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Images of early British Columbia : landscape photography, 1858-1888 Schwartz, Joan Marsha 1977

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IMAGES OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA: LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY, 1858-1888 by JOAN MARSHA SCHWARTZ B.A. (Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 (c) Joan Marsha Schwartz, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Geography  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 W 5 Date IjldU 2. m j ABSTRACT With t h e i r cumbersome equipment and r e f r a c t o r y t e c h n o l o g y , p r o -f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d p i o n e e r i n g development i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l m o s t from the b e g i n n i n g o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s s t u d y examines l a n d s c a p e photographs t a k e n d u r i n g the t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d between t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h and the c o m p l e t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . I t comments on t h e n a t u r e and meaning o f the photographs and s u g g e s t s t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l a n d and l i f e i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. Photography i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia was almost e x c l u s i v e l y the work o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose s u c c e s s r e s t e d upon t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e market^ F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e i r work i s t o some e x t e n t a m i r r o r o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbians' sense o f t h e m s e l v e s i n a new p l a c e . Nine-t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p h o t o g r a p h e r s f o c u s e d on the wagon road and l a t e r t he r a i l r o a d , on g o l d m i n ing and on s e t t l e m e n t . The e a r l y f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a t t r a c t e d f a r l e s s a t t e n t i o n than the g o l d r u s h and though f i s h i n g and f a r m i n g had begun, t h e y were seldom photographed. P i c n i c s , r e g a t t a s and o t h e r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s were r e c o r d e d , p a r t i c u l a r i n V i c t o r i a and New Westminster and more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e 1880's. Spec t a c u l a r p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e s dominate the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f w i l d e r -ness; m i c r o s c a l e n a t u r e s t u d i e s a r e s i n g u l a r l y a b s e n t . The a t t e n t i o n t o extreme symbols o f p r o g r e s s i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . The r e c e n c y and r a p i d i t y o f development had made m a t e r i a l advance a common and c o n c r e t e i i i l i r e a l i t y , and B r i t i s h Columbians wanted a r e c o r d o f t h e i r achievement. Some c o l o n i a l s brought w i t h them c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a s o f home and s o c i e t y based upon B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s and V i c t o r i a n t a s t e . Photo-graphs o f e l e g a n t s u r r o u n d i n g s and g e n t e e l pastimes c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e y had c r e a t e d a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y and an o r d e r e d l a n d s c a p e i n an i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f Empire. In t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t , t he p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia s h a r e s elements w i t h o t h e r a r e a s o f f r o n t i e r development and B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n . However, i t e x h i b i t s a d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s which i s a t t r i b u t a b l e as much t o t h e mix o f l a n d s c a p e images i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s e t t i n g as t o t h e images t h e m s e l v e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF PLATES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH IN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 1 2 PHOTOGRAPHERS OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA 5 3 PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY IN EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA ... 33 4 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD, 1858-1888 47 TRANSPORTATION 48 RESOURCE INDUSTRIES 67 SETTLEMENT 90 SOCIETY 114 NATURE 125 5 PERCEPTION AND PLACE: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD 136 6 CONCLUSION: THE WIDER CONTEXT 169 BIBLIOGRAPHY 175 i v LIST OF PLATES PLATE Page 2 t l Stephen A. Spencer, p h o t o g r a p h e r i n V i c t o r i a from 1858 t o 1887 .'. 7 2.2 View o f Yate s S t r e e t and V i c t o r i a Harbour, showing a s i g n f o r Fardon's P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , 1871 11 2.3 G e n t i l e ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1864 13 2.4 L.A. B l a n c , P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , B a r k e r v i l l e , c i r c a 1870 '. 16 2.5 D a i l y ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1869 , 16 2.6 R i c h a r d Maynard's Boot and Shoe S t o r e and Hannah Maynard's P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y 26 2.7 R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard, C a r t e - d e - v i s i t e 29 4.1 C a r i b o o Road between Y a l e and Spuzzum, 1867-1868 49 4.2 Chin a Bar B l u f f , 22 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 51 4.3 F r e i g h t t r a f f i c on the C a r i b o o Road, 19 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 52 4.4 Mule team a t Y a l e , 1867-1868 53 4.5 G r e a t B l u f f , 88 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 54 4.6 F r e i g h t wagons, Boston Bar, 1867-1868, S t e r e o g r a p h ... 55 4.7 C l i n t o n H o t e l , 1867-1868 56 4.8 A l e x a n d r a Lodge, 14 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 58 4.9 Wagon c o n s t r u c t i o n a t Y a l e , 1867-1868 59 4.10 C.P.R. c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and Boston Bar,1881.. 61 4.11 Rock T u n n e l , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y 62 4.12 "Chinatown", K e e f e r s S t a t i o n , c i r c a 1881 63 v PLATE Page 4.13 Double Loop, C . P . R ., S e l k i r k Mountains 65 4.14 C i s c o c a n t i l e v e r b r i d g e 66 4.15 Mount Stephen H o t e l , F i e l d , c i r c a 1888 , 68 4.16 G l a c i e r H o t e l , G l a c i e r , c i r c a 1888 , 69 4.17 Grouse Creek panorama, 1867-1868 71 4.18 Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , Grouse Creek, 1867-1868 72 4.19 S i x - T o e d Pete C l a i m , 1867-1868 73 4.20 Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , dump-box, 1867-1868 75 4.2l' Neversweat Tunnel Company, 1867-1868 76 4.22 Sheepshead C l a i m , 1867-1868 77 4.23 H e r o n v i l l e - Canadian Company, Grouse Creek 78 4.24 Mucho Oro Gold M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868 79 4.25 A l t u r a s G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868 .. 79 4.26 Oxen h a u l i n g l o g s , New Westminster, c i r c a 1885 82 4.27 F r a s e r ' s Logging Camp ....... t , 83 4.28 Moody, D i e t z and Nelson's s a w - m i l l s , M o o d y v i l l e , c i r c a 1870 85 4.29 I n d i a n salmon w e i r a t Quamichan V i l l a g e , Cowichan R i v e r , 1866 87 4.30 F r a s e r R i v e r a t Boston Bar 88 4.31 Farm, Cowichan 89 4.32 T r a n q u i l l e M i l l , Kamloops Lake, 1871 91 4.33 Camerontown, 1867-1868 93 4.34 B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t he f i r e o f September 16, 1868 94 4.35 I l l e c i l l e w a e t , Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway 95 v i i PLATE Page 4.36 L y t t o n , 1867-1868 97 4.37 Y a l e , 1867-1868 99 4.38 V i c t o r i a panorama, c i r c a 1868 100 4.39 E s q u i m a u Harbour 102 4.40 M a i n s t r e e t , B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t he f i r e o f SeDtember 16, 1868 103 4.41 Rogers Pass V i l l a g e , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886 ... 105 4.42 Government S t r e e t l o o k i n g n o r t h from F o r t S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a 106 4.43 I n d i a n totem and C h i e f ' s house, Comox, 1866 = 108 4.44 I n d i a n v i l l a g e , : ; A l e r t Bay, Masset = 110 4.45 P o r t Simpson, 1884 • , 1 1 1 4.46 C h i n e s e Q u a r t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1886 „ 112 4.47 C h i n e s e S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a , 1886 , 113 4.48 F a i r f i e l d , home o f Joseph W. T r u t c h , c i r c a 1865 115 4.49 V i c t o r i a E l e v e m c r i c k e t team, 1864 117 4.50 L a c r o s s e match, Beacon H i l l Park, V i c t o r i a 118 4.51 P i c n i c p a r t y a t the Gorge, V i c t o r i a , 1884 120 4.52 P i c n i c p a r t y a t G o l d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1885 121 4.53 - The Gorge, V i c t o r i a 123 4.54 " The Government B u i l d i n g s , V i c t o r i a , 1858-1860 124 4.55 Government House, New Westminster 124 4.56 F r a s e r R i v e r , 4 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 127 4.57 Thompson R i v e r , 84 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868 128 4.58 I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon, Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886 .. 130 v i i i PLATE Page 4.59 G o l d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a ..t 131 4.60 Homathko R i v e r , 3 0 h m i l e s from H a d d i n g t o n , 1875 ., 133 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , I have i n c u r r e d many d e b t s . They a r e h e r e i n acknowledged, though by no means d i s c h a r g e d . To C o l e H a r r i s and Graeme Wynn, thank you f o r g i v i n g so gener-o u s l y o f y o u r time and knowledge. You were p a t i e n t when I was t a r d y ; you showed u n d e r s t a n d i n g when j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s took me away from u n i v e r s i t y and away from Vancouver; and you o f f e r e d encouragement when I needed i t most. Your f r i e n d s h i p i s c h e r i s h e d and the h o s p i -t a l i t y extended t o me by M u r i e l H a r r i s and B a r b a r a Wynn i s warmly r e c a l l e d . Of t h e many a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s who a s s i s t e d i n my r e -s e a r c h , I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o B a r b a r a McLennan o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r her s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n my work. To my employers who, o v e r the l a s t two y e a r s , k i n d l y g r a n t e d me l e a v e t o pursue my w r i t i n g , I e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e -c i a t i o n . I a l s o thank E l i z a b e t h MacKinnon whose t y p i n g h e l p e d me through t h a t academic "no man's l a n d " between t h e s i s w r i t i n g and f i n a l s u b m i s s i o n . F a m i l y , f r i e n d s and f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a r e e v e r a s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h and encouragement. Mine c o e r c e d and c a j o l e d , t y p e d and p r o o f - r e a d , washed and cooked, c h a u f f e u r e d and b i l l e t t e d . Having t r i e d t h e i r p a t i e n c e and t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y , I thank them f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t i n s e e i n g t h i s t h r o u g h . And t o my u n c l e Aaron, thank you f o r c a r i n g so v e r y much. I g i v e t h i s t h e s i s t o you w i t h l o v e ; i t seems l i t t l e i n r e t u r n f o r y o u r s e l f l e s s n e s s . i x "A good photograph evokes p l a c e and p e r i o d w i t h u n e q u a l l e d ease and we must be g r a t e f u l t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d f a l l s w i t h i n t h e e r a o f the camera." A l a n Thomas " A u t h e n t i c i t y and Charm: The R e v i v a l o f V i c t o r i a n Photography," V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , X V I I I , 1 (September 1974), p. 103. "A photograph i s a document, and t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s f i r s t b u s i n e s s i s t o ask o f i t , as he would o f any o t h e r r e c o r d , who made i t , t o whom i t was a d d r e s s e d , and what i t was meant t o convey." G.H. M a r t i n and David F r a n c i s "The Camera's Eye," The V i c t o r i a n C i t y : Images and  R e a l i t i e s , H.J. Dyos and M i c h a e l W o l f f ( e d s . ) . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1973, p. 228. x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION; THE HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH IN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY Landscape images o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia come t o us i n many forms: s u r v e y o r ' s n o t e s , t r a v e l l e r ' s a c c o u n t s , l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s , n o v e l s , p o e t r y , s k e t c h e s , p a i n t i n g s , maps, and photographs. However in c o m p l e t e a r e c o r d , such w r i t t e n and v i s u a l s o u r c e s do p r o v i d e a sense o f what the p r o v i n c e was l i k e and how i t was p e r c e i v e d . These images o f 1 and and p l a c e a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o the h i s t o r i c a l g eographer, f o r t h e y r e v e a l i n s u b t l e , but p e r v a s i v e ways, the a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s which l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbians brought t o and e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r new environment. I f many w r i t t e n s o u r c e s p r e s e n t a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f man and l a n d , t h e photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d i s unique i n t h a t , i n d i v i d u a l l y , each photograph p r e s e n t s an o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a segment o f p a s t r e a l i t y and, c o l l e c t i v e l y , photographs r e v e a l a good de a l about the g e n e r a l l a n d -scape i n t e r e s t s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbians. A photograph can be t r e a t e d as an o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d and examined f o r i t s f a c t u a l c o n t e n t . How b i g was L y t t o n i n 1868? What o c c u r r e d a t Y a l e d u r i n g the r u s h t o the C a r i b o o ? How d i d women d r e s s f o r a p i c n i c i n t h e 1880's? Photographs p r o v i d e a t l e a s t p a r t i a l answers t o such q u e s t i o n s . A t the same t i m e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o go beyond the c o n c r e t e l e v e l o f d e t a i l t o uncover c o v e r t a t t i t u d e s o r a s p i r a t i o n s . Sometimes t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g statements a r e l i t t l e more than s u b t l e 1 2 nuances; a t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e y a r e o b v i o u s pronouncements. A photo-graph showing e m b e l l i s h e d f a c a d e s a l o n g t h e main s t r e e t o f a f r o n t i e r town r e v e a l s l o c a l merchants' attempts t o p r e s e n t an image o f p r o s -p e r i t y and permanence, an image which, though o f t e n d i f f e r e n t from r e a l i t y , was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p i o n e e r e n t r e p r e n e u r s ' a s p i r a t i o n s . A view t h e r e f o r e not o n l y d e s c r i b e s a l a n d s c a p e , but i t a l s o s u g g e s t s something about t h o s e who c r e a t e d i t . A photograph can a l s o be examined i n terms o f the f i l t e r s o r c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t worked t o shape i t . A c c o r d i n g l y , photographs o f p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia can be viewed as the p r o d u c t o f p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y , l o c a l s u b j e c t s , a r t i s t i c l i c e n s e , V i c t o r i a n t h o u g h t and market t a s t e . M o s t . i m p o r t a n t was t h e commercial r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t -ween p h o t o g r a p h e r and p u b l i c . The p o r t r a i t s t u d i o p r o p r i e t o r and the i t i n e r a n t d e a l e r i n views each depended on p u b l i c p a t r o n a g e . The p r a c t i c e o f photography i n c u r r e d c o s t , e f f o r t and, o f t e n , i n c o n -v e n i e n c e . The s u c c e s s f u l p h o t o g r a p h e r had t o be a c u t e l y aware o f the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e b u y i n g p u b l i c , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n the photo-graph i s l e s s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s c r e a t i v i t y than a m i r r o r o f market t a s t e . Whereas t h e f a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f h i s t o r i c a l photographs may be c l e a r enough, the s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t h e y r e v e a l u s u a l l y a r e l e s s o b v i o u s . A photograph o f a s t a n d o f c e d a r s and f i r s may have been t a k e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s i z e o f West Co a s t t r e e s . I t may a l s o convey a r o m a n t i c view o f t h e f o r e s t p r i m a e v a l ; an economic s u r v e y o f so many b o a r d - f e e t ; a p i o n e e r statement about 3 o b s t a c l e s t o s e t t l e m e n t . O f t e n i t i s no s i m p l e m a t t e r t o s o r t out t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n , but f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h h i s background, h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work, and h i s market w i l l h e l p t o c l a r i f y t he m a t t e r . For t h i s r e a s o n t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e t r e a t e d i n some d e t a i l i n t h i s t h e s i s . H i s t o r i c a l photographs a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e f o r the s t u d y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n the t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1858 and, by 1888, no fewer than t w e n t y - f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s had o p e r a t e d s t u d i o s i n the p r o v i n c e . T h i s was the e r a o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l photo-g r a p h e r and, f o r most o f i t , o f c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y ; p o p u l a r amateur photography came w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e Kodak i n 1888. These were a l s o m i d - V i c t o r i a n y e a r s and, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e y were y e a r s when t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e g o l d r u s h e s q u i c k l y peaked and as r a p i d l y f a d e d . Other r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were attempted; none was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l t he problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was s o l v e d . E x p a n s i o n came i n t h e 1890's w i t h Kootenay m i n i n g and, a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e v a s t growth o f l u m b e r i n g . These were o t h e r economies, adumbrated but not d e v e l o p e d i n the y e a r s from 1858 t o 1888. In terms o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d , t h e n , t h e s e y e a r s have a c o n s i d e r a b l e u n i t y imparted by p h o t o g r a p h i c technology', economic development and V i c t o r i a n t a s t e . They were a l s o y e a r s o f v i g o r o u s , i f o f t e n ephemeral s e t t l e m e n t which t h e new medium o f photography was w e l l e q u i p p e d t o r e c o r d . P i o n e e r i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia proceeded under the camera's eye. 4 The photographs under i n v e s t i g a t i o n were take n i n B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e t he l a s t decade o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . They a r e h e l d i n the h i s t o r i c a l photograph c o l l e c t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y and t h e A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o . W i t h i n t he p r a c t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f p r e v a i l i n g t e c h n o l o g y and a t t i t u d e s , t h e s e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photographs r e v e a l B r i t i s h Columbia's e v o l v i n g human l a n d -s c a p e s , and i n so d o i n g , t h e y r e f l e c t something o f the peop l e who c r e a t e d them. They demonstrate what p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o n s i d e r e d worth r e c o r d i n g and what p a t r o n s wanted t o buy. T h i s s e l e c t i v i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r as w e l l as t h e i r r e c o r d o f d e t a i l impart t o h i s t o r i c a l photo-graphs much of t h e i r i n t e r e s t . By em p h a s i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of p l a c e , t h e y s u g g e s t B r i t i s h Columbians' p e r c e p t i o n of what t h e y were d o i n g and t h e i r v i s i o n of the p l a c e t h e y were c r e a t i n g . The photo-graph i s one e n t r e t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e human l a n d s c a p e s of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia and of t h e a s p i r a t i o n s and t a s t e s of i t s p e o p l e . CHAPTER 2 PHOTOGRAPHERS OF EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA Photography i n B r i t i s h Columbia d a t e s from t he b e g i n n i n g o f the F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h . There was v i r t u a l l y no l a g between the i n -f l u x o f miners and t h e coming o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s . The reason s a r e c l e a r enough. D u r i n g t he C a l i f o r n i a g o l d r u s h , photo-g r a p h e r s , o r " d a g u e r r e o t y p i s t s " as th e y were then known, had found t h e i r own E l d o r a d o . The n o v e l t y o f the new a r t , t he e x c i t e m e n t o f the time and p l a c e , and t h e w i d e s p r e a d c i r c u l a t i o n o f money produced an e a g e r market f o r views and l i k e n e s s e s . A photograph was n o t o n l y a p l e a s a n t r e m i n d e r f o r l o v e d ones a t home, but a l s o a c o n c r e t e s t a t e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l c h a l l e n g e and f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . Though s m a l l e r than t h e m i n i n g boom t h a t r o c k e d C a l i f o r n i a i n 1849, the B r i t i s h Columbia g o l d r u s h e s s h a r e d many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h t h a t event and t h e ph o t o g r a p h e r was one f a c e t o f t h i s p a r a l l e l e x p e r i e n c e . P i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s f o l l o w e d t he market from E a s t t o West, then n o r t h a l o n g t h e c o a s t . In some c a s e s , San F r a n c i s c o photo-g r a p h e r s moved w i t h t he miners t o Oregon and t o B r i t i s h Columbia. In o t h e r c a s e s , news o f s u c c e s s f u l p h o t o g r a p h i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r o f new, market o p p o r t u n i t i e s prompted p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o move West, o r i n s p i r e d l o c a l c r a f t s m e n t o change p r o f e s s i o n s . E a r l y photography a t t r a c t e d u n t r a i n e d p e o p l e from a v a r i e t y o f backgrounds - s c h o o l m a s t e r s , shoe-makers, s i l v e r s m i t h s , d e n t i s t s , d r u g g i s t s and u n t o l d o t h e r s , many women among them. To some i t was a s c i e n c e ; t o o t h e r s , an amusement 5 6 o r an a r t . Yet " d e s p i t e i t s a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c c l a i m s , t h o s e who l i v e d by i t g e n e r a l l y o c c u p i e d tradesman's s t a t u s " . * In e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, photography was indeed a t r a d e - new, i n t e r e s t i n g and l u c r a t i v e . Many g a l l e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a ; some ph o t o g r a p h e r s a l s o pursued an i t i n e r a n t b u s i n e s s , t a k i n g advantage o f l o c a l markets and s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s . While photography i n p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia was l a r g e l y t he p r e r o g a t i v e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i t was o f t e n a p a r t - t i m e o r ephemeral i n t e r e s t . Some ph o t o g r a p h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r a s h o r t time o n l y , l a t e r r e t u r n i n g t o o l d t r a d e s o r embarking on new ones; o t h e r s pursued photography as a p a r t - t i m e a v o c a t i o n ; s t i l l o t h e r s made i t a l i f e - l o n g c a r e e r . Of the more prominent p h o t o g r a p h e r s a c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1860's and 1870's, one was a j e w e l l e r and a n o t h e r was a shoemaker by t r a d e ; both c o n t i n u e d t o p r a c t i s e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c r a f t s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r photography. V i c t o r i a ' s f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r l e f t h i s b u s i n e s s a f t e r twenty y e a r s t o assume t h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p o f a salmon cannery i n A l e r t Bay. One o f the most n o t a b l e p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia s p e n t o n l y n i n e y e a r s i n photography b e f o r e l e a v i n g p r o v i n c e and p r o f e s s i o n f o r a new c a r e e r i n d e n t a l s u r g e r y i n England. * * * * * P r o f e s s i o n a l photography began i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858. Stephen A. Spencer ( P l a t e 2.1) appears t o have i n i t i a t e d photography 1. A l a n Thomas, " A u t h e n t i c i t y and Charm: The R e v i v a l o f V i c t o r i a n Photography", V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , X V I I I , 1, September 1974, p. 104. P l a t e 2.1: Stephen A. Spencer, photographer i n V i c t o r i a from 1858 t o 1887. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia (PABC) 7225 8 i n V i c t o r i a s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e g o l d r u s h b e g a n . u U n t i l J a n u a r y 1862, he o p e r a t e d from v a r i o u s premises i n downtown V i c t o r i a , but a p p a r e n t l y 3 l e f t t h e c i t y l a t e r t h a t y e a r . Spencer's name does not appear i n 4 5 the V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r i e s f o r 1863 o r 1868. Then i n November 1874, g The C o l o n i s t announced h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a from San F r a n c i s c o . In 1883 7, Spencer e n t e r e d a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Oregon C. H a s t i n g s , a n o t h e r V i c t o r i a p h o t o g r a p h e r who had been i n b u s i n e s s a t l e a s t s i n c e 2. Spencer's name appears on a l i s t o f " 5 8 ' e r s " c o m p i l e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's Golden J u b i l e e i n 1908. 3. In J u l y 1859, a newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t l i s t s Spencer on Yate s S t r e e t (The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859). From t h e r e , he moved t o a s t u d i o a t Trounce and Government S t r e e t s i n August 1860 (The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, 1860). E i g h t e e n months l a t e r , he opened a "new p h o t o g r a p h i c and ambrotypic g a l l e r y " a t t h e c o r n e r o f Broad and Yate s S t r e e t s , but announced t h a t t h i s s t u d i o would remain open " f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d " o n l y (The C o l o n i s t , J a nuary 15, 1862). 4. B r i t i s h Columbian and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863. 5. F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia G u i d e , V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868. 6. The C o l o n i s t , November 7, 1874. 7. In The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r the y e a r s 1882-83, p u b l i s h e d by R.T. W i l l i a m s , Spencer was l i s t e d a t h i s F o r t S t r e e t g a l l e r y . However, a photograph c r e d i t e d t o Spencer and H a s t i n g s appeared i n The Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n December 1883. 9 1877.° By 1887,^ H a s t i n g s had taken o v e r the b u s i n e s s which he l a t e r s o l d t o J . Savannah i n J a n u a r y 1889.*^ In t h e meantime, Spencer had d e v e l o p e d a p a r t - t i m e i n t e r e s t i n a cannery i n A l e r t Bay,** and between 1887 and 1899 i s l i s t e d as "manager", "owner" o r " p r o p r i e t o r " o f t h e salmon p a c k i n g b u s i n e s s , as w e l l as P o s t m a s t e r o f A l e r t Bay. He d i e d i n August 1911. Spencer's contemporary i n the V i c t o r i a p h o t o g r a p h i c t r a d e was George R. Fardon. Born i n England i n 1806, he e m i g r a t e d t o New York and t h e n e a r l y i n 1849, went t o San F r a n c i s c o where he engaged i n the d a g u e r r e o t y p e b u s i n e s s . Fardon was among the f i r s t i n San F r a n c i s c o t o adopt w e t - p l a t e photography, and i n 1856-57, he p u b l i s h e d an album o f San F r a n c i s c o views. Fardon i s l i s t e d i n the San F r a n c i s c o d i r e c t o r y 8. Guide t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1877-8, V i c t o r i a : T.N. Hibben and Company, 1877. In 1879, H a s t i n g s accompanied t h e e x p e d i t i o n o f H.M.S. Rocket on a t o u r o f the c o a s t , v i s i t i n g I n d i a n v i l l a g e s as f a r n o r t h as the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and r e t u r n i n g a l o n g the west s i d e o f Vancouver I s l a n d . 9. The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y p u b l i s h e d i n 1887 by M a l l a n d a i n e and W i l l i a m s l i s t e d H a s t i n g s as t h e s o l e p r o p r i e t o r o f the photo-g r a p h i c s t u d i o on F o r t S t r e e t and Spencer as the manager o f a salmon c a n n e r y i n A l e r t Bay. 10. R.E. G o s n e l l , A H i s t o r y [ o f ] B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a : The Lewis P u b l i s h i n g Company, p. 766. 11. The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r the y e a r s 1882-83 and The  B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r 1884-85, both p u b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a by R.T. W i l l i a m s , l i s t e d Spencer as both a photographer i n V i c t o r i a and a salmon canner i n A l e r t Bay. 10 12 o f 1858, but a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a l a t e t h a t same y e a r . The f o l l o w i n g 13 May, he bought a l o t i n t h e s a l e o f government r e s e r v e l a n d , but was 14 not l i s t e d i n the V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r y i n 1860; however, i n A p r i l 1862 Fardon was l i s t e d among persons a s s e s s e d under the Trade L i c e n c e s A c t 15 " f o r t h e h a l f y e a r commencing January 1, 1862." Fardon a d v e r t i s e d i n The C o l o n i s t i n 1861 and 1862, and was l i s t e d as a photographer a t 68 Government S t r e e t by the 1863 V i c t o r i a d i r e c t o r y . 1 6 In 1864, he moved t o premises on L a n g l e v S t r e e t a t t h e r e a r o f the Bank Exchange ( P l a t e 2.2) and h i r e d and t r a i n e d Noah Shakespeare as h i s a s s i s t a n t . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , Fardon went t o England and l e f t Shakespeare i n charge o f h i s g a l l e r y . He r e t u r n e d t o h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c b u s i n e s s i n V i c t o r i a i n 1 8 6 6 1 7 and remained a t h i s L a n g l e y S t r e e t g a l l e r y u n t i l h i s r e t i r e -18 ment i n t h e e a r l y 1870's. Fardon produced a c o l l e c t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d views t h a t a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n a t the London I n t e r n a t i o n a l 19 E x h i b i t i o n i n 1862; h i s work i n c l u d e d a panorama o f V i c t o r i a t h a t 12. Ralph G r e e n h i l l , E a r l y Photography i n Canada, T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965, p. 53. 13. The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , May 5, 1859, p. 2. 14. F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , V i c t o r i a : Edward M a l l a n d a i n e , 1860. 15. "Government G a z e t t e " , The C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 28, 1862. .16. B r i t i s h Columbian and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863. 17. The C o l o n i s t , J u l y 26, 1866, p. 3. 18. Fardon's name appears i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r 1871, but not i n t h e one f o r 1874. 19. G r e e n h i l l , l o c . c i t . 11 P l a t e 2.2: View o f Yates S t r e e t and V i c t o r i a Harbour, showing a s i g n f o r Fardon's P h o t o q r a p h i c G a l l e r y , 1871. Benjamin F. B a l t z l v , nhotoqraoher PABC 25312 12 appeared as an e n g r a v i n g i n The I l l u s t r a t e d London News t h e f o l l o w i n g 20 21 y e a r . Fardon d i e d a t t h e age o f 80 i n August 1886. 22 C h a r l e s G e n t i l e , a n o t h e r V i c t o r i a p h o tographer o f the mid-1860's ( P l a t e 2.3), v e n t u r e d w i d e l y i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n s e a r c h o f s u b j e c t s and produced some o f t h e e a r l i e s t views o f t h e c e n t r a l I s l a n d and the C a r i b o o . E a r l y i n t h e summer o f 1864, G e n t i l e v i s i t e d t he A l b e r n i a r e a by boat and, upon h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , a d v e r t i s e d "a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f photographs o f the m i l l s , s e t t l e m e n t , s h i p s , dam, l a k e s , l o g g i n g camps and o t h e r o b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h a t v i c i n i t y , i n c l u d i n g 23 some v e r y f i n e views o f Copper Mountain." In August o f the same y e a r , he photographed the g o l d e x c i t e m e n t i n the Leech R i v e r a r e a o f Sooke, and d i s c o v e r e d g o l d h i m s e l f w h i l e washing h i s p l a t e s near Mount 24 Hankin. G e n t i l e photographed t h e w a t e r f a l l s o f the Cascade Range i n March 1865, i n l a t e September, he " a r r i v e d i n C a r i b o o f o r t h e purpose 25 o f t a k i n g views o f the mines." Three weeks l a t e r , he l e f t " f o r the 20. The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, Ja n u a r y 10, 1863. 21. Fardon's o b i t u a r y appeared i n The C o l o n i s t , August 21, 1886. 22. Matthew M a c f i e (Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Rob e r t s and Green, 1865, p. 90) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were f o u r p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n V i c t o r i a i n 1865, but does not name them. P r o b a b l y t h e f o u r were C h a r l e s G e n t i l e , Noah Shakespeare, Hannah Maynard and George Robinson. Spencer had l e f t V i c t o r i a i n 1862 and Fardon was i n England t h a t y e a r . While F r e d e r i c k D a l l y had a r r i v e d by 1865, he d i d not open h i s g a l l e r y u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . 23. The C o l o n i s t , June 28, 1864, p. 3. 24. G e n t i l e ' s Leech R i v e r views were a d v e r t i s e d i n The C o l o n i s t , August 15, 1864, and September 2, 1864. 25. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 30, 1865, p. 3. 13 2.3: G e n t i l e ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1864. PABC 23067 14 lower c o u n t r y . . . p r e p a r e d t o t a k e e i t h e r views o r l i k e n e s s e s on the 26 way." D u r i n g G e n t i l e ' s s t a y , The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d t h a t Governor Seymour had o r d e r e d a s e r i e s o f h i s B r i t i s h Columbia views 27 f o r t h e C a r i b o o L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e ; seven months l a t e r , the e d i t o r s 28 lamented t h a t t h e government had n o t y e t made the p r e s e n t a t i o n . Upon h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , G e n t i l e a t tempted, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o s e l l h i s g a l l e r y and b u s i n e s s . In May 1866, he opened a new 29 g a l l e r y on Government S t r e e t . D u r i n g t h a t summer, he t o u r e d the d i s t r i c t s o f Cowichan, Nanaimo and Comox, and produced some o f t h e f i r s t s t e r e o g r a p h i c views o f t h i s a r e a . Then i n August 1866, G e n t i l e announced h i s impending d e p a r t u r e f o r Europe t o p u b l i s h a s e r i e s o f 30 views. Noah Shakespeare was t o c a r r y on t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e Government S t r e e t g a l l e r y i n h i s absence, but G e n t i l e never r e t u r n e d 31 t o V i c t o r i a . Shakespeare, who had come t o V i c t o r i a i n 1863 a t the age o f 24, was s t i l l l i s t e d as the o p e r a t o r o f G e n t i l e ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c 26. I b i d . , O c t o b e r 14, 1865, p. 3. 27. I b i d . , O c t o b e r 7, 1865, p. 3. 28. I b i d . , May 10, 1866, p. 3. 29. The C o l o n i s t , May 18, 1866, p. 3. 30. I b i d . , August 15, 1866. 31. L i t t l e i s known o f G e n t i l e a f t e r he l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia. He d i e d i n 1893 and was b u r i e d i n C h i c a g o . 15 G a l l e r y i n 1 8 6 8 . ^ A decade l a t e r , he l e f t photography t o e n t e r r e a l e s t a t e and p o l i t i c s . In t h e 1880's, Shakespeare h e l d v a r i o u s prominent p u b l i c o f f i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f Mayor o f V i c t o r i a and Member o f 33 P a r l i a m e n t f o r V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t r e s i d e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r i n t h e I n t e r i o r was L.A. B l a n c , 34 a j e w e l e r , p r e v i o u s l y o f V i c t o r i a . In J u l y 1867, a new a d v e r t i s e -ment i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t B l a n c had opened a g a l l e r y 35 a t R i c h f i e l d and was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e p o r t r a i t s and views. He had i n t e n d e d t o remain f o r a s h o r t time o n l y , but p r o l o n g e d h i s s t a y u n t i l t h e end o f O c t o b e r . The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , he opened h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y i n B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e 2.4) and a d v e r t i s e d " a l l kinds o f photo-36 g r a p h i c and j e w e l r y work, e x e c u t e d i n the h i g h e s t s t y l e o f the a r t . " B l a n c c o n t i n u e d i n b u s i n e s s u n t i l t he B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e o f September 16, 1868. He r e p o r t e d l y s u f f e r e d l o s s e s amounting t o one thousand d o l l a r s , 38 and d i d not re-open h i s g a l l e r y u n t i l l a t e December. Over the n e x t 32. F i r s t V i c t r i a D r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia Guide, V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868. 33. G o s n e l l , op. c i t . , pp. 604-605. 34. B l a n c ' s shop was l o c a t e d a t 96 Government S t r e e t . B r i t i s h Columbian  and V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y , Howard and B a r n e t , 1863. 35. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 11, 1867, p. 2. 36. I b i d . , May 5, 1868, p. 1. 37. "The B u r n i n g o f B a r k e r v i l l e " , I b i d . , September 22, 1868. 38. I b i d . , December 26, 1868. 16 P l a t e 2.4; L.A. B l a n c , P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , B a r k e r v i l l e , c i r c a 1870. L.A. B l a n c , p h o t o g r a p h e r P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada (PAC) C61944 P l a t e 2'.5: D a i l y ' s P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1869 F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , o h o t o g r a p h e r PAC C17807 17 t h r e e y e a r s , B l a n c a d v e r t i s e d photographs o f the houses, b u i l d i n g s , and town o f B a r k e r v i l l e , views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y and m i n i n g c l a i m s , s o u v e n i r s o f V i c t o r i a and Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s and l i k e n e s s e s o f miners and t o w n s f o l k . In August 1871, B l a n c a d v i s e d t h o s e w i n t e r i n g i n the C a r i b o o and " w i s h i n g t o have t h e i r l i k e n e s s e s o r views o f t h e i r houses o r c l a i m s 39 t a k e n " t o c a l l upon him on o r b e f o r e September 15th. He r e t u r n e d t o B a r k e r v i l l e the f o l l o w i n g y e a r and a g a i n , i n August, a d v e r t i s e d a f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n " p h o t o g r a p h i c views o f C a r i b o o . T h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d t h a t Blanc was "compelled t o v i s i t Europe on b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s . " ^ H i s g a l l e r y and views were put up f o r s a l e and 42 the r e m a i n i n g s t o c k was d i s p o s e d o f a t a u c t i o n . H i s subsequent whereabouts and a c t i v i t i e s a r e unknown. Hi s name does not appear as e i t h e r p h otographer o r j e w e l e r i n l a t e r d i r e c t o r i e s , and i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t he r e t u r n e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia. The most v e r s a t i l e and p r o l i f i c o f B r i t i s h Columbia p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n t h e 1860's was F r e d e r i c k D a l l y . Born i n W e l l i n g b o r o u g h , N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e , England i n 1840, "he r e s o l v e d t o v i s i t B r i t i s h 43 Columbia h e a r i n g much o f i t s r e s o u r c e s , " and a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a 39. I b i d . , August 5, 1871, p. 2. 40. I b i d . , August 31, 1872, p. 3. 41. I b i d . , August 10, 1872, p. 3. 42. I b i d . , August 31, 1872, p. 3. 43. L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n , W e l l i n g b o r o u g h , E n g l a n d , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, D a l l y p a p e r s , E/B/D 16.9. 18 on September 18, 1862 a f t e r a voyage o f 149 days aboard the China 44 C l i p p e r " C y c l o n e . " There i s no e v i d e n c e o f D a i l y ' s a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l March 1864, when he l e a s e d t he ground f l o o r o f a b r i c k s t o r e on t he n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f F o r t and Government S t r e e t s f o r f i f t y 45 d o l l a r s a month. In May 1865, D a l l y photographed t he g r e a t assemblage o f Ind i a n s a t the V i c t o r i a Day c e l e b r a t i o n s i n New Westmin s t e r . ' In June 1866, he a d v e r t i s e d h i s new g a l l e r y , i n -f o r m i n g t he p u b l i c t h a t he had r e c e i v e d "by l a t e s t steamer [ p r o b a b l y from San F r a n c i s c o ] e v e r y t h i n g n e c e s s a r y t o the s u c c e s s f u l c a r r y i n g on o f the a r t " and g u a r a n t e e i n g " t o t h o s e who may p a t r o n i z e him p i c t u r e s g i v i n g t h e utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n . " ^ Two months l a t e r , D a l l y accompanied t h e p a r t y o f Governor A.E. Kennedy aboard H.M.S. Scout on a t o u r o f Vancouver I s l a n d and Nootka I s l a n d " f o r the purpose o f 48 v i s i t i n g t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s . " He r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a w i t h 44. D a i l y ' s l o g kept aboard t he " C y c l o n e " from May 5, 1862 t o Seotember 18, 1862 i s h e l d i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B.C., D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m, 45. I n d e n t u r e , March 28, 1864, D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16.9. 46. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m. 47. The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866. 48. "Memoranda o f a t r i p round Vancouver I s l a n d and Nootka I s l a n d on board H.M.S. Scout" August 9, 1866 - August 19, 1866. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16m. Two a r t i c l e s i n The D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) d a t ed October 27, 1963, and November 15, 1970, i n c o r r e c t l y g i v e the date o f t h i s e x p e d i t i o n as August, 1869. 19 o b s e r v a t i o n s and views o f A l b e r n i m i l l s , Ahousat, F r i e n d l y Cove, Q u a t s i n o , Comox and Nanaimo. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , D a l l y t r a v e l l e d t o t h e mining a r e a s o f W i l l i a m s Creek. He a r r i v e d i n B a r k e r v i l l e 40 50 on August 8 t h J and was open f o r b u s i n e s s f o u r days l a t e r . As p l a n n e d , D a l l y remained f o r one month o n l y and on September 11, 1867 he l e f t , by s t a g e , f o r a b r i e f s t a y i n Quesnelmouth b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to V i c t o r i a "by easy s t a g e s so as t o e n a b l e him t o t a k e views o f the 51 most remarkable p l a c e s on t h e r o u t e . " 52 The f o l l o w i n g summer, D a l l y r e t u r n e d to t h e C a r i b o o . He took a l i t t l e o v e r a month t o t r a v e l from V i c t o r i a t o B a r k e r v i l l e and h i s 53 j o u r n e y c o s t f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . Upon h i s a r r i v a l , D a l l y s e t up 5A shop i n the Hotel de France f o r seven weeks ' w h i l e h i s own s t u d i o was b u i l t . On September 6, 1868 The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t he had opened "a f i r s t - c l a s s s t u d i o , a t the back o f Adamson & Hurd's 49. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 8, 1867, p. 3. 50. I b i d . , August 12, 1867, p. 2. 51. I b i d . , September 12, 1867, p. 3. 52. In 1868, D a l l y was l i s t e d i n V i c t o r i a a t h i s F o r t S t r e e t a d d r e s s i n t h e F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia Guide, V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868. 53. D a l l y l e f t n o tes on Y a l e , t he A l e x a n d r i a S u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e , the G r e a t Chasm above C l i n t o n and o t h e r t o p i c s , a b r i e f n a r r a t i v e e n t i t l e d "A Jou r n e y t o W i l l i a m s Creek, C a r i b o o " and a c o l l e c t i o n o f views as a record o f h i s t r i o . D a l l y Daoers, PABC, E/B/D16m. 54. D a l l y noted t h a t board and l o d g i n g c o s t $25.00/week. "A Journey t o W i l l i a m s Creek, C a r i b o o " , D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16m. 20 s t o r e " and was " p r e p a r e d t o do a l l k i n d s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c work on the 55 s h o r t e s t n o t i c e and o f t h e v e r y b e s t q u a l i t y . " D a l l y had been a t h i s new g a l l e r y f o r o n l y two weeks when, on September 16, 1868, i t was r a z e d by t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e . D a l l y wrote "An Account o f the b u r n i n g 56 o f t h e town o f B a r k e r v i l l e i n C a r i b o o , B r i t i s h Columbia" and, a l t h o u g h he s u f f e r e d $1,100 i n l o s s e s i n the c o n f l a g r a t i o n , " 5 7 he managed t o save enough equipment t o photograph the a f t e r m a t h o f the h i s t o r i c e v e n t . D a l l y l e f t t he C a r i b o o t h a t f a l l and by December, was a g a i n i n V i c t o r i a , p r o d u c i n g views f o r s a l e i n h i s F o r t S t r e e t G a l l e r y ( P l a t e 58 2.5). E a r l y i n the f a l l o f 1870, D a l l y d i s p o s e d o f h i s b u s i n e s s t o Green B r o t h e r s and a d v e r t i s e d h i s e n t i r e s t o c k o f B r i t i s h Columbia views and I n d i a n c a r t e s f o r s a l e a t h a l f - p r i c e d u r i n g the month o f 59 September. On O c t o b e r 13th, he s a i l e d f o r San F r a n c i s c o ; from t h e r e , he c r o s s e d the c o n t i n e n t by Union P a c i f i c R a ilway t o P h i l a d e l p h i a 55. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 6, 1868, p. 2. 56. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC E/B/D16m. 57. "Burn ina o f B a r k e r v i l l e , " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 22, 1868. 58. The C o l o n i s t , December 10, 1868. 59. At the same t i m e , D a l l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l o u t s t a n d i n g debts be p a i d on o r b e f o r e the 20th o f the month. The C o l o n i s t , September 6, 1870. j 21 where he began s t u d i e s a t the C o l l e g e o f D e n t i s t r y . u u D a l l y 61 g raduated i n F e b r u a r y 1872 and r e t u r n e d t o England t o e n t e r p r a c t i c e as a d e n t a l surgeon. D e s p i t e h i s new c a r e e r , D a l l y m a i n t a i n e d h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. He i n q u i r e d about a commission as a r e g u l a r l e c t u r e r on North West America w i t h the Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , London; h i s i n q u i r y was p o l i t e l y d i s m i s s e d , a l -though photographs o f the n o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t were s o l i c i t e d f o r 62 e n g r a v i n g s f o r the s o c i e t y ' s p u b l i c a t i o n . D a l l y met some r e s i s t a n c e i n h i s attempts t o p u b l i s h h i s B r i t i s h Columbia photographs and o b s e r v a t i o n s . In 1880,.the D i r e c t o r o f the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d r e f u s e d D a i l y ' s r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n p u b l i s h i n g h i s work, but s u g g e s t e d he c o n t r i b u t e s e c t i o n s t o t h e 63 I n s t i t u t e ' s p e r i o d i c a l from time t o t i m e . D a l l y was a l s o c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t p u b l i s h i n g a book t h r o u g h a commercial p u b l i s h i n g house i n London because o f a g l u t on the market and t h e r e c e n t f a i l u r e o f t h e 60. L e t t e r , D a l l y t o h i s s i s t e r Emma, November 1, 1870.-. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16rc. 61. Programme o f commencement e x e r c i s e s , P h i l a d e l p h i a Dental C o l l e g e , F e b r u a r y 29, 1872. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16.9. 62. L e t t e r , Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t o D a l l y , J u l y 19, 1878. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/C/D16. 63. L e t t e r , John E. P r i c e t o D a l l y , March 17, 1880. D a l l y paDers, PABC, E/C/D16. 22 work of B r i t i s h Columbia t r a v e l l e r s , Mayne and Whymper. '' Neverthe-l e s s , he d i d present an " E x h i b i t i o n of Et h n o l o g i c a l Specimens from 65 B r i t i s h Columbia" to the Anthropological I n s t i t u t e and submitted to the Graphic a c o l l e c t i o n of annotated photographs; he suggested to the e d i t o r that the p i c t u r e s would be appreciated by the j o u r n a l ' s readers "as they are unique and i l l u s t r a t e a l l the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s 66 of t h a t country." In January 1883, D a l l y presented to Queen V i c t o r i a an album of B r i t i s h Columbia views described as " b e a u t i f u l and 67 i n t e r e s t i n g " i n a thankyou note sent to him on Her Majesty's behalf. When D a l l y came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1862, he brought with him l e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n a t t e s t i n g to his "unblemished character" and 68 " l i b e r a l , r e l i g i o u s and moral education." Returning to England, hi s references described him as "a gentleman... accustomed to good 69 s o c i e t y " and "much respected i n V i c t o r i a f o r his p r o b i t y and honorable d i s p o s i t i o n . A s both a pr o f e s s i o n a l photographer and an 64. L e t t e r , Robert Brown to D a l l y , November 25, 1872. Brown papers, PABC, A/E/B81/B81.6. 65. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/C/D16.9. 66. D a l l y a l s o o f f e r e d a map, f u r t h e r information on Indian manners and customs and a d d i t i o n a l views of Indian v i l l a g e s . L e t t e r , D a l l y to E d i t o r , Graphic, D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16m. 67. L e t t e r , Earl o f Kenmare to D a l l y , January 11, 1883. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/C/D16. 68. L e t t e r , Wellingborough, A p r i l 9, 1862. D a l l y paDers, PABC, E/B/D16.9. 69. L e t t e r , Edmund T. Coleman, Olympia, Washington, August 7, 1870. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16.9. 70. L e t t e r , Edmund T. Coleman, August 28, 1870. D a l l y papers, PABC, E/B/D16.9. 23 amateur anthropologist, Dally demonstrated a particular astuteness of observation. Together, his photographs and his written notes clearly document various aspects of Brit ish Columbia in the 1860's -urban and rural l i f e , from Victoria to Barkervil le, the Cariboo Road and i ts wayside inns, goldfields, streetscapes, historic events, prominent people and scenic views, A large part of Daily's business was devoted to views - of scenery, of places and of events "taken in Brit ish Columbia, Puget Sound and on Vancouver I s land. " 7 1 He also pursued a trade in likenesses for which a ready market existed in residents of Victoria and miners and. homesteaders of the Cariboo. Dally was especially interested in the native peoples; although he seldom advertised them, Dally produced a considerable imagery of Indians and their vil lages and le f t written observations to complement his photographs. He was able to photograph the tribes of Vancouver Island as a member of Governor Kennedy's party, the natives of the Fraser on his journeys to and from the Cariboo and the assemblage of chiefs at the 73 New Westminster Victoria Day celebrations. Dally supplemented his 71. The Cariboo Sentinel, September 6, 1868, p. 2. 72. Correspondence concerning the acquisition by the Provincial Archives of Brit ish Columbia of Daily's personal col lection of photographs and papers in.. 1914. Dally papers, PABC, E/D/D16. 73. Dally noted that the chief of the Nincumshins was helpful as a "public relations" man among the Indians, te l l ing them that the photographer was "a great chief and could work wonders with a small piece of glass, face work especially" and that he wanted "pictures to show the great white chief l iv ing a long distance off to show him that the Indians had good hearts towards the white man." cited in Susan Roper "Views of the Cariboo Road and Barkerville Mining Fie lds" , Vancouver Public Library Slide Kit #10, p. 46. 24 own i m p r e s s i o n s w i t h q u o t a t i o n s from the w r i t i n g s o f J.K. L o r d and 74 M i l ton and Cheadle on such s u b j e c t s as f i s h i n g , I n d i a n s and s c e n e r y . Many o f h i s I n d i a n views were used as the b a s i s f o r e n g r a v i n g s i n the Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d Mews i n the 1870''s. The f a c t t h a t h i s photo-graphs and albums found t h e i r way i n t o c o l l e c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia and a c r o s s Canada r e f l e c t s not o n l y a w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n the P a c i f i c n o r t h - w e s t , but a l s o the c r e d i t due t o D a l l y h i m s e l f as a p h o t o g r a p h e r . G.R.. and R.F.. Green agreed t o purchase D a i l y ' s n e g a t i v e s , 8" by 10" camera, frames and showcase f o r $1,131.00 i n September 1870 and 75 promised t o pay w i t h i n e i g h t e e n months. In 1871, t h e y a d v e r t i s e d "a b e a u t i f u l and w e l l a s s o r t e d c o l l e c t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbian views 76 and I n d i a n photographs" and a d v i s e d t h a t " b e f o r e o r d e r i n g Rembrants, the p u b l i c s h o u l d c a l l and examine the p i c t u r e s taken a t the F o r t S t r e e t G a l l e r y by Messrs G r e e n . H o w e v e r , t h e y renegged on t h e i r payments and, i n August 1872, The C o l o n i s t announced t h a t t h e i r camera, 78 equipment and n e g a t i v e s were f o r s a l e a t a u c t i o n . Many o f D a i l y ' s 74. John Keast L o r d , The N a t u r a l i s t i n Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h  Columbia. London: R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 1866. L o r d was n a t u r a l i s t t o the B r i t i s h North American Boundary Commission. 75. T r a n s a c t i o n between G.R. Green and R.E. Green and F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , September 27, 1870. D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D16.9. 76. The C o l o n i s t , F e b r u a r y 15, 1871. 77. - I b i d . , August 4, 1871. 78. I b i d . , August 15, 1872. 25 p l a t e s were then a c q u i r e d by R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard; s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e y were p r i n t e d f o r s a l e w i t h the Maynard''s name and b u s i n e s s address on t h e c a r d b o a r d mount. As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number o f views, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the C a r i b o o Road, which a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Maynards, but which were a c t u a l l y photographed by D a l l y . In 1852, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e , the Maynards e m i g r a t e d from England t o Bowmanville, Canada West, where R i c h a r d opened a boot and shoe b u s i n e s s . Seven y e a r s l a t e r , he came t o B r i t i s h Columbia, 79 " a t t r a c t e d t h i t h e r by the g o l d e x c i t e m e n t . " ' A f t e r moderate s u c c e s s i n p l a c e r - m i n i n g on Hudson's Bar i n t h e F r a s e r and p r o s p e c t i n g i n the S t i k i n e , R i c h a r d d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e on the West Coast and r e t u r n e d t o Bowmanville t o get h i s f a m i l y . In the meantime, Hannah had l e a r n e d photography. In 1861, the Maynards s o l d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the E a s t and, w i t h t h e i r f o u r c h i l d r e n , s a i l e d from New York t o B r i t i s h Columbia by way o f t h e Isthmus o f Panama, Once s e t t l e d i n V i c t o r i a , R i c h a r d Maynard s t a r t e d a boot and shoe b u s i n e s s and h i s w i f e opened a p o r t r a i t s t u d i o on Johnson S t r e e t ( P l a t e 2,6). Busy times and a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s o f Mrs. Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c b u s i n e s s . Upon her r e t i r e m e n t , she noted t h a t miners caught up i n the g o l d e x c i t e m e n t and s a i l o r s o f t h e B r i t i s h P a c i f i c f l e e t based i n E s q u i m a l t were always p a s s i n g t h r o u g h 80 V i c t o r i a and were e v e r eager t o have t h e i r l i k e n e s s e s t a k e n . 79. G o s n e l l , op. c i t . , p. 399. 80. The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , September 29, 1912, p. 10. 26 P l a t e 2.6: R i c h a r d Maynard's Boot and Shoe S t o r e and Hannah Maynard P h o t o g r a p h i c G a l l e r y , n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f Douglas and Johnson s t r e e t s , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1877. PABC 1820 27 D u r i n g t h e 1860's, R i c h a r d l e a r n e d photography from h i s w i f e and developed a t r a d e i n l a n d s c a p e views. He a l s o s e r v e d as o f f i c i a l p h o t o g r a p h e r on v a r i o u s government commissions. In 1873, and p o s s i b l y a g a i n i n 1874, R i c h a r d Maynard accompanied t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s on h i s t o u r o f the West Co a s t t r i b e s aboard H.M.S. Boxer. The 1873 voyage v i s i t e d New Westminster f o r the May 24th I n d i a n ceremonies and t h e n proceeded t o Nanaimo, Comox, K n i g h t I n l e t , F o r t R u p e r t , Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound, F i t z h u g h Sound, S a f e t y Cove, B e l l a C o o l a , F o r t M c L a u g h l i n and A l e r t Bay. L a t e i n the 1870's, Maynard produced a s e r i e s o f photographs from h i s t r a v e l s up the C a r i b o o Road, and i n 1881, he photographed the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way t h r o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1884, R i c h a r d j o i n e d an e x p l o r a t i o n p a r t y t o the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , r e c o r d i n g Haida v i l l a g e s and t h e Nass R i v e r f i s h e r y ; f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , he a g a i n went n o r t h t o the Queen C h a r l o t t e s , t h i s time accompanied by h i s w i f e . R i c h a r d t r a v e l l e d up the c o a s t once more i n the e a r l y 1890's when he was a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l p h o tographer t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l commission i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s t o s e a l i n g r i g h t s i n the North P a c i f i c . H i s photographs o f the s e a l r o o k e r i e s o f the P r i b y l o f f I s l a n d s were s e n t t o P a r i s and used i n the a r b i t r a t i o n o f the c o n t r o -81 v e r s y . A s p e c i a l e d i t i o n o f The C o l o n i s t i n A p r i l 1896 noted R i c h a r d Maynard's s u s t a i n e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n V i c t o r i a ' s b u s i n e s s community o v e r 81. Maynard r e p o r t e d l y had a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f b l a c k diamonds which he found on the P r i b y l o f f I s l a n d s i n 1892. The C o l o n i s t , November 1, 1898, p. 8. 28 t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . D u r i n g the 1870's and 1880's, R i c h a r d pursued h i s boot b u s i n e s s a l o n g s i d e h i s photography. In 1896, t h i s e n t e r -p r i s e , then managed by h i s son A l b e r t , "embraced a f u l l l i n e o f b o o t s , shoes, l e a t h e r and shoe f i n d i n g s , p h o t o g r a p h i c a p p a r a t u s and s u p p l i e s " the t r a d e , both w h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l , extended t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e The Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y , i n the same b u i l d i n g as the shoe b u s i n e s s on Pandora S t r e e t , was the o l d e s t one i n V i c t o r i a . The news-paper a l s o noted t h a t a l l k i n d s o f photographs were t a k e n , but t h a t s p e c i a l t y was made " o f the b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y which abounds i n t h i s 84 neighbourhood." Toward the end o f the c e n t u r y , the Pandora S t r e e t s t u d i o began t o s e r v e y e t a n o t h e r c l i e n t e l e when the Maynards were commissioned t o photograph p r i s o n e r s f o r the V i c t o r i a p o l i c e d e p a r t -85 ment. R i c h a r d Maynard r e t i r e d i n 1906; he d i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . H i s w i f e remained i n b u s i n e s s u n t i l 1912; Hannah Maynard d i e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1918 a t the age o f 84. The Maynards ( P l a t e 2.7) perhaps more than any o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h e r i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia a c h i e v e d wide r e c o g n i t i o n . To l a t e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a , t h e name o f R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard was synonymous w i t h t h e a r t and t r a d e o f photography. The reasons f o r t h i s i n c l u d e t h e i r e a r l y b e g i n n i n g , t h e i r s u s t a i n e d endeavours i n one p l a c e and t h e i r d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s . Hannah took i n d i v i d u a l l i k e n e s s e s 82. I b i d . , A p r i l 5, 1896, p..8. 83. I b i d . 84. I b i d . 85. The V i c t o r i a n , F e b r u a r y 21, 1973, p. 20. " Y e s t e r d a y and Today". #196 d e s c r i b e s the b r i c k ^ b u i l d i n g on Pandora S t r e e t . 29 P l a t e 2.7: R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard. C a r t e - d e - v i s i t e . PABC 56736 30 and f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s - , R i c h a r d photographed o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s , meetings and ceremonies f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government. Both t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e t o r e c o r d i t s s c e n i c beauty. They produced s i n g l e p r i n t s and album c o l l e c t i o n s ; some Maynard photographs were used i n newspapers, magazines and books. Perhaps one o f the b e s t r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s was the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work. B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r i a n R.E. G o s n e l l gave h i s a s s u r a n c e t h a t " a l l t h e photography b e a r i n g t h e Maynard i m p r i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t i n t h a t a r t . " 8 6 Photographs o f B r i t i s h Columbia were a l s o taken i n the 1870's and 1880's i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Canadian government s u r v e y s . In 1871, A l f r e d Selwyn, D i r e c t o r o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, l e d a su r v e y t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i n c e ; h i s p a r t y i n c l u d e d Benjamin B a l t z l y and 87 John Hammond o f W i l l i a m Notman's p h o t o g r a p h i c f i r m . T h e i r work, c o m p r i s i n g t h i r t y - s i x 8 by 10 s i n g l e and e i g h t y - f o u r s t e r e o s c o p i c views " o f V i c t o r i a and b o l d and grand s c e n e r y , from Y a l e t o Kamloop[s], 88 and a l o n g North Thompson R i v e r t o Moose Lake" was used t o i l l u s t r a t e Selwyn's j o u r n a l and r e p o r t ; t h e views were a l s o p u b l i s h e d as p a r t o f 89 W i l l i a m Notman's c o l l e c t i o n o f Canadian sc e n e s . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n 86. G o s n e l l , op. c i t , , p. 400. 87. B a l t z l y and Hammond were p a i d and equipped by the Notman photo-g r a p h i c f i r m , but t h e i r t r a v e l expenses were p a i d by the Govern-ment o f Canada. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 5, 1871. 88. The C o l o n i s t , November 30, 1871, p. 3.' 89. G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , p. 56. 31 o f t h e s u r v e y , B a l t z l y remained i n V i c t o r i a f o r one week t o r e c e i v e o r d e r s from the p u b l i c p r i o r t o h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r San F r a n c i s c o . In t h e summer o f 1875, C h a r l e s H o r e t z s k y , f o r m e r l y a c l e r k and 90 amateur photographer w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company, produced a s e r i e s o f photographs a l o n g t h e proposed Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y 91 n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s r o u t e , i n c l u d i n g a n n o t a t e d views o f the Homathko 92 R i v e r and Bute I n l e t . O t h e r p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia were l e f t by G.M. Dawson o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada i n the 1870's and 1880's, by t h e North American Boundary Commission, 1872-°3 1875, and by E. D e v i l l e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886." In 1884, t h e Notman f i r m was commissioned t o photograph the f i n a l phases o f Canadian P a c i f i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e west. A p r i v a t e r a i l w a y coach was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a darkroom and h a u l e d t o the western end o f t r a c k t o e n a b l e Notman's sons t o r e c o r d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the K i c k i n g Horse 94 Pass s e c t i o n o f t r a c k . 90. G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , p. 52. 91. N o t a t i o n s i n c l u d e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , magnetic b e a r i n g , s u r v e y s t a t i o n s and t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f n o t e . 92. Two albums o f H o r e t z s k y 1 s views a r e housed i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s P a c i f i c R a ilway Survey c o n t a i n s some f i f t y views a l o n g the e a s t and west branches o f the Homathko R i v e r t a k e n between June and September, 1875. A second c o l l e c t i o n o f s e v e n t y - f i v e photographs a l s o i n c l u d e s more than twenty o f h i s e a r l i e r photographs o f t h e Peace R i v e r p o s t o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company, Saskatchewan I n d i a n s and O n t a r i o s c e n e r y . 93. Views on C P . Railway i s an album o f e i g h t y - o n e photographs taken by D e v i l l e i n 1886 and h e l d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 94. Notman h i m s e l f n e v e r v i s i t e d w estern Canada. J . R u s s e l l H arper and S t a n l e y T r i g g s ( e d . ) , " H i s t o r y o f the W i l l i a m Notman P h o t o g r a p h i c F i r m " , P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Notman Photographs 1856  to 1915, M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967, unpaged. 32 There a r e a g r e a t many photographs which bear no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i t i s beyond the purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r a u t h o r s h i p . Some may have been taken by the p h o t o g r a p h e r s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d ; many may be a s c r i b e d t o o t h e r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photo-g r a p h e r s who c o n c e n t r a t e d on p o r t r a i t u r e o r who d i d not i d e n t i f y t h e i r work. In r e s t r i c t i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n t o the p i o n e e r p e r i o d o f development t h a t ended w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , t h i s s t u d y e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s the work o f e a r l y Vancouver p h o t o g r a p h e r s , By no means a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia have been d i s c u s s e d . Rather t h i s r e view emphasizes the more prominent p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f the w e t - p l a t e e r a . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h o s e who o p e r a t e d s t u d i o s i n V i c t o r i a and i n B a r k e r v i l l e and who a d v e r t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n The C o l o n i s t and The  C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were o t h e r p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s , none began as e a r l y and o p e r a t e d as l o n g as Spencer and Fardon. G e n t i l e , B l a n c and D a l l y m e r i t a t t e n t i o n as t h o s e most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d ' o f B r i t i s h Columbia's emerging human l a n d -s c a p e s . No s t u d y o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o u l d o v e r l o o k R i c h a r d and Hannah Maynard whose work o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y was unsur-passed f o r i t s s h e e r volume, v a r i e d format and d i v e r s e s u b j e c t s . T o g e t h e r , t h e work o f t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h e r s comprises t h e b u l k o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d t o which t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a d d r e s s e d . CHAPTER 3 PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY IN EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photographs cannot be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d a p a r t from t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t c r e a t e d them. E a r l y p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y imposed both p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c c o n s t r a i n t s on p i o n e e r photo-g r a p h e r s and t h e i r work. Some knowledge o f the development, equipment, p r o c e d u r e s , v a r i a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the e a r l y p r o c e s s e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l photographs. A d v e r t i s e -ments i n B r i t i s h Columbia newspapers and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d elsewhere c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t e d between p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and p h o t o g r a p h e r s , g a l l e r i e s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s and p u b l i s h e r s i n London, San F r a n c i s c o , New York, M o n t r e a l and e l s e w h e r e . Such c o n n e c t i o n s meant exposure t o new equipment, new t e c h n i q u e s and new i d e a s . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia was an i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y North America, i t s photography d i d not d e v e l o p i n i s o l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , an o v e r -view o f photography i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia may be g a i n e d from two s o u r c e s : h i s t o r i e s o f photography p r e s e n t the g e n e r a l developments; p h o t o g r a p h e r s ' a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and e d i t o r s ' comments i n such newspapers as The C o l o n i s t and The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e v e a l s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . T o g e t h e r t h e y p r o v i d e a t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t f o r examining the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n the f i e l d s o f o p t i c s and c h e m i s t r y d u r i n g the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c u l m i n a t e d i n the 33 34 development o f the e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c a b l e p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s e s . In 1839, i n F r a n c e , L o u i s Jacques Mande Daguerre (1789-1851) announced a method f o r f i x i n g a l i g h t image t o a s i l v e r - p l a t e d s h e e t o f copper. The r e s u l t was a s m a l l , b r i l l i a n t , i n f i n i t e l y - d e t a i l e d " d a g u e r r e o t y p e " ; one exposure y i e l d e d a s i n g l e , n o n - r e p r o d u c i b l e image w i t h the u n i q u e -ness o f an o r i g i n a l work o f a r t . The d a g u e r r e o t y p e was the most i m p o r t a n t p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s f o r about f i f t e e n y e a r s , r e a c h i n g i t s heyday i n North America i n t h e e a r l y 1850's. N e c e s s a r i l y l o n g ex-p o s u r e s r e s t r i c t e d i t s f i r s t use t o s t i l l - l i f e s , l a n d s c a p e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c e n e s , but w i t h e a r l y improvements i t soon became most p o p u l a r as a p o r t r a i t medium. In 1841, i n E n g l a n d , W i l l i a m Henry Fox T a l b o t (1800-1877) p a t e n t e d a two-step p r o c e s s which permanently r e c o r d e d . a n image on paper. The c a l o t y p e , o r T a l b o t y p e method i n v o l v e d t h e use o f s e n s i t i z e d w r i t i n g paper t o make a n e g a t i v e image which c o u l d then s e r v e as a f i l t e r t hrough which a n o t h e r s h e e t o f s e n s i t i z e d paper was exposed. T h i s second s t e p r e v e r s e d t h e t o n a l v a l u e s and produced a p o s i t i v e image. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the n e g a t i v e was unique, but from i t , any number o f p r i n t s c o u l d be produced. I t was t h i s n e g a t i v e - p o s i t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t became the b a s i s o f modern photography. However, because o f p a t e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on T a l b o t ' s p r o c e s s , Daguerre's method was used more e x t e n s i v e l y and the c a l o t y p e never a t t a i n e d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f the d a g u e r r e o t y p e . By 1858, when photography was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia, the d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e p r o c e s s e s were v i r t u a l l y o b s o l e t e . A l t h o u g h 35 p i o n e e r Stephen Spencer a d v e r t i s e d h i m s e l f as a " D a g u e r r e i a n A r t i s t " i n 1859, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t e i t h e r o f t h e s e e a r l y p r o c e s s e s was used much i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y used i n the c o l o n y was p r o b a b l y 2 the c o l l o d i o n . o r " w e t - p l a t e " p r o c e s s . Developed i n 1851 by F r e d e r i c k S c o t t A r c h e r (1813-1857) i t f i x e d a l i g h t s e n s i t i v e emulsion t o g l a s s . A c l e a n s h e e t o f g l a s s was c o a t e d e v e n l y (a t e c h n i q u e r e q u i r i n g some s k i l l ) w i t h c o l l o d i o n - g u n - c o t t o n d i s s o l v e d i n e t h e r and a l c o h o l -and then i o d i z e d . The p l a t e was made l i g h t s e n s i t i v e i n a s o l u t i o n o f s i l v e r n i t r a t e and, w h i l e s t i l l wet, was exposed i n a camera. I t was then promptly removed, d e v e l o p e d i n p y r o g a l l i c a c i d o r f e r r o u s s u l p h a t e and f i x e d i n hypo o r p o t a s s i u m c y a n i d e s o l u t i o n . The r e s u l t was a c o l l o d i o n g l a s s n e g a t i v e . T h i s method was as f a s t as D a g u e r r e ' s , i t produced a more permanent image, i t was much l e s s e x p e n s i v e and i t gave more c l a r i t y , g r e a t e r d e t a i l and b e t t e r t o n a l g r a d a t i o n . L i k e T a l b o t ' s two-step t e c h n i q u e , i t a l l o w e d m u l t i p l e p r i n t s from a s i n g l e n e g a t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , the absence o f p a t e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s made i t u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e . W e t - p l a t e photography q u i c k l y a t t a i n e d u n d i s -puted prominence o v e r the d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e p r o c e s s e s . The c o l l o d i o n g l a s s n e g a t i v e was p r e p a r e d f o r s a l e o r p r i n t e d i n a number o f ways. Mounted a g a i n s t b l a c k paper, c a r d b o a r d , v e l v e t , 1, The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859. A y e a r l a t e r , Spencer a d v e r t i s e d h i m s e l f as an " a m b r o t y p i s t and p h o t o g r a p h i s t " i n The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, I860. 2. Three y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , a p r o c e s s f o r d e p o s i t i n g s i l v e r s a l t s on g l a s s u s i n g an albumen base had been p u b l i s h e d , but i t s slow speed l i m i t e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y . 36 p a t e n t l e a t h e r , o i l - c l o t h o r m e t a l , t he t o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e cream-grey image were r e v e r s e d . The r e s u l t i n g p o s i t i v e , o r ambrotype as i t was known i n America, was matted and bound i n a s p e c i a l c a s e . P o p u l a r i n e a s t e r n Canada around 1860 and seldom made t h e r e a f t e r 1865, ambrotypes were s t i l l a d v e r t i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h r o u g h -4 o u t t he 1860's and as l a t e as 1870. A m o d i f i c a t i o n , v a r i o u s l y known as a t i n t y p e , f e r r o t y p e o r m e l a i n o t y p e , was a c o l l o d i o n p o s i t i v e made d i r e c t l y on t h i n , g l o s s y b l a c k i r o n p l a t e s . S t u r d y enough t o send t h r o u g h t he m a i l , t h e s e p l a t e s were p o p u l a r even i n t o t he t w e n t i e t h 5 c e n t u r y . F a r more e x t e n s i v e l y used were c o n t a c t p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t produced paper p o s i t i v e s from w e t - p l a t e n e g a t i v e s u s i n g v a r i o u s p r i n t - o u t papers. U n t i l about 1854, paper t r e a t e d w i t h common s a l t and s i l v e r n i t r a t e s o l u t i o n was p l a c e d under t h e n e g a t i v e and l e f t i n s u n l i g h t . The image t h a t appeared needed o n l y t o be f i x e d . Albumen paper, d e v e l o p e d i n 1850 by L o u i s B l a n q u a r t - E v a r d was the most w i d e l y used p r i n t - o u t paper u n t i l about 1890. Paper was c o a t e d w i t h an em u l s i o n o f egg-white, p o t a s s i u m i o d i d e and s e n s i t i z e d s i l v e r s a l t s . A f t e r exposure t o f u l l s u n l i g h t t h r o u g h a n e g a t i v e , t h e p r i n t was washed, t o n e d , washed, f i x e d , 3. G r e e n h i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 30-31; Harper and T r i g g s ( e d . ) , l o c . c i t . , unpaged, 4. Ambrotypes were o f f e r e d by Stephen Spencer i n The V i c t o r i a Weekly  G a z e t t e , August 4, 1860; F r e d e r i c k D a l l y a d v e r t i s e d ambrotypes i n th e F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia Guide, V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868; L.A. B l a n c s t i l l a d v e r t i s e d them i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l as l a t e as August 13, 1870, p. 2. 5. G r e e n h i l l , l o c . c i t . 37 washed and d r i e d . P r e p a r e d i n advance, albumen paper was mass-produced and s o l d c o m m e r c i a l l y . The problem o f f a d i n g prompted e f f o r t s t o f i n d a more permanent pigment. Carbon was t r i e d i n the l a t e 1860's: p l a t i n u m paper a t t a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y from t h e l a t e 1870's u n t i l World War I made i t s c o s t p r o h i b i t i v e . The w e t - p l a t e camera brought t o B r i t i s h Columbia was e s s e n t i a l l y a l i g h t - t i g h t box w i t h a s i m p l e l e n s a t one end. Some were manufactured c o m m e r c i a l l y , o t h e r s were homemade. They were l a r g e , heavy and cumbersome. The average view camera t h a t produced 8 by 10 i n c h p l a t e s weighed about t h i r t y pounds. L a r g e r cameras sometimes weighed up t o t h r e e times t h a t much. A t r i p o d was e s s e n t i a l . At the back o f the camera was a p i e c e o f ground g l a s s upon which t he image was f o c u s e d ; a b l a c k c l o t h was used as a hood t o e l i m i n a t e e x t r a n e o u s l i g h t and make f o c u s i n g e a s i e r . To t a k e a photograph, the ground g l a s s was r e p l a c e d w i t h a l i g h t s e n s i t i v e p l a t e ; e a r l y e m u l s i o n s were not f a s t enough t o r e q u i r e a s h u t t e r . By modern s t a n d a r d s , exposure times were l o n g . To t a k e a photo-g r a p h , t h e l e n s was s i m p l y uncapped and r e c a p p e d , t h e i n t e r v a l d e t e r m i n e d by t r i a l and e r r o r . S u b j e c t s photographed o u t d o o r s on a b r i g h t c l e a r day r e q u i r e d exposure times o f t e n t o f i f t e e n seconds; under t he most f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s and i f f r e s h l y made c o l l o d i o n were used, as l i t t l e as f i v e seconds might be n e c e s s a r y . Because c a r t e s and s t e r e o -views used s m a l l e r n e g a t i v e s , t h e y c o u l d be made by s h o r t exposures u s i n g l e n s e s o f s h o r t f o c a l l e n g t h and wide a p e r t u r e . Toward t he end o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a , v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e f o r m u l a f o r s e n s i t i z i n g p l a t e s r e s u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r exposure t i m e s . 38 A l l p i c t u r e s were take n i n n a t u r a l l i g h t , making s t u d i o p o r t -r a i t u r e p o s s i b l e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e use o f g l a s s s k y l i g h t s . Indoor exposures were n e c e s s a r i l y l o n g e r ; t imes ranged from f i f t e e n seconds t o more than one minute d u r i n g t he 1870's. Head and back r e s t s were employed t o keep the s u b j e c t r i g i d . Long s i t t i n g s made i t e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o photograph c h i l d r e n ; s u c c e s s f u l p o r t r a i t s r e q u i r e d good l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , t h e w i d e s t l e n s a p e r t u r e p o s s i b l e , l i b e r a l amounts o f candy and a p a t i e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r . Stephen Spencer made i t known t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o undergo such an o r d e a l , a d v e r t i s i n g " p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o o b t a i n i n g p i c t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n . " 6 The r e f r a c t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s imposed p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s on c o l l o d i o n photography. The p r i m a r y c o n s t r a i n t l a y i n the f a c t t h a t t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e emuls i o n l a s t e d o n l y as l o n g as the p l a t e remained wet. I f the c o a t i n g d r i e d , the s i l v e r n i t r a t e c r y s t a l l i z e d and t h e d e v e l o p e r c o u l d not a c t on the hardened c o l l o d i o n . The need t o p r e p a r e and d e v e l o p w e t - p l a t e n e g a t i v e s i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e and a f t e r exposure e n t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n v e n i e n c e d u r i n g work o u t s i d e the s t u d i o . E x c u r s i o n s r e q u i r e d a p o r t a b l e darkroom,^ a c h e s t o f c h e m i c a l s , boxes o f g l a s s p l a t e s and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f f r e s h w a t e r , 6. The C o l o n i s t , J a n u a r y 15, 1852. 7. P o r t a b l e darkrooms ranged from t e n t s t o c a r t s t o r a i l w a y c o aches. A t y p i c a l p o r t a b l e d a r k - t e n t was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 h f e e t square and s i x f e e t h i g h , c o n s t r u c t e d o f c l o s e l y - w o v e n , d o u b l e - t h i c k n e s s , dark b l u e denim, l i n e d w i t h a b l a c k o i l c l o t h s h i e l d . 39 i n a d d i t i o n t o cumbersome cameras, l e n s e s and t r i p o d s . A l l t h i s photo-g r a p h i c p a r a p h e r n a l i a 8 had t o be c a r r i e d everywhere, unpacked and repacked a t each l o c a t i o n . I t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s had t o contend w i t h problems o f h e a t , c o l d , wind, d u s t , r a i n and i n s e c t s , t o say n o t h i n g o f the noxious fumes o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c c h e m i c a l s . On o c c a s i o n , D a l l y 9 had t o contend w i t h h o s t i l e I n d i a n s and menancing e a g l e s ; h i s n o t e s d e s c r i b e s e v e r a l e n c o u n t e r s w i t h r a t t l e s n a k e s : A t t h i s p o i n t [ L i t t l e B l u f f on the Thompson R i v e r ] , I had t o t a k e two views as a r a t t l e r happened t o be under the s t o n e t h a t I r e s t e d my p l a t e a g a i n s t t o d r y i t i n the sun, and l i c k e d t h e water o f f , marking the p l a t e from the t o p t o t h e bottom w i t h i t s f o r k e d tongue.10 The p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f w e t - p l a t e photography had a e s t h e t i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s which a r e i m p o r t a n t t o an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d . The n e c e s s i t y o f p r e p a r i n g a g l a s s p l a t e i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e exposure imposed a d e l i b e r a t e n e s s on the p r a c t i c e o f photography. 8. The equipment c a r r i e d by American p h o t o g r a p h e r W i l l i a m H. J a c k s o n i s l i s t e d i n Robert T a f t ' s Photography and t h e American Scene: A  S o c i a l H i s t o r y , 1839-1889, New York: M a c M i l l a n , 1938, p. 309. R i c h a r d Huyda has appended a l i s t o f equipment taken a c r o s s the Canadian p r a i r i e s i n 1858 by Humphrey L l o y d Hime i n Camera i n t h e  I n t e r i o r : 1858, T o r o n t o : The Coach House P r e s s , 1975, pp. 30-31. 9. A n o t a t i o n accompanying a view o f the G r e a t Chasm r e a d s : "When t a k i n g t h i s view ( a l l a l o n e ) two e a g l e s came t o a t t a c k me, but I managed t o d r i v e them o f f " , PABC 79708, F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Photo- g r a p h i c Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1867-1870, V o l . 2, p. 23. 10. PABC 10242, I b i d . , V o l . 5, p. 44. 40 Under such c o n d i t i o n s , "photography was a c o n c e p t u a l a r t ; the c o n t e n t o f the p i c t u r e was determined minutes b e f o r e the exposure was made."1''' Sub s e q u e n t l y the need t o d e v e l o p t h e p l a t e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r exposure p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t a k i n g s e v e r a l photographs i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n o r o f c a p t u r i n g a sequence o f e v e n t s . Too much time and e f f o r t were i n t e r p o s e d between t h e s e e i n g and t h e r e c o r d i n g o f a com-p o s i t i o n t o make c o l l o d i o n photography a c a n d i d , haphazard p r o c e d u r e . C o n t a c t p r i n t i n g a l s o encouraged e f f i c i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n . The s i z e o f p r i n t s was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y . Englargements were v i r t u a l l y unknown. P o s i t i v e s were c o n t a c t p r i n t e d and t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f the n e g a t i v e determined t h o s e o f t h e p r i n t . A d e s i r e f o r l a r g e photographs n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e use o f l a r g e r , h e a v i e r , more cumbersome cameras. With a l l the work i n v o l v e d i n a s i n g l e c o l l o d i o n n e g a t i v e , each p l a t e was p r e c i s e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y composed t o r e q u i r e as l i t t l e c r o p p i n g as p o s s i b l e . The c o l l o d i o n n e g ative/albumen p o s i t i v e format was t h e b a s i s o f two p h o t o g r a p h i c vogues o f the 1860's; both were commonly o f f e r e d by e a r l y p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C a r t e s - d e - v i s i t e were m i n i a t u r e p o r t r a i t s t h a t were mounted on 2 h by 4 i n c h c a r d s and 11. John S z a r k o w s k i , L o o k i n g a t Photographs. New York: The Museum o f Modern A r t , 1973, p. 28. 12. The view camera used by American p h o t o g r a p h e r F. J a y Haynes t o produce 20 by 24 inch:, p l a t e s weighed 92 h. pounds, e x c l u s i v e o f e i t h e r p l a t e o r h o l d e r . To photograph t h e Grand Canyon, he had i t and a l l h i s o t h e r equipment h a u l e d t o . t h e bottom o f the canyon and back up a g a i n . Freeman T i l den, F o l l o w i n g the F r o n t i e r w i t h  F, J a y Haynes. New York: Knopf, 1964, p. 405. 41 d i s t r i b u t e d t o f a m i l y and f r i e n d s o r p l a c e d i n t o albums f o r p a r l o u r d i s p l a y . Some ph o t o g r a p h e r s used a m u l t i - l e n s camera w i t h movable p l a t e - h o l d e r t h a t c o u l d produce as many as a dozen frames on a f u l l 6 h by 8 h i n c h p l a t e . A s i n g l e n e g a t i v e , when p r i n t e d , then y i e l d e d a number o f p o r t r a i t s t h a t were c u t and p a s t e d onto i n d i v i d u a l c a r d s . Shakespeare a d v e r t i s e d "the f a r - f a m e d and j u s t l y p o p u l a r c a r t e s - d e -v i s i t e " ^ and B l a n c o f f e r e d c a r t e s , " b o t h p l a i n and e n a m e l l e d . " ^ 15 P a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r as i n e x p e n s i v e p o r t r a i t s , c a r t e s were i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s which l i s t e d t h e formats t h a t p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f f e r e d . 16 The o t h e r f a d o f the 1860's was the s t e r e o g r a p h i c view. Based on p r i n c i p l e s o f b i n o c u l a r v i s i o n , two s l i g h t l y o f f s e t p r i n t s were 13. F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia Guide, V i c t o r i a : E. M a l l a n d a i n e , 1868, p. 86. 14. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 13, 1870, p. ?,. 15. In Europe, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i n t e r e s t i n c a r t e s was not l i m i t e d t o l i k e n e s s e s o f one's f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . The c r a z e t o c o l l e c t m i n i a t u r e p o r t r a i t s o f r o y a l t y and c e l e b r i t i e s began i n France i n 1859 w i t h D i s d e r i ' s c a r t e s o f Napoleon I I I and i n England i n 1860 w i t h M a y a l l ' s photographs o f V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t . These and o t h e r p r i n t s were mass-produced f o r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n and s o l d c h e a p l y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o albums. 16. E a r l i e r d a g u e r r e o t y p e and c a l o t y p e s t e r e o g r a p h s were s i m p l y t o o e x p e n s i v e t o g a i n w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i t y . The r e f l e c t i n g s t e r e o -scope t h a t was r e q u i r e d was a l s o v e r y c o s t l y t o produce; however, i n 1849, the l e n t i c u l a r s t e r e o s c o p e , a l e s s e x p e n s i v e v i e w i n g d e v i c e , was d e v e l o p e d . The advent o f c o l l o d i o n photography i n 1851 e x p e d i t e d t h e cheap m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n o f paper f o r m a t , c a r d -mounted s t e r e o g r a p h s . 42 viewed through a d e v i c e known as a s t e r e o s c o p e t o produce a s i n g l e image w i t h t h e r e a l i s t i c s e n s a t i o n o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . ^ The impact o f s t e r e o g r a p h y on the p u b l i c i m a g i n a t i o n "was second o n l y to t h e e x c i t e m e n t g e n e r a t e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e d a g u e r r e o t y p e . 1 , 1 8 S t e r e o c a r d s p r o v i d e d not o n l y an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , but a l s o an e n t e r t a i n i n g d i v e r s i o n . In Europe, p h o t o g r a p h e r s were se n t f a r and wide by s t e r e o c a r d companies t o produce views o f e x o t i c l a n d s , h i s t o r i c e v e n t s and n a t u r a l wonders. In B r i t i s h Columbia, B a r k e r v i l l e p h o t o g r a p h e r L,A. B l a n c r e p e a t e d l y a d v e r t i s e d "views o f groups, m i n i n g 19 c l a i m s , houses, e t c . , s i n g l e and s t e r e o s c o p i c . S t e r e o g r a p h y was a r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e p a s t - t i m e and the s t e r e o s c o p e and box o f s t e r e o c a r d s q u i c k l y became a u b i q u i t o u s f e a t u r e o f the V i c t o r i a n drawing room. Yet by the 1870's, the p u b l i c e n t h u s i a s m f o r c a r t e s and s t e r e o c a r d s had waned and new, l a r g e r format p r i n t s had been i n t r o d u c e d . 17. The same scene was photographed from s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s , r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e human eye. A camera f i t t e d w i t h two l e n s e s e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e d the use o f two cameras s i d e by s i d e o r o f a s i n g l e camera moved s l i g h t l y between e x p o s u r e s ; the r e s u l t a n t d o u b l e image on a s i n g l e n e g a t i v e f a c i l i t a t e d t he p r o d u c t i o n o f s t e r e o c a r d s . 18. Harper and T r i g g s ( e d . ) , l o c . c i t . , unpaged. Much o f the i n i t i a l appeal o f the s t e r e o g r a p h stemmed from Queen V i c t o r i a ' s i n t e r e s t e x p r e s s e d a t the London I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n o f 1851. 19. B l a n c ran t h i s n o t i c e i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l c l a s s i f i e d s e c t i o n from August 13, 1870 t o September 17, 1870. 43 From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a , attempts were made t o p r e s e r v e the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the c o l l o d i o n e m u l s i o n . Many t e c h n i q u e s were dev e l o p e d i n t h e mid-1850's, and, as e a r l y as 1858, d r y p l a t e s were manufactured c o m m e r c i a l l y i n England. The f i r s t p r a c t i c a l g e l a t i n e d r y p l a t e appeared i n 1873; however, t h e s e e a r l y e m u l s i o n s were f a r too slow and d i d not become p o p u l a r because o f the g r e a t e r exposure times t h a t were r e q u i r e d . Not u n t i l t he 1880's d i d improve-ments s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e the speed o f dry p l a t e s t o p e r m i t exposures o f l e s s than one second. As the s e n s i t i v i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e s c o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l months, t h e y were mass-produced and marketed ready f o r use. Furthermore d r y p l a t e s d i d not r e q u i r e d e v e l o p i n g immediately a f t e r e x p osure. They made photography e a s i e r and more c o n v e n i e n t by f r e e i n g the photographer from the cumbersome p a r a p h e r n a l i a , r e f r a c t o r y p r o c e d u r e s and time d e l a y s o f the c o l l o d i o n p r o c e s s . Photography became a spontaneous a c t i o n . The photographer c o u l d make c o n s e c u t i v e exposures i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n through a sequence o f e v e n t s o r from v a r i o u s a n g l e s . F a s t e m u l s i o n s l e d t o the use o f s m a l l e r , l e s s c o n s p i c u o u s cameras complete w i t h s h u t t e r , m u l t i p l e p l a t e magazine and t r a n s p o r t mechanism. They p e r m i t t e d p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o c a p t u r e unposed scenes o f human a c t i v i t y and s t o p the a c t i o n o f i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . The r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f the d r y p l a t e p r o c e s s made photography more a c c e s s i b l e t o the amateur and t u r n e d a t r a d e i n t o a hobby. Camera equipment and handbook g u i d e s , o u t f i t s f o r t a k i n g photographs and k i t s f o r p r i n t i n g them h e l p e d t o c a r r y photography toward i t s u l t i m a t e r o l e as the u n i v e r s a l p i c t u r e -making p r o c e s s . A 44 The f i n a l s t e p i n t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f photography came i n 1888 w i t h George Eastman's i n v e n t i o n o f t h e Kodak. More than any o t h e r development, t h i s s mall hand-held, f i x e d - f o c u s camera ushered i n the age o f modern photography. I t p o p u l a r i z e d the a r t and made t h e means a v a i l a b l e t o everyone. The use o f p l a t e s was l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d : i n s t e a d , paper c o a t e d w i t h g e l a t i n o - b r o m i d e e m u l s i o n was r o l l e d on a s p o o l , A camera was p u r c h a s e d , l o a d e d w i t h 100 e x p o s u r e s , p r o c e s s i n g p r e - p a i d . A f t e r use, the unopened Kodak was r e t u r n e d t o t h e f a c t o r y , the f i l m was d e v e l o p e d and p r i n t e d and the p i c t u r e s were r e t u r n e d t o the customer a l o n g w i t h the camera and a f r e s h r o l l o f f i l m . In 1889, t r a n s p a r e n t r o l l f i l m was i n t r o d u c e d so t h a t i t was no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o send t h e camera t o t h e f a c t o r y f o r p r o c e s s i n g . F i n a l l y , i n the 1890's, the f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e modern photomechanical r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s a l l o w e d p h o t o g r a p h i c image and p r i n t e d t e x t t o be r e p r o d u c e d on the same page c l e a r l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y and a r e v o l u t i o n i n communications ensued. At the same t i m e , photo-g r a p h i c v a l u e s were b e g i n n i n g t o change. F i n e a r t m o t i v e s and a c o n s c i o u s concern f o r a e s t h e t i c s opened up t h e range o f t h e photo-g r a p h e r ' s f i e l d and l e d t o p i c t u r e - m a k i n g as a form o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . The p r i n t came t o be seen n o t o n l y as a f a i t h f u l r e c o r d , but a l s o as a s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The n a i v e t y o f t h e w e t - p l a t e e r a , the p u b l i c i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h the f a c t u a l i t y o f v i s u a l r e p o r t i n g began t o d i s a p p e a r . Modern photography - i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n , i t s a e s t h e t i c s and i t s t e c h n i q u e s - had a r r i v e d . Photographs became p o p u l a r as a means t o c l a r i f y d e t a i l s , t e l l t h e s t o r y and impart a sense o f the a c t u a l i n f i e l d r e p o r t s , books 45 and newspapers. The p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y formed a growing p a r t o f the market f o r l a n d s c a p e views o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. L o c a l , e a s t e r n Canadian and B r i t i s h p e r i o d i c a l s used the c o l l o d i o n p r o c e s s t o t r a n s f e r an image d i r e c t l y onto an e n g r a v e r ' s woodblock t o be r e p r o d u c e d as an e n g r a v i n g . Where t h i s was done, s p e c i a l note o f the s o u r c e was o f t e n made to s u p p o r t t h e a c c u r a c y o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n . The w o r l d ' s f i r s t p i c t o r i a l newspaper, The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, made c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f photographs as o r i g i n a l copy f o r wood e n g r a v i n g s , and B r i t i s h Columbia was one o f the f a r - f l u n g c o l o n i e s o f the Empire w i t h which i t a c q u a i n t e d i t s r e a d e r s h i p . I l l u s t r a t i o n s i n c l u d e panoramas o f V i c t o r i a , Y a l e , P o r t Douglas, scenes a l o n g the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d ' s proposed n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s r o u t e and views o f the b r i d g e s and canyons o f the r e c e n t l y completed Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . A number o f p i c t u r e w e e k l i e s a p p e a r e d ' i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1850's; one o f them, Harper's Weekly J o u r n a l o f C i v i l i z a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n New York, ran an i l l u s t r a t e d c o v e r f e a t u r e on New Westminster, c a p i t a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t e r m i n a l s t a t i o n 20 o f C o l l i n s O v e r l a n d T e l e g r a p h . The p i c t o r i a l p r e s s began i n Canada i n t h e 1860 1s. Many D a l l y photographs appeared as e n g r a v i n g s i n the Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News i n t h e 1870's and, i n t h e mid-1880's, views by Maynard and by Spencer and H a s t i n g s were r e p r o d u c e d i n The  Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia. N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y books sometimes 20- Harper's Weekly J o u r n a l o f C i v i l i z a t i o n (New Y o r k ) , August 12, 1865. 46 i n c l u d e d o r i g i n a l p r i n t s and o t h e r t i m e s used l i t h o g r a p h i c r e p r o -d u c t t o n S i P h o t o g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s appeared i n the f l o o d o f g u i d e -21 books and t r a v e l a c c o u n t s " on B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d t h a t were p u b l i s h e d i n London i n t h e l a t e 1850's and e a r l y 1860's. Such books and p e r i o d i c a l s h e i g h t e n e d t h e p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t i n and the photographer's market f o r views o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Through them, V i c t o r i a , New Westminster, Y a l e , B a r k e r v i l l e and a h o s t o f o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s became f a m i l i a r i n M o n t r e a l , New York, San F r a n c i s c o and London. 21. The Handbook o f B r i t i s h Columbia and E m i g r a n t ' s Guide t o t h e G o l d  F i e l d s , p u b l i s h e d i n London by W. O l i v e r i n 1862, i n c l u d e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Columbia S t r e e t and the harbour i n New Westminster from ohotographs by C l a u d e t . T r a v e l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h  the n a r r a t i v e o f a Yacht Voyage round Vancouver's I s l a n d , pub-l i s h e d t he same y e a r by H u r s t and B l a c k e t t o f London, noted t h a t i t s f r o n t i s p i e c e e n g r a v i n g o f " V i c t o r i a from James' Bay, L o o k i n g up Government S t r e e t " was taken from a photograph. CHAPTER 4 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD, 1858-1888 Photographers produced a l a r g e and v a r i e d r e c o r d o f B r i t i s h Columbia l a n d s c a p e s d u r i n g the t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r t he F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h o f 1858. Many hundreds o f t h e i r photographs s u r v i v e . Upon f i r s t e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e y p o r t r a y a b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y o f s u b j e c t s . A l -most a l l , however, can be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n one o f f i v e broad h e a d i n g s : t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s , s e t t l e m e n t , s o c i e t y and n a t u r e . W i t h i n each o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t some s u b j e c t s were photographed w i t h monotonous r e g u l a r i t y , t h a t o t h e r s were photo-graphed r a r e l y and t h a t s t i l l o t h e r s were not photographed a t a l l . On o c c a s i o n , v i r t u a l l y t h e same l a n d s c a p e view was taken many t i m e s -Y a l e , f o r example, from t h e r i v e r bank t o t h e s o u t h . More o f t e n , s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d i n d e t a i l , but were s i m i l a r g e n e r i c a l l y : m i l e -houses, mining c l a i m s , r a i l w a y b r i d g e s , new towns and p r e c i p i t o u s canyons. What f o l l o w s i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n . By f o c u s i n g on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y t he overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f l a n d s c a p e photographs o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. 47 48 TRANSPORTATION T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s one o f the most common t o p i c s i n the photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d . H i s t o r i c a l photographs show the wagons and ox-teams, roadbeds and b r i d g e s , c l e a r i n g s and t u n n e l s , t r a c k s and t r a i n s as w e l l as the s a i l i n g s h i p s , p a d d l e w h e e l e r s and p i e r s t h a t were elements o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e s o f the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The C a r i b o o Wagon Road and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway were by f a r t he most photographed s u b j e c t s . Each c r e a t e d i t s own s e t t l e m e n t geography, each opened up new w i l d e r n e s s s c e n e r y and each overcame the f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e s o f mountainous t e r r a i n . While t h e r e i s a s e t o f photographs d i s t i n c t i v e t o each e r a , t h e r e i s a l s o a common emphasis on s e r v i c e towns, r i v e r canyons and e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s . Photographs o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e o f the C a r i b o o Road c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f views taken by F r e d e r i c k D a l l y d u r i n g h i s j o u r n e y s between V i c t o r i a and B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1867 and 1868. Three s u b j e c t s dominate h i s work: t h e r o a d , i t s t r a f f i c and i t s m i l e h o u s e s . Photo-graphs o f the road show s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n and d e t a i l s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . D a l l y c a p t u r e d the d r a m a t i c l a n d s c a p e where the road n e g o t i a t e d t h e canyons and b l u f f s o f the F r a s e r and Thompson and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t the g e n t l e r a s p e c t s o f t h e r o u t e through the A l k a l i V a l l e y and the Lac La Hache d i s t r i c t . Timber c r i b b i n g and rock c u t s imparted p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o p o r t i o n s o f the r o u t e . China Bar, N i c a r a g u a , L i t t l e and Grea t B l u f f s were a few o f t h e more f r e q u e n t l y photographed l o c a t i o n s . Views between Y a l e and Spuzzum abound. Many images show the roadbed c l i n g i n g p r e c a r i o u s l y t o a s h e e r c l i f f ( P l a t e 4.1). In o t h e r s , more 49 50 s c e n i c than s p e c t a c u l a r , t h e r o a d t r a v e r s e s l e s s p r e c i p i t o u s h i l l -s i d e s ( P l a t e 4.2). Photographs taken i n town and en r o u t e ( P l a t e 4.3) i l l u s t r a t e t he wagons and c a r t s h a uled up and down the C a r i b o o Road by mules o r oxen o r h o r s e s . The Barnard's E x p r e s s o f f i c e , a prominent f e a t u r e o f s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g the wagon r o a d , was f r e q u e n t l y photographed w i t h a v a r i e t y o f v e h i c l e s and work a n i m a l s parked i n f r o n t ( P l a t e 4.4). One well-known view which appeared as an e n g r a v i n g i n t h e Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News 1 shows a mule-team emerging from a r o c k c u t a t G r e a t B l u f f on t h e Thompson R i v e r ( P l a t e 4.5), A D a l l y s t e r e o g r a p h , l a t e r r e - i s s u e d by Maynard, r e c o r d s a t r a i n o f c o v e r e d wagons p a s s i n g through Boston Bar ( P l a t e 4,6). T o g e t h e r , such photographs p r o v i d e abundant e v i d e n c e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f the wagon roa d e r a . H o s t e l r i e s sprang up i n response t o t r a f f i c t o and from t h e g o l d f i e l d s . Many C a r i b o o Road views i l l u s t r a t e t he b u s t l e o f a c t i v i t y t h a t c e n t r e d upon t h e s e i n n s and l i v e r i e s . D a l l y produced a r i c h imagery o f stage-stops-, h i s albums i n c l u d e photographs o f 100-, 108-, 127-, and 164- M i l e Houses, Bonaparte House, Cache Creek House, t h e C l i n t o n H otel ( P l a t e 4.7), Bobthroyd's F o r e s t House, S a l t e r ' s H a l f Way House and Hamilton's Wayside House. Teamsters found o v e r n i g h t accommodation i n t h e s e one- and t w o - s t o r e y i n n s o f l o g o r frame c o n s t r u c t i o n . S t a b l e s , s t o r a g e sheds and an a s s o r t m e n t o f o u t - b u i l d i n g s u s u a l l y shared the f o r e s t c l e a r i n g . Cedar r a i l o r p i c k e t f e n c e s e n c l o s e d f i e l d s w i t h i n which t h e r e was a garden p l o t and a s c a t t e r o f stumps. Parked a l o n g Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, F e b r u a r y 24, 1872. SI 52 P l a t e 4.3: F r e i g h t t r a f f i c on the C a r i b o o Road, 19 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. D a i l y ' s c a r t and dark t e n t , v i s i b l e i n t h e lower r i g h t o f t h i s view, appear i n s e v e r a l o f h i s C a r i b o o Road photographs. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o n r a p h e r PABC 10222a 53 P l a t e 4.4: Mule team a t Y a l e , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l v , o h o t o a r a p h e r PAC C19422 54 P l a t e 4.5: G r e a t B l u f f , 88 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. T h i s view appeared as an e n g r a v i n g i n the Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, F e b r u a r y 24, 1872. F r e d e r i c k D a l l v , n hotographer PABC 763 P l a t e 4.6; F r e i g h t wagons, Boston Bar, 1867-1360. T h i s D a l l y s t e r e o g r a p h was l a t e r r e - i s s u e d under t h e Maynard i m p r i n t . F r e d e r i c k D a l l v , o h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 10233 P l a t e 4,7: C l i n t o n H o t e l , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 758 57 the r o a d , o f t e n d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o the d i s t a n c e , were c o v e r e d f r e i g h t wagons h i t c h e d i n s e r i e s and drawn by l o n g teams o f mules, oxen o r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y h o r s e s yoked i n tandem.. D a i l y ' s view o f A l e x a n d r a Lodge ( P l a t e 4.8) f o u r t e e n m i l e s above Y a l e shows a mix o f l a n d s c a p e elements t y p i c a l o f photographs o f the m i l e h o u s e s a l o n g the C a r i b o o Road. Photographs taken a t Y a l e i l l u s t r a t e many f a c e t s o f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e o f the C a r i b o o Road e r a . I t was here t h a t steam-boats met f r e i g h t wagons. Photographers r e c o r d e d s t e r n w h e e l e r s a t t h e dock and wagon t r a i n s parked i n f r o n t o f the l o c a l h o t e l o r ex-p r e s s o f f i c e . One o f D a i l y ' s views shows f r e i g h t wagons under c o n -s t r u c t i o n and wagon wheels b e i n g assembled ( P l a t e 4.9). In t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e s t a n d the c a r t w r i g h t s , w h e e l w r i g h t s and s m i t h i e s whose h a n d i -work i s on d i s p l a y . The scene n e s t l e s a t the base o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y . Behind the f a r sheds and t o the r i g h t o f the h i l l s i d e s i t s Lady F r a n k l i n Rock. Low c l o u d o b s c u r e s t h e m o u n t a i n t o p s . T h i s photograph o f wagons and w a g o n - b u i l d i n g shows n e i t h e r mule nor ox-team, n e i t h e r h o t e l nor e x p r e s s o f f i c e , y e t e p i t o m i z e s the r o l e o f Y a l e as the b e g i n n i n g o f the C a r i b o o Road. The wagon road e r a soon gave way t o t h e r a i l w a y age. The change i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . In t h e e a r l y 1880's, photo-g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d the d e t a i l s and p r o g r e s s o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . L a t e r i n the decade, Devi l i e and Maynard each p r e p a r e d a c o l l e c t i o n o f C.P.R. views. T h e i r work and t h a t o f o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g the Notman f i r m o f M o n t r e a l , p o r t r a y s the mountain peaks and p a s s e s , canyons and 58 P l a t e 4,8- A l e x a n d r a Lodge, 14 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1358. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , o h o t o q r a p h e r PABC 10221 59 60 b r i d g e s , t r e s t l e s and t u n n e l s , v i l l a g e s and h o t e l s a l o n g the r o u t e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c west o f the R o c k i e s . A number o f views taken from the r a i l l i n e i l l u s t r a t e the t r a c k s i d e s c e n e r y and v i l l a g e s which a r e examined as p a r t o f the l a n d s c a p e s o f n a t u r e and s e t t l e m e n t r e s -p e c t i v e l y . However, most o f t h e s e photographs document the i m p r i n t o f t h e r a i l w a y age on t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Photographs a b u n d a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e t r a c k - l a y i n g , t u n n e l l i n g and b r i d g e - b u i l d i n g . One t y p e o f view shows o n l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e , o f t e n surrounded by r o c k d e b r i s and r a i l r o a d t i e s . Photographs taken i n 1831 i l l u s t r a t i n g m a i n l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and Boston Bar i n c l u d e the road-bed, t u n n e l s and t r e s t l e s ( P l a t e 4.10). Anot h e r genre o f r a i l r o a d view shows the n a v v i e s who pushed the Canadian P a c i f i c t h r o u g h the mountains posed b e s i d e a hand c a r o r i n f r o n t o f a t u n n e l . R i c h a r d Maynard r e c o r d e d a c o n s t r u c t i o n gang on a wooden t r e s t l e l e a d i n g i n t o a t u n n e l ( P l a t e 4.11). In the f o r e g r o u n d t o the r i g h t o f t h e t r a c k s i s a handcar; t o the l e f t , a t e l e g r a p h p o l e . The r o u t e p a r a l l e l s a f o r e s t e d r i v e r v a l l e y v i s i b l e i n the background. In t h i s and s i m i l a r views, the n a v v i e s , o f t e n u n r e c o g n i z a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y , c o n t r i b u t e human i n t e r e s t and s c a l e t o t h e r a i l r o a d l a n d s c a p e . Photo-graphs a l s o p r o v i d e a g l i m p s e o f Chinese l a b o u r e r s among the work gangs a t a c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e o r i n the d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e o f a d i s t r i c t foreman. A view a t K e e f e r s S t a t i o n ( P l a t e 4.12) shows the l o g c a b i n s o f the Chinese n a v v i e s amid the r o c k s , stumps and p i l e s o f r a i l r o a d t i e s between t h e t r a c k s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d and t h e mountains i n t h e d i s t a n c e . P l a t e 4.10: C.P.R. c o n s t r u c t i o n between Y a l e and Boston Bar, 1881. PAC C7658 62 63 P l a t e 4.12; "Chinatown", K e e f e r s S t a t i o n , c i r c a 1881 PAC C11338 64 Wooden t r e s t l e s and i r o n b r i d g e s t r a v e r s i n g t h e v a l l e y s and gorges t h a t i n t e r s e c t e d t h e l i n e were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r s u b j e c t s . The l a r g e t r e s t l e l e a d i n g i n t o the "Double Loop" o f the I l l e c i l l e w a e t V a l l e y ( P l a t e 4,13) became a p h o t o g r a p h i c c l i c h e . S i m i l a r l y , the Stony Creek, Salmon, Thompson and Columbia R i v e r b r i d g e s were much photographed.' The C i s c o c a n t i l e v e r b r i d g e and t h e Spuzzum s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e were o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e d i n album c o l l e c t i o n s . R i c h a r d Maynard's photograph o f the c a n t i l e v e r b r i d g e o v e r the F r a s e r ( P l a t e 4.14) shows the t r a c k s c r o s s i n g the gorge on an i r o n s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s u p p o r t e d by a c u t s t o n e f o u n d a t i o n . A t t h e f a r end o f t h e b r i d g e , t h e r a i l s d i s -appear a b r u p t l y i n t o a b l a c k t u n n e l i n t h e h i l l s i d e . Here t h e t r a c k s , gorge, b r i d g e and t u n n e l t h a t were p o p u l a r elements o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r a i l w a y photographs i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e combined i n one view. Two mountain h o t e l s , b u i l t i n 1886 t o a t t r a c t s i g h t - s e e r s and s t i m u l a t e passenger t r a f f i c , became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the C.P.R. la n d s c a p e and i t s v i s u a l r e c o r d . Photographs r e v e a l the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c c h a l e t - s t y l e b u i l d i n g s amid the mountain s c e n e r y a t F i e l d and G l a c i e r . They show t h e i r s p a c i o u s lawns, d e c o r a t i v e f o u n t a i n s , wide verandahs and p i c k e t f e n c e s . In some views, t h e r a i l r o a d i s prominent; i n o t h e r s , i t i s s c a r c e l y n o t i c e a b l e . Some pho t o g r a p h e r s emphasized the h o t e l and i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e ; o t h e r s p o r t r a y e d i t s w i l d e r n e s s s e t t i n g ; s t i l l o t h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e n a v v i e s and h o t e l s t a f f , t o u r i s t s , and company o f f i c i a l s . R i c h a r d Maynard photographed both h o t e l s . H i s r e n d e r i n g o f Mount Stephen House a t F i e l d c e n t r e s upon 65 66 P l a t e 4,14; C i s c o c a n t i l e v e r bridge., c i r c a 1885. R i c h a r d Maynard, photograDher PABC 81628 \ 67 t h e h o t e l beneath the t o w e r i n g mountain a f t e r which i t was named ( P l a t e 4.15). U n l i k e w i d e r panoramas, i t shows n e i t h e r t h e f o r e s t e d v a l l e y and mountain spurs o f the K i c k i n g Horse V a l l e y nor the main-l i n e o f the C,P,R t Maynard's photograph o f G l a c i e r House shows the h o t e l w i t h i n view o f the I l l e c i l l e w a e t i c e - f i e l d ( P l a t e 4.16). A promenade extends from t h e depot i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d t o t h e f o u n t a i n s i n f r o n t o f the main b u i l d i n g . B e s i d e i t s t a n d s an engine h a u l i n g f o u r c oaches. T h i s view o f G l a c i e r House f l a n k e d by mountains and t r a i n c a p t u r e s t h e e s s e n c e o f the C.P.R.'s mountain h o t e l l a n d s c a p e . RESOURCE INDUSTRIES The r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia were photo-graphed, but o n l y the g o l d r u s h a t t r a c t e d a n y t h i n g l i k e the a t t e n t i o n g e n e r a t e d by the C a r i b o o wagon road and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway. G e n t i l e , D a l l y and B l a n c photographed the s e t t i n g s , c l a i m s and miners o f the C a r i b o o and l e s s e r r u s h e s . T h e i r work produced an imagery common t o Grouse, W i l l i a m s , L i g h t n i n g , Lowhee, Mosquito and o t h e r c r e e k s . Views o f mining towns, though l a r g e l y a r e c o r d o f s e t t l e m e n t , i l l u s t r a t e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s c a t t e r o f f l u m e s , waterwheels, s h a f t h e a d s , t u n n e l s , stumps and l o g c a b i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r g o l d . Grouped by s u b j e c t i n t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s , t h e s e photographs p r e s e n t l a n d s c a p e s w i t h o u t f i g u r e s , m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and miners a t work. C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e y p r e s e n t a t h o r o u g h o v e r v i e w o f g o l d r u s h B r i t i s h Columbia o f the 1860's. The l a n d s c a p e panorama was a g e n e r a l statement i n which m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were p e r i p h e r a l t o the o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f p l a c e . D a l l y 63 P l a t e 4.15: Mount Stephen H o t e l , F i e l d , c i r c a 1888. R i c h a r d Mavnard, p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 81631 P l a t e 4.16: G l a c i e r H o t e l , G l a c i e r , c i r c a 1888. R i c h a r d Maynard, p h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 81629 70 produced both an album p r i n t and a c a r t e - d e ^ - v i s i t e o f the mountain and f o r e s t s u r r o u n d i n g s o f Grouse Creek ( P l a t e 4.17). T h i s compo-s i t i o n , u n l i k e most C a r i b o o views shows l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f m i n i n g . T r e e s have been f e l l e d t o b u i l d the l o g c a b i n s i n the f o r e g r o u n d . The l a r g e flume i n t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e i s the most o b v i o u s s i g n o f t h e g o l d r u s h i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . Y e t , none o f t h e s e elements f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y . T h i s t r e a t m e n t o f Grouse Creek i s a r e c o r d o f n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . As such, i t s h a r e s q u a l i t i e s w i t h s c e n i c panoramas o f the l a n d s c a p e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t . Other g e n e r a l views t r e a t the l a n d s c a p e s o f m i n i n g more s p e c i f i -c a l l y . Photographs show c l a i m s i t e s ravaged by d i g g i n g s , A view by D a l l y shows the havoc on Grouse Creek ( P l a t e 4.18). In the f o r e -ground t h e dwarfed m i n e r s o f t h e Ne'er Do Well c l a i m l o a d a s m a l l c a r w i t h g r a v e l s f o r s o r t i n g . In t h e d i s t a n c e t h e flume i s s u p p o r t e d h i g h above the c r e e k and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l o g c a b i n s on t h e stump-strewn h i l l s i d e . A c r e e k panorama o f the S i x - T o e d Pete C l a i m ( P l a t e 4.19) shows where t r e e s have been c l e a r e d and u n d e r l y i n g g r a v e l s removed. Rock d e b r i s s p i l l s down t h e t r u n c a t e d h i l l s i d e s t o t h e c r e e k bed where men pose w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s among the f l u m e s , p l a n k s , b a r r e l s , l a d d e r s and s l u i c e - b o x e s o f t h e i r c l a i m . Such photographs p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l l i n g view o f the l a n d s c a p e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n wrought by the s e a r c h f o r g o l d . The m a j o r i t y o f views t a k e n a t the c r e e k s show men a t the scene o f t h e i r l a b o u r . Independent m i n e r s , b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s and m i n i n g companies commissioned photographs o f themselves and t h e i r c l a i m s ; 71 *.17: Grouse Creek panorama, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a o h e r PAC C34944 72 P l a t e 4,18: Ne'er Do Well C l a i m , Grouse Creek, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h otographer PABC 10162 73 P l a t e 4.19: S i x - T o e d Pete C l a i m , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , o h o t o q r a o h e r PAC C26181 74 group l i k e n e s s e s a r e more p r e v a l e n t than i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f the g o l d r u s h . In a c l o s e - u p view o f t h e Ne'er Do Well c l a i m ( P l a t e 4.20), f o u r o f t h e f i v e m iners who appear somewhat i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n D a i l y ' s g e n e r a l panorama a r e posed around the dump-box i n t o which the c o n t e n t s o f the o r e c a r have been t i p p e d f o r washing and s o r t i n g . Views o f t u n n e l companies ( P l a t e 4.21) were t a k e n a t t h e mouth o f the t u n n e l where an o r e c a r on wooden r a i l s o r a wheelbarrow on a p l a n k t r a c k was parked. Where s h a f t s had been sunk, D a l l y r e c o r d e d t h e w i n d l a s s and b u c k e t , p l a n k p l a t -form and t i m b e r c r i b b i n g o f the e n t r a n c e ( P l a t e 4.22). A group photo-graph o f the H e r o n v i l l e - C a n a d i a n Company ( P l a t e 4.23) shows n e i t h e r s h a f t nor t u n n e l , but o n l y t w e n t y - f o u r m i n e r s posed i n t h r e e t i e r s a g a i n s t t h e r o c k d e b r i s s p i l l i n g down the h i l l s i d e o f Grouse Creek. In a l l such views, miners a r e shown h o l d i n g p i c k s and s h o v e l s and p i t c h f o r k s and s p o r t i n g t h e same mix o f b e a r d s , c l o t h i n g , h a t s and b o o t s . Photographs o f waterwheels were among t h e most p o p u l a r o f g o l d r u s h views. Perhaps D a i l y ' s photograph o f the Mucho Oro G o l d M i n i n g Company o f S t o u t ' s Gulch i s the most famous example ( P l a t e 4.24); however, s i m i l a r photographs a r e q u i t e numerous. A lesser-known view o f t h e A l t u r a s wheel ( P l a t e 4.25) i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s e photographs t h a t c l a i m owners p a i d t o have taken and which V i c t o r i a r e s i d e n t s p u r c h a s e d f o r h o u s e h o l d c o l l e c t i o n s . E l e v e n men, two women, two c h i l d r e n and a baby a r e posed i n f r o n t o f the minehead b u i l t o f rough p l a n k s and shakes. F i v e o f the miners a r e h o l d i n g a p i c k , a b r o a d -axe, a pan, a p i t c h f o r k and a c r o s s - c u t saw r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a s i x t h 75 P l a t e 4.20: Ne'er Do H e l l C l a i m , dump-box, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , photograDher PABC 765 76 77 78 P l a t e 4.23: H e r o n v i l l e - C a n a d i a n Company, Grouse Creek, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , o h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 13665 79 P l a t e 4.24: Mucho Oro Gold M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o q r a p h e r PAC C210 P l a t e 4.25: A l t u r a s G o l d M i n i n g Company, S t o u t s G u l c h , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a p h e r PAC C8078 80 stands b e s i d e a g r i n d s t o n e . A p p e a r i n g from beyond t h e b o r d e r o f t h e photograph, t he flume meets t h e wheel a t i t s f u l l h e i g h t . Rock d e b r i s l i t t e r s the f o r e g r o u n d ; stumps and f a l l e n t r e e s c o v e r t he h i l l s i d e b e h i n d . The photograph i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a genre o f g o l d r u s h photographs, the e s s e n t i a l elements o f which i n c l u d e minehead, wheel and f l u m e , m i n e r s , a s s o r t e d t o o l s and a l a d d e r o r two. The miner made t h e waterwheel a u b i q u i t o u s element o f the C a r i b o o l a n d s c a p e ; t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r made i t a c l i c h e i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . In t he p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia, photo-graphs o f g o l d m i n i n g a r e f a r more numerous than t h o s e o f a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s combined. P h o t o g r a p h e r s l e f t a modest p i c t u r e o f t he b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . They r e c o r d e d the h a n d - l o g g e r s and ox-teams, m i l l y a r d s and lumber s h i p s o f the e a r l y , s m a l l - s c a l e , i s o l a t e d l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . Photographs t a k e n amid t he f i r s and c e d a r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e p a r t o f an imagery common t o p i o n e e r l o g g i n g i n the f o r e s t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h -west Co a s t . Photographers r e c o r d e d l o g g e r s s t a n d i n g b e s i d e a t r e e about t o be f e l l e d , l y i n g i n t h e n o t c h chopped i n t o t h e t r u n k o r s i t t i n g on a huge l o g r e c e n t l y c u t . The c l a s s i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s two o r t h r e e men, t h e i r axes, a c r o s s - c u t saw and a t r e e . The t r u n k o c c u p i e s t he c e n t r e o f the scene. On one o r both s i d e s o f the t r e e s t a n d s a f a l l e r , p e r c h e d on a s p r i n g b o a r d s e v e r a l f e e t above t h e ground. About two f e e t above t h e s p r i n g b o a r d i s a wedge-shaped u n d e r c u t where a n o t h e r f a l l e r r e c l i n e s on one elbow. The scene i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ; no f o r e -ground o r background d e t a i l i l l u s t r a t e s s e t t i n g o r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . 8 1 Some o f t h e b e s t photographs o f t h i s l o g g e r - a n d - t r e e genre were taken by American photographer D a r i u s K i n s e y , i n the S t a t e o f Washington. Such views, few i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, became more p o p u l a r w i t h t h e growth o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . R e l a t i v e l y numerous d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d were photographs o f oxen p u l l i n g l o g s on s k i d r o a d s ( P l a t e 4.26). A team o f e i g h t to f o u r t e e n oxen i s shown yoked i n tandem and h a u l i n g l o g s . A narrow path through the f o r e s t i s formed by the s k i d r o a d . On e i t h e r s i d e , the f o r e s t has been t h i n n e d and a number o f stumps r i s e above a t a n g l e o f b r a n c h e s , bark, wood c h i p s and s m a l l l o g s . In some views, t h e l o g g e r s f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n the f o r e g r o u n d , s i t t i n g o r s t a n d i n g b e s i d e t h e f i r s t yoke o f oxen; i n o t h e r s , t h e y a r e b a r e l y v i s i b l e among the chaos o f the f o r e s t scene. A l l t he elements o f l o g g e r - a n d - t r e e and oxen and s k i d r o a d views ar e combined i n a photograph e n t i t l e d " F r a s e r 1 s L o g g i n g Camp" ( P l a t e 4.27). From the lower l e f t , a s k i d r o a d runs d i a g o n a l l y i n t o t he c e n t r e o f t h e scene and d i s a p p e a r s i n t o t h e w a l l o f t r e e s i n t h e d i s t a n c e . On i t s t a n d s a l o g a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r f e e t i n d i a m e t e r , s t r i p p e d o f i t s bark and h i t c h e d t o t h e l a s t yoke o f a team o f oxen. Loggers a r e posed on stumps, on s p r i n g b o a r d s and amid t h e bark d e b r i s on the f o r e s t f l o o r . S t a n d i n g on a stump i n the upper r i g h t o f the c o m p o s i t i o n i s an o v e r s e e r i n s u i t , v e s t and w a t c h - c h a i n . The busy scene p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h a c o l l a g e , however u n n a t u r a l , o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s . 82 P l a t e 4.26: Oxen h a u l i n g l o g s , New Westminster, c i r c a 1885. Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y (VPL) t r a n s p a r e n c y 52-6 (from p r i n t VPL 3598/3707) P l a t e 4.27: F r a s e r 1 s L o g g i n g Camo. PABC 33941 84 Photographs o f e a r l y s a w - m i l l i n g a r e few and a r e l i m i t e d t o o u t -door views; many show l i t t l e more than t h e e x t e r i o r o f a wooden b u i l d i n g a t the water's edge. Panoramas o f m i l l s i t e s were u s u a l l y taken from the m i l l y a r d o r d o c k s i d e . Some r e c o r d the m i l l s urrounded by s t o c k s o f sawn lumber, h o r s e s , wagons and workers; o t h e r s emphasize the l o a d s o f lumber and the s h i p s t h a t s a i l e d t o d i s t a n t markets. Photographs o f the H a s t i n g s m i l l i n Vancouver show sawn lumber s t a c k e d i n t h e y a r d and t h r e e - m a s t e r s docked a t t h e wharf. A g e n e r a l view o f M o o d y v i l l e t a k e n about 1870 ( P l a t e 4.28) i l l u s t r a t e s "the s h i p p i n g o f saw l o g s a t Moody, D i e t z and Nelson's s a w - m i l l s , and the [ f o r e s t ] s u r r o u n d i n g s a t B u r r a r d I n l e t . The end o f the m i l l i s o n l y d i m l y seen t h r o u g h the masts and r i g g i n g s o f t h e s h i p s " on the f a r s h o r e . The f o r e g r o u n d i s o c c u p i e d by a boom o f l o g s " o f a v e r y huge s i z e , much l a r g e r than any o b t a i n e d on the e a s t e r n s l o p e o f the c o n t i n e n t . " On a s m a l l e r s c a l e , a view o f John M u i r ' s m i l l a t Sooke shows a s i m i l a r mix o f l o g s , s h i p s , m i l l and f o r e s t . F i s h i n g and f a r m i n g a r e s p a r s e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d . L i m i t e d i n scope b e f o r e the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e s e r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were i s o l a t e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t and t h r o u g h -o u t t h e I n t e r i o r where t h e y were l e s s l i k e l y t o be v i s i t e d by i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s . Photographs o f the w h i t e commercial f i s h e r y a r e few. Views o f f i s h e r m e n , t h e i r boats and t h e i r c a t c h a r e v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . T i d e w a t e r c a n n e r i e s dominate t h e meagre 2. Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, June 1, 1872. 85 P l a t e 4.28: Moody, D i e t z and Nelson's s a w - m i l l s , M o o d y v i l l e , c i r c a 1870. T h i s view was r e p r o d u c e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n the Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News, June 1, 1872. VPL t r a n s p a r e n c y 46-22 ( o r i g i n a l photograph i s h e l d i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s ) 86 p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e e a r l y f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , y e t such views, l i k e t h o s e o f m i l l s , r e v e a l l i t t l e more than t h e s h e l l o f a wooden b u i l d i n g a t t h e w a t e r ' s edge. S l i g h t l y more numerous are views o f t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y . D a l l y l e f t a r e c o r d o f t h e canoes, w e i r s , t r a p s ( P l a t e 4.29), r a c k s and caches o f the I n d i a n f i s h e r i e s o f the Cowichan d i s t r i c t and F r a s e r canyon. Though a g r i c u l t u r e had begun, o n l y o c c a s i o n a l views show farm-l a n d near V i c t o r i a o r Nanaimo, i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y o r a l o n g t h e C a r i b o o Road. A photograph o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a t Boston Bar ( P l a t e 4.30) shows a c l e a r e d t e r r a c e above t h e s e t t l e m e n t b a r e l y d i s -c e r n i b l e e x c e p t f o r the r o o f - t o p s and f l a g p o l e s between the r a i l f e n c e and t h e r i v e r . A few e a r l y views show men and h o r s e s , stumps, l o g s and brush a t t h e s i t e o f a p r o s p e c t i v e farm; t h e r e , i r r e g u l a r f e n c e l i n e s s e p a r a t i n g ploughed f i e l d from f e l l e d d e b r i s and v i r g i n f o r e s t mark the p r o g r e s s o f l a n d c l e a r i n g . Other photographs o f farm-s t e a d s , l i k e views o f t h e house i n town o r the s t o r e on m a i n s t r e e t , r e c o r d a p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and a p l a c e o f work, but t h e y r e v e a l few o b v i o u s s i g n s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e . An e x c e l l e n t though unique farm view was taken by D a l l y a t Cowichan ( P l a t e 4.31). A neat f e n c e o f p o s t and p l a n k c o n s t r u c t i o n e n c l o s e s a barn y a r d i n which s e v e r a l cows a r e kept. B e s i d e i t i s a c l e a r i n g where hay i s s t o o k e d and h i r e d hands a r e posed w i t h r a k e s . Conspicuous i n the c e n t r e f o r e g r o u n d s t a n d s the owner, w e l l - a t t i r e d and h o l d i n g the r e i n s o f h i s s a d d l e d h o r s e . A p i c k e t f e n c e r u n n i n g a c r o s s the e n t i r e view s e p a r a t e s the a c t i v i t y o f t h e f o r e g r o u n d from 87 P l a t e 4.29: I n d i a n salmon w e i r a t Ouamichan v i l l a g e , Cowichan R i v e r , 1866. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o a r a n h e r PAC C65097 88 89 P l a t e 4.31: Farm, Cowichan, c i r c a 1866. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , o h o t o g r a p h e r ABC 68306 90 the small l o g cabin and large wooden barn in the middle d i s t a n c e . Several f r u i t t r e e s are growing in the rear of the c l e a r i n g and, in the background a row of c o n i f e r s r i s e s above the barn. The busy scene suggests i t was c a r e f u l l y composed to i l l u s t r a t e the f u l l ex-tent and d i v e r s i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e . Benjamin B a l t z l y produced one of the few photographs of B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y f l o u r m i l l s . This water-powered m i l l at T r a n q u i l l e ( P l a t e 4.32) was one of several supplying the Cariboo market. On the near shore of Kamloops Lake, Mr. and Mrs. James Fortune pose with two men a t the entrance of t h e i r two-storey m i l l o f board and batten c o n s t r u c t i o n . The scrub vegetation of the dry Thompson V a l l e y can be seen in the immediate foreground and on the h i l l s on the f a r shore of the lake. Not u n l i k e the gold rush views showing minehead, flume, wheel, ladder and miners, the photograph presents b u i l d i n g and owner, but no a c t i v i t y . SETTLEMENT Photographs of B r i t i s h Columbia's emerging settlement landscape r e f l e c t nineteenth century h i s t o r i c a l developments and, in p a r t i c u l a r , the i n f l u e n c e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and resources. T h i r t y years of views of V i c t o r i a , Esquimau, New Westminster and Yale a t t e s t to the con-t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y and economic importance o f these places. Blanc, D a l l y and G e n t i l e photographed the shanty towns that sprang up i n response to d i s c o v e r i e s of gold. They a l s o recorded the s e r v i c e centres and transshipment points of the wagon road from Yale to B a r k e r v i l l e . Two decades l a t e r , Maynard, D e v i l l e and others recorded 91 P l a t e 4.32: T r a n q u i l l e M i l l , Kamloops Lake, 1871. Benjamin B a l t z l y , n h o t o g r a o h e r PAC C23226 92 the v i l l a g e s and w h i s t l e - s t o p s o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway from t h e R o c k i e s t o t h e C o a s t . E a r l y i n t e r e s t i n views o f Soda Creek, Quesnel and the m i n i n g towns o f the C a r i b o o was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t o photographs o f Donald, Kamloops and t h e r a i l r o a d v i l l a g e s o f the Canadian P a c i f i c . B a r k e r v i l l e gave way to Vancouver as boomtown o f the west and the change i s r e f l e c t e d i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . Town panoramas and m a i n s t r e e t views c o m p r i s e the bulk o f s e t t l e -ment photographs. Large p a r t s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c albums were devoted t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial a s p e c t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e . Photographs c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p l a c e v a r i e d w i t h t h e s i z e and n a t u r e o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia towns. Communities'whose g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t c o u l d be r e c o r d e d on a s i n g l e g l a s s p l a t e were o f t e n photographed i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . Panoramas c a p t u r e the outward appearance and s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f f r o n t i e r towns. They show b u i l d i n g s and f e n c e s , d e v e l o p e d p r o p e r t y and stump-strewn f i e l d s , the p r o x i m i t y o f water o r f o r e s t o r mountain and t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n n e c t i o n s o f water, r o a d o r r a i l . D a i l y ' s view o f Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33) i s t y p i c a l o f an imagery s h a r e d by B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e 4.34), R i c h f i e l d , K e l l e y v i l l e , Van Winkle and o t h e r g o l d m i n i n g towns. I t shows a t i g h t l y - g r o u p e d c o l l e c t i o n o f wooden b u i l d i n g s f l a n k e d by h i l l s i d e s d o t t e d w i t h stumps. Shops, o f f i c e s and r e s i d e n c e s s h a r e d t h e c r e e k f l o o r w i t h a l l t h e t r a p p i n g s o f m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y . Twenty y e a r s l a t e r , t he towns o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway p r e s e n t e d a s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e which was not d i s s i m i l a r . Maynard's panorama o f I l l e c i l l e w a e t ( P l a t e 4.35) shows a s i n g l e row o f f a l s e f r o n t e d 93 P l a t e 4.33: Camerontown, 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 1231 94 P l a t e 4.34: B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e the f i r e o f September 16, 1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l v , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 769 95 96 b u i l d i n g s i n a v a l l e y c l e a r i n g . L i k e the flumes and wheels, wind-l a s s e s and t u n n e l s o f the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , t r a c k s and s i d i n g s , water-towers and boxcars a r e o b v i o u s symbols o f t h e n a t u r e o f s e t t l e m e n t . Where a nearby h i l l o r r i v e r bend a f f o r d e d an u n o b s t r u c t e d view, d i f f e r e n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s s t o o d i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same s p o t a t d i f f e r e n t times t o produce s i m i l a r town views, L y t t o n , l o c a t e d a t "the F o r k s " where the F r a s e r meets the Thompson 57 m i l e s above Y a l e , was photographed i n t h e 1860 1s by G e n t i l e and D a l l y and s u b s e q u e n t l y by Maynard and o t h e r s . A l l views were taken l o o k i n g upstream from a h i l l s i d e on t h e e a s t e r n f l a n k o f the F r a s e r . In the f o r e g r o u n d i s the v i l l a g e , b u i l t on a f l a t bench between the r i v e r and the v a l l e y s i d e . A wide meander i n t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e emerges from s u c c e s s i v e h i l l s i d e s t h a t r e c e d e i n t o t h e upstream p o r t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y . B u i l d i n g s l i n e d t h e r o a d which r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l e d t h e r i v e r . In F r e d e r i c k D a i l y ' s photograph taken i n the l a t e 1860's, ( P l a t e 4.36) the s e t t l e m e n t was l a r g e l y composed o f l o g s t r u c t u r e s . Few were more than one s t o r e y ; s e v e r a l had f a l s e f r o n t s and an awning s u p p o r t e d by p i l l a r s . L a t e r views show a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f more s u b s t a n t i a l b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g a c h u r c h , and the t r a c k s o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a ilway. S i m i l a r l y , Y a l e was f r e q u e n t l y photographed from a c u r v e i n t h e r i v e r .just downstream from t h e town. Panoramas show a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e community s i t u a t e d a t the bottom o f t h e s t e e p F r a s e r canyon. Rows o f wooden b u i l d i n g s , some w i t h f a l s e f r o n t s , many two s t o r e y s h i g h and s e v e r a l w i t h v e r a n d a h s , s p r e a d from t h e r i v e r bank t o t h e base o f t h e mountain. On one edge o f town perched the A n g l i c a n Church; 97 P l a t e 4.36: L y t t o n , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Dhotographer PAC C29174 98 on the o t h e r edge was t h e steamer dock ( P l a t e 4.37). In 1865, t h i s 3 view o f Y a l e was p a i n t e d i n w a t e r c o l o u r s by F r e d e r i c k Whymper, photo-graphed by F r a n c i s C l a u d e t and r e p r o d u c e d as an e n g r a v i n g i n The 4 I l l u s t r a t e d London News. Thus, a t L y t t o n , Y a l e and e l s e w h e r e , a vantage p o i n t l e d t o a c l i c h e d image o f p l a c e . Where a community was too d i s p e r s e d o r where l o c a l topography d i d not o f f e r a s u i t a b l e vantage p o i n t , p h o t o g r a p h e r s were un a b l e t o r e c o r d a townscape on a s i n g l e g l a s s p l a t e . Where t h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r e d , the m u l t i - p l a t e panorama, and more o f t e n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e view, comprise the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f s e t t l e m e n t . In the l a t e 1860's, V i c t o r i a was a l r e a d y too l a r g e t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t , n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l development w i t h one e xposure. From a h e i g h t o f l a n d t o the south o f the town, D a l l y used s e v e r a l p l a t e s t o produce a panorama e x t e n d i n g from the government b u i l d i n g s and the James Bay b r i d g e on t h e extreme r i g h t a c r o s s the l e n g t h o f Wharf S t r e e t t o the upper harbour a r e a on the extreme l e f t ( P l a t e 4.38). The I n d i a n r e s e r v e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o c c u p i e s a l m o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the harbour c r o s s e s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e scene. Beyond t h e w a t er l i e s t h e town and a c r o s s t h e h o r i z o n i s a w a l l o f t r e e s broken o c c a s i o n a l l y by a c h u r c h s p i r e . T h i s m u l t i - p l a t e panorama can be seen framed and d i s p l a y e d o u t s i d e D a i l y ' s p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y i n a view o f F o r t S t r e e t l o o k i n g e a s t ( P l a t e 2.5). 3. Whymper's w a t e r c o l o u r i s r e p r o d u c e d i n M i c h a e l B e l l , P a i n t e r s i n a  New Land, T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1973, p. 198. 4. The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, May 12, 1865. 99 P l a t e 4.37: Y a l e , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , photograDher PABC 1905 P l a t e 4.38: V i c t o r i a panorama, c i r c a 1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a p h e r PAC C23418, C23419, C23420, C23421 101 Photographs o f the l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t were o f t e n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e views. They showed d i s t i n c t i v e landmarks o r prominent b u i l d i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the towns i n which t h e y were l o c a t e d . A view o f Government House was a statement about V i c t o r i a . The B a s t i o n r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d photographs o f Nanaimo and i t s harbour. Photographs o f s e t t l e m e n t s whose e x i s t e n c e was t i e d t o some s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n emphasized s u b j e c t s s y m b o l i c o f the town's importance. Views o f E s q u i m a l t f o c u s e d upon a s p e c t s o f t h e P a c i f i c base o f t h e Royal Navy. Photographs o f t h e n a v a l a r s e n a l and c l u b -house were r e a d i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t . S e v e r a l g e n e r a l panoramas o f E s q u i m a u taken i n the 1870's show a c o l l e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s f l a n k i n g a r o a d t h a t l e a d s t o a r o c k y headland. Yet i t was views o f the B r i t i s h f l e e t anchored i n t h e harbour ( P l a t e 4.39) which most o f t e n r e p r e s e n t E s q u i m a l t i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . The s t r e e t s c a p e view was a p a r t i c u l a r y p o p u l a r p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t . Whether a wide t h o r o u g h f a r e o r a narrow t r a c k , t h e m a i n s t r e e t e p i t o m i z e d a town's economic e x i s t e n c e . Some s e t t l e m e n t s were no more than one s t r e e t ; o t h e r s b o a s t e d a b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s . A view o f a commercial b l o c k was, f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , a photo-graph o f town. I t showed t h e w i d t h o f t h e s t r e e t and the h e i g h t o f i t s b u i l d i n g s . Photographs show shops, h o t e l s , s a l o o n s , l i v e r i e s , p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , e x p r e s s o f f i c e s and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c . S t r e e t views o f g o l d r u s h towns ( P l a t e 4.40) show the wooden f a c a d e s , shake r o o f s and a d v e r t i s i n g p l a c a r d s o f shops t h a t f a c e d one a n o t h e r a c r o s s 102 P l a t e 4.39: E s q u i m a l t Harbour c i r c a 1870 F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , DhotoaraDher PAC C33452 b e f o r e 1090 R i c h a r d Maynard, oho t o g r a p h e r PABC 81626 103 P l a t e 4.40: M a i n s t r e e t , B a r k e r v i l l e b e f o r e t h e f i r e o f September 16 1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , Dhotoqraoher PABC 5191 104 r a i s e d p l a n k s i d e w a l k s and a narrow muddy r o a d . In photographs o f r a i l w a y communities, t r a c k s r e p l a c e d r o a d as the main a r t e r y t h r o u g h town ( P l a t e 4,41). F o r t ( P l a t e s 2.3, 2.5), Government ( P l a t e 4.42), Yates ( P l a t e 2,2) and o t h e r s t r e e t s i n V i c t o r i a as w e l l as Columbia S t r e e t i n New Westminster were wide avenues f l a n k e d by wooden s i d e -walks and commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . One and two s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s o f wood o r b r i c k , g a s l i g h t s , shop s i g n s , c a r t s and a n i m a l s , c u r i o u s o n l o o k e r s and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s a l l came t o g e t h e r i n the s t r e e t -scape photographs o f the c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s , Views o f s i n g l e p r o p e r t i e s , both r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l , a r e p a r t o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f the l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t . They show t h e houses and shops t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y became town and s t r e e t views. Photographs r e v e a l d e t a i l s o f s i z e , a r c h i t e c t u r e and con-s t r u c t i o n . They i l l u s t r a t e t h e garden p l o t s and p i c k e t f e n c e s o f modest homes and the groomed lawns and sweeping driveways o f w e a l t h y e s t a t e s , A view o f the Maynards' b u i l d i n g i n V i c t o r i a ( P l a t e 2.6) shows t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s and t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e . A t the s i d e door, f l a n k e d by samples o f her work s t a n d s Hannah Maynard, p r o p r i e t o r o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y ; a t the f r o n t door s t a n d s R i c h a r d Maynard, p r o p r i e t o r o f the boot and shoe s t o r e . T h i s photograph, l i k e t h o s e o f Mr, and Mrs, F o r t u n e and t h e i r f l o u r m i l l ( P l a t e 4.32) and o f t h e T r u t c h f a m i l y a t F a i r f i e l d ( P l a t e 4.48) p r e s e n t s an i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t . 105 P l a t e 4.41: Rogers Pass V i l l a g e , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886. E. D e v i l l e , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 67572 106 Government Street looking north from Fort Street. Shakespeare's Photographic Gallery is just beyond the horse and cart in the centre of the view. PABC 8720 107 The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f towns and v i l l a g e s i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y a c h r o n i c l e o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t . Yet a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d , a l b e i t s p a r s e l y , a r e t h e s e t t l e m e n t s o f I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e . In 1866, D a l l y photographed the t r i b e s o f Vancouver and Nootka I s l a n d s w h i l e on t o u r w i t h Governor Kennedy on HMS Scout ( P l a t e 4.43). In 1873, Maynard accompanied the p a r t y o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s on HMS Boxer; a newspaper r e p o r t o f t h i s e x p e d i t i o n n o t e d : A f t e r speeches on both s i d e s , the whole group o f I n d i a n s , t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and o f f i c e r s o f the Boxer were photographed by t h a t a b l e a r t i s t R. Maynard.^ The work o f D a l l y , Maynard and o t h e r s was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s ; some was r e p r o d u c e d f o r s a l e t o p u b l i c and p u b l i s h e r s i n V i c t o r i a , e a s t e r n Canada and London. Though Maynard r e t u r n e d i n d e -p e n d e n t l y t o photograph the Haida v i l l a g e s o f the Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s i n t h e 1880's, i t was D a l l y who c o n t r i b u t e d most t o the commercial t r a d e i n I n d i a n photographs. Though seldom a d v e r t i s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s I n d i a n views were o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n p h o t o g r a p h i c albums p r e p a r e d f o r V i c t o r i a p a t r o n s . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e were used f o r e n g r a v i n g s i n t h e Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News p u b l i s h e d i n Montreal i n the 1870's. Photographs i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e s o f t h e n a t i v e communities o f Vancouver I s l a n d , the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , the I n t e r i o r and the n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f the M a i n l a n d . Panoramas demonstrate t h e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n o f c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s : a l i n e o f wooden b u i l d i n g s 5. The C o l o n i s t , June 18, 1873. 108 P l a t e 4.43; I n d i a n totem and C h i e f ' s house, Comox, 1866. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h otographer PABC 57593 109 and totem p o l e s a l o n g t he c r e s t o f a s l o p i n g s h o r e l i n e d o t t e d w i t h d r y i n g r a c k s and beached canoes ( P l a t e 4.44). A view o f P o r t Simpson taken by Maynard i n 1884 ( P l a t e 4.45) r e v e a l s the prominent p o s i t i o n o f the m i s s i o n c h u r c h imposed upon the l a n d s c a p e o f I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t . M i s c e l l a n e o u s views show t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e on t h e edge o f V i c t o r i a and t h e I n d i a n s h a n t i e s b o r d e r i n g Coal Harbour. Common s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e houses, totem p o l e s , g r a v e s i t e s , c e l e b r a t i o n s on the Queen's b i r t h d a y and the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the I n d i a n f i s h e r y . Less p o p u l a r than t he I n d i a n l a n d s c a p e o f s e t t l e m e n t was t h a t o f t h e C h i n e s e . Photographs o f the C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h o c c a s i o n a l l y show C h i n e s e miners a t the d i g g i n g s o r C h i n e s e names on m a i n s t r e e t shop s i g n s . L a t e r , t h e C h i n e s e r e - a p p e a r among t h e gangs o f n a v v i e s t h a t b u i l t t h a t Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. In 1886, D e v i l l e photo-graphed t h e Chinese camp a t Kamloops and the s t r e e t s o f V i c t o r i a ' s C h i n e s e q u a r t e r . One such view shows a phalanx o f wooden b u i l d i n g s made o f v e r t i c a l p l a n k s , o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s and wi d t h s and i n v a r y i n g degrees o f d i s r e p a i r ( P l a t e 4.46). In t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s an a l m o s t i n d i s c e r n a b l e c l u t t e r o f shacks and f e n c e s . Beyond the uneven l i n e o f r o o f s a r e two l a r g e b r i c k warehouses o f the Chinese commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A s t r e e t scene showing V i c t o r i a ' s Chinese i n t r a d i t i o n a l garb and shop s i g n s w i t h C h i n e s e l e t t e r i n g ( P l a t e 4.47) p r e s e n t s an even more g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the l a n d s c a p e o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t . 110 P l a t e 4.4; I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e A l e r t Bay PAC C22368 Masset (note camera and t r i p o d ) PAC C60S23 Ill P l a t e 4.45: P o r t Simpson, 1884. R i c h a r d Maynard, p h o t o g r a p h e r PABC 10725 112 P l a t e 4.46: C h i n e s e Q u a r t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1886. E. D e v i l l e , p h o tonraoher PABC 67644 113 114 SOCIETY A small but s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l photographs p r e s e n t the emerging s o c i a l o r d e r o f p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia. Views and l i k e n e s s e s i l l u s t r a t e d o m e s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l amusements and a t h l e t i c e v e n t s . They a l s o c o n s t i t u t e an imagery o f s o c i a l i mportance, o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he c o l o n i a l e l i t e . T h i s was a photography o f l i f e s t y l e , a r e c o r d o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbians a t r e s t o r a t p l a y . I t c a p t u r e d t he p u r s u i t o f l e i s u r e pastimes as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s main b u s i n e s s o f s e t t l e m e n t and economic growth. I t a l s o c a p t u r e d the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o l d customs and t r a d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e s e photographs i l l u s t r a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f immigrants i n r e - c r e a t i n g an Old World o r d e r on t h e i r own p r o p e r t y . Views show la n d s c a p e d gardens and manicured lawns wherein l e i s u r e hours were passed f a s h i o n a b l y engaged i n c r o q u e t as a g e n t e e l r e c r e a t i o n , o r a t t e a as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Most p o r t r a i t s o f home were i n d i -v i d u a l statements about s e t t l e m e n t ; some were c a r e f u l l y composed t o demonstrate h i g h s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . F a m i l y and s e r v a n t s were posed a g a i n s t a s e t t i n g t h a t i n c l u d e d a l a r g e house, c u r v e d driveway and horse-drawn c a r r i a g e . A most e l o q u e n t example o f t h i s genre o f photograph shows F a i r f i e l d , ( P l a t e 4.48) the home o f Joseph W. T r u t c h , e n g i n e e r , r o a d - b u i l d e r , s p e c u l a t o r and l a t e r L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f the p r o v i n c e . The house i t s e l f was a l a r g e t w o - s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e w i t h s e v e r a l chimneys, b a l c o n i e s and bay-windows, perched on a s l i g h t r i s e and surrounded by shrubbery. S e v e r a l s t a t e l y o l d t r e e s c r e a t e a 115 P l a t e 4.48: F a i r f i e l d , home o f Joseph W. T r u t c h , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1865. PAC C3854 116 r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g w i t h o u t o b s c u r i n g the view. A woman i s posed on the f r o n t verandah. A l o n g t h e s i d e w a l l i v y i s t a k i n g a f i r m h o l d o f t he t r e l l i s e s . S t a n d i n g on t h e sweeping driveway a r e two h o r s e -drawn c a r r i a g e s and two men, one on horseback and one b e s i d e a second s a d d l e d horse. Croquet hoops a r e s e t out on the groomed lawn on which t h e r e a re f o u r bonnetted women, two w i t h p a r a s o l s , two w i t h small c h i l d r e n . Nearby a man w i t h a baby a t h i s f e e t r e c l i n e s on one elbow, h o l d i n g a c r o q u e t m a l l e t . Here among the house and i t s h o u s e h o l d , t he garden, t h e s e r v a n t s , t he c a r r i a g e s and t h e c r o q u e t hoops, l i e s t h e o l d c o u n t r y c o n c e p t i o n o f a p a r k l a n d e s t a t e . O t h e r photographs r e c o r d t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and c o m p e t i t i v e a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s pursued by p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbians. C r i c k e t , rowing and t e n n i s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - r e p r e s e n t e d . Team and c l u b members posed f o r group l i k e n e s s e s , sometimes i n the s t u d i o , more o f t e n o u t d o o r s . Photographs show some c r i c k e t e r s d r e s s e d i n f o r m a l l y ( P l a t e 4.49), o t h e r s a t t i r e d i n "wh i t e s " . Rowers i n b a t h i n g s u i t s were photographed w i t h t h e i r o a r s ; men i n f l a n n e l s and l a d i e s i n l o n g d r e s s e s posed on t e n n i s c o u r t s w i t h t h e i r r a c k e t s . Photo-g r a p h e r s a l s o c a p t u r e d t he c a r e f u l l y tended grounds and r o u g h l y c l e a r e d f i e l d s where s p e c t a t o r s g a t h e r e d t o watch l o c a l and i n t e r -c o l o n i a l c r i c k e t matches. One such panorama o v e r l o o k i n g a l a c r o s s e game i n Beacon H i l l Park ( P l a t e 4.50) g i v e s a v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n o f the s o c i a l m i l i e u o f V i c t o r i a . R i n g i n g the p l a y i n g f i e l d , s t a n d i n g on t h e h i l l s i d e o r s i t t i n g i n horse-drawn c a r r i a g e s i s a l a r g e crowd o f men i n w a i s t c o a t s and women shaded by p a r a s o l s . J u s t beyond t h e P l a t e 4.49: V i c t o r i a E l e v e n c r i c k e t team, 1864. PABC 7795 P l a t e 4.50: L a c r o s s e match, Beacon H i l l P ark, V i c t o r i a . PABC 7797 119 park s t a n d s e v e r a l s t a t e l y r e s i d e n c e s , the p r o p e r t i e s e n c i r c l e d by neat p i c k e t f e n c e s . More houses i n the d i s t a n c e f o l l o w t he sweep o f the s h o r e l i n e . Here, perhaps more than i n any o t h e r s i n g l e photo-graph, the l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s o f both p l a y e r s and s p e c t a t o r s com-b i n e w i t h t h e park s e t t i n g and t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r d e r l i n e s s t o c r e a t e an aura o f B r i t i s h g e n t i l i t y . P i c n i c k i n g was a p o p u l a r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n p a r t s o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia. Photographs show o u t i n g s o r g a n i z e d by f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s , by c h u r c h groups, c l u b s and b u s i n e s s e s . Day t r i p s headed f o r l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s p o t s o r s e t out by c a r r i a g e , t r a i n o r steamboat f o r e x c u r s i o n s f a r t h e r a f i e l d . A t t i r e was a p p r o p r i a t e l y f a s h i o n a b l e ; f o o d was c a r r i e d i n w i c k e r hampers and e a t e n o f f c h i n a p l a t e s ( P l a t e 4.51). P i c n i c s p r o v i d e d t he oppor-t u n i t y f o r i n f o r m a l p o r t r a i t s . I n d i v i d u a l and group l i k e n e s s e s show w e l l - d r e s s e d p i c n i c k e r s a g a i n s t a backdrop o f c e d a r s ( P l a t e 4.52), amid ,a t a n g l e o f underbrush o r b e s i d e t h e g n a r l e d r o o t s o f an upturned t r e e . The Hollow T r e e i n S t a n l e y Park became a c l i c h e o f p i c n i c p o r t r a i t u r e . Well i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , p a r t i e s posed by the t r e e , s t a n d i n g o r s i t t i n g , on b i c y c l e s o r i n c a r r i a g e s . The s i z e o f the t r e e , t he g r e a t b u r l a t the base and t h e b u r n t - o u t t r u n k made i t an unusual n a t u r a l phenomenon o f the g r e a t West Coast f o r e s t and c o n t r i -buted t o i t s p o p u l a r i t y as a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t t i n g i n which t o be photographed. W a t e r f a l l s were a n o t h e r p o p u l a r l o c a t i o n where t h o s e who posed a t t h e l i p o f the c a t a r a c t o r near i t s base were dwarfed by the cascade o f water. P l a t e 4.51: P i c n i c o a r t y a t t h e Gorge, V i c t o r i a , 1884. PABC 6314 P l a t e 4.52: P i c n i c p a r t y a t R o i d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a , c i r c a 1885. Soencer and H a s t i n g s , p h o t o q r a o h e r s PABC 31457 122 V i c t o r i a Day and Dominion Day were o c c a s i o n s f o r p i c n i c s and r e g a t t a s . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Gorge i n 1884 noted t h a t " t o t h i s s p o t V i c t o r i a n s r e s o r t on h i g h days and h o l i d a y s . " 6 Coal Harbour and t h e l a k e s o f the I n t e r i o r p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c a s u a l b o a t i n g and c o m p e t i t i v e rowing. R a f t s , s l i d e s , b a t h - h o u s e s , boat r e n t a l s and a promenade t u r n e d t h e beaches o f E n g l i s h Bay i n t o a w a t e r f r o n t p l a y g r o u n d f o r t h e masses. Photographs o f May 24th f e s t i v i t i e s a t the Gorge t y p i c a l l y show crowds engaged i n p i c n i c a c t i v i t i e s , rowing crews p r a c t i s i n g i n midstream and, c l o s e r t o sh o r e , rowboats f l y i n g t h e Red E n s i g n and o c c u p i e d by men i n w a i s t -c o a t e d s u i t s and bowlers and by w e l l - d r e s s e d , b o n n e t t e d women. One view o f the Gorge ( P l a t e 4.53) shows a p i c n i c group c o n g r e g a t e d around a banner and booth on the f a r h i l l s i d e . In the immediate f o r e g r o u n d i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f rowboats and s a i l b o a t s . On t h e edge o f t h e near shore i s a ph o t o g r a p h e r p r e p a r i n g h i s t r i p o d and camera, perhaps f o r a view o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a c r o s s t h e water, perhaps f o r a p o r t r a i t o f the woman on the bank b e h i n d him. E a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o tographers a l s o produced what might be termed an imagery o f s o c i a l importance. The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n c l u d e s views o f government o f f i c e s ( P l a t e 4:54) and Government Houses ( P l a t e 4.55) i n both t h e c a p i t a l s . Churches, a l s o prominent among p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , were often photographed; i n 1866, The Co lon i s t 6. " C l i m a t e and Scen e r y o f V i c t o r i a " , The Resources o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, Volume I , Number 11, January 1, 1884, p. 13. P l a t e 4.53: The Gorge, V i c t o r i a . PABC 25439 "The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the h a r b o r [ s i c ] extends some m i l e s above t h e c i t y , w i n d i n g i n g r a c e f u l t u r n s t o a gorge o v e r which i s a b r i d g e , and t o t h i s s p o t V i c t o r i a n s r e s o r t on high days and h o l i d a y s . " The Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia J a n u a r y 1, 1884, p. 13. 124 P l a t e 4.55: Government House, Mew Westminster. PAC C4605 125 s u g g e s t e d t h a t Maynard's "views o f the ceremony o f l a y i n g t he f o u n -d a t i o n s t o n e o f t h e new c h u r c h a t E s q u i m a l t " were " w e l l - e x e c u t e d " and "worth p r o c u r i n g . " ' ' Governor and Mrs. Seymour, Admiral and Mrs. H a s t i n g s , naval o f f i c e r s , l o c a l p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s and v i s i t i n g d i g n i t a r i e s were a l l photographed. B l a n c a d v e r t i s e d views o f o B a r k e r v i l l e d u r i n g V i c t o r i a Day and o f some o f the town's p r i n c i p a l g b u i l d i n g s d e c o r a t e d f o r Dominion Day. The Queen's b i r t h d a y o c c a s i o n e d photographs o f the I n d i a n c h i e f s g a t h e r e d a t New Westminster and the F l y i n g Squadron d e c o r a t e d a t E s q u i m a l t . The opening o f p a r l i a m e n t and t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t t r a i n i n Vancouver were o t h e r e v e n t s t h a t w a r r a n t e d a ph o t o g r a p h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . T h i s genre o f photograph encompasses p e o p l e , p l a c e s and ev e n t s o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . NATURE Overwhelmingly B r i t i s h Columbia's n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e was w i l d e r n e s s , y e t p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s p a i d f a r l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o th e i n t r i c a c i e s and d i v e r s i t y o f the n a t u r a l environment than t o t h e i m p r i n t o f man upon i t . The w i l d e r n e s s appears as the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i n photographs o f the l a n d s c a p e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t and r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . General views o f t h e C a r i b o o Road and Canadian 7. The C o l o n i s t , September 4, 1866. 8. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , May 29, 1869, p. 3. 9. I b i d . , J u l y 16, 1871, p. 3. 126 P a c i f i c R ailway i n e v i t a b l y i l l u s t r a t e t he canyons and v a l l e y s through which t h e y passed. Mountains p r o v i d e d a backdrop f o r panoramas o f c r e e k s , towns and r a i l r o a d h o t e l s . Though seldom the s u b j e c t o f photo-g r a p h s , t h e f o r e s t per se a s s e r t s i t s p r e s e n c e as a w a l l o f t r e e s r i s i n g behind a s t r a g g l i n g I n d i a n v i l l a g e , a t i d e w a t e r s a w m i l l , a s k i d r o a d , a m i n i n g town o r a p i c n i c p a r t y . L i k e n e s s e s o f l o g g e r s b e s i d e a g i a n t f i r o r o f t o u r i s t s a t the Hollow T r e e i n S t a n l e y Park r e v e a l a l m o s t i n d i r e c t l y the e n o r m i t y o f West Co a s t t r e e s . C a p t i o n s o f t e n emphasized the human element i n the photograph. Views o f Mount Stephen t o w e r i n g o v e r the Canadian P a c i f i c h o t e l a t F i e l d were l a b e l l e d "Mount Stephen House" and the s c e n e r y o f the I l l e c i l l e w a e t V a l l e y came t o be synonymous w i t h t h e "Double Loop" i n t h e S e l k i r k s . Where the C a r i b o o Road and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway made the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s o f the I n t e r i o r a c c e s s i b l e , p h o t o g r a p h e r s d i d c a p t u r e some o f the more s p e c t a c u l a r and e x p a n s i v e s c e n e r y . Views o f H e l l ' s Gate abound. Some taken s q u a r e l y a c r o s s the t o r r e n t show the d e t a i l o f the o p p o s i n g r o c k f a c e ; o t h e r s l o o k i n g up o r down stream show the p r e c i p i t o u s canyon w a l l s . In 1867 and 1868, D a l l y r e c o r d e d the canyons o f t h e F r a s e r , the v a l l e y o f the Thompson and the w a t e r f a l l s , l a k e s and mountains between Y a l e and C a r i b o o . H i s view o f t h e F r a s e r f o u r m i l e s above Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.56) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r u s h i n g water and r o c k y t e r r a i n o f t h e canyon. Another panorama e i g h t y m i l e s f a r t h e r up t h e road shows t h e meanders and s l o p e s o f t h e Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y ( P l a t e 4.57). Twenty y e a r s l a t e r , D e v i l l e and Maynard p r e p a r e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f views a l o n g the r o u t e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c t h r o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r work i n c l u d e s photographs o f t h e r i v e r s , canyons, w a t e r f a l l s , peaks 127 P l a t e 4.56: F r a s e r R i v e r , 4 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o q r a p h e r PABC 10946 128 P l a t e 4.57: Thompson R i v e r , 84 m i l e s above Y a l e , 1867-1868. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 9718 129 and passes o f the S e l k i r k and Coast r a n g e s . Devi l i e ' s view o f the I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon ( P l a t e 4.58) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f images o f the Wapta, A l b e r t , Beaver, F r a s e r and o t h e r canyons a l o n g t h e r o u t e o f t h e r a i l w a y . The e a r l y p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n c l u d e s the o c c a s i o n a l image o f the r o m a n t i c p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e . In p a r t i c u l a r , p h o t ographers por-t r a y e d the tamed n a t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c park. Views o f Beacon H i l l , t h e Gorge and G o l d s t r e a m i n V i c t o r i a and l a t e r o f S t a n l e y Park i n Vancouver show roads and t r a i l s which p a r t the f o r e s t and b r i n g i n t o view c l e a r i n g s o r l a g o o n s . A photograph o f G o l d s t r e a m by R i c h a r d Maynard ( P l a t e 4.59) shows a brook as i t emerges from the d i s t a n t woods. L i g h t f l o o d s i n from the upper l e f t . The water c r e a t e s a narrow w a t e r f a l l as i t s p i l l s i n t o a s h a l l o w pool i n the f o r e g r o u n d . There i t f l o w s around half-submerged r o c k s and f a l l e n b r a nches. High above the t i n y c a s c a d e , a f o o t b r i d g e c r o s s e s from bank t o bank. S i m i l a r l y , views o f the Gorge show paths l e a d i n g down the h i l l s i d e s t o a b r i d g e where t h e waters narrowed. Away from streams o r ponds, photographers sometimes c a p t u r e d the p i c t u r e s q u e q u a l i t i e s o f open p a r k l a n d where t h e f o r e s t was t h i n n e d t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f s p a c i o u s n e s s , where t r e e s f a d e d i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e and where s u n l i g h t f i l t e r e d t o the ground i n p a t c h e s . Many a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . Seascapes i l l u s t r a t i n g rugged and pounding s u r f a r e s i n g u l a r l y a b s e n t . Dense v e g e t a t i o n and rugged t e r r a i n impeded a c c e s s t o the c o a s t . E a r l y exposure times measured i n whole seconds, r a t h e r than i n f r a c t i o n s t h e r e o f , made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o photograph 1 3 0 P l a t e 4.58: I l l e c i l l e w a e t Canyon, Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , 1886. E. D e v i l l e , p h o t o g r a o h e r PABC 67594 131 P l a t e 4.59: Gol d s t r e a m , V i c t o r i a . R i c h a r d Maynard, Dhotoqraoher PABC 56796 132 the s h o r e from on board s h i p o r s t o p t h e motion o f c r e s t i n g waves. Mountain panoramas a r e few. U n t i l t h e r a i l r o a d opened up the p a s s e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r , l o f t y vantage p o i n t s were i n a c c e s s i b l e t o the photo-g r a p h e r encumbered by t h e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f h i s t r a d e . Though p o r t a b l e darkrooms were t a k e n by c a r t and pack h o r s e o v e r wagon roads and c r u d e t r a i l s , t h e m a r r i a g e o f n a t u r e photography and a l p i n e h i k i n g s t i l l a w a i t e d t h e advent o f s m a l l e r , r o l l - f i l m cameras. T h e r e a r e v i r t u a l l y no n a t u r e c o m p o s i t i o n s showing c a r p e t s o f mosses, t h i c k e t s o f s a l a l , s t a n d s o f Douglas f i r o r f i e l d s o f bunchgrass. A p a r t from any a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , slow e m u l s i o n s a g g r a v a t e d by low l i g h t l e v e l s made i t d i f f i c u l t t o photograph t h e f o r e s t i n t e r i o r o r s t o p t h e movement o f l e a v e s and f r o n d s . Views o f t h e peaks and p a s s e s , canyons and c a t a r a c t s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia w i l d e r n e s s a r e o f t e n the work o f photographers commissioned t o accompany t h e s u r v e y i n g e x p e d i t i o n s o f government and r a i l r o a d . A l t h o u g h the s u r v e y s f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c ' s n o r t h e r n terminus r o u t e were not d e v e l o p e d , H o r e t s z k y ' s s e r i e s o f w i l d e r n e s s views i l l u s t r a t e n o t o n l y the o b s t a c l e s , but a l s o the s c e n e r y o f the Homathko R i v e r and Bute I n l e t ( P l a t e 4.60). Yet h i s work i s as much a statement o f the proposed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a n d s c a p e as o f the e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l one. P l a t e 4.60: Homathko R i v e r , 30k m i l e s from Waddington, 1875. C h a r l e s H o r e t s z k y , nhotogranher PABC 10663 134 Almost from t he i n c e p t i o n o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t , p h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d B r i t i s h Columbia's n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e and i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a t the hand o f man. C l e a r l y some s u b j e c t s were photographed much more o f t e n than o t h e r s . The C a r i b o o Road and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c Railway dominate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n views. S t r e t c h e s o f road o r t r a c k combining s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y and e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s r e c e i v e d p a r t i -c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . The f r e i g h t t r a f f i c and m i l e h o u s e s o f the wagon road and the b r i d g e s and mountain h o t e l s o f t h e r a i l w a y were the most common s u b j e c t s . Photographs o f r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s f o c u s on th e g o l d rush and a r e l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t o f the 1860's. Most views show miners a t t h e i r c l a i m s ; waterwheels, t u n n e l s and w i n d l a s s e s were the more p o p u l a r s e t t i n g s . Only w i t h t he h a r d - r o c k boom o f the 1890's was t h e r e a r e s u r g e n c e i n mining p h o t o g r a p h s . ^ While photo-g r a p h e r s d i d c a p t u r e t he p i o n e e r f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , a much f u l l e r r e c o r d o f i t s men, t e c h n o l o g y and r e s o u r c e s was produced toward t he t u r n - o f -t h e - c e n t u r y . Many e a r l y photographs a r e scenes o f ox-teams h a u l i n g l o g s o v e r a s k i d r o a d ; l e s s numerous a r e i n - s i t u p o r t r a i t s o f hand-l o g g e r s and views o f t i d e w a t e r s a w - m i l l s . The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f f i s h i n g and f a r m i n g i s meagre; views o f f i s h i n g f l e e t s and c a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e o r c h a r d s and h a r v e s t scenes a r e l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t o f t he p o s t - p i o n e e r p e r i o d o f development t h a t f o l l o w e d t he coming o f the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y . O f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r r e s o u r c e s , s e t t l e m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia were r e c o r d e d , some r e p e a t e d l y , d u r i n g t he f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f photography i n the p r o v i n c e . Town panoramas and s t r e e t s c a p e views abound. Among h i s -t o r i c a l photographs a r e a few i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e s 135 o f I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e , T o g e t h e r , photographs o f the l a n d s c a p e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s and s e t t l e m e n t c o n s t i t u t e the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new s o c i e t y i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia. Photographs s u g g e s t i v e o f the emerging s o c i a l o r d e r show l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , h i s -t o r i c e v e n t s , prominent b u i l d i n g s and i m o o r t a n t p e o p l e . In the e a r l y y e a r s , t h e y were few and t h e y f o c u s e d upon the a c t i v i t i e s and s e t t i n g s o f t h e c o l o n i a l e l i t e . More o f t e n i n t h e 1880's, photographers r e c o r d e d the p i c n i c s and r e g a t t a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i t i z e n s ' V i c t o r i a and Dominion c e l e b r a t i o n s . Photographs o f the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e emphasize the s p e c t a c u l a r and e x p a n s i v e topography a l o n g t h e r o a d and r a i l r o u t e s through the I n t e r i o r . A few c a p t u r e the r o m a n t i c a s p e c t s o f V i c t o r i a ' s p u b l i c p a r k s . M i c r o s c a l e n a t u r e s t u d i e s a r e v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND PLACE: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t photography i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia was a s i m p l e k i n d o f p i c t u r e - m a k i n g , not a r e f i n e d v i s i o n . P i o n e e r photographers made r e c o r d images, not a e s t h e t i c a b s t r a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h a b r e a s t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e y were not c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c c e o t a n c e o f the photograph as f i n e a r t . T h e i r p o r t r a y a l o f s u b j e c t s was n e i t h e r a l l e g o r i c a l nor a r t i f i c i a l . T h e i r work d e s c r i b e d , but d i d n o t i n t e r p r e t . As a medium o f v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n , h i s t o r i c a l photographs r e v e a l more about the outward appearance o f the s u b j e c t than t h e i n n e r emotions o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r . They show t h e s t y l e o f a house, the members o f a f a m i l y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b r i d g e , the s c e n e r y o f a gorge, the mechanism o f a waterwheel and the s p e c t a t o r s a t a r e g a t t a . H i s t o r i c a l photographs o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r e s e r v e both o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u b j e c t s and r e v e a l a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g h i s -t o r i c a l developments, l i k e t h e g o l d r u s h and the r a i l w a y age, i n t h e i r e l e m e n t a l a s p e c t s . The range o f p h o t o g r a p h i c s u b j e c t s was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the i n -a b i l i t y o f e a r l y p r o c e s s e s t o s t o p motion and by the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by b u l k y equipment on m o b i l i t y a n d . a c c e s s . S u b j e c t s t h a t c o u l d n o t o r would no t remain s t i l l a r e a b s e n t from the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o r e x i s t i n photographs as b l u r r e d forms. In R i c h a r d Maynard's l a n d s c a p e panorama o f the G l a c i e r H o t e l ( P l a t e 4.16), p e o p l e w a l k i n g on the 136 137 p l a t f o r m a t the time the photograph was taken appear g h o s t - l i k e . In photographs o f water i n motion, r a p i d s t u r n i n t o s o f t s w i r l s and w a t e r f a l l s become d e l i c a t e c u r t a i n s . S t r e e t s c a p e s were more e a s i l y r e c o r d e d a l t h o u g h s k i t t i s h h o r s e s , r e s t l e s s dogs and i m p a t i e n t c h i l d r e n appear as i n d i s t i n c t f i g u r e s . Even i n a view w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t a c t i v i t y ( P l a t e 2.2), t h e i n d i s t i n c t n e s s o f waving f l a g s b e t r a y s a ' n e c e s s a r i l y l o n g exposure. Slow emulsions a l s o imposed a d e l i b e r a t e n e s s on photographs o f human a c t i v i t y . S t r e e t s c a p e views o f t e n f a i l t o r e p r e s e n t the r e a l b u s t l e o f t r a f f i c and p e d e s t r i a n s ; c a r t s were parked and merchants posed f o r the photographer. Mule teams on the C a r i b o o Road were stopped t o p e r m i t D a l l y t o r e c o r d f r e i g h t t r a f f i c a t 19-mile p o s t on the F r a s e r and a t G r e a t B l u f f on the Thompson. Gold, miners i n t e r r u p t e d t h e i r work t o pose f o r D a i l y ' s camera. That the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d o f c r i c k e t , r owing, t e n n i s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s c o n s i s t s o f group photographs o f team and c l u b members i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f the i n a b i l i t y o f c o l l o d i o n t e c h n o l o g y t o c a p t u r e movement. A p a r t from such l i m i t a t i o n s , t he photograph was a f a i t h f u l r e c o r d o f outward appearance, but i f the l e n s was i m p a r t i a l , the p h o t o g r a p h e r was not. The b o r d e r s o f a p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e i s o l a t e a segment o f r e a l i t y . The c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i n i t s e l f , i n t r o d u c e s an element o f s e l e c t i v i t y . F u rthermore, t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s c h o i c e o f camera a n g l e can change t h e elements o f the c o m p o s i t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e import o f the scene. Views o f Mount Stephen House might i n c l u d e the m a i n l i n e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway o r Mount Stephen o r both. The r e l a t i v e degrees t o which the t r a c k s and w i l d e r n e s s f i g u r e s u g g e s t whether t h e 138 photograph i s a statement about t h e i s o l a t i o n o f a mountain r e t r e a t , t h e e l e g a n c e o f a r a i l r o a d h o t e l , o r the c o n n e c t i o n t o the urban w o r l d . Commissioned photographs c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a p a t r o n ' s i n t e r e s t s ; however, i t i s seldom a p p a r e n t i f , o r by whom, a l a n d s c a p e view was commissioned. F u r t h e r m o r e , a photograph produced f o r a p a t r o n i n one l o c a t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y r e p r i n t e d f o r s a l e i n a n o t h e r . A g r e a t many more l a n d s c a p e views were p a r t o f the f r e e l a n c e t r a d e . P h o t o g r a p h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e engaged i n an i t i n e r a n t b u s i n e s s , e x e r c i s e d a degree o f i n i t i a t i v e and judgment i n r e c o r d i n g a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s ; sample c o p i e s o f t h e i r work were d i s p l a y e d * and o r d e r s f o r p r i n t s were a c c e p t e d . P u r c h a s e r s chose what i n t e r e s t e d them and t h e photographer had t o be s e n s i t i v e t o g e n e r a l market t a s t e s i f he hoped t o s e l l h i s work. As a r e s u l t , photographs e x h i b i t s e l e c t i v i t y i n t h e i r r e n d e r i n g o f n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e a l i t y . In the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d , some s u b j e c t s a r e much more numerous than o t h e r s . Such i n e q u i t i e s demonstrate t h a t the p u b l i c was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t e d t o some photographs and were b l a t a n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o o t h e r s . G i v e n the commercial n a t u r e o f photography, t h e preponderance o f some images and the s c a r c i t y o f o t h e r s s u g g e s t s the p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbians. W e l l - s u i t e d t o the needs and temperament o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, p h o t o g r a p h e r s both c a p t u r e d and c a p i t a l i z e d on the i m p a t i e n c e and e x c i t e m e n t o f p i o n e e r s o c i e t y . T h e i r work was f a s t , cheap and a c c e s s i b l e 1. George Fardon a d v e r t i s e d "Upwards o f F i v e Hundred Specimens on View", The C o l o n i s t , September 21, 1869. 139 t o a l m o s t a l l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y . I t r e c o r d e d the e v o l v i n g human l a n d -scape w i t h a c l a r i t y o f d e t a i l t h a t imparted t o i t u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l . Whereas o n l y the c o l o n i a l e l i t e might have t u r n e d t o the p a i n t e r , a l m o s t everyone l o o k e d t o the photographer f o r p o r t r a i t s and l a n d s c a p e views. To s a t i s f y t he t a s t e s o f p a t r o n s from v a r i o u s s o c i a l and economic backgrounds, the photographer produced a v a r i e t y o f s i z e s and f o r m a t s from the p l u s h l y mounted ambrotype t o the s i m p l e c a r t e - d e -v i s i t e . S e v e r a l e n t i c e m e n t s were used i n B r i t i s h Columbia newspaper announcements t o i n t e r e s t t he b u y i n g p u b l i c . "Handsome", " b e a u t i f u l " , " s p e n d i d l y e x e c u t e d " and " i n the b e s t p o s s i b l e s t y l e " , were t y p i c a l o f the d e s c r i p t i v e language used i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . P r i c e s were never quoted, but always seemed t o be " v e r y moderate", i f not " g r e a t l y r e d u c e d " . On the one hand, customers were encouraged t o "take advan-tage o f t h e p r e s e n t f i n e weather" and on the o t h e r hand, were reminded t h a t s t u d i o s were equipped t o t a k e p o r t r a i t s d u r i n g i n c l e m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . A sense o f urgency was c r e a t e d by such a p p e a l s as " g a l l e r y open f o r a s h o r t time o n l y " o r "reduced p r i c e s f o r a s h o r t time o n l y " o r " l a s t chance f o r t h o s e w i n t e r i n g i n the C a r i b o o " . A p a r t from t h e f a c t o r s o f s t y l e , c o s t , weather and immediacy, a c c e s s t o modern equipment was o c c a s i o n a l l y o f f e r e d as an i n c e n t i v e t o p a t r o n i z e a p h o t o g r a p h e r . B l a n c , d u r i n g h i s second summer i n the C a r i b o o , o f f e r e d f o r s a l e photographs "taken w i t h a new and improved camera j u s t r e c e i v e d from London." When Stephen Spencer r e t u r n e d t o 2. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 9, 1868, p. 3. 140 h i s V i c t o r i a s t u d i o i n 1874, he announced t h a t he had brought w i t h him "an e x p e r i e n c e d r e t o u c h e r from the f i r s t San F r a n c i s c o g a l l e r i e s " 3 as w e l l as "improved a p p l i a n c e s f o r t a k i n g and f i n i s h i n g p i c t u r e s . " By t h e l a t e 1880's, d r y p l a t e s had d r a s t i c a l l y r educed exposure times and, i n 1887, Spencer and H a s t i n g s a d v e r t i s e d " i n s t a n t a n e o u s photo-4 g r a p h i n g a s p e c i a l t y . " Such a d v e r t i s i n g c a p i t a l i z e d on the common assumption t h a t u p - t o - d a t e equipment was a g u a r a n t e e o f q u a l i t y r e s u l t s . The i n t r i n s i c appeal o f a photograph was t w o - f o l d ; i t was an amazing d i s c o v e r y o f i t s age and a f a i t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . The n o v e l t y o f f i x i n g f o r a l l time the image o f a p e r s o n , a p l a c e o r an e v e n t u s i n g a m i n d l e s s mechanical d e v i c e and a s i m p l e c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s g e n e r a t e d w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t . The photograph was an i n g e n i o u s i n v e n t i o n , a s o u r c e o f wonder. However, i t a l s o had the s i n g u l a r a b i l i t y t o r e p r o d u c e appearances a c c u r a t e l y . Though e a r l y p o r t r a i t s and views were sometimes as much a p r o d u c t o f s h e e r l u c k as o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , even t h e p o o r e s t photograph i m p a r t e d a sense o f t h e a c t u a l . As a document which conveyed p r e c i s e f a c t , t he photograph complemented the V i c t o r i a n b e l i e f t h a t t r u t h was r e v e a l e d through c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n , 5 and drew p u b l i c p r a i s e f o r i t s honesty and c l a r i t y . Stephen Spencer and Noah S h a k e s p e a r e 6 a d v e r t i s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n a " c o r r e c t 3. The C o l o n i s t , November 7, 1874. 4. The B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , 1887, V i c t o r i a : M a l l a n d a i n e and W i l l i a m s , 1887. 5. The V i c t o r i a Weekly G a z e t t e , August 4, 1860. 6. F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia Guide, 1868, p. 86. / 141, l i k e n e s s " , D a i l y ' s work was d e s c r i b e d as " b e a u t i f u l and t r u t h f u l " - / 8 B l a n c ' s e x h i b i t e d " t r u t h f u l d e l i n e a t i o n " ; and G e n t i l e ' s d i s p l a y e d 9 " t r u t h f u l n e s s , beauty and c l e a r n e s s o f e x e c u t i o n , " Such newspaper j a r g o n a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o the p u b l i c f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t r u t h . P e o p l e wanted l i k e n e s s e s o f t hemselves and t h e i r l o v e d ones. In e a r l y V i c t o r i a , p o r t r a i t s found a r e a d y market i n the l o c a l e l i t e and merchant c l a s s e s , as w e l l as i n the g o l d s e e k e r s on t h e i r way t o o r from the C a r i b o o and t h e B r i t i s h s a i l o r s from the naval base a t E s q u i m a l t . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e C a r i b o o , c l a i m owners, m i n e r s , and merchants were eager t o p u r c h a s e i n d i v i d u a l and group l i k e n e s s e s and had the money t o do so. Newspaper announcements encouraged the p r a c t i c e o f p u r c h a s i n g p o r t r a i t s f o r l o v e d ones. Stephen Spencer o f f e r e d t o t a k e " l i k e n e s s e s o f such as a r e t o l e a v e f o r Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d , as w e l l as o t h e r s who may d e s i r e t o l e a v e w i t h o r send t o t h e i r f r i e n d s a remembrance." 1^ B l a n c s u g g e s t e d t h a t "miners i n t e n d i n g t o l e a v e f o r Peace R i v e r " t a k e advantage o f h i s g r e a t l y reduced p r i c e s and " f o r w a r d t o f r i e n d s a l i k e n e s s b e f o r e t h e i r d e p a r t u r e f o r the new m i n e s . " 1 1 Upon her r e t i r e m e n t , Hannah Maynard r e c a l l e d t h a t her p a t r o n s i n V i c t o r i a i n c l u d e d " a l l k i n d s " and t h a t , a t one time o r a n o t h e r , she 7. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12,'1867, p. 3. 8. I b i d . , J u l y 11, 1867, p. 3. 9. I b i d , , May 10, 1866, p. 3. 10. The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 23, 1859. 11. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , March 12, 1870, p. 2. 142 and her husband R i c h a r d had photographed everybody i n town. 1^ Her c l a i m was p a r t l y c o r r o b o r a t e d by a l o c a l V i c t o r i a j o u r n a l i s t a l m o s t f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r : T h e r e was one e x p e r i e n c e o f my v e r y young days which must have been s h a r e d by thousands o f o t h e r members o f V i c t o r i a ' s growing f a m i l i e s . T h at was the o r d e a l o f g e t t i n g a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t made a t Mrs. R. Maynard's p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i o a t 41% Pandora S t r e e t . 1 3 There a r e e s s e n t i a l l y two t y p e s o f p o r t r a i t s i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. The s t u d i o c o m p o s i t i o n - whether a h e ad-and-shoulders p o r t r a i t taken a g a i n s t a p l a i n background ( P l a t e 2.1) o r a f u l l - l e n g t h l i k e n e s s s e t i n a mock V i c t o r i a n drawing-room - p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y i n s u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e on i t s s u b j e c t . Governed by "a v e r y 14 s t r i c t decorum o f costume, o c c a s i o n and pose," formal p o r t r a i t u r e imposed a sameness upon s t u d i o l i k e n e s s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i m p o r t o f such photographs l i e s more i n the f a c t o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e than i n the appearance o f t h e i r p a t r o n s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , the o u t d o o r l i k e n e s s shows " i n d i v i d u a l s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , c o - w o r k e r s , b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s o r team-mates a t home ( P l a t e 4.48), a t work ( P l a t e 4.20) o r a t p l a y ( P l a t e 4.49); i t r e v e a l s not o n l y appearance, but a l s o p h y s i c a l o r s o c i a l m i l i e u . The " i n - s i t u " p o r t r a i t c a p t u r e s the i n t e r a c t i o n between p e o p l e and p l a c e and i t s s t a t e m e n t stems from the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s u b j e c t t o s e t t i n g . Where the s t u i o p o r t r a i t r e p r e s e n t s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g o r 12. The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , September 29, 1912, p. 10. 13. Gus S i v e r t z , "When we were v e r y young: S t i f f , S t a r c h e d , and Watching the B i r d i e " , The Times ( V i c t o r i a ) , J a n u a r y 5, 1957, p. 4. 14. A l a n Thomas, l o c . c i t . 143 m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g , the " i n - s i t u " l i k e n e s s demonstrates i t . F o r the purposes o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , the former i s a s u b t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbians' sense o f themselves i n the emerging s o c i a l o r d e r ; the l a t t e r i s an o b v i o u s a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p l a c e . Thus, the " i n -s i t u " l i k e n e s s has been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t o f l a n d -scape photography; t h e s t u d i o p o r t r a i t .has n o t . P a r t o f the g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m f o r l a n d s c a p e views d e r i v e d from p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h p l a c e . B r i t i s h Columbians r e g a r d e d the photograph as a r e c o r d o f l a n d s c a p e s well-known t o them. Townsfolk wanted not o n l y photographs o f themselves and t h e i r p r o p e r t y , but a l s o views o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t , i t s main s t r e e t , prominent b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c parks and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s . A B arnard's ExDress tea'mster would have p r o b a b l y chosen views o f s t a g e s t o p s , m i l e h o u s e s , f r e i g h t t r a f f i c and r o a d s i d e s c e n e r y . S i m i l a r l y , a W i l l i a m s Creek miner might have s e l e c t e d photographs o f t h e mining towns and c e l e b r a t e d c l a i m s o f t h e C a r i b o o as w e l l as r e m i n d e r s o f h i s j o u r n e y up t h e wagon r o a d . In promoting B l a n c ' s views o f v a r i o u s p l a c e s w i t h i n the C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t , t h e e d i t o r s o f The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l were c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e r e were few r e a d e r s who would not " a v a i l themselves o f the o p p o r t u n i t y o f p r o c u r i n g 15 s o u v e n i r s o f p l a c e s f a m i l i a r t o them from the f o r c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n . " A p l a c e became i m p o r t a n t through f a m i l i a r i t y , through "the f o r c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n " . A photograph c o n f i r m e d and p r e s e r v e d t h i s importance. 15. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 11, 1867, p. 3. 144 B r i t i s h Columbians wanted a r e c o r d o f f a m i l i a r p l a c e s , not j u s t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , but a l s o f o r t h e i r l o v e d ones. Th'ev immigrant t o t h i s i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h North America was encouraged by newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o send o f f photographs o f h i s l a n d o r c l a i m , o f town or s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s t o r e - a s s u r e l o v e d ones a t home, t o boast o f p e r s o n a l accomplishments o r t o encourage f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s t o immigrate. Views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y were "always on hand and f o r sale"''' 6 a t B l a n c ' s g a l l e r y and i n 1870, an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l suggested t h a t " p a r t i e s w r i t i n g home would do w e l l t o c a l l on Mr. B l a n c and s e l e c t from h i s v a r i e d s u p p l y a s o u v e n i r f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s . " ^ In t h e same i s s u e , the newspaper's e d i t o r s posed the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : What more a c c e p t a b l e s o u v e n i r can be s e n t t o one's f r i e n d s than a c a r t e - d e - v i s i t e o r a view o f t he scene o f l a b o r i n which the wanderer from home i s engaged.18 A photograph s e n t t o f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s p e r m i t t e d o t h e r s t o see the s e t t i n g o f one's a c t i v i t i e s and the p l a c e o f one's emotional a t t a c h -ment. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l a p p e a l e d t o l o c a l community s p i r i t i n n o t i n g t h a t B l a n c ' s views o f B a r k e r v i l l e a f t e r the 1871 Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n were " v e r y handsome, and when s e n t abroad [would] g i v e 19 s t r a n g e r s a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f our town." P r i d e as w e l l as 16. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 13, 1870, p. 2. 17. I b i d . 18. I b i d . , p. 3. 19. I b i d . , J u l y 16, 1871, p. 3. 145 f a m i l i a r i t y formed the b a s i s o f the b o o s t e r i s m e v i d e n t i n the photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia. I f B r i t i s h Columbians were an x i o u s t o p u r c h a s e views o f f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e y were a l s o eager to o b t a i n p h o t o g r a p h s ' o f l a n d s c a p e s w i t h which t h e y had no p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i n t e r e s t was p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e which i n c o r p o r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l V i c t o r i a n c o n c e r n s w i t h t r u t h , t e c h n o l o g y and p r o g r e s s and gave them more than l o c a l a p p e a l . I t encouraged t r a v e l , e x p l o r a t i o n 20 and I m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n , news o f which r e v e a l e d t h e d i v e r s i t y o f the p h s y i c a l environment and the human e x p e r i e n c e . T r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e " i n the form o f p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s , t r a v e l books, and account's i n t h e i l l u s t r a t e d , p r e s s p r o l i f e r a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o the enormous 21 V i c t o r i a n demand f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and new e x p e r i e n c e . " In e v o k i n g 20. I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o note t h a t among c h a p t e r s on A r t , L i t e r a t u r e , S c i e n c e , R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i e s , The I l l u s t r a t e d London News Record  o f the G l o r i o u s Reign o f Queen V i c t o r i a 1837-1901 was a s e c t i o n devoted t o " T r a v e l i n the V i c t o r i a n E r a " . I t s a u t h o r remarked t h a t "no more g i a n t s t r i d e s have been made i n any f i e l d o f human endeavour d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d than i n g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h " and p r o c l a i m e d t h a t " a f t e r g i v i n g a l l due c r e d i t t o the e x p l o r e r s o f a l l o t h e r n a t i o n s , Queen V i c t o r i a ' s own s u b j e c t s have taken the f o r e m o s t p l a c e i n t h i s g r e a t work." F.C. S e l o u s " T r a v e l i n the V i c t o r i a n E r a " i n The I l l u s t r a t e d London News Record o f t h e G l o r i o u s  Reign o f Queen V i c t o r i a 1837-1901. London, 1901. 21. Ronald Rees, "Images o f the P r a i r i e : Landscape P a i n t i n g and Per-c e p t i o n i n t h e Western I n t e r i o r o f Canada" i n The Canadian  Geographer, XX, 3, F a l l , 1976, p. 260. 146 the t a n g i b l e p r e s e n c e o f r e a l i t y , t he photograph was embraced as a means o f " v i s i t i n g " far-away p l a c e s ; album p r i n t s , s t e r e o c a r d s and c a r t e s - d e - v i s i t e became a s u r r o g a t e f o r t r a v e l . D u r i n g the w e t - p l a t e e r a i n Europe, p h o t o g r a p h e r s were s e n t f a r and wide t o r e c o r d l e g e n d a r y 22 p l a c e s and s c e n i c wonders, c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t i e s and I m p e r i a l f r o n t i e r s . Through t h e i r f a i t h i n the a c c u r a c y and o b j e c t i v i t y o f the photograph, V i c t o r i a n s were a b l e t o d e r i v e v i c a r i o u s enjoyment from l a n d s c a p e views. The appeal o f images, o f u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e s , some famous, o t h e r s o b s c u r e , l a y i n the e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e i r b e i n g e x o t i c o r s p e c t a c u l a r o r s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t . In e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e c r e a t e d a market f o r the work o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s who t r a v e l l e d up the c o a s t and i n t o the i n t e r i o r , some on o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s , o t h e r s pur-s u i n g a f r e e l a n c e t r a d e . Newspaper r e p o r t s o f government p r o c e e d i n g s i n V i c t o r i a , o f f r e i g h t t r a f f i c t h r o u g h Y a l e , o f g o l d s t r i k e s on W i l l i a m s Creek, o f I n d i a n Commission b u s i n e s s i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e s , o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the S e l k i r k s and o f naval o p e r a t i o n s a t E s q u i m a l t p i q u e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n d i s t a n t l a n d s c a p e s . They made not o n l y the l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s , but a l s o the c r e e k s and shantytowns o f the C a r i b o o , the b l u f f s and m i l e h o u s e s o f the wagon road and the canyons and 22. In 1856, the London S t e r e o s c o p i c Company a d v e r t i s e d 100,000 d i f f e r e n t views from around t h e w o r l d ( G a i l B u c k l a n d , R e a l i t y  Recorded: E a r l y Documentary Photography, Greenwich, C o n n e c t i c u t : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1974, p. 97) and r e p o r t e d l y s o l d two and a h a l f m i l l i o n s t e r e o c a r d s between 1854 and 1858 (Harper and T r i g g s , op. c i t . , unpaged). 147 w h i s t l e - s t o p s o f t h e r a i l w a y f a m i l i a r p l a c e names. T h i s ambient c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e a l s o extended t o views o f unknown p l a c e s t h a t a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , n a t u r a l wonders and g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s . B r i t i s h Columbians i n one c o r n e r o f the c o l o n y were c u r i o u s about what e x i s t e d o r what happened i n a n o t h e r . Perhaps t o p o s s e s s a C a r i b o o view o r a V i c t o r i a s t r e e t s c a p e was t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e d i s t a n t l a n d s c a p e s and p i o n e e r e x c i t e m e n t o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. I n d i a n views p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n l o v e o f the e x o t i c . The n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e was f o r e i g n t o . t h e w h i t e man whether he l i v e d i n V i c t o r i a or i n London; a p a r t from t h e m i s s i o n c h u r c h o r s c h o o l ( P l a t e 4.45) i t was a l a n d s c a p e which i n no way r e f l e c t e d upon t h e m a t e r i a l development o f the c o l o n y . Photographs o f c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s ( P l a t e 4.44), views o f salmon w e i r s ( P l a t e 4.29) and l i k e n e s s e s o f c h i e f s a p p e a l e d t o the p r e v a i l i n g c u r i o s i t y about t h e w o r l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f the I n d i a n l a n d -scape was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by a number o f f a c t o r s . Because a c c e s s was d i f f i c u l t and c o - o p e r a t i o n was not a s s u r e d , I n d i a n s u b j e c t s were l a r g e l y t h e work o f a few o f f i c i a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s on government t o u r s o f West C o a s t t r i b e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , u n l i k e the C a r i b o o , the n o r t h e r n c o a s t s o f the i s l a n d and m a i n l a n d d i d not p r e s e n t l u c r a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i t o t h e i t i n e r a n t photographer. Though th e y p r o v i d e d an abundance o f i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r , the I n d i a n s themselves d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e market f o r l i k e n e s s e s and views. 148 A market f o r photographs t h a t c a p t u r e d the s e t t l e d c o m f o r t o f V i c t o r i a and New Westminster e x i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia. The c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s commanded p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n as c e n t r e s o f p o l i -t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , commercial development and s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . Views showing wide t h o r o u g h f a r e s and b r i c k b u i l d i n g s , s t a t e l y r e s i d e n c e s and p u b l i c p arks bespoke a r e f i n e d l i f e s t y l e i n a c i v i l i z e d environment. Yet, i f V i c t o r i a seemed e l e g a n t t o the r e s i d e n t s o f W i l l i a m s Creek, then the g o l d f i e l d s seemed e x o t i c t o the c i t i z e n s o f the c a p i t a l . The C a r i b o o was "where the a c t i o n was", the f r o n t i e r where f o r t u n e s were made. Images o f shantytowns and m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s came t o e p i t o m i z e the g o l d r u s h . Album c o l l e c t i o n s p r e p a r e d by D a l l y f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d a town panorama o f R i c h f i e l d , Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33), Van W i n k l e , W i l l i a m s Creek o r K e l l e y v i l l e , i n a d d i t i o n to v a r i o u s views o f B a r k e r v i l l e ( P l a t e s 4.34, 4.40). Photographs o f the Mucho Oro wheel ( P l a t e 4.24), t h e Neversweat t u n n e l ( P l a t e 4.21), t h e Sheepshead s h a f t ( P l a t e 4.22) and the Ne'er Do Well c l a i m ( P l a t e 4.20), though o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d as p e r s o n a l statements about the miners who commissioned them, commanded wi d e r appeal as v i s u a l r e c o r d s o f human e n t e r p r i s e , f r o n t i e r l i f e , m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y and economic p r o g r e s s . C u r i o s i t y about t h e C a r i b o o a l s o encompassed t h e famed wagon r o a d . Photographs showing l o c a l s c e n e r y ( P l a t e s 4.56, 4.57), f r e i g h t t r a f f i c ( P l a t e 4.3), e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s ( P l a t e 4.1), t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o i n t s ( P l a t e s 4.37) and m i l e h o u s e s ( P l a t e 4.8) became i n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a r imagery o f g o l d r u s h B r i t i s h Columbia. F r e d e r i c k D a l l y 149 23 o f f e r e d views o f "the most remarkable p l a c e s , " o f " p l a c e s o f i n t e r e s t " 25 and o f "every i m p o r t a n t p l a c e from Y a l e t o C a r i b o o . " What made a p l a c e r e m a r k a b l e o r i n t e r e s t i n g or i m p o r t a n t was, i n some i n s t a n c e s a wonder o f n a t u r e or a p r e c a r i o u s s t r e t c h o f r o a d . O f t e n i t was an i n n , a s e r v i c e town o r a t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o i n t . As a w i t n e s s t o m a r v e l s o f 19th c e n t u r y s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g , the photograph demonstrated and p r e s e r v e d the V i c t o r i a n f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t e c h n o l o g y . I t r e c o r d e d the ways i n which t e c h n o l o g y p e r m i t t e d man g r e a t e r freedom from and c o n t r o l o v e r h i s environment, i n which i t a f f o r d e d i n c r e a s e d c o m f o r t o r encouraged g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o r produced h i g h e r p r o f i t s . P hotographers c a p t u r e d the r u d i m e n t a r y r e -s o u r c e t e c h n o l o g y o f the e a r l y l o g g i n g and m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s . Views a t the g o l d - f i e l d s ( P l a t e s 4.18-4.25) showed d i s t a n t a u d i e n c e s the way i n which f o r t u n e s were made through the use o f waterwheels, f l u m e s , s l u i c e s , t u n n e l s and s h a f t s . S i m i l a r l y , images o f s p r i n g b o a r d s and c r o s s - c u t saws, s k i d roads and oxen l o g g i n g ( P l a t e s 4.26, 4.27) i l l u s -t r a t e d the c r u d e methods by which the P a c i f i c C o a s t f o r e s t s were made t o y i e l d t h e i r w e a l t h . L i k e photographs o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n , images o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a t t r a c t e d p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . O b s t a c l e s o f t e r r a i n and d i s -t a n c e were overcome b y - f e a t s o f c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g . In 1865, the 23. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12, 1867, p. 3. 24. I b i d . , J u l y 26, 1868, p. 3. 25. I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 3. 150 c o m p l e t i o n o f the C a r i b o o Road t u r n e d the b l u f f s and canyons o f the F r a s e r r i v e r r o u t e i n t o a v i a b l e avenue o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the I n t e r i o r . Views by D a l l y show a s t r e t c h o f road c l i n g i n g t o the r o c k f a c e between Y a l e and Spuzzum ( P l a t e 4.1) and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c p a s s i n g through a r o c k c u t a t G r e a t - B l u f f ( P l a t e 4.5). S t e r n w h e e l e r s , photo-graphed docked a t Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.37) and Soda Creek were an o t h e r a s p e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h e r a . In the 1880's, images o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n i m a g i n a t i o n as extreme symbols o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the l i n e through the mountains o f B r i t i s h Columbia was a p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r m i d a b l e t a s k t h a t commanded i n t e r e s t a t home and 26 abroad. Q u i t e a p a r t from any p o l i t i c a l o r economic s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e r a i l r o a d was the epitome o f c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g and an u n d e r t a k i n g o f c o n t i n e n t a l p r o p o r t i o n s . I t s mountain t u n n e l s ( P l a t e 4.11), i r o n b r i d g e s ( P l a t e 4.14) and wooden t r e s t l e s , l a r g e ( P l a t e 4.13) and s m a l l ( P l a t e 4.10), were wonders o f p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e which i n t r i g u e d photo-g r a p h e r and p u b l i c a l i k e . From s u r v e y i n g t o c o m p l e t i o n , few f a c e t s o f 26. -> The I l l u s t r a t e d London News f r e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s and en-g r a v i n g s o f Canadian P a c i f i c Railway c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the West. On J u l y 24, 1886, the f r o n t page was devoted t o f o u r CPR views; s e v e r a l more appeared i n the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e on J u l y 31, 1886. Ralph Connor, i n h i s novel The Gaspards o f P i n e C r o f t notes t h a t " m a r v e l l o u s p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f the achievements o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c E n g i n e e r s " made a pro f o u n d i m p r e s s i o n as " w o n d e r f u l examples o f a r t i s t i c work" and f o r "the e n g i n e e r i n g triumphs t h e y p i c t u r e d " when brought back t o S c o t l a n d (New York: George H. Doran Company, 1923, p. 9 ) . 151 t h e coming o f the r a i l w a y age to l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia escaped the camera's eye. The photograph "was p a r t o f the p r o c e s s by which men c o u l d p e r -27 suade themselves o f t h e i r mastery o f m a t e r i a l t h i n g s . " Images o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance o f t e n a l s o connoted p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r s tatements about man's mastery o f n a t u r e . D a i l y ' s views o f the C a r i b o o wagon road and Maynard's photographs o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway were more than a t e s t i m o n i a l t o c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g . Images o f f r e i g h t t r a f f i c a l o n g t h e b l u f f s o f t h e F r a s e r ( P l a t e 4.3), a t t h e m i l e h o u s e s above Y a l e ( P l a t e 4.8) or a t the e x p r e s s o f f i c e on main s t r e e t ( P l a t e 4.4) p o r t r a y e d t h e development o f t r a d e and commerce. T r a c k s , b r i d g e s and t u n n e l s suggested l i n k s a c r o s s a c o n t i n e n t , new l i n e s o f communi-c a t i o n , g r e a t e r ease o f a c c e s s and expanded economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Images o f the mining and l o g g i n g i n d u s t r i e s demonstrated B r i t i s h Columbians' mastery of n a t u r e ' s r e s o u r c e s . Waterwheels and s k i d roads were the means by which t h e y e x p l o i t e d t h e g o l d - b e a r i n g g r a v e l s and g i a n t c e d a r s t h a t formed the b a s i s of the emerging economy. Such photographs o f the development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s were e v i d e n c e of p r o g r e s s i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia. In the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e photograph was h a i l e d as a "means of p a s s i n g down a r e c o r d of what we a r e , and what we have a c h i e v e d 28 i n t h i s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y of our p r o g r e s s . " The r e c e n c y and r a p i d i t y of development i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia made p r o g r e s s a —— —• • •—• •— , • ,. .. — . . — . . • - •••• — • • 27. G.H. M a r t i n and David F r a n c i s , "The Camera's Eye", The V i c t o r i a n  C i t y : Images and R e a l i t i e s , H.J. Dyos and M i c h a e l W o l f f ( e d s . ) , London: Ro u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1973, V o l . I , p. 234. 28. John Thomson, P r o c e e d i n g s of the Royal G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1891 c i t e d i n B u c k l a n d , op. c i t . , p. 9. 152 common and concrete r e a l i t y that was h i g h l y v i s i b l e i n material terms. Twenty-five years a f t e r the Fraser rush began, The Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia addressed i t s e l f t o B r i t i s h Columbians' sustained i n t e r e s t i n the development of the province. In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " B r i t i s h Columbia Advancing", i t expressed every confidence that i t s readers would be "glad to l e a r n that B r i t i s h Columbia [was] at l e a s t keeping 29 pace with the r e s t of the world in the march of progress."" Through technology, investment and prodigious e f f o r t , B r i t i s h Columbians sub-dued the wilderness, developed the resources and reduced the i s o l a t i o n . A photograph of the transformation of the wilderness was c l e a r l y a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own accomplishments. The preponderance of record images that d e p i c t and extol the r i s e of settlement, the growth of primary industry and the improve-ment of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t t e s t s to a perception of place i n t i m a t e l y t i e d to progress i n a new land. This enthusiasm f o r material develop-ment i s not surprising.. The photographic record, begun as i t was with the i n i t i a l i n f l u x of white population^captures the pioneer outlook of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the f r o n t i e r experience, everything was new and d i f f e r e n t . The pioneer regarded the transformation of wilderness as " h i s mission and c r i t e r i o n of 30 progress"; i t was "the reward f o r h i s s a c r i f i c e , the d e f i n i t i o n of 29. " B r i t i s h Columbia Advancing", The Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, I, 12, February 1, 1884, p. 13. 30. Roderick Nash, "Wilderness and Man i n North America", The  Canadian National Parks: today and tomorrow, J.G. Nelson and R.C. Scace (eds.)•, Calgary: the National and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada and the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1968, p. 68. o 153 h i s achievement, and. the s o u r c e o f h i s p r i d e . " 0 1 R e s p o n s i b l e f o r the , c r e a t i o n o f t h i s new p l a c e , B r i t i s h Columbians p r o v i d e d an eager market f o r a p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e i r accomplishments. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s g e n e r a t e d much e x c i t e m e n t , but i t was photographs o f t h e o r d e r e d s e t t l e m e n t l a n d s c a p e emerging from raw p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s which b e s t i n c o r p o r a t e d the V i c t o r i a n p r o -g r e s s e t h i c . P h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f towns where a s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e t h e r e had been n o t h i n g but r o c k and f o r e s t . Panoramas o f the f r o n t i e r communities o f Camerontown ( P l a t e 4.33) and I l l e c i l l e w a e t ( P l a t e 4.35) showing t h e i r s t r e e t s c a p e s and w i l d e r n e s s s e t t i n g s were a r e c o r d o f m a t e r i a l advance. Views showing the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h stump-strewn c l e a r i n g s and surrounded by f o r e s t were unambiguous rem i n d e r s o f the pace a t which the l a n d s c a p e was b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d and c i v i l i z e d . By c a p t u r i n g L y t t o n i n the l a t e 1860's ( P l a t e 4.36), D a i l y ' s photograph became a measure o f p r o g r e s s r e a l i z e d and a p o r t e n t o f p r o g r e s s t o come. S u c c e s s i v e views begged comparison and demonstrated o b v i o u s growth and development. S e t t l e m e n t s were i n t e r e s t i n g as s u b j e c t s because i n d i v i d u a l l y they were i m p o r t a n t as examples o f l o c a l development and c o l l e c t i v e l y they were l i n k s i n a c h a i n o f communication from V i c t o r i a t o C a r i b o o . Each town, v i l l a g e o r m i l e h o u s e commanded a t t e n t i o n by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t a community e x i s t e d , t h a t p e o p l e were committed t o i t , t h a t commerce fl o w e d through i t and t h a t i t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a 31, R o d e r i c k Nash, W i l d e r n e s s and the American Mind, New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976, pp. 24-25. 154 l a r g e r scheme o f c o l o n i a l o r p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . Y a l e was one such p l a c e and s e t t l e m e n t views abound. As a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e , i t s importance was t i e d t o t h e g o l d r u s h , t o the C a r i b o o Road and l a t e r t o the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, I t was a p l a c e from which d i s t a n c e s were measured and u n f a m i l i a r l o c a t i o n s were put i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . Album p r i n t s and s t e r e o v i e w s were l a b e l l e d "between Y a l e and Boston Bar" o r "88 m i l e s above Y a l e . " The " m i l e houses" were known by t h e i r d i s t a n c e s from Y a l e , Landscape views o f the F r a s e r R i v e r were i n v a r i a b l y i d e n t i f i e d i n g e o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n t o Y a l e . The coming o f the r a i l w a y was a temporary boo s t t o the importance o f Y a l e which had waned w i t h the end o f t h e g o l d r u s h e r a . The town became the head-q u a r t e r s f o r Andrew Onderdonk's c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t s i n the F r a s e r Canyon s e c t i o n and a g a i n Y a l e became a f a m i l i a r p l a c e name by which t r e s t l e s , t u n n e l s o r s t r e t c h e s o f t r a c k were i d e n t i f i e d . Logging and s a w - m i l l i n g were a n c i l l a r y t o more o b v i o u s examples o f m a t e r i a l development. They p r o v i d e d c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r towns, wagons, p i t p r o p s , f l u m e s , w a t e r w h e e l s , t r e s t l e s and r a i l w a y t i e s . Slow em u l s i o n s and g e o g r a p h i c a l i s o l a t i o n l i m i t e d the photography o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y : e a r l y t i d e w a t e r l o g g i n g camps and s a w - m i l l s were l a r g e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o the i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r ; low l i g h t l e v e l s p r e v e n t e d views o f the saws, e d g e r s , trimmers and p l a n e r s o f m i l l i n t e r i o r s . The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , though f a r from e x t e n s i v e , f o c u s e s on man's mastery o f n a t u r e ; the hand l o g g e r and s k i d r o a d a r e emphasized. In the m e t a p h o r i c a l c l a s h between David and G o l i a t h , i t has been suggested t h a t such photographs a r e " s t a t e l y 155 death p o r t r a i t s o f the g r e a t c e d a r s and f i r s " i n which t h e r e i s : d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t and a profou n d sense o f t r a g e d y . The l o g g e r s t h e m s e l v e s , who p a i d f o r the p i c t u r e s , a r e s u b s i d i a r y f i g u r e s , l i k e t h e donors i n an a l t a r -p i e c e ; t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s t h a t o f the v i c t i m . 3 2 However, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f a r t o o r o m a n t i c a view o f so e x p l o i t a t i v e an i n d u s t r y . I f t h e r e i s d i g n i t y i n such p o r t r a i t s , i t i s t h a t o f the l o g g e r ; any r e s p e c t i s s u r e l y a k i n d o f s e l f - r e s p e c t . These images a r e b o a s t f u l , not e l e g i a c . They a r e not so much a de a t h p o r t r a i t o f the t r e e as a t e s t i m o n i a l t o the l o g g e r . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s t h e a s s a i l a n t , not the v i c t i m . The d e a r t h o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d r e f l e c t s t h a t , i n p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t and eve r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e , f a r m i n g d i d n o t e l i c i t the e x c i t e m e n t and c h a l l e n g e g e n e r a t e d by f r o n t i e r towns, m i n i n g c l a i m s and r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n . The e a r l y i n f l u x o f w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n came i n s e a r c h o f money and a d v e n t u r e , not l a n d ; f a r m i n g , as a c o n s e r v a t i v e , s e d e n t a r y o c c u p a t i o n was p e r i p h e r a l t o the B r i t i s h Columbian e n t h u s i a s m f o r r a p i d and o b v i o u s examples o f 33 m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c a p i t a l was a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 32. John S z a r k o w s k i , The Photographer and the American Landscape, New York: The Museum o f Modern A r t , 1963, p. 4. 33. A r e p o r t from The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l p r o v i d e s one such example, p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l l i n g i n i t s t i t l e " M i n i n g v s . A g r i c u l t u r e " : "Mining v s . A g r i c u l t u r e - Mr. F r a n c i s McKenna, g e n e r a l l y known as " B i g L a r r y " , pre-empted a s e c t i o n o f l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes l a s t week on L i g h t n i n g Creek, and s h o r t l y a f t e r . t h e news o f t h e " s t r i k e " by A l e x , Jack & Co. became known on Monday l a s t L a r r y ' s l a n d was a l l s t a k e d o f f f o r m i n i n g p u r p o s e s . L a r r y p h i l o s o p h i z e s o v e r t he m a t t e r by s a y i n g t h a t he i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e h i s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h a t o f t h e p u b l i c . T r u e p h i l o s o p h e r and p a t r i o t ; " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , August 13, 1870, p. 3. 156 A farm r e q u i r e d heavy p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t and y i e l d e d slow f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s ; t h o s e who came t o B r i t i s h Columbia d i d so t o make money, not t o spend i t . I t was not u n t i l t he c l o s e o f the c e n t u r y t h a t the r a i l r o a d opened up new l a n d and new markets; t h a t immigrants came t o B r i t i s h Columbia p r i m a r i l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s ; t h a t f a r m i n g , o r c h a r d i n g and r a n c h i n g began i n e a r n e s t ; and t h a t images o f a g r i c u l t u r e became more abundant i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . Perhaps l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e o f p r o g r e s s and t e c h n o l o g y was the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . C a n n e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by the 1870's, but were not o f t e n photographed. T h e i r i s o l a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s . As s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r was t h e i r l i m i t e d a p p e a l . T h e r e was none o f t h e c h a l l e n g e o f hand l o g g e r s f e l l i n g a g i a n t t r e e , nor any o f t h e e x c i t e m e n t g e n e r a t e d by d i s c o v e r i e s o f g o l d . Views o f b u i l d i n g e x t e r i o r s r e v e a l e d l i t t l e ; slow e m u l s i o n s p r e v e n t e d photographs o f i n d o o r o p e r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , f i s h p r o -c e s s i n g was r u d i m e n t a r y ; t h e r e was no complex machinery and most work was done by hand. In a d d i t i o n , c a n n i n g was done by I n d i a n o r C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s who, u n l i k e w h i t e miners or l o g g e r s or n a v v i e s , d i d not commission group l i k e n e s s e s and d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t w h i t e p r o g r e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Views o f the salmon w e i r s , d r y i n g r a c k s and t r e e caches o f the I n d i a n f i s h e r y commanded i n t e r e s t more as examples o f s t r a n g e customs than as s t a t e m e n t s about r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . C o l l e c t i v e p r o g r e s s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p e r s o n a l p r i d e and a c h i e v e -ment, B r i t i s h Columbians p a i d l o c a l and i t i n e r a n t p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o r e c o r d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l accomplishments; t h e i r work produced a b o a s t f u l 157 imagery o f p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and s u c c e s s a k i n t o the i l l u s t r a t i o n s commissioned f o r l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y county a t l a s e s o f O n t a r i o . L i k e n e s s e s o f miners a t a c l a i m , l o g g e r s b e s i d e a t r e e and n a v v i e s on a t r e s t l e were stat e m e n t s o f c h a l l e n g e s made and met. Photographs o f f a m i l y and house, merchant and s t o r e r e f l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a -t i o n and achievement j u s t as the town panorama o r s t r e e t s c a p e view ? r e v e a l e d t h e c o l l e c t i v e advance o f i n d u s t r y and commerce. Photo-graphs o f b a r n s , f e n c e s , f i e l d s and c r o p s , though few, were taken a t the r e q u e s t and expense o f the farm owner. They were not g e n e r a l images o f a g r a r i a n f e l i c i t y , b ut r a t h e r t h e y were p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t s o f f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , f a m i l y e n t e r p r i s e and the s u c c e s s f u l c r e a t i o n o f home. The r e v e r s i o n t o f r o n t i e r c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t l a s t l o n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r immigrants q u i c k l y began t o e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . Order and e l e g a n c e were imposed on t h e l a n d s c a p e by the i n d i v i d u a l on h i s l o t and by t o w n s f o l k i n t h e i r community. The s p r e a d o f Empire became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the p r o g r e s s i o n from p i o n e e r h a r d s h i p t o s e t t l e d c o m f o r t . R e c e n t l y a r r i v e d B r i t i s h Columbians, l i k e members o f c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s e l s e w h e r e , l o o k e d upon the O l d World as "the mecca o f a l l t h a t was t a s t e f u l , r e f i n e d , and c r e a t i v e . " ' E m i l y C a r r c l a i m e d t h a t i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a " t r i e d t o be more E n g l i s h than the E n g l i s h t h e m s e l v e s , j u s t t o prove 34. R o d e r i c k Nash, W i l d e r n e s s and t h e American Mind, p. 71. 158 j t o t h e m s e l v e s and the w o r l d how l o y a l t h e y were b e i n g t o t h e Old 35 Land." Many e n v i s a g e d B r i t i s h Columbia's development w i t h i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e E n g l i s h c o n c e p t i o n o f g e n t e e l s o c i e t y t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e d o r d e r , decorum, s t a b i l i t y and h i e r a r c h y . They r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h o s e t r a p p i n g s o f upper m i d d l e c l a s s l i f e t h a t were most e a s i l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y t r a n s p l a n t e d . Photographs r e f l e c t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f o ndness f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s t o n a t u r e . They demonstrate t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia, d e s p i t e i t s w i l d e r -ness and i s o l a t i o n , was a c i v i l i z e d p l a c e . In V i c t o r i a , i n New Westminster and l a t e r , i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l communities o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y and s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d , E n g l i s h manners, a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l amusements were w i d e l y i m i t a t e d . H a b i t and homesickness moved many immigrants t o r e c r e a t e a c o r n e r o f t h e O l d World on t h e i r p r o p e r t y . In l a n d s c a p i n g h i s t e n - a c r e l o t a d j o i n i n g Beacon H i l l Park i n t h e 1860's, E m i l y C a r r ' s f a t h e r : wanted h i s p l a c e t o l o o k e x a c t l y l i k e E ngland. He p l a n t e d c o w s l i p s and p r i m r o s e s and hawthorn hedges and a l l t h e E n g l i s h y f l o w e r s . He had s t i l e s and meadows and took away a l l t h e w i l d Canadian-ness and made i t as meek and, E n g l i s h as he c o u l d . 3 6 On such l a n d s c a p e d e s t a t e s , l e i s u r e hours were passed f a s h i o n a b l y among f a m i l y and f r i e n d s a t c r o q u e t o r a t t e a . 35. E m i l y C a r r , The Book o f Smal1, T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company, L t d . , 1966, p. 76. 36. I b i d . , p. 8. ! 159 Photographs a l s o r e v e a l the r e c r e a t i o n a l p a s t imes t r a n s p l a n t e d by B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n . Queen V i c t o r i a ' s b i r t h d a y was c e l e b r a t e d w i t h p i c n i c s and r e g a t t a s . Club and s c h o o l s p o r t s were i n t r o d u c e d by t h e Royal E n g i n e e r s , t h e Royal Navy, s c h o o l m a s t e r s and c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s . As e a r l y as 1861, t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was formed 37 i n New Westminster. I n t e r c o l o n i a l matches took p l a c e between teams from the c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s ( P l a t e 4.49) and, i n the l a t e 1880's, the Vancouver E l e v e n o f f e r e d f u r t h e r c o m p e t i t i o n . T e n n i s , rowing and c y c l i n g were o t h e r p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s brought t o e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. At a n o t h e r l e v e l , the s e a t s o f c o l o n i a l government were the f o c u s o f e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h O l d C o u n t r y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s . P h o t ographers r e c o r d e d government b u i l d i n g s and c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a ( P l a t e 4.54) and i n New Westminster ( P l a t e 4.55). S i m i l a r l y , e a r l y views o f E s q u i m a l t , t h e P a c i f i c base o f the B r i t i s h f l e e t ( P l a t e 4.39), and Nanaimo, i t s c o a l i n g s t a t i o n , demonstrate the p r e s e n c e o f the Royal Navy i n t h i s d i s t a n t o u t p o s t o f Empire. In comparison w i t h t h e o r d e r e d appearance and g e n t l e p r o p o r t i o n s o f the Old C o u n t r y l a n d s c a p e , t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia was b i g , empty and raw. The w i l d e r n e s s w i t h i t s c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s , dense v e g e t a t i o n , rugged mountains and a b r u p t c o a s t l i n e s d i d not con-form t o t h e V i c t o r i a n l a n d s c a p e t a s t e f o r t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . Concerns f o r t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g q u a l i t y o f c i t y l i f e under t h e s p r e a d i n g e v i l s 37. B a r r y Mather and Margaret McDonald, New Westminster: The Royal  C i t y , [ V a n c o u v e r : ] J.M. Dent and Sons, and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New Westminster, 1958, p. 132. 160 o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were i r r e l e v a n t i n a p l a c e where w i l d e r n e s s was u b i q u i t o u s , development a v i d l y sought and t e c h n o l o g y an a l l y . Never-t h e l e s s , the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d demonstrates t h a t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r e was n o t , as i s o f t e n assumed, i r r e l e v a n t t o the f r o n t i e r 38 e x p e r i e n c e . Views o f w i l d e r n e s s s a t i s f i e d t h e V i c t o r i a n e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s p e c t a c u l a r . A l t h o u g h i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t the p i o n e e r was too c l o s e t o t h e l a n d t o r e q u i r e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e m i n d e r s o f f a m i l i a r p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d demonstrates t h a t y t h e r e was a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n views o f n a t u r a l wonders. Photo-graphs o f H e l l ' s Gate and t h e G r e a t Chasm a r e f r e q u e n t l y found i n albums o f B r i t i s h Columbia views. P h o t o g r a p h e r s r e c o r d e d t h e t o p o -graphy made a c c e s s i b l e by road o r r a i l . D a i l y ' s panoramas i l l u s t r a t e t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c v a r i e t y between t h e C o a s t and t h e C a r i b o o . B l a n c a d v e r t i s e d views o f C a r i b o o s c e n e r y . Canyons, w a t e r f a l l s and r u s h i n g r i v e r s , dominate t h e i r work. N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h o t o g r a p h e r s emphasized the i n t r a c t a b l e , the f o r b i d d i n g and the s p e c t a c u l a r a s p e c t s o f the p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e . T h e i r work was s i m p l e and u n r e f l e c t i v e . A r t i s t i c a t t e n t i o n t o m i c r o s c a l e d e t a i l was not p a r t o f p i o n e e r photography. F a s c i n a t i o n w i t h l i g h t , shape and t e x t u r e had not y e t e n t e r e d t h e ~ a e s t h e t i c s of the new medium. E s s e n t i a l l y " p l a c e l e s s " a r t i s t i c com-p o s i t i o n s would not have s a t i s f i e d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c u r i o s i t y about 38. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l p r a i s e d "the grandeur, the s u b l i m i t y , t h e m a j e s t y o f t h e s c e n e r y a f f o r d e d by a view from t h e p l a t e a u s o f the mountain peaks o f t h e Baldhead range" and s u g g e s t e d t h a t the unemployed s h o u l d not remain i n a c t i v e and despondent, but s h o u l d " e n j o y a g l i m p s e o f B a l d Mountain s c e n e r y . . . t o d r i v e d u l l c a r e away." The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 9, 1868. 161 p l a c e and t h e i r f i n e a r t mot i v e s would not have s u i t e d t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e photograph as a r e c o r d image. Photographs r e v e a l the ent h u s i a s m f o r the p i c n i c as a f o r a y i n t o n a t u r e . D e s p i t e t he abundance o f s u r r o u n d i n g w i l d e r n e s s and the absence o f i n d u s t r i a l urbanism, t r a d i t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f n a t u r e were r e c r e a t e d i n p u b l i c parks where r e s i d e n t s o f V i c t o r i a e n j o y e d Sunday and h o l i d a y p i c n i c s . What had begun i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y as "an i n t e l l e c t u a l amusement o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y . . . h e l d on t h e mani-39 c u r e d lawns o f formal gardens" was t r a n s p o s e d t o a w i l d e r s e t t i n g by n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y R o m a n t i c i s t s . The p i c n i c became a g e n t e e l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Brought t o B r i t i s h Columbia a l o n g w i t h t he p u b l i c park, i t was c o n s i d e r e d a t l e a s t a r e l a x i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y and, i n some c a s e s a r e j u v e n a t i n g moral e x p e r i e n c e . D e s c r i b i n g t he Gorge, The Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia s u g g e s t e d : The memory o f a few hours s p e n t i n t h i s l o v e l y s p o t i s n o t e a s i l y e r a d i c a t e d from t he mind; i t s h i n e s out amidst t h e gloomy haze o f h a r d s h i p s and rough t r i a l s o f l i f e i n a c o l o n y , and makes the h e a r t g r a t e f u l t o the God o f Nature f o r t h e s e t o u c h e s o f l i g h t and p u r i t y i n t h e p i c t u r e o f l i f e . 4 0 Beacon H i l l Park was "studded w i t h n o b l e oak t r e e s , r e m i n d i n g the E n g l i s h immigrant o f some p r i v i l e g e d s p o t i n h i s far-away home." 4 1 The park was an e n c l a v e o f tamed n a t u r e ; some l i k e G o l d s t r e a m , p r o v i d e d s l i g h t l y w i l d e r f o r e s t s u r r o u n d i n g s . 39. S z a r k o w s k i , The Photographer and the American Landscape, p. 3. 40. " C l i m a t e and Scenery o f V i c t o r i a , " l o c . c i t . 41. I b i d . 162 The Canadian P a c i f i c R ailway e x p l o i t e d v i s u a l images o f B r i t i s h Columbia's s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s . A r t i s t s and pho t o g r a p h e r s were commissioned t o r e c o r d t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f t h e r a i l r o a d . With t he c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e , the t o u r i s t became an i m p o r t a n t component o f western r a i l t r a f f i c . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y was a l o c a t i o n a l advantage and a l u c r a t i v e a s s e t , the C.P.R. q u i c k l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e promotion o f t o u r i s t t r a v e l i n t o i t s p a s s enger and h o t e l p o l i c y . Not o n l y t he r a i l r o a d , but the govern -ment r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n a t u r e was a m a r k e t a b l e commodity: How s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a l m o s t a t t h e v e r y time t h e promoters o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c were d r i v i n g the s p i k e t h a t l i n k e d M o n t r e a l w i t h Vancouver, t h e Canadian government was s e t t i n g a s i d e t he b e a u t i f u l B a n f f N a t i o n a l Park and a d v e r t i z i n g t h e rugged b e a u t i e s o f the S e l k i r k s i n e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 2 The Canadian government's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t he c r e a t i o n and management o f n a t i o n a l parks was founded upon u t i l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w i l d e r n e s s 43 which p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o t he t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Nature was not p r e s e r v e d f o r i t s p r i s t i n e beauty, r a t h e r n a t i o n a l parks were con-c e i v e d as raw m a t e r i a l s : t h e y p r o v i d e d c o a l f o r m i n i n g , f o r e s t s f o r l o g g i n g , t o w n s i t e s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and mountain s c e n e r y and m i n e r a l hot s p r i n g s f o r t o u r i s m . The p r a c t i c e o f photography i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia i s summed up i n t h e work o f F r e d e r i c k D a l l y . D u r i n g h i s b r i e f c a r e e r i n B r i t i s h 42. T i l den, op. c i t . , p. 326. 43. Robert C r a i g Brown, "The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l Resource and N a t i onal Parks P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887-1914" i n Nelson and Scace ( e d s . ) , op. c i t . , 94-110. 163 Columbia, he pursued a r e s i d e n t b u s i n e s s and an i t i n e r a n t t r a d e and p r a c t i s e d s t u d i o and o u t d o o r photography. He took p o r t r a i t s and v i e w s , on commission and f o r d i s p l a y . He t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t i s l a n d and m a i n l a n d c o l o n i e s p h o t o g r a p h i n g the e l i t e o f t h e c a p i t a l s and the p i o n e e r s o f t h e C a r i b o o . As a member o f a government p a r t y and as an amateur a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , D a l l y photographed t h e I n d i a n s o f the Coast and t h e I n t e r i o r . T h e r e were few f a c e t s o f e a r l y photo-graphy i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n which D a l l y d i d not engage. D e s p i t e the expense and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d , he was among t h e f i r s t p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o t r a v e l t h e wagon roa d t o t h e g o l d f i e l d s . In 1867, he v i s i t e d 4 4 B a r k e r v i l l e between mid-August and mid-September. ' The f o l l o w i n g summer, D a l l y a g a i n made the l o n g and c o s t l y j o u r n e y t o B a r k e r v i l l e even though B l a n c had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y 45 t h e r e . A f t e r t r a n s p o r t i n g h i m s e l f and h i s equipment up t h e wagon r o a d , D a l l y spent a l m o s t two hundred d o l l a r s f o r board and l o d g i n g 46 w h i l e h i s s t u d i o was b e i n g b u i l t . The t i m e and c a p i t a l which D a l l y i n v e s t e d i n the C a r i b o o v e n t u r e i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s hopes t o p r o f i t from the u n d e r t a k i n g . 44. On August 12 (p. 2 ) , The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l announced t h a t he would "remain f o r one month o n l y " and on September 12 (p. 3 ) , i t n o t e d h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r Quesnelmouth en r o u t e down c o u n t r y . " 45. B l a n c opened h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c g a l l e r y i n e a r l y May. The  C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , May 5, 1868. 46. I t was o n l y t e n days a f t e r announcing the opening o f t h e s e new premises t h a t D a l l y s u f f e r e d more than one thousand d o l l a r s i n l o s s e s i n t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e o f September 16, 1868. "A J o u r n e y t o W i l l i a m s Creek, C a r i b o o " D a l l y p a p e r s , PABC, E/B/D 16m. 164 From t h e c a r t w r i g h t i n Y a l e t o the i n n k e e p e r a t C l i n t o n t o the t e a m s t e r i n Q u e s n e l , B r i t i s h Columbians a l o n g the C a r i b o o Road posed f o r l i k e n e s s e s , commissioned views and o r d e r e d c o p i e s from D a i l y ' s growing c o l l e c t i o n . The m i n i n g communities o f W i l l i a m s , Grouse, L i g h t n i n g , Mosquito and o t h e r c r e e k s p r e s e n t e d D a l l y w i t h s i m i l a r - p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y D a l l y reaped added rewards by s e l l i n g h i s views o f the s c e n e r y and s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e wagon road and the towns and g u l c h e s o f the C a r i b o o t o p a t r o n s i n d i s t a n t p a r t s o f the c o l o n y . Though the o p p o r t u n i t i e s were l u c r a t i v e , the s u c c e s s D a l l y a c h i e v e d r e f l e c t e d h i s g r a s p o f the markets he s e r v e d . D a l l y approached h i s market i n s e v e r a l ways. At v a r i o u s t i m e s , h i s newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were d i r e c t e d a t t h e p u b l i c ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h o b s e r v a b l e f a c t , ^ a t i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c i n t e r e s t s , ^ 8 a t i t s 49 50 d e s i r e f o r c o n v e n i e n c e o f s e r v i c e , , a t i t s sense o f urgency, 51 52 a t i t s i m p e c u n i t y and a t i t s c o n c e r n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 47. " b e a u t i f u l and t r u t h f u l p i c t u r e s " The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 12, 1867, p. 3. 48. " h i s c o l l e c t i o n . . . w i l l be a v e r y v a l u a b l e one", I b i d . 49. " a l l k i n d s o f work on t h e s h o r t e s t n o t i c e " , I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 2. 50. " w i l l remain f o r one month o n l y " , I b i d . , August 12, 1867, p. 2. 51. " v i e w s . . . a t the most r e a s o n a b l e r a t e s " , I b i d . , Seotember 6, 1868, p. 3. 52. " e v e r y t h i n g n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c a r r y i n g on o f t h e a r t " , The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866. 165 Announcements r e p e a t e d l y i n f o r m e d r e a d e r s t h a t he was "an a r t i s t o f 53 54 the f i r s t c l a s s " o f f e r i n g work " o f the v e r y b e s t q u a l i t y " and 55 g u a r a n t e e i n g h i s p a t r o n s t he "utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n " . H i s c o l l e c t i o n o f views was d e s c r i b e d as " l a r g e and b e a u t i f u l " , " c h o i c e " , " e x c e l l e n t " , " u n e q u a l l e d f o r . . . v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y " and "the f i n e s t . . . p r o d u c e d i n 56 th e c o l o n y . " The e d i t o r s o f The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l commented: Mr. D. i s so w e l l known i n the c o l o n y as b e i n g one o f t h e b e s t a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e a r t o f photo-graphy, t h a t i t needs no recommendation from us t o i n s u r e t h e patronage which he so w e l l m e r i t s . " Beyond D a i l y ' s m e r i t s as a p h o t o g r a p h e r , i t was h i s a s t u t e c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t c a p t i v a t e d B r i t i s h Columbians i n the l a t e 1860's. D a l l y s o l i c i t e d o r d e r s f o r l i k e n e s s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and views o f r e s i d e n c e s , s t o r e s , m i n i n g c l a i m s , s c e n e r y and a l l k i n d s o f ou t - d o o r photography. He a l s o a c c e p t e d o r d e r s f o r c o p i e s from h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e views. D a i l y ' s photographs e x h i b i t c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r e s t s i n s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y , e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t s and m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . H i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a p p e a l e d t o the 53. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 6, 1868, p. 3. 54. I b i d . , p. 2. 55. The C o l o n i s t , June 26, 1866. 56. I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 25, 1869. 57. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 26, 1868, p. 3. 166 p u b l i c ' s c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e o f f e r i n g "a l a r g e and complete c o l -l e c t i o n o f views taken i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Puget Sound and on 58 Vancouver I s l a n d " ' upon h i s a r r i v a l i n B a r k e r v i l l e ; and l a t e r i n -f o r m i n g "the i n h a b i t a n t s o f V i c t o r i a and v i c i n i t y " t h a t he had " r e t u r n e d from t he upper c o u n t r y w i t h a c h o i c e c o l l e c t i o n o f new p h o t o g r a p h i c views o f mountain s c e n e r y and o t h e r h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g 59 s u b j e c t s . " Views o f Government House i n V i c t o r i a , t h e A d m i r a l ' s House i n E s q u i m a l t and HMS Z e a l o u s "enhanced b y . . . f a i t h f u l f u l l -l e n g t h l i k e n e s s e s o f . . . p e r s o n s o f d i s t i n c t i o n " 6 ^ s a t i s f i e d p u b l i c f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h prominent b u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c f i g u r e s . D a l l y a l s o acknowledged t he a t t r a c t i o n o f a p l a c e made h i s t o r i c by the f a c t t h a t i t no l o n g e r e x i s t e d i n a " g e n e r a l view o f the V o l u n t e e r 61 Camp a t C l o v e r p o i n t , j u s t b e f o r e t h e encampment was broken up." 62 D a l l y l e f t V i c t o r i a i n 1870 " a f t e r making a f o r t u n e , " but i n t e r e s t i n h i s photographs d i d not cease w i t h h i s d e p a r t u r e . The l a r g e number o f D a l l y views which bear t h e Maynard i m p r i n t ( P l a t e 4.6) a t t e s t t o t h e on-going appeal o f h i s work. D a l l y was a s k i l l e d and v e r s a t i l e p h o t o g r a p h e r ; h i s s u c c e s s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y 58. I b i d . , September 6, 1868, p. 2. 59. The C o l o n i s t , December 10, 1868. 60. I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 25, 1869. 61. I b i d . , August 4, 1866. 62. L e t t e r from Robert Brown t o F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , E d i n b u r g h , November 25, 1872, PABC, A/E/B81/B81.6. 167 o f h i s pho t o g r a p h s , t he d i v e r s i t y o f h i s s u b j e c t s and, above a l l , t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f market t a s t e i n p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia. * * * * * In l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia, t he l a n d s c a p e view was a p o r t r a i t o f p l a c e . I t r e c o r d e d t h e n a t u r a l and man-made l a n d -scapes as a s e t t i n g f o r the a c t i v i t y o f p e o p l e . Some photographs were p i c t u r e p o s t c a r d s made p e r s o n a l by t h e pr e s e n c e o f a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e . O t h e r s c a p t u r e d t he s u r r o u n d i n g s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r h i s l o v e d ones. S t i l l o t h e r s , w i t h o u t p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n v i s i o n o f t r u t h o r c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e . Whatever t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , photographs were r e g a r d e d as f a c t u a l , not d e c o r a t i v e , i m a g e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s were not i n s e n s i t i v e t o a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s were ov e r w h e l m i n g l y p r a g m a t i c . They e x e c u t e d t h e i r work w i t h r e s p e c t f o r s t y l e and c o m p o s i t i o n , but i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e y c a t e r e d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r buying p u b l i c . In a c o l o n y where e v e r y t h i n g was new and d i f f e r e n t , l a n d s c a p e p h o t o g r a p h e r s p r o v i d e d a r e c o r d o f immigrants, o f t e c h n o l o g y t h a t overcame the imposing p h y s i c a l environment and o f s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t b r o u g h t c i v i l i z a t i o n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s . As a f r o n t i e r , B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r e d t he pho t o g r a p h e r an i n t r i g u i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f e l e g a n c e and roughness. The r e c e n c y o f l a n d s c a p e change and the p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s both r e v e a l e d m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . Images t h a t c a p t u r e d B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s o f s o c i e t y and government t r a n s -p l a n t e d by c o l o n i a l s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e s p r e a d o f Empire. The wagon roa d 158 and railway l ine spawned a photography of engineering feats. Town-scapes abounded. The waterfalls and rapids of precipitous canyons afforded spectacular views. Cornerstone ceremonies and other public occasions were historic events that deserved to be photographed. Above a l l , Brit ish Columbians, responsible for the creation of this new place, wanted a simple record of their, accomplishments. CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION: THE WIDER CONTEXT The p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d of p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia i s a d a t a s o u r c e of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t f o r i t p r e s e n t s p a s t l a n d s c a p e s w i t h "the c o m p e l l i n g stamp of a u t h e n t i c i t y . 1 , 1 Marked by t h e preponderance of some s u b j e c t s and t h e s c a r c i t y of o t h e r s , i t was shaped by the assumptions of p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s who supplemented t h e i r t r a d e i n p o r t r a i t u r e w i t h l a n d s c a p e views. The range of s u b j e c t s was i n f l u e n c e d by the l i m i t a t i o n s of p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y and the i n t e r e s t s of the market. For l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbians, photographs were i n t e r e s t i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y because t h e y were m e c h a n i c a l l y produced and m i n u t e l y d e t a i l e d . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s u b j e c t s t h e y p o r t r a y e d , t h e y a p p e a l e d t o the V i c t o r i a n o b s e s s i o n With f a c t , f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t e c h n o l o g y , p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r o g r e s s and c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e . H i s t o r i c a l photographs r e v e a l the v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbians who t r a n s f o r m e d the w i l d e r -ness and who p a t r o n i z e d p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s . They m i r r o r the e n t h u s i a s m o f a f r o n t i e r community f o r m a t e r i a l development and the c o n c e r n o f a c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y f o r g e n t e e l t r a d i t i o n s . These i n t e r e s t s were not unique. S i m i l a r photographs i l l u s t r a t e t h e p a t t e r n s of l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y development i n c l o s e and d i s t a n t t e r r i t o r i e s and i n s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s , and r e v e a l t h a t l a n d s c a p e 1, Thomas, l o c . c i t . , p. 103. 169 170 images o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia r e f l e c t i n f l u e n c e s more w i d e s p r e a d than l o c a l . South o f the 49th p a r a l l e l , v a r i o u s t y p e s o f photographs r e c o g -n i z e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i l l u s t r a t e t he r o u g h l y contemporaneous development o f t h e s i m i l a r environment o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest S t a t e s . G o l d r u s h c r e e k s and c l a i m s were photographed f r e q u e n t l y i n both a r e a s . The boom towns o f t h e C a r i b o o were o f a genre t h a t i n c l u d e d B l a c k H i l l s , North Dakota and M u r r a y s v i l l e , Idaho. The l o g g i n g a c t i -v i t i e s o f Vancouver I s l a n d p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e t h r o u g h o u t the P a c i f i c C o a s t f o r e s t . Photographs o f r i v e r steamers a t Coal Banks L a n d i n g on t h e Upper M i s s o u r i and a t Kamloops on the Thompson bear s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . The wooden t r e s t l e s o f both t h e Union P a c i f i c and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c were t e s t i m o n i e s t o the e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r e s s o f t h e r a i l w a y age. In the main, B r i t i s h Columbians d i d not s h a r e the American b e l i e f i n the r e j u v e n a t i n g powers o f the f r o n t i e r . Home-s t e a d i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e were much more a p a r t o f American than B r i t i s h Columbian development. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the b o a s t f u l l i k e n e s s e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia's m i n e r s , l o g g e r s and n a v v i e s approximate the photographs t h a t e u l o g i z e t h e bravado o f the American p i o n e e r . E q u a l l y , however, the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s c a p t u r e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two a r e a s ' con-c e p t i o n s o f s o c i e t y . C r i c k e t and r e g a t t a s , so much a p a r t o f the E n g l i s h c o n c e p t i o n o f a g e n t e e l s o c i e t y t r a n s p l a n t e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia, a r e s i n g u l a r l y a b s e n t from the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f the rough f r o n t i e r democracy o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest. 171 In both B r i t i s h Columbia and the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n y o f V i c t o r i a , t h e camera r e c o r d e d t h e h i s t o r y o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t a l m o s t from i t s b e g i n n i n g s . Though d i f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l l y - i n s i z e , c l i m a t e and t e r r a i n - B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a s h a r e d k i n d r e d q u a l i t i e s o f v a s t n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . T h e i r h i s t o r i c a l developments were shaped by the b r o a d e r f o r c e s common t o a r e a s o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n , f r o n t i e r m i n i n g and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y economic development. In both c o l o n i e s , immigrants brought s i m i l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l baggage and te c h n o -l o g i c a l might t o t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e . Among the e a r l y e n t r e p r e n e u r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s who earned t h e i r l i v e l i -hood t h r o u g h p o r t r a i t u r e , but who a l s o r e c o r d e d l a n d s c a p e s and a c t i v i t i e s - from t he l a y i n g o f c o r n e r s t o n e s t o the b u i l d i n g o f r a i l -way b r i d g e s . L i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 2 photographs o f t h e c o l o n y o f V i c t o r i a demonstrate t he g r e a t l a n d -scape changes wrought by t h e g o l d r u s h e s . In both a r e a s , m i n i n g e x c i t e m e n t was an impetus t o p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic d e v e l o p -ment, d i r e c t i n g emergent p a t t e r n s o f s e t t l e m e n t and commerce. Mines and m i n e r s , f a l s e - f r o n t e d towns and muddy t h o r o u g h f a r e s were elements o f a human l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he e x p e r i e n c e , not the l o c a t i o n o f t h e g o l d r u s h f r o n t i e r . 2. N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photographs p u b l i s h e d i n M i c h a e l Cannon's An  A u s t r a l i a n Camera 1851^1914 (Newton Abbot Devon: David and C h a r l e s L t d , , 1973) p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i v e examples f o r a comparison o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the c o l o n y o f V i c t o r i a . 172 " B o o d c a r r a " , home o f John R i t c h i e , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S h i r e o f B e l f a s t , and " F a i r f i e l d " ' , home o f Joseph T r u t c h ( P l a t e 4.48), were both photographed i n the 1860's. While Boodcarra's one s t o r e y s o l i d s t o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e a r s no a r c h i t e c t u r a l resemblance t o F a i r f i e l d , t h e import o f the scene i s the same. Posed on the f r o n t lawn o f Boodcarra a r e a b o r i g i n a l s e r v a n t s and w h i t e h i r e d hands. A c r i n o l i n e d g o verness a t t e n d s R i t c h i e ' s young daughter s e a t e d on her pony. His w i f e s t a n d s on t h e s p a c i o u s verandah b e s i d e t he f r o n t door. R i t c h i e h i m s e l f i s s e a t e d i n a horse-drawn, i r o n - s p r i n g e d buggy. L i k e T r u t c h and h i s F a i r f i e l d e s t a t e , t he Bo o d c a r r a household exudes the w e a l t h and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y t o which s u c c e s s f u l B r i t i s h immigrants a s p i r e d i n d i v e r s e c o r n e r s o f the Empire. Photographs i l l u s t r a t e t h e impact o f V i c t o r i a n i d e a s and B r i t i s h customs upon t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f t h e c o l o n i e s o f the Empire. They demon-s t r a t e t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia s h a r e d p a r a l l e l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h p a r t s o f A u s t r a l i a , New 7.ealand, South A f r i c a and I n d i a . The Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e i n B a l l a r a t , V i c t o r i a and t h e C a r i b o o L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e i n B a r k e r v i l l e , B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t a i n , s e r v e d t he cause o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the 1860's. O l d World s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s were emulated. Large e s t a t e s complete w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l e m b e l l i s h m e n t , gardens and s e r v a n t s sprang up wherever c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s and e n t e r -p r i s i n g immigrants a t t a i n e d w e a l t h and s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . Tea was s e r v e d on t h e i r verandahs and c r o q u e t was p l a y e d on t h e i r lawns from New Westminster t o R a w a l p i n d i . C r i c k e t was a pastime f o r p l a y e r s and s p e c t a t o r s a l i k e ; annual r e g a t t a s r e c r e a t e d the s p i r i t o f the 173 Henley-upon-Thames; and p i c n i c o u t i n g s were h e l d i n s y l v a n s e t t i n g s . The f i r s t c r i c k e t t e s t match was photographed i n Melbourne i n 1861, the same y e a r t h a t t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t Club was formed i n New Westminster. V i c t o r i a Day r e g a t t a s had l o n g been a t r a d i t i o n on the Gorge by t h e time t h e H e n l e y - o n - Y a r r a began i n Melbourne i n 1904. As a p o p u l a r s e t t i n g f o r i n f o r m a l p o r t r a i t s , even t h e Hollow T r e e i n Vancouver's S t a n l e y Park had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n a g i a n t b u r n t - o u t e u c a l y p t u s t r e e i n t h e Beech F o r e s t o f s o u t h e r n V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h customs and t h e p e r v a s i v e i d e a s o f the age - not l e a s t o f a l l p r o g r e s s and improvement - found f e r t i l e ground t h r o u g h o u t the Empire; photo-g r a p h i c r e c o r d s c a p t u r e the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e d e v e l o p -ments and r e v e a l much o f the a t t i t u d e s t h a t l a y be h i n d t he c r e a t i o n o f d i v e r s e l a n d s c a p e s . F r o n t i e r development, B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n , V i c t o r i a n i n t e r e s t s ( and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e c h n o l o g y u n i f y t he p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v e r s e a r e a s . Yet t o demonstrate t he u n i v e r s a l i t y o f l a n d s c a p e images i s n o t t o deny the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. The c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s and economic e n t e r p r i s e o f immigrants shaped t he n a t u r e o f t h e p l a c e ; t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and o b s t a c l e s p r e s e n t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e tempered human e x p e c t a t i o n s and endeavour.. Nor was p i o n e e r B r i t i s h Columbia a homogeneous p l a c e . I t d i f f e r e d from i s l a n d t o m a i n l a n d , from c o a s t t o i n t e r i o r , from t he b e g i n n i n g o f the g o l d r u s h t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f the r a i l w a y . American g o l d s e e k e r s s i f t i n g t h r o u g h g r a v e l s c r e a t e d a l a n d s c a p e and a s o c i e t y u n l i k e t h a t o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s p r e s i d i n g o v e r government i n V i c t o r i a and 174 New Westminster. In examining t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n i t s w i d e r c o n t e x t , what emerges as d i s t i n c t i v e l y B r i t i s h Columbian i s as much the mix o f l a n d s c a p e images as t h e images t h e m s e l v e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHS General h o l d i n g s : A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y Bound C o l l e c t i o n s , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia: Anon. C r e a s e album. 1877. . Crease album, n.d. . Helmcken album, n.d. . Memorial album, n.d. . Pearse album, n.d. C l a u d e t , F.G. [ u n t i t l e d ] , n.d. D a l l y , F r e d e r i c k . " P h o t o g r a o h i c Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1867-1868." 2 v o l . ' . " P h o t o g r a p h i c Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1867-1870." 4 v o l . ^ . [ u n t i t l e d ] , 2 v o l . D e v i l l e , E. "Views on C P . Railway." 1886. H o r e t z s k y , C h a r l e s . " P a c i f i c R a ilway Survey." 1875. . [ u n t i t l e d ] , n.d. Maynard, R. " P h o t o g r a p h i c View Album." 1890. Thompson, S.J. "Views o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . " 1893. 175 176 S l i d e K i t s on the H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the Work o f E a r l y B.C. Photographers 1858-1950. Research P r o j e c t on B.C. Photography, Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y : - No. 2 " B a i l e y and Neelands - p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a r l y B.C. - 1886-1914." No. 3 "Brock and Devine - photographs o f Vancouver b e f o r e and a f t e r the g r e a t f i r e - 1886-1890." No. 6 " P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e S e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia - 1885-1914." No. 7 " A n t o i n e C l a u d e t - s e l e c t i o n s from a f a m i l y album." No. 8 "F.G, C l a u d e t - views o f New Westminster and Vancouver I s l a n d - 1860-1873" No. 10 " F r e d e r i c k D a l l y - views o f the C a r i b o o Road and the B a r k e r v i l l e m i n i n g f i e l d s - 1867-1868." No. 11 " F r e d e r i c k D a l l y - views o f Vancouver I s l a n d and the Lower M a i n l a n d - 1862-1870." No. 14 "Madeleine Gunterman - p i o n e e r l i f e i n the Lardeau c. 1900." No. 16 " E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia Photographers - 1858-1914." No. 17 " E a r l y Photographs o f I n d i a n L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia -P a r t One and Two." No. 21 "R. Maynard - views a l o n g the C a r i b o o Road and the C.P.R." No, 26 " S . J . Thompson - views o f B.C. - 1858-1914." No. 29 " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - 1858-1914." No. 30 "R.H. Trueman & Norman C a p l e - p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia." UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Brown, Robert. MS., P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A/E/B81/B81.6. D a l l y , F r e d e r i c k . MSS., PABC, E/B/D16; E/B/D16c; E/B/D16m; E/B/D16.9; E/C/16; E/C/D16.9; E/D/D16. 177 DIRECTORIES F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y . V i c t o r i a : E. 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