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The hero in Sophocles’ Trachiniae Shigley, Laurie Eileen 1977

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THE HERO IN SOPHOCLES' TRACHINIAE by LAURIE EILEEN SHIGLEY B.A., The Pennsylvania State University, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Classics  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1977  Laurie Eileen Shigley, 1977  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  further  for  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  purposes  written  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  financial  is  of  British  Date  6  Jfi i T -  77  Columbia,  British for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  by  understood  Depa r t m e n t  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  of  for extensive  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  of  this  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT  The  T r a c h i r i i a e has  S o p h o c l e s ' seven e x t a n t its  h e r o , and  been seen as something of an anomaly among plays.  I t i s the o n l y p l a y t h a t i s not named f o r  c r i t i c s have argued v a r i o u s l y t h a t D e i a n e i r a , or  o r b o t h D e i a n e i r a and H e r a c l e s  a r e t h e heroes o f t h e p l a y .  Heracles,  This thesis  seeks t o e s t a b l i s h D e i a n e i r a as the h e r o o f the T r a c h i r i i a e . In order and H e r a c l e s  t o p r o v i d e an o b j e c t i v e model a g a i n s t which b o t h D e i a n e i r a can be measured, a summary of e i g h t views of the  t r a g i c hero, e x c l u d i n g r e f e r e n c e s to the T r a c h i r i i a e , i s Emphasis i s g i v e n t o the h e r o i c model o f B. M. b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e T r a c h i r i i a e i s not t r a g i c hero, excludes The  i s the h e r o . The  are i n t e r r e l a t e d  figure.  i n c l u d i n g those p r e s e n t e d  one  l i v e s and  d e a t h s of  Deianeira f u l f i l l s  the h e r o i c  by Knox, remarkably w e l l .  space to a p r o f o u n d degree, she  bu%  life.  f i n d s the source  Within  the  d e f i a n c e of and w i t h d r a w a l from C y p r i s ' w i l l tragically  d e s t r o y s H e r a c l e s , her one  and  i s o l a t e d from men key  play, and  and  her  greatness  power. and  of  love within  Even though she a c t s out of l o v e f o r H e r a c l e s ,  becomes t o t a l l y and  by  I s o l a t e d i n time  dependence on the power o f the "charms" of the l b v e - p h i l t r e  She  Deianeira  characteristics,  r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n o f t r y i n g to r e c o v e r H e r a c l e s '  h e r s e l f alone.  and  d i s c o v e r s t h a t D e i a n e i r a i s the  D e i a n e i r a f a c e s the supreme, c r i s i s o f her  f r e e and  himself,  to the T r a c h i n i a e ,  i n the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e way,  l o o k i n g w i t h a d i s c e r n i n g eye, l e a d i n g dramatic  Knox, who  c l e a r l y based on the f i g u r e of a  models o f the Sophoclean hero do a p p l y  Heracles  .presented.  i t from h i s development of a h e r o i c model.  D e i a n e i r a , not H e r a c l e s , and  W.  Sophoclean  her  suggests  By h e r a c t ,  abandoned by the  to the w o r l d s o u t s i d e and  she gods.  inside herself.  ii  By her love, she destroys what she most loves, and her own i d e n t i t y .  Like  Ajax, she i s unwilling to l i v e without that i d e n t i t y , and so, i n a quiet display of n o b i l i t y . and strength, s a c r i f i c e s h e r s e l f to the same love that made her unwittingly s a c r i f i c e Heracles.  Throughout the play i t i s  Deianeira's w i l l and strength that cause arid s u f f e r the dramatic movement and tension.  I t i s her w i l l to obtain the truth about Iole from Lichas,  to send the anointed robe to Heracles, and to die without attempting to receive forgiveness from Hyllus of Heracles. act upon Heracles.  Deianeira's w i l l and fate  Heracles belongs to her but she does not belong to him  and hence i t i s she who i s dramatically independent. Heracles  The destruction of  i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of an action of her w i l l and i s the culmination  of her tragedy. Heracles does not r i s e to meet h i s fate but i s f u l l of bitterness against the f a t e that has brought him down at the hands of a woman.  Unlike  Deianeira, who within the course of the play reaches her end and f u l f i l l s her heroic w i l l , Heracles does not meet h i s f i n a l end, death and release from his labors; nor does he hold any control over h i s destiny.  He i s  helpless and weak i n h i s s u f f e r i n g u n t i l he hears Nessus' name, at which time he accepts the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of h i s f a t e . he i s treated more as a force thaxi a person. he i s a slave to the metaphorical voooz manifestations.  His catastrophe  rather than a s i n g l e error.  Throughout the play  Nor i s he independent;  of h i s passion and i t s physical  i s the r e s u l t of h i s general  depravity  He accepts no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for any of his  actions and i s , i n f a c t , a pawn i n the action of the s e r i e s of events set in motion by Deianeira. and e x e r c i s e s  110  His own action i s merely i n response to Deianeira's  control over the outcome of the play's events.  When he  r e a l i z e s the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of his death, a l l action has already been taken. Nor  i s Heracles  truly isolated.  He i s , instead, extremely self-centered  iii H i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s i s a t i t s most o b v i o u s d u r i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g , which he  i s not a b l e t o endure and so to r i s e t o t h e s t a t u r e of a m o r a l h e r o .  He w i l l meet h i s d e a t h w i t h o u t d e a t h w i l l mark the end Heracles  does not  of h i s l i f e  r i s e n above h i s own  and  nature;  his  s u f f e r i n g s , but n o t h i n g more.  s a t i s f y many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d t o  Sophoclean h e r o e s . let  having  He  c o u l d h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d  alone of the e n t i r e p l a y .  In f a c t , Heracles  t h e h e r o o f h i s scene,  In the p l a y ' s s t r u c t u r e , H e r a c l e s  because of D e i a n e i r a , whose l i f e  and  i s the unheroic  other  exists  d e a t h do have a purpose i n the  play.  w i t h w h i c h the h e r o i c D e i a n e i r a i s  contrasted. Heracles of him,  and  does not appear u n t i l D e i a n e i r a has k i l l e d h e r s e l f f o r l o v e  t h e t o t a l t e r r o r of h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d e x i s t e n c e i s the  r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u l l  tragedy  the end  complete l a c k of i n t e r e s t  o f t h e p l a y and  consummate, her t r a g e d y . Deianeira's The  great  One  o f her  l i f e and  l o o k s at H e r a c l e s  H i s appearance a t  i n her d e a t h and  to see what the o b j e c t  p l a y i s named f o r the Chorus i n s t e a d o f f o r D e i a n e i r a .  D e i a n e i r a appears t o a c e r t a i n degree to be T r a c h i n i a n maidens. maiden D e i a n e i r a ' s tragic  life  innocence of  love r e a l l y i s .  r e s p e c t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between D e i a n e i r a and  and  death.  The  In  this  the Chorus i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  the l e a d e r o f the Chorus o f  s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r status to that of  the  p o i n t s to them as u n i v e r s a l i z i n g agents of the  of D e i a n e i r a , the hero o f the T r a c h i n i a e .  •  personal  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE  . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  THE SOPHOCLEAN HERO  . . . . . . . . .  NOTES —• CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER TWO NOTES —  HERACLES  CHAPTER THREE  CHAPTER FOUR NOTES —  DEIANEIRA  CHAPTER TWO  CHAPTER THREE NOTES —  . .  CONCLUSION:  DEIANEIRA THE TRACHINIAN  CHAPTER FOUR  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ......  --  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Professors A„ A. Barrett and S. M. L. Darcus, who acted as my advisers and supporters thesis.  i n the preparation of this  Miss Darcus set me on the tragic track, and  Mr. Barrett was true to h i s word. I should also l i k e to thank my u n o f f i c i a l but very h e l p f u l adviser Professor Podlecki, to whom I owe a great deal, and Professor McGregor, who read this t h e s i s , even though i t i s "about women."  ABBREVIATIONS  P. Biggs  "The Disease Theme i n Sophocles' Ajax,  P h i l o c t e t e s and Trachiniae," CPh 62 (1966), 223-235. P. E. E a s t e r l i n g .  "Sophocles, Trachiniae," BICS 15  (1968), 58-69.  V. Ehreriberg.  "Tragic Heracles," DUJ 4 (1943), 51-62.  G. H. G e l l i e .  Sophocles:  R. C. Jebb.  A Reading.  Melbourne 1972.  Sophocles, the Plays and Fragments Part V  The Trachiniae.  Cambridge 1892.  J . C. Kamerbeek.  The Plays of Sophocles Part I I  The Trachiniae.  Leiden 1959.  G. M. Kirkwood.  A Study of Sophoclean Drama.  B. M. W. Knox. Tragedy.  A. Lesky.  Ithaca 1958  The Heroic Temper, Studies i n Sophoclean  Berkely 1964.  Greek Tragedy.  Translated by H. A. F r a n k f o r t .  New York 1965.  H. A. Mason.  "The Women of Trachis (Part I I ) , " Arion  2 (1963), 105-121.  G. Murray.  "Heracles,  Oxford 1946.  106-126.  'The Best of Men*," Greek Studies.  vii H. M u s u r i l l o .  " F o r t u n e ' s Wheel:  The Symbolism o f Sophocles  Women o f t f a c h i s , " TAPA 92 (1961),  K. F. S l a t e r . Avion  "Some S u g g e s t i o n s f o r S t a g i n g t h e T r a c h i n i a e , '  N.S. 3 (1976),  E. M. Waith.  372-383.  57-68.  The H e r c u l e a n Hero.  London 1962.  A.J.A. Waldock.  Sophocles  T.B.L. Webster.  Ah I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o p h o c l e s .  D. Wender.  the Dramatist.  "The W i l l o f t h e B e a s t :  Cambridge 1951.  O x f o r d 1936.  S e x u a l Imagery i n t h e  T r a c h i n i a e , " Ramus 3 (1974), 1-17.  C. H. Whitman. Harvard 1951.  S o p h o c l e s , A Study o f H e r o i c Humanism.  INTRODUCTION  I.  The  prologue  monologue  (1-93) o f t h e T r a c h i n i a e b e g i n s w i t h  i n which she r e l a t e s h e r p r e s e n t  from h e r p a s t l i f e .  She i s m a r r i e d  combat w i t h A c h e l o u s , wife.  Summary  Deianeira's  s i t u a t i o n and how i t a r o s e  t o H e r a c l e s , who was t h e v i c t o r i n a  and she t e l l s o f h e r w o r r i e s and t r o u b l e s a s h i s  Her a n x i e t y , caused by H e r a c l e s ' absence o f more than a y e a r , i s  i n c r e a s e d by t h e news o f her son, H y l l u s , t h a t H e r a c l e s , a f t e r b e i n g i n s e r v i c e t o a L y d i a n woman f o r a y e a r , i n Euboea.  about  Eurytus'  town  D e i a n e i r a r e l a t e s t h a t t h e o r a c l e s have s e t t h i s e x p e d i t i o n  as the l a s t o f H e r a c l e s ' t o i l s ; happy l i f e  i s about t o b e s i e g e  he w i l l now e i t h e r meet death o r have a  f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s time.  H y l l u s then l e a v e s t o make  inquiries  Heracles. During  t h e parodos  (94-140) t h e chorus o f T r a c h i n i a n maidens s i n g  o f t h e t r o u b l e s o f H e r a c l e s and D e i a n e i r a ; they exhort D e i a n e i r a t o maintain to a l l "  an e x p e c t a t i o n o f good, because " g r i e f and j o y come c i r c l i n g (129).  In the f i r s t  epeisodion  (141-496) D e i a n e i r a a d d r e s s e s the  Chorus, s t r e s s i n g a g a i n her unhappy s i t u a t i o n and d w e l l i n g on t h e critical  c h a r a c t e r of t h e p r e s e n t  outburst  o f j o y f o l l o w i n g t h e Messenger's announcement o f H e r a c l e s '  v i c t o r y and a n t i c i p a t e d  day.  The sorrow i s swept away i n an  s a f e r e t u r n , o n l y t o be f o l l o w e d by the approach  of a m o u r n f u l t r a i n o f c a p t i v e s .  Lichas enters with  t h e c a p t i v e s and,  i n response to D e i a n e i r a ' s questions, t e l l s of Eurytus' of Heracles, Heracles'  shameful  t r e a c h e r o u s murder o f I p h i t u s , and Zeus'  treatment behest  2 that Heracles serve Omphale f o r a year i n atonement f o r the murder. However, i n response to Deianeira's inquiry about the i d e n t i t y of l o l e , the captive whom she p i t i e s most, Lichas feigns ignorance.  Deianeira,  not knowing the r e a l state of a f f a i r s , welcomes l o l e into her house with love and p i t y .  Having been informed by the Messenger that i t was  Heracles' passion f o r l o l e that caused him to sack Oechalia, Deianeira persuades Lichas to t e l l the truth by means of a speech i n which she admits the supreme power of Eros and recognizes that Heracles s u f f e r s from i t s sickness and has had other women before.  A f t e r Lichas admits  to the t r u t h of Heracles' passion f o r l o l e , Deineira t e l l s Lichas that she has messages f o r him to carry and g i f t s for him to take (avxu 6upuv 6aipct, 494). The f i r s t stasimon  (497-530) presents the Chorus c e l e b r a t i n g "the  v i c t o r y the Cyprian Goddess always wins" (497), i l l u s t r a t e d by the struggle of Heracles and Achelous for Deianeira's hand.  During the  second epeisodion (531-632) Deianeira expresses the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of sharing the same house and marriage with l o l e , r e l a t e s the story of Nessus and why she gathered h i s blood, and announces that she has anointed a garment with the blood (love p h i l t r e ) to send to Heracles i n the hope of regaining h i s a f f e c t i o n s .  The Chorus does not dissuade her  from her plan, and so she entrusts the garment to Lichas.  The second  stasimon  i s followed  (632-662), which i s f i l l e d with happy expectancy,  by the fear and misery of Deianeira i n the t h i r d epeisodion (663-820). Deianeira t e l l s of the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n of the wad of wool with which she has anointed the robe.  She fears that the anointed garment w i l l  k i l l Heracles, and, i f i t does, she i n s i s t s , she w i l l die with him. The a r r i v a l of Hyllus with h i s denouncement of h i s mother and h i s t a l e of the s u f f e r i n g s of Heracles confirms Deianeira's fears.  She leaves  3 the  s t a g e w i t h o u t a word. The  third  stasimon  causes o f t h e t r a g e d y . d u r i n g which  t h e Nurse  (821-862) i s a d i r g e on t h e events and u n d e r l y i n g I t i s f o l l o w e d by t h e f o u r t h e p e i s o d i o n  (871-946),  e n t e r s from t h e house and announces D e i a n e i r a ' s  s u i c i d e and r e l a t e s H y l l u s *  r e a l i z a t i o n of D e i a n e i r a ' s innocence.  The  f o u r t h s t a s i m o n (947-970) i s a l a m e n t a t i o n by t h e Chorus o f t h e c a l a m i t i e s of  D e i a n e i r a and H e r a c l e s . The e n t r a n c e o f H e r a c l e s f i n a l l y  o c c u r s i n t h e exodus  (971-1278).  His  mood i s one o f r a g e and c e n t e r s m a i n l y on h i s l o n g i n g f o r d e a t h and  for  revenge on D e i a n e i r a .  When H y l l u s t e l l s him o f D e i a n e i r a ' s d e a t h  and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g h e r g i f t H e r a c l e s makes no mention o f D e i a n e i r a . and h i s own i n e s c a p a b l e f a t e .  o f t h e a n o i n t e d garment,  His consideration i s f o r himself  Heracles discloses the oracles  that  make c l e a r t o him t h a t h i s end i s imminent and then o r d e r s H y l l u s b o t h to  h e l p i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r h i s c r e m a t i o n and t o marry  II.  Iole.  Date  No agreement has been reached by s c h o l a r s on t h e d a t i n g o f t h e Trachiniae.  No e x t e r n a l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e and s t y l o m e t r i c r e s e a r c h  has p r o v e d i n c o n c l u s i v e i n t h e c a s e o f S o p h o c l e s .  1  study s u g g e s t s t h a t the T r a c h i n i a e has an " a f f i n i t y the  Earp's  stylistic  with the s t y l e of  A j a x and A n t i g o n e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e l a t e r p l a y s . "  2  J . C. Kamerbeek  f e e l s t h a t , a l t h o u g h Eapp's s t u d y makes a s t r o n g c a s e on s t y l i s t i c grounds,  i t does n o t prove an e a r l y d a t e .  Kamerbeek sees a p r o b a b l e  terminus a n t e quem i n t h e c h o r a l song o f E u r i p i d e s ' H i p p o l y t u s where the  story of Iole i s referred  Alcestis  to^  He does not c o n s i d e r E u r i p i d e s '  (438 B.C.) a s a p l a u s i b l e terminus p o s t quem.  3  The e l a b o r a t i o n  of the character of Deianeira perhaps developed into the production of the s t i l l more d e t a i l e d character-study of E l e c t r a .  The t r a g i c view of  l i f e expressed i n the Trachiniae i s much the same as that i n the Oedipus Tyrannus although not so p e r f e c t l y expressed.  These observations  taken together with the general structure of the play (the Trachiniae i s of the s o - c a l l e d diptych form, which does not occur a f t e r the Oedipus Tyrannus) lead Kamerbeek to range the Trachiniae chronologically with the Ajax and the Antigone and "to confess our i n a b i l i t y to name a more ,.4 precise date. Whitman sides with Kamerbeek, but i s s l i g h t l y more s p e c i f i c .  He  reaches the conclusion that the Trachiniae was produced some time a f t e r , and probably rather soon a f t e r , 438 and before the Oedipus Tyrannus.**  5  CHAPTER ONE THE SOPHOCLEAN HERO  The  unity of the Trachiniae  various mythical gods i n t o and,  contact  elements, on t h eo r a c l e s that b r i n g the working o f t h e w i t h t h e human l e v e l a n d o r g a n i z e  most i m p o r t a n t ,  two  principal  separate  i s based on t h e c l o s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f  on t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n and interdependence o f t h e  f i g u r e s , Deianeira and Heracles.  actions, lives,  but  o f t h eplay.  This Before  Trachiniae can  i sthequestion thequestion  that  this  (and  be a c c u r a t e l y f o r m u l a t e d )  I n order  To  formulate  plays  during the  i nthe characters; both f i l l  this  o f t h ehero i n Sophocles*  perhaps even before  t o consider  such a  question  o f a Sophoclean  tragic  t h e q u e s t i o n more o b j e c t i v e l y ,  w i l l be h e l p f u l t o d e t e r m i n e b a s i c h e r o i c t r a i t s t o mold these  even  w i l l t r y t o answer.  t h ebasic nature  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n t o a model o r s e r i e s o f models against which t h e  p o s s i b l e heroes i n t h e Trachiniae  the  study  of the identity  c a n be considered  h e r o must be d e f i n e d .  and  contact w i t h each other  The substance o f t h e p l a y l i e s  and Heracles'  intertwined  w h i c h o f t h e two m a i n f i g u r e s i s t h e h e r o , o r do t h e y  role?  it  Deianeira's  and deaths a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y  t h o u g h t h e y n e v e r come i n t o d i r e c t course  t h eevents o f t h e p l a y ,  c a n be. m e a s u r e d .  a concept o f t h eSophoclean hero both d i r e c t l y  and from v a r i o u s works d e a l i n g w i t h  the subject  is a  from necessary  t a s k b u t o n e made d i f f i c u l t b y t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d a n d t h e inherent these  limitations of the result.  limitations.  represent  First,  G. M. K i r k w o o d p o i n t s o u t t w o o f  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from t h e extant  p l a y s does n o t  a s y n t h e s i s made b y S o p h o c l e s n o r i s i t c e r t a i n t h a t  the  view  6 of l i f e  a n d human c h a r a c t e r  represented  something Sophocles s p e c i f i c a l l y generalization is  b y t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n was  endeavored t o d e s c r i b e .  (even i f i t d e s c r i b e s  Second, no one  a f a c t c e n t r a l t o Sophoclean  n e c e s s a r i l y o f c e n t r a l importance f o r Sophocles' plays.  and  individuality o f character One  may h o p e t h a t b y r e c o g n i z i n g  b e c o m e l e s s l i m i t e d b y them. purpose o f the simply but  Also,  than  Differences  similarity.  t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s one w i l l  i t i s u s e f u l , t o point  synthesis o f the heroic character  out that the  i n t h i s study  i snot  to. d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e S o p h o c l e a n h e r o a s a n e n d i n i t s e l f ,  rather  test  a r e more i m p o r t a n t  thought)  t o determine the n a t u r e o f the hero f o r u s e as a t o o l and a  i n attempting  Trachiniae.  s  i n t u r n , t o d e t e r m i n e who i s t h e h e r o i n t h e  The remainder o f t h i s chapter  contains  a summary o f e i g h t  7 views of t h e Sophoclean hero.  I.  Perhaps the best the  t r a g i c hero.  place  Aristotle  t o begin  i s w i t h a ready-made " s y n t h e s i s " o f  A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f the v a r i o u s  r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e t r a g i c hero i s one t h a t S o p h o c l e s b u t h a s become a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of  t h e Sophoclean hero.  of  tragedy  Since,  v i c e and d e p r a v i t y  6C  form  f e a r and p i t y "  i t m u s t i n v o l v e " a man n o t  pre-eminently  however, i s brought upon h i m not by  b u t b y some e r r o r o f j u d g m e n t , o f t h e n u m b e r o f t h o s e  enjoyment o f g r e a t (EOTI  considerations  i n A r i s t o t l e ' s view, f o r t h e f i n e s t  v i r t u o u s and j u s t , whose m i s f o r t u n e ,  the  o f most subsequent  8  (cpogepSv naX. e X e e t v u i v ) ,  in  i se x t e r n a l t o the plays o f  t h e p l o t must " i m i t a t e a c t i o n s a r o u s i n g >  necessary  TOLOUTOS  r e p u t a t i o n and p r o s p e r i t y . " 6 ynxe apexri  Suacpepwv  «al. 6 t M d L o a u v n  . uflxe 6ua x a x t a v n a l uox§np£av UExagaAAwv e u c xriv 6uaxux£av a X X a 6 u * a u a p x u a v x t v c t , xoiv e v ueyaXri S d ^ n ovxwv n a l e u x u x f r y ,  1 4 5 3 a •)  T h e h e r o ' sf o r t u n e s must change f r o m h a p p i n e s s t o m i s e r y ELS  6UOTUXUXV  a n d t h ec a u s e o f t h i s "must  ),  (E£  EUTUXLOC  l i en o t i n a n yd e p r a v i t y ,  but in some great error on his part" (un. 6ua uox^npuxv aAAa  otuapxtav  OL'  ue-yaAnv). The plot "should be so framed that, even without seeing the things  take place, he who  simply hears  the account of them shall  f i l l e d w i t hh o r r o r a n d p i t y a t t h e i n c i d e n t s " o u v e a t d v a u x o vuuSov  Mat  ?  »  EAEELV  EH  should  seek  dSsAcpov aAAo  XSV  ulos  (stSdxccs xal  a u uB a u v d v x u t v ) .  opav  T i p d y u a x a yL\>6\ieva  tragic  deeds rt  naxspa  done within  UTixnp  Y^Yv^aHovxas)  xn.v  Concerning  utov  the  family  n vloz u n x E p a  (ouov n ot6£A<pos r i y e X X t j f ix u  anotXEuvn,  or "in ignorance of his relationship, and  the presentation  apuoTTOVTa),  6 E upa^at  ? o . belvov, cZ%' u a x s p o v  of characters,  he states  T h e y s h o u l d b e made g o o d  four  (xptiaxd)  qualities  , a p p r o p r i a t e  l i k e r e a l i t y (x6 o u o u o v ) , a n d c o n s i s t e n t a n d t h e s a m e .  (TO ouaAdu). Another of Aristotle's requirements is that tragedy be "an imitation of personages that the portrayal  of men  of character,"  better  "quick  than the ordinary man"  or slow to anger,  must reflect  that fact.  II. The modern concept  It takes suffering  but  for are  is not  granted  a single,  the focal point  they  have  men.  Knox  to the plays  central  character  of the play,  Aristotelian  themselves  as  whose action  this character  and  similar  Although  of Greek drama is not without so external  should  (1453b)  or with  infirmities of character, they must be represented as good  influences,  t p p t x x E L V  HOLL  cpuAuxv.,- 1 4 5 3 b ) .  a t w h i c ho n e s h o u l d a i m .  imfirmities  ouxu>  A r i s t o t l e a l s o c l a i m s t h a t t h e p  d i s c o v e r t h a t a f t e r w a r d s " (ccyvoouvxas  (TO  be  6pqt). The doer may do the deed "knowinglyand consciously"  XOLOUXOV  avayvwpuaau  :  9  after  n  x b va x o u o v x a i a  WOTE  (OI'VEU T O U  ;  being  is  his.  and "the  8 t r a g i c hero."  A c c o r d i n g t o B.M.W. Knox, the d r a m a t i c method o f p r e s e n t i n g  the t r a g i c dilemma " i n the f i g u r e o f a s i n g l e d o m i n a t i n g in  f a c t t o be an i n v e n t i o n o f S o p h o c l e s . " ^ 1  t h a t Knox p r e s e n t s f o r t h i s assumption  c h a r a c t e r seems  The r e a s o n i n g and  evidence  i s o f i n t e r e s t h e r e , because i t  throws l i g h t Upon the r o l e o f the h e r o . S o p h o c l e s abandoned t h e t r i l o g i c c o m b i n a t i o n i n f a v o r o f t h e play  (so f a r as we  can judge, each o f h i s e x t a n t p l a y s i s complete  i t s e l f as opposed t o b e i n g p a r t o f a t h e m a t i c a l l y connected a c t i o n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e o r i g i n o f the t r a g i c h e r o . his  single  t r i l o g i e s had shown "how  in  trilogy),  Aeschylus i n  e v i l i n the l o n g c o u r s e o f t h i n g s f e l l  w i t h i n the j u s t and p r o g r e s s i v e cosmos o f Zeus, b r i n g i n g wisdom w i t h in  an  the wake o f s u f f e r i n g . " * '  S o p h o c l e s , however, chose  1  s i n g l e p l a y , by means o f w h i c h he was  to use  time  the  a b l e to present "the m o r a l i t y of 12  i n d i v i d u a l man  i n the f a c e o f i r r a t i o n a l e v i l . "  S o p h o c l e s ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y move o f abandoning  the t r i l o g y  the t r a g i c h e r o , o r whether t h e abandonment was of  the hero, the r e d u c t i o n o f scope  Whether i t was that  produced  t h e r e s u l t o f t h e concept  (from t h r e e p l a y s to one) made  p o s s i b l e the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a t r a g i c dilemma " i n terms o f a  single  13 personality  f a c i n g t h e supreme c r i s i s o f h i s l i f e . "  Sophocles  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r both i n n o v a t i o n s , but h i s s p e c i a l h a l l m a r k i s h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the c e n t r a l In  figure.  a d d i t i o n t o abandoning  the t r i l o g y ,  t h i r d s p e a k i n g a c t o r and by t h e s e two t r a g e d y as i t i s known t o d a y — " t h e  S o p h o c l e s a l s o added  the  a c t i o n s , i n a sense, i n v e n t e d  c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f h i s d e s t i n y by  a 14  h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a l whose freedom The  of a c t i o n i m p l i e s f u l l  responsibility."  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the drama on a g r e a t c r i s i s o f t h e h e r o ' s  demands a s i n g l e p l a y and a t h i r d a c t o r . c e n t r a l f i g u r e was  life  That t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  r e c o g n i z e d i n the a n c i e n t w o r l d i s suggested by  one  the  t i t l e s a s s i g n e d t o h i s plays.*"*  The T r a c h i n i a e a l o n e o f t h e seven  e x t a n t t r a g e d i e s i s named a f t e r the c h o r u s i n s t e a d o f t h e c e n t r a l and, a c c o r d i n g t o Knox, " t h a t  i s the o n l y one o f t h e seven which  figure, i s not  16 c l e a r l y based on the f i g u r e o f a t r a g i c h e r o . " the  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  h e r o e s i n the o t h e r s i x p l a y s , however, Knox d e v e l o p s w i t h i n a  q u i t e comprehensive The  scheme.  A summary o f h i s views  Sophoclean t r a g i c hero i s i s o l a t e d .  follows.  The i s o l a t i o n o f time and  space impose on him t h e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s own consequences  and compel him t o a c t i n the p r e s e n t w i t h o u t a p a s t t o  g u i d e him o r a f u t u r e to comfort him. the  a c t i o n and i t s  The s o u r c e o f h i s a c t i o n , as  g r e a t n e s s o f h i s a c t i o n , b e l o n g s to the hero a l o n e .  This free  does and  r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n b r i n g s t h e hero through s u f f e r i n g sometimes to v i c t o r y , but more o f t e n causes him t o f a l l and e x p e r i e n c e d e f e a t b e f o r e he r e a c h e s the f i n a l v i c t o r y . f u s e d i n t o an i n d i s s o l u b l e In  F o r t h e h e r o , s u f f e r i n g and g l o r y a r e  unity.  r e f u s i n g t o a c c e p t h i s human l i m i t a t i o n s ,  r e n d e r s h i s a c t i o n f u l l y autonomous. imposed his  the h e r o i c  By. d e f y i n g the gods, who  individual have  t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , he removes from them any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  a c t i o n and i t s consequences.  self-created  Nevertheless, d e s p i t e the hero's  i s o l a t i o n , t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e gods i s always f e l t i n  Sophoclean drama.  Even though the hero f i g h t s a g a i n s t them, one  feels  t h a t perhaps the gods have more c o n c e r n and r e s p e c t f o r him than f o r the common man. In  s i x o f the seven e x t a n t p l a y s o f Sophocles  Trachiniae), He may  As Knox s a y s , " t h e gods too seem to r e c o g n i z e g r e a t n e s s . " ^ (excluding  the hero i s f a c e d w i t h a c h o i c e between two  accept either possible  the  possibilities.  ( o f t e n c e r t a i n ) d i s a s t e r or a compromise  t h a t , i f a c c e p t e d , w i l l b e t r a y the h e r o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i m s e l f , h i s r i g h t s , and h i s d u t i e s .  Having d e c i d e d a g a i n s t the c o u r s e o f compromise,  10 the  hero f i n d s h i s d e c i s i o n a s s a i l e d , but n e v e r t h e l e s s r e f u s e s t o y i e l d ;  he r e m a i n s t r u e t o h i s p h y s i s . submit.  18  Ajax decides to d i e rather than t o  A n t i g o n e r e m a i n s l o y a l t o h e r b r o t h e r and E l e c t r a t o h e r f a t h e r .  P h i l o c t e t e s r e f u s e s t o go t o T r o y . the  Oedipus Tyrannus  i n s i s t s on knowing  t r u t h about L a i u s ' murder and about h i m s e l f , and Oedipus  i n s i s t s on b e i n g b u r i e d i n A t t i c s o i l .  Coloneus  I t i s t h i s r e s o l u t i o n o f the hero  that leads t o the dramatic tension of the plays.  The r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t o f  t h i s d r a m a t i c a c t i o n o n t h e h e r o and h i s s i t u a t i o n , Knox t h i n k s , i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by t h e image comparing Oedipus a s a b l i n d o l d man t o "some s e a cape i n t h e N o r t h , w i t h t h e s t o r m waves b e a t i n g a g a i n s t i t from every q u a r t e r , HAOveixau.. ( 0 . C .  In  ravxo^ev  3O*PELOS  (Ss  TLS  a x x a / HuyaniXn?  x -»uepLa E,  1240-1241).  t h e s i x p l a y s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e mold  i n vzhich t h e h e r o i s  c a s t , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h he i s p l a c e d , h i s i n t r a n s i g e n c e , and t h e f o r m u l a s o f language w i t h w h i c h he and h i s opponents e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s are  a l l similar.  C e r t a i n r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s o f c h a r a c t e r , s i t u a t i o n , and  l a n g u a g e that, a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S o p h o c l e a n t r a g e d y f o l l o w . h e r o ' s d e c i s i o n and r e s o l v e t o a c t a r e a l w a y s announced  The  i n emphatic,  19 uncompromising  terms.  The form o f a t t a c k on h i s r e s o l v e t h a t i s most  d i f f i c u l t t o r e s i s t i s t h e e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l o f t h o s e h a v i n g c l a i m s on h i s a f f e c t i o n s , s u c h a s Tecmessa's a p p e a l s t o A j a x ( i n t h e name o f h e r l o v e and h i s s o n ) , C h r y s o t h e m i s ' t o E l e c t r a , J o c a s t a ' s t o Oedipus  Tyrannus,  20  and P o l y n e i c e s ' t o O e d i p u s C o l o n e u s .  The u s u a l a s s a u l t on t h e h e r o ' s 21  w i l l i s an a p p e a l t o r e a s o n (not t o e m o t i o n ) . argument i s p e r s u a s i o n (uet§w, ueuSouat).  The method o f r a t i o n a l  The h e r o d i s o b e y s by w i t h s t a n d i n g  22  p e r s u a s i o n (anuaxew).  The hero needs t o l e a r n , i n t h e eyes o f h i s  23  f r i e n d s and enemies. to  The a p p e a l s t o r e a s o n and e m o t i o n and t h e a d v i c e  r e f l e c t and be p e r s u a d e d c o n s t i t u t e a demand f o r t h e h e r o t o y i e l d  11 (eCxetv).  An a p p e a l t o r e t r e a t  h e r o e s , however, do not know how  i s made t o a l l Sophoclean h e r o e s ; t o g i v e i n to m i s f o r t u n e s (Ant. 471).  The hero r e f u s e s t o y i e l d , r e p l y i n g t o such a demand w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y S o p h o c l e a n word eav listen  ("leave a l o n e , a l l o w , l e t " ) .  The h e r o w i l l  not  (xAuetv, axoueuv), thus making i t hard t o urge s u r r e n d e r on him. 26  The h e r o does not want t o h e a r .  He w i l l not l i s t e n ,  but h e a r s  enough t o know t h a t he i s under a t t a c k and r e a c t s s w i f t l y and  violently, 27 c r e a t i n g a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n f o r t h o s e t r y i n g t o a d v i s e him. All h e r o e s t r e a t a d v i c e and o b j e c t i o n s i n the same f i e r c e w a y — t h e y a r e a l l angry h e r o e s , and any attempt made t o sway o r h i n d e r them provokes  their  28 anger.  To the p e o p l e around them t h i s angry, s t u b b o r n temper seems  "thoughtless, i l l - c o u n s e l l e d . "  To the o u t s i d e xrorld t h e hero's temper  i s " m i n d l e s s , s e n s e l e s s , mad,"  and the hero seems t o be unable t o t h i n k 29 .  out  the r i g h t course of a c t i o n .  ucopos, " f o o l i s h . "  The condemnation  The hero can even be d e s c r i b e d  as  o f t h e h e r o ' s temper i s a m o r a l as  w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l one, and t o h i s f r i e n d s and enemies h i s mood seems to be one o f xdAuri and dpctaos, " o v e r b o l d n e s s , r a s h n e s s , i n s o l e n c e , audacity."  The hero i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d  ( l i k e a b e a s t ) , diuo's, "raw,  i n such terms as a y p t o s , " w i l d "  savage," axAnpds, " h a r d " ( l i k e m e t a l ) .  One  word a p p l i e d t o a l l the heroes t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n i s  6euvds, " s t r a n g e , d r e a d f u l , t e r r i b l e . "  The heroes a r e 6 E U V O L because  l a c k a sense o f p r o p o r t i o n and a c a p a c i t y f o r m o d e r a t i o n .  The a c t i o n s o f  these h e r o e s , as w e l l as the heroes themselves, a r e Tiepoaaa, extraordinary, prodigious."  "outsized,  Those c o n f r o n t i n g them h o l d a f u t i l e  that these h e r o i c possessors of i n c o r r i g i b l e natures w i l l  they  hope  i n time  r e a l i z e what i s good f o r them and t h a t the hero can be taught by  time  30 to  change h i s s t u b b o r n mind and r e a l i z e  the t r u t h .  The h e r o , however,  remains unchanged, s i n c e time and i t s i m p e r a t i v e of change are e x a c t l y  j-  what t h e Sophoclean hero d e f i e s . r e a l a d v e r s a r y and  to r e j e c t  A l l - p o w e r f u l Time, i n f a c t ,  i t i s , i n Oedipus' words t o Theseus,  be i n l o v e w i t h the i m p o s s i b l e . " limitations, and  i s the hero' "to  By h i s r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t human  the hero a c h i e v e s h i s t r u e g r e a t n e s s , not by the h e l p  encouragement o f the gods, but by h i s l o y a l t y t o h i s n a t u r e i n t r i a l ,  s u f f e r i n g , and  death.  I n the o p i n i o n o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s the hero i s u n r e a s o n a b l e , s u i c i d a l l y b o l d , i m p e r v i o u s t o argument, i n t r a n s i g e n t , angry, i m p o s s i b l e — a b l e t o be c u r e d o n l y by time.  and  I n t h e eyes o f t h e h e r o ,  however, the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s i s i r r e l e v a n t ; he i s l o y a l o n l y t o h i s  31 conception of himself.  A n t i g o n e j u s t i f i e s her d e f i a n c e o f p u b l i c  o p i n i o n and o f the p o l i s by h e r e u y e v e t a euoxfteua  ( d e s i r e f o r g l o r y ) , and Oedipus  Tyrannus,  Oedipus  t h e s e same a t t i t u d e s . all.  D r i v e n by § u u d s  (claim of noble b i r t h ) ,  (religious feelings).  Coloneus,  M o t i v e s may  and P h i l o c t e t e s a l s o  Electra,  experience  ( p a s s i o n ) , they a r e c l o s e d  to the a p p e a l s o f r e a s o n . p r e f e r r i n g t o obey  the commands o f t h e i r p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e s t h a t a r e e x a s p e r a t e d by t h a t they a r e t r e a t e d d i s r e s p e c t f u l l y  denied f u u n  (respect).  Ajax,  d i f f e r , but t h e mood i s t h e same i n  They do p o s s e s s r e a s o n but w i l l not l i s t e n t o i t ,  feeling  xAeos  the  ( a x t p w s ) or a r e , at  In such c a s e s t h e i r own  least,  sense o f worth and  32 c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what i s due t o them from o t h e r s a r e o u t r a g e d . Forming an extreme i m p r e s s i o n o f t h i s l a c k o f r e s p e c t , they f e e l  that  33 the w o r l d as w e l l i s mocking them, themselves.  and they t u r n more f i r m l y  into  R e s e n t i n g t h o s e whom'they c o n s i d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r  s u f f e r i n g s , they a p p e a l f o r vengeance and c u r s e t h e i r enemies, a l t h o u g h they use no more d r e a d f u l c u r s e than t h a t t h e i r enemies may what they themselves  are  suffering.  experience  13  In this way the hero enters into his (previously mentioned) characteristic isolation.  He i s (or becomes) yo'vos (alone), and epriuos  (abandoned, deserted), not only isloated from men but abandoned by the 35  gods.  So total i s his isolation that  at certain moments he addresses  himself to the landscape, which i s unchanging and w i l l not betray him.  36  The f i n a l result of the hero's isolation from the world of men i s his 37  wish for death.  By choosing death, he arrives at the logical end of  his refusal to compromise.  Living i n human society i s one continuous  compromise of subduing one's own w i l l and desires to the requirements of others.  In Sophoclean tragedy i t would be a betrayal of the hero's  physis for him to compromise and s t i l l respect himself. would cause him to lose his identity.  To surrender  38  A strong sense of his identity, his individual and independent existence, his difference from others and his resultant uniqueness, and his own worth as an individual, i s a marked trait of the hero.  This  highly developed sense of individuality i s significant in determining his action.  His decision at a c r i t i c a l moment becomes a matter of choosing  between defiance and loss of identity (the latter choice being impossible for him to make).  The anger he feels at the world's denial of respect  becomes further exasperated, because he feels his sense of worth has been violated.  In moments of c r i s i s and abandonment this sense of or  belief in himself becomes his only support.  Sophoclean heroes are  aware of and insist on their uniqueness and sharply differentiated individuality.  Philoctetes i s a prime example of this; having lived  alone brooding on his wrongs for ten years, he i s very conscious of his own identity.  With their fierce sense of independence, heroes w i l l not  submit to being ruled but remain free, finding the choice of slavery over freedom an intolerable one.  Having set his own conditions for  14 e x i s t e n c e , the h e r o i s more p r e p a r e d t o l e a v e l i f e t h a n t o change i n s i s t s on a s s e r t i n g h i s w i l l t o t h e a b s o l u t e  end o f d e f i a n c e ,  and  death.  I n h i s r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on humans by m o r t a l i t y and (all  i n h i s r e s i s t a n c e t o the i m p e r a t i v e s  o f t i m e and  circumstance  t h i n g s change, but he w i l l n o t ) , t h e h e r o makes what Knox r e f e r s t o  as "an  assumption of d i v i n i t y . "  ( T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e h e r o e s  e v e r c o n s c i o u s l y c l a i m t o be gods.) unchanging"  ; and,  " O n l y the gods a r e e t e r n a l  i n t h e words of Oedipus t o Theseus, " e v e r y t h i n g  i s confounded by a l l - p o w e r f u l t i m e "  (O.C.  Once h i s d e c i s i o n has been t a k e n , according  and else  609).  the Sophoclean hero i s ,  t o Knox, immovable,  deaf t o a p p e a l s and p e r s u a s i o n ,  to reproof  and  u n t e r r i f i e d by p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e , even by t h e v i o l e n c e o f d e a t h i t s e l f , more s t u b b o r n as h i s i n c r e a s e s u n t i l he has no one  threat, ultimate isolation  t o speak t o but t h e u n f e e l i n g  l a n d s c a p e , b i t t e r a t the d i s r e s p e c t and mockery t h e  world  l e v e l s a t what i t r e g a r d s as a f a i l u r e , the h e r o p r a y s f o r revenge and  curses  h i s enemies as he welcomes the d e a t h  40 t h a t i s the p r e d i c t a b l e end The  final  of h i s  intransigence.  p o i n t i n t h i s l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s of p a r t i c u l a r  i m p o r t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e S o p h o c l e a n h e r o , because o n l y t h e f a c t o f d e a t h can make an a c t i o n h e r o i c .  " H e r o i s m and  province  men."  tragedy are the p e c u l i a r  41 The  and  p r i v i l e g e of m o r t a l  a n c i e n t Greek mind seems.to have c o n s i d e r e d  esteem a l m o s t d i v i n e , no m a t t e r how  passionate  self-  weakly j u s t i f i e d i t m i g h t have  42 been or t o what c r i m e s i t l e d . t h a t a h e r o i s not r e c o g n i z e d  N i l s s o n says, i n r e l a t i o n to h e r o - c u l t s , because of h i s s e r v i c e s but because  he  43 p o s s e s s e s some s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h , w h i c h i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  beneficent.  15 The  a t t r a c t i o n t h a t the hero was  was  t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t some p e o p l e a r e c a p a b l e  The  h e r o , by d e n y i n g t h e i m p e r a t i v e s  served  a b l e to o f f e r t o t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k s  as a reminder t h a t a human may  of superhuman  greatness.  t h a t o t h e r s obey i n o r d e r  to  a t times d e f y the l i m i t s  live,  imposed  on one's w i l l by f e a r of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , community-action, or d e a t h , r e f u s e to accept  h u m i l i a t i o n and  i n d i f f e r e n c e , impose h i s w i l l  despite  44 the consequences to o t h e r s and  himself.  He  echoes the Homeric war-hero,  45 because he v a l u e s h i s own  life  i n g r e a t c r i s e s o f the s o u l he  as n o t h i n g .  He w i l l be  echoed by S o c r a t e s  i s l o y a l to the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f h i s  life. III.  Whitman  46 F o r C. H. Whitman the Sophoclean hero becomes even more He  b e l i e v e s t h a t S o p h o c l e s h e l d a s i n g l e r e l i g i o u s hope, namely, a hope  i n the u l t i m a t e v a l u e tragic  of man.  Likewise,  he b e l i e v e s t h a t a s i n g l e  i d e a u n d e r l i e s the wide d i f f e r e n c e s of S o p h o c l e s ' p l a y s ,  that i s "the  i d e a of t r a g i c a r e t e or s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e h e r o i s m . "  t r u e a c t i o n of e v e r y t r a g i c h e r o , and  Sophoclean p l a y l i e s  every  a r e t e and life  i n the b e h a v i o r  t r i a l s result  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  The  indomitable  will  will  of  the  many c r i t i c s take as the h e r o ' s f a u l t s f a u l t s , but  His  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l gods,  of the s t r u g g l i n g hero, and  Olympian f i g u r e s , i s the source  i d e a l i z e d ) a r e not  The  4 7  from the c l a s h between h i s  t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f o t h e r human b e i n g s , itself.  and  and  Sophoclean t r a g i c hero i s an example o f a r e t e .  e n c o u n t e r s w i t h d i s a s t e r s and  and  idealized.  not  of t r u e d i v i n i t y .  What  (here the hero becomes v e r y  s i g n s of h i s p e r f e c t i o n t h a t c o n f l i c t  the b l i n d n e s s and wrongness of l i f e about him.  The  chorus and  c h a r a c t e r s become o n l y a framework to s e t o f f by c o n t r a s t the  with  "normal" unique  ;  16 greatness of the hero. be j u d g e d by h i s own  48  The m o r a l n a t u r e of the h e r o ' s p o s i t i o n must  s t a n d a r d , as he r e v e a l s i t i n the p l a y .  With h i s s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and  supreme a r e t e , the hero has a  w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h a t i s o f t e n i n o p p o s i t i o n to the "gods" b e l i e f who  divinity  of popular.  Whitman f e e l s a r e seen e i t h e r as amoral symbols  of t h e  laws  49 of l i f e  o r as p o s i t i v e l y u n j u s t .  i m m o l a t i o n or endurance,  Through  h i s moral a c t i o n of  the hero combines h i s own  t h a t o f the amoral and n o n - a c t i v e God,  self-  inner d i v i n i t y with  t o form the a l l - e m b r a c i n g r e a l m  o f u n i v e r s a l d i v i n i t y o r B e i n g a s a whole. The  Sophoclean h e r o has a r e f i n e d and t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f  t h a t a l l o w s f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y i s a law unto h i m s e l f , he may  t h a t , a l t h o u g h i n the mind o f o t h e r s he  be a c t i n g i n obedience t o a t r u e  t h a t remains beyond the v i s i o n o f o t h e r s .  law  Whitman b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e hero  h i m s e l f has r e a l s e l f - k n o w l e d g e whereas o t h e r s have o n l y r u l e s o f b e h a v i o r ; and sophrosyne  t h e r e f o r e , i f t h e Sophoclean dramas t e a c h sophrosyne,  i s i n the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e hero, not i n the chorus or  characters.  I t uay be customary  hero i n the b e l i e f  the  lesser  t o s i d e w i t h the f o r c e s opposing  the  t h a t they a l o n e a r e d i v i n e ; however, a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e  u s u a l l y d i v i n e , they a r e not o f n e c e s s i t y m o r a l l y r i g h t . Choral c r i t i c i s m Oedipus  c o n v i c t s A n t i g o n e o f h a r s h n e s s and  stubbornness,  o f r a s h n e s s of temper, P h i l o c t e t e s of o b s t i n a c y , A j a x o f a  n o b l e and overweening  a t t i t u d e , and E l e c t r a o f drawing more t r o u b l e on  h e r s e l f t h a n n e c e s s a r y by her c o n s t a n t mourning f o r A g a m e m n o n . A l l these f a u l t s are e s s e n t i a l l y independence,  the same t h i n g — s t u b b o r n n e s s , s e l f - w i l l e d  authadeia—which  keeps the hero from y i e l d i n g  f a t e and makes him t a l k h a r s h l y and p r o u d l y .  S i n c e , i f we  to h i s trust  c h o r u s , we must b e l i e v e t h a t S o p h o c l e s wrote o n l y about t h e e v i l of s t u b b o r n n e s s , Whitman asks why,  i f stubbornness i s a f a u l t  the effects  the gods  17 51 c o n s i s t e n t l y punished."  p u n i s h , i t i s not for  51  h i s f a u l t s i s to imply t h a t one  Whitman r e j e c t s A r i s t o t l e ' s t h e o r y  He  of  Sophocles.  rebuke the  knows what he  protagonist have done. 52  should  o f h a m a r t i a , because he b e l i e v e s  the sin-and-punishment f o r m u l a t u r n s A r i s t o t l e , not  To  that  the p l a y s i n t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  53  a l s o r e j e c t s A r i s t o t l e ' s view t h a t a p l a y showing t h e f a l l  a p e r f e c t l y j u s t man  would be d i s g u s t i n g  p l a y showed the f a l l  o f a j u s t man,  and  ( P o e t i c s 1452 the men  b36).  of the f i f t h  of  "Many a century  seem  54 not  t o have been d i s g u s t e d  t r a g e d y to be v a l i d , receive h i s deserts S o p h o c l e s was injustice.. r e a l l y was  Whitman h o l d s P l a t o ' s c r i t i c i s m  i n i t s consideration and  that  that  the good man-did  t r a g e d y d i d show the w o r l d ' s  perhaps concerned not w i t h j u s t i c e , but  Maybe h i s w o r l d was tragic.  r e l i g i o u s rather to be  at a l l . "  The  point  than pious,  not  subject  injustice.  with divine  to simple m o r a l r u l e s , but was  t h e r e f o r e the Sophoclean h e r o "seems  l e s s under o b l i g a t i o n t o w o r s h i p t h e gods than to f u l f i l l  d u t y to  not  t h a t Whitman makes i s t h a t S o p h o c l e s and  his  himself."^^  IV.  Bowra and Bowra c l a i m s  Bowra and  Schadewaldt  Schadewaldt b o t h h o l d views d i f f e r e n t from Whitman's.  that "the  t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g a man  c e n t r a l i d e a of a Sophoclean t r a g e d y i s t h a t l e a r n s t o be modest b e f o r e  speaks of t h e " h u m i l i a t i o n " of the h e r o b e f o r e  t h e gods.""'  the gods as t h e  c o n d i t i o n of h i s "coming t o peace" w i t h them and  considers  7  He necessary  t h a t most of  the h e r o e s , a l t h o u g h f a r from f a u l t l e s s at the b e g i n n i n g o f the p l a y , the end  of  of the p l a y have had  ways of the  gods.  their  i l l u s i o n s removed and  Schadewaldt s u b o r d i n a t e s  the  accept  the  Sophoclean h e r o to  the  by  gods t o a s l i g h t l y  l e s s e r e x t e n t t h a n Bowra does.  He b e l i e v e s  that  the  a b s o l u t e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e h e r o i s emphasized  his  i s o l a t i o n and t h e apparent h o p e l e s s n e s s o f h i s p o s i t i o n .  by  Through h i  58 s u f f e r i n g s t h e hero f i n d s h i s true s e l f ( t h i s b e i n g p o s s i b l e o n l y because Bowra, Schadewaldt hybris  into  believes that  and proves h i s h e r o i c  his affliction the c r i s i s  Sophocles presents us f o rthe f i r s t as a ' t r a g i c hero':  o f t h e p l a y changes  the hero  that, t i m e w i t h w h a t we r e c o g n i z e  o n e who, u n s u p p o r t e d b y t h e g o d s a n d i n  f a c e o f human o p p o s i t i o n , m a k e s a d e c i s i o n w h i c h  from the deepest and  Like  s o p h r o s y n e , t h u s r e s t o r i n g harmony b e t w e e n h i m a n d t h e gods.  Knox c o u n t e r s t h i s v i e w b y r e m a r k i n g  the  i sabsolute).  greatnes  springs  layer of his individual nature, h i s physis,  then b l i n d l y ,  ferociously, heroically maintains that  59 d e c i s i o n e v e n :to t h e p o i n t o f s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . When t h e h e r o ' s d e c i s i o n , made w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e g o d s , i s carried  t h r o u g h t o h i s s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e  o p p o r t u n i t y , o r even d e s i r e f o rt h e hero t o exchange  time,  his hybris f o r  s o p h r o s y n e a n d t o come i n t o h a r m o n y w i t h t h e g o d s . ^ V.  In  Webster  t h e above q u o t a t i o n from Knox t h e r e i s a m e n t i o n  Sophocles'  development  of physis.  o f t h e h e r o ' s p h y s i s f o r m s o n e o f T.B.L.  Webster's  61 six  b a s i c aspects o f t h e Sophoclean hero.  A c c o r d i n g t o Webster, the  h e r o i s c o n s c i o u s o f h i s b i r t h a n d , a s o n e who i s n o b l y b o r n , to  c e r t a i n standards of l i f e  has a d u t y t o be l o y a l his  children;  affection  and a c t i o n .  conforms  A s a member o f a f a m i l y , h e  t o h i s p a r e n t s and a r i g h t  t o expect l o y a l t y  from  i s based on these d u t i e s , r i g h t s , and s t a n d a r d s .  19 A j a x f e e l s he cannot r e t u r n home w i t h o u t h a v i n g won as much g l o r y (xcu, TIOLOV o u u a  T r o y as had h i s f a t h e r , Telamon  itaxpt  before  6n.Acoau) cpaveus  TeXauaivu,  462), and, i n t u r n , demands t h e same courage from h i s son,  Eurysaces  (xapBnaeu  545-546).  y a p ou,/ v e o a c p a y n  ^ o u xdv6e  ipdvov,  upoaAeuaawv  A n t i g o n e b e l i e v e s t h a t h e r d u t y t o h e r b r o t h e r outweighs h e r  duty t o the s t a t e , a b e l i e f ouvexSecv, aXXa  that arouses her strong a f f e c t i o n  ouyq>i,A£bV e t p u v ,  523, a l s o 89, 907). E l e c t r a  has a deep a f f e c t i o n f o r and sense o f d u t y t o h e r d e s e r v i n g ( f a t h e r and b r o t h e r , Agamemnon and O r e s t e s ; 1232): ouxoyevwv yovimv  enuAdSexac,  145-146).  the t i e s o f k i n s h i p v e r y s t r o n g l y .  vquLOS  (ouxot likewise  relations os xSv ouxxpSg/  Oedipus i n t h e Tyrannus  feels  He l o v e s and r e s p e c t s h i s supposed  parents.: i n C o r i n t h , P o l y b u s and Merope, so much t h a t he l e a v e s them f o r the purpose o f f o i l i n g as h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w h i s d a u g h t e r s (1480).  the oracle  (998).  (85), Jocasta  He a l s o has a f f e c t i o n f o r C r e o n ,  (772), and h i s c h i l d r e n ,  Oedipus i n t h e Coloneus has the same a f f e c t i o n f o r  h i s d a u g h t e r s , which they have won because they f u l f i l l (1205-1615). h i s hatred  especially  t h e i r d u t y t o him  By d i s r e g a r d i n g t h i s d u t y , Creon and h i s sons have earned  ( 3 3 7 f f . , 418, 1365).  f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Neoptolemus o f t h e n o b l e and h o l d  Philoctetes  i s a b l e t o form a bond o f  because they b o t h speak t h e common language  t h e same i d e a l s  ( x n v cpuauv 6 ' e 6 £ L ^ a s , 1310).  A j a x , P h i l o c t e t e s has a deep a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s f a t h e r 6 e u ' £ r i s cpu'Afj), 492, a l s o  (naxpt  y * d)g  1210).  I n Webster's view, f r a n k n e s s , f o r t i t u d e , and s e n s i t i v e n e s s also  b e l o n g t o the a r i s t o c r a t i c  i d e a l Sophocles a t t r i b u t e s  Oedipus i n t h e Tyrannus wants Creon's news p u b l i s h e d t o a l l au'6a, 9 3 ) , and A n t i g o n e . (86) and E l e c t r a t h e i r designs.  Like  t o shame  to the hero. (eg n a v x t t s  (1033) s c o r n concealment o f  A j a x r e g a r d s i t as d i s h o n o r a b l e t o lament i n misfortune-  20 Ttpos Y&P xaxou xE Mal 3apu<Jjuxou yoovg/ EXetv.,  319).  Coloneus  Electra  TOUOUO6' aeL nor' avSpos E^rr/Ecx'  (354), P h i l o c t e t e s  (5, 798) w i t h t h e i r  (535-, 733), and Oedipus  l o n g - l a s t i n g p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l  a r e t h e most n o t a b l e examples o f f o r t i t u d e .  i n the  afflictions  E l e c t r a i s a slave i n her  f a t h e r ' s house; P h i l o c t e t e s i s abandoned on a l o n e l y i s l a n d w i t h a gangrened  f o o t , Oedipus  has been d r i v e n i n t o e x i l e by h i s own sons.  These v a r i o u s m i s f o r t u n e s a f f e c t  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h e r o e s by making them  e m o t i o n a l and u n f o r g e t f u l and u n f o r g i v i n g o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e , but they cannot b r e a k t h e i r h e r o i c Some e v i l s Tyrannus in  that  fortitude.  the hero s u f f e r s are too g r e a t to bear.  (n cpoveuacxx',  1411) and P h i l o c t e t e s  Oedipus  (cpovqt cpovcjl vdos n6n, 1208)  t h e l o w e s t depths o f t h e i r m i s e r y would r a t h e r d i e t h a n l i v e .  i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t a r n i s h e d honor,  f i n d s d e a t h t o be t h e o n l y  c u r e f o r h i s shame (dXXct UE ov\>6a£E,ov 361, otpou YEXOJTOS, OLOV apa,  367).  Antigone p r e f e r s  l e a v i n g her brother unburied aux'  kySi XEYW, 461).  her t h a t  The  (EL 6E TOU XPOVOU itpda§£V davouuotL,  the p o l i t i c a l  (except Oedipus  Agamemnon (667,-1069). A t r i d a e and i n t r y i n g  Webster next  the subject  the r u l e r r u l e s i n  obeys him.  Antigone  (617) b o t h r a t e t h e d u t y owed t o t h e i r k i n a s h i g h e r  than t h a t owed t o t h e s t a t e .  when he a t t e m p t s  i n t h e C o l o n e u s ) o f f e n d i n some  i d e a l o f Sophocles t h a t  o f h i s p e o p l e and t h a t  (453) and E l e c t r a  (us X ^ p t s U E V ,  TOU $C"OU 6'OU6EUS itd§os, 8 2 1 ) .  Sophoclean heroes  the i n t e r e s t  xepfios  i t i s intolerable to  she c a n not do h e r duty t o h e r f a t h e r ' s memory  way a g a i n s t  uBpta^nv  t o d i e r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t the d i s h o n o r o f  E l e c t r a wants t o d i e because  nv Kxdvn, Xuitri 6', eav  Ajax,  A j a x i s n o t p r e p a r e d t o obey h i s g e n e r a l  Philoctetes  i s l i k e Ajax  t o take j u s t i c e  t o shoot Odysseus  i n h i s hatred of the  i n t o h i s own hands, which he does  (1299).  s t a t e s t h a t , " b e s i d e s t h e c l a i m s o f f a m i l y and s t a t e ,  men have a duty to the gods.""*'  However, Knox' consideration of the  i s o l a t i o n of the hero and h i s abandonment by (or of) the gods seems to 63 be a truer observation of the hero.  At the time of making t h e i r  d e c i s i o n s , Antigone and E l e c t r a may have regarded the honor that they s t r i v e to pay to t h e i r dead kinsmen as a service to the gods imposed onthem by the laws of the gods.  During the course of the play, however,  our awareness focuses on the actions of Antigone and E l e c t r a and their obsessions to carry out t h e i r own w i l l .  We are not p a r t i c u l a r l y  conscious of the p o s s i b i l i t y that that w i l l i s a handmaiden of the gods. One i s , i n f a c t , conscious of the absence of the gods from the hero. Of Oedipus, Webster writes, "He only departs from the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n i n moments of extreme s t r e s s . P e r h a p s t h i s i s the key to the problem, for i t seems that h i s departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n i s more important i n understanding him than h i s adherence to it.  Both Ajax and Philoctetes have been driven to believe that the  gods are malignant.  Webster notes that the only place where Ajax  reaches true reverence i s during the monologue, when he says he i s going to p u r i f y himself of h i s stains. i s said during Ajax' "deception" speech.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t that t h i s The overriding b e l i e f of Ajax  i s that he i s strong enough to stand alone without the advice and help of the gods. itaxep, §eots uev xav 6 un.6ev uv ouou xpdxos xotxaxxnaauT'•  eyw 6e xal 6LXC  xeuvurv nenotSa TOUT' eTiuaTtdacuv xXeos  (767-769).  As for P h i l o c t e t e s , Webster claims, rather unconvincingly, that h i s prayers f o r vengeance imply that the gods are just (but c f . 446ff.). Webster i s more convincing i n h i s next category. the v i r t u e of sophrosyne as second only to piety.  "Sophocles regards  His chief characters  22 65 remarkable f o r i t , " but  a r e not  inflexibility, may  and  resemble him  (471), and  folly.  e x h i b i t arrogance, v i o l e n c e ,  Ajax i n h i s arrogance prays that h i s  i n everything  Oedipus Tyrannus  but  (371)  fortune  (169), and  to take a c t i o n  Philoctetes  (A^.  116;  Phil.  (550).  Ajax  Ajax  son  (885), A n t i g o n e  display fierce s p i r i t s ;  have a s t r a i n o f c r u e l t y and v i o l e n c e . Electra  haste,  a l l o f them  (540), Oedipus  (73),  (635)  are a l l impatient  as w e l l as  1299;  Ant.  938;  37;  E l . 431,  prompt  O.T.68,  794,  810,1058). Webster's f i n a l haste,  point  inflexibility,  the c h a r a c t e r s  and  i s t h a t the v i c e s o f a r r o g a n c e , v i o l e n c e , folly  a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the v i r t u e s t h a t  p o s s e s s , such as s p i r i t ,  VI.  G. when he  H.  energy, f i r m n e s s ,  and  idealism  Gellie  G e l l i e echoes the view e x p r e s s e d i n Webster's f i n a l  claims  that  Sophoclean t r a g i c heroes must be  courageous, proud, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , and  also reflect  m i r r o r - i m a g e s o f the good a t t r i b u t e s by b e i n g  point  great-hearted, the  pejorative  stubborn, rash,  and  self-centered. I n G e l l i e ' s judgment, "The ready-made s t a t e of e v i l and with i t .  The  great  Greek t r a g e d i e s  the p r o t a g o n i s t  nature of things  n o r m a l l y take a  i s c a l l e d upon t o  i s such t h a t whatever a c t i o n he  deal takes  will  66 be wrong, but it  he a c t s and  i s the p r o t a g o n i s t s  characters  i s destroyed  c a r r y the  by h i s a c t i o n . "  Therefore,  themes of t h e i r p l a y s and  t h a t must accommodate themselves to those themes.  are made up, according  who  he  they a r e beyond argument, they a r e committed  to G e l l i e ,  admit h e a r t - s e a r c h i n g ,  (and  their T h e i r minds thus,  l a c k a d i m e n s i o n as p e r s o n a l i t i e s ) , t h e y r e f u s e and  they l a c k a p p e a l .  On  the c o n t r a r y ,  to  the most  23 rounded  characters are generally  With t h e i r reasoned to  the l e a s t  Important  persons  i n a c t i o n o r u n w i l l i n g a c t i o n , t h e y s e r v e as c o u n t e r p a r t s  the p r o t a g o n i s t and h i s h e r o i c a c t i o n .  sense r e s u l t from u n h e r o i c  Weakness, c o w a r d i c e , and  Kirkwood  Such u n h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o Kirkwood,  are  themes i n a S o p h o c l e a n p l a y , a l o n g w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g ;  secondary fate,  power and knowledge, human c h a r a c t e r w i t h i t s i g n o r a n c e , and wisdom and m a g n i f i c e n c e . p r i m a r y importance.  lies  divine  shortcomings,  I n Kirkwood's view, h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s  "At the h e a r t of every p l a y o f S o p h o c l e s  the l i f e - g i v i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r and  situation."^  good  qualities.  VII.  of  i n the p l a y s .  are  there  revealing  Sophoclean drama c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f a s e r i e s o f  7  t e s t s o f t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , from each o f which he emerges newly  68 r e v e a l e d and w i t h added s t r e n g t h .  Two  q u o t a t i o n s from  Kirkwood  i n t r o d u c e one o f h i s b a s i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e S o p h o c l e a n "A Sophoclean  hero.  t r a g e d y i s a s e r i o u s p l a y i n w h i c h a p e r s o n o f s t r o n g and  n o b l e c h a r a c t e r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n and r e s p o n d s  to i t  69 i n h i s s p e c i a l way."  This crucial  s i t u a t i o n must i n v o l v e s u f f e r i n g  the p a r t o f the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r .  "Sophoclean  on  t r a g e d y i s an a c t i o n i n  which a d m i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r and c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n a r e combined; t h e s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l for  the leading All  i s s u e s and e n t a i l s  figure." ^ 7  t r a g i c heroes s u f f e r .  A j a x , A n t i g o n e , and Oedipus  Of the s i x h e r o e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n the Tyrannus  s u f f e r i n g , which ends i n d e a t h or d i s a s t e r . of  suffering  c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o f gods, o r of men,  have t h e most  unrelieved  Whether t h e y a r e t h e v i c t i m s  or are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r  own  24 f a t e s i s unanswerable.^*  I t would be a case o f o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t o  a t t r i b u t e t o t h e hero unmixed p e r f e c t i o n o r t o suppose i s e n t i r e l y a punishment f o r h i s g u i l t . a c c o r d i n g t o Kirkwood,  that h i s s u f f e r i n g  The i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n ,  i s t h a t S o p h o c l e s means u s t o s e e t h a t n e i t h e r a  m a l e v o l e n t d e i t y n o r f a t e , but t h e hero h i m s e l f i s t o a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what happens t o him. i n Oedipus Tyrannus, which  degree  An example i s t h e scene w i t h Creon  i s " a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e b l i n d i n g power o f  72 Oedipus'  impetuousness  and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . "  a r e examples o f Oedipus'  Throughout  the play there  f a u l t s and h i s m a g n i f i c e n c e , n e i t h e r o f which  73 s h o u l d be o v e r l o o k e d .  The c o n c e r n cannot be w i t h the a b s o l u t e p e r f e c t i o n  of t h e h e r o , n o r w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f h i s c r i m e and punishment,  but with  the q u e s t i o n o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s c h a r a c t e r f o r h i s f a t e . an o r a c l e does not remove r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from t h e h e r o . of Oedipus,  Even  In the case  h i s a c t s were " n o t p r e d e s t i n e d , merely p r e d i c t e d .  An  74 essential  distinction."  Kirkwood  b e l i e v e s t h a t Sophocles i s not i n t e n t on emphasizing t h e  hero's m o r a l s h o r t c o m i n g s , but o n l y t h a t some element  of character i n  each p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e c a t a s t r o p h e (e.£. , A j a x ' v i o l e n c e , A n t i g o n e ' s uncompromising  stubbornness).  the t r a g i c hero, t o be brought  I t i s j u s t such an i m p e r f e c t i o n t h a t a l l o w s to l i f e  as a human b e i n g .  the s t a n d a r d human equipment o f emotions  He p o s s e s s e s  and f r a i l t i e s , but more t h a n  the s t a n d a r d d e v o t i o n t o an i d e a l o f conduct.  Although every  Sophoclean  t r a g i c hero encompasses much t h a t i s h e r o i c i n t h e m o r a l sense, he i s still  n o t a hero i n t h e a b s o l u t e sense.  A j a x h a v i n g s e t out t o murder  h i s f e l l o w c h i e f t a i n s i s o b v i o u s l y c u l p a b l e ; Oedipus e x c e s s i v e l y impetuous  i n t h e Tyrannus i s  and s e l f - r e l i a n t ; A n t i g o n e i s h o s t i l e and  comtemptuous i n h e r d i s o b e d i e n c e o f Creon's  edict.  Such  critics  h e r o ' s f a u l t s and nobility,  as. B o w r a a n d W e b s t e r , failing  suggest that  the  tragic  to r e c o g n i z e the e s s e n t i a l v a l u e of h i s  Sophocles wished  modest or t h e gods would extreme  by o v e r s t r e s s i n g  p u n i s h him.  t o show t h a t man  s h o u l d be  Between t h a t v i e w and  of the i m p e c c a b i l i t y of the t r a g i c hero  the other  (Whitman),  Kirkwood  s u g g e s t s a c o m p r o m i s e , w h i c h h e f e e l s i s demanded b y t h e p l a y s .  "The  f a u l t s of the t r a g i c heroes are i n the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e connection w i t h their  s t r e n g t h and n o b i l i t y . " " '  Oedipus,  stubbornness of Antigone are p a r t i a l l y responsible f o r t h e i r  catastrophes, but are a v i t a l p r e s e n t s them, b e c a u s e are  The v i o l e n c e o f A j a x , r a s h n e s s o f  7  p a r t o f t h e i r g r e a t c h a r a c t e r s as  t h e y c o u l d n o t be  without these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  coupledwith h i s courageous The  The  the great figures impetuousness  Sophocles  that  they  of Oedipus  is  i n s i s t e n c e on t r u t h , w h i c h makes him  great.  stubbornness of Antigone i s l i n k e d t o her strength of character i n  her l o y a l t y  to her f a m i l y .  The  d e v o t i o n t o s o l d i e r l y honor.  v i o l e n c e of Ajax i s part of h i s f i r m  "Without  their kind  of hamartia they  would  76 not have t h e i r k i n d of heroism."  S o p h o c l e s was  not i n t e r e s t e d  f l a w l e s s hero, but i n the i n t r i c a t e interdependence of f a u l t  in...a  and  greatness i n the hero. Nevertheless, "tragic not punishment."  7 7  cruelty  and  tragic  suffering i s  the heroes are  of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , although t h e i r  the s u f f e r i n g .  t o the gods,  i s not g u i l t ,  The m i s f o r t u n e s t h a t overwhelm  m o r a l l y d e s e r v e d i n terms does p r e c i p i t a t e  fault  Although the s u f f e r e r s  not  character  sometimes  ascribe  t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e i n S o p h o c l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o  Kirkwood, of the w i l l f u l  infliction  of s u f f e r i n g  by a d e i t y on a  tragic  hero. The  Sophoclean  t r a g i c h e r o e n d u r e s h i s s u f f e r i n g and  s t a t u r e of a moral hero because  o f h i s d e v o t i o n t o an  rises  to the  i d e a l , w h i c h makes  26 him o b l i v i o u s t o t h e a d v i c e and common sense o f h i s f r i e n d s , and s t e a d f a s t a g a i n s t h i s enemies.  Ajax i s l o y a l to the i d e a l of m a r t i a l  h o n o r ; A n t i g o n e , o f l o y a l t y t o h e r f a m i l y and " i n t u i t i v e "  religious  c o n v i c t i o n ; E l e c t r a , of the devotion t o her father; Philoctetes, of the r e f u s a l t o compromise w i t h d i s h o n e s t y and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f Neoptolemus' nobility. of  K i r k w o o d e x p r e s s e s t h i s k i n d o f d e v o t i o n t o an i d e a l i n terms  " n o b i l i t y , " t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e euyevris, a word used by S o p h o c l e s i n  r e f e r e n c e t o one " o f n o b l e b i r t h " and " o f n o b l e n a t u r e " ; i t e x p r e s s e s t h e essence o f heroism. or  Regardless o f the.hero's e x p l i c i t v i n d i c a t i o n i n  a f t e r l i f e , t h e g r e a t n e s s o f t h e euyevris avnp i s r e c o g n i z a b l e i n h i s  person.  K i r k w o o d ' s u s e o f euyevns seems t o be r e l a t e d t o Knox'  emphasis on cpv3aus; t o be euyevns i s i n p a r t a m a t t e r o f one's own n a t u r e . A n t i g o n e t e l l s Ismene t h a t by h e r a t t i t u d e toward t h e b u r i a l o f P o l y n e i c e s she w i l l show: e"x'  euyevns Ttetpuxas eux' ko%\&\> xaxn  P h i l o c t e t e s t e l l s Neoptolemus t h a t euyevris n cpuoxs ( h i s n a t u r e i s n o b l e ) and he i s e£ euyevwv (874, descended When a p p l i e d t o t h e h e r o i c s p i r i t , m o r a l meaning.  from t h o s e o f n o b l e n a t u r e ) .  euyevns has b o t h a p e r s o n a l and a  The g r e a t n e s s o f t h e h e r o ' s d e v o t i o n t o n o b i l i t y shows  t h a t i n h e r o i s m t h e r e e x i s t s an e n d u r i n g v a l u e t h a t s t a n d s f i r m i n s p i t e 78 of  s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h .  T h i s i s made c l e a r by S o p h o c l e s ' way o f  c o n t r a s t i n g t h e h e r o i c w i t h t h e u n h e r o i c — O e d i p u s w i t h Creon, Antigone w i t h Creon and Ismene, A j a x w i t h Odysseus. VII.  Lesky  The h e r o e s have s o u l s tormented by t h e f u l l n e s s o f t h e i r knowledge of what t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n means. of  A c c o r d i n g t o A. L e s k y , t h e r e s u l t  t h i s i s t h a t " i n t h e i r a c t s t h e y do n o t show t h e c a l m wisdom o f  27  Odysseus,  the very  excess  of their energy makes  them collide with  the  u n f o r e s e e a b l e ;i t t h r o w s t h e i r l i v e s i n t o a c o n f u s i o n f r o m w h i c h o n l y 79  death  can  releas  individual  them."  A summary of Lesky's  Sophoclean heroes  views  as applied  to  follows.  For a character such as Ajax, who recognizes that his honor has suffered proclaims  the deepest in his  is no middle  humiliation,  first  way  speech after having  regained  between a great  and  for him  oux av  xov  believes, alien  euyevfj XPH  and  the quarrel  hold  reconciliation although  is ended.  a deeper  significance,  to which  are impossible  he is dead, Ajax has  Through  beyond  of  serenity,  the middle  resolved.  of the play;  In both  cases  Just as the only path his  character,  his death, Ajax  his  their conflict uncompromising  calculate temptation  and  catastrophe  the Antigone  the disturbed  open  "conjures  that cannot  of Antigone  up the  determination, not  his  with  concludes  place a  regains  not  far  conflict  its  equilibrium.  Antigone.  the comparison  to evade  rights  The Ajax  taken  finishes  him.  gained his  has restored  having  world-order  for  behavior  to Ajax is the one irrevocably determined by  so it is for  In the Antigone from  the hero's  Lesky  surveys modes of possible  honor and equilibrium, which his action had disturbed. on a note  death,  (H77-480).  it can only be that the hero  By the end of the play,  a great  that, there  n MC*X&S x e ^ v n M e v a u  deception-speech  to his nature,  sanity  e A i t t a t v d e p y a J v e x a u .  n xaXGs Cnv  If the words of his  life  his  Ajax  ou6evos Xdyou (3pox53v  Kpuatunv  OOTLS MEVauauv  aXX  no escape exists but death.  only  and  Ismene  image of the Sophoclean  for whom a readiness  resulting hero,  to 'bargain*  with to  act as a foil but may even appear as 80 lure him." The result of that determination  the is  28 t h a t Ismene t u r n s away from A n t i g o n e , l e a v i n g h e r i n t h e l o n e l i n e s s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e Sophoclean h e r o . remains i n t h e background o f t h e p l a y .  81  Haemon, A n t i g o n e ' s b e t r o t h e d ,  There i s no scene i n which  appear t o g e t h e r on s t a g e , not o n l y because such a scene would  they  be  i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h A n t i g o n e ' s l o n e l i n e s s , but a l s o because, a c c o r d i n g t o L e s k y , t h e r e i s "no p l a c e f o r E r o s as a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n  82 Sophoclean t r a g e d y . "  T h e r e f o r e , when Haemon e v e n t u a l l y speaks out  because of h i s l o v e f o r A n t i g o n e , he does not m e n t i o n t h i s  love.  I n t h e Oedipus Tyrannus t h e t r a g i c h e r o s t a n d s out a g a i n s t a background  o f t h o s e who  y i e l d or a v o i d a d e c i s i v e c h o i c e .  d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t an overwhelming a g r e a t human b e i n g remains i n t a c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Oedipus  His absolute  power, but t h e d i g n i t y o f  i n him even i n d e f e a t .  The main  ( l i k e t h a t o f A j a x , A n t i g o n e , and E l e c t r a ) i s  h i s s u p e r l a t i v e energy and unbending r e s o l v e i n a c t i o n .  It i s possible  f o r him t o a v o i d the f a t e t h a t c l o s e s i n around him, but he cannot because i t would  be a f e e b l e compromise made f o r t h e sake o f token-peace  and f o r mere e x i s t e n c e ; such an a c c e p t a n c e i s the one t h i n g t h e t r a g i c finds impossible.  hero  Oedipus becomes a h e r o because h i s w i l l i s i n e x o r a b l e ,  even when i t l e a d s t o d e s t r u c t i o n . t h e t r u t h had remained h i d d e n .  I t i s u n t h i n k a b l e f o r him t o w i s h  G r e a t t r a g i c f i g u r e s t a k e up  their  f i g h t because t h e i r c o n c e r n i s f o r human d i g n i t y , not mere e x i s t e n c e . Average p e r s o n s who  want t o be s e c u r e and s t a y a l i v e a r e by t h e i r  as embodiments o f t e m p t a t i o n .  sides  Tecmessa i s by the s i d e o f A j a x , Ismene by  A n t i g o n e , C h r y s o t h e m i s by E l e c t r a , and J o c a s t a by Oedipus. In L e s k y ' s view, the t r a g i c hero i n Sophocles i s s u b j e c t e d t o terrible  tensions.  He must r e l y on h i s own  i n n e r s t r e n g t h , because i t  83 a l o n e a l l o w s him to t a k e up the f i g h t a g a i n s t " t h e powers o f  life."  He i s d e p i c t e d by S o p h o c l e s as a f i g u r e e n t i r e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ;  whatever  29  he does i s prompted  e n t i r e l y by h i s own w i l l , a l t h o u g h t h e outcome remains  outside of h i s control. E l e c t r a w i t h h e r awareness o f the d i s g r a c e o f her house and w i t h her  demand f o r revenge i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the compromising  who,  Chrysothemis  a l t h o u g h she knows the meaning o f a b s o l u t e i n t e g r i t y , i s i n c a p a b l e  of  individual action.  Chrysothemis  to  p e r f o r m the a c t o f revenge h e r s e l f , as does Ismene's from A n t i g o n e ,  1  withdrawal a f t e r E l e c t r a ' s  throws E l e c t r a ' s l o n e l i n e s s i n t o r e l i e f .  decision  The f e e l i n g s , t h o u g h t s , and  p l a n s o f E l e c t r a , as t h e main f i g u r e i n the drama, a r e t h e f o c u s o f the  play's events.  liberation  The p r o g r e s s o f h e r s o u l from a n g u i s h and d e s p a i r t o  i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the drama.  Lesky quotes two  f o r m u l a s t h a t attempt  to f i n d a mid-point  between the extreme views o f Sophoclean f i g u r e s as ' t y p e s ' and ' c h a r a c t e r s , ' t o f i n d a compromise betweenwhat he d i s m i s s e s as type  character p o r t r a i t s '  'mosaic-  and the view' t h a t Sophoclean heroes have no  84 characters at a l l .  At t h i s p o i n t i t w i l l be u s e f u l to r e t u r n t o Knox  and thus to complete the s m a l l c i r c l e  o f o p i n i o n s on t h e Sophoclean  hero t h a t have been mentioned  Knox f e e l s t h a t t h e s e two  do not s u f f i c e , of  above.  t h a t they l e a v e l i t t l e  p a r t i c u l a r i t y , o f u n i q u e n e s s , which  s o u r c e of t h e h e r o i c w i l l  It  i s because of t h i s  formulas  place f o r "that i r r e d u c i b l e center i n the l a s t  t o d e f y the w o r l d . "  analysis...is  the o n l y  85  i d e a of p a r t i c u l a r i t y and uniqueness t h a t ,  just  as no one c r i t i c ' s view can be c o n s i d e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y , a g e n e r a l p o r t r a i t of the  the hero as has been p r e s e n t e d here cannot be the e x c l u s i v e g u i d e f o r p r e s e n t assessment  o f the hero i n the T r a c h i n i a e .  D e i a n e i r a and  H e r a c l e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o themselves and each o t h e r , as w e l l as i n r e l a t i o n to the models o f t h e Sophoclean h e r o t h a t have been presented i n t h i s chapter.  3d  NOTES —  CHAPTER  ONE  J . C. Kamerbeek, The T r a c h i n i a e , i n c l u d e d i n The P l a y s o f S o p h o c l e s , P a r t I I , ( L e i d e n , 1959)  F. R.  27-29.  E a r p , The  C o n t r a M.  S t y l e o f Sophocles  Pohlenz, Erlauterungen  (New  York,  1944)  79,  108.  ( G b t t i n g e n , 1954)  86;  A.Lesky,  T r a g i s c h e D i c h t u n g der H e l l e n e n ( S t u t t g a r t , 1956)  119;  S o p h o c l e s , A study of H e r o i c Humanism (Harvard, 1951)  Kamerbeek,  "Only one Oedipus  Die  C e d r i c H. Whitman, 49.  29.  t h i n g i s c e r t a i n , and  Rex  that  i s that the superb mastery  cannot have preceded t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l T r a c h i n i a e .  therefore, that  the T r a c h i n i a e stands t h i r d  of the I t remains,  i n the o r d e r o f e x t a n t p l a y s "  (Whitman, 49).  G. M.  Kirkwood,  A Study o f Sophoclean Drama ( I t h a c a , 1958)  170.  Those a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h these views c o u l d proceed d i r e c t l y chapter  to  two.  P o e t i c s 1452b.  T r a n s l a t i o n s a r e by R i c h a r d McKeon, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r i s t o t l e (New York, 1947).  P o e t i c s 1453b.  A l t h o u g h t h i s passage  h e r o , i t may  does not d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h the  be u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g or v e r i f y i n g the h e r o .  For i n s t a n c e ,  one does not f e e l p i t y and h o r r o r f o r Creon or C l y t e m n e s t r a as one does f o r A n t i g o n e or  Bernard M.  W.  (Berkeley,  1964)  Electra.  Knox, The H e r o i c Temper S t u d i e s i n Sophoclean 1.  Tragedy  31 1 1  Whitman,  39.  12 Whitman, 39.  According  to him,  l i v e f o r c e n t u r i e s presented sphere e v i l c o u l d be and  ^  Knox, 3.  1 4  Knox, The  s t i l l was  as e v i d e n c e d by  1026;  Knox, 2. created The  did  irrational"  Th.  770,  title  (p.  39).  q u a r t e r o f the  t h e i r appearance i n A r i s t o p h a n e s  fifth  (e_.£., Ra.  f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t  by the t i t l e s o f A e s c h y l u s '  seven extant  impression  plays, including  Prometheus Bound. In h i s e n s u i n g development  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sophoclean h e r o , Knox b l i t h e l y i g n o r e s Trachiniae. determining  H i s mold of the hero w i l l  however, may  be  either Deianeira  (he i s not  or H e r a c l e s ) .  because Knox o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e s t h a t the T r a c h i n i a e does not " t y p i c a l - c h a r a c t e r " mold t h a t he d e v e l o p s .  that Heracles  i s the hero.  to the e v e n t u a l  Knox,  7.  I t may  Trachiniae  f i t into  the  be noted, however, t h a t  seems to be based on the  (Page 4:  basing Its  tempered when i t i s a p p l i e d to the  Knox' e x c l u s i o n o f the T r a c h i n i a e  the  t h e r e f o r e be v e r y u s e f u l here f o r  an o b j e c t i v e measure f o r the T r a c h i n i a e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the h e r o on usefulness,  53,  850).  C f . Knox 2, 44  Agamemnon and  i n the l a s t  Knox' view- forms the b a s i s of t h i s c h a p t e r .  1 7  not  7.  century,  ^  f a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l who  a s p e c t a c l e o f s u f f e r i n g w i t h i n whose  p l a y s were i d e n t i f i a b l e by  1021,  "the  assumption  " t h e T r a c h i n i a e makes no  reference  d e i f i c a t i o n of the t o r t u r e d , p o i s o n e d hero...."}  32  18 T h i s seems t o be q u i t e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i d e a o f t h e h e r o ' s  isolation.  B e i n g i s o l a t e d , h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n s and c o n v i c t i o n s o r i g i n a t e n o t but i n t e r n a l l y ,  externally,  an h i s i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e o r p h y s i s .  19 F o r A j a x ' e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s r e s o l v e t o d i e see ^nxnxEa ( 4 7 0 ) , HaA&s TeSvnxevaL (479-480), (690), apKxeov  reda^Exau  ( 5 7 7 ) , efcyo ( 6 5 4 ) , e l u ' . . .  OUOL  nopeuxeov  (853).  F o r A n t i g o n e ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r r e s o l v e to a c t see ftcf^a) ( 7 2 ) , xaAdv... SavEtv  ( 7 2 ) , MEtaouai, ( 7 6 ) , Tiopeuaoyau  F o r Oedipus  Tyrannus'  (81).  expression of h i s determination to d i s c o v e r  t r u t h see cpavto ( 1 3 2 ) , ouw  the  a v u L ^ o L y n v (1065) dpxxeov ( 6 2 8 ) , dxouaxeov  F o r E l e c t r a ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r a f f i r m a t i o n o f her l o y a l t y see ou AriCw (103),ou oxnato ( 2 2 3 ) , E u a e u y a u a v a i  to her  (817-819),  (1170).  father  SpaafEOV (1019).  F o r P h i l o c t e t e s e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s r e f u s a l to go t o T r o y see ou6euoTE ye (999),  OUOE'TCOX'  F o r Oedipus  OU6EIT:OT'  (1197), ou6e'uod' (1392).  C o l o n e u s ' e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s r e s o l v e t o be f r e e f r o m t h e Thebans  see oux.-.Sv cE,cX%o^\i'  (45),  OUX...UT)  xpaxTiawauv (408).  20 Tecmessa a p p e a l s to A j a x Chrysothemis  (Auaaoyat  appeals to E l e c t r a  uxvouyau  588);  (Aujooyau 428, dvxLaCu) 1009);  J o c a s t a a p p e a l s t o Oedipus Tyrannus P o l y n e i c e s a p p e a l s t o Oedipus  368, dvxud^a) 492,  ( A t a a o y a t , yn.6pav x d 6 E  Coloneus  (LxEXEUoysv  1064);  1327).  21 napauvw  ( a d v i c e ) and  VOU^ETW  (admonition) a r e t h e words used t o d e s c r i b e  the attempts made t o move the hero. Tecmessa says to A j a x au 6'oux* the same words t o E l e c t r a  (402).  TIE tan;  (592).  Chrysothemis  says  exactly  A n t i g o n e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s dituaxouaav  (381)  23 The  chorus says to E l e c t r a ,  " I f you c o u l d l e a r n t o b e n e f i t  from h e r words"  (ud$oLs370).Jocasta t e l l s Oedipus to l i s t e n to her and learn (pad* 708). 24  euxeuv occurs i n a l l s i x plays, i n the context of an attack on the hero's resolution.  I t s use to characterize the demand made on the hero i s  almost e x c l u s i v e l y Sophoclean. 25 Ajax t e l l s Tecmessa to "Speak to those who would l i s t e n to you" (TOUS axououauv 591).  Chrysothemis says she "must l i s t e n to the powers that  be i n everything" (axouaTea 340). xAdei,v,axodeuv i n Sophocles often have the sense of being subject to authority, or obeying action, something that the heroic nature w i l l not admit. 26 Oedipus Tyrannus says, "Who would not be angry l i s t e n i n g to such words?" (xA-u'wv 340). enemy (xAuoou*  Philoctetes would sooner l i s t e n to the serpent, h i s mortal 632), than to Odysseus.  27 Ajax t e l l s Tecmessa to get out and c a l l s her a f o o l .  Antigone harshly  dismisses Ismene ("Don't fear f o r me; make a success of your own l i f e " 83).  E l e c t r a t e l l s Chrysothemis that she hates her f o r her cowardice  (aTuy5 .1027). 28  » The word 6 p y n i n the sense of "anger" i s frequently used i n reference to the  heroes.  29 Not only i s the hero's temper avous and acppojv, but most of the heroes themselves are referred to i n words that i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y compare them to wild animals. 30  Creon at Colonus says to Oedipus, "Not even time, i t seems, has grown brains i n your head" (ou6e xij> xpovco 804).  Chrysothemis says to E l e c t r a ,  34 "You  r e f u s e t o be  6u6ax§rivaL  330).  taught by the p a s s i n g o f t i m e " (kv  uaxptj)  A j a x b e g i n s h i s " d e c e p t i o n - s p e e c h " by s a y i n g " A l l  t h i n g s l o n g uncounted from l i g h t "  xpovy  time b r i n g s f o r t h from d a r k n e s s and h i d e s a g a i n  (6 uaxpbs..-xpdvos  646).  31 Knox,  28.  32 P h i l o c t e t e s says t h a t  » the A t r i d a e threw him a s h o r e axuyov  A j a x s a y s t h a t he p e r i s h e s axLuos  (1028).  (440). Oedipus C o l o n e u s c l a i m s he  was  e x p e l l e d from Thebes ouxwg dxuy^s (428). 33 Philoctetes and  f o r Odysseus  enemies' 367).  4  Knox,  1125).  A j a x i s tormented o f h i s attempt  by  on them  (yeXtoot 1153).  See a l s o A n t . 839,  and O.T.  (yeAwai,  258)  the thought o f h i s (oCyot yeAwxos  E l e c t r a l i k e w i s e i s tormented by the thought o f her  enemies'  1422.  32.  35 Perhaps 36  (ycXqt you  l a u g h t e r a t the f a i l u r e  laughter 3  t h i n k s he i s the l a u g h i n g s t o c k f o r t h e A t r i d a e  i t would  be more a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t he abandons the  P h i l o c t e t e s speaks t o t h e i s l a n d  (938 and  gods.  1081); A j a x a d d r e s s e s h i s l a s t  words to the sun, t h e l i g h t , A t h e n s , and v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e T r o j a n landscape Oedipus  (864); E l e c t r a  Tyrannus  speaks  s i n g s her mourning to Mount C i t h a i r o n  song t o t h e elements  (86);  (1391); A n t i g o n e a d d r e s s e s t h e  tomb i n t h e r o c k (891).  3  7  C f . Aj_. 361, Ant.  38  72,  462,  387, 555;  394, Q.T.  479,  684,  832,  822,  1255,  854;  1451;  Electra  Phil.  749,  821, 796,  822, 800,  1165; 1001,  I t can a l s o be s a i d o f t h e h e r o ' s i s o l a t i o n from the w o r l d o f men i s caused a t l e a s t  as much by  1207.  that i t  the h e r o ' s abandonment o f s o c i e t y as by  35 s o c i e t v ' s abandonment o f t h e hero.  39  Knox, 43.  Knox, 44.  41 Knox, 50.  42 C f . Knox 56, 57 i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i f e and h e r o - c u l t  o f Cleomedes.  43 M a r t i n N i l s s o n , A H i s t o r y o f Greek R e l i g i o n , 194; a s c i t e d by Knox, 175,  n o t e 84.  44 According  t o N i l s s o n , t h e c l a i m o f t h e c u l t h e r o i s an e x p r e s s i o n  naked power and s t r e n g t h  and has no r e l a t i o n  to moral or higher  of religious  ideas. 4 5  46  47  P l . Ap_. 41b.  Cedric  H. Whitman, S o p h o c l e s , A Study o f H e r o i c  Humanism  ( H a r v a r d , 1951).  Whitman, 81.  48 " A t t e n t i o n must be f o c u s e d  not on t h e c h o r u s , which embodies t h e  framework, but on t h e hero h i m s e l f "  (Whitman, 16).  49 This position whoever hybris  i s contrary  to t h e b e l i e f  ( i . e_. , t h e hero) c r o s s e s (the opposite  Whitman c o n s i d e r s According  certain  that  t h e gods a r e j u s t  and that  l i m i t s of behavior i s g u i l t y of  o f sophrosyne) and i s j u s t l y doomed, a b e l i e f  t o be almost w h o l l y u n t r a g i c ,  t o Whitman, t h e c o n c l u s i o n  that  i f not wholly untrue.  i s o f t e n reached that  the protagonist  i s g u i l t y o f d i f f e r i n g w i t h t h e gods because he d i f f e r s w i t h t h e c h o r u s .  36 5  Ant.  0  471,  O.T.  121-126. for  616,  1045,  Aj_. 481-484, E l . 217-220, a l s o T r a c h .  (The c h o r u s i s sympathetic  her i n a b i l i t y  Antigone  Phil.  t o D e i a n e i r a , but s t i l l rebukes  her  t o bear h e r l o n e l i n e s s more h o p e f u l l y . )  i s p u n i s h e d , E l e c t r a triumphs; A j a x d i e s , P h i l o c t e t e s i s  d i v i n e l y e n l i g h t e n e d ; f o r h e r g e n t l e r e s i s t a n c e D e i a n e i r a meets an ignominious f a t e ; the r a s h , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c up  t o heaven (not any more  Oedipus  i s eventually  taken  subdued).  52 For  Oedipus  mother.  the e r r o r o c c u r r e d when he slew h i s f a t h e r and m a r r i e d h i s  He was  i n n o c e n t i n t h a t he a c t e d i n i g n o r a n c e ; he was  t h a t he d i d t h e s e  wrong i n  things.  53 whitman, 37. fits  "The  the c r i t i c  h a m a r t i a t h e o r y may  b e t t e r than i t f i t s  take many forms, but i t always  the p l a y . "  54 Whitman,  5  5  R e  P-  392al3-b6.  Whitman, 57 58  C. M. It and  35.  AO.  Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy  seems more l i k e l y  ( O x f o r d , 1945)  365.  t h a t t h e hero knows h i m s e l f b e f o r e h i s s u f f e r i n g s ,  t h a t knowledge a l l o w s and  even causes the hero t o endure h i s s u f f e r i n g s .  Knox, 5•  ^  Whitman (24) c r i t i c i z e s the sin-and-punishment  Schadewaldt's  p o s i t i o n because  i t incorporates  f o r m u l a and t h e n o t i o n o f t h e t r a g i c f l a w .  T. B. L. Webster, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Sophocles  ( O x f o r d , 1936).  I t should  37 be n o t e d t h a t Webster's use o f t h e word p h y s i s i s perhaps r a t h e r more g e n e r a l than i s Knox'.  ^  Webster,  63.  63 My  p u r p o s e h e r e i s not t o deny a c l a i m l i k e Kirkwood's  S o p h o c l e s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o r a l and sometimes but  (10) , t h a t  religious  problems,  t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e gods a r e o f t e n j u s t t h a t — a p r o b l e m f o r t h e  hero. the  The h e r o ' s r e a l duty i s t o h i m s e l f and h i s p h y s i s .  gods can e x i s t  H i s duty to  o n l y t o t h e degree t h a t t h e gods a r e p r e s e n t w i t h i n him.  64  6  6  ^ 6  8  Webster,  64.  Webster,  65.  G. H.  G e l l i e , Sophocles:  Kirkwood,  A Reading  (Melbourne 1972)  208.  11.  C. R. P o s t , "The Dramatic A r t of S o p h o c l e s , "  HSCP 23 (1912) 71-127.  69  7  Kirkwood,  10.  ^ Kirkwood,  16.  I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned b e l i e v e s t h a t the s u f f e r i n g from the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  72 73 Kirkwood, My  172. q u e s t i o n i s whether  separated.  t h a t Whitman, i n h i s i d e a l i z e d  view,  r e s u l t s not from t h e f a u l t s o f t h e h e r o , b u t  of h i s e x c e l l e n c e w i t h the w o r l d about  him.  the f a u l t s and m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h e h e r o can be  38 74  B e r n a r d Knox, " S o p h o c l e s ' O e d i p u s , " i n c l u d e d Western L i t e r a t u r e (New  Kirkwood,  175.  7  6  Kirkwood,  175.  7  7  Kirkwood,  176.  i n T r a g i c Themes i n  Haven, 1955), e d i t e d by C l e a n t h Brooks,  22.  78 Perhaps  i t s t a n d s f i r m because o f s u f f e r i n g and  death?  79 A l b i n L e s k y , Greek Tragedy,  t r a n s l a t e d by H. A. F r a n k f o r t  (New Y o r k ,  1965)  101. 8  0  Lesky,  104.  81 "...and 82  83  a l l great  Lesky,  104.  Lesky,  117.  things  i n the w o r l d , " Lesky adds (104).  84 In r e l a t i o n t o Sophoclean c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n he quotes W i l h e l m Humbolt, who  b e l i e v e s t h a t not the i n d i v i d u a l but the human b e i n g i s to appear,  he i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the s i m p l e t r a i t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . quotes G e r b e r t C y s a r z , who  b e l i e v e s that  Lesky a l s o  Sophoclean c h a r a c t e r s  have  p e r s o n a l i t y , not j u s t i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and they h o l d t o the norm i n s t e a d o f the e c c e n t r i c . Knox,  37.  and  39  CHAPTER  TWO  DEIANEIRA  The  r o l e o f D e i a n e i r a , who  o f the p l a y , w i l l now  be  c e r t a i n l y dominates the  analyzed.  Deianeira w i l l  first  946  be c o n s i d e r e d  o f the models o f the Sophoclean hero t h a t Were g i v e n i n c h a p t e r e a c h case  the aptness  o f the model w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and  I.  Aristotle's h e r o be  judgment" and  not by v i c e and  t h a t the hero h i m s e l f be  enjoyment o f g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n and misfortune  o f the  " o f the number of those  prosperity."*  Deianeira's  and  xotHUX or u o x Q n p u a  nai  i n her c h a r a c t e r .  Whether  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f D e i a n e i r a o r not  others  as p o s s e s s i n g ,  she  tragic  i n the  final  yeydXn od^a  i s perhaps n o t  is entitled  t o , and  " g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n and  sending not by  so c l e a r .  As  prosperity."  It is these  b l e s s i n g s ; she  i n her v a r i o u s w o r r i e s  and woes.  two  o p e n i n g monologue, D e i a n e i r a v o i c e s among her many a n x i e t i e s :  Xexos yap ^uoxaa' deu  T L V '  ex  xeuvou TtpOHnpauvouaa  'HpaxAeu xpuxov  cpdgou (pdBov (27-29).  Tpecpu),  the  i s s u r e l y seen by  sees h e r s e l f as h a v i n g  seems too e n t a n g l e d  any  CUTUX^CI  q u e s t i o n a b l e , however, whether she  her  In  d e p r a v i t y but by some e r r o r o f  appears to be caused t o t a l l y by her misjudgment i n  "best o f men,"  one.  criticized.  the robe a n o i n t e d w i t h Nessus' " l o v e p h i l t r e " to H e r a c l e s  w i f e of the  in light  Aristotle  " s y n t h e s i s " r e q u i r e s t h a t the m i s f o r t u n e  "brought upon him  lines  In  40 Chosen as the b r i d e  for Heracles  and b e i n g j o i n e d w i t h him, I c o n t i n u a l l y n u r s e f e a r  after  fear,  b e i n g a n x i o u s f o r him. D e s p i t e the unhappiness o f D e i a n e i r a ' s o u t l o o k , which b e g i n s i n the p r o l o g u e , her r o l e requirement that  i n the p l a y s t i l l ,  i n fact,  fits  into  Aristotle's  the h e r o ' s f o r t u n e s change from h a p p i n e s s t o m i s e r y .  Nowhere i s t h i s  p o i n t more c l e a r l y made than i n D e i a n e i r a ' s o p e n i n g l i n e s  and the c l o s i n g  l i n e s o f the Nurse's speech d e s c r i b i n g her d e a t h .  Significantly,  these  two passages frame D e i a n e i r a ' s appearance as  central  f i g u r e i n the p l a y . Adyos yev COT' dpxotLOs dvdpuitwv cpaveug us oux av auJLJv' ExyddoLS 3POTUV, itpuv av %dvr\  T L S , OUT'  Eyu 6e xov  EL XP^OTOS OUT' E L TU xaxds  eydv,  xa\,  upuv  E?OL6' Exouaa 6uaTuxn A s a y i n g was  ELS "AL6OU UOXELV,  T E xaY  disclosed  gapuv  (1-5).  l o n g ago  t h a t you cannot know a man's l o t i n l i f e b e f o r e he has d i e d , not whether i t i s good o r bad. But I  even b e f o r e I've come to Death's house, know w e l l  t h a t mine i s heavy and  TOuavJTa xdv§d6 * EOTLV.  UOT'  sorrowful.  EL TLS 6UO  n xd'xL HXELOUS nyspots XoyL^ETaL, yaTaLOs EOTLV- uplv  OU yap E O 9 '  EU itapri T L S i n v  T h i s i s the way c o u n t s upon  rapouaav  aupLov, fiyepav  t h i n g s are w i t h i n .  (94-3-9M-6).  I f anyone  two days or even more,  he i s t h o u g h t l e s s . u n t i l we  n y'  F o r there can be no  have o v e r t a k e n the day that  tomorrow  i s w i t h us  still.  D e i a n e i r a , even i n the m i d s t o f her i n i t i a l yet  to l e a r n the t r u e bounds o f her f i n a l u n h a p p i n e s s .  unhappiness  i s p o s s i b l e o n l y because  and because  o f her l o v e o f him.  eudv, Mat T t p t v  her  suffer.  and, when she c l a i m s eyw  her 6e  6uaxv>xTis and gapus i s the f a t e she has y e t  F i r s t , she l o s e s hope i n H e r a c l e s ' l o v e o f h e r , which l e a d s Then, by u s i n g the  she l o s e s H e r a c l e s and a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o v e r i n g h i s l o v e .  However, b e f o r e she she has heeded  "knows her l i f e "  and has  the words o f the Chorus  "come to Death's  dvaXynxa udvxa  o  ETieBaAe  Svarois  Kpovt6as  rcnua  uaat  KUxAouatv,  Mat  MTOU a x p o q ) a 6 e s  x P a  otov  lines.  01)6'  BaatAeus  ent  Not  yap  xpatvwv  dAA'  house,"  i n the parodos, and t h e s e words  m i t i g a t e somewhat the t o t a l pessimism o f her o p e n i n g  a  dp-  KeAeuSot  (126-131).  a painless l o t  has the a l l - a c c o m p l i s h i n g K i n g , the  son o f Cronos, d i s p e n s e d f o r m o r t a l  But g r i e f like  the  tracks o f By the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s is  men.  and j o y come c i r c l i n g t o a l l , turning the Bear.  a d d r e s s e d to H y l l u s , D e i a n e i r a i n d i c a t e s  that  a d m i t t i n g to h e r s e l f the h a p p i n e s s or p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a p p i n e s s  remains  xov  e£ot6' e'xouoa Suaxuxn r e Mat gapdv,  t o the d e s p e r a t e s t r a t e g y o f the l o v e - p h i l t r e .  philtre,  initial  T h i s j o y , a l t h o u g h i t produces  e t s "At6oo uoAetv,  she speaks i n i g n o r a n c e o f how  Her  she p o s s e s s e s a g r e a t j o y , H e r a c l e s ,  u n h a p p i n e s s , i s the s o u r c e o f her l i f e ,  to  h e a v y - h e a r t e d n e s s , has  i n her l i f e .  She  sees her l i f e  as xpnaxds to a d e g r e e ,  she  that  instead  42 o f t o t a l l y HOMOS' MOIL yap u a x e p u , TO* y ' eu npdaaeuv  ETIEL nudoLTO, MEp6os EyitoAcji  One may g a i n in  advantage  l e a r n i n g good news, even i f one l e a r n s i t l a t e ,  Deianeira, albeit herself  (92-93).  hesitantly  t o a much more p o s i t i v e  her f o r t u n e s t o f a l l ,  ( c f . 1 1 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 7 , 192), r a i s e s  l e v e l o f h a p p i n e s s , which does a l l o w f o r  i n A r i s t o t l e ' s words, E £ EUTUXLOS £LS ouoruxuxv.  u> Z E U , x b v OLTXIS axoyov o s AsLycov' ESUMOS fiytv aAAot auv X P °  V U  E'XELS,  xapav.  qXiiVTiaax' , w yuvaLMES, ot L. T' ELOUJ axEyns  au T ' EMXOS auAns, ws SEATITOV o y y ' i]io\ cpnyns d v a a x o v T?}a6E VUV xapnouys$a. 0 Zeus, you who h o l d  3 ( 200-204).  power over the u n h a r v e s t e d meadows  o f O e t a , though i t has been  l o n g , you have g i v e n us j o y .  Cry o u t , 0 you women who are w i t h i n  the house  and you who are w i t h o u t s i n c e now we r e a p t h e f r u i t s o f the unhoped She  a l s o becomes f o r a s h o r t  desiring  t o be t o l d  f o r and e x a l t e d period  o n l y what w i l l  XCILPELV  selective  s u n s h i n e o f t h i s news. i n h e r a c c e p t a n c e o f news,  support her happiness.  6E XOV M^pUMa TtpOUVVE'TCU), XPO^V  TioAAiJi cpavEVxa, xotpxov EL TU MOLL cpspELS  (227-228).  1 p r o c l a i m our welcome t o the h e r a l d , a p p e a r i n g a long t i m e - - i f Aristotle in  allows  that  after  the news i s g l a d d e n i n g .  the d o e r s o f the t r a g i c  deed  (i.e_. , the heroes  a p l a y may a c t ELSO'TOIS x a l yLyvwaMovxas o r dyvoouvxas 6E upa^aL  TO 6ELVOV, of t h i s  CZ%' uaxepov dvayvaipLortL x n v cpLAuxv  A l t h o u g h h i s example  i s S o p h o c l e s ' O e d i p u s , D e i a n e i r a and h e r deed seem t o f i t  this  A3 characteristic is  as w e l l , s i n c e she  committing.  Aristotle  too i s i g n o r a n t o f the e v i l  deed  she  a l s o mentions the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h a r a c t e r  a c t i n g i n ignorance  making the n e c e s s a r y  D e i a n e i r a makes her  d i s c o v e r y , o n l y she  d i s c o v e r y i n time to draw back. i s not  i n time to draw back.  D e i a n e i r a a c t u a l l y i s i n what A r i s t o t l e  (1454a) r e f e r s to as the b e t t e r  s i t u a t i o n , t h a t i s , " f o r the deed to be  done i n i g n o r a n c e ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p discovered "since there astound  afterwards."  the  I t i s b e t t e r than a m e d i t a t e d  i s n o t h i n g o d i o u s i n i t , and  the D i s c o v e r y w i l l  serve  deed, to  us."  II.  A l t h o u g h Knox does n o t model o f the to  and  Knox  consider  Sophoclean h e r o , he  appears to a t t r i b u t e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  h i s model t h a t do i n f a c t apply  "a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c i n g the  the T r a c h i n i a e i n e x t a b l i s h i n g h i s  to D e i a n e i r a .  Deianeira certainly i s  supreme c r i s i s o f h i s [her]  life""'  and  6 is  "a h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a l whose a c t i o n i m p l i e s f u l l  D e i a n e i r a has full her  s u f f e r e d the  responsibility confidence  loss of Heracles'  f o r the use  (7t LOT L. S, 590)  d i s c o v e r s t h a t she  has  o f the  love  responsibility." ( c f . 5 4 4 f f . ) and  love-philtre.  She  places trust i n  when she uses the p h i l t r e , and,  a c t e d wrongly, she  takes  full  takes  when  she  responsibility  (719-722). According isolated  and e x p e r i e n c e s  She  is isolated  her  past  we  to Knox, the Sophoclean hero i s i s o l a t e d .  and  by  her  have o f her  the v a r i o u s  time and  present  space.  are one  and  types  There i s no the  l i f e , when A c h e l o u s was  t h a t she wanted d e a t h .  of i s o l a t i o n  same.  past  Deianeira i s t h a t he  to guide h e r ,  In the e a r l i e s t  wooing h e r ,  mentions,  she was  because  glimpses  so unhappy  44 6uaxnvos d e l xaxSaveuv  eTCnuxo'ynv,  Ttpuv T?ia6e xouxns eyueXaaSrivaC* noxe And  (16-17).  i n my unhappiness I c o n s t a n t l y prayed f o r death  b e f o r e I s h o u l d ever approach h i s {Achelous"]  marriage  bed.  I n c o n t r a s t , c o n s i d e r her s t a t e m e n t : Xpo'vcp 6 '  6  £v uaxepw uev, dayevn 6e  xXeuvos J\X%e Znvos "AXxyrivns  T  you,  (18-19).  ^ats  e  But, a f t e r a time, to my h a p p i n e s s t h e r e came the famous son o f Alcmene and  Zeus.  However, even t h i s does n o t i n d i c a t e a b e g i n n i n g o f r e a l and time f o r h e r .  She  knowledgable  c l o s e s her eyes to the combat between A c h e l o u s  and  H e r a c l e s , thus l e a v i n g t h a t time as an emptiness. She cannot speak o f the manner o f t h e i r  s t r u g g l e s because  ("I do not know," 22).  she does n o t know them,  ou yap  oZb'  The b e g i n n i n g o f time f o r D e i a n e i r a i n h e r  i s when xeXos 6' e§nxe Zeus dywvuos xaXcos, / ei  6n xaXtos  ("Zeus p r e s i d i n g  over the c o n t e s t made the end g o o d - - i f i t has been good," 26-27). as D e i a n e i r a has no p a s t by which w i t h which  to comfort h e r s e l f .  maidenhood^ and  to guide h e r s e l f , she has no  took on the t r o u b l e s and c a r e s o f m a r r i e d l i f e ,  i f she would  Her  s u c c e s s i o n o f s u f f e r i n g s t h a t plague h e r .  and  she  No  the e n d l e s s  l o v e , however, e x i s t s  8  Deianeira i s isolated Ttpos dXXots  future  l o v e o f H e r a c l e s i s the cause o f her  r e l e a s e t h a t l o v e , she might escape  f o r her w i t h o u t H e r a c l e s .  Just  Time began f o r her when she gave up her  can never r e t u r n to maidenhood. isolation;  isolati<  from H e r a c l e s i n time  (aXX* f"6n 6exa  / yrivas  itevx' dxnpuxxos ye'veu, "but a l r e a d y ten months i n a d d i t i o n to  f i v e o t h e r s and s t i l l  there i s no message from him," 44-45) and i n space  (Heracles i s l i k e  a ytfTriS  working a d i s t a n t  f i e l d , " 32; a l s o  OTMS  dpoopotv  EXXOTIOV  XELVOS  Xagwv  , "a farmer  6' ouou / 3e*3nxev ou&ets ou6e,  45 "no  one  knows where he has  gone," 40-41).  She  .as a r e s u l t o f H e r a c l e s ' k i l l i n g o f I p h i t u s : avdaxaxot/£ev({) nap' dv6pu vaC*oyev  ("we  i s also isolated nyeug yev  l i v e here  i n space  ev Tpaxuvu  xp6'  i n Trachis, a stranger's  9 g u e s t s , f o r c e d to l e a v e our home," 39-40. Because of her i s o l a t i o n i n time w i t h Knox action.*^ The  1  space, D e i a n e i r a , i n  The  source  and  greatness  o f her  a c t i o n belong  to h e r s e l f  own alone.  r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n o f t r y i n g to r e c o v e r H e r a c l e s ' l o v e does  not b r i n g D e i a n e i r a through and e x p e r i e n c e  s u f f e r i n g t o v i c t o r y , but causes her  d e f e a t b e f o r e she reaches  b e f o r e the e n t r a n c e were f u s e d , so her  of l o l e ,  the f i n a l v i c t o r y .  the s u f f e r i n g and  s u f f e r i n g and  j o y o f her  to  Just  fall  as,  love for Heracles  g l o r y become f u s e d as a r e s u l t o f her  love-philtre. uiv eyw 5x'  yeSuoxepov,  ouxex' dpx e L, xriv yddriatv apvuyau.  ydvn yap  auxdv, et TL yn ^euaSnoouai,  yvwyns, eyw  6uaxnvos e£aitocp$epco  (710-713), But  have come to u n d e r s t a n d I a l o n e , u n l e s s my  l a t e r , now  f e a r s are  D e i a n e i r a does not d i s c o v e r s her  A definite  pervades her r e a l i z a t i o n o f what she has oux  him.  sense o f  Heracles;  finality  done.  eoxuv ev xous yn xaAoug BouAeuyaauv  ou6* eAnus,. rjxus x a l §pdaos TI, npo^evet Not that  i n bad  p l a n s i s there any  l e a v e s any  use.  fanciful,  s e t out c o n s c i o u s l y o r knowingly to k i l l a c t i o n yeQuaxepov.  I  when i t i s o f no  I , h i s unhappy w i f e , s h a l l u t t e r l y d e s t r o y  she  accordance  model o f the Sophoclean h e r o , becomes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her  f r e e and  o f the  and  hope  p l a c e f o r courage.  (725-726).  use  She  does not even make an attempt to i n t e r c e p t her  j u s t as she has  does not  destroyed  attempt  s u f f e r i n g changes.  Knox  1  and  yuvn  she has  limits.  her  own  of  her destroyed  raison  d'etre.  h i s a c t i o n f u l l y autonomous by  ( xb 6' au  by d e f y i n g the  gods,  who  cannot endure  £uvoLxetv xrj6' ouou rug  I 6uvatxo , x o t v w v o u a a xuiv a u x w v yaytov;  545-546), she  She  possibility  When D e i a n e i r a f i n d s she  her m a r r i a g e w i t h l o l e  house w i t h h e r ,  any  also destroyed  h i s human l i m i t a t i o n s and  o f these  and  " s a c r i f i c i n g " H e r a c l e s , has  Sophoclean hero r e n d e r s  are g u a r d i a n s  Heracles,  so, n e c e s s a r i l y , the c h a r a c t e r o f  D e i a n e i r a , by  c a r e s , but  r e f u s i n g to a c c e p t  t o share  and  to  to e x p l a i n h e r s e l f to H y l l u s .  her j o y by d e s t r o y i n g H e r a c l e s  r e c e i v i n g l o v e from him,  her w o r r i e s  later  gift  "But  to l i v e  i n the same  s h a r i n g the same m a r r i a g e , what woman c o u l d s t a n d  refuses opuj yap  to accept nBnv xnv  that?"  her human l i m i t a t i o n s . yev  xriv 6e cpdL*vouaav  av  epuouaav upoaai,  (547-548).  F o r I see her y o u t h coming to f u l l  bloom  and mine f a d i n g . J u s t as D e i a n e i r a f e a r e d to grow up, takes  a desperate  consequence o f her i n order  step i n order  f e a r s to grow o l d , and  to a v e r t what she  growing o l d .  to r e g a i n H e r a c l e s '  she  When she  l o v e , she  f e a r s w i l l be  r e s o r t s to Nessus'  d e f i e s her own  she  the  love-philtre  words.  "Epwxu yev vuv baxtg avxavCaxaxaL itUMxns bums i z x t-P S, e  How  f o o l i s h one  Love and  a  o  u  would be  xaATbg cppoveX to r i s e up  t r y to t r a d e blows w i t h  (441-442).  against  him,  like  a boxer.  In a s e n s e , D e i a n e i r a seems to be o b e y i n g Love("Epo)g - 441,Kunpug as w e l l  as d e f y i n g Lpve.  contest Heracles'  I t i s her  love o f l o l e .  love o f H e r a c l e s  Perhaps Love i s o n l y  :  -  t h a t compels her the r e f e r e e  as  497) to was  the case  i n the b a t t l e udva 6*  between H e r a c l e s  and  Achelous:  euAexxpos ev u e a u Kuitpus 11  pagSovdueu £uvouaa  (515-516).  A l o n e , i n the middle w i t h them, C y p r i s , the b r i n g i n g wedded h a p p i n e s s ,  goddess,  s a t as umpire.  However, something about the power o f the "charms" (the and  D e i a n e i r a ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n not  to be s u p p l a n t e d  s u g g e s t more her d e f i a n c e than her obedience though i t i s her  to C y p r i s  1  love. tptAxpous 6'  edv  seems to  will,  l o v e o f H e r a c l e s t h a t causes her to a c t .  withdraws h e r s e l f from the power o f C y p r i s and r e t a i n her  by I o l e  love-philtre)  even  Deianeira  seeks o t h e r means to  itus xr*v5* uTcepBaAcopeda  T?IV u a L 6 a xou. deAxTpoi.au TOLS etp' 'HpaxAeu, ueurixd*vrITaL  Toupyov. ( 5 8 4 - 5 8 6 ) .  But i f somehow by these these  s p e l l s used on H e r a c l e s , we  the g i r l - - w e l l At  l i n e 492  means s t r i f e  she  charms, can  surpass  the move i s made.  spoke o f  Seouai, 6uauaxo0vxe£.  Strife  against  a g a i n s t d i v i n e powers i n g e n e r a l , a g a i n s t n a t u r e ,  Eros  and  12 a g a i n s t Fate  itself.  I t i s the v e r y t h i n g t h a t w i l l  crush Deianeira  ( XOUTOU vdaov y '  eitaxTov e£apouye$a, / d e o t a t Suauaxouvxes  choose to take on  a s t r a n g e new  d i s e a s e by  " i shall  not  f i g h t i n g i n vain against  the  gods," 491-492).  13 Knox b e l i e v e s t h a t i n s i x o f S o p h o c l e s ' faced with  the hero i s  a c h o i c e between p o s s i b l e , and o f t e n c e r t a i n , d i s a s t e r , o r a  compromise t h a t w i l l his duties.  extant plays  The  betray h i s conception of himself, h i s r i g h t s ,  hero d e c i d e s  and  a g a i n s t compromise, f i n d s h i s d e c i s i o n  a s s a i l e d , but r e f u s e s to y i e l d .  H i s r e s o l u t i o n l e a d s to the  dramatic  48 t e n s i o n o f the p l a y s . This description f i t s essence  j u s t such  Deianeira.  She  i s f a c e d w i t h what i s i n  a c h o i c e ; to t r y by unknown, u n t r i e d methods t o r e g a i n  H e r a c l e s ' l o v e , or to a l l o w I o l e to remain i n her house and f e e l i n g s f o r I o l e to remain u n c o n t e s t e d . Deianeira's eyes, its  The  first  Heracles'  c o u r s e may,  in  l e a d to p o s s i b l e d i s a s t e r from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g  of  conception. OOTIDS exec y '  h itcaxuSj ws  TO uev  e v e o T u , iteCpa 6' ou itpoacouuXnad icw  Soxetv (590-591).  I have s o much c o n f i d e n c e ; t h e r e seem to be good p r o s p e c t s , but I have bever brought  them to the  test.  D e i a n e i r a takes her d e c i s i v e s t e p not unaware t h a t some r i s k i s i n v o l v e d . Ker  d e s i r e to see  the r e s u l t s demands a c t i o n (as, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i s  the case w i t h O e d i p u s ) ; dXX'  TIOXUTCXCXYXTOS  e^nus d r i v e s her to i t .  auTLx' ebao'yeaSa.. .  W e l l , we  s h a l l know soon,  <I)s  xav ataxpct itpdaans OUTIOT' atax^vri Only, may may  4  (594).  yo'vov nap' uyuiv eZ O T e y o u u '  One  1  my  s e c r e t be w e l l kept by  OXOTW  rceafl  (596-597).  you.  do shameful t h i n g s and never f a l l  i n t o shame.  Even i f no o t h e r chance o f d i s a s t e r e x i s t s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the shame of  a failed The  of  attempt  remains.  second c o u r s e , compromise, would b e t r a y D e i a n e i r a ' s  conception  h e r s e l f , because i t i s o n l y as" the w i f e o f H e r a c l e s t h a t she  identity.  Even when H e r a c l e s i s away, she d e f i n e s h e r s e l f , her  and her d u t i e s i n terms o f him. TOUT*  ouv  She  cpoBouyau yn  sees I o l e as a t h r e a t , TIOOLS uev  'HpaxXris  eyos xaXriTau, TTIS vewTe'pas 6' dvnp  (550-551)  f i n d s her rights,  49  And be and  i s not  t h i s i s why c a l l e d my  prepared  (cf. 545-546) with  I am  the  that Heracles  may  husband but. the younger woman's  to share the r i g h t s and  d u t i e s o f her  man,  marriage  her.  D e i a n e i r a immediately decides accepting  afraid  state of a f f a i r s  against  the compromise o f p a s s i v e l y  predicts i n lines 550-551:  she  (puAau, / AuTnpuov Aucpnua , xrj6' y p t v cppdaco ("The f r i e n d s , a s o l u t i o n and 553-554).  Initially,  were, l i n e  586  way  i n which I have, dear  a means o f r e l i e f , I s h a l l  she  does not  f i n d her  exu,  ? 6'  t e l l you e x a c t l y , "  d e c i s i o n a s s a i l e d , and,  (eu 6e u n , Tterauaouat) seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t she  if it  would  15  n o t r e f u s e to y i e l d .  However, t h i s i s perhaps due  r e l a t i o n s h i p between D e i a n e i r a t h a t they  i n no way  and  the  Chorus'^''"^  encourage D e i a n e i r a , who  and  decision  and  s h a l l know soon," 594).  c a r r i e s out  speech to L i c h a s  e p u e , xau  TO pn  real  Heracles  served has  so has  Go  now,  and  be  sure  to keep the r u l e not  Tautri auv  opuri  lole  firmness,  (ctAA*  as  own her  her  (616-617)  as a messenger to d e s i r e to e x c e e d your  the  philtre;  ("under the same b l o w , " to compromise i s now  r e s o l v e not  from u s u r p i n g  a n n i h i l a t e d her  vduov,  r e s o l u t i o n becomes apparent a f t e r  d e c i s i o n not  to s t r e n g t h e n  prevented  the a f f a i r  itoynos a>v n e p t a a a 6pav  the h o r r i b l e e f f e c t s o f  r e s u l t o f her  studied  D e i a n e i r a makes her  assurance and  cpuAaaae npwta u e v  'KL-Supeuv  s t r e n g t h o f her  discovered  plan with  noted  indicates (600ff.):  ocAA'  The  her  i t must be  d e s p i t e her  h e s i t a n c e , d i s p l a y s a c e r t a i n e a g e r n e s s to c a r r y out auTux' eLadpeada, "we  to the p e c u l i a r  own  her  she w i l l 720).  she  die  The  with  i t has  to l i v e w i t h o u t H e r a c l e s .  p o s i t i o n as H e r a c l e s ' w i f e .  has  disastrous  c e r t a i n , but  p o s i t i o n ( c f . 551)  orders  although  only  Deianeira in  Deianeira's.  doing  50 s i l e n c e when her o f her  son  decision.  question  a s s a i l s her  Her  final  t h a t by A begin  few  j o i n your  Don't you  see  accuser?  d e v i a t i o n s i n D e i a n e i r a from Knox' model o f the  patterns of character a l s o appear.  The  o f her  particular  i s not  in fact  According are  (SIS-SIU).  go o f f i n s i l e n c e ?  s i l e n c e you  to appear when we  Chorus'  ou wdxoLaft' 6§ouvexa  ^uvnyopeus ai/ySaa xtj> xaxrvydpij); do you  the  strength  departure:  auy* dcpepiteus;  Why  o f the  r e s o l u t i o n i s emphasized even more by  t h a t f o l l o w s her xt  ( 7 4 9 f f . ) i s c l e a r evidence  c o n s i d e r her  in situation  role with reference  and  language, but  Sophoclean hero  to r e c u r r e n t  striking  similarities  d i f f e r e n c e s seem to r e s u l t more from the uniqueness f u n c t i o n as hero than from the p o s s i b i l i t y  the  that  she  hero.  to Knox, the Sophoclean h e r o ' s d e c i s i o n and  r e s o l v e to a c t  always announced i n emphatic, uncompromising terms; he  o f the v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e s , f u t u r e t e n s e s ,  and  cites  a tone t h a t a l l o w s  the  use  no  17 argument. directly and to and  Throughout the  r e l a t e d r e s o l v e s , a l l o f which are  all fulfilling know the  to d i e i f she  profitable  fits  has  and  Heracles,  inadvertently k i l l e d  p o s i t i o n with a l s o to pay  respect  to these  a t t e n t i o n to any  1  three  advanced and  distinct  carried  "requirements." to use  Nessus  Heracles.  1  She  out, resolves  love-philtre,  While  examining  three r e s o l v e s , i t w i l l  a t t a c k on her 18  but  r e s o l v e and  be whether  i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s determined by Knox.  Deianeira's even b e f o r e to  to v a r y i n g degrees Knox  t r u t h about l o l e  Deianeira's  it  play D e i a n e i r a maintains  Heracles.  information  determination  anything She  has  to know the' t r u t h about l o l e  begins  been mentioned about the o t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p  persistently  from Lichas--e5etT['  and  emphatically  attempts to  ("speak o u t , " 312),  she  elicit  orders.  Lichas'  almost feign  s u c c e s s f u l method o f d i s s u a d i n g her ignorance. my  from p u r s u i n g the  His persuasion i s silence t a s k i n s i l e n c e , " 319).  (auyri xo.uuov Epyov f i w r o v ,  "I  performed  by  s i l e n c e , D e i a n e i r a t u r n s to I o l e h e r s e l f ,  u s , poor c h i l d , " 320),  she  o r d e r s , but  ou x a p a T(j) y  t r u t h i s to  S i n c e L i c h a s has  b l o c k e d her  eCi:*, w xdAatv' ("do  i s a g a i n met  with  path  tell  silence.  itpoadev OU6EV eE, "CTOU  £  Xpdvu SuTioet y^waaav, n x u s ouSaua npoi5q)rivev ouxe ueuCov' oux' It w i l l if  she  she She  cannot  be  fight  firmly  a g a i n s t the and  facts  from h e r .  she At  then b e g i n s  a speech  does not e x p r e s s  She  She  questions ( 4 3 6 f f . ) to  i s emphatic  h e r s e l f i n as severe and  later  him  and  terms as,  say,  the Herdsman, but  nevertheless.  un*, upo's 0 E TOO Atos  Oeta, I  dAA' Tell  flashes  me  i m p l o r e you,  the whole  (436-437).  the  topmost  do not cheat me  o f the  glen truth!  (453).  truth.  Anaeus, ou6e xouxo yCyvera^  you w i l l  happen. .  Ao'yov  l i g h t n i n g over  EL.KE Ttav xdAn^ss  ouws 6e That  xax* axpov OuxaLov vdrcos  Maxaaxpdnxovxos, EMMAC^TIS  By Zeus who of  point D e i a n e i r a begins  of persuasion  Oedipus Tyrannus when c o n f r o n t i n g T e i r e s i a s i s determined  this  truth.  less.  l e a r n s from the Messenger  persuasion of L i c h a s ' s i l e n c e .  o f her r e s o l v e to know the  uncompromising; she  she  now  tongue, s i n c e  a c t f u r t h e r on her r e s o l v e u n t i l  him  to  has n o t s a i d one word y e t , n e i t h e r more n o t  (398, 400)  convince  (322-324).  q u i t e u n l i k e her manner up  l o o s e n s her  t h a t L i c h a s i s h i d i n g the her  sAdaaova  escape d e t e c t i o n i s n o t  (455). p o s s i b l e , i t cannot  xeu  y e v 6e*6oLHcx£,  ou  MaAuis x a p g e u g ,  ...y' Are  you  afraid  eiteu  dAyuveuev av  of h u r t i n g  (457-458).  me?  Your f e a r i s s e n s e l e s s . aou  6'  eyw  ripbs aAAov eu'vau, itpbs 6' To you  I have t h i s  (ppa£u) Haxbv  ey*  dc|;eu6euv deu  to say; Though you  f a l s e w i t h o t h e r s , never l i e to Deianeira refuses her  search The  to be  persuaded by  f o r knowledge o f  with  t h a n compromise; and,  may  be  me.  s i l e n c e and  falsegood  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o l e  second r e s o l u t i o n , to use  previously i n connection rather  the  (468-469).  the  l o v e - p h i l t r e , has  Deianeira's  to g i v e and  up  Heracles.  been mentioned  choice of possible d i s a s t e r  t o everyone e x c e p t the  Chorus, she  announces  19 her  r e s o l v e i n emphatic, uncompromising terms.  Lichas' confession of Heracles' the  f o l l o w i n g two  love  Note how  xria6' e p t o T o g  Against this D e i a n e i r a says dAA'  and  "were s a i d first  n  a l l e l s e he  love  f o r her  diavd' has won  he  has  x P°uv £  (488-489).  fiaauv etpu  by  s t r e n g t h ; but  been c o m p l e t e l y  u>6e H a l cppovouyev waxe TauTa 6pav  so s h a l l I a c t , " 490).  in a l l sincerity"  She  the  by  vanquished. ("such i s my  means t h a t she w i l l  spoke b e f o r e  (486-487), but  action deal with  \ 6upa X P  eus  show t h a t the words she  thought and  with  lines :  TOU  to l o l e  follows  f o r l o l e , which c o n c l u d e s  d)g xdAA' CMeuvog n a v x ' dpuoxeuuiv  o f t h i n k i n g , and  she  she knew the  be  , "There are  b r o u g h t - - t h e s e too you  must t a k e , "  gifts  i n r e t u r n f o r the  494-495).  her  (d x* d v x u Scapcov  20 rcpoaapydaau  kind  truth  i t i s conspicuous that  love-philtre  way  gifts  you  53 When she in  final  has  prepared the robe f o r H e r a c l e s , she  terms m l  TteiteupavxcxL xd6e  ("Now  tells  the  Chorus  i t i s a l l done" 581),  s e e k i n g t h e i r r e a s s u r a n c e , adds w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s pepn/avTai,  and, xoupyov  21 ("the  move i s made" 586).  d e c i s i o n and  The  Chorus f o r c e D e i a n e i r a  t h u s , i n a c e r t a i n sense, i s o l a t e her  By making t h a t  d e c i s i o n , she  her  action.  heroic  makes the  fashion,  decision. the  She  aXX'  a c c e p t s the  full  £L.6evao xPn  6puaav  Chorus s a y s , and  Deianeira  action,  otuxux' eCao'peoda  Chorus.  epite,  nai  the r u l e " 616), fi&n ("You if  she  she  s h o u l d be  fears  to c a r r y out  that  carryingout Deianeira  her  ("We  ("One  consequently, i n  true  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  that  can o n l y  tell  orders Lichas, g o i n g now").  and  ("Go  at 624  Deianeira f o r c e her  she  now,  she and  plan  tells be  t e l l s him  hurries Lichas to r e c o n s i d e r .  592), into  the  sure to keep oxetxots av  on  almost  She  as  i s impatient  decision. real possibility  that Deianeira  r e s o l u t i o n , because no  only  until  the  she  i s f i r m i n her  she  imagined or wished, she  her  death.  resolve.  own  one  (and  the  d e c i s i o n has  can  be  b e s i d e s the  dissuaded  b e e n made.  from  Chorus knows of i t .  strongest) attack  on  her  Once i t i s r e a c h e d ,  A l t h o u g h i t s course i s d i f f e r e n t from what c a r r i e s i t through to i t s n e c e s s a r y  D e i a n e i r a ' s t h i r d r e s o l u t i o n i s to d i e , and  she  uncompromising terms of a l l , s i l e n c e .  and  plead  silence.  no  one  However, as i s the  seems to r e c o g n i z e t h a t  she  has  end--  announces i t i n  most emphatic and against  from a c t i o n "  r e s o l u t e l y puts her  pev vdpov  of  the r e s u l t s o f  s h a l l know soon" 594),  nptoxa  h e r s e l f p r o v i d e s her but  exclusive  promptly and  something w i l l  her  There i s no  resolve,  yvXaooe  and  possibility  a c t i o n or  d e c i s i o n h e r s e l f , and  own  even from t h e m s e l v e s .  removes h e r s e l f from the  r e c e i v i n g a d v i c e from anyone c o n c e r n i n g her  to make her  One  case f o r her  the  cannot argue second  d e c i d e d to d i e .  resolution,  When  she  54 realizes her  the h o r r i b l e e f f e c t s produced by  decision emphatically  to the  the  l o v e - p h i l t r e , she  announces  Chorus :  22 x a L x o u 6e6oxTau, HEUVOS ei a<pa Aria eta t , TauT^i auv And  opprj Motpe auvSaveuv a p a  y e t I have made a d e c i s i o n :  I s h a l l d i e under the But  they do not  y e t admitted Deianeira s  the  possibility  to d i s s u a d e her  strength  o f her  isolation;  has  as a d e f e n s e .  had  Since  t h a t no  possible  from her  resolve.  she  She  has  no  one  resolve.  o f those h a v i n g c l a i m s resist.  Hyllus  harshly  criticize  pressure  her,  her  n o b l y and  r e s o l v e must be excusing  on her  a f f e c t i o n s and  are  tragically  angry h e r o . and  i n the  t h a t she  has  Her  objections.  violently,  differs  and  i n complete  could  easily  i s faced w i t h a form o f  as  face of H y l l u s does not  from Knox  1  she  t r e a t i n g advice  resolved 1  to do.  accusations.  death  does not  because he,  appeal  attack  to  and really  i n a sense, i s  Deianeira How  stands  strong  a l l o w h e r s e l f even the comfort  her  of  son!  h e r o i c model i n t h a t she  r e s o l u t i o n s are n o t Therefore,  the h a r d e s t  i r o n i c because he  already  actual  t o b u i l d i t up  ( 7 3 4 f f . ) , which wish f o r her  h e r s e l f i n the eyes o f her  Deianeira  any  t h i s i n d i c a t e s the  r e s o l v e , she  Deianeira  not  except  I t i s what Knox r e f e r s to as the e m o t i o n a l  to do what she  silently  faced with  to cause her  e l s e knows o f her  words to her  1  to be  resolve  to form i t i n t e r n a l l y and  mean them ( c f . 9 3 5 f f . , e s p e c i a l l y 941-942) and ordering  him.  knows her  In a way  had  no e x t e r n a l  one  f o r her  plan.  back down w i t h o u t a l o s s o f p r i d e . a t t a c k on her  same blow w i t h  falls,  s i g n i f i c a n c e , because they have 23 t h a t H e r a c l e s ' death i s i n e v i t a b l e .  h e r s e l f ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s not attempt  i f he  comprehend i t s r e a l  i s o l a t i o n i s so g r e a t  1  (719-720).  attacked;  she  does n o t  i s not  an  receive  advice  l a c k s the n e c e s s i t y o f r e a c t i n g s w i f l y and 24 and o b j e c t i o n s i n a f i e r c e way. ^j ^ o r  s  55 D e i a n e i r a d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the for being  foolish  and  not  testing  f o r l a c k i n g f o r e s i g h t as she but  D e i a n e i r a i s not  Heracles. not it  i n fact  The  We  well c r i t i c i z e  her  l o v e - p h i l t r e before using i t "  and  she  f o r these  two  may  to her  from Nessus; and  r e c e i v e s from them i s f o r -something she  i n t u r n , d i s c o v e r her  their c r i t i c i s m  gift  f a u l t s , even by H y l l u s  g u i l t y o f , namely, i n t e n t i o n a l l y c a u s i n g  c e a s e s when t h e y ,  While  the  utopos-  does w i t h r e s p e c t  censured  criticism  p l a y as  Heracles'  innocence of t h i s  l a s t s , however, i t f u l f i l l s  was  death,  crime.  the r e q u i r e m e n t o f Knox'  model t h a t the condemnation o f the h e r o i c temper be m o r a l as w e l l  as  intellectual. TpL&v a'  u> u n i e p ,  <^S av  EM  n unxE-r'  euvau  £uaav,  n  aXXou MEMArjadai un-rep', TUV  vuv  itapooauv  Mother! either  EuXdunv,  aecrupEvriv  n Xijjous q>p£vas  T£V6' aueC'<i>ao'$aC* itodev  I w i s h f o r one t h a t you  EV  were no  o f three longer  things  living,  (73M--737). for  or  you  safe  but  someone e l s e ' s mother, or somehow changed  and  with  a better heart  oyxov yap  than  now.  aXXug ovduatos T L 6 e t  TpE(petv 26  yriTpJpov, f)TLs pnoEV us For why  should  Response to D e i a n e i r a ' s While q u e s t i o n i n g  ("How  deed?"  c o u l d any  a c t s i n no way  suicide f i t s  888)  (817-818) the  like  l o f t y name a mother?  Knox' scheme more  the Nurse about D e i a n e i r a ' s  E K E L 6 E S , w pctTaua, TCXV6' U B P L V ; violent  TEMoDaa 6pa;  she wrongly m a i n t a i n  o f mother, she who  d e a t h , the  closely.  Chorus  ask  ("And, f o o l i s h woman, d i d you  see  and xou, TCXUT' ETXTI TLS X  e%L  her  P YUvatMELOt Mxuaat;  woman's hand a c t u a l l y b r i n g t h i s  and  to p a s s ? " 898).  says t h a t Sophoclean heroes are 6ELVOU because they  Knox  l a c k a sense o f  56 p r o p o r t i o n and a c a p a c i t y f o r m o d e r a t i o n . suicide You  6ELVO3S y e -  will  of  Deianeira's  but  n e u a g 6', W T E p a p T U p e u v  l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g , so  According  The Nurse says  of Deianeira's  epou ("Yes, i t was  t h a t you can bear me w i t n e s s , " 8 9 9 ) .  t o Knox, the a c t i o n o f the heroes i s itepLoads. actions  (and thus  The r e s u l t  the a c t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s ) i s  nepLoaoi,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t she a d v i s e s L i c h a s t o guard  this very  terrible.  against  danger. otXX' eprce, M a l cpuXacae Ttpuxa p e v v d p o v , TO pri ' u t S u p e L V n o p i i o s cov n e p u a a a 6pav  (616-617).  Go now, and as a messenger be  sure  to keep the r u l e n o t t o d e s i r e t o exceed your o r d e r s ,  Knox' Sophoclean hero r e f u s e s t o be taught for  h i m s e l f ; he d e f i e s time and i t s i m p e r a t i v e  not change h e r l o v e and n e e d f o r H e r a c l e s . ets  'HpaMXps e y n p e 6 n ;  many o t h e r s  before,"  o f change.  Deianeira  will  oux't x " d p a s / n X e t O T a s dvrip T  ("One man and many woman--Heracles has had v e r y  459-460).  D e i a n e i r a has n o t l e a r n e d of  by time what i s "good"  B u t , throughout a l l t h i s  before-time  (has n o t wished t o l e a r n ) t o temper h e r love  H e r a c l e s , as h e r " c o n s t a n t  relay of troubles"  Xe*xos yap 'HpaxXeu  testifies.  xptTOv  C u a T a a ' d e u T U V ' ev. tpogou cpdgov Tpecpa), x e u v o u icpoKnpaLVouaa  (27-29).  Chosen as the b r i d e f o r H e r a c l e s , and  being  j o i n e d w i t h him, I c o n t i n u a l l y nurse  f e a r , being  anxious f o r him. TtAnv e p o t ituxpas  d)6uvas auTou npoaBaXuv dnodxET ^ 011  The  o n l y sure  and  assigned  (41-42).  t h i n g i s t h a t he's gone to me a s h a r p  p a i n f o r him.  fear  after  With r e s p e c t to I o l e , D e i a n e i r a i s a b l e i n a l l honesty to say, auxuv ex y' one  euou \6yov xaxov /  o f them earned i n s u l t s  fiveyxax' ou6* oveLSoc ("Never y e t has  from me,  or r e p r o a c h , "  4 6 1 - 4 6 2 ) , but  not endure even a t r i a l - p e r i o d o f s h a r i n g H e r a c l e s unknowingly welcomes I o l e , a  Knpovriv AadpaCov  ("secret  the  aged her  to be  l e s s pained  According  by  the  love of  by  will  suffering" 376-377),  fading  not been taught  any  She  bloom w h i l e  D e i a n e i r a has  she  with I o l e .  under her r o o f , I o l e , whose y o u t h i s coming to f u l l (547-548).  MOUUDJ rug  hers i s  time t h a t  has  Heracles.  to Knox, the h e r o , i n the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , i s u n r e a s o n a b l e  27 and  s u i c i d a l l y bold  the h e r o , who and  ;  however, the o p i n i o n of o t h e r s  i s l o y a l only  H y l l u s have  (and  only  to h i s c o n c e p t i o n  temporarily)  an  is irrelevant  of himself.  Only  to  Heracles  o p i n i o n of D e i a n e i r a as  overbold.  D e i a n e i r a does seem to view t h e i r o p i n i o n as i r r e l e v a n t , s i n c e she makes no her  attempt to e x p l a i n h e r s e l f and reason  i s t h a t she  perhaps because she  her  a c t i o n s to e i t h e r o f them.  knows the damage i s done and  realizes  cannot be  Perhaps  undone,  the magnitude of t h e i r , e s p e c i a l l y  Heracles',  28 feelings. important  In a c e r t a i n b a s i c way,  however, the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s i s  to D e i a n e i r a i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h her £,r\v yap  xaxwg xAuouaav oux  I , who  bear to l i v e  Knox b e l i e v e s t h a t o f what i s due impression him  to him  of t h i s  as w e l l .  and  (721-722)  hear m y s e l f c a l l e d  wish above a l l e l s e to be  o u a u a and 6d£a, " t r u e n a t u r e " and up f o r D e i a n e i r a .  evil  good.  " r e p u t a t i o n , " are i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed  i s outraged  l a c k o f r e s p e c t , he  Deianeira's  truly  the hero's sense o f worth and  from o t h e r s  of h e r s e l f .  otvaaxexdv,  fixts npoxty§ yf) fcmfi uetpuxtvau I c o u l d not  conception  and  t h a t , forming  f e e l s t h a t the w o r l d  sense of what i s due  consideration  to her  an extreme  i s mocking  from H e r a c l e s  is  58 outraged. Tocd6' ' HpaxAfis, 6 TIUOTOS fiytv xayadbs  xotAouyevos,  oCxoupi,' dvTETtEVi^e TOU yaxpou xpovou T h i s i s the housekeeping  wage my  (540-542)  faithful  and noble H e r a c l e s sends home to me to compensate f o r h i s l o n g In the f o l l o w i n g two l i n e s  (543-544),  absence!  D e i a n e i r a c l e a r l y s t a t e s the  singular character of Heracles' f a i t h l e s s n e s s . i n themselves  a r e , a p p a r e n t l y , no cause  to r e c e i v e l o l e  forDeianeira.  i n t o h e r own home, t o share her m a r r i a g e  her m a r r i a g e - b e d has r e c e i v e d  o f anger  H e r a c l e s ' many p a s s i o n s However,  (546), t o share  (540) i s an u n b e l i e v a b l e and i n t o l e r a b l e o u t r a g e .  from H e r a c l e s  t h a t o u t r a g e my h e a r t "  AwftnTOV eyTtdAnya  i n s syns^pevds  She  ("goods  5 3 8 ) , and these goods t h a t outrage h e r h e a r t t u r n  29 her more f i r m l y action is  into herself  i s closely related  and a l s o  f o r c e her t o take a c t i o n .  to the next a s p e c t o f Knox  1  This  h e r o i c model, which  t h a t t h e h e r o , r e s e n t i n g those he c o n s i d e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s  s u f f e r i n g s , appeals  f o r vengeance and c u r s e s h i s enemies, w i s h i n g  n o t h i n g worse on them than t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e what he h i m s e l f i s suffering. She  Whom does D e i a n e i r a c o n s i d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her s u f f e r i n g s ?  mentions Love, but does n o t address 30  confront  them w i t h h e r blame.  a t most one may perhaps and  C y p r i s o r E r o s d i r e c t l y and  One cannot  take vengeance on the gods,  d e f y them, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s c a s e where C y p r i s  E r o s seem to r e p r e s e n t a f o r c e , a l b e i t  divine, rather  than  actual  divinitxes. OSTOS [Erosj yap & p x HOU. §£wv onus deAsu, xayoD ye TCOJS 6* ou x°tTe"pas o t a s y' eyoO; 1  £ L  (443-444).  59 For he r u l e s even the gods as he p l e a s e s , and me--why n o t another The  woman l i k e me?  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s passage i s n o t o n l y the i m p l i c a t i o n  a c t w i l l be performed i n r e v o l t a g a i n s t and i n s u b m i s s i o n also Deianeira's implication  t h a t she b e l i e v e s I o l e  that Deianeira'  t o Eros, but  t o be enamored o f  32 Heracles.  Even t h e d e n i a l o f I o l e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for her sufferings  r e q u i r e s D e i a n e i r a to admit a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t o f I o l e . xouito) T L S otUToiv EX y' EUOU Xoyov flVEyxaT'  xdpT*  nos x * ou6' av E L  ou6' 5VEL6OS  evTaxELTi  xaxov  T({j CPLXELV  (461-463).  Never y e t has any one o f them e a r n e d from me, o r r e p r o a c h , n o t w i l l if  she i s w h o l l y  absorbed  insults  she, even  by her l o v e .  What D e i a n e i r a seems t o be s a y i n g i s n o t t h a t she t o t a l l y responsibility but  o f o t h e r women ( e s p e c i a l l y  t h a t she i s n o t g o i n g t o a p p e a l  them as enemies.  I o l e ) whom H e r a c l e s has l o v e d ,  f o r vengeance a g a i n s t them and c u r s e  D e i a n e i r a i s n o t a vengeful person,  knows t h a t the workings o f Eros w i l l cause H e r a c l e s ' o t h e r  d e n i e s the  and, b e s i d e s , she  e v e n t u a l l y , i f not  loves to experience  s u f f e r i n g s very  similar  ( ETCEL o<p' eyw I  to those  ( J x T L p a 6n  s h e h e r s e l f endures.  D e i a n e i r a i s able  VidXLOTa  > " f o r I p i t i e d her deeply when I l o o k e d upon  upoogXecJiaa'  to p i t y  immediatedly,  her"  33 463-464  )  even the one she sees  as her s e c r e t enemy,  TLV*  ea6E*6£Yua.L  Tiripovnv undoTeyov / A a S p a L O V , ("What s e c r e t s u f f e r i n g have I welcomed under my r o o f ? "  376-377).  Iole, pitiable  as she i s , r e p r e s e n t s an immediate  34 and  potential  t h r e a t to D e i a n e i r a .  the normal workings o f Eros his  t h a t have always b e f o r e r e t u r n e d H e r a c l e s and  l o v e t o her and have kept  must t u r n t o the charm  D e i a n e i r a loses her u s u a l t r u s t i n  her the w i f e o f H e r a c l e s .  She f e e l s she  ( xnAnTripLov, 575) g i v e n to h e r by Nessus i n o r d e r  60  ' to s t r e n g t h e n love  wanted l o v e  (Heracles' Heracles  suffering.  ( H e r a c l e s ' l o v e o f her ) and d e s t r o y  love o f l o l e ) .  35  i s a l s o , and perhaps most o f a l l ,  Eros  no c u r s e her  responsible  for Deianeira  However, D e i a n e i r a i n h e r b l i n d , or maybe n o t so b l i n d ,  Jove f o r him excuses h i s h u r t f u l all,  unwanted  a c t i o n s as b e i n g caused by E r o s .  " r u l e s even the gods" (ctpxeu xat deuv down upon H e r a c l e s ;  443). Deianeira  calls  she o n l y wishes t h a t he may s u f f e r t o l o v e  as she l o v e s him. According  t o Knox' c o n c e p t i o n  an extreme i m p r e s s i o n  the h e r o e n t e r s deserted,  into h i s characteristic isolation.  isolated  been d i s c u s s e d .  He becomes alone and  from men and abandoned by the gods. i n some o f i t s a s p e c t s  Her i s o l a t i o n i s t o t a l  and t r a g i c .  o u t s i d e h e r s e l f , and even to the w o r l d  probable  Her one key t o the  i n s i d e h e r s e l f , she d e s t r o y s .  l o v e , she a n n i h i l a t e s i t . When D e i a n e i r a ' s outcome  o f the g i f t o f the a n o i n t e d  been a r o u s e d , she begins 723ff.).  ; i n t r y i n g to  s u s p i c i o n s o f the  robe f o r H e r a c l e s  to c u t h e r s e l f o f f from h e r Chorus  When h e r s u s p i c i o n s have been c o n f i r m e d  completely  Deianeira's has p r e v i o u s l y  By her love she i s made to d e s t r o y what she most l o v e s recover  forming  he c o n s i d e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g s ,  temporal and s p a t i a l i s o l a t i o n  world  o f the Sophoclean h e r o , a f t e r  o f the l a c k o f r e s p e c t shown toward h i m s e l f and a  resentment a g a i n s t those  have  ( 6 6 3 f f . and  by H y l l u s ' r e p o r t , she  withdraws i n t o h e r s e l f and does n o t speak t o H y l l u s , the Chorus  or anyone e l s e .  37  She i s i s o l a t e d  act pdrnp a§eos-  ("your g o d l e s s  when a d d r e s s i n g  Hyllus.  from men and abandoned by the gods.  mother" 1039) H e r a c l e s  later calls  Zeus.  38  Deianeir  She h e r s e l f must know how d'deos she i s and t h a t  by h e r a c t i o n she has caused h e r s e l f t o be abandoned by H e r a c l e s , of  After,  the son  61 Deianeira also f u l f i l l s applies  to the hero i n terms o f i s o l a t i o n .  isolation The  the two most extreme r e q u i r e m e n t s So  t o t a l i s the  t h a t Knox  hero's  t h a t a t c e r t a i n moments he a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f t o the  landscape.  f i n a l r e s u l t o f the h e r o ' s i s o l a t i o n from the w o r l d o f men  i s h i s wish 39  for  death.  Deianeira f u l f i l l s  her w i s h f o r death w i t h her  Between the time o f h e r r e a l i z a t i o n o f what she has  suicide.  done t o H e r a c l e s and  the time o f her d e a t h , she a d d r e s s e s no p e r s o n , but o n l y her her house and b r i d a l chamber.  As  landscape,  the Nurse r e p o r t s D e i a n e i r a ' s f i n a l  scene, aynaXovuivr]  auxri TOV auTTis 6 a L u o v * nai  Tots anau6as e s TO AOLTIOV OLHUXS  and  she would c a l l  (910-911)  aloud to her d e s t i n y and  her house t h a t would have no c h i l d r e n e A e ^ e v , 5 Aexn TE 'TO AOUTIOV 6e£;eoV She  fion x ^P ®'> a  '£%'  said,  Knox' hero of  and b e l i e f  arrival  vuucpeu' ws  E  bed, 0 my  forever,  you r e c e i v e me  anymore.  eud,  ep'  ev XOL'T^OL xaCa6*  "0 my  f a r e w e l l now will  V.CLL  ouitOTe 40 (920-922).  euvciTRLav  bridal  f o r never  chamber, again  as a w i f e on your  f i n d s i n moments o f c r i s i s  to  couch."  and abandonment t h a t h i s sense  i n h i m s e l f become h i s o n l y s u p p o r t .  The  s e v e r e u p s e t o f the  o f I o l e d r i v e s D e i a n e i r a to take measures to r e - e s t a b l i s h  as the w i f e o f H e r a c l e s . and c i r c u m s t a n c e assumption  In h i s r e s i s t a n c e  herself  to the i m p e r a t i v e s o f time  ( a l l t h i n g s change, but he w i l l n o t ) , the hero makes an  o f d i v i n i t y , a l t h o u g h he never c o n s c i o u s l y c l a i m s t o be a  god.  By her use o f the l o v e - p h i l t r e , D e i a n e i r a d i s p l a y s her r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t the change h e r a l d e d by the a r r i v a l o f I o l e and u n c o n s c i o u s l y t r i e s take on  the r o l e o f E r o s .  D e i a n e i r a ' s attempt  to  to m a i n t a i n the l o v e o f  62 Heracles,  the  son of Zeus, i n d i c a t e s another u n c o n s c i o u s assumption  d i v i n i t y on her  part.  III.  Whitman's c o n c e p t i o n and w i l l  o f the  w i t h d i s a s t e r s and  itself.  o f the Sophoclean hero r e q u i r e s t h a t the  trials result  last  332  arete life  that the hero's encounters  traditional  the  life  and w i l l n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t  the t r u e a c t i o n o f  a l s o cause the a c t i o n o f  the  Deianeira's  sufferings result  from the c l a s h between  her  (her supreme l o v e ) and  the i m p e r f e c t i o n s  of Heracles,  the  t h a t embodies them.  n e i t h e r o f these  play i t s e l f  Heracles  i s semi-divine,  f o r c e s t h a t oppose D e i a n e i r a i s  Whitman c o n s i d e r s to be one  D e i a n e i r a to be of " l a t e  Eros  t i m e , i t comes too to i l l u s t r a t e  late.  late  l e a r n i n g , " or t r a g i c knowledge.  Sophocles turned  learning.  proud to l e a r n ; but, h a v i n g  right.  the hero of the T r a c h i n i a e , and  learned  The  two  learning  o f h i s heroes s u f f e r  D e i a n e i r a and Oedipus are not too  l a t e , they  too  pass away uncomforted  despised. "None o f S o p h o c l e s ' c h a r a c t e r s e x h i b i t such sheer as  these  two,  and  none t r y harder  the  to d i s c o v e r i t i n  to the theme o f l a t e  the i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f the w o r l d , and  the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r  E r o s , and  i s d i v i n e , but  morally  knowledge i s t r a g i c because, i n s p i t e o f the e f f o r t  and  gods, and  and  right.  l i n e s o f the T r a c h i n i a e , but  lines.  that  f o r c e s o p p o s i n g the hero are u s u a l l y d i v i n e , they  Deianeira's behavior 946  the  behavior  t r u e a c t i o n o f each p l a y ,  from the c l a s h between h i s a r e t e  o f o t h e r human b e i n g s ,  A l t h o u g h the  first  the  an example o f a r e t e , and  are not o f n e c e s s i t y m o r a l l y  the  Whitman  t r a g i c hero r e p r e s e n t  each t r a g i c hero be  imperfections  of  to a c h i e v e  intelligence  good e n d s . "  63 "...Sophocles intended  them as examples o f high-minded  humanity w h i c h w i l l s t h e b e s t "In D e i a n e i r a  and a c h i e v e s the w o r s t . "  and Oedipus, we are faced w i t h the f u l l e s t  b i t t e r n e s s o f t r a g e d y - - e v i l u n m i t i g a t e d by any s o r t o f v i c t o r y and by  resulting directly  from the most moral a c t i o n  the p r o t a t o n i s t . " ^  According  t o Whitman, the T r a c h i n i a e  and the Oedipus Tyrannus  d e p i c t t h e f a l l o f g u i l t l e s s p e o p l e , which A r i s t o t l e revolting  possible  (Poetics  13); y e t , the p l a y s  s a i d would be  s a t i s f y , perhaps because o f t h e i r  u n m i t i g a t e d h o n e s t y and because we meet the problem o f e v i l Whitman's i d e a l i z e d view o f the Sophoclean hero a l l o w s Deianeira  T y r a n n u s , he c l a i m s , their motivating destruction  arete  The heroes o f the T r a c h i n i a e  i s true.  i s no longer  that Deianeira's  think  so.  no one  e x q u i s i t e woman; at w o r s t , a t o o l o f  forces.  hero o f the T r a c h i n i a e , h i s c l a i m t h a t D e i a n e i r a l o s e s h e r s e l f and f i n d s no g r e a t e r  self  that Deianeira  i s the  i s g u i l t l e s s and that  i s unconvincing.  She i s  i n t h a t she i s u n c o n s c i o u s o f the e v i l e f f e c t s o f the l o v e ^  p h i l t r e , but she i s g u i l t y because she a c t s r a s h l y and  thoughtlessly.  by and a t t e m p t i n g to g a i n c o n t r o l o f L o v e , she i s perhaps n o t so as she appears t o h e r s e l f and o t h e r s .  I f she were to go on l i v i n g a f t e r H e r a c l e s ' by  although  the gods, nor does she  A l t h o u g h Whitman i s s u r e l y r i g h t i n c l a i m i n g  passive  selves,  Their h e r o i c w i l l i n g n e s s to accept  death makes her resemble a very  less  and the Oedipus  o f such u n i v e r s a l moral i m p r e s s i v e n e s s ;  "She i s a t b e s t  meaningless  Driven  him to v i e w  l o s e themselves and f i n d no g r e a t e r  hints  guiltless  Only  and Oedipus as g u i l t l e s s . However, he does e x p r e s s a r a t h e r  i d e a l i z e d v i e w as w e l l .  she  pure.  s a c r i f i c i n g h e r s e l f t o the same love  She does n o t l o s e h e r s e l f .  d e a t h , she would be l o s t ; b u t ,  that made her u n w i t t i n g l y  64 sacrifice  Heracles,  she e x h i b i t s a p r e v i o u s l y u n d i s p l a y e d  nobleness  and  strength. Whitman's development o f the i l l u s t r a t e s why  he  presents  theme o f l a t e l e a r n i n g i n the  Deianeira  as  Trachinae  f u l f i l l i n g h i s requirements of 43  the  Sophoclean h e r o . All  the  t h a t we  H i s argument  see o f D e i a n e i r a  dangers o f f u t u r e e v e n t s ,  judging to the  or f o r e s e e i n g .  (lines  and  the  1-946) i s framed by  Beginning with  the p r o l o g u e , the p l a y bends and  the  A complex antecedent h i s t o r y i n the  for t h i s rather  simple  play.  or be v i c t o r and  live  forever  die during  an  darkness,  f r i g h t e n i n g i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  l o n e l y hopelessness of Deianeira  nature.  either  follows.  Heracles  lyric  form o f  emotions o f three  w i l l e i t h e r d i e on  f r e e from t o i l s  a t t a c k on O e c h a l i a  her  oracles exists an  (155-168).  expedition  Heracles  or t h e r e a f t e r l i v e  itself  will  a blessed  life  44 (74-81). already  Heracles dead.  w i l l never be  s l a i n by  a l i v i n g hand, but  by  someone  T h i s o r a c u l a r m a t e r i a l a g a i n emphasizes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  o f knowing the  future.  The  are d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n f u s i n g .  supposed c l a r i t y They r e p r e s e n t  f r e e from time might know, but what no one p o s s i b l y know.  Man  must a c t , i f he  S o p h o c l e s "makes h i s c h a r a c t e r s f a t a l d i c e are  loaded  hopelessly  and  and  oracles  what h i n d s i g h t or knowledge i n the moment o f a c t i o n c o u l d  a c t s at a l l ,  a c t on  h e l p f u l n e s s o f the  from  likelihood.  the b a s i s o f l i k e l i h o o d , w h i l e  irrationally  the  i n f a v o r o f the most  45 u n l i k e l y event." between hoped-for  The  likelihood  a long, p a i n f u l search overwhelming The  p l o t of the T r a c h i n i a e , c e n t e r e d  split  unknown and u n l o o k e d f o r f a c t s , becomes  for t r u t h , with  the  f i n a l discovery  bringing  despair.  whole s t r u c t u r e o f the  t r u t h s , a quest t h a t u n r a v e l s motif  and  i n the  p l a y i s a quest to uncover c e r t a i n  against  the  o f the u n c e r t a i n t y o f knowledge and  "constantly the  sounded  contradictory  i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f knowing  65 anything  but what i s p a s t . " ^  when she  sends the r o b e , or k i l l s  L i c h a s who w i t h him.  the  done. until  are t e .  g r e a t scene i s not  h e r s e l f , but when she Heracles  T h i s unmasking scene i s D e i a n e i r a ' s  f i n d s out  has  brought her home  fate. say cannot  o p e n i n g monologue, D e i a n e i r a says l i f e cannot be  i t i s o v e r and  i s miserable.  Her  first  assertive Deianeira  c h a r a c t e r s c o n s t a n t l y s t r u g g l e to do what they  I n her  from  f i r s t r e a l a c t i o n , the  A t t h i s p o i n t an a c t i v e and  to weave her own  The  Deianeira's  c a p t i v e p r i n c e s s i s and why  f u n c t i o n o f her begins  Therefore,  then c o n t r a d i c t s h e r s e l f by  u n c e r t a i n t y r i s e s and  falls  disappearing with  the approach o f H e r a c l e s  o f the c a p t i v e s .  Her  and  be  judged  s a y i n g she knows hers  throughout the  play,  returning with  the  u n c e r t a i n t y about I o l e l e a d s  to her  entrance  fatal insistence 47  to  know "as  i f knowledge were a l l - s u f f i c i e n t  and had  no  the d e s i r e to know i s l i k e  the d e s i r e to do,  the next o c c u r r e n c e  theme o f knowing i s accompanied by  o f the  i t i s not  dangers."  Since  s u r p r i s i n g that an  idea  48 o f a c t i o n , D e i a n e i r a s p l a n of the r o b e . D e i a n e i r a , H y l l u s , and H e r a c l e s have known the robe was  a l l f i n d out  poisoned;  Then f o l l o w the r e v e l a t i o n s ; too l a t e .  D e i a n e i r a might  H y l l u s might have guessed  Deianeira  a c t e d u n w i t t i n g l y ; H e r a c l e s might have guessed the meaning o f the o r a c l e . However, " o f a l l the broken f i g u r e s at the end,  D e i a n e i r a alone  is  49  t r a g i c , f o r her w i l l i s the o n l y one i n v o l v e d . " She w i l l s good but works e v i l , thus g i v i n g the p l a y a meaning b r o a d e r t h a n the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of the w o r l d .  Whitman draws up  characteristics,"^ o f her  actions.  a list  of Deianeira's  a d m i r a b l e and  which are i n accordance w i t h h i s o p i n i o n s  D e i a n e i r a has  no  hamartia unless  model  of c e r t a i n  i t is a fault  for a  51 woman to c o n t e s t D e i a n e i r a holds  the case f o r her  husband's love w i t h another woman.  h e r s e l f f r e e from r e c r i m i n a t i o n , a n g e r , j e a l o u s y  Medean v i o l e n c e and  a c t s o n l y on her u n q u e s t i o n a b l e  right  and  to r e t a i n what  66  i s hers.  I t i s h e r o i c to maintain  innocence i n a case such as  Deianeira's.  A c l e a r c o n t r a s t e x i s t s between the d i s e a s e d E r o s o f H e r a c l e s the compassionate u n i v e r s a l l o v e t h a t i s D e i a n e i r a ' s o f her  i s o l a t i o n and  her e x i s t e n c e . she  Her  s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n t h a t no excellence  i s u n w i l l i n g to betray.  way,  one  arete.  and  I t i s part  sets a p o s i t i v e value  on  i s an e x c e l l e n c e o f l o v e , which throughout  T h e r e f o r e , i n Whitman's e y e s , i t i s , i n a  sophrosyne t h a t u r g e s D e i a n e i r a t o a c t and not  s i n c e t h e r e c o u l d be no worse f o l l y  than to y i e l d  any  form o f  hamartia,  to a s i t u a t i o n  that  52 would cause her s a f e ; she love.  t o b e t r a y her  knows H e r a c l e s  She  rises  love.  too w e l l , y e t  i n her  f a i l u r e , but  action i s  f i g h t s f o r the i n t e g r i t y o f  to meet the n e c e s s i t y o f the  between her d e s i r e f o r s a f e t y and i s not  D e i a n e i r a a c t s where no  tragic  tension  the n e c e s s i t y f o r a c t i o n .  i n the nature  o f the  t r u t h she  created Her  tragedy  uncovers.  I n the end, Whitman c l a i m s , D e i a n e i r a i s e n t i r e l y d e s t r o y e d . i s not  done f o r h e r ,  what she has  and  i t i s impossible  done b r i n g s her  her  Justice  to f e e l t h a t the r e v e l a t i o n o f  to a true e s t i m a t e  o f h e r s e l f , or t h a t  the  " s e l f - l o a t h i n g " t h a t drove her t o s u i c i d e i s a d e s e r v e d judgment. Whereas A j a x and A n t i g o n e s a c r i f i c e t h e m s e l v e s , D e i a n e i r a p u n i s h e s h e r s e l f . Nevertheless, t h a t drove her  her  death remains a defense o f her  to  a r e t e , because i t Was  love  self-punishment.  Whitman's p i c t u r e of D e i a n e i r a ' s entirely justified.  end  and  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s not  J u s t i c e i s not done f o r D e i a n e i r a .  But  does  she  53 ever  ask  for justice?  Heracles  was  unjust  b u t , when D e i a n e i r a u n d e r t a k e s the use she  to her when he  of the charm o f the  c o n s c i o u s l y removes h e r s e l f from the r e a l m o f j u s t i c e  A f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g the e f f e c t s o f the p h i l t r e , die along with Heracles have r e q u i r e d .  She  (720).  For her  she  decides  s e n t I o l e home, love-philtre, and  injustice.  t h a t she  t h a t i s the j u s t i c e her  does have a t r u e e s t i m a t e  of h e r s e l f .  will  actions  The r e v e l a t i o n  67 o f what she her  has  done makes her u n d e r s t a n d not  love of Heracles,  but  a l s o the  full  what i t cannot have i t d e s t r o y s . punishment, but  a conscious  Her  only  the  magnitude o f t h a t  d e a t h does n o t  sacrifice  f u l l magnitude o f love's  power;  seem to be  to match her u n c o n s c i o u s  selfsacrifice  54 of Heracles. in  her  The  isolation.  s i l e n c e o f her end She  strength  she  has  does not negate h e r s e l f and v a n i s h  any  more than  Oedipus negates h i m s e l f by Whitman, i t can  be  marks the  d i s c o v e r i n g who  he  s a i d t h a t D e i a n e i r a ' s own  H. F . Johansen c l a i m s  is.  I n agreement  is  to be  t h a t Whitman seems to neglect and i n order  seen as the h e r o ; the  p o r t r a i t o f her  comply w i t h h i s i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t o f the  Bowra and  Bowra and  burden  Deianeira  and  does  problem  i n v e r t some o f D e i a n e i r a ' s  to draw his i d e a l i z e d  IV.  destruction.  t h a t D e i a n e i r a v i s i b l y w i l t s under the  have to be i d e a l i z e d i n order  points  with  goodness works her  of s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e h e r o i s m t h a t Whitman puts on her."'"' not  found  stronger  to make her  Sophoclean hero i n  general.  Schadewaldt  Schadewaldt b e l i e v e t h a t the Sophoclean hero through  suffering learns  to be modest b e f o r e  the  gods and  t h a t the  c r i s i s of  the  p l a y , by c h a n g i n g the hero's h y b r i s i n t o sophrosyne, r e s t o r e s harmony  56 between him  and  Deianeira's  p o s i t i o n i n the  one in  alters  the  gods.  T h i s view i s c r i t i c i z e d p l a y remains t r u e  i n chapter  one.  to t h a t c r i t i c i s m ,  the meaning o f sophrosyne, as Whitman does.  As  unless  demonstrated  the d i s c u s s i o n of Knox' model o f the h e r o , D e i a n e i r a makes her  w i t h o u t the  support  o f the  gods and  self-destruction.  Althouth  and  to u s u r p him  actually tries  quench H e r a c l e s '  love  she  for l o l e  c a r r i e s i t t h r o u g h to the p o i n t  i s d r i v e n by by and  decision  attempting  E r o s , she  also defies  of Eros,  through m a g i c a l means to  r e k i n d l e h i s love  f o r her.  She  does n o t  68 receive h i s support. and  57  That harmony i s never  r e s t o r e d between D e i a n e i r a  the gods i s perhaps b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t  never  r e u n i t e d w i t h H e r a c l e s , son o f Zeus.  V.  Webster  Webster's s i x b a s i c a s p e c t s o f the Sophoclean have been a c c e p t e d i n t h e model o f the hero are f u l f i l l e d hero  that D e i a n e i r a i s  h e r o , i n s o f a r as they  presented  t o v a r y i n g e x t e n t s by D e i a n e i r a .  i n c h a p t e r one,  A c c o r d i n g t o Webster, the  i s c o n s c i o u s o f h i s b i r t h and, b e i n g n o b l y b o r n , conforms to  certain  standards  of l i f e  and a c t i o n .  D e i a n e i r a i s c o n s c i o u s n o t so  much o f her a c t u a l b i r t h as she i s o f h e r m a r r i a g e , which was the beginning o f her current l i f e  and i d e n t i t y .  Except  f o r a g e n e r a l memory  58 of  the c a r e - l e s s time o f her maidenhood,  remembrance o f h e r i d e n t i t y b e f o r e a f t e r which  D e i a n e i r a has no r e a l  the b a t t l e  between A c h e l o u s  Jtdub paxpos acpap gcgax', / ware icopxts epripa ("and then she  was gone from her mother, l i k e an abandoned c a l f , " is  o f t h i s marriage  action.  a duty  t h a t she conforms to c e r t a i n  standards  of l i f e  t o h i s p a r e n t s and a r i g h t  to expect  loyalty  from h i s  A g a i n , t h i s p o i n t i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d f o r D e i a n e i r a i n terms  o f her m a r r i a g e .  Her p a r e n t s and h e r c h i l d r e n , 59  v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n the p l a y . to both H e r a c l e s and her marriage  of  Deianeira -  Webster h o l d s t h a t the h e r o , as a member o f a f a m i l y , has  to be l o y a l  children.  she  529-530).  c o n s c i o u s o f b e i n g n o b l y m a r r i e d , t o "the b e s t o f men," and i t i s as  a result and  and H e r a c l e s ,  except  f o r H y l l u s , are  However, she has a s t r o n g  and wishes t h a t l o y a l t y  l o v e s H e r a c l e s so much t h a t she i s u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t that l o y a l t y not being returned.  loyalty  t o be r e t u r n e d ; the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  69  D e i a n e i r a i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f Webster's second h e r o i c which a t t r i b u t e s shame.  to the hero f r a n k n e s s ,  D e i a n e i r a openly  troubles  to the  Chorus, but her  persuasion-speech eus  confesses  to L i c h a s  f e e l i n g s about I o l e and she  i s f r a n k about her  to H e r a c l e s of  frankness  (436ff.).  suicide  ( 5 5 5 f f . and (720).  Two  She  £P S /  cited  cos cxdxip / xav  says,  even i f you  do  Deianeira w i l l Heracles' tried will to are  not  ashamed i f her  love f o r her; but,  to win fall  disgracefully.  to bear  d e c i s i o n to the  will  and  Before  sending  bever  fall  xauxrj auv a  nxLS  The  f a i l s and  robe,  596-597).  does not r e g a i n  be  for herself  alone  and  she she  second example o f D e i a n e i r a ' s s e n s i t i v e n e s s  Webster's view t h a t some e v i l s  the hero  suffers  l e a d the hero t o p r e f e r to d i e r a t h e r than  xaxuis x X u o u a a v oux xaxn  live.  l o v e - p h i l t r e , D e i a n e i r a announces  acpaAnaexotL,  opp'p XCIUE a u v d a v e t v  Ttpoxupq. un  aua  dvaaxexdv,  TiecpuxEvac  y e t I have made a d e c i s i o n :  I shall  the  i n t o shame,"  Chorus.  Cnv Y P  robe intention  i f nobody d i s c l o s e s the means by which  xauxou 6e6oxxaL, xeuvos  And  anointed  passages a l s o c o n t a i n n o t a b l e  attempt  A f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g the e f f e c t s o f the her  the  (531ff.)^;  i s f r a n k i n r e v e a l i n g her  back h i s l o v e , the shame w i l l  shame a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s too g r e a t  situation  her  au-axpa Ttpdaang,, ouitox' a t a x u v n Tteafj ("in darkness  shameful t h i n g s , you be  the  a f t e r sending  she  had  i s f r a n k t o the Chorus w i t h  examples o f D e i a n e i r a ' s s e n s i t i v e n e s s to shame. she  u X E u a x a s avfip  a  to cope w i t h  and  6 6 3 f f . ) ; and o f these  a T  d u r i n g her  many women—has H e r a c l e s not  inability  fears before  and p r i v a t e  i s most o b v i o u s  ouxl x  459-460).  her  s e n s i t i v e n e s s to  her v a r i o u s w o r r i e s  ' HpaxAris eynpe 6r*;('"one man, and  v e r y many o t h e r s b e f o r e ? "  f o r t i t u d e , and  aspect,  (719-722) i f he  d i e under the same blow w i t h  falls him.  70 I c o u l d n o t bear t o l i v e  and hear m y s e l f c a l l e d  I , who wish above a l l e l s e to be t r u l y In l i n e 721, D e i a n e i r a e x p r e s s e s Ajax  the p o s s i b i l i t y  good.  a p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i s i d e n t i c a l to  and i s the essence o f h e r o i c e t h i c s . ^ *  1  D e i a n e i r a does n o t c o n s i d e r  t h a t vengeance may be taken on h e r .  Webster's t h i r d a s p e c t o f the h e r o , t h a t he o f f e n d s against Sophocles' p o l i t i c a l she  evil  i d e a l , does n o t a p p l y  i n some way  to Deianeira,  " o f f e n d s " a g a i n s t an i d e a l by b e i n g i g n o r a n t o f i t . She i s an  a p o l i t i c a l c r e a t u r e ; i n f a c t , no s t a t e a c t u a l l y e x i s t s f o r h e r . pev  unless  ev T p a x t v t  avctaTotTOL / £ev^ nap' dv6pt vaLopev  our home, l i v e here i n T r a c h i s , a s t r a n g e r ' s The  l a s t o f Webster's h e r o i c a s p e c t s  (" >  guests"  we  fipetg  driven  from  39-40).  to be c o n s i d e r e d  i s the h e r o ' s  l a c k o f sophrosyne and consequent e x h i b i t i o n o f a r r o g a n c e , v i o l e n c e , haste, i n f l e x i b i l i t y , or f o l l y . of h a s t e ,  such as i m p a t i e n c e ,  D e i a n e i r a e x h i b i t s a l l these philtre  to H e r a c l e s ,  Webster f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e s v a r i o u s  s u s p i c i o n , anger, promptness, and e f f i c i e n c y . forms o f haste  i n c l u d i n g a suggestion  i n h e r s e n d i n g o f the l o v e o f anger.  Deianeira i s not  an angry h e r o , but there i s a touch o f r e p r o v a l e v i d e n t announcing her d e c i s i o n to use the l o v e - p h i l t r e . she  forms  says,  Totti*6'  i n h e r speech  In reference  to l o l e  'HpaxAps,  6 TtLOtbs fiptv x&yadbs xaAoupevog, ouxoupL* dvreneiJ^e  TOO paxpou X P ° ^  0 U  T h i s i s the housekeeping wage my and  noble H e r a c l e s  (540-542) faithful  sends home to me  to compensate f o r h i s l o n g absence! Webster's comment on t h i s passage i s t h a t D e i a n e i r a speaks w i t h scorn of Heracles.  62  bitter  However, he l a t e r s t a t e s t h a t D e i a n e i r a i s n o t  angry w i t h H e r a c l e s , but l o v e s him and cannot endure her own p o s i t i o n .  63  71 l o l e , more than D e i a n e i r a knows,'is " d e s t r u c t i v e of her w i t s " According  to Webster, D e i a n e i r a ' s  A l t h o u g h her motive i s p u r e , she  one  (538).  r a s h a c t i s done i n d e s p a i r .  does not  stop to t h i n k any  more than  64 Oedipus d i d when he k i l l e d h i s f a t h e r .  VI.  According  to G e l l i e , the p r o t a g o n i s t i s c a l l e d upon to d e a l w i t h  ready-made s t a t e o f e v i l . he  a c t s and  Gellie  i s destroyed  ready-made s t a t e o f e v i l  Whatever a c t i o n he by h i s a c t i o n .  takes w i l l  be wrong, but  D e i a n e i r a must d e a l w i t h  c r e a t e d by H e r a c l e s .  In c o n t r a s t to  Heracles' love  d e c i s i o n o f the p l a y . ^  love o f l o l e  (550-551).  however, she  By  h i m s e l f p o i n t s out first-hand  p a s s i v e l y , she w i l l  t a k i n g a c t i o n and  destroys  I f she  Heracles  and,  that, u n t i l  the  decides  sending  the  c o n s i d e r s D e i a n e i r a and  in  the p l a y , he  still  Heracles  makes the  place  anointed  thus, i s d e s t r o y e d time of D e i a n e i r a ' s  f a c t s i n the p l a y are d e s c r i p t i o n s o f her  he  to a c c e p t  f o r f e i t her  dominates the  hero. crucial  She  has  a s t r o n g and  between l o l e suffering  and  Heracles  for Deianeira.  robe to  only  f e e l i n g s . Although prominence  l e v e l of  feeling  •  Kirkwood  noble c h a r a c t e r  and  i s confronted  responds to i n a s p e c i a l way.  involves religious Her  Heracles,  Gellie  a c t i o n , the  Kirkwood's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f the  s i t u a t i o n , which she  and  play.  VII.  Deianeira also f u l f i l l s  lole  herself.  66 D e i a n e i r a alone  to make  i n Heracles'  to h o l d p o s i t i o n s o f e q u a l  statement that, at the  a  Heracles'  u n a l l o y e d m a s c u l i n i t y , D e i a n e i r a , the paragon o f f e m i n i n i t y , has the i m p o r t a n t  a  Sophoclean with  a  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  and moral i s s u e s and  entails  s u f f e r i n g i s t o t a l l y u n r e l i e v e d and  ends i n  72 her  death.  I t i s impossible  circumstances, not  gods, or men,  p e r f e c t , y e t her  Deianeira's  to say whether D e i a n e i r a i s a v i c t i m o f or i s r e s p o n s i b l e , f o r her own  s u f f e r i n g i s not e n t i r e l y  p r e c i p i t a t i o n of  c h a i n o f e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o the deaths o f H e r a c l e s  and  o f the p l a y , and  f a i t h i n the c o n t i n u e d human b e i n g . and  nobility.  the  and,  fate.  In  remedy t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e s  love i t s e l f  t h a t b r i n g s her  i s both her  to l i f e  f a u l t and  her  as  a  strength  t h a t overwhelm D e i a n e i r a are i n  d e s e r v e d i n terms o f her  character.  morally  to  i d e a l o f her  TtecpuxevaL,  guilt.  However, the m i s f o r t u n e s  no way her  is  i t i s t h i s imperfection i n Deianeira's  l o v e of H e r a c l e s  Deianeira's  Deianeira  for Deianeira's  f a c t , i t i s D e i a n e i r a ' s unwise t r u s t i n a d e s p e r a t e the c a t a s t r o p h e  She  a punishment f o r her  c h a r a c t e r , l i k e O e d i p u s ' , causes the  t h e r e f o r e , must bear p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  fate.  722;  "noble b i r t h " and  Deianeira i s loyal  "noble c h a r a c t e r "  " n o b i l i t y of character  ( i t p O T t u c j i un  i s implied i n n o b i l i t y of  Hctxri  birth,  67 but  doubtless  the  the h e r o i c w i t h and  the u n h e r o i c  devotion  nobility same  a crisis,  she  of c o n t r a s t i n g  Creon, A n t i g o n e w i t h  a distinct i s guided  and by  value  Creon of  emphasized i d e a o f that idea.  to H e r a c l e s , a more mundane and  than t h a t o f A j a x or A n t i g o n e , but. one  less  Her  the nobility,  "nobility"  heroic-seeming  expressed  and  acted  in  way.  Kirkwood h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r s with  S o p h o c l e s ' way  (Oedipus w i t h  D e i a n e i r a has  when f a c e d by  i s her  the  ).  Ismene, Ajax w i t h Odysseus) makes c l e a r the e n d u r i n g  hero's n o b i l i t y . and,  former i s meant"  the drama b e i n g  the T r a c h i n i a e  to be  a diptych  play  68  conveyed i n terms o f a c e n t r a l c o n t r a s t between 69  D e i a n e i r a and  Heracles.  A c o n t r a s t e x i s t s between D e i a n e i r a and  Heracles  on human grounds and between D e i a n e i r a ' s human weakness and H e r a c l e s ' 70 superhuman c e r t a i n t y ; i n both elements D e i a n e i r a i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . Deianeira occupies  the dominant p o s i t i o n i n the a c t i o n f o r as g r e a t  a  73 p r o p o r t i o n o f the p l a y as t h a t o c c u p i e d by A j a x D e i a n e i r a v a n i s h a f t e r her  death;  she  i n the A j a x .  Nor  i s constantly represented  does  by H y l l u s  71 i n the  final  scene  (as Ajax  a t o u c h o f the "sublime  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by Teucer 72  q u a l i t y o f heroism"  and  to a l l ,  s t r e n g t h i n her  D e i a n e i r a i s incomplete  The  include unselfish  i m p r a c t i c a l i t y , timorousness love f o r H e r a c l e s .  D e i a n e i r a has  not u n l i k e Ajax'.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f D e i a n e i r a and her n o b i l i t y graciousness  ).  but  devotion,  single-mindedness,  However, Kirkwood s t a t e s t h a t  i n the d r a m a t i c  sense u n t i l  the p i c t u r e o f  73 Heracles  i s added.  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of her  i n H e r a c l e s ' scene, which p r o v i d e s so c r u e l l y .  the answer to why  In t r y i n g to i n t e r f e r e w i t h  grapples with  pattern.  Heracles represents  Deianexra  fated necessity.  The  the  l i e o f Nessus g i v e a  i n t h i s chain of  As  events  Heracles'  i n h i s superhuman,  i s a f o r c e r a t h e r than a c h a r a c t e r .  xs p a r t o f D e i a n e i r a s f a t e .  she  f o r H e r a c l e s , can  i s not a " c h i l d o f Z e u s . "  s t a t u s as the son o f Zeus i s emphasized; and aspect, Heracles  Only  the t r u t h f u l  D e i a n e i r a ' s involvement  l e a d s to d e s t r u c t i o n because she  4  only  Deianeira suffers  the a c t i o n s o f H e r a c l e s  f o r c e s too g r e a t f o r h e r s e l f . ^  b a f f l i n g and m i s l e a d i n g o r a c l e s and meaning and  f a t e are made c l e a r  necessary  such a f o r c e ,  r e p r e s e n t s human  he  uncertaxnty;  l e v e l o f the p a r t i c u l a r  leads  to the u n i v e r s a l , the p o r t r a y a l o f mankind's s t r u g g l e w i t h the powers beyond i t s c o n t r o l , and  again  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f humanity. present  features Deianeira, t h i s "The  final  time  as  the  p a r t o f the p l a y does more  than  the second h a l f o f a v e r y p e n e t r a t i n g c o n t r a s t between D e i a n e i r a  and H e r a c l e s ; i t f u l f i l l s ,  through  the c o n t r a s t , the  tragedy o f D e i a n e i r a .  74 VIII.  Lesky does not d e f i n e H e r a c l e s does see he  Lesky  as  a f o r c e , as does Kirkwood, but  the workings o f a superhuman f o r c e .  c l a i m s , o r i g i n a t e s i n "the  According  case are u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and  as an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e  transcendent  o f t e n s i o n makes us  fully realize  Lesky's view, she h i d e s her h i d d e n them from H e r a c l e s , which H e r a c l e s  pure,  power."  f e e l i n g s from L i c h a s , j u s t and  a l s o must obey.  She  speaks to the her  p l a y s o f Sophocles can be  as she would have  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t she  d e c i s i o n to use o f Odysseus.  the  The  a p p l i e d to D e i a n e i r a .  l o v e - p h i l t r e , D e i a n e i r a does not  the u n f o r e s e e a b l e .  Chorus  I t throws her  from which o n l y death can r e l e a s e h e r .  i s not  limited;  hasty  to see o n l y  into a confusion  79  mere e x i s t e n c e , o t h e r w i s e  she  (663ff.)  , D e i a n e i r a s c o n c e r n i s f o r the and  c o u l d e a s i l y enough have accepted  Deianeira's  e x i s t e n c e , as mentioned e a r l i e r , i s e n t i r e l y dependent  Heracles'.  But  t h i s dependence, w h i c h causes her  s l e e p l e s s n i g h t s , does not  go  approval  collide  human d i g n i t y t h a t demands the t r u t h o f her marriage to H e r a c l e s for  deep  show the calm wisdom  ( 5 8 8 f f . ) makes her  life  love,  f i n d s i n the I n her  e x c e s s o f her energy t h a t a l l o w s her  a c t i o n i n the words o f the  full  In  Chorus o f her  however, c e r t a i n o f the b a s i c h e r o i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he  with  77  speaks o f the overwhelming power o f  o n l y a v a i l a b l e remedy, and 78 a n y t h i n g wrong.  her  and  A sequence o f scenes  L e s k y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the hero oi: the T r a c h i n i a e i s r a t h e r  for  play,  between human  the shock D e i a n e i r a s u f f e r s .  sorrow, her  other  o f the  to L e s k y , the s u b j e c t o f the T r a c h i n i a e i s the r e v e r s a l of human  schemes by powers beyond man's comprehension.  doing  catastrophe  t y p i c a l l y Sophoclean c o n f l i c t  d e s i r e s , " which i n D e i a n e i r a ' s "destiny i n general  The  he  not lole.  on  f e a r s , a n x i e t i e s , and  to the p o i n t of s l a v i s h n e s s . "Hers i s a noble  75 nature,  conscious  o f i t s d i g n i t y as w e l l as aware o f the human c o n d i t i o n .  She  i s e s s e n t i a l l y human.  she  i s entitled  Her a c t o f r a s h n e s s p r o c e e d s from a j e a l o u s y  t o f e e l by v i r t u e o f h e r f a i t h f u l n e s s and from h e r i n s t i n c t s 80  o f s e l f - r e s p e c t and s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . " As to  '  i s the case f o r Lesley's Sophoclean h e r o , D e i a n e i r a i s s u b j e c t e d  terrible  t e n s i o n s ; she must r e l y on her own i n n e r s t r e n g t h , and  whatever she does i s prompted by h e r own w i l l , o f i t s outcome. the  Deianeira's w i l l  t r u t h about I o l e from L i c h a s  although  and h e r s t r e n g t h  she l a c k s c o n t r o l  f o r c e her to o b t a i n  and e n a b l e her to hear the news i n a  81 calm, c o n t r o l l e d manner. robe t o H e r a c l e s .  I t i s the " w i l l  it  i s Deianeira's w i l l  It  i s her w i l l . t o  forgiveness  I t i s the w i l l o f D e i a n e i r a t o send the a n o i n t e d  t h a t makes the d e c i s i o n t o use Nessus'  d i e without  question  determining  attempting  of Deianeira's  will  i s c r u c i a l i n the c o n t e x t o f  h e r r o l e as the hero o f the T r a c h i n i a e .  believes that Deianeira's J . Waldock c l a i m s  that other  t o r e c e i v e the b l e s s i n g s o f  The W i l l o f D e i a n e i r a  a c t i o n i s to deny that she i s capable  A.  love-philtre.  from H y l l u s or H e r a c l e s .  IX.  The  o f the b e a s t " t o k i l l H e r a c l e s ; b u t  To deny h e r w i l l f u l  o f h e r o i c a c t i o n , and n o t everyone  a c t i o n i s p u r e l y the r e f l e c t i o n o f h e r w i l l . t h a t D e i a n e i r a does n o t produce the e v e n t s , but  and f a r more powerful  agencies  o p i n i o n t h a t D e i a n e i r a d i d not do a n y t h i n g  are a t work.  He h o l d s the  s i n g u l a r , her a c t i o n could  82 almost be s a i d  to be t y p i c a l o f women,  sharply i n d i v i d u a l . character  act i s not  The d i s a s t e r s o f the p l a y do n o t come from h e r  b u t from the m a l i c e  foreordained.  and t h a t D e i a n e i r a ' s  o f a centaur  and from dooms t h a t have been  The events are produced by magic unguents and come about  76 in  fulfillment of oracles,  83  A c t u a l l y , Waldock's view advances no evidence p o s i t i o n as hero. to  take  According  a c t i o n although  against  Deianeira's  to Lesky, i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  he l a c k s c o n t r o l o f i t s outcome.  f o r the hero  I n the T r a c h i n i a e  c e r t a i n dooms have been " f o r e o r d a i n e d , " and the events "do come about i n . "fulfillment of oracles."  I n what Sophoclean p l a y i s t h e r e a sense t h a t  the h e r o ' s doom has n o t been f o r e o r d a i n e d ? fulfill  Whose a c t i o n s more m a n i f e s t l y  o r a c l e s than Oedipus'?  W i t h the a r r i v a l o f I o l e t o u s u r p D e i a n e i r a ' s  p l a c e i n h e r own home, 84  D e i a n e i r a i s no l o n g e r say  able to  "no" o r e l s e cease t o e x i s t  bend w i t h  the wind."  as a human b e i n g .  D e i a n e i r a must  A t t h i s p o i n t , i n the  view o f K. F . S l a t e r , D e i a n e i r a h e s i s t a n t l y , f e a r f u l l y , advice, is  still  total  tries  t o c o n t r o l the course  o f her own l i f e .  and w h i l e  seeking  However, because she  under the i n f l u e n c e o f a n o t h e r , the Centaur, "the attempt i s a  failure."  " I n s e e k i n g t o f r e e h e r own w i l l ,  she does o n l y the w i l l  85 o f the b e a s t . "  A l t h o u g h S l a t e r denies  Deianeira  free w i l l  i n the a c t i o n  of the l o v e - p h i l t r e , she does a l l o w D e i a n e i r a to r e c o v e r her own w i l l after  the a c t i o n has been completed.  receives H y l l u s ' reproaches, She  I n the s i l e n c e w i t h which she  D e i a n e i r a takes  hold of h e r s e l f at l a s t .  r e f u s e s to blame Nessus and r e f u s e s a l l d e f e n s e .  assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h no e x c u s e . ^ if  she cannot d i r e c t  at  least  prevent  contingency  f o r what happened through her agency and p u t s  When D e i a n e i r a k i l l s the course  to her own ends, she can  f u r t h e r d i s t o r t i o n by e x t e r i o r f o r c e s .  and the s h a c k l e d  87 lacked."  h e r s e l f , she demonstrates t h a t ,  o f her l i f e  "She r i s e s above  p a s s i v i t y o f h e r female r o l e o n l y  moment o f h e r d e a t h , b u t then w i t h life  L i k e O e d i p u s , she  i n the  a l l the s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s which h e r  However, to deny D e i a n e i r a f r e e w i l l philtre  seems to me  Nessus .  to be  t o t a l l y wrong.  not even the same.  D e i a n e i r a d e s i r e s the  w i s h e s the d e a t h o f H e r a c l e s . variance with  responsibility  and Nessus' w i l l  are  love o f H e r a c l e s , Nessus  I n the same way  that Oedipus' w i l l  are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t .  The  i s at  (unknown t o  i s to d i e at the hands o f someone dead from D e i a n e i r a .  p r e d e s t i n e d , merely p r e d i c t e d . i t D e i a n e i r a who  decides  Her  Deianeira)  (1159-1161) remove  a c t s , l i k e O e d i p u s ' , were  An e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n . "  to use  Free  o r a c l e s d i d not remove  from O e d i p u s , n o r does the o r a c l e  responsibility  is  love-  d e c i s i o n not  i s at v a r i a n c e w i t h the r e s u l t s o f her a c t i o n s .  responsibility  that Heracles  the  the w i l l o f the d i v i n e o r a c l e s and hence w i t h h i s a c t i o n s ,  Deianeira's w i l l and  I t i s Deianeira's  As I p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , D e i a n e i r a ' s w i l l  1  will  i n her d e c i s i o n t o use  88  "not Not  only  the unguent, but i t i s a l s o she  who 89  decides  to a c c e p t  When she and  the unguent from the centaur  silently  what can  draws the n e c e s s a r y  be expected  misjudgment i s h e r s  and  i n the  connection  to b e f a l l H e r a c l e s , she that Heracles'  first  place.  between the wool's f a t e recognizes  that  the  f a t e seems to have been s e a l e d  90 by her  hand.  H.  A . Mason b e l i e v e s t h a t D e i a n e i r a , h a v i n g  philtre,  "while  apparently  Greeks took to be hamartia  showing wisdom i n the  the primary  by o p p o s i n g  f a c t s of l i f e ,  decided  to use  face of what  the  love-  the  i s g o i n g to commit  tragic  the white magic of Eros w i t h the b l a c k magic o f  the  91 centaur." to D e i a n e i r a .  The  " b l a c k magic" b e l o n g s to the  Her  a c t i o n i s an immediate one;  H e r a c l e s ' r e t u r n and reproaches him  Centaur; the a c t i o n b e l o n g s she  then choose a " r i g h t " course  D e i a n e i r a w i t h her r a s h n e s s ; 92 the r i g h t to c u r s e h e r " (810).  "her  does not w a i t of a c t i o n .  until  Hyllus  r a s h n e g l e c t o f deyuc  gives  There i s no  doubt t h a t D e i a n e i r a ' s  up w i t h H e r a c l e s ' . Heracles  makes no  However, i t i s D e i a n e i r a who attempt to b i n d h i m s e l f  attempts t o l o o s e n h i s c o n n e c t i o n s a c t i o n s o f D e i a n e i r a cause and According  existence  binds  h e r s e l f to  with Deianeira.  The  to Kamerbeek, the meaning o f the p l a y  fact,  play.  as seen from  summed up  faithful  in  Heracles  f e e l i n g s and  s u f f e r the movement o f the  demonstrates a n o b l e and  as  the  follows:  woman's f a t e ; shows her  s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t her husband's i n f i d e l i t y by  d e s t i n y are bound  to D e i a n e i r a and,  p o i n t o f v i e w o f D e i a n e i r a c o u l d perhaps be it  and  a c r a f t y s t r o k e o f f a t e which makes her  and  destroyed  involuntarily  cause h i s d e a t h ; so u n a c c o u n t a b l e i s human d e s t i n y and  such  93 are  the  gods' i n s c r u t a b l e ways.  However, Kamerbeek f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s not  a complete p i c t u r e because i t  does n o t  But  account f o r H e r a c l e s '  in  the  last  quarter  o f the  It  i s Deianeira's w i l l  and  t h a t D e i a n e i r a f i n d s her D e i a n e i r a h e r s e l f , not  meets her her  fate.  p l a y l e s s e n the r o l e her  The  by H e r a c l e s .  Heracles  Deianeira.  o f the p l a y , H e r a c l e s  from h i s l a b o r s .  I t i s true  She  e x e r c i s e s her w i l l  is a significant  and  part  of  d e s t r u c t i o n i s perhaps It is a  ( u s i n g the l o v e - p h i l t r e ) and (sending l o l e  home).  does not meet h i s f i n a l end,  D e i a n e i r a , whose a c t s o f w i l l  but  i n a sense, i t i s  f a t e than o f H e r a c l e s ' .  an i n d i r e c t r e s u l t o f an a c t i o n o f h i s w i l l the course  Deianeira?  i s Deianeira's Heracles,  I n f a c t , as seen i n the p l a y , H e r a c l e s '  r e s u l t of an a c t i o n o f h e r ' w i l l  appearance  t h i s i s made c l e a r by  Therefore,  destruction of Heracles  more a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f D e i a n e i r a ' s direct  p l a y e d by  f a t e t h a t a c t upon H e r a c l e s .  i s d r a m a t i c a l l y independent.  fate.  does H e r a c l e s '  i d e n t i t y i n Heracles;  D e i a n e i r a i s not H e r a c l e s ' D e i a n e i r a who  presence.  and  only  During release  determine the c o u r s e  of  79 e v e n t s i n the p l a y , r e a c h e s her end kills  h e r s e l f a f t e r having  o f her kills  identity.  rather  than l i v e w i t h o u t the  Deianeira  heroic w i l l .  love of H e r a c l e s  has  l o s t her  g l o r y o f her  love.  with  and  T h a t she  emerges w i t h i n the  f r e e i n d i v i d u a l whose a c t s o f w i l l Deianeira  Trachiniae.  therefore  herself  i s unable  heroic  to  character. to  p l a y i t s e l f as  determine the c o u r s e o f the  i s the hero o f the  source  a different  f i t s w e l l many o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d she  She  the  identity, k i l l s  t r u e i d e n t i t y i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f her  Sophoclean h e r o e s , and  events.  the  than l i v e w i t h o u t i t s g l o r y and  D e i a n e i r a , r e a l i z i n g she  l i v e w i t h o u t her  other  destroyed  f u l f i l l s her  A j a x l o s e s h i s m a r t i a l - h e r o i c i d e n t i t y and  himself rather  identity.  and  a  play's  80  NOTES -- CHAPTER TWO  .*  Poetics 1453a;  c f . chapter one, page 6.  2 These two sets of l i n e s are i l l u s t r a t i o n s of what Kamerbeek (201) r e f e r s to as the " t r a g i c day" concept, which often underlies the action of a tragedy 3  (see also Aj_. 131 and 753).  i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that i n this passage Deianeira rouses the Chorus; she becomes, i n e f f e c t , the  xopnyds.  In lines 225-228 she r e j o i n s  the Chorus. See chapter  four for a further development of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the Chorus and Deianeira. 4  Poetics 1453b;  c f . page 7.  ~*  Knox, 3;  c f . page 8.  ^  Knox, 7;  c f . page 8.  7  Cf. 147-152.  g The  small measure of joy Deianeira finds i n her love of Heracles i s  firmly joined to her s u f f e r i n g .  That meagre amount of joy, i n f a c t ,  increases the depth of her s u f f e r i n g . 9  Gellie  (63) points out another i n d i c a t i o n of Deianeira's  the unsureness of communication.  isolationj  Deianeira i s robbed of Heracles'  presence and cannot make r e l i a b l e contact by report.  The only thing Dei-  aneira can be c e r t a i n of i s that she knows how she f e e l s .  ^  She  does n o t a c c e p t  tempered" f o r one  the Chorus' s u g g e s t i o n  who  errs unwillingly.  TOuauTa  6'  H  Cypris i s presented  almost  vuxas MOU,  nap£$av,  OEV 12  Cf. Kamerbeek,  replies:  6 TOU  as a f o r c e d i s t i n c t  T U a d e v o s d Kunpus  peya  anger f e l t i s  toxou  $ pn6ev ear' o u x o u B a p u  dAA'  MOUVCOVOS,  She  A E E ^ E U E V oux  av  t h a t "the  (729-730).  from the o t h e r  gods.  EKtpepeTau  dsu.  xa  xau  PEV  SESV  onws  ou Aeyw  Kpovu6av  ditaTa-  (497-500).  161.  13 "The  1  4  e x c e p t i o n i s o f course  C f . Kamerbeek, One of  almost  137.  wonders i f the Chorus i n t h i s passage i s p l a y i n g the  Deianeira's  This point w i l l  17 Knox, 10;  the T r a c h i n i a e " (Knox, 8 ) .  role  conscience. be  developed  c f . chapter  one,  i n chapter  page  four.  10.  18 Cf. c h a p t e r  one,  page  10.  19 However, she of 20  her  does not announce to anyone e l s e the a c t u a l e s s e n c e  plan.  Cf Kamerbeek, 117. Tipoaappo'Cu  or  both.  makes us  D e i a n e i r a has  a l r e a d y c o n c e i v e d her  fatal pl; Lan.  t h i n k o f the p e p l o s , or p h i l t r u m ( c f . 687-dppo'oaupu) ,  82 kdv  (puAxpous 6' xnv  This as  ^  seems t o be  the  heroic  question  made up  fhe  Knox  argument.  the  Electra  tells  even suspect  f o r them a r e c o l l e c t i o n  (ou  During  their  the  them t h r e e  lines  6f* icod' cos  oAedpua  TUVU  yctxauov  a term s u i t a b l e an e x a m p l e o f  davouoa;  a n s w e r s , xau  Deianeira's  death  u e p a y'  (586-587).  tone  intended  on  uad'  that  lines  nature  of  Their  intentions.  h i s m o t h e r , do  Even  not  words  Chorus e x p r e s s  the  w i t h i n the  misfortune  TeSvrixev  fi T a A a u v a ;  878)  and  87.7.  still  call  of  at 8 6 2 f f . , the  to c o n f i r m t h a t D e i a n e i r a i s r e a l l y  876.  \£yw.  Y|  suicide.  of Deianeira's e a r l i e r  Tpditcp dotVEUV aep£ cprjs;  no  house. dead  TotAauv*.  more l i n e s  killed  This  that D e i a n e i r a would r e a c t i n a f i e r c e  to say  well  for expressing  the  t h a t D e i a n e i r a has  i s not  as  C h r y s o t h e m i s t h a t h e r m i n d i s made  (815-820), which wish  s u s p i c i o n of  takes  (584-585).  peynx^vnTat x o o p y o v  suspicion of Deianeira's  to  It  'HpaxAEU  When P h i l o c t e t e s i s a s k e d w h e t h e r h i s m i n d i s  lines  hint of  ecp'  6oxto / itpdooEuv  6e6oxTau i s n o t  Hyllus'  determination.  TOUS  (11) u s e s i t as  a t 8 1 3 - 8 1 4 v o i c e no  mind  UTiEpgaAtoyeda  c o n d i t i o n of  (OUTCO, 6e6oxTctu 1 2 7 7 ) , he  Chorus does not  lines  2^  that  6£6oMxau ( 1 0 4 9 ) .  up,  23  a part of  resolution.  a l l o w s no  SEAV.TPOLOU  xau  f o l l o w i n g i t , E U T U yn  phrase  T h e r e i s no  nau6a  utos T f * v 6 '  to  realize  h e r s e l f (EUTCE Tcp ydpcp, yuvotu, £uvTpexsu  and  880).  angry  manner.  25 Actually she ^  she  does  sends o f f the  test  anointed  Hyllus' imprecations following To  scene  H y l l u s and  i t , but  and  does n o t  robe  in this  to see  the  results  before  Heracles.  speech are  a l s o because  Heracles  to  wait  they  tragic  are  both  b a s e d on  in light  of  an e r r o n e o u s  the idea.  D e i a n e i r a ' s mood t e m p o r a r i l y seems t o h a v e  been  one  of excessive  i s not  to be  b o l d n e s s and  rashness,  yn'x'  indeed  Deianeira's intention  bold, MaMots 6e xdApas ppx'  although  although  eTCLaxauynv  eyw  xe xoAyaxras axvyui  ExydSoLyu, xds  (582-583),  her mention o f i t perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t she  b e i n g more b o l d  than she  cares  f e a r s she  is  to admit to h e r s e l f ,  27 ' See  chapter  one,  page 12  for a l i s t  of additional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  28 Does D e i a n e i r a not Heracles not be  seek to comfort and o b t a i n the  because she no  forgiveness  of  l o n g e r needs him or because she knows he  c o m f o r t e d or g i v e  forgiveness?  D e i a n e i r a wants H e r a c l e s '  will love,  not h i s o p i n i o n . 9 Q  "  D e i a n e i r a must f e e l  too t h a t the world  i s mocking her  knows, thanks to the Messenger, t h a t her While a c c o s t i n g L i c h a s he TCOAAOLCTUV  as w e l l .  s i t u a t i o n i s common knowledge.  said, daxwv.  ev yean Tpaxuvuwv xauxd y'  dyopcji uoAus aou  OUK  euanHoua' oxAos  typical  silent  reserve  about the o p i n i o n s o f  others.  xaux' o3v  she  (427-428).  does not v e r b a l l y e x p r e s s  (jjoBouyat yri udai-s yev  (550-551).  surely expresses  more a f e a r of the a c t u a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s  s t a t e of a f f a i r s  b e i n g known and  once.  than o f  the  t a l k e d about.  In f a c t , D e i a n e i r a does not mention C y p r i s by name, and only  concern  'HpaxAris  eybs xaAnxab, xtls vewxdpas 6' dvnp  30  (423-424).  eitwyoxos Aeywv  6ayapx* ecpaaxes 'HpaxAeu xauxriv dyeuv; In her  She  she names  Eros  84 "EptOTL UGV TI\5MTTIS  VUV  OOTI.C d v i a v iT-aTaxa u  OTttog es xeZpag,  ou xaXais opoveu  (441-442).  C y p r i s i s mentioned o n l y t h r e e t i m e s i n the p l a y , and o n l y by Chorus (497, 515,  the  860-862).  31 " K u p r i s and E r o s are not gods i n t h i s p l a y ; t h e y a r e mere common nouns, ' d e s i r e ' and  ' p a s s i o n ' " ( D o r o t h e a Wender, " S e x u a l Imagery i n the  T r a c h i n i a e , " Ramus 3 (1974) 1 4 ) . t o Love between the two  C e r t a i n l y the a l t e r n a t i o n o f  d i v i n i t i e s suggests  i n d i v i d u a l l y d e f i n e d as a p e r s o n a l i t y .  The  references  t h a t n e i t h e r o f them i s one  reference that o v e r t l y  r e f e r s t o e i t h e r f i g u r e as a d i v i n i t y i s made by t h e Messenger a t l i n e "Epu)s 6e vuv / yo'vos SeGv SeX^euev aLxpdcrau xd6e four occurrences speaks o f r.ls  6 xnod*  of  epa>s r e p r e s e n t  epws (paveus •  (354-355).  the common noun.  A t 489  A t 443  Lichas says,  TOU  Two  of  354  the  the Messenger  T i j a S '  epunros  anavd' noatov e<pu.  32 Cf. R. C. J e b b , S o p h o c l e s , (Cambridge, 1892)  70,  The  P l a y s and  F r a g me n t s, P a r t V The  Trachiniae  72.  33 D e i a n e i r a i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f w i t h the women H e r a c l e s ridicule 3 4  See  lines  has  s e n t home.  To  them would be t o r i d i c u l e h e r s e l f . 536ff.  35 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t D e i a n e i r a took the l o v e - p h i l t r e the f i r s t p l a c e . (and what new 36  I f she had  had  complete t r u s t and  from Nessus i n  faith in  b r i d e does not d e s e r v e to have such t r u s t and  why would she have taken the l o v e - p h i l t r e ? Throughout the p l a y H e r a c l e s i s the o n l y p e r s o n f o r whom she love.  Heracles faith?),  expresses  85 37  Deianeira's c h i l d r e n are, i n f a c t , lost to her (see 817ff. and 911). This thought together with l o s i n g Heracles by her own dpapxta drives Deianeira to her death. itself"  "auaLS  (Kamerbeek, 196).  loss of Heracles.  ouata i s for her the negation of existence  I should place the emphasis more on Deianeira's  She i s dependent on Heracles  (although she i s forced  to be independent since he o f f e r s her no support) and on being Heracles' wife.  Her existence begins and ends with Heracles.  c h i l d r e n i s less apparent i n the play. c h i l d r e n whom we meet.  The r o l e of her  Hyllus i s the only one of her  Her other c h i l d r e n are not even l i v i n g with her  at present, but are at Tiryns (1152) and Thebes (1154).  Why else would she not l i v e u n t i l she could see Heracles and t r y to comfort him i n the agony of h i s l a s t l i v i n g moments? Perhaps the greatest and most tragic i l l u s t r a t i o n of Deianeira's i s o l a t i o n and abandonment occurs after her death when, following H y l l u s ' expression of her innocence i n f u l f i l l i n g the " w i l l o f the beast," Heracles forgets her. 39  Knox speaks of the hero's death as the l o g i c a l end of the hero's r e f u s a l to compromise.  L i v i n g i n human society i s one continuous  subduing one's own w i l l and desires to the requirements  compromise of  o f others.  Deianeira's w i l l and desires are the love of Heracles, and the case o f Iole shows her that she no longer i s able to cope with Heracles' requirements  for other women.  40  Another l i n e from the Nurse's speech i l l u s t r a t e s a c e r t a i n aspect of Deianeira's character: -na%6z,ei' tv p e a o L a u v euvaxnpuots  Both Deianeira and Antigone need a man.  (918).  Deianeira, to a c e r t a i n extent,  86 has  one;  t h e r e f o r e , she  t h e r e f o r e , she necessarily 41  and  Still,  2  Whitman,  4  3  He  cites  his place.  i s t h e r e not  i n the  Only the  the  following references  gods l i v e  110.  46 Whitman,  110.  Whitman,  111.  4  5  7  ^  The is and  49  Chorus at 592  Whitman,  note  669,  say  "you  must do  710,  and  a d e c i s i v e or f a t a l  l a t e and  1118,  i t to f i n d o u t "  truth,  and  the  1171.  lives  forever.  ( 6ptooav).  action  6pcfui  ( c f . Whitman,  112  23).  112.  she  i s not weak, but  has  a r e s t r a i n e d , h e r o i c grandeur; she  amid h u m i l a t i o n s , gentle;  does not  934,  have b l e s s e d  E.^. , D e i a n e i r a p o s s e s s e s the p a r a d o x i c a l  and  o f the  the  death?  t o l e a r n i n g too  694,  f r e e from t o i l  always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 265,  i s then  106.  Whitman,  4  character  none;  a sense o f v i c t o r y , even a m i d s t  f i n a l i t y o f her  u n c e r t a i n t y o f knowledge: 44  Deianeira's  s u f f e r i n g , f o r Oedipus, i n h i s possession  for Deianeira,  4  must f i l l  A n t i g o n e has  l e s s m a s c u l i n e , but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s h e r o i c .  Whitman, 106. horror  can j u s t d e s i r e h i s p l a c e .  the  has  an i n t e l l i g e n t  and  any  heroic submissiveness;  i s a l l l o v e ; she  by p r o f o u n d sympathy; she  supremacy o f her  recognize  q u a l i t y of y i e l d i n g strength;  gentleness  preserves  i s compassionate,  she dignity  intelligent  i s a kind of arete.  Whitman  l e s s than admirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n D e i a n e i r a .  87 1  Is D e i a n e i r a  not  t r a n s g r e s s i n g or d e f y i n g E r o s ?  speech to L i c h a s contesting  the  (436ff.) Deianeira  case f o r H e r a c l e s '  d e n i e s the  The  point  i s that i n  p o s s i b i l i t y of  her  her  l o v e w i t h another woman.  I n a d d i t i o n to h i s i n v e r s i o n o f the word " s o p h r o s y n e " and  the r e s u l t i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Whitman (114-115) d e n i e s any  p r i d e on  part  Deianeira.  f e e l s t h a t i n her  Contrary  t o magic D e i a n e i r a and  deplorable  prideful, the  and  t h a t i n the  require  one  f o r her  action.  a good w i f e  pride.  act of u s i n g  To  Deianeira  l o v e and  to c a l l  her  and  tragedy.  has  i n her  Cf. D e i a n e i r a ' s  speech  " R i g h t l y then does she  achiever  Deianeira's Heracles"  H.  i d e n t i t y as  r i p her  a reason  of H e r a c l e s .  a However,  i s to m i s u n d e r s t a n d  The  Symbolism o f  her  own  p e p l o s on her She  Deianeira  Sophocles'  ( M u s u r i l l o , 380).  youthful  m a r r i a g e bed  is a sacrifice  and  slay  to C y p r i s ,  'the  Likewise,  377).  17.  earlier  beauty were b o t h s a c r i f i c e d  F. Johansen, "Sophocles 1939-1959," Lustrum 7  page  seems to  i d e n t i t y and  the w i f e  deplorable  pyre.  o f t h i s deed'"  modesty and  Cf. c h a p t e r one,  swallows  (1961) 372-383.  a sacred  (Musurillo,  t o magic i s not  531ff.  Women o f T r a c h i s , " TAPA 92  silent  recourse  a s t r o n g i n t e r n a l sense o f p r i d e ,  Cf. H e r b e r t M u s u r i l l o , "Fortune's Wheel:  as on  of  demonstrates u n e x p e c t e d  a sense o f p r i d e  a sense o f her own  p r i d e unexpected and  h e r s e l f there  and  the p h i l t r e D e i a n e i r a  deny D e i a n e i r a  a l s o to deny her  i n her  her  c e a s e s to be  p r i d e , Whitman s t a t e s t h a t r e c o u r s e  l a s t o f her  pride  to Bowra (125-128), who  the  (1962),  161.  to  If  she e v e r thought the p h i l t r e was Eros and r e p r e s e n t e d h i s s u p p o r t ,  she was d e c e i v e d by him no l e s s  58  than A j a x was d e c e i v e d by A t h e n a .  »  t  ayox^ov e£aC*p£t- gC*ov ES xou§', ews TUS otvxt, itap^evou •H\r)%y  ywr\  (147-149),  D e i a n e i r a t e l l s h e r Chorus o f maidens.  59 We know i n d i r e c t l y w o r r i e s on t h e i r  t h a t D e i a n e i r a does l o v e h e r c h i l d r e n and s u f f e r  account.  A d d r e s s i n g the Chorus, she speaks o f a  maiden e n t e r i n g m a r r i a g e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h h e r own e x p e r i e n c e the t r o u b l e s w i t h which D e i a n e i r a i s weighed down. nxot, npbs dv6pbs n xexvcov cpoBoupevn  (150).  60 xctux' ouv (poBoOpao pri epos naXmat,  TCOOLS  pev ' HpaxAris  xr\S veuxepas 6' dvnp. (550-551).  61 Cf. Kamerbeek, 161.  62 T. B. L . Webster, " S o p h o c l e s ' T r a c h i n i a e , " Greek P o e t r y and L i f e : Essays 6  3  Webster  f o r G i l b e r t Murray  ( O x f o r d , 1936) 170.  " S o p h o c l e s ' T r a c h i n i a e , " 172.  dAA' ou yap,  ^  uoiuep elitov, opyauveuv  yuvatwa vouv exouaav D e i a n e i r a ' s Auir.npi.ov Acocpnpa  (552-553).  (554) might not be an e x h i b i t i o n o f r a g e ,  but i t i s D e i a n e i r a ' s s u b s t i t u t e character).  xaAov  f o r rage (an emotion f o r e i g n t o h e r  I t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t an example o f vouv e'xwv.  Perhaps  this  89 passage i s e v i d e n c e o f D e i a n e i r a ' s  6  5  Gellie,  6  6  G e l l i e , 57.  ^  6  7  8  t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f sophrosyne.  214, 215.  Kamerbeek, 161.  Kirkwood, 291.  69 Diptych  7  0  i s a d e l i b e r a t e form, n o t a f a i l u r e o f form;  G. M. Kirkwood, "The Dramatic. U n i t y 72 (1941) 203, 205. t h i s p o i n t even  Kirkwood, 46.  of Sophocles' T r a c h i n i a e , "  I n A Study o f Sophoclean Drama, 118, he t a k e s  f u r t h e r and p l a c e s  the main emphasis  o f the c e n t r a l  c o n t r a s t n o t on the more-than-human r e a c h o f H e r a c l e s ' the  7  1  TAPA  n a t u r e , but on  human q u a l i t i e s o f D e i a n e i r a .  G i l b e r t Norwood, Greek Tragedy  (London, 1920) 158.  72 Kirkwood, A Study oi: Sophoclean Drama, 50. 73 I suggest t h a t on the non-dramatic l e v e l D e i a n e i r a herself.  One gets the f e e l i n g t h a t the H e r a c l e s  adds t h i s  picture  she l o v e s e x i s t s  only  i n h e r mind. 74 Charles  Segal,  L'Antiquite  7  7  7  5  Kirkwood,  "The Hydra's N u r s l i n g :  Classique  Image and A c t i o n i n t h e T r a c h i n i a e , "  44 (1975) 617.  "The Dramatic U n i t y o f S o p h o c l e s ' T r a c h i n i a e , " 211.  ^ Kirkwood, A Study i n Sophoclean Drama, 50-51.  7  Lesky, 110.  90 78  Deianeira not  hardly  appears t o be convinced., as Lesley c l a i m s ,  doing anything  t h a t she i s  wrong.  79 Lesky o b s e r v e s i n the A j a x and the A n t i g o n e t h a t the c o n s e q u e n t l y disturbed world-order regains Perhaps the p r o s p e c t i v e  i t s e q u i l i b r i u m by the end o f t h e p l a y .  union o f Hyllus  and l o l e  a r e t u r n t o e q u i l i b r i u m i n the T r a c h i n i a e . Deianeira 8  0  sexually, Hyllus replaces  i srepresentative o f  J u s t as l o l e  replaced  Heracles.  Kamerbeek, 25.  81 See  Kamerbeek  109-110 f o r a treatment o f D e i a n e i r a ' s  confrontation  with  Lichas. OO  I s n o t A j a x ' a c t i o n i n the A j a x then "almost t y p i c a l " o f a Homeric war h e r o , and would i t be s a i d views D e i a n e i r a physically  t h a t he d i d n o t h i n g  "singular"?  as the e t e r n a l woman i n whom the  M u s u r i l l o (383)  forces o f Cypris are  expressed.  83 A.  84  J . A . Waldock, Sophocles the D r a m a t i s t  C f . l i . A . Mason "'The Deianeira  Women o f T r a c h i s ' , "  alone i n the p l a y d w e l l s  (Cambridge,  1951) 101-102.  A r i o n 2 (1963) 115.  on the number o f o c c a s i o n s  when  i Heracles to g i v e  has been " i n f e c t e d " by l o v e . primary s t r e s s to the f a c t  faced with a f i n a l ,  lasting  However, the p l a y i s  constructed  t h a t i n the case o f l o l e D e i a n e i r a i s  rival.  85 Kathleen F i e l d  A r i o n N.S. Assumption  S l a t e r , "Some S u g g e s t i o n s f o r S t a g i n g  the T r a c h i n i a e , "  3 (1976), 60. of responsibility  i s a clear i n d i c a t i o n o f Deianeira's  heroic nature Heracles events,  and h e r r o l e  as h e r o i n the a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y .  n e v e r assumes any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r the play's c a t a s t r o p h i c  e v e n t h o u g h i t was h i s a c t i o n i n s e n d i n g  Iole  to Deianeira  that  set o f f the chain o f events.  8 7  S l a t e r , 60.  88 Knox, "Sophocles'  O e d i p u s , " T r a g i c Themes i n A n c i e n t  Literature,  22.  O Q  Kamerbeek  (155)  Deianeira's ^  inner compulsion  I n the words o f the Chorus guilt  i s compressed.  Q1 J  b e l i e v e s or' ? i v epyaaTeov  Mason,  115.  92 Kamerbeek,  175.  Kamerbeek,  25.  93  (688)  i s "very  suggestive of  t o a c t as she d i d . "  ( 8 4 1 - 8 4 6 ) the tragedy o f Deianeira's  guiltles  92  CHAPTER THREE HERACLES  Heracles  appears i n the T r a c h i n i a e i n l i n e s 947-1278.  One  1  view  o f t h i s l a s t q u a r t e r o f the p l a y c l a i m s t h a t i t t r e a t s D e i a n e i r a i n a negative  only  s e n s e , s i n c e her e x i s t e n c e i s shown t o be bound up  with  2 Heracles'.  The  l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f the p l a y , however, d e a l s w i t h  Deianeira 3  i n a "negative Heracles  s e n s e " o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t she  i s not  i s t r e a t e d more as a f o r c e t h a n as a p e r s o n .  present.  S o p h o c l e s has  not  done a n y t h i n g t o humanize h i s b a r b a r o u s v i o l e n c e , immense a p p e t i t e s , and the superhuman d i m e n s i o n s t h a t he d i s p l a y s as a f i g u r e o f saga. s u p e r l a t i v e m a s c u l i n i t y and  "His  f o r c e , moving on a non-human l e v e l , form a  4 p o l a r c o n t r a s t : w i t h D e i a n e i r a ' s v e r y human womanliness and A g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s can be  l a i d on  dependence."  the p r e d e s t i n e d c h a r a c t e r o f  f a t e by the c o n s t a n t mention t h r o u g h o u t the p l a y o f the o r a c l e s .  Heracles' Because  o r a c l e s are n o t mentioned where D e i a n e i r a i s c o n c e r n e d , i t has  been  claimed  destiny  that t h i s "confirms  our f e e l i n g t h a t her e x i s t e n c e and  are bound up w i t h H e r a c l e s ' . " " '  But i t i s because h e r e x i s t e n c e  and  d e s t i n y are bound up w i t h H e r a c l e s ' t h a t the o r a c l e s do p e r t a i n t o Deianeira.  I n f a c t , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the o r a c l e s seems t o have a  g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on D e i a n e i r a ' s  a c t i o n s than on H e r a c l e s ' .  does not r i s e to meet h i s f a t e .  He  Heracles  i s , i n f a c t , f u l l of b i t t e r n e s s  a g a i n s t the f a t e t h a t has brought him down a t the hands o f a woman. Seeing himself trapped  i n a p a i n f u l , demeaning, m e a n i n g l e s s end, he i s  outraged at h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s . i n the f a c e o f her  D e i a n e i r a d i s c o v e r s courage and  fate; Heracles  d i s c o v e r s weakness.  vuv 6  strength ex  93  dnXus nupnuai, xdXac  TOUOUTOU  discovered  a woman,"  soaked i n the p a i n ; he  I , once such a man,  ("Now  1075).  P o s s e s s e d by  Centaur's b l o o d  symbolizes,  i s u n a b l e to s e t h i s w i l l  the b e s t i a l i t y he  to perform a r o l e The in  against i t .  degree,--in  has  to f o l l o w D e i a n e i r a . *  He  u n i t y o f the  demands t h a t H e r a c l e s ,  the  tragedy  the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t Perhaps, then, he truly  should  d e v e l o p e d by  the "the  poisoned  t h a t the  artistic  "hero h i m s e l f , " ought to  play's  of character with  According  to him,  g r e a t hero's d e s t i n y . "  the deepest pathos  prove the  stronger,  the o n l y way  to  secure  a l e s s noble f i g u r e , q u a l i f y i n g f e a t u r e s , and  her  to b r i n g out i n  sublime and  pathetic i n  9 h  a  t  t  h  i  s  h  a  s  n  o  t  the  to p l a c e D e i a n e i r a more  manner e v e r y t h i n g T  as  Jebb, however, i s u n w i l l i n g  would be  less attractive  and most powerful  pathos  T h i s statement seems to a s s i g n  t r a g i c hero to D e i a n e i r a .  assignment.  For  the p u r e l y human i n t e r e s t , i f  a g r e a t master, c o u l d not but g  i n i t s e s s e n c e , more t r a g i c . "  fullest  claims  s h o u l d not have to compete w i t h  the background by making her  graces  so,  l o o k elsewhere f o r the p l a y ' s u n i t y .  paramount e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r H e r a c l e s in  does  throughout.  of humanity... F o r , i n such a c o m p e t i t i o n ,  the  he  to dominate the scene, i t would r e q u i r e t h a t "the  o f t h i s unique b e i n g  accept  and  conceived,  of the p l a y t u r n s on the  the death o f H e r a c l e s .  to  wishing  7  r o b e , which i s to be  r o l e o f the  p l a y , by  a manner almost u n i q u e ;  perfectly effective;  Jebb b e l i e v e s t h a t the c a t a s t r o p h e  being,  the  o f the T r a c h i n i a e , though g r a n d l y  short of being  because he  fully  robe  t h a t i s not h i s .  the v e r y h i g h e s t  falls  Heracles  t h a t the  am  D e i a n e i r a o f the T r a c h i n i a e i s d r a m a t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e  the H e r a c l e s  be  misery  i s a t the mercy o f h i s  Jebb a l s o c r e a t e s problems f o r h i m s e l f and Heracles  i n my  b  e  e  n  d  o  n  e  j  J  g  b  b  f  e  e  l  S  j  94 is  t h e one s e r i o u s d e f e c t o f t h e T r a c h i n i a e . It  seems u n l i k e l y  "defect" into in  the r o l e  aspects  the play.  Heracles'  the p l a y as a w h o l e ,  Heracles,  the h e r o i c models g i v e n  t r a g i c hero.  like  i n chapter  Deianeira w i l l  i n the a c t i o n o f  be m e a s u r e d  does n o t f i t v e r y w e l l i n t o A r i s t o t l e ' s Whether or n o t h i s m i s f o r t u n e  but  there  any  e f f o r t o f judgment on h i s p a r t . thoughtlessness.  Being  results  synthesis o f the  f r o m an e r r o r o f  C e r t a i n l y , by s e n d i n g  lole  home  that lead to h i s catastrophe;  I n f a c t , he a p p e a r s t o a c t w i t h  a s l a v e t o t h e v d a o s o f h i s p a s s i o n , he  by q u a l i t i e s  as a n t i - h e r o i c .  represents  o f v i c e and d e p r a v i t y , w h i c h  The d i s e a s e  Aristotle  he s u f f e r s f r o m t h e p o i s o n e d  robe  an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f the l u s t i n h e r e n t i n h i s n a t u r e .  meaning matches the " h a l f - b e a s t " imagery o f the p l a y , s i n c e over  against  i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t h i s a c t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f a d e c i s i o n o r  causes h i s misfortune viewed  hisposition  Aristotle  D e i a n e i r a , he c a u s e s t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s  complete  Two  one.  j u d g m e n t o n h i s p a r t i s a moot p o i n t . to  now be c o n s i d e r e d :  a n d t h e p l a c e he h o l d s  I.  Heracles  Odysseus' i s i n the Ajax.  i n the Trachiniae w i l l  t o the concept o f hero,  conspicuous  "paramount e f f e c t i v e n e s s " i s n o t found  o f t h e h e r o a n y more t h a n  of Heracles  relative  t h a t S o p h o c l e s w o u l d have w r i t t e n s u c h a  b u l l - g o d and c e n t a u r  to hideous death i n the poisoned  "from  Its victory  robe i s a l l  1 0  too  short a step."  for  lole  direct love  as a v o a o s  Three times ;  D e i a n e i r a speaks o f H e r a c l e s '  and he w i l l  result of this metaphorical  f o r him  " I t i s n o t s h e J^Iole]  suffer a real,  passion  p h y s i c a l voaos  vdaos, h i s love f o r l o l e ,  a s  a  and D e i a n e i r a ' s  who i s t h e s l a v e , c o n t r a r y t o a l l  a p p e a r a n c e s ; t h e s l a v e , we now s e e c l e a r l y ,  i s Heracles."  12  Heracles'  95 d i s e a s e produces a mental derangement  ( T O 6 ' aMnAnTov/ yavuxc a v d o s ,  " t h i s unassuageable bloom o f madness" led  him b e f o r e  to k i l l  innocent Oechalians,  causes him, i n a b l i n d r a g e , of  998-999).  h i s l a s t houts stands  to k i l l  As h i s love o f I o l e has  the f u r y o f h i s d i s e a s e  the i n n o c e n t  Lichas.  f o r the " d e s t r u c t i v e . p o w e r  The d i s e a s e  o f the f o r c e t h a t has  13 h e l d him i n t h r a l l  throughout h i s l i f e "  c o n t r o l o f the a b i l i t y not  ; t h r o u g h o u t , he i s n o t i n  t o e x c e r c i s e h i s own independent w i l l .  an e r r o r o f judgment b u t  H a x u x  It is  M a l yox^npta t h a t b r i n g h i m down.  The  naming o f Nessus as h i s murderer s e t s the cause o f h i s death f a r back in  time,  t u r n s i t away from the human agent and back t o H e r a c l e s ' own  d i v i n e , though b e s t i a l ,  nature.  Heracles' catastrophe, than  some s i n g l e e r r o r .  t h e r e f o r e , i s more a r e s u l t o f d e p r a v i t y  H i s moral, v i o l e n c e l e a d s to h i s d e s t r u c t i o n  through D e i a n e i r a and by Zeus; h i s conspicuous  fault  (not e r r o r )  the venom t o be used a g a i n s t h i m s e l f ; i f he had remained l o y a l  causes to D e i a n e i r a ,  she would never have g i v e n i t a thought.  Sophocles,  purpose, has made the conduct o f H e r a c l e s  d e p l o r a b l e by making H e r a c l e s  demand I o l e f o r h i m s e l f . ^ Heracles'  final  4  According  f o r h i s own e v i d e n t  to K i t t o , S o p h o c l e s d i d n o t i n v e n t  " i n e x o r a b l e command" t o H y l l u s i n o r d e r  the m a r r i a g e o f H y l l u s and I o l e ; he i n v e n t e d H y l l u s to make H e r a c l e s  inexorable.  Heracles  1  to b r i n g about  passionate  resistance  in  order  behaves toward H y l l u s  in  the same way as he has behaved on the summit o f Cenaeum, toward  D e i a n e i r a when he t h o u g h t l e s s l y sent I o l e home t o s u p p l a n t  h e r , toward  O e c h a l i a when he d e s t r o y e d  so many people  i n order  t o win I p l e , and  toward I p h i t u s and L i c h a s .  Zeus punished  Heracles  f o r h i s a c t of violence  in  killing  I p h i t u s , a n d H e r a c l e s vowed to e n s l a v e  in  r e t u r n f o r what i n f a c t was a punishment i n f l i c t e d by Zeus.  is  accomplished  than  the enslavement o f E u r y t u s '  Eurytus  and h i s f a m i l y  f a m i l y , which  Much mote leads  96 Kitto  to r a i s e the  Heracles'  following question:  "In what s p i r i t w i l l  thank o f f e r i n g f o r h i s t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f a  points He  is s t i l l  of r e a l i t y  b e l i e v e s that  Heracles  and  o f men"  t h a t Sophocles does not  i s and  t h a t he who  does see  the  even a p a r t i a l external  the  has  has  been.  "He  irony of h i s p l i g h t .  play  itself.  His  course o f the  play  as a d e s t r u c t i v e , p a s s i o n a t e , own  master through an  one  i s not  this  form p a r t o f the  now  be  drama.  i s not  f e e l s the  allowed  irony of  so h e l p l e s s  i s the o n l y  one  allowed  physical strength  act of w i l l  his  himself.'  to r e l a t e are  i s h i s only v i r t u e ,  i t i s never d i s p l a y e d  bestial  idea.  as a v i r t u e ,  but  force that f i n a l l y overmasters i t s  of h i s l o v i n g wife.  to f o r g e t what H e r a c l e s  i s and  has  Waldock been.  claims  But  those  " u n f o r t u n a t e moments" Waldock wishes to deny r e v e a l what H e r a c l e s i s .  What he  has  Deianeira  or was  been i s p i c t u r e d v e r y  and  deliverance  the  clearly  i n the  scene d e s c r i b e d  Chorus o f h i s b a t t l e w i t h A c h e l o u s .  from the  more o b v i o u s h o r r o r .  the b a t t l e one  gentle  and  ' l o v e ' t h a t i n f e c t s the n a t u r a l l y l e c h e r o u s i s o n l y when the  But  was  Heracles  i t really  by brought  "deliverance,  o f monster a g a i n s t monster, b o t h r a g i n g i n  (uepcvou Asxewv ) f o r p r i z e s too  It  seriously resist  himself  Heracles  has  as w e l l as i n many  still  h e l p e d so many s h o u l d  admittedly  c a t a l o g u e o f h i s l a b o r s ; i n many ways those l a b o r s  to the  during  very  i n theory  i s caught i n some u n f o r t u n a t e moments, but one  plight,  and  "best  the v i r t u e s o f H e r a c l e s  to f o r g e t what he  He  the  receive  city?""^  Waldock, however, m a i n t a i n s t h a t , a l t h o u g h H e r a c l e s f a u l t s , he  Zeus  good  (such  innocent i s not  as Phaedra) are  lust  for either?  "The  tragically interesting.  i n f e c t e d that  tragedy  17 arise."  The  infected.  I t i s the l o v e  Trachiniae.  "best  o f men," that  the  demi-god H e r a c l e s ,  " i n f e c t s " that  leads  is notoriously to t r a g e d y i n  the  can  97 D e s p i t e h i s f a u l t s , i s H e r a c l e s one o f those nau euxuxta  ?  ev yeyctXri o6*5p  C e r t a i n passages do b r i n g out an a p p a r e n t l y  r e p u t a t i o n o f H e r a c l e s the demi-god, o f t e n r e f e r r e d  OVTIOV  favorable  to as the son o f  Zeus and Alcmene. Deianeira:  6  T\\$C  HXELVOC  The  Znvbs  raXs ( 1 9 ) .  'AXxynvris t e  famous H e r a c l e s , son o f Alcmene and  Zeus.  eC ye X P H yeveuv  Deianeira:  udvTtov dpoorou cpoiToc eaTepriyevnv . . . t h a t I may  (176-177).  have to l i v e  d e p r i v e d o f the best o f a l l men Messenger:  TO?X'  es  6duous coos T O V itoXu^nXov itdatv  fiCetv, cpavevta auv x p a r e t vi,xri<pdpto  (185-186).  Soon there s h a l l  t h a t much e n v i e d  your husband, Chorus:  (TI'VES^  Who Deianeira:  6  come to your h a l l s  a p p e a r i n g i n h i s c o n q u e r i n g might.  dyqu'yuoi, Kcxiegav npb ydywv...;  were the v a l i a n t contenders i n c o u r t s h i p ?  ULO"TOS  fiytv x d y a d o c xaXouyevoc  My H e r a c l e s , c a l l e d Chorus:  (504).  6 yap A L 6 S 'AAxunvas  (541).  f a i t h f u l and n o b l e . xdpog  aouTat itdoas operas Xacpup' exuv The  t%'  oCxous  (644-646).  son o f Zeus and Alcmeme  h a s t e n s t o h i s home bearing spoils of a l l valor. Hyllus:  navtiov apuatov d'vopa xlov tiii the b e s t o f a l l men  Chorus:  dyotxXeLTOV  (854).  the renowned one  on e a r t h  X^OVL  (811).  man,  98 Chorus:  TOV  Zrivbg aXxupov yovov  Zeus' s t r o n g Chorus:  son  dvaxxog, ouxtg ouog uv The  Heracles:  0  T  k i n g , so g r e a t  MS  (956).  eXauvexau  a man,  (1045).  i s d r i v e n by  such  suffering.  dpujxng ynxpog uivoyaayevog, 18  b TOO  xax* aaxpa Znvbg auSndeig yovoz  I who  have been c a l l e d the son o f the n o b l e s t mother,  I who  have c l a i m e d  to be  (1105-1106).  the o f f s p r i n g o f Zeus i n the  heavens. Chorus:  2> xXpyov 'EXXdg, itev^og ouov eCoopw e^oucrav, dv6pog xou6e y'  EL. ocpaXrloexau  0 unhappy Greece, I b e h o l d a mourning you With the e x c e p t i o n bitterly  ironic),  Heracles'  of  l i n e 541,  by H y l l u s i n l i n e 811,  great  s h a l l have i f you  can  Waldock c l a i m s  t h a t the  constant  theme o f the. p l a y ; t h a t i s " t h a t H e r a c l e s and  644-646 are  sentiment  when he accuses h i s mother o f h a v i n g  i n the w o r l d , whose l i k e  the a n x i e t y  (lines  the y e a r n i n g ,  man.  a l l be u n d e r s t o o d as a l l u s i o n s to  b e s t man  and  lose this  which i s s a r c a s t i c  the r e f e r e n c e s  physical strength.  how  (1112-1113).  they  s h a l l not  and we  see  slain  the  a g a i n , i s the  i s worth the  must accept  expressed  tears  i t as s e r i o u s l y  19 meant."  S o p h o c l e s , Waldock b e l i e v e s , was  wrote the The but  of  t h i s p r o v i d e s no  the one  (177)  she  f a t h e r and  c a l l Heracles  the  "best o f men"  assurance t h a t Sophocles was  Heracles  loves.  s a r c a s t i c every  time  he  men."  c h a r a c t e r s who  Deianeira  his  "best  not  i s the  To H y l l u s  "best o f men,"  (811)  he  not.  are not  sarcastic,  C e r t a i n l y , to  because he  i s her husband,  i s the best o f men,  because o f h i s tremendous p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h .  because he i s I t i s not  at  99 all  c e r t a i n , however, t h a t H e r a c l e s  yearning; he  i s worth the t e a r s , a n x i e t y , and  i n f a c t , the theme i s n o t t h a t he i s worth the t e a r s , b u t t h a t  i s n o t worth them.  such a g r e a t e x t e n t , through D e i a n e i r a  Perhaps, i f he d i d n o t i n d u l g e he would be a more sympathetic  and h e r l o s s t h a t H e r a c l e s  Aristotle  error  requires  on h i s p a r t .  lacking.  favorable  reputation to  that  the t r a g i c hero be " o f the number o f those  reputation  Reference  and p r o s p e r i t y " and t h a t  as a r e s u l t o f some  defined  reputation  i s almost  He has spent a year i n the s e r v i c e o f a L y d i a n  h a p p i n e s s to m i s e r y . deceptive,  representative  i n exile.  His fortunes  H i s o n l y moments o f b r i e f  completely  do not change  from  happiness and p r o s p e r i t y to g r e a t e r  The band o f s l a v e women he sends home a r e perhaps  o f h i s p r o s p e r i t y , and they do cause. D e i a n e i r a  hesitantly  20  u-  to r e c o g n i z e  great  woman w h i l e h i s  and a r e r e l a t e d by hearsay a f t e r he has f a l l e n  depths o f m i s e r y .  the h e r o ' s  to the p r o s p e r i t y t h a t might be e x p e c t e d to.  incompletely  f a m i l y has been l i v i n g  and he i s  qualities.  must change e£ euxuxtag et-s SuaxuxCotv  accompany H e r a c l e s '  are  as h a v i n g any moral  the enjoyment o f g r e a t  fortunes  I t i s only  they a r e n o t i l l u m i n a t i n g i n terms o f h i s c h a r a c t e r ,  c e r t a i n l y not described  in  figure.  becomes worthy o f mourning.  A l t h o u g h the e p i t h e t s a t t r i b u t e an a p p a r e n t l y Heracles,  i n s e l f - p i t y to  his  success.  uws  6* obn £yw x ^ P ° - v ' civ, d\>6pbg eoxuxn a  l  xXuouaa rcpa£LV xnv6e, rcavfiuv.^) cppevC; TcoXAp 'ax'  avdyKri  opws 5' E v e o i L  xf)6e xouxo auvxpexebv.  xouauv eo axoitoupevoLg  \ * 21 xapSeuv xov eZ> npdaaovxa, pn acpaXri noxe Yes,  I should  when I  hear  have e v e r y r i g h t  (293-297).  to r e j o i c e  the news o f my husband's p r o s p e r o u s  S u r e l y my j o y must keep pace w i t h h i s good  success.  fortune.  100 Still,  i t i s i n the n a t u r e o f those c o n t e m p l a t i n g the  situation lest  w e l l to f e a r  f o r the man who p r o s p e r s s o ,  he f a l l .  There i s , however, no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o H e r a c l e s ' p r o s p e r i t y and no indication  a t a l l t h a t he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f t o be e n j o y i n g p r o s p e r i t y .  H y l l u s r e l a t e s H e r a c l e s ' b r i e f moment o f d e c e p t i v e p r o s p e r i t y  and p r o s p e c t i v e  h a p p i n e s s between the time when he c l o t h e s h i m s e l f i n the d e a d l y robe and the  time when he completes  the s a c r i f i c i a l  the  moment o f the o r a c l e ' s f u l f i l l m e n t .  its  realization :  slaughter (759ff.).  This i s  D e i a n e i r a speaks o f i t b e f o r e  cos n T C X C U T H V T O U Btou ueXAeu xeXeuv, n xov  Spas  TOUTOV  $.%\ov  es  TO  y' uarepov  AOLTEOV non. guoTov euat'tov' e'xeuv  (79-81).  That e i t h e r he would come to the end o f h i s l i f e or  have by now, and f o r the r e s t  a happy l i f e ,  o f h i s time  once he had a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s  task.  H e r a c l e s speaks o f i t i n the moment o f r e a l i z i a t i o n : n UOL XP°"  VU  T  ? ?SVTI  x a i napdvTL vuv  ecpaaxe uo'x§eov TCOV efpeOTtoTtov epoi, Xuauv TeXetaQat which  xaddxouv npd^euv xaXios  t o l d me t h a t , a t t h i s  release  from a l l the t o i l s  complete.  living imposed  fact,  on me would be  to one o f m i s e r y .  i n a state o f misery, hoping f o r r e l e a s e  attainment o f happiness.  and p r e s e n t time,  And I thought t h a t then I s h o u l d be happy.  H e r a c l e s cannot pass from a s t a t e o f happiness in  (1169-1171).  from h i s t o i l s  He i s and the  H i s c o n d i t i o n changes o n l y from m i s e r y t o  m i s e r y ; the o r a c l e meant n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n , as H e r a c l e s s a y s , TO 6' f)V ctp'  101 ou6ev aXXo  uXnv  daveuv  would d i e t h e n , " Nor  i t meant n o t h i n g o t h e r  than  their  s a t i s f y A r i s t o t l e ' s requirement  t r a g i c deeds  et6oTas Ha!  that  Y^Y^waxovTas  npaCctt TO detvov,  uarepov dvaYvajpuaau Tnv  eZ§'  r e c o g n i z e any o f h i s a c t i o n s as t r a g i c . understands  tragic or  aYVouvras  He  does not .  22  \  6e  that i  1172).  does H e r a c l e s  heroes p e r f o r m  ("But  epe  cpuAuxv,  He n e i t h e r r e g r e t s nor  even  h i s a c t i o n o f s e n d i n g l o l e home to s u p p l a n t D e i a n e i r a ,  he c a r r i e s t h i s l a c k o f r e g r e t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g when he o r d e r s H y l l u s t o marry l o l e  and  to the u l t i m a t e extreme  and does not r e s p o n d  i n any way  H y l l u s ' a c c u s a t i o n t h a t she i s the cause o f D e i a n e i r a ' s death  and  to  Heracles'  condition.  II.  Knox' two  g e n e r a l statements  Knox  that  the Sophoclean hero i s "a  s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c i n g the supreme c r i s i s o f h i s l i f e " and h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a l whose freedom o f a c t i o n i m p l i e s f u l l not  f u l l y apply  to H e r a c l e s .  The  c r i s i s he  responsibility"  r e c o g n i t i o n o r thought course taken  s i t u a t i o n f o r H e r a c l e s ; he  I t i s not  does i t w i t h o u t  o f i t s p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e or e f f e c t s .  i s c o n s i d e r e d , and  H e r a c l e s never e x p r e s s e s  the a c t i o n he d i d take.  The  do  f a c e s i s not the a c t o f  s e n d i n g l o l e home, to D e i a n e i r a , t h a t i s D e i a n e i r a ' s c r i s i s . t u r n i n g p o i n t or c r i t i c a l  i s "a  any  No  r e g r e t s at  supreme c r i s i s H e r a c l e s  a  any other  having  faces i s h i s 23  impending d e a t h , It  but  this  too does not seem to be the c r i s i s o f the p l a y .  i s the d e c i s i o n f a c i n g D e i a n e i r a when she has  t h a t i s the c r i s i s o f the p l a y ; H e r a c l e s ' death nor c r i t i c a l decision.  s i t u a t i o n , but  full  knowledge o f  i s neither turning point  the c u l m i n a t i o n of D e i a n e i r a ' s  When H e r a c l e s r e a l i z e s  lole  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  tragic  of h i s d e a t h , a l l  102 a c t i o n has a l r e a d y been t a k e n . of  He has no c o n t r o l over the f i n a l  e v e n t s o t h e r than h i s two commands t o H y l l u s .  a c t i o n o f the s e r i e s o f e v e n t s able to e x e r c i s e passion for  freedom  s e t i n motion  she sent the r o b e ; he speaks (ouav  bitterly  o f and to Zeus,  y' ap* edou XoSgav, olav  "What an  Zeus i s a l l o w i n g h i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s present s u f f e r i n g .  the p a r t Nessus has p l a y e d i n the d i s a s t e r w i t h the o r a c l e ,  a l l possibility  are i n response  accordance  When he r e a l i z e s  and how i t i s i n accordance  o f freedom  o " y o t , oppovu 6ri fjUMcpopag I V  removed.  the doom t h a t i s upon me,"  in  even  He does not c o n s i d e r t h a t h i s n a t u r e and a c t i o n s may have been  even p a r t i a l l y  actions  He  the r o b e ; he wants t o k i l l D e i a n e i r a ,  o b j e c t o f o u t r a g e you have made me," 996), because  is  i t may be by  H e r a c l e s , however, i n no way a c c e p t s  L i c h a s brought  blaming him f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g  death.  Heracles i s  f o r h i s a c t i o n s , p r e f e r r i n g to blame o t h e r s .  L i c h a s , because  because  by D e i a n e i r a .  ( E r o s ) , up t o the time when he hears t h a t Nessus was r e s p o n s i b l e  responsibility  kills  He i s a pawn i n the  o f a c t i o n , however c o n t r o l l e d  p r o v i d i n g the " l o v e - p h i l t r e . "  full  outcome  o f a c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  eoTOtuev  ("Ah! now I r e a l i z e  1145), H e r a c l e s s a y s , and the r e s t o f h i s  t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the o r a c l e and seemingly  w i t h some s o r t o f d i v i n e command.  t h a t H e r a c l e s sees the p a t t e r n o f h i s l i f e  Waldock's o p i n i o n i s  clearly  to the end; "and from  now on h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n i s (so to s a y ) to p l a y out h i s d i v i n e l y N  appointed  .,24  role.  A c c o r d i n g t o Knox and o t h e r s , the Sophoclean A l t h o u g h many i n d i c a t i o n s convincingly satisfy Knox mentions.  During h i s p r i o r  i s isolated.  to h i s i s o l a t i o n , H e r a c l e s does n o t  requirements  robe, H e r a c l e s ' i s o l a t i o n separated  point  t r a g i c hero  f o r the v a r i o u s types o f i s o l a t i o n life  that  and w h i l e i n the g r i p s o f t h e p o i s o n e d  i s on two l e v e l s .  On the one hand, he i s  from humanity by b e i n g above i t as the son o f Zeus;  a superhuman  103  i n s t r e n g t h , he w i l l (1159).  On  d i e the v i c t i m o f a f a t e  f o r e t o l d by h i s f a t h e r  the o t h e r hand, he i s s e p a r a t e d from humanity by b e i n g below  mankind, on the l e v e l of b e a s t s .  H i s p a i n i s s a v a g e l y p h y s i c a l , but i t  i s Zeus who  occurs  he mentions  ( 1 0 9 2 f f . ) i n h i s b a t t l e s w i t h monsters are a l s o  o f the b e s t i a l P. s t a t e he  to him as the l o g i c a l h e a l e r  and  (1002).  The  heroic feats combinations  divine.  B i g g s , t o o , emphasizes t h a t H e r a c l e s i s a l o n e .  I n h i s normal  i s remote from humanity; i t does not o c c u r t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s 25  to a p p l y t h e i r human terms to him. i s incomparable,  and h i s agonies  (854,  The  1090ff.).  the e f f e c t o f c e r t a i n h e l p l e s s n e s s and  In h i s diseased s t a t e , h i s s u f f e r i n g  can o n l y be g r e a t e r than h i s own  extreme degree o f h i s i s o l a t i o n i s s y m b o l i z e d symptoms o f h i s d i s e a s e , b r i n g i n g him  f o r c i n g the g r o a n l e s s man  ( doTevaxxog  As a s u f f e r e r , H e r a c l e s i s c u t o f f c o m p l e t e l y has  a morbid s e n s i t i v i t y  to determine  of  touch,  where he i s and who  i t s e l f , h i s awareness i s not  V. Ehrenberg own  nature  to c r y o u t .  around him  are  inquiry  (983ff.). and  thereby  for externals.  comments t h a t the tragedy of H e r a c l e s i s t h a t o f h i s  and h i s own  actions.  makes him b e l i e v e t h a t he  " I t s v e r y c o r e i s h i s g r e a t n e s s which  i s e n t i r e l y independent,  a law u n t o h i m s e l f . " ^ ^  E. M. Waith b e l i e v e s t h a t H e r a c l e s ' d i s r e g a r d f o r o t h e r s i s "a 27 feature of h i s i s o l a t i o n to be  to  from h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; he  and h i s f i r s t words are an  the people  by  finally  1074)  Because h i s i n t e n s e p a i n turns a l l h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n inward intensifies  labors  and  of h i s s t a t u r e . "  striking  Waith c o n s i d e r s H e r a c l e s  supremely gre£it and not at a l l s e l f - c e n t e r e d o r u n t r a g i c .  and f - c e n t r e d g rheearto . "28 P. E n. o tE a us n t et rr la ignigc,, wdoes h i l e s ts at ti el l t bh ea lt i he e v i ni gs Ha e r"supremely a c l e s t o bes e lsupremely K i t t o sees H e r a c l e s ' g r e a t n e s s  as a r e s u l t o f h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s .  104 "Heracles  i s one  everything  who  can do h e r o i c t h i n g s p a r t l y because he  to h i m s e l f .  He  has  can  never a thought f o r a n o t h e r ; he  sacrifice is entirely  s e l f - c e n t r e d , r u t h l e s s to enemies, a c q u i s i t i v e , p o s s i b l y a f f e c t i o n a t e (1147) but e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h towards h i s f a m i l y , u n f e e l i n g to h i s w i f e , 29 t r a n s i e n t w i t h o t h e r women, and But Is  i s the e q u a t i o n  the H e r a c l e s  Oedipus w i t h  man."  self-centeredness  d e p i c t e d w i t h i n the p l a y r e a l l y  a l l h i s self-awareness  He  great  o f i s o l a t i o n and  o t h e r s , h i s supposed p a r e n t s of Thebes.  a very  recognizes  "a v e r y  A j a x , w i t h h i s sense o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s  honor and  glory, s t i l l  isolation himself as  glory.  outside himself  and  desire for  accountable  outside  personal  to an e x t e r n a l  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t r u e  and mere s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s .  and  and  citizens  and wrong e x i s t i n g  himself.  remains d r i v e n by  thoughts of  the p l a g u e - i n f e s t e d  a law o f moral r i g h t  i d e a l o f m a r t i a l honor and  g r e a t man"?  i s d r i v e n to a c t i o n by  i n C o r i n t h and  justified?  Heracles  has  no  He s e e m s  to guide him.  i d e a l other  not  than  so much i s o l a t e d  terribly self-centered. According  on him  the  compels him him. full  full  to Knox, the hero's i s o l a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s own  to a c t w i t h o u t  Heracles,  a past  however, as has  responsibility i n time and  poisoned  robe as another l a b o r and,  xa!  itoXAcx dr] x P°!  M0UTIU)  e  MOU, x ! a  TOLOUTOV  npoudrixev o u d *  imposes  i t s consequences  the  torture of  Xdyu  VWTOLOL p o x ^ n a a g OUT *  the  i n t h a t sense, does have a p a s t  xa!  accept  i s i t e n t i r e l y c l e a r t h a t he i s  seems to accept  deppct  and  or a f u t u r e to comfort  him. 5  space  been p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , does not  isolated  guide  He  a c t i o n and  to guide him  f o r h i s a c t i o n , nor space.  i n time and  CtXOLTLC  T)  xaxa ey^ ALOS  6 OTuyvos E u p u a ^ e u s  epo!  to  105 oZov  T6*6' fi SoXwnuc OLVEWS xdpn  xa9?i(J;£V wyou-s TOLS eyoCs  'Eptvuuv  ucpavTov aycpC*BXno"Tpov, $ SudXAuyau Many a r e the t o i l s  (1046-1052).  f o r these hands, t h i s  back,  t h a t I have had, h o t and g r i e v o u s even to t e l l o f . But  the w i f e o f Zeus n o r h a t e f u l E u r y s t h e u s  neither  has e v e r a p p o i n t e d me t o such a t a s k as t h i s that  the a r t f u l - l o o k i n g daughter o f O i n e u s has f a s t e n e d  upon my s h o u l d e r s , a woven, e n c i r c l i n g n e t of At  lines  previous  the F u r i e s , by which I am u t t e r l y  destroyed.  1 0 8 5 f f . and 1 0 9 2 f f . he s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions v a r i o u s o f h i s l a b o r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s p r e s e n t and g r e a t e s t aXAwv TE pdx$wv yupuwv  labor.  eyeuadynv  xoueeus Tportau' Earners TOJV eywv XEpSv  (1101-1102).  and I have had my t a s t e o f t e n thousand o t h e r  toils,  and no one has s e t t r o p h i e s o f v i c t o r y o v e r my hands. Perhaps H e r a c l e s ' o n l y i s o l a t i o n  i s that: p r e v i o u s l y he has always  30 inflicted  s u f f e r i n g and has never b e f o r e been the. one t o r e c e i v e i t .  There i s no q u e s t i o n f|  t h a t the p r e s e n t i s a c r u c i a l  you xpdvtj)  TS5 £U5VTL x a ! itapdvTL v u v  ydx§wv TWV ecpeaTtoTOJV eyoV  Etpaaxe  Auatv  TeXeta&at  (1169-1171).  which t o l d me t h a t , a t t h i s .release He  from a l l the t o i l s  living  and p r e s e n t t i m e ,  imposed on me would be complete.  does n o t , however, seem t o c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f i s o l a t e d w i t h i n  and space o f h i s end. off  time f o r H e r a c l e s ;  the time  I t i s o f no g r e a t c o n c e r n to h i m t h a t he i s c u t  from h i s f a m i l y , e x c e p t f o r H y l l u s .  He has e v i d e n t l y been  habitually  106 inattentive  to them.  He  and h i s mother Alcmene  asks H y l l u s to c a l l  together a l l h i s other  (1147-1149), not h a v i n g p a i d enough a t t e n t i o n to  them t o know, o r a t l e a s t remember, t h a t some o f h i s c h i l d r e n Thebes and  the o t h e r s and h i s mother are a t T i r y n s .  r e p o r t o f t h e i r whereabouts, he Making no his  are i n  Upon h e a r i n g H y l l u s  d i s p l a y s a conspicuous.lack of  whole a t t e n t i o n on H y l l u s .  1  response.  f u r t h e r mention o f h i s o t h e r r e l a t i o n s , he proceeds  the s t r o n g e s t e v i d e n c e  children  to t u r n  His connection with H y l l u s i s probably  against his i s o l a t i o n .  He  i s a b l e t o and  does  command H y l l u s t o c a r r y out c e r t a i n t a s k s r e l a t e d to h i s death by  burning  31 on a p y r e .  H e r a c l e s does not e x p e r i e n c e  D e i a n e i r a t h a t causes her p i c t u r e o f how evidence no  h i s end  or thought  to k i l l  the t o t a l  herself.  isolation  That H e r a c l e s has  him.  H i s f u t u r e , as known from the o r a c l e ,  from h i s p a t h e t i c , womanly s u f f e r i n g .  Hyllus  and h i s s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d assurance  to marry I o l e  be c a r r i e d out p r o v i d e him w i t h s t i l l  Sophoclean as c r i t i c a l  hero and  difficulty  response  causative.  Knox  1  through  suffering  b e f o r e he r e a c h e s  comforts  His order  that: the o r d e r  to will  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f u t u r e .  an a c t i o n t h a t he  recognizes  H i s s u f f e r i n g has been made i n e v i t a b l e H i s own  a c t i o n i s merely  e x e r c i s e s no c o n t r o l over  requirements  does a f r e e and  by in  the outcome o f  t h a t the source o f the h e r o ' s  as w e l l as the g r e a t n e s s o f the a c t i o n b e l o n g apply to H e r a c l e s , nor  with  i n f i t t i n g H e r a c l e s to Knox' model o f the  d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n .  to D e i a n e i r a ' s and  play's events.  another  i s t h a t he does not p e r f o r m  Deianeira's i n i t i a l  a clear  i s t o come, even though t h i s p l a y c o n t a i n s no  him by r e l e a s i n g him  foremost  such  o f h i s a p o t h e o s i s , d e n i e s h i s i s o l a t i o n i n time  f u t u r e to comfort  The  of  to the hero  alone  the  action cannot  responsible action b r i n g Heracles  to v i c t o r y o r cause him  to f a l l  his final  a c t i o n H e r a c l e s takes d u r i n g " h i s "  victory.  The  and e x p e r i e n c e  p o r t i o n o f the p l a y i s the r e s u l t o f the p l a y ' s a c t i o n and not  defeat  the cause  of  107 it.  No h e r o i c a c t i o n b r i n g s H e r a c l e s through s u f f e r i n g .  s u f f e r i n g ; a l t h o u g h he. has i n f l i c t e d himself.  not  F o r H e r a c l e s s u f f e r i n g and g l o r y a r e n o t bound i n t o an i n d i s s o l u b l e  i t makes him weak and woman-like  a glory.  suffering, ("The last  endure  i t on o t h e r s , he cannot bear i t  u n i t y as they are f o r Knox' Sophoclean h e r o . because  He cannot  H e r a c l e s hates h i s s u f f e r i n g  (1071, 1075); i t i s a h u m i l i a t i o n ,  H i s o n l y f i n a l v i c t o r y w i l l be t o make an end o f h i s  iraOAd r o t xaxiov/ auxri, xeAEUxri XO06E xdvSpoc. uaxdxn  respite  from s u f f e r i n g i s this--my f i n a l e n d , " 1255-1256).  two speeches  His  (1252-1256 and 1259-1263) i n d i c a t e t h a t he f i n d s no 32  glory i n suffering,  hisvictory will  be none o t h e r than h i s own d e f e a t .  Knox' hero r e n d e r s h i s a c t i o n f u l l y his  human l i m i t a t i o n .  autonomous by r e f u s i n g t o a c c e p t  H e r a c l e s cannot s a t i s f y  this point, not only  because o f the problem o f h i s a c t i o n , or r a t h e r n o n - a c t i o n , b u t a l s o because  of his position  as the son o f Zeus.  n e c e s s a r i l y bound by human l i m i t a t i o n s . the  I t i s Knox' v i e w t h a t by d e f y i n g  gods, who are g u a r d i a n s o f these l i m i t s ,  them r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  He i s n o t c l e a r l y and  the hero removes from  f o r h i s a c t i o n and i t s consequences. 33  however, i n h i s p o s i t i o n beyond  human l i m i t a t i o n s ,  Heracles,  maintains h i s  u n m i t i g a t e d r e f u s a l o f acceptance o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  He may have d e f i e d  Zeus by such deeds as k i l l i n g I p h i t u s and s a c k i n g O e c h a l i a , b u t i n h i s c h i l d i s h w i l l f u l n e s s he w i l l  n o t admit  to h i m s e l f t h a t he has done wrong.  Heracles addresses h i s f i r s t  speech t o Zeus, & Zeu  ("0 Zeus, what l a n d have I come t o ? " 983-984). ( 9 8 3 f f . ) , he accuses Zeus o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e ouav  p' ap'  E$OU  Awgotv, ouav  /  TIOL yas  I n h i s second  n.xw; speech  forhis suffering, (996).  What an o b j e c t o f o u t r a g e you have made me!  108 TLS  Y P a  doufidc, T L S 6 XE POTe*x IS L  taxopLas,  Ss Tnv6*  vr  aTnv  Xtopts Znvos K a T a M n X n a e u ; Is  (1000-1002)  t h e r e any e n c h a n t e r ,  any c r a f t s m a n surgeon who exorcise  t h i s c u r s e , but Zeus?  Even a f t e r h e a r i n g from H y l l u s intentions  can  (1138-1139) t h a t D e i a n e i r a had  good  and had a n o i n t e d the robe w i t h what she thought was  a l o v e charm,  i s npoae£6e T O U S  i n her h o u s e "  ev6ov ydyous  ("when she saw  1139), H e r a c l e s never c o n s i d e r s  for  what has happened.  the  charm.  a a-repYnuotj  that marriage  t h a t he might be  responsible  He merely asks which T r a c h i n i a n d r u g g i s t  H a v i n g l e a r n e d t h a t Nessus was  provided  the s o u r c e , he a g a i n does n o t  34 a c c e p t h i s own of  of  i s Heracles' shirking of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  life  and t h e end o f the p l a y .  H e r a c l e s ' enslavement t o I o l e  "he was  inevitability  TtpctxTWp  cpavrj  6 TUV d u d v T u v Olympian"  stresses  ( u s <Pno' auxds,  i s labeled  as the author o f the deed  "Zeus appears to be Zeus HCXT'TIP'  275).  twice  Aeyeu, "as he says h i m s e l f "  'OAUPTCLOS,  "he who  to c a l l  Zeus  "as he  253). (Zeus O T O U  the e x e c u t e r o f the work"  251 j  i s the f a t h e r o f a l l , Zeus  As E a s t e r l i n g m e n t i o n s , one may  s h i f t i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Heracles.  249-250),  usCUJTOS  249,  However, i t i s Zeus who  t o t h e end o f  (oux eAeuSepos, / ciAA' evmoAndeLS,  a d m i s s i o n o f the shameful bondage  himself declares"  restricted  D u r i n g h i s speech, L i c h a s , h a v i n g t o l d  not f r e e but a bought as a s l a v e "  H e r a c l e s ' own  as  ; i n s t e a d , he a c c e p t s t h e  the o r a c l e v Nor  his  responsibility  feel  t h a t i t i s a gross  T t p d x T u p and t h e r e f o r e  excuse  Perhaps H e r a c l e s ' b e h a v i o r ought t o be seen i n the same way  any r e l i g i o u s  authority.  p e n a l t y must be p a i d b e f o r e  An a c t o f i m p i e t y has been committed, and a the doer can be  ayvo's ( c f . l i n e  258)  again.  109 I n E a s t e r l i n g ' s view, the a p p e l l a t i o n Zeus It  i s Knox  1  i s "patently  upaHTiop  N  ironical.'  view t h a t , d e s p i t e the hero's s e l f - c r e a t e d i s o l a t i o n , the  p r e s e n c e o f the gods i s always f e l t  and, even though t h e h e r o  fights  a g a i n s t them, one f e e l s the gods may have more c o n c e r n and r e s p e c t f o r him is  than f o r t h e common man.  Heracles,  always aware o f h i s s o n s h i p  a g a i n s t the gods.  i n his self-centered isolation,  from Zeus.  He never c o n s c i o u s l y  H i s passive y i e l d i n g to Eros  i s manifest,  d e l u s i o n and s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s , he does n o t c o n s i d e r may very  n o t be approved by Zeus.  immoral a c t i o n s , k i l l i n g I p h i t u s "But  that h i s actions  Zeus' punishment o f H e r a c l e s (epyou 6'  exaxt  xou6e p n v t a a s  t h e k i n g was angry on account o f t h i s a c t o f h i s , "  the c i t y o f E u r y t u s ,  i s c e r t a i n l y not i n f l i c t e d  n o b i l i t y on H e r a c l e s ' Chorus- ask:  e.ueV.  part. w5e  TLS  and, i n h i s  Respect o f t h e gods f o r H e r a c l e s  apparent i n the T r a c h i n i a e .  TEKVOLOI,  ZTJV'  out o f respect  for h i s ava^,  f o r some  that the  agouAov e£6ev;  .anyone seen Zeus so c a r e l e s s o f h i s c h i l d r e n ? "  i s not  274) and s a c k i n g  I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n /  fights  "When has  139-140).  Knox' hero i s f a c e d w i t h e i t h e r p o s s i b l e d i s a s t e r o r a compromise, the  a c c e p t a n c e o f which w i l l b e t r a y  his rights,  and d u t i e s .  Heracles  what he c o n s i d e r s L6oupnv  betray  his conception  " I n my m i s e r y I am d i s c o v e r e d  Knox, l e a d s  t o the dramatic  1003). The  o f compromise, a c c o r d i n g t o  tension o f Sophocles' p l a y s .  Heracles'  o n l y determined r e s o l u t i o n i s formed a f t e r h e a r i n g o f N e s s u s supplying  the " l o v e p h i l t r e , " a t a p o i n t  p l a y t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  1075) and  (Setup' ctv TtdppcuSev  "Even t o see him from a f a r would be a wonder!" the course  o f himself  a woman,"  t o be h i s r i g h t s as the son o f Zeus  r e s o l u t i o n o f the hero a g a i n s t  o f himself,  i s f a c e d w i t h no c h o i c e , b u t w i t h an  unchosen d i s a s t e r t h a t does, i n d e e d , (ftfiAus oupnpau xcxAas  the hero's c o n c e p t i o n  1  role i n  (1141-1142) r a t h e r l a t e i n the  f o r l e a d i n g t o the p l a y ' s d r a m a t i c  tension.  It is  110 true  that  throughout the p l a y H e r a c l e s  extraordinary  and w i l l f u l  physical strength  does n o t make any c o n s c i o u s , his  role,  rather  critical  recurrent  patterns  the T r a c h i n i a e ,  the Heracles  Ao*YX S pduaAdv T E TLvdaawv conquered the r i v e r  f u l f i l l m e n t o f c e r t a i n o f Knox'  s a v a g e , " and " h a r d . " f i l l e d with desire even g r e a t e r  not a c r i t i c a l  completely  god A c h e l o u s and l a t e r k i l l e d  The H e r a c l e s  as " w i l d , " "raw and  who a c t u a l l y appears i n the p l a y , e x h i b i t s these t r a i t s  A l t h o u g h h i s d e c i s i o n to a c t by k i l l i n g  decision within  forgets after hearing  the Chorus focus  the p l a y  t o an  Deianeira  and i s a d e c i s i o n t h a t he  Nessus' name, he e x p r e s s e s  a t t e n t i o n on h i s a r r i v a l  have h e a r d he i s a p p r o a c h i n g ,  the  be d e s c r i b e d  the c e n t a u r  i t i n the  temper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Knox' "angry" Sophoclean h e r o .  enters,  961).  The H e r a c l e s , i n  who, h a v i n g come from Thebes TO^CX MCO,  f o r revenge on D e i a n e i r a ,  degree.  i n s i t u a t i o n and a c t i o n i s  d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n .  Nessus, e x h i b i t s conduct t h a t c o u l d  he  action,  ( " b r a n d i s h i n g h i s bow, h i s s p e a r s and c l u b "  a  fiery  But, because he  d e c i s i o n o r take any such  o f character  n u l l i f i e d by h i s l a c k o f c r i t i c a l  is  and power.  character.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of Heracles'  characteristic  512),  to h i s physis o f  as has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , seems to be o f a f o r c e  than o f a h e r o i c  The  remains true  aansTov T L Qaupa  by s a y i n g  Even  before  that  they  ("an u n s p e a k a b l e wonder"  H y l l u s ' words, a d d r e s s e d t o h i s f a t h e r , give a f u l l  picture of  rage and f u r y o f H e r a c l e s . 6ds  pou aectUTov, pn TOOOUTOV <I)S 6ct7<vn  Supif 5uaopyos.  ou Y"P *  v  Xaupetv iipoSupri «ctv oxoig  yvoCris  ev OLS  aXyeZg  paxriv  (1117-1119).  Give me y o u r s e l f w i t h o u t t h i s g r i m anger t h a t s t i n g s you to such p a s s i o n . is  the p l e a s u r e  O t h e r w i s e you cannot l e a r n how m i s t a k e n your p a s s i o n  craves,  the pain  i t feels.  xSv  aTponpetri duyo's, ei  aou  xb  TC5V  yadouc  (1134).  Even your p a s s i o n would t u r n a s i d e i f you L i k e Knox' Sophoclean h e r o ,  knew  H e r a c l e s does not want to h e a r .  all. At  first,  he does a l l o w H y l l u s to speak. enet  itapeaxes dvxLcpcovrioau, itdxep,  ai/yriv rcapaaxtov xXuSC* pou F a t h e r , s i n c e you  a l l o w me  h o l d your s i l e n c e and He  voatov oyioc  (1114-1115).  to "speak to you  listen  to me,  now,  though you  sick.  i s u n w i l l i n g , however, t o l i s t e n to a n y t h i n g t h a t w i l l d i s t u r b h i s  ,  3 7  resolution. defenses  rise  When H y l l u s mentions h i s mother, H e r a c l e s and  he r e f u s e s to  xrjs  uaxpocpdvrou  Hyllus:  ex^  Heracles:  ou  You  T P A  6r\Ta  ynxpds,  xXueuv  oxyav  upo'adev  ye  malignant  yVi  LOS  eye;  itpenetv.  (1124-1127).  fiyapTnyevous  c u r s e , w i l l you  a g a i n make mention  o f the murderess o f your f a t h e r - - a n d i n my  Contrary (Ae'y',  to Knox  1  Her  s t a t e i s such  No,  no  silence  fury.  t h a t i t i s not  f o r the crime  euXagou 6e yn cpavrjs xaxbs yeya's  He  1129), but  hearing?  f i t t i n g t o keep  she has  silent.  committed!  Sophoclean h e r o , H e r a c l e s not o n l y f i n a l l y  disgrace y o u r s e l f , "  and  Ttapeyvnca)'yap a u  waxe  OUXUJS  T O U S  rage  listen.  5 TiayKc'xi.o'xe, naV  Heracles:  not  are  listens  "Speak, "but have a c a r e .  a l s o , h a v i n g heard,  i s enough u n l i k e the " a n g r y , " " s t r a n g e , " and  Do  surrenders h i s " t e r r i b l e " hero  38 at t h i s p o i n t t h a t H y l l u s f e e l s a s s u r e d enough to j o i n s i d e s w i t h nyeus 6'  oaou napeayev, eu T L  XPH,  him.  Ttaxep,  itpdaaeuv, xXuovxes e^uirnpexnaoyev (1155-1156). But we who are h e r e - - i f there i s a n y t h i n g , F a t h e r , we utmost.  must do, we  shall  listen  and  a s s i s t you  to  the  112 Whereas H e r a c l e s '  former p h y s i c a l f e a t s were deeds  e x t r a o r d i n a r y , p r o d i g i o u s , " as he  "outsized,  r e a l i z e s h i s impending d e a t h , he  " o u t s i z e d , e x t r a o r d i n a r y , p r o d i g i o u s " deeds on H y l l u s w i t h 39  »  violence. says,  and  otct p  to be met  must be  »  done,"  the p l a y ' s  unreasonable  » eupycaat  ("What have you  by H e r a c l e s ' h a r s h words, 1204).  done to me?"  1203), H y l l u s  buoua SpaaxE*' eaxC\> ("what  I t a g a i n remains c l e a r t h a t , d e s p i t e a l l the  r a g i n g pseudo-heroism t h a t H e r a c l e s  e f f e c t , the  actual culmination  f i n a l l y d i s p l a y s , he  o f the p l a y and n o t  the one  effecting  culmination.  i t s imperative  of change.  Heracles  does change.  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the o r a c l e , he  accepts  xcp C&vxi. xcu, nctpdvxu v u v , " a t t h i s  living  accepts  the hero be Heracles  question  l o y a l only  that H e r a c l e s  to h i s c o n c e p t i o n  i s l o y a l to n o t h i n g  Heracles  else.  comes v e r y  ex5u6ctxSo3 6r,xa 6uaaeBetv, 1245), he  Heracles  present  understands  i n time time"  ( XPovy 1169)  and  replies,  TOXEP;  ou o u a a E p e u a ,  i f you g i v e my fulfills  Knox' r e q u i r e m e n t  that  o f himself;' s e l f - c e n t e r e d  Knox' heroes j u s t i f y  their positions  In j u s t i f y i n g h i s p o s i t i o n ,  c l o s e , even f o r a demi-god, to what Knox r e f e r s to  "assumption o f d i v i n i t y . "  impiety  and  fulfills  t h e i r euyEveLa , xXeos , and euas$£ba .  as an  his limit  When he  time  death.  There i s no  by  fury  i s , in  Knox r e q u i r e s t h a t the hero remain unchanged, i n d e f i a n c e o f and  forces  the  In response to H y l l u s ' i n q u i r y ctXA' "But  have I l e a r n e d i m p i e t y ,  xouybv E L xep^ets xeap  heart pleasure,"  1246).  " i t i s no  I n h i s commands t o H y l l u s  f o l l o w i n g o f Knox' h e r o i c r e q u i r e m e n t s :  d r i v e n by Supds and  c l o s e d to the  the  f e e l i n g t h a t he  i s being  him  from h i s son  denied  i s o u t r a g e d , and  he remains d i s o b e d i e n t .  appeals  he  Father?"  of reason,  he  he  is  i s exasperated  r e s p e c t , h i s sense o f what i s due appeals  by to  f o r vengeance on H y l l u s i f  Because, however, H y l l u s does obey i n the  end,  113 Heracles i s released relieved  from the h e r o i c  f e e l i n g s mentioned  from the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a f i n a l  death n e i t h e r pdvoc nor  isolation,  above.  He i s  and he goes t o h i s  epnyos.  H e r a c l e s does possess a s t r o n g sense o f h i s i d e n t i t y , h i s i n d i v i d u a l and independent e x i s t e n c e , h i s d i f f e r e n c e  from o t h e r s and h i s r e s u l t a n t  u n i q u e n e s s , and h i s own  worth as an i n d i v i d u a l , a l l o f which Knox c i t e s  as t r a i t s  H e r a c l e s f a i l s to f u l f i l l  o f the h e r o .  by Knox i n two  s i g n i f i c a n t ways.  First,  these t r a i t s  as r e q u i r e d  he does not face a d e c i s i o n a t  a c r i t i c a l moment, which becomes a matter o f c h o o s i n g between d e f i a n c e and l o s s o f i d e n t i t y .  Second,  even w i t h what seems t o be h i s f i e r c e  sense o f independence,  he does submit  to b e i n g r u l e d ; he does n o t  remain  41 f r e e , but i s a s l a v e t o h i s p a s s i o n s and h i s body. T h i s apparent  f a u l t i n H e r a c l e s ' independence  i n t r o d u c e s the  p o i n t t o be c o n s i d e r e d o f Knox' model o f the Sophoclean t r a g i c A c c o r d i n g to Knox, the h e r o , h a v i n g s e t h i s own i s more p r e p a r e d to l e a v e l i f e to  isolation  from the w o r l d o f men  c h o o s i n g d e a t h , he a r r i v e s  The  hero.  conditions for existence,  than t o change and w i l l  the a b s o l u t e end o f d e f i a n c e , d e a t h .  final  assert his w i l l  f i n a l r e s u l t o f the h e r o ' s  i s s u p p o s e d l y h i s w i s h f o r d e a t h ; by  a t the l o g i c a l end o f h i s r e f u s a l t o compromise.  42 H e r a c l e s does wish the  f o r death  a n o i n t e d r o b e , because  disfigurement.  He  he cannot bear the p h y s i c a l p a i n and  cannot choose  no matter what a c t i o n he t a k e s . refusal  a f t e r he has been l o c k e d i n the g r i p s o f  to compromise.  d e a t h , because In a way,  His r e f u s a l  h i s death i s i n e v i t a b l e  he i s d r i v e n t o h i s end by h i s  to abandon h i s p a s s i o n s and t o l o v e  o n l y D e i a n e i r a has caused her to a s s e r t her w i l l , and her l o v e and cause h i s d e a t h . of  L i v i n g i n human s o c i e t y i s one  subduing one's own  will  will  c o n t i n u o u s compromise  and d e s i r e s to the r e q u i r e m e n t s .  11.4 of others. the  Heracles'  death r e s u l t s from h i s l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r  requirements o f others. Heracles  o s c i l l a t e s between the two w o r l d s o f mythology and r e a l i t y ,  i n the former as the son o f Zeus, a c c o m p l i s h i n g latter  as a p a t h e t i c m o r t a l w i t h a p a i n - r a c k e d  Heracles As  body.  I t i s the l a t t e r  who d i e s ; h i s a p o t h e o s i s i s e n t i r e l y s u p p r e s s e d i n the T r a c h i n i a e .  H. A . Mason remarks, i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e  given  a l l by h i s might, i n the  so many o r a c l e s p r o p h e s y i n g H e r a c l e s '  that Sophocles could  have  fate without hint of further  meaning than death as the end o f h i s l a b o r s w i t h o u t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t  43 Heracles is and  mythological  sequel  Heracles  the son o f Zeus, but the " r e s t from l a b o r " Zeus promised him i s death death a l o n e .  Knox b e l i e v e s  an a c t i o n h e r o i c , and H e r a c l e s the  i s i r r e l e v a n t to the T r a c h i n i a e .  that only  the f a c t o f death can make  cannot be d e n i e d p o s i t i o n as the hero o f  p l a y on the ground t h a t he does n o t meet a m o r t a l R. C,. Jebb f e e l s t h a t H e r a c l e s '  of Heracles  i n the play.  tone o f the T r a c h i n i a e .  death.  death completes the Homeric  conception  "And t h i s i s i n p e r f e c t harmony w i t h the g e n e r a l The s p i r i t  i n which the l e g e n d o f H e r a c l e s i s  44 t r e a t e d i n t h i s p l a y i s e s s e n t i a l l y the e p i c s p i r i t . "  Slater believes  45 t h a t i n h i s moment o f death he w i l l Heracles  a s s e r t mastery o v e r h i s l i f e .  does n o t a c t u a l l y meet h i s death w i t h i n  p l a y , and w i t h i n  But  the l i m i t s o f the  the p l a y he i s seen n o t as master, b u t s e r v a n t .  As BiggS  comments, h i s might i s always a t the s e r v i c e o f someone or something beyond h i s c o n t r o l . of s e r v i t u d e Heracles  Even i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s h e r o i s m , the element  i s s t r e s s e d ; h i s h e r o i c e x p l o i t s are s e r v i c e .  Zeus  leaves  no c l a i m t o d i g n i t y , not even the honor o f the d e c i s i o n o f d e a t h .  115 III.  S i n c e Whitman's c o n c e p t i o n and  the H e r a c l e s  Whitman  o f the Sophoclean h e r o i s v e r y  o f the T r a c h i n i a e i s n o t ,  idealized  i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that  Heracles  46 will  not  conform w e l l to h i s h e r o i c model.  behavior play.  and w i l l  As has  o f the  t r a g i c hero r e p r e s e n t  Heracles  t h a t cause and  true a c t i o n of  i s a s l a v e to f o r c e s and  represent  acts of free w i l l  those  i n c o n f l i c t with  of  the a c t i o n o f  the  agent.  forces, while  them r e p r e s e n t  the  Deianeira's true  a c t i o n o f the p l a y .  Whitman's model r e q u i r e s t h a t e a c h t r a g i c hero be  example o f a r e t e and  t h a t the h e r o ' s e n c o u n t e r s w i t h  result  from the c l a s h between h i s are te and  human b e i n g s , Heracles'  the t r a d i t i o n a l  arete.  gods, and  "His s e l f absorption  d i s a s t e r s and  the i m p e r f e c t i o n s  life  itself.  the  the  and w i l l  i s n o t an independent  T h e r e f o r e , h i s a c t i o n i n the p l a y r e p r e s e n t s a c t i o n and  the  been d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t i s the b e h a v i o r  D e i a n e i r a and n o t o f H e r a c l e s play.  T h i s model r e q u i r e s t h a t  of  an  trials  other  Waith b e l i e v e s i n  i s a c o n c o m i t a n t of the p r i m i t i v e  a r e t e which makes o b l i g a t i o n s to o t h e r s secondary to the h e r o ' s d e v o t i o n 47 to h i s own i n t e g r i t y . " W a i t h a l s o says o f H e r a c l e s , "His i n j u r i e s to o t h e r s and h i s i n f r i n g e m e n t s o f s o c i e t y ' s moral codes are i n c i d e n t a l to  48 a c a r e e r whose end  i s an u n d i l u t e d tragedy  T r a c h i n i a e does n o t d e p i c t H e r a c l e s ' Heracles  d e a t h as a t r a g e d y  o f the p l a y i s the husband o f D e i a n e i r a and  i n an i n c i d e n t a l illustration final  for s o c i e t y . "  f a s h i o n as an i l l u s t r a t i o n  of t r i a l s  for society.  o f h i s s t r e n g t h and  suffered for society.  the p i c t u r e o f a man  interested  s o l e l y i n h i m s e l f , unshaken by  passions.  He  i s not  not  Whitman b e l i e v e s t h a t  consumed by  The  h i s l a b o r s are mentioned  p i c t u r e o f H e r a c l e s , w i t h h i s abysmal s e l f i s h n e s s and  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  However, the  disease.  as  an  the  furious ravings, Heracles  is  s e l f - d o u b t or h e s i t a t i o n i n h i s  an example of a r e t e , and  the d i s a s t e r s and  trials  he  116 encounters and  d u r i n g the p l a y are a r e s u l t o f the c l a s h between h i s i m p e r f e c t i o n s  the a r e t e o f o t h e r human b e i n g s  gods, and  life  ( n o t a b l y . D e i a n e i r a ' s ) , the  traditional  itself.  A c c o r d i n g to Whitman, the i n d o m i t a b l e w i l l o f the s t r u g g l i n g h e r o , and not  the c o n v e n t i o n a l Olympian f i g u r e s , i s the source  Heracles  l a c k s an i n d o m i t a b l e w i l l ,  r e a c t i o n to h i s s u f f e r i n g . he  H i s o n l y d i v i n i t y i s as the son o f Zeus,  t h a t H e r a c l e s ' f a u l t s of p a s s i o n and b e s t i a l i t y ,  Whitman:'s h e r o i c model, are r e a l l y  with  first  self-knowledge  about him.  of Whitman's model and,  and  I t does not like  the  Heracles  seem  faults  signs of h i s p e r f e c t i o n that  the b l i n d n e s s and wrongness o f l i f e  have the r e a l  divinity.  seen i n h i s womanly  f e e l s a l i e n a t e d even from t h a t d u r i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g .  likely of  as i s c l e a r l y  of t r u e  conflict  does not  a l t h o u g h he  at  appears to be a law unto h i m s e l f , h i s d e s t r u c t i o n b r i n g s even t h a t  into question. keep him  Whitman's hero's  from y i e l d i n g  stubbornness  to h i s f a t e .  and  Heracles y i e l d s i n s t a n t l y  f a t e when he hears Nessus' name and r e c o g n i z e s oracle.  self-willed  H i s i s not a t r a g e d y o f " l a t e  to h i s  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  l e a r n i n g , " because, h a v i n g  he never c o n s i d e r s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g done a n y t h i n g Whitman's Sophoclean hero "seems to be  independence  the  learned,  differently.  l e s s under the o b l i g a t i o n  to  49 worship the gods than  to f u l f i l l  h i s duty  p l e a s u r e , does H e r a c l e s have a duty  to h i m s e l f . "  Other than h i s  to h i m s e l f ?  I V . Webster  Webster's s i x b a s i c a s p e c t s o f the Sophoclean h e r o , have been a c c e p t e d fulfilled  i n the model of the hero p r e s e n t e d  o n l y to a s m a l l e x t e n t by H e r a c l e s .  hero i s c o n s c i o u s o f h i s b i r t h , and,  as one who  i n s o f a r as  they  i n c h a p t e r one,  are  A c c o r d i n g to Webster, the i s nobly born,  conforms  117 to  certain  sonship to  standards  and a c t i o n .  from Zeus; perhaps he f e e l s  conform t o s t a n d a r d s  has  a duty  his  children.  his  son H y l l u s . T h e  of  of l i f e  to be l o y a l  Heracles  Heracles  of l i f e  Heracles i s conscious  t h a t as a demi-god he does n o t have  and a c t i o n .  to h i s p a r e n t s i s not l o y a l  Webster b e l i e v e s t h a t the hero  and a r i g h t  to e x p e c t  and the f a t h e r h o o d  Heracles  o f Zeus, i s an i r o n i c one.  the pyre  Heracles i s  the t e r r i b l e  and marry l o l e by a p p e a l i n g  t h r e a t e n s t o disown H y l l u s , assuming t h a t to be h i s son  s o m e t h i n g o f w h i c h t o be proud  consideration  (1204-1205).  He b e t r a y s no t r a c e o f  f o r H y l l u s ' f e e l i n g s , o n l y f o r h i s own; i t i s n o t an i m p i e t y  to  marry l o l e ,  if  you g i v e my h e a r t p l e a s u r e "  of  H y l l u s " t o be n o t so much a f u r t h e r i n d i c t m e n t o f H e r a c l e s proof  ou 6uaaeBei'a, roupov E L r e p ^ e t s 1246).  Heap  ("It i s no i m p i e t y  E a s t e r l i n g t a k e s H e r a c l e s ' demands for hubris,  i n a c t i o n o f the complete misjudgment t h a t H e r a c l e s has made  about l i f e ; it  from  the " f i n e s t o f a l l laws, obedience t o one's f a t h e r " (1177-1178, c f .  1244).  but  from  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a t h e r and s o n , the f a t h e r h o o d  demands he makes o f H y l l u s to b u i l d  is  loyalty  t o Zeus but demands l o y a l t y  unaware o f the i n h e r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y when he j u s t i f i e s  to  of h i s  just  never o c c u r s  as he came t r i u m p h a n t l y  t o him t h a t lie has ever been o t h e r than  Webster's second h e r o i c a s p e c t sensitiveness  to Cenaeum t o s a c r i f i c e  t o shame to the h e r o .  attributes  an i d e a l  frankness,  Webster n o t e s  so now son."^  f o r t i t u d e , and  that Heracles  takes no  p a i n s t o hide, h i s m i s t r e s s from h i s w i f e and t h a t on t h e o n l y o c c a s i o n on which he used g u i l e a g a i n s t a f o e ( I p h i t u s ) he p a i d h e a v i l y f o r i t . is  ashamed o f b e i n g k i l l e d  as j u s t i c e  by a woman (1062) and i t i s t h i s  t h a t e n t e r s i n t o H e r a c l e s ' d e s i r e f o r vengeance.  He  shame as w e l l H i s shame,  however, does n o t s t o p him from h i s womanly c r i e s , and he n e c e s s a r i l y i s further  ashamed t h a t h i s s u f f e r i n g s have broken down h i s f o r t i t u d e  (1071)„  118 He  has  fallen  s h o r t o f h i s own  i d e a l o f heroism,  Webster's c o n c e p t i o n o f the hero as one by  w i t h another  to  satisfy  whose f o r t i t u d e cannot be  broken  o f Webster's a s p e c t s o f the h e r o ,  i s not remarkable f o r h i s sophrosyne. haste, i n f l e x i b i l i t y ,  and  folly  H e r a c l e s , however, f a i l s t o -  He  and has  fulfill  e n e r g y , f i r m n e s s , and  idealism.  H e r a c l e s , a c c e p t e d by c e r t a i n  a s t r a i n of c r u e l t y and v i o l e n c e .  the  l a s t o f Webster's h e r o i c  Sophocles  w i t h the v i r t u e s o f has  taken  t r a d i t i o n a l standards  but has emphasized the u t t e r savagery  Heracles  e x h i b i t s arrogance, v i o l e n c e ,  because h i s v i c e s are not c l o s e l y connected  aspects spirit,  the h e r o i c f i g u r e  of  as apuaTos ctv6ptov,  and b r u t a l i t y o f t h o s e  standards.  52  son o f Zeus i s not above human s t a n d a r d s , but below them, as Murray's  questions  and  answer about the H e r a c l e s who  sleeping reveal.  "Is t h e r e r e a l l y  the ravenous l u s t and Is  fails  misfortunes. I n accordance  The  and he  i s borne on s t a g e  while  some g r e a t n e s s , some g e n e r o s i t y ,  behind  f u r y which i s a l l t h a t o t h e r s have, seen i n him?  there something i n the Son  dp LOTOS  o f Zeus, the  dvSpwv, which when we 53  come near i t we allows  can r e c o g n i z e as d i v i n e ?  t h a t the hero may  fall  s h o r t o f s t a n d a r d s , but  u s u a l l y conscious of h i s shortcomings. arrogance,  i s never c o n s c i o u s  Quite the r e v e r s e . "  of any  t h a t he h i m s e l f i s  Heracles, i n his self-centered  of his  shortcomings.  There i s a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t between the l o u d l y s u f f e r i n g and  the s i l e n t l y  suffering Deianeira.  Webster  The  Heracles  Heracles of t h i s play  lives  i n a s e l f - c h o s e n w o r l d o f p h y s i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , v i o l e n c e , and  pain;  he has no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t the l e v e l o f r e a s o n  He  p h y s i c a l revenge f o r p h y s i c a l p a i n on  and j u s t i c e .  the n e a r e s t a v a i l a b l e o b j e c t  summons H y l l u s to h e l p "even though you must d i e w i t h me." f e e l i n g s seem to s t o p at the o u t e r difficult  takes  s u r f a c e o f h i s own  f o r anyone to s u f f e r w i t h him."'  4  and  Heracles'  s k i n , making i t  119 V.  Gellie  I n G e l l i e V s judgment, the p r o t a g o n i s t a ready-made s t a t e o f e v i l . he  a c t s and  deal with  i s destroyed  Whatever a c t i o n he  by h i s a c t i o n .  a ready-made s t a t e o f e v i l .  D e i a n e i r a , he  creates  i s c a l l e d upon to d e a l  a state of e v i l  with  t a k e s w i l l be wrong, but  Heracles  i s not c a l l e d upon to  By s e n d i n g l o l e home to for his wife.  He  supplant  h i m s e l f must d e a l 55  only with At  the r e s u l t o f what D e i a n e i r a i s c a l l e d upon to d e a l  that p o i n t , there  i s no  does cannot a l t e r the I n h i s chapter  choice  on  the T r a c h i n i a e , G e l l i e makes some unwarranted a c t i o n o f the p l a y .  i s not much c e r t a i n t y o f a n y t h i n g  Heracles  i s the o n l y one  T r a c h i s has  t o a c t i o n s and  The  Heracles  p l a y has  may  play i s .  be  p l a y does not. depend on  r e s u l t of Deianeira's  has  and  reports  and  Gellie, the  scene.  h i s home i n  from f a r away  mainspring of  Deianeira  for certain. i s not where the a c t i o n  a c t i o n s and  decisions  a c t i o n o f the p l a y i s the a c t and  d e c i s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y her  G e l l i e himself  i t s foundations  The  "where the a c t i o n i s , " but he  The  he  to work by remote c o n t r o l through r e a c t i o n s  can never know a n y t h i n g  a t a d i s t a n c e , because the r e a l  philtre.  and  to  comes on  i s "where the a c t i o n i s , " ~ ^  d e c i s i o n s taken at a d i s t a n c e .  a n x i e t i e s i s t h a t she  o f the  who  According  u n t i l Heracles  to depend on memories of l o n g ago  for information.  and whatever  i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f h i s death.  i n c o r r e c t comments about the there  o f a c t i o n open to him,  with.  d e c i s i o n to use  l a t e r remarks t h a t the r e a l 57 i n Deianeira's heart.  taken the  the  a c t i o n of the  loveplay  120 VI.  H e r a c l e s does not for  Kirkwood  satisfactorily  the same b a s i c r e a s o n s  fulfill  Kirkwood's h e r o i c  as have been d i s c u s s e d above.  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r "the l i f e - g i v i n g c o m b i n a t i o n  requirements  H e r a c l e s i s not  of strong character  and  58 revealing situation" play.  He  t h a t Kirkwood f e e l s i s a t the h e a r t o f e v e r y  does not undergo a s e r i e s o f t e s t s from which he emerges newly  r e v e a l e d and w i t h added s t r e n g t h , but barges h i s way 59 the same u n e n l i g h t e n e d easily call critical for  and b e s t i a l  an admirable  situation.  his fate.  level.  the p l a y at  i s n o t what one  could  i s not c o n f r o n t e d w i t h  A g a i n , H e r a c l e s does not  as p r e d i c t e d and  a c c e p t h i s own  a  responsibility  r e p o r t e d deeds, h i s drunkenness the i n n o c e n t L i c h a s  (268),  capricious violence i n his  h i s murder o f I p h i t u s (169-273)  (779-782), and h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e  i n demanding h e l p f o r h i m s e l f when H e r a c l e s appears,  and h i s b o u n d l e s s  the meaning o f the o r a c l e ,  predestined.  There i s a q u a l i t y o f b r u t a l i t y and  strengthened  through  U n l i k e O e d i p u s , whose a c t s were "not p r e d e s t i n e d , merely  a c c e p t s h i s death  welfare  He  c h a r a c t e r , and he  p r e d i c t e d , " Heracles, a f t e r understanding  and  Sophocle  s e l f - p r a i s e and  (797-798).  to h i s son's  This impression i s  by h i s u n b r i d l e d h a t r e d o f D e i a n e i r a  self-pity.  He  i s both  impressive  and  grotesque. Heracles  possesses  more than what Kirkwood r e f e r s to as the  human equipment o f emotions and heroic  and  frailties  without  even the s t a n d a r d  redeeming d e v o t i o n to an i d e a l o f c o n d u c t .  His f a u l t s  be i n the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s s t r e n g t h and because he "tragic and  i s l a c k i n g i n a l l but p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h .  f a u l t i s not  guilt,  and  tragic  suffering.  of  cannot  nobility,  According  s u f f e r i n g i s not  the hero does not p r e c i p i t a t e h i s own  standard  to Kirkwood,  punishment  I f H e r a c l e s has  a  121 tragic  fault, i t i s his inability  to r i s e  above h i s b e s t i a l n a t u r e .  s u f f e r i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h i s f a u l t appears i n many ways to be punishment, even though H e r a c l e s does not r e c o g n i z e i t as  a  such.  Kirkwood's Sophoclean t r a g i c hero endures h i s s u f f e r i n g and to the s t a t u r e o f a moral hero.  H e r a c l e s does not endure h i s  at a l l u n t i l he r e c o g n i z e s the t r u t h o f the o r a c l e .  shows t h a t i n h e r o i s m  o f the hero's  t h a t stands  5 vtoxcx x a l axepv', w cptAou gpax^oves, hands, my  i n such  hands, 0 my  a state"  f i r m in.  H e r a c l e s ' o n l y form o f  i n h i s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , which does not endure.  "0 my  obvious.  d e a t h , which i s made c l e a r by S o p h o c l e s ' way  c o n t r a s t i n g the h e r o i c w i t h the u n h e r o i c . lies  suffering  devotion to n o b i l i t y  t h e r e e x i s t s an e n d u r i n g v a l u e  s p i t e o f s u f f e r i n g and  rises  During h i s s u f f e r i n g  h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s and b e s t i a l n a t u r e are a t t h e i r most A c c o r d i n g to Kirkwood, the g r e a t n e s s  His  / upets  back and c h e s t , 0 my  1089-1091).  (5  of heroism  x^pes x P S £  e  }  /  exeuvot &r\ xaSearaQ' poor arms, you  In f a c t , H e r a c l e s i s the u n h e r o i c  t h a t are with  which D e i a n e i r a i s c o n t r a s t e d .  VII.  According t h e i r concern  to Lesky, when g r e a t t r a g i c f i g u r e s take up i s human d i g n i t y , not mere e x i s t e n c e .  d i g n i t y does H e r a c l e s h i s own  Lesky  fight?  And,  H e l l a s , yearns  For what human  what i s he more concerned  about  than  the i n n o c e n t L i c h a s , b o a s t s o f b e i n g t h e . s a v i o r o f  to take vengeance on D e i a n e i r a , and d i s t o r t s  o f h i s l a b o r s to the e x t e n t o f s e e i n g D e i a n e i r a as one  who  fight,  self-centered existence?  Heracles k i l l s  he slew  their  (1110-1111).  d i d miraculous  Sophocles  deeds and  has  the meaning  o f the monsters  t u r n e d the H e r a c l e s o f the u s u a l  legen  thus became the b e n e f a c t o r o f mankind i n t o  122 almost the o p p o s i t e , without and  "a man  f o l l o w s h i s own  nature  r e s t r a i n t . , commits o u t r a g e o u s misdeeds, and  a menace to o t h e r  self-centered Heracles (cf.  who  1117)  and  people."^ who  The  and  desires  thus becomes a danger  overwhelming f o r c e o f the  entirely  i s u n a b l e "to g i v e h i m s e l f " to anyone e l s e  i s "entirely  l a c k i n g i n s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and  t h e r e f o r e unable  62 to  realise  t h a t he has  during his f i n a l having life  brought m i s e r y upon h i m s e l f "  commands to H y l l u s .  £isen above h i s own  nature;  Heracles  i s most  manifest  w i l l meet h i s d e a t h  h i s death w i l l mark the end  of his  and h i s s u f f e r i n g s , but n o t h i n g more. I t i s D e i a n e i r a whose l i f e and death have a purpose i n the  Heracles  c o u l d h a r d l y be  considered  without  play.  the hero o f h i s scene, l e t alone  63 the hero o f the e n t i r e p l a y . her  identity  i n H e r a c l e s , but  because o f D e i a n e i r a . a s c r i b e d to o t h e r  D e i a n e i r a e x i s t s because o f and  i n the p l a y ' s s t r u c t u r e H e r a c l e s e x i s t s  Heracles  does not  Sophoclean h e r o e s , and  s a t i s f y many o f the  Heracles  i s not  characteristics  he does not emerge w i t h i n  p l a y as a f r e e i n d i v i d u a l whose a c t s of w i l l play's events.  finds  the hero of  determine the course the  Trachiniae.  the of  the  123  NOTES -- CHAPTER THREE  H e r a c l e s does n o t speak u n t i l  l i n e 983.  2 Kamerbeek, 25.  3  Although visible  c f . Slater  d u r i n g the f i n a l scene.  visually,  4  (59, a l s o 6 2 ) , who b e l i e v e s D e i a n e i r a ' s body i s "The t e l o s o f h e r t r a g e d y i s r e v e a l e d  the arkhe evoked by the words."  Kamerbeek, 26.  Kamerbeek, 26.  ^  Cf. S l a t e r , anguish  63.  D e i a n e i r a , on the c o n t r a r y , s e t s h e r w i l l  and p a i n t h a t H e r a c l e s has caused her by s e n d i n g I o l e  She walks away i n s i l e n c e l a m e n t a t i o n s i n proud  Jebb,  xxxvii,  Jebb,  xxxviii.  9  Jebb,  xxxviii.  ^  Penelope  7  a g a i n s t the to h e r .  from H y l l u s ' p a i n f u l words, h i d e s h e r  seclusion  and d i s p a t c h e s h e r s e l f w i t h  courage.  g  B i g g s , "The D i s e a s e Theme i n S o p h o c l e s ' A j a x , P h i l o c t e t e s , and  Trachiniae," tooT  CPh 61 (1966) 228. G L T I T<Ly^ T ' d v 6 p l Trj6e T 13 vdow  Ari<P$eVTL~ y e y n x d c  eCyu, xdpTct  yatvoyat  (4M-5-446).  . HOUTOb vdaov y*'  eTtanrbv e £ a p o u y £ § a ,  Seotau 6uayctxouvxes  (491-492)  kyli  oux  6e SuyouaSau yev  enuaTayat  voaouvtc xetv(j) itoXXa T?i6e xrj vdaa> And,  belying Lichas  124  (235), H e r a c l e s  (543-544).  does not  return  "unburdened by  disease."  12 P. E . E a s t e r l i n g , " S o p h o c l e s , T r a c h i n i a e , " BICS15  (1968)  Perhaps the p o i n t of  make us wonder  Heracles  the  the e n s l a v e r  was  1  3  Biggs,  230.  1  4  Instead  of f o r H y l l u s .  Sather  1 5  1  6  l i  Waldock,  not  after  C f . H.  C l a s s i c a l Lectures  Kitto, Poiesis,  slavery is  s t r e s s on  D.  "to  a l l a slave himself"  62.  ( E a s t e r l i n g , 61).  F. K i t t o , P o i e s i s S t r u c t u r e  V o l . 36  (Berkeley  and  if  and  Los A n g e l e s , 1966)  Thought, 170.  166.  86.  H. A. Mason, "The  Women o f T r a c h i s  (Part II),"  Arion 2  (1963  114.  18 This c i t a t i o n reveals Heracles Kamerbeek's note on  the  two  lines i s :  |^av)5nSe\,sJ, c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h he  how  estranged  The  r e p u t a t i o n he  strength,  feels  perf.  wants to m a i n t a i n  cxXX* ei5 ye  i n the  TOL  T6*6'  yn6ev epuu), rnv  Xecptoaoycto xax LV'  the  from h i s s o n s h i p  as i s e v i d e n t  xSv  n o t i o n o f how "In my  he  i s considered  opinion  to Z e u s "  for himself  xav  i s that of h i s p h y s i c a l  rdde  npoaydXoi, ydvov,  EK6b6axSp rcaauv ayycXXe^v  aor. p a r t i e .  (228-229).  TO yn6ev 5  YE 6pdactactv  TWV6E.  others.  p a r t i e . wvoyaayevos , s u g g e s t s  following lines : 'Care,  the  by  5TL  xtx! £Sv xaxous ye x a ! Savoiv £Tet,aapnv  1 9  (1107-1111)^  Waldock, 85.  20 I r o n i c a l l y , t h e s e s l a v e women, who a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s p r o s p e r i t y and hope f o r h a p p i n e s s , 2  ^  atpctXXw i n the p a s s i v e means " t o f a i l , H e r a c l e s i s both  2  2  lead to h i s f i n a l d e s t r u c t i o n . be t r i p p e d up; t o be d e c e i v e d . "  t r i p p e d up and d e c e i v e d .  P o e t i c s 1453b.  23  H e r a c l e s does n o t even have the honor o f the d e c i s i o n o f h i s own  2  4  death.  Waldock, 88. It  seems, however, t h a t D e i a n e i r a does a p p l y , or a t l e a s t t r i e s t o  a p p l y , human-defining terms t o H e r a c l e s . 2  6  2 7  Victor  Ehrenberg,  " T r a g i c H e r a c l e s , " DUJ 4 (1.943) 53.  E. M. W a i t h , The H e r c u l e a n  Hero  (London, 1962) 24.  id  E a s t e r l i n g , 66.  2  9  A l b e i t , Heracles  i s s u f f e r i n g i n the extremes o f p a i n .  K i t t o , Greek Tragedy, 294.  on H e r a c l e s i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f from the p a s t  t o a s m a l l and s e l e c t i v e  by r e f u s i n g to be guided by what he must know o f D e i a n e i r a ' s a c t i o n s o f the p a s t .  31  He r e f u s e s to understand  D e i a n e i r a , and j u s t i f i e s  extent  loving  Hyllus' vindication of  the r e f u s a l by h i s d i s e a s e  (1120-1121).  H e r a c l e s cannot d e s t r o y h i s s u f f e r i n g ' s r e a l s o u r c e , b u t must depend on o t h e r s  to b u i l d  and l i g h t  the p y r e .  Perhaps because he i s i n c a p a b l e o f f i n d i n g purpose o r meaning i n h i s suffering.  33  A p o s i t i o n he h o l d s e i t h e r by r i g h t o f h i s s t a t u s as a demi-god o r as a r e s u l t o f h i s own d e f i a n c e o f human l i m i t a t i o n s . i s not granted itself, it  S i n c e i n the p l a y he  p r i v i l e g e s as the son o f Zeus o t h e r than  perhaps the l a t t e r  the e p i t h e t  i s the more l i k e l y c i r c u m s t a n c e .  Nevertheless,  i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t H e r a c l e s does see h i m s e l f as c l e a r l y t h e son  o f Zeus.  H e r a c l e s was, a f t e r  all,  the one who slew Nessus.  35 E a s t e r l i n g , 61.  Two p o i n t s may be made h e r e .  First,  as has a l r e a d y  been mentioned, one ought perhaps to be s u r p r i s e d t h a t H e r a c l e s to s a c r i f i c e  to Zeus as though h i s b e h a v i o r  what Zeus would d e s i r e . was  ^  i n s a c k i n g O e c h a l i a has been  Second, H e r a c l e s has been b e h a v i n g  h i s champion i n s a c k i n g the c i t y , a l t h o u g h  (354-355).  H e r a c l e s , bewitched  In h i s f i n a l  speech H e r a c l e s  used t o d e s c r i b e Sophoclean h e r o e s ,  5  h i s soul with  4>uxn  as i f Zeus  i t was a c t u a l l y  by h i s p a s s i o n s , wanted a  addresses  sees f i t  an\r)pd  Eros  Hpucpuov  a word  Xexoc.  characteristically  (1260)»  37 One  almost  feels  t h a t H e r a c l e s does n o t want to hear o f D e i a n e i r a  because he l a c k s c o n v i c t i o n f o r and a sense o f r i g h t n e s s about what he has  r e s o l v e d t o do.  He does n o t r e f u s e to l i s t e n because h i s mind has  been i r r e v o c a b l y made up, b u t because i t has n o t . the d i s t u r b a n c e o f h a v i n g and oo  p a s s i o n have d e c i d e d  actually  He does n o t want  to t h i n k about something h i s  f o r him.  This union with H y l l u s i s evidence  against Heracles  isolation.  rage  39  According  to Kamerbeek (243)  o f O e d i p u s ' , A j a x ' , and  t h i s unreasonable v i o l e n c e  Creon's and  is  reminiscent  d i s p l a y s a c e r t a i n aspect  of  the  t y p i c a l l y Sophoclean h e r o .  40  4  ^  Perhaps, though, he imperatives  o f change?  I t might be  s a i d that Heracles  to h i s p a s s i o n s opinion  restraint  4  3  4  4  and  of others;  an e n t i r e c i t y  42  sees h i s death as a r e l e a s e  He  considers  4  5  Slater,  4  ^  Also,  and  Also, Heracles'  destroy  lack of  s u f f e r i n g of h i s physical pain  killing  self-  clearly  himself.  t h a t to D e i a n e i r a  i n the Homeric sense; he  7  8  and  Hyllus Heracles  i s the  "best  i s a champion, mighty w a r r i o r ,  of  and  ha  Ajax.  64.  i n f o r m i n g h i s model, Whitman has  hero o f the  Waith,  24.  Waith,  26.  49 y  sake of p a s s i o n ?  d r i v e n to  i s a s l a v e to h i s body.  a s e n s i t i v e honor l i k e  H  freedom to be  the  J e b b , xxxv.  a l l men"  4  is i t really  or  rein  119.  Webster b e l i e v e s  ^  remains independent i n g i v i n g f r e e  r e f u s i n g to be h e l d back by D e i a n e i r a  in his self-pity t h a t he  Mason,  but  f o r the  indicate  never  by  from time and i t s  Whitman,  40.  Trachiniae.  considered  Deianeira  to be  the  128 Also, Heracles After  l o y a l to h i s w i f e , but  the news about Nessus' p o i s o n  o f Nessus and f i l l e d with has  i s not  forgets Deianeira.  demands l o y a l t y f r o m h e r .  (1142), H e r a c l e s  His nature  resentment at h i s s u f f e r i n g s .  s e i z e s on the  mention  i s i n f l e x i b l e , and he  is  Webster b e l i e v e s t h a t I o l e  taken the p l a c e o f D e i a n e i r a i n H e r a c l e s ' a f f e c t i o n s and  that,  even i f D e i a n e i r a were a l i v e , he would never have f o r g i v e n h e r .  Easterling,  67.  And  he  shown us  one  woman, and  52 "has  "Heracles, 5  3  Murray,  'The  presumably the one Best  sincerity  s u f f e r e d most"  o f Men'," Greek S t u d i e s  Story Patterns  "This Heracles 'the  of Heracles  (Murray,  (Oxford,  are  1946)  113).  'given';  they  the  are what  and  (Ann A r b o r ,  the persons o f the  g r e a t e s t o f men'....But the g r e a t n e s s  l o v e o f D e i a n e i r a and  Cf. G e l l i e ,  i n Greek Tragedy  i s c a l l e d by  comes out b a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t  54  who  s t o r y through the eyes o f  120.  Richmond L a t t i m o r e , writes :  the whole m i s e r a b l e  and  60  play i n a l l good achievements  'everybody knows'; and  c r e d i b l e as the hero who  1964)  the  commanded  person the  a f f e c t i o n of H y l l u s . "  68.  55 Heracles had  i s not even aware o f the d i f f i c u l t  to w r e s t l e .  5  6  Cf. G e l l i e ,  56.  5  7  Cf. G e l l i e ,  61.  Kirkwood,  11.  He  i s not  d e c i s i o n w i t h which D e i a n e i r a  i n t e r e s t e d i n her i n t e n t i o n s , o n l y i n her  act.  59  Kirkwood  (118) remarks t h a t H e r a c l e s i s p a r t o f the mighty  sweep o f  e v e n t s by which D e i a n e i r a i s overwhelmed.  6  0  ^  Kirkwood,  176.  E h r e n b e r g , 56.  62 E h r e n b e r g , 57. ^  I t i s Whitman's view t h a t h i s l o n g f i n a l  scene i s one o f p l a n n e d  c r u e l t y , p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t h a t D e i a n e i r a , who i s alone may  still  remain alone and u n l o v e d .  throughout,  I3J dots nof- ay/rt 130  CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION:  The  DEIANEIRA THE TRACHINIAN  D e i a n e i r a o f S o p h o c l e s ' T r a c h i n i a e has been c a l l e d "perhaps one  of t h e g r e a t e s t c h a r a c t e r s i n a l l o f a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e " ' ' ' ; and t o t h e extent  t h a t she i s g r e a t , i t i s b o t h i n s p i t e o f and because o f H e r a c l e s .  Heracles  a c t s b o t h as a f o r c e , which t h r u s t s D e i a n e i r a i n t o h e r p o s i t i o n  as h e r o , and a s a t o o l o f h e r h e r o i c a c t i o n .  I t has been s a i d o f H e r a c l e s  t h a t , even " i f he i s n o t i n t h e o r d i n a r y sense o f t h e word a sympathetic c h a r a c t e r , he i n s p i r e s i n t h e o t h e r  c h a r a c t e r s e x t r a o r d i n a r y l o v e and  2 l o y a l t y , and becomes almost an o b j e c t o f v e n e r a t i o n , "  and t h a t  "Heracles  i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r us as a man o f men, a man who, whatever h i s f a i l i n g s ,  3 has  q u a l i t i e s t h a t c a n command i n f i n i t e d e v o t i o n  statement t o t a l l y v i o l a t e s t h e s p i r i t "an  object of veneration,"  devotion  from a woman."  a c t i v e and l i v i n g Heracles Deianeira's  Heracles  and he does n o t a c t i v e l y "command  infinite  I t i s D e i a n e i r a and h e r l o v e t h a t p l a y t h e  H i s s p h e r e , w h i c h i s monstrous, v i o l e n t , and d e s t r u c t i v e ,  from h e r human, l o v i n g , and c r e a t i v e s p h e r e , a l t h o u g h she o f h i s sphere i n h e r u l t i m a t e attempt t o r e c o v e r  I n c o n t r a s t t o H e r a c l e s , D e i a n e i r a i s made n o b l e and h e r o i c  i n h e r own l o v e , because i n h e r i n f i n i t e warmth o f h e a r t l o v e a c r e a t u r e so u n d e s e r v i n g i n the t o t a l killed  i s not  r o l e s i n the play.  does u s e an i n s t r u m e n t his love.  of the play.  Each  i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d o r made n o b l e and h e r o i c by  love.  i s one a p a r t  from a woman."  of her l o v e .  Heracles  she i s a b l e t o  does n o t appear,  t e r r o r o f h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d e x i s t e n c e , u n t i l D e i a n e i r a has  h e r s e l f f o r l o v e o f him, and t h e n t h e f u l l  tragedy  of her love  LEAF 131 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  132 and  death i s r e a l i z e d . M u s u r i l l o comes c l o s e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t r a g i c r o l e i n the course call  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Deianeira's  o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f why i t i s i n c o r r e c t t o  the Trachiniae a diptych play.  "Heracles  the f i r s t p a r t , j u s t as D e i a n e i r a i s p r e s e n t , she has wrought, a l l throughout t h e f i n a l is  i s present  a l l through  i n the innocent  part.  destruction  The f a c t t h a t  little  s a i d o f h e r t r a g i c end i n t h e scene between H y l l u s and h i s f a t h e r  b r i n g s out a p e c u l i a r , u n f e e l i n g f a c e t o f Heracles' a l s o u n d e r l i n e s the poignant,  character; but i t  w a s t e f u l q u a l i t y o f h e r s u i c i d e . " ^ Her  s u i c i d e i s w a s t e f u l because i t i s committed a s a r e s u l t o f h e r l o v e f o r one  who i s unworthy o f and u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t l o v e .  Heracles'  d i s r e g a r d f o r D e i a n e i r a , h i s b r u t a l i t y and complete s e l f i s h n e s s , a r e i n stark contrast t o her devotion  t o him, h e r g e n t l e n e s s  and g e n e r o s i t y .  H i s extreme s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s withdraws him from t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f being a t r u l y present  tragic or heroic figure.  o n l y as a f o r c e and never as an independent agent.  thoughtlessness sending  and f a i l u r e  to c o n s i d e r  I o l e home t o s u p p l a n t  i s h e l d by d i s e a s e and s l a v e r y ,  s e r v i c e t o a L y d i a n woman (70).  Lichas repeats  disease xapTa  (COOT*  t h e Omphale-story,  ( n o t f r e e , 248) a n d t e l l s  how  because he c a l l e d him  enslaved  by h e r .  H i s enslavement  (441, 443) i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s s u f f e r i n g from  E L TL, TWUSJ  UCXLVOUCXL,  was i n  (6ouXos avSpbs tos eAeudepou, 2 6 7 ) . He i s not: r e a l l y  the e n s l a v e r o f I o l e , b u t i s h i m s e l f I o l e and E r o s  agent,  H y l l u s r e l a t e s that Heracles  t r e a c h e r o u s l y threw I p h i t u s o f f a c l i f f  a f r e e man's s l a v e  by  the f e e l i n g s of others i n  He i s not an independent  s a y i n g t h a t H e r a c l e s was own k\ev§epoQ Heracles  By h i s  D e i a n e i r a , he d r i v e s D e i a n e i r a t o a c t i o n and  t h e n becomes the t o o l o f t h a t a c t i o n . but  Throughout t h e p l a y he i s  T'  " I should  dv5pL Tfl6e  TT)  vdau / XncpdEVTL p e u n T o s  ELUL,  be a l t o g e t h e r mad t o throw blame upon my  133 husband, because he s u f f e r s from t h i s s i c k n e s s " f i n a l l y appears i n p e r s o n  When  Heracles  i n t h e p l a y , t h e d e s t r u c t i v e power o f v a r i o u s  f o r c e s have made him what he i s .  M u s u r i l l o submits t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i v e  power's e f f e c t must be seen and f e l t t h e once m a j e s t i c h e r o . " not once d u r i n g  445-446).  i n the "racked  and f e e b l e body o f  H e r a c l e s may have once been m a j e s t i c , but  t h e p l a y i s he p r e s e n t e d  as m a j e s t i c .  T h e r e i s no  h o p e f u l c o n t r a s t between a s i c k and h e a l t h y H e r a c l e s ; he i s seen o n l y in  h i s death throes.  7  The H e r a c l e s  dv6pyv o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n ,  of the T r a c h i n i a e , u n l i k e the  »  ctpuatos  i s "something monstrous, something w h i c h  g cannot be c a l l e d T.  'good'."  F. Hoey b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e T r a c h i n i a e i s t h e t r a g e d y  o f t h e House  9 of  Heracles.  The two e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f t h e house a r e D e i a n e i r a and  H e r a c l e s , who a r e a l s o , a c c o r d i n g play.  They f a i l  he p u t s  t o achieve union;  i t , " t o a c h i e v e home."*^  t o Hoey, t h e two p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h e t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y f a i l s , as Thus, t h e house i t s e l f  n e v e r comes  t o g e t h e r , and t h i s broken house i s t h e c h i e f image o f t h e p l a y . p l a y i s about d i s u n i t y . " * *  "The  I n Hoey's view, D e i a n e i r a i s a t home i n a  p h y s i c a l sense, b u t i s d i s p l a c e d i n h e r s o u l and t h e r e f o r e i s as much a wanderer as H e r a c l e s  is.  wandering ways o f thought. achieved  without  Her j o u r n e y s ,  l i k e Oedipus', tend a l o n g t h e  As t h e Nurse says, h e r f i n a l j o u r n e y i s  h e r moving a f o o t .  Deianeira's departure,  the t r a n s i t i o n a l s e c t i o n (863-970), c o i n c i d e s w i t h  except f o r  the a r r i v a l of  Heracles. The two h e r o e s f a i l t o f i n d each o t h e r . Hoey's view i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one, but c o n t a i n s a major f l a w . the p l a y i s about t h e f a i l u r e " t o a c h i e v e home," D e i a n e i r a a l o n e  If  can be  12 the h e r o .  The t r a g e d y  of a b r o k e n house i s a t r a g e d y  H e r a c l e s never has a house or d e s i r e f o r home. be w i t h D e i a n e i r a i s when he wants t o k i l l h e r .  only f o r her.  The o n l y time he wants t o He r e g r e t s h e r death  134 o n l y because he was for  not a b l e to cause i t .  A broken house i s no  tragedy  him. H e r a c l e s ' appearance a t the end  o f the p l a y consummates the  of D e i a n e i r a .  H e r a c l e s ' complete l a c k of i n t e r e s t  innocence,  the d r a m a t i c  and  i n her d e a t h  tragedy and  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , a r e the  culmination  13 of her t r a g i c l i f e .  One  l o o k s a t H e r a c l e s f o r what he i s , what  o b j e c t of D e i a n e i r a ' s g r e a t l o v e r e a l l y i s , and  t h e r e one  sees  the  the  tragedy. Kamerbeek makes the f o l l o w i n g attempt to sum  up  the p l a y :  a r u t h l e s s , superhuman h e r o ' s p r e d e s t i n e d f a t e i s brought about by the v e r y r u t h l e s s n e s s of h i s d i s l o y a l t y h i s wife; h i s wife  towards  t r y i n g to win back h i s l o v e by magic i s  the i n v o l u n t a r y cause of h i s r u i n and  her own.  Not  even the  son of Zeus can escape from the w i l l of the gods but has bow  before  and  incongruous i s an o r d i n a r y m o r t a l ' s  demigod.* Kamerbeek has  the i n e v i t a b l e . 6ct£pu>v of h i s b e i n g .  Dangerous  union w i t h a superhuman  4  summarized the t r a g e d y  of H e r a c l e s , and  to  only h i s l a s t  of D i a n e i r a through the  character  sentence comes c l o s e , t o c o r r e c t i n g t h a t  inversion. I t i s D e i a n e i r a ' s a c t i o n t h a t s e t s the p l a y i n m o t i o n ; i t i s D e i a n e i r a who  l e a r n s , and  peSuoxepov, / understand  OT'  i t i s D e i a n e i r a who OUXET'  l a t e r , now  D e i a n e i r a sum  ctpHe'C,  develops  pdSnauv apvupau  when i t i s of no use"  ("But  710-711).  According  I have come t o  However, even  never so i g n o r a n t as H e r a c l e s remains to  to Kamerbeek, h i s speech b e g i n n i n g  i n t o a demonstration  (Jjv eya)  These words of  up her t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n of l a t e l e a r n i n g .  i n her p r i o r n a i v e t e , she was the end.  TT\V  accepts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  of s m i t t e n g r e a t n e s s  and  at l i n e  1.046  a l s o demonstrates  135 t h e i g n o r a n c e o f man for  a s t h e t r u e cause o f h i s f a t e .  Heracles' craving  revenge, which i s . u t t e r e d a g a i n a t the end o f h i s speech,  f a l s e assumptions.  He d i s p l a y s no h i n t o f any  former  he r e c o g n i z e t h a t h i s i g n o r a n c e has caused h i s f a t e . h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any o f h i s s u f f e r i n g s , and,  to  Omphale.  ("who  g r e a t n e s s , nor does  s t r i k i n g l y , i s not Lichas  tacitly  responsible f o r Heracles' year of  xdv6e yap uexaLxtov  to  He never c o n s i d e r s  c o n s i d e r e d by o t h e r s t o be c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . seems t o agree t h a t E u r y t u s was  i s due  service  / udvov gpoxuiv ecpaaxe xou6' efvai, uddous  a l o n e o f m o r t a l s s h a r e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he c l a i m e d , f o r what  he had  suffered." 2 6 0 - 2 6 1 ) . E r o s ,  not H e r a c l e s , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  t h e f a c t t h a t H e r a c l e s sends I o l e home.''"^  A f t e r the c a t a s t r o p h e s of the  p l a y have taken t h e i r c o u r s e , H y l l u s does not l a y any blame d i r e c t l y H e r a c l e s , but f i n d s I o l e t o be  uexauxios .  f'i uo*l unxpi, uev %avcZv  on  udvn /  u e x a t x t o s , aoi, 6' audus i s e x ^ S exei.'V("she a l o n e s h a r e s the blame f o r e  my  mother's d e a t h and your c o n d i t i o n " 1233-1234).  The T r a c h i n i a e i s t h e o n l y one of S o p h o c l e s ' seven e x t a n t p l a y s t h a t i s not named f o r t h e p l a y ' s hero; i n s t e a d , Chorus."""  7  i t takes i t s t i t l e  from  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between D e i a n e i r a and  T r a c h i n i a n maidens w i l l  s t r e n g t h e n , i n my  view,  the b e l i e f  the the  that Deianeira  i s t h e hero o f t h e T r a c h i n a e . A key passage and  to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between D e i a n e i r a  the Chorus o c c u r s between l i n e s 200 and  effect  the  celebration ("Cry  X°Pnyo's .  She r o u s e s the Chorus to a p i t c h o f r e j o i c i n g  cpcovnaaT' , to yuvauMes, a " x' sCato axeyns / a i x*  o u t , 0 you women who  202-203).  224, where D e i a n e i r a becomes i n  And  a r e w i t h i n the house and you who  exxos auAns are without"  h a v i n g l e d t h e Chorus t o t h e i r o u t b u r s t o f j o y , she  r e j o i n s i t , i n c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as  speech,  and  136 bps,  cptActt yuvcttxes, ou6e p'  oppaxos  (ppoupav TiapnASe, xdv6e pn Aedaaetv axdAov Xatpetv  °£  Kn'puxa  TOV  xpdvtj)  Ttpouvveitw,  iioAAijJ cpavevxa, x P T o v E t T U x a ! cpepetg  (225-228).  a  I do see the p r o c e s s i o n t h a t comes n e a r e r , dear women. The  s i g h t d i d not  s l i p p a s t t h e guard o f my  eyes.  I p r o c l a i m our welcome to the h e r a l d , a p p e a r i n g a l o n g t i m e — i f the news he b r i n g s i s During  gladdening.  the parodos (94-140), the Chorus r e p l y to D e i a n e i r a ' s opening  speech, n o t a b l y e c h o i n g , t r a g i c - d a y theme.  on an o p t i m i s t i c n o t e , her mention of ent nnpa x a ! x P  &AA'  a  axpocpa*6es xeAeoSot ("But  g r i e f and  e v i l l a s t s and  a  he dies-,-" i m p l y i n g the sentiment  the a p - / xxou  xuxAouatv, oZov to a l l l i k e  the  They t e l l her t o have good hope,  s i n c e Zeus i s not  They p r o v i d e the c h e e r f u l converse  / uaat  j o y came c i r c l i n g  t u r n i n g t r a c k s o f the Bear" 129-130). s i n c e no  after  t h o u g h t l e s s of h i s c h i l d r e n .  o f D e i a n e i r a ' s "count no man  "count n o man  happy  m i s e r a b l e w h i l e he  They resume the themes i n t r o d u c e d by D e i a n e i r a i n the p r o l o g u e . appealing  t o the Sun  t o t e l l where H e r a c l e s  Deianeira's anxieties.  put  to s l e e p  the udSos of her out "on  her  to a p a t h e t i c b i r d who eyes ( 1 0 5 f f . ) , and  Deianeira's f i r s t to  be a n x i o u s ,  and  1  being brought  (945), by  cannot put  their  t o s l e e p (euvdcetv  )  (109-110).  attempt to cheer D e i a n e i r a i s  speech has  forth  by a c t u a l mention of her b e i n g worn  t r o u b l e d , h u s b a n d l e s s bed"  However, the C h o r u s  After  D e i a n e i r a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f her l o n e l y , s l e e p l e s s  (xaxeuvdcetv ) by gleaming n i g h t  comparison of her  lives."  i s , they e x p r e s s l y t h i n k of  n i g h t s i s r e c a l l e d by the Chorus's mention of the Sun and  till  already i l l u s t r a t e d  inadequate.  t h a t she has  good  reason  t h e i r words a r e reminders of her l o n e l y a n x i e t y .  D e i a n e i r a meets t h e i r g e n t l e r e p r o v a l o f her p e s s i m i s t i c o u t l o o k  (<5v  137 eutueucpouevct a' a t - / 6oZa yev, dvxux 6' ouaco you r e s p e c t f u l l y ,  "Therefore, reproving  I s h a l l advance an opposing view"  122-123) w i t h  a speech t h a t i n t r o d u c e s the T r a c h i n i a n maidens t o the p l a y . itercuayevri y e v ,  cos d u e L J t d a a u ,  itctdnya xouyd"v  udpei  cos 6' eyco SuyocpdopLo  ynx* eMyddoLS itadouaa, vuv 6' aitei-pos EZ  (141-143).  You a r e h e r e , I suppose, because you have h e a r d o f my s u f f e r i n g .  May  you never  by y o u r own  s u f f e r i n g how  You a r e now  without experience.  They a r e , as D.  learn  I break my h e a r t .  Weiider c h a r a c t e r i z e s them, " A p p e a l i n g , s y m p a t h e t i c ,  inexperienced, f o o l i s h v i r g i n s . " " ^  They may  be on e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h  19 Deianeira  , but t h e i r innocence and  n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n as t h e i r l e a d e r .  i n e x p e r i e n c e p l a c e s D e i a n e i r a i n the  D e i a n e i r a ' s experience allows her to  judge b e t t e r than a chorus of unmarried g i r l s .  She draws an e l a b o r a t e  c o n t r a s t between itapSevos and yuvn (144-150), which r e p r e s e n t s the d i s t i n c t i o n between h e r s e l f and the Chorus.  The Chorus  a r e itapSevou  who  a r e t o be educated by the p l a y and t o s e r v e as i t s background. A c l o s e and the Chorus.  s y m p a t h e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p s between D e i a n e i r a and  H e a r i n g o f H e r a c l e s ' imminent r e t u r n , t h e Chorus p o i n t  to D e i a n e i r a t h a t  she has good r e a s o n f o r j o y (291-292).  out  Deianeira  a g r e e s t h a t she has good r e a s o n t o r e j o i c e , a l t h o u g h she f e a r s a r e v e r s a l o f s u c c e s s when she sees the poor p r i s o n e r s , who enslaved  (293-305).  were once f r e e ,  The Chorus' words here and a t l i n e s 383-384 e x p r e s s  thoughts t h a t a r e i n agreement w i t h D e i a n e i r a ' s f e e l i n g s and r e p r e s e n t e x p r e s s i o n s of her own as s e p a r a t e from o t h e r s and 6eup* auSus  TOALV  now  unspoken t h o u g h t s .  l i n k e d w i t h the Chorus,  / naXcoyev, Y| 'you  perhaps  She does see  herself  ndxepov exeovous 6nxa  xaua6e x' e^euiteLV OeXets;  ("Should  138 we c a l l  t h e o t h e r s back a g a i n ,  to my f r i e n d s h e r e ? "  o r do you w i s h t o speak o n l y t o me and  342-343).  D e i a n e i r a and the Chorus.  A m u t u a l dependence d e v e l o p s between  A f t e r hearing  t h e Messenger's s t o r y about  l o l e , D e i a n e i r a a s k s t h e Chorus what she s h o u l d t h e i r advice Deianeira,  i s not unreasonable  them t h a t  (oux duo yvoSpriS 389). - They  support  i n h e r attempt t o g e t t h e t r u t h from L i c h a s , and o r d e r  obey h e r ( 4 7 0 - 4 7 1 ) . During  him t o  2 0  the f i r s t  stasimon  opening speech and i n d o i n g It  do and t e l l s  (497-530), t h e Chorus echo  so become almost an a l t e r  i s almost a s i f D e i a n e i r a  ego f o r D e i a n e i r a .  i s l o o k i n g a t her experiences  of v i e w o f a t h i r d p e r s o n and r e l a t i n g a k i n s h i p between t h e p r e s e n t  Deianeira's  them a g a i n .  from t h e p o i n t  Certainly,: there i s  p o s i t i o n o f t h e T r a c h i n i a n maidens and t h e  young maiden D e i a n e i r a . I n h e r i n d e c i s i o n about u s i n g t h e l o v e - p h i l t r e , D e i a n e i r a to m a i n t a i n  her p o s i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p with  unwillingness  the Chorus because o f t h e i r  to commit themselves i n g i v i n g a d v i c e .  cpcXxpoLs 6 '  eetv uws xrivS'  xriv  net u6ct  But  i f somehow by these  these Both Deianeira  i s forced  nai  deXxxpouoL  unEpgaX^yeSa xous  eip' 'HpctxAsu  (584-585).  claims,  s p e l l s used on H e r a c l e s , we can s u r p a s s and t h e Chorus t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t  the g i r l . . . .  a r e involved i n the  a c t i o n , but i t i s D e i a n e i r a who t a k e s  t h e i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  (et T L pn 6 o x w  6 e p r i , uEnauaopai,  / n p d a o e t v paxotuov  to be a c t i n g r a s h l y . of  t h e Chorus  ei  I f s o , I s h a l l s t o p " 586-587).  "unless  Again,  I seem  t h e words  (588-589; 592-593) c o u l d e a s i l y r e p r e s e n t D e i a n e i r a ' s  t h o u g h t s ; she c o u l d be q u e s t i o n i n g h e r own  own  conscience.  H a v i n g h e a r d from H y l l u s t h e e f f e c t o f Nessus' l o v e - p h i l t r e on Heracles,  t h e Chorus r e a c t i n a f a s h i o n t r u e t o t h e i r  l e a d e r , t h e hero  139 of t h e p l a y .  They lament H e r a c l e s '  d e a t h a r e and w i l l be  s u f f e r i n g , because h i s s u f f e r i n g and  tragic for Deianeira.  as w e l l as D e i a n e i r a , l a c k husbands. Deianeira's  s u f f e r i n g , but  they  Throughout t h e p l a y ,  Being maidens they  can understand her  cannot  tragedy.  they,  experience  They  realize  21 the e x t e n t  of her  tragedy  s t i l l more f u l l y when t o l d of her  death.  F o l l o w i n g t h e Nurse's r e p o r t of the manner of D e i a n e i r a ' s  death,  the Chorus do not know which d i s a s t e r t o lament f i r s t , D e i a n e i r a ' s H e r a c l e s ' , nor w h i c h d i s a s t e r i s the more f i n a l ndrepa reXea nepatxepd)  their leader, Deianeira. they mourn him,  but  i s not  H e r a c l e s was  l o v e d by D e i a n e i r a and  they a l s o f e a r the s i g h t of him  t h e i r hero, and  they  see him  only  k i l l Deianeira. to  And,  through the eyes of  the young D e i a n e i r a and  present,  desire great  (1112-1113).  the T r a c h i n i a e a r e a l i n k between 22  the o l d D e i a n e i r a .  innermost f e e l i n g s ,  of the p a s t , and  loses Heracles  the e x t e n s i o n  They a r e t h e  of her  confidantes  emotions and v i s i o n s  i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of the w r e s t l i n g c o n t e s t  prophetic hindsight.  When H e r a c l e s  the e a r l i e r scenes of t h e  They  t o want t o  a f t e r another statement of h i s d e s p e r a t e  endure i f she  not  Deianeira.  p o r t i o n o f the p l a y .  (1044-1045), which have d r i v e n him  When D e i a n e i r a i s s t i l l  of her  therefore  He was  p u n i s h D e i a n e i r a , they make an ambiguous remark about the  mourning H e l l a s w i l l  of  in his suffering  not d i e of f r i g h t " 957).  They speak o n l y f o u r l i n e s d u r i n g H e r a c l e s ' shudder a t h i s m i s f o r t u n e s  which i s the more  Both d i s a s t e r s are p a r t of t h e t r a g e d y  (Un xapBccAscx Savouuu. , "That I may and  ( udxepoc up'otepov eitLaxevco,/  , "which do I lament f i r s t ?  f i n a l d i s a s t e r ? " 947-948).  or  e n t e r s , they  they  s e r v e as a l i n k  offer  with  play.  t h a t used to be, "the e c h oyoung i n g her i n gthe s , her enthusiasms, In a sense, g i r llso n g of chorus stand f o r and t h e tDreeipaindeaitria o n s . " In a sense, the whole drama i s a l e s s o n f o r them o f what t o expect  from  2  140 m a r r i a g e and l i f e . gods.  They a r e f u l l  They t h i n k l i f e  improve.  o f hope, good i d e a s , and t r u s t  i s cyclical,  and D e i a n e i r a ' s  They t h i n k Zeus t a k e s c a r e o f h i s own.  fortunes  i n the  will  They t h i n k t h e r e i s no  harm i n t r y i n g p o s i t i v e a c t i o n (the l o v e - p h i l t r e ) t o improve one's situation.  They a r e wrong on e v e r y count.  of D e i a n e i r a ' s  tragedy  They a r e r i g h t  without a c t u a l l y being  a part of i t or bearing  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t . The s i m i l a r i t y , however, o f t h e i r t h a t o f t h e maiden D e i a n e i r a ' s of t h e p l a y . Deianeira,  i n the midst  status to  p o i n t s t o them as a u n i v e r s a l i z i n g f o r c e  The T r a c h i n i a e u n i v e r s a l i z e the v e r y p e r s o n a l  t h e hero o f t h e T r a c h i n i a e .  l i f e of  141  NOTES -- CHAPTER FOUR  Musurillo,  Waith,  382.  26.  Waldock,  84.  Musurillo,  374.  Both D e i a n e i r a and H e r a c l e s a p o s t r o p h i z e what i s d e a r e s t to them. f i n a l words D e i a n e i r a addresses b r i d a l chamber  (290).  374.  Cf.  227.  Biggs,  Murray, 125. of  w i t h H e r a c l e s , her bed  Heracles addresses  hands, back, b r e a s t , and  Musurillo,  her l i f e  arms  his physical attributes, his  (1089-1090).  that Sophocles'  than the H e r a c l e s o f the  finds i t e v i l ,  and  shows how  works i n human l i f e "  change i s n e a r e r  the  ' S u i d a s ' , i n which the p r i m i t i v e  turned i n t o a S t o i c s a i n t .  "Sophocles the f a l s e  (Murray,  original s t r o n g man  resume i n HSCP 68  i d e a l which i t r e p r e s e n t s  really  125).  Sophocles,  (1964) 417-419.  Thomas F. Hoey, "The  is  s t u d i e s the saga, t e s t s i t , and  Thomas F. Hoey, P r e s e n t a t i o n a l Imagery i n the T r a c h i n i a e o f  1-22.  and  Murray b e l i e v e s t h a t p a r a c h a r a x i s i s a t work on the H e r a c l e s  the T r a c h i n i a e and  (1970)  I n her  T r a c h i n i a e and the U n i t y o f H e r o , " A r e t h u s a  3  142 10 Hoey, P r e s e n t a t i o n a l Imagery,  1  1  Hoey, "The  417.  U n i t y o f the H e r o , " 19.  12 Deianeira tries not in  admit  n o t t o admit  i t until  she d e c i d e s to use  a b r o k e n house.  that  t h a t her home i s b r o k e n ; i n f a c t , she does the l o v e - p h i l t r e .  She  live  She has woven her f a t e s o c o m p l e t e l y i n t o H e r a c l e s '  the o r a c l e c o n c e r n i n g H e r a c l e s ' h a p p i n e s s a l s o a p p l i e s  (r) ouxopeoS* ctpct;  cannot  to her  own  85).  13 C o n t r a H. D. F . K i t t o , Greek T r a g e d y : Kitto believes  A Literary  t h a t H e r a c l e s i s not brought  of  D e i a n e i r a ; she d i s a p p e a r s .  of  interest  He  Study  (London,  1939)  i n to consummate the t r a g e d y  c o n s i d e r s t h a t H e r a c l e s ' complete  lack  i n D e i a n e i r a ' s death and innocence i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f her  tragic  life,  but more immediately  I  that  the c u l m i n a t i o n o f h e r t r a g e d y i s the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f what  feel  292.  i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f what H e r a c l e s i s .  Heracles i s . 1  4  Kamerbeek,  Zeus was  It  26.  ctbxuos;  E u r y t u s alone o f m o r t a l s was  can be i n f e r r e d  n o t h i n g shameful, pn6*  1  7  that l o l e  ("The  a l t h o u g h she i s g u i l t y  r] xrj5e xr\ y u v a u x L , xrj pexctuxux /  e p o ! x a x o u xuvos  Kirkwood  i s pexauxi-os,  pexc*uxi,os.  Dramatic  l  Role o f the Chorus  the p r o t a g o n i s t o f i t s p l a y .  that  "the drama may  they who  really  ataxpou  (4 +7-448).  i n S o p h o c l e s , " Phoenix 8  7) c l a i m s t h a t i t has never been suggested t h a t any is  xou pn6ev  of  Sophoclean  chorus  S. M. Adams, however, does s p e c u l a t e  be named f o r the women o f the chorus because  make the f a t a l  (1954)  decision"  (S. M. Adams, S o p h o c l e s  i ti s the  143 Playwright the  (Toronto,  fatal  1957) 1 1 0 ) . I d i s a g r e e ;  the Chorus do n o t make  d e c i s i o n and, i n f a c t , do n o t g i v e D e i a n e i r a any p o s i t i v e  encouragement. 18  Wender, 6. 821,  *  9  T h e i r y o u t h and v i r g i n i t y  are r e f e r r e d - t o i n l i n e s  143, 211,  871, and 1275.  Herbert  P i e r r e p o n t Houghton  ("Deianeira  i n the T r a c h i n i a e o f S o p h o c l e s , "  P a l l a s 2 (1964) 88) n o t e s t h a t the Chorus address D e i a n e i r a as avacroa (  (136, 291) and n o t as SeOTtouva,  the form o f address t h a t i s u s e d by the  Nurse. Of)  By o b e y i n g D e i a n e i r a , he w i l l Tuudou Aeyouan. x P i ° r  TC  gain t h e i r *»  *  o  u  thanks.  M^V^n X P  Y u v a u x t T"r)5e, nan' e p o u xi'ifon x ^ p u v  2^ T h e i r d i s c o v e r y o f D e i a n e i r a ' s emotional in  the p l a y , and t h i s i s i t . A c c o r d i n g  2  3  They a l s o p r o v i d e  (470-471).  There i s o n l y one s h o r t kommos t o Kirkwood  (878-895)  ("The D r a m a t i c Role  i t s purpose i s the b a s i c purpose o f kommoi,  to i n d i c a t e and emphasize a h e i g h t e n i n g 22  ^  death through the Nurse i s a moment o f  t e n s i o n f o r the Chorus.  of the Chorus i n S o p h o c l e s " ) ,  0  o f emotion.  a l i n k between D e i a n e i r a and I o l e .  M u s u r i l l o , 377. D e i a n e i r a t e l l s o f when she h e r s e l f was a shy, i n e x p e r i e n c e d following Heracles unused touch"  across  the r i v e r  on Nessus' back.  " T r u s t f u l and s t i l l  to the t r e a c h e r y o f men, she screams a t the l u s t f u l ( M u s u r i l l o , 377).  maiden  monster's  144  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I. Aristotle. (2) New  De Arte Poetica.  (1)  Edited by Rudolfus Kassel.  Translated by Richard McKeon. York  Sophocles. (2)  Ancient Authors and Texts  New  (1)  Sophoclis Fabulae.  Sophocles Trachiniae.  (4)  Sophocles I I . York  Introduction to A r i s t o t l e .  Edited by A. C. Pearson.  Oxford  1924.  1893.  Translated by David Grene and Richmond Lattimore.  1957. Trachiniae.  Edited, translated, and with commentary by R. C. Jebb.  (5)  Oxford  Edited and with commentary by  Sophocles the Plays and Fragments Part V The  Cambridge  1965.  1947.  Lewis Campbell and Evelyn Abbot.  (3)  Oxford  1892.  The Plays of Sophocles Part II The Trachiniae.  Commentary by J . C. Kamerbeek.  Leiden  1959.  145 II.  Adams, S. M.  Modern A u t h o r s  Sophocles t h e P l a y w r i g h t .  B i g g s , Penelope.  T o r o n t o 1957.  "The D i s e a s e Theme i n S o p h o c l e s ' A j a x , P h i l o c t e t e s ,  and T r a c h i n i a e . "  CPh 62 (1966), 223-235.  Bowra, C. M.  Sophoclean Tragedy.  O x f o r d 1944.  E a r l e , M. L.  "The C l a s s i c a l P a p e r s , S t u d i e s  i n Sophocles's  Trachinians,"  TAPA (1902), 5-29.  E a r p , F. R.  "The T r a c h i n i a e , " CR 53 (1939), 113-115.  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"The Dramatic Unity of Sophocles' Trachiniae,"  TAPA 72 (1941), 203-211.  Kirkwood, G. M.  "A Review of Recent Sophoclean Studies," The C l a s s i c a l  Weekly 50 (1957), 157-172.  Kirkwood, G. M.  A Study of Sophoclean Drama.  Ithaca  K i t t o , H. D. F.  Greek Tragedy, A L i t e r a r y Study.  K i t t o , H. D. F.  P o i e s l s Structure and Thought.  1958.  London  1939.  Berkely and Los Angeles  1966. K i t t o , H. D. F.  "Sophocles, S t a t i s t i c s , and the Trachiniae,"  AJP 60 (1939), 178-193. Knox, Bernard M. W. Berkely  The Heroic Temper, Studies i n Sophoclean Tragedy.  1964.  Knox, Bernard.  "Sophocles' Oedipus," Tragic Themes i n Western L i t e r a t u r e .  Edited by Cleanth Brooks.  Lattlmore, Richmond. Lesky, A l b i n . New York  New Haven 1955.  7-29.  Story Patterns i n Greek Tragedy.  Greek Tragedy.  Ann Arbor  1964.  Translated by H. A. Frankfort.  1965.  L i n f o r t h , Ivan M.  "The Pyre on Mount Oeta i n Sophocles' Trachiniae,"  U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s ' i n C l a s s i c a l Philology  14 (1952), 255-267  147 L l o y d - J o n e s , Hugh. The Greeks.  Long, A. A.  M c C a l l , M. 93  "Greek Tragedy:  S o p h o c l e s ' Women o f T r a c h i s , "  E d i t e d by Hugh L l o y d - J o n e s .  "Poisonous  London 1962.  'Growths' i n T r a c h i n i a e , " GRBS 8 (1967), 275-278.  "The T r a c h i n i a e .  S t r u c t u r e , F o c u s and H e r a k l e s , " AJP  (1972), 142-163.  MacKinnon, J . K.  "Heracles'  I n t e n t i o n i n H i s Second  Request  of H y l l u s :  T r a c h . 1216-51," CC; 21 (1971), 33-41.  Mason, H. A.  "The Women o f T r a c h i s , " A r i o n 2  Mason, H. A. "The Women o f T r a c h i s  Murray,  G. " H e r a c l e s ,  (1963),59-81.  (Part I I ) , " A r i o n  'The B e s t o f Men',"  2 (1963), 105-121.  Greek S t u d i e s .  Oxford 1946.  106-126.  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