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Industrialized housing in British Columbia Parghi, Bhargav Narendra 1979

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INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by BHARGAV NARENDRA PARGHI Dip. Arch. School of Architecture, Ahmedabad, India, 1970 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE . in the School of Architecture We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1979 (_) Bhargav Narendra Parghi ]979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t ten pe rm i ss i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date / 3 CX^TO ABSTRACT This study, comprised of three major sections, reviews the concept of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i t s present application and future potential for the production of housing i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d parts of the world, with a focus on the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The discussion presented i n the f i r s t two sections i s based largely on the study of the available l i t e r a t u r e on the subject. The discussion i n the t h i r d section i s based on v i s i t s to selected f a c t o r i e s , interviews and available references. The f i r s t section describes the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , that i s , (a) mass production, (b) assembly l i n e arid centralized work and (c) organization and planning of production. I t i s noted that standar-di z a t i o n , co-ordination of work and dynamic approach to marketing are es s e n t i a l elements of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The second section examines the relationship between the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and those of housing. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing, (such as demand for i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , i t s complexity and bulkiness, cost of i t s production and purchase and i t s f l u c t u a t i n g market) make organization and com-prehensive planning imperative for i t s mass production and e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . In addition to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing, l o c a l factors such as geography, market d i s t r i b u t i o n and c a p i t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y need to be considered i n a comprehensive planning for i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. Housing, being a complex, a bulky and an expensive product, the e f f i c i e n c y of i t s factory production ( o f f - s i t e production) must be extended to i t s on-site assembly through a co-ordinated approach to both o f f - s i t e and on-site works. The t h i r d section i s a review of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing in B r i t i s h Columbia. The l o c a l geography, market d i s t r i b u t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l and government's role i n housing are examined. The production method and the organizational approach of the "modular" and "package" housing industry are analysed. Four manufacturing firms are chosen for the analysis. It i s concluded that at present the industry of factory-produced housing does not compare favourably with the s i t e - b u i l t housing industry. The current trends of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of housing are l i k e l y to remain unchanged unless an i n i t i a t i v e i s taken for a comprehensive planning of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. This planning must consider: the need for standardization and co-ordinated o f f - s i t e and on-site works; the unevenly di s t r i b u t e d and fluctuating market; the economics of large-distance transportation on a mountainous t e r r a i n ; the task of providing environmentally appropriate housing; and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing. Individual manufac-turers are less l i k e l y to take such an i n i t i a t i v e because of t h e i r commercial motives. Therefore, the i n i t i a t i v e should come from the government through t h e i r housing p o l i c i e s , guidelines and, perhaps, f i n a n c i a l incentives. In the absence of t h i s i n i t i a t i v e , the desirable develop-ment of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing b e n e f i t t i n g the ultimate users of these housing—the dwellers, would continue to be a d i f f i c u l t task. TABLE OF CONTENTS No. T i t l e Page No. TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 0.1 INTRODUCTION 1 SECTION-1 INDUSTRIALIZATION -: 1.1 TOWARDS INDUSTRIALIZATION 9 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIA-LIZATION 15 CONCLUSION 26 FOOTNOTES 2 8 SECTION-2 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND HOUSING 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSING 30 CONCLUSION 46 FOOTNOTES 48 SUMMARY OF SECTION-1 AND SECTION-2 50 SECTION-3 CONTEXT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA v i 3.1 PROVINCIAL CONDITIONS 55 CONCLUSION 70 3.2 . REVIEW OF EXISTING INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 72 CONCLUSION 142 FOOTNOTES 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY ; 155 APPENDIXES A . l MOBILE PRODUCTION PLANTS 161 A.2 "SYSTEM ECOLOGIC" - AN EXAMPLE OF STANDARDIZATION FOR INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING 169 A.3 POPULATION FIGURES FOR CITIES (OVER 10,000) AND TOWNS (OVER 5,000) OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 187 A.4 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MANUFACTURERS 189 TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS No., T i t l e Page No. 1. Phase of Self-Dependence 10 2. Phase of Interdependence 11 3. Phase of In d u s t r i a l Production .. 12 4. B r i t i s h Columbia 54 5. Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 56 6. Transportation Infrastructure of B r i t i s h Columbia 5 7 7. C i t i e s , Towns and Geographic Subdivisions of B r i t i s h Columbia. 59 & 60 8. Location of Firms Studied 80 9. Assembly of a t y p i c a l Pan-Abode house 84 10. Arbitrary Design & Dimensions. A t y p i c a l design for a package home, Westwood Building Systems.. 89 11. Arbitrary Design & Dimensions. A t y p i c a l design for a Fowler & Associates modular home 9 3 12. Arbitrary Design & Dimensions. A t y p i c a l design for a Mariner Modular home 97 V I 1 13. Some components, such as trusses, are i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured. The assembly of these components i s largely a handi-craft process ...... 10 7 14. Manufactured home production inside a factory i s done piece by piece resembling the production of a s i t e - b u i l t house 110 15. Some components of a t y p i c a l package home I l l 16. Components, such as walls, are i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured on an assembly l i n e I l l 17. Market Areas of Firms 132 & 133 18. System Ecologic: Flooring Components 179 19. System Ecologic: I n t e r i o r Components 180 20. System Ecologic: I n t e r i o r Components 181 21 System Ecologic: Closure Components. 182 22. System Ecologic: L i v i n g Units 183 23. System Ecologic: Sleeping Units .... 184 24. System Ecologic: Total Unit 185 25. System Ecologic: Total Unit ... 186 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere thanks to the following people for t h e i r guidance, assistance and co-operation given i n various ways during the course of t h i s thesis. Thesis advisors Prof. (Emeritus) B. Paul Wisnicki and Prof. Wolfgang Gerson; Prof. E r i c Dluhosch (Massachusetts Ins t i t u t e of Technology); Mrs. Natalie Hall (Librarian, School of Architecture University of B r i t i s h Columbia); Mr. Gerald Rolfsen; Mr. W.E. Evans (the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Housing, V i c t o r i a ) ; Mr. J. Stanger (the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Economic Development, .Victoria); Mr. C. (C_") S t a i r s ( B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Te r r i t o r y Building and Trades Council, Vancouver); Mr. E. Sparrow (Westwood Building Systems Ltd., New Westminster); Mr. Brown (Fowler & Associates, Surrey); Mr. A. C h r i s t i e and Mr. Peach (Mariner Homes, Penticton); Mr. D. Thompson (Pan-Abode Buildings Ltd., Richmond) Haren and Thea V a k i l and Charles Haynes; Annette and other family members; Maria Lowe for typing t h i s thesis. 0.1 . INTRODUCTION In d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s a dominating factor of our times. Its role i n the f i e l d of housing production has greatly expanded, as demonstrated by the increasing, use of indus-t r i a l l y produced products for the construction of houses— from doors and windows to larger, three-dimensional modules such as bathrooms and kitchen units, and mobile homes. The history of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing shows that over the past years t h i s has, on the one hand, resulted i n situations such as the rapid provision of houses of acceptable standards while on the other hand the production of highly standardized houses based on preconceived design notions * has sometimes created stereotyped r e s i d e n t i a l environments. Such desirable and undesirable situations have given r i s e to a number of arguments for against and i n d u s t r i a l i -zation i n housing production. The following study i s based In parts of Europe and Russia. A review of Danish i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing notes: "The enormous demand for housing, combined with the need for r a t i o n a l planning of the building process too often results i n big, uniform projects, the very size of which has a depressing e f f e c t on the people who l i v e i n them - giving them a f e e l i n g of alienation and of not r e a l l y "belonging"... There has been a tendency to equate e f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d production methods... with dehumanized and barren housing environments." M. Kjeldsen and W. Simonsen, Indust r i a l i z e d Building i n Denmark. (Copenhagen: Skandxnavisk Bogtryk, 1976), p. 9. 2 on the premise that the motivating forces behind t h i s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n provide some of the major reasons for these s i t u a t i o n s . For example, the motive to create rapid and large p r o f i t s may r e s u l t i n large scale commercialism and indifference towards the actual requirements of the ultimate users - the residents. 000000 I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing production had been adopted on a large scale during and immediately aft e r the two World Wars, es p e c i a l l y i n Europe and, to an extent, i n North America. Such large scale adoption was a r e s u l t of many overlapping factors, such as: (a) the mass destruction of buildings during the wars, (b) an acute shortage of materials, finances and s k i l l e d construction labour, and (c) a need for temporary or emergency housing and dormitories. This s i t u a t i o n was further aggravated by the massive migrations of r u r a l people to i n d u s t r i a l settlements and urban areas, and by the rapidly growing populations of * some nations, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of B r i t a i n . Consequently, "The Industrial Revolution began i n B r i t a i n with a sudden and dramatic increase i n population... the 9 m i l l i o n population of 1801 represented an increase of about 50 per cent over that of 1750. By 1811 an increase of a further 14 per cent ... by 1901 the population of B r i t a i n was over 40 m i l l i o n ... This increase was further dramatized by massive migrations within the country..." Martin Pawley, Architecture  vs. Housing (London, Eng.: Studio V i s t a , 1971), p. 10. 3 i n many countries, careful planning and construction became secondary to the rapid provision of housing. Prefabrication and production of houses i n fa c t o r i e s was advocated as an answer to such a s i t u a t i o n . This development was largely encouraged by: (a) the assistance * of governments and i n f l u e n t i a l people motivated by i d e a l i s t i c notions; (b) the p r o f i t motive present i n our society; and (c) the r a d i c a l thinking that was emerging * * i n the f i e l d s of architecture and planning. In recent times, c r i s i s situations s i m i l a r to the ones created by the World Wars have not existed, except i n times of natural disasters. In the absence of such c r i s e s the rapid growth of population i s sometimes put forward * For example: In 1933, the Mayor of Frankfurt, Landmann - a planning enthusiast and i n h e r i t o r of considerable powers, had wholeheartedly supported the construction of a series of s a t e l l i t e suburbs ringing the c i t y to provide people with low cost housing i n short time. He and the chief a r c h i t e c t , Ernst May, agreed that slum clearance should be subordinated to such development. For rapid con-struction an extensive use was made of a pre-cast concrete prefabrication system c a l l e d "massivblock". Martin,Pawley,Architecture vs. Housing (London, Eng.: Studio V i s t a , 1 9 7 1 ) pp. 2 8 , 2 9 . ** Some examples are Walter Gropius' enthusiasm for mass produced housing systems and his teachings at "Bauhaus", German architect Bruno Tau.t's experi-ments with prefabricated housing techniques when he was the chief a r c h i t e c t for one of the prestigious B e r l i n building s o c i e t i e s — "Gehag", and Le Corbusier's thoughts on "new" architecture, mass production and prefabrication. 4 as an argument i n favour of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. More appropriate reasons, however, for the continuing i n t e r e s t i n the subject are demands for the maximum possible savings i n the amount of money, labour and e f f o r t spent * in providing people with basic housing. For example, i n North America t r a d i t i o n a l l y the construction phase of a s i t e - b u i l t house involves the co-ordination of a number of trades, subtrades, and t h e i r requirements. The array of inspection procedures, permits and approvals, labour fluctuations and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of disputes, and unexpected weather changes may a l l contribute to the i n e f f i c i e n c i e s of the house building process. The increasing costs of t r a d i t i o n a l labour and materials may add to the t o t a l cost of t h i s process. Mass purchase of materials, mass production, and the building up of an inventory of labour are uncommon for small builders because of the small size of many projects and the frag-mentation of the market. The reaction to t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s , i n part, a moti-* The i n t e r e s t i n t h i s subject continues also because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of providing houses of acceptable standards with minimum wastage of materials i n thQ.se areas where t r a d i t i o n a l construction methods may prove to be inadequate for house building, for example i n colder climates such as those prevalent in parts of Scandinavia and Canada. 5 vating force behind the current ventures fc-r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. Other motivating forces are the continuing assistance of governments i n the s o c i a l i s t i c countries of Europe for such ventures and the desire for p r o f i t maximization by i n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n the c a p i t a l i s t i c countries of the West. In general, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n aims at the following: (1) To lower the costs of production. (2) To increase the speed of production and save i n labour. (3) To maximize consumption of products and thereby to increase p r o f i t s . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s normally considered to increase e f f i c i e n c y by control over the product and by maximum co-ordination within production and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Planning and organization are the key factors i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . 000000 The following thesis reviews the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , implications and requirements of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and th e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to housing production. I t culminates i n general recommendations for the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing 6 f sector of B r i t i s h Columbia. It should be noted that t h i s thesis does not deal with the s p e c i f i c s of house designs. Rather, i t deals with the o v e r a l l planning and organi-zation of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. The thesis i s divided into three major sections. The f i r s t section deals with the concept of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the second section explains the relationship of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n to housing. The discussion contained i n these two sections i s mainly based on the references from the available l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to the subject. In the remaining section, the si t u a t i o n of indus-t r i a l i z e d housing within the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s examined i n l i g h t of the conclusions from the previous two sections. This examination attempts to determine the degree and d i r e c t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing within the province. Personal interviews were conducted with the represen-tatives of selected home manufacturers operating within the province, the construction unions, the Department of Housing and the Department of Economic Development. The data contained i n the t h i r d section i s mainly based on these interviews and on personal observations made during v i s i t s to f a c t o r i e s . Some data i s also drawn from various sources such as brochures supplied by the 7 manufacturers, government reports, and a r t i c l e s published i n journals and l o c a l newspapers. Four manufacturers were selected for detailed analysis. Limitations of time, distance and finance, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of determining the current si t u a t i o n i n other firms prevented v i s i t s to a l l manufacturers operating within the province. For example, approximately 12 firms were approached by mail. However, only two of them res-ponded to the questionnaire*sent to them; others had eith e r gone out of business or had changed t h e i r locations; some did not reply at a l l . I t i s u n l i k e l y that the firms not included i n the study w i l l have a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approach than the one being followed by the firms visited.. A sample questionnaire i s included i n the Appendix. SECTION - 1 INDUSTRIALIZATION 1.1 TOWARDS INDUSTRIALIZATION The charts on the following pages (pp.io*U) are an attempt to explain the process and consequence of indus-. t r i a l i z a t i o n . The changes i n the methods of production of goods—from handicraft to machine production — are examined i n these charts. These charts are not intended to be read as a l i s t of events i n a chronological order. Therefore, no s p e c i f i c dates are provided. They are, rather, arranged so as to provide the reader with a quick review of the changes and events which led to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The three charts are e n t i t l e d as follows: (1) Phase of Self-dependence... (2) Phase of Interdependence. (3) Phase of In d u s t r i a l production. I L L U S T R A T I O N : 1 P H A S E O F S E L F - D E P E N D E N C E - Referred to as the "Eotechnic" phase by Lewis Mumfor^and as the "Usufacture" phase by N.S.B. Gras 2. - Products manufactured for personal use and not for sale, that i s , the PRODUCER WAS HIMSELF THE CONSUMER OF HIS PRODUCTS. The products were manufactured in accordance with his choice, needs, available materials and techniques. ! - Mass production was not necessary as there was never an intention of selling. i - No power machinery was used; products were hand-made and the process was time-consuming and labour intensive; workmanship and quality were not uniformly maintained; products were manufactured with personal care and had an identity. "A predominant kind of manufacture among peoples in the collectional cultural nomadic and settled village economy, e.g., Eskimos making thongs out of seal skins for personal use or Greek women who used to weave cloths at home for their families." N.S.B. Gras. OR for example, a man bringing wood from the forest, cutting i t to the required sizes and shapes and building a cabin with the help of his family or tribe. This i s found among some tribes today, e.g., bamboo and cane structures in some African settlements, mud huts in the villages of India, or tents and teepees of North American Indicans. "The goose q u i l l pen, sharpened by the user himself i s a typical product of this phase, cheap, technically crude but easily adaptive to the style of the user". Lewis Mumford. (they are) economically - Self-sufficiency and satisfaction in doing creative work through unconscious but direct participation and contribution. C H A R T : ! S K E T C H E S f t - ) 1 O o P R O O V C T PRODUCeP PKOPUCT C O N S U M 6 P BY SBUP. SY S 6 L * IS COKISUM-Tft HIM->_TL|S. CONSTRUCTING T h e i * _?WN HtpMB. I ILLUSTRATION : 2 1>HAS1] O F I N TEI I1 ) E V E N 1 ) E IXC E C H A R T : 2 Referred to as the "Paleotechnic" phase by Lewis Mumford and as the "Handicraft phase by N.S„B. Gras. People with fewer s k i l l s and 'less time became dependent on other people who had more knowledge, t r a i n i n g and time to spare for manufacturing the required products i n exchange f o r other products (tarter system). Special s k i l l s and trades were developed; simple t o o l s were invented to aid hands, wind and water were the main sources of energy, population growth and development of trades multiplied the demands for goods. - The mercantile system emerged; producers and users d r i f t e d apart. This type of r e l a t i o n s h i p and an increasing pressure from the merchant-employers to produce more goods i n a given time discouraged some producers and they l o s t personal i n t e r e s t i n the products. - For more control and d i r e c t supervision the "central workshop" system was started by merchants. Thus, concepts of mass production and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of manufacturing appeared.Large power machinery was absent as yet. A l l products were s t i l l l a r g e l y hand-manufactured with the help of simple t o o l s . ("The too l lends i t s e l f to manupulation and the machine to automatic action". Lewis Mumford). - The idea of " d i v i s i o n of labour" was introduced to reduce d u p l i c a t i o n of work and to allow i n d i v i d u a l workers to concentrate on learning and developing special s k i l l s . - The end of t h i s phase i s marked by the discovery of materials such as iron and glass. Iron and glass were the chief materials used i n the mass production of parts f o r the C r y s t a l Palace (1851) - the turning ooint i n the h i s t o r y of prefabricated structures. SKBTCHfiS < in Q Z| o a Q -C a. t NCR E AS BP DC/WANT? <Stf>OPS, COUPLtSJ? WITH i - A C X Of- T I M £ AMP SKILLS A M O N G sor*e peopLe. E X T R A H E L P R E Q U I « J S P . pROPUCGfi IS A » f i L L € l ^ / p f f O P U C/T5 M A P S B Y SOMfi^ C O N ^ U M f i D BY M E R C H A N T . PRODUCERS HIKED B Y THE M B R O M N T , MERCHANT S6LLS P R O D U C T S . UNIFOrWl QUALITY tN PRODUCTS DIRECT SUPERVISION O f - P R O D U C T I O N V H A Z N O T possiete. PRODUCERS USERS P R l F T B P AWVRT* j 1 i T \ J 5 X/ C B N T R A W Z A T I O N O P M A N U F A C T U R E fdR PRODUCTION C O N T R O L ' PIVIdl<PM O F L A S O P ? A N P A S 3 e s r \ B L Y L \ t A B . I L L U S T R A T I O N : 3 P H A S E O F I N D U S T R I A L P R O D U C T I O N C H A R T :3 Referred to as the "Neotechnic" phase by Lewis Mumford,* or the phase when i n d u s t r i a l methods began to be applied for mass production of standardized products, or the period known popularly as the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution. "A t y p i c a l example of the products of t h i s phase i s a fountain pen with i t s b a r r e l of rubber, i t s gold pen, i t s automatic action pointing to the f i n e r neotechnic economy. Its use of the* durable iridium top lengthens the service of the point . and reduces the need for replacement." Lewis Mumford. The l a t e r development i n writing pens - the b a l l - p o i n t pen, with i t s economical, durable and e a s i l y replaceable carbon cartridge, i s also a good example. War destruction on a large scale, shortage of s k i l l e d labour, and growing demands f o r goods encouraged the development of i n d u s t r i a l mass production. The concepts of assembly-line and d i v i s i o n of labour which were already i n existence, but l i m i t e d i n a pplication, became stronger and began to be used on a larger scale. Mass production required dimensional co-ordination and standardization for ease and speed i n manufacturing. The production of standard products i n quantity was a highly mechanical process. The use of mechanically powered motion was introduced f o r production. Hence, the use of machines - apparatus for applying mechanical power. i | The discovery of steam power, i n t e r n a l combustion power and subsequently e l e c t r i c power replaces the t r a d i t i o n a l power sources such as wind and water. I: The development of higher technology, computers and sophisticated machinery have slowly replaced human labour f o r the „ rapid mechanical production of goods i n large q u a n t i t i e s . The increasing use of technology f o r mass production was also : a r e s u l t of the increasing costs of s k i l l e d labour and the desire of manufacturers f o r large p r o f i t s . As i n d u s t r i a l production methods have become more advanced, and, as continuous mass production of goods has become a paramount factor, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n order to lessen r i s k s of c a p i t a l investment, disposable/throw-away goods have begun to be introduced. The cycle of more production - more consumption - more production i s perpetuated. S K E T C H E S MASS DISTRIBUTION o a. < < • 1 m o • D C o POR M g C H A N J O M * WORK* L A 6 t ? * j A M P M A T E K l / ^ 3 1 . OR 2,. Oft £ . FOR 4 , — » - » Dl P E N S I O N A-U C O - O F * P 1 M A T I O N ANC? IN TBR CMAHG* Bi l> /TY O F PAKT3-3 £1 2 0. 1 « — R E P E T I T I V E W O R K T A K £ M A 5 & S M 5 L V L f N £ . 0 nan r 0 0 0 - • • • D C 0 0 0 /v\AN -MANAdmjBpf COfAPOTOR CONTROL LGP A 5 i £ m S L Y LlrWe, * N.S.B. Gras, however, does not give a t i t l e to t h i s phase. 1 Mass demands for economical goods of uniform quality c a l l e d for more e f f i c i e n c y and accuracy i n production and for reduction i n the wastage of materials. This resulted i n the gradual elimination of home-manufacturing and i n the introduction of c e n t r a l l y managed and organized factories based on the p r i n c i p l e of mass production for mass con-sumption . On the one hand, t h i s provided r e l a t i v e l y low-priced and durable goods of uniform qu a l i t y to almost a l l income groups. On the other hand, the use of th i s technique as a t o o l for larger p r o f i t resulted i n situations such as the following: (1) Uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n and concentration of wealth. (2) Exploitation of workers. (3) High rate of unemployment due to the use of highly mechanized or automated equipment. (4) Exploitation of consumers through the use of sophisticated advertising techniques. (5) Creation of a sense of ali e n a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l and conservative s o c i e t i e s by large scale introduction of non-traditional materials, forms and machine-made objects. If r e l a t i v e l y low-priced and uniform quality goods are provided through the process of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i t i s also assumed that they are rapidly bought, used and replaced. In other words, i n most cases, the goods are not manufactured to l a s t . The reasons for thi s are that the machines have to be kept running, the employees have to be paid, and the r i s k s of loss have to be lessened. Th si t u a t i o n has been mentioned by A l v i n T o f f l e r i n his book: "Future Shock". He talks about the " b u i l t - i n obsolescence and "throw-away" goods which are rapidly becoming common-place i n the industrialized'. nations . As much as i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s l i k e l y to expand i t s role i n the development and production of various products i t s consequence must be taken into account. Its i n t r o -duction and large scale adoption must be based on s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and physical factors. CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Normally, when the concept of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s applied to housing production, the trend i s to immediately propose "innovative" housing systems. As a r e s u l t , the e s s e n t i a l aspects of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e i r implications are often neglected. It i s well known by now that many of these "innovative" systems have either f a i l e d to materialize or have had a limited success, e s p e c i a l l y i n North America. The process of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s characterized by mass production, mass d i s t r i b u t i o n , organization and planning. Its application presupposes the following: (1) the development of a transportation and communication infrastructure.. (2) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l resources—both renewable and non-renewable—such as money, raw materials and energy. This development may be affected by the l o c a l topography and climate. However, i t i s not always affected by these factors. Although Switzerland, for example, i s more h i l l y compared to India, i t s transportation system i s one of the most advanced i n the world. . ) "11 (3) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w o r k e r s . (4) the market. (5) the development o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . (6) t h e government p o l i c i e s c o n d u c i v e t o i n d u s t r i a l development. These a r e t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . I n o t h e r words i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y dependent on t h e development and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e p r e r e q u i s i t e s . The h i s t o r y o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n shows t h a t where t h e s e were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was adopted r a p i d l y and e a s i l y . One o f the reasons t h a t E n g l a n d p i o n e e r e d t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n terms o f good r o a d s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l f o r i n v e s t m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , m i g r a n t workers w i l l i n g t o work i n f a c t o r i e s , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l a r g e market w i t h i n and o u t s i d e E n g l a n d . Mass p r o d u c t i o n : I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n m a t e r i a l s , equipment, p e r s o n n e l and f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g s . I n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h i s i n v e s t m e n t and a v o i d any l o s s a c e r t a i n degree o f q u a n t i t y p r o d u c t i o n o r mass p r o d u c t i o n of goods i s e s s e n t i a l . This degree may be determined depending on the c a p i t a l invested, the market available and the p r o f i t desired. Various theories and concepts ex i s t about the meaning of mass production. The simplest d e f i n i t i o n i s provided by Charles Walker. He defines i t as the "volume production of a standardized product for mass consumption".^ Henry Ford had t h i s to say about mass production: ... The term mass production i s used to describe the modern method by which great quantities of a single standardized commodity are manufactured... Mass production i s not merely quantity production ... nor i s i t merely machine production ... mass production i s the focussing upon a manufacturing project of the p r i n c i p l e s of power, accuracy, economy, system, continuity, speed and r e p e t i t i o n . The normal r e s u l t i s a useful commodity of standard material, workmanship and design at minimum cost. The necessary precedent condition of mass production i s capacity , latent or developed, of mass con-sumption ... 5 Mass production involves the following: (1) Standardization of products and t h e i r parts. Such products should be l i g h t i n weight for f a s t handling. (2) Predetermination of f i n a l sizes and shapes of products. (3) Mass procurement of materials, equipment and 18 labour. (4) Mass d i s t r i b u t i o n and mass consumption which involves a thorough analysis of market factors. (5) Management which, through studies of operation and co-ordination of labour, materials and equipment, makes continuous mass production possible. (6) Large scale use of c a p i t a l . The implications of mass production are as follows: (1) System and accuracy i n production. (2) Elimination of waste and guesswork i n production. (3) Increase i n the speed of production as extra work i s either eliminated or reduced due to standardization. (4) Uniformity i n the quality of products. (5) Mass procurement of materials, equipment and labour i n order to produce savings i n the t o t a l cost. (6) High input of energy resources. 19 I t i s self-evident that when such mass production i s * supported by an increased mass consumption of goods the normal r e s u l t would be an increase i n the speed of the perpetual cycle of "mass production-mass consumption-mass production". As discussed e a r l i e r i n the charts (pp.l0-J2) t h i s i s l i k e l y to bring about more consumerism, commercialism and uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth within the society whose undesirable side e f f e c t s are well known. 000000 The mass production of standardized products at increased speed requires mechanization. Such mechanized mass production usually leads to assembly l i n e production. The words "assembly l i n e production" imply that the re s u l t i n g product i s an assemblage of parts/materials. This means that assembly l i n e production i s normally s u i t -*** able for a complex product, that i s , the product i s This, that i s , an increase i n the mass consumption of goods i s the basic aim of a l l i n d u s t r i a l ventures i n order to gain maximum return. This increase i s achieved by various means, one of which i s the large scale and consistent use of the mass media for adver-tisements. The Oxford dictionary defines an "assembly l i n e " as a group of workers and machines progressively assembling a product. An assembly l i n e i s also suitable for a complex task which can be divided into a series of component tasks, for example, the job of slaughtering, cleaning, cutting and packaging a chicken and i t s parts. 20 d i v i s i b l e ^ i n t o smaller components, each of which may be i n d i v i d u a l l y manufactured. These components are designed for easy and fa s t handling i n a continuous series of operations. The production of automobiles i s a well known * example of t h i s type of production . In assembly l i n e production the t o t a l job i s broken down into a series of r e l a t i v e l y simple and r e p e t i t i v e tasks which are performed by i n d i v i d u a l workers and machines over and over as the l i n e moves by. In other words, a worker (and a machine) stays i n one place perform-ing an assigned job. Materials are brought to him and the fin i s h e d work i s taken away to another worker on a "moving l i n e " . Standardized, preplanned, co-ordinated and centralized works, are the necessary features of assembly l i n e production. Although a large number of automobiles are s t i l l manu-factured by workers and machines performing assigned tasks on moving assembly l i n e s , t h i s type of rhythmatic/ repetitious work i s no longer considered to be highly e s s e n t i a l by some automobile manufacturers. In Sweden i t has been reported that i n an automobile plant the management i s successfully experimenting with a group of workers being responsible for a complete automobile instead of i n d i v i d u a l workers being responsible for s p e c i f i c assigned tasks. Notably,the success here i s the r e s u l t of e f f i c i e n t planning of a task and organi-zation of workers assigned to f i n i s h the task as a team work. Some consequences of such planned and co-ordinated assembly l i n e s are: (a) orderly movement of materials and products; (b) t h i s e f f i c i e n t movement of materials usually r e s u l t i n g i n the reduction of waste i n time and labour; (c) specia-l i z e d assignments to workers r e s u l t i n g i n the increased s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i v i s i o n of labour; (d) s t r i c t control over the qu a l i t y of work and products; and (e) repetitious work that could create an indifference to the product among workers. Organization/Planning: In d u s t r i a l production which brings about an increase i n standardization, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and con-sumption requires planned and organized work. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the complex organization of the more advanced industries, such as those concerned with automobiles, electronics and t e x t i l e s . These mass production industries, with t h e i r large scale requirements of c a p i t a l , would not be successful without organization and planning. One of the important consequences of advanced i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s the increased use of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . An organization brings the work of various s p e c i a l i s t s together to produce the required r e s u l t . One of the more accepted d e f i n i t i o n s of an organization i s provided by John Kenneth Galbraith: "a system of con-sciously co-ordinated a c t i v i t i e s or forces of two or more persons" . The Oxford dictionary defines i t as "an under-taking which involves co-operation". The co-operation between indivi d u a l s and the co-ordination of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are i m p l i c i t i n these d e f i n i t i o n s . Management i s a v i t a l part of such organizations. Its job i s to co-ordinate various a c t i v i t i e s such as research, development, financing, production, marketing and post-sales s e r v i c i n g . It involves decision making for the e f f i c i e n t use of c a p i t a l , materials, labour and equipment i n order to achieve maximum possible e f f i c i e n c y i n production and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Planning i s an inevitable counterpart of organization. The task of organizing for mass production, mass d i s t r i b u t i o n and mass consumption invariably involves e f f i c i e n t management, i n f l e x i b l e commitments of time and c a p i t a l , and p r o f i t a b l e marketing of products. In order to o f f - s e t or neutralize the e f f e c t of any problem that may arise due to thi s as well as the e f f e c t of a l l adverse developments which may take place in the market and industry, planning i s considered to be an e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the case of products which are complex, which require large investments i n highly specia-l i z e d labour and machinery, and which are produced by highly refined processes. Galbraith explains t h i s i n the following manner: In the early days of Ford (automobile), the future was very near at hand. Only days elapsed between the commitment of machinery and materials to production and t h e i r appearance as a car ... If the car did not meet the approval of the customers, i t could quickly be changed. The briefness of the time i n process allowed t h i s ; so did the un-speci a l i z e d character of manpower, materials and machinery. Changes were needed (in the e a r l i e s t cars) ... Such shortcomings i n the Mustang would have been unpleasant ... The machinery, materials, manpower and components of the o r i g i n a l Ford, being a l l unspecia-l i z e d , could be quickly procured on the open market ... For the more highly speci a l i z e d requirements of the Mustang, foresight and associated action were indispensable ... Thus the need for planning. 7 Planning involves investigation, comparative analysis, and decision making for a l l tasks of production and d i s t r i b u t i o n — from the types of products to be produced to the methods of promotion and sale of these products. The importance of planning i s such that, according to Galbraith, advanced industries tend to reduce t h e i r dependence on the uncertain market with i n t r i c a t e planning. This, however, mostly depends on the product i t s e l f . The market for eggs and milk, for example, i s highly r e l i a b l e , constant and predictable. In comparison to t h i s , no similar r e l i a b i l i t y and continuity of the market for automobiles of a p a r t i c u l a r colour or design e x i s t . Planning i n the l a t t e r case i s d i f f i c u l t but highly e s s e n t i a l . The industry must not only foresee the consumer demands but i t should also ensure that i t s products are bought by customers at a price which w i l l ensure maximum p r o f i t s for the industry. Some implications of such i n t r i c a t e planning and complex organization are that: (a) mass d i s t r i b u t i o n and mass consumption i s often ensured; (b) p r o f i t s are, more or less, guaranteed; (c) r i s k s of c a p i t a l commitments are lessened, and (d) adverse e f f e c t s of unpredictable future developments can be neutralized. The other s i g n i -f i c a n t implication i s that decision making i s l i k e l y to be highly c e n t r a l i z e d . Centralization brings order, c l a r i t y and e f f i c i e n c y but does not allow for f l e x i b i l i t y which i s needed when dealing with l o c a l i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Therefore, for an industry to be more successful, innovative and responsive to market fluctuations, both c e n t r a l i z a t i o n * and decentralization are e s s e n t i a l . In other words, i t "Once a large organization has come into being, i t normally goes through alternating phases of centra-l i s i n g and decentralising ... In any organization, large or small, there must be a certain c l a r i t y and orderliness; i f things f a l l into disorder, nothing can be accomplished. Yet, orderliness, as such, i s s t a t i c and l i f e l e s s ... C e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s mainly an idea of order; decentralization, one of freedom." E.F. Schumacher, Small i s B e a u t i f u l : A study of  economics as i f people mattered (London, Eng.: ABACUS, 1974) , pp. 202-3". i s the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n which needs thorough planning. 000000 The decision on the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s an important part of planning and organization. For reasons of economy and ease i n marketing of the product, as well as to allow for a quick response to l o c a l situations, an industry may choose to decentralize the production by establishing smaller plants and sub-assemblies i n d i f f e r e n t areas. Many accessories and parts for automobiles are manufactured at plants i n various locations. Their f i n a l assembly i s also done at d i f f e r e n t places. The degree of such "cen t r a l l y organized, decentralized production" depends on the complexity of the product and on l o c a l situations such as the d i s t r i b u t i o n and require-ments of the market as well as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of trans-portation, materials, labour and equipment. Good planning and organization ensures the e f f i c i e n t co-ordination of tasks performed at the decentralized plants by encouraging the co-operation of the various participants involved i n these tasks. The significance of the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and therefore of planning, increases i n proportion to the increase i n c a p i t a l investment, sophistication i n the methods of production and complexity of the product. Conclusion I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s not feasible without c e r t a i n prerequisites such as the existence of transportation and communication infrastructures, labour, c a p i t a l , market and government p o l i c i e s favourable to i n d u s t r i a l development. It i s normally characterized by mass production and mass d i s t r i b u t i o n as well as i n t r i c a t e planning and organization. Mass production i s suitable for products which are l i g h t i n weight and which can be predetermined, standardized and d i s t r i b u t e d with ease i n large quantities. The market factors for such products should be highly predictable and r e l i a b l e i n order to procure maximum return from the sales. Production of standardized a r t i c l e s i n a quantity usually means reduced wastage, e f f i c i e n t work, low production costs, greater speed of production and uniform qu a l i t y of products. As a r e s u l t of t h i s type of production low priced products may be provided to potential customers i n order to a t t r a c t a large market. Organization and planning, the key factors i n mass production and d i s t r i b u t i o n , achieve co-ordination of various tasks necessary for production and marketing. These two 27 f a c t o r s a r e b o t h e s s e n t i a l a n d d i f f i c u l t i n t h e c a s e o f p r o d u c t s whose m a r k e t i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e a n d f l u c t u a t i n g . The r i s k s o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t a r e h i g h i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h c a l l s f o r more p l a n n i n g o n t h e p a r t o f m a n a g e m e n t . The d e g r e e o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p l a n n i n g , i s u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t , b y t h e l o c a l i z a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m a r k e t , a n d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d l a b o u r . S u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m u s t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n d u s t r i a l i -z a t i o n a n d h o u s i n g . T h e s e a n d o t h e r s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e h o w e v e r , w o u l d be i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a s o c i a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e w o u l d be e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . FOOTNOTES: 1. Lewis Mumford, Technics and C i v i l i z a t i o n . (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1934), p. 109. 2. N.S.B. Gras, Ind u s t r i a l Evolution. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930), p. 1. 3. A l v i n T o f f l e r , Future Shock. (New York: Bantam Books, 1970), pp. 51 to 73. 4. Charles Walker, "The Social Effects of Mass Production" i n Technology i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n , 2 vols., eds.: Melvin Kranzberg and C a r o l l P u r s e l l , J r . (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 2:92. 5. Henry Ford quoted i n Walker, "The Social E f f e c t s , " i n Technology, 2:93. 6. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State (Boston, Mass.: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1967), p. 130. 7. Ibid, pp. 16, 17. 8. Ibid, pp. 23, 24, 354. 29 SECTION - 2 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND HOUSING 1 2.1 * CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSING In order to determine the e f f i c i e n t ways and. means of i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g housing production the following charac-* * t e r i s t i c s of housing --considered as physical product— are i d e n t i f i e d : (1) Physically complex and bulky product A majority of housing can be said to comprise of several physical elements known as walls, f l o o r s , roofs, s t a i r s , etc. (from now on referred to as dwelling elements). Various combinations of such elements form definable areas for various functions such as s i t t i n g , entertaining, cooking, sleeping and storing. These dwelling elements together impart bulkiness to housing. (2) U n r e l i a b i l i t y and l o c a l i z a t i o n of i t s market General demand for h o u s i n g — p a r t i c u l a r l y new u n i t s — This discussion applies primarily to situations i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d nations, es p e c i a l l y i n North America, as situations are l i k e l y to vary i n d i f f e r e n t nations depending on l o c a l conditions. Here, housing i s considered synonymous to house/houses. 31 i s mostly f l u c t u a t i n g . The fluctuations i n demand make the housing market unsteady and unreliable. The reason for the fluc t u a t i n g demand for housing i s that t h i s demand i s usually generated by such variable factors as population growth and mobility rates, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth and income i n the society, the o v e r a l l costs of housing and land, the stock of ex i s t i n g housing, and the frequency of calamities i n the area. Also, a major portion of the market i s l o c a l i z e d due to factors such as geographic variations, labour and construction codes, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials. (3) Product for l i v i n g Housing i s the only physical product wherein a majority of people carry out day-to-day l i v i n g functions. The p r i o r i t y of various functions and t h e i r relationship may vary from people to people depending on t h e i r culture and other factors, i n heterogeneous s o c i e t i e s people are l i k e l y to have diverse l i f e s t y l e s and a large range of requirements. Housing, i n a sense, i s a s o c i a l l y complex product as well. The reason for t h i s i s that housing production and d i s t r i -E ither natural such as earthquakes and floods or man-made such as wars. bution i s influenced i n varying degrees by many factors other than those simply of a technical nature. (4) Design and production A majority of housing i s b u i l t on s i t e with several materials and components involving the employment and co-ordination of various trades and subtrades. I n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n work and wastage of materials are l i k e l y to occur. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may impose certa i n r e s t r i c t i o n s , for example, only cert a i n types of construction and design are possible and economical with wood products. (5) An expensive product For a majority of people housing i s perhaps the largest and most important expense i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e . They therefore demand affordable housing b u i l t of durable materials and designed to meet t h e i r own requirements. 000000 From these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing and from the conclusions of the previous chapter the following i s inferred 33' (1) Housing as a "complete" unit i s inappropriate for mass production and distribution--from now on referred to as mass i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The ease and speed i n handling the product within and outside the factory, which i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mass produced a r t i c l e s , i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve and maintain. Mass indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y easy and e f f i c i e n t when housing i s considered as a complex/composite product comprised of several dwelling elements. Albert Bemis, who advocated r a t i o n a l i z e d mass production of housing, explained t h i s i n the following manner: What, then, do we mean by mass production i n the housing industry? Not mass-produced raw materials; we have them now. Not mass-produced houses, fabricated e n t i r e l y i n fa c t o r i e s , for the house as an entity i s not adopted i n bulk or weight to manufacture i n a shop or to transportation and erection at a distance. Nor does a room unit answer the requirements. A smaller unit, both i n design and structure,?must be found i n further subdivision of the composite house:."1 The dwelling elements described'earlier, .which together are used to form housing are small i n size and l i g h t i n weight i n comparison to larger modules such as com-plete rooms or complete houses. Their functions are more or less l i m i t e d and v i r t u a l l y predictable. They are, therefore, more suitable for standardi-zation, storage and e f f i c i e n t handling within and outside the factory than complete housing units or modules. They are suitable also for providing a larger range of possible combinations. (2) The u n r e l i a b i l i t y of housing market makes complete units unsuitable for mass i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , as a steady and r e l i a b l e market i s es s e n t i a l for mass produced a r t i c l e s . Accurate predictions as to whether a certa i n s t y l e , shape or type of housing w i l l a t t r a c t a large and continuous market are d i f f i c u l t to make. In comparison to t h i s , the dwelling elements by virtu e of a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s * for t h e i r use i n varied projects, are l i k e l y to have a more r e l i a b l e and larger market. (3) Because heterogeneous populations usually generate demands for non-standardized, non-uniform and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d housing to s u i t the various personal requirements, the mass production of complete units based on preconceived notions does not seem appropriate. * For example, a standardized wall unit can be used i n buildings other than housing. (4) The idea of standard dwelling elements or components versus complete units i s favourable also because of: (a) the fewer r e s t r i c t i o n s that t h e i r size may impose on design and assembly; (b) the p o s s i b i l i t y that they can be purchased singly or i n bulk by users; and (c) the greater degree of ease, e f f i c i e n c y and economy i n t h e i r transportation to the s i t e that can be achieved. It i s concluded from t h i s discussion that the production of dwelling elements based on certain uniform standards i s more appropriate for housing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n than the production of complete units, except i n certain s i t u a t i o n s . In emergency situations, adverse climate conditions, or in areas with an acute shortage of s k i l l e d construction labour, for example, the production and supply of complete units may provide a better a l t e r n a t i v e . To take one example, i n the U.S.A. during the war i n the early f o r t i e s there was an urgent need to f i n d emergency accommodation for thousands of conscripts. This s i t u a t i o n resulted i n the production of "instant" dwellings, e n t i r e l y p r e f a b r i -cated i n f a c t o r i e s and trucked to the s i t e i n t a c t . Entire townships were constructed with the use of these "instant" dwellings, such as the Willowcourt township near Washington D.C. which comprised 5,000 units and another township near Portland which comprised 10,000 units. Another example i s a twin-drum dwelling which was devised by Buckminster F u l l e r from standard s t e e l grain bins to serve as house units for a i r crews. The production of these "dwellings" 2 had reached 1000 units per year. 000000 The discussion of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n for housing, however, has to go beyond the discussion of "hardware", that i s , mass production of dwelling elements versus complete units. The task of co-ordination between various a c t i v i t i e s e s s e n t i a l for production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods i s a primary concern i n the organization of many advanced ind u s t r i e s . In these industries, co-ordination i s e s s e n t i a l from the delivery stage of raw materials to the supply stage of goods to d i s t r i b u t o r s and dealers. In the area of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing the task of co-ordination should encompass the work involved beyond the f i n a l phase of supply. The reason for t h i s i s that the e f f i c i e n c y of both o f f - s i t e and on-site work phases con-tr i b u t e to the o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y of the complete process of housing production. The on-site management and e f f i -ciency i s as important as the o f f - s i t e or factory management and e f f i c i e n c y . In other words, the task of co-ordination i n the organization of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing should i d e a l l y cover a l l or most of the following a c t i v i t i e s depending on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s : (a) research and development ,(b) design ,(c) financing ,(d) production and marketing ,(e) delivery ,(f) assembly t (g) work other than assembly of products on s i t e such as foundations, service i n s t a l l a t i o n s and u t i l i t y connections , ( i ) securing permits and approvals. In those European countries where s o c i a l i s t i c govern-** ments provide active support for i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing some organizers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing have been able to achieve the co-ordination through controls over land development, design, production and supply. A National Research Council of Canada — from now on referred to as NRC — study noted: DOFASCO (Dominion Foundries and Steel, Limited) of Canada developed and constructed a housing project i n Ontario i n 1971. According to the Director of the project the co-ordination of production, storage, transportation and erection a c t i v i t i e s was considered highly important i n order to achieve e f f i c i e n c y and avoid bad weather slowdowns. The project was con-structed with the IBIS (Industrial Building i n Steel) system of the B r i t i s h Steel Corporation. 3 See "Introduction". Also see "Architecture versus Housing" by Martin Pawley.4 ... These ventures r e f l e c t a philosophy that may s t i l l be surprising i n the building business but i t i s a f i r s t p r i n c i p l e i n any serious mass production industry: one part — the producer — must control a l l inputs required to create the desired finished product ... The producer assembles and develops the land, and produces the housing com-plexes o f f e r i n g the c l i e n t desirable design, place, q u a l i t y and price within the desired time. 5 The high degree of government involvement i n indus-t r i a l i z e d housing systems and the necessity to e s t a b l i s h controls over as many phases of a project as possible have resulted i n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i n some European countries. This trend of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n to achieve more productivity, faster growth and greater e f f i c i e n c y i s comparable to that of large and productive industries of North America. The NRC study noted that "totalkontrakt" schemes akin to package deals have become quite common in Scandinavia where government, semi-government and non-profit i n s t i -tutions are major c l i e n t s for a number of housing complexes. Central i z a t i o n i s considered e s s e n t i a l i n such cases to achieve economy and e f f i c i e n c y . From s t a r t to f i n i s h a majority of decisions a f f e c t i n g the design, production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing are c e n t r a l l y made. This has been largely the case i n multiple housing North European i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing systems. *6 systems. Various examples from the European housing systems show that some of these "totalkontrakt" and centralized systems based on the p r i n c i p l e s of mass production and mass marketing of housing have achieved substantial success (in terms of productivity and efficiency) i n the market. The degree of t h i s success, however, i n terms of a r c h i -tecture and planning has been questioned by various urban designers and s o c i a l planners. They suggest that those trends i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing which stem mainly from the mass production concepts of other industries, such as automobile manufacturing, are not always desirable from the point of view of the ultimate users, that i s , the dwellers as well as from the point of view of the environ-ment that i s created. The mass produced and centralized systems of Russian housing i s one example. An increasing demand and awareness for p a r t i c i p a t i o n by users i s perhaps ind i c a t i v e that d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n does exist to one degree or another for a l l c e n t r a l l y designed and mass produced housing. For example, Larsen and Nielsen (Denmark), and Elementhus (Sweden). Assuming for the time being that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s always desirable and workable, as argued i n such diverse works as: Advocacy Planning, Supports by N.J. Habraken, Pattern language by C. Alexander, John Turner's Housing by People, the Take Part approach of Lawrence Halprin and the Habitat 1976 proceedings. N.J. Habraken, a Dutch a r c h i t e c t , has established a research group i n Holland i n order to provide an alternative 7 to the present mass housing systems and strategy. In addition to the view that centralized organizations of mass produced housing may create stereotyped environments by not allowing for the d i v e r s i t y of needs of the potential occupants, such centralized organizations do not seem favourable from the following points of view: (a) the l o c a l i z a t i o n of housing markets which depend on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials, labour and equipment, l o c a l b u i l d i n g requirements and l o c a l community needs / (b) the a v a i l a b i l i t y and economy of transportation, for example, in Western Europe, a B r i t i s h study concluded, because of the highly developed r a i l and road system some manufacturers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing have found i t economical to con-centrate t h e i r plants i n few areas and transport components 8 to s i t e s ; and (c) the l o c a l geographic conditions,for example, i n parts of Scandinavia, the rugged topography and cold climate have influenced the population d i s t r i b u t i o n . The population i s grouped i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d , mush-rooming pockets meaning the housing market i s concentrated i n these i s o l a t e d pockets. This creates l o c a l i z e d 9 situations i n the market. The following points emerge from t h i s discussion: (1) Some form of control and co-ordination over various phases of housing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n — • from production to f i n a l assembly on s i t e -i s desirable. (2) Centr a l i z a t i o n brings e f f i c i e n c y and control which i s desirable from the point of view of i n d u s t r i a l production. (3) Centr a l i z a t i o n may not allow for various l o c a l factors which may generate a d i v e r s i t y of market conditions and user requirements. Considering these points, a conclusion i s drawn that any strategy for housing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , that i s , organi-zation and planning, should plan for controls, co-ordination, and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n within l o c a l contexts. For example, t o t a l or maximum control over land development, production and assembly i s possible only within certain s o c i o p o l i t i c a l situations such as those of Northern Europe where, as the NRC study mentioned e a r l i e r noted, governments provide large f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l support to i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing; labour/management disputes are not frequent; a major percentage of housing projects i s multifamily housing complexes. In North America the sit u a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Here, there are many large and small competitive builders operating i n d i v i d u a l l y ; governments and l o c a l authorities maintain a low p r o f i l e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l "free" market system; the land development, f i n a n c i a l and labour i n s t i -tutions are e s s e n t i a l l y autonomous; a large percentage of the population t r a d i t i o n a l l y prefers single houses with private yards which means that the market comprises many individu a l s and families acting as independent customers. Such exi s t i n g t r a d i t i o n s of the l o c a l b u i l ding business have been recognized by one of the more commercially successful home manufacturing firms i n the U.S.A.—National Homes Corporation. As a r e s u l t the company, instead of imposing complete controls i n d i f f e r e n t phases of house productions, chooses to provide a f u l l range of optional * services including financing, occasional land development and improvement, and on-site work management through franchised builders operating i n as many as 38 states.''""'' The co-ordination of both o f f - s i t e and on-site works i s e s s e n t i a l for e f f i c i e n c y . The present North American s i t u a t i o n means that most of the o f f - s i t e factory work can be f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d by management whereas the on-site work or post-delivery work should be co-ordinated to the maximum extent possible by management. For customers and builders a l i k e . 000000 The e a r l i e r inference that c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s both esse n t i a l and non-desirable from various viewpoints raises the question about the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n necessary i n a given context. For example, due to the l o c a l i z e d markets of the is o l a t e d community pockets which e x i s t i n Scandinavia, some of the l o c a l producers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing have chosen to decentralize production by introducing on-site or l o c a l f a c t o r i e s along with regional f a c t o r i e s . For instance, one Finnish manufacturer (A. Puolimatka OY) has developed an example of central/regional factory balance. The central factory produces pre-cast components such as exterior walls, bathrooms, ducts etc. The regional factory i s responsible for the supply of lower cost and bulky cross-walls and f l o o r panels, a l l phased and planned for s i t e co-ordination. E.F. Schumacher, the author of Small i s Beautiful, notes i n the book that many industries, e.g. auto-mobile manufacturing, are to one degree or another centralized and decentralized at the same time. Total centralization;, for various reasons, i s rar e l y possible and f e a s i b l e . 12 At present, however, the s i t e f a ctories can be used economically only for large projects because of the time and money entailed i n moving them. The NRC study mentioned e a r l i e r notes that because of i t s com-pactness, ease of sheltering and heating, and freedom from requirements for massive base r i g i d i t y , there appear to be no severe drawbacks inherent i n t h i s approach for small projects. Mobile production plants are also becoming common, for example, the Wates system i n England. In northern Manitoba, with p r o v i n c i a l government assistance, a program c a l l e d "Ready-To-Move" (R.T.M.) was started i n 1970-71. Under t h i s program mobile units with small scale machines and tools go to northern communities once or twice a year. With the help of l o c a l people these units manufacture a number of small and simple wood components for houses. Once a c e r t a i n number of houses are completed and l o c a l require-14 ments are f u l f i l l e d , the units move to another community. Cold climate, shortage of s k i l l e d labour, a v a i l a b i l i t y of l i g h t weight material such as wood for construction, resentfulness of native northerners for southern designs and construction as well as the unwillingness of manufac-turers to e s t a b l i s h factories because of an unattractive and non-continuous market i n the area were some of the reasons for the introduction of the R.T.M. program. This type of approach, or the central/regional factory "Programs are the l i f e - s t y l e of o f f i c i a l s . We want to talk about how a family i n any community can decide what i s best,for i t s e l f . . We. think i t i s wrong that a house i n the north must be made of expensive, southern materials, simply because t h i s i s what a program provides." 15 This was stated by a native during a conference on Northern Housing. approach to the planning and production of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d * housing usually means lower c a p i t a l investment, e f f i c i e n t work and the p o s s i b i l i t y of community involvement. Such decentralized production f a c i l i t i e s can have central management or be c e n t r a l l y organized i n order to benefit from the e f f i c i e n t planning and co-ordination which centralized systems seem to provide. Depending on the l o c a l s o c i o p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n the central management/ organization may be provided by either governments, or by one or more large manufacturers with incentives from governments, or j o i n t l y by both government and manufacturers. Such " c e n t r a l l y organized,decentralization" can benefit from: the use of l o c a l labour and materials, the reduction i n the costs and inconveniences of long distance trans-A study c a r r i e d out by the School of Architecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia (sponsored by the A t l a n t i c I n d u s t r i a l Research Insitute) on similar programs i n 1971 reported that for portable units using wood for production with a capacity for 300 houses/ year production i n Nova Scotia, the c a p i t a l invest-ment required w i l l be approximately $156,000. Depending on l o c a l factors, t h i s may vary from one region to another. Therefore regional analysis i n d e t a i l should be carried out p r i o r to introduction of such methods. The materials used for production of components should be also analyzed. Concrete, because of i t s requirement for special s k i l l s and equipment may add to the c a p i t a l cost of such plants. portatiori, the expansion of the market as a r e s u l t of l o c a l community involvement as well as from the side effects of economic development of the area that such an approach may generate. It i s infe r r e d from the foregoing discussion that maximum possible co-ordination, e f f i c i e n t marketing and f u l f i l l m e n t of l o c a l i z e d requirements can res u l t from the comprehensive planning and organization of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing which has taken into account the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . The comprehensive planning should encompass a l l processes (both o f f - s i t e and on-site work processes) necessary for e f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of housing. Such processes would include p a r t i c u l a r l y design, production and assembly. Conclusion The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing, considered as a physical product, d i s t i n g u i s h i t from any other comparable product. Therefore, to produce and market housing l i k e these products Various studies on i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing come to a general conclusion that 300 miles i s the maximum l i m i t for the economical and e f f i c i e n t transportation of housing assemblies to the s i t e from the factory. The l i m i t may vary by few miles depending on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s . See "Prefabrication of Houses" by Burnham Kelly and "The Case for Indu s t r i a l i z e d Housing Re-examined" by Hodes Daniel and Jensen Gordon. Refer to Bibliography, pp.155 • i s inappropriate. To l i m i t i t s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n to the aspects of "hardware" production (components, modules etc.) alone i s also inappropriate. Comprehensive planning and organization based upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing, l o c a l i z e d requirements and other l o c a l factors such as geography and population d i s t r i b u t i o n should form an es s e n t i a l part of housing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . E f f i c i e n t planning, production and assembly of products both within and outside the factory i s a v i t a l part of such organization. Affordable and s a t i s f y i n g housing produced e f f i c i e n t l y with minimum wastage should be offered by the planners and the suppliers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i n order to make i t more a t t r a c t i v e i n comparison to conventionally planned and produced housing. FOOTNOTES: 1. Albert Bemis, The Evolving House, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: The Technology Press, 1933-36), 3:34. 2. Martin Pawley, Architecture versus Housing (London, England: Studio V i s t a , 1971), p. 55. 3. "Dofasco housing f i l l s market need", Dofasco Publication, Steel Design 3 (1971), No. 4, p. 1. 4. Pawley, Architecture, passim. 5. R.E. P l a t t s , System Production of Housing i n Northern  Europe, Technical Paper No.306, Divis i o n of Building Research, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1969, p. 3. 6. P l a t t s , System Production, passim. 7. Nicolas John Habraken, aap noot mies huis, three r's for housing (Amsterdam: Scheltema and Holkema, 19 70), passim. 8. R.B. White, Prefabrication: A history of i t s develop- ment i n Great B r i t a i n , (London: Her Majesty's Stationary O f f i c e , 1965) , p. 310. 9. P l a t t s , System Production, p. 2. 10. Ibid., passim. 11. Carlo Testa, I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Building (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972), p. 70. 12. E.F. Schumacher, Small i s Bea u t i f u l : A study of  economics as i f people mattered (London, England: ABACUS, 1974), pp. 202-3. P l a t t s , System Production, p. 18. Michael Glover, "Community Involvement and Local Employment: A Case Study from Canada", Industria- l i z a t i o n Forum 6 (1975), No. 2, pp. 51, 52. Ibid. SUMMARY OF SECTION: 1 AND SECTION: 2 I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s normally characterized by mass production, mass d i s t r i b u t i o n , organization and planning. Mass production of standardized a r t i c l e s has the p o t e n t i a l of r e s u l t i n g i n reduced wastage of materials and increased speed of production. The two e s s e n t i a l considerations i n organization and planning for any industry are: (a) maximum control/co-ordination of production and d i s t r i b u t i o n phases, and (b) the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n within the industry. In the case of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing industry these are influenced by the regional conditions such as l o c a l i -zation of the housing market, t r a d i t i o n s of the building business, geography, transportation, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l investment. A complete control of a l l phases of housing indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n and t o t a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n which go.together, w i l l l i k e l y bring e f f i c i e n c y and control over the q u a l i t y of the product but complete control and t o t a l c e n t r a l i -zation i s not always feas i b l e and desirable from various viewpoints such as housing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , government p o l i c i e s , and other conditions described above. The prerequisites of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of transportation, a continuous and stable market, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l and labour as well as the government p o l i c i e s conducive to i n d u s t r i a l development must e x i s t for the long term development of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. Providing such prerequisites e x i s t , i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing could have the following potentials: (1) Reduced production costs because of reduced wastage. (2) Increased control over qu a l i t y of products. (3) Increased speed of production. (4) Decreased amount of time and labour i n the provision of affordable and standard houses i n areas where building i s d i f f i c u l t because of adverse climate conditions and shortage of s k i l l e d labour as well as building materials. Despite such benefits however, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing would not be desirable i f : (a) housing, which i s a product d i f f e r e n t from any other i n many aspects, i s produced and marketed i n the .same manner as products such as cars are produced and marketed; (b) the environments created are stereotyped; and (c) i t s production and d i s t r i b u t i o n i s used for the sole purpose of p r o f i t making. Whether a p a r t i c u l a r strategy or form of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i s desirable or undesirable i s largely dependent on factors such as the motives of i t s producers and suppliers, the prevalent p o l i t i c a l systems — whether s o c i a l i s t i c or c a p i t a l i s t i c , the methods adopted for design and production of houses, and the prevalent s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s . Since i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s a dominating factor of our times and since i t s role i n the f i e l d of housing production i s l i k e l y to expand, our aim should be to analyze the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and the p r e v a i l i n g methods of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i n order to determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y of these methods i n the l o c a l context. SECTION: 3 CONTEXT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA I l l u s t r a t i o n ! 4 B r i t i s h Columbia 55 3.1 PROVINCIAL CONDITIONS Local geography, market d i s t r i b u t i o n and transportation:^ B r i t i s h Columbia i s e s s e n t i a l l y mountainous. Its vast and rugged topography i s the main feature of i t s geography. The presence of the P a c i f i c Ocean i n the west and the mountainous t e r r a i n i n the west and east * has resulted i n a varying climate. Because of p l e n t i f u l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a large part of the mountainous t e r r a i n i s covered with forests which supply the chief building material used i n the province -- wood. Since i t i s abundant i n supply, the wood and i t s products are not as expensive as any other building material. To large extent, the mountainous t e r r a i n and the climate have combined to influence the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : 5 ) and the transportation infrastructure ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : 6 ) within the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. These two factors — population d i s t r i b u t i o n and transportation infrastructure are the The climate varies from temperate-like i n parts of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia to sub-arctic i n northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. 56 I I l u s t r a t i o n : 5 P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Source : Surveys & Mapping B r a n c h , Dept . o f E n e r g y , Mines & R e s o u r c e s , Ottawa, 1970. ® N 1.. Vancouver 2. V i c t o r i a 3. Nanaimo 4. Port Alberni 5. Penticton 6 . Kelowna 7. Vernon 8. Kamloops -~-9: Cranbrook 10. ~ P~fince George 11. Dawson Creek 12. Prince Rupert M A J o f ? ROAPS RAILWAY u i ^ e s I l l u s t r a t i o n t 6 Transportation Infrastructure of B r i t i s h Columbia basic indicators of the market a v a i l a b i l i t y which i s an e s s e n t i a l prerequisite of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. Therefore,these two factors are b r i e f l y examined i n 2 the context of seven geographic subdivisions of the province ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : 6 ) which are as follows: (1) Georgia S t r a i t . (2) Coastal. (3) Okanagan-Thompson (4) Columbia - Kootenay. (5) Central I n t e r i o r . (6) Peace - L i a r d . (7) Northern I n t e r i o r . Each of these regions has developed a character of i t s own through the differences i n i t s physical geography, land use and population concentration. (1) The Georgia S t r a i t i s the most densely populated and highly developed area of the province. More than 75% of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l population reside i n t h i s area. Most communities are well connected to one another by roads and railways ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : 7 ). Two of the largest * c i t i e s of the province — Vancouver (410,000 population) Population figures for various places in B r i t i s h Columbia are shown i n (Table: | ), pp. 187 GEOGRAPHIC SUBDIVISIONS:* A - Georgia S t r a i t B - Coastal C - Thompson - Okanagan D - Columbia - Kootenay E - Central Int e r i o r F - Peace-Liard G - Northern Inter i o r * See the -following page for reference to numbers on the map. Illustration.! 7 C i t i e s , Towns and Geographic Subdivisions of B r i t i s h Columbia ILLUSTRATION: 7 , (cont'd. . . ) CITIES (OVER 10,000 POPULATION): 1976 1971 1 - Vancouver 410,188 426,256 2 - V i c t o r i a 62 ,551 61,761 3 - Prince George 59,929 33,101 4 - Kamloops 58,311 26,168 5 - Kelowna 51,955 19,412 6 - Nanaimo 40,336 14,948 7 - Penticton 21,344 18,146 8 - Port Alberni 19 ,585 20,063 9 - Vernon 17,546 13,283 10 - Prince Rupert 14,754 15,747 11 - Cranbrook 13,510 12,000 12 - Dawson Creek 10,528 11,885 TOWNS (OVER 5,000 POPULATION): 13 - T r a i l 9,976 11,149 14 - Nelson 9,235 9,400 15 - Fort St. John 8,947 8,247 16 - Chilliwack 8,634 9,135 17 - Courtenay 7,733 7,152 18 - Kimberley 7, 111 7,641 19 - Castlegar 6,255 3,072 20 - Quesnel 7,637 6,252 21 - Sidney 6 ,732 4,868 22 - Williams Lake 6.199 4,072 23 - Me r r i t t 5,680 5,289 24 - Comox 5,359 3,980 and V i c t o r i a (62,500 population) -- are located i n t h i s area. Port Alberni (19,500 population) and Nanaimo (40,300 population) are other large c i t i e s located here. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : 7 ) (2) The Coastal region i s sparsely populated. The population i s scattered along the P a c i f i c coast and i s concentrated i n few locations. The rough t e r r a i n of the Coastal mountains and the sparse population have not encouraged road building i n t h i s area. The communities are served largely by sea transportation. The major towns located i n th i s area are Prince Rupert (14,700 population), Kitimat (11,900 population) and Terrace (10,200 population) (3) The Okanagan - Thompson region i s populated mostly i n the area between and along the Okanagan and the Thompson Rivers. An infrastructure of roads and railways in t h i s area l i n k s most communities to each other. Kamloops, with a population of about 58,000 i s the largest community i n t h i s area followed by Kelowna (51,900 population), Penticton (21,300 population) and Vernon (17,500 population). (4) : The Columbia - Kootenay region contains a major part of the Columbia and Rocky Mountains. Its geographic features such as rough t e r r a i n , deep valleys 62 and p l e n t i f u l p r e c i p i t a t i o n do not a t t r a c t large populations and extensive developments. T r a i l (9,900 population), Nelson (9,200 population), Cranbrook (13,500 population) and Kimberley (7,100 population) are the largest com-munities i n th i s area. (5) The Central Interior region, l i k e the Okanagan-Thompson region, i s rapidly developing and i s served by a network of railways and roads. A large percentage of the regional population i s located i n the v i c i n i t y of the Fraser River. Prince George (59,900 population), Quesnel (7,600 population) and Williams Lake (6,200 * population) are the three growing, sizeable communities located i n t h i s region. (6) In the Peace - Liard region the only populated areas are i n the southeast corner on the Peace River and a small area in the v i c i n i t y of the Fort Nelson River in the north. The regional population i s sparse and largely concentrated i n few sizeable communities which are Fort St. John (8,900 population), Fort Nelson (2,900 population) and Dawson Creek (10,500 population). The rest of the The population figures of these communities i n 1971, compared to 1976 figures as given above were respectively 49,800, 6,300 and 4,100. communities are small i s o l a t e d groups of 10 to 250 people each. (7) The Northern Interior region constitutes a large area with r e l a t i v e l y small population. This region has remained v i r t u a l l y undeveloped as i t lacks resources for economic development. Cassiar, the largest community, has a population of less than 500 people, located i n i s o l a t e d groups. 000000 This description and the accompanying i l l u s t r a t i o n s show the following points which could have a bearing on the e x i s t i n g and future s i t u a t i o n i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia: (1) The population of B r i t i s h Columbia i s unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d . A large"percentage of the t o t a l population i s concentrated i n r e l a t i v e l y few locations of the southern half of B r i t i s h Columbia, notably i n the Georgia S t r a i t region, parts of the Okanagan-Thompson Valleys, the Kootenay region and the Fraser uplands of the Central * I n t e r i o r . The rest of the province i s sparsely populated * Approximately 75% of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l population l i v e s i n the Lower Fraser Valley and the eastern lowlands of the Vancouver Island; 15% of the population l i v e s i n the Okanagan Valley area; the re s t (10%) lives i n the vast region of central and northern B r i t i s h Columbia. i n i s o l a t e d places. Population of the northern half of B r i t i s h Columbia i s concentrated mainly i n a few locations such as Prince George, Dawson Creek, Prince Rupert and Kitimat. The metropolitan areas of the Georgia S t r a i t region are large conurbations (Greater Vancouver and Greater Victoria) i n contrast to the small, scattered urban nuclei (Kamloops, Kelowna, Cranbrook etc.) and the i s o l a t e d concentrations of r u r a l population i n the rest of the province. The Okanagan-Thompson and the Central Interior regions are the two steadily growing areas of the * province. Although the population of Fort Nelson and Fort St. John i n the Peace-Liard region have increased over the l a s t few years, the increases are small and they remain i s o l a t e d examples of population growth i n the northeast * * corner of the province. Based on the population d i s t r i b u t i o n a general pattern of potential housing market d i s t r i b u t i o n can be The populations of each of these two areas have increased by approximately 2 0 to 25% from 19 71 to 1976. Approximately 50% of t h i s increase took place i n the urban centres such as Prince George, Kamloops, Kelowna and Penticton. The rest of the increase was i n small towns of Quesnel, Merritt and Williams Lake as well as i n v i l l a g e s such as Princeton, Fort St. James and Vanderhoof. The populatins of these two places, respectively, increased from 2,289 and 8,303 i n 1971 to 2,916 and 8,947 i n 1976. determined. From t h i s consideration, a conclusion i s drawn that the market i s fragmented and unevenly con-centrated. Most of the market i s i n the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and i n parts of the Okanagan Valley and the Central I n t e r i o r . In the northern parts of the province -- such as i n the Peace-Liard region -- there i s a r e l a t i v e l y small market, p a r t i c u l a r l y for permanent dwellings. The large urbanized areas of the lower Fraser Valley and southern Vancouver Island generally seem to provide prospects for stable urban markets i n contrast to the r e l a t i v e l y non-continuous and fragmented markets of the scattered urban and r u r a l concentrations of the rest of the province. (2) Although the large communities are served by a close network of roads and railways, the rugged t e r r a i n and the small size of several communities i n most of the It i s noted, however, that population d i s t r i b u t i o n alone i s not an exact indicator of housing-demand d i s t r i b u t i o n . Housing-demand i s influenced also by factors other than population d i s t r i b u t i o n — such as household formation, age group d i s t r i b u t i o n , income d i s t r i b u t i o n , employment and mortgage a v a i l a b i l i t y . Since t h i s thesis i s limited i n scope and since such detailed investigation would be time-consuming,the r e a d i l y available data of population d i s t r i b u t i o n i s considered to a r r i v e at a broad overview of potential market d i s t r i b u t i o n . province have deterred the expansion of t h i s network over a large area of the province. The coastal communities, for example, have to rel y largely upon water transportation and a i r service. In the northern part of the province the transportation i s d i f f i c u l t and slow, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n winters. Also, large distances between the few sizeable communities located here make transportation uneconomical. For example, between Prince George and Dawson Creek, for a distance of about 260 miles, there i s only one community of more than 120 0 people - Chetnwyd. Rest of the com-munities have less than 25 0 people. Between Dawson Creek and Fort Nelson, for a distance of 300 miles, Fort St. John i s the only community with a sizeable population of about 9,000 people. The rough mountainous t e r r a i n of B r i t i s h Columbia also means the existence of mountain passes and tunnels i n several parts of the province. Such passes and tunnels normally impose r e s t r i c t i o n s on the dimensions of goods to be transported and on the mode of transportation. Since the ease and e f f i c i e n c y of trans-portation i s an important c r i t e r i o n for i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing, such r e s t r i c t i o n s l i m i t the design and con-str u c t i o n aspects of these housing. The lim i t a t i o n s This i s discussed i n d e t a i l l a t e r i n th i s t h e s i s . See pp. 73, 131 67 aff e c t i n g mobile homes i s a well known example. (3) The varying climatic conditions of the province could give r i s e to differences i n housing design and construction requirements i n some regions. The colder climate of the northern regions of the province such as that of the Peace-Liard region e n t a i l s maximum retention of heat within a house, maximum exposure to the Sun i n winters and protection from the sub-arctic winds. In order to provide for environmentally appropriate housing, a l l housing design and construction solutions must evolve out of a d i r e c t response to the l o c a l climate. Capital investment and Government p o l i c i e s The a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l for investment purposes i s an important prerequisite of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e the res t of Canada, has been experiencing a slow economic growth over the l a s t few years. Capital investment i n i n d u s t r i a l development i s low. As recently as i n September 1976 the B r i t i s h Columbia Chamber of Commerce, at i t s annual conference, expressed For example, smaller windows to reduce heat loss; thicker walls or the use of material with high in s u l a t i o n value; compact forms of houses ( ,A or., n , for instance) i n order to minimize exterior surface area; and minimum obstruction on-the exterior surface to avoid heat loss through minimum resistance to cold winds. 4 concern over t h i s s i t u a t i o n and c a l l e d on the p r o v i n c i a l government to take steps to regain investors confidence 5 xn the p r o v i n c i a l economy. Large-scale i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n based on centralized mass production inevitably requires large-scale c a p i t a l investment and a guaranteed, continuous market. The fluc t u a t i n g market for new, detached housing (which i s dominated by variously competitive builders of s i t e - b u i l t houses) does not appear to a t t r a c t large c a p i t a l investment. This i s evident e s p e c i a l l y during the current period of slow economic growth and economic r e s t r a i n t . In addition to t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the view that a greater degree of c a p i t a l investment r e s u l t i n a greater degree of ce n t r a l i z a t i o n , commercialism and indifference to l o c a l i z e d market needs suggests that the methods of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing u t i l i z i n g r e l a t i v e l y lower amounts of c a p i t a l should be investigated. Such methods could be adopted u n t i l the market conditions and investment s i t u a t i o n would warrant otherwise. To certain extent,in addition to the motives of the The market for such houses i s low at present because of various reasons such as: (a) slow rate of population growth; (b) reluctance of people to buy houses due to r i s i n g unemployment; (c) continuing i n f l a t i o n and slow economic recovery; (d) decrease in population of some areas; (e) surplus of houses i n some areas; (f) r i s i n g land costs; and (g) growth of i n t e r e s t i n housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . investors and manufacturers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing, the compatibility of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing methods with l o c a l conditions depend also on government p o l i c i e s concerning housing. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , governments of t h i s province have maintained a r e l a t i v e l y low p r o f i l e ( u n t i l recently) i n thi s f i e l d . This i s largely due to the t r a d i t i o n a l system of "free" market. Long-term, compre-hensive p o l i c i e s dealing with various aspects of housing, besides the provision of f i n a n c i a l aids, have been mostly absent. Except for a report on mobile homes and a small report on the package and modular housing industry of B r i t i s h Columbia (1975) , no major studies have been done on current methods, consequences and problems of indus-t r i a l i z e d housing i n the province. An Interdepartmental Study Team i n 1975 noted that, u n t i l 1973, the province of B r i t i s h Columbia did not even have a separate ministry g of housing. P a r t i c u l a r l y now when the use of i n d u s t r i a l l y made parts and modules i s increasing i n the f i e l d of housing, long-range comprehensive planning for in d u s t r i a -l i z e d housing should form an esse n t i a l part of the * p r o v i n c i a l housing p o l i c y . Examples of the importance of long-range p o l i c i e s are found i n some European countries. In Denmark, for example, u n t i l 1960 there was no long-term government planning for housing. The f i r s t steps which enabled t h i s were taken i n 19 6 0 by the Danish government. From the Danish viewpoint t h i s planning was of the greatest importance to the development of in d u s t r i a -l i z e d housing i n that country. 9 Conclusion The l o c a l geographic conditions and the pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n have together resulted i n the existence of l o c a l i z e d housing markets situated mostly i n the southern half of B r i t i s h Columbia. A large percentage of the fl u c t u a t i n g market of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y preferred detached houses i s concentrated i n r e l a t i v e l y few locations of t h i s province. This market i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y located i n the metropolitan areas of the Georgia S t r a i t region and i n the small urban nuclei of the Central Int e r i o r , the Okanagan-Thompson and the Columbia-Kootenay regions. Compared to t h i s , only a small market exists at present for permanent, detached houses in the Peace-Li a r d region i n the northeast corner of the province. A low l e v e l of p r o v i n c i a l government incentives in the t r a d i t i o n a l "free" market system, a lack of long-range comprehensive planning and the r e l a t i v e l y small size of projects offered by the fluctuating market of detached houses deter large-scale and continuous c a p i t a l investment i n housing production. Large-distance transportation i n much of the province i s d i f f i c u l t and r e s t r i c t e d due to the existence of tunnels and mountain passes i n the e s s e n t i a l l y rugged t e r r a i n . Such transportation i s also expensive i n parts of the northern province because of large distances between sizeable communities. Most communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia are small and they do not have the potential for a continuous demand for new housing. In order to determine the compatibility of the e x i s t i n g methods of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing within the province, considerations of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n — such as the above— are essential. .As i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n deals with continuous, quantity production and depends on a guaranteed market to j u s t i f y investment, thorough consideration of l o c a l s i t u a t i o n provides a firm'economic basis. This conside-rat i o n should form an important part of organization and planning of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 72 3.2 REVIEW OF EXISTING INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING OF BRITISH COLUMBIA At present a number of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d products, including prefabricated and pre-cut products, for housing are offered on the l o c a l market. Such products are: (1) components (2) mobile homes, (3) package housing, (4) modulars and sectionals. (1) Components: Components — such as doors, windows, cabinets, furniture, sanitary units, trusses and panels --are manufactured by several independent secondary industries i n a wide range of f i n i s h e s , prices, sizes and standards. (2) Mobile Homes: A mobile home i s a portable, vehicular unit, intended for use as a single detached dwelling. It i s b u i l t on i t s own chasis and transported on wheels, as a vehicle, to a piece of land which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designated for mobile homes. The unit may be supported with a permanent foundation. It may have been manufactured in accordance wi€h~~approved construction standards and codes. Most manufacturers of mobile homes follow a standard established or accepted by the mobile home industry i t s e l f . In this province, a l l new mobile homes are required to conform^to the Canadian Standard Association's standard no. Z 240. The p r o v i n c i a l highway regulations l i m i t maximum body dimensions of a mobile home to 12'-1" for width and 68'-0" for length, including the hitch. Projections may extend 0'-5" beyond the 12'-1" allowed width. Sometimes even 12' wide mobile homes are not permitted on c e r t a i n roads within the province owing to the narrowness of tunnels and bridges. The maximum height of a load to be transported (or of a vehicle) may not exceed 13'-6" which i s measured from the ground to the top of the load."*"^ Although there has been an intere s t and a suggestion for developing mobile home units which can be combined with other units, can be expanded by "folding-out", or can be stacked upon one another, there i s no doubt that the highway li m i t a t i o n s have considerably minimized design and d i s t r i b u t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s for mobile homes. This w i l l hold true i n spite of the future p o s s i b i l i t y that 14' wide units w i l l be allowed on the highways. (3) "Package" Housing: A k i t of prefabricated or pre-cut components such as e x t e r i o r / i n t e r i o r walls and roof sections are manufactured i n a factory for assembly on s i t e . A permanent foundation i s constructed p r i o r to assembly. The components are assembled i n a pa r t i c u l a r manner following a predetermined design. The utlimate product—a house — conforms to building codes and q u a l i f i e s for long-term mortgages (4) Modulars or Sectionals: These units are similar i n some respects to mobile homes. For example, they are factory-manufactured, portable units intended for use as dwellings af t e r being transported to a s i t e and placed on a foundation. Since they are transported as complete units, as are mobile homes, the same highway res-t r i c t i o n s that apply to mobile homes also apply to th e i r transportation. They d i f f e r from mobile homes i n following respects: (a) A modular or a sectional i s not a vehicular unit. I t does not have i t s own chasis and wheels. It has to be transported on a s p e c i a l l y b u i l t truck. (b) It i s permanently attached or placed on a foundation. It cannot be moved again once i t i s attached to the foundation. (c) It meets approved construction standards and q u a l i f i e s for long-term morgages l i k e conventionally b u i l t houses. In the case of a "sectional", instead of only one modular unit, either two or more units are combined on s i t e to obtain a desired and predetermined house design. At present the industry primarily concentrates on the production and supply of single detached houses with both the "package" and the "modular" concepts. These houses are e s s e n t i a l l y "stud-wall" structures. The following discussion deals mainly with the "package" and "modular" housing industry. The mobile home are not studied i n d e t a i l because of the following reasons 000000 (a) In t h i s author 1 s view, the changing require-ments of the housing market as, for example a r i s e i n multi-family, high density dwellings and pressures to l i m i t suburban growth w i l l make mobile homes either less viable i n the * rapidly urbanizing areas of the province, or they w i l l change i n t h e i r design, con-struction, and d i s t r i b u t i o n approaches by a considerable degree. (b) "Mobile homes", by virtue of th e i r d e f i n i t i o n as predetermined three-dimensional volumes, have a limited scope for design, space u t i l i z a t i o n and construction method improvements. The size and shape of a mobile home i s l i k e l y to remain r e s t r i c t e d because of the l i m i t s placed by factory size and highway regulations. Even i f 14' or 16' wide units are permitted on highways, always there w i l l be some roads, tunnels, mountain passes and bridges within the province narrower than the allowed width for mobile homes. This si t u a t i o n w i l l l i m i t t h e i r wider d i s t r i b u t i o n . A similar opinion has been expressed by the Prov i n c i a l Inquiry Commission appointed i n 197 5 to carry out studies on the problems and prospects of the pr o v i n c i a l mobile home industry. 1 1 (c) A number of studies pertaining to mobile homes i n Canada as well as i n t h i s province have been prepared by university students, mobile home manufacturers, CMHC, c i t y planning departments, governments and other agencies. The mobile home industry i s highly organized, committed to a certain approach, well developed and aware of what i s expected from i t and what i s i t capable of o f f e r i n g . In addition, more than 50% of mobile homes sold i n t h i s province are manufactured i n and imported from the U.S.A. * Some reference w i l l be made to mobile homes; however, the discussion w i l l deal b a s i c a l l y with that segment of the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing sector which i s concerned with "package" and "modular" housing. In t h i s Province there are several firms involved i n the production of package and modular housing, but only a few of them are involved on a year-round basis. They of f e r a range of types and sizes of houses which are based Mobile home development, however, i s an important phenomenon imhousing. Mobile homes are an a t t r a c t i v e alternative to conventional forms of housing. This i s evident p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those areas of the province where on-site house building may be d i f f i c u l t either due to high labour cost or adverse c l i m a t i c conditions. Largely detached houses. 78 on a c e r t a i n number of predetermined designs. Some firms also o f f e r to manufacture for "custom designed" plans. The following discussion i s based mainly on data gathered during v i s i t s to the manufacturing plants of some firms. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n : S ) The data on other firms i s obtained from available l i t e r a t u r e . A majority of the firms included i n the following study have been i n steady business over a number of years ranging from approximately 7 to 25 years. These firms occasionally engage i n the promotion of t h e i r products through newspaper advertise-ments, magazines, press meetings and exhibitions. I t i s not u n r e a l i s t i c to assume that these firms present a more or less true picture of the industry, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the uncertainty and i n s t a b i l i t y of many other firms. I t appears unlikely that such firms (the ones not studied) would have an approach d i f f e r e n t from the one discussed i n the following pages, even i f they were i n steady operation. The names of the firms v i s i t e d or referred to i n the discussion are as follows: 1. Pan-Abode Buildings Ltd., Richmond. 2. Westwood Building Systems, New Westminster. 3. F.G. Fowler and Associates, Surrey. 79 4. Mariner Homes, Penticton. A l l of the above firms were v i s i t e d by thi s author. Information on the following firms i s obtained from the available references. 5. Elba Homes, Prince George. 6. Beaver Homes, Surrey. Pan-Abode B u i l d i n g s L t d . , Richmond Westwood B u i l d i n g Systems, New Westminster F . G . Fowler & A s s o c i a t e s , S u r r e y Mariner Homes, P e n t i c t o n E l b ^ H o m e s , P r i n c e Geroge BeaveV Hopes, Surrey • ISAM L O O P S *u?we* M A W O N P » V 6 R N O K I ^ * K E L O W N A *6 #4 P B N T I C T O N I l l u s t r a t i o n i 8 Location of Firms Studied 81 * Description of the Products and Production: 1. Company: PAN-ABODE BUILDINGS LTD. 2090, Westminster Highway, Richmond. In operation since 1948. Off-Site work: Packages of pre-cut wood parts for the following items are made available by the manufacturer: Floor framing. Inter i o r and exterior wall parts i n 3" or 4" cedar. Roof purlins and roof sections. - Preassembled door and window framing. Prehung doors and glazing are also a v a i l a b l e . The packages are for the assembly of bare minimum "s h e l l s " based on 14 d i f f e r e n t predetermined house designs. Packages for custom made designs are also available at higher costs. Generally, no in s u l a t i o n i s incorporated i n the package parts. Insulation materials, however, are supplied This description and the accompanying i l l u s t r a t i o n s are actual data only as supplied by the manufacturers. No attempt i s made at t h i s point to analyse these data. upon request. The parts are supplied with precise machine-cut notches for jo i n t s at predetermined points of connection. On-site work: The manufacturer l i m i t s his services to on-site delivery of the packages. The delivery costs, however, are extra. A l l s i t e work i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the customer who may choose to do the work himself or may hire a contractor for t h i s work. The s i t e work includes the following: Foundations. Basement work (no parts are supplied for th i s work by the factory). - F i n i s h i n g and furnishing work. Insulation work that may be required (If requested, the insula t i o n materials are included i n the package). Assembly work for the package parts. Service i n s t a l l a t i o n and u t i l i t y connections. Ultimate product: Usually this i s a single storey detached house for use either as a year-round residence or as a vacation house. The construction conforms to the National Building Code of Canada (N.B.C.) and l o c a l building codes. The predetermined designs range from 831 sq. ft., for a 2 bedroom house to 2006 sq. f t . for a 5 bedroom house, a l l without basements. The factory price for one of the average 3 bedroom package houses of 1262 sq. f t . area i s quoted as $17,664.00 (with 4" thick cedar parts). This price does not include delivery costs, p r o v i n c i a l sales taxes, on-site work costs, service i n s t a l l a t i o n costs and land purchase p r i c e . * 1977 prices. 1. The Pan-Abode logs are pre-cut to length and coded to identity their location. 2. Door and window openings are tormed during assembly of the walls. 3. The roof system is Western Red Cedar boards supported by purlins. 4. The Pan-Abode package includes all the interior and exterior trim needed to fin-ish the building in an attractive fashion. Pan-Abode's special nail-less lock joints are completely hidde No gaps show at wall intersections. I l l u s t r a t i o n ;9 Assembly o f a t y p i c a l Pan-Abode house. 2. Company: WESTWOOD BUILDING SYSTEMS 2, Ewen Avenue, New Westminster In operation since 1960. O f f - s i t e work: Three basic alternative systems are offered: (A) Package housing: packages contain components such as the following: Roof trusses and roof ends. Interi o r and exterior walls. Floor sections. Door and window units. Kitchen cabinets. Materials necessary for basements, and other materials such as bathroom t i l e s : and wall papers are included i n the packages, depending on the order. The packages are based on 40 predetermined designs. Custom made designs are handled at extra costs. Wall components are t y p i c a l stud-walls. The chief material used i s k i l n d r i e d timber for framing work and plywood for sheathing. (B) "Service-Core" houses: In t h i s a l t e r n t i v e , c a l l e d the "Westcore" system, a module comprising of a kitchen counter with cooking range, and a bathroom unit with " a l l plumbing, e l e c t r i c a l wiring and heating units p r e i n s t a l l e d " , i s supplied as the "core" of a house. Along with t h i s service-core, prefinished, insulated and serviced wall and roof components are supplied. (C) Modular or "Pre-built" module system: Modules ranging from 12' x 38' to 12' x 60' are, prefinished with services incorporated, that i s , e l e c t r i c a l wiring, plumbing and heating. The maximum height of a module normally does not exceed 10'-0" (including roof) * due to highway r e s t r i c t i o n s . The modules are furnished with carpets, wall papers, cabinets etc. The modules may be used singly or i n combination with other modules. 9 predetermined configurations are offered by the manufacturer which are based on the use of two uniformly dimensioned modules. Custom made designs are handled at extra costs. See pp. 73 On-site work: The manufacturer l i m i t s his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y up to the stage of on-site delivery of modules. A l l s i t e work i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the customer who may choose a contractor to do the job or he may do i t himself, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of a "package" house. Either way, a manual for carrying out the work i s provided by the manufacturer upon request. In the case of "package" housing, the s i t e work includes the following: Foundations. Basement when ^  it,-is. -included i n the order.., ..: ... - Finishing and furnishing work. Assembly work for the package components. Service i n s t a l l a t i o n and u t i l i t y connections. In the case of the "Westcore" system, the s i t e work includes a l l of the above operations except the service i n s t a l l a t i o n and f i n i s h i n g work. In addition to t h i s , the on-site work includes the "s e t t i n g - i n " of the "core" units on foundations. In the case of the "Modular" system, the s i t e work includes a l l of the above operations with the exception of the f i n i s h i n g , the " s e t t i n g - i n " of the modules on foundations and the joining of the modules to each other. Ultimate product: Usually t h i s i s a single storey or a double storey detached house for use either as a year-round residence or as a vacation house. The construction conforms to the N.B.C. and l o c a l building codes. In the case of "package" housing, the houses range from 815 sq. f t . for a 2 bedroom house to 1240 sq. f t . for a 3 bedroom house. The factory price for a standard 3 bedroom house of single storey (without basement) i s i n the average of approximately $10,000 to $12,000 with sizes ranging from 1066 sq. f t . to 1240 sq. f t . The price does not include delivery costs, p r o v i n c i a l sales taxes, on-site work costs, service i n s t a l l a t i o n and land purchasing costs. No prices or sizes for the "Westcore" system are available at t h i s time. In the case of the "Modular" system, the designs range from a 2 bedroom house of 8 64 sq. f t . to a 3 bedroom house of 1200 sq. f t . No price l i s t s are available at t h i s time. 89 I l l u s t r a t i o n : t O A r b i t r a r y Design & Dimensions. A t y p i c a l d e s i g n f o r a package home, Westwood B u i l d i n g Systems. 3. Company: F.G. FOWLER AND ASSOCIATES, 6630, 144th S t r e e t , Surrey. In o p e r a t i o n f o r approximately 2 0 y e a r s . O f f - s i t e work: (A) "Package" housing: Packages of p r e - c u t p a r t s and preassembled components c o n t a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g items are s u p p l i e d , based on 22 predetermined house de s i g n s . The packages i n c l u d e : Preassembled and i n s u l a t e d e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r w a l l s . F l o o r framing p a r t s . Roof s e c t i o n s . Door and window u n i t s . - Plumbing w a l l u n i t s . (B) "Modular" housing: Modules ranging i n s i z e from 12' x 38' to 12' x 60' are p r e f i n i s h e d and p r e f u r n i s h e d i n c l u d i n g s e r v i c e i n s t a l l a t i o n , c a r p e t s , w a l l papers, s a n i t a r y f i x t u r e s e t c . The maximum h e i g h t f o r the modules are g e n e r a l l y 10'-0" * ( i n c l u d i n g r o o f ) . Roof, however, may be manufactured s e p a r a t e l y from modules. In t h i s case the maximum hei g h t of a module may be i n c r e a s e d up to 10'-0". ^,1 For two-module combinations, 29 predetermined house designs are available. In t h i s case, both of the modules in any one design are of the same size. The chief building material used i s k i l n d r i e d timber. Plywood i s used for sheathing i n both the "package" and "modular" housing production. On-site work: A l l s i t e work i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the customer. In both the "package" and the "modular" housing, t h i s work would include the following: Foundations. Basement, when i t i s included i n the order. - Service i n s t a l l a t i o n and u t i l i t y connections. The assembly work, the f i n i s h i n g work and the furnishing work are additional i n the case of a "package" house, whereas i n the case of a "modular" house, the additional work includes the placing of the modules on the foundations, and the joining of the modules to each other. Ultimate product: This i s usually a single storey or a one-and-a half storey detached house for use either as a year-round house or as a vacation house. The construction conforms to the N.B.C. and l o c a l building codes. The "package" housing are available i n the ranges of 864 sq. f t . (2 bedrooms) to 1352 sq. f t . (3 bedrooms). The factory price for a standard 3 bedroom house i s i n the average of $10,000 to $12,000. The "modular" houses range from 912 sq. f t . (2 bedrooms and a basement) to 1296 sq. f t . (3 bedroom and a basement). The factory price for an average 3 bedroom house (without basement) i s i n the average of $22,000 to $24,000. None of these prices include delivery costs, p r o v i n c i a l sales tax, on-site work costs and land purchase prices . CO W UJ LU < ZJ o co Q O o o 2 2 IS V- CO f- _J I I Si CD . CO < I l l u s t r a t i o n : ! ! Arbitrary Design & Dimensions. A t y p i c a l design for a Fowler & Associates modular home. 4. Company: MARINER HOMES, 56 8, Dawson Avenue, Penticton. In operation since 1969. O f f - s i t e work: (A) "Package" housing: Packages for 22 predetermined designs are supplied which contain the following items: Roof trusses and roof ends. Door and window framing. Floor sections. Inte r i o r and exterior walls with i n s u l a t i o n . Custom made plans are handled at extra costs. (B) "Modular" housing: Modules range i n sizes from approximately 10' x 38' to 12' x 60'. There i s also a module of 12' x 15'. Out of 11 predetermined configurations, 10 are two-module com-binations whereas the remaining one i s a three-module combination. The maximum height of a module does not o r d i n a r i l y exceed lO'-O" (including r o o f ) . A l l modules are prefinished and prefurnished with necessary service i n s t a l l a t i o n and i n s u l a t i o n . On-site work: A l l on-site work i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of customers, with the exception of placing and j o i n i n g of the modules on already constructed foundations. (A) Package housing: The s i t e work includes the following: Foundations. Basement, when i t i s included i n the order. Assembly of the package. Fini s h i n g and furnishing. Service i n s t a l l a t i o n and u t i l i t y connections. (B) Modular housing: In t h i s case, the s i t e work includes a l l of the above operations except service i n s t a l l a t i o n , assembly, f i n i s h i n g and furnishing. The placing and joining of the modules on foundations i s additional s i t e work. Ultimate product: With the exception of a recently introduced plan for a multi-family walk-up block, a major percentage of production i s for single family detached houses of either one or two storeys. The construction^conforms to the N.B.C. and l o c a l building codes. Designs for "package" housing range from 832 sq. f t . (2 bedrooms) to 1381 sq. f t . (3 bedrooms). The factory price i s quoted as about $24,050 for a 3 bedroom house of 1100 sq. f t . Modulars range from 960 sq. f t . (2 bedrooms) to 1248 sq. f t . (3 bedrooms). No prices are available at present. 3 & O > H o ro p- bf h J & co g cr H c H- ro p- C cn ft) 3 m M rt hj p. pj N H i O H pu r+ O f-i cn P-B • D O ro w ro cn 2 > P-H r+ 3 P - K ro p-n o P> H Mayfield 2 Bedroom, Den, V/i Bath, 1152 sq. ft. This is the ideal family home with space to grow in. Features large living/dining/foyer, areas with that open feeling, a pleasantly-different floorplan with gracious living over-B looking the rear garden, cosy den and family-size kitchen. STANDARD PLAN REVERSE PLAN 98 Summary of Description of Products: 1. O f f - s i t e work: (a) The es s e n t i a l components or preassembled parts such as roof trusses, exterior and i n t e r i o r walls, or f l o o r sections are manu-factured and sold only as parts of complete "packages". (b) They are manufactured s p e c i f i c a l l y for a pa r t i c u l a r order in the case of "package" housing, that i s , no stock p i l i n g i d done. (c) "Modulars" are not assembled from wall units and f l o o r units manufactured for "package" housing. They are constructed, piece by piece, i n a process similar to a s i t e - b u i l t , conventional stud-wall construction. (d) Some components are i n s t a l l e d with services and i n s u l a t i o n . (e) "Modulars" are supplied as complete, pre-finished and prefurnished units, depending on the order. 2. On-site work: (a) With the exception of sporadic instances, i t i s a policy of the manufacturers to l i m i t t h e i r commitments and services up to the s i t e - d e l i v e r y stage. 3. Ultimate product: (a) With the exception of a project concept by one of the manufacturers (Mariner Homes), a l l manufacturers have geared t h e i r production e f f o r t s for supplying conventional looking, single family, detached houses of one or two storeys. (b) A l l houses conform to the National Building Code of Canada and l o c a l building codes. Their production i s based mainly on predetermined designs. (c) Factory prices do not include costs for * delivery, on-site work , land purchase and sales taxes. Service i n s t a l l a t i o n costs are additional i n the case of a "package" house. Inferences: In reading through the preceding description and the l i t e r a t u r e supplied by the manufacturers, and from personal observations made during the v i s i t s , the following i s inferred : (1) In terms of economy, the manufactured housing does not o f f e r considerable savings to the customers i n comparison to the conventionally b u i l t average house. To the purchaser, the factory price for a "modular" *1 i s approximately between $15 to $20 per square foot. This may include setting up of the "modular" on already constructed foundations, but does not include the costs for delivery and on-site construction work. A "package" house could cost (factory l i s t e d price) 13 from approximately $9 to $12 per square foot, depending on the area of the house and on the features included i n the package. These figures are exclusive of a l l on-site costs, delivery costs, contractor's margin and service i n s t a l l a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l sales taxes, other l o c a l taxes, land purchase prices and fees for legal services are additional costs both i n the cases of "package" and "modular" houses. Mariner Homes, however, provided a figure of approximately $22 per sq. f t . 101 Such extra costs bring the t o t a l price of a completed house to approximately $25 to $30 per square foot. In some areas of the province, where the on-site labour and the materials required for the necessary construc-ti o n are either i n short supply or are expensive, the t o t a l cost may be even higher. For example, a study by the Department of Housing quoted the figure of $32.38/square foot i n Fort Nelson for a 14 957 square feet "modular" house. In comparison, the per square foot costs for a conventionally b u i l t house are i n the order of approximately $27 to $30 (exclusive of land price) i n the Lower Mainland, more i n the Interior and 15 much higher i n the Northern parts of the province. Mobile homes are not included i n the detailed study. However, i n connection with the current discussion i t i s appropriate to note that the r e t a i l i n g prices * for new mobile homes set up i n a mobile home park are between $16 to $20 per square foot. These figures are both for single-wide and double-wide 16 mobile homes. The conclusion i s clear: although manufactured housing at present o f f e r comparable prices with those of A l l new mobile homes sold within the Province are required to conform to CSA Z240. conventionally b u i l t housing, the manufacturers w i l l have to f i n d ways to lower the prices i n order to increase t h e i r share i n the market. As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , t h i s has not happened because the f u l l potentials of mass production are not yet r e a l i z e d i n t h e i r present methods of production. As a r e s u l t , the factory l i s t e d prices are neither low nor a t t r a c t i v e enough to make an impact over the market prospects of manufactured housing. (2) On the other hand, the industry has r e a l i z e d some advantages over conventionally b u i l t housing, for example: (a) P a r t i a l benefits are gained by manufacturers through mass purchase of materials, reduction of wastage and increased labour output within the factory where close supervision i s maintained. These benefits, however, have not always influenced the prices offered. (b) Stoppages of work due to weather conditions are reduced as the production i s carried out inside a sheltered area. (c) By manufacturing t o t a l l y finished and furnished Even when compared with the prices for the new and improved mobile homes which must conform to CSA Z240. "modulars" the input of time and e f f o r t i s considerably reduced on the part of the customer. (d) The amount of time and e f f o r t spent between placing an order and receiving i t s delivery i s reduced. Under normal circumstances, the delivery time for a , "package" or a "modular" house averages between 3 to 6 weeks. . During periods: of low sales — for example, i n winter — the delivery time i s reduced to about one week. If foundations and other necessary features are ready, the assembly of a "package" house normally takes one week and the setting-up of a "modular" merely takes one or two days. (3) In spite of such advantages, the manufactured housing sector of t h i s province f a l l s short of r e a l i z i n g the f u l l benefits and potentials of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing. Beyond a cert a i n point i t has not yet adopted the basics of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . This i s pa r t l y because production for the unpredictable and fluctuating market of detached housing does not of f e r suitable conditions for continuous mass Mobile homes also of f e r the same advantage, but the manufactured housing are b u i l t i n accordance with approved standards, i . e . National Building Code of Canada. production, and p a r t l y because of the work procedure of the manufacturers. A l l manufacturers and t h e i r promotional l i t e r a t u r e claim that they o f f e r a range of "models", that i s , pre-determined house designs and f a c i l i t i e s for "custom designs A look through the plans supplied has shown that the dimensions do not follow a p a r t i c u l a r system and that they * are a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. The layouts and orientation of spaces are also a r b i t r a r y , having no l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a and no apparent r e l a t i o n to s i t e or surrounding. Some of the es s e n t i a l points of t h e i r work procedure are as follows: (a) There seems to be no standard and no r a t i o n a l basis for house designs. (b) As a l l "custom designs" are catered for, i t i s l i k e l y that the design and the production of components or parts necessary for those designs w i l l vary. This means there can be no r a t i o n a l i z e d standard possible i n the design and dimensions of the components. (c) There are no standard manufactured components or preassembled parts which may be bought singly by customers w i l l i n g to buy them. As mentioned e a r l i e r i n the "Summary" (pp. SO ) the components are made available only as parts of "packages". In the case of "modular" Some of the fundamental c r i t e r i a of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n are standardization and system. See pp. 16-21 production no prefabricated components (except trusses and cabinets) are used, that i s , "modulars" are conventionally b u i l t "stud-wall" structures. (d) A l l manufacturers wait for a customer to come and choose one design from those already prepared by t h e i r design s t a f f ; or, the customer may choose to o f f e r his own design and place an order accordingly. His design may not have a r e l a t i o n to the "readymade" designs. The manufacturer, having received the order, advises the customer to secure a mortgage. Only when t h i s i s accomplished does the manufacturer proceed with the production for that p a r t i c u l a r order. Once a s u f f i c i e n t number of components necessary for the p a r t i c u l a r order are manufactured, the pro-duction l i n e i s discontinued unless the same type of design has been ordered by another customer. The same procedure i s repeated each time an order i s received. (e) A customer has to make a choice by looking at the plans and perspective sketches of houses. He may be shown the photographs of the houses actually b u i l t by the factory. However, as there are no standard components available unless an order for a package house has been received, the customer has to re l y on the written s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n order to determine the quality of the materials and components which may be used for his house. In case he cannot v i s i t the factory i n person, his judgement for the product must depend e n t i r e l y on the information supplied to him by the dealer i n his area. 106 The following i s concluded from the foregoing points: (1) The production i s done individually/separately each time for each order. It i s , thus, non-continuous. (2) Although the work procedure or the sequence for production may have been standardized, the components or the parts have not been standardized and systematized. They are manufactured only when a customer places an order and secures a mortgage. None of the manufacturers offers a range of standard components with which a range of designs can be made or houses can be assembled. Instead, they o f f e r a range of predetermined styles and designs a r b i t r a r i l y planned. This w i l l l i m i t the scope for a further improvement and rev i s i o n i n the production processes and for a wider market. (3) Some of the components or parts are s t i l l " b u i l t " singly with c r a f t labour except for certain purposes such as n a i l i n g , stapling or glueing. This may have much to do with the material used — wood, which does not 107 I l l u s t r a t i o n us Some components, such as trusses, are 1 i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured. The assembly of these components i s largely a handi-craft process. lend i t s e l f to mechanization or automation as compared to, for example, concrete or s t e e l . (4) Non-continuous production and a lack of standardization means that other requirements of mass production are not f u l l y s a t i s f i e d such as system, easy handling and minimum duplication of work. Non-standardization and i n d i v i d u a l production for each order can hardly achieve interchangeability of parts even between the products manufactured by the same factory. Thus, the prospects concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y of replace-able products are not promising. In comparison to the construction phase of conven-t i o n a l l y b u i l t houses, a l l of the above-mentioned factors r e s u l t i n equal, i f not more, duplication of e f f o r t and costs i n the production phase of factory b u i l t houses. In the case of a conventionally b u i l t house, for example, a builder repeats the complete process of: receiving a contract, obtaining and processing the necessary materials while proceeding to erect the house according to the p a r t i c u l a r design and i t s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . B a s i c a l l y there i s hardly any difference between the two sets of procedures. The only differences which have resulted i n some advantages i n the procedure of manufactured housing production, can be l i s t e d as follows: (a) A major portion of the complete production process i s carried:out inside a factory, that i s , i n a controlled environment with centralized supervision and management. No independently controlled trades and sub-trades are involved. (b) The procurement of materials i s made easier and cheaper through mass purchase. (c) Some degree of mechanization i s used i n production, for example, i n stapling or n a i l i n g the framing members or in sheathing the frames, which allows a saving of time and labour i n the factory. In summation, i t i s noted that the esse n t i a l charac-t e r i s t i c s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n — m a s s p r o d u c t i o n — i s largely absent i n the p r o v i n c i a l industry of manufactured housing. The main reasons are the absence of a large, stable market i n most areas and the lack of a large c a p i t a l investment. However, besides mass production, the organization of an industry and i t s planning i n view of the l o c a l situations are also e s s e n t i a l i n any form of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . I l l u s t r a t i o n : I 4 Manufactured home production inside a factory i s done piece by piece resembling the production of a s i t e - b u i l t house. I l l u s t r a t i o n : i s Some components of a t y p i c a l package home. Il l u s t r a t i o n ; i s Components, such as walls, are i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured on an assembly l i n e . Organization and Planning: In order to determine the organizational approach of the l o c a l manufactured housing industry a uniform question-naire (pp. f89 ) was prepared for selected manufacturers (pp .76 ) . The findings which are noted i n the following pages are derived from the response to these questionnaires, the author's observations during v i s i t s to fac t o r i e s and some available references.. The organizational approach of the industry i s examined i n terms of the following aspects: (1) Research. (2) Design. (3) Transportation and s i t e d e l i v e r y . (4) On-site assembly and construction . (5) Financing. (6) Land purchase and development. (7) Promotion and marketing. Some of these aspects such as research, design, transportation, assembly, financing,and marketing are common to most industries. These are esse n t i a l work-., components of a l l industries whose end-products are physical commodities. (1) Research The representatives of Westwood, Fowler and Mariner indicated that no research related to housing i s being done by t h e i r firms except to improve the qu a l i t y of materials or construction. However, t h i s kind of research also i s being ca r r i e d out by almost a l l conventional builders who have been using i n d u s t r i a l l y produced durable products, tools and materials with increasing frequency. The Pan-Abode representative mentioned that his company does occasionally engage i n some form of technical research, again, b a s i c a l l y r e l a t i n g to materials. Westwood, on the other hand, has had plans to go into the production of "service core" houses for some time. The Westwood representative agreed that there i s a need for more research into other aspects of housing as well. Reasons for the lack of appropriate research into a l l issues of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing are, i n part, general shortage of c a p i t a l i n the f l u c t u a t i n g business of housing production and supply; the lack of incentives to introduce innovative concepts and methods; and the commercial motives of the manufacturers to gain maximum return with minimum investment i n non-commercial and apparently non-productive a c t i v i t i e s , such as research. (2) Design A l l of the firms have t h e i r own design s t a f f . The size of the s t a f f and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of i t s members vary. Most of the work by the s t a f f involves preparation of drawings and documents for municipal approval, mortgage release and on-site construction. When a house i s "custom designed", drawings for the customer and for the production crews are prepared by the s t a f f . The reason for t h i s i s that a majority of the designs are predetermined for which a set of required drawings have been already made. None of these designs or t h e i r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s can be changed except for some minor d e t a i l s i n furnishings or f i n i s h i n g s . A customer must, otherwise, be prepared to bear the costs for major modifications. Apart from t h i s , the s t a f f has l i t t l e involvement with the product or the production because of the following reasons: (a) Owing to predetermined designs, there i s l i t t l e scope for refinements, changes and modifications. (b) A majority of the decisions regarding the products are largely made by the sales and the production s t a f f . 115 (3) O f f - s i t e production A l l firms fabricate t h e i r own components or precut t h e i r own parts. Some products such as aluminum window frames, glazed windows and prehung doors are bought from subsidiary industries. Some firms which supply "modulars", also fabricate t h e i r own cabinets and s t a i r s . Some of t h i s f a b r i c a t i o n work i s carried out with e l e c t r i c a l l y driven tools and machines. However the assembly of components and parts inside the factory i s done by workers i n a manner largely similar to the on-site work done by a construction crew for a s i t e - b u i l t house. Most firms have orderly laid-out production f a c i l i t i e s i n an enclosed area covered by a roof. An exception i s "Fowler and Associates" where components are manufactured and handled under a roof, but the construction of "modular" units takes place outside i n an unsheltered area. (4) Transportation and s i t e delivery The basic modes of transportation used by manufacturers are barges and trucks. "Package" housing i s transported on ordinary trucks, while "modulars"--because of th e i r completeness i n f i n i s h i n g and f u r n i s h i n g — a r e transported on s p e c i a l l y b u i l t trucks which provide a "cushion" support. Westwood, Beaver and Fowler use barge transportation to reach coastal communities. One barge can usually carry 18 10 "packages" or 3 "modulars". With the exception of Mariner Homes and Elba Homes who have t h e i r own trucks, other firms hire private truck companies for transportation. According to a Department of Housing report, the transportation costs are not p r o h i b i t i v e l y high i n r e l a t i o n * to the t o t a l value of a completed house. A package house costs $1.25 to $1.80 per mile to transport by a truck, whereas a modular house costs $2.50 to $4.00 per mile. Mariner and Elba, who have t h e i r own trucks, may transport 19 t h e i r modulars at $2.50 to $3.00 per mile. ** In the northern parts of the province the t r a f f i c For example, according to the report, i f a "modular" house valued at $27,000 after completion was trans-ported 100 miles @ $4.00 per mile, the t o t a l trans-portation cost would equal $400.00 or 1.5% of the f i n a l value of the house. S i m i l a r l y , the transpor-t a t i o n costs for a "package" house valued at $27,000 would be $180.00 for 100 miles @ $1.80 per mile. This w i l l be equal to 0.75% of the f i n a l value. It should be noted here, however, that the transpor-t a t i o n costs are"low only i n r e l a t i o n to the f i n a l costs of a completed house. In the cases when two or more mdoules are to be transported for a completed house, the transportation costs may double or t r i p l e depending upon the number and size of the modules. Each module would require a separate truck, assuming the maximum allowable dimensions for transportations on highways —^1-2' x 60'. Besides t h i s , for an ordinary customer the transportation cost i s a major factor i n r e l a t i o n to the factory p r i c e s . The reason for t h i s i s that the f i n a l costs of a completed house tend to fluctuate and therefore they are d i f f i c u l t to predict. The Central Interior and the Peace-Liard region. 117 i s l i g h t and great distances can be covered i n a day. However, during winter, although the transport i s not greatly impeded, i t does become slow and r e s t r i c t e d due to heavy snowfall and ice formation on the roads. (5) On-site assembly and construction For t h i s work, most firms depend on conventional builders and contractors. An exception i s one firm: Elba Homes of Prince George, which has i t s own construction and assembly crew to perform t h i s work including foundations, basements and f i n i s h i n g s . Mariner Homes recently completed an experimental project i n Penticton using i t s own con-str u c t i o n crew. * The rest of the firms do not take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y beyond the s i t e delivery stage, leaving the post-delivery work to the customer. This means that co-ordination of thi s e s s e n t i a l work i s rarely achieved by the management. The on-site work i s performed i n a way b a s i c a l l y s imilar to the way followed by builders of s i t e - b u i l t houses. As a r e s u l t , the degree of e f f i c i e n c y which may have been achieved i n the o f f - s i t e (or factory) work, i s not achieved to an equal extent i n the on-site work. In the case of a "package" home, the on-site work could consume a sub-s t a n t i a l amount of time, labour and money. Including Mariner Homes, as the recently completed project i s t h e i r only experiment. The case of a "modular" home i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n that a "modular" i s complete by i t s e l f i n most respects. However, on-site work for foundations, joining of modules and u t i l i t y connections i s s t i l l required. Firms such as Pan-Abode and Westwood claim that th e i r "package" housing system allows customers to perform the on-site assembly by themselves. Pan-Abode representative said that almost 30% of th e i r houses are assembled by s e l f help. However, besides the simple assembly work, a majority of the customers continue to depend on others for the work which requires s k i l l , experience, time and e f f o r t . Thus, only few manufacturers have considered t h i s important aspect of housing, that i s , on-site and post-delivery work. As mentioned e a r l i e r i n thi s thesis, both the o f f - s i t e and on-site works are ess e n t i a l to achieve e f f i c i e n c y . The on-site work may be delayed or threatened due to the i n a b i l i t y of the customers to fin d contractors and to obtain building approval and permits. Some firms do provide names of contractors who are fa m i l i a r or experienced with t h e i r systems. On the whole, i t i s the customer's own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to contact and hire a contractor, and to supervise the work. Delays and i n e f f i c i e n c y can r e s u l t also due to the following factors: (a) Unexpected weather changes, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the p r o v i n c i a l weather conditions. (b) On-site construction labour problems and st r i k e s . (c) C o n f l i c t s i n the co-ordination of sub-trades for service i n s t a l l a t i o n and construction work in the case of "package" housing. One of the major reasons for the popularity of mobile homes i s that the only major work after i t s production comprises transportation and connection to u t i l i t i e s . The unit i s usually located on a "pad" supplied by a mobile home park owner. In most cases, the park i s either solely owned by the manufacturer of the mobile home or i t i s j o i n t l y owned by him and the land supplier. The more or less conventional organization of post-delivery or on-site work i s also a major reason that manufacturers of "package" and "modular" housing have been unable to of f e r greater e f f i c i e n c y . Due to the same reason some of them experience a slack i n production and sales during winters and labour c o n f l i c t s . Consequently, the reputation and success of th e i r products largely depend on the performance and a b i l i t i e s 120 of customers, builders and on-site labour to carry out si t e work. (6) Financing This i s an esse n t i a l c r i t e r i o n which influences the complete business of house building. Of a l l the firms surveyed, none of them proceeds with the production u n t i l the customer secures a mortgage. As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s i s e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the customer. Fluctuations and delays i n t h i s process r e s u l t i n stoppages of production. The Department of Housing reports that one manufacturer had 70 orders on f i l e which were not proceeded with, because the customers had been unable to secure a mortgage for various reasons. Some mortgage i n s t i t u t i o n s hesitated to provide a mortgage for those customers who planned to 20 assemble "package" houses by themselves. In connection with t h i s , the experience of National Homes, one of the largest home manufacturers i n North America based i n the U.S.A., demonstrates that the customers are more readily attracted to those firms which provide t h e i r own mortgage services i n order to make i t easier 21 for t h e i r customers to obtain funds. 121 W e s t w o o d i s t h e o n l y f i r m w h i c h h a s g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s . ; i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t . P a n - A b o d e , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , p r o v i d e s a n a c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n l o c a t i n g w i l l i n g m o r t g a g e i n s t i t u t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t a c u s t o m e r i s o n h i s o w n . (7) L a n d P u r c h a s e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t S i m i l a r t o m o s t o f h i s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e b u i l d i n g s e c t o r , a h o u s i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r w a i t s f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l c u s t o m e r t o p u r c h a s e a n d d e v e l o p t h e l a n d . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n a t u r e o f t h e d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g m a r k e t s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f l o t s a r e d i s p e r s e d a n d s i t u a t e d i n v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s . I n v i e w o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a d v a n c e d p l a n n i n g f o r p r o d u c t i o n a n d d e l i v e r i e s — t h a t c o u l d i n c r e a s e e f f i c -i e n c y — h a s b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e b y m a n u f a c t u r e r s . P e r h a p s d u e t o s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l b u i l d e r s h a v e r e m a i n e d s m a l l i n s i z e . T h i s a l l o w s t h e m t o a d j u s t e a s i l y t o d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . M a r i n e r H o m e s h a s c o m p l e t e d a s u b d i v i s i o n i n P e n t i c t o n w h e r e t h e f i r m p u r c h a s e d a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e l a n d f o r a g r o u p o f " p a c k a g e " h o u s e s . T h i s p r o j e c t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a n A l t h o u g h t h i s d o e s n o t a l l o w t h e m t o t a k e a n a d v a n t a g e o f t h e m a s s p u r c h a s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d o f k e e p i n g a p e r m a n e n t i n v e n t o r y o f e q u i p m e n t a n d l a b o u r . 1 2 2 experiment by the firm to test the advantages of a land development program. This should also help the firm in determining the benefits of employing i t s own construction crew. This i s one of the few instances where a firm assumed the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the entire process of house building: from pre-production to post-delivery. Such a program, besides providing control over the production and supply of houses, can become a permanent "exhibition" by i t s e l f for the p a r t i c u l a r firm and i t s products. This i s i s not a minor aspect considering the permanent p u b l i c i t y i t can provide. (8) Promotion and Marketing A l l firms s e l l t h e i r products through dealers located in major regional centres of t h i s province as well as some c i t i e s of Alberta. Some manufacturers such as Mariner, Pan-Abode and Westwood occasionally engage i n p u b l i c i t y of t h e i r products through exhibition displays but mainly through advertisements i n newspapers. It seems peculiar that none of them have attempted to promote their products vi a the more d i r e c t media of radio and T.V. Mariner Homes, which completed i t s f i r s t experimental project for more p u b l i c i t y of i t s products, has also now started i t s own sales d i v i s i o n apart from the establishment of dealers. This d i v i s i o n hopes to at t r a c t customers d i r e c t l y to the factory. In a d i f f e r e n t experiment, Westwood was a c t i v e l y engaged i n the promotion of i t s products through a project (comprising of 97 houses) b u i l t i n 1969. A l l houses were b u i l t with Westwood components manufactured for "package" houses. According to the Department of Housing report, Mariner Homes and Fowler and Associates have recently formed an export consortium with Structural Wood Components, Chateau Homes and Fraser P a c i f i c Industries for the purpose of exporting package houses outsideC Canada. 000000 As far as the services such as building permits, approvals and post-sales services are concerned, there i s no noticeable movement by any firm i n that d i r e c t i o n , at present, leaving a customer on his own to perform the tasks. On-site supervision i s also the customer's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In addition to the previous description of the various stages involved i n the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d house, the following overview of the industry provides a basis for an o v e r a l l conclusion about the industry. This overview i s presented i n terms of: (a) Production capacity and actual sales; (b) Market area and supply; and (c) Ultimate products and " s t y l e s " . An Overview of "Package" and "Modular" Housing Industry: Production capacity and actual sales: The Department of Housing Report states that during the l a s t few years ( s p e c i f i c a l l y from 1971 to 1974) there have been an average of 19,041 single detached housing starts per year i n the Province. In view of t h i s , the following table provides a quick check i n determining the contribution of the firms surveyed toward the single detached housing production. APPROXIMATE PRODUCTION IN 197 5 (i . e . on-site d e l i v e r i e s both for package and modular housing) NUMBER OF ACTUAL/ESTIMATED DELIVERIES* Fowler & Associates 200 (actual) Mariner Homes 260 (actual) Westwood Building Systems 500 (actual) Pan-Abode Bldgs. Ltd. 1400 (actual Elba Homes 140 (estimated) Beaver Homes 245 (estimated) Total 2745 The manufacturers were not able to provide the exact figures of sales made i n various areas. However, they stated that most of these sales have taken place within B r i t i s h Columbia. Assuming that approximately 1/4 of t h e i r production was sold outside the province, i t i s calculated that the Some of the figures were provided by the manufacturers during the interviews. Others are taken from the Department of Housing Report. 2 2 126 share of these s i x manufacturers was approximately 10.9% of the annual detached housing production within the province. Given the fact that the estimated demand for * housing starts i s approximately 46,000 units per year and that the number of manufactured houses i s approximately 3,000 units per year, i t i s clear that manufactured houses actually comprise an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l demand—that i s , approximately 6.52%. Also, the table shown below indicates that the actual production of these firms f a l l s short of the i r e x i s t i n g production capacity. ACTUAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION VS. EXISTING & FUTURE CAPACITY ACTUAL/ FIRM ESTIMATED EXTG. FUTURE PRODUCTIONS C A P A C I T Y CAPACITY Fowler & Associates 200 700 700 Mariner Homes 260 950 1400 Westwood Building Systems 500 1350 1600 Elba Homes 140 300 300 Beaver Homes 245 1000 1750 Total 1345 4200 5750 Note: Pan-Abode Buildings Ltd. i s excluded from t h i s table as figures for the exis t i n g and future capacities are not available. The Interdepartmental Study Team retained by the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1975 concluded from various s t a t i s t i c s that the t o t a l housing requirements for the province up to 1981 are estimated at about 45,890 units/year.24 Assuming no major sudden change i n the housing demands within t h i s province i n the next few years,(which seems l i k e l y i n view of the slow growth of population, households and economy of the province and the surplus of houses i n 2 3 some areas of the province), the actual annual production of these firms may remain at an average of 1500 (+) houses. This means that t h e i r t o t a l annual production w i l l be only about 36% of t h e i r e x i s t i n g capacity and about 26% of * t h e i r future capacity. This, i n turn, indicates that the plants w i l l operate at a l o w e r — t h a n - — f u l l capacity. In this case the c a p i t a l , which i s i n scarce supply, w i l l remain t i e d up i n the under-utilized f a c t o r y buildings, * * equipment and storage f a c i l i t i e s . There are many reasons—some d i r e c t while others i n -d i r e c t — f o r the difference between the figures showing the actual production and those showing the maximum capacity. Some of the i n d i r e c t reasons are to be found in the work procedure (organization) of manufacturers and t h e i r limited commitments toward the complete process of house The figures for the ex i s t i n g and the future capacity are computed from the Department of Housing report figures. 2 5 The bankruptcy of the Kelowna-based mobile home plant-the Homeo. I n d u s t r i e s — i s a recent example of the eff e c t s of un d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of costly f a c i l i t i e s due to continued low production and sales.2 6 building and supply; for example: non-standardization, non-continuous work, duplication of e f f o r t , and dependence on the c a p a b i l i t i e s of inexperienced customers to organize on-site work. Such factors have resulted in some i n e f f i c -iencies and delays i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the actual produc-t i o n . The following are somewhat d i r e c t reasons: 1. Dependence on others for s i t e d e l i v e r i e s . 2. A low l e v e l of p u b l i c i t y and planning or i n other words a "passive" approach to the market i n comparison to other industries. 3. A large amount of money and e f f o r t being spent on the production of single detached housing for i n d i v i d u a l customers. The fluc t u a t i n g market of these housing and the small scale requirements of i n d i v i d u a l customers provide l i t t l e scope for i n t r o -ducing s i g n i f i c a n t e f f i c i e n c y and innovative approaches i n the production of these housing. 4. Slowdowns/Stoppage/Delays: i , The t r a d i t i o n a l work slowdowns and stoppages during winters, which potent i a l customers take for granted 129 r e s u l t i n them postponing the placing of orders u n t i l the spring. i i , As mentioned previously, the methods adopted for on-site work are si m i l a r to the ones used for s i t e - b u i l t houses. Therefore, delays i n work during winters are as common as i n the case of s i t e -b u i l t houses. i i i . Due to the bulkiness and completeness of manufactured houses, s p e c i f i c a l l y "modulars", the storage costs and requirements are high--a factor which does not allow manufacturers to have houses on stock. The delivery of the bulky modulars i s slowed down due to highway regulations on the transportation of large loads within the province (pp. '31 ) . Additionally, the experience has shown that some of the customers make alter a t i o n s to the ready-made designs offered by manufac-turers. Depending on the nature of such a l t e r a t i o n s , delays and slowdowns occur within the factory. i v . Such delays, slowdowns and stoppages bring the factory operations nearly to a s t a n d s t i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y during winters. This makes i t d i f f i c u l t for manufacturers to ret a i n t h e i r key s t a f f . The necessity of tr a i n i n g new personnel each time contributes to a decrease i n e f f i c i e n c y and an increase i n losses. These losses must be recovered from the sales made during the peak period of summer and therefore the prices offered must be high enough to recover the losses. High prices a t t r a c t fewer customers, r e s u l t i n g i n low sales. Thus, the constant cycle of "slowdown-loss-high price-low sales-slowdown" i s continued. Another reason for low production l e v e l i s the mortgage market for housing i n general. Usually mortgage funds are supplied at high i n t e r e s t rates and with r i g i d conditions, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the housing market i s booming. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of obtaining a mortgage are com-pounded i n the case of i n d i v i d u a l , inexperienced customers. As stated e a r l i e r i n t h i s thesis, 131 u n t i l mortgages are secured manufacturers do not proceed with an order. Production, therefore i s slow and unpredictable. The u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of production and the lack of incentives for innovative production methods i s also a r e s u l t of the f i s c a l p o l i c i e s of senior governments who tend to fluctuate housing programs and money 27 flow each year. Market area and supply: No s p e c i f i c s t a t i s t i c s or studies are available to determine the number of d e l i v e r i e s made to or orders received from d i f f e r e n t areas of the province. Some of the manu-facturers, however, stated that the supply of t h e i r products i s approximately 50-50 i n the Interior and -.the southernly metro-p o l i t a n areas of the province. With the exception of Fowler, the manufacturers stated that they supply t h e i r products to almost anywhere i n the province and that a portion of t h i s supply also takes place i n Alaska,Yukon T e r r i t o r y and parts of Alberta. However, i n r e a l i t y the actual marketing has remained limited largely to cer t a i n parts of the province due to r e s t r i c t e d transportation conditions. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n :f7 • ). I l l u s t r a t i o n : 17 Market Areas of Firms ILLUSTRATIONi , yt (c'ont1 d. . .) 1 - Vancouver & Lower Mainland 2 - V i c t o r i a 3 - Nanaimo 4 - Penticton 5 - Kelowna 6 - Vernon 7 - Kamloops 8 - Cranbrook 9 - T r a i l 10 - Nelson 11 - Williams Lake 12 - Quesnel 13 - Prince George 14 - Dawson Creek 15 - Fort St. John 16 - Fort Nelson 17 - Prince Rupert 18 - Kitimat APPROXIMATE DISTANCES BETWEEN SOME COMMUNITIES: To From Vancouver Prince George Penticton V i c t o r i a 42 513 270 Nanaimo ., 17 507 265 Kelowna 284 434 39 Kamloops 262 328 144 Prince Rupert 934 450 183 Kitimat 879 396 866 T r a i l 389 618 183 Williams Lake 337 149 323 Quesnel 411 76 396 Nelson 408 611 202 Cranbrook 5 23 548 316 Fort St. John 773 288 759 Fort Nelson 1003 518 989 Dawson Creek 741 256 727 Vancouver 0 487 245 Prince George 487 0 472 Penticton 245 472 0 This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the case of modulars. Although maximum width of any load that i s allowed to be transported on the p r o v i n c i a l highways i s 12"-1", the highway regulations require that a l l vehicles carrying a load of over 8'-6" width may be moved only with a special permit. Because of the narrow tunnels, bridges and mountain passes even 12'-0" wide loads are not allowed * * at any time on most p r o v i n c i a l roads. In addition, a p i l o t car i s required to precede the vehicles carrying wide loads on highways. Unlike many other regions of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l largely has a two-lane highway system with a 24'-0" wide paved road surface. According to the highway auth o r i t i e s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n makes driving and passing by motorists d i f f i c u l t when they are following the vehicles carrying loads up to 12'-0" width and 68'-0" l e n g t h . 2 8 The modulars, because of t h e i r high degree of completeness, also require maximum protection from weather and other hazards while being transported. The package homes, on the other hand, because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y small^ bulk and compactness are easier These permits allow transport only i n daylight hours and the permits are subject to cancellation during periods of inclement weather and hazardous road conditions. The same si t u a t i o n and similar rules ex i s t i n the case of railway transportation. to transport and have larger market area. In practice i t has been found that there i s a certain l i m i t for e f f i c i e n t transportation of factory manufactured homes — both modulars and package homes. As mentioned e a r l i e r , for systems using wood as the chief material for the manufacture of homes, t h i s l i m i t i s generally considered to be approximately 250 to 300 miles from the factory (pp. ). This may vary by a few miles depending on l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Considering the mountainous t e r r a i n and the prevalent highway r e s t r i c t i o n s of the province, the probable change i n the l i m i t of e f f i c i e n t transportation may be more on the minus side than on the plus. In the absence of exact figures t(which manufacturers were unable to provide), 300 miles may be assumed as the e f f i c i e n t l i m i t i n most cases. In view of t h i s assumption and the large concentration * of manufacturers i n the Greater Vancouver region, the e f f i c i e n t supply of their products i s l i k e l y to remain limited to areas lying within about 300 miles of t h i s region. Therefore, i t remains doubtful that the supply of manufac-tured homes p a r t i c u l a r l y of modulars from a factory based i n the Greater Vancouver or the Lower Fraser Valley to areas such as the Central Interior and the Columbia Kootenay region (or outlying areas l i k e the Yukon Te r r i t o r y , Alberta 136 Approximately 7 5 to 80% of the t o t a l number of manufac-turers operating i n the province (about 35 to 40 firms were i n business i n 1975) have located t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s i n the Greater Vancouver region. The rest of them have located the f a c i l i t i e s i n the Interior areas such as Kelowna, Penticton, Kamloops and Prince George. Some of the reasons given for t h e i r concentration i n these areas are: (9) the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of services such as transportation, communication and u t i l i t i e s ; (b) the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of raw materials and products such as plywood, p a r t i c l e boards, windows and doors; (c) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a building such as an abandoned warehouse; and (d) the existence of a large urban population which provide stable urban markets. The reason (d) may be questioned, as a majority of the small and large experienced builders of s i t e - b u i l t houses are also operating i n those areas. Unlike manufacturers, these builders have f l e x i b l e and li m i t e d commitments i n terms of c a p i t a l , materials inventory, construction methods and equipment. They can also o f f e r greater choices to t h e i r customers i n pr i c e s , designs and s t y l e s . The manufacturers' share in the market i s l i k e l y to remain small i n view of t h i s as well as t h e i r limited c a p i t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and marketing c a p a b i l i t y . See pp. i n t h i s con-j unction. 137 * and Alaska can be considered e f f i c i e n t . Since the manufacturers have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r marketing largely to the manufacture and supply of single detached ** houses, a majority of the orders they receive are for small, i n d i v i d u a l houses. The reason for t h i s i s the nature of the detached housing market. It i s dominated by i n d i v i -duals and families who have lim i t e d budgets. As a r e s u l t , orders for houses i n large quantities are rare. This i s largely the case unless the manufacturer i s involved i n some land development programmes (as Mariner did i n i t s experimental project at Penticton) or finds, through large scale promotion a c l i e n t involved i n multiple housing (as Transportation costs are normally quoted as per mile cost. Therefore, they increase i n d i r e c t proportion to the increase i n the number of miles. This means that the degree of economy decreases as the distance i s increased. For example, a house with the factory price of 20,000 do l l a r s i f transported 100 miles @ 4 d o l l a r s per mile, would have 400 d o l l a r s (or 2% of the factory price) as delivery cost. The delivery cost would be three times as much i f the ..same house was transported 300 miles. Therefore, the trans-portation of homes—particularly i n the case of single houses--to a l l areas of the province from a single location i s neither e f f i c i e n t nor desirable. Some of the reasons for t h i s are the popularity of single detached houses and the f l e x i b i l i t y i n the manufacture and assembly of products for these houses. The main reason for the l a t t e r i s the material used—wood. Westwood did at Ladner). A large percentage of orders for small, i n d i v i d u a l houses means that the delivery i s limited to a few houses at a time to a certain area. For both manufacturers and customers, transportation for in d i v i d u a l houses one at a time i s less e f f i c i e n t and less economical than for a group of houses. Mass d i s t r i -bution—one of the necessary requirement of i n d u s t r i a l i -z a t i o n — i s r a r e l y achieved. Ultimate products and "styles"; At present, the industry mainly concentrates on the fluct u a t i n g market and production of single detached houses. However, the changing character and requirements * * of the housing market i n t h i s province perhaps suggest pp. 12Z Although the single detached houses are largely preferred by many B r i t i s h Columbians over other forms of housing, according to an Interdepartmental Study Team retained by the p r o v i n c i a l government (1975), multiple housing construction (apartments, townhouses, row houses) i s l i k e l y to increase i n the next few years. The reasons are: (a) r i s i n g costs of single house construction, labour, maintenance and repairs, (b) r i s i n g pressure to l i m i t suburban growth i n view of rapid urbanization and increase i n cost of supplying basic amenities to suburbs (transportation, u t i l i t i e s , and such s o c i a l services as p o l i c e ) , (c) diminishing supply-of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the province, and (d) r i s i n g costs of serviced land suitable for housing.29 that i t should concentrate equally on other concepts of housing production and d i s t r i b u t i o n . For example high density, multiple housing which may provide more stable market conditions. Most manufactured homes offered on the market are produced from predetermined "st y l e s " and designs. These designs and styles are arb i t r a r y and ir r e l e v a n t i n view of the possible cl i m a t i c and s o c i a l differences as well as the physical differences of s i t e s . According to the Department of Housing report most customers opt to a l t e r the standard designs for various personal reasons or they o f f e r t h e i r own designs. The.,:sta)ndard designs offered by manufacturers are based on conventional stud-wall structures. Hence, i n the factory the manufacturing process for these designs i s more or less geared to the d i r e c t transfer- of the construction process of a s i t e - b u i l t house. The design and the manufac-turing processes do not r e f l e c t an i n d u s t r i a l production process and i t s e s s e n t i a l elements such as system, speed, easy handling and minimum duplication of e f f o r t . The reason for the standard designs and "styles" perhaps, i s that house designs based on fa m i l i a r and popular styles a r e — r e l a t i v e l y easy to create, produce and 140 s e l l . This means that less f i n a n c i a l r i s k s are involved r e s u l t i n g i n a secured p r o f i t . I t i s the opinion of th i s author that an unnecessary amount of e f f o r t , time and money i s being spent i n preparing these i r r e l e v a n t s t y l e s . Manufactured homes are not l i k e l y to have large-scale success with i r r e l e v a n t styles and designs. This i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y evident today when the single detached housing market i s dominated by competitive builders of s i t e - b u i l t houses. These builders are able to provide houses of similar styles at prices comparable to or lower than those of manufactured homes. In addition to the price factor, they are also able to o f f e r a greater choice and f l e x i b i l i t y i n the design and construction of houses. Houses based on fa m i l i a r styles do appeal to certain buyers. However, the mere production of ar b i t r a r y styles with no basis for standardi-zation i s a piecemeal approach to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of housing. Without standardization and systematization the * current industry's chances of becoming a true mass produc-31 t i o n industry are low. The adoption of a standard ** system could provide a l o g i c a l base for production, eliminate time consuming process of creating styles and co-ordinate changes that might occur i n designs or production. Manufactured housing industry. For example, see Systems Ecologic by Laurence Cutler and Sherrie Cutler.32 See pp. W> , "Appendixes". In the current process of creating i r r e l e v a n t styles and a r b i t r a r y designs, some of the important issues of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing remain neglected—such as the following ones: (a) Establishing a basis of standardization for t y p i c a l dwelling elements or components of houses rather than standardizing complete dwelling units. (b) Extending the e f f i c i e n c i e s gained in the o f f - s i t e work to the equally important on-s i t e work by promoting greater co-ordination of various phases of s i t e work. (c) Planning for regional conditions which could a f f e c t production and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; for example the supply of affordable houses to r u r a l communities i n areas where the supply of houses by road or railway may not be e f f i c i e n t and where l o c a l climate or lack of s k i l l e d labour may make house building on s i t e d i f f i c u l with t r a d i t i o n a l methods. (d) Introducing methods for greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by users i n design and production of manufac-tured homes; for example, mobile production plants as introduced i n the Manitoba experiment (R.T.M.) (pp. ) or as suggested i n the recommendations of a study sponsored by the A t l a n t i c Industrial Research Institute of Nova Scptia (pp. \6\-S) . These issues however could remain neglected for reasons of the p r o f i t motive present i n our society, an aggressive salesmanship to r e t a i n and increase the p r o f i t l e v e l and the continuing popularity of a r b i t r a r y home styles as well as the lack of incentives to introduce innovative housing concepts. Conclusion: The manufactured housing industry of B r i t i s h Columbia i s characterized by uncertainty, experimentation, low production and frequent slowdowns. This "industry" lacks the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n such as mass production, mass d i s t r i b u t i o n , e f f i c i e n t co-ordination of a l l work, organization and planning for the production of housing within t h i s province. As a r e s u l t , the inherent benefits of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n are sporadic and not a v a i l -able on a regular basis to the ultimate users of i n d u s t r i a -l i z e d housing—the dwellers. These benefits could be l i s t e d as: lower production cost r e s u l t i n g i n prices low enough to a t t r a c t a larger market, more control over the quality of the product; greater speed of production, and greater e f f i c i e n c y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and assembly of products. The reason for the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of these benefits appears to be largely the . u n r e l i a b i l i t y or un-a v a i l a b i l i t y of some of the necessary prerequisites of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They are as follows (a) The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a market, (b). the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l funds, and (c) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of trans-portation . (a) A v a i l a b i l i t y of a Market This does not mean merely a large "potential" market but a s p e c i f i c , well-defined one that can be counted on to y i e l d a steady flow of sales. The fluctuating market of detached dwellings, the absence of province-wide long-range planning p o l i c i e s , the concentration of markets (which provide suitable conditions for a continuous volume production) i n the few metropolitan and urban areas of the province, large competition from the builders of s i t e -b u i l t houses and a "passive" approach to marketing by m a n u f a c t u r e r s a r e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s p e c i f i c , w e l l - d e f i n e d m a r k e t . ( b ) A v a i l a b i l i t y o f C a p i t a l F u n d s T h e f i n a n c i a l r i s k s o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a r e h i g h , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n a s p e c i f i c v o l u m e p r o d u c t i o n c a n n o t b e c o n t i n u o u s l y s u s t a i n e d . C a p i t a l f u n d s a r e g e n e r a l l y i n s h o r t s u p p l y i n h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n d u e t o t h e f l u c t u a t i n g a n d f r a g m e n t e d n a t u r e o f t h e h o u s i n g b u s i n e s s — e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g . S i n c e g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e l i e d o n a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m f o r h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n a n d s u p p l y , t h e m a n u f a c t u r e d h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y c a n n o t h o p e f o r a b e n e -v o l e n t g o v e r n m e n t t o p r o v i d e l a r g e s c a l e a n d d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . ( c ) A v a i l a b i l i t y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A l t h o u g h h i g h w a y a n d r a i l w a y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c o n n e c t i n g m a j o r c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t r a n s p o r t i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d h o m e s f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n t o a l l p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d h i g h . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t - i n t h e c a s e o f m o d u l a r s . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s , l a r g e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i t i e s o f s i z e a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g m a r k e t . T h e l a t t e r refers to the production and supply that i s largely limited to i n d i v i d u a l orders versus mass orders for small houses in various locations. 000000 In spite of t h i s s i t u a t i o n and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , the industry has made a slow but steady contribution to the provision of basic houses which conform to the prevalent building codes at prices comparable to most s i t e - b u i l t houses. Even though i t may seem that the industry w i l l grow in the future perhaps due to more aggressive marketing, more experience and improved production methods the industry's approach to i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing should remain questionable from the following points of view: (1) Characteristics of housing (the mass production and supply of complete units based on preconceived, i r r e l e v a n t styles i s not always appropriate.) (2) P r o v i n c i a l conditions ( r e l a t i v e l y few communities of sizeable populations which may generate markets on a regular 146 basis to j u s t i f y large, permanent plants.) (3) Transporation r e s t r i c t i o n s . (4) Low l e v e l of c a p i t a l investment. (5) Fluctuating market of detached houses. (6) Essentials of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n (the need for standardization, organization and planning). The current approach of the industry i s characterized by the presence of a number of small, autonomous firms that have entered the business with limited experience, expertise and f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t y largely with a view to make rapid p r o f i t s . This approach has given a r i s e to the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a number of commercialized firms within B r i t i s h Columbia. Mainly because of t h e i r commercial motives, a number of these firms lack planning, long term commitments i n the industry and an o v e r a l l perspective of* i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n housing. Therefore, they ignore the importance of standardization, system and a co-ordinated approach to both o f f - s i t e and on-site works. This neglect i s p a r t l y due to also the lack of incentives. Their over-emphasis on production capacity rather than on sound marketing and planning r e s u l t s i n t h e i r plants running at lower than actual c a p a b i l i t i e s , even during peak sales periods. These reasons are largely responsible for the current unplanned and unorganized development of i n d u s t r i a -l i z e d housing i n t h i s province. This development i s due to also a lack of long-range, comprehensive p o l i c i e s on the part of both federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments. This kind of unorganized development i s not l i k e l y to generate i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing methods more s u i t a b l e — than the current o n e s — t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing and p r o v i n c i a l conditions; i t i s more l i k e l y to increase commercialism and consumerism. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has an economic basis. Capital investment i n a continuous production must be j u s t i f i e d by a guaranteed market providing the basis for a minimum-volume production. On a long term basis, t h i s requirement can be f u l f i l l e d only with organization and planning i n , which equal importance i s attached to design, production, d i s t r i b u t i o n and assembly. This kind of development,(that i s intended i n the long run to lead to the supply of indus-t r i a l i z e d housing which are related to p r o v i n c i a l conditions and housing characteristics), cannot r e l y only on the ind i v i d u a l e f f o r t s and i n i t i a t i v e s of architects, engineers or manufacturers. In addition to t h e i r e f f o r t s , i t c a l l s f or the',participation of housing authorities and po l i c y makers: the l o c a l governments. Unlike in:^the s o c i a l i s t i c countries of Europe, i t i s apparent that the l o c a l governments cannot provide large scale and d i r e c t encouragement or support to a p a r t i c u l a r industry. However, t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n could take the form of guidelines for the long term development of i n d u s t r i a l i z i housing. In these days of increasing use of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d products for housing such p a r t i c i p a t i o n by responsible authorities i s warranted. Some guidelines and incentives could be provided for increased planning i n areas that would be e s s e n t i a l for desirable long term development of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. These areas are: (a) Increased planning for standardization of dwelling elements or components intended for use i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. This should r e s u l t i n the gradual elimination of pre-determined, i r r e l e v a n t s t y l e s . An example of such standardization i s included i n the "Appendixes", pp. 169 to 186. The adoption of standardization would provide a greater opportunity for interchangeability of dwelling elements, replacement of dwelling elements and some p a r t i c i p a t i o n by dwellers i n assembling of these elements. (b) Increased planning for co-ordination of both o f f - s i t e work and on-site work. Demonstration projects could be i n i t i a t e d i n which the suppliers of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing (selected through tendering) would be given an oppor-tunity to become involved i n land development, planning, design and f i n a l assembly. In t h i s case, cooperation and coordination on t h e i r part with builders, developers, designers and labour would be considered e s s e n t i a l . (c) Introduction.of methods (of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing) which would u t i l i z e a lower amount of c a p i t a l and extend the market range of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing to those communities which may not otherwise benefit from indus-t r i a l manufacturing. In B r i t i s h Columbia there are few large com-munities with steadily growing populations which might a t t r a c t a manufacturer to locate a factory there. Most of the province has a large per-centage of r u r a l and semi-urban populations l i v i n g i n small communities. Either because of t h e i r distance from the urban centres where manufacturers tend to locate t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s or because of t h e i r small populations and slow growth they are unable to create market for a continuous volume production. Mobile production plants i s considered to be one of the methods that has a p o t e n t i a l for providing some benefits of i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing to small com-munities. In view of the existence of few large urban communities and the prevalent transportation r e s t r i c t i o n s , the method of using mobile plants (or other s i m i l a r methods) should be considered as a supplementary to the e x i s t i n g methods of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing i n t h i s province. In order to test the v i a b i l i t y of such a method, an experiment could be conducted, upon a detailed analysis of market and similar experiments, i n those areas of the province that are not within the economic range of the e x i s t i n g permanent plants. Most of the permanent plants are located i n the southwest part of the province. Therefore, the method of mobile plants would appear to be more suitable for coastal communities, Vancouver Island and northern communities. See "Appendixes", pp. 161 to 16 8 for description. Similar methods for such communities have been advocated by a number of studies. These studies include a 1969 report prepared by the National Research Council of Canada and a 1975 study conducted by the School of ARchitecture (Halifax) i n Nova Scotia, for the A t l a n t i c I ndustrial Research I n s t i t u t e . An experiment c a l l e d R.T.M. (Ready-To-Move) using th i s method was started i n the northern Manitoba, as well. See Bibliography for references. ( 151 U n t i l market conditions i n B r i t i s h Columbia improve to the extent of a t t r a c t i n g a large-scale investment i n mass-produced housing industries, the introduction of a mobile plant would be j u s t i f i e d i n addition to the e x i s t i n g small but permanent plants. This method could be an intermediate step between the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of i n d i v i d u a l s i t e - b u i l t houses and those that require a large, continuous market and a long-term investment i n advanced technology. 000000 It i s emphasized that a long-range, comprehensive p o l i c y — b o t h i n terms of economics and physical p l a n n i n g — by the p r o v i n c i a l government and an increased co-operation by those concerned are e s s e n t i a l requirements for planning i n the areas (a, b and c) outlined above. Without the f u l f i l l m e n t of these requirements the commercial motives of i n d i v i d u a l manufacturers would continue to p r e v a i l i n the industry. A desirable development of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d housing providing maximum benefits of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n to the ultimate users of these housing—the dwellers—would continue to be a d i f f i c u l t task. The concerns expressed above and throughout t h i s thesis assume a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the l i k e l y event that the role of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n for housing production w i l l continue to expand. 152 FOOTNOTES: 1. Based on: Donald Putnam and Robert Putnam, Canada: A Regional Analysis (J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1970), passim; Encyclopaedia Britanica Inc., Vol. 4: Botcha to Carthage (Chicago: William Benton, Publisher, 1963), pp. 231, 232; and Dept. of Travel Industry, This i s B r i t i s h Columbia, Book 3, Geography of B r i t i s h Columbia (1974), pp. 23-25. 2. W i l f r i d Kendrew and D. Kerr, The Climate of B r i t i s h  Columbia and the Yukon Te r r i t o r y (Ottawa: Queen's Print e r , 1955), pp. 1-14, 147, 148. 3. Michael Audain, Mobile Homes: Problems and Prospects, a Report of an Inquiry conducted for the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1975), passim. 4. Based on: Michael Glover, Ed., Building i n Northern  Communities, a Report on a Conference Workshop Organized by the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America held i n February 197 4 (Montreal: the A r c t i c I n s i t i t u t e of North America, 1974), passim; Victor Olgyay, Design with Climate (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Uni. Press, 1963) pp. 155, 156; and Leo R. Zrudlo, Psychological Problems and  Environmental Design i n the North, No. 34, (Quebec: Universite Laval, 1972) pp. 70, 84-5, 97, 99, 101. 5. The Vancouver Sun, Friday, September 3, 197 6. 6. M. Kjeldsen and W. Simonsen, Indus t r i a l i z e d Building  i n Denmark (Copenhagen: Skandinavisk Bogtryk, 1965), pp. 12, 13. 7. Department of Housing, Modular and Package Housing  i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : n.p., 1975). 153 8. Interdepartmental Study Team on Housing and Rents, Housing and Rent Control i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A Report prepared for the Minister of Housing and the Attorney General of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: n.p., 1975). 9. Kjeldsen, I n d u s t r i a l i z e d Building, p. 12.; 10. Audain, Mobile Homes, p. 23. 11. Ibid., pp. 60, 68. 12. 1976 price l i s t s supplied by manufacturers; and Department of Housing, Modular and Package, p. 8. 13. Ibid. 14. Department of Housing, Modular and Package, p. 8. 15. Audain, Mobile Homes, p. 64. 16. Ibid. 17. Department of Housing, Modular and Package, p. 10. 18. Ibid., p. 9. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid., p. 20. 21. Carlo Testa, I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Building (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972) pp. 31, 32. 154 22. Department of Housing, Modular and Package, p. 7. 23. Interdepartmental Study Team, Housing, passim. 24. Ibid., p. 75. 25. Department of Housing, Modular and Package. 26. The Vancouver Sun, October 7, 1977. 27. Interdepartmental Study Team, Housing. 28. Audain, Mobile Homes, pp. 59. 29. Interdepartmental Study Team, Housing, passim. 30. Department of Housing, Modular and Package, pp. 10, 31. Kjeldsen, Industrialized Building, p. 13. 32. Laurence Cutler and Sherrie Cutler, Handbook of  Housing System for Designers and Developers (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974), passim. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, Christopher. "Systems Generating Systems" Architecture Canada, November 1968, pp. 39-44. Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Design, May 197 6. Audain, Michael. Mobile Homes: Problems and Prospects. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1975. Bemis, Albert. The Evolving House. 3 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: The Technology Press, 1933-36. Blake, Peter. "Can technology solve the housing c r i s i s ? " A t l a n t i c , October 1975, pp. 52-60. . "Prefabrication i s blocked by t r a d i t i o n a l attitudes." I n d u s t r i a l Design 7 (February 1960): 46-53. C o l l i n s , A.J.M. "A New Approach to Urban Housing i n Canada." Architecture Canada, July 1968, pp. 47-52 Cutler, Laurence., and Cutler, Sherrie Handbook of  Housing Systems for Designers and Developers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974. Davidson, Harold. A. Housing Demand: Mobile, Modular, or Conventional? New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1973. Dennis, Michael., and Fish, Susan. Programs i n Search  of a Pol i c y : Low Income Housing i n Canada. Toronto: Harkert, 1972. Dickens, Brian. H. Trends i n Canadian House Production. Technical Paper No. 299, Divi s i o n of Building Research. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1969. Dietz, A.G.H., and Cutler, Lawrence., eds. Industria- l i z e d Building Systems for Housing. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1971. Department of Housing. Modular and Package Housing i n  B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : n.p., 1975. D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e , I n d u s t r y , a n d C o m m e r c e . A S y s t e m s  A p p r o a c h t o B u i l d i n g . P r o c e e d i n g s o f r e g i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s h e l d i n s e v e n c i t i e s i n C a n a d a f r o m S e p t e m b e r 30 t o N o v e m b e r 6, 1969. O t t a w a . D r u r y , M a r g a r e t . M o b i l e H o m e s ; T h e u n r e c o g n i z e d  r e v o l u t i o n i n A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g . I t t h a c a , N . Y . : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. E k i s t i c s , F e b r u a r y 1971. E r i c k s o n , A r t h u r . " A r c h i t e c t u r e , U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , a n d I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . " C a n a d i a n A r c h i t e c t , J a n u a r y 1975.-p p . 35-38. E w a l d , W . B . , J r . , e d . E n v i r o n m e n t a n d C h a n g e : t h e  n e x t 50 y e a r s . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968 . F u l l e r , R . B u c k m i n s t e r . U n t i t l e d e p i c p o e m o n t h e h i s t o r y  o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . N e w Y o r k : S i m o n a n d S c h u s t e r , 1962. G l o v e r , M i c h a e l . , e d . B u i l d i n g i n N o r t h e r n C o m m u n i t i e s . A r e p o r t o n a c o n f e r e n c e - w o r k s h o p . M o n t r e a l : T h e A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , 1974. G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . R e p o r t o f t h e  R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g C o m m i t t e e . D e c e m b e r 1973. H a b r a k e n , N . J . a a p . n o o t m i e s h u i s j t h r e e r ' s f o r h o u s i n g . A m s t e r d a m : S c h e l t e m a a n d H o l k e m a , 1970. . S u p p o r t s : A n A l t e r n a t i v e t o M a s s H o u s i n g . T r a n s l a t e d b y B . V a l k e n b u r g . N e w Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. . " S u p p o r t R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d P o s s i -b i l i t i e s . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1968-69, p p . 26-31. H o d e s , D a n i e l . A . , a n d J e n s e n , G o r d o n . F . T h e C a s e f o r  I n d u s t r i a l i z e d H o u s i n g R e - e x a m i n e d . F a i r f i e l d , C o n n . : H o u s i n g R e s e a r c h I n c o r p o r a t e d , 197 3. H o u s e a n d H o m e , F e b r u a r y 1970. H u b e r , B e n e d i k t . , a n d S t e i n e g g e r , J e a n - C l a u d e . , e d s . J e a n P r o v e . P r e f a b r i c a t i o n : S t r u c t u r e s a n d E l e m e n t s . T r a n s l a t e d b y L i e v e n , A l e x a n d e r . N e w Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : C I B . , e d s . T o w a r d I n d u s t r i a l i z e d  B u i l d i n g . A m s t e r d a m : E l s e v i e w P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1960. J a c o b s , J a n e . T h e E c o n o m y o f C i t i e s . N e w Y o r k : R a n d o m H o u s e , 1969. K a r l e f f , W . C . T h e B u i l d i n g I n d u s t r y a n d C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g . T o r o n t o : n . p . , O c t o b e r 1966. K e l l y , B u r n h a m . P r e f a b r i c a t i o n o f H o u s e s . C a m b r i d g e : , M . I . T . P r e s s , 1951. . D e s i g n a n d P r o d u c t i o n o f H o u s e s . A C T I O N s e r i e s . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l B o o k C o . , 1959. K j e l d s e n , M . , a n d S i m o n s e n , W . I n d u s t r i a l i z e d B u i l d i n g  i n D e n m a r k . C o p e n h a g e n : S k a n d i n a v i s k B o g t r y k , 1965. L ' A r c h i t e c t u r e D ' A u j o u r d ' h u i ( A A ) , F e b r u a r y - M a r c h 19 70; a n d J u l y - A u g u s t 197 4. L e C o r b u s i e r . T o w a r d s A N e w A r c h i t e c t u r e . T r a n s l a t e d b y E t c h e l l s . F . L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1927. M a c a l i k , M . , a n d P r o c o s , D . " T h e u s e o f p o r t a b l e p l a n t s f o r b u i l d i n g c o m p o n e n t p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s - T e c h n i c a l a n d S o c i a l A s p e c t s . " A t l a n t i c  A r c h i t e c t u r e 3, S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , N o v a S c o t i a T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e , H a l i f a x , O c t o b e r 1971. M e y e r s o n , M . , T e r r e t t , B . , a n d W i l l i a m L . C . W . , e d s . H o u s i n g , P e o p l e , a n d C i t i e s . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o . , 1962. M u m f o r d , L e w i s , T e c h n i c s a n d C i v i l i z a t i o n . N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1934. N e u m a n n , E . , W i l h o l m , W . , a n d K e m p , E . , e d s . I n d u s t r i a l i z e d B u i l d i n g . M o r g a n t o w n : W e s t V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1972. Organization for s o c i a l and Technical Innovation, Massachusetts. Self Help Housing i n the U.S.A. U.S. Department of Commerce, 1969. Pawley, Martin. Architecture versus Housing. London, England: Studio V i s t a , 1971. P l a t t s , R.E. System Production of Housing i n Northern  Europe. Technical Paper No. 306, Division of Building Research. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1969 . Safdie, Moshe. Beyond Habitat, edited by Kettle, John Montreal: Tundra Books, 1970. Sayegh, K. ed. Canadian Housing: A Reader. University of Waterloo, 1972. T o f f l e r , A l v i n . Future Shock. New York: Bantam, 1971. Testa, Carlo. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Building. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. Turner, J.F.C., and Pitcher, R., ed. Freedom to Build. New York: MacMillan Company and London, England: Collier-MacMillan, 1972. . Housing By People: Toward Autonomy i n Building Environments. Introduction by Ward, C o l i n . London, England: Marion Boyars, 1976. U.S. President's Committee on Urban Housing. A Decent  Home. Washington, D.C.: Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1969. White, R.B. Prefabrication: A history of i t s development  i n Great B r i t a i n . London: Her Majesty's Stationary O f f i c e , 1965. ****** In addition to these books, p e r i o d i c a l s , and reports various a r t i c l e s i n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n Forum, E k i s t i c s , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design, Vancouver Sun, arid Province as well as the proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, 1976 have helped i n formulating and channeling some of the thoughts presented i n the thesis. 160 APPENDIXES A . l MOBILE PRODUCTION PLANTS: The following are extracts from a study of the use of portable plants for building component production carried out by the School of Architecture, Nova Scotia. "The introduction and development of dynamic building methods has in many cases been the answer to general sluggishness i n construction a c t i v i t y , tight money, i n f l a t i o n and labour problems. New production f a c i l i t i e s are being opened i n a l l provinces. Some of these are gigantic enterprises well mechanized or automated, well financed and car e f u l l y planned. The operators are usually contractors or developers, but government i s showing increasing interest. The Province of Nova Scotia, for example, i s considering the formation of an i n d u s t r i a l design corporation — the second of this kind after Ontario's Polymer Corporation, "to carry r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i n d u s t r i a l i z e d system development i n Nova Scotia". Developing systems for housing would be the biggest task of that company. Macalik, M. , and Procos, D. "The use of portable plants for building component production i n the Atla n t i c Provinces—Technical and Social Aspects." A t l a n t i c Architecture: 3, School of Architecture, Nova Scotia Technical College, Halifax, October 1971. However, before any i n d u s t r i a l i z e d building method for housing can be introduced, serious consideration must be given to s p e c i f i c conditions of the whole building industry i n that s p e c i f i c area or region. Assuming the acceptance of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d building by a generally conservative public, a l l possible side effects should be studied and evaluated and the scale of the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d operation perhaps modified i n order to provide the market with a new product without causing undue damage to the existing setup of the house building industry. Another consideration i s the cost of the operation. The average unit cost of new housing varies not only with the kind of units (single, semi-detached, apartment) but also with the s p e c i f i c geographic area. There are great regional variations i n wages of construction workers, transportation and materials costs. As for the scale of the operation, a great many studies carried out in the area of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n by governmental agencies or private consulting firms have t r i e d the introduction of prefabricated methods to the 1,000 unit/year l e v e l , established on the basis of j u s t i f i e d c a p i t a l investments and output-input r a t i o s . This l e v e l assumes certain conditions - a large market with potential customers and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds to launch sophisticated i n d u s t r i a l i z e d production. In the absence of these conditions, low market pressures, unreadiness of the public to accept revolutionary changes, or the threat to small building firms posed by highly competitive enterprises could jeopardize the whole e f f o r t . What i s needed i n the presence of these unknowns i s a system that would allow for the introduction of building i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n at volumes considerably below the 1,000 unit/year figure without precluding the eventual adoption of the more ambitious systems. The semi-mobile or portable on-site production plant offers several advantages of in d u s t r i a l i z e d production at very modest cost. It has been used i n various places i n France, Italy and Great B r i t a i n with great success. The portable plant combines low c a p i t a l investment for new technologies of industria-l i z e d production with high operational f l e x i b i l i t y and r e l a t i v e l y higher economy i n producing small housing series. These advantages coupled with other non-technical planning features w i l l be the subject of this study." The following i s a summary of this study. "SUMMARY OF STUDY One of the possible outcomes of a decision to introduce g r e a t e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n t o the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y of Nova S c o t i a c o u l d be the emergence o f p o r t a b l e o r temporary o n - s i t e p l a n t s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g components i n d i s p e r s e d l o c a t i o n s around the P r o v i n c e . T h i s study has examined the p o s s i b i l i t y from the p o i n t of view of c o s t s and g e n e r a l e f f e c t s on employment and community s t r u c t u r e and has a r r i v e d a t a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s which have been condensed as f o l l o w s : 1. The main f e a t u r e o f a p o r t a b l e o n - s i t e p l a n t i s t h a t a l l equipment and machinery can be put on wheels and t r a n s f e r r e d t o the b u i l d i n g s i t e . T h i s f e a t u r e would f i n d a p p r e c i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y among d e v e l o p e r s who, p r e s s e d by h i g h mortgage r a t e s , r e q u i r e p r e c i s e time s c h e d u l i n g and f a s t e r e c t i o n . 2. P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and e n c l o s e d e s t i m a t e s suggest c a p i t a l i n vestments i n the range of $150,000 t o $220,000. These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e the p o r t a b l e b u i l d i n g envelope and the n e c e s s a r y equipment and machinery f o r p r o d u c t i o n , s i t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and e r e c t i o n . 3. The p r o d u c t i o n o u t p u t of the p o r t a b l e o n - s i t e p l a n t would be i n the range o f 300 t o 450 h o u s i n g u n i t s per y e a r . S i n c e the c a p i t a l i n vestment i s r e l a t i v e l y 165 low and does not assume automated handling or such complex processes as low-pressure steam curing, these output figures seem to represent a f a i r l y economical process. 4. The portable on-site plant, as an intermediate step between t r a d i t i o n a l and highly sophisticated semi-automated production, w i l l substantially reduce demands for s k i l l e d labor, thus providing the opportunity for the employment of unskilled labor after a very short training period. 5. At the same time the plant could be used as an on-the-job training f a c i l i t y for some workers under the auspices of the Cooperative Housing and Manpower Training Programs. 6. The production process i n the on-site-plant w i l l not be subject to changing weather conditions and w i l l actually guarantee continuity of employment in the case of a year-round operation or temporary employment for the seasonally unemployed i n the winter when their normal jobs are not available." 166 'TABLE OF APPROXIMATE COSTS*1 PORTABLE ON-SITE PLANT FOR WOOD PANEL PRODUCTION: Planned output: 300 units/year or 780,000 sq. ft./year a l l prices—suggested r e t a i l prices, taxes included. Building envelope (with insulation) TOTAL (Steel construction, respecting N.B.C. 1971, 18 f t . clear height) Floor area needed = 10,000 sq. f t . cost/sq. f t . = $4.20 $ 42,000 Foundation—concrete slab 10,000 sq. f t . cost/sq.ft. = $0.50 $ 5,000 Heating unit (hot air) $ 3,000 Wood-cutting machinery Manufacturer or Dealer 3 saws@ $500 each (tax i n c l . ) $ 1,500 component spike driver $3300 x 1.35 Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 4,455 (made i n USA) stud s t i t c h e r $6750 x 1.35 Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 9,112.50 (made i n USA) Panel stapler $8950 x 1.35 Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 12,082.50 (made i n USA) option $130 x 1.35 (made i n USA) Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 175. 3 framing tables = $500 each Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 1,500. w a l l builder $12510 x 1.35 Triad Corp. (Neb.) $ 16,888.50 (made i n USA) 24" truss cutter $13790 x 1.35 Idaco Co. (Calif.) $ 18,616.50 (made i n USA) truck and t r a i l e r Mack Maritime $ 26,000 crane (3 ton) - gantry crane $ 8,000 Storage of finished panels (steel c c ^ t r u c t i o n ) $2.00/sq.ft. 200 sq. f t . $ 4,000 Supervisors and workers f a c i l i t i e s , l i g h t i n g $ 4,000 $156,330.50 * The price of machinery manufactured i n USA had to be modified by the c o e f f i c i e n t of 1.35 As shown i n t h i s study the mobile p l a n t s are c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d t o d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , b e i n g e r e c t e d on any s u i t a b l e s i t e and of b e i n g d i s m a n t l e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f a p r o j e c t f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and reuse e l s e w h e r e . These p l a n t s , the study s u g g e s t s , c o u l d be owned e i t h e r p r i v a t e l y by a manufacturer o r by a p u b l i c agency o r j o i n t l y by a manufacturer and an agency. The method o f m o b i l e p l a n t s u t i l i z e s a lower amount of c a p i t a l and does not r e q u i r e long-range commitments i n comparison t o permanent f a c t o r i e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n the t a b l e o f c o s t s , f o r a mobile p l a n t w i t h a c a p a c i t y t o s u p p l y 300 houses per y e a r ( u t i l i z i n g wood as the c h i e f m a t e r i a l f o r p r o d u c t i o n ) the c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d i s e s t i m a t e d t o be i n the range o f 156,000 d o l l a r s . I n comparison t o t h i s , a permanent p l a n t w i t h an e q u a l c a p a c i t y f o r p r o d u c t i o n u t i l i z i n g s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300,000 d o l l a r s as w o r k i n g c a p i t a l . T h i s f i g u r e i s based on the Department of Housing r e p o r t and i n t e r v i e w s conducted by the a u t h o r w i t h some l o c a l m a n u f a c t u r e r s . On the b a s i s o f c a p i t a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n and i n p u t - o u t p u t r a t i o s , t o become ec o n o m i c a l , a permanent p l a n t may r e q u i r e a c o n t i n u o u s volume p r o d u c t i o n o f 800 t o 1000 houses per y e a r . Such permanent p l a n t s have i n f l e x i b l e commitments o f c a p i t a l and t i m e , y e t they must s u p p l y t h e i r p r o d u c t s t o areas w i t h i n a c e r t a i n r a d i u s by u s i n g a v a i l a b l e (but l i m i t e d ) t r a n s p o r t . They must a l s o comply w i t h p r e v a l e n t highway r e s t r i c t i o n s . I t may be noted t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the lower c a p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l a r g e r market range, one o f the a t t r a c t i v e a s p e c t s o f a mobile p l a n t method i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l community in v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e s i g n and p r o d u c t i o n phases of houses. The o t h e r a s p e c t i s the e x t e n s i o n o f the b e n e f i t s o f i n d u s t r i a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g t o areas t h a t cannot support l o n g -range commitment o f c o n t i n u o u s volume p r o d u c t i o n . A.2 "SYSTEM ECOLOGIC"—An Example of Standardization * for Industrialized Housing: Standardization i s one of the most conspicuous char a c t e r i s t i c and an essential aspect of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Standardization of various elements of a product provides greater opportunities for interchangeability and f l e x i b i l i t y i n assembly. It also provides an opportunity for reduced wastage, e f f i c i e n c y and control i n production. The following i s an extracted description of standardization that could be used for e f f i c i e n t production of in d u s t r i a l i z e d housing. "Under a research contract with the National Endowment for the Arts, exploratory work has been undertaken to study the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of applying past research as a basis for the development of a t r a n s i t i o n a l building system, the prime objective being to develop SYSTEM ECOLOGIC, a design technique, a k i t , capable of performing immediately within the present range of building codes, union constraints, and economic considerations which c o l l e c t i v e l y have retarded the U.S. building industry. Variation i n the architectural solutions to the * Cutler Laurence and Cutler, Sherrie. Handbook of  Housing Systems for Designers and Developers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974. 170 problem o f s u p p l y i n g lower c o s t h o u s i n g i n d i f f e r e n t ( " — " l o c a t i o n s i s i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s such as n a t u r a l e n v i r o n -ment, l o c a l s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , a v a i l a b l e b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g i n which the h o u s i n g i s t o be b u i l t . I t i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f modern man's freedom of c h o i c e t h a t the s e l e c t i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n be made anew on each o c c a s i o n . Years ago, a r c h i t e c t s c o u l d r e l y on c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n s and r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c v a l u e s , but today's r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l changes demand new d e c i s i o n s c r i t e r i a f o r c h o o s i n g among a l t e r n a t i v e d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e s e changes, t h e r e are some d e f i n i t e s i g n s as t o what can and, q u i t e p r o b a b l y , w i l l happen i n the f u t u r e . We a r e t o l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t no r a d i c a l changes i n m a t e r i a l s and/or p r o d u c t s w i l l be made i n the U.S. i n the n e x t t e n y e a r s . (See "The S t a t e o f the A r t o f P r e -f a b r i c a t i o n i n the C o n s t r u c t i o n I n d u s t r y . " ) We a l s o know t h a t most ma n u f a c t u r e r s ' r e s e a r c h and development programs are d i r e c t e d toward new markets and new a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r than the development of new m a t e r i a l s and/or p r o d u c t s . We know, t o o , t h a t the i n h e r e n t p o t e n t i a l s of e x i s t i n g p r o d u c t s and b u i l d i n g systems p e r m i t the d e s i g n e r s a g r e a t degree of f l e x i b i l i t y , i f approached c o r r e c t l y . 171 Therefore, the architectural problem of developing more immediate lower cost housing methods that are available and acceptable to a wide range of developers and contractors i s one of making the best of existing technologies and materials. The majority of homes presently being b u i l t are the houses and garden apartments b u i l t by the small con-tractor and the limited developer. These forces do not have the present c a p a b i l i t i e s to launch into the research, the c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n plant or equipment, and the promotion required to aggregate a supporting market required by the "technologically advanced" massive production systems. The major e f f o r t of SYSTEM ECOLOGIC has been to refine the basic design assumptions and to c u l l and u t i l i z e s e l e c t i v e l y those elements, in combination with one another, as appropriate to a particular generic housing problem— the immediate and continued provision of housing by the existing forces of builders. SYSTEM ECOLOGIC i s the extension of a general philosophy which, i n a nutshell, i s summarized by the su b t i t l e "A Transitional Building System." 1.1 Design Objectives As a di r e c t outgrowth of this analysis and research, a certain number of basic assumptions regarding the development of SYSTEM ECOLOGIC have necessarily manifested themselves—providing a framework for systems development and created from logic and pragmatic analysis. They are: (1) F l e x i b i l i t y — greater choice i n plan type and building type, and, i n a sense, creating an "open system". i (2) Quality building and rapid speed of con-struction . (3) Reduction of cost, (4) Freedom of design_ (5) Housing objectives: a. provide public and private amenities b. develop a healthy environment c. overcome s t e r i l e patterns of l i v i n g d. create a sense of i d e n t i t y — p r i d e i n the dwelling unit . 173 1.2 Design C r i t e r i a (1) The structure i t s e l f can be factory produced on a modular basis . (2) Use pure geometry and dimensional standards in order to provide more f l e x i b i l i t y and com-p a t i b i l i t y between manufacturers. (3) A l l assemblage can be done at the s i t e — work on and off the job s i t e i s organized to promulgate reasonable work e f f i c i e n c i e s , (4) Maximum size of the units are 12' x 36' and are prescribed by the need for easy transport under present-day standard road conditions and r e s t r i c t i o n s . (5) Financing i s conventional, i . e . , no use i s necessarily made of F.H.A., H.U.D., or similar agency programs . (6) A l l environmental requirements are achieved through alternate materials and space module combinations. (7) Use of existing components, subsystems, and materials presently available and s e l e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d w i l l a c h i e v e lower t o t a l c o s t . (8) Only low d e n s i t y s i t u a t i o n s a re p r o v i d e d , 1.3 Design Elements (1) The fewest number which w i l l c r e a t e the g r e a t e s t amount and v a r i e t y o f spaces . (2) A v a i l a b i l i t y of p a r t s and ease o f maintenance and r e p l a c e m e n t , (3) Ease o f assembly and e r e c t i o n . DESIGN CRITERIA: A KIT SYSTEM ECOLOGIC i s e s s e n t i a l l y the development o f a k i t o f p a r t s ; the p a r t s comprise l a r g e s p a t i a l elements which a r e , b a s i c a l l y , s l e e p i n g u n i t s and l i v i n g u n i t s , w h i ch, when combined, form t o t a l u n i t s . Each o f the s p a t i a l u n i t s ( i . e . , s l e e p i n g and l i v i n g ) i s made up from a s e l e c t l i s t of subcomponents such as: c l o s u r e components, f l o o r i n g components, i n t e r i o r components, r o o f components, e t c . These are s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p a r i c u l a r c l i e n t ' s program r e q u i r e m e n t s . The t o t a l u n i t s themselves break down i n t o t h r e e c a t e -g o r i e s o f b u i l d i n g t y p e s : A = S i n g l e f a m i l y B = Row house C = Garden apartments A n o t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e f o r the t o t a l u n i t s , combined from a s e l e c t i o n of a s l e e p i n g u n i t and a l i v i n g u n i t w i l l c a r r y the t o t a l u n i t enumeration, which i n c l u d e s the l e t t e r p r e f i x A, B, o r C, i n d i c a t i n g the b u i l d i n g type and the numbers which f o l l o w , i n d i c a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l u n i t s c o m b i n a t i o n . 4.1 C r i t e r i a Assumptions: S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ASTM d e f i n e s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n as "the pro c e s s of f o r m u l a t i n g and a p p l y i n g r u l e s f o r an o r d e r l y approach t o a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y f o r the b e n e f i t and w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l concerned." A mandatory s t a n d a r d i s a s t a n d a r d whose use i s compelled by law. I n the U.S., most mandatory s t a n d a r d s , e x c e p t f o r the fundamental u n i t s o f weight and measure, are w r i t t e n t o p r o t e c t h e a l t h and s a f e t y . The standards set for SYSTEM ECOLOGIC are a procedure established to evolve a rule of behavior. This rule i s described i n the following paragraphs, and i t i s demon-strated i n the graphic k i t of parts—which l i m i t s the number of elements, yet widens the choices and alternative solutions. The main objective in standardizing choice i s to develop a building system which i s able to be assembled by either s k i l l e d or unskilled labor and which can be univer-s a l l y applied to both minimal and expanded housing projects. Selection c r i t e r i a are (See also: Appendix 5): General Standards Human Being: Technological: Specific Standards (1) The s p a t i a l units must form a t o t a l assembly Sociological change Multipurpose use Individualism Natural l i g h t Mass production Prefabrication Urban design Multipurpose space Combination . which integrates a l l building functions (structure, enclosure, mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l ) into one system. (2) The elements must be related i n d e t a i l , l i n e , surface, and form, to a l l other elements of the assemblage. (3) The elements must be factory fabricated, machined, prefinished, and assembled, either on-site or preassembled. (4) A minimum of pieces capable of assembly by s k i l l e d workmen. (5) The t o t a l units must s a t i s f y the basic code requirements, plan f l e x i b i l i t y , and ease of addition for future expansion. 4.2 Structure: Open/Closed The main danger involved i n dealing with system design either open or closed, i s that the building industry w i l l become dominated by a r e l a t i v e l y small number of mutually exclusive systems which w i l l retard the progress of the building industry. Also, the lack of incentive for improvement w i l l so s t a n d a r d i z e the b u i l t environment t h a t i t w i l l become i n t o l e r a b l e f o r human h a b i t . T h e r e f o r e , the aim i n s e l e c t i n g a s t r u c t u r e has been to make maximum use of factory-made components and a minimum use of wet p r o c e s s e s . The s t r u c t u r e s shown are e a s i l y adaptab le to t e c h n o l o g i c a l change; wi tness the main s t r u c t u r a l components: base frames — e a s i l y assembled and t r a n s p o r t a b l e over highways; the frame may be s t e e l , wood o r s imply p a n e l i z e d p i e c e s . " FLOORING COMPONENTS INTERIOR FLOORING < iz'-of* x \x'-o* POLL rum. IC U'-O" VOOB FINISH WITH i M U «T GROUND SLAB ^ > ;i « r u M t o d < w w WICTURE© S/«" M M M D its* (HILL.) uoat> at nwru B C U S M W S « . WOOD DECK FOUNDATION COMPONENTS CONVENTIONAL PRECAST o| •H to 3 H Hi SONO TUBE -h -rh- | FLOORING COMPONENTS O 5 o * Oi UJ 2 o CO < ||||EC0D£S IGN NEA GRANT no. A70-I-5 FLOORING COMPONENTS INTERIOR COMPONENTS K f T C H E N T Y P E 1 i IO o TOILET TYPE 1 IA » A T H ti* 3') KITCHEN T Y P E 2 K I T C H E N ADOS M T I N G , L'i TOILET TYPE 2 A u u BATH Cr't," « <.') snow./ K I T H i»fi£ryWD O •H W H H (H INTERIOR COMPONENTS 2 UJ O O % Oi HI m LU i o t cn z < cc I-EC00ES1GN t l t x * U r n 0}1M NEA GRANT no. A70-I-5 INTERIOR COMPONENTS INTERIOR COMPONENTS S T O R A G E PARTITIONS / C L O S E T S (.»' A Z-i/eO (fc' * M A ' ; S P E C I A L P U R P O S E STAIR T Y P E 1 C L O S E T E3 D E S K - B E N C H W E T W A L L S F I R E P L A C E D E S K - BED Pe*K/KN<H — nomnco AT So" / STAIR T Y P E 2 srt-IT«UM(fe' * 8') 8 o! •H £' CQ r-l rH M INTERIOR COMPONENTS O 5 CO o o o Z o l UJ 5 LU CO (7) Z < CC NEA GRANT no. A70-I-5 INTERIOR COMPONENTS CLOSURE COMPONENTS I. F U L L G L A S S 2 . V E R T I C A L H A L F G L A S S W l M N R . t l l l D . « l i « T H M t t i M C l P . . _„ j i m « n f AirmtutTivn - - tn*jnc£ num. V-cf * $ -V 3 HORIZONTAL G L A S S 4.QUARTER G L A S S 5. SOLID PANEL 6. P R O J E C T E D P A N E L o| •H IB CO =» H H C O M P O N E N T S o 5 o 6 Oi 111 2 o E z < LU &5 CO Ij^ECOOESIGN NEA GRANT no. A70I-5 CLOSURE COMPONENTS 184 185 186 A.3 POPUIATICN FIGURES FOR CITIES (OVER 10,000) AND TOWNS (OVER 5,000) OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:  TABLE: 1 GEOGRAPHIC CITIES AND POPULATION SUBDIVISION TOWNS 1971 1976 1. GEORGIA VANCOUVER 426,298 410,188 STRAIT VICTORIA 61,760 62,550 NEW WESTMINSTER 42,835 38,393 NANAIMO 34,029 40,336 NORTH VANCOUVER 31,847 31,934 PORT ATBERNI 20,063 19,585 PORT COQUITLAM 19,560 23,926 POWELL RIVER 13,726 13,694 WHITE ROCK 10,349 12,497 CHILLIWACK 9,135 8,634 * TOTAL 1,574,605 1,547,903 2. COASTAL PRINCE RUPERT 15,747 14,754 KITIMAT 11,803 11,956 TERRACE 9,991 10,251 COUKL'ENAY 7,187 7,733 TOTAL 121,593 135,222 Total population figure is not the sum of the figures for cities and towns given here. 3. OKANAGAN-THOMPSON KAMLOOPS KELOWNA PENTICTON VERNON MERRIT 46,765 40,097 18,146 13,964 5,290 58,311 51,955 21,344 17,546 5,680 TOTAL 224,593 284,294 4. COLUMBIA-KOOTENAY CPANBEOOK TRAIL NELSON KIMBERLEY CASTLEGAR 12,011 11,152 9,412 7,840 5,918 13,510 9,976 9,235 7,110 6,255 TOTAL 130,831 149,911 5. CENTRAL INTERIOR PRINCE GEORGE QUESNEL 49,365 6,314 59,929 7,637 TOTAL 104,890 131,029 6. PEACE-LIARD DAWSON CREEK FORT ST. JOHN 11,885 8,303 10,528 8,947 TOTAL 43,996 44,842 7. NORTHERN INTERIOR TOTAL 1,470 1,545 T h i s t a b l e i s b a s e d on f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r Census D i v i s i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by S t a t i s t i c s Canada . A.4 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MANUFACTURERS: 1. NAME OF THE FIRM: 2. LOCATION: (address) 3. REASONS FOR LOCATING THE PLANT IN THIS PARTICULAR AREA: ( i n c l u d i n g the r e a s o n , i f any, f o r c h o o s i n g B r i t i s h Columbia) 4. IN OPERATION SINCE ( i . e . the y e a r i n which the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n s t a r t e d ) : 5. PRODUCTION IN 1975 ( t o t a l number of p r o d u c t s produced o r houses assembled): (approximately) i n f a c t o r y : on s i t e : I f t h i s does not r e p r e s e n t an average p r o d u c t i o n , what i s the average: 6. AVERAGE SALES PER YEAR: $ a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7. TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTED SO FAR: $ a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8. WORKING CAPITAL OF THE FIRM or ANNUAL BUDGET OF THE FIRM: $ a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9. WHETHER CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OR SEASONAL PRODUCTION (which p a r t o f y e a r ) : 10. SERVICE RANGE: m i l e s o r kms. a p p r o x i m a t e l y : 11. OUTSIDE B.C.: yes no 12. IF THE RANGE LIES OUTSIDE B.C., WHETHER IT IS BECAUSE THERE IS MORE MARKET THERE THAN IN B.C.: yes no * percentage o f market w i t h i n B.C.: * percentage o f market o u t s i d e B.C.: (* based on the number o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d by the f i r m . ) 13. WITHIN B.C.: * percentage ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) o f market i n r u r a l areas : * percentage ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) o f market i n urban areas : * ( c o n s i d e r areas w i t h 10,000 o r l e s s p o p u l a t i o n t o be r u r a l and the areas w i t h more than 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n t o be urban f o r t h i s purpose) OR i n o t h e r words do you r e c e i v e ( e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r through d e a l e r s ) more o r d e r s from r u r a l areas or from urban areas? N o r t h e r n areas? 14. LINE OF PRODUCT: (such as f a c t o r i e s , apartments o r m u l t i f a m i l y h o u s i n g , s c h o o l s , m o t e l s , s i n g l e f a m i l y detached houses, mobile homes). P l e a s e p r o v i d e approximate p e r c e n t a g e : 15. REASONS FOR THIS PARTICULAR LINE OF PRODUCT? 16. PLEASE DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE FACTORY PRODUCTS OR COMPONENTS: ( I f a brochure d e s c r i b i n g t h i s i s a v a i l a b l e , p l e a s e a t t a c h one). 17. AVERAGE SQ. FT. OF HOUSES SOLD: 18. AVERAGE SELLING PRICE ( F a c t o r y p r i c e ) : a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 19. SALES TAX ON THE PRODUCTS OR HOUSES SOLD: 20. APPROXIMATE TIME FOR PRODUCTION OF A HOUSE IN THE FACTORY: 21. APPROXIMATE TIME TAKEN TO ASSEMBLE OR DELIVER A HOUSE FULLY ON SITE AFTER AN ORDER IS RECEIVED (under normal c o n d i t i o n s ) : 22. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY THAT WOULD TAKE PLACE AFTER AN ORDER IS RECEIVED UNTIL THE ACTUAL ASSEMBLY ON SITE: 23. DOES THE FIRM PERFORM ON-SITE CONSTRUCTION such as f o u n d a t i o n s , f i n i s h i n g e t c . ? yes (how much) no yes what k i n d ? no who does i t ? 24. ARE THE HOUSES BUILT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BUILDING STANDARDS? N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code? L o c a l ? 25. WHO DOES THE ON-SITE INSPECTION/SUPERVISION? 26. CONSIDERING NORMAL WEAR AND TEAR, WHAT IS THE USEFUL LIFE OF A PRODUCT (COMPONENT) or/and THE HOUSE? WAY OF OPERATION: 27. FINANCING: 28. SHORT-TEAM OR LONG TERM MORTGAGE BY THE FIRM? BY OTHERS? ( s p e c i f y ) 29. DESIGN (components and b u i l d i n g s ) 30. PRODUCTION: 31. MARKETING: through d e a l e r s : through d e v e l o p e r s o r b u i l d e r s : through f i r m ' s own r e t a i l department t o i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s ( p r i v a t e c l i e n t s ) : % o f o r d e r s thus r e c e i v e d : yes no yes % o f o r d e r s by d e a l e r s : % o f o r d e r s by t h e s e : no 32. POST-SALES SERVICE (such as r e p a i r s , r e n o v a t i o n s , replacement of o l d p r o d u c t s w i t h new p r o d u c t s ) : done by the f i r m ? yes no done by o t h e r s ? yes no 33. WHAT TYPE OF RESEARCH, IF ANY, IS DONE BY THE FIRM? 34. WHAT % IS SET ASIDE FOR THIS IN THE ANNUAL BUDGET (OR WORKING CAPITAL)? 35. DOES THE FIRM TAKE ANY OUTSIDE HELP, ADVICE, OR CONSULT OTHER GROUPS, CONSULTING FIRMS OR GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS FOR THIS TYPE OF WORK? 36. ARE THERE ANY SPECIAL PROBLEMS OR SPECIFIC DIFFICULTIES? ANY SPECIAL REMARKS? Be s i d e s these f o r m a l q u e s t i o n s , i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n had a l s o t a k e n p l a c e w i t h some o f the m a n u f a c t u r e r s , f o r example: f u t u r e o f p r e f a b r i c a t i o n i n hous i n g ; p o l i t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ; d i a l o g u e w i t h v a r i o u s groups such as l a b o r , b u i l d e r s , d e v e l o p e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , CMHC, GVRD and governments; s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ; f l e x i b i l i t y e t c . Many q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e had remained unanswered owing t o a l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c s and s t u d i e s , f o r example, percentage o f market w i t h i n B.C. and o u t s i d e B.C., o r percentage o f r u r a l and urban markets. Some manufacturers were not a b l e t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c o r approximate f i g u r e s about the s a l e s , c a p i t a l and s e r v i c e range. 

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