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Jean-Léon Gérôme 1824-1904 : a study of a mid-nineteenth century French academic artist Watson, Donald Scott 1977

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JEAN LEON GER&ME (1824-1904): A STUDY OF A MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY FRENCH ACADEMIC ARTIST by DONALD SCOTT WATSON B.A., University of British Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of Fine Arts)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977  ©  Donald Scott Watson, 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements for  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  I agree  that  f o r reference and study.  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of t h i s  thesis  It  i s understood that copying or publication  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall  written permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s not a monograph on Gerome.  Rather i t i s  an a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d p a i n t i n g s and the themes that  occur  in them. My approach has been icono1ogica1 , as was, f o r Gerome, the most important  aspect  I have a l s o endeavoured to t i e a formal  subject-matter of p a i n t i n g . But  a n a l y s i s of Gerome's  a r t to i t s content. Chapter I contains a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch, as most of t h i s  information  chapter  is quite  i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e elsewhere  this  brief.  Chapter II deals with Ge'rome's neo- gre c p a i n t i n g , both f o r i t s own sake and to introduce my t h e s i s - - t h a t Gerome's painting  i s an extension  the world century  of h i s r o l e as c o l l e c t o r and that  he creates i s an extension  French  interieur.  Chapter III continues deals with explain  of the nineteenth-  and expands on t h i s argument and  Ge'rome's ethnographic  h i s use of a photographic  work and attempts to style.  Chapter IV deals with Ge'rome's s e r i o u s h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s and  r e l a t e s them to h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e in nineteenth-  century  France.  Chapter V, the c o n c l u s i o n , summarizes my arguments.  i ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I. II.  GENOME'S CAREER  1  THE NEO-GREC PAINTINGS  8  Neo-grec P a i n t i n g and I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p to "High" A r t ' 8 Genre P a i n t i n g During the July Monarchy . . . 13 Gerome's Teachers I: Paul Delaroche . . . . . . 14 Gerome's .Teachers I I : Charles Gleyre - -19 L'Ecole de bon sens '20 The^Cock Fight 25 Ge'rome ' s Other Ne'o-grec P a i n t i n g s : The Female Nude As an Icon,of High A r t ',28 Goupil et Compagnie - 37 The Neo-Grec "Fashion" and the " i n t e r i e u r " . . < 40 King Candaules and Antiochus and S t r a t o n i c e : The Decline of Neo-cl.assi c i sm 46 III.  THE ETHNOGRAPHIC PAINTINGS The Content of Ge'rome's Ethnographic P a i n t i n g s I: Physiognomic Types The Ethnographic P a i n t i n g s and Photography. The Contenjt of Gerome's Ethnographic Painting's I I : The Inte'rieur  IV.  THE HISTORY PAINTINGS  .".'5 7  .  60 67 75 88  H i s t o r i o g r a p h i c Thought in Mid-Nineteenth Century France. . . . 89 The Influence of P o s i t i v i s m on the Arts . . ., 102 Ge'r6me's H i s tory Pa i n t i n gs 106 ;  V.  CONCLUSION  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 38 145  iv ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1 2.  3.  The Cock F i g h t . 1846. O i l on canvas. ( 143 x 204 cm. ). Musee de Louvre, Paris Paul Delaroche. The A r t i s t s of A l l Ages. 1841 Hemicycle, Ecole des Beaux A r t s , P a r i s . ( F i g . 114 in Robert Rosenblum, Ingres 'New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1 967) . . . . .' .- . . . . Paul Delaroche. The C h i l d r e n of Edward IV.1830. Oil on canvas. (181 x 215 cm.) Muse'e duLouvre. (Page 301 in French P a i n t i n g 1774-1830: The Age of R e v o l u t i o n , i New York: 1974) . '. '. 7 . Phryne Before the Areopagus. 1861. Hamburger K u n s t h a l l e . (Page 10 in Jean-Leon Gerome, Dayton, Ohio: 1972) King Candaules. 1 859. O i l on can vas . (67. 3 x 99 cm.) Museo de Arte de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (Page 43 in Jean-Leon Gerome, Ibid.) Cleopatra and Caesar. 1864. (Page 43 in Nancy B e l l , Representative P a i n t e r s of the Nineteenth Century, (London, 1 899). ~ '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 7~. Roman Slave Market. 1884. O i l on canvas. (64.1 x 56.9 cm. ) The Wal ter£ A r t G a l l e r y , Baltimore. (Page 89 in Jean-Leon G'leVdme, o p . c i t . ) Jean-Louis Hamon. Ma soecfr n'y e s t pas i c i . Whereabouts un known. (Page 108 i n C h a r l e s Gl eyre , ( La us an ne : 19 74}) > •• Gustave Boulanger. The Lute PIayer. 1861 Musee National 4, Versai 11 e~s7 (Page 146 i n Ingres , -o_p. c j t . ) Infelrieur grec. 1851. Hamburger Kunsthalle . . . . Socrates Seeking A l c i b i a d e s in the House of Aspasia.1861. Robert Isaacson C o l l e c t i o n : New York. ("Page 36 in Isaacson, "Ge'r6me," A r t and A r t i s t s , V o l . 2 [August, 1 967]) Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Antiochus and S t r a t o n i ce. 1 840. O i l on canvas. (44.9 x 78.8 cm.) Musee Conde, C h a n t i l l y . (Plate 39 in In gres , op . c i t. ) Nadar. Photograph of Musette. 1856. ( F i g . 228 in Helmut Gernsh-eim, The H i s t o r y of Photography London: Oxford"'Uni vers i ty Press, 1 9 55)) . . 7 . . Recreation i n a Russian Camp. 1854. Whereabouts un known. (Page 11 in Jean- Leon GeVome, op.cit.).. Photograph of Ger6me at 70(?) (Page 1.34 in V i c t o r G u i l l e m i n , "Etude sur l e pe_intre et s ^ u l p t e u r , J.L. Gerome," Academie des Sciences B e l l e s - l e t t r e s & Arts de Besfrncon. 1904) ! '. 7 . ;  4. 5. 6. 7.  9  ,1 7  1 7 '31; 3,2 .32  t  8. 9. 10. 11.  12.  13. 14. 15.  .36 40  40 44  '44  47 _ 55 61  65  V  Figure 16.  17.  18.  19. 20.  21.  22.  23.  24.  25. 26. 27.  Page Arnaut Smoking. 1865? O i l on canvas. (59.6 x 72.4 cm.) The Sordoni Family C o l l e c t i o n , Wi1kes-Barre, Pennsylvania. (Page 59 in J . - L . Gerome , o p . c i t . ) 65 The P r i s o n e r . 1 86 3. (46 x 7 8.1 cm.) P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n , New York. An e a r l i e r v e r s i o n (1861) i n the Musee Nantes (Page 51 in J.-L. Ge'rome, o p . c i t . ) 68 Conducteur de Chameaux. Whereabouts unknown. (Page 15 in Fre'de'ric Mas son, " J .-L. Ge'rome : p e i n t r e de 1 ' o r i e n t , " Figaro II lustre'', Vol . 12, [ J u l y , 1901] 74 Dance of the Almeh. 1863. (520.2 x 81.3 cm.) Dayton A r t I n s t i t u t e , Dayton, Ohio. , (Page 5 3 in J.-L. Ge'rome,, opci t.) 74 Emile Bayard, Cover f o r "Le Nu E s t h e t i q u e " , P a r i s , 1900. (Page 304 i n Michel B r a i v e , The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of Photography. New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Ave Caesar, M o r i t u r i Te S a l u t a n t . 1859. O i l on Canvas. (92.2 x 14.4 cm.) Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y . (Page 45 i n J . L . Ge'rome , o p . c i t . ) 107 P o l l ice Verso. 1 874. O i l on canvas. (96.5 x 145.2 cm.) Phoenix A r t Museum, Phoenix, A r i z o n a . (Page 68 in J.-L Gerome, o p . c i t . ) . 107 The C h r i s t i a n Martyrs' Last Prayer. 18631 883. O i l on Canvas. ( 87.9 x 1 50.1 cm.) The Walters A r t G a l l e r y , Baltimore. (Page 86 in J.-L. Ge'rome) 108 Pol 1i ce Verso c. 1 876. Large bronze scuptural group. Muse'e Besancon(?) (Page 27 in Fre'de'ric Masson, "x\'. L . Ge'rome : Notes et fragments i n e d i t e s , " Les A r t s , 1904) . . . . . 109 La Mcyty re. Bronze mounted on black marble. (36 x 48.5 cm.) (Page 37 in G a l e r i e Tanagra, P a r i s . Jean-Leon Ge'rome, 1 9 7 4 ) . . . . . . . . 110 La REntree des f e l i n e s dans l e c i r q u e , c. 1902. Walters A r t G a l l e r y , Baltimore (Page 8 in G a l e r i e Tanagra, op.ci t.) 112 The Death of Marshal Ney. 1868. O i l on canvas. (64.1 x 103.5 cm.) S h e f f i e l d C i t y A r t G a l l e r i e s , S h e f f i e l d , England. (Page 64 ,-, J.L. Gerome,.gp,git.) The Death of Cflesdr'. 1 867. O i l on canvas. (85.5 x 145.2 cm.) The Walters A r t G a l l e r y , Baltimore. (Page 6 3 in J.-L. Ge'rome, o p . c i t . ) . 117 7  ;  28:  vi Page Fi gure 29.  L'0 e d i p e . c. 1 886. Whereabouts unknown. (Page 482 in Fanny Hering, "J.-L. Ge>6me," The Century Magazine, v o l . 37, 1 889) 19 Sketch f o r 1 Oedipe c. 1886 (Page 484, I b i d . ) . . 120 The Poet Touched.By His Muse, c. 1881. Whereabouts unknown. (Page 18 in Henri Houssaye, Le Salon de 1881. P a r i s , 1881.) The Reception of the Due de-Conde. 1 878. Oi1 on canvas. (96.5 x 139.7 cm.) Mr. and Mrs. Armand du Vannes, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a . (Page 75 of J.-L. Gerome, op. c i t. ) 128 L'Eminence Gri se. 1 874. O i l on canvas. (65.5 'x 98.5 cm.) Museum of Fine A r t s , Boston. (Page 71 in J.-L. Gerome, op. c i t.) . . ' ° Be11ona. 1 893. Large c h r y s e l e p h a n t i n e s c u l p t u r e . (Page 205 in M. H. Speilmann, "J.-L. Gerome," The Magazine of A r t . V o l . 2 , 1 904) 1  30. 31.  1  1  32.  33.  2  4  2  34.  1 4  2  1  CHAPTER I: GEROME'S CAREER Gerome's career was he may  have had  Gerome himself who There i s no r e a l  us by his biographers, or r a t h e r by  f u r n i s h e d them with his l i f e  reason  has given us, f u l l  to doubt the account  of lacunae  as i t i s , nor  to doubt the embellishments  us by those who  knew the p a i n t e r .  oddly; nineteenth century biography that l i t e r a r y biography  difficulties  in h i s personal l i f e , whatever e c c e n t r i c i t i e s  have been withheld from  reason  a charmed one* whatever  form.  story.^  which Gerome i s there  upon t h i s t a l e given to But was  i t a l l reads r a t h e r perhaps the n a d i r of  For the V i c t o r i a n s , French  meant an account  any  and  English,  of a man's achievements i n the  p u b l i c arena with only the merest hints of what motivated him.  Therefore the image of Gerome that emerges from  literature we  can  about him  infer certain  i s of a man  reading a s c r i p t .  the  However,  things about Gerome from these books and  a r t i c l e s which are not stated d i r e c t l y .  A f t e r a l l , we  have  the works of a r t . Ge'rome was  born on the 11th df May,  small  town in North-eastern  Basel  and  Dijon.  s i l v e r s m i t h , who couraged  He was  1824,  in Vesoul , a  France, about halfway  the son of a moderately  between well-to-do  being a maker of o b j e t s d ' a r t h i m s e l f , en-  h i s son's ambition  to become an a r t i s t .  t h i s childhood that gave Gerome his l i f e l o n g  I t was  devotion to an  2  arduous work schedule was  and  an a t t i t u d e  very much a craftsman's In 1839  Paul  more than an  he went to P a r i s to e n r o l l  Delaroche.  This was  a prestigious  most p r e s t i g i o u s at the time. David  to Gros and  Charles G l e y r e ) . towering sonal  towards his a r t that  I t had  then to Delaroche Delaroche  in the a t e l i e r of s t u d i o , i f not the  been handed down from  (and subsequently  himself was  f i g u r e s of D e l a c r o i x and  "artist's".  only r i v a l l e d  Ingres, and  by  the  a per-  f r i e n d of L o u i s - P h i l i p p e . In other words, a favored  student of Delaroche's to the coveted missions. often  had  privileged  Prix-de-Rome and  In 1843,  access to the  to state and  p r i v a t e com-  p r a c t i s e s , Delaroche  c l o s e d his s t u d i o ,  i t over to Charles Gleyre and encouraging  to go to e i t h e r Gleyre or Martin D r o l l i n g . utterly  devoted  Salon,  a f t e r a student died as a r e s u l t of the  rowdy i n i t i a t i o n  handing  was  he was  to  to Delaroche  his students  Gerdme, however,  and went with him  to  Italy  for a year. In 1845  Ge'rome returned to P a r i s and e n r o l l e d  in Charles  Gleyre's s t u d i o so that he might compete f o r the Prix-de-Rome. He was first  u n s u c c e s s f u l , but  in the f o l l o w i n g year  p a i n t i n g to the Salon, The  Cock/Fight.  r e c e i v e d a T h i r d Class medal, r a t h e r unusual Salon, and made Ge'rome a recognized p a i n t e r . he was  he sent his  This p a i n t i n g for a f i r s t At twenty-two .  famous.  One  would l i k e  to know a great deal more about the  group that then gathered  around Gerome.  These young p a i n t e r s ,  3  all  students  Rue  de  of Gleyre,  Fleurus  dency t h e r e ) . included and  the  lived  together  in a studio on  the  ( l a t e r made famous by Gertrude  Stein's r e s i -  Le Chalet, as the group c a l l e d  themselves,  Toulmouche (Claude Monet's c o u s i n ) , Hamon, Picou s c u l p t o r Jobbe-Duval.  come and  frequent  Theophile  Gautier was  a wel-  "a l i t t l e  Athens".  guest at what he c a l l e d  Perhaps f o l l o w i n g the example of Gleyre, Le Chalet housed a large numer of animals, and Jacques, would often accompany him They were a l l r a t h e r poor and  Gerome's chimpanzee,  to  restaurants.  very  idealistic,  they seem to have p a r t i c i p a t e d in the s p i r i t headed a p e t i t i o n as e n t e r i n g  also  and  of 1 848.  Ge'rome  to a b o l i s h marriage in that year as well  the contest  f o r an a l l e g o r i c a l  f i g u r e of  the  2 Republi c. The one  who  spired  image we was  get of Ge'rome as a young man  driven  to succeed.  those around him.  charm which he could  He  had  His devotion a great  deal  i s of some-  to his work i n of  personal  which made him 3 the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the group, " l e chef des neo-grecs". In the 1850s he r e c e i v e d several important commissions 4 and  e x h i b i t e d r e g u l a r l y at the Salon.  searching first  f o r a large commission 5  In 1854,  he made what was  while to be  rethe  of many voyages east. In 1862  dealer. who  turn on or o f f at w i l l  he married  They had  Marie G o u p i l , daughter of the a r t -  four c h i l d r e n , three  died at the age  of 27  in 1891.  By  daughters and  a son  t h i s time Ge'rome  was  4  living  in a house on the Rue  In 1 863, to  Ge'rSme along with  his death in 1904.  f o r t y - o n e , he was  ure at the Ecole and impressionism  P i l s was  His students  In 1865,  appointed  e l e c t e d to the I n s t i t u t e .  him.  age  His long ten-  his v i o l e n t o p p o s i t i o n to r e a l i s m and  an  image he seemed to have  included Henri g  whom admired  he held  at the f a i r l y young  have c o n t r i b u t e d to his image as the  Academician; i t was  of  Cabanel and  a p r o f e s s o r s h i p at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, a post  until of  de C l i c h y .  Rousseau and  Among his l a s t  ultimate  enjoyed.  Thomas Eakins,  students  was  both  Fernand  Le'ger. The  honours heaped upon Gerome during his l i f e t i m e were  too numerous to l i s t awarded in  here.  He was  the Grand Medal of Honour three times.  many s o c i a l  As a man e n e r g e t i c and graphs and  He  c i r c l e s , among his f r i e n d s were the  Prince Napoleon, the Peireires, and  travelled  Goncourts,  the R o t h s c h i l d s .  Ger6me i s c o n s i s t e n t l y described as t r i m , very elegant  in his manners.  p a i n t i n g s of him  the eyebrows r a i s e d Gerome l i v e d  give him  by a s t r i c t day  often with James R o t h s c h i l d . adult l i f e ,  A l l the photo-  a very arch  appearance,  in a permanent mask of d i s d a i n .  he would r i d e almost every  his  the only p a i n t e r to be  making him  regimen--when not t r a v e l l i n g - in the Bois de Boulogne, He  painted almost every  a very p r o l i f i c  day  a r t i s t , especi-  ally  c o n s i d e r i n g the amount of time that goes into work of  this  type.  of  5  He p r a c t i s e d often e x h i b i t i n g  a l l s o r t s of genres a neo-grec  or h i s t o r i c a l  Salon as an ethnographic work. neo-grec,  ethnographic  throughout  his l i f e ,  work at the same  This t h e s i s deals with h i s  and h i s t o r i c a l  sides these there are r e l i g i o u s  paintings.  But be-  p a i n t i n g s , a few p o r t r a i t s ,  among them one of the a c t r e s s Rachel, a few landscapes, often with animals, e s p e c i a l l y suggests, he may have thought  l i o n s , which A l b e r t Boime of.as s o r t of a personal  totem.^  He was among the most popular p a i n t e r s of h i s time. Salon made p a i n t i n g a subject of p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n gree almost  unimaginable  today; perhaps  a reasonable comparison.  First  of a l l ,  One can, I t h i n k , understand why  that of a r t ; they were also esca-  The s e x u a l i t y of many of the p a i n t i n g s , hardly n o t i c e -  able by today's the p r o t e c t i v e of bourgeois and  subjects were popu-  they were l e g i b l e as s t o r i e s and a  great many people expected pist.  to a de-  the cinema would be  Gerome's meticulous renderings of e x o t i c lar.  The  standards, allowed sexual fantasy w i t h i n c o n f i n e s of a r t .  virtue.  As a man, he was a paragon  He himself had s a i d  that  "perspicacity  good sense" were the foundations of the French c h a r a c t e r , g  and  he made himself the embodiment of these q u a l i t i e s .  gave France an image of an a r t i s t  who was not a w i l d  He  Romantic,  contemptous of m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s , nor a r e a l i s t who might be a s o c i a l i s t  as w e l l , nor was he given to "high-brow"  d i s c u s s i o n s of h i s a r t . was  Rather  he t r e a t e d a r t as though i t  a p r o f e s s i o n , which was to be approached  in a business-  6  l i k e manner.  Words l i k e  "imagination" and "poetry" have  no meaning when Gerome uses them. Gerome had the misfortune of seeing his career begin to disintegrate. fall.  He s t i l l  From the 1880s on he saw h i s p r i c e s begin to won awards at the Salon, but by t h i s  time  the Salon had begun to be r e p l a c e d by the p r i v a t e a r t g a l lery.  When he died in 1904 no r e t r o s p e c t i v e was  Although lege  shown.  there was small Gerome e x h i b i t i o n s at Vassar  in 1967, i t was not u n t i l  Col-  Gerald Ackerman and Bruce  Evans organized a Gerome show f o r the Dayton Art I n s t i t u t e in 1972 that the p a i n t e r has been given a major r e t r o s p e c t i v e . Due to the new f i e l d  that Academic p a i n t i n g o f f e r s to a r t  h i s t o r i a n s and the r i s i n g reputation  has taken  taste f o r photo-realism,  a turn f o r the b e t t e r a f t e r  years of complete n e g l e c t .  Gerome's  seventy  The a r t i s t who emerges was of  modest accomplishment but i n t e r e s t i n g  and worthy of a place  in the h i s t o r y of nineteenth century a r t .  .7  Notes - Chapter I  Fanny F i e l d H e r i n g , Gerome, Case] P u b l i s h e r s , New York, 1893. V i c t o r G u i l l e m i n , "Jean-Leon Gerome" in Memoi res de I'acaddmie de Besancon, 1904, pp.1 34-1 84. Fre'de'ric Mas son, "J.L. Ge'rdme, Notes- et fragments ine'dits." Les A r t s , 1 904. Charles Moreau-Vauthier, Ge'r6me, p£i ntre et sculpteur , P a r i s , 1906. 1  See A l b e r t Boime, "The Second R e p l u b l i c ' s Contest f o r The Figure of the Republic," Art Bui 1 e t i n , vol.53. 1971 , pp.345ff. 3 Charles Timbal , "Ge'rome: Etude bi ographi que ," in Gazette des Beaux A r t s , v o l . 14, 2e s e r i e s , 1876, pp.218ff, pp.334ff. p.219. 4 In 1851 he received a commission f o r several panels in the r e f e c t o r y of o l d St. Martins, P a r i s which was being r e s t o r e d as a l i b r a r y . In 1852 he did two murals in the Chapel of St. Jerome, St. S e v e r i n , P a r i s , by a l l accounts he was c o n s i d e r a b l y outshone by Hippolyte F l a n d r i n who a l s o did murals in St. Severin at t h i s time. He r e c e i v e d a commission (20,000 f r a n c s ) f o r a large a l l e g o r y on a passage from Bousset. This commission i s d i s cussed in Chapter I I I . J  ^See A l b e r t Boime, "Jean Leon Ge'rome, Henri Rousseau's Sleeping Gypsy and the Academic Legacy," Art Q u a r t e r l y , vol.34, 1971, and Gerald Ackerman, "Thomas Eakins and his P a r i s i a n Master, Ge'rQme and Bonnat," Gazette des Beaux Arts, v o l . 72, 1969, pp.235-256. 7  A l b e r t Boime, A r t Q u a r t e r l y , 1971, o p . c i t . , p . l l f .  Q  Hering, 1 892 , o p . c i t . , p . v i .  8  CHAPTER I I : THE At the sent  urging  his f i r s t  NEO-GREC PAINTINGS  of his teacher,  major work, The  Paul  Delaroche, Ger&me  Cock Fight  ( f i g . 1), to  Salon of 1847.  Even though the p a i n t i n g was  above the  i t a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n and  line,  wrote e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y in La Presse:  est  i l s'appelle  et  ne,  Gerome.  je vous pre'dis que  Aujourd'hui  demain i l sera  hung rather f a r  praise.  Gautier  the  "Un  Theophile p e i n t r e nous  je vous d i s son  celebre."^  The  nom,  painting  even charmed the v i t u p e r a t i v e Gustave Planche into w r i t i n g a favorable  notice.  The  Salon j u r y awarded The  Cock Fight a  3  third  c l a s s medal.  Thus, at the age  become a famous p a i n t e r ; he had importantly,  he  had  most i n f l u e n t i a l The  the  of the the  Gerome produced in a s t y l e This  s t y l e was  emerged in the nor  one  Romantic but  and  first  of a number of  known as neo-grec  everyday, even t r i v i a l ,  the  paintings  or pompei s te.  lived  "styles"  that  Classical  to "High" Art  characterized  subject-matter  neo-grecs abandoned the mythic and  a n i t q u i t y p r a c t i s e d by  of  something in between.  Its R e l a t i o n s h i p  Ne'o-grec p a i n t i n g was  one  time.  of a number of short  attempted  had  perhaps more  was  J u l y Monarchy which were n e i t h e r  Neo-Grec P a i n t i n g  The  a Salon medal, and  support of G a u t i e r , who  critics  Cock Fight was  of twenty-two, Gerome  David and  by  i t s placing  in an antique  of  setting.  h e r o i c image of  espoused by  Ingres f o r an  Figure 1  10  image that was  s o f t e r , l e s s demanding, and  in t h e i r day-to-day p u r s u i t s . rather  than n a r r a t i v e , l y r i c  reason i t can  only  t i o n , although history  be  called  showed the  Neo-grec a r t i s  ancients  anecdotal  rather than e p i c , and  for t h i s ,  h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g with  qualifica-  i t everywhere r e f e r s to the standards of  painting.  H i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , what the Academy deemed high conceived  by  David or Ingres,  was  of events that embodied elevated events which c e l e b r a t e d noble the  viewer.  a r t , as  concerned with the moral  the h e r o i c and  conflict  depiction  and  purpose;  were meant to  David's Oath of the H o r a t i i and  en-  Ingres'  Apotheosis of Homer have d i d a c t i c energy, they are  icons in  every sense of the word. Academic h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , in theory,  emphasized  aspects of p a i n t i n g that could  be  i t was  rather than of the  an a r t of the  Colour was  intellect  kept d u l l , as  i t was  whereas p r e c i s e drawing was The  surface was  hidden.  And  highly polished.  therefore because the  but  had  to be  clearly  feeling,  artist's  spontaneous gesture of  surface  accessories  heart.  Evidence of the  was  and  highly polished  the  the  could  defined.  The  the  abjured  In the s t y l e s of David  unlike that of D e l a c r o i x ,  a r c h i t e c t u r e and  with  temporal--moment was  d e t a i l s assumed importance. Ingres,  associated  learned,  thought to engage the mind.  hand, which might i n d i c a t e the inspired--and  c a l c u l a t e d and  those  not  f i n e r points be merely  and of  the  suggested  Beaux-Arts' student  11  was  required  to have a grasp of c l a s s i c a l  literature,  j u s t as a source for. e l e v a t i n g subject-matter, a r e p o s i t o r y of information the  ancients.  He  was  about the  information  vase drawings e t c . , so that he mis-en-scene f o r the  from c o i n s , b a s - r e l i e f s ,  could  create  and  and  found in c l a s s i c a l  art.  Symmetry was  of composition and  the  Apotheosi s; t h i s perspective, the real  p a i n t i n g and world.  But  space, i s very  use  viewer occupies in the  space of these p a i n t i n g s , unlike image of f i g u r e s  h e i r a t i c , a u t h o r i t a t i v e nature of high  f r o n t a l i t y of the  French poet Yves Bonnefoy:  esthetiques,  la frontalite  "real" frozen  burden of time.  the  opposition  space of  the  an  the  of Renaissance  shallow space and  toutes  statuary.  space that the  gives  pro-  in the Oath and  The  ing to the  f i g u r e s underart.  Accord-  "Dans le langage  signifie  I'eternel,  de par  a l a profondeur, par ou se r e i n t r o d u i t la  temporalite,  et le plan exprime l ' e t r e ou  1 intemporel." 1  guiding p r i n c i p l e  the  in a c t i o n f o r e v e r , r e l i e v e d of the  line  that were  a homogeniety between the  l i m i t e d and  paint-  used c l a s s i c a l  as  as the  of high a r t . '  Academic  of ancient  life-size,  f a c t o r , as well  postulates  the  only  they often were quotations  historically  subjects  geometric values  f i g u r e s not  f i g u r e s are often  an  proportion  ing used the proportions  The  as  v i s u a l environment of  classical  In matters of composition  portions  but a l s o  a l s o taught archae1ogica1 methods of  e x t r a c t i n g meaningful  accurate  not  The  I'essenee, b r e f ,  shallow space denotes the e t e r n a l  values  12  which the  subject-matter i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h i n . i t , I t at once  refers  to the  able  us  b a s - r e l i e f and  medium of stone.  We  the world of high a r t .  are  reminds us of the more dur-  thus d i s t a n c e d  In the  Apotheosi s, Ingres adds to  the  authority  of the  our  eye  corresponded to the  level  where the  figures  painting  are  in time from  by asking  us to look up as i f  bottom edge of the  cut o f f at the  waist.  Neo-grec art.' remains high a r t in several It d i s p l a y s polished is  the  r e s u l t s of research  surface.  invisible.  i s often shallow.  The  quite  neo-grec a r t can  art  and  patriotism  authoritative F i n i , the aesthetic  Cock F i g h t ,  are  the  roses."  the  f i g u r e s are  most important.  i d e a l i z a t i o n of the  of the  highly  brush work the  space actually And  than an  neogrecs at Le  It i s high  The  subject-  self-sacrifice heroic  or  the  epicurianism.  f i g u r e , e t c . , have an  e t h i c a l one.  s t a t e , of the  to a c u l t of the  from p a l e t t e s  a  life-size.  subject-matter.  everywhere abandoned f o r  neo-grec a r t r e f e r s  the  i s i d e a l i z e d and  celebration  r e f e r s us to a c u l t of the  painting  colour,  e s p e c i a l l y morally e d i f y i n g ,  value rather  s a i d of the  e r u d i t i o n on  ways.  to H e l l e n i s t i c a r t f o r a c l a s s i c a l  except the  and  critical  background, i f i t i s not  of i t s everyday  in every way  matter i s not  in the  point  and  dominates the  human f i g u r e  flat  In The  justification  Line  canvas  Chalet,  High a r t proper  gods and  Beautiful. "...1iving  of t r a d i t i o n ; As  1ike  Gautier Sybarites,  of i r v o r y , crowning t h e i r heads with  In f a c t , ne"o-grec p a i n t i n g  has  a l l the  character*.;  13  istics  of genre p a i n t i n g  in a high a r t d i s g u i s e , or  vice  versa. Genre P a i n t i n g  During the  Although the  July Monarchy  Academy c e r t a i n l y valued h i s t o r y  painting  above a l l other kinds of a r t ; the notion  that  shunned genre p a i n t i n g  century i s something  of a myth. the  Painting  s o r t of p a i n t i n g  Rome contest,  in the  nineteenth  from c l a s s i c a l that one  had  i t completely  or b i b l i c a l  sources  to enter f o r the  a p r i z e which c o n s t i t u t e d  Prix-de-  "arrival"  and  competition which most Beaux-Arts' students entered. Granet and painting  D r o l l i n g , among others,  which was  owed a great realism  and  deal  executed  both p r a c t i s e d  in a h i g h l y  to seventeenth  A quick look at the  auction  realistic  style  mainly French, Dutch and  Flemish fetched  Flemish  large numbers in mid-century.  i f Gerome's ne'o-grec p a i n t i n g into a c l a s s i c a l  p a i n t i n g , which was must be  fairly  seen--although we  mold, he  Arsene Houssaye,  the young Gerome's conscious high a r t , or rather  is recasting  is not  healthy at the must be  salvaging  reviving time.  c a r e f u l not  intention what was  prices  >.  knew Gerome, wrote a book about Dutch p a i n t i n g  painting  1830s.  paintings,  respectable  8  So  that  rooms of P a r i s , a r e l i a b l e  t a s t e , shows that genre  who  But  I n s t i t u t e in the  i n d i c a t o r of fashionable  in f a i r l y  a  genre  century Dutch and  both became members of the  was  in 1846.^ genre genre  Instead  he  to exaggerate  here--to be  "reviving"  l e f t of i t at the  end  14  of the J u l y Monarchy. The s i t u a t i o n  of Academic a r t at t h i s time  examined — f o r the purposes of the two teachers who Delaroche  of t h i s  i s best  t h e s i s — by a d i s c u s s i o n  taught Gerome his t r a d i t i o n , Paul  and Charles Gleyre.  Ge'rome's Teachers  I: Paul  Delaroche  Ge'rome's most important teacher was Delaroche.  Delaroche's  p a i n t i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a highly p o l i s h e d , and therefore Academic, handling of t r a d i t i o n a l l y matter.  This s t y l e was  known as j u s t e - m i l i e u , an a p p e l a t i o n ^  that comes from p o l i t i c a l Philippe's favorite  romantic s u b j e c t -  terminology.  Delaroche was Louis-  p a i n t e r and f r i e n d ; and he came to rep-  resent in the world of a r t what L o u i s - P h i l i p p e stood f o r in politics.  The reign of L o u i s - P h i 1 i p p e was, in the words of  Alfred-Cobban ; "...so  lacking  in p r i n c i p l e  that  i t could  only be known by the month of i t ' s founding, as the J u l y Monarchy.^  Lou i s-Ph i 1 i p" pe ' s p o l i c y was an attempt  both the r i g h t and the l e f t  by f e n c e - s i t t i n g .  unfortunate that Delaroche's attempt with a l i t t l e it.  precise  drawing w i l l  But, as Nancy B e l l  It- i s ,  to please perhaps,  to temper romanticism  be f o r e v e r a s s o c i a t e d  with  pointed out, Delaroche's compromises  had a measure of success, whereas the king's did not: Delaroche was a p a i n t e r a f t e r the heart of L o u i s - P h i l i p p e , that monarch who v a i n l y stro/e to bridge over the gap between a r i s t o c r a c y and democracy, and to r u l e on the s o - c a l l e d j uste-frii1ieu system. What the king f a i l e d to do in p o l T t i c s , his f a v o r i t e p a i n t e r succeeded in accomplishing in  1 5  art...De1aroche class . 1 ' One  be came the i d o l  rather doubts  whether Delaroche's  correspond to the p o l i c i e s consciously.  of the middles t y l e was  meant to  of L o u i s - P h i l i p p e , at l e a s t  But most of the popular a r t i s t s  of t h i s  not period,  Delaroche, Ary S c h e f f e r and Horace Vernet, were a l l seen having solved the CI assic-Romantic c o n f l i c t . may  often  seem obscure  to c a r r y the burden i t was  to us--as  as  This c o n f l i c t  those terms have since  had  of German phi 1osophy--but at the time  quite c l e a r where c e r t a i n  for classicism, p o l i t i c a l  people stood.  Ingres stood  conservatism and t r a d i t i o n a l  values;  D e l a c r o i x and Hugo f o r a romanticism a s s o c i a t e d with republican and 1848  democratic  ideals.  The  were seen as v i c t o r i e s of one  r e v o l u t i o n s of 1830  s t y l e over the other.  the j uste-mi1ieu a r t of Delaroche was  i s , or course, i t s e l f  But there i s a s p l i t  p o l i c y of d e p o l a r i z a -  a t a c t i c of the  in Delaroche's a r t i s t  right.  personality.  His large hemicycle f o r the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, A r t i s t s of A l l Ages ( f i g .  The  2) i s c l e a r l y modelled on the  I n g r e i s t e formula of the Apotheos i s, and t h i s p a i n t i n g i s p l a c e d , how  c o n s i d e r i n g where .  could i t be otherwise.  Most of Delaroche's a r t d i f f e r e d d r a m a t i c a l l y from p u b l i c d i s p l a y of support f o r high a r t . Edward IV ( f i g .  So  seen as metaphorical  of and a p p r o p r i a t e to L o u i s - P h i l i p p e ' s tion—which  and  In The  this  C h i l d r e n of  3) the s t r o n g , even l i g h t of high a r t i s  eschewed f o r a dramatic c h i a r o s c u r o which probably was  meant  16  to suggest the dark depths The  theme i t s e l f  of Richard I l l ' s murderous heart.  i s Shakespearian  and t h e r e f o r e (by the  standards of the J u l y Monarchy) romantic. however, h i g h l y f i n i s h e d . brought  The d e t a i l s are picked up,  into sharp focus and dwelt  Nancy B e l l  The handling i s ,  upon.  Delaroche, as  w r i t e s , "was ever on the lookout f o r e f f e c t i v e  i n c i d e n t , and spared no pains to make sure of accuracy of 12 detail  i n costume and in f u r n i t u r e . "  wards d e t a i l  is a variation  on the academic i n s i s t a n c e on  e r u d i t i o n , although one c e r t a i n l y detail  This a t t i t u d e t o -  feels  that  Delaroche's  work l a v i s h e s a t t e n t i o n on o b j e c t s f o r t h e i r own  sake and not to make an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  point.  manner here must be d e r i v e d from Dutch  rea1ism--varnishes  and  furs.  rough  Delaroche's  And The C h i l d r e n of Edward IV came in f o r some  criticism  "...everything  from Gustave  account:  i s d i s c o u r a g i n g l y new: f u r n i t u r e , ' c l o t h i n g , 1 3  the faces themselves A realistic of Ingres.  Planche on t h i s  are new and have never  handling of d e t a i l  lived..."  invades even the work  As Robert Rosenblum has noted, Ingres had a  wide v a r i e t y of s t y l e s and subjects as h i s command. blum has advanced manner to s u i t  Gudule, Reciting  the t h e s i s that Ingres would change h i s  h i s s u b j e c t , Raphaelesque  a Crown, Northern  Rosen-  f o r his Virgin  with  l a t e Gothic f o r The Duke of Alba at S t .  or the model of c l a s s i c a l from the Aeneid.  statuary f o r Vergil  Rosenblum w r i t e s : . "Like a nine-  Figure  2  Figure  3  18  teenth century a r c h i t e c t , he [Ingres] was choosing a s t y l e most r e a l i s t i c  a c u t e l y aware of  that s u i t e d h i s s u b j e c t . "  1 4  I  9  n  r  e  s  w  a  s  in his p o r t r a i t s .  During the July monarchy, both the government and artists who  had to deal with a powerful  bourgeois c o n s t i t u e n c y  were weary of the endless debate:  Monarchy^ and who Orleanist had  chose  r h e t o r i c a l - - i t was  Empire,  a man  who r e p o r t e d l y  This choice seemed r a t i o n a l motivated  affairs  of the world.  buy and  collect  This r i s i n g  a r t , and  an.d  non-  by an urgent d e s i r e f o r a  s o c i e t y that would allow the a f f a i r s  they set that was  Republic,  as a compromise, L o u i s e - P h i l i p p e ,  claimant to the throne and  r e p u b l i c ideas.  the  i t was  of business to be the  bourgeois c l a s s began to  probably they and  the  tone  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r i s e of a kind of  p a i n t i n g that c e l e b r a t e d t h i n g s , and  p o s s e s s i o n s , the  visible  si gn s of wealth. So the nig lr :  such  kind  a r t and  of eclecticism we  genre  "experiments  painting--is  see the ne'o-grecs f a r from  innovating  practising rather  c h a r a c t e r i z e d most of the a r t of the J u l y 1 5  Monarchy as well  as the second  Empire."  Ge'rome always recognized his debt to Delaroche. life  he wrote that he himself belonged  Delaroche  had  "founded  ( C l a s s i c i s m and  I'ecole de bon  opposing  schools  T h i s , Gerome, assured his  reader,was the "School of Good Sense" not found  to the school which  by the side of these two  Romanticism).  Late in  But Delaroche d i d  sens, although he was  not unrelated  19  to  it.  1 7  Ge'rome' s Teachers  I I : Charles Gleyre  Ge'rome's contact with the ecole de bon his second Delaroche's in 1 844.  teacher, Gleyre. and  i t was  he who  Ge'rome's actual  ambiguous.  While  Gleyre had  Ge'rome was  his own  been a student of  r e l a t i o n s h i p with Gleyre remains  Ge'rome's notes on  only r e g i s t e r e d  three months in 1845.  through  took over the l a t t e r ' s s t u d i o  of p r a i s e f o r h i s beloved Delaroche, once.  sens was  His reason  his e a r l y years are  full  Gleyre i s mentioned only  in Gleyre's studio f o r f o r doing t h i s , was,  account, only in order that the might be  by  eligible  to compete f o r the Prix-de-Rome, which r e q u i r e d that con1o t e s t a n t s be r e g i s t e r e d He  did not win  in a recognized P a r i s i a n  the P r i x that year and never  j u r y apparently t o l d  him  f i c i e n c y of his f i g u r e s . of the nude--the end It i s important  private  again.  So he embarked on a year's The  his accounts  of t h i s t h e s i s .  de-  study  Cock F i g h t .  that he did not continue his s t u d i e s  time but returned to Delaroche  as a  f o r e r a s i n g the i n f l u e n c e of Gleyre  of his formative years are beyond the scope That  Gleyre was,  in f a c t ,  important  to  Gerome seems beyond q u e s t i o n . The Aubert  The  student.  Gerome's reasons from  tried  because of the  r e s u l t of which was  to note  under Gleyre at t h i s 19  that he f a i l e d  atelier.  members of Le C h a l e t , Toulmouche, Hamon, Picou,  and  Jobe-Duyal  were, along with  Gerome, a l l Gleyre  20  students.  In f a c t , i t has been put forward that neo-greci sm 21  actually originated Charles Clement's can f i n d - - a t  in Gleyre's s t u d i o .  Thumbing  through  catalogue of Gleyre's o i l p a i n t i n g  l e a s t two  one  p a i n t i n g s which--by d e s c r i p t i o n at  least--seem to be neo-grec i n s e n s i b i l i t y which were executed 22 before 1846, and thus before The Cock F i g h t . One of these p a i n t i n g s i s c a l l e d Lucrece and was the r e s u l t of a s e r i e s of  planned i l l u s t r a t i o n s  f o r Francois Ponsard's  play of the  23 same name. Just as Gerome's p a i n t i n g earned him the t i t l e " l e chef des neo-grecs", Ponsard's him the t i t l e  1843  " l e chef de 1'ecole de bon  was  close  far  as to l a b e l  to Ponsard, although we don't  brief traditions L'eco1e de bon  sens".  As Gleyre  know i f he went as  himself of the ecole de bon sens, we  reasonably expect that Ponsard w i l l  One  stage success earned  i l l u m i n a t e one of the  that informed the neo-grec movement.  sens  hundred  and f i f t y  years a f t e r  the f a c t the  ference between a j uste-mi1ieu and an ecole de bon sensibility  may  might  seem a l i t t l e r a f f i n e .  difsens  Both occupy  little  outposts on the vast wasteland of a r t h i s t o r y between the polar extremes really  of c l a s s i c i s m and  has to do with the stage, which  e a r l y nineteenth century was ism  romanticism.  and c l a s s i c i s m .  The  like  a battelfield  difference  Bon  sens  painting  in the  between romantic-  between Delaroche's a r t  21  and G l e y r e ' s , considered  in these terms, was that Delaroche  leaned towards the romantic while Gleyre leaned towards the  classic. ' The ecole de bon sens attempted to reform c l a s s i c i s m i n  order to crush romanticism. of  In t h i s aspect i t was an agent  the Academy and in 1845 Ponsard won  p r i x de trage'die, which had been  the I n s t i t u t e ' s  founded in 1831  (note the  date): "pour opposer une digue aux envahissements du 24  ^  romantisme." In  order to rescue c l a s s i c i s m  Ponsard and h i s f e l l o w  p l a y w r i g h t , Emile Augier (with whom Gerome  t r a v e l l e d to  Egypt in 1856) t r i e d what seems in r e t r o s p e c t to perform an impossible aestheticise  task.  They wished, l i k e  the c l a s s i c a l  ideal.  the neo-grecs, to  But they went f u r t h e r  than e p i c u r i a n i s m , they wished to tinge the c l a s s i c a l with s c i e n t i s m and.republican p o l i t i c s . biographer, Daniel fait  S t e r n , wrote: "La sagesse de Ponsard, i l  d'un e'picurien, au sens v r a i  L i t t r e was a f r i e n d Second  du mot, qui f a i t  dans l a volupte', mais 25  a l a moderation."  for  As Ponsard's  .'bien I'avouer, n ' e t a i t pas d' un sto'icien, mais  bonheur  (Stern  plutot  consister le  l a volupte lie'e a l a r a i s o n et  here quotes L i t t r e ' s  dictionary--  of Ponsard's and supported him iin the  Empire when h i s C h a r l o t t e Corday was banned).  example,  esprit  argued f o r " l e s d r o i t s  science et de l a r a i s o n  L ucrece,  i mpe'r i s sa bl e s de l a  contre l a s u p e r s t i t i o n et l a  fana t i sme." ^ 2  Ponsard, G l e y r e , and the young  Gerome were a l l a s s o c i a t e d  22  with  Sai nt-Simoni an  ideas.  Ge'rSme went as f a r as to lead a 27  petition  demanding the a b o l i t i o n  of marriage  If t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with Saint-Simonian not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t  to p u l l  the mythological  a c t i v i t y was France  who  would l a t e r  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a p i d  in c r e d i t and  be buyers  whose f i n a n c i a l  industrialization  to as a "utopian industrialization  the unique honor of being  socialist  thought  and a d i r e c t  ment of high c a p i t a l i s m  Cre'dit M o b i l e r , tended  built  Saint-  s o c i a l i s t " , believed (a word he c o i n e d ) ,  inspiration The  to the  develop-  t a s t e of men  railways and  founded  like the  toward not only the kind of p a i n t i n g  Gleyre and  Gerome p r a c t i s e d , but a l s o to-  wards the kinds of p a i n t i n g in the past that i n s p i r e d painters.  According  these  to A l b e r t Boime: "Among the various  schools represented  in the ..col 1 e c t i o n s of  around mid-century,  two  seventeenth  of  both a formative f i g u r e of  in France.  the P e r e i r e brothers who  that Delaroche,  bethat  during the Second Empire were Saint-Simonians.  strongly has  does  imagination  Many of the entrepreneurs  Simon, u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d  and  circles  o f f a high a r t h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , i t  introduced them to groups of men of t h e i r p a i n t i n g s .  1848.  Gleyre's or Gerome's p a i n t i n g s t y l e  yond, perhaps, i n h i b i t i n g i s necessary  in  entrepreneurs  stand out s i g n i f i c a n t l y  century Dutch and  eighteenth century  from the  rest;  French  27 painting." Although a revival  we  have to wait u n t i l  of something of the s p i r i t  the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s to see of eighteenth  century  23  French p a i n t i n g , neo- grec  p a i n t i n g , 1 i ke rococco  !  c e l e b r a t e d l e i s u r e , elegance and refinement. p a i n t i n g s would appeal reasons.  to t h i s r i s i n g  An important: f a c t o r  painting,  These kinds of  bourgeois f o r several  i s simply that t h i s  kind of  p a i n t i n g was c o n s t a n t l y appearing on the market as o l d aristocratic collections  split  up.  These s t y l e s  reminded  the new bourgeois of an o l d splendour which they wished to r e c r e a t e f o r themselves.  And as I have noted, the Dutch  r e a l i s m c e l e b r a t e d o b j e c t s and was thus suited of men devoted  to the a c q u i s i t i o n  of wealth.  This c l a s s of men, e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d u s t r i a l i s t s , were i n t e r e s t e d a p o r t r a i t of h i s f r i e n d organized the Delaroche Arts  in 1 8 5 7 .  to the t a s t e s  Saint-Simonian i n -  in the a r t s .  Delaroche painted  Emile Pe'reire and i t was Pe>eire who r e t r o s p e c t i v e at the Ecole des Beaux-  28  Ne'o-grecisme, when i t a r r i v e d on the scene, had a readymade and immediate audience  in these s o r t s of men.  The  climate i n the a r t s at the Salon of 1847 was one of boredom and  impatience.  painting  Salon v i s i t o r s  seen a good  f o r several years and e a g e r l y awaited  long promised  history  Couture's  Romans of the Decadence, which was the l a s t  major h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g andre  hadn't  to e x c i t e the p u b l i c .  And when Alex-  Dumas saw The Cock Fight he exclaiimed:  "One breathes  29 free 1y again before such works as t h i s . " Planche  Both Gautier and  used words 1ike , " f r a i c h e " , "calme",  to d e s c r i b e Gerome's f i r s t  painting.  Indeed,  "simplicite", Gerome himself  24  prided  his work on those  points:  At t h i s epoch--I speak from a general point of v i e w — t h e r e was a complete absense of simpl c i t y E f f e c t (1e ch i c) was i n great favour when accompanied by s k i l l , which was not i n f r e q u e n t . And my p i c t u r e had the s l i g h t merit of being painted by an honest young f e l l o w , who, knowing nothing had found nothing b e t t e r to do than lay hold on Nature, and f o l l o w her, step by step, without strength perhaps, without grandeur, and c e r t a i n l y with timi d i t y , but with s i n c e r i t y . 3 0 :  Le c h i c i s d i f f i c u l t and  to d e f i n e , but given what The  Fight looks  like,  given  that Gautier and  Delaroche's  p a i n t i n g s , J_e_ c h i c probably  Planche both  meant an  amount of melodrama on an a l t o g e t h e r too s l i c k might note that Ponsard's Lucrece  was  greeted  "simple".  later write: l e n t en  And "On  surface. with  the same  a salue' dans l ' a r t  the Salon  eager f o r novel  situation  de M.  Ge'rome, 1'equivaPonsard-  styles.  i t s e l f which created a climate  It was  an annual  the p u b l i c demanded the novel  public spectacle  but not the  Ge'rome's neo-grecisme was  an ingenious  if  move that Courbet was  i t was  "calm"  3 1  It was  and  One  Gerome's f r i e n d , F r e d e r i c Masson, would  peinture de l a re'action l i t t e r a i r e ,  Augier."  hated  excessive  words of p r a i s e as Ge'rome's neo-grec p a i n t i n g , " f r e s h " , and  Cock  not the r a d i c a l  radical.  move in t h i s  situation  s h o r t l y to  ma ke. Thus f a r I have discussed  in f a i r l y  place of neo-grec p a i n t i n g in t r a d i t i o n kind of audience that r e c e i v e d i t . it  f o r i t s own  sake and  Gerome presented  decipher  general and  But one  terms the  sketched  the  must a l s o examine  the meanings of the  in the neo-grec works.  out  images  25  The Cock Fight It in  i s f a r from c l e a r that Ge'rome a c t u a l l y  mind when he painted The Cock Fight  Rather, one might j u s t as e a s i l y  (see above quote, p.14).  suppose  that i t was the  success of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a i n t i n g which more of the same.  had a programe  led him to produce  There was also the encouragement  of G a u t i e r ,  whom Ge>6me met while the l a t e r was gazing, rapt with admirat i o n , at h i s f i r s t  painting.  That The Cock Fight was an attempt to merge two or more manners of p a i n t i n g  i s a l l the more evident by i t s f a i l u r e  to  achieve a blend between them.  to  s t r i k e a note between  inspired divided  Gerome apparently wished  Ingreist classicism  r e a l i s m of Delaroche.  and the Dutch  The p a i n t i n g emphasizes  concern rather than hides i t .  Champfleury  this  noticed  t h i s and chided h i s f r i e n d , G a u t i e r , f o r o v e r l o o k i n g what he considered to be a s e r i o u s flaw in the p a i n t i n g : ...vous, G a u t i e r , vous admirez beaucoup l e s coqs, mais i l s ne sont vus par l e mdme o e i l , qui a vu l e s enfants....Les jeunes Grecs sont en marbre, l e s coqs s./oimt en c h a i r e t en os? l e s personnages sont peints -d'apres l e proce'de' Gleyre, les animaux d'apres nature.32 However, the personnages  do not quite i n h a b i t the same  world, despite what Champfleury slight  but s i g n i f i c a n t  interest.  might t h i n k , and t h i s  i s of  The boy has an almost  palpable sensuousness, and although he i s perhaps a l i t t l e too  beautiful  f o r t h i s world, he i s not d i s t u r b i n g l y  apres nature than the cocks.  The g i r l ,  less  on the other hand,  26  with  her h a i r set in glue and her limbs of white  pears  stone, ap-  to have f a l l e n , somewhat the worse f o r wear, from the  a n g e l i c world  of Ingres.  Poised next to the b i r d s , which  could have popped out of a seventeenth i n g , she exhausts  our c r e d i b i l i t y .  century Dutch p a i n t -  In many ways, t h i s p a i n t -  ing sets the tone f o r Gerome's e n t i r e output.  The vast  majority of his white women are o v e r - i d e a l i z e d  compared to  t h e i r environments,  whereas men and women of other races are  more n a t u r a l i s t i c . And his d e p i c t i o n s of animals haps the most n a t u r a l i s t i c some way, t h i s  are per-  passages in h i s p a i n t i n g s . In  h e i r a r c h y of r e a l i s t i c  treatment  according  to sex, race and species i s a r e s u l t of his attempt realistic  classical  genre p a i n t i n g .  The female  to make  nude was  more r i g o r o u s l y guarded by the canons of high a r t than were men  or animals.  occupies  Ingres paints her as La Source  and she  the highest place on the a l t a r of the worshipper  of Beauty.  She i s the very mediatrix between the Ideal and  the r e a l , she i s the angel who informs high a r t . body, l a 1i gne direct  Upon her  draws the curves and proportions that also  the course of the s t a r s .  In The Cock F i g h t , Gerfime an anecdotal  has placed h i s ideal  r a t h e r than a d i v i n e circumstance,  a c o n c e i t rather than  a theme with  c o n c e i t has something to do with Behi ndi tJhe.'f i gures  nude in  i n v o l v e d in  some grandeur.  This  " l a vanite' de toute gloirre."  stands what i s e i t h e r a tomb or a d r i e d up  fountain which f u n c t i o n s as a symbol of death  or s t e r i l i t y .  27 This the  i s meant to c o n t r a s t with the bloom of the youths lively  b a t t l e of the b i r d s .  constrained,  although i t might t i r e one  template the t r a n s i e n t and and  love.  In other words, one  Again, the  than e p i c and  to do  theme i s l y r i c  i s real  and  sentimental  c h i l l i n e s s beneath the  f o r us to detect  t h i s , but  like  a l l possible  s t o r i e s and  brought under d i s c u s s i o n .  early  so, to con-  ephemeral nature of youth, beauty  l y r i c i s m of t h i s Mediterranean afternoon. in 1847  f a r from being  One  It may  preference  calm be  i m p l i c a t i o n s of an  hard  receives  atypical:  image were  a s l i g h t j o l t when  The "The  Cock F i g h t , but subject was  in his h i s t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Ge'rSme, who  a decided  rather  p a i n t i n g s were read much  Sarah T y t i e r ' s commentary on  view was  is  heroic.  However, there  reading  and  her  this  has  shown  f o r i n c i d e n t s in themselves h o r r i b l e or  33 morally  repulsive"  have been very But  one  obviously  finely  can  indeed. g e t t i n g at.  from seventeenth and  of l o w - l i f e , i s f a i r l y  dreamy p r e s e n t a t i o n , high  honed  T y t i e r ' s sense of d e l i c a c y must  see what she was  a steal  depictions  Mrs.  The  eighteenth 34  bloody.  And  which in e f f e c t t h r u s t s  doing, they are  peasants who  icons of ideal  century A  Gerome's  l o w - l i f e into  a r t , tends to accentuate the moral horror.  these youths are not  subject,  After a l l ,  don't know what they  beauty and  are  ought to be more  responsible. The  d i a l e c t i c of d e s i r e that The  becomes an  unintentional  Cock Fight  hommage to sadism.  portrays  Although  the  28 girl  seems to draw back from the cock f i g h t - - t h a t  i s i f her  gesture can be read as anything other than a t r i b u t e to Ingres' Comtesse d'Haussonvi11e--her  face e x h i b i t s  neither  alarm nor squeamishness, none of that "feminine" h y s t e r i a one might have expected from such a s u b j e c t . c o o l , calm and d e 1 i b e r a t e - - i n she smiles i t i s a coy the  boy's face we  full  possession of h e r s e l f .  grimace of sexual w i s t f u l n e s s .  f i n d open d e l i g h t and wonder.  which animates h i s face i s s c i e n t i f i c  combines the  sexual  birds.  girl  coyness with a  life  In f a c t , the i n t e r a c t i o n  i s mediated by the cock f i g h t .  the  young  man's expression  the  birds--that  The  and  On  ani-  The Cock Fight death s t r u g g l e of  between the boy and the Imagine  is directed  f o r a moment  at the g i r l  i t i s his bold ardour she t e a s i n g l y  away from and not the b i r d s .  If  passion  (a passion which  mates Ponsard's characters on the s t a g e ) . r  Rather she i s  The actual  and not backs  cock f i g h t , so  p l a c e d , becomes a commentary on the nature of d e s i r e . Indeed, most of Ge'rome's neo-grec p a i n t i n g s have something to do with d e s i r e , although they are s u r p r i s i n g l y in  other meaningful ways as w e l l .  Gerome's Other Neo-grec The  Female  Paintings:  Nude as an Icon of High Art  Throughout of  rich  h i s neo-grec works Gerome developes the theme  d e s i r e , and in c e r t a i n  p a i n t i n g s he uses t h i s theme to  make a point about the nature of h i s a r t .  29 Among the more s u c c e s s f u l  of these p a i n t i n g s  Phryne Before the Areopagus of 1861 difficulties overcome. The  ( f i g . 4).  The  stylistic  which marred The Cock Fi ght had by now  But the tension  magistrates are t r e a t e d more r e a l i s t i c a l l y , the di scomfor t.that t h i s might  nude.  outright  he steers  caricature.  propriate  have caused  Of course, t h i s treatment  to the story of the p a i n t i n g , and  grimaces.  i s most ap-  in turn  the nar-  the p a i n t i n g  used to unfold i t .  Gerome has depicted  the Greek courtesan, Phryne, at  that moment in her t r i a l capital  f o r impiety--which was  then a  charge — when her advocate, Hyperides, r i p s o f f her  peplos in a l a s t - d i t c h And,  by  the p a i n t i n g p e r i l o u s l y close to  r a t i v e of the p a i n t i n g i s a commentary about styles  The  but Gerome has  the use of broad exaggeration in t h e i r gestures and In doing t h i s  been  between two worlds of a r t remains.  f i g u r e of Phryne i s an i d e a l i z e d , c l a s s i c a l  mitigated  i s his  so Athenaeus t e l l s  spectacle  attempt  to secure her an a c q u i t t a l .  us, the judges were so moved by the  of her p h y s i c a l  beauty  they could  impute no  pos-  35 sible  crime to her. The s t o r y ' s  has a power and  c l e a r moral p u r i t y and  gods i t i s t h e i r g i f t and  message i s that p h y s i c a l  that rather sign.  than o f f e n d i n g  beauty the  But in his n a t u r a l i s t i c  treatment of t h i s moment Ge'rome has chosen of l u s t and not expressions which might  the  astonishment  i n d i c a t e that  magistrates are w i t n e s s i n g some theophanic occasion.  these For  30 this  reason many contemporary c r i t i c s  disturbing. isticly:  As an E n g l i s h  critic  found  the work a l i t t l e  wrote, not a l i t t l e  chauvin-  "Only a Frenchman would venture to depict the 36  carnal  d e s i r e which kindles the faces of the o l d judges."  Theodore Thore, and t h i s defended to  i s odd coming from  the man who  Courbet, wrote in a s i m i l a r v i e n :  the young! l a d i e s of P a r i s a d o l l  "M. G'erome o f f e r s  undressed  before  dis-  o r d e r l y , l i c e n t i o u s o l d s a t y r s , who smirk as though they had 37 a real woman before t h e i r eyes Like two s i m i l a r neo-grec 1859  f o r the f i r s t  time."  works, King Candaules of  ( f i g . 5 ) and Cleopatra of 1864 ( f i g . 6 ) , Phryne Before  the Areopagus d e p i c t s a moment of dramatic  devoi1ement.  Again, t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the female nude was considered by some to be too much; Ferdinand de L a s t e y r i e wrote of Cleopatra:  "Soon modest women w i l l 38  ome's p i c t u r e s . "  In t h i s c r i t i c a l  Gerome's courage, In version  not stop before M. Geratmosphere one admires  but Manet's simply takes one's breath away.  these three p a i n t i n g s , a woman, drawn in Gerome's of the Ingrei s t e . 1 i g n e , i s placed by a sudden gesture  into a c o n d i t i o n of nakedness.  In each  case the drama of the  p a i n t i n g centres on t h i s .unveiling. One  might suppose that Gerome has d e l i b e r a t e l y picked  these anecdotes  to d i s p l a y Academic bravado.  For he must  convince us t h a t , indeed, these beauties are s p l e n d i d enough to  cause  the commotions t h a t they do.  This f a c t o r might have  been uppermost in Ge'rome's mind, but the h i s t o r i a n must see  Figure  4  Figure  6  33 that by p i c k i n g such s t o r i e s Ge'rome has t e n t i o n a l l y or not, Ingres  had  in a discourse  about the Academic nude.  made the female nude, the l o c a t i o n par  of a demonstration of s k i l l e d awaken sexual  f e e l i n g s , but  1i g n e ought to transform with  involved h i m s e l f , i n -  a b s t r a c t Beauty.  draughtmanship.  The  nude might  in an Academic r e n d i t i o n the  these  The  excellence  f e e l i n g s into a r e l a t i o n s h i p  c e n t r a l place of the nude in the  Academic view of a r t i s demonstrated by the naming of nude s t u d i e s as acade'mi es. know) never painted examples we  Unlike  a solitary  Ge>6me (as f a r as I  nude f i g u r e .  are d i s c u s s i n g the context  great deal  of our  spectators  in the p a i n t i n g .  Gerome means these mirror  Ingres,  i s dramatic  attention., as viewers,  painted  And  In the  three and a  i s forced upon the  i t i s very l i k e l y  s p e c t a t o r s to be  images of the viewer of the p a i n t i n g .  that  unconfortable His gawking  r  areopagi'sts do The to the  of Daumier's l e e r i n g Salon  s i t u a t i o n s that the p a i n t i n g s portray are  of h u m i l i a t i o n becomes  in c o n d i t i o n s which tend  the Salon nature first  visitors.  analogous  s i t u a t i o n of high a r t e x h i b i t e d in the Salon.  gesture art  remind one  and  was  to erode i t s a u t h o r i t y .  s c a l e of a p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e .  time in modern h i s t o r y one  seen by a few  And  i t assumed  nothing  Before  Since the  f o r perhaps  f i n d s masses of people  that had  or the apparatus of the s t a t e . usually  a metaphor f o r the work of 39  opened to the p u b l i c in 1793,  ing at images in a context  Phryne's  to do with  the look-  religion  t h i s , a r t objects were  i n d i v i d u a l s at a time who,  speaking  34  figuratively,  contemplated  in a mode of perception  the object  and  engaged themselves  very much l i k e a r i t u a l .  Public a r t ,  in churches or p u b l i c ' b u i l d i n g s , whatever e l s e one about i t , was  at the s e r v i c e of an a u t h o r i t y and  from s e c u l a r s c r u t i n y or use  by the  may  say  protected  h e i r a t i c distance  of  that  authority. The  salon  was  the  beginning of the erosion  i t y of the work of a r t as a unique object century.  How  could  elevation  of mind that a p a i n t i n g l i k e  Homer requests  any  of him  The  of A p e l l e s  can  muster, and  a secular  1  not  dignified  Apotheosis of  1  before  l a r g e l y because there  their  Aphrodite of Knidos  Aphrodite R i s i n g from the Waves.  A l l they  i s a group of them in  i s the astonishment of l u s t .  A large  in the Salon  i s the i n -  of what happens when a work i s widely reproduced  photography or l i t h o g r a p h y , both cases the  "I-thou"  but  Salon.  a s i n g l e judge manages  number of people looking at p a i n t i n g s verse  nineteenth  required  response, although d i s p l a y e d  context,  author-  in the c i r c u s - l i k e hub-hub of the  eyes in the a c t u a l model f o r Praxi te.l es and  in the  viewer achieve the  In Phryne Before the Areopagists the appropriate  of the  by  the e f f e c t i s s i m i l a r .  In  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o b j e c t  the  viewer i s s e v e r e l y  disrupted  art  i s shaken by circumstances which are  f u n c t i o n as s o r t of a r i t u a l  and  object  the a u t h o r i t y of  and  high  i n i m i c a l to i t s  in a s e c u l a r , even i f  extremely profane, c u l t of the b e a u t i f u l . Phyrne Before the Areopagists  depicts  this situation  35 metaphorically. a p u b l i c who supported  GerSme places the  react i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  by the evidence  Slave Market ( f i g . 7 ) .  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s  of a much l a t e r p a i n t i n g , Roman  This p a i n t i n g , one  s i m i l a r works, i s s i g n i f i c a n t has  icon of high a r t before  because of the pose GerSme  used f o r his s l a v e , i t i s Phryne seen from the r e a r . Here  the gesture  i s c l e a r l y meant to be read as one  rassment and  humiliation.  the occasion  of the work was  the question. is found has  Again,  of acute  C e r t a i n l y a prime motivation  embarfor  to d i s p l a y Gerome's f a c i l i t y  drawing the nude f i g u r e , or academie.  she  of a number of  But  at  t h i s merely begs  the female nude, the icon of high a r t ,  in d i s c o n c e r t i n g circumstances.  In t h i s p a i n t i n g  become a commodity with a h i g h l y charged f e t i s h  in which the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the owner, or buyer  value,  and  the a r t o b j e c t i s t r a n s p a r e n t l y sexual. One  would not expect  in the terms in which l a m as c u l t u r a l  Gerome to think of these d i s c u s s i n g them.  documents because I expect  on Academic a r t in the nineteenth was  century  erosion  of the,-authority o:f'the high a r t image.  not the only f a c t o r  the advent of mechanical  Gerome' s- r e l a t i o n s h i p with  40 major e f f e c t on  the way  he  painted.  an efin the  Much more  reproductions t h i s new  them  launched  to have had  that a r t .  of a r t .  Salon  reading  the attack  f e c t on  d r a s t i c was  The  I am  paintings  of works  phenomena had a  Figure  7  37 Goupil e t Compagnie Mass:, reproductions July Monarchy.  One-of the e a r l i e s t  this  commodity was  1827.  There was  tions.  of p a i n t i n g s began j u s t before  Goupil  For example, in the  c o n t r a c t with  Goupil  f r a n c s in r o y a l t i e s  In 1871  which was  l u c r a t i v e market f o r 1840s  founded in reproduc-  Charles Landelle signed a  f o r the f i r s t  reproduce his work.  companies that d e a l t in  et Compagnie  a large and  the  o f f e r on the r i g h t s to  alone, Landelle r e c e i v e d 39,000  from the Goupil  f i r m , t h i s was  consider-  41 ably more than  a Landelle o r i g i n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  would f e t c h .  the company but  Rue  de C l i c h y .  business  Goupils  lived  next  door to the Geromes on  p r a c t i c e s were a l i t t l e  for royalties  works by those  questionable--but  of the Second Empire.  1870s the h e i r s of Vernet,  sued Goupil  In  1862  only the  seemed to have been a mercenary l o t whose  haps, by the standards in the  by G o u p i l , .  Marie Goupi1--Marie's brother, A l f r e d , not  ran  The  Gerome's  the company i s well known, almost a l l of  Ger8me's major p a i n t i n g s were reproduced he married  A  not,  per-  For example,  S c h e f f e r and  Delaroche  from, the s a l e of reproductions  of  a r t i s t s which were in p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n s .  A l b e r t Boime has  unearthed a l e t t e r which r e v e a l s the some-  what s o r d i d side of t h i s episode.  Goupil  seems to have engaged in b r i b e r y to do so. the superintendent  won  the s u i t ,  The  letter,  but from  of the Beaux-Arts to the f i r m , requests 42  that the company pay  the government's expenses in the  case.  38  The  theory being that  win.  i f one pays f o r a t r i a l  The naked commercial  when i t involved  aspect of a l l t h i s . e s p e c i a l l y ,  h i s own family a g a i n s t h i s beloved  must have d i s t u r b e d volved  Ge'rome.  in the mechanical  It brought  Delaroche,  home what was i n -  reproduction of works of a r t .  The reproductions were commodities, The  one ought to.  pure and simple.  unique work of a r t , although bought and s o l d ,  always  could count on being somewhat a l o o f from the f a t e of the commodity.  E v e n t u a l l y the work of a r t would p a r t i c i p a t e  tradition  of ownership  place of mass produced by an o l d master,  which l i f t e d items.  say Leonardo  the  i t out of the market-  And in the case of a p a i n t i n g or Raphael,  these o b j e c t s were  hors de commerce, and even in the nineteenth century i t was impossible  to imagine a f f i x i n g  reproduction  divested  a p r i c e to such r a r i t i e s . The  the work of a r t of t h i s t r a d i t i o n and  i t s aura of being a unique o b j e c t in the world. tion  i s not unique  The reproduc-  i n time or p l a c e , the viewer or user does  not meet i t on i t s own t e r r i t o r y , rather the work of a r t enters the viewer's time and.place, where i t can c l e a r l y have no r i t u a l  authority--no "rareness".  This s i t u a t i o n , along with changing  factors  in t a s t e ,  which were d i s c u s s e d above, changed the way a p a i n t i n g As Walter Benjamin observed:  looked.  "To an even g r e a t e r degree the  work of a r t becomes the work of a r t designed f o r reproduc43 ibility." less  The unique work takes on the f u n c t i o n more or  l i k e a mold in a f a c t o r y , o r , more t e l l i n g l y ,  l i k e the  39 negative of a photograph. rn i 1 ieu and ne'o-grec  This f a c t o r  styles.  lies  behind the j us t e -  They were o s t e n s i b l y  compromises in the b a t t l e between c l a s s i c and  willing  romantic  and between i d e a l i s m and r e a l i s m , . b u t they were a c t u a l l y forced  into being what they were.  Delaroche was painting  The  real ism.of .Vernet and  p r e d i c a t e d p a r t l y by a d e s i r e  using a h i g h l y f i n i s h e d  an abandonment of t r a d i t i o n a l presentation.  to temper  s u r f a c e , and was  romantic  thus  also  high a r t subject-matter and  I t i s no a c c i d e n t that the high a r t format  seems untenable at that moment when the a u t h o r i t y of the unique work of a r t becomes questionable in terms of the reception  of images.  Nor  i s i t a c o i n c i d e n c e that a  public  realistic  handling of romantic subject-matter comes at the same time as mechanical  reproduction.  production  process demanded that the image be c l e a r and  ible. to  At t h i s  reproduce  One  can e a s i l y  see that the r e -  stage in i t s h i s t o r y t h i s process was  the e f f e c t of c o l o u r or brushwork and  thus redundant f o r the purposes Ge'rSme was  then caught  leg-  unable  they were  of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y .  in a double  arch defender of Academic a r t and  bind.  He was  his p a i n t i n g  style  the was  meant to curb the d e c l i n e of high a r t by r e i n v i g o r a t i n g i t . He  could hardly be expected  and Goupil and  to have known that the Salon  Company were the f o r c e s behind t h i s  and not r e a l i s m and  impressionism, two  decline  s t y l e s which, f o r a  time, d i d rescue the a u t h o r i t y of the unique  object.  40 The Ne'o-Grec "Fashion" and the "inte'rieur" The School that Gerome founded  in 1847  ( i f we do not  give Gleyre and Ponsard previous c r e d i t ) was fairly  small  group of p a i n t e r s .  and thus f a r the whereabouts  limited  to a  Their works i s rare  today,  of the most famous ne"o-grec  work by a p a i n t e r other than Ge'rome, Hamon's Ma soeur n'yest pas i c i  ( f i g . 8 ) remains  unknown.  The'ophile Gautier  wrote  "ne'o-grec" poems and his version of the King Candaules story probably i n s p i r e d ject.  the Gerome p a i n t i n g of the same sub-  The high point of the fashion was  architecture.  Prince Jerome Napoleon  " peian house in 1856.  1  i t s appearance in  began work on a  Pom.^  Gerome and Cabanel were commissioned  do some wall panels, and the former's Inten'eun' grec hung in the completed pompeian  (fig.9)  house as not only an image of the  i n t e V i e u r but as an image of l i f e  terieur. A painting  to  w i t h i n the i n -  by Ge'rome's f r i e n d , Gustave  Boulanger,  d e p i c t s the atrium of the Prince's mansion during a r e h e r s a l of Emile Augier's bon (fig.10).  sens or ne'o-grec p l a y , The Lute Player  Among those represented are G a u t i e r , Augier him-  s e l f and the P r i n c e ' s m i s t r e s s , the a c t r e s s Rachel the s u b j e c t of one of Gerome's few p o r t r a i t s  (who  in which  was  she  appears dressed h 1 a ne'o-grec) . The neo-grec f a s h i o n - - i f stage of a fashion--seems  i t ever r e a l l y  reached the  to have died out s h o r t l y  thereafter  and the bored Prince sold his house in 1865, a f t e r a scant seven years of somewhat scandalous use.  Figure 9  42 The  Pompeian house must r e a l l y be seen in the  of several other  concurrent  his house others  built  f o r extravagant  fashions.  While the Prince  similar, period f a n t a s i e s .  i n t e r ieurs: should  The  built  vogue  be a seen as a s o c i a l  phenomena  which the neo-grec sty!e was  nineteenth  century  on  context  a part of.  parvenu boougeois l a v i s h e d t h e i r  the c r e a t i o n of i n t e r i e u r s , s t u f f e d with  In  the  wealth  e x o t i c a and  art,  and  ofteni,: as in case of. Prince Jerome, the e n t i r e decor  was  a fantasy world. Walter Benjamin has  c t i o n of the  these  astute  remarks about the  inte'rieur in the nineteenth  fun-  century:  With the J u l y Revolution the bourgeois had r e a l i z e d the aims of 1789 (Marx).... For the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , f o r the f i r s t time the l i v i n g s p a c e became d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the place of work. The former c o n s t i t u t e d i t s e l f as the i n t e r i o r . The o f f i c e was i t s complement. The p r i v a t e c i t i z e n who in the o f f i c e took . r e a l i t y i n t o account, r e q u i r e d of the i n t e r i o r that i t should support him in his i l l u s i o n s . . . . From t h i s sprang the phantasmagorias of the Interior. This represented the universe f o r the private c i t i z e n . In i t he assembled the d i s t a n t in space and in time.... The i n t e r i o r was the place of refuge of a r t . The c o l l e c t o r was the true i n h a b i t a n t of the i n t e r i o r . He made the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of. things his concern. To him f e l l the task of Sisyphus which c o n s i s t e d of s t r i p p i n g things of t h e i r commodity character by means of his possession of them. But he conferred upon them only a f a n c i e r ' s value, rather than a use value. The c o l l e c t o r dreamed that he was in a world which, was not only f a r o f f in distance and time, but which was a l s o a b e t t e r one, in which to be sure people were j u s t as poorly provided with what they needed as in the world of everyday, but in which things were f r e e of the bondage of be i ng u s e f u l . Several  of Gerome's neo-grec p a i n t i n g s c e l e b r a t e the e x o t i c  43 inte'rieur, notably the Inte'rieur grec, King Canduales,  and  Socrates Seeking A l c i b i a d e s at the House of Aspasia ( f i g . 11 ) which i s s o r t of a hommage to the eternal p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t domestic never-never  scenes and domestic events  land of the l e i s u r e d  as Ponsard's  salon. Neo-grec  plays emphasized  c l a s s of a n c i e n t times  the importance  by "1'abondance et 1 'importance  in the  of the  just  inteVieur  des scenes domestiques, l a Ac  maison, l e f o y e r , l a fami l i e . . . " The opulent homes and a r t c o l l e c t i o n s of A l b e r t G o u p i l , the P e r e i r e b r o t h e r s , P o r t a l e s and others r e f l e c t cultural  event as d i d the P r i n c e ' s neo-grec  G i r a d i n ' s Roman p a l a c e , the Marquis  this  house, Emile de  de Quisonas'  Gothic  ^ c a s t l e , Jules de Lesseps.' T u n i s i a n chateau, and Mme. 46  Paiva's  Renaissance  hotel.  to  t h i s world of e c l e c t i c co 11 e c t i n g .and f a n t a s y .  The  immitate  The homes of a r t i s t s  new  amount of b r i c - a - b r a c from  that Zola had  stuffed  and w r i t e r s  tended  the four corners of the globe  into h i s house at Medan shocked  the  a s c e t i c Ce'zanne, who immediately i d e n t i f i e d Zola's crammed / . 47 i n t e r i e u r with parvenusim and bourgeois P h i l i s t i n i s m . The contents of A l b e r t Goupil's house merited two lengthy 48 • a r t i c l e s in Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Gerome's house was similarly  rich  Ge'rome in 1 884  in c o l l e c t e d  objects.  M.H.  Speilmann  and has d e s c r i b e d the p a i n t e r ' s C l i c h y  visited studio:  The antechamber forming the h a l l was f i l l e d a la C h i n o i s e and f i l l e d with bronzes, ornaments, china, b r i c - a - b r a c of every kind, with b r i l l i a n t s t u f f s and shaggy frowning masks--and every o b j e c t  44  Figure 10  Fi gure 11  45 p e r f e c t of i t s . c l a s s .... carpets , h a n d r a i l s , s t a i n e d - g l a s s windows, musical instruments, bronze pagodas and dragons, and s u i t s of armour, bewildered the v i s i t o r with t h e i r v a r i e t y and p r o f u s i o n . Amid t h i s i s the man who w i l l be best remembered f o r his modern antique sculpture!9  Gerdme's p a i n t i n g s emerge  from t h i s  place and are a  product of i t as much as anything e l s e .  As Benjamin  observed,  the i n t e r i e u r was an extension of the i n t e r i o r of i t s owner or i n h a b i t a n t .  Arsene  Houssaye, who  bought the Pompeian  house with J u l e s de Lesseps, has given us a poem which c e l e brates the deep s p i r i t u a l  rapport that could take place be-  tween the owner of a house and i t s decor, the o b j e c t s which constituted  the l i f e  of the i n t e V i e u r .  to a sphinx which was facing  The poem i s addressed  in the atrium (probably behind  the pond in the Boulanger  the plant  painting):  Rabbin, prophete, o r a c l e , brahme, Les s i b y l i e s de l a f o r e t , L'eau qui chante, le vent qui brame, Ne m'ont jamais d i t le s e c r e t . --0 sphinx, daigne m'ouvrir ton l i v r e A 1 a page de 1 a Ra i son : --C'esJ dans sa MAISON q u ' i l faut v i v r e , La FENETRE sur 1 h o r i z o n , 1  La MAISON, c'est mon corps. La j o i e Y f l e u r i t comme un pampre v e r t . La FENETRE ou l e j o u r flamboie* C'est mon ame--le c i e l ouvert.^ This poem's e c l e c t i c concern  stance  to employ d i f f e r e n t  is similar  styles  to the neo-grec  to a s i n g l e end.  46 King Candaules and The  Decline Gautier  of had  ( f i g . 1 2 ) : of 1840  Antiochus and  Neo-Classicism thought that had  of Le  to hear the young Gerome and see  why  Gerome and  Straton i ce. of the ing  ed  but  replaces  one  art.  the  calculated  Stratonice  The  of  but  realistic  by  quotation paint-  The  absorbed in  is f i r m l y ground-  anxiety  calm and  is substituted  Ingres has  amid passion  with p r i d e , a n x i e t y , of  are  Ingres p a i n t i n g  of the n a r r a t i v e are  of the  king  rather  f o r the  haunting  and  vastly  different  d e a l t with i n -  that approaches madness. actions  not  of  self-  self-interest. must admit that the  of S t r a t o n i c e  transformation  One  Stratonice.  self-sacrifice  However, one  The  art.  i s a neo-grec  In Gerbme's p a i n t i n g , the  presence of Nyssia  Gerome deals  classicism  in a p o s i t i o n  f i g u r e s who  although both stem from d e s i r e .  sacrifice  he was  neo-grec  would have been impressed  must remove the  implications  c e s t , and  f o r the  his f r i e n d s d i s c u s s  d e l i r i u m of Antiochus.  self-absortion The  Chalet  Stratonice  i t i s an overwrought c e l e b r a t i o n of an i n -  dramatic moment.  in high  inspiration  Gerome's King Candaules i s c l e a r l y a  i n s o f a r as  a high  Gleyre  Ingres masterpiece.  terieur,  Ingres' Antiochus and  been a key  movement, as a frequenter  can  Stratonice:  of the detail  used his a c c e s s o r i e s  authoritative  shows evidence of the  classical  i d e a l s of the  decline  or  French Academy.  i s almost overwhelming, yet to some p s y c h o l o g i c a l  neo-  Ingres  purpose.  The  has red  48 columns accent the passionate mood of the p a i n t i n g . "nervous,,  quivering f l u i d i t y "  serves as an of  of the drapery  image of the d e l i c a t e  Antiochus, who  hovers  The  patterns  f l u t t e r i n g s of the heart  somewhere between madness and  death  52 for  the unrequited  love of his step-mother.  By c o n t r a s t ,  Ge'rome's p a i n t i n g , in which worry r a t h e r than p o r t r a y e d , presents a Lydian own  passion i s  inte'rieur seemingly  for i t ' s  sake. B u f f e t e d by romanticism,  the Salon and  the advent of  '  mechanical  r e p r o d u c t i o n , and  and  of e p i c u r i a n l e i s u r e , n e o - c l a s s i c i s m seems in re-  scenes  the bourgeois ' t a s t e f o r r e a l i s m  t r o s p e c t to have been destined to turn i n t o ne'o-greci sme. " f r o z e n " e t e r n a l values that Academic p a i n t i n g t r i e d press  in i t s shallow  bration  of the  b a s - r e l i e f format  gave way  to  The ex-  to a c e l e -  i n te'r i e ur , that f a n t a s t i c and magical  where o b j e c t s are removed from the "burden of being  place useful".  49 Notes - Chapter  II  Gautier's review appeared in La Presse, 31 March, 1847. I quote from Charles Timbal, "Gerome," in the Gazette des Beaux A r t s , (2e s e r i e s ) , v o l . 14, 1876, p.219. 2  PI anche, in h i s , "salon of 1 84 7," Revue des deux mondes, v o l . 18, A p r i l , 1 867, pp.354-366 , r e f e r s to Ge'rome's "grace" and " f r a c h e u r " . p.363. 3 Couture s Decadence of the Romans won the f i r s t - c l a s s medal. The t h i r d - c l a s s medal was considered.a great honor, i f not a s i n g u l a r one, I don't have exact f i g u r e s f o r the Salon of 1847 but s e v e r a l medals of each c l a s s were awarded; each year, the average between the years of 1815,and 1848 being 33, 11 in each c l a s s . But c o n s i d e r i n g tUiat upward s of 4000 p a i n t i n g s were submitted to the 1 847 Salon' and of these h a l f accepted by the j u r y , to even be noticed, was considered a triumph. (This information from Harrison C. White and Cynthia A. White, Canvases and Careers: I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change in the French P a i n t i n g World, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 965.1 Table 5, p.48. 4 The extent and power of v a l u i n g e r u d i t i o n as a necessary v i r t u e in the a r t i s t can be demonstrated by p o i n t i n g to instances where i t occurs in the c r i t i c i s m o f - - s u r p r i s i n g 1 y enough--Thore" and B a u d e l a i r e . I give two examples from . c r i t i q u e s of Gerome p i c t u r e s . Thore' on Phryne Before the T r i b u n a l : "GerQme i s p r a i s e d as a learned a r c h a e o l o g i s t of a n t i q u i t y ; there i s nothing antique, nor above a l l , A t t i c , in t h i s wretched composition of Phryne. If the scene, such as the p a i n t e r has t r a n s l a t e d i t , had taken place during the period of the Roman decadence, which has c e r t a i n a n a l o g i e s with our own, i t would perhaps be a c c e p t a b l e . But, in Greece, in the 4th century before our e r a , i t i s a f a l s e i n t e r p r e tation." Thord's main c r i t i c i s m on t h i s score i s Phryne's gesture of p ude ur , which he f i n d s un h i s tor i ca 1 . Thore', not Ge'rome was mistaken in t h i s . (Quoted from Theophile ThoreBu'rger, "Salon de 1861," r e p r i n t e d i n Linda N o c h l i n , ed., Realism and T r a d i t i o n in Art 1848-1900, Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l 1 , Inc., 1 966 , p.12. Baudelaire on The Death of Caesar: "Caesar cannot be made into a Moor; his skin was very f a i r ; b e s i d e s , i t i s by no means s i l l y to r e c a l l that the d i c t a t o r took as much care of h i s person as the most r e f i n e d dandy. Why then t h i s earthy colour with which his face and arms are v e i l e d ? I have heard  50  i t suggested that i t i s the c o r p s e - l i k e hue with which death s t r i k e s the face. In that case how long a time are we to suppose i t is since the l i v i n g man became a corpse? Those who put forward such an excuse must r e g r e t the absence of putrefaction. ..." i "The Salon of 1 859 ," r e p r i n t e d in The M i r r o r of A r t : C r i t i c a l Studies By Charles B a u d e l a i r e , t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by Jonathan Mayne, New York: Phaidon Publisherslnc.,1955,p.255. 1  5  Yves Bonnefoy, "Le temps et 1 i n tempore! i dans l a p e m t u r e du Quattrocento," Mercure de France, f e v r i e V , 1958. As c i t e d by Michel Thevoz, "Peinture et I d e o l o g i e , " in K u n t s m u s e u m Winterthur, Charles Gleyre ou Tes i l l u s i o n s perdues, 1974-1975, p.79. 1  v  C.H. Stranahan, A H i s t o r y of French P a i n t i n g , New York; S c r i b n e r s , 1897, p.313. No source given f o r quote. Also: "They c o n s t i t u t e d a kind o f . a p o s t l e s h i p around Gerome of a r t i s t s of most d e l i c a t e c o n c e i t s , and formed in a r t 'a s o r t of l i t t l e Athens' in which Theophile Gautier fondly made himself at home." I b i d . , p.329. 7  Dr611ing in 1833,  Granet in  1830.  8 Three main sources f o r t h i s kind of information are: Charles Blanc, Le t r e s o r de l a c u r i o s i t e ', 2 v o l s . P a r i s : Jules Renouard,1857 - 1858; Gerald R e i t l i n g e r , The Economics of Taste: V o l . 1, The Rise and F a l l of P i c t u r e P r i c e s 1760-1960, London: B a r r i e and R o c k l i f f e , 1961; and White and White, o_p_. c i t. White and White have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y analysed the information in Blanc (which contains records of a l l Paris auctions from 1737 to 1857). C a t e g o r i z i n g the p a i n t i n g s by genre and n a t i o n a l i t y , the Whites have made some i n t e r e s t i n g Tables. According to t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n 37 percent of the p a i n t i n g s s o l d between 1838-1857 in Paris auctions were genre, as opposed to 30 percent f o r h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s and 33 percent f o r landscape p a i n t i n g s . Fortytwo percent of these p a i n t i n g s were French, 31 percent Dutch, 14 percent Spanish. In the same period the average p r i c e f o r a Dutch genre p a i n t i n g was 11,954 f r a n c s , as opposed to 3,867 francs f o r a French genre p a i n t i n g or. 6,191 francs f o r a Flemish genre p a i n t i n g . This demonstrates, I think, that not only were genre p a i n t i n g s popular, but Dutch genre p a i n t i n g s p a r t i c u l a r l y so;. .. 9  > ' Arsene Houssaye, H i s t o i r e de l a peinture de 11a flamande et c hoi 1 andai se P a r i s : F. "San to r i urn, 1 846 .  51 ^ A l f r e d Cobban, A H i s t o r y of Modern France: Volume 2: 1 799- 1 871 , Penquin Books: Harmondsworth, Middlesex,Engl and, 1965 , p. 131. ^ N a n c y B e l l (Mrs. A r t h u r ) , Representative P a i n t e r s of the XlXth Century, Sampson, Low Marston and Company, London, 1899, p.69. Ibid. 1 3 From Planche s "Salon of 1831," as c i t e d i n Grand P a l a i s , P a r i s , French P a i n t i n g 1774-1830: The Age of Revolution 1 974-1 975 ,p. 389. 14 Robert 1967, p.11.  Rosenblum, Ingres, Harry  N. Abrams: New  York,  15 Indeed, t h i s kind of p a i n t i n g occurs in the F i r s t Empire as w e l l . Robert Rosenblum d e s c r i b e s something, x a l Led the s ty 1 e troubadour, which were medieval scenes with a high f i n i s h : "Just as other students of David t r i e d to r e c o n s t r u c t with growing accuracy the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data r e l e v a n t to t h e i r scenes of Greek and Roman h i s t o r y , so too did these l i t t l e masters of the s t y l e troubadour--Richard, Jean-Antoine Laurent, Jean-Baptiste Vermay, P i e r r e - S y l v e s t r e Coupin.de l a Couperie-attempt to i n c l u d e a maximum of p r e c i s e information about costume, f u r n i t u r e and decor f o r the p e r i o d they i l l u s t r a t e d . " From, " P a i n t i n g Under Napoleon, 1800-1814," in French P a i n t i n g 1774-1830: The Age of R e v o l u t i o n , p.169. In h i s "preface" to Hering, 1892,  op.cit.  p.vi.  ^ S t r i c t l y speaking, I suppose, 13 'e'col e de bon sens, r e f e r s to a kind of w r i t i n g f o r the stage, but the stage and the world of p a i n t i n g were r e l a t e d - - b o t h d e a l t with s t o r y , gesture and tableaux, and often a movement in one are' would a f f e c t the other. The p l a y w r i g h t , Casimir Delavigne •wrote a play Les Enfants d'Edouard, 1883 i n s p i r e d by and dedicated to Delaroche. 1g "On my r e t u r n from I t a l y , I entered the a t e l i e r of M. G l e y r e , who had succeeded M. Delaroche. Three months of s t u d y nude f i g u r e s . " Quoted in Fanny F i e l d Hering, "Gerome," in The Century Magazine, v o l . 38, February, 1889, p.488. This i s his only r e f e r e n c e to Gleyre. (Note that although Gleyre had taken over Delaroche's s t u d i o when the l a t e r went to I t a l y  52 in 1843, Delaroche had turned over many of his students to Drolling.) This i s s p e c u l a t i o n , but perhaps Gerome blamed Gleyre f o r t h i s f a i l u r e to win the Prix-de-Rome. 1g Delaroche did not have an a t e l i e r , at t h i s time, but took his f a v o r i t e pupil on as an a p p r e c n t i c e , Ger3me claims that he worked almost a year on the former's Charlemagne c r o s s i n g the A l p s . Hering, 1 889 , o_p_. ci t. , p.363: "M. Gerome a dignement prof i te' .des lecons de M. Gleyre." Of course, Champfleury and Planche would have expected to see the lessons of Gleyre in Ger6me's work as he had entered his f i r s t Salon as a student of Gleyre. 21 By A l b e r t Boime in I n s t r u c t i o n of Charles Gleyre and the E v o l u t i o n of P a i n t i n g in the Nineteenth Century," in Charles Gleyre ou l e s i l l u s i o n s perdues, o p . c i t . p.104: "Under Gl eyre's i n f l u e n c e , Ge'rome and several f e l l o w students, produced many works of antique genre, and they were h a i l e d as a new school , the ' Ne'o-grecs ' ." 22 In "Catalogue des Ouvres de Gleyre," In Charles Gleyre ou les i l l u s i o n s perdues, o p . c i t . p.172: Number 42, Lucr^ce ea m i l i e u de ses femmes painted in 1843 or 1844 and Cleonis et Cydippe, given to Arsene Houssaye in 1845. 23 Referred to by A l b e r t Boime in h i s , "The I n s t r u c t i o n of Charles Gleyre and the E v o l u t i o n of P a i n t i n g in the Nineteenth Century," o p . c i t . p.104. Ponsard's Lucrece was f i r s t performed in 1 843. 24 From the i n t r o d u c t i o n by Daniel Stern to Francois Ponsard, Ouvres Completes, Vol.1, Michel Levy F r e r e s : Parts 1 865 , p.x i i i . 25 ... I b i d , -p.. xxxvi i T  Ibid,  p.xxviii  ""'Boime s t a t e s that Gleyre was a f o l l o w e r of Saint-Simon in a r t i c l e r e f e r r e d to above (a.21): "An ardent r e p u b l i c a n deeply attached to the S a i n t - S i m o n i s t s ( h i s a t e l i e r was eveni r e f e r r e d to as a " R e p u b l i c " ) , Gleyre f a n t a s i z e d about a utojjian s o c i e t y . " (p.102) Stranahan, op_. c i t. , p.313, says: "He [Ge'rome] . . . i n 1848, headed a d e l e g a t i o n to p e t i t i o n f o r the a b o l i t i o n of marriage.", a remark which has lead A l b e r t Boime in h i s , "JeanLeon Gerome, Henri Rousseau's Sleeping Gypsy and the Academic  53 Legacy," Art Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 34, 1971, p.22, n.14 to s t a t e : "Gerome, who seemed to have espoused Saint-Simonian ideas e a r l y in l i f e , . . . . " I would 1ike to b e l i e v e t h i s , since several things point to i t : the. brand, of-e.picurianism that was ne'o-greci sm was Saint-Simonian, many of the c o l l e c t o r s which Ge'rome knew and befriended were a l s o Sain.t-Simonians in varying degrees. However, j u s t because Stranahan says that Gerome headed t h i s anti-marriage d e l e g a t i o n , which would c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e r a d i c a l b e l i e f s , doesn't make i t so--she i s not a r e l i a b l e source. 28 A l b e r t Boime, " E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Patronage in Nineteenth Century France," in E n t e r p r i s e and Entrepreneurs in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century France, e d i t e d by Edward C. Carter II et a l . , John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press: Baltimore, 1 976 , p.140. 29 As  cited  in Hering,  1892,  op.cit.  p.19.  30 Gerome, as c i t e d  in Hering,  1889,  o p . c i t . , p.488.  31 Figaro  Frede'ric Masson, "J.-L. Ge'rome: p e i n t r e de l ' o r i e n t , " I l l u s t r e ' ; P a r i s , v o l . 12, no. 136, July,1901, p.8.  F r o m Champfleury, Salons: 1846-1 851 , 1894 e d i t i o n , p.105 As c i t e d by Michael C. Spencer,. The Art C r i t i c i s m of The'ophile Gauti e r , Geneva, 1 969 , p.57. 32  33 As c i t e d in Hering, 1 892 , o_p_. ci t. p.16. From T y t l e r ' s Modern P a i n t e r s and Their P a i n t i n g s . Hering f i n d s t h i s an "extraordinary accusation." 34 R e i t l i n g e r notes: "In the 1820's there was already a tendancy f o r m i d d l e - c l a s s gen re pi c t u r e s , s o f t in tone and f r e s h in c o l o u r , to gain ground from the grubby p a i n t i n g s of low company, which had been so popular in the eighteenth century among the c l a s s e s who were not o b l i g e d to meet the o r i g i n a l models" o p . c i t . , p . l 3 9 f . 35 Athenaeus XIII. 590e,f. (Loeb e d i t i o n ) 36 J. Beavington Atkinson, " E x h i b i t i o n s of the Year," Fine Arts Q u a r t e r l y , vol . 1 n. s., October, 1 866, p.364. 37 As c i t e d in Linda Nochlin(ed.) Realism.and T r a d i t i o n in A r t : 1848-1900, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 966 , p. 12f. From Thore'' s "Salon of 1861 ," in Le Temps and  54 r e p r i n t e d in Salons de W. BuYger: 1861 a 1 868, Thore", P a r i s , 1 870. 38„  vol  Review of the Salon of 1864 3, January, 1865, p.231.  p r e f . by T.  Fine Arts Q u a r t e r l y ,  39  Thore' a s s o c i a t e d Phryne's gesture with pudeur, but i f t h i s i s the case i t i s r e a l l y a r e v e r s a l of pudeur; she cannot bear to look or look at the A r e o p a g i s t s who are l o o k i n g , but she in no way t r i e s to avoid being seen, f o r her hands could certa i n ly been more u s e f u l l y deployed i f that were the case, I have t r i e d to f i n d a source in c l a s s i c a l or renaissance a r t f o r t h i s pose. Strahan (Shinn) claims that the pose i s a Ge'rome o r i g i n a l . At l e a s t we know that i s not so. The pose can be found in a Nadar photograph of the woman upon whom Murget based the c h a r a c t e r of Musette, ( f i g . 1 3 ) . 40 Although I am not f o l l o w i n g him to the l e t t e r , t h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s owes a great deal to Walter Benjamin's important essay, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in II1 urn in at ions', e d i t e d with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Hannah Arendt and t r a n s l a t e d by Harry Zohn, Schocken Books: New York; 1969. 41  This i n f o r m a t i o n from Boime, "Entrepreneurialo p . c i t . , p.199 , n.123. 42  Patronage,"  I b i d , p.200, n.124.  43 "The Work o f A r t in the Age of Mechanical o p . c i t . , p.224.  Reproduction,"  44 Walter Benjamin, Era of High Capi t a l i sm, 1973, p . l 6 8 f . 45  Daniel  Charles. B a u d e l a i r e : A l y r i c poet i n the t r a n s l a t e d by Harry Zohn, NLB: London,  S t e r n , o p . c i t . , p.  xi  46 Referred to in R i c h a r d s o n , o p . c i t . , p.225. Richardson quotes Gustave C l a u d i n : " A l l modern French a r c h i t e c t s s p e l l out and vaguely dream of a s t y l e which one be tempted to c a l l the Neo- Greco Go thi co-Pompacbur-Pompei an ." 47 ease  ' V o l l a r d quotes Cezanne as f o l l o w s : "I was not at my there any longer [Medan] with the f i n e rugs on the f l o o r ,  Figure  56 the servants and Emile enthroned behind a carved wooden desk. It gave me the f e e l i n g that I was paying a v i s i t to a m i n i s t e r of s t a t e . He had become (excuse me, M. Vol lard--1 don't say i t in bad part) a d i r t y bourgeois." Ambroise V o l l a r d , Paul Ce'zanne: His L i f e and A r t , ( t r a n s l a t e d by Harold L. Van Doren), Crown P u b l i s h e r s : New York, 1937, p . l 0 3 f . 48 Henri Lavoix, "La C o l l e c t i o n A l b e r t G o u p i l , " in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, (2e p e r i o d e ) , V o l . XXXI, p.322ff. and V o l . XXXII, pp.287-307. 49 Speilmann, o p . c i t .  p.202.  50 This poem, from the man who wrote a neo-grec pi ay, Les Danseuses de Pompeia, "presque tout I'act ou 1'on m e t t a i t en scene de tableau de Gleyre," i s _ p r e f a c e d by the f o l l o w i n g remarks: " J ' a i encore chez moi fesphinx de atrium. Ce beau sphinx semble garder le s e c r e t de 1 An t i qu i te'. Souvent je le questionne encore dans son i m p a s s i b l i 1 i t e . " Arsene Houssaye, Confessions, Tome V, P a r i s , 1891, pp;176-177. The poem c l e a r l y owes much to Baudelaire's notion of correspondences, but here mixed with a most un-Baude1 a i r i a n respect fo r " r a i s o n " . 1  51 The s t o r y of King Candaules i s found in Herodotus, Book I, 8-13 and i n G a u t i e r ' s Le Roi Candule which was s e r i a l ized in 1844. The s t o r y i s as f o l l o w s : Candaules, king of L y d i a , f u l l of pride in the beauty of his wife Nyssia, has ordered his r e l u c t a n t f r i e n d , Gyges, to hide in the royal bedchamber in order to see Nyssia d i s r o b e . But Nyssia sees Gyges l e a v i n g the room and r e a l i z e s what has happened; t h i s i s the moment which Gerome has d e p i c t e d . The next day, Nyssia gives Gyges a c h o i c e ; he may k i l l himself or defend her honour by k i l l i n g Candaules. Gyges became the next king of L y d i a . Besides the obvious comparisons that can be made between t h i s p a i n t i n g and Ingres' Straton i ce there i s a s i m i l a r i t y in the s t o r i e s . In Ingres' work, Antiochus l i e s p i n i n g f o r the love of his step-mother, S t r a t o n i c e . Antiochus' f a t h e r , r e a l i z e s the s i t u a t i o n and gives his wife to. his son. Both s t o r i e s have submerged homoerotic themes, in which the woman stands f o r some unresolved love between the-.men. One might a l s o note that Nyssia, l i k e Phryne and Cleopatra considered as an icon of high a r t , i s shown in the n a r r a t i v e as being on d i s p l a y . These n a r r a t i v e s are metaphorical of the s i t u a t i o n of high a r t in the nineteenth century Salon where the e x h i b i t i o n value of a work of a r t replaced the r i t u a l value. 52  Robert  Rosenblum, Ingres , op.  c i t.  p.137.  57 CHAPTER THE  III:  ETHNOGRAPHIC PAINTINGS  P a i n t i n g the o r i e n t had  been a part of French a r t f o r  some years before Ge'rome began to t r a v e l the mid his  fifties  on.  Napoleon had  Egyptian campaign  in 1798.  there r e g u l a r l y  taken a r t i s t s with him  Chateaubriand  his  1 802.  Hugo published his Orien t a l e s  Voyage en O r i e n t in 1835.  Vernet and who of  the nineteenth  the paths Delacroix  1  first  trip  de Mornay.  to Tangier  party of the new  was  to f o l l o w interests.  undertaken  ambassadorto Morocco, it:  "The  govern-  in A l g e r i a , and  (both avant-.garde  and  here  again  conservative)  mapped out by e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l ventures."^  b e l i e v e d that in the despot  their  Dionysius of Syracuse,  country to begin it:  half  the Second Empire .made great  Under the aegis of a group of French who  was  As A l b e r t Boime puts  of the a r t i s t s  artists  commercial  in 1832  to get Frenchmen to i n v e s t  the t r a i l  Lamartine  in the f i r s t  The,painters tended  ments of the J u l y Monarchy and efforts  life  that were opened up by French  as part of the o f f i c i a l the Comte  in 1828,  of the French  of middle-eastern century..  published  Decamps, M a r i l h a r t , G i r o d e t ,  D e l a c r o i x are j u s t a few  painted scenes  on  had romanticised  the east in his Genie du c h r i s t i a n i s m e , which was in  from  Saint-Simonians,  Mohammed A l i thay had  Egypt was  industrialization.  the f i r s t  found  non-white  As E r i c Hobsbawm puts  58 The e x t r a o r d i n a r y sect of Saint-Simonians, e q u a l l y suspended between the advocacy of s o c i a l i s m and of i n d u s t r i a l development by investment bankers and engineers, t e m p o r a r i l y gave him [Mohammed A l i ] t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e a i d and prepared.his plans of economic development. They a l s o l a i d the foundations f o r the Suez canal ( b u i l t by the Saint-Simonian de Lesseps) and the f a t a l dependance of Egyptian r u l e r s on vast loans negotiated by competing groups of European s w i n d l e r s , which turned Egypt into a centre of i m p e r i a l i s t r i v a l r y and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t r e b e l l i o n 1ater on. 2  Gerome never shows us t h i s first  Egypt,  voyage there, with Emile Augier  colony of European c a p i t a l i s m .  which by the time of his in 1857,  Instead  had  become a  he gives us the romance  of the o r i e n t , w a r r i o r s , harems, s t r e e t - s c e n e s of p r e - c a p i t a l ist  commerce, dancers,  Gerome's o r i e n t a l the s t y l e  desert nomads, and men  scenes  cannot  be c a l l e d  i s h i g h l y f i n i s h e d and one  at prayer.  Romantic p a i n t i n g s ,  always senses  are g e t t i n g something of a travelogue rather than are meant to s t i r  the heart with  graphic" p a i n t i n g s . of a n c i e n t l i f e , of the o r i e n t . with an  the ethnographic  adventure.  were so-cal1ed  "ethno-  works were genre p a i n t i n g s  If the neo-grec p a i n t i n g s present the in time,  image of the d i s t a n t  a r t values or any world  images which  As the ne'o-grec works were genre p a i n t i n g s  image that i s d i s t a n t  present an  that we  vague longings f o r  Almost two-thirds of Gerome's output  But  viewer  the ethnographic  in space.  Despite any  ones high  claim these p a i n t i n g s have to partake  of the Imagination,  they, much more than  the other  in a kinds  of p a i n t i n g Gerome produced, have--or • 'ha!d--a commodity status.  Although  Gerome employ.s  of the Academic a r t i s t ,  the techniques  and  skills  these p a i n t i n g s - - w i t h exceptions--  59 were not attempts for  to make high a r t , rather  the art-market.  several  There are l i t e r a l l y  stood out at the time and s t i l l  they were p i c t u r e s  hundreds of them; do as f i n e p a i n t i n g s .  However, Ge'rome seems to have had a mechanical wards them.  Looking through  them one  a t t i t u d e to-  sees the same models,  the same costumes and o b j e c t s , the same b i t s . o f a r c h i t e c t u r e --as  i f Ge'rome had abandoned any notion  originality finds  he may  have had of  f o r the l e s s e r demands of i n v e n t i v e n e s s .  it difficult  to b e l i e v e that many of these  One  paintings  meant anything at a l l to Ger6me, they are so r e p e t i t i v e . Just how  many times can one  transparently p i c t u r e s and  p a i n t i n g a dancing almeh--who i s  a Parisian grisette--beforeone not making a r t .  Whether they were s u c c e s s f u l historical is,  i s manufacturing  paintings  attempted  or not, the ne'o-grec  to achieve a t a b l e a u ;  a memorable image that would s t i k k not only  mind but the mind of the c u l t u r e . make no such a t t e m p t — w i t h morceaux--bits  and  pieces  that  in the  The ethnographic  notable exeeptions--and  and  viewer's  paintings are  rather  of a world that i s never d i s c l o s e d  3  in  its entirety.  But d e s p i t e  the mechanical  way  in which  Gerome put many of these p i c t u r e s together, or rather  because  of t h i s a s p e c t , the ethnographic p i c t u r e s are highly, i n t e r e s t ing,  e s p e c i a l l y as Ge'rome works out a new  paintings  through  way  of making h i s t o r y  his p r a c t i c e s as an ethnographic  artist.  60 The  Content  of Gerome's Ethnographic P a i n t i n g I:  Physiognomic  Types  Gerome's f i r s t  eastern voyage was undertaken  when the a r t i s t was twenty-nine Edmund Got (a s t a r of Arsene  year's o l d .  With the a c t o r  Houssaye's Comedie-Francais) ,  Gerome headed down the Danube to Moldavia from there to Moscow.  in 1853,  But the outbreak  intending to go  of the Crimean war  forced Gerome and Got to be detained at Galatz f o r two weeks before they could return to P a r i s . Gerdme sketched came h i s f i r s t  Russian  Having  s o l d i e r s , and from  these  sketches  ethnographic work, Recreation in a Russian  Camp ( f i g . 1 4 ) , which no doubt, 120 years' design on Canada's new f i f t y But Gerfime's specifically  l i t t l e to do,  intention  later  i n s p i r e d the  d o l l a r bank note. in making t h i s journey was not  to gather m a t e r i a l f o r an ethnographic  that such a p a i n t i n g fortuitous  resulted  painting--  from the journey was a  r e s u l t . o f circumstances.  Rather, h i s i n t e n t i o n  was to gather ethnographic m a t e r i a l , not f o r i t s own but as research f o r a p r o j e c t of quite a d i f f e r e n t Gerome had r e c e i v e d a handsome commission Francs), to do a large  sake,  order.  (20,000  (7x10 meters) ma chine from a passage  4 of  Bousset.  This was to be a large Apotheosis  ( t h i s p a i n t i n g has never been reproduced the storage f a c i l i t i e s Ge'rome t e l l s Apotheosis  of Augustus  and i s c u r r e n t l y in  of the Muse'e d'Amiens),  which as  us, was to be cast i n the high a r t mould of Ingres 5 of Homer.  This p a i n t i n g , which could be s t u d i e d  from Gautier's exhaustive d e s c r i p t i o n  of i t , has an i n t r i n s i c  61  Figure  14  62 i n t e r e s t as what would be Ge'rfime's tional  high a r t .  ing behind He  l a s t attempt at t r a d i -  But of even greater i n t e r e s t  i s the  GeV6me's voyage of research f o r t h i s p a i n t i n g .  had  undertaken h i s t r i p  in order to gather  or "physiognomies" f o r the p a i n t i n g .  Like other  "types"  nineteenth  century Europeans, Gerome b e l i e v e d that beyond the of Western Europe, peoplesj being t i o n , had  r e t a i n e d the customs  "untouched" by  and  racial  t h e i r ancestors f o r thousands of years. observed,  quelques-uns des  civiliza-  appearance of  As Charles  traits  descendants d'Aminius et de  leurs  Timbal  Chateaubriand  changed since New necessary  widespread.  And  Renan f e l t  not that i t  As Rocheblave has noted,  revived r e l i g i o u s  one's d i s b e l i e f  fairly  there to imbibe the atmosphere f o r  his book, La Vie de Jesus. in the o r i e n t  d'Attila  b e l i e v e d that P a l e s t i n e had  Testament times.  to t r a v e l  esperait  peres..."^  This a t t i t u d e about the o r i e n t was  was  borders  Ge'rome wanted to go to Russia because " i l  r e v o i r sur le visage des  Renan and  reason-  p a i n t i n g - - i f one  interest  suspends  long enough to consider Ary S c h e f f e r ' s p a i n t -  ings a "reviva1"--as the French  imagination  c o n f l a t e d the  o r i e n t opened up by c a p i t a l i s m with that of the B i b l e : J u i f s d'Alger, des Be'douins, des Armeniens ont depuis  l e u r s s i l h o u e t t e s autour  Je'sus, ou dans l e cortege  "Des  profile  de l a creche de l ' E n f a n t -  de 1'Entree a Je'rusa 1 em. "  7  For F l a u b e r t , modern T u n i s i a n s were a n c i e n t Phonecians f o r the purposes of the d e s c r i p t i o n of physiognomies in  63 Sa1ammbo.  Gautier summed, up the European a t t i t u d e  towards  these non-Europeans when he wrote ( i n a d i s c u s s i o n of Gerome's ethnographic work):  "The  since the time of Moses:  f e l l a h s and  Copts  have not changed  such as you  see them on the f r e s c o e s  of the palaces or tombs of Amenoteph, of Toutnes, Sesourtasen — s u c h  are they  D e l a c r o i x a l s o saw  today."  and of  Q  the a n c i e n t s in his Tangier:  Just think,...how wonderful i t i s to see walking the s t r e e t s or mending sandals, people e x a c t l y l i k e Roman consuls — C a t o, Brutus and t h e i r i l k — who have even the d i s t a i n f u l l a i r the masters of the world must have had in the great days of Rome.  q  Gerome's ethnographic portrayal  p a i n t i n g s were p r a i s e d  of the "types" or "physiognomies"  races of the east.  in the a r t of p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g  races, and of transforming i n t o powerful individualized  Gautier admired reason:  The  physiognomies." ^ 1  characteristic  of mixed b-lood,from  --so e x a c t l y observed pological  types the most proAnd  types — f e l l a h s ,  Copts,  Senaar and  Kordofan  that they could be used  t r e a t i s e s of M. S e r r e ' s . " process which.Blanc  and  Ge'rome used impression  The  the same models several interested  is rather  Did Ge'rome r e a l l y ,  question i s a d i f f i c u l t  that he was  in the anthro-  Gautier suggest  as Blanc would have i t , "transform" i n d i v i d u a l "types"?  from  11  odd and merits a c l o s e r examination.  into  The'ophile  Ge'rome's ethnographic works f o r much the same  "Different  Arabs, negroes  of the " a n c i e n t "  Charles Blanc wrote: "Gerome, among  other m e r i t s , has not his equal  foundly  for their  one  physiognomies to  answer.  times, thus g i v i n g  in a type.  the  But did he  64 choose a model because he thought that he or she was  typical--  or merely a s t r i k i n g  lean  individual?  towards the former p o s s i b i l i t y .  I think one  should  In Gerome's era i t was  common d i s c u r s i v e mode to e x t r a c t the. general cular  in any  partly  given  area of o b s e r v a t i o n .  from the  a parti-  This a t t i t u d e was  the r e s u l t of the enormous i n f l u e n c e of p o s i t i v i s m  which maintained one  process  and  regularities  that the methods of the n a t u r a l  of e x t r a c t i n g general  world--could  sciences-  laws, s i m i l i t u d e s ,  fromthe observable  events  of the n a t u r a l  be a p p l i e d to a l l areas of i n t e l l e c t u a l  activity;  12 h i s t o r y , philosophy, Ethnographic nineteenth  century  sociology, etc.  p a i n t i n g should fascination  Balzac p r i d e d himself on being  thus  beseen asr.a part .of the  f o r the t y p i c a l  able to p r a c t i s e that a r t of  the modern city-dweller., that i s the a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r and Writers l i k e  circumstances  physiognomy.  to imagine the  of strangers seen on the  street.  the Goncourts always i n c l u d e in t h e i r d e s c r i p -  t i o n s of p h y s i c a l appearances remarks which i n d i c a t e that they  felt  one  could "know" a man  Gerome's physica1 one  who  appearance and  wrote about him,  "...me p l a i t ,  energique,  bearing appealed  f o r he seemed in l i f e  the Bashi-bazouks he painted. Gerome:  through his physiology. to  to be  everylike  Edmond Goncourt wrote of  l u i [Ge'romeJ, avec son  sa f i g u r e cabosee son  physique  regard au grand  blanc,  e n f i n , avec toute la  cette physiognomie, qu'on d i r a i t , h e l a s ! 13 physiognomie d'un t a l e n t farouche." (compare f i g s . 15 &  16)  66 A high i n t e r e s t in physiognomic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n led  Ge'rSme east in the  first  maintained throughout the The  races of the  place and  "the  he may  human c l a y ,  what  this interest is  ethnographic  paintings.  o r i e n t were seen by nineteenth  Europeans in a v a r i e t y of ways. peoples so  was  century  Gerome tends to ennoble these  have f e l t ,  like  less a l t e r e d  by  Gautier that civilization,  in the  east,  seems here 14  to r e t a i n the  s t i l l , visible  For o t h e r s , the  imprint  orient attracted  of the  divine  because i t was  hand."  a,  "une  15 societe  barabare, mais v i v a n t e , "  formed during the the  Second Empire.  quite men  romantic e r a ,  c l e a r , he  remained  in the  alternative  of the ted  to the  splendid  Second Empire.  individual  Bedouins who  Rimbaud, who  are  but  but  free."  did p r e c i s e l y  Modern c a p i t a l i s m  virile,  who  fantasies  could  self-sufficient  had  Gerome the often  the  no  of e x o t i c  fantasies orient  stifling  longer be  offered  atmosphere sophistica-  a despot  masses... I.shal1 return  And  there i s the  condition.  to  example of  that. created  the  conditions  which made  i n t e r i e u r , and  lands were,for those who  travel could  a f f o r d i t , attempts to escape, i f t e m p o r a r i l y  from t h i s modern  who  ft  the modern al i enated .ci ty-dwe 11 er ; the to and  orient,  throughout  wished to excape  "It will 1  the  For  Flaubert  P a r i s when he wrote:  oppresses the  strong  seems to have i d e n t i f i e d ) and  of sensuous, imprisoned women. an  image of the  Gerome's can vases make his a t t r a c t i o n  is interested  (with whom he  This  67 The Ethnographic P a i n t i n g s and  Photography  Some people seemed to think that Gerome's ethnographic p a i n t i n g s f u n c t i o n e d l i k e photographs and t o l d  the same t r u t h s . 1 7  C e l i a Stranahan c a l l s  them " o f f i c i a l  reports".  Galichon wrote of The P r i s o n e r of 1863 Van Gogh admired) as i f he b e l i e v e d  And Emile  ( f i g . 1 7 ) (a p a i n t i n g  i t was  an a c t u a l  record  of an event Ge'rome had witnessed: . . . l e c a p t i f oppose 1 ' i m p a s s i b i 1 i t e de l ' o r i e n t a l , pour ne point r e j o u i r le coeur de son r i v a l heureux q u i , a s s i s I la proue, la main appuyee sur son f u s i l , le garde avec I ' a i r hautain du musulman. Tout 1' o r i e n t est l a , av.ec son f a t a l i s m e implacable, sa soumission pass i Ve, sa t r a n q u i l i t e ' i n a l t e r a b l e , ses i n s u l t e s e'honte'es" et sa cruaute' sans remords. En rendant simplement ce q u ' i l v o y a i t , M. Gerome a f a i t un oeuvre eminemment morale et phi 1osophique.' 8  Gerome may  have seen t h i s event, as Galichon  then again he may verisimilitude  not.  It i s , however, rather  ironic  that  should be seen as a v i r t u e of one of the few  ethnographic p a i n t i n g s that attempt a t i g h t l y Ge'rome's o r i e n t , although c e r t a i n l y e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l s and his personal from h i s P a r i s i a n i t which  suggests, but  composed  based f i r m l y on his  o b s e r v a t i o n s , emanated  s t u d i o , and has more than a l i t t l e  is a r t i f i c i a l .  In h i s d e d i c a t i o n  F e l l a h , to Ge'rome, Edmund About  tableau.  about  of h i s n o v e l , Le  d e s c r i b e d Gerome's working  method: But the h o s p i t a l i-ty. of the Ismail Pasha had swathed me in bands which paralyzed my movements not a l i t t l e . I had no longer a r i g h t to p u b l i s h ex-professo contemporaneous Egypt. Your example, my dear Ge'rome, has at once f a s c i n a t e d and reassured me. No law f o r b i d s an author to work en_ pe i n t u r e ; that i s to say, to assemble in a work of the imagination a multitude of d e t a i l s taken from nature  68  69 and s c r u p u l o u s l y t r u e , though s e l e c t e d . Your masterpieces, small and g r e a t , do not a f f e c t to t e l l e v e r y t h i n g ; but they do not present a type, -j a t r e e , the f o l d of a garment which have not seen.  g  The  s e l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e which About d e s c r i b e d r e s u l t s in  the morceau q u a l i t y of many of the ethnographic  pictures.  Despite Gerome's penchant f o r formal composition, t h i s morceau quality graphs  i s also the r e s u l t of his extensive use of in making his o r i e n t a l  genre  paintings.  Gerome would sketch, c o l l e c t and photograph ern  voyages while,  the f i n i s h e d  photo-  on  his east-  p a i n t i n g s were done back in  Paris. He was  not, however, by any means the f i r s t  a r t i s t to  work t h i s way.  As f a r as I know, t h i s honour must belong to  Horace Vernet.  Vernet and  taking daguerreotypes of  1839.  T h i s was  Fre'de'ric Goupi 1-Fesquet were  in the middle-east as e a r l y as November  a mere eleven months a f t e r Daguerre  announced the d i s c o v e r y of his photographic first  actual  process.  record of.Gerome's use of photographic  had Our  equip-  ment i s r a t h e r l a t e , 1867.  But he may  have taken  with him  For he was  an ardent admirer  before that date.  the medium from his youth Vauthier t e l l s  us t h a t :  until  the end  avec  "Dans sa jeunesse, i l a v a i t  et sa propre admiration ne f i t que  les anne'es."  GerSme's l a s t  of  of his days. Moreau-  a 1 ' enthousiasme soul-eve par l e s premiers e s s a i s daguerre'otype  cameras  address  to the  assiste  de augmenter  Institute  20 was  a defense The  of  photography.  example of the photograph  Gerome's p a i n t e r l y manner  o b v i o u s l y permeates  from almost  the f i r s t  ethnographic  7Q work on.  The photograph  seems to have given a r t i s t s l i k e  Vernet and Gerome an o p p o r t u n i t y to paint f e l t were c l o s e r to v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of an Academic  artist.  on t h e i r work — which was  images which they  than the techniques  The e f f e c t which a substantial  the photograph  change from the  had fini  of David or Ingres or even that of Dutch r e a l i s m — w a s what gave t h e i r  images  anything e l s e ,  that "commonness" which  caused t h e i r e c l i p s e  of modern t a s t e .  has, more than  from the  constellation  The c l a r i t y of Ge'rome's s t y l e  combined  with his abandonment of serious g e n e r a l i z a t i o n — b y which I mean, say, Ingres' submission to a sensuous  l i n e which pre-  vents one from m i s t a k i n g an Ingres p o r t r a i t , despite the clarity  of d e t a i l , f o r a photograph--immediately casts h i s  paintings images the  in with the. pro.l i f e r a t i o n of e a s i l y  that had begun to dominate  the v i s u a l  environment in  n i n e t e e n t h century. Gerome's photographic s t y l e was  graphic p a i n t i n g s . ence.  There are several  developed in his ethnoreasons f o r t h i s occur-  Gerome used photographs to make the o r i e n t a l  p a i n t i n g s and one  can imagine how  seemed to imitate  t h e i r appearance  That t h i s should happen f i r s t  factors.  natural  genre  i t might have  as he used them f o r models.  in ethnographic p a i n t i n g s  than elsewhere can be explained  rather  by commonplace h i s t o r i c a l  The same thing had happened to Vernet's p a i n t i n g  through h i s ethnographi c work.. is  reproducible  And Gerome's o r i e n t a l i sme  of the Vernet, rather than the D e l a c r o i x ,  tradition.  71 Besides being taken with the e x o t i c east f o r i t s own sake, Vernet and Gerome, and a r t i s t s practical  like  them, had a  reason f o r t h e i r e x t e n s i v e work in the o r i e n t .  They were a t t r a c t e d "Lumiere,  forme,  by the l i g h t , as Rocheblave  wrote:  c o u l e u r , tout l e s f r a p p a i t d'un  t  nouveau, v i f , e'clatant, l e s p r e n a i t aux During his y o u t h f u l  aspect \  A  sens et a 1 ' ame."  stay in Rome GerSme had t r a v e l l e d  21  the  c o u n t r y - s i d e , s k e t c h i n g out-of-doors: "Je me mis a f a i r e des paysages,  de 1 a r c h i t e c t u r e , des animaux, toujours en 1  22 plein  air...."  He never seems to have done t h i s  There are however, pl(ei,,n- a i r passages paintings.  in France.  in the ethnographic  Ackerman points out a " i m p r e s s i o n i s t " handling  of the landscape seen through the window in Arnaut Smoking 23 ( f i g . 1 6 ) , and suspects another hand.  However, t h i s  ing i s n e i t h e r a unique nor the best example of t h i s of t h i n g  in Ge'rdme's work.  In Conducteur  ( f i g . 1 8 ) , f o r example, the garden a. d i s t i n c t l y in  reamined And  primarily  interested  Gerome's i n t e r e s t  his work through  sake was  de Chameaux has  However , Gerome '. s interest  not a large one and  in i n t e r i o r s and  he  architecture.  in the l i g h t or the o r i e n t  the photograph  sort  seen through the door 24  "Monet" q u a l i t y to i t .  landscape f o r i t s own  paint-  effects  r a t h e r than through pl.e'i n  ai r i sme. In 1839 Daguerre's  the exposure  machine was  It wasn't u n t i l  1851  time f o r a photographic p l a t e in  between f i f t e e n  that the c o l l o d i o n  and t h i r t y  minutes.  process reduced the  72  minimum exposure that a new  time to t h i r t y  seconds, and not u n t i l  c o l l o d i o n process reduced exposure  1878  time to a  25 fraction all  of a second.  the c u l t u r a l  The amateur photographer,  a t t r a c t i o n s that the o r i e n t o f f e r e d , must  have been impressed by i t s t e c h n i c a l The  despite  a t t r a c t i o n s as w e l l .  stronger l i g h t would have kept exposure  times  briefer  than in France, thus making the camera more v e r s a t i l e , especially  in the winter when Paris  I don't wish  i s often o v e r c a s t .  to suggest that t h i s was  the primary reason f o r  the e a r l y presence of the camera, a l l i e d work, in the o r i e n t . portant f a c t o r s . able a t t r a c t i o n Southern  Other reasons were c l e a r l y more im-  But the. l i g h t of the o r i e n t was  j u s t as the good weather and strong l i g h t of  industry  voyages--the  canvases  in t r a v e l  the r e l a t i v e  site  in the e a r l y years of t h i s c e n t u r y .  Besides the p r a c t i c a l  tive,  a consider-  C a l i f o r n i a made i t an e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e  f o r the cinema  eastern  to the p a i n t e r ' s  reasons f o r using cameras on his  difficulties  conditions  of c a r t i n g about  that were often  quickness of the photograph  wet  fairly  primi-  over sketching  as a means of b u i l d i n g an i n v e n t o r y of m o t i f s f o r use in paintings--the p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g  v e r a c i t y of the  appealed to Gerome f o r i t s own  sake.  the g e n e r a l i z i n g up d e t a i l ability  photograph  Unlike the .eye, or  s t y l e of high a r t , the photograph  without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  to c e l e b r a t e a room f u l l  The photograph  has the  of b r i c - a - b r a c by p r e s e n t i n g  a vast array of objects a l l at once. graphic p i c t u r e s are t i e d  picks  And  Gerome's ethno-  to his o b j e c t - h u n t i n g or  collecting.  73 His Dance of the Almeh of 1 8 6 3 . ( f i g . 1 9 ) — w h i c h hommage to Chardin in the lower l e f t hand  has a  corner--is  p r i m a r i l y a record of the a c t i v i t y of Gerome the He owned every o b j e c t in the p a i n t i n g . photographed it  The  collector.  dancer  was  in C a i r o , Gerome bought her costume and  back to P a r i s and with h i s assembled  s o r i e s , using P a r i s i a n  models and  little  costumes and  his photographs,  took acces-  he created  27 his o r i e n t a l  interior.  The e f f e c t of the photograph  his work was  drastic--it  i s extremely easy to mistake a  Ge'rome reproduction f o r a photograph. about  the e f f e c t of the photograph  but he might  have said  on  Charles Blanc wrote  on the work of Vernet,  the same of Gerome:  Vernet's eye was l i k e the lens of a camera, i t had the same a s t o n i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r , but also l i k e Daguerre's machine, i t saw a l l , i t reproduced a l l , without s e l e c t i o n and without s p e c i a l emphasis. It recorded the d e t a i l s j u s t as well as the whole — what am I saying?—much b e t t e r , because with Horace Vernet the d e t a i l always took on an exaggerated importance, so that i n v a r i a b l y i t reaches a point where no t r o u b l e i s taken to subordinate i t , to give i t i t s proper place and v a l u e . 2 8  Ge'rome's photographic technique serves to hide the ness of h i s procedure and like "we  stagi-  serves to convince--say, someone  Emile Gal i chon — that, we are seeing a document, that are t h e r e " .  Whereas D e l a c r o i x ' o r i e n t was  e x o t i c , Gerome's becomes merely  foreign.  works were seen as " a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l in a way  they were the v i s u a l  books which were designed l e a s t t h i s was  how  romantic  and  His ethnographic  t r e a t i s e s " or t r a v e l o g u e s ,  e q u i v a l e n t s of w r i t t e n  f o r the "armchair" voyager.  Gautier p e r c e i v e d them:  travel At  Figure 19  75 Photography, pushed today to the p e r f e c t i o n that you know, r e l i e v e s the a r t i s t from copying a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s c u l p t u r a l d e t a i l s , by producing p r i n t s of absolute f i d e l i t y , to which the happy s e l e c t i o n of the point of view and moment of time can give the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t . Is that not also the d i r e c t i o n in which Ge'r6me has taken h i s work. His powerful s t u d i e s as a h i s tory p a i n t e r , h i s t a l e n t as a draughtsman, f i n e e l e g a n t , exact y e t with l o t s of s t y l e , a s p e c i a l f e e l i n g which we would c a l l ethnographic and which w i l l become even more necessary to the a r t i s t in these days of u n i v e r s a l and rapid t r a v e l when a l l people of the planet w i l l be v i s i t e d in whichever d i s t a n t a r c h i p e l a g o they may be hidden, a l l these things make Ge'r6me more s u i t a b l e than any other to render that simple d e t a i l which up to now they have n e g l e c t e d , f o r landscape, monument and c o l o u r ; modern e x p l o r a t i o n s of the O r i e n t — a n d man!^" Gautier's tangled prose one  is rich  in c u l t u r a l  of which i s h i s transparent b e l i e f  a l l i e s with u n i v e r s a l  travel.  assumptions,  in p'rogress which he  For G a u t i e r , Ge'rome's ethno-  graphic works are sort o f " e x p l o r a t i o n s " of f o r e i g n  lands.  Because of t h i s aspect of these p a i n t i n g s and the a c t i v i t y of the c o l l e c t o r of types and o b j e c t s that they r e c o r d , they, l i k e related  the neo-grec  to the c r e a t i o n  p a i n t i n g s can be seen as a c t i v i t i e s of the nineteenth century i n -  te r i e ur. The  Content  The  of Ge'rome's Ethnograph i c Pa i n t i ng 11:  Interieur As  I noted  in Chapter  I I , Gerflme's  s t y l e of l i v i n g - - n o t  by any means u n i q u e — i n v o l v e d the c r e a t i o n of an i nte'ri e ur which was crammed from f l o o r to c e i l i n g with objects c o l l e c t e d  76 from the four corners of the world. r e f e r to the inte'rieur but torical  The  neo-grec works often  in the modes of fantasy and  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n using much of the vocabulary  academic high a r t . even more d i r e c t l y they were made.  But  the o r i e n t a l  genre p a i n t i n g s  his-  of refer  to the s e n s i b i l i t y of the house in which  For one  thing they are genre p a i n t i n g s , made  f o r the walls of the bourgeois waver between high a r t and  home; in t h i s they do  genre a r t in the way  not  that the  on  n_eo-grec p a i n t i n g s do.  More importantly they  record  Gerome's ownership of things and  documentation r e p l a c e  Academic e r u d i t i o n and  nude of high a r t i s re-  the i d e a l  placed by the appropriate As Walter nineteenth  type.  Benjamin observed,  century  the  i n t e r i o r depended upon the c o l l e c t i o n  b r i c - a - b r a c , upon which the c o l l e c t o r cier's  value" rather than  a use-value.  matter what other purposes and in p a r t , an operation of  termed the era of high commodity during t h i s  of  could confer a "fanCollecting,  pleasures may  be  no  involved, i s ,  rescue.  Ge'rome's career took him  we  "phatasmagoria" of the  r i g h t through what i s oftened  capitalism.  It is the status of  period which ought to i n t e r e s t  the  us, i f  b e l i e v e , as Benjamin does, that the c o l l e c t o r of e x o t i c a  i s somehow t r y i n g to transform According  to Marxist  this status.  h i s t o r i a n s , with  the advent of  c a p i t a l i s m the s t r u c t u r e of commodity r e l a t i o n s h i p s on  the  market-place became the dominant model f o r s o c i e t y as a whole.  77 As George  Lukacs puts i t :  "...the development  of the com-  modity to the point where i t became the dominant society  form in  did not take place-'unti 1. the advent of modern 31  capitalism." This occurs because the s o c i a l  the s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g market turned  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men  between things or commodities.  into  relationships  As Lukacs puts i t :  the market economy has been: f u l l y  "Where  developed — a man's a c t i v i t y  becomes estranged from h i m s e l f , i t turns into a commodity which, s u b j e c t to the non-human o b j e c t i v i t y of the laws of s o c i e t y , must go i t s own  way  any other consummer a r t i c l e . "  independently of man 32 Because  just  i t s price  like  i s the  r e s u l t of a market where "supply and demand" determine the flow of goods the commodity contains in i t s e l f value—that  i s , what one does with i t — a n d  both a use-  an exchange-value--  that i s , i t s value as determined in terms of other commodities. Marx described ...is  this  the d i r e c t  r e l a t i o n s h i p as f o l l o w s :  "The  commodity  un i ty of use-value and exchange-value, and  at the same time i t i s a commodity only in r e l a t i o n  to other  33 commod i t i e s . " When a s o c i e t y comes "to s a t i s f y a l l i t s needs of commodity exchange",  the s o c i a l  relations  between  in terms men 34  "assumes...the Thus  fantastic  commodities  form of a r e l a t i o n between  take on a f e t i s h  f u n c t i o n as the form of  s o c i a l - r e 1 a t i o n s becomes viewed as the content. be best i l l u s t r a t e d  things".  by modern a d v e r t i s i n g which  This can promises  78 that the purchaser  of c e r t a i n  m a g i c a l l y , to transform t h e i r cannot, person  social  use them  relations.  But  one  f o r example, r e a l l y make one's spouse a pleasant to l i v e with by buying  The  nineteenth  century  coloured by a romantic talist  commodities can  decaffinated coffee.  interest  in the o r i e n t  was  imagination of the east as p r e - c a p i -  or p r e - i n d u s t r i a l .  It was  to the b e l i e f that the r a c i a l  t h i s a t t i t u d e which led  "types" found  there r e t a i n e d  in t h e i r physiognomies something as yet u n a l t e r e d by modern European  society.  Given which was  t h i s h i g h l y charged  imagination  brings back o r i e n t a l  i n t e V i e u r becomes almost By purchasing  and  a magical  to create--by  operation of  rescue.  b r i n g i n g back to P a r i s , weapons, costumes,  sustituting  interieur,  a fancier's  like  Gerome wished  value f o r a  a refuge, a s p e c i a l  in which they could r e t a i n  "barbare,  of the  e x o t i c a to f u r n i s h his  c a r p e t s , objets d ' a r t of the e a s t , a man  things  orient--  seen as a kind of paradise--the a c t i v i t y  c o l l e c t o r who  in his own  of the  use-value--  place f o r these  the aura of t h e i r  origins,  mais v i v a n t e " .  This a c t i v i t y  inevitably  bestows on the c o l l e c t e d o b j e c t s  a f e t i s h - v a l u e , in which they are meant to stand f o r the values and  customs or the c u l t u r e s they o r i g i n a t e  Gerome, however, had was tion  a special  also a p a i n t e r and  advantage as a c o l l e c t o r ,  could perform  by d e p i c t i n g h i s c o l l e c t i o n  in t h e i r n a t u r a l environment.  from.  a second magical  in scenes  The  he  opera-  which showed them  photographic  s t y l e was  an  79 e s p e c i a l l y appropriate these objects served  strategy  t h e i r own  in Gerome's attempt to  time and  place while  they  give  still  to create his in te r i e ur.  As  i s well  known, " p r i m i t i v e " people often  photograph with  superstitition  and  is that Europeans reacted much the photographs.  Balzac,  fear.  the  Less well-known  same way  f o r example, was  react to  sure  to the  first  that his image  could not appear on the photographer's p l a t e without d i v e s t ing  him  of something of himself.  "theory"  as  Nadar e x p l a i n s  Balzac's  follows:  According to Balzac each material o b j e c t from whatever d i r e c t i o n i t i s viewed, i s composed of a number of i n f i n i t e s i m a 11y t h i n l a y e r s or " s p e c t r e s " . Since i t i s impossible to make something out of nothing, the image on the p l a t e could not be produced without detaching something from the body which is being photographed: thus each daguerrian operation involves a t t a c h i n g to the p l a t e of one of these " s p e c t r e s " and the consequent loss of part of the essense of what i s being photographed.-^ 5  A s u p e r s t i t i o u s a t t i t u d e towards the photograph i s implied in  the language.  We  "take"  a p i c t u r e with  a p a i n t e r paints or "makes" a p i c t u r e . was  felt,  object  and  still  In other  the  words, i t  i s I suppose, that a photograph of an  i s c l o s e r to the p h y s i c a l , t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y of that  o b j e c t than a p a i n t i n g or drawing of i t . teenth  a camera, whereas  century  1870  A typical  view of the camera's power can  number of The  be  nine-  found in  Westminster Review:  No mi nature...wil1 , so f a r as r e l a t e s to mere resemblance, bear comparison to 'a Daguerrotype. The a r t i s t can soften down e f f e c t s , and present the s i t t e r in the most f a v o r a b l e aspect. The Sun,  80 however, i s no':, f l a t t e r e r , and gives the l i n e a ments as t h e y ' e x i s t , with, the most inexorable f i d e l i t y and the most cruel p r e c i s i o n . " Even today, the camera seems to have a magical M i d d l e - c l a s s fami 1ies take photographs homes, t h e i r p a r t i e s , mas,  etc.),  function.  of each other, t h e i r  t h e i r sacred events  (weddings,  Christ-  the world at large on t h e i r v a c a t i o n s : and  they  do t h i s not f o r a r t or out of an a e s t h e t i c p a s s i o n , but to perform an operation which goes beyond the merely commemorative in which the "photographed" "owned" by the photographer. used to o b j e c t i f y or r e i f y graphed.  In t h i s way  The  i s meant to become  photograph  was  and i s  the events which are  photo-  the m i d d l e - c l a s s photographer  f a m i l y h i s t o r y compulsively stands o u t s i d e of the events around a relationship  of  social  him and turns his re 1 a t i o n s h i p with them into to t h i n g s , i . e . photographs.  The bourgeois photographer  may  be t r y i n g to bestow a  commodity status upon th.e events and but Gerome as a p a i n t e r , was  scenes  he  photographs,  engaged in a p a r a l l e l  that moved i n the other d i r e c t i o n .  process  His ethnographic  paint-  ings show us the human context of the o b j e c t s he  collected  in the o r i e n t and  to c e l e -  he uses the photographic s t y l e  brate them as r i c h l y as p o s s i b l e  in p a i n t i n g .  graphic p a i n t i n g s contain t r a c e r i e s of two of c o l l e c t o r and  photographer,  which are an attempt of the o r i e n t .  one  The  ethno-  o p e r a t i o n s , that  complementing the o t h e r ,  to r e i f y and then to rescue the world  81  As a documentarian Gerome engaged  in the r e i f y i n g  v i t y of o b j e c t i f y i n g the east by taking by c o l l e c t i n g o b j e c t s .  acti-  photographs there and  But as a p a i n t e r , back in h i s P a r i s  inte'rieur, he engaged in a new operation  which i s a r e v e r s a l  of the former and t r i e d  h i s c o l l e c t i o n by  painting  i t i n i t s environment.  the primary r a i s o n the  real  to bring to l i f e  d'etre  In f a c t , t h i s operation  f o r these p a i n t i n g s  was  and i t was  reason why Gerome never a c t u a l l y painted  in the  e a s t , although he c e r t a i n l y would have found studio  space  in Cairo or A l e x a n d r i a .  had to  The ethnographic p a i n t i n g s  be made in P a r i s , because i t was there the  that Gerome maintained  inte'rieur which was l o c a t i o n and source of h i s s e n s i b i l i t y  as an a r t i s t .  This a f t e r a l l , was the l o c a t i o n of Ge'rome's  ownership of h i s o r i e n t a l , e x o t i c a , and ownership i s , of course, the most intimate  of p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with an o b j e c t .  82 Notes - Chapter III  'Albert Boime, " E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Patronage in Nineteenth Century France," in E n t e r p r i s e and Entrepreneurs in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century France, ( E d i t e d by Edward C. Carter II et a l . ) . The John : Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press: B a l t i m o r e , 1976, p.205 (n.T80). 2 E.J. Hobsbawm, The Age of R e v o l u t i o n : Europe 1789-1848, Weidenfeld and N i c o l s o n : London, 1962. p.144. 3 I owe t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n to Michael F r i e d who, in his "Manet's Sources," ( A r t Forum, V o l . 7, No. 28, March, 1969, pp72-73) d i s c u s s e s the d i f f e r e n c e between Manet and Courbet's approach to composition using the terms morceau and t a b l e a u . "Courbet's p a i n t i n g s tended to be seen by fii s admirers and his d e t r a c t o r s a l i k e e i t h e r as agglomerations of superby painted pieces of r e a l i t y - - e . g . , a head, a h a n d , a dog, a woman's body, a stone o u t c r o p p i n g , a breaking wave--or as e n t i r e large morceaux in t h e i r own r i g h t . " The concept of the tableau has to do with powerful and memorable comp o s i t i o n s , with the t o t a l e f f e c t of a p a i n t i n g on the viewer: "...one's experience of them...their v i t a l i t y , t h e i r immediate, instantaneous power to a t t r a c t or r e p e l . " Fried asserts that Manet's Olympia and h i s Dejeuner sur l'herbe are such tableaux. In Ge'rome's work I would suggest that the neogrec p a i n t i n g s are tableaux, attempts to.make a memorable image through Academic composition techniques. The ethnographic p a i n t i n g s often attempt t h i s , as in the case of The P r i s o n e r , but even more often they do not. A tableau e f f e c t seems to be achieved by a c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the viewer. In the Manet paintings,, V i c t o r i n e s t a r e s at us b o l d l y , a f f e c t i n g an immediate "I-you" r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a i n t i n g and us. In Academic p a i n t i n g the same "conf r o n t a t i o n " i s achieved by the use of shallow space and/or " l i f e - s i z e " f i g u r e s which push the space of the p a i n t i n g back into the actual space that the viewer occupies. In a morceau the viewer i s reduced to the status of an uninvolved s p e c t a t o r . 4 The passage c e l e b r a t e s the iPax Romana of Augustus and notes that the b i r t h of C h r i s t was a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s era of peace. I quote i t in f u l l : Les restes.de l a republique p d r i s s e n t avec Brutus et C a s s i u s ; Antfoijhe et CeVsar., apres a v o i r ruine Lepide, se tournent 1'un contre 1'autre; toute l a puissance romaine se met sur l a mer. Cesar gagne l a 7  83 b a t a i l l e A c t i q u e ; l e s f o r c e s de l'Egypte, et de 1'Orient, qu'Antoine menait avec l u i , sont d i s sipe'es; tous ses amis 1 abandonment, et meme sa C l e o p S t r e , pour l a q u e l l e i l s'e'tait perdu... Tout cede a l a fortune de Ce'sar: A l e x a n d r i e l u i ouvre l e s p o r t e s ; l'Egypte devient une province romaine; Cle'opatre, qui de'sespere de l a pouvoir c o n s e r v e r . s e tue elle-meme apres Antoine; Rome tend les bras a C£sar, qui demeure, sous l e nom d'Augustus et le t i t r e d'empereur, seul jnattre de tout I'empire; i l dompte vers l e s Pyrene'es l e s Cantabres et l e s A s t u r i e n s re'vol te's; l ' E t h i o p i e l u i demande l a paix; l e s Parthes epouvantes l u i renvoient l e s e'tendards p r i s sur Crassus, avec tous l e s p r i s o n n i e r s romains; les Indes recherchent son a l l i a n c e ; ses armes se font s e n t i r aux Rhetes ou G r i s o n s , que l e u r s montagnes ne peuvent d£fendre. La Pannonie l e r e c o n n a i t , l a Germaine l e redoubte, et l e Weser r e c o i t ses l o i s . Viciorieux par mer et par t e r r e , i l ferme'le temple .de* Janus. Out l'univers v i t en paix sous sa.puissance, et JesusC h r i s t v i e n t au monde. 1  v  As c i t e d by Gautier in his Les Beaux-Arts en Europe, Michel Levy F r e r e s : P a r i s , 1855. p.218f. The reason I quoted the whole passage was to point out that somehow a l l the main p a r t i e s mentioned by Bousset, as well as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the nations i n v o l v e d : f i n d t h e i r way into Gerome s p a i n t i n g , and i t was the need to gather ethnographic m a t e r i a l which led him on t h i s voyage; As. f o r the choice of subject-matter i t s e l f . First i t f o l l o w s the Academic t r a d i t i o n of using AncientRome as an i c o n o l o g i c a l i d e a l i z a t i o n of modern France; the Republic for the Revolutionary P e r i o d ; Caesar f o r Napoleon; Augustus for Napoleon I I I . Secondly, Bousset's passage notes the b i r t h of a new world order, and i t was f e l t by many Frenchmen in mid-century that t h e i r era was such a turning point in world h i s t o r y , only science and progress, not a d i v i n i t y were to be the agents of a new dawn. 1  5 This i s more than apparent from Gautier's d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a i n t i n g . And Ge'rome t e l l s us t h a t : . . . " i t (the p a i n t i n g ) lacked i n v e n t i o n and o r i g i n a 1 i t y , reca11ing by the d i s p o s i t i o n of the f i g u r e s , and unhappily by t h i s point only The Apotheosis of Homer by Ingres, of which i t i s , so to speak, a paraphrase." C i t e d in Hering, 1889, o p . c i t . p.489. Timbal,  o p . c i t . p.230.  84  S . Rocheblave, L'Art et le Gout en France de 1600 a 1900 , Li bra i r e Armand C o l i n : Paris 1 930 e d i t i o n , p.289. 7  g As c i t e d in Hering, 1892, o p . c i t . p.25; From • :-, Gautier's "Gerome: P i c t u r e s , Studies and Sketches of T r a v e l , " I have been unable to f i n d t h i s a r t i c l e . g From a l e t t e r to D e l a c r o i x ' f r i e n d P i e r r e t , as c i t e d in P i e r r e C o u r t h i o n , Romanti ci sm, Sk i r a : Lausanne, 1961, p.78. ^Hering, 1 1  1892,  op.cit.  p.7. No source given.  1 b i d . p.25.  12 This d i s c u r s i v e mode, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the ninecentury, i s discussed in greater depth in Chapter IV.  teenth  1 3 Edmonde & Jules Goncourt, J o u r n a l : Memoires de La Vie Li t t e r a i re;/, V o l . XI, Les e d i t i o n s de 1 ' i mpr i meri e° na t i on a 1 e de Monaco: Monaco, 1 956 , p.16 (entry f o r M e r c r e d i , 21 A v r i l , 1875). 1 4  15  H e r i n g , 1 892 , p_£.cj_t. Rochebl avfte  v  1 6  As  cited  op.cit.  by Hering,  p.25.  p.287. 1892,  p.59.  ^ S t r a n a h a n , o p . c i t . p.309. 7  1g Emile G a l i c h o n , "M. Gerome, p e i n t r e ethnographe," Gazette des beaux-arts, 1968, v o l . 1, p.150. 1 9  H e r i n g , 1 889 , o p . c i t . p.497.  20 Moreau-Vauthier, o p . c i t . , ; p.69. Also from the same passage: "Gerome ne ccessa d'estime l a p r e c i s i o n de l a photographic" Moreau-Vauthier t e l l s us that Gerome's l a s t address to the I n s t i t u t e was in p r a i s e of,photography on p.70. Gerome seems to have been involved with Emile Bayard and wrote an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l a t t e r s , "Le inu e s t h e t i q u e " , ( f i g . 2 0 ) . As one can see Bayard constructed Bourgereau-1ike scenes in his studio and then photographed them--with the expected atrocious results.  'Homme, La Fernme, Z'Snfant  Figure 2 0  86  Ingres,on the other hand, r e f e r r e d "fautographs".  to photographs  as  21 Rocheblave,  o p . c i t . , p.287.  22 Masson, o p . c i t . , p.23. 23 "Often in these works the hand of a c o l l a b o r a t o r or an a s s i s t a n t i s suspected, as in the very loose landscape seen through the window in the upper r i g h t . " Ackerman, 1972, o p . c i t . p.58. 24 It i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to t e l l from f a i r l y bad black and white r e p r o d u c t i o n s j u s t what i s happening in these passages, however, d e s p i t e t h e i r " i m p r e s s i o n i s t " look we should remember Ge'rome and Monet had the same teacher, G l e y r e , and that in Gleyre. .s work one can f i n d landscape passages t r e a t e d in a p 1 i en. 'a i r f a s h i o n . A l s o , p a i n t i n g out-of-doors in one s i t t i n g was academic p r a c t i s e , but as j u s t t h a t , as a p a i n t i n g e x e r c i s e , such etudes were not considered f i n i s h e d paintings. 1  25 These s t a t i s t i c s from. Hemult Gernsheim s, The H i s t o r y of Photography, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press: London, 1955, p.377. ^ I n 1887, at. 63, Gerome t o l d Hering t h a t , "during the months of November and December, the l i g h t i s too poor to p a i n t , but s u f f i c i e n t to model a l l day." Hering, 1889 , o p . c i t . , p.492. 27 Ackerman, 1.972 , o p . c i t . , p.54. " A f t e r watching her dance in a l o c a l c a f e , Gerftme i n v i t e d her to h i s s t u d i o where he sketched her, photographed her, and then he bought her dancing costume to take home with him!" 28 As c i t e d The  Penguin  ' in Aaron Scharf,  A r t and Photography, London:  Press, 1968, p.57'.  29 I b i d . From an a r t i c l e 1856.  by Gautier in " L ' A r t i s t e " of  The ne'o-grec p a i n t i n g s were, of course, made f o r the same w a l l s , but they were also made f o r the Salon and the museum, to hang.among the Raphaels and the Ingres .  87  Georg Luka'cs, H i s t o r y and Class Consciousness, ( t r a n s l a t e d by Rodney L i v i n g s t o n e , Merlin Press: London, 1971, p.86. 32  r  Lukacs, o p . c i t . , p. 8.7.. 33 Karl Marx, A C o n t r i b u t i o n Economy, Moscow, 1970, p.41.  to the  Criti'que of  Political  34 Luka'cs, o p . c i t , pp.91  &  86.  35 As c i t e d by Michel F. B r a i v e , The Photograph: A S o c i a l H i s t o r y , ( t r a n s l a t e d by David Bri t t ) , McGraw-Hi11 Book Co.: New York 1966, p.73. A source i s not g i v e n , but i t i s probably Nadar's, Quand . l . j ^ t a i s photographe, P a r i s , n.d. (1900). Author's name not given, "Bearings of Modern Science on A r t " , Westminster Review, Vol. 96, July & October, 1871, p.-403. '• .  88 CHAPTER THE If we which was  HISTORY PAINTINGS  do not include the 1 854  Apotheosis  of  Augustus,  done in the grand manner, Gerome's f i r s t  h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g was Morituri  IV:  done in 1859.  Te S a l u t a n t ( f i g . 2 1 ) was  historical  His Ave the f i r s t  serious  Caesar ;. of a s e r i e s of  works which were both more ambitious as p a i n t i n g s  and more sombre in t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s  than the  neo-grec  works, which nonetheless Ge'rome continued to produce, along with ethnographic p a i n t i n g s , u n t i l  the end of his c a r e e r .  As Ge'rome's h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s are about  h i s t o r y we  might  reasonably expect them to be informed by concurrent notions of  "history".  contemporary al  An examination  of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y which  to Ge'rome's p a i n t i n g s w i l l  was  i 11 uminate • the  context of these p a i n t i n g s , which w i l l  cultur-  in t u r n , bring  forward t h e i r meaning. In  nineteenth century France, d i s c o u r s e about  occupied a c e n t r a l time.  Why  this  place in the i n t e l l e c t u a l  should have been so w i l l  history  concerns of the  soon  become ap-  parent. For  Ge'rome, his was Perhaps  an "epoch of moral  1  paint was  a response  himself.  But in the main, bourgeois i n t e l l e c t u a l s And  c o n t r o l l e d way  intellectual  disorder."  with p o s i t i v i s m .  the t i g h t l y  and  he chose to  to the de'rangement he perceived around responded  the methods of p o s i t i v i s m became the  methods of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y .  89 H i s t o r i o g r a p h i c Thought in Mid-Nineteenth Century For ficult had  France a number of reasons  term to use with p r e c i s i o n .  remarked: " P o s i t i v i s m  Intellectual  historians  p o s i t i v i s m and tellectual sion  " p o s i t i v i s m " has become a d i f -  then  history.  As an E n g l i s h  historian 2  i s a h o p e l e s s l y ambiguous  tend to attempt  pinpoint  term."  a definition  of  i t s exact route through i n -  This i s p r i m a r i l y a process of e x c l u -  in which the t r a i l  of p o s i t i v i s m  i s seen as p r o g r e s s i v e l y 3  narrowing my  as we  discussion  approach  cannot  an adequate  in broad  than the p r e c i s e h i s t o r i a l call  interested  definition,  d i s c u r s i v e movements  l i m i t s of the fate of  "pure p o s i t i v i s m " .  something  In other words, I am  in commonplaces, nineteenth century d i s c u r s i v e  givens, no matter origins  Although  proceed without p r o v i d i n g t h i s  I am much more i n t e r e s t e d  one might  definition.  how  much they are d i s t o r t i o n s of t h e i r  i n the w r i t i n g s of phi1osophers.  breakthroughs  are often  Great  intellectual  diminished by the time they enter  the common d i s c o u r s e which they in turn have shaped. for or  example, everyone sub!imat ion  can use words l i k e  libido,  repression  without having read Freud and s t i l l  what they are t a l k i n g about.  Today,  "know"  Often common usage of a con-  cept i s at quite a conceptual d i s t a n c e from i t s usage in the work in which i t o r i g i n a t e d . would have understood a belief  In Ge'rome's time, people  by " p o s i t i v i s m " a f a i t h  in technology and p r o g r e s s , a general  in s c i e n c e , hostility  90 to the  metaphysics and  they might have a s s o c i a t e d the word with  ideas of Auguste Comte, Hippolyte Taine, Emile  Ernest Renan and  others.  It i s not p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  to  r e f e r to these thinkers  of  Li ttre'--wi tho ut a great deal of q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  as posi t i v i s t s - - w i th the  do not wish to a r t i f i c i a l l y  to  Auguste Comte who  first  ( f o r the  method become the same t h i n g ) .  philosophy  is by no means l u c i d  of  Comte--it can  definition  But I "posi-  used the word " p o s i t i v i s m "  i n d i c a t e a b e l i e f or an epistemology  p o s i t i v i s m has  exception  discourse.  b e l i e f and  and  rigorous  i s o l a t e something.called  t i v i s m " from i t s place in general It was  Littre,  positivist  Although  Comte's  or without c o n t r a d i c t i o n s - -  come to mean, f o r some, merely the  be d e f i n e d .  of epistemology  ideas  Basically, positivism is a  which proceeds from a s i n g l e nega-  tion: Dans I'e'tat p o s i t i f , I ' e s p r i t humain, reconn a i s s a n t 1 i m p o s s i b i 1 i t i e d'obtenir des notions absolues, renonce a chercher l'origjme et l a d e s t i n a t i o n de l ' u n i v e r s et a connaitre les causes internes des phe'nomenes, pour s'attacher uniquement a de'couvir, par 1 usage bien combine du raisphvn.ement et de 1 o b s e r v a t i o n , l e u r s l o i s e f f e c t i v e s , c ' e s t - a - d i r e 1 eurs. r e l a t i o n s i n v a r i a b l e s de succession et de s i m i l i t u d e . 4 1  1  1  In other words, knowledge must be l i m i t e d phenomena of the  to the  world.  This method of i n q u i r y , b a s i c a l l y  that  . established  by the natural s c i e n c e s , but a p p l i e d u n i v e r s a l l y by ism, has  several l o g i c a l  given essence and  observable  ramifications.  that there can phenomena:  "We  I t is taken  positivas  be no real , di f ference between are e n t i t l e d  to record drily  91 that which i s manifested i f one  apperceives a white  "whiteness" one  in experience."  has  or "roundness"  of that word.  d i v o r c e d from  tools  and not real struments  the phenomenon  i t s p a r t i c u l a r occasion.  " i d e a s " in the P l a t o n i c or Hegelian  A b s t r a c t i d e a l i z a t i o n s are as  as dryads, and j u s t as "imaginary"; ceptual  In other words,  vase, there can be no t a l k of  in f r o n t of one's eyes on  There are no  5  metaphysical  they are merely  ( i . e . in mathematics: the c i r c l e things:  "Our  sense  or  con-  triangle)  ideas are only i n t e l l e c t u a l i n -  which serve to l e t us penetrate phenomena; they  must be changed when they have played t h e i r p a r t , as changes a blunted l a n c e t when i t has  one  served long enough."  T h e r e f o r e , there are no such q u a l i t i e s as noble, i g n o b l e , good, e v i l ,  beautiful,  ugly e t c . ; a l l these words  depend f o r t h e i r meaning upon.world-views that go beyond an account  of i t s v i s i b i l i t y .  This does not mean that there  are no e t h i c s , but that morals customs without  are j u s t t h a t ; mores; s o c i a l  reference to a u n i v e r s a l  standard.  7  This i s e s s e n t i a l l y what p o s i t i v i s m d e s c r i b e s i t s e l f be.  I t i s a n t i - m e t a p h y s i c a l in the extreme.  One  can  to  easily  see that high a r t , which depends so much on canons  of  I d e a l i t y which are not merely  as w e l l ,  could  hardly be expected  lectual The  a e s t h e t i c but e t h i c a l  to s u r v i v e in such  inimical  intel-  atmosphere. positivist  never  imply, "why", but "how".  asks, as the quote from Ontology  Comte might  i s simply erased  from  the  92 the i n t e l l e c t u a l  map.  In an undiluted a form of l i n g u i s t i c  form p o s i t i v i s m would suicide.  seem to have been  As Lessek Kolakowski  has  commented: S u f f e r i n g , death, ideol ogica.V conf 1 i c t , s o c i a l c l a s h e s , a n t i t h e t i c a l values of any k i n d - - a l l are declared out of bounds, matters we can only be s i l e n t about, in obedience to the p r i n c i p l e of v e r i f i a b i 1 i t y . P o s i t i v i s m so understood i s an act of escape from, commitments, an escape masked as a d e f i n i t i o n of knowledge, i n v a l i d a t i n g a l l such matters as mere figments of the imagination stemming from i n t e l l e c t u a l l a z i n e s s . P o s i t i v i s m in t h i s sense i s the e s c a p i s t ' s design f o r l i v i n g , a l i f e v o l u n t a r i l y cut o f f from p a r t i c i p a t i o n in anything that cannot be c o r r e c t l y formulated. The language i t imposes exempts us from the duty of speaking up in l i f e ' s most important c o n f l i c t s , encases us in a kind of armour of i n d i f f e r e n c e to the i n e f f a b i 1 i a mundi , g the i n d e s c r i b a b l e q u a l i t a t i v e data of experience. As Kolakowski actionary"  i s s u g g e s t i n g , p o s i t i v i s m tends to be " r e -  thought.  Positivism  had a r r i v e d  what i t s p r a c t i o n e r s preceived as a c r i s i s . of s c r u t i n y was  society.  The c r i s i s  so prominently a problem was  in order to solve I t s main o b j e c t  which made t h i s  two-fold:  The  Industrialial  Revolution and the triumph of C a p i t a l i s m , or as Karl has described  it:  the b i r t h of the s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g  economy and the subsequence  historian  w r i t e s : "(The I n d u s t r i a l men  towards  looked  t h e i r own  market  Both the Marxist  agree on t h i s p o i n t . Re v o l u t i o n ) . . . s h i f t e d  collective  i t s presence b e f o r e .  Polanyi  dominance of the forms of that  economy over the f u n c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . and the l i b e r a l  object  Polanyi the v i s i o n of  being as i f they had over-  A world was  uncovered  the very  93 e x i s t e n c e of which  had not been suspected, that of the laws 9  governing a complex s o c i e t y . "  The reason why such a v i s i o n  should have a r i s e n when i t d i d , at the beginning of the nineteenth century, was that the o b j e c t , a s o c i e t y subject to one system of complex laws, had only r e c e n t l y As Georg the  Luka'cs puts i t : " f o r the f i r s t  whole of s o c i e t y  process..." cognition  1 0  fully  economic  "Thus," w r i t e s Lukacs elsewhere, "the r e is'reality  i n bourgeois  As might  time in h i s t o r y  i s subjected...to a unified  that s o c i e t y  capitalism  developed.  society."  becomes p o s s i b l e only  under  1 1  be expected, Comte, Taine and Renan did-not  understand  the nature of the o b j e c t which  they  studied.  C o n t r a d i c t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s plague the w r i t i n g s of the  great p o s i t i v i s t s .  "Positivism activity  As D.G. Charlton has observed:  i s not...a u n i f i e d system.of 12  of a d i v i d e d mind."  discourse, positivism  thought  but the  In the broad context of a  takes on the f u n c t i o n of an a t t i t u d e  r a t h e r than a methodology, a masquerade r a t h e r than a true performance; what Lukacs Once a p o s i t i v i s t  calls  "epi stemol ogi cal agnosticism".]  epistemology has been adopted, and nine-  teenth century French d i s c o u r s e about if  i t i s anything, c e r t a i n  history  insurmountable  is positivistic  difficulties  arise.  One cannot w r i t e about h i s t o r y or s o c i e t y without using some generalizing  concepts, which  strate empirically  are almost impossible to demon-  as " l o i s e f f e c t i v e s "  v a r i a b l e de succession et s i m i l t u d e " .  or " r e l a t i o n s i n A b s t r a c t and r a t h e r  94 arbitrary  ideas  positivist stubborn  had to make t h e i r way into the heart of  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , f o r as Polanyi w r i t e s :  f a c t s and the inexorable  brute  "The  laws [of the s e l f -  r e g u l a t i n g market economy], that appeared to a b o l i s h our freedom had in one way or another to be r e c o n c i l e d to f r e e dom.  This was the mainspring  that s e c r e t l y sustained ians."  of the metaphysical  the p o s i t i v i s t s  forces  and the u t i l i t a r -  1 4  These g e n e r a l i z i n g concepts are best discussed context  of i n d i v i d u a l  that when  'one""  is a l s o r e f e r r i n g  thinkers.  1  to a widely  held  His philosophy expression  idea with  a tradition.  "Comte must not be imagined to be a  l o n e l y f i g u r e t h i n k i n g out great  eloquent  be noted, however,  r e f e r s to an idea o f , say, Comte s one  As George Boas put i t :  his time.  I t should  in the  ideas which were ahead of  on the contrary was a much more  of the t o t a l  civilization  of e a r l y nine1 5  teenth  century  France than that of any one man."  Among the sources  which Comte drew upon was S a i n t -  Simon, who: ...pretended to be promulgating a new r e l i g i o n d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d , in a dream. This r e l i g i o n , in which Newton seemed to occupy the place of C h r i s t and Robespierre that of Satan, i s the p u r s u i t of man's happiness through science.16 Indeed, nineteenth p a r t i c u l a r , saw a f a i t h r e l i gion.  century  p o s i t i v i s m , and Comte's in  in science as a replacement f o r  95 Comte's b a s i c theory of h i s t o r y depends upon a notion of "mankind" as the o b j e c t of h i s t o r y "the s p e c i e s . . . i s no more than an mythologized history  in a s p i r i t  (as Luka'cs points out:  individual  of c o n t e m p l a t i o n . "  i s the h i s t o r y of the consciousness  imagined  as an e n t i t y :  tellectual determining  and  "Ideas  scientific  factors  govern  of the species 1 o  human h i s t o r y . "  progress  he  theological  stages, Comte t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of i n -  sciences to t h e i r adulthood,  Each science has  proposes  i s an a r b i t r a r y aspect of  From the infancy of mankind in the  and metaphysical  "l'e'tat  grown-up at a d i f f e r e n t  positif".  rate and  reached  maturity at various stages of h i s t o r y , depending on social  circumstances.  positive  In-  in the progress of mankind.  a three stage development ( t h i s  dividual  For Comte,  17  developments are t h e r e f o r e the  In Comte's t h e o r y • o f . h i s t o r i c a l  his thought).  that has been  the  Astronomy, f o r example, reached  the  stage as the growing need f o r r e l i a b l e n a v i g a t i o n  demanded that i t do so. Comte gives a r a t h e r short l i s t order at which they reached Comte's terms) the l e a s t  of sciences in the  the p o s i t i v e  stage, from ( i n  to the most complex.  They are;  mathematics, astronomy, p h y s i c s , chemistry, and b i o l o g y . At the end of t h i s development Comte places a word he c o i n s . --and  When s o c i o l o g y reaches  i t i s the task of p o s i t i v i s t s  the sciences w i l l  "sociologie"--  the p o s i t i v e  to perform  stage  t h i s task--;-,  somehow coalesce by v i r t u e of t h e i r  unified  96 methodologies and  there w i l l  under the  aegis  dition  discovering  by  be a u n i v e r s a l  of s o c i o l o g y w i l l the  s o c i e t y . . In s h o r t , by  "lois  s c i e n c e , which,  ameliorate  the  human con-  effectives" of a workable  sociology  Comte meant a p o l i t i c a l  praxi s. Comte's ideas eventually  about a model s o c i e t y were fuzzy  became a l i t t l e  pathological.  In 1848,  and not  an i n -  s i g n i f i c a n t year, he founded his Church of Humanity, in an effort  to promulgate a p s e u d o - r e l i g i o n  s t r i k e one and by  again  that t h i s was  most b i z a r r e , yet we  in nineteenth  century  a s p i r i t of s c i e n t i f i c  occupied  by  r e l i g i o n was  towards science The little  France the  see  that  beance  formerly  woven-over by a r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e  and  It was  (positivist  to d i s c o v e r a b l e  ones) would  laws.  The  in the  s c i e n t i f i c method  faith.  That an epistemology which attempts to deal thing from a s i n g l e methodology should totalitarian  political  mass of  to church, where they would chant  s c i e n t i f i c maxims as i f a b e l i e f a mythopoeic  structures  end  should  up  with  this  i s what d i s t i n g u i s h e d  r a t i o n a l i s m , i t was  every-  proposing  come as no  surprise.  epistemology of p o s i t i v i s m engages i t s p r a c t i o n e r s  t o t a l i t y , and  a  an a u t h o r i t a r i a n scheme in  philosophers  the world according  century  again  itself.  disconcerting.  constituted  may  created  r a t i o n a l i s m in the place  people would, as u s u a l , go  The  It  Church of Humanity's v i s i o n of the future was  which s c i e n t i s t s rule  of p o s i t i v i s m .  i t from  t h i s complete f a i t h  in a  eighteenth in  the  97 s c i e n t i f i c method. Comte died in 1 857 , when Ge'rome was his thought was  t h i r t y - t h r e e , but  the most pervasive i n f l u e n c e of the next  generation of French during the Second  i n t e l l e c t u a l s who  came into maturity  Empire.  Emile L i t t r e ' , the famous l e x i c o g r a p h e r , considered by the i n t e l l e c t u a l was  historian  meant to i n h e r i t  Humanity. 1851;  to have been a "pure  the l e a d e r s h i p of Comte's Church  But the two  men  fell  out over the events  of  of  Comte welcomed the d i c t a t o r s h i p of Napoleon whereas  L i t t r e ' w a s a Republican. di s c i pTe'  •ofi'?  L i t t r e ' , however, remained  Comte's thought, and  that part of Comte's thought from  positivist",  i t s more p a t h o l o g i c a l  the dominant d i s c u r s i v e  he was  which argued  aspects,  mode of the  a  able to rescue for rationalism  and make p o s i t i v i s m Institute.  L i t t r e " val ued Comte' s theory of h i s t o r y as his most 19 enduring  contribution  hands h i s t o r i c a l  to the h i s t o r y of ideas.  In L i t t r e s  processes become even more d e t e r m i n i s t i c  than Comte had made them. As L i t t r e ' put i t : Hi story...means research into the c o n d i t i o n s which bring about the succession of one s o c i a l s t a t e a f t e r another in a determined order. Events, t h e r e f o r e , play only a secondary r o l e ; being products of the passions and i n t e r e s t s d r i v i n g peoples and t h e i r l e a d e r s , they sometimes serve the spontaneous movement of mankind and sometimes o b s t r u c t i t ; but taken in a l l . . . t h e y are dominated by t h i s movement.20 Needless the vaguest  to say, the "spontaneous movement" of mankind i s  of concepts.  This kind of h i s t o r i c i s m denies the  p o s s i b i l i t y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , or of i n d i v i d u a l  or group  98 action  having  I shall  a meaningful  r o l e on the stage o f h i s t o r y .  argue s h o r t l y , t h i s was  i t s purpose,  to defuse  As  the  workin g. cl ass with s c i e n t i s m . Littre''s s t a r was  somewhat e c l i p s e d  Empire by " l e s deux grands mattres generation", these men  Ernest Renan and  were Ge'rome's age,  during the Second  i n t e l 1 e c t u e l s de cette  Hippolyte Taine.  and  as a f e l l o w member of the  I n s t i t u t e he must have been aquainted t a i n l y would have known Taine.  Both of  with them.  Both Taine and  He cer-..  Ge'rome became 21  p r o f e s s o r s at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1863. was  given one  A  (Gerome  of three p r o f e s s o r s h i p s in p a i n t i n g - - t h e others  going to Cabanel Duc  *  and  Pi Is — and  Taine succeeded  V i o l let-1 e-  in the p r o f e s s o r s h i p of Art H i s t o r y and- A e s t h e t i c s ) . Although  hardly.a-strict  shared with Comte and attitude the f i r s t  Comtean or p o s i t i v i s t ,  Littre' a rigourously deterministic  towards his s u b j e c t .  As he s a i d  volume of his important,  contemporaine: "A h i s t o r i a n a naturalist;  may  I have regarded my 22  metamorphosis of an  Taine  in the preface to  Les O r i g i n e s de l a France  be allowed  the p r i v i l e g e of  s u b j e c t the same as the  insect."  In t h i s monumental work, Taine presented image of a France which was  a disturbing  f l o u n d e r i n g in search of i t s ap-  p r o p r i a t e system of government: ...the p o i n t i s to di scover i t , whether i t e x i s t s , and not submit i t to a vote. Our preferences in t h i s respect would be v a i n ; h i s t o r y and nature have s e l e c t e d f o r us in advance; we must accommodate  99 ourselves to them as i t i s c e r t a i n that they w i l l not accommodate themselves to us. The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l forms a people may enter < and remain are not open to a r b i t r a t i o n , but are determined by i t s c h a r a c t e r and i t s past. 23 Taine's enduring  contribution  to h i s t o r i o g r a p h y l i e s in  his method, which might be termed " s o c i o l o g i c a l " . believed any  given p e r i o d can y i e l d  ture: one  that the events, l i t e r a t u r e , a r t and to the h i s t o r i a n  "mankind i s not a c o l l e c t i o n  Taine  politics  a coherent  of struc-  of o b j e c t s l y i n g next to  another, but a machine of f u n c t i o n a l l y  interrelated  parts;  24 it  i s a system  strategy  and  is s t i l l  given c u l t u r a l  not j u s t a formless p i l e . "  c u r r e n t in some c i r c l e s , he f e l t  ments, ( l i k e t h i s  thesis)--can  the e n t i r e human e n t e r p r i s e laws.  any factors  epoch.  This absolute determinism--useful  An  in q u a l i f i e d  be taken  i s seen the r e s u l t of inescapable  imaginative man  A severe c r i t i c  argu-  to an extreme in which  by temperament, Taine  never became o v e r l y r e d u c t i v e , but he f e l t have been.  that  event was a product of three converging 25  race, m i l i e u and  mechanical  Taine's  that he ought to  of Taine has remarked:  in Tainism and H i t l e r i s m c i v i l i z a t i o n  "both  has been replaced by  26 biology."  This i s perhaps  the d r i f t it  of p o s i t i v i s t  u n f a i r , but i t points out  d i s c o u r s e about  history  that  i s to render  a natural s c i e n c e . Despite Taine's i c y o b j e c t i v i t y - - o r  objectivity--his writing L i t t r e " and function  has a deep c l a s s b i a s .  Renan, or f o r that matter  as a h i s t o r i a n  his claim to  as p o l i t i c a l .  Like Comte,  Marx, Taine saw  his  Taine apparently jug-  100 gled h i s f a c t s to support  h i s personal  political  beliefs;  Cobban c h a r a c t e r i z e s Taine's method in t h i s regard as 27 " v i c i o u s from i t s foundation".  The main attack of Les  O r i g i n e s was upon the R e v o l u t i o n , r e v o l u t i o n in g e n e r a l , and  by e x t e n s i o n , the a s p i r a t i o n s of the working c l a s s e s .  His Revolution brush  i s a beggar's r e v o l t which he painted with a  d r i p p i n g with gore r a t h e r than  gl o i re.  This  unplea-i-  sant p i c t u r e of the Revolution was " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e p r i v i n g 28 ^ Frenchmen of j o y in t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l was a key f a c t o r on Taine  the malaise  And  of the Third Republic.  had thought that the c r i s i s of modernity had had  i t s roots i n the enlightenment. was deeply  image."  flawed  Eighteenth  as f a r as Taine was concerned.  name of Reason, the eighteenth century man that was an automaton.  discourse  In the  invented an image of  The eighteenth  was r e a l l y a form of c o u r t l y elegance, with empiricism,  century  century  "Raison"  a l t o g e t h e r impatient  i t strove f o r the n i c e l y rounded aphorism.  Ideas about e q u a l i t y o r i g i n a t e in a c o u r t l y context, but are only f u n c t i o n a l as a c o r o l l a r y of the symmetrical Versailles.  Out of t h e i r context, that i s , in the s t r e e t s  of P a r i s , they become dangerous.  They i n c i t e  whom Taine did not think very h i g h l y o f : ignorance,  gardens of  cowardice,  were the p r i n c i p l e  the masses,  "Stupidity, violence, i n g r e d i e n t s that God 29  mixed together when making . the human race." Taine's  unrelenting  determinism  and his d e s i r e "to  communicate to the sciences c a l l e d moral and p o l i t i c a l  that  101 absolute  c e r t a i n t y which l i k e a l l s c h o l a r s and  of h i s generation physical context  he was accustomed to a t t r i b u t e to the  or n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , " place h i s f i r m l y w i t h i n the of p o s i t i v i s t  discourse.  His f e l l o w i n t e l l e c t u a l , Ernest surely placed, yet positivist.  takes  Renan, can not be so  up themes and a t t i t u d e s of the  Comte had t r i e d  to cast h i s Church of Humanity  over the be"an ce which pure s c i e n t i s m l e f t r e l i g i o n , Renan went one b e t t e r . described gild  philosophers  Renan:  As an American  critic  "no one knew b e t t e r than Renan how to  p o s i t i v i s m with  religiosity  t i o n s of the s c i e n t i f i c finite."  in the place of  and throw around the opera-  i n t e l l e c t a vague aroma of the i n -  3 0  Renan's i d e*e f i xe was to r e c o n c i l e r e l i g i o n but  and s c i e n c e ,  u n l i k e Comte, h i s p r i o r i t y was the r e l i g i o u s :  sole value  of science  i s i n s o f a r as i t can replace  In h i s 1 864 s ucce-s de s canda.le,  between h i g h l y sentimental  f e e l i n g and a s c i e n t i f i c  spirit  look  of i n q u i r y . century  the supernatural  which r e q u i r e f a i t h stead of c a l l i n g  s e n t i m e n t a l i t y might  and f a n t a s t i c aspects  to s u s t a i n one's b e l i e f  f o r an end to the' r e l i g i o u s  calls  f o r a renewal, based not on f a i t h  ing.  Renan was, i n c i d e n t l y , married  religious  Those i n t e r e s t e d  to Renan f o r t h e i r ultimate t h e o r i t i c i a n .  jected  religion."  Le Vie de Je'sus, Renan'  struck a note of concord  in the phenomenon of nineteenth  "The  Renan r e of r e l i g i o n - -  in them.  But i n -  s e n s i b i l i t y he  but on a e s t h e t i c f e e l  to the niece of that  supreme master of r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , Ary Renan a s t u t e l y observed that the is  rooted  in repressed  rather  religion.  than as an  did with high  Both introduce  between f a i t h  between a c l a s s i c a l aestheticism  and  contemplation  of the  Beauty and  human  an  limit—to  say  as signs  of  Ge'rome, but  s p e c i a l attaintments  they of  bi ol ogi c a l - - r a t h e r than  the the  shimmering appearance of something e t e r n a l , beyond  human l i m i t , The  the  r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g occupy a .  or rather  s e x u a l — o n e might as well dim,  and  Ideas, to a d i v i n e C h r i s t , to an i n -  in the worlds of Renan and  became d i s t i l a t i o n s  difference  from being  v i s i b i l i t y - - to a movement toward these things  place  The  paintings.  outward motion towards a world beyond the  "high"  the  realms.  Ideal  In both cases the movement i s reversed  the merely human.  what  realism--in  sentiment i s the  of the e p i c u r i a n neo-grec  P l a t o n i c forms and  actual  a r t and  sense of that word--into metaphysical  difference  explains  There i s something of a  between what -Gerome  Renan did with literary  convincingly  emotion as a human need rather  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the d i v i n e . parallel  power of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g  sexuality.  In Le Vie de Je'sus, he religious  Scheffer.  Influence  l i k e a cosmological of P o s i t i v i s m on  Nineteenth century which I have t r i e d  harmony or the  discourse  to point out  the  God.  Arts has  themes and  patterns  in t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .  To  sum  103 up:  i t focuses  on  h i s t o r y , as  leading  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our  sense.  This  i s why  we  Flaubert century  commented:  "The  is i t s h i s t o r i c a l  have to confine  ourselves  to  relating  32 the  facts."  logical  This close a t t e n t i o n to h i s t o r y took a s o c i o -  b i a s , l a r g e l y because s o c i e t y f o r the  operated under the tists assumed the sciences  are  first  time  laws of a u n i f i e d economic system.  r o l e of r e l i g i o n ,  held  The  Scien-  methods of the  up as a u n i v e r s a l epistemology.  a l s o note that p o s i t i v i s m i s e s s e n t i a l l y the  natural  One  might  thought of  bourgeois t h i n k e r s anxious to solve contemporary problems without ceding The M.  t h e i r power to the masses.  i n f l u e n c e of p o s i t i v i s m was  deep and  widespread.  Ferrez wrote in 1882:  " P o s i t i v i s m . . . h a s become nowadays 33 the dominant philosophy." L. Dugas in 1895 wrote: "Comte dominates our age...his vast d o c t r i n e nourishes the various 34  currents in  1958  of modern thought." that:  "The  majority  tury France) e i t h e r declared  Jaques Barzun could of t h i n k i n g men  declare  ( i n XlXth  cen-  themselves P o s i t i v i s t s or 35  acted  as such without knowing that they were." Emile L i t t r e the  T h i r d Republic;  him.  In 1871  great  thinkers  held his  had  a s p e c i a l i n f l u e n c e on  Gambetta and  Gambetta announced that Comte was of t h i s  century,"  D i c t i o n a r y of the  and  "one  at a banquet in  of the f i r s t  French Language, he s a i d :  the f r e e and  founders of  Ferry were both indebted  to honour Littre"'s completion  honoured to be  the  devoted servants  of  of that  the  1873,  section "We  to  of  are doctrine  104 which i t i s your ( L i t t r e s ) mission  to spread.... The day  1  will  c e r t a i n l y come when p o l i t i c s ,  restored  to i t s true  role,...wi11 once again be what i t should be, a moral  science  ....On that day your phi 1osophy--and o u r s - - w i l l have umphed."  36  Taine was instrumental l i b r e des sciences function tical  tri-  in the founding of the Ecol e  politiques.  of t h i s school  According to Gargan the  was to defuse the l e f t  examination of the ' m i l l e n a r y '  "by a c r i -  socialists  from Babeuf  to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l , thus exposing the dreams of the ignor37 ant  implanted by the semi-ignorant."  Bloch,  has a t t r i b u t e d the s o c i a l  The h i s t o r i a n , Marc  d i s u n i t y of the T h i r d  Republic in part to the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s s c h o o l : Ecole  des sciences  of the scions  "The  p o l i t i q u e s was always the s p i r i t u a l  of t h e . r i c h and powerful  families.  I t s gradu-  ates f i l l e d the embassies, the Treasury, the council 38 and the p u b l i c audit o f f i c e . " And  home  of s t a t e  in 1917, Clemenceau, pausing in f r o n t of Bonnat's  p o r t r a i t of Renan was heard to remark:  "'H don't show defer-  ence to many men, but I do to him, f o r he has made us what 39 we a re. " Positivism's as  i t s influence  influence  on the arts was as widespread  among p o l i t i c i a n s  Adam, sal on i s te f o r L i t t r e ' , Ferry tivists  remarked:  "The ideas  and men of power, J u l i e t t e and other republican  of. Auguste Comte and of L i t t r e '  were i n f l u e n c i n g a r t ( i n the 60's) in the most curious Altruism,  posi-  association, synthesis,  way.  humanity were everyone's  105 watchwords and  stock  in t r a d e . "  4 0  These words from ail  courent vocabulary seem to come from Renan rather  than  Li ttre'. Flaubert, Taine and Princess  Zola, Saint-Beuve and  Renan w e l l . Mathilde's  and  The  the Goncourts knew  Goncourts have depicted  at the Magny dinners.  them at  Zola's  Le  Roman experimentale i s held by some to have been i n s p i r e d 41 by  the positivist  France's Thais sex  and  philosopher, i s an e x p o s i t i o n  religion.  troduction  Claude Bernard.  to the  Flaubert  Anatole  of Renan's t h e o r i e s  asked Renan to w r i t e  about  the i n -  second version of his Temptation of St.  42 An tony.  More important than these s p e c i f i c  contact was  points  the s o c i o l o g i c a l approach that Zola and  took in t h e i r novels, which r e a l l y  cannot be  Flaubert  said to have  been " i n f l u e n c e d " by p o s i t i v i s m , rather p o s i t i v i s m literature  of  and  p a r t i c i p a t e d in s i m i l a r modes of d i s c o u r s e ,  arose in response to dramatic s h i f t s . i n  the way  which  society  was  organized. Of course p o s i t i v i s m was was  a r e a c t i o n against  and  touching  Baudelaire,  belief  in the  the e n t i r e p i c t u r e .  Hugo's spooks, Flaubert's irrational,  Eliphas.  There deep  Le v i ' s mag i e  Rimbaud, V e r l a i n e , Mallarme', Gustave Moreau  Huysmans are only stance was  it.  not  a few  resolute  and  of Ge'rome's contemporaries whose  in i t s o p p o s i t i o n  to the  positivist  esprit.  However, I have d e l i b e r a t e l y accounted f o r those d i s c u r s i v e models which I f e l t most i l l u m i n a t e d the work of Gerome.  106 Gerome's H i s t o r y  Paintings  In some ways, Ge'rome's more serious by  serious  one  means simply  having a serious  n e c e s s a r i l y cast in the mail d of high that Gerome worked out  history painting —  a r t - - develops themes,  in the neV-grec p a i n t i n g s .  of c r u e l t y and  sadism that g l i t t e r below the  paintings  The  at  like  1874  with  the openly b r u t a l  surface  Verso d e p i c t s — a t  generalization—the  emerge i n t o the  can  even see,  Imperial  level  full  a certain r a r i f i e d  same theme as The  light  box,  Fight.  Only here the  g l a d i a t o r and  i s j u s t one  of The  twenty y e a r s , There are the  Prayer ( 1 863-1 883) being  of 1 859  completely  repainted  c e n t r a l group of the Les  There  The  Christian  worked on  at l e a s t three  for times.  Verso ( f i g . 2 4 ) which  p a i n t i n g made into a bronze,  Rentrees des  which  (fig.'21) of which  ( f i g . 2 3 ) was  s c u l p t u r a l groups l i k e P o l l i c e  LaMarty re ( f i g. 2 5).  Cock  history.  time of Vitell.ius.  Pol 1i ce Verso i s more or l e s s an emendation. Last  slightly  of a group of p a i n t i n g s  Caesar, M o r i t u r i Te Salutant  Martyr.s';  in the  theme i s more s e r i o u s , instead of a  d e p i c t Roman entertainments in the Ave  Spectators  sits  c o n c e i t about young love i t i s about s o c i e t y and Pol 1i ce Verso  of  or entertainment.  in the f i g u r e of the woman who  j u s t above the standing  level  Cock F i g h t .  to his r i g h t , a v e s t i g e of the young Greek g i r l  is  of  imagery of Pol 1i ce Verso of  watch a b a t t l e to the death f o r pleasure  is  tinges  (fig.22). Pollice  We  The  Cock Fight or Phryne (which on one  l e a s t , i s about h u m i l i a t i o n )  of day  theme, not  felines  dans l a  and  Cirque  Figure 2 2  108  Figure 23  109  Figure  25  m  c. 1901, ( f i g . 2 6 ) , i s an e s p e c i a l l y  grisly  piece of p a i n t i n g .  There are o t h e r s , but these examples serve to show the i n t e n s i t y of Ge'rome's i n t e r e s t  in the s u b j e c t and j u s t  how  graphic he was prepared to be. Ge'rome had been i n t e r e s t e d his youth.  in things g l a d i a t o r i a l ' since  During his year in I t a l y  (1844) he was s t r u c k by  some Roman game armour he had found in a Neopolitan museum. "Voila' qui m'ouvre  un horizon immense!... Comment! tous l e s  p e i n t r e s , tous l e s scuptures sont venus i c i , songe' a r e f a i r e  un g l a d i a t e u r , "  Ge'rome seems s u r p r i s e d  Donatello made a David but not a g l a d i a t o r . began to research the s u b j e c t :  et pas un n'a  He  immediately  "Je me recherche tout ce qui  avait t r a i t  au g l a d i a t e u r : des mosaiques, des p e i n t u r e s ,  des p e t i t e s  s c u l p t u r e s , l e tombeau  c o l l e c t i o n s assez  nombreuse  that .  de Scorus, e t c . . . e t c . . .  car l e s g l a d i a t e u r s ont joue  un role c o n s i d e r a b l e dans l e monde romain :  Panem et c i r -  „43 censes. Note that Ge'rome e x p l a i n s his i n t e r e s t as i f i t was sociological  curiosity,he  Rome of h i s t o r i c a l  isinterested  in the a u t h e n t i c  experience, r a t h e r than Roman high  c u l t u r e ; j u s t as he had been i n t e r e s t e d Greek and Roman l i f e  in anecdotes  from  in his ne'o-grec works, rather than the  Davidian Rome of r e p u b l i c a n v i r t u e s . This s o c i o l o g i c a l one.  Gerome was  of g l a d i a t o r i a l  i n t e r e s t was  informed by a personal  charmed by the strangeness and b a r b a r i t y equipment.  I am not j o k i n g when I suggest  Figure  26  113 that t h i s material , which he longed to possess, which he lovingly  painted  and s c u l p t e d ,  ultimate b r i c - a - b r a c which he could  w  a  s  - j some s e c r e t way the n  f o r him; the ultimate  impose a f a n c i e r ' s value  c o l l e c t a b l e upon,  of some sexual  signi-  ficance. In Pol l i c e were the real painted  Verso and Ave Caesar the armour and weaponry  subjects  of the p a i n t i n g .  to c o r r e c t i n a c c u r a c i e s  Pol 1i ce Verso was  in Ave Caesar, "which was 44  incorrect iably  i n several  archaeological  used a r t i f a c t s  points."  Ge'rome prob--  in the Po u r t a l e's-Gorgi er. col 1 e c t i on to  make P o l l i c e Verso and he also had a f r i e n d ship casts of armour to Paris from o r i g i n a l s Gerome had found in a Roman 45 '* museum. According to an American student, i t cost Gerome three thousand do!1ars to have armour made from these c a s t s , t h i s would almost be more than he could  reasonably expect  46 to get f o r the f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g .  This  d r i v e f o r absolute  accuracy in d e t a i l was important because " . . . i t general  physiognomy and gives  the characters  barbarous, savage and strange aspect."  an e s p e c i a l  He hired a model to  wear the armour and the fantasy was complete: wrote Ge'rome, "dressed  adds to the  "My model,"  up i n them i s f o r a l l i n t e n t s and 47  purposes a g l a d i a t o r . " Ge'rome may have had s e v e r a l painted  this  s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s .  things  in mind when he  Of course, there was the  p r o s a i c reason of expense, once c e r t a i n costumes and a r t i f a c t s had been c o l l e c t e d , a c e r t a i n amount of time  invested  114 in  r e s e a r c h , Ge'rome n a t u r a l l y  had to make more than  one  p a i n t i n g . f r o m them, or he would have gone bankrupt. as I have suggested, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r theme was  But,  important to  him f o r personal reasons. In his s e r i e s of Roman s p e c t a c l e s , Gerome uses a " s o c i o logical"  style.  As one  critic  put i t : "He  wished  to photo-  47 graph  Greek and  Roman l i f e . "  -But t h i s had  been the method  of his ethnographic p a i n t i n g s as w e l l . I think that we  can assume that the Roman s p e c t a c l e s  are a c r i t i q u e of c i v i l i z a t i o n , of the b a r b a r i t y of mankind. Po11i ce Verso was Prussian war  and  P a r i s Commune. quested  painted three years a f t e r the the formation and brutal  supression of the  In.a l e t t e r to a young American  that he e x p l a i n  Franco-  who  had re-  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of P o l l i c e  Verso,  Ge'rome wrote:  " . . . t h a t the turned down thumb meant death to  the vanquished  and that when the Roman people wished  to  impart grace to the g l a d i a t o r who  had gone down but  fought v a l i a n t l y , they r a i s e d  f i n g e r s of the r i g h t hand  two  had  48 in the a i r . "  This is the gesture which the f a l l e n  in the p a i n t i n g was  they who  implores the v e s t a l  made the d e c i s i o n .  " t h i s grace was o f f times, man  gladiator  v i r g i n s to make, as i t  "But,"  Ge'rome continued,  r a r e l y accorded f o r in those r e l a t i v e l y f a r was  already almost as f e r o c i o u s  ( f e r o c e ) as  49 he i s today."  Certainly,such  c y n i c i s m was  considered an  elegant mode of conversation in the Second Empire and but Ge'rome has not only tossed o f f a bon mot,  beyond,  he has laboured  115 over a s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s which emphasize the b r u t a l i t y man.  We  letter  should  that he f e l t  century,  which he  disorder",  protagonists selves we  we can we may  epoch of moral and  t e n t a t i v e l y engaged.  in something of the  recoil  viewer f o r As  would  too  passed and  late.  the  the  in the  and  vanquished  (Note that t h i s  is not  group, where  p o s i t i o n of that Roman mob And  given  in r e c o i l i n g withdraw any  f o r the young man  and  this situation f e e l i n g we  about to d i e .  uneasiness i s c l o s e to the e s p r i t of P o l l i c e  is  our-  c e r t a i n l y , i f i t were up to us we  t h e i r -decision) .  Geromes,,  the  spectators  speaking with t h e s c u l p t u r a l  wish to have had  l i k e other  intellectual  crowd  are more l i t e r a l l y  only  nineteenth  same p o s i t i o n as the  i s making his plea  perhaps reverse  in his  been in Roman times.  Verso, the sympathy of the  case, s t r i c t l y  can  "an  clemency--but that moment has  fighter the  called  i s only  are  suggested  that things were worse in the  the p a i n t i n g , and  grant  s e r i o u s l y when he  than they had  In P o l l i c e  in  take him  of  This  Verso--which  i s rather macabre--and I b e l i e v e that i t  r e a c t i o n Ge'rome wishes to invoke and  by so doing make  h i s p o i n t. We  cannot r e a l l y work up much f e e l i n g f o r the  t a g o n i s t s when the r e s u l t of the conclusion. given  The  context  pro-  i s such a foregone  winner i s not much b e t t e r o f f than the  his occupation.  He w i l l ,  adversary, but not out of any have; t h i s d e c i s i o n  no  loser,  doubt, slay his young  volition  i s quite l i t e r a l l y  that he himself  may  in the  others.  hands,of  116 In  fact  his v i c t o r y only r e i f i e s  week, he w i l l is  tomorrow, next  be in the same g h a s t l y circumstance.  I f there  no rescue from t h i s arena other than death, then the  extension of l i f e victor  which  v i c t o r y brings hardly matters.  death.  In  other p a i n t i n g s Gerome a m p l i f i e s  is  about the meaninglessness  in  an arena of a c t i o n  historical In  of i n d i v i d u a l  c i r c u m s c r i b e d by fate  Ge'rome's Death  of Marshal  r e f e r s to his Death  year before.  two events.  :  before i t was  As an Ecole des Beaux-Arts  Ney  the Marshal  made.  refused  ( f i g . 2 8 ) painted between the  Ney  painting  p r o f e s s o r there was  little  caused 1868.  that  the p a i n t i n g , but an  Gerome reported the event as f o l l o w s :  times not to e x h i b i t  (Nieuwerkerke)  begged  "The me  t h i s p i c t u r e ; but I stead-  to y i e l d , f o r the sake of the p r i n c i p l e i n -  volved, d e c l a r i n g  pens."  in the guise of  e x h i b i t e d at the Salon of  superintendant of the Beaux-Arts  write t h e i r  volition  of 186 8, ( f i g . 2 7 ) he  of Caesar  could be done to stop him from hanging  several  a c t i o n and  He thereby begs a comparison  The b r u t a l i t y o f  a controversy  e f f o r t was  t h i s theme, which  necessity.  deliberately  fastly  Our  i s a h e l p l e s s puppet whose only sure prospect i s a  violent  the  his f a t e :  to him that p a i n t e r s  has as good a r i g h t to  h i s t o r y with t h e i r brushes as authors with  Gerome's " p r i n c i p l e "  their  here i s almost a paraphrase of  Delaroche, from whom Ge'rome probably r e c e i v e d  this  particular  50 form of the idea of the a r t i s t as a h i s t o r i a n .  Ge'rome added,  Figure  -28  118 not a l i t t l e  coyly;  "Besides,  this  ment of a well-known f a c t , without Of course, detached  Ge'rome's c o l d and  brutality  i s , in f a c t ,  p i c t u r e i s only a s t a t e comment of any  kind."  " o b j e c t i v e " eye,  5 1  with i t s  "comment" enough as  i t hardly  evokes the heroic mood that Nieuwerkerke might have wished to surround  such subject-matter.  After a l l ,  Gerome could  chosen another moment, he could have depicted Ney shot, or l i k e  Manet, in his Execution  have  about to be  of Maximi H i an,  he  52 could have shown Ney once great general looks and  lying  shot.  and  Instead,  he shows us  face down in the mud--Ge'rome' s  l i k e a sack of potatoes  f o r g o t t o n , Ney  they  being  that was  jostled  Ney  from a c a r t  Caesar have not only been murdered,  have been abandoned. A l b e r t Boime has w r i t t e n of these  the f i g u r e s in what we protagonists  take  do not achieve  as t y p i c a l  p a i n t i n g s : "Unlike history paintings,  isolation, pitted  the overwhelming predominance of f o r c e s outside  harshly a g a i n s t 53 them."  In Ge'rome's L ' 0 e d i pe ( f i g . 2 9) , shown at the he d e p i c t s a diminutive  Giza.  From the  title  one  Napoleon before  general sphinx.  But  Imperial  by removing the  izes the s i t u a t i o n  and  of  the Sphinx at  sandstone  from t h i s p a i n t i n g ( f i g . 3 0 ) Ge'rome had  an answer, an  Salon  must assume that Napoleon expects  some r e v e l a t i o n of his d e s t i n y from t h i s In a sketch  these  h e r o i c stature but are d i s c l o s e d  in moments of abandonment and  1886,  the  eagle  s i t s on the  creature. given  the  head of the  "answer" or omen, Gerome general-  Napoleon becomes everyman  wondering  Figure 29  Figure 30  121 what i t w i l l  a l l come to--and  knowing s i l e n c e .  r e c e i v i n g by way of a r e p l y a  As Ge'rome's e b u l l i e n t biographer, Fanny  F i e l d Hering put i t : The sphinx rears i t s massive head, and regards with a calmness born of absolute knowledge the vain s t r u g g l e s of a pygmy wor1d...(Napoleon) mutely demands of the o r a c l e the s e c r e t of his future. In vain! the steady gaze passes over even h i s head--on--on--doubtless beholding the snowy steppes of Russia, reddened with blood and the l i g h t of c o n f l a g r a t i o n ; the wounded eagle t r a i l i n g h i s broken wings over the f i e l d of Waterloo; a l o n e l y rock, at the base of which the sea makes incessant moan.. But there is no warning, no s i g n . ^ 4  The world which Ge'rome has made in these p a i n t i n g s i s rigorously  d e t e r m i n i s t i c ; men do not make h i s t o r y in Gerome's  paintings,  rather  they are undone by h i s t o r y .  manner of p a i n t i n g hard, p o l i s h e d the d e t a i l attempted dwarfs  surface,  dwelt  fits  h i s theme.  His  h i s t i g h t l i n e , absent of p e r s o n a l i t y ,  upon as promiscuously  to i m i t a t e the photograph,  as i f the canvases  and the composition  which  the p r o t a g o n i s t s i n . l a r g e , somewhat menacing a r c h i -  tectural  spaces, a l l serve to bring  determinism. attempt kind",  i n these p i c t u r e s  Gerome's  This  forward the theme of  technique, what one might c a l l  at a "blank" s t y l e , a s t y l e "without has a l l the appearances  One commonly a s s o c i a t e s the f a c u l t y , r a t h e r in the a c t i v i t i e s associated  Gerome's  comment  of any  of p o s i t i v i s t o b j e c t i v i t y . o b j e c t i v i t y with p o s i t i v i s m , as  than s u b j e c t i v i t y , which the mind deploys  of the natural  with r e a l i s m ,  sciences.  in p a i n t i n g as well  Objectivity is as l i t e r a t u r e .  122 Gerald Ackerman, who Gerome, has realist"  has  done a great deal of work on  c o n s i s t e n t l y described Ge'rome as an  or as a " r e a l i s t " ,  "academic  l a r g e l y because of the  photo-  54 graphic  s t y l e of his p a i n t i n g s .  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d one. rightly  But  this  As Merleau-Ponty has  pointed out, quite  I t h i n k , a photograph.: of a Cezanne motif  l e s s somehow " r e a l "  than  we  nineteenth  invoke  when we  century  say  painting.  "realist" On  the  but a s p e c i a l put together term was  used  of i l l u s i o n  than  in reference to a  l a t t e r occasion we mean we  often do_ not  in a h i g h l y f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g - -  range of subject-matter. the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n in the c r i t i c a 1  Obviously  i s implied here  not only a p a r t i c u l a r manner of painting--and mean the c l a r i t y  looks 56  the p a i n t i n g of i t does.  a d i f f e r e n t meaning of the word " r e a l " the one  issue i s not a  Bernard  Wienberg  of " r e a l i s m " as  1 i t e r a t u r e between 1830  has  the and  1870: Realism i s the exact i m i t a t i o n (ca1 que, copy) of nature as i t i s , without choice of subject and . without i d e a l i z a t i o n or i n t r u s i o n of the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , i t emphasises the m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than the s p i r i t u a l aspedts of nature: in matters of form i t d i s d a i n s " s t y l e " , "elegance", "convention". It i s synomous with m a t e r i a l i sme, and pos i t i vi sme and d i r e c t l y opposed to i de'ali sme , r e v e r i e , fan tas i e , poesi e , imagination. 57 ~ This d e f i n i t i o n  only a p p l i e s p a r t i a l l y  t a i n l y he strove f o r o b j e c t i v i t y , and i s t" imagination  of the r e a l .  to Ge'rome. Cer-  that w i t h i n a  However, Ge'rSme was  fender of i de'a 1 i sme , r e v e r i e , f a n t a s i e , poe's ie and  "positiva dethe  123 i magi nation., Are we The  really  prepared  to c a l l  Poet Touched by His Muse ( f i g . 31)  the p a i n t e r of  a realist.  Gerome  himself would have renounced the l a b e l , despite his photographic s t y l e  he had  strong opinions on  realist  subject-  matter: Today, in the epoch of moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s o r d e r there seems to be a sovereign contempt f o r those who seek to e l e v a t e themselves, to move the s p e c t a t o r , to have some i m a g i n a t i o n ; for those who are not content to remain f e t t e r e d to the e a r t h , dabbling in the mud of r e a l i s m . I t is today the fashion to which a l l the world s a c r i f i c e s , because i t i s granted to only a few to have a well-balanced mind, and because i t i s e a s i e r to paint three f r i e d eggs than i t i s to execute the c e i l i n g of the S i s t i n e Chapel.58 What Ge'rome seems to have done was  to wrestle from general  d i s c o u r s e values that espoused o b j e c t i v i t y both  aspects of the p o s i t i v i s t  of the values and Arts  student.  and  determinism--  stance--whi1e r e t a i n i n g many  ideas he r e c e i v e d in his youth  as a Beaux-  For a c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n s we  c a t e g o r i z e nineteenth  century  p a i n t i n g , Ge'rome's p e r s o n a l i t y  is d e c i d e d l y d i v i d e d between r e a l i s m and Academic Gerome worked in d i f f e r e n t in the ethnographic vision  genres,  genre which gave him  to make his r a t h e r s p e c i a l  In 1 854 , i t w i l l  use to  and  i t was  formulae. his work  the means and  the  "serious" history paintings.  be remembered, Ge'rome had  j u s t completed a  grande machine in the I n g r e i s t e mode, he a l s o painted his first  ethnographic  work.  a Recreation Camp was  His p a i n t i n g , Russian  painted  in a photographic  .it a documentary f e e l ing, thi s was p a i n t i n g developed  a s t y l e of  S o l d i e r s in s t y l e to give  ethnographic  in the previous generation by Vernet,  using  124  Figure  31  125 actual  photographs.  From documenting the o r i e n t , Ge'rome began documenting historical  periods.  He used the photographic s t y l e  a f e e l i n g of a u t h e n t i c i t y , a problem, occupied merely  Delaroche and  a high focus and  Renaissance  But they had  used  of d e t a i l , a s o r t of northern  r e a l i s m , to accomplish  same, but he also  which of course, had  Ingres before him. clarity  to give  this.  Gerome did the  uses compositional techniques that can only  have been a r e s u l t of his experience with photography. Death of Caesar scope.  As  i s a case in p o i n t - - i t  in Ave  The  looks l i k e a s t e r e o -  Caesar and other p a i n t i n g s , the  background  recedes with d i z z y i n g speed, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of the sweeping  curves which tend to wrap around  as i f we and  are seeing a f u l l  p u l l s the eye  into the  Gerome's a t t i t u d e matter was and  one  the f i e l d  hundred  of v i s i o n - -  and e i g h t y degrees--  canvas.  towards h i s h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t -  c o n d i t i o n e d by his temperament, he l i k e d  he l i k e d  the e x o t i c and the strange.  romantic side of Gerome f i n d s p r o s a i c values of a p r o v i n c i a l complishment  But t h i s  spectacle almost  i t s e l f expressed through bourgeois, who  in terms of labour r a t h e r than  Ge'rome's emphasis on hard work approaches  the  measured ac^inspiration.  the  compulsive:  I am at work every morning and only leave my studio when the day had f l e d ; and t h i s since my youth. You see I have been hammering on the a n v i l f o r a long time. It i s one of the examples I t r y to set to my pupiils, that of being an ardent and i n d e f a t i g a b l e worker every day and under a l l circumstances.59 Like Renan or Taine, Gerome approached  his s u b j e c t s very  methodically. methods and  He  never acknowledges Taine, but  aims were s i m i l a r .  Taine's  t h e i r worki  attitude  was:  Give up the theory of c o n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r mechanism, of r e l i g i o n s and t h e i r system and try to see men in. t h e i r workshops, in t h e i r o f f i c e s , in t h e i r f i e l d s , with t h e i r sky, t h e i r dress, t i l l a g e , meals, as you do when, landing in England or I t a l y , you remark faces or gestures, roads and inns, a c i t i z e n taking his walk or a workman d r i n k i n g . 60 Ge'rome' s approach to h i s t o r y was  •  much the same:  I have studied much and in many c o u n t r i e s , and have consequently learned a great many things which I t r y to put i n t o p r a c t i s e , always seeki n f to remain natural and t r u e , f o r c i n g myself to d e p i c t the character of the epoch which I represent on the canvas.61 In other words, Ge'rome f e l t  himself to be a h i s t o r i a n  in the Tainian sense, that is he focussed and we  e r a , rather than on take  Pol l i c e  p a i n t i n g has the  i n d i v i d u a l s and  ancient  t h e i r heroisms.  Verso as an example, we  can  a great deal of information  unfolding drama i t s e l f . Rome:  "The  Renan had  c i r c u s had  the r e s t of the world  on m i l i e u , race  see  that  become the  this  in i t , other  declared of centre of  If  than  this life;  seemed made only f o r m i n i s t e r i n g to 62  the pleasures  of Rome."  And  the Colosseum and  Circus  p a i n t i n g s endeavour to show us Roman.-civi1ization. has box,  shown us an e n t i r e s o c i e t y , the  imperial powers in the  the v e s t a l v i r g i n s next to them, the senators  p a t r i c i a n s behind  and  In his V e r s a i l l e s method.  The  Reception  Gerome  beyond them the mob  and  of Rome.  p a i n t i n g s Ge'rome has  much the same  of the Due de Conde ( f i g . 3 2 ) was  made  127 according to one had  felt  account  that t h i s  had  to c e l e b r a t e the s t a i r c a s e .  been improperly  in the work of a. f r i e n d .  rendered  or " r e s t o r e d "  So t h i s p a i n t i n g , d e s p i t e i t s  i n t e r e s t as an anecdote, i s l a r g e l y a s c h o l a r l y Gerome i s saying--as  looked  like'.  to the a c t i o n .  It was  Taine who  there were s t r u c t u r a l  similarities  t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r  culture.  that we really  could not f u l l y  understand  felt,  immensely  declared that  between a l l manifestaGe'rome must have  thought  the story here — which i s  only a gracious comment by the king-- unless we  what that s t a i r c a s e way  And  i s what  Ge'rome probably  as Taine would have, that the a r c h i t e c t u r e was important  rebuttal.  much as anything e l s e — ' t h i s  the s t a i r c a s e a c t u a l l y  Gerome  looked  like.  That  Ge'rome f e l t  knew  this  i s brought out even more in his famous L'Eminence g r i s e  (fig.33).  In t h i s p a i n t i n g the syncopated  the stream  of c o u r t i e r s - - i n  to i n t r i g u e as we of the essence  gestures  which e l a b o r a t e courtesy  mount the s t a i r s — a r e  of turns  themselves an image  of a p a r t i cul ar. c ul ture ; j u s t as the frenzy  of the Roman p i c t u r e s was  an  image of the essence  of that  culture. The  ethnographic  p a i n t i n g s , with t h e i r emphasis on  "type" are a l s o examples of Ge'rome's t y p i c a l l y century  ( i . e . p o s t i v i s t ) penchant f o r e x t r a c t i n g the  from the p a r t i c u l a r .  Or to put  of those  general  i t more a c c u r a t e l y , t h i s  tendancy to present an array of p a r t i c u l a r s and sum  nineteenth  present  the  p a r t i c u l a r s as the g e n e r a l . For Ge'rome and  his  128  Figure  33  129 colleagues  in philosophy  of i t s p a r t s .  As  and  a critic  [Gerome] i s the f i r s t  h i s t o r y . t h e whole was  the  sum  noted of Gerome s p a i n t i n g s :  "He  1  French p a i n t e r who  has  been  scrupulous  64 to give  a l l the p a r t i c u l a r s . "  A parallel  found in Taine, whose method was of c u l t u r a l  approach i s  u l t i m a t e l y the  arrangement  facts into a structure.  Gerome's determinism, his v i s i o n of a l i e n t a t i o n and isolation but  which comes out not  in a l i f e l o n g  Boime has  very  s e r i e s of l i o n  discussed  seau's Sleeping  only  paintings  (which A l b e r t  in h i s , "Jean-Leon Ge'rome, Henri 65  Gypsy and  the Academic Legacy.:  around, at any  and  "the  methods of the natural of the  Gerome assumes f o r h i m s e l f ,  lations But artist.  docu-  perhaps i t i s the  other  rate determinism, often of a bleak v a r i e t y ,  is because the aim  past—is  Or  Rous-  ), i s  much a r e s u l t of his s o c i o l o g i c a l / p h o t o g r a p h i c  way  scientist" social  go  hand in hand.  scientist—a  both of the o r i e n t and  role of  the  to d i s c o v e r , as Comte would have i t , " l e u r s rei n v a r i a b l e de Gerome was He  presents  succession  Napoleon and  his Ney  et de s i m i l i t u d e . "  not a s c i e n t i s t essays on  where the game i s f i x e d .  the  history  paintings  mentary approach to his s u b j e c t s .  This  in the  are  who  an  His g l a d i a t o r s , his Caesar, struck  down by the juggernaut of Ney  and  shaped h i s t o r y , but men  executed when they t r i e d  he was  i n v a r i a b l e laws; microc.osims  determinable laws of h i s t o r y .  presented as men  in t h i s way,  to trespass  Caesar are who  beyond the  not  were limits  of  the  historically  poss i.bl e--th i s i s Ge'rome's v i s i o n of  tragedy. Both Taine's and. Gerome's view of a l i e n a t e d a common r o o t , or can be explained phenomena.  P o s i t i v i s m , a f t e r a l l , was a r e a c t i o n  of study at t h i s h i s t o r i c a l  time, and f o r the f i r s t  have  by the same s o c i a l  development of c a p i t a l i s m , and s o c i e t y object  man  i s perceived  to the as an  moment because at t h i s  time, i f we are to b e l i e v e  and Marx, s o c i e t y as a whole became subject  Polanyi  to one set of  laws--the laws of the s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g market economy.  131 Notes - Chapter IV  'As c i t e d  by Hering, 189, o p . c i t .  p.493.  2 R. F l i n t , A n t i - T h e i s t i c T h e o r i e s , Edinburgh, 1917,p.505. Quoted in D.G. C h a r l t o n , P o s i t i v i s t Thought in France During the Second Empire 1852-1870, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1959, p.5 D.G.  The approach I have in mind i s the one employed C h a r l t o n , see note above.  by  Auguste Comte, Cours de p h i l o s o p h i e p o s i t i v e , i , 1 864, pp.9-10. Quoted in C h a r l t o n , o_p_.cJ_t. , p.6. 5  Lesek Kolakowski , The A l i e n a t i o n of Reason: A H i s t o r y of P o s i t i v i s t Thought, ( t r a n s . Norbert Guterman) New York, 1968, p.6. "Claude Bernard quoted by Henri Bergson in The" C r e a t i v e Mind, Greenwood P r e s s , New York, 1988, p.243' T h i s paragraph was paraphrased from Ko1 akowski , o p . c i t . pp.7-8. Kolakowski w r i t e s : "...we are not to assume that any value a s s e r t i o n . ( K o l a k o w s k i ' s examples are that i t i s "good" to cure the s i c k and that i t i s "bad" to abuse c h i l d r e n ) that we recognize as true " i n i t s e l f " , r a t h e r than in r e l a t i o n to something e l s e , can be j u s t i f i e d by experience."-Idem. 7  0_p_. c_i_t. , p. 210.  u  9 ...Karl P o l a n y i , The Great Transformation: The P o l i t i c a l and Economic O r i g i n s of our Time, Foreward by Robert M.MacIver. "Beacon Press, Boston, 1957, p.84. Georg Luka'cs, H i s t o r y and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist D i a l e c t i c s , (trans Rodney L i v i n g s t o n e ) Merlin Press, London, 1968, p.92. 10  1 1  Ibid,  p.19.  C h a r l t o n , o p . c i t . , p.'2<L_  132 ]3 Quoted by Linda 1971 , p.45. 1 4  Karl  Nochlin  Polayni, Ibid,  in Realism, Penguin Books,  p.84.  15 George Boas, French P h i l o s o p h i e s of the Romantic P e r i o d , John Hopkins Press: B a l t i m o r e , 1925, p.254. I b i d . p.270f. Boas i s summarizing^the contents Saint-Simon's L e t t r e s d'un Habitant de Geneve, 1803. 17  of  Luka'cs, o p . c i t . , p.193.  18 "Ce n'est pas aux l e c t e u r s de cet ouvrage que je c r o i r a i jamais devoir prouver que les ide'es gouvernent et bouleve.rsent l e monde, ou, en d'autres termes, que tout le mecanisme s o c i a l repose final.ement sur des o p i n i o n s , l i s savent sur.tout que l a grande c r i s e p o l i t i q u e et morale des societes.; a c t u e l l e s t i e n t , en derniere analyse, ai I'anarchi'e i n te 11 ect uel 1 e. " As c i t e d in C h a r l t o n , o p . c i t . , p.38. "Here (on the question of the Law of Three Stages) L i t t r e ' and his c o l l a b o r a t o r s could reproduce the master's voice f a i t h f u l l y , so much so that L i t t r e ' p r a i s e d Comte's work as the f i r s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s t o r y and claimed that i t was in t h i s f i e l d . . . t h a t he had been an accomplished s p e c i a l i s t , apart from his s y n t h e s i z i n g achievements in philosophy." W.M. Simon in European P o s i t i v i s m in the Nineteenth Century, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press: Ithaca, New York, 1963. p.30. From L i t t r e ' s inaugural and only l e c t u r e from the c h a i r of H i s t o r y at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1871. Quoted in W.M. Simon, European P o s i t i v i s m in the Nineteenth Century: An Essay in I n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, Ithaca, New York, 1963, p.30. 21  ' In November of 1863 the Ecole des Beaux-Arts was completely overhauled under the then Superintendant of Beaux-Arts, Count Nieuwerkerke. A l b e r t Boime has an f o r t h coming a r t i c l e on these reforms ( f o r Art Q u a r t e r l y ) . They are a l s o d e s c r i b e d by Ernest Vinet in a " L e t t e r from P a r i s , "Fine Arts Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, n.s., October, 1866, pp.432-446. Among the more important reforms was the i n s t a l l a t i o n of three master s t u d i o s within the ecole i t s e l f f o r p a i n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , previous to 1863 only drawing i n s t r u c t i o n had taken place on the e'col e premises.  1 33 22  From the Preface to Volume I of The Ancient Regime ( t r a n s . John Durand) H. Holt & Co., New York, 1876. Rep r i n t e d in The O r i g i n s of Contemporary France, ed. Edward T. Gargan, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1974, p.6. 23 Ibid,  p.4.  24 Hippolyte Taine, "Preface de l a premiere p . i i i . Quoted in Edward O r i g i n s of Contemporary  E s s a i s de c r i t i q u e et d ' h i s t o i r e , e'dition," 12th e d . , , P a r i s , 1913, ;> Gargan, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " in The France, o p . c i t . p . x x v i i .  25 See Linda N o c h l i n , o p . c i t .  p.45.  26 Leo S p i t z e r , "Race", in Essays in H i s t o r i c a l Semanti cs, .New York, 1948, p.155, as quoted in Gargan, o p . c i t . p.xxvi i i . 27 A l f r e d Cobban, " H i s t o r i a n s and the Causes of the French R e v o l u t i o n , " in Aspects of the French Revolution New York, 1 968, p.43-44, as quoted in Gargan, o p .: c i t. , p. xi i . 28 Gargan, o p . c i t . , p. x l . 29 Hippolyte Taine, L i f e and L e t t e r s , ( t r a n s . R.L. Devonshire), 3 v o l s . , New York, 1902-08 I: p.137, as quoted in Gargan, o p . c i t . , p.xx. 30 I. Babbit, The Masters.of French C r i t i c i s m , Boston, p.271, as quoted Tn Char! ton , o p . c i t , p . 86 .  1912, 31  As quoted by Emile Faguet, P o l i t i c i a n s and M o r a l i s t s of The Nineteenth. Century, Books f o r L i b r a r i e s Press rep r i n t : F r e e p o r t , New York, 1 970 , p.276. 32 As quoted  in Linda N o c h l i n , o p . c i t . , p.23.  33 In S o c i a l isme natural isme and p o s i t i v i s m e 4th ed. Pari s., n . d. ; f i r s t pub. 1882 , p.313, as quoted in Simon, o p . c i t . , p.90. 34 In "Auguste Comte: Etude c r i t i q u e et psychologique ," in Revue phi1osophique , XL, 1 895 , pp.397-398, as quoted in Simon, I b i d .  1 34 35  Darwin, Marx, Wagner: C r i t i q u e of a H e r i t a g e , 2nd ed. Garden C i t y , New York, 1958, p.49. 36 From a speech made^in 1 873 honoring L i t t r e on the completion of his Dictionnaire de l a langue f r a n c h i s e , as 155 quoted in W.M. Simon, o p f c i t. , p 37  Gargan, o p . c i t . , p.xxxv. Gargan i s summarizing Taine's a r t i c l e , "Fondation de l'e'cole l i b r e des sciences p o l i t i q u e s , " t h i s .origina11y appeared in the Journal des debats and was r e p r i n t e d in Derniers e s s a i s de c r i t i q u e et d ' h i s t o i r e , P a r i s , 192 3. (  3o  New  Marcel Bloch, Strange Defeat, t r a n s . Gerard Hopkins, York, 1 968, p.159, as quoted in Gargan, o p . c i t . , p.xxxvi 39  This i n c i d e n t  i s recounted in Wardman, o p . c i t . , p.209  40 J u l l i e t t e Adam, My L i t e r a r y in S i mon , o p . c i t . , p.163.  L i f e , p.365, as quoted  " H i s [Bernard's] adventures were almost i n e v i t a b l y led to f e e l that s c i e n c e and knowledge were synonymous; Zola's Le Roman experimental i s only the most n o t o r i o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n of the scientist's profound plh.i 1 osophical impact." C h a r l t o n , o p . c i t . p .73. 4 1  A  42 Wardman, o p . c i t . , p.210 reports t h i s Renan's i n t r o d u c t i o n , although w r i t t e n , was not published with F l a u b e r t ' s book. 43  A  Moreau-Vathier, C h a r l e s . Gerome, p e i n t r e et s c u l p t e u r , 1'homme et l ' a r t i s t e , D'apres sa correspondance, ses notes, les souvenirs de ses eleves et de ses amis. P a r i s , 1906, L i b r a i r e Hachette et C i e . , p.65. 44  Hering, 1892,i op.ci t  88.  45, 'Albert Bo i me . wri tes : "Ge'rome sought out the banker's set of g l a d i a t o r armour to ensure that his p a i n t i n g Pol 1i ce Verso would possess a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . " in "(Entrepreneurial Patronage, in Nineteenth Century France," o p . c i t . , p . 149.  1 35 46  The student in question was J. Alden Wier, who l a t e r took up the cuase of Impressionism in America; from Dorothy Wier Young (ed. & i n t r o ) , The L i f e and L e t t e r s of J. Alden Wier, New Haven, 1960, p . 4 7 ~ : Fre'de'ri c Masson ine'dites," in Les Arts 47  48 49  ed. " J . L . Ge'rome Notes et Feb. 1904, p.26.  Benson , o p . c i t  p.682.  Masson, o p . c i t  p.26.  Fragments  50, 'Delaroche: "L'historien ne s e u t - i l pas tous l e s jours de sa plume pour r e t r a c e r l e s e'voiements de l a v i e l l e ? Pourquoi done defendre au petntre de s e s e r v i r des memes materiaux. pour ens,eigner l a ve'rite' dans toute sa dignite' et sa veritable poesie?" from a l e t t e r quoted in an unsigned a r t i c l e , '"Delaroche" in The Fine Arts Q u a r t e r l y , Vol.2, May, 1864, p.293. "'Hering, 1 889 , op_. c r t . , p.490. 52  * /\ In his catalogue entry f o r the Ge'rome e x h i b i t i o n , o p-c i t. p.65, Ackerman seems to see Marshal Ney as part of an ongoing dialogue with Manet and a response to th.e T a t t e r ' s Execution of M a x i m i l l i a n in p a r t i c u l a r . Ackerman thinks that Ge'rome Ts t r y i n g to be more of a " r e a l i s t " than Manet. "Manet e i t h e r d i d not know or chose to ignore the r e a l i s t dictum--that i t was b e t t e r to show the moment before or a f t e r the deed than the deed i tse 1 f - - wh i ch Ge'rome now f o l l o w s . " This s o - c a l l e d " r e a l i s t " dictum i s in f a c t no such t h i n g . It i s a Davidian theory which comes from Diderot or Lessing (needless to say, i t i s also a cannon of A t t i c tragedy). "Painting...can use but a s i n g l e moment of an a c t i o n , and must t h e r e f o r e choose the most pregnant one, the one most suggestive of what has gone before and what i s to f o l l o w . " (from Lessing's Laocoon. ( t r a n s . E l l e n Frothingham, New York 1963, p.92). In an a r t i c l e which appeared in the Gazette des beaux-arts v o l . 70, 1967, pp.163-176, "Ge>6me and Manet", Ackerman c a r r i e s t h i s on h i s version of a dialogue between Manet and Gerome. 53 Boime, 1971, 54  "GerSme & Rousseau",  Hering, 1 889 , op_. cj_t. , p.485f.  op.cit.  p.4  1 36 0 0  A  In his i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Ge'rome catalogue, o p . c i t . , Ackerman makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i s t ( i . e . Gerome) and the s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i s t ( i . e . Impressionism). He w r i t e s : " I t i s a curious and poorly based p r e j u d i c e of 20th century c r i t i c s to bestow the t i t l e of " r e a l i s m " only upon p i c t u r e s concerned with that which the a r t i s t could see in his "everyday l i f e " , (p.12) This " p r e j u d i c e " is based upon the c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g of the nineteenth century, which as Wienberg has pointed out used the word " r e a l i s t " in regard to a c e r t a i n type of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . Or perhaps t h i s "poorly based " p r e j u d i c e " a r i s e s from Gerome h i m s e l f , who would have c e r t a i n l y never r e f e r r e d to himself as a "realist". Maurice Merleau-ponty, "Cezanne's Doubt," in Sense and Nonsense, Transl ated" by Hubert L. Dreyfus and P a t r i c i a A l l e n Dreyfus. Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974, p . l 3 f . : Ce'zanne wanted to p a i n t t h i s p r i m o r d i a l world, and his pictur'es t h e r e f o r e seem to show nature pure, while photographs of the same landscapes suggest man's works, conveniences, and imment presence." 57 Bernard Weinberg, French Rea1ism: The C r i t i c a l Reacti on, 1 830-1 870 , Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n of America: New York, 1937, p.102. °Hering, 5 9  I bid,  1 889, o_p_.cvt. p.493.  p.494.  60 As quoted  in N o c h l i n , o p . c i t . , p.23.  H e r i n g , 1 889 , op_. c i t . , p.494. Ernest Renan, Anti Chri s t , t r a n s . W i l l i a m G. Hutchison London, 1889, p.65. 6 1  Ge'rSme wrote an account of the a c t i o n f o r W.H. Vanderb i l t , f o r whom he had painted i t : "In the year 1674, Conde' had returned to Court, where he was r e c e i v e d in triumph. The king came forward to meet him on the grand s t a i r c a s e , which was not his usual habit.. The Prince was going up slowly, on account of the gout, which made him almost helpless. As soon as he saw the Monarch, ' S i r e , s a i d he, 'I beg your majesty's pardon, to make you wait so long.' 'My cousin,' answered the King, 'do not hurry. When one i s loaded with l a u r e l s as you a r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to walk quickly.'" As c i t e d in The Dayton Art I n s t i t u t e , o p . c i t . , p . 7 4 . 1  137 64 6 5  Benson, o p . c i t . , p.682.  In  A r t Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 34, 1971, pp.3-30.  1 38 CHAPTER  V  CONCLUSION In Chapters Two and Three I argued, f o l l o w i n g Benjamin, that the a c t i v i t y of c o l l e c t i n g distant  in time and the d i s t a n t in space was an  of rescue:  h i s objects  commodities.  operation  a fancier's  value  and rescue them from the burden of being I a l s o argued  ethnographic p a i n t i n g s  that Gerome's ne'o-grec and  duplicate his a c t i v i t y  Much the same thing could  In these p a i n t i n g s i s hard to t e l l  as a c o l l e c t o r .  be said about h i s h i s t o r y p a i n t -  i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y those which d e p i c t ancient  and  from the  that the c o l l e c t o r who arranged his inte'rieur  with e x o t i c b r i c - a - b r a c wished to confer on  objects  Walter  the a r c h i t e c t u r e often  whether i t serves  Rome or V e r s a i l l e s  predominates; i t  to accentuate the f i g u r e s  t h e i r a c t i o n s or i f , indeed, the f i g u r e s serve  to ac-  centuate the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space. Like the ne'o-grec and ethnographic p a i n t i n g s , the history paintings the  paintings  of objets cally  are extensions  serve  d'art.  recreated  as imaginary l o c a l e s f o r h i s c o l l e c t i o n  Ge'rome placed  to give  these objects  to and f a r from the " r e a l i t y " This  his c o l l e c t i o n  in r e a l i s t i - ; .  scenes which were d i s t a n t both in time and  space form h i s own P a r i s s t u d i o . functioned  of Gerome's own i n t e ' r i e u r ,  Their photographic v e r a c i t y a r e a l i t y which was  of objects  as commodities.  " s e c r e t " f u n c t i o n of Gerome's rpa'intings  their 'realistic  previous  s t y l e which so e a s i l y accommodates  explains itself  1 39 to the c e l e b r a t i o n of t h i n g s .  T h e i r n a r r a t i v e content  often  expresses what Gerome must have f e l t was a f a c t of the human c o n d i t i o n , a c o n d i t i o n of a l i e n a t i o n and h e l p l e s s n e s s . But we must beware of thus t h i n k i n g of Ge'r6me as "deep". Many of the themes I have discussed had  themselves to be rescued  i n regard  from beneath the surface of h i s  canvases where t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g , s o c i a l the Salon  to his work  and the advent of mechanical  conditions  reproduction,  like  capital-  ism and the i n t e r i e u r became the circumstances of Gerome's art.  Gerome may have thought of his p a i n t i n g s  different  terms than the ones I have used.  P o l l i c e Verso, considered  i n the context  i n quite  For example,  of Gerome's  p u b l i c polemics about "modern" a r t , might be considered as a self-portrait  of s o r t s .  Note that the v i c t o r i o u s g l a d i a t o r  is middle-aged and somewhat f l a b b y , perhaps only a few years younger than Gerome's own f i f t y y e a r s , the p a i n t i n g i n 1874.  his age when he painted,  Is a message being  implied?  Are  we to think that the older man has won because of his  train-  ing  brute  and years  strength  of experience  o f the younger man?  t h i s were meant to be read an his  against  I f we are--and p a i n t i n g s  Academician  vanquishing  and the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  More to the p o i n t , however, i s the conception Gerome's o r i e n t a l his  like  t h i s c l o s e l y - - t h e n we may have  image of Ge'rome, the experienced f o e s , the r e a l i s t s  the raw but naive  behind  types whom he admired g r e a t l y and to whom  f r i e n d s often compared him.  He admired men who could  140 face the misfortunes which implacable  f a t e had  calm and d i g n i f i e d  pointed out, was  d e a l t them with an  reserve.  T h i s , as Galichon  the point of a p a i n t i n g  l i k e The  Prisoner.  Despite his " r e v i s i o n i s m " , Ge>ome considered himself to be an Academic p a i n t e r and a guardian of c e r t a i n canons:, of p a i n t i n g .  If t h i s t h e s i s accomplishes anything  o u t s i d e of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n be part of an examination art after  Ingres.  tinue a t r a d i t i o n on several  classical,  of Gerome then i t i s meant to  of what happened to French Academic  Gerome did not merely whose raison  occasions he t r i e d  b a s t a r d i z e or con-  d'etre was  no more.  Rather,'  to bring that t r a d i t i o n  up.to  date, although as we' have seen, he w,as;hardly alone or o r i g i n a l , in these endeavours.  In the neo grec works, f o l l o w -  ing the example of G l e y r e , Ge'rome presented the  classical  world in a l e s s arch way  In the ethno-  than David or Ingres.  graphic p a i n t i n g s he t r i e d of academic  to bring some of the standards  a r t to the p r a c t i s e of genre p a i n t i n g . Vernet  and Delaroche had shown him the way  in t h i s  territory.  In the serious h i s t o r y works h e - t r i e s to make r e a l i s t i c h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g based on the image of photography. here he i s f a i r l y His f i n a l  unique or more s u c c e s s f u l  attempt  of doing-things; was' his  to i n j e c t  revival of the  life  activity.as  than most.  into the academic  p r a c t i s e of t i n t i n g  and of making c h r y s e l e p h a t i n e s c u l p t u r e . the transparency of his " r e a l "  And  task was  And  way  marble  here again  obvious and Ge'rome's  a c o l l e c t o r a f f e c t s the r e s u l t .  Speilmann  141 a s t u t e l y caught  the real  ( f i g . 3 4 ) when he  nature of a statue l i k e Bel 1ona  wrote:  The f i g u r e , standing on t i p - t o e , screaming woe and warning, shouting "To B a t t l e ! " with f l e s h t i n t e d i v o r y , eyes of emeralds, d r a p e r i e s , weapons, and cobra of many metals, make greater e f f e c t than would be b e l i e v e d from r e p r o d u c t i o n , for i t looked more l i k e l i f e . But the subject missed the t a r g e t , f o r t h i s screaming Hecate suggests not so much "War" as "Madness"-- and suggests not so much s c u l p t u r e as sublimated bric-a-brac. 1  In locked  other words, no matter what Ge'rome d i d , he into his time and  symptomatic-,  station  of the p o l i t i c a l  in l i f e  and  remained  his a r t was  economy of h i s era in a  way  t h a t , perhaps, a greater a r t i s t would have managed to e i t h e r transcend or face head on.  Of course, i t i s Ge'rome's  status as a minor f i g u r e that makes him first  place.  historian  The minor f i g u r e w i l l  interesting  always y i e l d  to the  the wide p i c t u r e , the context from which  the great f i g u r e s .  A study of someone l i k e  nates the problems which his contemporaries with and adds to our a p p r e c i a t i o n problems in a more s t r i k i n g ' a n d  of those who  successful  sprang  Gerome had  in the  illumi-  to deal solved these  way.  When one  knows that Ge'rome' s p a i n t i n g s were often considered scandal o u s , one of  recognizes a l l the more the courage  a p u b l i c gesture l i k e Manet's Dejeuner.  Ge'r6"me also opens up f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n tellectual  context of mid-nineteenth  as the American it:  critic/painter  and  boldness  A study of  the s o c i a l  and i n -  century French  painting,  Eugene Benson expressed  142  Fi gure  34  ...today, which i s given to study, to t r a v e l , which i s a c c u r a t e , mechanical, unimpassioned, which cares nothing f o r m i l i t a r y g l o r y , which dreads r e v o l u t i o n , which wishes to know, which e x a l t s knowledge and longs f o r s e n s a t i o n , but is not p o e t i c or h e r o i c , i s represented by Ge'rome. Ge'rQme , today, in France, the popular p a i n t e r of France, i s c l o s e s t to the moral s p i r i t , and best shows the i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i t s o f h i s t i me . 2  144 Notes - Chapter V  ^Speilmann, o p . c i t . , p.204, 2 Benson, o p . c i t . , p.682  145 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  BOOKS Amaury-Duval. L ' A t e l i e r D'Ingres. 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"Jean Leon Gerome: The Role of Subject-Matter and the Importance of Formalized composition." Arts Magazine. (February, 1973): 31-34. Planqhe, Gustave. "Le Salon de 1847.' La P e i n t u r e . " Revue des Deux Mondes. 18 (Apri1 1847):347-366. Rosenblum, Robert. "Ingres, Inc." in Arts News Annual XXXI 1 1 ( 1 967)167-75. Sloane, Joseph C. "The T r a d i t i o n of Figure P a i n t i n g and Concepts of Modern A r t i n France from 1845 to 1870." The Journal of A e s t h e t i c s and A r t C r i t i c i s m . 7(September 1 948) :1 .-29.  152 Spencer, Eleanor P. "The Academic Point of View in the Second Empire." in Courbet and the N a t u r a l i s t Movement. Edited by George Boas. Baltimore:- The Johns Hopkins Press, 1938. Spielmann, M.H. "Jean-Leon Ge'rome, 1 824-1 904: Recollections." The Magazine of A r t . Vol.2 (1904):200-208. Timbal, Charles. "Gerome: Etude Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 2e. (1876):218ff & 344ff.  biographique" p e r i o d , 14  T i t h e r i n g t o n , R.H. "Jean Leon Ge>6me." Munsey' s Magazine . 3.5- ( 1 906) : 279-287. V i n e t , Ernest. " L e t t e r From P a r i s , 29 August, 1866." Describes the reform of the Ecole des BeauxArts in Fine Arts Q u a r t e r l y , 1 n.s., (October, 1866):432-446.  I I I . EXHIBITION CATALOGUES The  Art I n s t i t u t e , Dayton Ohio. Jean-Leon Ge'rSme (1824-1904) Organized by Bruce Evans. I n t r o d u c t i o n and Commentaries by Gerald M. Ackerman. Essay by Richard Ettinghausen. November 10-March 11, 1972.  U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y , State U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Binghamton. S t r i c t l y Academic: L i f e Drawing in the Nineteenth Century, with an Introductory Essay by A l b e r t Boime, "Curriculum V i t a e : The Course of L i f e in the Nineteenth Century." March 30-April 24, 1974. G a l e r i e Tanagra. Jean-Leon Ge'rome: 1824-1904: Sculpteur et P e i n t r e de "L'Art O f f i c i e l " . I n t r o d u c t i o n by Gerald Ackerman. P a r i s : 25 15 Mai, 1974.  Avril-  Kuntsmuseum, Winterthur. Charles Gleyre ou l e s i l l u s i o n s perdues. Contains a great deal of material among which: "Biographie ," by Rudolf K o e l l a ; "The I n s t r u c t i o n of Charles Gleyre and the E v o l u t i o n of P a i n t i n g in the ^Nineteenth Century," by A l b e r t Boime; " L i s t e des e'leves," by B r i g i t S t a i g e r Gayler & "Catalogue des oeuvres de Gleyre," by Charles Clement. 1974.  153 Grand P a l a i s , P a r i s . French P a i n t i n g 1774-1830: The Age of R e v o l u t i o n . With four essays: " P a i n t i n g Under Louis XVI, 1774-1 789." by F r e d e r i c k C. Cummings; " P a i n t i n g During the R e v o l u t i o n , 1 789-1 799 ." by Antoine Schnapper; P a i n t i n g Under Napoleon," 1800-1814." byRobert Rosenblum; " P a i n t i n g During the Bourbon R e s t o r a t i o n , 1814-1830." by Robert Rosenblurn. 16 November 1974-5 February 1975. Shepherd G a l l e r y , New York. Ingres & D e l a c r o i x Through Degas & Puvis De Chavannes: The Figure in French A r t : 1800-1870. May-June, 1975.  

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