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Images of early British Columbia : landscape photography, 1858-1888 Schwartz, Joan Marsha 1977

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IMAGES OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA: LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY, 1858-1888 by  JOAN MARSHA SCHWARTZ B.A. ( H o n s . ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Geography  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 (c)  Joan Marsha S c h w a r t z , 1977  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  his  of  this  shall  agree  at make  that  thesis  it  freely  may  is  financial  University  of  British  IjldU  2. m j  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  Geography  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 W 5  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department o f  Date  partial  permission  purposes  for  in  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  written  The  thesis  degree  scholarly  by  this  of  this  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT With t h e i r cumbersome equipment  and r e f r a c t o r y t e c h n o l o g y , p r o -  f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d p i o n e e r i n g development Columbia a l m o s t from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t .  in British This study  examines l a n d s c a p e p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n d u r i n g t h e t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d between t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h and t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway.  I t comments on t h e n a t u r e and meaning  o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s and s u g g e s t s t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l a n d and l i f e i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Photography  Columbia.  i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia was a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t h e  work o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose s u c c e s s r e s t e d upon t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e market^  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e i r work i s t o some e x t e n t a m i r r o r o f  e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbians'  sense o f t h e m s e l v e s i n a new p l a c e .  Nine-  t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p h o t o g r a p h e r s f o c u s e d on t h e wagon r o a d and l a t e r t h e r a i l r o a d , on g o l d m i n i n g and on s e t t l e m e n t .  The e a r l y  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a t t r a c t e d f a r l e s s a t t e n t i o n than t h e g o l d r u s h and though f i s h i n g and f a r m i n g had begun, t h e y were seldom  photographed.  P i c n i c s , r e g a t t a s and o t h e r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s were r e c o r d e d , p a r t i c u l a r i n V i c t o r i a and New W e s t m i n s t e r and more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e 1880's.  Spec  t a c u l a r p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e s dominate t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f w i l d e r ness; m i c r o s c a l e nature s t u d i e s are s i n g u l a r l y absent. The a t t e n t i o n t o extreme symbols o f p r o g r e s s i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . r a p i d i t y o f development  The r e c e n c y and  had made m a t e r i a l advance a common and c o n c r e t e ii  i li  r e a l i t y , and B r i t i s h Columbians wanted a r e c o r d o f t h e i r  achievement.  Some c o l o n i a l s b r o u g h t w i t h them c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a s o f home and s o c i e t y based upon B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s and V i c t o r i a n t a s t e .  Photo-  graphs o f e l e g a n t s u r r o u n d i n g s and g e n t e e l p a s t i m e s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e y had c r e a t e d a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y and an o r d e r e d l a n d s c a p e i n an i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f Empire.  In t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t , t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c  r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia s h a r e s e l e m e n t s w i t h o t h e r a r e a s o f f r o n t i e r development  and B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n .  However, i t e x h i b i t s  a d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s which i s a t t r i b u t a b l e as much t o t h e mix o f l a n d s c a p e images i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s e t t i n g as t o t h e images t h e m s e l v e s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF PLATES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH IN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY  1  2  PHOTOGRAPHERS OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA  3  PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY IN EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA ...  33  4  THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD, 1858-1888  47  5 6  5  TRANSPORTATION RESOURCE INDUSTRIES SETTLEMENT SOCIETY NATURE PERCEPTION AND PLACE: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD  136  CONCLUSION: THE WIDER CONTEXT  169  BIBLIOGRAPHY  48 67 90 114 125  175  iv  LIST OF PLATES PLATE 2 l t  2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  Page Stephen A. S p e n c e r , p h o t o g r a p h e r i n V i c t o r i a from 1858 t o 1887 .'.  7  View o f Y a t e s S t r e e t and V i c t o r i a H a r b o u r , showing a s i g n f o r Fardon's P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , 1871  11  G e n t i l e ' s Photographic G a l l e r y , Fort Street looking e a s t , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1864  13  L.A. B l a n c , P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , B a r k e r v i l l e , c i r c a 1870 '.  16  D a i l y ' s Photographic G a l l e r y , Fort S t r e e t looking east, V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1869 ,  16  R i c h a r d Maynard's Boot and Shoe S t o r e and Hannah Maynard's P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y  26  2.7  R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard, C a r t e - d e - v i s i t e  29  4.1  C a r i b o o Road between Y a l e and Spuzzum, 1867-1868  49  4.2  C h i n a B a r B l u f f , 22 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  51  4.3  F r e i g h t t r a f f i c on t h e C a r i b o o Road, 19 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  52  4.4  Mule team a t Y a l e , 1867-1868  53  4.5  G r e a t B l u f f , 88 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  54  4.6  F r e i g h t wagons, B o s t o n B a r , 1867-1868, S t e r e o g r a p h ...  55  4.7  C l i n t o n H o t e l , 1867-1868  56  4.8  A l e x a n d r a Lodge, 14 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  58  4.9  Wagon c o n s t r u c t i o n a t Y a l e , 1867-1868  59  4.10  C.P.R. c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and Boston Bar,1881..  61  4.11  Rock T u n n e l , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y  62  4.12  "Chinatown",  63  K e e f e r s S t a t i o n , c i r c a 1881 v  PLATE  Page  4.13  Double Loop, C . P . R . , S e l k i r k Mountains  65  4.14  Cisco c a n t i l e v e r bridge  66  4.15  Mount Stephen H o t e l , F i e l d , c i r c a 1888  4.16  G l a c i e r H o t e l , G l a c i e r , c i r c a 1888  4.17  Grouse Creek panorama, 1867-1868  71  4.18  Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , Grouse C r e e k , 1867-1868  72  4.19  S i x - T o e d P e t e C l a i m , 1867-1868  73  4.20  Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , dump-box, 1867-1868  75  4.2l'  Neversweat Tunnel Company, 1867-1868  76  4.22  Sheepshead C l a i m , 1867-1868  77  4.23  H e r o n v i l l e - C a n a d i a n Company, Grouse C r e e k  78  4.24  Mucho Oro G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-  ,  68 ,  1868  69  79  4.25  A l t u r a s G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868 ..  79  4.26  Oxen h a u l i n g l o g s , New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  82  4.27  F r a s e r ' s L o g g i n g Camp .......  4.28  Moody, D i e t z and N e l s o n ' s s a w - m i l l s , M o o d y v i l l e , c i r c a 1870 I n d i a n salmon w e i r a t Quamichan V i l l a g e , Cowichan  4.29  c i r c a 1885  t  ,  R i v e r , 1866  83 85 87  4.30  F r a s e r R i v e r a t Boston Bar  88  4.31  Farm, Cowichan  89  4.32  T r a n q u i l l e M i l l , Kamloops Lake, 1871  91  4.33  Camerontown, 1867-1868  93  4.34  B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t h e f i r e o f September 16, 1868  94  4.35  I l l e c i l l e w a e t , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y  95  vi i  PLATE  Page  4.36  L y t t o n , 1867-1868  97  4.37  Y a l e , 1867-1868  99  4.38  V i c t o r i a panorama, c i r c a 1868  100  4.39  E s q u i m a u Harbour  102  4.40  M a i n s t r e e t , B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t h e f i r e o f SeDtember 16, 1868  103  4.41  Rogers Pass V i l l a g e , C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886 ...  105  4.42 4.43  Government S t r e e t l o o k i n g n o r t h f r o m F o r t S t r e e t , Victoria I n d i a n totem and C h i e f ' s house, Comox, 1866  106 = 108  4.44  I n d i a n v i l l a g e , : ; A l e r t Bay, Masset  = 110  4.45  P o r t Simpson, 1884  •  ,111  4.46  C h i n e s e Q u a r t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1886  „ 112  4.47  C h i n e s e S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a , 1886  , 113  4.48  F a i r f i e l d , home o f J o s e p h W. T r u t c h , c i r c a 1865  115  4.49  V i c t o r i a E l e v e m c r i c k e t team, 1864  117  4.50  L a c r o s s e match, Beacon H i l l P a r k , V i c t o r i a  118  4.51  P i c n i c p a r t y a t t h e Gorge, V i c t o r i a , 1884  120  4.52  P i c n i c p a r t y a t G o l d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1885  121  4.53 - The Gorge, V i c t o r i a  123  4.54 " The Government  124  B u i l d i n g s , V i c t o r i a , 1858-1860  4.55  Government  House, New W e s t m i n s t e r  124  4.56  F r a s e r R i v e r , 4 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  127  4.57  Thompson R i v e r , 84 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868  128  4.58  I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon, C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886 ..  130  vii i  PLATE  Page  4.59  G o l d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a ..  131  4.60  Homathko R i v e r , 3 0 h m i l e s from H a d d i n g t o n , 1875 .,  133  t  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , I have i n c u r r e d many d e b t s . They a r e h e r e i n a c k n o w l e d g e d , though by no means d i s c h a r g e d . To C o l e H a r r i s and Graeme Wynn, thank you f o r g i v i n g so o u s l y o f y o u r t i m e and knowledge.  You were p a t i e n t when I was  genertardy;  you showed u n d e r s t a n d i n g when j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s took me away from u n i v e r s i t y and away from V a n c o u v e r ; and you o f f e r e d encouragement when I needed i t most.  Your f r i e n d s h i p i s c h e r i s h e d and t h e h o s p i -  t a l i t y e x t e n d e d t o me by M u r i e l H a r r i s and B a r b a r a Wynn i s warmly recalled. Of t h e many a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s who a s s i s t e d i n my r e s e a r c h , I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o B a r b a r a McLennan o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n my work.  To my employers  who,  f o r her s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t  o v e r t h e l a s t two y e a r s , k i n d l y  g r a n t e d me l e a v e t o pursue my w r i t i n g , I e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e ciation.  I a l s o t h a n k E l i z a b e t h MacKinnon whose t y p i n g h e l p e d  me  t h r o u g h t h a t a c a d e m i c "no man's l a n d " between t h e s i s w r i t i n g and final  submission. F a m i l y , f r i e n d s and f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a r e e v e r a s o u r c e  o f s t r e n g t h and encouragement.  Mine c o e r c e d and c a j o l e d , t y p e d and  p r o o f - r e a d , washed and c o o k e d , c h a u f f e u r e d and b i l l e t t e d .  Having  t r i e d t h e i r p a t i e n c e and t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y , I thank them f o r t h e i r support i n seeing t h i s through. f o r c a r i n g so v e r y much.  And t o my u n c l e A a r o n , thank you  I g i v e t h i s t h e s i s t o you w i t h l o v e ; i t  seems l i t t l e i n r e t u r n f o r y o u r s e l f l e s s n e s s . ix  "A good p h o t o g r a p h evokes p l a c e and p e r i o d w i t h u n e q u a l l e d e a s e and we must be g r a t e f u l t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d f a l l s w i t h i n t h e e r a o f t h e camera." A l a n Thomas " A u t h e n t i c i t y and Charm: The Revival o f V i c t o r i a n Photography," V i c t o r i a n Studies, XVIII, 1 (September 1974), p. 103.  "A p h o t o g r a p h i s a document, and t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s f i r s t b u s i n e s s i s t o ask o f i t , as he would o f any o t h e r r e c o r d , who made i t , t o whom i t was a d d r e s s e d , and what i t was meant t o convey." G.H. M a r t i n and D a v i d F r a n c i s "The Camera's Eye," The V i c t o r i a n C i t y : Images and R e a l i t i e s , H.J. Dyos and M i c h a e l W o l f f ( e d s . ) . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1973, p. 228.  x  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION; THE HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH IN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY  L a n d s c a p e images o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia  come t o us i n many  forms: s u r v e y o r ' s n o t e s , t r a v e l l e r ' s a c c o u n t s , l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s , n o v e l s , p o e t r y , s k e t c h e s , p a i n t i n g s , maps, and p h o t o g r a p h s .  However  i n c o m p l e t e a r e c o r d , such w r i t t e n and v i s u a l s o u r c e s do p r o v i d e a sense o f what t h e p r o v i n c e was l i k e and how i t was p e r c e i v e d . images o f 1 and and p l a c e a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l  These geographer,  f o r t h e y r e v e a l i n s u b t l e , but p e r v a s i v e ways, t h e a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s w h i c h l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbians b r o u g h t t o and e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r new e n v i r o n m e n t .  I f many w r i t t e n s o u r c e s  p r e s e n t a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f man and l a n d , t h e g r a p h i c r e c o r d i s unique i n t h a t , i n d i v i d u a l l y , each  photo-  photograph  p r e s e n t s an o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a segment o f p a s t r e a l i t y c o l l e c t i v e l y , photographs  r e v e a l a good d e a l about t h e g e n e r a l l a n d -  scape i n t e r e s t s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h A photograph  Columbians.  can be t r e a t e d as an o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d and examined  for i t s factual content.  How b i g was L y t t o n i n 1868?  at Yale during the rush to the Cariboo? p i c n i c i n t h e 1880's? t o such q u e s t i o n s .  and,  Photographs  What o c c u r r e d  How d i d women d r e s s f o r a  p r o v i d e a t l e a s t p a r t i a l answers  A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o go beyond  the c o n c r e t e l e v e l o f d e t a i l t o uncover c o v e r t a t t i t u d e s or a s p i r a t i o n s . Sometimes t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g s t a t e m e n t s a r e l i t t l e more than s u b t l e 1  2  nuances; a t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e y a r e o b v i o u s pronouncements.  A photo-  g r a p h showing e m b e l l i s h e d f a c a d e s a l o n g t h e main s t r e e t o f a f r o n t i e r town r e v e a l s l o c a l m e r c h a n t s ' a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t an image o f p r o s p e r i t y and permanence,  an image w h i c h , though o f t e n d i f f e r e n t f r o m  r e a l i t y , was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p i o n e e r e n t r e p r e n e u r s ' a s p i r a t i o n s . A view t h e r e f o r e n o t o n l y d e s c r i b e s a l a n d s c a p e , but i t a l s o s u g g e s t s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h o s e who c r e a t e d i t . A p h o t o g r a p h can a l s o be examined i n terms o f t h e f i l t e r s o r c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t worked t o shape i t .  A c c o r d i n g l y , photographs of  p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia can be viewed as t h e p r o d u c t o f p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y , l o c a l s u b j e c t s , a r t i s t i c l i c e n s e , V i c t o r i a n t h o u g h t and market t a s t e .  M o s t . i m p o r t a n t was t h e commercial r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t -  ween p h o t o g r a p h e r and p u b l i c .  The p o r t r a i t s t u d i o p r o p r i e t o r and  t h e i t i n e r a n t d e a l e r i n views each depended on p u b l i c p a t r o n a g e . The p r a c t i c e o f p h o t o g r a p h y i n c u r r e d c o s t , e f f o r t and, o f t e n , i n c o n venience.  The s u c c e s s f u l p h o t o g r a p h e r had t o be a c u t e l y aware o f  t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e b u y i n g p u b l i c , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p h o t o graph i s l e s s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s c r e a t i v i t y t h a n a m i r r o r o f market t a s t e . Whereas t h e f a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f h i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h s may  be  c l e a r enough, t h e s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t h e y r e v e a l usually are less obvious.  A p h o t o g r a p h o f a s t a n d o f c e d a r s and  f i r s may have been t a k e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s i z e o f West C o a s t t r e e s . I t may a l s o convey a r o m a n t i c view o f t h e f o r e s t p r i m a e v a l ; an economic s u r v e y o f so many b o a r d - f e e t ; a p i o n e e r s t a t e m e n t about  3  obstacles to settlement.  O f t e n i t i s no s i m p l e m a t t e r t o s o r t o u t  t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n , but f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s  background,  h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work, and h i s market w i l l h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h e matter.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e t r e a t e d i n some d e t a i l  in this thesis. H i s t o r i c a l photographs are a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e source f o r t h e s t u d y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e completion o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway.  The f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l  p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1858 and, by  1888,  no f e w e r t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s had o p e r a t e d studios i n the province.  T h i s was t h e e r a o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o -  g r a p h e r and, f o r most o f i t , o f c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y ; p o p u l a r amateur p h o t o g r a p h y came w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e Kodak i n 1888.  These were  a l s o m i d - V i c t o r i a n y e a r s and, i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e y were y e a r s when t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e g o l d r u s h e s q u i c k l y peaked and as r a p i d l y faded.  O t h e r r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were a t t e m p t e d ; none was  s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l t h e problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was s o l v e d .  particularly Expansion  came i n t h e 1890's w i t h Kootenay m i n i n g and, a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e v a s t growth o f l u m b e r i n g .  These were o t h e r  adumbrated but n o t d e v e l o p e d i n t h e y e a r s from 1858 t o 1888.  economies, In terms  o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d , t h e n , t h e s e y e a r s have a c o n s i d e r a b l e u n i t y i m p a r t e d by p h o t o g r a p h i c technology', economic development Victorian taste.  and  They were a l s o y e a r s o f v i g o r o u s , i f o f t e n ephemeral  s e t t l e m e n t which t h e new medium o f p h o t o g r a p h y was w e l l e q u i p p e d t o record. eye.  P i o n e e r i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o c e e d e d under t h e camera's  4  The p h o t o g r a p h s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t a k e n i n B r i t i s h b e f o r e t h e l a s t decade o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  Columbia  They a r e h e l d i n t h e  h i s t o r i c a l photograph c o l l e c t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, t h e V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y and t h e A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o .  W i t h i n t h e p r a c t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l  c o n s t r a i n t s o f p r e v a i l i n g t e c h n o l o g y and a t t i t u d e s , t h e s e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h o t o g r a p h s r e v e a l B r i t i s h Columbia's e v o l v i n g human l a n d s c a p e s , and i n so d o i n g , t h e y r e f l e c t something o f t h e p e o p l e who c r e a t e d them.  They d e m o n s t r a t e what p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o n s i d e r e d worth  r e c o r d i n g a n d what p a t r o n s wanted t o buy. T h i s s e l e c t i v i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r as w e l l as t h e i r r e c o r d o f d e t a i l i m p a r t t o h i s t o r i c a l graphs much of t h e i r i n t e r e s t .  photo-  By e m p h a s i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of  p l a c e , t h e y s u g g e s t B r i t i s h Columbians'  p e r c e p t i o n of what t h e y were  d o i n g and t h e i r v i s i o n of t h e p l a c e t h e y were c r e a t i n g . The p h o t o g r a p h i s one e n t r e t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e human l a n d s c a p e s of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia and of t h e a s p i r a t i o n s and t a s t e s of i t s people.  CHAPTER 2 PHOTOGRAPHERS OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA  P h o t o g r a p h y i n B r i t i s h Columbia d a t e s from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Fraser River gold rush.  T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no l a g between t h e i n -  f l u x o f m i n e r s and t h e coming o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s . r e a s o n s a r e c l e a r enough.  The  During the C a l i f o r n i a gold rush, photo-  g r a p h e r s , o r " d a g u e r r e o t y p i s t s " a s t h e y were t h e n known, had f o u n d t h e i r own E l d o r a d o .  The n o v e l t y o f t h e new a r t , t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f  t h e t i m e and p l a c e , and t h e w i d e s p r e a d c i r c u l a t i o n o f money p r o d u c e d an e a g e r market f o r v i e w s and l i k e n e s s e s .  A p h o t o g r a p h was n o t o n l y  a p l e a s a n t r e m i n d e r f o r l o v e d ones a t home, b u t a l s o a c o n c r e t e statement o f personal c h a l l e n g e and f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s .  Though s m a l l e r  t h a n t h e m i n i n g boom t h a t r o c k e d C a l i f o r n i a i n 1849, t h e B r i t i s h Columbia g o l d r u s h e s s h a r e d many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h t h a t e v e n t and t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r was one f a c e t o f t h i s p a r a l l e l e x p e r i e n c e . P i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s f o l l o w e d t h e market from E a s t t o West, then north along t h e c o a s t .  In some c a s e s , San F r a n c i s c o p h o t o -  g r a p h e r s moved w i t h t h e m i n e r s t o Oregon and t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  In  o t h e r c a s e s , news o f s u c c e s s f u l p h o t o g r a p h i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r o f new, market o p p o r t u n i t i e s prompted p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o move West, o r i n s p i r e d l o c a l c r a f t s m e n t o change p r o f e s s i o n s . E a r l y p h o t o g r a p h y  attracted  u n t r a i n e d p e o p l e from a v a r i e t y o f backgrounds - s c h o o l m a s t e r s , shoemakers, s i l v e r s m i t h s , d e n t i s t s , d r u g g i s t s and u n t o l d o t h e r s , many women among them.  To some i t was a s c i e n c e ; t o o t h e r s , an amusement 5  6  o r an a r t . Y e t " d e s p i t e i t s a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c c l a i m s , t h o s e who l i v e d by i t g e n e r a l l y o c c u p i e d tradesman's s t a t u s " . *  In e a r l y  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p h o t o g r a p h y was i n d e e d a t r a d e - new,  interesting  and l u c r a t i v e .  Many g a l l e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a ; some  p h o t o g r a p h e r s a l s o p u r s u e d an i t i n e r a n t b u s i n e s s , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f l o c a l m a r k e t s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s . W h i l e p h o t o g r a p h y i n p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia was l a r g e l y t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i t was o f t e n a p a r t - t i m e o r ephemeral interest.  Some p h o t o g r a p h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r a  s h o r t t i m e o n l y , l a t e r r e t u r n i n g t o o l d t r a d e s o r embarking on new ones; o t h e r s p u r s u e d p h o t o g r a p h y as a p a r t - t i m e a v o c a t i o n ; s t i l l o t h e r s made i t a l i f e - l o n g c a r e e r .  Of t h e more p r o m i n e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s  a c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h e 1860's and 1870's, one was a j e w e l l e r and a n o t h e r was a shoemaker by t r a d e ; b o t h c o n t i n u e d t o p r a c t i s e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c r a f t s along w i t h t h e i r photography. V i c t o r i a ' s f i r s t professional photographer l e f t h i s business a f t e r t w e n t y y e a r s t o assume t h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p o f a salmon c a n n e r y i n A l e r t Bay.  One o f t h e most n o t a b l e p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h  Columbia s p e n t o n l y n i n e y e a r s i n p h o t o g r a p h y b e f o r e l e a v i n g p r o v i n c e and p r o f e s s i o n f o r a new c a r e e r i n d e n t a l s u r g e r y i n E n g l a n d . * * * * *  P r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h y began i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858. Stephen A. S p e n c e r ( P l a t e 2.1) a p p e a r s t o have i n i t i a t e d p h o t o g r a p h y 1.  A l a n Thomas, " A u t h e n t i c i t y and Charm: The R e v i v a l o f V i c t o r i a n P h o t o g r a p h y " , V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , X V I I I , 1, September 1974, p. 104.  P l a t e 2.1:  Stephen A. S p e n c e r , p h o t o g r a p h e r i n V i c t o r i a from 1858 t o 1887. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia (PABC) 7225  8  in V i c t o r i a s h o r t l y a f t e r the gold rush began.  u  U n t i l J a n u a r y 1862,  he o p e r a t e d from v a r i o u s p r e m i s e s i n downtown V i c t o r i a , b u t a p p a r e n t l y 3 l e f t the c i t y later that year. S p e n c e r ' s name does n o t a p p e a r i n 4 5 the V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r i e s f o r 1863 o r 1868. Then i n November 1874, g The C o l o n i s t announced h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a from San F r a n c i s c o . In 1 8 8 3 , S p e n c e r e n t e r e d a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Oregon C. H a s t i n g s , 7  a n o t h e r V i c t o r i a p h o t o g r a p h e r who had been i n b u s i n e s s a t l e a s t s i n c e  2.  S p e n c e r ' s name a p p e a r s on a l i s t o f " 5 8 ' e r s " c o m p i l e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's Golden J u b i l e e i n 1908.  3.  In J u l y 1859, a newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t l i s t s S p e n c e r on Y a t e s S t r e e t (The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859). From t h e r e , he moved t o a s t u d i o a t T r o u n c e a n d Government S t r e e t s i n A u g u s t 1860 (The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, 1860). E i g h t e e n months l a t e r , he opened a "new p h o t o g r a p h i c and a m b r o t y p i c g a l l e r y " a t t h e c o r n e r o f Broad and Y a t e s S t r e e t s , b u t announced t h a t t h i s s t u d i o would remain open " f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d " o n l y (The C o l o n i s t , J a n u a r y 15, 1862).  4.  B r i t i s h Columbian and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863.  5.  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868.  6.  The C o l o n i s t , November 7, 1874.  7.  In The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r t h e y e a r s 1882-83, p u b l i s h e d by R.T. W i l l i a m s , S p e n c e r was l i s t e d a t h i s F o r t S t r e e t g a l l e r y . However, a p h o t o g r a p h c r e d i t e d t o S p e n c e r and H a s t i n g s a p p e a r e d i n The R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n December 1883.  9  1877.°  By 1887,^ H a s t i n g s had t a k e n o v e r t h e b u s i n e s s w h i c h he l a t e r  s o l d t o J . Savannah i n J a n u a r y 1889.*^  In t h e meantime,  Spencer  had d e v e l o p e d a p a r t - t i m e i n t e r e s t i n a c a n n e r y i n A l e r t Bay,** and between 1887 and 1899 i s l i s t e d as "manager", "owner" o r " p r o p r i e t o r " o f t h e salmon p a c k i n g b u s i n e s s , as w e l l as P o s t m a s t e r o f A l e r t Bay. He d i e d i n August 1911. S p e n c e r ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t h e V i c t o r i a p h o t o g r a p h i c t r a d e was George R. F a r d o n .  Born i n E n g l a n d i n 1806, he e m i g r a t e d t o New  York  and t h e n e a r l y i n 1849, went t o San F r a n c i s c o where he engaged i n t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e b u s i n e s s . F a r d o n was among t h e f i r s t i n San F r a n c i s c o t o a d o p t w e t - p l a t e p h o t o g r a p h y , and i n 1856-57, he p u b l i s h e d an album o f San F r a n c i s c o v i e w s .  F a r d o n i s l i s t e d i n t h e San F r a n c i s c o d i r e c t o r y  8.  G u i d e t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1877-8, V i c t o r i a : T.N. Hibben and Company, 1877. In 1879, H a s t i n g s accompanied t h e e x p e d i t i o n o f H.M.S. R o c k e t on a t o u r o f t h e c o a s t , v i s i t i n g I n d i a n v i l l a g e s as f a r n o r t h as t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and r e t u r n i n g a l o n g t h e west s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d .  9.  The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y p u b l i s h e d i n 1887 by M a l l a n d a i n e and W i l l i a m s l i s t e d H a s t i n g s as t h e s o l e p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i o on F o r t S t r e e t and S p e n c e r as t h e manager o f a salmon c a n n e r y i n A l e r t Bay.  10. R.E. G o s n e l l , A H i s t o r y [ o f ] B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a : The Lewis P u b l i s h i n g Company, p. 766. 11. The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r t h e y e a r s 1882-83 and The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r y f o r 1884-85, b o t h p u b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a by R.T. W i l l i a m s , l i s t e d S p e n c e r as b o t h a p h o t o g r a p h e r i n V i c t o r i a and a salmon c a n n e r i n A l e r t Bay.  10 o f 1858, b u t a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a l a t e t h a t same y e a r .  12  The f o l l o w i n g  13 May,  he bought a l o t i n t h e s a l e o f government r e s e r v e l a n d , but was 14 not l i s t e d i n t h e V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r y i n 1860; however, i n A p r i l 1862 Fardon was l i s t e d among p e r s o n s a s s e s s e d under t h e T r a d e L i c e n c e s A c t 15 " f o r t h e h a l f y e a r commencing J a n u a r y 1, 1862."  Fardon a d v e r t i s e d  i n The C o l o n i s t i n 1861 and 1862, and was l i s t e d as a p h o t o g r a p h e r a t 68 Government  S t r e e t by t h e 1863 V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r y .  1 6  In 1864, he  moved t o p r e m i s e s on L a n g l e v S t r e e t a t t h e r e a r o f t h e Bank Exchange ( P l a t e 2.2) and h i r e d and t r a i n e d Noah S h a k e s p e a r e as h i s a s s i s t a n t . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , Fardon went t o E n g l a n d and l e f t S h a k e s p e a r e i n c h a r g e of his gallery. in 1866  He r e t u r n e d t o h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c b u s i n e s s i n V i c t o r i a  and remained a t h i s L a n g l e y S t r e e t g a l l e r y u n t i l h i s r e t i r e 18 ment i n t h e e a r l y 1870's. Fardon produced a c o l l e c t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d views t h a t a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n a t t h e London I n t e r n a t i o n a l 19 E x h i b i t i o n i n 1862; h i s work i n c l u d e d a panorama o f V i c t o r i a t h a t 1 7  12.  R a l p h G r e e n h i l l , E a r l y P h o t o g r a p h y i n Canada, T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965, p. 53.  13.  The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , May 5, 1859, p. 2.  14.  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , V i c t o r i a : Edward M a l l a n d a i n e , 1860.  15.  "Government  .16.  G a z e t t e " , The C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 28,  1862.  B r i t i s h Columbian and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863.  17.  The C o l o n i s t , J u l y 26, 1866, p. 3.  18.  F a r d o n ' s name a p p e a r s i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r 1871, but n o t i n t h e one f o r 1874.  19.  Greenhill, loc. c i t .  11  P l a t e 2.2:  View o f Y a t e s S t r e e t and V i c t o r i a H a r b o u r , showing a s i g n f o r Fardon's P h o t o q r a p h i c G a l l e r y , 1871. Benjamin F. B a l t z l v , n h o t o q r a o h e r PABC 25312  12  a p p e a r e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n The I l l u s t r a t e d London News t h e f o l l o w i n g 20 21 year. Fardon d i e d a t t h e age o f 80 i n August 1886. C h a r l e s G e n t i l e , a n o t h e r V i c t o r i a p h o t o g r a p h e r o f t h e mid-1860's  22  ( P l a t e 2 . 3 ) , v e n t u r e d w i d e l y i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n s e a r c h o f s u b j e c t s and p r o d u c e d some o f t h e e a r l i e s t views o f t h e c e n t r a l I s l a n d and t h e Cariboo.  E a r l y i n t h e summer o f 1864, G e n t i l e v i s i t e d t h e A l b e r n i  a r e a by b o a t and, upon h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , a d v e r t i s e d "a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e m i l l s , s e t t l e m e n t , s h i p s , dam,  lakes,  l o g g i n g camps and o t h e r o b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h a t v i c i n i t y , i n c l u d i n g 23 some v e r y f i n e views o f Copper M o u n t a i n . " In August o f t h e same y e a r , he p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e g o l d e x c i t e m e n t i n t h e Leech R i v e r a r e a o f Sooke, and d i s c o v e r e d g o l d h i m s e l f w h i l e washing h i s p l a t e s n e a r Mount 24 Hankin. G e n t i l e p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e w a t e r f a l l s o f t h e Cascade Range i n March 1865, i n l a t e September, he " a r r i v e d i n C a r i b o o f o r t h e p u r p o s e 25 o f t a k i n g views o f t h e mines." T h r e e weeks l a t e r , he l e f t " f o r t h e  20.  The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, J a n u a r y 10, 1863.  21.  F a r d o n ' s o b i t u a r y a p p e a r e d i n The C o l o n i s t , August 21,  22.  Matthew M a c f i e ( V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , London: Longman, G r e e n , Longman, R o b e r t s and G r e e n , 1865, p. 90) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were f o u r p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n V i c t o r i a i n 1865, but does not name them. P r o b a b l y t h e f o u r were C h a r l e s G e n t i l e , Noah S h a k e s p e a r e , Hannah Maynard and George R o b i n s o n . S p e n c e r had l e f t V i c t o r i a i n 1862 and F a r d o n was i n E n g l a n d t h a t y e a r . W h i l e F r e d e r i c k D a l l y had a r r i v e d by 1865, he d i d n o t open h i s g a l l e r y u n t i l the following year.  23.  The C o l o n i s t , June 28, 1864, p. 3.  24.  G e n t i l e ' s Leech R i v e r views were a d v e r t i s e d i n The C o l o n i s t , August 15, 1864, and September 2, 1864.  25.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 30, 1865, p. 3.  1886.  13  2.3:  Gentile's Photographic G a l l e r y , Fort Street looking east, V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1864. PABC 23067  14  l o w e r c o u n t r y . . . p r e p a r e d t o t a k e e i t h e r views o r l i k e n e s s e s on the 26 way." D u r i n g G e n t i l e ' s s t a y , The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d t h a t G o v e r n o r Seymour had o r d e r e d a s e r i e s o f h i s B r i t i s h Columbia views 27 f o r t h e C a r i b o o L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e ; seven months l a t e r , the e d i t o r s 28 l a m e n t e d t h a t t h e government had n o t y e t made the  presentation.  Upon h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , G e n t i l e a t t e m p t e d , t o s e l l h i s g a l l e r y and b u s i n e s s . 29 g a l l e r y on Government S t r e e t .  In May  1866,  unsuccessfully,  he opened a  new  D u r i n g t h a t summer, he t o u r e d  the  d i s t r i c t s o f Cowichan, Nanaimo and Comox, and p r o d u c e d some o f t h e f i r s t stereographic  views o f t h i s a r e a .  Then i n A u g u s t 1866,  Gentile  announced h i s impending d e p a r t u r e f o r Europe t o p u b l i s h a s e r i e s o f 30 views. Noah S h a k e s p e a r e was t o c a r r y on t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e Government S t r e e t g a l l e r y i n h i s a b s e n c e , but G e n t i l e n e v e r r e t u r n e d 31 to V i c t o r i a . age o f 24, was  S h a k e s p e a r e , who  had come t o V i c t o r i a i n 1863 a t the  s t i l l l i s t e d as the o p e r a t o r o f G e n t i l e ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c  26.  I b i d . , O c t o b e r 14, 1865,  27.  I b i d . , O c t o b e r 7, 1865,  p. 3.  28.  I b i d . , May  3.  29.  The C o l o n i s t , May  30. 31.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 15, 1866. L i t t l e i s known o f G e n t i l e a f t e r he l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia. d i e d i n 1893 and was b u r i e d i n C h i c a g o .  10, 1866,  p.  p. 3.  18, 1866,  p. 3. He  15  Gallery in 1868.^ e s t a t e and p o l i t i c s .  A decade l a t e r , he l e f t photography In t h e 1880's, Shakespeare  to enter real  held various  prominent  p u b l i c o f f i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f Mayor o f V i c t o r i a and Member o f 33 Parliament f o r V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t r e s i d e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r i n t h e I n t e r i o r was L.A. B l a n c , 34 a jeweler, previously of Victoria.  In J u l y 1867, a new a d v e r t i s e -  ment i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t B l a n c had opened a g a l l e r y 35 a t R i c h f i e l d and was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e p o r t r a i t s and v i e w s .  He had  i n t e n d e d t o remain f o r a s h o r t time o n l y , but p r o l o n g e d h i s s t a y u n t i l t h e end o f O c t o b e r .  The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , he opened h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c  g a l l e r y i n B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e 2.4) and a d v e r t i s e d " a l l k i n d s o f p h o t o 36 g r a p h i c and j e w e l r y work, e x e c u t e d i n t h e h i g h e s t s t y l e o f t h e a r t . " B l a n c c o n t i n u e d i n b u s i n e s s u n t i l t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e o f September 16, 1868.  He r e p o r t e d l y s u f f e r e d l o s s e s amounting t o one thousand d o l l a r s , 38 and d i d not re-open h i s g a l l e r y u n t i l l a t e December. 32. F i r s t V i c t o r i a D r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e ,Over V i ctthoer i an :e x t E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868. 33.  G o s n e l l , op. c i t . , pp. 604-605.  34.  B l a n c ' s shop was l o c a t e d a t 96 Government S t r e e t . and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863.  35.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 11, 1867, p. 2.  36.  I b i d . , May 5, 1868, p. 1.  37.  "The B u r n i n g o f B a r k e r v i l l e " , I b i d . , September 22,  38.  I b i d . , December 26,  1868.  British  1868.  Columbian  16  P l a t e 2.4;  L.A. B l a n c , P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , B a r k e r v i l l e , c i r c a 1870. L.A. B l a n c , p h o t o g r a p h e r P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada (PAC) C61944  P l a t e 2'.5:  Daily's Photographic Gallery, Fort Street looking V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1869 Frederick D a l l y , ohotographer PAC C17807  east,  17 three y e a r s , Blanc a d v e r t i s e d photographs o f the houses, b u i l d i n g s , and town o f B a r k e r v i l l e , views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y and m i n i n g c l a i m s , s o u v e n i r s o f V i c t o r i a and Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s and l i k e n e s s e s o f m i n e r s and t o w n s f o l k . In A u g u s t 1871, B l a n c a d v i s e d t h o s e w i n t e r i n g i n t h e C a r i b o o and " w i s h i n g t o have t h e i r l i k e n e s s e s o r views o f t h e i r houses o r c l a i m s 39 t a k e n " t o c a l l upon him on o r b e f o r e September 1 5 t h .  He r e t u r n e d t o  B a r k e r v i l l e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r and a g a i n , i n A u g u s t , a d v e r t i s e d a f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n " p h o t o g r a p h i c views o f C a r i b o o . T h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d t h a t B l a n c was " c o m p e l l e d t o v i s i t Europe on business m a t t e r s . " ^ the  H i s g a l l e r y and views were p u t up f o r s a l e and 42  r e m a i n i n g s t o c k was d i s p o s e d o f a t a u c t i o n .  whereabouts and a c t i v i t i e s a r e unknown.  His subsequent  H i s name does n o t a p p e a r as  e i t h e r p h o t o g r a p h e r o r j e w e l e r i n l a t e r d i r e c t o r i e s , and i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t he r e t u r n e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The most v e r s a t i l e and p r o l i f i c o f B r i t i s h Columbia p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n t h e 1860's was F r e d e r i c k D a l l y .  Born i n W e l l i n g b o r o u g h ,  N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e , E n g l a n d i n 1840, "he r e s o l v e d t o v i s i t B r i t i s h 43 Columbia h e a r i n g much o f i t s r e s o u r c e s , " and a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a 39. I b i d . , A u g u s t 5, 1871, p. 2. 40.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 31, 1872, p. 3.  41.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 10, 1872, p. 3.  42.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 31, 1872, p. 3.  43.  Letter of Introduction, Wellingborough, England, Provincial A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D a l l y p a p e r s , E/B/D 16.9.  18  on September 18, 1862 a f t e r a voyage o f 149 days a b o a r d t h e C h i n a 44 Clipper "Cyclone." T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f D a i l y ' s a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l March 1864, when he l e a s e d t h e ground f l o o r o f a b r i c k s t o r e on t h e n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f F o r t and Government S t r e e t s f o r f i f t y 45 d o l l a r s a month. assemblage  In May 1865, D a l l y p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e g r e a t  o f I n d i a n s a t t h e V i c t o r i a Day c e l e b r a t i o n s i n New  Westminster.'  In June 1866, he a d v e r t i s e d h i s new g a l l e r y , i n -  f o r m i n g t h e p u b l i c t h a t he had r e c e i v e d "by l a t e s t steamer [ p r o b a b l y from San F r a n c i s c o ] e v e r y t h i n g n e c e s s a r y t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a r r y i n g on o f t h e a r t " and g u a r a n t e e i n g " t o t h o s e who may p a t r o n i z e him p i c t u r e s g i v i n g t h e utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n . " ^ accompanied  Two months l a t e r , D a l l y  t h e p a r t y o f Governor A.E. Kennedy a b o a r d H.M.S. S c o u t on  a t o u r o f Vancouver  I s l a n d and Nootka I s l a n d " f o r t h e purpose o f 48 v i s i t i n g t h e Indian t r i b e s . " He r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a w i t h  44.  D a i l y ' s l o g kept a b o a r d t h e " C y c l o n e " from May 5, 1862 t o Seotember 18, 1862 i s h e l d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B.C., D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m,  45.  I n d e n t u r e , March 28, 1864, D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16.9.  46.  D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m.  47.  The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866.  48.  "Memoranda o f a t r i p round Vancouver I s l a n d and Nootka I s l a n d on board H.M.S. S c o u t " August 9, 1866 - August 19, 1866. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16m. Two a r t i c l e s i n The D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) d a t e d O c t o b e r 2 7 , 1963, and November 15, 1970, i n c o r r e c t l y g i v e t h e d a t e o f t h i s e x p e d i t i o n as A u g u s t , 1869.  19  o b s e r v a t i o n s and views o f A l b e r n i m i l l s , A h o u s a t , F r i e n d l y Cove, Q u a t s i n o , Comox and Nanaimo.  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , D a l l y t r a v e l l e d  to t h e m i n i n g a r e a s o f W i l l i a m s Creek.  He a r r i v e d i n B a r k e r v i l l e 40 50 on August 8 t h and was open f o r b u s i n e s s f o u r days l a t e r . As J  p l a n n e d , D a l l y remained f o r one month o n l y and on September 11, 1867 he l e f t , by s t a g e , f o r a b r i e f s t a y i n Quesnelmouth b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to V i c t o r i a "by e a s y s t a g e s so as t o e n a b l e him t o t a k e views o f t h e 51 most r e m a r k a b l e p l a c e s on t h e r o u t e . " 52 The f o l l o w i n g summer, D a l l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e C a r i b o o . He t o o k a l i t t l e o v e r a month t o t r a v e l from V i c t o r i a t o B a r k e r v i l l e and h i s 53 j o u r n e y c o s t f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . Upon h i s a r r i v a l , D a l l y s e t up 5A  shop  i n t h e H o t e l de F r a n c e f o r seven weeks ' w h i l e h i s own s t u d i o  was b u i l t .  On September 6, 1868 The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t  he had opened "a f i r s t - c l a s s s t u d i o , a t t h e back o f Adamson & Hurd's 49.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 8, 1867, p. 3.  50.  I b i d . , August 12, 1867, p. 2.  51.  I b i d . , September 12, 1867, p. 3.  52.  In 1868, D a l l y was l i s t e d i n V i c t o r i a a t h i s F o r t S t r e e t a d d r e s s i n t h e F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868.  53.  D a l l y l e f t n o t e s on Y a l e , t h e A l e x a n d r i a S u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e , t h e G r e a t Chasm above C l i n t o n and o t h e r t o p i c s , a b r i e f n a r r a t i v e e n t i t l e d "A J o u r n e y t o W i l l i a m s C r e e k , C a r i b o o " and a c o l l e c t i o n o f views as a record o f h i s t r i o . D a l l y Daoers, PABC, E/B/D16m.  54.  D a l l y n o t e d t h a t board and l o d g i n g c o s t $25.00/week. "A J o u r n e y to W i l l i a m s C r e e k , C a r i b o o " , D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16m.  20  s t o r e " and was  " p r e p a r e d t o do a l l k i n d s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c work on 55  s h o r t e s t n o t i c e and o f t h e v e r y b e s t q u a l i t y . "  D a l l y had been a t  h i s new g a l l e r y f o r o n l y two weeks when, on September 16, 1868, r a z e d by t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e .  i t was  D a l l y w r o t e "An A c c o u n t o f the b u r n i n g 56  o f t h e town o f B a r k e r v i l l e i n C a r i b o o , he s u f f e r e d $1,100 i n l o s s e s i n the  B r i t i s h Columbia"  conflagration,"  5 7  and,  although  he managed t o  save enough equipment t o p h o t o g r a p h the a f t e r m a t h o f the event.  the  historic  D a l l y l e f t the C a r i b o o t h a t f a l l and by December, was a g a i n  in  V i c t o r i a , p r o d u c i n g views f o r s a l e i n h i s F o r t S t r e e t G a l l e r y ( P l a t e 58 2.5). E a r l y i n the f a l l o f 1870, D a l l y d i s p o s e d o f h i s b u s i n e s s t o Green B r o t h e r s and a d v e r t i s e d h i s e n t i r e s t o c k o f B r i t i s h Columbia views and I n d i a n c a r t e s f o r s a l e a t h a l f - p r i c e d u r i n g the month o f 59 September.  On O c t o b e r 13th, he s a i l e d f o r San F r a n c i s c o ; f r o m t h e r e ,  he c r o s s e d the c o n t i n e n t by U n i o n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y t o 55. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 6, 1868, p. 2.  j  Philadelphia  56.  D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m.  57.  " B u r n i n a o f B a r k e r v i l l e , " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 1868.  58.  The C o l o n i s t , December 10,  59.  At the same t i m e , D a l l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l o u t s t a n d i n g d e b t s be p a i d on o r b e f o r e the 2 0 t h o f the month. The C o l o n i s t , September 6, 1870.  22,  1868.  21  where he began s t u d i e s a t the C o l l e g e o f D e n t i s t r y . 61 g r a d u a t e d i n F e b r u a r y 1872 p r a c t i c e as a d e n t a l Despite  and r e t u r n e d  Dally  u u  to England to  enter  surgeon.  h i s new c a r e e r , D a l l y m a i n t a i n e d h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c and  anthropological  i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  He i n q u i r e d about a  commission as a r e g u l a r l e c t u r e r on N o r t h West A m e r i c a w i t h the Church Missionary  S o c i e t y , London; h i s i n q u i r y was  p o l i t e l y dismissed,  al-  though p h o t o g r a p h s o f the n o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t were s o l i c i t e d f o r 62 e n g r a v i n g s f o r the s o c i e t y ' s p u b l i c a t i o n .  D a l l y met some r e s i s t a n c e  i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o p u b l i s h h i s B r i t i s h Columbia p h o t o g r a p h s and observations.  In 1880,.the D i r e c t o r o f the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d r e f u s e d D a i l y ' s r e q u e s t  for  Institute assistance  i n p u b l i s h i n g h i s work, but s u g g e s t e d he c o n t r i b u t e s e c t i o n s t o t h e 63 I n s t i t u t e ' s p e r i o d i c a l from t i m e t o t i m e .  D a l l y was  also  cautioned  a g a i n s t p u b l i s h i n g a book t h r o u g h a commercial p u b l i s h i n g house i n London b e c a u s e o f a g l u t on the m a r k e t and t h e r e c e n t f a i l u r e o f t h e 60.  L e t t e r , D a l l y t o h i s s i s t e r Emma, November 1, 1870.-. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16 c.  61.  Programme o f commencement e x e r c i s e s , P h i l a d e l p h i a Dental F e b r u a r y 29, 1872. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16.9.  62.  L e t t e r , C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t o D a l l y , J u l y 19, D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/C/D16.  63.  L e t t e r , John E. P r i c e t o D a l l y , March 17, 1880. PABC, E/C/D16.  r  College,  1878.  D a l l y paDers,  22  work o f B r i t i s h Columbia t r a v e l l e r s , Mayne and Whymper. '' Neverthel e s s , he d i d present an " E x h i b i t i o n o f E t h n o l o g i c a l Specimens from 65 B r i t i s h Columbia" to the Anthropological  Institute  and submitted  to the Graphic a c o l l e c t i o n o f annotated photographs; he suggested to the e d i t o r that the p i c t u r e s would be appreciated by the j o u r n a l ' s readers "as they are unique and i l l u s t r a t e a l l the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s 66  of t h a t country."  In January 1883, D a l l y presented t o Queen V i c t o r i a  an album o f B r i t i s h Columbia views described as " b e a u t i f u l and 67 i n t e r e s t i n g " i n a thankyou note sent to him on Her Majesty's behalf. When D a l l y came t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1862, he brought with him l e t t e r s o f i n t r o d u c t i o n a t t e s t i n g to h i s "unblemished character" and 68 " l i b e r a l , r e l i g i o u s and moral education." Returning to England, h i s references described him as "a gentleman... accustomed t o good 69 society" and "much respected i n V i c t o r i a f o r h i s p r o b i t y and 64. L e t t e r , Robert Brown t o D a l l y , November 25, 1872. Brown papers, honorable i s p o s i t i o n . A s both a p r o f e s s i o n a l photographer and an PABC, d A/E/B81/B81.6. 65.  D a l l y papers, PABC, E/C/D16.9.  66.  D a l l y a l s o o f f e r e d a map, f u r t h e r information on Indian manners and customs and a d d i t i o n a l views o f Indian v i l l a g e s . L e t t e r , D a l l y t o E d i t o r , Graphic, D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16m.  67.  L e t t e r , Earl o f Kenmare t o D a l l y , January 11, 1883. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/C/D16.  68.  L e t t e r , Wellingborough, A p r i l 9, 1862. D a l l y E/B/D16.9.  69.  L e t t e r , Edmund T. Coleman, Olympia, Washington, August 7, 1870. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16.9.  70.  L e t t e r , Edmund T. Coleman, August 28, 1870. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16.9.  paDers,  PABC,  23  amateur anthropologist, Dally demonstrated a p a r t i c u l a r astuteness of observation.  Together, his photographs and his written notes  c l e a r l y document various aspects of B r i t i s h Columbia in the 1860's urban and rural l i f e , from V i c t o r i a to B a r k e r v i l l e , the Cariboo Road and i t s wayside inns, g o l d f i e l d s , streetscapes, h i s t o r i c events, prominent people and scenic views, A large part of D a i l y ' s  business was devoted to views - of  scenery, of places and of events "taken in B r i t i s h Columbia, Puget Sound and on Vancouver I s l a n d . "  7 1  He also pursued a trade in  likenesses for which a ready market existed in residents of V i c t o r i a and miners and. homesteaders of the Cariboo.  Dally was especially  interested in the native peoples; although he seldom advertised them, Dally produced a considerable imagery of Indians and t h e i r v i l l a g e s and l e f t written observations to complement his  photographs.  He was able to photograph the tribes of Vancouver Island as a member of Governor Kennedy's party, the natives of the Fraser on his journeys to and from the Cariboo and the assemblage of chiefs at the New Westminster V i c t o r i a Day celebrations.  73  Dally supplemented his  71.  The Cariboo Sentinel, September 6, 1868, p. 2.  72.  Correspondence concerning the acquisition by the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia of D a i l y ' s personal c o l l e c t i o n of photographs and papers in.. 1914. Dally papers, PABC, E/D/D16.  73.  Dally noted that the chief of the Nincumshins was helpful as a "public r e l a t i o n s " man among the Indians, t e l l i n g them that the photographer was "a great chief and could work wonders with a small piece of glass, face work e s p e c i a l l y " and that he wanted "pictures to show the great white chief l i v i n g a long distance o f f to show him that the Indians had good hearts towards the white man." cited in Susan Roper "Views of the Cariboo Road and Barkerville Mining F i e l d s " , Vancouver Public Library Slide Kit #10, p. 46.  24  own i m p r e s s i o n s w i t h q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e w r i t i n g s o f J.K. L o r d and M i l t o n and C h e a d l e on s u c h s u b j e c t s as f i s h i n g , I n d i a n s and s c e n e r y .  74  Many o f h i s I n d i a n views were used as t h e b a s i s f o r e n g r a v i n g s i n t h e C a n a d i a n I l l u s t r a t e d Mews i n t h e 1870''s.  The f a c t t h a t h i s p h o t o -  g r a p h s and albums f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o c o l l e c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia and a c r o s s Canada r e f l e c t s n o t o n l y a w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h - w e s t , but a l s o t h e c r e d i t due t o D a l l y h i m s e l f as a photographer. G.R.. and R.F.. Green a g r e e d t o p u r c h a s e D a i l y ' s n e g a t i v e s , 8" by 10" camera, frames and showcase f o r $1,131.00 i n September 1870 and 75 p r o m i s e d t o pay w i t h i n e i g h t e e n months. In 1871, t h e y a d v e r t i s e d "a b e a u t i f u l and w e l l a s s o r t e d c o l l e c t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbian views 76  and I n d i a n p h o t o g r a p h s "  and a d v i s e d t h a t " b e f o r e o r d e r i n g Rembrants,  t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d c a l l and examine t h e p i c t u r e s t a k e n a t t h e F o r t S t r e e t G a l l e r y by Messrs G r e e n . H o w e v e r , t h e y renegged on t h e i r payments and, i n August 1872, The C o l o n i s t announced t h a t t h e i r camera, 78 equipment and n e g a t i v e s were f o r s a l e a t a u c t i o n . Many o f D a i l y ' s 74.  John K e a s t L o r d , The N a t u r a l i s t i n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . London: R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 1866. L o r d was n a t u r a l i s t t o t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h American Boundary Commission.  75.  T r a n s a c t i o n between G.R. Green and R.E. Green and F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , September 27, 1870. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16.9.  76.  The C o l o n i s t , F e b r u a r y 15, 1871.  77.  - I b i d . , August 4,  78.  I b i d . , August 15,  1871. 1872.  25  p l a t e s were t h e n a c q u i r e d by R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard; s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e y were p r i n t e d f o r s a l e w i t h t h e Maynard''s name and b u s i n e s s a d d r e s s on t h e c a r d b o a r d mount.  As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number  o f v i e w s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h e C a r i b o o Road, which a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Maynards, but which were a c t u a l l y photographed  by D a l l y .  In 1852, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e , the Maynards e m i g r a t e d E n g l a n d t o Bowmanville, shoe b u s i n e s s .  from  Canada West, where R i c h a r d opened a boot and  Seven y e a r s l a t e r , he came t o B r i t i s h 79  " a t t r a c t e d t h i t h e r by t h e g o l d e x c i t e m e n t . " '  Columbia,  A f t e r moderate s u c c e s s  i n p l a c e r - m i n i n g on Hudson's Bar i n t h e F r a s e r and p r o s p e c t i n g i n t h e S t i k i n e , R i c h a r d d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e on t h e West C o a s t and r e t u r n e d t o Bowmanville photography.  t o get h i s f a m i l y .  In t h e meantime, Hannah had l e a r n e d  In 1861, t h e Maynards s o l d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e E a s t  and, w i t h t h e i r f o u r c h i l d r e n , s a i l e d from New York t o B r i t i s h  Columbia  by way o f t h e Isthmus o f Panama, Once s e t t l e d i n V i c t o r i a , R i c h a r d Maynard s t a r t e d a boot and shoe b u s i n e s s and h i s w i f e opened a p o r t r a i t s t u d i o on Johnson S t r e e t ( P l a t e 2,6).  Busy t i m e s and a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e  s u c c e s s o f Mrs. Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c b u s i n e s s .  Upon her r e t i r e m e n t ,  she n o t e d t h a t m i n e r s caught up i n t h e g o l d e x c i t e m e n t and s a i l o r s o f t h e B r i t i s h P a c i f i c f l e e t based i n E s q u i m a l t were always p a s s i n g t h r o u g h 80 V i c t o r i a and were e v e r e a g e r t o have t h e i r l i k e n e s s e s t a k e n . 79.  G o s n e l l , op. c i t . , p.  399.  80.  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , September 29, 1912, p. 10.  26  P l a t e 2.6:  R i c h a r d Maynard's Boot and Shoe S t o r e and Hannah Maynard P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f Douglas and Johnson s t r e e t s , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1877. PABC 1820  27  D u r i n g t h e 1860's, R i c h a r d l e a r n e d photography d e v e l o p e d a t r a d e i n l a n d s c a p e views. photographer  from h i s w i f e and  He a l s o s e r v e d as o f f i c i a l  on v a r i o u s government commissions.  In 1873, and p o s s i b l y  a g a i n i n 1874, R i c h a r d Maynard accompanied t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s on h i s t o u r o f t h e West C o a s t t r i b e s aboard H.M.S. Boxer. 1873 voyage v i s i t e d New W e s t m i n s t e r  f o r t h e May 24th I n d i a n  The  ceremonies  and t h e n proceeded t o Nanaimo, Comox, K n i g h t I n l e t , F o r t R u p e r t , Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound, F i t z h u g h Sound, S a f e t y Cove, B e l l a C o o l a , F o r t McLaughlin  and A l e r t Bay.  L a t e i n t h e 1870's, Maynard produced  a  s e r i e s o f photographs  from h i s t r a v e l s up t h e C a r i b o o Road, and i n  1881, he photographed  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -  way t h r o u g h B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In 1884, R i c h a r d j o i n e d an e x p l o r a t i o n p a r t y t o the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , r e c o r d i n g Haida v i l l a g e s and t h e Nass R i v e r f i s h e r y ; f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , he a g a i n went n o r t h t o t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s , t h i s time accompanied by h i s w i f e .  R i c h a r d t r a v e l l e d up t h e c o a s t once more i n t h e e a r l y  1890's when he was a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l p h o t o g r a p h e r  to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  commission i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s t o s e a l i n g r i g h t s i n the North P a c i f i c .  H i s photographs  o f the s e a l r o o k e r i e s o f t h e P r i b y l o f f  I s l a n d s were s e n t t o P a r i s and used i n t h e a r b i t r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o 81 versy. A s p e c i a l e d i t i o n o f The C o l o n i s t i n A p r i l 1896 n o t e d R i c h a r d Maynard's s u s t a i n e d i n v o l v e m e n t 81.  i n V i c t o r i a ' s b u s i n e s s community o v e r  Maynard r e p o r t e d l y had a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f b l a c k diamonds w h i c h he found on t h e P r i b y l o f f I s l a n d s i n 1892. The C o l o n i s t , November 1, 1898, p. 8.  28  twenty-five years.  D u r i n g t h e 1870's and 1880's, R i c h a r d p u r s u e d  h i s boot b u s i n e s s a l o n g s i d e h i s photography.  In 1896, t h i s e n t e r -  p r i s e , then managed by h i s son A l b e r t , "embraced a f u l l l i n e o f b o o t s , s h o e s , l e a t h e r and shoe f i n d i n g s , p h o t o g r a p h i c a p p a r a t u s and s u p p l i e s " t h e t r a d e , both w h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l , e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e The Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y , i n the same b u i l d i n g as t h e shoe b u s i n e s s on Pandora S t r e e t , was t h e o l d e s t one i n V i c t o r i a .  The news-  paper a l s o n o t e d t h a t a l l k i n d s o f p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n , but t h a t s p e c i a l t y was made " o f t h e b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y which abounds i n t h i s 84 neighbourhood." Toward t h e end o f the c e n t u r y , t h e Pandora S t r e e t s t u d i o began t o s e r v e y e t a n o t h e r c l i e n t e l e when t h e Maynards were commissioned 85 ment.  t o photograph  p r i s o n e r s f o r the V i c t o r i a p o l i c e d e p a r t -  R i c h a r d Maynard r e t i r e d i n 1906; he d i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  H i s w i f e remained i n b u s i n e s s u n t i l 1912; Hannah Maynard d i e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1918 a t the age o f 84. The Maynards ( P l a t e 2.7) perhaps more t h a n any o t h e r  photographer  i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia a c h i e v e d wide r e c o g n i t i o n . To l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a , t h e name o f R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard was synonymous w i t h t h e a r t and t r a d e o f p h o t o g r a p h y .  The r e a s o n s f o r  t h i s i n c l u d e t h e i r e a r l y b e g i n n i n g , t h e i r s u s t a i n e d endeavours p l a c e and t h e i r d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s .  i n one  Hannah t o o k i n d i v i d u a l l i k e n e s s e s  82.  I b i d . , A p r i l 5, 1896,  p..8.  83.  Ibid.  84.  Ibid.  85.  The V i c t o r i a n , F e b r u a r y 21, 1973, p. 20. " Y e s t e r d a y and Today". #196 d e s c r i b e s t h e b r i c k ^ b u i l d i n g on Pandora S t r e e t .  29  P l a t e 2.7:  R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard. Carte-de-visite. PABC 56736  30  and f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s - , R i c h a r d p h o t o g r a p h e d o f f i c i a l  functions,  m e e t i n g s and c e r e m o n i e s f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government.  Both  t r a v e l l e d throughout t h e province t o record i t s s c e n i c beauty.  They  p r o d u c e d s i n g l e p r i n t s and album c o l l e c t i o n s ; some Maynard p h o t o g r a p h s were used i n newspapers, magazines and books.  Perhaps one o f t h e b e s t  r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s was t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work. Columbia h i s t o r i a n R.E. G o s n e l l gave h i s a s s u r a n c e  British  that " a l l the  p h o t o g r a p h y b e a r i n g t h e Maynard i m p r i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t i n t h a t art."  8 6  P h o t o g r a p h s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a l s o taken i n t h e 1870's and 1880's i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h C a n a d i a n government s u r v e y s .  In 1871,  A l f r e d Selwyn, D i r e c t o r o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, l e d a s u r v e y t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i n c e ; h i s p a r t y i n c l u d e d Benjamin B a l t z l y and 87 John Hammond o f W i l l i a m Notman's p h o t o g r a p h i c f i r m . T h e i r work, c o m p r i s i n g t h i r t y - s i x 8 by 10 s i n g l e and e i g h t y - f o u r s t e r e o s c o p i c views " o f V i c t o r i a and b o l d and grand s c e n e r y , from Y a l e t o K a m l o o p [ s ] , 88 and a l o n g N o r t h Thompson R i v e r t o Moose Lake" was used t o i l l u s t r a t e Selwyn's j o u r n a l and r e p o r t ; t h e views were a l s o p u b l i s h e d as p a r t o f 89 W i l l i a m Notman's c o l l e c t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s c e n e s . A f t e r completion 86.  G o s n e l l , op. c i t , , p. 400.  87.  B a l t z l y and Hammond were p a i d and e q u i p p e d by t h e Notman p h o t o g r a p h i c f i r m , b u t t h e i r t r a v e l e x p e n s e s were p a i d by t h e G o v e r n ment o f Canada. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 5, 1871.  88.  The C o l o n i s t , November 30, 1871, p. 3.'  89.  G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , p. 56.  31  of t h e s u r v e y , B a l t z l y r e m a i n e d i n V i c t o r i a f o r one week t o r e c e i v e o r d e r s f r o m t h e p u b l i c p r i o r t o h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r San F r a n c i s c o . In t h e summer o f 1875, C h a r l e s H o r e t z s k y , f o r m e r l y a c l e r k and 90 amateur p h o t o g r a p h e r w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company, produced a s e r i e s o f photographs a l o n g the proposed Canadian P a c i f i c Railway 91 northern terminus route, including annotated views o f t h e Homathko 92 R i v e r and Bute I n l e t .  O t h e r p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia  were l e f t by G.M. Dawson o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada i n t h e 1870's and 1880's, by t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n Boundary Commission, 1872°3 1875, and by E . D e v i l l e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886." 1884, t h e Notman f i r m was commissioned t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e f i n a l of C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e west.  In phases  A p r i v a t e railway coach  was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a darkroom and h a u l e d t o t h e w e s t e r n end o f t r a c k to e n a b l e Notman's sons t o r e c o r d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e K i c k i n g Horse 94 Pass s e c t i o n o f t r a c k . 90. G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , p. 52. 91.  Notations include geographical l o c a t i o n , magnetic b e a r i n g , survey s t a t i o n s and t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f n o t e .  92.  Two albums o f H o r e t z s k y s views a r e housed i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s P a c i f i c Railway Survey c o n t a i n s some f i f t y views a l o n g t h e e a s t and west b r a n c h e s o f t h e Homathko R i v e r t a k e n between June and September, 1875. A second c o l l e c t i o n of s e v e n t y - f i v e p h o t o g r a p h s a l s o i n c l u d e s more t h a n twenty o f h i s e a r l i e r p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e Peace R i v e r p o s t o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company, Saskatchewan I n d i a n s and O n t a r i o s c e n e r y .  93.  Views on C P . R a i l w a y i s an album o f e i g h t y - o n e p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n by D e v i l l e i n 1886 and h e l d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  94.  Notman h i m s e l f n e v e r v i s i t e d w e s t e r n Canada. J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r and S t a n l e y T r i g g s ( e d . ) , " H i s t o r y o f t h e W i l l i a m Notman P h o t o g r a p h i c F i r m " , P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Notman P h o t o g r a p h s 1856 to 1915, M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967, unpaged.  1  32  There  a r e a g r e a t many p h o t o g r a p h s which b e a r no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and i t i s beyond t h e purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r authorship.  Some may have been t a k e n by t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r s a l r e a d y  d i s c u s s e d ; many may be a s c r i b e d t o o t h e r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photog r a p h e r s who c o n c e n t r a t e d on p o r t r a i t u r e o r who d i d n o t i d e n t i f y t h e i r work. development  In r e s t r i c t i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p i o n e e r p e r i o d o f t h a t ended w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Canadian  R a i l w a y , t h i s s t u d y e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s t h e work o f e a r l y photographers,  Pacific Vancouver  By no means a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n e a r l y  B r i t i s h Columbia have been d i s c u s s e d .  Rather t h i s review  t h e more prominent p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a .  emphasizes  Particular  a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h o s e who o p e r a t e d s t u d i o s i n V i c t o r i a and i n B a r k e r v i l l e and who a d v e r t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n The C o l o n i s t and The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were o t h e r p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s , none began as e a r l y and o p e r a t e d as l o n g as Spencer and  Fardon.  G e n t i l e , B l a n c and D a l l y m e r i t a t t e n t i o n as t h o s e most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d ' o f B r i t i s h Columbia's emerging human l a n d scapes.  No s t u d y o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o u l d o v e r l o o k  R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard whose work o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y was  unsur-  p a s s e d f o r i t s s h e e r volume, v a r i e d f o r m a t and d i v e r s e s u b j e c t s . T o g e t h e r , t h e work o f t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o m p r i s e s t h e b u l k o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d t o which t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a d d r e s s e d .  CHAPTER 3 PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY IN EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA  Nineteenth century photographs  c a n n o t be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d a p a r t  from t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t c r e a t e d them. imposed  E a r l y photographic  technology  both p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c c o n s t r a i n t s on p i o n e e r p h o t o -  g r a p h e r s and t h e i r work.  Some knowledge o f t h e development,  equipment,  p r o c e d u r e s , v a r i a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e e a r l y p r o c e s s e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h s .  Advertise-  ments i n B r i t i s h Columbia newspapers and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d e l s e w h e r e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t e d between p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  photographers,  g a l l e r i e s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s and p u b l i s h e r s i n London, San F r a n c i s c o , New York, M o n t r e a l and e l s e w h e r e .  Such c o n n e c t i o n s meant e x p o s u r e t o  e q u i p m e n t , new t e c h n i q u e s and new i d e a s .  Therefore, although B r i t i s h  Columbia was an i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y N o r t h i t s photography  d i d not d e v e l o p i n i s o l a t i o n .  view o f photography  America,  A c c o r d i n g l y , an o v e r -  i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia may be g a i n e d from  sources: h i s t o r i e s o f photography  new  present the general  two  developments;  p h o t o g r a p h e r s ' a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and e d i t o r s ' comments i n such newspapers as The C o l o n i s t and The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e v e a l s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . Together they provide a t e c h n o l o g i c a l context f o r examining  the  photographic record. E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d s o f o p t i c s and c h e m i s t r y d u r i n g t h e l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e 33  34  development o f t h e e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c a b l e p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s e s .  In  1839, i n F r a n c e , L o u i s J a c q u e s Mande Daguerre (1789-1851) announced a method f o r f i x i n g a l i g h t image t o a s i l v e r - p l a t e d s h e e t o f c o p p e r . The r e s u l t was a s m a l l , b r i l l i a n t , i n f i n i t e l y - d e t a i l e d  "daguerreotype";  one e x p o s u r e y i e l d e d a s i n g l e , n o n - r e p r o d u c i b l e image w i t h t h e u n i q u e ness o f an o r i g i n a l work o f a r t . The d a g u e r r e o t y p e was t h e most i m p o r t a n t p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s f o r about f i f t e e n y e a r s , r e a c h i n g i t s heyday i n N o r t h America i n t h e e a r l y 1850's.  N e c e s s a r i l y l o n g ex-  p o s u r e s r e s t r i c t e d i t s f i r s t use t o s t i l l - l i f e s , l a n d s c a p e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c e n e s , but w i t h e a r l y improvements i t soon became most p o p u l a r as a p o r t r a i t medium. In 1841, i n E n g l a n d , W i l l i a m Henry Fox T a l b o t (1800-1877) p a t e n t e d a t w o - s t e p p r o c e s s which p e r m a n e n t l y r e c o r d e d . a n image on paper.  The  c a l o t y p e , o r T a l b o t y p e method i n v o l v e d t h e use o f s e n s i t i z e d w r i t i n g p a p e r t o make a n e g a t i v e image which c o u l d t h e n s e r v e as a f i l t e r which a n o t h e r s h e e t o f s e n s i t i z e d paper was exposed.  T h i s second s t e p  r e v e r s e d t h e t o n a l v a l u e s and p r o d u c e d a p o s i t i v e image. the  through  Significantly,  n e g a t i v e was u n i q u e , but from i t , any number o f p r i n t s c o u l d be  produced.  I t was t h i s n e g a t i v e - p o s i t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t became t h e  b a s i s o f modern p h o t o g r a p h y .  However, because o f p a t e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s  on T a l b o t ' s p r o c e s s , D a g u e r r e ' s method was used more e x t e n s i v e l y and the  c a l o t y p e never a t t a i n e d the p o p u l a r i t y of the daguerreotype.  By  1858, when p h o t o g r a p h y was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e p r o c e s s e s were v i r t u a l l y o b s o l e t e .  Although  35  p i o n e e r Stephen Spencer a d v e r t i s e d h i m s e l f as a " D a g u e r r e i a n  Artist"  i n 1859, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t e i t h e r o f t h e s e e a r l y p r o c e s s e s was much i n B r i t i s h  used  Columbia.  The f i r s t p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y used i n t h e c o l o n y was 2 the c o l l o d i o n . o r " w e t - p l a t e " p r o c e s s .  Developed  i n 1851  probably  by F r e d e r i c k  S c o t t A r c h e r (1813-1857) i t f i x e d a l i g h t s e n s i t i v e e m u l s i o n t o g l a s s . A c l e a n s h e e t o f g l a s s was c o a t e d e v e n l y (a t e c h n i q u e r e q u i r i n g some s k i l l ) w i t h c o l l o d i o n - g u n - c o t t o n d i s s o l v e d i n e t h e r and a l c o h o l and t h e n i o d i z e d . The p l a t e was made l i g h t s e n s i t i v e i n a s o l u t i o n o f s i l v e r n i t r a t e and, w h i l e s t i l l wet, was exposed i n a camera.  It  was then p r o m p t l y removed, d e v e l o p e d i n p y r o g a l l i c a c i d o r f e r r o u s s u l p h a t e and f i x e d i n hypo o r p o t a s s i u m c y a n i d e s o l u t i o n . The r e s u l t was a c o l l o d i o n g l a s s n e g a t i v e .  T h i s method was as f a s t as  Daguerre's,  i t produced a more permanent image, i t was much l e s s e x p e n s i v e and i t gave more c l a r i t y , g r e a t e r d e t a i l and b e t t e r t o n a l g r a d a t i o n .  Like  T a l b o t ' s two-step t e c h n i q u e , i t a l l o w e d m u l t i p l e p r i n t s from a s i n g l e negative.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e absence o f p a t e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s made i t  u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e . W e t - p l a t e photography  quickly attained undis-  puted prominence o v e r t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e p r o c e s s e s . The c o l l o d i o n g l a s s n e g a t i v e was p r e p a r e d f o r s a l e o r p r i n t e d i n a number o f ways.  Mounted a g a i n s t b l a c k p a p e r , c a r d b o a r d , v e l v e t ,  1,  The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859. A y e a r l a t e r , Spencer a d v e r t i s e d h i m s e l f as an " a m b r o t y p i s t and p h o t o g r a p h i s t " i n The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, I860.  2.  Three years p r e v i o u s l y , a process f o r d e p o s i t i n g s i l v e r s a l t s on g l a s s u s i n g an albumen base had been p u b l i s h e d , but i t s slow speed l i m i t e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y .  36  p a t e n t l e a t h e r , o i l - c l o t h o r m e t a l , t h e t o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e creamg r e y image were r e v e r s e d .  The r e s u l t i n g p o s i t i v e , o r ambrotype as  i t was known i n A m e r i c a , was matted and bound i n a s p e c i a l c a s e . P o p u l a r i n e a s t e r n Canada around 1860 and seldom made t h e r e a f t e r 1865,  ambrotypes were s t i l l a d v e r t i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  through-  4  o u t t h e 1860's and as l a t e as 1870.  A m o d i f i c a t i o n , v a r i o u s l y known  as a t i n t y p e , f e r r o t y p e o r m e l a i n o t y p e , was a c o l l o d i o n p o s i t i v e made d i r e c t l y on t h i n , g l o s s y b l a c k i r o n p l a t e s . S t u r d y enough t o send t h r o u g h t h e m a i l , t h e s e p l a t e s were p o p u l a r even i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h 5 century.  F a r more e x t e n s i v e l y used were c o n t a c t p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s  t h a t produced paper p o s i t i v e s from w e t - p l a t e n e g a t i v e s u s i n g v a r i o u s p r i n t - o u t papers. U n t i l about 1854, p a p e r t r e a t e d w i t h common s a l t and s i l v e r n i t r a t e s o l u t i o n was p l a c e d under t h e n e g a t i v e and l e f t i n s u n l i g h t . The image t h a t a p p e a r e d needed o n l y t o be f i x e d .  Albumen p a p e r , d e v e l o p e d i n  1850 by L o u i s B l a n q u a r t - E v a r d was t h e most w i d e l y used p r i n t - o u t paper u n t i l about 1890. Paper was c o a t e d w i t h an e m u l s i o n o f e g g - w h i t e , p o t a s s i u m i o d i d e and s e n s i t i z e d s i l v e r s a l t s .  A f t e r exposure t o f u l l  s u n l i g h t t h r o u g h a n e g a t i v e , t h e p r i n t was washed, t o n e d , washed, f i x e d , 3.  G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , unpaged,  pp. 30-31; H a r p e r and T r i g g s ( e d . ) , l o c . c i t . ,  4.  Ambrotypes were o f f e r e d by Stephen Spencer i n The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, 1860; F r e d e r i c k D a l l y a d v e r t i s e d ambrotypes i n t h e F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868; L.A. B l a n c s t i l l a d v e r t i s e d them i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l a s l a t e as August 13, 1870, p. 2.  5.  Greenhill, loc.c i t .  37 washed and d r i e d .  P r e p a r e d i n advance, albumen p a p e r was mass-  p r o d u c e d and s o l d c o m m e r c i a l l y .  The p r o b l e m o f f a d i n g  e f f o r t s t o f i n d a more permanent pigment.  prompted  Carbon was t r i e d i n t h e  l a t e 1860's: p l a t i n u m p a p e r a t t a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y f r o m t h e l a t e 1870's u n t i l World War I made i t s c o s t p r o h i b i t i v e . The w e t - p l a t e camera b r o u g h t t o B r i t i s h Columbia was e s s e n t i a l l y a l i g h t - t i g h t box w i t h a s i m p l e l e n s a t one end. Some were m a n u f a c t u r e d c o m m e r c i a l l y , o t h e r s were homemade. cumbersome.  They were l a r g e , heavy and  The a v e r a g e view camera t h a t p r o d u c e d 8 by 10 i n c h p l a t e s  weighed a b o u t t h i r t y pounds. t h r e e t i m e s t h a t much.  L a r g e r cameras sometimes weighed up t o  A t r i p o d was e s s e n t i a l .  A t t h e back o f t h e  camera was a p i e c e o f ground g l a s s upon w h i c h t h e image was f o c u s e d ; a b l a c k c l o t h was used as a hood t o e l i m i n a t e e x t r a n e o u s l i g h t and make f o c u s i n g e a s i e r .  To t a k e a p h o t o g r a p h , t h e ground g l a s s was  r e p l a c e d w i t h a l i g h t s e n s i t i v e p l a t e ; e a r l y e m u l s i o n s were n o t f a s t enough t o r e q u i r e a s h u t t e r . By modern s t a n d a r d s , e x p o s u r e t i m e s were l o n g .  To t a k e a p h o t o -  g r a p h , t h e l e n s was s i m p l y uncapped and r e c a p p e d , t h e i n t e r v a l d e t e r m i n e d by t r i a l and e r r o r .  S u b j e c t s p h o t o g r a p h e d o u t d o o r s on a b r i g h t c l e a r  day r e q u i r e d e x p o s u r e t i m e s o f t e n t o f i f t e e n s e c o n d s ; under t h e most f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s and i f f r e s h l y made c o l l o d i o n were u s e d , as l i t t l e as f i v e seconds m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y .  Because c a r t e s and s t e r e o -  views used s m a l l e r n e g a t i v e s , t h e y c o u l d be made by s h o r t e x p o s u r e s u s i n g l e n s e s o f s h o r t f o c a l l e n g t h and wide a p e r t u r e . Toward t h e end of the wet-plate e r a , v a r i a t i o n s i n the formula f o r s e n s i t i z i n g plates r e s u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r exposure times.  38  A l l p i c t u r e s were t a k e n i n n a t u r a l l i g h t , making s t u d i o p o r t r a i t u r e p o s s i b l e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e use o f g l a s s s k y l i g h t s .  Indoor  e x p o s u r e s were n e c e s s a r i l y l o n g e r ; t i m e s ranged f r o m f i f t e e n seconds t o more t h a n one m i n u t e d u r i n g t h e 1870's. employed t o keep t h e s u b j e c t r i g i d .  Head and back r e s t s were  Long s i t t i n g s made i t e s p e c i a l l y  d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o g r a p h c h i l d r e n ; s u c c e s s f u l p o r t r a i t s r e q u i r e d good l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , t h e w i d e s t l e n s a p e r t u r e p o s s i b l e , l i b e r a l amounts o f candy and a p a t i e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r .  Stephen S p e n c e r made i t known  t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o undergo s u c h an o r d e a l , a d v e r t i s i n g " p a r t i c u l a r attention paid to obtaining pictures of c h i l d r e n . " The r e f r a c t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s on c o l l o d i o n p h o t o g r a p h y .  6  imposed p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s  The p r i m a r y c o n s t r a i n t l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t  t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e e m u l s i o n l a s t e d o n l y as l o n g a s t h e p l a t e r e m a i n e d wet.  I f the coating dried, the s i l v e r n i t r a t e c r y s t a l l i z e d  and t h e d e v e l o p e r  c o u l d n o t a c t on t h e hardened c o l l o d i o n .  t o p r e p a r e and d e v e l o p w e t - p l a t e  negatives  a f t e r exposure e n t a i l e d considerable the s t u d i o . chemicals,  Excursions  The need  i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e and  inconvenience  d u r i n g work o u t s i d e  r e q u i r e d a p o r t a b l e darkroom,^ a c h e s t o f  boxes o f g l a s s p l a t e s and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s  o f fresh water,  6.  The C o l o n i s t , J a n u a r y 15, 1852.  7.  P o r t a b l e darkrooms r a n g e d f r o m t e n t s t o c a r t s t o r a i l w a y c o a c h e s . A t y p i c a l p o r t a b l e d a r k - t e n t was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 h f e e t s q u a r e and s i x f e e t h i g h , c o n s t r u c t e d o f c l o s e l y - w o v e n , double-thickness, d a r k b l u e denim, l i n e d w i t h a b l a c k o i l c l o t h s h i e l d .  39  i n a d d i t i o n t o cumbersome cameras, l e n s e s and t r i p o d s .  A l l t h i s photo-  g r a p h i c p a r a p h e r n a l i a had t o be c a r r i e d e v e r y w h e r e , unpacked and 8  repacked a t each l o c a t i o n .  I t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s had t o c o n t e n d  w i t h problems o f h e a t , c o l d , w i n d , d u s t , r a i n and i n s e c t s , t o say n o t h i n g o f t h e n o x i o u s fumes o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c c h e m i c a l s . On o c c a s i o n , D a l l y 9 had t o c o n t e n d w i t h h o s t i l e I n d i a n s and menancing e a g l e s ; h i s n o t e s describe several encounters with rattlesnakes: A t t h i s p o i n t [ L i t t l e B l u f f on t h e Thompson R i v e r ] , I had t o t a k e two views as a r a t t l e r happened t o be under t h e s t o n e t h a t I r e s t e d my p l a t e a g a i n s t t o d r y i t i n t h e s u n , and l i c k e d t h e w a t e r o f f , marking t h e p l a t e from t h e t o p t o t h e bottom w i t h i t s f o r k e d tongue.10 The p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f w e t - p l a t e p h o t o g r a p h y had a e s t h e t i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s which a r e i m p o r t a n t t o an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p h o t o graphic record.  The n e c e s s i t y o f p r e p a r i n g a g l a s s p l a t e i m m e d i a t e l y  b e f o r e e x p o s u r e imposed a d e l i b e r a t e n e s s on t h e p r a c t i c e o f p h o t o g r a p h y .  8.  The equipment c a r r i e d by A m e r i c a n p h o t o g r a p h e r W i l l i a m H. J a c k s o n i s l i s t e d i n R o b e r t T a f t ' s P h o t o g r a p h y and t h e American Scene: A S o c i a l H i s t o r y , 1839-1889, New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1938, p. 309. R i c h a r d Huyda has appended a l i s t o f equipment t a k e n a c r o s s t h e C a n a d i a n p r a i r i e s i n 1858 by Humphrey L l o y d Hime i n Camera i n t h e I n t e r i o r : 1858, T o r o n t o : The Coach House P r e s s , 1975, pp. 30-31.  9.  A n o t a t i o n accompanying a view o f t h e G r e a t Chasm r e a d s : "When t a k i n g t h i s view ( a l l a l o n e ) two e a g l e s came t o a t t a c k me, but I managed t o d r i v e them o f f " , PABC 79708, F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Photog r a p h i c Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1867-1870, V o l . 2, p. 23.  10.  PABC 10242, I b i d . , V o l . 5, p. 44.  40  Under such c o n d i t i o n s , " p h o t o g r a p h y was a c o n c e p t u a l a r t ; t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p i c t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e e x p o s u r e was made." ''' 1  S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e need t o d e v e l o p t h e p l a t e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e precluded the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t a k i n g several photographs i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n o r o f c a p t u r i n g a sequence o f e v e n t s .  Too much t i m e and  e f f o r t were i n t e r p o s e d between t h e s e e i n g and t h e r e c o r d i n g o f a comp o s i t i o n t o make c o l l o d i o n p h o t o g r a p h y a c a n d i d , haphazard p r o c e d u r e . Contact p r i n t i n g a l s o encouraged e f f i c i e n t composition. p r i n t s was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y . v i r t u a l l y unknown.  The s i z e o f  E n g l a r g e m e n t s were  P o s i t i v e s were c o n t a c t p r i n t e d and t h e d i m e n s i o n s  of the negative determined those of the p r i n t .  A desire for large  p h o t o g r a p h s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e use o f l a r g e r , h e a v i e r , more cumbersome cameras.  With a l l t h e work i n v o l v e d i n a s i n g l e c o l l o d i o n n e g a t i v e ,  each p l a t e was p r e c i s e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y composed t o r e q u i r e as l i t t l e c r o p p i n g as p o s s i b l e . The c o l l o d i o n n e g a t i v e / a l b u m e n p o s i t i v e f o r m a t was t h e b a s i s o f two p h o t o g r a p h i c vogues o f t h e 1860's; b o t h were commonly o f f e r e d by e a r l y photographers i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  C a r t e s - d e - v i s i t e were  m i n i a t u r e p o r t r a i t s t h a t were mounted on 2 h by 4 i n c h c a r d s and  11.  John S z a r k o w s k i , L o o k i n g a t P h o t o g r a p h s . Modern A r t , 1973, p. 28.  New Y o r k : The Museum o f  12.  The view camera used by A m e r i c a n p h o t o g r a p h e r F. J a y Haynes t o produce 20 by 24 inch:, p l a t e s weighed 92 h. pounds, e x c l u s i v e o f e i t h e r p l a t e o r h o l d e r . To p h o t o g r a p h t h e Grand Canyon, he had i t and a l l h i s o t h e r equipment h a u l e d t o . t h e bottom o f t h e canyon and back up a g a i n . Freeman T i l den, F o l l o w i n g t h e F r o n t i e r w i t h F, J a y Haynes. New Y o r k : Knopf, 1964, p. 405.  41  d i s t r i b u t e d t o f a m i l y and f r i e n d s o r p l a c e d i n t o albums f o r p a r l o u r display.  Some p h o t o g r a p h e r s  used a m u l t i - l e n s camera w i t h movable  p l a t e - h o l d e r t h a t c o u l d produce a s many as a dozen frames on a f u l l 6 h by 8 h i n c h p l a t e .  A s i n g l e n e g a t i v e , when p r i n t e d , then y i e l d e d  a number o f p o r t r a i t s t h a t were c u t and p a s t e d onto i n d i v i d u a l c a r d s . Shakespeare  a d v e r t i s e d " t h e f a r - f a m e d and j u s t l y p o p u l a r c a r t e s - d e -  v i s i t e " ^ and B l a n c o f f e r e d c a r t e s , " b o t h p l a i n and e n a m e l l e d . " ^ 15 P a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r as i n e x p e n s i v e p o r t r a i t s ,  c a r t e s were i n v a r i a b l y  i n c l u d e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s which l i s t e d t h e f o r m a t s t h a t  photographers  offered. 16 The o t h e r f a d o f t h e 1860's  was t h e s t e r e o g r a p h i c view.  Based  on p r i n c i p l e s o f b i n o c u l a r v i s i o n , two s l i g h t l y o f f s e t p r i n t s were 13.  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868, p. 86.  14.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 13, 1870, p. ?,.  15.  In Europe, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i n t e r e s t i n c a r t e s was n o t l i m i t e d t o l i k e n e s s e s o f one's f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . The c r a z e t o c o l l e c t m i n i a t u r e p o r t r a i t s o f r o y a l t y and c e l e b r i t i e s began i n F r a n c e i n 1859 w i t h D i s d e r i ' s c a r t e s o f Napoleon I I I and i n England i n 1860 w i t h M a y a l l ' s photographs o f V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t . These and o t h e r p r i n t s were mass-produced f o r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n and s o l d c h e a p l y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o albums.  16.  E a r l i e r d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e s t e r e o g r a p h s were s i m p l y t o o e x p e n s i v e t o g a i n w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i t y . The r e f l e c t i n g s t e r e o scope t h a t was r e q u i r e d was a l s o v e r y c o s t l y t o p r o d u c e ; however, i n 1849, t h e l e n t i c u l a r s t e r e o s c o p e , a l e s s e x p e n s i v e v i e w i n g d e v i c e , was d e v e l o p e d . The advent o f c o l l o d i o n photography i n 1851 e x p e d i t e d t h e cheap m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n o f paper f o r m a t , c a r d mounted s t e r e o g r a p h s .  42  viewed t h r o u g h a d e v i c e known as a s t e r e o s c o p e t o p r o d u c e a s i n g l e image w i t h t h e r e a l i s t i c s e n s a t i o n o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . ^ The impact o f s t e r e o g r a p h y on t h e p u b l i c i m a g i n a t i o n "was second o n l y to t h e e x c i t e m e n t g e n e r a t e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e .  1 , 1 8  S t e r e o c a r d s p r o v i d e d n o t o n l y an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , but a l s o an entertaining diversion.  In E u r o p e , p h o t o g r a p h e r s were s e n t f a r and  wide by s t e r e o c a r d companies t o produce views o f e x o t i c l a n d s , h i s t o r i c e v e n t s and n a t u r a l wonders.  In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B a r k e r v i l l e  p h o t o g r a p h e r L,A. B l a n c r e p e a t e d l y a d v e r t i s e d "views o f g r o u p s , m i n i n g 19 c l a i m s , houses, e t c . , s i n g l e and s t e r e o s c o p i c .  S t e r e o g r a p h y was a  r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e p a s t - t i m e and t h e s t e r e o s c o p e and box o f s t e r e o c a r d s q u i c k l y became a u b i q u i t o u s f e a t u r e o f t h e V i c t o r i a n d r a w i n g room.  Y e t by t h e 1870's, t h e p u b l i c e n t h u s i a s m f o r c a r t e s  and s t e r e o c a r d s had waned and new, l a r g e r f o r m a t p r i n t s had been introduced. 17.  The same scene was p h o t o g r a p h e d from s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s , r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e human eye. A camera f i t t e d w i t h two l e n s e s e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e d t h e use o f two cameras s i d e by s i d e o r o f a s i n g l e camera moved s l i g h t l y between e x p o s u r e s ; t h e r e s u l t a n t d o u b l e image on a s i n g l e negative f a c i l i t a t e d the production o f s t e r e o c a r d s .  18.  H a r p e r and T r i g g s ( e d . ) , l o c . c i t . , unpaged. Much o f t h e i n i t i a l a p p e a l o f t h e s t e r e o g r a p h stemmed from Queen V i c t o r i a ' s i n t e r e s t e x p r e s s e d a t t h e London I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n o f 1851.  19.  B l a n c ran t h i s n o t i c e i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l c l a s s i f i e d from A u g u s t 13, 1870 t o September 17, 1870.  section  43  From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a , a t t e m p t s were made t o preserve the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the c o l l o d i o n emulsion.  Many t e c h n i q u e s  were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e mid-1850's, and, as e a r l y as 1858, d r y p l a t e s were m a n u f a c t u r e d c o m m e r c i a l l y i n E n g l a n d .  The f i r s t p r a c t i c a l  g e l a t i n e d r y p l a t e a p p e a r e d i n 1873; however, t h e s e e a r l y e m u l s i o n s were f a r t o o slow and d i d n o t become p o p u l a r because o f t h e g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e t i m e s t h a t were r e q u i r e d . Not u n t i l t h e 1880's d i d improvements s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e speed o f d r y p l a t e s t o p e r m i t e x p o s u r e s o f l e s s t h a n one s e c o n d .  As t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e s  c o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l months, t h e y were mass-produced marketed r e a d y f o r use.  and  Furthermore dry p l a t e s d i d not r e q u i r e  developing immediately a f t e r exposure.  They made p h o t o g r a p h y  easier  and more c o n v e n i e n t by f r e e i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r from t h e cumbersome p a r a p h e r n a l i a , r e f r a c t o r y p r o c e d u r e s and t i m e d e l a y s o f t h e c o l l o d i o n process.  Photography became a spontaneous a c t i o n .  The  photographer  c o u l d make c o n s e c u t i v e e x p o s u r e s i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n t h r o u g h a sequence o f e v e n t s o r from v a r i o u s a n g l e s .  Fast emulsions led to  t h e use o f s m a l l e r , l e s s c o n s p i c u o u s cameras complete w i t h s h u t t e r , m u l t i p l e p l a t e magazine and t r a n s p o r t mechanism.  They p e r m i t t e d  p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o c a p t u r e unposed s c e n e s o f human a c t i v i t y and s t o p t h e a c t i o n o f i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . The r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e d r y p l a t e p r o c e s s made p h o t o g r a p h y more a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e amateur t u r n e d a t r a d e i n t o a hobby.  and  Camera equipment and handbook g u i d e s ,  o u t f i t s f o r t a k i n g p h o t o g r a p h s and k i t s f o r p r i n t i n g them h e l p e d t o c a r r y p h o t o g r a p h y toward i t s u l t i m a t e r o l e as t h e u n i v e r s a l making p r o c e s s .  A  picture-  44  The f i n a l s t e p i n t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f photography 1888 w i t h George Eastman's i n v e n t i o n o f t h e Kodak. o t h e r development,  came i n  More t h a n any  t h i s s m a l l h a n d - h e l d , f i x e d - f o c u s camera  u s h e r e d i n t h e age o f modern p h o t o g r a p h y .  I t p o p u l a r i z e d the a r t  and made t h e means a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e .  The use o f p l a t e s was  l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d : i n s t e a d , paper coated w i t h g e l a t i n o - b r o m i d e e m u l s i o n was r o l l e d on a s p o o l ,  A camera was p u r c h a s e d , l o a d e d w i t h  100 e x p o s u r e s , p r o c e s s i n g p r e - p a i d .  A f t e r use, t h e unopened Kodak  was r e t u r n e d t o t h e f a c t o r y , t h e f i l m was d e v e l o p e d and p r i n t e d and the p i c t u r e s were r e t u r n e d t o t h e customer a l o n g w i t h t h e camera and a fresh roll of film.  In 1889, t r a n s p a r e n t r o l l f i l m was  introduced  so t h a t i t was no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o send t h e camera t o t h e f a c t o r y for processing. photomechanical  F i n a l l y , i n the 1890's, t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e modern r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s a l l o w e d p h o t o g r a p h i c image and  p r i n t e d t e x t t o be r e p r o d u c e d on t h e same page c l e a r l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y and a r e v o l u t i o n i n communications  ensued.  g r a p h i c v a l u e s were b e g i n n i n g t o change.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  photo-  F i n e a r t m o t i v e s and a  c o n s c i o u s c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s opened up t h e range o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s f i e l d and l e d t o p i c t u r e - m a k i n g as a f o r m o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . The p r i n t came t o be seen n o t o n l y as a f a i t h f u l r e c o r d , b u t a l s o as a subjective interpretation.  The n a i v e t y o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a , t h e  p u b l i c i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h t h e f a c t u a l i t y o f v i s u a l r e p o r t i n g began t o disappear.  Modern photography  - i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n , i t s a e s t h e t i c s and  i t s t e c h n i q u e s - had a r r i v e d . Photographs  became p o p u l a r as a means t o c l a r i f y d e t a i l s , t e l l  t h e s t o r y and i m p a r t a sense o f the a c t u a l i n f i e l d r e p o r t s , books  45  and newspapers.  The p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y formed a growing p a r t o f  t h e market f o r l a n d s c a p e views o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  Local,  e a s t e r n Canadian and B r i t i s h p e r i o d i c a l s used t h e c o l l o d i o n p r o c e s s t o t r a n s f e r an image d i r e c t l y o n t o an e n g r a v e r ' s woodblock t o be r e p r o d u c e d as an e n g r a v i n g .  Where t h i s was done, s p e c i a l n o t e o f  t h e s o u r c e was o f t e n made t o s u p p o r t t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n . The w o r l d ' s f i r s t p i c t o r i a l newspaper, The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, made c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f p h o t o g r a p h s as o r i g i n a l copy f o r wood e n g r a v i n g s , and B r i t i s h Columbia was one o f t h e f a r - f l u n g c o l o n i e s o f t h e Empire w i t h w h i c h i t a c q u a i n t e d i t s r e a d e r s h i p .  Illustrations  i n c l u d e panoramas o f V i c t o r i a , Y a l e , P o r t D o u g l a s , s c e n e s a l o n g t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d ' s p r o p o s e d n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s r o u t e and views o f t h e b r i d g e s and canyons o f t h e r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c Railway.  A number o f p i c t u r e w e e k l i e s a p p e a r e d ' i n t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s i n t h e 1850's; one o f them, H a r p e r ' s Weekly J o u r n a l o f C i v i l i z a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n New Y o r k , r a n an i l l u s t r a t e d c o v e r f e a t u r e on New W e s t m i n s t e r , c a p i t a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t e r m i n a l s t a t i o n 20 of C o l l i n s Overland Telegraph. in the 1860 s. 1  The p i c t o r i a l p r e s s began i n Canada  Many D a l l y p h o t o g r a p h s a p p e a r e d as e n g r a v i n g s i n t h e  C a n a d i a n I l l u s t r a t e d News i n t h e 1870's and, i n t h e mid-1880's,  views  by Maynard and by S p e n c e r and H a s t i n g s were r e p r o d u c e d i n The Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 20-  N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y books  sometimes  H a r p e r ' s Weekly J o u r n a l o f C i v i l i z a t i o n (New Y o r k ) , A u g u s t 12, 1865.  46  i n c l u d e d o r i g i n a l p r i n t s and o t h e r t i m e s used l i t h o g r a p h i c r e p r o ducttonSi  Photographic i l l u s t r a t i o n s appeared i n the f l o o d o f guide21  books and t r a v e l a c c o u n t s " on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h a t were p u b l i s h e d i n London i n t h e l a t e 1850's and e a r l y 1860's. Such books and p e r i o d i c a l s h e i g h t e n e d t h e p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t i n and t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s market f o r views o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Through  them, V i c t o r i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , Y a l e , B a r k e r v i l l e and a h o s t o f o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s became f a m i l i a r i n M o n t r e a l , New Y o r k , San F r a n c i s c o and London.  21.  The Handbook o f B r i t i s h Columbia and E m i g r a n t ' s G u i d e t o t h e G o l d F i e l d s , p u b l i s h e d i n London by W. O l i v e r i n 1862, i n c l u d e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Columbia S t r e e t and t h e h a r b o u r i n New W e s t m i n s t e r f r o m o h o t o g r a p h s by C l a u d e t . T r a v e l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h t h e n a r r a t i v e o f a Y a c h t Voyage round V a n c o u v e r ' s I s l a n d , publ i s h e d t h e same y e a r by H u r s t and B l a c k e t t o f London, n o t e d t h a t i t s f r o n t i s p i e c e e n g r a v i n g o f " V i c t o r i a from James' Bay, L o o k i n g up Government S t r e e t " was t a k e n from a p h o t o g r a p h .  CHAPTER 4 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD, 1858-1888  Photographers  p r o d u c e d a l a r g e and v a r i e d r e c o r d o f B r i t i s h  Columbia landscapes d u r i n g the t h i r t y years a f t e r the F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h o f 1858. f i r s t examination,  Many hundreds o f t h e i r p h o t o g r a p h s s u r v i v e .  Upon  they portray a bewildering a r r a y o f s u b j e c t s . A l -  most a l l , however, can be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n one o f f i v e broad  headings:  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s , s e t t l e m e n t , s o c i e t y and n a t u r e . W i t h i n each o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t some s u b j e c t s were p h o t o g r a p h e d w i t h monotonous r e g u l a r i t y , t h a t o t h e r s were p h o t o g r a p h e d r a r e l y and t h a t s t i l l o t h e r s were n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d a t a l l . On o c c a s i o n , v i r t u a l l y t h e same l a n d s c a p e v i e w was t a k e n many t i m e s Y a l e , f o r example, from t h e r i v e r bank t o t h e s o u t h .  More o f t e n ,  s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d i n d e t a i l , b u t were s i m i l a r g e n e r i c a l l y : m i l e h o u s e s , m i n i n g c l a i m s , r a i l w a y b r i d g e s , new towns and p r e c i p i t o u s canyons.  What f o l l o w s i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n . By f o c u s i n g  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f landscape photographs o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  47  48  TRANSPORTATION T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s one o f t h e most common t o p i c s i n t h e p h o t o graphic record.  H i s t o r i c a l photographs  show t h e wagons and ox-teams,  roadbeds and b r i d g e s , c l e a r i n g s and t u n n e l s , t r a c k s and t r a i n s as w e l l as t h e s a i l i n g s h i p s , p a d d l e w h e e l e r s and p i e r s t h a t were e l e m e n t s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n landscapes o f the l a t e nineteenth century.  The  C a r i b o o Wagon Road and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y were by f a r t h e most photographed  subjects.  Each c r e a t e d i t s own s e t t l e m e n t  geography,  each opened up new w i l d e r n e s s s c e n e r y and each overcame t h e f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e s o f mountainous t e r r a i n .  While t h e r e i s a s e t o f photographs  d i s t i n c t i v e t o each e r a , t h e r e i s a l s o a common emphasis on s e r v i c e towns, r i v e r canyons and e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s . Photographs  o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e o f t h e C a r i b o o Road  c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f views t a k e n by F r e d e r i c k D a l l y d u r i n g h i s j o u r n e y s between V i c t o r i a and B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1867 and 1868. T h r e e s u b j e c t s dominate h i s work: t h e r o a d , i t s t r a f f i c and i t s m i l e h o u s e s .  Photo-  graphs o f t h e road show s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n and d e t a i l s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . D a l l y c a p t u r e d t h e d r a m a t i c l a n d s c a p e where t h e r o a d n e g o t i a t e d t h e canyons and b l u f f s o f t h e F r a s e r and Thompson and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e g e n t l e r a s p e c t s o f t h e r o u t e t h r o u g h t h e A l k a l i V a l l e y and t h e L a c La Hache d i s t r i c t .  Timber c r i b b i n g and r o c k c u t s i m p a r t e d  interest to portions o f the route.  particular  C h i n a B a r , N i c a r a g u a , L i t t l e and  G r e a t B l u f f s were a few o f t h e more f r e q u e n t l y photographed l o c a t i o n s . Views between Y a l e and Spuzzum abound.  Many images show t h e roadbed  c l i n g i n g p r e c a r i o u s l y t o a s h e e r c l i f f ( P l a t e 4.1).  In o t h e r s , more  49  50  s c e n i c than s p e c t a c u l a r , the road t r a v e r s e s l e s s p r e c i p i t o u s h i l l s i d e s ( P l a t e 4.2). Photographs t a k e n i n town and en r o u t e ( P l a t e 4.3) i l l u s t r a t e t h e wagons and c a r t s h a u l e d up and down t h e C a r i b o o Road by mules o r oxen or horses.  The B a r n a r d ' s E x p r e s s o f f i c e , a p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e  of  s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e wagon r o a d , was f r e q u e n t l y photographed w i t h a v a r i e t y o f v e h i c l e s and work a n i m a l s p a r k e d i n f r o n t ( P l a t e 4 . 4 ) . well-known  view which a p p e a r e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n  One  Illustrated  News shows a mule-team emerging from a r o c k c u t a t G r e a t B l u f f on t h e 1  Thompson R i v e r ( P l a t e 4 . 5 ) ,  A D a l l y s t e r e o g r a p h , l a t e r r e - i s s u e d by  Maynard, r e c o r d s a t r a i n o f c o v e r e d wagons p a s s i n g t h r o u g h B o s t o n Bar ( P l a t e 4,6).  T o g e t h e r , such p h o t o g r a p h s p r o v i d e abundant e v i d e n c e o f  t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e wagon r o a d e r a . H o s t e l r i e s s p r a n g up i n r e s p o n s e t o t r a f f i c t o and from t h e g o l d fields.  Many C a r i b o o Road views i l l u s t r a t e t h e b u s t l e o f a c t i v i t y t h a t  c e n t r e d upon t h e s e i n n s and l i v e r i e s .  D a l l y p r o d u c e d a r i c h imagery  o f s t a g e - s t o p s - , h i s albums i n c l u d e p h o t o g r a p h s o f 100-, 108-,  127-,  and 164- M i l e Houses, B o n a p a r t e House, Cache Creek House, t h e C l i n t o n H o t e l ( P l a t e 4 . 7 ) , B o b t h r o y d ' s F o r e s t House, S a l t e r ' s H a l f Way House and H a m i l t o n ' s Wayside House.  Teamsters found o v e r n i g h t  accommodation  i n t h e s e one- and t w o - s t o r e y i n n s o f l o g o r frame c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Stables,  s t o r a g e sheds and an a s s o r t m e n t o f o u t - b u i l d i n g s u s u a l l y s h a r e d t h e forest clearing.  Cedar r a i l o r p i c k e t f e n c e s e n c l o s e d f i e l d s w i t h i n  which t h e r e was a garden p l o t and a s c a t t e r o f stumps. Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, F e b r u a r y 24,  1872.  Parked along  SI  52  P l a t e 4.3:  F r e i g h t t r a f f i c on t h e C a r i b o o Road, 19 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. D a i l y ' s c a r t and d a r k t e n t , v i s i b l e i n t h e lower r i g h t o f t h i s view, appear i n several o f h i s Cariboo Road p h o t o g r a p h s . Frederick D a l l y , photonrapher PABC 10222a  53  P l a t e 4.4:  Mule team a t Y a l e , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l v , ohotoarapher PAC C19422  54  P l a t e 4.5:  G r e a t B l u f f , 88 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. T h i s view a p p e a r e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n I l l u s t r a t e d News, F e b r u a r y 24, 1872. Frederick D a l l v , nhotographer PABC 763  P l a t e 4.6;  F r e i g h t wagons, B o s t o n B a r , 1867-1360. T h i s D a l l y s t e r e o g r a p h was l a t e r r e - i s s u e d under t h e Maynard i m p r i n t . Frederick D a l l v , ohotographer PABC 10233  P l a t e 4,7:  C l i n t o n H o t e l , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photograoher PABC 758  57  t h e r o a d , o f t e n d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e , were c o v e r e d f r e i g h t wagons h i t c h e d i n s e r i e s and drawn by l o n g teams o f mules, oxen o r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y h o r s e s yoked i n tandem..  D a i l y ' s view o f A l e x a n d r a  Lodge ( P l a t e 4.8) f o u r t e e n m i l e s above Y a l e shows a mix o f l a n d s c a p e elements t y p i c a l o f photographs o f the milehouses along the Cariboo Road. Photographs t a k e n a t Y a l e i l l u s t r a t e many f a c e t s o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e o f t h e C a r i b o o Road e r a . b o a t s met f r e i g h t wagons.  I t was here t h a t steam-  Photographers recorded sternwheelers at  t h e dock and wagon t r a i n s p a r k e d i n f r o n t o f t h e l o c a l h o t e l o r express o f f i c e .  One o f D a i l y ' s views shows f r e i g h t wagons under c o n -  s t r u c t i o n and wagon wheels b e i n g assembled  ( P l a t e 4.9).  In t h e m i d d l e  d i s t a n c e s t a n d t h e c a r t w r i g h t s , w h e e l w r i g h t s and s m i t h i e s whose h a n d i work i s on d i s p l a y . The scene n e s t l e s a t t h e base o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y . B e h i n d t h e f a r sheds and t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e h i l l s i d e s i t s Lady F r a n k l i n Rock.  Low c l o u d o b s c u r e s t h e m o u n t a i n t o p s .  T h i s p h o t o g r a p h o f wagons  and w a g o n - b u i l d i n g shows n e i t h e r mule n o r ox-team, n e i t h e r h o t e l nor e x p r e s s o f f i c e , y e t e p i t o m i z e s t h e r o l e o f Y a l e as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C a r i b o o Road. The wagon r o a d e r a soon gave way t o t h e r a i l w a y age. is r e f l e c t e d i n the photographic record.  The change  In t h e e a r l y 1880's, p h o t o -  g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e d e t a i l s and p r o g r e s s o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . L a t e r i n t h e decade, Devi l i e and Maynard e a c h p r e p a r e d a c o l l e c t i o n o f C.P.R. views.  T h e i r work and t h a t o f o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Notman  f i r m o f M o n t r e a l , p o r t r a y s t h e mountain peaks and p a s s e s , canyons  and  58  P l a t e 4,8-  A l e x a n d r a Lodge, 14 m i l e s above Y a l e , Frederick D a l l y , ohotoqrapher PABC 10221  1867-1358.  59  60  b r i d g e s , t r e s t l e s and t u n n e l s , v i l l a g e s and h o t e l s a l o n g t h e r o u t e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c west o f the R o c k i e s .  A number o f views taken  from t h e r a i l l i n e i l l u s t r a t e t h e t r a c k s i d e s c e n e r y and v i l l a g e s w h i c h a r e examined as p a r t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e s pectively.  o f n a t u r e and s e t t l e m e n t  However, most o f t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s document the  res-  imprint  o f t h e r a i l w a y age on t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Photographs abundantly bridge-building.  i l l u s t r a t e t r a c k - l a y i n g , t u n n e l l i n g and  One t y p e o f view shows o n l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e ,  o f t e n s u r r o u n d e d by r o c k d e b r i s and r a i l r o a d t i e s . i n 1831  P h o t o g r a p h s taken  i l l u s t r a t i n g m a i n l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and B o s t o n  Bar i n c l u d e t h e r o a d - b e d , t u n n e l s and t r e s t l e s ( P l a t e 4.10). g e n r e o f r a i l r o a d view shows the n a v v i e s who P a c i f i c through a tunnel.  Another  pushed t h e C a n a d i a n  the mountains posed b e s i d e a hand c a r o r i n f r o n t o f  R i c h a r d Maynard r e c o r d e d a c o n s t r u c t i o n gang on a wooden  t r e s t l e l e a d i n g i n t o a tunnel  ( P l a t e 4.11).  In t h e f o r e g r o u n d  to the  r i g h t o f the t r a c k s i s a handcar; to the l e f t , a t e l e g r a p h pole.  The  route p a r a l l e l s a f o r e s t e d r i v e r v a l l e y v i s i b l e i n the background.  In  t h i s and s i m i l a r v i e w s , t h e n a v v i e s , o f t e n u n r e c o g n i z a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y , c o n t r i b u t e human i n t e r e s t and s c a l e t o t h e r a i l r o a d l a n d s c a p e . graphs a l s o p r o v i d e a g l i m p s e o f C h i n e s e  Photo-  l a b o u r e r s among t h e work  gangs a t a c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e o r i n t h e d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e o f a d i s t r i c t foreman.  A view a t K e e f e r s S t a t i o n ( P l a t e 4.12)  shows the l o g c a b i n s  o f t h e C h i n e s e n a v v i e s amid t h e r o c k s , stumps and p i l e s o f r a i l r o a d t i e s between t h e t r a c k s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d distance.  and t h e m o u n t a i n s i n t h e  P l a t e 4.10:  C.P.R. c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and Boston Bar, PAC C7658  1881.  62  63  P l a t e 4.12;  "Chinatown", K e e f e r s S t a t i o n , c i r c a PAC C11338  1881  64  Wooden t r e s t l e s and i r o n b r i d g e s t r a v e r s i n g t h e v a l l e y s and gorges t h a t i n t e r s e c t e d t h e l i n e were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r s u b j e c t s . The l a r g e t r e s t l e l e a d i n g i n t o t h e "Double Loop" o f t h e I l l e c i l l e w a e t V a l l e y ( P l a t e 4,13)  became a p h o t o g r a p h i c c l i c h e .  Stony C r e e k , Salmon, Thompson and Columbia photographed.'  S i m i l a r l y , the  R i v e r b r i d g e s were much  The C i s c o c a n t i l e v e r b r i d g e and t h e Spuzzum s u s p e n s i o n  b r i d g e were o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e d i n album c o l l e c t i o n s . photograph  R i c h a r d Maynard's  o f t h e c a n t i l e v e r b r i d g e o v e r the F r a s e r ( P l a t e 4.14)  shows  the t r a c k s c r o s s i n g t h e gorge on an i r o n s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s u p p o r t e d a cut stone foundation.  by  A t t h e f a r end o f t h e b r i d g e , t h e r a i l s d i s -  appear a b r u p t l y i n t o a b l a c k t u n n e l i n t h e h i l l s i d e .  Here t h e t r a c k s ,  gorge, b r i d g e and t u n n e l t h a t were p o p u l a r elements o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r a i l w a y photographs  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  a r e combined i n one  view. Two m o u n t a i n h o t e l s , b u i l t i n 1886 t o a t t r a c t s i g h t - s e e r s and s t i m u l a t e p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c , became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the C.P.R. l a n d s c a p e and i t s v i s u a l r e c o r d .  Photographs  r e v e a l the c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c c h a l e t - s t y l e b u i l d i n g s amid t h e mountain s c e n e r y a t F i e l d and Glacier.  They show t h e i r s p a c i o u s lawns, d e c o r a t i v e f o u n t a i n s , wide  v e r a n d a h s and p i c k e t f e n c e s . prominent;  In some v i e w s , t h e r a i l r o a d i s  in others, i t i s scarcely noticeable.  Some  photographers  emphasized t h e h o t e l and i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e ; o t h e r s p o r t r a y e d i t s w i l d e r n e s s s e t t i n g ; s t i l l o t h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e n a v v i e s and h o t e l s t a f f , t o u r i s t s , and company o f f i c i a l s . hotels.  R i c h a r d Maynard photographed  both  H i s r e n d e r i n g o f Mount S t e p h e n House a t F i e l d c e n t r e s upon  65  66  P l a t e 4,14;  C i s c o c a n t i l e v e r bridge., c i r c a 1885. R i c h a r d Maynard, photograDher PABC 81628  \  67  t h e h o t e l beneath t h e t o w e r i n g mountain a f t e r which i t was named ( P l a t e 4.15).  U n l i k e w i d e r panoramas, i t shows n e i t h e r t h e f o r e s t e d  v a l l e y and mountain  s p u r s o f t h e K i c k i n g Horse V a l l e y nor t h e main-  l i n e o f t h e C,P,R  Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h o f G l a c i e r House shows t h e  t  h o t e l w i t h i n view o f t h e I l l e c i l l e w a e t i c e - f i e l d ( P l a t e 4.16).  A  promenade e x t e n d s from t h e depot i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d t o t h e f o u n t a i n s i n f r o n t o f t h e main b u i l d i n g . four coaches.  B e s i d e i t s t a n d s an e n g i n e h a u l i n g  T h i s view o f G l a c i e r House f l a n k e d by mountains  and  t r a i n c a p t u r e s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e C.P.R.'s mountain h o t e l l a n d s c a p e . RESOURCE INDUSTRIES The r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia were p h o t o g r a p h e d , but o n l y t h e g o l d r u s h a t t r a c t e d a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e a t t e n t i o n g e n e r a t e d by t h e C a r i b o o wagon r o a d and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . G e n t i l e , D a l l y and B l a n c p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e s e t t i n g s , c l a i m s and m i n e r s o f t h e C a r i b o o and l e s s e r r u s h e s .  T h e i r work p r o d u c e d an  imagery  common t o Grouse, W i l l i a m s , L i g h t n i n g , Lowhee, M o s q u i t o and o t h e r creeks.  Views o f m i n i n g towns, though l a r g e l y a r e c o r d o f s e t t l e m e n t ,  i l l u s t r a t e the surrounding s c a t t e r of flumes, waterwheels,  shaftheads,  t u n n e l s , stumps and l o g c a b i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r g o l d . Grouped by s u b j e c t i n t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s , t h e s e  photographs  p r e s e n t l a n d s c a p e s w i t h o u t f i g u r e s , m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and m i n e r s a t work.  C o l l e c t i v e l y they present a thorough overview o f gold rush  B r i t i s h Columbia o f t h e 1860's. The l a n d s c a p e panorama was a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t i n which m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f p l a c e .  Dally  63  P l a t e 4.15:  Mount Stephen H o t e l , F i e l d , c i r c a R i c h a r d Mavnard, p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 81631  1888.  Plate  4.16:  G l a c i e r H o t e l , G l a c i e r , c i r c a 1888. R i c h a r d Maynard, p h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 81629  70  produced both an album p r i n t and a c a r t e - d e ^ - v i s i t e o f t h e and f o r e s t s u r r o u n d i n g s o f Grouse Creek ( P l a t e 4.17).  mountain  T h i s compo-  s i t i o n , u n l i k e most C a r i b o o views shows l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f m i n i n g . T r e e s have been f e l l e d t o b u i l d t h e l o g c a b i n s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The l a r g e flume i n t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e i s t h e most o b v i o u s s i g n o f the gold rush i n the landscape. prominently. setting.  Y e t , none o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s  figure  T h i s t r e a t m e n t o f Grouse Creek i s a r e c o r d o f n a t u r a l  As s u c h , i t s h a r e s q u a l i t i e s w i t h s c e n i c panoramas o f t h e  l a n d s c a p e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t . O t h e r g e n e r a l views t r e a t t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f m i n i n g more s p e c i f i cally.  Photographs show c l a i m s i t e s r a v a g e d by d i g g i n g s ,  D a l l y shows the havoc on Grouse Creek ( P l a t e 4.18).  A view by  In t h e f o r e -  ground t h e dwarfed m i n e r s o f t h e Ne'er Do W e l l c l a i m l o a d a s m a l l c a r with gravels f o r sorting.  In t h e d i s t a n c e t h e f l u m e i s s u p p o r t e d  h i g h above t h e c r e e k and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l o g c a b i n s on t h e stumpstrewn h i l l s i d e . ( P l a t e 4.19) removed.  A c r e e k panorama o f t h e S i x - T o e d Pete C l a i m  shows where t r e e s have been c l e a r e d and u n d e r l y i n g g r a v e l s  Rock d e b r i s s p i l l s down t h e t r u n c a t e d h i l l s i d e s t o t h e c r e e k  bed where men pose w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s among t h e f l u m e s , p l a n k s , b a r r e l s , l a d d e r s and s l u i c e - b o x e s o f t h e i r c l a i m .  Such  photographs  p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l l i n g view o f t h e l a n d s c a p e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n wrought by t h e s e a r c h f o r g o l d . The m a j o r i t y o f views t a k e n a t t h e c r e e k s show men a t t h e scene of their labour. companies  Independent m i n e r s , b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s and m i n i n g  commissioned  p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r c l a i m s ;  71  *.17:  Grouse Creek panorama, 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photograoher PAC C34944  72  P l a t e 4,18:  Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , Grouse C r e e k , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photographer PABC 10162  73  P l a t e 4.19:  S i x - T o e d Pete C l a i m , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , ohotoqraoher PAC C26181  74  group l i k e n e s s e s a r e more p r e v a l e n t t h a n i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s i n t h e photographic record o f the gold rush.  In a c l o s e - u p view o f t h e  Ne'er Do Well c l a i m ( P l a t e 4.20), f o u r o f t h e f i v e m i n e r s who a p p e a r somewhat i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n D a i l y ' s g e n e r a l panorama a r e posed around t h e dump-box i n t o which t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e o r e c a r have been t i p p e d f o r w a s h i n g and s o r t i n g .  Views o f t u n n e l companies ( P l a t e  4.21)  were t a k e n a t t h e mouth o f t h e t u n n e l where an o r e c a r on wooden r a i l s o r a wheelbarrow on a p l a n k t r a c k was p a r k e d .  Where s h a f t s  had been sunk, D a l l y r e c o r d e d t h e w i n d l a s s and b u c k e t , p l a n k p l a t form and t i m b e r c r i b b i n g o f t h e e n t r a n c e ( P l a t e 4.22).  A group p h o t o -  g r a p h o f t h e H e r o n v i l l e - C a n a d i a n Company ( P l a t e 4.23) shows n e i t h e r s h a f t nor t u n n e l , but o n l y twenty-four miners posed i n t h r e e t i e r s a g a i n s t t h e r o c k d e b r i s s p i l l i n g down t h e h i l l s i d e o f Grouse C r e e k . In a l l such v i e w s , m i n e r s a r e shown h o l d i n g p i c k s and s h o v e l s and p i t c h f o r k s and s p o r t i n g t h e same mix o f b e a r d s , c l o t h i n g , h a t s and boots. P h o t o g r a p h s o f w a t e r w h e e l s were among t h e most p o p u l a r o f g o l d rush views.  Perhaps D a i l y ' s p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e Mucho Oro G o l d M i n i n g  Company o f S t o u t ' s G u l c h i s t h e most famous example ( P l a t e 4.24); however, s i m i l a r p h o t o g r a p h s a r e q u i t e numerous.  A lesser-known  view o f t h e A l t u r a s wheel ( P l a t e 4.25) i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t c l a i m owners p a i d t o have t a k e n and which V i c t o r i a r e s i d e n t s purchased f o r household c o l l e c t i o n s .  E l e v e n men, two women, two  c h i l d r e n and a baby a r e posed i n f r o n t o f t h e minehead b u i l t o f rough p l a n k s and s h a k e s .  Five o f the miners are holding a p i c k , a broad-  axe, a pan, a p i t c h f o r k and a c r o s s - c u t saw r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a s i x t h  75  P l a t e 4.20:  Ne'er Do H e l l C l a i m , dump-box, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , photograDher PABC 765  76  77  78  P l a t e 4.23:  H e r o n v i l l e - C a n a d i a n Company, Grouse C r e e k , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , ohotographer PABC 13665  79  P l a t e 4.24:  Mucho Oro G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photoqrapher PAC C210  P l a t e 4.25:  A l t u r a s G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photographer PAC C8078  80  stands beside a grindstone.  A p p e a r i n g from beyond t h e b o r d e r o f t h e  p h o t o g r a p h , t h e flume meets t h e wheel a t i t s f u l l h e i g h t .  Rock d e b r i s  l i t t e r s t h e f o r e g r o u n d ; stumps and f a l l e n t r e e s c o v e r t h e h i l l s i d e behind.  The p h o t o g r a p h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a genre o f g o l d r u s h  p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f which i n c l u d e minehead, wheel and f l u m e , m i n e r s , a s s o r t e d t o o l s and a l a d d e r o r two. The m i n e r made t h e waterwheel  a u b i q u i t o u s element o f t h e C a r i b o o l a n d s c a p e ;  t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r made i t a c l i c h e i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . In t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f p i o n e e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  photo-  graphs o f g o l d m i n i n g a r e f a r more numerous than t h o s e o f a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s combined.  P h o t o g r a p h e r s l e f t a modest p i c t u r e  o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . They r e c o r d e d t h e h a n d - l o g g e r s and ox-teams, m i l l y a r d s and lumber s h i p s o f t h e e a r l y , s m a l l - s c a l e , i s o l a t e d l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  Photographs  t a k e n amid t h e f i r s and c e d a r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e p a r t o f an imagery common t o p i o n e e r l o g g i n g i n t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h west C o a s t . Photographers recorded l o g g e r s s t a n d i n g beside a t r e e about t o be f e l l e d , l y i n g i n t h e n o t c h chopped i n t o t h e t r u n k o r s i t t i n g on a huge l o g r e c e n t l y c u t .  The c l a s s i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s two o r t h r e e  men, t h e i r a x e s , a c r o s s - c u t saw and a t r e e . c e n t r e o f t h e scene.  The t r u n k o c c u p i e s t h e  On one o r both s i d e s o f t h e t r e e s t a n d s a f a l l e r ,  p e r c h e d on a s p r i n g b o a r d s e v e r a l f e e t above t h e ground.  About two  f e e t above t h e s p r i n g b o a r d i s a wedge-shaped u n d e r c u t where a n o t h e r f a l l e r r e c l i n e s on one elbow.  The scene i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ; no f o r e -  ground o r background d e t a i l i l l u s t r a t e s s e t t i n g o r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  81  Some o f t h e b e s t p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h i s l o g g e r - a n d - t r e e g e n r e were t a k e n by American p h o t o g r a p h e r D a r i u s K i n s e y , i n t h e S t a t e o f Washington.  Such v i e w s , few i n e a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , became more  p o p u l a r w i t h t h e growth o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e century. R e l a t i v e l y numerous d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d were p h o t o g r a p h s o f oxen p u l l i n g l o g s on s k i d r o a d s ( P l a t e 4.26).  A team o f e i g h t  to f o u r t e e n oxen i s shown y o k e d i n tandem and h a u l i n g l o g s . p a t h t h r o u g h t h e f o r e s t i s formed by t h e s k i d r o a d . the  A narrow  On e i t h e r s i d e ,  f o r e s t has been t h i n n e d and a number o f stumps r i s e above a t a n g l e  of b r a n c h e s , b a r k , wood c h i p s and s m a l l l o g s .  In some v i e w s , t h e  loggers f i g u r e prominently i n the foreground, s i t t i n g or standing b e s i d e t h e f i r s t y o k e o f oxen; i n o t h e r s , t h e y a r e b a r e l y v i s i b l e among t h e chaos o f t h e f o r e s t s c e n e . A l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f l o g g e r - a n d - t r e e and oxen and s k i d r o a d v i e w s are  combined i n a p h o t o g r a p h e n t i t l e d " F r a s e r s L o g g i n g Camp" ( P l a t e  4.27).  1  From t h e l o w e r l e f t , a s k i d r o a d r u n s d i a g o n a l l y i n t o t h e  c e n t r e o f t h e s c e n e and d i s a p p e a r s i n t o t h e w a l l o f t r e e s i n t h e distance.  On i t s t a n d s a l o g a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ,  s t r i p p e d o f i t s bark and h i t c h e d t o t h e l a s t y o k e o f a team o f oxen. L o g g e r s a r e posed on stumps, on s p r i n g b o a r d s and amid t h e b a r k d e b r i s on t h e f o r e s t f l o o r .  S t a n d i n g on a stump i n t h e upper r i g h t o f t h e  c o m p o s i t i o n i s an o v e r s e e r i n s u i t , v e s t and w a t c h - c h a i n .  The busy  s c e n e p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h a c o l l a g e , however u n n a t u r a l , o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  82  P l a t e 4.26:  Oxen h a u l i n g l o g s , New W e s t m i n s t e r , c i r c a 1885. V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y (VPL) t r a n s p a r e n c y 52-6 ( f r o m p r i n t VPL 3598/3707)  P l a t e 4.27:  F r a s e r s L o g g i n g Camo. PABC 33941 1  84  Photographs  o f e a r l y s a w - m i l l i n g a r e few and a r e l i m i t e d t o o u t -  door v i e w s ; many show l i t t l e more than t h e e x t e r i o r o f a wooden b u i l d i n g a t the w a t e r ' s edge.  Panoramas o f m i l l s i t e s were u s u a l l y  taken from t h e m i l l y a r d o r d o c k s i d e .  Some r e c o r d the m i l l  surrounded  by s t o c k s o f sawn lumber, h o r s e s , wagons and w o r k e r s ; o t h e r s emphasize the l o a d s o f lumber and t h e s h i p s t h a t s a i l e d t o d i s t a n t markets. Photographs  o f t h e H a s t i n g s m i l l i n V a n c o u v e r show sawn lumber s t a c k e d  i n t h e y a r d and t h r e e - m a s t e r s d o c k e d a t t h e w h a r f . M o o d y v i l l e t a k e n about 1870 ( P l a t e 4.28)  A g e n e r a l view o f  i l l u s t r a t e s "the s h i p p i n g o f  saw l o g s a t Moody, D i e t z and N e l s o n ' s s a w - m i l l s , and t h e [ f o r e s t ] surroundings at Burrard Inlet.  The end o f t h e m i l l i s o n l y d i m l y  seen t h r o u g h the masts and r i g g i n g s o f t h e s h i p s " on t h e f a r s h o r e . The f o r e g r o u n d i s o c c u p i e d by a boom o f l o g s " o f a v e r y huge s i z e , much l a r g e r than any o b t a i n e d on t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . " On a s m a l l e r s c a l e , a v i e w o f John M u i r ' s m i l l a t Sooke shows a s i m i l a r mix o f l o g s , s h i p s , m i l l and f o r e s t . F i s h i n g and f a r m i n g a r e s p a r s e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e graphic record.  photo-  L i m i t e d i n scope b e f o r e the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ,  t h e s e r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were i s o l a t e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t and  through-  o u t t h e I n t e r i o r where t h e y were l e s s l i k e l y t o be v i s i t e d by i t i n e r a n t photographers. f i s h e r y a r e few.  Photographs  Canadian  commercial  Views o f f i s h e r m e n , t h e i r b o a t s and t h e i r c a t c h  are v i r t u a l l y non-existent.  2.  of the white  T i d e w a t e r c a n n e r i e s d o m i n a t e t h e meagre  I l l u s t r a t e d News, June 1,  1872.  85  P l a t e 4.28:  Moody, D i e t z and N e l s o n ' s s a w - m i l l s , M o o d y v i l l e , c i r c a 1870. T h i s view was r e p r o d u c e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n t h e Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, June 1, 1872. VPL t r a n s p a r e n c y 46-22 ( o r i g i n a l photograph i s h e l d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s )  86  p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e e a r l y f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , y e t such  views,  l i k e t h o s e o f m i l l s , r e v e a l l i t t l e more than t h e s h e l l o f a wooden b u i l d i n g a t t h e w a t e r ' s edge.  S l i g h t l y more numerous a r e v i e w s o f  the Indian f i s h e r y . D a l l y l e f t a r e c o r d o f the canoes, w e i r s , t r a p s ( P l a t e 4.29), r a c k s and caches o f t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r i e s o f t h e Cowichan d i s t r i c t and F r a s e r canyon. Though a g r i c u l t u r e had begun, o n l y o c c a s i o n a l views show farml a n d near V i c t o r i a o r Nanaimo, i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y o r a l o n g t h e C a r i b o o Road. ( P l a t e 4.30)  A photograph  o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a t Boston  Bar  shows a c l e a r e d t e r r a c e above t h e s e t t l e m e n t b a r e l y d i s -  c e r n i b l e e x c e p t f o r t h e r o o f - t o p s and f l a g p o l e s f e n c e and t h e r i v e r .  between t h e r a i l  A few e a r l y v i e w s show men and h o r s e s , stumps,  l o g s and b r u s h a t t h e s i t e o f a p r o s p e c t i v e f a r m ; t h e r e , i r r e g u l a r f e n c e l i n e s s e p a r a t i n g p l o u g h e d f i e l d from f e l l e d d e b r i s and v i r g i n f o r e s t mark t h e p r o g r e s s o f l a n d c l e a r i n g . O t h e r photographs  o f farm-  s t e a d s , l i k e views o f t h e house i n town o r t h e s t o r e on m a i n s t r e e t , r e c o r d a p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and a p l a c e o f work, but t h e y r e v e a l few obvious signs of a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e . An e x c e l l e n t though unique farm view was taken by D a l l y a t Cowichan ( P l a t e 4.31).  A neat f e n c e o f p o s t and p l a n k c o n s t r u c t i o n  e n c l o s e s a barn y a r d i n w h i c h s e v e r a l cows a r e k e p t .  Beside i t i s a  c l e a r i n g where hay i s s t o o k e d and h i r e d hands a r e posed w i t h r a k e s . Conspicuous  i n t h e c e n t r e f o r e g r o u n d s t a n d s t h e owner, w e l l - a t t i r e d  and h o l d i n g t h e r e i n s o f h i s s a d d l e d h o r s e .  A p i c k e t fence running  a c r o s s the e n t i r e view s e p a r a t e s t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e f o r e g r o u n d  from  87  P l a t e 4.29:  I n d i a n salmon w e i r a t Ouamichan v i l l a g e , R i v e r , 1866. Frederick D a l l y , photoaranher PAC C65097  Cowichan  88  89  P l a t e 4.31:  Farm, C o w i c h a n , c i r c a 1866. Frederick D a l l y , ohotographer ABC 68306  90  the small l o g cabin and l a r g e wooden barn i n the middle d i s t a n c e . Several f r u i t t r e e s are growing i n the rear o f the c l e a r i n g and, i n the background a row o f c o n i f e r s r i s e s above the barn. The busy scene suggests i t was c a r e f u l l y composed to i l l u s t r a t e the f u l l ext e n t and d i v e r s i t y o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e . Benjamin B a l t z l y produced one o f the few photographs o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y f l o u r m i l l s .  This water-powered m i l l at T r a n q u i l l e  ( P l a t e 4.32) was one o f several s u p p l y i n g the Cariboo market.  On the  near shore o f Kamloops Lake, Mr. and Mrs. James Fortune pose with two men a t the entrance o f t h e i r two-storey m i l l o f board and b a t t e n construction.  The scrub v e g e t a t i o n o f the dry Thompson V a l l e y can  be seen i n the immediate foreground and on the h i l l s on the f a r shore o f the lake.  Not u n l i k e the gold rush views showing minehead, flume,  wheel, l a d d e r and miners, the photograph presents b u i l d i n g and owner, but no a c t i v i t y . SETTLEMENT Photographs o f B r i t i s h Columbia's emerging settlement landscape r e f l e c t nineteenth century h i s t o r i c a l developments and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the i n f l u e n c e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s . T h i r t y years o f views of V i c t o r i a , E s q u i m a u , New Westminster and Yale a t t e s t to the cont i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y and economic importance o f these p l a c e s . Blanc, D a l l y and G e n t i l e photographed the shanty towns that sprang up i n response to d i s c o v e r i e s o f gold.  They a l s o recorded the s e r v i c e  centres and transshipment p o i n t s o f the wagon road from Yale t o Barkerville.  Two decades l a t e r , Maynard, D e v i l l e and others recorded  91  P l a t e 4.32:  T r a n q u i l l e M i l l , Kamloops L a k e , 1871. Benjamin B a l t z l y , n h o t o g r a o h e r PAC C23226  92  t h e v i l l a g e s and w h i s t l e - s t o p s o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y the Rockies to the Coast.  from  E a r l y i n t e r e s t i n views o f Soda C r e e k ,  Quesnel and the m i n i n g towns o f t h e C a r i b o o was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t o photographs  o f D o n a l d , Kamloops and t h e r a i l r o a d v i l l a g e s o f t h e  Canadian P a c i f i c .  B a r k e r v i l l e gave way t o Vancouver as boomtown o f  t h e west and t h e change i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . Town panoramas and m a i n s t r e e t views c o m p r i s e t h e b u l k o f s e t t l e ment p h o t o g r a p h s .  L a r g e p a r t s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c albums were d e v o t e d t o  t h e r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial settlement landscape.  a s p e c t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y  Photographs  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a place varied  w i t h t h e s i z e and n a t u r e o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia  towns.  Communities'whose g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t c o u l d be r e c o r d e d on a s i n g l e g l a s s p l a t e were o f t e n p h o t o g r a p h e d  i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . Panoramas  c a p t u r e t h e outward a p p e a r a n c e and s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f f r o n t i e r towns.  They show b u i l d i n g s and f e n c e s , d e v e l o p e d p r o p e r t y and stump-  strewn f i e l d s , the p r o x i m i t y o f w a t e r o r f o r e s t o r mountain and t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n connections o f water, road or r a i l .  D a i l y ' s view o f  Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33) i s t y p i c a l o f a n imagery s h a r e d b y B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e 4.34), R i c h f i e l d , K e l l e y v i l l e , Van W i n k l e and o t h e r g o l d m i n i n g towns.  I t shows a t i g h t l y - g r o u p e d c o l l e c t i o n o f wooden b u i l d i n g s  f l a n k e d b y h i l l s i d e s d o t t e d w i t h stumps.  Shops, o f f i c e s and r e s i d e n c e s  shared the creek f l o o r with a l l the trappings o f mining  technology.  Twenty y e a r s l a t e r , t h e towns o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y p r e s e n t e d a s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e which was not d i s s i m i l a r .  Maynard's panorama  o f I l l e c i l l e w a e t ( P l a t e 4.35) shows a s i n g l e row o f f a l s e f r o n t e d  93  P l a t e 4.33:  Camerontown, 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photographer PABC 1231  94  P l a t e 4.34:  B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t h e f i r e o f September 16, 1868. Frederick Dallv, photograoher PABC 769  95  96  buildings in a valley clearing.  L i k e t h e f l u m e s and w h e e l s , w i n d -  l a s s e s and t u n n e l s o f t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d , t r a c k s and s i d i n g s , w a t e r towers and b o x c a r s a r e o b v i o u s symbols o f t h e n a t u r e o f s e t t l e m e n t . Where a n e a r b y h i l l o r r i v e r bend a f f o r d e d an u n o b s t r u c t e d view, d i f f e r e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s s t o o d i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same s p o t a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t o produce s i m i l a r town v i e w s ,  Lytton, located at  "the F o r k s " where t h e F r a s e r meets t h e Thompson 57 m i l e s above Y a l e , was p h o t o g r a p h e d i n t h e 1 8 6 0 s by G e n t i l e and D a l l y and s u b s e q u e n t l y 1  by Maynard and o t h e r s . A l l views were t a k e n l o o k i n g upstream f r o m a h i l l s i d e on t h e e a s t e r n f l a n k o f t h e F r a s e r .  In t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s  t h e v i l l a g e , b u i l t on a f l a t bench between t h e r i v e r and t h e v a l l e y side.  A wide meander i n t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e emerges from s u c c e s s i v e  h i l l s i d e s t h a t recede i n t o the upstream p o r t i o n o f the v a l l e y . B u i l d i n g s l i n e d t h e r o a d which r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l e d t h e r i v e r .  In  F r e d e r i c k D a i l y ' s p h o t o g r a p h t a k e n i n t h e l a t e 1860's, ( P l a t e  4.36)  t h e s e t t l e m e n t was l a r g e l y composed o f l o g s t r u c t u r e s .  Few were more  than one s t o r e y ; s e v e r a l had f a l s e f r o n t s and an awning s u p p o r t e d by pillars.  L a t e r views show a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f more s u b s t a n t i a l  b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g a c h u r c h , and t h e t r a c k s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c Railway.  S i m i l a r l y , Y a l e was f r e q u e n t l y p h o t o g r a p h e d from a c u r v e i n  t h e r i v e r .just downstream f r o m t h e town.  Panoramas show a r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e community s i t u a t e d a t t h e bottom o f t h e s t e e p F r a s e r canyon. Rows o f wooden b u i l d i n g s , some w i t h f a l s e f r o n t s , many two s t o r e y s h i g h and s e v e r a l w i t h v e r a n d a h s , s p r e a d f r o m t h e r i v e r bank t o t h e base o f t h e mountain.  On one edge o f town p e r c h e d t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h ;  97  P l a t e 4.36:  L y t t o n , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Dhotographer PAC C29174  98  on t h e o t h e r edge was t h e s t e a m e r dock ( P l a t e 4.37).  In 1865,  this 3  view o f Y a l e was p a i n t e d i n w a t e r c o l o u r s graphed by F r a n c i s C l a u d e t and r e p r o d u c e d 4 I l l u s t r a t e d London News.  by F r e d e r i c k Whymper, as an e n g r a v i n g  photo-  i n The  Thus, a t L y t t o n , Y a l e and e l s e w h e r e , a  v a n t a g e p o i n t l e d t o a c l i c h e d image o f p l a c e . Where a community was t o o d i s p e r s e d o r where l o c a l t o p o g r a p h y d i d not o f f e r a s u i t a b l e v a n t a g e p o i n t , p h o t o g r a p h e r s were u n a b l e t o r e c o r d a townscape on a s i n g l e g l a s s p l a t e .  Where t h i s s i t u a t i o n  o c c u r r e d , t h e m u l t i - p l a t e panorama, and more o f t e n t h e  representative  view, c o m p r i s e t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c  In t h e l a t e  record of settlement.  1860's, V i c t o r i a was a l r e a d y t o o l a r g e t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t , n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l development w i t h exposure.  one  From a h e i g h t o f l a n d t o t h e south o f t h e town, D a l l y used  s e v e r a l p l a t e s t o p r o d u c e a panorama e x t e n d i n g  from t h e government  b u i l d i n g s and t h e James Bay b r i d g e on t h e extreme r i g h t a c r o s s  the  l e n g t h o f Wharf S t r e e t t o t h e upper h a r b o u r a r e a on t h e extreme l e f t ( P l a t e 4.38).  The I n d i a n r e s e r v e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d  two-thirds o f the composition. the length of the scene.  occupies  almost  A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the harbour c r o s s e s  Beyond t h e w a t e r l i e s t h e town and  across  t h e h o r i z o n i s a w a l l o f t r e e s broken o c c a s i o n a l l y by a c h u r c h s p i r e . T h i s m u l t i - p l a t e panorama can be seen f r a m e d and d i s p l a y e d o u t s i d e Daily's photographic  g a l l e r y i n a view o f F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t  ( P l a t e 2.5). 3. Whymper's w a t e r c o l o u r i s r e p r o d u c e d i n M i c h a e l B e l l , P a i n t e r s i n a New L a n d , T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1973, p. 198. 4.  The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, May  12,  1865.  99  P l a t e 4.37:  Y a l e , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , photograDher PABC 1905  P l a t e 4.38: V i c t o r i a panorama, c i r c a 1868. Frederick Dally, photographer PAC C23418, C23419, C23420, C23421  101  Photographs s e n t a t i v e views.  o f the l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t were o f t e n r e p r e They showed d i s t i n c t i v e landmarks  or  prominent  b u i l d i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e towns i n which t h e y were l o c a t e d . view o f Government House was a s t a t e m e n t about V i c t o r i a . Bastion r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d photographs Photographs  The  o f Nanaimo and i t s h a r b o u r .  o f s e t t l e m e n t s whose e x i s t e n c e was t i e d t o some  s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n emphasized importance.  A  s u b j e c t s s y m b o l i c o f the town's  Views o f E s q u i m a l t f o c u s e d upon a s p e c t s o f t h e P a c i f i c  base o f t h e Royal Navy.  Photographs  o f t h e n a v a l a r s e n a l and c l u b -  house were r e a d i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t .  Several general  panoramas o f E s q u i m a u t a k e n i n t h e 1870's show a c o l l e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s f l a n k i n g a road that leads to a rocky headland.  Yet i t  was views o f t h e B r i t i s h f l e e t a n c h o r e d i n t h e h a r b o u r ( P l a t e 4.39) which most o f t e n r e p r e s e n t E s q u i m a l t i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . The s t r e e t s c a p e view was a p a r t i c u l a r y p o p u l a r p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the landscape o f settlement.  Whether a wide  t h o r o u g h f a r e o r a narrow t r a c k , t h e m a i n s t r e e t e p i t o m i z e d a town's economic e x i s t e n c e .  Some s e t t l e m e n t s were no more t h a n one s t r e e t ;  others boasted a business d i s t r i c t o f considerable proportions. view o f a commercial graph o f town.  A  b l o c k was, f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , a p h o t o -  I t showed t h e w i d t h o f t h e s t r e e t and the h e i g h t o f  i t s b u i l d i n g s . Photographs  show shops, h o t e l s , s a l o o n s , l i v e r i e s ,  p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , e x p r e s s o f f i c e s and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c . o f g o l d r u s h towns ( P l a t e 4.40)  S t r e e t views  show t h e wooden f a c a d e s , shake r o o f s  and a d v e r t i s i n g p l a c a r d s o f shops t h a t f a c e d one a n o t h e r a c r o s s  102  P l a t e 4.39:  E s q u i m a l t Harbour  c i r c a 1870 Frederick Dally, PAC C33452  DhotoaraDher  b e f o r e 1090 R i c h a r d Maynard, o h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 81626  103  P l a t e 4.40:  M a i n s t r e e t , B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t h e f i r e o f September 16 1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Dhotoqraoher PABC 5191  104  r a i s e d p l a n k s i d e w a l k s and a narrow muddy r o a d . r a i l w a y communities, town ( P l a t e 4,41).  In p h o t o g r a p h s  of  t r a c k s r e p l a c e d r o a d as t h e main a r t e r y t h r o u g h F o r t ( P l a t e s 2.3, 2 . 5 ) , Government ( P l a t e 4.42),  Y a t e s ( P l a t e 2,2) and o t h e r s t r e e t s i n V i c t o r i a as w e l l as  Columbia  S t r e e t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r were wide avenues f l a n k e d by wooden s i d e walks and commercial  establishments.  One and two s t o r e y  buildings  o f wood o r b r i c k , g a s l i g h t s , shop s i g n s , c a r t s and a n i m a l s , c u r i o u s o n l o o k e r s and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s a l l came t o g e t h e r i n t h e s t r e e t scape p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s , Views o f s i n g l e p r o p e r t i e s , b o t h r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l , a r e part o f the photographic record o f the landscape o f s e t t l e m e n t .  They  show t h e houses and shops t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y became town and s t r e e t views.  Photographs r e v e a l d e t a i l s o f s i z e , a r c h i t e c t u r e and c o n -  struction.  They i l l u s t r a t e t h e g a r d e n p l o t s and p i c k e t f e n c e s o f  modest homes and t h e groomed lawns and sweeping d r i v e w a y s o f w e a l t h y estates,  A view o f t h e Maynards' b u i l d i n g i n V i c t o r i a ( P l a t e  shows t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s and t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e .  2.6)  At the side door,  f l a n k e d by samples o f her work s t a n d s Hannah Maynard, p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y ; a t t h e f r o n t door s t a n d s R i c h a r d Maynard, p r o p r i e t o r o f the boot and shoe s t o r e .  This photograph, l i k e those o f  Mr, and Mrs, F o r t u n e and t h e i r f l o u r m i l l ( P l a t e 4.32) and o f t h e T r u t c h f a m i l y a t F a i r f i e l d ( P l a t e 4.48) p r e s e n t s an i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the nineteenth century landscape of settlement.  105  P l a t e 4.41:  Rogers Pass V i l l a g e , C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886. E. D e v i l l e , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 67572  106  Government Street looking north from Fort Street. Shakespeare's Photographic Gallery is just beyond the horse and cart in the centre of the view. PABC 8720  107  The p h o t o g r a p h i c  r e c o r d o f towns and v i l l a g e s i s  a c h r o n i c l e of white settlement.  Yet a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d ,  s p a r s e l y , a r e t h e s e t t l e m e n t s o f I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e .  overwhelmingly albeit In 1866,  Dally  p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e t r i b e s o f V a n c o u v e r and Nootka I s l a n d s w h i l e on t o u r w i t h G o v e r n o r Kennedy on HMS  S c o u t ( P l a t e 4.43).  Maynard accompanied t h e p a r t y o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of  In  1873,  Indian  A f f a i r s on HMS B o x e r ; a newspaper r e p o r t o f t h i s e x p e d i t i o n  noted:  A f t e r s p e e c h e s on both s i d e s , t h e whole group of Indians, the superintendent of Indian A f f a i r s and o f f i c e r s o f t h e B o x e r were p h o t o g r a p h e d by t h a t a b l e a r t i s t R. Maynard.^ The work o f D a l l y , Maynard and o t h e r s was r e p o r t s ; some was r e p r o d u c e d  incorporated into o f f i c i a l  f o r s a l e t o p u b l i c and p u b l i s h e r s i n  V i c t o r i a , e a s t e r n Canada and London.  Though Maynard r e t u r n e d i n d e -  p e n d e n t l y t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e Haida v i l l a g e s o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s i n t h e 1880's, i t was D a l l y who c o n t r i b u t e d most t o t h e commercial trade i n Indian photographs.  Though seldom a d v e r t i s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  h i s I n d i a n views were o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n p h o t o g r a p h i c for V i c t o r i a patrons.  albums p r e p a r e d  S e v e r a l o f t h e s e were used f o r e n g r a v i n g s  t h e C a n a d i a n I l l u s t r a t e d News p u b l i s h e d i n M o n t r e a l  in  i n t h e 1870's.  Photographs i l l u s t r a t e the settlement landscapes of the n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , t h e I n t e r i o r and the n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f t h e M a i n l a n d .  Panoramas d e m o n s t r a t e  t h e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n o f c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s : a l i n e o f wooden b u i l d i n g s  5.  The C o l o n i s t , June 18,  1873.  108  P l a t e 4.43;  I n d i a n totem and C h i e f ' s house, Comox, 1866. Frederick D a l l y , photographer PABC 57593  109  and totem p o l e s a l o n g t h e c r e s t o f a s l o p i n g s h o r e l i n e d o t t e d w i t h d r y i n g r a c k s and beached canoes ( P l a t e 4.44).  A view o f P o r t  Simpson t a k e n by Maynard i n 1884 ( P l a t e 4.45) r e v e a l s t h e prominent p o s i t i o n o f t h e m i s s i o n c h u r c h imposed upon t h e l a n d s c a p e o f I n d i a n settlement.  M i s c e l l a n e o u s views show t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e on t h e edge  o f V i c t o r i a and t h e I n d i a n s h a n t i e s b o r d e r i n g Coal Harbour.  Common  s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e houses, totem p o l e s , g r a v e s i t e s , c e l e b r a t i o n s on t h e Queen's b i r t h d a y and t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y . L e s s p o p u l a r t h a n t h e I n d i a n l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t was t h a t of the Chinese.  Photographs  o f the Cariboo gold rush o c c a s i o n a l l y  show C h i n e s e miners a t t h e d i g g i n g s o r C h i n e s e names on m a i n s t r e e t shop s i g n s .  L a t e r , t h e C h i n e s e r e - a p p e a r among t h e gangs o f n a v v i e s  t h a t b u i l t t h a t Canadian  P a c i f i c Railway.  In 1886, D e v i l l e photo-  graphed t h e C h i n e s e camp a t Kamloops and t h e s t r e e t s o f V i c t o r i a ' s Chinese quarter.  One such view shows a phalanx o f wooden b u i l d i n g s  made o f v e r t i c a l p l a n k s , o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s and w i d t h s and i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f d i s r e p a i r ( P l a t e 4.46).  In t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s an a l m o s t  i n d i s c e r n a b l e c l u t t e r o f shacks and f e n c e s .  Beyond t h e uneven l i n e  o f r o o f s a r e two l a r g e b r i c k warehouses o f t h e C h i n e s e establishment.  commercial  A s t r e e t scene showing V i c t o r i a ' s C h i n e s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l  garb and shop s i g n s w i t h C h i n e s e l e t t e r i n g ( P l a t e 4.47) p r e s e n t s an even more g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e o f C h i n e s e settlement.  110  P l a t e 4.4;  Indian settlement landscape  A l e r t Bay PAC C22368  Masset ( n o t e camera and t r i p o d ) PAC C60S23  Ill  P l a t e 4.45:  P o r t Simpson, 1884. R i c h a r d Maynard, p h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 10725  112  P l a t e 4.46:  Chinese Quarters, V i c t o r i a , E. D e v i l l e , p h o t o n r a o h e r PABC 67644  1886.  113  114  SOCIETY A small but s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e n t t h e emerging s o c i a l o r d e r o f p i o n e e r B r i t i s h  photographs Columbia.  Views and l i k e n e s s e s i l l u s t r a t e d o m e s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l amusements and a t h l e t i c e v e n t s .  They a l s o c o n s t i t u t e an imagery  of s o c i a l importance, o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with the c o l o n i a l T h i s was a photography B r i t i s h Columbians  elite.  o f l i f e s t y l e , a record o f nineteenth century  at rest or at play.  I t captured the p u r s u i t o f  l e i s u r e p a s t i m e s as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s main b u s i n e s s o f s e t t l e m e n t and economic growth.  I t a l s o captured the r e -  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o l d customs and t r a d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e s e photographs  i l l u s t r a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f immigrants  i n r e - c r e a t i n g an O l d World o r d e r on t h e i r own p r o p e r t y . l a n d s c a p e d gardens and m a n i c u r e d  Views show  lawns w h e r e i n l e i s u r e hours were  p a s s e d f a s h i o n a b l y engaged i n c r o q u e t as a g e n t e e l r e c r e a t i o n , o r a t t e a as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n .  Most p o r t r a i t s o f home were i n d i -  v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t s about s e t t l e m e n t ; some were c a r e f u l l y composed t o demonstrate  high s o c i a l standing.  F a m i l y and s e r v a n t s were posed  a g a i n s t a s e t t i n g t h a t i n c l u d e d a l a r g e house, c u r v e d d r i v e w a y and horse-drawn photograph  c a r r i a g e . A most e l o q u e n t example o f t h i s genre o f shows F a i r f i e l d , ( P l a t e 4.48) t h e home o f J o s e p h W. T r u t c h ,  e n g i n e e r , r o a d - b u i l d e r , s p e c u l a t o r and l a t e r L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f the province.  The house i t s e l f was a l a r g e t w o - s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e w i t h  s e v e r a l chimneys,  b a l c o n i e s and bay-windows, p e r c h e d on a s l i g h t r i s e  and s u r r o u n d e d by s h r u b b e r y .  Several s t a t e l y o l d trees create a  115  P l a t e 4.48:  F a i r f i e l d , home o f J o s e p h W. T r u t c h , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1865. PAC C3854  116  r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g w i t h o u t o b s c u r i n g t h e view. t h e f r o n t verandah. of the t r e l l i s e s .  A woman i s posed on  Along t h e s i d e wall i v y i s taking a f i r m hold S t a n d i n g on t h e sweeping d r i v e w a y a r e two h o r s e -  drawn c a r r i a g e s and two men, one on h o r s e b a c k and one b e s i d e a second saddled horse.  C r o q u e t hoops a r e s e t o u t on t h e groomed lawn on  w h i c h t h e r e a r e f o u r b o n n e t t e d women, two w i t h p a r a s o l s , two w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n . Nearby a man w i t h a baby a t h i s f e e t r e c l i n e s on one elbow, h o l d i n g a c r o q u e t m a l l e t .  Here among t h e house and i t s  h o u s e h o l d , t h e g a r d e n , t h e s e r v a n t s , t h e c a r r i a g e s and t h e c r o q u e t hoops, l i e s t h e o l d c o u n t r y c o n c e p t i o n o f a p a r k l a n d e s t a t e . O t h e r photographs  r e c o r d t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and c o m p e t i t i v e  a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s p u r s u e d by p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbians. rowing and t e n n i s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - r e p r e s e n t e d .  Cricket,  Team and c l u b  members posed f o r group l i k e n e s s e s , sometimes i n t h e s t u d i o , more often outdoors.  Photographs  show some c r i c k e t e r s d r e s s e d i n f o r m a l l y  ( P l a t e 4.49), others a t t i r e d i n "whites". were photographed  Rowers i n b a t h i n g s u i t s  w i t h t h e i r o a r s ; men i n f l a n n e l s and l a d i e s i n  l o n g d r e s s e s posed on t e n n i s c o u r t s w i t h t h e i r r a c k e t s .  Photo-  g r a p h e r s a l s o c a p t u r e d t h e c a r e f u l l y t e n d e d grounds and r o u g h l y c l e a r e d f i e l d s where s p e c t a t o r s g a t h e r e d t o watch l o c a l and i n t e r c o l o n i a l c r i c k e t matches.  One such panorama o v e r l o o k i n g a l a c r o s s e  game i n Beacon H i l l Park ( P l a t e 4.50) g i v e s a v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n o f the s o c i a l m i l i e u o f V i c t o r i a .  Ringing the playing f i e l d , standing  on t h e h i l l s i d e o r s i t t i n g i n horse-drawn c a r r i a g e s i s a l a r g e crowd o f men i n w a i s t c o a t s and women shaded by p a r a s o l s .  J u s t beyond t h e  P l a t e 4.49:  V i c t o r i a E l e v e n c r i c k e t team, 1864. PABC 7795  P l a t e 4.50:  L a c r o s s e match, Beacon H i l l P a r k , V i c t o r i a . PABC 7797  119  park s t a n d s e v e r a l s t a t e l y r e s i d e n c e s , t h e p r o p e r t i e s e n c i r c l e d by neat p i c k e t f e n c e s . of the shoreline.  More houses i n t h e d i s t a n c e f o l l o w t h e sweep Here, p e r h a p s more than i n any o t h e r s i n g l e p h o t o -  graph, t h e l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s o f both p l a y e r s and s p e c t a t o r s comb i n e w i t h t h e park s e t t i n g and t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r d e r l i n e s s t o c r e a t e an aura o f B r i t i s h g e n t i l i t y . P i c n i c k i n g was a p o p u l a r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y and s o c i a l in p a r t s o f l a t e nineteenth century B r i t i s h Columbia.  institution  Photographs  show o u t i n g s o r g a n i z e d by f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s , by c h u r c h g r o u p s , and b u s i n e s s e s .  clubs  Day t r i p s headed f o r l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s p o t s o r s e t  o u t by c a r r i a g e , t r a i n o r steamboat f o r e x c u r s i o n s f a r t h e r a f i e l d . A t t i r e was a p p r o p r i a t e l y f a s h i o n a b l e ; f o o d was c a r r i e d i n w i c k e r hampers and e a t e n o f f c h i n a p l a t e s ( P l a t e 4.51).  P i c n i c s provided the oppor-  t u n i t y f o r i n f o r m a l p o r t r a i t s . I n d i v i d u a l and group l i k e n e s s e s show w e l l - d r e s s e d p i c n i c k e r s a g a i n s t a backdrop o f cedars ( P l a t e 4.52), amid ,a t a n g l e o f u n d e r b r u s h tree.  o r b e s i d e t h e g n a r l e d r o o t s o f an u p t u r n e d  The H o l l o w T r e e i n S t a n l e y Park became a c l i c h e o f p i c n i c  portraiture.  Well i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , p a r t i e s posed by t h e  t r e e , s t a n d i n g o r s i t t i n g , on b i c y c l e s o r i n c a r r i a g e s .  The s i z e o f  t h e t r e e , t h e g r e a t b u r l a t t h e base and t h e b u r n t - o u t t r u n k made i t an unusual  n a t u r a l phenomenon o f t h e g r e a t West C o a s t f o r e s t and c o n t r i -  buted t o i t s p o p u l a r i t y as a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t o be photographed.  W a t e r f a l l s were a n o t h e r p o p u l a r l o c a t i o n where t h o s e who  posed a t t h e l i p o f t h e c a t a r a c t o r near i t s base were d w a r f e d by t h e cascade o f water.  Plate  4.51:  P i c n i c oarty at the Gorge, V i c t o r i a , PABC 6314  1884.  P l a t e 4.52:  Picnic party at Roidstream, V i c t o r i a , c i r c a Soencer and H a s t i n g s , p h o t o q r a o h e r s PABC 31457  1885.  122  V i c t o r i a Day a n d Dominion Day were o c c a s i o n s f o r p i c n i c s a n d regattas.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Gorge i n 1884 n o t e d t h a t " t o t h i s  s p o t V i c t o r i a n s r e s o r t on h i g h days a n d h o l i d a y s . "  6  Coal Harbour  and t h e l a k e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c a s u a l b o a t i n g and c o m p e t i t i v e r o w i n g .  R a f t s , s l i d e s , bath-houses, boat  r e n t a l s a n d a promenade t u r n e d t h e beaches o f E n g l i s h Bay i n t o a w a t e r f r o n t p l a y g r o u n d f o r t h e masses.  P h o t o g r a p h s o f May 24th  f e s t i v i t i e s a t t h e Gorge t y p i c a l l y show crowds engaged i n p i c n i c a c t i v i t i e s , r o w i n g crews p r a c t i s i n g i n m i d s t r e a m and, c l o s e r t o s h o r e , rowboats f l y i n g t h e Red E n s i g n and o c c u p i e d by men i n w a i s t c o a t e d s u i t s a n d b o w l e r s a n d b y w e l l - d r e s s e d , b o n n e t t e d women. One view o f t h e Gorge ( P l a t e 4.53) shows a p i c n i c group c o n g r e g a t e d a r o u n d a banner a n d booth on t h e f a r h i l l s i d e .  In t h e immediate  f o r e g r o u n d i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f rowboats a n d s a i l b o a t s .  On t h e edge  o f t h e n e a r s h o r e i s a p h o t o g r a p h e r p r e p a r i n g h i s t r i p o d a n d camera, p e r h a p s f o r a view o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a c r o s s t h e w a t e r , p e r h a p s f o r a p o r t r a i t o f t h e woman on t h e bank b e h i n d him. E a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s a l s o p r o d u c e d what m i g h t be termed an imagery o f s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e .  The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d  i n c l u d e s views o f government o f f i c e s ( P l a t e 4:54) a n d Government Houses ( P l a t e 4.55) i n b o t h t h e c a p i t a l s .  Churches, a l s o prominent  among p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , were often p h o t o g r a p h e d ; i n 1866, The C o l o n i s t  6.  " C l i m a t e and S c e n e r y o f V i c t o r i a " , The R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Volume I , Number 11, J a n u a r y 1, 1884, p. 13.  P l a t e 4.53:  The Gorge, V i c t o r i a . PABC 25439  "The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e h a r b o r [ s i c ] e x t e n d s some m i l e s above t h e c i t y , w i n d i n g i n g r a c e f u l t u r n s t o a gorge o v e r w h i c h i s a b r i d g e , and t o t h i s s p o t V i c t o r i a n s r e s o r t on h i g h days and h o l i d a y s . " The R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia J a n u a r y 1, 1884, p. 13.  124  P l a t e 4.55:  Government House, Mew PAC C4605  Westminster.  125  s u g g e s t e d t h a t Maynard's "views o f t h e ceremony o f l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f t h e new c h u r c h a t E s q u i m a l t " were " w e l l - e x e c u t e d " and "worth p r o c u r i n g . " ' ' G o v e r n o r and Mrs. Seymour, Admiral and M r s . H a s t i n g s , n a v a l o f f i c e r s , l o c a l p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s and v i s i t i n g d i g n i t a r i e s were a l l p h o t o g r a p h e d .  B l a n c a d v e r t i s e d views o f  o  B a r k e r v i l l e d u r i n g V i c t o r i a Day  and o f some o f t h e town's p r i n c i p a l g  b u i l d i n g s d e c o r a t e d f o r Dominion Day. photographs  The Queen's b i r t h d a y o c c a s i o n e d  o f t h e I n d i a n c h i e f s g a t h e r e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r  F l y i n g Squadron d e c o r a t e d a t E s q u i m a l t .  and t h e  The o p e n i n g o f p a r l i a m e n t  and t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t t r a i n i n Vancouver were o t h e r e v e n t s that warranted a photographer's  a t t e n t i o n . T h i s genre o f p h o t o g r a p h  encompasses p e o p l e , p l a c e s and e v e n t s o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and historic  significance.  NATURE Overwhelmingly  B r i t i s h Columbia's  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e was  w i l d e r n e s s , y e t p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers  paid f a r less attention to  t h e i n t r i c a c i e s and d i v e r s i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l environment  than t o t h e  i m p r i n t o f man upon i t . The w i l d e r n e s s a p p e a r s a s t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i n photographs  o f t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t and  resource exploitation.  G e n e r a l views o f t h e C a r i b o o Road and Canadian  7.  The C o l o n i s t , September 4, 1866.  8.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , May 29, 1869, p. 3.  9.  I b i d . , J u l y 16, 1871, p. 3.  126  P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n e v i t a b l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e canyons and v a l l e y s t h r o u g h which t h e y p a s s e d .  Mountains  p r o v i d e d a backdrop f o r panoramas o f  c r e e k s , towns and r a i l r o a d h o t e l s .  Though seldom t h e s u b j e c t o f p h o t o -  g r a p h s , t h e f o r e s t p e r se a s s e r t s i t s p r e s e n c e as a w a l l o f t r e e s r i s i n g behind a s t r a g g l i n g Indian v i l l a g e , a tidewater sawmill, a s k i d r o a d , a m i n i n g town o r a p i c n i c p a r t y .  Likenesses of loggers beside  a g i a n t f i r o r o f t o u r i s t s a t t h e Hollow T r e e i n S t a n l e y Park r e v e a l a l m o s t i n d i r e c t l y t h e e n o r m i t y o f West C o a s t t r e e s . emphasized  t h e human element i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h .  Captions often  Views o f Mount Stephen  t o w e r i n g o v e r t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c h o t e l a t F i e l d were l a b e l l e d "Mount Stephen House" and the s c e n e r y o f t h e I l l e c i l l e w a e t V a l l e y came t o be synonymous w i t h t h e "Double Loop" i n t h e S e l k i r k s . Where t h e C a r i b o o Road and t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y made t h e natural landscapes of the I n t e r i o r a c c e s s i b l e , photographers d i d capture some o f the more s p e c t a c u l a r and e x p a n s i v e s c e n e r y . Gate abound.  Views o f H e l l ' s  Some t a k e n s q u a r e l y a c r o s s t h e t o r r e n t show t h e d e t a i l  o f t h e o p p o s i n g r o c k f a c e ; o t h e r s l o o k i n g up o r down s t r e a m show t h e p r e c i p i t o u s canyon w a l l s .  In 1867 and 1868, D a l l y r e c o r d e d t h e canyons  o f t h e F r a s e r , t h e v a l l e y o f the Thompson and t h e w a t e r f a l l s , l a k e s and m o u n t a i n s between Y a l e and C a r i b o o . above Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.56) o f t h e canyon.  H i s view o f t h e F r a s e r f o u r m i l e s  i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r u s h i n g w a t e r and r o c k y t e r r a i n  A n o t h e r panorama e i g h t y m i l e s f a r t h e r up t h e r o a d shows  t h e meanders and s l o p e s o f t h e Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y ( P l a t e 4.57). Twenty y e a r s l a t e r , D e v i l l e and Maynard p r e p a r e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f views a l o n g t h e r o u t e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c t h r o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia. work i n c l u d e s p h o t o g r a p h s  o f t h e r i v e r s , c a n y o n s , w a t e r f a l l s , peaks  Their  127  P l a t e 4.56:  F r a s e r R i v e r , 4 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photoqrapher PABC 10946  128  P l a t e 4.57:  Thompson R i v e r , 84 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. Frederick D a l l y , photograoher PABC 9718  129  and p a s s e s o f t h e S e l k i r k and C o a s t r a n g e s . I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon ( P l a t e 4.58)  Devi l i e ' s view o f t h e  i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f images o f t h e  Wapta, A l b e r t , B e a v e r , F r a s e r and o t h e r canyons a l o n g t h e r o u t e o f t h e railway. The e a r l y p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n c l u d e s t h e o c c a s i o n a l image o f the romantic p h y s i c a l landscape.  In p a r t i c u l a r , p h o t o g r a p h e r s p o r -  t r a y e d t h e tamed n a t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c park.  Views o f Beacon  Hill,  t h e Gorge and G o l d s t r e a m i n V i c t o r i a and l a t e r o f S t a n l e y Park i n Vancouver show r o a d s and t r a i l s which p a r t t h e f o r e s t and b r i n g i n t o view c l e a r i n g s o r l a g o o n s .  A p h o t o g r a p h o f G o l d s t r e a m by R i c h a r d  Maynard  ( P l a t e 4.59)  woods.  L i g h t f l o o d s i n from t h e upper l e f t .  shows a brook as i t emerges from t h e d i s t a n t The water c r e a t e s a  narrow w a t e r f a l l as i t s p i l l s i n t o a s h a l l o w pool i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . T h e r e i t f l o w s around h a l f - s u b m e r g e d r o c k s and f a l l e n b r a n c h e s .  High  above t h e t i n y c a s c a d e , a f o o t b r i d g e c r o s s e s from bank t o bank. S i m i l a r l y , views o f t h e Gorge show p a t h s l e a d i n g down t h e h i l l s i d e s t o a b r i d g e where t h e w a t e r s narrowed. p h o t o g r a p h e r s sometimes  Away f r o m streams o r ponds,  c a p t u r e d t h e p i c t u r e s q u e q u a l i t i e s o f open  p a r k l a n d where t h e f o r e s t was t h i n n e d t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f s p a c i o u s n e s s , where t r e e s f a d e d i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e and where s u n l i g h t f i l t e r e d t o t h e ground i n p a t c h e s . Many a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e photographic record. are s i n g u l a r l y absent. access to the coast.  S e a s c a p e s i l l u s t r a t i n g rugged and pounding s u r f Dense v e g e t a t i o n and rugged t e r r a i n E a r l y e x p o s u r e t i m e s measured  impeded  i n whole s e c o n d s ,  r a t h e r than i n f r a c t i o n s t h e r e o f , made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o p h o t o g r a p h  130  P l a t e 4.58:  I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon, C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886. E. D e v i l l e , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 67594  131  P l a t e 4.59: G o l d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a . R i c h a r d Maynard, Dhotoqraoher PABC 56796  132  t h e s h o r e from on b o a r d s h i p o r s t o p t h e m o t i o n o f c r e s t i n g waves. M o u n t a i n panoramas a r e few.  U n t i l t h e r a i l r o a d opened up t h e p a s s e s  o f t h e I n t e r i o r , l o f t y v a n t a g e p o i n t s were i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r encumbered by t h e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f h i s t r a d e .  Though p o r t a b l e  darkrooms were t a k e n by c a r t and pack h o r s e o v e r wagon r o a d s and c r u d e t r a i l s , t h e m a r r i a g e o f n a t u r e p h o t o g r a p h y and a l p i n e h i k i n g s t i l l a w a i t e d t h e a d v e n t o f s m a l l e r , r o l l - f i l m cameras.  There are v i r t u a l l y  no n a t u r e c o m p o s i t i o n s showing c a r p e t s o f mosses, t h i c k e t s o f s a l a l , s t a n d s o f Douglas f i r o r f i e l d s o f b u n c h g r a s s .  A p a r t from any  a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , slow e m u l s i o n s a g g r a v a t e d by low l i g h t l e v e l s made i t d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e f o r e s t i n t e r i o r o r s t o p t h e movement o f l e a v e s and f r o n d s . Views o f t h e peaks and p a s s e s , canyons and c a t a r a c t s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia w i l d e r n e s s a r e o f t e n t h e work o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s commissioned t o accompany t h e s u r v e y i n g e x p e d i t i o n s o f government and r a i l r o a d .  Although the surveys f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c ' s  n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s r o u t e were n o t d e v e l o p e d , H o r e t s z k y ' s s e r i e s o f w i l d e r n e s s views i l l u s t r a t e n o t o n l y t h e o b s t a c l e s , b u t a l s o t h e s c e n e r y o f t h e Homathko R i v e r and Bute I n l e t ( P l a t e 4.60).  Yet h i s  work i s as much a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o p o s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e as o f t h e e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l one.  P l a t e 4.60:  Homathko R i v e r , 30k m i l e s from Waddington, 1875. Charles Horetszky, nhotogranher PABC 10663  134  Almost from t h e i n c e p t i o n o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t ,  photographers  r e c o r d e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e and i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a t t h e hand o f man.  C l e a r l y some s u b j e c t s were photographed  more o f t e n than o t h e r s .  The C a r i b o o Road and t h e Canadian  R a i l w a y dominate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n views. combining  much Pacific  S t r e t c h e s o f road o r t r a c k  s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y and e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s r e c e i v e d p a r t i -  c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . The f r e i g h t t r a f f i c and m i l e h o u s e s  o f t h e wagon  road and t h e b r i d g e s and m o u n t a i n h o t e l s o f t h e r a i l w a y were t h e most common s u b j e c t s .  Photographs  o f r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s f o c u s on  t h e g o l d r u s h and a r e l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t o f t h e 1860's.  Most views  show m i n e r s a t t h e i r c l a i m s ; w a t e r w h e e l s , t u n n e l s and w i n d l a s s e s were t h e more p o p u l a r s e t t i n g s . O n l y w i t h t h e h a r d - r o c k boom o f t h e 1890's was t h e r e a r e s u r g e n c e i n m i n i n g p h o t o g r a p h s . ^  While  photo-  g r a p h e r s d i d c a p t u r e t h e p i o n e e r f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , a much f u l l e r r e c o r d o f i t s men, t e c h n o l o g y and r e s o u r c e s was produced the-century.  Many e a r l y photographs  toward t h e t u r n - o f -  a r e scenes o f ox-teams h a u l i n g  l o g s o v e r a s k i d r o a d ; l e s s numerous a r e i n - s i t u p o r t r a i t s o f handl o g g e r s and views o f t i d e w a t e r s a w - m i l l s .  The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f  f i s h i n g and f a r m i n g i s meagre; views o f f i s h i n g f l e e t s and c a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e o r c h a r d s and h a r v e s t scenes a r e l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t o f t h e p o s t - p i o n e e r p e r i o d o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e coming o f the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y .  Often associated with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  o r r e s o u r c e s , s e t t l e m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia were r e c o r d e d , some r e p e a t e d l y , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f photography province.  Town panoramas and s t r e e t s c a p e views abound.  t o r i c a l photographs  a r e a few i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t  i n the  Among h i s landscapes  135  o f I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e ,  T o g e t h e r , p h o t o g r a p h s o f the l a n d s c a p e s o f  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s and s e t t l e m e n t c o n s t i t u t e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the photographic r e c o r d . The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new s o c i e t y i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia.  Photographs  s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e emerging s o c i a l o r d e r show l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , h i s t o r i c e v e n t s , p r o m i n e n t b u i l d i n g s and i m o o r t a n t p e o p l e . y e a r s , t h e y were few  In t h e e a r l y  and t h e y f o c u s e d upon t h e a c t i v i t i e s and s e t t i n g s  of the c o l o n i a l e l i t e .  More o f t e n i n t h e 1880's, p h o t o g r a p h e r s  r e c o r d e d the p i c n i c s and r e g a t t a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i t i z e n s ' V i c t o r i a and Dominion c e l e b r a t i o n s . Photographs o f t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e emphasize t h e s p e c t a c u l a r and e x p a n s i v e t o p o g r a p h y a l o n g t h e r o a d and r a i l routes through the I n t e r i o r . of V i c t o r i a ' s p u b l i c parks. non-existent.  A few c a p t u r e t h e r o m a n t i c a s p e c t s  M i c r o s c a l e nature s t u d i e s are v i r t u a l l y  CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND  PLACE:  AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD  The p h o t o g r a p h i c  record suggests  t h a t photography i n e a r l y B r i t i s h  Columbia was a s i m p l e k i n d o f p i c t u r e - m a k i n g ,  not a r e f i n e d v i s i o n .  P i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s made r e c o r d images, not a e s t h e t i c a b s t r a c t i o n s . Although  a b r e a s t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e y were not c o n c e r n e d  with the acceotance  o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h as f i n e a r t .  s u b j e c t s was n e i t h e r a l l e g o r i c a l nor a r t i f i c i a l . but d i d n o t i n t e r p r e t .  Their portrayal of T h e i r work d e s c r i b e d ,  As a medium o f v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n ,  historical  p h o t o g r a p h s r e v e a l more a b o u t t h e outward a p p e a r a n c e o f the s u b j e c t than t h e i n n e r e m o t i o n s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r .  They show t h e s t y l e o f  a house, the members o f a f a m i l y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b r i d g e , t h e s c e n e r y o f a g o r g e , t h e mechanism o f a waterwheel and the at a r e g a t t a .  spectators  H i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h s o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r e s e r v e  o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u b j e c t s and r e v e a l a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g  both  his-  t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , l i k e t h e g o l d r u s h and t h e r a i l w a y age, i n t h e i r elemental  aspects.  The range o f p h o t o g r a p h i c  s u b j e c t s was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the i n -  a b i l i t y o f e a r l y p r o c e s s e s t o s t o p m o t i o n and by t h e c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by b u l k y equipment on m o b i l i t y a n d . a c c e s s .  Subjects t h a t could not or  would n o t remain s t i l l a r e a b s e n t from t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c e x i s t i n p h o t o g r a p h s as b l u r r e d forms.  record or  In R i c h a r d Maynard's  landscape  panorama o f t h e G l a c i e r H o t e l ( P l a t e 4 . 1 6 ) , p e o p l e w a l k i n g on t h e  136  137  p l a t f o r m a t t h e time t h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n a p p e a r g h o s t - l i k e . In p h o t o g r a p h s o f w a t e r i n m o t i o n , r a p i d s t u r n i n t o s o f t s w i r l s and w a t e r f a l l s become d e l i c a t e c u r t a i n s .  S t r e e t s c a p e s were more  e a s i l y r e c o r d e d a l t h o u g h s k i t t i s h h o r s e s , r e s t l e s s dogs and i m p a t i e n t c h i l d r e n a p p e a r as i n d i s t i n c t f i g u r e s .  Even i n a view w i t h o u t  a p p a r e n t a c t i v i t y ( P l a t e 2 . 2 ) , t h e i n d i s t i n c t n e s s o f waving f l a g s betrays a ' n e c e s s a r i l y long exposure. Slow e m u l s i o n s a l s o imposed a d e l i b e r a t e n e s s on p h o t o g r a p h s o f human a c t i v i t y .  S t r e e t s c a p e views o f t e n f a i l t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r e a l  b u s t l e o f t r a f f i c and p e d e s t r i a n s ; c a r t s were p a r k e d and m e r c h a n t s posed f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r .  Mule teams on the C a r i b o o Road were s t o p p e d  t o p e r m i t D a l l y t o r e c o r d f r e i g h t t r a f f i c a t 1 9 - m i l e p o s t on t h e F r a s e r and a t G r e a t B l u f f on t h e Thompson. t o pose f o r D a i l y ' s camera.  Gold, m i n e r s i n t e r r u p t e d t h e i r work  That the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d o f c r i c k e t , rowing,  t e n n i s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s c o n s i s t s o f group p h o t o g r a p h s o f team and c l u b members i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o f c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y t o c a p t u r e movement. A p a r t from such l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e p h o t o g r a p h was a f a i t h f u l r e c o r d o f outward a p p e a r a n c e , b u t i f t h e l e n s was i m p a r t i a l , t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r was n o t .  The b o r d e r s o f a p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e i s o l a t e  reality.  The c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i n i t s e l f , i n t r o d u c e s an e l e m e n t  of s e l e c t i v i t y .  a segment o f  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s c h o i c e o f camera a n g l e  can change t h e e l e m e n t s o f the c o m p o s i t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p o r t o f the scene.  Views o f Mount Stephen House m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e m a i n l i n e  o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y o r Mount Stephen o r b o t h .  The r e l a t i v e  d e g r e e s t o which t h e t r a c k s and w i l d e r n e s s f i g u r e s u g g e s t whether t h e  138  photograph i s a statement about t h e i s o l a t i o n o f a mountain r e t r e a t , t h e e l e g a n c e o f a r a i l r o a d h o t e l , o r t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e urban world. Commissioned p h o t o g r a p h s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a p a t r o n ' s i n t e r e s t s ; however, i t i s seldom a p p a r e n t i f , o r by whom, commissioned.  a l a n d s c a p e view was  F u r t h e r m o r e , a p h o t o g r a p h p r o d u c e d f o r a p a t r o n i n one  l o c a t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y r e p r i n t e d f o r s a l e i n a n o t h e r .  A g r e a t many  more l a n d s c a p e views were p a r t o f t h e f r e e l a n c e t r a d e .  Photographers,  e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e engaged i n an i t i n e r a n t b u s i n e s s , e x e r c i s e d a d e g r e e o f i n i t i a t i v e and judgment i n r e c o r d i n g a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s ; sample c o p i e s o f t h e i r work were d i s p l a y e d * and o r d e r s f o r p r i n t s were a c c e p t e d . P u r c h a s e r s c h o s e what i n t e r e s t e d them and t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r had t o be s e n s i t i v e t o g e n e r a l market t a s t e s i f he hoped t o s e l l h i s work.  As  a r e s u l t , photographs e x h i b i t s e l e c t i v i t y i n t h e i r r e n d e r i n g o f nineteenth century r e a l i t y .  In t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d , some s u b j e c t s a r e  much more numerous t h a n o t h e r s . Such i n e q u i t i e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p u b l i c was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t e d t o some p h o t o g r a p h s and were b l a t a n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o o t h e r s . G i v e n t h e commercial n a t u r e o f p h o t o g r a p h y , t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f some images and t h e s c a r c i t y o f o t h e r s s u g g e s t s t h e popular i n t e r e s t s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbians. W e l l - s u i t e d t o t h e needs and temperament  o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia,  p h o t o g r a p h e r s b o t h c a p t u r e d and c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e i m p a t i e n c e and excitement o f pioneer society.  1.  T h e i r work was f a s t , cheap and a c c e s s i b l e  George Fardon a d v e r t i s e d "Upwards o f F i v e Hundred Specimens on View", The C o l o n i s t , September 21, 1869.  139  to almost a l l l e v e l s of society.  I t r e c o r d e d t h e e v o l v i n g human l a n d -  scape with a c l a r i t y o f d e t a i l that imparted to i t u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l . Whereas o n l y t h e c o l o n i a l e l i t e m i g h t have t u r n e d t o t h e p a i n t e r , a l m o s t e v e r y o n e l o o k e d t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r f o r p o r t r a i t s and l a n d s c a p e views.  To s a t i s f y t h e t a s t e s o f p a t r o n s from v a r i o u s s o c i a l and  economic b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r p r o d u c e d a v a r i e t y o f s i z e s and f o r m a t s from t h e p l u s h l y mounted ambrotype t o t h e s i m p l e c a r t e - d e visite.  S e v e r a l e n t i c e m e n t s were used i n B r i t i s h Columbia newspaper  announcements t o i n t e r e s t t h e b u y i n g p u b l i c . "Handsome", " b e a u t i f u l " , " s p e n d i d l y e x e c u t e d " and " i n t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e s t y l e " , were t y p i c a l o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l a n g u a g e used i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s .  P r i c e s were n e v e r  q u o t e d , but always seemed t o be " v e r y m o d e r a t e " , i f n o t " g r e a t l y reduced".  On t h e one hand, c u s t o m e r s were e n c o u r a g e d t o " t a k e advan-  t a g e o f t h e p r e s e n t f i n e weather" and on the o t h e r hand, were reminded t h a t s t u d i o s were e q u i p p e d t o t a k e p o r t r a i t s d u r i n g i n c l e m e n t conditions.  A s e n s e o f u r g e n c y was c r e a t e d by such a p p e a l s as " g a l l e r y  open f o r a s h o r t time o n l y " o r " r e d u c e d p r i c e s f o r a s h o r t t i m e o n l y " o r " l a s t chance f o r t h o s e w i n t e r i n g i n t h e C a r i b o o " . A p a r t from t h e f a c t o r s o f s t y l e , c o s t , weather and  immediacy,  a c c e s s t o modern equipment was o c c a s i o n a l l y o f f e r e d as an i n c e n t i v e t o patronize a photographer.  B l a n c , d u r i n g h i s second summer i n t h e  C a r i b o o , o f f e r e d f o r s a l e p h o t o g r a p h s " t a k e n w i t h a new and improved camera j u s t r e c e i v e d f r o m London."  2.  When Stephen S p e n c e r r e t u r n e d t o  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , A u g u s t 9, 1868, p. 3.  140  h i s V i c t o r i a s t u d i o i n 1874, he announced t h a t he had b r o u g h t w i t h him "an e x p e r i e n c e d r e t o u c h e r from the f i r s t San F r a n c i s c o g a l l e r i e s " 3  as w e l l as "improved a p p l i a n c e s f o r t a k i n g and f i n i s h i n g p i c t u r e s . " By t h e l a t e 1880's, d r y p l a t e s had d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d e x p o s u r e t i m e s and, i n 1887, S p e n c e r and H a s t i n g s a d v e r t i s e d " i n s t a n t a n e o u s p h o t o 4 graphing a s p e c i a l t y . "  Such a d v e r t i s i n g c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e common  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t u p - t o - d a t e equipment was a g u a r a n t e e o f q u a l i t y results. The i n t r i n s i c a p p e a l o f a p h o t o g r a p h was t w o - f o l d ; i t was an amazing d i s c o v e r y o f i t s age and a f a i t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . The n o v e l t y o f f i x i n g f o r a l l t i m e t h e image o f a p e r s o n , a p l a c e o r an e v e n t u s i n g a m i n d l e s s m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e and a s i m p l e c h e m i c a l process generated widespread i n t e r e s t . i n v e n t i o n , a s o u r c e o f wonder.  The p h o t o g r a p h was an i n g e n i o u s  However, i t a l s o had t h e s i n g u l a r a b i l i t y  to reproduce appearances a c c u r a t e l y .  Though e a r l y p o r t r a i t s and views  were sometimes as much a p r o d u c t o f s h e e r l u c k as o f t e c h n i c a l even t h e p o o r e s t p h o t o g r a p h i m p a r t e d a s e n s e o f t h e a c t u a l .  skill,  As a  document which conveyed p r e c i s e f a c t , t h e p h o t o g r a p h complemented t h e V i c t o r i a n b e l i e f t h a t t r u t h was r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n , 5 and drew p u b l i c p r a i s e f o r i t s h o n e s t y and c l a r i t y .  Stephen S p e n c e r  and Noah S h a k e s p e a r e a d v e r t i s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n a " c o r r e c t 3. The C o l o n i s t , November 7, 1874. 6  4.  The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , 1887, V i c t o r i a : M a l l a n d a i n e and W i l l i a m s , 1887.  5.  The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , A u g u s t 4,  6.  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , 1868, p. 86.  1860.  141,  /  likeness",  D a i l y ' s work was d e s c r i b e d as " b e a u t i f u l and t r u t h f u l " - / 8 B l a n c ' s e x h i b i t e d " t r u t h f u l d e l i n e a t i o n " ; and G e n t i l e ' s d i s p l a y e d 9 " t r u t h f u l n e s s , b e a u t y and c l e a r n e s s o f e x e c u t i o n , "  Such newspaper  j a r g o n a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o the p u b l i c f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t r u t h . P e o p l e wanted l i k e n e s s e s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r l o v e d ones. e a r l y V i c t o r i a , p o r t r a i t s f o u n d a r e a d y m a r k e t i n the l o c a l e l i t e m e r c h a n t c l a s s e s , as w e l l as i n the g o l d s e e k e r s on t h e i r way  In and  to or  from the C a r i b o o and t h e B r i t i s h s a i l o r s f r o m the naval base a t Esquimalt.  S i m i l a r l y , in the Cariboo,  c l a i m owners, m i n e r s , and  m e r c h a n t s were e a g e r t o p u r c h a s e i n d i v i d u a l and group l i k e n e s s e s had the money t o do so. p r a c t i c e of purchasing  and  Newspaper announcements e n c o u r a g e d the p o r t r a i t s f o r l o v e d ones.  Stephen S p e n c e r  o f f e r e d t o t a k e " l i k e n e s s e s o f such as a r e t o l e a v e f o r Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d , as w e l l as o t h e r s who may f r i e n d s a remembrance." ^ 1  d e s i r e t o l e a v e w i t h o r send t o t h e i r  B l a n c s u g g e s t e d t h a t "miners i n t e n d i n g  to  l e a v e f o r Peace R i v e r " t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d p r i c e s and " f o r w a r d t o f r i e n d s a l i k e n e s s b e f o r e t h e i r d e p a r t u r e f o r the mines."  1 1  Upon her r e t i r e m e n t ,  new  Hannah Maynard r e c a l l e d t h a t her p a t r o n s  i n V i c t o r i a i n c l u d e d " a l l k i n d s " and t h a t , a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r , she 7.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12,'1867, p.  8.  I b i d . , J u l y 11, 1867,  9.  I b i d , , May  10, 1866,  p. 3. p. 3.  10. The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23,  1859.  11. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , March 12, 1870,  p. 2.  3.  142  and her husband R i c h a r d c l a i m was  had p h o t o g r a p h e d e v e r y b o d y i n t o w n . ^  p a r t l y corroborated  Her  1  by a l o c a l V i c t o r i a j o u r n a l i s t a l m o s t  f i f t y years l a t e r : T h e r e was one e x p e r i e n c e o f my v e r y young days w h i c h must have been s h a r e d by t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r members o f V i c t o r i a ' s g r o w i n g f a m i l i e s . T h a t was the o r d e a l o f g e t t i n g a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t made a t Mrs. R. Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i o a t 41% Pandora S t r e e t . 1 3 T h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y two t y p e s o f p o r t r a i t s i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c record of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  The s t u d i o c o m p o s i t i o n - w h e t h e r a  h e a d - a n d - s h o u l d e r s p o r t r a i t t a k e n a g a i n s t a p l a i n background ( P l a t e  2.1)  o r a f u l l - l e n g t h l i k e n e s s s e t i n a mock V i c t o r i a n drawing-room - p r e s e n t s a highly insular perspective  on i t s s u b j e c t .  s t r i c t decorum o f costume, o c c a s i o n  Governed by "a v e r y 14  and p o s e , "  imposed a sameness upon s t u d i o l i k e n e s s e s .  formal  portraiture  Consequently, the  o f such p h o t o g r a p h s l i e s more i n the f a c t o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e the a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e i r p a t r o n s .  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  import than in  the o u t d o o r l i k e n e s s  shows " i n d i v i d u a l s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , c o - w o r k e r s , b u s i n e s s o r team-mates a t home ( P l a t e 4 . 4 8 ) , a t work ( P l a t e 4.20)  partners  or at  play  ( P l a t e 4.49); i t r e v e a l s not o n l y a p p e a r a n c e , but a l s o p h y s i c a l social milieu.  The  or  " i n - s i t u " p o r t r a i t c a p t u r e s the i n t e r a c t i o n between  p e o p l e and p l a c e and i t s s t a t e m e n t stems from the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f to s e t t i n g .  Where the s t u i o p o r t r a i t r e p r e s e n t s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g  12.  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , September 29, 1912,  p.  13.  Gus S i v e r t z , "When we were v e r y young: S t i f f , S t a r c h e d , and W a t c h i n g the B i r d i e " , The Times ( V i c t o r i a ) , J a n u a r y 5, 1957,  14.  A l a n Thomas, l o c . c i t .  subject or  10. p.  4.  143  m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g , the " i n - s i t u " l i k e n e s s demonstrates i t .  For the  purposes o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , the former i s a s u b t l e i n d i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbians' sense o f t h e m s e l v e s i n the emerging s o c i a l o r d e r ; t h e l a t t e r i s an o b v i o u s a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p l a c e .  Thus, the " i n -  s i t u " l i k e n e s s has been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t o f l a n d s c a p e p h o t o g r a p h y ; t h e s t u d i o p o r t r a i t .has n o t . P a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m f o r l a n d s c a p e views d e r i v e d from personal a s s o c i a t i o n s with place.  B r i t i s h Columbians r e g a r d e d t h e  p h o t o g r a p h as a r e c o r d o f l a n d s c a p e s well-known  t o them.  Townsfolk  wanted n o t o n l y p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r p r o p e r t y , but a l s o views o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t , i t s main s t r e e t , p r o m i n e n t b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c p a r k s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s . A B a r n a r d ' s ExDress tea'mster would have p r o b a b l y chosen views o f s t a g e s t o p s , m i l e h o u s e s , f r e i g h t t r a f f i c and r o a d s i d e s c e n e r y .  S i m i l a r l y , a W i l l i a m s Creek miner might  have s e l e c t e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e m i n i n g towns and c e l e b r a t e d c l a i m s o f t h e C a r i b o o as w e l l as r e m i n d e r s o f h i s j o u r n e y up t h e wagon r o a d .  In  p r o m o t i n g B l a n c ' s views o f v a r i o u s p l a c e s w i t h i n t h e C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t , t h e e d i t o r s o f The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l were c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e r e were few r e a d e r s who would n o t " a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p r o c u r i n g 15 s o u v e n i r s o f p l a c e s f a m i l i a r t o them from t h e f o r c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n . " A p l a c e became i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h f a m i l i a r i t y , t h r o u g h "the f o r c e o f association". 15.  A p h o t o g r a p h c o n f i r m e d and p r e s e r v e d t h i s i m p o r t a n c e .  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 11, 1867, p. 3.  144  B r i t i s h Columbians wanted a r e c o r d o f f a m i l i a r p l a c e s , n o t j u s t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , but a l s o f o r t h e i r l o v e d ones.  Th'e immigrant t o t h i s v  i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a was encouraged by newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o send o f f p h o t o g r a p h s o f h i s l a n d o r c l a i m , o f town or s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s t o r e - a s s u r e l o v e d ones a t home, t o b o a s t o f personal accomplishments immigrate.  o r t o encourage f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s t o  Views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y were "always on hand and f o r  sale"''' a t B l a n c ' s g a l l e r y and i n 1870, an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n The C a r i b o o 6  S e n t i n e l s u g g e s t e d t h a t " p a r t i e s w r i t i n g home would do w e l l t o c a l l on Mr. B l a n c and s e l e c t from h i s v a r i e d s u p p l y a s o u v e n i r f o r t h e i r friends."^  In t h e same i s s u e , t h e newspaper's e d i t o r s posed t h e  rhetorical question: What more a c c e p t a b l e s o u v e n i r can be s e n t t o one's f r i e n d s than a c a r t e - d e - v i s i t e o r a view of t h e scene o f l a b o r i n which t h e wanderer from home i s engaged.18 A p h o t o g r a p h s e n t t o f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s p e r m i t t e d o t h e r s t o see t h e s e t t i n g o f one's a c t i v i t i e s and t h e p l a c e o f one's e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h ment.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l a p p e a l e d t o l o c a l community s p i r i t i n  n o t i n g t h a t B l a n c ' s views o f B a r k e r v i l l e a f t e r t h e 1871 Dominion  Day  c e l e b r a t i o n were " v e r y handsome, and when s e n t a b r o a d [ w o u l d ] g i v e 19 s t r a n g e r s a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f our town." 16.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 13, 1870, p. 2.  17.  Ibid.  18.  I b i d . , p. 3.  19.  I b i d . , J u l y 16, 1871, p. 3.  P r i d e as w e l l as  145  f a m i l i a r i t y formed the b a s i s o f t h e b o o s t e r i s m e v i d e n t i n the p h o t o graphic record of nineteenth century B r i t i s h Columbia. I f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s were a n x i o u s t o p u r c h a s e v i e w s o f f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e y were a l s o eager to o b t a i n p h o t o g r a p h s ' o f w i t h w h i c h t h e y had no p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n .  landscapes  T h i s i n t e r e s t was  part  o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c u r i o s i t y a b o u t p l a c e w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l V i c t o r i a n c o n c e r n s w i t h t r u t h , t e c h n o l o g y and p r o g r e s s gave them more than l o c a l a p p e a l . 20 and I m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n ,  and  I t encouraged t r a v e l , e x p l o r a t i o n  news o f w h i c h r e v e a l e d t h e d i v e r s i t y o f the  p h s y i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and the human e x p e r i e n c e .  Travel l i t e r a t u r e " i n  t h e form o f p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s , t r a v e l b o o k s , and  account's  i n t h e i l l u s t r a t e d , p r e s s p r o l i f e r a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e enormous 21 V i c t o r i a n demand f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and new e x p e r i e n c e . " In e v o k i n g 20.  I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o note t h a t among c h a p t e r s on A r t , L i t e r a t u r e , S c i e n c e , R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i e s , The I l l u s t r a t e d London News Record o f t h e G l o r i o u s Reign o f Queen V i c t o r i a 1837-1901 was a s e c t i o n d e v o t e d t o " T r a v e l i n t h e V i c t o r i a n E r a " . I t s a u t h o r remarked t h a t "no more g i a n t s t r i d e s have been made i n any f i e l d o f human e n d e a v o u r d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d than i n g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h " and p r o c l a i m e d t h a t " a f t e r g i v i n g a l l due c r e d i t t o t h e e x p l o r e r s o f a l l o t h e r n a t i o n s , Queen V i c t o r i a ' s own s u b j e c t s have taken the f o r e m o s t p l a c e i n t h i s g r e a t work." F.C. S e l o u s " T r a v e l i n t h e V i c t o r i a n E r a " i n The I l l u s t r a t e d London News Record o f t h e G l o r i o u s Reign o f Queen V i c t o r i a 1837-1901. London, 1901.  21.  Ronald Rees, "Images o f t h e P r a i r i e : Landscape P a i n t i n g and c e p t i o n i n t h e W e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f Canada" i n The C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , XX, 3, F a l l , 1976, p. 260.  Per-  146  t h e t a n g i b l e p r e s e n c e o f r e a l i t y , t h e photograph means o f " v i s i t i n g " far-away  p l a c e s ; album p r i n t s , s t e r e o c a r d s and  c a r t e s - d e - v i s i t e became a s u r r o g a t e f o r t r a v e l . e r a i n Europe, p h o t o g r a p h e r s  was embraced as a  D u r i n g the w e t - p l a t e  were s e n t f a r and wide t o r e c o r d l e g e n d a r y 22  p l a c e s and s c e n i c wonders, c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t i e s and I m p e r i a l f r o n t i e r s . T h r o u g h t h e i r f a i t h i n the a c c u r a c y and o b j e c t i v i t y o f the V i c t o r i a n s were a b l e t o d e r i v e v i c a r i o u s enjoyment from views.  photograph,  landscape  The appeal o f images, o f u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e s , some famous, o t h e r s  o b s c u r e , l a y i n the e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e i r b e i n g e x o t i c o r s p e c t a c u l a r o r simply d i f f e r e n t . In e a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e c r e a t e d a market  f o r t h e work o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s  who t r a v e l l e d up the  c o a s t and i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r , some on o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s , o t h e r s pursuing a freelance trade.  Newspaper r e p o r t s o f government  proceedings  i n V i c t o r i a , o f f r e i g h t t r a f f i c t h r o u g h Y a l e , o f g o l d s t r i k e s on W i l l i a m s Creek, o f I n d i a n Commission b u s i n e s s i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s , o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e S e l k i r k s and o f n a v a l o p e r a t i o n s a t E s q u i m a l t piqued p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n d i s t a n t landscapes.  They made not o n l y the  l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s , but a l s o the c r e e k s and s h a n t y t o w n s o f the C a r i b o o , the b l u f f s and m i l e h o u s e s o f the wagon r o a d and the canyons and 22.  In 1856, the London S t e r e o s c o p i c Company a d v e r t i s e d 100,000 d i f f e r e n t v i e w s from around t h e w o r l d ( G a i l B u c k l a n d , R e a l i t y Recorded: E a r l y Documentary P h o t o g r a p h y , G r e e n w i c h , C o n n e c t i c u t : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1974, p. 97) and r e p o r t e d l y s o l d two and a h a l f m i l l i o n s t e r e o c a r d s between 1854 and 1858 ( H a r p e r and T r i g g s , op. c i t . , unpaged).  147  w h i s t l e - s t o p s o f t h e r a i l w a y f a m i l i a r p l a c e names.  T h i s ambient  c u r i o s i t y a b o u t p l a c e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o views o f unknown p l a c e s t h a t a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , n a t u r a l wonders and g e n e r a l  progress.  B r i t i s h Columbians i n one c o r n e r o f t h e c o l o n y were c u r i o u s a b o u t what e x i s t e d o r what happened i n a n o t h e r .  Perhaps t o p o s s e s s a  C a r i b o o v i e w o r a V i c t o r i a s t r e e t s c a p e was t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e d i s t a n t l a n d s c a p e s and p i o n e e r e x c i t e m e n t  of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  I n d i a n views p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l e d t o t h e V i c t o r i a n l o v e o f the exotic.  The n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e was f o r e i g n t o . t h e w h i t e  man  whether he l i v e d i n V i c t o r i a o r i n London; a p a r t from t h e m i s s i o n c h u r c h o r s c h o o l ( P l a t e 4.45)  i t was a l a n d s c a p e w h i c h i n no  r e f l e c t e d upon t h e m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o l o n y .  way  Photographs  o f c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s ( P l a t e 4 . 4 4 ) , views o f salmon w e i r s ( P l a t e  4.29)  and l i k e n e s s e s o f c h i e f s a p p e a l e d t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g c u r i o s i t y about the world.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p h o t o g r a p h i c  r e c o r d of the Indian land-  s c a p e was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by a number o f f a c t o r s .  Because a c c e s s  was  d i f f i c u l t and c o - o p e r a t i o n was n o t a s s u r e d , I n d i a n s u b j e c t s were l a r g e l y t h e work o f a few o f f i c i a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f West C o a s t t r i b e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o a s t s o f the i s l a n d and m a i n l a n d to t h e i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r .  on government t o u r s  u n l i k e the Cariboo, the northern d i d not p r e s e n t l u c r a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i  Though t h e y p r o v i d e d an abundance o f  i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e I n d i a n s themselves a l a r g e m a r k e t f o r l i k e n e s s e s and  views.  d i d not c o n s t i t u t e  148  A market f o r p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t c a p t u r e d t h e s e t t l e d c o m f o r t o f V i c t o r i a and New W e s t m i n s t e r e x i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s commanded p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n as c e n t r e s o f p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , commercial development and s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s .  Views  showing wide t h o r o u g h f a r e s and b r i c k b u i l d i n g s , s t a t e l y r e s i d e n c e s and p u b l i c p a r k s bespoke a r e f i n e d l i f e s t y l e i n a c i v i l i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t . Y e t , i f V i c t o r i a seemed e l e g a n t t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f W i l l i a m s C r e e k , then t h e g o l d f i e l d s seemed e x o t i c t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e c a p i t a l . The C a r i b o o was "where t h e a c t i o n was", t h e f r o n t i e r where f o r t u n e s were made.  Images o f s h a n t y t o w n s and m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s came t o  epitomize the gold rush.  Album c o l l e c t i o n s p r e p a r e d by D a l l y f r e q u e n t l y  i n c l u d e d a town panorama o f R i c h f i e l d , Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33), Van W i n k l e , W i l l i a m s C r e e k o r K e l l e y v i l l e , i n a d d i t i o n t o v a r i o u s views o f B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e s 4.34, 4.40).  P h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e Mucho Oro  wheel ( P l a t e 4.24), t h e Neversweat t u n n e l ( P l a t e 4 . 2 1 ) , t h e Sheepshead s h a f t ( P l a t e 4.22) and t h e Ne'er Do Well c l a i m ( P l a t e 4.20), though o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d as p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e m i n e r s who commissioned them, commanded w i d e r a p p e a l as v i s u a l r e c o r d s o f human e n t e r p r i s e , f r o n t i e r l i f e , m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y and economic p r o g r e s s . C u r i o s i t y a b o u t t h e C a r i b o o a l s o encompassed t h e famed wagon road.  P h o t o g r a p h s showing l o c a l s c e n e r y ( P l a t e s 4.56, 4.57), f r e i g h t  t r a f f i c (Plate 4.3), e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s (Plate 4.1), transshipment points ( P l a t e s 4.37) and m i l e h o u s e s ( P l a t e 4.8) became i n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a r imagery o f g o l d r u s h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Frederick Dally  149  o f f e r e d views o f "the most r e m a r k a b l e p l a c e s , " and o f " e v e r y i m p o r t a n t  23  of "places of i n t e r e s t " 25  p l a c e from Y a l e t o C a r i b o o . "  What made a  p l a c e r e m a r k a b l e o r i n t e r e s t i n g o r i m p o r t a n t was, i n some i n s t a n c e s a wonder o f n a t u r e o r a p r e c a r i o u s s t r e t c h o f r o a d .  O f t e n i t was an  i n n , a s e r v i c e town o r a t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o i n t . As a w i t n e s s t o m a r v e l s o f 19th c e n t u r y s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g , t h e p h o t o g r a p h d e m o n s t r a t e d and p r e s e r v e d t h e V i c t o r i a n f a s c i n a t i o n with technology.  I t r e c o r d e d t h e ways i n which t e c h n o l o g y p e r m i t t e d  man g r e a t e r freedom from and c o n t r o l o v e r h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , i n which i t a f f o r d e d i n c r e a s e d c o m f o r t o r encouraged g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o r produced h i g h e r p r o f i t s .  Photographers captured the rudimentary r e -  s o u r c e t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e e a r l y l o g g i n g and m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s .  Views  a t the g o l d - f i e l d s ( P l a t e s 4.18-4.25) showed d i s t a n t a u d i e n c e s t h e way i n which f o r t u n e s were made t h r o u g h t h e use o f w a t e r w h e e l s ,  flumes,  s l u i c e s , t u n n e l s and s h a f t s . S i m i l a r l y , images o f s p r i n g b o a r d s and c r o s s - c u t saws, s k i d r o a d s and oxen l o g g i n g ( P l a t e s 4.26, 4.27)  illus-  t r a t e d t h e c r u d e methods by which the P a c i f i c C o a s t f o r e s t s were made to y i e l d t h e i r wealth. L i k e p h o t o g r a p h s o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n , images o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a t t r a c t e d p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . O b s t a c l e s o f t e r r a i n and d i s t a n c e were overcome b y - f e a t s o f c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g . 23.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12, 1867, p. 3.  24.  I b i d . , J u l y 26, 1868, p. 3.  25.  I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 3.  In 1865,  the  150  c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a r i b o o Road t u r n e d the b l u f f s and canyons o f t h e F r a s e r r i v e r r o u t e i n t o a v i a b l e avenue o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the Interior.  Views by D a l l y show a s t r e t c h o f road c l i n g i n g t o t h e r o c k  f a c e between Y a l e and Spuzzum ( P l a t e 4.1) and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a r o c k c u t a t G r e a t - B l u f f ( P l a t e 4.5). graphed docked a t Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.37)  Sternwheelers,  photo-  and Soda Creek were a n o t h e r  a s p e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h e r a . In t h e 1880's, images o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y a p p e a l e d t o t h e V i c t o r i a n i m a g i n a t i o n as extreme symbols o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the l i n e t h r o u g h the m o u n t a i n s o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  was a p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r m i d a b l e t a s k t h a t commanded i n t e r e s t a t home and 26 abroad.  Q u i t e a p a r t from any p o l i t i c a l o r economic s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  t h e r a i l r o a d was t h e epitome o f c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g and an u n d e r t a k i n g of continental proportions. b r i d g e s ( P l a t e 4.14)  I t s mountain tunnels ( P l a t e 4.11), i r o n  and wooden t r e s t l e s , l a r g e ( P l a t e 4.13)  and s m a l l  ( P l a t e 4 . 1 0 ) , were wonders o f p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e which i n t r i g u e d p h o t o g r a p h e r and p u b l i c a l i k e .  From s u r v e y i n g t o c o m p l e t i o n , few f a c e t s o f  26. -> The I l l u s t r a t e d London News f r e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s and eng r a v i n g s o f Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the West. On J u l y 24, 1886, t h e f r o n t page was d e v o t e d t o f o u r CPR v i e w s ; s e v e r a l more appeared i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e on J u l y 31, 1886. R a l p h Connor, i n h i s n o v e l The Gaspards o f P i n e C r o f t n o t e s t h a t " m a r v e l l o u s p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f the achievements o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c E n g i n e e r s " made a p r o f o u n d i m p r e s s i o n as " w o n d e r f u l examples o f a r t i s t i c work" and f o r " t h e e n g i n e e r i n g t r i u m p h s t h e y p i c t u r e d " when b r o u g h t back t o S c o t l a n d (New Y o r k : George H. Doran Company, 1923, p. 9 ) .  151  t h e coming o f t h e r a i l w a y age t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia e s c a p e d t h e camera's eye. The p h o t o g r a p h  "was p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s by which men c o u l d p e r 27  suade t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e i r m a s t e r y o f m a t e r i a l t h i n g s . "  Images o f  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance o f t e n a l s o connoted p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r  statements  about man's m a s t e r y o f n a t u r e .  D a i l y ' s views o f the C a r i b o o wagon  road and Maynard's photographs  o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y were  more than a t e s t i m o n i a l t o c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g .  Images o f f r e i g h t  t r a f f i c along the b l u f f s of the F r a s e r ( P l a t e 4.3), a t the milehouses above Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.8) o r a t the e x p r e s s o f f i c e on main s t r e e t ( P l a t e 4.4) p o r t r a y e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a d e and commerce.  Tracks, bridges  and t u n n e l s s u g g e s t e d l i n k s a c r o s s a c o n t i n e n t , new l i n e s o f communic a t i o n , g r e a t e r ease o f a c c e s s and expanded economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Images o f the m i n i n g and l o g g i n g i n d u s t r i e s d e m o n s t r a t e d Columbians'  m a s t e r y of n a t u r e ' s r e s o u r c e s .  British  Waterwheels and s k i d roads  were the means by which t h e y e x p l o i t e d t h e g o l d - b e a r i n g g r a v e l s and g i a n t c e d a r s t h a t formed the b a s i s of the emerging economy. photographs  Such  o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s were  e v i d e n c e of p r o g r e s s i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e photograph was h a i l e d as a "means of p a s s i n g down a r e c o r d of what we a r e , and what we have a c h i e v e d 28 i n t h i s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y of o u r p r o g r e s s . "  The r e c e n c y and  r a p i d i t y of d e v e l o p m e n t i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia made p r o g r e s s a 27. 28.  ——  —•  •  •—•  •—  , • ,.  .. — . . — .  . •  -  •••• — • •  G.H. M a r t i n and D a v i d F r a n c i s , "The Camera's Eye", The V i c t o r i a n C i t y : Images and R e a l i t i e s , H.J. Dyos and M i c h a e l W o l f f ( e d s . ) , London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1973, V o l . I , p. 234. John Thomson, P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e Royal G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1891 c i t e d i n B u c k l a n d , op. c i t . , p. 9.  152 common and concrete r e a l i t y t h a t was h i g h l y v i s i b l e i n m a t e r i a l terms. Twenty-five years a f t e r the Fraser rush began, The Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia addressed i t s e l f t o B r i t i s h Columbians' the development of the province.  sustained i n t e r e s t i n  In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " B r i t i s h  Columbia Advancing", i t expressed every confidence t h a t i t s readers would be "glad to l e a r n t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia [was] at l e a s t keeping 29 pace with the r e s t of the world i n the march of progress.""  Through  technology, investment and prodigious e f f o r t , B r i t i s h Columbians subdued the w i l d e r n e s s , developed the resources and reduced the i s o l a t i o n . A photograph of the transformation of the wilderness was c l e a r l y a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own The preponderance  accomplishments. of record images t h a t d e p i c t and extol the  r i s e of settlement, the growth of primary i n d u s t r y and the  improve-  ment of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t t e s t s to a p e r c e p t i o n of p l a c e i n t i m a t e l y t i e d to progress i n a new land.  T h i s enthusiasm f o r m a t e r i a l develop-  ment i s not surprising.. The photographic r e c o r d , begun as i t was with the i n i t i a l i n f l u x of white population^captures the pioneer outlook of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the f r o n t i e r  experience, e v e r y t h i n g was new and d i f f e r e n t . The pioneer regarded the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of wilderness as " h i s mission and c r i t e r i o n of 30 progress"; i t was "the reward f o r h i s s a c r i f i c e , the d e f i n i t i o n of 29.  " B r i t i s h Columbia Advancing", The Resources of B r i t i s h I, 12, February 1, 1884, p. 13.  30.  Roderick Nash, "Wilderness and Man i n North America", The Canadian National Parks: today and tomorrow, J.G. Nelson and R.C. Scace (eds.)•, Calgary: the National and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada and the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1968, p. 68.  o  Columbia,  153  h i s a c h i e v e m e n t , and. t h e s o u r c e o f h i s p r i d e . "  0 1  c r e a t i o n o f t h i s new p l a c e , B r i t i s h Columbians  p r o v i d e d an e a g e r  market f o r a p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e i r  Responsible f o r the ,  accomplishments.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s g e n e r a t e d much e x c i t e m e n t , but i t was p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e o r d e r e d s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e emerging  from  raw p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s which b e s t i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e V i c t o r i a n p r o gress ethic.  P h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f towns where a  s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e t h e r e had been n o t h i n g b u t r o c k and f o r e s t . o f t h e f r o n t i e r communities ( P l a t e 4.35)  o f Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33) and  Panoramas  Illecillewaet  showing t h e i r s t r e e t s c a p e s and w i l d e r n e s s s e t t i n g s were a  r e c o r d o f m a t e r i a l advance.  Views showing t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f  b u i l d i n g s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h stump-strewn  c l e a r i n g s and s u r r o u n d e d  by  f o r e s t were unambiguous r e m i n d e r s o f t h e pace a t which the l a n d s c a p e was b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d and c i v i l i z e d .  By c a p t u r i n g L y t t o n i n t h e l a t e  1860's ( P l a t e 4.36), D a i l y ' s p h o t o g r a p h became a measure o f p r o g r e s s r e a l i z e d and a p o r t e n t o f p r o g r e s s t o come.  S u c c e s s i v e v i e w s begged  c o m p a r i s o n and d e m o n s t r a t e d o b v i o u s growth and  development.  S e t t l e m e n t s were i n t e r e s t i n g as s u b j e c t s because i n d i v i d u a l l y t h e y were i m p o r t a n t as examples o f l o c a l development were l i n k s i n a c h a i n o f communication  and c o l l e c t i v e l y t h e y  from V i c t o r i a t o C a r i b o o .  Each  town, v i l l a g e o r m i l e h o u s e commanded a t t e n t i o n by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t a community e x i s t e d , t h a t p e o p l e were committed  to i t , that  commerce f l o w e d t h r o u g h i t and t h a t i t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a  31,  R o d e r i c k Nash, W i l d e r n e s s and t h e American Mind, New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976, pp. 24-25.  154  l a r g e r scheme o f c o l o n i a l o r p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . p l a c e and s e t t l e m e n t views abound. importance  Y a l e was one  such  As a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e , i t s  was t i e d t o t h e g o l d r u s h , t o t h e C a r i b o o Road and  to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway,  later  I t was a p l a c e from w h i c h d i s t a n c e s  were measured and u n f a m i l i a r l o c a t i o n s were put i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . Album p r i n t s and s t e r e o v i e w s were l a b e l l e d "between Y a l e and Bar" o r "88 m i l e s above Y a l e . " d i s t a n c e s from Y a l e ,  Boston  The " m i l e houses" were known by t h e i r  L a n d s c a p e views o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r were  invariably i d e n t i f i e d in geographical r e l a t i o n to Yale. t h e r a i l w a y was a t e m p o r a r y b o o s t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e waned w i t h the end o f t h e g o l d r u s h e r a .  The coming o f  o f Y a l e w h i c h had  The town became t h e head-  q u a r t e r s f o r Andrew Onderdonk's c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t s i n t h e F r a s e r Canyon s e c t i o n and a g a i n Y a l e became a f a m i l i a r p l a c e name by w h i c h t r e s t l e s , t u n n e l s o r s t r e t c h e s o f t r a c k were i d e n t i f i e d . L o g g i n g and s a w - m i l l i n g were a n c i l l a r y t o more o b v i o u s of m a t e r i a l development.  examples  They p r o v i d e d c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r  towns, wagons, p i t p r o p s , f l u m e s , w a t e r w h e e l s , t r e s t l e s and ties.  Slow e m u l s i o n s  and g e o g r a p h i c a l  railway  i s o l a t i o n l i m i t e d the p h o t o g r a p h y  o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y : e a r l y t i d e w a t e r l o g g i n g camps and were l a r g e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r ;  saw-mills low  light  l e v e l s p r e v e n t e d v i e w s o f the saws, e d g e r s , trimmers and p l a n e r s o f mill interiors.  The p h o t o g r a p h i c  r e c o r d o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , though  f a r from e x t e n s i v e , f o c u s e s on man's m a s t e r y o f n a t u r e ; t h e hand l o g g e r and s k i d r o a d a r e e m p h a s i z e d .  In the m e t a p h o r i c a l  and G o l i a t h , i t has been s u g g e s t e d  c l a s h between D a v i d  t h a t such p h o t o g r a p h s a r e " s t a t e l y  155  death p o r t r a i t s o f t h e g r e a t c e d a r s and f i r s " i n w h i c h t h e r e i s : d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t and a p r o f o u n d s e n s e o f t r a g e d y . The l o g g e r s t h e m s e l v e s , who p a i d f o r t h e p i c t u r e s , a r e s u b s i d i a r y f i g u r e s , l i k e t h e d o n o r s i n an a l t a r piece; the central f i g u r e i s that of the victim.32 However, s u c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f a r t o o r o m a n t i c a v i e w o f s o e x p l o i t a t i v e an i n d u s t r y .  I f t h e r e i s d i g n i t y i n such p o r t r a i t s , i t  i s t h a t o f t h e l o g g e r ; any r e s p e c t i s s u r e l y a k i n d o f s e l f - r e s p e c t . These images a r e b o a s t f u l , n o t e l e g i a c .  They a r e n o t so much a d e a t h  p o r t r a i t o f the t r e e as a t e s t i m o n i a l t o the logger.  The c e n t r a l  figure i s the a s s a i l a n t , not the victim. The d e a r t h o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e f l e c t s t h a t , i n p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t and e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e , did not e l i c i t the excitement  and c h a l l e n g e g e n e r a t e d  towns, m i n i n g c l a i m s and r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n .  record farming  by f r o n t i e r  The e a r l y i n f l u x o f  w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n came i n s e a r c h o f money and a d v e n t u r e ,  not land;  f a r m i n g , a s a c o n s e r v a t i v e , s e d e n t a r y o c c u p a t i o n was p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbian e n t h u s i a s m f o r r a p i d and o b v i o u s examples o f 33 material progress. F u r t h e r m o r e , c a p i t a l was a m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 32.  John S z a r k o w s k i , The P h o t o g r a p h e r and t h e A m e r i c a n L a n d s c a p e , New Y o r k : The Museum o f Modern A r t , 1963, p. 4.  33.  A r e p o r t f r o m The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l p r o v i d e s one such example, p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l l i n g i n i t s t i t l e "Mining vs. A g r i c u l t u r e " : "Mining v s . A g r i c u l t u r e - Mr. F r a n c i s McKenna, g e n e r a l l y known a s " B i g L a r r y " , pre-empted a s e c t i o n o f l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s l a s t week on L i g h t n i n g C r e e k , and s h o r t l y a f t e r . t h e news o f t h e " s t r i k e " by A l e x , Jack & Co. became known on Monday l a s t L a r r y ' s l a n d was a l l s t a k e d o f f for mining purposes. Larry p h i l o s o p h i z e s over the matter by s a y i n g t h a t he i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e h i s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t f o r that o f the p u b l i c . True philosopher and p a t r i o t ; " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , A u g u s t 13, 1870, p. 3.  156  A f a r m r e q u i r e d heavy p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t and y i e l d e d s l o w f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s ; t h o s e who came t o B r i t i s h Columbia d i d so t o make money, not t o spend i t .  I t was n o t u n t i l t h e c l o s e o f t h e c e n t u r y t h a t  t h e r a i l r o a d opened up new l a n d and new m a r k e t s ; t h a t immigrants came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r i m a r i l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s ; t h a t f a r m i n g , o r c h a r d i n g and r a n c h i n g began i n e a r n e s t ; and t h a t  images  o f a g r i c u l t u r e became more abundant i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . Perhaps l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e o f p r o g r e s s and t e c h n o l o g y was t h e fishing industry.  C a n n e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e 1870's, but  were n o t o f t e n p h o t o g r a p h e d .  Their isolation restricted access.  As s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r was t h e i r l i m i t e d appeal.  T h e r e was none o f t h e c h a l l e n g e o f hand l o g g e r s f e l l i n g a  g i a n t t r e e , n o r any o f t h e e x c i t e m e n t g e n e r a t e d by d i s c o v e r i e s o f gold.  Views o f b u i l d i n g e x t e r i o r s r e v e a l e d l i t t l e ; slow e m u l s i o n s  prevented photographs o f indoor o p e r a t i o n s . Furthermore, f i s h proc e s s i n g was r u d i m e n t a r y ; t h e r e was no complex m a c h i n e r y and most work was done by hand.  In a d d i t i o n , c a n n i n g was done by I n d i a n o r C h i n e s e  l a b o u r e r s who, u n l i k e w h i t e m i n e r s o r l o g g e r s o r n a v v i e s , d i d n o t c o m m i s s i o n group l i k e n e s s e s and d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t w h i t e p r o g r e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Views o f t h e salmon w e i r s , d r y i n g r a c k s and t r e e  c a c h e s o f t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y commanded i n t e r e s t more as examples o f s t r a n g e customs t h a n as s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . C o l l e c t i v e p r o g r e s s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p e r s o n a l p r i d e and a c h i e v e ment,  B r i t i s h Columbians p a i d l o c a l and i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o  r e c o r d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s ; t h e i r work p r o d u c e d a b o a s t f u l  157  imagery o f p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and s u c c e s s a k i n t o t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s commissioned  f o r l a t e nineteenth century county a t l a s e s o f Ontario.  L i k e n e s s e s o f m i n e r s a t a c l a i m , l o g g e r s b e s i d e a t r e e and n a v v i e s on a t r e s t l e were s t a t e m e n t s o f c h a l l e n g e s made and met.  Photographs  o f f a m i l y and house, merchant and s t o r e r e f l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l  aspira-  t i o n and a c h i e v e m e n t j u s t as t h e town panorama o r s t r e e t s c a p e view ?  r e v e a l e d t h e c o l l e c t i v e advance o f i n d u s t r y and commerce.  Photo-  graphs o f b a r n s , f e n c e s , f i e l d s and c r o p s , though few, were t a k e n a t t h e r e q u e s t and expense o f t h e f a r m owner.  They were not g e n e r a l  images o f a g r a r i a n f e l i c i t y , b u t r a t h e r t h e y were p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t s o f f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , f a m i l y e n t e r p r i s e and t h e s u c c e s s f u l c r e a t i o n o f home. The r e v e r s i o n t o f r o n t i e r c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t l a s t l o n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r immigrants q u i c k l y began t o e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . O r d e r and e l e g a n c e were imposed on t h e l a n d s c a p e by t h e i n d i v i d u a l on h i s l o t and by t o w n s f o l k i n t h e i r community.  The s p r e a d o f Empire  became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p r o g r e s s i o n from p i o n e e r h a r d s h i p t o s e t t l e d comfort.  R e c e n t l y a r r i v e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s , l i k e members  o f c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s e l s e w h e r e , l o o k e d upon t h e O l d World as "the mecca o f a l l t h a t was t a s t e f u l , r e f i n e d , and c r e a t i v e . "  ' Emily Carr  claimed t h a t i n the l a t e nineteenth century the people o f V i c t o r i a " t r i e d t o be more E n g l i s h than t h e E n g l i s h t h e m s e l v e s , j u s t t o p r o v e  34.  R o d e r i c k Nash, W i l d e r n e s s and t h e American Mind, p. 71.  j  158  to themselves 35 Land."  and the w o r l d how l o y a l t h e y were b e i n g t o t h e O l d  Many e n v i s a g e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n a  conservative English conception of genteel s o c i e t y that incorporated o r d e r , decorum, s t a b i l i t y and h i e r a r c h y .  They r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h o s e  t r a p p i n g s o f u p p e r m i d d l e c l a s s l i f e t h a t were most e a s i l y and inexpensively transplanted.  Photographs r e f l e c t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  f o n d n e s s f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s t o nature.  They d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d e s p i t e i t s w i l d e r -  ness and i s o l a t i o n , was a c i v i l i z e d p l a c e . In V i c t o r i a , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and l a t e r , i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y and s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , E n g l i s h manners, a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l amusements were w i d e l y i m i t a t e d .  H a b i t and h o m e s i c k n e s s moved many  i m m i g r a n t s t o r e c r e a t e a c o r n e r o f t h e O l d World on t h e i r p r o p e r t y . In l a n d s c a p i n g h i s t e n - a c r e l o t a d j o i n i n g Beacon H i l l Park i n t h e 1860's, E m i l y C a r r ' s f a t h e r : wanted h i s p l a c e t o l o o k e x a c t l y l i k e E n g l a n d . He p l a n t e d c o w s l i p s and p r i m r o s e s and hawthorn hedges and a l l t h e E n g l i s h y f l o w e r s . He had s t i l e s and meadows and took away a l l t h e w i l d C a n a d i a n - n e s s and made i t as meek and, E n g l i s h as he c o u l d . 3 6  On such l a n d s c a p e d e s t a t e s , l e i s u r e hours were p a s s e d  fashionably  among f a m i l y and f r i e n d s a t c r o q u e t o r a t t e a .  35.  E m i l y C a r r , The Book o f Smal1, T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company, L t d . , 1966, p. 76.  36.  I b i d . , p. 8.  !  159  Photographs a l s o reveal the r e c r e a t i o n a l pastimes t r a n s p l a n t e d by B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n .  Queen V i c t o r i a ' s b i r t h d a y was c e l e b r a t e d  w i t h p i c n i c s and r e g a t t a s . C l u b and s c h o o l s p o r t s were i n t r o d u c e d by t h e Royal E n g i n e e r s , t h e Royal Navy, s c h o o l m a s t e r s and c o l o n i a l officials.  As e a r l y as 1861, t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was 37  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r .  formed  I n t e r c o l o n i a l matches t o o k p l a c e between  teams from t h e c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s ( P l a t e 4.49) and, i n t h e l a t e  1880's,  t h e V a n c o u v e r E l e v e n o f f e r e d f u r t h e r c o m p e t i t i o n . T e n n i s , r o w i n g and c y c l i n g were o t h e r p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s b r o u g h t t o e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. A t a n o t h e r l e v e l , t h e s e a t s o f c o l o n i a l government were t h e f o c u s o f e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h O l d C o u n t r y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l P h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d government  traditions.  b u i l d i n g s and c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s i n  V i c t o r i a ( P l a t e 4.54) and i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ( P l a t e 4.55).  Similarly,  e a r l y views o f E s q u i m a l t , t h e P a c i f i c base o f t h e B r i t i s h f l e e t  (Plate  4.39), and Nanaimo, i t s c o a l i n g s t a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Royal Navy i n t h i s d i s t a n t o u t p o s t o f Empire. In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e o r d e r e d a p p e a r a n c e and g e n t l e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e O l d C o u n t r y l a n d s c a p e , t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia was b i g , empty and raw.  The w i l d e r n e s s w i t h i t s c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s ,  dense v e g e t a t i o n , rugged mountains and a b r u p t c o a s t l i n e s d i d n o t c o n form to the V i c t o r i a n landscape t a s t e f o r the p i c t u r e s q u e .  Concerns  f o r t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g q u a l i t y o f c i t y l i f e under t h e s p r e a d i n g e v i l s 37.  B a r r y Mather and M a r g a r e t McDonald, New W e s t m i n s t e r : The Royal C i t y , [ V a n c o u v e r : ] J.M. Dent and Sons, and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1958, p. 132.  160  o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were i r r e l e v a n t i n a p l a c e where w i l d e r n e s s u b i q u i t o u s , d e v e l o p m e n t a v i d l y s o u g h t and t e c h n o l o g y an a l l y . t h e l e s s , the photographic r e c o r d demonstrates  was Never-  t h a t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  n a t u r e was n o t , as i s o f t e n assumed, i r r e l e v a n t t o the f r o n t i e r 38 experience. Views o f w i l d e r n e s s s a t i s f i e d t h e V i c t o r i a n e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e spectacular.  Although i t i s reasonable to expect t h a t the pioneer  was t o o c l o s e t o t h e l a n d t o r e q u i r e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e m i n d e r s o f f a m i l i a r p h y s i c a l surroundings, the photographic r e c o r d demonstrates y  t h e r e was a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n views o f n a t u r a l wonders.  that Photo-  graphs o f H e l l ' s Gate and t h e G r e a t Chasm a r e f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n albums o f B r i t i s h Columbia v i e w s .  Photographers  graphy made a c c e s s i b l e by r o a d o r r a i l .  recorded the topo-  D a i l y ' s panoramas i l l u s t r a t e  t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c v a r i e t y between t h e C o a s t and t h e C a r i b o o . a d v e r t i s e d views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y . r i v e r s , d o m i n a t e t h e i r work.  Blanc  Canyons, w a t e r f a l l s and r u s h i n g  Nineteenth century photographers  emphasized  the i n t r a c t a b l e , t h e f o r b i d d i n g and t h e s p e c t a c u l a r a s p e c t s o f t h e physical landscape.  T h e i r work was s i m p l e and u n r e f l e c t i v e .  a t t e n t i o n t o m i c r o s c a l e d e t a i l was not p a r t o f p i o n e e r  Artistic  photography.  F a s c i n a t i o n w i t h l i g h t , shape and t e x t u r e had n o t y e t e n t e r e d t h e ~ a e s t h e t i c s of t h e new medium.  E s s e n t i a l l y " p l a c e l e s s " a r t i s t i c com-  p o s i t i o n s would n o t have s a t i s f i e d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c u r i o s i t y about  38.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l p r a i s e d "the g r a n d e u r , the s u b l i m i t y , t h e m a j e s t y o f t h e s c e n e r y a f f o r d e d by a view f r o m t h e p l a t e a u s o f t h e m o u n t a i n peaks o f t h e B a l d h e a d range" and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e unemployed s h o u l d not remain i n a c t i v e and d e s p o n d e n t , but s h o u l d " e n j o y a g l i m p s e o f B a l d Mountain s c e n e r y . . . t o d r i v e d u l l c a r e away." The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 9, 1868.  161  p l a c e and t h e i r f i n e a r t m o t i v e s would n o t have s u i t e d t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e photograph as a r e c o r d image. Photographs into nature.  r e v e a l the enthusiasm f o r the p i c n i c as a f o r a y  D e s p i t e t h e abundance o f s u r r o u n d i n g w i l d e r n e s s and  t h e absence o f i n d u s t r i a l u r b a n i s m , t r a d i t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f n a t u r e were r e c r e a t e d i n p u b l i c p a r k s where r e s i d e n t s o f V i c t o r i a e n j o y e d Sunday and h o l i d a y p i c n i c s .  What had begun i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y  as "an i n t e l l e c t u a l amusement o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y . . . h e l d on t h e mani39 c u r e d lawns o f f o r m a l g a r d e n s "  was t r a n s p o s e d t o a w i l d e r s e t t i n g  by n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y R o m a n t i c i s t s . social institution.  The p i c n i c became a g e n t e e l  Brought t o B r i t i s h Columbia a l o n g w i t h t h e p u b l i c  p a r k , i t was c o n s i d e r e d a t l e a s t a r e l a x i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y a n d , i n some c a s e s a r e j u v e n a t i n g moral e x p e r i e n c e .  D e s c r i b i n g t h e Gorge,  The R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia s u g g e s t e d : The memory o f a few hours s p e n t i n t h i s l o v e l y s p o t i s n o t e a s i l y e r a d i c a t e d from t h e mind; i t s h i n e s o u t a m i d s t t h e gloomy haze o f h a r d s h i p s and rough t r i a l s o f l i f e i n a c o l o n y , and makes t h e h e a r t g r a t e f u l t o t h e God o f Nature f o r t h e s e t o u c h e s o f l i g h t and p u r i t y i n t h e p i c t u r e o f life.40 Beacon H i l l Park was " s t u d d e d w i t h n o b l e oak t r e e s , r e m i n d i n g t h e E n g l i s h immigrant o f some p r i v i l e g e d s p o t i n h i s f a r - a w a y The park was an e n c l a v e o f tamed n a t u r e ; some l i k e  home."  41  Goldstream,  provided s l i g h t l y wilder forest surroundings.  39.  S z a r k o w s k i , The P h o t o g r a p h e r and t h e American  40.  " C l i m a t e and S c e n e r y o f V i c t o r i a , " l o c . c i t .  41.  Ibid.  Landscape,  p. 3.  162  The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y e x p l o i t e d v i s u a l images o f B r i t i s h Columbia's s p e c t a c u l a r natural landscapes.  A r t i s t s and p h o t o g r a p h e r s  were commissioned t o r e c o r d t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f t h e r a i l r o a d . With t h e c o m p l e t i o n an i m p o r t a n t  o f t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e , t h e t o u r i s t became  component o f w e s t e r n r a i l t r a f f i c .  Recognizing  that  s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y was a l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e and a l u c r a t i v e a s s e t , t h e C.P.R. q u i c k l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t o u r i s t t r a v e l i n t o i t s p a s s e n g e r and h o t e l p o l i c y .  Not o n l y t h e r a i l r o a d , b u t t h e g o v e r n -  ment r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n a t u r e was a m a r k e t a b l e commodity: How s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a l m o s t a t t h e v e r y t i m e t h e p r o m o t e r s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c were d r i v i n g the spike t h a t l i n k e d Montreal with Vancouver, t h e C a n a d i a n government was s e t t i n g a s i d e t h e b e a u t i f u l B a n f f N a t i o n a l Park and a d v e r t i z i n g t h e rugged b e a u t i e s o f t h e S e l k i r k s i n e a s t e r n British Columbia. 4 2  The C a n a d i a n government's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e c r e a t i o n and management o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s was f o u n d e d upon u t i l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w i l d e r n e s s 43 which p e r s i s t e d well i n t o the twentieth century.  N a t u r e was n o t  p r e s e r v e d f o r i t s p r i s t i n e b e a u t y , r a t h e r n a t i o n a l p a r k s were c o n c e i v e d as raw m a t e r i a l s : t h e y p r o v i d e d c o a l f o r m i n i n g , f o r e s t s f o r l o g g i n g , t o w n s i t e s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and mountain s c e n e r y and m i n e r a l hot s p r i n g s f o r t o u r i s m . The p r a c t i c e o f p h o t o g r a p h y i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia i s summed up i n t h e work o f F r e d e r i c k D a l l y .  During h i s b r i e f career i n B r i t i s h  42.  T i l den, op. c i t . , p. 326.  43.  R o b e r t C r a i g Brown, "The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e and N a t i onal P a r k s P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887-1914" i n Nelson and S c a c e ( e d s . ) , op. c i t . , 94-110.  163  C o l u m b i a , he p u r s u e d a r e s i d e n t b u s i n e s s and an i t i n e r a n t t r a d e and p r a c t i s e d s t u d i o and o u t d o o r p h o t o g r a p h y . v i e w s , on commission and f o r d i s p l a y .  He t o o k p o r t r a i t s and  He t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t  i s l a n d and m a i n l a n d c o l o n i e s p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e e l i t e o f t h e c a p i t a l s and t h e p i o n e e r s o f t h e C a r i b o o .  As a member o f a government  party  and as an amateur a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , D a l l y p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e C o a s t and t h e I n t e r i o r .  T h e r e were few f a c e t s o f e a r l y p h o t o -  graphy i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n which D a l l y d i d n o t engage. t h e expense and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d , he was among t h e f i r s t t o t r a v e l t h e wagon r o a d t o t h e g o l d f i e l d s .  Despite photographers  In 1867, he v i s i t e d 44  B a r k e r v i l l e between mid-August and mid-September. '  The f o l l o w i n g  summer, D a l l y a g a i n made t h e l o n g and c o s t l y j o u r n e y t o B a r k e r v i l l e even though B l a n c had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y 45 there. A f t e r t r a n s p o r t i n g h i m s e l f and h i s equipment up t h e wagon r o a d , D a l l y s p e n t a l m o s t two hundred d o l l a r s f o r b o a r d and l o d g i n g 46 w h i l e h i s s t u d i o was b e i n g b u i l t .  The t i m e and c a p i t a l w h i c h D a l l y  i n v e s t e d i n t h e C a r i b o o v e n t u r e i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s hopes t o p r o f i t from t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . 44.  On August 12 (p. 2 ) , The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t he would "remain f o r one month o n l y " and on September 12 (p. 3 ) , i t n o t e d h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r Quesnelmouth en r o u t e down c o u n t r y . "  45.  B l a n c opened h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y i n e a r l y May. C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , May 5, 1868.  46.  I t was o n l y t e n days a f t e r a n n o u n c i n g t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e s e new p r e m i s e s t h a t D a l l y s u f f e r e d more than one t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s i n l o s s e s i n t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e o f September 16, 1868. "A J o u r n e y t o W i l l i a m s C r e e k , C a r i b o o " D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D 16m.  The  164  From t h e c a r t w r i g h t i n Y a l e t o t h e i n n k e e p e r a t C l i n t o n t o t h e t e a m s t e r i n Q u e s n e l , B r i t i s h Columbians f o r l i k e n e s s e s , commissioned growing c o l l e c t i o n .  a l o n g t h e C a r i b o o Road posed  views and o r d e r e d c o p i e s from D a i l y ' s  The m i n i n g communities  o f W i l l i a m s , Grouse,  L i g h t n i n g , M o s q u i t o and o t h e r c r e e k s p r e s e n t e d D a l l y w i t h s i m i l a r - p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y D a l l y r e a p e d added  rewards  by s e l l i n g h i s views o f t h e s c e n e r y and s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e wagon road and t h e towns and g u l c h e s o f t h e C a r i b o o t o p a t r o n s i n d i s t a n t p a r t s o f the c o l o n y .  Though t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s were l u c r a t i v e , t h e s u c c e s s  D a l l y a c h i e v e d r e f l e c t e d h i s g r a s p o f t h e markets he s e r v e d . D a l l y approached  h i s market i n s e v e r a l ways.  At various times,  h i s newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were d i r e c t e d a t t h e p u b l i c ' s  obsession  with observable f a c t , ^ at i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c i n t e r e s t s , ^ at i t s d e s i r e f o r c o n v e n i e n c e o f s e r v i c e ,49 , a t i t s sense o f u r g e n c y , 50 51 52 at i t s impecunity and a t i t s c o n c e r n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 8  47.  " b e a u t i f u l and t r u t h f u l p i c t u r e s " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12, 1867, p. 3.  48.  " h i s c o l l e c t i o n . . . w i l l be a v e r y v a l u a b l e one",  49.  " a l l k i n d s o f work on t h e s h o r t e s t n o t i c e " , I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 2. " w i l l remain f o r one month o n l y " , I b i d . , August 12, 1867, p. 2.  50.  Ibid.  51.  " v i e w s . . . a t the most r e a s o n a b l e r a t e s " , I b i d . , Seotember 6, 1868, p. 3.  52.  " e v e r y t h i n g n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c a r r y i n g on o f t h e a r t " , The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866.  165  Announcements r e p e a t e d l y i n f o r m e d r e a d e r s t h a t he was "an a r t i s t o f 54 o f f e r i n g work " o f t h e v e r y b e s t q u a l i t y " and 55 g u a r a n t e e i n g h i s p a t r o n s t h e "utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n " . H i s c o l l e c t i o n o f views was d e s c r i b e d as " l a r g e and b e a u t i f u l " , " c h o i c e " , " e x c e l l e n t " , the f i r s t c l a s s "  53  " u n e q u a l l e d f o r . . . v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y " and " t h e f i n e s t . . . p r o d u c e d i n 56 the colony." The e d i t o r s o f The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l commented: Mr. D. i s so w e l l known i n t h e c o l o n y as b e i n g one o f t h e b e s t a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e a r t o f p h o t o g r a p h y , t h a t i t needs no recommendation from us t o i n s u r e t h e p a t r o n a g e which he so w e l l m e r i t s . " Beyond D a i l y ' s m e r i t s as a p h o t o g r a p h e r ,  i t was h i s a s t u t e c h o i c e  o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t c a p t i v a t e d B r i t i s h Columbians  i n t h e l a t e 1860's.  D a l l y s o l i c i t e d o r d e r s f o r l i k e n e s s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and views o f r e s i d e n c e s , s t o r e s , m i n i n g c l a i m s , s c e n e r y and a l l k i n d s o f o u t - d o o r photography.  He a l s o a c c e p t e d o r d e r s f o r c o p i e s from h i s  c o l l e c t i o n o f landscape views.  D a i l y ' s photographs  exhibit careful  attention to p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r e s t s i n spectacular scenery, engineering f e a t s and m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s .  His advertisements appealed to the  53.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 6, 1868, p. 3.  54.  I b i d . , p. 2.  55.  The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866.  56.  I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 25, 1869.  57.  The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 26, 1868, p. 3.  166  p u b l i c ' s c u r i o s i t y a b o u t p l a c e o f f e r i n g "a l a r g e and c o m p l e t e c o l l e c t i o n o f views t a k e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Puget Sound and on 58 Vancouver I s l a n d "  ' upon h i s a r r i v a l i n B a r k e r v i l l e ; and l a t e r i n -  f o r m i n g " t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f V i c t o r i a and v i c i n i t y " t h a t he had "returned  from t h e u p p e r c o u n t r y w i t h a c h o i c e c o l l e c t i o n o f new  p h o t o g r a p h i c views o f mountain s c e n e r y and o t h e r h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g 59 subjects."  Views o f Government House i n V i c t o r i a , t h e A d m i r a l ' s  House i n E s q u i m a l t and HMS Z e a l o u s "enhanced b y . . . f a i t h f u l f u l l length likenesses of...persons o f d i s t i n c t i o n " ^ s a t i s f i e d public 6  f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h p r o m i n e n t b u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c f i g u r e s .  Dally  a l s o acknowledged t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f a p l a c e made h i s t o r i c by t h e f a c t t h a t i t no l o n g e r e x i s t e d i n a " g e n e r a l  view o f t h e V o l u n t e e r 61 Camp a t C l o v e r p o i n t , j u s t b e f o r e t h e encampment was b r o k e n up." 62 D a l l y l e f t V i c t o r i a i n 1870 " a f t e r making a f o r t u n e , " i n t e r e s t i n h i s photographs d i d not cease with h i s departure.  but The  l a r g e number o f D a l l y views w h i c h b e a r t h e Maynard i m p r i n t ( P l a t e 4.6) a t t e s t t o t h e o n - g o i n g appeal o f h i s work.  D a l l y was a s k i l l e d and  v e r s a t i l e p h o t o g r a p h e r ; h i s s u c c e s s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y 58. I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 2. 59.  The C o l o n i s t , December 10, 1868.  60.  I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 25, 1869.  61.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 4, 1866.  62.  L e t t e r from R o b e r t Brown t o F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , E d i n b u r g h , November 25, 1872, PABC, A/E/B81/B81.6.  167  o f h i s p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e d i v e r s i t y o f h i s s u b j e c t s a n d , above a l l , t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f market t a s t e i n p i o n e e r B r i t i s h  Columbia.  ***** In l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e l a n d s c a p e view was a p o r t r a i t o f p l a c e .  I t r e c o r d e d t h e n a t u r a l and man-made l a n d -  s c a p e s as a s e t t i n g f o r t h e a c t i v i t y o f p e o p l e .  Some p h o t o g r a p h s  were p i c t u r e p o s t c a r d s made p e r s o n a l by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a f a m i l i a r figure.  O t h e r s c a p t u r e d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r h i s  l o v e d ones.  S t i l l others, without personal a s s o c i a t i o n , appealed t o  t h e V i c t o r i a n v i s i o n o f t r u t h o r c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e .  Whatever  t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , p h o t o g r a p h s were r e g a r d e d as f a c t u a l , n o t decorative,images.  P r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s were n o t i n s e n s i t i v e  t o a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , b u t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s were overwhelmingly pragmatic.  They e x e c u t e d t h e i r work w i t h r e s p e c t f o r  s t y l e and c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e y catered t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r buying p u b l i c . In a c o l o n y where e v e r y t h i n g was new and d i f f e r e n t , l a n d s c a p e photographers provided a record o f immigrants, o f technology t h a t overcame t h e i m p o s i n g p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and o f s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t brought c i v i l i z a t i o n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s .  As a f r o n t i e r , B r i t i s h  Columbia o f f e r e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r an i n t r i g u i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f e l e g a n c e and r o u g h n e s s .  The r e c e n c y o f l a n d s c a p e change and t h e  p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s both r e v e a l e d m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . Images t h a t c a p t u r e d B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s o f s o c i e t y and government t r a n s p l a n t e d by c o l o n i a l s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e s p r e a d o f Empire.  The wagon r o a d  158  and railway l i n e spawned a photography of engineering feats. scapes abounded.  Town-  The waterfalls and rapids of precipitous canyons  afforded spectacular views.  Cornerstone ceremonies and other public  occasions were h i s t o r i c events that deserved to be photographed. Above a l l , B r i t i s h Columbians, responsible for the creation of this new place, wanted a simple record of their, accomplishments.  CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION: THE WIDER CONTEXT  The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d of p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia  i s a data  s o u r c e of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t f o r i t p r e s e n t s p a s t l a n d s c a p e s w i t h "the c o m p e l l i n g stamp of a u t h e n t i c i t y .  1 , 1  Marked by t h e  preponderance  of some s u b j e c t s and t h e s c a r c i t y of o t h e r s , i t was shaped by t h e assumptions  of p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s who supplemented  trade i n p o r t r a i t u r e with landscape views.  their  The range of s u b j e c t s  was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y and the i n t e r e s t s of t h e market. Columbians,  For l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h  photographs were i n t e r e s t i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y because  they  were m e c h a n i c a l l y produced and m i n u t e l y d e t a i l e d . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h e y p o r t r a y e d , t h e y a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n o b s e s s i o n With f a c t , f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t e c h n o l o g y , p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r o g r e s s and c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e .  H i s t o r i c a l photographs  and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbians  reveal the values  who t r a n s f o r m e d t h e w i l d e r -  ness and who p a t r o n i z e d p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s .  They m i r r o r t h e  e n t h u s i a s m o f a f r o n t i e r community f o r m a t e r i a l development and t h e concern of a c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y f o r genteel t r a d i t i o n s . were n o t u n i q u e .  S i m i l a r photographs  These i n t e r e s t s  i l l u s t r a t e t h e p a t t e r n s of  late  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l o s e and d i s t a n t t e r r i t o r i e s and i n s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s , and r e v e a l t h a t l a n d s c a p e 1,  Thomas, l o c . c i t . , p.  103. 169  170  images o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia r e f l e c t i n f l u e n c e s more w i d e s p r e a d than l o c a l . South o f the  49th  p a r a l l e l , v a r i o u s types o f photographs recog-  n i z e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o u g h l y contemporaneous development o f t h e s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t S t a t e s . G o l d r u s h c r e e k s and c l a i m s were p h o t o g r a p h e d f r e q u e n t l y i n b o t h areas.  The boom towns o f t h e C a r i b o o were o f a g e n r e t h a t i n c l u d e d  B l a c k H i l l s , N o r t h Dakota and M u r r a y s v i l l e , Idaho.  The l o g g i n g a c t i -  v i t i e s o f Vancouver Island p a r a l l e l e d those throughout the P a c i f i c Coast f o r e s t .  P h o t o g r a p h s o f r i v e r s t e a m e r s a t Coal Banks L a n d i n g  on t h e Upper M i s s o u r i and a t Kamloops on t h e Thompson b e a r s t r i k i n g similarities.  The wooden t r e s t l e s o f b o t h t h e U n i o n P a c i f i c and t h e  C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c were t e s t i m o n i e s t o t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r e s s o f t h e r a i l w a y age.  In t h e main, B r i t i s h Columbians d i d not s h a r e t h e  American b e l i e f i n t h e r e j u v e n a t i n g powers o f t h e f r o n t i e r .  Home-  s t e a d i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e were much more a p a r t o f American t h a n B r i t i s h Columbian development.  Nevertheless, the boastful likenesses o f B r i t i s h  Columbia's m i n e r s , l o g g e r s and n a v v i e s a p p r o x i m a t e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t e u l o g i z e t h e b r a v a d o o f t h e American p i o n e e r . E q u a l l y , however, t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s c a p t u r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e two a r e a s ' c o n ceptions of society.  C r i c k e t and r e g a t t a s , so much a p a r t o f t h e  E n g l i s h c o n c e p t i o n o f a genteel s o c i e t y t r a n s p l a n t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia, a r e s i n g u l a r l y a b s e n t from t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e rough democracy o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t .  frontier  171  In both B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n y o f V i c t o r i a , t h e camera r e c o r d e d t h e h i s t o r y o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t a l m o s t from i t s beginnings.  Though d i f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l l y - i n s i z e , c l i m a t e and  t e r r a i n - B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a s h a r e d k i n d r e d q u a l i t i e s o f v a s t n e s s and i s o l a t i o n .  T h e i r h i s t o r i c a l developments  were shaped  by t h e b r o a d e r f o r c e s common t o a r e a s o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n , f r o n t i e r m i n i n g and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y economic development. c o l o n i e s , immigrants  In both  b r o u g h t s i m i l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l baggage and t e c h n o -  l o g i c a l might t o t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e .  Among t h e e a r l y  e n t r e p r e n e u r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s who e a r n e d t h e i r  liveli-  hood t h r o u g h p o r t r a i t u r e , b u t who a l s o r e c o r d e d l a n d s c a p e s and a c t i v i t i e s - from t h e l a y i n g o f c o r n e r s t o n e s t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f r a i l way b r i d g e s . L i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 2 photographs  o f the colony o f V i c t o r i a  demonstrate  scape changes wrought by t h e g o l d r u s h e s .  the great land-  In both a r e a s , m i n i n g  e x c i t e m e n t was an impetus t o p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic d e v e l o p ment, d i r e c t i n g emergent p a t t e r n s o f s e t t l e m e n t and commerce.  Mines  and m i n e r s , f a l s e - f r o n t e d towns and muddy t h o r o u g h f a r e s were elements of a human l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t e d  with the experience, not the l o c a t i o n  of t h e gold rush f r o n t i e r . 2.  N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photographs p u b l i s h e d i n M i c h a e l Cannon's An A u s t r a l i a n Camera 1851^1914 (Newton Abbot Devon: D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d , , 1973) p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i v e examples f o r a comparison o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e c o l o n y o f Victoria.  172  " B o o d c a r r a " , home o f John R i t c h i e , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S h i r e o f B e l f a s t , and " F a i r f i e l d " ' , home o f J o s e p h T r u t c h ( P l a t e 4.48), were both p h o t o g r a p h e d i n t h e 1860's.  W h i l e B o o d c a r r a ' s one s t o r e y s o l i d  s t o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e a r s no a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o F a i r f i e l d , t h e i m p o r t o f t h e s c e n e i s t h e same.  Posed on t h e f r o n t lawn o f  B o o d c a r r a a r e a b o r i g i n a l s e r v a n t s and w h i t e h i r e d hands.  A crinolined  g o v e r n e s s a t t e n d s R i t c h i e ' s young d a u g h t e r s e a t e d on h e r pony. H i s w i f e s t a n d s on t h e s p a c i o u s v e r a n d a h b e s i d e t h e f r o n t d o o r . h i m s e l f i s s e a t e d i n a h o r s e - d r a w n , i r o n - s p r i n g e d buggy.  Ritchie  Like Trutch  and h i s F a i r f i e l d e s t a t e , t h e B o o d c a r r a h o u s e h o l d exudes t h e w e a l t h and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y t o which s u c c e s s f u l B r i t i s h immigrants a s p i r e d i n d i v e r s e c o r n e r s o f t h e Empire. P h o t o g r a p h s i l l u s t r a t e t h e impact o f V i c t o r i a n i d e a s and B r i t i s h customs upon t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f t h e c o l o n i e s o f t h e Empire.  They demon-  s t r a t e t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia s h a r e d p a r a l l e l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h p a r t s o f A u s t r a l i a , New 7.ealand, South A f r i c a and I n d i a .  The M e c h a n i c s '  I n s t i t u t e i n B a l l a r a t , V i c t o r i a and t h e C a r i b o o L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e i n B a r k e r v i l l e , B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n nineteenth c e n t u r y c i t i e s throughout B r i t a i n , served t h e cause o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e 1860's. were e m u l a t e d .  O l d World s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l  traditions  Large e s t a t e s complete w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l embellishment,  g a r d e n s and s e r v a n t s s p r a n g up w h e r e v e r c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s and e n t e r p r i s i n g immigrants a t t a i n e d w e a l t h and s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . Tea was s e r v e d on t h e i r v e r a n d a h s and c r o q u e t was p l a y e d on t h e i r lawns from New Westminster t o Rawalpindi.  C r i c k e t was a p a s t i m e f o r p l a y e r s and  s p e c t a t o r s a l i k e ; annual r e g a t t a s r e c r e a t e d t h e s p i r i t o f t h e  173  Henley-upon-Thames; and p i c n i c o u t i n g s were h e l d i n s y l v a n s e t t i n g s . The f i r s t c r i c k e t t e s t match was photographed  i n Melbourne  i n 1861,  t h e same y e a r t h a t t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was formed i n New Westminster.  V i c t o r i a Day r e g a t t a s had l o n g been a t r a d i t i o n on t h e  Gorge by t h e t i m e t h e H e n l e y - o n - Y a r r a began i n Melbourne  i n 1904. As  a p o p u l a r s e t t i n g f o r i n f o r m a l p o r t r a i t s , even t h e H o l l o w T r e e i n V a n c o u v e r ' s S t a n l e y Park had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n a g i a n t b u r n t - o u t e u c a l y p t u s t r e e i n t h e Beech F o r e s t o f s o u t h e r n V i c t o r i a .  British  customs and t h e p e r v a s i v e i d e a s o f t h e age - n o t l e a s t o f a l l p r o g r e s s and improvement - f o u n d f e r t i l e ground t h r o u g h o u t t h e Empire;  photo-  graphic records capture the physical manifestations o f these developments and r e v e a l much o f t h e a t t i t u d e s t h a t l a y b e h i n d t h e c r e a t i o n of diverse landscapes. F r o n t i e r development,  British colonization, Victorian interests  (  and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e c h n o l o g y u n i f y t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f geographically diverse areas.  Yet t o demonstrate the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f  l a n d s c a p e images i s n o t t o deny t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  The c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , s o c i a l  a s p i r a t i o n s and economic e n t e r p r i s e o f immigrants shaped t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p l a c e ; t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and o b s t a c l e s p r e s e n t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e tempered  human e x p e c t a t i o n s and endeavour.. Nor was  p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia a homogeneous p l a c e .  I t d i f f e r e d from i s l a n d  t o m a i n l a n d , from c o a s t t o i n t e r i o r , from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e g o l d rush to the completion o f the railway.  American g o l d s e e k e r s s i f t i n g  t h r o u g h g r a v e l s c r e a t e d a l a n d s c a p e and a s o c i e t y u n l i k e t h a t o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s p r e s i d i n g o v e r government i n V i c t o r i a and  174  New W e s t m i n s t e r .  In e x a m i n i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n i t s w i d e r  c o n t e x t , what emerges as d i s t i n c t i v e l y B r i t i s h Columbian i s as much the mix o f l a n d s c a p e images as t h e images t h e m s e l v e s .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  PHOTOGRAPHS General holdings: Archives of Ontario Provincial  A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada Vancouver P u b l i c Bound C o l l e c t i o n s ,  Library Provincial  Archives o f B r i t i s h Columbia:  Anon.  C r e a s e album.  1877.  .  C r e a s e album,  n.d.  .  Helmcken album,  n.d.  .  Memorial album,  n.d.  .  P e a r s e album,  C l a u d e t , F.G.  n.d.  [ u n t i t l e d ] , n.d.  D a l l y , F r e d e r i c k . " P h o t o g r a o h i c Views o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 18671868." 2 v o l . '  . 1870."  ^ D e v i l l e , E.  "Photographic Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia  4 vol. . [untitled], 2 vol. "Views on C P . R a i l w a y . " 1886.  Horetzsky, Charles. .  " P a c i f i c R a i l w a y S u r v e y . " 1875. [ u n t i t l e d ] , n.d.  Maynard, R. " P h o t o g r a p h i c View Album." 1890. Thompson, S . J . "Views o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . " 1893. 175  1867-  176  S l i d e K i t s on t h e H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e Work o f E a r l y B.C. P h o t o g r a p h e r s 1858-1950. R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t on B.C. Photography, Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y : - No. 2  " B a i l e y and N e e l a n d s - p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a r l y B.C. - 1886-1914."  No. 3  "Brock and D e v i n e - p h o t o g r a p h s o f V a n c o u v e r b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e g r e a t f i r e - 1886-1890."  No. 6  " P i c t o r i a l History of Chinese Settlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia - 1885-1914."  No. 7  " A n t o i n e C l a u d e t - s e l e c t i o n s from a f a m i l y album."  No. 8  "F.G, C l a u d e t - views o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d - 1860-1873"  No. 10  " F r e d e r i c k D a l l y - views o f t h e C a r i b o o Road and t h e B a r k e r v i l l e m i n i n g f i e l d s - 1867-1868."  No. 11  " F r e d e r i c k D a l l y - views o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e Lower M a i n l a n d - 1862-1870."  No. 14  " M a d e l e i n e Gunterman - p i o n e e r l i f e i n t h e L a r d e a u c. 1900."  No. 16  " E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia P h o t o g r a p h e r s - 1858-1914."  No. 17  " E a r l y P h o t o g r a p h s o f I n d i a n L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia P a r t One and Two."  No. 21  "R. Maynard - views a l o n g t h e C a r i b o o Road and t h e C.P.R."  No, 26  " S . J . Thompson - v i e w s o f B.C. - 1858-1914."  No. 29  " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - 1858-1914."  No. 30  "R.H. Trueman & Norman C a p l e - p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia."  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Brown, R o b e r t . MS., P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A/E/B81/B81.6. D a l l y , F r e d e r i c k . MSS., PABC, E/B/D16; E/B/D16c; E/B/D16m; E/B/D16.9; E/C/16; E/C/D16.9; E/D/D16.  177  DIRECTORIES First Victoria Directory.  V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1860.  B r i t i s h Columbian and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y . B a r n e t , 1863.  V i c t o r i a : Howard and  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e . E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868.  Victoria:  G u i d e t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1877-8. T,N. Hibben and Company, 1877.  Victoria:  The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r t h e "Years 1882-83. ' R . T . . W i l l i a m s , 1882. '  Victoria:  :  The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r 1884-85. 1885.  V i c t o r i a : R.T. W i l l i a m s ,  The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , 1887. V i c t o r i a : M a l l a n d a i n e and W i l l i a m s , 1887. NEWSPAPERS B r i t i s h Columbia E x a m i n e r ( Y a l e ) , J u l y 20, 1868. C a n a d i a n I l l u s t r a t e d News ( M o n t r e a l ) , The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l ( B a r k e r v i l l e ) ,  1872-1873. 1865-1875.  The C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , 1858-1888. A p r i l 5, 1896. November 1, 1898. September 29, 1912. May 17, 1918. t i t l e varies:  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , December 11, 1 8 5 8 - J u l y 28, 1860; The D a i l y B r i t i s h , C o l o n i s t , J u l y 3 1 , 1860-June 23, 1866; The D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , June 25, 1866-December 3 1 , 1886. The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , 1887-  The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, 1858-1888. The R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a ) , 1883-1885. The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859. 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