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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Discourse within the culture of sociology : a study in sociological knowledge Thomas, Jill F. 1977

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DISCOURSE WITHIN THE CULTURE OF  SOCIOLOGY:  A STUDY IN  SOCIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE  J I L L FRANCES THOMAS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS J50R THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1977 J i l l Frances Thomas, 1977  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  freely  that permission  purposes  may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  for  is  financial  of  British  Date  gain  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  £  6 /V  7  by  for  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  British  for extensive  permission.  Department  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  i  ABSTRACT This  t h e s i s i s an e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t h e c r e a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n  of s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge. sociology  There a r e three main areas o f d i s c u s s i o n :  as a c u l t u r a l system, a p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f some o f the  concepts of A l f r e d Schutz, and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e  as an example  o f s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge. The  first  s e c t i o n explores  Clifford  G e e r t z ' s concept o f c u l t u r a l  systems as a p p l i e d to t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e .  This includes a  d i s c u s s i o n o f such r e l a t e d concepts as Thomas Kuhn's i d e a s o f paradigms, and F r e d r i k Barth's n o t i o n s maintenance.  of boundary c r e a t i o n and  The d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y  knowledge w i t h i n  i s seen as c o n s t r u c t i n g  a l o o s e , but i n t e g r a t e d , framework.  The b o u n d a r i e s  of t h i s knowledge system a r e found i n t h e everyday p r a c t i c e s  involved  i n the d i s c i p l i n e . The ideas.  second s e c t i o n i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n This includes  o f some o f A l f r e d Schutz's  concepts such as t y p i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning, and m u l t i p l e The  t h i r d s e c t i o n takes a look a t secondary source m a t e r i a l  d e a l s w i t h t h e works o f Schutz. of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e of sociology. i n Chapter I I . constructed the  realities. that  These a r t i c l e s a r e viewed as examples  constructed  by and used i n the d i s c i p l i n e  They are a l s o seen as examples o f the concepts p r e s e n t e d Thus t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e i s seen as a s o c i a l l y  reality  t h a t i s produced and maintained by the members o f  c u l t u r a l system o f s o c i o l o g y .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction • 1) Works dealing, w i t h s o c i o l o g y 2) Choosing S c h u t z s concepts 3) Choosing secondary source m a t e r i a l s 4) Exclusion of possible topics 1  I. Sociology  as a C u l t u r a l System  I I . Some Ideas o f A l f r e d Schutz 1) Everday R e a l i t y 2) Intersubj e c t i v i t y 3) The r e c i p r o c i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s 4) The s o c i a l o r i g i n o f knowledge 5) The s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of knowledge 6) Common-sense c o n s t r u c t s 7) Predecessors 8) The " W e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " 9) Typification... 10) Relevance and Meaning 11) Language 12) Verstehen 13) Multiple Realities III:.. D i s c o u r s e w i t h i n the C u l t u r e o f S o c i o l o g y 1) W r i t i n g as a c r e a t i n g a c t i v i t y 2) Credentials 2(a) C r e a t i n g the reviewer's c r e d e n t i a l s 2(b) C r e a t i n g Schutz's c r e d e n t i a l s 3) I n c o r p o r a t i n g Schutz i n t o S o c i o l o g y 4) Doing i n t e r p r e t i v e work 4(a) I n t e r p r e t i n g Schutz. 4(b) R e - S t a t i n g Schutz 4(c) Reviewer as E x p e r t 5) Debate 5(a) Praise & Criticism 5(b) Decision-making as an i n v i s i b l e p r o c e s s . . Concluding  Remarks  ^ V  1  v  1  viii 1  X  x  1 11 16 17 19 19 20 20 21 22 24 26 28 30 31 35 35 42 42 48 50 56 56 59 60 65 66 71 75  Footnotes  78  Bibliography.  79  iii  Acknowledgement In a t h e s i s , t h e "Acknowledgement"  p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  the e x p r e s s i o n o f g r a t i t u d e to those i n v o l v e d i n making t h i s a reality.  Although  they can sound l i k e academy award  thesis  acceptance  speeches, I know t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i l l r e a l i z e the s i n c e r i t y w i t h which I acknowledge t h e i r h e l p and I would l i k e to thank my  support.  t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. E l v i W.  Whittaker  f o r s u p e r v i s i o n and a s s i s t a n c e t h a t she p r o v i d e d , as w e l l as the encouragement and guidance work.  t h a t helped i n the f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my committee members Dr. Helga  Jacobson and Dr. Kenneth Stoddart f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n s t r e n g t h e n ing the f i n a l v e r s i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . greatly appreciated.  T h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n has been  I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Dorothy Smith  f o r her l a s t minute a d v i c e and h e l p on the t h e s i s . F o r the h e l p and support  g i v e n i n numerous ways I would l i k e to  thank J e a n e t t e Auger, Fran I s a a c s , and Diane Thomas. seen me through  t h i s very d i f f i c u l t  which was needed and t r u l y  They have  period with u n f a i l i n g  support,  appreciated.  I would a l s o l i k e to thank my  t y p i s t , June G a l i n d o , who  has  done an e x c e l l e n t job o f d e c i p h e r i n g a d d i t i o n s , changes, and l a s t minute i n s e r t i o n s .  Her h e l p i n format  d e c i s i o n s has been g r e a t l y  appreciated. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to extend Lorena V i c e n t e .  a s p e c i a l thank you to  I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e h e r p r o o f r e a d i n g and s u g g e s t i o n s ,  which have added to improving v e r s i o n o f t h i s work.  t h e c l a r i t y and ..conciseness o f the f i n a l  iv  Introduction This t h e s i s w i l l explore sociology:  areas w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e o f  s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system, some concepts o f A l f r e d  Schutz, and the p r o d u c t i o n The  three  first  and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  discourse.  s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s the concept o f s o c i o l o g y as a  c u l t u r a l system.  This w i l l include notions  of paradigms, and Geertz's  such as Kuhn's concept  i d e a s on c u l t u r a l systems.  The second  s e c t i o n w i l l be a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f A l f r e d Schutz's concepts on the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y .  This w i l l deal with ideas  as t y p i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , and m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s , a few.  to name  These i d e a s w i l l be regarded as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the n o t i o n  o f s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system, and w i l l a l s o exemplify aspect  such  one  o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y , namely, the e x p l o r a t i o n of an  author's c o n c e p t s . The  t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y o f  i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse  as e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r o d u c t i o n  of a r t i c l e s  by  secondary sources d e a l i n g w i t h  be  regarded as an example o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n  discourse and  t h e w r i t i n g s o f Schutz.  This  will of the  i t s e l f and, thereby, as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the growth  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . This study began as a broad-based r e s e a r c h  o f s e v e r a l o f my  i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d i n g the s o c i o l o g y of'knowledge, the works o f A l f r e d Schutz, phenomenology, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and the sociology of sociology.  The academic e n t e r p r i s e , as a focus o f  V  r e s e a r c h , has h e l d my i n t e r e s t f o r some time, and I wanted to combine some o f these areas i n t o a major p i e c e o f work. The fundamental  problem encountered was merging these  i n t o a c o h e s i v e framework. through  In October  interests  1976, I began by l o o k i n g  the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities  Index and the S o c i a l  S c i e n c e s C i t a t i o n Index t o see i f t h e r e was a h i s t o r y o f secondary source m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w i t h t h e works o f A l f r e d Schutz.  Unfortunately,  the a r t i c l e s were n o t v e r y numerous, b u t they d i d p r o v i d e me w i t h some thematic t h r e a d s . due  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f u r t h e r  restricted  t o my i n t e r e s t i n t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f Schutz's  ideas  r a t h e r than t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s . Some r e c u r r e n t themes began to emerge.  There seemed to be a  h i s t o r y o f i n t e r e s t i n . e x p l i c a t i n g some S c h u t z i a n n o t i o n s such as the w o r l d of everyday intersubjectivity. of reviewers:  life,  t y p i f i c a t i o n s , and the problem o f  Secondly, t h e r e seemed t o be two main c a t e g o r i e s  those who fundamentally agreed w i t h Schutz's  concepts,  n o t a b l y , Maurice Natanson, Robert B i e r s t e d t , and R i c h a r d Zaner;  and  those who b a s i c a l l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h Schutz's p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l stance such as Robert Gorman and Ronald As I r e a d these a r t i c l e s ,  Best.  t h e focus on the development, p r e s e n -  t a t i o n , and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e began t o emerge. i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe  I found i t v e r y  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e s o f  p r e s e n t a t i o n , c h o i c e o f concepts d i s c u s s e d i n the a r t i c l e s , and the  vi  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the a r t i c l e s  as v e h i c l e s o f d i s p l a y i n g  cultural  competence. The connections between s o c i o l o g y , the works o f Schutz, j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s on Schutz, and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e began t o emerge through  a process o f c r e a t i n g i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s .  area o f i n t e r e s t , f o r instance, understanding concepts,  As I developed  one  some S c h u t z i a n  i t seemed to o v e r l a p and have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r another  a r e a of i n t e r e s t ,  such as s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system.  i n t u r n , would a f f e c t my t h i n k i n g i n the f i r s t would continue  to emerge.  Thus, t h e r e was  a r e a , and  This, connections  a dynamic growth o f  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s t h a t were b e i n g c r e a t e d and r e v e a l e d d u r i n g the course o f my  r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g o f the t h e s i s .  E v e n t u a l l y , the emergent focus o f the t h e s i s began to r e v o l v e around t h e n o t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e as b e i n g the major f e a t u r e o f t h e c u l t u r e of s o c i o l o g y .  The j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s  provided  t h e data f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y , and t h e works o f A l f r e d Schutz p r o v i d e d the c e n t r a l f o r the a r t i c l e s  chosen.  In t h i s way,  I was a b l e to narrow my f i e l d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n  to t h e a r t i c l e s t h a t would p r o v i d e me w i t h the s o c i o l o g i c a l o f Schutz's work.  producing  o f my t h e s i s .  T h i s enabled  limited  to determine the  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l task o f  the t h e s i s to become a manageable e n t e r p r i s e .  framework I was  dimensions  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n  the data m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , but i t h e l p e d boundaries  focus  able to c o n c e n t r a t e on and develop  Within  this  the three main  vii  s e c t i o n s o f the t h e s i s : notions  Sociology  o f A l f r e d Schutz, and  as examples of i n t e l l e c t u a l One  as a c u l t u r a l system, some  the demonstration o f j o u r n a l  discourse.  o f the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g the boundaries o f a  t h e s i s i n v o l v e s c h o o s i n g secondary source m a t e r i a l and c o r o l l a r y m a t e r i a l that w i l l help of i n t e r e s t . t h i s context:  Thus, two  to c o n s t r u c t  and  also  define  choosing  the  Kuhn, and  Barth  t h a t were  t h i n k i n g on the c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of  sociology;  reviewers o f Schutz's works such as Natanson, G u r w i t s c h ,  Zaner.  The  areas  major groups of w r i t i n g s emerged w i t h i n  w r i t e r s such as G e e r t z ,  h e l p f u l i n d i r e c t i n g my and  articles  f o l l o w i n g i s an e x p l o r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s  and  reasons f o r  choosing each a u t h o r . 1)  Works d e a l i n g w i t h The  sociology  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d c h o o s i n g works t h a t  would h e l p  to e x p l i c a t e and  addressed. sociologist.  c l a r i f y the i s s u e s t h a t are  being  T h i s i s p a r t o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s of becoming a I have l e a r n e d  h e l p f u l i n developing  my  to  'see'  i n t e r e s t s and  example, C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' s work on  v a r i o u s works i n ways t h a t ideas  i n t h i s area.  c u l t u r a l systems was  are  For  useful i n  t h i n k i n g about a s p e c t s o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e such as 'in-group' membership, b e l i e f s , and  values  ' l e g i t i m a t e ' i n t e r e s t s of the d i s c i p l i n e of The  held regarding sociology.  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that define  ways o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g c u l t u r a l system.  the task o f s o c i o l o g y  the  'appropriate'  are p a r t o f  that  I found the works o f B a r t h , Kuhn, Empson, L o v e j o y ,  viii  and Hanson h e l p f u l i n b e g i n n i n g to make sense o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l construction of r e a l i t y .  These authors came to my  attention  the c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h r o u t e o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h my l i b r a r y research.  through  advisor  The d e c i s i o n to use these works came from  my  p r e v i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n t h e o r y and the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge. enabled me  and  This  to s e l e c t works which addressed i s s u e s such as boundaries  and boundary  maintenance  o f c u l t u r a l systems, paradigm  construction  which enables the r e c o g n i t i o n o f ' l e g i t i m a t e ' i n t e r e s t s , and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s t h a t enable one p a r t i c u l a r ways.  to 'see' concepts i n  Thus t h e authors chosen d i s p l a y a range o f i n t e r e s t s ,  and y e t can be used to 'make sense' o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l as an ongoing accomplishment 2)  of r e a l i t y  enterprise  maintenance.  Choosing Schutz's concepts The next t a s k i n v o l v e d d e a l i n g w i t h A l f r e d  concepts would I choose? t h i s choice?  How  concepts i n a way  My Concepts  What  What were the cues I would use to determine  would I o r g a n i z e t h i s s e c t i o n t o p r e s e n t the t h a t would make sense, and t h a t c o u l d be used as  a f o u n d a t i o n f o r the t h i r d chapter? engaged my  Schutz's work.  These  q u e s t i o n s , and o t h e r s ,  a t t e n t i o n throughout the p e r i o d o f w r i t i n g t h i s c h a p t e r .  f i r s t method o f approach  c o n s i s t e d o f r e a d i n g C o l l e c t e d Papers I .  such as t y p i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y and the o v e r a l l  concept o f t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y began to emerge as themes r u n n i n g throughout the works.  T h i s sense o f key i d e a s was  c o r r o b o r a t e d through r e a d i n g the o t h e r works and through r e a d i n g secondary source m a t e r i a l , such as Natanson's  work.  Such n o t i o n s  ix-'  as  the s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning, r e c i p r o c i t y  of  p e r s p e c t i v e s , and t h e " w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " were d i s c u s s e d i n s e v e r a l places.  Thus I b e g a n t o ' s e e ' t h e n o t i o n s t h a t w e r e c e n t r a l t o  my e x p l o r a t i o n o f S c h u t z ' s  work and o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e  sociological discipline.  Thus t h e c o n c e p t s  presented  a r e t h e m a j o r i d e a s t h a t h a v e emerged f r o m t h i s 3)  Choosing  source  investigation.  m a t e r i a l used i n Chapter  the conventional route of l i b r a r y  earlier,  this  Sciences  Citation  but  II  Secondary Source M a t e r i a l s  The s e c o n d a r y through  i n Chapter  I I I was  research.  obtained  A s was  mentioned  included a systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Social Index.  a few were f o u n d  Most o f t h e works appeared i n t h i s  i n b i b l i o g r a p h i c references of the  source,  secondary  sources. An i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t sociology Schutz's  itself.  of t h i s research involved the culture of  Many s e c o n d a r y  s o u r c e s w e r e known a s r e v i e w e r s  work b e f o r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n began.  Natanson, B i e r s t e d t , Gurwitsch, Psathas, f o r m e d a c o r e o f 'known' course  l e c t u r e s and r e a d i n g l i s t s ,  and b i b l i o g r a p h i c me  references.  to select various authors  This included  and Z a n e r .  Schutzian reviewers;  of  These w r i t e r s  'known' m a i n l y  discussions with faculty  members,  Thus my s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s as p r e s e n t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g  through  allowed  Schutz's  concepts. Other w r i t e r s such  a s B e s t , Gorman,  S t o n i e r and Bode,  O k u d a , P e r i t o r e , a n d Bregman w e r e c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y Schutz's  ideas.  T h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y unknown  Hindess,  developed  compared t o t h e c o r e  of reviewers research.  above, w h i c h enhances t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g I wanted t o explore  dealing with  range o f j o u r n a l  articles  t h e w o r k s o f S c h u t z a n d f o u n d t h a t t h i s was  possible  w i t h i n t h e bounds o f r e s e a r c h The it  the f u l l  t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e t o me.  corpus o f secondary source m a t e r i a l  provided  my  me w i t h  served, a d u a l  purpose:  d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f S c h u t z ' s w o r k , a n d i t demone  s t r a t e d some o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f S c h u t z a s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I " . 4)  Exclusion.of In any p i e c e  the  possible  o f w o r k , b o u n d a r i e s must b e d r a w n i n o r d e r  task manageable.  excluded.  topics t o make  Thus, c e r t a i n areas o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t a r e  In defining the boundaries of t h i s  e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y , and an i n - d e p t h  t h e s i s areas such as  d i s c u s s i o n o f phenomenology were  excluded. T h e s e s u b j e c t s , a l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t i n g t o me, r e m a i n e d the  scope o f t h i s  t h e s i s m a i n l y because they would have  a different organizational perspective. discusses  involved  Ethnomethodology uses and  t h e works o f Schutz i n v a r i o u s ways, but I f e l t  w a n t e d t o r e s t r i c t my i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s available  through conventional  exclusion of possible articles b o o k s on e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y .  research  outside  routes.  found i n other  This  I  t h a t were  entailed the  s o u r c e s such as  Thus t h e v i s i b i l i t y  factor of  e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y f o r m e d a c o n s t r a i n t t o my d e c i s i o n , s i n c e a r e a o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e was n o t f r e q u e n t l y  that  this  found i n t h e j o u r n a l s  that  were examined. P h e n o m e n o l o g y i n v o l v e s an e x t e n s i v e  area o f research.  Although  -xi  Schutz's  i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d phenomenology, I r e a l i z e d  t h a t the  focus o f the t h e s i s d i d not c e n t e r around t h i s s u b j e c t , thus, a r e a was  this  excluded.  These a s p e c t s o f r e s e a r c h r e v e a l , t o some e x t e n t , the z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s by which I have l e a r n e d to s e l e c t and concepts w i t h i n the s o c i o l o g i c a l framework.  The  r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h and i s a demonstration i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g to do s o c i o l o g y .  sociali-  develop  f o l l o w i n g i s the  o f the  processes  CHAPTER I  SOCIOLOGY AS A CULTURAL SYSTEM The  d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y can be viewed as a c u l t u r a l  system t h a t embodies c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t h e l p t o d e f i n e the discipline itself.  For i n s t a n c e there a r e ' l e g i t i m a t e '  predecessors  t h a t a r e r e f e r r e d t o as f o u n d a t i o n a l t o understanding the s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e such as Comte, Spencer, Marx, S a i n t Simon, Weber, Durkheim, P a r e t o ,  to name but a few.  T h i s tends t o s e t  the boundaries o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e i n v a r i o u s ways. sense o f h i s t o r y t o be gained by the student which i s important  I t allows a  o f the d i s c i p l i n e ,  i n d e f i n i n g t h e d i s c i p l i n e by p r o v i d i n g the  student w i t h works and thought systems t h a t have been i n c r e a t i n g the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . areas  of 'legitimate' interest  d i s c i p l i n e , and how those  influential  I t p o i n t s out the v a r i o u s  t h a t forms the framework o f t h e  frameworks might be viewed w i t h i n t h e  confines of the d i s c i p l i n e .  This provides  a sense o f what i s and  what i s n o t a v a i l a b l e to an a s p i r i n g s o c i o l o g i s t  t o t h i n k about,  w r i t e about, t a l k about, and, i n many fundamental senses, b e l i e v e . Speaking on common sense as a c u l t u r a l system, C l i f f o r d maintains  Geertz  t h a t common sense . . . i s , i n s h o r t , a c u l t u r a l system, though n o t u s u a l l y a v e r y t i g h t l y i n t e g r a t e d one, and i t r e s t s on t h e same b a s i s t h a t any o t h e r such system r e s t s ; t h e c o n v i c t i o n by those whose p o s s e s s i o n i t i s o f i t s value and validity. Here, as elsewhere, t h i n g s a r e what you make o f them. ( G e e r t z , 1975: 8)  In t h i s sense, Geertz aspects  i s addressing himself  o f any c u l t u r a l system.  Sociology  -1-  to t h e i d e o l o g i c a l  i s no e x c e p t i o n .  The  -2-  b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and i d e o l o g i e s t h a t are found i n s o c i o l o g y are  not  uniform, t h r o u g h o u t , but n o n e t h e l e s s t h e r e i s a body o f knowledge research  t h a t f i t s under the h e a d i n g  and  'sociology'.  F r e d r i k B a r t h ' s i d e a s on the s u b j e c t of e t h n i c groups can  help  t o i l l u m i n a t e the n o t i o n o f s o c i o l o g y b e i n g a c u l t u r a l system.  His  g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f an e t h n i c group i s , a population 1. 2. 3. 4.  which:  i s largely biologically self-perpetuating s h a r e s fundamental c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , r e a l i z e d i n o v e r t u n i t y i n c u l t u r a l forms makes up a f i e l d of communication and interaction has a membership which i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f , and i s i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s , as c o n s t i t u t i n g a c a t e g o r y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f the same o r d e r . (1969: 10-11)  I n some ways, an analogy c o u l d be drawn t o s o c i o l o g y , except for  t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t , and even then i t c o u l d be argued t h a t i t i s  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and  conceptually  s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g w i t h i t s many  networks o f i n t e l l e c t u a l k i n - g r o u p s and s c h o o l s o f thought t h a t produce g e n e r a t i o n s  of f o l l o w e r s .  B a r t h goes on t o d e s c r i b e o t h e r f e a t u r e s t h a t are i m p o r t a n t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e t h n i c groups.  He  f e e l s that there  are  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f any e t h n i c group t h a t s e r v e s t o i d e n t i f y members of t h e group as d i s t i n c t from non-members. Seen i n t h i s way,  the f o u r t h c a t e g o r y i n the g e n e r a l  becomes the p r i m a r y f e a t u r e . claims  (1969:  13).  Given t h i s ,  that The  definition  c r i t i c a l focus o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n from  Barth  -3-  t h i s p o i n t o f view becomes t h e e t h n i c boundary t h a t d e f i n e s t h e group, n o t t h e c u l t u r a l s t u f f that i t encloses. (1969: 15) Boundaries and boundary maintenance become e s s e n t i a l " c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g membership and ways o f s i g n a l l i n g s h i p and e x c l u s i o n "  (1969:  are s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s . everyday l i f e  member-  1 5 ) . The boundaries r e f e r r e d t o here  They a r e t h e taken f o r granted a s p e c t s o f  t h a t A l f r e d Schutz r e f e r s t o i n C o l l e c t e d Papers I :  The f i r s t s e t ( o f e x p e r i e n c e s ) c o n s i s t s o f t h e a c t o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s o p i n i o n s , b e l i e f s , assumptions, r e f e r r i n g t o the w o r l d , the p h y s i c a l and t h e s o c i a l one, which he takes f o r granted beyond q u e s t i o n a t the moment o f h i s p r o j e c t i n g . (1973: 74) Knowledge o f a group as a group i s , i n t h i s sense, s o c i a l l y constructed  and o r g a n i z e d ,  but t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n  remains i n v i s i b l e  u n t i l i t i s brought i n t o r e c o g n i t i o n by a concept such as s o c i a l boundaries. The  d i s c i p l i n e of sociology  shared meanings.  i s a l s o made up o f a w o r l d o f  I t a l s o has i t s s o c i a l boundaries  d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l groups.  that  Sociology  can be  seen as a c u l t u r a l system t h a t has b u i l t up an e l a b o r a t e , y e t f l e x i b l e , s e t o f formal  and i n f o r m a l  identification  I t h i n k i t i s h e l p f u l to view s o c i o l o g y serves  t o b r i n g i n t o focus v a r i o u s  o t h e r w i s e remain i m p l i c i t . s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  signs.  i n t h i s way, as i t  aspects of the d i s c i p l i n e  Becoming a s o c i o l o g i s t  that  isa  One has t o be i n i t i a t e d and/or  indoctrinated i n t o the profession.  A w o r l d view t h a t i s somewhat  -4-  unique to the e n t e r p r i s e must be accomplished  i f a person  i s to ?.  c o n s i d e r h i m / h e r s e l f , and i s to be considered, a member o f the s o c i e t y of  sociologists. This s o c i a l i z a t i o n process  i s c o n s t r u c t e d and maintained i n  v a r i o u s ways, both v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e .  The formal  education  p r o c e s s i s the most c o n v e n t i o n a l method o f i n t e g r a t i o n .  I t forms  the b a s i s o f the c u r r e n t paradigm t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n i s t h i n k i n g i n and u s i n g .  Thomas Kuhn, r e f e r r i n g to s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n , p o i n t s  to t h e ways i n which paradigms are taught: S c i e n t i s t s , i t s h o u l d be a l r e a d y c l e a r , never l e a r n c o n c e p t s , laws, and t h e o r i e s i n the a b s t r a c t and by themselves. I n s t e a d , these i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s are from t h e s t a r t encountered i n a h i s t o r i c a l l y and p e d a g o g i c a l l y p r i o r u n i t t h a t d i s p l a y s them w i t h and through t h e i r applications. ... A f t e r i t has been a c c e p t e d , those same a p p l i c a t i o n s o r o t h e r s accompany the theory i n t o the textbooks from which t h e f u t u r e p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l learn h i s trade. (1970: 46) Thus, a s t u d e n t i n c o r p o r a t e s and i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l paradigm. T h i s i s n o t t o say, o f course, t h a t a paradigm i s u n i f o r m l y accepted by a l l o f i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  As Kuhn s t a t e s ,  What quantum mechanics means to each o f them (the p r a c t i t i o n e r s ) depends upon what courses he has had, what t e x t s he has r e a d , and which j o u r n a l s he s t u d i e s . ... In s h o r t , though quantum mechanics i s a paradigm f o r many s c i e n t i f i c groups, i t i s n o t the same paradigm f o r them a l l . (1970: 50)  -5-  So,  too, w i t h  sociology.  Many times we  f i n d that within a c e r t a i n  paradigm t h e r e are fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of w r i t i n g s w i t h i n the same framework.  T h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y  mean t h a t they are working from w i t h i n the same paradigm, conversely,  the d i f f e r e n c e s need not p o i n t out separate  Both o f these s i t u a t i o n s can be regarding  paradigms.  seen i n the c o n t i n u i n g  the works o f A l f r e d Schutz.  Proponents and  but,  debate opponents  d i s p l a y the e l u s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f the b o u n d a r i e s o f paradigms. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the same works d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y r e v i e w e r to the n e x t , as do importance o f h i s work. d e t a i l i i r i : Chapter I I I .  the c o n c l u s i o n s  T h i s a r e a w i l l be S u f f i c e i t to say  from  regarding  one  the  dealt with i n greater t h a t paradigms form p a r t  o f the n o t i o n o f s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system, d e s p i t e flexibility  the  of t h e i r boundaries.  In s o c i o l o g y , the problem w i t h  the concept o f paradigm i n the  Kuhnian sense i s t h a t the d i s c i p l i n e seems to be stage.  overall  As Kuhn  in a  pre-paradigm(atic).  says,  When the i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t can take a paradigm f o r granted, he need no l o n g e r , i n h i s major works, attempt t o b u i l d h i s f i e l d anew, s t a r t i n g from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s and j u s t i f y i n g the use o f each concept introduced. (1970: 19) T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n  of the s t a t e o f s o c i o l o g y .  As w i l l  shown i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I , the d i s c u s s i o n the works of Schutz c e n t r e s e x p l i c a t e d by Schutz.  around the b a s i c  be  surrounding  conceptualizations  Is t h i s a case o f the i n a b i l i t y  to agree  -6-  upon the b a s i c framework o f a paradigm, o r i s i t p a r t o f t h e normal aspects of i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse? question  i n t h i s way.  Perhaps i t i s u n f a i r t o pose  this  As a concept l i n k e d w i t h G e e r t z ' s concept  o f c u l t u r a l system, I t h i n k a case can be made f o r s o c i o l o g y a broad-based paradigm.  Within  having  t h e system i t s e l f , t h e r e seems t o be  some d i f f i c u l t y i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e above-mentioned aspect  o f paradigm  construction. In g e n e r a l , Kuhn r e s e r v e s  sociology  does e x h i b i t many o f the f a c e t s  that  f o r paradigm-based d i s c i p l i n e s , f o r example,  ...the f o r m a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d j o u r n a l s , the f o u n d a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s ' s o c i e t i e s , and t h e c l a i m f o r a s p e c i a l p l a c e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m have u s u a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a group's f i r s t r e c e p t i o n o f a s i n g l e paradigm. (1970: 19) T h i s c o u l d be seen t o be t h e case f o r s o c i o l o g y , b u t as R i c h a r d Martin points out,  y  Martin  . . . s o c i o l o g i s t s come t o c r e a t e a v a r i e t y o f o r i e n t a t i o n s and p e r s p e c t i v e s , many o f which l a c k a common fund o f meaning. The s o c i o l o g i s t , from t h i s . p e r s p e c t i v e , i s confronted, then, w i t h s o c i o l o g i e s , not simply s o c i o l o g y . (1974: 17)  f e e l s t h a t t h i s r e s u l t s i n "a p l e t h o r a o f d i s o r g a n i z i n g and  d i s o r i e n t i n g tendencies".  (1974:  1 8 ) . To overcome t h i s , he  maintains that the d i s c i p l i n e involves i t s e l f of various  cults.  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  He seems t o be u s i n g t h i s term i n t h e sense o f  a paradigm w i t h i n a paradigm, o r a sub-paradigm.  Some c u l t i c  he r e f e r s t o a r e p i e t y , mystique, r i t u a l , s e c u l a r p r a y e r , and conversion.  aspects  -7-  A c c o r d i n g t o M a r t i n , Kenneth Burke says " P i e t y i s the sense o f what p r o p e r l y goes w i t h what".  I t i s "a system b u i l d e r , a d e s i r e  to round t h i n g s o u t , t o f i t e x p e r i e n c e s t o g e t h e r i n a u n i f i e d whole". ( M a r t i n , 1974:  1 8 ) . M a r t i n says t h a t t h i s does n o t imply dogma,  but r a t h e r , as Santayana  s t a t e s , "as l o y a l t y t o the sources o f our  being".  20). Thus i t forms p a r t o f the f o u n d a t i o n  ( M a r t i n , 1974:  f o r one's thought  system.  Of mystique, M a r t i n s t a t e s , In t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e r e emerges a realm o f meaning which i s communicable and understandable y e t which i s d i f f i c u l t t o p u t i n t o words. ...Such a r e a l m o f knowledge and i t s r e c o g n i t i o n a r e here r e f e r r e d t o as 'mystique', which r e f e r s t o t h e whole meaning t h a t a person gets from an e x p e r i e n c e , without being able to f u l l y describe i t . (Martin, 1974: 21) T h i s concept can be compared t o Schutz's n o t i o n s o f a w o r l d o f shared meanings, an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d , a w o r l d t h a t i s s o c i a l l y constructed.  This notion i s also i m p l i c i t  s o c i a l boundaries.  The word 'mystique'  i n B a r t h ' s concept o f  does b r i n g i n t o focus the  vagueness o f these c o n c e p t s , and a l l u d e s to t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f knowledge. According to Martin, O r r i n Klapp d e f i n e s r i t u a l as ' n o n - d i s c u r s i v e g e s t u r a l language, i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r r e g u l a r o c c a s i o n s , t o s t a t e sentiments and mystiques t h a t a group v a l u e s and needs' (1969: 121). Thus, r i s k i n g t h e charge o f some o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , r i t u a l can be thought o f as a 'medium' f o r the conveyance o f mystique. (1974: 23) F o r M a r t i n , s o c i o l o g y d i s p l a y s many r i t u a l s , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  -8-  The use o f p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l techniques i n r e s e a r c h , such as p a t h a n a l y s i s , sampling p r o c e d u r e s , ethnomethodological techniques; the w r i t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y products; the i n t o n a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s ; the p r o f e s s i o n a l f e s t i v a l s i n the form o f conferences and c o n v e n t i o n s . . .  (1974: 23)  These are p a r t of the a s p e c t s that.make s o c i o l o g y a system.  They h e l p t o form t h e s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s  membership o f the d i s c i p l i n e ;  t h a t d e f i n e the  to c r e a t e what Berger and Luckmann  r e f e r to as "commonsense knowledge"  (1966:  23).  The s u c c e s s f u l a d o p t i o n o f a paradigm, or thought be i l l u s t r a t e d by N.R. a task;  system,  can  Hanson's remarks "Looking f o r the c l o v e r i s  s e e i n g i t i s an achievement.. L i s t e n i n g i s a j o b ;  i s a s u c c e s s f u l outcome o f t h a t j o b . " and  cultural  (1969:  61).  The  hearing  'seeing'  ' h e a r i n g ' r e f e r r e d t o here i s the c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t  Kuhn r e f e r s t o when s p e a k i n g o f paradigms, and Geertz r e f e r s to as a c u l t u r a l system.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s the  s u c c e s s f u l a b i l i t y o f the i n i t i a t e t o a c q u i r e t h i s sense o f ' s e e i n g * . Expressing t h i s a b i l i t y  through  the language  o f the paradigm can  be seen as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s accomplishment.  As Hanson  observes, Another i n f l u e n c e on o b s e r v a t i o n s r e s t s i n the language o r n o t a t i o n used to express what we know, and w i t h o u t which t h e r e would be l i t t l e we c o u l d r e c o g n i z e as knowledge. (1958: 19) Language i s one o f the most important a s p e c t s o f the  cultural  -9-  system o f s o c i o l o g y .  I t serves to g i v e t h e sense o f a c o g n i t i v e  boundary t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e , however l o o s e l y t h i s may be s o . the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be p a r t i c i p a n t s , and to demonstrate p r o f i c i e n c y o f s p e c i a l i z e d communication as p a r t o f t h e ' i n ' group.  the w o r l d .  their  t h a t h e l p s t o l a b e l them  The t a k i n g on o f the language o f the  group forms p a r t o f the i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s o f t h e group. o f a paradigm r e f l e c t s  I t allows  The language  the way t h a t t h a t paradigm makes sense o f  An e l a b o r a t e and complex network o f meanings i s  i n h e r e n t i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r language o f a c u l t u r e , which a l l o w s i t to r e c o g n i z e i t s members w i t h o u t much d i f f i c u l t y .  The important  p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t language i s n o t o n l y a s i g n p o s t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , but i t i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y forms t h e w o r l d view t h a t i s h e l d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  that  As Benjamin  Whorf n o t e d : The background l i n g u i s t i c system ( i n o t h e r words, t h e grammer) o f each language i s n o t merely a r e p r o d u c i n g i n s t r u m e n t f o r v o i c i n g i d e a s b u t r a t h e r i s i t s e l f the shaper o f i d e a s , t h e program and guide f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental a c t i v i t y , f o r h i s a n a l y s i s of impressions, f o r h i s synthesis o f h i s mental s t o c k i n t r a d e . (Curtis & P e t r a s , 1970: 41) Thus, n o t o n l y does language form t h e b a s i s f o r a shared c u l t u r a l system, i t a l s o h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n t h a t s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and e n a b l e s t h e w o r l d o f the paradigm t o c o n t i n u e to make sense. F o r s o c i o l o g y , language performs these f u n c t i o n s  also.  G e n e r a l l y , one can be i d e n t i f i e d as a ' s o c i o l o g i s t ' by h i s / h e r use of t h e language o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e .  W i t h i n the l a r g e r framework o f  -10-  th e d i s c i p l i n e are found help  the sub-groups o r s p e c i f i c paradigms  to separate s o c i o l o g i s t s  into particular  f o r i n s t a n c e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e mainstream  and  radical sociologists.  becomes i d e n t i f i a b l e ; which  h a v e no  distribute  t h e sense  Alfred  the  paradigm meanings,  are f a m i l i a r w i t h  We  Words and  the  terms i n and  c o n s t r u c t t h a t meaning  o f t h a t meaning throughout  the c u l t u r a l  of and  system,  i n t h i s case, sociology. the next s e c t i o n I w i l l  Schutz.  T h i s i s t o be  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  this section I w i l l as I u n d e r s t a n d work by  use.  i n h e r e n t meaning.  be  them.  p r e s e n t some o f t h e n o t i o n s o f  s e e n a s an e x a m p l e o f t h e  e n t e r p r i s e as a c u l t u r a l s y s t e m by  or  Thus, k n o w l e d g e o f and a b o u t t h e w o r l d becomes s o c i a l l y  themselves  In  Through language,  t h o s e who  o r g a n i z e d through s p e c i f i c language  as d o e s ,  sociologists,  thought,  p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s t a k e on p a r t i c u l a r  a r e sometimes s h a r e d o n l y by  paradigm.  schools of  which  that perpetuates i t s e l f ,  d i f f u s i o n of the concepts explicating  briefly  i n part,  o f an a u t h o r .  some o f S c h u t z ' s  T h u s , I w i l l be e n g a g e d i n d o i n g  reproducing these ideas.  sociological  In  ideas  interpretive  -11-  CHAPTER I I SOME IDEAS OF ALERED SCHUTZ A l f r e d Schutz (1899  - 1959)  was  a philosopher  who  was  interested  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s o c i a l world from the v i e w p o i n t of " n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " o r the "everyday r e a l i t y " as he i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and  explanations  o f the n o t i o n o f s o c i o l o g y  are v e r y  called i t .  r e v e a l i n g to an  deals  w i t h problems such as r e a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance,  the  of the same 'in-group',  and  the ways i n which the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s  The  f o l l o w i n g i s an o u t l i n e o f some o f h i s b a s i c c o n c e p t s , and  r e l a t i o n o f those concepts to s o c i o l o g y . can be  accomplish t h e i r work.  In t h i s sense  of sociology  through the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d t y p i f i c a t i o n , relevance, The work o f Schutz can be  and  use  the  sociology  seen as an example of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s o c i a l  s i n c e the i m p r e s s i o n  His  understanding  as a c u l t u r a l system, i n t h a t he  communication o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h o t h e r s  the  reality,  as a d i s c i p l i n e i s accomplished o f such S c h u t z i a n  notions  as  the epoche o f the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e .  seen as p a r t o f the c u l t u r e t h a t makes up  the d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y , s i n c e i t adds to the p r o d u c t i o n knowledge t h a t can be used w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e , and  of  creates  a  sub-paradigm o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . The  choice  o f the concepts d i s c u s s e d  i n t h i s chapter  accomplished through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s o f my sociology.  This includes  l e a r n i n g to 'see'  work, which i s demonstrated by The areas:  r e c o g n i t i o n o f key  key  l e a r n i n g to  concepts o f  concepts emerges from three main and  do  Schutz's  their inclusion i n this section.  l e c t u r e s i n which c e r t a i n concepts are p r e s e n t e d  i  was  -12-  stressed;  r e a d i n g t h e author's works i n which p a r t i c u l a r  become themes r u n n i n g throughout  the w r i t i n g s ;  concepts  and r e a d i n g secondary  sources which e x p l a i n and e l a b o r a t e major i d e a s found i n an author's works.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e concepts I have chosen t o d i s c u s s r e f l e c t the  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these n o t i o n s from a combination o f the above sources.  T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t these a r e the o n l y ways I have  l e a r n e d t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , b u t they a r e the most v i s i b l e l e a r n i n g procedures u t i l i z e d i n a c q u i r i n g the c r a f t o f sociology i n the a r e a o f l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h . Schutz examined and e x p l a i n e d how 'we'"'"go about t h i s common sense w o r l d . How i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t in  meaningful ways?  How do 'we' make t h i n g s 'make sense'? 'we' can i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r human beings  How i s i n t e r a c t i o n p o s s i b l e at a l l ?  q u e s t i o n s , and o t h e r s , formed  is  that  'we' l i v e i n a  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t make sense.  'our' common-sense knowledge o f t h e w o r l d .  t h i n g s i n which 'our' d a i l y l i f e other beings;  'we' know t h a t  when 'we' speak to o t h e r s ;  These  the basis o f h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  Schutz s t a r t s from t h e b a s i c premise world o f day-to-day  constructing  i s wrapped.  T h i s 'making sense' 'We'  'We  T  'know' the know t h e r e a r e  'we' w i l l u s u a l l y be understood  'we' know t h a t  'our' a c t i o n s w i l l be  understood by o t h e r s and.that t h e i r a c t i o n s w i l l be understood by us.  These a r e 'our t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d ' a s p e c t s o f d a i l y  life.  A c c o r d i n g to Schutz, o u r s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s c o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e and d u r i n g 'our' own l i f e t i m e .  The important aspect o f t h i s  -13-  construer.ion i s i t s s o c i a l d e r i v a t i o n , which i s important i n two senses: and,  firstly,  secondly,  there was an o r g a n i z e d  world before  'I' existed,  t h a t 'my' w o r l d i s b e i n g s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  ongoing p r o c e s s .  as an  T h i s theme i s threaded throughout Schutz's  w r i t i n g s , and forms t h e f o u n d a t i o n  f o r h i s examination i n t o t h e  ways i n which t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y i s p o s s i b l e .  Thus,  f o r Schutz, We s t a r t from an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d i n i t s v a r i o u s a r t i c u l a t i o n s and forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t y f o r men l i v i n g w i t h i n i t . Man i s born i n t o a w o r l d t h a t e x i s t e d b e f o r e h i s b i r t h , and t h i s w o r l d i s from the o u t s e t not merely a p h y s i c a l b u t a l s o a s o c i o c u l t u r a l one. The l a t t e r i s a p r e c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e o r g a n i z e d w o r l d whose p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e i s t h e r e s u l t o f an h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s and i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n t f o r each c u l t u r e and society. (1964: 229) The w o r l d o f s o c i o l o g y i s a s o c i a l l y  constructed world a l s o .  I t i s formed on t h e same b a s i s as o t h e r everyday a c t i v i t i e s . was an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e b e f o r e it,  There  'our' exposure t o  and we a r e s o c i a l i z e d i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n through a dynamic  process  o f b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d and i n f l u e n c i n g .  The becoming o f a  s o c i o l o g i s t , t h e n , can be seen as an example o f Schutz's concept of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s o c i a l world. Related  t o t h i s n o t i o n o f r e a l i t y development are, h i s i d e a s on  concepts such as epoche o f t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e , n u l l p o i n t , i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s , paramount r e a l i t y , o f knowledge a t hand, t h e " w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " ,  stock  reciprocity of  -14-  p e r s p e c t i v e s , and t y p i f i c a t i o n .  These concepts,  and o t h e r s , a r e  i n t e r r e l a t e d to form h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of how s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s constructed  and maintained  on 'our' p a r t . social  without  This explanation,  continuous f o r Schutz,  and conscious  effort  i s t h e t a s k o f the  sciences, Thus, t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s a c c o r d i n g t o which man i n d a i l y l i f e o r g a n i z e s h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , arid e s p e c i a l l y those o f the s o c i a l world, i s the f i r s t task o f the methodology o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . (1973: 59)  According  t o Schutz,£social s c i e n t i s t s  use  second degree  c o n s t r u c t s t o e x p l a i n t h e workings o f the common-sense  reality,  which are " c o n s t r u c t s of the c o n s t r u c t s made by t h e a c t o r s on the s o c i a l scene" (1973:  6).  Learning  t o see and use these  degree c o n s t r u c t s i s p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n s o c i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . c a l l i n g him/herself  a sociologist,  second  process of  The s o c i o l o g i s t ,  by  has agreed to accept t h e  2 boundaries o f the d i s c i p l i n e . Schutz  Speaking o f s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l  notes, . . . s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i t s e l f occurs w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n o f s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d knowledge, i s based upon c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s c i e n t i s t s , r e q u i r e s mutual c o r r o b o r a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m and can o n l y be communicated by s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . ...the s c i e n t i s t has e n t e r e d a f i e l d o f p r e - o r g a n i z e d knowledge, c a l l e d the corpus •;of ' his science. (1973: 37)  T h i s forms p a r t o f t h e c u l t u r a l sense.  system o f s o c i o l o g y , i n Geertz's  I t a l s o becomes p a r t o f t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d  aspect  o f the  s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c w o r l d , which then becomes an unexamined f e a t u r e  -15-  o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e .  As Schutz s a y s , "The  scientist  takes f o r granted what he d e f i n e s t o be a datum, and t h i s i s independent everyday  o f the b e l i e f s a c c e p t e d by any in-group i n the world o f  life."  (1973:  39).  In one sense, t h i s can a l l o w the  s c i e n t i s t t o be a d i s i n t e r e s t e d o b s e r v e r , b u t , i n another, i t can i n d i c a t e a framework t h a t has been c r e a t e d w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i n e s of the d i s c i p l i n e . a n d t h a t o n l y r e f l e c t s the c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y of that d i s c i p l i n e . d i s c u s s i o n o f puppets  Schutz r e f e r s t o t h i s problem i n h i s  or homunculi.  (1973:  40)  Schutz suggests t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t c r e a t e s a model o f the s o c i a l w o r l d through t h e use o f an imaginary a c t o r - m o d e l , which he terms the "puppet"  o r "homunculous".  found i n the n o t i o n o f ' c r e a t i o n ' .  The e s s e n t i a l problem h e r e i s As Schutz  explains,  S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , they (homunculi) do not have any biography o r any h i s t o r y , and the s i t u a t i o n i n t o which they are placed i s not a s i t u a t i o n d e f i n e d by them but d e f i n e d by t h e i r c r e a t o r , the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . He has c r e a t e d these puppets o r homunculi t o manipulate them f o r h i s purpose. (1973: 41) T h i s c r e a t i o n l e a d s to an outcome t h a t , i n some ways, has been p r e - d e f i n e d by the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t closely regulated situations.  through the f o r m a t i o n o f  Schutz m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s  i s n o t grounded i n the everyday r e a l i t y of b i o g r a p h i c a l l y s o c i a l beings whose r e a l i t y i s not the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the scientist. endeavors  F o r Schutz, then, the realm o f some s o c i a l  situated social  scientific  i s too e n c l o s e d w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c d e f i n i t i o n s  -16-  used by t h e s c i e n t i s t s  themselves.  Schutz m a i n t a i n s that t h e r e i s  an a r t i f i c i a l harmony c r e a t e d s i n c e t h e puppet  and the environment  under study are c r e a t e d by t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . Schutz proposes  (1973: 4 7 ) .  t h a t t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s p e c t s o f the  s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , such as p r e s e n t e d above, a r e the v e r y areas t h a t s h o u l d be seen as p r o b l e m a t i c .  These a r e the areas t h a t s h o u l d  become t h e focus f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . be  'We' s h o u l d  t r y i n g to o u t l i n e and e x p l a i n such problems as how 'we' go about  c o n s t r u c t i n g everyday  l i f e , how 'we' e x p l a i n the e x i s t e n c e o f  o t h e r s , and what c o n s t i t u t e s  'our' common sense u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f  'our' d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . 1)  Everyday In  Reality  Schutz's view, a major s t a r t i n g p o i n t  understand t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f everyday  life  t h a t are taken f o r g r a n t e d .  f o r attempting to i s found i n t h e areas  of  this l i f e  of  'knowing' t h a t r e f e r s t o a s u s p e n s i o n o f doubt i n t h e e x i s t e n c e  of  t h e w o r l d and t h e o b j e c t s t h a t make up the w o r l d i n c l u d i n g o t h e r  human beings..  I t c o n s i s t s o f a sense  Schutz r e f e r s t o t h i s view o f the w o r l d as the  "epoche of t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " .  (1973:  229). T h i s a t t i t u d e  encompasses a l l t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i f e . constitutes throughout  'our' way o f knowing, and enables  It  'us' t o move  d a i l y l i f e without h a v i n g t o a s c e r t a i n and r e f l e c t upon  the existence of every d e t a i l o f t h i s l i f e . c o n s t i t u t e s the "paramount r e a l i t y " .  This attitude  As S c h u l t z e x p l a i n s ,  -17-  Th e w o r l d o f working as a whole stands out as paramount over a g a i n s t t h e many o t h e r sub-universes o f r e a l i t y . I t i s t h e world o f p h y s i c a l t h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g my body; i t i s t h e realm o f my locomotions and b o d i l y o p e r a t i o n s ; ...the world o f working i s t h e r e a l i t y w i t h i n which communication and t h e i n t e r p l a y o f mutual m o t i v a t i o n becomes effective. (1973: 227) and, ...(paramount r e a l i t y i s ) t h e w o r l d o f t h e senses o r p h y s i c a l " t h i n g s " as e x p e r i e n c e d by common sense. (1964: 135) An important aspect o f t h i s concept i s t h a t i t i s a s o c i a l l y constructed world.  The r e a l i t y t h a t 'we' e x p e r i e n c e i s made  meaningful because o f 'our' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s .  This  f e a t u r e forms p a r t o f t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d n e s s o f t h e paramount reality.  I t i s an unacknowledged p a r t o f 'our' e x i s t e n c e . F o r  Schutz, and f o r o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , t h i s n o t i o n p r o v i d e s a key  to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the.problem  o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and a l s o  p r o v i d e s a focus f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c work. 2)  Intersubjectivity One  o f t h e major areas o f i n t e r e s t  of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y .  f o r Schutz was t h e problem  For Schutz,  (the world) i s from t h e o u t s e t an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e world o f c u l t u r e . I t i s i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e because we l i v e i n i t as men among o t h e r men, bound to them through common i n f l u e n c e and work, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o t h e r s and b e i n g understood by them. I t i s a w o r l d o f c u l t u r e because, from t h e o u t s e t , t h e w o r l d o f everyday l i f e i s a u n i v e r s e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e to u s , t h a t i s , a t e x t u r e o f meaning which we have t o i n t e r p r e t i n o r d e r t o f i n d our b e a r i n g s w i t h i n i t and come to terms w i t h i t . (1973: 10)  -18-  As a common-sense c o n s t r u c t , i n t e r s u b j e c t l v i t y granted phenomenon. 'we'  'We' 'know' there a r e other.human b e i n g s ;  i n t e r a c t w i t h them every day o f 'our' l i v e s .  s c i e n t i s t , however, i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y d i f f i c u l t problems w i t h which to d e a l . v e r y concept o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y Other.  i s a taken-for-  F o r the s o c i a l  c o n s t i t u t e s one o f the most I n the f i r s t p l a c e , t h e  presupposes  the existence o f the  F o r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i d e o f Schutz's work, t h i s  i s problematic.  assumption  He d i s c u s s e s o t h e r ' s w r i t i n g s such as those o f  S c h e l e r , S a r t r e , and H u s s e r l , a l l o f whom d e a l t w i t h t h i s problem to some e x t e n t .  Schutz  suggests  t h a t the problem o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y  has n o t been s o l v e d , b u t t h a t t h i s and r e l a t e d problems such as the accomplishment o f meaningful  a c t s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f mutual under-  s t a n d i n g and communication, and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be f r u i t f u l l y a n a l y z e d from a viewpoint  phenomenological  (1973: 117).  Schutz  s t r e s s e s the n o t i o n t h a t 'our' knowledge o f the.fworid  i s n o t p r i v a t e b u t shared w i t h o t h e r beings w i t h i n 'our' system.  cultural  F o r Schutz, then, "...my knowledge o f i t (my world) i s  n o t my p r i v a t e a f f a i r but from the o u t s e t i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e o r socialized"  (1973: 1 1 ) .  In Schutz's view, t h i s s o c i a l i z i n g p r o c e s s has t h r e e b a s i c aspects: 1. 2. 3.  the r e c i p r o c i t y o f perspectives t h e s o c i a l o r i g i n of knowledge the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge  -19-  3)  The r e c i p r o c i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s T h i s concept r e f e r s t o t h e common sense knowledge t h a t " i f I  were t o change p l a c e s w i t h my fellow-man I would e x p e r i e n c e  the  same s e c t o r o f t h e w o r l d i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same p e r s p e c t i v e s as he does"  (1973:  61).  This takes i n t o account the problem t h a t  'my' p e r s p e c t i v e , i n Schutz's terms, 'my' "here and now", can never be  e x a c t l y t h e same as another person's "here and now".  p r a c t i c a l purposes 'we' take i t f o r granted  But f o r a l l  t h a t the p e r s p e c t i v e s  are e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same, and thus, r e c i p r o c a l .  T h i s a l l o w s 'us'  to i n t e r a c t w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t i n g on theCOther's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 'our' a c t i o n s ; 'reasonable' that 4)  'we' a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume, w i t h i n  boundaries t h a t the o t h e r person understands  'us' and  'we' understand h i s / h e r a c t i o n s . The s o c i a l o r i g i n o f knowledge As  Schutz s t a t e s , Only a v e r y s m a l l p a r t of my knowledge o f the w o r l d o r i g i n a t e s w i t h i n my p e r s o n a l experience. The g r e a t e r p a r t i s s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d , handed down t o me by my f r i e n d s , my t e a c h e r s and t h e t e a c h e r s o f my t e a c h e r s . (1973: 13)  Schutz then goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t the t e a c h i n g i n c l u d e s such t h i n g s as s o c i a l l y approved ways of l i f e d e f i n i n g t h e environment. see  involved and ways o f  Thus, 'we' a r e b o r n i n t o and l e a r n to  'our' w o r l d i n s p e c i f i c ways t h a t a r e s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d .  e n a b l e s 'us' t o become p a r t o f the in-group o f a c u l t u r a l  This  system.  -20-  5)  The  s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge  Schutz notes t h a t t h e r e i s an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge throughout a s o c i e t y . each of  'us' has  By  t h i s he  particular  i s referring  areas of e x p e r t i s e and  mere a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p o f knowledge. n o t i o n i n 'our' such as d o c t o r s ,  6)  other  Furthermore, 'we'  lawyers, e t c .  (1973:  Common-sense  'we'  that  areas o f  employ  d a i l y l i v e s w i t h t h e acknowledgement o f  s e c t o r o f the w o r l d , and knowledge.  to the i d e a  experts  Thus, each o f 'us' knows o n l y are aware o f t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s form p a r t of what defines  of abstractions, generalizations, formalizations,  as "a s e t  idealizations  s p e c i f i c to the r e s p e c t i v e l e v e l of thought o r g a n i z a t i o n " .  readily  build  r e f e r to without f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n .  So-called  common-sense c o n s t r u c t s . interpreting 'us' life. to  to grasp c e r t a i n  'us',  one  They h e l p  that  'we'  ' f a c t s ' are o f t e n a product o f According  the w o r l d around 'us'  Thus, 'we'  (1973: 5 ) .  are used to gather a s t o c k o f knowledge that  a r e a l i t y t h a t makes sense to 'us';  for granted.  of  14-15).  Schutz c a l l s "common-sense c o n s t r u c t s " , which he  can  a  constructs  These n o t i o n s  These c o n s t r u c t s  this  to Schutz 'we'  choose the r e l e v a n t  and proceed to view them as  This use  (1973:  These concepts o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s are  to  take  facts  by  enables  i n daily  a s p e c t s t h a t are o f 'facts'.  'us'  these  select  i n c e r t a i n ways.  a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y which 'we'  can  'we'  concern  5).  foundational  to  -21-  s e e i n g s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system. importance  I t enables 'us' to see the  and a f u n c t i o n o f g a i n i n g a sense o f h i s t o r y and,  o f acknowledging mean t h a t 'we'  the r o o t s o f s o c i o l o g i c a l thought.  T h i s does not  n e c e s s a r i l y have to agree w i t h the i d e a systems o f the  p a s t , but i t does g i v e s o c i o l o g i s t s a background understand where 'we'  are now  o f s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l 7)  thus,  t h a t . i s needed to  and what has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the sense  system.  Predecessors Schutz acknowledges b o t h the concept o f p r e d e c e s s o r s i n the  f o r m a t i o n o f knowledge, and h i s own predecessors.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  sociological  S i n c e knowledge i s s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d , i t i s , t o some  e x t e n t , dependent upon p r e d e c e s s o r s "upon whom I cannot a c t , but whose p a s t a c t i o n s and t h e i r outcome are open to my i n f l u e n c e my  own  actions"  (1973:  15).  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  may  P r e d e c e s s o r s form p a r t o f  the :'_in-group' a l o n g w i t h contemporaries, c o n s o c i a t e s , and successors.  A l l o f these groups have an i n f l u e n c e on  the w o r l d , and on  'our' a c t i o n s w i t h i n the w o r l d .  'our' view o f  Thus, p r e d e c e s s o r s  form p a r t o f 'our' knowledge both i n a common-sense way  and i n the  more f o r m a l sense o f l e a r n i n g t h e c r a f t o f s o c i o l o g y . Throughout predecessors.  h i s w r i t i n g s , Schutz r e f e r s to h i s own  In speaking of the problem o f the s e l f and  Schutz mentions some s o c i o l o g i s t s who t h i s problem,  intellectual  have attempted  the Other,  to d e a l w i t h  such as Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, C h a r l e s H.  and George H. Mead (1973:  18).  Among the p h i l o s o p h e r s who  Cooley,  have  -22-  i n f l u e n c e d him are H u s s e r l , Heidegger, and H e g e l .  Husserl,  p a r t i c u l a r l y , has a f f e c t e d Schutz's t h i n k i n g on s u b j e c t s such as phenomenology, phenomenological  reduction, t y p i c a l i t y ,  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , and Lebenswelt Husserl's  or life-world.  intentionality,  He uses much o f  p h i l o s o p h y as a b a s i s f o r h i s own thought  development.  Schutz a l s o r e l i e s on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l works o f W i l l i a m James to i l l u m i n a t e h i s own i d e a s on such concepts as common-sense c o n s t r u c t s , s t o c k o f knowledge a t hand, m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s , and paramount Thus, Schutz t r a c e s some o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l background thoughts w i t h which he i s working.  reality.  o f the  In t h i s way he i s i n c o r p o r a t i n g  h i s i d e a o f s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d knowledge i n t o h i s own work. Schutz, i n t h i s sense, can be seen t o be c r e a t i n g the boundaries o f the paradigm  i n which he i s s p e c i a l i z i n g .  He i s i n d i c a t i n g some  o f t h e 'in-group' community t h a t forms p a r t o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d view, and he i s acknowledging h i s own membership and a l l i a n c e to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c u l t u r a l -8)  system.  The " W e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " T h i s concept i s p a r t o f the n o t i o n o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y .  Schutz's view, consociates.  In  'we' share our w o r l d w i t h contemporaries and Contemporaries  a r e those " w i t h whom a mutual i n t e r p l a y  o f a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d " (1973: 15), w h i l e cons o c i a t e s a r e contemporaries "with whom I s h a r e , as l o n g as t h e r e l a t i o n l a s t s , n o t o n l y a community o f time b u t a l s o o f space" (1973:  1 6 ) . T h i s i s a common^sense c o n s t r u c t which  Schutz i s  -23>  b r i n g i n g i n t o focus t o i l l u m i n a t e an aspect o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y which he terms the " w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " o r the " f a c e - t o - f a c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s i s a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t can r e f e r t o f r i e n d s and s t r a n g e r s alike  (1973:  1 6 ) , as l o n g as i t i n v o l v e s a s h a r i n g o f time and  space . I t i s i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p that the notion o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y i s most e v i d e n t .  I n t h e common-sense w o r l d the presence  of the  Other i s i n d i s p u t a b l e d u r i n g t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p .  For  Schutz t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p b r i n g s t o g e t h e r many i n t e r r e l a t e d n o t i o n s such as n u l l p o i n t , v i v i d p r e s e n t , growing o l d e r t o g e t h e r , and typicality. In t h e w o r l d o f everyday  life,  b e g i n s w i t h 'my' p l a c e i n i t ,  'my' e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r l d  i n r e l a t i o n to time and space.  'My'  ';'here and now" c o n s t i t u t e s the c o - o r d i n a t e s from which ' I ' view the w o r l d , which Schutz  terms t h e " n u l l p o i n t " , a term which he  borrows from H u s s e r l (1973:  133). 'My' ongoing  c a r r i e d out i n the " v i v i d present"  (1973:  experience i s  172). T h i s v i v i d  present  can be shared by a c o n s o c i a t e , He and I , we s h a r e , w h i l e the p r o c e s s l a s t s , a common v i v i d p r e s e n t , our v i v i d p r e s e n t , which e n a b l e s him and me to&say: "We e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s o c c u r r e n c e t o g e t h e r . " By the W e - r e l a t i o n thus e s t a b l i s h e d , we both ... a r e l i v i n g i n o u r mutual v i v i d p r e s e n t , d i r e c t e d toward t h e thought t o be r e a l i z e d i n and by t h e communicating p r o c e s s . We grow o l d e r t o g e t h e r . (1973: 219 - 220) Thus, t h e concept  o f growing o l d e r t o g e t h e r captures the immediate  r e a l i t y t h a t i s shared by c o n s o c i a t e s i n the w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The  -24-  i communication mentioned above can refer to verbal and non-verbal communication.  As Schutz says, "Whoever has played a game of tennis,  performed chamber music, or made love has caught the Other i n h i s immediate v i v i d present" (1973: 9)  174n).  Typification In the world of common-sense, 'we'  'we'  take i t for granted that  understand and are understood by others.  of a world of shared meanings possible.  This makes the idea  If this were not the case,  i t would be necessary to consciously question every word and action with which 'we'  are presented.  According to Schutz, 'we'  accomplish  this t a c i t understanding through the use of t y p i f i c a t i o n s .  'My'  stock of knowledge at hand i s composed of objects and situations that ' I ' have previously encountered.  They have, therefore, acquired  a sense of f a m i l i a r i t y , or a sense of t y p i c a l i t y . explains, 'we'  As Schutz  experience objects, not as undifferentiated and  unique objects, but as known objects such as trees, mountains, animals, other human beings, etc. t y p i f i c a t i o n s allows 'us pre-conceived framework.  1  (1973:  59).  The acceptance of  to categorize new objects into a Thus, to use Schutz's example, i f 'I' see  an animal, ' I ' perceive i t to be a certain kind of animal, for instance a dog.  Furthermore,  ' I ' assume that i t w i l l act i n  certain ways without i t actually performing any actions, since ' I ' r e f e r to my own previous experiences or stock of knowledge (1973: 281 282) .  -25-  Th i s a b i l i t y t o c a t e g o r i z e enables about t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d around  'me' t o make  assumptions  'me', and o f t h e mental w o r l d a l s o .  I t p e r m i t s 'me' t o assume t h a t t h e r e i s indeed a c e r t a i n amount o f mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t takes p l a c e between 'myself' and o t h e r human b e i n g s .  Schutz i s c a r e f u l to s t r e s s the l i m i t s o f t h i s  communication and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , but he i s a l s o v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l a i n i n g t h a t i t does e x i s t  and how i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r i t t o  exist. The s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e e x h i b i t s f e a t u r e s o o f t y p i c a l i t y , as i s e v i d e n t i n o u r c o g n i t i v e mapping o u t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e .  We  t r y t o l a b e l people a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t h e i r f r i e n d s i n the d i s c i p l i n e , t h e i r r e s e a r c h , and t h e i r academic t r a i n i n g , e t c . Are they q u a n t i t a t i v e o r q u a l i t a t i v e s o c i o l o g i s t s ? M a r x i s t s , i f s o , what kind? sociologists?  A r e they 'mainstream' o r ' r a d i c a l '  These and many o t h e r q u e s t i o n s can be asked o f a person  i n s o c i o l o g y , and a l l a r e an attempt  t o employ t h e v a r i o u s  t y p i f i c a t i o n s t h a t we have c o n s t r u c t e d . o f paradigm  Are they  I n some senses Kuhn's concept  i s s i m i l a r t o Schutz's concept o f t y p i f i c a t i o n .  T y p i f i c a t i o n s a r e agreed upon ways o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d , w h i l e paradigms are accepted s e t s o f b o u n d a r i e s i n which one can work.  Our d e s i r e to  t y p i f y s o c i o l o g i s t s i n t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s i s an attempt the paradigm  i n which they work.  to d e f i n e  U s i n g our n o t i o n s o f how the  w o r l d i s c o n s t r u c t e d , 'we' a r e s e e k i n g t o r e i n f o r c e our own t y p i f i c a t i o n s by f i t t i n g o t h e r s i n t o them. In the above sense s o c i o l o g i s t s a r e a d o p t i n g the n a t u r a l  attitude.  -26-  Th ey are making t h e i r own  w o r l d make sense by u s i n g t y p i f i c a t i o n  a common-sense c o n s t r u c t .  T h i s i s an example o f the  system o f s o c i o l o g y a t work.  I t i s an i n s t a n c e o f  as  cultural taken-for-granted  n o t i o n s b e i n g employed t o c o n s t r u c t a p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y , namely, the r e a l i t y of the c u l t u r e o f 10)  Relevance and An  Meaning  important aspect  involved.  sociology.  o f t y p i f i c a t i o n i s the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s  There are myriad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t can be  the w o r l d o f o b j e c t s and  ideas.  T y p i f i c a t i o n involves  c e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and not o t h e r s . aspects For  given  Thus, 'we'  to  choosing  choose those  of r e a l i t y t h a t are r e l e v a n t f o r 'our' p a r t i c u l a r uses.  Schutz, Relevance i s not i n h e r e n t i n n a t u r e as such, i t i s the r e s u l t o f the s e l e c t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t i v i t y of man w i t h i n or observing nature. (1973: 5)  Relevance, as such, can r e f e r to the a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t i s g i v e n to the o b j e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n at a p a r t i c u l a r time.  For i n s t a n c e , i n choosing  a flower  may  the important a s p e c t , but  i n choosing  be  'my'system of r e l e v a n c e s ability  changes.  different.  I t can be  f o r 'me'  colour  to grow,  interested i n i t s  i n the two  the same o b j e c t , but  d e f i n e the r e l e v a n c e - s t r u c t u r e 'me'.  * I ' am  a flower  to s u r v i v e , rather than i t s immediate c o l o u r .  the meaning t h a t the flower has  to  to p a i n t , the  t h a t ' I ' use  'my'  Therefore, instances i s  interest i n i t w i l l  to determine i t s v a l u e  The  determination  perspective w i l l be  alone.  As  i s not  i s o l a t e d to  'my'  ' I ' know t h a t the meaning ' I ' give to an  shared, f o r the most p a r t , by  c u l t u r a l system. will  of relevance  the people who  ' I ' take i t f o r granted t h a t  c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i r s , and  'my'  share  object 'my'  interpretation  t h a t i t w i l l be meaningful to them.  Schutz s t a t e s , ...I assume e v e r y t h i n g which has meaning f o r me a l s o has meaning f o r the Other o r Others w i t h whom I share t h i s , my l i f e - w o r l d . . . . T h i s l i f e - w o r l d p r e s e n t s i t s e l f a l s o to them f o r i n t e r p r e tation. I know about t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s o f r e l e v a n c e and t h e i r h o r i z o n s o f f a m i l i a r i t y or strangeness; indeed I a l s o know t h a t w i t h segments of my m e a n i n g f u l l i f e I b e l o n g to the l i f e - w o r l d of Others as Others belong to my l i f e - w o r l d . (1973: 135)  T h i s quote p o i n t s  to many n o t i o n s  Schutz's w r i t i n g s . reality:  It points  in  'our'  I t a l s o r e f e r s to the o v e r l a p p i n g  l i f e w i t h the l i f e of O t h e r s .  v a r i o u s p a r t s of  'my'  quality  In t h i s sense, ' I ' can  share  l i f e w i t h d i f f e r e n t groups of O t h e r s , without  much c o g n i t i v e d i f f i c u l t y . meaning t h a t compose 'my'  Therefore,  I t forms one  ' I ' have v a r i o u s worlds o f  life-world.  culture of sociology  t h i s regard.  'we'  the assumption o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y t h a t makes  communication p o s s i b l e .  inhabit.  to the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of  I t emphasizes the assumptions o f meaning t h a t  c o n t i n u a l l y make, and  The  explicit  o f the i n e v i t a b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f shared meanings i n  everyday l i f e .  o f 'my'  t h a t are i m p l i c i t and  can be viewed from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s i n  p a r t o f the l a r g e r l i f e - w o r l d t h a t we a l l  From a common-sense p o i n t of view we  r e a l i z e t h a t , f o r most  -28-  of u s , sociology aspects life,  constitutes the world  o f our l i v e s .  O t h e r a r e a s o f i m p o r t a n c e m i g h t i n c l u d e home  physical activity,  of these areas,  o f w o r k , w h i c h i s o n e o f many  and o t h e r  the perspectives  non-academic i n t e r e s t s .  of relevance  I n each  may c h a n g e , a n d t h e  m e a n i n g s t t h a t a r e d e v e l o p e d i n e a c h o f t h e a r e a s may b e s h a r e d by  t h e group t h a t i s i n v o l v e d w i t h Within  only  that aspect of the l i f e - w o r l d .  the sociological discipline  there  are areas of shared  meanings t h a t form b o u n d a r i e s t h a t a r e used i n an i n c l u s i v e and e x c l u s i v e manner. the s o c i o l o g i c a l  These b o u n d a r i e s h e l p  e n t e r p r i s e t h a t may o r may n o t o v e r l a p  areas o f sociology. use  t o d e l i n e a t e segments o f  I n our encounters w i t h  other  with  other  sociologists,  t h i s knowledge t o d e t e r m i n e t h e tone and c o n t e n t  we  of our i n t e r a c -  t i o n w i t h them, a s a f i r s t - d e g r e e c o n s t r u c t , t h a t i s , a s an a c t o r in  the natural attitude.  relevances 11)  that help  This notion i l l u s t r a t e s  t o form  t h e choosing  of  typifications.  Language Language i s t h e prime agent o f communication and c o g n i t i o n .  creates 'We'  a world  construct  o f s h a r e d meanings on w h i c h t y p i f i c a t i o n s t h e r e a l i t y o f everyday l i f e  It  are based.  through the use o f  l a n g u a g e , b o t h w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e and w i t h i n t h e p r a c t i c e of sociology.  As S c h u t z  notes,  The t y p i f y i n g medium p a r e x c e l l e n c e b y which s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d knowledge i s t r a n s m i t t e d i s t h e v o c a b u l a r y and t h e syntax o f everyday language. The vernacular o f everyday l i f e i s p r i m a r i l y a l a n g u a g e o f named t h i n g s a n d e v e n t s ,  -29-  and any name i n c l u d e s a t y p i f i c a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e f e r r i n g to the relevance system p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c in-group which found t h e named t h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o p r o v i d e a separate term f o r i t . (1973: 14) I n t h i s sense, language makes s o c i a l r e a l i t y a v a i l a b l e to the members of t h e . s o c i e t y .  T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e r e a r e no prob-  lems i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e s of r e a l i t y that are represented typifications, use  by the language, b u t , as w i t h  'we' choose t h e r e l e v a n t frameworks d u r i n g  t h a t w i l l promote s h a r i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  language  'We' assume t h a t  Others w i l l comprehend enough o f 'our' meaning to enable meaningful communication t o take p l a c e . Language a l s o e x h i b i t s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r 'us' manipulate 'our' w o r l d o f meanings. refine  definitions  construct  as t h e o c c a s i o n  I t allows demands.  'us' t o expand o r  In t h i s way, 'we' can  and r e c o n s t r u c t r e a l i t y t o f i t the purpose at hand.  i n s t a n c e , new c o n c e p t i o n s words i n d i f f e r e n t also allows  a r e u s u a l l y e x p l a i n e d by u s i n g  contexts.  For  familiar  T h i s extends 'our' knowledge, and  'us' t o understand t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t  use o f language p e r m i t s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g e n e r a l knowledge t o take, p l a c e .  to  light.  and s p e c i f i c  By t h i s I mean t h a t the s o c i a l  o f knowledge can be enhanced by the d i f f u s i o n  This  of ideas  distribution  throughout  a c u l t u r e , but i t can a l s o be used to e x c l u d e segments o f a s o c i e t y from p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n t h e comprehension o f s p e c i f i c knowledge.  Thus,  language can be used t o i d e n t i f y members o f a c u l t u r a l system, and  -30-  a l s o t o i d e n t i f y non-members o f t h a t  system.  The language o f s o c i o l o g y can be used i n t h e above sense.  It  a l l o w s a unique system o f r e l e v a n c e s and t y p i f i c a t i o n s t o be o r g a n i z e d i n s p e c i f i c ways, w h i c h i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t h e d i s c i p l i n e of sociology.  This incorporates  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system t h a t determines t h e i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n o f group members. I n t h i s way, t h e c u l t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y can assume a more o r l e s s p r e - d e f i n e d w o r l d o f shared meanings t h a t e n a b l e s a c e r t a i n type o f discourse t o take place. 12)  Verstehen I n h e r e n t i n Schutz's concepts on how 'we' make sense o f t h e  w o r l d i s Max Weber's n o t i o n o f 'Verstehen'.  Schutz uses  concept t o e n r i c h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s own work.  this  For Schutz,  Verstehen i s . . . t h e p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n t i a l form i n w h i c h common-sense t h i n k i n g t a k e s cognizance o f the s o c i a l c u l t u r a l w o r l d . (1973: 56) Schutz goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t V e r s t e h e n i n v o l v e s t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s o f a s o c i e t y and t h a t mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l system i s p o s s i b l e through t h e use o f V e r s t e h e n .  According  t o S c h u t z , t h e n , V e r s t e h e n i s a method o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i s formed through t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s (1973:  56). This process  i s performed w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e a n d . i s a common-sense c o n s t r u c t used f o r t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n t e n t o f the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e world of d a i l y l i f e .  T h i s forms p a r t o f Max Weber's concept o f  the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning.  According to Schutz,  -31-  s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c explanations  can and must r e f e r back to the  s u b j e c t i v e meaning that.;the a c t o r has r e g a r d i n g h i s a c t i o n s . (1973:  62).  I n t h i s sense, Schutz i s emphasizing the grounding o f  s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c work w i t h i n t h e w o r l d o f everyday, r e a l i t y . u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s world i s an important task other s o c i a l 13)  Multiple The  The  f o r s o c i o l o g y and  sciences. Realities  concept o f m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s i s important throughout t h e  w r i t i n g s o f Schutz.  T h i s , i n p a r t , a l l u d e s to the c o m p l e x i t i e s  of  the everyday w o r l d o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s involved  i n explanations  of social reality.  Some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n v o l v e d a r e based on t h e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s Others.  These p e r s p e c t i v e s  u s u a l l y overlap  h e l d by ' m y s e l f and  t o the extent  t h a t makes  communication and u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o s s i b l e . Among t h e d i f f e r e n t views t h a t Schutz mentions a r e those i n v o l v i n g time and space, f o r i n s t a n c e , p a s t , p r e s e n t , worlds t h a t may be w i t h i n  'my' reach.  and f u t u r e  By t h i s he i n d i c a t e s  t h a t t h e r e may be e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n t h e world t h a t a r e c o n c e i v a b l y p o s s i b l e that include past  and f u t u r e a c t i o n s .  In r e l a t i o n t o the  p a s t , a c t i v i t y can be re-performed, a l b e i t n o t the i d e n t i c a l but  r e a s o n a b l y s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y f o r t h e purpose a t hand t o be  r e f e r r e d to as t h e same a c t i v i t y . Schutz r e f e r s t o t h i s as  activity,  'I can do i t a g a i n ' ,  a term he borrows from H u s s e r l  R e a l i t y i n the present  idealization (1973:  u s u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s the paramount  224).  -32-  reality;  the r e a l i t y  v i v i d present. in  o f everyday  life  t h a t i s known to 'us' i n the  T h i s i s the common-sense r e a l i t y  the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e  (1973:  223).  that i s experienced  T h i s does not mean, however,  t h a t the paramount r e a l i t y h o l d s 'our' f u l l a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g 'our' waking h o u r s .  Other r e a l i t i e s such as r e f l e c t i n g  on p a s t e v e n t s ,  p r o j e c t i n g f u t u r e a c t i o n s , day-dreaming, e t c . can be i n t e r m i n g l e d with  'our' paramount r e a l i t y A c c o r d i n g to Schutz,  (1973:  'we'  to v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y . p r o v i n c e s o f meaning" (1973: r e a l i t y when 'we'  233n)  are c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g He  'our'  terms these r e a l i t i e s  230), to which 'we'  focus our a t t e n t i o n on each one.  "finite  g i v e an accent o f For Schutz,  important a s p e c t o f these p r o v i n c e s i s the meaning t h a t 'we' each o f them (1973: 230).  attention  give to  Thus, 'our' e x p e r i e n c e and the way  make sense o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t  the  'we'  f o r understanding  the  v a r i o u s f i n i t e p r o v i n c e s o f meaning. Among the p r o v i n c e s o f meaning, Schutz r e f e r s t o the w o r l d o f everyday  l i f e , o r the paramount r e a l i t y ;  i m a g e r i e s and phantasms:  the w o r l d of dreams, o f  t h e world o f a r t ;  the world o f r e l i g i o u s  e x p e r i e n c e ; the w o r l d of s c i e n t i f i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n ; of  the c h i l d ;  and the world o f the i n s a n e (1973:  t h a t the paramount r e a l i t y reality"  (1973:  the p l a y w o r l d 232).  He  feels  " i s the archetype o f our e x p e r i e n c e of  233), and t h a t the;other f i n i t e p r o v i n c e s o f meaning  are m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e a l i t y , Thus t h e r e i s a wide range  although, not r e d u c i b l e to i t .  of p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of r e a l i t y  a v a i l a b l e to  -33-  'us'  w i t h i n t h e context  actions  and as explanations  The to  daily  f o r 'our'  construction of reality.  lives  i n c a r r y i n g out 'our'  actions.  concept o f m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s  'our'  choices  o f 'our'  i s very  I n 'our'  interesting i n relation  everyday a c t i v i t y t h e  'we' h a v e t o make t o s u c c e s s f u l l y f u l f i l l  any a c t i o n must  t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a common-sense n o t i o n o f m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s . is  i m p l i e d i n S c h u t z ' s d i s c u s s i o n on r e l e v a n c e s .  c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f 'our' a decision that w i l l mind.  stock  satisfy  T h i s may i n c l u d e  This  'We' a t t e n d t o  o f knowledge a t hand i n o r d e r  contradictory,  have an e f f e c t on 'our'  eventual  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e p l a c e . o n a ' c o n s c i o u s '  forms p a r t o f 'our' This  knowledge about t h e w o r l d  action.  level, but  'we' l i v e i n .  decision-making process has i m p l i c a t i o n s regarding t h e  r e t r i e v a b l e nature o f that process. include  t o make  t h e p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e 'we' h a v e i n  d i v e r s e , and sometimes  p o s s i b i l i t i e s , which w i l l  This  information  knowledge  Explanations  t h a t was a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t  'we' h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d s i n c e  of decisions  t i m e as w e l l as t h e  t h e d e c i s i o n was made.  Add  t o t h a t t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f 'knowing' w i t h o u t t h e need t o e x p l a i n to ourselves explanation an  t h e 'how' o f ' k n o w i n g ' , a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s becomes a p p a r e n t .  I n t h i s way, r e a l i t y  o f any  c a n be seen as  a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h o u g h t and deed i n v o l v i n g i n t r i c a t e and  dynamic p r o c e s s e s .  Throughout a l l t h i s complexity,  making sense of 'our'  world  the amazing f e a t o f  i s done e v e r y m i n u t e o f ' o u r '  T h i s , i n p a r t , can be a t t r i b u t e d t o 'our'  lives.  use o f t y p i f i c a t i o n s and  -34-  th e taken-for-grantedness is  the understanding  to  the s o c i a l sciences,  of everyday  of these various and  the  focus  situations. processes  For  that  f o r h i s own  Schutz, i t  i s of  work.  interest  -35CHAPTER I I I  DISCOURSE WITHIN THE CULTURE OF SOCIOLOGY The  preceding  c h a p t e r has d e a l t w i t h some o f t h e concepts o f  the works o f A l f r e d Schutz. problematic  -  The p r e s e n t a t i o n  when one begins t o c o n s i d e r  i n v o l v e d i n the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n  o f concepts becomes  the v a r i o u s  processes  o f a p i e c e o f work, both from the  p o i n t o f view o f t h e o r i g i n a l author and t h a t o f t h e secondary source.  As has been shown i n Chapter I I , t h e p r o d u c t i o n  i n v o l v e s a complicated and  reconstructed.  o f knowledge  and dynamic course o f a c t i o n t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t e d  This takes-place  w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e and  forms p a r t o f t h e c r e a t i v i t y o f knowledge f o r m a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g  i s a c l o s e r look at some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g as a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge. 1)  Writing  as a c r e a t i n g  activity  In t h i s s e c t i o n I propose t o look at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a w r i t e r and h i s / h e r works, and between a r e a d e r and the w r i t e r ' s works. W r i t i n g i s a c r e a t i v e and c r e a t i n g a c t i v i t y ; sense o f a t a l e n t and a s k i l l ,  c r e a t i v e i n the  and c r e a t i n g i n t h e sense t h a t t h e  thoughts produced a r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  by and w i t h i n the  boundaries o f the s o c i a l w o r l d i n which we l i v e .  I t i s dependent  upon many t a c i t and unknowable f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i m p o s s i b l e due  to r e v e a l  to such problems as t h e i n t a n g i b l e sum t o t a l o f h i s / h e r background,  or i n Schutz's terms, t h e s t o c k o f knowledge a t hand, and t o what L o v e j o y r e f e r s t o as t h e dim emergence o f i d e a s  (1960: x i v ) .  These  -36-  features o f i n t e l l e c t u a l production  a r e important  in  the nebulous q u a l i t y o f g r a s p i n g and o u t l i n i n g t h a t Michael Polanyi explores his  book The T a c i t Dimension.  than we can t e l l " explanation. the p r o c e s s  (1967:  t h i s aspect According  4).  understanding production.  o f knowledge f o r m a t i o n i n to P o l a n y i , "we can know more  T h i s phrase addresses the problem o f  F o r i n s t a n c e , a f a c e i n a crowd i s r e c o g n i z a b l e , b u t by which t h i s i s accomplished eludes  explanation.  P o l a n y i d e s c r i b e s t h e a c t o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a f a c e from p o l i c e f i l e s of p i c t u r e s of v a r i o u s p a r t s such as n o s e s , eyes, mouths, e t c . However, as P o l a n y i p o i n t s  out,  But the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e method does n o t change t h e f a c t t h a t p r e v i o u s t o i t we d i d know more than we c o u l d t e l l at t h e time. Moreover...we cannot t e l l how we do t h i s . This v e r y a c t o f communication d i s p l a y s a knowledge t h a t we cannot t e l l . (1967: 5) I n t e l l e c t u a l production  can be seen t o possess these  difficulties.  Communicating knowledge through w r i t i n g i n v o l v e s 'knowing t h a t ' , but i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t  t o o u t l i n e 'how' we 'know'.  o f the " t a c i t dimension" remains i n the i d e a s intellectual  Thus the element  t h a t emerge d u r i n g  production.  There i s a s e t of problems d e a l i n g w i t h  t h e emergence o f i d e a s  t h a t can be d e a l t w i t h by t h e concept o f a m b i g u i t i e s .  Empson d e f i n e s  ambiguity as "any v e r b a l nuance, however s l i g h t , which g i v e s room for  a l t e r n a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o the same p i e c e o f language" (1947:  In d e a l i n g w i t h  1).  the emergence o f thought, I t h i n k i t would be h e l p f u l  -37-  to extend t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o thought p r o c e s s e s as w e l l as v e r b a l statements.  The p r o d u c t i o n o f thoughts i s n e c e s s a r i l y ambiguous.  A n o t i o n i s grasped and developed by t h i n k i n g and r e - t h i n k i n g notion.  that  By the time i t gets p r i n t e d , the n o t i o n has gone through  s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s t h a t are i r r e t r i e v a b l e .  Thus, i d e a s are c r e a t e d ,  and emerge from a v e r y i n t r i c a t e p r o c e s s , which i s dependent on Schutz's concepts o f a w o r l d o f shared meanings, and t y p i f i c a t i o n , to name a few.  intersubjectivity,  F o r i n s t a n c e , thought  and communication c o u l d not take p l a c e i f  we  1  formation  d i d not assume t h a t  t h e r e would be i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g by an 'in-group' audience. The thoughts produced must be communicated by language, are a l s o produced by the language.  T h i s c r e a t e s a f u r t h e r source  o f ambiguity, c l o s e r to the sense which Empson uses. language  and  Ambiguity  in  i s one o f the most o b s t i n a t e dilemmas w i t h which t o d e a l .  The r i c h n e s s o f a language are i n h e r e n t i n i t .  l i e s i n the d i v e r s i t i e s o f meaning t h a t  T h i s poses a problem  r e g a r d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n that t h e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a s p e c t s of meaning a l l o w s f o r the development o f a l t e r n a t i v e , and sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y , d e f i n i t i o n s o f words and p h r a s e s .  Thus, t h e r e i s a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s  t a k i n g p l a c e between a r e a d e r and a w r i t e r ' s works. response t o a work i n v o l v e s the r e a d e r ' s own the meaning he/she imputes In t h i s sense we  A reader's  s t o c k of knowledge, and  to a work cannot be the same as the writer';s.  'use' w r i t t e n works t o f u r t h e r our own  understanding  o f v a r i o u s i d e a s r a t h e r than u n d e r s t a n d i n g a work from the author's p o i n t o f view.  -38-  Th e work done i n Chapter I I r e f l e c t s my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Schutz's work f o r m y s e l f .  attempt  to c r e a t e an  In d o i n g so, I am  trying  to grasp some o f Schutz's i d e a s b o t h through what he says and my  own  sense o f what he s a y s .  through  Thus the concepts t h a t emerge i n my  u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e p r e s e n t an a c t i v e b l e n d i n g o f Schutz's concepts my  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f them. T h i s a s p e c t o f knowledge f o r m a t i o n i s perhaps  the v e r y b a s i c l e v e l o f i n v o l v i n g two p e o p l e : reader.  i n e v i t a b l e even at  the w r i t e r and  A dynamic p r o c e s s i s t a k i n g p l a c e t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e s t o c k s  o f knowledge possessed by the two p e o p l e .  Thus, when I. read Schutz's  works, I am a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n f e e d i n g those i d e a s i n t o my c o g n i t i v e map of my  the  t h a t i n c l u d e s my  previous experience.  own  u n d e r s t a n d i n g based on the sum  total  F o r i n s t a n c e , on page 15 I s t a t e  Schutz suggests t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t c r e a t e s a model o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d through the use o f an imaginary a c t o r - m o d e l , which he terms the puppet o r homunculus....This c r e a t i o n l e a d s t o an outcome t h a t , i n some ways, has been p r e - d e f i n e d by the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t through the f o r m a t i o n of c l o s e l y regulated s i t u a t i o n s . (p. 15) T h i s quote demonstrates  how  I have taken an i d e a o f Schutz  have l i n k e d i t to a c o n c e p t i o n o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t can i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  Other r e a d e r s may  and  arise  not agree w i t h t h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but disagreement would p o i n t out the v e r y  activity  o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e through the i n t e r c h a n g e between a w r i t e r ' s work and the r e a d e r . By p r e s e n t i n g Schutz's n o t i o n s i n t h i s way,  I am  displaying  the  -39-  use  of his ideas.  of perspectives still  overlap  F o r i n s t a n c e , I am assuming t h e r e i s a r e c i p r o c i t y  s i n c e I am t a k i n g i t f o r granted  Schutz's n o t i o n s  as he p r e s e n t e d  t h a t my thoughts  them, and I am a l s o  assuming t h a t the r e a d e r o f my work w i l l e s s e n t i a l l y t h i s work.  understand  Thus I am working w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e a t one  l e v e l of r e a l i t y while  questioning  another l e v e l o f r e a l i t y . throughout t h i s  t h e a c t i v i t y I am engaged i n a t  Thus, Schutz's concepts a r e a t work  process.  T h i s c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t o use and understand a work i n v o l v e s the s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes  o f one's c u l t u r a l system p o s s i b l y more than  what t h e work i t s e l f says.  Our a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t  works i n  c e r t a i n ways i s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f competence and membership i n p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l systems.  T h i s does not mean t h a t u n i f o r m i t y o f  agreement i s o b t a i n e d w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e , but i t does r e f e r t o an i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e boundaries w i t h i n which i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse  can take p l a c e .  A r t i c l e s can be seen as i n s t a n c e s  o f t a c i t and ongoing  3 accomplishments of c u l t u r a l competence  .  I f viewed t h i s way,  c e r t a i n assumptions e n t e r i n t o t h e w r i t i n g o f an a r t i c l e t h a t h e l p to make t h a t a r t i c l e a c c e p t a b l e  t o t h e proposed audience.  I n many  ways t h i s i s a s u b t l e manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t i m p l i e s a common-sense knowledge o f 'how t o p l a y the game'.  For instance,  an a r t i c l e must have t h e appearance o f a p i e c e o f academic w r i t i n g .  -40-  T h i s can  i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as r e f e r e n c e s  to o t h e r academic w r i t i n g s ,  a d e f i n i n g o f the boundaries o f the a r t i c l e , acknowledgement o f h e l p from c o l l e a g u e s ,  and  a c e r t a i n modesty r e g a r d i n g  scope o f the i d e a s p r e s e n t e d .  the l i m i t a t i o n  These s i g n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the w r i t e r  i s an accomplished member o f the s o c i e t y o f academics. these are by no means the o n l y s i g n s o f e x p e r t i s e , but i d e n t i f y the author as someone who and  also  'knows' how  Of  course,  they h e l p  to p r e s e n t  an  'knows' t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n i s an important p a r t  academic work. attitude.  c o n t r i b u t e s to the formation  article, of  development and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process  that  o f a member o f a c u l t u r a l system.  a r t i c l e s become t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d  instances  Thus,  o f both knowledge  member r e c o g n i t i o n . i n t h i s sense, can be  o f what they say and how of n o t i o n s  to  T h i s knowledge works w i t h i n the r e a l m o f the n a t u r a l  I t i s p a r t o f the i m p l i c i t  Articles,  and  they say  analyzed  from the p o i n t o f view  i t . T h i s can r e v e a l the  as w e l l as the p e r p e t u a t i o n  and  diffusion  development of a  c u l t u r a l system. The  f o l l o w i n g i s an e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o some of the ways which  a r t i c l e s produce and  d e a l w i t h knowledge.  are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h a r t i c l e s date from 1937 1960's and  e a r l y 1970's.  A l l o f the a r t i c l e s  the works o f A l f r e d Schutz.  to 1976, As was  selected  These  most of which were w r i t t e n i n the mentioned i n the  the works were chosen through c o n v e n t i o n a l  "Introduction"  research  routes  including  a thorough e x a m i n a t i o n o f the works c i t i n g A l f r e d Schutz as found i n The  S o c i a l Sciences  C i t a t i o n Index.  Some a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t  Schutz's  -41-  work, w h i l e o t h e r s i n c l u d e a c r i t i q u e o f h i s i d e a s . use Schutz  Still  others  as a s p r i n g b o a r d i n t o t h e i r own a r e a s s o f i n t e r e s t .  These  aspects o f a r t i c l e s w i l l be t r a c e d , as w e l l as the ways i n which they d i s p l a y themselves as p r o d u c t s  of i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse.  T h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n s many o f the q u a l i t i e s t h a t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h throughout both  t h i s chapter, f o r instance c r e a t i n g c r e d e n t i a l s ,  the w r i t e r ' s and Schutz's by c i t i n g works read and by l i n k i n g  Schutz w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l l u m i n a r i e s .  The s e l e c t i o n and  p o r t r a y a l o f some S c h u t z i a n n o t i o n s , as was p r e s e n t e d o f t h i s t h e s i s , and as p r e s e n t e d by secondary r e f e r r e d to throughout  this  c h a p t e r , as w i l l  some o f these i d e a s through my u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n Chapter .II  sources w i l l be the work of r e - s t a t i n g o f them.  There w i l l be  a l s o an e x p l o r a t i o n o f how Schutz's works a r e seen to be w i t h i n the framework o f s o c i o l o g y , which a l s o serves to perpetuate d i s c o u r s e through works.  sociological  the c r e a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s t h a t e x p l a i n and use Schutz's  T h i s chapter w i l l e x p l o r e some o f the ways t h a t the d e c i s i o n -  making p r o c e s s  o f the c r e a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s i s c o n c e a l e d .  area s h o u l d be regarded n o t as an abnormal o r d e c e p t i v e  This  practice,  but as p a r t o f t h e normal p r a c t i c e o f o r g a n i z i n g thoughts coherent p r e s e n t a t i o n .  been a n e g l e c t e d a r e a o f s o c i o l o g i c a l  own  into a  T h i s work forms p a r t of the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d  a s p e c t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l communication, and as such,  The  last  scrutiny.  f o l l o w i n g o r d e r o f examination  sense o f what makes sense.  I t h i n k i t has  has been c r e a t e d through  I t r e p r e s e n t s my own thought  ment r e g a r d i n g a s y s t e m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the concepts  under  my  develop-  -42-  investigation.  A l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d , and  review of the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n c r e a t i o n o f the f i n a l 2)  was  an ongoing p r o c e s s i n  a the  decision.  Credentials The  term ' c r e d e n t i a l s ' i s b e i n g used i n two  want to see how,  senses.  First,  I  i f a t a l l , the authors o f a r t i c l e s e x h i b i t a sense  o f t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r w r i t i n g the a r t i c l e i n the f i r s t s e c o n d l y , I want t o see how  the reviewers e s t a b l i s h the  place;  credentials  o f A l f r e d Schutz. a)  Creating  the r e v i e w e r ' s  credentials  In d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r own impression of e x p e r t i s e ,  c r e d e n t i a l s , how  this notion  and  t h a t we  of expertise  they g i v e  o f b e i n g seen as a ' l e g i t i m a t e '  the works o f A l f r e d Schutz? unobtrusively,  do  'know' t h a t  i n our  t h i s i s the case s i n c e we  everyday a c t i v i t y .  One  have a sense o f competency and  of the ways by which t h i s r e p u t a t i o n  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s .  The  had  Helmut Wagner come authority.  i s established  i s through accep-  s i n c e , presumably, they would  they d i s p l a y e d  gross incompetence.  course t h i s i s an assumption t h a t sometimes proves f a l s e , but, nonetheless, reputations  use  For i n s t a n c e , when  a r t i c l e s themselves i n d i c a t e  t a b l e knowledge o f a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t , not have been p u b l i s h e d  of  such as Maurice Natanson,  P e t e r B e r g e r , Thomas Luckmann, Aron G u r w i t s c h , and Thus, we  reviewer  I should mention t h a t t h i s i s done,  s p e a k i n g o f Schutz and h i s f o l l o w e r s , w r i t e r s  to mind.  the  are made through t h i s method.  Of  -43-  One o f t h e h i d d e n f a c t o r s o f t h i s aspect credentials i s the s o c i a l organization of a r t i c l e s .  What a r t i c l e s  these d e c i s i o n s made? journals?  of the creation of  i n v o l v e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n  get a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ?  How a r e  What types o f a r t i c l e s get p u b l i s h e d  I s there d i s c r i m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  academic c r e d e n t i a l s such as p l a c e  i n which  s u b j e c t matter; author;  o f graduation,  present  university  employment; and t h e academic networks t h a t i n v o l v e e d i t o r i a l boards as w e l l as o t h e r u n o f f i c i a l network connections? among o t h e r s ,  focus  These  questions,  on some o f the problems i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g  a r t i c l e s as a means o f e x p l o r i n g f a c e t s o f s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system.  T h i s v e r y problem p o i n t s  enterprise:  to one f a c e t o f t h e academic  p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d , but t h a t c o n t r o l ,  a l t h o u g h 'known', remains t a c i t knowledge t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t to substantiate. Within impression extensive occurred  t h e a r t i c l e s themselves a r e s i g n p o s t s of expertise.  For instance,  l e a d i n g t o the  t h e w r i t e r may r e f e r to the  use t h a t he/she has made o f the author's works.  This  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e e a r l y reviews o f Schutz's work.  example, R i c h a r d  Zaner acknowledges, i n p a r t , the f o l l o w i n g ,  The m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s a r t i c l e has been taken m a i n l y from t h e body o f A l f r e d Schutz's work i n E n g l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y the f o l l o w i n g : "Choosing Among P r o j e c t s o f A c t i o n " , i n P h i l o s o p h y and Phenomenological Research ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as PPR), v o l . 12, no. 2 (December 1951) pp. 161-84; "Common-sense and S c i e n t i f i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Human A c t i o n " , i n PPR, v o l . 14, no. 1 (September 1953) pp. 1-37; ... (Zaner, 1961: 71)  For  -44-  S e v e r a l o t h e r a r t i c l e s are r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s f o o t n o t e , d e n o t i n g a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Schutz's works.  T h i s type o f l i s t i n g became  unnecessary when many o f Schutz's w r i t i n g s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the C o l l e c t e d Papers reviewer was  series.  But t h i s d i d serve to show t h a t  the  w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the s u b j e c t matter, which v i s i b l y  adds t o the i m p r e s s i o n o f e x t e n s i v e knowledge i n the a r e a . T h i s form o f c r e d e n t i a l c r e a t i o n e x h i b i t s some concepts o f A l f r e d Schutz.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n academia  t h a t the w o r l d o f everyday unquestioned  practices.  demonstrates  a c t i v i t i e s o f the e n t e r p r i s e become  In t h i s i n s t a n c e the  taken-for-grantedness  o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r e d e n t i a l s i s a f i r s t - d e g r e e c o n s t r u c t i n t h a t the r e v i e w e r , i n t h i s c a s e , R i c h a r d Zaner becomes not o n l y an a n a l y s t o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , but a l s o an a c t o r w i t h i n the world o f daily l i f e .  In t h i s way,  the a c t i v i t i e s o f academia can be s t u d i e d  as examples o f Schutz's n o t i o n s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s o c i a l reality.  Thus, t h e a c t i v i t y o f l i s t i n g  a r t i c l e s becomes a  demonstration o f t h e concept o f the paramount r e a l i t y at work, and i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f an in-group audience t h i s procedure credential  that w i l l  acknowledge  as a l e g i t i m a t e , and perhaps, n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f  creation.  Another e a r l y method o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a u t h o r i t y was S t o n i e r and Bode: We a r e g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d to Dr. Schutz who read our manuscript most c a r e f u l l y a t one stage and c o r r e c t e d s e v e r a l mistakes o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and emphasis. I t must be  employed by  -45-  s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t our e x p o s i t i o n i s not i n any sense a u t h o r i t a t i v e . In  (1937:  406n)  t h i s i n s t a n c e , the authors are a c c o m p l i s h i n g two  intentions.  F i r s t , they are grounding the source o f t h e i r comments w i t h the o r i g i n a l author.  Secondly, they are i n d i c a t i n g the boundaries o f  their discourse.  In so d o i n g , S t o n i e r and Bode are c r e a t i n g  c r e d e n t i a l s w i t h o u t s e t t i n g themselves  as d e f i n i t i v e  authorities.  This allows f l e x i b i l i t y , yet also provides b e l i e v a b i l i t y account.  for their  T h i s d i s p l a y s a modesty which i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n  academic d i s c i p l i n e and which, of  their  the  a t the same time, a l l o w s a margin  e r r o r t o be c l a i m e d by the r e v i e w e r s . Robert B i e r s t e d t c r e a t e s i n d i r e c t c r e d e n t i a l s by r e f e r r i n g to  secondary w r i t e r s such as H. L. Van Breda and Maurice Natanson: One s h o u l d pay a deserved t r i b u t e , f i r s t o f a l l , to H. L. Van Breda, who o f f e r s a s e n s i t i v e p r e f a c e i n which he w r i t e s a b r i e f biography of t h i s unusual s o c i o l o g i s t . . . . T h e next t r i b u t e belongs to Maurice Natanson, who was Schutz's s t u d e n t a t the New S c h o o l f o r S o c i a l Research. P r o f e s s o r Schutz's w r i t i n g s are n o t - l e t us admit i t - easy t o grasp i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . (1963: 116) T h i s passage  i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  The a r t i c l e i s  mainly a book review, t h u s , acknowledgement o f p r e f a c e and i n t r o d u c t i o n e x h i b i t knowledge o f the book as a whole, r a t h e r than of  j u s t a few c h a p t e r s .  B i e r s t e d t , by r e f e r r i n g to Van Breda  and  Natanson, and commenting on the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work, d i s p l a y s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r knowledge about Schutz. was  an  By s t a t i n g that Natanson  Schutz's s t u d e n t , he i s g i v i n g Natanson c r e d e n t i a l s o f h i s  own,  -46-  which, by a s s o c i a t i o n i f he agrees w i t h Natanson, w i l l  further  v a l i d a t e h i s own a r t i c l e .  B i e r s t e d t ' s l a s t comment i s v e r y  interesting.  t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f Schutz's w r i t i n g s ,  he  By a d m i t t i n g  i s suggesting  difficulties,  two n o t i o n s :  t h a t Natanson has d e a l t w i t h these  and t h a t , s i n c e he has a l s o d e a l t w i t h these  d i f f i c u l t i e s , he i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o sympathize w i t h Natanson, and-,t h e r e f o r e , can know and a p p r e c i a t e  Natanson's " I n t r o d u c t i o n " .  d i s p l a y s Schutz's concept o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y .  This  B i e r s t e d t i s showing  t h a t t h e r e i s a w o r l d o f shared meaning between h i m s e l f and Natanson t h a t he i s r e l y i n g on t o c r e a t e a background o f l e g i t i m a c y f o r h i s remarks. A f u r t h e r way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g  c r e d e n t i a l s i s used by B i e r s t e d t  i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: As h i s f o l l o w e r s know, Schutz was a l i f e - l o n g opponent o f n a t u r a l i s m i n s o c i a l thought... (emphasis mine) (1963: 117) The  phrase "as h i s f o l l o w e r s know" i m p l i e s t h a t there  i s a community  of thought t h a t 'knows' Schutz's works, and that B i e r s t e d t i s p a r t of t h a t community by h i s awareness o f the h i s t o r y w i t h i n of academia.  this  sector  In t h i s way, he demonstrates h i s knowledge and  competence. Maurice Natanson e s t a b l i s h e s h i s c r e d e n t i a l s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways.  I n one a r t i c l e he s t a t e s , I must leave t o o t h e r s , l e s s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h phenomenology than I am, t h e task o f a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f Schutz's work. (emphasis mine) (1966:  155)  -47-  T h i s i n d i c a t e s such a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Schutz's i d e a s has  to acknowledge the p o s s i b l e b i a s o f h i s own  d i s p l a y s an a p p r o p r i a t e  academic h u m i l i t y .  T h i s technique i n f o r m s  b e l i e v e the w r i t e r ' s p o i n t o f view.  a l l u d e s to what Schutz c a l l s  The  writer,  the  that  comment a l s o  the " s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge."  T h i s r e f e r s to the acknowledgement o f a c e r t a i n group o f who  he  e v a l u a t i o n , which  r e a d e r t h a t he/she i s d e a l i n g w i t h a w e l l - a c q u a i n t e d i s i f we  that  scholars  are i i n the know'. In another a r t i c l e , Natanson i n c l u d e s : Author's Note - T h i s a r t i c l e i s based on the A l f r e d Schutz L e c t u r e o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , p r e s e n t e d on November 7, 1969, b e f o r e the Graduate F a c u l t y o f the New School at the New School f o r S o c i a l Research. (1970: In)  Although t h i s speaks f o r i t s e l f , qualities gives  t h a t add  I would l i k e to p o i n t out  to the impact o f t h i s statement.  credence to Natanson as an expert  because the audience was  secondly, i t i s  the Graduate F a c u l t y of the  School f o r S o c i a l Research, which was i n America.  that i t  since i t i s a lecture  devoted p a r t i c u l a r l y to A l f r e d Schutz, and, impressive  One,  two  the home o f Schutz's work  Knowledge of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s l a s t  statement  i s n e c e s s a r y to i n t e r p r e t the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n Natanson p r o v i d e s . i s an  Thus he  i s again  the s i t u a t i o n .  that  s t r e s s i n g the assumption t h a t  'in-group' t h a t w i l l grasp t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n w i t h o u t a  explanation.  New  T h i s demonstrates a ' V e r s t e h e n - l i k e '  full  understanding of  there  -48-  In summary, there  a r e d i v e r s e s t r a t e g i e s that can be used to  evoke and m a i n t a i n t h e necessary i m p r e s s i o n  of credentials.  This i s  an important, b u t s u b t l e image management that enhances the p o s i t i v e r e c e p t i o n o f a r e v i e w e r ' s work. b)  C r e a t i n g Schutz's c r e d e n t i a l s The  second type o f c r e d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n  involves  the w r i t e r  o f t h e a r t i c l e p r o v i d i n g c r e d e n t i a l s f o r t h e author w i t h which he/ she  i s dealing.  Although t h i s seems t o be done l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , I  would l i k e t o note a few examples t h a t i n d i c a t e some o f the ways by which t h i s i s accomplished. In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s a r t i c l e , Aron Gurwitsch s t a t e s , In these pages I propose to concentrate on a c e r t a i n group o f problems t h a t not o n l y were o f primary importance i n A l f r e d Schutz's t h i n k i n g but a l s o h o l d a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought, e s p e c i a l l y i n the work o f Edmund H u s s e r l and l a t e r authors who b e l o n g t o what may be c a l l e d the phenomenological movement i n the broad sense of the term....In p o i n t i n g out the o r i g i n a l i t y o f Schutz's c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s area o f thought I hope a l s o to i n d i c a t e , though perhaps i n a r a t h e r sketchy way, h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought. (1962: 50) This rather extensive  quote i s important f o r d i s p l a y i n g s e v e r a l c  characteristics of credential creation. Husserl  By l i n k i n g Schutz w i t h  and t h e phenomenological movement, Gurwitsch i s i n d i c a t i n g  where, i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u , Schutz s h o u l d be seen. H u s s e r l , whose r e p u t a t i o n i s assumed, Schutz i s p l a c e d i n f l u e n t i a l group o f p h i l o s o p h e r s .  This also points  Through  among the  to Schutz's  -49-  intellectual  h i s t o r y , which c r e a t e s and adds to the importance  Schutz's w r i t i n g s as w e l l as a r t i c l e s about Schutz's i d e a s . is  t r u e e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y 1960's when Schutz was  known.  of  This  not w e l l  Gurwitsch i s a l s o e x e m p l i f y i n g Schutz's concept o f  r e l e v a n c e i n c h o o s i n g t o p l a c e Schutz w i t h i n the movement.  phenomenological  For Gurwitsch t h i s . i s the important p e r s p e c t i v e i n which t o  p r e s e n t Schutz's w r i t i n g s , which a l s o p o i n t s to the  'in-group' t o  which Gurwitsch b e l o n g s . Gurwitsch a l s o a l l u d e s to Schutz's o r i g i n a l i t y  and h i s p l a c e  i n c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y i n the l a s t p a r t o f t h i s passage. Schutz as an important contemporary  f i g u r e who  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f phenomenological reiterating  p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought.  This establishes  i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to  p h i l o s o p h y , as opposed t o merely  Thus, Schutz's c r e d e n t i a l s are  extended beyond h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t a l o n e ;  they become the  f o u n d a t i o n f o r an i n t e n s i v e and dynamic examination o f h i s c o n c e p t s . Maurice Natanson a l s o c o n s t r u c t s c r e d e n t i a l s f o r Schutz i n h i s beginning  remarks: I t has taken American p h i l o s o p h e r s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s to c a t c h up w i t h the e a r l y work of A l f r e d S c h u t z . . . . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e German e d i t i o n ( o f The Phenomenology o f the S o c i a l World) was c l o s e l y s t u d i e d by some o f the a b l e s t minds o f the ' t h i r t i e s and ' f o r t i e s who were concerned w i t h problems o f the p h i l o s o p h y and methodology o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . References to Schutz's book appear i n the w r i t i n g s of such t h i n k e r s as J o s e Ortega y Gasset, Ludwig von M i s e s , Raymond Aron, and F e l i x Kaufmann. (emphasis mine) (1968: 217)  T h i s quote r e v e a l s two main n o t i o n s :  t h a t Schutz has been  -50-  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c t i v e f o r more than t h r e e decades, and has made a s i g n i f i c a n t been i g n o r e d , through community.  t h a t he  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o German s c h o l a r s h i p , which u n a v a i l a b i l i t y , by the American  has  intellectual  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c u l a t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  these remarks f o r American s c h o l a r s , but t h e r e i s a q u a l i t y to the comments.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Schutz's  reprimand  credentials  are  documented by t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and a world o f meaning i s b e i n g c r e a t e d by t h i s a c t i v i t y .  The i n t e l l e c t u a l community t h a t i s  b e i n g evoked i s evidence o f Schutz's  i d e a s on the s o c i a l  distribution  o f knowledge, both by r e f e r r i n g to the German s c h o l a r s and extending t h i s 3)  community t o American academics.  I n c o r p o r a t i n g Schutz One  by  into Sociology  o f t h e methods f o r c r e a t i n g c r e d e n t i a l s f o r Schutz i s done  by g i v i n g him a l i n k w i t h  the s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e .  w r i t e r s evoke s o c i o l o g i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r s such as Max George H e r b e r t Mead.  T h i s accomplishes  Schutz w i t h a background conducive  two  Many  secondary  Weber and  actions:  i t provides  t o e s t a b l i s h i n g him as a r i g h t f u l  f i g u r e w i t h i n s o c i o l o g y , and i t d i s p l a y s the a p p r o p r i a t e h i s t o r i c a l knowledge of the r e v i e w e r .  Thus, the c u l t u r a l competence of the  reviewer i s demonstrated by both the knowledge of the h i s t o r y of s o c i o l o g y and t h e knowledge t h a t t h i s i s an important v i s i b l y demonstrate w i t h i n t h e parameters of an T h i s aspect o f c r e d e n t i a l c r e a t i o n was e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s on Schutz.  aspect t o  article.  most e v i d e n t i n the  For example, S t o n i e r and Bode, who  wrote  -51-  in  1937,  develop the l i n k between Schutz and Weber as a fundamental  grounding o f t h e i r  article:  Dr. Schutz takes as h i s s t a r t i n g - p o i n t the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s o f Max Weber and he t r i e s to develop f u r t h e r the system of a n a l y s i s l a i d down by t h e l a t t e r more than a decade ago. (emphasis mine) (1937: 406) T h i s statement i n d i c a t e s two d e v e l o p i n g themes: his  t h a t Schutz based  w r i t i n g s on Weber, i n p a r t , and t h a t he went beyond Weber's  position. S t o n i e r and Bode emphasize  t h i s point  further i n their  discussion: But i n c o n t r a s t t o Weber Dr. Schutz poses e x p l i c i t l y the problem how f a r i t i s p o s s i b l e , i n s c i e n t i f i c enquiry or i n o r d i n a r y s o c i a l l i f e , to i n t e r p r e t a d e q u a t e l y the s u b j e c t i v e meaning o f other people's a c t i o n s . (emphasis mine) (1937: 407) and, T h i s i s t h e f i r s t attempt t o a n a l y s e Weber's b a s i c problems i n terms o f H u s s e r l ' s t h e o r y o f time.... The book (Schutz's) b e g i n s w i t h a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Weber's fundamental concepts i n W i r t s c h a f t und G e s e l l s c h a f t . (emphasis mine) (1937: 407) These quotes i n d i c a t e t h a t Schutz uses Weber's work, but does not merely promote t h i s work, as suggested i n the?phrase " i n c o n t r a s t to Weber".  The r e v i e w e r s a l s o imply t h a t Schutz goes beyond Weber  by s t a t i n g t h a t he "poses e x p l i c i t l y  the problem. ..".  This  indicates  t h a t Schutz i s making a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e providing a " c r i t i c a l  a n a l y s i s " o f Weber's work and by u s i n g  that  by  -52-  a n a l y s i s as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r h i s own S t o n i e r and  Bode are s u p p l y i n g  ideas.  In t h i s  Schutz w i t h a h i s t o r y w i t h i n  d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y , d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r own by showing t h e i r a b i l i t y to do  t h i s , and  c r e a t i n g a framework w i t h i n  At the same time, they are making use  of t y p i f i c a t i o n .  By  o f Schutz's Husserl  notion they  concepts o f the  T h i s c r e a t e s a n e c e s s a r y atmosphere f o r  development o f a sub-paradigm w i t h i n sociological  the works o f  l i n k i n g Schutz w i t h Weber and  drawing the reader's a t t e n t i o n to o v e r l a p p i n g w r i t e r s ' works.  the  c u l t u r a l competence  which the r e a d e r i s to r e c e i v e t h e i r a r t i c l e and Schutz.  way,  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  are  three  the  and  enterprise.  By mentioning p h i l o s o p h e r s  and  sociologists,  are d e m o n s t r a t i n g Schutz's i d e a o f m u l t i p l e works can be  seen as p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  perspectives  one  chooses.  I w i s h to s t r e s s two i n the c o n c e p t i o n  By n o t i n g  points:  o f the two  S t o n i e r and  realities.  sociological,  the two  distinct  Schutz's  depending on  the  disciplines,  t h a t there are s i m i l a r i t i e s and e n t e r p r i s e s , and  Bode  t h a t the n o t i o n  differences of  m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s i s at work i n our everyday i n t e l l e c t u a l l i v e s , as are o t h e r concepts of Schutz such as t y p i f i c a t i o n ,  intersubjectivity,  and paramount r e a l i t y . The  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f Schutz i n t o s o c i o l o g y  continued  Perhaps t h i s need began to d i m i n i s h i n the 1970's s i n c e  i n the 1960's.  fewer  references  to s o c i o l o g i c a l h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s were found i n these  articles.  One  could speculate  t h a t t h i s was  due  to the  increasing  f a m i l i a r i t y o f Schutz's works i n the 1970's, thus the n e c e s s i t y  of  -53-  r e f e r r i n g to h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s was  reduced.  The main r e v i e w e r s mentioning Schutz's s o c i o l o g i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r s were Robert B i e r s t e d t , R i c h a r d Zaner, Maurice Natanson, Gurwitsch.  and  Aron  For example, B i e r s t e d t n o t e s , Now Schutz, o f c o u r s e , d i d not s t a n d alone i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c t i o n over perception. F l o r i a n Z n a n i e c k i and T a l c o t t Parsons t o o , to say n o t h i n g o f Max Weber, p l a c e d t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l theory f i r m l y i n the c o n t e x t o f a c t i o n and r e s i s t e d the e f f o r t s o f the b e h a v i o r i s t s to exclude the s u b j e c t i v e ... (emphasis mine) (1963: 117)  T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t demonstration o f p l a c i n g Schutz w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l arena o f the ' c e l e b r i t i e s ' o f s o c i o l o g y .  By  including  the phrase "of c o u r s e " , B i e r s t e d t i s g i v i n g Schutz a grounding i n the h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l thought. lie  Thus, Schutz's uniqueness  does not  i n the t o p i c i t s e l f , but c o n t r i b u t e s to t h a t d i s c u s s i o n o f the  subject.  T h i s passage a l s o i n d i c a t e s the everyday use o f  Schutz's concepts o f p r e d e c e s s o r s , contemporaries and the s o c i a l o r i g i n o f knowledge. grounded  The knowledge t h a t Schutz i s d e v e l o p i n g was  i n the works o f p r e v i o u s and c b - e x i s t i n g s c h o l a r s such as  Weber, Parsons and  Znaniecki.  R i c h a r d Zaner i n c l u d e s i n h i s a r t i c l e a d i s c u s s i o n o f G. H. Mead's concepts of meanings and g e s t u r e s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , he p r o v i d e s Schutz w i t h a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Schutz goes beyond t h i s p o i n t w i t h the concept o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y : To be s u r e , Mead's p r i n c i p a l p o i n t i s w e l l taken: meanings and even new s e t s o f o b j e c t s o f common sense a r i s e i n and because o f the  -54-  social.-process., and e s p e c i a l l y the c o n v e r s a t i o n of gestures. What i s at i s s u e , however, i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f the s o c i a l p r o c e s s . Mead's response t h a t i t i s communication...presupposes a more fundamental phenomenon: i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y . (1961: 77-78) Zaner goes on to d i s c u s s t h i s way,  Schutz's concept o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y .  Zaner i s p r o d u c i n g the c o n t i n u i t y o f thought w i t h i n  s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e , which, i n t u r n , g i v e s and  a l i n k to s o c i o l o g y .  academic c r e d e n t i a l s Schutz's n o t i o n s  The  Thus, Zaner i s doing the work of p r o d u c i n g  f o r Schutz, and  of  c o n t r i b u t i n g as an example o f the  reality.  sense o f h i s t o r y as b e i n g an important element i n the  o f i n t e l l e c t u a l thought i s a l l u d e d As  the  Schutz a background  o f the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge and  s o c i a l construction  In  to by  Gurwitsch and  growth  Natanson.  Gurwitsch n o t e s : S i n c e about the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , the problems r e l a t e d to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f the s o c i a l o r humane s c i e n c e s both t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e from the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and t h e i r p r o p e r n a t u r e - have been much d i s c u s s e d by t h i n k e r s l i k e Windelband, R i c k e r t , Max Weber, Simmel, and D i l t h e y . (1962: 71)  T h i s passage i s i n response to Schutz's d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g tasks  and work o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  i n t e l l e c t u a l thought t h a t g i v e s intellectual  the  I t p r o v i d e s a framework of  Schutz's work grounding w i t h i n  the  discourse.  Natanson a l s o a l l u d e s to t h i s aspect of Schutz's  ideas:  -55-  In i t s h i s t o r i c a l f o c u s , The Phenomenology o f t h e S o c i a l World i s an attempt to v i n d i c a t e and deepen Max Weber's theory o f s o c i a l a c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g f o r i t a p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding which d e r i v e s from some o f the c e n t r a l i d e a s of Edmund H u s s e r l and H e n r i Bergson. (emphasis mine) (1968: 219) Schutz's  "attempt t o v i n d i c a t e and deepen" Weber's thought by  i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i d e a s o f H u s s e r l and Bergson p r o v i d e s the i m p r e s s i o n o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l breadth t i o n by Natanson.  this  indica-  Thus, Natanson p r o v i d e s t h e l i n k s l o r Schutz,  between s o c i o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y . Schutz's  and depth through  This integration  complements  c r e d e n t i a l s as a s c h o l a r i n t h e academic community, and,  a g a i n , demonstrates Schutz's  c o n c e p t i o n o f m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s by  i n c l u d i n g members o f t h e two d i s c i p l i n e s . These examples i n d i c a t e t h e methods used by reviewers an i n t e l l e c t u a l p a s t f o r Schutz by evoking  to create  the w e l l known and r e s p e c t e d  f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s of s o c i o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y . demonstrates t h e importance o f d i s p l a y i n g c r e d e n t i a l s both reviewer and f o r Schutz.  I t c r e a t e s a sense o f b e l o n g i n g  d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y , and p r o v i d e s an important  This f o r the  to the  and necessary  aspect o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e . Thus, c r e d e n t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t membership w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l system. c o n s t r u c t e d by the v e r y presence  i s an important  part of exhibiting  R e p u t a t i o n and e x p e r t i s e a r e  of this practice.  T h i s i s one method  used t o d i s p l a y c u l t u r a l competence i n t h a t i t r e v e a l s a working knowledge o f one o f t h e r u l e s o f t h e game:  presenting credentials.  -56-  4)  Doing I n t e r p r e t i v e work T h i s s e c t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to o r g a n i z e s i n c e x i t  d e a l s w i t h many  connected i s s u e s such as i n t e r p r e t i n g Schutz's w r i t i n g s , making Schutz's n o t i o n s c l e a r e r , d e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n problems, i n some ways, making Schutz make sense i n g e n e r a l . i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , and i n some senses, o v e r l a p p i n g ; synonymous w i t h each o t h e r .  and,  These i d e a s are  y e t they are not  Each d e a l s w i t h s l i g h t l y  different  d i f f i c u l t i e s , but i t must be kept i n mind t h a t t h i s scheme o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s has been developed  through my  thinking  and  r e - t h i n k i n g about the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system as shown through a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the works o f S c h u t z . Having s t a t e d some o f my now  organizational d i f f i c u l t i e s , I w i l l  proceed to p r e s e n t a, h o p e f u l l y , coherent account o f some o f  the ways i n which i n t e r p r e t i v e work i s r e v e a l e d .  The  organization  of t h i s s e c t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s Schutz's i d e a o f 'our' w o r l d b e i n g socially  constructed.  My making sense o f these i d e a s i n v o l v e s my  of knowledge a t hand i n the " v i v i d p r e s e n t " to use Schutz's  stock  term.  T h i s i n v o l v e s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t i s done w i t h i n the "here and now"  o f my  experience.  Thus, the p r o c e s s becomes a "common-sense  c o n s t r u c t " o f the w o r l d of academia. how  demonstrate  Schutz's concepts a r e c o n s t a n t l y employed i n our everyday  both i n the " n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " and/or a)  These l a s t sentences  Interpreting One  life,  " d i s i n t e r e s t e d observer" a t t i t u d e .  Schutz  o f the reasons f o r c r e a t i n g c r e d e n t i a l s i s to v a l i d a t e  the  -57-  i d e a s and  comments t h a t w i l l  form the major p a r t o f an  article.  T h i s i n c l u d e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of some o f the i d e a s of the t h a t the reviewer i s d i s c u s s i n g .  Although  author  t h i s happens g e n e r a l l y ,  I w i l l be r e s t r i c t i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Schutz's works and of h i s reviewers.  The p r e s e n t a t i o n of S c h u t z i a n n o t i o n s  presents d i f f i c u l t i e s . paraphrasing  those o f Schutz? Chapter  immediately  Does a w r i t e r use e x t e n s i v e quotes?  s u f f i c i e n t l y s e parate T h i s i s one  I I of t h i s t h e s i s .  the thoughts  difficulty  those  Does  of the reviewer  t h a t was  from  evident i n  F o r i n s t a n c e , on page 18, I s t a t e :  As a common-sense c o n s t r u c t , i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y i s a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d phenomenon. We 'know' there are o t h e r human b e i n g s ; we i n t e r a c t w i t h them every day o f our l i v e s . T h i s quote i s based on S c h u t z i a n i d e a s , but how i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Schutz,  and how  much of i t i s an  much of i t i s Schutz's work?  This  problem becomes more p r e s s i n g when the work i n q u e s t i o n does not r e l y as h e a v i l y on Schutz's  terminology.  For example S t o n i e r and  Bode note, The c h i e f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem w i t h which t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are faced i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f adequate i d e a l types. In o r d e r to be adequate, i d e a l types must f u l f i l l two c o n d i t i o n s . On the one hand they must s a t i s f y the r u l e s o f f o r m a l l o g i c . I n o t h e r words no i d e a l type o r system o f i d e a l types may c o n t a i n i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and when the nature o f the problem demands t h a t the i d e a l type used s h a l l be changed o r e n l a r g e d , t h i s must be made q u i t e e x p l i c i t . (1937: 421-422) Ambiguities  are c r e a t e d i n t h i s passage.  o f t h e o r i g i n of t h i s comment.  There i s no  Is t h i s mainly  indication  a Schutzian  concept  -58-  o r a comment o f S t o n i e r and Bode?  I f i t i s p a r a p h r a s i n g Schutz,  then i n t e r p r e t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e , s i n c e the meaning, o f n e c e s s i t y , i s altered.  T h i s produces  difficulty  f o r the reader o f the  article,  s i n c e he/she has t o d e c i d e whether i t i s Schutz's o r S t o n i e r ' s Bode's work to which they are responding.  and  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e becomes  more v i t a l i n cases such as the f o l l o w i n g : I f the a c t o r a c t s i n terms o f meanings, o f h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n , these meanings are never, as f a r as t h e . s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s concerned, d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e . Yet the s c i e n t i s t must r e f e r t o these meanings i n o r d e r to account f o r the a c t i o n s which he o b s e r v e s . The s c i e n t i s t observes t h i n g s , a c t i o n s , events to which he a s s i g n s o b j e c t i v e meanings. (Hindess, 1972: 16) In t h i s passage, Hindess seems to be r e f e r r i n g to Schutz's but i t remains may  concept,  u n c l e a r as to whether o r not t h i s i s the case.  It  be r e a d as Hindess's Schutz, but t h i s a l s o c o m p l i c a t e s the  issue.  T h i s i s not an unusual a s p e c t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l work, but i t  does add to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e a l i n g : w i t h secondary  sources.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n becomes a c o n v o l u t e d e n t e r p r i s e o f meaning c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g a guessing-game o f who  s a i d what.  Thus, ambiguity i s an  i m p o r t a n t , and, perhaps, i n e v i t a b l e f e a t u r e o f secondary articles.  source  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y b r i n g s i n t o focus Schutz's concept o f  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning.  'We'  make sense o f the works  b e i n g r e a d by p l a c i n g them w i t h i n 'our' own  framework o f knowledge.  Thus, the meanings t h a t  'we', d e r i v e are 'our' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  works r a t h e r than some ' o b j e c t i v e ' s t a t e o f knowledge. sense  'we'  are t r u l y c o n s t r u c t i n g our world o f meaning.  In t h i s  -59-  b)  R e - S t a t i n g Schutz A n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g knowledge throughout  a  c u l t u r a l system such as s o c i o l o g y , i s h a v i n g w r i t e r s e x p l a i n notions.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e technique i s based  d i r e c t l y on  Schutz's  Schutz's  work by such i n t r o d u c t o r y phrases as " a c c o r d i n g t o Schutz", "Dr. to  Schutz i s concerned w i t h " , " i n Schutz's view", e t c .  c o n c e a l any i n t e r p r e t i n g that might be t a k i n g p l a c e .  T h i s tends F o r example,  As regards t h e p r e s e n t problem, •Schutz b e l i e v e s t h a t a p p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e s the c l u e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g how the Other i s f i r s t c o n s t i t u t e d as such i n my e x p e r i e n c e . (emphasis mine) (Zaner, 1961: 79) and, A c c o r d i n g to Schutz, the pragmatic motive dominates our d a i l y l i f e i n the common-sense world. Hence, as l o n g as the r e c i p e s permit us to o b t a i n d e s i r e d t y p i c a l r e s u l t s , they are u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y a p p l i e d and complied w i t h ; they are not put i n t o q u e s t i o n o r doubt u n l e s s the r e s u l t s f a i l to m a t e r i a l i z e . (emphasis mine) (Gurwitsch, 1962: 57) T h i s method o f d e a l i n g w i t h Schutz's n o t i o n s performs functions:  i t d i s p l a y s the author's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Schutz;  e s t a b l i s h e s a d i r e c t l i n k to Schutz by mentioning him; p r o v i d e s the reader w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f Schutz's are important a s p e c t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e . concepts  t h r e e main it  and i t  idea.  These  They enable  to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c u l t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y by  p r o v i d i n g a p l a c e f o r t h e examination  o f the concepts  the v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s o f the r e v i e w e r s i n v o l v e d . Schutz i n t h e i r own  language,  By  through re-stating  they are p r o v i d i n g d i f f e r e n t  angles  -60-  of approach to Schutz's work.  The r e a d e r must d e c i d e how to  i n c o r p o r a t e t h e a r t i c l e ' s d i s c u s s i o n i n t o t h e i r own c o g n i t i v e map of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d , and i n t o t h e i r own u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Schutz's work, which i s p r o b l e m a t i c , b u t i t a l s o g i v e s t h e r e a d e r a chance to e x p l o r e v a r i o u s nuances o f Schutz's work.  In t h i s way,  a dynamic e x p l o r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a s can o c c u r .  This, a g a i n ,  demonstrates Schutz's n o t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning, which does n o t imply an i s o l a t i o n o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  On  the c o n t r a r y , t h e v e r y e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n i s p a r t l y performed t o c r e a t e a w o r l d o f shared meaning.  T h i s concept i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y  to t h a t o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  In t h e i r own way, both are  a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e an 'in-group' where the u n d e r s t a n d i n g is c)  of ideas  shared. Reviewer as E x p e r t An important  aspect o f a r t i c l e s i s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e  reviewer as an e x p e r t i n t h e a r e a o f h i s / h e r d i s c u s s i o n .  This i s  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e maintenance, and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f an a c t i v e system. is  cultural  Without t h e appearance o f e x p e r t i s e , t h e sense o f membership  diminished. There a r e many ways to c r e a t e the appearance o f e x p e r t i s e .  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , c r e a t i n g c r e d e n t i a l s i s one method. i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e m u l t i p l e areas o f i n t e r p r e t i v e work. i n s t a n c e , i n t h e above quotes, by r e - s t a t i n g Schutz  As  Another For  the.writers are  c r e a t i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t they know Schutz's work w e l l enough to  -6 in-  adequately paraphrase h i s i d e a s , which i m p l i c i t l y interpretation.  includes  The f o l l o w i n g quote d i s p l a y s t h i s  However, fundamental  feature:  t o Schutz's view i s the  f a c t t h a t whereas the w o r l d o f o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n s can be a product o n l y o f e x p e r i e n c e s - a s - p a s t , the u n i v e r s a l b a s i s f o r t h i s w o r l d i s the f a c t o f our e x p e r i e n c e i n the mode o f the duree: this o c c u r s every time we have an e x p e r i e n c e which Schutz c a l l s a " w e - r e l a t i o n s h i p " . (Bregman, 1973: T h i s seems a f a i r l y i d e a s , but i t t a l s o  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d statement  r e g a r d i n g Schutz's  t i e s these i d e a s t o g e t h e r i n a way  that  from Schutz, even at the b a s i c l e v e l o f c r e a t i n g a Bregman as opposed to a Schutz sentence.  197)  Bregman i s d i s p l a y i n g h e r  differs sentence cultural  competence by b e i n g a b l e to p u l l Schutz's i d e a s t o g e t h e r i n t o a form t h a t makes sense to the r e a d e r ;  a t l e a s t to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e a d e r .  As w e l l as d i s p l a y i n g h e r competence, a r t i c l e s such as t h i s a l l o w s the r e a d e r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Schutz's work, i n t h e sense t h a t i f I t h i n k I understand what i s b e i n g s a i d by the r e v i e w e r , then perhaps notion.  I understand  Schutz's  Of c o u r s e , I , t o o , am d o i n g i n t e r p r e t i v e work when I read  the a r t i c l e , which adds another degree o f d i f f i c u l t y  to the p r o c e s s ,  but i f a sense o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c r e a t e d , then one aspect o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e i s accomplished, namely the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f sense-making, which demonstrates  intersubjective  the c r e a t i o n o f a  " s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge" i n Schutz's term, and adds to the development o f a sub-paradigm  w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e .  An i n t e r p r e t i v e f e a t u r e o f e x p e r t i s e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the  -62-  n o t i o n o f the w r i t e r d e f i n i n g what Schutz  ' r e a l l y meant'.  of s t y l e s i s used t o p r e s e n t t h i s i m p r e s s i o n .  A variety  For i n s t a n c e , i n the  f o l l o w i n g quote, an a i r o f knowledge and a u t h o r i t y i s c r e a t e d such phrases as " i t must be s t r e s s e d " , and " s t r i c t l y  through  concerned":  I t must be s t r e s s e d , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t Schutz's a n a l y s i s o f t h e "meaning s t r u c t u r e s " o f human e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i o n i s t h e immanent d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u b j e c t i v i t y p r i o r to the s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r (the t h e o r e t i c a l a t t i t u d e ) . H i s d i s c u s s i o n here i s s t r i c t l y concerned w i t h the a c t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f how he (the s u b j e c t ) h i m s e l f makes h i s l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s thematic or m e a n i n g f u l . (emphasis mine) (Okuda, 1976: 175) T h i s type o f statement p r e s e n t s Okuda as an a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f S c h u t z i a n thought;  as someone who  understands  the essence  of-his  s u b j e c t matter, by h i s c h o i c e o f ' r e l e v a n t ' i s s u e s and h i s " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning", to use Schutz's term.  T h i s i s important  i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e such as s o c i o l o g y , s i n c e the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f knowledge i s a major p a r t o f the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s and o t h e r s .  discipline,  Knowledge i n t h i s sense i s not synonymous w i t h  but r a t h e r w i t h ' o p i n i o n ' .  By making emphatic  the i n f e r e n c e o f ' t r u t h ' i s accomplished.  'truth',  statements, though,  For i n s t a n c e ,  Whatever i t i s t h a t Schutz found , i t s f o u n d a t i o n s are not phenomenological. Furthermore, as the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l show, these f o u n d a t i o n s , and the b a s i c p r o j e c t they i n v o l v e , are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h H u s s e r l ' s phenomenology. Thus, when Schutz c a l l s upon H u s s e r l t o do h i s t u r n , i t i s o n l y t h e l a t t e r ' s words t h a t a r e brought i n t o p l a y . H u s s e r l ' s concepts cannot e n t e r the space t h a t Schutz p r o v i d e s f o r them, (emphasis mine) (Hindess, 1972: 8) T h i s quote demonstrates  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an o p i n i o n as  'fact'.  -63-  By s t a t i n g t h a t the " f o u n d a t i o n s are not phenomenological" and incompatible impression  w i t h H u s s e r l i s phenomenology", Hindess i s c r e a t i n g  of an u n c o n t e s t a b l e t r u t h .  i n t e g r a l part of impression i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse. but  the  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t a c t i c i s an  maintenance w i t h i n the c u l t u r e of  Such statements are seldom f u l l y  accepted,  i t i s important t h a t a w r i t e r d i s p l a y s t h i s type o f firmness  h i s / h e r work. and  "are  The  in  c u l t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y i n v o l v e s making statements  t a k i n g stands on i s s u e s , and  the above passage demonstrates  this  ability. The  c r e a t i o n and management o f e x p e r t i s e can be  accomplished  by p r e f a c i n g remarks w i t h q u a l i f i e r s such as " I t h i n k " , " I submit", "I b e l i e v e " , etc.  T h i s has  the d u a l advantage o f s e p a r a t i n g  subsequent statements from the works o f Schutz,. and  the  i n d i c a t i n g to  the r e a d e r t h a t the w r i t e r i s w e l l enough a c q u a i n t e d w i t h Schutz's ideas  t h a t he/she can  discussion.  c o n t r i b u t e h i s / h e r own  thoughts to  the  T h i s tends to e l e v a t e the w r i t e r from a mere r e v i e w e r  to the p o s i t i o n o f a c o n t r i b u t o r , which d i s p l a y s c u l t u r a l  competence  and  example,  promotes the a c t i v i t y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e .  For  I n my view, t h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t to s a y i n g that these elements are fundamental o r constitutive properties of subjective e x p e r i e n c e s ... (emphasis mine) (Psathas, 1975: 511) and, With h i s concept o f " s t o c k of knowledge at hand" Schutz, I submit, made an important c o n t r i b u t i o n toward f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t i n g our s p e c i f i c f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the world o f d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e ...(emphasis mine) (Gurwitsch, 1962:  58)  -64-  These work.  two quotes demonstrate  the w r i t e r s ' p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g Schutz's  In the f i r s t quote, Psathas i s i n t e r p r e t i n g Schutz by  Schutz's n o t i o n . i n t o h i s own  fitting  cognitive s t y l e , while simultaneously  a g r e e i n g w i t h Schutz's p o s i t i o n .  Thus, he i s making Schutz make  sense i n ways t h a t were n o t c a p t u r e d by Schutz's o r i g i n a l  statement.  In the second quote, G u r w i t s c h i s making a c l e a r statement o f support f o r Schutz.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s b o t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l  t h a t Gurwitsch sees Schutz as b e l o n g i n g t o , and h i s own and membership i n t h a t paradigm, can i d e n t i f y this  thereby c r e a t i n g an  paradigm  support o f  'in-group' t h a t  w i t h a c e r t a i n framework o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n .  Within  framework an assumption o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e meaning can "take  p l a c e t h a t a i d s i n the development  o f the 'in-group' sense.  Q u a l i f y i n g remarks can be used t o m a i n t a i n the i m p r e s s i o n o f rational  c r i t i c i s m t h a t i s expected w i t h i n the bounds o f  intellectual  discourse, for instance, There i s , I f e l t , some deadness i n the e x p e r i e n c e o f r e a d i n g these passages r_Schutz's passages chosen by WagnerJ. I d i d n o t f e e l c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a l i v i n g ' and changing thought, but r a t h e r t h a t I was b e i n g shown around a somewhat l i f e l e s s museum. (Birksted, 1976: 407) T h i s quote r e v e a l s a method o f p r e s e n t i n g a p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n w i t h i n the  c o n f i n e s o f a book review.  Although much o f the review  was  f a v o u r a b l e , B i r k s t e d d i d i n c l u d e c r i t i c i s m , but u s u a l l y i t was p r e s e n t e d i n the above manner, which  qualified  the remarks.  This i s  an example o f Schutz's concept o f " m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s " at work i n the "mundane sphere" o f everyday r e a l i t y .  Criticism  w i t h i n a favourable  review does not r e p r e s e n t various perspectives a review.  i n c o n s i s t e n c y , b u t -rather d i s p l a y s t h e  t h a t can be d e a l t w i t h  simultaneously  within  More o f t h i s form o f p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be seen i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on debate as a p a r t i c u l a r d e v i c e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse. 5)  Debate Debate w i t h i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y c r e a t e s a fundamental  method o f e n c o u r a g i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f opposing views, which perpetuates i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse. i d e a s w i t h i n an a c c e p t a b l e  format:  I t allows  a dynamic exchange o f  articles i n journals.  not every a r t i c l e ensures debate, but when t h i s occurs p r e s e n t a t i o n a l techniques  a r e used to i n f o r m  readers  Of course  certain  as t o t h e i r  p o s i t i o n i n t h e debate, t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and e x p e r t i s e , and t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y governing t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r  statement.  In t h i s sense, t h e debate format p e r p e t u a t e s i n t e l l e c t u a l and  creates  aspect is  t e n s i o n w i t h i n and between paradigms.  discourse,  This i s a necessary  of the culture of sociology, since part of i t s raison  the d i s c u s s i o n and argument o f i d e a s .  d'etre  I n t h i s sense debate i s an  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f Schutz's n o t i o n o f " r e l e v a n c e  and meaning".  I t appears t h a t w i t h i n t h e debate format there a r e c e r t a i n ' r u l e s o f t h e game' which a i d i n t h e d i s p l a y o f c u l t u r a l competence. The  f o l l o w i n g i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e ' r u l e s ' among which a r e p r a i s e  f o r t h e author b e i n g  reviewed, c r i t i c i s m o f t h e works i n v o l v e d , and,  sometimes, a p a r t i c u l a r format o u t l i n i n g the p o i n t s under d i s c u s s i o n .  -66-  This creates  the impression  'academic s c r u t i n y ' .  of ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' , ' r a t i o n a l i t y ' ,  Whether o r not  and  t h i s i s a c t u a l l y accomplished  depends, i n l a r g e p a r t , on one's p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view, or paradigm. a)  Praise & Criticism There are at l e a s t two  Schutz i s used.  One,  d i s t i n c t ways i n which p r a i s e f o r  when the a r t i c l e i s g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e towards  Schutz, the o t h e r , when the o v e r a l l tenor of the a r t i c l e i s c r i t i c a l . The  i n t e n t i o n o f each i s d i f f e r e n t .  In the f i r s t  c a s e , the  comments  are p r o v i d i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e framework i n which the i d e a s o f Schutz are  to be  seen, f o r  instance,  With h i s n o t i o n o f " s t o c k of knowledge at hand", h i s theory o f the s o c i a l o r i g i n o f t h a t knowledge and h i s " g e n e r a l t h e s i s of the r e c i p r o c i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s " Schutz makes a most important c o n t r i b u t i o n toward the phenomenon o f intersubjectivity. (emphasis mine) (Gurwitsch, '1962: 63) and, The c a r e e r o f Schutz was a u n i t y devoted to an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the t r u e p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounds o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n the i n t e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s . W i t h i n that c a r e e r , the Phenomenology (of the S o c i a l World) marks a major event i n the h i s t o r y o f the p h i l o s o p h y and methodology o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . (Natanson, 1968: 241) These passages a c c l a i m  the works o f Schutz as important a d d i t i o n s  the c u l t u r e o f academia. the reviewers regard  The  language used s i g n a l s the extent  these c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  important c o n t r i b u t i o n " , "an  to  to which  For example, "a most  e x p l o r a t i o n o f the t r u e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  -67-  grounds",  and "a major event" denote  works are h e l d .  the h i g h esteem i n which the  T h i s type o f review promotes not o n l y the i d e a s  of Schutz, but a l s o the s u b - c u l t u r e s i g n i f i e d by such terms as "the f o l l o w e r s o f Schutz", and "Schutz's d i s c i p l e s " .  These a r t i c l e s are  the b e g i n n i n g o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f in-group members: agree w i t h the major n o t i o n s and approach and who  that i s being  those  who  advocated,  acknowledge the e x i s t e n c e o f a "world o f shared meanings"  t h a t h e l p t o d e f i n e t h e boundaries o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l community to which they b e l o n g . Commendations f o r Schutz are a l s o found i n a r t i c l e s basically  d i s a g r e e w i t h Schutz's p o s i t i o n .  In t h i s  that  case, p r a i s e  i s used t o balance o f f the n e g a t i v e remarks c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the a r t i c l e which i s a l s o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c reviewing techniques.  o f ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' book  T h i s i s a n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n w i t h i n the  i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e , s i n c e i t p r e s e n t s the reviewer as a 'rational',  'objective',  forms p a r t o f a t a c i t  'honest', and  'fair'  intellectual.  c o n v e n t i o n w i t h i n the c u l t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y  as w e l l as o t h e r academic d i s c i p l i n e s . p a r t o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l  enterprise.  Thus, i t becomes an For i n s t a n c e ,  A l f r e d Schutz's phenomenological s o c i o l o g y r e p r e s e n t s t h e most c o n s i s t e n t and c o n s e q u e n t i a l attempt t o g i v e a u t h e n t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . S t a n d i n g as i t does at the boundary between phenomenological p h i l o s o p h y and e m p i r i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e , Schutz's work r a i s e s c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r both d i s c i p l i n e s . (emphasis mine) ( P e r i t o r e , 1975: 132) Compare t h i s statement  This  to h i s " C o n c l u s i o n " :  integral  -68-  However o r i g i n a l and l u c i d Schutz's s y s t e m a t i c s o c i o l o g y i s , i t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y the p e r s i s t e n t need o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s f o r r i g o r o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n i n an e i d e t i c s c i e n c e o f the s o c i a l . . . . A l t h o u g h h i s s o l u t i o n to the problem turns out to be no s o l u t i o n at a l l , he has i n d i c a t e d some ways i n which t r a n s c e n d e n t a l phenomenology can j u s t i f y i t s e l f by works and not by f a i t h alone. (emphasis mine) ( P e r i t o r e , 1975: 140) These two  quotes are v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n r e v e a l i n g the  created, w i t h i n a c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e .  tension  I t seems t h a t i t would  u n a c c e p t a b l e f o r the r e v i e w e r to p r e s e n t  an u n r e l e n t i n g l y  be critical  review. As  a comparison, debate w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l arena would d i s p l a y  a v e r y d i f f e r e n t form. vigorous  form would be  Severe and.open c r i t i c i s m i n i t s most the a p p r o p r i a t e  mode df p r e s e n t a t i o n .  This  i l l u s t r a t e s Schutz's concept o f the "knowledge at hand" used to d e f i n e the a p p r o p r i a t e b o u n d a r i e s o f a s i t u a t i o n , which takes p l a c e as a "common-sense c o n s t r u c t " o f the w o r l d o f d a i l y  life.  C u l t u r a l competence i s demonstrated by an a b i l i t y to temper argument w i t h acknowledgements o f worth, which works i n two I t preserves reviewer,  and  the i m p r e s s i o n  comment on the i d e a s of Schutz.  the time and e f f o r t  the  taken to  Thus, Schutz must appear as a  worthy opponent, s i n c e i t would degrade the r e v i e w e r to be with  ways.  of reasonableness on the p a r t of  i t also j u s t i f i e s  dealing  an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l work. T h i s c o n f l i c t o f p r e s e n t a t i o n becomes p a r t o f the  f o r r e b u t t a l , as was  the  done by Kazuhiko Okuda:  foundation  -69-  In a r e c e n t a r t i c l e . . . M r . P e r i t o r e advances the t h e s i s t h a t , i n s p i t e o f h i s e l a b o r a t e and "the most c o n s i s t e n t " attempt at a p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e methodology, Schutz's s o c i o l o g y l a c k s , i n the end, a r i g o r o u s foundation... In t h i s b r i e f note, I w i s h to r e f u t e P e r i t o r e ' s t h e s i s which e n t a i l s c e r t a i n g l o s s e s and m i s r e a d i n g of both H u s s e r l and Schutz ( t h i s i s , I t h i n k , due p a r t l y to l e a v i n g out Schutz's l a t e r works from Peritore's consideration i n his a r t i c l e ) . . . (emphasis mine) (1976: 174-175) Okuda took advantage o f the d u a l i t y o f P e r i t o r e ' s remarks to imply a confusion  on P e r i t o r e ' s p a r t .  T h i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s used to p o i n t  t o , i n Okuda's o p i n i o n , P e r i t o r e ' s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the works under d i s c u s s i o n . continuation  T h i s type o f r e f u t a t i o n ensures  of various  vigorous  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Schutz's work.  I t i s an  i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f the academic e n t e r p r i s e , which c o n s t i t u t e s the d i s c u s s i o n and the e x p l a n a t i o n  e l a b o r a t i o n o f i d e a paradigms.  This  includes  by w r i t e r s o f 'what Schutz r e a l l y means', which  forms the c e n t r a l core to i n t e r p r e t i v e work, as d i s c u s s e d  above.  T h i s work i s a l s o accomplished w i t h i n the debate forum, as can seen by  the exchange between Okuda and  be  P e r i t o r e , which demonstrates  Schutz's n o t i o n o f the " s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of meaning" s i n c e two  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can.be d e r i v e d  from the same  work. C r i t i c i s m of Schutz's f o u n d a t i o n a l  concepts, as  demonstrated  i n P e r i t o r e ' s a r t i c l e , i s o f t e n used to r e f u t e an i d e o l o g i c a l position.  C r i t i c i s m can  e x p l o r a t i o n and  a l s o be  used, c o n s t r u c t i v e l y , i n the  e l a b o r a t i o n of ideas.  purpose, as d i d a c c l a m a t i o n .  T h i s a l s o serves  a  dual  I t informs the reader t h a t Schutz i s  -70-  an important, but n o t p e r f e c t ,  f i g u r e i n academia, and i t a l s o  p r e s e n t s the r e v i e w e r as an 'honest', ' c r i t i c a l ' Schutz's n o t i o n s .  supporter of  ' I n t e l l e c t u a l honesty' i s an important aspect o f  c u l t u r a l competence.  C r i t i c i s m , i n t h i s sense, adds the dimension  o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y  t o t h e r e v i e w e r ' s work, which  adds to the c r e a t i o n o f c r e d e n t i a l s . i l l u s t r a t e t h i s type o f c r i t i c a l  The f o l l o w i n g  examples  analysis:  I t would do the r e p u t a t i o n o f Schutz no s e r v i c e i f we i m p l i e d t h a t h i s phenomenological approach to s o c i o l o g y i s f r e e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s , o r t h a t he was always v i c t o r i o u s i n h i s j o u s t s w i t h the members • of opposing, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the p o s i t i v i s t i c s c h o o l s , o r even t h a t he met w i t h e n t i r e success i n his enterprise. (emphasis mine) (Bierstedt, 1963: 119) T h i s quote demonstrates the r e c o g n i t i o n presenting  o f the importance o f  Schutz's work i n a c r i t i c a l l i g h t .  I t shows  that  B i e r s t e d t i s aware o f t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , and  o f the importance o f p r e s e n t i n g  himself  as a c r e d i t a b l e  reviewer. This  technique has two purposes:  own c r e d i b i l i t y by d i s p l a y i n g  i t heightens  Bierstedt's  'independent' and ' o b j e c t i v e '  evaluation  o f Schutz's work, and i t a l s o p r o v i d e s him w i t h a r a t i o n a l e f o r w r i t i n g the a r t i c l e . Maurice Natanson d i s p l a y s  t h i s quality i n h i s analysis of  Schutz's work: I t i s not a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r why Schutz r e s t r i c t s h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l g l a n c e to i n n e r - t i m e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how  -71-  t  the q u e s t i o n o f the v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y of the W e - r e l a t i o n s h i p can be g i v e n i t s f u l l weight w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t i o n s Schutz imposes, (emphasis mine) (1968: 236)  and, S e t t i n g a s i d e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l q u e s t i o n s and method a l s o has s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Schutz's c o n c e p t i o n o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y and h i s approach to an account o f t h e ego's knowledge o f h i s fellow-man. (emphasis mine) (1968: 237) Natanson i s p r o v i d i n g a framework not o n l y to c r e a t e the o b j e c t i v i t y , but a l s o to e n a b l e h i s own a r e a to be e x h i b i t e d .  necessary  thought development i n t h i s  As a student o f Schutz,  i t may  be  important  to e s t a b l i s h t h i s independence o f thought to i n c r e a s e h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a s c h o l a r i n h i s own i d e a s can o n l y add  right.  T h i s treatment  to f u r t h e r the n o t i o n s  It  t h a t Schutz,has  o u t l i n e d , thus, d i s s e m i n a t i n g and p e r p e t u a t i n g t h i s  ideological  At the same time, i t p r o v i d e s an example o f the ways i n  which the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e i s accomplished. i l l u s t r a t i n g Schutz's knowledge" by and  Schutz's  to the depth and s i n c e r i t y of the paradigm.  demonstrates an a b i l i t y  system.  of  concept  Natanson i s  o f the " s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  c r e a t i n g an a r t i c l e  of  t h a t draws on the works of Schutz  t h a t adds to t h i s work, thereby  c o n s t r u c t i n g and  disseminating  knowledge t h a t w i l l h e l p to d e f i n e the parameter of the s u b - d i s c i p l i n e to which he a s c r i b e s . b)  Decision-making  as an i n v i s i b l e p r o c e s s  Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the decision-making c r e a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s has been a hidden p r o c e s s .  a s p e c t s of  the  I r e f e r r e d to t h i s  -72-  a r e a o f my  own  w r i t i n g i n the s e c t i o n on i n t e r p r e t i v e work.  a l s o t h i n k i t should  be mentioned as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge throughl.the  presentation  of  But  I  the  articles.  Natanson shows an awareness o f t h i s phase o f i n t e l l e c t u a l work i n r e f e r r i n g to Schutz's  conceptualizations:  O b v i o u s l y , i t i s the author's r i g h t to c i r c u m s c r i b e the p r o v i n c e o f h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (1968: 236) Circumscription  and  s e l e c t i o n are a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of the work,  to the c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l r e a l i t y .  and  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  the  methods by which the b o u n d a r i e s o f an a r t i c l e are made v i s i b l e ,  and  a l s o how  o t h e r b o u n d a r i e s are simply  explanation. synopsis  assumed w i t h o u t any  For example, b o u n d a r i e s are c r e a t e d by  need f o r  giving a short  o f the area o f i n t e r e s t : T h i s paper i s d i v i d e d unevenly i n t o three p a r t s . The f i r s t and s h o r t e s t s e c t i o n i s devoted to an e x p o s i t i o n o f a few c e n t r a l concepts i n Schutz's work. The second... to an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f some of Schutz's fundamental c o n v i c t i o n s . . . . T h e final p a r t . . . i s concerned w i t h the fundamental theme o f the modes o f t y p i f i c a t i o n . (emphasis mine) (Natanson, 1970: 1-2)  and, I w i l l i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l o f the major t o p i c s o f the f o u r c h a p t e r s p u b l i s h e d i n the S t r u c t u r e s o f the L i f e - W o r l d , r a i s e some q u e s t i o n s which may as y e t be c o n s i d e r e d unanswered, and comment on the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f A l f r e d Schutz i n t h i s and h i s o t h e r works. (Psathas, 1975: 507) These o u t l i n e s i n d i c a t e the knowledge t h a t w i t h i n it  i s advisable  the c u l t u r a l  system  to e s t a b l i s h the parameters of the d i s c u s s i o n , thus  -73-  i n c o r p o r a t i n g Schutz's i d e a o f t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t and meaningful areas o f knowledge as d e f i n e d by t h e reviewer.  T h i s can  be seen as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l competence on the p a r t o f the r e v i e w e r s ,  s i n c e i t d e l i m i t s h i s / h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which  displays appropriate  notions  o f boundary and boundary maintenance.  However, the method o f d e c i s i o n i s u n c l e a r . a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n distinctly  I t does n o t seem to be  t h a t needs t o be  r e v e a l e d , and, perhaps, cannot be f u l l y e x p l i c a t e d .  R e f e r r i n g back t o my own problems on t h i s matter, I t h i n k t h a t i t i s , perhaps, i m p o s s i b l e  t o r e t r i e v e those p r o c e s s e s ,  i n t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to t h i s  thesis.  as was  discussed  I do t h i n k , though, t h a t  c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n should be g i v e n to our methods o f d e c i d i n g what we a r e p r e s e n t i n g  and how we a r e p r e s e n t i n g  a v a i l a b l e to t h e r e a d e r knowledge p r o d u c t i o n . t h a t t h i s aspect  it.  T h i s would make  some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s I t i s a tenuous p r o c e s s ,  s h o u l d be r e v e a l e d more o f t e n .  involved i n and I t h i n k One c o u l d  argue, I suppose, t h a t one o f t h e ' r u l e s ' o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e is  t o make these p r o c e s s e s  invisible  t o some e x t e n t .  I f s o , then I  t h i n k t h a t t h i s a r e a o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e should closer scrutiny.  Perhaps i t s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d  d i s c o u r s e , r a t h e r than be e x c l u d e d from i t . opportunity  come under  i n t o the  T h i s would a l l o w t h e  of understanding various processes  t h a t occur  i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an a r t i c l e , and would a l s o enable t h e r e a d e r to 'see'  some o f t h e c u l t u r a l l i n k s such as sub-paradigm  t h a t are i n c o r p o r a t e d  affiliations  i n t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f s o c i o l o g y as an  -74-  everyday p r a c t i c e .  T h i s would r e v e a l the " t y p i f i c a t i o n s " and  "reciprocity of perspectives",  t o use Schutz's terms, t h a t a r e  at work i n t h e l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c e o f s o c i o l o g y .  Thus t h e "world  o f shared meanings" would become a more v i s i b l e aspect  o f the  s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , which would r e v e a l how the c u l t u r e o f sociology i s constructed  and accomplished.  -75-  Concluding  Remarks  The work done i n t h i s t h e s i s has been an attempt to and  incorporate  i l l u s t r a t e some f a c e t s o f the d i s c i p l i n e . o f s o c i o l o g y such as  the p r o d u c t i o n  and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f knowledge.  an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s aspect demonstrates the use  and  c r e a t i o n o f connections particular  o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l  t h a t were not  t h i s endeavor.  the everyday work o f academia.  It the  For me,  this i s part  of  T h e p r o d u c t i o n o f knowledge i s p a r t -  other  academic  With t h i s i n mind I have developed a t h e s i s c e n t e r i n g  around t h r e e i s s u e s : Alfred  enterprise.  developed i n t h i s  o f our task w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e , as i t i s w i t h enterprises.  thesis i t s e l f i s  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f thought systems, and of ideas  format b e f o r e  The  s o c i o l o g y as a c u l t u r a l system, the works o f  Schutz as an example o f s o c i o l o g i c a l  conceptualizations,  i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e as a p r i m a r y f a c e t o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l  and  enters  prise. The aspects helped  first  c h a p t e r was  mainly concerned w i t h  o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . me  t o c r e a t e a focus  concept o f c u l t u r a l systems.  conceived  boundaries was  A c e n t r a l concept  f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was By a p p l y i n g  able to 'see', i n Hanson's terminology, c o u l d be  u s e f u l i n developing  s o c i o l o g y , as any  how  i t excludes others  that  Clifford  t h i s to sociology, I  was  B a r t h ' s concept of  t h i s n o t i o n , and  i n showing  o t h e r group, i d e n t i f i e s i t s members, and from membership.  Geertz's  ways i n which s o c i o l o g y  o f as a c u l t u r a l system.  how  e x p l o r i n g some  Sociology  can be  seen  also as  -76-  composing v a r i o u s  sub-paradigms, t o use Kuhn's term.  I n t h i s way, the  d i v e r s e branches o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e can be seen t o e x i s t without an encompassing c o n f o r m i t y .  Thus t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y  d i s c i p l i n e i s seen to be p a r t o f t h e aspect The  f a c e t s o f any  of the d i s c i p l i n e .  second c h a p t e r i n v o l v e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f some o f Schutz's  concepts i n c l u d i n g i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , everyday r e a l i t y , V e r s t e h e n , and m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s .  T h i s was done as an e x p l o r a t i o n  of these concepts and as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e t h i r d The by  t h i r d c h a p t e r looked  typification,  chapter.  at i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse,  as e x e m p l i f i e d  a r t i c l e s as one o f t h e main a c t i v i t i e s accomplished w i t h i n the  boundaries o f the c u l t u r e o f sociology.  These a r t i c l e s were  chosen because t h e i r primary focus was a d i s c u s s i o n o f the works o f A l f r e d Schutz.  Such n o t i o n s  as w r i t i n g as a c r e a t i n g  activity,  the c r e a t i o n o f c r e d e n t i a l s , d o i n g i n t e r p r e t i v e work, and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s were d i s c u s s e d . c r e a t i n g and p e r p e t u a t i n g  The a r t i c l e s were seen as  t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e through the  concepts chosen and through t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s i n h e r e n t i n the p r o d u c t i o n  of articles.  These works were a l s o seen as examples  of Schutz's concepts as p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I .  T h e r e f o r e , the  p r o c e s s e s by which s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge i s c r e a t e d was examined throughout t h i s  and m a i n t a i n e d  chapter.  One o f t h e aims o f t h i s t h e s i s has been t o r e v e a l t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e o f knowledge.  and the c o n s t r u c t i o n  T h i s has been done by p r o v i d i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f some  a s p e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y , and u s i n g  t h a t as a framework  -77-  w i t h i n which t h e development o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e examined.  The work o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e was i l l u s t r a t e d by  the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f some concepts o f A l f r e d Schutz by m y s e l f , and  then by an a n a l y s i s o f secondary sources d e a l i n g w i t h notions.  Schutzian  Thus, t h i s t h e s i s i s i n t e g r a t i n g these p a r t s o f the  d i s c i p l i n e of sociology activity  c o u l d be  from my p e r s p e c t i v e .  I t has been a c r e a t i n g  t h a t , f o r me, has been a s e n s i t i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  h e i g h t e n e d my awareness o f t h e work t h a t i s b e i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , and i t has focused  I t has  done w i t h i n t h e  my a t t e n t i o n on my own  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e , i n t h a t I am n o t merely a r e c e i v e r of ready-made knowledge, but an a c t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h a t knowledge. T h i s d u a l aspect  o f t h e t h e s i s embodies what c o u l d be seen as  the p r i m a r y theme o f t h e work, namely, the accomplishment o f the production  o f knowledge.  I n some sense, I t h i n k i t s success o r  f a i l u r e can o n l y be assessed by t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e work done by the reader.  F o r myself, I t h i n k i t has been a s u c c e s s f u l endeavour t h a t  has enabled me t o e x p l o r e  and understand a r e a s o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l  d i s c i p l i n e , t h a t have been an i m p l i c i t p a r t o f my growth u n t i l the s y s t e m a t i c  intellectual  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i s s u e s t h a t have  been developed i n t h i s t h e s i s .  -78-  Footnotes 1.  I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n o t i o n s o f 'my' w o r l d ,  'our' u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  the w o r l d 'we' s h a r e , e t c . , there i s a l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f 'my',  'we',  'our' i n a c o n c e p t u a l  sense, as opposed t o t h e p e r s o n a l sense such as I t h i n k , my opinion, etc.  Schutz does n o t make a v i s i b l e d i s t i n c t i o n  here,  but f o r my purposes, I w i l l be u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g terms i n quotes, f o r example,  'my' world i s a shared w o r l d .  My  p e r s o n a l comments w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t any emphasis, such as I agree, o r I t h i n k , e t c . 2.  An i n s i g h t f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e problems i n h e r e n t i n the c r e a t i o n and maintenance o f second degree c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s found i n Dr. E l v i W h i t t a k e r ' s paper e n t i t l e d " E x p l a n a t i o n s and R e a l i t i e s : World o f The M a i n l a n d Migrant t o Hawaii".  Unpublished  The manuscript,  1973. 3.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e concepts found i n t h i s see Dr. Kenneth S t o d d a r t ' s paper e n t i t l e d Everyday L i f e :  "The P r e s e n t a t i o n o f  S t r a t e g i e s f o r 'Adequate Ethnography'".  m a n u s c r i p t , 1977.  section,  Unpublished  -79-  BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, Edward 1976  G. On phenomenology and s o c i o l o g i c a l theory. B r i t i s h Journal of Sociology 2 7 ( 2 ) : 251-254.  Barth, F r e d r i k , e d i t o r 1969  E t h n i c Groups and B o u n d a r i e s : The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s . London: George A l l e n & Unwin.  B e r g e r , P e t e r L. and Thomas Luckmann 1966  Best, Ron  The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of R e a l i t y : A T r e a t i s e i n the S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge. New York: Anchor Books. E.  1975  New d i r e c t i o n s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l theory? A critical note on phenomenological s o c i o l o g y and i t s antecedents. B r i t i s h Journal of Sociology 26: 133-143.  B i e r s t e d t , Robert 1963  B i r k s t e d , Ian  The common sense w o r l d o f A l f r e d Research 30(1): 116-121.  Schutz.  Social  K.  1976  Extended Review o n . A l f r e d Schutz on Phenomenology and S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . E d i t o r Helmut R. Wagner. S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. New S e r i e s 24: 404-411.  Bregman, Lucy 1973  Growing o l d e r t o g e t h e r : Temporality, mutuality, and performance i n the thought o f A l f r e d Schutz and E r i k E r i k s o n . J o u r n a l o f R e l i g i o n 53: 195-215.  Empson, W i l l i a m 1947  Seven Types of Ambiguity. London: New D i r e c t i o n s Publishing Corporation. ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1930).  -80-  BIBLIOGRAPHY Geertz,  cont'd  Clifford  1966  R e l i g i o n as a c u l t u r a l system. In A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Approaches to the Study o f R e l i g i o n . Michael Banton, e d i t o r . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , pp 1-46.  1975  Common sense as a c u l t u r a l system. Review 33(1): 5-26.  Gorman, Robert  The  Antioch  A.  1975  A l f r e d Schutz - an e x p o s i t i o n and c r i t q u e . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 26: 1-19.  Gurwitsch,  Aron  1962  The common-sense w o r l d as s o c i a l r e a l i t y : A d i s c o u r s e on A l f r e d Schutz. S o c i a l Research 29(1): 50-72.  Hanson, Norwood R u s s e l l 1958  Patterns of Discovery: An I n q u i r y i n t o the C o n c e p t u a l Foundations of S c i e n c e . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  1969  P e r c e p t i o n and D i s c o v e r y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S c i e n t i f i c Inquiry. San F r a n c i s c o : Freeman, Cooper and Co.  Hindess,  Barry  1972  The 'phenomenological' s o c i o l o g y o f A l f r e d Economy and S o c i e t y 1 ( 1 ) : 1-27.  Schutz.  Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962  Lovejoy, 1960  The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s . Arthur  Chicago:  0. Essays i n the H i s t o r y o f Ideas. New York: Capricorn Books; G.P. Putnam's Sons. (First published i n 1948)  -81-  BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n t d 1  Martin, Richard J . 1974  C u l t i c a s p e c t s o f s o c i o l o g y : a r s p e c u l a t i v e essay. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 25: 15-31.  Natanson, Maurice 1966  The phenomenology o f A l f r e d Schutz. 9: 147-155.  1968  A l f r e d Schutz on s o c i a l r e a l i t y and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . S o c i a l Research 35(2): 217-244.  1970  Phenomenology and t y p i f i c a t i o n : A study i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f A l f r e d Schutz. S o c i a l Research 37(1): 1-22.  Inquiry  Okuda, Kazuhiko 1976  The s o c i a l phenomenology of A l f r e d Schutz. The American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review 70(1): 175-180.  P e r i t o r e , N.  Patrick  1975  Some Problems i n A l f r e d Schutz's Methodology. American P o l i t i c a l 6 9 ( 1 ) : 132-140.  Phenomenological Science Review  The T a c i t Dimension. New York: ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1966)  Anchor Books,  Polanyi, Michael 1967  P s a t h a s , George 1975 Schutz,  V i s i t i n g Schutz.  S o c i o l o g y 9: 507-513.  Alfred  1962  C o l l e c t e d Papers I . The Problem of S o c i a l R e a l i t y , The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f . (Fourth unchanged e d i t i o n , 1973).  1964  C o l l e c t e d Papers I I . S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l Theory. The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f  -82-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  cont'd  1970  C o l l e c t e d Papers I I I . S t u d i e s i n Phenomenological Philosophy. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f .  1970  A l f r e d Schutz On Phenomenology and S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . E d i t e d w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Helmut Wagner. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s .  Schutz, A l f r e d and Thomas Luckmann 1974  The S t r u c t u r e s o f the L i f e - W o r l d . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books.  London:  S t o n i e r , A l f r e d and K a r l Bode 1937  Zaner, R i c h a r d 1961  A new approach t o the methodology o f the sciences. Economica n.s. 4: 406-424  social  M. Theory o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y : S o c i a l Research 2 8 ( 1 ) : 71-93  Alfred  Schutz.  

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