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Boreal ecosystems of the Fort Nelson area of northeastern British Columbia Annas, Richard M. 1977

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BOREAL OF  ECOSYSTEMS  OF  NORTHEASTERN  THE  FORT  BRITISH  NELSON  AREA  COLUMBIA  by RICHARD M. ANNAS B.S.F.,  A THESIS  University  SUBMITTED  of  IN  THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR in  the  British  PARTIAL FOR  OF  Columbia  FULFILMENT OF  THE DEGREE OF  PHILOSOPHY  Department of Botany  We a c c e p t required  this  thesis  as  conforming  to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  June,  (fcT)  1977  Richard M. Annas, 1977  the  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  it  freely  that permission  available for  his  of  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  The  of  University  .„  gain  of  jpL British  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  l&y.  ax/77  by  the  Columbia  shall  not  requirements  reference copying of  Head o f  is understood that  written permission.  Department  for  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  by  British  the  I  agree  and  be a l l o w e d  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying or  for  or  publication  without  my  i  ABSTRACT An e c o s y s t e m s t u d y , of  biogeoclimatology  sification), British this ested  was c o n d u c t e d  Columbia  study  (sensu  in  was to  ecosystems  the  the  b a s e d on an a n a l y s i s characteristics mental the  and  e s s e s and  soils  major are  were  The  ecosystem  of  resulting  presented contribute  clas-  northeastern  prime  purpose  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  of  for-  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was and  Interpretations  of  vegetational the  attempt  environ-  to  explain  to ecosystem  grid  of  f r o m 95 p h y t o g e o c o e n o t i c 10 a l l i a n c e s  c l a s s i f i e d into  components  Detailed  of  the  analysis  proc-  by t h e i r  and n u t r i e n t  An e l e m e n t a l  ash a n a l y s i s  the  Ca and  positions  Additionally, w i t h moder  mor  some w i t h  humus o f  aspen  and  their  and d e s c r i p t i o n s The  projection  was c a r r i e d  ecosystems  humus o f  was  are  ecosystems  on an  eda-  regimes.  Mg c o n t e n t  that  plots  15 a s s o c i a t i o n s  ecosystem d e s c r i p t i o n s .  moisture  tors  and  17 s u b g r o u p s ,  soil  environmentally  horizons.  compared  The  analyses  6 orders,  organic  grid.  area.  an e c o l o g i c a l  of  forest  as many e n v i r o n m e n t a l  vegetation  variations.  of  boreal  Nelson  as f e a s i b l e .  into  summarized  topic  school  approach  development.  classified  gleyed  of  Krajina  the  which c o n s p i c u o u s l y  The  the  in  area.  vegetational  factors  the  Fort  produce of  b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t and  appear  to  out  on  surface  be good  indica-  o c c u p y on t h e  black  spruce  ecosystems.  edatopic  ecosystems It  is  was  confirmed  11  that  moder  humus has p r o p e r t i e s  high  biological It  a c t i v i t y than  i s concluded  ness o f  the t e r r a i n ,  terial,  and f a i r l y  ronmental in  the  factors  study  duces age  very  does mor  that  the  prevailingly  frequent  texture  the of  moisture  to  xeric conditions  is retained  develop. this These  fires  tards  the  mor  the  point  flat-  parent  the dominant  material  materials  ma-  envi-  dynamics  frequently  the  in other  fine  from d e v e l o p i n g ,  where  is greatly maintain  black  reduce  nutrient  humus p r o m o t e s  development  humus o f  ,  which rich  seep-  areas.  textured even  pro-  in  soils shedding  positions.  Mor  process  are  instead of  in these  The c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e s to  parent  water c o n d i t i o n s  Sufficient  area  fires  soil  water through s o i l s  s i t e s o f more e a s i l y d r a i n e d  the  textured  e c o s y s t e m s t r u c t u r e and  of  slow p e r c o l a t i o n  topographic  climate  area.  semi-stagnant  prevent  to  humus.  cold boreal fine  forest  influencing  The f i n e causes  w h i c h a r e more c o n d u c i v e  of  spruce  poor,  degradation  inhibited  aspen  biological  stands  strong  mor humus soils.  by f r e q u e n t as a f i r e  acidity,  stands  of  (the  a c t i v i t y , of conditions However,  forest  fires.  climax which  re-  so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n  theoretical  climatic  cli-  max).  The g e n e r a l drainage high  of  moors,  the  flatness  of  a r e a and f a v o u r s  a permafrost  layer  the the  terrain  results  development  of  consistently occurs.  in  bogs.  poor In  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i  List  of  tables  vi  List  of  figures  xi  xvii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Chapter I.  1  INTRODUCTION Object iyes Approach The  II.  1  and  study  3  terminology  6  area  CIimate  7  Phys i o g r a p h y  8 16  METHODS Vegetation  analysis  and  synthesis  16  Soi 1 a n a l y s i s III.  21  UNITS OF THE BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCE BIOGEOCLI MAT IC ZONE  2k  The e d a t o p i c Order  I  grid  27  : Piceetalia  Alliance  1  :  29  glaucae  Piceion  30  glaucae  Plant association Vegetation Soils  1  : Aspen -  Plant  2  :  association  White  Floodplain Whi t e  3^ 46 52  Spruce  (Young  Terrace) 57 68 72  Spruce  Vegetation Soils Plant association V e g e t a t ion Soils Order  II  : Piceetalia  Alliance  2  Plant  Lodgepole  Pine  -  75 83 86  Clubmoss  88  (mitis)  -  Pinion  contortae 89  banks i anae)  association  Vegetation Soils  :  marianae  : Cladino (-  3  k  : Lodgepole pine - Lichen  -  Kinnikinnick  90 99 102  iv T A B L E : OF CONTENTS  (Continued)  Chapter  Page Alliance  3  : Pleurozio  (schreberi)  Plant association Vegetation Soils  5  :  Plant  6  :  association  -  Piceion  Black  Spruce  -  Black  Spruce  -  marianae  104  Moss  106 119 121  Equisetum  sylvaticum  126  Vegetation  136 138  Soils Alliance  4  : Aulacomnio foliae)  Plant  Piceion  7:  association  -  Salico  (myrtilli139  marianae  Black Spruce - S a l i x l i a - Rulacomnium  mytrillifol4l  Vegetation  150  Soils  152  Alliance  5  :  Sphagno -  Plant  Order  -  (palustris)  (fuse?)  Piceion  Rubo  (chamaemori)  -  marianae  8  association  -  :  Black  153  Spruce  -  Sphagnum fuscum  163  Soils  169  III  : Laricetalia  Alliance  6  laricinae  : Menyantho  171  (trifoliatae)  -  Laricion  laricinae Plant  association  172 : Tamarack  9  -  Swamp  Birch  -  - Menyanthes  173  Vegetation Soils Plant  181 184  association  10:  Tamarack  -  Equisetum  Order  IV  155  Vegetation  Black  Spruce  arvense  -  186  Vegetat ion  195  Soils  197  : Populetalia  Alliance  7  balsamiferae  : Populion  200  balsamiferae  200  Plant association Vegetation Soils  11:  Floodplain  Balsam P o p l a r  Plant  12:  Floodplain  Alder  association  Vegetation Soils Alliance Plant  8  : Salicion  association  Vegetation Soils  202 212 214 215 220 221  interioris 13:  Sandbar  221 Willow  222 228 229  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Continued)  Chapter  Page Order V : S p i r a e o - M y r i c e t a l i a Alliance 9  : Drepanoclado ( v e r n i c o s i ) - Menyantho ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - M y r i c i o n gal is  P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n ]h: Myrica Vegetat ion Soils Order VI  : Sphagno (magel1 a n i c i ) palustris  Alliance  230  gal i s  gale  -  - Menyanthes  Summary s y n t h e s i s t a b l e  231 235 236  Scheuchzerietalia 238  1 0 : Sphagno ( m a g e l I a n i c i ) - S a r r a c e n i o (purpureae) - S c h e u c h z e r i o n p a l u s t r i s  Plant a s s o c i a t i o n 1 5 : Pitcher Vegetation Soils  230  Plant  - Sphagnum  238 239 2kk 245 2^6  IV.  TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE  255  V.  SURFACE ORGANIC LAYERS  262  FOREST MENSURATION  275  VI.  index  276  S t a n d i n g volume  278  Procedures  279  Si te  VII.  SUCCESSION Floodplain succession  VIII. IX.  288 289  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  303  BIBLIOGRAPHY  313  APPENDICES  325  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1.  Species Significance  2.  Constancy  21  3.  Synopsis of the Synsystematic Units i n the Present Study  26  Aspen - White Spruce a t i o n of Species  Characteristic  31  5.  Aspen - W h i t e S p r u c e  Environment  32  6.  Aspen - White S p r u c e  Vegetation  33  7.  Aspen - White Spruce  Soils  37  8.  F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White S p r u c e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s  >57  9.  F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) W h i t e Environment  Spruce 58  Floodplain Vegetation  (Young T e r r a c e ) White  Spruce  Floodplain Soils  (Young T e r r a c e ) White  10. 11. 12.  .  19  Combin-  59  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s  Spruce 62  Characteristic 75  13.  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss  Environment  76  lh.  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss  Vegetation  77  l5o  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss  Soils  79  vii  viii  L I S T OF TABLES ( C o n t i n u e d )  Table  Page  31.  B l a c k Spruce - S a l l x m y r t i l l i f o l i a Aulacomnium Soils  32.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Sphagnum f u s c u m C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species  155  33.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Sphagnum f u s c u m  Environment  156  3h.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Sphagnum f u s c u m  Vegetation  157  35.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Sphagnum f u s c u m  Soils  159  36.  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species  173  37.  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s Environment  17*+  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s Vegetation  175  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s Soils  .178  38. 39.  -  l*+6  1  ho.. •+1. •+2. 1  h^\  Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum  arvense  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum a r v e n s e Environment Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum arvense Vegetation Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - E q u i s e t u m Floodplain  187 188  arvense 193  Soils hh.  186  Balsam  Poplar  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species  202  hj.  Floodplain  Balsam Poplar  Environment  203  h6.  Floodplain  Balsam Poplar  Vegetation  20*+  ix  L I S T OF  TABLES  (Continued)  Table  Page  *+7.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam Poplar  S.  F l o o d p l a i n Alder  ]  Characteristic  Soils  C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s  206  215  *+9.  F l o o d p l a i n Alder  Environment  216  50.  F l o o d p l a i n Alder  Vegetation  217  51.  Floodplain Alder  Soils  218  52.  Sandbar  Willow  Characteristic  C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s  222  53»  Sandbar W i l l o w  Environment  223  5>+.  Sandbar W i l l o w  Vegetation  22k  55.  Sandbar Willow  Soils  225  56.  Myrica  gale - Menyanthes  Environment  57.  Myrica  gale - Menyanthes  Vegetation  58c  Myrica  g a l e . - Menyanthes  Soils  233  59.  P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum  Environment  239  60.  P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum  Vegetation  61. 62.  P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum S o i l s S y n t h e s i s of F l c r i s t i c S t r u c t u r e of P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r H i g h e r U n i t s E l e m e n t a l A n a l y s i s of S u r f a c e O r g a n i c Horizons  63. 6M.  Mor  and  65.  Average S i t e  - 232  2*+0 2*+l 2^6 26*f 271  Moder Hunus I n d e x (100  231  yrs)  282  .  X  L I S T OF TABLES  (Continued)  Table  66.  Page  Average T o t a l Gross Volume, B a s a l and # o f T r e e s b y S p e c i e s  Area,  28h  xi  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.  The  Boreal  Forest  2.  The B o r e a l F o r e s t drainage patterns  -  Fire  2  - E f f e c t s of on l a n d s c a p e  Zones  of  fire  British  and 2  3.  Biogeoclimatic  Columbia  Map  h.  Climatic  5.  Terrain  Systems  1^  6.  Terrain  Systems  1*+  7.  Terrain  Systems  15  8.  Terrain  Systems  15  9.  Projection Grid Fort  Summary  of S t u d i e d Ecosystems Nelson Area  7 9  on E d a t o p i c . '28  10.  Aspen -  White  Spruce  h2  11.  Aspen  -  White  Spruce  h2  12.  Aspen  -  White  Spruce  V}  13.  Aspen -  White  Spruce  *+3  lh.  Aspen  -  White  Spruce  hh  15.  Aspen -  White  Spruce  hh  16.  Aspen -  White  Spruce  h$  17.  Aspen  White  Spruce  hj  -  xii  LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d )  Figure  Page  18.  Floodplain  (Young  T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  6*f  19.  Floodplain  (Young  T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  6k  20.  Floodplain  (Young  T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  65  21.  Floodplain  (Young  T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  65  22.  Floodplain  (Young  T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  66  23.  Lodgepole  Pine - Clubmoss  80  Lodgepole  P i n e - Clubmoss  80  Lodgepole  Pine - Clubmoss  81  26.  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  96  27.  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  96  28.  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  97  29.  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  -, 97  in  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  98  31.  Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  - Lichen  98  32.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  115  33.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Mos s  115  3^.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  116  35.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  116  36.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  117  37.  B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  117  38.  B l a c k S p r u c e - E q u i s e t u m sy l v a t i c u r n  133  xiii  L I S T OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d )  Figure  Page  39.  Black  Spruce - Equisetum  sylvaticum  13^  *»0.  Black  S p r u c e - Equiseturn  sylvaticum  13 k  hi.  Black  Spruce - Equisetum  sylvaticum  135  h2.  Black  Spruce - Equisetum  sylvaticum  135  ^3.  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifolia  1^7  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifolia  l*+7  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifol ia  1^8  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifolia  1U8  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifolia  ^8.  B l a c k Spruce - Salix Aulacomnium  myrtillifolia  ^9.  Black  S p r u c e - Sphagnum  fuscum  160  50.  Black  S p r u c e - Sphagnum fuseurn  160  51.  Black  S p r u c e - Sphagnum  fuscum  161  52.  Black  S p r u c e - Sphagnum  fuscum  161  53.  Black  S p r u c e ~ Sphagnum  fuscum  162  5^. 55.  Black  Spruce  Sphagnum  fuscum  162  56.  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s  k6.  C r o s s - s e c t i o n of a C r y i c  Fibrisol  1^9 1>9  167 179  xiv  L I S T OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d )  Figure  Page  57.  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s  180  58.  T a m a r a c k - Swamp B i r c h - M e n y a n t h e s  180  59.  T a m a r a c k - B l a c k S p r u c e -- E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e  19^  60.  T a m a r a c k - B l a c k S p r u c e -• E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e  19^  61.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  207  62.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  207  63.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  208  6*f.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  208  65.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  208  66.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  209  67.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  209  68.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  poplar  6Q  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  210  70.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  211  71.  F l o o d p l a i n Balsam  Poplar  211  72.  Floodplain  73.  Sandbar  Willow  226  7K  Sandbar  Willow  226  75.  Sandbar  Willow  227  76.  Myrica  gale -  Menyanthes  23^  77.  Myrica  gale -  Menyanthes  23^  Alder  -  210  219  XV  L I S T OF FIGURES  (Continued)  Figure  Page  78.  P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum  2^2  79.  P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum  2^2  80.  Pitcher  P l a n t - Sphagnum  2U3  81.  Pitcher  P l a n t - Sphagnum  2V3  82.  S i m p l i f i e d Schematic Representation of T o p o g r a p h i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among U p l a n d Ecosystems  256  Topographic Sequence  257  83.  Elemental Horizons  C o n t e n t of S u r f a c e Ca Mg  Organic  85.  Elemental Horizons  Content Na Mn  of Surface K  Organic  86.  Elemental Horizons  Content Fe A l  of S u r f a c e  Organic  87.  Average S i t e  88.  Index  267  268 283  (100 y r s )  • Average Gross S t a n d i n g Plots  266  Volumes From Sample  287 290  89.  F l o o d p l a i n D e v e l o p m e n t and F o r e s t  90.  Succession  291  91.  Succession  291  92.  Flooding  Fort Nelson  River  292  93.  Flooding  Fort Nelson  River  292  9k. ,  Flooding  Fort Nelson  River  292  95.  Successional  Trends From A l l u v i a l  Succession  Deposits  299  L I S T OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d )  Figure  96.  Page  Successional Deposits  T r e n d s From F l u v i o -  97.  Successional  Trends  98.  Successional is Present  Trends  Glacial  300 From Lakes  301  Where S e e p a g e W a t e r  302  xvii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I too  many  wish name,  who  gave  I  would  like  to  deepest  gratitude  support  he  has  included  spiritual would  and  never  to  examined  given  moral  have  bryophytes,  and  been  Dr.  the  Salix  wish  L.IVT.  Lavkulich,  many  helpful  improve Dr.  L.M.  the  Laboratory  throughout support,  persons,  me d u r i n g  this  V . J . Krajina,  for  all  this  phases  academic  of  study.  with  appreciation,  which,  my  the study.  instruction,  without  and  this  study ,  additionally,  determined  Carex,  Brayshaw  express Drs.  and  R.F.  sincere  K.I.  and  Dr.  most  Salix.  G.W.  of  I  Argus  manuscript. and  allowing  and  W.B.  throughout I  a]1 me  thanks  to  the  Beamish, G . E . B r a d f i e l d ,  Scagel,  suggestions  for  the  the  would  who  also  collection.  to  Lavkulich  sincere  Gramineae,  T.C.  my r e s e a r c h committee,  Dr.  to  to  completed.  Krajina,  thank  support  encouragement,  lichens,  I  me  my g r a t i t u d e  thank  most  financial  Dr.  like  express  to  Foremost,  This  to  would the free  Schofield  the  study  especially  people use  of  in  the  and  their  for to  helping thank  Pedology  lab  and  of  Foreman,  R.E. for  like  the  members  for  xviii  giving  i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e on t h e s o i l s  as w e l l as f o r c a r r y i n g of  D r . T. L e w i s ,  soils  i n the lab, i s gratefully  Forestry, f o rallowing in  the Ecology  in  treating  assistance  of t h i s  out c e r t a i n a n a l y s i s .  in classifying  Many t h a n k s  aspect  soils  study,  The a s s i s t a n c e  i n the f i e l d  and o r g a n i c  acknowledged.  t o D r . J.P. K i m m i n s , F a c u l t y o f ground  Laboratory.  water  D r . D.D.  s a m p l e s t o be a n a l y s e d Munro's a s s i s t a n c e  t h e m e n s u r a t i o n a l d a t a and D r . M. i n ash analysis  Feller's  i s greatly appreciated.  To M r s . J . S v o b o d a , f o r p a t i e n t l y t y p i n g t h e v e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s and t o t h e p e o p l e  who d i d t h e c o m p u t e r  p r o g r a m m i n g , e s p e c i a l l y Don Thomson and M r s . L. K e r r , I owe a g r e a t  deal.  Many t h a n k s Kojima,  t o my c o l l e a g u e s , D r s . K. K l i n k a , S .  and R. D. R e v e l f o r t h e many d i s c u s s i o n s a n d t h e  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and s u p p o r t my f i e l d spent  assistant,  tramping  digging  g i v e n t o me.  L. Webb o f F o r t N e l s o n , f o r t h e many  t h r o u g h t h e muskeg, s w a t t i n g  h o l e s , and f o r n e v e r  Finally, patiently  T h a n k s must go t o  mosquitoes,  complaining.  I w i s h t o t h a n k my w i f e , M a r l e n e ,  and l o y a l l y  hours  supported  me i n a l l ways  v/ho v e r y  throughout  xix  this  study.  Additionally,  t a s k o f r e a d i n g my  The awarded  writing  s h e t o o k on t h e n o t v e r y and  typing  a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o me  the  easy  manuscript.  t h r o u g h G r a n t No.  A-92,  t o D r . V . J . K r a j i n a by t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l  of Canada, i s g r a t e f u l l y  acknowledged.  1  Chapter  T  INTRODUCTION  One is  of t h e most e x t e n s i v e  the b o r e a l f o r e s t  a broad b e l t  w h i c h , s o u t h of the  of f o r e s t a c r o s s  In Eurasia t h i s  f o r e s t zones i n the  z o n e has  both North  world  a r c t i c tundra, A m e r i c a and  b e e n r e f e r r e d t o as  the  forms  Eurasia *  eurosiberian  d o m a i n o f c o n i f e r s ( P i n e t o - P i c e e t u r n ) by T u x e n ( i n K h a p p ,  1965)  t o the S i b e r i a n term t a i g a (Major,  other  non-scientific  terms range from the  to  the d a r k c o n i f e r o u s  is  sometimes c a l l e d  the  forests.  In N o r t h  t a i g a (La R o i ,  1969).  Various  "great  north  woods"  America, t h i s  196?),  but  forest  i t is 1  usually simply  This area  r e f e r r e d t o as  i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerns  of t h i s vast  British  the b o r e a l  forest.  i t s e l f v / i t h one  f o r e s t e d zone, the n o r t h e a s t e r n  part  small of  Columbia,,  Objectives 0  The classification  b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of the study  are  t o produce  of f o r e s t ecosystems I n the b o r e a l f o r e s t  a  2  The  Boreal  Forest  Figs. 1 & 2 L o o k i n g e a s t f r o m S t e a m b o a t Mt. t o w a r d s t h e F o r t N e l s o n L o w l a n d s . F i r e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phenomena of the b o r e a l f o r e s t s . B e l o w , t h e e f f e c t s o f f i r e and d r a i n age p a t t e r n s a r e e v i d e n t on t h e l a n d s c a p e . Poorly drained areas are slow t o regenerate.  3  [ j B o r e a l w h i t e and  B l a c k S p r u c e B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone of  Canadian Boreal Forest area  (Krajina,  i n northeastern B r i t i s h  leading environmental soils.  I t i s now  1965)]] o f t h e F o r t  C o l u m b i a and  the  Nelson  t o e l u c i d a t e some  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v e g e t a t i o n  a well established fact  t h a t such  and  basic  e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r sound mangement o f r e newable l i v i n g r e s o u r c e s . must be  the  known b e f o r e  first  attempt  they  The  nature  c a n be  ecosystems  managed p r o p e r l y .  This i s  classification  Columbia.  terminology  The developed  extent, of  t o d e v e l o p an e c o l o g i c a l  of the b o r e a l zone i n B r i t i s h  A p p r o a c h and  and  b a s i c methods u t i l i z e d  by K r a j i n a and  B r i t i s h Columbia over  i n this  h i s students  t h e p a s t 25  s t u d y were  at t h e U n i v e r s i t y  years.  The  those of  b a s i c methods  have p r e v i o u s l y b e e n u t i l i z e d f o r s t u d i e s i n most o f  the  b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones i n B r i t i s h  (1955),  McMinn Bell  (1957),  (196*0, Peterson  Cordes  (1972  ^, W a l l  (1970), Kojima In has  Mueller-Dombois  C o l u m b i a by B r a y s h a w (1959),  ( 1 9 6 0 , Wade L  (1969), B e i l  (1971),  Revel  (1965),  biogeocoenotic  (1972),  Brooke  Klinka  (1966), E a d y  (1976),  and  Additionally,  196*0,  (1970),  I 9 6 0 , 1965,  the philosophy, terminology classifications.  (1961,  (1969), F r a s e r  p u b l i c a t i o n s , K r a j i n a (1933, 1959, discussed  Orloci  use the  (1971  Brooke et a l  amongst o t h e r s .  1969, of h i s above  1971,  1972)  a u t h o r s have d e s c r i b e d  the methodology  T h e r e f o r e , o n l y a few p e r t i n e n t  The the  basic  (196+). J  and D y l i s specific  p o i n t s w i l l be g i v e n h e r e .  ecosystem unit  b i o g e o c o e n o s e as d e f i n e d  and a p p r o a c h i n d e t a i l .  utilized  by Sukachev  This ecosystem unit  1+1  study i s  and b y  c a s e o f t h e e c o s y s t e m d e f i n e d by T a n s l e y  community  Sukachev  t o be  (1935).  i s that of the  a The  plant  ( a s used b y t h e Z i i r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l o f p h y t o -  s o c i o l o g y ) and Soil  (19 +)  i s considered  l e v e l at which the ecosystem i s studied  of  in this  the polypedon  (as d e f i n e d  by t h e C a n a d i a n  System  Classification).  Each  "type of p l a n t  s e n s u B r a u n - B l a n q u e t ) and l e v e l ) are considered  into plant different  each t y p e of s o i l  t o be a b a s i c  s t u d y , s i n c e many s e r i e s only t o subgroup.  community" ( p l a n t  association  (at the  ecosystem t y p e .  are not d e f i n e d , s o i l s  are  F o r pragmatic reasons, ecosystems  associations type of s o i l ,  o c c u r s , must h o w e v e r , be  for presentation  in this  on w h i c h a g i v e n p l a n t considered  series In  this  classified are  grouped  study.  Each  association  as a s e p a r a t e b a s i c  ecosystem  type.  Methods u t i l i z e d ,  t o group p l a n t communities  into  a s s o c i a t i o n s , f o l l o w the Z u r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r school of phytosociology  ( i n Braun-Blanquet,  1932).  T h i s methodology  is  5  described  by  Mueller-Dombois  (1975).  In  Shimwell  (1972)  methods amount  respect  give of  assumes  very  than  that  A formula  share  input  efficient  to  the  view  good r e s u l t s  strictly  view  =  that and  that  they  best  are  ecosystems  organisms,  the more  This  method  integrator.  through  19*+1 a n d  Jenny,  for  generally  ecosystem  is  and  "traditional"  methods.  of  Whittaker  (1970)  al.  understanding  the  /^(climate,  et  so-called  is  1898;  (Dokuchaev,  Moore  quantitative  vegetation  useful  and  (197*+), a n d  Ellenberg  methodology,  required  Vegetation/soil  and  the  following  Major,  1951).  relief,  parent  material,  time). Since the  the  present  differences  systems  are  factors  on  study  in  conducted  vegetation  primarily the  was  right  and  caused by of  the  within  soils  changes  equation  of in  other  one  the one  macroclimate,  various or  than  more  climate  ecoof  the  ~(if t  the  difference  was  due  be  dealing  with  As  much as  possible,  recognizing climatic which  the  a different this  various  subzone  account  to  for  and the  a  different  macroclimate,  biogeoclimatic present  study  zone  concerns  or  of  ecosystems w i t h i n  attempts  to  explain  differences  between  causal  these  would  subzone)»  itself  types  the  one  a  with  biogeofactors  types.  6  The  Study  Area  Most o f t h e s t u d y a r e a l i e s w i t h i n t h e s o u t h e r n fringe  of the permafrost  r e g i o n , the boundary o f which i s  r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e -1° C (30° F ) mean a n n u a l  1967).  (Brown, peatland  T a r n o c a i (197*+), i n an u n p u b l i s h e d map o f  regions of B r i t i s h Columbia,  area covered  by t h i s  B o g s and F e n s " . region  considered  considers a l l of the  s t u d y t o be i n t h e r e g i o n o f " S u b a r c t i c  H i s lower  is slightly  The  l a t i t u d i n a l boundary f o r t h i s  l o w e r t h a n t h e -1° C mean a n n u a l  p o r t i o n of t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t  b y Knapp  (1965)  of s p e c i e s t y p i c a l  t o be a t r a n s i t i o n a r e a a t t h e  of western N o r t h  considers the Fort Nelson L o w l a n d s and U p p e r L i a r d r e g i o n of t h i s  the Upper Mackenzie forest.  America.  area t o belong  with  occurrences  Halliday  (1937)  t o the Mackenzie  s e c t i o n s of the b o r e a l f o r e s t .  study f a l l s  i n t o what Rowe  (1959)  terms  and Upper L i a r d  s e c t i o n s of the b o r e a l  The s t u d y a r e a i s c e n t e r e d  i n the l a r g e s t part of  the b o r e a l f o r e s t  found  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  shows t h e B o r e a l W h i t e and B l a c k S p r u c e as d e l i n e a t e d b y K r a j i n a  This area by  isotherm.  under s t u d y i s  e a s t e r n s l o p e of t h e n o r t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s ,  The  isotherm  B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone  (1973).  d i f f e r s from  t h e absence of such  Figure 3  the eastern boreal forest  t r e e s p e c i e s as A b i e s  balsamea  7  and  infrequent  are  replaced  o c c u r r e n c e of P i n u s  i n the  w e s t by  banksiana.  These  A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a and  Pinus  In a d d i t i o n , the w e s t e r n b o r e a l f o r e s t s c o n t a i n resinifera,  as w e l l as B.  species contorta.  Betula  papyrifera.  British Columbia *~ Biogeoclimatic Zones From: A I Farley. Altai of Burnt, Columbia Map adapted from VJ. Krajra  Mr*  |  [ Glacier*  f" " | Alpine tundra (AT)  to*  I  Subalpinc mountain hemlock (MH)  |  Subalpinc Enfelmann ipruca- uibalpinc Or (ES) Sot"" willow-birth (SW) Boreal white and Mack iprucc (BS(  ] j fy^|  Sub-bofcal apruct (SS) Cariboo aipen-lodfepol* pint Dou|la> fir (CA) Interior weitcrn hemlock (IH)  |  Interior Oouflaf Or (IF) Ponderota pine-bunchgraia (PF) Coattal Dou|lat fir (CF) Coaual weitcrn hemlock (CH)  \  Figure  3  II.  Climate The as  climate  of the  study  area  has  a microtbermal continental boreal climate  been (Dfc  characterized after  Kb'ppen)  8  by  (1969).  Krajina  Environment 1970"  The f o l l o w i n g c l i m a t i c  Canada's  for British  statistics  " T e m p e r a t u r e and P r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  erature daily  i n June,  temperatures  (the L  J u l y and A u g u s t .  The mean a n n u a l  i s -1.3° C a t t h e F o r t N e l s o n a i r p o r t .  respectively.  19*+1 -  k$ cm p e r y e a r , w i t h *0$  of the study area) averages  occurring  from  Columbia.  T o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Fort Nelson center  are  temp-  The mean  f o r J a n u a r y and J u l y a r e -23° C a n d 16.7° C  Mean d a i l y minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s  months a r e - 2 8 ° C a n d 1 0 ° C r e s p e c t i v e l y .  f o r these two  The a r e a  averages  219 f r o s t d a y s d u r i n g t h e y e a r w i t h o n l y J u l y b e i n g f r o s t  free.  A summary o f t h e c l i m a t e o f F o r t N e l s o n , w h i o h was p r o d u c e d by K r a j i n a  ( u n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s ) , i s shown i n F i g . *f.  The and  study area i s characterized  c o o l summers.  K e n d r e w and K e r r (1955) r e p o r t t h a t i n  areas n o r t h of l a t i t u d e winter with l i t t l e  by long cold w i n t e r s  55° N , the days are s h o r t i n the  effective  sunshine.  D u r i n g t h e summer,  h o w e v e r , t h e l o n g d a y l e n g t h and s u n s h i n e f o s t e r plant  growth  than a i r temperature  would  better  suggest.  Physiography  The N o r t h America  study area l i e s which  extend  within  the I n t e r i o r P l a i n s o f  i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia  i n the n o r t h -  C L I M A T I C SUMMARY FORT KELSON AIRFOTT 53°50'N, 1 2 2 ° 3 5 ' 3 , 1230' A S l . Record: 30-34 years. Bonthj abovs 50 F: 3, beloc 32°F: 5, A . S . T . P . 17.57", AIM.SJ. 75.4", snoo $ A.MJ.P.: 42.91, days a i t h f r o s t , y e a r l y : 219. U  E.MAX.T.  45  t.o.w.j.  -1.9 -9.8  S.O.T. I.0.MIN.T. E.MIN.T.  Oays r l t h f r o s t M.T.P. BONN  59 11.0 1.3 -8.4 -55  -17.6 -61  64 27.2 15.5 3.8 -39  76 . 45.2 34.1 23.0 -30  89 61.0 49.4 37.8 5  93 69.C 58.1 46.5 30  98 73.4 62.1 50.7 34  93 ' 70.2 58.7 47.2 .29  91 58.3 47.9 37.4 12  78 43.0 34.1 25.1 -18  55 17.0 9.9 2.7 -42  49 1.5 -5.3 -12.2 -54  31  28  31  26  8  '  0  1  7  26  30  31  1.04 JAX  0.96 FES  0.98 M  0.85 APR  1.48 BAY  2.53 JUN  2.94 JUL  2.19 AUG  1.52 SEP  1.01 OCT  1.05 NOV  1.02 CEC  Figure  U  10  east s e c t i o n  o f the p r o v i n c e .  Interior Plains  H o l l a n d (196*0 c o n s i d e r s t h e  t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  A l b e r t a p l a t e a u and i t s s u b d i v i s i o n , t h e F o r t N e l s o n The rest  Fort Nelson  Lowland  is arbitrarily  o f the A l b e r t a p l a t e a u a t the  level.  The i n t e r i o r p l a i n s ,  u n d e r l a i n by g e n t l y t i l t i n g Age  continental to Holland  Basically.,  these  s h a l e s of t h e Buckinghorse  of the S i k a n n i f o r m a t i o n which Group o f s e d i m e n t a r y  rocks  1968).  a r e a around  F o r t N e l s o n was o v e r - r i d d e n b y  i c e sheets during the P l e i s t o c e n e .  (196*+),  contour  d e l t a i c and m a r i n e  1968).  b o t h b e l o n g t o t h e F o r t S t . John  The  (2000')  sedimentary rocks o f Cretaceous  sedimentary rocks are marine  ( T a y l o r and S t o t t ,  m  i n the Fort Nelson area, a r e  ( T a y l o r and S t o t t ,  f o r m a t i o n and s a n d s t o n e s  Lowland.  separated from t h e  700  w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d i n a l l u v i a l ,  environments  by t h e  the Keewatin  According  i c e sheet, which  originated  i n a c e n t e r w e s t o f Hudsons B a y , f l o w e d s o u t h w e s t w a r d a n d v/estward and  drift  a c r o s s t h e F o r t N e l s o n Lowland, from  precambrian  transporting boulders  p a r e n t r o c k s i n t h e e a s t . The  maximum a d v a n c e s h e e t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be w e s t o f F o r t w h e r e i t was r e l a t i v e l y  (1968)  reported thin  thin  ( H o l l a n d , 196*0.  or absent  Nelson  T a y l o r and S t o t t  g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s on h i g h e r  l a n d s , but t h i c k d e p o s i t s i n a d j a c e n t l o w l a n d s s u c h as a t t h e F o r t N e l s o n a i r p o r t where  232  meters  (760') o f g l a c i a l  drift  11  o v e r l i e bedrock. related  directly  a r e a s o f sand  In general, s o i l parent to underlying  and a l l u v i a l  m a t e r i a l s c a n be  bedrock except f o r c e r t a i n  bottomlands  ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971).  Three major r i v e r s d r a i n t h e F o r t K e l s o n t h e P r o p h e t , Muskwa, and F o r t N e l s o n .  (Figs.  area:-  5, 18,  90 a n d 9 l ) .  I n g e n e r a l , much o f t h e F o r t N e l s o n L o w l a n d i s p o o r l y drained the  due t o t h e f l a t  fine  resulted  textured  soils  and p a r e n t  i n the formation  since deglaciation. is  or g e n t l y r o l l i n g  material.  T h i s has  o f many s m a l l l a k e s and b o g s  The p a t t e r n o f v e g e t a t i o n  development  therefore greatly affected.  Valentine clays  (197D  found  This f a c t o r , study  i td i f f i c u l t  of l a c u s t r i n e o r i g i n from morainal  from t h e s o f t marine shales coupled  of t h e area,  s y s t e m based  described  on t h e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s  very  formation.  geomorphological  of s u r f a c e  materials,  Four s u c h t e r r a i n systems were (1971).  gently  L o w l a n d , w i t h i t s low described  of the Buckinghorse  derived  l e d him t o t h e development of a t e r r a i n  by V a l e n t i n e  The  t o separate  deposits  w i t h t h e l a c k o f any  m o r p h o l o g y and g e o l o g y .  is  t o p o g r a p h y and  inclined  relief  by V a l e n t i n e  (See F i g s .  plain  and low  5,  6,  7, &  of the F o r t  surface water  8?.  Nelson  runoff,  as t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n S y s t e m .  12  M i n e r a l parent marine shales  m a t e r i a l s are mostly of the Buckinghorse  poorly drained east  of F o r t  shales  formation.  higher  hills  the P o p l a r  composed  Hills  o f s a n d s t o n e s and  on t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e  Terrain  These areas  interbedded  are are  silty  Drainage i s g e n e r a l l y T e r r a i n S y s t e m due  s l o p e s , h o w e v e r , on f l a t  a r e a s , bog  especially  v/est o f F o r t N e l s o n ,  of t h e S i k a n n i f o r m a t i o n .  increased  silty  generally  above the B u c k i n g h o r s e  as t h e S i k a n n i T e r r a i n S y s t e m .  b e t t e r than  This  t e r r a i n system i s very e x t e n s i v e ,  S y s t e m , s u c h as  generally  from the  Nelson.  The  classed  derived  or g e n t l y  development i s g e n e r a l l y present  to  inclined due  to  impeded  drainage.  Areas, over are  the Buckinghorse considered  Where t h e s e general  part  soil  The  deposited,  of the C h u a t s e T e r r a i n S y s t e m . thick  enough t o r i s e  of the Buckinghorse  t o the r i v e r s  drained.  restricts  t o be  g r a v e l s were  T e r r a i n System d u r i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n ,  d e p o s i t s are  level  adjacent well  w h e r e s a n d s and  the  T e r r a i n System, or  or d o w n c u t s t r e a m s ,  Otherwise the  above  the  are  soils  g e n e r a l f l a t n e s s of the  are terrain  drainage.  valley  slopes  and  alluvial  streams,' w h i c h have c u t t h r o u g h t h e  bottomlands  plain,  are  placed  of  13  into  t h e Muskwa T e r r a i n S y s t e m .  remnants of p r e v i o u s s t r e a m present  rivers.  T h i s system i n c l u d e s the  channels  as w e l l as  the  Terrain  Systems  Figs. 5 & 6 A b o v e , l o o k i n g n o r t h a l o n g t h e Muskwa R i v e r . F o r t N e l s o n i s on t h e l e f t . The v a l l e y b o t t o m , w i t h i t s s l o p e s , b e l o n g t o t h e Muskwa T e r r a i n S y s t e m . The f l a t p l a i n b e l o n g s to the Buckinghorse T e r r a i n System. A l t h o u g h n o t v i s i b l e above, f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l was o f t e n d e p o s i t e d o v e r t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System, e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g t h e edges o f t h e r i v e r s . T h i s was t e r m e d t h e C h u a t s e T e r r a i n S y s t e m b y V a l e n t i n e . The l o d g e p o l e p i n e , g r o w i n g on t h e d u n e s i n t h e p h o t o b e l o w belongs t o t h e Chuatse T e r r a i n System. The t e r r a i n s y s t e m s used h e r e w e r e d e v e l o p e d and d e s c r i b e d b y V a l e n t i n e (1971).  15 Terrain  Systems  Fig. 7 The p o o r l y d r a i n e d B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n i n the f o r e g r o u n d . The S i k a n n i T e r r a i n S y s t e m b e h i n d Lake (the l a r g e r l a k e ) r i s e s i n the b a c k g r o u n d .  .  ',.•••>,"'•'  Fig. deposited gradients  "-i,  '  ;  -  System Parker  -  .^v^/-  8 E f f e c t s of d r a i n a g e where f l u v i a l over the Buckinghorse T e r r a i n System. between communities are sharp.  '•" •  materials Here the  are  16  Chapter I I  MET HODS  Vegetation  A n a l y s i s and  As m e n t i o n e d describing vegetation of  Synthesis  earlier,  t h e b a s i c method  utilized for  i s that developed by the p h y t o s o c i o l o g i s t s  the Z i i r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r school  as' m o d i f i e d  by K r a j i n a  (1933-  1972).  A t w o week r e c o n n a i s s a n c e t r i p was made b y V . - J . K r a j i n a and t h e a u t h o r t o t h e s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g summer o f 1970. of p l a n t  N o t e s w e r e made on the t y p e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s  c o m m u n i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l s a m p l i n g s i t e s w e r e n o t e d .  Additionally, and  the early  the plants  a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n  o f p l a n t s was made  identified.  Sample s i t e s were s e l e c t e d  on t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i s :  (1)  T h e c o m m u n i t y had t o o c c u r r e p e a t e d l y  (2)  The c o m m u n i t y had t o be h o m o g e n e o u s , b o t h v e g e t a t i o n a l l y  on t h e l a n d s c a p e .  17  and  environmentally.  enough t o and  a  100  (3)  The  accommodate a ^+00 sq  m sample p l o t  c o m m u n i t y had  sq m s a m p l e p l o t i f  disturbance.  only  a r e a w h i c h was  community.  An  a t t e m p t was  v/hich w o u l d  i n d i c a t e the  and  was  % slope,  landforra.  the  oldest  the  a l s o made t o s e l e c t s a m p l e  association  would  c o l l e c t e d on  E s t i m a t e s of % c o v e r r o c k , and  of  that  areas  occur.  following  litter  and  environ-  physiographic elevation, humus,  d e c a y i n g wood w e r e a d d i t i o n a l l y  made f o r e a c h p l o t .  V e g e t a t i o n i n e a c h p l o t was All  vascular  and  listed  b r y o p h y t e s , and  f o r each v e g e t a t i o n  were d e f i n e d A  plants,  as  (tree) layer:  layer.  analysed  as  l i c h e n s were Vegetation  follows: identified layers  below. A-^:  human  conditions  quantitative  the  to plant  judged t o best r e p r e s e n t  exposure, l a t i t u d e , longitude,  exposed m i n e r a l s o i l ,  forest  subject  subjectively within  e a c h p l o t , q u a l i t a t i v e and  mental information features:  only  v a r i a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  under w h i c h a g i v e n p l a n t  For  forested  t h o s e w h i c h were not  P l o t s were p l a c e d  c o m m u n i t y i n an  large  i f non-forested.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , where p o s s i b l e , s t a n d s w e r e s a m p l e d and  t o be  D o m i n a n t t r e e s , whose c r o w n above the  general  canopy.  extended  18  A2'' C o - d o m i n a n t t r e e s , whose c r o w n s t h e b u l k o f t h e upper A^:  Suppressed  trees  were o v e r t o p p e d and  formed  canopy.  o r t r e e s whose c r o w n s by t h e co-dominant  dominant t r e e s .  These t r e e s  were  over 5 m i n h e i g h t .  B  C  (shrub) l a y e r :  B-^s  Woody p l a n t s  o v e r 2 m b u t l e s s t h a n 5 m.  B2:  Woody p l a n t s  l e s s than 2 m  (herb) l a y e r :  A l l herbaceous height.  plants regardless  This layer  woody p l a n t s  i n height.  included  of  small  such as A r c t o s t a p h y 1 o s  u v a - u r s i . V a c c i n i u m v i t i s - i d a e a , and Salix  D (moss) l a y e r :  Dh:  myrtillifolia.  Bryophytes  and l i c h e n s o c c u r r i n g on  humus and m i n e r a l Dw:  Bryophytes  and l i c h e n s  dead and d e c a y i n g Dr:  Bryophytes rocks.  soil. occurring  on  wood.  and l i c h e n s o c c u r r i n g o n  19  When e s t a b l i s h i n g p l o t s ,  the species  o f e a c h v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r was e s t i m a t e d  significance  according t o the  Domin-Krajina scale which i s defined i n the f o l l o w i n g (taken from K l i n k a ,  197^).  Code  Corresponding^ cover v a l u e l * /  Description  +  -1  0.2  very s p a r s e l y . p r e s e n t , dominance .very s n a i l  1  1  0.7  s p a r s e l y p r e s e n t , dominance small  2  2  1.5  very s c a t t e r e d , dominance s m a l l  3  3  3.5  s c a t t e r e d t o p l e n t i f u l , dominance 2 . 2 -  4  4  7.5  o f t e n p r e s e n t , dominance  5. -  5  5  17.5  o f t e n p r e s e n t , dominance  10-25?  6  6  29.  7  7  41.5  any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 33 - 50?  8  8  62.5  any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 50 -  9  9  87.5  any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance o v e r 75?  Symbol  Table  .  any number of  0  When a v e r a g i n g representing  in  (1.0  -  0.3?)  1.02)  - 2.2%) 5.02  10?  i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 25 - 33?  species significance,  the midpoints  s c a l e were a s s i g n e d  (0.3 -  (0.1  75?  Significance  Species  1  table  values  of t h e u n i t s o f t h e D o m i n - K r a j i n a  f o r each c l a s s  t h e above T a b l e ) .  assumed  Species  (corresponding  v i g o r was a s s e s s e d  0 - s p e c i e s dead  + - v i g o r poor  1 - vigor fair  2 - v i g o r good  cover  value  as f o l l o w s .  3 - vigor excellent Judging is  species vigor i s very d i f f i c u l t ,  known t h r o u g h o u t  Therefore,  unless a species  i t s e n t i r e range o f growing c o n d i t i o n s .  i n many c a s e s , no v a l u e was g i v e n t o t h e s p e c i e s  20  for  vigor  i n this  study.  In t h e v e g e t a t i o n chapter,  tables presented  f o r each p l o t , every s p e c i e s  number s u c h as ^ - . 2 .  The f i r s t  significance'which • in this a f t e r the decimal place  i s represented  number r e p r e s e n t s  c a s e w o u l d be h.  (2)  represents  The s y m b o l s u s e d i n t h e l a s t vegetation (in  this  i n the next  t a b l e s a r e as f o l l o w s :  P  by a  species  The number  vigor.  three  columns of t h e  represents  % presence  p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y p r e s e n c e and c o n s t a n c y a r e i d e n t i c a l  s i n c e w i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n p l o t s i z e was c o n s t a n t ) , MS represents  mean s i g n i f i c a n c e , and RS  represents  range of  significance.  Vegetation placing  t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d  the plots i n t o plant  by t e n t a t i v e l y  associations with the assistance  of a c o m p u t e r and t h e n c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s for  floristic  similarity.  A c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r handling  releves  developed  mechanically  and p r o d u c i n g a s s o c i a t i o n t a b l e s  (see K l i n k a ,  197 O. l  A summary s y n t h e s i s esented  on page 2h6.  table  of a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s i s  The c o n s t a n c y c l a s s e s  utilized in  21  this  1  -  20  21  -  ho  rare  I:  Seldom  II:  often  III:  present present  mostly  IV:  present  constantly  V:  a r e as f o l l o w s .  • %• o f t h e p l o t s  class  present  Table 2  hi -  60  61  -  80  81  -  100  Constancy  The  vegetation  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n hierarchy  w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s u f f i x e s ,  Soil  (1932) and  t a b l e are a f t e r Braun-Blanquet  i s , along  as f o l l o w s .  Order  -  etalia  Alliance  -  ion  Association  -  etum  Subassociation  -  etosum  Variant  -  osum  1  Analysis  One horizons thickness  s o i l p i t was  were d e s c r i b e d of h o r i z o n s ,  and  dug  i n each p l o t .  sampled.  The  Descriptions  various included  stoniness, root d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  depth to  22  water  table,  depth  to permafrost,  on s l o p e , and l a n d f c r m . in  the f i e l d  2 mm  The s o i l s  s a m p l e s were  and L a v k u l i c h  i n a 1:1 soil  a i r dried  after  s m a l l e r t h a n 2 mm  (1972)«,  soil'water  water  i n size  suspension  a r e t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by  Determination  suspension  of s o i l  p H v/as  f o r mineral soils  f o r organic s o i l s .  by t h e " S e m i - m i c r o K j e l d a h l " m e t h o d .  organic matter  v/as d e t e r m i n e d  modified  method.  P h o s p h o r u s v/as d e t e r m i n e d  c a t i o n s and t o t a l  o u t b y t h e KHi+OAj, m e t h o d .  Further details Jackson  (1958),  for soil  carried  u s i n g a computer program.  on t h e s e m e t h o d s a r e g i v e n b y Day and B l a c k  (1972).  s i z e a n a l y s i s v/as c a r r i e d  (1950),  (1965)..  A m o d i f i e d method, f o r p a r t i c a l s i z e tested  through the  exchange c a p a c i t y were  Partical  out by t h e h y d r o m e t e r method  Soil  by t h e W a l k l e y - B l a c k o r  m e t h o d d e s c r i b e d b y H a r r i s and l a v k u l i c h  Exchangeable  and a  Total nitrogen  v/as d e t e r m i n e d  Titrimetric  a  analysed.  A n a l y t i c a l methods used  l:h  classified  I n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , t h e y were s i e v e d t h r o u g h  v/as f u r t h e r  done  were t e n t a t i v e l y  immediately  mesh s c r e e n and t h e f r a c t i o n  Harris  position  as t o subgroup,,  Soil samplingp  parent m a t e r i a l ,  s a m p l e s w i t h h i g h pH, w h i c h  a n a l y s i s , v/as  indicated  high  23  carbonates to  i n the s o i l .  cement s m a l l s o i l  Carbonates,  particles  when p r e s e n t , may  together.  The  analysis  t h e r e f o r e , show a c o a r s e r t e x t u r e f o r t h e s o i l t h a n really  the case.  To  overcome t h i s  s a m p l e s w i t h h i g h pH were t r e a t e d Concentrated  H C l was  no f u r t h e r b u b b l e s by  suspending  added  to  problem, to  the sample i n d i s t i l l e d  the sample.  The  water  was  poured  centrifuging  procedure  was  repeated  all  the excess  normal  acid.  procedure.  m e t h o d s , shov/ed from  The  R e s u l t s , from  a c i d was R^O  o f f and  and  carbonates. until  then  removed  centrifuging  the washing  then t r e a t e d  samples t r e a t e d  e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e s .  a s t e r i s k i n the s o i l  soil  and  t w i c e more t o remove  s a m p l e was  samples w i t h carbonates  The  some o f t h e  destroy the  The  will,  is  t h e s a m p l e and. h e a t e d  were r e l e a s e d .  tend  by by  the both  Results obtained  removed a r e marked w i t h  an  tables.  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t o t a l n i t r o g e n , s o i l  organic i  matter, phosphorus,  and  done i n t h e P e d o l o g y  total  cation  e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y was  L a b o r a t o r y , Department of S o i l  University  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  determined  on a P e r k i n - E l m e r A t o m i c  M o d e l 303,  with a d i g i t a l concentration readout.  The the next  results  of t h e s o i l  Exchangeable Absorption  Science,  c a t i o n s were Spectrophotomter  a n a l y s i s are presented  chapter adjacent to the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n  in  tables.  2h  Chapter I I I  UNITS OF THE BOREAL WHITE  AND  BLACK SPRUCE BIOGEOCLIMATIC  This  chapter deals  with  ZONE  the i n d i v i d u a l plant  a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l i a n c e s , and o r d e r s as t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e synopsis  of u n i t s  ( T a b l e 3,  associations  numbered  the  grid  edatopic  p a g e 26).  The d i s c u s s i o n s  page  species,  of i n d i v i d u a l plant  followed  soils  associations are  tables which are c o n s i s t e n t l y Individual plant  by t a b l e s  of i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s , plant  tables.  (presence  "Characteristic with  associations  s h o w i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  physical  association  The " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n o f  t a b l e was d e v e l o p e d b y e x t r a c t i n g t h e most commonly species  positioned  an e x t r a c t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f  characteristics and  ^  60%)  species",  from the plant  association  tables Species"  occurring tables.  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n , a r e marked  an a s t e r i s k i n t h e " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n o f  tables.  on  28).  at t h e b e g i n n i n g f o r easy r e f e r r a l . begin with  plant  i n table 3 a d d i t i o n a l l y are projected  ( F i g . 9,  p r e c e e d e d by r e f e r e n c e  Individual  Species"  25  Zonal Species f o r B r i t i s h  The Fort Nelson  Columbia  B o r e a l Y/hite and B l a c k Spruce  (BWBS) B i o f - e o c l i m a t i c  a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g " c o m b i n a t i o n  zone i n t h e  of p l a n t s " .  These p l a n t s a r e p r e v a l e n t i n the zone or a r e more common i n t h e BWBS zone i n other  A:  zones i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Trees Picea  B:  Pinus  glauca  banksiana  P. b a l s a m i f e r a  P.  Larix  laricina  Populus  crispa  Ledum groenlandicurn  Salix  A. t e n u i f o ] i a  Ribes  S. p l a n i f o l i a  Betula  R. Rlandulosum  Shepherd i a  Rosa a c i c u l a r i s  Vaccinium  Geocau]on l i v i d u m  Mitel].a nuda  Betula  tremuloides  rcar>vrifera  B. r e s i n i f e r a  (B. neoalaskana)  Shrubs  glandnlifera  (B. p u m i l a )  oxyacanthoides  bebbiana  canadensis  vitis-idaea  Kerbs A r a l i a nudicau'lis Calamaerostis Cornus  canadensis  canadensis  Equisetum  D.  contorta  P. mariana  Alnus  C:  than  arvense  Goodvera Habenaria  renens  obtusata  P e t a s it.es p a l m a t u s Pyrola asarj f o l i a  H. o r b i c u l a t a  P. c h l o r a n t h a  E.  pratense  Linnaea  borealis  P. secunda  E.  scirpoides  Listera  cordat.a  Rub'.jr. pubescens  E. sylvaticum  Mai ant he mum  Galium  Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a  boreale  Bryophytes  canad-ense  Smilacina t r i f o l i a Viola  renifolia  and L i c h e n s  . Aulacomnium pa l u s t r e  S. fuscum  C. m i t i s  Dicranum acut i f oliurri  S. recurvun  C.  D. undulatum  S.. subfulvurr.  C l a d or i a r r a c i ] i s  ranriferina  Drepanoc]adus u n c i n a t u s S. subnitenr.  Icmadophlla ericet.orun  Hyloconium s p l e n d e r s  P e l t i cera  Tomenthypnum n i t e n s  PDeurozium s c h r e b e r i Pt i l i u m  crista-castrensis  Sphagnum c a n i ] l a c e urn  aphthosa  P. c a n i n a Cladina alpest.ris  P. ma] ace a  arbuscula  P. p o l y d a c t y l a  v a r . minus  TABLE  SYNOPSIS  OF  THE  ORDER  3  SYNSYSTEMATI C  UNITS  IN  HE  PRESENT  STUDY  ASSOCIATION  ALLIANCE  1. Hylocomio (splendentis) - Linnaeo (borealis) A r a l i o (nudicaulis) - Viburno (cdulis) - Populo (tremuloidis) - Piceetum glaucae  P I C E E T A L I  A  6LAUCAE  ( 1.  Piceion  2. Hylocomio t s p l e n d e n t i 3 ) - M i t e l l o (nudae) Equiseto {pratensis) - Viburno (edulis) Piceetum glaucae  glaucae  3. Pleurozio (schreberi) - Hylocomio (splendentis) Lycopodio (onnotini) - Ledo (groenlandici) Picoo (glaucae - marianae) - Pinetum contortae  2.  3.  PICEETALIA  C l a d i n o (mit1B) - P i n i o n ( - banksianae)  Pleurozio  (schreberi)  4. Cladino (mitis) - P e l t i g e r o (aphthosae) Pleurozio (schreberi) - Arctostaphylo (uvaeursi) - Pinetum contortae  contortae  - Piceion  marianae  5. Ptil'io ( c r i s t a e - c a s t r e n s i s ) - Hylocomio (splendentis) - P l e u r o z i o (schreberi) Piceetum marianae 6. Hylocomio (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) Equiseto ( s y l v a t i c i ) - Piceetum marianae  M.A R I A N A E 4.  Sphagno Piceion  ( f u s c i ) - Rubo marianae  (chamaemori)  S.  Aulacomnio ( p a l u s t r i a ) - S a l i c o ( m y r t i l l i f o l i a e ) - P i c e i o n marianae  -  7. Aulacomnio ( p a l u s t r i s ) - Tomenthypno (ni tent is) • Equiseto ( s c i r p o i d i s ) - Ledo (groenlandici) S a l i c o ( m y r t i l l i f o l i a e ) - Nano-Picoetum marianae 8. Sphagno "(fusci) - Rubo (chamaemori) - Oxyccoco (microcarpi) - Ledo (groenlandici) - Piceetum marianae  9.  LARICETALIA LAR.ICINAE  ( (  6.  Menyantho laricinae  (  7.  Populion  (  POPULETALIA BALSAMI FERAE  Laricion  GALIS  SPHAGNO (MAGELLAN I C I) - SCHEUC.HZER IE T A L IA PALUSTRIS  10. Hylocomio (splendentis) - r t i l i o ( c r i s t a o castrensis) - P l e u r o z i o (schreberi) - Equiseto (arvensis) - M i t e l l o (nudae) - Smilacino ( t r i f o l i a o ) - L a r i c o ( l a r i c i n a e ) - Piceetum marianae  11. Equiseto (pratensis) - Pyrolo ( a s a r i f o l i a e ) Alno ( t e n u i f o l i a e ) - Populetura balsamiferae  balsamiferae  12. Populo (balsamiferae)  ( t  ( S P IR A E 0-) MYRICETALIA  (trifoliatae)  Sphagno ( c a p i l l a c e i - recurvi) - Konyantho. ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - Pyrolo ( a s a r i f o l i a e ) - Oxyccoco ( p a l u s t r i s ) - Betulo (glanduliferae) - Laricetum laricinae  U.  Salicion  - Alnetum t e n u i f o l i a e  13. Saliceturn i n t e r i o r i o  intorioria  ( *i. (  Drepanoclado < vornicoal) ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - Myricion  (10. (  Sphagno ( m a g e l l a n i c i ) * Sarraoenio (purpuroae) - Scheuchzerion p a l u s t r i a  - Menyantho galis  14. Dropnnoclado (vernicosi) - C a l l i o r g o n o (glgantei) Menyantho ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - Myricetum g a l i s  15. Sphagno (magollanici) - sarracenio (purpurea*) • Oxyccoco (microcarpi) - Scheuchzerio (palustris) - Andromedetum p o l i f o l i a e  27  The E d a t o p i c G r i d  I n F i g . 9j t h e e c o s y s t e m s t a b l e 3) h a v e b e e n p r o j e c t e d ture  and n u t r i e n t s .  of t h i s study area (from  onto t h e o r e t i c a l o r d i n a t e s  The grid  utilized  i n this  p r o p o s e d b y P o g r e b n i a k ,(1930) and was used Krajina  (1969).  projections  were u t i l i z e d  b y Wiedemann  such  o f Rowe ( 1 9 5 6 ) , Waring  better  Hodgkins  and M a j o r  concluded that  Jones  (196^),  (1969),  (I960),  ordination  (1929) f o r F i n n i s h  s i t e - t y p e s a n d b y E n e r o t h (1931) and A r n b o r g Sv/edish s i t e - t y p e s .  s t u d y v/as f i r s t  extensively by  (1969),  A c c o r d i n g t o Jones  o f mois-  (1953) f o r  a f t e r r e v i e w i n g the work  B a k u z i s and Hansen  and P l u t h and Arneman  (1959),  (1965),  s u c h o r d i n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s show p r o m i s e f o r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i o n  of sites. 1  Krajina grid  and  as f o l l o w s :  (I969) h a s d e f i n e d  t h e u n i t s on t h e e d a t o p i c  The t r o p h o t o p e s o r s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s as  A  -  oligotrophia  D  -  B  -  submesotrophic  E  -  C  -  mesotrophic  the hygrotopes or s o i l  subeutrophic eutrophic  m o i s t u r e regimes as  0  -  very xeric  5  -  1  -  xeric  6  -  2  -  subxeric  7  -  3  -  submesic  8  -  h  -  mesic  subhygric hygric subhydric hydric.  PROJECTION OF STUDIED ECOSYSTEMS ON EDATOPIC GRID ( A s s o c i a t i o n s per Table 3)  A  C  B  D  not  found  £  in  study • area  Jl  8  7 /5  not  studied  12 13  29  ORDER I  Piceetalia  glaucae  Annas e t K r a j i n a  The o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a forest  sites  jected  on t h e e d a t o p i c g r i d  glaucae occupies the b e t t e r  i n the Fort Nelson area. ( F i g . 9),  When t h i s  In this  single alliance The s o i l s  submesotrophic  s t u d y , t h e order i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a  (Piceion glaucae) w i t h three plant  of the P i c e e t a l i a  glaucae consist  (and t h e i r  associations.  of O r t h i c  L u v i s o l s , Cumulic R e g o s o l s , Degraded E u t r i c Brunisols  order i s pro-  i t o c c u r s on h y g r o t o p e s f r  t o s u b h y g r i c and on t r o p h o t o p e s f r o m  to eutrophic.  glaucae-  1969 p . p . )  marianae K r a j i n a  subxeric  (Piceetalia  Gray  and D y s t r i c  g l e y e d v a r i a t i o n s ) and Rego  Gleysols.  Vegetation o f the P i c e e t a l i a glaucae i s c h a r a c t e r •1  ized  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  Picea  o r d e r and a l l i a n c e  glauca  Populus  Ribes  tremuloides  character species:  triste  Rubus p u b e s c e n s  Betula papyrifera  Viola  Viburnum edule  Galium boreale  - Alnus c r i s p a Shepherdia  Actaea rubra  canadensis  Ribes oxyacanthoides Amelanchier  reni.folia  alnifolia  Aster  ciliolatus  Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus  30  One p l a n t Hylocomio  a s s o c i a t i o n , the Pleurozio  (splendentis)  (groenlandici) - Piceo contortae  (glaucae  (Lodgepole Pine  to the P i c e e t a l i a placed  - Lycopodio  Piceetalia  ( a n n o t i n i ) - Ledo  - marianae) - Pinetum  - C l u b m o s s ) , b e a r s many  marianae order  i n the P i c e e t a l i a  (schreberi) -  and c o u l d  marianae.  affinities  conceivably  F l o r i s t i c a l l y , the  g l a u c a e h a s many a f f i n i t i e s w i t h b o t h t h e  Laricetalia  l a r i c i n a e and P o p u l e t a l i a b a l s a m i f e r a e  These l a t t e r  orders  the  grid  edatopic  Alliance  1  [pieurozio  occupy r i c h e r  and m o i s t e r  t h a n t h o s e of P i c e e t a l i a  P i c e i o n glaucae  Wall  orders.  s e c t i o n s of  glaucae.  e t K r a j i n a 1973  (schreberi) - P i c e i o n glaucae  Revel e t Krajina  1972]  -  It tinguished  c a n be a s s u m e d , s i n c e  here, that  characteristics glaucae.  alliance  pages.  Since  one a l l i a n c e  three  plant  associations  whose d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s  plant  i t represents  Piceetalia belonging  i n subsequent  a s s o c i a t i o n n o . 3 h a s some  mariana, i n the hierarchy  of the area,  i s dis-  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  a r e t h e same a s t h o s e o f t h e o r d e r  of t h e P i c e e t a l i a  order.  only  the vegetational  There a r e only  to t h i s  ations  be  characteristics  of plant  a transition  associ-  t o the l a t t e r  31  PLANT ASSOCIATION 1 ASPEN - WHITE SPRUCE  Hylocoraio (splendentis) - Linnaeo (borealis) Aralio (nudicaulis) - Viburno (edulls) Populo (tremuloidis  - Piceetum glaucae  Characteristic Combination of Species  Layer  Constants (presence *  ^ 60%)  characteristic  Characteristic  '  non - constants > I I  fopulus tremuloldes  JTree  Picea glauca  Lonicera dloica  Alnus crispa  Shrub  Viburnum edule Rosa acicularis Shepherd la canadensis  Llnnaea borealis  Herb  Cornus canadensis Rubus pubescens  - * Aralla  nudicaulis  Pyrola secunda i  Mertensia paniculate Mite11a nuda Lathyrus ochroleucus Viola r e n i f o l i a Pyrola a s a r l f o l l a Moss  Hylocomium splendens Ptllium  Table  h  crista-castrensis  Eurhynchium pulchellun  ASPEN - WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - Linnaeo Viburno  2  Plot Ho  3  ( e d u l i s ) - Populo  W  8  13  iV  (borealis) - Aralio  (nudicaulis) -  ( t r e m u l o i d i s ) - Piceetum  20  37  WO  15  7  glaucae  16  19  26  38  33  32  W50  ".30  360  M5  375  375  320  58° 51-  58° 5 2 '  58*52'  . 58*33'  58° W8'  58° W8'  58°>t8'  58° "»8'  . 5 8 ° W8'  58° 33  58° W8'  58°W9I  58°W7>  58° We-  58° W7'  58° W7'  y8°W7i  Longitude  12^57'  12^58'  122° 60'  122° 17'  122° WW'  122° WW'  122° W3>  122° Iflji.  12/WW'  122° 17  122° W3'  122° W2' .  12^W2"  lz;? W8'  122° W3-  122* W3'  122° 39'  Exposure  • W  S  S  SB  SW  3  3  S  S  N  S  H  H  w  —"  --'  HW  6  9  1  1  11  10  1  6  8  1  1  7  1  1  0  0  22  75  70  80  72  W5  36  70  78  65  85  75  56  70  71  50  69  W  68  75  70  25  2W  50  18  10  30  Wo  12  30  30  10  15  20  15  Wo  . 18  65  3  29  6  16  5  30  -  W  2  1  3  28  6  16  8  16  2W  1W  31  8W  78  Elevation In B Latitude  1.1.0  Slope Gradient jf  W70  Wo  Woo  "•30  1.25  W35  Woo  W70  WWo  Percent Coverage Total A •*1  7  5  *2 A  3  Total B B  B  l 2  C  5  8  3  Wo 15 35  30 18  85  90  80  82  6W  8  10  21  2W  52  31  82  50  6W  61  8  17  Wo  62  Wo  38  W8  W  21  30  82  25  17  16  20  Wo  52  75  65  . 18  76  17  13  38  3"»  30  wy  5  93  90  87  90  7  6  8  5  —' •  5  Wo  25  69  50  2  30 ••5  77  2  25  +  10  W  20  22  .12  8  1  30  "<5  15  2  3  25  60  12  5  Dv  18  "*0  3  1  D  22  10  1  25  33  1  1  1  2  1  60  W  7  51  70  50  1  1  w  W  1  1W  30  25  1W  W  7  11  <*  83  91  85  88  93  77  75  65  76  82  8W  86  5 -'--  12  10  8  2  3  1W  18  6  8  6  —  —  --  —  -  16  Percent Coverage titter Decaying Wood  —  Mineral S o i l Rock  —  --  —  — —  -  —  --  —  --  -  --  Brgrotope  Subxerlo  Ho» lo  Trophotope  Submesotrophlo  Subeutrophlo  Parent Material  Morelnal  Table  5  Lacustrine  -  30  -  —  — —  1  —  —  Fluvial  ™  BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 1  AS PEN - WHITE SPRUCE PLOT NUMBER  100210031004 1008 10131 014 10201037 I C O 1007 (015 1016 1019 1026 1032 |033 10381 SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE  Al  A2  A3  Bl  B2  Table  POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA GLAUCA PINUS CCNTORTA POPULUS BALSAHIFERA BETULA PAPYRIFERA  1 8.3 I 8.3! 8. 1 8. 1 . 16.216.217.218.31 1. I • 1 • 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 13.21 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1.1  POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA PINUS CCNTORTA  14.2 14. 1 . ! • • 1 .  PICEA GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 6 PICEA MARIANA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA 7 ABIES LASIOCARPA PINUS CCNTORTA  1 . • 1 1.2 • • l*.l • 1 . I . i. I*.2 1 .  8 ALNUS CRISPA PICEA GLAUCA 9 SALIX BEBBIANA POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA MARIANA 10 VIBURNUM EOULE 11 AMELANCHICR ALNIFOLIA 12 BETULA RESINIFERA BETULA PAPYRIFERA 13 SALIX SCOULERI ANA 14 ALNUS TENUIFOLIA POPULUS BALSAM 1FERA 15 CORNUS STOLON IFFRA 16 SHEPHERUIA CANADENSIS  14. 2. 1 7. 4. 11. 3. 1 . I . 11. 1 . • 1 . • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1. 1 •. 1 •  VIBURNUM EOULE 17 ROSA ACICULARIS SHEPHEROIA CANAOCNSIS 18 RI (IE S OXYACANTHOIOES CORNUS STOLONIFERA ALNUS CRISPA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 19 LOMCERA OIOICA AMELANCHIER A L N I F C L I A  14. 1 5. 1 8. 14. |4. 4. 12. 1 4. 1 4. 12. 1 • . 1 14. | 4. 1 3. I*. 1 • | 1 .1 • | 1 . 1 3. I 1 .'1 1  1 2 3 4 5  6  12.2 11.2 I . I •  1. 1 .  •  1  '  | . 13. 2. 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1  •  AND VIGOR  P  15. 315.314.215.2 17.2 I . I . I 14.21 . 14.214.2|4. 215.214.21 I . 14.313.21 . I .  15.215.215.216.215.21 13.214.2(4.211.214.21 . 13.21 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 12.21 15.215.215.217.214.216.216.21 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 15 14.21 . I . I . I . | . | . | 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I 1.11 . I . I . I . I . I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I • 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1  I I I I I  88.2 52.9 17.6 11.8 5.9  4. 7 5.0 2.4 ».C 2.C  12.113.212.211.214.21 11.113.21 . I . 13.21* l . i . 12.215.213.21 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. I*.01 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 ,  I 70.6 ( 52.9 I 47.1 I 47.1  I  •  1 •  I •  I  •  j a  16.215.214.214.214.215.217.21 14.2 1*. 01 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 14.211.01 . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 14.213.212.214. 13.211.111.21 I . I . I . I*.l I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I .I I . I . I . I . I . I . I .|  4.4 2.1 2.7 2.4 I 11.8 ».C I 5.9 •.C I 5.9 •.c  14.211.214.215.216.215. > 14.316. 21 I .I l+.21 1 . 13.214.216.2 1 . I . .1 I . I . I . 11.211.01 I 1 . 13.214.214.21 . 13. I . I . I . I .I 1 . 13.214.2 11.2 I . I . I . I . 11.21 . I I*.112.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I 1 211. 211. 1 I . I I I I . I . I*.31 . 1 . 1 . II. 21*.31 I . 14.214.31 . I..2I . I I . I I . I . 13.21 . 1 . 1 . I . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . I . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I. I . I .I 1• 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. I .I . I I .I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. I .I I I * I . I . I «.2I . 1 . 1 .  I I I I I I I I I I I  14. 15. 1 . 1 . 12. 12. 1 1 .  1100.0 1100.0 I 70.6 I 58.8 I 52.9 I 47.1 I 47.1 I 47.1 I 41.2  1  1  RS  6.6 4-8 3.8 3-5 1.4 3-4 * . l 1-2 3.5 8-8  15. 5. 1 . 4. 1 . +. 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •  1 . 1•  MS  76.5 47.1 11.8 11.8 5.9  1  1 . 12. 1 •  ,  I I I I I  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 18  4. 1  I  1 4.21 4.21 5.21 5.216.215. 14. 215. 314.213.214.212.214.21 15.114.214.215.216.215. 12.214.315.212.215.214.214.21 11.117.316.214.2|3.21 . I*. 21 . I . 12.214.21 . 12.31 l l . H 3 . l l . 13. 13.21*. I . 13. 3 1 . I . I . I*.211.21 13.111.11 . 12.214.21 . I . I . I 12.21 I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 12.211. I . 11. 213.21 13.21 12.111.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I * . 111. 21 . 13 .211.21 11.21 1 1.211.21*. 11.21 . I I . 21*. II . I I .I I*.+ 15.314.2|». I . I . I . I*.21 , I .I  70.6 52.9 41.2 29.4 29.4 23. 5 17.6 11.8 11.8 11.8  4.6 4.2 2.8 l.t  «.t • .C  i.e «.5 «.C 4.0 5.9 *.0  5.9 ».C 5.9 ».0 5.9 ..0  »-6 2-7 2-5 1-1  5-5 1-7 .-4  *-5  1-4  «-l  •-• *-t  1-7 1-4 • -4 • -2 •-! • -4 • -1 • -1 • -1 1-1 1-1 •-• •-•  5.2 2-8 5.1 2-6 4.2 »-7 2.0 »-3 2. 6 1-4  1.5 *-3 1.2 .-3 1 . 1 »-3 2.4 »-5  ASPEN -  PLOT  NUMBER  ST N O .  e  54 55 56 57 58 59 60  Table  LINNAEA BOREALIS CORNUS CANAOENSIS RUBUS PUBESCENS ARAL IA NUDICAULIS PYROLA SECUNDA MERTENSIA PANICULATA MI TELL A NUDA LATHYRUS OCHROLEUCUS VIOLA RENIFOLI A PYROLA A SARIFOLIA MA IANTHEMUM CANAOENSE EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM GALIUM BOREALE ACTAEA RUBRA PYROLA CHLORANTHA VACCINIUM V I T I S - I O A E A PE TA SITE S PALMATUS CALAMAGROST IS CANADENSIS GOODYERA REPENS HARENARI A ORBICULATA ASTER CILIOLATUS FRAGARIA VIRGINI AN A CORALLORHIZA TRIFI DA EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM V I C I A AMERICANA GALIUM TRIFLORUM EQUISETUM SCIRPOIOES GEOCAULON LIVIDUM LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM AMELANCHIER A L N I F C L I A CALYPSO BULBOSA C I NNA LAT IFOLIA EQUI SETUM ARVENSE EQUISETUM PRATENSE FRAGARI A BRACTEATA LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM SMILACINA TRIFOLIA  6  10021003100410081013 I 0141020 I 0 3 7 1 0 4 0 1 0 0 7 1 0 1 5 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 9 1 0 2 6 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 3 1 0 3 8 1  SPECIES  PICEA GLAUCA 20 RIBES TRISTE 21 LEDUM GRCENLANOICUM PICEA MARIANA BETULA PAPYRIFERA SALIX 8E8BIANA 22 RUBUS IDAEL'S ALNUS TENUIFOLIA 23 RIBES GLANDULOSUM 24 SORBUS SCOPULINA 25 26 27 28 21 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53  BOREAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZCNE PAGE 2  WHITE SPRUCE  (continued)  SPECIES  i . i . i , i . f. i .  13. 13. 1 . 1 . | . I f •  ! ;  i 1  •  . •  •  1  I . I . 1 1. 1 f .1 I . 1 '. | . j . | . If.  1 •  .  | ;i  1  .  •  14. 1 4. 1 2. 14. 1 . 1 2. 1 f • 1 1. 1• . 12. 1 1. 13. 11. 1 •• 1 . 1 . 1 1. 12. 1 . I . I . 1 . I , I .  j . 1  •  1 2. 13. 1 3. 14. |f . 1 . 1f • 1f • I . 13. 1f • I . 1 . 1•. 1 . 1 . I . 1f • 1 . | .  i .  1 ••  I . I . If. I . I . 1 . I .  1 . •  i  i •.  i  1 3. 3. 1 4 . 4. 1 4. 4. f . 12. f . 1 . 4. 13. 1 4. 2. 1 • • 2. 1. 13. 1 • . 1 . 2. 1 . 3. 1 . 1. 1 . f . 1 . 1 • 1 . f . If.1 2. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •  . i •. i . i .21 i 1 . i . i*.i i l o l l 1 . i . i . 1l.fl . 1 .  | ;,' ;  i , i .  i i  . i . . i . i . i . i •. i . i . i . i • i •  1 1 I I 1 1  1  . . . . . .  1 . 1 11 .21 I . 1 I . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1  . . . . .  1  1  SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR  13.2 2 . 2 1 3 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1. . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1. . If. 1 . . 1 .  5.21 6.31 5 , 2 1 5 . 2 6 . 2 1 2 . 14.2 13 2 14 2 14.2 4 . 2 13. 1 3 . 1 1 f .114 2 1 4 . 2 4 . 2 I * . 13.114 .214 . 2 1 4 . 2 6 . 2 1 6 . 1 3 . 2 1 * . 211. 2 I f . 2 • . 2 1 . 1 1.11 . 13 21 2 . 2 3.21 1. 11.11 1 . 1 2 . 2 1.21 1 . 13. 113. 212. 2 1 1 . 2 2.21 . 1 . . 1 1 . 1 . I*.2 • .21 . 12.11 . 13 2 13.2 2 . 2 1 1 . 13.21 13. 2 1 1 . 2 1.21 . 1 . 11 .213 2 1 1 . 2 • .21 . 1 1 . 1 1 2 . 2 1 3 . 2 11.2 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*.2 • . 2 1 . | f . f | 2 . 21 . I*.2 •. 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 f • 2 • .21 . i f.ll 1 1 . •.21 . |f.l 1 1 . 1 . . 1. 1 f.f 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 12.f1 . 1 1 f .2 . 1 . U . 1 1 . 1 . 12.2 • . 2 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . • .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . . I*. 1 . 1321 2. 21 . . 1. I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1. I . I . 1 . 12.2 . 1. 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 11. 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  I . I . I . I . I . I  P  . 1 . i  . l" f 21 i . i . . n . I f .211 .2 f .21 1 . 1 . j . i .ii.n 1 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I 1 1 . I . I . I . 1 If 2 , 1 1 I . I . I . 1 | , I . I . I | 1 . . 1 I • .11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 | |  .  I t21  1 1. 2 1 3 . 3 1 4 . 2 1 1 2 | f . 214. 2 14 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 ) 4 . 2 1 4 , 215 2 12. 2 1 3 . 3 1 . 11 211 211 2 1 3 2 1 4 . 3 1 . 1 . 1 . If 2 1 • i2 1 1 . 2 I * . 2 1 1 .211 2 | f 2 1 1.1 1 3 . 2 1 . 1 11. 212. 2 | . 12.31 . 11 .211 212 2 11. 2 1 2 . 2 1 . 1 . If 21 . I • 2 1 1 . 3 1 1 . 2 1 1 2 l f . 211. 2 |• lll.2U.2l . I f21 . 11. 2 1 1 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . | , | f . 2 | f . 1 1 . 1 1. 2 | f . 2 11. 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • . 2 | f . 2 l . 11. 2 If 21 . 1 f •11 . I*.2I . I f . 21 | , 1 . 13.212 . 2 1 1 . 211. 2 I . I . I . If. 214. 2 1 . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . I f . 2 1 . 12. 2 1 . 12. 2 | 1 1 . 3 | f . 2 l f . 21 1 . 1 • .2 | f . 2 l . 1 . 1 1 . 2 If. 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 11. 1 . !•.21 . 1 1 . 1 <(•.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . j , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . If. 2 1 . 1•.21 , I f . 1 . 1 . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . i , 1 . 1 . 11. 21 . 1 , i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . j , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . i . 1 . I*.21 . 1 . 1 .  j ;  i.  . . .  I  . •  4, 21 . 4 21 . f 2 1 . f 21 . t .21 . t, 2 1 . 2. 21 .  KS  . 1 3 5 . 3 1.6 . 1 2 3 . 5f . 7 . 1 2 3 . 5f . C . 1 1 1 . 8f . 0 . 1 1 1 . 8• . C . 1 1 1 . 8• . 0 . 1 1 1 . 8• . 0 .1 5.9 f . C . 1 5.9 • .0 . 1 5.9 f.O  f-3 f-3 f-1 1-1 f-1 f-1 f-f f-. • -• •  . . . . .  f-6 3-5 f-4 f-6 f-3 f-4  1100.0 4 . 8 1100.0 4. 5 1 94.1 3.3 1 8 2 . 44 . 3 1 8 2 . 4 1. 2 . 1 7 6 . 52 . 5 . 1 7 6 . 52 . C . 1 7 0 . 61 . f j . 1 7 0 . 6 1.2 • 1. . 1 6 4 . 71 . 9 | , . 1 5 8 . 82 . 1 . 1 5 8 . 8 1.6 | m .21 . 1 . 1 5 8 . 8 1.4 f <2 1 . . 1 5 8 . 8f .2 f , 21 . . 1 47.1 f . 3 f .21 . . 1 4 1 . 21 . 1 | . . 1 3 5 . 3 1.3 j . 1 35.3 f . 7 1 2 1 . . 1 29.4• . 7 . 1 2 9 . 4f . 3 . 1 29.4 • . 1 . 1 1 7 . 6 • .0 j . f. . 1 1 7 . 6• . c | . . 1 17.6 f . C . 1 11.8• . 9 . 1 1 1 . 8«.C . 1 11.8• .0 . 1 1 1 . 8• . 0 . 1 5 . 9 1. 2 1 ." . 1 5.9 • .0 .1 5.9 • .C . 1 5.9 • .C | . . 1 5.9 • .0 j . . 1 5.9 f.C j . . 1 5 . 9 • .0 | ^ . 1 5.9 f. 0 1 • I . 1 5.9 f.O m  #  PS  f-4  »-3 f-3 f-3 f-4 f-3 1-3 • -1 f-2 f-3 f-4 f-2 f-2 f-2 f-2 f-1 • - • •- . 2-3 f- 1 *- • f 4-4 2-2 1-1 1-1 •- • f-f f-• • - • f  AS PEN -  PLOT ST  NUMBER  NO.  61 HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS 62 P T I L I U M C R I S T A - C A S T R E N S I S 63 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 64 nURH YNCHIUM PULCHELLUM 65 P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA 6 6 ' P S L T I G E R A CAN INA 67 PCLTIGERA PQLYDACTYLA 68 eR ACHYTHEC IUM ASPERRIMUM 69 DICR ANUM ACUTIFCLIUM 70 DICRAMUM FUSCESCENS 71 PLAGIOMNIUM CUSPIDATUM 72 OICRANUM UNDULATUM 73 BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 74 BRACHYTHEC IUM REFLEXUM 75 BRACHYTHEC1UM SALEBROSUM 76 CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM 77 CLAOINA AR BUSCULA 78 CLADINA RANGIFERINA 79 CLACONIA GRACILIS 80 OREPANOCLADUS UNCINATUS 81 JAMESONIELLA AUTUMNALlS 82 MARCHANTIA POLYMORPHA 83 MNIUM B L Y T T I I 84 PELT IGERA H O R I Z O N T A L S 85 P E L T I G E R A MALACEA 86 POHLIA NLTANS 87 P O L Y T R I C W M COMMUNE 88 RHYTI01ADELPHUS TRICUETRUS 89 TETRAPHIS PELLUCI DA 90 TORTULA MUCRONIFCLIA DW  92 93 94 95  Table  HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS P L E J R C Z I U M SCHREBERI PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS PELTIGERA CAN IN A CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM BRACHYTHEC IUM SALEBROSUM OICRANUM FUSCESCENS EURHYNCHIUM PULCHELLUM P Y L A I S I A POLYANTHA JAMESONIELLA AUTUMNAL IS MNIUM SPINULOSUM NEPHROMA RESUPINATUM BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPHYLLUM OICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM MERZOGIELLA TURFACEA  6  (continued}  WHITE G BLACK  1002 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 4 100810131 O H 1020 1037 1040 1007 1015 1016 1019 1026 1032 1033 10381  SPECIES  DH  91  BOREAL  WHITE SPRUCE  SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE  1  1  P  . • • . • • • • • • • • • •  1  1  1  1  ,  ANO VIGOR  1 6. 1 1 . 1 • • 1 2 . 13. 1 1 . 1 8 . 1 7. 17. 1 8 . 1 6 . 16. 1 8 . 1 . 1 . 12. 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 1. 1 7 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I 1 .1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 I . 1 5 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • . 1 • • 1 • 1 .1 1•• 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I». 1 . 1 . 11. 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 • 11. 1 1 . 11. 11. 1 . 1 . 1 •• 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 11. 1 . 1 . 1 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • . 1 . 1 • 1 .1 • 1 . 1 1. 1 . I . I . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 + . .1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • l+ . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 •• 1 . I . I . ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 ••1 • 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 .1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 •• 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 + . 1 • 1 . 1 .1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 •• 1 * i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I j • J • J • 1 • 1 • 1 •1 • 1 • 1 • t • . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I j • ' • j • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1•.1 . I . I . I.I 1 • t•. t • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 • i • 1 • 1 • I . I . I . I . 1.1 1 • 1 • 1 *• 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . t . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • I • 1 « 1 • 1 + • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 .1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I J • 1 • 1•. 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I.I ' • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 « 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 •• I . I . • j • I.I I • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1•• 1 . I.I ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 •. 1 • I . I 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1•• I . I . I.I • • 1 • j • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •• I . I . I.I • j • ' • ' • • • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 *•• 1 • 1 « 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I.I • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •• • 1 • I . I 1 . • • 1•. 1 • 1 • I • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . * ' * * ' * ' • 1 . • 1 • • • • 1 • 1 • I.I 1 . 11. 1 + • 1 I B . 1 . 1 +. 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 3 . 1 2 . 1 5 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 . 1 1. 1 • 1 • • 11-. 1 *• 1 1 . 1 4 . 14. 14. 1 *•• 1 +• 1 4 . 1 2 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • . 1 • • 1 2 . 1 . 1 * • 1 . 1 • • 1 . 1 4 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 • • 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 1. 1 . 1 . ' 11. 1 1. 1 1 . 1 • 1 +. 1 • • 1 • • 1 1 1 •• 1 •. 1 •• 1 . 1 . 1 1. I . I . I . 1 •• 1 • 1 •• 1 . 1 . 1 • . 1 • . 1 1 1 + • 1 • • 1 +. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • I + . 1 • 1 . 1 + • 1 • • 1 • . 1 « 1 • t • • 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 + • t • . 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 +. 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 •• 1 •• 1 • 1 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 *•• 1 . 1 • 1 + • 1 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 •• 1 • 1 1 1 . 1 •• 1 . i . 1 . i +• 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I+. 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 11. 1 • • 1 « 1 1 • 1 . 1 .1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 + • 1 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1*. 1 « 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I*. 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 • • i • 1 . t +• 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . I . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1*. 1 1 . 1 . 1 v 1 •1 • 1 •• 1 • 1 i . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 • • 1 . I . I . 1 • 1 • 1 + • 1 • • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 +. 1 . 1 . ft • J11 • •11 •• 11 • 11 1• . 1 . 1 . J . 1 •. 1 . 1 • 1 • i • 1 . 1 • t •• 1 •. i • 1 . 1. 1 •1 • 1 • 1 • 1 * . 1 .1 . 1 • 1 1 • 1 • . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 •1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 • • 1 . 1 .1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . i + . ; . 1 . 1 2. 1 2. | 11. 1 • • 1 1 • 1 »• 1 1 ••|•. 1 ' • 1 1 • I ' • ' • 1 1 •• J • 1 . t• • 1 1 • 1 1 •• 1 | +. 1 J • j • 1 1. 1 • • j • 1 ' • j • 11. 11. 11. 1 • ' •  1  1  SPRL'CE ZONe PAGE 3  1  MS  SS  1 9 4 . 15 . 7 1 7 6 . 53 . 3 1 5 2 . 92 . 3 1 4 1 . 2• . 0 1 3 5 . 3• 1 1 7 . 61 . 2 1 1 7 . 6• . 0 1 1 1 . 8• . C 1 1 1 . 8. . 0 1 1 1 . 8*.c 1 1 1 . 8• . 0 5.9 • .0 1 5.9 • . C 1 5.9 ..c 5.9 ..0 5 . 9 ».C 5.9 ».o 5.9 • .0 5 . 9 • .C 5 . 9 • .C 5.9 • .c 5.9 • .c 5.9 ..0  • -8 • -7  C  • -5  *-• •-i •-1  l-l  + -• •-• *- • •- T • -• *- T  *- N  • -  r  •v - -V » .0 • V .0 .c .c .c • - T . c +- +  5.9 f . C  5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9  • • • • 1 5.S • 5.9 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1  8 3 . 2• c 7 6 . 52 . 6 7 0 . 62.4 7 0 . 6» . 6 6 4 . 7• .1 5 8 . 8» . c 3 5 . 3• • C 3 5 . 3• • 0 2 9 . 4• . c 2 9 . 4• . 0 29.4 2 9 . 4* . c 2 3 . 5• . c 2 3 . 5t „ C 2 3 . 5« . c 2 3 . 5» „ 0  r -t »- i  •-V  • - 9  • -•» *- •  • - •» * -V •-i  ASPI'N - WHITE  PLOT NUMBER ST NO.  SPECIES  96 C LAD CNIA CCHROCHLCRA OREPANOCLADUS UNC!NATUS 97 ONCOPHORUS WAHL ENBERG11 PELTIGERA APHTHCSA PELTIGERA POL YDACTYLA POHLIA NUTANS. 98 PTILIDILM PULCMERRI MUM 99 CEPHALOZ IELLA DIVARICATA 100 CETRARIA JUNIPERINA 101 CLADONIA BOTRVTFS 102 CRCSSOCALYX HELLERIANUS DICRANUM UNDULATUM 103 HOMALOTHECIUM AENEUM 104 LEPIDOZIA REPTANi 105 LOPHOCULEA HE TEROPHYLLA 106 LOPHOCOLEA MINOR 107 LOPHOZIA VENTRICOSA 108 NEPHROMA HELVETICUM PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS P LAG IONM UM CWSPIOATUM 109 DICRANUM FRAG!LIFOLIUM BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUM 110 CLADONIA CONIOCRAEA 111 CLADON IA CORNUTA CLADONIA GRACILIS 112 OICRANUM POLYSETUM 113 EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUM 114 HOMALOTHECIUM FULGESCENS 115 LEPTOGIUM SATURNINUM 116 PELTIGERA EVANS I ANA PELTIGERA MALACEA 117 PL AGIOMN IUM DRUMMONOII 118 PTILIDIUM CIL1 ARE RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS 1 1 9 TIMMIA MEGAPOLITANA  Table  6  (nnnt.-f  OOHE AL WHITE  SPRUCE  10 0210C3I004100810131014102010371040 00710151016 01)10261032103310381 SPECIES SIGNIF CANCE AND V GOR .  C BLACK SPRuCT  1  i p  MS  . 1*. 1 e • I . I . 1*. I . I . 1 • 1 17.6• .0 *. 1 • 1 . « l . l . l * . l * . l . ! • 1 17.6• . 0 . 1 . 1 . • 1 • 1 1 1 * . 1 . 1 . 1 17.6* . c . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 17.6• .0 * . I*. 1*. . 1 . 1 . l . i * . I . I . . 1 . 1•• 1 17.6 *.c 1 • 1 . 1 • 1. 1 *• I . I . I . I*. . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I * . I . I . 1 17.6».o . 1 . 1 . l . i . I . j * . I . I . I . I . I . * . l . l . l . l * . l . 1 . 1 17.6* . o I . I . 1*. 1 . I*. 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 11.8• . c I . I . I . i . i . i * . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I*. . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 11.8• . 0 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • I . I * . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . 1 11.8' . C I . I . I . I*. 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • . 1 » 1 • 1*• 1 • 1 • 1 •1 11.8. . c I . I * . I*. I . I . I . I . I . I. . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 11.8- . 0 1 . 1 * * 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . • • l . i . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 11.8«.c I . I . I . I * . i . r . i . i . i . • I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . 1 11.8• .0 i * . I . I . i . j . j . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . • I . i . i * . I . I . 1 . 1 11.8* . c I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 *. i • • i . i . i * . I . I . I . 1 11.8* . c I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . • 1. | . . 1 . 1 . I*. I . I . I . 1 11.8• .0 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 11.8* . c . 1 • 1 •• . I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • I . I . 1 11.8».c . I . l . l * . l * . l . l . . l . i . i . i *. i . i • i • i . i . i . i . . i • i . i * . i . i . i . 1 11.8• .0 . I . j . . I . I . i . i . i . i . 1 5.9 * . c i . i . i . i . ii. i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . i . • 1• 1 . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.o I . I . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . . 1 *. 1 . . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1. 1 5.9 • .0 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . c i . i . i « i . i . i . I . I . i . . 1 . I*. . i . i . I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 • • 0 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I * . • I . I . 1 5.9 * . c 1 . 1 . 1 . I. I . I . I. I. I. • 1 • 1*. . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.c 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 * . 1 . • l . i . < i . i . I . I . I . i . 1 5.9 • .0 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . • I * . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.c I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . *. 1 . 1 • . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 • .0 I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . *. i • i . I . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 5.9 • .0 . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . . 1 . 1*. 1 5.9 • .0 . 1 . 1 . i . i . i . i • i . i . i . i . i . 1 5.9 * . 0 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • r • i * . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . o I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . • 1 * !*• . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . c i . 1 . 1 . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . l . i .  I I I I  . . . .  I I I I  . . . .  I I I I  . . . .  tOUf  p/w,; < ,  RS  «-*  «-.  • • -• «-*  . -» *-» •  .- , • -« • -* • -• *-*  *-. <  •- • I- I  »-»  «-* *-* *-* *-« »-• • »-*  *-» *-* *-* •-•  BOREAL WMlfE t bCXcKl" SPRUCE ZONE  SOUTTHEMTCSL. ANALYSIS (l-HACTION <2MH1 TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALtNTINE (19711 'PLOT—"2'TJPTHrC GTTflTY CUVTSCL SAN NO  HORIZON  2- 0 21 2 - '" 2  LFH AHF. DT  2- 4  PLOT  C KGJ  PH H20  006-000 000-016 5.6 0 1 6 - 0 0 G~~5 V 6 000• 7.3  CM.  TOT.C  TOT .N X  0 1 2 4  PLOT  LFH At DT CK  92 . 1 53.40 C .9 o «ba 0. 74 1.3 1 .5 0.86  TOT .N 2. 08 7 0. 08 0 . 08  HOP IZ0K1 5AM. DEPTH H20 (CM. )  -4-—0~-~ XTH  00^"-0~OC AEJ 000-013 DTGJ OIJ-052 CG 052- »  4- 1 4- 2 4- 3  25. 7 7. A . 9.3 10. 8  TOT .N X  C7R RAT 10  1.6 1.1 1.9  0.93 0.65 1.10  TV34'~ 0.13 0.13 0.11  e ORTHIC GRAY LUV1SOL  SAM NO  HORIZON AE BT CK  Table  7  SAM. PH DEPTH H20 (CM. ) 000-005 4.6 005-04S 4.7 0 4 5- • 7.4  C.E.C. MEQ/100 20.30 "14.40" 6.30  BASE SAT.  'MOIST  xS x s ! XC  80.5 10YR42 I0YR33 12 45 41 SIC_ ~ "9 1 . 7 ' 10YRS2 'I0YR43 "9'54 36 SICL 100.0 10YR52 10YR42 14 72 13 SIL «  P PPM-  126 014 005 002  EXCH. CAT. MSO/lOO GM C.E.C --'-—-----MEQ/1 0 NA K GM 65. 00 10. 87 0 . 0 3. 62 88.00 5.2j 1 .26 0 .02 0. 4 J a . 20 1 1.88 3 . 30 0.05 0 . 87 18. 10 1 1.50 2. 69 0.09 0. 35 9.40  BASE SAT" X  COLOR  TEXTURE. XS XSI XC  90.5 S3.5 89.0 100.0  10YH73 10YR53 10YR63 10YR43 10YR62 10YR42  BASE SAT X  DRY  18 55 25 t o 36 53 1 78 20  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  CM. TOT.C X X  5.6 92.3 53T4TJ  5.1 4.9 4.7  C/N TTATIO""  0 •0  « DEGRADED EUTRIC DRUNISOL  5AM NO  PLOT  6.3  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  PTH  6.2 6. 3 7.6  P PPM  11 .00 3.22 0.06 1 .56 ~ 9.62" '2.81 0.05" " 0.72" 19.12 0 . 26 0.76 0.10  TOT.C "X—  D"F _ G0C-0I6 016-040 048•  C/N RAT I O  1.  SAMi 009-000  Page  SIKANNI-TrRRAIN SYSTEM  ?'.  3 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL  SAM HORIZON "NO" 3J33-  SAM. DEPTH (C.M.I  ""  "39.9 7.2 5.0 10.0  P PPM 104 023 00S 005  EXCH. CAT. M5O/100 GM CA  MG  38.75 3.50 5.00 4.87  "7.37 1.29 2. 64 2.78  NA 0.0 ~"2.'62" 0.04 0.55 0.05 0.46 0.07 0.41  c.e.e. MEO/100 GM """79.00— 10.00 . 12.10 13.50  53.9 67.4 60.3  COLOR MOIST  10YR62 10YR51 I0YRS2 10YR42 10YR41 10YR32  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 32 49 18 SIL 16 51 32 SICL 26 39 34 CL  BUCKINGHORSE TERRAIN SYSTEM O.M. TOT.C X X  TOT .N X  0. 69 0.44 0.78  0.05 0.04 o.oe  1 .2 0.8 1 .3  C/N RATI 0  P PPM  13.8 013 11.0 004 9.8 005  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM 2.50 6.62 12.37  0.60 0.0 2 2.51 0.07 2.83 0.06  0. 10 0. 27 0.24  C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM 8.40 16.70 15.30  BASE SAT X  DRY  38.4 56.8 100.0  10YRT2 10YR62 10YR62 10YR43 10YR52 10YR31  COLOR MOIST  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 20 57 22 SIL 6 35 58 C 25 64 9 J51L  1  SO 1L' CHEMICAL ANALYSIS {FRACTION <2MM)  ""DOREAX *M I TE' t UCKCVT SPRUCE ZONE  "  TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) PLOT 13 GLEYED ORTH1C GRAY LUVISOL HORIZON S A M . PH H2Q • DEPTH (CM.) 13- 1 LFH 5. 8 009-COC 1 3- 3 AS1 000-000 5.4 13- 5 A p 2 OO'J-OI 7 5.4 1 3- 7 IIT 0 17-04 3 5. 5 l 3-1 1 2CG 043-001 5.3  TOT .N X  P C/N RAT 1 O PPM  50 .50 1.80 1. 10 0 .57 0 .55  46 1 . 0. 10 0. 16 0.OB 0. 11  34.6 92 1 e. 004 3 6.9 057 7. 1 009 5. 0 004  TOT.C X  TOT .N  I. 791 .0 52.60 5.0 1.2 0. 72 4.3 C .8 0.44 4.6 e . 6 0.36 4.8 0 .9 0.53  1.25 0.07 0.06 0.05 0. 05  PLOT 20 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAW HORIZON SAM. PH C M . TOT.C NO DEPTH H20 X X (CM.)  TOT .N  SAW NO  C M . TOT.C X e7. 1  3. 1 1 .9 1.0 C .9  PLOT 14 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAM HORIZON SAM. PH C DEPTH H20 X NO (CM. ) 1 4- 0 14- 1 14- 2 1 4- 3 1 4- 5  LFH AE1 AE2 •T OTG  010-66S ooc-oos  005-020 02C-033 033-061  X.  EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM 56.75 5. 63 8.00 9.00 S.75  11.50 0.0 2.1 7 0.02 3.21 0 . 04 4 ,44 0 .05 4. 19 0. 09  42.2 90 52.50 10. 3 006 3. 50 7. 3 COS 3.00 7. 2 006 3.62 10. 6 01 1 12.37  15. 62 0.1 1 .12 0.02  1.07 0 . 04 2.07 0.09 8.44 0.24  X  C/N RATI 0  P PPM  EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM  2.02 0, ns  4.8 1 . 1 7. 1 1 .8  0.62 1.02  n. 07 0. 09  8.9 004 9.62 4.94 0.0 1 1. 3 007 1 0. 50 5.31 0.06  PLOT 27 GLEYCO ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL PH SAM HORIZON (I.M. TOT.C SAM. DEPTH H20 NO X X (CM. )  TOT.N X  37373737-  1 2 5 «  LFH »c A'J 8T CK  005-00C 000-009 009-019 01 9-0 54 054- *•  LFH ' 010-000'4.9 91 .0 52.80 1 .87 AE 000-023 4.8 3.? 0.97 BTGJ 023-050 4.9 1.7 1 . 1 0.64 IITG 050- + 4.7  k, Table  7  (continued)  2.37 0.17 0. 12 0. 20 0.64  C.E.C MEQ/100  BASE SAT  65.00 1 I .60 I 7. 40 1 7.60 17.80  C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM 64.00 7.20 7.00 1 1.90 14.50  84 . 9 70 .0 68.4 79.6 74.7  TEXTURE  COLOR  "DRY  —~WOTST~  10YR62 10YR42 1 0YR72 10YR41  10YR43 10YH32 1OYR53 10YH32  "TS XS"T—XC -  I 5 52 42 23 28 24 1 5 46  32 34 46 38  CL CL C SICL  TEXTURE  BASE SAT X  DRY  MOIST  XS ISI (C  100.0 67,0 60 . 4 50.3 100.0  10YR72 10YH72 10YR62 10YR52  10YR43 10YR43 10YR53 10YR41  1 5 60 24 SIL 29 52 18 SIL 6 51 41 SIC 4 3 2 67 HC  BASE SAT X  DRY  COLOR  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  5.2 92. 1 53.40 5. 0 1.9 1.08  1 2 3 4 6  1 .'37 0.30 0. 66 0.51 0.26 .  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM P C/N EXCH . CAT. MEQ/lOO GM RAT I 0 PPM K NA CA MG  CA MG NA 26.4 168 47.50 10.00 0.0 21. 6 008 3.62 0.96 0.0  202.0202020-  Page  SI KANNI TERRAIN SYSTtiM  I .39 0.11 0. 10 O.OB  C.E.C MEQ/lOO GM  " K 5.62 0.19 0.37 0.29  19. 10 1 1 . 50  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM C/N • P EXCH. C A T . MEO/100 GM RATIO PPM CA NA K MG  C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM  38.0 188 1 7. 0044 9. 7 088 8.0 00 3  38.75 5.50 4.00 6,00  7.37 0.9 1 .95 0 .03 1 . 80 0.03 4.37 0.07  3.25 0.40 0.30 0. 30  1 16.00 7. 10  127.00 18. 10 18.10 16.70  "  COLOR MOIST  54.5 67.5  10YR72 10YR62  78.5 100.0  10YR62 10YR42 10YR52 10YR32  DASE  COLOR  SAT X  DRY  39.0 43.5 33.8 64.4  10YR62 10YR42 10YR72 10YR52 10YR62 10YR42  MOIST  TEXTURE XS XS! XC  34 SI 14 SIL  TEXTURE  XS XSI XC 1 8 49 31 SICL 27 46 26 L 1 4 44 41 SIC  2  5PIL  CHEmeAL  A.MALV5I5 (rPttTIOH TERRAIN  PLOT  4 0 G L E Y E 0 ' ORTHIC'GRAY  HORIZON  SA X  NO 404040404040~40-  LFH A HE AS . AB aT HTGJ CKGJ  3" 4 5 6 7  7'CRTHIC  SAM  NO  77777-  0 1 2 3 4  PLOT  HORIZON  L H C  AS " An  BT CK 15 O R T H I C  S A M "~HOR  NO  1515IS1 5-  I 2  4  6  U  GRAY  V  I  SAM.  PH H20  L  DtPTH ( C M .  ~  TOT.C  X  TOT.N X  1.86 0 .07 0.05 0.03 0 .05  LUVISOL PH  )  TTTT G10-0CJ  000-C1 I 01 1-075 075•  H20 5.0  4.9 4.0 6.9  161616-  1 2  HORIZON  SAM, PH DEPTH H20 (CM, )  LFH 008-000 AE 000-017 nTGJ 017-052 ~Ci(Xi—052-  Table 7  5.0 5.3 5.3  BOREAL WHITE & tiLACK SPRUCE ZONE  A  N  N  C/N RATIO  I  X  X  9C.0  52.26  1.6 I.I 1.5  150 025 6 003  45.00 13.00 3. 75 8.25  11.1  005  .00  C/N  RATIO 27. 4 1 3.4 14. 0 7. 3 9. 6  P PPM  138 022 014 003 00 I  X  C/N  RATIO  0.90 0. »>2 0.86  1.37 0.06 0.03 0.07  38. I 15.0 20. 7 12.3  TOT.C X  TOT.N X  C/N RATIO  110  Oil 003 <1  92.1 1.6 1.6 1 . B  53.40  (continued)  0.91 0.91  1.44 0.07 0 . 10  37.1 13.0 9. 1  17.8  162 024 006  <l  6.07  MG  35. 00 3. 13 2 .87 2. 62 12. 12  6.62 0.22 0.68 0.63 2.47  1.52 0 . 35 0.47  C.E.C. MEQ/lOO  BASE SAT  141.00 30.90 13.80 10.50  41.9 . 63.6 42.2 100.0  S Y S T E M " " MEQ/LOO  NA 0. 0 0.02 0.02 ' 0. 02 0.09  GM  3. 50 0. 17 0. 16 0. 09 0.05  XS  XSI  XC  10YR32 10YH72 10YR62  10YR21 10YR62 10YR43  4 15 22  38 59 32  57 25 45  C SIL C  10YR52  10YR32  17  20  54  C  :  C.E.C MEQ/100  BASE  SAT X  GM  K  COLOR  COLOR  TEXTURE  DRY  MOIST  XS XS I XC  119.00 37.9 17.80 " 19.9 6.20 60.4 10.50 32.0 8. 50 100.0  10YR71 I0YR62 10YR63 10YR52  10YR52 10YR63 10YR54 10YR42  40 49 10 L. 40 44 14 L 78 5 15 SL 45 4 1 12 L  C.E.C. MEO/100 GM  SAT  DRY  129. 00 8.00 2 1 .30 17.50  45.3 55.2 63.4 9 2 .2  SYSTEM  EXCH.  CAT.  MG  CA 47.50 3.25 9. 12 11.50  7.87 1.00 3.94 4.28  MEQ/100 NA 0.0 0.02 0 . 0 70.07  GM" K  2.07 0 . 14 0.35 0.29  X  COLOR MO I S T  10YR72 10YR62 10YR62 10YR42 10YR52 I0YR32  TEXTURE XS  XSI  XC  33 40 26 L 24 32 43 C 12 40 47 SIC  SYSTEM  EXCH.  43,75 3.37 10.00 T5TZS  GM  0.07  CAT,  CA  CA  MEQ/100  11.50 0.0 5.15 0.03 1.67 0 . 0 5 4 . 5 0 -0 . 0 5  EXCH.  TERRAIN  P PPM  CAT.  TERRAIN  TERRAIN  P PPM  SYSTEM  EXCH.  35.9 17.0 9.9 9.4  SIKANNI CM. X  TERRAIN  P PPM  SIKANNI 0 . M.""TPT . C " T O T . N "  Page 3  (1971)  DUCKINGHORSE  PLOT 1 6 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAM NO  K  0.47 0.07 0.07  010-000 4.5 87. 9 51 .00 OOC-011 4.7 1 .f 0 .94 011-0 20 ~ ~5.'0'... ^ r — o .70"""' 020-063 5.2 C. A c .22 06 3• 7.6 0. 8 0 .48 GRAY  I  X  8.00 0.69 0.66  '  S  TOT.N  49.90  " O.M. X  VALENTINE O  X  LUVISOL  DTPTH (CM. )  S  TOT.C  H2Q  016-000 5.6 Et. 0 000-002 5.4 13.8 0 0 2 - 0 1 4 5 . 2 1 .2 014-020 5.0 1 .1 020-033 033-Jfc9 5.7 1.5 069- •  I Z O N " SAM'.'  AF DT CK  L  AFTER  PH  (CM. )  1 2  "PLOT  SAM. OEPTH  "  '  UUU)  SYSTEM  CAT, MG, 7.25 0.87 4.60 7737  MEO/100 ..NA 0.0 0.02 0.06 0 . 10  GM K  3.62 0.17 0.46 6.47""  C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM...  135.00 16.30  BASE SAT  _  X.. .  40.6 27.3  nrSc^"" 1  TEXTURE  COLOR ..DRY  MOIST-  10YR72  10YR53  10YH51  10YR32  _L.OY_R.62_10YB42  XS  XSI  XC  13  56  30  21  41  37  SICL  L2_2L2_5.7_£  CL  »  y 5 0 ! L CH?U!CAL  A N A L Y S I S (FRACTION <2MM) TERRAIN SYSTEM AF TFP VALENTINE  >  HORIZON S A M . D E P T H  (CM.  ~ 191 191 9 - ~ 3 ~ 194 197  Z  PLOT  0 0 4 - 0 0 0 000-005  5.3 4 . 9  DM2 CK CK  0 0 9 - 0 7 2 0 7 2 - 1 0 0 1 0 0 - +  4 . 7 7 . 5 B.O  2 6 O R T H I C  LFH AE AO " BT HC CK  26- 1 26- 2 26- •» 2 6-"" 262 6- 6 PLOT  NO  33 G L E Y E D  PLOT SAM NO  3333-  0 1 2 3 4 6  Table  HORIZON  OIPTH (CM.) oin-ooc 000-005 00 5-0 16 016-032 03 2 " - " >  C/N RAT I 0  P PPM  E X C H .  1 '.OB 0 . 1 2 C.03 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0.01  1  SAM. OCPTH  LFH 0 1 4 - 0 0 0 A HE RT) OO'j-010 OMGJ 0 1 0 - 0 2 3 BMKG 0 2 5 - 0 3 1 C K G 0 3 1 •  000-005  200 2 2 9 . 0 21 . B 0 2 6 1 2 . 3 "097""~~ ~ 057 008 9. 5 1 3 . 0  TOT  T O T . C X  «N  e. o  to  X  C/N RATI 0  6*0 91.0 52. 80 1. 25 5.0 2.7 1 .54 0. 12 6.0 1 .2 0. 69 C . 07 b. U I .2 C. 6 8 " (.'•06 7.7  1.7  0. 97  0. 10  P PPM  MA  T E R R A I N E X C H .  H20  1 14 017 007 J009  9.7 006 CHUATSE  HRUNISOL  —pn~  42. 2 12. 8 9.9 11.  "TTJT7C  -  -TTJTTKr X  X  • — C / N " R A T I O  5 0 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 5 . 5 0  ~~~Vi  7.5  1.2  E U T R 1 C  PH H20  53.40 2.20 1 .34  C . M .  TOT.C X  7.1 7.9  9 2 . 1 4 . 6 2 T 3 ~  5 3 . 4 0 2 . 6 4 I . 3 3  I. 1 1 . 3  0 . 6 2 0 . 7 3  MG  0.04  18. 0 009  1 1 .00" ~"3.65  CHUATSE . N X  C/N RAT I O  TERRAIN  P PPM  0 . 3 5  N A  K 2.75  02 0  9 3 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 4 . 6 0 3.60 2 . 0 0 0. 90  C . E . C . M E Q / 1 0 0 GM 7 3 . 0 0 21 . 7 0 18.00 5 0 "" 1 9 . 3 0 " 12.60  "0~.'oS  0.3b  130.00 57.00 8 . 40  0 . 2 7 "  — 1 0 . 5 3 "  SYSYLM  E X C H .  C.E.C.""* MEQ/ 100 GM  0 . 4 7  X  3 1 2 3 1 0 1 0  3 9 0 3 0 0  TEXTURE  COLOR  B A S E SAT  DAY  . 3 . 5 . 2 . 9 . 0 . 0  7 7 7 7  MOIST  10YR52 . S Y R 5 3 . S Y R 5 3 . 5 Y H 5 3 . 5 Y R 5 2  10YR31 7 . 5 Y R 4 7 . S Y P 4 7 . 5 Y R 4 7 . 5 Y R 4  3 3 2 2  XS  XSI  X C  9 6 94  2 4  1 0  COLOR  B A S E SAT X 9 3 5 ~ ' 8  3 8 2 5  DRY  . 7 . 6 . 5 . B~  S S  • »  too.o  TEXTURE  MOIST  X S X S I  X C  10YR63 10YR53 10YR73 10YR53 ~ 1 0 Y R 6 3 ' ~ 1 0 Y R 5 3 ~ " 1 5 " 2 9 " 5 4" C " 10YR31  "OASE"" SAT X  10YR41  5  7 9  1 4  COCDK  S I L •  32.1 1 4 . 7 1 0 0 . 0  Tooro  -  TEXTURE  DRY  MOIST  X S X S IX C  10YR43 1 0 Y R 5 3  10YR32 10YR43  1 3 5 6 2 9  10YR42"10YR32"  "16~*7"36  S I C L  S ICL*"  ^~ COLOR  C A T . MEO/100 G M MG  N A  5 3 . 9 2 1 2 9. 0 0 0 5 16.6 003  31 . 2 5 8. 00 5TT5  S . 7 3 0 . 0 5 . 1 2 0 . 2 0 4 . 5 7 0.1 7  62 20 0 . 17  0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5  1 2 . 4 1 4 . 6  7.25 1 1 . 5 0  4.4b 4.35  0. 0.  0 . 0 0 . 2 5  ""DRY  K"  C.99 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 6 '  0 0 3 0 1 0  C . E . C . M E Q / 1 0 0 GM  SYSTEM  32.50 6.50 5.50 2.37 7.25 3.42  TOT  K  E " X C H V " C A T V " M E O / T O ' O "G M "  39. 6 140 1 1.0 012 13. 4 004  BftUNISOL  N A  5 . 3 5 0 . 1 0  T E R R A I N  ~~CA 4 . 9 4 . 6 "5T4"  Page h  SYSTLM__  ' I . 35 0. 20 0. 10  0.72  2 . 3 7 . 0 . 1 4 "0.06" 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 2  1 5 . 2 5 0 . 0 3 . 0 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 4 5 3 . 5 5 0 . 0 0 . 3 5 5 0 " " ' 6 • 5 0 "0 '.' 0 5 0 .  1 4 . 5 0  — P " ~ PPM  k.  C A T .M E Q / 1 0 0 GM MG  CA  A. 3 V i . 1 4.6 3.8 5.5 2.3  M E O / 1 0 0 GM  5 . 0 0 3 . SO 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 7 0 . 6 3 0 . 6 3 ~ 0.22" 0.0" 0 . 7 5 0 .33 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 . 6 8 0 . 0 2 4 . 6 2 0 . 5 2  BUCKINGHORSE C M . X  CAT.  CA  CA  OCGRASEB  TCTMVT"  7  PH H20  E U T R I C  —Hwrzon—STTW;—  32- 'I"' ' LFH 32- 2 AHE 32- 3 OM1 32- 4 QM2 CK 32-" 7  31 . 3 0 2. 61 0 . 3 7 " 0.16 0 . 1 9 C. 13  L U V I S C L  309-000 000-009 009-0 19 Ol'y- 3 39" 039-050 050- •  3 2 OE GRADED  "SAM  ~33 3 3 3 3 3 3  GRAY  54.0' 4 . 5 C.6 0.3 0.3 0.2  4T6"  oos-orr  HORIZON SAM. DLPTH (CM.)  SAM NO  -TOT.N X  T O T . C X  I  LFH A HE  "BMI"  a  1 9 -  C M . X  PH H20  C BLACK ZONE  " " C H U A T S E ' T E R R A I N " S Y S T E M """  "PL0T~!V"DEGP5BED~"BYSTinr'-T3rroNT5CC" SAM NO  OOREAL « H I T E SPRUCE  (1971)  17 15  11 1 . 0 0 19.80  8 . 1 0 1 4 . 6 0  38.6 68.3 66.51 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0  TEXTURE  MOIST  XS*~X£I"X C "  10YR43  4 4 3 5 2 r2""6"F"2S~"5K.  StC  10YR53 10YR63  10YR43  ..X9.TR62...JP.Y.R4 2  14_6.5_J.9_._S I L..„*..  (continued)  -r o  SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (FRACTION <2MM) MUSKWA  PLOT 38- EuTRIC BRUNISOL SAM NO 3838333338-  1 2 3 * 9  Table  HORIZON  SAM. DEPTH  LFH AHE 8M BMK CK  011-000 000-006 006-016 016-039 039•  7  PH H20  O.M. TOT.C X  5.9 9C.0 4.6 7.3 6.0 3.0 7.7 0.8 7.7 2. 1  (continued)  52.20 A.23 1 .74 0.48 1.19.  TOT .N X 1 .09 0. 15 0.11 0 .04 0.08  C/N RATIO 47.9 28.2 15. 8 12.0 14, 9  Page 5  DORSAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZONE  TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) TERRAIN SYSTEM P PPM 184 004 004 002 003  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM 56.25 11.25 0 .0 9.75 3.77 0 • OS 1 1 . 25 3. 10 0 .03 7.00 1 .22 0 .0 12.00 3.52 0 .0  3.75 0.40 0.25 0. 15 0.40  . C.E.C. MEQ/IOO  BASE SAT  175.00 28.60 17.00 10.30 15. 10  40.8 49.0 86.0 81 .3 100.0  COLOR  1 0YR42 10YR53 10YR43 2.5Y52  10YR22 10YR43 10YR33 10YR22  31 30 38 CL 39 39 21 L  F i g . 10 Fort Nelson, Luvisol.  Populus t r e m u l o i d e s . a l o n g the A l a s k a Highway n e a r g r o w i n g on a m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d O r t h i c G r a y  F i g . 11 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h r u b d e v e l o p m e n t d o m i n a t e d by V i b u r n u m e d u l e , R o s a a c i c u l a r i s and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t by Shepherdia canadensis. The t r e m b l i n g a s p e n i n t h i s p h o t o r e a c h e d a h e i g h t o f 32m a t 105 y r s w i t h a 38cm d b h .  ^3 Aspen - W h i t e  Spruce  Fig. 12 A l m o s t p u r e P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s f o r e s t n o r t h o f Fort Nelson. These f o r e s t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of moderatelyw e l l drained s i t e s .  Fig. 13 P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s w i t h P i c e a g l a u c a understory. P o p l a r H i l ] s w e s t of F o r t N e l s o n .  i n the  kk  Aspen  - White  Spruce  F i g s . Ik & 1 5 The s p r u c e v a r i a n t o f t h e A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d on D e g r a d e d E u t r i c Brunisols. N o t e t h e p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d h e r b and s h r u b l a y e r s .  **5 Aspen - White Spruce  F i g s . 16 & 17 O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l , ( p l o t s ) t y p i c a l of t h e aspen v a r i a n t . This i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e mesic s o i l of t h e s t u d y . Below i s a Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l developed from f l u v i a l parent m a t e r i a l s of t h e Chuatse T e r r a i n System. T h i s s o i l supports the spruce variant,  m  I  h6  Plant Association  1  Aspen - White Spruce  Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - Linnaeo ( b o r e a l i s ) A r a l i o ( n u d i c a u l i s ) - Viburno (edulis) P o p u l o ( t r e m u l o i d i s ) - P i c e e t u m glaucae  The  Aspen - White Spruce ecosystems, occur on mod-  e r a t e l y w e l l drained and  s i t e s i n the uplands around F o r t N e l s o n  occupy submesic t o mesic ( t o s l i g h t l y s u b h y g r i c ) s i t e s i n thi  study area ( F i g . 9 ) . A l l the stands studied fire. ing"  originated after  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n can thus be considered climatic fire  as a " p u l s a t -  c l i m a x w h i c h , i n t h e c l e m e n t s i a n sense,  i s a s u b - c l i m a x . Without f i r e , t h e r e  are strong  indications  t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n would change t o one dominated by spruce, where t h e s o i l would d e v e l o p a more a c i d i c humus and more h i g h l y i m p o v e r i s h e d mineral  horizons  during natural succession.  S o i l s of t h e  Aspen - White Spruce ecosystem a r e p r i m a r i l y O r t h i c  Gray  L u v i s o l s a l o n g w i t h some Degraded E u t r i c and D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s .  Vegetation  Generally  t h i s association i s characterized  d e v e l o p e d t r e e , s h r u b , and herb l a y e r s .  by w e l l  The moss l a y e r v a r i e s  k  7  c o n s i d e r a b l y i n development, b e i n g governed by t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e t r e e l a y e r ; i e . whether deciduous  The  or c o n i f e r o u s .  A-^ s u b l a y e r i s g e n e r a l l y dominated by P o p u l u s  t r e m u l o i d e s and P i c e a g l a u c a w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l P i n u s c o n t o r t a ( p r e f e r a b l y i n sandy and i m p o v e r i s h e d  s o i l s ) and Populus  balsamifera (prevailingly i n r i c h s o i l s ) . follows i n the  A similar pattern  l a y e r , i n which t h e e f f e c t of shade on  shade i n t o l e r a n t t r e e s i s n o t y e t v e r y s t r o n g . l a y e r , Picea glauca i s often s t i l l i n t h e upper shrub l a y e r . and P i c e a mariana  I n t h e A^  the dominant t r e e as i t i s  B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a , Populus  tremuloides,  a r e o f t e n p r e s e n t i n the A-^ layer„ However,  P i n u s c o n t o r t a and Populus  b a l s a m i f e r a are mostly  absent.  Alnus c r i s p a and S a l i x bebbiana a r e two common s h r u b s , a l o n g w i t h P i c e a g l a u c a i n t h e upper shrub l a y e r .  In the B  2  layer  Viburnum e d u l e and Rosa a c i c u l a r i s were p r e s e n t i n 100$ o f t h e 17 p l o t s , b o t h w i t h h i g h s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s Shepherdia  canadensis  and Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a  (in d r i e r s i t e s ) , Ribes  (5.1).  oxyacanthoides,  ( i n w e t t e r s i t e s ) a r e p r e s e n t i n more  than h a l f t h e s t a n d s examined. L o n i c e r a d i o i c a , and Amelanchier f r e q u e n t l y present i n the B  A l t h o u g h Populus  p  Alnus c r i s p a , Populus a l n i f o l i a are other  tremuloides, shrubs  l a y e r (more t h a n ho% of t h e t i m e ) .  t r e m u l o i d e s i s p r e s e n t from t h e  low shrub l a y e r t o t h e A-. l a y e r i n many s t a n d s , a l l stems  examined a r o s e from s u c k e r s from the r o o t s of aspen t r e e s . These s u c k e r s a r e not ever v i g o r o u s enough t o r e p l a c e t h e p r e s e n t cover o f aspen t r e e s even a f t e r t h e s t a n d opens up. D i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d  i n l o c a t i n g aspen s t a n d s w h i c h a r e  b r e a k i n g up from o l d age and t h e r e f o r e t h e u l t i m a t e f a t e of t h e s e s u c k e r s was not d e t e r m i n e d .  Populus  tremuloides i s  w e l l known as a shade i n t o l e r a n t p i o n e e r s p e c i e s and i s gene r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a v e r y t r a n s i e n t s p e c i e s i n t h e absence (Raup, 19^6; Moss, 1953;  of f i r e  Hansen and Kurmis, ^  e  Pi  c  e  a  Hortbn,  1965;  1972 and many o t h e r s ) .  g l a u c a growing  Maini, 1968;  On t h e o t h e r hand,  under t h e main canopy appeared  r e l a t i v e l y v i g o r o u s and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d r e p l a c e t h e i n i t i a l Populus  tremuloides i n succeeding stands.  Picea glauca i s  c o n s i d e r e d as the dominant h y p o t h e t i c a l c l i m a x s p e c i e s on mesic s i t e s i n t h i s s t u d y . many of t h e stands p o s i t i o n i n the  The presence  o f P i c e a mariana i n  i n d i c a t e s that i t w i l l probably share a  climatic  trees there i s evidence  climax  stand.  of m o r p h o l o g i c a l  I n some s p r u c e characteristics,  i n t e r m e d i a t e between w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e , t h a t  indicate  h y b r i d s are p r e s e n t .  Young t r e e s e e d l i n g s were g e n e r a l l y n o t found i n the herb l a y e r of t h e sample p l o t s from any of t h e t r e e s p e c i e s of t h e a r e a .  T h i s absence of s e e d l i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t none  of t h e s p e c i e s a r e adapted t o take over as c l i m a x s p e c i e s  1*9  of the  T h e r e f o r e , i t i a normal i y f i r e  t h e comrun3 ty.. forest  stands.  f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new  Many o f t h e s p r u c e t r e e s  a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h appeared  with the findings  s p r u c e and  opens  aspen  i n the u n d e r s t o r y of t h i s  t o be y o u n g w e r e ,  •20-30' y e a r s o f t h e d o m i n a n t  which  overstory.  when a g e d ,  within  This tends to agree  o f D i x and Swan (1971) f o r t h e C a n d l e  area of Saskatchewan  who  r e p o r t t h a t P i c e a g l a u c a and  Lake  P. 20  m a r i a n a a r e a b l e t o r e p r o d u c e b e n e a t h a canopy f o r about years after in the  initial  forest  t h e canopy a r e t a l l light  a f t e r 20  which are l i t t l e  The  shade  new  i s dominated  secunda, M e r t e n s i a n a panicu1 ata,  of  ^.8  and  h.J  worsened.  Aralia nudicaulis,  and M i t e 1 1 a n u d a .  c a n a d e n s i s w e r e p r e s e n t i n 100$ and had  pyrola  Linnaea of the  high species significance values  respectively.  Hylocomium  s p l e n d e n s and  t h e moss l a y e r w i t h  s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s o f 5-7  and 3 . 3 -  and E u r h y n c h i i m r p u l e h e 1 1 urn  a r e two o t h e r mosses  P.  trees,  by L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s .  c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s dominate  present.  evidently  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of these  c a n a d e n s i s , Rubus p u b e s c e n s ,  communities examined  l e v e l are  trees  tolerant.  herb l a y e r  b o r e a l i s and C o r n u s  When t h e  y e a r s of growth,  c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e ground  T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t impedes  Cornus  establishment.  Ptilium  respective  Pleurozium schreberi frequently  Commonly o c c u r r i n g l i c h e n s a r e P e l t i g e r a a o h t h o s a  c a n i n a , and F. p o l y d a c t y l a ,  g e n e r a l l y w i t h low  ?  significance  50  values.  I t is q u i t e  understandable  l a y e r may w e l l d e v e l o p and  especially  under a s p r u c e  Three  variations  a s s o c i a t i o n which  In  (at least  100 y e a r s a f t e r  o f t h e Aspen - W h i t e  fire)  Spruce  c a n be r e c o g n i z e d a r e :  v a r . populosum t r e m u l o i d i s  b)  v a r .betulosum  c)  v a r .piceosum 6., t h e f i r s t  7 belongs  this moss ( g r o u n d )  canopy.  a)  table  no.  i n time  that  (aspen  papyriferae (birch glaucae  9 plots  variant)  (white spruce  variant)  belong t o t h e aspen v a r i a n t ,  t o the birch variant  to t h e white spruce v a r i a n t .  variant)  and t h e l a s t  7 plots  plot  belong  The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e  variants  occur i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e development of t h e v e g e t a t i o n  layers.  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a s p e n and b i r c h v a r i a n t s  developed compared value 37$,  moss l a y e r  on humus  t o t h e v/hite s p r u c e v a r i a n t  of 60$.  developed  layer  than that  of  21$).  i s 73$)  cover  i s better  o f t h e w h i t e s p r u c e v a r i a n t w i t h an L i k e w i s e t h e a s p e n and b i r c h  h a v e a much b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d B layer  as  cover value o f  o f t h e a s p e n and b i r c h v a r i a n t s  c o v e r v a l u e o f o n l y 17$.  of  of  w i t h an a v e r a g e  C o n v e r s e l y , w i t h an average  t h e herb  separated  (average coverage  have a . p o o r l y  shrub  layer  (average  average variants  coverage  t h a n does t h e w h i t e spruce v a r i a n t  (average  T h e b i r c h v a r i a n t , r e p r e s e n t e d b y o n l y one p l o t  was  f r o m t h e a s p e n v a r i a n t m a i n l y on t h e l a c k o f P o p u l u s  t r e m u l o i d e s and s m a l l amount o f P i c e a g l a u c a w h i c h was f o u n d only  i n the B  2  layer.  Additionally,  the birch variant lacked  51  s e v e r a l o t h e r s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e common i n t h e o t h e r v a r i a n t s , however, one p l o t does n o t a l l o w f o r any t r u l y comparison.  meaningful  I t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t l i t t e r developed  from  d e n s e l y d e p o s i t e d s p r u c e n e e d l e s keeps m o i s t u r e r e q u i r e d for  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of mosses.  litter  i s formed  The  T h i s i s not the case where  by deciduous  angiosperms.  presence and abundance o f c e r t a i n s p e c i e s can  be used as d i f f e r e n t i a l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e aspen and w h i t e s p r u c e v a r i a n t s .  The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s a r e more  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e aspen v a r i a n t ;  S a l i x b e b b i a n a . Cornus  s t o l o n l f e r a , and A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s p e c i e s s u c h as Rubus pubescens and A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e aspen b u t g e n e r a l l y not t h e spruce v a r i a n t .  S p e c i e s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e w h i t e  s p r u c e v a r i a n t a r e P i c e a m a r i a n a , Led urn  groenlandicum,  P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i , and P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s . . s p e c i e s a r e f a v o u r e d by d e c a y i n g wood, e s p e c i a l l y c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s , r e m a i n i n g on t h e ground e l i m i n a t e d by n a t u r a l t h i n n i n g p r o c e s s e s .  These  from  a f t e r f i r e , or Hylocomium  s p l e n d e n s a l s o has a much h i g h e r s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e in  t h e s p r u c e v a r i a n t than i t does i n the aspen v a r i a n t .  On t h e t e r r a c e s above t h e L i a r d R i v e r i n t h e N o r t h 'West T e r r i t o r i e s , J e f f r e y (196 0 d e s c r i b e d s i m i l a r L  plant  52  communities.  The v e g e t a t i o n  from f i v e of J e f f r e y ' s " T e r r a c e  ecosystem t y p e s " can be d e s c r i b e d  as one p l a n t  w h i c h can be c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n .  association  t o the F o r t N e l s o n Aspen -  The aspen v a r i a n t  i s equivalent  t o the f o l l o w i n g of J e f f r e y ' s u n i t s : C6. on sandy C7.  T r e m b l i n g aspen - v/hite b i r c h f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , loam. T r e m b l i n g aspen f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on c l a y  C I O . T r e m b l i n g aspen f o r e s t , h i g h The s p r u c e v a r i a n t  i s equivalent  loam.  terrace.  to Jeffrey's units:  C2.  Mixedwood f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on n e u t r a l  C3»  Mixedwood f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on s l i g h t l y a c i d  There i s no e q u i v a l e n t  plant  loam.  a s s o c i a t i o n described  sand.  by J e f f r e y  f o r l o w e l e v a t i o n f o r e s t s o f t h e Mackenzie Mountains i n t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s .  The a s s o c i a t i o n most c l o s e l y resem-  b l i n g t h e Aspen - White Spruce i s J e f f r e y ' s "low e l e v a t i o n mixed c o n i f e r o u s  f o r e s t " , however,  i n t h e Mackenzie Mountains where exceed 20 m e t e r s .  t r e e growth i s much p o o r e r  S.I.^QQ  g e n e r a l l y does n o t  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s northern plant  i s much p o o r e r i n s p e c i e s  association  i n the herb and s h r u b l a y e r s .  Soils  Most s o i l s of t h e Aspen - 'White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n a r e O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s " , many, of w h i c h  correspond  d i r e c t l y t o the  T e r r a i n System d e s c r i b e d organic  s o i l s , the  of t h e  Sikanni Series  by  Sikanni  Valentine s e r i e s are  Fort Nelson area covering  Valentine.  The  8.8%  of  (1971). the  System, correspond  Apart  of t h e  alluvial  fan, a l l soils  and  Luvisols. are  The  moister  as  found  of V a l e n t i n e ' s has  Eutric Brunisols  developed  from s i l t y  Buckinghorse shales  developed  soil  remnants of b u r i e d  eventually coarser 19,  on  evolve  textured  not  described  Gray  Gray  any  above  of t h e  Chuats  Degraded  loams d e p o s i t e d  over  System.  i s a Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l  loam a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t  which  LFH  horizons  i n the  fine  textured  m a t e r i a l s , Cumulic  profile.  had  This  a l l u v i a l deposits  s u c h as  eventually  O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s developed  the  sand  soil  Regosols  i n t o Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s w h i l e  Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s  most o f t h e  Orthic  i n the Chuatse T e r r a i n  o f p l o t 33  from a s i l t y  indicates that  on  T r a i l Series  Valentine  The  an  on D e g r a d e d E u t r i c  w e l l as  T e r r a i n System.  the  on  Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s mentioned  versions  Apart  a s p e n v a r i a n t were O r t h i c  s p r u c e v a r i a n t was  Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s  Terrain  Fort Nelson S e r i e s .  Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l w h i c h occurred  The  by  Aspen - W h i t e  f r o m one  Luvisols.  from  a r e a mapped  the Buckinghorse  to Valentine's  of the  Sikanni  most common s o i l s  O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of the  S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h o c c u r on  the  on  in plot  develop. from s i l t y  Since loams,  5^  it  i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect  Eutric Brunisols w i l l Luvisols.  Jeffrey  t h a t t h e above mentioned Degraded  e v e n t u a l l y develop  (196h)  i n t o O r t h i c Gray  r e p o r t e d Gray L u v i s o l s developed  f r o m a l l u v i a l sands on t e r r a c e s above t h e L i a r d R i v e r and V a l e n t i n e (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t numerous t h i n B t h o r i z o n s sometimes developed  i n lower sand h o r i z o n s making B r u n i s o l i c  Gray L u v i s o l p r o f i l e s i n some s o i l s which were n o r m a l l y Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s . L u v i s o l s were found  However, i n t h i s s t u d y , no Gray  d e v e l o p i n g from s a n d s .  F o r the area  around F o r t N e l s o n , t h e s o i l best c h a r a c t e r i z i n g mesic d i t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m o d e r a t e l y Gray L u v i s o l d e v e l o p i n g f r o m s i l t y  well-drained Orthic  loams, even t h o u g h , as  mentioned above, o t h e r s o i l s c a n occupy t h i s  The  con-  position.  pH of LFH h o r i z o n s of O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s  averages 5 . ^ and a l t h o u g h t h e c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i s h i g h ( a v g . of 108 meq/100 gms) base s a t u r a t i o n i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h ( a v e r a g i n g 63%) m a i n l y due t o h i g h amounts of Ca and Mg i n t h i s h o r i z o n .  The amount of a v a i l a b l e  phosphorus i s a l s o h i g h i n t h e humus a v e r a g i n g 13^ ppm. B e n e a t h t h e humus l a y e r , t h e pH d e c r e a s e s  s h a r p l y i n t h e Ae  h o r i z o n ( a v g . 5 * 0 ) and t h e n i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h  (avg. of  5 . 2 i n t h e B t ) u n t i l i t becomes n e u t r a l , a v e r a g i n g 7 . 1 i n the Ck h o r i z o n .  The c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i s l o w e s t i n  the Ae of t h e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s even though i t has a s l i g h t l y  55  higher  average o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t than the B t .  c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y  (C.E.C.) i s p r o b a b l y due  This  low  t o removal  of the c l a y s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e h i g h l y t o the exchange complex. The  d e p o s i t i o n of c l a y s i n the Bt i s r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h t e x t u r a l  a n a l y s i s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the h i g h e s t  The  amount i n Bt  base s a t u r a t i o n of the Ae  f o r a l l horizons  (*+9.7$) i s a l s o l o w e s t  i n the p r o f i l e w h i c h i s due  t o the  of exchangeable c a t i o n s t o the l o w e r h o r i z o n s . s a t u r a t i o n of the Bt i s 7 0 . 7 $ , w h i l e the Ck 100$  due  m a i n l y t o h i g h amounts of Ca and  It  l y i n g Bt h o r i z o n .  Populus t r e m u l o i d e s  and  is generally Mg.  i s a species  through l i t t e r f a l l ,  f o r the h i g h pH of the humus.  t h e s e ecosystems, can be  counteracts  Thie average base  o n l y the Ae but a l s o the  c y c l e s l a r g e amounts of Ca and  in  leaching  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the humus o f t e n  a h i g h e r pH t h a n t h a t of not  responsible  horizons.  considered  Populus  as a s p e c i e s  a c i d l e a c h i n g of m i n e r a l s o i l s  has  under-  v/hich i s thought tremuloides, which  (podzolization)  t h e r e f o r e would h e l p keep the O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s i n  dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t . Populus tremuloides  The  favouring  by p e r i o d i c f i r e s s u p p o r t s the  t h a t the p r e s e n t O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s are the z o n a l of the a r e a under a f i r e  climax.  of  contention soils  56  There are  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t under an  environment  f r e e of f i r e , the z o n a l s o i l s would be the r e s u l t of podzolization processes.  This aspect i s discussed  later  in  the d e s c r i p t i o n of the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . The  d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a y e d i n ecosystem development  P i c e a m a r l a n a , P.  glauca,  and  Populus t r e m u l o i d e s should  considered i n f o r e s t r y practices in  s e l e c t i o n of t r e e  The variant  by  on these s i t e s , e s p e c i a l l y  species.  B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  have s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s  t o the O r t h i c Gray  of the humus tends t o be s l i g h t l y  and  has  horizon  a h i g h e r pH."  The  have lower c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s and and  therefore,  through spruce  spruce  Luvisols  e x c e p t t h a t the pH the Ck  be  sandy s o i l s , lower base  lower however, saturations  can be s u b j e c t e d t o p o d z o l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y litterfall.  57  • '• '  i j  PLANT ASSOCIATION 2 FLOODPLATJ) (YOUNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio  (splendentis) - M i t e l l o  (nudae) - E q u i s e t o ( p r a t e n s l s ) Viburno ( e d u l i s ) - Piceetum  - .  glaucae  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Conbination of Species  Constants (presence  Layer  > 60%)  Characteristic  characteristic  non - constants  >II  P i c e a glauca  Tree  Betula  Shrub  papyrifera  •  •  ,  .  Alnus t e n u l f o l i a  Ribes  Rosa a c l c u l a r l s  S a l i x monticola  .  lacustre  Viburnum edule Ribes  oxyacantholdes  Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a Ribes  Herb  trlste  Cornus canadensis  Clrcaea  Mitella nuda*  Matteuccia  Goodyera r e p e n s *  Cinna  Equisetum  Car ex deweyana  pratense*  alplna struthiopteris  latlfolia  Rubus pubescens  Thalictrum  Pyrola  asarifolia  Fragaria  virginiana  borealis  Aconitum  delphinifolium  Linnaea  sparsiflorum  Mertensia  paniculata  Delphinium glaucum  Equisetum  scirpoldes  Gymnocarpium  dryopterls  Brachythecium  reflexum  Viola renifolia Galium  trlflorum*  Calamagrostls canadensis  Moss  Hylocomium splendens Ptilium  Table.  8  crista-castrensis  .  .  58  FLOODPLAIN (YOUNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - M i t e l l o  (nudae.) - E q u i s e t o  ( p r a t e n s i s ) - Viburno ( e d u l i s ) - Piceetum glaucae  80  P l o t No.  75  39  300 720 305 3^5 58° hh > 58° 39' 58° ^9' 58° 39 122° • 122° 3>f • 123° 29' J2h° 11  Elevation i n M Latitude Longitude  22  21  720 58° 39'  720 58°39'  25  12h°13'  12h°lh'  72  71  305 305 58°39' . 58°39122° 32' 122° 32'  S  SW  Flat  Flat  E  Flat  Flat  Flat  1  2  1  1  1  1  1  1  ho  37  69  26  30 3P 20  30 20  ho  15* 20 20  65 20 38  38 22  18  8  35 20 0 15  75 22 60  35  25 0 25  30  30 12  • 25  33  26  25 15 18  23  20  18  C  78  Dh  59  78 52  7  ho  75 63 20  55 76 10  75 50 20  77 20 8  75 6  Dw  67 3 10  82 10  70 22  89 13  70  20 12 6if  -H 10 85  Exposure Slope Gradient  %  Percent coverage Total A A  A  A  l  2 3  Total B B  l  **  7  10 lh 28  lh  5  12 25 10  5  15  9  7  P l o t Coverage % Litter  81  Decaying Wood  11  Mineral S o i l Rock  Hygrotope Trpphotope Parent M a t e r i a l  Table  9  — —  5 15 73  —  — —  — —  — —  Subhygric Subeutrophlc  Hygric eutrophic Alluvium  2h  — —  —  —  FLOOOPLAIN PLCT  (YOUNG T E R R A C E ) WHITE  NUMBER  ST NO.  BOREAL  SPRUCE  |080|075|039|C25I022I021|C72I0711  SPECIES  SPECIES  1  1  SIGNIFICANCE  1  1  1  i  I  I  WHITE  1  C B L A C K S P R U C E ZONE PAGE 1  I  I  AND V I G O R  P  MS  RS  Al P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS TREMULOIOES P O P U L U S BAL SAM I F E R A  5.2 6.31 6.21 5.21 5.21 5 . 2 1 5 . 3 1 5 . 3 I . I . 13.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1  1 1 0 0 . 0 5.6 5 - t 1 1 2 . 5 1.1 3-3 1 1 2 . 5• .C 1-1  P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS TREMULOIDES POPULUS BALSAMIFERA  5.2 4 . 3 1 5 . 2 1 7 . 2 | 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 . 14.21 . 14.21 . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1  1 6 7 . 5 5.3 4-7 1 2 5 . 02.C 1-4 1 1 2 . 5 • .0 l - l  P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA ABIES LASIOCARPA  4.2 4.21 5 . 2 i 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4.2 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 . I . 1 3 . 2 1 . 1 2 . 3 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1  1 1 0 0 . 0 5.1 4-3 1 6 2 . 5 3.4 2 - s 1 1 2 . 5• .C 1-1  ALNUS TENUIFOLI A P I C E A GLAUCA BE TULA P A P Y R I F E R A S A L I X B E B B I ANA ABIES LASIOCARPA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA S A L I X MONTICOLA  4.2 5.21 4.2 . I 3.2 3.21  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  8 7.5 4.9 6 2 . 5 2.2 3 7 . 5 2.0 2 5 . 0• .2 1 2 . 5• .0 1 2 . 5 • .c 1 2 . 5».c  ROSA A C I C U L A R I S VIBURNUM EDULE RI BE S O X Y A C A N T H O I O E S CORNUS STOLON I F E R A RIBES TRISTc P I C E A GLAUCA S A L I X B E B B I ANA R I B E S LACUSTPE ABIES LASIOCARPA ALNUS T E N U I F C L I A SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS POPULUS BALSAMIFERA RUBUS IDAEUS BETULA RESINIFERA LONICERA DIOICA POPULUS TREMULOIOES AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA BETULA PAPYRIFERA R I B E S GLANDULOSUM R I B E S HUCSONIANUM  5.3 4.3 3.2 5.3 2.2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 0 0 . 0 5. C 1 0 0 . 0 4.9 7 5 . 0 2.7 6 2 . 5 4. C. 6 2 . 5 2.1 5 0 . 01.7 5 0 . 01.3 3 7 . 5 1.4 2 5 . 0+ .8 2 5 . 0• . 6 2 5 . 0 • .8 2 5 . 0• . 5 2 5 . 0 • .0 1 2 . 5 • .0 1 2 . 5• .0 1 2 . 5 • .0 1 2 . 5 • .0 1 2 . 5«.G 1 2 . 5 • .0 1 2 . 5 • .C  A2  A3  Bl  14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  22 CORNUS C A N A D E N S I S 2 3 M I T E L L A NUDA  II.111.211.21  I.I.I.I  . 12.21  I . 11.211.21 11.21 . I I . I . I 1.21 I . 11.21 . I  I. I  B2 9 10 11 12 13  13.215.214.214.215.21  • 3.  2.1 1.2  12.21  I. I I. I I. I I  214 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 3 1 2 1 5 . 2 15.2 1 1 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 21 1. 21 . I 1.21 . I 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 I 4. 2 I . I.I. 14.213.21 I 213. 211.213.21 . 1 . 1 I . I•.212.212.21 21 . 21 . I 2 1 * . 1 I I I 1.21 . 1 3 . 2 1 1 21 12.211.21 . I I . II21 . . I I . 12.21 11.21 I . 12.21 I. I  I.I.  I . I*.II I.I.I  I• I I  1*21 • I  I . I*.21 J I  11.2 I 1.21  I I  I*.21  4.2 1.21 5.21 4.21 5.21 5.21 1 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 4.3 3. 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 21 3. 2 1 4 . 2 I+.2 14. 2 I  1100.0 1100.0  •3 _ f  l-<. 2-i 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1  4-5 1-5 1-4 3-5 • -3 *-3 • -3 1-3 1-2 1-/ 1-2  • -? t-1 1-1 1-1 1-1  4.8 1-5 4.3 • - 5  M3 Table  10  UOREAL  FLOODPLAIN  PLCT ST  24 25  GOCOYERA REPENS EQUISETUM PRATENSE  27 26 20 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 29 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63  PYROLA ASARIFOLIA PUBESCENS LINNAEA BOREALIS MEPTENSIA P AN ICULATA EQUISETUM SCIRPOIOES VIOLA RENIFOLIA GALIUM TRIFLORUM C ALAMAGRCSTIS CANADENSIS CIRCAEA ALPINA PYROLA SECUNDA PYROLA CHLORANTHA MATTEUCCIA STRUTHIOPTER IS CINNA L A T I F O L I A VACCINILM V I T I S - I D A E A CAREX DEWEYANA ARALIA SUDICAULIS EQUISETUM ARVENSE ACTAEA RUBRA F RAGARI A VIRGINIANA THAL ICTRUM SPARSIFLORUM ACCNITUM DELPHI M F O L IUM EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE DELPHINIUM GLAUCUM GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS RUBUS ACAULIS C A R E * DISPERMA P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS ASTER C I L I C L A T U S CAREX CONCINNA GALIUM BOREALE GEUM MACRCPHYLLUM HABENARIA 03TUSATA LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM MONESES LNIFLORA POLEMONIUM ACUTIFLORUM SMI LAC INA T R I F C L I A V I C I A AMERICANA  64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71  HYLOCCMIUM SPLENDENS PTILIUM C R I S T A - C A S T R E N S I S PLEURCZIL'M SCHREBERI RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS PLAGIOMNIUM RUGICUM BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUM CAMPYLIUM HISPIOULUH POHLIA NUTANS  RUaUS  10  (continued}  1  1  1  SPECIES S I G N I F I C A N C E  SPECIES  DH  Table  C BLACK  SPRLCF.  ZONfc 2  PAGE  108010751039102 510221021107210711  NUMBER  NO.  WHITE  (YCUNG TERRACE1 WHITE SPRUCE  1 *.2|t.2|t.2|2.  3.211.21*.21t.21  1  1  1  i  . .  •  12.21 12.21  i  . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I .  .  i  . I  . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .  I  .  I  .  (  •  I  .  I  *  1  . It.21 . 11.2 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . i « i • l « I . I • I* 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. . 1 . 11.21*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . . 1 . 13.21. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 12.31 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 11.1 . I . I . • 1 • 1 • 1• I • 1* l a 1 . 1 • 1 • I • 1 . It.21 . 1 . 1 . • 1. 1. 1. 1« I « 1 • 1 « I . 1. 1 • 1 . I . I . It.21 . • 1 • 1 • I* 1« j . l . ' . l . l . f . l . I . I . It.21 . . 1 • I+.2I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • I+.2 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • I • I • I • 1 • 1 . 1. 1 . 1. • i . i . i . i . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . It. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . It. • i . i . i . i . I • i * i . i • i • i . 1 . I . I . It.21 . • i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I • i • I . I . It.21 . 18. 13. 1 1. 1 . 1 . It. 1 . 1 .  13. 1. 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1.  15. 15. 15. 1 . 1. 1 . 1. 1.  I  I P  . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I .  I . J . I ,  1  AND VIGOR  . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I 18.318.21 . | 6 . 2 3 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 8 . 2 1 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 3 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I 1 1.21 * . 2 I 5 . 2 1 * . t.214.31 . |t.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 12.212.216.214.2 4.217.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 1.21 1.21 3.2 14. 2 4 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 1.31 . 1 + . 2 1 3 . 2.212.211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 12.31 . 14.212.2 . 1 . 12.213.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I2.3I2.3U.2I . . 1 . I t . 213.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . 11.111. 2.212.21 . i t . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 11.315.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 12.314.31 . 1 . I . I . I*.211. 3.213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I t.213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 11.21 . 1 *. 1 . . 1 . 18.311.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 14.21 . 1 . . 1 . 11.213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . 11.2 4 . 2 | t . 3 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 13.2 U . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 . I*.21 . 1 . 11.212.21 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . 12.21 . I t . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 12.31 . 1 . 1 . I*.21 . U . 2 1 . . 1 . 1 . 11.21. I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 . 1*. 211.21 . . 1 . 1*.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 11.21*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 . I+.21 . 1 . I . I . I . 11.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 11. It.21 . 12.21 .  I  17. a . i s . | . | 4 . I . I . I . i . 14. 5 . 1 . I t . 1 3 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 13. 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 15. 12. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. . 1 . It. | 3 . | . | . | . | . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . I . It. t. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . It. t. I . I . I . I . i . i . I .  I . I . I . 1 . I . I  .  I . 1 .  . 1. 1. 1 . 1 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . | . | . | . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 .  MS  R£  . 1 . 1 . I 1 C C . 0 1.7 • - 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 6 7 . 5 6.4 . 1 . 1 . 1 87.5 4.4 3-5 . 1 . 1 . 1 87.5 3 . 3 t-5 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 5 . 0 5.0 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 5 . 0 3. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 5 . 0 2.C • - 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 6 2 . 5 2. 7 - j . 1 . 1 . 1 6 2 . 5 1.6  2-6  2-7 1-4  .  . 1 . 1 . 1 .  .  .  . .  .  . . . .  .  .  1  2-4  • 1 ---.? 1.3 • -i 2.3 »<.* 37.6 -22 1. -  62.5  I.I  53 .0 4 .0 1 . 1 . 1 5 0 . 0 1.9 •.-3 1 . I . I 50.0 1 . 1 . 1 3 7 . 5 4. 5 1 - c 1-4 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 1 . 1 . 1 3 7 . 5 2. C 1.2 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 i.2 • 1 . I . I i 1 . 1 . 1 3 7 . 5 • . 1 tt 1- j 1 . I . I 37.5 . . 1 • ~ L 1 . 1 . 1 3 7 . 5 ». 1 -I 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 + .8 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 • * E  1.3  .-2— c*-1 2 .-2* . c .— • .-• •. c *• -* T » . -» c.e *  . . . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 ¥ . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 t.O . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 i t. .. 1 1 1 21 . 5 ..4 1 .. 11 .. 1 2.5 -.c . 1 t 1 . 1 12.5 . 1 . I . I 12.5t.C  _ ci•  . . . .  1 1 1 1  . . . .  1 1 1 1  . . . .  1 1 1 1  . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1  . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1  . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1  97.5  . 1 . 1 . !  75.0  . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . i . 1 . I . .  1-1  .  12.5 12.5 t.C 12.5 t.C •-» 12.5 12.5 t.O 12.5 t.O 12.5 • .C 12.5 t.L 12.5 t.C  . 1 . 1 . 1 .. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1.  -1  3-3  4. 2  i-8 *-5  J 7 . 5 3.1 .0 1 • ' 5 .3 0 25.0 ..2  1.-5 1-5 •-3  1 1 2 5 . 0 +.0 . 1 25.+ 0 .0 t - + . 2 5 . 0 +.o t - +  • -*  FLOOOPLAIN  PLCT ST  SPECIES  C I N C L I O I U M STYGIuM P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A APHTHdSA BLEPHAROSTOMA T R I C H O P F Y L L U H B R A C H Y T H E C I U M CURTUM CAMPYLIUM CHRYSOPHYLLUM CLACCNIA FIMBRIAJA OISTICHIUM CAPILLACEUK OITRICFUM HETEROMALLUM E U R H Y N C H I LM P U L C H E L L U P HYPNUM L I N O B E R G I I L E P I D O Z I A REPTANS M N I U M MARGINATUM MNIUM S P I N U L C S U M NEPHROMA H E L V E T I C U M PLAGIOCHILA ASPLENIODES P L A G I G M N I U M C I L I ARE PLAGIOMNILM CUSPIDATUM P L A G I O M N I U M DRUMMONOII P L A G I C P M U M MEDIUM PLAGIOMNIUM ROSTRATUM P L A T Y C I C T Y A J U N G E R M ANN 10 I D E S T H U I O I U M RECOGNITUM  OW  95  96 97 98 99  100 101 102 103 104  Table  HYLOCCKIUM SPLENOENS PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA NEPHROMA R 6 S U P I N A T U M P O H L I A NUTANS R H Y T I C I A C E L P H U S TRIQUETRUS BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUP C I N C L I O I L M STYGIUM OREPANOCLAOUS UNCINATUS EURHYNCHIUM PULCHELLUC H E R Z O G I E L L A TURFACEA L E P T C B R Y U M P Y R I FORME L E P T C G I U M SATURNINUM MNIUM MARGINATUM MNIUP SP1NUL0SUM NEPHROMA H E L V E T I C U M O R T H O T R I CHUM S P E C I O S U M PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS : P E L T I G E R A HALACEA P Y L A I S I A POLYANTHA TETRAPHIS PELLUCIOA  10  (continued)  BOREAL  SPRUCE  NUMBER  NO.  72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94  ( Y C L N G T E R R A C E ) WHITE  WHITE  C BLACK  S P R U C E ZONE PAGE 3  I 08010751039 I 0251 022 102II0721071 I SPECIES  S I G N I F CANCE  AND  V GOR  p  12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12. 5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 100.0 100.0 50.0 37.5 25.0 25.0 25.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 ' 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5  MS  RS  1.1 2-3 •.<• 2-2 • . C 1-1 • .0 • - • ».c • - • • .c «.c •. c • .0 • -• ».c + -• ».c • -• • .0 • - • ». C  ».o • .c • .c • .0 •. c «.c • .c •.0 ..0 • .0  •- »  • -• •- • •-• • -» • -•  4.7 1-7 4. 1 1-4 3.4 • -5 • .0 • -• • . 2 1-1 • .0 «.o • - • « . c 1-1  *.Q  •. C • .C  • .0 • .0 «.o • .0 • .0 • .0 •.0 «.c • .0 •. c • .0 «.o  + -• •- •  SAIL  CHEMICAL  IFBAfT 1 0 ^  AKJALVSI5  BOREAS LPRUC WE HITEZONE C OLACK  <!5MM1  Page  1  TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) TOT CT /N M.TOX T .C EM .C BAST E COLOR A MH SH AM. ER XACIHN. SC ATE.M MEO/100C./ G TEXTURE M U S YS PLS ON TO 6O 0RIZO RN EO G GP LH E LX RA IKWA 0P TER ? 0YSOC X *N PO T GM100 SA X DRY MOIST . (tC M .)H XSXSI XC CA MG NA K MEO 02 4 4. 2 4 . 70 3 2 5 . 5 0 0 Y R 4 2 I "0 7 06 i>..7 ?5 6 0.57 8ro5". A H G0102 000 01. 26 K.ii B O-3 2L 60 0 1 H 6 . 1 4. .9 040 H 0 4 3 79 2.5 .500 16730 .. 00 0 1. .0 . 0 12 77 7. . 00 00011 100 000 0.. . 0.01 r3~0 0 0 00!5 . 6 5 . 00 7 4 .4 000 1 0 Y R 4 2 10 0V YRR R23 3I2 20 CK 1 . 8 . 1 7 1 0 Y R S 2 1 0 Y 2.50 101 0 0 3 9 . 2 1 . 6 2 0 . 0 2 40 9 7 11 SL • C KG GE 2 Ola--10U7 f. 3 6 8 -4 70 5C 19 3. 7 .61 1 . 2 0 . 0 4 " 7 ' ' 0. 1MU 1SKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM "'PLOT' 7 CUMU 5LIC WCO 3O LS C ._M —.TOT.CTO 28 21 L * B A S E T . N C / N S A T X R A T I 0 X X SA " 4 HORIZON SAM.PH P EXCH. CAT. MSO/100C.E G M .C.. COLOR TEXTURE >75-NOI CK1 0D (50CP M . ) C A M G.4 A.00K G M X..04 D R Y M O I S T X S XS I XCSIL 8 13 5091 4 . 7 . 0 0 .25 30ME1 0H 2 2 .26 1301.2 00 05 7219 0 .0N 0 2 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 2 -2 00• 5 7. . 0 1 . 7 9 . 1 0 0 5 7 4 7 7 3 2 9 5 5 H 2 043 Q /. 13 00 0 8 1 6 . 4 0 8 6 . 4 0 . 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 2 75- C300 2E 2-0T " 3 . 1 4 . 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 3.6 SYSTEM ; C.E.C.BASE 5H. 6 " RA P HORIZOND7PT SH AM.H20" P CT /S N M U K W A TEXTURE E X C H . C A T . M E O / 100MEQ P P M /M lOO SA IO GG M XT DRYCOLOR (CM.) ~ SAM LFH 00 M O I S T " "' XS XS I XC C A M G N A K 8. .9 4 1. .2 85 7 12 06 . 00SO5 56 3. .5 40 00 30 6. .0 60 10 05 45 2.7.5 0 7 .0 20 50 . 0 4-0 01 0C 0 1. .1 43 65 7 2 1 5 0 3 . 0 . 0 0 6 . A H K 0 0 0 100.0 2 1. 0 Y "Y R5 41 T2 1. 05 YR R2 21 16 6212316SIL CLS* * J1 .6 91 40 . . 071255 6..t3 0 00 04 6IB.50 0.0 0.22 02 1U 026*6.26 92. .1H0 39-NO 5 4 Y 3 8 0 0 6 . 1 0 . 1 0 Y R 1 0 Y 39- CK2 6.25 0.97 0.0 7.3 4 11.2 3 9 MUSKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM PLOT 71 CUMULIC REGOSOL SAM HORIZON T O T . N C/N P EXCH. CAT. MEO/100MEO G M / 100 SA G M XT T E XTUR6E9 20 SIL O . M . T O T . C R A T I O PPTT _ 7 5 . 6 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 2 1 0 0 . 3 7 1 6 . 8 0 6 . 3 0 0 9 1 0 . 2 5 2 . 0 2 0 . 0 5 7 1 1 2 . 3 1 . 3 3 0 . 2 1 M O I S T X S X I267XC 0 Y R 4 2 '10Y R 3 2 1915S6 1816SILS"IL 8 . 6 1 "0.3 00.—21 221.22' .070l8 " 60 .754 . 2 5 0 . 0 2 0. 14"124 .1t 7 01005."5 7711--"32 0 ""0 0. .3 58 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 2 O O i O 2 . 3 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 3 . 0 . 6 7 (CM.) C K 1 0' 0G0 -O 005 7'b.9 "C CK 2 "—OOS'Z K 3 0 2 0 •EGOSO 7 . 5 C/ N PPPM"EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO MG M C.E.C. .BASE .R P H PLOT H 2O 5RIZO CN UM( ULIS CAM L P A T I O " E O / 1 0 0 S A T C A M G N A K G M X C M . ) COLOR , _.. TEXTURE. C M , T O T . C T O T . N SAW , 3 . 0 0 1 2 . 7 5 0 . 0 l.L .. „ „_ "2 T7 AT2 i"0070 r0"775^5T72OV0 O. T0 TO"0 T ~0 5 9 90 70 8. 160 Y.R 41101 0 Y R 21X1S0Y1 7 49XC33 SICL 0 . 3O31 TO 00 07 T.16.91I.30.5452 ~225 53L' 1. 5 645 .7006<1 5 , 7 7 . 2 5 2 . 4 5 0 . 7 1 6 . 1 0 7 Y R 3 2 R 3 I 0 . 3 2 05 --0 30 42^6 . 2 -4 3T 6 . B 3 4 . 5 0 8 8 6 5 . X S I FHT0 X " " " 1 1 0 3 8 . 7 3 2 . 2 5 0 . 0 0 0 3 . 9 0 7 9 . 5 ' 1 0 Y R 4 1 1 0 Y R 21 37 5» II SIL 0 3 4 0 . 0 7 1 . 7 7 . 9 256-A 0.99 T T — A H K CK K2  "PLOT  35 CUMULIC  IS  KEG050L  TERRAIN  1  2.35  r.3  —2T720  -  DEPTH—H"ZB~  —  "NO"  DEPTH"  R 2 0 ""  -  "H7T"  -  rar  -  -  DRY  MOIST  >-  soiL nt  'rt^~Ti 21  PLOT  y-  AM«Lv^i b iFRA"tTYoN TERRAIN SYSTEM l  SAM NO  l-  rm i nrr.—r^~". r* p. w i  CHEMICAL  CUMULIC  HORIZON  » 6  PLOT  CK2 CK3  SAM. DEPTH  PH H20  007-05U  22 CUVULIC  SAM  HORIZON  C  %  54.50 6.72 F.03~ 0.26  SAM.  PH  TOT.C X  O.M,  (CM.)  PLOT  CK2 CK3  7272-  013-048 048•  72 CUMULIC  SAM NO 1 2  Table  HORIZON  CI C2  TOT.N X  C/N RATIO  1.32 0 . 33 (T.32 0 .04  7.3 7.6  8. 6 9.3 1.0  TOT.N X  Page  P PPM  EXCH • CA  CAT. MEO/100 MG  NA  41.3 46 5 7 . 50 15.37 0.0 20.4 006 1 1 .00 1.35 0.02 010~ I 6. 5 012 6. 25 0.65 0. 02  ct.c  GM  <i 1.37 0.05  GM MEO/100  BY a ~9.'62~"2.07"0.0"" 0.04 ~  000-019 019•  C/N P __EXCH . C A T . KATTO" "~PPM" CA MG  (J 1 .is  51 • 6 4.99 5.39 0.60  0.19 0 . 24 COS  REGOSOL SAM. DEPTH (CM.)  11  BLACK—  0.02  "  83.00 1 I .80 "18.30 1.20  BASE SAT X  DRY  MOIST  89.6 100.0 "64.3 100.0  10YR41 10YR41 10YR5  10YR2I 10VR21" 10YR31 70  BASE SAT X  DRY  MOIST  XS XSI  36. 100.0 1 00.0 100.0  10YR41 10YR41 10YR41  10YR21 10YR21 10YR31  45 38 15 L  BASE SAT X  DRY  MOIST  88.6 100.0  10YR52 10YRS2  10YR32 10YR32  COLOR  2  TEXTURE xS  XSI  <  XC  _J_6.-»8-.«.5...S.'.L...* 15 1 4 SL  •  REGOSOL  NO OtHiM *2-2 H U J.f1 22- 31 . CKl L F 016-010 2200I'J0-U -0LU10 7. yy. u 4 7  TOT.C X  94.0 11.6 7.3 1C.4 0.4  %>  2222-  bBHCTrwrrE- t (1971)  HtGUSUL  211 CK1 LFH 0 00 0(CM.) 6--0 21- 2 0 00 00 7 6.0 7.2 050- * 7.7  2121-  am) VALENTINE AFTER  J  4 1 • 040 26. 3 6 22.5 21 12.0 6  MUSKkA  PH H20 6.3 6.8  O.M. X 8.7 5.7  TOT.C X 5. 07 3.32  TOT .N x  0.24 0.22  6.62 9.25 7.87  NA  S.75  D.O 1.16 0.02 0.98 0.0 0.64 0.02  K  0.63 0.02 0.04 0.02  C.E.C —HEO/100"" GM  73.00 6.00 6. 80 1.90  J  TFXTURF  COLOR  XC  »  64 _ 2 _ l _ _ 1 4 _ S L  TERRAIN SYSTEM  C/N P RATI 0 . PPM 21.1 005 IS. 1 003  MEQ/lp0_.GM_  EXCH CA 1 1 .00 10.75  a CAT. MEO/100 GM MG 0.02 NA 5.15 3.95 0.02  K  0.40 0.37  C.E.C. MEO/100 GM 18.70 14.30  COLOR  TEXTURE XS  XSI  XC  1 60 38 6 56 36  SICL SICL  (continued)  ON  6^ Floodplain  F i g . 18 P i c e a Nelson River.  (Young T e r r a c e ) W h i t e  Spruce  g ] a u c a f o r e s t on a f l o o d p l a i n o f t h e F o r t  F i g . 19 P h o t o g r a p h shows t h e r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s a b o v e t h e r i v e r o f a F l o o d p l a i n B a l s a m P o p l a r e c o s y s t e m on t h e l e f t and a F l o o d p l a i n W h i t e S p r u c e e c o s y s t e m on t h e r i g h t . S o i l s are Cumulic Regosols.  65 Floodplain  (Young T e r r a c e ) W h i t e  Spruce  F i g s . 20 & 2 1 A l l u v i a l w h i t e s p r u c e f o r e s t s . Note the h i g h w a t e r mark on t h e s p r u c e i n p l o t 75 f r o m t h e 1 9 7 1 f l o o d . The d o m i n a n t v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e h e r b l a y e r i s E q u i s e t u m p r a t e n s e . P l o t 75 c o n t a i n e d one P i c e a g l a u c a *+6m t a l l w i t h a db'h o f 61cm a t age 180 y e a r s . T h i s produces a s i t e index of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 39.6m a t 100 y e a r s w h i c h i s t h e h i g h e s t f o u n d i n t h e e n t i r e study. The o l d e s t s p r u c e f o u n d i n t h e e n t i r e s t u d y o c c u r r e d i n t h e p l o t shown on t h e r i g h t w h i c h was ^0.2m t a l l a t a n a g e o f 31^ years.  Floodplain  (Young T e r r a c e ) W h i t e  F i g . 22 In the foreground a b a l s a m i f e r a t r e e s are p r e s e n t i n the Meander i n r i v e r ( c e n t e r o f p i c t u r e ) development from a p o i n t - b a r d e p o s i t white spruce.  Spruce  few remnant P o p u l u s white spruce stand. shows t h e s u c c e s s i o n a l t o a mature stand of  67  Plant Association 2  F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White  Hylocomio  Spruce  ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - M i t e l l o (nudae) - E q u i s e t o  ( p r a t e n s i s ) - Viburno  ( e d u l i s ) - Piceetum  glaucae  F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce  ecosystems  o c c u r on o l d e r p o r t i o n s o f r e c e n t a l l u v i a l t e r r a c e s a l o n g t h e F o r t N e l s o n , P r o p h e t , Muskwa, and T e t s a R i v e r s .  Along  w i t h t h e F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r , these s i t e s s u p p o r t t h e most p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t stands and a r e comparable i n p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h t h e r i c h e s t stands examined by R e v e l (1972) i n t h e SubB o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone.  The most p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s  d e s c r i b e d by R e v e l o c c u r r e d i n t h e Gymnocarpio ( d r y o p t e r i d i s ) Oplopanaco ( h o r r i d i ) - A b i e t o ( l a s i o c a r p a e ) - P i c e e t u m  glaucae  a s s o c i a t i o n (Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s c l u b a s s o c i a t i o n ) where t h e average  On a l l u v i a l at  i n d e x , a t 100 y e a r s f o r P i c e a g l a u c a , i s 32m.  site  s i t e s i n t h i s s t u d y , w h i t e spruce averages  100 y e a r s .  29.9m  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h e average  S . I . measured on a l l u v i a l p l o t s a l o n g t h e Muskwa and F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r s was 32.3m a t age 100 w h i l e t h e a l l u v i a l a d j a c e n t t o the Spruce at  sites  - W i l l o w - B i r c h B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone  h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s a l o n g t h e T e t s a R i v e r ( M i l e 376 of t h e  A l a s k a Highway) had a S.I.-,  ftn  of o n l y 25.6m w h i c h l o w e r s t h e  68  g e n e r a l average to a S . I . for  1 0 0  alluvial  considerably.  o f 2h.km  This last  f o r white spruce  lowland f o r e s t s  figure  i s comparable  (1965)  g i v e n by B l y t h  a l o n g the lower Peace R i v e r i n  Alberta.  Most of t h e a l l u v i a l s i t e s by  immature s o i l s  waters  which  which  are p e r i o d i c a l l y  have m a i n t a i n e d  eutrophic n u t r i t i o n a l  s t u d i e d are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  This, along w i t h subhygric a r e t h e major  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the high p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b h y g r i c t o h y g r i c moisture regime  factors  of these s i t e s .  This  i s estimated f o r the  entire year.  In r e a l i t y  are f l o o d e d .  At t h e end o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e s e a s o n ,  may become m e s i c  by f l o o d - -  these ecosystems at a r i c h or  level.  to h y g r i c moisture regimes,  innundated  i t becomes h y d r i c when t h e s o i l s  when t h e w a t e r  i n the r i v e r  soils  i slow.  Vegetation  The istically layers, be  f l o o d p l a i n white spruce  have w e l l d e v e l o p e d  however, a f t e r  g r e a t l y reduced  entire  tree layer  tree,  communities  s h r u b , h e r b , and moss  s e v e r e f l o o d i n g , t h e moss l a y e r  as i s i n d i c a t e d i s dominated  by p l o t s  i s u s u a l l y dominated  71 and 75 •  may The  by P i c e a g l a u c a w i t h B e t u l a  p a p y r i f e r a b e i n g common i n t h e A^ l a y e r . layer  character-  The u p p e r  by. s m a l l w h i t e s p r u c e and  shrub Alnus  69  tenuifolia.  Rosa a c i c u l a r i s , Viburnum e d u l e , R i b e s  Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a ,  and  R i b e s t r l s t e d o m i n a t e t h e B2  A f t e r l o g g i n g , t h e s e s p e c i e s expand t o d o m i n a t e t h e s i t e s p r o d u c i n g s e v e r e r e g e n e r a t i o n problems  The Mite11a  layer i s characterized  nuda, Goodyera repens, Equisetum  pubescens, first  herb  Pyrola asarifolia,  and  t h r e e s p e c i e s were p r e s e n t  e v e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d was  absent  i n one p l o t ,  value f o r herbs.  by C o r n u s  alluvial spruce.  canadensis,  p r a t e n s e , Rubus  Linnaea b o r e a l i s .  The  i n a l l p l o t s s t u d i e d , how-  t h a t even though i t had  layer.  f o r white  Equisetum  the h i g h e s t average  Hylocomium splendens  and  pratense coverage  Ptilium  c a s t r e n s i s a r e t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m o s s e s o f association,  oxyacanthoides  crista-  this  occasionally with Pleurozium schreberi  and  R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s a c c o m p a n y i n g them.  Pleurozium  s c h r e b e r i was  in this  g e n e r a l l y absent  a s s o c i a t i o n and Although p l o t of  1971  was  p r e s e n t g e n e r a l l y o n l y on d e c a y i n g wood.  71 a p p e a r s  t o be an e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e v e r e  c o v e r e d most o f t h e a r e a w i t h f r e s h s i l t  indicated  by t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e  t h e s u r f a c e of t h e p l o t s . common on d e c a y i n g wood. was  on m i n e r a l s o i l  of m i n e r a l s o i l  which i s covering  P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i i s , however, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus,  a d d i t i o n a l l y p r e s e n t o n l y i n t h e Aspen - W h i t e  a s s o c i a t i o n , reached spruce communities  flood  Spruce  i t s b e s t development i n a l l u v i a l  when i t was  present.  which  white  70  The  above p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s comparable t o p a r t  of t h e " F l o o d p l a i n White Spruce F o r e s t s " d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e S l a v e , Athabasca and lower Peace R i v e r s by Raup ( 1 9 L f 6 ) . H o r t o n (1965) d e s c r i b e d  a very s i m i l a r plant a s s o c i a t i o n f o r  the lower Peace R i v e r i n Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k which he termed t h e " A l l u v i a l Lowland Spruce F o r e s t " . low t e r r a c e s a l o n g  T h i s type  occupied  the major r i v e r s i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o  the F o r t Nelson area.  Notable d i f f e r e n c e s are t h a t such  s p e c i e s as R i b e s o x y a c a n t h o i d e s , Goodyera r e p e n s , and G a l i u m t r i f l o r u m , w h i c h had h i g h presence and s i g n i f i c a n c e values  i n t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a were n o t r e p o r t e d  otherwise  by H o r t e n ,  t h e dominant s p e c i e s were s i m i l a r .  J e f f r e y (196 t) terms t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , on t h e L i a r d L  R i v e r i n t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , a "White s p r u c e - v/hite b i r c h f o r e s t " w h i c h f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a .  Growth o f P i c e a g l a u c a i s , however,  p o o r e r i n t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s where h e i g h t averages about 2k.Km reported  a t an age o f 120 y e a r s .  growth  J e f f r e y (196U)  t h a t s o i l f r o s t was common i n t h e a l l u v i a l  of t h e low t e r r a c e s a l o n g t h e L i a r d w h i c h p r o b a b l y major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p o o r e r growth.  regosols i sa  Soil  frost  was a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d on one o f the T e t s a R i v e r p l o t s (no. 22) at a d e p t h of 3 9 - L f 5 cm and here t o o , t r e e growth i s p o o r .  71  Valentine  (197D  is  b e l o w 6^ cm i n some a l l u v i a l  frozen  Nelson area,  reports  that  however, i n t h i s  i n c e r t a i n places sites  the s u b s o i l  i n the Fort  s t u d y , no f r o z e n  soils  were  e n c o u n t e r e d , even under dense s p r u c e f o r e s t s .  The  most s i m i l a r p l a n t  a s s o c i a t i o n t o the F l o o d p l a i n  (Young T e r r a c e ) W h i t e S p r u c e i n t h e S u b - B o r e a l Zone i s t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d [pymnocarpio  Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s  Wali  club  ( d r y o p t e r i d i s ) - Oplopanaco ( h o r r i d i ) -  ( l a s i o c a r p a e ) - Piceetum glaucae] described and  Biogeoclimatic  and K r a j i n a  (1973).  Abieto  by R e v e l (1972)  O p l o p a n a x h o r r i d u s , t h e most  d o m i n a n t s h r u b and G y m n o c a r p i u m d r y o p t e r i s , t h e most d o m i n a n t h e r b i n t h e above a s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h p r e s e n t , found is  are rarely  i n t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t a r o u n d F o r t N e l s o n and n e i t h e r  reported  by e i t h e r Horton  (1965) f o r t h e l o w e r P e a c e  or by J e f f r e y (196*+) f o r t h e l o w e r L i a r d . plants  i n the shrub  are Viburnum edule,  Common d o m i n a n t  l a y e r f o r t h e two r e s p e c t i v e C o r n u s s t o l o n i f e r a , and R i b e s  associations lacustre  w i t h C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s and Rubus p u b e s c e n s common i n t h e herb l a y e r . similar  being  The moss l a y e r s characterized  o f t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e by t h e t h r e e  feather  H y l o c o m i u m , P t i l i u m , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t However, t h e r e s t little  Pleurozium.  o f t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l ,  resemblance i n terms of s p e c i e s  Additionally,  mosses,  t h e Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s  a b u n d a n c e and  club a s s o c i a t i o n  bear composition. occurred  72  on more m a t u r e s o i l s is  ( B r u n i s o l s and P o d z o l s )  not environmentally  climatic Nelson  homologous i n r e s p e c t  and t h e r e f o r e t o the biogeo-  zones t o t h e F l o o d p l a i n White Spruce o f t h e F o r t  area.  Soils  All  soils  examined, except  f o r one Rego G l e y s o l ,  v/ere C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d  t o the Prophet S e r i e s  o f t h e Muskwa T e r r a i n S y s t e m d e s c r i b e d  by V a l e n t i n e  The  t e x t u r e of the parent  silty  m a t e r i a l v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y from  c l a y loams t o loamy sands w i t h s i l t y  most common.  The  Buried  pH o f t h e L-H h o r i z o n s  Tetsa  and  i n p l o t 22 ( p H o f 3«7)  wood) w h i c h was p r o b a b l y  River.  v a r y i n g f r o m 6.2 of 5.1.  are also  v a r i e d f r o m 6.0 -  an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e o r g a n i c m a t t e r  from decaying ing  organic horizons  throughout the p r o f i l e s .  on t h e s a m p l e s m e a s u r e d e x c e p t had  loams b e i n g t h e  Generally the coarser materials are at greater  depths i n the p r o f i l e . characteristic  accumulation deposited  The pH o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s t o 7.9, e x c e p t  f o r the f i r s t  6.2 which  (possibly  by t h e f l o o d -  are circumneutral  f o r one Ah h o r i z o n w i t h a pH  The a v e r a g e pH a b o v e 20 cm i n t h e p r o f i l e  saturation  (1971).  h o r i z o n b e l o w 20 cm, i t was 7.3.  i s generally high i n the mineral s o i l s ,  was  6.8  The b a s e often  reach-  73  i n g 100%,  e s p e c i a l l y i n horizons with l i t t l e organic matter.  More t h a n h a l f of the m i n e r a l s o i l s have a base s a t u r a t i o n o f 100% a t depths g r e a t e r cation i n the s o i l , C.E.C. The  t h a n 20 cm.  C a l c i u m i s the dominant  o f t e n i n q u a n t i t i e s e x c e e d i n g the t o t a l  Mg and K f o l l o w as t h e next most dominant  cations.  q u a n t i t i e s of sodium a r e v e r y low/, o f t e n not b e i n g d e t e c t e d ,  however, t h i s s h o u l d not a f f e c t v e g e t a t i o n  growth s i n c e  sodium i s n o t known as an e s s e n t i a l element.  C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s of c a t i o n s and a v a i l a b l e phosphorus of t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s of a l l u v i a l Cumulic Regosols has i n d i c a t e d t h a t they a r e not s t r i k i n g l y r i c h e r n u t r i t i o n a l l y t h a n t h e Orthic  Gray L u v i s o l s of t h e uplands i n Aspen - White Spruce  ecosystems.  A major e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s statement i s t h a t  the r e g o s o l s  lack a strongly leached, nutrient  impoverished,  w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l u v i s o l s .  I f the.  Ae h o r i z o n  exchangeable c a t i o n s  a r e compared between t h e l u v i s o l i c B t ,  w h i c h u s u a l l y b e g i n s a t a d e p t h of 15 cm, and the Ck of t h e regosols  below a d e p t h of 20 cm, t h e r e a r e no n o t a b l e  differences Ko  except t h a t t h e l u v i s o l s c o n t a i n more exchangeable  The pH of t h e r e g o s o l s  higher (7.3  i s , however, c o n s i s t e n t l y much  v s 5 . 2 f o r t h e l u v i s o l s ) as i s t h e base s a t u r a t i o n .  P r o b a b l y the l a r g e s t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the r i c h n e s s of the a l l u v i a l s i t e s as r e f l e c t e d by t r e e growth, i s t h e h i g h water t a b l e w h i c h c o u l d  contain  a more or l e s s c o n t i n u o u s  k  7  supply  of n u t r i e n t s .  even though not  This  c o n t i n u i t y of n u t r i e n t  i n h i g h amounts, would r e f l e c t  growth even though i t i s not  in  supply, vegetative  r e f l e c t e d i n normal  chemical  t h a t no  were  analys i s .  It along this  be  noted  t h e F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r due horizon  s a m p l e s may horizons. one  should  i n 1971 not  be  and  horizons  and  Muskwa R i v e r  of t h e F o r t N e l s o n  samples taken are comparable t o  by V a l e n t i n e  (1971).  sampled  the f l o o d s w h i c h o b l i t e r a t e d  the Tetsa  representative  However, t h e  described  that  to  LFH  LFH the  PLANT ASSOCIATION 3 LODGEPOLE PINE - CLUBMOSS  p l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) Lycopodlo ( a n n o t l n i ) - Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d i c i ) Piceo (glaucae-marlanae)  - Pinetum c o n t o r t a e  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination  Layer •  Constants (presence *  > 60%)  characteristic  Plnu3 c o n t o r t a  Tree  Populus  tremuloides  Betula r e s l n i f e r a P i c e a glauca  Shrub  Picea  mariana  Salix  bebbiana*  Salix  scouleriana*  Ledum  groenlandlcum  Viburnum edule Rosa a c l c u l a r i s Shepherdla  canadensis  Cornus canadensis  Herb  Vacclnium v i t i s - i d a e a Epilbbium angustifolium Lyc op odium annotlnum Elymus innovatus Linnaea b o r e a l i s Lathyrus  ochroleucus  P y r o l a secunda Malanthemum canadense Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m Viola  renifolia  Lycopodlum complanatum Pyrola a s a r l f o l i a Equisetum  arvense  Galium boreale Equisetum  pratense  Geocaulon  l i v i d urn  Hylocomium splendens  Moss  Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i Peltlgera  Table  12  aphthosa  of S p e c i e s  Characteristic non - constants  "> I I  LODGEPOLE PINE - CLOBMOSS Hylocosilo ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - P l e u r o z l o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - Lycopodio ( a n n o t i n i ) V a c c l n i o ( v l t i s - l d a e a ) - Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d l c i ) - Plnetum contortae  P l o t No. Elevation  V  Latitude Longitude Exposure  35  55  580 58°53' 123°  500 58°Hit  N  N  5  1  Percent coverage Total A  62  39 20  22 28 21  l  A  *2  5  5  3 15  27 20 5 10  5°  90 20 85 32  30 18 25 75 89  B  58 25 39  C Dh  Uo  70 5  23 7 20 55 78 12  l  B  B  2  5  Dw  60  530 58°21« I22°»f9"  0  2  «•  3  S  »*8 33 2H 78  Total B  01  H  N.E.  V  3  0  0l  10  A  520 58 20' 122 +9i  530 58°21' 122*9«  122°Ul'  Slope Gradient %  H2  HI  . 8H 8  16 26  10  5  P l o t Coverage %  Decaying Wood  82 10  Mineral S o l i  -  Rock  -  Utter  8o  7  16  85 11  -  »  -  -  -  • -  -  Bw  Hygrotope  Mesic  Trophotope  Submesotrophlc  Parent m a t e r i a l  Table  13  Morainal  Subhygric -  liesotrophlc  Aeolian ( ? )  85 10  LODGEPOLE  PLOT  PINE  -  NUMBER  ST NO.  BOREAL  CLUBMOSS  10351055104110421043 1  SPECIES  1  SPECIES  1  1  1  1  1  SIGNIFICANCE  ANO  i  1  I  I  WHITE  I  1  S. B L A C K  1  S P R U C E 7CNE PAGE 1  1  VIGOR  P  MS  RS  Al 1 P I N U S CONTORTA 2 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 3 P I C E A GLAUCA  5.213.215.214.214.2 2.215.21 . I . 13.2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 13.2  1 1 0 0 . 0 5.0 3 - 5 1 6 0 . 0 3.8 2 - 5 1 2 0 . 0 I . i 3-3  P I N U S CONTORTA B E T U L A RES IN I F E R A POPULUS TREMULOIDES 5 POPULUS BALSAMIFERA  5.215.214.215.215.2 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 13.2 1.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 13.21 .  1  1100.0 40.0 1 40.0 1 20.0  ;.3 4-5 1.7 1-3 1.7 1-3 1. 5 3-3  P I N U S CCNTORTA P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A POPULUS TREMULOIDES 6 P I C E A MARIANA  5.214.213.114.114. . I . 13.21 . 14. 4.211.21 . 1 . 1 . l.fI 1.11 . I . I . . 11.21 . I . 1 .  1100.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 20.0  4.7 3-5 2.C 3-4 2.5 1-4 •. e1-1 • .2 l - l  7 8  . 15.213.213.214. •.21 . 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 1.215.21 . 15.21 . 1.21 . 1 3 . 2 1 . 1 3 . 1.21*. 13.21 . I . 6.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.214.  1 1 1 1 1  80.0 80.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 I 40.0 1 40.0  4. 2 3.5 4.4 2.4 1.8 4. 3 2. e  10 L E D U M GROENLANDICUM POPULUS TREMULOIDES 11 V I B U R N U M E D U L E 12 ROSA A C I C U L A R I S PICEA "ARIANA 13 S H E P H E R O I A C A N A D E N S I S ALNUS C R I S P A P I C E A GLAUCA SALIX BEBBIANA 14 S A L I X N C V A E - A N G L I A E 15 V A C C I N I U M M Y R T I L L O I O E S 16 A B I E S L A S I O C A R P A 17 BETULA GLANDULOSA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A 18 R I B E S T R I S T E SALIX SCCULERIANA  5.214.215.219.215. 3.211.214.211.213. 4.211.213.112.112. 3.211.213.II*.113. 1.216.21 . 14.21 . . 11.21 . 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 3.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . I . 13.21*.21  1100.0 1100.0 1100.0 1100.0 1 60.0 1 60.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0  6. 5 4-9 3.3 1-4 3.2 1-4 3.C • - 3 4.4 1-6 1.9 1-3 2.2 3-3 1.6 • -3 2.4 4-4 l . C 2-2 1.0 2 - 2 • .2 1-1 • .2 1-1 • .2 1-1 • .0 • - + • .0  19 CCRNUS C A N A D E N S I S 20 V A C C I N I U M V I T I S - I D A E A 21 E P I L O B I U M ANGUSTIFOLIUM  6.216.214.315.2|6.2 6.214.2|5.215.214.2 4.212.214.213.212.2  A2 4  A3  Bl SALIX BEBBIANA SALIX SCCULERIANA P I C E A MARIANA P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A 9 ALNUS CRISPA POPULUS TREMULOIOES  B2  Table  1^  14.21 . I I I . 12.21 12.21 I . I  1.21  I . I  I + .2I I*. I  II. II.  I • I  3-5 • -4 1-5 1-3 »-3 3-6 2-4  1 1 0 0 . 0 s.t 4-6 1 1 0 0 . 0 5.3 4-6 1 1 0 0 . 0 3.7 2-4  BOREAL LCOGEPOLE PLOT ST  NO.  10351055104 1(04210431  1  1  SPEC I E S 14.2 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 . 12.115.1 15.213.211.1 1 . 13.213.2 11.213.21• . 1 1.211.21*.2 l+.21*.111.1 1+.21*.21*.2 14.21 . 11.2 12.213.2!+. I . I . 12.1 I . I . 12.2 I . I . I*.2 1*. I * . 2 1 . 13.213.21 . 13.211.21 . 11.21 . I*.2 I . I . I . I*.21*.21 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 1.21 . 1• 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . I*.31 . I . I . I . 1 . I + .2I .  2.2 2.21 . 1 . 1 3. 1 7 . 1 1 . I . I 2.21 . 1 . 2. 1 3.21 . 1 . •.21 . 1 . 1.2 I . I . I •.21 . 1 . 1  50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A MALACEA CERATODCN PURPUREUS CLAOCNIA MULTIFORMIS LEPTOBRYUM PYRIFORME P O H L I A NUTANS POLYTRICHUM JUNIPERINUM  15. 18. 15. 13. 1 .13. 14. 14.  9. 2. 4.  61  HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS P E L T I G E R A CANINA C L A D O N I A OCHROCHLORA  13. 13. 12. 1 . I .  (continued)  I I I I I  . . . . .  I I I I I  . . . . .  15. 18. 13. 1 .  I I I I I  . . . . .  I . I . I . I . I . I .  13. 13. 12. 14. 11. 1 . !•. 1 . I . I .  1  1  1  SIGNIFICANCE  .  L Y C O P O D I U M ANNOTINUM ELYMUS INNOVATUS LINNAEA BOREALIS LATHYRUS OCHROLEUCUS PYROLA SECUNDA MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM V I O L A RE N I F O L I A LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM P Y R O L A AS AR I F O L I A EQUISETUM ARVENSE GALIUM BOREALE EQUISETUM PRATENSE GEOCAULON L I V I D U M P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS RUBUS PUBCSCENS M I T E L L A NUOA V I C I A AMERICANA HABENARIA ORBICULATA GGCDYERA REPENS L Y C O P O O I U M OBSCURUM CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS EQUISETUM SCIRPOIDES F R AG ARI A V I R G I N I A N A HABENARIA OSTUSATA L I S T E R A COROATA MERTENSI A PANICULATA PYROLA CFLORANTHA  1*+  1  SPECIES  22 23 21 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  DW  WHITE  L BLACK  - CLUBMOSS  NUMBER  OH  Table  PINE  .  1 . 1 .  . 1 1 1 . .  .  I . . . I I  . I I I . .  I . . . I I  1 .  . I . I . I I . I I . I . I . . I .  1  AND  1  1 . I . . I . . I . . I . I . I .  1 .  I . I . . I . I . 1 . I . I . 1.  . .  8. I . 4. I . I 4. I . . 1 . 1  • •  •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  4. 1.  4. 2.  • •  1 .  I  .  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . I . I . I . I  . 1 . 1 . I . •. I . I . I . +. I . I . I . • . 1 . 1 . 1 . •. I 3. 3. !*  •. •.  .  I  I  I I I 1  .  . . . .  . I . I .  I  I I I 1  .  I  .  I  .  I I I I I  . . . . .  I . I . I . I . I . I . | . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. I . I . I J . 1 I . I I . I I . I I . 1 I . i 1 . 1 I . I  . . . . . . . . .  I . I .  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  I . I . I .  I . I .  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  I I I I I  . I . I . I . I . I I . I I . I I . I | . I I . I I . I 1 . I 1 . I I . I I I . I 1 . I . I I . I I . I 1 . I i . I 1 . I I . I I I . I 1 . I  . I . I . I . I * . I . I . . I . I . I . . I . I . I .  . I . I . I . . I . I . I . . I . I . I . * 1 . 1 . 1 .  I . I .  1  1 . 1 . I . I .  .1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . .  1  1 p  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  •  I  1  1 . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . I . . I . . . . I .  l l l l l l l l l l l . l l l l . l l . l l l l . l  I1CC.C 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 BO.O 80.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 I 60.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 I 40.0 20.0 20.0 I 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 I 20.0 20.0  . I . I . . l . l . l . 1 . I . l . l . . l . l . . 1 . I . l . l . . l . l . . 1 . 1 . l . l . . l . l .  1 . l l . l l . l l  1100.0 0 0 . 0 I 80.0 40.0 20.0 I 20.0 20.0 20.0 1 20.0 20.0 20.0  I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l  • . 1 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . .1.1. I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . .1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 * 1 . I . . 1 * 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . * . l . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . •.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 * 1 * 1 . 1 .  •  I  VIGOR  •.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 3.2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 2.2 •.21 1.2 • . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 2.2 •.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • .2 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . J . I . . 1 . I . 1. 1. 1. 1 . 1 . .1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1.  • .1  1  SPRUCE 7CKF PAGE 2  I I 1 I I I . I . I . 1 I . I . I . I I . I . I . I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . I I I . I . I .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  I . I . I . I . . I . I . I . I . l . l . l . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I  l l l l l l l l l l l I l l l l I l l I l l l l I l  I I l l  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 1 .  l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l  l l l l l  I I l l  . 1100.0 . 1100.0 . l 40.0 . l 40.0 1 . 1 20.0  MS  RS  2. 7 5.1 3. 8 3.0 1.8 1.2 •.7 • .3 2. C 2.0 1.4 1. 2 1.1 • *C 2.3 1.7 •. 4 • .4 • .0 •. 2 • .2 •. C • .0 • .0 • *C • .0 • .0 •. 0  2-4 2-7 1-5 2-3 • -3 • -1 • -1  7.S 5. 3.7 3. 2 2.4 • .2 • *C • .0 • *C • .0 «.o  •-*  1-4 • -3 • -2 • -2 • -2  •  3-3 1-3 * - l • -1  •-• *—•• • • -•• + . -.• •• -• 1-1 1-1  5-9 2-e 3-4 4-4 4-4 1-1  • * • • • • • • •-#  3.7 3-4 3.4 2-4 1.2 1-2 ».0  «.c  «-•- • •  SOIL  CHEMICAL ANALV515  (FRACTION <!2MM1  BOREAL  WHITE  t  BLACK"  Page 1 TERRAIN 'SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (19711 ZONE BUCKINGHORSE TERRAIN SYSTEM M H O R I Z O N S A M . T O T . N C/N BA ST E COLOR C M . T O T . C PLS OA T 3 5 G L E Y E D O R T H I C G R A Y L U V I S O L TEXTURE XCH. CAT. MEO/100C.G M S A D TH NC RATIO EC (ECPM .) X X E . C . D R Y M O I S T X S A M G N A K "375 5= [AE 000-0 00 05 7-GlO4.44.51.2E7.90.72.00 0.06C~TBT 630 .0 060 51 .11 765 5 0 2. . 60 0 .25 0 3. 71 75 7MEQ 1M / 1 0 3 04 , 0018.13 2 6 .510YR62 XS! XC G 2 1 2 . C 2 . 0 0 0 Y R 7 2 . 1 2 . 6 0 0Y YR6 72 1 10Y YR4 543632383925CLL 5-3B AEG GJ 005-029 4.51.0 1.3 . .06 .77.0 0.088.9 .600 0. 94 73 0 . 20 0 . 2750 . 2 2 9 9.8 10 5 43. .1 70 1 33 19 .0 6 0 0 . . S O 5 0. .3 20 5 3 . 4 2 0 70 12. .60 0 85 5. 17 0YR R51 2 10 0VR R32 219 37 42 C 35 5- 5 7 BT CGJ 002691--006618 4.2 4.3 1.1 0 0.5 63 0 0.07 7 9.0 00 00 6 7 . 0 0 SPRUCE  PH H20  X  P PPM  X  51  TF"H  28  SAM. AA ST E COLOR .C TOT .NRATIO EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM BS PLOT H 5O SRIZON RTD HE I CM GR AY LUVIST OOLT URE P T H X X C A • M G N A X '"DRY • MOISTTEXXTS ( C . ) C . E . C . S A M XSI XC 7 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 0 3 2 . 5 0 5 5 M E Q / l O O 2 . 0 0 1 0 Y « 7 1 1 0 Y R 6 1 4 7 4 5— 7 L 0 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 547.3 T 9 4 . 0 0 5 T R 7 3 ^ 0 V R 5 " 4 — 2 2 ~ » T ~ 3 4 C C ^ 55 5 4 1 . 3 1 3 4 1 2 . 6 0 8 . 2 5 8 9 . 8 1 0 Y R 6 3 1 0 Y R 4 2 1 0 4 2 47 SIC 551 5. 70 20.6 in.2 0 18 TERRAIN SYSTEM S I K A N N I 5 . 4 2,_MC 0 . 1 0 0M . 32 PLOT 41 GLEYCO UI'THIC GPAY LUVISOL COLOR. TEXTURE E X C H . _ _ C A T Q / 1 0 . 0 . G _ CM. TOT.C TOT. N "PP, CA MG NA K 66. 00 C/N D R Y M O I S T X XC . 5 0 0 .0 03 0 3. .4 35 7 49.668.010YR6I I0YR4212 SI 71. 48 50 022 3.76 55 1 LFH 0 0 7 4.8 0 0 01191.30.5 52 2. .-0 85 0 0 . 7 4 1 3 . 6 0 5 5 32 SICCL ' 2 . 0 2 0 . 0 . 1 3 1 5 . 1 . 7 5 444111--- 2 AE 0 0 0 4 0 . 8 1 4. .207018 8. .011 3 . 80 50 7 0 4 0 0. .0 8.. BT 2 14 8 2299 6672 H HC 00 10 0Y YR R6 62 21 10 0Y YR R5 43 23 4 . 5 0. .0 10 0. .5 42 5 0. .5 50 06 519 0. .0 0 001086 10 05 00 41- 34 C GGJ05021-1-054.5 • C.90.90 BS AA ST E TI OS T .LNRA PLOT 42 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAT YOT.CLUV ST II KA XO ONNI TERRAINTr<rSYSTEM TEXTURE C . E . C . O . M . (CM. ) 4 9 . 5 5 2 . 7 0 6 8 3 1 . 2 5 1 1 . 7 5 0 . 0 2 . 7 5 5 2 . 2 0 0 . 9 9 1 5 . 3 9 0 . 0 X S I3 X3 C SHC G M E X C H C A T M E O / 1 0 0 G M 10 0X 53S 56. ICL. _8148. .9 2I 0 Y R 7 2 _101 Y0 RY 5R 35. 1 6 . 1 05 21 28 4. .0 20 5 2 . 0 7 0 . 0 3 0 . 4 0 3 . 3X.0 1I. .6 93 3 0'. 0 1. 20 0 0 7 -T 0H 09 0"5 6 3 1 0 Y R 6 3 3 1 2 . 6 0 3 . 1 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 4 7 5 9 3 0 0 4 . 8 ~ " " 1 ' " D T 0 0 0 0 0 M E Q / l O O D E P 1 0 0 . 0 3 3 5 6 2 H C 1 0 Y R 5 3 1 0 Y R 4 2 9 . 3 0 2 1 1 2 . 5 0 4 . 5 5 0 . 0 7 . 4 5 0.74 0 . 0 8 1 4 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 3 CGJ 0 00 9 0 6 1 " 1 40. 20 6 1- * 12.6 SIKANNIP TERRAIN SYSTEM BS AA ST E C . E . C PLOT 43 GL E Y E D O R T H I C G R A Y L U V I S O L TEXTURE E X C H . C A T . M E Q / l O O G M . M E Q / 1 0 0 P P M ' R A T I 0 . " D E P T H " X G M C O L O R ( C M . ) C M . T O T . C T O T . N SAy X S XSI XC C A M G N A K "U •HZO 532 3. 0391.26 42.4 070iiloo"32.2 5 0 e . 2 5 0 . 0 3 . 7 5 —; x4 . 7 5 0 . 0 3 . 1 1 7 0 0 4 3 2 A T T E C O U 1 U 5 T 4.27 0.07. 433LFB TGJO 0106 03-60-C 30 8 4 1.1 . 0.61 20 007 DRY MOIST HT 5.7 6 92 1O' 5 B 4433" --'N 4 C KG J0 73-0737.7 U4 0X 0.81 .10. I. 021 16..ZS. ...3.40 0.0713,800.3. 100.0.0 10YR62 10YR43 1 23 75 HC Table 15 .15.50 . pI.0.0.„_ 1 0.YR62.. 10YR32.. .1.8. .44. 37 SIKANNI  PH H20  NO  _J  I 2 3 4  A M NU  O.M, X  C/N  TERRAIN  ;  K  4.  L F H AE HT C G  HD.R J . « N  SYSTEM  P PPM  ""670TT  -"27B-J 0,«  GM  ""6~BTT~  JJ72T-  P  r.  AM . P H O L P T H 3 J 0 ( C M . )  XS  r  x  "PATIO  4 . 6  SAM' NO  424 2 4 24?-  2 3 " 4  PH H20  HORIZON L F H AHE  HORIZON  X  C/N  SAM.  NA  _  4 . 2  SAM.  P PPM  C/N  PH  -  4 3 -  't'.Z  0.67" 0.50  "TT75"0  B37"5  I0YR62  16VR42  4 4*  St  Sic  ..SICLV  80 Lodgepole Pine -  h2  Clubmoss  F i g s . 23 & 2h Black spruce i n the u n d e r s t o r y . Plot h a s an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h e a v y c o v e r o f Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m  81 Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss  Fig. 25 P h o t o g r a p h shows a v a r i a t i o n of t h e Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n which bears a resemblance t o the Aspen - White S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n .  82  Plant  Association  3  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss  Pleurozio  (schreberi)  Lycopodio Plceo  or h e a v y s o i l s  f o r parts  tion i s rather  are  to very strongly  acid).  even i f they are  edition  of t h e SSCC (The  Canada,  1976).  This  poor  found  landscape.  strongly  usually acid  judging  by  in associa-  develop  non-calcareous  (moderately  However, t h e y are  acid,  high  drain-  This  appears t o  at  the  rated  still  latest  S y s t e m of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  for  e c o s y s t e m shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h  the  o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e and is in this  and  i s found  indicates  y e a r and  very f i n e textured,  (derived., m o s t l y f r o m s h a l e s )  luvisols,  the  This  generally  uncommon i n t h e . a r e a and  o n l y where s o i l s  It  of t h e  even though these ecosystems are  n e u t r a l t o s h e d d i n g p o s i t i o n s on  as  contortae  w h i c h show m o t t l i n g  (mesic to subhygric h y g r o t o p e s ) .  up  -  Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n  water t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s  acid  -  ( a n n o t i n i ) - Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d i c i )  on v e r y f i n e t e x t u r e d  age  (splendentis)  (glaucae - marianae) - Pinetum  The  depth  -• H y l o c o m i o  the  order P i c e e t a l i a marianae.  association that Pinus contorta  has  the  highest  83  wood volumes p e r h e c t a r e study  of n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g s t a n d s of t h e  area.  Vegetation  A l l v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r s a r e f a i r l y w e l l developed i n t h e Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n . i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Pinus  c o n t o r t a i n the  The t r e e l a y e r  layer with a  mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 5 . 0 o f t e n w i t h Populus t r e m u l o i d e s and the o c c a s i o n a l P i c e a g l a u c a s h a r i n g a dominant p o s i t i o n . Pinus  c o n t o r t a i s t h e dominant t r e e i n t h e Ag and A^ l a y e r s  i n a l l communities sampled.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  B e t u l a r e s i n i f e r a , w h i c h i s commonly found i n t h e A2, A-^ and B-^ l a y e r s of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i s r a r e l y p r e s e n t  i n the A l l u v i a l  White Spruce or Aspen - V/hite Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n s 7/here B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a i s t h e common b i r c h .  This i n d i c a t e s t h a t  these  two  species are e c o l o g i c a l l y very d i s t i n c t .  and  S a l i x s c o u l e r i a n a a r e dominant shrubs i n t h e B^ l a y e r  w i t h mean s p e c i e s  s i g n i f i c a n c e s of '+.2  S a l i x bebbiana  and 3 . 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  A d d i t i o n a l l y , P i c e a mariana becomes a dominant s p e c i e s i n the upper shrub l a y e r ( p l o t s 3 5 , 5 5 7  l,  2)  and t h i s f a c t ,  along  w i t h i t s p r e s e n c e i n t h e l o w e r shrub l a y e r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t w i l l become p a r t of the c l i m a x s t a n d . (^•1,  5  I n two o t h e r p l o t s  +3)j c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e h i g h e r s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e  of Elymus i n n o v a t u s ,  i t appears t h a t w h i t e s p r u c e may become  8h  a sub-climax  tree.  The groenlandicum the  lower  shrub  w i t h a mean s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e  communities s t u d i e d .  established  l a y e r i s d o m i n a t e d by Ledum  Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m  on t h e d e c a y i n g  after fire.  wood  This s p e c i e s i s undoubtedly  the order P i c e e t a l i a marianae. shrub  l a y e r such  which  were p r e s e n t  Piceetalia in  of c o n i f e r s  as P o p u l u s  shrub  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Many s p e c i e s i n t h e l o w e r  A l l of the Populus  as s u c k e r s f r o m  Populus  and v i g o r .  tremuloides.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above s p e c i e s , i n a l l plots  of t h i s  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an a v e r a g e s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e Rosa a c i c u l a r i s b l a c k spruce  i s characteristic  plant o f 3.0.  o f t h e b o r e a l w h i t e and  zone.  Cornus canadensis, Vacciniurn v i t i s - i d a e a , a n g u s t i f o l l u m , and L y c o p o d i u m a n n o t i n u m , w h i c h w e r e a l l stands  first  aspen  i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l e l e n g t h of the r o o t s of  R o s a a c i c u l a r i s was p r e s e n t  in  present  the r o o t s of  a s p e n s u c k e r was 20 m e t e r s f r o m t h e n e a r e s t  tree which  edule,  of t h e  tremuloides  a s p e n i n t h e o v e r s t o r y and showed p o o r f o r m One s u c h  which-remains  t r e m u l o i d e s arid V i b u r n u m  l a y e r arose  in  i sfrequently  i n a l l plots, are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  glaucae.  the lower  o f 6.5  s t u d i e d , dominated t h e herb  two s p e c i e s h a v i n g  Epilobium present  layer, with the  h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s o f 5.8  and  85  5.3  respectively.  Elymus i n n o v a t u s was  the f i v e communities s t u d i e d .  present i n f o u r of  This species i s u s u a l l y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d r y upland woods (Raup, 1935) areas  (Moss,  1953)*  or d r y sandy  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s t u d y , Elymus  r e q u i r e s sandy loams t o s i l t y  loams.  innovatus  However, Moss does  mention t h a t Elymus i n n o v a t u s was  a l e a d i n g s p e c i e s under  l o d g e p o l e p i n e growing  heavy s o i l " which would  on " f a i r l y  resemble F o r t N e l s o n c o n d i t i o n s .  Linnaea b o r e a l i s ,  Lathyrus  o c h r o l e u c u s , P y r o l a secunda, Maianthemum canadense,  Equisetum  s y l v a t i c u m , and V i o l a r e n i f o l i a are a l l p r e s e n t on 80% of t h e s t a n d s sampled. on mor  However, o n l y L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s , e s t a b l i s h e d  humus, and  Lathyrus ochroleucus. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r  loams, had h i g h s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s (3.8 respectively).  and  A l t h o u g h Lycopodium compIanaturn was  3*0 only  p r e s e n t i n 3 of the 5 p l o t s , i t sometimes o c c u p i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of the herb l a y e r . s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e of 7.9  Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s , w i t h a  and P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i , w i t h a  v a l u e of 5.5- were the o n l y two mosses p r e s e n t 100% time.  P e l t i g e r a aphthosa, w h i c h was  sample p l o t s , was  of the  p r e s e n t i n 80% of the  the o n l y l i c h e n w i t h a h i g h mean s i g n i f i c a n c e  v a l u e (3.7). o  The a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Lodgepole P i n e Clubmoss p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n , belongs  i n the P i c e e t a l i a  however, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the P i c e e t a l i a M a r i a n a e ,  glaucae, even i f  86  more remote, i s s t i l l  recognizable.  Soils  S o i l s examined i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n were m o s t l y Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s w h i c h d e v e l o p m a i n l y from c l a y p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s and 1  +3).  o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l l y from a s i l t y c l a y loam ( p l o t  These s o i l s had  the f i n e s t t e x t u r e s of the e n t i r e  study w i t h "heavy c l a y s " b e i n g common i n the p r o f i l e . average c l a y content 50$  respectively.  of the B.J. and Cg h o r i z o n s  Valentine  The  are 56  and  (1971) has not d e s c r i b e d  p a r t i c u l a r s o i l type i n h i s r e p o r t .  this  However, the F o r t  Kelson  s e r i e s , w h i c h i s an O r t h i c Gray Wooded, i s somewhat s i m i l a r but  t h i s s e r i e s i s not as f i n e t e x t u r e d and  White Spruce c o m m u n i t i e s .  present  a s s o c i a t i o n v/ith one horizon.  t h a t the upper p a r t of  i n the F o r t N e l s o n s e r i e s .  i n the B^. h o r i z o n s  Aspen -  V a l e n t i n e mentions t h a t c l a y .  a c c u m u l a t i o n r e s t r i c t s d r a i n a g e and B^. i s m o t t l e d  supports  This m o t t l i n g  the  was  of the s o i l s examined i n t h i s  p l o t having  m o t t l i n g even i n the  A l l the s o i l s examined o c c u r r e d  A  e  i n n e u t r a l t o shed-  d i n g p o s i t i o n s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t the poor i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e of t h e s o i l s  i s due  m o s t l y t o the f i n e t e x t u r e of the c l a y s ,  w h i c h keeps the s o i l s a t u r a t e d  f o r a good p a r t of the  year.  L a t e r i n the summer, the upper p a r t s of t h e s e s o i l s d r y  out  c o n s i d e r a b l y w h i c h c o u l d account f o r the h i g h p r e s e n c e of s u c h  87  s p e c i e s as E l y m u s i n n o v a t u s and S h e p h e r d i a are  w e l l adapted  f o rdry s o i l s .  canadensis  which  I t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d ,  that  some o f t h e s e s o i l s d e r i v e d f r o m a e o l i a n d e p o s i t s ( m o s t l y  clay  and.silt).  These Gleyed  Orthic  much l o w e r pH t h r o u g h o u t of  t h e Aspen - White  Gray  t h e solum  Spruce  Luvisols  than the Orthic  association.  a b l e C a and Mg were v e r y s i m i l a r  Pine - Clubmoss.  Luvisols  Amounts o f e x c h a n g e -  Spruce  luvisols  contained  Ca t h a n d i d t h e LFH o f t h e L o d g e p o l e •  E v i d e n t l y , parent materials  of the l a t t e r  community a r e m o s t l y from n o n - c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s . amount o f P i n u s c o n t o r t a i n t h e t r e e non-calcareous  Gray  i n the mineral s o i l s .  H o w e v e r , t h e LFH o f t h e A s p e n - W h i t e much more e x c h a n g e a b l e  g e n e r a l l y had a  The l a r g e  l a y e r i s promoted by  s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y d r y o u t i n t h e  uppermost l a y e r . characteristically  Lodgepole acid  pine a l s o produces  and l o w i n c a l c i u m .  litter  88  ORDER I I  P i c e e t a l i a marianae  Annas e t K r a j i n a ( P i c e e t a l i a  g l a u c a e - m a r i a n a e K r a j i n a 1969 p . p . )  The o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a e h a s t h e most w i d e spread  o c c u r r e n c e of any o r d e r i n t h e study a r e a .  P i c e e t a l i a marianae a r e projected  on t h e e d a t o p i c  occupy, h y g r o t o p e s f r o m x e r i c t o s u b h y d r i c mostly from o l i g o t r o p h i c t o mesotrophic. P i c e e t a l i a marianae a r e g e n e r a l l y nutrient status drainage.  Mineral  soils  parent materials)  and t h e i r g l e y e d  generally Fibrisols  the  Pleurozio  soils', with on  organic  Soils of the  ( g e n e r a l l y from n o n - c a l c a r e o u s versions.  and M e s i s o l s .  (mitis) - Pinion contortae (schreberi)  Organic  The o r d e r  soils  consists  Two a l l i a n c e s ,  (- b a n k s i a n a e ) a n d  - P i c e i o n marianae, occupy  t h e r e m a i n i n g two a l l i a n c e s o c c u r r i n g  mineral  mostly  soils.  Vegetation by  and 'tr'ophotopes-  p o o r , due e i t h e r t o l o w  o f f o u r a l l i a n c e s and f i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . Cladino  they .  o f t h e order a r e m o s t l y Degraded  and L u v i s o l s  the  grid,  of t h e parent m a t e r i a l , or t o poor  Dystric Brunisols  are  When t h e  of t h e P i c e e t a l i a marianae i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  the f o l l o w i n g order character  speciesz  P i c e a mariana  Empetrum nigrum  Pinus contorta  Carex l o l i a c e a  Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m  Pleurozium schreberi  Vacciniutn v i t i s - i d a e a  Barbilophozia barbata  Geocaulon  Peltigera  aphthosa  Peltigera  malacea  lividum  Oxycoccus m i c r o c a r p u s  . Alliance 2  Cladino (mitis) - Pinion  (- b a n k s i a n a e )  Annas e t K r a j i n a  is closely  to a s i m i l a r a l l i a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Boreal  Zone.  This s i m i l a r  (but  contortae  of the  distinct)  B o r e a l a l l i a n c e was  f i r s t termed as the  ( g r a c i l i s ) - Pinion  contortae  contortae  Cladonio  R e v e l et K r a j i n a  as the P i n i o n  but  s h o u l d r a t h e r be termed as the C l a d o n i o  W a l i et K r a j i n a  - Vaccinio (myrtilloicfis) - Pinion  w h i c h d e v e l o p s on x e r i c t o s u b x e r i c s i t e s . environment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s plant association  1972,  1973 (gracilis)  contortae.  T h i s a l l i a n c e c o n t a i n s o n l y one  w i t h those of the  SubSub-  and  v e g e t a t i o n and  related  which  plant  association  Therefore, i t s are  identical  follows.  PU5T AS3XUTI0N U LODGEPOLE PISS - KD-'KIKD.NICK - LICHEN  C l a d l n o ( m l t l s ) - P e l t i g e r o (aphthosae) Pleurozio (schreberi) - Arctostaphylo (uvae-ursl) - Pinetun coctortae  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s  Constants (presence  iayer  *  Characterist ic  ^  non - c o n s t a n t s .> I I  characteristic  Pinus contorta  Tree  Populus t r e m u l o i d e s Pinus bankslana P i c e a mariana  *-  Picea glauca  Alnus c r l s p a  Shrub  Rosa a c i c . u l a r i s Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m Shepherdla  canadensis  Vlburnun edule Vacclnlum  myrtllloldes*  •Vacclnlum v l t i s - l d a e a  Herb  t  Lycopodlun obscurum  Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i * Linnaea b o r e a l i s Cornus c a n a d e n s i s Ceocaulon  livldum  Epllobium a n g u s t l f o l i u a Pyrola a s a r i f o l l a Equisetum Pyrola  arvense  secunda  Maianthenum canadense Pyrola chlorantha  *  lloss  Cladina mltls Pleurozium schreberi Hylocomlum s p l e n d e n s Cladina  alpestris*  Cladonla  gracilis*  C l a d on l a  unclalis  Cladina ranglferlr.a Peltlgera  aphthosa  P e l t i g e r a canlna"* Polytrlchum Juniperinun* Cladina arbuscula Cephaloziella d l v a r i c a t a * Cetrarla  nivalis*  Dlcranum p o l y s e t u a * Pohlla  nutans  . P t i l l d l u n pulcherrlnum*  Table  16  C e r a tod on pur pure us Cladonia  fiabrlata  91 LODGEPOLE PIKE - KITJNIKINNICK - LICHEN " Cladino (mitis) - Peltigero (aphthosae) Pleurozio (schreberi) - Axctostaphylo (uvae-ursi) - Pinetum contortae  t,  •  Plot No.  Elevation in H Latitude Longitude  12  59  h20  ^25  59 5 3 '  58 MO«  .122 00'  122 *+2'  Exposure  - .  Slope Gradient %  0  0  65  27  35  11  • - '  81  82  *35.  l + l + O  58 »f0«  58 >+0»  92  58 39"  122 ^ 3 ' 122 *t2'  122 W2" .  -  -  - •  0  0  0  37  If2  28  30  16  15  10  15  12  15  8  Percent coverage Total A  A  2  A  3  20  ,  1  5  35  ,  lb  Total B  65  9  50  13  12  l  35  6  20  5  10  6  35  9  7  85  39  6U  20  ko  Dh  3  55  11  80  86  Dw  15  5  -  -  Litter  8o  80  82  93  Decaying Wood  15  7  3  2  Mineral Soil  -  -  -  -  Rock  -  -  -  B  B  2  C  —  Plot Coverage %  Hygrotope Trophotope Parent Material  Table  17  96  •  —  -  —  Xeric  -  Subxerlc  Oligotrophic  -  Submesotrophic  Fluvial  aeolian ?  LOCGEPCLE  PLCT  PINE - KINNIKINNICK -  NUMBER  ST NO.  BOREAL  LICHEN  101210 5910811082I0921  SPECIES  1  1  1  1  1  SPECIES S I G N I F I C A N C E  1  1  1  1  WHITE £ SLACK  1  1  1  SPRUCE ZCNE PACE 1  1  ANO VIGOR  P  MS  RS  Al  A2  1 PINUS CONTORTA 2 PINUS 8ANKSIANA 3 POPULUS TREMULOIOES  1 . 15.214.215.215.21 . 1 . 1 . 16.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 15.21 . 1 . 1 .• 1 I . . 1I . .  PINUS CONTORTA POPULUS TREMULOIOES PINUS BANKS I ANA 4 PICEA GLAUCA 5 PICEA MARIANA  13.215.214.2|5.2|4.21 13.21 . 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 I . I . I . 11.211.21 12.21 . I . I . 1. 1 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1  • . . . .  PICEA MARIANA PINUS CCNTORTA POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA GLAUCA  11.113.214.214.212.21 1 . 14.211.114.212.21 14.11 . 12.11 . 12.21 12.21 . I*.21 . 14.21  • I . I • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1  PICEA MARIANA PICEA GLAUCA ALNUS CRISPA S A L I X BEBBIANA BETULA RESINIFERA PINUS CONTORTA SALIX SCCULERIANA POPULUS TREMULOIOES S A L I X GLAUCA  If.113.214.214.212.21 12.21 . 13.21 . 12.21 1 1 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 . 1 . 13.21 I . I . 14.21 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . 11.21 I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 l».11 . I . I . I . I  . 1 . 1 . l . i . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I. 1 . I . . I . l . l . l . l e l o l . I . I . . I. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . el . 11 . 1 . 1  11 ROSA ACICULARIS 12 LECUM GROENLANDICUM P I C E A MARIANA 13 SHEPHEROIA CANADENSIS PICEA GLAUCA 1* VIBURNUM EOULE 15 VACCINIUM MYRTILLOIDES POPULUS TREMULOIOES PINUS CONTORTA ALNUS CRISPA 16 A«ELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA S A L I X SCCULERIANA 17 POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA S A L I X BEBBIANA PYRIFOLIA 18 S A L I X  14.114.114.113.213.21 12.211.213.214.211.21 13.113.212.214.21 . 1 15.21 . 15.21 . 11.21 I . I . 12. 2 1 * . 212.21 11.11 . 1 . 12.21 1.11 1 . |2.2I*.2I».2I . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1.11*.21l.ll I . I . 12.21 . 12.11 14.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1.21 . . I . I . I I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 l*.ll . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I*.2l . 1 . 1 l*.ll . 1 . 1. .1 . 1  . • . . .  19 VACCINIUM V I T I S - I O A E A 20 ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI  14.215.217.214.213.21 13.214.214.214.216.21  . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I.  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I .  I1 .. I1 ..  1'. I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I. I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 .  I.I.  I . I .  I . I . 1I. .1 I.  I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I .I . I . I. 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . I 1 . 1 . I . l . t  . . . . .  . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 . 1 . 1 . 1 80.0 . 1. I . I 40.0 . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 . 1. I.I 20.0  5.C i.t *.B l.C «.2  I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I  . . . .  . 1 . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 . 1. I.I 80.0 . 1 . 1 . 1 60.0 . 1 . 1 . 1 60.0  3.6 1--. 3 . 4 1-4 2. S 2.6  I I I I  . . . .  I . I . I. . I I .. . I . . I .  I II I I  . . . .  . . . . . . . . .  1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 1. I . I 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1. I . I 1 . 1 . 1  1100.0 60.0 60.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  3.6 2.2 2.1 2.4 • .2 •. 2 • .2 • .0 • .C  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . I . l . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I .  I 1 I I I  . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1  1100.0 1100.0 80.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 f 4 0.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  4. I 3.2 3.2 4. 4 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.4 2.4 • .2 •.2 • .0 *.o *.c  A3  81  6 7 8 9 10  . . . . .  .  . 1 . 1 . 1 8 0 . 0 5.1 4 - 5 . 1. I . I 2 0 . 0 4. 1 6-6 . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 3 . 4 5-5  1 . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I .  . I . I . I . . 11 . . 1 I . . 1I . 1 . I . I . 1 . I . I  . I . 1 . 1 . . . I I. . I .I . I I. .I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I  3-5 2-4 1-1 2-2 1-1  2-4  • -4 *-4 2-3 1-3  I-l 4-4  1-1 1-1 •- * *•- +  B2  C  T a b l e 18  1 . 1 I . I 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1  . . . . .  I . I. I . I . I .  I . I .  . . 1 . 1 . I1. . I 1 . . I I. .I .I . II .. I .. . 1 1. .1 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . . I . I . . . . . . .  11 .. 11 . . 1 I. . I1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I .  I1. .I I. . I 1. . 1 I. . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I. 1 . I . I . I . I . l e i . I . I .  II .. II I . I I . I 1 . 1 I . I I . I  . . . . . .  . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 5.2 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 5.0  3-4 1-4 2-4 1-5 • -2 1-2 • -2 • -1 2-2 l-l 4-4  1-1 •-• • -• • -• 3-7 3-6  LODGEPOLE  PLOT  PINE  -  KINNIKINNICK  1  SPECIES  SPECIES  2.2  3.211.21 4.213.21  1 2.2 • 1 • 1.2 1 • 1.2  • . 2 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1.2 11.21 . 1 . 1 • 1.21*.21 . 1 . 1 4.2 • I . I . I . I . . 2.214.21 . 1 . 1 3.2 . 1 . 1 • I*.21 1.2! . l . l . l . • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  37 CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS PANICULATA 38 MERTENSIA 3<5 0 R Y 2 Q P S I S PUNGENS  + .2 1 • 1 +.1 + .2 1 •  40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  CLADINA MITIS PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS CLADINA CLADONIA  ALPESTRIS GRACILIS  CLADQNIA UNCIALIS CLADINA RANGIFERINA PELTIGERA APHTFOSA  CANINA 48 P E L T I G E R A 49 CLACINA ARBUSCULA DIVARICAT* 50 C E P H A L O Z I E L L A 5 1 CG T R A R I A N I V A L I S 52 D I C R A N U M P O L Y S E T U M  1 •  1 1 1 1  • • • •  4.2 . • • .2  l*.l 1 5.1 14.2  •  12. 1  1 *.  1 +• 1 1.  55  PTILIDIUM  I  56 57  CERATCDON PURPUREUS CLADONIA FIMBRIATA OICRANUM UNOULATUM  58 59 60  DREPANOCLADUS LNCINATUS PELTIGERA POLYOACTYLA  • .  •  t.  t  63 64  1 +. 1 t* •  65 66  CETRARIA CETRARIA  ERICCTORUM ISLANDICA  I •  67 68  CLADONIA CLAOONIA  AMAUROCRAEA B A C I L L A R IS  18 ( c o n t i n u e d )  ••  I*.  1 * 1 +• 1 1 •  1 1 1 I •  • 4.  6. 6. 4. 3.  3. 4.  4.  4.  • • •  4. 4.  • •  4. 14.  • •  I*.  •  •  I*. 1  4.  • 4. 4.  •  • •  •  1 •  1 • •1  I*.  I*. I*.  • .  .  .  •  4. 1 .  *  •  ».  - •  •  I*.  .  . I . I . 1  1.  1 .  1 1  1  .  1  .  I  1.  .  1  .  1.  . I . I . . 1 . 1 .  I  .  1.  I . I .  I  .  1.  I  .  1.  I . I . 1 . 1 .  I  I . I . .  .  I  .  I  .  I  .  l . l . l .  I  .  i  .  i  .  1 .1 .  I . I . I .  I  .  I  l  «  l  «  t  «  l  *  l  1 .  I  .  1 .  1  .  1 .  1 .  I  .  I  .  *  1 . 1 .  1 . 1.  1 . 1 .  1 .  1.  1 . 1.  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  15.  1 .  1 .  1 .  1.  1 .  1 .  1 .  1 .  1 .  13. 13. 13. U .  1 . 1 . 1 . 1.  1 . 1 . 1 . 1.  1 1 1 1  13. 14. 14.  1 . 1. 1 .  1 .  1.  1 . 1 .  1. 1 . 1 .  1 . I . 1 .  1  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1. 1. 1. 1 .  1 . 1 . 1 .  1. 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. I .  1 . 1 . 1 .  .  1 .  1. 1.  1 .  1. 1  .  1 .  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1.  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 1 1 1  . . . . .  1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 .  1 1 1 1 1  . . . . .  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 1 1 1  . . . .  1 . 1. 1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1 . 1 .  I . | . I . 1  1 1 1 1 I*. 1 1 . 1  1 . 1 . 1 .  1  1 . 1 .  . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 .  .  I  .  I  .  . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  1 . 1.  1 . 1 . 1 .  .  .  1 . 1 .  . 1 . 1 .  I  1  1 . 1 .  1  .  .  1 . 1 . 1 .  . . . .  I  1  1 . 1 . 1 .  I*.  I .  .  1 . 1 . 1.  1 . 1 .  .  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .  1 . 1 . 1 .  It.  I  I . I . I . I .  1 . . 1 .  1 1 .  .  1 .  1.  I  1 .  I  I . I . I . I .  1 . 1 . 1 .  I*.  1  1 .  1 .  1  1  1 .  1 .  I . I . I . I . 1. 1 . 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1. 1.  I . |. I . | . I . | .  4 . 4 4 . 2 2 . 7  » - 5 » - 3  I . I . I . 1100.0 2.1 I . l . l . l £ 0 . 02 . 5 I . l . l . l 60.0 2.4  4-3 4-4 « - 4  I I  . .  l l  . .  l l  . .  l l  60.0 1.2 6 0 . 0 1.1  4-2 1-1  I I I  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  6 0 . 0 1 . 0 4-1 40.0 3.2 4-4 40.0 2.6 2-4  I  .  l  .  l  .  l  . .  1 .  . 1 .  1 . 1 .  1  1.  I I  1100.0 1100.0  1-6  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  4 0 . 0 1 . 6 4-3 4 0 . 0 4.4 . - 1 4 0 . 0 4 . C 4-4 20.0 3.4 5-5 20.02 . 4 4 - 4  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  2 0 . 0 t . G 4-4 2 0 . 0 4.0 « - « 2 0 . 0 *,C 4-4  I.I  1 .  I . I . I I I I  1. 1. 1. I . I 1. I. I 1. |. I 1. 1. I 1 . I . I 1. 1. I I-  RS  I . I . I . I . I . I .  I . I .  1. I .  MS  I . l . l . l 1 0 0 . 0  1 . 1 .I 1. I . I 1. 1. I 1. I . I 1. 1. I 1. 1. I  1 1 . I . 1. I . | .  1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 1 1 .I . U. 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1  P  1 . 1 . 1 .  13.  I  AND VIGOR  I . I . I  1  1  1 . 1 . 1 .  1 . 1 . I . I . •1 1 . .  •  1 .  .  1  1 . 1 . I .  1 1 .. 1 .  . 1  1  1 . 1 . 1 .  4. I*. •.  .  BARB I L C P H O Z I A BARBATA BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS CAPPYLIUM HISPIDULUM CETRARIA CUCULLATA  61 62  •  I*.  1  1 1 *  • • • • •  •  15. 3. 1 3. • . 1 1 t. 1 • . • . 1 * 4.  POHLIA NUTANS POLYTRICHUM JUNIPERINUM  4.  1 .  1.212.21  4.2  5. 5. 4. 4.  .  2.2|4.2| . • .21 1.21 . • .2 1 . 1 .  •  1 .  53 54  PULCHERRIMUM  1.2  1  SIGNIFICANCE  5.2 3.2 3.2  B O R E A L IS  16.2  1  1 2 . 1 4.21 13.2 • .2 1 4.1 1.1 1 . 4.2 • .2  LINNAEA  22 23  Table  1  CORNUS CANADENSIS GEOCAULON LIVIDUM E P I L O B I U M ANGUSTIFOLIUM 24 ASARIFOLIA 25 PYROLA ARVENSE 26 E O U I S E T U M 27 PYROLA SECUNDA 2 8 MA I A N T H E MUM C A N A D E N S E 29 PYROLA CHLORANTHA OBSCURUM 30 LYCOPODILM COMPLANATUM 31 LYCOPODIUM LABRACORICA 32 P E O I C U L A R I S SCIRPOIDES 33 E Q U I S E T U M 34 L A T H Y R U S O C H R O L E U C U S INNOVATUS 35 E L Y M U S GRANDIFLORA 36 P Y R O L A  21  DH  BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRLCE ZONE PAGE 2  LICHEN  101210591081!03210921  NUMBER  ST N O .  -  1100.0  5.3  2-6  5 . 0 4-6 4 . 0 4-4 3.2 . - 4 . . 9 •-1  . I . I . 1100.0 . I . I . 1100.0 . I . 1 . 1100.0 . l . l . l 1 0 0 . 0 .  l  .  l  .  l  80.04.2  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  . . .  l l l  8 0 . 0 4.3 4-5 30.0 2.7 3-4 80.0 « . 3  . . . .  l l l l  . . . .  l l l l  . . . .  l l l l  6 6 6 6  l  6 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 6 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 6 0 . 0 4.C 4-4  I . l . l 1 • 1 . I . l . l  1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . l . 1. 1.I . l . 1. I . I . l . 1 . 1 . I . l . 1 . 1 .I . l .  .  I . I .  l  I.I  0 0 0 0  . . . .  ' - 3  0 1 . 6 4-3 0 . . 0 4-4 0 4.0 0 t . C 4-4  4.0  l l l l  . . . .  l l l l  4 0 , 0 40.0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0  l  .  l  2 0 . 0 4.C  4-4  4 . C 4-4 4 . 0 4-4 4 . 0 4-4 4 . 0 4-4 4-4  1. 1. 1. 1. I . l . l . l 2 0 . 04.0 . - 4 I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 4 . C 4-4 I . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 t . O 4-4 1 . 1 . 1 . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 t . C 4-4 1. 1. 1. I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 t.O t - 4 1. 1. 1. I. • I . I . I 2 0 . 0 4.Q t - 4 1. 1. 1 . 1. • I . I . I 2 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4  LODGEPOLE  101210591081108210921  PLOT NUMBER ST NO.  DW  BOREAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZONE  PINE - KINNIKINNICK - LICHEN 1  I  I  1  1  1  1  1  I  I  i  1  i  1*• 1• 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 1 •1 . I . I . i . i . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . r . i * . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I.I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I. I . I . i*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i*. i . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i*.I . I . I . I .I . i . i o i . i . i . i . i . i . i • i*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . i. 1 • 1•• i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . io i . i . I.I . I . I . i*. i • i . i . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i .  PELTIGERA APHTHOSA PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS DICRANUM FUSCESCENS CLAOINA MIT IS CLADONIA GRACILIS BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 81 CETRARIA JUNIPERINA CETRARIA NIVALIS CLADCNIA COCCIFERA CLADONIA MULTIFORMIS 82 CLADONIA NEMOXYNA DICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM OICRANUM UNOULATUM 83 PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS PTILIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM  I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1• • 1. I.I*. 1*. 1 3 . i . i . i . i .i . i .I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 11. 1 2 . I . I . I . I . I.I. I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 1. 1 . I . I . 12.1. i . i . i . i .i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I.I.I.I 12. 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 * . 1 . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I «i I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 +. 1 • I . I . 1 . 1 •• i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . 1 •« 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1. I . I . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . t . I . I . I . I . I 1•. 1 . 1 •• 1 • i . i . i.1 . 1 . . i . i . i . i «i >i  I . I .  i . i . i * .  1 . 1•• I . I . I . 1 •• 1 .i . i. i  I . I .  i. i. i. i  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . . . . .  RS  «.c • - • *.o *.o *.o •• -• «.c *.o • -• «.c t - •  1 2U.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 -'U.O 1 20.0 • . 0 1 20.0 • . C 1 20.0 • . 0 1 20.0 • .0 1 20.0  • i . i . i  . . . . . . . I. . . . . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I. .i. . i . i . i.  i. i. .i.i.i. i. i. i i . i . I.I.  I . I .  MS  p  69 CLAIJCNIA CKLIIIUU'HAIIA 70 CLAUUNIA COCCIFERA 71 CLADONIA CURNUTA 72 CLADONIA CRISPATA 73 CLADONIA MULTIFORMIS 74 CLADONIA PLEUROTA 75 DICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM lh DICRANUM FUSCI Sf.liHS 77 PELT IGEKA MALACEA 78 POLYTRI CHUM STRICTUM 79 PTILIDIUM CI LI ARE 80 STEREOCAULON TOMENTOSUM  1  3  i  SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR  SPECIES  PAGE  1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  60.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  *.c *.c  •-•  1.6 1.2 • .8 1.0 1.0 • .0 • .0 *.0  • -3 1-2 1-1 2-2 2-2  *.c  *-• •-• • -• • -• • -• • -• • -•  • .0 *.C • .0 *.0  * .o *.0  •r T n n l f l  Tft  ( C O T l t Ini.ied )  CHgMTc-Ar-XK-A'L'VTVTS  ' Soil PLOT  59 DEGRADED  '50-1-" — 59-J «  LTH AE UM (!C  2  59-  VALENTINE  SAM.  PH  f P- 0 TM 0O 01 0 0 H20 5.0 0 0 0 - 0 11 4.8 01 1-060 ' 068-10;6.7  5.4  SVT.TLM T OXT . C  P.M. X 92.1 E.O  " P.2  53.40 1.16 0.14 0.07  C.l  84 1- 3 LFH AT UM C  81- 1 81-22 81-  5AM  HORIZON  NO 3 4 flC  032-000 030-JI4 014-078 078-  + 6.  SAM. DEPTH (CM. )  _ - , - — L F H — 0 02-000" AE 000-010 8 2- 2 BM 010-071 8207182-  6.U 5.5  P.J C.2 3  0.20 0.13  C.l 0 . 0 5  SAM NO  HORIZON  1 2 3  LFH AE BM C  PH H20  CM. X  0.79 0.02 0.02" 0.02  4.2 6.0  TOTX  .N  0.02 0.02 0.01  X  0.87  1.5  TOT.N X 0.02 0.01 0 .02  PH H20  003-000 3.9 000-0C9 4.4 009-065 5.4 0 6 5 - 5 ."9  O.M. T O T . C X X 87.1 2.0 0.4 CYZ  67.6 84 5 0 . 0 C09 7.0 036 3. 5 023  C/N RATIO  P PPM  EXCH .  C A T . MEO/100 GM  " CA  MG  22.50 0 . 50 ' 0.50 2.00  4.62  NA  0.0 0.20 0. 12 0 . 15 0 . 0 0.70 0.0  EXCH .  K  1 .25 0. 05 0.07 0.07  C.E.C MEQ/lOO GM  BASE SAT X  68.00 8. 30 5.60  41  C.E.C MEQ/lOO GM  UASE SAT X  MG  1 . liO (.'lb 035 0 . 2 3 1 .00 014  50.50 1 .16 0.22 ~ 0.09~  C/N  P PPM  RATIO  43.5  TOT.N  X  0.90 0.01 0.03 0Y05  C/N RATIO  0.32 0.05 0.27  EXCH .  NA 0.3 0.0 0.0  K  4 . 5.00 3.60  MG  0.75 0 . 75 1 .50  006 023 006  P  0.10 0.22 0.65  NA  10  0.0 0.0 0.0  K  C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM  4 . 4.90 4.  0.02 0 . 10 0 . 10  SERIES COLOR  DRY  MOIST  5YH71  38.2 9. 1 27.0  5YR51  TEXTURE XSI  1GYR64 7.5YK43 a 9 7.SYR54 7.5YP4J 88  MOIST  7 . 5 Y R 7 2 7.5YF6 2 7.5YR56 7.5YR44 10YR54  13 22 SCL J S 2 S  :  TEXTURE  COLOR DRY  XC  X4 S 6 6 H  10YR44  XS XSI  XC  79  6  21  14  53 24  LS  SL  BASE SAT X 30 80  21 . 9 46.9 20.3  COLOR DRY  MOIST  10YR71  10YR51 10YH44 10YR44  7.5YR58 10YR64  TEXTURE  xs 6 XSI  XC  63  87  Z. 10  LS  29 SCL  TERRAIN SY.STLM  PPM  EXCH .  160 1 1.25 006 0.25 043 0 . 2 5 014""  C A T . MEO/100 GM  CA MG 3.12 0 . 10 0.10 "I. 62  NA  0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03  < 2.50 0. 12 0 . 10 0 . 27"  C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM  BASS SAT X  COLOR DRY  MOIST  7.5YR72 7.5YR62 8. 40 20.9 6. 0 5YR58 7. 5YR44 6.60 2 "10YR43 ~'47'.6 2 ."""" 7.10YRS4 I 3.90  82.00  SO  TEXTURe IS.I9 S I. IB  79 92 80  10  3  1  r  •  19  12.9 50.5  5.50  0.05 0. 07 0.07  C A T . MEQ/100 GM  CA  7.3 8 4.  56.1 116.0  1..  Table  ,79 8.  30|L  >-  C A T . MEQ/100 GM  CA  6 .5 5.0  10.0  CHUATSE  DYSTRIC ORUNISOL  SAM. DEPTH (C.M.I  PPM  Page  TRAIL  CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM  TOT.C  • 5.5  92 DEGRADED  PLOT  929292-  RATIO  e2 OE GRADED DYSTRIC BRUNISOL  PLOT  a 2  .N C/N P  TERRAIN SYSTEM  CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM  HORIZON SAM. PH O.M. TOT.C SAM D E P T H H 2 0 " X NO " X (CM, )  "  TOT X  8 ! OE GRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL  PLOT  (IV71I CHUATSE  DYSTRIC ORUNISOL  MOR 1 ZUN ( C . M . I  UORE>L WHITE L BLACK SPRUCE ZUNE  ,  TERRAIN  SAM NO  59-  (PRAcT!oMAFT1H  XC SL  3 S  SL  1  96 Lodgepole  Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k  Lichen  i  F i g s . 26 & 27 L o d g e p o l e p i n e g r o w i n g on d u n e s s o u t h o f F o r t N e l s o n b e t w e e n t h e F o r t N e l s o n and P r o p h e t R i v e r s . The d i s t i n c t b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n l o d g e p o l e p i n e and b l a c k s p r u c e c o m m u n i t i e s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s of the s o i l .  97 Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k -  Lichen  F i g . 28 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ( w i t h r e d b e r r i e s ) i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y found i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Vaccinium v i t i s i d a e a and C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s , b o t h v i s i b l e a b o v e , w e r e a l s o present i n a l l stands sampled.  F i g . 29 T y p i c a l v e g e t a t i o n s h o w i n g s c a t t e r e d Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m , and R o s a a c i c u l a r i s i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r . Picea m a r i a n a i s t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r u c e i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y , h o w e v e r , P. g l a u c a i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t .  98 Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k -  Lichen  F i g s . 30 & 31 A d e g r a d e d D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l t y p i c a l o f s a n d d u n e s n e a r F o r t N e l s o n w i t h a v e r y p r o m i n e n t w h i t e Ae h o r i z o n and r e d d i s h Bm h o r i z o n . These s o i l s have v e r y t h i n LH h o r i z o n s , g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n 2cm t h i c k . The t r e e i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p h o t o on t h e r i g h t shows t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e e p i n g b r a n c h e s o f P i n u s b a n k s i a n a . T h e s e t r e e s a r e on a f l u v i a l deposit near the P e t i t o t R i v e r .  99  Plant  Association h  Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k -  Cladino  (mitis) - Peltigero  (aphthosae)  Lichen  - Pleurozio  ( s c h r e b e r i ) - A r c t o s t a p h y l o ( u v a e - u r s i ) - Pinetum  The  Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k -  contortae  Lichen  a s s o c i a t i o n , v/hen p r o j e c t e d on t h e e d a t o p i c g r i d ,  occurs  subxeric to x e r i c hygrotopes  submesotrophic  and o l i g o t r o p h i a t o  on  trophotopes.  Vegetation  Occasionally Pinus banksiana hybrid  between Pinus banksiana  p i n e ) c a n be  found  and  on t h e s e s i t e s ,  ( j a c k p i n e ) or  Pinus contorta (lodgepole however, i t g e n e r a l l y  g r o w s more p o o r l y t h a n l o d g e p o l e p i n e . that Pinus banksiana  a  Moss (1953) r e p o r t s  i s the predominant p i n e e a s t of  the  s t u d y a r e a , a l o n g t h e Mackenzie Highway i n A l b e r t a , but  that  hybrids  Jeffrey  b e t w e e n l o d g e p o l e and  jack pine are f r e q u e n t .  (196la) r e p o r t e d t h a t p u r e s t a n d s  of Pinus banksiana  occurred  on s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s o f N a h a n n i B u t t e n o r t h o f t h e  study  a r e a and  were  that o c c a s i o n a l occurrences  of t h i s s p e c i e s  found  100  on  o l d e r f l o o d p l a i n s and t e r r a c e s o f t h e L i a r d  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  banksiana  is a relatively  is f a i r l y  common on d r y s i t e s  along  50',  the P e t i t o t  on c o a r s e  I t occurs  the  R i v e r s 15  miles  south  material  individual  This  of both  location  a t ' m i l e 285  in British  i s t h e extreme  ( A ^ and  tremuloides  south of Pinus  Columbia.  Lodgepole Pine  - K i n n i k i n n i c k - Lichen  systems a r e dominated by l o d g e p o l e layers  pine  i n t h e upper  g e n e r a l l y w i t h ' p o o r l y growing  i n t h e A2 l a y e r .  dominant t r e e s p e c i e s  ecotree  Populus  P i c e a m a r i a n a i s one o f t h e  i n t h e A^ l a y e r and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  found  i n t h e B j and B2 l a y e r s .  plays  a similar role  In a d d i t i o n , Picea  t o P i c e a mariana, except  u s u a l l y subordinate  to black spruce.  in  t h e a b s e n c e of f i r e  t h e main c l i m a x t r e e s p e c i e s  be  Picea mariana, probably from the spruces,  This  indicates that  a l o n g w i t h some P i c e a  Alnus  glauca  that i t s role  is  Apart  of  species are  w e s t e r n edge o f t h e p r e s e n t l y known d i s t r i b u t i o n  The  ( L a t . 59°  Pinus  Occasional  of F o r t Nelson  The h y b r i d s  here as w e l l .  banksiana  occurrence  on s a n d d u n e s b e t w e e n t h e P r o p h e t and F o r t  A l a s k a Highway.  found  parent  together with  contorta w i t h which i t h y b r i d i z e s .  Nelson  Pinus  r a r e t r e e , however, i t s  R i v e r i n N.E.. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  Long. 122°).  t r e e s were found  River i n  c r i s p a i s the only  would  glauca. other  101  f r e q u e n t shrub i n t h e upper B l a y e r . and  Rosa  acicularis  Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m ( m a i n l y on d e c a y i n g wood) a r e t h e  main s p e c i e s communities  i n t h e low shrub layer,' present i n a l l sampled.  The s h r u b and t r e e l a y e r s  of t h i s  a s s o c i a t i o n r e m a i n open due t o t h e d r y n e s s o f t h e s i t e .  Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a , L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s , Cornus  Arctostaphylos  canad e n s i s , G e o c a u l o n l i v i d urn,  E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m were p r e s e n t i n a l l and g e n e r a l l y d o m i n a t e d  uva-ursi  ( k i n n i k i n n i c k ) , w h i c h was f o u n d o n l y  the  one o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n  ( n o . 7),  The occurred and  the herb l a y e r .  Arctostaphylos  sporadically  was h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i n  Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k - Lichen a s s o c i a t i o n  an a v e r a g e s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e  found  of t h e e n t i r e  i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , b o t h i n terms  occurring  Twenty-four species  study  o f dominance of l i c h e n s  on t h e humus w i t h C l a d i n a m i t i s . C.  C. r a n g i f e r i n a , C. a r b u s c u l a , C l a d o n i a and P e l t i g e r a  aphthosa b e i n g dominants.  gracilis,  mosses.  c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s does generally too dry.  were  alpestris,  C_. u n c i a l i s ,  In addition to the  l i c h e n s , P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i and H y l o c o m i u m c o n s t a n t dominant  with  o f 5.0.  best growth of l i c h e n s  species d i v e r s i t y .  and  communities  examined  in  uva-ursi,  splendens are  I t i s noticeable that  Ptilium  n o t o c c u r h e r e , a s t h e humus i s  Raup (1935) has d e s c r i b e d  a similar pine-lichen  a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m Wood B u f f a l o P a r k where P i n u s communities develop and  Wali  on w e l l d r a i n e d  sands.  banksiana  Revel  a n d K r a j i n a (1973) h a v e d e s c r i b e d  (1972)  a lodgepole  pine  lichen association [ciadonio ( g r a c i l i s ) - Arctostaphylos (uvae-ursi) - Vaccinio for  ( m y r t i l l o i d i s ) - Pineturn c o n t o r t a e j j  t h e S u b - B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone w h i c h has many  similarities  t o the Lodgepole Pine  a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e b o r e a l zone.  - Kinnikinnick -  Lichen  One n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e two r e s p e c t i v e x e r i c a s s o c i a t i o n s i s t h a t i n the  S u b - B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone, Vaccinium  and  Vaccinium  myrtilloid.es  the F o r t Nelson Vaccinium and  found  a r e dominant s p e c i e s w h i l e i n  area, Vaccinium  w i t h V. m y r t i 1 1 o i d e s  V. c a e s p i t o s u m  being  that lodgepole  yitis-idaea  absent.  role  W a l i and K r a j i n a (1973)  p i n e - l i c h e n s i t e s had t h e h i g h e s t  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f o r e s t stands  sites  i s t h e dominant  p l a y i n g only a minor  summer a i r , and s u r f a c e s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s  Similar  caespitosum  of any p l a n t  i n the sub-boreal  r e l a t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be e x p e c t e d  zone.  on t h e x e r i c  i n t h e b o r e a l zone as i n d i c a t e d by t h e v e g e t a t i o n .  Soils  The s o i l s  of the Lodgepole Pine - K i n n i k i n n i c k -  L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n a r e Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s w h i c h  103  correspond  directly  to Valentine's T r a i l Series  Chuatse T e r r a i n System. deposits  These  which o v e r l i e t i l l s  soils  of the  have d e v e l o p e d on s a n d  o r s h a l e b e d r o c k and  generally  are  f o u n d n e a r t h e r i m o f t h e p l a t e a u where i t has b e e n down-  cut  by t h e m a j o r r i v e r s .  communities  sampled  Due  to limited  a c c e s s , a l l of the  were s o u t h of F o r t N e l s o n between  P r o p h e t and F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r s  except f o r p l o t  the  12 w h i c h  located  between  t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e P e t i t o t R i v e r and  Simpson  W i n t e r T r a c t o r T r a i l n e a r t h e N o r t h West  was.  Fort  Territories  boundary.  The  Degraded  Dystric Brunisols  of t h e L o d g e p o l e P i n e -  K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n a r e t h e most h i g h l y l e a c h e d soils  o f t h e s t u d y s i n c e t h e y a r e composed o f c o a r s e p a r e n t  materials  i n shedding topographic p o s i t i o n s which allows f o r  e a s y movement and These  soils  loss  o f w a t e r and  are characterized  ions from the  soil.  by l o w c a t i o n e x c h a n g e  ( C . E . C . ) due m a i n l y t o t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f s a n d the  profile.  saturation To was  Additionally, which i n d i c a t e  i l l u s t r a t e this 5.30  point,  milliequivalent  these s o i l s that  of  soil.  O r t h i c Gray  throughout  have v e r y low  base  they are h i g h l y l e a c h e d .  t h e a v e r a g e C.E.C. o f t h e Bm p e r 100  grams o f s o i l  w i t h o n l y a b a s e s a t u r a t i o n o f 12.8% impoverished  capacities  Equivalent  L u v i s o l s o f t h e Aspen  (meq/lOOg)  which i n d i c a t e s  average f i g u r e s  horizon  an  f o r Bt  - White. S p r u c e  horizons  association  lob-  ar e a C.E.C. o f 16.0  meq/lOOg and a b a s e s a t u r a t i o n o f 70.7%.  Exchangeable c a t i o n s  i n t h e Bm a r e t h e r e f o r e , v e r y  compared t o t h e B t .  Average values  of exchangeable  i n meq/lOOg o f t h e D e g r a d e d D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l ' s ,.kk;  Mg,  .13;  k, .08  of t h e r e s p e c t i v e Luvisols Similar other  which represent  average values  l o w when cations  Bm a r e :  5*9%, 3.8$,  only  Ca, and  of t h e B t of O r t h i c  19.0$  Gray  o f t h e m e s i c Aspen - White S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n . trends,  t h o u g h n o t as v i s i b l e ,  are apparent i n the  horizons.  Alliance 3  Pleurozio  Annas et K r a j i n a the  alliance,  Gray L u v i s o l s  to B r u n i s o l s , Gleysols  which i s s t i l l  (from acid parent Vegetation  by the f o l l o w i n g  glandulosa  (contortae)  (schreberi) - Piceion  and F i b r i s o l s .  i s characterized  Betula  (polyseti) - Pino  with  i n t h e S u b - B o r e a l S p r u c e ZoneJ.  of the P l e u r o z i o  range from O r t h i c  marianae  i s comparable  R e v e l e t K r a j i n a 1972,  and o c c u r r i n g  Soils  alliance  £this a l l i a n c e  named D i c r a n o  P i c e i o n marianae distinct  (schreberi) - Piceion  Pleurozium  marianae  materials) of the  species:  schreberi  V a c c i n i u m membranaceum  Ptilium crista-castrensis  V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t osum  H e r z o g i e l l a tuirf ace a  -  105  Two pleurozio  5 and  6)0  plant  associations  belong to the  ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n marianae ( p l a n t  alliance associations .  PLANT ASSOCIATION 5 BLACK SPRUCE - M O S S  Ptilio (cristae-castrensis) — Hylocomio (splendentis ) - Pleurozio (schreberi) - Piceetum marianae  Characteristic Combination of Species  Layer  Constants (presence *  Tree  > 60JO  characteristic  Picea mariana Pinus contorta  "Shrub  Herb  Ledum groenlandicum  Cornus canadensis Vaccinium vitis-idaea  Moss  Pleurozium schreberi Hylocomlum splendens Ptilium crista-castrensis Peltigera aphthosa  Table 20  Characteristic non - constants ^ II  B U C K SPRUCE - HOSS P t l l l o (crista - caatrensls) Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - PIceoturn marianae  Plot Ho. Elevation In 11  660  latitude Longitude Exposure  6  5  1  "  630  370  58°  51'  58°  122°  49'  122°  9  Voo  45'  58°  51'  58°  38'  32'  122°  50'  122°  30'  23  36  390  1070  580  47  58°  12/43  58°  39'  58°  124°  11 •  123° 0  53'  500  430  24  38  390  58°  32'  58°  38-  122°  41«  122°  Uo>  58°  49  1060  79  480  47'  58°  39'  122° 42 >  124°  11 •  58°  37'  . 122°  40'  N  -  KB  0  1  2  10  0  6  68  80  72  36  60  75  75  15  20  20  15  18  32  10  25  40  30  40  50  60  15  4o  35  30  20  15  20  20  2  10  25  40  35  7  8  6  4  13  2  18 '  6  6  17  1  5  5  3  11  1  6  5  5  11  1  5  3  2  3  2  14  2  2  12  '  3  13  2  3  14  24  60  2  64  75  78  55  89  89  64  65  76  80  12  10  30  1  5  17  16  10  3  75  90  65  91  90  74  88  82  81  35  1  5  21  2  10  11  -  -  -  -  • -  -  -  12  1  2  1  55  65  75  20  60  28 18  -  8  0  8  i»  60  60  50  45  20  11  20  20  45  3  18 12  -  10  4  -  5  2  l  20  Dh  56  80  85  73  Dv  30  14  8  20  86  80  86  75  %  10  H  Sf  8  Slope Gradient  '  54  S  w  KM  17  8  -  Percent coverage Total A *1 A  A  2 3  W  Total B  *  l  B  B  2  C  5  :  •  '.  .  Plot Coverage % Utter  16  Decaying Wood  6  mineral  -  - •  -  -  Soil  Rock Hygrotope Trophotope Parent Material  Table  21  '  7  7  2  - •  -  -  -  -  -  20  -  (Xeric)  -  subhygric  Oligotrophia  -  submesotrophlo  Voralnal  Lacustrine  FluvUl  -  -  i"  .  -  BLACK  PLOT ST  SPRUCE -  NUMBER  NO.  BOREAL  MOSS I P L E U R O Z I U M - H Y L O C O M I U M - P T I L I U M )  1OOl100510061009101710231036|054101010181024104910791  SPECIES  SPECIES  SIGNIFICANCE  AND  j  1  WHITE  1  1  £ BLACK  I  S P R U C E ZONE PAGE 1  1  VIGOR  P  MS  RS  Al 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  P I N U S CONTORTA P I C E A MARIANA P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS TREMULOIOES LARIX LARICINA ABIES LASICCARPA POPULUS EALSAMIFERA  1 3 . 2 1 4 21 . I 1 5 . 2 1 5 2 14.2 I 21 . I I . 14 21  I  .I 2.21  A2 P I C E A MARIANA P I N U S CONTORTA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 6 BETULA PAPYRIFERA LARIX LARICINA P I C E A GLAUCA P O P U L U S 8 A L SAM I F E R A 9 B E T U L A RES I N I F E R A ABIES LASIOCARPA A3 P I C E A MARIANA P I N U S CONTORTA BETULA PAPYRIFERA ABIES LASIOCARPA BETULA RES IN 1FERA LARIX LARICINA P I C E A GLAUCA  I . II 15.21  I . I I . 12  2 1 6 . 2 1 6 217 2 1 8 12.2 14 2 1 , I  I . I I . I  12.21 215.215 11.11 I 3.21  5.214.214.215 . 1 3 . 2 1 . 13 21 13.21 .21 13.21  I  I 5.215.215.21 . 1 6 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 6 21 2.21 . 1 4 . 2 1  1 1 14 . 2 1 + I 1I  I  I  I  215.211  I I I I  . I . I* .I .I  11.01 11  P I C E A MARIANA 10 A L N U S C R I S P A ABIES LASICCARPA 11 S A L I X SCCULERlANA PINUS CCNTORTA 12 S A L I X EEBBIANA 13 B E T U L A G L A N O L L O S A BETULA R E S I N I F E R A POPULUS TREMULOIOES P I C E A GLAUCA  213.212  14 LEOUM GROENLANDICUM 15 ROSA ACICULARIS ABIES LASIOCARPA P I C E A MARIANA 16 VIBURNUM EOULE ALNUS C R I S P A POPULUS TREMULOIOES  211.21• 211.211 21 . I* 1 1 2 . 2 11 12.11 I l.ll I 1.11  I . I  214 I  .11*  12.21  I . I  I . I . I I . I . I  I  II . I  1.214. 214.212 3.21 . 1 . 1  • I. I . . I. I. .11 .21  B2  I  ..215.216.214 . 1 4 . 2 1 . 15 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I I .I I . 13. I  I .  Bl  I  I . II I • I• I.I*  . I 1.21 +.21  . 12.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1  5.211.21 1.21 . I 1.2I+.2 I 1.2|1.21 • .2 1 . I  I .I  1.21  14 13  . 12.21  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  69.2 61.5 38.5 30.8 15.4 7.7 7.7  4.9 4.5 2.9 1. S 2.2 • .0  3-7 1-7 2-4 1-4 1-5 2-2 2-2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  92.3 46.2 30.8 23.1 15.4 15.4 15.4 7.7 7.7  6.1 4. 2 1.6 1.0 1.4 • .3 • .C • .8 • .0  3-8 2-6 • -4 • -3 • -4 1-2 3-3 2-2  1100.0 1 23.1 1 23.1 1 7.7 1 7.7 1 7.7 1 7.7  5.2 2. 8 • .2 • .8 •. E • .0 *.C  1-6 1-5 • -2 3-3 3-3 1-1 1-:  • .c  +—•  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  9 2 . 3 3.2 *-4 30.8 1. 2 • - 3 1 5 . 4 • .3 7.7 1.3 7.7 • .6 7.7 • .8 7.7 • . 0 7.7 • .C 7.7 • .C 7.7 + .C  1-2 4-4 3-3 3-3 2-2 2-2 1-1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  76.9 53.B 38.5 38.5 38.5 30.8  .-5 • -4 • -4 i-I — 1 •-4  30.6  3.u 2.C 2.C • .8 • .2 l.o ».4  - - Z  o  CO  Table  22  BLACK  PLOT ST  SPRUCE  - MOSS  1001100510061009101710231036 10541010 0 1 8 I 0 2 4 I 0 4 9 I 0 7 9 I  NUMBER  NO.  SPECIES  SPECIES  17 V A C C I N I U M IB V A C C I N I U M  MEMBRANACEUK CAESPITOSUM  19 V A C C I N I U K U L I G I N C S U H S A L I X SCOULERI ANA BETULA GLANOULOSA BETULA RESINIFERA 20 21 22  R I B E S LACUSTRE SALIX NCVAE-ANGLIAE SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS  23 24 25 26 27 28 29  CORNUS CANAOENSIS VACCINIUM VITIS-IDAEA LINNAEA BOREALIS GECCAULON LIVIOUM PYROLA SECUNDA EOUISETUM SCIRPQIOES L Y C O P O D I U M ANNOTINUM  30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44  EMPETRUM NIGRUM HABENARIA CRBICULATA EOUISETUM SYLVATICUM GOODYERA REPENS PYROLA CHLORANTHA LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM CALAMAGRCSTIS CANAOENSIS M I T E L L A NUOA VIOLA RENIFOLIA E P I L Q 8 I U M ANGUSTIFOLIUM L A T H Y R U S OCHROLEUCUS MERTENS I A P A N I C U L A T A E O U I S E T U M ARVENSE MAI ANT HEMUM CANAOENSE CORALLCRHIZA TRIFIOA  C  I I 1 I I I I I I  . I . . I . . 1 . I . . I . . I . . I . . I . . I .  I I . I I I I I I  . . 1 . . . . . .  I I . I I I I I I  t-HITE  BOREAL  IPLEUROZIUN-HYLOCCMIUM-PTlLIUM)  1 . 14.21 . 1 . . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I*.ll . 1 . . . I*.2| . 1 . 1  S I G N I F ICANCE  . . . . . .. . .  ANO  1  1  1  £ BLACK  1  1  SPRUCE ZCNE PAGE 2  I P  VIGOR  . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . I * . 2 l 1 . . 1 . 1 . 15.21 . 1 • . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 • . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . . 1. 1 . 1. 1. 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 .  1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . 1 . . . . . . .  1 . . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 . . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . .  M J  1 1 5 . 4 1.4 1 15.4 • . 1 1 7.7 2.2 1 7.7 • . C 1 7 . 7 • .C 1 7.7 • .0 1 7.7 * . c 1 7 . 7 *.C 1 7.7 • . C  RS  1-4 • -? 5-5 2-2 1-1 1-1 • -• •- •  »-.  45 F R A G A R I A V I R G I N I ANA 46 HONES ES UN I FLORA 47 P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS-48 PYROLA A S A R I F O L I A 49 RUEUS PUBESCENS  1 3 . 1 2 . 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 1 1.21 4.21 1.21 3 . 2 1 4 . 4. 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 21 . 1 . 12. I . 1 3 . 2 1 * . 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 1 . 4 . 2 1 8 . 2 1 . 16.21 . 1 . I . I . 13.21 . 11.21 . 1 . . 1 3 . I*.21 . I * . 2 l * . 2 I . I 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 • 1*.211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1*.213.21*.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 * . 1 . 11.21 . *.2 1 . l * . 2 l . 1 * . 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 11.21 . I*.2 * . 2 I 1 . l * . 2 l . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 3 . 1 • •1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . I * . 2 1 * . 2 • 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 11.21 . 1 . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I * . I . i . i . i . 1 • . 1.21 . I * . 2 l *.2l . 1 . I * . l l . 1*. I . I . I . . 1 . I*.2l . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1' . 1 . I . I . I . • .2 1 . 1 . I * . 2 I * . 2 I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 •• • . 2 1 . I * . 2 | . . I . I . I . I . I . • 1 • 1.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 *. I . I . I . • 1 • 11.21 . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I * . . 1 1. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I * . I . I . 1. . 11. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . i . i . I * . 2 . 1 . I*.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I*.21 . 1 *. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1*. I . I . I . . 1 *. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I • 1 • 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1. I . I . I . . 1 • 11.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I , . • .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1. 1 .1 . . 1 *. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 •. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1*.2I . 1 . • 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . 1. 1. 1. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 • •.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1 . 1.  1 . 1 1 . 1 . I . I 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . I 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . I 1 . 1 I . I 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . 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I S . 1 6 . 17. 17. 1 7 . 16. 7. 1 8 . 14. 1 6 . 16. 15. 1 6 . 1 5 . 6. 14. 1 5 . 1 6 . 1 7 .| 4 . | 4 . 1 5 . 5 . 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 * . 14. 1 1 . 13. 4 . I . I . I . I . 13. 1 . 1 * . 1. I . I . I . 1 . 1*. 1 1 . 1 . 1. 1 • 1• 1 . . I . I . I . I . I . i . i•• . I*. I . I . I . i*. I . I . . I . I . I . 1 .1 .1 • 1 . .  1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1  . . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1100.0 1100.0 1100.0 92.3 30.8 30.8 30.8 23.1 23.1 23.1  OH PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI H Y L O C O M I U H SPLENOENS PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A HALACEA PTILIOIUM PULCHERRIMUM CLAOINA MITIS CLAOINA RANGIFERINA OREPANCCLAOUS UNCINATUS  15. 1 8. 1 4. 11. 1 . 1 . 1 *. 1 . 1 . 1•  17. 15. 4.  17. 13. IS. 17. I B . 15. 1 4 . 1 3 . 14. 13. 14. 1 1 . 14. . 1 . 1 * . I . . 1 * . I . I . I*. 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . I*. . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I*. 1 . I*. I*.  1 . 1. 1 . I . I . I . 1. I . I . 1.  1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1  . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1  . . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . . . . . . . . . .  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  7.2 6.9 5.2 3.4 1.0 *. 1 4.0 • .0 «.c 4.0  3-8 4-8 3-7 *-4 • -3 • -1 *-• • -• *-• • -•  o Table  22  (continued)  BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS PLOT NUMBER ST NO, 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 OW  87 88 89 90 91 92  Table  10011005100610091017102310361054 1010 O l B l 0 2 4 | 0 4 9 079 1  PCHLIA NUTANS PELTIGERA POLYDACTYLA AULACCMN IUM PALUSTRE OICRANUM ACUTIFCLIUM DICRANLM FUSCESCENS HERZOGI ELLA TUR-FACEA BARBILGPHG2IA HATCHER I BARBILQPHOZIA LYCOPOOIOIOES BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS BRACHYTHECIUM REFLE XUM CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM CERATOOCN PURPUREUS CLADINA ABERRANS CLADINA ARBUSCULA CLAOONIA BACILLARIS CLAOGNIA CORNUTA CLAOCNIA GRACILIS CLAOONIA MULTIFORMIS OICRANUM UNDULATUM JAMESON I ELLA AUTUMNALIS L0PH0ZIA VENTRICOSA NEPHROMA ARCTICUM NEPHRCMA RESUPINATUM POHLIA CRUDA POHLIA ELONGATA POL YTRICHLM JUNIPERINUM TRITOMARIA EXSECTIFORMIS PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS OICRANUM FUSCESCENS P T I L I D I U M PULCHERRIMUM POHLIA NUTANS OREPANOCLAOUS UNCINATUS JAKESCNI ELLA AUTUMNALIS CLADONIA GRACILIS PELTIGERA APHTHOSA OICRANUM ACUTIFCLIUM PELTIGERA MALACEA BLEPHARCSTOMA TRICHOPFYLLUM BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS CEPHAL OZI ELL A OIVARICATA CLAOONIA BACILLARIS CLADONIA CONIOCRAEA CLAOONIA CORNUTA CLADONIA SQUAMOSA DICRANUM FRAG I L I F 0 L I U M OICRANUM TAURICUM  (continued)  1  I  I  i  i  SPECIES SIGNIF CANCE ANO VGOR  SPECIES  22  BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE  IPLEUROZIUM-HYLOCOMIUM-PTILIUM)  , j . i 1 . i 1 . i | .i 1 . i 1 . i | . i I . j I . i j . i I . i I . i I . i j . i 1 . i | ,i I . i 1 • i 1 • i j . i | .i I . t 1 . i | .i I . i 1 • i  #  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . •  1 4 . 15. 1 3. 1 3. 14. 1 1 . I*. 1 • • 1 + •1 •  | .| .  j +. 1 . 1 •.  | ,| . j . I . 12. I . I . I .  J ;1:  !;  i•.  j:  i *« i . i . i . i • i•.  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . 1. 1. 1. 1. . . 1 . 1 1 . I . I . I 1. . 1. 1. 1. 1. • . 1. 1. 1. 1. . . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . « . 1. 1 . I. 1. • . . 1. 1.1 .1 . . 1• 1. 1. 1. 1 • . 1. 1. 1. 1. > . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . . . 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1 . 1. 1. . •. 1 . 1. 1. 1 . 1 • 1 1. 1. 1. 1. 1 . • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1• . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 +• 1 . 1 . . . 1 • 1 • 11 • • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1 . • . 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1. I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1. • 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1 • • . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1. . 13. 1 4 . | 4 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 31. 14. 14. 12. 1 3 . 13.•. 13. 1 4 . 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 2. I*. I*. I . I . I*. 1 . . 1 1 1 1 • • 1 « 1+ • 1 1 •• 1 • 1 • 1 1 . 1 + • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . . . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1•• 1 • 1•• 1 • 1 • 1•• • 1. • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12. 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1•. • 1 . 1 . 1*. 11. 1 . 1. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. • • 1 . 1 • . 1 • 1 . 1». 1• • 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 1  •• 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .  1 1. 1 3. 1 1. 1 •• 1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1 .  5. 3. 2.  l+.  +.1  .•  . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1. +.1.1. • . I . l . l . l 1•• .1.1. •• I . l . l . l . 1 • 11 • • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 •• 1 •• . 1 . 1 . • . i . i . i . i 1. . 1 . 1 . +. i . i , i . i . 1 . 1 . • . i . l . l . l 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . . i . i . i . i 1 +. . 1 . 1 . • i . l . l . l | .+ . 1 . 1 . . I . I . I . I 1 • • • I . I . ! . 1. 1. 1. 1 1 . . 1 . 1 . . I . l . l . l 1 • . I . I . •• I . l . l . l 1. . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l 1 • • 1 • 1•• . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l 1 . . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1•• . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l • I . I . • . I . l . l . l 1 . 1. . 1 . 1 . •• I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . • I . l . l . l 1 . . . I . I . 1. + . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l 1 . +.1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1. . 1 . 1 . • . I . l . l . l  I*.  1 5 . 1 3 .• . I . l . l 1 4 . 1 1 .• . 1 . 1 . 1 4 . 1 3 .• . I . l . l . 1 . !•• • . I . l . l . 1 • 1+• • • I . l . l .1.1*. • . I . l . l . I . l . l +.1.1. . 1 . I*. • I . l . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1. 1 • . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . l . .1.1. . 1 .  i  l  1 . 1 . I . I1 1 .  . I . I . . j . i+.  . I . I .  . I . . I . . I .  3  MS  RS  i p  . 1 2 3 . 1 «.o • - • 1 1 5 . 4• . 0 1-1 . 1 1 5 . 4 • . c • -• . 1 1 5 . 4 • . 0 • -• . I 1 5 . 4 • . C • -• . 1 15.4 • .0 •- • • 1 • 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . 0 • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • .C • - + • .0 •- • • 1 . i . t 7 . 7 + . 0 + -• • 1 • 1 • 1 7.7 • .0 •-+ • . c • -• • 1 . 1 • 1 7 . 7 • . C • -• • I . I . I 7.7 • .c • . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . 0 • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . c • -• • I . I . I 7 . 7 • . 0 • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . 0 • -• • . C • -• • I . I . I 7.7 • .0 •- . • I . I . I 7 . 7 • . 0 • -. • I . I . I 7 . 7 • . c • -• • . 0 • -• • I . I . I 7 . 7 • .C • - • • I . I . I 7.7 • .0 •- • . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 t^O • I . I . I 7 . 7 • . 0 +-• . . . . • .  1 . 1 I.I. 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . I 1 . 1  . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 t • - • - 5 • I . I . I 100.0 3.4 • - 4 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3 . 3 • - 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 6 1 . 5• .1• - + . 1 . 1 . 1 5 3 . 8 • . 0 • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 3 8 . 5 • . 0 • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 - 3 0 . 8 • . C • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 3 0 . 8 • . 0 • -• . 1 . I . I 2 3 . 1 • . 0 • -• • I . I . I 1 5 . 4 *.3 1-2 • I . I . I 15.4 •.1 • -2 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 4 • . 0 • -1 • I . I . I 1 5 . 4 • . 0 *- • 1 . .1 .' 1 I1 5 . 4 + . 0 • -• l ! . '. ! . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 4• . 0 • -• { i . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • .0 • - • • I . I . I 1 5 . 4 • . C • -• . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 4 «.o •- • I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 4• . 0 • -• I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 4 • . C • -• I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 4.0 •- • . I . . . . . l . . . l  l . I l l l l l . l 1 1 1 . l  ; j *.. ' i l l . * ; \ ; |; j : |; ; ', ; j :',:!:!: ] ;  •  1 •. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1• I . I • • I . I .  1 ••  1 .  PAGE  BLACK PLOT ST  95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110  - MOSS  BOREAL  t PLEUROZIUM-HYLOC0MIUM-PTILIUM)  SPECIES O I C R A N U M UNCULATUM H E R Z O G I E L L A TURFACEA L E P I C O Z I A REPTANS TETRAPHIS PELLUCIOA P E L T I G E R A POLYDACTYLA A L E C T O R I A SARMENTOSA BARB I L O P H O Z I A BARBATA BR AC H Y T H E C I U M S A L E B R O S U M CAMPYLIUM HISPIOULUM CEPHALGZIA AFFINIS CETRARIA ISLANOICA CETRARIA PINASTRI CLADONIA DEFORMIS CLACONIA DIGITATA CLADONIA FIMBRIATA C L A D O N I A OCHROCHLORA D I C R A N U M MUEHLENBECK11 DICRANUM POLYSETUM ICMACOPHILA ERICETORUH LOPHOCOLEA HETEROPHYLLA L O P H O Z I A LONGIOENS MN IUM S P I N U L O S U M NEPHROMA R E S U P I N A T U M  T a b l e 22  WHITE  t  BLACK  S P R U C E ZONE PACE 4  f 0011 0031 006100VI 0171 02310361 OH I 010 01UI024I049 0791  NUMIICR  NO  93 94  SPRUCE  (continued)  SPECIES  1  . i I « i | .i | . i j . i  . . . . .  i .  i i j . i | . i I . j i 1 *• i i I . | . i  4.  . , . . . . . . .  jj . .ii .. | .  | .  i . i+•  4.  i 11 • i »• 1 . i *• 1 . i , 1 . i .  j . i .  1 , i 1 . i 1 . i 1 . i 1 • i 1 . i 1 . i 1 » i 1 . i 1 . i 1 . i 1 . i 1 . i 1 . i  . , . . . . . , . . . , . .  i : J v! *. I:  ,  m  i i i i i  . , , . .  t , |+ . |  a  .  1  1  | .I I j . I 1 1 1  14.  . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 1. j . l .  p  14.  |4.  :  !  :  !  + . j , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1  . . . . . . . . . .  l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  | ,  , , , , , , . , , ,  4,  j1 ,  • I . I . I . . . .  l  .  i  .  1 1 1 1  . . . .  • I . I . I . I . I • I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I I . I . I 1 1 • I . 1*.  1 . 1 . 1 * 1 . 1  I . I . I  i : 1:1:  i  :  !  :  1 1 1 1  I I . I  . . . .  . . I .  1 1 1 1  I I . I  . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1  .1.1 . | , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . l+. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I . I 1 . I*. I . I . I . I • j . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . | . | , | , . I*. I . I | , , I . I . I 1 1 . • I . I . I . 1 . I . I . I . I • . 1 . 1 . 1 , I . I . I . I 1 .  . i  l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  i1  i  , 1 , 1 . 1 ,  . . • 1•• 1 . . • 1. ..'I . I 1 . . I . I . . I . 1 . I+. 1 . *• 1 . 1 . . 1•• 1 ,  | . I . I . I 1 . I . I . I 1 • I . I . I 1  VIGOR  1 > 1 •, 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 j , 1 , . 1 1 ., 1 .. 1 .. I1 .1 I j , j1 . 1 I*. , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 1 .. 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 > 1 • I . I I . I 1 j , I . I . I . I 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , .1  I . I . I I . I . I | . I . I . I  j  AND  SIGNIFICANCE  MS  RS  • • C •- , 1 5 . 4 ..0 15.4 1 5 . 4 • .0 7.7 • • C 1-1  15.4  4-4 • .4-4 c 4- 4 7.7 • .4-4 c 7.7 «,o 4-4 I 7.7 c 7.7 • .c 4-4  I . I . I 1 . I . I  1 . 1 . 1  7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7  I . I . I  7.7  1 . 1 . 1  1 . 1 . 1  7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7  . 1 . 1 . 1 ! . 1 . 1 . 1  7.7 7.7  I . I . I 1 . I . I  I . I . I 7.7 1 . I . I 7.7  4—4 •.c 44-4 —4 4-4 4.0 4.0 4 — 4 4.0 4-4 4.0 4- 4 4.0 4 — 4 4. C 4-4 4.0 4.C 4-4 4.0 4 — . 4.0 4- 4 4.0 4-4 4.0 4-4 4.0  TUIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ll-KALTION <2HM) Page 1 TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINF (1971) S/ IN KANNIP TERRAIN SYSTEM TOT .N FAC A M .ISOL CO ./ E1 .0 C0 . BS AA ST E COLOR PLS ON TM 1 ORTHIC GRAY CL UV TEXTURE C A T . T I O P P M X M E OHO X X G M X E X C H . RIZON005-0 SA0M0 .H42.0 M E O / 1 0 0 G M X S X S I XC .. . D R Y . M O I S T M G 6 5 . 0 0 5 6 1 . 7 5 0 . 0 1 . 6 2 1 0 4 . 0 0 4 e7.9 5 1 . 0 0 0 . 6 0 1 3 . 0 11--2 1 A LE FH D E P T H 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 4 0 . 3 0 1 2 . 0 0 1 0 Y R 7 1 1 0 Y R 4 2 2 57 74 12 5S .. 7301 0 (CM.) 50 0 0.72 0.0N 4A0._ 35... . 1K 2.50 168.. .. 7554 0 0.. 09 08198..33 001159 0 99 10YR63 10YR54 16 93 CIL 1- 3 AB0 C0 0 9-0 00 29 23.9,3 21 1..0 622-044 STI TTT" 6. 1 012 0.25 0.60 0.05 10YR63 10YR44 19 34 46 C TCT CT /N B U CK X.NRA I OINGHORSE TERR A* I N SYSTEMC.E.C BSAAS TE PPM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 55s--- 0 L F H 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 . 9 9 1 . 0 5 2 . 8 0 0 . 9 2 5 7 . 4 1 2 4 2 0 . 0 0 3 . 8 7 0 . 0 1 . 5 0 6 8 . 0 0 3 7 . 5 M E Q / l O O 1 AE 0 00 -012 " I."1~" 0.-66 0• 07 ""4 900; 4. 0.. 40 " 61 31 5- 23" 0041 6-2-04»6" 7.7 .8 1.03 .08 12.9 0035'"" 1" 2.628.506 .870 0 37 .00 4. 0 3~ 513.50 '""100.809.4"""1 10 0Y YR R5 10 0Y YR R4 342" 4 C BSAAS CX M. X TOT S/ IN KO ANNPIPPM TERRAIN SYSTEM. TEXTURE TE DRYCOLOR X .N RA T I C . E . C H O R I Z O N S A M . P H M O I S T X S XSI XC 7 6 . 0 0 2 7 . 1 1 . 3 7 3 6 . 4 2 0 2 1 5 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 . 6 2 . 71 4 9 . 9 0 66-- 01 LAFEH ( CM.3 ) E X C H . C A T M E O / 1 0 0 G M 1 3 . 4 1 0 Y R 6 2 1 0 Y R 4 2 1 8 6053"C~ 20 SIL 1 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 1 7 . 9 0 5 1 2 . 0 0 0 . 3 9 0 . 0 4 0 . 3 4 . 1 . 2 S 2 . 2 "1 V0 0Y YR R4 S1 31 0 Y R 51 66 2619 " 1 6" .l 7O 0O " "00..1517"'12.50.502Oil" ""0 0. .1 25 "00..3293 0 . 0 5 0."M 3E 5Q 6 1 0 0 0014H2C "3 / l T f " " O F P T H 1 0 Y R 3 3 9 5 4 C 1 5 . 8 0 3 2 0 . 0 5 0 . 3 4 6--3"Z""C"GBJT"""0 0 0 0 0 . 1 ~0 50~ ~0T94~ 00613- 4 • 5.3 B U C K I N G H O R S E T E R R A I N S Y S T E M A S"E C ./ El .O CO""B AMR.THI PC H GRAY.LUVISOL "TC PLOT HO 9R GI LZ EO YN CO SO XCH. CAT. MEQ/100 "G M H E O S A T A/ TN10 P EC G M - COLOR TE3 X0 TURE40 28 CL T O T . C T O T . N SA MAEJ 000-0 10 CM. A 2.3M G0NA.05 0 K. 20 62X I 0 Y R 5 3 1 0 Y R 4 2 . 5 2 . A 7 2 3 . 0 0 0 4 0 . 0 6 1 . 3 8 Y rO YR R4 ~2 4"2 3 " ~3 06 Tl'. 1 070.7"5"0 "23.7 99-- 3 2 OTJG 010-0374.6I .71 .C0~0 .09 1O 0YR 62R"5~2M1O0I YS 6 31 CL 4766"0.70 7~."0 .19 0T2S1~6.20 ""9338.6T6~ TD XS XS2 I42~~2X"C74 R T 15.7 004 12.25 7.7 1.6 2E YR 5R 0A "I "N SYSTEM PLOT IT GLEYEO EUTR1C ORUNISOL SAE"f" CHUATSE TT E.C.~H SA M HOR IZON "sA "X MEQ/lOO C. O.M. TOT. TOT .N GM CA i 1 17.000098.3 10YR31 10YR11X5S8 X1S3I X2C3 6 6 . 1 7 1 L F 0 1 3 0 0 6 3 . 5 5 1 . 6 0 0 . 9 5 5 4 . 3 . 5 8 _ 1 8 . 7 3 _ 2 . 2 5 1 0Y YR R6 54 21 •17-172 -H 00 6-"00O O '17.9 10.40 045. 23.1 38 56.25 8.62 00.0.5 1 143..4600 1 10 10 0Y YR R3 43 37 8 10 10 100.000 .0 A HMKGJ0 0707O 7 . 6 117-73 I 1 0 0 0 4 9 7 . 7 0 . 7 0 . 3 8 0 . 0 3 1 2 . 7 3 4 . 0 7 1 . 1 9 -C CKK G1G2040 0. .7 C.0094. 1104..0 I YRS'21 YR32 5"2 2 7 19 17- 7 0o0 06 -3 0898 7. .0 92 2 01..4209 0 3003 112.371.6201.91.2C 4O CSAAS E PM P2H0 O. T.C PAT 0 ••pL0r"2"3TH aO .R 'rI vZ CO D"N "T3D rGE H TMJ,H SAAH T P P XM.TOX P'T X E X C H . C A T . M E Q / l O O G M ,N,9154.8 110 / 1 1E 25O 4.M . 000 131 3..6289 00..00 01..2205 M 4 9 . 9 0 0 HE 0 1 2 0 0 0 G 2233--NO01 LFH 10YR52 10YR32XS XSI XC" _ _ 1 6 0 .1.13D 0 1 3 . 5 0 2 0 1 . 7 6 0 , 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 . 5 0 " 0 . 0 5 " " " 0 . 1 7 " — V 7 4 ~ 0 1 ' 6 — 0 7 9 V " 0 " . T O " " . 7 ' "2233---23~ OMGJ 030-0763 3 . 9 2 5 10 0Y YR R6 63 21 10 0Y YR R4 41 39 92 33 41 26 3 SLL 1612 i4V oo T2;3- 1 0. .3 72 40 0.,0 16 087,.74 002357 00..3446 00..0053 00.. 3. .1 8fv 0 23- 4 CG 076- +4 16 2. .4 ,1 1102..0100 1 8 TOT.C  PH  CA...  0.73  PLOT "  e-CTXfLOvrsoT  -  ""HcT  DTG" C KG  I  6" GLEYED" ORTHIC  "PLOT  ""  c  IS.  SO  GRAY" LOV1'SOL""  TOT.C  SA" NO  "NX"  GM  et.o  5.6"'  ""Jrrr  "DEPTH H20" (CM. )  :  v—•  NO"  "PPM *  6~CC  CKG  —i"9TTcr—  "77TT  TJTJ-  DEPTH (CM.)  C/N "fTATitr  PH  Trrrr  e 9X .o  -  —  p .  -ppvr  EXCH.  x  x ~  GM  CAT.  _ . I..?. A_  .7s;  SCL  o.o  4  <!  a  "err  "TTJO  -  TTJCTT  0  rC-TJWORl  SBC-  C/N  TOT  I  SL  C.E.C.  —PS—rnr  R" Y  X  et  0  TJT0"2"  SAM  A -rjMGX-oT2"-o"3cr  -  —  " 10YR6 n o  YR4 2  SL  2 5~STTT3 CL -  *  SOIL CHEMICAL  ANALYSIS (FR7f?"tlON <TMMl .  D  TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971)  3636363636-  I 2 3 5 7  HORIZON LFH AS AEGJ OTG CG  SAM. PH OfP TH H2Q (CM. ) OlC-000 001-005 005-023 023-048 046- •  CM. X  3.7 e6.0 4.2 3.B 4.6 4.6 5.2 C.9 6,3 1.1  TOT.C X  TOT.N ' C/N PAT I O X  49.90 . 0.90 2.20 0.40 2.67 0.15 0.S2 0.06 0.66 0.04  55.4 5.5 17.8 8.7 16.S  •PLOT 54 PEATY PHASE RE GO HUMIC GLEYSOL TOT.C X  TOT ,N X  3. 7 54. 0 5. 1 92. 1 6. 3 92. 1 7. 2 2.6 7. 8 1.5  54. SO 53.40 53.40 1.51 0.86  1.16 0.93 0.08 0.07  10 HUM IC ELUVI AT LO GLEYSOL SAM. PH SAC HORIZON CM. OLPTH H20 NO .. X (CM.)  TOT.C  NO 5454545454-  C  1 2 3 4  HOR IZON OFl OF2 OM AH CKG  PH SAM. DEPTH H20 (CM,) 02 1-0 16 016-010 010-000 000-015  Oli.-  +  C/N RATI O  1.25  LFH A HE:  BTG CKG  I 2 3 «  J.S—\-H  Table  LPH ' AC ' UM BMK CK  23  156 C32 015 004 005  P PPM  _  C/N RATIO  X  olo-ooo  5.5 87 SO.SO 1 .45 0 .40 6.21 S.81C 000-026 OVET ~<S7V6~ 0T0'4 026-050 T T 2 0.71 050• 1 .2 -  007-000 000-015 01 5-062 062-085 OBS-124  t  L A C K  Page  2  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA  VZ  NA  15.00 9.50 6.50 8.50 12,75  2.75 4,17 2.10 3.30 4.62  0.0 0.V 0.05 0.03 0,07  C.E.C. MEO/100  X  146.00 24.70 16. 20 15.70 20.80  1.87 0.72 0.37 0.27 0.25  BASE SAT 13.5 S8.5 55.7 77. 1 85,1  COLOR "HOIST  TTRY  10YR32 10YR62 10YR63 10YR52  ~XS XSI XC  10YR21 10YR42 10YR53 10YR42  18 31 29 SICL 33 32 33 CL 22 35 41 C  C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA  MG  NA  K  2.00 0. 75 0. 0 0. 20 0. 35  87.00 106.00 141.00 19. 70 19.00  OASE SAT X 45. 1 15.3 65.4 83.1 86.6  COLOR DRY  MOIST  TEXTURE XS XSI XC  9 63 22 SIL 2 86 10 SI  10YR53 10YR63  CHUATS~E TBRRTrN SYrTE*(  PLOT 18 DEGRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL SAM HORIZON SAM. PH C M . TOT.C OLPTH (CM. ) 18181 8I 8-  P PPM  43. 6 78' 26.25 10.75 0. 0 46. 0 54 8.75 6. 50 0. 0 57. 4 014 ' 76.25 15.87 0. 0 I 8. 9 005 12.50 3.62 0. 05 12. 3 C02 13.00 3.OS 0. 05  PLOT  10_L0; 10- 2 10- 3  SPRUCE ZONE  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  CM. X  SAX  R E A  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  PLOT 36 GLEYEO ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAV NO  °  4.  3.7 92.9 S3.90 1 1.4 0. 82 0.21 5.2 0.4 0.19 7.6 C.3 0. I I 8.0 0.2  (continued)  -  -  P PPM  34.8 100 15.5 084 nT5~0rZ 8.9 004  _  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA  MG  47.50 9.67 8.37 1.89 6T03 "2T49 1 1.25 J.eO -  NA 0.0 0.22  0.11 0.20  K 1.25 0.29  o. r s 0.25  -  C.E.C, MEO/100 GM 138.00 36.00 16. 40  DASE SAT X 42.7 29. 9  •"V5T6-  94.5  COLOR DRY  MOIST  10YR42 10YR21  TT5Y53 2.5^42 2.5YS2 2.5Y32  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 16 47 3S SICL  56~37  6 " SC »  21 48 29 CL  CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM TOT.N 0 .74 0. 03 0.01 0.01 0.01  C/N "TTATTO 72.8 27. 3 21.0 19.0 11. 0  PPH~ 102 003 054 006 003  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA I 3.00 1.25 1.88 4.50 .00  MG 3.62 0.23 0.31 0.47 0.33  NA 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.02 0,02  -WEO/TUT"  GM  2.37 0.06 0. 09 0.02 0.02  158.00 4.50 3. 50 0. 80 0.90  "SAT X 13.3 34.9 65.5 100.0 100.0  COLOR  TEXTURE XS XSI XC  7.5YR62 7.5YR53 7.5TR53 10YR62  10YR42 7.5YR43 7.5YR42 I0YR52  56 18 25 SCL 73 10 16 SL 96 3 0 S 90 3 5 S  •  SOIL C H E U I C A L AkiAuYSIS ( F R A c T l o N  ibnd\  OOREAL WHITE t ULACK SPRUCE ZONE  TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971)  Page 3  PLOT 24 ORTHIC HUM0-FE9RICPCD20L (TENT.) SAM NC  HORIZON S A M . OLPTH  (C.M.I  24- 1 2 2424- 3 24- 4 24- 6  LFH AE UF 1 • F2 C  PH H2U  CM. X  TOT.C X  013-000 • 3.5 91 .0 52.80 000-0 10 4.0 0.7B 010-023 A. 5' 1 1.3 .6 0.95 023-05S 3.8 0.9 0.50 055- + 4 . 7 0. 8 0.46  TOT.N C/N ,t . RATIO 1 .09 0. 05 0.06 0. 06 0. 05  PLOT 49 DE GRADED DYSTRIC BRUNISOL SAM ' NO 4 9-  HORIZON"  C  L T H  49- 1 49- 2 49- 3  -  AE BM C  SAM.  DEPTH (CM. )  OoE-OGfl 000-011 01 1-053 053- +  •PH~ H20  _  4.B 8 7 . 9 4.7 2.6 5.6 0.4 7.0 0.8  096 014 021 008 022  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA  MG  NA  10.00 0.37 0.25 ,0.50 1.25  3.87 0.22 0.16 0.34 0.65  0.0 0.0 0.04 0.0 0.0  K 1.37 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.10  C.E.C. ME 0/100 GM 110.00 8.80 9.30 9.10 9.30  BASE SAT X 14.1 6.7 6.4 11.5 21.8  COLOR XS XSI XC 10YR71.10YR61 10YR64 I0YR54 10YH63 10YR63 10YR52 10YR42  32 45 22 L  CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM  C .M; " T O T ; C " '  X  48. 4 15. 6 15. 8 8. 3 9. 2  P PPM  X  TOT.N X  51 .CO 1.53 0.26 0.45  1.86 0.07 0. 02 0.05  TOT.C X  TOT.N X  C/N RATIO 46.8 21 . 9 13. 0 9.0  -  p  ~-  PPM  ""EXCH. CAT CA  MG  MEO/100 GM NA  120 30.00"' S.SO 0 .0 007 3.50 0.77 0 .03 003 . 2.75 0.30 0 . 03 006 3.50 0.75 0 .0  K 2.37 0. 15 0. 12 0.05  C.E.C. MEO/100 GM 82.00 8.40 9.70 14.20  OAS E SAT X 46.3 53.0 33.0 30.3  COLOR OR V  MOIST  10YR7I 10YR51 10YR64 10YR44 10YR53 10YR33  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 16 43 35 SICL 47 19 33 SCL 50 37 12 L _«  PLOT 79 DE GRADED DYSTRIC ORUN1SOL SAM NO 79797979-  HORIZON  1 2 3 4  Table  LFH AE BM  SAM. PH DEPTH H20 (CM.) 010-000 000-0 13 013-053 053-  23  CM. X  3.9 87.1 4.2 1.3 .7 1.5  50.SO 0.78 0. 86  -5T5T"  (continued)  1 .28 0.09 0.07  C/N RATIO 39.5 8.7 12.3 T.6  P PPM  EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM  COLOR DRY  098 12.50 3.00 O.O 008 0.75 0.35 0.02 004 L5_0_ 0.77 0.02 C0~B~ 1 .62 0.05  -hi  2. 12 0.15 • 0t3Q  92.00 7. 10 14.20_  19.3 18.0 1 8.3  MOIST.  10YR71 10YR51 10YR63 10YR43 10YR63 10YH54  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 38 38 23 L -15 20 4.4—C_ 44 21 34 CL  115 B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss  116  B l a c k Spruce - Moss  F i g s . 3k & 35 Above i s Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s , below i s P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s which along w i t h P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i , c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e moss l a y e r .  Figs. 36 & 37 Above, a m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l . Below, a p o o r l y d r a i n e d Gleyed O r t h i c Gray Luvisol B o t h s o i l s s u p p o r t the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . e  118  Plant  Association  5  B l a c k Spruce - Moss  Ptilio  (crista-castrensis) -  Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e e t u m marianae  B l a c k Spruce - Moss ecosystems are most commonly found on s o i l s of v a r i o u s  textures  t h a t have impeded d r a i n a g e ,  however, they can be found on m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d provided  the  s o i l s are poor i n n u t r i e n t s .  On  the  sites  edatopic  g r i d , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on submesic t o s u b h y g r i c hygrbtopes and  on o l i g o t r o p h i c t o m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e s .  communities have o n l y a few species  plant species, averaging only  of herbs i n the sample p l o t s .  characterized occurring  These p l a n t 7  This a s s o c i a t i o n i s  as much by the absence of s p e c i e s ,  usually  on r i c h e r s o i l s , , as by the p r e s e n c e of p l a n t s , . ,  t o l e r a t i n g poor s o i l s .  In a l l cases t h i s community has  v e r y w e l l developed moss l a y e r w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h dense s p r u c e i n the  a black  t r e e l a y e r , i s the most c o n s p i c u o u s a t t r i b u t e  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  Mor  humus, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s  developing e s p e c i a l l y from b l a c k spruce l i t t e r  (and  site,  decaying  wood), s u p p o r t s r a p i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the moss l a y e r .  119  Vegetation  G e n e r a l l y a few t a l l P i n u s c o n t o r t a occur  i n the  l a y e r w h e r e a s t h e main canopy, t h e A2» i s dominated by P i c e a mariana w h i c h a l s o dominates i n t h e A 3 . white and  s p r u c e , when p r e s e n t ,  Scattered  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n t h e A-^  A2 l a y e r s and does not seem t o t o l e r a t e a s u p p r e s s e d  p o s i t i o n under a dense b l a c k s p r u c e canopy  The  (See T a b l e 2 2 ) .  shrub l a y e r i s v e r y p o o r l y developed w i t h an  average cover v a l u e o f t h e t o t a l B of o n l y 8%. P i c e a mariana w h i c h i s almost always p r e s e n t  Apart  i n the B^ l a y e r  (showing g r e a t e r shade t o l e r a n c e t h a n w h i t e s p r u c e ) , Alnus c r i s p a and Abies l a s i o c a r p a o c c u r r e d plot.  The B 2 l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m .  a c i c u l a r i s which i s present  Rosa  i n h a l f t h e communities examined  grows v e r y p o o r l y , and g e n e r a l l y w i t h a low s p e c i e s l a s i o c a r p a occurred  did Picea mariana.  Abies  significance.  more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e Bg l a y e r t h a n l a s i o c a r p a i s a v e r y shade t o l e r a n t  s p e c i e s i n t h e b o r e a l zone. and  only  i n more t h a n one  g e n e r a l l y w i t h a low s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e .  Abies  from  I t i s capable  growing under r e l a t i v e l y dense shade.  of germinating I t s presence  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y become a component o f t h e c l i m a x community, however, no stands  of b l a c k s p r u c e were  found which were o l d enough t o a d e q u a t e l y development.  determine s u c c e s s i o n a l  120  Cornus c a n a d e n s i s . w i t h  an average s p e c i e s  v a l u e of 3.8, was t h e o n l y s p e c i e s p r e s e n t Vaccinium had  v i t i s - i d a e a w h i c h was p r e s e n t  i na l l plots.  i n 85$  of the plots  a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e  Linnaea b o r e a l i s , Geocaulon l i v i d u m , Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s  were p r e s e n t  communities sampled.  significance  (*f.7).  P y r o l a secunda and  i n 1/3  t o 1/2  of t h e  Of t h e above, Cornus c a n a d e n s i s ,  b o r e a l i s , and P y r o l a secunda a r e companion s p e c i e s ; v i t i s - i d a e a and Geocaulon l i v i d u m a r e order  Linnaea  Vaccinium  characteristic  s p e c i e s f o r P i c e e t a l i a marianae and E q u i s e t u m s c i r p o i d e s i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the B l a c k Spruce - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a association.  The B l a c k Spruce - Moss l a c k s v a s c u l a r s p e c i e s  w h i c h a r e t r u l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  The moss l a y e r schreberi,  i s v e r y w e l l developed w i t h  Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s ,  and P t i l i u m  (7.2,  was p r e s e n t  6.9,  and 5.2  respectively).  Pleurozium  crista-castrensis  always b e i n g p r e s e n t w i t h h i g h average s p e c i e s values  0  significance  Peltigera  aphthosa  i n 12 of t h e 13 p l o t s w i t h an average s p e c i e s  significance  of 3 » . J+  species s i g n i f i c a n e  I t i s the high constancy  and h i g h  of t h e above s p e c i e s , w i t h a p o o r l y  developed herb and shrub l a y e r , w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above s p e c i e s ,  P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a , P. m a l a c e a, and P t i l i d i u m p u l c h e r r i m u m a r e f r e q u e n t l y found i n t h e moss l a y e r , u s u a l l y w i t h a low s p e c i e s significance.  121  T h i s p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s common throughout t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t of Canada (Knapp, 1965) w i t h s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s being described Newfoundland  from A l b e r t a  (Raup, 1935 and Moss, 1953) t o  (Damman, 1964).  Soils  The B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on a r e l a t i v e l y wide v a r i e t y o f s o i l s w i t h Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s and Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s b e i n g t h e most common. Other s o i l s i n c l u d e Gleyed O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s , Rego Humic G l e y s o l s , Humic E l u v i a t e d G l e y s o l s , and O r t h i c Luvisols. will  The e x p l a n a t i o n  Gray  o f t h i s wide v a r i a t i o n of s o i l s  follow.  A l l t h e s o i l s examined had v e r y a c i d i c LFH h o r i z o n s w i t h t h e pH a v e r a g i n g 3*9 (3«5 - 5*5)•  The dense c a r p e t o f  f e a t h e r mosses ( P l e u r o z i u r n , Hylocomium, and P t i l i u m )  contribute  t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k mor humus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s association.  Generally w e l l drained  where t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on m o d e r a t e l y  s o i l s , s o i l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the n u t r i t i o n a l  status i s poor.  An example would be t h e s o i l of p l o t 1  which i s a moderately w e l l drained  O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l w h i c h  122  has  developed from a f i n e t e x t u r e d  till.  Morphologically,  t h i s s o i l s t r o n g l y resembles a t y p i c a l mesic O r t h i c L u v i s o l of the texture  Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  or sand, s i l t ,  identical.  The  Gray  and  c l a y content being e s s e n t i a l l y  C.E.C. of 11.9  of the Bt of p l o t 1 i s w e l l  w i t h i n the range of the C.E.C.'s of the mesic O r t h i c L u v i s o l s , however, the base s a t u r a t i o n of 10.8$ i s o n l y 15%  the  of the average v a l u e of 70.7%  of the mesic Aspen - White S p r u c e .  Gray  in plot  f o r the Bt  T h i s low base  horizons  saturation  i n d i c a t e s d e g r a d a t i o n of the s o i l through p o d z o l i z a t i o n the  e f f e c t of a c i d i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s .  have d i s c u s s e d  C l a r k and  1  or  Green (1964)  s i m i l a r L u v i s o l i c s o i l s developed from a c i d  p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i n the F o r t S t . John area of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Likewise, Dystric Brunisols  the moderate.ly w e l l d r a i n e d (as i n p l o t s 18,  low base s a t u r a t i o n s  and  appears t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  *+9,  humus has  leaching  have r e l a t i v e l y Mg.  This  of s o i l s i s h i g h under a t o the e f f e c t of a c i d humus.  a n a l y s i s shows t h a t the moss  a v e r y low Ca  The  79)  low amounts of Ca and  B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n due A d d i t i o n a l l y , ash  and  Degraded  association's  content.  B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n i s more common  i n r e c e i v i n g p o s i t i o n s where i t i s s u b j e c t  t o water movement  123  from upslopes.  Due  t o the heavy t e x t u r e of the s o i l s i n  t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , seepage w a t e r s move v e r y s l o w l y and behave more l i k e s t a g n a t e d water t h e r e b y r e s u l t i n g growing t r e e s .  I n c o n t r a s t , i n more mountainous  i n slow  areas than  i n the r e g i o n of t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e seepage w a t e r s e f f e c t i v e l y i n c r e a s e the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l s p r o d u c i n g h i g h l y productive forest s i t e s .  P r o v i d i n g seepage water movement  i s s l o w and not e x c e s s i v e , t h e t y p i c a l B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n d e v e l o p s , however, where more water i s p r e s e n t , the B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d n e x t , d e v e l o p s .  P l o t 5h r e p r e s e n t s a  community and s o i l w h i c h has some t r a n s i t i o n a l toward t h i s more p o o r l y d r a i n e d f o r e s t t y p e .  characteristics V a l e n t i n e (1971)  has n o t d e s c r i b e d any of t h e s o i l s found under the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n , however, p l o t  w i t h a Rego Humic  G l e y s o l , i s s i m i l a r t o h i s Klowee S e r i e s .  The p r e s e n c e of d i f f e r e n t ecosystems, r e p r e s e n t e d by d i f f e r e n t s o i l groups, o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s community, m a y b e exp l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e • h a b i t a t s ' t e n d t o e v o l v e toward t h e c l i m a t i c c l i m a x f o r e s t . o f ' t h i s zone, i n w h i c h b l a c k s p r u c e i s becoming  t h e most common f i n a l t r e e .  Wherever t h i c k  mor  humus i s d e v e l o p e d ( f r e q u e n t l y from a c c u m u l a t i o n of decayed c o n i f e r o u s wood,, as p r o b a b l y i s t h e case i n p l o t 17) development  appears t o take p l a c e .  this  124  I f parent  soil  i n f l u e n c e i s d i m i n i s h e d by o v e r l a i n  t h i c k o r g a n i c l a y e r s , from which mor humus d e v e l o p e d , t h e moss and herb l a y e r a r e dependent upon t h i s type of mor humus. T h i s dependency on mor humus c o n d i t i o n s may e f f e c t even t h e shrub and t r e e l a y e r s p r o v i d i n g t h a t s u c h o r g a n i c hurnus h o r i z o n s a r e t h i c k (over 10 cm).  I t should 17, 54,  be c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d t h a t s u c h p l o t s as  and 10 b e l o n g here o n l y by s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f l o r i s t i c  s t r u c t u r e , however, p r e s e n c e (and growth),  e i t h e r of P i c e a  g l a u c a or L a r i x l a r i c i n a i n d i c a t e t h a t these p l o t s should be considered  as e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  distinct.  These p l o t s do,  however, p o i n t out s u c c e s s i o n a l ,trends.  The  f a c t t h a t a c i d mor humus can d e v e l o p  independently  of t h e m i n e r a l s u b s t r a t e and t h e f a c t t h a t i t has developed on moderately w e l l drained  s o i l s i n d i c a t e s that there i s a poten-  t i a l f o r i t s development, even on mesic s i t e s . veloped  Once i t has de-  on mesic s i t e s , i t appears t o degrade t h e m i n e r a l  soil  t h r o u g h p o d z o l i z a t i o n as i s i n d i c a t e d by p l o t 1 (Table 2 3 ) . B l a c k s p r u c e i s w e l l adapted f o r e x i s t i n g i n moss humus w i t h i t s s h a l l o w r o o t system growing t h r o u g h t h i s a c i d mor humus. Wheetman and Timmer (1967) have p o i n t e d moss l a y e r r e p r e s e n t s  t h e major source  out t h a t t h e f e a t h e r of n i t r o g e n t o the  t r e e s and t h a t f e a t h e r mosses, t h r o u g h t h e i r a c c u m u l a t i o n  of  125  n u t r i e n t s , b u i l d up f e r t i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on s h a l l o w and rocky s o i l s .  I n t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a where t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s  are f r e q u e n t l y r i c h and f i n e t e x t u r e d , t h e development of a c i d mor humus tends t o degrade t h e s o i l .  For t h i s  reason,  f a c t o r s such as f i r e w h i c h r e l e a s e n u t r i e n t s t i e d up i n o r g a n i c l a y e r s , thereby i n c r e a s i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of  o r g a n i c m a t t e r , r e t a r d t h e development of a c i d mor humus.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , f i r e i n t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t s around F o r t Nelson., i s one o f t h e major f a c t o r s which have prevented more e x t e n s i v e development o f a c i d mor humus and b l a c k s p r u c e f o r e s t s i n upland  sites.  I t may be concluded t h a t f i r e can be u t i l i z e d as an e c o l o g i c a l l y sound t o o l on n u t r i t i o n a l l y r i c h ,  fine  t e x t u r e d s o i l s , t o p r e v e n t d e g r a d a t i o n of f o r e s t s i t e s i n the F o r t Nelson area, e s p e c i a l l y i f tree species which l a r g e amounts of bases  a r e encouraged  after burning.  cycle Other  s i t e t r e a t m e n t s w h i c h f a v o u r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h i s mor humus c a n , however, be u t i l i z e d  i n l i e u of fire„  126  PLANT ASSOCIATION 6 BLACK SPRUCE - EQOISETPU SYLVATICITM  Hylocomlo ( s p l e n d e n t l s ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) Equlseto  ( s y l v a t i c i ) - Plceetum marianae  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species  Layer  Constanta (presence *  Tree  > 60%)  characteristic  Characteristic non  - constants  } II  P i c e a mariana Larix  laricina  Betula  Shrub  reslnlfera  Rosa a c i c u l a r i s  Salix  pyrifolla  Ledum groenlandicum  Herb  Equisetum  sylvaticum*  Ranunculus  lapponlcus  Cornus canadensis Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Rubus chamaemorus Pyrola  3ecunda •-  Petasites palmatus* Smllaclna  trlfolla  Equisetum arvense Llstera  Moss  cordata"*  Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i  Sphagnum subnitens  Hylocomium splendens  Campyllum  hlspldulom  Ptilium crista-castrensis  Cephaloila  plenlceps  Sphagnum  Cladonla  girgensohnii  Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Philonotls  fontana*  P o h l l a nutans  Table  ?k  nemoxyna  127  BLACK SPRUCE - EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM Hylocomio (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) Equiseto (sylvatici) - Piceetum marianae  52  Plot No.  Elevation in M Latitude Longitude  695 ^95 58° 33' 58° MD* 122° ho 123° 38' 1  Exposure  -  NE  Slope Gradient %  0  **  51  W7  30  29  W95 ^95 58° WO' 58° 33' 58° 32' 123° 37' 122° ^1» 122° hO* 6M>  -  N  -  12  0  0  27 6  29  '  percent coverage  75 10  63  65  15  15  35  ho  h8  ho  15  12  7  20  Total B  17  10  78  65  l  15  7 5  3  4-  h5  3  3  8  78  12  C  27  31  50  28  65  Dh  86  90  95  90  +  +••  95  96  +  +  Total A  •h A  B  3  Dw  1  2  75 12  89  90  76  If 8  Plot Coverage % Litter Decaying Wood  3  2  5  Mineral Soil  -.  -  -  -  -  Hygrotope  Subhygric  -  Trophotope  Mesotrophic  Parent Material  Morainal,  Rock  Table  25  —  Hygric Sube trophic  Lacustrine  BOREAL BLACK  PLOT ST  SPRUCE  -  EQUISETUM  |052|029|030|047I051I  NUMBER  NO.  SPECIES  1  1  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  MS  RS  I I P  ANO V I G O R  16.217.217.215.114.21 14.21 . I . I . I . I I . I . 13.21 .1.1 I . I . 12.21 . 1 . 1  1100.0 6.2 1 2 0 . 0 2.4 1 2 0 . 0 1.5 1 2 0 . 0 1.0  4-7 4-4 3-3 2-2  PICEA LARIX  17.215.215.214.115.21 I 1.21 . I . I . I . I  4-7 1100.0 5.6 J 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1-1  15.213.II . I*117.21 II.II . 11.21, 13.21 I . I*.21 . I, 14.21 I . 13.213.21» • I • I I . 12.21 . I» I • I I . I . 11.21 » I • I  I 8 0 . 0 5. 1 1 6 0 . 0 1.9 1 4 0 . 0 2.4  • -7  1 4 0 . 0 2. 2 1 2 0 . 0 1.0 1 20.0 • . 2  3-3 2-2 1-1  MARIANA LARICINA  5  PICEA MARIANA BETULA RESINIFERA SALIX PYRIFOLIA  6 7 8  ALNUS C R I S P A ABIES LASICCARPA POPULUS TREMULOIDES  B2 9 10  ROSA ACICULARIS LEOUM GROENLANDICUM PICEA MARIANA SALIX PYRIFOLIA 11 B E T U L A G L A N D U L O S A 12 V A C C I N I U f U L I G I N O S U M R I B E S GLANDULOSLM BETULA RESINIFERA ABIES LASIOCARPi ALNUS CRISPA RlfES TRISTE SALIX ARBUSCULOIDES SALIX NOVAE-ANGLIAE VIBURNUM EDULE LARIX LARICINA SPIRAEA BETULI FOLIA VACCINIUM CAESPITOSUM V A C C I N I U M MEHBRANACEUM  21 E Q U I S E T U M 22 23 24 25 26  1  SIGNIFICANCE  1  PICEA MARIANA LARIX LARICINA BETULA RESINIFERA PINUS CONTORTA  Bl  18 19 20  1  ZONE  PAGE  3-5 1-4  A3  14 15 16 17  SPRUCE  1 80.0 4.8 1 6 0 . 0 3.3  MARIANA LARICINA  A2  13  C BLACK  13.215.215.214.21 . I 14.21 . I . 11.214.21  1 PICEA 2 LARIX  3 A  1  SPECIES  Al  WHITE  SYLVATICUM  SYLVATICUM  CORNUS CANADENSIS VACCINIUM VITIS-IDAEA RUBUS CHAMAEMDRUS PYROLA SECUNDA P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS  I 2 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 4 . 2 1 1 . I I 1.  11.212.21 18.314, 17.114, I . I I 4.11 4, I . I 13. I*. I. I I3.2I+, I . I 11.21 I*.II I».ll 11.21 II . I , I 11.21 I 1 . 2 1 I I I . I I . I I 1.21 I . 11.21 11.21 . I I I . I».II I*.  I .I I . I I . I  I I.I I .. I I*.II 14.213.213.215.217.21  I3.2I5.2I5.2U.2I4.2I I 2.214.214.213.214.21  14.214.21 . 13.315.21 I 1.21 . 11.2 I*. I*.2 I 13.21 . 13.21 . 11.11  1100.0 1 80.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  40.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  1-4 3.0 5. 2 1-8 4.9 4-7 2.4 + -4 1.6 • -3 1.6 • -3 • . 4 • -1 • . C • -» • .2 1-1 • . 2 1-1 • .2 1-1 ..2 1-1 • . 2 1-1 • .2 1-1  1 20.0 *.C J 20.0 • .C 1 20.0 *.o 1 20.0 • .0 1100.0 1100.0 1100.0 1 80.0 1 80.0 1 60.0  1-3 *-4  • -*  3-7 5.3 4.e • -5 4 . 1 2-4 4. 4 3-5 1.0 • -1 1-3 2.4  ro  CO  T a b l e 26  BOREAL WHITE BLACK  PLOT  Table  I0521029103010471051 I  NUMBER  ST NO.  OH  SPRUCE - EQUISETUH S Y L V A T I C U H  SMI L A C I N A T R I F O L I A EQUISETUM ARVENSE L I S T E R A COROATA CARE X DISPERMA RANUNCULUS LAPPONICUS L Y C O P O O I U K ANNOTINUM OXYCOCCUS MICROCARPUS GOODYERA REPENS EOUISETUM SCIRPOIOES HAEENARIA ORBICULATA LINNAEA BOREALIS CARE X A Q L A T I L I S CAREX L O L I A C E A E M P E T R U M NIGRUM MERTENSIA PANICULATA M I T E L L A NUOA MONESES UNI FLORA PYROLA A S A R I F O L I A VICLA RENIFOLIA ANOROMEOA P O L I F O L I A EOUISETUM PRATENSE ERIOPHORUM BRACHYANTHERUM GALIL'H DOREALE GECCAULCN LIVIOUM RUBUS PUBESCENS  52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74  PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS SPHAGNUM G I.RGENSOHN 11 AULACOMNIUM PALUSTRE PHILONOT.IS FONT ANA P O H L I A NUTANS C L A O O N I A NEMOXYNA • P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA CLAOONIA GRACILIS SPHAGNUM S U B N I T E N S CAKPYLILM HISPIOULUM C E P H A L O Z I A CONNIVENS CEPHALOZIA PLENICEPS C L A D O N I A CORNUTA D I C R A N U M UNOULATUM P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A POLYOACTYLA TOMENTHYPNUM N I T ENS CLADINA MITIS CLAOINA RANGIFERINA P O L Y T R I C H U M COMMUNE S C A P A I A PALUOOSA  26  (continued)  I  SPECIES  SPECIES  27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  I  12  11  21 |• 21 21 12  I1 2I  I*  21  C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 2  I S I G N I F CANCE  AND  V GOR  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  p  fS  60.0 60.0 60.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  2.1 1. 1 1.1 2.0 1.6 • .8 • .8 • .4 «.o ».C 2.4 1.0 • .2  1-3 »-2 •- 2 2-3 • -3 1-1 1-1 • -1 •- • • -• 4-4 2-2 l - l * . 2 1-1 • . 2 1-1 • .2 1-1 • .2 1-1 ». 2 1-1 • .2 1-1 • .0 • .0 • .0 • - * • . 0 + -• • .C • - + • .c • - •  1 1 0 0 . 0 6.4  1100.0 1 60.0 1 60.0 1 6C.0 1 60.0 1 60.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 40.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0 1 20.0  RS  5.6  5-8 1-6  5.9 7-7  5. 1 • - 8 • .C • - • «.C • .0 »-• 2.4 • - 4 2.3 3-3 1.6 • -3 • .4 • - 1 • .0 • - • • .0 • - •  •- T  • .C «.0  • .c  • .0 • - • • .0 ».c • 2.4 4-4 2.4 4-4 * . 2 1-1 • .2  l-l  BOREAL BLACK  PLOT ST  105210291030104710511  SPECIES  BRACHYTHECIUH ALBICANS BRACHYTHEC IUM R E F L E X U M C A L L IERGCN C O R O I F O L I U M C A L L I E R G O N STRAMINEUM C A L Y P O G E IA SPHAGNI COLA C E P H A L O Z I E L L A SUBDENTATA CERATODON P U R P L R E U S C I N C L I D I U M STYGIUM C L A O O N I A GGNECHA C L A D O N I A PLEUROTA CLAOCNIA UNCIALIS DREPANCCLADUS C A P I L L I F O L I U S DREPANOCLADUS R E V O L V E N S OREPANOCLACUS UNCINATUS DREPANOCLADUS VERNICOSUS EURHYNCHIUM P U L C H E L L U M H E R Z O G I E L L A TURFACEA L E P I D O Z I A REPTANS L E P T G B R Y U M PYR IFCRME LOPHOZIA ALPESTRIS L O P H O Z I A ASCENOENS L O P H O Z I A CBTUSA MNIUM SPINULOSUM MYLI A ANOMALA P A L U D E L L A SCUARROSA PLAGIOMNIUM C U S P I D A T U M PLAGIOTHECIUM PILIFERUM POL YTRI CHUM S T R I C T U M PTILIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM  OW 104  105  106  107 108 109 110  Table  P L E U R O Z I U M SCHREBERI DICRANUM F U S C E S C E N S PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS HYLOCOMIUM S P L E N D E N S P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA CEPHALOZIA CCNNIVENS CLADONIA GRACILIS C L A O C N I A OCHROCHLORA DREPANOCLADUS LNCINATUS HERZOGIELLA TURFACEA J A M E S O N I E L L A AUTUMNALIS L E P I D O Z I A REPTANS MNIUM SPINULOSUM , P T I L I O I U M PULCHERRIMUP AULACCMN IUM P A L U S T R E BLEPHARCSTOMA TRTCHQPFYLLUM CEPHALOZI ELLA OIVARICATA CLADON IA F I M B R I A T A CROSS0CALYX HELLERIANUS  26  (continued)  WHITE  C BLACK  SYLVATICUM  NUMBER  NO.  75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103  SPRUCE - E O U I S E T U M  1  1  1  . 1 •• 1 I.I*. •• 1 • 1 1 1 . 1 • I 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 *. I 1 *• 1 • 1 1 I . I . I . I . I 1 I . I . 1 •• 1 . I 1 . 1 *• 1 1 • 1 •. 1 j *• 1 • 1 1 . 1 •• I . 1 •• I 1 *• 1 . j 1 . 1 •. I  1 1 •. 1 • 1  1  • . 1 .I I I . I . I I . I . 1 I . I * . 1 I . I . I I . I . f . 1 *• I 1 •. 1 .. 1 I I . I . 1 *• 1 . 1  1  . . . . . . . .  .  1  SIGNIFICANCE  1  I  AND  I  VIGOR  {  |  I  i. i . I . I . I . I . i . i .  . i . i .  . I I .  I . . i. . I . I . I  I I I .  I . I I . I I . I  . I . I . I . I . I . I . i. I . . i . I . i . l . i . i.i . i . . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . t . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . . i. i. i. i. i. i. i . I .  i. i. i I . I . i.i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i. i . i . i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i .  i . i . i . i . i . i I . I . i. i . i . i . i . i . i i . i . i . i . I . I .  I . I .  I  .  I  . i . i . i . i . , i . i . i . I . I . I * . I . I  i . i . .  I  .  I  i. i . i. i. i I . I . I . i . i j . i. I . I . I I . I . i,. I . I . i . i . i . I . I i. i. i. I . I  I . I . I .  .I  .  I  i  I I I  i.i  . I . I . I . I .  i . i .  . I  I  i . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i i. i. I . I . I i . i . i . i.i . i . i . i . i . i i. I . I . I . I I . I . I . i.i  . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . . i . i*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . , i . i*. i . I . I . i . i . i . i . . i . i . I . I .i . I . I . i . i . . i+. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . t + . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i.  I  .  .I . I . I .  I  .  I  I . I  . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . I . I i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i 13. I . I * . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i.i 1 *• i . i*. I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I 14. i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i 13. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 1. I . I . i . i . i . I . i . i . I . I . i.. I . I « i 1 . I . I * . I .1 . i . i . i . i . i . i. i. i. i.i 1 *• I . I . I . I . I . I .I . I . I . I . I . I . i.i 1 * • i . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I •  1 . 12. 1 •• 1 . 1.12. 1 . 11. 1 •• 1 • 1•• 1 • 1 •. I . I . I . • | , |+ . I , 1 •• 1 . I . I . I . 1 •• 1 »• 1 • I . 1 . 1 • • 1 •• I . I . 1 1 . 1 *• 1 . 1 • I . I . 1 •• I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . I .  i  .  i*.  I . I . I . I .  I  .  I  .I  .  I  .I . I .  I . I  r . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i • i • i • i i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i. i. I . I . I i . i * . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I I . I .  i . i .  I . I . I .  I . I * . I . i . i I . I . I . I . I .  I . I . I . I . I .  . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i • i*. I . I . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .i . i. i . i * . i . i . i .  i . i . i . i .  i.i  i. i. i . i. i i . i . i . I . I I . I . I . I . I  i.  I  i p  i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i. i . i . i.i i+. I . I . i . t . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i  I . I . I I . i. i+. I . I*, I  I  "  I . I . I . I .I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .I . I . I . I .I . I . I . I . I . I .1 .1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1. 1.  i+. i . I . I . I . I . i . . i .  . . . • -. . .  1  1  SPECIES  SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 3  I . I . i.  j  I . I . I . I . I  MS  RS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.C • - » 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 •. 0 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.C • - . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.0 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.C 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .C • - • 1 . I . I 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . o • - + 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c • - • 1 .1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 + - • 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 + .0 • - • 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.C 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . o 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 «.C • - . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 » - • 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 *.C 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * • c *— V 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c * - v  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . I 1 . 1 . 1 ' 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . I . I 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1  60.0 60.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0  2.C *.c 2:1 1. 7 *.4 • .0 *.C *.o •.0 *.c • .0 • .0 *.c • .0 «.c *.o ».o «.c  »-3 • -• 2-4 1-3 • -1 •  *  •• -• • -• • -*  • • • • •  -» -• -• -•  BOREAL WHITE C CLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 4  BLACK SPRUCE - EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM PLOT NUMBER ST NO.  SPECIES  111 OICRANUM TAURICyH OICRANUM UNOLLAT/UM 112 LEPTOGIUM SATURNINUM 113 LOPHOIIA ELONGATA 1 1 * LOPHOZIA VENTRICOSA 115 NEPHROMA HELVETJCUH PELTIGERA CANINA 116 PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS PELTIGERA POLYDACTYLA 117 SCAPANIA UMBROSA 118 T ETRAPHIS PELLUCIOA 119 TR1TOMARIA EXSEfTIFORMIS  Table  26  I052I029I030I047I051I  (continued)  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  I  I I I  SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR  I*  P  MS RS  20.0 «.0 •20.0 0 2 0 . 0 4.C 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.C 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.0 2 0 . 0 4.0 I 2 0 . 0 4.0  I I I I I I I I I I  4444444444-  f  SOIL"  OOflCAL "WH1 IF (. U L A C K SPMUC6 ZONE  CKPMTC7.C ANAtYGTS 'JFR*CTTON <ZMH-|-'-" " -  -  _  Page  TCf«AIN SYSTEM AF Tt:ftVALE NT 1NF ( I 97 I) PLCT " J ' P C A T O i l A l c SAM NO  HORIZON  (CM.)  525252-  StKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  '•CCC HUMIC CLFYSCL  SAM. DEPTH  PH H2Q  TOT.N  TOT.C X  c.  49.0  044-0 37 037-000 000- '•  OFI OF2  P C/N R AT I 0 PPM 110  C.E.C  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM "CA  h"G  NS  42.50 10.12 0.0  I 6. 9""~"23" '" 14". 25  4 . 87 0.05  GM  K  66.00  2.62  TEXTUHS  COLOR  BASE  X —SAT-  "DRY  MOIST  83.9 1 00 .0  "10YR53 10YR32  C.E.C. MEU/100 GM  BASE SAT  ~D~RY""  145.00 19. 40 11.00" 9.80 3. 20 10.40  10.9 x 7. 20.2 10YR62 "1 3 . 6" 10YRSI 38.8 10YRS1 31.7 10YR42 81.0  10YR21 10YR32 10YR32  C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM  OASE SAT X  MOIST  0 . 32 ~ "19.30  XS XSI XC 1 I '53 33 SICL"  PLOT 29" GLEYED "ORTHIC "GRAY'TWTSOU SAM NO  HORIZON S A M . PH DEPTH tC.MTT" H2Q  CM. X  005-000 3.a 92.9 7.3 000-006 -0'0'o-"0'l"0"" -379 3.13 010-016 3.7 3.9 01 6-057 3.9 5.4 0574.8 1.2  3.0  TOT.C  TOT.N  X  X  53.90 4.26 2"."19 2.23 3.11  1.07  0.47  0V09 0.26 0.19 0.06  0.69  C/N R AT I 0  P PPM  EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA  ~HG~  4.25  "NTT  0.0 2. 62 8.75 50.4 142 0. 37 1 .50 1 .50 O.OS 9.1 013 24.'3""045" ~0.75" "0.55"0.02" "0.17" 0.47 1 .75 1 .52 0.05 8.8 013 0.35 t .25 0.97 0.02 16.4 018 0. 27 5.00 3.C5 0.0 11.5 13  _  TEXTURE  COLOR x  -HOI ST  s  T  m  c  5YR40 10YR32 _7. 5YR20_ 8 39 51 SIC 2 7 5 2 2 0 SIL 21 30 47 C 21 42 36 CL  PLOT 30 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAM NO  PH SAM. OLPTH H20 (CM. )  HORIZON LFH AHE AE "BT OTGJ CGJ  303030" 31-" 3030-  006-000 000-005 005-019 0n-T)33033-053 003- •  TOT .N X  O.M. TOT.C X X  4.3 90.0 3.8 5.9 4.6 1.9 — Ti"6 4.9 1.7 1.7 6.6  52.20 3.42 1.09 0T9T" 0.99 1.00  1.01 0.60 0.08 07TVS 0.07 0.09  T T = -  474 7-  OF2 CG  050-014 014-066 066-072  4B.70 47.60 1.33  -  -onn 1.09 0. 12  PH HORIZON SAM. OEPTH H20 (CM. )  '5T5151-  Table  OF2 AHG  030-000 000•  27  4,6 5.3  D.M.  X  92.1 6.5  EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM CA 22.50 3.25 3.50 4.00" 4.75 5.50  MG £.12 1.90 2.62 "3. 15" 3.05 2.85  NA 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.0 0.02  K  1.-12 0.95 0.22 0". 27 0.25 0.25  134.00 21.00 8.90 I2i80 11.30 9.10  TEXTURE  COLOR DRY  23.8 29.2 71.6 5B'."2 71.5 94.8  XS XSI XC  10YR41 10YR21 8 10YR72 10YRS2 5 10 YR62""T0 YR42 13 10YR52 10YR42 10YRS2 10YR32 14 -  TOT.C  X  53,40 3.78  EXCHV"CAT."MEOT'IO0" GM~ CA  MG  NA  s o n — — 1 . 6 . 2 5 5.CO 0.0 0.0 3.7 8 41,25 8.50 11. 1 023 8.00 3.SO 0.07  4  K  "—CVEVCr" -DA'SE MEQ/ 100 SAT GM X  -  0T5363.00  0.0 0.25  128.00 16.40  CTjrOH  —  DRY  27 64 HC 47 47 SIC 33 "66' HC'" 52 34 SICL  TOT.N X 0.S6 0.21  —CVN—  RAT 10 62.1 18.0  PPM 058 021  EXCH. CAT, MEO/100 GM' CA 36.25 13.25  MG  NA  8.25 0.0 4.22 0,03  K 1 ,25 0.25  C.E.C.  MEO/100 GM 98.00 20.20  ~  MOIST  TEXTUREXS XSI XC  3S. I  39.2 72.1  10YRS2 10YR32  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  PLOT 51 PEATY PHASE RE GO HUMIC GLEYSOL SAM NO  51.7 288 5.7 024 13.6 007 ITi"4-006 14.1 009 11.1 010  TDT.N ~ C7N~ — P — RATI O PPM X  C M . -nrr: X X  3.9 E4.0 4.8 82.1 5.1 2.3  P PPM  SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM  PLOT 47 TERRIC SPHAGNO-FIBR1SOL PH SAM- -HOHIZJN DEPTH H20 NO (CM.)  C/N RATIO  BASE SAT X 46.9 07.9  COLOR DRY  MOIST  10YRS2 10YR22  2 43 S4 SIC  TEXTURE XS XSI XC 9 60 29 SICL  1  F i g . 38 A. B l a c k Spruce - E q u i s e t u m s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n on a P e a t y Phase Rego Humic G l e y s o l .  134 B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y ] v a t i c u r n  F i g . 39 V e r y dense development of E q u i s e t u m s y l v a t i c u m under a b l a c k s p r u c e canopy w i t h Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i d o m i n a t i n g t h e moss l a y e r .  Fig.  ko  Accompanying s o i l - P e a t y Phase Rego Humic G l e y s o l  135 B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m  Figs. ^1 & k2 the base of a s l o p e  A Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l near Below, Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m .  136  Plant Association 6  B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum S y l v a t i c u m  Hylocomio  (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) -  E q u i s e t o ( s y l v a t i c i ) - Piceetum  marianae  In a r e a s of g e n t l e topography around F o r t N e l s o n , t h e B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s under p o o r l y d r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n s on almost l e v e l  topography  where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e movement of water t h r o u g h the soil.  A d d i t i o n a l l y i n more mountainous  a r e a s west o f F o r t  N e l s o n , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n can d e v e l o p on Gleyed O r t h i c  Gray  L u v i s o l s a t t h e base of s l o p e s where i t shows some a f f i n i t i e s t o t h e B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n .  This a s s o c i a t i o n  o c c u r s b a s i c a l l y on h y g r i c ( r a r e l y s u b h y g r i c ) t r o p h o t o p e s and has been judged t o occur on s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t o m e s o t r o p h i c trophotopes.