Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Boreal ecosystems of the Fort Nelson area of northeastern British Columbia Annas, Richard M. 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A1 A55.pdf [ 53.09MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094127.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094127-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094127-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094127-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094127-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094127-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094127-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094127-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094127.ris

Full Text

B O R E A L E C O S Y S T E M S OF T H E F O R T N E L S O N A R E A OF N O R T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A by RICHARD M. ANNAS B . S . F . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in t h e Depar tment We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1977 (fcT) Richard M. Annas, 1977 o f B o t a n y In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f .„ jpL The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date l & y . ax/77 i ABSTRACT An e c o s y s t e m s t u d y , based on the c o n c e p t and a p p r o a c h o f b i o g e o c l i m a t o l o g y ( sensu the K r a j i n a s c h o o l o f e c o s y s t e m c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n ) , was c o n d u c t e d i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i n t he F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . The pr ime p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was to p roduce an e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f o r -e s t e d e c o s y s t e m s of t h e a r e a . The r e s u l t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was based on an a n a l y s i s o f as many e n v i r o n m e n t a l and v e g e t a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f e a s i b l e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t he e n v i r o n -menta l and v e g e t a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n the f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n s p i c u o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e to e c o s y s t e m p r o c -e s s e s and d e v e l o p m e n t . The v e g e t a t i o n f rom 95 p h y t o g e o c o e n o t i c p l o t s was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 6 o r d e r s , 10 a l l i a n c e s and 15 a s s o c i a t i o n s and the s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 17 s u b g r o u p s , some w i t h t h e i r g l e y e d v a r i a t i o n s . D e t a i l e d s o i l a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e ma jo r components o f t he e c o s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n s . The e c o s y s t e m s a re summar ized e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y by t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n on an e d a -t o p i c g r i d o f m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s . An e l e m e n t a l ash a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t on s u r f a c e o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s . Ca and Mg c o n t e n t appear t o be good i n d i c a -t o r s o f t h e p o s i t i o n s t h a t e c o s y s t e m s occupy on the e d a t o p i c g r i d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , mor humus o f b l a c k s p r u c e e c o s y s t e m s was compared w i t h moder humus o f aspen e c o s y s t e m s . I t i s c o n f i r m e d 11 t h a t moder humus has p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a re more c o n d u c i v e t o h i g h b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y t han does mor humus. I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c o l d b o r e a l c l i m a t e , f l a t -ness o f t h e t e r r a i n , p r e v a i l i n g l y f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l p a r e n t ma-t e r i a l , and f a i r l y f r e q u e n t f o r e s t f i r e s a re the dominant e n v i -r onmenta l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e c o s y s t e m s t r u c t u r e and d y n a m i c s i n t he s t u d y a r e a . The f i n e t e x t u r e o f t he p a r e n t m a t e r i a l f r e q u e n t l y c a u s e s v e r y s l o w p e r c o l a t i o n o f w a t e r t h r o u g h s o i l s w h i c h p r o -duces s e m i - s t a g n a n t w a t e r c o n d i t i o n s i n s t e a d o f t h e r i c h s e e p -age s i t e s o f more e a s i l y d r a i n e d m a t e r i a l s i n o t h e r a r e a s . S u f f i c i e n t m o i s t u r e i s r e t a i n e d i n t h e s e f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l s t o p r e v e n t x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s f rom d e v e l o p i n g , even i n s h e d d i n g t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s . The c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e s r e d u c e b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , o f the a r e a t o the p o i n t where n u t r i e n t p o o r , mor humus c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p . Mor humus promotes d e g r a d a t i o n o f s o i l s . However , t h i s p r o c e s s i s g r e a t l y i n h i b i t e d by f r e q u e n t f o r e s t f i r e s . These f i r e s m a i n t a i n aspen s t a n d s as a f i r e c l i m a x w h i c h r e -t a r d s the deve lopment o f s t r o n g a c i d i t y , so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n mor humus o f b l a c k s p r u c e s t a n d s ( t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c l i m a t i c c l i -max) . The g e n e r a l f l a t n e s s o f t h e t e r r a i n r e s u l t s i n poor d r a i n a g e o f t he a r e a and f a v o u r s the deve lopment o f b o g s . In h i g h m o o r s , a p e r m a f r o s t l a y e r c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r s . T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Page ABSTRACT i L i s t o f t a b l e s v i L i s t o f f i g u r e s x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xvii C h a p t e r I. INTRODUCTION 1 O b j e c t i y e s 1 A p p r o a c h and t e r m i n o l o g y 3 The s t u d y a r e a 6 C I i m a t e 7 Phys i o g r a p h y 8 I I . METHODS 16 V e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s 16 Soi 1 a n a l y s i s 21 I I I . UNITS OF THE BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCE BIOGEOCLI MAT IC ZONE 2k The e d a t o p i c g r i d 27 O r d e r I : P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e 2 9 A l l i a n c e 1 : P i c e i o n g l a u c a e 3 0 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 1 : Aspen - Wh i te S p r u c e 3^ V e g e t a t i o n 46 S o i l s 5 2 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 2 : F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) Whi t e S p r u c e 5 7 V e g e t a t i o n 6 8 S o i l s 72 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 3 : L o d g e p o l e P i n e - C lubmoss 75 V e g e t a t ion 8 3 S o i l s 8 6 O r d e r II : P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a e 8 8 A l l i a n c e 2 : C l a d i n o ( m i t i s ) - P i n i o n c o n t o r t a e (- banks i anae) 8 9 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n k : L o d g e p o l e p i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k -- L i c h e n 9 0 V e g e t a t i o n 9 9 S o i l s 102 i v TABLE: OF CONTENTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) C h a p t e r Page A l l i a n c e 3 : P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n m a r i a n a e 104 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 5 : B l a c k S p r u c e - Moss 106 V e g e t a t i o n 119 S o i l s 121 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 6 : B l a c k S p r u c e - Equisetum sylvaticum 126 V e g e t a t i o n 136 S o i l s 138 A l l i a n c e 4 : A u l a c o m n i o ( p a l u s t r i s ) - S a l i c o ( m y r t i l l i -f o l i a e ) - P i c e i o n m a r i a n a e 1 39 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 7 : B l a c k S p r u c e - S a l i x m y t r i l l i f o -l i a - Rulacomnium l4l V e g e t a t i o n 150 S o i l s 152 A l l i a n c e 5 : Sphagno ( f u s e ? ) - Rubo (chamaemori ) -- P i c e i o n m a r i a n a e 153 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 8 : B l a c k S p r u c e - Sphagnum fuscum 155 V e g e t a t i o n 163 S o i l s 169 O r d e r III : L a r i c e t a l i a l a r i c i n a e 171 A l l i a n c e 6 : Menyantho ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - L a r i c i o n l a r i c i n a e 172 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 9 : Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h -- Menyanthes 173 V e g e t a t i o n 181 S o i l s 184 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 10: Tamarack - B l a c k S p r u c e -Equisetum arvense 186 V e g e t a t ion 195 S o i l s 197 O r d e r IV : P o p u l e t a l i a b a l s a m i f e r a e 200 A l l i a n c e 7 : P o p u l i o n b a l s a m i f e r a e 200 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 11: F l o o d p l a i n Ba lsam P o p l a r 202 V e g e t a t i o n 212 S o i l s 214 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 1 2 : F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r 2 1 5 V e g e t a t i o n 220 S o i l s 221 A l l i a n c e 8 : S a l i c i o n i n t e r i o r i s 221 P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n 13: Sandbar W i l l o w 222 V e g e t a t i o n 2 2 8 S o i l s 2 2 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Chapter Page Order V : Spiraeo - M y r i c e t a l i a gal is 2 3 0 A l l i a n c e 9 : Drepanoclado (vern icos i ) - Menyantho ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - Myr ic ion gal is 2 3 0 Plant a s s o c i a t i o n ]h: Myrica gale - Menyanthes 231 Vegetat ion 2 3 5 S o i l s 2 3 6 Order VI : Sphagno (magel1 a n i c i ) - Scheuchzer ie ta l i a p a l u s t r i s 2 3 8 A l l i a n c e 1 0 : Sphagno (magelIanici) - Sarracenio (purpureae) - Scheuchzerion p a l u s t r i s 2 3 8 Plant a s s o c i a t i o n 1 5 : P i t cher Plant - Sphagnum 2 3 9 Vegetat ion 2kk S o i l s 245 Summary synthes is tab le 2 ^ 6 IV. TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE 2 5 5 V. SURFACE ORGANIC LAYERS 2 6 2 VI. FOREST MENSURATION 2 7 5 Si te index 2 7 6 Standing volume 2 7 8 Procedures 2 7 9 VII. SUCCESSION 2 8 8 F loodp la in succession 2 8 9 VII I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 3 0 3 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 1 3 APPENDICES 3 2 5 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. S p e c i e s S i g n i f i c a n c e . 19 2. C o n s t a n c y 21 3. S y n o p s i s o f the S y n s y s t e m a t i c U n i t s i n t h e P r e s e n t Study 26 Aspen - White Spruce C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combin-a t i o n o f S p e c i e s 31 5. Aspen - White Spruce Environment 32 6. Aspen - White Spruce V e g e t a t i o n 33 7. Aspen - White Spruce S o i l s 37 8. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s >57 9. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce E n v i r o n m e n t 58 10. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce V e g e t a t i o n 59 11. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce S o i l s 62 12. Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 75 13. Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss Environment 76 l h . Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss V e g e t a t i o n 77 l5o Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss S o i l s 79 v i i v i i i LIST OF TABLES ( C o n t i n u e d ) Table Page 31. B l a c k Spruce - S a l l x m y r t i l l i f o l i a -Aulacomnium S o i l s l*+6 32. B l a c k Spruce - Sphagnum fuscum C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n o f S p e c i e s 155 33. B l a c k Spruce - Sphagnum fuscum Environment 156 3h. B l a c k Spruce - Sphagnum fuscum V e g e t a t i o n 157 35. B l a c k Spruce - Sphagnum fuscum S o i l s 159 36. Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 173 37. Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes Environment 17*+ 38. Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes V e g e t a t i o n 175 39. Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes S o i l s .178 1 ho.. Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Eq u i s e t u m a r v e n s e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 186 •+1. Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum a r v e n s e Environment 187 •1+2. Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum arvense V e g e t a t i o n 188 h^\ Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce - Equi s e t u m a r v e n s e S o i l s 193 hh. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 202 hj. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r Environment 203 h6. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r V e g e t a t i o n 20*+ ix LIST OF TABLES ( C o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e Page *+7. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r S o i l s 206 . ]S. F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 215 *+9. F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r Environment 216 50. F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r V e g e t a t i o n 217 51. F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r S o i l s 218 5 2 . Sandbar W i l l o w C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s 222 53» Sandbar W i l l o w Environment 223 5>+. Sandbar W i l l o w V e g e t a t i o n 22k 55. Sandbar W i l l o w S o i l s 225 56. M y r i c a g a l e - Menyanthes Environment 231 57. M y r i c a g a l e - Menyanthes V e g e t a t i o n - 232 58c M y r i c a g a l e . - Menyanthes S o i l s 233 59. P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum Environment 239 6 0 . P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum V e g e t a t i o n 2*+0 61 . P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum S o i l s 2*+l 62. S y n t h e s i s of F l c r i s t i c S t r u c t u r e of P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r H i g h e r U n i t s 2^6 6 3 . E l e m e n t a l A n a l y s i s of S u r f a c e O r g a n i c H o r i z o n s 26*f 6M. Mor and Moder Hunus 271 6 5 . Average S i t e Index (100 y r s ) 282 X LIST OF TABLES ( C o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e Page 66. Average T o t a l Gross Volume, B a s a l Area, and # of Trees b y S p e c i e s 28h x i L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e 1. T h e B o r e a l F o r e s t - F i r e 2 2 . T h e B o r e a l F o r e s t - E f f e c t s o f f i r e and d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s on l a n d s c a p e 2 3. B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Z o n e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Map 7 h. C l i m a t i c Summary 9 5. T e r r a i n S y s t e m s 1^ 6 . T e r r a i n S y s t e m s 1*+ 7 . T e r r a i n S y s t e m s 15 8 . T e r r a i n S y s t e m s 15 9 . P r o j e c t i o n o f S t u d i e d E c o s y s t e m s on E d a t o p i c . G r i d F o r t N e l s o n A r e a ' 2 8 1 0 . A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e h2 1 1 . A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e h2 1 2 . A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e V} 13. A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e *+3 lh. A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e hh 15. A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e hh 1 6 . A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e h$ 1 7 . A s p e n - W h i t e S p r u c e hj x i i LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) F i g u r e Page 18. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 6*f 19. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 6k 20. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 65 21. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 65 22. F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 66 23. Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss 80 Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss 80 Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss 81 26. Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 96 27. Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 96 28. Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 97 29. Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n -, 97 i n Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 98 31. Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 98 32. B l a c k Spruce - Moss 115 33. B l a c k Spruce - Mos s 115 3^ . B l a c k Spruce - Moss 116 35. B l a c k Spruce - Moss 116 36. B l a c k Spruce - Moss 117 37. B l a c k Spruce - Moss 117 38. B l a c k S p r u c e - E q u i s e t u m s y l v a t i c u r n 133 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) F i g u r e Page 39. * » 0 . hi. h2. ^3. k6. ^ 8 . ^9. 50. 51. 52. 53. 5^. 55. 56. B l a c k Spruce B l a c k S p r u c e B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce Aulacomnium B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m - Equiseturn s y l v a t i c u m - E q u i s e t u m s y l v a t i c u m - E q u i s e t u m s y l v a t i c u m - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a - Sphagnum fuscum - Sphagnum fuseurn - Sphagnum fuscum - Sphagnum fuscum ~ Sphagnum fuscum Sphagnum fuscum C r o s s - s e c t i o n of a C r y i c F i b r i s o l Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes 13^  13 k 135 135 1^7 l*+7 1^8 1U8 1^9 1>9 160 160 161 161 162 162 167 179 x i v LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) F i g u r e Page 5 7 . Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes 180 5 8 . Tamarack - Swamp B i r c h - Menyanthes 180 5 9 . Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce -- Equisetum a r v e n s e 19^  60. Tamarack - B l a c k Spruce -• Equisetum a r v e n s e 19^  6 1 . F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 207 62. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 207 6 3 . F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 208 6*f. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 208 65. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 208 66. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 209 67. F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 209 6 8 . F l o o d p l a i n Balsam p o p l a r - 210 6Q F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r 210 7 0 . F l o o d p l a i n B a lsam P o p l a r 211 7 1 . F l o o d p l a i n B a lsam P o p l a r 211 7 2 . F l o o d p l a i n A l d e r 219 7 3 . Sandbar W i l l o w 226 7K Sandbar W i l l o w 226 7 5 . Sandbar W i l l o w 227 76. M y r i c a g a l e - Menyanthes 23^ 7 7 . M y r i c a g a l e - Menyanthes 23^  XV LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) F i g u r e Page 78. P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum 2^ 2 79. P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum 2^ 2 80. P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum 2U3 81. P i t c h e r P l a n t - Sphagnum 2V3 82. S i m p l i f i e d S c h ematic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f T o p o g r a p h i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Upland Ecosystems 256 83. T o p o g r a p h i c Sequence 257 E l e m e n t a l C o n t e n t of S u r f a c e O r g a n i c H o r i z o n s Ca Mg 266 85. E l e m e n t a l C ontent of S u r f a c e O r g a n i c H o r i z o n s Na Mn K 267 86. E l e m e n t a l C ontent of S u r f a c e O r g a n i c H o r i z o n s Fe A l 268 87. Average S i t e Index (100 y r s ) 283 88. • Average Gross S t a n d i n g Volumes From Sample P l o t s 287 89. F l o o d p l a i n Development and F o r e s t S u c c e s s i o n 290 90. S u c c e s s i o n 291 91. S u c c e s s i o n 291 92. F l o o d i n g F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r 292 93. F l o o d i n g F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r 292 9k. , F l o o d i n g F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r 292 95. S u c c e s s i o n a l Trends From A l l u v i a l D e p o s i t s 299 LIST OF FIGURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) F i g u r e 96. S u c c e s s i o n a l Trends D e p o s i t s 97. S u c c e s s i o n a l Trends 98. S u c c e s s i o n a l Trends i s P r e s e n t Page From F l u v i o - G l a c i a l 300 From Lakes 301 Where Seepage Water 302 x v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e p e r s o n s , t o o many t o n a m e , who g a v e s u p p o r t t o me d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . F o r e m o s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . V . J . K r a j i n a , w i t h my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e and most s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n , f o r t h e s u p p o r t he has g i v e n me t h r o u g h o u t a l l p h a s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s i n c l u d e d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , a c a d e m i c i n s t r u c t i o n , and s p i r i t u a l and m o r a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t , w i t h o u t w h i c h , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . , D r . K r a j i n a , a d d i t i o n a l l y , d e t e r m i n e d m o s t o f t h e b r y o p h y t e s , l i c h e n s , G r a m i n e a e , C a r e x , and S a l i x . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . T . C . B r a y s h a w and D r . G . W . A r g u s who a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e S a l i x c o l l e c t i o n . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o t h e members o f my research committee, Drs. K. I . Beamish, G . E . B r a d f i e l d , R.E. Foreman, L.IVT. L a v k u l i c h , R . F . S c a g e l , and W . B . S c h o f i e l d f o r t h e i r many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y and f o r h e l p i n g i m p r o v e t h e m a n u s c r i p t . I w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k D r . L . M . L a v k u l i c h and a ] 1 t h e p e o p l e i n t h e P e d o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y f o r a l l o w i n g me f r e e u s e o f t h e l a b and f o r x v i i i g i v i n g i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e on the s o i l s a s pect of t h i s s t u d y , as w e l l as f o r c a r r y i n g out c e r t a i n a n a l y s i s . The a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. T. L e w i s , i n c l a s s i f y i n g s o i l s i n the f i e l d and o r g a n i c s o i l s i n t h e l a b , i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Many thanks t o D r . J.P. Kimmins, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , f o r a l l o w i n g ground water samples t o be a n a l y s e d i n the E c o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y . D r. D.D. Munro's a s s i s t a n c e i n t r e a t i n g the m e n s u r a t i o n a l d a t a and Dr. M. F e l l e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n ash a n a l y s i s i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . To Mrs. J . Svoboda, f o r p a t i e n t l y t y p i n g t h e v e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s and t o t h e pe o p l e who d i d the computer programming, e s p e c i a l l y Don Thomson and Mrs. L. K e r r , I owe a g r e a t d e a l . Many thanks t o my c o l l e a g u e s , D r s . K. K l i n k a , S. K o j i m a , and R. D. R e v e l f o r the many d i s c u s s i o n s and t h e encouragement and s u p p o r t g i v e n t o me. Thanks must go t o my f i e l d a s s i s t a n t , L. Webb of F o r t N e l s o n , f o r the many ho u r s spent t r a m p i n g t h r o u g h the muskeg, s w a t t i n g m o s q u i t o e s , d i g g i n g h o l e s , and f o r never c o m p l a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o thank my w i f e , M a r l e n e , v/ho v e r y p a t i e n t l y and l o y a l l y s u p p o r t e d me i n a l l ways t h r o u g h o u t x i x t h i s s t u d y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , she t o o k on the not v e r y easy t a s k of r e a d i n g my w r i t i n g and t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t . The a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o me t h r o u g h Grant No. A-92, awarded t o Dr. V . J . K r a j i n a by t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada, i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. 1 C h a p t e r T INTRODUCTION One of t h e most e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t zones i n t h e w o r l d i s the b o r e a l f o r e s t w h i c h , s o u t h of the a r c t i c t u n d r a , f o r m s a b r o a d b e l t of f o r e s t a c r o s s b o t h N o r t h America and E u r a s i a * I n E u r a s i a t h i s zone has been r e f e r r e d t o as t h e e u r o s i b e r i a n domain of c o n i f e r s ( P i n e t o - Piceeturn) by Tuxen ( i n Khapp, 1965) t o t h e S i b e r i a n t e r m t a i g a ( M a j o r , 1969). V a r i o u s o t h e r n o n - s c i e n t i f i c terms range from th e " g r e a t n o r t h woods" t o the d a r k c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s . In N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h i s f o r e s t i s sometimes c a l l e d t h e t a i g a (La R o i , 196?), b u t i t i s 1 u s u a l l y s i m p l y r e f e r r e d t o as the b o r e a l f o r e s t . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n s i t s e l f v / i t h one s m a l l a r e a o f t h i s v a s t f o r e s t e d zone, t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia,, O b j e c t i v e s 0 The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e t o p r o d u c e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t ecosystems I n t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t 2 The B o r e a l F o r e s t F i g s . 1 & 2 L o o k i n g e a s t from Steamboat Mt. towards t h e F o r t N e l s o n Lowlands. F i r e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phenomena of t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t s . Below, the e f f e c t s of f i r e and d r a i n -age p a t t e r n s are e v i d e n t on t h e l a n d s c a p e . P o o r l y d r a i n e d a r e a s are s l o w t o r e g e n e r a t e . 3 [ j B o r e a l white and B l a c k Spruce B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone of the C a n a d i a n B o r e a l F o r e s t ( K r a j i n a , 1965)]] of t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and t o e l u c i d a t e some l e a d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s . I t i s now a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t such b a s i c e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r sound mangement of r e -newable l i v i n g r e s o u r c e s . The n a t u r e and extent, of ecosystems must be known b e f o r e t h e y can be managed p r o p e r l y . This i s t h e f i r s t attempt to develop an e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the b o r e a l zone i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Approach and t e r m i n o l o g y The b a s i c methods u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y were t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by K r a j i n a and h i s s t u d e n t s at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a over the p a s t 25 y e a r s . The b a s i c methods have p r e v i o u s l y been u t i l i z e d f o r s t u d i e s i n most of the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Brayshaw (1955), McMinn (1957), Mueller-Dombois (1959) , O r l o c i (1961, 196 *0 , B e l l (196 * 0 , P e t e r s o n (196 L 0 , Wade (1965), Brooke (1966), Eady (1971 Cordes (1972 ^, W a l l (1969), B e i l (1969), F r a s e r (1970), Brooke e t a l (1970), Kojima (1971), R e v e l (1972), K l i n k a (1976), amongst o t h e r s . In p u b l i c a t i o n s , K r a j i n a (1933, 1959, I960, 1965, 1969, 1971, 1972) has d i s c u s s e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y , t e r m i n o l o g y and use of h i s b i o g e o c o e n o t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e above a u t h o r s have d e s c r i b e d the methodology and a p p r o a c h i n d e t a i l . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y a few p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s w i l l be g i v e n h e r e . The b a s i c ecosystem u n i t u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s the b i o g e o c o e n o s e as d e f i n e d by Sukachev (191+1+) and by Sukachev and D y l i s (196J+). T h i s ecosystem u n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s p e c i f i c c a s e of the e c o s y s t e m d e f i n e d by T a n s l e y (1935). The l e v e l at w h i c h the ecosystem i s s t u d i e d i s t h a t o f t h e p l a n t community (as used by the Z i i r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l of p h y t o -s o c i o l o g y ) and the polypedon (as d e f i n e d by the C a n a d i a n System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . E a c h "type of p l a n t community" ( p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s e n s u B r a u n - B l a n q u e t ) and each t y p e of s o i l ( a t t h e s e r i e s l e v e l ) a re c o n s i d e r e d t o be a b a s i c ecosystem t y p e . I n t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e many s e r i e s are not d e f i n e d , s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d o n l y t o subgroup. F o r p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s , ecosystems a r e grouped i n t o p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . E a c h d i f f e r e n t t y p e of s o i l , on w h i c h a g i v e n p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s , must however, be c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e b a s i c e c o s y s t e m t y p e . Methods u t i l i z e d , t o group p l a n t communities i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n s , f o l l o w t h e Z u r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l o f p h y t o -s o c i o l o g y ( i n B r a u n - B l a n q u e t , 1932). T h i s methodology i s 5 d e s c r i b e d b y M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s and E l l e n b e r g (197*+), and W h i t t a k e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I n r e s p e c t t o m e t h o d o l o g y , Moore e t a l . (1970) and S h i m w e l l (1972) s h a r e t h e v i e w t h a t s o - c a l l e d " t r a d i t i o n a l " m e t h o d s g i v e v e r y good r e s u l t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r t h e amount o f i n p u t r e q u i r e d and t h a t t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y m o r e e f f i c i e n t t h a n s t r i c t l y q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d s . T h i s method a s s u m e s t h a t v e g e t a t i o n i s t h e b e s t e c o s y s t e m i n t e g r a t o r . f o r m u l a ( D o k u c h a e v , 1898 ; J e n n y , 19*+1 and M a j o r , 1 9 5 1 ) . V e g e t a t i o n / s o i l = / ^ ( c l i m a t e , o r g a n i s m s , r e l i e f , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n one m a c r o c l i m a t e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s o f t h e v a r i o u s e c o -s y s t e m s a r e p r i m a r i l y c a u s e d b y c h a n g e s i n one o r more o f t h e f a c t o r s on t h e r i g h t o f t h e e q u a t i o n o t h e r t h a n c l i m a t e ~ ( i f t t h e d i f f e r e n c e was due t o a d i f f e r e n t m a c r o c l i m a t e , one w o u l d be d e a l i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n t b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e o r s u b z o n e ) » As much as p o s s i b l e , t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h r e c o g n i z i n g t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e c o s y s t e m s w i t h i n a b i o g e o -c l i m a t i c s u b z o n e and a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e t y p e s . A u s e f u l v i e w o f e c o s y s t e m s i s t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g t i m e ) . 6 The Study Area Most of the s t u d y a r e a l i e s w i t h i n the s o u t h e r n f r i n g e of t h e p e r m a f r o s t r e g i o n , the boundary o f w h i c h i s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the -1° C (30° F ) mean a n n u a l i s o t h e r m (Brown, 1967). T a r n o c a i (197*+), i n an u n p u b l i s h e d map of p e a t l a n d r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c o n s i d e r s a l l of t h e area covered by t h i s s t u d y t o be i n the r e g i o n of " S u b a r c t i c Bogs and F e n s " . H i s lo w e r l a t i t u d i n a l boundary f o r t h i s r e g i o n i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n the -1° C mean a n n u a l i s o t h e r m . The p o r t i o n of t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t under s t u d y i s c o n s i d e r e d by Knapp (1965) t o be a t r a n s i t i o n a r e a a t t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e of the n o r t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s , w i t h o c c u r r e n c e s of s p e c i e s t y p i c a l of w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . H a l l i d a y (1937) c o n s i d e r s t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a t o b e l o n g t o the Ma c k e n z i e Lowlands and Upper L i a r d s e c t i o n s of the b o r e a l f o r e s t . The r e g i o n of t h i s s t u d y f a l l s i n t o what Rowe (1959) terms the Upper Mac k e n z i e and Upper L i a r d s e c t i o n s of t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t . The s t u d y a r e a i s c e n t e r e d i n the l a r g e s t p a r t o f the b o r e a l f o r e s t found i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i g u r e 3 shows the B o r e a l White and B l a c k Spruce B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone as d e l i n e a t e d by K r a j i n a (1973). from t h e e a s t e r n b o r e a l f o r e s t s p e c i e s as Abies balsamea T h i s a r e a d i f f e r s by t h e absence of such t r e e 7 and i n f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e of P i n u s b a n k s i a n a . These s p e c i e s a r e r e p l a c e d i n the west by Abies l a s i o c a r p a and P i n u s c o n t o r t a . I n a d d i t i o n , the w e s t e r n b o r e a l f o r e s t s c o n t a i n B e t u l a  r e s i n i f e r a , as w e l l as B. p a p y r i f e r a . British Columbia *~ Biogeoclimatic Zones Mr* to* From: A I Farley. Altai of Burnt, Columbia Map adapted from VJ. Krajra | [ Glacier* f" " | Alpine tundra (AT) I Subalpinc mountain hemlock (MH) | Subalpinc Enfelmann ipruca- uibalpinc Or (ES) Sot"" willow-birth (SW) Boreal white and Mack iprucc (BS( ] Sub-bofcal apruct (SS) j Cariboo aipen-lodfepol* pint Dou|la> fir (CA) fy^ | Interior weitcrn hemlock (IH) | Interior Oouflaf Or (IF) Ponderota pine-bunchgraia (PF) Coattal Dou|lat fir (CF) Coaual weitcrn hemlock (CH) \ F i g u r e 3 C l i m a t e II. The c l i m a t e of the s t u d y a r e a has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a m i c r o t b e r m a l c o n t i n e n t a l b o r e a l c l i m a t e (Dfc a f t e r Kb'ppen) 8 by K r a j i n a (1969) . The f o l l o w i n g c l i m a t i c s t a t i s t i c s are f r o m Environment Canada's "Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , 19*+1 -1970" f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o t a l a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t F o r t N e l s o n ( t h e c e n t e r of the s t u d y a r e a ) averages k$ cm per y e a r , w i t h L*0$ o c c u r r i n g i n June, J u l y and August. The mean a n n u a l temp-e r a t u r e i s -1.3° C a t the F o r t N e l s o n a i r p o r t . The mean d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e s f o r January and J u l y a r e -23° C and 16.7° C r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mean d a i l y minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s f o r t h e s e two months a r e - 2 8 ° C and 10° C r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a r e a averages 219 f r o s t days d u r i n g the y e a r w i t h o n l y J u l y b e i n g f r o s t f r e e . A summary of the c l i m a t e of F o r t N e l s o n , whioh was produced by K r a j i n a ( u n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s ) , i s shown i n F i g . *f. The s t u d y a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o n g c o l d w i n t e r s and c o o l summers. Kendrew and K e r r (1955) r e p o r t t h a t i n ar e a s n o r t h of l a t i t u d e 55° N , t h e days a r e s h o r t i n the w i n t e r w i t h l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e s u n s h i n e . D u r i n g the summer, however, th e l o n g day l e n g t h and s u n s h i n e f o s t e r b e t t e r p l a n t growth t h a n a i r t e m p e r a t u r e would s u g g e s t . P h y s i o g r a p h y The s t u d y a r e a l i e s w i t h i n t h e I n t e r i o r P l a i n s of N o r t h America w h i c h extend i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n the n o r t h -CLIMATIC SUMMARY FORT KELSON AIRFOTT 53°50'N, 1 2 2 ° 3 5 ' 3 , 1230' A S l . Record: 30-34 years. Bonthj abovs 50UF: 3, beloc 32°F: 5, A . S . T . P . 17.57", AIM.SJ. 75.4", snoo $ A.MJ .P. : 42.91, days a i t h f r o s t , y e a r l y : 219. E.MAX.T. 45 59 64 76 . 89 93 98 93 ' 91 78 55 49 t.o.w.j. -1.9 11.0 27.2 45.2 61.0 69.C 73.4 70.2 58.3 43.0 17.0 1.5 S.O.T. -9.8 1.3 15.5 34.1 49.4 58.1 62.1 58.7 47.9 34.1 9.9 -5.3 I.0.MIN.T. -17.6 -8.4 3.8 23.0 37.8 46.5 50.7 47.2 37.4 25.1 2.7 -12.2 E.MIN.T. -61 -55 -39 -30 5 30 34 .29 12 -18 -42 -54 Oays r l t h f r o s t 31 28 31 26 8 ' 0 1 7 26 30 31 M . T . P . 1.04 0.96 0.98 0.85 1.48 2.53 2.94 2.19 1.52 1.01 1.05 1.02 BONN JAX FES M APR BAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV CEC Figure U 10 e a s t s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . H o l l a n d (196*0 c o n s i d e r s t h e I n t e r i o r P l a i n s t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e A l b e r t a p l a t e a u and i t s s u b d i v i s i o n , the F o r t N e l s o n L o w l a n d . The F o r t N e l s o n Lowland i s a r b i t r a r i l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e r e s t of the A l b e r t a p l a t e a u a t the 700 m (2000') c o n t o u r l e v e l . The i n t e r i o r p l a i n s , i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , a r e u n d e r l a i n by g e n t l y t i l t i n g s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s of C r e t a c e o u s Age w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d i n a l l u v i a l , d e l t a i c and marine e n v i r o n m e n t s ( T a y l o r and S t o t t , 1968). B a s i c a l l y . , t h e s e s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s are marine s h a l e s of the B u c k i n g h o r s e f o r m a t i o n and sa n d s t o n e s of the S i k a n n i f o r m a t i o n w h i c h b o t h b e l o n g t o the F o r t S t . John Group of s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s ( T a y l o r and S t o t t , 1968). The a r e a around F o r t N e l s o n was o v e r - r i d d e n by c o n t i n e n t a l i c e s h e e t s d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e . A c c o r d i n g t o H o l l a n d (196*+), t h e K e e w a t i n i c e s h e e t , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n a c e n t e r west of Hudsons Bay, f l o w e d southwestward and v/estward a c r o s s the F o r t N e l s o n Lowland, t r a n s p o r t i n g b o u l d e r s and d r i f t from p r e c a m b r i a n p a r e n t r o c k s i n t h e e a s t . The maximum advance sheet was c o n s i d e r e d t o be west of F o r t N e l s o n where i t was r e l a t i v e l y t h i n ( H o l l a n d , 196*0. T a y l o r and S t o t t (1968) r e p o r t e d t h i n or absent g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s on h i g h e r l a n d s , but t h i c k d e p o s i t s i n a d j a c e n t l o w l a n d s s u c h as a t the F o r t N e l s o n a i r p o r t where 232 meters (760') of g l a c i a l d r i f t 11 o v e r l i e b e d r o c k . In g e n e r a l , s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s can be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o u n d e r l y i n g bedrock except f o r c e r t a i n areas of sand and a l l u v i a l b o t t o m l a n d s ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971). Three major r i v e r s d r a i n the F o r t K e l s o n area:-the P r o p h e t , Muskwa, and F o r t N e l s o n . ( F i g s . 5, 18, 90 and 9l). I n g e n e r a l , much of t h e F o r t N e l s o n Lowland i s p o o r l y d r a i n e d due t o the f l a t or g e n t l y r o l l i n g t o pography and t h e f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l s and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of many s m a l l l a k e s and bogs s i n c e d e g l a c i a t i o n . The p a t t e r n of v e g e t a t i o n development i s t h e r e f o r e g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d . V a l e n t i n e (197D found i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e c l a y s of l a c u s t r i n e o r i g i n from m o r a i n a l d e p o s i t s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s o f t marine s h a l e s of t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f a c t o r , c o u p l e d w i t h the l a c k of any g e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t u d y of t h e a r e a , l e d him t o t h e development of a t e r r a i n s ystem based on t h e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s of s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s , morphology and g e o l o g y . Four s u c h t e r r a i n systems were d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e (1971). (See F i g s . 5, 6, 7, & 8?. The v e r y g e n t l y i n c l i n e d p l a i n of the F o r t N e l s o n Lowland, w i t h i t s low r e l i e f and low s u r f a c e w a t e r r u n o f f , i s d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e as the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System. 12 M i n e r a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s a r e m o s t l y d e r i v e d from the s i l t y m a rine s h a l e s of t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e f o r m a t i o n . T h i s g e n e r a l l y p o o r l y d r a i n e d t e r r a i n system i s v e r y e x t e n s i v e , e s p e c i a l l y e a s t of F o r t N e l s o n . The h i g h e r h i l l s above the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n S y s tem, such as the P o p l a r H i l l s v/est of F o r t N e l s o n , a r e c l a s s e d as t h e S i k a n n i T e r r a i n System. These a r e a s a r e g e n e r a l l y composed of s a n d s t o n e s and i n t e r b e d d e d s i l t y s h a l e s of t h e S i k a n n i f o r m a t i o n . D r a i n a g e i s g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r t h a n on t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System due t o i n c r e a s e d s l o p e s , however, on f l a t or g e n t l y i n c l i n e d a r e a s , bog development i s g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t due t o impeded d r a i n a g e . A r e a s , where sands and g r a v e l s were d e p o s i t e d , over t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System d u r i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n , are c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of the Chuatse T e r r a i n System. Where t h e s e d e p o s i t s are t h i c k enough t o r i s e above t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l of the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System, or are a d j a c e n t t o the r i v e r s or downcut s t r e a m s , the s o i l s a r e w e l l d r a i n e d . Otherwise the g e n e r a l f l a t n e s s of the t e r r a i n r e s t r i c t s s o i l d r a i n a g e . The v a l l e y s l o p e s and a l l u v i a l b o t t o m l a n d s of streams,' w h i c h have c u t t h r o u g h t h e p l a i n , a r e p l a c e d 13 i n t o the Muskwa T e r r a i n System. T h i s system i n c l u d e s the remnants of p r e v i o u s s t r e a m c h a n n e l s as w e l l as t h e p r e s e n t r i v e r s . T e r r a i n Systems F i g s . 5 & 6 Above, l o o k i n g n o r t h a l o n g t h e Muskwa R i v e r . F o r t N e l s o n i s on t h e l e f t . The v a l l e y b ottom, w i t h i t s s l o p e s , b e l o n g t o t h e Muskwa T e r r a i n System. The f l a t p l a i n b e l o n g s t o the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System. A l t h o u g h n o t v i s i b l e above, f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l was o f t e n d e p o s i t e d o v er the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System, e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g t h e edges of t h e r i v e r s . T h i s was termed t h e Chuatse T e r r a i n System by V a l e n t i n e . The l o d g e p o l e p i n e , growing on the dunes i n t h e photo below b e l o n g s t o t h e Chuatse T e r r a i n System. The t e r r a i n s ystems used here were d e v e l o p e d and d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e (1971). 15 T e r r a i n S y s t e m s F i g . 7 T h e p o o r l y d r a i n e d B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n S y s t e m i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The S i k a n n i T e r r a i n S y s t e m b e h i n d P a r k e r L a k e ( t h e l a r g e r l a k e ) r i s e s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . . " - i , - -',.•••>,"'•' ' ; . ^ v ^ / - '•" • F i g . 8 E f f e c t s o f d r a i n a g e w h e r e f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s a r e d e p o s i t e d o v e r t h e B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n S y s t e m . H e r e t h e g r a d i e n t s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i t i e s a r e s h a r p . 16 C h a p t e r I I MET HODS V e g e t a t i o n A n a l y s i s and S y n t h e s i s As mentioned e a r l i e r , the b a s i c method u t i l i z e d f o r d e s c r i b i n g v e g e t a t i o n i s t h a t d e v e l o p e d by the p h y t o s o c i o l o g i s t s of the Z i i r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l as' m o d i f i e d by K r a j i n a (1933-1972). A two week r e c o n n a i s s a n c e t r i p was made by V . - J . K r a j i n a and t h e a u t h o r t o t h e s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g the e a r l y summer of 1970. Notes were made on the t y p e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p l a n t communities and p o t e n t i a l s a m p l i n g s i t e s were n o t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n of p l a n t s was made and the p l a n t s i d e n t i f i e d . Sample s i t e s were s e l e c t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i s : (1) The community had t o o c c u r r e p e a t e d l y on t h e l a n d s c a p e . ( 2 ) The community had t o be homogeneous, b o t h v e g e t a t i o n a l l y 17 and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y . (3) The community had t o be l a r g e enough t o accommodate a +^00 sq m sample p l o t i f f o r e s t e d and a 100 sq m sample p l o t i f n o n - f o r e s t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , where p o s s i b l e , o n l y t h e o l d e s t f o r e s t s t a n d s were sampled and o n l y t h o s e w h i c h were not s u b j e c t t o human d i s t u r b a n c e . P l o t s were p l a c e d s u b j e c t i v e l y w i t h i n t h e p l a n t community i n an a r e a w h i c h was judged t o b e s t r e p r e s e n t t h a t community. An attempt was a l s o made t o s e l e c t sample a r e a s v/hich would i n d i c a t e t h e v a r i a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h a g i v e n p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n would o c c u r . F o r e a c h p l o t , q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e e n v i r o n -m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s : % s l o p e , e x p o s u r e , l a t i t u d e , l o n g i t u d e , e l e v a t i o n , and l a n d f o r r a . E s t i m a t e s of % c o v e r of l i t t e r and humus, exposed m i n e r a l s o i l , r o c k , and d e c a y i n g wood were a d d i t i o n a l l y made f o r each p l o t . V e g e t a t i o n i n each p l o t was a n a l y s e d as f o l l o w s : A l l v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , b r y o p h y t e s , and l i c h e n s were i d e n t i f i e d and l i s t e d f o r each v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r . V e g e t a t i o n l a y e r s were d e f i n e d as below. A ( t r e e ) l a y e r : A-^ : Dominant t r e e s , whose crown extended above the g e n e r a l canopy. 18 A2'' Co-dominant t r e e s , whose crowns formed t h e b u l k of the upper canopy. A^: Suppr e s s e d t r e e s or t r e e s whose crowns were overtopped by the co-dominant and dominant t r e e s . These t r e e s were over 5 m i n h e i g h t . B ( s h r u b ) l a y e r : B-^ s Woody p l a n t s over 2 m but l e s s t h a n 5 m. B2: Woody p l a n t s l e s s t h a n 2 m i n h e i g h t . C ( h e r b ) l a y e r : A l l herbaceous p l a n t s r e g a r d l e s s of h e i g h t . T h i s l a y e r i n c l u d e d s m a l l woody p l a n t s such as A r c t o s t a p h y 1 o s  u v a - u r s i . V a c c i n i u m v i t i s - i d a e a , and S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a . D (moss) l a y e r : Dh: B r y o p h y t e s and l i c h e n s o c c u r r i n g on humus and m i n e r a l s o i l . Dw: B r y o p h y t e s and l i c h e n s o c c u r r i n g on dead and d e c a y i n g wood. Dr: B r y o p h y t e s and l i c h e n s o c c u r r i n g on r o c k s . 19 When e s t a b l i s h i n g p l o t s , the s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e of each v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r was e s t i m a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D o m i n - K r a j i n a s c a l e w h i c h i s d e f i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( t a k e n f rom K l i n k a , 197^). Symbol Code C o r r e s p o n d i n g ^ c o v e r v a l u e l * / D e s c r i p t i o n + -1 0 . 2 . very s p a r s e l y . p r e s e n t , dominance .very s n a i l ( 0 . 1 - 0 . 3 ? ) 1 1 0 . 7 s p a r s e l y p r e s e n t , dominance s m a l l ( 0 . 3 - 1 . 0 2 ) 2 2 1 . 5 very s c a t t e r e d , dominance s m a l l ( 1 . 0 - 2.2%) 3 3 3 . 5 s c a t t e r e d t o p l e n t i f u l , dominance 2 . 2 - 5 . 0 2 4 4 7 . 5 o f t e n p r e s e n t , dominance 5 . - 10? 5 5 1 7 . 5 o f t e n p r e s e n t , dominance 1 0 - 2 5 ? 6 6 2 9 . 0 any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 25 - 33? 7 7 4 1 . 5 any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 33 - 50? 8 8 6 2 . 5 any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance 50 - 75? 9 9 8 7 . 5 any number of i n d i v i d u a l s , dominance o v e r 75? T a b l e 1 S p e c i e s S i g n i f i c a n c e When a v e r a g i n g s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e , assumed v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the m i d p o i n t s of the u n i t s o f t h e D o m i n - K r a j i n a s c a l e were a s s i g n e d f o r each c l a s s ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o v e r v a l u e i n t h e above T a b l e ) . S p e c i e s v i g o r was a s s e s s e d as f o l l o w s . 0 - s p e c i e s dead + - v i g o r poor 1 - v i g o r f a i r 2 - v i g o r good 3 - v i g o r e x c e l l e n t J u d g i n g s p e c i e s v i g o r i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t , u n l e s s a s p e c i e s i s known t h r o u g h o u t i t s e n t i r e range of growing c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i n many c a s e s , no v a l u e was g i v e n t o t h e s p e c i e s 20 f o r v i g o r i n t h i s s t u d y . In t h e v e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r , f o r each p l o t , e v e r y s p e c i e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a number s u c h as ^ - . 2 . The f i r s t number r e p r e s e n t s s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e ' w h i c h • i n t h i s case would be h. The number a f t e r t h e d e c i m a l p l a c e ( 2 ) r e p r e s e n t s v i g o r . The symbols used i n the l a s t t h r e e columns of the v e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s a r e as f o l l o w s : P r e p r e s e n t s % p r e s e n c e ( i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y p r e s e n c e and c o n s t a n c y a r e i d e n t i c a l s i n c e w i t h i n each a s s o c i a t i o n p l o t s i z e was c o n s t a n t ) , MS r e p r e s e n t s mean s i g n i f i c a n c e , and RS r e p r e s e n t s range o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . V e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d by t e n t a t i v e l y p l a c i n g the p l o t s i n t o p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a computer and t h e n c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r f l o r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y . A computer program was d e v e l o p e d at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r m e c h a n i c a l l y h a n d l i n g r e l e v e s and p r o d u c i n g a s s o c i a t i o n t a b l e s (see K l i n k a , 197 lO. A summary s y n t h e s i s t a b l e of a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s i s es e n t e d on page 2h6. The c o n s t a n c y c l a s s e s u t i l i z e d i n 21 t h i s t a b l e are a f t e r B r a u n - B l a n q u e t (1932) and are as f o l l o w s . c l a s s • %• of the p l o t s I : r a r e 1 - 20 I I : Seldom p r e s e n t 21 - ho I I I : o f t e n p r e s e n t hi - 60 IV: m o s t l y p r e s e n t 61 - 80 V: c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t 81 - 100 T a b l e 2 C o n s t a n c y The v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h i e r a r c h y i s , a l o n g w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s u f f i x e s , as f o l l o w s . Order - e t a l i a A l l i a n c e - i o n 1 A s s o c i a t i o n - etum S u b a s s o c i a t i o n - etosum V a r i a n t - osum S o i l A n a l y s i s One s o i l p i t was dug i n each p l o t . The v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s were d e s c r i b e d and sampled. D e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e d t h i c k n e s s of h o r i z o n s , s t o n i n e s s , r o o t d i s t r i b u t i o n , d e p t h t o 22 w a t e r t a b l e , d e p t h to p e r m a f r o s t , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , and l a n d f c r m . The s o i l s were t e n t a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e f i e l d as t o subgroup,, S o i l samples were i m m e d i a t e l y a i r d r i e d a f t e r s a m p l i n g p I n the l a b o r a t o r y , they were s i e v e d t h r o u g h a 2 mm mesh s c r e e n and the f r a c t i o n s m a l l e r than 2 mm i n s i z e v/as f u r t h e r a n a l y s e d . A n a l y t i c a l methods used a r e tho s e d e s c r i b e d by H a r r i s and L a v k u l i c h (1972)«, D e t e r m i n a t i o n of s o i l pH v/as done i n a 1:1 s o i l ' w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n f o r m i n e r a l s o i l s and a l:h s o i l w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n f o r o r g a n i c s o i l s . T o t a l n i t r o g e n v/as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e "Semi-micro K j e l d a h l " method. S o i l o r g a n i c m a t t e r v/as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e W a l k l e y - B l a c k o r T i t r i m e t r i c method. Phosphorus v/as d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h t h e m o d i f i e d method d e s c r i b e d by H a r r i s and l a v k u l i c h (1972). E x c h a n g e a b l e c a t i o n s and t o t a l exchange c a p a c i t y were c a r r i e d out by t h e KHi+OAj, method. P a r t i c a l s i z e a n a l y s i s v/as c a r r i e d out by t h e hydrometer method u s i n g a computer program. F u r t h e r d e t a i l s on t h e s e methods a r e g i v e n by Day (1950), J a c k s o n (1958), and B l a c k (1965).. A m o d i f i e d method, f o r p a r t i c a l s i z e a n a l y s i s , v/as t e s t e d f o r s o i l samples w i t h h i g h pH, w h i c h i n d i c a t e d h i g h 23 c a r b o n a t e s i n t h e s o i l . C a r b o n a t e s , when p r e s e n t , may tend t o cement s m a l l s o i l p a r t i c l e s t o g e t h e r . The a n a l y s i s w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , show a c o a r s e r t e x t u r e f o r the s o i l t h a n i s r e a l l y the c a s e . To overcome t h i s problem, some of the s o i l samples w i t h h i g h pH were t r e a t e d t o d e s t r o y t h e c a r b o n a t e s . C o n c e n t r a t e d HCl was added t o the sample and. heated u n t i l no f u r t h e r b u b b l e s were r e l e a s e d . The a c i d was t h e n removed by s u s p e n d i n g the sample i n d i s t i l l e d R^O and c e n t r i f u g i n g the sample. The water was poured o f f and the w a s h i n g and c e n t r i f u g i n g p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d t w i c e more t o remove a l l t h e e x c e s s a c i d . The sample was then t r e a t e d by the normal p r o c e d u r e . R e s u l t s , from samples t r e a t e d by b o t h methods, shov/ed e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e s . R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m samples w i t h c a r b o n a t e s removed are marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k i n t h e s o i l t a b l e s . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t o t a l n i t r o g e n , s o i l o r g a n i c i m a t t e r , phosphorus, and t o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y was done i n the P e d o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y , Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E x c h a n g e a b l e c a t i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d on a P e r k i n - E l m e r Atomic A b s o r p t i o n S p e c t r o p h o t o m t e r Model 303, w i t h a d i g i t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e a d o u t . The r e s u l t s of t h e s o i l a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the next c h a p t e r a d j a c e n t t o the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n t a b l e s . 2h C h a p t e r I I I UNITS OF THE BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCE BIOGEOCLIMATIC ZONE T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l i a n c e s , and o r d e r s as t h e y appear i n t h e s y n o p s i s of u n i t s ( T a b l e 3, page 26). I n d i v i d u a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s numbered i n t a b l e 3 a d d i t i o n a l l y a r e p r o j e c t e d on the e d a t o p i c g r i d ( F i g . 9, page 28). The d i s c u s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e preceeded by r e f e r e n c e t a b l e s w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i o n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g f o r easy r e f e r r a l . I n d i v i d u a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s b e g i n w i t h an e x t r a c t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n of s p e c i e s , f o l l o w e d by t a b l e s showing e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s , p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n t a b l e s and s o i l s t a b l e s . The " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n o f S p e c i e s " t a b l e was d e v e l o p e d by e x t r a c t i n g the most commonly o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s ( p r e s e n c e ^ 60%) from the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n t a b l e s . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s " , f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n , a r e marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k i n t h e " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b i n a t i o n of S p e c i e s " t a b l e s . 25 Zonal Species f o r B r i t i s h Columbia The Boreal Y/hite and Black Spruce (BWBS) Biof-eoclimatic zone i n the Fort Nelson area i s characterized by the f o l l o w i n g "combination of p l a n t s " . These plants are prevalent in the zone or are more common i n the BWBS zone than i n other zones in B r i t i s h Columbia. A: Trees Picea glauca P. mariana La r i x l a r i c i n a Pinus contorta P. banksiana P. balsamifera Betula rcar>vrifera Populus tremuloides B. r e s i n i f e r a (B. neoalaskana) B: Shrubs Alnus c r i s p a A. t e n u i f o ] i a  Betula g l a n d n l i f e r a (B. pumila) Ledum groenlandicurn S a l i x bebbiana Ribes oxyacanthoides S. p l a n i f o l i a R. Rlandulosum Shepherd i a canadensis Rosa a c i c u l a r i s Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a v ar. minus C: Kerbs A r a l i a nudicau'lis Geocau]on lividum Calamaerostis canadensis Goodvera renens Cornus canadensis Equisetum arvense E. pratense E. s c i r p o i d e s E. sylvaticum Galium boreale Habenaria obtusata H. o r b i c u l a t a  Linnaea b o r e a l i s L i s t e r a cordat.a Mitel].a nuda Petas it.es palmatus Pyrola asarj f o l i a P. chlorantha P. secunda Rub'.jr. pubescens Mai ant he mum canad-ense Smilacina t r i f o l i a Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a V i o l a r e n i f o l i a D. Bryophytes and Lichens . Aulacomnium pa l u s t r e S. fuscum S. recurvun Dicranum acut i f oliurri D. undulatum S.. subfulvurr. Drepanoc]adus uncinatus S. subnitenr.  Hyloconium splenders Tomenthypnum nitens PDeurozium schreberi C. m i t i s C. r a n r i f e r i n a C lad or i a r r a c i ] i s Icmadophlla ericet.orun  Pelt i cera aphthosa P. canina Pt i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s Cladina alpest.ris P. ma] ace a Sphagnum cani] lace urn arbuscula P. p o l y d a c t y l a TABLE 3 S Y N O P S I S OF THE S Y N S Y S T E M A T I C U N I T S IN ORDER ALLIANCE P I C E E T A L I A 6 L A U C A E ( 1. P i c e i o n g l aucae 2. C l a d i n o (mit1B) - P i n i o n c o n t o r t a e ( - banksianae) P I C E E T A L I A M.A R I A N A E 3. P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n marianae 4. Sphagno ( f u s c i ) - Rubo (chamaemori) -P i c e i o n marianae S. Aulacomnio ( p a l u s t r i a ) - S a l i c o ( m y r t i l l i f o l i a e ) - P i c e i o n marianae L A R I C E T A L I A L A R . I C I N A E ( 6. Menyantho ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) ( l a r i c i n a e L a r i c i o n P O P U L E T A L I A B A L S A M I F E R A E ( 7. P o p u l i o n b a l s a m i f e r a e ( ( t U. S a l i c i o n i n t o r i o r i a ( S P I R A E 0 - ) M Y R I C E T A L I A G A L I S ( *i. Drepanoclado < v o r n i c o a l ) - Menyantho ( ( t r i f o l i a t a e ) - M y r i c i o n g a l i s S P H A G N O ( M A G E L L A -N I C I ) - SCHEUC.HZE-R I E T A L I A P A L U S T R I S (10. Sphagno ( m a g e l l a n i c i ) * S a r r a o e n i o ( (purpuroae) - Scheuchzerion p a l u s t r i a HE P R E S E N T S T U D Y ASSOCIATION 1. Hylocomio (splendentis) - Linnaeo (borealis) -Aralio (nudicaulis) - Viburno (cdulis) - Populo (tremuloidis) - Piceetum glaucae 2. Hylocomio t s p l e n d e n t i 3 ) - Mitello (nudae) -Equiseto {pratensis) - Viburno (edulis) -Piceetum glaucae 3. Pleurozio (schreberi) - Hylocomio (splendentis) Lycopodio (onnotini) - Ledo (groenlandici) -Picoo (glaucae - marianae) - Pinetum contortae 4. Cladino (mitis) - Peltigero (aphthosae) -Pleurozio (schreberi) - Arctostaphylo (uvae-ursi) - Pinetum contortae 5. Ptil'io (cristae-castrensis) - Hylocomio (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) -Piceetum marianae 6. Hylocomio (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) -Equiseto (sylvatici) - Piceetum marianae 7. Aulacomnio (palustris) - Tomenthypno (ni tent is) • Equiseto (scirpoidis) - Ledo (groenlandici) -Salico (myrtillifoliae) - Nano-Picoetum marianae 8. Sphagno "(fusci) - Rubo (chamaemori) - Oxyccoco (microcarpi) - Ledo (groenlandici) - Piceetum marianae 9. Sphagno (capillacei - recurvi) - Konyantho. (trifoliatae) - Pyrolo (asarifoliae) - Oxyccoco (palustris) - Betulo (glanduliferae) - Laricetum laricinae 10. Hylocomio (splendentis) - r t i l i o (cristao-castrensis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) - Equiseto (arvensis) - Mitello (nudae) - Smilacino (trifoliao) - Larico (laricinae) - Piceetum marianae 11. Equiseto (pratensis) - Pyrolo (asarifoliae) -Alno (tenuifoliae) - Populetura balsamiferae 12. Populo (balsamiferae) - Alnetum tenuifoliae 13. Saliceturn i n t e r i o r i o 14. Dropnnoclado (vernicosi) - Calliorgono (glgantei) Menyantho (trifoliatae) - Myricetum galis 15. Sphagno (magollanici) - sarracenio (purpurea*) • Oxyccoco (microcarpi) - Scheuchzerio (palustris) - Andromedetum p o l i f o l i a e 27 The E d a t o p i c G r i d In F i g . 9j the ecosystems of t h i s s t u d y a r e a ( f r o m t a b l e 3) have been p r o j e c t e d onto t h e o r e t i c a l o r d i n a t e s of mois-t u r e and n u t r i e n t s . The g r i d u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y v/as f i r s t proposed by P o g r e b n i a k ,(1930) and was used e x t e n s i v e l y by K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Jones ( 1 9 6 9 ) , s u c h o r d i n a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s were u t i l i z e d by Wiedemann (1929) f o r F i n n i s h s i t e - t y p e s and by E n e r o t h (1931) and Arnborg (1953) f o r Sv/edish s i t e - t y p e s . Jones ( 1 9 6 9 ) , a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e work o f Rowe ( 1 9 5 6 ) , Hodgkins ( I 9 6 0 ) , B a k u z i s and Hansen ( 1 9 5 9 ) , Waring and Major ( 1 9 6 ^ ) , and P l u t h and Arneman ( 1 9 6 5 ) , c o n c l u d e d t h a t s uch o r d i n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s show pr o m i s e f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t e s . 1 K r a j i n a (I969) has d e f i n e d t h e u n i t s on the e d a t o p i c g r i d as f o l l o w s : The t r o p h o t o p e s or s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s as A - o l i g o t r o p h i a D - s u b e u t r o p h i c B - su b m e s o t r o p h i c E - e u t r o p h i c C - m e s o t r o p h i c and t h e h y g r o t o p e s or s o i l m o i s t u r e regimes as 0 - v e r y x e r i c 5 - s u b h y g r i c 1 - x e r i c 6 - h y g r i c 2 - s u b x e r i c 7 - s u b h y d r i c 3 - submesic 8 - h y d r i c . h - mesic PROJECTION OF STUDIED ECOSYSTEMS ON EDATOPIC GRID ( A s s o c i a t i o n s per Table 3) A B C D £ not found i n study • area 8 7 Jl 12 13 /5 not studied 29 ORDER I P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e Annas e t K r a j i n a ( P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e -marianae K r a j i n a 1969 p.p.) The o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e o c c u p i e s the b e t t e r f o r e s t s i t e s i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . When t h i s o r d e r i s p r o -j e c t e d on t h e e d a t o p i c g r i d ( F i g . 9), i t occurs on h y g r o t o p e s f r s u b x e r i c t o s u b h y g r i c and on t r o p h o t o p e s from s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t o e u t r o p h i c . I n t h i s s t u d y , the o r d e r i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e a l l i a n c e ( P i c e i o n g l a u c a e ) w i t h t h r e e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . The s o i l s of the P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e c o n s i s t of O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s , C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s , Degraded E u t r i c and D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s (and t h e i r g l e y e d v a r i a t i o n s ) and Rego G l e y s o l s . V e g e t a t i o n o f t h e P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e i s c h a r a c t e r -• 1 i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r and a l l i a n c e c h a r a c t e r s p e c i e s : P i c e a g l a u c a R i b e s t r i s t e P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s Rubus pubescens B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a V i o l a r e n i . f o l i a V iburnum e d u l e G a l i u m b o r e a l e - Alnus c r i s p a A c t a e a r u b r a S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s A s t e r c i l i o l a t u s R i b e s o x y a c a n t h o i d e s R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a 30 One p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n , the P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) -Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - L y c o p o d i o ( a n n o t i n i ) - Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d i c i ) - P i c e o ( g l a u c a e - marianae) - Pinetum c o n t o r t a e ( L o d g e p o l e P i n e - C l u b m o s s ) , b e a r s many a f f i n i t i e s t o t h e P i c e e t a l i a marianae o r d e r and c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be p l a c e d i n the P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a e . F l o r i s t i c a l l y , t h e P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e has many a f f i n i t i e s w i t h b o t h t h e L a r i c e t a l i a l a r i c i n a e and P o p u l e t a l i a b a l s a m i f e r a e o r d e r s . These l a t t e r o r d e r s occupy r i c h e r and m o i s t e r s e c t i o n s of the e d a t o p i c g r i d t h a n t h o s e of P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e . A l l i a n c e 1 P i c e i o n g l a u c a e W a l l e t K r a j i n a 1973 [ p i e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n g l a u c a e R e v e l e t K r a j i n a 1972] -I t can be assumed, s i n c e o n l y one a l l i a n c e i s d i s -t i n g u i s h e d h e r e , t h a t t h e v e g e t a t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t h e same as t h o s e o f t h e o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e . There a r e o n l y t h r e e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s a l l i a n c e whose d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s i n subsequent pages. S i n c e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n no. 3 has some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a , i n the h i e r a r c h y of p l a n t a s s o c i -a t i o n s of t h e a r e a , i t r e p r e s e n t s a t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e l a t t e r o r d e r . 31 PLANT ASSOCIATION 1 ASPEN - WHITE SPRUCE Hylocoraio (splendentis) - Linnaeo (borealis) -Aralio (nudicaulis) - Viburno (edulls) -Populo (tremuloidis - Piceetum glaucae Characteristic Combination of Species Layer Constants (presence ^ 60%) * characteristic Characteristic ' non - constants > II JTree fopulus tremuloldes Picea glauca Shrub Alnus crispa Viburnum edule Rosa acicularis Shepherd la canadensis Lonicera dloica Herb Llnnaea borealis Cornus canadensis Rubus pubescens - * Aralla nudicaulis Pyrola secunda Mertensia paniculate Mite11a nuda Lathyrus ochroleucus Viola renifolia Pyrola asarlfolla i Moss Hylocomium splendens Ptllium crista-castrensis Eurhynchium pulchellun T a b l e h ASPEN - WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - Linnaeo ( b o r e a l i s ) - A r a l i o ( n u d i c a u l i s ) -V i b u r n o ( e d u l i s ) - Populo ( t r e m u l o i d i s ) - P i c e e t u m g l a u c a e Plot Ho 2 3 W 8 13 iV 20 37 WO 7 15 16 19 26 32 33 38 Elevation In B 1.1.0 W70 Wo Woo "•30 1.25 W50 ".30 W35 Woo W70 WWo 360 M 5 375 375 320 Latitude 58° 51- 58° 5 2 ' 58*52' . 58*33' 58° W8' 58° W8' 58°>t8' 58° "»8' . 5 8 ° W8' 58° 33 58° W8' 58°W9I 58°W7> 58° We- 58° W7' 58° W7' y8°W7i Longitude 1 2 ^ 5 7 ' 12^58' 122° 60' 122° 17' 122° WW' 122° WW' 122° W3> 122° Iflji. 12/WW' 122° 17 122° W3' 122° W2' . 12^W2" lz;? W8' 122° W3- 122* W3' 122° 39' Exposure • W S S SB SW 3 3 S S N S H H w — " --' HW Slope Gradient jf 6 9 1 1 11 10 1 6 8 1 1 7 1 1 0 0 22 Percent Coverage Total A 75 70 80 72 Wo W5 36 70 78 65 85 75 56 70 71 50 69 •*1 7W 68 75 70 15 30 22 "*0 60 "<5 30 22 25 2W 50 18 10 * 2 5 5 8 3 35 18 18 25 20 25 30 Wo 30 Wo 12 30 30 A 3 1 5 2 8 10 3 12 15 .12 + ••5 25 10 15 20 15 Wo Total B 77 69 82 25 25 85 90 80 82 6W 8 . 18 65 3 29 6 16 B l 50 17 16 20 10 21 2W 52 31 10 1 5 30 - W 2 1 B 2 Wo 52 75 65 . 18 76 82 50 6W 61 8 17 Wo 3 28 6 16 C 17 13 38 3"» 30 wy 62 Wo 38 W8 W 21 30 8 16 2W 1W D 1 2 2 —' • 33 1 1 1 2 1 60 W7 51 70 31 8W 78 Dv 3 W 5 5 50 1 1 w W 1 1W 30 25 1W W 7 11 Percent Coverage t i t t e r 93 90 87 90 <* 83 91 85 88 93 77 75 65 76 82 8W 86 Decaying Wood 7 6 8 5 5 12 10 8 2 3 1W 18 30 16 6 8 6 Mineral S o i l — — — — -- — — — — -- — - - — 1 Rock - -- — '-- - -- -- -- - - - — — — — Brgrotope Subxerlo Ho» lo Trophotope Submesotrophlo Subeutrophlo Parent Material Morelnal Lacustrine F l u v i a l T a b l e 5 ™ AS PEN - WHITE SPRUCE BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER 100210031004 1008 10131 014 10201037 I C O 1007 (015 1016 1019 1026 1032 |033 10381 I , SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR P MS RS A l A2 A3 B l B2 1 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 2 PICEA GLAUCA 3 PINUS CCNTORTA 4 POPULUS BALSAHIFERA 5 BETULA PAPYRIFERA POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA PINUS CCNTORTA PICEA GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 6 PICEA MARIANA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA 7 ABIES LASIOCARPA PINUS CCNTORTA 8 ALNUS CRISPA PICEA GLAUCA 9 SALIX BEBBIANA POPULUS TREMULOIOES PICEA MARIANA 10 VIBURNUM EOULE 11 AMELANCHICR ALNIFOLIA 12 BETULA RESINIFERA BETULA PAPYRIFERA 13 SALIX SCOULERI ANA 14 ALNUS TENUIFOLIA POPULUS BALSAM 1FERA 15 CORNUS STOLON IFFRA 16 SHEPHERUIA CANADENSIS VIBURNUM EOULE 17 ROSA ACICULARIS SHEPHEROIA CANAOCNSIS 18 RI (IE S OXYACANTHOIOES CORNUS STOLONIFERA ALNUS CRISPA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 19 LOMCERA OIOICA AMELANCHIER ALNIFCLIA 1 8.3 I 8.3 ! 8. 1 8. 1 . 16.216.217.218.31 1 . I • 1 • 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 13.21 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 12.2 11.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I • 1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 18 14.2 14. 4. 1 15.215.215.216.215.21 1 . ! • 1 . 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 12.21 1 . • 12. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 15 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . • 1 ' 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • | . 12.113.212.211.214.21 1 1.2 • 13. 11.113.21 . I . 13.21* l * . l • 2. 1 . l . i . 12.215.213.21 1 . • 1 . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . i . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . I*.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I*.01 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , 14. 2. 15. 14.211.214.215.216.215. 1 7. 4. 5. 1 . 1 . 13.214.216.2 1 . I . 11. 3. 4. 1 . 1 . 13.214.214.21 . 13. 1 . + . 1 • 1 . 13.214.2 11.2 I . I . I . 1 . I*.112.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11. 1 . I . I . I*.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 . I . 14.214.31 . I..2I . 1 . 1 . I . I . 13.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 • 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 * . 1 . 1 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I. 1 . 1. 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •. 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 * I . I . I «.2I . 1 . 1 . 14. 1 5. 1 8. 14. 1 4.21 4.21 5.21 5.216.215. 14. | 4. 4. 15. 15.114.214.215.216.215. 12. 1 4. 1 4. 1 . 11.117.316.214.2|3.21 . 12. 1 • . 1 1 . l l . H 3 . l l . 13. 13.21*. 14. | 4. 1 3. 12. 13.111.11 . 12.214.21 . I * . 1 • | 12. I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 12.211. 1 . 1 • | 1 12.111.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 3. I 1 . 1 1.211.21*. 11.21 . 1 .'1 1 1 I*.+ 15.314.2|». I . I . 15. 315.314.215.2 17. 14.21 . 14.214.2|4. I . 14.313.21 . I . I • 1 • I • I • j a 2 I . I . I 215.214.21 13.214.2(4.211.214.21 . 13.21 15.215.215.217.214.216.216.21 14.21 . I . I . I . | . | . | I . I 1.11 . I . I . I . I . I I • 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 16.215.214.214.214.215.217.21 14.2 1*. 01 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 14.211.01 . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 14.213.212.214. 13.211.111.21 I . I . I . I * . l I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I . | I 1 > 14. .1 I . 211. 316. I . I . I . 211. II. I . I . I . I . I . 21 I . I I . 11.211.01 I . I . I . I I . 11.21 . I I l+.21 I I . I I . I I . I 1 I . I 21*.31 I I . I I I . I I I 14. 12. I*. I . I . I . I*. I I . 215. 214. 21 . 13. I . 11. 111. 21*. I . 314.213.214.212.214.21 315.212.215.214.214.21 I . 12.214.21 . 12.31 3 1 . I . I . I*.211.21 I 213.21 21 . 13 II . I I*.21 , .211.21 12.21 13.21 11.21 I . I I . I I 76.5 6.6 4-8 I 47.1 3.8 3-5 I 11.8 1.4 3-4 I 11.8 * . l 1-2 I 5.9 3.5 8-8 I 88.2 4. 7 »-6 I 52.9 5.0 2-7 I 17.6 2.4 2-5 I 11.8 ».C 1-1 I 5.9 2.C 5-5 I 70.6 ( 52.9 4.4 1-7 2.1 .-4 I 47.1 2.7 *-5 I 47.1 2.4 1-4 I 11.8 I 5.9 I 5.9 ».C «-l •.C •.c •-• 4.6 4.2 2.8 I 70.6 I 52.9 I 41.2 I 29.4 l . t I 29.4 «.t I 23. 5 I 17.6 *-t 1-7 1-4 • -4 • -2 • .C •-! i.e I 11.8 «.5 I 11.8 «.C I 11.8 4.0 I 5.9 *.0 • -4 • -1 • -1 • -1 1-1 5.9 ».C 1-1 5.9 ».0 •-• 5.9 ..0 •-• 1100.0 5.2 2-8 1100.0 5.1 2-6 I 70.6 4.2 »-7 I 58.8 2.0 »-3 I 52.9 2. 6 1-4 I 47 .1 1.5 *-3 I 47.1 1.2 .-3 I 47.1 1 .1 »-3 I 41.2 2.4 »-5 T a b l e 6 ASPEN - WHITE SPRUCE BOREAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZCNE PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER 10021003100410081013 I 0141020 I 0371040100710151016101910261032103310381 1 1 ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR P KS PS e PICEA GLAUCA 13 . i . i •. i . i i .21 . 13.2 2 . 2 1 3 . I . I . I . 1 . i . l" . 1 35 .3 1.6 f - 3 20 RIBES TRISTE 13. i . i . i * . i i 1 . 1 . . 1 . | . I . I . I . I t 21 f 21 . . 1 23 .5 f . 7 f - 3 21 LEDUM GRCENLANOICUM 1 . i , i . l o l l 1 . 1 . . 1 . | i . i . . n . If .211 1 . .2 f .21 . . 1 23 .5 f . C f -1 PICEA MARIANA 1 . i . i . 1 l . f l . 1 . 1 . . 1 . j . i . i i . n 1 . . 1 11.8 f . 0 1-1 BETULA PAPYRIFERA | . f . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 .21 . . 1 11.8 • . C f - 1 SALIX 8E8BIANA I f • i . i . 1 . 11 .21 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . I 1 1 . 1 11.8 • . 0 f - 1 22 RUBUS IDAEL'S ALNUS TENUIFOLIA ! ; • | ; i •. i I . I I . I . . 1 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . I . I . I I . I . I . 1 , 1 If 1 2 . 1 I . 1 11.8 . 1 5.9 • . 0 f . C f - f f - . 23 RIBES GLANDULOSUM i . i . j . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . I f . | , I . I . I . 1 1 . | . . 1 5.9 • .0 • - • 24 SORBUS SCOPULINA 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 1 . . 1 . I • .11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • . 1 5.9 f . O • 25 LINNAEA BOREALIS 1 3 . 3 . 14. 1 2 . 1 5.21 6 .31 5 ,215 .2 6 . 2 1 2 . 1 1. 213 .314 .211 2|f. 214. 2 4, 21 . . 1100.0 4 .8 f - 6 26 CORNUS CANAOENSIS 1 4. 4. 1 4. 13. 14.2 13 2 14 2 14.2 4.2 13. 14 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 ) 4 .214, 215 2 4 21 . . 1100.0 4 . 5 3-5 27 RUBUS PUBESCENS 1 4 . 4 . 1 2. 1 3. 13.11f .114 214.2 4.2 I * . 12. 213.31 . 11 211 211 2 f 2 1 . . 1 94 .1 3.3 f - 4 28 ARAL IA NUDICAULIS 12. f . 14. 14. 13.114 .214 .214.2 6 . 2 1 6 . 1 3 214.31 . 1 . 1 . If 2 f 21 . . 1 82.4 4 . 3 f - 6 21 PYROLA SECUNDA 1 . f . 1 . | f . 13 .21* . 211. 2 I f . 2 • .21 . 1 • i 211.2 I*.211 .211 2 | f 2 t .21 . . 1 82.4 1. 2 f - 3 30 MERTENSIA PANICULATA 1 3 . 4 . 1 2 . 1 . 1 1.11 . 13 21 2.2 3.21 1. 1 1. 113.21 . 1 11. 212. 2 t , 2 1 . . 1 76 .5 2 .5 f - 4 31 MI TELL A NUDA 1 4 . 2 . 1 f • 1 f • 11.11 1 . 12.2 1.21 1. | . 12.31 . 11 .211 212 2 2. 21 . . 1 76.5 2. C f-4 32 LATHYRUS OCHROLEUCUS 1 • • 2 . 1 1. 1 f • 13. 113. 212. 211.2 2.21 . 11. 212.21 . 1 . If 21 . . 1 70.6 1 . f » - 3 33 VIOLA RENIFOLI A 13. 1 . 1 • . I . 1 . .11 . 1 . I*.2 • .21 . I • 211 .311 .211 2 l f . 211. 2 j m . 1 70.6 1.2 f - 3 34 PYROLA A SARIFOLIA 1 • . 12. 13. 12.11 . 13 2 13.2 2 . 2 1 1 . | • l l l . 2 U . 2 l . I f 21 . • 1 . . 1 64 .7 1.9 f - 3 35 MA IANTHEMUM CANAOENSE 1 . 2 . 1 1. 1 f • 13.21 13. 211.2 1.21 . 11. 211.214.21 . 1 . 1 . | , . 1 58.8 2 . 1 f - 4 36 EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM 1 . 3 . 13. I . 1 . 11 .213 211.2 • .21 . | , | f . 2 | f . 1 1 . 1 1. 2 | f . 2 | m . 1 58.8 1.6 f - 3 37 GALIUM BOREALE 1 . 1. 11. 1 . 11.112. 213. 2 11.2 1.21 . 11. 211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .21 . . 1 58.8 1.4 1-3 38 ACTAEA RUBRA 1 . f . 1 • • 1 • . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*.2 • .21 . 1 • . 2 | f . 2 l . 11. 2 If 21 . f < 2 1 . . 1 58.8 f .2 • -1 39 PYROLA CHLORANTHA 1 . 1 . 1 . | f . f | 2 . 21 . I*.2 • . 1 . 1 f • 11 . I*.2I . If. 21 f, 21 . . 1 47.1 f . 3 f - 2 40 VACCINIUM VIT IS- IOAEA 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 f • 2 • .21 . | , 1 . 13.212 .211 . 211. 2 f .21 . . 1 41.2 1. 1 f - 3 41 PE TA SITE S PALMATUS 1 . f . 1 1. I . i f . l l 1 1 . •.21 . I . I . I . If. 214. 2 | . . 1 35 .3 1.3 f - 4 42 CALAMAGROST IS CANADENSIS I f .1 2. 12. 1 f • | f . l 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . j # . 1 35.3 f . 7 f - 2 43 GOODYERA REPENS 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 f . f 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . I f .21 . 12. 2 1 . 12. 2 1 2 1 . . 1 29.4 • . 7 f - 2 44 HARENARI A ORBICULATA 1 . I . | . 12.f1 . 1 1 f .2 . 1 . | 1 1 . 3 | f . 2 l f . 21 1 . . 1 29.4 f . 3 f - 2 45 ASTER CILIOLATUS 1 . I . i . U . 1 1 . 1 . 12.2 • .21 . 1 • . 2 | f . 2 l . 1 . 1 1 . . 1 29.4 • . 1 f - 2 46 FRAGARIA VIRGINI AN A 1 • 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . • .21 . 1 . 1 . 11. 2 I f . 2 1 . . 1 17.6 • .0 f -1 47 CORALLORHIZA TRIFI DA 1 I , 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . ! • .21 . 1 1 . f . j . . 1 17 .6 • . c • - • 48 EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM I . I . 1 • • I . I . 1 . 1 . . I * . 1 < (• .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . | . . 1 17.6 f . C • - . 49 VICIA AMERICANA I . 1 . I . 1 . 13 21 2. 21 . . 1 . j , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 11.8 • . 9 2-3 50 GALIUM TRIFLORUM 1 1. I . If . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 11.8 «.C f - 1 51 EQUISETUM SCIRPOIOES 1 f .1 • I . I . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . I f . 2 . 1 11.8 • .0 * - • 52 GEOCAULON LIVIDUM I . 1 . I . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1•.21 , If . 1 . . 1 11.8 • . 0 f 53 LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM AMELANCHIER ALNIFCLIA 1 '. | ; ,' ; I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12.2 . 1 . . 1 . j ; 1 . 14.21 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 ." . 1 5.9 . 1 5.9 1. 2 • . 0 4-4 2-2 54 CALYPSO BULBOSA | . i , i . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . i , 1 . 1 . 11. 21 . 1 , . 1 5 .9 • . C 1-1 55 C I NNA LAT IFOLIA j . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 11. i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 5.9 • . C 1-1 56 EQUI SETUM ARVENSE | . i . i . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . | . . 1 5.9 • . 0 • - • 57 EQUISETUM PRATENSE I f . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . i , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . j . . 1 5.9 f . C f - f 58 FRAGARI A BRACTEATA i • . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . j , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . j . . 1 5 .9 • . 0 f - • 59 LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM i . i . I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . | ^ . 1 5 .9 f . 0 • - • 60 SMILACINA TRIFOLIA 1 • i • i • I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . i . 1 . I*.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . 1 5.9 f . O f T a b l e 6 ( c o n t i n u e d ) AS PEN - WHITE SPRUCE BOREAL WHITE G BLACK SPRL'CE ZONe PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER 1002 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 4 100810131 O H 1020 1037 1040 1007 1015 1016 1019 1026 1032 1033 10381 1 , ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE ANO VIGOR P MS S S DH DW 61 HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS 62 PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 63 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 64 nURH YNCHIUM PULCHELLUM 65 PELTIGERA APHTHOSA 66 'PSLT IGERA CAN INA 67 PCLTIGERA PQLYDACTYLA 68 eR ACHYTHEC IUM ASPERRIMUM 69 DICR ANUM ACUTIFCLIUM 70 DICRAMUM FUSCESCENS 71 PLAGIOMNIUM CUSPIDATUM 72 OICRANUM UNDULATUM 73 BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 74 BRACHYTHEC IUM REFLEXUM 75 BRACHYTHEC1UM SALEBROSUM 76 CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM 77 CLAOINA AR BUSCULA 78 CLADINA RANGIFERINA 79 CLACONIA GRACILIS 80 OREPANOCLADUS UNCINATUS 81 JAMESONIELLA AUTUMNALlS 82 MARCHANTIA POLYMORPHA 83 MNIUM BLYTTII 84 PELT IGERA HORIZONTALS 85 PELTIGERA MALACEA 86 POHLIA NLTANS 87 POLYTRICWM COMMUNE 88 RHYTI01ADELPHUS TRICUETRUS 89 TETRAPHIS PELLUCI DA 90 TORTULA MUCRONIFCLIA HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS PLEJRCZIUM SCHREBERI PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS PELTIGERA CAN IN A CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM BRACHYTHEC IUM SALEBROSUM OICRANUM FUSCESCENS EURHYNCHIUM PULCHELLUM 91 PYLAISIA POLYANTHA JAMESONIELLA AUTUMNAL IS 92 MNIUM SPINULOSUM 93 NEPHROMA RESUPINATUM BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 94 BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPHYLLUM OICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM 95 MERZOGIELLA TURFACEA 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 2 . | . 1 6. 1 1 . 1 • • 1 2 . 13 . 1 1 . 1 8 . 1 7 . 17 . 1 8 . 1 6 . 16. 1 8 . 1 . 1 . 1 9 4 . 1 5 . 7 • - 8 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 • • 1 • 1 2 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 3 . 1 1. 1 1. 1 7 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 6 . 5 3 . 3 • - 7 1 1 . 1 • 1 » • 1 • 1 . 1 . I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 I . 1 5 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 5 2 . 9 2 . 3 • - 5 1 • 1 • • | • . 1 . 1 • . 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 1 • • 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I » . 1 . 1 . 1 4 1 . 2 • . 0 * - • ' • ' • 1 • 1 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 3 5 . 3 • C • - i 1 • I • 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 7 . 6 1 . 2 1 • • ' • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 1. 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 1 7 . 6 • . 0 • - 1 J • 1 . t • • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 + . .1 . I . I . 1 . 1 1 1 . 8 • . C 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • l + . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 1 1 . 8 . . 0 1 •• 1 • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 1 . 8 *.c J • | +. 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 1 1 . 8 • . 0 j • 1 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . 0 l - l • • j • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 5 .9 • . C + - • • j • ' • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 + . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 5 . 9 . . c • - • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • • 1 * i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 . . 0 * - • j • J • J • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • t • . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 ».C • - T j • ' • j • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 » . o 1 • t • . t • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 • i • 1 • 1 • I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 5 . 9 • . 0 • - • 1 • 1 • 1 *• 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . t . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . C *- T 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • I • 1 « 1 • 1 + • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . C * - N J • 1 • 1 • . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . c • - r • j • ' • ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 « 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 • • I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . c I • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 . I . I 5 . 9 . . 0 v - V ' • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • . 1 • I . I 5 .9 f . C • - » 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . 0 • - V • • 1 • j • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . 0 • j • ' • ' • • • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 *•• 1 • 1 « 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I . I 5 . 9 • . c • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 •• • 1 • I . I 5 . 9 • . c • • 1 • . 1 • 1 • I • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 5 . S • . c • - T 1 * ' * 1 * 1 ' 1 * ' • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • I . I 5 . 9 • . c + - + 1 . 1 1 . 1 + • 1 I B . 1 . 1 +. 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 3 . 1 2 . 1 5 . 1 . 1 . 1 8 3 . 2 • c 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1. 1 1. 1 • 1 • • 11-. 1 *• 1 1 . 14 . 14 . 14 . 1 *•• 1 +• 1 4 . 1 2 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 6 . 5 2.6 1 1 . 1 • 1 • . 1 • • 1 2 . 1 . 1 * • 1 . 1 • • 1 . 1 4 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 • • 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 1. 1 . 1 . ' 1 7 0 . 6 2.4 r -t 1 1. 1 1 • 1 +. 1 • • 1 • • 1 1 1 • • 1 • . 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 7 0 . 6 » . 6 » - i 1 • • 1 • 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 • . 1 • . 1 1 1 + • 1 • • 1 +. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • I + . 1 • 1 . 1 6 4 . 7 • .1 • - V 1 + • 1 • • 1 • . 1 « 1 • t • • 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 + • t • . 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 + . 1 . 1 . 1 5 8 . 8 » . c • - 9 1 • 1 • • 1 • • 1 • 1 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 *•• 1 . 1 • 1 + • 1 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 3 5 . 3 • • C • -•» 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 1 1 . 1 • • 1 . i . 1 . i + • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I + . 1 • 1 . 1 3 5 . 3 • • 0 * - • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 . 1 • • 1 « 1 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 + • 1 1 . 1 . 1 2 9 . 4 • . c 1 • 1 • 1 • 1*. 1 « 1 « 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I*. 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 • • i • 1 . 1 2 9 . 4 • . 0 • - •» t +• 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . I . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 * . 1 1 . 1 . 1 2 9 . 4 * -V 1 • 1 • 1 •• 1 • 1 i . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 • • 1 . I . I . 1 v 1 2 9 . 4 * . c f • J 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 + • 1 • • 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 +. 1 . 1 . 1 2 3 . 5 • . c • - i t 1 • 1 • 1 1 • 1 . 1 . J . 1 • . 1 . 1 • 1 • i • 1 . 1 • t • • 1 • . i • 1 . 1 2 3 . 5 t„ C 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 * . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 1 • 1 • . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 2 3 . 5 « . c 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 . 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . i + . ; . 1 . 1 2 3 . 5 » „ 0 T a b l e 6 (continued} OOHE AL WHITE C BLACK SPRuCT tOUf ASPI'N - WHITE SPRUCE p/w,; <, PLOT NUMBER 10 0210C3I004100810131014102010371040 00710151016 01)10261032103310381 1 i ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIF CANCE AND V GOR . p MS RS 96 C LAD CNIA CCHROCHLCRA i . 1 . 1 . I . I * . I . I . I . I . . 1*. 1 e • I . I . 1*. I . I . 1 • 1 17.6 • .0 OREPANOCLADUS UNC!NATUS I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . * . 1 • 1 . « l . l . l * . l * . l . ! • 1 17.6 • .0 «-* 97 ONCOPHORUS WAHL ENBERG11 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . • 1 • 1 1 1 * . 1 . 1 . 1 17.6 * . c «-. PELTIGERA APHTHCSA i . 1 . 1 . 1 . l . i . I . I . I . * . I*. 1*. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 17.6 • .0 • PELTIGERA POL YDACTYLA . 1 . 1•• . 1 . 1 . l . i * . I . I . 1 17.6 * . c • -• POHLIA NUTANS. 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 * • I . I . I . I*. . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I * . I . I . 1 17.6 ».o «-* 98 PTILIDILM PULCMERRI MUM l . i . I . j * . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . * . l . l . l . l * . l . 1 . 1 17.6 * . o . -» 99 CEPHALOZ IELLA DIVARICATA I . I . 1*. 1 . I*. 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • • I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 11.8 • . c *-» 100 CETRARIA JUNIPERINA I . i . i . i * . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I*. . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 11.8 • . 0 • 101 CLADONIA BOTRVTFS I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • I . I * . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . 1 11.8 ' . C 102 CRCSSOCALYX HELLERIANUS I . I . I . I*. 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • • 1 • 1 • . 1 » 1 • 1*• 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 11.8 . . c . - , DICRANUM UNDULATUM I . I * . I*. I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 11.8 -.0 • -« 103 HOMALOTHECIUM AENEUM 1 . 1 * * 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . • • l . i . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 11.8 «.c • -* 104 LEPIDOZIA REPTANi I . I . I . I * . i . r . i . i . i . • I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . 1 11.8 • .0 • -• 105 LOPHOCULEA HE TEROPHYLLA i * . I . I . i . j . j . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . • I . i . i * . I . I . 1 . 1 11.8 * . c *-* 106 LOPHOCOLEA MINOR I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 * . i • • i . i . i * . I . I . I . 1 11.8 * . c *-. 107 LOPHOZIA VENTRICOSA I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . • 1 . | . . 1 . 1 . I*. I . I . I . 1 11.8 • .0 < 108 NEPHROMA HELVETICUM I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 • 1 • • . I . I . I . I * . I . I . 1 11.8 * . c PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • I . I . . I . l . l * . l * . l . l . 1 11.8 ».c P LAG IONM UM CWSPIOATUM i . i * . i . i • i • i . i . i . i . . l . i . . i • i . i * . i . i . i . 1 11.8 • .0 • - • 109 DICRANUM FRAG!LIFOLIUM i . i . i . i . i i . i . i . i . i . . I . j . . I . I . i . i . i . i . 1 5.9 * . c I- I BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUM i . I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . i . • 1 • 1 . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.o »-» 110 CLADONIA CONIOCRAEA I . I . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . . 1 * . 1 . . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 5.9 • . 0 «-* 111 CLADON IA CORNUTA i . i . i « i . i . i . I . I . i . . 1 . I*. . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . c CLADONIA GRACILIS I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . . i . i . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 • • 0 112 OICRANUM POLYSETUM I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I * . • I . I . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . c *-* 113 EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUM 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . • 1 • 1*. . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.c *-* 114 HOMALOTHECIUM FULGESCENS 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 * . 1 . • l . i . < i . i . I . I . I . i . 1 5.9 • .0 *-« 115 LEPTOGIUM SATURNINUM I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . • I * . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 «.c »-• 116 PELTIGERA EVANS I ANA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . * . 1 . 1 • . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 • .0 • PELTIGERA MALACEA I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . . 1 . 1 . * . i • i . I . i . i . i . 1 5.9 • .0 »-* 117 PL AGIOMN IUM DRUMMONOII i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . . 1 . 1*. . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 • .0 *-» 118 PTILIDIUM CIL1 ARE i . i . i . i • i . i . i . i . i . . 1 . 1 . 1 5.9 *.0 *-* RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . • r • i * . . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . o *-* 1 1 9 TIMMIA MEGAPOLITANA I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . • 1 * ! * • . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 5.9 * . c •-• T a b l e 6 (nnnt . - f SOUTTHEMTCSL. ANALYSIS (l-HACTION <2MH1 TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALtNTINE (19711 'PLOT—"2'TJPTHrC GTTflTY CUVTSCL "" BOREAL WMlfE t bCXcKl" SPRUCE ZONE Page 1 SIKANNI-TrRRAIN SYSTEM SAN NO HORIZON SAM. DEPTH PH H20 CM. (C.M. I 2- 0 LFH 0 0 6 - 0 0 0 2- 1 AHF. 0 0 0 - 0 1 6 5.6 2 - '" 2 DT 0 1 6 - 0 0 G~~5 V 6 ?'. 2- 4 C KGJ 0 0 0 - • 7.3 1. TOT.C TOT .N X C/N RAT I O P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C.E.C. MEQ/100 BASE SAT. 11 .00 ~ 9.62" 19.12 3.22 0.06 '2.81 0.05" 0.76 0.10 1 .56 " 0.72" 0. 26 'MOIST xS x s ! XC 20.30 "14.40" 6.30 80.5 ~ "9 1 . 7 ' 100.0 10YR42 I0YR33 10YRS2 'I0YR43 10YR52 10YR42 12 45 41 SIC_ "9'54 36 SICL 14 72 13 SIL « PLOT 3 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM SAM " N O " HORIZON SAMi D"FPTH_ TOT.C " X — TOT .N C/N TTATIO"" P PPM-EXCH. CAT. MSO/lOO GM C.E.C --'-—-----MEQ/1 0 NA K GM BASE SAT" X COLOR TEXTURE. XS XSI XC 3- 0 LFH 009-000 6 .3 92 . 1 53.40 2. 08 25. 7 126 65. 00 10. 87 0.0 3. 62 88.00 90.5 J - 1 At G0C-0I6 6.2 C .9 o «ba 0 • 0 7 7. A 014 5. 2j 1 . 26 0 .02 0 . 4 J a. 20 S3.5 10YH73 10YR53 18 55 25 3- 2 DT 016-040 6. 3 1 .3 0. 74 0. 08 . 9. 3 005 1 1. 88 3 . 30 0.05 0. 87 18. 10 8 9 . 0 10YR63 10YR43 to 36 53 3- 4 CK 048- • 7.6 1 .5 0.86 0 . 08 10. 8 002 1 1. 50 2. 69 0.09 0. 35 9 .40 100.0 10YR62 10YR42 1 78 20 PLOT « DEGRADED EUTRIC DRUNISOL SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM 5AM NO HOP IZ0K1 5AM. DEPTH (CM. ) H20 CM. X TOT.C X TOT .N X C7R RAT 10 P PPM EXCH. CAT. M5O/100 GM c .e .e . MEO/100 GM """79.00— 10.00 . 12.10 13.50 BASE SAT X 53.9 67.4 60.3 -4-—0~ -~ XTH 00^ "-0~OC 5.6 92.3 53T4TJ TV34'~ 4- 1 AEJ 000-013 5.1 1.6 0.93 0.13 4- 2 DTGJ OIJ-052 4.9 1.1 0.65 0.13 4- 3 CG 052- » 4.7 1.9 1.10 0.11 CA "39.9 104 38.75 7.2 023 3.50 5.0 00S 5.00 10.0 005 4.87 MG NA "7.37 0.0 ~"2.'62" 1.29 0.04 0.55 2. 64 0.05 0.46 2.78 0.07 0.41 COLOR DRY MOIST 10YR62 10YR51 I0YRS2 10YR42 10YR41 10YR32 TEXTURE XS XSI XC 32 49 18 SIL 16 51 32 SICL 26 39 34 CL PLOT e ORTHIC GRAY LUV1SOL SAM NO HORIZON SAM. DEPTH (CM. ) PH H20 O.M. X TOT.C X TOT .N X BUCKINGHORSE TERRAIN SYSTEM C/N RATI 0 P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM BASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC AE B T CK 000-005 005-04S 0 4 5- • 4.6 4.7 7.4 1 .2 0.8 1 .3 0. 69 0.44 0.78 0.05 0.04 o.oe 13.8 013 11.0 004 9.8 005 2.50 6.62 12.37 0.60 0.0 2 2.51 0.07 2.83 0.06 0. 10 0. 27 0.24 8.40 16.70 15.30 38.4 56.8 100.0 10YRT2 10YR62 10YR62 10YR43 10YR52 10YR31 20 57 22 SIL 6 35 58 C 25 64 9 J51L T a b l e 7 SO 1L' CHEMICAL ANALYSIS {FRACTION <2MM) " TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) ""DOREAX *M I TE' t UCKCVT SPRUCE ZONE P a g e 2 PLOT 13 GLEYED ORTH1C GRAY LUVISOL TOT.C SAW NO HORIZON SAM. • DEPTH ( C M . ) PH H2Q CM. X TOT .N X SI KANNI TERRAIN SYSTtiM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM C/N RAT 1 O P PPM C.E.C MEQ/100 BASE SAT COLOR "DRY —~WOTST~ TEXTURE "TS-XS"T—XC 13- 1 LFH 009-COC 5. 8 e7. 1 50 .50 1 . 46 34.6 92 56.75 11.50 0.0 1 .'37 65.00 84 . 9 1 3- 3 AS1 000-000 5.4 3. 1 1 .80 0. 10 1 e. 0 04 3 5. 63 2.1 7 0.02 0.30 1 I .60 70 .0 10YR62 10YR43 I 5 52 32 CL 13- 5 A p 2 OO'J-OI 7 5.4 1 .9 1 . 10 0. 16 6.9 057 8.00 3.21 0 . 04 0. 66 I 7. 40 68.4 10YR42 10YH32 42 23 34 CL 1 3- 7 IIT 0 17-04 3 5. 5 1 . 0 0 .57 0. OB 7. 1 009 9.00 4 ,44 0 .05 0.51 1 7.60 79.6 1 0YR72 1OYR53 28 24 46 C l 3-1 1 2CG 043-001 5.3 C .9 0 .55 0. 11 5. 0 004 S.75 4. 19 0. 09 0.26 . 17.80 74.7 10YR41 10YH32 1 5 46 38 SICL PLOT 14 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM SAM NO HORIZON SAM. DEPTH (CM. ) PH H20 C X TOT.C X TOT .N X. C/N RAT I 0 P PPM EXCH . CAT. MEQ/lOO GM C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM BASE SAT X COLOR TEXTURE CA MG NA K DRY MOIST XS ISI (C 1 4- 0 LFH 010-66S I. 7 91 .0 52.60 1.25 42.2 90 52.50 15. 62 0.1 2.37 64.00 100.0 14- 1 AE1 ooc-oos 5.0 1 .2 0. 72 0.07 10. 3 006 3. 50 1 .12 0.02 0.17 7.20 67,0 10YR72 10YR43 1 5 60 24 SIL 14- 2 AE2 005-020 4.3 C .8 0.44 0.06 7. 3 COS 3.00 1.07 0 . 04 0. 12 7.00 60 . 4 10YH72 10YR43 29 52 18 SIL 1 4- 3 • T 02C-033 4.6 e . 6 0.36 0.05 7. 2 006 3.62 2.07 0.09 0. 20 1 1.90 50.3 10YR62 10YR53 6 51 41 SIC 1 4- 5 OTG 033-061 4.8 0 .9 0.53 0. 05 10. 6 01 1 12.37 8.44 0.24 0.64 14.50 100.0 10YR52 10YR41 4 3 2 67 HC PLOT 20 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAW HORIZON SAM. PH CM. TOT.C NO DEPTH H20 X X (CM.) TOT .N X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM CA MG NA " K C/N RATI 0 P PPM 20- 1 LFH 005-00C 5.2 92. 1 53.40 2. 02 2.0- 2 » c 000-009 5. 0 1.9 1.08 0, ns 20- 3 A'J 009-019 20- 4 8T 01 9-0 54 4.8 1 . 1 0.62 n. 07 20- 6 CK 054- *• 7. 1 1 .8 1.02 0. 09 26.4 168 47.50 10.00 0.0 21. 6 008 3.62 0.96 0.0 5.62 0.19 C.E.C MEQ/lOO GM 1 16.00 7. 10 BASE SAT " X 54.5 67.5 COLOR DRY MOIST 10YR72 10YR62 TEXTURE XS XS! XC 8.9 004 1 1. 3 007 9.62 1 0. 50 4.94 0.0 5.31 0.06 0.37 0.29 19. 10 1 1 . 50 78.5 100.0 10YR62 10YR42 10YR52 10YR32 34 SI 14 SIL PLOT 27 GLEYCO ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM SAM HORIZON SAM. DEPTH (CM. ) PH H20 (I.M. TOT.C TOT.N C/N RATIO • P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM DASE SAT X COLOR TEXTURE NO X X X CA MG NA K DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 37- 1 37- 2 37- 5 37- « LFH ' 010-000 AE 000-023 BTGJ 023-050 IITG 050- + '4.9 4.8 4.9 4.7 91 .0 3.? 1.7 1 . 1 52.80 1 .87 0.97 0.64 I .39 0.11 0. 10 O.OB 38.0 1 7. 0 9. 7 8.0 188 044 088 00 3 38.75 5.50 4.00 6,00 7.37 1 .95 1 . 80 4.37 0.9 0 .03 0.03 0.07 3.25 0.40 0.30 0. 30 127.00 18. 10 18.10 16.70 39.0 43.5 33.8 64.4 10YR62 10YR42 10YR72 10YR52 10YR62 10YR42 1 8 27 1 4 49 31 SICL 46 26 L 44 41 SIC k, T a b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 5PIL CHEmeAL A.MALV5I5 (rPttTIOH UUU) ' T E R R A I N S Y S T E M A F T E R V A L E N T I N E ( 1 9 7 1 ) P L O T 4 0 G L E Y E 0 ' O R T H I C ' G R A Y " L U V I S O L S I K A N N I T E R R A I N S Y S T E M BOREAL WHITE & tiLACK SPRUCE ZONE Page 3 SA X NO HORIZON SAM. OEPTH PH H2Q T O T . C X ( C M . ) LFH 016-000 5.6 Et. 0 49.90 TOT.N X C/N R A T I O P PPM E X C H . C A T . MEQ/100 GM C.E.C. MEQ/lOO B A S E S A T C O L O R 40- 1 40- 2 40- 3" 40- 4 40- 5 40- 6 ~40- 7 A HE 000-002 5.4 13.8 AS . 0 0 2 - 0 1 4 5 . 2 1 .2 AB 014-020 5.0 1 .1 aT 020-033 HTGJ 033-Jfc9 5.7 1.5 CKGJ 069- • 8 . 0 0 0 . 6 9 0.66 0.47 0.07 0.07 3 5 . 9 150 4 5 . 0 0 1 1 . 5 0 0.0 1 7 . 0 0 2 5 9.9 6 9.4 0 0 3 1 1 . 1 0 0 5 1 3 . 0 0 3. 75 8.25 5 . 1 5 0 . 0 3 1.67 0 . 0 5 4 . 5 0 -0 . 0 5 1.52 0. 35 0 . 4 7 1 4 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 9 3 0 . 9 0 . 6 3 . 6 1 3 . 8 0 4 2 . 2 1 0 . 5 0 1 0 0 . 0 .00 6.07 0.07 XS X S I XC 1 0 Y R 3 2 10YR21 4 3 8 5 7 C 1 0 Y H 7 2 1 0 Y R 6 2 1 5 5 9 2 5 S I L 1 0 Y R 6 2 1 0 Y R 4 3 2 2 3 2 4 5 C 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 2 1 7 2 0 5 4 C "PLOT 7 ' C R T H I C GRAY L U V I S O L " ' ~ D U CKINGHORSE T E R R A I N S Y S T E M " " : SAM H O R I Z O N SAM. PH O.M. T O T . C T O T . N C/N P E X C H . C A T , MEQ/LOO GM C . E . C B A S E COLOR T E X T U R E NO DTPTH H20 X X X RATIO PPM MEQ/100 SAT (CM. ) CA MG NA K GM X DRY MOIST XS XS I XC 7- 0 L CH 010-000 4.5 87. 9 51 .00 1.86 27. 4 138 35. 00 6.62 0. 0 3. 50 119.00 37.9 7- 1 A S OOC-011 4.7 1 . f 0 .94 0 .07 1 3. 4 022 3. 13 0.22 0.02 0. 17 17.80 " 19.9 10YR71 10YR52 40 49 10 L. 7- 2 " A n 011-0 20 ~ ~5.'0' ... ^ r — o .70"""' 0.05 14. 0 014 2 . 87 0.68 0.02 ' 0. 16 6.20 60.4 I0YR62 10YR63 40 44 14 L 7- 3 BT 020-063 5.2 C. A c .22 0.03 7. 3 003 2. 62 0.63 0. 02 0. 09 10.50 32.0 10YR63 10YR54 78 5 15 SL 7- 4 C K 06 3- • 7.6 0. 8 0 .48 0 .05 9. 6 00 I 12. 12 2.47 0.09 0.05 8. 50 100.0 10YR52 10YR42 45 4 1 12 L P L O T 15 O R T H I C GRAY L U V I S O L S I K A N N I T E R R A I N S Y S T E M SAM "~HOR IZON " SAM'.' PH 0. M.""TPT . C " T O T . N " NO DtPTH H20 X X X ( C M . ) 1 5 - I 15- 2 I S - 4 1 5- 6 C/N RATIO P PPM E X C H . C A T . MEQ/100 GM" C . E . C . CA MG NA TTTT AF DT CK G10-0CJ 000-C1 I 01 1-075 075- • 5.0 9C.0 5 2 . 2 6 4.9 1.6 0.90 4.0 I.I 0. »>2 6.9 1.5 0.86 1.37 3 8 . I 110 4 7 . 5 0 7.87 0.0 0 . 0 6 15.0 Oil 3 . 2 5 1.00 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 7 0 0 3 9. 12 3.94 0.0 7-0 . 0 7 1 2 . 3 <1 1 1 . 5 0 4.28 0 . 0 7 MEO/100 SAT K GM X 2 . 0 7 1 2 9 . 00 4 5 . 3 0. 14 8.00 5 5 . 2 0 . 3 5 2 1 .30 6 3 . 4 0 . 2 9 1 7 . 5 0 92 .2 COLOR T E X T U R E DRY MO I ST XS X S I XC 10YR72 10YR62 33 40 26 L 10YR62 10YR42 24 32 43 C 10YR52 I0YR32 12 40 47 SIC PLOT 16 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL S I K A N N I T E R R A I N S Y S T E M SAM NO 16- 1 1 6 - 2 1 6 -HORIZON SAM, DEPTH (CM, ) PH H20 C M . T O T . C X X LFH 008-000 AE 000-017 nTGJ 017-052 ~Ci(Xi—052-5.0 92.1 5.3 1.6 5.3 1.6 1 . B 5 3 . 4 0 0.91 0.91 T O T . N X C/N RATIO P PPM 1.44 3 7 . 1 1 6 2 0 . 0 7 1 3 . 0 0 2 4 0 . 10 9. 1 0 0 6 17.8 <l E X C H . C A T , MEO/100 GM CA MG, ..NA K 4 3 , 7 5 7 . 2 5 0.0 3 . 6 2 3 . 3 7 0 . 8 7 0 . 0 2 0 . 1 7 1 0 . 0 0 4 . 6 0 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 6 T 5 T Z S 7 7 3 7 0 . 10 6.47"" C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM... 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 6 . 3 0 B A S E S A T _ X.. . 4 0 . 6 2 7 . 3 nrSc1 "^" C O L O R ..DRY MOIST-T E X T U R E X S X S I XC 1 0 Y R 7 2 1 0 Y R 5 3 1 3 5 6 3 0 S I C L _L.OY_R.62_10YB42 L2_2L2_5.7_£ 10YH51 10YR32 21 41 3 7 C L » T a b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) S A M N O H O R I Z O N S A M . D E P T H P H H 2 0 C M . X T O T . C X - T O T . N X C / N R A T I 0 P P P M E X C H . C A T . M E O / 1 0 0 G M C . E . C . M E Q / 1 0 0 B A S E S A T C O L O R T E X T U R E > ~ ( C M . I CA MA k. G M X D A Y MOIST X S X S I X C 1 9 - 1 1 9 - Z L F H 0 0 4 - 0 0 0 A HE 000 - 0 0 5 5 . 3 4 . 9 5 4 . 0 ' 4 . 5 3 1 . 3 0 2 . 6 1 1 ' . O B 0 . 1 2 2 9 . 0 2 1 . B 2 0 0 0 2 6 2 5 . 0 0 0 . 6 3 3 . S O 0 . 7 7 0 . 0 2 . 3 7 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 4 9 3 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 3 3 . 3 1 9 . 5 1 0 Y R 5 2 1 0 Y R 3 1 1 9 - ~ 3 ~ 1 9 - 4 1 9 - 7 1 9 - a " B M I " o o s - o r r D M 2 0 0 9 - 0 7 2 C K 0 7 2 - 1 0 0 C K 1 0 0 - + 4T6" 4 . 7 7 . 5 B . O C . 6 0 . 3 0 . 3 0 . 2 1 0 . 3 7 " 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 9 C . 1 3 C . 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 1 2 . 3 e. o 9 . 5 1 3 . 0 " 0 9 7 " " ~ 0 5 7 0 0 8 to ~ ~ 0 . 6 3 ~ 0 . 7 5 4 . 0 0 4 . 6 2 0 . 2 2 " 0 . 3 3 0 . 6 8 0 . 5 2 0 . 0 " " 0 . 0 6 " 0 . 0 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 4 . 6 0 3 . 6 0 2 . 0 0 0 . 9 0 2 0 . 2 3 3 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 7 . S Y R 5 3 7 . 5 Y R 4 3 7 . S Y R 5 3 7 . S Y P 4 3 7 . 5 Y H 5 3 7 . 5 Y R 4 2 7 . 5 Y R 5 2 7 . 5 Y R 4 2 9 6 9 4 2 1 S • 4 0 S » y 5 0 ! L CH?U!CAL A N A L Y S I S (FRACTION <2MM) TERRAIN SYSTEM AF TFP VALENTINE (1971) O O R E A L « H I T E C B L A C K S P R U C E Z O N E Page h " P L 0 T ~ ! V " D E G P 5 B E D ~ " B Y S T i n r ' - T 3 r r o N T 5 C C " " " C H U A T S E ' T E R R A I N " S Y S T E M """ P L O T 2 6 O R T H I C G R A Y L U V I S C L SAM NO HORIZON SAM. DLPTH (CM.) P H H 2 0 C M . X T O T . C X T O T « N X B U C K I N G H O R S E T E R R A I N S Y S T L M _ _ E X C H . C A T . M E Q / 1 0 0 G M C A M G N A K C / N R A T I 0 P P P M C . E . C . M E Q / 1 0 0 G M B A S E S A T X C O L O R T E X T U R E D R Y M O I S T X S X S I X C 26- 1 LFH 309-000 6*0 91.0 52. 80 1. 25 42. 2 1 14 26- 2 AE 000-009 5.0 2.7 1 . 54 0. 12 12. 8 017 26- •» AO 009-0 19 6.0 1 .2 0. 69 C . 07 9.9 007 2 6-"" " BT Ol'y- 3 39" b. U I .2 C. 6 8 " (.'• 06 1 1 . J 009 26- HC 039-050 2 6- 6 CK 050- • 7.7 1 . 7 0. 97 0. 10 9.7 006 5 0 . 0 0 1 5 . 2 5 0 . 0 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 4 5 5 . 5 0 3 . 5 5 0 . 0 0 . 3 5 ~~~Vi 5 0 " " ' 6 • 5 0 "0 '. ' 0 5 0 . 5 0 " 1 4 . 5 0 5 . 3 5 0 . 1 0 0 . 3 5 7 3 . 0 0 2 1 . 7 0 1 8 . 0 0 1 9 . 3 0 " 1 2 . 6 0 9 3 . 7 3 8 . 6 5 2 . 5 ~ ' 8 5 . B ~ t o o . o 1 0 Y R 6 3 1 0 Y R 5 3 1 0 Y R 7 3 1 0 Y R 5 3 ~ 1 0 Y R 6 3 ' ~ 1 0 Y R 5 3 ~ " 1 5 " 2 9 " 5 4 " C " 1 0 Y R 3 1 1 0 Y R 4 1 5 7 9 1 4 S I L • P L O T 3 2 O E G R A D E D E U T R I C H R U N I S O L " S A M — H w r z o n — S T T W ; — NO OIPTH (CM.) —pn~ H 2 0 X "TTJT7C - -TTJTTKr X C H U A T S E T E R R A I N S Y S T E M E " X C H V " C A T V " M E O / T O ' O " G M " C A M G N A K • — C / N " R A T I O — P " ~ P P M C . E . C . " " * M E Q / 1 0 0 G M " O A S E " " S A T X C O C D K T E X T U R E D R Y M O I S T X S X S I X C 32- 'I"' ' LFH oin-ooc A. 3 Vi. 1 53.40 ' I . 35 39. 6 140 32.50 6.50 32- 2 AHE 000-005 4.6 3.8 2.20 0 . 20 1 1. 0 012 5.50 2.37 32- 3 OM1 00 5-0 16 5.5 2.3 1 .34 0 . 10 13. 4 004 7.25 3.42 32- 4 QM2 016-032 32-" 7 C K 03 2"- "> 7.5 1.2 0.72 0 .04 18. 0 009 1 1 .00" ~"3.65 0 2 0 2 . 7 5 0 . 4 7 0.3b "0~.'oS 0 . 2 7 " 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 7 . 0 0 8 . 40 — 1 0 . 5 3 " 3 2 . 1 1 4 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 T o o r o -1 0 Y R 4 3 1 0 Y R 3 2 1 3 5 6 2 9 S I C L 1 0 Y R 5 3 1 0 Y R 4 3 1 0 Y R 4 2 " 1 0 Y R 3 2 " " 1 6 ~ * 7 " 3 6 S I C L * " P L O T 33 G L E Y E D O C G R A S E B E U T R 1 C BftUNISOL S A M N O H O R I Z O N SAM. O C P T H 33- 0 33- 1 L F H A H E TCTMVT" 0 1 4 - 0 0 0 000-005 P H H 2 0 C . M . TOT.C X T O T . N X C H U A T S E T E R R A I N S Y S Y L M ^ ~ E X C H . C A T . MEO/100 G M ~ ~ C A M G N A K " C / N R A T I O P P P M C O L O R T E X T U R E " " D R Y M O I S T X S * ~ X £ I " X C " ~ 3 3 - 2 RT) OO'j-010 3 3 - 3 O M G J 0 1 0 - 0 2 3 3 3 - 4 B M K G 0 2 5 - 0 3 1 3 3 - 6 C K G 0 3 1 - • 4 . 9 9 2 . 1 4 . 6 4 . 6 " 5 T 4 " 2 T 3 ~ 7 . 1 7 . 9 I . 1 1 . 3 5 3 . 4 0 2 . 6 4 I . 3 3 0 . 6 2 0 . 7 3 C . 9 9 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 6 ' 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 5 3 . 9 2 1 2 9 . 0 0 0 5 3 1 . 2 5 8 . 0 0 S . 7 3 0 . 0 5 . 1 2 0 . 2 0 6 2 2 0 1 6 . 6 0 0 3 5 T T 5 4 . 5 7 0 . 1 7 0 . 17 1 1 1 . 0 0 1 9 . 8 0 38.6 68.3 66.5- 4 4 3 5 2 StC 1 2 . 4 0 0 3 1 4 . 6 0 1 0 7 . 2 5 1 1 . 5 0 4.4b 0 . 0 4 . 3 5 0 . 2 5 0. 1 7 0. 1 5 8 . 1 0 1 4 . 6 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 Y R 5 3 1 0 Y R 4 3 r2""6"F"2S~"5K. 1 0 Y R 6 3 1 0 Y R 4 3 . . X 9 . T R 6 2 . . . J P . Y . R 4 2 1 4 _ 6 . 5 _ J . 9 _ . _ S I L . . „ * . . T a b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) -r o SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (FRACTION <2MM) TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) MUSKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM Page 5 PLOT 38- EuTRIC BRUNISOL SAM NO HORIZON SAM. PH DEPTH H20 O.M. TOT.C X TOT .N X C/N RATIO P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM DORSAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZONE . C.E.C. MEQ/IOO BASE SAT COLOR 38- 1 LFH 011-000 5.9 9C.0 52.20 1 .09 47.9 184 56.25 11.25 0 .0 3.75 175.00 40.8 38- 2 AHE 000-006 4.6 7.3 A.23 0. 15 28.2 004 9.75 3.77 0 • OS 0.40 28.60 49.0 1 0YR42 10YR22 31 30 38 CL 33- 3 8M 006-016 6.0 3.0 1 .74 0.11 15. 8 004 1 1 . 25 3. 10 0 .03 0.25 17.00 86.0 10YR53 10YR43 39 39 21 L 33- * BMK 016-039 7.7 0.8 0.48 0 .04 12.0 002 7.00 1 .22 0 .0 0. 15 10.30 81 .3 10YR43 10YR33 38- 9 CK 039- • 7.7 2. 1 1.19. 0.08 14, 9 003 12.00 3.52 0 .0 0.40 15. 10 100.0 2.5Y52 10YR22 T a b l e 7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) F i g . 10 P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s . a l o n g the A l a s k a Highway near F o r t N e l s o n , growing on a m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l . F i g . 11 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c shrub development dominated by V iburnum e d u l e , Rosa a c i c u l a r i s and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t by S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s . The t r e m b l i n g aspen i n t h i s p h o t o r e a c h e d a h e i g h t of 32m at 105 y r s w i t h a 38cm dbh. Aspen - White Spruce ^3 F i g . 12 Almost pure Populus t r e m u l o i d e s f o r e s t n o r t h of F o r t N e l s o n . These f o r e s t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of moderately-w e l l d r a i n e d s i t e s . F i g . 13 Populus t r e m u l o i d e s w i t h P i c e a g l a u c a i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y . P o p l a r H i l ] s west of F o r t N e l s o n . Aspen - White Spruce kk F i g s . Ik & 1 5 The s p r u c e v a r i a n t of t h e Aspen - W h i t e S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h has developed on Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . Note t h e p o o r l y developed h e r b and s h r u b l a y e r s . **5 Aspen - White Spruce m F i g s . 16 & 17 O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l , ( p l o t s ) t y p i c a l of the aspen v a r i a n t . This i s considered the mesic s o i l of the study. Below i s a Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l developed from f l u v i a l parent m a t e r i a l s of the Chuatse T e r r a i n System. T h i s s o i l supports the spruce v a r i a n t , I h6 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n 1 Aspen - White Spruce Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - Linnaeo ( b o r e a l i s ) -A r a l i o ( n u d i c a u l i s ) - Viburno ( e d u l i s ) -Populo ( t r e m u l o i d i s ) - Piceetum glaucae The Aspen - White Spruce ecosystems, occur on mod-e r a t e l y w e l l drained s i t e s i n the uplands around F o r t Nelson and occupy submesic to mesic (to s l i g h t l y subhygric) s i t e s i n thi study area ( F i g . 9 ) . A l l the stands studied o r i g i n a t e d a f t e r f i r e . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n can thus be considered as a " p u l s a t -i n g " c l i m a t i c f i r e climax which, i n the clementsian sense, i s a sub-climax. Without f i r e , there are strong i n d i c a t i o n s that the s t r u c t u r e and composition of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n would change to one dominated by spruce, where the s o i l would develop a more a c i d i c humus and more h i g h l y impoverished mineral horizons during n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n . S o i l s of the Aspen - White Spruce ecosystem are p r i m a r i l y O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s along with some Degraded E u t r i c and D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s . Vegetation Generally t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by w e l l developed t r e e , shrub, and herb l a y e r s . The moss l a y e r v a r i e s k7 c o n s i d e r a b l y i n development, being governed by the composition of the t r e e l a y e r ; i e . whether deciduous or c o n i f e r o u s . The A-^  sublayer i s g e n e r a l l y dominated by Populus  tremuloides and P i c e a glauca w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l Pinus c o n t o r t a ( p r e f e r a b l y i n sandy and impoverished s o i l s ) and Populus  b a l s a m i f e r a ( p r e v a i l i n g l y i n r i c h s o i l s ) . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n f o l l o w s i n the l a y e r , i n which the e f f e c t of shade on shade i n t o l e r a n t t rees i s not yet very s t r o n g . In the A^ l a y e r , P i c e a glauca i s ofte n s t i l l the dominant t r e e as i t i s i n the upper shrub l a y e r . B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a , Populus t r e m u l o i d e s , and P i c e a mariana are of t e n present i n the A-^  layer„ However, Pinus c o n t o r t a and Populus b a l s a m i f e r a are mostly absent. Alnus c r i s p a and S a l i x bebbiana are two common shrubs, along w i t h P i c e a glauca i n the upper shrub l a y e r . In the B 2 l a y e r Viburnum edule and Rosa a c i c u l a r i s were present i n 100$ of the 17 p l o t s , both w i t h high species s i g n i f i c a n c e values ( 5 . 1 ) . Shepherdia canadensis (in d r i e r s i t e s ) , Ribes oxyacanthoides, and Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a ( i n wetter s i t e s ) are present i n more than h a l f the stands examined. Alnus c r i s p a , Populus t r e m u l o i d e s , Lonicera d i o i c a , and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a are other shrubs f r e q u e n t l y present i n the B p l a y e r (more than ho% of the t i m e ) . Although Populus tremuloides i s present from the low shrub l a y e r to the A-. l a y e r i n many stands, a l l stems examined arose from suckers from the roots of aspen t r e e s . These suckers are not ever vigorous enough t o r e p l a c e the present cover of aspen trees even a f t e r the stand opens up. D i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n l o c a t i n g aspen stands which are breaking up from old age and t h e r e f o r e the u l t i m a t e f a t e of these suckers was not determined. Populus tremuloides i s w e l l known as a shade i n t o l e r a n t pioneer species and i s gen-e r a l l y considered as a very t r a n s i e n t species i n the absence of f i r e (Raup, 19^6; Moss, 1953; Hortbn, 1965; M a i n i , 1968 ; Hansen and Kurmis, 1972 and many o t h e r s ) . On the other hand, ^ e P i c e a glauca growing under the main canopy appeared r e l a t i v e l y vigorous and t h e r e f o r e could replace the i n i t i a l Populus tremuloides i n succeeding stands. Picea glauca i s considered as the dominant h y p o t h e t i c a l climax species on mesic s i t e s i n t h i s study. The presence of P i c e a mariana i n many of the stands i n d i c a t e s that i t w i l l probably share a p o s i t i o n i n the c l i m a t i c climax stand. In some spruce trees there i s evidence of morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , intermediate between white and black spruce, t h a t i n d i c a t e hybrids are present. Young t r e e seedlings were g e n e r a l l y not found i n the herb l a y e r of the sample p l o t s from any of the t r e e species of the area. This absence of se e d l i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t none of the species are adapted to take over as climax s p e c i e s 1*9 of t h e comrun3 ty.. T h e r e f o r e , i t i a normal i y f i r e w h ich opens the f o r e s t f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new s p r u c e and aspen s t a n d s . Many of the s p r u c e t r e e s i n the u n d e r s t o r y of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h appeared t o be young were, when aged, w i t h i n •20-30' y e a r s of the dominant o v e r s t o r y . T h i s tends t o agree w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s of D i x and Swan (1971) f o r the Candle Lake a r e a of Saskatchewan who r e p o r t t h a t P i c e a g l a u c a and P. m a r i a n a a r e a b l e t o r e p r o d u c e b e n e a t h a canopy f o r about 20 y e a r s a f t e r i n i t i a l f o r e s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t . When t h e t r e e s i n t h e canopy a r e t a l l a f t e r 20 y e a r s of growth, e v i d e n t l y the l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e ground l e v e l a r e worsened. T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t impedes new e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e s e t r e e s , w h i c h a r e l i t t l e shade t o l e r a n t . The h e r b l a y e r i s dominated by L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s . C ornus c a n a d e n s i s , Rubus pubescens, A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s , p y r o l a  s e c u n d a , M e r t e n s i a n a p a n i c u 1 a t a , and Mite 1 1 a nuda. L i n n a e a  b o r e a l i s and Cornus c a n a d e n s i s were p r e s e n t i n 100$ of t h e communities examined and had h i g h s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s of ^ . 8 and h.J r e s p e c t i v e l y . Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s and P t i l i u m  c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s dominate the moss l a y e r w i t h r e s p e c t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s o f 5-7 and 3 . 3 - P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i and E u r h y n c h i i m r pulehe 1 1 urn a r e two o t h e r mosses f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t . Commonly o c c u r r i n g l i c h e n s a r e P e l t i g e r a a o h t h o s a ? P. c a n i n a , and F. p o l y d a c t y l a , g e n e r a l l y w i t h low s i g n i f i c a n c e 50 v a l u e s . I t is q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t this moss (ground) l a y e r may w e l l d e v e l o p i n t i m e ( a t l e a s t 100 y e a r s a f t e r f i r e ) and e s p e c i a l l y under a s p r u c e canopy. Three v a r i a t i o n s of the Aspen - W h i t e Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h can be r e c o g n i z e d a r e : a) v a r . populosum t r e m u l o i d i s (aspen v a r i a n t ) b) v a r . b e t u l o s u m p a p y r i f e r a e ( b i r c h v a r i a n t ) c ) v a r . piceosum g l a u c a e ( w h i t e spruce v a r i a n t ) I n t a b l e 6., t h e f i r s t 9 p l o t s b e l o n g t o t h e aspen v a r i a n t , p l o t n o . 7 b e l o n g s t o t h e b i r c h v a r i a n t and t h e l a s t 7 p l o t s b e l o n g t o t h e w h i t e s p r u c e v a r i a n t . The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e v a r i a n t s o c c u r i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e development of t h e v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r s . F o r example, t h e aspen and b i r c h v a r i a n t s have a . p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d moss l a y e r on humus (average coverage of as compared t o t h e v/hite s p r u c e v a r i a n t w i t h an average c o v e r v a l u e of 6 0 $ . C o n v e r s e l y , w i t h an average c o v e r v a l u e o f 3 7 $ , t h e herb l a y e r of t h e aspen and b i r c h v a r i a n t s i s b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d t h a n t h a t o f the w h i t e s p r u c e v a r i a n t w i t h an a v e r a g e c o v e r v a l u e of o n l y 1 7 $ . L i k e w i s e t h e aspen and b i r c h v a r i a n t s have a much b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d shrub l a y e r (average coverage of B l a y e r i s 73$) t h a n does t h e w h i t e s p r u c e v a r i a n t ( a v e r a g e of 2 1 $ ) . The b i r c h v a r i a n t , r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y one p l o t was s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e aspen v a r i a n t m a i n l y on the l a c k of P o p u l u s  t r e m u l o i d e s and s m a l l amount o f P i c e a g l a u c a w h i c h was found o n l y i n t h e B 2 l a y e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e b i r c h v a r i a n t l a c k e d 51 s e v e r a l other species which are common i n the other v a r i a n t s , however, one p l o t does not allow f o r any t r u l y meaningful comparison. I t becomes evident that l i t t e r developed from densely deposited spruce needles keeps moisture required f o r establishment of mosses. This i s not the case where l i t t e r i s formed by deciduous angiosperms. The presence and abundance of c e r t a i n species can be used as d i f f e r e n t i a l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the aspen and white spruce v a r i a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g species are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the aspen v a r i a n t ; S a l i x bebbiana. Cornus  s t o l o n l f e r a , and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s p e c ies such as Rubus pubescens and A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s have a r e l a t i v e l y high s p ecies s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the aspen but g e n e r a l l y not the spruce v a r i a n t . Species more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the white spruce v a r i a n t are Pic e a mariana, Led urn groenlandicum, Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i , and P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s . . These species are favoured by decaying wood, e s p e c i a l l y from co n i f e r o u s t r e e s , remaining on the ground a f t e r f i r e , or el i m i n a t e d by n a t u r a l t h i n n i n g processes. Hylocomium  splendens a l s o has a much higher species s i g n i f i c a n c e value i n the spruce v a r i a n t than i t does i n the aspen v a r i a n t . On the te r r a c e s above the Li a r d R iver i n the North 'West T e r r i t o r i e s , J e f f r e y (196 L0 described s i m i l a r p l a n t 52 communities. The v e g e t a t i o n from f i v e of J e f f r e y ' s "Terrace ecosystem types" can be described as one plan t a s s o c i a t i o n which can be considered equivalent t o the Fo r t Nelson Aspen -White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n . The aspen v a r i a n t i s e q u i v a l e n t to the f o l l o w i n g of J e f f r e y ' s u n i t s : C6. Trembling aspen - v/hite b i r c h f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on sandy loam. C7. Trembling aspen f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on c l a y loam. CIO. Trembling aspen f o r e s t , h i g h t e r r a c e . The spruce v a r i a n t i s equivalent t o J e f f r e y ' s u n i t s : C2. Mixedwood f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on n e u t r a l loam. C3» Mixedwood f o r e s t , t e r r a c e , on s l i g h t l y a c i d sand. There i s no equivalent p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n described by J e f f r e y f o r low e l e v a t i o n f o r e s t s of the Mackenzie Mountains i n the North West T e r r i t o r i e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n most c l o s e l y resem-b l i n g the Aspen - White Spruce i s J e f f r e y ' s "low e l e v a t i o n mixed co n i f e r o u s f o r e s t " , however, tr e e growth i s much poorer i n the Mackenzie Mountains where S . I . ^ Q Q g e n e r a l l y does not exceed 20 meters. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s northern p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s much poorer i n species i n the herb and shrub l a y e r s . S o i l s Most s o i l s of the Aspen - 'White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n are O r t h i c Gray Luvisols", many, of which c o r r e s p o n d d i r e c t l y t o the S i k a n n i S e r i e s of the S i k a n n i T e r r a i n System d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Apart f r o m o r g a n i c s o i l s , the S i k a n n i s e r i e s a r e t h e most common s o i l s of t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a c o v e r i n g 8.8% of t h e a r e a mapped by V a l e n t i n e . The O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of the Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h o c c u r on the B u c k i n g h o r s e T e r r a i n System, c o r r e s p o n d t o V a l e n t i n e ' s F o r t N e l s o n S e r i e s . A p a r t from one Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l w h i c h o c c u r r e d on an a l l u v i a l f a n , a l l s o i l s o f t h e aspen v a r i a n t were O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s . The s p r u c e v a r i a n t was found on Degraded E u t r i c and Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s as w e l l as on O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s . The Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s mentioned above are m o i s t e r v e r s i o n s of V a l e n t i n e ' s T r a i l S e r i e s of t h e C h u ats T e r r a i n System. V a l e n t i n e has not d e s c r i b e d any Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s d e v e l o p e d from s i l t y loams d e p o s i t e d over the B u c k i n g h o r s e s h a l e s i n t h e C h u a t s e T e r r a i n System. The s o i l of p l o t 33 i s a Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l d e v e l o p e d from a s i l t y loam a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t w h i c h had remnants of b u r i e d LFH h o r i z o n s i n t h e p r o f i l e . T h i s s o i l i n d i c a t e s t h a t on f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s , C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s e v e n t u a l l y e v o l v e i n t o Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s w h i l e on c o a r s e r t e x t u r e d a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s s u c h as the sand i n p l o t 19, Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p . S i n c e most of t h e O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s d e v e l o p e d from s i l t y loams, 5^ i t i s reasonable to expect that the above mentioned Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y develop i n t o O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s . J e f f r e y (196h) reported Gray L u v i s o l s developed from a l l u v i a l sands on t e r r a c e s above the L i a r d R i v e r and V a l e n t i n e (1971) reported that numerous t h i n Bt horizons sometimes developed i n lower sand horizons making B r u n i s o l i c Gray L u v i s o l p r o f i l e s i n some s o i l s which were normally Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s . However, i n t h i s study, no Gray L u v i s o l s were found developing from sands. For the area around F o r t Nelson, the s o i l best c h a r a c t e r i z i n g mesic con-d i t i o n s i s considered to be a moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l developing from s i l t y loams, even though, as mentioned above, other s o i l s can occupy t h i s p o s i t i o n . The pH of LFH horizons of O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s averages 5 . ^ and although the c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i s high (avg. of 108 meq/100 gms) base s a t u r a t i o n i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y high (averaging 63%) mainly due to high amounts of Ca and Mg i n t h i s h o r i z o n . The amount of a v a i l a b l e phosphorus i s a l s o high i n the humus averaging 13^ ppm. Beneath the humus l a y e r , the pH decreases s h a r p l y i n the Ae ho r i z o n (avg. 5 * 0 ) and then increases w i t h depth (avg. of 5 . 2 i n the B t ) u n t i l i t becomes n e u t r a l , averaging 7 . 1 i n the Ck h o r i z o n . The c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i s lowest i n the Ae of the mineral horizons even though i t has a s l i g h t l y 55 higher average organic matter content than the Bt. This low c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y (C.E.C.) i s probably due to removal of the c l a y s which c o n t r i b u t e h i g h l y to the exchange complex. The d e p o s i t i o n of clays i n the Bt i s r e f l e c t e d through t e x t u r a l a n a l y s i s which i n d i c a t e s the highest amount i n Bt h o r i z o n s . The base s a t u r a t i o n of the Ae (*+9.7$) i s a l s o lowest f o r a l l horizons i n the p r o f i l e which i s due to the l e a c h i n g of exchangeable cations to the lower horizons. Thie average base s a t u r a t i o n of the Bt i s 70.7$, while the Ck i s g e n e r a l l y 100$ due mainly to high amounts of Ca and Mg. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the humus often has a higher pH than that of not only the Ae but a l s o the under-l y i n g Bt h o r i z o n . Populus tremuloides i s a species v/hich c y c l e s l a r g e amounts of Ca and through l i t t e r f a l l , i s thought r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the high pH of the humus. Populus tremuloides, i n these ecosystems, can be considered as a species which counteracts a c i d l e a c h i n g of mineral s o i l s ( p o d z o l i z a t i o n ) and t h e r e f o r e would help keep the O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s i n dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the environment. The f a v o u r i n g of Populus tremuloides by p e r i o d i c f i r e s supports the contention that the present O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s are the zonal s o i l s of the area under a f i r e c limax. 56 There are i n d i c a t i o n s that under an environment f r e e of f i r e , the z o n a l s o i l s would be the r e s u l t of p o d z o l i z a t i o n processes. This aspect i s discussed l a t e r i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n t r o l e s played i n ecosystem development by P i c e a marlana, P. glauca, and Populus tremuloides should be considered i n f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e s on these s i t e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s e l e c t i o n of t r e e s p e c i e s . The B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the spruce v a r i a n t have s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s to the O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s except that the pH of the humus tends to be s l i g h t l y lower and the Ck h o r i z o n has a higher pH." The sandy s o i l s , however, have lower c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s and lower base s a t u r a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e , can be subjected to p o d z o l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y through spruce l i t t e r f a l l . 57 • '• ' i PLANT ASSOCIATION 2 j FLOODPLATJ) (YOUNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio (splendentis) - Mitello (nudae) - Equiseto (pratensls) - . Viburno (edulis) - Piceetum glaucae Characteristic Conbination of Species Layer Constants (presence > 60%) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Characteristic non - constants >II Tree Picea glauca Betula papyrifera • • , . . . . Shrub Alnus t e n u l f o l i a Ribes lacustre Rosa a c l c u l a r l s S a l i x monticola Viburnum edule Ribes oxyacantholdes Cornus stolonifera Ribes t r l s t e Herb Cornus canadensis Clrcaea alplna M i t e l l a nuda* Matteuccia struthiopteris Goodyera repens* Cinna l a t l f o l i a Equisetum pratense* Car ex deweyana Rubus pubescens Thalictrum sparsiflorum Pyrola a s a r i f o l i a Fragaria v i r g i n i a n a Linnaea borealis Aconitum delphinifolium Mertensia paniculata Delphinium glaucum Equisetum scirpoldes Gymnocarpium dryopterls V i o l a r e n i f o l i a Galium t r l f l o r u m * Calamagrostls canadensis Moss Hylocomium splendens Brachythecium reflexum Ptilium crista-castrensis T a b l e . 8 58 FLOODPLAIN (YOUNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE Hylocomio (splendentis) - Mitello (nudae.) - Equiseto (pratensis) - Viburno (edulis) - Piceetum glaucae Plot No. 80 75 39 25 22 21 72 71 Elevation in M 300 305 3^ 5 720 720 720 305 305 Latitude 58° hh > 58° 39' 58° ^9' 58° 39 58° 39' 58°39' 58°39' . 58°39-Longitude 122° • 122° 3>f • 123° 29' J2h° 11 12h°13' 12h°lh' 122° 32' 122° 32' Exposure S SW F l a t F l a t E F l a t F l a t F l a t Slope Gradient % 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Percent coverage Total A ho 37 69 65 30 ho 35 38 A l 15* 26 30 20 20 12 20 22 A2 20 7 3P 38 lh 25 0 5 A3 20 10 20 18 8 10 15 15 Total B 75 35 25 30 25 30 • 25 33 B l 22 lh 0 5 15 12 9 ** 60 28 25 26 18 23 20 18 C 78 67 78 75 55 75 77 75 Dh 59 3 52 63 76 50 20 6 Dw 7 10 ho 20 10 20 8 7 Plot Coverage % L i t t e r 81 5 82 70 89 70 20 -H Decaying Wood 11 15 10 22 13 2h 12 10 Mineral S o i l — 73 — — — — 6if 85 Rock — — — — — — — — Hygrotope Subhygric Hygric Trpphotope Subeutrophlc eutrophic Parent Material Alluvium T a b l e 9 FLOOOPLAIN (YOUNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 1 PLCT NUMBER |0 8 0 | 0 7 5 | 0 3 9 | C 2 5 I 0 2 2 I 0 2 1 | C 7 2 I 0 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I I 1 I I ST NO. S P E C I E S S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR P MS RS A l A2 A3 B l B2 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS TREMULOIOES POPULUS BAL SAM IFERA P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS TREMULOIDES POPULUS BALSAMIFERA P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA PAPYRIFERA A B I E S LASIOCARPA ALNUS TENUIFOLI A P I C E A GLAUCA BE TULA PAPYRIFERA S A L I X BEBB I ANA A B I E S LASIOCARPA POPULUS BALSAMIFERA S A L I X MONTICOLA ROSA A C I C U L A R I S VIBURNUM EDULE RI BE S OXYACANTHOIOES CORNUS STOLON IFERA R I B E S T R I S T c P I C E A GLAUCA S A L I X BEBB I ANA R I B E S LACUSTPE A B I E S LASIOCARPA ALNUS T E N U I F C L I A SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS POPULUS BALSAMIFERA RUBUS IDAEUS BETULA R E S I N I F E R A LONICERA DIOICA POPULUS TREMULOIOES AMELANCHIER A L N I F O L I A BETULA PAPYRIFERA R I B E S GLANDULOSUM R I B E S HUCSONIANUM CORNUS CANADENSIS MI T E L L A NUDA 5.2 5.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.2 5.3 4.3 3.2 5.3 2.2 • 3. 2.1 1.2 4.2 4.3 6.31 6.21 5.21 5.21 5.215.315.3 I . I . 13.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 4 . 3 1 5 . 2 1 7 . 2 | 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 . 14.21 . 14.21 . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 4.21 5 . 2 i 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4.214.21 . I . 13.21 . 12.31 . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 5.21 . I 3.21 I 1 3 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 II.111.211.21 . 12.21 I.I.I.I I . 11.211.21 I . 11.21 . I I . I . I 1.21 I . 11.21 . I 12.21 I . I I . I I . I I 214 2 1 5 . 21 1. 2 I 4. I 21 . 21 . 2 1 4 . 2 15. 21 . 2 I . 213 . I I 1. 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 3 1 2 1 1 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 I 1.21 . I 2.214.21 I.I. 14.213.21 211.213.21 . 1 . 1 I . I•.212.212.21 I . II. 11.21 I.I. 21*.1 I 21 . 13.211 12.211.21 21 . I I . 12.21 I . I*.II I.I.I I 21 . I I . 12.21 I . I I • I I 1*21 I • I I*.21 I . J I 11.2 I I 1.21 I*.21 1.21 5.21 4.21 5.21 5.21 1.213.21 3. 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 21 3. 2 14. 2 I+.2 14. 2 I 1100.0 5.6 5 - t 1 12.5 1.1 3-3 1 12.5 • .C 1-1 1 67.5 5.3 4-7 1 25.0 2.C 1-4 1 12.5 • .0 l - l 1 100.0 5.1 4-3 1 62.5 3.4 2-s 1 12.5 • .C 1-1 1 8 7.5 4.9 •3 _ f 1 62.5 2.2 l-<. 1 37.5 2.0 2 - i 1 25.0 • .2 1-1 1 12.5 • .0 1-1 1 12.5 • .c 1-1 1 12.5 ».c 1-1 1 100.0 5. C 4-5 1 100.0 4.9 1-5 1 75.0 2.7 1-4 1 62.5 4. C. 3-5 1 62.5 2.1 • -3 1 50.0 1.7 *-3 1 50.0 1.3 • -3 1 37.5 1.4 1-3 1 25.0 + .8 1-2 1 25.0 • . 6 1-/ 1 2 5.0 • .8 1-2 1 25.0 • . 5 • -? 1 25.0 • .0 t - 1 1 12.5 • .0 1-1 1 12.5 • .0 1-1 1 12.5 • .0 1-1 1 12.5 • .0 1 12.5 «.G 1 12.5 • .0 1 12.5 • .C 1100.0 4.8 1-5 1100.0 4.3 • -5 M3 T a b l e 10 FLOODPLAIN (YCUNG TERRACE1 WHITE SPRUCE U O R E A L W H I T E C B L A C K SPRLCF . ZONfc P A G E 2 PLCT NUMBER 108010751039102 510221021107210711 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 I I ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR P MS R£ 24 GOCOYERA REPENS 1 * . 2 | t . 2 | t . 2 | 2 . 3 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 * . 2 1 t . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . I1CC.0 1.7 • - 3 25 EQUISETUM PRATENSE 18.318.21 . | 6 . 2 3 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 8 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 67 .5 6.4 2-6 26 RUaUS PUBESCENS 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 3 .214.21 . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 87.5 4.4 3 - 5 27 PYROLA ASARIFOLIA 1 1.21 *.2I 5 . 2 1 * . t . 2 1 4 . 3 1 . | t . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 87 .5 3 . 3 t - 5 20 LINNAEA BOREALIS 12 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 6 . 2 1 4 . 2 4 .217.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 75.0 5.0 2-7 29 MEPTENSIA P AN ICULATA 1 1.21 1.21 3.2 14. 2 4 .211 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 75.0 3 . 1 1-4 30 EQUISETUM SCIRPOIOES 1 1.31 . 1 + .213 . 2 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 75 .0 2 . C • - 3 31 VIOLA RENIFOLIA 12.31 . 14 .212 .2 . 1 . 12.213.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 62 .5 2. 7 2-4 32 GALIUM TRIFLORUM I 2 . 3 I 2 . 3 U . 2 I . . 1 . I t . 213.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 2 . 5 1.6 - j 33 C ALAMAGRCSTIS CANADENSIS I . I . 1 1 . 1 1 1 . 2.212.21 . i t . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 62 .5 1.3 • - .? 34 CIRCAEA ALPINA 12.314.31 . 1 . . 1 . 11.315.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I 50 .0 3 . 4 1 - -35 PYROLA SECUNDA I . I . I * . 2 1 1 . 3 .213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 50 .0 1.9 •.-3 36 PYROLA CHLORANTHA 11.21 . 1 * . 1 . t . 2 1 3 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I . I 50.0 1.3 • -i 37 MATTEUCCIA STRUTHIOPTER IS 1 . 11.21 . 1 . . 1 . 18 .311 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 4. 5 1 - c 38 CINNA LATIFOLIA 1 . 14.21 . 1 . . 1 . 11.213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 2.3 1-4 29 VACCINILM V IT IS - IDAEA I . I . I . 11.2 4 . 2 | t . 3 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 3 7 . 5 2. C »-<. 40 CAREX DEWEYANA 1 . I*.21 . 1 . . 1 . 13.2 U . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 37 .5 1.2 • - * 41 ARALIA SUDICAULIS 11.212.21 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 i . 2 i -2 42 EQUISETUM ARVENSE 12.31 . 1 . 1 . . 12.21 . I t . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I . I 37.6 1. 1 t- 2 43 ACTAEA RUBRA I*.21 . U . 2 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 37.5 • . 1 t - j 44 F RAGARI A VIRGINIANA 1 . 1* . 211.21 . . 1 . 1*.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I . I 37.5 . . 1 • ~ L 45 THAL ICTRUM SPARSIFLORUM 1 . I+.21 . 1 . . I . 1 1 . 2 1 * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 37 .5 » . 1 46 ACCNITUM DELPHI M F O L IUM I . I . I . 11.2 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 + .8 - I 47 EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM 1 . 1 . 1 . 11. . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 • * E i -2 48 MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE I t .21 . 12.21 . • I . J . I , i . i . I . I . I . ( • I . I * . 1 . 1 . 1 25 .0 ¥ _ c . — 49 DELPHINIUM GLAUCUM 1 . I t .21 . 11.2 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . i « i • l « I . I • I* . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 t . O • -1 50 GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 * . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 t . c *-1 51 RUBUS ACAULIS 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 3 . 2 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 12.5 i 3-3 52 C A R E * DISPERMA 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 12.31 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 12. . . 4 2-2 53 PETASITES PALMATUS I . I . I . 11.1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 t 1 . 1 12.5 - . c 1-1 54 ASTER CILICLATUS I t .21 . 1 . 1 . • 1 • 1 • 1 • I • 1 * l a 1 . 1 • 1 • I • 1 . . 1 . I . I 12 .5 t . C . - . 55 CAREX CONCINNA I . I . I t .21 . • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 « I « 1 • 1 « I . 1 . 1 • 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 12.5 * . c . — • 56 GALIUM BOREALE I . I . I t .21 . • 1 • 1 • I* 1 « j . l . ' . l . l . f . l . . 1 . 1 . 1 12.5 t . C 57 GEUM MACRCPHYLLUM 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 • I+.2I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . i . i . i . . 1 . 1 . 1 12 .5 t . C . - • 58 HABENARIA 03TUSATA 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • I+.2 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • I • I • I • 1 • . 1 . 1 . 1 12.5 • . c • - » 59 LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM 1 . 1 . 1 . I t . • i . i . i . i . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 12 .5 t . O * - * 60 MONESES LNIFLORA 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 12 .5 t . O • - T 61 POLEMONIUM ACUTIFLORUM 1 . 1 . 1 . I t . • i . i . i . i . I • i * i . i • i • i . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 12.5 • . C 62 SMI LAC INA TRIFCLIA I . I . I t .21 . • i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . . 1 . 1 . 1 12 .5 t . L » .6 3 V ICIA AMERICANA DH 64 HYLOCCMIUM SPLENDENS I . I . I t .21 . . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I • i • . 1 . 1 . 1 12 .5 t . C *- » 18. 13 . 15 . 17 . a . i s . | . | 4 . I . I . I . i . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 97 .5 c.e i - 8 65 PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 13. 1 . 15. 14. 5. 1 . I t . 13. 1 . I . I . I . 1 . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . ! 75 .0 4 . 2 * - 5 66 PLEURCZIL'M SCHREBERI 1 1 . 1 . 1 5 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 13. 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 J 7 . 5 3.1 1.-5 67 RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 15 . 12. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 •'5.0 3 . 0 1 - 5 6 8 PLAGIOMNIUM RUGICUM 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I t . | 3 . | . | . | . | . | . | . | . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 25 .0 . . 2 • - 3 6 9 BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUM I t . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 5 . 0 + . 0 • -* 70 CAMPYLIUM HISPIOULUH 1 . 1 . 1 . I t . t . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . i . 1 . 1 2 5 . 0 + . 0 t - + 71 POHLIA NUTANS 1 . 1 . 1 . I t . t . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . . I . . . 2 5 . 0 +.o t - + T a b l e 10 ( c o n t i n u e d } FLOOOPLAIN (YCLNG TERRACE) WHITE SPRUCE BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 3 PLCT NUMBER ST NO. S P E C I E S I 08010751039 I 0251 022 102II0721071 I SPECIES S I G N I F CANCE AND V GOR p MS RS 12.5 1.1 2-3 12.5 •.<• 2-2 12.5 • . C 1-1 12.5 • .0 • - • 12.5 ».c • - • 12.5 • . c 12.5 «.c 12.5 • . c 12.5 • .0 • -• 12.5 ».c + -• 12.5 ».c • -• 12.5 • .0 • - • 12.5 ». C 12.5 ».o • - » 12.5 • . c 12.5 • . c 12.5 • .0 12. 5 • . c • -• 12.5 «.c • - • 12.5 • . c 12.5 • .0 • - • 12.5 . .0 • -» 12.5 • .0 • -• 100.0 4 .7 1-7 100.0 4. 1 1-4 50.0 3.4 • -5 37.5 • .0 • -• 25.0 • . 2 1-1 25.0 • .0 25.0 «.o • - • 12.5 « . c 1-1 12.5 *.Q 12.5 • . C + -• ' 12.5 • .C • - • 12.5 • .0 12.5 • .0 12.5 «.o 12.5 • .0 12.5 • .0 12.5 • .0 12.5 • . 0 12.5 «.c 12.5 • .0 12.5 • . c 12.5 • .0 12.5 «.o 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 OW 95 96 97 98 99 1 0 0 101 102 103 104 C I N C L I O I U M STYGIuM P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A APHTHdSA BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPFYLLUH BRACHYTHECIUM CURTUM CAMPYLIUM CHRYSOPHYLLUM CLACCNIA F I M B R I A J A O I S T I C H I U M C A P I L L A C E U K OITRICFUM HETEROMALLUM EURHYNCHI LM PULCHE LLUP HYPNUM L I N O B E R G I I L E P I D O Z I A REPTANS MNIUM MARGINATUM MNIUM SPINULCSUM NEPHROMA HELVETICUM P L A G I O C H I L A ASPLENIODES PL AGIGMNIUM C I L I ARE PLAGIOMNILM CUSPIDATUM PLAGIOMNIUM DRUMMONOII P L A G I C P M U M MEDIUM PLAGIOMNIUM ROSTRATUM P L A T Y C I C T Y A JUNGERM ANN 10 IDES THUIOIUM RECOGNITUM HYLOCCKIUM SPLENOENS P T I L I U M C R I S T A - C A S T R E N S I S PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI P E L T I G E R A CANINA P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA NEPHROMA R6SUPINATUM POHLIA NUTANS RHY T I C I A C E L P H U S TRIQUETRUS BRACHYTHECIUM REFLEXUP C I N C L I O I L M STYGIUM OREPANOCLAOUS UNCINATUS EURHYNCHIUM PULCHELLUC HERZOGIELLA TURFACEA LEPTCBRYUM PYRI FORME LEPTCGIUM SATURNINUM MNIUM MARGINATUM MNIUP SP1NUL0SUM NEPHROMA HELVETICUM ORTHOTRI CHUM SPECIOSUM P E L T I G E R A H O R I Z O N T A L S : P E L T I G E R A HALACEA P Y L A I S I A POLYANTHA T E T R A P H I S PELLUCIOA T a b l e 10 ( c o n t i n u e d ) S A I L C H E M I C A L A K J A L V S I 5 IFBAfT 1 0 ^ <!5MM1 TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) BOREAL WHITE C OLACK SPRUCE ZONE Page 1 PLOT 60 RE GO GLEYSOL MUSKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM SAMNO HORIZON SAM. OtPTH (CM.) PH H?0 CM. X TOT .C X TOT *N X C/N RATI 0 P EXCH. CA. MEO/100 GM CA MG NA K C.E.C MEO/100 GM BASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST . XS TEXTURE XSI XC 60- 1 L EH 000-000 6.1 64.0 4H.70 0.57 85. 4 032 72 .50 1 3.00 0.0 1. 12 77.00 100.0 BO 28 380- 4 A G 12CKG1 012-1U CKG2 Ola- f "7.0 76 7.5 K.ii C93.6 i>.?6 0552. 1 1 0.61 0.04 0. 1 1 ro"r3~13.7 19. 2 004 29.0!5 4.67 .0 0 4.00 .65 0003 9.25 1.62 0.02 0730.07.17 25.50 4  00 7.40 100.0  0.0 100.0 10YR42 I0VR2I 10YR42 10YR32 10YRS2 10YR32 00 49 7 11 SL • 28 21 L * "'PLOT' 7 5 CUMULIC WCOS 3L ._— MUSKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM " 7 ' ' SA "4 NO HORIZON SAM. DEPTH PH H20 CM. X TOT.C X TOT.N X C/N RATI 0 P EXCH. CAT. MSO/100 GM C.E.C.. MEQ/100 BASE SAT COLOR TEXTURE > (CM. ) CA MG NA K GM X DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 75- I CK1 000-005 7.4 3.0 1 .73 0. 09 1 9. 2 007 9.00 1.40 0.05 .27 14.7 73.0 10YR52 10YR32 9 55 I S SIL  K2 3005-22 022- •" 3.6 "5 . 6 " 2. 1 13.26 15 23 14. 4. 5 710 .  .0 30 5 230 64 88.4 864 " P L O T 35 C U M U L I C K E G 0 5 0 L SAM NO 39-39-39-HORIZON SAM. PHD7PTH H20 (CM.) ~ LFH AHK 004-000 000-01C CK2 01U-026 026- * 6.2 92.1 7.3 11.2 MUSKWA C/N RATIO r 3 46. H1 . 1 53.40 6.50 J.94 0.61 1.46 0.13 P PM TERRAIN SYSTEM ; EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA MG NA K 0.07 0. 12 36.6 104 50.0 005 56.3 006 5.t 004 52. 50 17.50 IB.50 7.25 0.0 3.00 0.0 2 . 3 5 0.0 6.25 0.97 0.0 1.87 0.25 0.22 1C.E.C. MEQ/lOO GM 106.00 26. SO — 2 T 7 2 0 -BASE SAT X 58.4 72.9 100.0 COLOR TEXTURE DRY MOI ST "' XS XS I XC 10YR51 10YR21 10Y"R4T 10YR21 6 62 31 SICL* 2.5Y4 2.5Y3 80 12 6 LS * PLOT 71 CUMULIC REGOSOL SAM HORIZON O.M. TOT.C MUSKWA TERRAIN SYSTEM TOT.N C/N P EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM TEXTURE 71- 1 71-" 2 71-3 D E P T H — H " Z B ~ (CM.) CK1 000-005 b.9 "CK2"—OS-'G'ZO 7' CK3 020- • 7.5 RATIO PPTT 2.3 0" 0.6 1.33 "0.58 0.37 0.21 0.14" 0. 12 6.3 009 4. t 005" 3.1 7 10.25 " 6.75 10.50 2.02 0.05 4.25 0.02 2.32 0.02 0.37 "0. 22 ' 0.30 MEO/100 GM 1 6. 80 — 12.70 12.20 SAT X _ 75.6 88.6 lOOiO MOIST XS XSI XC 10YR52 10YR32 10 69 20 SIL 10YR42'10YR32 19 62 18 SIL" 10YR52 10YR32 15 67 16 SIL PLOT 25 CUMULIC REGOSOL SAW "NO" ~25- 3 ' 25- 4 25- 6 HORIZON SAM. PH— DEPTH" R20 "" ( CM.) CM, TOT.C TOT.N X "" LFH -AT— AHK CK 030-000 6.1 91.0 52.BO TOT5-0 20-2 34034- 7^T 6.2 7.9 "H7T" 6. I 1 . 7r a r 3.54 0.99 0.33 0 13 0.07C/N P EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM C.E.C. .BASE PATIO "PPM" MEO/100 SAT CA MG NA K GM X 156.00 50.6, COLOR _. DRY M O I S T TEXTURE. XS XSI XC 34.5 088 65. ,3.00 12.75 0.0 l.L . . „ „_ , "TATi"-007 r0"775- 5^T72-OV0 OTTO"T~476<5997810YR41 10YR21 17 49 33 SICL 272 07 7.25 2.45 0.0 0.07 16.10 0.7 10YR32 10YR3I 11 03 8.73 2.25 0.0 0.05 13.90 79.5 ' 10YR41 10YR21 37 5» II SIL >-soiL C H E M I C A L AM«Lv^ ilbl-iFRA"tTYoN am) bBHCTrwrrE - t B L A C K — TERRAIN nt 'rt^ ~Ti rimnrr.—r^ ~". r* p. w i SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) Page 2 PLOT 21 CUMULIC HtGUSUL y-SAM HORIZON SAM. PH NO DEPTH H20 C % TOT.C X TOT.N X C/N RATIO P PPM EXCH • CAT. MEO/100 GM ct.c MEO/100 BASE SAT COLOR TEXTURE (CM.) CA M G NA <i GM X DRY MOIST xS XSI XC < 21- 1 LFH 006-000 6.0 21- 2 CK1 000-007 7.2 94.0 11.6 54.50 6.72 1.32 0 . 33 41.3 20.4 46 006 57. 50 1 1 .00 15.37 0.0 1.37 1.35 0.02 0.05 83.00 1 I .80 89.6 100.0 10YR41 10YR2I 10YR41 10VR21" 10YR5 10YR31 _J_6. 70 -»8-.«.5...S.'.L...* 15 1 4 SL • 21- » CK2 007-05U 7.3 21- 6 CK3 050- * 7.7 1C.4 0.4 F.03~ 0.26 (T.32 0 .04 I BY a 6. 5 010~ 012 ~9.'62~ 6. 25 "2.07"0.0"" 0.04 ~ 0.65 0. 02 0.02 " "18.30 1.20 "64.3 100.0 PLOT 22 CUVULIC REGOSOL SAM HORIZON SAM. PH O.M, TOT.C TOT.N C/N P __EXCH . C A T . MEQ/lp0_.GM_ C.E.C BASE - COLOR TFXTURF NO OtHiM (CM.) %> X X KATTO" "~PPM" CA MG NA K —HEO/100"" GM SAT X DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 22- 1 LF 016-010 * -2 H UI'JULU J.f 22- 3 . CKl 000-0 10 7. 1 22- 4 CK2 013-048 7.3 22- 7 CK3 048- • 7.6 yy. u 8. 6 9.3 1.0 51 • 6 (J 4.99 5.39 0.60 1 .is 0.19 0 . 24 C O S 4 1 • J 26. 3 22.5 12.0 040 6 21 6 6.62 9.25 7.87 S.75 D.O 0.63 1.16 0.02 0.02 0.98 0.0 0.04 0.64 0.02 0.02 73.00 6.00 6. 80 1.90 36. J 100.0 1 00.0 100.0 10YR41 10YR21 10YR41 10YR21 10YR41 10YR31 45 64 38 15 L » _2_l__14_SL PLOT 72 CUMULIC REGOSOL MUSKkA TERRAIN SYSTEM SAM HORIZON SAM. PH NO DEPTH H20 O.M. X TOT.C X TOT .N x C/N RATI 0 P . PPM EXCH a CAT. MEO/100 GM C.E.C. MEO/100 GM BASE SAT X COLOR TEXTURE (CM.) CA MG NA K DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 72- 1 CI 000-019 6.3 72- 2 C2 019- • 6.8 8.7 5.7 5. 07 3.32 0.24 0.22 21.1 IS. 1 005 003 1 1 .00 10.75 5.15 0.02 0.40 3.95 0.02 0.37 18.70 14.30 88.6 100.0 10YR52 10YR32 10YRS2 10YR32 1 6 60 38 SICL 56 36 SICL T a b l e 11 ( c o n t i n u e d ) O N F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce 6^  F i g . 18 P i c e a g]auca f o r e s t on a f l o o d p l a i n of the F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r . F i g . 19 P h o t o g r a p h shows th e r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s above t h e r i v e r of a F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r e c o s y s t e m on the l e f t and a F l o o d p l a i n White Spruce ecosystem on t h e r i g h t . S o i l s a r e C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . 65 F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White S p r u c e F i g s . 20 & 21 A l l u v i a l w h i t e s p r u c e f o r e s t s . Note t h e h i g h water mark on the s p r u c e i n p l o t 75 from t h e 1971 f l o o d . The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i n the herb l a y e r i s E q u i s e t u m p r a t e n s e . P l o t 75 c o n t a i n e d one P i c e a g l a u c a *+6m t a l l w i t h a db'h of 61cm a t age 180 y e a r s . T h i s produces a s i t e i n d e x of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 39.6m a t 100 y e a r s w h i c h i s the h i g h e s t found i n t h e e n t i r e s t u d y . The o l d e s t s p r u c e found i n t h e e n t i r e s t u d y o c c u r r e d i n the p l o t shown on t h e r i g h t w h i c h was ^0.2m t a l l a t an age o f 3 1 ^ y e a r s . F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce F i g . 22 I n the f o r e g r o u n d a few remnant P o p u l u s  b a l s a m i f e r a t r e e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the w h i t e s p r u c e s t a n d . Meander i n r i v e r ( c e n t e r of p i c t u r e ) shows t h e s u c c e s s i o n a l development from a p o i n t - b a r d e p o s i t t o a mature s t a n d of w h i t e s p r u c e . 67 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n 2 F l o o d p l a i n (Young Terrace) White Spruce Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - M i t e l l o (nudae) - Equiseto ( p r a t e n s i s ) - Viburno ( e d u l i s ) - Piceetum glaucae F l o o d p l a i n (Young Terrace) White Spruce ecosystems occur on o l d e r p o r t i o n s of recent a l l u v i a l t e r r a c e s along the F o r t Nelson, Prophet, Muskwa, and Tetsa R i v e r s . Along w i t h the F l o o d p l a i n Balsam P o p l a r , these s i t e s support the most productive f o r e s t stands and are comparable i n p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h the r i c h e s t stands examined by Revel (1972) i n the Sub-B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone. The most productive f o r e s t s described by Revel occurred i n the Gymnocarpio ( d r y o p t e r i d i s ) -Oplopanaco ( h o r r i d i ) - Abieto ( l a s i o c a r p a e ) - Piceetum glaucae a s s o c i a t i o n (Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s c l u b a s s o c i a t i o n ) where the average s i t e index, at 100 years f o r Picea glauca, i s 32m. On a l l u v i a l s i t e s i n t h i s study, white spruce averages 29.9m at 100 yea r s . I t should be noted, however, t h a t the average S.I. measured on a l l u v i a l p l o t s along the Muskwa and F o r t Nelson R i v e r s was 32.3m at age 100 while the a l l u v i a l s i t e s adjacent to the Spruce - Willow - B i r c h B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone at higher e l e v a t i o n s along the Tetsa R i v e r ( M i l e 376 of the Alaska Highway) had a S.I.-, f t n of only 25.6m which lowers the 68 g e n e r a l average c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h i s l a s t f i g u r e i s comparable t o a S . I . 1 0 0 of 2h.km f o r w h i t e s p r u c e g i v e n by B l y t h (1965) f o r a l l u v i a l l o w l a n d f o r e s t s a l o n g the lower Peace R i v e r i n A l b e r t a . Most of t h e a l l u v i a l s i t e s s t u d i e d are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by immature s o i l s w h i c h are p e r i o d i c a l l y innundated by f l o o d - -w a t e r s w h i c h have m a i n t a i n e d t h e s e ecosystems at a r i c h or e u t r o p h i c n u t r i t i o n a l l e v e l . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h s u b h y g r i c t o h y g r i c m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s , a r e t h e major f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e s e s i t e s . T h i s s u b h y g r i c t o h y g r i c m o i s t u r e regime i s e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e y e a r . In r e a l i t y i t becomes h y d r i c when t h e s o i l s a r e f l o o d e d . At t h e end of t h e v e g e t a t i v e s e a s o n , s o i l s may become mesic when t h e water i n the r i v e r i s low. V e g e t a t i o n The f l o o d p l a i n w h i t e s p r u c e communities c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y have w e l l d e v e l o p e d t r e e , s h r u b , herb, and moss l a y e r s , however, a f t e r s e v e r e f l o o d i n g , t h e moss l a y e r may be g r e a t l y reduced as i s i n d i c a t e d by p l o t s 71 and 75 • The e n t i r e t r e e l a y e r i s dominated by P i c e a g l a u c a w i t h B e t u l a  p a p y r i f e r a b e i n g common i n t h e A^ l a y e r . The upper s h r u b l a y e r i s u s u a l l y dominated by. s m a l l w h i t e s p r u c e and Alnus 69 t e n u i f o l i a . Rosa a c i c u l a r i s , Viburnum e d u l e , R i b e s o x y a c a n t h o i d e s  Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a , and R i b e s t r l s t e dominate the B2 l a y e r . A f t e r l o g g i n g , t h e s e s p e c i e s expand t o dominate t h e a l l u v i a l s i t e s p r o d u c i n g s e v e r e r e g e n e r a t i o n problems f o r w h i t e s p r u c e . The herb l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Cornus c a n a d e n s i s , Mite11a nuda, Goodyera r e p e n s , Equisetum p r a t e n s e , Rubus  pubescens, P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a , and L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s . The f i r s t t h r e e s p e c i e s were p r e s e n t i n a l l p l o t s s t u d i e d , how-e v e r , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t even though E q u i s e t u m p r a t e n s e was absent i n one p l o t , i t had t h e h i g h e s t average c o v e r a g e v a l u e f o r h e r b s . Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s and P t i l i u m c r i s t a -c a s t r e n s i s a r e t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mosses of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i and R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s accompanying them. P l e u r o z i u m  s c h r e b e r i was g e n e r a l l y absent on m i n e r a l s o i l i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n and was p r e s e n t g e n e r a l l y o n l y on d e c a y i n g wood. A l t h o u g h p l o t 71 appears t o be an e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e v e r e f l o o d of 1971 c o v e r e d most of the a r e a w i t h f r e s h s i l t w h i c h i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of m i n e r a l s o i l c o v e r i n g the s u r f a c e of t h e p l o t s . P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i i s , however, common on d e c a y i n g wood. R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s , w h i c h was a d d i t i o n a l l y p r e s e n t o n l y i n t h e Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n , reached i t s b e s t development i n a l l u v i a l w h i t e s p r u c e communities when i t was p r e s e n t . 70 The above plant a s s o c i a t i o n i s comparable t o part of the " F l o o d p l a i n White Spruce F o r e s t s " described f o r the Sla v e , Athabasca and lower Peace R i v e r s by Raup ( 1 9 L f 6 ) . Horton (1965) described a very s i m i l a r plant a s s o c i a t i o n f o r the lower Peace Ri v e r i n Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l Park which he termed the " A l l u v i a l Lowland Spruce F o r e s t " . This type occupied low t e r r a c e s along the major r i v e r s i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r to the F o r t Nelson area. Notable d i f f e r e n c e s are tha t such species as Ribes oxyacanthoides, Goodyera repens, and Galium t r i f l o r u m , which had high presence and s i g n i f i c a n c e values i n the Fo r t Nelson area were not reported by Horten, otherwise the dominant species were s i m i l a r . J e f f r e y (196Lt) terms t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , on the L i a r d River i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , a "White spruce - v/hite b i r c h f o r e s t " which f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes i s i d e n t i c a l to the F l o o d p l a i n (Young Terrace) White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n of the F o r t Nelson area. Growth of P i c e a glauca i s , however, poorer i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s where height growth averages about 2k.Km at an age of 120 years. J e f f r e y (196U) reported that s o i l f r o s t was common i n the a l l u v i a l regosols of the low t e r r a c e s along the L i a r d which probably i s a major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the poorer growth. S o i l f r o s t was a l s o encountered on one of the Tetsa R i v e r p l o t s (no. 22) at a depth of 3 9 - L f 5 cm and here too, t r e e growth i s poor. 71 V a l e n t i n e (197D r e p o r t s t h a t i n c e r t a i n p l a c e s the s u b s o i l i s f r o z e n below 6^  cm i n some a l l u v i a l s i t e s i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , however, i n t h i s s t u d y , no f r o z e n s o i l s were e n c o u n t e r e d , even under dense s p r u c e f o r e s t s . The most s i m i l a r p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n t o the F l o o d p l a i n (Young T e r r a c e ) White Spruce i n the S u b - B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone i s the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s c l u b [ p y m n o c a r p i o ( d r y o p t e r i d i s ) - Oplopanaco ( h o r r i d i ) - A b i e t o ( l a s i o c a r p a e ) - P i c e e t u m glaucae] d e s c r i b e d by R e v e l (1972) and W a l i and K r a j i n a (1973). Oplopanax h o r r i d u s , the most dominant shrub and Gymnocarpium d r y o p t e r i s , the most dominant herb i n the above a s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h p r e s e n t , a r e r a r e l y found i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t around F o r t N e l s o n and n e i t h e r i s r e p o r t e d by e i t h e r Horton (1965) f o r the lower Peace or by J e f f r e y (196*+) f o r t h e lo w e r L i a r d . Common dominant p l a n t s i n the shrub l a y e r f o r the two r e s p e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s are Viburnum e d u l e , Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a , and R i b e s l a c u s t r e w i t h Cornus c a n a d e n s i s and Rubus pubescens common i n t h e herb l a y e r . The moss l a y e r s of the two a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the t h r e e f e a t h e r mosses, Hylocomium, P t i l i u m , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t P l e u r o z i u m . However, the r e s t of t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l , bear l i t t l e r esemblance i n terms of s p e c i e s abundance and c o m p o s i t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the Oak f e r n - D e v i l ' s c l u b a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d 72 on more mature s o i l s ( B r u n i s o l s and P o d z o l s ) and t h e r e f o r e i s not e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y homologous i n r e s p e c t t o the b i o g e o -c l i m a t i c zones t o t h e F l o o d p l a i n White Spruce of t h e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . S o i l s A l l s o i l s examined, except f o r one Rego G l e y s o l , v/ere C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o the P r o p h e t S e r i e s of t h e Muskwa T e r r a i n System d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e (1971). The t e x t u r e of the p a r e n t m a t e r i a l v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y from s i l t y c l a y loams t o loamy sands w i t h s i l t y loams b e i n g the most common. G e n e r a l l y the c o a r s e r m a t e r i a l s a r e a t g r e a t e r depths i n the p r o f i l e . B u r i e d o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o f i l e s . The pH of t h e L-H h o r i z o n s v a r i e d f r o m 6.0 - 6.2 on t h e samples measured e x c e p t i n p l o t 22 (pH o f 3«7) w h i c h had an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e o r g a n i c m a t t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n ( p o s s i b l y f r o m d e c a y i n g wood) w h i c h was p r o b a b l y d e p o s i t e d by t h e f l o o d -i n g T e t s a R i v e r . The pH of t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s a r e c i r c u m n e u t r a l v a r y i n g from 6.2 t o 7.9, e x c e p t f o r one Ah h o r i z o n w i t h a pH of 5.1. The average pH above 20 cm i n t h e p r o f i l e was 6.8 and f o r t h e f i r s t h o r i z o n below 20 cm, i t was 7.3. The base s a t u r a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y h i g h i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s , o f t e n r e a c h -73 i n g 100%, e s p e c i a l l y i n horizons w i t h l i t t l e organic matter. More than h a l f of the mineral s o i l s have a base s a t u r a t i o n of 100% at depths greater than 20 cm. Calcium i s the dominant c a t i o n i n the s o i l , o ften i n q u a n t i t i e s exceeding the t o t a l C.E.C. Mg and K f o l l o w as the next most dominant c a t i o n s . The q u a n t i t i e s of sodium are very low/, often not being detected, however, t h i s should not a f f e c t v e g e t a t i o n growth since sodium i s not known as an e s s e n t i a l element. Chemical a n a l y s i s of c a t i o n s and a v a i l a b l e phosphorus of the mi n e r a l s o i l s of a l l u v i a l Cumulic Regosols has i n d i c a t e d t h a t they are not s t r i k i n g l y r i c h e r n u t r i t i o n a l l y than the Or t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of the uplands i n Aspen - White Spruce ecosystems. A major exception t o t h i s statement i s that the regosols l a c k a s t r o n g l y leached, n u t r i e n t impoverished, Ae horiz o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l u v i s o l s . I f the. exchangeable c a t i o n s are compared between the l u v i s o l i c B t , which u s u a l l y begins at a depth of 15 cm, and the Ck of the regosol s below a depth of 20 cm, there are no notable d i f f e r e n c e s except t h a t the l u v i s o l s c o n t a i n more exchangeable Ko The pH of the regosols i s , however, c o n s i s t e n t l y much higher ( 7 . 3 vs 5 . 2 f o r the l u v i s o l s ) as i s the base s a t u r a t i o n . Probably the l a r g e s t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the ric h n e s s of the a l l u v i a l s i t e s as r e f l e c t e d by tre e growth, i s the high water t a b l e which could c o n t a i n a more or l e s s continuous 7k s u p p l y of n u t r i e n t s . T h i s c o n t i n u i t y of n u t r i e n t s u p p l y , even though not i n h i g h amounts, would r e f l e c t i n v e g e t a t i v e growth even though i t i s not r e f l e c t e d i n normal c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t no LFH h o r i z o n s were sampled a l o n g the F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r due t o the f l o o d s w h i c h o b l i t e r a t e d t h i s h o r i z o n i n 1971 and t h a t the T e t s a and Muskwa R i v e r samples may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e F o r t N e l s o n LFH h o r i z o n s . However, t h e samples t a k e n a r e comparable t o t h e one d e s c r i b e d by V a l e n t i n e (1971). PLANT ASSOCIATION 3 LODGEPOLE PINE - CLUBMOSS pleurozio (schreberi) - Hylocomio (splendentis) -Lycopodlo (annotlni) - Ledo (groenlandici) -Piceo (glaucae-marlanae) - Pinetum contortae Characteristic Combination of Species Layer • Constants (presence > 60%) * c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Characteristic non - constants "> II Tree Plnu3 contorta Populus tremuloides Betula r e s l n i f e r a Picea glauca Picea mariana Shrub Sali x bebbiana* Salix scouleriana* Ledum groenlandlcum Viburnum edule Rosa a c l c u l a r i s Shepherdla canadensis Herb Cornus canadensis Vacclnium v i t i s - i d a e a Epilbbium angustifolium Lyc op odium annotlnum Elymus innovatus Linnaea borealis Lathyrus ochroleucus Pyrola secunda Malanthemum canadense Equisetum sylvaticum V i o l a r e n i f o l i a Lycopodlum complanatum Pyrola a s a r l f o l i a Equisetum arvense Galium boreale Equisetum pratense Geocaulon l i v i d urn Moss Hylocomium splendens Pleurozium schreberi Peltlgera aphthosa T a b l e 12 LODGEPOLE PINE - CLOBMOSS Hylocosilo (splendentis) - Pleurozlo (schreberi) - Lycopodio (annotini) -Vacclnio ( v l t i s - l d a e a ) - Ledo (groenlandlci) - Plnetum contortae Plot No. 35 55 HI H2 H 3 Elevation V 580 500 530 520 530 Latitude 58°53' 58°Hit 58°21' 58020' 58°21« Longitude 123° 122°Ul' 1220l*9« 12201+9i I22°»f9" Exposure N N N.E. S Slope Gradient % 5 1 0 5 5 Percent coverage Tot a l A 62 39 23 27 5° A l 22 20 15 20 16 *2 28 «• B 5 26 A3 21 10 V 10 10 T o t a l B »*8 58 23 90 30 B l 33 25 7 20 18 B2 2H 39 20 85 25 C 78 60 55 32 75 Dh Uo 70 78 . 8H 89 Dw 5 5 12 8 5 Plot Coverage % U t t e r 82 Bw 8o 85 85 Decaying Wood 10 7 16 11 10 Mineral S o l i - - » - -Rock - - • - -Hygrotope Mesic Subhygric Trophotope Submesotrophlc - liesotrophlc Parent material Morainal Aeolian (?) T a b l e 13 LODGEPOLE PINE - CLUBMOSS BOREAL WHITE S. BLACK SPRUCE 7CNE PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER 10351055104110421043 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 I I I 1 1 1 ST NO. S P E C I E S S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E ANO VIGOR P MS RS A l A2 A3 B l B2 1 PINUS CONTORTA 2 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 3 P I C E A GLAUCA PINUS CONTORTA 4 BETULA RES IN IFER A POPULUS TREMULOIDES 5 POPULUS BALSAMIFERA PINU S CCNTORTA P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A POPULUS TREMULOIDES 6 P I C E A MARIANA 7 S A L I X BEBBIANA 8 S A L I X SCCULERIANA P I C E A MARIANA P I C E A GLAUCA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A 9 ALNUS C R I S P A POPULUS TREMULOIOES 10 LEDUM GROENLANDICUM POPULUS TREMULOIDES 11 VIBURNUM EDULE 12 ROSA A C I C U L A R I S P I C E A "ARIANA 13 SHEPHEROIA CANADENSIS ALNUS C R I S P A P I C E A GLAUCA S A L I X BEBBIANA 14 S A L I X NCVAE-ANGLIAE 15 VACCINIUM M Y R T I L L O I O E S 16 A B I E S LASIOCARPA 17 BETULA GLANDULOSA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A 18 R I B E S T R I S T E S A L I X SCCULERIANA 19 CCRNUS CANADENSIS 20 VACCINIUM V I T I S - I D A E A 21 E P I L O B I U M ANGUSTIFOLIUM 5 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 2.215.21 . I . 13.2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 13.2 5.215.214.215.215.2 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 13.2 1.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 13.21 . 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 1 1 4 . 1 1 4 . . I . 13.21 . 14. 4.211.21 . 1 . 1 . l.fI 1.11 . I . I . . 11.21 . I . 1 . . 1 5 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 4 . •.21 . 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 1.215.21 . 15.21 . 1.21 . 13.21 . 13. 1.21*. 13.21 . I . 6.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 5 . 3 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 4 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 2 . 3 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 3 . I I * . 1 1 3 . 1.216.21 . 14.21 . . 11.21 . 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 3.213.21 . 1 . 1 . . I . 13.21*.21 14.21 . I I . 12.21 I 12.21 I . I 1.21 I . I I I . I + .2I I*. I I I . I • I 6 . 2 1 6 . 2 1 4 . 3 1 5 . 2 | 6 . 2 6 . 2 1 4 . 2 | 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 2 . 2 1100.0 5.0 3-5 1 6 0 . 0 3.8 2-5 1 20.0 I . i 3-3 1100.0 ;.3 4-5 1 40.0 1.7 1-3 1 4 0 . 0 1.7 1-3 1 20.0 1. 5 3-3 1100.0 4.7 3-5 1 4 0 . 0 2.C 3-4 1 4 0 . 0 2.5 1-4 1 40.0 •. e 1-1 1 20.0 • .2 l - l 1 80.0 4. 2 3-5 1 80.0 3.5 • -4 1 6 0 . 0 4.4 1-5 1 60.0 2.4 1-3 1 6 0 . 0 1.8 »-3 I 4 0 . 0 4. 3 3-6 1 40.0 2. e 2-4 1100.0 6. 5 4-9 1 1 0 0 . 0 3.3 1-4 1100.0 3.2 1-4 1100.0 3.C • -3 1 6 0.0 4.4 1-6 1 6 0 . 0 1.9 1-3 1 40.0 2.2 3-3 1 4 0 . 0 1.6 • -3 1 20.0 2.4 4-4 1 20.0 l . C 2-2 1 2 0 . 0 1.0 2-2 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 1 20.0 • .0 • - + 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 100.0 s.t 4-6 1100.0 5.3 4-6 1100.0 3.7 2-4 T a b l e 1^ BOREAL WHITE L BLACK SPRUCE 7CKF LCOGEPOLE PINE - CLUBMOSS PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER 10 3 5 1 0 5 5 1 0 4 1 ( 0 4 2 1 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 ST NO. SPEC IES S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR p MS RS 22 LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM 14.2 14.213.2 2.2 2.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . I1CC.C 2. 7 2-4 23 ELYMUS INNOVATUS 1 . 1 2 . 1 1 5 . 1 3. 1 7 . 1 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 80.0 5.1 2-7 21 L I N NAEA BOREALIS 1 5 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 1 . 1 . 2.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 80.0 3. 8 1-5 25 LATHYRUS OCHROLEUCUS 1 . 13.213.2 2. 1 3.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 8 0 . 0 3.0 2-3 26 PYROLA SECUNDA 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 • . •.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 80.0 1.8 • -3 27 MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE 1 1.211.21*.2 1.2 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 80.0 1.2 • -1 28 EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM l + . 2 1 * . 1 1 1 . 1 •.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l BO.O • . 7 • -1 29 V IOLA RE N I F O L I A 1+.21*.21*.2 •.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 80.0 • .3 • - * 30 LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM 14.21 . 11.2 3.2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 2. C 1-4 31 PYROLA AS AR I FOLIA 1 2 . 2 1 3 . 2 ! + . . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 2.0 • -3 32 EQUISETUM ARVENSE I . I . 12.1 2.2 •.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . | . I . | . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1.4 • -2 33 GALIUM BOREALE I . I . 12.2 1.2 •.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 60.0 1. 2 • -2 34 EQUISETUM PRATENSE I . I . I * . 2 2.2 •.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1.1 • -2 35 GEOCAULON LIV I D U M 1*. I*.21 . • .2 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . J . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 60.0 • *C • 36 P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS 13.213.21 . . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 2.3 3-3 37 RUBUS PUBCSCENS 13.211.21 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 1.7 1-3 38 M I T E L L A NUOA 11.21 . I*.2 .1.1. I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . J . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 •. 4 * - l 39 V I C I A AMERICANA I . I . I . • . 1 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 • .4 • -1 40 HABENARIA ORBICULATA I * . 2 1 * . 2 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 4 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 41 GGCDYERA REPENS 11.21 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1-1 42 LYCOPOOIUM OBSCURUM 1 . 1 1.21 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 * 1 . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 20.0 • .2 1-1 43 CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS 1• 1 . 1 . . 1 * 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 20.0 • . C * — • 44 EQUISETUM SCIRPOIDES I . I . I . * . l . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . i . i . I . l . l . l 20.0 • .0 • -• 45 F R AG ARI A V I R G I N I A N A 1 . 1 . 1 . •.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 46 HABENARIA OSTUSATA 1 . I * . 1 . . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 * 1 * 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 20.0 • *C + -• 47 L I S T E R A COROATA 1 . I*.31 . • I . l . l . l 20.0 • .0 • -. 48 MERTENSI A PANICULATA I . I . I . • .1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 2 0 . 0 • .0 .  • 49 OH 50 PYROLA CFLORANTHA 1 . I + . 2 I . • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 20.0 • . 0 • -• HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS 1 5 . 18. 1 5 . 9. 8. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 7.S 5-9 51 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 1 5 . 1 3 . 18. 2. 4. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . l . l . l 1 0 0 . 0 5. 2-e 52 P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA 1 . 1 3 . 1 3 . 4. 4. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I 80.0 3.7 3-4 53 P T I L I U M C R I S T A - C A S T R E N S I S 14. 14. 1 . . . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 3. 2 4-4 54 P E L T I G E R A CANINA I . I . I . 4. I . l . l . l 20.0 2.4 4-4 55 P E L T I G E R A MALACEA I . I . I . 1. . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I 20.0 • .2 1-1 56 CERATODCN PURPUREUS I . I . I . . •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 20.0 • *C • - * 57 CLAOCNIA MULTIFORMIS I . I . I . +. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 58 LEPTOBRYUM PYRIFORME I . I . I . • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • *C • -• 59 POHLIA NUTANS I . I . I . • •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 20.0 • .0 • -• 60 DW POLYTRICHUM J U N I P E R I N U M I . I . I . • •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 «.o • -# HYLOCCMIUM SPLENOENS 1 3 . 1 3 . 1 3 . 4. 3. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 3.7 3-4 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 1 3 . 1 2. 1 4. 2. 3. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 3.4 2-4 P T I L I U M C R I S T A - C A S T R E N S I S 12. 1 1 . 1 . • ! * I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 1.2 1-2 P E L T I G E R A CANINA 1 . !•. 1 . •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 ».0 «-• 61 CLADONIA OCHROCHLORA I . I . I . • •. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 «.c • - • T a b l e 1*+ ( c o n t i n u e d ) B O R E A L W H I T E t B L A C K " S P R U C E ZONE SOIL CHEMICAL ANALV515 (FRACTION <!2MM1 TERRAIN 'SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (19711 Page 1 PLOT 35 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAMNC HORIZON SAM. DEPTH (CM.) P HH 2 0 CM. X TOT.C X TOT.NX BUCKINGHORSE TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA MG NA K C/N RATIO P P P M C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM BASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XS! XC "75= [ T F " H 007-GlO 4.5 E7.9 51 .00 C~TBT 63.0 116 26.25 35- 2 AE 000-005 4.4 1.2 0.72 0.06 12.C 006 2.00 35- 3 AEGJ 005-029 4.5 1.3 .0.77 0.08 9.6 004 2.75 35- 5 BTGJ 029-061 4.2 1.0 0.56 0.07 8.0 009 3.SO 35- 7 BCG 061-068 4.3 1.1 0.63 0.07 9.0 006 7.00 5.75 0.0 3777 1 34 , 00 26.5 0.15 .0 0.15 12.60 18.3 .97 0.02 0.22 9.10 43.7 1.60 005 0.25 9.80 55.1 3.42 07 0.30 12.60 85.7 10YR72 10YR62 10YR72 10YR54 0YR61 10YR42 10YR52 10VR32 36 38 25 L 2 8 32 39 CL 19 37 42 C S I K A N N I T E R R A I N S Y S T E M ; EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM CA • MG NA K PLOT 5S ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAM N O HORIZN SAM. DEPTH (CM.) 55- I L F H 55- 2 A E 55- 3 H T 55- 4 C G P H H 2 0 O . M , X TT.C X TOT.N X C / N RATIO P P P M 4 1.3 134 in.2 018 32.50 2.00 ""670TT 8.25 7.67 0.0 0.50 0.0 4 .00 0. 10 -"27B-J 0,« J J 7 2 T -5.42 0.10 0.32 C.E.C. MEQ/lOO G M 94.00 12.60 1 5. 70 BASE SAT X '" 47.3 20.6 ""6~BTT~ 89. 8 COLOR TEXTURE DRY • MOIST XS XSI XC 10Y«71 10YR61 47 45 7 L T5TR73^0VR5"4—2-2~»T~34-CC^— 10YR63 10YR42 10 42 47 SIC PLOT 41 GLEYCO UI'THIC GPAY LUVISOL _ J A M HD.R J . « N r. A M . P H N U O L P T H 3 J 0 ( C M . ) CM. TOT.C TOT.N r - x SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH._CAT,_MCQ/10.0 .GM_ CA MG NA K C/  " P A T I O P "PP, 41- 1 LFH 007-000 41- 2 AE 000-0 1  41- 3 BTGJ 011-052 41- 4 CG 052- • 4.8 91.0 4.8 3.5 4 . 6 C.9 4.5 0.9 52.80 0.74 2.05 0.13 0.54 0.06 0.50 0.05 71.4 50 23.75 15. 8 021 6. 75 9.0 006 8.50 10.0 018 10.00 .50 0.0 3.37 202 0.03 0.45 3.85 0.07 0.52 4.50 0.10 0.45 PLOT 42 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL S A M ' N O H O R I Z O N SAM. DEPTH 4 2 - 1 L F H 4 2 - 2 A H E 4 2 - 3 " " DT 4 ? - 4 CGJ (CM. ) 007-000 000-009009-061" 06 1- * P H H 2 0 O.M. X TOT.C X TOT.NX 5.3 90.0 4 . 2 3.3 "4.8~"1 . I ' 5.0 1.3 52.20 0.99 1.93 0. 12 _ 0.63 ' 0.05 0.74 0.08 SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C / N RATIO P P P M Tr<r N A 52.7 068 3125 1175 0.0 2.75 16.1 022 4.25 2.07 0.03 0.40 12.6 051 8.00 3.12 0.03 0.47 9.3 021 12.50 4.55 0.07 0.45 66. 00 13.60 14. 70 14.20 C.E.C. MEQ/lOO49.6 ' 68.0 88. 1 100.0 BASE SAT COLOR. DRY MOIST 10YR6I I0YR42 10YR62 10YR53 10YR62 10YR42 TEXTURE X S XSI XC 12 55 32 SICL 3 29 67 HC 8 29 62 HC TEXTURE 930014.0 1 4. 20 12.60 49.5 _ 48.2 81 .9 100.0 I0YR72_10YR53 10YR63 10YR53 10YR53 10YR42 XS XSI XC .10 55. 33 SICL. 0 36 63 HC 3 35 62 HC PLOT 43 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAy "'NO' 4 3 - 1 H O R I Z O N SAM.." DEPTH" (CM.) P H "•HZO-CM. TOT.C —; x LFH O16-0C0 5.6 92.1 53.40 2. 39 TOT.N X 43- 2 ATE COU-U 1U 5T3 3 BT 0038 47 1 0.62 43- 5 BTGJ 036-073 43- 4 CKGJ 073- 7.7 U4 0.81 1.26 0.10SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM. CA MG NA K 42.4 070 32.50 e.25 0.0 3.75 C / N ' RATI 0 P PM 't'.Z 007 iiloo" 2.75 0034.27 0.07. 0 .67" 0 .50 C.E.C MEQ/100 GM 1 1700BASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC .10. I. 021 16.ZS. ..3.40 0.07 0.3.0. "TT75"0 B37"5 I0YR62 16VR42 4 4* St S i c 13,80 100.0 10YR62 10YR43 1 23 75 HC .15.50 . Ip.0.0.„_ 1 0.YR62.. 10YR32.. .1.8. .44. 37 . .S ICLV T a b l e 15 Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss 80 F i g s . 23 & 2h B l a c k s p r u c e i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y . P l o t h2 has an e x c e p t i o n a l l y heavy co v e r o f Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss 81 F i g . 25 P h o t o g r a p h shows a v a r i a t i o n of t h e Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n w hich bears a r e s e m b l a n c e t o the Aspen - White S p r u c e a s s o c i a t i o n . 82 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n 3 Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) -• Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) -L y c o p o d i o ( a n n o t i n i ) - Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d i c i ) -P l c e o ( g l a u c a e - marianae) - Pinetum c o n t o r t a e The Lodgepole P i n e - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n i s f o u n d on v e r y f i n e t e x t u r e d or heavy s o i l s w h i c h show m o t t l i n g a t d e p t h (mesic t o s u b h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s h i g h water t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p a r t s of t h e y e a r and p oor d r a i n -age even though t h e s e ecosystems a r e g e n e r a l l y found i n n e u t r a l t o s h e d d i n g p o s i t i o n s on the l a n d s c a p e . T h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n i s r a t h e r uncommon i n t h e . a r e a and appears t o d e v e l o p o n l y where s o i l s are v e r y f i n e t e x t u r e d , u s u a l l y n o n - c a l c a r e o u s (derived., m o s t l y f r o m s h a l e s ) and s t r o n g l y a c i d ( m o d e r a t e l y a c i d up t o v e r y s t r o n g l y a c i d ) . However, t h e y are r a t e d s t i l l as l u v i s o l s , even i f t h e y a r e a c i d , j u d g i n g by the l a t e s t e d i t i o n of the SSCC (The System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada, 1976). T h i s ecosystem shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b o t h t h e o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e and t h e o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a e . I t i s i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t P i n u s c o n t o r t a has t h e h i g h e s t 83 wood volumes per hectare of n a t u r a l l y occurring stands of the study area. Vegetation A l l v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r s are f a i r l y w e l l developed i n the Lodgepole Pine - Clubmoss a s s o c i a t i o n . The tre e l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Pinus c o n t o r t a i n the l a y e r w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 5 . 0 o f t e n w i t h Populus tremuloides and the o c c a s i o n a l P i c e a glauca sharing a dominant p o s i t i o n . Pinus c o n t o r t a i s the dominant t r e e i n the Ag and A^ l a y e r s i n a l l communities sampled. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that B e t u l a r e s i n i f e r a , which i s commonly found i n the A2, A-^  and B-^  l a y e r s of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i s r a r e l y present i n the A l l u v i a l White Spruce or Aspen - V/hite Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n s 7/here B e t u l a  p a p y r i f e r a i s the common b i r c h . This i n d i c a t e s that these two species are e c o l o g i c a l l y very d i s t i n c t . S a l i x bebbiana and S a l i x s c o u l e r i a n a are dominant shrubs i n the B^ l a y e r w i t h mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e s of '+.2 and 3 . 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , P i c e a mariana becomes a dominant species i n the upper shrub l a y e r ( p l o t s 3 5 , 5 5 7 l , 2 ) and t h i s f a c t , along w i t h i t s presence i n the lower shrub l a y e r , i n d i c a t e s that i t w i l l become part of the climax stand. In two other p l o t s (^ •1, 5+3)j c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the higher species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Elymus innovatus, i t appears that white spruce may become 8h a s u b - c l i m a x t r e e . The l o w e r shrub l a y e r i s dominated by Ledum  g r o e n l a n d i c u m w i t h a mean s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e of 6.5 i n the communities s t u d i e d . Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m i s f r e q u e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d on the d e c a y i n g wood of c o n i f e r s which-remains a f t e r f i r e . T h i s s p e c i e s i s undoubtedly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a m a r i a n a e . Many s p e c i e s i n the l o w e r s h r u b l a y e r s u c h as Populus t r e m u l o i d e s arid Viburnum e d u l e , w h i c h were p r e s e n t i n a l l p l o t s , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e . A l l of the Po p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s p r e s e n t i n t h e l o w e r shrub l a y e r a r o s e as s u c k e r s from the r o o t s of aspen i n t h e o v e r s t o r y and showed poor form and v i g o r . One s u c h aspen s u c k e r was 20 meters f r o m the n e a r e s t aspen t r e e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l e l e n g t h of the r o o t s of Pop u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s . In a d d i t i o n t o the above s p e c i e s , Rosa a c i c u l a r i s was p r e s e n t i n a l l p l o t s of t h i s p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an average s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3.0. Rosa a c i c u l a r i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the b o r e a l w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e zone. Cornus c a n a d e n s i s , V a c c i n i u r n v i t i s - i d a e a , E p i l o b i u m  a n g u s t i f o l l u m , and Lycopodium annotinum, w h i c h were p r e s e n t i n a l l s t a n d s s t u d i e d , dominated t h e herb l a y e r , w i t h t h e f i r s t two s p e c i e s h a v i n g h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s of 5.8 and 85 5.3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Elymus innovatus was present i n four of the f i v e communities s t u d i e d . This species i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f dry upland woods (Raup, 1935) or dry sandy areas ( M o s s , 1953)* According to t h i s study, Elymus innovatus r e q u i r e s sandy loams to s i l t y loams. However, Moss does mention that Elymus innovatus was a leading species under lodgepole pine growing on " f a i r l y heavy s o i l " which would resemble F o r t Nelson c o n d i t i o n s . Linnaea b o r e a l i s , Lathyrus  ochroleucus, P y r o l a secunda, Maianthemum canadense, Equisetum  s y l v a t i c u m , and V i o l a r e n i f o l i a are a l l present on 80% of the stands sampled. However, only Linnaea b o r e a l i s , e s t a b l i s h e d on mor humus, and Lathyrus ochroleucus. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r loams, had high species s i g n i f i c a n c e values (3.8 and 3*0 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Although Lycopodium compIanaturn was only present i n 3 of the 5 p l o t s , i t sometimes occupies a consid-erable part of the herb l a y e r . Hylocomium splendens, w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e value of 7.9 and Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i , w i t h a value of 5.5- were the only two mosses present 100% of the time. P e l t i g e r a aphthosa, which was present i n 80% of the sample p l o t s , was the only l i c h e n w i t h a high mean s i g n i f i c a n c e value (3.7). o The analyses i n d i c a t e t h a t the Lodgepole Pine -Clubmoss pl a n t a s s o c i a t i o n , belongs i n the P i c e e t a l i a glaucae, however, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the P i c e e t a l i a Marianae, even i f 86 more remote, i s s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e . S o i l s S o i l s examined i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n were mostly Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s which develop mainly from c l a y parent m a t e r i a l s and only e x c e p t i o n a l l y from a s i l t y c l a y loam ( p l o t 1+3). These s o i l s had the f i n e s t t e x t u r e s of the e n t i r e study w i t h "heavy c l a y s " being common i n the p r o f i l e . The average c l a y content of the B.J. and Cg horizons are 56 and 50$ r e s p e c t i v e l y . V a l e n t i n e (1971) has not described t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o i l type i n h i s r e p o r t . However, the F o r t Kelson s e r i e s , which i s an O r t h i c Gray Wooded, i s somewhat s i m i l a r but t h i s s e r i e s i s not as f i n e textured and supports Aspen -White Spruce communities. V a l e n t i n e mentions that c l a y . accumulation r e s t r i c t s drainage and that the upper part of the B^ . i s mottled i n the Fort Nelson s e r i e s . This m o t t l i n g was present i n the B^ . horizons of the s o i l s examined i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n v/ith one p l o t having m o t t l i n g even i n the A e h o r i z o n . A l l the s o i l s examined occurred i n n e u t r a l to shed-ding p o s i t i o n s which i n d i c a t e that the poor i n t e r n a l drainage of the s o i l s i s due mostly to the f i n e t e x t u r e of the c l a y s , which keeps the s o i l saturated f o r a good part of the year. Later i n the summer, the upper parts of these s o i l s dry out c o n s i d e r a b l y which could account f o r the high presence of such 87 s p e c i e s as Elymus i n n o v a t u s and S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s w h i c h ar e w e l l adapted f o r d r y s o i l s . I t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , t h a t some of t h e s e s o i l s d e r i v e d from a e o l i a n d e p o s i t s ( m o s t l y c l a y a n d . s i l t ) . These Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s g e n e r a l l y had a much l o w e r pH th r o u g h o u t the solum t h a n the O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of t h e Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n . Amounts of exchange-a b l e Ca and Mg were v e r y s i m i l a r i n the m i n e r a l s o i l s . However, the LFH of the Aspen - White Spruce l u v i s o l s c o n t a i n e d much more exchangeable Ca th a n d i d the LFH of the Lodgepole • P i n e - Clubmoss. E v i d e n t l y , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s of the l a t t e r community a r e m o s t l y from n o n - c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s . The l a r g e amount of P i n u s c o n t o r t a i n t h e t r e e l a y e r i s promoted by n o n - c a l c a r e o u s s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y when they d r y out i n the uppermost l a y e r . Lodgepole p i n e a l s o produces l i t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a c i d and low i n c a l c i u m . 88 ORDER I I P i c e e t a l i a marianae Annas e t K r a j i n a ( P i c e e t a l i a g l a u c a e - m a r i a n a e K r a j i n a 1969 p.p.) The o r d e r P i c e e t a l i a marianae has the most w i d e -spread o c c u r r e n c e of any o r d e r i n t h e stu d y a r e a . When t h e P i c e e t a l i a marianae a re p r o j e c t e d on the e d a t o p i c g r i d , t h e y . occupy, h y g r o t o p e s from x e r i c t o s u b h y d r i c and 'tr'ophotopes-m o s t l y from o l i g o t r o p h i c t o m e s o t r o p h i c . S o i l s o f t h e P i c e e t a l i a marianae a r e g e n e r a l l y p o o r , due e i t h e r t o low n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , or t o po o r d r a i n a g e . M i n e r a l s o i l s o f the o r d e r a r e m o s t l y Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s and L u v i s o l s ( g e n e r a l l y from n o n - c a l c a r e o u s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s ) and t h e i r g l e y e d v e r s i o n s . O r g a n i c s o i l s a r e g e n e r a l l y F i b r i s o l s and M e s i s o l s . The o r d e r c o n s i s t s of f o u r a l l i a n c e s and f i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . Two a l l i a n c e s , t h e C l a d i n o ( m i t i s ) - P i n i o n c o n t o r t a e (- b a n k s i a n a e ) and the P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n marianae, occupy m i n e r a l s o i l s ' , w i t h the r e m a i n i n g two a l l i a n c e s o c c u r r i n g m o s t l y on o r g a n i c s o i l s . V e g e t a t i o n of t h e P i c e e t a l i a marianae i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r c h a r a c t e r species z P i c e a mariana  Pinus c o n t o r t a  Ledum groenlandicum  Vacciniutn v i t i s - i d a e a  Geocaulon l i v i d u m  Oxycoccus microcarpus Empetrum nigrum  Carex l o l i a c e a  Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i  B a r b i l o p h o z i a barbata  P e l t i g e r a aphthosa  P e l t i g e r a malacea . A l l i a n c e 2 C l a d i n o ( m i t i s ) - P i n i o n contortae (- banksianae) Annas et K r a j i n a i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a s i m i l a r a l l i a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Sub-B o r e a l Zone. This s i m i l a r (but d i s t i n c t ) Sub-B o r e a l a l l i a n c e was f i r s t termed as the Cladonio ( g r a c i l i s ) - P i n i o n contortae Revel et K r a j i n a 1972, and as the P i n i o n contortae Wali et K r a j i n a 1973 but should rather be termed as the Cladonio ( g r a c i l i s ) - V a c c i n i o ( m y r t i l l o i c f i s ) - P i n i o n c ontortae. This a l l i a n c e contains only one plant a s s o c i a t i o n which develops on x e r i c to subxeric s i t e s . Therefore, i t s v e g e t a t i o n and environment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n which f o l l o w s . PU5T AS3XUTI0N U LODGEPOLE PISS - KD-'KIKD.NICK - LICHEN Cl a d l n o ( m l t l s ) - P e l t i g e r o (aphthosae) -P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - Arctostaphylo (uvae-ursl) - Pinetun c o c t o r t a e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species i a y e r Constants (presence ^ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c * c h a r a c t e r i s t i c non - constants .> I I Tree Pinus c o n t o r t a Populus tremuloides *-Pinus bankslana P i c e a mariana P i c e a glauca Shrub Alnus c r l s p a Rosa a c i c . u l a r i s Ledum groenlandicum Shepherdla canadensis Vlburnun edule Vacclnlum m y r t l l l o l d e s * Herb t •Vacclnlum v l t i s - l d a e a Lycopodlun obscurum Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i * Linnaea b o r e a l i s Cornus canadensis Ceocaulon l i v l d u m Epllobium a n g u s t l f o l i u a P y r o l a a s a r i f o l l a Equisetum arvense P y r o l a secunda Maianthenum canadense P y r o l a chlorantha lloss * C l a d i n a m l t l s Cera tod on pur pure us Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i Cladonia f i a b r l a t a Hylocomlum splendens C l a d i n a a l p e s t r i s * C ladonla g r a c i l i s * Clad on l a u n c l a l i s C l a d i n a r a n g l f e r l r . a P e l t l g e r a aphthosa P e l t i g e r a canlna"* Po l y t r l c h u m J u n i p e r i n u n * C l a d i n a arbuscula C e p h a l o z i e l l a d l v a r i c a t a * C e t r a r l a n i v a l i s * Dlcranum p o l y s e t u a * P o h l l a nutans . P t i l l d l u n p u l c h e r r l n u m * T a b l e 16 91 LODGEPOLE PIKE - KITJNIKINNICK - LICHEN " Cladino (mitis) - Peltigero (aphthosae) -Pleurozio (schreberi) - Axctostaphylo t, (uvae-ursi) - Pinetum contortae • Plot No. 12 59 81 82 92 Elevation in H h20 ^25 *35 . l+l+O Latitude 59 53' 58 MO« 58 »f0« 58 >+0» 58 39" Longitude .122 00' 122 *+2' 122 ^3 ' 122 *t2' 122 W2" . Exposure - . • - ' - - - • Slope Gradient % 0 0 0 0 0 Percent coverage Total A 65 27 37 If2 28 35 11 30 16 15 A2 20 , 1 5 10 15 , lb A 3 35 12 15 8 Total B 65 9 50 13 12 B l 35 6 20 5 10 B2 6 35 9 7 C 85 39 6U 20 ko Dh 3 55 11 80 86 Dw 15 5 - - — Plot Coverage % Litter 8o 80 82 93 96 Decaying Wood 15 7 3 2 Mineral Soil - - - - • -Rock - - - — — Hygrotope Xeric - Subxerlc Trophotope Oligotrophic - Submesotrophic Parent Material Fluvial aeolian ? T a b l e 17 LOCGEPCLE PINE - KINNIKINNICK - LICHEN BOREAL WHITE £ SLACK SPRUCE ZCNE PACE 1 PLCT NUMBER 101210 5910811082I0921 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE ANO VIGOR P MS RS A l 1 PINUS CONTORTA 1 . 15 .214 .215 .215 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 80 .0 5.1 4-5 2 PINUS 8ANKSIANA 16.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . I . I 2 0 . 0 4. 1 6-6 A2 3 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 1 . 1 . 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 3.4 5-5 PINUS CONTORTA 1 3 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 | 5 . 2 | 4 . 2 1 • 1 ' . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 5.C 3-5 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 13.21 . 14 .212.214.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 80 .0 i.t 2-4 PINUS BANKS I ANA I . I . I . 11.211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I 4 0 . 0 *.B 1-1 4 PICEA GLAUCA 12.21 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 l . C 2-2 A3 5 PICEA MARIANA 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . t . . 1 . I . I 20 .0 « . 2 1-1 PICEA MARIANA 1 1 . 1 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 • I . I . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 3.6 1--. PINUS CCNTORTA 1 . 14 .211 .114 .212 .21 • 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I 80 .0 3.4 1-4 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 14.11 . 12.11 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 60 .0 2. S 2-4 81 PICEA GLAUCA 12.21 . I*.21 . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 60 .0 2.6 • -4 PICEA MARIANA I f . 1 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . l . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3.6 *-4 PICEA GLAUCA 12.21 . 13.21 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 2.2 2-3 6 ALNUS CRISPA 11.212.21 . 1 . 13.21 . I . l . l . l . l e l o l . I . I . I . . 1 . I . I 60 .0 2.1 1-3 7 SALIX BEBBIANA I . I . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 2.4 4-4 8 BETULA RESINIFERA 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 e l . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 • .2 I l PINUS CONTORTA I . I . I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 • . 2 1-1 9 SALIX SCCULERIANA I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 POPULUS TREMULOIOES I*.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 . I . I 2 0 . 0 • . 0 • - * B2 10 SALIX GLAUCA l » . 1 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 • . C *•- + 11 ROSA ACICULARIS 14 .114 .114 .113 .213 .21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 4 . I 3-4 12 LECUM GROENLANDICUM 1 2 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3.2 1-4 PICEA MARIANA 13 .113 .212 .214 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . i . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 80 .0 3.2 2-4 13 SHEPHEROIA CANADENSIS 15.21 . 15.21 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 4. 4 1-5 PICEA GLAUCA I . I . 12. 2 1 * . 212.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 1.4 • -2 1* VIBURNUM EOULE 11.11 . 1 . 12.21 1.11 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 1.4 1-2 15 VACCINIUM MYRTILLOIDES 1 . | 2 . 2 I * . 2 I » . 2 I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 1.1 • - 2 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 1 . 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 * . 2 1 l . l l • I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 1.0 • -1 PINUS CONTORTA I . I . 12.21 . 12.11 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 . 1 . f 4 0 .0 1.4 2-2 ALNUS CRISPA 14.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 .0 2.4 4-4 16 A«ELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA 1 . 1 1.21 . . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • .2 l - l SALIX SCCULERIANA I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1-1 17 POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA l * . l l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 • . 0 • -• SALIX BEBBIANA I . I . I * .2 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 * . o • -• 18 SALIX PYRIFOLIA l * . l l . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l e i . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 * . c • -• C 19 VACCINIUM VIT IS- IOAEA 14 .215 .217 .214 .213 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 5.2 3-7 20 ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI 1 3 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 6 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 5.0 3-6 T a b l e 18 L O D G E P O L E P I N E - K I N N I K I N N I C K - L I C H E N BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRLCE ZONE PAGE 2 P L O T NUMBER 1 0 1 2 1 0 5 9 1 0 8 1 ! 0 3 2 1 0 9 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 S T N O . S P E C I E S S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND V I G O R P MS R S 21 L I N N A E A B O R E A L IS 1 6 . 2 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 1 0 0 . 0 4 . 4 1 -6 22 C O R N U S C A N A D E N S I S 1 2 . 1 4 .21 5 . 2 4 . 2 1 3 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 1 0 0 . 0 4 . 2 » - 5 23 G E O C A U L O N L I V I D U M 1 3 . 2 • . 2 3 . 2 1 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 1 0 0 . 0 2 . 7 » - 3 24 E P I L O B I U M A N G U S T I F O L I U M 1 4 .1 1 . 1 3 . 2 2 . 2 | 4 . 2 | . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 1 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 4 -3 25 P Y R O L A A S A R I F O L I A 1 . 4 . 2 4 . • .21 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l £ 0 . 0 2 . 5 4-4 26 E O U I S E T U M A R V E N S E 1 • • . 2 4 . 2 • . 2 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 2 . 4 « - 4 27 P Y R O L A S E C U N D A 1 2 . 2 • • . 2 1 .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1 . 2 4-2 28 MA I A N T H E MUM C A N A D E N S E 1 • 1 . 2 1 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1 . 1 1 -1 2 9 P Y R O L A C H L O R A N T H A 1 • 1 . 2 • 1 . 2 1 * . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1 . 0 4-1 3 0 L Y C O P O D I L M O B S C U R U M 1 • 4 . 2 4 . 2 • I . I . I . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 3 . 2 4 - 4 31 L Y C O P O D I U M C O M P L A N A T U M 1 • . . 2 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 2 . 6 2 - 4 3 2 P E O I C U L A R I S L A B R A C O R I C A 1 • • 3 . 2 • I* .21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 4-3 33 E Q U I S E T U M S C I R P O I D E S 1 • • . 2 1 . 2 ! . l . l . l . l « l « t « l * l * I . I . I . I 4 0 . 0 4 .4 . - 1 34 L A T H Y R U S O C H R O L E U C U S l * . l • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 4 .C 4-4 35 E L Y M U S I N N O V A T U S 1 5 . 1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 3 . 4 5 - 5 36 P Y R O L A G R A N D I F L O R A 1 4 . 2 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 2 . 4 4 - 4 3 7 C A L A M A G R O S T I S C A N A D E N S I S 1 • + . 2 • 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 t . G 4-4 3 8 M E R T E N S I A P A N I C U L A T A 1 +.1 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 4 .0 « - « 3<5 0 R Y 2 Q P S I S P U N G E N S 1 • + . 2 • • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 *,C 4-4 DH 4 0 C L A D I N A M I T I S 1 2 . 5 . 4 . 6 . 1 5 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . | . I . I . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 5 . 3 2 - 6 41 P L E U R O Z I U M S C H R E B E R I 1 5 . 3 . 6 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 1 0 0 . 0 5 . 0 4 -6 42 H Y L O C C M I U M S P L E N O E N S 1 * . 4 . 4 . 4 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . | . I . I . I . 1 1 0 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 43 C L A D I N A A L P E S T R I S 1 +• 4 . 4 . 3 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . | . I . I . 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 3 . 2 . - 4 4 4 C L A D O N I A G R A C I L I S 1 1 . •• • . 4. U . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 1 0 0 . 0 . . 9 • - 1 45 C L A D Q N I A U N C I A L I S 1 . • 4 . 4 . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 8 0 . 0 4 . 2 ' - 3 4 6 C L A D I N A R A N G I F E R I N A 1 5 . • 4 . 1 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 8 0 . 0 4 . 3 4 - 5 4 7 P E L T I G E R A A P H T F O S A 1 3 . 3 . • 14 . 1 4 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . | . I . l . l . l 3 0 . 0 2 . 7 3 - 4 48 P E L T I G E R A C A N I N A 1 • . 4. I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 8 0 . 0 « . 3 4 9 C L A C I N A A R B U S C U L A 1 t . • I * . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 1 . 6 4 -3 50 C E P H A L O Z I E L L A D I V A R I C A T * 1 • . • . • • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 . . 0 4-4 51 CG TRAR I A N I V A L I S 1 * 4 . • . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I- . 1 . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 4 . 0 52 D I C R A N U M P O L Y S E T U M 1 I * . • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 t . C 4-4 53 P O H L I A N U T A N S 1 . 1 I t . I . | . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . I . | . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 4 .0 4-4 54 P O L Y T R I C H U M J U N I P E R I N U M 1 * I*. 4 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . I . I 6 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 55 P T I L I D I U M P U L C H E R R I M U M I t . • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 6 0 . 0 4.C 4-4 56 C E R A T C D O N P U R P U R E U S • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I 4 0 , 0 4 .0 4-4 57 C L A D O N I A F I M B R I A T A 1 * 4 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 4 .C 4-4 58 O I C R A N U M U N O U L A T U M 1 +• 4. • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 4 .0 4-4 59 D R E P A N O C L A D U S L N C I N A T U S 1 t • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 6 0 P E L T I G E R A P O L Y O A C T Y L A 1 • • . 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 4 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 61 B A R B I L C P H O Z I A B A R B A T A 1 + . • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 4 .C 4-4 6 2 B R A C H Y T H E C I U M A L B I C A N S 1 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 4 . 0 . - 4 63 C A P P Y L I U M H I S P I D U L U M t * • 1 • 1 • 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 4 .C 4-4 64 C E T R A R I A C U C U L L A T A 1 • • 4 . I . I . I . 1 1 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . U . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . l . l . l 2 0 . 0 t.O 4-4 6 5 C E T R A R I A E R I C C T O R U M I • • • 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 t . C 4-4 6 6 C E T R A R I A I S L A N D I C A 1 • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 2 0 . 0 t.O t - 4 67 C L A D O N I A A M A U R O C R A E A 1 • * • » . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . • I . I . I 2 0 . 0 4.Q t - 4 6 8 C L A O O N I A B A C I L L A R IS I • - • • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • I . I . I 2 0 . 0 4 . 0 4-4 T a b l e 18 ( c o n t i n u e d ) LODGEPOLE PINE - KINNIKINNICK - LICHEN BOREAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER 101210591081108210921 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 i i i ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR p MS RS 69 CLAIJCNIA CKLIIIUU'HAIIA 1 * • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 2U.0 «.c • - • 70 CLAUUNIA COCCIFERA 1 1 • 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.o 71 CLADONIA CURNUTA I . I . i . i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.o 72 CLADONIA CRISPATA I . I . r . i * . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.o • 73 CLADONIA MULTIFORMIS I . I . i . i . i * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 «.c • -• 74 CLADONIA PLEUROTA I . I . I . I . i * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.o • -• 75 DICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM I . I . i . i * . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 -'U.O «.c t - • lh DICRANUM FUSCI Sf.liHS I . I . i . i * . I . I . I . I . I . i . i o i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 77 PELT IGEKA MALACEA I . I . i • i * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • . C 78 POLYTRI CHUM STRICTUM I . I . i . i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I. I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • . 0 79 PTILIDIUM CI LI ARE 1 • 1 • • i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i o i . i . I. I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • . 0 80 DW STEREOCAULON TOMENTOSUM I . I . i * . i • i . i . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.c PELTIGERA APHTHOSA 1 • • 1 . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I • i . i . i 60.0 *.c • - • PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 1*. 13. i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 1.6 • -3 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS 11. 12. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 40.0 1.2 1-2 DICRANUM FUSCESCENS 1 1. 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 • .8 1-1 CLAOINA MIT IS 1 2 . 1 . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 1.0 2-2 CLADONIA GRACILIS 12. 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 1.0 2-2 BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 1 * . 1 . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I. I «i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • . 0 81 CETRARIA JUNIPERINA 1 +. 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 CETRARIA NIVALIS 1 . 1 • • i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . 0 CLADCNIA COCCIFERA 1 1 • « 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.c *-• CLADONIA MULTIFORMIS I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • - • 82 CLADONIA NEMOXYNA 1 • . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . t . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . C • -• DICRANUM ACUTIFOLIUM 1 • • 1 • i . i . i . 1 . 1 . . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i «i >i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • -• OICRANUM UNOULATUM I . I . i . i . i * . i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . 0 • -• 83 PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS 1 . 1 • • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.o • -• PTILIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM 1 • • 1 . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . 0 • -• T n n l f l T f t ( C O T l t Ini.ied ) • r ' S o i l CHgMTc-Ar-XK-A'L'VTVTS (PRAcT!oM, TERRAIN SVT.TLM AFT1H VALENTINE (IV71I UORE>L WHITE SPRUCE L BLACK ZUNE Page 1 PLOT 59 DEGRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM TRAIL 30|L SERIES SAM NO MOR 1 ZUN SAM. PH P.M. O f P T M H20 X TOT.C X TOT .N X C/N P RATIO PPM EXCH . C A T . MEO/100 GM C . E . C MEQ/lOO BASE SAT COLOR TEXTURE ' -" — (C .M. I " CA MG NA K GM X DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 59 - 1 50- 2 59- J 59- « LTH 001-000 5.0 92.1 AE 000-0 11 4.8 E.O UM 01 1-060 ' 5.4 " P.2 (!C 068-10;- 6.7 C . l 53 .40 1.16 0.14 0 .07 0.79 0.02 0 . 0 2 " 0.02 67.6 84 50.0 C09 7.0 036 3. 5 023 22 .50 0. 50 ' 0 .50 2 .00 4.62 0.0 0.20 0. 12 0 . 15 0 .0 0.70 0 .0 1 .25 0. 05 0 .07 0.07 68.00 8. 30 5.60 5.50 41 ,9 8.7 12.9 50.5 5YH71 5YR51 1GYR64 7.5YK43 7.SYR54 7.5YP4J 64 a 9 88 13 22 SCL J 6 S 2 H S PLOT 8! OE GRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM >- : SAM NO " HORIZON SAM. PH O . M . D E P T H H 2 0 " X ( C M , ) TOT.C TOT .N C/N P RATIO PPM EXCH . CAT. MEQ/100 GM C . E . C MEQ/lOO GM UASE SAT X COLOR TEXTURE X X CA MG NA K DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 81 - 1 LFH 032-000 81-22 8 1- 3 81- 4 AT 0 3 0 - J I 4 6.U P . J UM 014-078 5.5 C.2 C 078- + 6. 3 C.l 0.20 0 .13 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.01 10.0 (.'lb 6.5 035 5.0 014 1 . liO 0.23 1 .00 0.32 0 .3 0.05 0 .0 0.27 0 .0 0.05 0. 07 0.07 3.60 4. 10 5.00 3 8 . 2 9 . 1 2 7 . 0 7.5YR72 7.5YF6 2 7.5YR56 7.5YR44 10YR54 10YR44 79 21 14 6 LS 53 24 SL PLOT e2 OE GRADED DYSTRIC BRUNISOL CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM 5AM HORIZON SAM. PH C M . TOT.C TOT.N C/N P RATIO PM EXCH . CAT. MEQ/100 GM C . E . C . MEQ/lOO GM BASE SAT X COLOR TEXTURE NO DEPTH H20 X ( C M . ) X X CA MG NA K DRY MOIST xs XSI XC " a 2 _ - , -8 2- 2 82 - 3 82- 4 — L F H — 0 02-000" AE 000-010 4.2 1.5 BM 010-071 6.0 flC 0 7 1 - • 5.5 0.87 0.02 0.01 0 .02 4 3 . 5 006 023 006 0.75 0 . 75 1 .50 0.10 0 .0 0.22 0 .0 0.65 0 .0 0 .02 0 . 10 0 . 10 4. 30 4.90 4. 80 2 0 . 3 21 .9 46.9 10YR71 10YR51 7.5YR58 10YH44 10YR64 10YR44 63 87 6 29 SCL Z. 10 LS PLOT 92 DEGRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL CHUATSE TERRAIN SY.STLM SAM HORIZON SAM. PH O.M. DEPTH H20 X (C .M. I TOT.C TOT.N C/N P RATIO PPM EXCH . CAT . MEO/100 GM C . E . C . MEQ/100 GM BASS SAT X COLOR TEXTURe NO X X CA MG NA < DRY MOIST IS .IS I. XC 9 2 - 1 92 - 2 92 - 3 LFH 003-000 3 .9 87.1 AE 000-0C9 4.4 2 .0 BM 009-065 5.4 0.4 50 .50 1 .16 0.22 0.90 0.01 0.03 56.1 160 116.0 006 7.3 043 1 1.25 0 .25 0 .25 3.12 0 .0 0 . 10 0 .03 0.10 0 .03 2 .50 0. 12 0 . 10 82.00 8. 40 6 .60 20.9 6. 0 7 .2 ~'4'6.2""" 7.5YR72 7.5YR62 7. 5YR58 7. 5YR44 " 10YRS4 "10YR43 79 92 9 10 SL 3 3 S C 0 6 5 - 5 ."9 CYZ ~ 0.09~ 0Y05 1.. 8 014"" 4. SO "I. 62 0 .03 0 . 27" I 3.90 80 1 IB SL r • T a b l e 19 96 Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k L i c h e n i F i g s . 26 & 27 Lodgepole p i n e growing on dunes s o u t h o f F o r t N e l s o n between t h e F o r t N e l s o n and P r o p h e t R i v e r s . The d i s t i n c t b o u n d a r i e s between l o d g e p o l e p i n e and b l a c k s p r u c e communities can be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s of the s o i l . Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 97 F i g . 28 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ( w i t h r e d b e r r i e s ) i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y found i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . V a c c i n i u m v i t i s -i d a e a and Cornus c a n a d e n s i s , b o t h v i s i b l e above, were a l s o p r e s e n t i n a l l s t a n d s sampled. F i g . 29 T y p i c a l v e g e t a t i o n showing s c a t t e r e d Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m , and Rosa a c i c u l a r i s i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r . P i c e a m a r i a n a i s t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r u c e i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y , however, P. g l a u c a i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t . Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n 98 F i g s . 30 & 31 A degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l t y p i c a l o f sand dunes n e a r F o r t N e l s o n w i t h a v e r y p r o m i n e n t w h i t e Ae h o r i z o n and r e d d i s h Bm h o r i z o n . These s o i l s have v e r y t h i n LH h o r i z o n s , g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n 2cm t h i c k . The t r e e i n t h e c e n t r e o f the p h o t o on t h e r i g h t shows th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sweeping branches of P i n u s b a n k s i a n a . These t r e e s are on a f l u v i a l d e p o s i t n e a r t h e P e t i t o t R i v e r . 99 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n h Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n C l a d i n o ( m i t i s ) - P e l t i g e r o ( a p h t h o s a e ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - A r c t o s t a p h y l o ( u v a e - u r s i ) - Pinetum c o n t o r t a e The Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n , v/hen p r o j e c t e d on the e d a t o p i c g r i d , o c c u r s on s u b x e r i c t o x e r i c h y g r o t o p e s and o l i g o t r o p h i a t o s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e s . V e g e t a t i o n O c c a s i o n a l l y P i n u s b a n k s i a n a ( j a c k p i n e ) or a h y b r i d between P i n u s b a n k s i a n a and P i n u s c o n t o r t a ( l o d g e p o l e p i n e ) can be found on t h e s e s i t e s , however, i t g e n e r a l l y grows more p o o r l y t h a n l o d g e p o l e p i n e . Moss (1953) r e p o r t s t h a t P i n u s b a n k s i a n a i s the predominant p i n e e a s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a , a l o n g t h e Mackenzie Highway i n A l b e r t a , but t h a t h y b r i d s between l o d g e p o l e and j a c k p i n e a r e f r e q u e n t . J e f f r e y (196la) r e p o r t e d t h a t pure s t a n d s of P i n u s b a n k s i a n a o c c u r r e d on s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s of N a h anni B u t t e n o r t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h a t o c c a s i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e s of t h i s s p e c i e s were found 100 on o l d e r f l o o d p l a i n s and t e r r a c e s of t h e L i a r d R i v e r i n t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P i n u s  b a n k s i a n a i s a r e l a t i v e l y r a r e t r e e , however, i t s o c c u r r e n c e i s f a i r l y common on d r y s i t e s on c o a r s e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l a l o n g the P e t i t o t R i v e r i n N.E.. B r i t i s h Columbia ( L a t . 59° 50', Long. 1 2 2 ° ) . I t o c c u r s t o g e t h e r w i t h P i n u s  c o n t o r t a w i t h w h i c h i t h y b r i d i z e s . O c c a s i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s were found on sand dunes between the P r o p h e t and F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r s 15 m i l e s s o u t h of F o r t N e l s o n a t ' m i l e 285 of the A l a s k a Highway. The h y b r i d s of b o t h s p e c i e s a r e found here as w e l l . T h i s l o c a t i o n i s the extreme s o u t h w e s t e r n edge of t h e p r e s e n t l y known d i s t r i b u t i o n of P i n u s  b a n k s i a n a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n eco-systems a r e dominated by l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n t h e upper t r e e l a y e r s ( A ^ and g e n e r a l l y w i t h ' p o o r l y growing Populus t r e m u l o i d e s i n t h e A2 l a y e r . P i c e a mariana i s one of the dominant t r e e s p e c i e s i n t h e A^ l a y e r and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y found i n t h e B j and B2 l a y e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , P i c e a g l a u c a p l a y s a s i m i l a r r o l e t o P i c e a m a r i a n a , e x c e p t t h a t i t s r o l e i s u s u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o b l a c k s p r u c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t h e absence of f i r e t h e main c l i m a x t r e e s p e c i e s would be P i c e a m a r i a n a , p r o b a b l y a l o n g w i t h some P i c e a g l a u c a . A p a r t from t h e s p r u c e s , Alnus c r i s p a i s the o n l y o t h e r 101 f r e q u e n t shrub i n the upper B l a y e r . Rosa a c i c u l a r i s and Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m ( m a i n l y on d e c a y i n g wood) a r e t h e main s p e c i e s i n t h e low sh r u b l a y e r , ' p r e s e n t i n a l l communities sampled. The shrub and t r e e l a y e r s of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n r e m a i n open due t o t h e d r y n e s s of t h e s i t e . V a c c i n i u m v i t i s - i d a e a , A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i , L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s , Cornus canad e n s i s , Geocaulon l i v i d urn, and E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m were p r e s e n t i n a l l communities examined and g e n e r a l l y dominated the herb l a y e r . A r c t o s t a p h y l o s  u v a - u r s i ( k i n n i k i n n i c k ) , w h i c h was found o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y i n one o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n (no. 7), was h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i n the L odgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an average s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e of 5.0. The b e s t growth of l i c h e n s of t h e e n t i r e s t u d y o c c u r r e d i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , b o t h i n terms of dominance and s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y . T w e n t y - f o u r s p e c i e s of l i c h e n s were found o c c u r r i n g on t h e humus w i t h C l a d i n a m i t i s . C. a l p e s t r i s , C. r a n g i f e r i n a , C. a r b u s c u l a , C l a d o n i a g r a c i l i s , C_. u n c i a l i s , and P e l t i g e r a aphthosa b e i n g d o m i n a n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i c h e n s , P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i and Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s a re c o n s t a n t dominant mosses. I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s does not occur h e r e , as t h e humus i s g e n e r a l l y t o o d r y . Raup (1935) has d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r p i n e - l i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n from Wood B u f f a l o P a r k where P i n u s b a n k s i a n a communities d e v e l o p on w e l l d r a i n e d sands. R e v e l (1972) and W a l i and K r a j i n a (1973) have d e s c r i b e d a l o d g e p o l e p i n e l i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n [ c i a d o n i o ( g r a c i l i s ) - A r c t o s t a p h y l o s ( u v a e - u r s i ) - V a c c i n i o ( m y r t i l l o i d i s ) - Pineturn c o n t o r t a e j j f o r the S u b - B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone which has many s i m i l a r i t i e s t o the Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e b o r e a l zone. One n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two r e s p e c t i v e x e r i c a s s o c i a t i o n s i s t h a t i n the S u b - B o r e a l B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone, V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t o s u m and V a c c i n i u m m y r t i l l o i d . e s a r e dominant s p e c i e s w h i l e i n th e F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , V a c c i n i u m y i t i s - i d a e a i s the dominant V a c c i n i u m w i t h V. m y r t i 1 1 o i d e s p l a y i n g o n l y a minor r o l e and V. c a e s p i t o s u m b e i n g a b s e n t . W a l i and K r a j i n a (1973) found t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e - l i c h e n s i t e s had t h e h i g h e s t summer a i r , and s u r f a c e s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s of any p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f o r e s t s t a n d s i n the s u b - b o r e a l zone. S i m i l a r r e l a t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e s can be expected on the x e r i c s i t e s i n the b o r e a l zone as i n d i c a t e d by t h e v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l s The s o i l s of the Lodgepole P i n e - K i n n i k i n n i c k -L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n a r e Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s w h i c h 103 c o r r e s p o n d d i r e c t l y t o V a l e n t i n e ' s T r a i l S e r i e s of t h e Chuatse T e r r a i n System. These s o i l s have dev e l o p e d on sand d e p o s i t s w h i c h o v e r l i e t i l l s or s h a l e b e d r o c k and g e n e r a l l y are found near the r i m of the p l a t e a u where i t has been down-cut by the major r i v e r s . Due t o l i m i t e d a c c e s s , a l l of t h e communities sampled were s o u t h of F o r t N e l s o n between t h e P r o p h e t and F o r t N e l s o n R i v e r s except f o r p l o t 12 w h i c h was. l o c a t e d between t h e j u n c t i o n of the P e t i t o t R i v e r and F o r t Simpson W i n t e r T r a c t o r T r a i l near t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s b oundary. The Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s of the Lodgepole P i n e -K i n n i k i n n i c k - L i c h e n a s s o c i a t i o n are the most h i g h l y l e a c h e d s o i l s of t h e s t u d y s i n c e t h e y a r e composed of c o a r s e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s i n s h e d d i n g t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a l l o w s f o r easy movement and l o s s of water and i o n s from t h e s o i l . These s o i l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s (C.E.C.) due m a i n l y t o the h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of sand t h r o u g h o u t the p r o f i l e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e s o i l s have v e r y low base s a t u r a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e h i g h l y l e a c h e d . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , t h e average C.E.C. of the Bm h o r i z o n was 5 . 3 0 m i l l i e q u i v a l e n t p e r 100 grams of s o i l (meq/lOOg) w i t h o n l y a base s a t u r a t i o n o f 12.8% w h i c h i n d i c a t e s an i m p o v e r i s h e d s o i l . E q u i v a l e n t average f i g u r e s f o r B t h o r i z o n s of O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of t h e Aspen - White. Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n lob-ar e a C.E.C. of 16.0 meq/lOOg and a base s a t u r a t i o n of 70.7%. Exchangeable c a t i o n s i n t h e Bm are t h e r e f o r e , v e r y low when compared t o the B t . Average v a l u e s of exchangeable c a t i o n s i n meq/lOOg of the Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l ' s Bm a r e : Ca, ,.kk; Mg, .13; k, .08 w h i c h r e p r e s e n t o n l y 5*9%, 3.8$, and 19.0$ of t h e r e s p e c t i v e average v a l u e s of the Bt of O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s of t h e mesic Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n . S i m i l a r t r e n d s , though not as v i s i b l e , a r e apparent i n the o t h e r h o r i z o n s . A l l i a n c e 3 P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n marianae Annas et K r a j i n a £this a l l i a n c e i s comparable w i t h t h e a l l i a n c e , named D i c r a n o ( p o l y s e t i ) - P i n o ( c o n t o r t a e ) -P i c e i o n marianae R e v e l e t K r a j i n a 1972, w h i c h i s s t i l l d i s t i n c t and o c c u r r i n g i n t h e S u b - B o r e a l S p r u c e ZoneJ. S o i l s of t h e P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - P i c e i o n marianae range f r o m O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s ( f r o m a c i d p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s ) t o B r u n i s o l s , G l e y s o l s and F i b r i s o l s . V e g e t a t i o n of t h e a l l i a n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i V a c c i n i u m membranaceum P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s  V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t osum H e r z o g i e l l a t u i r f ace a 105 Two plant associations belong to the a l l i a n c e pleurozio (schreberi) - Piceion marianae (plant associations 5 and 6)0 . PLANT ASSOCIATION 5 BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS Ptilio (cristae-castrensis) — Hylocomio (splendentis ) - Pleurozio (schreberi) - Piceetum marianae Characteristic Combination of Species Layer Constants (presence > 60JO * characteristic Characteristic non - constants ^  II Tree Picea mariana Pinus contorta "Shrub Ledum groenlandicum Herb Cornus canadensis Vaccinium vitis-idaea Moss Pleurozium schreberi Hylocomlum splendens Ptilium crista-castrensis Peltigera aphthosa Table 20 BUCK SPRUCE - HOSS P t l l l o ( c r i s t a - c a a t r e n s l s ) -Hylocomio (splendentis) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - PIceoturn marianae Plot Ho. 1 5 6 9 17 23 36 54 10 38 24 49 79 Elevation In 11 660 " 370 630 Voo 390 1070 580 500 430 390 1060 480 latitude 58° 51 ' 58° 4 5 ' 58° 51 ' 58° 3 8 ' 58° 47 58° 3 9 ' 58° 53 ' 58° 3 2 ' 58° 38- 58° 4 7 ' 58° 3 9 ' 58° 3 7 ' Longitude 122° 4 9 ' 122° 3 2 ' 122° 5 0 ' 122° 3 0 ' 1 2 / 4 3 124° 11 • 123° 0 ' 122° 41« 122° Uo> 122° 42 > 124° 11 • . 122° 4 0 ' Exposure KM w Sf 8 - 8 8 - H N S - KB Slope Gradient % 12 1 2 1 0 8 i» 0 1 2 10 0 6 Percent coverage Total A 55 65 75 60 60 50 68 80 72 36 60 75 75 *1 2 0 60 45 20 11 15 20 20 15 18 32 10 25 A 2 28 20 20 45 40 30 40 50 60 15 4o 35 30 A 3 18 3 18 20 15 20 20 2 10 25 40 35 Total B W 12 7 8 6 4 13 2 18 ' 6 6 17 B l * - 10 1 5 5 3 11 1 6 5 5 11 B 2 4 - 5 1 5 3 2 3 2 14 2 2 12 C 2 l 20 5 ' 3 13 2 3 '. 14 24 60 2 64 Dh 56 80 85 73 : 75 78 55 • 89 89 . 64 65 76 80 Dv 30 14 8 20 12 10 30 1 5 17 16 10 3 Plot Coverage % U t t e r 86 80 86 75 75 90 65 91 90 74 88 . 82 81 Decaying Wood 6 16 ' 7 20 7 2 35 1 5 21 2 10 11 mineral S o i l - - • - • - - - - - - • - -Rock - - - - - - - - - -Hygrotope (Xeric) - subhygric Trophotope Oligotrophia - submesotrophlo i" Parent Material Voralnal Lacustrine F l u v U l Table 21 BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS IPLEUROZIUM-HYLOCOMIUM-PTILIUM) BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER 1 O O l 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 6 1 0 0 9 1 0 1 7 1 0 2 3 1 0 3 6 | 0 5 4 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 8 1 0 2 4 1 0 4 9 1 0 7 9 1 j 1 1 1 I 1 ST NO. S P E C I E S S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR P MS RS A l A2 A3 B l 1 P I N U S CONTORTA 2 P I C E A MARIANA 3 P I C E A GLAUCA 4 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 5 L A R I X L A R I C I N A 6 A B I E S L A S I C C A R P A 7 POPULUS EALSAMIFERA P I C E A MARIANA PINUS CONTORTA POPULUS TREMULOIOES 6 BETULA P A P Y R I F E R A L A R I X L A R I C I N A P I C E A GLAUCA POPULUS 8AL SAM IFERA 9 BETULA RES I N I F E R A A B I E S LASIOCARPA P I C E A MARIANA PINUS CONTORTA BETULA P A P Y R I F E R A A B I E S LASIOCARPA BETULA RES IN 1FERA L A R I X L A R I C I N A P I C E A GLAUCA P I C E A MARIANA 10 ALNUS C R I S P A A B I E S L A S I C C A R P A 11 S A L I X S C C U L E R l A N A PINUS CCNTORTA 12 S A L I X EEBBIANA 13 BETULA GLANOLLOSA BETULA R E S I N I F E R A POPULUS TREMULOIOES P I C E A GLAUCA B2 14 LEOUM GROENLANDICUM 15 ROSA A C I C U L A R I S A B I E S LASIOCARPA P I C E A MARIANA 16 VIBURNUM EOULE ALNUS C R I S P A POPULUS TREMULOIOES 13.214 15.215 21 . I 21 . I I 2.21 2 1 6 . 2 1 6 12.2 14 I . I I . I 12.21 2 1 5 . 2 1 5 11.11 I 3.21 2 1 3 . 2 1 2 I . I 12.21 I . I 2 1 1 . 2 1 • 21 . I* 12.11 I l . l l II . I 21 . I 2 14.2 I I . 14 I . II 15.21 I . I I . 12 217 21 , 14 I 1 I I 2 1 8 I I 1 1 .21 + 2 1 5 . 2 1 1 I . I I . I* I . I I . I 11.01 I . 11 214 I .11* .11 .21 I 2 1 1 . 2 1 1 112.2 11 I 1.11 I . II I • I • I . I * 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 4 . 2 1 5 . 13.21 . 13 21 .21 I 13.21 13.21 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 . 1 6 . 2 1 2 . 2 1 6 2.21 . 14.21 I I I I . . 2 1 5 . 2 1 6 . 2 1 4 . 14.21 . 15 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I I . I I . 13. I I . I . I I . I . I 1.214. 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 3.21 . 1 . 1 • I . I . 14 . I . I . 13 . I . 12.11 1.21 . 1 . 1 +.21 . 1 . 1 5.211.21 1.21 . I 1.2I+.2 I 1.2|1.21 • .2 1 . I I . I 1.21 . 12.21 21 1 69.2 4.9 3-7 1 61.5 4.5 1-7 1 38.5 2.9 2-4 1 30.8 1. S 1-4 1 15.4 2.2 1-5 1 7.7 • .0 2-2 1 7.7 • . c 2-2 1 92.3 6.1 3-8 1 46.2 4. 2 2-6 1 30.8 1.6 • -4 1 23.1 1.0 • -3 1 15.4 1.4 • -4 1 15.4 • .3 1-2 1 15.4 • .C +—• 1 7.7 • .8 3-3 1 7.7 • .0 2-2 1100.0 5.2 1-6 1 23.1 2. 8 1-5 1 23.1 • .2 • -2 1 7.7 • .8 3-3 1 7.7 • . E 3-3 1 7.7 • .0 1-1 1 7.7 *.C 1-: 1 92 . 3 3.2 *-4 1 30.8 1. 2 • -3 1 15.4 • .3 1-2 1 7.7 1.3 4-4 1 7.7 • .6 3-3 1 7.7 • .8 3-3 1 7.7 • .0 2-2 1 7.7 • .C 2-2 1 7.7 • .C 1-1 1 7.7 + .C 1 76.9 3.u .-5 1 53.B 2.C • -4 1 38.5 2.C • -4 1 3 8 . 5 • .8 i - I 1 38.5 • .2 — 1 1 30.8 l . o •-4 1 30 . 6 ».4 - - Z o CO Table 22 BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS IPLEUROZIUN-HYLOCCMIUM-PTlLIUM) BOREAL t - H I T E £ BLACK SPRUCE ZCNE PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER 1001100510061009101710231036 10541010 018I024I049I079I 1 1 1 1 1 I ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIF ICANCE ANO VIGOR P M J RS 17 VACCINIUM MEMBRANACEUK I . I . I . I . 1 . 14.21 . 1 . 1 . . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 1.4 1-4 IB VACCINIUM CAESPITOSUM I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . I * . 2 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 1 • -? 19 VACCINIUK ULIGINCSUH 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 15.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 2 . 2 5 -5 SALIX SCOULERI ANA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 • . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . C 2-2 BETULA GLANOULOSA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • .C 1-1 BETULA RESINIFERA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I .- 1 • . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • . 0 1-1 20 RIBES LACUSTRE I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 * . c • -• 21 SALIX NCVAE-ANGLIAE I . I . I . I . I * . l l . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 *.C • - • 22 SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS I . I . I . I . I * . 2 | . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . C » - . C 23 CORNUS CANAOENSIS 1 3 . 12. 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 1 1.21 4.21 1.21 3 . 2 1 4 . 4. 2 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 214. 21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3 .8 1-4 24 VACCINIUM VITIS-IDAEA 12. I . 1 3 . 2 1 * . 11 .213 .211.21 2 . 2 1 1 . 4 .218.21 . 16.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 84.6 4 . 7 • - 8 25 LINNAEA BOREALIS I . I . 13.21 . 11.21 . 1 . . 13. I*.21 . I * . 2 l * . 2 I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 4 6 . 2 1.4 »-3 26 GECCAULON LIVIOUM 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 • 1*.211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1* .213 .21* .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 46 .2 1.1 • - 3 27 PYROLA SECUNDA I . I . I . 1*. 1 . 11.21 . *.2 1 . l * . 2 l . 1* .211.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 4 6 . 2 • .3 • - i 28 EOUISETUM SCIRPQIOES 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 11.21 . I*.2 * . 2 I 1 . l * . 2 l . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 38 .5 * . 2 • - 1 29 LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM 1 . 1 . 1 3 . 1•• 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 12.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .8 1.2 • - 3 30 EMPETRUM NIGRUM I . I . I . I . 1 . I*.21*.2 • 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .8 «. 1 • - 1 31 HABENARIA CRBICULATA I . I . I . I * . I . i . i . i . 1 •. 1.21 . I * . 2 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .8 • . 0 • -1 32 EOUISETUM SYLVATICUM 1 . I * . l l . 1*. I . I . I . * .2 l . . 1 . I * . 2 l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .0 * . c • -* 33 GOODYERA REPENS I . 1 . 1' . 1 . I . I . I . • .2 1 . 1 . I * . 2 I * . 2 I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 23 .1 * . c • - T 34 PYROLA CHLORANTHA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 •• • .21 . I * . 2 | . . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 23 .1 • . c • -• 35 LYCOPODIUM COMPLANATUM I . I . I . • 1 • 1.2 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 3 1-2 36 CALAMAGRCSTIS CANAOENSIS 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 *. I . I . I . • 1 • 11.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • -1 37 MITELLA NUOA I . I . I . I * . I . i . i . . 1 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15 .4 * . c • -1 38 VIOLA RENIFOLIA I . I . I . I * . I . I . 1 . . 11. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15 .4 « . c • - 1 39 EPILQ8IUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM I . I . I . I . i . i . I* .2 . 1 . I*.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • - • 40 LATHYRUS OCHROLEUCUS I . I . I . I . I . I . I*.21 . 1 *. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 * . c 41 MERTENS I A PANICULATA 1 . 1 . 1 . 1*. I . I . I . . 1 *. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 * . o • - • 42 EOUISETUM ARVENSE I . I . I . I . I . I • 1 • 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . 0 l - l 43 MAI ANT HEMUM CANAOENSE I . I . I . 1 . I . I . I . . 1 • 11.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . c 1-1 44 CORALLCRHIZA TRIFIOA I . I . I . I . I . I . I , . • .21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • . 0 45 FRAGARIA VIRGINI ANA I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 *. . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • . c • -• 46 HONES ES UN I FLORA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 •. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 + . 0 + - • 47 PETASI TES PALMATUS-- I . I . I . I . 1*.2I . 1 . • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • . 0 • - • 48 PYROLA ASARIFOLIA I . I . I . I . I . I . I . . 1 • •.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 *. c • -* 49 RUEUS PUBESCENS I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7 .7 • . 0 • -• OH 50 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 16. IS. 16. 17. 17. 17. 16. 7. 15. 17. 17. 13. IS. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 7 .2 3-8 51 HYLOCOMIUH SPLENOENS 1 8 . 14. 16. 16. 15. 16. 15. 6. 1 8. 15. 17. IB. 15. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 6 .9 4 -8 52 PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 14. 15 . 16. 17. |4 . | 4 . 15. 5 . 1 4 . 4 . 14. 13 . 14. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 5 .2 3 -7 53 PELTIGERA APHTHOSA 13 . 11 . 1 . 1*. 14. 11. 13. 4 . 11. 13. 14. 11 . 14. I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 9 2 . 3 3.4 * - 4 54 PELTIGERA CANINA I . I . I . I . 13 . 1 . 1* . 1. 1 . . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 30.8 1.0 • -3 55 PELTIGERA HALACEA I . I . I . 1 . 1*. 11 . 1 . 1. 1 . . 1 * . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 30.8 *. 1 • -1 56 PTILIOIUM PULCHERRIMUM 1 • 1 • 1 . . 1 *. I*. 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .8 4.0 *-• 57 CLAOINA MITIS I . I . I . I . I . i . i • • . 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . I*. I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 23.1 • .0 • -• 58 CLAOINA RANGIFERINA I*. I . I . I . i * . I . I . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 * . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 23.1 «.c *-• 59 OREPANCCLAOUS UNCINATUS 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . I . I . I . . 1 • I*. 1 . I*. I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 23.1 4.0 • -• o T a b l e 22 (continued) BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS IPLEUROZIUM-HYLOCOMIUM-PTILIUM) BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER 10011005100610091017102310361054 1010 O l B l 0 2 4 | 0 4 9 079 1 1 I I i i i ST NO, SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIF CANCE ANO V GOR p MS RS 60 PCHLIA NUTANS , # 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 •• • • 1 . 1 . • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 23.1 «.o • - • 61 PELTIGERA POLYDACTYLA j . i . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . I . I . I 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 15.4 • . 0 1-1 62 AULACCMN IUM PALUSTRE 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 . + . 1 . 1 . • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . c • -• 63 OICRANUM ACUTIFCLIUM 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 • • . 1 . 1 . • • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • -• 64 DICRANLM FUSCESCENS | . i . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . « 1 • • . 1 • 11 • • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 15.4 • . C • -• 65 HERZOGI ELLA TUR-FACEA 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . • 1 •• . 1 . 1 . • . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • - • 66 BARBILGPHG2IA HATCHER I 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . +. i . i , i . i • 1 • 1 . 1 7 . 7 • . 0 • -• 67 BARBILQPHOZIA LYCOPOOIOIOES | . i . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • . 1 . 1 . • . i . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 7 . 7 • .C • - + 68 BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS I . j . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . > 1 . 1 . 1 . . i . i . i . i • . 0 • - • 69 BRACHYTHECIUM REFLE XUM I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 + . . 1 . 1 . • i . l . l . l • 1 . i . t 7 . 7 + . 0 + -• 70 CAMPYLIUM HISPIDULUM j . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . | . + . 1 . 1 . . I . I . I . I • 1 • 1 • 1 7 . 7 • . 0 • - + 71 CERATOOCN PURPUREUS I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 • • • I . I . ! . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • . c • -• 72 CLADINA ABERRANS I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 •. 1 . . 1 . 1 . . I . l . l . l • 1 . 1 • 1 7 . 7 • . C • -• 73 CLADINA ARBUSCULA I . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 • . I . I . •• I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7 .7 • . c • 74 CLAOONIA BACILLARIS j . i . 1 • 1•• 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . 0 • -• 75 CLAOGNIA CORNUTA 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 • • 1 • 1•• . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . c • -• 76 CLAOCNIA GRACILIS | , i . 1 . 1 . 1 + • 1 . 1 . . 1 • . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7 .7 • . 0 • -• 77 CLAOONIA MULTIFORMIS I . i . 1 • 1 • 11 • • 1 • 1 • . 1 . . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • . 0 • -• 78 OICRANUM UNDULATUM 1 • i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 . . 1 . 1•• . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • . C • -• 79 JAMESON I ELLA AUTUMNALIS 1 • i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7 .7 • . 0 • - . 80 L0PH0ZIA VENTRICOSA j . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . • I . I . • . I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7.7 • . 0 • -. 81 NEPHROMA ARCTICUM | . i . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . • • I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7.7 • . c • -• 82 NEPHRCMA RESUPINATUM I . t • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • . 0 • -• 83 POHLIA CRUDA 1 . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 . . . I . I . • I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7.7 • .C • - • 84 POHLIA ELONGATA | . i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • • 1 . + . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7 .7 • . 0 • - • 85 POL YTRICHLM JUNIPERINUM I . i . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . + .1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 t^O 86 OW TRITOMARIA EXSECTIFORMIS 1 • i • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . • . I . l . l . l • I . I . I 7 .7 • . 0 +-• PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 1 4 . 15. 13 . 14. | 4 . 14. 14. 1 3 . 1 1. 5 . 15 . 13 . • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 t • - • - 5 PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 1 3 . 1 3 . 14. 14. 12. 13. 13. • . 1 3. 3 . 14. 11. •. 1 . 1 . I . I • I . I . I 100.0 3.4 • - 4 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS 14. 11 . 13. 14. 13 . 1 1 . 13 . 1 2 . 1 1. 2 . 14. 13. • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3 .3 • - 4 OICRANUM FUSCESCENS I*. 1 • • I*. I*. I . I . I*. 1 . 1 • • . 1 . ! • • • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 61 .5 • .1 • - + PTILIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM 1 + • 1 • 1 11 1 • • 1 « 1+ • . 1 . . 1 • 1+• • • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 53 .8 • .0 • -• POHLIA NUTANS | . | . 1 1 •• 1 • 1 • 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 * . • . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 38 .5 • . 0 • -• OREPANOCLAOUS UNCINATUS j + . 1 . 1 + • I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . + . 1 . 1 . . I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 - 30 .8 • . C • -• JAKESCNI ELLA AUTUMNALIS 1 • . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 • 1•• . 1 . . 1 . I*. • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 30 .8 • . 0 • -• CLADONIA GRACILIS | , | . 1 • 1•• 1 • 1 • 1•• 1 •. 1 . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I 23.1 • . 0 • -• PELTIGERA APHTHOSA j . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12. • 1 . I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 15.4 *.3 1-2 OICRANUM ACUTIFCLIUM 12. I . 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 • . • 1 . • 1 . 1 • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 15.4 • .1 • - 2 PELTIGERA MALACEA I . I . 1 . 1 . 1*. 11. 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 . • I . l . l . l . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • -1 87 BLEPHARCSTOMA TRICHOPFYLLUM BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS J ; 1: 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. • I*. • l + . + . 1 . 1 . i l l ! . ' ! . ' I • I . I . I 15.4 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 + . 0 *- • • -• 88 CEPHAL OZI ELL A OIVARICATA CLAOONIA BACILLARIS ! ; i • . 1 . 1 • . 1 • 1 . 1». ; j *. . ' i l l . * ; \ ; { i | ; j . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • . 0 • -• • - • 89 CLADONIA CONIOCRAEA CLAOONIA CORNUTA i * « j: 1• • 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 1 • : |; ; ', ; j; :',:!:!: ] • I . I . I 15.4 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . C «.o • -• •- • 90 CLADONIA SQUAMOSA i . i . 1 •. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . . I . I . . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . 0 • -• 91 DICRANUM FRAG ILIF0LIUM i . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 • 1 . . j . i + . . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . C • -• 92 OICRANUM TAURICUM i • i • . I . I • • I . I . I . I 1 1 . . I . I . . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 4 . 0 • - • T a b l e 22 (continued) BLACK SPRUCE - MOSS t PLEUROZIUM-HYLOC0MIUM-PTILIUM) BOREAL WHITE t BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PACE 4 PLOT NUMIICR f 0011 0031 006100VI 0171 02310361 OH I 010 ST NO S P E C I E S SPECIES S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR p MS RS OICRANUM UNCULATUM , m t , |+ . | . 1 . 1 . 1 > 1 •, 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 15.4 • • C • - , HERZOGIELLA TURFACEA 1 . i . 1 4. i i . . 1 . 1 . 1 , j , i1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 ..0 4-4 93 L E P I C O Z I A REPTANS I « i . 1 • i »• i , 1 a I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 i 1 , , 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • . c 4-4 94 T E T R A P H I S PELLUCIOA | . i . 1 . i *• i , 1 . 14. 1 . j . l . j , j . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 15.4 • .0 4- 4 P E L T I G E R A POLYDACTYLA | . i . 1 . i , i . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 > 1 • I . I I . I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 • • C 1-1 4-4 95 ALECTORI A SARMENTOSA j . i . 1 . i . i . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , j , I . I . I . I . 1 • I . I . I 7.7 • . c 96 BARB ILOPHOZIA BARBATA i . j . i . I . I . I , 1 , 1 . 1 , 1*. I . I . I . I • I . I . I 7.7 «,o 4-4 97 BR AC HYTHECIUM SALEBROSUM i . 1 , i . j . I . I . I . l + . j . l , | , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 7.7 c 4-4 CAMPYLIUM HISPIOULUM i , 1 . i , | . I . I . I . 1 , 1 . 1 , 1 4, I . I . I 1 1 • I . I . I 7.7 • .c 4.0 4—4 98 C E P H A L G Z I A A F F I N I S j . i . 1 . i . 1 • 1•• 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , j , 1 . 1 . 1 * 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 4-4 99 CETRARIA ISLANOICA | . i . 1 . i . 1 • 14. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 •c 4.0 4 — 4 100 CETRARIA P I N A S T R I I . j . 1 • i . I .' |4. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , | , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • I . I . I 7.7 4-4 101 CLADONIA DEFORMIS 1 4. i . 1 . i . | . . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 . I . I 7.7 4.0 4 — 4 102 CLACONIA DIGITATA *• i . 1 . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 4.0 4-4 103 CLADONIA FIMBRIATA I . i . 1 » i , j . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , l + . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • I . I . I 7.7 4.0 4- 4 104 CLADONIA OCHROCHLORA | . i . 1 . i . 1 I+. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , I . I . I . I 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 4.0 4 — 4 105 DICRANUM MUEHLENBECK11 j . i . 1 . i . 1 *• 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 , I*. I . I . I . I • I . I . I 7.7 4. C 4-4 106 DICRANUM POLYSETUM  . i . 1 . i . 1 . 1•• 1 , | . | , | , j . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I 7.7 4.0 4-4 107 ICMACOPHILA ERICETORUH | . i . 1 . i , | . I . I . I . I*. I . I , | , I . I . I 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 4.C 4.0 4 — . 108 LOPHOCOLEA HETEROPHYLLA i + • 1 . i . 1 . I . I . I • I . I . I . 1 . I . I . I . I • I . I . I 7.7 4- 4 109 LOPHOZIA LONGIOENS | . 1 . i . 1 • I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 , I . I . I . I 1 . 1 . I . I 7.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4-4 110 MN IUM SPINULOSUM NEPHROMA RESUPINATUM i : J v ! *. I: 1 i : ! : ! . l . i . i : 1:1: i : ! : ! . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 . 1 . 1 . 1 7.7 4-4 01UI024I049 0791 T a b l e 22 ( c o n t i n u e d ) TUIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ll-KALTION <2HM) TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINF (1971) Page 1 PLOT 1 ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAMNO HORIZON SAM. DEPTH (CM.) PH H20 CM. X 1- 1 LFH 1-2 AE 1- 3 AB 005-000 000-009 C09-022 4.4 e7.9 3.9 2.7 ,3 1.3 T T.C X 51.00 1.54 0.75 TOT.N X 0 .60 0. 08 0.09 SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM CAT. MG C/N FAT I O P PM65.0 056 19.3 019 8.3 015 EXCH . CA... 10.00 0. 50 1 .00 MEO/100 GM NA _ .. .K 1.75 0.0 1.62 0.23 0.04 0.30 .72 0.04 0.35 C.E.C. BASE MEO/100 SAT GM X COLOR . DRY. MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC .. 104.00 1 2.00 12.50 13.0 8.9 16.9 10YR71 10YR42 26 57 15 SIL 10YR63 10YR54 19 37 42 C 622-044 S T I T T T " 0 .73 6. 1 012 0.25 0.60 0.05 10YR63 10YR44 19 34 46 C PLOT " e - C T X f L O v r s o T - TCT.N X BUCKINGHORSE TER  A* I N SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM C/N RATIO PM ""HcT C.E.C MEQ/lOO BASE SAT DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 5-0 LFH 010-000 3.9 91 .0 52.80 0 .92 57. 4 124 20.00 3.87 0. 0 1 .50 68. 00 37.5 5- 1 AE 000-012 s- 2" DTG" 012-04 6" I ."1~" 0.-6 0 •07 " 9; 4 005' "" 8.50 4.87 0 . 0 0.40 "~ "" IS . 50 '"" 89.4"" 10YR63 10YR44" 5-3 C KG 046- » 7.7 I .8 1.03 c .08 12. 9 003 12.62 6. 37 0.04 0. 35 13. SO 100.0 10YR51 10YR32 4 "PLOT 6" G L E Y E D " ORTHIC GRAY" LOV1'SOL"" S A " NO HORIZON SAM. OFPTH PH H2C CM. X TOT.C X TOT .N X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM. EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C/N RATIO PPM C .E.C MEQ/lOO BASE SAT COLOR TEXTURE DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 6- 0 6- 1 6- "Z" 6- 3 LFH AE "BT"  CGJ ( CM. ) 010-000 000-0 14 "01 4~0 50~ 063- • 3.7 4. 1 " " J r r r e t . o 2.2 "lTf"" 3.1 49.90 1.2S ~0T94~ 1 .37 0.07 "0.17" 0.15 36.4 202 17. 9 052 ' 5.5 Oil" 12.0 023 15.00 1.00 "0.25 0.12 " N X " 3.00 00 2.62 0.39 0.04 0.3  "0.29 0. 05 0. 35" 0.33 0.05 0.34 GM 76.00 13.00 ""16.70"15.80 27. 1 13.4 5.6"' 5.3 10YR62 10YR42 18 60 20 SIL "V0YRS3 10YR56 2619 53"C~ 10YR41 10YR31 6 39 54 C PLOT 9GLEYCO ORTHIC GRAY.LUVISOL SA M N O " HORIZON SAM. PH"DEPTH H 2 0 " ( C M . ) CM. TOT.C TOT .N v — • BUCKINGHORSE TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM CA MG NA K C/N "TAT 10 P "PPM * 9- 2 9- 3 CKG AEJ 000-0 10 OTJG 010-037 4.6 "77TT 2.A I .7 . 1.6 1 . 381 .C0~ 0.06 0.09 ' 23.0 004Tl.1 07"  7.50 T2Y50"" 15.7 004 12.25 2.37 0 .05 0. 20 "3766" 0~."06 0T2S~ 2.47 0.77 0.19 C.E.C "HEO/lOO" GM 16.20 — i " 9 T T c r — BASE "SAT" X -62.5 "3 T6~ 98.6 COLOR : DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC I 0YR53 10YR42 30 40 28 CL TO Y R"5~2 rOYR~4"2 3"4~2"7~3 6~CC 10R62 10YR42 22 46 31 CL PLOT IT GLEYEO EUTR1C ORUNISOL SA M HOR IZON CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM TJTJ- DEPTH ( C M . ) PH T r r r r O.M. TOT. X x ~ TOT .N x /N "fTATitr p . -ppvr EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM CA 17- 1 L F 013-006 3.5 e9 . o 51.60 0. 95 54. 3 .58 _18.73_ 2.25 • 17-2 H 0 06-" OOO'-17- 3 AH 000-007 .6 17.9 10.40 0 . 45 23. 1 38 56.25 8.62 17- 4 I1MKGJ007-049 7.7 0.7 0. 38 0. 03 12. 7 3 4.07 1 . 19 1 7- CKG1 040-063 8.0 0.7 0.40 C. 04 10. 0 <! 1 1.62 0.91 17- a CKG2 0o0-089 7.9 2.2 1.29 0 . 09 14. 3 003 12.37 1 .24 CO TJT0"2" i .7s; o.o 0.05 0. 1 1 " e r r C.E.C. GM 1 17.00 66. 00 4.40 3.60 " T T J O -HASE ~"s"A"f—" X _ . I..?. A_ 98.3 1 00 .0 100.0 TTJCTT 10YR31 10YR11 10YR52 10YR33 10YR64 10YR43 XS XSI XC 5813 23 SCL 78 10 10 SL I 0 YRS'2-1 0 YR32 5"2 2 7 19 SL * ••pL0r"2"3Ta.'rvCD""T3rGH'ATJ rC-TJWORl SBC-SAM NO 23- 023- 1 "23--2~ 23- 3 23- 4 HORIZON SM,DEPTH PH H20 O.M. X TOT.C X TOT ,N X C / N PAT I0 P PM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/lOO GM 012-000 000-0 12 LFH A HE -rjMGX-oT2"-o"3cr OMGJ 030-076 CG 076- + 3.9 et , 1 7' 4.1 3.8 fv 49.90 1.76 —079 V 0.32 0.74 0 ,91 0, 13 "0". TO"  0 ,06 0. 10 54.8 110 13.5 020 —V74~01'6 8,7 025 7.4 03 7 — P S — r n r 3.29 0.0 0.68 0.0 -0.50 " 0.05"" 0.46 0.05 0.34 0.03 C . E . C . MEO/100 GM CASE SAT X 1.25 0.20 0. 17" 0.12 0.16 124.  11.3 15.60 13. 1 —i4V oo T2;3-12.10 12.4 10.00 16.8 D R" Y XS XSI XC" 10YR52 10YR32 _ _ " 10YR6 n o YR4 2 2 5 ~ S T T T 3 - C L 10YR63 10YR42 59 23 16 SL 10YR62 10YR41 39 34 23 L SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (FR7f?"tlON <TMMl . TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) D ° R E A S P R U C E t Z O N E L A C K Page 2 PLOT 36 GLEYEO ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAV NO HORIZON SAM. PH OfP TH H2Q CM. TOT.C X X TOT.N ' X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C/N PAT I O P PPM (CM. ) CA VZ NA X 36- I LFH OlC-000 3.7 e6.0 49.90 . 0.90 55.4 156 15.00 2.75 0.0 1.87 36- 2 AS 001-005 4.2 3.B 2.20 0.40 5.5 C32 9.50 4,17 0.V 0.72 36- 3 AEGJ 005-023 4.6 4.6 2.67 0.15 17.8 015 6.50 2.10 0.05 0.37 36- 5 OTG 023-048 5.2 C.9 0.S2 0.06 8.7 004 8.50 3.30 0.03 0.27 36- 7 CG 046- • 6,3 1.1 0.66 0.04 16.S 005 12,75 4.62 0,07 0.25 C.E.C. MEO/100 146.00 24.70 16. 20 15.70 20.80 BASE SAT T T R Y COLOR "HOIST ~XS XSI XC 13.5 S8.5 55.7 77. 1 85,1 10YR32 10YR21 10YR62 10YR42 18 31 29 SICL 10YR63 10YR53 33 32 33 CL 10YR52 10YR42 22 35 41 C •PLOT 54 PEATY PHASE RE GO HUMIC GLEYSOL SAX NO HOR IZON SAM. DEPTH (CM,) PH H20 CM. X TOT.C X TOT ,N X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA MG NA K C/N RATI O P PPM C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM OASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC 54- C OFl 02 1-0 16 3. 7 54. 0 54. SO 1.25 43. 6 78' 26.25 10.75 0. 0 2. 00 87.00 45. 1 54- 1 OF2 016-010 5. 1 92. 1 53.40 1.16 46. 0 54 8.75 6. 50 0. 0 0. 75 106.00 15.3 54- 2 OM 010-000 6. 3 92. 1 53.40 0.93 57. 4 014 ' 76.25 15.87 0. 0 0. 0 141.00 65.4 54- 3 AH 000-015 7. 2 2.6 1.51 0.08 I 8. 9 005 12.50 3.62 0. 05 0. 20 19. 70 83.1 10YR53 54- 4 CKG Oli.- + 7. 8 1.5 0.86 0.07 12. 3 C02 13.00 3.OS 0. 05 0. 35 19.00 86.6 10YR63 9 63 22 SIL 2 86 10 SI PLOT 10 HUM IC ELUVI AT LO GLEYSOL SAC NO HORIZON SAM. OLPTH (CM.) PH H20 CM. .. X 10-_L0; 10- 2 10- 3 LFH A HE: olo-ooo 000-026 BTG CKG 026-050 050- • 5.5 87 S.81C T T 2 OVET 1 .2 TOT.C X SO.SO 6.21 CHUATS~E_TBRRTrN_SYrTE*( EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM CA MG NA K C/N RATIO P PPM ~<S7V6~ 0.71 1 .45 0 .40 -0T0'4-34.8 100 47.50 15.5 084 8.37 - n T 5 ~ 0 r Z 6T03-8.9 004 1 1.25 9.67 0.0 1.89 0.22 1.25 0.29 "2T49 0.11 o. rs -J.eO 0.20 0.25 C.E.C, MEO/100 GM 138.00 36.00 16. 40 DASE SAT X 42.7 29. 9 COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC •"V5T6-94.5 10YR42 10YR21 16 47 3S SICL TT5Y53 2.5^ 42 56~37 6 " SC » 2.5YS2 2.5Y32 21 48 29 CL • PLOT 18 DEGRADED DYSTRIC ORUNISOL SAM HORIZON SAM. PH CM. TOT.C TOT.N CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM 18- I 18- 2 1 8- 3 I 8- « J.S—\-H LPH ' AC ' UM BMK CK OLPTH (CM. ) 007-000 000-015 01 5-062 062-085 OBS-124 C/N "TTATTO PPH~ EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM 3.7 92.9 4. 1 1.4 5.2 0.4 7.6 C.3 8.0 0.2 S3.90 0. 82 0.21 0.19 0. I I 0 .74 0. 03 0.01 0.01 0.01 72.8 102 27. 3 003 21.0 054 19.0 006 11. 0 003 CA I 3.00 1.25 1.88 4.50 .00 MG NA 3.62 0.0 0.23 0.02 0.31 0.02 0.47 0.02 0.33 0,02 2.37 0.06 0. 09 0.02 0.02 -WEO/TUT" GM 158.00 4.50 3. 50 0. 80 0.90 "SAT X 13.3 34.9 65.5 100.0 100.0 COLOR TEXTURE XS XSI XC 7.5YR62 10YR42 56 18 25 SCL 7.5YR53 7.5YR43 73 10 16 SL 7.5TR53 7.5YR42 96 3 0 S 10YR62 I0YR52 90 3 5 S T a b l e 23 ( c o n t i n u e d ) SOIL CHEUICAL AkiAuYSIS (FRAcTloN ibnd\ TERRAIN SYSTEM AFTER VALENTINE (1971) PLOT 24 ORTHIC HUM0-FE9RICPCD20L (TENT.) OOREAL WHITE t ULACK SPRUCE ZONE SAM NC HORIZON SAM. OLPTH ( C . M . I PH H2U CM. TOT.C X X TOT.N C/N P ,t . RATIO PPM 24- 1 LFH 013-000 • 3. 5 91 .0 52.80 1 . 09 48. 4 096 2 4 - 2 AE 000-0 10 4. 0 1.3 0.7B 0. 05 15. 6 014 24- 3 UF 1 010-023 A. 5'  .6 0.95 0. 06 15. 8 021 24- 4 • F2 023-05S 3. 8 0.9 0.50 0. 06 8. 3 008 24- 6 C 055- + 4 . 7 0. 8 0.46 0. 05 9. 2 022 EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C.E.C. BASE ME 0/100 SAT CA MG NA K GM X 10.00 3.87 0.0 1.37 110.00 14.1 0.37 0.22 0.0 0.12 8.80 6.7 0.25 0.16 0.04 0.15 9.30 6.4 ,0.50 0.34 0.0 0.17 9.10 11.5 1.25 0.65 0.0 0.10 9.30 21.8 Page 3 COLOR 10YR71.10YR61 10YR64 I0YR54 10YH63 10YR63 10YR52 10YR42 XS XSI XC 32 45 22 L PLOT 49 DE GRADED DYSTRIC BRUNISOL SAM ' NO H O R I Z O N " SAM. DEPTH (CM. ) •PH~ H20 C_.M; X "TOT;C"' X TOT.N X CHUATSE TERRAIN SYSTEM 4 9- C L T H -49- 1 AE 49- 2 BM 49- 3 C OoE-OGfl 000-011 01 1-053 053- + 4.B 87.9 4.7 2.6 5.6 0.4 7.0 0.8 C/N - p ~ - ""EXCH. CAT MEO/100 GM C.E.C. OAS E RATIO PPM MEO/100 SAT CA MG NA K GM X 46.8 120 30.00"' S.SO 0 .0 2.37 82.00 46.3 21 . 9 007 3.50 0.77 0 .03 0. 15 8.40 53.0 13. 0 003 . 2.75 0.30 0 . 03 0. 12 9.70 33.0 9.0 006 3.50 0.75 0 .0 0.05 14.20 30.3 COLOR OR V MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC 51 .CO 1.53 0.26 0.45 1.86 0.07 0. 02 0.05 10YR7I 10YR51 16 43 35 SICL 10YR64 10YR44 47 19 33 SCL 10YR53 10YR33 50 37 12 L _« PLOT 79 DE GRADED DYSTRIC ORUN1SOL SAM NO 79- 1 79- 2 79- 3 79- 4 HORIZON SAM. PH DEPTH H20 (CM.) LFH AE BM CM. TOT.C X X 010-000 000-0 13 013-053 053-3.9 87.1 4.2 1.3 .7 1.5 50.SO 0.78 0. 86 -5T5T" TOT.N X 1 .28 0.09 0.07 C/N RATIO P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM 39.5 098 8.7 008 12.3 004 T.6 C0~B~ 12.50 0.75 L5_0_ -hi 3.00 O.O 0.35 0.02 0.77 0.02 1 .62 0.05 2. 12 0.15 • 0t3Q 92.00 7. 10 14.20_ 19.3 18.0 1 8.3 COLOR TEXTURE DRY MOIST. XS XSI XC 10YR71 10YR51 10YR63 10YR43 38 38 23 L -15 20 4.4—C_ 10YR63 10YH54 44 21 34 CL T a b l e 23 ( c o n t i n u e d ) B l a c k Spruce - Moss 115 116 Black Spruce - Moss F i g s . 3k & 35 Above i s Hylocomium splendens, below i s P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s which along w i t h Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i , c h a r a c t e r i z e the moss l a y e r . F i g s . 36 & 37 Above, a moderately w e l l drained Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l . Below, a poorly drained Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l e Both s o i l s support the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . 118 Plant A s s o c i a t i o n 5 Black Spruce - Moss P t i l i o ( c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s ) -Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) - Piceetum marianae B l a c k Spruce - Moss ecosystems are most commonly found on s o i l s of v a r i o u s t e x t u r e s that have impeded drainage, however, they can be found on moderately w e l l drained s i t e s provided the s o i l s are poor i n n u t r i e n t s . On the edatopic g r i d , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on submesic to subhygric hygrbtopes and on o l i g o t r o p h i c to mesotrophic trophotopes. These p l a n t communities have only a few p l a n t s p e c i e s , averaging only 7 species of herbs i n the sample p l o t s . This a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as much by the absence of s p e c i e s , u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g on r i c h e r s o i l s , , as by the presence of plants,., t o l e r a t i n g poor s o i l s . In a l l cases t h i s community has a very w e l l developed moss l a y e r which, along w i t h dense b l a c k spruce i n the tree l a y e r , i s the most conspicuous a t t r i b u t e of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Mor humus, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s s i t e , developing e s p e c i a l l y from b l a c k spruce l i t t e r (and decaying wood), supports r a p i d establishment of the moss l a y e r . 119 V e g e t a t i o n G e n e r a l l y a few t a l l Pinus contorta occur i n the l a y e r whereas the main canopy, the A2» i s dominated by P i c e a mariana which a l s o dominates i n the A3. S c a t t e r e d white spruce, when present, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n the A-^  and A2 l a y e r s and does not seem to t o l e r a t e a suppressed p o s i t i o n under a dense b l a c k spruce canopy (See Table 2 2). The shrub l a y e r i s very poorly developed w i t h an average cover value of the t o t a l B of only 8%. Apart from P i c e a mariana which i s almost always present i n the B^ l a y e r (showing greater shade t o l e r a n c e than white spruce), only Alnus c r i s p a and Abies l a s i o c a r p a occurred i n more than one p l o t . The B2 l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Ledum groenlandicum. g e n e r a l l y w i t h a low species s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e . Rosa  a c i c u l a r i s which i s present i n h a l f the communities examined grows very p o o r l y , and g e n e r a l l y with a low species s i g n i f i c a n c e . Abies l a s i o c a r p a occurred more f r e q u e n t l y i n the Bg l a y e r than did P i c e a mariana. Abies l a s i o c a r p a i s a very shade t o l e r a n t species i n the b o r e a l zone. I t i s capable of germinating and growing under r e l a t i v e l y dense shade. I t s presence i n d i c a t e s that i t could p o s s i b l y become a component of the climax community, however, no stands of b l a c k spruce were found which were old enough to adequately determine s u c c e s s i o n a l development. 120 Cornus canadensis.with an average species s i g n i f i c a n c e value of 3.8, was the only species present i n a l l p l o t s . Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a which was present i n 85$ of the p l o t s had a s l i g h t l y higher average species s i g n i f i c a n c e (*f.7). Linnaea b o r e a l i s , Geocaulon l i v i d u m , P y r o l a secunda and Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s were present i n 1/3 to 1/2 of the communities sampled. Of the above, Cornus canadensis, Linnaea  b o r e a l i s , and P y r o l a secunda are companion s p e c i e s ; Vaccinium  v i t i s - i d a e a and Geocaulon l i v i d u m are order c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species f o r P i c e e t a l i a marianae and Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Black Spruce - S a l i x m y r t i l l i f o l i a -a s s o c i a t i o n . The Black Spruce - Moss l a c k s v a s c u l a r species which are t r u l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the a s s o c i a t i o n 0 The moss l a y e r i s very w e l l developed w i t h Pleurozium  s c h r e b e r i , Hylocomium splendens, and P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s always being present w i t h h i g h average species s i g n i f i c a n c e values (7.2, 6.9, and 5.2 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . P e l t i g e r a aphthosa was present i n 12 of the 13 p l o t s w i t h an average species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3» J + . I t i s the high constancy and h i g h species s i g n i f i c a n e of the above s p e c i e s , w i t h a p o o r l y developed herb and shrub l a y e r , which i d e n t i f i e s the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o the above s p e c i e s , P e l t i g e r a canina, P. malacea, and P t i l i d i u m pulcherrimum are f r e q u e n t l y found i n the moss l a y e r , u s u a l l y w i t h a low species s i g n i f i c a n c e . 121 This p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s common throughout the b o r e a l f o r e s t of Canada (Knapp, 1965) w i t h s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s being described from A l b e r t a (Raup, 1935 and Moss, 1953) t o Newfoundland (Damman, 1964). S o i l s The Black Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on a r e l a t i v e l y wide v a r i e t y of s o i l s w i t h Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s and Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s being the most common. Other s o i l s i n c l u d e Gleyed O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s , Rego Humic G l e y s o l s , Humic E l u v i a t e d G l e y s o l s , and Or t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s . The e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s wide v a r i a t i o n of s o i l s w i l l f o l l o w . A l l the s o i l s examined had very a c i d i c LFH horizons w i t h the pH averaging 3*9 (3«5 - 5*5)• The dense carpet of fea t h e r mosses (Pleuroziurn, Hylocomium, and P t i l i u m ) c o n t r i b u t e to the r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k mor humus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y where t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on moderately w e l l drained s o i l s , s o i l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s i s poor. An example would be the s o i l of p l o t 1 which i s a moderately w e l l drained O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l which 122 has developed from a f i n e textured t i l l . M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s s o i l s t r o n g l y resembles a t y p i c a l mesic O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l of the Aspen - White Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the t e x t u r e or sand, s i l t , and c l a y content being e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l . The C.E.C. of 11.9 of the Bt of p l o t 1 i s w e l l w i t h i n the range of the C.E.C.'s of the mesic O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s , however, the base s a t u r a t i o n of 10.8$ i n p l o t 1 i s only 15% of the average value of 70.7% f o r the Bt horizons of the mesic Aspen - White Spruce. This low base s a t u r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s degradation of the s o i l through p o d z o l i z a t i o n or the e f f e c t of a c i d i c parent m a t e r i a l s . C l a r k and Green (1964) have discussed s i m i l a r L u v i s o l i c s o i l s developed from a c i d parent m a t e r i a l i n the F o r t S t . John area of northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. L i k e w i s e , the moderate.ly w e l l drained Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s (as i n p l o t s 18, *+9, and 79) have r e l a t i v e l y low base s a t u r a t i o n s and low amounts of Ca and Mg. This appears t o i n d i c a t e that l e a c h i n g of s o i l s i s high under a B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n due to the e f f e c t of a c i d humus. A d d i t i o n a l l y , ash a n a l y s i s shows that the moss a s s o c i a t i o n ' s humus has a very low Ca content. The B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n i s more common i n r e c e i v i n g p o s i t i o n s where i t i s subject to water movement 123 from upslopes. Due t o the heavy t e x t u r e of the s o i l s i n the F o r t Nelson area, seepage waters move very s l o w l y and behave more l i k e stagnated water thereby r e s u l t i n g i n slow growing t r e e s . In c o n t r a s t , i n more mountainous areas than i n the r e g i o n of t h i s study, these seepage waters e f f e c t i v e l y i n c rease the n u t r i e n t content of the s o i l s producing h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s i t e s . P r o v i d i n g seepage water movement i s slow and not e x c e s s i v e , the t y p i c a l B l ack Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n develops, however, where more water i s present, the B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n , which w i l l be discussed next, develops. P l o t 5h represents a community and s o i l which has some t r a n s i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s toward t h i s more p o o r l y drained f o r e s t type. V a l e n t i n e (1971) has not described any of the s o i l s found under the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n , however, p l o t w i t h a Rego Humic G l e y s o l , i s s i m i l a r to h i s Klowee S e r i e s . The presence of d i f f e r e n t ecosystems, represented by d i f f e r e n t s o i l groups, o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s community, maybe ex-p l a i n e d by the f a c t that t h e s e • h a b i t a t s ' t e n d t o evolve toward the c l i m a t i c climax f o r e s t . o f ' t h i s zone, i n which b l a c k spruce i s becoming the most common f i n a l t r e e . Wherever t h i c k mor humus i s developed ( f r e q u e n t l y from accumulation of decayed c o n i f e r o u s wood,, as probably i s the case i n p l o t 17) t h i s development appears t o take p l a c e . 124 I f parent s o i l i n f l u e n c e i s diminished by o v e r l a i n t h i c k organic l a y e r s , from which mor humus developed, the moss and herb l a y e r are dependent upon t h i s type of mor humus. This dependency on mor humus c o n d i t i o n s may e f f e c t even the shrub and t r e e l a y e r s p r o v i d i n g that such organic hurnus horizons are t h i c k (over 10 cm). I t should be c l e a r l y explained that such p l o t s as 17, 54, and 10 belong here only by s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f l o r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , however, presence (and growth), e i t h e r of P i c e a glauca or L a r i x l a r i c i n a i n d i c a t e that these p l o t s should be considered as environmentally d i s t i n c t . These p l o t s do, however, p o i n t out s u c c e s s i o n a l ,trends. The f a c t that a c i d mor humus can develop independently of the m i n e r a l s u b s t r a t e and the f a c t that i t has developed on moderately w e l l drained s o i l s i n d i c a t e s that there i s a poten-t i a l f o r i t s development, even on mesic s i t e s . Once i t has de-veloped on mesic s i t e s , i t appears to degrade the mineral s o i l through p o d z o l i z a t i o n as i s i n d i c a t e d by p l o t 1 (Table 2 3 ) . B l a c k spruce i s w e l l adapted f o r e x i s t i n g i n moss humus w i t h i t s shallow root system growing through t h i s a c i d mor humus. Wheetman and Timmer (1967) have pointed out that the f e a t h e r moss l a y e r represents the major source of n i t r o g e n t o the tr e e s and that f e a t h e r mosses, through t h e i r accumulation of 125 n u t r i e n t s , b u i l d up f e r t i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on shallow and rocky s o i l s . In the Fort Nelson area where the mi n e r a l s o i l s are f r e q u e n t l y r i c h and f i n e t e x t u r e d , the development of acid mor humus tends to degrade the s o i l . For t h i s reason, f a c t o r s such as f i r e which r e l e a s e n u t r i e n t s t i e d up i n organic l a y e r s , thereby i n c r e a s i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of organic matter, r e t a r d the development of a c i d mor humus. H i s t o r i c a l l y , f i r e i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t s around F o r t Nelson., i s one of the major f a c t o r s which have prevented more extensive development of a c i d mor humus and b l a c k spruce f o r e s t s i n upland s i t e s . I t may be concluded that f i r e can be u t i l i z e d as an e c o l o g i c a l l y sound t o o l on n u t r i t i o n a l l y r i c h , f i n e t e xtured s o i l s , to prevent degradation of f o r e s t s i t e s i n the F o r t Nelson area, e s p e c i a l l y i f tree species which c y c l e l a r g e amounts of bases are encouraged a f t e r b u r n i n g . Other s i t e treatments which favour m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h i s mor humus can, however, be u t i l i z e d i n l i e u of fire„ 126 PLANT ASSOCIATION 6 BLACK SPRUCE - EQOISETPU SYLVATICITM Hylocomlo (splendentls) - Pleurozio (schreberi) -Equlseto ( s y l v a t i c i ) - Plceetum marianae Characteristic Combination of Species Layer Constanta (presence > 60%) * c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Characteristic non - constants } I I Tree Picea mariana Larix l a r i c i n a Betula r e s l n l f e r a Shrub Rosa a c i c u l a r i s Salix p y r i f o l l a Ledum groenlandicum Herb Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m * Ranunculus lapponlcus Cornus canadensis Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Rubus chamaemorus Pyrola 3ecunda Petasites palmatus* • -Smllaclna t r l f o l l a Equisetum arvense Llstera cordata"* Moss Pleurozium schreberi Sphagnum subnitens Hylocomium splendens Campyllum hlspldulom Ptilium c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s Cephaloila plenlceps Sphagnum girgensohnii Cladonla nemoxyna Aulacomnium palustre Philonotls f o n t a n a * Pohlla nutans T a b l e ?k 127 BLACK SPRUCE - EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM Hylocomio (splendentis) - Pleurozio (schreberi) -Equiseto (sylvatici) - Piceetum marianae Plot No. 52 29 30 W7 51 Elevation in M 9^5 695 6M> 9^5 W95 Latitude 58° 33' 58° MD* 58° WO' 58° 33' 58° 32' Longitude 122° ho1 123° 38' 123° 37' 122° ^1» 122° hO* Exposure - NE N - ' -Slope Gradient % 0 ** 12 0 0 percent coverage Total A 75 63 65 27 29 •h 10 15 15 6 If 35 ho h8 8 A 3 ho 15 12 7 20 Total B 17 7 10 78 65 B l 15 5 3 4- h5 3 3 8 78 12 C 27 31 50 28 65 Dh 86 90 75 95 90 Dw 1 2 12 + +•• Plot Coverage % Litter 89 90 76 95 96 Decaying Wood 3 2 5 + + Mineral Soil - . - - — Rock - -Hygrotope Subhygric - Hygric Trophotope Mesotrophic Sube trophic Parent Material Morainal, Lacustrine T a b l e 25 B L A C K S P R U C E - E Q U I S E T U M S Y L V A T I C U M B O R E A L W H I T E C B L A C K S P R U C E Z O N E PAGE 1 P L O T NUMBER | 0 5 2 | 0 2 9 | 0 3 0 | 0 4 7 I 0 5 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I S T N O . S P E C I E S S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E ANO V I G O R P MS RS A l A2 A 3 B l B2 1 P I C E A M A R I A N A 2 L A R I X L A R I C I N A P I C E A M A R I A N A L A R I X L A R I C I N A 3 B E T U L A R E S I N I F E R A A P I N U S C O N T O R T A P I C E A M A R I A N A L A R I X L A R I C I N A P I C E A M A R I A N A B E T U L A R E S I N I F E R A 5 S A L I X P Y R I F O L I A 6 A L N U S C R I S P A 7 A B I E S L A S I C C A R P A 8 P O P U L U S T R E M U L O I D E S 9 R O S A A C I C U L A R I S 1 0 L E O U M G R O E N L A N D I C U M P I C E A M A R I A N A S A L I X P Y R I F O L I A 11 B E T U L A G L A N D U L O S A 1 2 V A C C I N I U f U L I G I N O S U M 13 R I B E S G L A N D U L O S L M B E T U L A R E S I N I F E R A A B I E S L A S I O C A R P i A L N U S C R I S P A 14 R l f E S T R I S T E 15 S A L I X A R B U S C U L O I D E S 16 S A L I X N O V A E - A N G L I A E 1 7 V I B U R N U M E D U L E L A R I X L A R I C I N A 18 S P I R A E A B E T U L I F O L I A 19 V A C C I N I U M C A E S P I T O S U M 20 V A C C I N I U M M E H B R A N A C E U M 21 E Q U I S E T U M S Y L V A T I C U M 22 C O R N U S C A N A D E N S I S 23 V A C C I N I U M V I T I S - I D A E A 2 4 R U B U S C H A M A E M D R U S 25 P Y R O L A S E C U N D A 2 6 P E T A S I T E S P A L M A T U S 13.215.215.214.21 . I 14.21 . I . 11.214.21 16.217.217.215.114.21 14.21 . I . I . I . I I . I . 13.21 .1.1 I . I . 12.21 .1.1 17.215.215.214.115.21 I 1.21 . I . I . I . I 15.213.II . I* II.II . 11.21 I . I*.21 . I I . 13.213.21 I . 12.21 . I I . I . 11.21 117.21 , 13.21 , 14.21 » • I • I » I • I » I • I I 2 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 4 . 2 1 1 . I I 1. 11.212 I . I I . I I . I I . I 11.21 I*.II .21 , I 11.21 11.21 I».ll I 18.314, 17.114, I 4.11 4, 13. I*. I3.2I+, I . I I . I I I * . I I 1 .21 I . I I . 1 1 . 2 1 1 1 . 2 1 . I I . I».II I I 1 .21 I I .. I I.I I*.II I . I I . I I . I 14.213.213.215.217.21 I3.2I5.2I5.2U.2I4.2I I 2.214.214.213.214.21 14.214.21 . 13.315.21 I 1.21 . 11.2 I*. I*.2 I 13.21 . 13.21 . 11.11 1 8 0 . 0 4 . 8 3 - 5 1 6 0 . 0 3 . 3 1 - 4 1 1 0 0 . 0 6 . 2 4 - 7 1 2 0 . 0 2 . 4 4 - 4 1 2 0 . 0 1 . 5 3 - 3 1 2 0 . 0 1 . 0 2 - 2 1 1 0 0 . 0 5 . 6 4 - 7 J 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 -1 I 8 0 . 0 5 . 1 • - 7 1 6 0 . 0 1 . 9 1 - 3 1 4 0 . 0 2 . 4 * - 4 1 4 0 . 0 2 . 2 3 - 3 1 2 0 . 0 1 . 0 2 - 2 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 - 1 1 1 0 0 . 0 3 . 0 1 - 4 1 8 0 . 0 5 . 2 1 - 8 1 4 0 . 0 4 . 9 4 - 7 1 4 0 . 0 2 . 4 + - 4 1 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 • - 3 1 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 • - 3 1 4 0 . 0 • . 4 • -1 1 4 0 . 0 • . C • -» 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 -1 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 -1 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 -1 1 2 0 . 0 . . 2 1 -1 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 -1 1 2 0 . 0 • . 2 1 - 1 1 2 0 . 0 * . C J 2 0 . 0 • . C 1 2 0 . 0 * . o 1 2 0 . 0 • . 0 • -* 1 1 0 0 . 0 5 . 3 3 - 7 1 1 0 0 . 0 4 . e • - 5 1 1 0 0 . 0 4 . 1 2 - 4 1 8 0 . 0 4 . 4 3 - 5 1 8 0 . 0 1 . 0 • - 1 1 6 0 . 0 2 . 4 1 - 3 ro C O T a b l e 26 BLACK SPRUCE - EQUISETUH SYLVATICUH BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. S P E C I E S I 0 5 2 1 0 2 9 1 0 3 0 1 0 4 7 1 0 5 1 I I I I S P E C I E S S I G N I F p f S RS 1 60.0 2.1 1-3 1 60.0 1. 1 »-2 1 60.0 1.1 • - 2 1 4 0 . 0 2.0 2-3 1 40.0 1.6 • -3 1 4 0 . 0 • .8 1-1 1 4 0 . 0 • . 8 1-1 1 40.0 • .4 • -1 1 40.0 «.o • - • 1 40.0 ».C • -• 1 20.0 2.4 4-4 1 2 0 . 0 1.0 2-2 1 20.0 • .2 l - l 1 20.0 * . 2 1-1 1 20.0 • . 2 1-1 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 1 2 0 . 0 • .2 1-1 1 20.0 ». 2 1-1 1 20.0 • .2 1-1 1 2 0 . 0 • .0 1 20.0 • .0 1 20.0 • .0 • - * 1 20.0 • . 0 + -• 1 20.0 • .C • - + 1 20.0 • .c • -• 1 100.0 6.4 5 - 8 1100.0 5.6 1-6 1 6 0 . 0 5.9 7-7 1 60.0 5. 1 • - 8 1 6C.0 • .C • - • 1 60.0 «.C • - T 1 6 0 . 0 • .0 »-•1 4 0 . 0 2.4 • -4 1 4 0 . 0 2.3 3-3 1 40.0 1.6 • -3 1 40.0 • .4 • -1 1 40.0 • .0 • -• 1 4 0 . 0 • .0 • - • 1 40.0 • .C 1 4 0 . 0 «.0 1 40.0 • .c 1 40.0 • .0 • - • 1 40.0 • .0 1 40.0 ».c • 1 20.0 2.4 4-4 1 20.0 2.4 4-4 1 20.0 * . 2 1-1 1 2 0 . 0 • .2 l - l CANCE AND V GOR OH 27 SMI LAC INA T R I F O L I A 28 EQUISETUM ARVENSE 29 L I S T E R A COROATA 30 CARE X DISPERMA 31 RANUNCULUS LAPPONICUS 32 LYCOPOOIUK ANNOTINUM 33 OXYCOCCUS MICROCARPUS 34 GOODYERA REPENS 35 EOUISETUM SCIRPOIOES 36 HAEENARIA ORBICULATA 37 LINNAEA BOREALIS 38 CARE X A Q L A T I L I S 39 CAREX L O L I A C E A 40 EMPETRUM NIGRUM 41 MERTENSIA PANICULATA 42 M I T E L L A NUOA 43 MONESES UNI FLORA 44 PYROLA A S A R I F O L I A 45 V I C L A R E N I F O L I A 46 ANOROMEOA P O L I F O L I A 47 EOUISETUM PRATENSE 48 ERIOPHORUM BRACHYANTHERUM 49 GALIL'H DOREALE 50 GECCAULCN LIVIOUM 51 RUBUS PUBESCENS 52 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 53 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 54 P T I L I U M CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 55 SPHAGNUM G I.RGENSOHN 11 56 AULACOMNIUM PALUSTRE 57 PHILONOT.IS FONT ANA 58 POHLIA NUTANS 59 CLAOONIA NEMOXYNA • 60 P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA 61 CLAOONIA G R A C I L I S 62 SPHAGNUM SUBNITENS 63 C A K P Y L I L M HISPIOULUM 64 CEPHALOZIA CONNIVENS 65 C E P H A L O Z I A P L E N I C E P S 66 CLADONIA CORNUTA 67 DICRANUM UNOULATUM 68 P E L T I G E R A CANINA 69 P E L T I G E R A POLYOACTYLA 70 TOMENTHYPNUM NIT ENS 71 CLADINA M I T I S 72 CLAOINA RANGIFERINA 73 POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE 74 S C A P A I A PALUOOSA 12 11 21 | • 21 21 12 I 1 2 I I* 21 Table 26 ( c o n t i n u e d ) BOREAL WHITE C BLACK SPRUCE ZONE BLACK SPRUCE - EOUISETUM SYLVATICUM PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER 105210291030104710511 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I { | I I I i ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR " p MS RS 75 BRACHYTHECIUH ALBICANS 1 . 1 •• . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.C • - » 76 BRACHYTHEC IUM REFLEXUM I . I * . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 •. 0 77 CALL IERGCN COROIFOLIUM 1 •• 1 • 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.C • - . 78 CALLIERGON STRAMINEUM 1 •. 1 • 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.0 79 CALYPOGE IA SPHAGNI COLA 1 . 1 • I . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.C 80 CE PHALOZI ELLA SUBDENTATA 1 • 1 • 1 . i+. I . I . i . t . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 81 CERATODON PURPLREUS 1 . 1 *. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 82 CINCLIDIUM STYGIUM 1 * • 1 • 1 . I . i . I . i . I . i . I . i . l . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .C • - • 83 CLAOONIA GGNECHA I . I . 1 . i+. I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . I . I 20.0 • .0 84 CLADONIA PLEUROTA I . I . I . I*, I . I . I . I . t . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . o • - + 85 CLAOCNIA UNCIALIS I . I . 1 . i+. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • -• 86 DREPANCCLADUS CAPILLIFOLIUS 1 •• 1 . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • -• 87 DREPANOCLADUS REVOLVENS 1 . 1 *• 1 . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c •-• 88 OREPANOCLACUS UNCINATUS 1 • 1 •. 1 • I . I . i . i . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 + -• 89 DREPANOCLADUS VERNICOSUS j *• 1 • 1 -. I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 + .0 • -• 90 EURHYNCHIUM PULCHELLUM 1 . 1 •• I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 91 HERZOGIELLA TURFACEA 1 . 1 •• I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 92 LEPIDOZIA REPTANS 1 *• 1 . j . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 93 LEPTGBRYUM PYR IFCRME 1 . 1 •. I . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c 94 LOPHOZIA ALPESTRIS 1 •. 1 . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • - • 95 LOPHOZIA ASCENOENS I . I . I . i . i*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.C 96 LOPHOZIA CBTUSA I . I . I , i . i*. i . I . I . i . i . i . i . j . i . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . o 97 MNIUM SPINULOSUM I . I * . 1 . i . i . I . I . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . i,. I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 • - • 98 MYLI A ANOMALA I . I . 1 . i+. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 «.C • - . 99 PALUDELLA SCUARROSA I . I . I . t + . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 » - • 100 PLAGIOMNIUM CUSPIDATUM f . 1 *• I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 *.C 101 PLAGIOTHECIUM PILIFERUM 1 •. 1 .. 1 , i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * • c *— V 102 POL YTRI CHUM STRICTUM I . I . I . I . I * . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • .0 103 PTILIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM OW PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 1 *• 1 . 1 • i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . c * - v 1 . 12. 13. I . I * . I . I . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 60.0 2.C »-3 104 DICRANUM FUSCESCENS 1 •• 1 . 1 *• i . i*. I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 60.0 * . c • -• PTILIUM CRISTA-CASTRENSIS 1 . 1 2 . 14. i . i . I . I . i . i . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 2:1 2-4 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 1 . 11. 13. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . I 40.0 1. 7 1-3 PELTIGERA APHTHOSA 1 •• 1 • 1 1. I . I . i . i . i . I . i . i . I . I . i.. I . I « i . 1 . 1 . 1 ' 40.0 *.4 • -1 CEPHALOZIA CCNNIVENS 1 • • 1 • 1 . I . I * . I . 1 . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 • .0 • CLADONIA GRACILIS 1 •. I . 1 *• I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 *.C 105 CLAOCNIA OCHROCHLORA I . I . 1 *• i . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 * . o • - * DREPANOCLADUS LNCINATUS • | , |+ . I , i . i*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 •.0 • -• HERZOGIELLA TURFACEA 1 • • 1 . I . r . i*. i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i • i • i • i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 * . c • -• 106 JAMESONIELLA AUTUMNALIS I . I . 1 • • i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . 1 . I . I 40.0 • .0 • -* LEPIDOZIA REPTANS 1 »• 1 • I . i . i * . I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 • .0 MNIUM SPINULOSUM , 1 . 1 • • 1 •• I . I . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 * . c PTILIOIUM PULCHERRIMUP I . I . 1 I . I * . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 • .0 AULACCMN IUM PALUSTRE 1 . 1 *• 1 . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 « . c • 107 BLEPHARCSTOMA TRTCHQPFYLLUM I . I . 1 • i • i*. I . I . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 * . o • -» 108 CEPHALOZI ELLA OIVARICATA I . I . 1 •• I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i . i . i . I . I . i . j . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 • -• 109 CLADON IA FIMBRIATA I . I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 » . o • -• 110 CROSS0CALYX HELLERIANUS I . I . 1 . i . i * . i . i . i . i . i . i . i . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 « . c • - • T a b l e 26 ( c o n t i n u e d ) BLACK SPRUCE - EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM BOREAL WHITE C CLACK SPRUCE ZONE PAGE 4 PLOT NUMBER I052I029I030I047I051I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR P MS RS 111 OICRANUM TAURICyH OICRANUM UNOLLAT/UM 112 LEPTOGIUM SATURNINUM 113 LOPHOIIA ELONGATA 11* LOPHOZIA VENTRICOSA 115 NEPHROMA HELVETJCUH PELTIGERA CANINA 116 PELTIGERA HORIZONTALS PELTIGERA POLYDACTYLA 117 SCAPANIA UMBROSA 118 T ETRAPHIS PELLUCIOA 119 TR1TOMARIA EXSEfTIFORMIS I* I 2 0 . 0 I I I I 2 0 . 0 « . 0 •-0 2 0 . 0 4.C 4-2 0 . 0 4.0 4-4.C 4-4.0 4-4.0 4-4.0 4-4.0 4-4.0 4-4.0 4-I 2 0 . 0 4.0 4-2 0 . 0 I 2 0 . 0 I 2 0 . 0 I 2 0 . 0 I 2 0 . 0 I 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 T a b l e 26 ( c o n t i n u e d ) f S O I L " CKPMTC7.C -ANAtYGTS -'JFR*CTTON _<ZMH-|-'-" " TCf«AIN SYSTEM AF Tt: ft VALE NT 1NF ( I 97 I) OOflCAL "WH1 IF (. U L A C K SPMUC6 ZONE Page 1 PLCT " J ' P C A T O i l A l c '•CCC HUMIC CLFYSCL c . SAM HORIZON SAM. PH NO DEPTH H2Q 52-52-52-OFI OF2 (CM.) 044-0 37 037-000 000- '• TOT.C X TOT.N StKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM C/N R AT I 0 P PPM "CA h"G NS K 49.0 110 42.50 10.12 0.0 2.62 I 6. 9""~"23" '" 14". 25 4 . 87 0.05 0 . 32 ~ C.E.C PLOT 29" GLEYED "ORTHIC "GRAY'TWTSOU SAM NO HORIZON S A M . DEPTH tC.MTT" 005-000 000-006 -0'0'o-"0'l"0"" 010-016 01 6-057 057-PH H2Q CM. TOT.C X X TOT.N X C/N R AT I 0 P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEO/100 GM ~HG~ 3.a 92.9 53.90 1.07 50.4 142 3.0 7.3 4.26 0.47 9.1 013 -379 3.13 2"."19 0V09 24.'3""045" 3.7 3.9 2.23 0.26 8.8 013 3.9 5.4 3.11 0.19 16.4 018 4.8 1.2 0.69 0.06 11.5 13 CA 8.75 1 .50 ~0.75" 1 .75 t .25 5.00 "NTT 4.25 0.0 1 .50 O.OS "0.55"0.02" 1 .52 0.05 0.97 0.02 3.C5 0.0 GM 66.00 "19.30 C.E.C. MEU/100 GM BASE —SAT-COLOR TEXTUHS X 83.9 1 00 .0 BASE SAT x  "DRY MOIST XS XSI XC "10YR53 10YR32 1 I '53 33 SICL" COLOR TEXTURE ~D~RY"" -HOI ST x s T m c 2. 62 0. 37 "0.17" 0.47 0.35 0. 27 145.00 19. 40 _ 11.00" 9.80 3. 20 10.40 10.9 20.2 "1 3 . 6" 38.8 31.7 81.0 7. 5YR40 _7. 5YR20_ 8 39 51 SIC 10YR62 10YR32 2 7 5 2 2 0 SIL 10YRSI 10YR21 21 30 47 C 10YRS1 10YR32 21 42 36 CL 10YR42 10YR32  PLOT 30 GLEYED ORTHIC GRAY LUVISOL SAM NO HORIZON SAM. OLPTH (CM. ) PH H20 O.M. X TOT.C X TOT .N X C/N RATIO P PPM EXCH. CAT. MEQ/100 GM CA MG NA K C.E.C. MEQ/100 GM OASE SAT X COLOR DRY MOIST TEXTURE XS XSI XC 30-30-30-" 31-" 30-30-LFH 006-000 4.3 90.0 52.20 1.01 51.7 288 22.50 AHE 000-005 3.8 5.9 3.42 0.60 5.7 024 3.25 AE 005-019 4.6 1.9 1.09 0.08 13.6 007 3.50 — 07TVS ITi"4-006 4.00" 0.07 14.1 009 4.75 0.09 11.1 010 5.50 "BT 0n-T)33-OTGJ 033-053 CGJ 003- • 4.9 6.6 Ti"6 0T9T" 1.7 0.99 1.7 1.00 £.12 0.0 1.-12 134.00 23.8 1.90 0.02 0.95 21.00 29.2 10YR41 10YR21 8 27 64 HC 2.62 0.02 0.22 8.90 71.6 10YR72 10YRS2 5 47 47 SIC "3. 15" 0.02 0". 27 I2i80 5B'."2 10 YR62""T0 YR42 - 13 33 "66' HC'" 3.05 0.0 0.25 11.30 71.5 10YR52 10YR42 2.85 0.02 0.25 9.10 94.8 10YRS2 10YR32 14 52 34 SICL PLOT 47 TERRIC SPHAGNO-FIBR1SOL SAM-NO -HOHIZJN DEPTH (CM.) PH H20 CM. X -nrr: X TDT.N X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM EXCHV"CAT."MEOT'IO0" GM~ CA MG NA K ~ C7N~ RATI O — P — PPM "—CVEVCr" MEQ/ 100 GM -DA'SE-SAT X — CTjrOH ~ TEXTURE-DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 5.CO 0.0 0T5363.00 3S. I 8.50 0.0 0.0 128.00 39.2 3.SO 0.07 0.25 16.40 72.1 T T = -47-4 7- OF2 CG 050-014 014-066 066-072 3.9 E4.0 4B.70-4.8 82.1 47.60 5.1 2.3 1.33 - o n n son——1.6.25 1.09 4 3.7 8 41,25 0. 12 11. 1 023 8.00 10YRS2 10YR32 2 43 S4 SIC PLOT 51 PEATY PHASE RE GO HUMIC GLEYSOL SAM NO HORIZON SAM. OEPTH (CM. ) '5T-51-51- OF2 AHG PH H20 D.M. T O T . C X X TOT.N X SIKANNI TERRAIN SYSTEM — C V N — RAT 10 PPM EXCH. CAT, MEO/100 GM' CA MG NA K C . E . C . MEO/100 GM BASE SAT X 030-000 000- • 4,6 92.1 5.3 6.5 53,40 3.78 0.S6 0.21 62.1 058 36.25 8.25 0.0 18.0 021 13.25 4.22 0,03 1 ,25 0.25 98.00 20.20 46.9 07.9 COLOR TEXTURE DRY MOIST XS XSI XC 10YRS2 10YR22 9 60 29 SICL T a b l e 27 F i g . 38 A. B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n on a Peaty Phase Rego Humic G l e y s o l . 134 B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum sy]vaticurn F i g . 39 Very dense development of Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m under a b l a c k spruce canopy w i t h Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i dominating the moss l a y e r . F i g . ko Accompanying s o i l - Peaty Phase Rego Humic G l e y s o l 135 B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m F i g s . ^1 & k2 the base of a slope A Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l near Below, Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m . 136 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n 6 B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum Sylvaticum Hylocomio ( s p l e n d e n t i s ) - P l e u r o z i o ( s c h r e b e r i ) -Equiseto ( s y l v a t i c i ) - Piceetum marianae In areas of gentle topography around F o r t Nelson, the B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n occurs under p o o r l y drained c o n d i t i o n s on almost l e v e l topography where there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e movement of water through the s o i l . A d d i t i o n a l l y i n more mountainous areas west of F o r t Nelson, t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n can develop on Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s at the base of slopes where i t shows some a f f i n i t i e s to the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n . This a s s o c i a t i o n occurs b a s i c a l l y on h y g r i c ( r a r e l y subhygric) trophotopes and has been judged to occur on submesotrophic to mesotrophic trophotopes. V e g e t a t i o n The t r e e l a y e r i s dominated by b l a c k spruce and i n areas where the s o i l s are g l e y s o l i c or organic, L a r i x  l a r i c i n a i s a d d i t i o n a l l y present. Generally P i c e a mariana i s the dominant species i n the shrub l a y e r which i n d i c a t e s 137 i t i s a climax s p e c i e s . Rosa a c i c u l a r i s , w i t h an average species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3-0, i s the only species present i n the B 2 i n a l l sample p l o t s . Ledum groenlandicum, which i s g e n e r a l l y associated w i t h poor s i t e s , was the only other constant dominant i n t h i s l a y e r . In a l l cases Equisetum sy l v a t i c u m was a dominant i n the herb l a y e r w i t h an average species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 5.3. Cornus canadensis, a companion species and Vaccinium  v i t i s - i d a e a , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c order species of P i c e e t a l i a marianae were both dominant constants. . Rubus chamaemorus, which was present i n f o u r of the f i v e communities sampled, i n d i c a t e s the a f f i n i t i e s t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has towards the high moor B l a c k Spruce - Sphagnum fuscum a s s o c i a t i o n . P e t a s i t e s palmatus, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s , which i s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h seepage water was a l s o f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Equisetum arvense and L i s t e r a cordata are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h moist s i t u a t i o n s v/hich are mesotrophic. Jeglum (1971) placed both Equisetum  arvense and P e t a s i t e s palmatus i n a mesotrophic n u t r i t i o n a l c l a s s f o r the Candle Lake area of Saskatchewan. 138 Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i and Hylocomlum splendens were the most frequent dominant mosses w i t h average species s i g n i f -icances of 6.*+ and $.6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s was a l s o o f t e n a"dominant moss W i t h hi g h average s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e s . Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i was present i n 3 of the 5 p l o t s , once w i t h a species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 8. T h i s Sphagnum can withstand dense shade and i n c e r t a i n cases can . expand under a b l a c k spruce canopy. Aulacommium p a l u s t r e , although w i t h a very low coverage v a l u e , was a l s o present i n 3 of the 5 p l o t s . This species i s again more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of bog a s s o c i a t i o n s . The v e g e t a t i o n of the B l a c k Spruce -Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n shows a f f i n i t i e s towards the B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y through the moss l a y e r as w e l l as towards bog s p e c i e s . Some s p e c i e s , however, are present which i n d i c a t e at l e a s t m i l d l y minero-t r o p h i c waters. S o i l s The s o i l s of the Black Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n range from i m p e r f e c t l y drained t o v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d . The very p o o r l y drained s o i l s were peaty phases of Rego Humic G l e y s o l s , however, one s o i l had s u f f i c i e n t l y t h i c k peat t o be c l a s s i f i e d as a T e r r i c S p h a g n o - F i b r i s o l []a T e r r i c F i b r i s o l according to the System of S o i l C l a s s -139 i f i c a t i o n For Canada (1970)] • Even though t h i c k accumulations of peat were present on the m i n e r a l s o i l , s u f f i c i e n t water movement was present to give these s o i l s a submesotrophic n u t r i e n t s t a t u s . The C-leyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s which occur near the base of r e l a t i v e l y steep slopes a l s o are s u b j e c t to seepage water which appears to have s u f f i c i e n t movement t o prevent the development of B l a c k Spruce - Moss a s s o c i a t i o n s . This l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y develops i n e q u i v a l e n t t o p o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s i n more gentle t e r r a i n where water movement i s much slower. The two types of s o i l s of the B l a c k Spruce - Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m a s s o c i a t i o n ( b a s i c a l l y the Gleyed O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s and the G l e y s o l s ) support s i m i l a r species of v e g e t a t i o n but must be treated as d i f f e r e n t ecosystems types since the s o i l s are d i f f e r e n t . A l l i a n c e h Aulacomnio ( p a l u s t r i s ) - S a l i c o ( m y r t i l l i f o l i a e ) - P i c e i o n marianae Annas et K r a j i n a This a l l i a n c e has only one p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i n the area of t h i s study. I t s v e g e t a t i o n and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are, t h e r e f o r e , i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n no. 7. This a l l i a n c e was not reported i n the Sub-Boreal Spruce Zone by Revel (1972) or by V/ali and K r a j i n a (1973) and has not been observed i n the Sub-B o r e a l Zone ( K r a j i n a , pers. comm.)0 PLA57 ASSOCIATION 7 BUCK SPRUCE - SAtEX VYRTIItlFOTIA - APLACOVNIUM Aulacomnio ( p a l u s t r i s ) - Toicenthypno ( n i t e n t i s ) -E q u i s e t o ( s c l r p o l d l s ) « Ledo ( g r o e n l a n d i c i ) - S a l i c o ( n y r t i l l i f o l l a e ) - H ano-P i c e • turn marianae C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Combination of Species Layer Constants (presence > € C < ) "* c h a r a c t e r i s t i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c non - constants > I I Shrub P i c e a mariana Ledum groenland icum S a l i x novae-angliae ^ S a l t x a r b u s c u l o l d e s ' * S a l t i m y r t i l l l f o l i a ^ Vaccinium v i t i s - l d a e a ' Equisetum s c i r p o l d e s * Equisetum arvense P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a * E p l l o b l u a a n g u s t l f o l i c a A r c t o s t a p h y l o s r u b r a * Rabus pubescens U e r t e n s l a p a n i c u l a t a Seneclo lugens * Cornus canadensis Oxycoccus mlcrocarpus Carex d l o i c a Geocaulon l i v l d u m P e t a s i t e s palmatus P a r n a s s l a p a l u s t r i s A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Linnaea b o r e a l i s S m l l a c l a a t r I f o l i a Aulacoimluni p a l u s t r e * Hylocomlua splendens Tomenthypnua n i t e n s * P e l t i g e r a aphthosa j C l a d i n a m l t l s C l a d o n l a g r a c i l i s C l a d i n a a r b u s c u l a Dicranuat u n d u l a t u r a * Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i C l a d o n l a c o m u t a P o h l i a nutans P e l t i g e r a p o l y d a c t y l a * C e p h a l o z l e l l a subdentata* C l a d i n a r a n g l f e r l n a V a c c i n l u a u l l g l n o s u a Carex vaginata Splranthes romanzofflana Polemonlua a c u t i f l o r u m Carex coneinna J a s e s o n l e l l a autumnalls P o h l i a sphagnlcola Pplytrlchum s t r l c t u m Brachythecium salebrosun Lophozla obtusa T a b l e 28 I*t2 BLACK SPRUCE - SALIX MYRTILLIFOLIA - AULACOIWIOM Aulacomnio (palustris) - Tomenthypno (nitentls) -Equiseto ( s c l r p o l d l s ) - Ledo (groenlandici) - Sa l i c o ( m y r t i l l i f o l i a e ) - Nano - Piceetum marianae Plot Ho. ' M+ ••5 88 89 90 91 Elevation i n M Mto i+i+o >+25 W25 1+25 1+25 Latitude 58° 38' 58° 38' 58° ho< 58° 'to' 58° 39' 58°l+0' Longitude 122° 1+0' 122° 39* 122° W2' 122° hy 122° kO' 122° h2> Exposure - . - ' • - - -Slope Gradient % 0 0 0 0 0 0 Percent coverage To t a l A - - - - - -H - - - •r - ' A2 — - - - -A3 - - - - — • ~ • Tot a l B 75 8o 70 79 67 75 B l 50 50 13 20 10 B2 56 60 ho 68 55 68 C 60 65 72 70 65 63 Dh 85 92 92 96 95 95 Dw 5 X 1 - - + Plot coverage % U t t e r 90 92 92 96 95 95 Decaying Wood 5 5 3 ' • - • 1 1 Mineral S o i l • - • - - - -Rock - ' - - - -Hygrotope Hygric Trophotope Mesotrophic Subeutrophlc Parent Material Organic over F l u v i a l T a b l e 29 BOREAL WHITE £ BLACK SPRUCE ZONE BLACK SPRUCE - SALIX MYRTILLIFOLIA - AULACOMNIUM PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER 1044104510881089109010911 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR P MS RS Bl I PICEA MARIANA 1 7.11 8.11 5.21 5.21 5. 114. 21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 6.2 4-8 2 SALIX ARBUSCULOIDES 13.113.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . '1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 33.3 2.1 3-3 3 SALIX NOVAE-ANGLIAE 13.21 . 1 . 12.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 33.3 1.7 2-3 4 PICEA GLAUCA I . I . 1 4 . 2 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 2.2 4-4 5 B2 6 POPULUS BALSAMIFERA I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.C 1-1 LEOUM GRCENLANDICUM 16.318.215.216.216.215.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 6.7 5-8 SALIX NOVAE-ANGLIAE 14.213. 214.211. 212.212.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 3.5 1-4 PICEA MARIANA 15.114.114.21 . 17.1I6.2J . I . I . I . I . I . I . ! . I . I . I . I . I . I 83.3 5.4 4-7 SALIX ARBUSCULOIDES 1 . 12.211.21 . 12.21*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 1.5 *-2 7 ROSA ACICULARIS 11.113.11 . 1 * . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 50.0 1.6 *-3 8 VACCINIU* ULIGINCSUM 13.213.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 33.3 2.1 3-3 9 SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS 1 . I+.2I+.2I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 33.3 *.C •-• 10 SALIX GLAUCA 13. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 1.4 3-3 11 ALNUS TENUIFOLIA 12. 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.7 2-2 12 LARIX LARICINA I . I . I . I . I . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.C 1-1 13 RIBES GLANOULOSUM 1 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.0 1-1 14 SALI X ATHABASCENSIS 1 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 •.0 1-1 15 VIBURNUM EDULE 1 . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 •.0 1-1 16 RIBES HUCSCNIANUM I . I . I*.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.c •-• 17 RIBES LACUSTRE I . I . I * . 2 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 16.7 • .0 •-• 18 RI EES OXYACANTHOIDES 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.C •-• 19 SALIX BEBBIANA 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I * . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 +.0 •-• 20 SALIX P ED ICELLARIS 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 *.C •-• 21 SALIX PLANIFOLI A 1 •. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 •.0 •-+ 22 VACCINIUM MYRTILLOIDES 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I*. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 16.7 • .0 •-• C 23 SALIX MYRTILLIFCLIA 16.214.216.216.217.215.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1. 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 0 0 . 0 6.0 4-7 24 VACCINIUM VITIS-IOAEA 15.215.213.214.213.216.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1100.0 5.2 3-6 25 EQUISETUM SCIRPCIOES 13.213.213.214.213.213.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 1 0 0 . 0 2.7 3-4 26 EQUISETUM ARVENSE 12.211.213.213.212.21+.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 2.6 *-3 27 PECICULARIS LABRAOORICA 1 1.211. 212.211. 21*. 012. 01 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 l.E *-2 28 EPILCBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM 1 1.21 2.21 +.21 1.21 1.21*. 21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . 1100.0 1.5 »-2 29 ARCTOSTAPHYLOS RUBRA 1 . 14.214.214.315.214.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 83.3 4.5 4-5 30 RUBUS PUBESCENS 1 . 12.21*.112.212.212.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . - I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 83.3 2.C *-2 31 MERTENSIA PANICULATA 1 . 12,211.212.211.21*.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 83.3 1.6 *-2 32 SENECIO LUGENS I . I . 14.213.212.212.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 3.0 2-4 33 CORNUS CANAOENSIS 1 . 14,21*.21*.2l+.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 2.2 *-4 34 OXYCOCCUS MICROCARPUS I*.21 . 1 . 13.21 1.21 1.21 . I . I . I . I . I . I . ) . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 1.7 *-3 35 CAREX OIOICA I . I . 11.212.212.21*. I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 1.5 *-2 36 GEOCAULON LIVIOUM 12.211.21+.21 . 1 . 11.21 . 1 . 1 . 1 , 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 1.3 *-2 37 PETASITES PALMATUS I . I . 11.212.211.21+.21 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 1.3 *-2 38 PARNASSIA PALUSTRIS 1 . I+.2I2.3I + . 11.21 . l . | . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 . 1 . .1 . 1 . 1 . 1 66.7 1.1 *-2 39 ACHILLEA HILLEFCLIUM I . I . I * . 11.211.21*.21 . ( . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 *.9 *-l 40 LINNAEA BOREALIS 1 . 11.211.11 . l+.2l*.2l . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 *.<) *-l 41 SMILACINA TRIFCLIA I*.11 . 1 . 1 * . I+.2I+.2I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I 66.7 «.l •-• - r T a b l e 30 BOREAL WHITE I BLACK SPRUCE ZONE BLACK SPRUCE - S A L I X MYRTILL I F O L I A - AULACOMN IUM . p 4 G E 2 PLOT •vUMBER 1 0