UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between anticipatory socialization and unfulfilled expectation of the father Pickeral, Terry L. 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 P52.pdf [ 3.51MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094122.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094122-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094122-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094122-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094122-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094122-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094122-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094122-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094122.ris

Full Text

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION AND UNFULFILLED EXPECTATIONS OF THE FATHER by TERRY L. PICKERAL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i a t H i l o , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS . i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dep a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e . r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 19 76 © T e r r y L. P i c k e r a l , 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date December 3 0 , 1 9 7 6 6 ABSTRACT P r i o r t o p r e s e n t i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n we r e v i e w e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n e d t o ex-p l a i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o p a r e n t h o o d . We f i n d (1) i n c o n s i s t e n t d a t a and (2) t h e f a c t t h a t s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have l o n g i g n o r e d t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r i n t h i s a n a l y s i s and i n o t h e r a r e a s o f f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . The a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . We p r e s e n t a c o n c e p t u a l framework w h i c h e x p l a i n s d i f -f e r e n c e s i n t h e amounts o f d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e r i e n c e d upon t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r o l e . D e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h i s framework i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t a s p e c t s o f r o l e s a r e l e a r n e d b e f o r e t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n and t h i s amount o f l e a r n i n g ( a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e a c t o r . S u ch an a p p r o a c h t o r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n l e a d s us t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r who d i d n o t have y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s w i l l ex-p e r i e n c e a g r e a t e r amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r h i s r o l e v i s - a - v i s h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d , and o t h e r s , and t h e a c t u a l b e h a v i o r r e g a r d i n g t h e s e r o l e s upon t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t b o r n , t h a n w i l l a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r who has y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s . i To measure t h e s e v a r i a b l e s we d e v e l o p an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s o f t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , t h e i r r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s r e l e v a n t t o t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e s , and i f a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e two e x i s t s , w h e t h e r i t s m a g n i t u d e i s o f s u c h s i g n i f i c a n c e as t o h i n d e r t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a s a f a t h e r . T h e r e were t e n i t e m s on w h i c h t h e s e l a t t e r f o u r v a r i a b l e s y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n s t r u -ment i s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h i r t y - f i v e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s , who a r e s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . The r e s p o n d e n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s f o r a n a l y s i s : an e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( i . e . , t h o s e w i t h y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s ) and a c o n t r o l g r o u p ( i . e . , t h o s e w i t h o u t y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s ) . Our p r e d i c t i o n i s t h a t t h o s e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w i l l e x -p e r i e n c e a. s m a l i e r r a m o u n t o f r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n - p e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c y t h a n t h o s e i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . We p r e s e n t two a n a l y s e s t e s t i n g o u r h y p o t h e s i s . The f i r s t c o n s i s t s o f a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s on e a c h o f t h e t e n i t e m s f o r t h e two g r o u p s . We f i n d , a s p r e d i c t e d , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t e r amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y on e i g h t o f t h e t e n i t e m s and on t h e o v e r a l l means o f t h e amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y . S e c o n d l y , we a n a l y z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e ( i . e . , how much t h e d i s c r e p a n c y was s e e n by t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o h i n d e r h i s r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e ) o f t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c r e p a n c y . T h i s a n a l y s i s y i e l d s m easures t h a t show t h a t (1) on f i v e o f t h e i t e m s t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h e i r d i s c r e p a n c i e s a s more s i g n i f i -c a n t , (2.) on t h r e e i t e m s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h e i r d i s c r e p a n c i e s as more s i g n i f i c a n t , and (3) on t h e r e m a i n i n g two i t e m s t h e two g r o u p s r e p o r t e d t h e same amount o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i s -c r e p a n c y : T h u s , we f i n d t h a t n o t o n l y do f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s w i t h o u t y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s r e p o r t a g r e a t e r amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y , b u t a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t s u c h d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e m o r e . s i g n i f i c a n t when compared t o t h o s e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s w i t h y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s . Our a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e s s u p p o r t f o r o u r p r e d i c t i o n . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e u t i l i t y o f o u r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . We a l s o f i n d t h a t , s u b s e q u e n t t o h a v i n g one y o u n g e r s i b l i n g , t h e amount o f e x p e c t a t i o n - p e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c y e x p e r i e n c e d by f i r s t - . t i m e f a t h e r s does n o t d e c r e a s e c o n s i s t e n t l y a s t h e number o f younger, s i b l i n g s i n c r e a s e . We d i s c u s s v a r i o u s w e aknesses o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and methods u t i l i z e d i n t h e s t u d y , and o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1 15 24 37 48 B i b l i o g r a p h y Appendices A Summary of C r i s i s S t u d i e s . . . . . 56 B Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 59 C Measures and I n d i c a t o r s 6 3 D Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Data. 64 L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e ' Page 1 Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n on P a r e n t h o o d C r i s i s S t u d i e s 5 2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e R e s p o n d e n t s A c c o r d i n g . t o Group, ... . 21 3 Amount o f D i s c r e p a n c y by Group . . . . 26 4 D i s c r e p a n c i e s and T h e i r R e p o r t e d S i g n i f i c a n c e by Group., 29 5 D i s c r e p a n c i e s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Number o f Younger S i b l i n g s o f t h e R e s p o n d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 v CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM A. I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s s t u d y , we a r e c o n c e r n e d t o e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t f a t h e r s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f a f i r s t -b o r n , on t h e b a s i s o f v a r i a t i o n s , i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t he h a d i n l e a r n i n g how h i s r o l e w i l l c hange when he becomes a f a t h e r . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r as o u r u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . i s b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e : (1) t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a t h e r and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and (2) t h e o p -p o r t u n i t y t o examine p o s s i b l e c a u s e s o f d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s , o f a d -j u s t m e n t by f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s . I n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e r e i s an abundance o f r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e mother r o l e and t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p ; n e a r l y f i f t e e n t i m e s a s much a s t h a t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a t h e r ( W a l t e r and S t i n n e t t , 1971) . E v e n t h i s , s m a l l ...amount o f r e -s e a r c h d o e s n o t a l w a y s u t i l i z e t h e f a t h e r a s t h e r e s p o n d e n t , b u t o f t e n m e a s u r e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e mother c o n c e r n i n g 1 h e r h u s b a n d ' s r o l e i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . As L e M a s t e r s (1974:124) p o i n t s o u t : "... t h e f a t h e r ,has ,been almos.t i g n o r e d by b e h a v i o r a l 1 s c i e n t i s t s and. w r i t e r s s i n c e t h e end o f W o r l d ...War I I . " The e x c l u s i o n o f f a t h e r s f r o m r e s e a r c h r e s t s on e i t h e r o r b o t h o f two a s s u m p t i o n s : (1) t h a t m o t h e r s c a n r e p o r t a c c u r a t e l y what f a t h e r s t h i n k and f e e l , a n d . (2) t h a t f a t h e r s a r e u n i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c h i l d r e a r i n g . p r o c e s s ( L e M a s t e r s , 1974) . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s i s i n c o r r e c t ( c f . S e e l e y , e t a l . , 1956; Fanshel., 1966; M u e l l e r , 1970; O ' B r i e n , 1970; de W i n t e r , 2 19 71) and t h e s e c o n d i s h i g h l y s u s p e c t . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f f a t h e r - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h may be due t o t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h e f a t h e r r o l e i t s e l f . E v e r y r o l e i s made up o f e l e m e n t s , and t h o s e o f t h e f a t h e r r o l e a r e n o t w e l l -d e f i n e d , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f " t h e p r o v i d e r " ( B e l l , 1 9 7 5 ) . N o t o n l y i s t h e f a t h e r r o l e ambiguous, b u t p e r h a p s n o t e v e n n e c e s s a r y , as Mead (1949) s u g g e s t s when she s t a t e s t h a t t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r a t t h e human l e v e l i s a " s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n " , and t h a t s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , he c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d w i t h , o n c e c o n -c e p t i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e . We a r e n o t q u e s t i o n i n g t h e . n e c e s s i t y o f t h e . f a t h e r , b u t we a r e . c o n c e r n e d w i t h h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i n this.?.and other, r o l e s he p e r f o r m s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , o u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f f a t h e r s c o n c e r n s t h e i r a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . N o t o n l y . do. t h e amount and t y p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s v a r y , b u t . t h e y a l s o i n c l u d e e x t r a - f a m i l i a l a s . w e l l a s f a m i l i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n t h i s s t u d y , we a t t e m p t t o 3 e x p l a i n t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced., by t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r . B. R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h I t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t h a v i n g c h i l d r e n and m a r i t a l h a p -p i n e s s go h a n d - i n - h a n d and a r e . c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d . . T h a t i s , c h i l d r e n a f f e c t m a r i t a l happiness.. W h i l e , t h i s may be t r u e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i s n o t . a l w a y s a . p o s i t i v e o n e. The c u l t u r a l adages t h a t g e n e r a l l y i m p l y t h a t " c h i l d r e n b r i n g m a r r i a g e s t o g e t h e r " and t h a t " c h i l d r e n a r e t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f m a r r i a g e " a r e n o t a l w a y s s u b s t a n t i a t e d . b y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . C l a y t o n (1975) r e p o r t s t h a t m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n t a k e a s h a r p d i p w i t h t h e o n s e t o f c h i l d r e n . T h e r e i s . n o e v i d e n c e t h a t h a v i n g c h i l d r e n i m p r o v e s o r e n h a n c e s a c o u p l e ' s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e m a r r i a g e p r o b l e m s (Benson, 1 9 6 8 ) . I n f a c t , r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h f a m i l i a l , i n t e r a c t i o n demon-s t r a t e s t h e d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e a r r i v a l o f c h i l d r e n on t h e m a r i t a l b o n d . F i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a r r i v a l o f c h i l d r e n c o n s i t i t u t e s . t h e g r a v e s t c r i s i s t h e a v e r a g e f a m i l y e n c o u n t e r s ( B l o o d and W o l f e , 1960) ; t h a t t h e c a r e and d i s c i p l i n e o f c h i l d -r e n r a n k s s e c o n d t o s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t among those... p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h c o u p l e s have f a i l e d t o r e a c h a , m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g a d -j u s t m e n t ( L a n d i s a n d : L a n d i s , 1973); t h a t t h e b i r t h . o f t h e f i r s t c h i l d i s t h e m a j o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r ..the. p a r e n t s ( G a v r o n , 1 9 6 6 ) . 4 T h e - a r r i v a l o f a c h i l d , t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t f o r . a l l . c o u p l e s , t h e d e l i v e r y o f a " b u n d l e o f j o y " t h a t w i l l . e n h a n c e t h e i r a b i l -i t y t o h a v e * a s a t i s f y i n g , r e l a t i o n s h i p ; , b u t an a d d i t i o n t o an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t . c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e s i t s com-p l e x i t y and i n c r e a s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s e n c h a n t m e n t . Among s t u d i e s o f t h e i m p a c t .of t h e f i r s t b o r n on t h e , p a r e n t s / t h e r e h a v e b e e n s e v e r a l i n w h i c h t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d 3 as a " c r i s i s . " L e M a s t e r s (1957) c o m p l e t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h he c o n s t r u c t e d a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e t o measure t h e amount o f c r i s i s t h a t f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e c h i l d . The s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : (1) no c r i s i s , (2) s l i g h t . c r i s i s , (3) m o d e r a t e c r i s i s , (4) e x -t e n s i v e c r i s i s , and (5) s e v e r e c r i s i s . The s u b s e q u e n t . c r i s i s s t u d i e s XDyer, 1964; Hobbs, 1965, 1968; Beauchamp, 1969; R u s s e l l , 1974) u t i l i z e d t h e same t y p e o f s c a l e t o measure p a r -e n t h o o d t r a n s i t i o n a l c r i s i s (See A p p e n d i x A).. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c r i s i s s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s e " c r i s i s " s t u d i e s t o o u r r e s e a r c h d o e s n o t l i e i n t h e methods employed, n o r w i t h t h e e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s w i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y , b u t r a t h e r w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c h i l d t o a m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o r some, more o f a . . d i s r u p t i v e e v e n t t h a n i t . i s f o r o t h e r s . T h a t i s , some p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e no c r i s i s a t a l l . , and t h e r e m a i n d e r f a l l a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m . B u r r (1976:4.38) s t a t e s : "The m a i n c o n c e r n s h e r e a r e t h a t e n o u g h . c o u p l e s e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h i s t o be an im-p o r t a n t i s s u e " ( i n r e f e r e n c e t o p a r e n t a l r o l e a d j u s t m e n t ) . : 5 TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF INFORMATION ON PARENTHOOD CRISIS STUDIES Degree of D i f f i c u l t y LeMasters N=46 % Dyer N=32 % I n v e s t i g a t o r Hobbs Hobbs N=53 N.=27 %a. %b. c. Beauchamp N=18 N=19 % % d R u s s e l l N=271 % ' % None 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.5 10 .5 3.3 0 .3 S l i g h t 17.0 9.0 86.8 85 .2 38.3 57.9 75.1 57 .5 Moderate 38.0 13.2 14 .8 33.3 10 .5 16 .8 39 .1 E x t e n s i v e 28.0 0.0 N/A e •11.1 5.3 1:1 3 : i Severe 83.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 15 .8 3.7 0 .0 T o t a l 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 f . 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 a. 1965 b. 1968 c . The f i r s t c o lumn r e p o r t s t h e s c o r e s u t i l i z i n g t h e i n -t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e and t h e s e c o n d column t h o s e u t i l -i z i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e . d . The f i r s t column r e p o r t s t h e s c o r e s f o r males and t h e s e c o n d c o l u m n f o r f e m a l e s . e. O n l y f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . f . The p e r c e n t a g e s r e p o r t e d . ( J a c o b y / 1969) do n o t t o t a l 100, due t o r o u n d i n g . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n terms o f o u r r e s e a r c h , i s t h a t i n t h e R u s s e l l (19 74) s t u d y , where i t e m s were r e p o r t e d t h a t were f o u n d t o be " b o t h e r -some" by b o t h t h e mother and f a t h e r , t h o s e i t e m s . s e l e c t e d by t h e two 4 g r o u p s d i f f e r e d . I n a n a l y z i n g t h e r e v i e w e d r e s e a r c h , w h i c h i n c l u d e s b o t h s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a m i l i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and t h o s e o f a " c r i s i s " n a t u r e , 6 i t becomes c l e a r t h a t (1) t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f p a r e n t i s h a n d l e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y by f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s , and.(2) t h a t t h e t y p e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d . v a r y between m o t h e r s . a n d f a t h e r s . I n v i e w o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m t h a t f a c e s us i s : "What a r e t h e . c a u s e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by f i r s t - t i m e , f a t h e r s ? " This-i v a r i a t i o n i n the,, number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by f i r s t - t i m e . f a t h e r s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e a r e a o f p a r e n t a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n . C. T h e o r y Our t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r , r e q u i r e s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f r o l e t h e o r y . A r o l e , a c c o r d i n g t o S a r b i n ( 1968:225), i s a "... p a t t e r n e d s e q u e n c e o f l e a r n e d a c t i o n s ' o r d e e d s p e r f o r m e d by a p e r s o n , i n an i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n . " We e m p h a s i z e t h e f a c t t h a t r o l e s (1) a r e l e a r n e d , and (2) must be p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s e l f - o t h e r . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r o l e , t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g . R o l e l e a r n i n g d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e p l a c e a f t e r a s s u m i n g a r o l e , b u t more o f t e n t h a n n o t , o c c u r s prior...to i t s a s s u m p t i o n . T h i s p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g . i s known as " a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . " T h r e e methods by w h i c h one c a n l e a r n a b o u t a r o l e p r i o r t o i t s a c q u i s i t i o n a r e : . (1) a s s u m i n g s i m i l a r r o l e s , (2) o b s e r v i n g r o l e m o d e l s , and (3) i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h someone o c c u p y i n g t h e r o l e 5 (as i t s c o r r e s p o n d e n t ) as a l l r o l e s a r e r e c i p r o c a l . R o l e a c q u i s i t i o n n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a r o l e , b u t o f t e n ( i f n o t a l w a y s ) a f f e c t s t h e o t h e r r o l e s t h e a c t o r p e r -f o r m s . As an example, l e t us a n a l y z e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r o l e on of f a t h e r ( f o r the f i r s t time) and see the' e f f e c t i t may have h i s other r o l e s . P r i o r t o becoming, a. f a t h e r , one i s . ( i n most cases) married arid, t h e r e f o r e , a husband, to a w i f e . He a l s o has r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t s i d e of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y (e.g., extended.:family, b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s , c l o s e f r i e n d s ) ; these r o l e s we w i l l c a l l "extra-f a m i l i a l . " With the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t b o r n ' t h e s e . t w o r o l e s c ont-inue t o e x i s t along w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l r o l e of .father. The a d d i t i o n o f the c h i l d b r i n g s with i t changes i n these o t h e r r o l e s . In the husband, r o l e , f o r example, the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n spontaneous a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., "spur of the moment" d e s i r e s to do something o r go-somewhere) is. reduced, t h a t i s , parents o f newborns have t o - e i t h e r make arrangements f o r some-one to tend the. c h i l d . o r must be a b l e to take i t w i t h them (which i s not always possible)... Examples of p o s s i b l e changes i n the e x t r a - f a m i l i a l r o l e i n c l u d e , r e l a t i v e s v i s i t i n g more o f t e n and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h new acquaintances w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s ( i . e . , those concerned w i t h . c h i l d c a r e and r e a r i n g ) . The process o f a c q u i r i n g a new r o l e i s i n f l u e n c e d by the amount of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n one has gained i n re g a r d t o (1) the new r o l e and (2) subsequent changes i n o t h e r r o l e s he possesses. That i s , the ease, w i t h which one. a c q u i r e s a new r o l e i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the amount of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n he has accumulated. We p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d t h r e e methods by which.one l e a r n s a r o l e ( i . e . , assuming s i m i l a r r o l e s , o b s e r v a t i o n of r o l e models, and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h someone occupying the r o l e ) . The 8 o p p o r t u n i t y , however, t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u c h l e a r n i n g v a r i e s . T h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e d e p e n d e n t on. t h e number and t y p e s o f p r i o r r o l e s t h e a c t o r h a s held.. T h e r e f o r e , p r i o r r o l e s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e amount o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n one g a i n s . The amount o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . o n t h e e a s e o f ' r o l e ' a c q u i s i t i o n , w h i c h works t h r o u g h an o p e r a t i o n we c o n c e p t u a l i z e as " e x p e c t a t i o n - p e r f o r m a n c e 6 d i s c r e p a n c y . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s c o n c e p t d e a l s . w i t h t h e d i s -c r e p a n c y between o n e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s (as t o how one w i l l b e h a v e t o w a r d s o t h e r s i n a . g i v e n r o l e and how o t h e r s w i l l b e h a v e t o w a r d s o n e s e l f ) and t h e a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e by t h e a c t o r i n t h a t r o l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e more i n l i n e an e x p e c t a t i o n i s i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c t u a l b e h a v i o r j t h e l e s s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y . T h e s e . c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , f o r m t h e b a s i s o f o u r t h e o r y ; w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t : t h e t y p e s o f p r i o r r o l e s one h a s h e l d p r e v i o u s t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a new r o l e a f f e c t s t h e amount o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e a c t o r g a i n s ; t h e g r e a t e r t h i s amount o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e l e s s ' t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o l e b e h a v i o r . T h e r e a r e two p r o p o s i t i o n s i n t e g r a l t o o u r t h e o r y : P r o p o s i t i o n 1 The p r i o r r o l e s t h a t one p e r f o r m s a f f e c t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n a b o u t a r o l e p r i o r t o i t s a c q u i s i t i o n ( a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) . P r o p o s i t i o n 2 T h e . g r e a t e r t h e amount o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o -c i a l i z a t i o n . t h e more i n l i n e o n e ' s e x p e c t a -t i o n s w i l l b e , t h e r e f o r e the. l e s s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y . 7 B e f o r e a p p l y i n g t h e s e g e n e r a l , p r o p o s i t i o n s t o a s p e c i f i c c a s e , we f e e l i t i m p o r t a n t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e " e x p e c t a t i o n -p e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c y . " T h i s o p e r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t b e f o r e a new r o l e i s a c t u a l l y a c q u i r e d , a n a c t o r has. e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r b o t h h i s p e r f o r m a n c e and. t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f o t h e r s , . i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e new r o l e . T h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a f f e c t e d b y t h e amount and t y p e of. a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n one has g a i n e d . The more one l e a r n s a b o u t a r o l e p r i o r t o i t s a c q u i s i t i o n t h e g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y he h a s t o b e t t e r p r e d i c t h i s b e h a v i o r and t h e b e -h a v i o r o f o t h e r s . T h i s w o u l d l e a d t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e d i s -c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . L i k e w i s e , p r i o r r o l e . l e a r n i n g a l l o w s one t o . r e a l i z e t h a t h i s b e h a v i o r i s n o t s o l e l y a f u n c t i o n o f h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , b u t i s a f f e c t e d by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f others'. Therefore.,, a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n an a c t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s arid h i s b e h a v i o r w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o u r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , i n t h a t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . We r e c o g n i z e t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s on an a c t o r ' s , b e h a v i o r , however, we do n o t i n c l u d e i t i n 8 o u r g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . I n a p p l y i n g o u r g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t o a f a m i l y . m i l i e u , we w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h r e e r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . : (1). t h e f a t h e r -c h i l d , (2) t h e h u s b a n d - w i f e , and (.3) t h e f a t h e r - e x t r a - f a m i l i a l r o l e . The f a t h e r - c h i l d . r o l e i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f a t h e r and t h e f i r s t b o r n ; t h e h u s b a n d - w i f e r o l e i s t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b etween t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r and h i s w i f e ( t h e m o t h e r ) ; 10 and. the father's e x t r a - f a m i l i a l roles are the relationships between the f i r s t - t i m e father and "others" outside- of the nuclear family (e.g., r e l a t i v e s , acquaintances, business asso-ciates) . The f i r s t proposition i n t h i s f a m i l i a l application is.: Proposition 1 The p r i o r roles that one performs a f f e c t the opportunities to learn about a r o l e p r i o r to i t s a c q u i s i t i o n (anticipatory s o c i a l i z a -tion) .. A. .The p r i o r roles that one performs that allow him the opportunity to learn the role.of husband, afte r having children, a f f e c t the amount of anticipatory s o c i a l i z a t i o n he ac-quires, concerning that r o l e . B. The p r i o r roles that one performs that allow him an opportunity to learn the role of father a f f e c t the amount of anticipatory, socia-l i z a t i o n he acquires, concerning the fatherrole. C. The p r i o r roles that one performs that allow him.the opportunity to learn e x t r a - f a m i l i a l roles, a f t e r having children, affect.the amount of anticipatory s o c i a l i z a t i o n he acquires, concerning those r o l e s . Let us further examine t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i o r roles and the amount of a n t i c i p a t o r y . s o c i a l i z a t i o n by demonstrating i t s application to our research on the role of.father.. One. method of p r i o r r o l e learning i s to assume s i m i l a r r o l e s , i n t h i s case, a role similar to that of father. Roles are made up of. elements and one of these elements.of the father role, i s "leader." Therefore., holding leadership positions ..such as Youth Leader, school leader, aad performing fa m i l i a l , roles such, as older s i b l i n g ( " q u a s i - p a r e n t a l " ) , a l l o w a young male to l e a r n c e r t a i n elements of the f a t h e r r o l e . Another method o f p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g i s i n o b s e r v i n g r o l e models. Performing, a r o l e , . i n a f a m i l i a l sense, of " r e l a t i v e " would allow a male t o observe h i s u n c l e s , c o u s i n s and others who are f a t h e r s , i n t h e i r r o l e p e r -formance. The t h i r d method o f p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g , i s through i n t e r a c t i o n with someone occupying the r o l e (as i t s correspondent) A c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n of a r o l e , they are r e c i p r o c a l , and t h e r e f o r e , f o r each f a t h e r t h e r e has t o be a t l e a s t one c h i l d . As a c h i l d of a f a t h e r one l e a r n s how. the f a t h e r behaves toward an o f f s p r i n g ; i f there i s more than one c h i l d i n a f a m i l y they (the c h i l d r e n ) a l s o have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe the f a t h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n who are s i b l i n g s . Our second p r o p o s i t i o n concerns the e f f e c t of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h a t . i s , the amount of p r i o r r o l e . l e a r n i n g i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o the.amount of d i s c r e p a n c y between one's r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g . r o l e performance. A p p l i c a t i o n to t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n to our r e s e a r c h i s made a s ^ f o l l o w s : P r o p o s i t i o n 2 The g r e a t e r the amount of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n the more i n . l i n e one's r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l b e , . t h e r e f o r e , the l e s s the d i s c r e p a n c y . A. The more p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g s i m i l a r t o the husband-wife.role, the l e s s • the d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e expect-a t i o n s and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o l e performance. 12 B. The more p r i o r r o l e learning s i m i l a r to the r o l e of f a t h e r - c h i l d r o l e , the less the discrepancy between r o l e expectations and the. corresponding r o l e performance. . C. The more p r i o r role learning s i m i l a r to the father's e x t r a - f a m i l i a l r o l e s , the less the discrepancy between ro l e expectations,and the corresponding role' performance. This second proposition i s i n l i n e with concepts germane to r o l e theory,, as Sarbln (1968:226) demonstrates: "A person cannot enact a. role for which he lacks the necessary r o l e expectations. These must be acquired'through experience." In summary, our t h e o r e t i c a l conceptualization. of the v a r i a -tions, that individuals have i n the amount of discrepancy between role expectations and the actual performance - of that r o l e , i s based on the opportunities a person had.previously.to learn various aspects of the new r o l e . D. Formulation of the Hypothesis The theory outlined i n the previous section of t h i s chapter presents an explanation of v a r i a t i o n s . i n the amount of d i s c r e -pancy between ro l e expectations and corresponding r o l e behavior experienced by . individuals i n r o l e acquisition.. The t h e o r e t i c a l propositions have been applied: to the family milieu showing that the types of p r i o r performed<roles.and.the frequency of t h e i r performance influence anticipatory s o c i a l i z a t i o n ; , which affects the amount of this, expectation-performance discrepancy. 13 Our t a s k now i s t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e o u r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o t e s t an h y p o t h e s i s . The s e l e c t e d h y p o t h e s i s i s : H y p o t h e s i s A f i r s t - t i m e ' f a t h e r who d i d n o t h a v e y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e . a g r e a t e r amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r f o r m a n c e . f o r h i s r o l e v i s - a - v i s h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d , a n d . o t h e r s , and t h e r o l e o f o t h e r s r e l a t i v e t o h i m upon, t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t b o r n , t h a n w i l l a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r who had y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o u r t h e o r y i n t h a t ; 1. p r i o r r o l e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y b y t h e o c c u p a t i o n - o f t h e r o l e of. o l d e r s i b l i n g , 2. t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who p e r f o r m e d s u c h . r o l e s w o u l d have a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n a s p e c t s o f t h e r o l e s and b e h a v i o r s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , 3. s u c h l e a r n i n g ( a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) w o u l d a s s i s t them i n h a v i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s more i n l i n e w i t h s u b s e q u e n t c o r r e s p o n d -i n g b e h a v i o r t h a n w o u l d a f i r s t - t i m e . f a t h e r who n e v e r p e r f o r m e d t h e r o l e o f o l d e r s i b l i n g , and 4. t h e amount o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y w o u l d be more f o r t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r w i t h o u t t h i s p r i o r r o l e , t h a n f o r t h o s e w i t h i t . The r o l e o f s i b l i n g was s e l e c t e d f o r o u r h y p o t h e s i s b e c a u s e i t p r o d u c e s , f o r t h e f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r w i t h y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s , a m a j o r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . . B e i n g an o l d e r s i b l i n g , a f f o r d s , one t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e f a t h e r r o l e . . u t i l i a n g a l l t h r e e o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d r o l e l e a r n i n g methods. T h a t . i s , he assumes s i m i l a r r o l e s t o t h a t o f t h e f a t h e r ( e . g . , q u a s i -p a r e n t a l ) r he o b s e r v e s , h i s f a t h e r ' s . i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s 14 ( i . e . , ' h i s . w i f e , e x t r a - f a m i l i a l o t h e r s , and h i s o f f s p r i n g ) , and he l e a r n s from h i s r e c i p r o c a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p with, h i s f a t h e r . The f a m i l y environment allows u n i q u e / o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r o l e l e a r n i n g . The p e r i o d .of time t h a t a.son r e s i d e s w i t h h i s n u c l e a r f a m i l y v a r i e s , however h i s l e a r n i n g . is. r e i n f o r c e d f o r a r a t h e r long p e r i o d of .time .within, a ..-family, s t r u c t u r e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s , although not e m p i r i c a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d , has been.suggested i n p a r t by o t h e r s ; for.example Brim (1968:210) suggests that:. "... the background of. experience in...a l a r g e f a m i l y of o ne 1s own, w i t h the p a t t e r n of s h a r i n g possessions' and space w i t h s i b l i n g s and.of l e a r n i n g to care f o r younger s i b l i n g s i n a q u a s i - p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , may have prepared.some r a t h e r w e l l ( f o r the r o l e . o f p a r e n t ) ; w h ile o t h e r s , growing up as only c h i l d -ren .. . . have l e s s i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g f o r the p a r e n t a l r o l e . " CHAPTER II METHODS A. Introduction In the preceding chapter, we pointed out that the res u l t s of other research show that there i s v a r i a t i o n i n the degree of d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n the acquis i t i o n of the role of father. We suggested that these differences i n d i f f i c u l t y are a function of the discrepancies between expectations and actual behavior, and that t h i s discrepancy i s importantly affected by differences in the opportunity for learning roles before they are actually assumed. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l descr ib'e-r the procedures used to operationalize the independent variable.of anticipatory s o c i a l -i z a t i o n and the dependent variable of the discrepancy between expectations and behavior. Further, we w i l l discuss the methods used to obtain data f o r tes t i n g the hypothesis. 15 16 B. V a r i a b l e s The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t we are t e s t i n g p r e d i c t s t h a t a f i r s t -time f a t h e r who had younger s i b l i n g s w i l l have e x p e c t a t i o n s more i n l i n e w i t h h i s and o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r , subsequent to the c h i l d ' s b i r t h , than w i l l a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r . w i t h o u t younger s i b l i n g s . The t e s t of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s n e c e s s i t a t e s f i n d i n g measures f o r the independent v a r i a b l e ( a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) and the dependent v a r i a b l e "(the d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s and behavior) w i t h i n a c e r t a i n group of i n d i v i d u a l s who meet c e r t a i n c o n t r o l c r i t e r i a . The independent v a r i a b l e of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by a dichotomous measure. That i s , we have a c o n t r o l group ( i . e . , f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s without y o u n g e r . s i b l i n g s ) and (2) an experimental group ( i . e . , f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s with, younger s i b l i n g s ) . These two groups c o u l d then have the same i n t e r v i e w schedule a d m i n i s t e r e d to them to determine (1) t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r t o the f i r s t b o r n ' s a r r i v a l , (2) t h e i r behavior and the be-h a v i o r of others a f f e c t e d by the c h i l d ' s b i r t h , and (3) the diserepaney between the two. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h our h y p o t h e s i s , we would p r e d i c t t h a t the r e p o r t e d . d i s c r e p a n c y would be g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group as.compared t o the experimental group. The dependent v a r i a b l e -the d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o r - r e q u i r e s a s e l e c t i o n of v a r i o u s items on which these a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n can be measured. These items should'.not o n l y i n c l u d e the f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r h i s own behavior, but a l s o the b e h a v i o r o f others (e.g., the c h i l d , w i f e and others) towards him. To o b t a i n data on t h i s variable,.we w i l l need 17 i n f o r m a t i o n o f (1) t h e f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a g i v e n r o i b e h a v i o r p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ' s b i r t h , (2) t h e a c t u a l b e h a v i o r s u b s e q u e n t t o i t s b i r t h , and (3) a c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e d i f -f e r e n c e between t h e two. The l i k e l i h o o d t h a t one c a n a l w a y s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a b e h a v i o r i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i s r emote; i n v a r i a b l y , t h e r e -f o r e , d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i l l o c c u r r e g a r d l e s s o f o n e ' s p r i o r l e a r n i n g . However, t h o s e w i t h p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g . ( a n t i c i -p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) , p r e d i c t a b l y , w i l l be c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s f a c t and a l t h o u g h t h e y d o . e x p e r i e n c e a d i s c r e p a n c y between ex p e c t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o r , i t w i l l n o t be o f s u c h a m a g n i t u d e a t o h i n d e r t h e i r r o l e performance... I n v i e w o f t h i s , we f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n q u i r e o f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s , i f a. d i s c r e p a n c y ( r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s m a g n i t u d e ) was s i g n i f i c a n t . o r n o t i n . h i n d -e r i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a s . a f a t h e r . F u r t h e r , t o t e s t o u r h y p o t h e s i s , we w i l l u t i l i z e c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( L e M a s t e r s , 1957; Hobbs, 1965) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o c i o - ' e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f 9 p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s . I t has. a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d ( J a c o b y , 1969) t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d by f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s may be a f f e c t e d by t h e age o f t h e c h i l d 10 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r e s e a r c h . I n l i g h t o f t h e s e d a t a , t h e c o n t r o l s © c h o s e n f o r s e l -e c t i n g o u r r e s p o n d e n t s were: (1) f a m i l i a l i ncome, (.2) f a t h e r 1 o c c u p a t i o n , and (3) age. o f t h e c h i l d . 18 Our task now i s to (1) develop a met h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l to. measure the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s , and (2) f i n d a group o f f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s who are homogeneous i n terms of our c o n t r o l c r i t e r i a , but d i f f e r i n t h e i r p r i o r r o l e (and consequently a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) . C. Interview Schedule To gather data f o r our h y p o t h e s i s t e s t , we c o n s t r u c t e d a 19-question i n t e r v i e w schedule (See Appendix B ) . Responses to the f i r s t p o r t i o n (questions 1 through 7) determined the measure o f p r i o r r o l e (our i n d i c a t o r o f the independent v a r i a b l e ) and a t the same time gave us demographic.information These qe 'Spon'se's informed us of the (1) r e s p o n d e n t , 1 s age, (2) c h i l d ' s age, (3) c h i l d ' s sex, (4) o c c u p a t i o n of the w i f e , (5) number of s i b l i n g s i n the f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y o f o r -i g i n , (6) ages and sex o f h i s s i b l i n g s , and (7) h i s s i b l i n g p o s i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the respondents'.answers to these l a s t t h ree q u e s t i o n s , he was as s i g n e d . t o e i t h e r the c o n t r o l or the experimental group. That i s , those respondents who had no younger s i b l i n g s were assi g n e d to the c o n t r o l group; w h i l e those who had younger s i b l i n g s were assigned t o the exper-imental group. The second p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (questions 8 through 17) determined the i n d i c a t o r s o f (1) the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f a t h e r p r i o r t o the b i r t h o f the f i r s t b o r n , , ( 2 ) subse-quent b e h a v i o r s a f t e r i t s * , b i r t h , and (3) the d i s c r e p a n c y be-tween the two. Items f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s e l e c t e d from 19 o t h e r s used p r e v i o u s l y i n r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h the e f f e c t s , o f the f i r s t b o r n on the p a r e n t s . In t o t a l , ten 11 items were s e l e c t e d a f t e r p r e - t e s t i n g . F u r t h e r , we added two q u e s t i o n s t o our q u e s t i o n n a i r e (questions 18 and 19) t h a t would a l l o w the respondent to mention other b e h a v i o r s t h a t he f e l t were c r i t i c a l i n h i s a d j u s t i n g to the r o l e of f a t h e r ; and the e x p e c t a t i o n s he had h e l d p r i o r to. the b i r t h of the c h i l d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed t o . g i v e us i n f o r m a t i o n on (1) the e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r e i t h e r the f a t h e r ' s behavior or the be-h a v i o r o f o t h e r s , (2) the a c t u a l ^/corresponding b e h a v i o r (s) , (3) the discrepancy.between the two, and (4) a measure o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i s c r e p a n c y ( i f . one e x i s t e d ) f o r the r e -spondent. The f i r s t two of.these measures were determined by u t i l i z i n g a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e . T h i s s c a l e c o n s i s t e d of. f i v e types of behavior*, the respondent would f i r s t s e l e c t which of these b e h a v i o r s b e s t corresponded to t h e . e x p e c t a t i o n s he h e l d p r e v i o u s t o the c h i l d ' s b i r t h , second, he would s e l e c t which of these behaviors a c t u a l l y r e presented the.behavior s i n c e t h e . c h i l d ' s b i r t h . The t h i r d p a r t of each q u e s t i o n required, a response of a "yes", or a "no", w i t h . r e f e r e n c e to the. s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i s -crepancy between the expressed e x p e c t a t i o n and the r e p o r t e d be-havior ( i f a d i s c r e p a n c y d i d e x i s t ) . The "yes" response s i g -n i f i e d t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y was of a s u f f i c i e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t magnitude to h i n d e r the respondent's performance i n the r o l e of f a t h e r ; w h i l e the "no" response demonstrated t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y was not s i g n i f i c a n t ( i n those terms). 20 The a c t u a l discrepancy, was computed by measuring the d i f -f e r e n c e between the expected and the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . The l a s t two q u e s t i o n s . ( q u e s t i o n s 18 and 19) on the i n t e r -view schedule ask the respondent to (1) name the most d i f f i c u l t adjustment he had to make, due to the a r r i v a l o f the f i r s t b o r n , and (2) what e x p e c t a t i o n s , i f any, d i d he have. The purpose of these q u e s t i o n s was to gather data on items other than those p r e v i o u s l y u t i l i z e d , on which f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r r e p o r t e d d i f f i -c u l t i e s (See Appendix C ) . D. Respondents. Based on our c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s ( L i e . , f a t h e r ' s occupation, f a m i l i a l income, and age of the c h i l d ) , we s e l e c t e d a group o f f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s . These f a t h e r s were a l l r e s i d e n t s o f the Acadia Park H i g h r i s e Apartments between the da t e s - o f August 1st and August 25th, 1976. Aca d i a Park H i g h r i s e i s a ma r r i e d student r e s i d e n c e ad-m i n i s t e r e d by, and l o c a t e d on the campus o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The requirements f o r r e s i d e n c e i n t h i s f a c i l i t y a r e: 1. couples must be l e g a l l y married, 2. couples must have only one c h i l d , 3. the age of the c h i l d must not exceed 18 months, 44. one of the spouses must be a f u l l -time student a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and 5. the t o t a l gross f a m i l i a l income must not exceed $10,400.00. The t o t a l number of s u i t e s i n the r e s i d e n c e i s 100. The number of student f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g t h e r e . d u r i n g the data c o l -l e c t i o n p e r i o d , however., was somewhat l e s s than the maximum 2 1 due t o v a c a t i o n s and t h e f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e s i d e d t h e r e d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r had o u t s i d e summer employment. The t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s was 42.- However, o f t h o s e , s e v e n were n o t u t i l i z e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s , b e c a u s e - t h e y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p o s t - i n t e r v i e w d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e y h a d e i t h e r n o t r e a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e q u e s t i o n s o r h a d c n o t b e e n t o t a l l y t r u t h f u l . T h e r e f o r e , a t o t a l o f 35 r e s p o n d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d : i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . Of t h o s e 3 5 , n i n e t e e n were r e s p o n d e n t s who were c a t -e g o r i z e d , a s h a v i n g p r i o r r o l e s - ( t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group) and s i x t e e n were in.-, t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e two g r o u p s . TABLE 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO GROUP C h a r a c t e r i s t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l Group C o n t r o l Group. • T o t a l R e s p o n d e n t ' s age 24 .5 2 3 . 5 24 .1 j ^ ' i l - d ' ti ~ v.(years) C h i l d ' s age 1 1 . 8 11. 6 1 1 . 8 (months) Sex o f t h e c h i l d c M a l e 5 2 . 6 56 .3 54 .3 F e m a l e 47.4 43.8 45 .7 W i f e ' s o c c u p a t i o n 34 .3 S t u d e n t 3 1 . 6 3 7 . 5 Housewife. 36 .8 3 1 . 3 34 .3 P a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e d 2 6 . 3 3 1 . 3 2 8 . 6 F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e d "5.3 0.0 2.9 According, t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n Table 2, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental. and. c o n t r o l groups are minimal. The l a r g e s t d i s c r e p a n c y between the two i s 5.9 ( i . e . , the w i f e ' s o c c u p a t i o n as student category) and the • s m a l l e s t i s .2 ( i . e . , the age of t h e , c h i l d ) . T h i s again, i s demonstrative of the homogeneity, of the respondents. E. Data Gathering Procedure The s e l e c t i o n o f the respondents was nonrandom. The- i n -terviews were h e l d , f o r the most p a r t , i n the a f t e r n o o n and e a r l y evening. These i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by the author. The s e l e c t i o n method was one of s t a r t i n g on the top f l o o r (14th) of the apartment ' b u i l d i n g and. working downward, knocking on every door. Records were kept of t h e s e - r e s i d e n c e s where the f a t h e r was not a t home, or where there was no response. A t -tempts were made to accomodate those f a t h e r s who were a v a i l -a b l e a t a time other t h a t t h a t scheduled by the i n t e r v i e w e r . When the i n t e r v i e w e r met the f a t h e r , he asked two questions (1) i f he qwas a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , and (2) i f he was a student and met the requirements of the r e s i d e n c e . I f he answered i n each case i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , he was then a s k e d . i f he would p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t concerned with v a r i o u s aspects of "new f a t h e r s . " I f the respondents showed some h e s i t a n c y , the i n t e r v i e w e r s t r e s s e d both the uniqueness o f the r e s e a r c h ( i . e . , u t i l i z i n g f a t h e r s as respondents) and the anonymity -of the • responses. The respondents were i n t e r v i e w e d i n p r i v a t e . The response r a t e was not as good as expected, due to the many s u i t e s t h a t were vacant (because of- the h i g h turnover r a t e 23^ d u r i n g the l a t e summer-pre s c h o o l period) or occupied by couples or s i n g l e s who d i d not meet the- c o n d i t i o n s , o f e l i -g i b i l i t y . CHAPTER I I I RESULTS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Our concern i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of our data a n a l y s i s i s to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s developed i n Chapter I. We w i l l p r e s e n t t h r e e analyses and a summary which w i l l apply them to our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . B. - A n a l y s i s of the Data The h y p o t h e s i s we are. t e s t i n g i s : A f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r who didnnot have younger s i b -A l i n g s w i l l experience a g r e a t e r amount of d i s c r e p -ancy between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance f o r h i s r o l e v i s - a ^ v i s h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d , and o t h e r s , • and the r o l e of others r e l a t i v e to him upon the a r -r i v a l o f the f i r s t b o r n , than w i l l a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r who had younger s i b l i n g s . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t we i n c l u d e d ten items i n the questionnaire- r e l a t i n g t o elements of the r o l e of f a t h e r and with r e s p e c t t o each, our respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r to the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d and the a c t u a l behavior a f t e r the c h i l d ' s b i r t h . The hypothesis pre-d i c t s t h a t the degree of d i s c r e p a n c y between these e x p e c t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o r s w i l l be g r e a t e r f o r those respondents who do not have younger s i b l i n g s (the c o n t r o l group) as compared t o those who do (the experimental group). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i s -c r e p a n c i e s f o r the c o n t r o l and experimental groups f o r each of the ten items i s r e p o r t e d i n Appendix D. Table 3 presents the mean d i s c r e p a n c y , f o r each of these two groups, on each o f the ten items. T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t the group means f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s a re: (1) g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group on e i g h t of the ten items, and (2) g r e a t e r f o r the experimental group on two of the items. F u r t h e r , the o v e r a l l mean of the d i s c r e p a n c y f o r a l l items i s g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group (.894) than f o r the experimental group (.794). Thus, our hyp o t h e s i s i s supported by the r e s u l t s f o r e i g h t o f the ten items and by the o v e r a l l mean of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s f o r these items. The two areas of d i s c r e p a n c y where our p r e d i c t i o n does not h o l d a re those o f s o c i a l contacts- and c h i l d c a r e . S o c i a l c o n t a c t s r e f e r s to those- i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r has with those o u t s i d e of h i s n u c l e a r f a m i l y . These i n t e r a c t i o n s are not always v i s i b l e to the other members of the f a m i l y , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not t o t a l l y i l l o g i c a l to assume t h a t having younger s i b l i n g s would not g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e a son's know-ledge about such i n t e r a c t i o n s . The s o c i a l c o n t a c t s item d i f -f e r s from those of in-home a c t i v i t i e s and o u t s i d e home a c t i v i t i e s (both of which conformed t o our p r e d i c t i o n ) i n t h a t they are more l i k e l y t o be v i s i b l e to the other members of the f a m i l y . That i s , both in-home and o u t s i d e home a c t i v i t i e s are more v i s -i b l e to o f f s p r i n g than s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . I f one's parents are 26 e n t e r t a i n i n g i n t h e home, t h e y ( t h e o f f s p r i n g ) w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y be aware o f i t . T h i s i s a l s o . t r u e o f t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t i n , o r f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r p a r e n t s v i s i t i n g o u t s i d e , t h e home. TABLE 3 AMOUNT OF DISCREPANCY BY GROUP A r e a o f }• Mean Amount o f D i s c r e p a n c y D i s c r e p a n c y C o n t r o l . Group E x p e r i m e n t a l Group D i f f e r e n c e * N=16 N=19 H o u s e h o l d D u t y ' P a r t i c i p a t i o n .6 88 .368" . +.320 S e x u a l R e l a t i o n s ' 1.000 .684 + .316 In-Home A c t i v i t i e s .938 .632 + .306 Husband-Wife R e l a t i o n s h i p 1.812 1.526 + .286 H o u s e h o l d D e c i s i o n M a k i n g 1.000 .842 + .158 O u t s i d e Home A c t i v i t i e s .813 .684 + .129 C h i l d D i s c i p l i n e .750 .632 + .118 Time A l l o c a t i o n .750 .684 + .066 S o c i a l C o n t a c t s .56 3 .895 -.332 C h i l d C a r e .625 1.000 -.375 Mean o f A l l Items .894 *.This m easure i s t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e , between t h e mean measures o f t h e two g r o u p s . A p o s -i t i v e s i g n shows s u p p o r t of.,the h y p o t h e s i s , and . a n e g a t i v e s i g n shows. n o n s u p p o r t . . S o c i a l c o n t a c t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, may change among one's work g r o u p o r o t h e r s o c i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s and n o t be v i s i b l e t o h i s c h i l d r e n . T h u s , we have good r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e l a c k o f v i s i b i l i t y a f f e c t s the d i s c r e p a n c y i n the area of s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ; p o s s i b l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r the g r e a t e r amount of d i s c r e p a n c y r e p o r t e d by the experimental group. I t would seem t h a t one of the t h i n g s an o l d e r s i b l i n g would l e a r n about, subsequent t o the a r r i v a l o f another c h i l d i n the family-, would be the f a t h e r ' s r o l e v i s - a - v i s c h i l d c a r e . However, the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y experienced by those i n the experimental group was more than t h a t r e p o r t e d by those i n the c o n t r o l group. A case can be.made, non e t h e l e s s , f o r t h i s u n p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e i n t h a t male c h i l d r e n do not seem to be s o c i a l i z e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d c a r e . T h i s i s t r u e both i n the.case o f c a r i n g f o r t h e i r younger s i b l i n g s , and t h e i r p l a y • a c t i v i t i e s . An o l d e r sons^ r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to h i s younger s i b l i n g s does not, i n most cases, i n c l u d e the c a r i n g f o r a' younger c h i l d . With regard t o the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s of sons, they are disc o u r a g e d from p l a y i n g the r o l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d c a r e and wit h p l a y t h i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t (e/g., d o l l s ) I t does not t h e r e f o r e , seem unreasonable t o suppose t h a t these f a c t o r s e x p l a i n t h i s u n p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s c r e p a n c i e s . In summary then? the f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d i n Table 3 i n d i c a t e , as we p r e d i c t e d , t h a t those f i r s t - t i m e ' f a t h e r s without younger s i b l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t e r amount of d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance, than those f a t h e r s with younger s i b l i n g s . T h i s i s t r u e both i n terms of the number of -areas .in which they r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c i e s and i n terms of the t o t a l amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y r e p o r t e d . These data t h e r e f o r e , tend to support our hyp o t h e s i s . 28 The f a c t that discrepancies we're reported by both groups, led us to analyze t h e i r s ignificance as reported by the re-spondents. The sign i f i c a n c e of these discrepancies i s measured by the responses to the following question with respect to each of the ten items on the interview schedule. Was the reported discrepancy of a s i g n i f i c a n t magnitude to hinder your performance as a ^father?" Table 4 demonstrates the number and percentage of respondents by group, who indicated a discrepancy on the ten items and correspondingly, the number and percentage of those who reported the discrepancy, who thought i t was s i g n i f i c a n t . The data presented i n Table 4 indicate that those fathers without younger s i b l i n g s not only reported a greater amount of discrepancy i n comparison with the experimental group (those . fathers with younger s i b l i n g s ) , but also reported more frequently that such discrepancies were s i g n i f i c a n t . The.significance of discrepancy was more frequently reported by the control group than by the experimental, group with respect to f i v e of the ten items (household duty p a r t i c i p a t i o n , in-home a c t i v i t i e s , household decision-making, c h i l d d i s c i p l i n e , and c h i l d care). The experimental group more frequently reported s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancies than the control group on three of the. ten items (s o c i a l contacts, outside home a c t i v i t i e s , and time a l l o c a t i o n ) . The two groups also reported the same amount of s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy on the remaining•two items (husband-wife r e l a t i o n s h i p and sexual r e l a t i o n s ) . Where the si g n i f i c a n c e of the discrepancy was i n l i n e with the hypothesis (greater for the control group than the experimental group), the average 29 % R e p o r t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t # R e p o r t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t % R e p o r t i n g D i s c r e p a n c y # R e p o r t i n g D i s c r e p a n c y % R e p o r t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t # R e p o r t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t % R e p o r t i n g D i s c r e p a n c y # R e p o r t i n g Discrepancy u MH a, 0 (1) U m o cu cn < Q VD VD - P G 3 Q O • H -p a! • H o o xi CD W 4J 3 H O rd X PL, o o CO LD O o C N r H CN cn C O —I -rH IS - P 3 rd X r H cu cu CO K VO "a* in 00 in CM CO cn cn vo o o rH VO H CO vo r H o O VO r H O O r H •iH X! cn C 0 -rl - P rd W r H 3 (U X « ro ro ro vo CN H CO VD m I O cu a •H O O cn cn o cn cn ro vo o a) S O cn cu • H OJ - P rl > Cfl -rH !+» - P 3 0 W - H lO < o in in ro in o r H o o r H O r H ro VD cu c • H r H aj • H U CQ • H u a r H cn o H CO in o oo oo ro vb o r H in CO ro vo CN r H vo VD VO i n cn •P u rd rd H - P o a o o CO C J I in oo CO vo ro r H o cn cn ro vo H CU H U XJ rd U U l o 00 oo in r H r H r H in CO CN cn CO vo CO o rd - P O 30 amount o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s c r e p a n c y was 38%. Where t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y was c o n t r a r y t o t h a t p r e d i c t e d by t h e h y p o t h e s i s ( g r e a t e r f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n f o r t h e c o n t r o l group) t h e a v e r a g e amount o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y was o n l y 10%. The f i g u r e s f o r the. a v e r a g e amounts o f d i s c r e p a n c y and f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s o v e r a l l t e n . i t e m s as shown i n T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e t h a t n o t o n l y does a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e p o r t d i s c r e p a n c i e s when compared t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t -a l g r o u p (68% t o 58%), b u t a l s o t h a t a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , as compared t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y (85% f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p and 70% f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ) . L e t us now a n a l y z e t h e f i g u r e s o f T a b l e 4 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e o f T a b l e 3. Of t h e e i g h t i t e m s where t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p more f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d a d i s c r e p a n c y t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , i n f o u r o f t h e s e t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a l s o r e g a r d e d t h e d i s c r e p a n c y as b e i n g more s i g n i f i c a n t . I n t h e o t h e r f o u r c a s e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y was e q u a l i n two and. g r e a t e r f o r t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e o t h e r two. I n t h e two i t e m s , where t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p more f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d a d i s c r e p a n c y t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , i n one c a s e i t a l s o r e p o r t e d a g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , and i n t h e other,, i t r e p o r t e d a l o w e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . : 31 In summary our a n a l y s i s have y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : 1. The mean, amounts of d i s c r e p a n c y a c c o r d i n g to each of the ten items was g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group as compared t o the experimental group on e i g h t of the ten items; 2. The o v e r a l l mean of the d i s c r e p a n c y f o r a l l items was g r e a t e r if or. the c o n t r o l than the experimental group (.894 vs .794); 3. The mean p r o p o r t i o n of those r e p o r t i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s was g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group than f o r the experimental group (68% vs 5 8%); 4. The percentage of those r e p o r t i n g a d i s c r e p a n c y for- whom i t was s i g n i f i c a n t was g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group than f o r the experimental group (38% vs 10%); 5. Of the e i g h t items where the- c o n t r o l group r e p o r t e d a g r e a t e r mean amount of di s c r e p a n c y , f o u r were a l s o r e p o r t e d as more s i g n i f i c a n t by the- c o n t r o l group and o f " t h e two items, on which the experimental group r e p o r t e d a g r e a t e r mean amount of d i s c r e p a n c y , one of the items was r e p o r t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t by the experimental group; and 6. The average amounts of s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e p o r t e d over the ten items i s g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group than f o r the experimental group (85% vs 70%) .. Our data, thus f a r , have y i e l d e d c o n c l u s i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our h y p o t h e s i s . I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n the development of bur t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n Chapter I, we i n t r o d u c e d the concept of p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g ( a n t i c i -patory s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) . In our o p e r a t i o n a l ! z a t i o n , we dichotomized the independent v a r i a b l e of p r i o r r o l e s i n t o (1) f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s without younger s i b l i n g s ' , and (2) f i r s t - t i m e fathers, w i t h y o u n g e r ^ s i b l i n g s . In the l a t t e r case, we d i d not take i n t o account the number of younger s i b l i n g s , but merely t h a t t h e r e was one or more. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h our concept of p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g ^ i t would seem t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r such l e a r n i n g would i n c r e a s e as the number of younger s i b l i n g s i n c r e a s e . An i n c r e a s e i n such p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g would be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the amount o f di s c r e p a n c y r e p o r t e d by the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r . That i s , the • more younger s i b l i n g s a f a t h e r has, the g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y he would, have to l e a r n the r o l e of f a t h e r p r i o r to i t s assump-t i o n , and thus, subsequently ( a c c o r d i n g to our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ) h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s would be more -in'"line w i t h h i s behavior and the behavior of o t h e r s . T h i s would r e s u l t i n a lower amount of r e p o r t e d d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance, as • compared to f a t h e r s w i t h fewer younger- s i b l i n g s . Table 5 shows the a n a l y s i s we undertook to t e s t t h i s e x t e n s i o n of our. c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . T h i s t a b l e shows the mean amount of d i s c r e p a n c y r e p o r t e d on each of the ten items, a c c o r d i n g to the number of younger s i b l i n g s t h a t the f i r s t -time f a t h e r had. Our p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t the average s i z e o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i l l decrease as one reads from column one to column'five. I n s p e c t i o n o f Table 5 shows t h a t t h i s c o n s i s t e n t r e d u c t i o n i n d i s c r e p a n c y -as the number of younger s i b l i n g s i n c r e a s e s does not occur i n any of the ten areas, nor does i t occur i n the row marked " T o t a l " a t the bottom of the t a b l e , which r e p r e s e n t s the average amount of d i s c r e p a n c y o c c u r r i n g i n a l l ten items. 33 TABLE 5 DISCREPANCY ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF YOUNGER SIBLINGS OF THE RESPONDENTS* Number of Younger S i b l i n g s Area o f 0 1 2 3 4 Discrepancy N=16 N=6 N=9 N=3 N=l H o u s e h o l d D u t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n .688 .500 .333 .333 .000 S e x u a l R e l a t i o n s 1.000 .833 .667 .667 .000 In-Home A c t i v i t i e s .938 .833 .556 .333 1.000 H u s b a n d - W i f e R e l a t i o n s h i p 1.812 1.500 1.556 1.333 2 .000 H o u s e h o l d De-c i s i o n M a k i n g 1.000 .833 .889 .667 1.000 O u t s i d e Home A c t i v i t i e s .813 .83 3 .444 1.000 1.000 C h i l d ; D i s c i p l i n e .750 .833 .667 .333 .000 Time 1> A l l o c a t i o n .750 .333 .667 1.333 1.000 S o c i a l CORf-acts C o n t a c t s .•FS3--.563 .500 1.000 1.000 2.000 C h i l d C a r e .625 .667 1.333 .667 1.000 T o t . R . l T o t a l .894 .707 .781 .766 .900 * D i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e r e p o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e mean s c o r e s o f e a c h o f t h e a r e a s o f d i s c r e p a n c y . F u r t h e r , i f we l o o k s o l e l y a t t h e l a s t row i n T a b l e 5, r e -p r e s e n t i n g the-mean amount o f d i s c r e p a n c y o v e r a l l t e n i t e m s and i g n o r e t h e l a s t c o l u m n s i n c e i t h as o n l y one c a s e , t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s , t h a t p e r h a p s a f a t h e r n e e d s o n l y t o have one y o u n g e r s i b l i n g i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e and l e a r n t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f t h e r o l e o f a f a t h e r , and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s b e y o n d t h e f i r s t do n o t i n c r e a s e h i s l e a r n i n g o f t h i s r o l e . However, i f 34 we look a t each of the ten items s e p a r a t e l y , we Ido not •.find a s i m i l a r p i c t u r e . F i n a l l y , we wish t o p o i n t out t h a t when we d i v i d e the n i n e -teen cases i n the experimental group.into f o u r c a t e g o r i e s the number of cases i n each becomes extremely s m a l l . In these circumstances, the preceeding a n a l y s i s o f Table 5 can a t bes t , be o n l y s u g g e s t i v e . C. Summary The data t h a t have been analyzed i n t h i s chapter show sup-p o r t f o r our s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s . That i s , those f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s without younger s i b l i n g s e xperienced more d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r themselves and ot h e r and the cor r e s p o n d i n g performances, thah-did those f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s w i t h y o u n g e r . s i b l i n g s . Our f i r s t a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of. a comparison of the means of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s on each of the ten items f o r the c o n t r o l and experimental.groups. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t on e i g h t o f the ten items, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our p r e d i c t i o n , the c o n t r o l group experienced.a g r e a t e r mean amount o f d i s -crepancy. We a l s o presented r a t i o n a l e s f o r the two items which d i d not conform t o our h y p o t h e s i s . F u r t h e r , the o v e r a l l means of the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y showed the c o n t r o l group exper-ienced a g r e a t e r amount than d i d the experimental group. Both o f these r e s u l t s support our h y p o t h e s i s . S i n c e d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d among those i n both groups, we analyzed the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these d i s c r e p a n c i e s . In t h i s analysis,. 35 " s i g n i f i c a n c e " r e f e r s to how much the r e p o r t e d d i s c r e p a n c y was seen by the respondent to h i n d e r the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r ' s r o l e performance. We presented the percentage of those r e -p o r t i n g such d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n both the c o n t r o l and experimental groups, who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t (1) on h a l f o f the items, the c o n t r o l group demonstrated t h a t t h e i r d i s c r e p a n c i e s were more s i g n i f i c a n t than those,of the experimental group, (2) on three of the items the experimental group demonstrated a g r e a t e r amount of s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y , and (3) on the remaining two items the two groups r e p o r t e d the same amount o f s i g n i f -i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y . Further,, the average amount o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y over a l l ten items was 85% f o r the. c o n t r o l group and 70% f o r the experimental group. T h i s a n a l y s i s a l s o shows support f o r our h y p o t h e s i s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t not only do f i r s t -time f a t h e r s without younger s i b l i n g s e xperience a g r e a t e r amount of d i s c r e p a n c y , but l i k e w i s e r e p o r t e d t h a t such d i s -c r e p a n c i e s h i n d e r t h e i r r o l e performance to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than they do f o r those f i r s t - t i m e , f a t h e r s w i t h younger s i b -l i n g s . These analyses i n d i c a t e support of our hy p o t h e s i s i n t h a t the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y was g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group than f o r the experimental group, a c c o r d i n g to (1) the mean amounts o f . d i s c r e p a n c y a c c o r d i n g to each item, (2) the o v e r a l l mean. 6f'-,the«idiscrepancy f o r a l l . items, (3) the mean p r o p o r t i o n of those r e p o r t i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s , (4) the percentage of those r e p o r t i n g . a d i s c r e p a n c y f o r whom i t was s i g n i f i c a n t , and (5) 36 the average amounts of s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e p o r t e d over the ten items. We a l s o presented an a n a l y s i s of the data a c c o r d i n g to the number o f younger s i b l i n g s the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r had. T h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t our p r e d i c t i o n t h a t the g r e a t e r the number of younger s i & l i n g s , the l e s s the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y d i d not h o l d . t r u e . T h i s a n a l y s i s d i d suggest, however, t h a t perhaps a f a t h e r needs.only to have one younger s i b l i n g i n o r d e r to observe and l e a r n those elements o f the f a t h e r r o l e . Although t h i s e x t e n s i o n of our h y p o t h e s i s was not sub-s t a n t i a t e d , the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s . o f the data presented i n t h i s chapter have shown t h a t the v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amounts of d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e p o r t e d by the c o n t r o l and exper-imental groups i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our h y p o t h e s i s . A c c o r d i n g t o our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f i r s t - t i m e . f a t h e r to l e a r n aspects of h i s new r o l e p r i o r to i t s a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g ( a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) i s g r e a t e r f o r those f a t h e r s w i t h younger s i b l i n g s , which a s s i s t s them i n having e x p e c t a t i o n s more i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r performance and the performances o f o t h e r s , subsequent to the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t b o r n . Our hy-p o t h e s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n has been sup-ported by the data analyzed i n t h i s c h a pter. CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION A. I n t r o d u c t i o n In the preceeding chapters, we developed a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . The concepts and process w i t h i n t h i s frame-work were then a p p l i e d to the r o l e of the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , and an h y p o t h e s i s concerning t h i s r o l e was developed. The p r e -d i c t i o n , t h a t the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y between a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r h i s performance and the performance of o t h e r s and t h e i r corresponding b e h a v i o r s , would be g r e a t e r f o r those who d i d not have younger s i b l i n g s than f o r those f i r s t -time f a t h e r s who d i d , was supported by our data. These data were c o l l e c t e d , u t i l i z i n g the i n t e r v i e w sched-u l e and procedures o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I , and t h e i r a n a l y s i s was presented i n the succeeding chapter. P r i o r to d i s c u s s i n g 37 38 the weaknesses of our study and suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , we v / i l l i n d i c a t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s , of. t h i s r e s e a r c h . I f we assume t h a t our data a r e r e l i a b l e ; , then they im-p l y two t h i n g s : (1) t h a t . t h o s e f i r s t - t i m e , f a t h e r s who,do not have younger s i b l i n g s need, t o have access to o t h e r methods f o r l e a r n i n g aspects of the r o l e of father,, and (2). that, f i r s t -time f a t h e r s need to have o n l y one younger s i b l i n g , i n order to be a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n about ...the f a t h e r r o l e ( i . e . , more than one s i b l i n g does n o t ' c o n s i s t e n t l y d i m i n i s h the amount of.expectation-performance d i s c r e p a n c y ) . The d i s c u s s i o n of the weaknesses'of t h i s study and sug-g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l f o l l o w the o u t l i n e o f the t h e s i s . That i s , they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n terms of the theory, h y p o t h e s i s , methods, and r e s u l t s , i n o r d e r . We c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s and actual, b e h a v i o r of f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s as being.a f u n c t i o n of, the f a t h e r ' s a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or of the oppor-t u n i t i e s he had to. l e a r n how a f a t h e r , a c t u a l l y behaved.. How-ever, while t h a t may be a major f a c t o r i n determining the f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , h i s a c t u a l r o l e performance v i s - a - v i s h i s c h i l d , h i s w i f e and others .is. o f t e n . l i k e l y to be . a f f e c t e d i n v a r y i n g degrees by the e x p e c t a t i o n s . o f o t h e r s as to how he ought to behave as a father.,, For example, we found r e s u l t s on the item of " c h i l d c a r e " . i n our f i r s . t a n a l y s i s of the data which d i d not conform to our hypothesis . (Table. 3: the., comparison of the mean amounts of .discrepancy, by group) . We. suggested t h a t t h i s was due.to the l a c k of male s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n c h i l d c a r i n g r o l e s . However, i t has a l s o been found t h a t : "... women's p r e - b i r t h e x p e c t a t i o n s of men's i n f a n t c a re involvements pr e d i c t e d , men's: i n -volvements even.more s t r o n g l y than d i d men's ex p e c t a t i o n s " ( F e i n , 1976:346) I t would seem t h a t i n t h i s case, women e x e r t more power than men i n determining the a c t u a l behavior o f f a t h e r s . In Chapter I we d i d mention t h i s concept (the a f f e c t of the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of others on the a c t o r s b e h a v i o r ) , and showed i t s p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n to the f a t h e r r o l e ( B e l l , 19 76) m We chose, however, not to u t i l i z e i t i n our study. A d e c i s i o n which now seems t o have been a^poor one. T h i s i s not the o n l y area where our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n seems to be inadequate. For example, we d i d not c o n s i d e r . e i t h e r the v a r i e t y of experiences t h a t have a. l e a r n i n g e f f e c t on the a c t o r or the v a r i o u s areas o f the r o l e t h a t are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y l e a r n e d . The former r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s not s o l e l y a f u n c t i o n of one p r i o r r o l e but of v a r i o u s roles.; one performs. In these cases the p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g may be gained through e i t h e r formal or informal.means- The l a t t e r makes r e f e r e n c e t o the v a r i o u s elements t h a t make, up a r o l e , each o f which p o s s i b l y are l e a r n e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . That i s , d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g experiences are r e l a t e d t o the elements of a r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . We w i l l now apply these c r i t i q u e s o f our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n to the r o l e o f f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r . T h i s r o l e i s made up of s e v e r a l elements which we c a t e g o r i z e as (1) f a c t u a l , ( i . e . , those p h y s i c a l aspects of the r o l e which need.to be attended to) and (2) e v a l u a t i v e d e c i s i o n s which have t o be made ( i . e . , d e c i s i o n s t h a t have t o be made r e g a r d i n g the household and the c h i l d ) . 40 An example of the f i r s t i s baby c a r e , and of the second the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r of the household d u t i e s . The f i r s t can be l e a r n e d by a c h i l d on.the entrance of a newborn i n t o the f a m i l y , w h ile the second may not, and t h e r e f o r e must be l e a r n e d from other e x p e r i e n c e s . Although we mentioned the concept of r o l e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Chapter I, and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o . f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n (Burr, 196 7, 1971), i n our r e s e a r c h we d i d not c o n s i d e r any concepts a f f e c t e d by the v a r y i n g amount of expectation-performance d i s c r e p a n c y . S i n c e we are l o o k i n g a t r o l e . a c q u i s i t i o n , i t should tO' f o l l o w to analyze the amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p e r i -enced i n the new r o l e . . Role s a t i s f a c t i o n would be a f f e c t e d not o n l y by the amount of d i s c r e p a n c y experienced.by the a c t o r , but would a l s o be a f u n c t i o n of the r o l e s a t i s f a c t i o n of the a c t o r i n the r e c i p r o c a l r o l e . For example, the amount of r o l e s a t i s f a c t i o n of a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , v i s - a - v i s h i s w i f e , would be a f f e c t e d by the w i f e ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h her r o l e ( i . e . , a s a t i s f i e d w i f e p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t s the s a t i s f a c t i o n of her spouse). The improvement of our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c a l l s f o r a r e t h i n k i n g of the areas of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t means of g a i n i n g a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n con-c e r n i n g those areas. T h i s reformulation, of our. theory i n c l u d e s the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s , a d i v i s i o n of the r o l e . i n t o i t s elements, v a r y i n g methods of p r i o r r o l e .learning.,, and the s a t -i s f a c t i o n f e l t i n the new r o l e . 41 Our h y p o t h e s i s , s i m i l a r to our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , was not adequate or r e f i n e d t o the degree d e s i r e d . . In our o p e r a t i o n -a l i z a t i o n we c o n s i d e r e d a dichotomous measure of p r i o r . r o l e s ; t h a t i s , those f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s without younger s i b l i n g s and those with younger s i b l i n g s . We d i d not c o n s i d e r , however, any of the f o l l o w i n g : (1) the age d i f f e r e n c e s between the f i r s t -time f a t h e r s and t h e i r younger s i b l i n g s (the experimental group), (2) other r o l e s t h a t f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s might have h e l d t h a t would have pr o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i -z a t i o n , and (3) ot h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . t h a t would a f f o r d them knowledge about the f a t h e r r o l e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the age between f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s and t h e i r younger s i b l i n g s appears now to be an important v a r i a b l e t h a t we should have c o n s i d e r e d . I t does not seem unreasonable to assume t h a t a small d i f f e r e n c e i n age (e.g., l e s s than three years) between a f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r and h i s younger s i b l i n g ( s ) would not y i e l d as gr e a t a l e a r n i n g experience as would a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n age. I t seems h a r d l y l i k e l y t h a t a one year o l d would r e c o g n i z e and remember many of the r o l e behav-i o r s of the f a t h e r , upon the a r r i v a l o f the newborn. However, a c h i l d of f o u r or more might w e l l remember these b e h a v i o r s . In f u t u r e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s of. the concept.of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n , we would do w e l l to u t i l i z e t h i s . variable, as i t would seem to be a b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r of " l e a r n i n g experiences" than merely t h a t the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r had younger s i b l i n g s . Another v a r i a b l e t h a t we d i d not c o n s i d e r was t h a t of other r o l e s t h a t the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r h e l d t h a t p r o v i d e d him w i t h l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s v i s - a - v i s the f a t h e r r o l e . Those ,. 42 f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s who performed r o l e s t h a t i n c l u d e d p r o x i m i t y to i n f a n t s and/or t h e i r parents would seem to p r o v i d e these op-p o r t u n t i e s . For example, b e i n g an u n c l e to an i n f a n t who, l i v e d c l o s e enough f o r the u n c l e to have r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h the c h i l d , would not only allow the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y to observe the behavior of the c h i l d but a l s o t h a t of the p a r e n t s . Other r o l e s a p p l i c a b l e are b a b y s i t t e r and a f r i e n d t o r e c e n t p a r e n t s . C e r t a i n l y these o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be more r e c e n t and perhaps more a p p l i c a b l e t o l e a r n i n g today's f a t h e r . r o l e than would having younger s i b l i n g s years ago. T h e i r r o l e s , t h e r e -f o r e , should be c o n s i d e r e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h as i n d i c a t o r s of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Other o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e those of both a formal and an i n f o r m a l nature. An example of the former i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r e n a t a l child-development and f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . Though these courses vary i n p r o c e s s , t h e i r c ontent would a t l e a s t a llow the father, an op-p o r t u n i t y t o develop r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about c e r t a i n aspects of h i s , h i s w i f e ' s r o l e , and the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r . Examples of i n f o r m a l methods of l e a r n i n g about the r o l e of f a t h e r are d i s -c u s s i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who are now f a t h e r s or who are know-l e d g a b l e i n v a r i o u s aspects of the f a t h e r r o l e , and. r e a d i n g l i t -e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the newborn and the f a t h e r r o l e . These methods o f l e a r n i n g about the r o l e o f f a t h e r . s h o u l d , l i k e w i s e , be c o n s i d e r e d . a s . i n d i c a t o r s of. a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In view of our suggestions f o r a more adequate concept-u a l i z a t i o n and b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s of our concepts, i t seems 43 reasonable t o suggest t h a t i t would be an improvement i f we were to d i v i d e the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r r o l e i n t o elements and apply the v a r i o u s measures of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n to them. P r e v i o u s l y , we dichotomized those elements i n t o . f a c t u a l and e v a l u a t i v e d e c i s i o n s c a t e g o r i e s and i n d i c a t e d , that, op^ p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i o r r o l e l e a r n i n g would be a p p l i e d d i f f e r -e n t i a l l y . T h i s then, i s our s u g g e s t i o n : A p p l y . t o each of the v a r i o u s elements o f the f a t h e r r o l e the three methods of e x p e r i e n c i n g a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( i . e . , performing p r i o r r o l e of having younger s i b l i n g ( s ) , o b s e r v i n g other r o l e s t h a t a f f o r d the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n aspects of the f a t h e r r o l e , and performing a r o l e r e c i p r o c a l to t h a t of the f a t h e r ) . For example, we c o u l d then p r e d i c t t h a t the e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning areas o f c h i l d c a r e would,.beimore r e a l i s t i c f o r . t h o s e f i r s t -time f a t h e r s who had younger s i b l i n g s than, those without, but t h a t such a r o l e would not be a good i n d i c a t o r of e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r frequency of sexual r e l a t i o n s . In a s i m i l a r manner, we c o u l d l i n k the type of l e a r n i n g t o the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the r o l e of the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r . We c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the v a r i a b l e of the age d i f f e r e n c e between f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s and. t h e i r younger s i l b i n g ( s ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p between v a r y i n g . p r i o r r o l e , l e a r n i n g experiences and r o l e elements and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r r o l e seems a l o t c l e a r e r than the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n we u t i l i z e d i n our study. T h i s . r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and i t s . e m p i r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . ; c a l l s f o r methods d i f f e r e n t from those, u t i l i z e d i n our.study. 44 The measuring instrument we c o n s t r u c t e d was a t e n b e h a v i o r a l item i n t e r v i e w schedule, which u t i l i z e d , a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e t o measure r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance..Even a f t e r s e v e r a l p r e - t e s t s , . t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t i l l . l a c k e d the c l a r i t y d e s i r e d . S e v e r a l of the items (e.g., s o c i a l c o n t a c t s and house-. h o l d decision-making), were.reported . t o . b e . ambiguous by many of the respondents. Other respondents had to be prodded to f o l l o w the course, of the schetdule. These, and other problems mentioned i n C h a p t e r - I I , g a v e r i s e t o a . c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of our instrument- F u r t h e r , our schedule contained two questi o n s of. an open-ended nature. These requested the r e -spondent to name the aspect, o f the acquisition... of the f a t h e r r o l e t h a t had. presented.him. w i t h the most d i f f i c u l t y and to r e p o r t what e x p e c t a t i o n s . h e had had previously,, concerning t h a t a s p e c t . The purpose of these questions was t o p r o v i d e us with p o s s i b l e . a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the elements of the f a t h e r r o l e which we had not i n c l u d e d i n our q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The b e n e f i t of these questions was pr o b l e m a t i c , as the.respond-ents c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r r e d to those items a l r e a d y u t i l i z e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . F u r t h e r , many, of the respondents (even when prodded) c o u l d not f i n d an answer. .' ..The" methods used t o o b t a i n data w i l l in. p a r t be determined by the hyp o t h e s i s .to be t e s t e d . However, some suggestions can be made now. An examination of. the e x p e c t a t i o n s of expectant f a t h e r s c a l l s f o r administering, a . q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r i o r , t o the a r -r i v a l of the. f i r s t b o r n . . . Subsequently,.another q u e s t i o n n a i r e should be admi n i s t e r e d a t . d i f f e r e n t . i n t e r v a l s ...of the c h i l d * s 45 e a r l y months and/or y e a r s . A l o n g i t u d i n a l study, of t h i s type, w i l l a l l e v i a t e problems our respondents had i n " r e c a l l i n g " t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s ( i n some cases as l o n g as 18 months). These meth o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been .discussed with s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s - i n t e r e s t e d , i n the area of fatherhood. In 12 a r e c e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Ross.D.. Parke, he i n d i c a t e d t h a t along w i t h h i s c o l l e a g u e s , he had developed an instrument to measure the v a r i a b l e s of e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of a newborn, b e h a v i o r s subsequent to i t s a r r i v a l , and o t h e r v a r i -a b l e s . E v a l u a t i o n s of these e x i s t i n g instruments as a p p l i e d to pur c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g , o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s to be made p r i o r to t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n o f t h i s study i n t e r p r e t e d the r e s u l t s of three data m a n i p u l a t i o n s . We concluded t h a t the f i r s t two confirmed our h y p o t h e s i s and the t h i r d l e d t o the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s need, to have, o n l y one younger s i b l i n g i n order to be presented t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about the. f a t h e r r o l e . These f i n d i n g s should be taken w i t h c a u t i o n however, as the number of the respondents i n our r e s e a r c h was s m a l l (16 i n the c o n t r o l group and 19 i n the experimental group), and as pre-v i o u s l y mentioned, our s e l e c t i o n . o f i n d i c a t o r s was poor., In . f u t u r e research., both of. these problems can be p a r t i a l l y s o l v e d by u t i l i z i n g both a g r e a t e r number, of respondents and. a p p l y i n g our r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . In summary we have d i s c u s s e d i n .this chapter: 1. the i m p l i c a t i o n s of our r e s e a r c h ; 2. the weaknesses of our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n 46 which i n c l u d e s the concepts o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s , the v a r i e t y of learning, experience,, the v a r i o u s elements o f the acquired, r o l e , and r o l e s a t i s f a c t i o n ; 3. the l i m i t a t i o n s of our o p e r a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n , and suggestions f o r hypotheses which i n c l u d e the v a r i a b l e s of the age d i f f e r e n c e between, the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r and h i s younger s i b l i n g ( s ) , d i -v erse methods of l e a r n i n g the f a t h e r r o l e , v a r i o u s elements of the r o l e , and the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a t t e r two; 4. m e t h o d o l o g i c a l weaknesses and sugges-t i o n s f o r a p p l y i n g other methods to t e s t c o r r e s p o n d i n g hypotheses which i n c l u d e l o n g i t u d i n a l data c o l l e c t i o n ; and 5. a n a l y t i c a l problems and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r s o l v i n g them, i n c l u d i n g the u t i l i -z a t i o n of a l a r g e r number of respondents. In a d d i t i o n to the r o l e of the f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r , . f u t u r e r e -search should concern (1) t h i s r o l e d u r i n g the development of the c h i l d , and (2) the r o l e . o f f a t h e r subsequent to the a r r i v a l of other c h i l d r e n . Our i n v e s t i g a t i o n u t i l i z e d respondents whose f i r s t b o r n was between the ages o f t h r e e months and.eighteen months. I t should be noted t h a t i t i s assumed " t h a t f a t h e r ' s involvement t y p i c a l l y comes l a t e r i n the i n f a n t ' s development" (Parke and Sawin, 1976:370). T h e r e f o r e , endeavors should be made to undertake r e s e a r c h on the r o l e of f a t h e r along a continuum of the c h i l d ' s age, and h i s . r o l e v i s - a - v i s o t h e r . o f f s p r i n g . Although our primary i n t e r e s t i s . t h e r o l e of f a t h e r , we a l s o suggest t h a t our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a p p l i e s ...to. other ..roles, both f a m i l i a l and n o n f a m i l i a l . For example, both members o f a marriage come i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f how 47 each other, should a c t . P r i o r r o l e s and subsequent amounts of a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n may be used to e x p l a i n d i s c r e p a n c i e s between these e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance and m a r i t a l s a t i s -f a c t i o n . N o n f a m i l i a l r o l e s to which our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n would be a p p l i c a b l e would i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l . , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l . FOOTNOTES 1. LeMasters (1974) presents two demonstrations, of the l a c k o f f a t h e r - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h : (1) w i t h i n the 1,140.pages i n the Handbook o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n Theory and Research, e d i t e d by David A. G o s l i n (1969)., there are' o n l y f i v e s p e c i f i c r e f -erences to the f a t h e r ; and (2) i n a review.of 444 p u b l i s h e d papers from 196 3 t o 1968 d e a l i n g with the f a m i l y , Ruano, et a l . (1969) found o n l y e l e v e n (2.5%) u t i l i z e d data from f a t h e r s "and/or husbands.-2. The f a t h e r ' s r o l e i n the c h i i d r e a r i n g process i n the past, perhaps, was. a t b e s t a s m a l l one i n the m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s ; however, c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t ' f a t h e r s can par-t i c i p a t e i n the c h i i d r e a r i n g f a c e t s of f a m i l y l i f e (Clayton, 1975). In view of the contemporary d e c l i n e s i n the b i r t h r a t e (fewer c h i l d r e n per household) and the i n c r e a s e d number of women i n the l a b o r f o r c e (Boyd, 1974;. Legare, 1974), f a t h e r s now have a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y < (and a t times the. n e c e s s i t y ) t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h i i d r e a r i n g . 3. These s t u d i e s u t i l i z e the d e f i n i t i o n of c r i s i s presented by. H i l l i n h i s study F a m i l i e s Under S t r e s s (1949:51): "... any sharp or d e c i s i v e change f o r which o l d p a t t e r n s are inadequate... A c r i s i s i s . a s i t -u a t i o n i n which the u s u a l b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s are found unrewarding and the new ones are c a l l e d f o r immediately." H i l l d i v i d e d the types of c r i s i s i n t o those o f "dismemberment", and those of " a c c e s s i o n . " I t i s w i t h i n the l a t t e r category-t h a t these r e p o r t e d c r i s i s s t u d i e s are concerned. 4. Russel Oil"- (1974) reports, the f i v e most f r e q u e n t l y checked "bothersome" items f o r mothers and f a t h e r s , i n descending order are: Mothers: 1. worry about personal, appearance 2. p h y s i c a l t i r e d n e s s and f a t i g u e 3. baby i n t e r r u p t e d s l e e p and r e s t 4. worry about l o s s of " f i g u r e " 5. f e e l i n g "edgy" o r upset e m o t i o n a l l y 48 49 F a t h e r s : 1. 2. 3. 4. baby i n t e r r u p t e d s l e e p and r e s t suggestions from in-laws about baby' baby i n c r e a s e d money problems b a b y ' s ' b i r t h made i t necessary to change some plans a d d i t i o n a l amount of work r e q u i r e d f o r baby. 5. 5. Roles by t h e i r . . , d e f i h i t i o n are p l a c e d w i t h i n the context of " s e l f - o t h e r . " T h e r e f o r e , r o l e s are by nature r e c i p r o c a l . That i s , occupying a r o l e n e c e s s i t a t e s someone occupying a r o l e r e c i p r o c a l to i t . For example, f o r a teacher to be a teacher t h e r e has to be a student (of s t u d e n t s ) , — r " - f o r a l e a d e r to -be.,. a H e a d e r there has to be a f o l l o w e r (or ' f o l l o w e r s ) ; and f o r t h e r e to be .^affather t h e r e has to be a t l e a s t one o f f s p r i n g . 6. The discrepancy.between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and role.performance has been- u t i l i z e d and t e s t e d i n the area of m a r i t a l i n t e r -a c t i o n (Ort, 1950.; K o t l a r , 1961; Hawkins and Johnson, 1969; Burr, 1967, 1971). Burr *(1976:297) s t a t e s : "Since every married couple.encounters these d i s c r e p a n c i e s between d e s i r e d and a c t u a l be-havior,: and s i n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has found some of these d i s c r e p a n c i e s have.a very d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t on marriages, and the two p r i n c i p l e s ( r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e behavior] .... are v a l u a b l e i n m a r i t a l i n t e r a c t i o n . " More' i n l i n e w i t h our area of r e s e a r c h i s the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ment by McCary (1975:294): "Parenthood i s so r o m a n t i c i z e d i n o u r . c h i l d -o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y t h a t the d i s p a r i t y between the f a n t a s i e s of having a c h i l d and the a c t -u a l e x p eriences o f having a c h i l d o f t e n , i f not" always, causes a severe j o l t t o the emo-t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m of the parents an€ the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . " 7. I t should be emphasized t h a t although o u r ' c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and i t s f a m i l i a l a p p l i c a t i o n y i e l d a dependent v a r i a b l e o f the d i s c r e p a n c y between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c t u a l r o l e b e h a v i o r , our theory has f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s d i s -crepancy i n f l u e n c e s measures of .role adjustment and/or r e l a t i o n s h i p . s a t i s f a c t i o n ; ( B u r r , 1967, 1971). 8. The e f f e c t of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of others can b e ' a p p l i e d to o u r ' r e s e a r c h , as B e l l (1975:264) s t a t e s : "The c r u c i a l i s s u e , however, i s t h a t the norms and g u i d e l i n e s ' [of the r o l e of f a t h e ^ J are so i l l d e f i n e d t h a t the husband i s compelled to determine .his r o l e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n accordance w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s w i f e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . " ( i t a l i c s added). 50 9. The d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e L e M a s t e r s (1957) s t u d y , where he f o u n d 83% o f t h e c o u p l e s i n t e r v i e w e d r e p o r t i n g c r i s i s s c o r e s i n t h e " e x t e n s i v e - s e v e r e " c a t e g o r y ' a n d t h e Hobbs (1965) s t u d y , where he f o u n d no r e p o r t e d c r i s i s i n t h e " e x t e n s i v e - s e v e r e " c a t e g o r y , may be due t o t h e s a m p l e s u t i l i z e d . b y t h e " r e s e a r c h e r s . L e M a s t e r s ' sample was m i d d l e - c l a s s , w h i l e t h e sample employed by'Hobbs was p r e d o m i n a n t l y w o r k i n g c l a s s . . 10. The c h i l d r e n i n ,the L e M a s t e r s . (1957) s t u d y were u p ~ t o . f i v e y e a r s / o f age: h i g h c r i s i s ; s c o r e s were r e p o r t e d . The c h i l d r e n i n t h e Hobbs.(1965) s t u d y were a l l u n d e r one y e a r o f age: low c r i s i s s c o r e s were r e p o r t e d . The o t h e r c r i s i s s t u d i e s ( D y e r , 1963-; Hobbs, 1968; Beauchamp, 1969) f a l l i n t o p l a c e . w h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i s i s s c o r e s and c h i l d ' s a g e . a r e p l o t t e d . 11. Twenty i t e m s were p r i m a r i l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i t e r a t u r e ( L e M a s t e r s , 1957; D y e r , 1963; Hobbs, 1965,1968; L a k e , 1974; R u s s e l l , 1974) c o n c e r n e d w i t h . p a r e n t a l . p o s t r n a t a l c r i s i s . T h e s e t w e n t y i t e m s were t h e n o r g a n i z e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d . p r e t e s t e d . We u t i l i z e d r e s p o n d e n t s , i n o u r p r e t e s t , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t o . b e u s e d i n o u r h y -p o t h e s i s t e s t ' ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n . o f t h e age o f . t h e c h i l d w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m two y e a r s t o s i x y e a r s ) . We f o u n d t h a t some o f t h e i t e m s seemed ambiguous, as t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d h a d t r o u b l e r e s p o n d i n g t o them. Other-i t e m s were e i t h e r t o o complex o r c a u s e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o become i n v o l v e d i n a r a t h e r l o n g " t h o u g h t - r e c a l l " pro-^ j s s c e s s . We were s e e k i n g t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h c o u l d be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d and were s a l i e n t enough f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o r e c a l l , p r e v i o u s t h o u g h t s a b o u t . t h e m . T h e r e f o r e , we r u l e d o u t h a l f ( t e n ) o f t h e i t e m s t h a t f e l l i n t o t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p r o b l e m a r e a s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , we d e c i d e d , t h a t t h e o t h e r t e n i t e m s met o u r c r i t e r i a ' ( i . e . , i d e n t i f i a b l e , s a l i e n t , and s h a r e d b y f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s ) . We d i d f u r t h e r p r e t e s t i n g ... o f , t h e s e " t e n i t e m s and f e l t s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e y d i d meet o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s . 12. Ross D. P a r k e i s P r o f e s s o r o f P s y c h o l o g y and C h a i r m a n , D i v i s i o n o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, I l l i n o i s . BIBLIOGRAPHY Beauchamp, D a v i d 1969 " P a r e n t h o o d as c r i s i s : An a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y . " R e p o r t e d i n A r t h u r . P. J a c o b y , " T r a n s i t i o n t o p a r e n t h o o d : A r e a s s e s -sment." J o u r n a l . o f M a r r i a g e . a n d t h e F a m i l y 31:720-27. B e l l , R o b e r t R. 119 75 M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n . Homewood, 111.: The D o r s e y P r e s s . B e n s o n , L e o n a r d 1968 F a t h e r h o o d : A S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . New Y o r k : Random.. House . B i d d l e , B r u c e J . .and. E d w i n J . Thomas 1966 R o l e T h e o r y : C o n c e p t s , and R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : *JiohniWiiey?'and; Sons . B l o o d , R o b e r t 0., J r . and D o n a l d M. W o l f e 1960 Husbands and W i v e s . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s . Boyd, M o n i c a 19 74 " F a m i l y s i z e i d e a l s o f . C a n a d i a n s : A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l n o t e . " C a n a d i a n Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y 11:360-70. B r i m , O r v i l l e G., J r . 1968 " A d u l t s o c i a l i z a t i o n . " Pp. 182-226 i n J o h n A. C l a u s e n ( E d . ) , S o c i a l i z a t i o n and S o c i e t y . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Co. B u r r , W e s l e y R. 1967 " M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n : A c o n c e p t u a l r e -f o r m u l a t i o n ; t h e o r y and p a r t i a l , t e s t o f t h e t h e o r y . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s -s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a . 19 70 " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f mar-r i a g e o v e r t h e l i f e c y c l e : A random m i d -d l e c l a s s s a m p l e . " J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y 32:29-37. 51 52 B u r r , W e s l e y R. 1971 "An e x p a n s i o n and t e s t o f a r o l e t h e o r y o f m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y 33:368-72. 1972 " R o l e t r a n s i t i o n s : A r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a t h e o r y . " J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y 34:407-16. 19 73 T h e o r y C o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e S o c i o l o g y o f t h e F a m i l y . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s . 1976 S u c c e s s f u l M a r r i a g e a. P r i n c i p l e s Ap-. p r o a c h . Homewood, 111.: The D o r s e y P r e s s . C l a y t o n , R i c h a r d R. 1975 The F a m i l y , M a r r i a g e and S o c i a l Change. T o r o n t o : D. C. H e a t h and Co. C o t t r e l l , L . S., J r . 19 33 " R o l e s and m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . " P u b l i -c a t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 27:108-15. de W i n t e r , A d r i a n 19 71 " F a m i l y p l a n n i n g i n U r u g u a y . " Unpub-l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . D y e r , E v e r e t t D. 196 3 " P a r e n t h o o d a s c r i s i s : A r e s t u d y . " M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g 25:196-201. D y e r , W i l l i a m G. 1962 " A n a l y z i n g m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t u s i n g r o l e t h e o r y . " M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g 24:371-75. E l d e r , R a c h e l Ann 19 49 " T r a d i t i o n a l and d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f f a t h e r h o o d . " M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g 11:98-101. F a n s h e l , D a v i d 1966 F o s t e r P a r e n t h o o d : A . R o l e A n a l y s i s . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . F a s t e a u , Marc F e i g e n 1976 "Men as p a r e n t s . " Pp.60-65 i n D e b o r a h S. D a v i d and D a v i d . B r a n n o n , The F o r t y -N i n e P e r c e n t M a j o r i t y : The M a l e Sex R o l e . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g . 53 F e i n , Robert A. 1976 "Men's entrance to parenthood." The Family Coordinator. 25 :341-48. G avr on, H annah 1966 The C a p t i v e Wife. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . Gosliny;.. David A. 1969 Handbook of S o c i a l i z a t i o n Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally. Hawkins, James L. and Kathryn Johnson 1969 "Perceptions of b e h a v i o r a l conformity, imputation of consensus and m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . " Journal, of Marriage and the Family 31:50 7-11. H i l l , Reuben 19 49 F a m i l i e s Under S t r e s s . New York: Harper and Row. Hobbs, D a n i e l F., J r . 1965 "Parenthood as c r i s i s : A t h i r d study." J o u r n a l of Marriage and the.Family 27:367-72. 1968 " T r a n s i t i o n t o parenthood: A r e p l i c a t i o n and. an e x t e n s i o n . " J o u r n a l o f Marriage and the Family 30:413-17. Jacoby, A r t h u r P. 1969 " T r a n s i t i o n to parenthood.: A reassessment." J o u r n a l o f Marriage - and the Family 31: 721-27. K o t l a r , S a l l y L. 1961 "Middle c l a s s r o l e s ... i d e a l and per-c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n to adjustment i n mar-.. r i a g e . " Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los Angeles. Lake, A l i c e 19 74 "Three f o r the seesaw: How a f i r s t baby changes a marriage." Redbook, A p r i l : 2 7 - 9 . L a n d i s , Judson T. and Mary. L a n d i s 1973 B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l Marriage. Englewood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Legare, Jacques", 1974 "Demographic h i g h l i g h t s on f e r t i l i t y d e c l i n e i n Canadian marriage c o h o r t s . " Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology 11:287-307. 54 L e M a s t e r s , E . E . 1957 " P a r e n t h o o d i n c r i s i s . " M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g 19:352-55. 19 74 P a r e n t s i n Modern A m e r i c a . Homewood, 111.: The D o r s e y P r e s s . L y n n , D a v i d B. 11961 "The h u s b a n d - f a t h e r r o l e . i n the. f a m i l y . " . M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g .23:295-96. McCary, James L e s l i e 1975 Freedom and Growth i n Marriage.. S a n t a B a r a b a r a , CA: H a m i l t o n P u b l i s h i n g Co. Mead, M a r g a r e t 1949 M a l e and F e m a l e . New York:, Wm. Morrow and Co. M e y e r o w i t z , J o s e p h H. and H a r o l d Feldmen 1966 " T r a n s i t i o n t o p a r e n t h o o d . " P s y c h i a t r i c R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s 20:78-84. M u e l l e r , J e a n n e 1970 " R e c o n c i l i a t i o n o r r e s i g n a t i o n : A c a s e s t u d y . " F a m i l y C o o r d i n a t o r 19:345-52. O ' B r i e n , J o h n 1970 "The d e c i s i o n t o d i v o r c e . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . O l s o n , D a v i d H. L. and Nancy S. D a h l 1975 I n v e n t o r y o f M a r r i a g e and. F a m i l y L i t -e r a t u r e . S t . P a u l , M i n n . : F a m i l y S o c i a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a . O r t , R o b e r t S. 1950 "A s t u d y o f r o l e c o n f l i c t s as r e l a t e d t o h a p p i n e s s i n marriage.. " J o u r n a l o f Ab n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y 45:691-99. P a r k e , Ross D. and D o u g l a s B. Sawin 1976 "The f a t h e r ' s r o l e i n i n f a n c y : A r e -e v a l u a t i o n . " The F a m i l y C o o r d i n a t o r 25:365-71. P a t t e r s o n , G e r a l d R. 1971 F a m i l i e s : A p p l i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l L e a r n i n g t o F a m i l y L i f e . Champaign, 111.: R e s e a r c h P r e s s . R o d g e r s , Roy H. 1973 F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n . a n d T r a n s a c t i o n . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 55 R o s s i , A l i c e S. 1968 " T r a n s i t i o n to parenthood." J o u r n a l of Marriage and the Family 30:26-39. Ruano, B. J . , J . D. Bruce and M. M. McDermott 1969 " P i l g r i m s progress I I : Recent trends and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n f a m i l y r e s e a r c h . " J o u r n a l of Marriage and the Family 31:688-98. R u s s e l l , Candyce Smith 1974 " T r a n s i t i o n t o parenthood: Problems and g r a t i f i c a t i o n s . " J o u r n a l o f Marriage and the Family 36:294-301. S a r b i n , Theodore R. 1968 "Role t h e o r y . " Pp. 223-58 i n Gardner Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook i n S o c i a l i P s y c h o l o g y . Cambridge, Mass,.: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co. Seeley, John R., R. Alexander Sim and E. L o o s l e y 1956 Crestwood H e i g h t s . New York: B a s i c Books. Strodtbeck, F r e d L. 19 54 "The f a m i l y as a three-person group." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 19:23-9. Sutton-Smith, B r i a n and B. G. Rosenberg 19 70 The S i b l i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. Walters, James and Nick S t i n n e t t 19 71 " P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s : A decade review of r e s e a r c h . " J o u r n a l o f Marriage and the Family 33:70-110. 1976 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Ross D. Parke, P r o f e s s o r of Psychology, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , October 19, 1976. APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF' CRISIS STUDIES The f i r s t of the c r i s i s s t u d i e s was completed by LeMasters (1957), i n which he u t i l i z e d a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e to measure the amount of c r i s i s 46 urban, .middle-class, f i r s t - t i m e parents ex-p e r i e n c e d subsequent to the b i r t h o f the c h i i d . The s c a l e con-s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : (1) no c r i s i s , (2) s l i g h t c r i s i s , (3) moderate c r i s i s , (4) e x t e n s i v e c r i s i s , and (5) severe c r i s i s . He found t h a t 17% of h i s sample r e p o r t e d c r i s i s w i t h i n the f i r s t t h ree c a t e g o r i e s , and 83% experienced c r i s i s o f an e x t e n s i v e - s e v e r e n a t u r e . Dyer (1963) u t i l i z e d a sample s i m i l a r to t h a t of LeMasters i n measuring the amount of c r i s i s e xperienced by 32 f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s . The study found t h a t 47% of the parents r e p o r t e d c r i s i s i n the t h r e e l e s s e r c a t e g o r i e s , and the remaining 53% f e l l into the e x t e n s i v e - s e v e r e range. Hobbs (1965) used a p r o b a b i l i t y sample of 53 couples t h a t i n c l u d e d a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s from lower-lower to upper-middle. The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n f l i c t e d w i t h those p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d . Hobbs found t h a t there were no r e p o r t s of e x t e n s i v e or s e v e r e . c r i s i s , and.that 13.2% r e p o r t e d mod-„ e r a t e c r i s i s and t h a t the remaining 86.8% expressed c r i s i s i n the s l i c r h t c a t e gory. 56 57 L a t e r Hobbs (1968) extended h i s study t o i n c l u d e 27 couples ( s e l e c t e d s i m i l a r l y to those of h i s f i r s t s t u d y ) . Again h i s f i n d i n g s , concurred to those of. h i s previous study? showing t h a t none, of the couples r e p o r t e d c r i s i s i n the e x t e n s i v e - s e v e r e category, w i t h 14.8.% e x p e r i e n c i n g c r i s i s o^ a moderate n a t u r e , and 85.2%.in the s l i g h t c a t e g o r y . R u s s e l l (19 74) f u r t h e r extended the Hobbs s t u d i e s . She u t i l i z e d a l a r g e random sample (27.1). o f f i r s t - t i m e p a r e n t s . The r e s u l t s roughly p a r a l l e l e d those of.Hobbs (1968). The methods u t i l i z e d by these r e s e a r c h e r s v a r i e d . LeMasters u t i l i z e d a l o o s e l y . s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w : Dyer used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; Hobbs (1965) and R u s s e l l (1974) used a check-l i s t on which the couples reported, how much c e r t a i n items "bothered"-them: ..in a l a t e r . study Hobbs (1968) used both a c h e c k l i s t and ariaunstruetured q u e s t i o n n a i r e (such i n t e r v i e w s were tape-recorded and s c o r e d by j u d g e s ) . Beauchamp (1969) d i d a study t o compare the h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a n d . l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d methods of measuring a c c e s s i o n types o f . c r i s i s . He found t h a t among those given the i n t e r v i e w (unstructured) 22.2% expressed c r i s i s o f the.extensive-severe, category and the remaining 77.8% d i s t r i b u t e d among the nore-slight-moderate c a t e g o r i e s . For.those given the c h e c k l i s t ( s t r u c t u r e d ) , 21.1% r e p o r t e d - e x t e n s i v e or severe c r i s i s , w h i l e the remaining three c a t e g o r i e s shared the. remaining 78.9%... He found., t h e r e f o r e roughly the same r e s u l t s y i e l d e d by these d i f f e r e n t methods. R u s s e l l (1974) used th» c h e c k l i s t method based on the Hobbs (1965) study; f u r t h e r she showed r e s u l t s - f o r - b o t h females 58 and males.. Although the corre s p o n d i n g percentages between the two groups were somewhat equal (more so i f we dichotomize the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of c r i s i s ) , the. items checked v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g . to sex. APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Age ( i n years) of the respondent: 2. Age ( i n months) of the respondent's c h i l d : 3. Sex of the c h i l d : 1: Male 2: Female 4. Wife's o c c u p a t i o n : 1: Student 2: Housewife 3: Employed Part-Time 4: Employed F u l l - T i m e 5. Number of c h i l d r e n i n the household, when the respondent was growing up: 6. L i s t by age and sex those who were p r e s e n t : 7. Was the respondent p r e s e n t i n the household when the younger members were growing up? 1: Yes 2: No 8. A What were the respondent's e x p e c t a t i o n s ( p r i o r t o the c h i l d ' s b i r t h ) f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d i s c i p l i n i n g of the c h i l d , i n comparison to the w i f e ' s r o l e ? B How does the respondent view h i s r o l e i n c h i l d d i s c i p l i n e , now i n comparison.to h i s wif e ' s ? 1: A g r e a t d e a l l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n 2: S l i g h t l y l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n 3: Equal to w i f e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n 4: S l i g h t l y more p a r t i c i p a t i o n 5: A gr e a t d e a l more p a r t i c i p a t i o n 59 60 C I f a d i s c r e p a n c y d o e s e x i s t , does t h e r e s p o n d e n t f i n d t h a t i t i s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t m a g n i t u d e t o h i n d e r h i s p e r f o r m a n c e as a f a t h e r ? 1: Yes 2: No 9. A What were t h e r e s p o n d e n t 1 s e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t t h e amount o f t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o h i m by h i s w i f e ? B What ha s b e e n t h e a c t u a l t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o h i m by h i s w i f e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e t i m e p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ? A l o t l e s s t i m e A l i t t l e l e s s t i m e Same amount o f t i m e A l i t t l e more t i m e A l o t more t i m e . f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t C Was t h e d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No 10. A What were t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r any change i n t h e f r e q u e n c y and amount o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s w i f e : 1: A g r e a t d e c r e a s e 2: A s l i g h t d e c r e a s e 3: Remain t h e same 4: A s l i g h t i n c r e a s e 5: A g r e a t i n c r e a s e B Has t h e r e b e e n any c h a n g e ? C Was t h e d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No 11. A What were t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r any c hange i n h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n . h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s ? B What ha s h a p p e n e d t o t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n r e -g a r d t o h o u s e h o l d , d u t i e s , s i n c e t h e c h i l d ' s b i r t h ? 1: D e c r e a s e g r e a t l y 2: D e c r e a s e s l i g h t l y 3: Remain t h e same 4: I n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y 5: I n c r e a s e g r e a t l y 61 C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No 12. A What were the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the respondent concerning h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in. household, decision-making? B D i d h i s r o l e change, and to what ..degree? 1: D e c r e a s e . g r e a t l y 2: Decrease, s l i g h t l y 3: Remain the same 4: Increase s l i g h t l y 5: I n c r e a s e . g r e a t l y C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No 13. A What were the respondent's e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning h i s r o l e i n c h i l d c a r e i n comparison t o h i s w i f e ' s ? B How does h i s r o l e compare to h i s w i f e ' s i n c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d ? 1: A g r e a t d e a l l e s s 2: S l i g h t l y l e s s 3: Equal to the w i f e ' s 4: S l i g h t l y more 5: A g r e a t d e a l more C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2 N o 14. A What were the respondent's e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g any change i n . t h e frequency and amount of s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ? B How has the frequency and amount of s o c i a l c o n t a c t s changed? 1: G r e a t l y decrease 2: S l i g h t l y decrease 3: Remain, the same 4: S l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e 5: G r e a t l y i n c r e a s e C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes-2: No -62 15. A What were the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the respondent concerning the amount of "in-home" a c t i v i t y change? What type o f change has been e f f e c t e d s i n c e the c h i l d ' s b i r t h ? 18 19 B A g r e a t decrease A s l i g h t i n c r e a s e Remain the. same A s l i g h t i n c r e a s e A g r e a t i n c r e a s e C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No 16. A What were the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the respondent c o n c e r n i n g the.amount o f "outside-the-home" a c t i v i t y change? B What type o f change has been, e f f e c t e d by.the c h i l d ' s a r r i v a l ? 1: A g r e a t decrease 2: A s l i g h t decrease 3: Remain the same 4: A s l i g h t i n c r e a s e 5: A g r e a t i n c r e a s e C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1:- Yes 2: No 17. A What were the respondent's~expectations f o r any change i n t h e . m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ? B Has th e r e been any change, and i n what way s i n c e the c h i l d ' s b i r t h ? 1: The r e l a t i o n s h i p would g r e a t l y decrease 2: S l i g h t l y decrease 3: Remain the same 4: S l i g h t l y improve 5: G r e a t l y improve C Was the d i s c r e p a n c y s i g n i f i c a n t ? 1: Yes 2: No Name the most d i f f i c u l t adjustment, on the respondent's p a r t , due to the a r r i v a l . o f the f i r s t b o r n : What e x p e c t a t i o n s , i f any, d i d the respondent have f o r such adjustment? APPENDIX C MEASURES AND INDICATORS MEASURE INDICATOR QUESTION NUMBER Demo g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s P r i o r R o l e s E x p e c t a t i o n s and B e h a v i o r s D i s c r e p a n c y and I t ' s S i g n i f i c a n c e Age o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t 1 Age o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' . . . c h i l d 2 Sex o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s '. c h i l d 3 Number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s f a m i l y 5 L i s t o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n by age and s e x 6 I f r e s p o n d e n t was.home w h i l e y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s were b e i n g r a i s e d 7 Ten i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s , o f t h e . f a t h e r r o l e . v i s - a - v i s (1) h i s . w i f e , (2) h i s c h i l d , and (3) o t h e r s . 8-17 The d i s c r e p a n c y o f e a c h r e s p o n d e n t was m e a s u r e d a l o n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : (.1) t h e a c t u a l d i f -f e r e n c e between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o r , (2) an o v e r a l l r a t i n g , o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s t o t a l d i s c r e p a n c y , and (3) t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any d i s c r e p a n c y on t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . A d d i t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n W i f e ' s o c c u p a t i o n The most d r a s t i c .adjustment made b y t h e f a t h e r due t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t b o r n The e x p e c t a t i o n s he had a b o u t s u c h a d j u s t m e n t 18 19 APPENDIX D FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DATA i C o n t r o l G roup N=16 E x p e r i m e n t a l Group N=19 A r e a o f D i s c r e p a n c y D p> cn o o c H 3 fD r t Ui O 3 H i n CD O n rt fD 3 0 fD fD O r t 3 fD r t * # 3 fD 3 "HI H fD r t H fD 'JO TJ fD fD t ) H O Q r< CD r t 3 fD r t 0 J H o u s e h o l d D u t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n 0 5 31 12 63 1 j 11 69 7 37 S e x u a l R e l a t i o n s 0 4 25 9 47 1 8 50 7 37 2 4 25 3 16 In-Home A c t i v i t i e s 0 5 31 8 42 1 7 44 10 53 2 4 25 2 5 Husband-Wife 0 0 0 3 16 R e l a t i o n s h i p 1 5 31 3 16 2 9 56 13 68 3 2 13 0 0 H o u s e h o l d ' D e c i s i o n - 0 7 44 7 37 M a k i n g 1 2 13 8 42 2 7 44 4 21 O u t s i d e Home 0 6 38 10 53 A c t i v i t i e s 1 7 44 5 26 2 3 19 4 21 C h i l d D i s c i p l i n e 0 6 38 9 47 1 8 50 8 42 2 2 13 2 11 64 65 Time A l l o c a t i o n 0 6 38 8 42 1 8 50 9 47 2 11 S o c i a l Contacts 0 7 44 7 37 1 9 56 7 37 2 0 0 • • 5 - • • • 26 C h i l d Care 0 6 38 6 32 1 10 63 7 37 2 0 0 6 32 T o t a l 0 52 33 79 42 1 75 47 71 37 2 31 19 40 21 3 2 1 0 0 * The percentages may t o t a l more then 100, due to rounding. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094122/manifest

Comment

Related Items