UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Film as an ideological process; Karen : women in sport Barling, Marion 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 B37.pdf [ 2.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094097.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094097-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094097-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094097-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094097-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094097-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094097-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094097-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094097.ris

Full Text

FILM AS AN IDEOLOGICAL PROCESS KAREN: WOMEN IN SPORT by MARION BARLING B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 197^ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977 (c) Marion Barling, 1977 MASTER OF ARTS i n In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion for e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 21st 1977 ABSTRACT This thesis contains a paper e n t i t l e d , 'Film as an Ideological Process'and a 15 minute video tape copy of a 16mm f i l m c a l l e d , 'Karen; Women In Sport'. ( i i ) 1. The Paper: The f i r s t part of this paper i s an analysis of how id e o l o g i c a l images and forms are made. A Marxian concept of the word ideology i s used. The paper holds that i d e o l o g i c a l forms are the product of our material conditions and come into existence by the a c t i v i t i e s of people. I t stresses that i t i s important to look at what sex as well as what class has control over the material conditions that create the forms of thought under which we l i v e . Therefore s p e c i a l reference i s made to the posi t i o n of women i n t h i s process. The primary focus being that a woman's experience i n her everyday l i f e i s not seen or heard i n the dominant ideologies of our time, this includes f i l m and video. This i s because women have been withheld from the material and mental means of production as i t ref e r s to the ide o l o g i c a l process. The second part of thi s paper deals with the experience of the filmmaker. I t outlines how the f i l m was formed i n r e l a t i o n to her past l i f e experience, her f i n a n c i a l conditions, her knowledge of f i l m production, and her purpose i n making the f i l m . This section shows how the material conditions of our l i v e s control the process of making an i d e o l o g i c a l form. There were two main aims i n making the f i l m . The f i r s t was to show what society accepted as 'natural* c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for females, and then to illuminate the c o n f l i c t s which arise for females when they step outside of these c l e a r l y defined boundaries. The second was to explore methods of presenting a female experience that would leave the audience with an under-( i i i ) standing of how sexism takes place i n our society. This would mean that the audience's consciousness on the topic of a female's experience would he changed. The f i l m would give them a tool with which to re-evaluate that which they had previously accepted as a 'natural' s i t u a t i o n i n society. 2. The Film; The content of the f i l m takes the form of a Documentary concerning a young g i r l s ' f i g h t to be accepted by her peers and l o c a l soccer league. Karen and her mother Nancy talk about the problem they have been confronted with, simply because Karen i s a g i r l playing i n an a l l boys league. Due to lack of budget the f i l m i s made as inexpensively as possible. One of the r e s u l t s of t h i s i s that 99% of the f i l m i s not i n l i p synchronization; t h i s means that the f i l m i s edited together from f i l m footage and audio material that was taken at d i f f e r e n t times and places. The e d i t i n g of the f i l m i s organized from a feminist perspective. It attempts to interweave the four main speakers i n such a fashion as to show that what i s believed to be ' s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s ' about the female physiology and female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s act as a r e s t r i c t i o n on how and where females perform i n the world of sports. At the same time i t shows that the way i n which women are seen as having 'female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' i s often i n c o n f l i c t with the c a l i b r e of t h e i r performance. To do this the f i l m i s edited and organized i n such a way that the v i s u a l material ( i v ) seen over the dialogue o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t s what i s being s a i d . By doing t h i s f i l m creates a t e n s i o n w i t h i n the viewer t h a t w i l l both hold h e r / h i s a t t e n t i o n w h i l s t f o l l o w i n g the f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e of the filmmaker. The f i l m creates an atmosphere that gives c r e d i b i l i t y and sympathy to the main female p r o t a g o n i s t s , Karen and Nancy, w h i l s t d i s c r e d i t i n g the male speaker who represents the values that s o c i e t y accept as 'normal*. Two l e v e l s of consciousness are presented. The f i r s t i s that of the academic, s c i e n t i f i c data and research approach represented by two speakers from a conference held a t U.B.C. c a l l e d , Women i n Motion: Health, Sports and Recre a t i o n . The second l e v e l of consciousness i s presented by the a c t u a l experience of Karen and her mother i n theda? f i g h t to have Karen accepted i n the soccer league. The f i l m footage shows Karen p l a y i n g i n the soccer team, and other of her 'play' a c t i v i t i e s . This i s in t e r s p e r s e d w i t h f i l m footage of women a c t i v e i n both . t r a d i t i o n a l and u n t r a d i t i o n a l s p o r t s . This i s e d i t e d i n a f a s h i o n t h a t the image presented i s o f t e n ' i n c o n f l i c t w i t h what i s s a i d . The end of the f i l m i s intended to leave the audience w i t h the f u l l impact of Karen's s i t u a t i o n . The spoken word i s dropped and only the creaking of the swing i s heard as Karen shimmies up the swing post. At t h i s p o i n t one could b e l i e v e t h a t she i s s y m b o l i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n her f i g h t f o r acceptance i n the world. She reaches the top of the post and g r i n s at us, but at that moment a w r i t t e n message t e l l s us that she has had to drop out of summer soccer school because of s e x i s t remarks about her pubescent f i g u r e . (v) The i n t e n t i o n of t h i s f i n a l scene i s to leave the audience w i t h the c l e a r message that guts and i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t cannot overcome the oppression that she i s subjecjected t o . S y m b o l i c a l l y she s l i d e s down the post i n t o r e a l i t y and the end of the f i l m . This paper w i l l appear under the authorship of my name, and i s indeed my work. However, i t i s important to note that I do not exis t as an i s o l a t e , and my work i s shaped by the conditions I l i v e within, and the relationships I have with others. Many people have influenced my work, and some women have a c t i v e l y supported my work. Namely, Dorothy E. Smith, Nicola Sumner, Helga Jacobson and E l v i Whittaker. To the l a t t e r , I wish to give c r e d i t for the completion and content of t h i s paper and f i l m . Draft Copy typed by Judi Morton F i n a l Copy typed by H. St. Louis This paper i s concerned with the re l a t i o n s h i p between women and the present day forms of the media. The f i r s t part of t h i s paper i s analysis of how i d e o l -o g i c a l forms are made. Special reference i s made to the posi t i o n of women i n that process. The primary focus being that a woman's experience i n her day to day l i f e i s not seen or heard i n the dominant ideologies of our time. This i s because women have been withheld from the mental and material means of production as i t r e f e r s to the id e o l o g i c a l process. The second part of t h i s paper deals with the experience of the filmmaker. I t outlines how the f i l m was formed i n r e l a t i o n to her past l i f e experience, her f i n a n c i a l conditions, her knowledge of f i l m production, and her purpose i n making the f i l m . This i s followed by an Annotated Bibiography of materials relevant to women i n f i l m and the media. The contents of some of the books and Journals overlap the academic d i s c i p l i n e s of Film Production and C r i t i c i s m , and Sociology, when t h i s occurs they are l i s t e d i n the Annotated Bibliography. (2 ) The present Women's Liberation Movement has raised many ideas that are of importance to me. The one that I s h a l l write about here concerns the process of making f i l m and T .V. (video). Many of the issues raised w i l l have some relevance to other v i s u a l i d e o l o g i c a l forms, such as s t i l l photography, radio, books, newspapers, etc. For women there i s a special i n t e r e s t i n rethinking past theories of how consciousness comes about. Marx's work on ideology started from the basic assumption that 'consciousness can never be anything else than conscious existence, and the existence of men i s t h e i r actual l i f e - p r o c e s s ' . (Marx & Engels, 197^: 4-7) The premise from which he began was 'the r e a l i n d i v i d u a l s , and th e i r a c t i v i t y , and the material condition under which they l i v e , both those which they f i n d already e x i s t i n g and those produced by th e i r a c t i v i t y ' . (Marx & Engels, 197^: 42) As women, i t i s important f o r us to understand that we too are 'r e a l ' i n d i v i d u a l s and that our consciousness i s made by our in t e r - r e a c t i o n with the material conditions that e x i s t today. What we must examine c r i t i c a l l y i s which sex as well as which class has control over the material conditions that create the forms of thought under which we l i v e . Marx and Engels held (3) 'the class which has the means of material production at i t s disposal has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to i f . (Marx & Engels, 1974-: 6k) What Marx and Engels are pointing to here i s that the control and production of ideas within a society i s a very e f f e c t i v e way f o r the r u l i n g class to govern a society. This i s the concept of ideology that i s used i n t h i s paper. I t i s the same concept of ideology as i s used by Dorothy E. Smith i n her work on the structures of ideology. She re f e r s to Marx and Engels by saying * they are concerned with ideology as a means through which the class that rules a society orders and sanctions the s o c i a l r e lationships which support i t s hegemony*. (Smith, 1975' 355) As Women we w i l l f i n d the material conditions that we already e x i s t i n , r e f e c t an ideology that was processes by a r u l i n g class of men with male int e r e s t s at i t s base. On t h i s point Smith i s quite adamant *... women have been l a r g e l y excluded from the work of producing the forms of thought and the images and symbols i n which thought i s expressed and ordered. There i s a c i r c l e e f f e c t . Men attend to and treat as s i g n i f i c a n t only what men say. The c i r c l e of men whose writing and ta l k was s i g n i f i c a n t to each other extends backwards i n time as f a r as our records reach. What men were doing was relevant to men, was written by men about men f o r men. Men l i s t e n e d to what one another said. A t r a d i t i o n i s formed i n t h i s discourse of the past with the present'. (Smith, 1 9 7 5 ' 35*0 Women have been excluded from d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n making the r u l i n g or dominant forms of thought that e x i s t today. These forms of thought are learned by us a l l through language, the written word, and more and more frequently the v i s u a l image, the most common of which i s f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n . Our experience of the world has by and large not been represented i n these i d e o l o g i c a l modes. When we have been topics of s t o r i e s , f i l m s , etc., our actions have been mainly misinterpreted by men with i n t e r e s t s other than our own. Our true experience, s t a r t i n g from our place i n society, has been 'hidden', (Rowbotham) 'excluded', (Smith) and warped by the r u l i n g male e l i t e . We have become aware of t h i s oppression and no longer passively receive the ideas, images and language of men. For a simple example, pick up any book or see any f i l m not written or produced by a woman with a woman's consciousness, i e . that she s t a r t s from her r e a l place i n the world and i s aware that the majority of the world has not been defined by her sex, and when you come across the words man, mankind, humanity, workers, labour (other than that of c h i l d b i r t h ) , you w i l l f i n d that the subject i s a male. (5) When we are mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y , our r e a l experience of what we do i s i n v i s i b l e or misrepresented. For example, h a l f an hour before s i t t i n g down to write t h i s paper, I was glancing through a book on the Black Panther Movement. In the second chapter, the author was giving biographic d e t a i l s on Huey Newton and wrote, 'His father was a labourer and at times a Baptist preacheri h i s mother, busy enough rearing the children (seven), never worked'. (Marine, 1969s 12) (parentheses are my own) I f we as women accept the inherent understanding of the word 'worked' as i t i s used i n the above quotation, our r e a l world and our work gets obscured. Shelia Rowbotham has pointed out, 'For instance, the Women's Movement has shown that housework i s economically es s e n t i a l to c a p i t a l i s t society, though i t i s r a r e l y seen as production. Because of the re l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman, mother and c h i l d , the work women do i n the home i s seen as purely personal rather than an economic a c t i v i t y * . (Rowbotham, 197k: x x v i i ) This happens because we do not have the means to produce our own forms of thought that r e f l e c t our experience. With the advent of the Women's Liberation Movement, we have had the opportunity to question the images of the world which we have hitherto learned and, i n most cases, accepted. We have become aware that the images we see on T.V. and f i l m have very l i t t l e to do with our l i v e s as we l i v e them. This i s due to the process whereby they are formed which includes both the mental and technical means of production. The world of f i l m i s quite c l e a r l y i d e o l o g i c a l . Much of how we know ourselves and our world i s mediated to us by the v i s u a l image. A much-reduced written symbolic representation of t h i s profiess would look l i k e t h i s : Thought ^ Technical production Experience ^ Ideology (film) The above diagramme represents experience from our l i f e as we l i v e i t , followed by thoughts and ideas, followed by technical production, including both t r a i n i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and material needs that i n turn produce the symbolic forms of ideas that make up the dominant ideology. This symbolic form, f i l m for example, then feeds back into experience where the process starts again. This process has the power to le g i t i m i z e our r e a l i t y by defining our everyday world to us, but as women we have very l i t t l e control or input into i t s c i r c u l a r continuing development, Since i t s inception, f i l m has been the domain of men. It has r e f l e c t e d male i n t e r e s t s , male fantasies, and issues that were relevant to them; as such, many female experiences and i n t e r e s t s have been excluded. Even when we are aware that our d a i l y experiences do not coincide with the i d e o l o g i c a l models we are f a m i l i a r with v i a the media, we believe that the discrepancy i s our own i n d i v i d u a l inadequacy. The p a r t i a l exception to this male control over f i l m was during the very early days of s i l e n t movies when women were d i r e c t i n g , handling f i l m equipment, and writing. They held these positions up u n t i l the la t e 1 9 2 0 's when the f i r s t sound track was introduced. With t h i s new invention the small independent companies were eliminated, as were the women who 2 worked for them. By producing 'Karen: Women i n Sport', I hoped to gain the technical s k i l l s of f i l m i n order to have an input into the content and form of our present-day i d e o l o g i c a l structures. This would allow me to show how oppression takes place i n our r e a l l i v e s . Introduction to Part II Since I have become involved i n the media i t has allowed me to see c l e a r l y the process whereby women are excluded from the means of i d e o l o g i c a l production. There are many b a r r i e r s put i n the way of women who seek to gain media production s k i l l s i n order to make a f i l m for example. When we are included i n t h i s area we are by i n large a l i o t e d a place that i s one of menial, low paying assistant, dead-end jobs and opportunities. This work i s c l e a r l y under the control of men. I f you watch the cred i t s on the films and t e l e v i s i o n shows that you see you w i l l r a r e l y f i n d female producers, dir e c t o r s , or writers. The two main barri e r s to f i l m production are money and technical knowledge. (8) Because of the already e x i s t i n g conditions of society, women are poorer than men. Money i s harder for women to a t t a i n . Access to technical s k i l l s have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y withheld from women both by the i n s t i t u t i o n s of learning .(formal courses), and the i n s t i t u t i o n s of production (working with men who have technical s k i l l , i . e . directors and producers i n a quasi-apprenticeship). I t i s therefore very d i f f i c u l t f or women to make movies or video unless she has the advantage of very sp e c i a l opportunities. What i s also d i f f i c u l t to overcome for a woman s t a r t i n g from a 'women's consciousness* of her world i s to t r y to f i n d new ways to communicate the oppression that g i r l s and women undergo. The following section w i l l include some of these problems. The Making of the Film Video and f i l m are two important ways for women to have an input into the r u l i n g ideology. Therefore, i t was important for me to learn the s k i l l s of production for both methods. I was f a m i l i a r with video production and had for the l a s t two years been teaching courses i n the same. The crew that resulted from these courses combined with the co-operation of women who had other areas of expertise, i . e . research, writing s k i l l s , etc., culminated i n the production of a two-year, weekly series of programmes by and about women cal l e d 'Women in Focus'. In 1975 I decided to become f a m i l i a r with f i l m production. As I was a student at U.B.C., the most obvious route for me (9) at t h i s time was to e n r o l l i n a 'Film Production 1 course. My enrollment would give me access to f i l m equipment such as, cameras, l i g h t s , e d i t i n g equipment, sound systems, transfer machinery, books, etc. However, the cost of the course enrollment did not include production costs, which are: f i l m , audio tape, audio f i l m , laboratory developing costs, money to l i v e on, wages and costs f o r others. But i n my favour i t gave me the opportunity to make contact with men who had expertise i n the technical production of f i l m . There was a problem inasmuch as- I had to choose whether I should take a 'beginners* or an 'advanced' course. I had had wide experience i n writing, organizing, and co-ordinating for video programme production. This included many of the technical s k i l l s that are common to both video t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m ; f o r example, l i g h t i n g , camera movements and d i r e c t i o n , the timing of e d i t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , producing, co-ordinating, etc. However, in the world of f i l m I knew very l i t t l e about operations of f i l m cameras, costs, laboratory procedures, d i f f e r e n t types of f i l m , s p l i c i n g , etc., I decided to take an intermediate course as t h i s seemed to s u i t most of my needs. This course cost $100.00 for enrollment, plus $50.00 for the estimated laboratory costs and materials needed for the projects that were necessary i n order to complete the course. As I was faced with the f a c t that I was going to have to produce edited f i l m footage as one of the assignments of the course, i t quickly became clear to me that I should attempt to combine learning process, expenditure of money, and my time and energy, into something that was going to he useful to me i n my work, apart from simply s a t i s f y i n g the course requirements. What I wanted to do was to learn a l l the aspects of f i l m that I was not f a m i l i a r with, while producing a f i l m with a content of which I could approve: a d i f f i c u l t task to say the l e a s t . Having decided to attempt this rather d i f f i c u l t assignment I then cast my eye about for a suitable topic. I n i t i a l l y , I chose to consider the following points: (a) the content had to be of i n t e r e s t to women. (b) of a topic whereby I could do a p o l i t i c a l analysis of the s i t u a t i o n . (c) of a topic which I considered important to analyze. (d) i t had to be done quickly, as I only had a term to complete i t i n . (I of course over-extended quite badly on the time) (e) that i t could be taped and filmed quite simply, as I had no money for a crew. (f) I had to f i n d at lea s t one person who had experience i n filmmaking and work for nothing. (A crew of two i s mandatory i f you wish to get sound and f i l m at the same place and time) (g) that i t could be completed without much expense, as I had no budget for production costs. (This i s not possible, as I found out to my expense) (h) that the f i l m could be made without e t h i c a l l y impinging on the pa r t i c i p a n t s . ( i ) that i t had to be geographically close to where I l i v e d and worked. I t came to my attention that the U.B.C. Women's A t h l e t i c Association was holding a conference on 'Women i n Sports' as part of a programme to mark International Women's Year. The conference was organized into two main areas, the 't h e o r e t i c a l ' to he given i n the form of lectures, and the ' p r a c t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' , to he given i n the form of demonstrations followed by public p a r t i c i p a t i o n whenever the conditions were suitable. Although t h i s conference was suitable for my purpose i n many ways, my main concern was whether I would be able to support the ethic of encouraging women to put thei r energies into becoming as a t h l e t i c as men. It seems that the l o g i c a l extension of encouraging women to follow the competitive path of men i n a t h l e t i c s would mean that they too would be aiming for that pinnacle of a t h l e t i c prowess, 'the Olympics'. I am not one of those who are heartened by the sight of an increase i n the number of female joggers that torture themselves by running up and down 'University Boulevard'. Nor do I connect t h i s phenomenon with the aims of the Women's Liberation Movement1. However, as th i s conference was cal l e d WOMEN IN  MOTIONi Health. Sports, and Recreation, and the programme outlined topics including, 'The I n f e r i o r i t y of the Female: Real i t y or Myth?', 'The Identity Search', 'Shake the Cultural Pattern', 'The P o l i t i c s of Programming', 'What i s Feminine?', 'The S o c i a l i z i n g Process and i t s Influence Upon Sports', I f e l t that there would be an analytic approach to the conference that was stressing recreation rather than competition. ( 1 2 ) I therefore decided to cover the conference with a mind to using i t as a base for the f i l m . As a whole I was disappointed with the standard of the speakers as well as those that were participants i n the conference. Some of the speakers were il l - i n f o r m e d of the sit u a t i o n of women within t h e i r chosen f i e l d s , and some openly espoused the most flagrant sexist myths concerning women and their physiology. I could detect very l i t t l e opposition to t h i s l i n e of thinking from the participants i n the conference. However, there were some women speakers who did know th e i r topic and gave informed presentations. I should mention that I did not attend every session of the three-day conference, but I did hear a l l of the speakers present one lec t u r e . The majority of them spoke more than once. As my budget was very near to non-existent, I decided to cover the 'theory' side of the conference with sound equipment only, and at a l a t e r time pair up suitable statements with f i l m footage that I hoped to get from the 'demonstrations' of sports that were to be held on a d i f f e r e n t day. This method i s not a very organized way to proceed, but the combined problems of no budget and doing documentary work made this necessary. The demonstrations varied i n excellence. This was p a r t l y due to the conference's stress on public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The sponsors of the conference did not always want to appear too professional, as t h i s would deter public p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n h i b i t i n g people from joining i n . (13) The q u a l i t y of t h i s f i l m footage was uneven due to thi s problem as well as my inexperience i n handling the f i l m camera. After the three-day conference, I was faced with four problems: 1. Most of the spoken audio I had was suitable only for presentation as a negative statement about the conference from a feminist point of view. 2. The action sports footage was very uneven i n excellence. This l e f t me with the dilemma of whether I wanted to present women i n sports as other than at t h e i r 'best'. 3 . A small amount of footage was unusable due to my inexperience with f i l m camera equipment. 4. The material I had gathered from the 'action' side of the conference and the material that I had gathered from the 'theory' side of the conference did not come together i n a. way that would allow me to edit i t into a f i l m that would concur with my p o l i t i c a l aims, i . e . a feminist viewpoint. I f e l t that the most I could achieve was to be c r i t i c a l of many of the speakers i n the conference. There seemed to be l i t t l e point i n doing t h i s i n a f i l m . I mulled over what I should do with my investment i n 1 , 0 0 0 feet of unedited f i l m footage and almost as much of l A inch unedited sound. As I had invested a large amount of money, time, and energy even at this early point i n time, I started to cast my mind about for a complementary topic with which to turn my f a i l u r e into something worthwhile. Luckily, I had a fr i e n d who had a nine year-old daughter who was going through a p a r t i c u l a r l y deplorable ordeal of struggling with sexist oppression i n the Junior Soccer League. As t h i s league had not fi n i s h e d i t s season and was s t i l l playing soccer matches, I decided to invest more money, time and energy i n f i l m and tape i n order to get action shots of Karen on the soccer f i e l d and at play. I would then do an interview with her and her mother t a l k i n g about the problems that they had experienced. Fortunately, t h i s footage, taken in daylight as opposed to the conference footage which had been shot i n very poor fluorescent l i g h t i n g conditions, turned out to be t e c h n i c a l l y acceptable. The interview with Karen and her mother was rewarding inasmuch as the responses to my questions showed quite c l e a r l y how sexism worked for young g i r l s when they stepped outside th e i r a l l o t t e d p o s i t i o n within our society. One small problem was that Karen, although a very active person, was rather r e t i c e n t about talking, e s p e c i a l l y with recording equipment i n the room. My working knowledge of f i l m production at this stage corresponded to the areas that we had covered i n the f i l m course that I was i n the process of taking. Mostly, t h i s covered use of f i l m cameras, sound equipment, costs of and processes done i n the laboratory, theory of editing, transfer of 1/4 inch sound tape onto magnetic f i l m , and A. and B. R o l l s . What was s t i l l hazy i n my mind was the actual r e a l i t y of doing a l l of the processes involved i n editing, s p l i c i n g , f i n i s h i n g a f i l m and the many steps that complete t h i s product. What I lacked was experience i n the making of a f i l m . I t i s true that there are books to inform you on "how to make a f i l m " , and I had ^ ; read them, but many of the r e a l i t i e s of cost and time involved would not become clear u n t i l I had,had experience. (15) Whether this was due to my stubbornness i n wanting to achieve my goal at a l l costs, or due to a va r i e t y of advice from d i f f e r e n t sources, some good and some bad, i t i s hard to assess accurately. I t i s probable that i t was a combination of both. Now came the task of deciding which pieces of f i l m and audio tape to use and i n what order. E d i t i n g a f i l m i s where the f i l m i s made. The time taken to do th i s part of the f i l m can vary tremendously depending on how e a s i l y you are s a t i s f i e d with your work, how experienced you are at making the decisions, how expert you are at s p l i c i n g , what kind of equipment you have access to, how much time you have to work on i t , and whether you are able to support yourself f i n a n c i a l l y while you are doing this work. My own s i t u a t i o n was rather unsuitable. My knowledge of f i l m e d i t i n g and f i n i s h i n g a f i l m was t h e o r e t i c a l only, the academic year was nearly over and I needed to get a job throughout the summer i n order to return to school the next year. Perhaps the most har:-assing condition of a l l was that I was attempting at t h i s time to e d i t the f i l m from the ' o r i g i n a l ' footage. Normally, f i l m makers don't touch the ' o r i g i n a l * footage u n t i l the very l a s t stage of production, and then i t i s only handled by an expert i n a dust-free room, and touched only with spotless white gloves. It i s treated as some-thing of an 'operation'. The normal way to proceed i s to have a 'workprint' made at the same time as the o r i g i n a l f i l m i s processed from the camera. This 'workprint* i s the actual piece of c e l l u l o i d that you see and work with. I t i s an exact duplicate of the o r i g i n a l except that i t i s of an i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y . To have a workprint made of the o r i g i n a l footage I (16) had shot would cost me $100.00. Due to t h i s cost, I had sought advice from acquaintances who had made films before. In r e t r o -spect, I can now see that the advice I received - that I should not attempt to edit the f i l m without getting a workprint - was good. The not-so-good advice, which I list e n e d to, was that i t was possible to work without a workprint i f you were r e a l l y c a r e f u l . Of course, I l i s t e n e d to the advice that would save me money. I found out that although i n theory i t i s possible to work with the o r i g i n a l i f one i s c a r e f u l , i t i s impossible i n practice i f the f i l m i s a documentary using a technique of matching non-synchronous sound and f i l m together (that i s , sound and f i l m footage that have been taken at d i f f e r e n t times and places). This type of film-making by i t s very nature means that the editor must run the sound and the f i l m footage through the viewer time and time again, thus scratching the ' o r i g i n a l ' and exposing i t to many non-acceptable hazards. After several weeks of nerve-wracking work at t h i s cheaper method, and much v i s i b l e damage to the o r i g i n a l , I gave i n and ordered a workprint. Due to the f a c t that I didn't have a budget, so that any money needed f o r the completion of the f i l m would have to come from my own pocket, and the very li m i t e d amount of unedited f i l m footage - approximately 1,300 feet - I decided to t r y to make a f i f t e e n minute f i l m . This was approximately h a l f the time I had o r i g i n a l l y decided upon. On looking over my raw material, i t seemed that although both the v i s u a l and the sound would be important, the sound - the dialogue - would be the medium (17) that would carry the es s e n t i a l message. (Of course, there were times v/hen the v i s u a l e f f e c t would he the most important). For t h i s reason, I decided to edi t the dialogue f i r s t , bearing i n mind suitable footage. The two, although taken at separate times, had to make sense when shown together. This meant that I had to be very f a m i l i a r v/ith both before I could s t a r t the cutting. Upon looking over the material, a pattern emerged. Whilst representing both i n c i s i v e statements about women's posit i o n i n sports and society, i t allowed me to show how the c o n f l i c t s and bar r i e r s that face women and g i r l s when they step outside t h e i r positions within society are perpetrated and perpetuated. Three people had emerged from the material on the audio tapes as having something s i g n i f i c a n t to say. They were Karen, her mother Nancy, and a woman doctor of Physical Education. They were a l l female. A f o i l for these three women was a male guest speaker who presented dubious s c i e n t i f i c 'facts' i n an uncertain manner. These four speakers separated into two lev e l s of consciousness. The f i r s t was that of the academic, s c i e n t i f i c data, the research approach, represented by the two speakers from the conference. The female doctor of Education spoke of how men and women were seen as having completely d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , thus o u t l i n i n g the r u l i n g ideas that exist i n our society and under which we l i v e . The male speaker presented ' s c i e n t i f i c facts' about the female physiology. Although they were 'dubious' to me, the ' s c i e n t i f i c f a c t ' i s generally accepted as a true (18) assessment of the s i t u a t i o n . In our society t h i s procedure, and much that gets slipped i n with i t , shows us one of the methods by which the r u l i n g class v e r i f i e s ideas. The second l e v e l of consciousness was represented by the actual experience of Karen and her mother i n the i r f i g h t to have Karen accepted i n the soccer league. I decided that the best way to present these four speakers was to interweave them i n such a fashion as to show that what was believed as ' s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s ' about the female physiology and female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the i r advantages, ac t u a l l y acted as a r e s t r i c t i o n on where they were allowed to perform i n sports. But at the same time, I wanted to show that the way i n which women were seen as 'female' was often i n c o n f l i c t with the cal i b r e of t h e i r performance. I was able to add to this dialogue the dimension of the v i s u a l by showing f i l m footage so that i t , i n some way, contra-dicted what was being said. By doing t h i s , I hoped to create a tension within the viewer that would both hold her/his inte r e s t and follow my l i n e of thought. I wanted to create an atmosphere that would give c r e d i b i l i t y to the women speaking i n the f i l m and d i s c r e d i t the male speaker. I wanted to create a sympathetic audience towards the women's po s i t i o n i n the i r s i t u a t i o n , and to use the male speaker as an unsympathetic element. I wanted to show that women were aggressive, co-ordinated, and could perform just fine i n an area considered to be t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine. (19) As editor of the f i l m , I was i n p o t e n t i a l command of a very powerful method of making or contradicting our present ideology. (Of course, any 'potential command* was dependent upon ;v the film's c i r c u l a t i o n ) . As Christopher Isherwood has pointed out i n his book about f i l m making, 'The whole beauty of the f i l m i s that i t has a certain fixed speed. The way you see i t i s mechanically conditioned. I mean, take a painting, you can just glance at i t , or you can stare at the left-hand top corner for h a l f an hour. Same thing with a book. The author can't stop you from skimming i t , or s t a r t i n g at the l a s t chapter and reading backwards. The point i s , you choose your approach. When you go to the cinema, i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . There's the f i l m , and you have to look at i t . He makes the points, one a f t e r another, and he allows you a c e r t a i n number of seconds or minutes to grasp each one. I f you miss anything, he won't repeat himself, and he won't stop to explain. He can't. He's started something, and he has to go through with i t ' . (Isherwood, 1945: 46) This 'fixed speed' that Isherwood delineates for us i s only one of the inherent q u a l i t i e s of f i l m . Film has colour, depth, and movement. It r e f l e c t s our v i s i o n of the world and our physical beings i n such a way that i t i s easy to recog-nize and therefore accept as believable. Also bear i n mind that the conditions we see f i l m i n a darkened room i n a comfort-able chair - d i r e c t i n g the attention toward the screen only. With th i s kind of control over the 'approach' of the f i l m i n mind, I approached the editor's bench. The idea I decided upon was rather sophisticated. It meant that I f i r s t had to ( 2 0 ) present what society accepted as 'natural' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for females, and then I must illuminate the c o n f l i c t s which arise for females when they step outside of these clearly-defined boundaries. To set t h i s scene I turned my t i t l e c r e d i t upside down, and faded through to a head shot of Karen hanging upside down - not a normal p o s i t i o n . This made i t very d i f f i c u l t to see what sex she was. I then cut to soccer scenes s t a r t i n g with the feet of the players and slowly zooming out to a long shot, where you could see a l l of t h e i r bodies. The game they are playing i s e a s i l y discernible as soccer, and, as such, the assumption would be that the players were a l l male. Karen's sex i s not r e a d i l y seen even though we have been introduced to her by name i n several preceding shots. Her size and s k i l l s become apparent at once and they jar with the general scene, and are to be explained l a t e r on i n the f i l m . While th i s i s shown, a female voice of authority i s t e l l i n g us how society characterizes and sees males and females completely d i f f e r e n t l y . As the voice changes to male, he informs us 'seriously' of the anatomical and phys i o l o g i c a l differences between males and females. At t h i s point we get our f i r s t good look at who i s playing on the soccer team, and we see that i t i s Karen, who just contradicated much of what has been said. I also wanted to depict v i s u a l l y the c o n f l i c t brought about by the dual pressures of what i s seen to be appropriate sports for g i r l s and young women, and the sport Karen wishes to part i c i p a t e i n . To do t h i s , I used Nancy's voice answering a question about the pressure on young g i r l s to conform to t h e i r (21) t r a d i t i o n a l image, while showing footage of a rhythmic dance group on the screen. These young women are extremely a t h l e t i c , muscular, and l i t h e . However, t h e i r movements are cloaked i n a b a l l e t - l i k e grace as they wave coloured ribbons i n the a i r , making 'art nouveau' curves. They wear skimpy, legless leotard tops. (How pleasant to see the female dancers i n the Shanghai B a l l e t wearing trousers). The scene i s very seductive, and follows the 'normal' image of the female i n every way. Shortly into t h i s scene, I fade into a shot of Karen, who i s active on the soccer f i e l d . I r e t a i n both scenes, giving a double image. The contrast between the two shots i n f a c i a l expression, dress, and way of moving i s quite s t a r t l i n g . I then fade out the rhythmic dancers, leaving Karen frowning as she i s t o l d to transfer to a younger league made up of players younger than herself, simply because she i s 'Karen, not Kevin'. I wanted to avoid a light-hearted approach which presented a s i t u a t i o n that appeared to be r e c t i f i a b l e by a few simple changes i n the present s i t u a t i o n . I didn't want my audience to f e e l that 'yes, things were pretty bad, but now i t ' s getting better, much better'. I didn't want people to see the f i l m and .just f e e l sorry for Karen and her mother as i n d i v i d u a l s . I wanted them to see the f i l m and understand how the problems came about and take away with them a l a s t i n g impression of the s i t u a t i o n as I, Nancy, and Karen saw i t . I wanted to make a change i n the consciousness of my audience. I was attempting to 'shape the audience's mind', to use the phrase that J u l i a Lesage employs i n her a r t i c l e , 'Feminist Film C r i t i c i s m : Theory and Practice'. She says: 'A f i l m which i s a mere s o c i a l c r i t i q u e ends w i t h the . audience saying, 'Isn't that t e r r i b l e , I c r i e d to see i t ' . A more r a d i c a l work shapes the audience's mind, l e a v i n g the viewers the s t r u c t u r e s which go beyond t h e i r consciousness p r i o r to viewing. They then have a t o o l w i t h which to re-evaluate t h a t which they p r e v i o u s l y accepted as ' n a t u r a l * . (Lesage, 197^: 15) Although my f i l m lacked a ' b l u e p r i n t ' as to how to go about making t h a t change come about i n r e a l i t y , I hoped to challenge what many people would accept as the 'nat u r a l * s i t u a t i o n of women and g i r l s w i t h i n our s o c i e t y , and to make the audience r e a l i z e t h a t the problem i s not e a s i l y solved. To challenge the accepted views of women i n t h i s s o c i e t y i s a d i f f i c u l t task. In order to do t h i s , I f e l t t hat I had to present my case w i t h force and st r e n g t h . But at the same time, I d i d not want to los e the ' n a t u r a l ' character of the two main p r o t a g o n i s t s . Therefore, I d i d not want to e l i m i n a t e the s p e c i a l rapport that e x i s t e d between Karen and her mother. I f e l t t h a t by i n c l u d i n g t h e i r n a t u r a l conversation I would present them as b e l i e v a b l e and r e a l , and encourage the audience to respond to them i n a sympathetic way. This i s why I include the somewhat 'humourous* banter that was p a r t of the way Karen and her mother spoke to each other. However, I wanted to f i n i s h the f i l m w i t h a very c l e a r message, so that nobody could leave the room having any f a l s e f e e l i n g s that guts and i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t alone would cure the i l l s of women and g i r l s i n sports and i n our s o c i e t y as a whole. As I had progressed w i t h the e d i t i n g of the f i l m , I had thought of many endings. None of them had the ki n d of impact that I wanted. I had reached the po i n t where I was going to s e t t l e on the best of a poor choice, when I had a chance conversation w i t h Nancy, Karen's mother. What she t o l d me s e t t l e d my mind as to how I would end the f i l m . F o r t u n a t e l y , I was able to use f o r t h i s ending a piece of footage that I had already shot. I combined t h i s w i t h a w r i t t e n message. The l a c k of spoken dialogue at t h i s p o i n t i n the f i l m strengthened the f o r c e of the v i s u a l impact. I t h e r e f o r e managed to end the f i l m on a v i s u a l l y provocative as w e l l as an e a r - j a r r i n g , and I hoped c o n s c i o u s n e s s - j a r r i n g , note. FOOTNOTES For example, some of the a r t i c l e s i n Women Look at  Psychiatry, ed. by Dorothy E. Smith and Sara David, speak to thi s common problem for women. In p a r t i c u l a r see 'Women and Psychiatry', p . l . by Dorothy E. Smith, and I'm not Crazy After A l l * , by Barbara Joyce, p.183. Also see The D i a l e c t i c of Sex, by Shulamith Firestone. See Chapter 7 for an analysis of the process whereby th i s s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t comes about. • In Sharon Smith's book, Women Who Make Movies, she t e l l s us that A l i c e Guy Blanche was one of the f i r s t "to see the p o t e n t i a l of the Lumiere brothers' invention for casting moving images on the screen", (p.2.) A l i c e Guy Blanche was allowed to make movies as Mr. Gaumont of Gaumont Camera Company thought the instrument of l i t t l e value. He r e p l i e d to her i n i t i a l request for use of the camera by saying, "What*. What'.,What! Al r i g h t , i f you want to - i t ' s a chi l d ' s toy, anyhow", p.5. X25) GENERAL REFERENCES Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luchmann. The Soc i a l Construction R e a l i t y . Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1966. Anchor Books E d i t i o n , paperback, 1967. Chesler, P h y l l i s . Women and Madness. Avon Books, New York, 1972. Easton, Loyd D. and Guddath Gurt. Edited and Translation. Writings of the Young Marx on Philosphy and Society. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1967. Firestone, Shulamith. D i a l e c t i c 0-6. Sex. Bantam Books, New York, 1972. Isherwood, Christopher. Prater V i o l e t . Random House, New York, 1945. Lesage, J u l i a . "Feminist Film C r i t i c i s m : Theory and Practise'. Appearing i n Women and Film Vol. No. 1. 5-6» 1974. Marine, Gene. The Black Panthers. Signet, New American Library, 1969. Marx, Karl and Fredrick Engels. The German Ideology. C. J . Arthur, E d i t o r . International Publishers, 1974. Mead, George Herbert. Mind. S e l f and Society: From the Stand  Point of a So c i a l Behaviorist. Edited and with an introduction by Charles W. Morris. Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press, 1974. (26) Rowbotham, S h e i l a . Hidden from H i s t o r y . Random House, New York, 197^. S c h u t z , A l f r e d . C o l l e c t e d Papers 1: The Problem o f S o c i a l  R e a l i t y . E d i t e d and I n t r o d u c e d by Ma u r i c e Natanson. M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , The Hague, N e t h e r l a n d s , 1973. Smith, D. E. and S. D a v i d . E d i t o r s , Women Look a t P s y c h i a t r y . P r e s s Gang, 1975. Smith, Dorothy E. 'An A n a l y s i s o f I d e o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e s and How Women a r e E x c l u d e d : C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r Academic Women'. A p p e a r i n g i n Canadian Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y . V o l . 12. No. 4 . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1975. Smith, Sharon. Women Who Make M o v i e s . Hopkinson and B l a k e , New York, 1975. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONCERNING  WOMEN AND FILM 1. Books and A r t i c l e s ; ( 27 ) B a r t h e s , R o l a n d . M y t h o l o g i e s . O r i g i n a l date o f p r i n t i n g : 1957 T r a n s l a t i o n : 1972. H i l l and Wang, New York. S e m i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i s o f t e n used t o d i s c u s s f i l m . I f e e l i t has l i m i t e d uses f o r women i n t e r e s t e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the w o r l d from our p l a c e . 'Myth' i s l o o k e d upon as a l anguage. The use o f the form i s d e v e l o p e d a t the expense o f the c o n t e n t , as B a r t h e s s t r e s s e s time and time a g a i n . Semiology i s a s c i e n c e o f forms, s i n c e i t s t u d i e s s i g n i f i c a t i o n s a p a r t from t h e i r c o n t e n t s . The a n a l y s i s o f myth i s c o n t a i n e d i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f the book. B a z i n , Andre. "The O ntology o f the P h o t o g t a p h i c Image" i n What i s Cinema?. Volume 1, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971. B a z i n h o l d s t h a t the p a i n t e r ' s work i s ' s u b j e c t i v e ' by v i r t u e o f the p a i n t e r h o l d i n g the b r u s h w i t h h i s ' i n t e r v e n i n g ' hand. The l e n s e , by c o n t r a s t , i s ' o b j e c t i v e ' ; "For the f i r s t t i m e , between the o r i g i n a t i n g o b j e c t and i t s r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e r e i n t e r v e n e s o n l y the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f a n o n - l i v i n g a gent". ( T h i s s o - c a l l e d o b j e c t i v i t y appears t o be based upon the F r e n c h word f o r a l e n s , 'OBJECTIF', and l i t t l e e l s e ) . B a z i n appears t o h o l d the v i e w t h a t o n l y when t h e r e i s a p a i n t e r does the s u b j e c t become i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and t h a t t h r o u g h the l e n s we w i l l see ' r e a l ' l i f e . (Andrew Tudor, i n T h e o r i e s o f F i l m , has w r i t t e n a c r i t i q u e o f B a z i n and K r a c a u e r i n Chapter Four; ' A e s t h e t i c s o f R e a l i s m : B a z i n and K r a c a u e r . See a l s o P a u l i n e K a e l , ' I s t h e r e a c u r e f o r F i l m c r i t i c i s m ? ' i n S i g h t and Sound. 31 ,2,62) . B a z i n , Andre. What i s Cinema?. Volume I I , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971. An a e s t h e t i c o f r e a l i t y : C i n e m a t i c r e a l i s m and the I t a l i a n s c h o o l o f l i b e r a t i o n . F e l l i n i , D e S i c a , R o s s e l l i n i . (28) Betancourt, Jeanne. Women i n Focus. Pflaum Publishing, Dayton, Ohio, 197^. By writing t h i s book Betancourt hopes to encourage College and High School Personal who have audio-visual funds to show 'films that present r e a l Women'. She wants teachers to become aware of the many d i f f e r e n t problems and interests that make up the world of women i n order to get away from the narrow stereo-t y p i c a l images of women that are presented i n many films today. There i s a useful selection of contemporary films by women and a short bibliography on the women filmmakers, plus a filmography. The book recommends feminist readings suitable for the Film's c r i t i q u e . GBC Task Force on the Status of Women, Women i n the CBC. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1975• A study on how the government attempts to deal with sexism and discrimination behind the cameras within the CBC organization. Cirino, Robert. Power to Persuade: Mass Media and the News. Bantam Books, New York, 197 k. This book shows c l e a r l y how American media decisions stem from p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . I t i s written i n a 'racy', easy-to-read s t y l e . I t i s a c a l l for us to take a more active part i n the 'democratic process'. DeBeauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Translated and edited by H. M. Parshley. A l f r e d A. Knopf, Inc. 1953. An important i n c i s i v e work that i s basic reading f o r any woman who i s interested i n her own sex. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the theory of women as 'other' outlined i n the introduction of the book. Dworkin, Andrea. Woman Hating. E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc. New York, 197^. This book i s a p o l i t i c a l analysis of sexism. She i s mainly interested i n the written word. (29) G r i f f i t h , Richard and Arthur Mayer. The Movies. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., London, England. Revised E d i t i o n , 1971. This i s a large, glossy book with a maximum amount of good qu a l i t y photos and a minimum amount of dialogue or ana l y s i s . It shows the history of f i l m from Edison up to the 1970's. Very nice f o r those of us who l i k e looking at old photos whilst educating ourselves. Haskell, Molly. From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women  i n the Movies. Penguin Books, 1974. Haskell follows the images of women i n the movies from the twenties to the seventies. Isherwood, Christopher. Prater V i o l e t . Random House, New York, 1945. A novel about making and writing a movie. King, Josephine and Mary Stott, E d i t o r s . Is This Your L i f e ?  Images of Women i n the Media. Virago Limited and Quartet Books, London, England, 1977. The introduction of th i s book states two main aims i n publishing t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s . The f i r s t ' i s to put pressure on Parliament and the C i v i l Service to make r a d i c a l change on behalf of women' (working i n the media). The second i s to 'have a go at peeling back the skin covering the eyes of people who'd been reared on t r a d i t i o n a l attitudes'. The c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s i n the book can succeed i n achieving that goal. Women who have accepted the images presented to them v i a the various forms of the media would f i n d t h i s a suitable s t a r t i n g book. However, I was l e f t u n s a t i s f i e d with many of the a r t i c l e s as they i m p l i c i t l y use the 'role theory' assumption that a change i n attitudes, i . e . psychological change, w i l l r e c t i f y the oppression of women. I do not f e e l that t h i s approach i s r a d i c a l enough for a f u l l understanding of the process and the problems of women's images and the work s i t u a t i o n of women i n the media. (30) Klima, George. Multi-Media and Human Perception. Meridan Press, New York, 1 9 7 6 . This book i s organized into three parts: Perception, The Creative Process, and Multi-Media Presentations. Klima's idea i s that we est a b l i s h a "universe of discourse" to promote a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the arts, sciences and humanities. He stresses the need for a "basic lexicon" of v i s u a l productions i n order to understand the f i l m process and human responses to i t . The v i s u a l product must develop a "systematic methodology" by using a set lexicon or graphic representation. I am suspicious of a "universal discourse" of th i s nature because the model he suggests would exclude many of the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of the production which are important for women to a r t i c u l a t e . (See Lesage's a r t i c l e . ) As women we have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y withheld from contributing towards the ideas and b e l i e f s of the r u l i n g ideology of our time. The idea of a 'discourse' i s a n t i t h e t i c a l as a mechanism which w i l l display our in t e r e s t s . This i s a good book for general theory and background reading. MacCann, Richard Dyer. Film: A Montage of Theories. E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., New York, 1 9 6 6 . Forty-two f i l m makers and c r i t i c s discuss the art and theory of f i l m . A comprehensive background of f i l m theory with notable stress on the human condition. The perspective i s male. McEldowney, Carol and Rosemary Poole, Bread and Roses C o l l e c t i v e . 'A Working Paper on the Media* appearing i n Women: A Journal of  Liberation. Volume 1 , No. 3 » Spring 1 9 7 0 , 3 0 2 8 Greenmount Avenue, Baltimore, MD 2 1 2 1 8 . This a r t i c l e s tarts from the point that 'the mass media plays a c r u c i a l role i n creating and perpetuating America's dominant ideology: racism, imperialism, chauvinism, authoritarianism. It i s as in t e g r a l a part-and-defender-of this system as other major i n s t i t u t i o n s : schools, the Army, corporations ... the t a c t i c a l question i s how to relate to the ex i s t i n g media, e s s e n t i a l l y how to use them now while we are not powerful enough to completely ignore them'. The options suggested are: (31) 1) t o t a l non-co-operation 2) selective non-co-operation 3) attempts to influence the media. The authors give suggestions for c r i t e r i a f or co-operating with the media. Pincus, Edward. Guide to Filmmaking. Signet Books, New York, 1972. An inexpensive and thorough book on p r a c t i c a l movie making. A very comprehensive and useful reference book for those interested i n making movies or understanding how f i l m i s made. Rosen, Marjorie. Popcorn Venus. Avon Books, New York, 1973. This book outlines the images of women i n the movies from 1900 to 1970, reducing them to a type for each decade. For example 'The r i s e and f a l l of Rosie the Rivi t e r * for the f o r t i e s . The author believes that 'films' have been a mirror held up to society's porous face. They therefore r e f l e c t the changing s o c i e t a l imagei Although I see f i l m as much more than just a mirror t h i s book was in t e r e s t i n g to read i f only for i t s female content. Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from History. Random House, New York, 1974. This book i s not only an h i s t o r i c a l excavation, as the t i t l e might suggest, but also c l e a r l y outlines the conditions i n which women have produced and reproduced their l i v e s . Although not d i r e c t l y concerned with the v i s u a l image, i t i s necessary reading for a feminist analysis of most topics. Rowbotham, Sheila. Women's Consciousness, Man's World. Hazell Watson and Viney Ltd., London, England, 1973. This book uses many of Marx's methods of analysis, but also attempts to s t a r t from the pos i t i o n of a woman. I t i s a very important book for women to read and use. Simpson, Ruth. From the Closets to the Courts. Viking Press, New York, 1976. The book has some very good chapters. Chapter seven discusses how the media controls the portrayal of an oppressed group. (32) Smith, Dorothy E. 'An Analysis of Ideological Structures and How Women are Excluded: Considerations for Academic Women'. This a r t i c l e appears i n Volume 12, No. 4, Univeristy of Toronto Press, 1975 of Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropolgy. Star t i n g from an Marxian analysis of ideology, Dorothy Smith delineates how women have been excluded from the means of mental production. Although t h i s a r t i c l e i s not primarily concerned with the v i s u a l image, i t s thesis i s very relevant to images of women in the media. This e d i t i o n of the journal contains only topics on women. Smith, Dorothy E. 'The So c i a l Construction of Documentary Reality'. This a r t i c l e appears i n So c i o l o g i c a l Inquiry. Journal of the  National Sociology Honor Society, (k), 197k» Dr. A. E f f r a t , E d i t o r . Ontario Institute for Studies i n Education. 252 Bloor Street West, Toronto 5» Ontario. Although t h i s a r t i c l e i s written with the ' s o c i a l organization of knowledge' as i t s basis of inquiry, I found i t very useful as background reading for analysing the media from a woman's place (and therefore not the t r a d i t i o n a l s t a r t i n g point) within society. Smith, Sharon. Women Who Make Movies. Hopkinson and Blake, New York, 1975. As the author states, "the purpose of this book i s twofold: 1) to present a hist o r y of women f i l m makers, and 2) to i d e n t i f y the new women f i l m makers". In part 1 she gives a worldwide picture of women f i l m makers since 1896. Part 11 concentrates on new women f i l m makers outside of Hollywood. Part 111 l i s t s women f i l m makers i n the United States, Film Organizations, Distributors and also includes a bibliography. Good for general history and information on women i n f i l m , and an impressive c o l l e c t i o n of dates, names, references, etc. Solinas, PierNico, Editor. G i l l o Pontecorvo's: The Battle of  Alg i e r s . A f i l m written by Franco Solinas. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973. This book contains the f i l m s c r i p t plus two interviews (33) with G i l l o Pontecorvo and Franco Solinas. Both the f i l m d i r e c t o r and the s c r i p t writer have thoughtful approaches to how and why they make fi l m s . Strainchamps, E l l e n , E d i t o r . Rooms With No View. A Woman's Guide  to the Man's World of the Media. Compiled by the Media Women's Association. Harper and Row, New York, 1974. Eighty essays written by women i n the media about th e i r jobs. A f u l l complement of first-hand accounts of how women are exploited i n the business places of the media. Women who earn th e i r l i v l i h o o d s i n the publishing and t e l e v i s i o n industries discuss the i r jobs frankly and (in most cases) anonymously. The process of publishing the book, as described i n the Introduction, sets the framework of the book. Tudor, Andrew. Theories of Film. Seeker and Warburg and the B r i t i s h Film I n s t i t u t e , London, England, 1974. A useful c r i t i q u e of Bazin and Kracauer, the r e a l i s t aesthetic; ... "They are both c r u c i a l l y involved i n the attempt to create a non-social aesthetic of the r e a l " . Tyler, Parker. Sex,Psyche,Etcetera i n the Film. This book discusses f i l m 'masterpieces' by Antonioni and Bergman. Walker, Alexander. Sex i n the Movies. Penguin Books, Baltimore, Maryland, 1968. A h i s t o r i c a l account of the d i f f e r e n t images of women's sexuality as i t has been portrayed on the screen. The f i n a l chapter deals with 'man as victim', as seen i n Hollywood, and I t a l i a n 'sex comedy' f i l m s . A rather peculiar c r i t i c a l perspective of misogyny. Wolien, Peter. Signs and Meanings of the Cinema. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1969. Wollen suggests a number of ideas with which to discuss the problems of f i l m aesthetics. The main areas that he covers are, Elsenstein's aesthetics, the auter theory and i t s semiology of the cinema. Wollen i s a supporter of the auteur theory. (34) 2. Journals, Magazines and Pamphlets; Afterimage. Noel Burch, Guest E d i t o r . No. 5» Spring 197^. Afterimage Publishing, 12-13 L i t t l e Newport Street, London, U.K. I have only scanned t h i s journal. The a r t i c l e s are a l l by men, well-organized, and appear to be using a semiological approach to f i l m c r i t i c i s m . Camera Obscura. A Journal of Feminism and Film Theory. Box 4517» Berkeley, Ca. No. 1, 1976. Contains a r t i c l e s on feminist f i l m analysis using semiological and psychoanalytic ideas; well-written a r t i c l e s i n rather esoteric language. I am often l e f t with an incomplete understanding of the topics discussed. This i s a new journal, and I look forward to reading more issues. Films by Women. Published by The Canadian Filmmaker's D i s t r i b u t i o n Center, k06 J a r v i s Street, Toronto, Ontario. A catalogue of films produced by women from 1967 thru 1973. I should stress that many of the films are not intended to have any feminist content, and therefore r e f l e c t many shades of 'art ' . However, there are some films that are made with a sincere attempt at a deeper analytic presentation of our world. V Interlock. No. k and 5. Donna Dudinsky, Editor. National Film Board, 1976. This publication comes out of the National Film Board's Studio D i n Montreal. It includes a history of women who have worked i n the NFB, a r t i c l e s about women making films and video tapes, and some reviews. Jump Cut. Jump Cut Associates, P.O. Box 865, Berkeley, CA. 9^701. The a r t i c l e s are thorough, dense and well-organized, consisting of c r i t i q u e s dealing with a v a r i e t y of f i l m theories. ... 'Film i n a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context; i t s p r a c t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l use, the economics of filmmaking and d i s t r i b u t i o n , and the function of f i l m i n America today'. I recommend a subscription to t h i s journal. It i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at a feminist (35) audience, but many of our viewpoints and arguments are acknowledged and analysed by the authors of the a r t i c l e s . Majority Report. Volume V, No. 10, Sept. 20, 1975. Majority Report Co., 74 Grove Street, New York 10014. This i s a useful feminist bi-weekly newspaper. I make reference to t h i s issue because i t was mainly concerned with 'women and the media'. Media Report to Women. Dr. Donna Al l e n , E d i t o r . 3306 Ross Place N. W., Washington, D.C. 20008. This publication i s issued i n two parts. Part 1 i s an index of who's doing what, where, and i s useful for contacts and an ov e r a l l view of 'non-professional' women's a c t i v i t i e s throughout Canada and the United States. Part 2 i s described as 'What women are doing and thinking about the communications media'. It contains short a r t i c l e s on ideas and actions of women i n the media. Notes on Women's Cinema. Screen Pamphlet 2. Claire Johnston, Edit o r . Society for Education i n Film and Television, 29 Old Compton Street, London, England, 1973. Reprinted 1975. This issue contains three comparative a r t i c l e s on f i l m by women, and an interview with Nelly Kaplan. Quest. A feminist Quarterly, Volume 111, No. 2. P.O. Box 8843, Washington, D.C. 20003, 1976. This i s a spe c i a l issue on Communication and Control. Good p o l i t i c a l analysis i s apparent i n th e i r a r t i c l e s . Well worth reading. Take One. P h y l l i s P i a t t and Kay Armatage, Co-editors. P.O. Box 1178, Station B., Montreal 110, Canada. Special Issue on Women, Volume 3, No. 2. , 1972. This issue includes general a r t i c l e s on f i l m c r i t i q u e , women dire c t o r s , images of women, interviews, etc. (36) The Work of Dorothy Arzner. Towards a Feminist Cinema, B r i t i s h Film I n s t i t u t e , London, 1975. This booklet contains two a r t i c l e s analysing Arzner's work as a d i r e c t o r . The f i r s t , by Claire Johnson, analysis Arzner's work from the point of view of feminist p o l i t i c s and f i l m theory. She postulates that there are two le v e l s of discourse between the participants i n the f i l m : a dominant ideology, the ideology of patriarchy, and the discourse of the women. She holds that a theory of Arzner's work can be developed i n terms of the d i s l o c a t i o n and contradications between these two level s of discourse. Pam Cook's a r t i c l e stresses the point that the system of representation generated by c l a s s i c Hollywood cinema fix e s the spectator i n a s p e c i f i c , closed r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f i l m . She uses'concepts such as gags, pregnant moments and narrative r e v e r s a l . The 'rare interview' given by Arzner i s somewhat disappointing i n as much as i t does not look into the polemical a r t i c l e s i t follows. I t does not give us any in d i c a t i o n as to the state of her conscious or unconscious mind. A filmography of Arzner's d i r e c t i o n , e d i t o r i a l and s c r i p t works i s included i n the back of the booklet. Velvet Light Trap. Review of Cinema, No. 17, Winter 1977. Old Hope Schoolhouse, Cottage Grove, Wisconsin 5352-7-This i s a journal of f i l m history and c r i t i c i s m . I am not too f a m i l i a r with t h i s journal as I was only able to f i n d the above copy. However the h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s that appear i n this e d i t i o n on early women 'stars' are very useful towards understanding how women's image was shaped and her re l a t i o n s h i p to the men who shaped her, i . e . the direct o r , and to other male actors. For example, the a r t i c l e 'Joe, Where Are You?' by Tom F l i n n i n the above edition, on Marlene D i e t r i c h and Joseph von Sternberg. Women and Film. Box 4501, Berkeley, CA 94704. Microfilm copies available from Xerox University Microlfilms, 300W Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan. This journal contains many useful a r t i c l e s , c r i t i q u e s , theories, interviews, on women and f i l m , both well-known and (37)7 r e l a t i v e l y unknown. Unfortunately, i t v/ent out of p r i n t i n 1976, but i t i s worth try i n g to get back copies, p a r t i c u l a r l y Volume 1, No. 5-6, 197^. I t contains an interview with Lina Wertmuller where she illuminates for us a l l how successful token women think. A l l the old c l i c h e s are there. However, this i s followed by an a r t i c l e by J u l i a Lesage on 'Feminist Film C r i t i c i s m : Theory and Practise'. I have found th i s a r t i c l e very useful i n my thinking. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094097/manifest

Comment

Related Items