UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The emergency and constitutional change in India Johal, Sarbjit Singh 1977

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THE. EMERGENCY AND CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN  INDIA  by  S A R B J I T SINGH JOHAL B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f R e a d i n g ,  1974  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P o l i t i c a l  Science  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e , 1977 ©  Sarbjit  Singh Johal,  1977  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  it  freely  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  may  representatives.  financial  of  University  PcrUM^oJ of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  is  vAOy  ''97?  of  British for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  available  by  gain  shall  Suh^Csj  Columbia  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  Department  The  thesis  of  this  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This study i s concerned w i t h the e f f e c t of I n d i a ' s s t a t e  of  emergency 1975-77, on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n .  A l -  t h o u g h t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y o f J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 7 5 was i n v o k e d u n d e r Article  352 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  i t r e p r e s e n t e d an i m p o r t a n t b r e a k i n  I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l 1975, I n d i a largest often  was r e f e r r e d  democracy."  Her p o l i t i c a l  for  and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y  G a n d h i p r o p o s e d a n d p a s s e d c e r t a i n amendments The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s  ecutive,  parties,  Minister  to the Indian  l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l  government and o p p o s i t i o n  o f t h e amendments a r e  government-opposition r e l a t i o n s , ex-  s o c i a l r e f o r m and f e d e r a l i s m .  tions  powers, i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , economic A detailed  parties.  account i s given of the  t h e Congress P a r t y and between I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e recommenda-  o f t h e Swaran S i n g h Committee a r e a n a l y z e d . In examining the v i a b i l i t y  26,  constitu-  i s t o examine t h e r e a s o n s  implications  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n debate w i t h i n  it  where  were  t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e amendments.  analyzed f o r p o l i t i c a l  the  countries  o f emergency t h e government o f P r i m e  The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  and  Prior to  collapsed.  During the state  Constitution.  1947.  t o b o t h a t home a n d a b r o a d a s t h e " w o r l d ' s  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h other A s i a n and A f r i c a n  t i o n a l governments  Indira  development since  i s hypothesized that  o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n I n d i a  the Indian Constitution,  1950, c o n t a i n e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  s i o n s and i t s . emergency powers.  a s adopted on J a n u a r y  between i t s l i b e r a l  democratic  These b r o a d emergency powers  provi  proved  antithetical  t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government.  I t i s further  hypothesized  t h a t the maintenance o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government r e q u i r e s a consensus between the  the  government and t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m .  as t o the r u l e s  I n developing these hypotheses  K o t h a r l ' s m o d e l o f o n e - p a r t y d o m i n a n c e and t h e M a r x i s t m o d e l o f conflict  are u t i l i z e d .  Finally,  class  the h y p o t h e s e s o f the paper and t h e  two m o d e l s a r e r e e x a m i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e e m e r g e n c y p e r i o d of  of  and  t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l changes t h a t o c c u r r e d under i t .  i i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page T i t l e Page  . . .  i  Abstract  i  Table o f Contents  i i v  Acknowledgments  v  Chapter I  II III  IV V  VI  INTRODUCTION Scope and P u r p o s e Methods  1  THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION, 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 7 5  .  7  K O T H A R I s MODEL OF ONE-PARTY DOMINANCE AND THE MARXIST MODEL OF CLASS CONFLICT . . . . . .  18  THE EMERGENCY, 1975  36  THE R E V I S I O N OF THE CONSTITUTION Reasons f o r R e v i s i o n The S w a r a n S i n g h C o m m i t t e e The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d P o l i t i c a l o f t h e 4 2 n d Amendment  65  1  Implications  CONCLUSION The E m e r g e n c y a n d c o n t i n u i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development The m o d e l o f o n e - p a r t y d o m i n a n c e a n d t h e M a r x i s t model r e a s s e s s e d  83  Footnotes  92  Select Bibliography  98  iv  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would  like  t o a c k n o w l e d g e my t h a n k s a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n t o  D r . J o h n R. Wood, my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , t o whom I am i n d e b t e d i n more w a y s t h a n o n e , b u t e s p e c i a l l y  f o r h i s h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s and  s u g g e s t i o n s , a n d t o P r o f e s s o r s R o b e r t H. J a c k s o n a n d F r a n k C. Langdon f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s .  I would  also like  t o thank  N i t i s h K. D u t t a n d Muhammad G. K a b i r f o r r e a d i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t a n d c o m m e n t i n g o n t h e same. for  Lastly,  I w i s h t o thank M r s . E. McDonald  d o i n g an e x c e l l e n t j o b t y p i n g  the manuscript.  v  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  1a  On J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 7 5 t h e P r e s i d e n t  o f I n d i a , a c t i n g on t h e a d v i c e o f  Prime M i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi, declared  India's  emergency f o r r e a s o n s o f i n t e r n a l i n s t a b i l i t y . arrested, press  censorship  the question  state of n a t i o n a l  Opposition  liberties  curtailed.  were  A t the time o f i t s  a r o s e o f w h e t h e r t h e e m e r g e n c y r u l e was a  temporary suspension o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o r t h e beginning authoritarian  leaders  imposed, c e r t a i n extreme l e f t and r i g h t w i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s banned and c i v i l imposition,  first  o f permanent  rule.  From J u n e 1975 t o t h e l i f t i n g  o f t h e emergency a f t e r t h e March  1977 g e n e r a l ' e l e c t i o n , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1975 h a d b e e n o n l y a n i n t e r l u d e i n I n d i a ' s long h i s t o r y of absolute the l i s t ship.  f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h a t I n d i a was j o i n i n g  o f A f r i c a n and A s i a n  c o u n t r i e s w h i c h h a d succumbed  to dictator-  Thus, i n any a n a l y s i s o f t h e emergency p e r i o d , 1975-77, i t i s  n e c e s s a r y t o compare and c o n t r a s t i t w i t h  t h e p e r i o d 1950-75  t o see  w h e t h e r t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f e m e r g e n c y was a n a b e r r a t i o n o r t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l In the years f o l l o w i n g India's many o b s e r v e r s stability. stances  and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  Such s t a b i l i t y  since independence.  independence i n August 1947, drew a t t e n t i o n t o I n d i a ' s  political  was a l l t h e m o r e m a r k e d b e c a u s e t h e c i r c u m -  i n which I n d i a gained  i n d e p e n d e n c e seemed t o make t h e f u t u r e  s u r v i v a l of I n d i a as a n a t i o n problematic. communal s t r i f e  trends  between Hindus, Sikhs  These circumstances  included:  and Moslems; r e f u g e e p r o b l e m s ;  d i s l o c a t i o n s caused by t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y  2  structures new  of  the  political  I n d i a ; and, Yet i n g and  former B r i t i s h Empire; the  urgent need to develop  framework i n t e g r a t i n g the v a r i o u s  finally,  e c o n o m i c and  social  s t a t e s and  succeeded i n  of  formulat-  a d o p t i n g a working C o n s t i t u t i o n i n which, f o r example, i n d i v i d u a l the  j u d i c i a r y independent.  r u l e became an  system.  Moreover, the p r i n c e l y s t a t e s were i n t e g r a t e d  most o f  the  s t a t e s were r e o r g a n i z e d  e l e c t i o n s were h e l d , planning  and  referred  t o as  had  the  Indian  the  i s not  by  along l i n g u i s t i c government had  to suggest, however, t h a t  development i n the  period  language r i o t s  i n the  political  Madras  as  shown by  (now  general  economic  I n d i a came t o as  be  a significant governments regimes.  against  unrest i n each of  reorga-  the decades; on  a  Internally,  1960s o v e r s t a t e s  demonstrations i n urban areas; attacks  and  two  initiated  stability.  riots  conflicts;  lines,  republic,  India's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  communal r i o t i n g and  other caste  i n t o the  1947-75 t o o k p l a c e  1 9 5 0 s and  p r i n c i p l e of political  m i l i t a r y d i c t a t o r s h i p s or one-party  nization; and  Indian  A f r i c a where numerous  b a c k g r o u n d o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and India faced  of  ' w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t d e m o c r a c y ' and  r e s t o f A s i a and  were b e i n g r e p l a c e d  political  and  feature  set goals f o r s o c i a l development.  the  example f o r the  This  established  The  civilian  sporadic  'Harijans'  and  s e c e s s i o n i s t movements i n N a g a l a n d , M i z o r a m  T a m i l N a d u ) ; and  agrarian  t h e N a x a l i t e movement.  s t a t e governments f e l l  u n r e s t i n the  Political  c u l a r l y marked i n s e v e r a l s t a t e s a f t e r the several  regions  underdevelopment.  a decade a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e I n d i a had  r i g h t s were g u a r a n t e e d and  and  a  l a t e 1960s  i n s t a b i l i t y was  1967  after defections  general  parti-  e l e c t i o n when  o f M.L.A.s.  These  3  manifestations, of the various  conflicts  i n Indian  s o c i e t y had t o be  met b y t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h , t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t ' s i n s e v e r a l s t a t e s and by t h e u s e o f emergency r e g u l a t i o n s Defense of I n d i a Rules, successor The  the Preventive  Detention  Rule  such, a s t h e  A c t o f 1950 and i t s  t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t (M.I.S.A.) o f 1 9 7 1 .  c e n t r a l government expanded and u t i l i z e d  c e n t r a l p o l i c e and  special paramilitary forces  s u c h as t h e C e n t r a l R e s e r v e P o l i c e and  the B o r d e r S e c u r i t y F o r c e .  A l a r g e number o f p o l i c e f i r i n g s  in  s e v e r a l d e a t h s and woundings each Given t h i s  catalogue  i n asking whether I n d i a ' s apparent than r e a l . arguing  year.''"  of i n s t a b i l i t y ,  o n e may w e l l b e  justified  s t a b i l i t y b e t w e e n 1947 a n d 1975 was m o r e  Nevertheless,  that the p o l i t i c a l  resulted  there  a r e a number o f r e a s o n s f o r  s y s t e m was s t a b l e .  In the f i r s t  place,  economic and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s d i d n o t a l w a y s r e a c h t h e p o l i t i c a l Many o f t h e s e w e r e s p a s m o d i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s India's  o f urban and r u r a l  plane.  anomie.  f e d e r a l system a l s o tended t o i s o l a t e economic, s o c i a l and  2 political  conflicts  from s t a t e t o s t a t e .  l e v e l the Indian N a t i o n a l Congress served party  f r o m 1947 t o 1969 a n d a g a i n  Party's  Secondly, a t the c e n t r a l continuously  from 1971 t o 1975.  as t h e m a j o r i t y The C o n g r e s s  base o f s u p p o r t c o v e r e d most s e c t i o n s o f I n d i a n  s o c i e t y and  a wide s e c t i o n of the i d e o l o g i c a l spectrum. Where C o n g r e s s g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e f a c e d political  conflict  with  economic, s o c i a l and  t h e y met t h e s e t h r e a t s b y t h e o u t r i g h t u s e o f  coer-  c i o n , a s mentioned above, o r by t h e m e d i a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t s and the b l u n t i n g o f c l e a v a g e s and antagonisms.  As a r e s u l t ,  the provisions  4  of the C o n s t i t u t i o n o p e r a t e d u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y  from 1950 to 1975  even  though, the C o n s t i t u t i o n  remained remote and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e t o the  majority  population.  o f the I n d i a n  However, f o l l o w i n g  the Congress s p l i t of 1969  e r a l e l e c t i o n the consensus c h a r a c t e r i z i n g I n d i a ' s  and the 1971 political  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n g o v e r n m e n t - o p p o s i t i o n r e l a t i o n s , broke down. f a c t o r s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d  gen-  system, Of t h e  to t h i s breakdown and to the subsequent  d e c l a r a t i o n o f the s t a t e o f emergency one can mention the economic c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power of Mrs. Gandhi i n the Congress P a r t y  crisis,  and g o v e r n -  ment and the r o l e of e x t r a p a r l i a m e n t a r y a g i t a t i o n s which r a i s e d demands f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l r e f o r m . The d e c l a r a t i o n of the s t a t e of emergency i n June 1975 has had important and f a r — r e a c h i n g  consequences f o r the o p e r a t i o n  p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system. emergency, the government  Following  o f the I n d i a n  the d e c l a r a t i o n o f  of Prime M i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi f e l t i t  n e c e s s a r y to propose c e r t a i n changes to the I n d i a n  Constitution.  These p r o p o s a l s were f o r m a l l y approved by the Lok Sabha  (India's  house of P a r l i a m e n t ) on November 2, 1976 as the f o r t y - s e c o n d  lower  constitu-  t i o n a l amendment. The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine the p r o c e s s of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change under the emergency and the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n debate w i t h i n  the r u l i n g Congress P a r t y  Opposition parties. looked a t : Why  and between Congress and the  In p a r t i c u l a r , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l  What were the p r o v i s i o n s  be  of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments?  were t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments proposed and passed?  Were they  5  d e s i g n e d t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e Congress P a r t y ' s emergency r u l e ?  Or were  t h e y , a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t c l a i m e d , d e s i g n e d t o make t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n more p e r f e c t finally,  instrument f o r economic and s o c i a l progress?  In  (a)  had i n s u f f i c i e n t  development o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n tween i t s l i b e r a l to  the D i r e c t i v e  of  the state.  rule.  safeguards against the  and t h e p r o v i s i o n s  The b r o a d e m e r g e n c y p o w e r s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n  enabled  rule without overthrowing the  The l e g i t i m a c y  o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n I n d i a o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i -  system by t h e government and t h e o p p o s i t i o n  parties.  consensus i s eroded c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government b r e a k s The  following  chapter discusses  Where s u c h  down.  these preliminary  assertions  e x a m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government, t h e emergency  provisions period two  relating  P r i n c i p l e s o f S t a t e P o l i c y and t h e emergency powers  depends on t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e r u l e s  by  be-  Constitution.  (b)  tical  w i l l be examined:  I t contained contradictions  democratic provisions  Gandhi t o impose a u t h o r i t a r i a n  existing  hypotheses about the  o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n I n d i a The C o n s t i t u t i o n  changes  system?  the course of t h i s study the f o l l o w i n g  fragility  Mrs,  And,  what were t h e consequences o f these c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  f o r I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  of the C o n s t i t u t i o n  and t h e i n i t i a l  o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly, 1947-50.  consensus d u r i n g the Chapter I I I examines  m o d e l s w h i c h may b e o f u s e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  tween c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements and t h e p o l i t i c a l in using  a  these models i s t o o b t a i n an i n s i g h t  c o n s t i t u t i o n and i n t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s  into  which favour  system.  be-  The a i m  the legitimacy constitutional  of  6  government.  The a b i l i t y of these models to predict the emergency  period i s also assessed.  Chapter IV looks at the reasons for the  breakdown of consensus and the declaration of the state of emergency. Chapter V describes and analyzes the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n during the emergency period.  In the concluding chapter of this thesis, the  hypotheses of the introductory chapter are discussed  i n the l i g h t of  the descriptive and a n a l y t i c a l chapters on the Indian Constitution, the emergency and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n .  6a  CHAPTER I I THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION, 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 7 5  7  In  the  l i t e r a t u r e on  ment t h a t  one  of  is  the  the  constitutions  most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  e m p h a s i s t h e y p l a c e on  authority,  constitutions  are  and  are  the  c o d i f i e d as w e l l as  s o u r c e s , g o a l s , u s e s , and  labeled A  l i m i t e d government.  by  political  as  p r o b l e m a r i s e s , h o w e v e r , when one  w h i c h do  not  provisions  constitutions  solemn  rules  constitutions.""'" those  constitutions  r e s t r a i n g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may  which are  i n t e n d e d t o do  s c i e n t i s t s have p r e f e r r e d  so.  In  that  o f f i c i a l power  national looks at  one  declarations,  uncodified  r e s t r a i n t s on  authorities  agree-  A c c o r d i n g to  "those c o l l e c t i o n s of  i d e o l o g i c a l c o m m i t m e n t s , and identify  there i s widespread  these cases,  t o l a b e l them ' n o m i n a l ' a s  contain  political  opposed to  'real'  2 constitutions.  The  ment, t h e r e f o r e ,  i s the  in practice. use  the  freedom of  g u a r a n t e e d and  constitutional  government' i m p l i e s that  that  g o v e r n m e n t and  system w i t h o u t the  the  Thus t h e r e a r e  force  provisions  and  may  adult  India.  possible In  the  established the  non-consti-  orderly  succession  based  on  suffrage.  Having defined c o n s t i t u t i o n s i s now  are  operate i n  other  f o r the  rights  religion  procedures are  opposition  r e c o u r s e to  arbitrary  individual  s p e e c h , e x p r e s s i o n , a s s e m b l y , and Also legitimate  the  of power-holders through c o m p e t i t i v e democratic e l e c t i o n s universal  govern-  e x t e n t t o w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t a l power i s l i m i t e d ,  adhered to.  t u t i o n a l methods.  and  g o v e r n m e n t i s c h e c k e d and  under w h i c h b o t h the political  a constitution  'Constitutional  o f p o w e r by  such as  t e s t of  to examine the introductory  and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government, i t  nature of  c h a p t e r i t was  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government suggested that  the  in  Indian  8  C o n s t i t u t i o n , as incompatible  a d o p t e d on J a n u a r y 26,  provisions.  The  1950,  contained  several  p r o v i s i o n s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n guaran-  t e e i n g i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s of freedom of speech, the r i g h t of e q u a l i t y and  the r i g h t  to property  c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s  S t a t e P o l i c y o f P a r t IV o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n and sions of P a r t I t was  t h e emergency p r o v i -  XVIII. further hypothesized  that the l e g i t i m a c y of  constitutional  government i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the consensus between the and  of  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  A d i s c u s s i o n of these hypotheses  a p r e l i m i n a r y examination  of the o b j e c t i v e s of the I n d i a n  A s s e m b l y , 1947-50 and  i n i t i a l consensus of the Framers.  the  government requires  Constituent This  exami-  n a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t s i n c e i t claimed  by  c e r t a i n members o f t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y d u r i n g t h e  t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y was p r o p o s e d t h a t a new  unrepresentative  a s s e m b l y s h o u l d be  emergency  o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y ; and called.  Moreover, Mrs.  f r o m the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government e s t a b l i s h e d by  the Framers of  of the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly w i l l lowed by The  examined.  the i n t e n t i o n s of the  the  departure the  representativeness  This w i l l  t h e n be  fol-  Framers.  I n d i a n C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , 1947-50 The  to  a d i s c u s s i o n of  be  claims  was  Gandhi  represent  In examining these  a  i t  argued t h a t the measures o f t h e emergency d i d not  Indian Constitution.  was  be  manner i n w h i c h t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y was  a m a t t e r of c o n t r o v e r s y .  On  t h e one  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y , w h i l e on seen as b r o a d l y  hand i t has  elected  been seen as  the o t h e r hand i t has  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Indian s o c i e t y .  continues un-  been  I t i s clear that  9  these  counter-claims  have important  of t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly.  implications f o r the legitimacy  According  to Bettelheim:  The A s s e m b l y c o n s i s t e d o f 292 e l e c t e d members a n d 93 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e P r i n c e l y S t a t e s . T h e e l e c t e d members w e r e s e n t t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y b y members o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l i e s , who w e r e t h e m s e l v e s e l e c t e d b y t h e v o t e s o f a b o u t 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , a q u a r t e r o f w h o s e members w e r e n o t e v e n e l e c t e d b u t claimed t h e i r seats by f e u d a l right. 3  W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y was  indirectly  e l e c t e d by a m i n o r i t y o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , i t c o u l d a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t t h e Assembly was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , b r o a d l y society.  representative of Indian  G r a n v i l l e A u s t i n , f o r example, i n h i s study  of the Indian  C o n s t i t u t i o n , r e f e r s t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly as a 'microcosm India.  He a t t r i b u t e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s  special r o l e played diverse,  1  of  o f the Assembly t o the  b y t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y w h i c h was  and which had a broad base o f support  ideologically  throughout a l l sections  of I n d i a s o c i e t y .  Moreover, the Congress f o l l o w e d t h e d e l i b e r a t e  p o l i c y of ensuring  the e l e c t i o n o f m i n o r i t y groups t o t h e Assembly as  4 w e l l a s n o n - C o n g r e s s members. T h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r assertion.  In the f i r s t  arguments w h i c h support  Austin's  p l a c e , t h e f i g u r e s used by B e t t e l h e i m  proportion of the adult population voting f o r the p r o v i n c i a l assemblies  are average f i g u r e s .  adult population that voted Secondly, although  I n some p r o v i n c e s  f o r the  legislative  the proportion of the  was more t h a n t w e n t y - f o u r  p e r cent."*  t h e P r i n c e l y S t a t e s were g i v e n n i n e t y - t h r e e s e a t s i n  10  the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly by t h e terms o f t h e Cabinet the method o f s e l e c t i n g these  Mission  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was l e f t  Plan,  to consulta-  t i o n between t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly and t h e P r i n c e l y S t a t e s . all by  of the representatives of the P r i n c e l y States claimed "feudal right";  Congress P a r t y . ^  Not  their  seats  some w e r e e l e c t e d a n d e v e n i n c l u d e d members o f t h e Moreover, i t i s important  to note that the p r i n c e l y  s t a t e o f Hyderabad d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l i n the proceedings the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly.  With s i x t e e n seats  of  a l l o c a t e d t o them,  Hyderabad's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would have c o n s t i t u t e d t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e b l o c o f p r i n c e l y s t a t e members.^ F i n a l l y , w i t h p a r t i t i o n and t h e e x i t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f M u s l i m League members f r o m t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , t h e C o n g r e s s - d o m i n a t e d A s s e m b l y was m o r e r a t h e r t h a n l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . The  s o c i a l composition  o f C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y members i s o n l y o n e  indication of the representativeness necessary Assembly. and  of the Assembly.  I t i s also  t o examine t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Although  t h e A s s e m b l y was d o m i n a t e d b y t h e C o n g r e s s  by c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s such as Nehru, Sardar  A z a d , i t was p r e p a r e d  P a t e l and Maulana  t o accommodate t h e w i s h e s o f m i n o r i t y  groups.  S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g official  to the  languages o f t h e I n d i a n U n i o n and t h e r i g h t s o f m i n o r i t i e s  such as the scheduled political  Party  c a s t e s and t r i b e s .  Thus t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  arrangements adopted by t h e Assembly r e f l e c t e d  between these  different  the balance  groups.  In a d d i t i o n to the representativeness  of the Constituent  11  Assembly,  the i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e Framers have a l s o a c q u i r e d  added  s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y on  June  26, 1975.  Critics  of Prime M i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi charged t h a t  had worked  outside  the s p i r i t  in  turn, claimed  of  the Framers. It  i s necessary,  t o examine  Constitution. was  Gandhi,  t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n no d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e i n t e n t i o n s  the Framers were. study  o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i l e Mrs.  she  t h e r e f o r e , t o examine  I t must be added  that i t i s not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s  the i n t e n t i o n of the Framers  Controversy  what the i n t e n t i o n s o f  f o r each a r t i c l e  i n the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly,  of the  f o r example,  p a r t i c u l a r l y marked o v e r t h e i s s u e s o f language, s e c u l a r i s m  the p r o t e c t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s ; and t h e s e i s s u e s have r e m a i n e d versial  s i n c e 1950.  and  contro-  B u t o f more i m p o r t a n c e h e r e a r e t h o s e i s s u e s  that  have been thrown i n t o r e l i e f by t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f emergency i n 1975.  These  i n c l u d e the q u e s t i o n o f what form the  s t r u c t u r e s of the Indian p o l i t i c a l for instance, a parliamentary, tem?  system should  Should there  be,  f e d e r a l system or a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s y s -  Also of importance are the question  s o c i a l objectives contained  take.  institutional  of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s  and  i n the s e c t i o n of Fundamental R i g h t s  t h e D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s o f S t a t e P o l i c y , and  the question  and  of the  emergency p r o v i s i o n s o f the I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . The  C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly's  measure o f agreement  on f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s ;  reasons f o r t h i s b a s i c consensus. first  of a l l ,  p r o c e e d i n g s were marked by a l a r g e  The  and  t h e r e a r e many  C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly  as a c u l m i n a t i o n o f debate o v e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  c a n be  seen,  provisions  12  rather  than  as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t .  Even b e f o r e  t h e Assembly met, t h e  Congress P a r t y had adopted g u i d e l i n e s f o r a f u t u r e order  constitutional  i n t h e f o r m o f , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e N e h r u R e p o r t o f 1928 and t h e  K a r a c h i R e s o l u t i o n on Fundamental R i g h t s and Economic and S o c i a l Change o f 1 9 3 1 .  The p o l i t i c a l  s h a p e d b y t h e common e x p e r i e n c e movement.  a t t i t u d e s o f a s s e m b l y members h a d b e e n o f c o l o n i a l i s m and t h e n a t i o n a l i s t  W h i l e they were i n f l u e n c e d by B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y  demo-  c r a c y a n d t h e 1935 C o n s t i t u t i o n o f I n d i a , t h e F r a m e r s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to  prevent  period.  t h e a r b i t r a r y g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h was a f e a t u r e o f t h e c o l o n i a l  T h u s t h e r e was a l s o a g r e e m e n t t h a t a new c o n s t i t u t i o n  safeguard  individual  The  should  rights.  m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y ' s members b e l i e v e d  t h a t t h e aims o f l i m i t i n g  g o v e r n m e n t a l power, g u a r a n t e e i n g  r i g h t s , and s e c u r i n g economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s c o u l d b e s t be a c h i e v e d  through  a parliamentary  individual  f o r t h e community  system o f government  based l a r g e l y upon t h e model o f W e s t m i n s t e r b u t i n c o r p o r a t i n g a f e d e r a l system t o cope w i t h I n d i a ' s It  diversity.  i s c l e a r , however, t h a t these  aims o f g u a r a n t e e i n g  d u a l r i g h t s and s e c u r i n g economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s each o t h e r .  sources The  of controversy  since the adoption  debates have l a r g e l y  centered  f o r e unamendable by P a r l i a m e n t ?  clash?  take precedence over  with  t o the Funda-  o f S t a t e P o l i c y have been o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1950.  around the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  the Fundamental R i g h t s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a b s o l u t e ?  Policy  conflicted  The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g  m e n t a l R i g h t s and t h e D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s  indivi-  A r e they  Are  there-  Do t h e D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s o f S t a t e  t h e Fundamental R i g h t s i n cases where  they  13  The  evidence from the debates of the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly  shows  t h a t t h e Fundamental R i g h t s were n o t t o be a b s o l u t e o r unamendable. P r o v i s o s were a t t a c h e d  to p a r t i c u l a r r i g h t s  such as t h e r i g h t o f  free  speech where t h e s e r i g h t s c o n f l i c t e d w i t h law o r m o r a l i t y . Congress governments  s i n c e 1950 h a v e t a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n  that  t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e n o t t r a n s c e n d e n t and that the r i g h t to economic  t o p r o p e r t y and c o m p e n s a t i o n must a t t i m e s be  and s o c i a l r e f o r m .  ive P r i n c i p l e s of State P o l i c y ,  secondary  They have a l s o argued t h a t t h e D i r e c t even though they a r e n o n - j u s t i c i a b l e ,  s h o u l d i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , such as l a n d r e f o r m and t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n wealth,  take precedence over the Fundamental  Rights.  of l a n d r e f o r m t h e c e n t r a l and s t a t e governments t h e amount o f c o m p e n s a t i o n t o b e p a i d  faced  moved t o a b o l i s h  t h e s t a t e and c u l t i v a t o r s  policies  the problem of  t o owners o f p r o p e r t y .  a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m when t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ( z a m i n d a r s ) , between  In their  of  of land.  This  was  intermediaries  The  govern-  ment t h u s p a s s e d a s e r i e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments w h i c h g a v e i t the a u t h o r i t y  t o d e c i d e t h e amount o f c o m p e n s a t i o n t o b e p a i d  t o owners  9 of property.  Land  r e f o r m l a w s c o u l d n o t b e c h a l l e n g e d on t h e  t h a t they were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h 31 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n .  the r i g h t t o p r o p e r t y under  grounds  Article  Such l a w s o u t s i d e t h e scope o f j u d i c i a l r e -  view were p l a c e d i n the N i n t h Schedule of the C o n s t i t u t i o n . The p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r  the Fundamental  R i g h t s w e r e t o be  l u t e a r o s e n o t o n l y i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and and s o c i a l r e f o r m b u t a l s o i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y ' s the p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t between of the s t a t e .  Here  absoeconomic  debates  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and t h e emergency  t h e q u e s t i o n was  about powers-  t h e i m p o r t a n t one o f t h e l i m i t s  of  14  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n times of  emergency.  r a i s e d by  the  Wheare i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n  of  This problem i s  future  of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  government: P e r h a p s the most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m t h a t c o n f r o n t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n modern t i m e s i s how t o d e f e n d i t s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t i t s e n e m i e s and s t i l l s u r v i v e . Are t h e r e cases where a government i s m o r a l l y e n t i t l e d i n order to save the C o n s t i t u t i o n , to break a p a r t of i t , i n order to enforce what i s good i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n t o n e g l e c t what i s bad?; 1 0  The be  problem of  e x a m i n e d by  stitution  and  provisions.  the  looking the  at  limits the  intentions  Such p r o v i s i o n s  tion which states  o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government can  emergency p r o v i s i o n s of  the  are  of  the  Indian  F r a m e r s when t h e y d r a f t e d  included  i n Part  XVIII of  best Con-  these  the  Constitu-  that:  A P r o c l a m a t i o n of Emergency d e c l a r i n g t h a t the s e c u r i t y o f I n d i a o r o f any p a r t o f t h e t e r r i t o r y t h e r e o f i s t h r e a t e n e d by / war o r by e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n o r b y i n t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e may be made b e f o r e t h e a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e o f war o r o f any such a g g r e s s i o n or d i s t u r b a n c e i f the President i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e r e i s imminent danger thereof.11 f  Once a s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y i s d e c l a r e d , greater  powers i n c l u d i n g the  subjects  of  the  State  L i s t of  authority the  Constitution  thus p r o v i d e s f o r the  The  on  articles  the  Parliament  t o p a s s l a w s on  Constitution. suspension of  F u n d a m e n t a l R i g h t s may  Part the  a l s o be  obtains  the  legislative  XVIII of federal  suspended  the  system. including  12 the  c i t i z e n ' s r i g h t s to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l remedies. In a d d i t i o n  President  may  to the  declaration  impose ' P r e s i d e n t ' s  of a s t a t e of emergency,  R u l e ' i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e by  the issuing  15  a proclamation  suspending the normal c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i n 13  the  s t a t e and  assuming the  f u n c t i o n s of the  state's  Moreover, P a r t X V I I I of the C o n s t i t u t i o n g i v e s authority  to i s s u e a proclamation  situation  threatening  to the  of  executive.  the P r e s i d e n t  the  ' f i n a n c i a l emergency' i n a  financial stability  of the  Indian  Union. It  i s important  political  context  i n which these  t i o n were framed. new  to bear i n mind the economic, s o c i a l emergency p r o v i s i o n s of  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  and  the C o n s t i t u -  the problems of c o n f l i c t w i t h  s t a t e o f P a k i s t a n , communal b l o o d s h e d i n t h e P u n j a b a n d  the i n t e g r a t i o n of T e l e n g a n a and occupied  the p r i n c e l y s t a t e s , the  N a g a l a n d , f a m i n e and  in  administrative dislocation a l l The  Framers,  i n w r i t i n g the emergency p r o v i s i o n s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n  were not  f a c e d w i t h an a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y  danger.  Accordingly,  ranging  Bengal,  threat of insurgency  t h e members o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y .  therefore,  the  they  took steps  of c r i s i s but  to reserve  a very  real  to the s t a t e wide-  e m e r g e n c y p o w e r s t o d e a l w i t h e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and  internal  disturbance. There were, however, safeguards to l i m i t Article  these 352,  emergency powers.  f o r i n s t a n c e , had  l i a m e n t w i t h i n two t i o n of  than three  i t was  years.  A d e c l a r a t i o n o f emergency under  t o be  a p p r o v e d by b o t h h o u s e s o f  months o f i t s d e c l a r a t i o n .  'President's Rule'  months u n l e s s  i n c l u d e d i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n  Similarly,  a  declara-  i n a s t a t e w o u l d e x p i r e a t t h e end  renewed, and  i t c o u l d n o t be  Par-  of s i x  r e n e w e d f o r more  16  The  hypothesis  of this  inadequate i n l i m i t i n g stitution. declared  t h e s i s i s that these  safeguards  were  t h e use o f t h e emergency powers o f t h e Con-  The F r a m e r s assumed t h a t a s t a t e o f emergency w o u l d be  o n l y i f . t h e r e was a c l e a r - c u t t h r e a t t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f  the I n d i a n U n i o n .  They d i d n o t e n v i s a g e  used by a Prime M i n i s t e r i n o r d e r  t h e emergency powers  t o remain i n power.  being  Furthermore,  once an emergency i s d e c l a r e d and a p p r o v e d , i t c a n be c o n t i n u e d  in-  d e f i n i t e l y by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r r e g a r d l e s s o f whether o r n o t t h e o r i g i n a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f emergency r e m a i n . Framers a l s o d i d n o t envisage  t h e emergency powers b e i n g  government t o permanently a l t e r  the Constitution.  C o n s t i t u t i o n c o n t a i n e d opportunities constitutional  The used by the  Part XVIII of the  therefore, f o r the negation  of  government.  I n summary, t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly were  marked by a l a r g e measure o f consensus as t o t h e f e d e r a l and p a r l i a mentary i n s t i t u t i o n a l  framework o f t h e I n d i a n R e p u b l i c ,  the guaran-  t e e i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and t h e statement o f t h e economic, and  p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s t o be f o l l o w e d b y f u t u r e governments.  social Agree-  ment was a l s o r e a c h e d o n t h e n e e d f o r e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r o v i s i o n s t o b e used i n times  o f emergency a r i s i n g o u t o f e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n  ternal disturbance. due  to the fact  of i t s proposals Also  I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o n s e n s u s was  or i n partly  t h a t t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y h a d a l r e a d y hammered o u t p a r t f o r the Constitution during  t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e movement.  t h e C o n g r e s s - d o m i n a t e d C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y was p r e p a r e d  commodate t h e w i s h e s o f m i n o r i t y  groups.  to ac-  17  Nevertheless, the C o n s t i t u t i o n  a s a d o p t e d on J a n u a r y 2 6 ,  1950  c o n t a i n e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n as w e l l as l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c f e a t u r e s . limited  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s such as freedom o f s p e e c h , the r i g h t t o  p r o p e r t y and  the r i g h t to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l remedies.  to the e a r l i e r h y p o t h e s i s t h a t safeguards against shown t h a t limited  It  the C o n s t i t u t i o n  the development  the emergency p r o v i s i o n s  government.  emergency remained  The only  With  reference  contained i n s u f f i c i e n t  o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e , i t has  been  were b r o a d and a n t i t h e t i c a l t o  p r o b l e m o f how t e m p o r a r y was  to ensure that  a state  l e f t u n r e s o l v e d by  the  of  Framers.  CHAPTER  III  K O T H A R I S MODEL OF ONE-PARTY DOMINANCE AND THE 1  MARXIST MODEL OF CLASS CONFLICT  18  The  p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r examined the consensus  A s s e m b l y and  the l i m i t s  t o i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and  ment c o n t a i n e d i n t h e I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . supplemented  constitutional  govern-  T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n must  b y an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  give effect In  of the C o n s t i t u e n t  be  realities  which  t o t h e f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o r change them.  o t h e r w o r d s , a d i s c u s s i o n i s r e q u i r e d o f t h e s o c i a l and  political  c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n I n d i a . The  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r r e l a t e s I n d i a ' s l e g a l and  arrangements to t h e i r p o l i t i c a l of  one-party  dominance and  e x a m i n a t i o n has  c o n t e x t s by  the M a r x i s t model.  two m a i n a i m s :  first,  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system  b e t w e e n 1947  c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e s e m o d e l s may  K o t h a r i ' s model  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  t o i n q u i r e a s t o how  t h e s e m o d e l s a r e i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n and and  examining  constitutional  and  1975;  and,  h e l p us t o u n d e r s t a n d  political  secondly, to the c r i s i s  culmi-  the  Models n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  a b s t r a c t i o n of the s o c i a l system  t h e r e f o r e be  and for  to i n c l u d e other important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l  and  systems.  can  limi-  criticized  political  and  dis-  1975.  u s i n g these models, however, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e  t a t i o n s of models.  failing  effective  a n a l y s i s of India's  n a t i n g i n t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e of emergency i n June In  this  But by a b s t r a c t i o n and  analogy  t h e y e n a b l e us  d e l i n e a t e t h e r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s o c i a l and i n order to e x p l a i n i t s o p e r a t i o n . these models a c c u r a t e l y correspond they seek The  to  The  problem,  political  t h e n , i s i n how  t o the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  to system far  reality  explain.  relative  stability  o f t h e I n d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  political  19  system r e c e i v e d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the e a r l y 1960s a number o f s o c i a l to  the  important  most i m p o r t a n t consensual  t h e o r i s t s who  sought to e x p l a i n i t w i t h  r o l e of the Indian N a t i o n a l Congress.  w e r e R a j n i K o t h a r i and  i t i s important  Of  these  Morris-Jones."'"  t o n o t e t h a t h i s m o d e l was  v e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n K o t h a r i was  the  Kothari's  political  why  K o t h a r i argued t h a t the e l i t e ' s and  elite  c a r r y i n g out  At  the  Indian  political  development has arisen a  elite.  T h e s e t a s k s , h o w e v e r , c o u l d o n l y be  problems  l e d them t o  distinctive  independence the challenge  facing  i n t e g r a t i n g I n d i a and  t a s k s o f economic and  social  arran-  social  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  consisted of p o l i t i c a l l y  formidable  Rather,  p a r t i c u l a r economic,  f o l l o w p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s out o f w h i c h has I n d i a n model of development.  exclusi-  certain institutional  s t r a t e g i e s h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d by  of I n d i a n economic, s o c i a l ,  not  of I n d i a ' s p a r t y system.  c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p l a i n i n g why  gements h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n I n d i a and  political  reference  model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance r e c e i v e d the most academic  a t t e n t i o n but  and  W.H.  by  the  also  development.  c a r r i e d o u t by means o f a  framework c r e a t i n g consensus. F i r s t , g i v e n i t s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y and p o l y c e n t r i c c h a r a c t e r a n d i t s v e r y y o u n g age a s a u n i f i e d p o l i t y , t h e framework o f i n t e g r a t i o n can be p r o vided only through a democratic order. (In India democracy i s not m e r e l y a m a t t e r of p r e f e r e n c e and value; i t i s also a necessity.) Second, however, the a b i l i t y of the democratic order to p r o v i d e an i n t e g r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k t o a h i g h l y s e g m e n t e d s o c i e t y depends on a s t r u c t u r e o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and m o b i l i z a t i o n o f e n e r g y f o r i t a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s t h a t i s p r o v i d e d b y an all-encompassing party of consensus—covering a l l r e g i o n s and s e c t i o n s of society.2  political  20  Above a l l ,  Kothari's  aim i s t o achieye  comprehensiveness i n  d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y z i n g I n d i a n  social reality  and t o v i s u a l i z e t h e  d i f f e r e n t parts of that r e a l i t y  as a connected whole, as a " b a s i c  3  system".  I t i s worthwhile,  then,  t o examine t h e n a t u r e  " b a s i c system" and t o see whether i t i s an a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s of aspects  of India's  of this  d e s c r i p t i o n and  economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  system  f r o m 1947 t o 1 9 7 5 . In K o t h a r i ' s model the c o m p e t i t i v e  o n e - p a r t y dominance  c o n s i s t s of a 'party o f consensus' and v a r i o u s The  c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h i s model i s c l e a r l y occupied  N a t i o n a l Congress.  Kothari f i r s t  how i t h a s b e e n a b l e  " h i s t o r i c a l legitimacy", derived  flexible  i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; through continuous  ability  transform  to  achieve  t h r o u g h i t s mass b a s e a n d s u p p o r t  a l l regions  its  to  I t was a b l e  covering  control at the centre  by t h e I n d i a n  from i t s r o l e i n t h e independence  movement, t o a " l e g i t i m a c y i n t h e p r e s e n t " . ^ t h i s " l e g i t i m a c y i n the present"  pressure'.  of a l l notes the o r i g i n s of the  Congress P a r t y and then d e s c r i b e s its  'parties of  system  and segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ;  through i t s  governmental  and i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t a t e s , and t h r o u g h  t o secure consensus w i t h i n Congress i t s e l f  Congress and non-Congress p a r t i e s .  and between  Kothari also stresses the im-  portance of the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Congress, p a r t i c u l a r l y of Nehru and  other  " t a l l men", a n d t h e g r o w t h o f a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d  conventions responsible  f o rblunting conflict,  sources of cleavage i n the country  f a c t i o n a l i s m and t h e  as a whole.  I n K o t h a r i ' s m o d e l a d v a n c e s a r e made i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n a n d  21  a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d o m i n a n t p a r t y and of pressure and  and  i n t h e e f f e c t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r on  s u r v i v a l of p a r t i e s .  ditional  The  nance of democracy to the  Indian p o l i t i c a l 1975 and  w i t h one  of an  experience  of  e f f e c t i v e two-party  states.  I n d i a n democracy f u n c t i o n e d  western mainte-  the  b e t w e e n 1947  K o t h a r i ' s model accounts f o r the  l o o k i n g at the p e c u l i a r nature  tra-  competi-  a v i r t u a l monopoly o f power a t t h e  t i o n s h i p between t h e p a r t y o f c o n s e n s u s and He  the  i n a d e q u a t e i n e x p l a i n i n g the w o r k i n g s of  party having  o f d e m o c r a c y by  s y s t e m s b a s e d on  existence  system.  i n most of the  the s t r u c t u r i n g  p l u r a l i s t i c model which a t t r i b u t e s the  t i v e system i s obviously  parties  K o t h a r i ' s model i s p a r t l y a response to  t y p o l o g i e s of p a r t y  political parties.  the  centre maintenance  of the systemic  the p a r t i e s of  a r g u e s t h a t t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p a r t i e s has  and  rela-  pressure.  maintained  the  open d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . In h i s a n a l y s i s of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , K o t h a r i i n t r o d u c e s important  concept of a  non-Congress p a r t i e s . in maintaining  'margin of p r e s s u r e '  between the Congress  This margin of pressure  the responsiveness  the  has  of the Congress  a crucial Party.  I n s i d e the margin are v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the p a r t y of consensus. Outside the margin a r e s e v e r a l o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p s and p a r t i e s , d i s s i d e n t g r o u p s and i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e g r o u p s o u t s i d e t h e m a r g i n do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a l t e r n a t i v e s to the r u l i n g p a r t y . Their r o l e i s to constantly p r e s s u r i z e , c r i t i c i z e , c e n s u r e and i n f l u e n c e i t by i n f l u e n c i n g o p i n i o n and i n t e r e s t s i n s i d e t h e m a r g i n and, above a l l , e x e r t a l a t e n t t h r e a t t h a t i f t h e r u l i n g g r o u p s t r a y s away t o o f a r f r o m t h e b a l a n c e o f e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and i f the f a c t i o n a l system w i t h i n i t i s not m o b i l i z e d  and  function  22  to restore the balance, it will be displaced from power by the opposition groups. In summary, dominance  has outlined  comprehensively cal systems analysis  this exposition  of Kothari's  the approach  the operation  that he uses  special  period.  emphasis  In  one-party to  explain  social and  his  on the role of elites,  the  of pressure  maintaining  of the constitutional  the course  politi-  of  Congress Party and parties the legitimacy  of  in order  of India's economic,  in the post-independence  he has placed  model  in securing consensus and  and  political  system. In the Marxist model, India's constitutional erence  between  the institutional The  and political  to the correlation  the struggles  question  however,  of class  the various  the relative  of whether  aspects of India's economic,  forces  during  economic  society  In particular  Indian legal and political  structure of society with  system.  to  systems  transformations  of  determines  and political  social and political  ref-  The outcome  such a method can be used  the same period.  be obtained by relating underlying  in India.  classes of Indian  1947 and 1975 and the legal and political taken place  of  system is explained with  forms of the constitutional  arises  stability  explain between  that  have  what insights changes  its struggle  to  can  the  between  classes? It would be useful, approach has been applied typified by  the writings  P. Sharma, Meghnad Desal,  first of all, to examine how the to Indian society.  of Marxists  These  analyses  Marxist are  such as Kathleen  Gough,  Hari  and Charles BettElheim as well  as the  analyses  23  made o f t h e I n d i a n  s i t u a t i o n b y .the I n d i a n  Marxist analyses society, and  d i f f e r widely  communist p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s .  i n their descriptions of Indian  i n their c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of class formation  hence i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  thermore, r e f l e c t  t h a t they reach.  and c l a s s s t r u g g l e  These d i f f e r e n c e s , f u r -  the v a r y i n g i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s taken  communist p a r t i e s and by o t h e r M a r x i s t and n e o - M a r x i s t do  share fundamental p o i n t s o f agreement.  by the I n d i a n  a n a l y s e s , but they  They a l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , t a k e  Marx's t h e o r e t i c a l a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l  consciousness  as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e i r  In p l a c i n g the s t r u g g l e f o r independence i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l  method. per-  s p e c t i v e , m o s t M a r x i s t s a r g u e t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e movement c o n s t i t u t e d a  'bourgeois-democratic  I t was, they b e l i e v e ,  essentially  a s t r u g g l e between, on t h e one hand, t h e I n d i a n b o u r g e o i s i e  and, on t h e  o t h e r , B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m and i t s l o c a l a l l i e s ,  Indian  princes.  revolution'.  In t h i s s t r u g g l e , the p o l i t i c a l  bourgeoisie,  in  of the Indian  c l a s s e s opposed t o c o l o n i a l i s m .  b a s i s o f t h e movement, h o w e v e r , p o l i t i c a l  t h e hands o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e .  with  expression  t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l Congress, succeeded i n forming  b a s e d movement o f d i f f e r e n t the popular  the feudal  Despite  c o n t r o l remained  The C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y ,  charged  t h e d r a f t i n g o f a new c o n s t i t u t i o n , was u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e a n d was e l e c t e d i n d i r e c t l y b y p r o v i n c i a l assemblies.  The p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l i e s  dominated by urban and r u r a l landowning Thus f o r M a r x i s t s victorious bourgeoisie  the p o l i t i c a l  during  a broad-  were  of Indian legislative  themselves  interests. institutions  c r e a t e d by t h e  the period of the Constituent  Assembly,  24  1947-50, were b o u r g e o i s  i n s t i t u t i o n s — a bourgeois  f e d e r a l system and p a r l i a m e n t a r y suffrage,  reflected  democracy based on u n i v e r s a l a d u l t  t o M a r x i s t s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms o f t h e s t a t e  t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e d o m i n a n t c l a s s at~ i n d e p e n d e n c e .  Although  they  agree on t h e h i s t o r i c a l  bourgeoisie, Marxists differ  on t h e q u e s t i o n  'capitalist  importance of the Indian  i n t h e i r analyses  tween t h i s c l a s s and t h e o t h e r  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  classes of Indian society.  o f how f a r t h e I n d i a n R e p u b l i c  s t a t e ' when t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  i n c a p i t a l i s t a c t i v i t y but feudal or semi-feudal p o i n t o u t , however, t h a t a l t h o u g h existed  a  f r e e e l e c t i o n s and t h e g u a r a n t e e d r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  Thus a c c o r d i n g  centers  republic with  The p r o b l e m  c a n be termed a i s n o t engaged  agriculture?  Marxists  t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n h a s  s i d e by s i d e w i t h f e u d a l o r s e m i - f e u d a l  modes o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  o n l y o n e , t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode, h a s b e e n d o m i n a n t i n I n d i a s i n c e pendence.^  A n d i t h a s b e e n t h i s d o m i n a n t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h h a s  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l t e r i n g economic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s countryside. property, capitalist  inde-  i nthe  M o r e o v e r , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i n c l u d e s i n P a r t XX,  c o n t r a c t and s u i t r e l a t i o n s framework.  financial,  that are characteristic of a  g  A f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e C o n g r e s s g o v e r n m e n t s u n d e r t o o k programmes o f land reform which had the e f f e c t of a b o l i s h i n g the 'zamindari' s i m p l i f y i n g land tenure culture. and  system,  r e l a t i o n s and encouraging c a p i t a l i s m i n a g r i -  A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e d e v e l o p e d a c l a s s o f l a r g e  r i c h p e a s a n t s who e n g a g e d i n c a p i t a l i s t  farming  a n d who  landowners consolidated  t h e i r economic and hence s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l power i n t h e r u r a l  areas.  25  The  M a r x i s t e c o n o m i s t Meghnad D e s a i w r i t e s t h a t " t h e  i s b y no means f u l l y  capitalist.  Nearly  75 p e r  Indian  cent of the  i s engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e , w h i c h remains p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n c h a r a c t e r , stamped by  f e u d a l and  population  pre-capitalist  customary r e l a t i o n s .  c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s o f e x c h a n g e and  economy  However,  e x p l o i t a t i o n h a v e now  achieved  a  s i g n i f i c a n t p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e r u r a l s e c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n the more advanced  9  regions.".  This strengthening to the h i s t o r i c a l process from the  time  f e u d a l i s m and France,  he  of c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s i n India i s s i m i l a r noted  of the French transformed  b y M a r x i n F r a n c e when t h e  R e v o l u t i o n o f 1789  property relations.  onwards, I n The  bourgeoisie,  attacked  C i v i l War  in  d e s c r i b e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l m i s s i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and i t s  state i n overturning  feudalism.  The c e n t r a l i s e d s t a t e p o w e r , w i t h i t s u b i q u i t o u s o r g a n s o f s t a n d i n g army, p o l i c e , bureaucracy, c l e r g y , and j u d i c a t u r e - o r g a n s w r o u g h t a f t e r t h e p l a n o f a s y s t e m a t i c and h i e r a r c h i c d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r — o r i g i n a t e s from the days of a b s o l u t e monarchy, s e r v i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y as a m i g h t y weapon i n i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t f e u d a l i s m . S t i l l , i t s development r e m a i n e d c l o g g e d by a l l manner o f m e d i e v a l r u b b i s h , s e i g n o r i a l r i g h t s , l o c a l p r i v i l e g e s , m u n i c i p a l and g u i l d m o n o p o l i e s and p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s . The g i g a n t i c b r o o m of the French R e v o l u t i o n of the eighteenth century s w e p t away a l l t h e s e r e l i c s o f b y g o n e t i m e s , t h u s c l e a r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the s o c i a l s o i l of i t s l a s t hindrances to the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of the modern s t a t e e d i f i c e r a i s e d u n d e r t h e F i r s t Empire.. Post-independence I n d i a , of course, f r o m e i g h t e e n t h and for in  nineteenth  century  France.  t h e i r d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and the nature  of  the bourgeois  differs  i n important  respects  This i s true not  political  s t r u c t u r e s but  r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h e two  epochs.  only also  Whereas  26  Marx r e f e r s t o the French R e v o l u t i o n c l e a r i n g away f e u d a l i s m , be  the Indian  s e e n as a " g i g a n t i c broom."  attribute  a s a " g i g a n t i c broom" i n "bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n " can hardly  I n d e e d , some M a r x i s t s  t h e weakness o f c a p i t a l i s t  such as D e s a i  development i n I n d i a  pendence and t h e post-1971 economic and p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s s t r a i n t s placed feudal has  u p o n t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n  or semi-feudal sectors  o f t h e economy.  since  inde-  t o t h e con-  by t h e r e s i l i e n t  The c a p i t a l i s t  sector  been unable t o r a i s e s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l economic s u r p l u s e s f o r  growth because o f i t s i n a b i l i t y D e s p i t e t h e p r o g r e s s made, t h e r e  to transform  entirely the r u r a l  i s a s y e t no n a t i o n a l m a r k e t a n d  c a p i t a l i s t development has been uneven r e g i o n a l l y . growth remains low; l e a d i n g  sector.  some M a r x i s t s  Hence t h e r a t e o f  to describe  what they see 11  as  the contradictions In the Marxist  o f slow c a p i t a l i s t  development.  analysis, the p o l i t i c a l  stability  pendence I n d i a has been a f u n c t i o n o f c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . stability  owners and r i c h p e a s a n t s d u r i n g there  state—the  petty  classes. flected,  The r e l a t i v e  bourgeoisie,  t h e 1950s and 1960s.  b i g land-  With t h i s  conso-  h a s b e e n a c o n c o m i t a n t g r o w t h i n t h e power o f t h e I n d i a n  armed f o r c e s , p a r a m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , p o l i c e , i n t e l l i g e n c e  s e r v i c e s , b u r e a u c r a c y and j u d i c i a r y — w h i c h capacity  post-inde-  o f I n d i a has r e f l e c t e d t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e a l l i a n c e  between t h e b i g and m i d d l e b o u r g e o i s i e ,  lidation  of  of subordinate classes  has d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the  to challenge  t h e power o f t h e r u l i n g  The c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e p o w e r o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s r e as a c o r o l l a r y , t h e weakness o f t h e main t h r e a t s  c l a s s e s — n a m e l y , t h e working c l a s s and t h e p e a s a n t r y .  to the r u l i n g  To t h i s  weakness  27  o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t and  the peasantry  of  social organizations.  their political  has  and  o f t e n been marked as  must be  added the  fragmentation  Sectarian  shown, f o r e x a m p l e , b y  Communist P a r t y i n the e a r l y 1960s i n t o t h r e e  the  fragmentation  s p l i t of  the  different, often  Indian  hostile,  parties. A  comparison of  that they d i f f e r stability  and  s i n c e 1950.  the M a r x i s t  significantly  l e g i t i m a c y of  t h a t of K o t h a r i ' s  i n t h e i r accounts of  I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  conflict.  The  h a v e two  political Kothari's  d i f f e r e n t treatments of  K o t h a r i ' s model i s concerned w i t h  revolution'  i n w h i c h the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  political  model  stability and  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i l e K o t h a r i ' s model tends to s t r e s s s t a b i l i t y , harmony.  the  system  M a r x i s t model tends to s t r e s s c l a s s s t r u g g l e  t i n u i t y and  shows  the reasons f o r  I n t h e M a r x i s t m o d e l o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t and  o f o n e - p a r t y d o m i n a n c e we and  a p p r o a c h and  con-  'incremental  system  assim-  12 ilates  the  f o r c e s o f change i n I n d i a n  from that of  Kothari's l a r g e degree the can  be  tend  the I n d i a n t h e two  differs  s t r e s s on  c o n t i n u i t y and  stability  f u n c t i o n a l i s t m e t h o d t h a t he  criticized  uses.  f o r i t s assumption that  reflects But  to  a  functionalist  'equilibrium' i s  f o r i t s assumption that elements of a  a u t o m a t i c a l l y to m a i n t a i n s o c i a l and  and  processes.  n o r m a l s t a t e o f s o c i e t y and order  This p i c t u r e  the M a r x i s t model which i s concerned w i t h w h o l e s a l e  violent revolutionary  theory  society.  political  the  'system.'  The  the social  normal state  system, however, probably  lies  of  between  e x t r e m e s o f s t a b i l i t y and c o n f l i c t . K o t h a r i ' s m o d e l , f o r e x a m p l e , may b e m o r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  period  28  o f o n e - p a r t y d o m i n a n c e b e t w e e n 1950 1967.  Before  s y s t e m was  1967  responsive  the l e g i t i m a c y of  maintained  the o p e r a t i o n of  the  by  1967  the  than to the p e r i o d  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  the mechanisms o f consensus.  'margin of p r e s s u r e ' ,  Sabha.  t h i s p e r i o d were c o n d i t i o n e d by ethnic, religious,  The  t h e P r a j a S o c i a l i s t s was  t h e i r s m a l l s i z e i n the Lok  linguistic  and  the c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y of  political  a result  in India  s o c i a l cleavages  t h e I n d i a n w o r k i n g c l a s s and  the e f f e c t of c o n s t r a i n i n g a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a l l e n g e t u t i o n a l and was  still  of  India. The  after  1967  center larly had Mrs.  and  political  system.  embryonic, forming  I n any  the  when t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y ' s  In her  wealth.  s t r u g g l e w i t h the  and  total  reduced at  'Green R e v o l u t i o n ' o f  population  the  particu1960s  s o c i a l performance who  period  the  In the Congress  'Syndicate',  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l wing of the Congress, Mrs. d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth  consti-  be m o r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  G a n d h i i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r e s s e d e c o n o m i c and  than consensus.  had  the Indian working c l a s s  d o m i n a n c e was  i n c r e a s e d d i s p a r i t i e s o f i n c o m e and  to f o r e -  path  C l a s s c o n f l i c t became more s a l i e n t  i n the c o u n t r y s i d e where the  peasantry.  to I n d i a ' s  a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the  M a r x i s t m o d e l , h o w e v e r , may  i n the s t a t e s .  case,  caste,  counter-  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f I n d i a ' s d e c i s i o n i n 1951 of the parliamentary  than  during  s u c h as  r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n s which  sake v i o l e n t c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n favour  of  i n f l u e n c e of  thus greater  Class divisions  other  As  after  the government remained  to the views of the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s s u c h as  acted  and  Party, rather  controlled  Gandhi s t r e s s e d the  income, the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of banks,  rethe  29  a b o l i t i o n of p r i v y purses The  o t h e r a t t a c k s on  focussed mainly  features.  the d i s c u s s i o n of the l i m i t a t i o n of on how  the C o n s t i t u t i o n contained  A c l a s s a n a l y s i s may  be  of use  emergency powers were i n c l u d e d i n the I n the M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s ,  another.  The  new  only the replacement  ruling  t h e D e f e n s e o f I n d i a A c t and R u l e s the i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s  and  right  as  subordinate  t h e r e was  classes.  no  But as  these  class  o f one  broad  thus borrowed from the  o f 1915  contained  and  statutes.  1939.  absolute.  con-  ruling British  The  verbatim  from  I n the M a r x i s t  i n the Fundamental R i g h t s  the freedom of speech, e x p r e s s i o n ,  to p r o p e r t y were not  o n l y as l o n g as  authoritarian  Constitution.  Defense of I n d i a R u l e s , f o r example, were c o p i e d almost  of the C o n s t i t u t i o n such  individual  i n e x p l a i n i n g why  t h e same r e p r e s s i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s a n d  analysis,  In  t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e movement d i d n o t  a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n but  c l a s s by  interests.'  i n the study of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n I n d i a .  the previous chapter,  stitute  'vested  q u e s t i o n a r i s e s o f what o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s does the M a r x i s t  model o f f e r  rights  and  T h e y w e r e t o be  religion  maintained  c h a l l e n g e to I n d i a ' s r u l i n g c l a s s e s from soon as  t h i s c l a s s r u l e was  the b o u r g e o i s i e would drop the l i b e r a l democratic  facade  threatened, and  show  the  13 a u t h o r i t a r i a n face of the The  state.  M a r x i s t m o d e l may  a l s o be  of use  i n e x p l a i n i n g the  t u t i o n a l changes t h a t have taken p l a c e s i n c e the a d o p t i o n of s t i t u t i o n i n 1950.  constithe  S i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n i t has  amended f o r t y - t w o t i m e s .  I t c o u l d be  o f amendments f o r t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s  argued t h a t such  Conbeen  a l a r g e number  demonstrates t h a t the  original  30  document  was  too r i g i d ,  or a l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  has been overused by s u c c e s s i v e C o n s t i t u t i o n too l i g h t l y .  t h a t t h e amending  g o v e r n m e n t s who  A legalistic  process  have t r e a t e d the  a n a l y s i s of the defects of the  C o n s t i t u t i o n , h o w e v e r , o n l y g i v e s a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f why two amendments h a v e b e e n p a s s e d i n s u c h a s h o r t A n a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d o f who c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments.  ambitions  of the Indian bourgeoisie  l a t e d and l e g i t i m i z e d b o u r g e o i s i e was  those  time.  b e n e f i t s and l o s e s f r o m  The M a r x i s t m o d e l , f o r e x a m p l e ,  that the Indian C o n s t i t u t i o n r e f l e c t e d  the p o l i t i c a l  o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s t h a t t h e I n d i a n  determined to pursue i n the f u t u r e .  However,  Thus t h e government's p o l i c i e s o f l a n d r e f o r m  the l i m i t a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t t o p r o p e r t y  and  have  inter-  land-  required  i n the i n t e r e s t s  c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s i n the countryside  i n g t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f  threatened  industrialists  than the i n t e r e s t s of the whole of the b o u r g e o i s i e  of s t r e n g t h e n i n g  the  and j u d i c i a l  p r e t a t i o n s w h i c h b e n e f i t e d i n d i v i d u a l l a n d o w n e r s and  owners.  assumes  and t h a t the C o n s t i t u t i o n a r t i c u -  t h e 1950s and 1960s by a s e r i e s o f l i t i g a t i o n s  rather  these  i n t e r e s t s and  b o u r g e o i s i e ' s p o l i c i e s o f l a n d and i n d u s t r i a l r e f o r m w e r e in  forty-  and  entrench-  production.  In c o n t r a s t , i n K o t h a r i ' s model o f one-party dominance, the government's p o l i c i e s o f s o c i a l and economic r e f o r m r e f l e c t i o n of the class s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y .  a r e n o t a mere  Rather,  there  is a  reci-  p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic and l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . For  e x a m p l e , u n i v e r s a l a d u l t s u f f r a g e and t h e i m p e r a t i v e s  e l e c t o r a l support  have d e t e r m i n e d government p o l i c i e s  of  of obtaining distribution  31  o f w e a l t h and income and t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p o v e r t y .  Kothari writes  that:  . . . i n t h e c a s e o f I n d i a we s e e t h a t i t w i l l n o t do t o l o o k a t p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a s some k i n d o f s u p e r s t r u c t u r e t h a t p r e s i d e s o v e r more b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s o c i e t y a n d economy, o r t o l o o k a t e l i t e s as s i m p l e r e c i p i e n t s o f i n p u t s from s o c i e t y to which they respond i n the form of v a r i o u s governmental outputs. Instead t h e whole process s t a r t s here through the establishment of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h t h e n , t h r o u g h the a c t i o n s o f e l i t e s , p e n e t r a t e s i n t o s o c i e t y a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s and by s t a g e s , l e a d s t o r e s p o n s e s f r o m b e l o w i n t h e f o r m o f new c o a l i t i o n a l s t r u c tures. E l i t e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms c a n be seen here as c r e a t i v e a c t o r s i n the process o f i n t e g r a t i o n and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , i n i t i a t o r s o f a f a r r e a c h i n g change i n a l l s p h e r e s o f l i f e , and c a t a l y s t s a n d m o b i l i z e r s o f a new v i t a l i t y a t v a r i o u s levels. 1 4  Finally,  an e x a m i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d  macy a n d c o n s e n s u s i n t h e two m o d e l s . argued that ports  of the treatment of l e g i t i -  On t h i s q u e s t i o n ,  t h e consensus produced by the I n d i a n N a t i o n a l  t h e s t a t u s quo."'""'  K o t h a r i , on t h e o t h e r  c a r r y o u t i t s programs o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  article  con-  i n order  to  development.  words i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s o c i a l change.  "The ' C o n g r e s s S y s t e m ' R e v i s i t e d " , K o t h a r i  sup-  t h a t a c e r t a i n meas-  o f consensus has been n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e Congress P a r t y  Consensus, i n other  have  Congress  hand, argues t h a t  s e n s u s d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e s t a t u s quo b u t i n s t e a d ure  Marxists  Inh i s  writes:  B u t t h e C o n g r e s s s y s t e m i s f a r more t h a n a m e r e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i e s and f a c t i o n s along t h e m e a s u r a b l e s o f v o t e s and s e a t s . I t i s , basically, a s y s t e m o f e v o l v i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g and r e v i e w i n g a framework o f c o n s e n s u s i n an e n o r m o u s l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d society. T h i s i s a dynamic p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g continuous response to changing conditions ( i t i s a s e r i o u s mistake to confuse consensus w i t h s t a t u s quo) a n d , t h r o u g h s u c h r e s p o n s e , e v o l v i n g a w i d e r framework o f shared g o a l s and v a l u e s .  32  Despite  t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t s on t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o n s e n s u s and  legitimacy, Marxists  and K o t h a r i a g r e e t h a t b o t h c o n s e n s u s and  timacy are not a s s u r e d — t h a t of K o t h a r i ' s the  they are problematic.  model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance  'operative  i s that  These t h r e e  b o t h dependent on and i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r . the p o l i t i c a l  of the  system t o the frameworks a r e  Thus t h e l e g i t i m a c y  s y s t e m i s n o t e n t i r e l y dependent on t h e e l e c t o r a l  v i c t o r i e s of the dominant p a r t y .  Legitimacy  a l s o depends  "on  a  v a r i e t y o f exogenous f a c t o r s — e c o n o m i c and d e m o g r a p h i c s h i f t s , in  staying  capacity  i n the world  a t l a r g e and t h e i r i m p a c t on t h e  o f a r e g i m e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a t t i t u d e s towards  H o w e v e r , K o t h a r i d o e s n o t g i v e a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f how three  frameworks i n f l u e n c e s  the other.  he m e n t i o n s i n f l u e n c e n o t o n l y  The  'exogenous  it"."^  each of the  f a c t o r s ' which  t h e framework o f l e g i t i m a c y b u t  also  framework o f c o n s e n s u s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e l a t i o n s between  government of  changes  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l c l a s s e s , wars and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s ,  changes t a k i n g p l a c e  the  strengths  i t attempts to r e l a t e  framework' o f t h e e l e c t o r a l and p a r t y  frameworks o f consensus and l e g i t i m a c y .  of  One  legi-  and the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  Nevertheless,  Kothari's  the 'Congress System' i n t o t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f o p e r a t i v e  n i s m s , consensus and l e g i t i m a c y p r o v i d e s  us w i t h  framework w i t h w h i c h t o examine t h e breakdown ment i n I n d i a .  division mecha-  analytical  of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l govern-  The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e t h r e e  examined i n g r e a t e r 'exogenous  an i m p o r t a n t  d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  dimensions w i l l The  a l s o be examined. .  be  influence of  f a c t o r s ' o n c o n s e n s u s and t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e I n d i a n  stitution will  the  Con-  33  The has  a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e M a r x i s t m o d e l and  pointed  counting  out  some o f t h e  strengths  and  that of  weaknesses of each i n  f o r t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  s y s t e m i n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1947  and  however, a l s o l i e s  to p r e d i c t changes i n a  s y s t e m , and  in i t s ability  i t i s now  necessary  1975.  to consider  m o d e l s a r e r e l e v a n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  The  the I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l  l y i n g economic and writing  i n 1973  t e s t of a model, political  of the p o l i t i c a l  above  crisis  of  1975.  in predicting a  crisis  s y s t e m as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f  under-  s o c i a l trends.  argued  ac-  political  i n what ways t h e  S e v e r a l M a r x i s t s have been p e r s p i c a c i o u s in  Kothari's  The  Marxist Desai,  f o r example,  that:  W i t h h e r own i n t e r n a l r i v a l s d e s t r o y e d and I n d i a ' s e x t e r n a l foe d e c i s i v e l y humbled, I n d i r a Gandhi appeared t o have e s t a b l i s h e d an i m p r e g n a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r h e r s e l f . I n any moderately s t a b l e s o c i a l system a s t r i n g of such b r i l l i a n t successes would s u f f i c e to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l o r d e r f o r many y e a r s t o come. In t h e c a s e o f I n d i a s u c h a p r o s p e c t d o e s n o t seem likely. The d i p l o m a t i c , m i l i t a r y a n d e l e c t o r a l t r i u m p s o f 1971-72 c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d a tempor a r y s t r e n g t h e n i n g of I n d i a n c a p i t a l i s m ' s economic p o s i t i o n . But...the long term prospects f o r I n d i a n c a p i t a l i s m r e m a i n b l e a k , and the very f o r c e s which helped to g i v e I n d i r a Gandhi room f o r manoeuvre i n t h i s p e r i o d w i l l c o n f r o n t h e r Government w i t h g r a v e problems a t a l a t e r date."  ,  1 8  Of is  t o be  class  course,  a r g u e d t h a t the p r e d i c t i o n o f  instability  e x p e c t e d from t h e method o f M a r x i s t s s i n c e they h o l d  s t r u g g l e and  occupations political  i t c o u l d be  r e v o l u t i o n are  l e a d them t o e x p e c t ,  systems.  inevitable. and  that  Their ideological  hope f o r , c r i s e s  pre-  i n the s o c i a l  But M a r x i s t s have been p r e d i c t i n g a c r i s i s  in  and  the  34  Indian p o l i t i c a l  system from a t l e a s t the m i d d l e of the 1960s;  h a v e t o e x p l a i n why  that c r i s i s  occurred  i n 1975  a n d why  they  i t took the  form t h a t i t d i d . I t now  r e m a i n s f o r us t o c o n s i d e r  model i n p r e d i c t i n g the c r i s i s 'Congress System' d i f f e r e d  o f 1975.  Although the post-1971 be-  t o o p p o s i t i o n and f a c t i o n a l i s m w i t h i n  the C o n g r e s s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  his  of Kothari's  f r o m the p e r i o d o f o n e - p a r t y dominance  t w e e n 1 9 5 0 a n d 1967 i n r e g a r d  pressure  the u t i l i t y  t h e government  and p a r t i e s o f  and c e n t e r - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s , K o t h a r i r e s t a t e d t h e v a l i d i t y  of  m o d e l o f t h e ' C o n g r e s s System' as l a t e a s December 1974.  Before  the emergency he d i d p o i n t t o t h e p e r c e p t i b l e d e c l i n e i n t h e  legiti-  macy o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l to c e r t a i n trends  i n India's  system, t r a c i n g t h i s  s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s — n o t a b l y ,  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the l e v e l s of government, popular  base f o r the Indian p o l i t i c a l  of performance.  K o t h a r i , however,  and M r s . G a n d h i were l i k e l y  decline excessive  the absence of a  real  p a r t i e s , c o r r u p t i o n and  failures  concluded that the Congress P a r t y  to consolidate t h e i r p o s i t i o n but d i d not 19  make c l e a r how  this  c o n s o l i d a t i o n would take  place.  I n summary, K o t h a r i ' s m o d e l o f t h e ' C o n g r e s s S y s t e m ' a n d t h e M a r x i s t model o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t  differ  tions of the r e l a t i v e  of India's  stability  s y s t e m b e t w e e n 1947 a n d 1 9 7 5 .  significantly  i n their  explana-  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  political  K o t h a r i ' s model emphasizes the  stability  and c o n s e n s u s p r o d u c e d b y t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y a n d h i s m o d e l i s c o n c e r n e d with  'incremental  revolution.'  I n the M a r x i s t model, however,  s t r u g g l e i s e m p h a s i z e d and I n d i a ' s r e l a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  class political  35  stability rich  i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e dominance o f t h e I n d i a n b o u r g e o i s i e  l a n d o w n e r s and by t h e weakness o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a l l e n g e s  t h i s dominance. contained  With regard  insufficient  tarian rule,  to the hypothesis  safeguards against  the development of a u t h o r i one  explanation  o f why b r o a d e m e r g e n c y p o w e r s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  e x p l a n a t i o n o f why  to  that the C o n s t i t u t i o n  an a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s p r o v i d e s  were i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n .  and  government  A class analysis also provides  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments l i m i t i n g  R i g h t s were p a s s e d by C o n g r e s s Governments.  an  the Fundamental  CHAPTER I V THE EMERGENCY, 1975  36  The  preceding examination of the Marxist  model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance has o f f e r e d spectives  several  model and  Kothari's  theoretical per-  from which t o a n a l y z e t h e breakdown o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  government i n I n d i a .  In analyzing  the period  leading  up t o t h e  d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f emergency i n June 1975, t h e f o l l o w i n g questions are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant: work o f t h e e l e c t o r a l and p a r t y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  How d i d t h e o p e r a t i v e  systems a f f e c t the l e g i t i m a c y  s y s t e m a f t e r 1971?  of t h e consensus between t h e Congress P a r t y s u r e a n d how d i d t h e ' m a r g i n o f p r e s s u r e ' fluence  Was t h e r e  a revolutionary  political  class?  challenge  and t h e p a r t i e s o f p r e s -  operate?  What was t h e i n -  system?  to the bourgeois c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  merely a struggle w i t h i n the r u l i n g  t o what e x t e n t d i d M r s . Gandhi's p o p u l i s t  t o t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l  The  strategy  crisis?  f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e breakdown o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l govern-  ment b e g i n s w i t h  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f economic t r e n d s and  Gandhi's p o p u l i s t s t r a t e g y  legitimacy.  on t h e frameworks o f consensus and  T h i s w i l l then be f o l l o w e d  by a d e t a i l e d examination o f  government-opposition r e l a t i o n s i n the period Despite t h e Congress general  What was t h e n a t u r e  o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  s y s t e m o r was t h e r e  Finally,  contribute  Mrs.  of the  o f exogenous f a c t o r s , such as economic t r e n d s mentioned by  K o t h a r i , on t h e l e g i t i m a c y  and  frame-  1971-75.  (R)'slarge e l e c t o r a l m a j o r i t i e s  i nthe  e l e c t i o n o f March 1971 and t h e s t a t e assembly e l e c t i o n s o f  F e b r u a r y 1972, t h e government o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi found i t difficult  to f u l f i l l  i t s promises o f economic and s o c i a l  reform.  37  Abolishing poverty slogans  of  was,  i n p r a c t i c e , more d i f f i c u l t  ' g a r i b i hatao'  ( a b o l i s h poverty)  measures d u r i n g e l e c t i o n campaigns. new  regards  were t h r e a t e n e d 72 b y  populist  political  i n the years  f o l l o w i n g the  impediments.  l a n d s l i d e v i c t o r i e s of  p o o r h a r v e s t s , and  the  a l s o f u e l l e d by w o r l d w i d e i n f l a t i o n . t h a t the  The  s e c o n d h a l f o f 1974  sharpest  r a t e of i n c r e a s e of p r i c e s i n I n d i a s i n c e 1945.^  harvests  i n 1970-71, a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i a l production  supply bottlenecks  o f raw  had  1971-  inflation  government  on J u l y 3 0 ,  p e r i o d 1972-75 w h i l e  1975  consequent  admitted  Power s h o r t a g e s ,  the  the economic impediments, the government's programs  successive droughts,  w h i c h was  other  formulating  In implementing i t s p o l i c i e s ,  government f a c e d b o t h economic and As  and  than  itself  seen  the  A f t e r good  declined sharply i n  the  showed u n e v e n g r o w t h . m a t e r i a l s , and u n s a t i s f a c -  t o r y g r o w t h o f a g r i c u l t u r e a l l l e d t o a s l o w i n g down o f t h e r a t e growth of i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n  and  of  the r a t e of investment proves i n -  2 adequate f o r s u s t a i n e d growth. no  significant  i n c r e a s e and  Per  c a p i t a i n c o m e i n 1 9 7 2 - 7 5 showed  the e f f e c t of these  a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the l i v i n g  standards  economic trends  o f t h e mass o f t h e  was  Indian  population. I n i t s a n n u a l r e p o r t f o r 1974-75, p u b l i s h e d Planning  Commission admitted  unworkable.  The  in April  that the d r a f t F i f t h Five-Year  1975,  the  Plan  was  Commission a t t r i b u t e d the " s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s  non-developmental expenditure"  and  c o s t o f d e v e l o p m e n t programmes and i n d o m e s t i c p r i c e s and  the " s i g n i f i c a n t e s c a l a t i o n i n expenditures"  the cost of imported  raw  to the  sharp  m a t e r i a l s and  in the  increases fuel  such  38  as o i l .  However,  t h e r e were  t h o s e who  laid  of p l a n n i n g a t t h e door o f t h e government P l a n n i n g Commission i t s e l f .  the blame f o r t h e  and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  D r . B.S. M i n h a s , who  the  resigned from the  b o d y i n 1 9 7 5 , c h a r g e d t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n was p a r t l y for  failure  t o blame  the d e t e r i o r a t i n g economic s i t u a t i o n because o f i t s u n r e a l i s t i c  3 p l a n n i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and methods.  The C o m m i s s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , u s e d  i n a c c u r a t e f o r e i g n a i d and t r a d e s t a t i s t i c s p r i c e s of c r u c i a l imports.  Furthermore, the Commission  the l e v e l of domestic savings. lations,  the d r a f t Five-Year  and u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d  As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e  Plan bore l i t t l e  the  over-estimated  optimistic calcu-  r e l a t i o n t o economic  reality. Worsening economic c o n d i t i o n s were n o t t h e o n l y r e a s o n f o r t h e government's f a i l u r e o f p e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r March 1971. l i e s w i t h the government's i n i t i a l  P a r t o f t h e blame  d e l a y i n the p e r i o d between the  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1971 and t h e s t a t e a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n s o f David  H.  Bayley  plementing  p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e government  1972.  l o s t much t i m e i n i m -  i t s programs. One o f t h e g r e a t c u r i o s i t i e s o f I n d i a n p o l i t i c s i n 197.1 was how. l i t t l e M r s . G a n d h i c h o s e t o do w i t h her dramatic March v i c t o r y . New p r o g r a m s o f economic development were n o t announced; t h e 197172 b u d g e t was a c o p y o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s ; a n d c a b i n e t c h a n g e s w e r e m i n o r . The v a s t p a r l i a m e n t a r y m a j o r i t y h a s b e e n m o b i l i z e d on o n l y t h r e e m e a s u r e s . T h e s e a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments, and t h e y a r e n e i t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l l y r a d i c a l n o r do t h e y p l a c e new demands o n t h e c o u n t r y . 4  The  c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n I n d i a a n d P a k i s t a n o v e r B a n g l a d e s h may  have d i v e r t e d t h e government's a t t e n t i o n f r o m economic and  social  39  reform  b u t o f more i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e f a i l u r e o f p e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r 1 9 7 1  were t h e c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l ment.  c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e p o l i c i e s  of the govern-  T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s h a d n o t b e e n r e m o v e d b y t h e " I n d i r a Wave" o f  1971-72 a l t h o u g h  t h e e l e c t i o n s had c e r t a i n l y widened t h e parameters  w i t h i n w h i c h t h e government c o u l d act."*  A t t h e s t a t e and l o c a l  level,  c o n t r o l o f C o n g r e s s P a r t y u n i t s was i n t h e h a n d s o f a c o a l i t i o n o f u r b a n and r u r a l economic and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h and middle peasants. wealth Party's  Mrs. Gandhi's programs f o r t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  o f income were t h e r e f o r e p r e v e n t e d by t h e n a t u r e s o c i a l base.  As Susanne R u d o l p h p o i n t e d  of the Congress  out, "Indian  states,  l i k e American, l i e c l o s e r than t h e i r c e n t r a l governments t o t h e o r g a n i z e d i n t e r e s t s , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y t h e more p r o s p e r o u s . apt  t o be l e s s r e s p o n s i v e  t o the l e s s organized  S t a t e governments a r e  underprivileged  sectors  t h a n a f e d e r a l government, f r e e r f r o m t h e need f o r l o c a l s u p p o r t and f r o m l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and a b l e t o a p p e a l t o n a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of  the underprivileged."^ By  the beginning  the Congress been r e p l a c e d  o f 1 9 7 3 i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e e u p h o r i c  ( R ) ' s e l e c t i o n v i c t o r i e s and t h e defeat by a p e r i o d o f economic c r i s i s  the government.  days o f  o f P a k i s t a n had  and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h  T h e y e a r s 1 9 7 3 a n d 1974 saw a n e r o s i o n o f t h e c o n s e n s u s  i n I n d i a p o l i t i c s between t h e government and o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t h a t had been c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n K o t h a r i ' s model of one-party dominance. accused the other questioned of  Each  side  o f u n d e m o c r a t i c and u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i o n s and  each other's  f a i t h i n democratic p r i n c i p l e s .  t h e c o n s e n s u s was a c c e l e r a t e d  This  i n 1975 t o s u c h a n e x t e n t  breakdown  that both the  40  government and to impose  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s claimed that the other intended  a d i c t a t o r s h i p on I n d i a .  down o f c o n s e n s u s ,  t h e r e was  this  break-  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine g o v e r n m e n t - o p p o s i t i o n  r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n 1972 the frameworks  To s e e why  a n d 1975  o f consensus  and  a n d t o show how  these r e l a t i o n s  affected  l e g i t i m a c y d e s c r i b e d by K o t h a r i .  Of  p a r t i c u l a r importance i n t h i s examination i s the operation of the 'margin o f p r e s s u r e ' and The  Breakdown o f The  t h e i m p a c t o f t h e J P movement.  Consensus  breakdown o f consensus  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n a n d t h e 1972  c a n be d i r e c t l y  s t a t e assembly  elections.  e l e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d the m a j o r i t i e s of Congress tically  traced to the  ( 0 ) , S w a t a n t r a and  i n the s t a t e s .  and t h e C o n g r e s s  p o p u l i s m and  as  consider-  found t h e i r strengths diminished at the  Moreover,  the methods used by Mrs.  Gandhi  (R) t o r e d u c e t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s s u p p o r t b e f o r e  and a f t e r t h e 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 e l e c t i o n s a l i e n a t i o n from  P a r t i e s such  t h e J a n a Sangh w h i c h had e n j o y e d  a b l e i n f l u e n c e b e f o r e 1 9 7 1 now c e n t e r and  While the  (R), they also d r a s -  reduced the strength of o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  Congress  1971  'Congress  c o n t r i b u t e d t o 'the o p p o s i t i o n  system'.  As a r e s p o n s e t o M r s .  parties  Gandhi's  to c o r r u p t i o n i n the e l e c t o r a l system, the non-communist  opposition parties  came t o r e l y  i n c r e a s i n g l y on  extra—parliamentary  methods.^ I n G u j a r a t i n J a n u a r y 1974  student discontent over  increased  h o s t e l and f o o d c h a r g e s l e d t o s t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and r i o t i n g  that  ultimately resulted  the  i n the d o w n f a l l of the Congress  i m p o s i t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e and  (R) M i n i s t r y ,  the d i s s o l u t i o n of the State  Assembly.  41  The  disturbances  i n Gujarat  o r i g i n a t e d from the l i m i t e d s e c t i o n a l  demands o f s t u d e n t s b u t r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o a n e x p r e s s i o n middle class discontent  among G u j a r a t i s who p r o t e s t e d  of urban  against  high  food  p r i c e s , s h o r t a g e s and government i n a c t i o n and c o r r u p t i o n . The  y e a r 1974 a l s o s a w t h e r e e m e r g e n c e o f J a y a p r a k a s h N a r a y a n ,  the veteran popularly reform.  'sarvodaya' leader  from B i h a r .  N a r a y a n , o r ' J P ' a s he was  c a l l e d , had i n 1973 c a l l e d f o r e l e c t o r a l and In this  campaign f o r s o c i a l ,  educational  economic and p o l i t i c a l  regenera-  t i o n he a p p e a l e d t o t h e y o u t h o f I n d i a t o p l a y a p i v o t a l r o l e . fically,  h e made o v e r t u r e s  In the country  paign against  t o s t u d e n t s i n h i s home s t a t e o f B i h a r .  a s a w h o l e , many I n d i a n s  person of s u f f i c i e n t  Sped-  believed  s'tature and i n t e g r i t y  t h a t h e was t h e o n l y  to lead a nationwide  cam-  corruption.  A f t e r the Gujarat  disturbances  had subsided  i n March 1974, op-  p o s i t i o n t o C o n g r e s s d e v e l o p e d i n J P ' s home s t a t e o f B i h a r .  Again the  i s s u e s were c o r r u p t i o n and t h e f a i l i n g s o f t h e government i n t h e e c o nomic s p h e r e . had  Similarly,  t h e a c t i o n committee formed by JP i n B i h a r  a s o n e o f i t s demands t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e s t a t e a s s e m b l y a n d  the replacement o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Abdul Ghafoor. not  In i t s decision  t o d i s s o l v e t h e a s s e m b l y a n d c a l l new e l e c t i o n s , t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -  ment t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e a s s e m b l y h a d b e e n d e m o c r a t i c a l l y i n 1972 a n d s h o u l d  t h e r e f o r e be a l l o w e d  elected  t o run i t s normal course.  combined non-communist o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , however, argued t h a t t h e Congress should  (R) g o v e r n m e n t o f B i h a r  t h u s s e e k a new m a n d a t e .  had l o s t  touch with  Besides t h i s ,  t h e p e o p l e and  t h e J P movement  also  The  42  declared  as one o f i t s aims t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the representatives tional  of the people.  of the right of r e c a l l  T h i s was a n i m p o r t a n t  constitu-  i s s u e t h a t was t o b e f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d b y t h e n o n - c o m m u n i s t  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n t h e p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o t h e e m e r g e n c y .  It  figured prominently,  submitted  by  f o r example, i n t h e 'Charter  o f Demands'  t h e n o n — c o m m u n i s t o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a f t e r t h e mass r a l l y  D e l h i o n M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 5 .  F o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t t h e s e demands a n d t h e  methods used by t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s o n l y democratic  i n New  served  t o undermine t h e  process.  A c o n s i s t e n t demand o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t h r o u g h o u t 1 9 7 2 75 was t h a t t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y d e c l a r e d 1971  should  be l i f t e d  o f 1971 s h o u l d the  by t h e P r e s i d e n t  i n December  and t h a t t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t  be e i t h e r a b o l i s h e d  or modified  i n i t s application.  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , t h e e m e r g e n c y a n d MISA s t o o d  Damocles' over t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  For  a s a 'sword o f  As l o n g as b o t h t h e emergency and t h e  MISA r e m a i n e d , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d a n u n f a i r a d v a n t a g e in  that i tcould p o t e n t i a l l y r e s t r i c t  their activities.  Nor were t h e op-  p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n Parliament  impressed by t h e government's  •for c o n t i n u i n g  The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a r g u e d t h a t t h e  t h e emergency.  e x t e r n a l threat invoked nuance had l e s s e n e d  as a r e a s o n f o r t h e emergency and i t s c o n t i -  s i n c e t h e war w i t h  Pakistan.  T h e s e demands f o r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e m e r g e n c y added impetus f o l l o w i n g developments i n I n d i a ' s n e i g h b o u r i n 1974—75.  arguments  Sheikh Mujib  received Bangladesh  Rahman, t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f B a n g l a d e s h , h a d  on D e c e m b e r 2 8 , 1974 i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n  o f emergency w h i c h  suspended  43  the  fundamental r i g h t s of  the C o n s t i t u t i o n .  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f was  I n New other  of the  replaced  by  that  the  J a n u a r y 27,  1975  a conference of Narayan  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s decided that the  to prevent a s i m i l a r a u t h o r i t a r i a n regime being  made by visits  the  a p p r e h e n s i o n s were i n t e n s i f i e d by  Delhi.  Ghafoor threatened  drastic action against  t i o n on h i s r e t u r n t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s and given  approval  Party  asked:  s t a t e of B i h a r .  i t was  "Do  attacks  on  ister's  advisers  these statements  democratic rights? are  intensified i n India.  he  one 1975  of  his to  take  restart his agita-  These t h r e a t s angered  rumored t h a t Mrs.  to Ghafoor's warnings.  be  c e r t a i n statements  on J a n u a r y 2 9 ,  Jayaprakash Narayan should  and  Bihar-type  established  C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f B i h a r , A b d u l G h a f o o r , on  t o New  parlia-  a p r e s i d e n t i a l one-party  movement f o r t h e r e a s s e r t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t s s h o u l d  These o p p o s i t i o n  1975  l i b e r t i e s were c u r t a i l e d .  D e l h i on  leaders  J a n u a r y 25,  amended i n s u c h , a way  m e n t a r y f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t was system i n which c i v i l  On  Gandhi h e r s e l f  Madhu L i m a y e o f t h e  the  had  Socialist  l o f Ghafoor] presage f u r t h e r massive  I t i s being  engaged i n a s e c r e t  s a i d t h a t the Prime M i n -  exercise  the purpose of  which  i s u l t i m a t e l y t o c l a m p down a B a n g l a d e s h - t y p e a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e g i m e i n t h i s country.  S u c h an  a t t e m p t w i l l , n a t u r a l l y , be  s c a l e a r r e s t s of O p p o s i t i o n  and  trade union leaders  p r e c e d e d by and  large-  above a l l , of  9 Mr.  Narayan." The  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , demanded t h e r e v o c a t i o n  s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y o f D e c e m b e r 1971  and  the repeal cr m o d i f i c a t i o n  the Maintenance of I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t . " ^  of  the  of  Developments i n Bangladesh  44  and  v e i l e d w a r n i n g s f r o m the. C o n g r e s s  t h e i r r e s o l v e to press It  i s not  c l u d i n g t h e CPM, 7,  1975  f o r an  to the emergency r e g u l a t i o n s .  s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , that the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , i n reacted  to introduce  an  s t r o n g l y when t h e  years i n places  detention  designated  t o a d v i s o r y boards."'*"'"  g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t e d on  amendment t o M I S A i n t h e L o k  ment w o u l d h a v e p e r m i t t e d two  end  (R.) l e a d e r s h i p o n l y s t i f f e n e d  as  Because of  under the Act  strong  The  amend-  f o r a p e r i o d o f up  'disturbed areas' the  Sabha.  May  and  without  appeal  r e a c t i o n from the  opposi-  t i o n b e n c h e s t h e Home M i n i s t e r , B r a h m a n a n d a R e d d y , a n n o u n c e d l a t e r the b i l l  w o u l d be w i t h d r a w n b u t  proposal  w o u l d be  introduced  :he  i n the  d i d make i t c l e a r t h a t a future.  This b i l l ,  would have been a s e t b a c k to the O p p o s i t i o n ' s  excluding the  i f passed,  campaign f o r the  relaxthe  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s ,  the CPI,  at this  time were p l a n n i n g  amendment t o M I S A w o u l d h a v e t h r e a t e n e d T h e r e was,  h o w e v e r , one  c o n s e n s u s seemed l i k e l y t o r a l reform. out  that  similar  a t i o n o f t h e emergency s i n c e i t gave more d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers t o government.  to  t o be  area  more B i h a r - t y p e  these  i n which a  achieved  and  plans.  government-opposition  t h a t was  the  A t B h u b a n e s h w a r , O r i s s a , on M a r c h 3 1 ,  the o f f e r o f an a l l - p a r t y  cuss e l e c t o r a l reform  and  c o n f e r e n c e t o be  i n v i t e d Mrs.  movements;  held  G a n d h i and  issue of  1975, i n New  other  elec-  Narayan D e l h i to  leaders  of  held disthe  12 Congress Party.  The  o p p o s i t i o n on  i s s u e was  this  o f meetings were h e l d tion's proposals  i d e a of a dialogue  i n New  a c c e p t e d by  between the  g o v e r n m e n t and  t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r and  Delhi in April  and  May.  Among t h e  f o r a change i n the e l e c t o r a l system were:  the  the  a series Opposilowering  45  o f t h e v o t i n g age and t h e q u a l i f y i n g age f o r c a n d i d a t e s ; recall;  the right  c h a n g e s i n t h e s i z e o f t h e E l e c t o r a l C o m m i s s i o n and t h e m e t h o d  of appointing penditures counting  i t s members; c h a n g e s i n t h e l a w s r e g a r d i n g  e l e c t i o n ex-  a n d u s e o f t h e mass m e d i a ; a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e m e t h o d s o f  at polling stations.  The  13  G o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d t o make c e r t a i n c h a n g e s i n t h e e l e c t o r a l  system b u t these were o n l y minor reforms t h a t d i d n o t i n v o l v e any changes i n s t a t u t e s b u t c o u l d be s e c u r e d t h r o u g h e x e c u t i v e Despite  orders.  t h e s e m i n o r changes, t h e j s e r i e s o f a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g s on  e l e c t o r a l r e f o r m b r o k e up w i t h o u t a n y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s t o t h e electoral the  system.  Both s i d e s accused each other  of obstruction i n  t a l k s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was c h a r g e d w i t h  vague i n i t s  proposals.  In the period  l e a d i n g up t o t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f  emergency i n June 1975, t h e government and t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n Parliament  took d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s .  its activities,  The o p p o s i t i o n  parties  argued  that  f a r from weakening t h e democratic system, i n f a c t  strengthened i t by p o s i n g popular discontent. raising  being  such b a s i c  t h e key i s s u e s o f r e f o r m and by  T h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g issues.  Otherwise, without serious  articulating  undemocratic  about  c h e c k s on t h e  a c t i o n s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n government, d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t s and  freedoms w o u l d be e r o d e d .  ernment t o e x p e c t t h a t i t c o u l d actions.  T h e y f e l t t h a t i t was w r o n g o f t h e g o v o p e r a t e w i t h o u t any s c r u t i n y o f i t s  Furthermore, they argued t h a t the Prime M i n i s t e r could not  justifiably  c l a i m t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n was h i n d e r i n g  t h e s o c i a l and  46  economic  programs o f t h e government s i n c e she a l r e a d y had had n i n e  years o f o f f i c e i n which The position  t o implement  these  government, however, argued  programs.  14  t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Op-  i n P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s a n d t h e J P movement  undermined  the l e g i t i m a c y of d e m o c r a t i c a l l y - e l e c t e d governments.  This  c h a r g e p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i e d t o t h e J P movement's demand f o r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f the B i h a r s t a t e assembly.  The g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a s e was t h a t t h e  o p p o s i t i o n , h a v i n g been d e f e a t e d c o n v i n c i n g l y a t t h e p o l l s i n 1971 and 1972,  was r e s o r t i n g t o u n d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  frustration.  A s r e g a r d s t h e J P movement, t h e g o v e r n m e n t q u e s t i o n e d  i t s mass b a s e .  N o t o n l y was t h a t b a s e l i m i t e d b u t t h e O p p o s i t i o n w a s  a l s o duping i t s s u p p o r t e r s and Narayan  h a d a l l o w e d h i s movement t o b e  i n f i l t r a t e d by ' a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c elements*. s u c h a s J a g j i v a n Ram a l s o p o u r e d  Congress P a r t y l e a d e r s  s c o r n on J P ' s i d e a o f  'party-less  d e m o c r a c y ' w h i c h t h e y saw a s b e i n g i m p r a c t i c a l a n d a n t i t h e t i c a l t o parliamentary The  democracy.^  g o v e r n m e n t a l s o t o o k n o t e o f c e r t a i n v a g u e a p p e a l s made  from time t o time by Narayan  towards  t h e army a n d t h e p o l i c e .  u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a p p e a l s and t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n for  These  Minister  R a i l w a y s , L.N. M i s h r a , a n d t h e a t t e m p t e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f C h i e f  J u s t i c e R a y seemed t o i n d i c a t e a s e r i o u s b r e a k d o w n i n l a w a n d o r d e r . In  response  to this  law and o r d e r . terms  t h e g o v e r n m e n t saw i t s e l f  In particular,  I n d i r a Gandhi  as the guardian o f p u b l i c saw h e r s e l f i n G a u l l e s q u e  as t h e o n l y p e r s o n c a p a b l e o f s a v i n g t h e R e p u b l i c from It  chaos.  i s clear i n this examination of government-opposition  t i o n s b e t w e e n 1 9 7 1 a n d 1975 t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e ' m a r g i n o f  rela-  47  pressure'  differed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e p e r i o d s . 1950-67 and  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p e r i o d s 1950-67 and 1967-71, (except  the p a r t i e s of  t h e C.P.I.) were n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g  ness of the dominant p a r t y . been n o t e d — n a m e l y ,  1967-71.  the  pressure  responsive-  Some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s h a v e  already  t h e d e c l i n e i n t h e s t r e n g t h and e f f i c a c y o f t h e  non-communist o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s and t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n from t h e System';  t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power b y M r s . G a n d h i and h e r  on p e r f o r m a n c e r a t h e r t h a n c o n s e n s u s ; a n d c h a n g e s s i t i o n norms o f b e h a v i o u r  i n w h i c h t h e r e was  and o r d e r methods by t h e government the non-communist O p p o s i t i o n .  in  'Congress  emphasis  government-oppo-  a greater r e s o r t to law  and e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y methods by  The O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s '  criticisms  t h e dominant p a r t y c a n t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t be e x p l a i n e d as  rhetoric  and t h e n o r m a l t e n d e n c y o f o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t o t a k e a d v e r s a r y t i o n s a g a i n s t the government. t o l e r a n c e by t h e government viewpoint.  The  criticisms  However, a f t e r  1971.. t h e r e was  and o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s o f e a c h  posi-  less  other's  t o o k o n a more h i g h - p i t c h e d c h a r a c t e r  shown, f o r e x a m p l e , b y e a c h s i d e a c c u s i n g  of  as  the other of u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  actions. I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e changes r e l a t i o n s between  the government  i n t h e 'Congress System' a r e t h e  a n d t h e J P movement.  Besides  t h r e a t to the p o p u l a r i t y of the Congress P a r t y i n the country t h e J P movement was  also, specifically,  w e l l aware o f t h e f a c t  posi-  Mrs.  t h a t a c e r t a i n number o f C o n g r e s s  P a r t y members w e r e r e c e p t i v e t o J P ' s movement and o p p o s e d  a  as a w h o l e ,  a t h r e a t to Mrs. Gandhi's  t i o n i n t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y , and h e r a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e C . P . I . G a n d h i was  being  to the  48  Congress' a l l i a n c e w i t h  t h e Communist P a r t y o f I n d i a .  1975, t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r d i s m i s s e d H o u s i n g , Mohan D h a r i a , dialogue  with  On M a r c h  2,  t h e S t a t e M i n i s t e r f o r W o r k s and  a f t e r he had p u b l i c l y u r g e d . h e r t o o p e n  a  Narayan.  Narayan responded t o the d i s m i s s a l of Dharia ment on M a r c h 4, 1975  by i s s u i n g a s t a t e -  i n w h i c h he u r g e d t h e t o p l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e  Con-  16 gress Party  to r e p l a c e Mrs. Gandhi.  T h e r e a c t i o n o f members o f t h e  Congress P a r t y  t o t h i s p l e a was  the O p p o s i t i o n  of meddling i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the Congress  On M a r c h 5, 1975 a n e m e r g e n c y Parliamentary "the  meeting of the executive  members o f  r e s o l u t i o n a t t a c k i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f N a r a y a n was Mrs. Gandhi's d i s m i s s a l of Dharia  A  similar  p a s s e d by t h e C.P.I.  and h e r r e j e c t i o n o f a  w i t h N a r a y a n and N a r a y a n ' s a p p e a l s t o t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y remove M r s . G a n d h i a l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e government f r o m t h e norms o f t h e C o n g r e s s  and t o l e r a n c e had been r e p l a c e d  deplored  f o r c e s t o d i s r u p t t h e p a r t y " and w h i c h 17  i t s f a i t h i n the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi.  p a r t i e s had d e v i a t e d  Party.  of the Congress  P a r t y unanimously approved a r e s o l u t i o n which  attempt of anti-democratic  reiterated  t o a c c u s e N a r a y a n and o t h e r  dialogue  leadership  and  to  opposition  'System';  consensus  by i n f l e x i b l e p o s i t i o n s between  govern-  ment a n d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s . A Marxist was  a n a l y s i s o f t h e breakdown  o f c o n s e n s u s shows t h a t  there  a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between M r s . G a n d h i ' s p o p u l i s t p o l i c i e s and t h e b a s e  of support f o r the Congress P a r t y .  Mrs. Gandhi's programs  f o r economic  a n d s o c i a l r e f o r m c o u l d n o t be i m p l e m e n t e d b e c a u s e t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y the  s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l r e m a i n e d u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f u r b a n a n d  at  rural  49  landowning interests.. performance increased the p o l i t i c a l crisis, the  system.  T h e gap b e t w e e n Mrs:.  Gandhi's promises and  r e s u l t i n g i n the erosion of the legitimacy of This  f a i l u r e o f performance and t h e economic  t h e c o r r u p t i o n i n t h e e l e c t o r a l system and t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f  'parties of pressure'  reduction  from t h e 'Congress System' a l l l e d t o a  i n t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  system. Immediate Causes o f t h e Emergency H a v i n g examined t h e breakdown o f consensus and e r o s i o n o f t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  system, i t i s necessary  now t o c o n s i d e r  i n June 1975.  why t h e e m e r g e n c y was d e c l a r e d  introductory chapter, stitutional isting and  i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  that the maintenance of con-  government i n I n d i a depends on t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e e x -  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  the opposition p a r t i e s .  framework by b o t h t h e government  What t h e n w e r e t h e s p e c i f i c  w h i c h l e d t h e government t o t e m p o r a r i l y In other  In the  suspend t h i s  circumstances  common f r a m e w o r k ?  w o r d s , why d i d t h e g o v e r n m e n t f e e l t h a t t h e u n l i m i t e d p o w e r s  of a s t a t e o f emergency were  required?  I n a n a l y z i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t a t e o f emergency s e v e r a l k e y questions  arise:  the Gujarat  What p a r t d i d t h e A l l a h a b a d  election results play  To w h a t e x t e n t gency m o t i v a t e d  i n t h e d e c i s i o n o f J u n e 2 6 , 1975?  was M r s . G a n d h i ' s d e c i s i o n t o d e c l a r e by p u r e l y p e r s o n a l  What was t h e n a t u r e the opposition?  H i g h C o u r t d e c i s i o n and  considerations  a s t a t e o f emer-  o f s t a y i n g i n power?  o f t h e t h r e a t t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government  What was t h e r o l e o f t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y  from  leadership,  50  t h e P r e s i d e n t , t h e bureaucracy-, t h e army and t h e p o l i c e ? emergency  Could the  have been a v e r t e d ?  From p r e s s i n g  i t s demands f o r e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  r e f o r m , t h e o p p o s i t i o n ' s f o c u s o f a t t a c k changed I n d i r a Gandhi.  t o that of removing  The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a p p e a r e d t o have a c h i e v e d t h i s  o b j e c t i v e when two e v e n t s o f i m p o r t a n c e a f f e c t i n g  the personal  position  of t h e Prime M i n i s t e r o c c u r r e d i n June 1975. A t 1 0 : 0 0 a.m.  o n J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 7 5 , J u s t i c e J a g Mohan L a i S i n h a o f  t h e A l l a h a b a d H i g h C o u r t announced  t h a t M r s . Gandhi had been  g u i l t y on two c o u n t s o f e l e c t o r a l v i o l a t i o n s Sabha  i n 1971.  M r s . G a n d h i was now b a r r e d  found  i n her election to the Lok  from h o l d i n g e l e c t i v e  office  f o r s i x y e a r s a n d was t o v a c a t e h e r s e a t i n t h e L o k S a b h a w i t h i n s i x months.  H o w e v e r , s h e was a l s o g i v e n a " s t a y o r d e r " d e l a y i n g t h e e x e c u -  t i o n o f J u s t i c e Sinha's sentence f o r twenty days, a l l o w i n g h e r time t o a p p e a l t h e judgement  i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f I n d i a .  On t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , M r s . G a n d h i r e c e i v e d  a f u r t h e r s e t b a c k when  t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e G u j a r a t S t a t e e l e c t i o n s h e l d o n J u n e 8-11 w e r e a n nounced.  The C o n g r e s s P a r t y was d e c i s i v e l y b e a t e n b y a c o a l i t i o n o f o p -  position parties,  t h e J a n a t a F r o n t , w h i c h won e i g h t y - s e v e n s e a t s a n d  formed a m i n i s t r y headed  by Babubhai P a t e l .  s t r e n g t h i n t h e 182-member a s s e m b l y f e l l i n 1974 t o s e v e n t y - f i v e s e a t s .  The C o n g r e s s  Party's  f r o m 140 s e a t s a t d i s s o l u t i o n  The e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were a p e r s o n a l  d e f e a t f o r M r s . Gandhi s i n c e she had s t a k e d h e r p r e s t i g e on t h e r e s u l t s and h a d c a m p a i g n e d  e x t e n s i v e l y i n "the s t a t e m a k i n g n u m e r o u s  and h e l i c o p t e r t o u r s i n a l l n i n e t e e n d i s t r i c t s  of the state.  speeches Moreover,  51  d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n campaign she had Congress P a r t y was  s t r e s s e d the argument t h a t t h e  the o n l y p a r t y capable  of g i v i n g s t a b i l i t y  and  u n i t y to I n d i a . In h i s a n a l y s i s of the impact  of the G u j a r a t e l e c t i o n , K o t h a r i  argues t h a t the Congress P a r t y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the e l e c t i o n  results.  The Congress i t s e l f d i d not f a r e b a d l y , g e t t i n g 44 p e r cent of the v o t e which had been the normal s t r e n g t h of the Congress a l l a l o n g . T h i s happened i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the a n t i - C o n g r e s s movement had o r i g i n a l l y s t a r t e d i n G u j a r a t and the s t o c k of l o c a l Congressmen was v e r y low. To no s m a l l e x t e n t t h i s was due to the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s own massive campaign on b e h a l f of the Congress and the f a c t t h a t the poor, the t r i b a l and other u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d s t r a t a of the p e o p l e were s t i l l w i t h the Congress. And G u j a r a t was by no means r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the c o u n t r y and t h e r e was more than a f a i r chance t h a t the Congress would once a g a i n emerge triumphant i n the n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n which was b a r e l y e i g h t months ahead. While i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t the Congress r e c e i v e d f o r t y f o u r p e r cent o f the p o p u l a r v o t e , a f i g u r e h i g h e r than t h a t of the J a n a t a F r o n t , the f a c t remains t h a t the winning on the number of s e a t s won vote.  The  of e l e c t i o n s depends  r a t h e r than the p r o p o r t i o n of the  Congress P a r t y c o u l d have taken comfort  share of the p o p u l a r v o t e remained approximately not have been s a t i s f i e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t i t had and was  now  a minority party.  popular  i n the f a c t t h a t i t s  the same, but i t c o u l d lost sixty-five  Moreover, the Congress (R)  i n the c r u c i a l urban areas of the s t a t e such as R a j k o t ,  lost  seats  ground  S u r a t , Baroda  and Ahmedabad where the J a n a t a F r o n t o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l v o t e .  C l e a r l y , urban d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the Congress C )  not l e s s e n e d s i n c e  R  1974.  had  52  For  the Congress P a r t y , the e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s b e f o r e  b e e n m i x e d and  they i n d i c a t e d that the  declined.  i n s t a n c e , i n t h e F e b r u a r y 1974  For  ' I n d i r a Wave' o f 1 9 7 1 - 7 2  i n U t t a r P r a d e s h t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y had the  S t a t e government but  U.P.  e l e c t i o n was  history. Lok  o f Madhya P r a d e s h . ported gress  by  The  l e a d e r s h i p o f an Thus the  of Jabalpur,  one  of i t s strongholds  e f f e c t o f t h i s v i c t o r y o f an t o q u a s h any  a cumulative  t w i n e v e n t s had  t i m i n g o f t h e s e two  ceived  each c r i s i s  separately.  and  Gujarat  Party the  Congress Party.  The  ' v a c a t i o n judge' of the  High  Court  the p o s i t i o n of a matter  was  had  Gandhi  twofold:  F i r s t , i t gave  to a t t a c k the  non-communist o p p o s i t i o n s u f f e r e d an  T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y was  Supreme C o u r t ,  of  What i s c e r t a i n , t h o u g h ,  Secondly, the events of June placed  i n a p e r i o d of u n c e r t a i n t y .  significant,  Perhaps Mrs.  t h a t t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r had  v e r s i b l e setback.  Con-  emergency d e c l a r a t i o n  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s an u n p a r a l l e l e d o p p o r t u n i t y the  thought i n the  I t i s , of course,  events been d i f f e r e n t .  that the e f f e c t of Allahabad  M i n i s t e r and  state sup-  i m p a c t on  s p e c u l a t i o n w h e t h e r t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n an  is  the  independent  a f t e r the Allahabad  the Congress P a r t y .  c o u l d have d e a l t w i t h  i n the  election results is  decision.  the  in  early general e l e c t i o n .  t i m i n g of the Gujarat  G a n d h i and  the  i n post-independence  s u f f e r e d a shock defeat  day  Mrs.  And  (R)  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y came one The  seats.  Congress  t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s was  had  managed t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f  r e g a r d e d as t h e most c o r r u p t  Sabha c o n s t i t u e n c y  had  s t a t e assembly e l e c t i o n s  w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f o n l y two  I n J a n u a r y 1975,  Gujarat  J u s t i c e V.R.  the not  Prime per-  irre-  Congress e n d e d when  Krishna  Iyer,  53  on J u n e 2 4 , 1 9 7 5 , t u r n e d down M r s . G a n d h i ' s r e q u e s t and  absolute stay of j u s t i c e . "  f o r a "complete  J u s t i c e I y e r d i d , however, grant  c o n d i t i o n a l s t a y i n g order which enabled  a  M r s . Gandhi t o c o n t i n u e as  Prime M i n i s t e r but n o t t o take p a r t i n parliamentary proceedings,  vote  19 o r d r a w h e r p a y a s a member o f t h e L o k S a b h a . A f t e r t h e Allahabad High Court results, Mrs.  d e c i s i o n and t h e G u j a r a t  election  t h e non-communist o p p o s i t i o n was unanimous i n t h e v i e w t h a t  Gandhi should r e s i g n .  J u s t i c e Sinha's  j u d g e m e n t was h a i l e d a s a  great a c t showing t h e independence o f t h e j u d i c i a r y .  The o p p o s i t i o n  argued t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r c o u l d n o t j u s t i f i a b l y  remain i n o f f i c e  a f t e r b e i n g c o n v i c t e d o n e l e c t o r a l o f f e n c e s no m a t t e r o f f e n c e s were.  how m i n o r  R e m a i n i n g i n o f f i c e w o u l d o n l y weaken h e r c r e d i b i l i t y  and w e a k e n t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e o f f i c e o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r . the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s c a l l e d and  those  began a n a t i o n - w i d e  Accordingly,  f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new g o v e r n m e n t  campaign f o r h e r r e s i g n a t i o n .  On t h e - o t h e r h a n d , s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e l e c t o r a l c o n v i c t i o n s were minor and t h a t o t h e r of e l e c t o r a l o f f e n c e s had been thrown out by J u s t i c e Sinha. s i t i o n was a c c u s e d  of having double  standards  d e c i s i o n s o f t h e c o u r t s o n l y when t h e y They were a l s o accused  charges The oppo-  i n that they accepted the  suited their p o l i t i c a l  interests.  of e x p l o i t i n g t h e r u l i n g a g a i n s t Mrs. Gandhi i n  order t o create discontent i n the country.  Moreover, Mrs. Gandhi's  sup-  p o r t e r s a r g u e d t h a t s h e was n o t l e g a l l y o b l i g e d t o r e s i g n s i n c e s h e h a d been g i v e n a c o n d i t i o n a l s t a y i n g o r d e r ; t h e q u e s t i o n o f M r s . Gandhi's r e s i g n a t i o n w o u l d o n l y a r i s e o n c e t h e Supreme C o u r t  h a d made i t s  54  judgement on t h e matter  of her a p p e a l . ^  it  that the question of the continuance of the  s o o n became a p p a r e n t  Prime M i n i s t e r The  i n o f f i c e was a p o l i t i c a l  Whatever t h e l e g a l  arguments,  issue.  non-communist o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s b e l i e v e d t h a t M r s . Gandhi  c o u l d n o t r e c o v e r from She r e t a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d  these setbacks, but i n t h i s they m i s c a l c u l a t e d . s u p p o r t i n h e r own p a r t y .  H e r dominance o f t h e  p a r t y a n d t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t C o n g r e s s m e n a n d C h i e f M i n i s t e r s owed p o s i t i o n s t o h e r meant t h a t t h e r e was n o l i k e l y Minister  i f she r e s i g n e d .  their  successor t o t h e Prime  P r e s i d e n t Ahmed was c a r e f u l t o t a k e a n o n -  committal p o s i t i o n i n t h e whole matter o f h e r r e s i g n a t i o n ; andM r s . Gandhi r e t a i n e d  t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e army, t h e p o l i c e ,  the intelligence  s e r v i c e s and t h e upper echelons o f t h e s t a t e and c e n t r a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s . ' In  l i n e w i t h t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o b e g i n a n a t i o n w i d e campaign f o r  the r e s i g n a t i o n o f I n d i r a Gandhi, rally  the opposition parties held a  massive  i n New D e l h i o n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f J u n e 2 5 , 1 9 7 5 . L e a d i n g t h e  rally,  Jayaprakash Narayan c a l l e d  s t r u g g l e and once a g a i n appealed illegal  f o r a nation-wide c i v i l  disobedience  t o t h e army a n d t h e p o l i c e n o t t o o b e y  orders. Government s e r v a n t s s h o u l d n o t obey any u n j u s t orders; the m i l i t a r y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to p r o t e c t I n d i a n democracy; t h e i r duty i s t o protect the Constitution...the police are t r a i n e d t o a c t i n a b l i n d way; t h e y s h o u l d a l s o t h i n k — t h e p o l i c e , don't they have s e l f - r e s p e c t , a r e they j u s t there f o r the sake o f bread?^2 N a r a y a n h a d made s i m i l a r a p p e a l s b e f o r e a n d t h e y h a d b e e n d u l y  r e c o r d e d by t h e p o l i c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e s e r v i c e s .  However, h i s a p p e a l  on J u n e 25 t o o k o n a n a d d e d s i g n i f i c a n c e b e c a u s e i t was made o n t h e  55  eve o f a n a t i o n w i d e c i v i l  d i s o b e d i e n c e campaign and i t f u r n i s h e d  Gandhi w i t h a f u r t h e r reason f o r imposing a s t a t e of n a t i o n a l The  d e c i s i o n t o d e c l a r e a s t a t e o f n a t i o n a l emergency  b y M r s . G a n d h i o n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e same d a y . six  1975.  was  a.m.  w h i c h was  at  then 26,  The C e n t r a l R e s e r v e P o l i c e h a d a l r e a d y a r r e s t e d a number o f  op-  i n c l u d i n g Jayaprakash Narayan,  D e s a i , R a j N a r a i n , P i l o o Mody, A.B.  p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p was  i m m e d i a t e l y imposed and most m o r n i n g  t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e emergency  promulgated which l i m i t e d  Ram  Strict  newspapers  D e l h i d i d not appear because of ' e l e c t r i c a l f a i l u r e s ' .  days a f t e r  Morarji  V a j p a y e e , C h a n d r a S e k h a r and  Dhas u n d e r t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t o f 1 9 7 1 .  New  reached  on T h u r s d a y June  p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s and Congressmen  in  emergency.  The U n i o n c a b i n e t met  o ' c l o c k t h e n e x t m o r n i n g t o approve t h e emergency  p r o c l a i m e d b y t h e P r e s i d e n t o f I n d i a a t 7:00  Mrs.  Three  a P r e s i d e n t i a l order  the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , groups  was  and  f o r e i g n e r s t o d e f e n d t h e i r r i g h t s and freedoms i n t h e c o u r t s . These  initial  measures  o f t h e emergency  w e r e f o l l o w e d on J u l y  1  by t h e announcement o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f a ' T w e n t y - P o i n t P r o gramme' o f e c o n o m i c of  and s o c i a l r e f o r m s , a n d o n J u l y 4, b y t h e b a n n i n g  twenty-six organizations including  t h e R a s h t r i y a Swayamsevak Sangh  ( R . S . S . ) , A n a n d M a r g a n d a number o f N a x a l i t e g r o u p s u n d e r t h e D e f e n c e of  India Rules.  larged  These were soon f o l l o w e d by o t h e r measures  t h e scope o f e x e c u t i v e power and c u r t a i l e d  civil  which en-  liberties  an a s c e n d i n g l i n e o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m .  First,  the  so t h a t q u e s t i o n h o u r was  r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e o f t h e L o k Sabha  c o n t i n u e d and o n l y government 2 3 , 1975  t h e government  motions were a l l o w e d .  on  suspended  S e c o n d l y , on  disJuly  t h e L o k Sabha p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n a p p r o v i n g t h e d e c l a r a t i o n  56  o f t h e s t a t e o f emergency by thus f u l f i l l e d has  a v o t e o f 336  the requirements  to 5 9 T h e  of the C o n s t i t u t i o n i n which Parliament  t o a p p r o v e a s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y w i t h i n two m o n t h s o f i t s p r o c l a m a t i o n . With  c e r t a i n o p p o s i t i o n members and  Congressmen e i t h e r i n j a i l  b o y c o t t i n g t h e s e s s i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t , t h e government had m a j o r i t y to rush through the Lok vote  resolution  Sabha.  On  necessary  a s e r i e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments  J u l y 23,  the t h i r t y - n i n t h  the  1975  the Lok  Sabha a p p r o v e d by  through  a 342  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment w h i c h b a r r e d l a w  from hearing p e t i t i o n s  to  The  amendment a l s o g a v e  1  courts  c h a l l e n g i n g e i t h e r t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f an  gency or the r u l e s imposed under i t .  or  emer-  the 2  P r e s i d e n t t h e r i g h t t o p r o c l a i m any On A u g u s t 7,  1975  Parliament  number o f e m e r g e n c i e s  approved the f o r t i e t h  amendment; t h e c o u r t s c o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r c a s e s  constitutional  concerning  o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , t h e P r e s i d e n t , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and the Lok  Sabha.  judicial Act of  review  1975. Mrs.  I t also excluded  i n c l u d i n g M.I.S.A. and  c e n t r a l and  t h e E l e c t i o n Laws  the  election  speaker  of  s t a t e laws  from  (Amendment)  2 6  G a n d h i ' s p o s i t i o n was  t h e Supreme C o u r t  on November 7.  e l e c t o r a l o f f e n c e s and from e l e c t i v e o f f i c e was  thirty-eight  simultaneously.  also strengthened  by  This reversed her  c o n v i c t i o n on  the Allahabad High  for s i x years.  n o t , however, an u n q u a l i f i e d  t o t h r e e v o t e , t h e Supreme C o u r t  The  success  Court's  the d e c i s i o n of  r u l i n g b a r r i n g her  d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme f o r Mrs.  two  Gandhi.  In a  a l s o n u l l i f i e d p a r t of the  Court five  fortieth  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment w h i c h p l a c e d t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o u t s i d e the scope of j u d i c i a l review.  Thus i n t h e p o s t - J u n e  26  period  57  the  c o u r t s r e m a i n e d an i m p o r t a n t  h r a k e on  the a c t i v i t i e s  of  the  executive. In  analyzing executive—judicial relations i n this period,  d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n emerges.  There were, f i r s t  o f a l l , a number o f  a court  d e c i s i o n s w h i c h i n v a l i d a t e d p a r t s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments o r which l e d to the r e l e a s e of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l j o u r n a l i s t K u l d i p Nayar. government r e s p o n d e d by to  initiative  r e s u l t of these  p a s s i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments, amendments the c o u r t s ' d e c i s i o n s .  always remained w i t h the e x e c u t i v e .  e x e c u t i v e - j u d i c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s was  power o f t h e e x e c u t i v e and  an  In short,  the  increase i n  the  a p r o g r e s s i v e d i m i n u t i o n o f t h e power  of  courts. Finally,  one  o f the most i m p o r t a n t  t h e e m e r g e n c y p e r i o d was important the r i g h t s without  the  suspension  r i g h t s g u a r a n t e e d by A r t i c l e t o f r e e d o m o f s p e e c h and  a c t i o n s of the government i n  on J a n u a r y a 8 , 1976 19  of the  arms, to form a s s o c i a t i o n s o r u n i o n s ,  o f I n d i a , t o a c q u i r e , h o l d and p r o f e s s i o n o r t o c a r r y on the P r e s i d e n t i a l order b a r r i n g appeals  dispose  these  t o move f r e e l y  peaceably throughout  p a r t of. t h e  territory  t o p r a c t i c e any  trade or business.  rights  seven  Constitution—namely,  o f p r o p e r t y , and  occupation,  suspending  to the Courts  S i g n i f i c a n c e and I t now  any  of  e x p r e s s i o n , to assemble  t h e t e r r i t o r y o f I n d i a , t o r e s i d e o r s e t t l e i n any  The  the  A f t e r t a k i n g stock of these d e c i s i o n s , the  statutes or executive orders which overturned  Thus t h e  the  p r i s o n e r s s u c h as  Once  again,  included a provision  to enforce A r t i c l e  19.  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the Emergency  remains to consider the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e c l a r a t i o n  58  o f t h e s t a t e o f emergency and s u b s e q u e n t government measures f o r t h e operation  of India's  questions  arise:  government?  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  Was  systems.  Several  t h e emergency c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  Were t h e emergency m e a s u r e s an o v e r r e a c t i o n on t h e p a r t  o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t — a n a t t e m p t , a s i t was s a i d , t o c r a c k a n u t w i t h sledgehammer?  I n w h a t s e n s e was  a  the d e c l a r a t i o n of the s t a t e of  emergency c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y  unprecedented?  And,  finally,  how do t h e M a r x i s t m o d e l o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n d K o t h a r i ' s m o d e l o f o n e p a r t y dominance e x p l a i n t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government? The J u n e 26 p r o c l a m a t i o n legality  raised important questions  of Mrs. Gandhi's a c t i o n s .  regarding  the  I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e P r i m e  M i n i s t e r d i d n o t e x c e e d t h e bounds o f h e r l e g a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y s i n c e t h e e m e r g e n c y m e a s u r e s w e r e b a s e d o n a l a r g e number o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s such as A r t i c l e as  352 a n d o n l e g a l s t a t u t e s  such  t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t o f 1971 and t h e D e f e n c e o f  India Rules.  T h e s e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s g i v e t h e  e x e c u t i v e b r o a d powers i n times o f c r i s i s . political  crisis  o f 1975, R i c h a r d  In h i s evaluation of the  L. P a r k a r g u e s t h a t " I n d i r a G a n d h i  c o u l d n o t have embarked on t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n she has t a k e n J u n e 26 h a d s h e n o t h e l d l e g i t i m a t e m a j o r i t i e s i n P a r l i a m e n t  since a n d i n 19  o f t h e 22 s t a t e s .  The moves s h e h a s f o s t e r e d a p p e a r t o be l e g a l ;  it  t h a t they have been c o n s t i t u t i o n a l .  i s questionable  between what i s " l e g a l "  but  The d i f f e r e n c e  and what i s " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l " c a n be a m a t t e r  of o p i n i o n , b u t i n t h e end t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s what t h e Supreme C o u r t says i t i s .  This  i s a most f r u s t r a t i n g  f a c t t h a t c o n c e r n s members o f  59  t h e e x i s t i n g Government, and One  by  and  the  of the  s u b j e c t t as w e l l .  the  nature,  Constitution. 'spirit'  In arguing  'constitutionality'  of  M  /  the  the emergency i s t h a t i t  f a c t t h a t the emergency p r o v i s i o n s o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n were,  t h e i r very  the  scholars  of the problems of making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between  'legality' ignores  serious  designed to suspend the normal workings of  A more s u i t a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n , of  the C o n s t i t u t i o n and  t h a t d e m o c r a c y was  still  1975,  the  government p o i n t e d  still  meeting amidst a m u l t i - p a r t y t o be  l a t u r e s of  were s t i l l  the  States  t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d be  'letter'  between  of i t s p r o v i s i o n s .  f u n c t i o n i n g i n I n d i a a f t e r June  out- t h e  the C a b i n e t continued  the  the  following:  that Parliament  was  system; t h a t the Prime M i n i s t e r  answerable to Parliament; i n session;  and  t h a t the  26,  and  legis-  that opposition  gov-  28 e r n m e n t s w e r e i n p o w e r i n Goa,  Gujarat  T h e s e a s s e r t i o n s , h o w e v e r , do  not  and  T a m i l Nadu.  take i n t o account the  t u t i o n a l amendments t h a t w e r e p a s s e d a f t e r J u n e 1975  or the  President's  and  R u l e was  I n C h a p t e r I I i t was t h a t the  s u b s e q u e n t l y i m p o s e d on argued t h a t  a r b i t r a r y use  cession  the  that there  G a n d h i had  the  a r r e s t i n g important opposition party,  'spirit'  leaders  i n imposing press censorship,  implies  and  of  indi-  f o r the  suc-  democratic e l e c t i o n s .  function i n India during  gone a g a i n s t  T a m i l Nadu.  are provisions  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n - . o f ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government' as  Mrs.  that  government i s checked, t h a t  of power-holders through c o m p e t i t i v e ,  t h a t democracy d i d not  fact  ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government'  o f p o w e r by  v i d u a l r i g h t s a r e m a i n t a i n e d and  Gujarat  consti-  a standard,  the emergency.  Using  i t i s clear Where  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was  c e r t a i n members o f h e r  postponing national elections  in own and  60  reducing  t h e power o f t h e c o u r t s .  Arguments o v e r t h e emergency a l s o c e n t e r  on t h e  appropriateness  o f M r s . G a n d h i ' s m e a s u r e s a n d w h e t h e r t h e y were*.an o v e r r e a c t i o n t o events.  The g o v e r n m e n t h a d a l a r g e m a j o r i t y i n P a r l i a m e n t ,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d i t was  control of  a l s o armed w i t h t h e d e c l a -  r a t i o n o f emergency o f December 1971 and w i t h t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t o f 1 9 7 1 and t h e D e f e n c e o f I n d i a R u l e s . ment, t h e r e f o r e , have d e a l t w i t h t h e c r i s i s w i t h o u t o f an emergency a p p l i e d t o t h e w h o l e o f I n d i a ? Gandhi and h e r s u p p o r t e r s  was  that these  Could  the govern-  t h e extreme measure  The a r g u m e n t o f M r s .  resources  at the d i s p o s a l of  the government were i n a d e q u a t e t o d e a l w i t h a r e a l t h r e a t t o I n d i a ' s political  stability.  Tougher measures designed  ernment's d e t e r m i n a t i o n  to demonstrate the gov-  t o d e a l w i t h t h i s t h r e a t were needed i n order 29  to  save I n d i a n democracy from c o l l a p s e .  The g o v e r n m e n t ' s b a n o f t w e n -  t y - s i x e x t r e m e l e f t a n d r i g h t w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e R.S.S., A n a n d M a r g a n d N a x a l i t e s was a l s o a n a t t e m p t t o s t r e n g t h e n democracy by c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e moderate c e n t e r o f I n d i a n I t i s necessary  to consider  emergency were u n p r e c e d e n t e d . declared before designed  Indian politics.  i n what ways t h e measures o f t h e  S t a t e s o f n a t i o n a l emergency has been  i n O c t o b e r 1962 a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 1 b u t t h e s e  had been  t o d e a l w i t h an e x t e r n a l t h r e a t and had been l i m i t e d  application.  For instance, during the f i r s t  emergency i n t h e S i n o -  I n d i a n b o r d e r war, a r r e s t s had l a r g e l y been c o n f i n e d communists. its. successor  to  pro-Peking  And s i n c e i n d e p e n d e n c e t h e P r e v e n t i v e D e t e n t i o n M.I.S.A. h a d b e e n u s e d m a i n l y  i n their  against  A c t and  'anti-social  61  e l e m e n t s ' s u c h as 'goondas' ( u r b a n t o u g h s ) , d a c o i t s , s m u g g l e r s and speculators. The s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y o f J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 7 5 , h o w e v e r , was emergency t o be d e c l a r e d crisis. the  f o r reasons of i n t e r n a l rather  The e m e r g e n c y was a l s o u n i q u e i n t h a t  imposition  of extensive  arrest of opposition  leaders  Samyutka S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , U n p r e c e d e n t e d a l s o was Lok  press censorship  than  external  accompanied by  and by t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s  f r o m p a r t i e s s u c h as t h e J a n a Sangh, t h e  t h e C.P.M. a n d t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y  the f i r s t  itself.  l a r g e - s c a l e a r r e s t o f members o f t h e  Sabha. Finally,  Kothari's  how u s e f u l a r e t h e M a r x i s t  model o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t  I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s i t was  hypothesized that the C o n s t i t u t i o n contained liberal-democratic o f why Class  features.  a u t h o r i t a r i a n as w e l l as  A class analysis offered  t h e b r o a d emergency powers were i n c l u d e d interest also offered  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government.  one  explanation  i n the Constitution.  an e x p l a n a t i o n  of the conditions  In the Marxist  analysis the i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n were c o n d i t i o n a l on t h e absence o f a  challenge  and  model o f one-party dominance i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e s u s p e n s i o n of  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n : I n d i a ?  of  i t was  the f i r s t  t o t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  favouring  revolutionary  power o f t h e d o m i n a n t c l a s s e s  of  India. The a n a l y s e s o f t h e breakdown o f c o n s e n s u s and o f t h e i m m e d i a t e c a u s e s o f t h e e m e r g e n c y , h o w e v e r , h a v e shown t h a t the  outcome o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  and  political  system.  challenge  The i n s t a b i l i t y  t h e e m e r g e n c y was n o t  to the Indian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  i n Gujarat,  f o r e x a m p l e , was  62  caused by a middle class revolt against Congress governments at the state l e v e l and at the center.  The organized working class played  only a marginal r o l e i n these disturbances. p r i o r to the emergency was  Rather, the i n s t a b i l i t y  caused by c o n f l i c t between bourgeois parties  such as the Congress (R), Congress (0), Jana Sangh and Swantantra.  In  this c o n f l i c t between the bourgeois p a r t i e s , the Indian communist parties took d i f f e r e n t sides; the C.P.I, a l l i e d i t s e l f with the r u l i n g Congress Party while the C.P.M. sided with the opposition p a r t i e s . Yet a class analysis may was  explain the ease with which the emergency  imposed and i n p a r t i c u l a r the l o y a l t y of the police, army, bureau-  cracy and paramilitary forces to Mrs. Gandhi. these instruments  In the Marxist analysis,  of state power are controlled by the r u l i n g classes;  their function i s to maintain the dominance of the r u l i n g classes. However, a f t e r the declaration of the state of emergency i n June the j u d i c i a r y was  one exception to the Marxist analysis.  1975,  I t was  still  wedded to l i b e r a l democratic p r i n c i p l e s , and served as a brake on the actions of the executive. I t could thus be argued that the emergency was not the c r i s i s of India's dominant classes but rather of one section of the r u l i n g c l a s s . It could also be argued that the emergency was, of one p e r s o n — I n d i r a Gandhi.  above a l l , the c r i s i s  One of the strengths of Kothari's model  of one-party dominance i s the importance i t gives to the role of India's p o l i t i c a l leaders i n securing consensus i n the p o l i t i c a l system.  For  example, i n his model of the 'Congress System' Kothari stressed the importance of leaders such as Nehru and other ' t a l l men'  i n blunting  63  conflict  and c l e a v a g e s i n I n d i a .  The f o r e g o i n g  a n a l y s i s : o f the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the d e c l a r a -  t i o n of the s t a t e o f emergency has shown t h a t Mrs. Gandhi came to p l a c e more emphasis on economic and s o c i a l performance, even a t the expense of consensus. 'vested  In her p o p u l i s t s t r a t e g y Mrs. Gandhi a t t a c k e d  i n t e r e s t s ' of Indian  s o c i e t y and she saw h e r s e l f as the cham-  p i o n of the disadvantaged s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . p a r t i e s resorted to extra-parliamentary the g u a r d i a n o f law and  the  And as the o p p o s i t i o n  a g i t a t i o n s she saw h e r s e l f as  order.  However, Mrs. Gandhi's p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s towards democ r a c y and o p p o s i t i o n g i v e o n l y a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government on K o t h a r i ' s  frameworks  i n 1975.  A t t e n t i o n must a l s o be  focussed  o f o p e r a t i v e mechanisms, consensus and  imacy and i n p a r t i c u l a r the o p e r a t i o n A l t h o u g h the o p e r a t i o n  o f the s u s p e n s i o n  of t h e 'margin o f  o f the 'margin of p r e s s u r e '  openness o f the p o l i t i c a l system b e f o r e d i d not operate a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d . agreement between the p a r t y  1969,  pressure.'  contributed  the 'margin o f  B e f o r e 1969 t h e r e was  legit-  to the pressure'  a t l e a s t some  o f consensus and the p a r t i e s of p r e s s u r e  to the r u l e s o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l system.  But a f t e r the  Congress s p l i t and the 1971-72 e l e c t i o n s the p a r t i e s o f p r e s s u r e  were  reduced i n importance and a l i e n a t e d from the 'Congress System.'  The  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s demanded the r e f o r m o f the e l e c t o r a l system, the r i g h t of r e c a l l of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s emergency d e c l a r e d  and t h e l i f t i n g of the s t a t e o f  i n December 1971.  as  They b e l i e v e d t h a t the e x i s t i n g  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l framework unduly favoured the r u l i n g  64  Congress  Party.  In the terminology  become dysfunctional This  of functionalism,  to the constitutional  examination  of the period  opposition  and political  leading up  to the  system. declaration  of the state of emergency has shown that the maintenance of tional government opposition  requires  parties.  consensus between  I t has also  shown that  to the Marxist  model  since revolutionary  do n o t account  f o r the suspension  maintenance of constitutional the dominant  classes  Following  ment made i t clear  a modification  of constitutional  government  that  and i s  political  the  required  to class  dominance  government.  and political  of the state of emergency,  i t would not allow  features o f the pre-June 1975  constitu-  The  also requires agreement  as to the constitutional  the declaration  the government  challenges  had  a return  framework. the  to some of  system, particularly  extra-constitutional methods adopted by the non-communist  within  governthe  i n  the  and CPM  op-  30 position parties. intended up  to the  to prevent emergency.  The  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r examines how  a recurrence  of the political  the  instability  government leading  CHAPTER V THE R E V I S I O N OF THE  CONSTITUTION  65  Soon a f t e r t h e d e c l a r a t i o n  of the state  June 1975, I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l unprecedented state raised tary  Some w e s t e r n o b s e r v e r s a r g u e d t h a t and t h a t  this civilian  r e p l a c e d b y a m i l i t a r y one."'" intended to use the state  fresh  a dictatorship  dictatorship  would sooner o r l a t e r  Mrs. Gandhi h e r s e l f  made i t c l e a r  that  o f emergency a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a s s e s s institutions;  and as p a r t o f t h i s  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n on t h e grounds t h a t  I n p a r t i c u l a r , she argued that  She  i t was l o n g  and needed t o s e c u r e t h e s o c i a l economic and p o l i t i c a l India.  ever  had been i m -  s t a r t a r e v i s i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n would be n e c e s s a r y .  justified  of  i n an  T h e way i n w h i c h t h e E m e r g e n c y was i m p o s e d  I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  due  s y s t e m was p l a c e d  democracy a n d w h e t h e r t h e o l d norms o f I n d i a n p o l i t i c s w o u l d  posed on I n d i a  she  emergency i n  questions o f whether I n d i a would continue t o remain a p a r l i a m e n -  return.  be  of flux.  of national  over-  transformation  constitutional revision  would  remove o b s t a c l e s t o t h e government's economic and s o c i a l p r o g r a m s , primarily,  the rulings  o f t h e c o u r t s on p r o p e r t y r i g h t s and t h e a c t i v i -  2 t i e s of 'vested It  interests'.  c o u l d be argued t h a t  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n was n o t n e c e s s a r y  and  that  t h e o b s t a c l e s t o t h e government r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e j u d i c i a r y  and  t h e 'vested i n t e r e s t s ' were n o n - i s s u e s by 1975. R a t h e r ,  'obstacles' her  populist  c o n t i n u e d t o be o f u s e t o Mrs. strategy.  S i n c e 1971,  Gandhi as whipping boys i n  P a r l i a m e n t had passed a s e r i e s o f  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e Supreme C o u r t ' s r u l i n g s on l a n d and  these  conservative  r e f o r m and p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  the a b o l i t i o n of p r i v y  purses.  o f banks  On A u g u s t 1 1 , 1 9 7 1 , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e  66  Lok  Sahba approved the  the  Supreme C o u r t ' s 1967  A r t i c l e s 13  and  368  2 4 t h amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n r e s p o n s e  s e c t i o n on  1972  and  the  c e n t r a l and  court  Why, J u n e 1975?  Fundamental R i g h t s .  s t a t e laws o u t s i d e 24,  1973,  the  Fundamental t h e n , was  Parliament could  first  Constitution.  not  The  Also  the  r u l i n g i n the  place,  settle  alter  the  review.  case of  9,  of  Further-  'Kesavananda  'Golaknath' case.  a l t e r the  the  controversy  While the  The to  'basic  s t r u c t u r e ' or  'framework' of  over  the  Parliament's  Supreme C o u r t d i d  Fundamental R i g h t s ,  i t a l s o added  state that  'framework' o f  the  make c l e a r w h a t i t meant  the C o n s t i t u t i o n .  Thus by  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e of P a r l i a m e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y  C o n s t i t u t i o n remained  by the to  unresolved.  These i n c l u d e d :  the powers of  r u l i n g s on  c e n t r a l l a w s and  the  i s s u e of  list  i t i s important to note that  problems.  the  added t o the  constitutional authority  There were a l s o o t h e r o u t s t a n d i n g  and  including  2 9 t h amendment o f J u n e  1-974  C o u r t , however, d i d not  the  Constitution  scope of j u d i c i a l  Constitution.  structure!, or  m i d d l e o f 1975,  the  reaffirming  further c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n necessary after  that Parliament could  r e v i s e the  of  Punjab'.  Rights.  a u t h o r i t y t o amend t h e  'basic  part  t h a t P a r l i a m e n t d i d have the  In the  'Golaknath v  Supreme C o u r t i n t h e  'Kesavananda' d e c i s i o n d i d not  the  the  overturned i t s e a r l i e r  ruled  amend t h e  t o amend any  3 4 t h amendment o f A u g u s t 2 6 ,  m o r e , on A p r i l v Kerala'  case of  o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w e r e amended, t h u s  Parliament's authority the  r u l i n g i n the  to  use  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and the P r e s i d e n t ;  of high  court  political  high  w r i t s ; land  'benami t r a n s f e r s ' , i n w h i c h some l a n d o w n e r s  court reform  67  registered land  t h e i r h o l d i n g s w i t h r e l a t i v e s and  c e i l i n g laws; the  m a t t e r s s u c h as  i n order to  problem of j u d i c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n  e m p l o y m e n t and  whether the D i r e c t i v e  friends  conditions  P r i n c i p l e s of  service;  State Policy  the  l e g a l s y s t e m i n o r d e r t o make i t m o r e e f f i c i e n t and the  However, the was  Mrs.  the  earlier  the  e l e c t i o n of The  of  consolidating  Prime  section  (Amendment) A c t  chronological c o n s i d e r why On the  account of  traces  the  reforming accessible  1975,  p e r s o n a l power as the  c o u r t s from  revision shown  by  considering  to  government's p r o p o s a l s the  i n November 2,  the  genesis of  i n an  the  passing of 1976.  the  for  42nd  It is largely  4 2 n d amendment and  forward, m o d i f i e d or  interview  Bombay n e w s m a g a z i n e ' B l i t z ' , M r s .  guidelines  her  s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s were put  A u g u s t 16,  more  over  Minister.  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m f r o m J u n e 1975 stitutional  problem of  over  population.  f o r t i e t h amendment w h i c h b a r r e d  following  the  most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  Gandhi's aim  the  and  service  took precedence  Fundamental R i g h t s of  the m a j o r i t y of  Constitution;  in civil  controversy  the  to  the  of  evade  w i t h the  w h a t c h a n g e s w e r e b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d by  Replying to the  a i t will  withdrawn.  editor-in-chief  G a n d h i made known some o f  for constitutional revision.  Con-  the  her  question  governments. Mrs.  said: I am n o t t h i n k i n g i n t e r m s o f a C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o r a new C o n s t i t u t i o n . A second look d o e s n o t mean an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n . N e i t h e r the s p i r i t of our C o n s t i t u t i o n nor i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n c h a n g e . We c a n n o t b u t be a d e m o c r a c y , a s e c u l a r d e m o c r a c y and a d e m o c r a c y s t r i v i n g s t e a d i l y t o e n l a r g e  of  Gandhi  of  68  i t s s o c i a l i s t content. The i m p o r t a n c e o f representative institutions or the place of P a r l i a m e n t cannot change e i t h e r . Nor can there b e a n y f u n d a m e n t a l d e p a r t u r e i n t h e scheme o f Centre—State r e l a t i o n s which our founding f a t h e r s d e v i s e d t o serve t h e needs o f a country of our v a s t d i v e r s i t y . B u t we c a n a n d s h o u l d have a l o o k a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s we h a v e t o g i v e e f f e c t t o t h e a d o p t e d o b j e c t ives of the Constitution. Many o f t h e s e procedures and p r o v i s i o n s have i n e f f e c t worked a g a i n s t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and g i v e n enormous scope f o r s m a l l o b s t r u c t i v e groups t o c r e a t e t r o u b l e and e n g i n e e r c r i s i s . I want l a w y e r s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , leaders of the i n t e l l e c t t u a l world, e a r n e s t l y t o study t h e problems t h a t h a v e come up a n d g i v e u s s u g g e s t i o n s . 3  I n t h e Congress P a r t y , t h e debate about c o n s t i t u t i o n a l had  a l r e a d y begun by t h e time M r s . Gandhi gave t h i s  A s e t of wide-ranging t i o n " was b e i n g to i l l u s t r a t e  proposals  circulated  entitled  among the C o n g r e s s P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p .  s t i t u t i o n s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s such  of t h i s  interview to  I n order  t o s e c t i o n s o f t h e con-  as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , France,  Guatemala, Japan and A r g e n t i n a .  system o f government.  system  The P r e s i d e n t o f I n d i a w o u l d be  the C h i e f E x e c u t i v e b u t would have broader i n the United States.  Italy,  Among t h e s u g g e s t i o n s  d r a f t was a p r o p o s a l t o r e p l a c e t h e I n d i a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y  by a p r e s i d e n t i a l  'Blitz'.  "A F r e s h L o o k a t o u r C o n s t i t u -  i t s proposals, the draft referred  Greece, Belgium,  revision  powers t h a n h i s c o u n t e r p a r t  The C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s w o u l d be a c c o u n t a b l e t o  4 t h e P r e s i d e n t who w o u l d a l s o b e e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y  f o r a term o f s i x years.  A n o t h e r p r o p o s a l o f t h i s d r a f t was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t C o u n c i l o f J u d i c i a r y ' w h i c h w o u l d r e p l a c e t h e Supreme C o u r t authority The  of a  'Superior  as t h e s o l e  t o i n t e r p r e t t h e laws and C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I n d i a n R e p u b l i c .  C o u n c i l w o u l d be c h a i r e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t and be c o m p r i s e d  o f two  69  V i c e - C h a i r m e n c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e o f I n d i a and f o r Law  and J u s t i c e ,  two j u s t i c e s  the M i n i s t e r  f r o m t h e Supreme C o u r t and  two  chief  judges from the s t a t e h i g h c o u r t s , four persons e l e c t e d By P a r l i a m e n t and f o u r p e r s o n s n o m i n a t e d review the conduct of a l l them."'  I t i s clear  By t h e P r e s i d e n t .  The  C o u n c i l would  also  j u d g e s and h e a r c a s e s o f c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t  t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l w o u l d have ended t h e  independence  o f t h e j u d i c i a r y and would have g i v e n t h e e x e c u t i v e t h e power t o r u l e on t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f I t s own Constitution.  l e g i s l a t i o n a n d amendments t o t h e  Thus, by l i m i t i n g j u d i c i a l r e v i e w , t h e p r o p o s a l would  have been a n t i t h e t i c a l t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  government.  Several of these proposals, p a r t i c u l a r l y presidential  s y s t e m and  t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y and  those advocating a  t h e S u p e r i o r C o u n c i l , met  with criticism  f r o m t h e C . P . I , and were q u i e t l y d r o p p e d . ^  proposals of the d r a f t r e l a t i n g  t o changes  The  i n the wording of the p r e -  amble o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and e x t e n d i n g t h e t e r m o f t h e L o k five  within  to s i x y e a r s were, however, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n l a t e r  Sabha  from  constitutional  proposals. At the Congress P a r t y ' s December 1 9 7 5 — t h e political  first  r e s o l u t i o n was  postponement of e l e c t i o n s  75th annual conference at Chandigarh i n  s i n c e t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f emergency i n a d o p t e d o n D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 1975  calling  t o t h e L o k Sabha and f o r a t h o r o u g h  of the I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n .  In line with this p o l i t i c a l  t h e C o n g r e s s P r e s i d e n t , D.K.  Borooah,  a committee m i t t e e was  f o r the revision  resolution,  on F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 7 6 ,  t o s u g g e s t amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n .  June—a  appointed  The p a r t y c o m -  t o be headed by S a r d a r Swaran S i n g h , 69, a v e t e r a n U n i o n  70  M i n i s t e r and  t h e M i n i s t e r o f D e f e n c e u n t i l h e was  dropped from  the  7 Cabinet  o n November 3 0 , The  1975.  c o m m i t t e e ' s p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on p r o p o s e d  c h a n g e s was  approved i n p r i n c i p l e by  A p r i l 26.  The  e r n m e n t was  any  t h e one  best  suited 0-)  i n q u e s t i o n i n any  legislation  the Congress Working Committee  r e p o r t r e a f f i r m e d that the parliamentary system of  f o l l o w i n g recommendations: be c a l l e d  constitutional  t o I n d i a n c o n d i t i o n s and no  s e v e n Supreme C o u r t  judges,  should r e q u i r e the support  and  gov-  i t made t h e  amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d  c o u r t ; C2)  s h o u l d be d e c i d e d  by  any  the cTonstitutional v a l i d i t y  a bench c o n s i s t i n g of at  least  d e c i s i o n to d e c l a r e the law  of at l e a s t  of  invalid  t w o - t h i r d s of the bench;  (3)  the h i g h c o u r t s s h o u l d e x e r c i s e t h e i r power t o i s s u e w r i t s o n l y t o force fundamental r i g h t s ; over  civil  on  (4) t h e c o u r t s s h o u l d h a v e no  en-  jurisdiction  s e r v i c e m a t t e r s , w h i c h s h o u l d be d e c i d e d b y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  tribunals;  (5) a p p e a l s  f r o m l a b o u r and  i n d u s t r i a l courts should  be  t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e h i g h c o u r t s t o an a l l - I n d i a n l a b o u r a p p e l a t e  tri-  bunal;  con-  (6) no w r i t j u r i s d i c t i o n  should l i e i n r e l a t i o n  cerning the revenue, land reforms, g r a i n s , or e l e c t i o n s ;  p r o c u r e m e n t and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  (7) a l l q u e s t i o n s o f t h e d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n  members o f P a r l i a m e n t o r o f t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s  s h o u l d be  a b o d y c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e members c h o s e n f r o m t h e L o k n o m i n a t e d by  t h e P r e s i d e n t ; (8) a g r i c u l t u r e and  s t a t e s u b j e c t s , s h o u l d be p l a c e d o n w h i c h b o t h P a r l i a m e n t and C9)  to matters  food-  of  settled  S a b h a and  by  three  e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h were  the Concurrent  List  of subjects  the s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s might l e g i s l a t e ;  t h e U n i o n government s h o u l d have t h e power t o d e p l o y p o l i c e  on  and  (or  71  other similar  f o r c e s u n d e r i t s own  superintendance or c o n t r o l )  in  any  at a meeting of  the  g s t a t e or  territory  of  the  Union.  T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e t o Be  discussed  A l l - I n d i a C o n g r e s s C o m m i t t e e ( A . I . C . C . ) i n New A week b e f o r e t h e  scheduled meeting of  Committee r e l e a s e d  a modified  12.  This  included  two  s h o u l d be  declared  a "sovereign,  in  new  d r a f t of  the preamble i n s t e a d  order to r e a f f i r m the secularism to the  and  proposals.  of o n l y  The  the A . I . C . C , the i t s preliminary The  the  that  report  of  April  republic"  objectives  i n t e g r i t y " w o u l d a l s o be The  India  democratic r e p u b l i c " i n  government to the  w o r d s "and  1976.  Swaran S i n g h  Committee proposed t h a t  a "sovereign,  preamble a f t e r the word " u n i t y " .  S w a r a n S i n g h C o m m i t t e e was  28-29,  democratic, secular, s o c i a l i s t  commitment o f  socialism.  D e l h i on May  added  o t h e r recommendation of  the P r e s i d e n t  s h o u l d be  able  to  of  the  restrict  9 a d e c l a r a t i o n of emergency t o o n l y The  o f May  2 8 - 2 9 , 1976  amendment moved b y D r .  Family Planning,  country.  their rights.  The  and  were then unanimously  and  the  C o n s t i t u t i o n should also  o b l i g a t i o n s o f c i t i z e n s as  amendment i n t h e  f o r m o f an  the  endorsed.  Karan S i n g h , the Union M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h  proposed that  c e r t a i n fundamental duties  resolution  of the  S w a r a n S i n g h C o m m i t t e e ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e amended by  A.I.C.C. s e s s i o n An  a part  and  include  a balance  a d d i t i o n to the  said: The A . I . C . C . s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e a p p o i n t e d by t h e C o n g r e s s P r e s i d e n t t o s u g g e s t amendments t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n of I n d i a should a l s o f o r m u l a t e p r o p o s a l s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n of c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s w h i c h e v e r y c i t i z e n owes t o t h e n a t i o n , i n t e r a l i a , t o f u n c t i o n i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s t o s u s t a i n and s t r e n g t h e n t h e i n t e g r i t y and u n i t y o f t h e n a t i o n ;  to  official  72  t o a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e with, t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e laws o f t h e l a n d ; t o m a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e i n every s p h e r e ; t o h o n e s t l y p e r f o r m a l l p u b l i c d u t i e s and t o s a f e g u a r d p u b l i c p r o p e r t y . J-0 The  A.I.C.C. s e s s i o n a l s o m o d i f i e d  Singh Committee r e l a t i n g Lists  Although education  current  their objections  chief ministers  proposals  t o i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e as a con-  I t would continue  consider to con-  i n d i v i d u a l s and a s s o c i a t i o n s such as t h e c e n t r a l  l e a d e r s h i p , Pradesh Congress Committee P r e s i d e n t s , lawyers,  Singh  t o o p e r a t e a f t e r May 1 9 7 6 a n d i t w o u l d  forconstitutional revision.  sult with various  Chief  party  Ministers,  j u d g e s , b a r a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d o t h e r members o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t -  There would be a n a t i o n - w i d e debate on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n  i n New D e l h i , t h e s t a t e c a p i t a l s , a n d o t h e r the  a t t h e A.I.C.C.  t h e A.I.C.C. s e s s i o n d e c i d e d t h a t t h e Swaran  Committee would c o n t i n u e  sia.  that agriculture  subject. Finally,  other  Several  and C o n c u r r e n t  was t o b e i n c l u d e d , i n  i t was d e c i d e d a t t h e s e s s i o n  would remain a s t a t e s u b j e c t . s e s s i o n had v o i c e d  o f t h e Swaran  t o changes i n t h e U n i o n , S t a t e  of the Constitution.  the Concurrent L i s t ,  the proposals  large c i t i e s  and towns o f  nation. M o r e c o v e r a g e waa - g i v e n  i n government announcements and i n t h e  press t o the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debate w i t h i n the top l e a d e r s h i p gress Party  o f t h e Con-  t h a n t o t h e d e b a t e among t h e l o w e r r a n k s o f t h e C o n g r e s s , i  t h e r u r a l a r e a s a n d among t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  The e v i d e n c e does  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e n o n - c o m m u n i s t o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a n d t h e C.P.M. d i d not  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the government—initiated  d e b a t e on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  11 revision.  Instead  they held  t h e i r own f o r u m s f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e  n  73  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes. p a r t i e s was A two-day  One  s u c h forum sponsored by t h e o p p o s i t i o n  t h e ' N a t i o n a l Committee  seminar organized  by- t h e C o m m i t t e e  and a t t e n d e d by o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s E.M.S. N a m b o o d i r i p a d  (C.P.M.),  (Congress-O), S h a n t i Bhushan  s u c h a s A.K.  i n New  Gopalan,  (C.P.M.),  of the proposed c o n s t i t u -  c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h they were  They argued t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d changes  f o r w a r d by a committee  Delhi  12  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s were c r i t i c a l  discussed.  held  ( C o n g r e s s - O ) , E r a S e z h i y a n (D.M.K.) a n d  t i o n a l amendments a n d o f t h e p o l i t i c a l being  was  P. R a m a m u r t h y (C.P.M.), A s o k a M e h t a  Chowdhury Charan S i n g h ( B . L . D . ) . The  f o r Review of the C o n s t i t u t i o n ' .  had been p u t  o f t h e r u l i n g C o n g r e s s P a r t y and t h a t t h e  ruling  p a r t y h a d no m a n d a t e t o p a s s t h e amendments s i n c e t h e L o k S a b h a ' s t e r m had been extended by d e c r e e i n March  1976.  The  opposition parties  pro-  posed e i t h e r f r e s h e l e c t i o n s t o the Lok Sabha o r a r e f e r e n d u m i n o r d e r to t e s t the a p p r o v a l The  government's  n e i t h e r needed  f o r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes by t h e e l e c t o r a t e .  r e p l y t o t h e s e demands was  that a referendum  was  n o r f e a s i b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l a r g e number o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  13 m e a s u r e s t h a t w o u l d h a v e t o be a p p r o v e d b y s u c h a p r o c e d u r e . ernment a l s o p o i n t e d  The  gov-  out t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m had been p a r t o f t h e  manifesto of the Congress  (R) i n t h e g e n e r a l  e l e c t i o n and, i n any  case,  14 it  had  the necessary m a j o r i t y  i n Parliament  t o p a s s t h e amendments.  T h e r e w e r e a l s o demands f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n  o f a new  constituent  assembly f r o m t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s and f r o m w i t h i n t h e C o n g r e s s  (R)  i t s e l f M r s .  of  Gandhi o f t e n r e f e r r e d to the Constituent Assembly  1947-50 i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d e b a t e s on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n ,  saying  74  t h a t the assembly had Indian population. a new  been i n d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d by a m i n o r i t y  T h i s d i d not mean t h a t she was  c o n s t i t u e n t assembly.  t h i n k i n g of  R a t h e r , the i n t e n t i o n was  c o n t r a s t s between an i n d i r e c t l y - e l e c t e d C o n s t i t u e n t democratically-elected  Lok  Sabha and  to r e v i s e the c o n s t i t u t i o n .  of  to p o i n t out  Assembly and  C e r t a i n l y , Mrs.  constitution.  w i t h i t s l a r g e numbers o f s t a t u t e s p l a c e d amendments.  But  as w e l l as b e n e f i t s f o r Mrs. s e r i o u s l y considered t i o n a l neatness.  a new  A new  the  a  Gandhi c o u l d have c a l l e d A new  constitution  would p r o b a b l y have been more i n t e l l i g i b l e than the p r e v i o u s  forty-one  calling  so demonstrate P a r l i a m e n t ' s r i g h t  a c o n s t i t u e n t assembly to d r a f t a new  its  the  Constitution  i n the N i n t h Schedule and  t h i s would have i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c a l  Gandhi.  with  costs  I t i s d o u b t f u l whether Mrs.  Gandhi  C o n s t i t u t i o n merely f o r the sake of c o n s t i t u -  C o n s t i t u t i o n would have generated more o p p o s i t i o n  from the non-communist o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s and amendment to the e x i s t i n g C o n s t i t u t i o n . note t h a t the Congress P a r t y  the C.P.M. than an omnibus  F i n a l l y , i t i s important  to  i n making the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n s a s -  sumed t h a t i t would c o n t i n u e i n power. On proposals  September 1, 1976,  were f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d  59-clause b i l l intense the b i l l  had  i n the Lok  c r i t i c i s m from the o p p o s i t i o n . would be  considered This  The  The  i n d e t a i l by  A d r a f t of  the  had  met  government announced t h a t  the Lok  Sabha i n a s p e c i a l  ten-day s e s s i o n began on October 25,  each, of the f i f t y - n i n e c l a u s e s was  November 1, 1976.  Sabha.  a l r e a d y been c i r c u l a t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t and  session i n October. and  the government's s e r i e s of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  discussed  44th amendment b i l l was  1976  on October 30  and  approved by the  Lok  75  Sahba on November 2, 1976 by a v o t e o f 366 t o 4.  Since other  constitu-  t i o n a l amendment b i l l s were on P a r l i a m e n t ' s agenda, t h e 44th  Constitution  CAmendment) B i l l was then renumbered the 42nd C o n s t i t u t i o n CAmendment) Act. The  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and P o l i t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s It  o f t h e 42nd Amendment  i s n e c e s s a r y now t o examine the p r o v i s i o n s  of t h e 5 9 - c l a u s e  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment and t o a n a l y z e i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l implications.  S i n c e the A c t i s on 'omnibus' amendment, o n l y  major c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s examined: ecutive,  changes i n  r e l a t i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s w i l l be  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and government-opposition r e l a t i o n s ; e x l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l powers; i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s ; economic and  s o c i a l r e f o r m ; and f e d e r a l i s m . The  f i r s t part o f the Indian C o n s t i t u t i o n  t h a t was amended by t h e  42nd amendment was t h e preamble.  I n d i a was now o f f i c i a l l y  as "a s o v e r e i g n s o c i a l i s t  democratic r e p u b l i c " .  i t would appear t h a t  secular  At f i r s t  glance,  t h e i n s e r t i o n o f ' s e c u l a r ' and ' s o c i a l i s t ' i n t h e  preamble was merely a q u e s t i o n o f semantics.  The change, however, was  intended by t h e government t o r e a f f i r m the p r i n c i p l e s o f and  designated  'secularism'  ' s o c i a l i s m ' as p a r t o f t h e ' b a s i c s t r u c t u r e ' o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n . The  changes i n the preamble a l s o had i m p l i c a t i o n s  political parties.  f o r India's  I n June 1976, a f o r e i g n correspondent posed t h e  q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e proposed changes i n the preamble would  oblige  a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o pledge adherence t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f s e c u l a r i s m 16 and  socialism.  Constitution,  Under A r t i c l e s 75, 99 and t h e T h i r d Schedule o f t h e any person who seeks e l e c t i o n to t h e I n d i a n P a r l i a m e n t and  76  the  s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s must t a k e an  tion.  Thus t h e  changes i n the  o a t h of a l l e g i a n c e  preamble could  h a v e made t h e  t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f n o n — s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s s u c h as and  the  i n the  J a n a Sangh u n t e n a b l e . p r e a m b l e as  munal p a r t i e s , the mitment to the Of that  clause  t o ban  of  Congress P a r t y  p r i n c i p l e s of  greater the  cession  or  disrupt  the  s t a t e or  u n i t y of  the  and  the  by  secession  the  intended to bring  India,  the  to overthrow the  declaration  about  s e c u r i t y of Government by  the  Thus the  s t a t e or  The  government would d e a l  or  the force; to  lanclause  territory  law  and  e m e r g e n c y i n J u n e 1975.  clause.  the  organizations  "anti-national"  the  was  power  s e r v i c e s , or  breakdown of  p o l i c e , army a n d  a l s o have been d e a l t w i t h under the i n d i c a t i o n that  of  the  com-  to threaten  government to p a r t i e s or  of a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n ,  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l appeals to the  com-  "Anti-national  t e r r i t o r y of I n d i a ,  intended to prevent a r e c u r r e n c e of  an  changes  government the  associations".  A p a r t f r o m a s e c e s s i o n i s t movement, t h e  b e f o r e the  Dal  p a r t i e s , however,  g r o u p s , o r c a s t e s o r communities'."'"^  have been a p p l i e d  i n the p e r i o d  was  opposition  i n t e g r i t y of  nation;  the  o r d i s r u p t harmony between d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s , r a c i a l ,  a d v o c a t i n g the  was  and  of  Lok  socialism.  i n t e r n a l disturbance or d i s r u p t i o n of p u b l i c  guage o r r e g i o n a l  India.  and  'activities  of p a r t  sovereignty  the  to create threaten  secession  Bharatiya  than using  4 2 n d amendment w h i c h g a v e t h e  as  constitu-  i n t e n d e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s own  secularism  "anti-national activities  the  Constitu-  f o r b a n n i n g n o n - s o c i a l i s t and  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the  a c t i v i t i e s " were d e f i n e d  could  However, r a t h e r  a justification  to the  of  clause order Un-  bureaucracy would  p a s s i n g of t h i s firmly with  measure  civil  77  d i s o b e d i e n c e such as f a s t s and ' h a r t a l s ' T h e 4 2 n d amendment a l t e r e d  strikes).  t h e powers o f t h e e x e c u t i v e ,  l a t u r e and t h e j u d i c i a r y i n s e v e r a l cleared  (general  i m p o r t a n t ways.  the l e g i s -  T h e amendment  up o n e o f t h e " g r e y a r e a s ' o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n — n a m e l y , t h e  powers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . include  The F r a m e r s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n  a provision obliging the President  d i d not  to follow the advice of 18  the P r i m e M i n i s t e r and t h e C o u n c i l the P r e s i d e n t to be l e f t generally Minister, of  of Ministers.  and t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r  and C o u n c i l  to constitutional practice. followed  of Ministers  tacit  and C o u n c i l  have  the possibility  the e l e c t i o n of a p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate, Sanjiva  the P r i m e - M i n i s t e r  were  on t h e a d v i c e o f t h e P r i m e  M r s . Gandhi was, however, faced w i t h  42nd amendment t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s  between  S i n c e 1950, P r e s i d e n t s  the convention of acting  known h i s i n t e n t i o n n o t t o f o l l o w t h i s the  Relations  i n 1969  R e d d y , who made  c o n v e n t i o n once e l e c t e d .  Under  obligation to follow the advice of  o f M i n i s t e r s was now made e x p l i c i t .  c o n v e n t i o n was t r a n s f o r m e d  A  i n t o a w r i t t e n p r o v i s i o n and i n t h i s  r e s p e c t t h e 4 2 n d amendment d i d n o t a l t e r  constitutional practice.  The amendment d i d e n l a r g e t h e f o r m a l p o w e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . He c o u l d  s e t t l e disputes  a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e e l e c t i o n o f members o f  P a r l i a m e n t and o f t h e s t a t e national could  l e g i s l a t u r e s ; he could  declare  a state of  emergency i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e o r t e r r i t o r y o f I n d i a ; and he  revise  the provisions  where t h e s e were f e l t  of the Constitution  t o be n e c e s s a r y .  o n h i s own  Since the President  authority was  to a c t on t h e a d v i c e o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r and t h e Council:?of  obliged  Ministers,  t h i s e n l a r g e m e n t o f p o w e r was i n f a c t a n e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p o w e r s o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r .  78  As  regards  t h e powers: o f P a r l i a m e n t , t h e 42nd amendment r e a s s e r t e d  P a r l i a m e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y t o amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . that " f o r t h e removal of doubts,  Clause  55 d e c l a r e d  i t i s hereby declared that there  shall  be n o l i m i t a t i o n w h a t e v e r o n t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p o w e r o f P a r l i a m e n t t o amend, b y w a y o f a d d i t i o n , v a r i a t i o n o r r e p e a l t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s 19 C o n s t i t u t i o n under A r t i c l e  368."  Amendments made b y P a r l i a m e n t  C o n s t i t u t i o n were a l s o p l a c e d o u t s i d e t h e scope o f j u d i c i a l Clauses  tothe  review.  2 1 a n d 22 o f t h e 4 2 n d amendment m o d i f i e d t h e a r t i c l e s o f t h e  Constitution relating  t o t h e quorum f o r m e e t i n g s o f P a r l i a m e n t  and t h e  s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s , a n d t h e p o w e r s a n d p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e members a n d committees of Parliament. the  T h e 4 2 n d amendment a l s o c h a n g e d t h e d u r a t i o n o f  terms o f t h e L o k Sabha and t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s  from f i v e  to s i x  years. Besides tion,  limiting  j u d i c i a l r e v i e w o f amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u -  t h e 42nd amendment f u r t h e r l i m i t e d  t h e powers o f t h e j u d i c i a r y i n  t h a t c e n t r a l l a w s c o u l d now o n l y b e d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d b y t h e S u p r e m e Court  i n s t e a d o f by both  t h e Supreme a n d H i g h C o u r t s .  Clause  25 s t a t e d  t h a t a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y v e r d i c t o f a minimum o f s e v e n j u d g e s  of the  Supreme C o u r t was r e q u i r e d f o r v a l i d a t i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g c e n t r a l a n d state  laws* '"' 2  In order  to prevent  a recurrence of j u d i c i a l  obstacles tothe  g o v e r n m e n t ' s e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o g r a m s , t h e 42nd amendment a l s o made it  c l e a r 'that t h e D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s o f S t a t e P o l i c y w e r e t o t a k e  precedence over  t h e Fundamental R i g h t s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n .  ment was t h u s i n t e n d e d  T h e amend-  t o r e s o l v e t h e argument about t h e p r e c e d e n c e o f  79  the D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s over t h e Fundamental R i g h t s ; has  been a k e y i s s u e  1950.  since  an argument  that  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was a d o p t e d o n J a n u a r y 2 6 ,  I t i s important to note that  t h e r e was o n e e x c e p t i o n  U n d e r t h e 42nd amendment n o l a w c o u l d  to this.  b e made g i v i n g e f f e c t t o t h e  D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s o f P a r t IV o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i f i t c o n f l i c t e d with  the s p e c i a l safeguards or r i g h t s conferred  the  scheduled  castes,  Fundamental Rights  t r i b e s or other backward c l a s s e s  Section  f o r e , were t o be t h e o n l y The  the operation  equal opportunity Article  of Part  III.  entrenched p o r t i o n  Policy.  Article  under t h e  These s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s , of the Fundamental  42nd amendment a d d e d s e v e r a l new a r t i c l e s  P r i n c i p l e s of State that  on m i n o r i t i e s such as  39(a) r e q u i r e d  there-  Rights.  t o the D i r e c t i v e the state t o secure  o f t h e l e g a l system promoted j u s t i c e on t h e b a s i s o f and i t o b l i g e d  the state to provide  free legal aid.  43(a) sought t o secure t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f workers i n t h e 21  management o f i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . the  T h e 42nd amendment  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e A.I.C.C. s e s s i o n  s e c t i o n on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d u t i e s  o f May 1976 b y i n c l u d i n g a  of c i t i z e n s .  This  section of the  C o n s t i t u t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o b a l a n c e t h e F u n d a m e n t a l R i g h t s accordance w i t h Mrs. Gandhi's b e l i e f that as w e l l as r i g h t s . The of seats the  4 2 n d amendment a l s o f r o z e u n t i l  a n d was i n  democracy e n t a i l s o b l i g a t i o n s  t h e y e a r 2001 t h e a l l o c a t i o n  i n t h e L o k S a b h a t o t h e s t a t e s , t h e t o t a l number o f s e a t s i n  s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f L o k Sabha a n d s t a t e  seats  followed  reserved  f o r the scheduled castes  and t r i b e s .  i n t e n d e d t o f u r t h e r t h e government's f a m i l y p l a n n i n g  This  assembly  clause  program.  22  was  80  Districts  and s t a t e s t h a t were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r  family  planning  programs w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , n o t Be p e n a l i z e d By h a v i n g t h e i r  repre-  s e n t a t i o n i n t h e s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s and t h e L o k Sabha r e d u c e d . The g o v e r n m e n t ' s m a j o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n C o n s t i t u t i o n was t h a t i t w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e  f o r the revision of the  economic and s o c i a l  reform  by r e m o v i n g j u d i c i a l o b s t a c l e s t o s u c h r e f o r m and a l s o b y s t r e n g t h e n i n g the s t a b i l i t y  of the p o l i t i c a l  progress a r e dependent. itself  system on w h i c h s o c i a l and economic  However, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n would n o t by  u s h e r i n a p e r i o d o f economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s .  depend on p o l i t i c a l ,  T h i s would  economic and s o c i a l as w e l l as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  facto  Much w o u l d depend, f o r e x a m p l e , on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e c e n t r a l and . s t a t e governments and t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and on economic f a c t o r s  such as  the r a t e o f growth o f i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h and income. The  42nd amendment m o d i f i e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e  powers between  t h e c e n t e r and t h e s t a t e s by t r a n s f e r r i n g c e r t a i n m a t t e r s  such as e d u c a t i o n and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e to the Concurrent L i s t . Center, p a r t i c u l a r l y ties",  from t h e S t a t e  List  T h e amendment s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e p o w e r s o f t h e  i n t h e powers r e l a t i n g  to "anti-national  t h e r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s t a t e s o f emergency  activi-  and the deployment  of c e n t r a l p o l i c e and s p e c i a l f o r c e s by t h e c e n t e r w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r state.  On t h e l a t t e r ,  t h e amendment g a v e t h e C e n t e r t h e a u t h o r i t y t o  u s e c e n t r a l p o l i c e and s p e c i a l f o r c e s w i t h o u t p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n  with  the s t a t e government; once d e p l o y e d , t h e s e f o r c e s were t o r e m a i n under the c o n t r o l o f the Center.  M o r e o v e r , t h e amendment e x t e n d e d f r o m s i x  81  m o n t h s t o one in force  the  structure  of  the  Indian  thermore, the  an  at  importance of  s t i t u t i o n regarding  t o amend t h e powers of  the  s e c t i o n was and  new  on  ment, P r i m e M i n i s t e r she  ister. Minister  The by  1976,  o f May  1976  i n India's  the  ended ended  illustrated  federal  Fur-  i t sees f i t and  the Prime  Parliament's  addition  use  o f p o l i c e and  the powers of  powers of  the  the  of the  own  4 2 n d amendment i n c r e a s e d removing i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the  Con-  the Funa latter  region-  other s p e c i a l  forces  executive.  e x e c u t i v e by  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amend-  I n d i r a Gandhi hoped to a c h i e v e s e v e r a l  sought to s a f e g u a r d her  by  authority  P o l i c y , and  "anti-national activities", the  the  Minister  further restricted  The  the  approved  made i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e  I t reasserted  and  system.  '(Amendment) A c t ,  Fondamental D u t i e s .  regarding  In increasing  author-  C h a n g e s w e r e made i n t h e p r e a m b l e , t h e  the Center a l l increased  First,  not  the D i r e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e  inserted  provisions  as  a l i z a t i o n o f e m e r g e n c i e s and by  states  of M i n i s t e r s .  d a m e n t a l R i g h t s and  Supreme C o u r t ' s  powers o f t t h e P r e s i d e n t ,  judiciary.  federal  the p r o p o s a l f o r adding a g r i c u l t u r e i n  the  Constitution  remain  f e d e r a l system remained.  42nd C o n s t i t u t i o n  the  The  s t a t e l a w s i n v a l i d was  S a b h a on N o v e m b e r 2,  Council  system.  the A.I.C.C. s e s s i o n  I n summary, t h e  the  r a d i c a l changes i n the  a r b i t e r i n the  dropping of  Concurrent L i s t continuing  as  r u l e would  Parliament.  political  c e n t r a l and  thus i t s f u n c t i o n  and  i n which President's  42nd amendment made no  to d e c l a r e  the Lok  period  a f t e r b e i n g a p p r o v e d by  But  ity  y e a r the  objectives.  p e r s o n a l p o s i t i o n as P r i m e M i n the powers of  the  o f f i c e of  r e s t r a i n t s from the P r e s i d e n t  Prime and  the  82  courts. by  S e c o n d l y , s h e s o u g h t t o make t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y p e r m a n e n t  widening the already large  emergency powers o f t h e s t a t e , by  strength-  ening t h e powers o f the Center v i s - a - v i s t h e s t a t e s , and by l i m i t i n g t h e Fundamental R i g h t s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n . t o e s t a b l i s h new n o r m s o f o p p o s i t i o n activities"  i n s t a b i l i t y that  42nd amendment in  India.  activity  c l a u s e o f t h e 42nd amendment.  p o s i t i o n o f t h e Congress P a r t y tical  T h i r d l y , Mrs. Gandhi  attempted  through the " a n t i - n a t i o n a l  T h e a i m was t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e  and t o p r e v e n t a r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e p o l i -  l e d to the state  thus provided the b a s i s  o f emergency i n June 1975.  The  f o r a " d i s c i p l i n e d democracy"  F i n a l l y , M r s . Gandhi sought t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e emergency.  government argued t h a t  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n would promote s o c i a l  j u s t i c e by removing o b s t a c l e s  t o t h e government's economic and s o c i a l  programs. S p e a k i n g i n t h e L o k S a b h a o n t h e Amendment argued that And  that  "a C o n s t i t u t i o n  i s the scrutiny  lenges of h i s t o r i c a l and  that  Mrs. Gandhi  a judicial  o f h i s t o r y and i t s c a p a c i t y  forces.  i s the nation  has a b i g g e r t e s t . t h a n  Bill,  scrutiny.  t o meet t h e c h a l -  There i s something bigger than a l l of us  and i t s f u t u r e .  That i s the importance of t h i s  23 Bill."  I t was i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t t h e v e r d i c t  at l e a s t , that Mrs. Gandhi c a l l e d . t h e cluding  of the Indian  March e l e c t i o n i n 1977.  people, The c o n -  c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e M a r c h 1977 e l e c t i o n a n d a s -  s e s s e s M r s . G a n d h i ' s e m e r g e n c y r u l e a n d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments passed under i t .  CHAPTER V I Conclusion  83  With, t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e J a n a t a P a r t y and t h e C o n g r e s s f o r Democracy  (C.F.D.) i n t h e M a r c h 1977 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n ,  C o n g r e s s d o m i n a n c e h a v e come t o a n e n d .  t h i r t y years of  During the e l e c t i o n  campaign  t h e J a n a t a a n d C.F.D. c o a l i t i o n p l e d g e d t h e m s e l v e s t o d i s m a n t l e t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s y s t e m u n d e r t h e e m e r g e n c y , w h i l e t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y made s u p p o r t f o r t h e e m e r g e n c y a n d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments a k e y p a r t o f i t s own m a n i f e s t o .  T h e M a r c h 1977 e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s  thus  constitute  a d e c i s i v e judgment o f t h e I n d i a n e l e c t o r a t e a g a i n s t M r s . Gandhi's e m e r g e n c y r u l e a n d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments p a s s e d u n d e r  it.  I t r e m a i n s now t o c o n c l u d e w i t h a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e m e r g e n c y and w i t h a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u i t i e s a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l Finally,  the v a l i d i t y  s y s t e m i n t h e p e r i o d s 1950-75 and 1975-77.  o f K o t h a r i ' s model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance and t h e  M a r x i s t model w i l l be r e - e x a m i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e emergency and i t s e n d i n g i n March 1977. D u r i n g t h e e m e r g e n c y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a r g u e d t h a t t h e new  amend-  ments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n d i d n o t change t h e " b a s i c s t r u c t u r e " o f t h a t document.  R a t h e r , t h e amendments r e a f f i r m e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s  structure".  "basic  The P r i m e M i n i s t e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e C o n s t i -  t u t i o n was m o r e o f a ' r e n o v a t i o n ' t h a n a ' r e b u i l d i n g ' a n d t h a t t i o n s a r e n o t meant t o be r i g i d  and s a c r o s a n c t b u t need t o be  constitucontinually  r e a s s e s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f c h a n g i n g e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  cir-  c u m s t a n c e s .""" The government's c l a i m t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n d i d n o t a l t e r t h e " b a s i c s t r u c t u r e " o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was somewhat d u b i o u s .  The  84  r e a f f i r m a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of s e c u l a r i s m  and P a r l i a m e n t ' s  authority  t o amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g  o f m i n o r i t y r i g h t s and t h e  President's  of the Council  o b l i g a t i o n to f o l l o w the advice  c e r t a i n l y represented practice.  of M i n i s t e r s ,  no r a d i c a l b r e a k i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d  But the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l  ment o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s a n d t h e r e d u c t i o n  political  system, the  curtail-  i n t h e powers o f t h e  j u d i c i a r y d i d c o n s t i t u t e important departures from the "basic  structure"  o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 7 5 . A s shown i n C h a p t e r I V , M r s . G a n d h i f o l l o w e d C o n s t i t u t i o n but not i t s ' s p i r i t ' .  the 'letter' of the  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n t h e  s e n s e o f l i m i t e d government d i d n o t o p e r a t e during  the period  o f emer-  gency because n o r m a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s were t e m p o r a r i l y p e n d e d and t h e g o v e r n m e n t o b t a i n e d  wider powers.  u s e d t h e emergency as an o p p o r t u n i t y of the executive.  sus-  However, M r s . G a n d h i  to permanently enlarge  The 42nd amendment, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  t h e powers  added t o t h e a l -  r e a d y l a r g e emergency powers a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e government such as the Maintenance of I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t , the Defense o f I n d i a and  President's  the  government t o l i f t  gency powers. sition  Rule.  Rules  I t would, t h e r e f o r e , have been p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s t a t e o f emergency y e t r e t a i n l a r g e  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then that  emer-  t h e non-communist  oppo-  a n d t h e C.P.M. saw t h e 42nd Amendment a s a c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  measures o f t h e emergency. This  i s not t o suggest that  become u n l i m i t e d d u r i n g  t h e power o f t h e I n d i a n  t h e emergency.  government  A d i s t i n c t i o n must be  drawn  between c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and n o n - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s on t h e government .  E v e n t h o u g h t h e e m e r g e n c y m e a s u r e s a n d amendments t o t h e  85  C o n s t i t u t i o n removed  c e r t a i n f o r m a l r e s t r a i n t s on t h e powers o f t h e  government, o t h e r i m p o r t a n t economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l remained.  Among t h e s e w e r e  t h e r e s t r a i n t s on t h e c e n t r a l  restraints government  e x c e r c i s e d b y t h e s t a t e s w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t o have i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s v i s - a - v i s New D e l h i .  political  L i m i t a t i o n s o n e x e c u t i v e power  also  a r o s e f r o m t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f m a t e r i a l a n d s k i l l e d human r e s o u r c e s a t the  d i s p o s a l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e b u r e a u c r a c y , a s shown f o r  example, b y t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e government's f a m i l y p l a n n i n g F i n a l l y , what a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e emergency  program.  period f o r  K o t h a r i ' s model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance and t h e M a r x i s t model? t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e model o f o n e — p a r t y dominance  In the  i t was s e e n  t h a t K o t h a r i was c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p l a i n i n g why c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l  insti-  t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n I n d i a a n d why p a r t i c u l a r  econo-  mic,  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  elite.  s t r a t e g i e s have been pursued by t h e I n d i a n  He a r g u e d t h a t a d i s t i n c t i v e  I n d i a n model o f development had  a r i s e n w h i c h c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h t h e model o f development lowed by, f o r example, t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a .  And K o t h a r i  p o i n t e d out the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e I n d i a n model. The p o i n t a b o u t I n d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h g i v e s i t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f an unprecendented undertaking i s t h a t w h i l e economic and s o c i a l change i s i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s p l a n n e d and d i r e c t e d from above, i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s c a r r i e d on w i t h i n t h e framework o f an open and undirected polity. T h i s means t h a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f change i n t h e image o f a few dominant i d e a s gets c o n d i t i o n e d by an a c c e l e r a t e d pace o f p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , a c h a n g i n g s t r u c t u r e o f power and i n f l u e n c e , and a w i d e n i n g b a s e o f p o l i t i c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n . ^  fol-  86  The major  emergency and t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n denoted  change f r o m an open c o m p e t i t i v e  polity  w h i c h t h e government had w i d e r p o w e r s and cipline.  B u t a s l a t e as. D e c e m b e r 1974  a  to a guided system i n  s t r e s s e d d u t i e s and  K o t h a r i r e s t a t e d the  dis-  validity  3  of h i s model o f the 'Congress point  System'.  Before  t h e e m e r g e n c y he d i d  to a p e r c e p t i b l e d e c l i n e i n the l e g i t i m a c y of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  and p o l i t i c a l  s y s t e m and t r a c e d  s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s — n o t a b l y , government*  the absence  t h i s d e c l i n e to c e r t a i n trends excessive  of a r e a l popular  i n Indian  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the l e v e l s of base  f o r the Indian  political  4 parties,  c o r r u p t i o n and  f a i l u r e s of performance.  K o t h a r i , however,  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the Congress P a r t y and M r s . Gandhi were l i k e l y solidate would  t h e i r p o s i t i o n b u t d i d n o t make i t c l e a r how  take  the question  of whether  P a r t y and  the Congress  t h e r e w i l l b e a new  System'—a  'Congress  features of the p o l i t i c a l remain.  Given India's  system under Congress  s i z e and d i v e r s i t y , and  r u l i n g party or c o a l i t i o n w i l l And  i t i s important  System' w i t h o u t  f e r e n t i d e o l o g i c a l components r a n g i n g It  i s therefore similar  Party. doubt  The  emphasis  Will  there  t h e Congress?  to aggregate  now Certain  Party  the  i s a c o a l i t i o n of to  to  interests. dif-  socialists.  t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l amorphousness of t h e  of India's  a  dominance a r e l i k e l y  from conservatives  on p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l  that the v i a b i l i t y  party,  the f e d e r a l system,  have t o c o n t i n u e  to note that the Janata  f o r Democracy  dominant  two-party system, or a fragmented m u l t i - p a r t y system. be a ' J a n a t a  consolidation  place.  The v i c t o r y o f t h e J a n a t a poses  this  to con-  a l s o r e m a i n and t h e r e  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l order w i l l  Congress i s no depend  87  to a great of  e x t e n t on t h e economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  performance  t h e government. The  legitimacy  o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  order  a l s o depend on t h e frameworks o f consensus and t h e o p e r a t i v e of  the p o l i t i c a l  system described  M a r c h 1977 g e n e r a l operative  e l e c t i o n i s that  (one o f t h e  t h e former non-communist and  p a r t i e s i n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  t h e March e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s w i l l n o t ensure t h e l e g i t i m a c y  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l 1971  mechanisms  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  t h e e l e c t o r a l system  mechanisms) has r e — i n t e g r a t e d  C.P.M. o p p o s i t i o n But  by K o t h a r i .  general  strated  this.  system.  system.  of India's  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e  e l e c t i o n a n d t h e 1 9 7 2 s t a t e a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n s h a s demonAlthough Mrs. Gandhi and t h e Congress P a r t y  l a r g e e l e c t o r a l m a j o r i t i e s i n 1971-72, c o r r u p t served  will  to reduce t h e l e g i t i m a c y  of t h e non-communist o p p o s i t i o n  electoral practices  of the p o l i t i c a l  reform, p a r t i c u l a r l y the financing  obtained  system.  also  Electoral  o f e l e c t i o n s became a k e y demand  p a r t i e s a n d t h e C.P.M. a f t e r  1971-72.  An a n a l y s i s o f g o v e r n m e n t - o p p o s i t i o n r e l a t i o n s between 1971 and 1975 has  proved t h e hypothesis of Chapter I that  the legitimacy  o f con-  s t i t u t i o n a l government i s dependent on t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e r u l e s o f the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  system by t h e government and o p p o s i -  tion parties. The 1971  study of government-opposition r e l a t i o n s i n t h e period  and t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f emergency a l s o  'margin o f p r e s s u r e ' political  system.  between  showed t h a t t h e  d i d n o t operate t o m a i n t a i n t h e openness o f t h e  I t remains t o be seen whether t h e post-emergency  88  period w i l l  b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new ' m a r g i n o f  pressure'  between t h e J a n a t a P a r t y ,  t h e C.F.D. a n d t h e o p p o s i t i o n  parties.  I t depends, f i r s t  o n w h e t h e r t h e C o n g r e s s ( R ) , now  out  o f power, l o s e s  of a l l ,  i t s s t r e n g t h , and becomes a ' p a r t y o f  pressure'.  S e c o n d l y , much d e p e n d s o n t h e f a c t i o n a l a l i g n m e n t s w i t h i n t h e d o m i n a n t c o a l i t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , and on whether t h e J a n a t a P a r t y  i s prepared t o seek consensus w i t h  the op-  position parties. K o t h a r i ' s model o f o n e - p a r t y dominance and t h e M a r x i s t the  common a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  h i s t o r i c a l l y necessary f o r t h e i r and  political  time.  model  share  institutions are  But i n the Marxist  i n s t i t u t i o n s are l o g i c a l l y necessary given  model l e g a l  theparticular  economic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y and t h e p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the Marxist as  model t h e r e a l s t r u g g l e  the executive,  i s n o t between i n s t i t u t i o n s  l e g i s l a t u r e and t h e j u d i c i a r y but between  i n s t i t u t i o n s are transformed or abolished social  i n t e r e s t s of t h e dominant c l a s s e s .  a n a l y s i s , arose from the c r i s i s facade of l i b e r a l  as they s u i t  facing India's  this  ruling  c l a s s e s and t h e  m o d e l some o f t h e  class analysis to the period  T h e s t u d y o f t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n t h e 1971  t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y o f J u n e 1975  c l a s s and economic d e t e r m i n i s t ficulties  t h e economic and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e m o c r a c y was q u i c k l y d r o p p e d .  problems o f applying  and  classes;  The emergency, i n t h i s  In the t h e o r e t i c a l discussion of the Marxist  mentioned.  such  general  elections  a l s o showed t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f  explorations.  of i d e n t i f y i n g the r u l i n g  1947-75 w e r e  Not only  are there  dif-  c l a s s , b u t a l s o t h e breakdown o f  89  consensus i n v o l v e d the  opposition  difficult  b o u r g e o i s p a r t i e s s u c h , a s t h e C o n g r e s s (R) a n d  B.L.D., J a n a Sangh. a n d C o n g r e s s  t o speak o f t h e emergency  s t r u g g l e because of the r e f o r m i s t support f o r the Congress  existence  I t i s also  a s t h e outcome o f a p u r e  class  p o s i t i o n o f t h e C.P.I, and i t s  (R) a n d a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e s o c i a l i s t  p o p u l i s t r h e t o r i c of the Congress But the M a r x i s t  (0).  and  Party.  a n a l y s i s o f d i c t a t o r s h i p does n o t r e l y on t h e  o f an open c l a s s s t r u g g l e .  Dictatorships  are seen to a r i s e  when ' b o u r g e o i s ' i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e t h r e a t e n e d b u t r e v o l u t i o n a r y weak. 1977  But i s t h e emergency general  a prelude to revolutionary  e l e c t i o n seems t o h a v e g i v e n  'bourgeois democracy'.  w h i c h w i l l e s t a b l i s h i t s own  and p o l i t i c a l  institutions  t o r e m a i n so as l o n g  reformist  of l i f e  i s , however,  The to  March  India's  revolu-  alternative constitutional  absent i n I n d i a today.  It is  a s t h e C . P . I , a n d t h e C.P.M. c o n t i n u e t h e i r  policies.  Although i t i s s t i l l of  lease  change?  A r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement g u i d e d b y a  tionary party  likely  a new  movements  the Janata Party  too e a r l y to assess the e f f e c t of the v i c t o r y  a n d t h e C.F.D. o n I n d i a ' s  system, c e r t a i n trends are c l e a r .  The new  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  government  political  h a s made known i t s  i n t e n t i o n t o dismantle the a u t h o r i t a r i a n system of Mrs. Gandhi's  emer-  gency r u l e .  the  I t has been seen t h a t  the Congress P a r t y  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments s i n c e J u n e 1975 i n power i n d e f i n i t e l y . now  the Congress Party  revised  constitution.  assumed t h a t  I r o n i c a l l y , with the s h i f t  i n passing i t would  i n fortunes,  remain i tis  w h i c h i s i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n under The new  government  of Prime M i n i s t e r  Desai,  the  90  however, h a s announced t h a t  civil  the j u d i c i a r y w i l l be r e s t o r e d .  liberties I n Chapter  the C o n s t i t u t i o n had i n s u f f i c i e n t of a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e . C.F.D. w i l l  reduce  and t h e independence I i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  safeguards against  I t remains  of that  t h e development  t o be seen whether t h e J a n a t a and  t h e emergency powers o f t h e e x e c u t i v e — p a r t i c u l a r l y  the emergency p r o v i s i o n s  o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and s t a t u t e s  such as  M.I.S.A. a n d t h e D e f e n c e o f I n d i a R u l e s — w h i c h e n a b l e d M r s . G a n d h i to impose h e r a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e i n t h e f i r s t The  repeal of statutes  S e c u r i t y A c t and t h e Defense  place.  such as the Maintenance of India Rules i s l i k e l y  f o r w a r d f o r t h e J a n a t a government t h a n t h e r e p e a l 41st  a n d 42nd c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments.  will  require  a majority  of two-thirds  members p r e s e n t a n d v o t i n g legislatures.  of Internal t o be more s t r a i g h t -  of the 39th,  40th,  R e p e a l o f t h e s e amendments  o f L o k Sabha and R a j y a  and r a t i f i c a t i o n by a m a j o r i t y  Sabha  of the state  I n o r d e r t o re-amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e J a n a t a gov-  e r n m e n t h a s , a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g , announced t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f n i n e s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Congress e l e c t i o n s and t h e a b i l i t y sary m a j o r i t i e s  Party.  The outcome o f t h e s e  o f t h e J a n a t a government t o s e c u r e t h e n e c e s -  i n Parliament w i l l ,  therefore,  determine  the success of  t h e new g o v e r n m e n t i n a b o l i s h i n g t h e s e amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . The  emergency t h u s appears  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l Gandhi has l e f t leaders,  t o have been an a b e r r a t i o n  system  since  independence.  i n India's  But Mrs.  important precedents e s p e c i a l l y the a r r e s t of  opposition  p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p and t h e p r e c e d e n t s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n  under emergency r u l e .  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f I n d i a ' s  future constitutional  91  a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t may the of  therefore  emergency was i n f a c t an a b e r r a t i o n  answer t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r w h e t h e r i t was t h e p r e c u r s o r  further periods of a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e In India.  91a  FOOTNOTES  92  FOOTNOTES  CHAPTER I "'"For a d i s c u s s i o n o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n I n d i a s e e A l a n W e l l s , "Mass V i o l e n c e i n I n d i a s i n c e 1960," I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review 7 ( O c t o b e r 1972 - S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 3 ) : 125-130 and B a l d e r Raj N a y a r , " V i o l e n c e , " S e m i n a r 173 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) : 33-37. 2 R o b e r t L. H a r d g r a v e , J r . , I n d i a : a D e v e l o p i n g N a t i o n , 2nd e d . (New Y o r k : 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 8 7 .  Government and P o l i t i c s i n Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,  CHAPTER I I """Tvo D. D u c h a c e k , " N a t i o n a l C o n s t i t u t i o n s : A F u n c t i o n a l p r o a c h , " C o m p a r a t i v e P o l i t i c s 1 ( O c t o b e r 1968) p. 9 1 , n . l .  Ap-  2 See, f o r example, B e n j a m i n A k z i n ' s c o m p a r a t i v e s u r v e y o f t h e ' n o m i n a l i t y ' o f c o n s t i t u t i o n s , "On t h e S t a b i l i t y and R e a l i t y o f C o n s t i t u t i o n s , " i n S t u d i e s i n E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . 3, p p . 313-339. E d i t e d by R o b e r t B a c h i ( J e r u s a l e m : Magnes P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) . 3 Charles Bettelheim, I n d i a I n d e p e n d e n t (New Y o r k : Monthly R e v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 106. 4 G r a n v i l l e A u s t i n , The I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n : C o r n e r s t o n e o f a Nation (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1966, pp. 8-17. 5  Ibid.,  p.  ^ I b i d . , p.  10, n. 5, n .  38. 19.  ^ S h i v a B. Rao, The F r a m i n g o f I n d i a ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n ( N a s i k : G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 1 0 1 . 8  A u s t i n , The  9 ment  I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , pp.  68-69.  1 s t Amendment ( 1 9 5 1 ) ; 4 t h Amendment ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; (1964).  "'"^K.C. W h e a r e , M o d e r n C o n s t i t u t i o n s , 2nd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 4 0 .  ed.,  and  17th  (London:  AmendOxford  """"'"Article 352 (3) . R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e t o I n d i a , M i n i s t r y o f Law a n d J u s t i c e , The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f I n d i a as M o d i f i e d up t o t h e 1 5 t h o f May, 1972 (New D e l h i : M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n and Broadcasting, 1972).  93  12 A u s t i n , The I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , p p . 1 3  Article  356.  1 4  Article  360  207-8.  CHAPTER I I I "*"Rajni K o t h a r i , "The C o n g r e s s ' S y s t e m ' i n I n d i a , " A s i a n S u r v e y 4 ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 4 ) : 1 1 6 1 - 1 1 7 3 ; W.H. M o r r i s - J o n e s , " P a r l i a m e n t a n d Dominant P a r t y : The I n d i a n E x p e r i e n c e , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s 17 (Summer 1 9 6 4 ) : 296-307. 2 R a j n i K o t h a r i , "The C o n g r e s s S y s t e m R e v i s i t e d : R e v i e w , " A s i a n S u r v e y 14 (December 1 9 7 4 ) : p. 1 0 5 2 . 3  Ibid.,  p.  1036.  4  Ibid.,  p.  1036.  5  K o t h a r i , "The C o n g r e s s ' S y s t e m ' i n I n d i a , " p .  A  Decennial  1162.  K a r l Marx. "Preface to a C o n t r i b u t i o n to the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y , 1 8 5 9 , " i n K. M a r x a n d F. E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d W o r k s i n One V o l u m e ( L o n d o n : L a w r e n c e a n d W i s h a r t , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 1 8 1 ; ^J.D. S e t h i , I n d i a i n C r i s i s 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 21.  Q  Articles  (Delhi:  V i k a s P u b l i s h i n g House,  264-300.  9 Meghnad D e s a i , " I n d i a : E m e r g i n g C o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f S l o w C a p i t a l i s t Development," i n E x p l o s i o n i n a Sub-Continent, ed. Robin Blackburn (London: P e n g u i n P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 23. " ^ K a r l M a r x , "The C i v i l War i n F r a n c e , " i n M a r x a n d E n g e l s S e l e c t e d W o r k s i n One V o l u m e , p . 2 8 5 . "''"'"Desai, " I n d i a :  E m e r g i n g C o n t r a d i c t i o n s , " pp.  17-18.  12 p.  424.  K o t h a r i , P o l i t i c s i n I n d i a (New D e l h i :  O r i e n t Longman, 1 9 7 2 ) ,  13 R a n a j i t Guha, " I n d i a n Democracy: L o n g D e a d , Now J o u r n a l o f Contemporary A s i a 6 (1976) pp. 40-41. 14 K o t h a r i , P o l i t i c s i n I n d i a , p . 6.  Buried,"  "*"^See, f o r e x a m p l e , C P . B h a m b r i ' s c r i t i c i s m o f K o t h a r i ' s f r a m e work i n " F u n c t i o n a l i s m i n P o l i t i c s : A R e j o i n d e r , " I n d i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 35 ( A p r i l - J u n e 1 9 7 4 ) " 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 .  94  """ """Kothari, "The 1 7  Ibid.,  p.  C o n g r e s s S y s t e m R e v i s i t e d , " pp.  1047-8.  1051.  18 Desai, "India:  Emerging Contradictions,',  1  p.  13.  19 Kothari, A p r i l 10,  Delhi) CHAPTER  "The F a i l u r e o f 1975.  a System," Times o f  India  (New  IV  "'"Minister o f F i n a n c e , " R e v i e w o f C u r r e n t E c o n o m i c S i t u a t i o n , " J u l y 3 0 , 1975. Y o j a n a 19 (15 A u g u s t 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 8 1 . Wholesale prices i n c r e a s e d by 9.9 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 , 22.7 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 and 23.1 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 . The A l l - I n d i a c o n s u m e r p r i c e i n d e x f o r i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d b y 6.3 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 2 , 15.8 p e r c e n t i n 1973 and b y 28.8 p e r c e n t i n 1974. E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l W e e k l y V o l . X I , No. 16, ( A p r i l 17, 1976) p. 610. 2 Government of I n d i a , M i n i s t r y of F i n a n c e , Economic Survey: 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 (New D e l h i : G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. '4. 3 The S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , A p r i l 24, 1975. 4 D a v i d H. B a y l e y , " I n d i a : War a n d P o l i t i c a l A s s e r t i o n , " A s i a n S u r v e y 12 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 9 1 . "^Susanne H o e b e r R u d o l p h , "The W r i t f r o m D e l h i : The Indian G o v e r n m e n t ' s C a p a b i l i t i e s a f t e r t h e 1971 E l e c t i o n , " A s i a n S u r v e y ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 958. Ibid.,  6  p.  961.  ^ J o h n R. Wood, " E x t r a - P a r l i a m e n t a r y Opposition i n India: A n a l y s i s o f P o p u l i s t A g i t a t i o n s i n G u j a r a t and B i h a r , " P a c i f i c 48 ( F a l l 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 314. 8  I b i d . , pp.  9  The  11  An Affairs  320-1.  Statesman  ( D e l h i ) , J a n u a r y 30,  1975.  """^For e x a m p l e , on A p r i l 7, 1975 M o r a r j i D e s a i b e g a n a f a s t t o t h e d e a t h u n l e s s two o f h i s c o n d i t i o n s w e r e met b y M r s . G a n d h i — t h a t f r e s h e l e c t i o n s be h e l d i m m e d i a t e l y i n G u j a r a t a n d t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y d e c l a r e d i n D e c e m b e r 1971 s h o u l d be l i f t e d . The S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) A p r i l 8, 1975. "'""'"Times o f I n d i a  ( A h m e d a b a d ) , May  8,  1975.  12 Times of I n d i a  (New  Delhi), April  1,  1975.  95  13  The S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 7 5 .  14 The S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , J a n u a r y 6, 1 5  T h e S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , M a r c h 8,  1975.  1975.  1 f\  1 7  The S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , M a r c h 5,  1975.  T h e S t a t e s m a n ( D e l h i ) , M a r c h 6,  1975.  18 pp.  Rajni Kothari, 22-23. 19 Times o f I n d i a 20 Times o f I n d i a  " E n d o f a n E r a " , S e m i n a r 197 (Ahmedabad),  June 25,  1975.  (Ahmedabad),  June 16,  1975.  (January 1976),  M a r c u s F. 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I n d i r a G a n d h i , Democracy and D i s c i p l i n e : S p e e c h e s o f I n d i r a G a n d h i (New D e l h i : Government o f I n d i a , M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n and B r o a d c a s t i n g , n . d . ) , p. 37. 30 Speech i n Lok Sabha, J u l y 22, 1975, i n G a n d h i , Democracy and D i s c i p l i n e , p. 3 6 . CHAPTER V "''See, f o r e x a m p l e , C l a i r e S t e r l i n g ' s a r t i c l e , " R u l e r o f 600 M i l l i o n , and A l o n e , " The New Y o r k T i m e s M a g a z i n e , A u g u s t 1 0 , 1 9 7 5 ; a n d N e v i l l e M a x w e l l , "Woman o n a W h i t e H o r s e : I n d i a 1 9 7 5 , " R o u n d T a b l e No. 2 6 0 . (October 1975): 357-368.  96  2 3  G a n d h i , Democracy  a n d D i s c i p l i n e , pp. 63-64.  I b i d . , pp. 103-4.  "A Fresh Look a t our C o n s t i t u t i o n : Some S u g g e s t i o n s " , d i s t r i b u t e d b y C T . 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T i m e s o f I n d i a ( B o m b a y ) , May 2 3 , 1 9 7 6 .  g Keesing's Contemporary A r c h i v e s 9  Times  1 0  of India  (London), A p r i l  1976, p. 27783.  ( B o m b a y ) , May 2 3 , 1 9 7 6 .  A s i a n R e c o r d e r (New D e l h i ) J u n e 2 4 - 3 0 , 1 9 7 6 , p . 1 3 2 2 1 .  ''""'"For e x a m p l e , t h e L a w M i n i s t e r , H.R. G o k h a l e , o n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e 4 4 t h C o n s t i t u t i o n (Amendment) B i l l i n t h e L o k S a b h a i n O c t o b e r 1976, c r i t i c i z e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s f o r f a i l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e forums f o r d e b a t i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n . Gokhale a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e S w a r a n S i n g h C o m m i t t e e h a d r e c e i v e d f o u r t h o u s a n d memor a n d a a n d h a d i n t e r v i e w e d a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e b e f o r e f i n a l i z i n g i t s r e p o r t i n May 1 9 7 6 . " P a r l i a m e n t A p p r o v e s C o n s t i t u t i o n Amendments", I n d i a n a n d F o r e i g n R e v i e w , V o l . 1 4 , N o . 3, ( 1 5 N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 5-6. 12 13 14  Times o f I n d i a  (Bombay) O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 7 6 .  Times o f I n d i a  (Bombay) O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1 9 7 6 .  Ibid.  " ^ K e e s i n g ' s Contemporary A r c h i v e s , J a n u a r y 14, 1977, p. 28142. 16 C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r , J u n e 7, 1 9 7 6 . "^Keesing's Contemporary A r c h i v e s , J a n u a r y 14, 1977, p. 281^1. 18 A r t i c l e 74 ( 1 ) s t a t e s o n l y t h a t " T h e r e s h a l l b e a C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a t t h e head t o a i d and a d v i s e t h e President i n the exercise of h i s functions".  97  Indian  a n d F o r e i g n R e v i e w , V o l . 1 4 , No. 2 ( 1 November 1 9 7 6 ) ,  p. 22. 20  Keesing's Contemporary A r c h i v e s ,  J a n u a r y 14, 1977, p. 28141.  21 Indian  S.C. A g r a w a l , " P r o p o s e d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments: A Comment," a n d F o r e i g n R e v i e w , V o l . 1 4 , No. 2 ( 1 N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 1 . 22 K e e s i n g ' s Contemporary A r c h i v e s , J a n u a r y 14, 1977, p. 28141. 23  H i g h C o m m i s s i o n o f I n d i a , O t t a w a , I n d i a News No. 12 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 8.  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