UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of development control in Burnaby, B.C., Canada Raynor, Ashley Eugene 1977

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A STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN BURNABY, B.C., CANADA by ASHLEY EUGENE RAYNOR B. Arch. University of Manitoba, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE ' i n • : • • THE" FACULTY- QF^  GRADUATE STUDIES School of rC6mmunity-&' Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming '. to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE, 1977 0 Ashley Eugene' Raynor, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f< an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . ASHLEY E. RAYNOR Depar tment o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1 W S Date J u n e 25, 1 9 7 7 i i ABSTRACT The Corporation of the District of Burnaby, B.C., in recognition of i t s growing complexity and the expanding goals of i t s citizenry, adop-ted the Burnaby Zoning By-law #l+7l+2 i n June of 1965. In section 7.3(i) i t specifies that Preliminary Planning Approval (PPA) must be received from the Director of Planning before the issuance of a Building Permit. PPA i s intended to ensure that the preliminary design drawings meet a l l of the provisions of the Zoning By-law, reflect Council policies and ob-serve other relevant municipal by-laws. The system in Burnaby appears to be effective i n obtaining a signed commitment from the developer agreeing to execute the project i n accord-ance with the approved PPA drawings.. It i s after this point that the present system appears to break down— ?6% of projects constructed 197^ -1976 were not completed exactly according to the approved design drawings. Most of the variance occurs i n finishes, details and landscaping as opp-osed to siting, bulk and use regulations, and i s such that the environ-mental c r i t e r i a which could have been met by the f a i t h f u l execution of the approved plans, i s not being met. This reduces environmental stand-ards below that which i s being approved on the PPA drawings. The purpose of this study i s : (1) to show why compliance i s necessary/desirable; ( 2 ) to understand the problem and suggest possible remedies. The findings confirm that PPA compliance i s desirable for the f o l l -owing reasons: the short term achievement of each of 8^ community objec-i i i t i v e s i s d i r e c t l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e P P A d r a w i n g s ; o n e c h a n g e i n a n y o f n i n e c o m p l i a n c e c a t e g o r i e s c a n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f m a n y o b j e c t i v e s ; c o m p l i a n c e i s n o t a d v a n t a g e o u s t o o n l y o n e g r o u p t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r s , r a t h e r i t i s m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o a t l e a s t t h r e e m a j o r g r o u p s ( t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d d e v e l o p e r s ) i n e i g h t c o m p l i a n c e c a t e g o r i e s a n d t o t w o g r o u p s i n t h e n i n t h ; c o m p l i a n c e c a n o f f e r a n u m b e r o f a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d d e v e l o p e r s ' a n d n o m a j o r d i s a d v a n t a g e s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c o m p l i a n c e s h o u l d n o t b e e n c o u r a g e d . T h e f i n d i n g s a l s o c o n f i r m t h a t c o m p l i a n c e i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f m a n y c o m -m u n i t y o b j e c t i v e s . I t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t 38 o f t h e kS o b j e c t i v e s d i s -c u s s e d c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d b y a l t e r n a t i v e d e v i c e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e P P A p r o c e s s . T h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s y s t e m f r o m P P A a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n s h o w s t h a t v a r i a t i o n f r o m t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w -i n g s c a n o c c u r b e c a u s e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c e r r o r s , u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e P P A d r a w i n g s , i g n o r a n c e o f p r o p e r a m e n d m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , b l a t a n t d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e d r a w i n g s a n d p e c u l i a r s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . I t w a s t h e n f o u n d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t : s y s t e m c a n . b e a d a p t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e f i r s t t h r e e p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e ; b u t t h e s y s t e m i s c u r r e n t l y i n c a p a b l e o f e f f -e c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h b l a t a n t d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e d r a w i n g s o r p e c u l i a r s i t e c o n d i t i o n s , n o r c a n i t e a s i l y a d a p t . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . i v A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T T h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e m y a d v i s o r B . W i e s m a n a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e B u r n a b y P l a n n i n g , B u i l d i n g , E n g i n e e r i n g a n d H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t s . V T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e L I S T O F C H A R T S x L I S T O F F I G U R E S x i L I S T O F P L A T E S . x i i C h a p t e r -1. I N T R O D U C T I O N 2 1.0 G E N E R A L B A C K G R O U N D O N B U R N A B Y , B . C 2 1.1 D E V E L O P M E N T C O N T R O L I N B U R N A B Y k 1.2 T H E D E V E L O P M E N T C O N T R O L P R O C E S S 5 1.3 E N F O R C E M E N T A N D P E N A L T I E S 8 1 A T H E P R O B L E M 9 1 . 5 E N V I R O N M E N T A L O B J E C T I V E S 10 1.6 T H E P U R P O S E . . 11 1 .7 T H E A P P R O A C H 11 1 .8 T H E S C O P E 12 2. S A F E T Y A N D H E A L T H O B J E C T I V E S 1k 2.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . 15 2.1 S A F E T Y . . . 15 ( i ) D R I V E R P R O T E C T I O N 15 ( a ) V I S I O N C L E A R A N C E A T I N T E R S E C T I O N S . . . 15 ( b ) C O N T R O L O F C R O S S I N G W I D T H . 22 ( c ) D I S C O U R A G E P E R P E N D I C U L A R P A R K I N G O N S T R E E T S 2k ( d ) D I S C O U R A G E A U T O M O T I V E B A C K - I N M A N O E V E R I N G T O S T R E E T . . . . 25 v i Page ( i i ) PEDESTRIAN' PROTECTION. 26 (a) PROVISION OF TEMPORARY SIDEWALKS . . . 26 (b) PROTECTION FROM ABRUPT CHANGES IN GRADE 29 (c) PROTECTION OF GROUND LEVEL EGRESS ROUTES 31 2.2 HEALTH • (i) PROTECTION OF SANITARY ABSORPTION FIELDS ... 33 ( i i ) MINIMIZE DITCH BLOCKAGE 35 ( i i i ) PROTECTION AGAINST AIR, WATER AND NOISE ' POLLUTION 37 2.3 SUMMARY . 39 3. LANDSCAPE OBJECTIVES 43 3.0 INTRODUCTION 44 3.1 MINIMIZE MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS 45 (i) DROUGHT RESISTANCE 49 ( i i ) MINIMAL SPECIALIZED SOIL CARE 52 ( i i i ) TOLERANCE OF WET SOILS 53 (iv) SHADE TOLERANCE 54 (v) WEED RESISTANCE/CONTROL • 54 (vi) SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS 59 (vii) MINIMAL PRUNING REQUIREMENTS 60 3.2 PROTECTION AGAINST VANDALISM AND THEFT . . . . . . . 61 3.3 PROTECTION AGAINST PEDESTRIAN ABUSE 63 3.4 PROTECTION AGAINST VEHICULAR DAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.5 PROTECTION AGAINST UNSIGHTLY PRUNING, CUTTING OR PREMATURE REMOVAL , 73 (i) OVERHEAD WIRES 75 ( i i ) UNDERGROUND SERVICE LINES 75 v i i P a g e ( i i i ) V I S I B I L I T Y O F C O M M E R C I A L D I S P L A Y S . . . . . 77 ( i v ) F U T U R E R O A D / S I D E W A L K I M P R O V E M E N T 81 . 3.6 S U M M A R Y . . . 84 4. Q U A L I T A T I V E O B J E C T I V E S . 89 4.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . 90 4.1 S O C I A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S ' 90 ( i ) D E M O N S T R A T I O N P R O J E C T S ' 92 ( i i ) I N C O R P O R A T I O N O F C U R R E N T H U M A N B E H A V I O R A L R E S E A R C H •. 93 ( a ) T H E S U I T A B I L I T Y O F P U B L I C S P A C E S F O R T H E I R I N T E N D E D U S E S 97 ( b ) T H E R E D U C T I O N O F C R I M E A N D V A N D A L I S M 100 ( c ) P R I V A C Y 105 4.2 T O W A R D A N I M A G E / I D E N T I T Y / S E N S E O F P L A C E 106 ( i ) G E N E R A L 106 ( i i ) I M A G E , I D E N T I T Y A N D S T R U C T U R E I N B U R N A B Y . . 109 4.3 M I N I M I Z I N G V I S U A L P O L L U T I O N 124 ( i ) S E P A R A T I O N O F I N C O M P A T I B L E U S E S . . 125 ( i i ) E N H A N C E M E N T O F D I S T A N T V I E W S 128 ( i i i ) R O O F T O P D E S I G N 134 ( i v ) S I G N C O N T R O L 137 ( v ) N E A T N E S S A N D T I D I N E S S 140 4.4 S U M M A R Y 141 5. F I N A N C I A L O B J E C T I V E S 148 5.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N 149 5.1 M I N I M I Z I N G C O S T S T O T H E M U N I C I P A L I T Y 149 ( i ) T H E C L E A R A N C E O F L E A F C L O G G E D D R A I N S . . . . 150 v i i i , Page ( i i ) THE MAINTENANCE OF BOULEVARD TREES 150 ( i i i ) SIDEWALK REPLACEMENT 151 (iv) BOULEVARD TREE INSTALLATION 151 (v) ROAD CONSTRUCTION ' 152 (vi) LIABILITY 152 5.2 MINIMIZING COSTS TO B.C.HYDRO 153 5.3 MAXIMIZING BENEFITS TO DEVELOPERS 153 (i) REDUCE VANDALISM 153 ( i i ) POTENTIAL SAVINGS 154 ( i i i ) CAN COMPLIANCE INCREASE CONSTRUCTION COSTS? 156 (iv) REDUCE UNFAIR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE . . . . . 151 (v) INVESTMENT PROTECTION . 1 5 8 5 .4 SUMMARY 159 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1^3 6.1 SUMMARY . . . 1 6 4 6.2 CONCLUSIONS 168 7. A REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN BURNABY/ RECOMMENDATIONS 170 7.0 INTRODUCTION . . . 171 7.1 WEAKNESSES IN THE PRESENT PPA/BUILDING PERMIT SYSTEM (i) HONEST MISTAKES . 1 7 1 (a) DUE TO INEFFICIENCIES WITHIN.THE PRESENT SYSTEM 1 7 2 (b) DUE TO UNFAMILIARITY WITH PROPER PROCEDURE 1 7 7 ( i i ) BLATANT DISREGARD FOR THE PPA DRAWINGS BY DEVELOPERS AND CONTRACTORS 1 7 9 ( i i i ) PECULIAR SITE CONDITIONS 1 8 2 ix Page 7.2 THE INSPECTION SYSTEM . . . 183 7.3 SUMMARY 184 7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 185 X L I S T O F C H A R T S C h a r t P a g e 1. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f S a f e t y a n d H e a l t h O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . 40 2. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f L a n d s c a p e O b j e c t i v e s . . . 85 3. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f Q u a l i t a t i v e O b j e c t i v e s 143 4. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f F i n a n c i a l O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . . . 162 5. A s u m m a r y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f o b j e c t i v e s 165 xi L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e i . U s e o f a w a l l a s a p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y b a r r i e r . . . . 30 i i U s e o f a b e r m a s a p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y b a r r i e r . . . . 30 i i i U s e o f t h o r n y p l a n t s a n d m e t a l r a i l i n g a s a • p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y b a r r i e r . . . . . . . 30 i v U s e o f t h o r n y p l a n t s o n l y a s a p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y b a r r i e r 30 v A p l a n t e r d e s i g n e d f o r o c c a s i o n a l d i a g o n a l p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h i t 68 v i A p l a n t e r d e s i g n e d f o r o c c a s i o n a l p e r p e n d i c u l a r p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h i t .68. x i i L I S T O F P L A T E S P L A T E P a g e 1. M A P O F B U R N A B Y 3 2. B R Y A N T S T . / V A L T H A M A V E . I N T E R S E C T I O N 19 3. T E M P O R A R Y S I D E W A L K , 7585 K I N G S W A Y 28 4. N E G L E C T E D L A N D S C A P I N G , N O R L A N D A V E 47. 5. M A I N T A I N E D L A N D S C A P I N G , B U L L E R A V E .47 6. S P A C I N G T O O F A R A P A R T F O R W E E D C O N T R O L , N O R L A N D A V E . . . 56 7. U N S U I T A B L E S P E C I E S F O R W E E D C O N T R O L , 8550 R O S E B E R R Y A V E .56 8. B O U L E V A R D L A N D S C A P I N G N O T E X E C U T E D , 5130 N O R L A N D A V E . . . . 58 9. L A N D S C A P E T R A M P L E D B Y U N P L A N N E D P E D E S T R I A N A C T I V I T Y , 6907 K I N G S W A Y 66 10. N O C U R B S - G R A S S L A N D S C A P I N G D E S T R O Y E D B Y T R U C K S , 4710 L O U G H E E D H W Y 70 11. N O C U R B S - G R A S S B O U L E V A R D D E S T R O Y E D , 6907 K I N G S W A Y • 70 12. A N E X A M P L E O F T R E E S P R O T E C T E D F R O M V E H I C L E S , 5204 K I N G S W A Y 72 13. A N E X A M P L E O F T R E E S A L I G N E D W I T H B A Y L I N E S , 5259 L A N E S T 72 14. A N E X A M P L E O F S E V E R E P R U N I N G , 7776 C U M B E R L A N D A V E . . . . 74 15. A N E X A M P L E O F S E V E R E P R U N I N G , 367O, 5 T H A V E 74 16. A N E X A M P L E O F F U T U R E T R E E / S I G N C O N F L I C T , 7892, 6TH A V E 79 17. D E M O N S T R A T I O N P R O J E C T , 7506 E D M O N D S S T 94 . 18. D E M O N S T R A T I O N P R O J E C T , 7511, 6TH S T . . 94 " C 1 x i i i P L A T E P a g e 19. D E M O N S T R A T I O N P R O J E C T , 7585 K I N G S W A Y 94 20. U N S U I T A B L E S C R E E N I N G O F I N C O M P A T I B L E U S E S , 7353, 6TH S T . . 126 21. A N E X A M P L E O F N E G L E C T T O I N S T A L L S U I T A B L E S C R E E N I N G , 6010 T R A P P R D 126 22. A V I E W F R O M T H E B R E N T W O O D A R E A . . . . 129 23. A V I E W F R O M T H E S O U T H S L O P E 129 2 4 . A V I E W S H O W I N G T H E D E S I R E D S C R E E N I N G . E F F E C T I N T H E M I D A N D B A C K G R O U N D . . . 129 • 25. N E W L Y I N S T A L L E D T R E E S C R E E N B E L T S , 5923 T R A P P R D 131 26. N E W L Y I N S T A L L E D T R E E S C R E E N B E L T , L O W L A N D D R 131 27. N E W L Y I N S T A L L E D T R E E S C R E E N B E L T , 8081 M E A D O W A V E 133 28. N E W L Y I N S T A L L E D T R E E S C R E E N B E L T , 5923 T R A P P R D 133 29. U N T R E A T E D R O O F T O P , M E T R O T O W N 135 30. T R E A T E D R O O F T O P , B U R N A B Y C E N T R E . . . . . . 135 31. S I G N C L U T T E R , K I N G S W A Y / W I L L I N G D O N A V E 138 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 2 C h a p t e r 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1.0 G E N E R A L B A C K G R O U N D O N B U R N A B Y , B . C . C A N A D A T h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d o n S e p t e m b e r 22, 1892 u n d e r L e t t e r s P a t e n t . T h e c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 130,000. G e o g r a p h y : T h e D i s t r i c t e n c o m p a s s e s 36.9 s q u a r e m i l e s a n d i s b o u n d e d o n t h e w e s t b y t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ; o n t h e n o r t h b y B u r r a r d I n l e t ; o n t h e e a s t b y t h e C i t y o f P o r t M o o d y , t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o q u l t -l a m , a n d t h e C i t y o f N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ; a n d o n t h e s o u t h b y t h e N o r t h A r m o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . T r a v e r s i n g f r o m s o u t h t o n o r t h - t h e r e i s a f l o o d p l a i n u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r h e a v y i n d u s t r y a n d m a r k e t g a r d e n i n g ; a p l a t e a u r i s i n g t o 500 f e e t w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g o n b o t h s l o p e s w i t h l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l a n d m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l o n t o p ; t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y . w h i c h c o n t a i n s B u r n a b y L a k e a n d D e e r L a k e a n d u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d r e c r e a t i o n ; a n d B u r n a b y M o u n t a i n w h i c h r i s e s t o 1300 f e e t , a n d s u p p o r t s h e a v y i n d u s t r y o n i t s l o w e r s o u t h e r n s l o p e s , S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y o n t o p , a n d o i l r e f i n e r i e s a t t h e f o o t o f i t s n o r t h e r n s l o p e s o n t h e I n l e t . G o v e r n m e n t : B u r n a b y v o t e r s e l e c t a M a y o r a n d 8 A l d e r m e n w h o f o r m t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h s e t s m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y . T e r m s a r e 2 y e a r s w i t h 4 A l d e r m e n e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , a n d t h e M a y o r e l e c t e d e v e r y 2 y e a r s . A M a n a g e r i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t -U J 4 m e r i t s . T h i s C o u n c i l - M a n a g e r s y s t e m h a s b e e n i n u s e s i n c e 1957-E c o n o m y : B u r n a b y i s a s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y t o V a n c o u v e r a n d N e w W e s t m i n -s t e r . T h e p r i m a r y u s e s a r e r e s i d e n c e , w a r e h o u s i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n . G e n -e r a l t a x r e v e n u e i s p r o v i d e d : 26% b y t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , 62% b y t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t o r , 10% b y t h e c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r a n d 2% b y o t h e r s . 1.1 D E V E L O P M E N T C O N T R O L I N B U R N A B Y D e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l i n B u r n a b y c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e W i r i n g R e g u l a t i o n B y - l a w 1910 (#91). B e t w e e n 1924 a n d 1927 t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l T o w n P l a n n i n g B y - l a w s ( # 4 2 2 , 444,. 477, 482, 496, 573). T h e B u r n a b y B u i l d -i n g B y - l a w ( # 5 4 0 ) a n d t h e B u r n a b y P l u m b i n g B y - l a w (#542) w e r e b o t h a d o p t e d i n 1926. T h e B u r n a b y E l e c t r i c a l B y - l a w (#761) f o l l o w e d i n 1928. T h e B u r n a b y T o w n P l a n n i n g B y - l a w 1948 (#1991) w a s t h e m o s t r e s t r i c t i v e d e v e l -o p m e n t c o n t r o l d o c u m e n t u n t i l t h a t t i m e . I t w a s n o t s u p e r c e d e d u n t i l 19^ 5 w h e n t h e B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w (#4742) w a s a d o p t e d . T h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w o u t l i n e s a n u m b e r o f p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h m u s t b e m e t b y e a c h n e w d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y . I t a l s o s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n o f P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g A p p r o v a l ( P P A ) i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e i s s u a n c e o f a B u i l d i n g P e r m i t f o r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s e x c e p t t h o s e n o t e d i n S e c t i o n 7-3(1). T h e r e f o r e a n y n e w , a l t e r a t i o n s t o , a d d i t i o n s t o , o r m a j -o r c h a n g e s o f u s e o f i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e P P A , w h e r e a s s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e s , d u p l e x e s a n d c e r t a i n c i v i l w o r k s d o n o t . T h e P P A d e v i c e i s n o t a p e r m i t , r a t h e r i t i s a c h e c k t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w , o t h e r r e l e v a n t b y - l a w s a n d p o l i c i e s a r e m e t a t t h e d e s i g n s t a g e o f d r a w i n g p r e p a r a t i o n . I n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e B u i l d i n g P e r m i t i t i s o n e o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r d e v i c e s 5 f o r d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l i n B u r n a b y . T h e o t h e r t w o a r e S u b d i v i s i o n a n d R e z o n i n g . M o s t r e c e n t m a j o r s u b d i v i s i o n s h a v e b e e n f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e s / d u p l e x e s . H e n c e t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d i n t h e o t h e r z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h t h e s u b d i v i s i o n p r o c e d u r e . R e z o n i n g c a n b e a v e r y p o w e r f u l d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l d e v i c e . T h e s u i t a b l e p l a n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e z o n i n g m u s t r e c e i v e P P A . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o j e c t m u s t c o n f o r m t o t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w t h r o u g h P P A , i t i s a l s o c o n -t r o l l e d b y t h e B y - l a w u n d e r w h i c h t h e r e z o n i n g w a s g r a n t e d . H e n c e , i f t h e c o m m i t m e n t s o n t h e s u i t a b l e p l a n a r e n o t m e t , t h e o w n e r i s s u b j e c t t o t h e p e n a l t i e s o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w , t h e e n a b l i n g B y - l a w b e i n g q u a s h e d , a n d t h e r e z o n i n g r e v o k e d . R e z o n i n g s h o w e v e r , c o n s t i t u t e o n l y a v e r y s m a l l n u m b e r o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f a n n u a l P P A a p p l i c a t i o n s . A s a r e s u l t , m o s t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l i n B u r n a b y i s e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h t h e P P A p r o c e d u r e . H e n c e i t i s t h e d e v i c e w h i c h i s m o s t h e a v i l y d e p e n d e d u p o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l u p g r a d i n g o f t h e e n -v i r o n m e n t . I n m a n y c a s e s t h i s i s t h e o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l i -t y t o r e q u i r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l u p g r a d i n g o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 1.2 T H E D E V E L O P M E N T C O N T R O L P R O C E S S A d e v e l o p e r w i s h i n g t o c o n s t r u c t a d e v e l o p m e n t i n a z o n i n g d i s -t r i c t w h e r e P P A i s r e q u i r e d , m u s t f i r s t a p p o i n t a n a g e n t t o h a n d l e h i s P P A a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s p e r s o n m a y b e a n o w n e r , a f r i e n d , a n a r c h i t e c t , a n e n g i n e e r , a d r a f t s m a n . e t c . , ( n o p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d ) . T h e a g e n t t h e n o b t a i n s a l l o f t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -m e n t , p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n d r a w i n g s a r e p r e p a r e d , a n d a f o r m a l P P A a p p l i c a -t i o n i s m a d e . 6 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l p r o c e s s f r o m a p p l i c a t i o n f o r P P A t o f i n a l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i n t h e f i e l d i s o u t l i n e d b e l o w : - A p p l i c a n t s u b m i t s 2 c o p i e s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n d r a w i n g s t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t f o r P P A . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e v i e w e d b y t h e H e a l t h , F i r e , E n g i n e e r i n g a n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h a ' n u m b e r o f o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w , o t h e r b y - l a w s a n d s t a t u t e s , a n d p o l i c i e s . T h e p r i m a r y f o c u s i s o n t h e a d e q u a c y o f s e r v i c e s ; t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f h e i g h t , b u l k , d e n s i t y a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s ; a n d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a n d s c a p i n g a n d v e h i c u l a r p r o v i s i o n s . - O n e a p p r o v e d P P A c o p y i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e a p p l i c a n t . I n c l u d e d i s a v a l i d a t i o n l e t t e r w h i c h m u s t b e s i g n e d a n d s e a l e d b y t h e o w n e r t o i n -d i c a t e t h a t h e i s a w a r e o f a n d a c c e p t s a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e P P A d r a w i n g s . - W h e n t h e v a l i d a t i o n l e t t e r i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , t h e s e c o n d P P A c o p y i s f o r w a r d e d t o t h e B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t . - T w o c o p i e s o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s m u s t b e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t w i t h a n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a B u i l d i n g P e r m i t . T h i s a p p l i c a -t i o n m a y b e m a d e p r e v i o u s t o , s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h , o r a f t e r t h e a p p l i c a -t i o n i s m a d e f o r P P A . - T h e a p p l i c a n t ' s c o p y o f t h e B u i l d i n g P e r m i t d r a w i n g s w i l l n o t b e r e -l e a s e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e s e c o n d s e t o f a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s i s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a n d a c o m p a r i s o n m a d e . - S i n c e a n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a P P A a n d a B u i l d i n g P e r m i t m a y b e m a d e s i m -u l t a n e o u s l y , a B u i l d i n g P e r m i t f o r a s m a l l t o m e d i u m s i z e b u i l d i n g c a n b e o b t a i n e d w i t h i n 1 0 - 1 4 d a y s o f a p p l i c a t i o n f o r P P A . - T h e B u i l d i n g P e r m i t d r a w i n g s a r e t h e l e g a l g u i d e d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u e -7 t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g a n d o n e a p p r o v e d s e t i s r e q u i r e d t o b e a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e a t a l l t i m e s . - S h o u l d a c h a n g e b e d e s i r e d t o t h e a p p r o v e d P P A b e f o r e o r ' d u r i n g c o n -s t r u c t i o n , t h i s P P A m u s t b e a m e n d e d . T h e p r o c e s s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r a n e w P P A b u t i f t h e c h a n g e s a r e m i n o r , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s e x a -m i n e d b y t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o n l y , a n d h e n c e c a n b e p r o c e s s e d m o r e q u i c k l y t h a n a n e w a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e c r i t e r i a f o r a p p r o v i n g t h e c h a n g e i s t h a t i t i s o f e q u a l q u a l i t y o r b e t t e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l P P A . O n c e a p p r o v e d , t h e a p p l i c a n t m u s t t a k e h i s o r i g i n a l P P A d r a w i n g s t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h e M u n i -c i p a l P P A c o p y i s r e t r i e v e d f r o m i t s p l a c e o f s t o r a g e a n d t h e r e l e v -a n t i t e m s a r e s u p e r c e d e d a n d c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d o n t h e o r i g i n a l P P A , d r a w i n g s a n d t h e a m e n d e d P P A d r a w i n g s . - D u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n t h e b u i l d i n g i s i n s p e c t e d b y b u i l d i n g , e l e c t r i c a l , p l u m b i n g a n d g a s , h e a l t h , a n d f i r e i n s p e c t o r s u s i n g t h e B u i l d i n g P e r -m i t d r a w i n g s . W h e n a l l o f t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d , a C e r t i -f i c a t e o f O c c u p a n c y i s i s s u e d . T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e c a n b e i s s u e d f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r f o r t h e e n t i r e , b u i l d i n g . I n b o t h c a s e s w h e n t h e c e r t i f i c a t e i s i s s u e d , t h e e x t e r i o r b u i l d i n g d e t a i l s m a y b e u n f i n i s h e d a n d t h e s i t e w o r k s s t i l l i n c o m p l e t e . T h e l a n d s c a p i n g i s u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d l a s t a n d d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s t a g i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d t i m e o f y e a r , t h i s m a y o c c u r w e e k s o r m o n t h s a f t e r t h e c e r t i f i c a t e i s i s s u e d . - T h e f i n a l i n s p e c t i o n b y t h e B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s t h e l a n d s c a p e a n d y a r d i n s p e c t i o n . T h e i n s p e c t o r u s e s t h e P P A d r a w i n g s f o r a v e r y l a r g e c o m p l e x l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e . T h e s m a l l e r l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s a r e h a n d c o p i e d f r o m t h e P P A d r a w i n g s o n t o t h e i n s p e c t i o n c a r d s w h i c h 8 a r e c a r r i e d i n t h e f i e l d . 1.3 E N F O R C E M E N T A N D P E N A L T I E S E n f o r c e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w a r e f o u n d i n s e c t i o n 7.6 a n d a r e a s f o l l o w s : (1) E v e r y p e r s o n w h o v i o l a t e s a n y p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s B y - l a w o r w h o c a u s e s , s u f f e r s o r p e r m i t s a n y c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f i t s r e g u l a t i o n s s h a l l b e d e e m e d t o b e g u i l t y o f a n i n f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f a n d s h a l l b e l i a b l e t o t h e p e n a l t i e s h e r e i n i m p o s e d . (2) W h e r e a n y b u i l d i n g o r p a r t t h e r e o f o r a n y u s e o f b u i l d i n g o r l a n d c o n t r a v e n e s t h i s B y - l a w , t h e C h i e f B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r , o r a n y o t h e r o f f i c i a l o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n w h o m a y b e a p p o i n t e d b y C o u n c i l , s h a l l g i v e t o t h e o w n e r o r a g e n t o r t h e r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n s , w r i t t e n n o t i c e s p e c i f y i n g t h e v i o l a t i o n , o r d e r i n g t h e c e s s a t i o n t h e r e o f , a n d r e q u i r -i n g s u c h r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s t o b e t a k e n o r w o r k t o b e d o n e i n t h e t i m e a n d i n t h e m a n n e r t h e n o t i c e s h a l l s p e c i f y . I n t h e e v e n t o f f a i l u r e t o c o m p l y , t h e C h i e f B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r o r a n y o t h e r o f f i c i a l o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n w h o m a y b e a p p o i n t e d b y C o u n c i l , m a y c a u s e s u c h r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s t o b e t a k e n o r w o r k t o b e d o n e , a n d t h e c o s t t h e r e o f s h a l l b e r e c o v e r a b l e b y t h e C o r p o r a t i o n b y s u m m a r y p r o c e s s a t l a w i n a n y c o u r t o f c o m p e t e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n . I n t h e e v e n t o f d e f a u l t o f p a y m e n t o f s u c h a s s e s s e d c o s t s a c h a r g e s h a l l b e p l a c e d a g a i n s t t h e p r o p e r t y a n d s u c h c o s t s , w h e n c e r t i f i e d b y t h e T r e a s u r e r , s h a l l b e e n t e r e d i n t h e C o l l e c t o r ' s R o l l a n d c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r ' a s t h e t a x e s s h o w n t h e r e o n . ( B / L #504-2 - 28/11/66). P e n a l t y p r o v i s i o n s a r e f o u n d i n S e c t i o n 7-7 B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w a n d a r e a s f o l l o w s : 9. A n y p e r s o n g u i l t y o f a n y i n f r a c t i o n o f t h i s B y - l a v / , ( a n d f o r t h e p u r -p o s e s h e r e o f e v e r y i n f r a c t i o n s h a l l b e d e e m e d t o b e a c o n t i n u i n g , n e w a n d s e p a r a t e o f f e n c e , f o r e a c h d a y d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s a m e s h a l l c o n -t i n u e ) s h a l l u p o n c o n v i c t i o n o f s u c h i n f r a c t i o n o r i n f r a c t i o n s b e f o r e t h e P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e , J u s t i c e o f t h e P e a c e o r M a g i s t r a t e h a v i n g j u r i -s d i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y o n t h e o a t h o r a f f i r m a t i o n o f s u c h a u t h o r i t y , p a y a f i n e n o t e x c e e d i n g t h e s u m o f o n e h u n d r e d d o l -l a r s f o r e a c h d a y o r p a r t t h e r e o f f o r w h i c h a n y s u c h i n f r a c t i o n s h a l l b e c o n t i n u e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o s t s f o r e a c h s u c h o f f e n c e . . I n d e -f a u l t o f p a y m e n t i t s h a l l b e l a w f u l f o r s u c h M a g i s t r a t e o r M a g i s t r a t e s s o c o n v i c t i n g t o c o m m i t t h e o f f e n d e r t o t h e c o m m o n g a o l o r a n y l o c k - u p h o u s e w i t h i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y f o r a p e r i o d n o t e x c e e d i n g t w o c a l e n d a r m o n t h s u n l e s s t h e s a i d f i n e o r p e n a l t y c o s t b e p a i d . N o t h -i n g h e r e i n c o n t a i n e d s h a l l p r e v e n t t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y f r o m t a k i n g s u c h o t h e r l a w f u l a c t i o n a s i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e -v e n t o r r e m e d y a n y v i o l a t i o n . 1.4 T H E P R O B L E M T h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e i n B u r n a b y a p p e a r s t o b e e f f e c -t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g a s i g n e d c o m m i t m e n t f r o m t h e d e v e l o p e r ( t h e v a l i d a t i o n l e t t e r ) a g r e e i n g t o e x e c u t e t h e p r o j e c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s . T h e r e f o r e t h e P P A d e v i c e i t s e l f w o r k s v e r y w e l l . I t i s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t t h e s y s t e m a p p e a r s t o b r e a k d o w n -?6% o f t h e n e w l y c o m p l e t e d p r o j e c t s a r e n o t e x e c u t e d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e a p p -2 r o v e d d e s i g n d r a w i n g s . M o s t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o c c u r s i n f i n i s h e s , d e - . t a i l s a n d l a n d s c a p i n g a s o p p o s e d t o s i t i n g , b u l k a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t a m a j o r c o n s e q u e n c e i s t h a t m a n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s 10 w h i c h c a n b e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c o m p l i a n c e a r e n o t b e i n g a c h i e v e d . 1.5 E N V I R O N M E N T A L O B J E C T I V E S S o m e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s w h o s e a c h i e v e m e n t c a n b e g u a r a n t e e d t h r o u g h c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e a p p r o v e d P P A a n d w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t -l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s b y p l a n n e r s , d e s i g n e r s a n d / o r d e v e l o p e r s , a r e a s f o l l o w s : S a f e t y ( i ) d r i v e r p r o t e c t i o n ( i i ) p e d e s t r i a n p r o t e c t i o n H e a l t h ( i ) p r o t e c t i o n o f s a n i t a r y a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d s ( i i ) m i n i m i z e d i t c h b l o c k a g e ( i i i ) m i n i m i z e a i r , w a t e r a n d n o i s e p o l l u t i o n L a n d s c a p e . ( i ) m i n i m i z e m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s ( i i ) p r o t e c t i o n f r o m v a n d a l i s m , t h e f t ( i i i ) p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t p e d e s t r i a n a b u s e ( i v ) p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t a l v e h i c u l a r d a m a g e ( v ) p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t u n s i g h t l y p r u n i n g , c u t t i n g o r p r e m a t u r e r e m o v a l S o c i a l ( i ) d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p r o j e c t s ( i i ) u t i l i z a t i o n o f c u r r e n t h u m a n b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h Q u a l i t a t i v e ( i ) t o w a r d i m a g e , i d e n t i t y a n d s t r u c t u r e ( i i ) m i n i m i z e v i s u a l p o l l u t i o n F i n a n c i a l ( i ) m i n i m i z e c o s t s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y ( i i ) m i n i m i z e c o s t s t o B.C.Hydro ( i i i ) m i n i m i z e c o s t s t o d e v e l o p e r s . T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y 11 t w o f a c t o r s - t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l a n d t h e d e s i r e f o r a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t a r e a s . 1.6 T H E P U R P O S E A n y a t t e m p t s t o c o r r e c t t h e p r o b l e m w i l l r e q u i r e t h e f u l l c o - o p e r -a t i o n o f t h e P l a n n i n g , B u i l d i n g , E n g i n e e r i n g a n d P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e -p a r t m e n t s , t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , t h e d e v e l o p e r s , t h e c o n t r a c t o r s , a n d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n o r d e r t o e n g a g e t h e i r s u p p o r t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e m w h y c o m p l i a n c e i s d e s i r a b l e a n d / o r n e c e s s a r y . T h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t w o f o l d : ( i ) t o s h o w w h y c o m p l i a n c e i s d e s i r a b l e a n d / o r n e c e s s a r y ( i i ) t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m a n d t o s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e r e m e d i e s . 1.7 T H E A P P R O A C H S h o w i n g w h y c o m p l i a n c e i s d e s i r a b l e i s a p p r o a c h e d t h r o u g h d e m o n -s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s S a f e t y , H e a l t h , L a n d s c a p e , S o c i a l , Q u a l i t a t i v e , a n d F i n a n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s a f f o r d a n u m b e r o f a d v a n -t a g e s t o t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s - t h a t n o n -c o m p l i a n c e c a n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e s h o r t - t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e o b -j e c t i v e s a n d t h a t n o n - c o m p l i a n c e c a n b e m u t u a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g -e o u s t o a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . I n i t i a l l y t h e r e i s a n e x a m i n a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e o r i g i n / v a l i d i t y o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e . T h e m a j o r t h r u s t i s t o w a r d i d e n t i f y i n g w h i c h o f n i n e s e l e c t e d a r e a s o f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e c a n b e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s h o r t - t e r m n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e . . L o c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e u s e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . T h e f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d o n c h a r t s a t t h e e n d o f e a c h c h a p t e r a n d a r e a r r a n g e d s o a s - ( i ) t o g r a p h i c a l l y s u m m a r i z e t h e direct relationship between non-compliance and non-achievement; ( i i ) to clearly indicate those areas of non-compliance which adversely affect the achievement of a wide variety of objectives; ( i i i ) to il l u s t r a t e that the same change can simultaneously affect the objectives of a number of dif f e r -ent interest groups, i.e. that compliance can be mutually beneficial. There are some objectives which can be achieved through alterna-tive devices,independently of PPA. In these cases non-compliance with, the PPA may only result i n the non-achievement of the objective i n the short-term but not i n the long-term. Therefore where i t can also be shown that the PPA device i s the only mechanism available to achieve an objective in the long-term, i t can be concluded that i f achievement i s desired, then compliance i s necessary. Throughout the text occasional references are made to complimentary or alternative jurisdictions. A l i s t of the independent objectives i s provided in the summary of each chapter. Understanding the problem and suggesting possible remedies i s ap-proached by examining the present PPA procedure and f i e l d inspection sys-tem, identifying weaknesses, comparing possible remedies and presenting recommendations. 1.8 THE SCOPE 1. This study w i l l confine i t s e l f to projects which have been completed in Burnaby between 1 9 ? 4 and 1976. 2. Projects considered are primarily industrial and commercial examples because these constitute the majority of the PPA applications. Com-paratively few multi-family residential and institutional applica-tions are received per year. 3. Non-compliance throughout this study refers to variation from the 13 a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g n i n e a r e a s : ( i ) s u b s t i t u t i o n o f p l a n t s p e c i e s ( i i ) r e l o c a t i o n o r c h a n g e o f s p a c i n g o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l ( i i i ) c h a n g e s t o g r a d e s , c o n t o u r s a n d e a r t h w o r k s ( i v ) c h a n g e s t o c u r b s ( v ) c h a n g e s t o r o c k s , b o l l a r d s , s p e c i a l p a v i n g , f e n c e s a n d o t h e r i n e r t d e v i c e s ( v i ) c h a n g e s t o p a r k i n g s t a l l d e l i n e a t i o n ( v i i ) c h a n g e s t o s i z e o f s h r u b s a n d t r e e s a t p l a n t i n g ( v i i i ) c h a n g e s t o s t a k i n g a n d r o o t b a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( i x ) c h a n g e s t o b u i l d i n g d e t a i l s a n d f i n i s h e s . ' G e n e r a l r e v e n u e h a s a m i l l r a t e o f 19.140. T h e o t h e r m i l l r a t e s . t o t a l .51-.797 ( s c h o o l , h o s p i t a l , G . V . R . D , e t c ) . T h e B u r n a b y I n f o r m a t i o n  B u l l e t i n 1977, d i s t r i b u t e d b y t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t , s t a t e s t h a t i n 1976, $2 ,^167,601 o r 31-3% o f t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e w a s d e r i v e d t h r o u g h t a x e s . T h e f i g u r e s i n t h e t e x t r e p r e s e n t t h e p e r c e n t a g e t h a t e a c h s e c t o r c o n t r i -b u t e d t o t h e $24,167,601. 2 A 1 1 1097 P P A a p p l i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n A u g u s t 1, 1974 a n d D e c e m b e r 31, 1976 w e r e r e v i e w e d b y t h e t w o D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n T e c h n i c i a n s o f t h e B u r n a b y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d - K . B a r b e r a n d ' A . R a y n o r . S i g n s , u n b u i l t o r i n c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t s ( u n o c c u p i e d ) , a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s p l a c e d b y t h e B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t o r P a r k s D e p a r t m e n t , a n d i n t e r i o r o r m e c h a n i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a c c o u n t f o r 797. T h o s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h s p e c i f i e d n e w l a n d -s c a p i n g a n d / o r e x t e r i o r c h a n g e s a n d w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , t o t a l l e d 300. O f t h e s e 73 ( 2 4 % ) w e r e c o m p l e t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e P P A d r a w i n g s . 227 (76%) d i d n o t c o m p l y w i t h a t l e a s t o n e o f t h e n i n e c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n s u b s e c t i o n 1.8. ( C u r r e n t i n c o m p l e t i o n s i n e x c e s s o f 6 m o n t h s o f o c c u p a n c y h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s n o n - c o m p l y i n g ) . C h a p t e r 2 S A F E T Y A N D H E A L T H O B J E C T I V E S 15 C h a p t e r 2 • S A F E T Y A N D H E A L T H O B J E C T I V E S 2.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s i f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w -i n g s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h S A F E T Y a n d H E A L T H o b j e c t i v e . T h e m a i n t h r u s t i s t o w a r d : ( i ) i s o l a t i n g t h o s e d e t a i l s w h i c h , i f c h a n g e d , c a n b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e ; a n d . ( i i ) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P P A p r o c e s s t o t h e a c c o m p l i s h -m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . M u t u a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f c o m -p l i a n c e ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) a n d s o m e a d v a n t a g e s w i l l a l s o b e n o t e d . E a c h e x -a m i n a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s . 2.1 S A F E T Y 2»1 ( i ) D r i v e r P r o t e c t i o n ( a ) V i s i o n C l e a r a n c e a t I n t e r s e c t i o n s S e c t i o n 6.13 o f t h e B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w #47^ -2, J u n e 1963 s t a t e s a s f o l l o w s : I n a n y z o n i n g d i s t r i c t , n o f e n c e , w a l l o r s t r u c t u r e . o t h e r t h a n a p e r -m i t t e d p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g s h a l l b e e r e c t e d t o a g r e a t e r h e i g h t t h a n 3)£ f e e t a n d n o h e d g e , b u s h , s h r u b , t r e e , o r o t h e r g r o w t h s h a l l b e m a i n t a i n e d o r a l l o w e d t o g r o w s o a s t o o b s t r u c t v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e i n t h e a r e a b o u n d e d b y : (1) T h e i n t e r s e c t i o n l o t l i n e s a t a s t r e e t c o r n e r a n d a l i n e j o i n i n g p o i n t s a l o n g s a i d l o t l i n e s 30 f e e t f r o m t h e i r p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c -t i o n . (2) T h e i n t e r s e c t i n g l o t l i n e s a t a l a n e c o r n e r a n d a l i n e j o i n i n g p o i n t s a l o n g s a i d l o t l i n e s 20 f e e t f r o m t h e i r p o i n t o f i n t e r -s e c t i o n . A l a n e i n t e r s e c t i o n s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n 16 of a lane with any other lane or with a street, and Section 6.15(3)(b) states: Screening of six feet i n height shall be provided and properly main-tained : (i) where any parking or loading area abuts a lot i n an A, R, or RM District,, or i s separated therefrom by a street or lane, except however, that where a parking area abuts a lane, the screening along the lane shall be not less than 2}/z feet i n height for a distance of not less than 20 feet from a l l points of ingress and egress to and from such parking area: (B/L #5525 - 16/6/69). Both of these provisions are designed to enable a vehicle operator (or . pedestrians) to have sufficiently uninterrupted sight lines so as to safe-ly negotiate an intersection. There i s one view that since Section 6.13 contradicts some of. the basic provisions of certain zoning d i s t r i c t s , (those which permit build-ings at corner locations to be constructed at zero setback from the ad-jacent streets), then i t shouldn't matter whether provisions of the vis -ion clearance sections are observed or not. One such i l l u s t r a t i o n com-monly advanced i s a corner site i n a Community Commercial, C 2 , or General Commercial, C3 zoning d i s t r i c t . The yard provisions i n a C 2 or C3 zone are as follows: 302.6 or 303.6 Front Yard: No front yard shall be required. 302.7 or 303.7 Side Yards: (i) No side yards shall be required, except that where a lot abuts a lot in an A, R or RM Dis-t r i c t , or i s separated by a street or lane therefrom, a side yard shall be provided of a width not less than the required side yard of the abutting lot on the same side, but need not exceed 10 feet i n width. Here a building can be constructed with zero setbacks from the 17 p r o p e r t y l i n e a b u t t i n g a d j a c e n t s t r e e t s , c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r i n g t h e 30 f e e t v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t . Y e t i f t h e s a m e b u i l d i n g w e r e s i t e d 30 f e e t f r o m t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s , t h e n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e s e c -t i o n a p p l y , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e h e i g h t s o f b u s h y p l a n t m a t e r i a l , w i d e s i g n s a n d / o r b a s e s , f e n c e s , e a r t h f o r m s a n d o t h e r w o r k s c a n n o t e x c e e d 3'-6" i n h e i g h t . T h e B u r n a b y T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e a c t u a l r e q u i r e d v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e d e p e n d s o n a n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s , t h e t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h a r e t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l d e v i c e s a n d t h e w i d t h o f t h e b o u l e v a r d - t h e l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e c o n t r o l s , t h e m o r e v i s u a l s p a c e i s r e q u i r e d b y m o t o r i s t s a p p r o a c h i n g a n i n t e r s e c t i o n ; t h e n a r r o w e r t h e b o u l e v a r d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e u n i m p e d e d v i s u a l s p a c e r e -q u i r e d f o r t h e s a f e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i l l e n c r o a c h o v e r t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s o f t h e a d j a c e n t c o r n e r l o t s . H e c i t e s t h a t a n i n t e r s e c t i o n m a y b e e l e c t r o n i c a l l y s i g n a l l e d , s i g n e d o r u n c o n t r o l l e d , a n d t h a t m o t o r i s t s a p p r o a c h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f c a u t i o n . I n a s i g n a l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n t h e r i g h t - o f -w a y i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , h e n c e i t i s n o t a l w a y s n e c e s s a r y , a l t h o u g h s o m e -t i m e s d e s i r a b l e , t o b e a b l e t o s e e m o t o r i s t s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n f r o m t h e r i g h t o r l e f t , h e n c e l a r g e v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e s a r e n o t a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r s a f e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n . A t a s i g n e d i n t e r -s e c t i o n t h e s t o p l i n e s a r e g e n e r a l l y p a i n t e d i n l i n e w i t h t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s . T h e s t o p p e d m o t o r i s t i s p o s i t i o n e d o n t h e s t r e e t b e h i n d a n i m a g i n -a r y e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e . H o w e v e r , h e c a n n o t p r o c e e d t o c l e a r t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n u n t i l h e c a n c l e a r l y s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o v e h i c l e s a p -p r o a c h i n g f r o m e i t h e r s i d e . H e n c e m o r e u n i n t e r r u p t e d v i s u a l s p a c e i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d a c r o s s b o t h p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c p r o p e r t y a t s i g n e d i n t e r -18 s e c t i o n s t h a n a t s i g n a l i z e d o n e s . T h e v i s u a l c l e a r a n c e n e e d s o f u n c o n -t r o l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s a r e p e r h a p s g r e a t e s t o f a l l . T h e a p p r o a c h i n g m o t -o r i s t d o e s n o t u s u a l l y c o m e t o a c o m p l e t e s t o p , h e n c e h e n e e d s t o h a v e c l e a r v i s u a l a c c e s s t o t h e s i d e s t r e e t s s o t h a t h e c a n a s c e r t a i n t h e w i s -d o m o f h i s v e l o c i t y a n d m a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s b e f o r e t r a v e r s i n g t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n . T h i s p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h r e c o r d s f o r t h e B r y a n t / W a l t h a m i n t e r s e c t i o n w h i c h h a s e x p e r i e n c e d a n u m b e r o f a c c i d e n t s b e t w e e n J u n e 1962 a n d 1976,33 w e r e r i g h t a n g l e c o l l i s i o n s a n d a l l w e r e d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e o b s t r u c t i o n b y a d j a c e n t l a n d s c a p i n g . T h e B a r k e r C r e s c e n t / G i l p i n C r e s c e n t i n t e r s e c t i o n h a s r e c o r d e d 14 r i g h t a n g l e c o l l i s i o n s d u e t o i n s u f f i c i e n t v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e d u r i n g t h i s s a m e p e r i o d . T h e w i d t h o f t h e b o u l e v a r d i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t s i g n e d a n d u n c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s . S i n c e a v e h i c l e c a n a c t u a l l y s t o p i n l i n e w i t h t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e e d g e o f b o u l e v a r d , t h e d e p t h o f t h e b o u l e v a r d c a n d e t e r m i n e h o w m u c h v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e i s a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d . M o s t s t a n d a r d r o a d a l l o w a n c e s a r e 66' w i d e . M a n y I n t e r i m s t a n d a r d r o a d s h a v e a 20' w i d e a s p h a l t c a p , h e n c e ( i f c e n t e r e d ) t h e b o u l e v a r d s c a n b e 23' w i d e , a n d i f t h e s e a r e g r a s s e d a n d o p e n , t h e p r i v a t e l a n d s c a p i n g i s o n l y m i n i m a l l y a f -f e c t e d b y a c t u a l v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . H o w e v e r , i f t h i s s a m e r o a d w a y w e r e d e v e l o p e d t o a f u l l s t a n d a r d . i n d u s t r i a l r o a d w a y , i t w o u l d h a v e a 46' w i d e a s p h a l t c a p a n d 10' w i d e b o u l e v a r d s . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e v i s u a l d e m a n d s o n t h e a d j a c e n t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a r e m u c h g r e a t e r b e -c a u s e t h e b o u l e v a r d i s o n l y 10' w i d e . T h e a r g u m e n t i s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a l l s i t e s s h o u l d b e p l a n n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . 46' u n c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; i f n o t , a n y s i g n a l c h a n g e s o r r o a d w i d e n -i n g i m p r o v e m e n t s c o u l d r e s u l t i n a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a r e a r e q u i r e d f o r v i s -2 . BRYANT ST./WALTHAM AVE. INTERSECTION PLATE 2 2 0 ion clearance and hence the creation of some serious safety hazards which, relative to former circumstances, did not previously exist. The correction of a vision clearance problem caused by landscap-ing or other works i n the c r i t i c a l area might result i n the complete de-struction of costly landscaping which may have taken years to develop; the needless expenditure of municipal funds on i t s correction ( i . e . staff time at administrative and c l e r i c a l levels i n the Planning, Engineering and Parks Departments, and heavy equipment operating costs); and perhaps the loss of a fine visual amenity. If at such a location, the conditions of vision clearance had been observed i n i t i a l l y , the public might have de-rived the continued benefits of an amenable visual asset, t r a f f i c conven-ience and a more beneficial use of the wasted funds. In view of the fact that-(i) the paradox presented here has only limited applicability - f r o n t yards of C 2 and C3 zones, and limited appli-c a b i l i t y to rear yards in certain other zones ( i t does not apply to the front yards of any industrial, residential, or institutional zones nor those of commercial zones C 1 , C4, C5, C6, C 7 ) ; ( i i ) changes to sig n a l i -zation of intersections and boulevard widths can increase the vision clearance requirements across private property; ( i i i ) correction of vis-ion clearance violations can be costly i n amenity and money to the private owner and to the municipality; (iv) since vision clearance i s a provision of the By-law and the Director of Planning i s obliged to enforce i t -PPA's are r i g i d l y examined for vision clearance. The drawings are checked in two areas. The f i r s t i s the suitabi-l i t y of the plant material and land contours. The Development Plan Tech-nicians ensure that the ground cover material when combined with the con-tours does not mature i n excess o f 3'-6" i n height^ (e.g. grass, ivy, 21 S a v i n j u n i p e r , e t c . ) a b o v e t h e s t r e e t p a v e m e n t , e x c e p t i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w h e r e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s m o r e a p t t o b e m a i n t a i n e d a t a l e v e l b e -l o w m a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e h e i g h t . A n y t r e e s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i d e d v i s i o n c l e a r -a n c e a r e a m u s t b e s u c h t h a t t h e y a r e q u i t e t r a n s p a r e n t ( e . g . A u t u m n C h e r r y , P r u n u s ) o r o n s t a n d a r d s w i t h t h e l o w e s t b r a n c h e s a t l e a s t 7' a b o v e g r a d e ( e . g . a n y d e c i d u o u s t r e e s ) , o r h a v e a v e r y n a r r o w g r o w i n g h a b i t ( e . g . P y r a -m i d a l c e d a r , T h u j a o c c i d e n t a l i s p y r a m i d a l i s c o m p a c t a ) . T h e s e c o n d a s p e c t w h i c h i s c h e c k e d i s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t i n g , m o u n d s , f e n c e s , e t c . T h i s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a n d s c a p e d a t a i s a c c u r a t e l y s h o w n o n t h e d r a w -i n g s t h r o u g h s c a l i n g o r d i m e n s i o n i n g s o t h a t t h e r e i s n o a m b i g u i t y c o n -c e r n i n g w h e r e e a c h s p e c i e s i s t o b e l o c a t e d . I n v i e w o f t h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t a n i n n o -c e n t s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a t a l l g r o w i n g v a r i e t y f o r a s h o r t e r o n e ( e . g . R h o -d e r d e n d r o n i n s t e a d o f i v y ) ; a d e n s e r t r e e f o r a m o r e t r a n s p a r e n t o n e ( e . g . S w i s s S t o n e p i n e ' P i n u s c e m b r a ' , f o r B i r c h ' B e t u l a v e r r u c o s a g r a c i -l i s ' ) ; o r a w i d e r t r e e i n s t e a d o f a n a r r o w o n e ( e . g . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r -T h u j a p l i c a t a f o r T h u j a o c c i d e n t a l i s p y r a m i d a l i s c o m p a c t a ) ; e v e n t h o u g h e x e c u t e d w i t h t h e b e s t o f i n t e n t i o n s c a n i n t i m e c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s t r a f f i c h a z a r d . p p A 3127, (7892 - 6th S t r e e t ) i s a n e x a m p l e o f w h e r e A u s t r i a n p i n e s ( P i n u s n i g r a ) w e r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r M u g h o p i n e ( p i n u s m u -g h a n s ) i n t h e r e q u i r e d v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e a r e a — t h e t r e e s a r e s t i l l s m a l l , s o t h e g r a v i t y o f t h i s d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s i s n o t r e a d i -l y a s c e r t a i n a b l e a t t h i s t i m e , b u t t h e T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r f e e l s t h a t i n t i m e t h e y w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a t r a f f i c h a z a r d . H e c i t e d a c u r r e n t S u r r e y , B . C - . s i t u a t i o n a s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f w h a t c o u l d h a p p e n i n t i m e i n t h i s a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s - n a m e l y l a n d s c a p i n g o n t h e m e d i a n o f J o h n s t o n E d . b e -t w e e n t h e f r e e w a y a n d G u i l d f o r d w h i c h f e a t u r e s s o m e b e a u t i f u l p i n e t r e e s 22 w h i c h w e r e p l a n t e d t h e r e s e v e r a l y e a r s a g o . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y a r e g r o w i n g o u t w a r d s a n d u p w a r d s v e r y r a p i d l y a n d h e f e e l s t h a t t h e y w i l l h a v e t o b e r e m o v e d f a i r l y s o o n b e c a u s e t h e t r a f f i c s a f e t y o f t h e a r e a i s d e t e r -i o r a t i n g r a p i d l y . H e f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s m o s t u n f o r t u n a t e b e c a u s e i f t h e t r e e s h a d b e e n p l a n t e d w i t h m o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h i s s i t u a t i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d . S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e s p e c i e s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d b u t a r e l o c a t e d d i f -f e r e n t l y f r o m t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s , t h e e f f e c t c a n b e t h e s a m e a s s p e -c i e s s u b s t i t u t i o n , s o t h e r e s u l t s c a n b e e q u a l l y s e r i o u s . H e n c e , t h e o n l y w a y i t c a n b e g u a r a n t e e d t h a t t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e p r i n c i p l e s w i l l b e a d h e r e d t o , i s i f t h e r e a r e n o s u b s t i t u t i o n s o f s p e c i e s , r e l o c a t i o n s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l o r c h a n g e s t o c o n t o u r s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l l y a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s , u n l e s s b y a m e n d m e n t . ( b ) C o n t r o l o f C r o s s i n g W i d t h a t C e r t a i n L o c a t i o n s T h e T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r h a s d e s i g n a t e d a n u m b e r o f s t r e e t s a s t h r o u g h s t r e e t s . S o m e e x a m p l e s a r e D o u g l a s R d . , W i n s t o n S t . , G i l l e y A v e . , R o y a l O a k A v e . , a n d E d m o n d s S t . O n t h e s e s t r e e t s b a c k - i n m a n o e v e r i n g b y t r u c k s i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o o r f r o m t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e , h e n c e a t r u c k h a s t o t u r n a r o u n d o n t h e s i t e b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e s t r e e t . T h i s i s t o m i n i m i z e t h e t r a f f i c h a z a r d a n d a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s a r e u s u a l l y d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e a c e r t a i n m a x i m u m s i z e o f t r u c k . F o r e x a m p l e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 721 o f c l e a r s p a c e i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r p a r k i n g a n d m a n o e v e r i n g o f a 30' s i n g l e a x l e t r u c k ( t u r n i n g r a d i u s 4V ) a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 103' i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r p a r k i n g a n d m a n o e v e r i n g o f a 53' s e m i - t r a i l e r ( t u r n i n g r a d i u s 61 1). I n o r d e r t o d i s c o u r a g e u s e o f t h e s i t e b y t r u c k s l a r g e r 23 t h a n d e s i g n e d f o r , t h e c r o s s i n g w i d t h s a r e c a r e f u l l y s i z e d . M i n i m a l w i d t h c r o s s i n g s s e r v e t w o p u r p o s e s - o n e i s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s c o u r a g e t e n -a n t s w h o n e e d l a r g e t r u c k s e r v i c e f r o m l o c a t i n g o n u n d e r d e s i g n e d s i t e s b e -c a u s e t h e . c o n f i n e d m a n o e v e r i n g s p a c e i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . T h e o t h e r i s t o m a k e i t p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e o r v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r o v e r s i z e d v e h i c l e s t o n e g o t i a t e t h e c r o s s i n g a n d h e n c e , g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e s i t e . L a n d s c a p e d e v i c e s a r e c o m m o n l y u s e d t o d e f i n e t h e s e c r o s s i n g s a n d c o n f i n e v e h i c l e s t o t h e m b y d i s c o u r a g i n g e n c r o a c h m e n t s o n t o a d j a c e n t a r e a s . T h e s e i n c l u d e l a r g e b o u l d e r s a s a r e u s e d a t 3213 N o r l a n d A v e . . , o r u p r i g h t c e d a r l o g s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h 4" - 6" c o n c r e t e c u r b s o r 8" w o o d c u r b s a s p e r P P A 3602 (7083 B u l l e r A v e . . ) , o r 12" h i g h c o n c r e t e c u r b s a s p e r P P A 3747 (6880 P a l m A v e . . ) T h e P P A p r o c e s s e n s u r e s t h a t t h e s e c r o s s i n g s a r e l i n e d w i t h s u i t -a b l e l a n d s c a p e d e v i c e s w h i c h w i l l d i s c o u r a g e o v e r s i z e d v e h i c l e s f r o m u s -i n g s i t e s w h i c h a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e t h e m . P P A 3033 (8042 W i n s t o n S t . ) w a s o n e w h i c h w a s a p p r o v e d w i t h t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n m i n d . T h e c r o s s i n g w a s 20' w i d e p r o t e c t e d b y a b e r m o n o n e s i d e a n d s e v e r a l m a t u r e n a t i v e c e d a r s o n t h e o t h e r s i d e , . T h e y w e r e a l l c l e a r l y s h o w n o n t h e d e -s i g n d r a w i n g s . T h e b e r m w a s n o t c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e m a t u r e t r e e s w e r e c u t d o w n a n d t h e c r o s s i n g w a s c o n s t r u c t e d b e t w e e n 2 4 ' a n d 30' i n w i d t h . O n e o f t h e t e n a n t s w a s p e r i o d i c a l l y s e r v e d b y v e h i c l e s l a r g e r t h a n t h e 30' -t r u c k s t h a t t h e s i t e w a s d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n b u i l d i n g d a m a g e , s u b s t a n t i a l c u r b d a m a g e , r e p o r t s o f p e r i o d i c i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o p a s s i n g i n d u s t r i a l a n d o t h e r m o t o r i s t s d u e t o b a c k - i n m a n o e v e r i n g f r o m W i n s t o n , a n d c o m p l a i n t s f r o m t h e w e s t e r l y n e i g h b o u r s w h o a s s e r t e d t h a t d u e t o i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l m a n o e v e r i n g s p a c e t h e s e l a r g e t r u c k s w e r e e n -c r o a c h i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e i n t o t h e i r p r o p e r t y a n d h a d d e s t r o y e d 2k c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r , l a n d s c a p i n g w h i c h h a d o n l y r e c e n t l y b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d . I f t h e c r o s s i n g w i d t h i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i d e r t h a n a s a p p r o v e d o n t h e d r a w i n g s , o r i f t h e c r o s s i n g w i d t h i s c o r r e c t b u t t h e b o l l a r d s o r o t h e r d e v i c e s d e f i n i n g t h e c r o s s i n g a r e o m i t t e d o r r e l o c a t e d , o r i f t h e c r o s s i n g w i d t h i s c o r r e c t b u t t h e r e q u i r e d 12" c u r b i s o m i t t e d o r l o w e r e d , t h e n c h a n c e s o f a t t a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e a r e r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h u s , t h e d e t a i l s a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d c u r b i n g a n d a d j a c e n t l a n d s c a p e t r e a t m e n t a r e o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f a c c e s s b y o v e r s i z e d v e h i c l e s t o c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . ( c ) P e r p e n d i c u l a r P a r k i n g o n S t r e e t s A n o t h e r t r a f f i c h a z a r d o c c u r s w h e n c a r s p a r k o n t h e b o u l e v a r d p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y t o t h e s t r e e t . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s h a z a r d o u s t o t h e r e v e r s -i n g d r i v e r s , t h e p a s s i n g d r i v e r s a n d s o m e t i m e s t o p e d e s t r i a n s . S o m e o f t h e m o s t n o t a b l e B u r n a b y e x a m p l e s o c c u r a t 523^ - R u m b l e S t . , a n d a l o n g D a w s o n S t . , j u s t w e s t o f W i l l i n g d o n A v e . S e c t i o n l 8 0 ( l ) ( a ) o f t h e M o t o r V e h i c l e A c t s t a t e s : ".... n o p e r -s o n s h a l l s t o p , s t a n d o r p a r k a v e h i c l e ( a ) o n a s i d e w a l k o r b o u l e v a r d . " T h i s s u b s e c t i o n i s c o m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e B u r n a b y S t r e e t a n d T r a f f i c B y - l a w 1961 i n S e c t i o n 14.(1) w h i c h s t a t e s : E x c e p t a s p r o v i d e d i n S e c t i o n 15 ( s t r e e t s w h i c h a r e m a r k e d o r s i g n e d f o r a n g l e d p a r k i n g ) n o p e r s o n s h a l l s t o p o r p a r k a v e -h i c l e o n a h i g h w a y o t h e r t h a n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e c u r b o r e d g e o f t h e r o a d w a y h e a d e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h t r a f f i c t r a v e l s o n t h a t s i d e o f t h e h i g h w a y a n d , w h e r e t h e r e i s a c u r b , w i t h t h e c u r b s i d e w h e e l s w i t h i n 12 i n c h e s t h e r e o f . T h e r e a r e t w o c u r r e n t . p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s . O n e i s t h a t t h e R . C . M . P . f i n d t h e B u r n a b y S t r e e t s a n d T r a f f i c B y - l a w t o o a w k w a r d 2 t o c a r r y a r o u n d a n d t o o t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o d e c i p h e r . A s a r e s u l t t h e y 25 u s e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e M o t o r V e h i c l e A c t . S i n c e t h e A c t h a s n e g l e c t e d t o d e f i n e " b o u l e v a r d " , w h e r e t h e r e i s a n a b s e n c e o f c o n c r e t e c u r b s - a n y i n t e r i m s t a n d a r d r o a d , o f w h i c h B u r n a b y h a s m a n y - e n f o r c e m e n t i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . I n a n u m b e r o f a r e a s d i t c h e s a n d n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t p e r p e n d i c u l a r p a r k i n g f r o m o c c u r r i n g , b u t t h e r e a r e m a n y s t r e e t s w h e r e a c c e s s t o t h e v e r y b r o a d s h o u l d e r i s u n i m p e d e d . T h e l a t t e r s i t u a -t i o n i s q u i t e c o m m o n i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s s o u t h o f K i n g s w a y ( i . e . E a s t s i d e o f G i l l e y A v e . , b o t h s i d e s o f C u r r a g h A v e . , a n d t h e s o u t h s i d e o f R u m b l e S t . , j u s t e a s t o f R o y a l O a k A v e . V e h i c u l a r a r e a s , o n t h e s t r e e t a l l o w a n c e s w h e r e t h e s e i n t e r i m s t a n d a r d r o a d s o c c u r , a r e c o m m o n l y d e f i n e d w i t h c e d a r c u r b i n g w h i c h i s i n -c l u d e d w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s f o r a l l n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s i n s u c h a r e a s . I t i s u s u a l l y l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10' a w a y f r o m t h e a s p h a l t t h o r o u g h -f a r e . T h i s i s w i d e e n o u g h t o a l l o w p a r a l l e l p a r k i n g a n d s o m e p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t , b u t n o t w i d e e n o u g h f o r m o s t m o d e l s o f c a r s t o p a r k p e r p e n d i c u -l a r l y o r d i a g o n a l l y w i t h o u t p r o j e c t i n g o n t o t h e t r a v e l l e d p o r t i o n o f t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e w h i c h i n m a n y c a s e s i s o n l y 20' w i d e . S i n c e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c e d a r c u r b c a n b e t h e d e t e r m i n e n t o f p a r a l l e l v e r s u s p e r p e n d i c u l a r p a r k i n g , i f i t i s n o t p r o v i d e d o r a c c u r a t e -l y l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P P A d r a w i n g s , t h e n t h e d r i v e r , t h e p a s s i n g d r i v e r a n d t h e p a s s i n g p e d e s t r i a n ( m a n y o f t h e s e s t r e e t s d o n o t h a v e p r o p e r s i d e w a l k s ) w i l l b e e x p o s e d t o u n n e c e s s a r y d a n g e r s w h i c h c o u l d o t h -e r w i s e b e a v o i d e d . ( d ) D i s c o u r a g e A u t o m o t i v e B a c k - i n M a n o e v e r i n g t o S t r e e t s T h e p r e l i m i n a r y d r a w i n g s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e o n - s i t e p a r k i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n n o t o n l y m e e t s t h e t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S e c -26 t i o n 8OO .7 o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w b u t a r e a l s o d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o u r a g e c a r s f r o m r e v e r s i n g t o o r f r o m s t r e e t s a n d l a n e s . H e n c e t h e l o c a t i o n s o f a l l p a r k i n g b a y l i n e s m u s t b e a c c u r a t e l y i n d i c a t e d a n d a r e c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e p l a n s a r e a p p r o v e d . T h i s p o l i c y a p p l i e s t o a l l m u l t i - f a m i l y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s ( e x c e p t i o n - c a r s w h i c h s u r f a c e p a r k o n l o t s l e s s t h a n 4-2' w i d e a r e p e r m i t t e d t o b a c k - i n m a n o e v e r t o o r f r o m a l a n e ) . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p o l i c y a r e t h e s a m e a s t h o s e c i t e d i n S e c t i o n 2.2(1)(C). I n s o m e i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r k i n g a r e a s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d a l m o s t a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e p l a n s , e x c e p t t h e p a r k i n g s t a l l l i n e s a r e p a i n t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . A c a s e i n p o i n t i s P P A 3395 (7506 E d m o n d s ) . T h e l i n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a c t u -a l l y p a i n t e d d i f f e r s f r o m t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s , a n d i s n o w s u c h t h a t t h e m a n o e v e r i n g a i s l e h a s b e e n r e d u c e d f r o m 24' t o 16' a n d l a r g e r c a r s c a n b e f o r c e d t o r e v e r s e o n t o M a r y A v e n u e w h e n t h e l o a d i n g z o n e i s i n u s e o r o c c u p i e d b y a n i l l e g a l l y p a r k e d c a r . A l t h o u g h s u c h a c h a n g e i s q u i t e m i n o r , t h e r e s u l t i n t h i s , a s w e l l a s o t h e r s i m i l a r c a s e s , c a n b e t h a t t h e r e v e r s i n g d r i v e r , t h e p a s s -i n g d r i v e r , a n d t h e p a s s i n g p e d e s t r i a n a r e a g a i n s u b j e c t e d t o t r a f f i c d a n g e r s w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m i g h t h a v e b e e n m i n i m a l o r n o t e x i s t e d . 2.1 ( i i ) P e d e s t r i a n P r o t e c t i o n ( a ) P r o v i s i o n o f T e m p o r a r y S i d e w a l k s M a n y . a p p l i c a n t s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t i n v o l v e d i n r e z o n i n g o r s u b d i v i s i o n , p r e f e r t o e x t e n d t h e i r l a n d s c a p i n g o u t t o t h e e d g e o f t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e , t h i s i s s o m e t i m e s d u e t o c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r c o r p o r a t e p r i d e , o r p e c u l i a r s i t e c o n d i t i o n s o r s i m p l e e c o n o m i c s . I n s u c h c a s e s w h e r e . t h e r e i s n o p u b l i c s i d e w a l k b u t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f p e d e s t r i a n 27 u s e o n t h e b o u l e v a r d , t h e d r a w i n g s a r e s t u d i e d c l o s e l y t o e n s u r e t h a t a d e q u a t e p e d e s t r i a n f a c i l i t i e s ( m i n i m u m s t a n d a r d i s c o m p a c t e d l i m e s t o n e c h i p s ) h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d a n d c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d i n t h e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e . T h e l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c p e d e s t r i a n w a l k w a y s i n p r i v a t e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s h a s r e c e i v e d e x t r a s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s i n c e P P A 3162 (2182 D o u g -l a s E d . ) h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d . A t t h i s l o c a t i o n t h e s h o u l d e r w a s d i s p l a c e d b y l a n d s c a p i n g d e s i g n e d t o k e e p t r u c k s f r o m u s i n g t h e f r o n t a n d s i d e y a r d s o f t h e s i t e f o r n e g o t i a t i n g t h e N o r l a n d A v e . / D o u g l a s R d . , i n t e r s e c t i o n . P e d e s t r i a n p r o v i s i o n , i n t h e f o r m o f a c o n c r e t e w a l k w a y , w a s m a d e a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 20' - 30' f r o m t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e . M a n y p e d e s t r i a n s f e e l t h a t i t i s t o o i n c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e , o t h e r s c o n s i d e r t h a t t o u s e i t w o u l d c o n s t i -t u t e t r e s p a s s i n g o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . T h e s e f e e l i n g s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a n u m b e r o f c o m p l a i n t s . ^ I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h , b e c a u s e t h e l a n d s c a p i n g i n q u e s t i o n i s t h e m o s t a t t r a c t i v e a l o n g D o u g l a s R d . , b e t w e e n t h e f r e e w a y a n d t h e L o u g h e e d H i g h w a y , a n d a m o r e c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d w a l k w a y w i l l r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n s a n d a r e d u c t i o n . i n t h e v i s u a l q u a l i t y . P P A 3606 (7585 K i n g s w a y ) b e n e f i t e d f r o m t h e D o u g l a s R d . , e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s c o m p l e t e d a n d h a s a d d e d a n a t t r a c t i v e c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d t e m p o r a r y s i d e w a l k t o t h a t p o r t i o n o f K i n g s w a y . P P A 3723 (7^ 11 B u l l e r A v e . , ) i s o n e o f s e v e r a l p r o p o s e d p r o -j e c t s w h i c h a l s o h a s e x t e n s i v e b o u l e v a r d w o r k s i n c l u d e d i n i t s l a n d s c a p e p l a n . I f m a x i m u m p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y i s t o b e a c h i e v e d i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t w h e n s u c h f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p r o v e d p l a n s , t h a t f i r s t -l y t h e y a r e p r o v i d e d a n d s e c o n d l y , i n v i e w o f t h e s u c c e s s o f P P A 3606, t h a t t h e y a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d . I n v i e w o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f c o m -p r e h e n s i v e l y d e s i g n e d l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s b u d g e t a r y 28 PLATE 3 29 constraints, i f suitable pedestrian protection i s to be assured adjacent to these projects then i t i s imperative that the works be executed i n accordance with the approved drawings. (b) Protection From Abrupt Changes In Grade Pa r t i c u l a r attention i s paid to those areas of the boulevard or s i t e where there are abrupt changes i n grade close to w e l l t r a v e l l e d ped-estrian areas. This i s to avoid or minimize p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous s i t u a -tions at the design stage. Hence, the approved drawings ensure that the public i s afforded the maximum practicable protection against i n j u r i e s due to accidental f a l l s at abrupt, changes i n grade. There are numerous ways of providing adequate protection for ped-estrians who are' adjacent to such s i t u a t i o n s . Four such ways are i l l u s -trated by diagram. Figure ( i ) uses a s o l i d wall or a s o l i d wood fence as the safety b a r r i e r . Figure ( i i ) uses a berm as a b a r r i e r . Figure ( i i i ) i s the most subtle. I t uses a dense hedge of a very strong and thorny plant material with an open pipe r a i l i n g as the secondary b a r r i e r . This combination i s preferred i n commercial and other areas where there i s something at the lower l e v e l which the owner wishes the pedestrians to see. Figure ( i v ) i l l u s t r a t e s a variation.of Figure ( i i i ) , less the pipe r a i l i n g . This technique has been used to separate the various play lev-els at Tantalus Park, Horseshoe Bay, B.C. PPA 3 4 4 7 (Centennial P a v i l i o n , Burnaby Mountain) also uses t h i s technique with hundreds of roses near i t s main parking l o t . Changes from the approved drawings featuring bar-r i e r s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures ( i ) and ( i i ) are usually not very c r i t i -c a l . This i s because i n most cases i t i s f a i r l y obvious why the b a r r i e r i s there, and hence some reasonable facsimile i s usually substituted. . .30 n FIG. i FIG. i i FIG. i v PEDESTRIAN BARRIERS 31 B a r r i e r s a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s ( i i i ) a n d ( i v ) , b e c a u s e o f . t h e i r s u b t e -t y , a r e m o r e a p t t o h a v e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e d u c e d d u e t o t h e c o n -t r a c t o r ' s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i t e m i n t h e l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t h e o p e n p i p e r a i l i n g m i g h t o n l y b e a c c e p t a b l e i f i t i s s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h s u i t a b l e p l a n t m a t e r i a l w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a n e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r f r o m t h e f i r s t d a y i t i s p l a n t e d . S u c h w a s t h e c a s e . w i t h P P A 394-1 (3787 C a n a d a W a y ) w h i c h f e a t u r e d a p r o f i l e s i m i l a r t o F i g -u r e ( i i i ) . T h e d r a w i n g s s h o w e d a p i p e r a i l i n g w i t h a b a n d o f B r o o m ( C y -t i s u s p r a e c o x ) b e t w e e n i t a n d t h e s i d e w a l k . S i n c e t h e B r o o m i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r r e n t t o c h i l d r e n w a n d e r i n g t o o c l o s e t o t h e p i p e r a i l i n g , t h e d r a w i n g s w e r e a p p r o v e d s u b j e c t t o t h e a d d i t i o n o f a 3' h i g h h e d g e ( a t p l a n t i n g ) o f W i n t e r g r e e n B a r b e r r y ( B e r b e r i s j u l i a n a e ) n e x t t o t h e s i d e -w a l k . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , i f d u r i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e i n s t a l l a t i o n , t h e p l a n t s i z e i s r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , c h i l d r e n c a n w a l k o v e r i t ; i f t h e s p e c i e s i s c h a n g e d t o s o m e t h i n g l e s s a b r a s i v e o r t h e n o t a t i o n s o n t h e d r a w i n g s a r e i g n o r e d , t h e n c h i l d r e n m a y n o t h e s i t a t e t o r u n t h r o u g h t h e l a n d s c a p i n g ; i f t h e s p a c i n g i s i n c r e a s e d t h e n t h e y c a n p e n e t r a t e i t ; i f t h e b a r r i e r i s r e l o c a t e d , p e r h a p s t o o c l o s e t o t h e r a i l , t h e y t h e y m a y b e a b l e t o c l i m b o v e r t h e p l a n t i n g o n t o t h e r a i l . H e n c e , s e e m i n g l y m i n -o r c h a n g e s t o t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s c a n h a v e m a j o r c o n s e q u e n c e s o n t h e d e g r e e o f p e d e s t r i a n p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d b y c e r t a i n l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s . ( c ) P r o t e c t i o n o f G r o u n d L e v e l F i r e E g r e s s R o u t e s A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f p e d e s t r i a n p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e P P A d r a w i n g s i s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f f i r e e g r e s s r o u t e s t h r o u g h l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s a t g r o u n d l e v e l . T h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s 32 c h e c k e d f o r s p e c i e s , l o c a t i o n a n d p l a n t i n g h e i g h t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e e x i t w a y b e i n g r e n d e r e d i m p a s s a b l e o v e r t i m e b y t h e m a t u r i n g p l a n t m a t e r i a l a r e m i n i m i z e d . T h e c o n t o u r s a r e c h e c k e d f o r a b r u p t c h a n g e s i n g r a d e w h i c h a r e d i f f i c u l t t o t r a v e r s e o n f o o t . S o m e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s d e f i n e a p a t h w a y w i t h g r a s s , g r a v e l , b a r k m u l c h , e t c . m e a n d e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a n d s c a p i n g . O t h e r s d o n o t d e f i n e a n a c t u a l p a t h w a y , i n s t e a d t h e y f e a t u r e l o w g r o w i n g g r o u n d c o v e r s u c h a s I v y ( H e d e r a h e l i x ) o r C r e e p i n g j u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s h o r i z o n t a l i s ) w h i c h c a n b e s t e p p e d u p o n a n d e a s i l y t r a v e r s e d d u r i n g a n e m e r g e n c y . I n t h e c a s e o f d e f i n e d p a t h w a y s t h e s p e c i e s a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e a d j a c e n t l a r g e r g r o w i n g p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . S h o u l d a t a l l n a r r o w g r o w i n g s p e c i e s s u c h a s P y r a m i d a l c e d a r ( T h u j a o c c i d e n t a l i s p y r a m i d a l i s c o m p a c t a ) b e s u b -s t i t u t e d w i t h a b r o a d e r g r o w i n g s p e c i e s s u c h a s W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ( T h u j a p l i c a t a ) o r D o g w o o d ( C o r n u s n u t t a l i ) , t h e n i n t i m e t h e b r a n c h e s o f t h e t r e e s w i l l b l o c k t h e p a t h w a y . S i m i l a r l y , i f a b r o a d e r g r o w i n g t r e e i s r e l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o t h e p a t h w a y t h a n s p e c i f i e d , i n t i m e i t t o o c a n o b -s t r u c t f r e e p a s s a g e t o s a f e t y . I n a r e a s w h e r e t h e v e g e t a t i v e g r o u n d c o v -e r i s d e s i g n e d t o b e s t e p p e d u p o n , t h e s p e c i e s i s i m p o r t a n t . S h o u l d a n i v y b e s u b s t i t u t e d w i t h W i n t e r g r e e n b a r b e r r y ( B e r b e r i s j u l i a n a e ) , o r a c r e e p i n g j u n i p e r w i t h a M u g h o p i n e ( P i n u s m u g h a n s ) , f o o t p a s s a g e t h r o u g h e s t a b l i s h e d b e d s o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s w o u l d b e v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a g r e a t r i s k o f p e r s o n a l i n j u r y . D e c i d u o u s s h a d e t r e e s i n o r n e a r t h e e s c a p e r o u t e s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e p l a n t e d w i t h a s t a n d a r d o f a t l e a s t 6' i n h e i g h t a n d w i t h n o b r a n c h e s b e l o w 6' a b o v e t h e f i n i s h e d g r a d e . T h e r e f o r e , i f t r e e s a r e i n s t a l l e d a t a s h o r t e r s t a n d a r d h e i g h t t h a n s p e c i f i e d , t h e i r b r a n c h e s w i l l t h e n b e l o w e r t h a n 6' a n d h e n c e c o n -s t i t u t e a s a f e t y h a z a r d . 33 T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e r e c e n t l y a p p l i e d t o P P A 37^5 (7806, 7826 S i x t h S t . ) . A s a r e s u l t t h e l a n d s c a p e p l a n f o r m o s t o f t h e 10» x 132' r e a r y a r d w a s r e j e c t e d a n d w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e d e s i g n e d s o a s t o m a x i -m i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s p a t r o n s r e a c h i n g s a f e t y , w h e n t h e p l a n t m a t -e r i a l i s e s t a b l i s h e d , e v e n i f i t r e c e i v e s n o r e g u l a r m a i n t e n a n c e . S h o u l d t h e s p e c i e s , l o c a t i o n s a n d p l a n t i n g h e i g h t s n o t b e o b s e r v e d o n t h i s a n d s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s , t h e s a f e t y o f a l l p e o p l e u s i n g t h e p r e m i s e s i s p o t e n t i a l l y j e o p a r d i z e d i n a n e m e r g e n c y . I t a l s o m e a n s t h a t r e v i s e d l a n d s c a p i n g c o u l d i n t i m e b e a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f i r r i t a t i o n t o t h e D e -p a r t m e n t o f F i r e P r e v e n t i o n w h o m a k e o n e o r t w o f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s a n n u a l l y . S i n c e a n a r r o w p a s s a g e c a n o v e r g r o w b e t w e e n i n s p e c t i o n s , t h e C h i e f F i r e P r e v e n t i o n O f f i c e r m a y o r d e r s e v e r e p r u n i n g . I f t h i s d o e s n ' t p r o v e s a t -i s f a c t o r y h e m a y o r d e r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e o f f e n d i n g m a t e r i a l s , r e s u l t i n g i n p o s s i b l y t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e p l a n t s . 2.2 H E A L T H 2 . 2 ( i ) P r o t e c t i o n o f S a n i t a r y A b s o r p t i o n F i e l d s T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a r e a s i n B u r n a b y w h i c h a r e n o t s e r v i c e d b y t h e s a n i t a r y s e w e r s y s t e m . U n d e r t h e S e w a g e D i s p o s a l R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e H e a l t h A c t , t h e C h i e f P u b l i c H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r o f t h e B u r n a b y D e p a r t m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h h a s b e e n d e l e g a t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e d e s i g n " a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e w a g e d i s p o s a l s y s t e m s i n t h e s e a r e a s m e e t a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t . T h e m o s t c o m m o n s y s t e m s a r e t h e c o n -v e n t i o n a l s e p t i c t a n k s y s t e m a n d t h e p a c k a g e t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s y s t e m , b o t h o f w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e a c o n v e n t i o n a l a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d . T h e n u m e r o u s r e g u -l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e d e s i g n a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e f i e l d s a r e p r o v i d e d i n D i v i s i o n s 6 a n d 7 o f t h e S e w a g e D i s p o s a l R e g u l a t i o n s . 34 W h e n a P P A a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a n a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d i s r e c e i v e d , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h r e v i e w s e i t h e r r e l e v a n t d r a w i n g s e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e P P A s u b m i s s i o n o r a n i n d e p e n d e n t s u b m i s s i o n m a d e t o t h e m . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e P P A i s u s u a l l y n o t i s s u e d u n t i l a l l o f t h e c o n -c e r n s o f t h e C h i e f H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r h a v e b e e n s a t i s f i e d . O n e o f t h e i r c r i t e r i a i s d e r i v e d f r o m 6.20 a n d 7 . 1 7 o f t h e S e w a g e D i s p o s a l R e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h s t a t e s : A c o n v e n t i o n a l a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d s h a l l n o t b e l o c a t e d : ( a ) u n d e r a r o a d w a y ( b ) u n d e r a p a v e d a r e a ( c ) u n d e r a n a r e a u s e d o r i n t e n d e d f o r t h e p a r k i n g o f m o t o r v e h i c l e s . O f a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s , t h e o n e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s . T h e d r a w i n g s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a n d s c a p e p l a n i s c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t h i s p r o v i s i o n . F i r s t l y a c h e c k i s m a d e t o s e e t h a t t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e m a n o e v e r i n g s p a c e ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t ) a n d t h a t t h e s e v e h i c u l a r a r e a s a r e a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d w i t h c u r b s , f e n c e s , e t c . s o . a s t o m a k e i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r d r i v e r s t o i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y p a r k o r d r i v e o v e r t h e d r a i n f i e l d f r o m i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e o f t h e s i t e . S e c o n d l y , p l a n t i n g a b o v e o r n e a r t h e f i e l d i s o n l y a p p r o v e d i f i t s r o o t s y s t e m i s n o t l i k e l y t o d e -s t r o y t h e d r a i n f i e l d b e f o r e a s a n i t a r y s e w e r c o n n e c t i o n b e c o m e s a v a i l -a b l e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i n t h e B i g B e n d a r e a ( b e t w e e n M a r i n e D r i v e a n d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ) , b e c a u s e t h e g r o u n d i s f a i r l y w e t a n d t h e o n l y t r e e s w h i c h g r o w w e l l i n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s h a v e v e r y p r o l i f i c r o o t s y s t e m s ( i . e . p o p l a r , w i l l o w , b i r c h , e t c . ) a n d a r e n o t o r i o u s f o r d e s t r o y -i n g d r a i n f i e l d s a n d b l o c k i n g s e w e r s . I n v i e w o f t h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , o m i s s i o n s o f t h e r e q u i r e d c u r b i n g , f e n c i n g , e t c . a s i n t h e c a s e o f P P A 2891 (8626 J o f f r e A v e . , ) o r 35 t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f p l a n t s p e c i e s , o r t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r -i a l c o u l d i n t i m e - ( i ) e x p o s e t h e e m p l o y e e s o f s u c h s i t e s a s w e l l a s t h o s e o n a d j a c e n t s i t e s t o a n u n n e c e s s a r y h e a l t h h a z a r d ; ( i i ) c a u s e m u n -i c i p a l s t a f f t i m e t o b e w a s t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m ; ( i i i ) r e -s u l t i n t h e o w n e r n e e d l e s s l y s p e n d i n g f u n d s o n t h e c o r r e c t i o n a n d r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d - a l l o f w h i c h c o u l d b e a v o i d e d i f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g d e t a i l s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s . 2.2 ( i i ) M i n i m i z e D i t c h B l o c k a g e T h e r e a r e t h r e e m a j o r c a u s e s o f b l o c k a g e i n s t o r m d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s . T h e y a r e - t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d e b r i s , w e e d g r o w t h , a n d s l i p p a g e o f t h e b a n k s . T h e r e s u l t c a n b e f l o o d i n g w h e n t h e d i t c h i s f l o w i n g h i g h ( a . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e r i v e d f r o m S e c t i o n 52? o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t ) o r s t a g n a t i o n w h e n i t s f l o w i s v e r y l o w ( a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C h i e f P u b l i c H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r a s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 10 o f t h e S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e H e a l t h A c t ) . T h e r e i s n ' t a n y t h i n g w h i c h c a n b e d o n e a t t h e P P A s t a g e t o p r e v e n t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d e b r i s , b u t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n b e d o n e a t t h e P P A s t a g e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p r o -p o s e d l a n d s c a p i n g i s s u c h t h a t , w h e r e c r i t i c a l , t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e x -c e s s i v e w e e d g r o w t h a n d t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e e m b a n k m e n t s a r e m i n i m i z e d . M i n i m i z i n g e x c e s s i v e w e e d g r o w t h i n s m a l l e r d i t c h e s i s h a n d l e d i n t h r e e w a y s . O n e w a y i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e d i t c h e s a r e d e v e l o p e d a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s . T h i s m a y b e d o n e b y c o n t i n u i n g t h e p l a n t i n g o n t o t h e b o u l e v a r d t o a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n o n t h e f a r s i d e o f t h e d i t c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n s p r e a d i n g s h r u b s a r e u s e d a s g r o u n d c o v -e r . T h e y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y b l o c k o u t t h e l i g h t f r o m t h e d i t c h b a s i n a n d r e d u c e c o m m o n w e e d g r o w t h . W e e d c o n t r o l m a y a l s o b e a c h i e v e d b y r e c o n -36 touring shallow low volume ditches into grass swales and incorporating them into the landscape scheme as i s proposed i n PPA 3723 (7411 Bul l e r Ave). They are then automatically p r i v a t e l y maintained as part of the regular landscape maintenance program. The t h i r d approach sometimes used i s the culverting of the d i t c h across one's frontage as was presented un-der PPA 2904 (6010 Trapp Rd.) and PPA 3431 (5180 S t i l l Creek Ave). Hence the ditc h i s eliminated and the landscaping i s designed accordingly. • Too often, unfortunately, the spreading shrubs are substituted with a species which has different c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or they may be spaced wider apart. In either case they are rendered i n e f f e c t i v e for natural weed control. In other cases the proposed recontouring i s not executed. The result i s that ditches i n these situations which are larger than 2' x 2' and are d i f f i c u l t to maintain p r i v a t e l y , remain as active weed generators and subject to blockage. The culverting i s not always carried out as per PPA drawings. In the Trapp Road example the building addition was done, but neither the culvering nor the major portion of the land-scaping was executed. S i m i l a r l y i n the S t i l l Creek Avenue PPA, the b u i l d -ing and landscaping inside of the property l i n e were completed but again the culverting was omitted. In both cases the landscape plans were ap-proved on the basis of no d i t c h . This non-compliance has now rendered the approved landscape plans unsuitable because the designs are incapable of minimizing the abundant weed growth which occasionally clogs these two ditches. The s t a b i l i t y of the ditc h banks i s something which receives sp e c i a l attention i n those areas where f i l l i n g i s required and the toe of the f i l l i s near a ditch or watercourse. Sites i n the Big Bend Development Area have to be f i l l e d i n most 37 a r e a s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5' a b o v e t h e i r n a t u r a l l e v e l s . S u b s t a n t i a l f i l l -i n g a l s o o c c u r s o n m a n y s i t e s i n t h e c e n t r a l v a l l e y , m o s t l y n e a r S t i l l C r e e k . S o m e o f t h e d i t c h e m b a n k m e n t s m a y b e a s h i g h a s 10' - 15' a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e w a t e r l e v e l . L a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s i n s u c h a r e a s u s u a l l y f e a t u r e p l a n t m a t e r i a l w h i c h w i l l h e l p t o s t a b i l i z e t h e b a n k s . T w o p r o j e c t s w h i c h h a v e r e c e i v e d t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e P P A 3432 (2550 B o u n d a r y R d . , ) w h e r e a p p r o v e d l a n d s c a p i n g h a s n o t b e e n e x e c u t e d a n d P P A 3515 (4-781 B y r n e R d . , ) w h e r e i t h a s b e e n d o n e . W h e r e a s s p e c i a l i z e d l a n d s c a p e t r e a t m e n t m a y n o t a l o n e s o l v e a l l t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w e e d b o u n d o r e r o -s i o n b l o c k e d d i t c h e s , i t c a n h e l p t o r e d u c e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n p l e a s a n t o d o r s a n d i n s e c t p r o l i f e r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a g n a n t w a t e r . B u t s i n c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d l a n d s c a p e t r e a t m e n t t o m i n i m i z e t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e e d s d e p e n d s o n s u c h f a c t o r s a s t h e l o c a t i o n , s p e c i e s a n d s p a c i n g o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l , a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s i t e w o r k s ( i . e . c o n t o u r i n g a n d c u l v e r t i n g ) , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t u n s y m p a t h e t i c c h a n g e s t o t h e s e i t e m s o r t h e a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s m a y r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f t h i s b e n e f i t . S i m i l a r l y f o r e r o s i o n c o n t r o l t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s , s e l e c t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f o r i t s r o o t i n g h a b i t s a n d m o i s t u r e . r e q u i r e m e n t s , h e n c e a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s p e c i e s o r a c h a n g e i n s p a c i n g c o u l d a g a i n n u l l i -f y a n y a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l l a n d s c a p e p l a n o f f e r e d . 2.2 ( i i i ) P r o t e c t i o n A g a i n s t A i r , W a t e r a n d N o i s e P o l l u t i o n P P A m a k e s v e r y l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r e d u c t i o n o r p r e v e n t i o n o f a i r a n d w a t e r p o l l u t i o n . A n y r e q u i r e m e n t s m a d e b y t h e B u r n a b y D e p a r t -m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h , , t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r R e s o u r c e s ( W a t e r R e s o u r c e s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d ) , o r b y t h e 38 F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a r e i n c l u d e d a s a p a r t o f t h e P P A d r a w i n g s . S i n c e t h e r e a r e i n d e p e n d e n t a p p r o v a l s a r r a n g e d b e t w e e n t h e a p p l i c a n t a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s , c o m p l i a n c e i s n o t r e a l l y b a s e d o n t h e P P A . S u b s e -q u e n t i n s p e c t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t i s c a r r i e d o u t , n o t u n d e r t h e Z o n i n g B y -l a w b u t u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e H e a l t h A c t , t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , t h e B u r n a b y S e w e r B y - l a w , a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t a m i n e n t s A c t . T h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h P P A m a k e s i s i n t h e a r e a o f w a t e r p o l l u t i o n . P P A d r a w i n g s a r e a p p r o v e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e c u r b i n g a r o u n d c e r t a i n a s p h a l t e d y a r d a r e a s s o a s t o e n s u r e t h a t o i l y s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e c a n n o t e s c a p e i n t o t h e s t o r m d r a i n a g e s y s t e m b e f o r e f i r s t p a s s -i n g t h r o u g h t h e s u i t a b l e o i l i n t e r c e p t e r w h i c h " i s r e q u i r e d b y t h e D e p a r t -m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h . N o i s e p o l l u t i o n i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e B u r n a b y D e p a r t m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h t h r o u g h t h e B u r n a b y N o i s e o r S o u n d A b a t e m e n t B y -l a w 1972. T h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s t a k i n g s t e p s t o r e d u c e n o i s e l e v e l s w i t h i n d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f d o u b l e g l a z i n g i n m u l t i p l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a d j a c e n t t o m a j o r a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . L a n d s c a p i n g a s a n o i s e b a r r i e r c a n b e u s e d m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y w h e n t h e b u f f e r z o n e i s q u i t e w i d e - s u c h d e v i c e s i n c l u d e b a f f l e o r s o l i d f e n c e s , h i g h b e r m s a n d d e n s e t r e e b e l t s . I n c o n f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s f e n c e s a n d b e r m s a r e m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n p l a n t m a t e r i a l a n d a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y s p e c i f i e d o n P P A d r a w i n g s , a s w a s t h e c a s e i n P P A 3607 (9888 L o u g h e e d H w y ) . N o i s e a b a t e m e n t i s a v e r y n e w f i e l d a n d t h e t r u e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m a n y l a n d s c a p e a p p l i c a t i o n s s t i l l c a n n o t b e a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d , t h e o n l y c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t i f t h e d e v i c e s a r e i n s t a l l e d , t h e s o u n d l e v e l s w i l l b e l o w e r i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g o r w i t h i n t h e g r o u n d s o f t h e d e v e l o p -m e n t . T h e N o i s e B y - l a w i s i n e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h l a c k o f c o m -39 p l i a n c e b e c a u s e i t i s d e s i g n e d m o r e t o p r e v e n t t h e e m i s s i o n o f n o i s e a s o p p o s e d t o p r e v e n t i n g t h e r e c e p t i o n o f n o i s e . I n s u m m a r y , P P A ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a t e r p o l l u t i o n c a n b e n u l l i -f i e d i f c u r b i n g a r o u n d a s p h a l t y a r d a r e a s i s o m i t t e d . S i m i l a r l y a n y c o n -t r i b u t i o n w h i c h m i g h t b e m a d e t o n o i s e r e d u c t i o n w i l l n o t b e a c h i e v e d i f t h e b a f f l e d e v i c e s - i . e . f e n c e s , b e r m s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n p l a n t s , - a r e o m -i t t e d . 2.3 S U M M A R Y T h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s i n C h a p t e r 2 a r e a s f o l l o w s : (1) T h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , v i s i o n c l e a r -a n c e i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e i n 3 o f t h e n i n e c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m p l i -a n c e . S i m i l a r l y , p r o t e c t i o n o f s a n i t a r y a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d s i s d e p e n d e n t i n 4. S e v e n o f t h e 11 o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n 3 o r m o r e c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m p l i a n c e . T h o s e a r e a s w h e r e c o m p l i a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e , ( i . e . n o n - c o m p l i a n c e i n a n y o n e r e -s u l t s i n t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e ) , a r e i n d i c a t e d w i t h d o t s i n t h e c o l u m n s o f t h e c h a r t o n t h e n e x t p a g e • (2) T h e f i n d i n g s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t o n e s e e m i n g l y m i n o r c h a n g e i n a n y o f t h e n i n e c o m p l i a n c e a r e a s c a n h a v e s h o r t t e r m a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o n m a n y o b j e c t i v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f a p l a n t c a n r e s u l t i n t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f 6 o b j e c t i v e s , s i m i l a r l y a c h a n g e i n c o n t o u r s c a n a d -v e r s e l y a f f e c t 5. T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u m m a r i z e d o n t h e c h a r t o n t h e n e x t p a g e . R e a d i n g a c r o s s o n t h e r o w s , t h e d o t s i n d i c a t e w h i c h o b j e c t i v e s a r e a f f e c t e d b y a s p e c i f i c d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e P P A d r a w i n g s . (3) I n t h e a r e a o f S a f e t y a n d H e a l t h , s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e o f t h e M u n i -Substitution of Plant Species • • • • 5 1 Relocation or Change of Spacing of Plant Material • • • • • 6 k 2 Changes to Grades, Contours, Earthworks • • • • • 5 4. 1 Changes to curbs • • • h Changes to Rocks, Ballards, Special Paving, Fences' & other Inert Devices • • • • k 2 2 Changes to Parking S t a l l Delineation • 1 1 Changes to size of Shrubs and Trees at Planting • • • 3 1 2 Changes to Staking/Root Requirements Changes to Building Details and Finishes • # OF AREAS OF COMPLIANCE UPON WHICH EACH OBJECTIVE IS DEPENDENT 3 3 1 1 1 3 1 3 CHART 4 1 c i p a l i t y ' s o b j e c t i v e s (7) a r e a f f e c t e d b y n o n - c o m p l i a n c e t h a n t h o s e o f o t h e r g r o u p s ( 2 ) . T h e b e n e f i c i a r y o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a n y o b j e c t i v e i s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e g r o u p w h i c h i s m o s t a f f e c t e d o r u s u -a l l y h a s t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a l s t e p s t o c o r r e c t t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d b y n o n - c o m p l i a n c e . T h e l a s t f o u r c o l u m n s o f t h e c h a r t i n d i c a t e t h e n u m b e r o f o b j e c t i v e s o f e a c h o f 4 g r o u p s ( t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y ( M ) , t h e g e n e r a l p u b -l i c ( P ) , t h e d e v e l o p e r s ( D ) , a n d B . C . H y d r o ) . T h e b r a c k e t e d s u f f i x e s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e t i t l e b o x e s i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t b e n e f i c i a r y o f t h e a c h i e v e -m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e . ( 4 ) O n l y 5 o f t h e 1 1 o b j e c t i v e s a r e e n t i r e l y r e l i a n t u p o n P P A c o m p l i -a n c e f o r t h e i r l o n g r a n g e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . T h o s e w h i c h c a n b e a c h i e v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f P P A a r e n o t e d b e l o w : v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . ( c a n b e c o n t r o l l e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f P P A b y t h e T r a f f i c S u p e r v i s o r t h r o u g h t h e B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w ) , d i s c o u r a g e m e n t o f p e r p e n d i c u l a r p a r k i n g o n b o u l e v a r d s , ( b y t h e R . C . M . P . t h r o u g h t h e B . C . M o t o r V e h i c l e A c t ) . - p r o t e c t i o n o f g r o u n d l e v e l f i r e e g r e s s r o u t e s . ( b y t h e C h i e f F i r e P r e v e n t i o n O f f i c e r t h r o u g h t h e B . C . F i r e M a r s h a l l A c t a n d t h e B u r n a b y F i r e P r e v e n t i o n B y - l a w N o . 5 0 9 6 ) . p r o t e c t i o n o f s a n i t a r y a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d s . ( b y t h e C h i e f P u b l i c H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e H e a l t h A c t ) . - m i n i m i z i n g d i t c h b l o c k a g e . ( b y t h e B u r n a b y C h i e f P u b l i c H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e H e a l t h A c t a n d b y t h e B u r n a b y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f O p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t ) . 42 minimizing a i r and water p o l l u t i o n . (by the Burnaby Chief Public Health Inspector, the G.V.R.D. and other o f f i c i a l s as outlined i n the various by-laws and statutes described i n 2 . 2 ( i i i ) ). ( 5 ) Irrespective of the alternative methods available to achieve these objectives, the PPA process s t i l l plays a very s i g n i f i c a n t role i n that i t screens the drawings so that incongruous de t a i l s ; are eliminated from the proposal at the design stage. As a r e s u l t , future problems are not created for other departments by items approved i n the PPA drawings -problems which can be avoided i f the drawings are followed. These i n -clude - ( i ) the exposure of motorists, pedestrians and employers to un-necessary t r a f f i c and health hazards, ( i i ) the waste of municipal s t a f f time i n the correction of the problem, and ( i i i ) the needless expenditure of private funds for a suitable solution. (6) No disadvantages r e s u l t i n g from compliance were found. 1 Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Turning Vehicles  Templates. (Ottawa) p Information obtained from the Burnaby T r a f f i c Engineer. 3 Complaint received by the Burnaby Development Plan Technician 2 from Alderman Ast i n late 1976. 4 Burnaby Zoning By-law, Section 6.13. 5 Swan Wooster Engineering Co. Ltd., Report on: Big Bend Dyking  and Drainage Study, Burnaby, B.C. (Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby, 1974^ -Chapter 3 LANDSCAPE OBJECTIVES C h a p t e r 3 L A N D S C A P E O B J E C T I V E S 3.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s i f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h L A N D S C A P E o b j e c t i v e . T h e m a i n t h r u s t i s t o w a r d ( i ) t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h o s e d e t a i l s w h i c h , i f c h a n g e d , c a n b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e ; a n d ( i i ) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P P A p r o c e s s t o t h e a c c o m -p l i s h m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . M u t u a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f c o m p l i a n c e ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) a n d g e n e r a l a d v a n t a g e s w i l l a l s o b e n o t e d . E a c h e x a m i n a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s . S e c t i o n 7 -3(2)(d) o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w s p e c i f i e s t h a t e v e r y a p p -l i c a t i o n f o r P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n A p p r o v a l m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y : "... l o c -a t i o n , p l a n s p r o f i l e s , e l e v a t i o n s , h e i g h t o f a l l ... o p e n s p a c e s a n d l a n d s c a p i n g , s c r e e n f e n c e s S e c t i o n 6.15 o u t l i n e s w h e r e t h e l a n d -s c a p i n g i s r e q u i r e d a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h o s e a r e a s : s h a l l b e f u l l y a n d s u i t a b l y l a n d s c a p e d a n d p r o p e r l y m a i n t a i n e d . " I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t m u s t e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a n d -s c a p e d e s i g n a n d p l a n t m a t e r i a l a r e s u i t a b l e . T h e v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g i v e n b y t h e P P A d i v i s i o n i n t h e a s s -e s s m e n t o f p h y s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n s . T h e m a i n c r i t e r i a f o r p h y s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e 45 a f f o r d t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l a r e a s o n a b l e c h a n c e o f s u r v i v a l t o m a t u r i t y a t i t s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . 3.1 M I N I M I Z E M A I N T E N A N C E R E Q U I R E M E N T S E v e n t h o u g h p r o p e r m a i n t e n a n c e i s a r e q u i r e m e n t o f S e c t i o n 6.15 o f t h e B u r n a b y Z o n i n g B y - l a w ( N o . 4 7 4 2 ) , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y e x p l a n a -t i o n a s t o w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s p r o p e r m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n y a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t a v i o l a t i o n o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . T h e o n -l y o t h e r c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h m a k e s s o m e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s t h e B u r n a b y U n s i g h t l y P r e m i s e s B y - l a w 1 9 6 9 ( N o . 5533). T h i s l a t t e r b y - l a w s e e m s t o b e d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o p r e v e n t t h e u n t i d y o r u n s i g h t l y a c c u m u l a t i o n o f " f i l t h , d i s c a r d e d m a t e r i a l s , o r r u b b i s h o f a n y k i n d " . T h e r e i s n o s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o l a n d s c a p i n g , h e n c e i t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t u n d e r i t s p r o v i s i o n s t o o b t a i n a n y i m p r o v e -m e n t s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g o n a p r o p e r t y w h e n n o P P A o r B u i l d i n g P e r m i t i s r e q u i r e d . . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y e a s i l y e n f o r c e a b l e m a i n t e n a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e o n l y r e m a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y m a i n t e n a n c e , r e p l a c e m e n t , o r u p g r a d i n g o f l a n d s c a p i n g o n a n e x i s t i n g p r e m i s e s i s -( i ) w h e n a P P A a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d f o r a m a j o r c h a n g e o f u s e - c u r r e n t l a n d s c a p e c r i t e r i a c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e s i t e w h i c h a r e a f f e c t e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d a t e o f t h e o r i g i n a l i n s t a l l a t i o n , o r ( i i ) f o r a n a d d i t i o n - p r o j e c t s c o n s t r u c t e d b y p e r m i t s i s s u e d b e f o r e J u n e 1965, c u r r e n t l a n d s c a p e c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d t o a l l a f f e c t e d a r e a s o f t h e s i t e ; f o r p r o j e c t s c o n s t r u c t e d 1965 - 1969? l a n d s c a p e c r i t e r i a a r e b a s e d o n t h e s t a n d a r d o f q u a l i t y o f t h e o r i g i n a l P P A a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e w h o l e s i t e ; p r o j e c t s c o n s t r u c t e d s i n c e 1969 a r e e x p e c t e d t o m e e t c u r r e n t c r i t e r i a 46 over the entire s i t e . Hence, i f no PPA i s required for an existing dev-elopment, the p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining a l e g a l order requiring the l e g a l owner to expedite a landscape s i t u a t i o n at a s i t e with a pre 19&5 PPA per-mit i s impossible, and with a post 19°5 PPA permit, i s very remote. In Burnaby there are numerous examples of poorly maintained landscaping and yards, mainly i n i n d u s t r i a l areas. Many of these s i t e s were developed recently. For example, Norland Ave., (east of Douglas Rd.), S t i l l Creek Ave., (west of Douglas), and Myrtle St., (west of Gilmore) perhaps provide the most highly v i s i b l e concentrations of the worst i n d u s t r i a l conditions. The remainder of the central valley, the Boundary/Lougheed/ Douglas t r i a n g l e , south of Kingsway, and the Big Bend provide most of the more common examples of landscape neglect, i n both older and post 1965 projects. This may take the form of stunted growth, or an abundance of weeds, dead specimens, dead or burnt grass, etc. Service Commercial Dis-t r i c t s , e.g. PPA 2851 (7675 Edmonds), contain the highest number of non-i n d u s t r i a l offenders, although examples may be found i n other d i s t r i c t s such as the Administrative and Assembly d i s t r i c t (e.g. 4970 Canada Way). Notable well maintained i n d u s t r i a l exceptions are Lake C i t y I n d u s t r i a l Park, the Winston Street area, and the Lougheed Highway i n d u s t r i a l area (between Holdom and Bainbridge Aves.) Here there are generally medium to large non-marginal i n d u s t r i a l operations occupying s i t e s which are gen-e r a l l y large enough to have, or by private agreement must have, a regu-l a r landscape maintenance program. I t should be noted that the develop-ment of the above areas i s e s s e n t i a l l y complete, therefore there are currently only a few PPA applications for these areas. Most of applica-tions are received for new buildings and changes of use, additions and alterations to existing buildings i n these areas where h i s t o r i c a l l y there 47 4. N E G L E C T E D L A N D S C A P I N G , N O R L A N D A V E . 5 . M A I N T A I N E D L A N D S C A P I N G , B U L L E R A V E . PLATES 4.5 48 h a s b e e n n o g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e t h e l a n d s c a p i n g o f o l d e r o r n e w e r p r o j e c t s . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t m o s t o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d a r e a s , w h e r e t h e r e a r e f r e q u e n t e x a m p l e s o f p o o r m a i n t e n a n c e , a r e s e r v e d b y i n -t e r i m s t a n d a r d r o a d s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t 46' w i d e , c u r b e d a n d g u t t e r e d w i t h 10' w i d e b o u l e v a r d s . R a t h e r , t h e y m a y h a v e a n a s p h a l t c a p v a r y i n g f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16' t o g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n 30', a n d m a y b e t r i m m e d w i t h g r a v e l s h o u l d e r s w h i c h m a y b e l i n e d w i t h d i t c h e s . A l t e r n a t e -l y t h e r e m a y n o t b e a d e v e l o p e d s h o u l d e r a n d i n s t e a d , a n u n d e v e l o p e d b o u l e v a r d , w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t c o n t a i n a d i t c h , a n d d e p e n d i n g o n t h e l o -c a t i o n o f t h e a s p h a l t c a p m a y b e u p t o 50' w i d e ( a l t h o u g h m o r e c o m m o n l y a r o u n d 20' - 23'). I n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s t h e d i t c h e s a n d b o u l e -v a r d s c a n b e , a n d u s u a l l y a r e a m a j o r s o u r c e o f w e e d g r o w t h . W h e n t h i s o c c u r s n e a r a n i n f r e q u e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d s i t e , u n l e s s t h e l a n d s c a p i n g h a s b e e n s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o c o p e , t h e w e e d s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y i n f e s t t h e l a n d s c a p i n g a n d w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y i t . A s a r e s u l t , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y e f f e c t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e l e g i s l a -t i o n , t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f e w a p p l i c a t i o n s o f l a t e f r o m t h e a f o r e m e n -t i o n e d " m a i n t a i n e d " i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h n u m b e r o f a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g r e c e i v e d f o r a r e a s w h i c h h a v e a f a i r l y h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f l a n d s c a p e n e g l e c t o n o l d e r a n d n e w e r p r o j e c t s , a n d t h e h i g h n u m b e r o f a p p l i c a t i o n s s e r v e d b y i n t e r i m s t a n d a r d s t r e e t s , t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f m o s t p r o p o s e d n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s i s b a s e d ' o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l r e c e i v e v e r y l i t t l e o r n o m a i n t e n a n c e . M o s t l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e r s a n d a r c h i t e c t s r e c o g n i z e t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f l a n d s c a p e m a i n t e n a n c e i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d t a i l o r t h e i r s c h e m e s s o a s t o m a x i m i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u r v i v a l o f t h e 49 p l a n t m a t e r i a l , a n d , t o e n s u r e t h a t o n c e t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l b e c o m e s e s t -a b l i s h e d i t w i l l l o o k f a i r l y w e l l k e p t e v e n t h o u g h i t s m a i n t e n a n c e m i g h t b e n e g l e c t e d f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e . H e n c e , t h e l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n s w h i c h a r e a p p r o v e d e x h i b i t t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s -( i ) d r o u g h t r e s i s t a n c e ( i i ) m i n i m a l s p e c i a l i z e d s o i l c a r e ( i i i ) t o l e r a n c e o f w e t s o i l c o n d i t i o n s ( i v ) s h a d e t o l e r a n c e ( v ) w e e d r e s i s t a n c e / c o n t r o l ( v i ) m i n i m a l n a t u r a l " b a d h a b i t s " ( v i i ) m i n i m a l p r u n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . 3.1 ( i ) D r o u g h t R e s i s t a n c e D r o u g h t o r d r y s o i l c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d s e e m t o b e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . H o w e v e r , d r y s o i l c o n d i -t i o n s a r e n o t o n l y d u e t o a b n o r m a l l y l o n g r a i n l e s s p e r i o d s , t h e y a r e a l s o 1 d u e t o t h e l o w m o i s t u r e r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s o f c e r t a i n s o i l s , o r a l i m -i t e d v o l u m e o f s o i l - a s o f t e n h a p p e n s i n c o n c r e t e p l a n t e r c o n t a i n e r s o r a t o p u n d e r g r o u n d p a r k i n g g a r a g e s . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t t h e p l a n t s i n o n e o f t w o w a y s - d e a t h , a s w a s t h e c a s e a t 2896 N o r l a n d A v e . , o r s e v e r e s e t -b a c k ( w h i c h i s m o r e p r e v a l e n t ) a s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h P P A 962 (2821 P r o d u c -t i o n W a y ) . S e v e r e s e t b a c k i s c a u s e d w h e n t h e s o i l d r i e s o u t p e r i o d i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n - s u c h t h a t a p l a n t w h i c h h a s j u s t s u r v i v e d o n e d r y s p e l l i s c o n t i n a l l y f a c e d w i t h o t h e r s . T h e r e s u l t i s t h a t i t s s e a s -o n a l g r o w t h i s a l m o s t n i l a n d i t i s s i m p l y s t a y i n g a l i v e . I n P P A 962 t h e r e w a s n o n o t i c e a b l e i v y g r o w t h o v e r 4 y e a r s . I n 1976 b e t w e e n 10,000 a n d 15,000 s q . f t . o f i v y w a s r e m o v e d a n d r e p l a c e d w i t h a n o t h e r s p e c i e s o f 50 p l a n t m a t e r i a l . I t i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h e d s h r u b s t o s u r v i v e e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f d r o u g h t i s i n l a r g e p a r t d e t e r m i n e d b y i t s 2 3 4 5 6 7 s p e c i e s . ' ' ' ' ' S o m e , s u c h a s B r o o m ( C y t i s u s ) , B e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a -p h y l u s u v a - u r s i ) , a n d J u n i p e r ( s e l e c t i o n s o f J u n i p e r u s c o m m u n i s i n p a r t i -c u l a r ) a r e n o t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d a r i d c o n d i t i o n s . T h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f n e w l y p l a n t e d s h r u b s t o s u r v i v e e x -t e n d e d o r i n t e r m i t t e n t p e r i o d s o f d r o u g h t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n p r o g r a m a r e n o t a s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , b u t t h e y a r e c o m m o n k n o w l e d g e a m o n g s t l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e r s a n d c o n t r a c t o r s . T h e s e i n c l u d e : s i z e a t p l a n t i n g , c o n d i t i o n o f r o o t s a t p l a n t i n g , t i m e o f p l a n t -i n g a n d ' e x p o s u r e t o s u n . G e n e r a l l y t h e s m a l l e r t h e p l a n t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e t b a c k o r l o s s . H e n c e t h e c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l o f a 2 g a l l o n p l a n t u n d e r t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s i s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e s a m e s p e -c i e s a t a 2 "^ p o t s i z e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s o i l , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n e x t e n s i v e s u r f a c e t r e e r o o t s y s t e m , g e n e r a l l y d r i e s o u t f r o m t h e s u r f a c e . T h e r e f o r e , s m a l l e r p l a n t s m i g h t b e d e n i e d a l l m o i s t u r e a s s o o n a s t h e t o p 3" o f s o i l h a v e d r i e d o u t , w h e r e a s t h e l a r g e r p l a n t w i l l n o t b e d e p r i v e d o f m o i s t u r e u n t i l t h e t o p 12" - 18" a r e d e p l e t e d . T h e l a r g e r p l a n t a l s o h a s m o r e t i m e t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e l a c k o f m o i s t u r e a n d c a n d e v e l o p a d e e p e r r o o t s y s t e m a s s u r f a c e m o i s t u r e b e c o m e s m o r e s c a r c e . T h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r o o t s a t p l a n t i n g i s t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r . P l a n t s a r e s u p p l i e d f r o m n u r s e r y s t o c k i n a c o n t a i n e r o r w i t h b a r e r o o t s 8 9 w h i c h a r e b a l l e d a n d w r a p p e d i n b u r l a p s a c k i n g . ' I f t h e p l a n t s a r e r e -m o v e d f r o m t h e i r p l a c e o f p r o p o g a t i o n a n d w r a p p e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e p l a n t i n g , a s o f t e n h a p p e n s , t h e y m a y h o t h a v e a n y m o i s t u r e c o l l e c t i n g r o o t s . I f 51 t h e w o o d y r o o t s a r e n o t k e p t m o i s t , t h e m o i s t u r e c o l l e c t i n g r o o t s w i l l n o t d e v e l o p . H e n c e t h e p l a n t w i l l d i e i f t h e d r o u g h t i s p r o l o n g e d a n d i t 10 i s h o t n o r m a l l y h a r d y u n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . A t h i r d f a c t o r i s t h e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g . T h e b e s t t i m e s f o r 11 p l a n t i n g a r e i n s p r i n g a n d f a l l . M a t e r i a l p l a n t e d i n m i d s u m m e r w i l l r e q u i r e f r e q u e n t w a t e r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s h o t a n d r e l a t i v e l y d r y d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f a d j u s t m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , i f t h e r e q u i r e d i r r i g a t i o n i s n o t a d m i n i s t e r e d , t h e m a t e r i a l m a y n o t s u r v i v e . T h e f o u r t h f a c t o r i s a f u n c t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e n e w p l a n t s a r e l o -c a t e d i n s u n o r s h a d e . G e n e r a l l y s o i l s i n f u l l s u n e x p e r i e n c e a h i g h e r r a t e o f l o s s o f m o i s t u r e t h a n t h o s e i n s h a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e r e i s 12 i n a d e q u a t e m u l c h c o v e r . H e n c e , i n e x t e n d e d s u n n y d r y c o n d i t i o n s t h e e x p o s e d s p e c i m e n s a r e a p t t o s u c c u m b s o o n e r t h a n t h e s a m e s p e c i e s i n t h e s h a d e . I t i s f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h a t l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e r s w i l l g e n e r a l l y s p e c i f y h a r d y m a t e r i a l o f a t l e a s t i n t e r m e d i a t e s i z e i n t h o s e a r e a s w h e r e t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h e y f e e l t h a t a r e g u l a r w a t e r i n g p r o g r a m w i l l n o t b e a d m i n i s t e r e d . U s u a l l y w h e n l e s s h a r d y m a t e r i a l i s s p e c i f i e d , i n d r o u g h t p r o n e s i t u a t i o n s , t h e a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d e s o m e s u i t -a b l e f o r m o f a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y m o s t p l a n t i n g s i t u a t i o n s w i t h l i m i t e d s o i l v o l u m e n e a r l y a l w a y s i n c l u d e a s u i t a b l e i r r i g a t i o n s y s -t e m . T h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a s u p p l e m e n t a r y i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m ( u n l e s s a u t o -m a t i c ) d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e p l a n t s w i l l a l w a y s r e c e i v e w a t e r o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s . R a t h e r , i t m e a n s t h a t t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s m o r e a p t t o r e c e i v e w a t e r w h e n i t i s o b v i o u s l y n e e d e d b e c a u s e i t i s c o n -v e n i e n t f o r t h e l e s s e e , c a r e t a k e r , j a n i t o r , e t c . t o p r o v i d e i t . I n r e v i e w , t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l t o s u r v i v e t h r o u g h e x -52 t e n d e d o r i n t e r m i t t e n t p e r i o d s o f . d r o u g h t i s v e r y m u c h d e p e n d e n t o n s e v -e r a l f a c t o r s e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n - s o i l t y p e s , v o l u m e o f s o i l a v a i l a b l e , s p e c i e s o f p l a n t , s i z e a t p l a n t i n g , r o o t c o n d i t i o n a t p l a n t i n g , t i m e o f p l a n t i n g , l o c a t i o n a n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p l e m e n -t a r y i r r i g a t i o n . C o n d i t i o n s s u c h a s : s o i l t y p e - m a y b e s a n d y a n d t o o e x p e n s i v e t o r e p l a c e o r a l t e r ; v o l u m e o f s o i l a v a i l a b l e - m a y b e c o n t r o l -l e d b y s t r u c t u r a l w e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s ; r o o t c o n d i t i o n a t p l a n t i n g t i m e -t h e r e m a y n o t b e a n y o f t h e s p e c i f i e d p o t t e d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e ; t i m e o f p l a n t i n g - m a y b e a n u n a v o i d a b l e f a c t o r o f c o n -s t r u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g ; a n d t h e l o c a t i o n - t h e e x p o s u r e t o t h e s u n o r t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e g r a d e m a y b e e c o n o m i c a l l y u n a l t e r a b l e - a l l h a v e a c o m -. m o n p r o b l e m - t h e y a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t a n d o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l a n d -s c a p e d e s i g n e r , t h e l a n d s c a p e r o r a m u n i c i p a l i n s p e c t o r t o c o n t r o l . T h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n b e e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d a n d i n s p e c t e d b y m u n i c i p a l o f f i -c i a l s a r e - ( i ) s p e c i e s ( i i ) s i z e a t p l a n t i n g , a n d ( i i i ) p r o v i s i o n o f a s u i t a b l e s p e c i f i e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m ( t h i s g e n e r a l l y c o m p e n s a t e s f o r a n d n e u t r a l i z e s t h e i l l - e f f e c t s o f a l l t h e l e s s e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d i t e m s a b o v e ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i f d r o u g h t d a m a g e a n d l o s s i s t o b e m i n -i m i z e d , t h e n t h e s e t h r e e p r o v i s i o n s m u s t b e s t r i n g e n t l y o b s e r v e d . 3 . 1 ( i i ) M i n i m a l S p e c i a l i z e d S o i l C a r e M a n y o f t h e m o r e p o p u l a r . p l a n t s w i l l g r o w i n e i t h e r s l i g h t l y a k a l i n e o r s l i g h t l y , a c i d s o i l s . T h e r e a r e s o m e p l a n t s , h o w e v e r , w h i c h c a n n o t b e g r o w n p r o p e r l y u n l e s s a c i d s o i l i s p r o v i d e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e S c o t c h H e a t h e r ( C a l l u n e v u l g a r i s ) , S p r i n g H e a t h ( E r i c a c a r n e a ) a n d S a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) . L a r g e r a c i d l o v i n g s h r u b s i n c l u d e R h o d e r d e n d r o n 1 3 1 4 - 1 5 1 6 ( v a r i o u s t y p e s ) ' a n d P i e r i s ( v a r i o u s t y p e s ) . ' " B l u e " H y d r a n g e a s 53 w i l l o n l y f l o w e r b l u e i f t h e s o i l i s l i m e f r e e a n d c e r t a i n o t h e r c h e m i -c a l s a r e p r e s e n t . O t h e r w i s e , t h e c o l o u r w i l l r a n g e f r o m c r e a m t o p i n k l T h e n , t h e r e a r e o t h e r p l a n t s w h i c h w i l l n o t g r o w w e l l i n a c i d i c s o i l s s u c h a s t h e n a t u r a l p e a t y s o i l s o f t h e B i g B e n d a n d t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y . M o s t l a n d s c a p e s a r e p l a n n e d s u c h t h a t t h e s o i l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r v a r i o u s g r o u p i n g s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l a r e s i m i l a r s o a s t o f a c i l i t a t e m i n i m a l s o i l m a i n t e n a n c e . W h e r e n o r e g u l a r m a i n t e n a n c e p r o g r a m i s a n t i c i p a t e d , . p l a n t s w h i c h h a v e s p e c i a l i z e d s o i l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o m m o n s o i l i n t h e a r e a ) a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d . I f p l a n t s r e q u i r i n g d i f f e r e n t s o i l c o n d i -t i o n s a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d a m o n g s t e a c h o t h e r , t h e n s o i l m a i n t e n a n c e b e c o m e s m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d a r e a a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h p l a n t t o a c q u i r e t h e n e c e s s a r y n u t r i e n t s . H e n c e i f a l a n d s c a p e p l a n i s d e s i g n e d f o r a l o w m a i n t e n a n c e a r e a t h e n t h i s t y p e o f d e s i g n i s a v o i d e d . T h e r e -f o r e , i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a n d i n s e n s i t i v e s u b s t i t u t i o n s o f s p e c i e s o r r e l o c a -t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l c a n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e r e q u i r e d s o i l m a i n -t e n a n c e . T h i s m a y r e s u l t i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l o f t h i s p l a n t m a t e r i a l i n a l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e w h i c h w a s o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d a n d a p p r o v e d o n t h e b a s i s t h a t i t w o u l d b e a s s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g a s p o s s i b l e . 3 . 1 ( i i i ) T o l e r a n c e o f W e t S o i l s 1 9 2 0 2 1 M a n y t y p e s o f p l a n t s w i l l n o t g r o w i n w e t s o i l s , ' ' a s i t u a -t i o n w h i c h i s v e r y c o m m o n i n p a r t s o f t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y a n d t h e B i g B e n d . S m a l l e r s h r u b s a r e u s u a l l y n o t a f f e c t e d i f t h e y h a v e s h a l l o w r o o t s y s t e m s w h i c h a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e d r i e r r e g i o n s n e a r t h e s u r f a c e . . T h e t r e e s a r e g e n e r a l l y m o r e a f f e c t e d i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y u s u a l l y h a v e d e e p e r r o o t s y s t e m s . M o s t w i l l s u r v i v e u n t i l t h e i r r o o t s r e a c h t h e w a t e r t a b l e , t h e n t h e y w i l l g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e d i s e a s e r i d d e n , r o t a n d d i e a s i s 54 c u r r e n t l y h a p p e n i n g a t 4-992 B y r n e R d . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e k n o w n f o r t h e i r t o l e r a n c e t o w e t , e v e n s w a m p y c o n d i t i o n s - t h e s e i n -c l u d e W i l l o w ( s a l i x ) , P o p l a r ( p o p u l u s ) a n d A l d e r ( a l n u s ) . T h e n u m b e r o f 2 2 2 3 24 s p e c i e s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r u s e i n w e t a r e a s i s v e r y l i m i t e d , ' ' a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p e a t i n m a n y a r e a s r e d u c e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s e v e n f u r t h e r . I t i s f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h a t i n t h e s e a r e a s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t r e e s p e c i e s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e d r a w i n g s a r e m o n i t o r e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y t o m i n i m i z e t h e s e o c c u r e n c e s . H e n c e , a n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s u b s t i t u t i o n t o . t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w -i n g s c a n d o o m a t r e e t o a v e r y s h o r t l i f e , m o s t o f w h i c h w i l l b e s p e n t l o o k i n g l i k e a n e y e s o r e a n d d y i n g . 3.1 ( i v ) S h a d e T o l e r a n c e S h a d e t o l e r a n c e i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e n o r m a l g r o w t h a n d s u r v i v a l o f m o s t s p e c i e s . M o s t p l a n t s w i l l s u r v i v e q u i t e h e a l t h i l y i n f u l l s u n o r p a r t i a l s h a d e , b u t t h e r e a r e n o t v e r y 2 3 m a n y w h i c h w i l l g r o w w e l l i n f u l l s h a d e . A u s t r i a n p i n e ( P i n u s n i g r a ) a n d B e a r b e r r y c o t o n e a s t e r ( C o t o n e a s t e r d a m m e r i ) a r e s p e c i e s w h i c h l i k e 26 2 7 f u l l s u n . ' I f t h e s e a r e p l a c e d o n t h e n o r t h e r l y s i d e o f a b u i l d i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y i n s h a d o w t h e y w i l l n o t g r o w v e r y w e l l . S i m i l a r l y C a m e l l i a ( C a m e l l i a j a p o n i c a ) a n d F a t s i a ( F a t s i a j a p o n i c a ) a r e e q u a l l y u n h a p p y i n f u l l s u n . T h i s i s t h e r e f o r e a n o t h e r a r e a w h e r e i n s e n s i t i v e s u b s t i t u t i o n o r r e l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i e s c o u l d h a v e t h e u n f o r t u n a t e e f f e c t o f c r e a t i n g a l a n d s c a p e w h i c h w i l l n e v e r g r o w h e a l t h i l y . 3.1 ( v ) W e e d R e s i s t a n c e / C o n t r o l W e e d r e s i s t a n c e / c o n t r o l i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y m o r e s u b t l e t h a n s o m e o f t h e o t h e r s . I n t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e t h e d e s i g n e r a s s -u m e s t h a t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e w i l l b e m i n i m a l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t , , h e a l s o a s s -55 u m e s t h a t w e e d s w i l l n o t b e p u l l e d o r s p r a y e d o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e i s d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l w e e d s b y i t -s e l f . S i n c e t h e d e s i g n e r s e m p l o y t h e t h e o r y t h a t m o s t w e e d s n e e d l i g h t . a n d r o o t s p a c e t o s u r v i v e , t h e l a n d s c a p e p l a n s a r e u s u a l l y d e s i g n e d t o d e n y l i g h t a n d / o r r o o t s p a c e t o t h e w e e d s w h e n t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s e s -t a b l i s h e d a n d h a s a t t a i n e d m a t u r i t y . H e n c e t h e s p a c i n g a n d s i z i n g o f s h r u b s o r v i n e s i s o f t e n g o v e r n e d b y h o w w e l l s p e c i m e n s f r o m t h a t s p e c i e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o f e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , a n d f i g h t a n d w i n a r u n n i n g b a t t l e 28 t o o v e r c o m e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f w e e d s w i t h m i n i m u m a s s i s t a n c e . T h o s e s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s i z i n g a n d s p a c i n g a r e - i t s l i g h t r e q u i r e m e n t s - s o m e p l a n t s w i l l n o t s u r v i v e i f t h e w e e d s b l o c k o u t t h e i r l i g h t ; t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e f o l i a g e - s o m e s u c h a s s p r e a d i n g j u n i p e r s h a v e v e r y d e n s e b r a n c h e s a n d a l l o w v e r y l i t t l e l i g h t t o p e n e t r a t e t o t h e g r o u n d b e l o w , o t h e r s s u c h a s h y b r i d r o s e s a r e f a i r l y t r a n s p a r e n t a n d d o n o t p r e v e n t l i g h t f r o m r e a c h i n g t h e g r o u n d b e l o w ; r a t e o f g r o w t h - s o m e s u c h a s P f i t z e r j u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s c h i n e n s i s p f i t z e r i a n a ) s p r e a d f a i r l y r a p i d l y , w h e r e a s o t h e r s u c h a s G l o b e c e d a r ( T h u j a o c c i d e n t a l i s g l o b o s a ) g r o w v e r y s l o w l y ; a n d , h a b i t o f g r o w t h - s o m e g r o w t a l l a n d n a r r o w , s o m e s p r e a d h o r i z o n t a l l y , s o m e s p r e a d f r o m a s i n g l e r o o t s y s t e m , s o m e s u c h 2 9 a s S t . J o h n ' s w o r t ( H y p e r i c u m c a l c i n i u m ) s p r e a d v i a u n d e r g r o u n d s t a l o n s . U t i l i z i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e s i z i n g a n d s p a c i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s a r e s e l e c t e d s o a s t o p r o v i d e a 100% c o n t i n u o u s g r o u n d c o v e r i n t h e s h o r t e s t p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l p e r m i t . T h e v a l u e o f t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e l a n d s c a p e i s o f t e n l o s t t h r o u g h c h a n g e s i n s p e c i e s a n d / o r s p a c i n g . O f t e n t h e s p a c i n g i s m u c h f u r t h e r a p a r t t h a n t h e d r a w i n g i n d i c a t e s , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t i f t h e p l a n t s a r e s t i l l t h e c o r r e c t s i z e t h e k n i t t i n g p r o c e s s w i l l t a k e m a n y y e a r s 6. SPACING TOO FAR APART FOR WEED CONTROL, NORLAND AVE. 7. UNSUITABLE SPECIES FOR WEED CONTROL, 8550 ROSEBERRY AVE. 57 l o n g e r t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l f o r t h e m a t e r i a l , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h P P A 3011 (7^40 L o w l a n d D r . ) S o m e t i m e s t h e r e i s a s u b s t i t u -t i o n o f s p e c i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t g r o w t h r a t e s a n d h a b i t s , h e n c e t h a t s p a c i n g m a y b e u n s u i t a b l e a s i n t h e c a s e o f P P A 3735 (2878 D o u g l a s R d . ) O t h e r t i m e s t h e i n s t a l l e d s i z e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e d f r o m t h e l i s t e d s i z e s y e t t h e s p a c i n g m a y b e c o r r e c t . T h i s i s v e r y c r i t i c a l t o v i n e g r o u n d c o v e r s a n d l o w c r e e p i n g s h r u b s s u c h a s J u n i p e r u s h o r i z o n t a l i s " B a r H a r -b o u r " . M a n y o f t h e s e n e e d m u c h s u n , a n d s i n c e t h e w e e d s e a s i l y g r o w h i g h e r , t h e n c a n b e e a s i l y s e t b a c k a n d o v e r c o m e . S o m e t i m e s i n t h e s e s i t -u a t i o n s , d u e t o t h e l o s s e s , 100% g r o u n d c o v e r b y t h e p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l m a y n e v e r b e a c h i e v e d , a s i n t h e c a s e o f 8550 R o s e b e r r y A v e . , w h e r e , a s a p a r t o f a p r o p o s e d e x p a n s i o n , a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g J u n i p e r u s h o r i z o n t a l i s w i l l b e r e m o v e d a n d s u b s t i t u t e d w i t h J u n i p e r u s p f i t z e r i a n a . T h e p f i t z e r i a n a g r o w s h i g h e r o f f t h e g r o u n d a n d i s m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t w e e d s w h i l e i t i s e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o b l e m i s t h a t o f t e n a s a w e e d c o n t r o l m e a s u r e t h e b o u l e v a r d i s i n c l u d e d a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e . T h e p l a n , t h e r e f o r e , m i g h t b e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t h a t t h e g r o u n d a r e a o n t h e b o u l e v a r d a n d p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i l l b e c o v e r e d i n a f e w y e a r s , h e n c e a n y s o u r c e s o f m a j o r w e e d i n f e s t a t i o n a r e r e m o t e f r o m t h e s i t e . S o m e t i m e s t h e b o u l e v a r d i s s h o w n a s g r a s s , i n o t h e r c a s e s i t i s s h o w n a s s h r u b s o r v i n e s . T h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s w h e r e t h e b o u l e v a r d l a n d -s c a p i n g w a s n e v e r e x e c u t e d , t h e r e b y g e n e r a t i n g w e e d s a t a r a t e t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g l a n d s c a p e w a s n o t d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e . T h e r e s u l t o f c o u r s e i s t h a t t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e w h i c h w a s i n s t a l l e d w a s i n a p p r o -p r i a t e i n i s o l a t i o n . S u c h w a s t h e c a s e w i t h P P A 3189 (3804 W i l l i a m S t . ) W h e r e t h e r e i s a d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l w e e d g r o w t h i n c r i t i c a l a r e a s 58 8. BOULEVARD LANDSCAPING NOT EXECUTED 5130 NORLAND AVE. PLATE 8 5 9 w h e r e s m a l l g r o u n d c o v e r i s c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e , s o m e l a n d s c a p e r s u s e W e e p i n g w i l l o w ( S a l i x a l b a t r i s t i s ) , L o m b a r d y p o p l a r ( P o p u l u s n i g r a ) , B e e c h ( F a g u s S y l v a t i c a ) a n d o t h e r t r e e s w h i c h h a v e v o r a c i o u s r o o t s y s t e m s . O n c e t h e y b e c o m e e s t a b l i s h e d a l m o s t n o t h i n g w i l l g r o w u n d e r t h e m b e c a u s e t h e i r r o o t s a r e s u r f a c e f e e d e r s a n d t a k e a w a y a l l o f t h e s u r f a c e m o i s t u r e a n d n u t r i e n t s T h e r e f o r e , t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w e e d c o n t r o l b y v e g e t a t i o n a r e - s p e c i e s , s i z e a t p l a n t i n g , a n d l o c a t i o n . A n y c h a n g e s t o t h e s e f a c t o r s m a y m e a n t h a t t h e n a t u r a l w e e d c o n t r o l b u i l t i n t o t h e a p p r o v e d l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e w i l l n o t b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . 3.1 ( v i ) S p e c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t r e e s w h i c h b e c a u s e o f n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r w e a k n e s s e s d e m a n d a l o t o f m a i n t e n a n c e . T h i s m a y b e t h e r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s - l e a f i n g h a b i t s , f r u i t i n g h a b i t s , s a p f l o w , a n d s u s c e p t -i b i l i t y t o d i s e a s e . T h e r e f o r e i n l o w m a i n t e n a n c e s i t u a t i o n s t h e s e a r e a v o i d e d o n t h e a p p r o v e d p l a n s p a r t i c u l a r l y o n o r n e a r t h e b o u l e v a r d s . M a n y s p e c i e s s u c h a s H o r s e c h e s t n u t ( A e s c u l u s h i p p o c a s t u m ) h a v e e a r n e d r e p u t a t i o n s f o r b e i n g v e r y d i r t y t r e e s , i n t h a t t h e y a r e a l w a y s d r o p p i n g s o m e t h i n g , w h e t h e r i t b e l e a v e s , f l o w e r s , o r f r u i t . T o c o m p o u n d p r o b l e m s , t h e i r l e a v e s a r e b i g a n d c l o g d r a i n s . S o m e o f t h e C r a b a p p l e s ( M a l u s ) a n d c e r t a i n o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e m e s s c r e a t e d b y t h e f a l l e n f r u i t . T h e r e f o r e , a n y o f t h e m a l u s , p r u n u s o r o t h e r s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e a p p r o v e d o n o r n e a r b o u l e -v a r d s a r e n o n - f r u i t b e a r i n g . S a p f l o w h a s n o t a l w a y s b e e n a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , B . C . r e c e n t l y l o s t a l a w s u i t t o a c i t i z e n c l a i m -60 i n g compensation f o r the damage which r e s u l t e d from sap dripping from a c i t y owned maple tree on to h i s car and destroying the paint work. There are other trees whose leaves or flowers, when r a i n f a l l e n on to a l i g h t colour painted surface and then sun d r i e d , w i l l l i g h t l y s t a i n the paint work. Therefore care must be taken i n the l o c a t i o n of such trees, other-wise they w i l l require frequent pruning to reduce the possible hazards. Some species of trees are unusually susceptible to c e r t a i n pests and d i s -eases. These include Horsechestnut (Aesculus species), B i r c h (Betula species), Hawthorn (Crataegus species) and Crabapples (Malus s p e c i e l j 1^ In some cases i n s e c t s attack the leaves as with Hawthorn, i n others they attack the trunk as with Poplar. Many c i t i e s " b a n c e r t a i n trees because 33 34 of t h i s and other problems, which are elaborated on 3 - 5 • 1 Since these considerations are often given to.the s e l e c t i o n of PPA plant material for low-maintenance s i t u a t i o n s , the s u b s t i t u t i o n of an undesirable species can r e s u l t i n very high maintenance requirements. I f the necessary maintenance i s not c a r r i e d out, the consequences can vary from disease ridden eyesores to law s u i t s . I f the maintenance i s c a r r i e d out, i t means unnecessary costs having to be borne by the munici-p a l i t y or the owner. ( v i i ) Minimal Pruning Requirements 35 Some plants such as hydrangea, roses and f o r s c y t h i a require an-nual pruning. Otherwise they become very ragged and untidy and t h e i r 36 flowing p o t e n t i a l i s reduced. Hence such plants are usually avoided i n a low maintenance design. Other plants, such as the columnar ever-greens are often used as hedging materials. Many, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Thuja family, look s i m i l a r as small nursery specimens, but t h e i r growing 61 habits may be quite d i f f e r e n t . Some, such as Thuja o c c i d e n t a l i s pyrami-d a l i s compacta may only grow to be 2' wide, whereas Thuja p l i c a t a may grow to be 15' wide. S i m i l a r l y the. compacta may only achieve 15' i n height, whereas the p l i c a t a may exceed 100' i n height. Often there are constraints on height or width, such as adjacent to a public sidewalk, or below a view which several neighbours enjoy, or under power l i n e s . I f the plans were approved with low maintenance material e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r one of these s i t u a t i o n s ( i . e . compacta), and the p l i c a t a were s u b s t i -tuted, and then the necessary pruning not executed by the owner, an un-necessary source of concern can be created f o r the municipality, the neighbours or B.C.Hydro. The municipality may 'be required to e i t h e r r e -quest the owner to c l i p that side of the hedge overlapping a sidewalk, or to c l i p i t themselves. I t can be a cause of great f r u s t r a t i o n f o r the neighbours because there i s no l e g a l way that they can top such a hedge. (This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i n the multi-family d i s t r i c t just above Hastings on the lower slopes of C a p i t o l H i l l where the residents consider distant views to be very important). B.C.Hydro may be required to prune i t p e r i o d i c a l l y from t h e i r own resources i n order to protect t h e i r over-head l i n e s . A l l of these avoidable problems for innocent t h i r d p a r t i e s can be created when the f i n a l scheme does not match the approved drawings i n species and/or l o c a t i o n . 3.2 PROTECTION AGAINST VANDALISM AND THEFT Prote c t i o n of landscaping against impulse t h e f t and vandalism i s a consideration which i s given i n the PPA process. Impulse i n t h i s con-text means "on the spur of the moment", not premeditated. I t i s f e l t that i f a person leaves home with the necessary t o o l s and equipment with 62 the intention of stealing or vandalizing landscaping, there i s not much which can be done on site to deter him. However, i f a person while pass-ing a tree or an attractive shrub suddenly gets the urge to vandalize or steal, there are precautions which can be taken which are l i k e l y to de-ter him. The feeling of the Planning Department i s that the latter i s more frequently the case, hence the PPA scrutiny concentrates on impulse theft and vandalism only. In Burnaby the more expensive varieties of flowering or colour-f u l plant material which can be accommodated in the average residential garden are the items which are most prone to theft. High on this l i s t are Japanese maples (Acer palmatum, various) Rhoderdendron,-Rockery and Deciduous azaleas (Azalea japonica, Azalea knaphill or equal), and Pieris (Pieris japonica) ^  etc. The new landscaping at Burnaby Municipal Hall i n 1976 was thinned out almost immediately by a number of Rhoderdendrons; McLean Park, Burnaby, lost approximately $500. - $600. in plant material after installation i n 1976; B.C.Hydro substation, 4th Ave., North Van-couver, lost approximately $2,000. i n plants; the landscapers who were contacted agreed that a 10% loss to theft during or shortly after the i n -3 7 stallation of ornamental planting i s not uncommon. As a result of these and other experiences, i t i s now a common suggestion on a l l PPA drawings that for highly, ornamental species: a l l root balls must be securely wired to an underground stake at least 24" long." This i s to discourage impulse theft. In Burnaby"s experience i f the material i s stolen after construction, i t i s seldom replaced. Under current regulations the owner isn't legally obliged to replace i t , i f the scheme has already received f i n a l approval from the Chief Building 63 Inspector, as the conditions of the PPA have then been f u l f i l l e d . The second approach i s u t i l i z e d i n areas such as the Edmonds/ -z Q Kingsway d i s t r i c t , which has a very high crime and vandalism r a t e . Land scape materials are checked to ensure that they do not include a high per centage of h i g h l y ornamental plants, so that they are l e s s a t t r a c t i v e to thieves. The more expensive decorative materials are treated as h i g h l i g h t s i n the landscaping, so that even i f they are stolen, the landscape w i l l s t i l l look presentable and 100% ground cover w i l l s t i l l be achieved. Thi 39 p r a c t i c e also applies to c e r t a i n i s o l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l areas. Therefore, i f the municipality or affected property owners are to derive any benefit from the PPA attempts to reduce losses through t h e f t , then the wired root b a l l and species, c a l l e d f o r on the approved drawings should be c l o s e l y followed. I f the root b a l l s of the more expensive mat-e r i a l are not wired they are easier s t o l e n by "impulse" thieves. S i m i l a r l y i f an owner or proprietor substitutes more ornamental plant material f o r the common v a r i e t i e s which have been approved, instead of cr e a t i n g a more a t t r a c t i v e landscape, he may i n fac t be creating a substandard land-scape i f as a r e s u l t of these s u b s t i t u t i o n s s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of plants are s t o l e n and not replaced. Vandalism, l i k e t h e f t , can be reduced at the "impulse" l e v e l i f the staking i n s t r u c t i o n s and c a l i p e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are followed on the PPA drawings. These two items are checked very c a r e f u l l y when deciduous trees are proposed on or near a boulevard. The Department of Parks and Recreation recommends a minimum trunk diameter ( c a l i p e r ) or 2" - 2j£" for a l l boulevard t r e e s at p l a n t i n g because t h e i r experience shows that at t h i s s i z e , malicious breakage i s very uncommon; This s i z e , however, i s 6U not always achievable on p r i v a t e property due to budgetary c o n s t r a i n t s . Most of the trees s p e c i f i e d on private property near the boulevard (they act e s s e n t i a l l y as boulevard trees) vary from - 2", most often 1 3/4" i n diameter. However, one of the conditions for approving t h i s s i z e i s that the trees be securely double or s i n g l e staked, whichever i s most appropriate. A tree of t h i s diameter securely staked i s usually adequate to deter most vandals. Under PPA 3781 (7832 - 6th St .,) smaller beech trees than s p e c i f i e d were planted. I t i s hoped that these do not s u f f e r the same fate as did those newly planted undersized beeches on the Broughton St ., side of the Sheraton Landmark Hotel, Vancouver, i n 1974. Vandals broke them approximately i n h a l f , as they did the trees planted on Robson Street (Burrard to J e r v i s ) , Vancouver, i n 1974 - 1975. The Robson trees have now been replaced with much larger c a l i p e r t r e e s . I t i s f e l t that vandalism can be further reduced as a r e s u l t of the c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n which the PPA d i v i s i o n gives to the l o c a t i o n and i n s p e c i f i c circumstances, to the s e l e c t i o n of species of trees near or on the boule-vard. I t i s an unconfirmed view that one reason why many boulevard trees are vandalized i s because they are conveniently located within arms' reach of most pedestrian areas. They are obviously on " p u b l i c " property and are hence " p u b l i c " trees. Hence, i f the trees are located inconveniently to the pedestrian and obviously on " p r i v a t e " property where a vandal would have to trespass, then they are l e s s apt to be damaged. There-fore smaller c a l i p e r trees should be avoided near w e l l t r a v e l l e d p u b l i c walkways. .In c e r t a i n circumstances, plant material may be selected f o r i t s s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s which are believed to make i t l e s s susceptible to van-dalism. Such i s the case along Edmonds St ., from Canada Way to Kings-65 way. In recent years a number of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) trees have been planted. Despite their small size, they have not been vandalized. It i s fel t that this i s attributable to their natural protective device -very sharp needles which can be painful to the touch. The main safeguards against impulse vandalism, therefore, are suitable caliper, proper staking, suitable location and to a lesser ex-tent the species. A l l of these considerations are included i n a l l PPA drawings which are processed. Hence, i f the PPA conditions are not ob-served, the susceptability of the plant material to impulsive vandalism may be greatly increased, possibly creating severe setbacks to some of the privately sponsored neighbourhood beautiflcation programs, such as the upgrading on Edmonds St..) . •McPherson Ave., and Buller Ave. 3.3 PROTECTION AGAINST PEDESTRIAN ABUSE Protection against pedestrian abuse i s taken into account during the evaluation of landscaping which i s proposed adjacent to heavily used pedestrian areas. Many landscaped areas have been trampled to death by unplanned-for pedestrian ac t i v i t y such as 503 Cottonwood St., Coquitlam. These schemes are examined for one of three qualities - the abrasiveness or strength of the species, or the suitable arrangement of abrasion re-sistant species to allow occasional pedestrian activity, or suitable pro-tection for more delicate material. , The abrasiveness or strength of the species i s a consideration when planting i s located along side pedestrian routes so as to discourage people from accidentally or deliberately wandering from the designed walk-ways. A tough and thorny species such as Barberry (Berberis species), as in PPA 314-2 (2843 North Rd.,) i s one of the means used to discourage ped-estrians from "cutting corners". An unsympathetic substitution of species 66 9. LANDSCAPE TRAMPLED BY UNPLANNED PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITY, 6907 KINGSWAY PLATE 9 6 7 w i l l make this device ineffective. The suitable arrangement of abrasion resistant species i s a de-vice which i s employed where i t i s recognized that a certain amount of unauthorized pedestrian a c t i v i t y through the planted area i s inevitable. This i s usually the case near a bus stop or telephone booth as with PPA 3 2 9 4 (789O Canada Way); or where shrubbery i s incorporated as a part of the. boulevard beautification in commercial areas such as at the West Broadway/Macdonald Ave. intersection i n Vancouver or PPA 3 8 2 0 (4-736 Im-perial; or when a long comparatively narrow strip planted with shrubbery i s used to separate a sidewalk from the parking lot of a commercial f a c i -l i t y such as 7 2 2 7 Kingsway. In such cases the plant material i s selected particularly because of i t s resistance to abrasion and occasional tramp-l i n g . The most popular selections include Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifo-lirem) which was used in the Broadway and Kingsway examples, Mugho pine (Pinus mughans) as at 4 ? 3 6 Imperial St., and certain varieties of Juniper (Juniperus). These plants are spaced and located so as to accommodate occasional pedestrian movement. The particular plant layout should be determined by the anticipated movement pattern, see figures (v) and ( v i ) . In compatible configurations the planting w i l l flourish and occupy a l l of the space available to i t , since i t s resistance to damage from abrasion i s high and the probability of getting frequently trampled upon i s low. If the layout does not reflect the predominant pedestrian movement through i t , some of the plant material w i l l be crushed under foot and destroyed, leaving the landscape looking ravaged and ragged as per 6 9 0 7 Kingsway. Suitable protection for delicate plantings i s afforded i n a third 40 4.1 approach to plant protection from pedestrians. Halprin and Cullen describe some of these devices in great d e t a i l . They range from obvious PLAN VIEW P E D E S T R I A N M O V E M E N T 69 b a r r i e r s l i k e h i g h c o n c r e t e c u r b s , a n d w i r e / c h a i n / p i c k e t t y p e f e n c e s t o m o r e s u b t l e o n e s s u c h a s t h e u s e o f r i v e r r o c k s a t s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s . • S i n c e a b e d o f t h e s e r o c k s i s v e r y u n c o m f o r t a b l e t o w a l k u p o n , i t i s u s e d t o d i s c o u r a g e p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a c r o s s c e r t a i n a r e a s . T h e y w e r e s e l -e c t e d i n P P A 3031 (3204 K i n g s w a y ) a n d P P A 3906 (7635 E d m o n d s S t . ) B o t h o f t h e s e i n c o r p o r a t e V i b u r n u m d a v i d i i a s t h e m a j o r g r o u n d c o v e r . T h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y d e l i c a t e m a t e r i a l w h i c h h a s n o r e s i s t a n c e t o a b r a s i o n . a n d t r a m p l i n g . S i n c e i n s u c h c a s e s t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e l a n d s c a p e i s s o d e -p e n d e n t u p o n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u i t a b l e p r o t e c t i o n , i t c a n b e s e e n t h e n , t h a t t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c a r t i f i c i a l p r o t e c t i o n d e v i c e s f r o m a n a p p r o v e d s c h e m e w i t h o u t p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s p e c i e s o r p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t c a n r e s u l t i n a v e r y s u b s t a n d a r d l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e \ v h i c h w i l l b e a v e r y s h o r t l i v e d a s s e t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n s u m m a r y , t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d s c a p i n g a g a i n s t p e d e s t r i a n a -b u s e i s v e r y m u c h d e p e n d e n t o n t h e s p e c i e s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u i t a b l e a r t i f i c i a l p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s i n c o n j u n c -t i o n w i t h m o r e d e l i c a t e s p e c i e s . T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e a l l r e f l e c t e d i n a p p r o v e d P P A d r a w i n g s . 3A P R O T E C T I O N A G A I N S T A C C I D E N T A L V E H I C U L A R D A M A G E P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t a l v e h i c u l a r d a m a g e t o p l a n t i n g o n b o u l e v a r d s a n d i n p a r k i n g l o t s i s a f f o r d e d m o s t o f t e n i n t w o w a y s - p r o -v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s a n d a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n o f t r e e m a t e r i a l . T h e p r o v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s i s t h e m o r e f a m i l i a r m e t h o d . T h e s e i n c l u d e c o n c r e t e a n d w o o d c u r b s a n d b u m p e r s , s t o n e s , b o l l -a r d s , e t c . w h i c h d e f i n e t h e v e h i c u l a r a r e a s . T h e y m a k e i t p h y s i c a l l y i m -70 10. N O C U R B S - G R A S S L A N D S C A P I N G D E S T R O Y E D B Y T R U C K S , 4710 L O U G H E E D H W Y . 11. N O C U R B S - G R A S S B O U L E V A R D D E S T R O Y E D , 6907 K I N G S W A Y P L A T E S 10,11 p o s s i b l e o r v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r a c a r t o b e a c c i d e n t a l l y d r i v e n i n t o a l a n d s c a p e d a r e a . T h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s c a s e s i n B u r n a b y w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e w h a t c a n h a p p e n t o l a n d s c a p i n g i f i t i s n ' t a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d f r o m v e -h i c l e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e o l d e r d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h a s 7889 E d m o n d s S t . a n d 6907 K i n g s w a y , a n d n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h a s P P A 2937 (4-710 L o u g h e e d H i g h w a y ) . P P A 3303 (4806 H a s t i n g s S t . ) a n d P P A 3575 (2878 D o u g l a s E d . ) w e r e c o m p l e t e d l a s t s u m m e r b u t o m i t t e d t o p u t a n y p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s a r o u n d t h e i r l a n d -s c a p i n g . B a s e d o n s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l o f t h e l a n d -s c a p i n g i s a m a t t e r o f t i m e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d P P A 3162 (2812 D o u g l a s E d . ) i s a n e x a m p l e o f w h e r e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e d r a w -i n g s a n d e x e c u t e d o n s i t e . I n t h i s c a s e s e m i t r a i l e r s h a d h i s t o r i c a l l y d r i v e n o v e r t h e f r o n t o f t h e s i t e , e i t h e r w h e n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e c o r n e r o r e g r e s s i n g f r o m a p r o p e r t y a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t . E v e n a f t e r t h e s o i l h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e l a n d s c a p i n g , t h e t r u c k s s t i l l c o n t i n u e d t o d r i v e o v e r i t . I t w a s o n l y a f t e r t h e b a n d o f r i v e r r o c k s , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d b o u l d e r s , w e r e l a i d a r o u n d t h e p e r i m e t e r , t h a t t h e t r u c k s c e a s e d t o c r o s s t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e s i t e . D r a w i n g s a r e a l s o e x a m i n e d f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n o f t r e e m a t e r i a l s w h e n t h e y a r e p r o p o s e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o p a r k e d c a r s o r t h o r o u g h f a r e s . I n p a r k i n g l o t s , w h e r e s p a c e i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d , i t i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e l a r g e p l a n t e r s f o r t r e e s . I n s u c h c a s e s , c a r e i s t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t a n y t r e e s w h i c h c o u l d b e p o t e n t i a l l y t o u c h e d b y t h e f r o n t o r r e a r o v e r h a n g o f a c a r , a r e a l i g n e d w i t h t h e p a i n t e d b a y l i n e s o f t h e p a r k i n g a r e a a n d a r e p r o p e r l y s t a k e d . I n t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o b e h i t a c c i d e n t a l l y , a n d i f s o , t h e y a r e l e s s a p t t o g e t s e v e r e l y d a m a g e d o r d e s t r o y e d . S i m i l a r l y , u n d e r s t o r e y g r o u n d c o v e r , l o c a t e d i n a r e a s w h e r e i t i s a p t t o b e r e g u l a r l y o r o c c a s i o n a l l y u n d e r 7 2 1 2 . T R E E S P R O T E C T E D F R O M ! I 3 . T R E E S A L I G N E D W I T H B A Y L I N E S , V E H I C L E S , 5 2 0 4 K I N G S W A Y 5259 L A N E S T . PLATES I2.I3 73 t h e o v e r h a n g o f a c a r , i s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d b y s p e c i e s w h i c h d o n o t m a t u r e i n e x c e s s o f 1'-6". O t h e r w i s e t h e p l a n t i n g c o u l d b e s h e a r e d o f f a t t h i s l e v e l a n d s e v e r e l y d a m a g e d , d i s f i g u r e d o r d e s t r o y e d . T h e s e t w o c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B u r n a b y ' s g r o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s . O f t h e m a n y p r o j e c t s a p p r o v e d w i t h t h e s e c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d , o n l y o n e , P P A 3031 (3204 K i n g s w a y ) i s k n o w n t o h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l a n s . T h r e e o t h e r s w h e r e c o n s t r u c -t i o n h a s e i t h e r c o m m e n c e d o r i s i m m i n e n t a n d P P A 3806 (4366 H a s t i n g s ) , P P A 3938 (667O K i n g s w a y ) , P P A 3595 (5259 L a n e S t . ) P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t a l v e h i c u l a r d a m a g e o n b o u l e v a r d s a n d i n p a r k i n g l o t s i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y m u c h d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i e d v e h i c u l a r b a r r i e r s , t h e l o c a t i o n a n d p r o p e r s t a k i n g o f t h e t r e e m a t e r i a l , a n d t h e c o r r e c t s p e c i e s o f g r o u n d c o v e r . H e n c e , i f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i g n o r e d o n s i t e , t h e c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l o f v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e l a n d s c a p i n g i n v e h i c u l a r a r e a s c a n b e r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . P R O T E C T I O N A G A I N S T U N S I G H T L Y P R U N I N G , C U T T I N G O R P R E M A T U R E R E M O V A L P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l a g a i n s t u n s i g h t l y p r u n i n g , c u t -t i n g o r p r e m a t u r e r e m o v a l i s a n o t h e r a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h h a v e h i s t o r i c a l l y l e d t o t h e u n -s i g h t l y d e m i s e o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l . T h e s e i n c l u d e - ( i ) c l o s e p r o x i -m i t y o f o v e r h e a d w i r e s , ( i i ) l o c a t i o n s a t o p u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s , ( i i i ) b l o c k a g e o f v i s i b i l i t y o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s p l a y s a n d s i g n s , ( i v ) l o c a t i o n s s u b j e c t t o f u t u r e r o a d w i d e n i n g s a n d s i d e w a l k i m p r o v e m e n t , ( v ) s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c u l i a r t o c e r t a i n s p e c i e s . I n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s s i n c e t h e u l t i m a t e f a t e o f i l l - s e l e c t e d o r m i s l o c a t e d v e g e t a t i o n c a n b e a n t i -c i p a t e d i n a d v a n c e , P P A a t t e m p t s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e 74 14. PRUNING, 7776 CUMBERLAND 15. 3670 - 5TH AVE. PLATES I4.I5 75 a v o i d e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . 3.5 ( i ) O v e r h e a d W i r e s O v e r h e a d p o w e r l i n e s , w h e t h e r t h e y b e o n t h e b o u l e v a r d o f t r a v e r -s i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , h a v e b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r o s s d i s f i g u r e m e n t o f m a n y t r e e s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h e u t i l i t y c r e w s p r u n e t h e t r e e s s u c h t h a t t h e i r l i m b s a n d / o r b r a n c h e s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o c a u s e d a m -a g e t o t h e l i n e s d u r i n g w i n d y c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s o f t e n l e a v e s o n e h a l f t h e t r e e s u c h a s 7818 C u m b e r l a n d , B u r n a b y , o r a g a p i n g h o l e t h r o u g h o n e s i d e a s 367O - 5th A v e . , V a n c o u v e r , o r t h e t o p i s c u t o u t s u c h a s 3691 P t . G r e y R d . , V a n c o u v e r , o r 7776 C u m b e r l a n d , B u r n a b y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f b o u l e v a r d t r e e s . I m p r o p e r l o c a t i o n c a n u l t -i m a t e l y l e a d t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e b o u l e v a r d t r e e s b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . 3.5 ( i i ) U n d e r g r o u n d S e r v i c e s L i n e s T h e l o c a t i o n o f u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s a r e a l w a y s c h e c k e d b e f o r e t r e e s a r e a p p r o v e d o n t h e b o u l e v a r d . T h e u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y c h e c k e d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t a r e g a s , w a t e r , s a n i t a r y s e w e r , s t o r m s e w e r a n d u n d e r g r o u n d p o w e r l i n e s f o r o r n a -m e n t a l l i g h t i n g . O n c e t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e l o c a t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r o p -e r t y l i n e s , t h e n t h e t r e e l o c a t i o n s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a t o p a n y o f t h e m , a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e , l e s s a p t t o s u f f e r s e v e r e d a m -a g e o r d e a t h a s a r e s u l t , o f e m e r g e n c y s e r v i c e r e p a i r s o r g e n e r a l u p g r a d -i n g o f s e r v i c e s . I n c a s e s w h e r e n o t r e e s a r e p r o p o s e d f o r t h e b o u l e v a r d , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e s a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t c h e c k e d ( e x c e p t f o r s a n i -t a r y s e w e r s w h e n a s p e c i e s s u c h a s W e e p i n g w i l l o w o r P o p l a r , e t c . i s p r o -p o s e d o n t h e a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y ) . T h e r e a r e t h r e e d e p a r t u r e s f r o m a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s w h i c h c a n b e 76 s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s . T h e f i r s t i s t h e i n c o r r e c t l o c a t i o n o f a t r e e a p p r o v e d o n t h e b o u l e v a r d . T h e s e c -o n d i s t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f t r e e s a p p r o v e d f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o n t o t h e b o u l e v a r d . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e t r e e s m a y i n a d v e r t e n t l y b e p l a c e d a t o p u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e l i n e s . T h i s m a y r e s u l t i n t h e i r u l t i m a t e d i s f i g u r e -m e n t o r l o s s , a s w a s t h e c a s e o f a b o u l e v a r d o f p l u m a n d h a w t h o r n t r e e s o n t h e n o r t h e r n s i d e o f t h e 1^ 00 b l o c k N e l s o n S t . ) V a n c o u v e r . I n t h i s e x a m p l e a s e r v i c e l i n e w a s p l a c e d o r r e p l a c e d d i r e c t l y u n d e r t h e r o w o f t r e e s . W h i l e t h e w o r k w a s b e i n g d o n e , t h e t r e e s l o s t m o s t o f t h e i r r o o t s . T h e y w e r e s u s p e n d e d o v e r t h e t r e n c h b y d i a g o n a l t i m b e r s u p -p o r t s a n d a f e w r o o t s e x t e n d i n g i n t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n . A b o u t a m o n t h o r s o a f t e r t h e w o r k w a s c o m p l e t e d a n d a l l a r t i f i c i a l s u p p o r t s h a d b e e n r e m o v e d , t h e r e w e r e f a i r l y s t r o n g w i n d s . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e t r e e s h a d i n s u f f i c i e n t r o o t s y s t e m s r e m a i n i n g t o c o m b a t t h e f o r c e o f t h e w i n d , a n d a s a c o n s e -q u e n c e h a v e b e e n l e a n i n g o v e r , l o p s i d e d e v e r s i n c e . I n P P A 3296 (7237 B u l l e r A v e . ) t r e e s w h i c h w e r e a p p r o v e d f o r 3' i n s i d e o f t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e h a v e b e e n a c t u a l l y p l a c e d a b o u t 5' o u t s i d e o f t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e t r e e s w e r e l o c a t e d n e a r a 2" h i g h p r e s s u r e g a s l i n e a n d d i r e c t l y u n d e r t h e p o w e r l i n e s . T h e t h i r d d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s w h i c h c a n b e a f f -e c t e d b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s p e c i e s o f t r e e s a p p r o v e d i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e b o u l e v a r d o r a r e l o c a t i o n o f a n a p p r o -v e d s p e c i e s w i t h i n t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n s p e c i e s w h i c h h a v e a h i s t o r y o f c l o g g i n g s a n i t a r y s e w e r s . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e W i l l o w s ( S a l i x ) , t h e B i r c h e s ( B e t u l a ) a n d P o p l a r s ( P o p u l u s ) a n d a r e g e n e r a l l y d i s c o u r a g e d o r b a n n e d o n b o u l e v a r d s i n m a n y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h i s r e a s o n . T h e r e f o r e , w h e n a p p r o v e d o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h e s e t r e e s a r e 77 l o c a t e d a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e s a n i t a r y s e w e r . I f t h e y a r e r e l o c a t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y c l o s e r t o t h e l i n e , t h e y c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y c r e a t e p r o b l e m s a n d m a y h a v e t o b e c u t d o w n . S i m i l a r l y i f a n a p p r o v e d s p e c i e s i s s u b s t i -t u t e d w i t h o n e o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s p e c i e s , t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n m a y s u f -f e r a s i m i l a r p r e m a t u r e f a t e . ( i i i ) V i s i b i l i t y o f C o m m e r c i a l D i s p l a y s a n d S i g n s T h e b l o c k a g e o f c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s a n d s i g n s h a s b e e n r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f u n s i g h t l y p r u n i n g a n d o c c a s i o n a l r e m o v a l o f t r e e s a n d s h r u b s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , t h e P P A d r a w -i n g s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a n y p r o p o s e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l w i l l b e c o m -p a t i b l e w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t e d u s e o f t h e s i t e - i . e . i t c o m p l e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e s t h e a m o u n t o f e x p o s u r e u s u a l l y e x p e c t e d o f d i s p l a y w i n d o w s , y a r d s , a n d s i g n a g e i n c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . T h e m a i n t h r u s t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d ( i ) t h e s p e c i e s o f t h e s h r u b s a n d t r e e s , a n d ( i i ) t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t r e e s . S p e c i e s a r e c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e m a t u r e h e i g h t o f t h e g r o u n d c o v e r p l a n t i n g w i l l n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y o b s c u r e a d i s p l a y w i n -d o w , e s p e c i a l l y i n C1 a n d Ok c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d t o h a v e 2 0 ' l a n d s c a p e d f r o n t y a r d s . P l a n t i n g w h i c h e x c e e d s 2' i n h e i g h t a t m a t u r i t y i s s o m e t i m e s u n p r o f e s s i o n a l l y p r u n e d s o t h a t i t c o n s t a n t l y l o o k s b u t c h e r e d a n d i l l k e p t ; s o m e t i m e s i t i s r e m o v e d a n d n o t r e p l a c e d w i t h a n y -t h i n g ; o r t h e p l a n t i n g i s r e m o v e d a n d i t s b e d i s p a v e d w i t h a s p h a l t o r c o n c r e t e s o t h a t m a i n t e n a n c e w i l l n e v e r a g a i n b e r e q u i r e d . S i m i l a r l y , s c r u t i n y i s a f f o r d e d l a n d s c a p i n g s u r r o u n d i n g o u t d o o r d i s p l a y y a r d s s u c h a s c a r l o t s f o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n s . A c h e c k o n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t r e e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e i s c a r e -78 f u l l y p e r f o r m e d i n t h o s e l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s w h i c h a r e l i k e l y t o ( i ) r e c e i v e f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n s , ( i i ) a r e a d j a c e n t t o a d i s p l a y y a r d , o r ( i i i ) a r e a d -j a c e n t t o t h e b o u l e v a r d b u t s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g b y a c u s t o m e r p a r k i n g a r e a . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t w h e n v e g e t a t i o n o b s c u r e s a s i g n t h e t r e e i s u s u -a l l y c u t o r r e m o v e d t o m a i n t a i n e x p o s u r e w h e t h e r i t i s c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g o r n o t , t h e P P A p r o c e s s a t t e m p t s t o a -v o i d s u c h s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g t w o m e t h o d s . T h e f i r s t i s a p p l i e d t o p r o p o s e d n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s w h e n i t i s n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r t h e r e w i l l b e a f r e e s t a n d -i n g s i g n o r n o t ( e . g . a s p e c u l a t i v e r e n t a l c o m m e r c i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l s i t e ) . T h e d e s i g n e r s a r e a s k e d t o s h o w w h e r e a f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n w o u l d b e l o -c a t e d i f t h e r e w a s o n e . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h o u g h t h a s t o b e g i v e n t o t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e s i g n a n d t h e l a n d s c a p i n g w h i c h c a n t h e n b e a r -r a n g e d s o t h a t n e i t h e r i t s s e c u r i t y n o r t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n w i l l b e j e o p o r d i s e d . I t a l s o m e a n s t h a t t h e f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n l o c a t i o n i s a p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l B u i l d i n g / P P A p e r m i t - t h i s a s s u r e s p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g a n d t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n b e c a u s e a n y c h a n g e s i n l o -c a t i o n o f t h e f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n i n a s e p a r a t e f u t u r e s i g n P P A a p p l i c a -t i o n , a r e o n l y a p p r o v e d a f t e r t h e n e c e s s a r y a m e n d m e n t s a r e m a d e t o t h e o r i g i n a l P P A . T h i s a m e n d m e n t i s o n l y a p p r o v e d i f i t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e l a n d s c a p i n g a n d t h e s i g n a g e a r e c o m p a t i b l e . H e n c e , i f t h e a p p -r o v e d l a n d s c a p e p l a n i s n o t f o l l o w e d , t h e n t h e w h o l e e x e r c i s e i s i n v a i n . T h e s e c o n d m e t h o d u s e d t o a v o i d s i g n / l a n d s c a p i n g c o n f l i c t s i s a p p l i e d t o s i t u a t i o n s w h e n i t i s k n o w n s p e c i f i c a l l y w h e r e a f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n w i l l b e l o c a t e d o r i s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g . A s i d e f r o m t h e a f o r e m e n -t i o n e d v i s i b i l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s r e c e i v e p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e t a i l e d s h r u b b e r y a n d p l a n t i n g i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d i n g AN EXAMPLE OF FUTURE TREE/SIGN CONFLICT, 7892, 6TH AVE. P L A T E 80 t h e b a s e o f t h e s i g n . O f t e n t h i s i s d e s i g n e d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s i g n w i t h i t s i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . S u c h w a s t h e c a s e . w i t h P P A 3127 (7892 - 6th S t . , ) w h e r e P y g m y E h o d e r d e n d r o n s ( m a y g r o w t o 4' h i g h ) w e r e a p p r o v e d a r o u n d t h e b a s e o f a f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n . B u t w h e r e s e v e r a l A u s t r i a n p i n e s ( w h i c h c a n g r o w t o 75'» a n d w h i c h n o w l o o k l i k e i n n o c e n t s h r u b s ) h a v e b e e n s u b s t i t u t e d b e l o w e a c h f a c e o f t h e s i g n , o n e c a n s u r m i s e t h a t i n s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e y w i l l a l l h a v e t o b e d r a s t i c a l l y p r u n e d o r r e m o v e d f o r s i g n v i s i b i l i t y a s w e l l a s v i s i o n c l e a r a n c e r e a s o n s . T h o s e l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o a d i s p l a y y a r d o r t o a b o u l e v a r d b u t s e p a r a t e d f r o m a c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g b y a c u s t o m e r p a r k i n g a r e a a r e a l s o c h e c k e d f o r t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e t r e e l o c a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , o n E d m o n d s S t ., t r e e s o n n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e a p p r o v e d a t a s p a c i n g o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30' - 45' a p a r t . B e i n g A u s t r i a n p i n e s ( P i n u s n i g r a ) t h e y c a n s o m e t i m e s b e f a i r l y d e n s e , a l t h o u g h u n d e r t h e s e g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e u n l i k e l y t o e x c e e d 8' - 10' i n w i d t h . T h e a p p r o v e d s p a c -i n g i s f e l t t o b e c l o s e e n o u g h t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y a l o n g t h e s t r e e t a n d y e t f a r e n o u g h a p a r t t o a l l o w a d e q u a t e e x p o s u r e o f a t r a i l e r s a l e s l o t o r t h e f a s c i a s i g n a g e a n d w i n d o w d i s p l a y s o f a c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g w h i c h i s s e t b a c k f r o m t h e s t r e e t . F o r u n k n o w n r e a s o n s t h e t r e e s i n P P A 3^ 88 (7275 C a n a d a W a y / a t E d m o n d s , a p p r o v e d a s a t r a i l e r s a l e s l o t ) , a n d P P A 2831 (7583 E d m o n d s S t . , ) a p p r o v e d a s a m u l t i - t e n a n t c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t y w i t h c u s t o m e r p a r k i n g i n f r o n t , w e r e i n s t a l l e d a t r e d u c e d s p a c -i n g . S e v e r a l y e a r s o f g r o w t h i n b o t h c a s e s s e e m s l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e t h e e f f e c t o f a h e d g e w h i c h m a y v i r t u a l l y s c r e e n t h e a c t i v i t i e s b e h i n d t h e m . I f t h e s e s i t e s h a v e t h e s a m e o r s i m i l a r u s e s w h e n t h e t r e e s d e v e l o p , t h e n t h e y w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s e v e r e p r u n i n g o r r e m o v a l . M a n y o f t h e s e s i g n a g e , d i s p l a y w i n d o w , d i s p l a y y a r d / l a n d s c a p i n g 81 c o n f l i c t s c a n b e a v o i d e d i f t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s a r e f o l l o w e d e x a c t l y . 3 . 5 ( i v ) F u t u r e R o a d / S i d e w a l k I m p r o v e m e n t F r e q u e n t l y t r e e s a r e a p p r o v e d i n s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y b e c a u s e t h e y m a y r e f l e c t a n d c o m p l e m e n t a f u t u r e r o a d w i d e n i n g s c h e m e f o r w h i c h t h e e n t i r e r o a d a l l o w a n c e h a s n o t y e t b e e n a c q u i r e d . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e t o l e r a n c e i s o n l y 2 ' , s u c h a s t h e s o u t h s i d e o f K i n g s w a y w h e r e t r e e s c a n o n l y b e l o c a t e d 1 2 ' - 6 " t o 14' i n s i d e o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r o p e r t y l i n e o n m a n y s i t e s s o t h a t t h e y w i l l b e b e t w e e n t h e f i n a l c u r b a n d t h e e d g e o f t h e s i d e w a l k . O t h e r s t r e e t s s u c h a s E d m o n d s S t . , ( 2 0 1 o f w i d e n i n g r e q u i r e d ) a n d G i l l e y A v e . , ( 2 4 ' o f w i d e n i n g r e q u i r e d o n t h e e a s t s i d e , 7' o n t h e w e s t , s o u t h o f K i n g s w a y ) , a r e a l s o c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t n o m a j o r p l a n t m a t e r i a l p r o p o s e d o n t h e d r a w i n g s w i l l h a v e t o b e r e -m o v e d a s a r e s u l t o f f u t u r e r o a d w i d e n i n g . M a n y r o a d w a y s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a r e i n t e r i m s t a n d a r d , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e b o u l e v a r d s a r e u s u a l l y a b o u t 2 0 ' w i d e . S i n c e m o s t d e s i g n -e r s e l e c t t o i n c l u d e t h e b o u l e v a r d s i n t h e i r l a n d s c a p e s c h e m e s , t h e p r o -p o s e d b o u l e v a r d l a n d s c a p i n g i s a l s o c h e c k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e n o n - g r o u n d c o v e r p l a n t s ( i . e . l a r g e s h r u b s a n d t r e e s ) , a r e n o t i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n o f a f u l l s t a n d a r d 46' w i d e c u r b e d t h o r o u g h f a r e a n d i t s c o m p l e -m e n t a r y 5 * w i d e s i d e w a l k s o n e a c h s i d e . S i n c e t h e s e t r e e s w h i c h m a y b e n o w p l a n t e d o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i l l p l a y a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e a s t h e b o u l e v a r d t r e e s o f t h e f u t u r e r o a d w a y s , i t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y b e c o r r e c t l y l o c a t e d a n d a r e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s . O t h e r w i s e , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n , n e a r l y m a t u r e b o u l e v a r d t r e e s m a y h a v e t o b e d e s t r o y e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e b e e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a n g e d f r o m t h e i r a p p r o v e d l o c a t i o n s . 82 3.5 ( v ) P e c u l i a r G r o w t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C e r t a i n t r e e s , b e c a u s e o f i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c u l i a r t o t h e i r s p e c i e s b e c o m e v i s u a l e y e s o r e s a t a v e r y y o u n g a g e e i t h e r a s a r e -s u l t o f r e q u i r e d d r a s t i c p r u n i n g o r n a t u r a l b r e a k a g e . I n m a n y s i t u a t i o n s t h e y h a v e t o b e r e m o v e d c o m p l e t e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e o r h a b i t s . S o m e t r e e s ( e . g . P r u n u s s p e c i e s ) s p l i t v e r y e a s i l y a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e s u s -c e p t i b l e t o d a m a g e t h r o u g h i c e a c c u m u l a t i o n , w i n d o r t h e w e i g h t o f t h e i r o w n b r a n c h e s . O t h e r s s u c h a s A c e r r u b r u m a n d A c e r s a c c h a r i n u m a r e s i m i -l a r l y a f f e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e v e r y b r i t t l e w o o d w h i c h b r e a k s v e r y • e a s i l y . S o m e a r e u n u s u a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o p e s t s ( s e e 3 « 1 ( v i ) . S o m e h a v e v i c i o u s t h o r n s ( e . g . G l e n d i t s i a t r i a c a n t h o s ) o r v e r y s h o r t l i f e s p a n s ( e . g . P r u n u s s p e c i e s ) . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x a c t r e a s o n s o m e t r e e s h a v e h a d s u c h b a d r e c o r d s f o r c o n t i n u o u s l y l o o k i n g l i k e e y e s o r e s a n d y e t a t t h e s a m e t i m e f o r c o n t i n u o u s l y t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s a f e t y o f p e o p l e a n d v e h i c l e s b e l o w w i t h f a l l i n g l i m b s a n d b r a n c h e s ; o r f o r h a v i n g t o b e r e -m o v e d a t a y o u n g a g e b e c a u s e o f a v e r y s h o r t l i f e s p a n , t h a t m a n y a r e a s c o n s i d e r i t a d i s a d v a n t a g e t o h a v e a n y o f t h e m g r o w i n g o n t h e i r b o u l e -v a r d s . T h o s e t r e e s w h i c h a r e b a n n e d b y s o m e l o c a l o r d i n a n c e s i n c l u d e : C o m m o n N a m e s B o t a n i c a l N a m e s A s h B o x e l d e r C a t a l p a C h e r r y E l m , S i b e r i a n E l m , S l i p p e r y H a w t h o r n H i c k o r y H o n e y l o c u s t F r a x i n u s s p e c i e s A c e r n e g u n d o C a t a l p a s p e c i e s P r u n u s s p e c i e s U l m u s p u m i l a U l m u s f u l v a C r a e t a e g u s s p e c i e s C a r y a s p e c i e s G l e d i t s i a t r i a c a n t h o s ( w i t h t h o r n s ) A e s c u l u s h i p p o c a s t a n u m R o b i n i a s p e c i e s A c e r r u b r u m A c e r s a c c h a r i n u m M o r u s s p e c i e s C a r y a s p e c i e s H o r s e c h e s t n u t , c o m m o n L o c u s t M a p l e , R e d M a p l e , S i l v e r M u l b e r r y P e c a n 83 C o m m o n N a m e s B o t a n i c a l N a m e s P l u m P o p l a r W a l n u t , B l a c k W i l l o w P r u n u s s p e c i e s P o p u l u s s p e c i e s J u g l a n s n i g r a S a l i x s p e c i e s 43 I n B u r n a b y t h e r e a r e n o s u c h o r d i n a n c e s . T h e o n l y s p e c i e s w h i c h i s p u b -l i c l y d i s c o u r a g e d i s L a b u r n u m b e c a u s e i t h a s p o i s o n o u s p r o p e r t i e s . I t i s n o t o f f i c i a l l y b a n n e d . a r e r e v i e w e d ( t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e D e p a r t -m e n t o f P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g b o u l e v a r d t r e e s ) t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e a n d o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s a r e n o t p l a c e d o n m u n i c i p a l b o u l e -v a r d s . A f u r t h e r c h e c k i s m a d e t o e n s u r e t h a t a n y p r o p o s e d t r e e s o n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a r e s e l e c t e d a n d l o c a t e d s u c h t h a t t h e y t o o a r e n o t p r o n e t o d i s f i g u r e m e n t a n d w i l l n o t b e c o m e f e a t u r e e y e s o r e s , o r h a v e t o b e p r e m a t u r e l y r e m o v e d , o r e n d a n g e r a d j a c e n t p u b l i c u s e r s a n d u t i l i t i e s . T h e c h i e f f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e s p e c i e s a n d l o c a t i o n . r o v e d p l a n s , t h e r e f o r e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s p e c i e s o r r e l o c a t i o n o f a t r e e f r o m p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o n t o t h e b o u l e v a r d c a n c r e a t e t h e p r o b l e m s p r e -v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . T h e s e t r e e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c o u r a g e d o n p r i -v a t e p r o p e r t y . H o w e v e r , t h e i r l o c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n t w o c o n d i t i o n s - o n e i s t h a t t h e i r l i m b s a t m a t u r i t y d o n o t o v e r h a n g t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e ( a s s u m -i n g t h e m a x i m u m f i n a l s t a n d a r d w i d t h ) , a n o t h e r i s t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l r o o m f o r i n d e p e n d e n t f e a t u r e t r e e p l a n t i n g o n t h e a d j a c e n t b o u l e v a r d . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a W e e p i n g w i l l o w ( S a l i x a l b a t r i s t i s ) w a s p r o p o s e d f o r o r n a m e n t a l e f f e c t , i n a n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , i t w o u l d h a v e t o b e l o c a t e d a t l e a s t 2 0 ' a w a y f r o m t h e f i n a l s t r e e t c u r b (46' p a v e m e n t ) . T h i s m e a n s A s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r a r e a s , t h e P P A d r a w i n g s O n b o u l e v a r d s u n d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n a n y a p p -84 t h a t , a s s u m i n g a 66' w i d e r o a d a l l o w a n c e , t h e t r e e w o u l d h a v e t o b e l o -c a t e d a t l e a s t 10' b e h i n d t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e . T h i s 20' i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l s p r e a d o f t h e t r e e - t h e b r a n c h e s , s o m e t i m e s , b u t n o t u s u a l -l y e x t e n d o u t 20' h o r i z o n t a l l y f r o m t h e i r t r u n k i n s e m i - r e s t r i c t e d l o c a -t i o n s . H e n c e , i f u n d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s w e r e m o v e d c l o s e r t o t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e t h a n i t s a p p r o v e d l o c a t i o n , o r a n a p p r o v e d d e s i r a b l e n e a r t h e p r o p -e r t y l i n e i s s u b s t i t u t e d w i t h a n u n d e s i r a b l e - m a n y o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e a p p r o v e d d r a w i n g s s o u g h t t o a v o i d i n f a c t w i l l b e c r e a t e d . I n r e v i e w , t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d s c a p i n g f r o m n a t u r a l d i s f i g u r e -m e n t o r r e q u i r e d u n s i g h t l y p r u n i n g o r p r e m a t u r e r e m o v a l r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i r n a t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s , i s l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e u s e o f s u i t a b l e s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n v e n i e n t l y i n -c l u d e d i n a n y a p p r o v e d P P A l a n d s c a p e P l a n . SUMMARY T h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s i n C h a p t e r 3 a r e a s f o l l o w s : (1) T h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , m i n i m i z i n g p l a n t d a m a g e b y v e h i c l e s , i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e i n 5 o f t h e 9 c a t e -g o r i e s o f c o m p l i a n c e , w h e r e a s n a t u r a l w e e d c o n t r o l i s d e p e n d e n t i n 2. T w e l v e o f t h e 16 o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n 2 o r m o r e c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m p l i a n c e . T h o s e a r e a s w h e r e c o m p l i a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e , ( i . e . n o n - c o m p l i a n c e i n a n y o n e r e -s u l t s i n t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e ) , a r e i n d i c a t e d w i t h d o t s i n t h e c o l u m n s o f t h e c h a r t o n t h e n e x t p a g e . (2) T h e f i n d i n g s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t o n e s e e m i n g l y m i n o r c h a n g e i n a n y o f t h e m a i n c o m p l i a n c e a r e a s c a n h a v e s h o r t t e r m a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o n LANDSCAPE OBJECTIVES AREAS OF NON-COMPLIANCE S u b s t i t u t i o n of Plant Species Relocation or Change of Spacing of Plant M a t e r i a l Changes to Grades, Contours, Earthworks Changes to curbs Changes to Rocks, B a l l a r d s , S p e c i a l Paving, Fences & other Inert Devices Changes to Parking S t a l l Delineation Changes to s i z e of Shrubs and Trees at P l a n t i n g Changes to Staking/Root Requirements Changes to B u i l d i n g D e t a i l s and Fi n i s h e s # OF AREAS OF COMPLIANCE UPON WHICH EACH OBJECTIVE IS DEPENDENT BENEFICIARIES 86 many obje c t i v e s . For example, a s u b s t i t u t i o n of the species of a tree can adversely a f f e c t 15 of the 16 objectives, whereas changes to staking requirements can r e s u l t i n the non-achievement of 5 • These find i n g s are summarized on the chart on the next page. Reading across on the rows, the dots i n d i c a t e which objectives are adversely a f f e c t e d by a s p e c i f i c deviation from the PPA drawings. (3) Numerically the developers and general public are the ch i e f bene-f i c i a r i e s when the landscape objectives are achieved - 2 benefit the muni-c i p a l i t y (M), 10 the general public (P), 11 the developers (D), and 1 B.C. Hydro (B.C.). The l a s t four columns of the chart i n d i c a t e the num-ber of objectives b e n e f i t i n g each of the 4 groups. The bracketed s u f f i x e s i n the objective t i t l e boxes indi c a t e the d i r e c t beneficiary of the achieve-ment of each o b j e c t i v e . (4) Of the 16 objectives,15 are e n t i r e l y r e l i a n t upon PPA compliance f o r t h e i r short and long range accomplishment. There are no other devices or statutes under which the objectives can be achieved on private property independently of PPA, with the exception of reducing c o n f l i c t between trees and overhead e l e c t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s through the aut h o r i t y vested i n B.C. Hydro. (5) The advantage offered by the achievement of landscape objectives are general i n nature - a more a t t r a c t i v e environment and minimal mainte-nance. ... No . s p e c i a l advantages or disadvantages were found. 1 James Bush Brown, Shrubs and Trees for the Home Landscape. (New York: C h i l t o n Books, 1963), p.10. 2 I b i d , p.195-. 87 " ^ D o n a l d W y m a n , G r o u n d C o v e r P l a n t s . ( N e w Y o r k : T h e M a c M i l l a n C o , 1956), p . 7 1 . k F r e d e r i c k A . B o d d y , G r o u n d C o v e r a n d O t h e r W a y s t o W e e d F r e e  G a r d e n s . ( L o n d o n : D a v i d S . C h a r l e s , 1974), p.137* A . O s b o r n , S h r u b s a n d T r e e s f o r t h e G a r d e n . ( L o n d o n : W a r d , L o c k & C o . L i m i t e d , 1933), p.68. . . L a w r e n c e C . S h e r k a n d A r t h u r R . B u c k l e y . ( O r n a m e n t a l S h r u b s f o r C a n a d a . ( O t t a w a : Q u e e n s P r i n t e r f o r C a n a d a , 1 968, p.29). 7 D o n a l d W y m a n , S h r u b s a n d V i n e s f o r . A m e r i c a n G a r d e n s . ( N e w Y o r k : T h e M a c M i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1949 • p . 6 l ) . 8 B l a n c h e H e n r e y a n d W . J . B e a n , T r e e s a n d S h r u b s . ( L o n c o n : L i n d s a y D r u m m o n d L i m i t e d , 1947), p.3 , 4 . 9 A s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e B & B o p t i o n i n M a s s o t N u r s e r i e s S p r i n g  W h o l e s a l e C a t a l o g u e ( R i c h m o n d , B . C . 1974). 10 ^ H e n r e y , S h r u b s , p . 3 « 11 , I b i d , p . 4 . 12 O s b o r n , S h r u b s , p . l 4 7 -13' W y m a n , G r o u n d C o v e r , p.70. 14 W y m a n , S h r u b s , p . 6 1 . ^ I b i d , p .62« 16 O s b o r n , S h r u b s , p . 7 0 « 1 7 I b i d , p.373. 18 W y m a n , S h r u b s , p . 1 7 6 . 19 . , . I b i d , p . 6 2 . 20 I b i d , p . 6 0 . 21 W y m a n , G r o u n d C o v e r , p.73* 2 2 O s b o r n , S h r u b s , p.68. 23 . W y m a n , S h r u b s , p . 6 0 . 24 D o n a l d W y m a n , T r e e s f o r A m e r i c a n G a r d e n s ( N e w Y o r k : T h e M a c M i l l a n C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k , 1965), p.48. 25 W y m a n , S h r u b s , p.58. 88 I b i d , p.160. 2 7 Bush-Brown, Shrubs and Trees, p.74. 28 Boddy, Ground Cover, p.125. 2 9 Wyman, Ground Cover, p.123. -^Wyman, Shrubs, p. 75* Wyman, Trees, p.79* 32 Wilbur H. Youngman and Charles E. Randall, Growing Your Trees (Washington, D.C: The American F o r r e s t r y Association, 1972), p.15-23 Wyman, Trees, p.55. 34 Youngman, Trees, p.11. 35 Osborn, Shrubs, p l a t e opp. p.160. 5 6 I b i d , p.160. 37 Holland Landscapers Ltd., Burnaby, B.C.; Johnsen Landscaping Ltd., Burnaby, B.C.; Burnaby Parks and Recreation Department. Interview between A. Raynor and Corporal Chayton (Burnaby RCMP) January, 1977. 39 A. Raynor: landscape design f o r Crawford House, Hamilton, Bermuda. 40 Lawrence Haprin, C i t i e s (New York: Reinhold Publishing Cor-poration, 1963). 41 Gordon Cullen, Townscape (London: The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1961). 42 Youngman, Trees, p.11. ^ • I b i d , p.11. 44 Information obtained from Miki Baransky - Job, Parks Depart-ment, Burnaby (formerly employed by the C i t y of V i c t o r i a ) . Unable to v e r i f y . Chapter k QUALITATIVE OBJECTIVES C h a p t e r 4 Q U A L I T A T I V E O B J E C T I V E S 4.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s i f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e P P A a f f e c t s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o f t w e l v e Q U A L I T A T I V E o b j e c t i v e s . T h e m a i n t h r u s t i s t o w a r d ( i ) t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h o s e d e t a i l s w h i c h , i f c h a n g e d , c a n b e r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e ; a n d ( i i ) e s t a b l i s h -i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P P A p r o c e s s t o t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c -t i v e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . M u t u a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f c o m p l i a n c e , s p e c i f i c a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e a l s o n o t e d . E a c h e x a m i n a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e P P A p r o c e s s . 4.1 S O C I A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S A f t e r W o r l d W a r I I t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a p p r o a c h t o w a r d t h e i m p r o v e -m e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n d e p r e s s e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w a s t o d e m o l i s h t h e m a n d t h e n r e p l a c e t h e m w i t h n e w p r o j e c t s w h i c h u s u a l l y m e t a n u m b e r o f w h a t w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a - p h y s i c a l l y t h e s e i n -c l u d e d s u i t a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l b u i l d i n g f o r m s a n d m a s s i n g , a d e q u a t e l i g h t a n d a i r , a d e q u a t e i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r s p a c e , e c o n o m i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s , e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f s p a c e , a n d e f f i c i e n t p e d e s -t r i a n a n d v e h i c u l a r c i r c u l a t i o n . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t w a s c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d , b e c a u s e a f t e r t h e d i s l o c a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t , t h e f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s d i d n o t , o r c o u l d n o t , a f f o r d t o m o v e b a c k . 91 In other cases the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the new developments was considered to be worse than i t had been o r i g i n a l l y . Experience has shown that the f a i l u r e of many of these pr o j e c t s i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t that the designers neglected to include the s o c i o l o g i c a l needs of the 1 neighbourhood f o r which the project was designed. Presently there are two commonly used approaches toward the i n -corporation of s o c i o l o g i c a l considerations i n p h y s i c a l design. One app-roach, r e f e r r e d to by some as a "bandaid" treatment, i s to provide demon-s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s - i . e . use a physical project to deal with s o c i a l ef-f e c t s as opposed to causes. This i s most often used when there i s a sub-s t a n t i a l l y developed e x i s t i n g f a b r i c where upgrading i s desired or r e -quired. The demonstration project may be an i n f i l l , a renovation or a replacement on a commercial or r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e which i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i z e compared to the t o t a l neighbourhood. This approach can allow a neighbourhood to appear more v i s u a l l y pleasant while the r e a l causes of the problem are being dealt with by other means. The second approach i s generally applied to l a r g e r new p r o j e c t s . This i s to design the project taking i n t o consideration the human behavioral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l groups which w i l l use the f a c i l i t i e s . The Burnaby Planning Department recognizes the complexity of im-proving l i v a b i l i t y i n neighbourhoods and also recognizes that p h y s i c a l improvements alone are not n e c e s s a r i l y enough to a t t a i n t h i s goal.' Of-ten these p h y s i c a l improvements are complementary to s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ; f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal f i n a n c i a l assistance programs such as 39 N.I.P. and E.E.A.P;. tax i n c e n t i v e s , e t c . I t i s i n t h i s complementary r o l e that PPA's are used to a s s i s t i n the improvement of the l i v a b i l i t y of neighbourhoods through ( i ) demonstration projects and ( i i ) p r o j e c t s 92 incorporating the best c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e human behavioral research which can be p r a c t i c a l l y a p p l i e d . These two categories are often com-bined and have been separated here merely f o r discu s s i o n purposes. The only aspects of the Planning Department's s o c i a l evaluation which w i l l be discussed are those which r e l a t e to exterior appearance, s i t e and landscaping. .1 ( i ) Demonstration Projects PPA's, which are proposed for areas where d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s i n evidence, receive very s p e c i a l attention to exterior b u i l d i n g and land-scape d e t a i l . I t i s recognized that the q u a l i t y of these new or renova-ted developments can serve as a model f o r a l l upgrading i n the area and sometimes can be instrumental i n the development of a new neighbourhood pride which w i l l stimulate others to upgrade t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s as with 2 Operation Windowbox i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . Hence the neat and f a i t h f u l exe-cution of a PPA as a demonstration project can accomplish two purposes -one i s to assure the residents that the municipality i s s t i l l genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r welfare, by showing them that i t i s not allowing sub-standard developments i n t o t h e i r neighbourhood. Substandard development w i l l only help to reinfo r c e the e x i s t i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n because no accept-able l e v e l of q u a l i t y i s established f o r other projects to follow. The second purpose i s to demonstrate to the residents and merchants the v i s -u a l p o t e n t i a l of t h e i r neighbourhood. The importance of neighbourhood appearance was recently under-l i n e d by the r e s u l t s of a Ju l y 1976 survey conducted by the Edmonds Street Neighbourhood Improvement Program O f f i c e (N.I.P.) for the Burnaby Planning Department i n an area designated as Eastburn. A questionnaire was c i r c u l a t e d to a l l r e s i d e n t s . I t contained 36 concerns and asked that the r e c i p i e n t rank them i n order of p r i o r i t i e s . 861 r e p l i e s (31%) were returned. The tabulated r e s u l t s showed that items concerning the appear-ance of the neighbourhood ranked 2nd, 3rd and 4th. Later when goals were being formulated f o r the area, these r e s u l t s were analysed i n conjunction with the feedback received from various community meetings and discuss-i o n s . A t o t a l of seven goals were formulated. Goal #2, for which $75,000 i n N.I.P. funds was a l l o c a t e d , i s as follows:^ "improve the phy-s i c a l (aesthetic) appearance of the neighbourhood". The N.I.P. report therefore i n d i c a t e s that the Eastburn residents are very concerned about ( i ) the general appearance of t h e i r neighbourhood, and ( i i ) i t s general state of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n both i t s r e s i d e n t i a l ' a n d commercial areas. The PPA p o l i c i e s i n t h i s area have r e f l e c t e d both of these con- . sid e r a t i o n s f o r quite some time. As f a r as general appearance i s con-cerned, examples of some of the symbolic "demonstration" projects which have been completed include PPA 2846 (7511 - 6th St.), PPA 3091 (7456 Edmonds St .) and PPA 3606 (7585 Kingsway). Since a l l new projects are intended to upgrade the appearance and q u a l i t y of the area, and since the success of those i n t h i s area are so dependent upon the onsite execution of d e t a i l s such as ornamental l i g h t f i x t u r e s , curbs, flowering shrubs, s i g n p r o v i s i o n , e t c . - i t i s most important that these items be executed f a i t h f u l l y and with good workmanship, e s p e c i a l l y i n the margina], areas. The appearance of PPA 3395 (7506 Edmonds St..) and PPA 2851 (7583 Edmonds St .) have been detrimentally affected by omission of some landscaping and b u i l d i n g m a terial s u b s t i t u t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . The.Eastburn r e s i d e n t s ' second complaint concerned the lack of upkeep of the buildings and the landscaping. These two points are recog-nized and checked i n the s c r u t i n y of the PPA drawings. The d u r a b i l i t y of 17. DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, 7506 EDMONDS ST. PLATES I7,I8,I9 95 materials and t h e i r maintenance requirements are major considerations e s p e c i a l l y f o r speculative commercial b u i l d i n g s . Materials such as brick, stucco and f a c t o r y enameled metal are durable and require v i r t u a l l y no maintenance - therefore these are encouraged. Extensive use of wood or painted concrete block on speculative buildings i s not encouraged be-cause i f these are not maintained, over time they may look very unsightly and detract from the neighbourhood. S i m i l a r l y i f species s u b s t i t u t i o n s and changes are made to the PPA landscape plan which reduce the r e s i s -tance of the vegetation to vandalism or neglect - then i t also can be-come very unsightly i n a short while and be a detriment to the area. For more information concerning vandalism, neglect'and landscaping (see 3*1 ( i ) , ( i i ) , 3.2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-5. Hence i f demonstration projects are to be models for upgrading, then - ( i ) a l l of the seemingly minor d e t a i l s on the drawings must be constructed and with good workmanship, ( i i ) building, materials must not be c a r e l e s s l y substituted, ( i i i ) unsympathetic s u b s t i t u t i o n s and changes to the approved landscape plan must be avoided. , 1 ( i i ) Incorporation of human behavioral research f o r whenever he b u i l d s , he con t r o l s or guides human behavior. When enlightened as to the e f f e c t s of the ph y s i c a l environment upon behavior, he designs by i n t e n t ' but when ignorant of these e f f e c t s he designs by default.''3 A r c h i t e c t s and planners use a number of measures f or evaluating p r o j e c t s , they include such factors as s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y , costs and a e s t h e t i c s . Recently they have also begun to judge them on the basis of t h e i r ecolo-g i c a l impact. The idea that buildings and communities should be judged as behavior s e t t i n g s i s just beginning to be accepted. A behavior s e t -t i n g i s defined by Deasey as one i n which: "we can arrange to increase 96 the possibility of desirable behavior and decrease the possibility of un-desirable behavior". This view i s generally shared by a number of d i f -ferent professionals who are often collectively referred to as "behav-i o r a l scientists". These include sociologists, psychologists and anthro-pologists, who agree that the purpose of the built environment i s : ".... to permit human.beings to realize their potential effectiveness." Studer theorized that any design problem in the built environ-ment: " can only be approached by delineating human behaviors that 6 must be accomplished". However•Deasey pointed out that this cannot be 7 done unless the factors underlying human behavior are understood. Vari-ous writers have proposed l i s t s which attempt to summarize these factors. While they vary i n detail and phrasing, they are i n general agreement• about the universality of such considerations as personal security, iden-t i t y and identity relating to a social group. Leighton's l i s t of what he considers to'be the ten most important factors i s as follows: 1. Physical security •2. Sexual satisfaction 3. The expression of h o s t i l i t y k. The expression of love 5. The securing of love '6. The securing of recognition 7. The expression of spontaneity (called variously positive'force, volition, creativity) 8.. Orientation i n terms of one's place in society and the places of others 9. The securing and maintaining of membership i n a definite human group 10. A sense of belonging to a moral order and being right in what one does, being i n and of a system of values.8 Whereas a l l these factors are being actively studied, a relation-ship between the built environment and human behavior has been so far established for factors 1, 7, 8 and 9» as noted by Sanoff,^ Deasey,^ 11 12 Calhoun and Olson. However many of these relationships, particularly 7 and 8 are s t i l l vague and not clearly understood. Hence for these 97 i t i s not yet p r a c t i c a b l e to consider them i n the development of design c r i t e r i a . Most of the p r a c t i c a b l e break-throughs have occurred i n the area of personal s e c u r i t y ( f a c t o r s 1 and 9, - p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y and per-sonal contact). This involves the concept of " t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " which i s a sense of ownership of surrounding space. The most notable contribu-*1 15 '16 "17 t i o n s are derived from H a l l , Somner, Alexander, Wells, and others, i n t h e i r studies of the behavioral patterns of i n d i v i d u a l s under d i f f e r -18 ent p h y s i c a l conditions; that of Milgram and Toch, f o r t h e i r studies of 19 20 crowd behavior i n d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l configurations; and that of Newman 21 and Jacobs f o r t h e i r observations on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b u i l t form and c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . Their f i n d i n g s are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to a planning department i n the evaluation of the following aspects of proposed schemes: (a) the s u i t a b i l i t y of public and semi-public spaces for t h e i r intended use; (b) i t s propensity to minimize crime and vandalism; and (c) i t s respect f o r p r i v a c y . I t should be appreciated that these subjects are very much re-l a t e d and have been separated for discussion purposes only. (a) The S u i t a b i l i t y of Public Spaces f o r t h e i r Intended Uses The s u i t a b i l i t y of p u b l i c spaces f o r t h e i r intended uses can be 22 evaluated using p r i m a r i l y the work of H a l l , Somner and Alexander. H a l l concentrated on measuring the minimum amount of space a person requires i n various s o c i a l crowding s i t u a t i o n s before showing signs of s t r e s s or 23 discomfort. Somner did much work on personal contact. .One of h i s studies involved the observation of various seating arrangements. He notes that c e r t a i n seating configurations, for example benches placed at r i g h t angles to each other, encourage v e r b a l interchange between strang-ers, and others such as benches placed end to end, promote l i t t l e or no 98 24 ve r b a l contact between strangers. Alexander et a l produced a l i s t of "patterns" which are derived from t h e i r observations of human behavior. Two of these patterns are described i n the following excerpts" Pattern 20: A c t i v i t y pockets I f : There i s any large public space where people come to l i n g e r , and when large numbers of people are intended to c o l l e c t . . . . the l i f e of a public space forms n a t u r a l l y around i t s edge. I f the edge f a i l s , then the space never becomes l i v e l y . People gravitate n a t u r a l l y toward the edge of public spaces. They do not l i n g e r out i n the open. I f the edges do not provide them with places where i t i s natural to l i n g e r , the space becomes a place to walk through, not a place to stop. 25 Pattern 29: Outdoor Seats I f : Any place i n a c i t y , but e s p e c i a l l y within walking distance of old people's dwellings, where something p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s going on, THEN: Benches should be placed i n such a way that they meet the following conditions: (1) They face d i r e c t l y on to pedestrian a c t i v i t y (2) They are open to the south, southeast and southwest to allow sun exposure during winter months (3) . . (4) They are surrounded by adjacent walls on those sides where the winter wind comes down 2g (5) They are open to the d i r e c t i o n of the summer breeze, i f any. Lindsay examined these two patterns i n the Vancouver context i n 27 1973» Observations were recorded for the plazas of the P a c i f i c and Ben-t a l l Centers, the Courthouse grounds, and V i c t o r y Square. They confirmed that the greatest amount of l i n g e r i n g and seating a c t i v i t i e s occurred i n those public, spaces which exhibited the patterns above - namely the Ben-t a l l Center, Courthouse grounds and V i c t o r y Square. P a c i f i c Center Plaza was the le a s t used for these purposes - i t lacks both sun and perimeter niche d e f i n i t i o n . In view of the foregoing, i t i s c l e a r that there are a number of requirements which a public space must meet i f i t i s to serve a s p e c i f i c purpose. Therefore, i f these considerations have been already included i n the approved drawings, then unsympathetic changes to subtle d e t a i l s can jeopardize the success of the public open spaces within the 99 p r o j e c t . The sub t l e t y of the elements contr i b u t i n g to the accommodation of various behavioral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following ex-amples. The success of niches i s determined by the c a r e f u l placement and grade r e l a t i o n s h i p s of fences, planters, etc; therefore, i f any changes are made to allow pedestrian penetration through these niches, then t h e i r u t i l i t y for l i n g e r i n g and f o s t e r i n g s o c i a l contact w i l l be destroyed. The a c q u i s i t i o n of sui t a b l e sunlight i s obtained by a c a r e f u l examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the buil d i n g / t r e e shadows and the seating areas; hence i f the b u i l d i n g shadow does not i n t e r f e r e , then the place-ment and types of trees becomes.very c r i t i c a l , but i f the bu i l d i n g shadow does i n t e r f e r e , then t h i s q u a l i t y i s unattainable. Seating can be pro-vided i n a number of ways so that the conditions necessary f o r p h y s i c a l and psychological comfort are achieved. Other than benches, t h i s may be by steps, planter and guard walls ( B e n t a l l Centre), grass (Courthouse Square), etc.; hence changes to planter w a l l heights or ground cover material can have major consequences on the seating capacity and r e l a -t i o n s h i p s . A p p l i c a t i o n i n Burnaby; Since the p r o v i s i o n .of public spaces i s gener-a l l y more ap p l i c a b l e to urban s i t u a t i o n s , so f a r i t has only received very l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n i n Burnaby i n a few high density r e s i d e n t i a l developments. However, with the increasing urbanization of Metrotown, Brentwood and Hastings St ., (Boundary Rd. to Willingdon Ave.), the f a i t h f u l observation of these p r i n c i p l e s w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y more important i f the "dead" plazas and d u l l urban spaces of Vancouver and other c i t i e s are to be avoided. 100 (b) The Reduction of Crime and Vandalism In 1957 the 2,7^0 unit Pruitt-Igoe housing project was built i n St.Louis. Its vacancy rate was seldom below 25% and f i n a l l y rose to 85%. After three unsuccessful attempts to encourage new residents to move in, authorities were convinced that the excessively high crime and vandalism rates i n the project would continue to deter potential occupants. The decision was then made to abandon i t and tear i t down. Its 1976 replace-ment cost was $60 million. There are a number of others - Cabrini Green i n Chicago, Columbus Homes and Stella Wright in Newark, Columbus Point i n Boston, the Plaza i n San Francisco and Raymen- Roser and Schuylkill Falls in Philadelphia, to name a few - a l l of which have vacancy rates i n excess 28 of 25% and very high crime and vandalism rates. Recent research findings indicate that law enforcement agencies cannot do the jobs of reducing crime and vandalism rates alone. A Police 29 Foundation study i n Kansas City, for example, found that altering rout-ine patrol - either increasing i t or decreasing i t - did not noticeably affect crime patterns. Research on police response time, sponsored by 30 the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, tenta-ti v e l y shows that the greatest delay occurs between the time that a crime occurs and the report i s made to the Police. Thus for many crimes, speedy police response may not make a difference to the outcome. Similarly, Institute sponsored research on the criminal investigation process sug-gests that even the best detectives cannot solve many crimes. In the wake of these massive failures i n public housing and the practical d i f f i c u l t i e s of dealing with crime and vandalism, the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice engaged. Oscar Newman to examine residential crime patterns and the social and physical factors that correlate most strongly with crime. His conclusions, after compar-101 ing residential projects with high and low crime rates, were - (i) that the housing projects where the residents had no feeling of ownership or responsibility to the space outside of their units experienced s i g n i f i -cantly higher crime rates than those where the residents did feel respon-sible; and therefore that the adoption of t e r r i t o r i a l attitudes, and pol-• icing measures by the residents, i s the strongest deterrent to criminal and vandal activity, ( i i ) that this sense of ownership or responsibility ( t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ) of a public or semi-public area, i s very much influenced by the physical layout of the buildings and detailed planning of these spaces (which may include corridors, lobbies, common outdoor space, etc). These findings are similar to those of Jane Jacobs who confined most of her observations to street l i f e . She noted that those streets which en-joy surveillance from adjacent buildings, are generally safer than those 33 which do not. She also attributes the phenomenon to t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . Newman notes that i f crime and vandalism are to be minimized in multi-family projects, then the concept of "defensible space" should be adopted - a "residential environment whose physical characteristics -building layout and site plan - function to allow inhabitants themselves 31 to become the key agents i n ensuring their own security. ^ n e P^y-i s i c a l elements of defensible space are designed to release the latent sense of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and community among inhabitants so as to allow these traits to be translated into inhabitants' assumption of responsibi-l i t y for preserving a safe and well-maintained l i v i n g environment. A de-fensible housing complex has the appearance of being composed of small, defined areas controlled by specific groups of residents. The effect i s an environment that i s intensively u t i l i z e d and continually monitored by i t s inhabitants. Residents and non-residents alike should feel that they 102 w i l l be recognized e a s i l y by other residents and that t h e i r presence can be questioned. Since t h i s study i s not concerned about the l o c a t i o n or juxta-p o s i t i o n i n g of b u i l d i n g s , i t w i l l confine comments i n t h i s subsection to the contribution which landscaping and s i t e works can make to i n c r e a s i n g the f e e l i n g of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i n outdoor spaces. The subdivided spaces which are c o n t r o l l e d by one or more res i d e n t s , are sometimes r e f e r r e d to as zones of i n f l u e n c e . They may be defined by r e a l b a r r i e r s such as lock-able fences and walls for which the entrant needs a key or permission to penetrate or by Symbolic b a r r i e r s , which define areas or r e l a t e them to p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g s without p h y s i c a l l y preventing i n t r u s i o n . Symbolic b a r r i e r s include elements l i k e low fences, shrubs, steps, changes i n ground l e v e l , changes i n paving texture, l i g h t standards, open p o r t a l s , e t c . As a design t o o l , symbolic b a r r i e r s achieve t h e i r greatest u t i l i t y when used to define the boundaries of zones of t r a n s i t i o n . These bound-ary definers act as i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the sequence of movement along access paths. They create perceptible zones of t r a n s i t i o n from p u b l i c spaces intended f o r private or semi-private use. Success of symbolic b a r r i e r s i s dependent on the following conditions: (1) the a b i l i t y of the intruders to perceive and take heed of the meaning of the symbols; (2) the evident capacity of the inhabitants of the defined space or t h e i r agents to maintain c o n t r o l of the space that i s being symbolically i d e n t i -f i e d ; and (3) the capacity of the defined space to require the i n t r u d e r to make his i n t e n t i o n s obvious; that i s , the space must be defined so as to have a low tolerance f o r ambiguous use. Many of these components work i n concert: a successful symbolic b a r r i e r i s one that has a l l of these 32 conditions i n operation together; hence, unsympathetic changes to any 103 of the l i s t e d landscape devices on approved drawings, which have bene-f i t e d from these considerations, may be responsible f o r the loss of "de-f e n s i b l e " space. A p p l i c a t i o n i n Burnaby: Some of Burnaby's newer high density l i v i n g s i t -uations are now o l d enough so that meaningful crime and vandalism s t a t i s -t i c s are now a v a i l a b l e . These s t a t i s t i c s are very high i n the Lougheed Mal l area, so much so that there i s a report c u r r e n t l y being prepared by the Burnaby Planning Department i n cooperation with the Burnaby detachment of the RCMP. Their observations and approaches are s i m i l a r to Newman's, but at t h i s point i t cannot be ascertained as to how d e t a i l e d t h e i r r e c-ommendations w i l l be. Nevertheless, i t i s now cl e a r that Burnaby's high density dwellers are also subject to crime and vandalism problems when c e r t a i n conditions conducive to the development of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y are not provided. Therefore i n future higher density r e s i d e n t i a l proposals, the human behavioral approach to crime and vandalism prevention w i l l enjoy increasing usage. The success of t h i s approach can be very heavily de-pendent on landscape d e t a i l s . I t i s important, therefore, when i t i s i n -augurated, that there i s some e f f e c t i v e means of guaranteeing that the r e l a t e d landscape d e t a i l s necessary f o r the achievement of t h i s objec-t i v e w i l l be executed on s i t e . Compliance with the approved PPA drawings i s one such guarantee. In a commercial context, one of the highest concentrations of crime and vandalism occurs i n the Edmonds Street/Kingsway area. This i s 34 the number one concern of the residents according to a 1976 N.I.P. survey. I t i s also an area where Operation I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y i n e f f e c t . This i s a program whereby a l l the items i n a household are marked so that 104 i f stolen, their origins can be traced. Most of Edmonds St . and Kings-way i n this area i s zoned C2 or C4. These zoning categories are designed exclusively for commercial uses, hence residential uses are expressly pro-hibited. Therefore, there are no new opportunities for commercial below and residential overlook from the second storey by residents who psycho-lo g i c a l l y claim the street as a part of their territory. Hence Jane Jacobs' philosophy cannot be presently u t i l i z e d at this location. As a result, the only contribution which can be made through landscape and building design at the PPA stage by their designers i s to ensure that the scheme does not encourage or assist vandals. In the Edmonds Street area, the landscape material which most de-signs specify i s very hardly and comparitively d i f f i c u l t to vandalize -species such as Austrian pines (Pinus nigra) which have sharp needles, and Juniper (Juniperus, various), e.g. PPA 3090 (7456 Edmonds). Similar-l y anything which can be used as a missile or a weapon i s not approved i n ,a landscape scheme. This would include a material,such as gravel. River rocks, when specified, are secured to the ground with concrete as i n . PPA 3906 (7635 Edmonds St .) Burnaby RCMP f i l e s for this area alone re-cord 67 cases of vehicle and building windows being broken specifically with stones i n 1976. Most designers have chosen brick as their chief non-glass finishing material because i t i s highly resistant to serious impact damage. Paint and g r a f i t t i can be easily removed without marring the fini s h . Most are careful not to overprotect premises (e.g. iron bars, steel shutters, etc.) because of the dehumanizing effect. Therefore this method of vandalism discouragement has i t s limitations. Even though this i s a "band-aid"approach, from a sociological point of view, in that i t does not deal with the root causes of the prob-105 lem, i t has va l i d i t y in that at least i t recognizes that there i s a vandal-ism problem and attempts to make i t much more,difficult to commit vandal-ism on impulse i n this commercial area. I f these considerations are i g -nored i n the execution of a project, then not only i s the building i t s e l f more vulnerable to damage, but the safety of neighbouring buildings i s also endangered i f missiles are provided i n a new project. (c) Privacy Privacy i s the third social consideration. It too i s related to the concept of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . It might be described as the protection of one's personal spaces from exposure to excessive noise which i s gen-erated elsewhere, or from the view of others. A young couple may achieve privacy by seeking a spot i n the centre of a large grassed park space -the element of separation i n this case i s distance. An individual may achieve privacy while walking or sit t i n g among dense downtown crowds by "cocooning" himself. Somner describes "cocooning" as the "mutual with-53 drawal from social intercourse" ' - each individual goes into a semi-trance and i s largely oblivious to the other people around him. A home-owner may achieve privacy i n his interior and exterior spaces from noise and sight by maintaining a certain distance separation from nearby windows such as suggested by CMHC and GVPD, or by u t i l i z i n g landscape devices such as berms, fences and shrubbery.. The Planning Department ensures that relevant privacy c r i t e r i a are met i n a l l multi-family residential situations through distance and/ or by the manipulation of landscape devices. Most, emphasis i n this re-gard i s placed on those projects near major thoroughfares such as PPA 3607 (9888 Lougheed Hwy.) 106 If berms, fences shrubbery and trees are the privacy devices, then they are included i n the approved PPA drawings. Hence any inappro-priate changes can result i n the objective not being achieved. 4.2 TOWARD AN IMAGE/IDENTITY/SENSE OF PLACE 4.2 (i) General According to Lynch, "environmental images are the result of a two-way process between the observer and his environment. The environ-ment suggests distinctions and relations, and the observer - with great adaptability and i n light of his own purposes - selects, organizes and 40 endows with meaning what he sees." Hence a general image or public im-age i s "the common mental pictures carried by large numbers of the c i t i e s ' inhabitants; areas of agreement which might be expected to appear i n the interaction of a single physical reality, a common culture, and a basic 41 physiological nature". Therefore, a highly imageable environment i s one which "would seem well formed, distinct, remarkable; i t would invite eye and ear to greater attention and participation. The sensuous grasp upon such surroundings would not merely be simplified, but also extended and deepened. Such a city would be one that "could be apprehended over time as a pattern of high continuity with many distinctive parts clearly i n -42 terconnected". He qualifies this statement by stating that the concept doesn't necessarily connotate something fixed, precise, regularly ordered, or unified, or at a glance, obvious, patent and plain, although sometimes these qualities may exist. Halprin, on the other hand, i s less philosophical than Lynch, and simply describes his concept of city image as "the tone of the cit y " and 42 "the character of i t s presence". Halprin did. not attempt to analyse the components of imageability. Lynch did, and isolated three components -10? identity, structure and meaning. 44 IDENTITY: Lynch refers to identity as "individuality or oneness". Gor-45 don Cullen ca l l s i t "hereness". Ian Nairn describes i t as "the specific 46 needs and qualities that make one place different from another". Rich-ard Dober refers to i t as "a sense of place", as do several other auth-ors, and he-defines i t as "the sum of a l l those environmental character-47 i s t i c s that distinguish a part from the whole". STRUCTURE: What Lynch refers to as "structures", Nairn, calls "relation-ship". The former defines i t as "the spatial or pattern relation of the th 49 4a object to the observer and i t s other objects"; the latter as "what you use every day of your l i f e to make i t coherent". MEANING: Meaning i s simply- the significance or association the observer attaches to a particular object or relationship i n his environment. Since this study w i l l confine i t s e l f to components which can be expressed i n physical form, meaning w i l l not be considered. The Need: The following i s comprised mainly of li t e r a r y excerpts which represent the views of four different authors on the strong need for iden-t i t y and relationship (visual order) i n the modern environment. Jane Jacobs: Feels that a lack of visual order creates "an unpleasant chaotic effect" or "ugliness". Hence, i f these qualities are to be a-voided, a strong visual order must be established, strong enough to pro-vide the necessary "visual reinforcement to underscore functional order"'^ 51 and to eliminate "unnecessary visual contradictions". She cautioned however, that i n the quest for visual order, she does not advocate the 52 substitution of "the order of art for a very different order of l i f e " 53 or the conversion of "c i t i e s into disciplined works of art". Sydney H. Williams: Suggests three reasons for improving the visual en-vironment - "to give the ci t y dweller the opportunity to comprehend and orient himself to the city as a part of his daily l i f e " , and secondly, to provide "a visual emphasis for those functions which are socially, culturally, and economically important, and thirdly, "to stimulate ci v i c 54 consciousness and pride". Ian Nairn: Asserts that " i t seems a commonplace that almost everyone i s born with the need for identification with his surroundings and a rela-tionship to them - with the need to be i n a recognizable place. So, sense of place i s not a fine art extra, i t i s something which man cannot 55 afford to do without". Kevin Lynch: Describes his concept of l e g i b i l i t y as the ease with which i t s parts can be recognized (identity) and can be organized into a coher-ent pattern ( i . e . the parts can be identified and structured into a co-herent relationship or pattern). He asserts that " l e g i b i l i t y i s crucial 56 i n the city setting". He then sets out to demonstrate his point using sc i e n t i f i c research to support his premise that structuring and identify-ing the environment i s a v i t a l a b i l i t y among a l l mobile animals. "Many kinds of clues are used: the visual sensations of colour, shape, motion, or polarization of light, as well as other senses such as smell, sound, touch, kinesthesia, sense of gravity, and perhaps of elec-t r i c and magnetic fields; and that these techniques of orientation, from the polar fli g h t of a tern to the path finding of a limpet over the micro-topography of a rock", are described and their importance under-109 57 scored i n extensive l i t e r a t u r e . The study of t h i s a b i l i t y i n man has been conducted by psychologists although rather s k e t c h i l y or under l i m -i t e d laboratory conditions. He concluded that i n s p i t e of a few r e -maining puzzles, " i t now seems u n l i k e l y that there i s any mystic i n s t i n c t of way f i n d i n g - rather there i s a consistent use and organization of d e f i n i t e sensory cues from the external environment". Therefore, " t h i s organization i s fundamental to the e f f i c i e n c y and tothe very s u r v i v a l of 59 free moving l i f e " . Having explained why he f e e l s that the a b i l i t y to mentally organ-i z e the environment i s e s s e n t i a l , he then explains what he f e e l s are the main advantages of an ordered environment -( i ) i t enables one to move about quickly, even i n areas of great complex-i t y ; ( i i ) i t may serve as a broad frame of reference, an organizer of a c t i v i t y or b e l i e f or knowledge - hence, a u s e f u l basis f o r i n d i v i d u a l growth; ( i i i ) i t can f u r n i s h the raw material f o r the symbols and c o l l e c t i v e mem-ories of group communication; ( i v ) i t gives i t s possessor an important sense of emotional s e c u r i t y . "He can e s t a b l i s h a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between himself and the outside world. This i s obverse to the fear that comes with d i s o r i -entation; i t means the sweet sense of home i s strongest when home 60 i s not only f a m i l i a r but d i s t i n c t i v e as w e l l . ( i i ) Image, I d e n t i t y and Structure i n Burnaby From a r e g i o n a l viewpoint, Burnaby has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been regarded as a suburban extension to the c i t i e s of Vancouver and New Westmin-s t e r , l a c k i n g a strong sense of Municipal i d e n t i t y and s t r u c t u r e . 61 Burnaby's current search for i d e n t i t y .and structure can be traced back to The Apartment Study Report which was adopted by the Municipal 110 Council in 1966. Its purpose was to establish a general framework for the location of apartments. Some of i t s highlights are as follows: . i t geographically delineated 15 higher density d i s t r i c t s based on existing and proposed commercial centres; . i t distinguished residential areas from commercial areas within these d i s t r i c t s ; . i t established a hierarchical core concept - 5 local neighbourhood centres ( i . e . local stores, elementary school, one .park/playground - 4 "Community" centres (expanded services to serve 2 or 3 neighbourhoods) 62 - 3 " d i s t r i c t " centres (each to serve 2 or more community areas) - 3 high density towncentres - to provide a comprehensive range of commercial f a c i l i t i e s and cultural and recreational oppor-tunities. . i t suggested a structural form for these d i s t r i c t s - high-rise buildings could locate i n town cent res, medium density apartments of low heights in the d i s t r i c t or community centre, and garden apartment types i n the neighbourhood centres. In each d i s t r i c t there i s to be a suitable gradation of building types and density from the higher residential units to the surrounding.single family homes. The next significant step toward policies which might produce a more imageable environment occurred when The Apartment Study 1969 was adopted. Two of i t s recommendations are as follows: . The establishment of an administrative procedure,.... requiring the submission of a .... detailed plan of landscaping and usable open space treatment 6 3 . . . . could:do much towards improving the quality of the development. 65 . The establishment of an Advisory Design Panel .... so that "a marked improvement i n the design and appearance of apartment buildings can be realized. 66 The major contribution which this report made to the strengthen-1.11 ing of the d i s t r i c t hierarchial structure was the inclusion of un o f f i c i a l community plan areas i n several of the d i s t r i c t s . Since that time new plans have been created and older ones revised. They are a l l consolidated 67 for convenience i n Community Plans. These now provide the major techni-cal guidelines for the development of d i s t r i c t s . 1970 saw an increasing movement towards the growing emphasis on the quality and l i v a b i l i t y of the urban and suburban environment i n Bur-naby. This i s evidenced by the publication of Urban Structure by the Mun-i c i p a l Planning Department. Recognizing that people have to l i v e , work, play and move within the metropolitan area, i t proposed the orderly, struc-turing of the urban area by presenting a series'of policies for public de-bate. These were under the major headings of Settlement Policy, Circula-tion, Green Space and Employment Location. Unlike the Apartment Studies which dealt with f i n i t e populations, this report presented planning goals which catered to the needs of an ever increasing population. Particular goals to note are as follows: . IDENTITY - i n the even spread of metropolitan suburbs i t i s neces-sary to make definite planning decisions in order to introduce a sense of place. It may be achieved at a number of levels of spatial order - nodes, paths, d i s t r i c t s , etc. - by working out a clear phy-si c a l definition of urban spaces. ,60 . STRUCTURE - introduce nodes and landmarks, and paths to structure the homogeneous spread of settlements into recognizable elements. 69 . ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS - should accept two levels of design. One for viewers moving at slow speeds, such as pedestrians, when atten-tion should be paid to details, and another for viewers such as motorists moving at high speed, whose environment i s conceived more in terms of flowing lines, simple shapes and single glance images. 70 Although Urban Structure was never adopted by the Municipal Coun-c i l , i t did serve a very valuable function of introducing the concept of an imageable environment ( i . e . towards identity, and structure) to the l o -cal citizens and serving as basis for the expression of their concerns and 112 aspirations. This concept, modified by the citizen feedback, culminated in the adoption of The Public Meetings Phase One in 1974. The intent of this report was to identify major issues and concerns as expressed i n these public meetings and incorporate them wherever appropriate into pol-icy recommendations that were to supplement existing guidelines controll-ing the present and future development within the Municipality. The over-a l l framework was similar to that of Urban Structure - Residential Settle-ment Patterns, Green Space/Recreation, Employment Locations, and Trans-portation. Some of the relevant highlights of this report are as follows: 1. A clear commitment on the part of Burnaby to t a i l o r i t s existing plan-ning policies toward achieving a more imageable environment: .... The major intent of these policies i s to recreate community identity i n Burnaby by locating and linking residential areas, shops, industries, roads and parks i n such a way that some form of recognizable structure w i l l be achieved and the monotonous spread of the suburbs w i l l be prevented. By taking advantage of the unique and varied characteristics of the Municipality, change w i l l be used advantageously to improve the community on a structural basis. 71 The policy recommendations were made on the basis of: Amendments to existing and/or the formulation of new policies to control the conservation, development or redevelopment of estab-lished urban areas i n order to better provide for the preserva-tion or gradual improvement of the areas. 3. It represented change to a qualitative approach to planning i n Bur-naby as compared to the quantative emphasis in the Apartment Studies: e.g. - Metrotown - ... shoppers, nightlifers, browsers, together with their supporting f a c i l i t i e s and services would provide a new sense of v i t a l i t y and attraction ... a pedestrian environ-ment ... a series of linked malls and plazas. 72 - as a matter of general policy, continued efforts should be made by the Municipality to ensure that heavy industrial land users are committed to improving their compatibility with sur-rounding areas by an ongoing program of aesthetic and technical improvements.7-^ Therefore i n 1974 i t became clear that Burnaby had adopted the 113 thoughts of Lynch and his contemporaries as a major basis for i t s policy making. It i s also clear that this objective of achieving an imageable environment - i . e . community identity within a recognizable structural framework i s applicable to a l l developments whether they be additions, alterations or changes of use. This means therefore, that a l l PPA appli-cations are to be examined i n the.context of this objective. However, i t i s only possible to deal i n physical terms at the PPA lev e l . Therefore the only way that the s u i t a b i l i t y of a proposal can be evaluated i n terms of image, identity and/or structural objectives i s in the context of their elements which are referable to physical forms. Lynch"s analysis has iden-t i f i e d these elements. Hence the s u i t a b i l i t y of a development can be determined by i t s compatibility with the main image characteristics of each of the elements with which i t i s associated - the "key image feat-ures" of paths, the "linear elements" of edges, the "thematic continui-t i e s " of d i s t r i c t s , and the "distinction" of nodes and landmarks. PATHS: are the channels along which the observer customarily, occasion-a l l y , or potentially moves. They may be streets, which serve local traf-f i c between one d i s t r i c t and another, e.g. Willingdon Ave., which con-nects Metrotown and the Brentwood Town Centre; or which serve through t r a f f i c such as the freeway between Vancouver and Coquitlam; or which connect a residential d i s t r i c t to a major arterial,such as Gilley Ave. and Buller Ave. which connect the South Slope area to Kingsway; or which serve as major arterials as do Kingsway, the Lougheed Highway, and Canada Way. They may also be walkways, canals, railroads or transit lines such as the light rapid transit system proposed between Metrotown and New West-minster. For many people, paths are the predominant elements i n their image. 114 Lynch l i s t s a number of "key image features" which made paths identifiable to the residents of Jersey City, Boston and Los Angeles. These include the concentration of a special use or act i v i t y along a street, e.g. theatre row on Granville Mall or night l i f e on Davie Street i n Vancouver, the width or narrowness of a street - width i s commonly associated with major streets; special facade characteristics such as those along the Champs Elysee i n Paris; the visual continuity along i t s length - the chief factors which reinforce continuity and landscaping and facade. Unless a condition of rezoning, no uses ordinarily permitted with-in a zoning d i s t r i c t can be prohibited through'PPA or by the Chief Licence Inspector, i f a l l of the required by-laws and conditions are met. There-fore, i n most commercial zones,, the only guarantee i s that the uses w i l l be compatible with each other. There i s no guarantee of any concentra-tion of special uses. Any adjustment to paving width or street allowance are functions of rezoning, subdivision, transportation planning and the Engineering De-partment - not PPA. This upgrading can be a very long range proposition, and even so, the new width i n isolation i s not always sufficient to gen-erate the level of continuity required to strengthen identity and clarity, of structure as noted by Lynch and illustrated by the existing network of roads in Burnaby. Reinforcement of weak continuity along paths i s achieved primar-i l y through the use of landscaping and facades - both of these factors can be accommodated, and hence effectively guaranteed through the PPA process. Therefore, since there can be no guarantee of specialty uses un-115 d e r P P A , a n d s i n c e w i d t h a l o n e i s o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t a n d c a n n o t b e e f f e c -t e d u n d e r P P A - t h e n t h e o n l y c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h c a n b e c u r r e n t l y a c h i e v e d a l o n g p a t h s i s i n t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f c o n t i n u i t y u s i n g l a n d s c a p i n g a n d / o r f a c a d e s - b o t h o f w h i c h a r e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l P P A d r a w i n g s . L a n d s c a p i n g a n d f a c a d e t r e a t m e n t a r e t h e o n l y c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e w a y s o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f p a t h s i n B u r n a b y - i f t h e M u n i c i -p a l o b j e c t i v e o f " g r a d u a l i m p r o v e m e n t " i s t o b e m e t , t h e n a n y n e w p r o - , j e c t s s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h o s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t o r s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s a l o n g t h e s t r e e t . I f t h e r e i s n o p a r t i c u l a r c o m m o n f e a t u r e , t h e n a n e w p r o j e c t s h o u l d s e t a n a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d f o r o t h e r s t o f o l l o w , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d " t o c o n t i n u a l l y u p g r a d e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -m e n t s t a n d a r d s t o p r o v i d e f o r a " g o o d n e i g h b o u r " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u r -75 r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ' . ' . ^ B u l l e r A v e . , ( K i n g s w a y t o R u m b l e S t . ) i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . T h i s i s o n e o f s e v e r a l s t r e e t s c o n n e c t i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l S o u t h S l o p e a r e a t o a m a j o r a r t e r i a l ( K i n g s w a y ) . I t t h e r e f o r e s e r v e s a s o n e o f t h e m a i n e n -t r a n c e s t o t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , b u t i t p a s s e s t h r o u g h a n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . A s w i t h m o s t o l d e r o r r e d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e p o s s i b i -l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h f a c a d e t r e a t m e n t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . T h e b u i l d i n g s a r e d i f f e r e n t s i z e s ; d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t s ; d i f -f e r e n t s e t b a c k s ; c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s d u e t o e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e w h i c h c a n b e u s e d o n l a r g e r p r o j e c t s a r e u n e c o n o m i c o n s m a l l e r o n e s ; d i f f e r e n t u s e s , m e c h a n i c a l o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d v e h i c u l a r c i r c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e -m e n t s c a n h a v e a p r o f o u n d l y d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t u p o n a p p e a r a n c e a n d m a t e r i a l ; e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s a r e o f v a r i o u s a g e s a n d s t y l e s w i t h , n o c o m m o n e l e m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , i n m a n y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e o n l y e l e m e n t - h e n c e t h e m o s t i m -.116 portant. element - which can be p r a c t i c a l l y used to maximize the v i s u a l continuity of paths i n the landscaping. Such i s the case with the sub-ject portion of Buller Ave. On t h i s portion of street, the major ground cover was grass and the dominant trees were flowering cherries i n various landscape schemes of several e x i s t i n g developments. Cognizant of the r e s i d e n t i a l s i g n i f i -cance of t h i s i n d u s t r i a l s t r e e t , recent designers have capit a l i z e d on these and other domestic features and have incorporated them into t h e i r various landscape schemes. The result has been that most of the newer projects being approved on B u l l e r have f i v e main elements of continuity -grass i s the featured ground cover; the major trees are formally arranged and spaced Akebono Cherries (Prunus yedoensis); the designs are c u r v i l i -near; the designs are such that they provide colour through leaves and/or flowers from A p r i l through November; and most have continuous frontages uninterrupted by driveways due to the fact that back-in manoevering to or from t h i s street i s r e s t r i c t e d by t r a f f i c p olicy, and i n most cases lanes are available. For si m i l a r reasons, current trends indicate grass, rho-dedendrums and azaleas, c u r v i l i n e a r and spring/summer colour on Royal Oak Ave., (Kingsway to Imperial S t . ) ; grass, Broom, assorted v a r i e t i e s of f a l s e cypress on G i l l e y Ave., (Kingsway to Rumble S t . ) ; grass, spring/ summer colour, formal planting of oak trees along MacPherson Avenue (re-cently i n i t i a t e d ) . Therefore continuity i n landscaping along major streets through i n d u s t r i a l areas i n Burnaby i s accomplished at the low l e v e l by the use of at least one common ground cover material i n each development on that street and/or by the continuous flow of landscaping from one project to the next, uninterrupted by driveways; or at the midlevel by the use of 117 some common species or by the use of c o l o u r f u l plant material or some other common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; or at the high l e v e l by the use of formally or informally arranged trees of the same species - which can create a uni-form boulevard or a free flowing e f f e c t . The p a r t i c u l a r devices which are employed along any p a r t i c u l a r street are dependent upon i t s users, i t s function and other non-landscape elements of c o n t i n u i t y which are a v a i l a b l e . S i m i l a r l y i n other types of pathways some d e f i n i t e landscape trends seem to be emerging - newer proposals along S t i l l Creek show i t s banks l i n e d with Weeping Willows ( S a l i x alba t r i s t i s ) ; newer developments adjacent to the freeway, p a r t i c u l a r l y east of Willingdon Ave., are pre-serving where possib l e , the natural vegetation, and where required, sup-plementing i t so that the na t u r a l character of t h i s area i s preserved by screening any adjacent a c t i v i t i e s from the freeway; newer developments, contrary to t r a d i t i o n , are no longer turning t h e i r backs to the railway tracks which w i l l accommodate the proposed l i g h t r a pid t r a n s i t system -instead, designers are now proposing a t t r a c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l facades and ornamental landscaping - featured so f a r are grass, Crimson King Maple and flowering. Cherry. Currently, most of Burnaby's urbanized areas are so small that the co n t i n u i t y provided by facades to paths and to d i s t r i c t s i s v i r t u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . As a r e s u l t , facade c o n t i n u i t y w i l l be discussed under " d i s t r i c t s " . Therefore, i f Burnaby wishes to improve the i d e n t i t y of i t s path-ways, and use them to help c l a r i f y the structure of the community, and make them v i s u a l l y compatible when serving n o n - i n d u s t r i a l t r a f f i c - since the elements of con t i n u i t y are included i n the approved PPA drawings, i t i s c r u c i a l that there be no s u b s t i t u t i o n of the approved species, and 118 where a boulevard tree effect has been started, that the tree locations be accurately followed. EDGES: are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are boundaries between two phases, edges of a particular type of development, penetrable barriers which close one region off from another. These edge elements, although probably not as dominant as paths, are for many people important organizing features, particularly 76 when they outline specific areas. These may include linear parks, a seashore, a river, or a landscape buffer zone. Generally edges are be-yond the scope of PPA i n that, i n Burnaby, they are most often created by natural conditions, a zoning plan, rezoning, or subdivision. An ex-ample of an edge created by subdivision occurs on the north side of Win-ston Street from Lozells Ave., eastwards. This features a planted strip to define the edge of the single-family residential area to the north. Single-family residential developments do not require PPA approval. DISTRICTS: are the relatively large ci t y areas which the observer can mentally recognize and which have some common character. They can be recognized internally and occasionally can be used as external references as a person goes by or toward them. The physical characteristics which distinguish d i s t r i c t s from their surroundings are thematic continuities. These may consist of an endless variety of components: texture, space,' form, detail, symbol, building type, use, activity, inhabitants, degree of maintenance, topography and landscaping. Since 1966 much of Burnaby's thrust has been directed toward the designation and delineation of districts and establishing appropriate development guidelines as described i n the introduction to this subsec-119 tion. The creation of fifteen d i s t r i c t s ; assigning to them a hierarchial ranking; the development of detailed community plans; policies on form, building types and uses; comments on the linkage of outdoor plazas and . pedestrian spaces; and objectives relating to environmental quality are a l l considerations in this thrust. However, although d i s t r i c t develop-ment i s already ten years old, due to the lack of demand for development in these d i s t r i c t s i n the late 1960's and the economic recession of the early 1970's, the actual physical development of most of these d i s t r i c t s i s s t i l l embryonic. The chief exceptions are the Lougheed Mall area and the Central Administration D i s t r i c t . The Lougheed Mall dis t r i c t i s dis-tinguished from i t s surroundings by the grouping of i t s towers, their simi-l a r i t y i n building materials and continuous landscaping across numerous frontages featuring Broom (Cytisus Praecex) along the Lougheed Highway. The impact when eastbound on this highway i s a sense of "thereness" so implicitly i t connotates a sense of place or identity. The developed and proposed projects i n the Central Administrative District are character-ized by the orientation of a l l i t s buildings to the cardinal axis creat-ing a saw-tooth effect along Canada Way. Also, i t s continuous grassed areas are highlighted by random mixtures of a wide variety of deciduous and evergreen trees. This i s creating a semi-natural parklike setting for i t s buildings which are primarily various tones of natural concrete. In smaller developments, particularly i n the commercial cores of dis t r i c t s (can be a node) the thematic continuity i s also dependent upon details such as building materials, colour, scale and landscaping. Ed-monds St. (Humphries Ave. to Canada Way), due to the selection of brown brick facade, one storey i n height, Austrian Pine and Juniper by several developers, i s beginning to read as a unified subcentre. Similarly, on . 120 lower Sixth, although no particular architectural style seems to be domi-nant, the newer developments have specified formally arranged copper Beeches (Fagus syvatica purpurea) on the boulevard - a very spectacular and distinctive tree with copper coloured foliage. I f the planting of this tree i s continued, the area w i l l become quite distinctive and con-trast quite dramatically with the Austrian pines on Edmonds St. and the Yoshino Cherries i n between. Commercial areas similar to these may some-times derive their distinction from coloured awnings (Robson St.), brick sidewalks (Gastown), cedar siding (Kerrisdale), street planters (West 11 Broadway), and a number of other devices. Burnaby i s attempting to develop distinctive d i s t r i c t s . A l l applicants are informed of this, and as a result, when a particular char-acter or sense of place i s heavily dependent on thematic continuities associated with landscaping or building details, the significant elements are always incorporated into the approved PPA drawings. Hence, i n such cases, any diversion from the plant species, tree location, paving de-t a i l s or building details could result i n the omission of the thematic continuity from that particular project. The importance of this consid-eration i s reflected in the Zoning By-law i n Section 2(5) which l i s t s as one of the fundamental purposes of the By-law i s to regulate: within the Corporation of the District of Burnaby, the development and use of land and the location and use of build-ings and structures erected thereon, having due regard to: the character of each zone, the character of the buildings already erected. NODES: are the strategic foci into which the observer can enter, typi-121 c a l l y either junction of paths or concentrations of some characteristic. But although they are conceptually small points in the city image, they may i n reality be large squares, or somewhat extended linear shapes, or even entire central d i s t r i c t s when they are conceived i n a regional con-text. Some examples of nodes are Piazza San Marco i n Venice, Maple Tree Square i n Gastown (Vancouver, B.C.), a major t r a f f i c intersection or a very small shopping enclave. Due to the limited structural development of Burnaby, nodes, paths and some di s t r i c t s are i n many cases, i n d i s t i n -guishable, and the same comments expressed i n paths and districts are applicable to nodes. LANDMARKS: are a type of point-reference, but unlike nodes, are external -the observer does not enter within. They are usually a simply defined ob-ject which i s distinctive from i t s surroundings. They may be a building, a group of buildings, a sign, a tree, a mountain, etc. These are fre-quently used clues . of identity and structure. Architecturally, Burnaby's landmark developments so far are primarily the groups of towers adjacent to the commercial areas of various d i s t r i c t s . In the Central Valley, for example, the towers of the Monticeto and Lougheed Mall districts are par-t i c u l a r l y outstanding against a background of forested h i l l s and mountains. These were both functions of community plans and rezoning. At the smaller scale, landmark considerations are not often incorporated in PPA drawings, primarily because Burnaby i s s t i l l i n the very early stages of redevelop-ment i n most d i s t r i c t s and hence the current emphasis i s more on the dis-tinctiveness of dist r i c t s and not individual buildings or objects. At this level, architectural distinctiveness for landmark purposes can only be achieved i f the building i s different from i t s background of common identifying d i s t r i c t characteristics. 1 2 2 Currently, most d i s t r i c t s do not yet have common identifying characteristics. Only one example could be found where a landmark con-sideration was consciously incorporated i n a PPA for which no rezoning was involved - PPA 3278 (73^2 Kingsway). The site i s located on. the bend of a dogleg in Kingsway which i s intersected by another street -Edmonds St., which w i l l ultimately be a major north-south a r t e r i a l . The designer took advantage of the strategic position of the site and located a Sequoia tree (Sequoiadendron giganteum) on the Kingsway axis from each direction, thus providing a visual terminus for the street from both dir-ections by a tree which can attain a tremendous height and size. The pro-ject has not been constructed. Discussion; It has been pointed out that visual structure and identity can be achieved i n an environment by careful attention to their elements-paths, edges, d i s t r i c t s , nodes and landmarks. It has also been pointed out that the current emphasis in Burnaby i s primarily on paths and dis-t r i c t s . Developments adjacent to paths are qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the reinforcement which they give to the continuity of the path, whereas developments in districts are evaluated on the basis of their contribution to the thematic continuity of the d i s t r i c t . C r i t i c s who oppose such an approach w i l l often support their ar-guments using Jane Jacobs criticism that modern city planning " i s burdened with the unsuitable aim of converting c i t i e s into disciplined works of art" and as a result i s . . . . "trying to create visual order i n c i t i e s 78 by substituting the order of art for a very different order of l i f e " . Others reiterate Lynch's observation that the elimination of a l l sponta-neity can lead to a dull, monotonous, "antiseptic" environment. However, even Jacobs, like Williams, Nairn and Lynch, recognize 123 that'visual order i s essential to an i n t e l l i g i b l e environment. Jacobs notes "Some of our trouble i n comprehending i t (visual order), and much of the unpleasant chaotic effect, comes from the lack.of visual reinforce-ment to underscore the functional order, and worse s t i l l , from unnecessary 80 visual contradictions". Burnaby i s s t i l l i n the infancy.of i t s struc-t u r a l and identity development and s t i l l lacks a strong visual framework. . Hence there are s t i l l insufficient visual reinforcements to.underscore . functional order. . Those, i n support of Burnaby's approach'argue that unstructured . variation i s chaosj therefore policies should be firm and r i g i d u n t i l some semblance of visual order i s detectable and strong enough' to under-score the cohesiveness of the d i s t r i c t , or path., or node, etc. It i s only when this point i s reached that variations from the general, theme can.add excitement, variety and interest, at which time policies can be reviewed. If this point has not been reached, such variances can instead produce a . chaotic.effect and.consequently can destroy whatever continuity or visual order which might, have previously been c r e a t e d . Since Burnaby s t i l l lacks a strong visual framework, i t s various paths, d i s t r i c t s , etc. have insufficient visual reinforcement. Since i t i s too early i n the development of Burnaby for the opposing arguments to be accepted, they must be rejected. On the other hand, the supporting-argument shows the s u i t a b i l i t y of such an approach to Burnaby's current state of development. It i s also noted,that this approach i s not so r i g i d that spontaneity and individual expression are denied - .the elements of continuity are only a small part of the landscape and/or building de-t a i l s , and consequently leave a very wide range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s for uniqueness and individual expression; also once the continuity i s e s t a b -124 lished, policies can change because the cohesiveness i s strong enough so as not to be injuriously affected by variation. As a result, the support-ing argument of continued emphasis on continuity i s accepted. Currently there i s only one way i n which sufficient visual order (enough to lend detectable identity and cohesiveness to a d i s t r i c t , path, etc.) can be achieved. This i s through the contribution to visual rein-forcement which i s provided by each new development. Therefore i t i s im-perative in Burnaby's current stage of development of visual order, iden-t i t y , structure, paths, d i s t r i c t s , etc. that when elements of visual re-inforcement and continuity are reflected i n the PPA drawings, they are f a i t h f u l l y executed. 4.3 MINIMIZING VISUAL POLLUTION The 1960's saw the emergence of campaigns against various forms of environmental pollution. These include water pollution, air pollution, indiscriminate use of pesticides, and visual pollution - the visual clut-ter and ugliness which typifies most North American commercial d i s t r i c t s . Burnaby's Zoning By-law was drafted and adopted during this per-iod and reflects a number of concerns relating to the quality of the visu-a l environment. Since i t s adoption, conditions have changed and the lev-e l of quality expected by the citizenry has slowly risen as confirmed in The Public Meetings Phase One. As a result, policies have changed accord-ingly, resulting i n a number of the newer qualitative inputs which are used by designers and Municipal staff in the determination of the s u i t a b i l i t y of a particular development. As a result PPA's can reflect visual pollu-tion considerations in one or a l l of five areas - (i) suitable screening between incompatible uses; ( i i ) suitable screening of the less pleasant components of distant views, where possible; ( i i i ) suitable 125 design for those lowrise roofs which are visible to highrise viewers; (iv) minimal visual congestion and clutter created by the erection of new signs; (v) the potential neatness or untidiness of the proposal. (i) Separation of Incompatible Uses Landscape devices are often used to visually separate incompatible uses (i.e . those not permitted i n the same zoning d i s t r i c t , or within a certain d i s t r i c t under certain conditions). The Zoning By-law recognizes this and employs such devices in several of i t s provisions, some of which are quoted below: Section 6.15(2)(b) Screening consisting of a solid 8 foot fence or wall, which sha l l be uniformly painted and well maintained and not used for advertising.or display purposes or for the posting of notices, or, a compact ever-green hedge not less than 6 feet i n height, which shall be maintained in good condition at a l l t imes, shall be provided as follows: (B/L #6117-18/12/72) (i) In A, C4 and M Districts, any part of a lot used or intended to be used as an out-side storage area shall be enclosed by screening on any side not facing directly upon the principal building on the lo t , and no material shall be piled to extend above such screening i n A, C4, M1, M 4 or M5 Dis t r i c t s . In the case of M2, M3 or M6 Districts, material may be piled to a maximum height of 12 feet. (B/L #6146-5/9/72) Section 6.15(3)(a) Any parking area, loading area or display yard shall be separated from an adjoining street, or from a directly abutting lot in an A, R or RM District, by a ful l y and suitably landscaped and properly maintained strip of not less than six feet i n width. Section 6.15(3)(t>) Screening of. six feet i n height shall be provided and properly maintained: (i) where the parking or loading area abuts a lot i n an A,. R or RM Dist r i c t , or i s separated therefrom by a street or lane 20. U N S U I T A B L E S C R E E N I N G O F I N C O M P A T I B L E U S E S , 7353, 6TH S T . 21. A N E X A M P L E O F N E G L E C T T O I N S T A L L S U I T A B L E S C R E E N I N G , 6010 T R A P P R D . P L A T E S 2 0 , 2 ! 127 • Section hOk.7 Where a non-residential lot abuts a residen-t i a l lot i n this District or a lot i n an A, R, or RM Dist r i c t , or i s separated by a street or lane therefrom, a side yard shall be provided of not less than 10 feet i n width and such yard shall be fu l l y and suit-ably landscaped and properly maintained. Section 306.2(1) Screening of not.less than k feet i n height shall be provided and properly maintained along any boundary of the lot which abuts a lot in an A, R or RM Di s t r i c t , (of a gaso-line service station). The storage yard i n 6.15(2)(b) might be a gravel storage yard, a building supplies yard, or a steel storage yard, across the street from or abutting a single-family residence. The yards described i n 6.15(3)(b) may be an industrial or commercial parking lot "or loading area which abuts or i s across the street from a single family lot.., Section 306.2(1) de-scribes the minimum treatment between a gasoline service station and a residential l o t . A number of other sections such as 4-04.7(5) require landscape buffering i n those portions of side and rear yards which are not used for other permitted purposes and abut residential l o t s . When these provisions apply, the PPA process ensures that -the fence design i s such that i t does not permit through vision. Alterations such as the spacing of the slats o f an approved solid cedar fence or the substitution with a chain link fence, mean that this i s not realized. Similarly, a proposed evergreen hedge i s checked to ensure that the spe-cies, spacing and size at planting are such that i t w i l l provide a solid visual barrier within a reasonable period of time. Changes on site w i l l mean that the overall objective i s not achieved. This can result i n situations similar to 7333 - 6th St. Burnaby, and 6010 Trapp Rd-. Burnaby. If maximum visual compatibility i s to be assured between residen-t i a l and non-residential uses, the on-site fence design and/or the species, 128 spacing and of the evergreen material should not vary from the approved drawings. ( i i ) Enhancement of Distant Views The typical views, from the residential d i s t r i c t s on the northern side of the Central Valley, just east of Brentwood, are common in many parts of.Burnaby. The foreground and midground consist of a mixture of new and decaying industrial buildings, with acres of unattractive roofs. These are interspersed with a variety of storage yards i n various condi-tions of untidiness, semi-trailer storage and rental yards, site f i l l i n g operations and a number of other a c t i v i t i e s which residents may find vis-ually offensive, but industry finds absolutely necessary. These conditions are shared, or can be potentially shared by r e s i -dents of the south slope (Rumble St. to Marine Dr.) of Burnaby and New Westminster, who overlook the Big Bend industrial area between Marine Dr. and the Fraser River); the residents of the Brentwood area and the new towers rising east of Brentwood which a l l have prime views of the indus-t r i a l areas of the Central Valley from S t i l l Creek Ave. and Norland Ave., to the Lougheed Highway, and from Boundary.Rd. to Sprott St; and the r e s i -dents of Canada Way between Haszard St. and Edmonds St., who see the Win-ston Street industrial development as a background to their panoramic vistas of Burnaby Lake. The 1965 zoning map recognized the potential visual conflict be-tween the residential zones on the north side of the Central Valley and the industrial zones on i t s floor. It shows a strip zoned R approximate-ly 601 wide, extending from Boundary Rd., on the south side of Douglas Rd., to the Lougheed Highway, and then along the south side of the Lougheed Highway to Bainbridge Ave. This was intended as a local land-129 23. A VIEW FROM THE SOUTH SLOPE 2k. A VIEW SHOWING THE DESIRED SCREENING EFFECT IN MID AND BACKGROUND PLATES 22,23,24 130 scaped buffer zone between the two d i s t r i c t s to increase the building set-back as .opposed to completely screening i t from view. Therefore, i n most areas even i f this zone were f u l l y developed, i t would only be of use to residents across the street and serve no useful purpose to residents of the higher slopes. By the mid 1970's most citizens " f e l t that there was need to con-tinually upgrade industrial development standards to provide for a "good 81 neighbour" relationship with surrounding residential areas". This heightened public concern culminated i n a number of new policies adopted by the Municipal Council i n 1974, which affect industry, so that they too are now concerned about minimizing those aspects of their operations which overlooking viewers find usually offensive. One such policy i s "continual efforts should be made by the Municipality to ensure that heavy industrial land uses are committed to improving their compatibility with the surround-82 ing areas". Attempts to improve the visual appearance of industrial op-erations (from overlooking residential neighbourhoods) through architec-tural design or improved housekeeping, have often proven to be uneconomi-cal i n older projects, impractical in new ones, and of questionable con-tribution to the improvement of long distance views of these upland dwell-ers. In view of the limited practical solutions, the high public expecta-tions, and the stated Council policy, screen.belting with trees has emer-ged as the only viable alternative which can practically overcome this particular type of industrial/residential incompatibility - they are cheap to i n s t a l l ; one belt can screen most operations entirely; they are visual-l y attractive; they can be easily used i n conjunction with most new pro-jects, additions, alterations, and major changes of use; they can often effect considerable savings i n the architectural, mechanical and yard de-131 25. NEWLY INSTALLED TREE BELTS, 5923 TRAPP RD. 26. NEWLY INSTALLED SCREEN BELT, LOWLAND DR. P L A T E S 2 5 , 2 6 132 sign for those portions of a development which cannot otherwise be seen; they can serve several other purposes including the required screening around storage yards and general landscaping. In view of these considerations and the large numbers of Burnaby residents who are visually affected by industrial a c t i v i t i e s , tree belt-ing i s encouraged for those PPA's within the industrial areas described earlier (i.e . Central Valley; Big Bend and the Winston St. area near Bur-naby Lake, primarily foot of Lozells Ave., and v i c i n i t y ) . When belts are provided, a check i s f i r s t made to ensure that they are located on those sides of the lot which face the upland residential slopes. Then a check i s made on the species and spacing of the trees to ensure that when they are established they w i l l at least screen one site, but preferably two sites, so that irregularities and omissions w i l l be compensated for. Ef-fective screening i s accomplished by two factors - height and density. The minimum height necessary to achieve the screen varies with the dis-tance from the foot of the slope and the depth of the area to be screened. It i s determined by tracing a straight line between a point 12' above the farthest property line and the highest part .of the affected slope, or h i l l , or building, and then scaling the height of this line above the closest property l i n e . In some areas such as the foot of Lozells Ave., next to Burnaby Lake, the screening height i s only about 30', but in other areas, such as Thorne Ave.,/Meadow Ave., the height i s 60'+ where only one belt i s possible. Therefore, i f species are changed and the growth character-i s t i c s of the substitutions are different, the minimum screening height may not be achieved. Similarly, i f spacing i s increased or a narrow growing species substituted, the desired density may not be achieved and render the screening transparent and ineffective. 133 27. NEWLY INSTALLED SCREEN BELT, 8081 MEADOW AVE. 28. NEWLY INSTALLED SCREEN BELT, 3923 TRAPP RD. PLATES 27,28 134 So far a number of screen belts have been incorporated i n PPA drawings. Some examples are - 4129 Lozells Ave., Winston St. area; 2350 Willingdon Ave., Central Valley; 8081 Meadow Ave., 8235 Wiggins St; and 5923 Trapp Ed. - Big Bend. On the other hand, a number of those belts which were included with the PPA drawings for completed develop-ments, have not been executed, as with PPA 2904 (6010 Trapp Rd.) If the purpose of the screen belts i s to camouflage and hide the existing and potential visually unpleasant aspects of the low lying i n -dustrial d i s t r i c t s from the visual environment of residents of the South Slope, Canada Way area (Haszard St. to Edmonds St.), and Brentwood Town Centre area, by providing a series of rows of overlapping treetops - then this can only be achieved i f - f i r s t l y these belts are constructed; and secondly, that they are correctly located; and thirdly, that the species and spacing are such that the minimum effective screen height and density are achieved. A l l of these items are considered in a l l belts which are approved on the PPA drawings. ( i i i ) Rooftop Design In recent years more and more highrise towers have been built i n Burnaby. This has added a new dimension to the visual comprehension of the built environment - moss-lined pools of water of various depths and sizes; mazes of rusting ductwork, pipes, exhaust vents and mechanical equipment a l l arranged i n a visually disorganized and disturbing clutter-typical conditions which exist on the roofs of many three-storey apart-ment developments and commercial f a c i l i t i e s in Burnaby. The easterly and southerly views from the "Timberlea" highrise apartment condominium dev-elopment near Lougheed Mall, are marred i n this way. Similarly the fore-135 29. UNTREATED ROOFTOP, METROTOWN 30. TREATED ROOFTOP, BURNABY CENTRE PLATES 29f30 136 ground and midground views toward the south from a l l the towers north of Kingsway west of Nelson Avenue, and the easterly views of a l l those tow-ers along Patterson Ave., are unattractive for the same reasons. Whereas tree belts are suitable for screening industrial areas, they are not practical for use i n residential and commercial areas - they block the sun and the view in residential areas, and they can reduce ad-vertising exposure in commercial areas. Therefore the visual appearance of of new lowrise roofs i n residential and commercial areas can only be im-proved by visual improvement of the design of the roof i t s e l f . As a consequence, in the PPA process the following considerations are given to f l a t roof projects proposed near highrise areas. The mech-anical equipment and devices are organized i n a visually attractive way and when necessary, screened on the sides and top. When recreational uses (such as badminton courts, miniature golf, grass croquet courses, shuffleboard or a landscaped area for sunning, hobby gardening, or relax-ation are not provided, treatment of the roof gravel i s featured i n the drawings. This treatment consists basically of creating interesting patterns through contrasting colours or varying the size of the gravel, as has been employed in PPA 3984 (4403, 4451 North Rd.), and PPA 4097 (9920, 9950 Lougheed Hwy.) Both of these projects are near existing and proposed highrise towers in the Lougheed Mall area. Burnaby Centre 4211 Kingsway, on the other hand, provides an example of a landscape treatment on i t s lower roofs which complement the foreground views of the neighbouring towers. If Burnaby i s to start improving the quality of the roofscapes of i t s new lowrise f l a t roof buildings near or i n highrise d i s t r i c t s , and hence raise the level of amenity in the visual environment of many of 137 i t s highrise dwellers and office workers - then i t i s important that the mechanical equipment and devices be suitably located and screened, and that any PPA commitment to roof landscaping or specialized gravel treat-ment be honoured on s i t e . (iv) Sign Control The Burnaby Sign Control By-law 1972 was i n response to the visu-a l pollution of the Burnaby streetscape. This visual chaos can be attrib-uted to several factors - the supporting devices, the number of signs, the relationships between signs, and the relationships between the signs and buildings or structures to. which they are attached or associated. The Sign By-law deals primarily with the number, size, location (by prohibition) and type of signs which are permitted i n each zoning d i s t r i c t . Billboards, flashing and revolving signs, any signs not speci-f i c a l l y permitted i n a zoning d i s t r i c t , and any exposed lateral or over-head structures are banned. A l l signs must front on to a street - i . e . for a fascia - parallel to the street, for a freestanding - perpendicular to the street. No signs may be orientated to interior property lines (except multi-tenant comprehensive development). A l l sign applications require PPA. Whereas the By-law does deal with a number of technical standards, i t does not deal with the relationship between signs, and the relation-ship between the signs and the building to which they are attached or 83 adjacent. When these visual relationships are unpleasant., they can usu-a l l y be traced back to one of two causes. One i s that many of the older buildings have no provision for signs i n the design of their facades. As a result, numerous fascia, projecting and canopy signs have been crammed haphazardly into the available wall space surrounding the display win-SIGN CLUTTER, KINGSWAY/A/ILLINGDON AVE. 139 dows, a l l vying for exposure - producing an array of signs which are neither complimentary to each other nor to the building to which they are attached, as i s the case at 44-29, 4469 Kingsway. The second physical cause of sign related visual chaos stems from the historical relationships between freestanding and/or roof signs -each trying to be seen from a long distance and trying to be more out- . standing and eye-catching than i t s neighbours - some located above their neighbours, some below, some to the l e f t of, some to the right of, and some in front of. Whereas the Sign By-law can control the maximum height of these signs, i t cannot control the relationships between them other than the stipulation that freestanding signs on adjacent sites must be at least 10* apart. In view of the i n a b i l i t y of the Sign By-law to deal effectively with sign relationships with buildings and each other, the PPA process has assumed authority by virtue of the: Sign By-law Section 2 - "Sign" means any structure  Zoning By-law Section 3 - "Development" shall include construction, additions or alterations of any building or structure. Zoning By-law Section 7-3(1) Any person wishing to undertake a develop-ment shal l apply for and receive prelim-inary plan approval. and processes potential fascia and freestanding sign locations as an i n -tegral part of the development of the proposed s i t e . Fascia signs are usually provided for on a blank strip between the building fascia .and the display windows, or in a reserved area of the, window glazing assembly, or i n a designated area elsewhere in the facade. Sometimes in l i e u of fascia signs, vinyl or canvas awnings which w i l l receive painted signs are shown. Designated freestanding locations are selected so that they afford maxi-140 mum exposure and readability, and yet minimize visual competition between signs. In the case of newer buildings, the sign locations are approved as part of the building PPA under the Zoning By-law, the signs themselves are approved under the Sign By-law under a separate PPA when the building i s nearing or at completion. If Burnaby wishes to prevent the creation of new developments whose signs are neither complimentary to the buildings, i t s neighbours, or each other, thus contributing to visual chaos in the environment -then there should be no unauthorized changes to any sign band provisions in the window assembly or elsewhere on the facade as i s currently the problem with' PPA 3820 (4-736 Imperial St.); or relocation of trees or walkways, or substitution of plant or paving material i n the proximity of a freestanding sign location. (v) Neatness or Tidiness The visual appearance of the Central Valley; the results of the 1976 NIP survey which indicated local concern for the untidiness of sev-eral businesses i n the area; and the general concerns expressed and p o l i -cies adopted by Council i n 1974 i n The Public Meetings Phase One concern-ing compatibility between industrial and residential d i s t r i c t s - a l l attest to the fact that untidiness i n non-residential di s t r i c t s s t i l l 84, 85 o c c urs in.Burnab y. Section. 6.15(i) of the Zoning By-law states that landscaped areas must be f u l l y and suitably landscaped". One of the measures of suitabi-l i t y i s the likelihood of the yards remaining neat and tidy. Untidiness i n landscaped areas can originate i n a number of ways - vandalism, as a result of improperly staked or undersized trees; accidental pedestrian 141 abuse - resulting from the omission of barriers and unsuitable plant spacing; accidental vehicular damage - due to omission or size reduction of planter trim ( i . e . concrete and wood curbing), thereby making the trim and planting vulnerable to vehicular damage; unsuitable screening between uses - occurs when fencing and/or planting species/spacing are inadequate; lack of maintenance - allows the proliferation of weeds and uncontrolled ragged plant growth; unsightly pruning - due to proximity to overhead service lines, species characteristics, interference with commercial displays, etc; and numerous other items as described i n Chap-ter 3-. The propensity for neatness i n landscaping i s a characteristic which i s reflected i n the Zoning By-law and i n several Municipal policies, and as a result i n every landscape plan approved under PPA. Therefore since neatness i s very much dependent on the execution of very small de-tails,, one way of guaranteeing that a new project w i l l be neat i s through compliance with the approved drawings. kA SUMMARY The major findings of Chapter k are as follows: (1) There i s a direct relationship between compliance and the short term achievement of the various objectives. For example, demonstration projects are dependent upon compliance i n 8 of the 9 categories. The thematic continuity of d i s t r i c t s i s dependent i n 4, whereas privacy i s dependent i n S, Eight of the 12 objectives are dependent i n 4 or more categories. Those areas where compliance i s necessary for the short term . achievement of each objective, (i.e. non-compliance i n any one can result in the non-achievement of each objective), are indicated with dots i n the 142 columns of the chart on the next page. (2) The findings also demonstrate that one seemingly minor change in any of the main compliance areas can have short term adverse effects on many objectives. For example, a substitution of the species of a tree can adversely affect the achievement of 11 of the 12 objectives. Changes to fencing can affect 8. These findings are summarized on the chart on the next page. Reading across on the rows, the dots indicate which ob-jectives are adversely affected by a specific deviation from the PPA drawings. (3) Numerically the. general public i s chief beneficiary when the qual-it a t i v e objectives are achieved - 3 benefit the municipality (M), 8 the general public (P), 1 the developers (D). The last four columns of the chart indicate the number of objectives benefiting each of 4 groups. The bracketed suffixes i n the objective t i t l e boxes indicate the direct bene-f i c i a r y of the achievement of each objective. (4) A l l of the qualitative objectives, with the exception of publicly funded demonstration projects, are entirely reliant upon PPA compliance for their short and long range accomplishment. There are no other devices or statutes under which the objectives can be achieved on private property independently of PPA. (5) The advantages offered by the achievement of the qualitative ob-jective are general i n nature - a more attractive and livable environment. No special advantages or disadvantages were found. QUALITATIVE OBJECTIVES BENEFICIARIES Substitution of Plant Species • • • • • • • • 11 3 7 1 Relocation or Change of Spacing of Plant Material • • • • • • • • • • 10 3 7 Changes to Grades, Contours, Earthworks • • • • 3 5 Changes to curbs • • • 3 3 Changes to Rocks, Ballard's, Special Paving, Fences & other Inert Devices • • • • • • • • 8 1 7 Changes to Parking S t a l l Delineation 0 Changes to size of Shrubs and Trees at Planting • • • • 3 1 Changes to Staking/Root Requirements • • • 3 2 1 Changes to Building Details and Finishes • • • • • 5 2 2 1 # OF AREAS OF COMPLIANCE UPON WHICH EACH OBJECTIVE IS DEPENDENT 8 5 5 2 2 2 3 5 144 -"I C.M.Deasey, Design for Human Affairs (New York: Halsted Press Division, John Wiley & Sons, 1974). ~ 2 Landscape Architecture Magazine. Vol. ^Item #19, Manager's Report No. 77, Burnaby Council Meeting Nov. 29, 1.976, p.168. 4 Deasey, Design, p.5-5 I b i d , p.42. ^Gary J. Coates and Kenneth M. Moffett, Response to Environment (Raleigh, N.C.: School of Design, North Carolina State University, 1969), P.80. 7 Deasey, Design, p.26. 1959). 8 Alexander Leighton, My Name i s Legion (New York: Basic Books, ^Coates, Response, p.38. 10 Deasey, Design, p.4. 11 Wolfgang Preiser, Environmental Design Perspectives (Christianburg, Va: Christianburg Printing Co., Inc., 1972), p.108. 12 Ibid, p.112. 13 Deasey, Design. 14 Edward T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (New York: Doubleday and Co., 1966). 15 Robert Sommer, Personal Space - The Behavioral Basis of Design (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall). 16 Alexander, Ishikawa and Silverstein, A Pattern Language which. Generates Multi-Service Centers (Berkeley, Cal: Center for Environmental Structures, 1968)'. 17 Robert Gutman, People and Buildings (New York: Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, 1972). 18 Stanley Milgram and Hans Loch, Handbook of Social Psychology (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing). 19 Oscar Newman, Defensible Space (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972). 20 Oscar Newman, Design Guidelines for Defensible Space (Washington, D.C: U.S.Government Printing Office, 1976). 145 21 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Lif e of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 22 Hall, Dimension. 2"5 .Sommer, Personal Space. 24 Alexander, Pattern Language. 2 5 I b i d , p.139. 2 6 I b i d , p.173. ^Barbara Linsay,. Methods of Studying the Effects of the Surround- ings on Outdoor Activities i n Urban Public Places (University of Bri t i s h Columbia - unpublished thesis, 1973)• Newman, Design, p.17. 2^Ibid_, p . v i i . ^ P l b i d , p . v i i . 3 1 I b i d , p.4. ^ 2 I b i d , p.109. 33 Jacobs, Death. •^Item #195 Manager's Report, p . l68« ^ C e n t r a l Mortgage- and Housing Corporation, Site Planning C r i -t e r i a for Housing on Small Lots i n Comprehensively Planned Developments (An Amendment to the Site Planning H a n d b o o k ) . . ^^Walkey/Olsen Architect, Privacy in Compact Housing - Territory  and Individual Control (Vancouver, B.C: Greater Vancouver Regional Dis-t r i c t Planning Department, 1976). -^Robert Wehrli, Open-ended Problem Solving i n Design (Utah: Department of Psychology, University of Utah, 1968). Robert Barker, Ecological Psychology (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1968). Constance Perin, With Man i n Mind (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970). Proshansky, Ittelson, Rivlin, Environmental Psychology (New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970)'. 20 Sommer, Personal Space, p .4 l . 146 2 % j p = Neighbourhood Improvement Program. R'.R".A*.P. = Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program. ^ K e v i n Lynch, Image of the City (Cambridge. Mass.: MIT Press, i960), p.6. ^ I b i d , p.7. ^ 2 I b i d , p.10. '^Lawrence Haprin, Cities (New York: Reinhold, Publishing Corporation, 1962), P»7. 44 Lynch, Image. ^Gordon Cullen, Townscape (London: The Architectural Press,, 1961). ^ l a n Nairn, The American Landscape (New York: Random House, 1965) p.5. ^Richard P. Dober, Environmental Design (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Publishing Company, 1969), p.175. ^Lynch, Image, p.8. ^Na i r n , Landscape, p.20. . 5 0Jacobs, Death, p.375. 5 1 I b i d , p.373. 5 2 I b i d , p.376. 5 5 I b i d , p.376. 5^p. Halprin, C i t i e s . 55Nairn, Landscape, p.16. . 56i 1y n ch 1 Image. 5 7 I b i d . 5 8 I b i d . 5 9 I b i d , p.47# 6°Ibid, p.50-61. ^Burnaby Planning Department, Public Meetings Phase One, 197 ,^ 62 , „ .Ibid, p.47. p.1 147 ^Burnaby Planning Department, Apartment Study 1969, P«i« 6**Ibid, p.19. Ibid, p . i . cc Ibid, p.19. ^Burnaby Planning Department, Community Plans, consolidated for convenience and containing revisions and additions up to and includ-ing Dec. 6, 1976. 68 Burnaby Planning Department and Garry Sixta, Urban Structure, 1971, p.24. 6 9 I b i d , p.24. ^ I b i d , p.26. 71 Planning Dept., Meetings, p .1 . 72 Ibid, p.24. 73 Ibid, p.33» 74 Lynch, Image, p.47. 75 Planning Dept., Meetings, p.29. 76 Lynch, Image, p.47. 77 A l l Locations i n Vancouver, B.C. 78 Jacobs, Death, p.375. 79 Lynch, Image. 80 Jacobs, Death, p.375. 81 Public Meetings, p.29. 8. 2Ib_d J L p.33. 0-2 --'Exception: relationship can be controlled under a Comprehen-sive Sign Plan. 84 M Manager's Report, p.173. 85 Public Meetings, p.29. .Chapter 5 FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES Chapter 5 FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES 5.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter examines i f non-compliance with PPA adversely aff-ects the achievement of each FINANCIAL objective. The main thrust i s toward: (i) the isolation of those details which,...if changed, can be responsible for the non-achievement of each objective; ( i i ) establishing the importance of the PPA process to the accomp-lishment of each objective within the community ( i i i ) identifying some of the advantages of compliance. Three objectives are discussed - minimizing costs or maximizing savings to the Municipality, B.C.Hydro and developers. 5.1 THE MUNICIPALITY The Municipality can derive financial advantages in a number of ways i f there i s compliance to the approved PPA drawings. Some are dis-cussed below. The selection of items discussed was determined by the ava i l a b i l i t y of data. They are - (i) the clearance of leaf clogged storm drains, ( i i ) the maintenance of boulevard trees, ( i i i ) the maintenance of ditches, (iv) sidewalk replacement, (v) boulevard tree installation, ( v i i ) the construction of f u l l standard roads, ( v i i i ) l i a b i l i t y . 149 .150 5.1 (i) The Clearance of Leaf Clogged Storm Drains The General Superintendent of Operations in the Burnaby Engineer-ing Department estimates that Burnaby spends approximately $6,000 per 14-year simply to free leaf clogged storm drains. This figure plus annual infl a t i o n cannot, be reduced by the PPA process; but since those species whose leaves are notorious for clogging drains (see 5.1(vi) ) are not approved on or near boulevards, i f the conditions of the PPA drawings are observed, then this figure w i l l not be increased as a result of any new development i n those zoning dis t r i c t s where a PPA i s required. 5.1 ( i i ) Boulevard Trees The maintenance of boulevard trees i s something for which the Bur-naby Department of Parks and Recreation currently spends an estimated 1 2 $6,000 per year. By comparison, the City of Vancouver spent $34-2,000 i n 19?6 on i t s boulevard tree maintenance program. It has been estimated that i f a l l of Burnaby had boulevard trees the maintenance costs would be 3 5 $400,000 - $500,000 per year. ' As can be seen, an extensive boulevard tree program can be very expensive to maintain, therefore - as a substan-t i a l area of Burnaby i s zoned industrial; and as there seems to be no strong aesthetic or practical reasons why trees should be located on i n -dustrial boulevards; and i n view of the fact that each tree on the boulevard 4 may cost the municipality $2.50 - $6.00 per year to maintain - trees on the boulevard are not included i n any PPA drawings approved for indust-r i a l d i s t r i c t s . Hence, i f there are variations from the approved draw-ings whereby trees are planted on the boulevard, or certain "dirty" species are located closer to the boulevard than approved, or a clean species close to the property line or substituted with a dirty one, or as 151-otherwise outlined in 3-1(vi) and (vii ) and 3»5(v) i t may result in a cost to the municipality of $2.50 to $6.00 per year for each of these variations. 5.1 ( i i i ) Sidewalks Sidewalk replacement i n Burnaby as a result of damage from tree roots i s currently costing the municipality an estimated $2,000 per yea?. This factor i s considered i n the review of the location and species of trees. There are certain trees such as Lombardy Poplar (populus nigra) which l i f t and/or destroy almost any type of paved surface which i s near i t . Therefore, such relationships are avoided in the approved drawings. 5.1 (iv) Boulevard Tree Programs \ When a "boulevard" tree, i.e. a tree contributing to a boulevard tree effect, i s planted as an integral part of a private landscape scheme on private property, for reasons explained i n 3-2 i t can be supplied and installed at a cost of $25 - $100 which i s an inseparable part of the overall cost of the landscape project. I f the municipality contracted to have the equivalent tree of the necessary diameter planted on a grass 10 boulevard, supply and installation can cost up to $250 - $300 per tree. This same 2)4" diameter tree planted on a boulevard i n a concrete sidewalk situation such as Edmonds St. (Kingsway to Canada Way) can cost up to $600 (supply, installation, bracing) and up to $1,000 per tree i f metal grating i s required (Granville Mall had bigger trees and grating, costs 11 were $1,200 per tree ). "Boulevard" trees are often included i n the PPA drawings i n certair areas, therefore any need for a tree planting program on the adjacent boulevard i s eliminated. Since omission, substitution of species and re-152 location of the trees can jeopordize the boulevard tree effect, these variations from the approved PPA drawings can result i n an independent tree planting program being required for the boulevard. Therefore, i n such PPA's, compliance potentially represents a direct saving of $250 -$600 to the municipality or an indirect saving of $150 - $575 to the owner (depending upon the financial arrangements) for every "boulevard" tree which i s placed on private.property instead of on the boulevard. 5.1 (v) F u l l Standard Poad Construction The encouragement of neat, well maintained boulevards and land-scape such as outlined i n 3«4 and 4.1(iv) can indirectly lead to less pressure to develop interim roads to f u l l standard. This i s particularly important i n recent times when there seems to be voter resistance to authorizing the borrowing of large amounts of money to undertake capital . improvements. Therefore when landscaping i s shown on the boulevards, special attention i s paid to the finishing details on the boulevards, such as i n -clusion of temporary 3" x 8" wood curbing, etc. so that the area i n ques-tion w i l l look neat i n i t i a l l y and i n future. This w i l l give the owners less incentive to petition for the upgrading of their roadway to f u l l standard. 5.1 (vi) Law Suits The municipality i s liable for any injury to person or property caused by trees, or landscaping on municipal property or i t s highways i f negligence can be demonstrated on the part of the municipality. The City of Victoria, B.C. was reminded of this fact in 1969 when one of i t s maple trees i n a city parking lot behind Crystal Pool dripped sap on a 153 car and destroyed the paintwork. The city was required to pay f u l l res-13 titution for a new paint job. Hence species and location variations from approved landscape schemes may i n fact sometimes place the c i t y in a position of l i a b i l i t y . This consideration i s especially important i n view of comments made in 3«5(v). 5.2 B.C.HYDRO B.C.Hydro currently spends from $500,000 to as much as $1,000,000 per year in Greater Vancouver to trim trees and branches which threaten the safety of i t s overhead el e c t r i c a l distribution l i n e s . Section 3-5(i) explains that trees are located on the PPA drawings such that they w i l l not conflict with these overhead lines. Therefore, i f there i s compli-ance, there w i l l be no new costs incurred by B.C.Hydro as a result of new landscaping on projects in Burnaby. 5.3 THE DEVELOPER There are a number of financial implications for developers/owners whose projects are constructed in compliance with approved PPA drawings. These occur i n several areas - (i) vandalism, ( i i ) potential savings, ( i i i ) construction costs, (iv) competitive advantage, (v) investment pro-tection. 5.3 (i) Vandalism Vandalism damage to windows with stones i n the Edmonds St./Kings-way area of Burnaby i s estimated to be $12,000 - $13,000 for 1976.15 No new projects i n or adjacent to such areas which have extensive glazed frontages are approved with potential missiles i n their landscaping.(i.e. gravel i s not used, river rocks are cemented in place). Therefore com-154 pliance i n this regard w i l l minimize the potential sources of missiles in an area and may help to protect the windows from vandalism. A low incidence of damage may help to minimize insurance costs and maximise tenant satisfaction. 5.3 ( i i ) Potential Savings (a) If the maintenance considerations i n the approved plans are executed on site, savings can sometimes accrue to the developer: Example - PPA 3781 Project - major change of use/interior changes Original construction date - 1970 - 71 Condition of original landscaping - completely destroyed by neglect and/or abuse - original plan unsuitable. Landscape requirements of PPA 3781 - a l l planters to be relandscaped. Estimated cost - $1,500 - $2,000. Financial implications - the long term lease agreement was re-negotiated to a lower rate per square foot. Tenant agreed to pay for landscaping and maintain i t . (b) If there i s a firm guarantee that compliance with the approved land-scape plan w i l l be achieved on site, i n certain circumstances consider-able advantages can accrue to the developer: Example - PPA 3745A Project - amendment to facade and landscape planting of PPA 3745 Problem - actual site levels were different from those upon which the original design was based. The appearance of one facade would no longer equal the quality of the original approved 155 facade, he-nce i t could not be approved. An architectural solution would have resulted i n the loss of 4 to 8 parking spaces which translates to a loss of 2,000 to 4,000 sq. f t . of office/commercial space or $10,000 - $20,000 per year in rent, or a reduction of 20 - 40 patrons i n the restaurant capacity. At this point the working drawings had been com-pleted, and any major changes would have resulted i n con-siderable costs because some of the e l e c t r i c a l , mechanical, structural, plumbing, etc. drawings would also have had to be changed. Solution- 5 Lombardy poplar trees to be installed at 25' - 30' high and a cedar hedge installed at 8' high. The architect felt that i n this way the original scale and quality could be equalled. Financial Implications - developer could make additional profits from 2,000 - 4,000 sq. f t . of commercial/office space or from 20 - 40 extra restaurant patrons. - considerable savings on revised working drawing costs. - project could start 1 - 3 weeks earlier because of time saved by avoiding drawing revisions and the Municipal staff time saved i n the review of substantially revised drawings; time i s very important to a $1,000,000 project such as this. - additional landscape costs approximately $3,000. Example #2 - PPA 3859 Project - new building 156 Problem - external finish of considerably lower standard than those of adjacent developments. Solution -U t i l i z e existing large trees i n the landscape plan. Financial Implications -- the additional cost for f i n i s h treatments for architectural solution, which ignores landscaping for this 100,000 sq.ft. building, was estimated to be $168,000. - the additional cost for f i n i s h treatments for a solution which relies on the retention of large existing trees was estimated to be $12,600. When compliance to details (such as the installation of certain sizes and species of trees and the retention of existing trees) cannot be assured, landscape related solutions are less apt to be acceptable. Since the landscaping and the building are approved as one package, changes to landscape details can have a tremendous impact on the quality of the overall development, often resulting in a project which i s consid-erably different from what was originally approved. Therefore, i n areas where detailed compliance i s not commonly achieved, the character s u i t a b i l i t y of projects can only be evaluated on the basis of the architecture of the building, thereby increasing the possibility of less profitable solutions. ( i i i ) Can Compliance Increase Construction Costs? The r e a l i s t i c answer i s NO - because the minimum cost of a project can only be computed on the basis of those costs necessary to execute a l l of the commitments shown on the PPA drawings. Therefore since there can be no lower figure, there can be no increase in construction costs. 157 Many developers/owners are only concerned about the gross costs per square foot of building. They are not concerned with the details. Therefore, the estimated construction cost i s often the basis for how much he i s willing to pay for land and other cost items associated with the development. Often i n smaller projects insufficient funds are pro-vided i n the overall estimate for landscaping. This i s sometimes due to improper examination of the drawings, or an estimate based on what land-scaping naterial the contractor intends to use, regardless of what i s specified on the drawings. Since landscaping i s generally done towards the end of a project, i t i s apt to be required when the building funds are exhausted. Therefore i f compliance i s then required, additional funds w i l l have to be acquired and the contractor and the owner may attribute increased costs to the mandatory compliance rather than to original e s t i -mate being too low. They may erronesously conclude that YES, compliance does increase costs. However, once i t becomes well known that PPA commit-ments cannot be a r b i t r a r i l y changed and substituted, i t can have the bene-f i c i a l effect of encouraging contractors to provide r e a l i s t i c cost e s t i -mates. These should more accurately reflect the actual costs of executing the work in accordance with the approved PPA drawings. Compliance with the PPA drawings w i l l not increase construction costs. Rather, i t i s l i k e l y to benefit the owners/developers of smaller developments because they are more apt to receive r e a l i s t i c cost estimates. 5.3 (iv) Unfair Competition Advantage Compliance with approved PPA drawings can be fairer to develop-ers. I f a considerable saving i s effected by a developer who constructs his landscaping and building finish to a lower standard than the minimum 158 level of quality for the area, then this i s very unfair to the law abiding developer who has executed his project i n accordance with his drawings. This places the law abiding developer at an unfair financial disadvantage because i f a l l other things were equal, his gross costs per square foot are higher. Therefore he cannot charge as low a rent and break even i n a depressed market situation, and he cannot make as much profit per square foot i n a buoyant market situation. Since the same planning c r i t e r i a ap-ply to a l l similar developments in similar circumstances, any competitive advantage should be derived from skillfulness i n negotations, efficiency in construction and the talent of the designer - not from reneiging oh PPA commitments and substituting a level of quality which i s lower than the minimum standard for the area. Hence i f a l l projects complied with their approved PPA drawings, these inequities w i l l no longer occur i n newer projects and would gradually be eliminated i n older ones. 5»3 (v) Investment Protection Compliance can guarantee to the owner that the contractor w i l l complete the project i n accordance with the quality of the PPA drawings and Building Permit drawings upon which the original contract price was based. It can prevent subtle building finish or landscape changes which might re-sult i n high maintenance or replacement costs for the owner. Just as health inspection of the sanitary f a c i l i t i e s and fi r e inspection of vari-ous safety devices ensure a minimum level of quality of installation, so w i l l compliance guarantee a minimum level of landscape and building f i n -ish quality i n each development. If a certain quality can be guaranteed in a l l new projects, then the owner i s guaranteed that his investment w i l l be protected i n the re-159 spect that any new neighbouring developments w i l l also achieve this mini-mum level of quality. 5.4 SUMMARY The major findings of Chapter 5 are as follows: (1) Potential financial savings for the Municipality, B.C. Hydro and developers can be adversely affected by non-compliance. For example, minimizing construction costs i s dependent in 3 areas of compliance, where-, as minimizing boulevard tree maintenance i s dependent i n 2. Eight of the 9 objectives are dependent in 2 or more categories. The following chart summarizes the direct relationship between non-compliance and the non-achievement of each objective. It further illustrates the adverse impact that one seemingly minor change to an approved PPA landscaping.or building detail can have on the short term achievement of many objectives. For ex-ample, a change in species can affect 8 of the 9 objectives. The chart also provides a summary of the beneficiaries of the achievement of each objective. In this chapter the Municipality i s favoured in 6, the dev-elopers in 2 and B.C. Hydro i n 1. (2) Minimizing costs i n the long term in the areas discussed, i s en-t i r e l y dependent upon PPA compliance for realization. Whereas dev-' elopers may be able to make alternative savings i n construction projects, a neighbourhood record of landscape compliance i s the only way one can presently effect savings such as those described in 5 «3(ii)(b) example #2. (3) Compliance offers a number of advantages: - i t can eliminate unfair competitive advantage in newer projects and gradually reduce i t i n older ones. - the developer i s guaranteed that the quality of his, development w i l l 160 FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES BENEFICIARIES Substitution of Plant Species • • • I • f • • 8 6 1 1 Relocation or Change of Spacing of Plant Material • • • • • • 8 6 1 1 Changes to Grades, Contours, Earthworks i 1 ••• ."'.>' Changes to curbs j i j i • 1 1 Changes to Rocks, Ballards, Special Paving, Fences & other Inert Devices i • 1 2 1 1 Changes to Parking S t a l l Delineation ! t i Changes to size of Shrubs and Trees at Planting * • 1 1 Changes to Staking/Root Requirements Changes to Building Details and Finishes # OF AREAS OF COMPLIANCE UPON WHICH EACH OBJECTIVE IS DEPENDENT 2 2 2 • 2 4 2 2 1 3 161 at least meet the minimum level of quality for the area in which i t i s located. - the developer i s guaranteed protection of his investment because neighbouring new projects cannot construct below the minimum level of quality and adversely affect the market value of his development. (4) No disadvantages were found. 1 This figure was calculated from estimates supplied by Tom Biss-ett (Burnaby Parks and Recreation Department) combined with independent information obtained by the author. 2 City of Vancouver 1976 Parks and Recreation budget. ^Current Burnaby maintenance costs = $6,000 for 5 miles. Total length of roads i n Burnaby = 380 miles, .*. costs for 380 miles -=$436,000. ^Vancouver maintenance costs = $342,000 - f - 140,000 trees = $2.44 per tree. Burnaby's costs - $6,000 -r- $6.00 per tree. •5 Maintenance costs vary over time. For the f i r s t 3 years costs per tree are very high. Some trees require frequent pruning and spraying, others do not. Older trees generally require less maintenance, therefore as the average age of the stock increases, the unit costs decrease. /< 0Burnaby Engineering Department estimates for 1976. 7Estimated by the General Superintendent of Operations, Burnaby Engineering Department. Q This figure varies drastically from year to year. It depends on the annual growth of the vegetation - some years there i s much growth, other years growth i s minimal. ^Retail value of the tree multiplied by two. 10 Estimate given i s per unit cost of supply and installation of 30-100 London Plane (Platinus acerfolia) trees. Johnsen Landscaping Ltd., Burnaby = $160 - 200. Holland Lan.dscapers Ltd., Burnaby = $300 - 330. Burnaby Department of Parks and Recreation indicated that, the $200 - 300 range does not usually include the best specimens or s o i l mixture and gen-erally there i s a higher i n i t i a l loss or future setback. They consider the $300 - 350 range to be a superior quality installation, and recommend i t . 11 Holland Landscapers Ltd., - @ 50 - 100, 2j£" diameter London Plane trees, costs per unit supply = $150 - 170, hole, s o i l , installations $450, grates (supply and installation) = $350. 162 12 Figure supplied by John P h i l l i p s , Holland Landscapers Ltd., which held the landscape contract for Granville Mall, Vancouver. 13 This information, supplied by Miki Baransky-Job - Burnaby Parks Department, could not be confirmed prior to the completion of thi study. • 14 Figure estimated by the Burnaby Superintendent of Operations 15 Sixty-seven incidents of damage varying from $50 - k00. Est mated average $150 - 200.. Chapter 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS C h a p t e r 6 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 6.1 S U M M A R Y A r e v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. T h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e v a r i o u s c h a p t e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o w t h a t t h e s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h o b j e c t i v e i s d i r e c t l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s u c c e s s o f a " d e m o n s t r a t i o n " p r o j e c t i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e i n 8 o f t h e 9 a r e a s o f c o m p l i a n c e . S i m i l a r l y , v i s i o n c l e a r -a n c e a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s i s d e p e n d e n t i n 5 , w h e r e a s m i n i m i z i n g d a m a g e t o p l a n t s t h r o u g h p e d e s t r i a n a b u s e i s d e p e n d e n t i n 4. O v e r a l l , 20 o b j e c t -i v e s a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o m p l i a n c e i n 3 o r m o r e c a t e g o r i e s , a n d 38 a r e d e p e n d e n t i n 2 o r m o r e a r e a s . N o n - c o m p l i a n c e i n a n y o n e o f t h e d e p e n d e n t c a t e g o r i e s c a n r e s u l t i n t h e n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e . T h e s e v a r i o u s d e p e n d e n c i e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d o n t h e c h a r t o n t h e n e x t p a g e . T h i s c h a r t i s a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e c h a r t s f o u n d a t t h e e n d o f e a c h c h a p t e r . T h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e c o l u m n s . T h e a r e a s o f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e a r e l i s t e d o n t h e r o w s . T h e d o t s u n d e r e a c h o b j e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t t h o s e a r e a s w h e r e c o m p l i a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s h o r t t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o b -j e c t i v e . 2. T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t o n e s e e m i n g l y m i n o r c h a n g e i n a n y o f t h e n i n e c o m p l i a n c e a r e a s c a n h a v e s h o r t t e r m a d v e r s e r e p e r c u s s i o n s o n a l a r g e n u m b e r o f o b j e c t i v e s . S o m e e x a m p l e s a r e a s f o l l o w s : t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a T h u j a p l i c a t a f o r a T h u j a o c c i d e n t a l i s m g ^ . 166 pyramidalis compacta can result in the non-achievement of 39 objectives; a change i n the location of a tree or shrub can adversely affect as many as 35; variations i n contours 10; the omission of a curb can also affect 10; a fence omission can result in the non-achievement of 16; and the substitution of a smaller plant can be detrimental to the achievement of 11. Similarily, the combined effect of non-compliance i n several areas, such as species substitution and the omission of curbing and fen-cing can result i n the non-achievement of 46 of the 48 objectives dis-cussed. A summary of these findings i s shown on the chart on the previ-ous page. The areas of non-compliance are listed on the rows. The dots indicate which objectives w i l l not be achieved for each of these areas of non-compliance. The total number affected by each area of non-compliance i s shown i n the 5th column from the right side of the chart. It has been observed that when one change adversely affects the achieve-ment of a large number of objectives, these objectives are generally those of several different groups rather than one particular group. For example: of the 39 objectives affected by species.substitution, the achievement of 2 would benefit B.C.Hydro, 17 the Municipality, 20 the general public, and 14 the developers; of the 10 affected by change to curbs, 5 benefit the general public, 2 the developers, and 6 the Munici-p a l i t y . There are 35 which can be adversely affected by the relocation of plant material, these include 14 benefiting the Municipality, 16 the general public and 8 the developers; and a change to a building detail can affect 5 objectives, those include 2 i n favour of the general public, 2 the Municipality and 1 the developer. A summary of the number of ob-jectives directly benefiting B.C.Hydro, the Municipality, the general 167 public., and the developers, which are not achieved when there i s non-compliance i n each of the nine areas, i s provided i n the last four col-umns of the chart on page 165. The bracketed suffixes i n the column headings represent the direct beneficiary of the achievement of each ob-jective (M = Municipality, P = general public, D = developer, B.C. = B.C.Hydro. The numbers on the chart are not significant for comparing the amount of benefit each group derives from compliancej or loses through non-compliance. They do, however, show that i n each case except one, compliance can be mutually beneficial (or vice-versa) for the three main groups (M, P, D). The study shows that 38 of the 48 objectives are wholly dependent upon compliance for their long and short term achievement. The 10 exceptions which can be legally achieved independently of PPA are: vision clearance, discouragement of perpendicular parking on boulevards, protection of ground level f i r e egress routes, protection of sanitary absorption fields, minimizing ditch blockage, minimizing a i r and water pollution, demonstra-tion projects, savings i n sidewalk replacement, minimizing window damage and minimizing construction costs. Compliance to PPA can offer a number of advantages: (i) It can assist in minimizing future problems for other Municipal departments - particularly i n the areas of safety and health. ( i i ) It can help to upgrade the visual quality of the environment. ( i i i ) Financial savings can be accrued by the Municipality and B.C.Hydro in maintenance and capital costs. (iv) Compliance does not increase construction costs, instead, i t can potentially reduce them. 168 (v) For developers, compliance can gradually eliminate unfair competi-tion, assure them of a minimum level of visual quality of their development and guarantee protection of their investment. (vi) An overview of this study shows that compliance can guarantee the maximum ut i l i z a t i o n of professional expertise and citizen input in the creation of the urban environment. Much though and time i s expended i n this direction by urban planners, architects, landscape architects and citizens, as evidenced by the number of studies, re-ports and development guidelines. An approved PPA reflects a l l the relevant considerations of these various groups. Field execu-tion of the PPA commitments i s the last link i n the translation of a l l of their various thoughts, goals and objectives into r e a l i t y . Therefore non-compliance can, i n the context of improving the visu-a l environment, render the. planning process a fruitless exercise, thereby constituting a waste of professional expertise and citizen input. 6. There were no major disadvantages found to indicate that compliance should not be encouraged. 6.2 CONCLUSIONS In view of the findings - the short term achievement of each objec-tive i s directly dependent upon compliance; one change i n any compliance category can adversely affect the short term achievement of many objec-tives; compliance has not been found to be advantageous to only one group to the exclusion of a l l others, rather i t i s mutually beneficial to at least three major groups i n 8 compliance categories, and to two groups i n 169 the ninth; compliance can offer several advantages to the Municipality,the general public and developers; and no major disadvantages have been found to indicate that compliance should not be encouraged - i t i s con-cluded that i f a community wishes to achieve a l l of these objectives, then compliance to the PPA drawings i s a desirable method of obtaining them. It has also been found that for 3 8 of the 48 objectives there are no alternative devices which can ensure their long term achievement i n -dependently of PPA. Hence for the. long term achievement of these objectives, PPA compliance i s not only desirable but also essential. Therefore, i t can be further concluded that compliance i s necessary for the achievement of many community objectives. Chapter 7 A REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN BDRNABY/RECOMME.NDATIONS • Chapter 7 A REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN BURNABY/RECOMMENDATIONS 7.0 INTRODUCTION If i t - i s f e l t that the achievement of the various objectives i s desirable and necessary, steps must be taken immediately to improve the rate of compliance. The purpose of this chapter i s to isolate and ex-amine the causes of non-compliance, determine what can be done to improve compliance, and conclude with recommendations as to what steps can be taken immediately. The approach to this review of development control in Burnaby i s f i r s t l y to examine the present PPA/Building Permit system, and secondly, to study the f i e l d inspection system. Then a short summary w i l l be f o l -lowed by recommendations. 7.1 WEAKNESSES IN THE PRESENT PPA/BUILDING PERMIT SYSTEM An examination of the present development system in Burnaby shows that non-compliance with,or incompletion of the approved PPA drawings can occur for three main reasons - (i) honest mistakes on the part of the landscape contractor; ( i i ) blatant disregard for the PPA drawings; ( i i i ) peculiar site conditions. 7.l(i) Honest Mistakes Honest mistakes or innocent variations from the approved PPA drawings can be attributed to two factors - (a) inefficiencies within 172 the present system,, and (b) unfamiliarity with proper procedure. (a) Inefficiencies Within the Present System There are several opportunities for the landscape plan and minor building details to be constructed from approved Building Permit or other plans which d i f f e r from the PPA drawings. Some of these are as follows: - Often the approved PPA landscape plan may be quite different from the landscape plan included i n the Building Permit set. Major differences in building facade details are frequently marked on the Building Per-mit drawings but sometimes subtle differences are undetected. Land-scape differences are not marked on the Building Permit drawings. In most cases the PPA drawings are f i l e d away by the applicant, hence the building contractor and landscape contractor may not know of their existence and construct according to the Building Permit set. - Currently there are no references to PPA on the Building Permit draw-ings. Therefore again, i f this copy has been f i l e d away by the owner or applicant, those working in the f i e l d may never be aware of the PPA drawings. Similarily, i f both are available and are different, they may. choose the Building Permit set to construct to. - Field inspection of the buildings by the Building Inspectors i s based on the Building Permit drawings. (A set of Building Permit drawings i s required on the construction site at a l l times but no PPA"set i s required). Therefore, i f these are incorrect the differences are not easily detected. - Often differences between the approved PPA copies and the applicant's original copies are not corrected on the designer's original negatives. Therefore, any copies distributed during construction to the owner, 173 building contractor or the landscape contractor can be incorrect. - Frequently the applicant does not supervise construction. Since he i s often the only one who i s aware of the PPA conditions, then i f he retains the approved PPA copy the building and landscape contractors may be unaware of their existence and construct to the Building Permit drawings. - Sometimes a project i s sold before or during construction, usually with the Building Permit drawings. The PPA drawings may remain for-gotten i n the f i l e s of the original owner or applicant. The second owner and his contractor may therefore be unaware of their existence and construct to the Building Permit drawings which may not be the same as the PPA drawings. In view of the potential sources of misunderstanding which can arise i n the present system, three possible solutions to the problems of potential plan checking oversights and contractor unfamiliarity with the PPA drawings w i l l now be examined. The f i r s t i s for the Building Depart-ment plan checkers to transfer a l l of the notations and differences from the PPA drawings to the Building Permit drawings. The second i s to re-quite that the applicant submit revised drawings incorporating a l l of the preliminary comments of the Planning Department before the issuance of PPA or the Building Permit. The third i s to include an approved PPA set as part of the applicant's Building Permit set. Alternative #1 The Building Department plan checkers could transfer a l l of the PPA notations to the two sets of Building. Permit drawings. This approach offers the advantage of having a l l of the PPA information on the Building Permit drawings which must be kept on site at a l l times during construe-tion. Hence the general contractor w i l l be aware of the conditions. If the Building Permit drawings are issued i n a heavily marked condition, then these discrepancies between the Permit drawings and the original negatives are obvious, and they are more apt to be corrected i f further copies are required. Hence drawings reflecting the PPA comments are more apt to be used throughout construction. One of the disadvantages of this approach i s that.there can be no guarantee that the information w i l l be lucid or accurately transferred. This can result i n non-compliance with the PPA, the error being the re-sponsibility of the Building Department. The second disadvantage i s that in many cases the PPA notations are extensive and i t i s very time-consum-ing to transfer a l l of these to two sets. Alternative #2 Requiring that the applicant submit revised drawings incorpor-ating a l l the preliminary comments before the issuance of PPA offers two advantages. The f i r s t i s that the PPA commitment i s very neat and very clear. The second i s that this i s one way of guaranteeing that the o r i -ginal negatives w i l l be altered by the applicant to reflect the PPA con-ditions, hence the drawings distributed during construction w i l l reflect the PPA requirements. It does mean, however, that the new drawings w i l l have to be completely rechecked so that other subtle changes are not over-looked. In some circumstances just reviewing the application once i s a formidable task. The review of the revised submission w i l l constitute a second examination.. :Therefore, this w i l l increase the amount of staff time required per application and the length of the PPA process w i l l be increased because of the preparation and re-examination time required for the revised drawings. 175 On the other hand, i f revised drawings are required by the Build-ing Department - drawings which accurately reflect a l l of the conditions of PPA, then their plan checkers w i l l have to check a l l of the details of the revised drawings against the marked up approved PPA drawings. Hence, again subtle changes can be overlooked. This procedure could slow up the issuance of a Building Permit due to the time taken to prepare the re-vised drawings between theissuance of the PPA and the receipt of the re-vised drawings by the Building Department. An attempt to fu l l y process the Building Permit drawings simultaneously with the PPA application un-der these conditions w i l l result in the Building Department plan checkers having to check the original Building Department set with the approved PPA set with the revised PPA set. Therefore, for efficiency purposes, the Building Permit examination w i l l revert from a simultaneous process to one which i s more concurrent, hence delaying the issuance of the Building Permit. Alternative #3 A third approach for dealing with inefficiencies within the present system i s to include an approved PPA set of drawings as a part of the applicant's Building Permit'set. One method i s to require three sets of drawings with a PPA appli-cation - one copy for the applicant and two for the Building Department. One would be attached to each of the Building Permit sets and counter stamped as a part of the Building Permit sets. One of these Building Permit/PPA sets would be returned to the applicant and the other forwar-ded to the Building Department f i l e s . This would mean that those examin-ing the PPA drawings would now have to make notations on three sets of drawings instead of the present two. Since notations on some drawings 176 can take i n excess of 2 hours per set, such a change would greatly i n -crease staff time required to process drawings. Currently there are two Development Plan Technicians who process approximately 500 PPA's per year. With such a change i t would almost certainly mean a staff increase to three. A second method i s to retain the present system of requiring two sets of drawings with a PPA application. However, the applicant would be required to return his approved PPA copy with his validation letter to the Planning Department. This copy would then be forwarded to the Building Department and attached to the applicant's copy of the Building Permit drawings and counter-stamped. Some developers might find this method un-acceptable for fear that further unauthorized conditions could be added to the returned PPA copy when i t was out of his possession at the Municipal Ha l l . A more acceptable variation of this might be to require that the applicant take his approved PPA set with him when he goes to collect his Building Permit. In his presence the PPA drawings could be,attached to the Building Permit drawings and counter-stamped with the Building Permit stamp. Then a notation with the following meaning could be boldly affixed to the relevant drawings - "that where there are discrepancies'between landscape details or building facade details, then the conditions of the drawings bearing a PPA stamp supercede those without". This latter method does not affect the work load of the PPA staff. It can reduce the work of the Building Department plan checkers - they do not have to compare the PPA and Building sets as thoroughly, they can note obvious differences i f desired but they, need not make the time-consuming check for subtle differences because' the PPA drawings clearly supercede. This procedure also eliminates the pos s i b i l i t y of overlooking subtle d i f -1 7 7 ferences during transferral, hence i t eliminates one more potential source of staff error contributing to non-compliance. It overcomes the problem of the approved PPA set of drawings being deposited i n the owner or app-l i c a n t 1 s f i l e s and not being seen by new owners, and building and land-scape contractors. Since the PPA set i s a part of the Building Permit set, both w i l l have to be kept on the construction site at a l l times. There i s no guarantee that the negatives of building detail, and. landscape draw-: ings w i l l be changed. There i s a high propensity.for their change be-cause a l l parties involved are aware that the applicant's design drawings are not up-to-date because of the discrepancies and markings on the Build-ing Permit/PPA set. Under these circumstances "they are more apt to requ-est up-to-date sets. This w i l l require changes to the negatives. (b) Unfamiliarity With Proper Procedure There are two reasons-why an applicant, developer or contractor may be unfamiliar with proper procedure. One i s the lack of consolidation of the various development guidelines and the other i s inadequate nota-tion on the approved PPA or Building Permit drawings. A brief overview of Chapters 2 , 3 and h indicate that Burnaby's qualitative policies are scattered throughout various by-laws and reports. There i s no single document in. which the various environmental objectives are consolidated even at a general level, nor are they a l l included under the umbrella of a series of general policies and objectives i n a compre-hensive policy statement. Therefore i t i s very easy for an applicant, developer or contractor to be ignorant of what these a l l are. Such a con-solidation could greatly assist applicants i n the preparation of their drawings and the Planning Technicians i n their evaluation of them because 178 the Municipal environmental goals and objectives are readily apparent. Very often the landscaper i s aware of the PPA landscape drawings but due to inadequate notations i s also ignorant of the fact that amend-ments to the approved PPA landscape plans are required before any changes are executed i n the f i e l d . He can, therefore, due to unavailability of specified plant material or out of personal preference, make minor changes to the approved landscape plan, completely unaware of the. consequences. One way to ensure that the landscaper and the building contractor are aware of the need for an amendment to the PPA, i s to boldly indicate on the approved PPA drawings and also on the Building Permit drawings that "any changes to building finishes or details, or landscape species, location, planting height and details must be approved by amendment to the PPA before being executed i n the f i e l d " . The Planning Department i s currently preparing a new PPA applica-tion form which conveys this and other information. However, whereas this may be informative to the applicant and the owner, i f i t i s filed-away, i t may be of no assistance to the building contractor and landscape contractor. Therefore, i t would be s t i l l beneficial to include the nota-tions on the drawings. I f applied with a rubber inked stamp the staff time to apply this information would be negligible. Discussion: Of the various approaches to reducing inefficiencies wit bin the present system and overcoming applicant/contractor unfamiliarity with proper procedure, alternative #2 i s perhaps the most effic i e n t . Since revised plans are submitted before the PPA or Building Permit i s issued, no PPA comments are added to the approved PPA or Building Permit drawings, The result i s that the commitment in these drawings i s presented clearly 179 and neatly with no possibility of ambiguity or confusion. Alternative #3 may produce permits containing conflicting drawings but when precedence ' i s clearly indicated, alternatives #2 and #3 are equal i n legal' effective-ness. In both cases any variation from the PPA. drawings' i s clearly and solely the responsibility of the owner. When other c r i t e r i a such as length of permit processing time, added costs and simplicity of implementation are applied, alternative #3 i s clearly superior. In this alternative the applicant takes his approved PPA copy when collecting his Building Permit, has i t attached to the Building Permit drawings, counter-stamped and supplementary notations •" added. This approach i s the only one which has the following.attributes: - the length of the approval process i s not increased because' no increase i n staff time i s required i n any department,'no added circulation time i s required, and some time may be saved. . - there are no significant cost increases for the applicant or the . Municipality. - can.be implemented immediately because - no Council approval i s re-quired, there i s no interference with departmental powers and'respon-s i b i l i t i e s , and no major procedural changes are required. Therefore when both efficiency and practicality are considered together, alternative #3 emerges as the most suitable alternative. .1 ( i i ) Blatant Disregard for the PPA Drawings by Developers and Contractors Some developers, building contractors and.landscape contractors : are very experienced with the required procedures and are fu l l y familiar with the weaknesses of the' Municipal' enforcement system, i i e . ' the' courts. As a result they may deliberately execute vastly inferior' landscaping at 180 a considerable financial saving or may not execute a l l of the work. Such a developer w i l l only do what i s necessary' to either get a certificate of occupancy or occupation of the building, whichever i s more convenient. Frequently some building landscape finishes post date the occupancy. Therefore an owner of a f u l l y leased project has l i t t l e incen-tive other than his civic pride or tenant pressure to complete the pro-ject i n accordance with the drawings, and frequently does not. He may know that i f he ignores the three or four warning letters issued by the Chief Building Inspector ordering him to complete the work in accordance with the drawings, the worst that can happen i s that he w i l l receive a summons to appear in court about 10 months from i t s date of issuance. This w i l l have given him 16 - 19 months' grace between the time he should have completed the work and his court appearance. He may also know that such cases are easily dismissed on technicalities, so that his chances of conviction are low. He may also be aware of the fact that i f he applies for a PPA amendment or i n s t a l l s one shrub shortly before his court appear-ance, this may be construed as active pursuance of the problem, and i n similar situations cases have been dismissed. He may also know that even i f he i s convicted, he may only get a $25. fine. He may-also•know that no landscape violators were taken to court i n 1976. This i s attributable to the apparent unsympathetic attitude of the courts to by-law infrac-tions since the Provincial Government took over the courts from the Muni-cip a l i t y , the disorganization of the courts, and the amount of time and effort i t takes the Municipality to prepare a case which in view of the court: results-, i s generally, wasted.. This'type of blatant disregard for the PPA commitments'or enforce-ment procedures, cannot be easily r e c t i f i e d by subtle changes within the 181 system or improved inspection procedures. A strong incentive i s needed to encourage the developer to complete the work in accordance with the PPA drawings. One such incentive i s the posting of a cash bond to guar-antee to the Municipality that a l l of the work w i l l be completed accord-ing to the approved drawings by a certain date. The main advantage of such a severe approach i s that i t can be very effective with certain types of violators. Generally i t ensures that the site w i l l be f u l l y landscaped. However the District of North Van-couver w i l l confirm that bonding does not necessarily guarantee an i n -3 stallation identical to the plans. This can lead to d i f f i c u l t bureau-cratic wrangles concerning the release of the 'bond. New Westminster feels that i n some cases i t s bonds are too low and do not constitute an incentive. I f the bond i s forfeited, matters can be extremely compli-cated - should the municipality do the outstanding work, and i f so, who i s responsible for the i n i t i a l maintenance of the landscaping. The main disadvantages of this device are that both the innocent (those who would have done the work anyway) and the guilty are financially penalized. The second disadvantage i s that complex bureaucratic machinery has to be set up to administer' such procedures. The third i s that such measures are highly controversial, and since they are so drastic, any'presentation to the Municipal Council must be f u l l y supported by strong evidence of their need. Unfortunately, there are no s t a t i s t i c s currently available on what proportion of the annual total of new projects do not comply because of blatant disregard. Therefore, i n view of the aforegoing i t must be con-cluded that the use of a severe measure such as bonding to encourage com-pliance to the approved PPA drawings, can not be.justified at this time. Discussion: In the absence of st a t i s t i c s no strong incentive device can 182 be quickly and simply implemented to deal with blatant offenders. How-ever i f implementation of a strong device i s desired, certain steps may be taken within the existing system. F i r s t l y , one may make minor inter-nal changes which w i l l minimize or eliminate the po s s i b i l i t y of honest errors. Henceforth a l l landscape projects which are at variance or im-complete would be the result of blatant offenders and special site"con-ditions. If the f i e l d execution of PPA drawings i s monitored for 20 months (allowing 4 - 8 months from PPA issuance to f i e l d completion, and 12 months of s t a t i s t i c s ) , then the rate of non-compliance by blatant, off-enders could be easily established by subtracting these projects with pe-culiar site conditions. Subsequently, i f the rate warrants, a study may be initi a t e d to examine various incentive devices. It should culminate i n recommendations on which devices are best suited to encourage develop-ers to comply with the Zoning By-law (expressed by approved PPA drawings) in Burnaby. .1 ( i i i ) Peculiar Site Conditions In certain low-lying areas the sites must be f i l l e d and sometimes take a long time to sta b i l i z e . As a result the landscaping and paving are not done for long periods of time. Some claims of i n s t a b i l i t y are legitimate and some are not. It i s f e l t that i n these situations meas-ures such as a cash bonding i s very effective for separating the genuine claims from those which are fraudulent. Statistics can be obtained for these types of projects, but high-er compliance w i l l require the introduction of a stronger incentive. As with blatant offenders, the current system i s incapable of effectively dealing with non-compliance associated with peculiar site conditions. 183 Major changes are required. It may perhaps be advisable to wait and con-sider this problem 20 months hence, so that i f the study on blatant offen-ders materializes, joint consideration can be given so that the device selected i s effective i n both situations. 7.2 THE INSPECTION SYSTEM Currently the f i e l d inspection system in Burnaby .is not c r i t i c a l to the compliance rate. This i s because variation i s due to honest mis-takes and blatant disregard, not the a b i l i t y of the f i e l d inspector. Many of the on-site errors can be attributed to those inefficiencies with-i n the present system which allow the building and landscape contractors to be unaware of the existence of the PPA or that PPA amendments are re-quired before landscape changes are made in the f i e l d . Even i f the Land-scape Inspector i s able to identify that certain species are incorrect, on site i t i s most unlikely that the offending material w i l l be volun-t a r i l y removed or replaced. Given this background and the fact that the landscaping has been completed, be i t incorrect, the inspector has no clout because he knows that he cannot rely on the courts. Hence a viola-tor i s rarely required to remove and replace certain landscaping. If a system for reducing honest mistakes were introduced i n Bur-naby, the Inspection Control Clerk would be greatly assisted i f the appli-cant provided a photo reduction of the approved PPA landscape plan. This would eliminate the current practice of the Clerk having to draft by hand a reduced copy of smaller approved PPA plans on to the reverse side of the landscape inspection cards. The submission of this photo reduction would minimize the possibility of error due to the drafting process, and would save time because one needs only to compare the reduced copy to the original PPA as opposed to hand drafting the reduced copy. If a more severe incentive system i s introduced, the expertise of the landscape inspector i s very c r i t i c a l i n the area of plant identifica-tion, and s o i l preparation. It i s on the basis of his observations that a cash bond might be forfeited or withheld. Therefore, inspections should be executed by a suitably trained and/or experienced landscape inspector, (having knowledge of plants equivalent to the Plant Material Study course offered at B.C.I.T., Burnaby, B.C.), by a representative from the Depart-ment of Parks and Recreation, or a signed and sealed certificate from a landscape architect stating that the project has been completed according to the PPA landscape drawings. 7.3 SUMMARY It has been found that there are three different causes of non-compliance - procedural inefficiencies which can result i n innocent vari-ations from the approved plans, a weak enforcement system which does not deter blatant offenders, and peculiar site.conditions which make prompt completion impossible. It has been further found that: (1) Procedural inefficiencies such as bureaucratic errors, unfamiliarity with the PPA objectives and procedure, and ignorance of proper amend-ment procedure can be effectively eliminated through a number of sim-ple procedural changes which do not require any major changes to the existing system. ( 2 ) Presently there i s no strong incentive for blatant offenders to com-ply with the approved PPA drawings. A simple method to supplement the present enforcement system, not involving major changes or Coun-c i l approval, has not been found. Detailed s t a t i s t i c s , which current-185 l y d o n o t e x i s t , w i l l b e r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a n y s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e d e v i c e s c a n b e r e c o m m e n d e d . H e n c e a n y p r o p o s a l o f s u c h m e a s u r e s c a n n o t b e j u s t i f i e d a t t h i s t i m e . T h e r e f o r e n o n - c o m p l i a n c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m b l a -t a n t o f f e n d e r s c a n n o t b e e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t s y s -t e m a t t h i s t i m e . (5) N o n - c o m p l i a n c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m p e c u l i a r s i t e c o n d i t i o n s c a n b e c o n -t r o l l e d t h r o u g h s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e m e a s u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s a r e e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e , • a n y d e v i c e w h i c h i s r e c o m m e n d e d m i g h t b e m o r e v a l u a b l e i f i t i s j o i n t l y e f f e c t i v e f o r b l a t a n t o f f e n d e r s a l s o . T h e r e f o r e a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e v i o l a t i o n s m i g h t b e b e s t c o n s i d e r e d a f t e r s t a t i s t i c s h a v e b e e n c o m p i l e d f o r b l a t a n t o f f e n -d e r s . 7A R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S I f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y w i s h e s t o i m p r o v e i t s r a t e o f c o m p l i a n c e , t h e n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s h o u l d b e a d o p t e d : (1) T h e a p p l i c a n t b e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e h i s a p p r o v e d P P A c o p y t o t h e B u i l d -i n g D e p a r t m e n t w h e n h e g o e s t o p i c k u p h i s B u i l d i n g P e r m i t . (2) T h e B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e s k c l e r k b e r e q u i r e d t o a t t a c h t h e a p p l i -c a n t ' s a p p r o v e d P P A c o p y t o h i s B u i l d i n g P e r m i t c o p y a n d c o u n t e r -s t a m p t h e P P A w i t h t h e B u i l d i n g P e r m i t s t a m p . (3) T h e f o l l o w i n g n o t a t i o n s b e a p p l i e d , w i t h a r u b b e r i n k s t a m p i n b o l d p r i n t t o b o t h B u i l d i n g P e r m i t d r a w i n g s a n d t h e P P A d r a w i n g s : ( i ) " W h e n a n y d i s c r e p a n c i e s e x i s t b e t w e e n a d r a w i n g w i t h a P P A s t a m p a n d o n e w i t h o u t , i n m a t t e r s o f l a n d s c a p e a n d b u i l d i n g f a c a d e d e t a i l s , , t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h o s e d r a w i n g s b e a r i n g t h e P P A s t a m p s h a l l s u p e r c e d e . " 186 ( i i ) "Any changes to building finishes or details, or landscape species, location, or size at planting as specified in the approved PPA drawings, must be approved by amendment to the PPA before being executed in the f i e l d . " ( 4 ) One photo reduction of the approved PPA landscape plan be required of the applicant. (5) The compliance rate be monitored 20 months after the aforementioned recommendations have been implemented., so that s t a t i s t i c s can be com-piled on the types of offenders and circumstances, and the annual num-ber of such offences versus the annual number of new projects. If i t i s then determined that strong incentive measures are required, the device should be effective against blatant offenders and peculiar site conditions. (6) There should be included i n the next Planning Department report on policy matters, some general qualitative policy statements which are comprehensive enough to include the major considerations discussed in this study. 187 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Alexander, Ishikawa, and Silverstein. A Pattern Language Which Generates  Multi-Service Centers. Berkeley, Cal.l Center for. Environmental Structures, 1< Barber, Robert. Ecological Psychology. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1[ Boddy, Frederick A. Ground Cover And Other Ways To Weed Free Gardens. London: David & Charles, 1974. Bush-Brown, James. Shrubs And Trees For The Home Landscape. New York: Chilton Books, 1963. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation.. . Site Planning- .Criteria For  Housing On Small Lots In Comprehensively Planned Developments.CAn Amendment to the Site Planning handbook), Ottawa. Coates, Gary J. and Kenneth M. Moffeh. Response To Environment.. Raleigh, N.C.: Student Publication Of The School Of Design, North Carolina State University, 1969-Cullen, Gordon. Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1961. Deasey, CM. Design For Human Affairs. New York: Halsted Press Division, John Wiley & Sons, 1974. Dober, Richard P. Environmental Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1969. Grounds, Roger. Trees For Smaller Gardens. London: J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd., 1974. Gutman, Robert. People And Buildings. New York: Basic Books Inc. Publishers, 1972. Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension. New York: Doubleday and Co. 1966. Halprin, Lawrence. Cit i e s . New York:" Reinhold'Publishing Corp., 1963. Henrey, Blanche and W.J.Bean. Trees and Shrubs. London: Lindsay Drummond Limited, 1947. Jacobs, Jane. The Death And Life Of Great American C i t i e s . New York: Random House, 1961. 188 Kumlien, L.L. The Friendly Evergreens. Dundee, 111.: D. H i l l Nursery Company, T9-4-1. Leighton, Alexander. My Name Is Legion. New York: Basic Books, 1959-. Lynch, Kevin. Image Of The City. Cambridge, Mass.: M I T Press, i960. Massot Nurseries. Massot Nurseries Wholesale Catalogue. Richmond, B.C. 1974. Milgram, Stanley and Hans Toch. Handbook Of Social Psychology. 2d ed. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Nairn, Ian. The American Landscape.. -New York: Random House, 19&5. Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972. Newman, Oscar. Design Guidelines For Defensible Space. Washington, D.C: Superintendent of Documents., U.S. Gov't Printing Office, 197C Osborn, A. Shrubs And Trees For The Garden. London: Ward, Lock & Co. Limited, 1933. Perin, Constance. With Man In Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: M I T Press, 1970. Preiser, Wolfgang. Environmental Design Perspective. Christianburg,Va: Christianburg Printing Co. Inc., 1972. Proshansky, Ittelson, R i v l i n . Environmental Psychology. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. Turning Vehicles  Templates. Ottawa. Sherk, Lawrence C. and Arthur R. Buckley. Ornamental Shrubs For Canada. Ottawa: Queens Printer For Canada, i960. Sommer, Robert. Personal Space - The Behavioral Basis Of Design. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wehrli, Robert. Open-ended Problem Solving In Design. Salt Lake City: Department Of Psychology, University Of Utah, 1968. Wyman, Donald. Ground Cover Plants. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1956. Wyman, Donald. Shrubs And Vines For American Gardens. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1949. ~ Wyman, Donald. Trees For American Gardens. New York: The Macmillan Company, 196l*I Youngman, Wilbur H. and Charles E. Randall. Growing Your Trees. Washington, D.C: The American Forestry Association, 1972. 189 S T A T U T E S A N D B Y - L A W S B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P a r l i a m e n t , F i r e M a r s h a l l A c t , 1960. C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e , J u l y 1974. , H e a l t h A c t . S e w a g e D i s p o s a l R e g u l a t i o n s , B . C . R e g . 577/75, O r d e r i n C o u n c i l 2757, a p p r o v e d a n d a d o p t e d A u g . 28, 1975. S a n i t a r y . R e g u l a t i o n s , u p t o a n d i n c l u d i n g O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , N o . 1957, a p p r o v e d J u n e 17, 1969. , M o t o r V e h i c l e A c t . C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e 1972. , M u n i c i p a l A c t . C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e 1973. , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967, i n c l u d i n g a m e n d m e n t s u p t o . M a r . 1977. ' . . C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t a m i n e n t s A c t , i n c l u d i n g a m e n d m e n t s u p t o F e b . 1975. C o r p o r a t i o n . o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y , C o u n c i l , B u r n a b y B u i l d i n g B y - l a w , N o . 540, 1926. , B u r n a b y E l e c t r i c a l B y - l a w , N o . 761, 1928. .t , B u r n a b y F i r e P r e v e n t i o n B y - l a w , N o . 5096, 1968. , B u r n a b y N o i s e o r S o u n d A b a t e m e n t B y - l a w , N o . 6052, .1972. C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e w i t h B y - l a w s N o s . 6112 a n d 6304. , B u r n a b y P l u m b i n g B y - l a w , N o . 542, 1926. , B u r n a b y S e w e r C o n n e c t i o n B y - l a w , N o . 4247, 1961. C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e w i t h B y - l a w s N o s . 5494, 6776 a n d 6785. , B u r n a b y S i g n B y - l a w , N o . 6163, 1972. C o n s o l i d a t e d u p t o a n d . i n c l u d i n g B y - l a w N o . 6472. , B u r n a b y S t r e e t a n d T r a f f i c B y - l a w , No..4299, 1961. A m e n d e d u p t o a n d i n c l u d i n g B y - l a w N o . 6192, 1976. , B u r n a b y T o w n P l a n n i n g B y - l a w ( s ) , N o s . 422, (1924), 444, 482, 496, 573 (1927), a n d 1991 (1948). , B u r n a b y U n s i g h t l y P r e m i s e s B y - l a w , N o . 5533, 1969. , B u r n a b y W i r i n g B y - l a w , N o . 91, 1910. 190 , Burnaby Zoning By-law, No. 4742, 1965. Amended up to. and including By-law No. 6564, 1975. REPORTS AND PAPERS Burnaby Planning Department. Apartment Study Report, 1966. , Apartment Study, 1969. , Community Plans. Containing additions and revisions up to and including Dec. 6, 1976. , Public Meetings Phase One, 1974. Burnaby. Planning Department and Gary Sixta. Urban Structure, 1971* Linsay, Barbara. Methods of Studying the Effects of the Surroundings  on Outdoor Activities i n Urban Public Places. University of British Columbia.(Unpublished thesis). 1975• Municipal Manager, Manager's Report No. 77, Item 19, Nov. 29, 1976. Swan Wooster Engineering Co.. Ltd.. Report on: Big Bend Dyking and  Drainage Study, Burnaby, B.C.: Corporation of the District of Burnaby, 1974. Walkey/Olsen Architect.. Privacy in Compact Housing - Territory and  Individual Control. Vancouver:GVRD Planning Department, 1976. CHART 5 

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