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Environmental effects on the sliding friction behaviour of diamond on glass Nelson, Bradford Charles 1977

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ENVIRONMENTAL SLIDING  EFFECTS  FRICTION  DIAMOND  ON  BEHAVIOUR  ON  THE OF  GLASS  by  BRADFORD  B.Eng.,  A  McMaster  THESIS THE  CHARLES  University,  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS  MASTER THE  NELSON  Hamilton,  PARTIAL FOR  F A C U L T Y OF in  the  FULFILMENT  THE  OF A P P L I E D  Ontario,  DEGREE  OF  OF  SCIENCE  GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department of  Mechanical  We  accept  this  thesis  required  THE  Engineering  UNIVERSITY  OF  as  to  standard  BRITISH  August, <T)Bradford  conforming  COLUMBIA  1977  Charles  Nelson,1977  the  1974  In  presenting  requirements British freely that  this for  an  Columbia, available  permission  thesis  agree  for  reference  and  study.  I  may  by  representatives.  or  publication  be  allowed  this  be  copying  granted It  thesis written  is for  by  The  Mechanical  University  Vancouver,  Date  of  B.C.  of  British  the  further  this  thesis  the  Head  of  understood  my  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  of  make i t  of  agree for Department  copying shall  not  permission.  Bradford  Department  of  University shall  extensive  my  the  Library  or  without  at  the  purposes  of  degree  fulfilment  that  scholarly his  partial  advanced  I  for  in  Engineering  Columbia  Charles  Nelson  i i  ABSTRACT  Certain influence  the  wet.  effects  The  sliding were  flow  and of  fracture  various  f r i c t i o n behaviour  studied  apparatus linearly Corning the  surface-active  in  was and  2947  resultant of  ranging  from  constant  f r i c t i o n  l i q u i d  comparison  and  0.001  slide  a  media  at  tests  were  the  surface  microslide  gaseous  and  glass  diamond of  to  conducted  sliding  cm/sec.  conducted  they  experimental  the  were  0.4  on  hemispherical  Tests  to  the .solids  soda-lime  An  across  glass  of  media  on  force.  cm/sec  i n i t i a l  diamond  speed  considerably  properties  research.  to  soda-lime  can  lubricating  of  present  constructed at  type  variety  the  media  As in  measure in  a  speeds  a  a  a  base  high  for vacuum  —8 at  4  x  10  torr.  enhanced  material  vacuum.  In  with  in  with  vacuum  material  micrographs alcohol  material.  air  only.  observed of  the  softened  agreement  the  reasonable  and was  results  displacement  addition,  displaced  predict  The  with  in  that force  A  theory  simple  agreement The  the  greatest  heptyl  work.  of  the  a l l  the  observed was was  high to  in  that This  rise  to  obtained  Scanning  glass.  in  used  increase  suggest  media  observed  results  alcohol.  tracks  surface  previous  from  that  f r i c t i o n  f r i c t i o n  the  showed  in  displaced electron  heptyl; is  in  i i i  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page CHAPTER  I  1.1  Introduction  1  1.2  H i s t o r i c a l Background  3  CHAPTER  II  2.1  Friction  2.2  Ploughing  2.3  Shearing  Theory  8  Term  11  Term  17  3.1  Experimental Objective  20  3.2  Apparatus  20  CHAPTER  III  3.2.1  General  Description  20  3.2.2  Diamond  Slider  22  3.2.3  Specimen  Assembly  25  3.2.4  Actuator  System  26  3.2.5  Actuator  Platform  29  3.2.6  Vacuum  System  3.3  Instrumentation  3.4  Measurement  3.5  The  3.6  Specimens  Diamond  of  Assembly  30 31  Cross-sectional  Area  32 33 34  iv Page 3.7  Experimental  Proceedure  3.7.1  Pre-test  3.7.2  Environment  3.7.3  Instrument  3.7.4  Testing  3.7.5  Talysurf  36  Investigation  36  Preparation Preparation  37 38 39  Analysis  39  CHAPTER IV 4.1  Results  and A n a l y s i s  4.1.1  Friction  4.1.2  Comparison  4.1.3  Displaced  40  Force to  40 Theory  56  Area  59  CHAPTER V 5.1  Discussion  64  5.2  Conclusions  71  5.3  Suggestions  for  Future Research  BIBLIOGRAPHY Appendix I Appendix I I Appendix I I I A p p e n d i x IV Appendix V A p p e n d i x VI Appendix VII  73 75  CALIBRATION OF SLIDER ARM MICROSLIDE  GLASS COMPOSITION  VELOCITY MEASUREMENT  INDENTATION  HARDNESS  CURVE FITTING  80 81  TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT PROPERTIES OF LIQUID  78  MEDIA OF MICROSLIDES  ANALYSIS  84  ;  87 89 91 •  V  LIST  OF  TABLES Page  TABLE  TABLE  TABLE  I.  II.  A.I.I  R e s u l t s of Curve F i t t i n g . . . E q u a t i o n s of Best F i t  Analysis Curves  Comparison of T h e o r e t i c a l Experimental Results  and  Calibration with Load  Deflection  of  Slider  Arm  57 60  79  vi L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  Arrangement  2  Diagram  3  Geometry  4  General  5  Arrangement  6  D i a g r a m . o f Diamond S l i d e r A s s e m b l y  24  7  D i a g r a m ..  of  27  8  Schematic  of H y d r a u l i c System  9  Strain  10  o f Diamond S l i d e r on t h e  Glass  Surface  o f Diamond P y r a m i d H a r d n e s s T e s t of  Diamond S l i d e r and F r i c t i o n T r a c k  Arrangement  Gauge  Scanning  of E x p e r i m e n t a l  o f Diamond S l i d e r  Specimen  Apparatus  and S p e c i m e n A s s e m b l i e s  Assembly  13 14 21 23  28  System  E l e c t r o n Micrographs  9  28 of  Diamond  35  F r i c t i o n F o r c e . . . H i g h Vacuum  41  11 (a)  Recorded  11  (b)  F r i c t i o n F o r c e v e r s u s V e l o c i t y . . . H i g h Vacuum  4,1  11  (c)  Recorded  41  11  (d)  D i s p l a c e d A r e a v e r s u s V e l o c i t y . . . H i g h Vacuum  41  12  (a)  Recorded  42  12  (b)  F r i c t i o n Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . Nitrogen  42  12  (c)  Recorded  42,  12  (d)  Displaced Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . Nitrogen  42"  13  (a)  Recorded  43-'  13  (b)  F r i c t i o n Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . A i r  43  13  (c)  Recorded  43  13  (d)  D i s p l a c e d Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . A i r  F r i c t i o n T r a c k P r o f i l e . . . H i g h Vacuum  F r i c t i o n Force... Nitrogen  F r i c t i o n Track P r o f i l e . . . N i t r o g e n  Friction Force...Air  F r i c t i o n Track P r o f i l e . . . A i r  ;  43  v i i  LIST  OF  FIGURES  (cont.)  Figure  Page  14  (a)  Recorded  Friction  14  (b)  Friction  Force  14  (c)  Recorded  Friction  14  (d)  Displaced  15  (a)  Recorded  Friction  15  (b)  Friction  Force  15  (c)  Recorded  Friction  15  (d)  Displaced  16  (a)  Reco rded F r i c t i o n  16  (b)  Friction  16  (c)  Recorded- F r i c t i o n  16  (d)  Displaced  17  (a)  Recorded  Friction  17  (b)  Friction  Force  17  (c)  Recorded  Friction  17  (d)  Displaced  18  (a)  Recorded  Friction  18  (b)  Friction  Force  18  (c)  Recorded  Friction  18  (d)  Displaced  19  (a)  Recorded  19  (b)  Friction. Force  19  (c)  Recorded  19  (d)  Displaced  Area  Area  Force  Area  Area  Area  versus  44.  V e l o c i t y . . .Water  44  Acid  4'5-  Velocity.. .Caproic  Track  versus  44  P r o f i l e . ..Water  Force...Caproic  versus  44  V e l o c i t y . . •Water  Track  versus  Acid  P r o f i l e . . .Caproic  Acid  Velocity.. .Caproic  Acid  Velocity.. •Oleic  Track  versus  Acid  P r o f i l e . . .O l e i c  Velocity.. .Oleic  Acid Acid  Force...Hexane  versus  V e l o c i t y . . •Hexane  Track  versus  P r o f i l e . . •Hexane  V e l o c i t y . . . Hexane  F o r c e . . . Heptane  versus  V e l o c i t y . . .Heptane  Track  versus  P r o f i l e . . .Heptane  V e l o c i t y . . . Hep t a n e  Force... Methanol  v e r s u s l V e l q c . i t y . . ..Me t h a h o 1-  Friction  45  45-  46 46 46 47 47 47  '47 4 8  48" 48 48 49 49  P r o f i l e . ..Methanol  49  V e l o c i t y . . .Me t h a n o 1  49  Track  versus  4'5  4,6  Force... Oleic Acid  versus  Friction  Area  Force...Water  v i i i  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  (cont.)  Figure  Page  20  (a)  Recorded  Friction  20  (b)  Friction  Force  20  (c)  Recorded  Friction  20  (d)  Displaced  21  (a)  Recorded  Friction  21  (b)  Friction  Force  21  (c)  Recorded  Friction  21  (d)  Displaced  22  (a)  Recorded  Friction  22  (b)  Friction  Force  22  (c)  Recorded  Friction  22  (d)  Displaced  Force...Propanol  versus  Area  Velocity...Propanol  Profile...Heptanol  V e l o c i t y . . . Heptano1  Force...Decanol  versus  versus  Profile...Decanol  54  Effect  of  Environment  on D i s p l a c e d  25  E f f e c t of Environment Edge M a t e r i a l  26  Scanning  27  Comparison  28  Revised  A.I.I.  Set-up  For  A.III.l.  Circuit  A.III.2.  Velocity  the Extent  Micrographs Results  A.IV.l.  Thermistor  A. I V . 2.  Temperature  of  Raised  Friction  Tracks  67  to  Previous  Work  69  o f  74 Slider  for Velocity  Calibration  Arm  Measurement  Curve  79 82 83  Circuit Calibration  62  of  Assembly  Calibration used  52  Area  24  Slider  52  53  on  Diamond  51  Force  Environment  Present  51  Friction  of  of  51  52  Effect  Electron  50  Velocity...Decanol  23  on  50  52  Velocity...Decanol  Track  50  51  Velocity...Heptanol  Track  versus  Area  Profile...Propanol  Force...Heptanol  versus  Area  Velocity...Propanol  Track  versus  50  8 6; Curve  . \  8;6'.  ix  L I S T OF SYMBOLS Symbol A  c  Units cross-sectional , f r i c t i o n track r-  .  or d i s p l a c e d area  .  of  mm  A^  h o r i z o n t a l l y p r o j e c t e d area of c o n t a c t of m o v i n g s l i d e r on s o l i d s u r f a c e  mm  A^  horizontally projected indentation  mm  Ap  cross-sectional material  a  apex a n g l e  b  w i d t h of f r i c t i o n  d  average  area  area  of hardness  of r a i s e d  edge  o f DPH t e s t e r  length  track  F  friction  F^  r e s i s t a n c e to e l a s t i c of m a t e r i a l r e s i s t a n c e to p l a s t i c  2  mm  parameter force  kg displacement kg displacement  material  kg~  F^  resistance  to  shearing  of m a t e r i a l  F^  resistance  to  shearing  of s u r f a c e  h  2  mm  general  g  2  o f d i a g o n a l o f DPH  f  of  2  degrees  indentation  F^  mm  „  kg film  kg  general"parameter maximum d e p t h slider  into  of p e n e t r a t i o n  the  constant  surface  of  o f the  solid  mm  K  contact  (dimensionless)  L  normal l o a d used  N  n o r m a l l o a d a c t i n g on m o v i n g s l i d e r  kg  P  ploughing resistance  k-g,  i n DPH t e s t  force  kg  X  Symbol  p  p  Units  mean  m  flow  pressure  kg/mm  2 static  g  mean  pressure  kg/mm  r  general  R  radius  s  general  S  shearing  resistance  V  velocity  of  x  general  parameter  X  general  parameter  y  general  parameter  Y  general  parameter  general  parameter  B  general  parameter  A n  shear s t r e n g t h of s o l i d number of c a r b o n atoms i n chain  A  2  =  parameter of  slider  mm  parameter force  kg  slider  cm/sec  kg/mm molecular  2  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The out  experimental part  i n the T r i b o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y of the Department of  M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g at The  the  apparatus  J o h n Wiebe f o r h i s  the Departments who  offered  their  and f o r h i s c o n s t a n t  thanks  to a s s i s t  throughout  assistance  Research Council  in this  support,  and to t h o s e o f Metallurgy  work.  a r e due t o D r . C . A . B r o c k l e y  a d v i c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t  National  Columbia.  for his help i n  technical assistance  efforts  Financial  and  of B r i t i s h  o f M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g and  Special his  The U n i v e r s i t y  author w i s h e s to thank M r . E r n i e Jones  constructing Mr.  o f t h i s p r o g r a m was c a r r i e d  the  i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  program.  was r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h  o f Canada u n d e r  for  grant  the  number  67-1065  1  CHAPTER  1.1  Introduction The  solids  can  f r i c t i o n and  be  strongly  environment. surfaces a  film  the  A  (i.e.  with  greatly  lubricant  of  In  and  case  f r i c t i o n a l  is  dry  third the  the  case  and  recently  manner  resistance sliding  in  to  contacting  in  which  plastic  f r i c t i o n  that  surface  observed  Since been  growing  effectccan  named  no  (i.e.  wear  and  the or  This  is  are  the  with  from  is  present.  of  lubricants  reduce  ploughing  phenomenon  be  latter  reduced  material  Russian  only  is  In  a  solids  flow.  is  For  of away  considerable  the  rubbing  effectively  destruction  the  liquid  boundary  wear  effect  sometimes  a  interfere  lubricant  have  after  hence  may  lubricant.  and  can  i t  material  the  asperities  or  resistance  involves  f r i c t i o n behaviour.  f i r s t  areas  deformation  on  effect,  and  considered  they  this  Rehbinder  the  which  solid, the  third  separate  resistance  f r i c t i o n more  completely  case  of  rubbing  of  contact  viscosity  of  presence  lubrication)  former  behaviour  the  frictional  on  flow  by  dimensions  the  dependent  the  may  discrete  reduced  both  influenced  molecular  adhesion  material  hydrodynamic  lubrication).  A  I  of  bulk  influence known  scientist  as  the  who  i t .  Rehbinder's  interest  in  observations  Rehbinder  in  effects.  1928 If  there the  has  mechanism  2  of  the  phenomenon  u t i l i z e  i t  to  can  be  improve  involving  material  abrasion,  comminution  process  removal and  u t i l i z a t i o n  of  the  quantitative  lack  of  At that  the  plastic of  the  Rehbinder  the  effect flow  is  one  Study  solids  metals  but  certain but  not  surface  have  the  Rehbinder  study  f r i c t i o n  effects, effects. is  not  present can  be  to  operations  such But  as practical  severely  there  lowering its  is a  hampered  shown  ions  It  solid's  solids  that  by  necessary  agreement  resistance  has  also  CaF^ to  But  and  water  decrease on  general  microhardness.  different  effect  is  possible  the  ionic  shown  microhardness  f u l l y  that in  Clearly  [6,7].  extent  liquid  affects  been  to  MgO  more  understand  effects.  The on  d r i l l i n g .  [5].  active  reverse  quantitative  rock  time  of  has  in  destruction  is  be  information.  with  environments.  may  or  reducing  varies  i t  efficiency  effects  present  hence  effect  determined  as  problem  in  studying  behaviour  is  to  Rehbinder  called them,  The  physically during reduced  elimination  possible  sliding, when  a  isolate ;  complete  but  a  when its  a  lubricant's the from of  physico-chemical the  lubrication  boundary  lubricating  proportional  penetrating  slider  influence  is  lubrication medium  is  influence used  to  3  permanently with  a  displace  radius  workers reduce  in  the  1.2  variety  work  and  vacuum)  tests  Edison  of  in  1928  to  He  that  charge  was  used  this  slider  by  other  work  to  effects.  were  were  used  carried a  in  out  base  [1]  the  at  have  the  effect  reduce  the  of  as  the in  a  reference  f r i c t i o n the  f r i c t i o n  [2]  dry for  an  as  the  behaviour  rubbing of  that  solids.  rubbing  metal  conducted of  several  this  electrolyte  microhardness  of  phenomenon.  regardless the  solid  surface.  Rehbinder e n h a n c ed  the  noted  material  that  the  displacement  surface by  by  i n t e r f a c i a l  mechanisms of  late  demonstrated  different  Rehbinder  the  back  influence  in  determine  to  dating  properties  changes  experiments  its  diamond  media.  Edison  media  surface  In  observed  in  provide  liquid  electrolytes  potentials.  to  than  used  media  tests  studies  Thomas  observed  surfaces  was  A  Background  lubricating the  smaller  liquid  in  surface.  lubrication  environment  Friction  affecting  of  sliding  Historical  certain  times  of  conducted  experiments  solid  studies  influence  A  (high  25  previous  the  present  about  the  a  a c t i v e media  mechanism apar t  of  4  from  t h e commonly  Boundary  lubrication  .interfere regions of  observed  markedly  the a c t i v e resistance  and  a reduction  reduction  generally  i n the surface  proposed  i n surface  of the s o l i d s  increase results  to t a n g e n t i a l motion  Rehbinder the  An  lubrication.  o f an a d s o r b a t e  the adhesion  contact.  species  the  of boundary  i s the tendency  with  of i n t i m a t e  effects  to  at  their  i n the chain  length  i n a decrease i n  (the f r i c t i o n  force)  damage.  the following  explanation f o r  hardness  "In processes f o r mechanical destruction a r e g i o n of increased crack formation i s created i n the deformed l a y e r s a d j o i n i n g the s u r f a c e of d e s t r u c t i o n forming a predestruction zone. The s u r f a c e a c t i v e medium p e n e t r a t e s t h e embryo m i c r o c r a c k s i n t h i s zone. Increasing the a f f i n i t y of t h i s l i q u i d f o r the s u r f a c e of the s o l i d considerably f a c i l i t a t e s the deformation and d e s t r u c t i o n by s o f t e n i n g t h e s o l i d i n t h e zone of i n c r e a s e d c r a c k f o r m a t i o n . Thus t h e h a r d n e s s o r s t r e n g t h of t h e deformed body i s decreased by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e medium."  It  was  his feeling  to  improve  U.S.S.R.  There  have  [3,4]  In creep  of  been  used  machining  in fact,  that  s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r many  the e f f i c i e n c y  of  be  utilized and  grinding  Rehbinder years  i n the  rock-drilling  .  their  solids,  could  of mining,  i s evidence,  to increase  operat ions  t h e phenomenon  the e f f i c i e n c i e s  processes. effects  that  study  of Rehbinder  Westbrook  effects  and J o r g e n s e n  [5]  on  indentation  observed  5  that  adsorbed  water  of  A  l  that  to  20%.  ^  showed whose and  f  r  o  m  Their that  solids  is  of  of  study  water  bonding  vapour  in  CaF^  surface  active  had  the  postulated with  changes  defects  that  the  ing  was  the  state  or  affect  and  of  by  up  surfaces  compounds covalent  Lye  [6,7]  crystals  studied that  enhanced  From ionic  of  these  adsorbed  of  MgO,  are  mobility  but  results  solids  ionization  Rehbinder  dislocation  microhardness  in  hardness  nature.  CaF^.  effects  value solid  demonstrated  the on  of  metals  molecules  the  by  rate  the  In  a  by  material surface  investigations  maximum  a  from  solid  material further  revealed surface  removal  softening  on  MgO,  that  they  associated  near  surface  extensive  is  by  It  of  b r i t t l e  CaF^  d r i l l i n g was  in  and  upon  a  papers  concernhis  colleagues  fracture  The and  l i t e r a t u r e  dependent  Westwood  agents.  maximum  is  removed  series  Al^O^,  hardness.  the  surface  effects[8,9,10,11,12],  that  glass  drawn  of  which  process.  reduced  (s.l.) with  wear  Rehbinder  their  or  and  conclusion  mechanism  determined  MgO  surface  did  ionic  indentation  dislocations..  the  particular  but  the  range  affect  Goldheim  effect  in  and  not  decreased  One is  ions  that  broad  metallic,  and  reverse  'clean'  a  completely  effects  therefore  on  did  Westwood,  and  its  lowered  results  of  soda-lime rate  concluded  coincided that  a  6  reduction  in  the  surface  hardness  would  the  d r i l l i n g  efficiency  because  the  bit  would  dissipated  in  part  by  primarily  to  create  of  being  chips  be used  considered  But  to  Wiederhorn  findings  of  of  and  found  the  same  glass  occur  in  Westwood  examination to  observe  process  of  front  of  in  which  material  of  f a i l u r e  and  ploughing  that  a  enhanced  the  It down-hole by  transition ductile  rather  wear  has  been  to  the  wear  instead b r i t t l e  been and  did  by  e l a s t i c a l l y They  Close led  both  to  them  a  ploughing  away  b r i t t l e  wear  not  rate.  pushed  by  the  abrasive  cuttings  removed  had  an  theorized by  from  fracture  the  point  concluded  importance increase  at  that  plastic  in  in  abrasion  and  hardness  material flow  that  rock  confining  exhibits b r i t t l e  to  pressures  a  removal  rather  [14,15,16,17,18,19,20].  predominantly  behaviour  and  ejected.  than  occurs  showed  from  been  greater  the  rate.  fracture [15]  a  of  applied  d r i l l i n g  surfaces  particle,  were  [13]  abrasive  maximum  deformed  assumed  d r i l l i n g  b r i t t l e  Cheatham  was  chips  reduction  associates  material  flow  reduce  behaviour.  his  had  energy  necessary  Roberts  as  abrading  plastic  and  abraded  bulk  ih  that  media  cutting  the  chip  maximum  material  which an  and  that  the  that  in  control  effectively  than  Gnirk  and  macroscopic predominantly varying  from  in  7  about  500  to  1,000  pressures  are  From  i t  this  effects on  very is  from  psi.  a  common  apparent rock  that  s . l .  revealed  glass  confining  moderately  that  d r i l l i n g  that  industrial  diamond  in  also  chips  a  a  study  point  core  that  examine  the  behaviour observed  in  deep  of  of  boreholes.  Rehbinder  view  to  in  should  influence  of  focus  in  a  penetrations  not  behaviour  reproduced  is  demonstrated  effects.  Both  generally  by  the  d r i l l i n g  rate  d r i l l  bit  in  was  in  s . l . the  material.  plough  [21]  that  water.  in  Nadeau  was  of^heptyl  effects  this  and  Rehbinder  d r i l l i n g  than^drilling  Rehbinder  [12]  removal  showed  solution  noted  al  material  Nadeau  higher  et  exhibits  fracture.  of  in  in-situ  ploughing .  Westwood  He  These  alcohol  in  To  it  effects Glass  is on  1  60  the  for  an percent  water. larger study  necessary  micron  present  of  the  to  ploughing  surfaces  manner  about  in  b r i t t l e  produced  continue  glass  the  than  heptanol  plastic  exceeding  glass  studies  have  been  slider [22]  work.  so  this  8  CHAPTER  2.1  Friction  Theory  The a r r a n g e m e n t the  surface  typical  into which i t  of a system  'F'  to  'N'  sufficient  yield  material the  to  [23]  until  the  applied load.  groove or f r i c t i o n It resistance  frictional of  gives  area  shearing fore  exhibit a tangential  the  softer  sinks into  of c o n t a c t  is  track  i n the  of energy bonds.  caused  The t o t a l  the  slider will  its  softer to  cut  support a  material.  that  by t h e  resistance  beyond  sufficient  softer  is  normal load  material  s l i d i n g motion r e s u l t s  the  frictional  from a c o m p l e x d i s r u p t i o n of  friction  force  a relationship  that  is  the  sum  Kragelskii  as  where F^ and  VF  =  are  the  displacement  resistances  shown i n F i g . 1.  As i t moves t h e  L  plastic  This  is  hemisphere  a l l these r e s i s t a n c e s  [24]  cuts  i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  to  dissipation  and  Under a c o n s t a n t  stress  the  of a h e m i s p h e r i c a l s l i d e r  that w i l l  s l i d i n g motion.  point  II  due  of the  be g r e a t l y  to  of  the  surface  F + 1  F + F 2 3  resistances  to  the m a t e r i a l shearing film.  +  F  4  elastic  to  and F^ and F^ a r e  of t h e m a t e r i a l The t o t a l  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e  and  and  force w i l l  properties  of the  the  the theresolids  SIDE  VIEW  FRONTAL  Fig.  1  CROSS-SECTION  Arrangement  of  Diamond  Slider  on  the  Glass  Surface  and  lubricating  media  f r i c t i o n a l  resistance  terms,  of  the by  one  shearing Bowden  by  bonds  manner not  is  within  the  relationship  Tabor  the  for  the  those  that  to  because  the that  the  way  by  from  the  this  of  hardness  rubbing  of  the  Several  derivation The  and  for  the  other  given  the  s.l.  of  the  molecular  of  an  in  only but  the  the  the  some  kg/mm  has 2  500  of  assumptions, expression  here  are of  their  assumptions during  f r i c t i o n  Diamond  is  material  also  The  of  about  this  development  deformation  additional  material  made  no  is  in  approximate  force.  10,000  separated  An  force  assumptions  slider.  glass  be  deformed  not  caused  can  surfaces.  groove  f r i c t i o n  area  motion  simplifying  Tabor  experiences  of  f r i c t i o n  volume  approximately of  breaking  the  to  ploughing  comprises  force.  of  by  the  for  displaced  profile  two  (1)  resistance  the  actual  Bowden  slider  of  S  material  area. the  +  that  cross-sect ion  expression  hardness the  the  allow  made  P  between  f r i c t i o n  general  =  solving  that  is  and  the  [23]  no of  surrounding  however,  and  is  in  the  sum  This  form  known,  the  process.  resulting  d i f f i c u l t y  as  ploughing  there  that  expressed  stated  the  and  that  be  simply  represents  displacement  .from  may  More  which  F  Clearly  involved.  track an  ' [25] kg/mm  are  sliding conforms  indentation whereas 2  .  The  11  deformation  of  the  therefore  be  glass  hence  and  present  slight  flow.  assumed  to  A l l  be  Expressions  to  for  P softer  is  'S'  to  displace  from  the  glass  experienced  the  free  and  'P'  are  the  force  from  the  and  is  static  penetration  by  the  for  by  w i l l  the  the  the  material  the  slider  is  is  by  therefore  discontinuities.  derived  material.  pressure  separately.  flow  the  of  the the  permanently  displace  slider.  is  It  f r i c t i o n  pressure  'p  '  track  required  p  A  is  (2) m  dependent  of  the  where  slider  of  to  Then  =  indentations  required  area  mean  independent  of  of  front  c flow  of  deformation  cross-sectional  multiplied  mean  that  front  and  P  For  the  Term  denotes  the  '  flow  into  negligible  considered  material  material  'A  The  that  assumed  permanent  Ploughing  to  it  permanently  plastic  equal  be  pressed  work.  displaced  the  when  compared  may  Further  2.2  diamond  on  the  geometry the  into  only  the  of  rate the  motion  solid  of  material  slider. is  the  surface,  p  is m  approximately  the  indentation  tests  plastically  up  the  mean  pressure  [26], sides  The of  p  g  softer the  determined material  indenter  as  from flows  shown  in  Fig.  2  as  the  continues  indenter  until  indentation The  is  'L  '.  is  therefore  the  sufficient  mean  and  flow  Tabor  into  horizontally  P  Bowden  sinks  to  =  [27]  solid.  projected  support  pressure  s  the  for  area  'A.^.'  normal  load  ' s t a t i c '  case  the  this  Sinking of  the  J l A-r  have  (3)  shown  that  for  f u l l y  plastic  ind entat ions  p  where  a 'is  the  It the  flow  increases static  yield  has  an  value  dissipation  ultimate as  the  the  slider.  may  be  For  a  to  =  Fig.  3  3  mate r i a l .  when  a  displace that  result  of  Thus  slider the  is  surface  about  the  rate  during  is  three of  in  motion,  material times  the  energy  sliding  Ps  term  moving  approximated  Referring  to  value  the  ploughing  o f t h e  that  material.  Pm The  (4)  shown  required  [28] in  3a  strength  been  pressure to  «  S  (  depends  hemisphere  from  geometrical  this  approximate  on the  the  geometry  area  of  displaced  considerations. relationship  is  5  )  LOAD L  RAISED MATERIAL  PROJECTED AREA OF INDENTATION  = (  Fig.2  d  COSJ-  Diagram;  )  o f Diamond P y r a m i d H a r d n e s s  Test  14  Fig.3  Geometry  of  Diamond S l i d e r  and  Friction  Track  15  A  where b i s  bh  =  c  (6)  —  2  the w i d t h of the  friction  maximum d e p t h o f p e n e t r a t i o n . in  t h i s dynamic case  horizontally it  supports  as  projected  area  'A H  (5).  of the  the  arises  Denoting  s l i d e r grows  until required  t h e d y n a m i c v a l u e g i v e n by  -  H  N  "  ?  (7)  m  here i n r e l a t i n g the a r e a A to H  projected  slider will  The  The f l o w p r e s s u r e  g e o m e t r y of t h e m o v i n g h e m i s p h e r e . horizontally  (3).  holds  Hence A  a difficulty  1  'N'.  to d i s p l a c e t h e m a t e r i a l i s  the  The same r e l a t i o n s h i p  in expression  the normal load  expression  t r a c k and h i s  area  of t h e  a c t u a l l y contact  ' K ' as t h e  the  Only a p o r t i o n of penetrating  the  softer  p o r t i o n of a c t u a l c i r c l e  part  material of  the  of [29].  contact,  we have A„  =  KIT  (!)  (8)  rl  K i s a v a l u e b e t w e e n 0 . 5 and 1 . 0 . stationary  indenter  supporting  the  But f o r  sliding  before  the  in  swept  the  the  indenter  full  circle  In the  case of a  of c o n t a c t  and K w o u l d be e q u a l to  where t h e r e  would  be  1.0.  i s no m a t e r i a l b u i l d - u p  s l i d e r , o r e l a s t i c r e c o v e r y of c o m p r e s s e d m a t e r i a l t r a c k behind the  s l i d e r , K = 0.5.  However,  even  though  absence  of  would  be  since  this  plastic K  w i l l  a  one  simplification  geometry  this  elastic  recovery,  i t  wave  pushed  material  is  of  commonly  materials be  in  close of  softer  solid  used.  A  the  0.6  Equating  ahead  of  ploughing  Therefore  the  real  K and  is  that  the  therefore  of  expected  in  0.5.  slider  and  value  observed  [30].  to  up  is  formulatiomlis  is  a  the  complex material  only  used  an  in  expressions  (7)  slider  of  value  of of  properties  estimated  this  there  the  function  the  value  the of  the  w i l l  work.  and  (8)  gives  b  and  from  geometrical  be  (9)  considerations  h  (10) 8R  wher e  R  is  Substituting  the  radius  of  into  (10)  (9)  the  slider.  gives N  h  2up Substituting  (9)  and  (11)  into  (ID KR (6)  gives  1.5 A  We ploughing  can  force  (12)  c  2R  now by  get  the  general  substituting  (12)  expression into  (2)  for  the  1. 5 (13) 2Rp^ m  \TCK  r  From the  hardness  force. the  this  w i l l  From  result  expression  hardness  w i l l  cross-sectional  2.3  also  area  Shearing  specifically elimate  force. with of  a  [23].  the  the  there  is  hence  the  force  is  contact.  to  the  motion  apparent  increase see  in  in  that  an  that the  a  reducing ploughing  reduction  increase  f r i c t i o n  interest  in  in  the  track.  area  to  break  It  is  'A  1  H  in  bonds to  times  the  it  is  that  between  a  the  more  to  f r i c t i o n  area  of  to  f r i c t i o n shaped  the  be  resistance  because  the  is  the  area  tangential  'A"' o f  shear.  and  sheared.  force  contact  slider  direction  surfaces  over  strength apt  way  shearing  to  form  no  spade  the  that  shear  is  however  energy  of  is  total  the  practice  component the  there the  eliminate  require  equal  since  of  study  tangential  contact  bonds  shearing  material  behaviour,  observed  sliding  this  suggested  contact  not  in  component  Tabor  resultant  needed  the  essentially  always  of  softer  the  and  would  The  of  is  we  result  ploughing  negligible  This  an  (12)  shearing  Bowden  motion  in  i t  Term  Although  to  equation  the  S  from  expression  (7)  =  A A  we S  R  (14)  NX:  (15)  get  =  Pin In  the  w i l l  presence  be  Fewer  disturbed  bonds  medium bonds  and  w i l l  that  do  resulting hard  lubricants thus  be  hence  reducing  formed  less  the  due  energy  real  this to  w i l l  area  of  shear  the be  contact  component.  interference needed  to  of  shear  the those  form.  The  a  of  final  from  the  expression ploughing  hemispherical  for  of  slider  a  the  friction.'*force  plastic  material  with  is 1.5  F  =  1  ( N \  J  2 R p ^ \TTK  The radius example  would  theory reduce  of';this  would  resistance  would  bonds.  actual  In  penetration flat  of  surfaces  completely  be  be  due  fact  a  the  that  flat  m  the  resistance.  An  slider.  to  the  there  is  always  term  slider extreme  F r i c t i o n a l  shearing some  asperities  ploughing  (16)  increasing  only  microscopic so  P  ploughing  be  NX  of  mutual  between  can  adhesive  never  two be  eliminated.  To must  suggests the  +  made  study as  ploughing  large  as  behaviour  possible  and  the so  ploughing  the  radius  term  of  the  force  slider is  contact value  must  dependent and  w i l l  not  independent  on  of  of  sufficiently  only  remain  manifestation  be  the  on  the  radius  relatively 'Amonton's  the  apparent  small.  real of  The  tangential  the  slider  constant. Law'  that  area  of  This  area  hence is  f r i c t i o n contact.  shearing  a is  of its  CHAPTER  3.1  Experimental  The to  study  diamond  the  f r i c t i o n on  specimen  immersed  f r i c t i o n  behaviour  environment  3.2  was  General  present of  surface  various  observed  compared  of  a  single flat  the  was  industrial  soda-lime  environmental in  to  a  experiments  media.  presence  thatobbserved  glass  of  in  The  each  high  vacuum.  this  work  [31]  for  was  set  were the  up  as  sliding f r i c t i o n '  of  took  in  were  the  Fig.  the  normal  sliding  velocity  place.  The  'F'  and  f r i c t i o n  chamber  at  4  vacuum same  as  those  friction.  were  used  used  The  for  by  Green  apparatus  controlled  force 'V'  'N'  and  measured  the  systems  4.  that  applied  the  this to  the  environment  variables  displaced  in  were  the  cross-sectional  in  x  10  tests  8  torr  were conducted and  room  in  a  which  tangential area  tracks.  Atmosphere-free vacuum  high  sliding  parameters  force the  of  shown  investigation the  and  essentially  study  The  diamond,  Description  actuator  The  c  the  behaviour  the in  of  Apparatus  3.2.1  'A  Objective  objective  sliding  III  high  temperature.  For  convenience  carried the  out  The  cap  a  adjustable the  Actual  to  assembly  3.2.2  is  a  single  the  Corning  type  to  by  by  a  the  the  shaft  schematically  constant  downward  slider  weight  glass  applied  placement arm  was The  added  Pretesting main  a  soda-lime  counterweight.  simply  shown  revealed  shaft.  dressing  tool  slider  to  the  the the  above  steel for  normal  load  a  the  tip^of  on  was  the  load  condition then  tray.  slider shaft  to  to  no-load load  force  slide.  weight a  6  over  microscope  balanced applied  with that  a  Fig.  and  sliding  directly of  in  normal  to  slider  transmitted  5.  resistance  was  by  an  diamond  f r i c t i o n a l  the  The  The  diamond,  force  on  steel  industrial  normal  achieved  was  diamond-tipped  linkage.  container.  mounted  diameter  with  diamond  were  set  2947  pressure  and  motion  also  Assembly  apply -  were  leak-proof  sliding  a  Fig.  assembly  The  tray.  in  a  placement  inch  a  media  atmospheric  cylinders  by  by  Slider  surface  measure  done  shaft  shown  designed  and  1  at  within  Lineal a  liquid  the:specimen  hydraulic  was  Diamond  and  motion  through  the  The was  of  sliding  chamber  enclosed  platform.  slider  mounted  the  slider  system  involving  removed  assemblies  diamond  using  to  within  chamber  slider  tests  mounted  r i g i d l y  transmitted  low  to  the  Fig. 6  Diagram  of  Diamond  Slider  Assembly  amplitude  high  frequency  Presumably  these  The  arm  of  slider both  tests  induced  that  Previously sliding.  of  each  sliding  the  with  3.2.3  An in  medium,  on  to  the  room  a  diamond.  disturbances.  turrent  rotation.  capable  Subsequent  was  straight  and  was  designed  to  lower  the  surface  in  order  to  to  free  sliding  from  by  placed  of  very  observed  The  ramp  run-in  the  from the  with  specimen.  the  glass  irregular  prior  scratching  complicating  a  smooth  transition  eliminated.  starting  contact  on  allowed  raising  the  thereby  was  l i f t e d  and  reduce  the  the  glass  main  at  the  shaft.  position  on  end  Thus the  glass.  Assembly  was  during permit  subsequent  scratches.  times  scratches  with  simply  was  in  assembly  place  and  reset  diamond  period  was  scratch  the  was  track  further  Specimen  firmly  exterior  mounted  glass  between  diamond  was  no  the  irregular  cm.  diamond  ramp  onto  behaviour.  and  lh  ramp  i n i t i a l  f r i c t i o n  f r i c t i o n  each  by  v e r t i c a l  diamond  An  The of  and  tracking  impact the  to  to  therefore  inclined  smoothly  i n i t i a l  the  induced  vibrations  vibrations.  An  the  was  horizontal  showed  diamond  were  lateral  needed  to  scratching, lateral Each  spaced  hold to  a  microscope  retain  repositioning  a  was  at  intervals  in.  liquid  for  specimen h  slide  scratched with  nine the  outermost The  scratches  specimen  specimen  edges  by  place  against  dish  was  in.  assembly  A  fixing  contained  %  an  the  within  was  front 1  on  chamber  fitted  with  a  toothed  fitted  with  a  matching  from  mechanical be  3.2.4  f i x  i t  8  to  Actuator  allowed  side  in  the  move in  uniform  was  controlled  rack  the  the  system  control  of  The  to  a  was  The  traversed  trolley by  was  chambertthrough port.  in  clamp  dish.  arm  rear  The  was an  arm  hand a  linear  clamp  desired  the  site  could and  testing.  shown the  schematically  slider  assembly  hydraulic  cylinder  in from  Fig. out-  chamber.  o i l  driven  sliding by  Bimba  motion.  metering with  a  a  metering  dial  for  ranged  from  The the  cylinder  velocities  slide.  The  7.  and  plate  clamp  chamber  for  Fig.  front  manipulated  This  trolley  place  in  l a t e r a l l y  was  slide.  bracing  track.  vacuum  hydraulic vernier  the  that  and  side  the  its  rectangular  rack.  actuator  vacuum  the  deep  of  System  complete  An  of  grooved  the  firmly  The  a  outside  link  maneuvered  then  along  along  metal  trolley  vacuum  operated  edge  ends  schematically  clamped  in. a  the  shown  adjustable  a  mounted  is  from  Nupro  0.001  rate  flow  of  displacement  o i l  microvalve  velocity to  of  0.4  provided  to  the  equipped  selection. cm/sec.  with  Sliding  Fig.7  Diagram.  of  Specimen  Assembly  CONTROL  BOX  -  ACTUATOR  c  ACCUMULATOR  JSZ  a. b, c-, d, e, (^^)  .START-STOP .BYPASS .RATE CONTROL .MODE .BLOW-DOWN  PUMP  ACTUATOR  3 F i g . 8.;  Schematic  of  Hydraulic  System  SWITCH  ACTIVE GAUGES  BRIDGE AMPLIFIER  120  Q  1201  120  -•A -*C  120'  i REFERENCE GAUGES CHART RECORDER  Fig.9  Strain  Gauge  System  Oil which  was  provided  a  supplied pulsation  pressure  throughout  pressure  was  the  sliding  3.2.5  Actuator  the  motion  main was  mounted  Starret  port  of  4  The  vertical  respect  to  to  a  rigid  floor.  to  of  1,000  main  of  The psi  constant  accumulator  so  force  the  that would  any not  and  platform of  and  y  support  inch  t i l t  affect  base  the  to  was  t i l t .  This  cylinder  platform.  The  indicated  by  stationary  support  base.  the  chamber  through  vacuum  feedthrough  linear  was  cylinder  unit  (a  bellows)  displacement.  restricted  by  the  limited  bellows.  was  movement chamber  to  a b i l i t y  the  entered  the  platform  of  mechanical 6  hydraulic  hydraulic  platform  fixed  a  the  limited  end  shaft  with  a  second  the  The  the  a  of  gauge  movement  x  at  had  by  position  diameter  allowed  scratch.  supported  and  produced  modified  degree  source  accumulator  Platform  shaft  dial  inch  free  pressurized  scratching  platform  The a  the  v e r t i c a l l y  horizontal a  in  a  velocity.  The and  each  maintained  irregularities  by  mounted  for  port. which  to  a  machine  positioning  the  The  machine  was  anchored  shaft  table to  table  was  the  that  with fixed concrete  30  3.2.6  Vacuum  The  System  high  vacuum  system  used  in  this  work  was  —8 a  TTSB-200  torr  in  three  bake'out the  a l l  were  strain  lid 1  in  was  inch  not  inner the  gauges  mounted  diameter  and  was  work  support  at  the  pumps  of  that  the  LN  molecular  would  from  high the  contained on  a  and  top 4  which  when  the  the  Below  the  wide  by  specimen to  bell  the jar  was  assembly.  accomplished  by  coolant  sieves  damaged  12  inch  base.  a  temperature  have  welded  as  10  high  p l a t f o r m was  2  x  chamber.  inches  basewell  was  used  8  platform  This  pumping  zeolite  jar  chamber  section  Rough  was  4  requiring  the  entered  bell  fastened.  flange  pumping  The  reaching  bakeout  within  used  of  vacuums  since  jar  was  synthetic  Higher  bell  thick  sorption  capable  possible  removed.  trolley  unit  hours.  The inches  metal  as  the  two  and  cryogenic  highly  sorbant.  porous These  -3 pumps of  produced  these  pumps  contamination can  occur  oils  as  when  the  by  pumping  monitoring  u n i t s.  vacuum  in  eliminated due  to  using  pumping  High getter  a  the  the  order  of  10  p o s s i b i l i t y  backstrearning differential  of  torr. of  specimen  pumping  pumps  The  that  oils  use  surface  that  employ  heavy  fluid.  vacuum and  the  ion ion  was  produced  pumping. pump  by  using  Pressure  current  on  a  titanium  was  meter  maintained scaled  in  torr  Since gases, was  a  used  partial  in  any  quadra-pole to  produced  type  determine  pressures  of  vacuum  residual  the  gas  composition  those  gases.  there  residual  analyzer and  The  are  (RGA)  respective  RGA  had  a  mass -14  range  of  partial  1  -  250  amu  and  pressure  for  N^.  It nitrogen chamber dry  was  fitted  bottled u n t i l  valve  pressure  with  conduct  a  Nupro  into  the  a  set  pressure air  in  was  x  of so  inlet  chamber  pressure  1  10  tests the  valve a  torr  in  a  vacuum to  bleed  vacuum  indicated  on  the.bottl  meter.  was  section  machined its  r i g i d i t y  of  behaved  the  (the  120  a  rest  thin  strain  BAM  -  1  v e r t i c a l  as  the a  with  assembly.  gauges  applied were  measure  gauges bridge  were  on  respect  slider  to  the  elastic  to  to  the  slider  beam  tangentially  cemented  the  the  cross-section  Thus  cantilevered  force)  to  beam  rectangular  f l e x i b i l i t y of  strain  section  The  the  f r i c t i o n  ohm  model  of  relative  machined  E l l i s  to  essentially  load  axis. the  to  of  Instrumentation  increase  end  sensitivity  standard  atmospheric  A arm  at  nitrogen  state  3.3  desired  atmosphere was  a  each  with to  arm an its  face  of  force.  used  amplifier.  iii conjunction E l e c t r i c a l  with  32  feed  from  the  chamber  current  electrical  made  two  up  arms  temperature during This the is  a  result  given  recorder each  of  was to  to  display  dummy and  drift  gauges  output  one  channel  but  force  a  active  gauges  no  of  a  was  not the  the  Brush  on  for monitored  unbalance  would  from  of  medium  output  calibration  The  rod  arranged  pressure  I.  f r i c t i o n  120  ohm  circuitry  3.4  so  the  the  for  occurred.  affect slider  arm  bridge strip  time  the  respect  in  a  dummy  chart  base  gauge  this  each  system  of  order the  is  act  of  0.7  track  of  throughout  to  shown  were  a  wall  of  block  for  BAM  detect  to  strain  in  another of  mild  pair steel  d i f f e r e n t i a l  any Fig.  change.  was  The  9.  Area  shallow  microns,  the  was  resistance  resistance test  to  strain  mounting  consisted  Cross-Sectional  tracks  reference  switch  permanent  The  after  a  The  chamber.  and  to  through  mounted  Friction in  constant  gauges  Measurement  depths  a  testing.  results  before  with  connected  strain  outside  checked  gauge  during  usually  differential  with  were  calibrated  low The  dual  The  pump-downs  tests.  fed  and  The  that  a  unit.  bridge  vacuum  by  test.  DC  kept  the  Appendix  constructed  of  of  during  A  any  feedthrough  confirmed  in  amplifier  achieved  compensation.  series  output  was  but  ridges.  with  penetration  they  were  Thus  a  large  Talysurf  -<', 4  surface  p r o f i l o m e t e r was w e l l  sectional initial tended  profiles.  suited  Investigations  to  t r a c i n g the  showed t h a t  r u n - i n l e n g t h o f a few m i l l i m e t e r s , a to have a u n i f o r m and r e p r o d u c e a b l e  than 1 percent recorded  for  variation.  each  Profiles  Therefore  after  p r o f i l e with  scratch. were d i s p l a y e d on a s t r i p  chart.  magnification  varied with  3.5  The c h a r t - r e c o r d e d and t h i s  the  t r a c k i n g speed  p r o f i l e s were t h e n  area  of  i n s e l e c t i n g the  o b t a i n a diamond r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d u s t r i a l rotary b i t s .  stones with irregularily  pick  with a  to r e a l  area.  either  of  These  diamond u s e d was  the  kind  tend  no c l e a v a g e p r o p e r t i e s  oriented  facial  planes  [32].  used  to be or  i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e  respect  to t h e  surface  inferior  Cutting  o r i e n t a t i o n of the  cutting direction  in  friction  cleaved  diamond w i t h  [33].  The g e o m e t r i c a l shape o f i n d u s t r i a l d i a m o n d s used  in surface-set  diamond b i t s  i s not  to  very  behavior using c r y s t a l l i n e stones with regular faces  the  traced  v a l u e was c o n v e r t e d  Depth  The Diamond The o b j e c t  -set  less  a s i n g l e p r o f i l e was  was u s u a l l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 t i m e s and w i d t h  planimeter  an  scratch  magnification  up.  cross-  specifically  34  controlled.  Generally,  rounded.  A  spherical  tip  The of  radius the  tip at  of  was  shown  right  3.6  b a l l - r o l l e d  approximately  projected  in  Fig.  angles  to  10  the  area in  diamond  0.05  from  diamonds  the  views  sliding  with  mm r a d i u s  scanning of  tend a  used.  electron  micrographs  The  directly  be  roughly  was  diamond.  taken  to  diamond  on,  and  direction.  Specimens  Microscope for  the  industrial  determined  frontal  is  however,  this  study  slides  of  soda-lime  because  of  their  decision  to  use  glass  consistent  were  surface  selected and  material  properties .  The early  work  using  unsatisfactory  because  stresses  caused  fissures  which  large  chips.  displaced  a  because  and  dependent in  the  complicated  sections. of  the  growth  creation the  resulted  load of  These  were  used,  surface  cracks  and  from  and  ejection  evaluation  of  the  of real  area.  atmospheric face  time  This  glass  regardless  resulted  Corning chosen  float-plate  microslides  type  they  2947  came  s . l .  vapour  contamination.  force  was  needed  glass  degreased  Slides to  microslides  came  separate  and  sealed  packed  them.  were  face  Slides  against to were  (i)  Frontal  Profile  magnified  385 X  R (ii)  (iii)  Fig.  Radius  of C u t t i n g  0 . 0 5 mm  Asperity  Side P r o f i l e m a g n i f i e d 385 X C u t t i n g F a c e on L e f t S i d e o f M i c r o g r a p h 10  Scanning  Electron Micrographs  o f Diamond  installed exposed  directly  surface  position  of  from  face  the  the  up.  glass  carton  Details  is  given  3. 7  Experimental  Proceedure  3 . T.l  Pre-test  Investigation  Tests load  and  were  sliding  velocities  ploughing  friction  tended  create  to  gouges,  higher  load  load  was  reduced  behaviour were  too  raising come.  load  shallow  The  of  load  more  to  reported  the  built-up  the  150 in  to  edges 200  the  another  the  would  best  in  damage  in  was  50  well gm  of  the  with  this also  flow  normal  of  the  250  form  The the  The  damage.  type  of  The  flow  resultant  scratches  Talysurf,  problem showed  was  but  of  Hence  found  most  suitable  for  the  revealed  that  friction  behaviour  a  normal  present  wo r k .  Tests most  noticeably  Convenient  meter  at  the  lower  settings  end  were  of  the  chosen  to  velocity allow  by  over-  evidence  behaviour.  gm  of  debris.  this  the  com-  display  excess  track-wall  obtain  produced  indicative  gm w a s  determine  literature.  observe  scratches  to  extensive to  chemical II.  Loads  and  gm  the  recently  Appendix  surface  cracks,  of  the  in  that  behaviour.  uneven  e l l i p t i c a l the  conducted  with  for  changed range. a  37  greater  concentration  range.  The  0.125,  wire. DC  in  by  The  output  The  velocities  0.168,  monitored  0.25 means  metal was  c i r c u i t Appendix  thermal  and  temperature  remained  room  at  calibration  of  the  directly  liquid  level  to  soak  induced  alcohols  adsorption  channel the  coil  main of  0.094,  was  a  a  velocity  of  resistance  shaft  and  Brush meter  30 of  the  assured The by  from  to  the  recorder. are  the  determine  throughout. is  in  pump-down. The  presented  the of  h'lnch  given  chamber if  any  Temperature  c i r c u i t  in  prepared  above  complete of  and  Appendix  The  surface  when  IV.  to  active  of  water  and  testing species  pouring dish  surface  used  using  specimen  prior  the  liquid of  by  specimen  coverage  absorbtion  concern  minutes  were  pre-cleaned  volume  [13].  the  installed  specimen  resulted  about  sliding.  for  0.044,  on  the  lower  Preparation  into  was  This  the  environments  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  length  to  was  thermistor  Environment  medium  air  of  temperature  Liquid  effects  second  the  Velocity  contact  fixed  probe  with  variation  during  was  the  0.018,  cm/sec.  sliding  in  III.  contact  specimen.  a  velocities  0.001,  calibration  temperature  3.7.2  0.4  of  to  test  were  slider  fed  and  A in  of  the  the  in  short  the  the  the  reduced  vapour  allow  until  solid  also  diamond to  of  the  from  the  chain  were  left  adequate medium  onto  38  both  surfaces .  After was  removed  drained  ing a  tank  30  in  of  The  dish  in  bath.  boiling This  a  are  and  given  3.7.3  labelled in  A l l on -up  30  minutes  d r i f t .  slider  a  BAM  was to  convenience  ultra-sonic  for  rinse  allowed  the  used  The  switching every  for and  determine  to  p o s s i b i l i t y  directly of  to  and  its  from  these  liquids  reference to  the  scratch  a  to  i n i t i a l  gain.  gauge.  assure  The  unit  was  warm  against' Brush  controls  known  strain  dummy  switched  calibrated  gain  display  was  the  the  and  clean-  solution  lengthy  properties  allow  balanced  connected  division.  after  alcohol  ethyl  was  environment.  to  use  for  checked  used  were  The  of  then  before  adjusted  was  was  instrumentation  then  by  a  reduced  media  dish  detergent  dish  previously  specimen  an  by  i t  Preparation  deflection  determined  in  specimen  V.  was  chart  and  sequence  bottles.  recorder  per  rinses  followed the  a  the  electronic  The  arm  and  grade  Appendix  Instrument  water  on  and  immersed  was  cleaning  Laboratory sealed  hot  This  from  analysis  then  water  contamination  completed  alternating  was  containing  dry.  was  Talysurf  cleaned  minute  clean  air  for  and  acetone.  testing  were of  force  then This  that  no  value DC  drift  had  occurred.  also  checked  to  zero  a  The after  force  The specimen.  caused  by  Three This  readout  run  to  assure  range  of  velocities  were  also  of  trends  development neighbouring  that  i t  was  returned  Upon removed  from  remove  the  surface. solvent  No as  due  completion  the  specimen  bulk  of  attempt  this  the was  would  and  for  scratch.  flow  of  in  a  random  to  the  of  each  in  development  properties  dish  of  of  on  each of  the  sequence  influence  fluid made  the  to  trends slides.  to  avoid  the  repetitive  visual  specimen  dry  remained  clean have  was  the  blown  that  material.  specimen for  test  and  certainly  The  o p t i c a l microscope  removal.  run  the  tested  run  Analysis  fracture each  surface  were  was  scratches.  Talysurf  3.7.5  specimens  eliminated  individual  Velocities  an  arm  reading.  complete  environment.  to  every  slider  Testing  3.7.4  each  undeflected  the  with on  A  p r o f i l e  then  evidence  air the  specimen  influenced  with  the  was  examined of  was  made under.•  material  40 CHAPTER  4.1.  Results  and  The Figs.11-22.  IV  Analysis  experimental Results  are  measurements  displayed  for  are  presented  comparison  in  in  Figs'. 23-25.  4.1.1.  Friction  Force  Friction and  in  the  force  presence  of  Irregularity  when  force  Generally  in  the  line.  alcohol  variation  of  In  the  vacuum  tests and  were  air  and  occurred the  force  about  variation at  obtained  was  the  was  In  its  mean less  with  with  environment  velocity.  characterized  than  was  1  of  a  the  about  25  percent. the  with  jagged  occurred  alcohol  vaLue  consistent  by  irregularity  propyl  completion  were  varied  nitrogen,  greatest  environments.  re-run  results  i t  regularity  test  percent.  Several program  those  observed  ear1ier.  In the  mean  a l l  value  of  During external  cases  the  f r i c t i o n  the  force  line.  the  test  to  the  chamber  influencing  the  results.  to  brace  taken  the  during  chamber. testing  program  were  it  was  was  found  transmitted  Unsuccessful  Subsequently in  force  order  to  to  evaluated  that  the  attempts  considerable  avoid  as  disturbances  specimen were care  disturbances.  made was An  Fig.  11  (a)  Recorded V  =  Friction  0.168  Force...High  cm/sec  F  12.0  1 0  DATA  fe — fe 4 0 .  BEST  o  o 1—1 H O 20. I—I  a  fe  i I 0.1  11  (b)  Friction  i  0.2 VELOCITY Force versus  A  11  (c)  Recorded  =  c  Friction  0. 3 cm/sec Velocity...High  0.125 =  2,1  Track  X  P W  u <: fe fe w  Vacuum  Horiz.  2,000  x  10  ^  mm  2  P r o f i l e . . . High  Vacuum  I O  fe r-~\  FIT  CURVE  -  co \ o 8 o 0  11  DATA BEST  8  0.1 Fig.  O.i  cm/sec  0 0  <  _  -o  I  V  <| W fe  CURVE  l !  Vert...10,000  Fig.  FIT  8  0  Fig.  gm  1  1  0 60 w 60. u  =  Vacuum  (d)  Displaced  o  _8_  0.2 VELOCITY Area versus  8 0.3 cm/sec V e l o c i t y . . .High  - (b 0.4 Vacuum  X  42 (i)  -KO-  (ii)  Fig.  12  (a) Recorded F r i c t i o n F o r c e . . . N i t r o g e n ( i ) V = 0.009 c m / s e c F = 18.0 gm ( i i ) V = 0.4 c m / s e c F = 15.0 gm  3 Pi  I  T  0 oO  O  60  DATA  o 2  o  BEST  F I T CURVE  40.|_  H H  Pi  20  feo___8_  _8__8  4  8  0 0.1 Fig.  12  0.2 0.3 0.4 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . Nitrogen  (b) F r i c t i o n  Vert...10,000 V = 0.094 A  Fig.  12  (c) Recorded  Friction  1  e e  c  =  2.4  Track  Pi <  cm/sec x 10  1  —  w  Horiz...2,000  ^  mm  2  Profile...Nitrogen  1 O  <  X  DATA BEST  F I T CURVE  -  a  w u  0  <  fe  o  I  8  ° -g  1  0 Fig.  J  0.1 12  (d) D i s p l a c e d  ! c  8-  £  1  0.2 VELOCITY Area versus  -4 1  0.3 cm/sec Velocity... Nitrogen  0.4  X  DISPLACED  fe o  • r-  r-o  1  I  OO  AREA  -P-  mm  CO  <*"N  fe  09  I— OJ  1  AD  /  CD  a  /O  5* ro o o ii fe  / O '(D  H*  cn 1— 1  n It  ro fe  O OO  fe  >  H H' O rt  H fD  OO  <  w < ro r  fe O  1  •i o cn o H C — i i N3 cn H K!  <  ro  OO  H o 0 3 o — fe cn rt  fe  09  as  'aMef'o  1  fe  ro o  1  O  Bd M  o  1 in H  • • •  > >  >  fe  H i-i Co o ?r  o o o  i  I  X H O  X  o i-h  fe fe-  ll) •  H*  >  H  fe N •  • • 1— 1  o o o  II  o •  o 4> J> o 3  1 OS  9tsj  w o  <  \  e  n  bob I I I  > OJ •  X  o  o  II  • • •  O  •  <  rj rt  3  r1 H -  <  cn  ro n  FRICTION ro o  FORCE o  as o  gm  fe 09  Fig.  14  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.25  cm/sec  Force...Water F =  25.0  S DO  W  O  gm  DATA  60 BEST  u  F I T CURVE  PH  o fe  40  S5  o H  20.  H O 1—I  O  >-8-  o  _Q  -o-  O  PH  fe 0. 0.1 Fig.  14  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus Velocity...Water  (b) F r i c t i o n  V = 0.168 A  = c Vert Fig.  14  (c) Recorded  O U _•_o Q  &  8  0_ - 0 - - 6 o  14 ( d ) D i s p l a c e d  cm/sec x 10  ^  10,000  X  Friction  0.1 Fig.  2.5  0.4  Track  mm  2  H o r i z . . . 1 , 000 X P r o f i l e . . . Water  O  DATA  --  BEST  F I T CURVE  -Oo  0.2 0 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus Velocity  0  0.4 Water  Fig.  15  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.25  Force. ..Caproic  cm/sec  F =  25.0  Acid  gm  0  00  w a 6 0 . L_ rt o fe o H H u H  rt  O  DATA  - " BEST  F I T CURVE  —1  40  c g - o - o - - o - -Q  20  8'  1  1  0.1 15  Fig  _o  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus Velocity...Caproic  (b) F r i c t i o n  Vert...5,000 V A  Fig.  15  (c) Recorded  = 0.094 =  c  2.3  Friction  O  w u  6  2  mm  Track  Profile...Caproic  Acid  o 2 .  DATA BEST  8- - ° -  o  CO  H P  o '8T  4  -  F I T CURVE  -  1 0.1  Fig  x 10  he  rt  <  fe  X  cm/sec  O  6. h-  W  <  Horiz...1,000  Acid  I  0 0  <  X  0.4  15  (d) D i s p l a c e d  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus Velocity...Caproic  0.4 Acid  46  Fig.  16  (a) Recorded V = 0.25  Friction  Force...Oleic  cm/sec  F =  0  O  60  W u  42.0  Acid  gm  DATA  60. BEST  rt o rt 4 0 . 53 O  O o h-  I—I H 20. U  u  o  o  o  -8-  O  o  "<y~  "8"  F I T CURVE  1—1  rt rt  l 0. 1  0.  16  Fig  (b) F r i c t i o n  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus Velocity... Oleic V = 0.009 A  =  6.7  16  (c) Recorded  Friction  Acid  cm/sec x  10  Vert...10,000 Fig.  0.4  Track  -6  mm  X  2 Horiz...2,000  Profile... Oleic  X Acid  0 0  < W  o  rt  <  1  O  8  O  o w o  O  -fj  8" O  <  rt rt  DATA  --BEST  co  0 . Fig.  16  0. 1 (d) D i s p l a c e d  Area  F I T CURVE.  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec versus Velocity... Oleic  0.4 Acid  1 Fig.  jllii 17  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.25  H 1 Force...Hexane  cm/sec  F = 30.0  gm  0  60  W CJ  O  DATA  rt 60.  o  BEST  rt E5 O O 4 0 . he 1—I H U  _§  I—I 20. rt fe  0.1 17  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec F o r c e v e r s u s V e l o c i t y . . Hexane  (b) F r i c t i o n  V  = 0.125  A  =  4.5  17  (c) Recorded  x  Friction  s e  10 ^  mm  2  X  Horiz..  1,500  Track  Profile  ..Hexane  O  < <  o o  P w o  <  rt rt  8 o o - "8'  o 8-  X  DATA BEST  w rt  0.4  cm/sec  Vert...10,000 Fig.  _0 1  0.  Fig.  F I T CURVE  F I T CURVE  O J2  8  O  2 .  I—I  p  0 .  Fig.  0.1  17 ( d ) D i s p l a c e d  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus Velocity...Hexane  0.4  Fig.  18 ( a ) R e c o r d e d  F r i c t i o n Force...Heptane  V = 0.009  cm/sec  F  = 35.0  0 oo w 60.  O  u  U H  DATA BEST  fe o fe 4 0 . • he B5 o 1—1 H  gm  o LQxv^o.  o  D  o  o  o_  F I T CURVE  8-  $  20.  fe fe  l 0.1 Fig,  18  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . Heptane  (b) F r i c t i o n  Vert...10,000 V A Fig.  18  (c) Recorded  0 6  <  n w o «! fe fe OTJ  H  P  Fig  c  Friction  Horiz...1,500  X  cm/sec  = 2.0  1  CM  <! w fe  = 0.25  X  0.4  x 10" Track  6  mm  2  P r o f i l e . . . Heptane  1  1 O  §  DATA BEST  F I T CURVE  \  8r3x 8  8-  9  J8  (  -<  — i 0.1 18  (d) D i s p l a c e d  i i 0.2 0.3 0. VELOCITY cm/sec A r e a v e r s u s V e l o c i t y ... H e p t a n e  Fig.  19  (a) Recorded  Friction  Force...Methyl  V = 0.009 c m / s e c  F = 33.0  Alcohol  gm  e  oo w u rt o  60 . I  O  DATA  —  BEST  F I T CURVE  rt 4 0 . 53  o  IH H C_> H  20. I  rt rt  § T 8 - ^ - 8 _  0  - 8 - - Q  1 0.1  'ig.  19  (b) F r i c t i o n  -8  i 0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . Methyl Vert...10,000 V A  Fig.  19  (c) Recorded  = 0.044 c  =  2.4 x  Friction  X  w rt  <  o w u  X  cm/sec 10  Track  6  mm  2  P r o f i l e . . . Methyl  Alcohol  ! O  <  Alcohol  Horiz...2,000  !  T  0.4  DATA  - - BEST  F I T CURVE  4 .  <  rt rt co  o o  i—i  -8—8—8-  •8  J  P  0.1 Fig  19  (d) D i s p l a c e d  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . M e t h y l  0.4 Alcohol  50  DISTURBANCE  Fig.  20  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.044  e  cm/sec  1  —  Force... Propyl F = 42.0  85 O H H  gm  1  1 O  60  60 w u fe o * 40  DATA BEST  -© o  J£o  Alcohol  FIT  CURVE  O  o  _ Q. O  8 - 8 — 8 -  — J  _ o _ o  20  H OH  fe  1  0,  1  0.1 Fig.  20  (b) F r i c t i o n  V e r t . . .10,000 V = 0.009 A  Fig.  6 B  20  o  tort  <  cP  a w u  =  6.4  (c) Recorded  X  0 Alcohol  H o r i z . . .1, 000 X  cm/sec x 10  Friction  ^  mm^  Track  P r o f i l e . . . Propyl  Alcohol  o  O  <  1  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/ s e c Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . Propyl  8^8  8  cr o  _e  <J fe fe  8  ° 8  :  O  CO  DATA BEST  F I T CURVE..  0. 0.1 F i g.  20  (d) D i s p l a c e d  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . Propyl  0.4 Alcohol  Fig.  21  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.044  Force...Heptyl  cm/sec  F = 38.0  Alcohol  gm  e w o  60  rt  o  ° -so  rt 53  40  O  -rvo— o  _ "Q  H  1$  Cr-  O  O H H  o  —  O  DATA  20  BEST  F I T CURVE  rt rt 0.1 Fig-  21  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Force versus V e l o c i t y . . . H e p t y l  (b) F r i c t i o n  V = 0.001 A  =  5.3  21  _D  (c) Recorded  Friction  °  0  O ^  •8" o  0_ 8  8 o  Track  Alcohol  cm/sec x 10  V e r t . . . 10,000 Fig.  0.4  ^ X  mm  2  H o r i z . . .3 , 000 X  Profile...Heptyl  o -8O  Alcohol  --§ DATA  2 . BEST  0.1 Fig.  21  (d) D i s p l a c e d  F I T CURVE  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . H e p t y l  0.4 Alcohol  Fig.  22  (a) Recorded  Friction  V = 0.044  Force...Decyl  cm/sec  F = 42.0  0  w u  O  DATA BEST  O -o  53  l-O  o  o  gm  60  o to 40 H H  Alcohol  o  F I T CURVE  CP  O  XT  °  O  20  H to  0.1 22  (b) F r i c t i o n  Force  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec versus Velocity...Decyl  V = 0.044 \ L  A  c  5.1 x  22  (c) Recorded  Friction  10 ^  Track  X  " o o o  o  o—  "8" o  8  H o r i z . . . 2 , 000 X  o o  Alcohol  DATA  - - BEST  o 4.  mm^  Profile...Decyl  O  8  Alcohol  cm/sec  V e r t . . . 10,000 Fig.  0.4  F I T CURVE  oo o  -  J  2 .  1  0.1 Fig.  22  (d) D i s p l a c e d  0.2 0.3 VELOCITY cm/sec Area versus V e l o c i t y . . . D e c y l  0.4 Alcohol  1  60 .  50 .  —  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  A. ..HIGH VACUUM  E. ..CAPROIC ACID  B . ..NITROGEN  F. ..OLEIC ACID  C. . .AIR  G. ..HEXANE  D. .. WATER  H. . .HEPTANE  1  1  I  1  V =  1  0.4  1  1  1  1  cm/sec  N . .n-ALCOHOLS c  e  L C T I O N FORCE  (  60  ;o-  40. ; O  O  O  30 . O  <; '  O  O  O 0  20.  pel fe  O 10.  o  0.  1  1  A  B  1  C  1  D  1  E  1  F  1  G  1  H  1  /1  1  1  2 3  1  1  1  4  5  6 7  1  1  1  1  8  9  10  1  1  11 12  N c  ENVIRONMENT Fig.  23  Effect  of Environment  on F r i c t i o n  Force  Co  10.0  9.0 8.0  o  I  1  I  1  !  y  A. ..HIGH VACUUM  _  _  .  I  1  1  E . ..CAPROIC  B . ..NITROGEN  F. . • O L E I C  C. . .AIR  G. ..HEXANE  D. ..WATER  H . .•HEPTANE N  7.0 6.0  i  c  1  1  1  ACID  •  1  V =  1  1  1  1  1  1  0.4 c m / s e c  ACID  . .n-ALCOHOLS  —  — O  5.0  < £  4.0  Q  —  0  <!  O .  O\  _  O  n  g  3.0  fe w  2.0  — 0  —  P  O O  h. 0  1  0.0  t  B  A  1  1  1  C  D  E  1 F  1 G  —  o-  0  i H  I  1  1 2  1  1  3  4  ENVIRONMENT  Fig.  24  Effect  of Environment  on D i s p l a c e d  Area  i  1  5  6  1  1  7  8  1  9  !  1  10  11  1  12  example  of the e f f e c t  disturbance  free  of disturbance  force  Previous that  causing  an u n d e s i r a b l e  force axis  through  of the turret.:  reduce From  preliminary force  cm t h i s  this  produced  effect,  acted  Mean  scatter  generally  values  velocity. water,  Tests  caproic  scatter. determined  Trends  with  was t o  the average a moment  o f 1 5 0 gm-cm.  To  caused  arm o f  nullify  to the load  This  tended  tray  which  a 1 5 0 gm-cm  from  i n high  defined.  a r i t h m e t i c a l l y and drawn  the of  to the next  an i n c r e a s e i n  vacuum,  alcohol  in  The extent  one medium with  This  and i s g e n e r a l l y  inconsistencies  and m e t h y l  arewell  t o be s c a t t e r e d .  behaviour  to decrease  conducted  acid  that  of the s o l i d .  considerably tended  the horizontal  direction.  of the surface  varied  Acting  a r m o f 7.5 cm.  force  the f r i c t i o n  on t h e diamond.  was a d d e d  to the microscopic  composition  and  a moment  was  was  moment  i t was d e t e r m i n e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f r i c t i o n  attributed  of t h i s  was 25 gm.  i n the opposite  from  6.0 cm. b e l o w  load  i t  assembly  to r e s u l t  The e f f e c t  a 20 gm w e i g h t  o n a moment  moment  is  moment  a plane  tests  value  the experiments  of the s l i d e r  the e f f e c t i v e normal  friction 6.0  the design  acting  i n F i g . 20.  to running  noticed  i s compared t o  nitrogen,  distilled  had r e l a t i v e l y  Best  f i t curves  through  the data  limited  were  points these of  to  represent  lines  the  are  best  given  i s much  standard  deviations  percent  for  The velocity oleic  friction with  an  hexane, heptanol in  at  4.1.2  decyl  decanol  increase heptane  In  in  R  =  are 0.05  propanol fell  rapid  and  are  the as  high  greater  sliding  than  Water,  Gaproic  to  a  as  of  to  acid,  value  nitrogen, a i r ,  force  sliding  in  an  increase  tended  to  be  con-  cm/sec.  friction  the  and  constant  constant  Only  0.125  i n a i r and  compared  force  in force with  friction  values  vacuum  force  were  only.  experimental  results  of  media.  parameters  constants. mm.,  deviations  better.  cases  i n vacuum,  rise  Theoretical  these  of  friction  alcohol.  a l l cases  are  or  exhibited  rapidly  Theory  for  standard  f i t curves  between  to  Three (16)  best  methyl a  velocities  The  other  environment.  and  and  equations  percent  the  in velocity  exhibited  values  sliding  the  Force  Comparison  These  in  I.  The  alcohol.  with  force.  calculated  of  10  relationship  velocity.  stant  are  greater  changed  acid,  trends.  in Table  f i t curves  Scatter  37  these  the  They  normal  in  the  derived  are  the  radius  N  200  load  =  gm.  force of  the  and  equation slider  the  ENVIRONMENT  FRICTION  FORCE  DISPLACED  (gm)  (mm  HIGH VACUUM  9.3  NITROGEN  14.6  V" -  AIR  33.0  V-°'  WATER CAPROIC OLEIC  ACID  ACID  V" -  AREA ;  v"°-  1.2  X  IO"  0 5  1.9  X  io"  6  v"°-  0  3.1  X  io"  6  v-°-  25.0  2.5  X  io'  6  '2 5 . 0  1. 7  X  io"  6  v"°-  37 . 0  4.1  X  io"  6  v-°-  0  1 5  0  4  6  v"°-  HEXANE  26.0  V" -  0 6  3.4  X  io"  6  v-°-  HEPTANE  25.0  V" -  0 7  2. 0  X  io"  6  v"°-  METHYL ALCOHOL  23.0  V" -  0 5  1.9  X  io"  6  v"°-  PROPYL ALCOHOL  36.0  3.7  X  io"  6  v-°-  HEPTYL ALCOHOL  45.0  4.9  X  io"  6  +  DECYL ALCOHOL  37 . 0  4.2  X  io"  6  Table  I  0  0  0  V ' 0  0  3  Results  of Curve  of  F i t Curves  Best  Fitting  23 05 11 01 14 05 09 13  07  08  1. 4 x  Analysis;,.. . E q u a t i o n s  10  _ 6  V  contact  constant  The  mean  were  determined  mean  flow  diamond  K = 0.6.  flow  pyramid  of glass  hardness  hardness  tests  measured  DPH n u m b e r  this  compares by  was 5 3 0 a n d when  strength  to the value  from ofthe  V I . The  divided  by t h e  by H o l l a n d [22] 2 a = 196 kg/mm . 2  o f 202 kg/mm  This  obtained  [34].  The determined  The  The d e t a i l s  i n Appendix  o f 2.7 a s s u g g e s t e d  favorably  Ainsworth  environments.  (DPH) t e s t s .  to the y i e l d  strength  i n a i r was d e t e r m i n e d  are presented  factor  converts  p and t h e shear m  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  pressure  conversion  pressure  projected  area  and t h e s t a t i c  o f t h e i n d e n t a t i o n s was  mean  flow  pressure  was 2  evaluated  by u s i n g  The  of static  is  ratio Pg/tf-  value a  =  571/196  expression mean  = 2.9 w h i c h  of 3 observed  plastic  flow  by Bowden  indentation.  (3).  Hence  pressure compares  p  = 571 kg/mm .  to y i e l d  strength  favorably  and T a b o r .  No f r a c t u r e  g  This  with the suggests  was o b s e r v e d  around t h e  ind entat ion. From  expression  (5) t h e dynamic  mean  flow  pressure  2 is  p^ =  is  p o s s i b l e to estimate  from  1 7 1 3 kg/mm  an o b s e r v a t i o n  .  This  value  t h e mean  by W a l t o n  i s f o rglass flow  pressure  [35] t h a t  p  m  in air.  It  i n vacuum  increases  by a  factor  of about  3 i n vacuum  from  that  observed  in a i r . 2  This  suggests  sliding  a mean  pressure  o f 5 1 3 9 kg/mm  for  i n vacuum. The  values  were  obtained  [25]  and S t a n w o r t h  from  of shear  tables  strength  compiled  i n a i r and vacuum  b y Bowden  and Tabor  [ 3 6 ] r r e s p e c t i v e l y . The v a l u e s a r e  statistical  averages  specimens.  Actual  depend  flow  of shear  shear  tests  strengths  on a g e , c o m p o s i t i o n  conducted  on g l a s s  of s p e c i f i c  and s u r f a c e  history  glass  slides  a n d may  2 vary  from  these  X =  averages.  2 0 0 kg/mm  f o ra i r  and  2 A = 178 kg/mm reasoned, presence  i n vacuum.  may b e d u e t o t h e p r e s s u r e  expressions  force  Displaced  Track three test  values  equation  distinct to t e s t .  into  area  .ov' t h e  i n Table  experimental  the derived  equation (12),  • (16) t h o s e  and a r e p r e s e n t e d  corresponding  4.1.3  these  forcross-sectional  friction  determined the  variation  has been  of water vapour i n t h e a i r . Substituting  and  The difference,:".it  values  were  I I along  with  results.  Area  profiles troughs.  showed  the presence  Profiles  An e x a m i n a t i o n  were  o f two o r  not consistent  of t h e c u t t i n g  from  t i p ofthe  •A •  m  kg/mm kg/mm 2  2  A A. c (THEORETICAL) (EXPERIMENTAL) DIFFERENCE n mm x i10 mm x 10^ 2  6  2  P  S  F  (THEORETICAL)  F  %  (EXPERIMENTAL) DIFFERENCE  gm  gm  gm  gm  HIGH VACUUM  5139  178  1.0  1.5  33.3  4.9  6.9  11.8  11.0  7.7  AIR  1713  200  4.9  3.4  44.2  8.5  23.4  31.9  34.0  6.1  ><d  TABLE  IT  IN BOTH HIGH VACUUM AND AIR Comparison  R = 0.05 mm , N = Or.2 k g ; , , K = 0.6  6f._The.qr.etical and E x p e r i m e n t a l  Results  61  diamond major  shown  in  cutting  troughs.  The  tests  a  and  resulted  a  slider  slight  upon  profiles  four  projection  asperities. was  These  in  Fig.  16  reveals  may  account  for  c a l i b r a t i o n between  removed  variation  in  for  o r i e n t a t i o n may  the  three  three  have  installation.  There on  frontal  of  is distinct scratches  alcohols.  The  evidence  made  of  built-up  in vacuum,nitrogen  cross-sectional  areas  'A  edges and  of  1  the  these  P built-up  edges  material  that  was  i s compared to The r a t i o o f A Hexane into  were measured.  the /A p c  exhibited  raised  pushed  plotted cases  data  the  against  were  is  area  trends  obtained to  fitting  decyl  least  amount  of  environment  displaced  built-up  edges  displaced in Fig. environment, material  be  against in  Fig.  considerably observed.  a r i t h m e t i c a l l y and  technique  area  is  can  represent  curves  alcohol.  displaced  is plotted  velocity  Linear and  formcof  r  and ; a g a i n s t  points  curve  the  of  25.  ploughed  shoulders.  although  curves  into  amount  amount o f m a t e r i a l i s plotted against °  Displaced Figs.11-22  The  the  trends.  are  given  are  apparent  A l l others before  velocity 24.  scattered  drawn  through  i n water, an  out.  in a l l  best  i n Appendix  flattening  data  Again  Details  exhibit  The  of  in  f i t the  the  VII.  heptyl  initial  drop  alcohol  I  I  1.0  1  0.9  A. . .HIGH  0.8  I  1  I  I  VACUUM  I  1—I—i  E. ..OLEIC  1—1—I  ACID  0.4  B. ..NITROGEN  F . ..CAPROIC A C I D  C . . .AIR  G. ..HEXANE  D. . .WATER  H. . .HEPTANE N  0.7  c  1—I—I  1—I  r  cm/sec  ..n-ALCOHOLS  0.6  O 0.5 A  P c  0.4  0.3  0.2  0.1  O  J  0.0  I  A B  0  I  I  C  D  E  £__D_  Ci F  G  H  J  I  1 2  L 4  5  6  J  I  I  7  8  9  I  1  I  10  11  12  N ENVIRONMENT Fig.  25  Effect  of Environment  on t h e E x t e n t  of Raised  Edge  Material  An revealed and  no  optical chip  of uniform  examination  debris.  width.  of  A l l tracks  the f r i c t i o n were  smooth  tracks sided  CHAPTER  5.1  Discussion  The friction  purpose  behaviour  environments. to  produce  roughly A  An  shallow  spherical  simple  theory  during  and  the  relatively (refer  to  w o r k was  ploughing  plastic diamond  of  The  lubrication  vacuum  between  of  this  on  open  theory simple  the  apparatus  soda-lime  the  results  not  and  air conditions. and  the  data  theoretical  was  to  assumptions  a  surface.  provide involved  only  The  tends  sliding  glass to  of  designed  account  i t can  the  in a variety  mechanisms  does  effects  observe  t r a c k s by  a  basic  theory  to  conducted  friction  accompanies  sliding.  boundary  of  experimental  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  to  V  for be  applied  close,agreement suggest are  that  the  valid  Table I I ) .  The  data  against  velocity  limited  indicating  shows  (refer the  well to  defined  trends  Figs.11-22).  relative  when  plotted  Scatter is  reproduceability  of  the  data.  Friction a  flat  remain case  of  curve flat  at  initially  with  tends  velocities  over  heptyl  force  the  full  alcohol  did  velocity.  to  below range  either 0.1  of  cm/sec.  rapidly or  velocities.  friction Clayton  drop  force  to Only  rise  [ 371. p r o p o s e d  to  an  in  the  explanation high  sliding  contact so  is  the  the to  contact  This in  that  presence  of  as  have effect  a  effects  liquid  Clayton observed active the  for  surface  hence  the  also  has  when  medium  the  Kurnakov  effect  flat  water  friction  while  It and  force  environment.  behaviour  i n mean  of  also  account It  occur  a  result,  decrease in  the  of  clear  energy  Zhemchuzhny  the  for  is  pressure  local  and  in  shearing It  flow  reducing  friction  the  observed  i s reasonable  to  simultaneously  in  time  He  for  behaviour  reasoned  physical  the  at  slow  contact  area  and  is possible  that  this  effect  latter similar  Southwick glass  [38] on  to  a  a  surface onto  velocities subsequently  could  that  in  that  that  combination  observed  glass  to  adsorption  i s moving  the  curve  sliding  similar  heptanol.  slider  reduces  force.  localized  effect).  Kurnakov  observed  in  the  friction  a  by  could  greater  the  of  relatively  medium.  sliding  medium  a  reduction  c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area. both  to  a v a i l a b l e time  effect  would  At  time  lubrication  observed the  a  increase  the  the  amounts  of  boundary an  behaviour.  i s r e d u c ed ".and, a s  This  result  that  such  also  decrease assume  a  of  cm/sec)  surfaces  reduction:.in  can  force.  as  kind  0.1  area.  (i.e. a  dissipation [28]  (  the  theory  a  first  speeds  force  component from  the  between  friction  due  for  produce  observed the  water.  of  same  in  the  All removal  beyond  Rehbinder confirm is a  tracks  of  across  the  Fig.  suspected  that  elastic  The  frequency the  the  as  recorded  be the by  the  result  effects  of  These  of  a  in  the  in  curvature  of  of  of  strip  the  cracking  harder  increased  friction  chart. at  the  The lower  solid time  of  or  of  plastic decanol  revealed  and a  running  are  shown  the  cracks  behind.the  were  of  friction  velocities  greater  i t is  slider  greatest vary  v a r i a t i o n s are the  the  cracks  micrographs  formed  of  media  at  displacement  plasticity  propanol,  those  made  results  material the  material  These  The  extend  heptanol,  stresses  observed  where  [35].  considerably  accurately  reflected  force  with  distance  fact  that  plastic  velocities  reduced  could  stresses  adsorption  as  due  to  suggested  Clayton.  There of  the  extent  the  24.  that  hertzian-type  were  irregularity  i s not  in  These  tensile  on  vacuum.  increases  scratches  they  track.  in  tearing  of  and  that  produced  From  the  along  made  cm/sec.  26..  in Fig.  increase  arc-shaped  0.044  i n high  increased  electron micrographs  Tracks  width  media  observations  an  scratches  acid.  shown  a medium  indicated  series  in  by  observed  are  Scanning  in  than  that  Rehbinder's  solid.  oleic  environmental  effects  enhanced  flow  the  this  work  and  is  qualitative  the  results  of  similarity drilling  with  the  results  experiments  observ  67  (i)  High  Vacuum  (ii)  Fig.  Alcohol  Magnified  2000  X  Magnified  2000  V =  cm/sec  V = 0.025  cm/sec  0.044  SLIDING  (iii)  Heptyl  Oleic  DIRECTION  Acid 2000  V = 0.094  cm/sec  Scanning  ALL  (iv)  Magnified  26  FOR  X  Electron Micrographs  CASES  Oleic  X  ^  Acid  Magnified  4000  V =  cm/sec  0.094  of F r i c t i o n  X  Tracks  by A  Nadeau  [21]  comparison  confirms optimum  and  is  that,  shown of  enhanced  observed  by  both  in  this  MacMillan  Fig.  27.  media  removal.  Westwood  observed  in  those  material  heptanol  as  Westwood,  is  brittle  and  The  tested,  It  removal.  diamond  term.  The  percent  of  Boundary  and  of  behaviour  the  radius  the  Hardy to  length  a  of  the edges  to  extent  with  note  th  that  as  displacement  that  i t can  force  noted  Doubleday in This This  slider  used.  no  the  material  small  as  high  to  of  real  of  was  friction  elastically It  as  observed smaller  exhibited produced  was  dependent  this  contact  the  tracks  in  chain  not to  as  force  attributed  area  42 II).  noticeable  sliding  who  as  Table  friction  the  radii  ploughing  i n molecular  fracture. was  have  large  be  attributed  of  edges  a  as  that  Friction  signs  brittle  built-up  not  behaviour  is  of  (refer  [39]  the  to  their  with  increase  work.  indicate of  an  reduction  and  nature  force  confirmation  and  appears  e f f e c t s were  Westwood  a  the  friction  increase.  present  built-up debris  total  is  eviden  produced  fracture  plastic  a s p e r i t i e s with  suggests  work.  This  results  in  the  linearly  length.  chain  theory  to  friction  lubrication  Westwood's dropped  sliding  heptanol  [12]  work.  contributed  a  experimental  elastic  Nadeau,  significantly  produced  Huntington  i n t e r e s t i n g to  T h e : s h a p e cof.: t h e _ s i i d e r  The  and  on  noted the  chip that  geometry  69  F i g . 27  Comparison of P r e s e n t R e s u l t s to P r e v i o u s Work  the  slider.  more  The  prominent  material there  was  i s no  media  as  plough-up  material  the  extent  revealed  established  that  facilitates  crack  by  the  the  results  increase  in  of  vapour.  volume.  to  glass  must  be  by  to a  was  due  to  nitrogen  this  of  that  although  suspicion. the  flow  no  Since and  determine liquid  the  as  the  3  that  displacement  did  light  in  high  confirmed  possible  atmosphere  as  liquid  is  difference  properly  reduced.  This  therefore  the  in  vapour  material  of  the  well  pressure  water  specific  is  and  suspected  influence  the  the  of  this  is  of  vapour  i s also of  observed  water  [35].  that although  between  water  It  traces  that  It  well  force  analysis  of  effect  It  as  i s made  or  glass  friction  determined  can  in  possible  by  this.  activity  water  work.  be  [13],  produced  growth  An  of  literature. to  is  slider  from  surface  nitrogen  substantiate  amounts  removal  exposure  traces  The  therefore  contained  the  the  comparison  of  this  It  verification  the  both  in  appreciable  in  of  observed water  beneath  interesting of  'were a c c o m p a n i e d  shoulders.  experimental  enhancement and  penetration's  compressed  An  vacuum  deeper  presence reveal  percent  by  cannot  fact.  liquid  tests water  fracture  were in  media conducted minute  properties  the  Rehbinder  effects  medium,  i t s water  content  of  Studies on  glass  surfaces  affinity length bonds for  is  for  the  with  the  glass  when  less  than  weakly  to  cracks  when  when n  forms that of  carbon a  solid  solid  plastically, a  strong  6  is  such  atoms  in  the  bond.  affinity  enhances this  atoms  the  would  interactions  between  be  in conjunction  conducted  glass  and  molecular  the  fluid out  forces.  of  oleic  adsorbed  Rehbinder's medium of  the  the  other the  for  acid  explanation the  solid  oleic  the  following  results  of  conclusions  the to  present be  surface  to  flow  exhibiting  behaviour.  chemomechanical  liquid study  media of  research  drawn:  which  monolayer  must  Rehbinder  Conclusions  The  bonds  of  effects.  5.2  chain  acid  friction  with  observed  case  for  of  [41]  chain.  the  investigation  affinity  i t s molecular  Using  the  chain  compressive  the  tendency  i n f l u e n c e on  Further  the  account  12)  to  in  of  the  squeezed  subjected  i t s chain,  chemical  S  greater  permanent  Shafrin in  species  a  or. s h o r t  more  acid. atoms  in  has  anaeven'greater  (i.e. n  as  active  acid  water  is easily  carbon  > 16  increasing  the  such  has  12  and  solid  has  carbon  to  oleic  stronger,  caproic  of  adsorbed  either  It  does  of  that  forming  equal  the  However 18  than  surface  acid  shown  surface.  or  Caproic  has  [40]  number  the  effects  have  than  the  the  solid  alcohols  the  that  on  allow  A. diamond in  an  with  Scratching  produced  the  glass.  An  This  greater  No  on  of  in a  displayed degree  roughly  spherical  displacement  alcohol.  This  when  is in  An  well  the  liquid  that  plastic  of  conducted  agreement  smooth  in  behavior  effects  the  dry  environments. trends  of  the  was  removal  friction 0.4  tracks  cm/sec  Experimental a  state.  developed  below  indicating  observed.  friction  fracture-free speeds  were  material  apparatus  slider  coincided  observations.  environments  observed  defined  flow  Rehbinder  experimental  producing  variety  i n m a t e r i a l removal  Rehbinder's  g l a s s m i c r o s l i d e s at  and  results  favourable  of r e p r o d u c e a b i l i t y .  E. than  This  difference  water  35  Friction  less  of  of  negative  and  than  D. capable  increase  confirms  a l l gaseous  was  heptyl  enhancement  C. In  of  material  a  studies.  B. with  optimum  environment previous  glass with  percent  vapour  behaviour  f r om  may  be  in  the  that  in nitrogen  observed  attributed nitrogen  more  than  to  differs  in high to  the  the  by  vacuum.  presence  pressure  adj u s tment.  F. corresponded theoretical behaviour  Generally to  an  an  increase  increase  formula  i n a i r and  was  used  high  in material  in friction  force.  successfully  vacuum.  Only  to  the  removal A  simple  predict values  of  this flow  pressure  and  with  environment.  the  vapour  shear  i n the  thereby  strength The  a i r was  increasing  to  both  of  the  m a t e r i a l were  predominant  lower  the  effect  mean  the  friction  Future  Research  changed  of  flow  the  water  pressure  f o r c e and  the  material  removal.  5.3  Suggestions  Three improved profile  for  be  in  the  as  compounds own  much would  merits  influence  as of  F i g . 28  force.  The  horizontal this be  manner  the  used  to  A  experimental  diamond  control  material  with  the  set-up  a more  geometry  This  improvement  flow  patterns  can  uniform  of  the  would  caused  be  eliminate  by  uneven  content as  in  the  possible.  permit  material  the  liquid The  media  media  use to  of  be  should  water  judged  s o f t e n i n g agents  be  absorbing on  without  their the  water.  The in  the  profile.  Water reduced  of  tracks produced.  variations slider  aspects  f u t u r e work.  should  friction  For  to  slider  eliminate  diamond axis the  weight  assembly  of  the  moment  t i p must rotation  effective  supported  by  should  act  the  on  re-designed  produced  on  acting  load  be  the  same  through the  load  by  tray.  plane  the  diamond  the  as  shown  friction as  turret. tip will  the In always  75 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Edison,  T.A.,  Telegr.  2.  Rehbinder,  3.  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Eng. J . ,  1  20.  E c k e l , J.R., " E f f e c t o f P r e s s u r e on P e t . T r a n s . AIME, ( 1 9 5 8 ) , V o l . 213.  Rock  Drillability",  21.  Nadeau, J . S . , "Environmental. E f f e c t s i n Comminution and R o c k D r i l l i n g " , (1975), Report to Energy, Mines and Resources.  22.  H o l l a n d , L., "The P r o p e r t i e s of G l a s s S u r f a c e s " , Chapman and H a l l , L o n d o n , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 59.  23.  Bowden, F.P. and T a b o r , L u b r i c a t i o n of S o l i d s " , ( 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 90.  D., " T h e F r i c t i o n a n d V o l . I.,. O x f o r d P r e s s ,  24.  K r a g e l s k i i , I.V., " F r i c t i o n L o n d o n , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 165.  and  Wear",  25.  B o w d e n , F . P . a n d T a b o r , D., of S o l i d s " , V o l . I I , O x f o r d pp. 3 4 8 .  "The F r i c t i o n P r e s s , London,  26.  Ibid.,  pp.  323.  27.  Ibid.,  pp.  335.  28.  K u r n a k o v , N.C. a n d Z h e m c h u z h n y , S . F . , " F l u i d a n d H a r d n e s s . . o f P l a s t i c B o d i e s " , S. P e t e r s b . I n s t . , 19, (1913).  29.  B o w d e n , F . P . , a n d T a b o r , D., " T h e F r i c t i o n of S o l i d s " , V o l . I I , O x f o r d P r e s s , London, pp. 1 2 5 .  London,  Butterworths,  and L u b r i c a t i o n (1964)  Pressure Politekh.  and L u b r i c a t i o n (1964),  77  30.  K r a g e l s k i i , I.V., L o n d o n , 1965, pp.  31.  G r e e n , M.A.C., " V i s c o e l a s t i c E f f e c t s i n Boundary Lubrication!;',, Ph.D. T h e s i s , Department of Mechanical E n g i n e e r i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (1974).  32.  M c G r e g o r , K., "The ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 185.  33.  P f l e i d e r , E.P., "Diamond O r i e n t a t i o n T r a n s . AIME, ( F e b . 1 9 5 2 ) , 177-186.  34.  Ainsworth, (1954).  35.  W a l t o n , W.H., "Mechanical P r o p e r t i e s of Non-Metallic B r i t t l e Materials", Butterworths, London, (1958), pp. 69.  36.  S t a n w o r t h , J . E . , " P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of O x f o r d P r e s s , L o n d o n , ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 114.  37.  C l a y t o n , D., "An I n t r o d u c t i o n P r e s s u r e L u b r i c a t i o n " , Br. J . S u p p l . , 1, ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 25.  38.  S o u t h w i c k , R.D., "The S t r e n g t h of Abraded G l a s s " , P a r t V I I , P r e s t o n L a b . Rep. No. 57-077, (1957).  39.  Hardy, — The 550.  40.  H o l l a n d , L., "The P r o p e r t i e s of G l a s s Surfaces", Chapman and H a l l , L o n d o n , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 379.  41.  S h a f r i n , E.C., "The L u b r i c a t i n g P r o p e r t i e s of M o n o m o 1 e c u l a r F i l m s A d s o r b e d on S o l i d S u r f a c e s " , Rep. U.S. Nav. Res. Lab. P r o g r e s s , ( J u l y 1958).  L.,  W.B. and Paraffin  J.  "Friction 9.  and  Drilling  Soc.  Glass  of  Wear",  Rock",  Tech.,  Doubleday, I., S e r i e s " , Proc.  Butterworths,  MacLaren,  in D r i l l  38,  London  Bits",  479-536,  Glass",  t o B o u n d a r y and Extreme Appl. Phys., 2nd  "Boundary Roy. Soc,  Lubrication A100, (1922)  APPENDIX CALIBRATION  Calibration in  a manner  supported directly  on  shown  a tray  below  auxiliary measured support  as  slider  in F i g . A.I.I.  The w e i g h t s  hung  by  scale  load  up  and was  recorded 5.0  a  string  cutting  Displacement  a depth  micrometer  of  which  was  rigidly  done  were  fastened  t i p by means the s l i d e r  was  of  arm  mounted  an was  to the  base.  setting  manner  ARM  displacement  Re-calibration by  SLIDER  arm  t h e diamond  collar. with  of  OF  I  the c a l i b r a t i o n  loading then  beam  gm/div.  between  100  gm  selected  was  runs  apparatus  to the load  on  deflection.  test  the Brush I n most  i n the  tray. chart  cases  was  A  achieved same convenient  recorder  a chart  which  scale  of  used.  The  slider  in Table  A V.I.I.  arm  deflection  i s tabulated  against  DEPTH  MICROMETER  MICROMETER  MOUNT  COLLAR  DIAMOND  STRING  WEIGHT  Fig.  A.I.I.  Set-up  for Calibration  APPLIED LOAD (kg)  Table  A.I.I.  of S l i d e r  Arm  DEFLECTION (mm)  0.00  0.0000  0.31  0.0254  0.76  0.0635  1.2 2  0.1016  1.67  0.1397  2 .13  0.1778  2 .58  0.2159  Calibration  & TRAY  of Slider  Arm D e f l e c t i o n  with  Load  APPENDIX  MICRO-SLIDE  Type:  Corning  Dimensions:  Composition:  Type  2947  GLASS  COMPOSITION  soda-lime  1 in.x 3 in.  x  0.96  SiO, 2  mm"  3.8% 14. 6%  Na 0 2  0. 0 4 %  3  CaO  7 . 3%  Others  Physical  microscope  2.0%  3  MgO  2  glass  71.7%  A1 0  Fe 0  II  Properties:  Balance  Coefficent 91  x 10  of Thermal  Expansion  t o t h e -7/ C  Refractive  Index  Transmission Softening  Point  1.52% 9 1 . 2% 723°c  slid<  81  APPENDIX I I I VELOCITY  A of  contact  r e s i s t a n c e wire  rigidly at  steel  connected  the v e l o c i t y  was  recorded  between into  recorder.  scale  the slope  was  linear  for a l l settings  valve was  I I I . 1.  setting  identical  forvelocity  that  calibrations  This  the v e l o c i t y curve  microvalve. i s shown i n  The  versus  curve  made w i t h t h e  _g vacuum  chamber  pressure.  at both  4 x 10  torr  output  and t a k i n g  of v e l o c i t y  III.2.  i t moved  the distance  recorder,  resistance circuit  i n F i g . A.  was  resistance  curve.  curve  coil  hence  was 0.5 mm  o f t h e Nupro  The c a l i b r a t i o n  i s shown  Noting  on t h e c h a r t  of the recorded  A diagram of the s l i d i n g  shaft  The d i s c r e t e  on t h e r e s i s t a n c e c o i l t h e time  a 200 ohm  The c o n t a c t  hydraulic  of the s l i d e r .  simply  A.  along  velocity.  to t h e main  was  Fig.  slid  to measure  on t h e B r u s h  winds  account  was  MEASUREMENT  and a t  atmospheric  82  MOTION  SLIDING CONTACT  •VWAV 2 00 ft.  BRUSH RECORDER 1. 5 v  Fig.  A.III.l.  Circuit  Used,for .Velocity  Measurement  83  2 Fig.  4  A.III.2.  6  8 10 12 VALVE SETTING  Velocity  14; 16 NUMBER  Calibration  Curve  18  20  22  APPENDIX IV TEMPERATURE  It of  was a s s u m e d  a l l solid  contact  units  with  each  within other  2 i n .glass  probe  track  and p a c k e d  make  plate a snug  heat  that  would  thermistor with  entangled  i n the manipulator  supplied indicated  imbedded  within  of t h i n  may  battery  Fenwall  the t r o l l e y wire  i s shown  to  was n o t  become  were f e d DC v o l t a g e  and t e m p e r a t u r e  measured  circuit  a  copper  have  of t h e chamber.  temperature  and i n t h e r m a l Hence  The l e a d s  potential  The t h e r m i s t o r  the  The t h e r m i s t o r  arm.  dry cell  by t h e v o l t a g e  thermistor.  chamber  as the l e a d s  section  by a 6 v o l t  was  fit.  i n the t r o l l e y  state  b e t h e same.  strands  conducting  a multi-rod  at steady  t h e vacuum  implanted  through  MEASUREMENT  was  was  across the in Fig.  A.IV.l.  Specifications: Dissipation Time  135 K  @  Constant:  constant:  @ 25°C  seconds - - 4.6%  Negative  coefficient  resistor  —  its  absolute  Has  a range  1 milliwatt  23 s e c o n d s 0.3  Coefficient  25°C C  in still a i r in rapidly  stirred  water  R/C°  temperature  i t s absolute  per degree  sensitive  thermal  r e s i s t a n c e i s a f u n c t i o n of  temperature. 0 to 115°F f u l l  scale  Calibrat ion:  A  temperature  Both  the  were  immersed  the  Fenwall  bath.  thermometer the  were  was  previously  voltage  were  plotted  temperature.  t h e r m i s t o r and  i n the  The  bath.  A  temperature  of  varied heated  recorded on  controlled  a  This  from  graph graph  the of  standard  stirrer the  40°C  water. as  a  liquid  was  bath to  1°C  as by  Temperature bath  cooled.  bath  was  prepared.  mercury  thermomet  usedito indicated adding and The  thermistor voltage  i s shown  in Fig.  mix on  ice  the to  thermistor results versus  A.IV.2.  86  vWW 150 k n  6 v  Fig.  •4 Fig.  ~=  A.IV.l  .5 A.IV.2.  THERMISTOR'  Thermistor  Circuit  .6 . 7 . 8 THERMISTOR V O L T A G E Temperature  Calibration  Curve  .9  1.0  87  APPENDIX  PROPERTIES  1) N - C a p r o i c (hexanoic  Acid acid)  OF  Formula  CH  V  LIQUID  (CH^^CO^  3  F.W.  116.16  M.l.  -2°C (Eastman  2)  3)  Oleic  Acid  Formula  (9-octadecenoic acid )  F.W.  Hexane  Formula F . W.  CH  Kodak)  (CH  CH  range  65.3°  Density  (g/ml)  .665  Residue  after  Acidity  (as CH C00H)  evap. 3  compounds  Colour  point  Formula  5 -7°F  Scientific) C-H^, I 16  100.21  (Eastman  Kodak)  -  7  67.6°C  .0003% P.T.  ( a s S)  P.T.  (APHA)  (Fisher  F.W.  CH(CH^) C0 H  86.18  Boiling  Flash  :  C .. H, , 6 14  Theiphene  Heptane  )  282.47 low l i n o l e i c a c i d content max. 5% p o l y u n s a t u r a t e s (Fisher Scientific)  Sulfur  4)  MEDIA  001%  2  88  5)  Methyl  Alcohol  F . W.  32 . 04  Reagent 6)  Propyl  CH .OH  Formula  Grade  Alcohol F.W.  60.10  Analytical  Reagent  Acidity  CH C00H  as  Alkalinity  a s NH^  Residue  after  Boiling  Range  Sp.  grav.  @  8)  Heptyl  Decyl  .002%  evap. 95° -  25/25°C  (Mallinckrodt 7)  .015%  3  Alcohol  116.20  Spec.  B.P.  174-176°C  (Eastman  Kodak)  Formula  CH^CH^gOH  F.W.  158.29  (Eastman  98°° .802-.804  Chemical  Alcohol F.W.  .005%  Kodak)  Works)  APPENDIX  The Tukon load  136° was  surface on  HARDNESS  indentation  tests  diamond  100 was  gm 30  recently  pyramid  and  the  and  the  Lomb  optical  substituted  diagonals lens. into  the  tester.  indenter were  average  on  The  normal  contact  Four  a  Wilson  with  the  i n open  air  Bausch  was  diamond  a  indentations  using  diagonal  for  out  conducted  measured  formula  MICROSLIDES  carried  surfaces.  were  The  were  of  Tests  glass  OF  hardness  time  seconds.  exposed  made  (DPH)  INDENTATION  VI  and  evaluated  pyramid  were  and  hardness  number. a DPH  =  2L  d where  a  =  136°  "_L  =  load  d  =  length  The DPH  value  average  of  average 530.  projected  apex  of  value  A,  [d =  The  value  the  DPH  of  yield  number  by  average  average  area  diagonal  was  d  =  diagonal  mm.  mm.  value  giving  gives  a  an  1  .TT'O  cos  (^) x  'a'  in  .0187  of  1.75  strength 2.7  2  angle  diagonal  The  2  sin  10  ] 4  mm  2  i s determined  as  suggested  =  530/2 . 7  =  19 6  kg/mm  by  2  Holland  by  dividing  [22]  90  The  value  expression  of  static  (3)  mean  section  'p  ' i s determined  L/Aj 0.1/1.75  x 2  =  s  2.2.  =  P g  pressure  571  kg/mm  10~  4  from  APPENDIX CURVE The was  fitted  equations  of  either which  x  either the  denotes  were  the  force  Both  both  when  sides  of  both  =  rx  y  =  f +  and  was  (b)  the  where  the  Solving  bar  (e)  expression be  derived.  was  (d)  (f) and  area  curves  gx  data  the  general  (b)  the  of  could  the  slider  and  y  friction  be  handled  by  taking  =  ln(r) +  sln(x)  into  solved  above  and  linear  force  denotes  track  A  c  or  in  the  the  same  natural  log  of  equation,  equations  equation  friction  (a)  of  transformed  Y This  or  y  velocity V  ln(y) putting  and  F.  (a)  (a)  ANALYSIS  respectively:  cross-sectional  friction  manner  the  area  logarithmic  and where  FITTING  cross-sectional  to  VII  the  the =  by  A  =  Y  B  =  (X  symbol  allowed  form +  the  A  BX  (d)  formulae -  BX Y  -  (e) X  denotes  Y) an  substitution  subsequently  (c)  equations  /  (X"  -  average of  X")  (f)  value.  A  and  B  into  (a)  and  (b)  could  

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