re s . In an attempt to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y these methodolog ica l c o r r e l a t i o n s , exerpts from a s t r u c t u r a l i s t mus ica l a n a l y s i s o f a Beaver Indian dreamer song are o f f e r e d . The complete a n a l y s i s o f t h i s song appears i n Chapter V I , and the symbols f o r the musical no t a t i on may be found on pages 89 through 92. 47 DREAMER SONG BY CHARLIE YAHEY 48 Phono log ica l Level of Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Phonet ic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t ches used: G, F. D, Bb, C, E i n t e r v a l s used: M2, m3, M3, p4 durat ions used: P. j \ J , J . , J ,<J. , 0 Phonemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : main p i t c h n u c l e i are G and D secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are F and Bb non-nuc le i of p i t c h are C and E main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second the i n t e r v a l which i s not cons idered a nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f ou r th du ra t i on s : the durat ions which lend themselves to being main nuc l e i of rhythm are * and #• the dura t ions which may be cons idered secondary nuc l e i o f rhythm are # and d . the durat ions which do not recur f r equen t l y enough to be con s i de red .nuc le i o f rhythm are o- , o , and l> mode: 49 Sca le o f Phonet ic Phenomena: The graph which f o l l ows represents an attempt to p l o t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f main, secondary, and non-nuclear p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and du ra t i on s . The numbers on the graph, read ing h o r i z o n t a l l y from l e f t to r i g h t , i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l notes o f the musical s e c t i on s . 50 Phonemic Musical S t r uc tu re (Parameter o f P i t c h ) : * Stemmed notes represent main p i t c h n u c l e i , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and non-nuc le i of p i t c h are notated w i th an "X . " 51 Phonemic Mus ical S t r uc tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : * •* H i i "-g - { " t ^ ' f l U U . L . I . , •'HI-.-H i * Stemmed notes represent main dura t ion n u c l e i , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary du ra t i on n u c l e i , and non-nuc le i of du ra t i on are notated by an "X " . 52 2. At the S y n t a c t i c Level of Mus ical S t r uc tu re The term " s yn tax " i s de f ined as the r u l e s which determine which components from the phono log ica l s t r u c t u r e may be " l e g i t i m a t e l y " s t rung together (Lane 1970:27). S i m i l a r l y , the syntax of a musical s t r u c t u r e would be the " r u l e s " concern ing the o rder ing and grouping o f i n d i v i d u a l musical components from the phono log ica l l e v e l o f musical s t r u c t u r e . The purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s a t t h i s l e v e l i s to e l u c i d a t e these s o - c a l l e d " r u l e s " o r , i n a musical sense, to deduce the tendencies o f component i n t e r a c t i o n (mot i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) amongst groups of musical components ( p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s ) . The way i n which t h i s purpose i s sought i s as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , the a n a l y s t attempts to recognize the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l musical components from the phono log ica l l e v e l are grouped together . This i s accomplished by s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t i n g the sequent i a l recurrence of i n d i v i d u a l musical components throughout the phono log ica l l e v e l of musical s t r u c t u r e . Once the musical component-groups have been determined i n t h i s manner, an attempt i s made to d i s c o ve r the way i n which these musical component-groups modify one another; t ha t i s , an attempt i s made to determine which musical component-groups possess s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f e a t u r e s . The a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a used here are the same as those used p r e v i o u s l y : complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y of d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re s . Once the r e l a t i o n -sh ips o f oppo s i t i on and c o r r e l a t i o n between musical component-groups have been eva l ua ted , the f o l l o w i n g may be recogn ized: mot ives ; a b s t r a c t o mot i v i c m a t e r i a l s ; and non-mot iv ic musical m a t e r i a l s . On the bas i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o t i v i c musical ma te r i a l s may 53 be recogn i zed. More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, the tendencies of musical component i n t e r a c t i o n may be deduced from t h i s type of m o t i v i c a n a l y s i s . The diagram which f o l l o w s w i l l make more c l e a r the concepts regard ing the methodolog ica l homology between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a n a l y s i s a t the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l o f mus ica l s t r u c t u r e . S y n t a c t i c Mus ica l S t r u c t u r e : the " r u l e s " concerning the o rde r i ng and grouping o f i n d i v i d u a l musical components from the phono log ica l l e v e l o f musical s t r u c t u r e . p re l im inary s tage: s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n of the sequent i a l recur rence o f groups of mus ica l components throughout the phono log ica l l e v e l o f mus ica l s t r u c t u r e . Morphemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : the d e f i n i t i o n of musical component-groups accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t mus ical f e a t u r e s . a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a : complementary- d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re s a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s : r e c o g n i t i o n o f motives, a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c , and non-mot iv i c musical m a t e r i a l s . d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o t i v i c musical m a t e r i a l s . deduct ion of tendencies o f component i n t e r a c t i o n . In an attempt to c l a r i f y f u r t h e r these methodolog ica l c o r r e l a t i o n s , exerpt s from a s t r u c t u r a l i s t musical a n a l y s i s of a Beaver Indian dreamer song are o f f e r e d . These exerpt s have been taken from the Beaver Indian song d i scussed i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " A t the Phono log ica l Level of Mus ica l S t r u c t u r e . " 54 S y n t a c t i c Level of Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ical Components: (Only those phonet ic phenomena which are bracketed together are cons idered recu r ren t sequences.) 55 Morphemic Mus ical Ana l y s i s Motives ( s i g n i f i c a n t musical component-groups): 2- JS Abs t r ac t M o t i v i c Ma te r i a l ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t mus ical component-groups) Non - M o t i v i c Ma te r i a l ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical component-groups): NIL 56 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : 57 * Motives are i n d i c a t e d by square brackets and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l s are represented by double square b racke t s . 58 Tendency o f Component I n t e r a c t i o n (the way i n which musical component-groups modify one another ) : S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s song by C h a r l i e Yahey would be an except ion i n much of twent i e th - cen tu ry Western music i n s o f a r as v i r t u a l l y a l l the mus ica l ma te r i a l conta ined w i t h i n i t i s m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d . The s imp le s t manner of r e a l i z i n g the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l musical components of t h i s song are r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y to one another and to the mo t i v i c ma te r i a l p r e v i ou s l y o u t l i n e d i s to r e - f a m i l i a r i z e one se l f w i th the f i n d i n g s of the phonet i c , phonemic and morphemic a n a l y s i s . The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song are the p i t che s G, F, D, Bb, G, E; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , mninor t h i r d , major second, and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; the durat ions The s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s a r e G a n d F, the l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are F and Bb, and the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are C and E. In terms of i n t e r v a l s , the ma i n ' nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary nucleus i s a major second, and the non-nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The durat ions which may be cons idered main n u c l e i are $ and )> , wh i l e the \ \ P i secondary n u c l e i a re * and o , and the non-nuc le i a r e * 1 ,o • The mode used i s G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d . The o v e r a l l melodic contour (as recognized from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e of p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s G and D spread apart and descending over two octaves. The r e l a t i o n s h i p ,the above musical phenomena shares w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s : the two main p i t c h n u c l e i , wh i l e they o u t l i n e the melodic contour , are spaced apa r t . In t h i s space, 59 they are complemented by the p i t che s F and Bb. This g ives the melodic contour of the song a cascading e f f e c t and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l lows the i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e of the mode (major and minor t h i r d s ) to be p reserved, w i th the except ion o f the major second. The r e s u l t of e s t a b l i s h i n g two main p i t c h n u c l e i (G and D) and complementing them w i th secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (F and Bb) i s two c on t r a s t i n g melodic mot ives: These motives are then transposed down a f ou r th and f i f t h r e s p e c t i v e l y and r e s t a t e d . Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions X and as we l l as J 1 and e) are ass igned to the f ou r p i t che s G, F, Bb, D and together produce the two motives o f the song: The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c ma te r i a l works between the p i t che s G and D ( i . e . , complements them wi th the p i t che s F and Bb) and preserves the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f major and minor t h i r d s i n a s i m i l a r manner to the above. 60 However, both rhythmic motives (*>• J and J ©I ) are combined r a t he r than s t a t ed s epa ra te l y . For example: Another manner of r e v e a l i n g the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s conta ined w i t h i n t h i s song i s to o u t l i n e the compos i t iona l r e q u i s i t e s f o r a tune w i th a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l c ha r ac te r . F i r s t , a quadraton ic mode w i th the same ascending i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e has to be chosen. Next, the f i r s t and t h i r d as we l l as the second and f ou r th p i t ches of t h i s mode should be ass igned the r e spec t i ve f unc t i on o f main p i t c h nuc l e i and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i . Fo l l ow ing t h i s s tage , the main p i t c h n u c l e i should be spaced apar t and p l o t t e d descending over two octaves. The spaces between the main p i t c h nuc l e i should then be f i l l e d i n w i th the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i i n a manner tha t u t i l i z e s the i n t e r v a l s of a major t h i r d , a minor t h i r d , and a major second, and develops two separate motives of p i t c h . Th is endeavor should a l s o produce an ascending-descending melodic contour between the p i t c h n u c l e i . Each of these mot ivesof p i t c h should then be ass igned d i f f e r e n t , e a s i l y memorable rhythms which together w i t h the mot ivesof p i t c h should prov ide the motives f o r the song. These should then be repeated once a t the f ou r th and f i f t h below r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l (which a l s o comprises the c aden t i a l formula) should u t i l i z e the aforementioned p i t che s and make use of both rhythms. The compos i t ion should cadence on the lowest note o f the song, which should be the i n i t i a l p i t c h of the mode. 61 D. Summary The c o r r e l a t i o n s made i n t h i s chapter between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a na l y s i s form the bas i s of a method f o r examining the s t r u c t u r e 9 o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s made between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and music suggest a method of musical a n a l y s i s which uses systemic a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g . That i s , these c o r r e l a t i o n s imply t ha t sound i n Beaver Indian dreamer songs i s s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way t h a t a systemic method w i l l produce de f i n ab l e mus ical un i t s and e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s of oppo s i t i on and c o r r e l a t i o n between these musical u n i t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s made between s t r u c t u r a l i s t approaches and musical a na l y s i s suggest a method of musical a na l y s i s which i s concerned w i t h examining the complex network of s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s tha t e x i s t between the musical components o f a Beaver Indian dreamer song, r a t he r than s imply w i th examining the musical components on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , and w i th focus ing on the present nature of a Beaver Indian dreamer song, r a t he r than ana l y z i ng i t s mode of development through t ime. The c o r r e l a t i o n s made between s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y t i c a l - m o d e l s and musical a n a l y s i s suggest a method which works from a manner o f a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g based on l e v e l s of a na l y s i s beg inning w i th the s imp le s t of s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s (phonemic) and progres s ing to the most complex morphemic). Fu r the r , these c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest a method which attempts to dec ipher s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s through the use of a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a such as complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f ea tu re s . S y n t h e t i c a l l y , the method developed from these c o r r e l a t i o n s may be desc r ibed as a s p e c i f i c type o f m o t i v i c musical a n a l y s i s : one t ha t 62 attempts to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between musical components and musical component-groups i n Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Now that the c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a na l y s i s have been shown and the subsequent methodology d i s c l o s e d , l e t us use t h i s methodology to i l l u m i n a t e the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. P r i o r to t h i s , however, i t w i l l be necessary to present an overview o f Beaver Indian music and c u l t u r e so t ha t the reader may have a b e t t e r pe r spec t i ve of the music t h a t w i l l undergo s t r u c t u r a l s c r u t i n y . 63 Footnotes This chapter was w r i t t e n a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Beaver Indian dreamer songs. I t does not represent an attempt to i n ven t an a n a l y t i c a l technique f o r the sake of i n v e n t i o n . Rather, the methodology that w i l l be proposed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter grew from ex tens i ve o ra l ana l y s i s of Beaver Indian dreamer songs as we l l as the au tho r ' s understanding o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m . This s i t u a t i o n - - the use o f non-musical terms to e x p l a i n mus ical phenomena - - i s analogous, i n p a r t , to attempts by e i gh teenth -centu ry Eng l i s h grammarians to de sc r i be the working of t h e i r n a t i v e language us ing a terminology and syntax borrowed from L a t i n and Greek. The i r a p p l i c a t i o n o f o l d and i r r e l e v a n t terminology to a new and not-understood phenomena proved erroneous. However, such an a p p l i c a t i o n represented the f i r s t steps toward comprehension. As we " t e s t " a new phenomena, we " t e s t " the vocabulary we use to comprehend i t , and through the process of t r i a l and e r r o r , of except ions prov ing r u l e s , we come to an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e c i s e grasp o f what lays before us. 3 The t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l i s t ideo logy which holds t h a t a l l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s can be reduced to p a i r s of b inary oppo s i t i on has been de le ted from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The reasons f o r o m i t t i n g t h i s ideo logy are two fo l d : the compl icated nature of the b i na r y -oppos i t i on -p rocedu re tends to c loud the p re sen ta t i on of s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and e thnomus ico log i ca l as w e l l as mus i co l o g i c a l terms a l ready e x i s t f o r expres s ing such s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s . °* The ana l y s i s o f sound phenomena at the semantic l e v e l of s t r u c t u r e has been omitted from t h i s t h e s i s . Although s t r u c t u r a l a na l y s i s o f music as a sound phenomena can present much va luab le i n fo rmat ion regard ing the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of Beaver Indian mus ic, the scope of the proposed methodology i s not expansive enough to enable one to d i s c o v e r , i n t e r p r e t , and l a t e r assess the " s o c i a l message" revea led by t h i s music. In b r i e f , the a n a l y s i s o f the c u l t u r a l contex t o f Beaver song i s beyond the l i m i t s of the methodology t ha t w i l l be proposed. 5 The attempt here i s to d i s t i n g u i s h between those musical components which generate musical s t r u c t u r e ( s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f ea tu re s ) from those which do not ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical f e a t u r e s ) . With re spect to the musical parameters o f p i t c h and du ra t i on t h i s concept r e f e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t the phono log ica l l e v e l o f musical 64 s t r u c t u r e , to those components of e i t h e r musical parameter t ha t generate m o t i v e s ( i . e . , " c o r e " aud i t o r y fea tu re s such as i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i , p i t c h n u c l e i , e t c e t e r a ) and those t h a t do not. ^ The v i s u a l stage o f the a n a l y s i s can on ly proceed w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the accuracy and type of t r a n s c r i p t i o n tha t has been made. That i s , var iance may occur between a composit ion tha t has been t r a n s c r i b e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner and another composit ion which has been t r an s c r i bed v i a mechanical means ( i . e . , the melograph). ^ Each of the subsequently i d e n t i f i e d s i n g l e musical ut terances i s cons idered a phonet ic phenomenon. That i s , each musical component w i l l , a f t e r f u r t h e r s t r u c t u r a l s c r u t i n y , c o n s t i t u t e e i t h e r a s i g n i f i c a n t or nuc l ea r musical component (musical phoneme), a l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t or secondary nuc lea r musical component (musical phonemic v a r i a n t ) , or a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t or non-nuclear musical component (musical a l l ophone ) . ^ The l i n g u i s t i c c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r these musical terms are r e s p e c t i v e l y morphemes, morphemic v a r i a n t s and allomorphemes. Q The impetus, however, f o r the development of t h i s method came from ex tens i ve o r a l a n a l y s i s o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs and e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology - - s p e c i f i c a l l y , Hood's attempt to d i s cove r h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between musical components of Javanese p i t c h systems (Hood 1954), N e t t l ' s cha l lenge to develop a mus ica l semio t i c s ( Ne t t l 1958), and Arom's c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c models w i th musical a na l y s i s a t ' t h e s y n t a c t i c l e v e l of musical s t r u c t u r e (Arom 1970). 65 REFERENCES CITED Arom, S. 1970 "Essa i d 'une no ta t i on des monodies a des f i n s d ' a n a l y s e " , Revue de mus i co l og i e , 55(2) : 172-216. Asch, M. 1972 "A Grammar of S l ave ry Drum Dance Mus i c " , Proceedings of SEM Meet ings, Toronto. Hood, M. 1954 The Nuclear Theme as a_ Determinant of Patet i n Javanese  Music. Gronigen, Amsterdam. N a t t i e z , J . J . 1973 " L i n g u i s t i c s : A New Approach f o r Musical A n a l y s i s ? " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review of the Ae s t he t i c s and Soc io logy of  Mus ic, 1 ( 1 ) ~ 2 2 - 3 1 . N e t t l , B. 1958 "Some L i n g u i s t i c Approaches to Mus ica l A n a l y s i s " , Journa l o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Folk Music C o u n c i l , 10: 37-41. CHAPTER V The Music and Cu l tu re of the Beaver Ind ians : An Overview This chapter presents some in fo rmat ion on the Beaver Indian people and t h e i r music. In the paradigm of e thnomus ico log ica l research t h i s endeavor would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , be c l a s s i f i e d i n the category of general d e s c r i p t i o n w i th re spec t to the music of a n o n - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e . Simply s t a t e d , the attempt here i s to d i scus s b r i e f l y the meaning of Beaver Indian music to the Beaver Indians and to desc r ibe c o n c i s e l y , i n mus i co l og i ca l terms, t h i s music as sound. 1 No e f f o r t w i l l be made here to attempt a comprehensive study of the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. (This task w i l l be attempted i n Chapter VI.) However, some comments regard ing the general formal o r gan i z a t i on o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs w i l l be o f f e r e d here as suppor t i ve evidence f o r the s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Beaver music. Me thodo l o g i c a l l y , t h i s chapter encompasses two d i f f e r e n t areas. That i s , d i s cu s s i on s r e l a t e d to Beaver Indian music as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon r e l y on methods common to c u l t u r a l anthropology wh i l e e xpo s i t i on s of t h i s music as a sound phenomenon u t i l i z e the general g u i de l i n e s f o r s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n given by such scho la r s as Herzog (1928), M c A l l e s t e r (1949), and N e t t l (1954). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s chapter - 66 -67 deals w i th the f o l l o w i n g aspects of Beaver Indian music and c u l t u r e : previous s c h o l a r s h i p , geographic l o c a t i o n and general e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s t o r y of the Beaver, music and the s u p e r n a t u r a l , uses o f music, musical i n s t ruments , and a d d i t i o n a l notes on the music. A. Prev ious Scho la r sh ip I n ve s t i g a t i on s i n t o North American Indian c u l t u r e have been very numerous dur ing the past hundred year s . Fu r the r , e thnomus ico log i s t s and an th ropo log i s t s a l i k e have devoted much energy to the study of Amerindian music. However, few an th ropo log i s t s have c a r r i e d - o u t compre-hensive s tud ie s o f Athabascan Ind ians , much l e s s o f the Beaver. No one, i n f a c t , has y e t examined t h e i r music from an ethnomus ico log ica l po i n t of view. What f o l l ows i s an attempt to review the s cho l a r s h i p t ha t has taken p lace i n the area of Beaver Indian c u l t u r e and music dur ing t h i s century. One type of source a v a i l a b l e on the Beaver Indian i s the pub l i shed accounts o f e a r l y f u r - t r a d e r s , p ro spec to r s , and Hudson's Bay Company post managers who l i v e d i n the Peace R i ve r country of B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . These vary i n q u a l i t y ( i . e . , accord ing to l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v i t y ) ; however, most con ta i n some f i r s t - h a n d observat ions o f the Athabascan Indians. Con t r i bu t i on s i n c l u d e : Bowes 1 (1964) repor t s on poverty c u l t u r e and w i n te r s t a r v a t i o n o f Athabascan Indians between the years 1793 through 1962; B r y ce ' s (1968) h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e of the Hudson's Bay Company; G o d s e l l ' s (1938, 1943) accounts of h i s personal exper iences as a f u r - t r a d e r w i t h the Athabascan I nd ians ; Lamb's (1957) i n fo rmat ion on Beaver Indian c h i l d b i r t h , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the s ta tu s 68 of women, and the s u p e r n a t u r a l ; and R i c h ' s (1938) j ou rna l o f the Hudson's Bay Company, notab le f o r i t s derogatory remarks about the Beaver. Another type o f source p re sen t l y a v a i l a b l e on Athabascan Indians deals w i th the h i s t o r y o f the Peace R i ve r country (Bowes 1964; K i t t o 1930; A l l e n 1958). The on ly source, however, which deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the h i s t o r y of the Beaver Indians i s James MacGregor 's work, Twelve  Foot Davis (1952). Informat ion i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e today on the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of Northern Athabascan Indians. Co rne l i u s Osgood's (1936) t r e a t i s e by the same name i s an example. Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , however, have p r e f e r r ed to o f f e r general d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Athabascan Indian c u l t u r e . Diamond Jenness (1932), Angus Sherwood (1958), P l i n y Ea r l y Goddard (1916), and Alden Mason (1946) have been notab le c o n t r i b u t o r s i n t h i s a rea . The ba s i c content of the works of these men i s r e s p e c t i v e l y : t r i b a l l o c a t i o n s , economic c o n d i t i o n s , subs i s tence and phy s i ca l c u l t u r e ; general remarks on c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ; b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of Beaver c u l t u r e and a c o l l e c t i o n of Beaver myths; and general remarks on c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . The remaining sources on Athabascan Indian c u l t u r e deal w i th more s p e c i f i c t o p i c s ; i . e . , some examine one aspect of Athabascan Indian c u l t u r e and others examine one c u l t u r e - - Sekan i , Beaver, or C a r r i e r . The sub jec t s and c o n t r i b u t i n g s cho la r s are as f o l l o w s : the a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the Athabascan Indians dur ing the time o f the f u r - t r a d e - - Honigman (1946); Athabascan k i n s h i p systems - - H o i j e r (1956); Beaver Indian k i n s h i p systems - - R id ington (1969); anthropometry of Beaver, Sekan i , and C a r r i e r Indians - - Bo i l eau (1936); the r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s of the Beaver - - R id ington (1970); myths of the C a r r i e r Indians - - Jenness (1934); 69 the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the C a r r i e r Indian - - Jenness (1943); C a r r i e r s o c i a l o r g an i z a t i on - - Duff (1951); the phy s i ca l environment as a determinant of Beaver Indian behavior - - R id ington (1968); the h i s t o r y , phy s i ca l appearance, ma te r i a l c u l t u r e , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and r e l i g i o n of the Sekani Indians - - Jenness (1937). While much has been w r i t t e n on the Beaver Indian peop le , s cho l a r s h i p on Beaver Indian music has been l i m i t e d . Only two sources e x i s t : one ethnomus ico log ica l (Ne t t l 1954), the other an th ropo l og i ca l (R id ington 1971). N e t t l ' s study d i scusses general s t y l i s t i c f ea tu re s of Athabascan Indian music wh i l e R i d i n g t on ' s work attempts to e x p l a i n the i n n e r , p s ycho l og i ca l meaning o f shaman s i ng i ng among the Beaver Ind ians. B. Geographic Locat ion and General E c o l o g i c a l Cond i t ions The Beaver Indians are Athabascan speakers who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i v e d a long the Peace R i ve r o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a between the Rocky Mountains and Lake Athabaska (see Maps 1 and 2 of the appendix, pages 241 and 242). This geographic reg ion encompasses approx imately 75,000 square mi le s w i t h i n which three types o f land are p reva len t - -mountains, t a i g a (boreal fo res t -muskeg) , and grass p r a i r i e s . A l l share a s u b - a r c t i c c on t i nen t a l c l ima te i n which the summer months are m i l d and the w in te r months are b i t t e r l y c o l d . As w e l l , a l l are r i c h i n b i g game and f u r - b e a r i n g an imals . The Beaver Indians have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been nomadic hunters and depended almost e x c l u s i v e l y on b i g game animals such as the moose f o r 2 subs i s tence . The i n e v i t a b l e s c a r c i t y of b ig game animals coupled w i th the harsh c l ima te has fo rced the Beaver to l i v e under d i f f i c u l t e c o l o g i c a l 70 c o n d i t i o n s . That i s , r e gu l a r and p r e d i c t a b l e access to p o t e n t i a l food resources i s the weakest l i n k i n Beaver Indian ecology and i s consequently 3 the f o ca l concern t ha t unde r l i e s a l l forms of behav ior . For the l a s t f i f t y y ea r s , a g r i c u l t u r a l development of t h i s area has moved from east to west, pushing the Indians before i t or a s s i m i l a t i n g them to non-Indian s t a t u s . (The hunt ing and t rapp ing way of l i f e has been mainta ined by those Beavers who remained i n the bush country north of the Peace R i ve r and immediately adjacent to the Rocky Mountains, a l though the penet ra t i on of t h e i r country i n 1942 by the A laska highway and the subsequent development of o i l f i e l d s and power p r o j e c t s i n the area has r e l i e v e d them o f dependence on hunt ing and t r app i ng . ) At the time the musical examples were c o l l e c t e d (1965 through 1968), there were about three hundred Beaver Indians l i v i n g on f ou r reserves w i t h i n t h i s geographic r eg i on ,w i th approx imately s i x t y - f i v e to one hundred people per re se rve . The reserves are as f o l l o w s : Prophet R i ve r Band, Halfway R i ve r Band, Doig R i ve r Band, and B lueber ry R i ve r Band (see Map 3 of the appendix, page 243) . C. H i s t o r y of the Beaver At the beginning of the e ighteenth century ,A lgonk ian - speak ing Cree Indians occupied the f o re s t ed country west of Hudson's Bay and t raded w i th the newly formed Hudson's Bay Company at For t C h u r c h i l l . To the no r t h , Athabascan-speaking Chipewyans hunted the barren grounds west of Hudson's Bay. The Beaver l i v e d along the Peace R i ve r and perhaps extended eas t to the Athabaska R i v e r . Goddard suggests tha t a recent Cree expansion i n t o the Athabaska R i ve r country drove the Beaver i n t o 71 t h e i r present l o c a t i o n and may account f o r the separa t i on o f Beaver from S a r s i . L i n g u i s t i c evidence i n d i c a t e s tha t these two Athabascan languages separated on ly r e c e n t l y (Goddard 1916: 209). The Sa r s i have taken on a P l a i n s - b i s o n hunt ing way of l i f e and borrowed customs from the surrounding Algonkians wh i l e the Beaver remained s u b a r c t i c moose and woods-bison hunters. Beaver c u l t u r e resembles t ha t of other MacKenzie drainage Athabaskans. The Beaver Indians have been i nvo l ved i n trade w i th Europeans (the Hudson's Bay Company) s ince about 1789. Before t ha t they were i n f l uenced by the Cree Indians who had acqu i red manufactured goods from the same t r a d i n g company. There i s ev idence t h a t the f i r s t f i f t y years of the t rade pe r i od between the Europeans and the Beavers profoundly a l t e r e d the ecology of the area and the Ind ians ' way of l i f e . Before t h i s t ime, there appear to have been numerous b u f f a l o a long the Peace R i ve r but hunt ing w i th f i rea rms and the e xpo r t a t i on o f d r i e d b u f f a l o meat to d i s t a n t company posts nea r l y exterminated the spec ies by 1830 (MacGregor 1952: 206-207). In the century f o l l o w i n g 1860, the Beavers came i n t o contact w i t h C a t h o l i c m i s s i ona r i e s who r e i n f o r c e d the e f f o r t s o f the Hudson's Bay Company to e l i m i n a t e f i g h t i n g between bands and in t roduce a b e l i e f i n rewards and punishment f o r "good" behav ior . P r i e s t s of the French Oblate mi s s ionary converted most of the Indians to C a t h o l i c i s m but t h e i r impact was s u p e r f i c i a l because the nomadic and d e c e n t r a l i z e d way of l i f e imposed by e c o l o g i c a l nece s s i t y meant t ha t no permanent r e s i d e n t i a l miss ions were e s t a b l i s h e d . The p r i e s t s met w i th the Indians o c c a s i o n a l l y but years went by w i thout mi s s ionary con tac t . The i r c h i e f impact on 72 Beaver c u l t u r e i s seen i n the content o f a prophet r e l i g i o n t ha t began around 1860 and i s today what the Indians cons ider " Ind ian r e l i g i o n " . I t has developed i n t o an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f song, r i t u a l , dreamers, and orthodoxy. Despite the changes brought by contac t w i th Europeans, the Beavers remained e n t i r e l y dependent on e x p l o i t i n g the na tu ra l environment and f o r a pe r i od from about 1830 to 1920 were ob l i g ed to conduct t h e i r l i v e s w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by a resource base t ha t con s i s t ed l a r g e l y o f moose. Recent ly (1962-63), the Beaver Indians have moved i n t o houses b u i l t by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch o f the Canadian Government, but p r i o r to 1962 the Beaver l i v e d f o r the most pa r t i n i s o l a t e d l o g - cab i n o r t i p i - b u s h communities. And u n t i l the government attempted to i n i t i a t e an Indian day school program i n the e a r l y 1960s, they l ed r e l a t i v e l y nomadic l i v e s , us ing horses i n summer and dog teams i n w i n t e r . D. Music and the Supernatura l A l l peop le, i n no matter what c u l t u r e , must be ab le to p lace t h e i r music f i r m l y i n the context of the t o t a l i t y o f t h e i r b e l i e f s , exper iences , and a c t i v i t i e s , f o r w i thout such t i e s , music cannot e x i s t . Th is means tha t there must be a body o f theory connected w i th any music system - - not n e c e s s a r i l y a theory of the s t r u c t u r e of music sound, although that may be present as w e l l , but r a the r a theory of what music i s , what i t does, and how i t i s coord inated w i t h the t o t a l environment, both na tu ra l and c u l t u r a l , i n which man moves. (Merr ian 1967: 3) For the Beaver, the most important s i n g l e f a c t about music and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t o t a l wor ld i s i t s o r i g i n i n the supernatura l sphere. Whi le i t i s recogn ized t ha t some songs are borrowed from ne ighbor ing peop les ,^ a l l t rue and proper songs owe t h e i r o r i g i n to 73 a v a r i e t y of contact s exper ienced by humans w i th beings wh ich , though a pa r t of t h i s w o r l d , are superhuman 5 and the source of both i n d i v i d u a l as we l l as t r i b a l powers and s k i l l s . In b r i e f , the d e r i v a t i o n of such songs i s the supernatura l exper ience which comes from dreaming, an e labora te process of med i ta t i on s t i l l p r a c t i s e d i n Beaver c u l t u r e today. Dreams are c r y s t a l i z a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y , . . . dreams of matu r i t y are s p e c i a l because they show the Beaver h i s medicines w i th the c l a r i t y o f wisdom tha t adds a new d i r e c t i o n to the innocence o f ch i ldhood and to the i l l u m i n a -t i o n o f the v i s i o n i t s e l f . . . . The knowledge tha t comes through dreaming i s abso lute becuase i t comes from a l e v e l of symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n t ha t i s deeper than consciousness . . . . Dreams reveal the o f t en hidden s i g n i f i c a n c e of events and the immediacy of t h e i r imagery i s accepted as an important g i f t . (R id ington 1971: 123) The ba s i c c o r r e l a t i o n between Beaver Indian music and dreaming l i e s i n the f a c t t ha t songs are conceived by the dreamer or bestowed upon him by h i s guardian s p i r i t s when he i s dreaming. In t h i s re spect songs are symbol ic o f the dreamer 's s u b j e c t i v e exper ience and hence deemed capable o f conveying the imagery of a dream i n t o the conscious realm. Songs are the medium through which supernatura l exper ience i s communicated. Both songs and dreams are paths tha t take one i n t o the realm where symbol and exper ience merge. R id ington has i n d i c a t e d t ha t the melody o f a song represents the turns o f the mind on the pathway to the deepest l e v e l o f a dreamer 's s u b j e c t i v i t y wh i l e the rhythm of the song represents h i s f oo t s teps on the path ( R i d i n g ton , 1971). I t i s f r u s t r a t i n g to have to use words to desc r ibe what must e s s e n t i a l l y be heard or exper ienced, but the reader must use h i s imag inat ion and perhaps some exper ience w i th Indian music to see how songs become the medium of h i s i nner journey. As one f o l l o w s the turns o f the song one i s l e a r n i n g the i nne r paths o f the mind. 74 In Beaver Indian c u l t u r e there are two types of song r e l a t e d to dreaming and two r e spec t i v e types o f dreaming. The f i r s t type of dream-ing i s a symbol ic mental s yn thes i s of a dreamer 's p re -ado le scent v i s i o n quest^ and po s t - ado le scen t m a t u r i t y , and generates medicine songs (mayine). In t h i s type o f dream, the dreamer r e c a l l s h i s v i s i o n quest exper ience and h i s i n d i v i d u a l animal f r i e n d . These represent h i s "med ic ines " (ob ject s symbo l i z ing the powers of mythic an ima l s ) . The wisdom of h i s po s t -ado le scent matur i t y enables him to i n t e r p r e t these medic ines. For example, they may be i n s t r u c t i o n s as to what s i t u a t i o n s and food to a vo i d . Thus, medicine songs stem from the deepest realms o f a per son ' s s u b j e c t i v i t y - - h i s sub-consc ious. They are the songs o f the medicine animals w i t h i n the man and they w e l l up and reach out on ly when he, or one c l o s e to him, i s i n some way c l o se to death. The second type of dreaming r e l a t e d to song concept ion accounts f o r dreamer songs (nachene y i ne ) and i s done only by a shaman. This type o f dreaming i nvo l ve s a s u b j e c t i v e mental process i n which the s p i r i t of the shaman leaves h i s body, goes to heaven, and returns w i th wisdom. During h i s journey to heaven the guardian s p i r i t s g ive a song to the shaman which i s cons idered to be a v e h i c l e f o r the shaman to communicate t h e i r prophecy to other people. The u l t i m a t e source of dreamers ' songs i s i n the animal wor ld f o r they are the prayers t ha t animals s i n g when they have hard t imes. The dreamers i n heaven have heard the animals dancing and s i n g i n g and sent the songs down i n t o the dreams o f the shaman, who then g ives them to the people v i a song. (R id ington 1971: 126) There i s much more tha t cou ld be s a i d about the penet ra t i on of dreaming and s i n g i n g i n t o every aspect of Beaver l i f e - B r i e f l y , however, 75 the r e l a t i o n s h i p between dreaming, the supernatura l w o r l d , and music i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e may be expressed as f o l l o w s . The Beavers b e l i e v e tha t a l l songs o r i g i n a t e i n the supernatura l wor ld and t ha t the on ly way to ob ta i n these songs from the guardian s p i r i t s i s by dreaming. This dreaming i s a process i n r e l a t i o n to song concept ion in which e i t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i v e l y contac t s h i s personal guardian s p i r i t and i s g iven a song (mayine), or a shaman's s p i r i t journeys to heaven and back and dur ing the course of i t s journey rece i ve s a song from the guardian s p i r i t s (nachene y i n e ) . These songs, i n t u r n , convey the imagery o f ' dream i n t o the conscious realm and a l l ow t h i s type o f exper ience to be communicated. E. Uses of Music As p r e v i ou s l y mentioned, three types of songs are apparent i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . They are "Cree songs" (borrowed songs) , medicine songs (mayine), and dreamer songs (nachene y i n e ) . "Cree songs" are never used i n connect ion w i th the powers obta ined by the dreamer from the guardian s p i r i t . Rather, they are used p r i m a r i l y f o r s o c i a l events such as the "give-away dance" , a compet i t i ve give-away or p o t l a t c h . Medic ine songs represent songs o f personal power and are seldom sung Q i n p u b l i c . R id ington s a i d t h a t the on ly time tha t he heard them was when an o ld man was p repar ing to d ie (R id ington 1971: 125). They are used f o r c u r i n g , l o c a t i n g animals when hunt ing , and c o n t r o l l i n g the weather ( i . e . , as i n p raye r ) . Dreamer songs or songs conceived by a shaman, on the other hand, are g e n t l e r songs than medicine songs i n tha t they reach 76 out to touch the sub jec t i v i t i e s of others through sharing a common experience. These songs can be used in e i ther of two contexts - -prophecy or dance. In prophecy the shaman sings the song by himself in an attempt to reveal his dream. In dance, however, a group of Beaver q Indians sing the song and dance to i t . In both contexts the l i f e cycle ( b i r t h , marriage, puberty, and the f i r s t k i l l of every major species of game) and ceremonies of prayer, hunting, and the weather are appl icable. F. Beaver Indian Musical Instruments Aside from the human voice, the sound instruments of the Beaver are comprised of two types of membranophones. The f i r s t i s a s ing le -headed, adjustable snare drum approximately twelve inches in diameter. I t i s beaten with a s t i ck and i s used in group singing and dancing s i tuat ions . (For i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the physical appearance of the instrument and the way in which i t i s played see plates one through four of the appendix. The other membranophone i s a double-headed barrel drum (without snare) approximately twelve inches in diameter and four to s ix inches deep. It i s held by a leather thong, beaten with a s t i c k , and used by the dreamer in the context of prophecy. (For i l l u s t r a t i o n s , see plates f i ve and s i x . ) There i s l i t t l e information current ly ava i lable about ownership of musical instruments or about musical instrument construction. However, o r ig ina l photographs of a dreamer and a Beaver youth, lac ing a new skin onto the snare drum are . included in the appendix (see plates seven through twelve). 77 G. A d d i t i o n a l Notes on the Music Mus ica l S t y l e Beaver Indian music e x i s t s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the realm of monophonic moda l i ty and symmetrical rhythm. The bas ic u n i t , the song, u s u a l l y l a s t s between twenty seconds and three minutes. These songs are sung e i t h e r by a so lo performer or i n unison by a c h o r u s . ^ Both v a r i e t i e s o f performance i n c l ude drum accompaniment which proceeds s t e a d i l y i n quar te r notes a t approx imately J = 152-160. Melodies a r e , f o r the most p a r t , cascading and u t i l i z e a range of e i t h e r a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h or two oc taves ; however, a smal l group of songs use a melodic range sma l l e r than one octave. Sca les are predominately quadraton ic or penta ton i c and melodic movement i s , by and l a r g e , i n major and minor t h i The f i n a l tones i n songs are u s u a l l y the lowest p i t che s of the songs, and m o d u l a t i o n ^ to another mode o r w i t h i n a mode i s i n f requent dur ing a song. Vocal tens ion i s apparent but not to the ex tent i t i s i n o ther Indian music (as f o r example: Copper Eskimo music), and the use of wide vocal v i b r a t o on p i t che s longer i n du ra t i on than do t ted -qua r te r notes occurs f r e q u e n t l y . The drum accompaniment i n the dreamer songs ( i . e . , i n the prophecy context ) i s p itched,whereas i t i s not ass igned a r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e p i t c h i n dreamer songs ( i . e . , i n the dance c o n t e x t ) . The tempo and rhythm f o r each song are i n t r oduced , i n the manner of an intonement, by a so lo drum. Song t e x t s are comprised o f n o n - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s . And, most songs are s t r o p h i c i n form; however, some are through-composed. Dynamics vary accord ing to r e g i s t e r and the shape of the melodic l i n e ; i n g ene r a l , the loudes t volume occurs i n the 78 uppermost r e g i s t e r and v i ce ve r sa . With regard to dynamics and melody, the l oudes t volume per musical phrase i s apparent a t the he ight of a melodic l i n e ; however, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of a melody cascading from the uppermost r e g i s t e r to the lowest r e g i s t e r i s poco a poco diminuendo. De sc r i p t i on of the Performance Two ba s i c musical s e t t i n g s are apparent i n the performance o f Beaver Indian music. One occurs w i th the s i ng ing of dreamer songs i n the context o f prophecy wh i l e the o ther takes p lace w i th the performance of dreamer and Cree songs i n the context o f dance. The former i nvo l ve s a s o l o i s t i c s i t u a t i o n i n which a male shaman s ings and p lays the double-headed ba r r e l drum. The s i nge r u s u a l l y stands wh i l e performing and the l i s t e n e r s normal ly s i t on the ground in a s e m i - c i r c l e and face the s o l o i s t . The shaman holds the drum w i th h i s l e f t hand and beats the drum head w i th a s t i c k which i s he ld i n the r i g h t hand. The drum i s supported by the f i n ge r s through c l u t c h i n g a p l i a b l e l e a t h e r handle (thong) at tached to the tops ide o f the drum frame. ( See P l a te s f i v e and s i x o f the Appendix f o r an example o f the way i n which the drum i s po s i t i oned f o r performance.) The performance o f dance songs e n t a i l s the s i n g i n g of a Cree or dreamer song i n unison by a chorus comprised mainly o f young a d u l t s . These songs are most f r equen t l y l ed by the r e s i d e n t shaman (dreamer) and are o f ten r e spon so r i a l but seldom an t i phona l . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the shaman stands dur ing the s i n g i n g of these songs; the chorus, however, always s i t s on the ground. Every s i nge r (the shaman inc luded) p lays the s ing le -headed ad ju s t ab l e snare drum (see P l a te s three and f ou r of the Appendix). This membranophone i s supported by the f i n ge r s of one 79 hand which grasp four t i g h t l y s t rung l e a t h e r cords t ha t are at tached to the i n s i d e of the drum frame (see P l a t e one of the Appendix) . The other hand holds the beater which i s a wooden s t i c k and i s used to s t r i k e the s k i n head of the drum (see P l a t e two o f the Appendix) . This e n t i r e music-making process i s meant to accompany the dance. The f o l l o w i n g account i s an attempt to desc r ibe the phy s i c a l s e t t i n g i n which t h i s musical s i t u a t i o n occurs as we l l as i t s symbol ic meaning. The Beavers dance, u s u a l l y i n a l a r ge t i p i , c l ockw i se o r as they say, " f o l l o w i n g the sun" around a f i r e . The f i r e i s the cent re of the c i r c l e and i t s column o f smoke j o i n s heaven and e a r t h , the a x i s of s u b j e c t i v e exper ience . Extending h o r i z o n t a l l y out from the f i r e i s a c i r c l e of people. The s inger s and drummers are mainly young a d u l t s , the hunters . They s i t i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the s u n r i s e , j u s t as they s leep i n t h e i r own camps toward the s un r i s e . Older men s i t toward the no r t h , and the very o l d , as we l l as the dreamer, s i t toward the sunset. Women and c h i l d r e n s i t a long the southern c i rcumference o f the c i r c l e and the door i s g e n e r a l l y the d i v i d i n g l i n e between men and women. The s i n g i n g and dancing goes on f o r three or f ou r n i g h t s , and dur ing the day the dreamer may dream f o r the people or t a l k to them about h i s dreaming. (R id ington 1971: 126-127) 80 Instrumentat ion The i n s t rumenta t ion of Beaver Indian music i s r e s t r i c t e d to two types of membranophones and the human vo i c e . Ensembles, as p r e v i ou s l y mentioned, i nc lude so lo vo i ce w i th drum accompaniment and unison chorus w i th drum accompaniment. 81 Footnotes 1 My knowledge and understanding of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r music and c u l t u r e was obta ined from three d i f f e r e n t sources. In format ion about the meaning o f Beaver Indian music to the Beaver Indians was g iven to me by Dr. Robin R i d i n g t on , symbol ic a n t h r opo l o g i s t and c a r r i e r o f many Beaver Indian t r a d i t i o n s . I acqu i red a d d i t i o n a l i n fo rmat ion on Beaver c u l t u r e (such as geographic l o c a t i o n and h i s t o r y of the Beaver) from a l a rge number of an th ropo l og i ca l documents on Athabaskan Indian t r i b e s . And, I gained an understanding o f t h i s music as a sound phenomenon by l i s t e n i n g to the tape recorded musical examples and c o n s u l t i n g my t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . Un fo r tuna te l y , I have never made any " f i r s t hand" contac t w i t h the Beaver. Hence, the evidence I am p re sen t i ng i s a s yn thes i s of o ther peop le ' s w r i t i n g s , f i e l d work, and t a l e s . ^ U n t i l approx imately 1830 the Beaver l i v e d from B u f f a l o meat. S ince t ha t t ime , however, t h e i r major s t a p l e has been the moose. The p e r i o d i c s c a r c i t y of t h i s animal has been caused by: an uneven popu la t ion d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose, i l l n e s s to a hunter, bad weather (poor hunt ing c o n d i t i o n s ) , animal d i s ea se , bad l u c k , and i n recent t imes , b i g game trophy hunters . ^ The t h r ea t of s t a r v a t i o n i s a common theme i n Beaver Indian s t o r i e s . ^ The Beaver have borrowed many songs from the Cree Ind ians. These songs are known i n Beaver c u l t u r e s imply as "Cree songs" and have not as ye t been i n t e g r a t ed i n t o the standard body of Beaver song l i t e r a t u r e used f o r personal and shamani s t i c power. In s tead, "Cree songs" are used f o r s o c i a l events . M u s i c a l l y , these songs are sha rp l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Beaver songs by t h e i r syncopated rhythms. 5 Beaver Indian c u l t u r e i s to temic . Hence, c e r t a i n animals are e l eva ted to the r o l e of p r o t e c t o r and f r i e n d of the Beavers. ^ As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Beaver Indians b e l i e v e a l l songs o r i g i n a t e i n the s upe rna tu ra l . Consequently, the r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l as composer does not e x i s t . In order to understand t h i s b e l i e f he ld by the Beaver, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to recogn ize t ha t they do not share the same sense of " the i n d i v i d u a l as c r e a t o r " as do we North Americans. ^ The v i s i o n quest i s a f e a tu re of puberty r i t e s common among some North American Ind ians ; i t c o n s i s t s of sending a boy to the woods 82 without food o r any implements other than a bow and arrow u n t i l he has heard from a supernatura l f o r c e . In the case of the Beaver Indian such a supernatura l f o r ce would be i n the form of a w i l d an ima l . ^ While medicine songs are seldom sung i n p u b l i c , they are always i n a per son ' s mind and i n h i s dreams. Once the shaman has r ece i ved the song from heaven and sung i t i n a prophecy context i t can pass i n t o the domain of p u b l i c p r ope r t y , r e t a i n the power and wisdom bestowed upon i t by the guardian s p i r i t s , and be used i n a dance. ^ To my knowledge, no pu re l y in s t rumenta l music e x i s t s i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . n Modulat ion to another mode or w i t h i n a mode, f o r the purposes of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , r e f e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y to a change i n mode e i t h e r by i n t r o d u c i n g a new sca le ( i . e . , new p i t che s and i n t e r v a l s ) or by p rogres s ing to another degree of the e x i s t i n g s ca l e and a s s i gn ing d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e to the p i t che s and i n t e r v a l s p resent . 83 REFERENCES CITED A l l e n , Ralph 1958 Peace R i ve r Country. Doubleday, New York. B o i l e a u , Grant J . C. 1936 Anthropometry o f the Beaver, Sekan i , and C a r r i e r Ind ians. Nat iona l Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 81, Ottawa. Bowes, Gordon 1964 Peace R i ve r Ch ron i c le s (19793-1962). P r e s c o t t , Vancouver. B ryce , George 1968 The_ Remarkable H i s t o r y of the Hudson's Bay Company. Burt F r a n k l i n , New York. Duff , Wi lson 1951 "Notes on C a r r i e r S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n " , Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 2: 28-34. Goddard, P. E. 1916 "The Beaver Indians and Beaver Text s " , Anthropology Papers  o f the American Museum of Natura l H i s t o r y , Volume 10, Par t s 4-6. G o d s e l l , P. H. 1938 Red Hunters of the Snows. Robert Ha le , London. 1943 A r c t i c Trader. MacM i l l an , Toronto. Herzog, George. 1928 "Mus ica l S t y l e s i n North Amer i ca " , Proceedings of the  Twenty - th i rd I n t e r na t i ona l Congress o f Amer i c an i s t s , pp. 455-458. H o i j e r , H. 1956 "Athabascan K in sh ip Systems", American An th r opo l o g i s t , 58: 308-333. Honigmann, J . J . 1946 "Ethnography and A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the Fo r t Nelson S l a v e " , Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, 33: 44-66. 84 Jenness, Diamond 1932 The Indians of Canada. Nat iona l Museum of Canada, Ottawa. 1934 "Myths of the C a r r i e r I nd i an s " , Journa l of American  F o l k l o r e , 47: 97-285. 1937 The Sekani Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Nat iona l Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 84, Ottawa. 1943 The C a r r i e r Indians of the Bu l k l ey R i v e r . Bureau of American Ethnology, B u l l e t i n 133, Washington, D. C. K i t t o , F. H. 1930 Peace R i ve r Country, Canada. Acland P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Lamb, W. K. 1957 S ix teen Years i n the Indian Country. MacM i l l an , Toronto. M c A l l e s t e r , David 1949 Peyotte Music. V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, Volume X I I , New York. MacGregor, James G. 1952 The Land o f Twelve- foot Davis. The I n s t i t u t e of App l i ed A r t , Edmonton. Mason, Alden J . 1946 "Notes on the Indians of the Great S lave Lake A r e a " , Yale U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, 32: 106-143. Merriam, A. 1967 Ethnomusicology of F lathead Indians. A d l i n e , Chicago. N e t t l , B. 1954 North American Indian Mus ical S t y l e s . American F o l k l o r e S o c i e t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a . Osgood, Co rne l i u s 1936 "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Northern Athabascan I nd i an s " , Yale U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, 7: 89-104. R i ch , E. E. ( e d i t o r ) 1938 Journa l of Occurrences i n the Athabasca Department by  George Simpson. Champlain Record S o c i e t y , London. R i d i n g t on , Robin 1968 The Environmental Context of Beaver Indian Behav ior . Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . 85 1969 " K i n Categor ies Versus Kin Groups; A Two-Section System With S e c t i o n s " , Ethnology, 8 (4 ) : 460-467. 1970 "The Inner Eye of Shamanism and Totemism", H i s t o r y of  R e l i g i o n s , 10(1): 49-61. 1971 "Beaver Indian Dreaming and S i n g i n g " , An th ropo l og i ca , 13(1): 115-128. Sherwood, Angus 1958 "Some Remarks about the Athabascan I nd i an s " , An th ropo l og i ca , 1: 51-56. CHAPTER VI The Con s t ruc t i ona l P r i n c i p l e s of Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present some knowledge and under-s tand ing o f the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the attempt here w i l l be to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t , by means of the methodology developed i n Chapter IV, the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h i n and between the musical parameters o f p i t c h and dura t ion i n these dreamer songs. In an endeavor to accomplish t h i s task the f o l l o w i n g w i l l be put forward: t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f s e l e c t ed Beaver Indian dreamer songs; s e l e c t ed s t r u c t u r a l analyses of t h i s music; and, a comparative study of the s t r u c t u r a l genres o f t h i s music. For the most p a r t , t h i s i s the bounded corpus of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . That i s , no attempt w i l l be made here to d i scuss r e l a t e d musical phenomena such as the c u l t u r a l determinants of musical s t y l e . However, a d d i t i o n a l musical d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l be made. These are the c o l l e c t i v e r e s u l t of general s t y l i s t i c i n q u i r i e s a s s oc i a ted w i th the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of Beaver Indian dreamer songs and the s t r u c t u r a l analyses of t h i s music. i - 86 -87 A. Se lec ted Musical T r a n s c r i p t i o n s Notes on the T r a n s c r i p t i o n s The Sound Ma te r i a l The sound mate r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s was c o l l e c t e d by Dr. Robin R i d i ng ton , symbol ic an th r opo l o g i s t and f a c u l t y member of the Anthropology-Soc io logy Department a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was recorded dur ing the summers of 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, the sp r i ng o f 1966 and the w i n te r of 1971 a t B lueberry R i v e r , Halfway R i v e r , and Doig R i ve r . The machine Dr. R id ington used to record t h i s music was an Uher 4000 Report L, monophonic, r e e l - t o - r e e l tape reco rder . Working cop ies were made on an Uher Va r i oco rd 263, s te reophon ic , r e e l - t o - r e e l machine. The sound mater i a l i t s e l f i s comprised of f o r t y - f i v e Beaver Indian dreamer songs. These songs were recorded i n t h e i r na tu ra l s e t t i n g - -i n the context of prophecy - - and represent approx imately e i g h t y - f i v e percent o f the musical r e p e r t o i r e o f C h a r l i e Yahey, Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and C h a r l i e Jumbie^ - - the r e s i d e n t , e l d e r l y male shamans (dreamers) of the Beaver Indian c u l t u r e a t the time the musical mate r i a l was recorded. (Approximately f i f t e e n percent of Yahey ' s , J umb ie ' s , and C h i p e s i a 1 s dreamer songs were omitted because o f the poor sound reproduct ion on some of the o r i g i n a l r eco rd ing s . ) Of the f o r t y - f i v e dreamer songs t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h i s t he s i s only ( nine w i l l be presented and l a t e r analyzed i n t h i s chapter . The remaining t h i r t y - s i x songs are conta ined i n the Appendix. The reason f o r t h i s endeavor i s as f o l l o w s : the nine dreamer songs t ha t w i l l be presented here are r ep re sen ta t i v e of the s t r u c t u r e 88 of the o ther t h i r t y - s i x songs. (The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n w i l l be exp l a i ned i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " S e l e c ted S t r u c t u r a l Ana l y s e s " . ) For the sake o f c l a r i t y , songs are numbered one through f o r t y -f i v e . And song t i t l e s are r e s t r i c t e d to the number ass igned each song, the name o f the i n d i v i d u a l shaman that dreamed the song, and the time and p lace of r e co rd i ng . For example, Song 1: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B lueberry R i v e r , J u l y 29, 1965. The Purpose o f the T r a n s c r i p t i o n s The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h i s t he s i s are an attempt to d i s p l a y v i s u a l l y Beaver Indian dreamer songs. They are a l s o intended as the primary documented source mate r i a l f o r the s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s of t h i s music. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s may serve o ther purposes. However, they are not meant to be performed p r i o r to understanding Beaver Indian music and c u l t u r e as w e l l as l i s t e n i n g to musical examples of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Even then they may prove inadequate i n t h i s regard as a mu l t i tude of i n t a n g i b l e musical p r ope r t i e s i nhe ren t i n Beaver music cou ld not be notated. The Methodology Used i n T r a n s c r i b i n g Beaver Indian Music A l l the musical ma te r i a l conta ined i n t h i s t he s i s was t r a n s c r i b e d manually and w i l l appear i n i t s phonet ic as w e l l as i t s phonemic form. With regard to the former, i t i s a method o f musical t r a n s -c r i p t i o n which attempts to notate a l l the aud i t o r y musical f ea tu re s conta ined w i t h i n a compos i t ion . In re fe rence to the l a t t e r , however, on ly the s i g n i f i c a n t mus ical fea tu res are i n d i c a t e d . 89 The Nota t i ona l Procedures  P i t c h The Beaver Indian music used i n t h i s t he s i s i s notated a t ac tua l p i t c h (or as near as the wel l - tempered system of Western tun ing a l l o w s ) . Key s i gnatures are omitted here i n favor of a c c i d e n t a l s because the presence of the former o f t en imply - s p e c i f i c modal s t r u c t u r e s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r degrees of the s c a l e . Rhythm Rhythmic meter ( i . e . , bar l i n e s ) i s not u t i l i z e d here due to the preconceived Western not ions regard ing the placement o f accented beats w i t h i n a measure. Rhythmic dens i t y (the common denominator o f pu l se or beat) i s i n d i c a t e d i n beats per minute and a l l durat ions are expressed i n monomial symbols. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of rhythmic values to one another are represented by the f o l l o w i n g : $ , $ , Rhythmic p ropor t i ons (the d i s t i n c t i o n between l ong , medium, and shor t du ra t ions ) are i n d i c a t e d a c cu r a t e l y i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ; however, dec i s i on s such as the f o l l o w i n g are not embarked upon: should the three p i t che s D, E, and F be notated as J J J o r J . J J> „ J J J ? \ ' s / \ i 3 3 . 3 E ight non-p i tched so lo drum beats are i n d i c a t e d at the beg inn ing o f each t r a n s c r i p t i o n . This represents an a r b i t r a r y attempt to show the intonement of rhythm by the drum at the s t a r t o f every song. Once the melody begins and the drum becomes p i t ched i t i s notated as such. 90 Song Text The t e x t o f each tune i s omit ted because i t i s comprised s o l e l y of n o n - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s . And, i n ins tances where prophesy i s s t a ted dur ing the course of a song n e i t h e r the o r i g i n a l t e x t nor i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i s o f f e r e d . D i a c r i t i c a l Markings f mf P dim. poco a poco loud i n volume medium loud i n volume s o f t i n volume g radua l l y s o f ten i n volume ( u s ua l l y co i nc ide s w i th descension o f melodic l i n e ) g r adua l l y louder i n volume g radua l l y s o f t e r i n volume f a l s e t t o = weak, t h i n sounds t ha t are a r t i f i c i a l l y produced by the v o c a l i s t - - i . e . , those notes which l i e above h i s na tu ra l s i n g i n g r e g i s t e r n a t u r a l vo ice = the na tu ra l sounds that are produced by the v o c a l i s t . The timbre o f these sounds ( i . e . , head v o i c e , t h roa t v o i c e , and chest vo i ce ) vary accord ing to i n d i v i d u a l s i n ge r s . In the cases o f C h a r l i e Yahey, C h a r l i e Jumbie, and Johnnie Ch ipes i a the f o l l o w i n g general r u l e a p p l i e s : 3 r i t . a tempo g radua l l y s lower re tu rn to the o r i g i n a l tempo • f/eaJ Voice. • Thfiotd Voice •tilled Voice 91 J J J breath mark e d i t o r i a l phrase mark ( a l l p i t che s conta ined w i t h i n are not tongued and are s t a ted i n one breath) = s t acca to s l u r or t i e = end of a musical s e c t i on or strophe ^ = note i s s ho r te r than value i n d i c a t e d = note i s longer than value i n d i c a t e d PROPHECY = o ra to r y (occas ions f o r prophesy) 0 ( 3 ( 2 ij} ( c a p i t a l l e t -t e r s A to Z) = the name of a musical s e c t i on or strophe con su l t corresponding footnote a t the end of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n moti ve l l = a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c ma te r i a l 1 = non-mot iv ic mate r i a l Embell ishment of P i t c h a portamento or gradual g l i s sando i n the shape the l i n e . I t encompasses a l l the po s s i b l e microtones between the two p i t che s as s igned. 92 a portamento or gradual g l i s sando i n the shape of the l i n e . I t encompasses a l l the po s s i b l e microtones between the two p i t che s ass igned. the p i t c h f l u c t u a t e s no more than 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n accord ing to the shape o f the 1 i ne. the p i t c h f l u c t u a t e s no more than 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n accord ing to the shape o f the l i n e . the p i t c h i s sharper than the note i n d i c a t e d . The degree o f sharpness may vary between 1 and 50 cent s . the p i t c h i s f l a t t e r than the note i n d i c a t e d . The degree o f f l a t n e s s may vary between 1 and 50 cent s . a wide vocal v i b r a t o . The r a te of the v i b r a t o corresponds w i th the speed o f the drum. a p i t c h s l i d e s r a p i d l y upwards a t the end of i t s d u r a t i o n . In comparison to the portamento, t h i s embel l i shment takes p lace much f a s t e r and does not proceed d i r e c t l y to another p i t c h . a p i t c h s l i d e s r a p i d l y downward at the end of i t s d u r a t i o n . In comparison to the portamento, t h i s embell ishment takes p lace much f a s t e r and does not proceed d i r e c t l y to another p i t c h . a speech der i ved musical tone as opposed to a m u s i c a l l y de r i ved tone. The ac tua l p i t c h i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . I t s approximate p i t c h i s i n d i c a t e d by an " x " and i t s du ra t i on i s shown by the note stem. 94 J j ] j j j j j j j ] j j U - H f j --4—0-4—* * 0-0-0 4-0 4-4 0 0-4—0—4-0- * 0 ^ m " n a J J J ; a j J J J J J 3 P w w w w w JJJJJJJIJJJJ JJ^WJ-^ 3 Si} A * *' n i i P H f t f f H i :^ JJJ JJ J JJ J Jj JJ -U14J-J-J-J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J £ 95 * The qua r te r -no te t r i p l e t s an occur i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n no t a t i n g du ra t i ona l va lues , such as J J . J> n 1 3 would s t i l l be notated ; , u \ / 3 r e spec t i v e l y . e i gh th -note t r i p l e t s which are an approximate manner of That i s , rhythmic v a r i e t i e s 96 Song 7: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B lueber ry R i v e r , J u l y 29, 1965 Solo Male Voice Double-Headed Ba r re l Drum ii J J j j J J j 3 J- JJJJJJJJ )) smm o 9 r ho \ff *-> * 3 A O O fe dim. poco A. /): \ \ tfHHW 1 1 1 < 1 1 ] 11 i + g - w w jauxy JJ J J 3 J 3 J Q 97 98 Song 9: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966 99 100 Song 13: Dreamer Song by Char ley Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966 J fc Solo Male Voice Double-Headed Ba r re l Drum i f f i f f f f i < « « \ ^ \r) 1 y ] T , * z ~ ~ I Art f km o—l—«HH 1 f~»> fcj gj-101 j . m f Aim., ' p o e o ^ ^ — ^ i-SSu—fl f f i n II | i f = w t f # mm 9 r ff id 102 Song 28: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965 Solo Male Voice Double-Headed Ba r re l -Drum j t - j 3 3 j j j j i f >rvr-rv T f l — j r y — y j 33 1 3 33 -P j 1 I ft s J X J X J u . ' i »'! ! i im-ge ^ 1 V ^ T ^ - y •» * e t * nil i V I I I Ml j ig 103 A O O 3 J y » > P f i> /); I [(Hi(|H ! J )j 1 \ 1) U'Hffit± t dim. • J + — / # — # * — # # # — # — 9—**n »» i I S m AS(^ etteept S : 1! J J J ! J J 2 -ddr««Jl ©£ st a p l e * The p i t c h of t h i s song g r adua l l y r i s e s - (approx imate ly one -ha l f tone by the end o f - the song). As w e l l , the tempo g r adua l l y - a c c e l e r a t e s . I t reaches J = 184 by the end o f the song. 104 Song 35: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965 Solo Male Voice Double-Headed Ba r re l Drum /)•• j j j \ U M \\\ \ \\ \\ w \ \ ' r* ' > > > / -» > > > > 105 f — 1 g i " _j I J> ' Some. <K fC] /K 7 Song 30: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965 Solo Male Voice Double-Headed Ba r re l Drum vl>»>/l»o 0 : I 1 H M l j ) \ ) I f J I v \ n j > / »p * * i r * i i ii* * * * if 106 107 Song 39: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, B lueberry R i v e r , August 7, 1967 108 - ? -« ° > ft 1 k M r " r y J W J J / J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J I J J ^ 109 S d u u j L a s (^ 1 Song 42: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, Doig R i ve r Auqust 1967 Solo Male Voice Snare-Drum ,(})))}))) f ;J JJ u m m U J J J J M J ) J) J) \ ) ) ) ) \ JJJ J & n o y j ) J J J ) III Til—nm P t JJJJ JMJJJ1U H ) I J ?J|t,11 f i l l i n I l l " I ) I ! 3 3 g 3 £ m o o o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ w v w |v f ; r < s - > ? r ^ ^ ^ ^ t i l I 1111 i 1 n n 1 1 U L u u f i 112 B. Se lec ted S t r u c t u r a l Analyses Notes on the Analyses The analyses which f o l l o w u t i l i z e the method developed i n Chapter IV — a method o f ana l y s i s founded, f o r the most p a r t , on c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a n a l y s i s . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the a n a l y t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s method are to f e r r e t out the s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h i n and between the musical parameters of p i t c h and dura t ion i n Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The a n a l y s i s i t s e l f proceeds a t two l e v e l s of musical s t r u c t u r e — the phono log ica l and the s y n t a c t i c . These l e v e l s o f musical s t r u c t u r e u t i l i z e phonet i c , phonemic, and morphemic analyses which are r e s p e c t i v e l y aimed a t dec ipher ing the r epe r to r y of musical components (the p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and durat ions used), d e f i n i n g these musical components accord ing to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical fea tu res (main, secondary, and non-nuclear p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and d u r a t i o n s ) , and r e a l i z i n g the tendencies of musical component and musical component-group i n t e r a c t i o n (mot ives, a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c m a t e r i a l , and non-mot iv ic m a t e r i a l ) . S y n t h e t i c a l l y , the method developed i n Chapter IV may be desc r ibed as a s p e c i f i c type of mo t i v i c a n a l y s i s : one t ha t attempts to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t h i e r a r c h i -ca l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between musical components and musical component-groups i n Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The songs t ha t w i l l be analyzed here are o f f e r e d i n t h e i r t r a n s c r i b e d form in the s e c t i on p rev ious . They i nc lude songs 2, 7, 9, 13, 28, 30, 35, 39, and 42. Each o f these songs i s cons idered r ep re sen ta t i v e o f the s t r u c t u r e o f o ther songs by the same performer. For t h i s reason, 113 each song analyzed here has been ass igned a s t r u c t u r a l genre. The music of C h a r l i e Yahey i s d i v i ded i n t o four s t r u c t u r a l genres: s t r u c t u r a l genre I i nc ludes songs 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25 and i s represented by song 2; s t r u c t u r a l genre II i nc ludes songs 5, 6,. and 7 and i s represented by song 7; s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I conta ins on ly song 9; and, s t r u c t u r a l genre IV i nc ludes songs 13 and 14 and i s represented by song 13. The music of Johnnie C h i p e s i a , by comparison, i s d i v i ded i n t o three s t r u c t u r a l genres: s t r u c t u r a l genre I i nc ludes songs 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36 and i s represented by song 28; s t r u c t u r a l genre II i nc ludes songs 29, 35, 37, 38 and i s represented by song 35; and, s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I conta ins on l y song 30. The music of C h a r l i e Jumbie i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s t r u c t u r a l genres: s t r u c t u r a l genre I i nc ludes songs 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45 and i s represented by song 39; s t r u c t u r a l genre II conta ins on ly song 42. 114 Song 2: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B lueber ry R i v e r , J u l y 29, 1965  (Representat ive o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I of thei.Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey) Phono log ica l Level of Mus ical S t r uc tu re Phonet ic Musical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: G, F, D, Bb, C, E i n t e r v a l s used: M2, m3, M3, p4 durat ions used: Phonemic Musical A n a l y s i s : main p i t c h nuc l e i are G and D, secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are F and Bb non-nuc le i o f p i t c h are C and E main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor t h i rds. secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second, the i n t e r v a l which i s not cons idered a nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f ou r th the durat ions which lend themselves to being main nuc l e i of rhythm are and J# the durat ions which may be cons idered second-ary nuc l e i o f rhythm are J and J the durat ions which do not recur f r equen t l y enough to be cons idered nuc l e i of rhythm are Q , , and Jl.; p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : du ra t i on s : ;mode: 115 Sca le o f Phonet ic Phenomena: The graph which f o l l ows represents an attempt to p l o t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f main, secondary, and non-nuclear p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s , and du ra t i on s . The numbers on the graph, reading h o r i z o n t a l l y from l e f t to r i g h t , i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l notes o f the musical s e c t i o n s . Section A . "Pitct, Nuclei A. . i u - i U K of P . U L J How-Made* t> Xn-htudU J ; Vurifi'oM.1 Nutki /Vo*- (V^ /e*^  &kr<J*ls . i. ¥4 So b*( 51 £5 5"<+ +~ 4— —t—i-116" Phonemic Mus ical S t r uc tu re (Parameter of P i t c h ) : * Main p i t c h nuc l e i are stemmed notes , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and non-nuc le i o f p i t c h are notated as an " x " . 117 Phonemic Mus ical S t r uc tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : * Main du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are stemmed notes , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , and non-nuc le i of du ra t ion are represented by an " x " . 118 S y n t a c t i c Level of Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: (Only those phonet ic phenomena which are bracketed together are cons idered recu r ren t sequences.) Section A 1 fltunEfcelfMei' Scco iV.u-N^fei of ViitL flow-Mallear X*hfv&ls Zch^C Sd**£ AS I ^ 5 J * L . f -J> 1 ^  g T «o (( It. f> »«• i f Ii n • V:.-119 Morphemic Mus ical Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : Motive ( s i g n i f i c a n t musical component-groups): A b s t r a c t - M o t i v i e Ma te r i a l ( l e s s - s i g n i f i c a n t musical-component groups): Non-Mot iv ic Ma te r i a l ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t musical-component groups): NIL 120 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mo t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : I F J s i 5 t - l 6 o 7 f**° dL peto ^PP=PTT M Ml M j) ~!—H < H J > : / H i , ! j * /IT <&Un. -0-+— * #^ # # » »—#-n , Ir /A 7 121 * Motives are i n d i c a t e d by square brackets and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c ma te r i a l s are represented by double square b racke t s . 122 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour (taken from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e i n the parameter of p i t c h ) : 123 Tendency of Component I n t e r a c t i o n (the way i n which musical component-groups modify one another ) : S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s song by C h a r l i e Yahey would be an except ion i n much o f twent i e th - cen tu ry Western music as v i r t u a l l y a l l the musical ma te r i a l conta ined w i t h i n i t i s m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d . The s imp le s t manner of r e a l i z i n g the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l musical components of t h i s song are r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y to one another and to the m o t i v i c ma te r i a l p r e v i ou s l y o u t l i n e d i s to r e - f a m i l i a r i z e onese l f w i th the f i nd i n g s o f the phonet i c , phonemic and morphemic a n a l y s i s . The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t ches G, F, D, Bb, C, E; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , major second, and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; the durat ions The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are G and D, F and Bb, and C and E r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r va l 1 i c a l l y , the main n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary nucleus i s a major second, and the non-nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are $ and J» wh i l e the secondary nuc l e i are ) and J , and the non-nuc le i are , , o . The mode used i s G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d . The o v e r a l l melodic contour (as recogn ized from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s G and D spread apar t^ and descending over two octaves. The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above mus ica l phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The two imain n u c l e i , wh i l e they o u t l i n e the melodic contour , are spaced apa r t . In t h i s space they are complemented by the p i t che s F and Bb. This g ives the 124 melodic contour of the song a cascading e f f e c t and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l lows the i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e of the mode (major and minor t h i r d s ) to be preserved, w i t h the except ion of the major second. The r e s u l t of e s t a b l i s h i n g two main p i t c h nuc l e i (G and D) and complementing them w i t h secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (F and Bb) produce two c o n t r a s t i n g melodic moti ves: 1. 2. These motives are then transposed down a f ou r th and f i f t h r e s p e c t i v e l y and r e s t a t e d . Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions and as we l l as J and c) are ass igned to the fou r p i t che s G, F, Bb, D and together produce the two motives of the song: The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l works between the p i t che s G and D ( i . e . , complements them w i th the p i t ches F and Bb) and preserves the i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e of major and minor t h i r d s i n a s i m i l a r manner to the above. However, both rhythmic motives ( J . and J J ), with the except ion of t h e dotted q u a r t e r - n o t e , are combined r a the r than s t a ted s epa ra te l y . For example: 125 Another manner o f r e v e a l i n g the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s conta ined w i t h i n t h i s song i s to o u t l i n e the compos i t iona l r e q u i s i t e s f o r a tune w i th a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l c ha r ac te r . F i r s t a quadraton ic mode w i th the same ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e has to be chosen. Next, the f i r s t and t h i r d as we l l as the second and fou r th p i t ches o f t h i s mode should be ass igned the r e spec t i v e f unc t i on o f main p i t c h n u c l e i and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i . Fo l l ow ing t h i s stage the main p i t c h nuc l e i should be spaced apart and p l o t t e d descending over two octaves . The spaces between the main p i t c h nuc l e i should then be f i l l e d i n w i th the secondary p i t c h nuc l e i i n a manner t h a t u t i l i z e s the i n t e r v a l s of a major t h i r d , a minor t h i r d , and a major second and develops-two separate motives o f p i t c h . This endeavor should a l s o produce an ascending-descending melodic contour between the p i t c h n u c l e i . Each o f these motives of p i t c h should then be ass igned d i f f e r e n t , e a s i l y memorable rhythms which together w i th the motives of p i t c h should prov ide the motives f o r the song. These should then be repeated once at the f ou r t h and f i f t h below r e s p e c t i v e l y . The ab s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l (which a l s o comprises the c aden t i a l formula) should u t i l i z e the aforementioned p i t che s and make use of both rhythms. The composit ion should cadence on the lowest note o f the song, which should be the i n i t i a l p i t c h of the mode. 126 Song 7: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, B lueberry R i v e r , J u l y 29, 1965  (Representat ive of S t r u c t u r a l Genre II o f the Music of C h a r l i e Yahey) Phono log ica l Level of Mus ica l S t r u c tu re Phonet ic Musical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: Eb, C, Bb, G, F i n t e r v a l s used: M2, M3, m3, p4 durat ions used: o , Phonemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : du ra t i on s : main p i t c h nucleus i s C secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are Eb and G non-nuc le i of p i t c h are F and Bb main i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second n o n - i n t e r v a l l i e nuc l e i are a major t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f ou r th the durat ions which lend themselves to being main nuc l e i o f rhythm are J , o (or l o n g e r ) , and J the durat ions which may be cons idered second-ary n u c l e i of rhythm are J , J* , and no non-nuc le i of du ra t ion are apparent 127 Sca le of Phonetic Phenomena: 128 Phonemic Musical S t r uc tu re (Parameter of P i t c h ) : * The main p i t c h nucleus i s represented by the stemmed notes , non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and non-nuc l e i o f p i t c h are notated as an " x " . 129 Phonemic Musical S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f Du ra t i on ) : * The main du ra t i ona l n u c l e i are represented by stemmed notes , and secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i are i n d i c a t e d by non-stemmed notes. 130 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ica l S t ruc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: Section A ..... t-...:. fihifi fitck Piucltus ti**-Nuclti of Pitck ' Secondary "Pucotioua-t fatly M'* ?iU filutlt .SecpkJ&rij flckrt/affi't Mucleui ' dewMucfeac Xi*ki'</*h i i' 1 mm*1- +JL 6 7 S <? to H ! •> I. 131 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l : Mot ives : Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l s : Non-Mot iv ic M a t e r i a l : NIL The D i s t r i b u t i o n of M o t i v i c Musical M a t e r i a l s 132 133 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour: 134 Tendency of Component j I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s Eb, C, Bb, G, F; the i n t e r v a l s of a major t h i r d , major second, minor t h i r d , and p e r f e c t f o u r t h ; the durat ions o , J , , J , JV The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are C, Eb and G, and F and Bb r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main nucleus i s a minor t h i r d , the secondary nucleus i s a major second, and the non-nuc le i are a major t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are of , o (or l o n g e r ) , and J wh i l e the secondary n u c l e i are , and . The mode used i s C-Eb-F-G-Bb and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , major second, major second, and minor t h i r d . The o v e r a l l melodic contour (as recogn ized from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e of p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s Eb, C, G, and C spread apart and descending over a minor t en th . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus (C) i s spaced apart over the e n t i r e t y of each s e c t i o n . In t h i s space i t i s complemented by the secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (Eb and G) as we l l as one o f the non-nuc le i of p i t c h (Bb). The remaining non-nucleus of p i t c h (F) complements the secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (Eb and G). For example: main p i t c h nucleus complemented by secondary p i t c h nucleus Eb 135 main p i t c h nucleus complemented by non -p i t ch nucleus Bb main p i t c h nucleus complemented by secondary p i t c h nucleus G and non-nucleus F 4=1 secondary p i t c h nucleus G complemented by non-nucleus F This g ives the melodic contour of the song a cascading e f f e c t . As w e l l , t h i s a l l ows the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode (minor t h i r d s and major seconds) to be preserved. The r e s u l t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g one p i t c h nucleus and complementing i t w i th e i t h e r a secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (Eb) or a non -p i t ch nuc l e i (Bb) produces two c o n t r a s t i n g melodic mot ives: 1. 136 I 0 0 (The second motive i s the on ly one which i s transposed f o r restatement and t h i s occurs a t the f ou r th below.) Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions J , oj> , • and J as we l l as ) , J. , and are r e s p e c t i v e l y ass igned to the above mo t i v i c m a t e r i a l . C o l l e c t i v e l y they produce the motives of the song: 1. The a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c mate r i a l i s de r i ved i n two ways: by repeat ing motive one but a s s i gn ing i t a d i f f e r e n t rhythm, b*^* \?£> )»0 and . by complementing motive two w i th the secondary p i t c h nucleus G and combining the main and secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i . 137 Song 9: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer, 1966  (.Representative of S t r u c t u r a l Genre I I I o f the Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey) Phonolog ica l Level of Mus ical S t r u c tu re Phonet ic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: C, B, A, G, E i n t e r v a l s used: m2, M2, p4, p5, m3 durat ions used: o , d « , J . J . . J . -ft Phonemic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : du ra t i on s : mode: main p i t c h nucleus i s E secondary p i t c h nucleus i s A non-nuc le i o f p i t c h are C, B, G main i n t e r v a l l i e nucleus i s a major second secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f ou r th non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t f i f t h , minor second, and minor t h i r d . . main du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are J (or longer when fo l l owed by ) and and X ^ secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i are J> and . non-nuc lear durat ions, are notes longer i n du ra t i on than J t ha t are not f o l l owed by s> 138 Sca le of Phonetic Phenomena: 139 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f P i t c h ) : * The main and secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are i n d i c a t e d by stemmed notes , and the non-nuc le i of p i t c h are represented by non-stemmed notes. 140 Phonemic Musical S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f Du ra t i on ) : * Stemmed notes represent main and secondary nuc l e i o f du ra t ion whereas non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e non-nuc lear du ra t i on s . 141 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: Section f\ T " " T f * 3 </• S- 6 7 fflAiM.iiJeH<i((ie. Utotleut ^toitJdcj JjJteftMllic A/we feu* /flaw* "Pur«fIOWLI A/*Lcle.f Se&u<Ue<j 3>«r«f fowd N u c l e i j <H W ¥7 <+l M s'o Si St- S3 SS /7 /* Mlo tl VL 11 %*\ 2J- M 17 18 24 3 o 3, J ^ 7 3 3 w ,^ 142 Morphemic Musical Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ica l M a t e r i a l s : Mot ive: Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l : 1. de r i ved from motive number 1 2. de r i ved from motive number 2 S i 3. de r i ved from motive number 2 143 144 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : * Motives are e n c i r c l e d w i th f u l l l i n e s ; a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c ma te r i a l i s shown by dotted l i n e s ; the remaining musical ma te r i a l i s cons idered non -mot i v i c . 145 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour: I t.\ tr »—• '(^) '—1 146 Tendency of Component C I n te rac t i on : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s C, B, A, G, E; the i n t e r v a l s of a major second, minor second, p e r f e c t f o u r t h , p e r f e c t f i f t h , and minor t h i r d ; the durat ions o , J., J , J» , J , and fl. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are E, A, and C, B, and G r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main nucleus i s a major second, the secondary nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and the non-nuc le i are a p e r f e c t f i f t h , minor second, and minor t h i r d . The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are J , fl and J (or longer when fo l l owed by fl) wh i l e the secondary n u c l e i are X and fl, and the non-nuc le i are notes longer than J t ha t are not f o l l owed by fl. The mode used i s E-G-A-B-C and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , two major seconds, and a minor second. But, i f measured between the main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i the f i r s t three notes of the mode encompass a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The o v e r a l l melodic contour (with the except ion of the f i r s t note and the penult imate tone o f the phonemic s t r u c t u r e ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t ches A and E spread apart and encompasses a range o f only a minor s i x t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s a s , f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus (E) i s spaced i r r e g u l a r l y over the e n t i r e t y of the song. I t i s complemented by the secondary p i t c h nucleus (A) and c o l l e c t i v e l y the two produce the secondary i n t e r v a l ! i c nucleus ( pe r f e c t f o u r t h ) . 147 The secondary p i t c h nucleus (A) i s complemented by the non-nuclear p i t c h G and together they produce the main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc leus . The remaining non-nuc le i of p i t c h (C and B) complement the secondary p i t c h nucleus (A) and produce the remaining i n t e r v a l s used i n the song w i th the except ion o f the p e r f e c t f i f t h . As a r e s u l t of t h i s p i t c h usage the melodic contour i s n e i t h e r cascading nor descending. Rather, i t works between A and E u t i l i z i n g the p i t c h G and a l s o f unc t i on s above A using the p i t che s B and C. The contour may be desc r ibed as a back and f o r t h movement between two f o ca l po in t s w i th an occas iona l d i v e r s i o n to a p i t c h i n between or above. The i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode i s not kept i n t a c t throughout the song. That i s , i t dev ia tes from the o r i g i n a l o rde r i ng of i n t e r v a l s by c o n t i n u a l l y sounding the i n t e r v a l of a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . The combination of the main and secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (E and A ) , the main and secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i (M2 and p4) and the main du ra t i ona l n u c l e i ( , and J ) produces the f o l l o w i n g mot ive: 148 The combination of the main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (E and A ) , the main and secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i (M2 and p4) and the, secondary du ra t i ona l nuc l e i ( X and J*) produce the f o l l o w i n g motive: The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l i s de r i ved from both the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s and rhythms o f these motives. For example: Ab s t r a c t mo t i v i c mate r i a l de r i ved from the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of motive number 1. A A m Ab s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l de r i ved from the rhythm of motive number 2. i V ip iii The non-mot iv ic mate r i a l i s not s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d i n p i t c h , i n t e r v a l , and rhythm to be cons idered mo t i v i c or a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c m a t e r i a l . 149 Song 13: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Yahey, Halfway R i v e r , Summer 1966 (•Representative of S t r u c t u r a l Genre IV of the Music o f C h a r l i e Yahey) Phonolog ica l Level of Mus ical S t r u c tu re Phonet ic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: Eb, Gb, B, Ab i n t e r v a l s used: m3, M3, M2 durat ions used: o , o , Phonemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : durat ions : ;mode: main p i t c h nucleus i s Eb secondary p i t c h nucleus i s B non-nuc le i o f p i t c h are G and Ab main i n t e r v a l l i e nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s (have f u n c t i o n o f ' n e u t r a l t h i r d ' ) secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second non-nuclear i n t e r v a l s do not e x i s t main du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are d a n c L v ^ secondary du ra t i ona l nucleus i s the non-nuclear dura t ion i s o (or longer ) m 150 Sca le of Phonetic Phenomena: 151 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r u c tu re (Parameter of P i t c h ) : * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i and the non-stemmed notes represent non-nuc lear p i t c h e s . 152 Phonemic Mus ical S t r uc tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main and secondary du ra t i ona l nuc l e i and the non-stemmed notes represent non-nuc lear du ra t i on s . 153 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ical S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ical Components: 154 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : Mot ives: Ab s t r a c t Mo t i v i c M a t e r i a l : 1. de r i ved from motive number 1 i 4* V der i ved from motive number 1 3. . J 7 " -156 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of M o t i f i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : •CO ff*rr f f f • f f f C f fflEP^ff v V ^ i vAg_g T T \i f - m a f ff^ F=atf f S f (iff 157 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ing s : Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour: 158 Tendency o f Component I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s Eb, Gb, B, A; the i n t e r v a l s of a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , and major l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are Eb, B, and Gb and Ab r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s ( ' n e u t r a l t h i r d s ' ) and the secondary nucleus i s a major second. The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are d and J wh i l e the secondary nucleus i s and the non-nuc lear du ra t i on i s o (or l o nge r ) . The mode used i s Eb-Gb-Ab-B-(Eb) and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , major second, minor t h i r d , and a major t h i r d . The o v e r a l l melodic contour i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s Eb and B spread apart and descending r e s p e c t i v e l y over a major t e n t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i t h the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus (Eb) and the secondary p i t c h nucleus (B) are spread apart over the e n t i r e t y of each s e c t i o n . In t h i s space the main p i t c h nucleus i s comple-mented by the non-nuclear p i t c h Gb and the secondary p i t c h nucleus B. The secondary p i t c h nuc leus , on the other hand, i s complemented by the non-nuc lear p i t c h Ab. second; the durat ions o (or l o n g e r ) , J , J , and J\ The s i g n i f i c a n t , 159 This g ives the melodic contour o f the song a d e f i n i t e d cascad ing e f f e c t and a l lows the i n t e r v a l s of the mode to be preserved. The r e s u l t of e s t a b l i s h i n g one p i t c h nucleus and complementing i t w i th a non-nuc lear p i t c h produces the melodic mot ive: As w e l l , the r e s u l t o f complementing the secondary p i t c h nucleus w i t h a non-nuc lear p i t c h produces a second melodic mot ive: (Both these motives are r e s t a t ed i n t h e i r transposed ver s ions severa l t imes. Each time they recur they are sounded a major or minor t h i r d below the time p rev iou s . ) Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions J and J as w e l l as fl are r e s p e c t i v e l y ass igned to the above m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l . C o l l e c t i v e l y , they produce the motives of the song: 160 The a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c mate r i a l i s de r i ved i n three ways: by t ranspos ing a motive and a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e ; by t ranspos ing a mot ive, a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s l i g h t l y , and extend ing i t s d u r a t i o n ; . and,by a l t e r i n g i t s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e and i t s melodic contour. 161 Song 28: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965  (Representat i ve o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I of the K'usic of Johnnie Ch ipes ia ) Phono log ica l Level of Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Phonet ic Musical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: D, F, C, A i n t e r v a l s used: m3, M2, p4, M3 durat ions used: (or longer) Phonemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s : dura t ions : mode: main p i t c h n u c l e i are D and A secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are F and C non-nuc lear p i t che s are not apparent main i n t e r v a l l i e nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s ( ' n e u t r a l t h i r d ' ) secondary i n t e r v a l ! i c nucleus i s a major second non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l i s a p e r f e c t fou r th main nuc l e i o f du ra t ion are ^ and J secondary nucleus o f du ra t i on i s non-nuc lear durat ions are )• and o (or longer) I 162 Sca le of Phonetic Phenomena: 163 Phonemic Musical S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f P i t c h ) : * The stemmed notes represent main p i t c h nuc l e i and the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i . 164 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f Du ra t i on ) : * The stemmed notes represent main du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , and the non-nuc lear durat ions are notated w i th an " x " . 165 S y n t a c t i c Level of Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences of I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: Section /j i & ^ A n j Tuf<rita.((('t Aiuc(e«.s A/o\- Nuclear Xukev&l Se.et(°n ~B> SecoK<l&(>y TrfcL Mucki ff)tx<».£iiiepuxll<t Mucin J Secck<la.C'jjM'f<siSa//t'c A/aifettf ./Vofc.- flluxJea.? DwaiioKS Seef/om j) £] f StUriC- AS Sec/t'oi- ~h 166 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : Mot ives: Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l s : 1. de r i ved from motive number 1 2. de r i ved from motives 1 and 2 3. de r i ved from motives 1 and 2 NIL 168 169 Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour: 1 71 Tendency of Component I n t e r a c t i on : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components of t h i s song a re : the p i t che s D, F, A, C; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and major second; the durat ions ° (or l o n g e r ) , J .-L.J .J 1 . The main n u c l e i of p i t c h are D and A wh i l e the secondary nuc l e i are F and C. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r v a l s are major and minor t h i r d s ( ' n e u t r a l t h i r d s ' ) , a major second, and a p e r f e c t f ou r th r e s p e c t i v e l y . The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are J and J wh i l e the secondary nucleus i s and the non-nuc lear durat ions are J* and o (or l onge r ) . The mode used i s D-F-A-C and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d . The o v e r a l l melodic contour (as recogn ized from the phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f p i t c h ) i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t ches D and A spread apart and descending over a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The two main p i t c h n u c l e i (D and A) are spaced apa r t . In t h i s space they are complemented by the p i t che s F and C. The c o r r e l a t i o n of these fou r p i t che s produces the melodic mo t i v i c mate r i a l f o r the song. I t i s comprised of minor t h i r d s as we l l as major seconds. For example: melodic motive 1 172 melodic motive 2 rv > tw^ Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions ^ and J as w e l l as are ass igned to the above melodic ma te r i a l and together they produce the two motives o f the song: motive 1 motive 2 The a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c mate r i a l works between the p i t che s D and A i n a s i m i l a r manner to the motives ( i . e . , the p i t che s D and A are complemented by the notes F and C, the i n t e r v a l s of a major second, a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g durat ions .) For example: 173 As a r e s u l t of the arrangement o f p i t c h i n t h i s song the melodic contour i s cascad ing and descending. However, due to the restatement o f s i m i l a r melodic mate r i a l w i t h i n one musical s e c t i on the cascading o f the melody i s not e a s i l y recogn ized. 174 Song 35: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965  (Representat i ve o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre II of the Music of Johnnie Ch ipes ia ) Phono log ica l Level o f Mus ical S t r uc tu re Phonet ic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: C, Eb, Bb, G i n t e r v a l s used durat ions used Phonemic Mus ica l A n a l y s i s : p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s: dura t ions : mode: main p i t c h nucleus i s C secondary p i t c h n u c l e i are Eb and G non-nuc lear p i t c h i s Bb main i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f ou r t h non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are a major t h i r d and a major second main du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are secondary du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are J* , P non-nuc lear du ra t i on i s o (or longer ) 175 Scale o f Phonet ic Phenomena: 176 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r uc tu re (Parameter o f P i t c h ) : * The stemmed notes represent main p i t c h nuc leus , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and the non-nuc lear p i t che s are notated by an " x " . 177 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r uc tu re (Parameter o f Du ra t i on ) : * The stemmed notes represent main du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , the non-stemmed notes represent secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , and the non-nuc lear durat ions are notated by an " x " . 178 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ica l S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: 179 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : Mot ives : Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l : 1. de r i ved from motive number 1 2. de r i ved from motive number 2 3. de r i ved from a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e m a t e r i a l s 1 and 2 1 M M 180 Non-Mot iv ic M a t e r i a l : NIL 181 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c Mus ica l M a t e r i a l s : Iff /r. \\\ \ \\ \\ \)\ j _ y L 4 J _ J 4 E E E —h-—rrr 4* /** // / ' — *—* -—*—-TI A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Melodic Contour: 183 Tendency of Component . I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l mus ica l components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s C, Eb, G, B; the i n t e r v a l s of a minor t h i r d , major t h i r d , p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and major second; the durat ions o (or l o n g e r ) , J - J J . J .J>. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are C, Eb and G, and Bb r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r va l 1 i c a l l y , the main nucleus i s a minor t h i r d , the secondary nucleus i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , and the non-nuc l ea r i n t e r v a l s are a major t h i r d and a major second. The durat ions which may be cons idered main nuc l e i are J», J , and ^ wh i l e the secondary n u c l e i are and fl, and the non-nuc lear du ra t i on i s o (or l onge r ) . The mode i s C-Eb-G-Bb and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , major t h i r d , and minor t h i r d . The phonemic melodic contour i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s C and G spread apart and descending over one octave. The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus i s spaced apart over the e n t i r e t y o f each s e c t i o n . In t h i s space i t i s complemented by the secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (Eb and G) as w e l l as the non-nuc lear p i t c h (Bb). This g ives the melodic contour o f the song a minimal cascading e f f e c t i n i t s descension over one octave. And, the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of the mode i s d i s rup ted v i a t h i s means. The r e s u l t of grouping p i t che s i n t h i s manner produces two r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e melodic mot ives: 184 Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions <7 , / , and 6* as we l l as >» and J are r e s p e c t i v e l y ass igned to the above melodic mot ives. C o l l e c t i v e l y , they produce the motives o f the song: motive 1 motive 2 These motives are s t a ted once i n each s e c t i o n . The remainder o f musical mate r i a l conta ined w i t h i n each strophe i s a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c . And, i t i s de r i ved i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: de r i ved from motive 1 ( i n t e r v a l , p i t c h , p a r t i a l du ra t i on ) -V, % f 1 — y i : — I 1 der ived from motive 2 ( p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , p a r t i a l i n t e r v a l ) 185 de r i ved from motives 1 and 2 ( p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , and p a r t i a l i n t e r v a l ) de r i ved from motive 1 ( i n t e r v a l , p i t c h and p a r t i a l du ra t i on ) 186 Song 30: Dreamer Song by Johnnie C h i p e s i a , Halfway R i v e r , August 8, 1965 (Representat ive o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre I I I o f the Music of Johnnie Ch ipes ia ) Phono log ica l Level of Mus ical S t r u c tu re Phonet ic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: i n t e r v a l s used: Eb, C, A m3, T durat ions used: o . A . J . J . ^ Phonemic Musical A n a l y s i s : p i t c h : i n t e r v a l s : du ra t ions : main p i t c h nucleus i s C secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are Eb and A non-nuc lear p i t che s do not e x i s t main i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a minor t h i r d secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a t r i t o n e non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are not apparent main du ra t i ona l n u c l e i are J and secondary du ra t i ona l nucleus i s o» non-nuc lear durat ions are o and J 187 Sca le o f Phonetic Phenomena : 188 Phonemic Mus ical S t r u c tu re (Parameter of P i t c h ) : * The stemmed notes i n d i c a t e main p i t c h nucleus and the non-stemmed notes represent secondary p i t c h n u c l e i . 189 Phonemic Mus ical S t r u c tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : * The stemmed notes represent main du ra t i ona l nu c l e i ' , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i , and the non-nuc lear durat ions are notated by an " x " . 190 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ica l S t r uc tu re  Recurrent Sequences o f I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l Components: 191 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Musical M a t e r i a l s : Mot ive: Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l s : 1. de r i ved from i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f motive number 1 2. de r i ved from i n t e r v a l ! i c s t r u c t u r e and rhythm of motive number 1 3. der i ved from i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e and rhythm of motive number 1 192 4. de r i ved from motive number one and a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l 1 , 2 , and 3 - - a l l p i t che s g r a v i t a t e to the p i t c h C Non-Mot iv ic M a t e r i a l : NIL 193 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Cadent ia l Formula: Melodic Contour: 195 Tendency of Component I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components of t h i s song a re : the p i t che s C, Eb, A; the i n t e r v a l s o f a minor t h i r d and a p e r f e c t f i f t h ; the durat ions , and fl. The s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are C, and Eb and A r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y , the main nucleus i s a minor t h i r d and the secondary nucleus i s a t r i t o n e . The durat ions which may be cons idered main n u c l e i are J and J , the secondary nucleus i s J * and the non-nuc lear durat ions are o (or longer) and fl . The mode used i s A-C-Eb and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i e s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d and a minor t h i r d . The melodic range encompasses a t r i t o n e . The melodic contour i s o u t l i n e d by. an upward and downward movement ( to the degree o f a minor t h i r d ) from the p i t c h C. The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical ma te r i a l shareswith the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus (C) i s spread apar t and complemented by the secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (Eb and A ) . Throughout t h i s procedure the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode remains i n t a c t . And, the r e s u l t of t h i s s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of p i t c h and i n t e r v a l i s the f o l l o w i n g mot ive: Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions r and a are ass igned to t h i s melodic motive and together produce the s i n g l e motive of the song. 196 The a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c ma te r i a l works from the p i t c h C i n a s i m i l a r manner to the mot ive. That i s , i t u t i l i z e s , f o r the most p a r t , the i n t e r v a l of a minor t h i r d . For example: 197 Song 39: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, B lueberry R i v e r , August 7, 1967  (Representat ive of S t r u c t u r a l Genre I of the Music of C h a r l i e Jumbie) Phono log ica l Level o f Mus ical S t r u c tu re Phonet ic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : p i t che s used: G, Bb, D, F i n t e r v a l s used: M3, m3, M2, p4, p5 durat ions used: o (or l o n g e r ) , Phonemic Mus ical A n a l y s i s : pi t ches : i n t e r v a l s : du ra t ions : main p i t c h nuc l e i are G and D secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are Bb and F non-nuc lear p i t che s do not e x i s t main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a major second non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t fou r th s and f i f t h s main du r a t i ona l n u c l e i are J' and fl secondary du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are J and J non-nuclear durat ions are o> and o (or longer) 198 Sca le o f Phonet ic Phenomena: Phonemic Mus ical S t r u c t u r e (Parameter of P i t c h ) : 200 Phonemic Mus ica l S t r u c tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : 201 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ical S t r uc tu re Recurrent Sequences of I nd i v i dua l Mus ica l rnmnnrmntc-202 Morphemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ica l M a t e r i a l s : Moti ves: Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l : 1. de r i ved from motive number 2 203 2. der i ved from motive number 1 3. de r i ved from motive number 2 4. der i ved from motives 1 and 2 Non-Mot iv ic M a t e r i a l : NIL 204 • ° •* • — — • — • — • . J — ^ •• f •""•"•"bS' 206 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ings : Cadent ia l Formula: m Melodic Contour: 207 Tendency o f Component - I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s G, Bb, D, F; the i n t e r v a l s of a major t h i r d , minor t h i r d , major second, p e r f e c t f o u r t h , p e r f e c t f i f t h ; the durat ions o (or l o n g e r ) , J,, J , . The s i g n i f i c a n t and l e s s s i g n f i c a n t p i t c h n u c l e i are G and D, and B and F r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r va l 1 i c a l l y , the main nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary nucleus i s a major second and the non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t four ths and f i f t h s . The durat ions which may be cons idered main n u c l e i are J» and $ wh i l e the secondary nuc l e i are J and J and the non-nuc le i are o (or longer ) and . The mode used i s G-Bb-D-F and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , m a j o r t h i r d , and minor t h i r d . The phonemic melodic contour i s o u t l i n e d by the p i t che s G and D spread apar t and descending over two octaves . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The two main p i t c h n u c l e i are spaced apar t and complemented by the p i t che s F and Bb. This g ives the melodic contour o f the song a cascading e f f e c t and a l lows the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode, w i th the except ion o f the major second, to be preserved. The r e s u l t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g two main p i t c h nuc l e i (G and D) and complementing them w i th secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (F and Bb) produces three c o n t r a s t i n g melodic motives of which two work s t r i c t l y i n . . major and minor t h i r d s . 208 Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions J» , J , and d are ass igned to t h i s melodic mate r i a l and c o l l e c t i v e l y they produce the three motives o f the song. i . M — ' 11 v 11r f •= The a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c mate r i a l works between the p i t che s G and D i n a s i m i l a r manner to the motives o f the song. That i s , they u t i l i z e major and minor t h i r d s f o r one type o f mo t i v i c ma te r i a l and major seconds 210 Song 42: Dreamer Song by C h a r l i e Jumbie, Doig R i v e r , August 1967  (Representat ive o f S t r u c t u r a l Genre II of the Music of C h a r l i e Jumbie) Phono log ica l Level o f Mus ical S t r uc tu re Phonet ic Musical A n a l y s i s : i n t e r v a l s used durat ions used C, A, D, Eb, G M2, m2, M3, m3, p5 Phonemic Mus ica l Ana l y s i s  p i t c h e s : i n t e r v a l s: du ra t i on s : mode: main p i t c h nucleus i s D secondary p i t c h nuc l e i are C and Eb non-nuc lear p i t che s are A and G main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor seconds secondary i n t e r v a l l i c n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l i s a p e r f e c t f i f t h main du r a t i ona l nucleus i s J secondary du ra t i ona l n u c l e i are o* and J non-nuc lear durat ions are o (or longer) and J) * a r l r *>x .tW 211 Sca le of Phonetic Phenomena: I 212 Phonemic Mus ical S t r u c tu re (Parameter o f P i t c h ) : * The stemmed notes represent the p i t c h nuc leus , the non-stemmed notes i n d i c a t e secondary p i t c h n u c l e i , and the non-nuc lear p i t che s are notated wi th an " x " . 213 Phonemic Musical S t r u c tu re (Parameter of Du ra t i on ) : * The main and secondary du ra t i ona l nuc l e i are i n d i c a t e d by stemmed notes , and the non-nuc lear durat ions are notated by non-stemmed notes. 214 S y n t a c t i c Level o f Mus ica l S t r uc tu re ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ I /flat*. f*fer utfk tluclii | &to*<kw Twhr Mucin t -.-4--jiok-fiacieac fdthti /fauVu&l'ioHx.i Nude*} ; • _ i ' ! 215 Morphemic Mus ical Ana l y s i s M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : Motives: 1. 2. 5 Ab s t r a c t M o t i v i c M a t e r i a l s : 1. der i ved from motives 1 and 2 2. de r i ved from motive number 2 216 217 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o t i v i c Mus ical M a t e r i a l s : 218 219 A d d i t i o n a l F ind ing s : Cadent ia l Formula: 7 0 0 o o 6 Melodic Contour: 220 Tendency of Component . I n t e r a c t i o n : The i n d i v i d u a l musical components i n t h i s song a re : the p i t che s C, A, D, Eb, G; the i n t e r v a l s o f a major second, minor second, minor t h i r d , major t h i r d , and p e r f e c t f i f t h ; the durat ions O (o r l o n g e r ) , d» , cl , J , and fl. The s i g n i f i c a n t , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p i t che s are D, C and Eb, and A and G r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r va l 1 i c a l l y , the main nuc l e i are major and minor seconds, the secondary n u c l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , and the non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l i s a p e r f e c t f i f t h . The du ra t i on which may be cons idered a main nucleus i s d wh i l e the secondar-n u c l e i are J and <J» and the non-nuclear durat ions are o (or longer) and fl . The phonemic melodic contour i s p a r t i a l l y cascading over a minor n i n t h . The mode used i s A-C-D-Eb-G and o u t l i n e s the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , major second, minor second, and major t h i r d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p the above musical phenomena share w i th the o v e r a l l musical s t r u c t u r e of t h i s song i s as f o l l o w s . The main p i t c h nucleus (D) i s i r r e g u l a r l y spaced apa r t . I t i s complemented by the secondary p i t c h nuc l e i (D and Eb) and u t i l i z e s the major and minor seconds from the p re s c r i bed mode. The r e s u l t i s the f o l l o w i n g melod ic mot ive: The secondary p i t c h n u c l e i (D and Eb) on the other hand are complemented by the non-nuclear p i t che s (A and G) and make use o f a minor t h i r d from the mode to e s t a b l i s h a second melodic mot ive: 221 This mot ive, un l i k e the f i r s t , i s t ransposed when i t recurs as a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c m a t e r i a l . Rhy thmica l l y , the durat ions d » , J and ^ are ass igned to both melodic motives and c o l l e c t i v e l y account f o r the two motives o f the song: The a b s t r a c t mo t i v i c ma te r i a l which i s de r i ved from the f i r s t motive e x i s t s as a shortened and somewhat r h y t h m i c a l l y a l t e r e d ve r s i on of motive 1: However, the remaining a b s t r a c t m o t i v i c mate r i a l i s de r i ved from motive 2 by t r a n s p o s i t i o n and rhythmic a l t e r a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . 222 And, un l i k e the ma jo r i t y of the songs p r e v i ou s l y ana l yzed , non-mot iv i c mate r i a l i s apparent i n t h i s song. For example: 223 C. S t r u c t u r a l Mus ical Genres of Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs: A Comparative Study At an aura l l e v e l most of the musical mate r i a l p r e v i ou s l y analyzed appears s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r . That i s , the predominance o f major and minor t h i r d s , the cascading melodies descending over a range g rea te r than one oc tave , the m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d c a d e n t i a l formulae, and the s t r o p h i c forms are e a s i l y recogn ized as s t r u c t u r a l tendencies i n the ma jo r i t y of Beaver Indian music. However, a t a deeper l e v e l of s t r u c t u r a l a na l y s i s s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between var ious s t r u c t u r a l musical genres are apparent. In f a c t , f ou r general s t r u c t u r a l groupings can be r e a l i z e d . The purpose here i s to revea l these c o r r e l a t i o n s and v a r i a n t s . The f i r s t ca tegory , and the one which comprises the ma jo r i t y o f the sound mate r i a l used i n t h i s t he s i s ( e x a c t l y e i gh t y p e r c e n t ) , i s composed o f s t r u c t u r a l genres I and IV o f C h a r l i e Yahey, s t r u c t u r a l genre I of Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and s t r u c t u r a l genre I of C h a r l i e Jumbie. A l l songs conta ined w i t h i n these genres are s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: each makes use o f a quadraton ic mode w i t h the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of a minor t h i r d , a major t h i r d , and a minor t h i r d (the except ion i s s t r u c t u r a l genre IV o f C h a r l i e Yahey as i t u t i l i z e s a major second i n p lace of the l a s t minor t h i r d ) ; the i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor t h i r d s , the secondary n u c l e i are major seconds, and the non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are p e r f e c t four ths (which are used on ly f o r t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l purposes ) ; melodies adhere to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f the mode w i th the except ion o f the major second; main p i t c h nuc l e i are spread apar t and descend over two octaves and are complemented by 224 secondary p i t c h n u c l e i ; c o l l e c t i v e l y , the main and secondary p i t c h n u c l e i produce two mot ives , w i th c o n t r a s t i n g rhythms, t ha t move predominant-l y i n major t h i r d s , minor t h i r d s , and major seconds; the mo t i v i c ma te r i a l ho conta ined w i t h i n each song i s r e l a t e d ( i .e. 5 A > non-mot i v ie ma te r i a l e x i s t s ) ; the a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e ma te r i a l i s de r i ved from both motives as are the c aden t i a l formulae; the musical form i s always s t r o p h i c and the songs u s u a l l y cadence on the lowest note o f the p i e c e ; the melodic contours are cascading and descending over a range g rea te r than one octave. In comparison, the second group, which i s comprised of s t r u c t u r a l genre II of C h a r l i e Yahey and s t r u c t u r a l genre II o f Johnnie C h i p e s i a , i s the same as the f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l category w i th respect to m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o v e r a l l musical form. As w e l l , i t shares s i m i l a r i t i e s w i th group one i n melodic contour and ambitus, however, i t i s d i s s i m i l a r i n modal s t r u c t u r e and the arrangement o f p i t c h throughout each s t rophe. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a l l m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l s conta ined w i t h i n each song are r e l a t e d ( i . e . , A n o n - m o t i v i c ma te r i a l e x i s t s ) and the a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e mate r i a l i s de r i ved from both motives as i s the c aden t i a l formula. A l s o , the musical form i s always s t r o p h i c and the songs always cadence on the lowest note o f the p i e c e . On the other hand, the melodic contour i s l e s s obv iou s l y cascading i n t h i s group although the melodies do descend over a range l a r g e r than an octave. Un l i ke the songs p r e v i o u s l y d i scussed the composit ions o f t h i s group a l l u t i l i z e pentaton ic modes w i th the ascending i n t e r v a l - l i e s t r u c t u r e o f a minor t h i r d , two major seconds ( c o l l e c t i v e l y a major t h i r d ) , and a minor t h i r d . Melodies do preserve t h i s i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e , however, they adhere to i t l e s s than the songs o f group one. Main i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are always minor t h i r d s but secondary and non-nuclear 225 i n t e r v a l s vary. For example: song seven uses major seconds and p e r f e c t four ths r e s p e c t i v e l y wh i l e song t h i r t y - f i v e reverses t h i s o rder . The ma jo r i t y o f songs use one p i t c h nucleus and complement i t w i th secondary p i t c h nuc l e i as w e l l as non-nuc lear p i t c h e s . Motives are de r i ved from t h i s arrangement o f p i t c h and a l s o from the complementation o f secondary p i t c h nuc l e i by non-nuc lear p i t c h e s - - a p r a c t i c e which i s not u t i l i z e d i n the songs from group one. Group three i s made up o f the songs from s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I o f C h a r l i e Yahey and s t r u c t u r a l genre II o f C h a r l i e Jumbie. This music comprises approx imately f ou r percent (two songs) o f the sound mate r i a l used i n the t h e s i s . And, the on ly s i m i l a r i t i e s t h i s s t r u c t u r a l group shares w i th the previous two i s the f a c t t ha t melodies descend o v e r a l l , c aden t i a l formulae are m o t i v i c a l l y de r i ved and songs cadence on the lowest note o f the compos i t ion. The v a r i an t s may be desc r ibed as f o l l o w s : each makes use o f a pentaton ic mode w i th the r e s p e c t i v e ascending i n t e r -v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s of a minor t h i r d , two major seconds, a minor second and a minor t h i r d , a major second, a minor second, a major t h i r d ; the i n t e r v a l l i c nuc l e i are major and minor seconds, the secondary nuc l e i are p e r f e c t four ths and major and minor t h i r d s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the non-nuc lear i n t e r v a l s are co r re spond ing ly p e r f e c t f i f t h s , minor seconds, minor t h i r d s and p e r f e c t f i f t h s ; melodies do not adhere s t r i c t l y to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s of the modes; main p i t c h nuc l e i are complemented, by and l a r g e , by secondary p i t c h nuc l e i and non-nuc lear p i t c h e s ; c o l l e c t i v e l y , they produce the motives f o r each song; the m o t i v i c ma te r i a l conta ined w i t h i n each song i s not t o t a l l y r e l a t e d ( i . e . , non-mot iv ic ma te r i a l i s p r e s en t ) ; as w e l l , a b s t r a c t - m o t i v i e ma te r i a l s are der i ved i n d i v i d u a l l y 226 r a the r than s y n t h e t i c a l l y from the mot ives ; mus ica l form va r i e s from non - s t roph i c to s t r o p h i c ; melodic ambitus d i f f e r s from a minor s i x t h to a minor n i n t h ; melodic movement i s p r i m a r i l y i n major seconds; melodic contour va r i e s from segmented cascading to a back and f o r t h movement between two f o ca l po in t s of p i t c h . The remaining s t r u c t u r a l group i s comprised of one song by C h a r l i e Yahey ( s t r u c t u r a l genre I I I ) . S t r u c t u r a l l y , i t shares s i m i l a r i t i e s w i th the songs p r e v i ou s l y d i s cu s sed , however, i t a l so possesses c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s own. The c o r r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h groups one and two are as f o l l o w s : the i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus of a minor t h i r d i s used; the melody adheres s t r i c t l y to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of the p re s c r i bed mode; a l l the m o t i v i c ma te r i a l s are r e l a t e d ( i . e . , non-mot iv i c ma te r i a l i s ab sent ) ; main p i t c h nuc l e i are complemented by secondary p i t c h n u c l e i to produce the m o t i v i c ma te r i a l s f o r the song; the musical form i s s t r o p h i c . As w e l l , group four shares a s i m i l a r melodic contour (back and f o r t h movement between a f oca l po i n t of p i t c h ) to group th ree . And, the c aden t i a l formulae o f a l l f ou r groups i s m o t i v i c a l l y d e r i v e d . The va r i an t s f o r group four may be expressed as f o l l o w s : the mode used i s t r i t o n i c and has the ascending i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e o f two minor t h i r d s ; the melodic ambitus i s a t r i t o n e and the o v e r a l l contour of the melody i s not descending; the secondary i n t e r v a l l i c nucleus i s a t r i t o n e ; only one motive i s used f o r the song; and, the song does not cadence on i t s lowest note. In summary, Beaver Indian dreamer songs as mani fest by the music of C h a r l i e Yahey, Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and C h a r l i e Jumbie may be grouped i n t o four s t r u c t u r a l c a t e go r i e s . By and la rge a l l u t i l i z e m o t i v i c a l l y 227 der i ved c aden t i a l formulae and s t r o p h i c musical forms. However, each group i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other by the i n d i v i d u a l treatment o f mode, the s e l e c t i o n of p i t c h n u c l e i , the complementation of p i t c h nuc l e i by secondary and non-nuc lear p i t c h e s , the d e r i v a t i o n o f a b s t r a c t -mo t i v i c ma te r i a l s from mot ives , melodic adherence to the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e s of modes, melodic movement, melodic range, and melodic contour. Some var iance i n the use of the above musical phenomena must be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each of these three performers. D. A d d i t i o n a l Mus ical De s c r i p t i on Throughout the course o f t r a n s c r i b i n g and s t r u c t u r a l l y ana l y z i ng Beaver Indian music a d d i t i o n a l i n fo rmat ion regard ing i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was r e a l i z e d . This i n fo rmat ion was not d i r e c t l y deduced from the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , the s e c t i on on musical t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , or the chapter on Beaver Indian music and c u l t u r e . Rather, i t i s the s y n t h e t i c product of a l l t h ree . The d i s cu s s i on here i s an attempt to revea l these f i nd i n g s and i t i s organ ized i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : p i t c h ; rhythm; r e g i s t r a t i o n ; dynamics; a r t i c u l a t i o n and ph ra s i ng ; vocal techn iques ; a c o u s t i c a l f a c t o r s ; i m p r o v i z a t i o n ; embel l i shment; song t e x t ; form; and,,musical c o g n i t i o n . P i t c h The melodies o f Beaver music u s u a l l y begin i n the uppermost r e g i s t e r o f the s i ng i ng vo ice and cascade down to the lowest note o f the song. They commonly u t i l i z e a range o f e i t h e r a p e r f e c t t w e l f t h o r two octaves , however, a few songs u t i l i z e as small a melodic ambitus as a p e r f e c t f i f t h . Melodic movement i s p r i m a r i l y i n major and minor t h i r d s , but , 228 p e r f e c t f o u r t h s , f i f t h s and major seconds are a l so commonly used. Scales a r e , f o r the most p a r t , e i t h e r pentaton ic or quadraton ic although t r i t o n i c and hepta ton i c modes are i n ev idence. The use o f a c c i d e n t a l s i s v i r t u a l l y nonex i s tent ( i . e . , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new p i t c h to an e s t a b l i s h e d mode) as i s modulat ion to another mode dur ing the course of a song. Modulat ion w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode, on the other hand, does take p lace and i s u s u a l l y a t the p e r f e c t f i f t h above. With regard to temperment no mechanical p i t c h measuring dev ice was used.^ And, from the aura l a na l y s i s t ha t was c a r r i e d out no f i x e d tun ing system was recogn ized ( i . e . , the p i t c h "A" can vary 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from 440 cyc le s per second). Wi th in strophes ( s e c t i o n s ) , however, the temperament o f the p i t che s i s ma in ta ined .^ Whi le the temperment o f p i t c h appears to f unc t i on on a s l i d i n g s ca l e o f approx imately 100 cents the s i z e of melodic i n t e r v a l s remains permanently f i x e d . I n te r va l s i z e s seem very s i m i l a r to Western temperment w i th the except ion of the major and minor t h i r d s . Occa s i ona l l y they appear f l a t and sharp r e s p e c t i v e l y and g ive the appearance o f be ing " n e u t r a l t h i r d s " . In re ference to i n t o n a t i o n three ba s i c conventions were deduced v i a aura l a n a l y s i s . They a re : notes above "D" on the s t a f f - l i n e are u s ua l l y sung sharp; notes below "E " on the s t a f f - l i n e are f r equen t l y sung f l a t ( e s p e c i a l l y "A " to " F " below the s t a f f ) ; the notes i n between are u s u a l l y sung more " i n tune " . A l s o , p i t ches t ha t are sung a t a loud volume are f r equen t l y sharp whereas p i t che s tha t are sung s o f t l y are o f t en f l a t . The sharpening or f l a t t e n i n g o f a note i s seldom more than a qua r te r of a tone and can range from one to f i f t y cents . The remaining phenomenon r e l a t e d to i n t o n a t i o n i s the speech de r i ved musical 229 tone. I t occurs when a new s y l l a b l e i s s t a r t e d and i t s exact p i t c h i s v i r t u a l l y imposs ib le to determine a u r a l l y . Rhythm The tempo f o r Beaver music seldom va r i e s from J = 152-160 and i s always e s t a b l i s h e d by the drum. In cases where var iance occurs i t i s e i t h e r as a " r i t a r d " a t the end of a strophe or as a gradual " a c c e l e r -ando" from s e c t i o n to s e c t i o n . 8 The durat ions used i n t h i s music are as f o l l o w s : The ones tha t are used c o n s i s t e n t l y a re : J \ o . The shortest durations ( P , J> , ) are u s ua l l y appoggiaturas or grace notes depending on whether they occur on the beat or before i t r e s p e c t i v e l y . By and la rge these durat ions lead d i r e c t l y to a note three to ten times i t s va lue. The longest durat ions ( u s u a l l y appear a t the beginning and end o f a musical phrase. The rhythm of the drum accompaniment to the dreamer songs i s always p layed i n steady qua r te r notes. The vocal p a r t , on the other hand, can be syncopated ( J . fl), symmetrical ( J ) ) ) ) , or a combination of the two ( ).fl)) ). General tendencies seem to vary from song to song and from performer to performer. R e g i s t r a t i o n Three r e g i s t e r s are apparent i n Beaver Indian vocal music. They a re : _ -e--( o . high r e g i s t e r middle r e g i s t e r *low r e g i s t e r 230 The upper r e g i s t e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a head v o i c e q u a l i t y , w h i l e t he m i d d l e and low r e g i s t e r s a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y e p i t o m i z e d by t h r o a t and c h e s t v o i c e q u a l i t i e s . The o c c a s i o n a l p i t c h i s sung above t he n o t a t e d l i m i t s o f t he h i g h r e g i s t e r b u t i t i s a lway s p r oduced " f a l s e t t o " . Dynamics Three b a s i c l e v e l s o f l o u d n e s s a r e used i n t h i s m u s i c . They a r e : l o u d , medium l o u d , and s o f t . They u s u a l l y g r a d u a t e i n t o one a n o t h e r i n t he manner o f a d im inuendo w h i c h u s u a l l y l a s t s f o r an e n t i r e m u s i c a l s e c t i o n ( t h e c a s c a d i n g o f a m e l o d y ) . Songs u s u a l l y b e g i n l o u d and end s o f t l y . Notes sung i n t h e h i g h r e g i s t e r a r e f r e q u e n t l y t he l o u d e s t no te s o f a song and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , p i t c h e s sounded i n t he m i d d l e and bo t tom r e g i s t e r s a t t a i n t h e dynamic ma rk i n g s o f "mf " and " p " . A r t i c u l a t i o n and P h r a s i n g S t a c c a t o i s t h e l e a s t used method o f a r t i c u l a t i n g p i t c h w h i l e l e g a t o i s t h e most common. The s t a c c a t o n o t e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o s h o r t p h r a s e s and i s u s u a l l y sounded o n l y once . The l e g a t o n o t e , i n c o m p a r i s o n , i s n o r m a l l y u t i l i z e d i n l o n g m e l o d i c ph r a s e s and i s n o t l i m i t e d t o a s i n g l e appea rance p e r m u s i c a l p h r a s e . Ph r a s e s a r e n o t d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e p e r f o r m e r runs o u t o f b r e a t h , r a t h e r , t h e y appea r t o be p r e - d e t e r m i n e d and a r e o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s . A c c e n t u a t e d no te s o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y and a r e c o n f i n e d t o t he b e g i n n i n g o f a m e l o d i c ph r a s e and t o speech d e r i v e d m u s i c a l t o n e s . 231 Vocal Techniques Vocal techniques i n c l ude the use of head, t h r o a t , and chest vo ice as we l l as f a l s e t t o . They normal ly occur i n accordance w i th the vocal r e g i s t e r s mentioned e a r l i e r . Vocal tens ion i s u t i l i z e d m in ima l l y i n Beaver Indian s i n g i n g and on ly occurs when the s i nge r i s e i t h e r : s i n g i ng i n the uppermost r e g i s t e r , or enunc i a t i ng n o n - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s a t the end o f a song somewhat i n the manner o f heightened speech. V i b r a to i s common i n t h i s music. I t u s u a l l y takes p lace on p i t che s longer i n du ra t i on than a dotted qua r te r note. The width of the v i b r a t o can be as much as 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from the i n i t i a l p i t c h . I t s speed u sua l l y corresponds w i t h the drum beats . A c o u s t i c a l Factors Mus ical s i t u a t i o n s f o r prophecy or dance are t r a d i t i o n a l l y held i n a l a rge t i p i , a lthough la rge log cabins have been used more r e c e n t l y and these events are a l s o he ld out o f doors when the weather permi t s . An i n t e r e s t i n g a c o u s t i c a l phenomenon occurs dur ing the performance of dance songs. The s ingers t r a d i t i o n a l l y hold the drum i n f r o n t o f t h e i r mouths(see p l a te s 3 and 4 of the appendix) i n order to prevent any e v i l s p i r i t s from en te r i n g t h e i r bodies and a l s o to stop women from seeing t h e i r i nner s p i r i t . A c o u s t i c a l l y , t h i s p r a c t i c e produces sympathetic v i b r a t i o n s from the drum head to the face which resonate i n the s i n g e r s ' o r a l c a v i t y and upper chest . Improvi z a t i o n From the i n fo rmat ion a v a i l a b l e ( i . e . , the tape recorded musical examples) no evidence was found o f improv i za t i on i n dreamer songs. 232 As a matter o f f a c t , the r e p e t i t i o n o f musical mate r i a l remains exact from strophe to s t rophe, from performer to performer, and a l s o when p rophet i c songs are u t i l i z e d i n the context o f dance. Embel1ishment The embell ishment o f p i t c h i s f requent i n Beaver music, but , such i s not the case w i t h rhythm. The f o l l o w i n g are the ways i n which p i t c h i s embe l l i shed i n t h i s music: a portamento or gradual g l i s sando (up or down) which encompasses a l l the po s s i b l e microtones between the two ass igned p i t c h e s ; the f l u c t u a t i o n of p i t c h up and down (no more than 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n ) w i t h i n one beat ; the sharpening o r f l a t t e n i n g o f a p i t c h between one and f i f t y c en t s ; a r ap id s l i d e up or f a l l o f f from a p i t c h a t the end o f i t s du ra t i on ( t h i s embell ishment takes p lace much f a s t e r than the portamento and does not proceed d i r e c t l y to another p i t c h ) ; a wide vocal v i b r a t o which undulates a t the speed of the drum and t r a v e l s a d i s t ance of no more than 50 cents i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n from the i n i t i a l p i t c h ; a speech de r i ved musical tone as opposed to a m u s i c a l l y de r i ved musical tone. Text The t e x t of a l l dreamer songs i s comprised of n o n - l e x i c a l s y l l a b l e s . Form S t roph i c form i s common to Beaver Indian dreamer songs. However, through-composed songs are a l s o i n ev idence. The length of the sec t i on s i n most dreamer songs which are s t r o p h i c i s u s ua l l y the same. 233 Musical Cogn i t i on In re fe rence to the way i n which music i s learned i n Beaver c u l t u r e noth ing i s known. However, i t can be assumed t h a t o ra l t r a d i t i o n serves a major r o l e i n the t ransmi t tance of t h i s behav ior . 234 Footnotes 1 The sound mate r i a l f o r t h i s t he s i s i s comprised e n t i r e l y of the songs of these three i n d i v i d u a l s . The i r s o c i e t a l r o l e — shaman — d i c t a t e s almost one-hundred percent of the musical p r a c t i c e s i n Beaver Indian c u l t u r e . For t h i s reason t h e i r music was s e l e c t e d f o r s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . B i o g r aph i ca l i n fo rmat ion on these performers i s conta ined i n the Appendix, page 257. 2 The phonet ic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w i l l be presented here. The phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , on the other hand, w i l l on ly appear as pa r t of the s t r u c t u r -a l ana ly ses . 3 In the past some ethnomus ico log i s t s have attempted to f i t non-Western rhythms i n t o a Western framework r a t he r than no t a t i n g t h i s music s t r i c t l y as i t sounds (England 1964). This p r a c t i c e has l ed to the m i s rep re sen ta t i on o f many rhythms indigenous to non-Western music. 4 S t r u c t u r a l musical genres are determined, by and l a r g e , by the modal s t r u c t u r e o f each song. Fur ther i n fo rmat ion regard ing the modes used i n each song, modal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and mode groupings may be obta ined by c o n s u l t i n g the Appendix, pages 258 and 259. 5 L i n e a r l y , between the p i t che s G and D there are a t l e a s t f i v e notes o f s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n . 6 The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were played at p i t c h s epa ra te l y on the piano and the f l u t e to deduce an approximate understanding of temperament-and i n t o n a t i o n . No devices such as a strobocon or melograph were u t i l i z e d . 1 The e n t i r e p i t c h o f a melody may r i s e or f a l l a qua r te r of a tone (50 cents ) from one strophe to another. I t may change s i m i l a r l y from one song to another. 8 Each phrase i s p layed f a s t e r than the one p rev ious . This e s t a b l i s h e s a f e e l i n g of " r u sh ing toward the end" of the song much l i k e Chinese Amoy music. 235 REFERENCES CITED England, C. 1964 "Symposium on T r a n s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s : A Huwke Song With Musical Bow", Ethnomusicology, 8: 223-277. CHAPTER VII Conclus ion The fo rego ing study attempted to develop and u t i l i z e an a n a l y t i c a l approach i l l u m i n a t i v e of the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Chapter I revea led t ha t the s t r u c t u r e of non-Western music does not always conform to Western mus i co l og i ca l expecta t ions and t ha t the compre-hension and app re c i a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s music depends upon the d i scovery o f a v i a b l e s t r u c t u r a l pe r s pec t i v e . Chapter I I , a survey o f the development o f s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s i n ethnomusicology, d i s c l o s e d t ha t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l procedures of non-Western music were not s tud ied f u l l y u n t i l approx imately 1955 and t ha t wh i l e s t r u c t u r a l s tud ie s have been pursued a v i d l y s ince 1955 they have been a p p l i e d , by and l a r g e , to high a r t c u l t u r e s which possess w r i t t e n knowledge on the t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e i r music. Chapter I I I presented an overview of the c e n t r a l tenets and methods o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m . Chapter IV c o r r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c aspects of s t r u c t u r a l i s m w i th musical a na l y s i s and thereby developed a method f o r examining the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The method developed i n t h i s chapter was, i n essence, seen as a s p e c i f i c type of m o t i v i c a na l y s i s aimed at d i s c o ve r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the musical component-groups - 236 -237 i n Beaver Indian dreamer songs. Chapter V presented an overview of Beaver Indian music and c u l t u r e so t ha t the reader cou ld have a f u l l e r pe r spec t i ve of the music to undergo s t r u c t u r a l s c r u t i n y . Chapter VI app l i ed the method developed i n Chapter IV to the s t r u c t u r a l a na l y s i s of f o r t y - f i v e Beaver Indian dreamer songs and subsequently presented s p e c i f i c i n fo rmat ion on the s t r u c t u r e of these songs. S y n t h e t i c a l l y , these s i x chapters developed a method which, through i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , presented some knowledge and understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs; put forward musical t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of sound mate r i a l h i t h e r t o unanalyzed; and, developed a method f o r the purpose o f s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s t ha t has never before been used i n the a n a l y s i s o f any North American Indian music. The evidence presented i n t h i s t he s i s revea led the a b i l i t y of s t r u c t u r a l musical a na l y s i s to d i s cove r and i n t e r p r e t the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. However, i t a l s o revea led i n d i r e c t l y t ha t much musical i n fo rmat ion i s out of the bounds o f s t r u c t u r a l musical a n a l y s i s . I t should be made c l e a r t ha t no attempt was made i n t h i s t he s i s to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between words and mus ic, to conceive of music as language, or to d i s cove r c u l t u r a l behaviors on the bas i s of musical pa t t e rn s . As w e l l , i t should be po inted out t ha t no attempt was made to recommend tha t s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods rep lace convent iona l methods of a n a l y s i s . On the con t r a r y , the s t r u c t u r a l i s t methods presented here were developed from prev ious s cho l a r s h i p i n ethnomusicology. Fu r the r , i t should be recogn ized t ha t t h i s e n t i r e ethnomus ico log ica l i n v e s t i g a t i o n does not represent the a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c models to musical a n a l y s i s . Rather, i t demonstrates the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m to musical a n a l y s i s 238 f o r the express purpose of ga in ing some knowledge and understanding o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The t he s i s i t s e l f has faced many problems. The three most t r o u b l e -some of these problems emulated from the complex network of d e f i n i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and f e e l i n g s which appear to encompass the term s t r u c t u r a l i s m . The f i r s t problem developed from attempts to convince the reader t ha t the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a na l y s i s was not an attempt to present a S t r au s s i an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f music - - to express an a n a l y t i c a l model designed to r e a l i z e common denominators o f musical s t r u c t u r e between var ious c u l t u r e s o f the wor ld - - but r a t h e r , was an attempt to develop a methodology capable of i l l u m i n a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs. The second problem developed from attempts to e x p l a i n the f a c t t ha t music i s not a language but t ha t music possesses the s t r u c t u r a l components o f language. The t h i r d problem, and the most troublesome o f the t h r ee , arose from the confus ion c reated by the use o f s t r u c t u r a l i s t t e rm ino log ie s to e x p l a i n s t r u c t u r a l musical r e l a t i o n s . These problems hindered the conveyance o f the more important aspect of t h i s t h e s i s : namely, the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver Indian dreamer songs. For t h i s reason, f u tu re research on s t r u c t u r a l i s m and musical a n a l y s i s - -research t ha t would enable a c l e a r e r t rans fo rmat ion to e x i s t between these two i n t e r r e l a t e d areas of study - - would b e n e f i t not on ly a study of t h i s nature but a l s o ethnomus ico logy, in genera l . The re levance and r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s t he s i s to the e n t i r e gamut of e thnomus ico log ica l research w i l l , no doubt, be eva luated by s cho la r s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The study i t s e l f has not only presented musical i n fo rmat ion on the s t r u c t u r e o f Beaver Indian dreamer 239 songs but a l s o put forward a method f o r d i s cove r i n g and v e r b a l i z i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s music to people out s ide the immediate community of producers. To the l a t t e r , the reader must decide f o r h imse l f whether t h i s s t r u c t u r a l i s m i s a v i a b l e way of adding to the understanding o f non-Western music or whether i t i s noth ing more than an i n t e l l e c t u a l c a s t l e i n the sky tha t has proved q u i t e i n e f f e c t u a l i n hand l ing the ear thy s t u f f of s o c i a l r e a l i t y - - namely, the s t r u c t u r e of Beaver Indian dreamer songs. APPENDIX Map 1 Geographic Locat ion of Athabascan Indian Tr ibes (Murdoch 1972) Map 2 Geographic Locat ion o f the Beaver Indians (R id ington 1968) Map 3 Geographic. Locat ion of Beaver Indian Bands (Honigman 1946) P l a te s 1 and 2 The Phy s i ca l Appearance of the Beaver Indian S ingle-Frame Snare Drum P la te s 3 and 4 A Group S ing ing S i t u a t i o n i n which the S i n g l e -Frame Drum i s used P l a te s 5 and 6 Phy s i ca l Appearance of the Double-Headed Ba r re l Drum P la te s 7 through 16 Char ley Yahey F i t t i n g a New Sk in onto a Snare Drum B i og raph i ca l Notes on the Performers Modes' Used, Modal Re l a t i on sh i p s and Mode Groups A d d i t i o n a l Mus ical T r a n s c r i p t i o n s - 240 -Map 1 \$i E S K I M O 241 K O Y U K O N I N G A L I K I T A NA NA / K U T C H I N / T A N A I N A O k T E N A J E S N X — X , / H A R E T U T C H O N E / / M O U N T A I N J N O T | 5 A T U D E N E E S K I M O T E L U 3 W K N I P E ~ - S J . A V E „ T S I V S E K A N I C A R W E H S H U S W / B E A V E R j SARSI \ I L J ^ C K F O C / C H f f E W T A N I ck E E ( Murdoch 1972 ) ( Ridington 1968 ) 243 Map 3 Beaver Indian Reserves (Map after Honigmann 1946) 244 Plate 1 245 246 Plate 247 248 P l a t e g Plate 6 251 P l a t e 8 P l a t e 9 Plate 11 254 P l a t e l!+ 255 Plate 15 256 P l a t e 16 257 B iog raph i ca l Notes on the Performers Very l i t t l e b i o g r aph i ca l i n fo rmat ion was a v a i l a b l e on C h a r l i e Yahey, Johnnie C h i p e s i a , and C h a r l i e Jumbie due l a r g e l y to the f a c t tha t I was not the d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t of t h e i r music. However, i t i s known tha t a l l three of these men were e l d e r l y (over f i f t y year s ) when the sound mate r i a l was recorded (1964). C h a r l i e Yahey was cons idered over e i gh t y years o f age a t the time the f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out and i s s t i l l b e l i e ved to be l i v i n g i n the area today. The s o c i e t a l r o l e o f each of these s ingers was t ha t of a shaman (dreamer). And, each t r a v e l l e d f r equen t l y between three set t lements (B lueber ry , Doig and Halfway R i ve r s ) on the Beaver Indian Reserve. Accord ing to R id ington (1975), however, they i n f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d the se t t lement of Prophet R i ve r . As w e l l , C h a r l i e Yahey was cons idered to be the best s i nge r i n Beaver Land and Johnnie Ch ipes i a was thought to be the best s t o r y t e l l e r . I t i s not known whether these accompl i sh -ments are r e l e van t to the acceptance of t h e i r prophes ies . Some evidence has been presented r e c e n t l y (R id ington 1968) on the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Beaver Indians by Anglo-Canadian c u l t u r e . However, the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s phenomenon on t r a d i t i o n a l Beaver Indian music (dreamer songs) appears min imal . That i s , the performance of t h i s music, i t s symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the p r a c t i c e of dreaming were s t i l l very much " i n t a c t " dur ing the summers of 1964 through 1968. And, i t i s thought to s t i l l e x i s t . 258 Modes Used, Modal R e l a t i o n s h i p s , and Mode Groups Char ley Yahey Group I - a l l modes are quadraton ic and share the same i n t e r v a l l i c content G m T B b M 3 D m / ( s o n g S 1.2,3,4,9,10,11,12) E i 3 G M 3 B m 3 D ^ 8> A m 3 C M 3 E i 3 G < S O n 9 S 1 5 a n d 1 6> Group II Group I I I F Ab C Eb m3 M3 m3 D _ F _ A _ C m3 M3 m3 C E b _ G _ B b F m3 M3 m3 p5 (songs 17,18.19,20,21,22,23,25) (song 24) (songs 5,6,7) A C E G B , „„ i 3 M 3 m 3 M 3 ( s o n 9 9 ) Group IV - both modes are s i m i l a r i n i n t e r v a l l i c content W V * <Db> <*»<>"> Johnnie Ch ipes i a Group I - a l l modes are quadraton ic and have the same i n t e r v a l l i c content Group II Group I I I D_F_A__C m3 M3 m3 A _ C _ E _ G m3 M3 m3 C E b _ G _ B b F m3 M3 m3 p5 A _ C _ E b m3 m3 (songs 26,27,28,32,36,39) (songs 31,33,34) (songs 29,35,37,38) (song 30) C h a r l i e Jumbie Group I - both modes are qua t r a t on i c and have the same i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e W e ( S 0 " 9 S 10,43,44,45) Group II (+ Mode Groups correspond to S t r u c t u r a l Musical Genres.) 260 ADDITIONAL MUSICAL TRANSCRIPTIONS The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s which f o l l o w represent the remainder of the sound mate r i a l used f o r t h i s t h e s i s . The i n s t rumenta t ion f o r these songs i s i d e n t i c a l to the songs presented i n Chapter VI. That i s , a l l songs i n c l ude so lo male vo ice w i t h b a r r e l -drum accompaniment. (The except ions are songs 40 and 41 i n which C h a r l i e Jumbie uses the snare-drum.) For the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s presented here, on ly the vo ice pa r t i s notated. The drum accompani-ment i s omi t ted . The p i t c h of the drum, however, i s shown in parenthes i s a t the end of the song t i t l e . As ide from these minor a l t e r a t i o n s , th^^nlpJiationaT procedures used here correspond e x a c t l y w i th those used i n Chapter VI. 261 —•—-—•—— ff/^J^x^ I T f f l f f l T ? " P ' T ^ T " 0 ^ ^ — n u —ffi r c c c L L C C r — - M f — L ^ H - J ^ J j -if — 1 — — r - r — op, - L 1 , \ ^ — — Y 1 i 1 ^ f »' J *' 1 — j - ? — i $ — — > f 1 f 1 f Y\$ii\ ~~ U—r 1 ± ? L\—0 Py) ' r r i r f , h r * — t i -y - —*> ' — 0 0 y) t \tM i — i f 11 f f 1 1 fSony 2 : f/W fm (?Uf>k±J?i 263 264 A* ^> * Jim. p e e o *L. pate a , ; f i^W^-r: v -V * A * V O r f A A 0 ( 0 Ot i7oCo „ w > ? 5 ^ , Y 1 ! ~~z H * f -~ ^ -^ jui w ^  Aft V M. A^ Ht i ~ s-firo|>Ae_fl>) « 265 266 SO***. «_ * As-fig, $OIUJ processes fiom iosfaofU tU-h*f» /fee fespeq Sony 7: CiUi t* CUfhf £1 268 269 270 — ( £ ^ 7 ^ — M T T — i r> \ \ \\}} ^ — i — r u * i •* • • ^ * P'^^^rTP^^ ^ - — I f l L C U U t t SornH^CiUi in Ch*pte? TJ1 j _ - ^ ; . Son* m Vreawirrinir^^ &uet. * if W I ' f b p T n L J U [ 1 \f)\} J 5^  p6to 1 ^ —1 3 -x . i • 11111 n i i t i t 272 ^ * > 274 ^ ~ £ J « « . p » e » « - p o e o z (9 * TTT t i t l e S B • * p e e o v *> ^ ^ P* v ^ J- 1 S T - !6o i r 275 2 7 6 • • 9-6 c» ^ *~ 278 279 a x, e> o * o 280 — y . . . L . L . \ — t . L . I ~ — . _ . < S \ . I g l -reus C M w o or 5»iropne MM** PK» ^oj_ ****** ? - ta » » — — ^ — 1 — J 7 » w y A*ysH^+^^ 6 K g ; ) — —1 ffi) r c c c c r t c ) | 1 v y j i — 1 — K b r , « r * . u * — , M n M — * n \ \ ft > 1 y - n i 1 ^ n M — n r ^ D i i ^ 7 — -1 281 282 284 33 fcjJJ.' J J J J „ G v \ j i ^ ^ o——o—p(_o *—• + * o — * 1 I fk t r w - Sttautr A C 1 285 286 — I p - H — 1 1 n ' 1 1 — L — 1 -—w y~\\—\i \\ b&f j £ r * ^ • — j ^ - ^ O e S<JU*L^HJ J S « « ^ 4 ^ «S JAj y M M ~ U 11 U 11 J * M 38. *Drtauii*r inef £*i JOAMUC Gkip€tfm. f/*/Am J Vh*fJkMmbi?} »ft} (dtmm pUti oJ C W ,„ J ^ ' ^ £U — W L ^ J - H J — k o~h—i—wJ> MJ- r >u J—— 0 1 • ' f » it v i 1 1—r~1—rr~1—r^r~ 287 ^ — — ^ V A A — * * — * g] Pit Q O 288 SoMI 4 290 ±3 i£f-;if,jjj.,nj^ JflL 1 t — 2 — i # I . . 7 ^ * — ' IST-I&o i p o t * ^ o e o 291 2 9 2 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, S. and K i e f e r , F. 1965 "Some Remarks on L i n g u i s t i c Theory " , Acta L i n g u i s t i c a  Academiae Sc ient ia rum Hungar icae, 15: 3-4. 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Co rne l l U n i v e r s i t y P res s , New York. 309 ANNOTATED DISCOGRAPHY R i d i n g t on , Robin Beaver Indian Dreamer Songs, tape record ings c o l l e c t e d between 1964 and 1968, unpubl i shed. An ed i t ed ve r s i on o f these songs ( i . e . , that which was used as the sound ma te r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s ) i s conta ined i n the appendix. 

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