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The Theravāda Buddhist conceptual map of bondage and freedom Kreag, John Paul 1977

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THE THERAVADA BUDDHIST CONCEPTUAL MAP OF BONDAGE AND FREEDOM by JOHN PAUL KREAG .A., C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ,  F u l l e r t o n , 19  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1977  John Paul Kreag, 1977  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  freely  may It  is  fulfilment of of  British  available  by  understood  gain  shall  University  British  l/WUl  1,  1*111  Columbia  that  not  VfltjjifftlS ^j^t'^S of  the  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  permission.  of  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  financial  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  it  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  Department The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  i  ABSTRACT  This  paper  i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Theravada B u d d h i s t  map o f b o n d a g e a n d f r e e d o m .  I t analyzes  i n detail  c a u s e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f bondage and t h e c o n d i t i o n s its  the c o n d i t i o n s necessary  which  to cause  n o n o c c u r r e n c e and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f freedom. Religious  and  conceptual  t r a d i t i o n s v i e w t h e human c o n d i t i o n  firmly believe  i t c a n be r e s o l v e d .  c o n c e p t u a l maps w h i c h e x p l a i n heading, trinal  i . e . , they provide  patterns  According  as a s e r i o u s  They f u n c c i o n  i n part  problem  by d r a w i n g  " w h e r e " man i s a n d " w h e r e " he s h o u l d be  t h e i r a d h e r e n t s c o n c e p t u a l schemes o r d o c -  which e x p l a i n  t h e d i c h o t o m y o f p r o b l e m and r e s o l u t i o n .  t o Theravada Buddhist d o c t r i n e ,  this  dichotomy  i s s p o k e n o f as  " b o n d a g e " and " f r e e d o m , " t e c h n i c a l l y t e r m e d s a m s a r a - a n d n i b b a n a skrit  nirvana-). B o n d a g e r e s u l t s f r o m two i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s :  i.e.,  inaccurate  (1)  ignorance,  knowledge o f one's c a p a b i l i t i e s i n a s i t u a t i o n o r t h e  l a c k o f s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , and i n a d e q u a t e awareness o f t h e f u l l the  (San-  s i t u a t i o n , a n d (2) t h e l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l .  nature of  Because o f ignorance  man s e e s t h e w o r l d as s u b s t a n t i a l , e t e r n a l , a n d c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g lasting tively  satisfaction. true  and thus e s t a b l i s h e s  Buddhism, n o t h i n g of  Man b e l i e v e s  this  himself  subjective v i s i o n i s objeci n disharmony  to r e a l i t y .  i s s u b s t a n t i a l , e t e r n a l , or s a t i s f a c t o r y .  s e l f - c o n t r o l i s the i n a b i l i t y  In  The l a c k  t o c o n t r o l o n e ' s own a c t i o n s .  I t refers  t o one a t t h e m e r c y o f h i s own h a b i t s . F r e e d o m r e s u l t s f r o m two i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s : control. of  oneself  Insight  i n s i g h t and s e l f -  i s the o b j e c t i v e , c l e a r , d i r e c t , penetrative  and t h e w o r l d .  knowledge  S e l f - c o n t r o l i s complete mastery over  one's  ii  a c t i o n s , b o d i l y , v o c a l , and The and  heart  mental.  of the paper i s the chapter  titled  P s y c h o l o g i c a l E v a l u a t i o n of Bondage and  freedom are e x p l a i n e d t e r s which d i s c u s s conceptual This ligious  i n those terms.  paper was  studies.  of that f i e l d .  I t s body i s the  The The  h a b i t u a l behavior  w r i t t e n as  and  articles  published  causation,  i t s antithesis renunciation.  i f i t ware to be read  by a student  of r e -  t o p i c i s at a l l times e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the  method of r e s e a r c h  consisted  by contemporary experts  and  i n t r o d u c t o r y chap-  of r e a l i t y and  Buddhist works, at times t r a n s l a t i n g myself, and and  Epistemological  Freedom because bondage  the T h e r a v a d a i n c o n c e p t i o n  mapping, and  The  i n the study of  confines  original  i n the study of books  i n Buddhism.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  p. 1  CONCEPTUAL MAPPING  p. 5  THE BUDDHIST CONCEPTION OF REALITY  p. 9  CAUSALITY  (PATICCASAMUPPADA-)  p. 12  UNSUBSTANTIALITY (ANATTAN-)  p. 19  •THE CONCEPT OF THE MIDDLE WAY  p. 24  HABITUAL BEHAVIOR  p. 30  (KAMMA-) AND RENUNCIATION (NEKKHAMMA-)  THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BONDAGE AND FREEDOM Consciousness  pp. 37-78  or D i s c r i m i n a t i v e Knowledge (Vinnana-)  Papan^a- and S e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n Nondifferentiation Knowledge  M  (Nippapanca-),  p. 37 p. 41  I n s i g h t or P e n e t r a t i v e  (Panna-), and Freedom (Vimokkha-)  p. 52  Knowledge and V i s i o n (Nanadassana-)  p. 60  Two T r u t h s i n Buddhism  p. 64  CONCLUSION: NIBBANA- THE ANTITHESIS OF SAMSARA-  p. 79  BIBLIOGRAPHY  p. 88  iv  ABBREVIATIONS  D . . . Digha-nikaya M . .•. Ma j jhima-nikaya S . . .  Samyutta-nikaya  A . . . Afiguttara-nikaya Abhs . . . Abhidhammasangaha Atthas  . . . Atthasalini  Dhs  . . . Dhammasangani  Vis  . . . Visuddhimagga  Compendium  0  . . . Shwe Zan Aung, Compendium of P h i l o s o p h y , London,  Psychological A t t i t u d e  0  1972.  . . . Lama A n a g a r i k a Govinda, The P s y c h o l o g i c a l A t t i t u d e of E a r l y Buddhist P h i l o s o p h y , New York, 1971.  BP . . . David J . Kalupahana, B u d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y , Honolulu, 1976. C a u s a l i t y . . . --, C a u s a l i t y : The C e n t r a l P h i l o s o p h y of Buddhism, Honol u l u , 1975. 0  BE  . . . G.P. Malakasekera, 1961.  Concept  and R e a l i t y  Presuppositions  0  0  ed., E n c y l o p a e d i a of Buddhism, v o l . I, Ceylon,  . . . Nanananda, Concept and R e a l i t y Thought, Kandy, 1971.  in  Early  Buddhist  . . . K a r l P o t t e r , P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s pf I n d i a ' s P h i l o s o p h i e s , Westport,'1975.  BPT  . ... . James A. S a n t u c c i , A D i c t i o n a r y of Buddhist P a l i Terms, F u l l e r t o n , 1971. ' * ' . _ • IPTB . . . --, The Importance of Psychology i n Theravada Buddhism, F u l l e r t o n , 1974. Emptiness  0  . . . F r e d e r i c k S t r e n g , Emptiness: New York, 1967.  A Study  i n R e l i g i o u s Meaning,  1  INTRODUCTION  To b e g i n , studies.  l e t ' s e s t a b l i s h the t o p i c w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of  R e l i g i o u s man  .or e x i s t e n t i a l  may  be regarded  two  R e l i g i o n provides  senses:  i.e.,  "...  regards  a means f o r overcoming the human c o n d i t i o n i n  1) i t i s the power f o r a c h i e v i n g  of r e a l i t y ;  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . " ' lution,  religious  "where" he  should  1  and To  should  2)  i t is a practical  facilitate  the  transformation,  be heading, and  technique  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  t r a d i t i o n s draw c o n c e p t u a l  the dichotomy of problem and  "how"  he  i s to get  lemma.  "A c h a l l e n g e  is a felt  from problem to r e s o -  F o r our  i s and  is,  purpose,  "where" he  t r a d i t i o n i n terms  termed samsara- and  Bondage (bandha-) r e f e r s to i n a d e q u a c i e s lenges which c o n t i n u a l l y c o n f r o n t him,  for achieving  there,,  r e s o l u t i o n , or "where" man  "freedom,"^ t e c h n i c a l l y  the  maps to e x p l a i n "where" man  be heading, i s spoken of i n Theravada B u d d h i s t ^  of "bondage" and  this  i t s r e s o l u t i o n as h i s h i g h e s t a s p i -  i t i s not only an i d e a or hope, but c l a i m s to be e x p r e s s i v e of  v e r y nature  nibbana-.  i n man's responses to c h a l -  inadequacies  which r e f l e c t h i s d i -  t e n s i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n , " ^ i . e . , the mere  awareness ( " f e l t " ) of the d i s p a r i t y and  sees the human c o n d i t i o n  s i t u a t i o n as a s e r i o u s problem, f i r m l y b e l i e v e s t h a t  c o n d i t i o n can be overcome, and ration. ^  as one who  religious  ("tension") between one's c a p a c i t i e s  h i s performance or expected performance i n a r e a l c o n t e x t  ("in a  situ-  ation") . (Tension) i m p l i e s one's f a i l u r e to c o n t r o l what he has the c a p a c i t y to c o n t r o l , though one i s not u s u a l l y c l e a r about one's c a p a c i t i e s when one f e e l s a t e n s i o n . The d i s p a r i t y between p o s s i b l e and a c t u a l i s the source of d i s c o m f o r t , f r u s t r a t i o n , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n - - t o g r e a t e r or l e s s e r decree depending on one's s e n s i t i v i t y , i.e.-, h i s awareness and involvement.6 This d i s p a r i t y , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s t r e s s , calls  dukkha-.  It points n o t o n l y  or d i s - e a s e  to the f a c t  i s what Buddhism  of bondage, but  expresses  2 its  f e l t - e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . Inadequacies occur  the  l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l and (2) ignorance,  ledge and  as a r e s u l t o f two i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s : (1)  of one's c a p a b i l i t i e s  i . e . , both i n a c c u r a t e know-  i n a s i t u a t i o n or the l a c k o f self-knowledge,  inadequate awareness of the f u l l  nature of the s i t u a t i o n .  To succeed i n the a f f a i r s o f the world r e q u i r e s the b u i l d i n g of h a b i t s on man's p a r t , h a b i t s which enable him to overcome the o b s t a c l e s which l i e i n the way of m a t e r i a l success „ '. „ . These h a b i t s ^ . . c o n s t i t u t e a source o f bondage. F o r as one becomes more and more s u c c e s s f u l through the development of these h a b i t u a l responses, he tends to become l e s s and l e s s capable of a d j u s t i n g t o f r e s h or unusual c o n t i n g e n cies. I n s o f a r as t h i s hardening of h a b i t s does take p l a c e , one comes to be a t the mercy of h i s h a b i t s , as he w i l l f i n d out to h i s dismay when a f r e s h or unusual s i t u a t i o n does occur. And to be a t the mercy of one's h a b i t s i s to be out of c o n t r o l , that i s to say, i n bondage.7 Habits challenges  i n h i b i t man's a b i l i t y  to respond s u c c e s s f u l l y t o a l l types o f  because they compel man to a c t _by_ h a b i t i n p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s  which may o r may not be a p p r o p r i a t e a man of p e r f e c t l y good w i l l  seeks success  i n each case f a i l s d e s p i t e h i s best achieved  Habits  respect  " I n each  case,  to a c h a l l e n g e , and  e f f o r t - - e v e n though he appears t o have  which, as i t develops, he i s unable to c o n t r o l . "  or h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o r ,  kamma-), continue  the continuum c a l l e d  thought as karman-  that engendered them have  This round of h a b i t s b r e e d i n g  (Pali  disappeared,  new h a b i t s  samsara-, the "Wheel of R e b i r t h " governed by kamma-.  l a c k s the f l e x i b i l i t y  u a l l y conditioned  known i n I n d i a n  a f t e r the c o n d i t i o n s  i n t u r n to engender new h a b i t s .  Man  with  a t hand.  h i s goal--because h a b i t s of mind and a c t i o n a r e s e t up w i t h i n him  through h i s apparent success  is  to the c h a l l e n g e  to a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y and i n c i s i v e l y when c o n t i n -  by h a b i t s which p a t t e r n h i s b e h a v i o r .  d i s c r i m i n a t e what he i s capable or i n c a p a b l e awareness to adequately assess  His c a p a c i t y to  o f p e r f o r m i n g and h i s power o f  the s i t u a t i o n have become p o l l u t e d by kamma-.  T h i s want o f self-knowledge and awareness  ( a v i ) j a - , "ignorance") i s iden-  3  tified  w i t h kamma- as the cause  Complete freedom  of bondage.  ( v i m u t t i - ) i s the e x t i n c t i o n  (nibbana-)  or nonoccur-  rence of a v i j j a - and kamma- and the occurrence of i n s i g h t and s e l f - c o n t r o l . It  i s "freedom-from" the r e s t r i c t i o n s  and "freedom-to" efforts.  of ignorance and h a b i t u a l  a n t i c i p a t e and c o n t r o l any event  behavior  to which one d i r e c t s h i s  These two aspects a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d because i n order t o master  everything pertaining  to o n e s e l f ( i . e . ,  freedom-to),  which i n c l u d e s one's  r e l a t i o n s with nature, w i t h other people, and w i t h h i m s e l f , one must be i n complete control  c o n t r o l of one's f a c u l t i e s , (i.e.,  not a t the mercy of f o r c e s beyond one's  freedom-from).  "Complete freedom (moksa) may now be e x p l a i n e d as the stage where one i s f r e e t o and f r e e from w i t h r e s p e c t t o every event subsequent  history,  t h a t occurs i n h i s  i . e . , every p o s s i b l e occurrence and nonoccurrence  that  q concerns him." distressed all  In t h i s way, the man who i s completely  ( i n dukkha-) when c o n f r o n t e d by a c h a l l e n g e because u l t i m a t e l y  c h a l l e n g e s have become i n a p p r o p r i a t e or i r r e l e v e n t  out c h a l l e n g e s and f e e l s no t e n s i o n s . taneity,  s i n c e he i s f r e e from  self-imposed  and f r e e  to him.  He i s w i t h -  Such a s t a t e c o i n c i d e s w i t h spon-  the l i m i t a t i o n s  or r e s t r i c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y  to a c t s u c c e s s f u l l y or at ease  has become s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d wander  f r e e i s no longer  and i n s i g h t f u l .  (sukha-), because he  No longer does he a i m l e s s l y  (samsara-) through a world where h i s awareness i s inadequate,  l a c k s self-knowledge  and f u l l  and he  control.  Notes •'•Non-religious man may be regarded as one who (1) sees no dilemma or c o n s i d e r s i t as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , or (2) who sees the dilemma and r e g a r d s i t as s e r i o u s , but i s s k e p t i c a l that there i s a s o l u t i o n or that he can a c h i e v e c e r t a i n hoped-for r e s u l t s , or (3) one who no longer needs r e l i g i o n because he has transcended the s i t u a t i o n .  4  ^Empt i n e s s , 0  p. 156.  •^Theravada Buddhism, the "School of the E l d e r s , " i . e . , orthodox Buddhism, i s a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n present today i n S r i Lanka, Burma, T h a i l a n d , Laos, Cambodia, and C h i t t a g o n g i n Bangal Desh. I t s w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y i s the P a l i Canon o r T i p i t a k a ("Three B a s k e t s " ) , v i z . , the V i n a y a - P i t a k a , S u t t a - P i t a k a , and Ahhidh amma-Pitaka, plus s e v e r a l p r i n c i p a l n o n c a n o n i c a l works, e.g., the Malindapahha, Visuddlviiiiagga, A t t h a s a l i n i , and Abhldhammasangaha. ^ I n h i s book P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , K a r l P o t t e r d i s c u s s e s a t lenght the n o t i o n s of bondage and freedom as developed by the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f T n d i a n philosophy. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n on bondage and freedom c l o s e l y f o l l o w s P o t t e r ' s a n a l y s i s (see pp. 1-55 and 93-79), an a n a l y s i s I f e e l i s extremely h e l p f u l i n g r a s p i n g these two c e n t r a l c o n c e p t i o n s . 0  5  Ibid.,  p. 26.  6  Ibid.,  p. 27.  7  I b i d . , pp. .11-12.  8  lb i d . , p. 12.  9  lb i d . , p. 49.  5  CONCEPTUAL. MAPPING  B u d d h i s m d r a w s c o n c e p t u a l maps r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e rouCe c o n d u c i v e  to complete  a i d s w h i c h ..assess t i o n s which and  the s i t u a t i o n ,  provide guidance,  serve  convenient  i . e . , p r o j e c t judgments about  the c o n d i -  t o overcome i t ,  of action or discip-  s e r v e s as a means t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n h o p e d - f o r between " n o b l e "  results.  and " n o r m a l "  t o E l i a d e ' s p a r a d i g m o f " s a c r e d " and " p r o f a n e . " - '  somewhat  What i s n o r m a l  or o r d i n a r y i s a s s o c i a t e d with  t h e human c o n d i t i o n o f i n c o m p l e t e n e s s  frustration  The a r a h a n t -  (i.e.,  has  transcended  his  potentialities The  samsara-).  f o r that matter  " t o p r o v i d e a means t o c o r r e c t a n e x p e r i e n c e d  itate  clarify  The  t h e b a s i s o f man's  deficiency  man i s s a v e d  and a p p r o p r i a t e  normality to n o b i l i t y ,  through  traditions, i s  i n human e x i s t e n c e ,  to complete  freedom,  a f l a t map.^  z  To  facil-  Buddhism p r o v i d e s i t s p a t t e r n s , to  w h e r e b y he c a n  reconsidered views,  a commitment t o  actions.  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o n c e p t u a l map o r scheme, one w h i c h of r e a l i t y  realized  from h i m s e l f . "  felt-experience of disparity,  his situation  the n a t u r e  which  a l l religious  w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l map o r scheme, i . e . , d o c t r i n a l  to r e c t i f y  purpose,  onto  power by w h i c h  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from  adherents  begin  salutary  a n d who h a s f u l l y  nibba na-).  purpose o f Buddhism,  a radically  and  ( " n o b l e o n e " ) d e n o t e s one who  h i s self-imposed limitations (i.e.,  and t h e  as  i . e . , o u t l i n e a course  Buddhism draws a d i s t i n c t i o n similar  (1) t h e y  cause t h e dilemma and t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y  (2) t h e y  l i n e which  freedom, because  of r e a l i t y  and man's p o s i t i o n i s analogous  i n i t s o t h a t he may p l o t a r o u t e  t o a geographer p r o j e c t i n g a round  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  w o u l d n o t be d i s t o r t e d ,  clarifies  i . e . , which  t h e r e i s no s i n g l e  world  projection  d o e s n o t n e g l e c t some f e a t u r e  6 which may  be r e f l e c t e d  i n another  projection.  However, to get on w i t h  the  task of map-making, the geographer has  to make do with h i s p r o j e c t i o n f o r  whatever purpose the map  I t i s the purpose t h a t p r o v i d e s  i s intended.  c r i t e r i o n of r e l e v a n c e f o r mapping. t i o n s and One  renders  I t endows w i t h v a l u e c e r t a i n  the Buddha was  not i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c u s s i n g meta-  p h y s i c a l q u e s t i o n s , f o r instance,was  because " i t was  to the fundamentals of r e l i g i o n ,  not conducive  and  world,  which attempts ments.  The  j u s t as the geographer's  f l a t map  so too i s the c h a r a c t e r of any  to express  absolute truth  not u s e f u l , not  related  to r e v u l s i o n , d i s p a s s i o n ,  c e s s a t i o n , peace, h i g h e r knowledge, r e a l i z a t i o n and  of a round  distinc-  o t h e r s n e g l i g i b l e as long as t h a t purpose i s paramount.  of the reasons why  Similarly,  the  Nirvana."^  is a distorted  projection  c o n c e p t u a l map  or scheme  i n t o a r e l a t i v e c r i t e r i o n of judg-  d i s c i p l e should r e c o g n i z e three t h i n g s r e g a r d i n g the nature  c o n c e p t u a l schemes or d o c t r i n a l p a t t e r n s : (1) they t r a n s l a t e r e a l i t y  of  into  c o n v e n t i o n a l modes of e x p r e s s i o n which can be apprehended by the "normal" person;  (2) they are symbolic  s t r u c t u r e s which f a c i l i t a t e  transcendence.  ... the symbol not only makes the world "open" but a l s o h e l p s r e l i gious man to a t t a i n to the u n i v e r s a l . For i t i s through symbols t h a t man f i n d s h i s way out of h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and "opens h i m s e l f " to the g e n e r a l and the u n i v e r s a l . Symbols awaken i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e and transmute i t i n t o s p i r i t u a l a c t , i n t o . . . comprehension of the world.^ And  (3), s i n c e they are d i s t o r t e d  cling  r e f l e c t i o n s of r e a l i t y ,  to them as i f they t r u l l y r e f l e c t e d r e a l i t y .  comparable to a r a f t clinging The  one  should  " I preach you  f o r the sake of c r o s s i n g over and  never'  a dhamma  not f o r the sake of  to i t . . . ."° awareness of t h i s  f o r mapping i s i n t e g r a l  inherent i n s u f f i c i e n c y  to symbolic  t i n e " ) should be understood  knowledge.  as a-convenient  coupled w i t h the n e c e s s i t y  Buddhist  dhamma-  7  means t o apprehend and  ("docorganize  7 the stream of human e x i s t e n c e i n t o meaningful tures which f a c i l i t a t e  symbolic s t r u c t u r e s ;  struc-  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from n o r m a l i t y to n o b i l i t y .  In summary, c o n c e p t u a l maps of r e a l i t y and man's p o s i t i o n i n i t a r e necessary  to Buddhism as a r e l i g i o n , because  the s i t u a t i o n  (1) they adequately  i n terms that can be understood;  assess  (2) they p r o v i d e an acces-  s i b l e r o u t e to overcome the human c o n d i t i o n o f bondage, i n t h i s case, a p r o v i s i o n which d i s s i p a t e s i.e.,  the doubts  and f e a r s of s k e p t i c i s m and f a t a l i s m ,  . . on the one hand, the f e a r that n o t h i n g one can do can b r i n g  about  hoped-for  r e s u l t s , and on the other, the f e a r t h a t n o t h i n g one can  do can a l t e r what i s bound to occur." ; and (3) they e p i t o m i z e an i d e a l f o r man t o concern and commit h i m s e l f t o . The i d e a l or u l t i m a t e concern i n Buddhism i s complete  freedom ( v i m u t t i - or vimokkha-) equal to nibbana-  Tlie Buddhist, as with a l l r e l i g i o u s men, must r e c o g n i z e the i n h e r e n t problems o f e x p r e s s i n g u l t i m a t e t r u t h i n c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l It i s the e s s e n t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n necessary f o r the sake of r e a l i t y poses.  that a l l c o n c e p t u a l maps or schemes a r e  of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , y e t are only l i m i t e d  and man's p o s i t i o n  terms.  in it;  expressions  l i m i t e d , but adequate f o r mapping pur-  In t h i s way, Buddhist dhamma-, as symbolic c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s ,  beckons i t s adherents  to g a i n that knowledge which exceeds a l l l i m i t a t i o n s ,  which can never be reduced  to human thought  s t r u c t u r e s , and which i s equal  to u l t i m a t e t r u t h  No te s •'•See M i r c e a E l i a d e , The Sacred and the Profane, New York, 1959. v l d a Buddhism wouldn't, however, concern i t s e l f w i t h any m e t a p h y s i c a l s i d e r a t i o n s which the terms " s a c r e d " and " p r o f a n e " might imply. 2  Emptiness ,  p. 173.  The  and a n a l y s i s  0  analogy  f o l l o w s P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , pp. 29-30. 1  0  Theracon-  8  ^M.1:431., t r a n s , by J a y a t i l l e k e , E a r l y B u d d h i s t , p. 3 5 7 . T e n t h e s e s w e r e i n c i r c u l a t i o n a t t h e t i m e of: t h e B u d d h a . Regarding these t e n the Buddha r e f u s e d t o e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n , v i z . : 1) t h e w o r l d i s e t e r n a l , 2 ) t h e w o r l d i s n o t e t e r n a l , 3) t h e w o r l d i s f i n i t e , 4 ) t h e w o r l d i s i n f i n i t e , 5), t h e s o u l i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e b o d y , 6) t h e s o u l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b o d y , 7) t h e T a t h a g a t a ("Thus-gone") e x i s t s a f t e r d e a t h , 8) t h e T a t h a g a t a d o e s n o t e x i s t a f t e r d e a t h , 9) t h e T a t h a g a t a d o e s a n d d o e s n o t e x i s t a f t e r d e a t h , and 10) t h e T a t h a g a t a n e i t h e r e x i s t s n o r d o e s n o t e x i s t a f t e r d e a t h . These t e n t h e s e s were n o t r e g a r d e d a s p r a g m a t i c o r " g o a l " o r i e n t e d by t h e B u d d h a . K.g., " t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e a r r o w o c c u r s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a v y a k a t a - t h e s e s a n d t h e g i s t o f i t i s t h a t a man s t r u c k w i t h a p o i s o n e d a r r o w s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e m o v i n g t h e a r r o w a n d g e t t i n g w e l l r a t h e r t h a n be i n t e r e s t e d i n p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s ( a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a r r o w , who s h o t i t , e t c . ) , w h i c h h a v e no p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y . The m o r a l i s t h a t man s h o u l d o n l y be i n t e r e s t e d i n t r u t h s w h i c h h a v e a p r a c t i c a l b e a r i n g on h i s l i f e . " F r o m E a r l y B u d d h i s t , p. 3 5 7 . 0  0  ^Eliade, 6  M. 1:134,  The S a c r e d a n d t h e P r o f a n e , p. 2 1 1 . trans,  by J a y a t i l l e k e ,  E a r l y _ B u d d h i s t , p. 3 5 7 . 0  F o r t h e m a n i f o l d m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m dhamma- s e e M a g d a l e n e a n d W i l h e l m G e i g e r , P a l i Dhamma, V e r n e h m l i c h i n d e r K a n o n i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r , M u n i c h , 1920. 7  ^Presuppositions , 0  p. 2 3 .  . S e e F r e d e r i c k S t r e n g , "The P r o b l e m o f S y m b o l i c S t r u c t u r e s i n R e l i g i o u s A p p r e h e n s i o n , " H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s , I V , N o . l (Summer, 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 2 6 - 5 3 . 9  9 THE  BUDDHIST CONCEPTION OF REALITY  Buddhism draws a c o n c e p t u a l which cause bondage (bandha-) and dom  (vimutti-).  T h i s map  map  of r e a l i t y  to e x p l a i n the c o n d i t i o n s  the c o n d i t i o n s necessary  to achieve  p r o j e c t s three judgments r e g a r d i n g  the  free-  character  of the world: All All All  c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n g s are a n i c c a c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n g s are dukkha-„ phenomena (both mental and p h y s i c a l ) are  anattan-.  Impermanence ( a n i c c a - ) i s the nonenduring c h a r a c t e r i s t i c conditioned  things  of a l l c a u s a l l y  (samkhara).  H e r e i n , the f i v e aggregates are impermanent. Why? Because they r i s e and f a l l and change, or because of. t h e i r non-existence a f t e r having been,, R i s e and f a l l and change are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of impermanence; or mode a l t e r a t i o n , i n other words non-existence a f t e r having been ( i s the c h a r c t e r i s t i c of impermanence).3 Impermanent indeed are c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n g s , A r i s i n g and p a s s i n g away, that i s t h e i r nature; Having come i n t o being they cease to e x i s t , Their p a c i f i c a t i o n i s b l i s s . 4 Impermanence i s a synonym f o r " a r i s i n g and p a s s i n g away," " b i r t h and t r u c t i o n , " to which a l l c o n d i t i o n e d If  things are  subject.  a l l t h i n g s are impermanent, then i t stands  no " t h i n g " which i s s u b s t a n t i a l .  to reason  U n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (anattan-,  s e l f or s o u l " ) means t h a t a t h i n g cannot e x i s t - i n - i t s e l f as an independent, enduring negation  In other words, there i s no  of i t s p a r t s , no l a s t i n g  t i f i e d with If  t h a t there i s literally  (sabhava-),  "In essence, anattan  of a s t a t i c i z e d or permanent u n d e r l y i n g  t h i n g what i t i s . sum  entity,,  des-  r e f e r s to  "no-  i„e., the  substance t h a t makes a  ' t h i n g ' t h a t completes  substance that can be p o i n t e d  to as being  the iden-  the name i t i s c a l l e d . " - '  the nature  of a l l c a u s a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d  t h i n g s i s both impermanence  and u n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y , i t would f o l l o w t h a t the man  who  craves f o r  eternal  10  or permanent, ( n i c e a - ) happiness and hopes to d e r i v e such happiness  from  things which a r e themselves impermanent as w e l l as u n s u b s t a n t i a l w i l l i n due  course  fall  satisfaction  short of h i s expectation  d e r i v e d from t h i n g s  be o f a temporary nature. suffering faction  (dukkha-).  of l a s t i n g  impermanent and u n s u b s t a n t i a l would s u r e l y  The consequence o f an u n s a t i s f i e d e x p e c t a t i o n i s  The t h i n g s  from which he endeavors t o d e r i v e  satis-  i s p a r t l y due to o n e s attachment to things that a r e themselves 1  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , o r , to crave  f o r "ease" from t h i n g s  ease" breeds only " d i s - e a s e "  i n return.  The  nature  standing  o f r e a l i t y doesn't correspond  psychologically  "dis-  o b j e c t i v e l y ( t a t h a t a - ) to the way •  i n thought and a c t i o n as i f f t does.  sets himself  i s " (yathabhuta).  represent  that are i n r e a l i t y  of the human c o n d i t i o n i s such that our s u b j e c t i v e under-  t h i n g s a r e , chough we c l i n g  i n disharmony  (dukkha-) to r e a l i t y  Disharmony r e f l e c t s  the human c o n d i t i o n o f bondage.  the inadequacies  s i o n which occurs  when one f a i l s  i s a l s o dukkha-.  Thus man "as i t  (p. 1) which  Because o f these, man i s unable  to a n t i c i p a t e and c o n t r o l events which concern him.  trol  because the  (sukha-, "ease") are u l t i m a t e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y (dukkha-, " d i s - e a s e " ) .  Suffering  really  happiness,  The d i s p a r i t y  or ten-  to c o n t r o l what he has the c a p a c i t y to con-  .Dukkha- not only r e f e r s to the human c o n d i t i o n of  disharmony, d i s j o i n t e d n e s s , or d i s e q u i l i b r i u m to r e a l i t y "as i t r e a l l y i s " and  incompleteness when one's p o t e n t i a l s are u n r e a l i z e d , but expresses the  f e l t - e x p e r i e n c e of those According ing"  to Buddhist  i s a- c o n d i t i o n e d  gates.  existential  s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l .  a n a l y s i s , what we c o n v e n t i o n a l l y term "human be-  phenomenon, a compounded u n i t composed o f f i v e  aggre-  He i s impermanent, u n s u b s t a n t i a l , and as such u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , l i a b l e  to d i s - e a s e .  He i s c o n d i t i o n e d  by attachment  (upadana-) and ignorance ( a -  v i j j a -) which c o n t i n u a l l y generates compulsive behavior  (kamma-) and which,  11  in  turn, regenterates  tional  regeneration  by  o n e ' s kamma -.,  um  of " r e b i r t h ,  and  despair."  a t t a c h m e n t and  i s equal  experienced ageing,  That  too  ignorance  anew.  This c y c l e s of  condi-  to s a m s a r a - , the "Wheel o f R e b i r t h , " g o v e r n e d as  dying,  d u k k h a - , and sorrow,  which binds  lamentation,  us  to the  continu-  b o d i l y pain, mental  grief,  i s dukkha-.  A what, brothers., i s the N o b l e T r u t h C o n c e r n i n g Dukkha-? Birth is d u k k h a - , a l s o a g e i n g and d y i n g , a l s o s o r r o w , l a m e n t a t i o n , b o d i l y p a i n , m e n t a l g r i e f , and d e s p a i r a r e d u k k h a - . A l s o , w h a t one d e s i r e s , b u t d o e s n o t o b t a i n , t h a t t o o i s d_ukkha-. In b r i e f , the f i v e a g g r e g a t e s of c l i n g i n g are dukkha-.  Notes ^•Dhamma pa da XX, 5-7. I n t h i s p a s s a g e , I t r a n s l a t e d dhamma- as "phenomena." The t e r m d e f i n e d i n t h i s way i s d i s c u s s e d by D a v i d K a l u p a h a n a , C a u s a l ity°, pp. 6 7 - 8 8 . On pp. 84 & 85 he d i s c u s s e s dhamma-in r e l a t i o n w i t h samkhara's. ^The f i v e a g g r e g a t e s ( k h a n d h a - ) c o n s i s t i n g o f a g g r e g a t e s o f m a t e r i a l i t y and m e n t a l i t y ( n a m a r u p a - ) compose w h a t we know as t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y . E v e r y t h i n g i s composed o f e i t h e r e l e m e n t s or m a t e r i a l i t y o r m e n t a l i t y o r both i n v a r i o u s combinations. A/  o  ^Vis.21:6, 4  D.2:157.  5  B P T , pp.  t r a n s , by  Nyanamoli.  A l s o see  Vis.8:234.  6-7.  M.3:249. A c c o r d i n g t o V i s . ( P T S ) , p. 4 9 9 , t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f d u k k h a may be c o n c e i v e d o f as t h r e e f o l d : (1) d u k k h a - as o r d i n a r y s u f f e r i n g ( d u k k h a d u k k h a - ) , i . e . , " b i r t h a g e i n g , d y i n g , s o r r o w , l a m e n t a t i o n , b o d i l y p a i n , ment a l g r i e f , and d e s p a i r ; " (2) d u k k h a - as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c h a n g e o r t r a n s formation (viparinama-dukkha-), i . e . , " w h a t one d e s i r e s b u t d o e s n o t o b t a i n ; " and (3) d u k k h a - as c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena ( s a m k h a r a - d u k k h a - ) , i . e . , " t h e f i v e aggregates of c l i n g i n g . " F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s e e Sacca-vibhanga-sutta or Vis.16:32-60. 6  12  CAUSALITY  The  concern  to u n d e r s t a n d  the n a t u r e o f c a u s a l i t y  understand  the c o n d i t i o n s which  conditions  necessary  freedom. and  A man. i s " f r e e "  nonoccurrence  natural  to c a u s e  o f any  e x t e n s i o n of the term,  because i t s c a u s a l agent occurrence. of  The  freedom-to  First,  which  he  the  i s concerned;  to  the of  occurrence and  by  the  is "free"  of t h i s  scheme a r e d e t e r m i n e d  i . e . , by  by  the c o n d i t i o n s which  the  nature  cause  the  events.  o f an e v e n t  n e c e s s a r y o r one  the o c c u r r e n c e  the o c c u r r e n c e or n o n o c c u r r e n c e  t h e r e i s the r e q u i r e m e n t  nonoccurrence  and  i s a b l e to b r i n g about  freedom-from,  occurrence of free  t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b o n d a g e and  i t s nonoccurrence  about  i s the c o n c e r n  i s f r e e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t o c c u r r e n c e o r non-  requirements  and  cause  i f he event  (PATICCASAMUPPADA-)  that  t o be c a l l e d  sufficient  i n o r d e r f o r the o c c u r r e n c e  "free,"  i t - m u s t have a t l e a s t  or one  condition.  T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t I c a l l the r e q u i r e m e n t o f " f r e e d o m - t o . " I f an o c c u r r e n c e d o e s n o t h a v e a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n t h e n t h e r e i s no way f o r a n y one t o a v o i d i t , f o r t o a v o i d a n o c c u r r e n c e one must s e e t o i t t h a t a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e d o e s n o t o c c u r . And i f an o c c u r r e n c e d o e s n o t h a v e any s u f f i c i e n t - c o n d i t i o n , t h e r e i s no way f o r us t o e f f e c t i t , i . e . , t o s e e t o i t t h a t i t o c c u r s , f o r t o be a b l e t o s e e t o i t t h a t an e v e n t o c c u r s p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r t h a t event the o c c u r r e n c e of which w i l l b r i n g about the event i n q u e s t i o n . ! Secondly, called  there i s the requirement  "free,"  nonoccurrence  that  the necessary or s u f f i c i e n t m u s t be  i n the agent's  i n o r d e r f o r an e v e n t  condition  control  as  to  be  of that occurrence  or  well.  I - c a l l t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t the r e q u i r e m e n t of "freedom-from." It is n o t m e r e l y a n o t h e r way o f d e s c r i b i n g f r e e d o m - t o ; r a t h e r i t p r e s u p p o s e s freedom-to but exceeds the former r e q u i r e m e n t . . . . Freedom-from s a y s " p r o v i d i n g t h e r e i s f r e e d o m - t o , t h e n a t l e a s t one n e c e s s a r y o r one s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n o f a f r e e e v e n t m u s t be i n someone's c o n t r o l , i . e . , s u c h t h a t he c o u l d h a v e done o t h e r w i s e . " 2 Therefore,  f o r the B u d d h i s t  to understand  the c o n d i t i o n s which  cause  13  the occurrence of bondage and rence and  the c o n d i t i o n s which b r i n g about i t s nonoccur-  the occurrence of freedom, presupposes an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  nature of c a u s a l p a t t e r n s ,  e s p e c i a l l y those which make up  the sequence of  events which p e r t a i n to h i s u l t i m a t e concern f o r complete freedom. which p r o j e c t s the nature of c a u s a l i t y must a l l o w s e l f - c o n t r o l and  i n s i g h t , and  the  The  f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y  map  of  must s t e e r a course c l e a r of s k e p t i c i s m  and  fatalism. . . . ( I t must) on the one hand be loose enough to a l l o w . f o r freedomfrom, to a l l o w us to enter i n t o events as c a u s a l agents, and thus to i n s u r e that we are not at the mercy of f o r c e s beyond out c o n t r o l ; nevert h e l e s s , i t must not be so l o o s e t h a t the events we care about, those events which enter i n t o the types of sequence through which we may hope to move toward freedom, are i r r e g u l a r l y r e l a t e d , u n p r e d i c t a b l e , and c h a o t i c i n t h e i r p a t t e r n . We must be able to count on the r e c u r r e n c e of c e r t a i n sequences, but at the same time we must have c o n f i d e n c e t h a t our d e c i s i o n s and d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e events s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 3 To  satisfy  the above requirements and  i n g the nature of things  the  judgments p r o j e c t e d  (dhammata-), the Buddha i n h i s " D i s c o u r s e  regardon  Causal  Relations'"^ mentions f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a u s a t i o n :  (1) o b j e c t i v i t y  (ta-  thata-),  (anafTnathata-),  and  (2) n e c e s s i t y  (A) c o n d i t i o n a l i t y  ( a v i t a t h a t a - ) , (3) i n v a r i a b i l i t y  (idappaccayata-).  The f i r s t emphasizes the o b j e c t i v i t y of the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n . I t was, i n f a c t , intended to r e f u t e the c l a i m of some i d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s who belonged to the U p a n i s a d i c t r a d i t i o n and who m a i n t a i n e d that change, and t h e r e f o r e c a u s a t i o n , are mere matters of words, n o t h i n g but names . . . they are mental f a b r i c a t i o n s having no o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . For. the Buddha c a u s a t i o n was as r e a l as a n y t h i n g e l s e . . . . The second and t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " n e c e s s i t y " ( a v i t a t h a t a ) and " i n v a r i a b i l i t y " (ananffathata), s t r e s s the l a c k of e x c e p t i o n or the e x i s tence of r e g u l a r i t y . The f a c t that a c e r t a i n set of c o n d i t i o n s g i v e s r i s e to a c e r t a i n e f f e c t and not to something completely d i f f e r e n t , i s one of the b a s i c assumptions of the c a u s a l p r i n c i p l e . If this feature i s not r e c o g n i z e d , the b a s i c p a t t e r n of events p e r c e i v e d i n the phenomenal world cannot be e x p l a i n e d . . . . The f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c a u s a t i o n , " c o n d i t i o n a l i t y " ( i d a p p a c c a y a t a ) , i s by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t s t e e r s c l e a r of the two ext r e m e s — t h e u n c o n d i t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y i m p l i e d i n s t r i c t determinism and the u n c o n d i t i o n a l a r b i t r a r i n e s s assumed by a c c i d e n t a l i s m . Hence i t was  14  used The ation,"  as a synonym f o r c a u s a t i o n . 5 e x p r e s s i o n f o r c a u s a t i o n i s paticcasamuppada-  literally  "dependent c o - u p - r i s i n g " ) .  the word denotes the presence rence  (samuppado) s i n c e i t causes  "And  origin-  Buddhaghosa comments t h a t  of a p l u r a l i t y  together b r i n g s about a r e s u l t :  ("dependent  of c o n d i t i o n s and i t is called  a  their  occur-  'co-arising'  s t a t e s t h a t occur i n u n r e s o l v e d mutual  inter-  dependence to a r i s e a s s o c i a t e d l y . H e a l s o says  t h a t the p l u r a l i t y  c o n d i t i o n s which cause the o c c u r r e n c e  or t h i n g s " a r i s e s as a  togetherness  (saha), thus i t i s a c o - a r i s i n g  h a v i n g depended l e s s of them.  samuppada)."  Consequently:  provided  change from seed The  ample water, and  totality  p l e n t y of sunshine.  of c o n d i t i o n s as "cause" c o n d i t i o n s and  (£ £cayJ.) o u t l i n e d a  need not examine them. example  (3) that i t has The  will the  cause of  to sprout i s dependent upon these c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g  causal relations  9  There are  For our purpose  24 we  8  that c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s be s a t i s f i e d  (i.e.,  conditionality).  (i.e.,  the e f f e c t .  establishes several empirical facts:  nor w i l l  present  c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l r e l a -  i n the Patthana.  quires  these f a c t s  (paticca-  (1) a seed which  (2) i t i s p l a n t e d p r o p e r l y , and  t i o n s h i p s between the s p e c i f i c  i n poor s o i l ,  is a co-arising  and a t t a i n m a t u r i t y , i n t u r n , to r e p r o -  three c o n d i t i o n s must be p r e s e n t :  b e n e f i t o f good s o i l ,  The  (paticca),  a l s o i t i s dependent o r i g i n a t i o n  to s p r o u t , grow up,  seeds.,  together.  with c o n d i t i o n s , not r e g a r d -  i t having depended  i n t h i s way  i t does so  7  For a seed  germinate  (samuppada); but  ( p a t i c c a - - g e r . ) i n combination  (samuppada), thus  duce new  of an event  of  A seed w i l l  (1) c a u s a t i o n r e -  b e f o r e an event  not become a mature p l a n t i f p l a n t e d  i t sprout i f i t i s broken or r o t t e n ;  objectivity),  or t h i n g occurs  the farmer  (2) because of  i s a b l e to p r e d i c t what a u s p i -  15  cious He  conditions  a r e needed f o r s u c c e s s f u l c u l t i v a t i o n  (i.e.,  necessity).  i s a l s o aware that a l l seeds do not produce the same r e s u l t s , e.g.,  wheat seeds w i l l  not produce r i c e p l a n t s  process of c a u s a t i o n are  subject  the  sprout  will  (i.e.,  i s a continual  samsara-).  invariability);  a continual cycle.  The s p r o u t  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  The sprout  (4) the sprout  Further,  duce an e f f e c t , others,  will  become a p l a n t ,  therefore,  o f new seeds, and so on.  does not endure, i t changes  i s dependent on a p l u r a l i t y  (i.e.,  of conditions  and t h a t e f f e c t w i l l  then become a c o n d i t i o n ,  It i s  imperman-  f o r i t s be-  unsubstantial-  there must be a mutual interdependence o f c o n d i t i o n s  which w i l l  to pro-  together  i s uniformity  to a l l c a u s a l  r e l a t i o n s (dhammat-  dh amma n i y ama t a - , and dhanimata-) . which conforms to the f o u r  acteristics  with  produce f u r t h e r e f f e c t s and f u r t h e r dependence and i n t e r -  dependence; and (5) there thitata-,  the  process o f becoming to which a l l things  coming, as such, i t does not e x i s t independent o f them ( i . e . , ity).  (3)  i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r the p l a n t ' s becoming. . The p l a n t  become a c o n d i t i o n  ence);  (i.e.,  of causation  and the three  char-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (tilakkhanani), anic-  ca-, a n a t t a n - , and dukkha-, o f e x i s t e n c e The  general  formula f o r the o c c u r r e n c e and nonoccurrence o f an event  is: When from When from This  t h i s i s present, that becomes; t h e a r i s i n g o f t h i s , that a r i s e s . t h i s i s absent, that does not become: the c e s s a t i o n o f t h i s , that ceases. ^  formula  i s u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e as the c a u s a l p r i n c i p l e which ac-  counts f o r the o c c u r r e n c e and nonoccurrence o f a l l phenomena.''-''' plains tion  the Buddha's statement, "He who p e r c e i v e s  (paticcasamuppada-) p e r c e i v e s  sense of t r u t h , the t r u t h r e g a r d i n g  the dhamma-  T h i s ex-  the dependent c o - o r i g i n a -  (dhamma- here taken i n the  the nature o f r e a l i t y ) . " 1 2  insight into  16  causality,  then, r e v e a l s  the nature of r e a l i t y  (dhammata-), e s p e c i a l l y an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what causes the o c c u r r e n c e of bondage and about i t s nonoccurrence and  how  one  the o c c u r r e n c e of freedom, i . e . , the  can  bring  Buddhist  c h i e f r e l i g i o u s concern. The  formula which s a t i s f i e s  account of the disharmonious and human c o n d i t i o n ,  that concern i s the  twelvefold  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y nature  causal  (dukkhata-) of  the  namely:  Because of ignorance, v o l i t i o n a l formations ( o c c u r ) ; because of vol i t i o n a l formations, c o n s c i o u s n e s s or d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge ( o c c u r s ) ; because of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , m e n t a l i t y and m a t e r i a l i t y ( o c c u r ) ; because of m e n t a l i t y and m a t e r i a l i t y , the s i x sense spheres ( o c c u r ) ; because of the s i x sense spheres, c o n t a c t ( o c c u r s ) ; because of c o n t a c t , sensat i o n ( o c c u r s ) ; because of s e n s a t i o n , t h i r s t or c r a v i n g ( o c c u r s ) ; because of t h i r s t , becoming ( o c c u r s ) ; because of becoming, r e b i r t h (occ u r s ) ; because of r e b i r t h , ageing, dying, sorrow, l a m e n t a t i o n , b o d i l y p a i n , mental g r i e f , and d e s p a i r occur. In t h i s way does t h i s e n t i r e pervading aggregate of dukkha- a r i s e . 1 3 This  t w e l v e f o l d c h a i n of c a u s a t i o n  whereby the o p p o s i t e for  of each member i n the c h a i n  the c e s s a t i o n of the next.  fully  enter and  (tanha-),  both regarded as  condition.  ance and  presence of i n s i g h t and  factory,  ( a v i j j a - ) or  (viraga-)  knowledge (pann^a-) r e p l a c e s  or s e l f - c o n t r o l r e p l a c e s  successthirst  conditions  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y nature which c h a r a c t e r i z e s  thirst.  the  an  necessary  f o r freedom-from and  The  phenomena are  the Buddhist d o c t r i n e  and  freedom-to.^  i n s i g h t i n t o paticcasamuppada- g i v e s (dukkhata-)•  hu-  ignor-  s e l f - c o n t r o l causes the c e s s a t i o n of dukkha-  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the nature of dukkhacausally conditioned  condition  p l a c e s where one. can  the e s s e n t i a l or "most s t r i k i n g " ^  the c o n d i t i o n s  In summary, f i r s t ,  two  conditions,  is a sufficient  e i t h e r at ignorance  I n s i g h t or p e n e t r a t i v e  nonattachment  also satisfies  There are  break the c h a i n ,  of the disharmonious and man  i s a c h a i n of n e c e s s a r y  one  an  Second, because a l l  impermanent, u n s u b s t a n t i a l ,  I of paticcasamuppada-, then,  and  unsatis-  substantiates  17  their all  judgments r e g a r d i n g  things are  the nature of e x i s t e n c e .  impermanent  I t demonstrates  (anicca-) because they a r i s e and  that  decease.  It  demonstrates f u r t h e r that a l l things are dependent upon a mutual i n t e r r e l a t e d ness of c o n d i t i o n s in  for t h e i r  temporary e x i s t e n c e .  t u r n , become c o n d i t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d with  of new  events or t h i n g s .  T h e i r becoming  others which cause the  Because a l l t h i n g s are impermanent and  pendent or i n t e r r e l a t e d , no " t h i n g " can e x i s t - i n - i t s e l f enduring, independent e n t i t y .  Everything  (bhava-), occurrence interde-  (sabhava-) as  is unsubstantial  an  (anattan-).  F i n a l l y , whatever i s impermanent i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y (dukkha-) because whatever s a t i s f a c t i o n occurs  i s only s h o r t  lived.  In s h o r t , paticcasamuppada- = dhammata- ("the  nature of t h i n g s " ) .  Notes ^-Presuppositions , 0  Ibid.,  2  p.  pp.  48-49.  49.  -^Ibid, , p. 93. The proceeding remarks were e x t r a c t e d from P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , pp. 47-52 and 93-97, and adopted to f i t the n e c e s s i t i e s of t h i s discussion. 0  4  Paccaya-sutta°, S.2:25f.  C i t e d i n BP,  p.  27.  BP, pp. 27-28. T a t h a t a - , " o b j e c t i v i t y , o n t o l o g i c a l i t y , " l i t e r a l l y "correspondence," means that c a u s a t i o n i s not merely an i d e a without object i v i t y , but corresponds to what i s o c c u r i n g i n nature. A v i t a t h a t a - , "necess i t y , " l i t e r a l l y " n o - n o n - o b j e c t i v t y , " means that no e x c e p t i o n i s allowed in causation. I t always takes p l a c e , without f a i l u r e . There i s no breakdown between the c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n . I t does not d i v e r t from o b j e c t i v i t y . Anannatathata-, " i n v a r i a b i l i t y , u n a l t e r a b i l i t y , " l i t e r a l l y "not-other-ness," means that there i s a c o n s i s t e n c y between cause and e f f e c t , i . e . , there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between cause and e f f e c t that remains c o n s t a n t (but t h i s does not imply i d e n t i t y between cause and e f f e c t ) . Idappaccayata-, " c o n d i t i o n a l i t y , dependence," means that there i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n or group of c o n d i t i o n s f o r an event to occur. "The commentary e x p l a i n s these terms as follows: ' " O b j e c t i v i t y , " e t c . are synonyms of what i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of causation. As those alone n e i t h e r more or l e s s , b r i n g about t h i s or that event, there i s s i d to be " o b j e c t i v i t y " ; s i n c e there i s no f a i l u r e even f o r a'moment to produce the events which a r i s e when the c o n d i t i o n s come t o gether, there i s s a i d to be " n e c e s s i t y " ; s i n c e no event d i f f e r e n t from (the 5  a  18  e f f e c t ) a r i s e s with (the help o f ) other events or c o n d i t i o n s there i s s a i d to be " i n v a r i a b i l i t y " ; from the c o n d i t i o n or group o f c o n d i t i o n s which g i v e r i s e to such s t a t e s as decay, e t c . , as s t a t e d , there i s s a i d t o be " c o n d i tionality".'" S.2:4l, t r a n s , and c i t a t i o n from E a r l y Buddhisto, pp. 447-48. For a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s see C a u s a l i t y , pp. 91-95. 0  "Vis.17:18, t r a n s , by Nyanamoli. 7  Ibid.,  17:16.  F o r a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s see Vis.17:66-100; Narada, A Manual o f A b h i dhamma, Ceylon, 1968, pp. 372-78; N y a n a t i l o k a , Buddhist D i c t i o n a r y , Ceylon, 1972., pp. 114-19; or BPT, pp. 44-49. 8  9  Example taken from S.3:54.  10  M.2:32 and S.2:28.  •'••'•Causality operates i n f i v e spheres: (1) p h y s i c a l ( i n o r g a n i c ) order (utaniyama-), (2) p h y s i c a l ( o r g a n i c ) order (bi janiyama-), (3) p s y c h o l o g i c a l order ( c i t t a n i y a m a - ) , (4) moral order (kammaniyama-), and (5) i d e a l s p i r i t u a l order (dhammaniyama-). These f i v e groups a r e a l l - i n c l u s i v e so that nothing i n experience i s excluded. In s h o r t , e v e r y t h i n g i n t h i s u n i v e r s e comes w i t h i n the o p e r a t i o n of c a u s a l i t y . F o r a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s see C a u s a l ity°, pp. 110-46. 12  M.1:190-91.  l-*This f u l l formula appears i n works l i k e S . 2 : l f . , 26f., 4 2 f . , and 94; M.l:261f; A.1:177; Dhs.1336; Vis.17:2; Atthas.395; Abhs.8:2. F o r a d e t a i l e d e x p o s i t i o n of the 12 l i n k s and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s see Vis.17:58-272. ^See  Aung's d i s c u s s i o n  on paccaya-, Compendium , pp. 261-62. 0  1 ^ P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , pp. 102 and 129-20, here P o t t e r d i s c u s s e s the neces sary and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f the Buddhist c a u s a l c h a i n . The p r e c e e d i n a n a l y s i s follows Potter's. 0  19  UNSUBSTANTIALITY  What we  (ANATTAN-)  c o n v e n t i o n a l l y d e s i g n a t e as "human b e i n g " i s i n r e a l i t y a com-  pounded u n i t composed of s e v e r a l i n d i s c r e t e and d i s c o n t i n u o u s f a c t o r s which are connected  and continuous by way  "individual personality"  of c a u s a l i t y .  (pudgala-), " s e l f "  t h i s group of f a c t o r s or p a r t of t h i s group, action, but  That which we  or " s o u l "  term  as  (attan-^) i s a c t u a l l y  which through  t h e i r mutual  inter-  together w i t h other c a u s a l c o n d i t i o n s , c o - o r i g i n a t e and become a c t u a l ,  t h e r e e x i s t s no enduring, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ,  u n d e r l y i n g change.  In t h i s way,  independent  the paticcasamuppada-  may  e n t i t y or  substance  be viewed  as a  theory o f dynamic "becoming," opposed to those t h e o r i e s w h i c h . t r y  to e s t a b -  l i s h a s t a t i c " b e i n g " as the grounds u n d e r l y i n g change. Becoming change.  (bhava-) should be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  A c c o r d i n g to the paticcasamuppada-,  rence, but  from  change i s a continuous  through  t i o n i s that continues  the stages of b i r t h ,  ageing, and  there i s some u n d e r l y i n g r e a l i t y ,  throughout  substance.  When a  d y i n g , the mistaken  person assump-  d e s i g n a t e d by name, which  the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 2  "Or,  empirical  tence i n g e n e r a l i s c o n s i d e r e d to be r e a l , w h i l e forms change. trary,  the- t r a d i t i o n a l Buddhist view i s that the world  ly--it  ' i s ' nothing."3  The  occur-  the common view of change regards i t as p e r t a i n i n g o n l y to the  a l t e r a t i o n o f form o f some more b a s i c , unchanging passes  the common n o t i o n of  exis-  To the  con-  'becomes' c o n t i n u a l -  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , a c c o r d i n g to Buddhist d o c t r i n e ,  i s a causal-  l y c o n d i t i o n phenomenon (samkhara-) composed of f i v e aggregates, which cont i n u a l l y become as a r e s u l t of the presence o f the samsaric ance and khandha  thirst. ("the  These f i v e aggregates,  f i v e aggregates  forces of ignor-  t e c h n i c a l l y termed pancupadanak-  of c l i n g i n g " ) , are m a t e r i a l i t y  ( r u p a - ) , sensa-  20  tion  (vedana-),  ousness or any  p e r c e p t i o n (sanna-), d i s p o s i t i o n s  (vinnana-). static  i n e i t h e r one  No  ego,  e n t i t y can be  self,  (samkhara), and c o n s c i -  or s o u l ( a t t a n - ) , no person  (pudgala-),  found under c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n and i n t r o s p e c t i o n  or a l l of these  aggregates.  . . . j u s t as when the component p a r t s such as a x l e s , wheels, frame, p o l e s , e t c . , are arranged i n a c e r t a i n way, there comes to be the mere term of common usage " c h a r i o t , " y e t i n the u l t i m a t e sense when each p a r t i s examined, there i s no c h a r i o t , and j u s t when the component p a r t s of a "house" ( f i s t , l u t e , army, c i t y , t r e e , or a n y t h i n g ) . . • . so too, when there are f i v e aggregates of c l i n g i n g , there comes to be the mere term of common usage "a b e i n g , " "a person," y e t i n the u l t i m a t e sense, when each component i s examined, there i s no b e i n g as a b a s i s f o r the assumption " I am" or " I " ; i n the u l t i m a t e sense there i s only m e n t a l i t y - m a t e r i a l i t y . The v i s i o n of one who sees i n t h i s Way i s c a l l e d c o r r e c t vision.4Nor  should one m i s t a k e n l y  assume t h a t these aggregates  are  substantial.  They too are c a u s a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena s u b j e c t to r e b i r t h , and d y i n g , and their  ageing,  dependent upon each other and upon other c o n d i t i o n s f o r  temporary becoming. V e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s a l l have a p r a c t i c a l purpose i n everyday  Whether i t be words used s i n g l y or arranged vey a concept,  in a logical  sequence to con-  i d e a , judgment, name, e t c . ; or s e t of concepts,  judgments, names, e t c . the o b j e c t i v e world  life.  ideas,  They are s u b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s used to r e l a t e  i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l modes of communciation.  done by d i v i d i n g a dynamic world  into s t a t i c  This i s  t h i n g s i n order to d i s c r i m i n -  ate what i s mine and what i s yours,  to d i s t i n g u i s h or i d e n t i f y  different  from each o t h e r , or to p o i n t out what-  ever  from myself  and  different  s i m i l a r i t i e s might e x i s t between c e r t a i n t h i n g s and myself  with each o t h e r , and  so on.  p o i n t to something o u t s i d e of It  In every case,  and  things  they are v e r b a l s i g n s which  themselves.  i s i g n o r a n t from the Buddhist  d e s i g n a t i o n s with  t h i n g s as  p o i n t of view to:  the t h i n g s they p o i n t a t ,  (2)  (1) equate v e r b a l  to i d e n t i f y  them as  the  21  grounds u n d e r l y i n g change,  (3) to assume that v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s have  e x i s t e n c e o u t s i d e the mind, or substantial entities, To  (4) to assume that these  or that the t h i n g s  are  p o i n t to are s u b s t a n t i a l .  the c o n t r a r y , no " t h i n g " i s s u b s t a n t i a l s i n c e a l l t h i n g s are  s a l l y conditioned,  i n c l u d i n g mental phenomena.  whether i t be a member i n the c o n s c i o u s products, than you  are  impermanent and  are r e a d i n g and  the Buddhist  would say  moment, i . e . , as The  f a s t as  the p r o c e s s . ent apart  the mind  decease  l a s t s only as  Nor  process  when one  things e x i s t  mis-  mistakenly  s t a t e s as an a b i d i n g ego  In other words, t h e r e do  fact,  long as a thought  s u b s t a n t i a l , as w e l l as  " I n Buddhism there i s no a c t o r a p a r t  from p e r c e p t i o n .  In  faster  turns.  the continuum of conscious  consciousness."^  of i t s c o g n i t i v e  They a r i s e and  human dilemma a r i s e s through the c o n s c i o u s  identifying  tities,  or one  comprehending the words on t h i s page.  that human e x i s t e n c e  cau-  A l l mental phenomena,  process  unsubstantial.  t a k e n l y presupposes phenomena to be  behind  they  designation  an  underlying  from a c t i o n , no i s no c o n s c i o u s  percipisubject  i n r e a l i t y as s u b s t a n t i a l en-  except when mistaken as such by a mind c o n d i t i o n e d by d e l u s i o n  and  attachment. The c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n with regard to the q u e s t i o n of A n a t t a i s not to take h o l d of any o p i n i o n s or views, but to t r y to see t h i n g s o b j e c t i v e l y as they are without mental p r o j e c t i o n s , to see t h a t what we c a l l " I , " or " b e i n g , " i s only a combination of p h y s i c a l and mental aggregates, which are working together i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y i n a f l u x of moment a r y change with the law of cause and e f f e c t , and that there i s not h i n g permanent, e v e r l a s t i n g , unchanging, and e t e r n a l i n the whole of existence.^ The serves  term sunnata-  ("emptiness" or " v o i d n e s s , "  literally  "zero-ness")  as a c o r o l l a r y to the d o c t r i n e s of c a u s a l i t y and u n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y .  All This  c a u s a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena are  empty.^  i s empty of s e l f or of what belongs to  self.^  22  He (the adept) sees a l l c a u s a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena as unsubstant i a l , because they are a l i e n , empty, v a i n , v o i d , ownerless, w i t h no O v e r l o r d , and with none to e x e r c i s e power over them, etc.9 Because of c a u s a l i t y , e v e r y t h i n g i s impermanent and  interdependent,  a result,  ("self-existence," i . e . ,  a l l things are empty  s u b s t a n t i a l i t y ) and tion.  (sunna-) of sabhava-  empty of any  quality  Whereas f i r e does not e x i s t  f i r e or i t s f u e l nor In t h i s same way,  that can p r o v i d e  i n f u e l nor  lasting  and,  as  satisfac-  independent from i t , n e i t h e r  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p can e x i s t as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  the t w e l v e f o l d c a u s a l c h a i n i s empty of any  entities.  self-existent  e n t i t i e s , whether taken as a whole, s i n g l y , or i n r e s p e c t to the  relations  between members. .. . . ignorance--and l i k e w i s e the f a c t o r s c o n s i s t i n g of f o r m a t i o n s , e t c . - - i s n e i t h e r s e l f nor s e l v e s , nor i n s e l f , nor possessed of s e l f . That i s why t h i s Wheel of Becoming should be understood thus " V o i d with the t w e l v e f o l d voidness."10 Even v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s are empty of sabhava- because they a r i s e pendent upon a number of f a c t o r s . samsara-, v i m u t t i - and  Therefore,  nibbana- are not d i f f e r e n t  u l t i m a t e l y a l l b e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s are empty. d i f f e r e n c e , but Their r e a l i t y  concepts  from the s t a n d p o i n t  and  from each o t h e r , because  C o n v e n t i o n a l l y there i s a  of emptiness there i s no d i f f e r e n c e .  i s r e l a t i v e no a b s o l u t e .  In t h i s way,  " i n an a b s o l u t e sense '. . . should be understood absence of any  l i k e bandha-  de-  knower, a c t o r , one who  the f o u r Noble Truths  as empty, because of  i s e x t i n g u i s h e d , and  goer.  the  Thus i t  •is s a i d . 'For there i s dukkha-, but no one i n dukkha-; a c t i n g e x i s t s , but no a c t o r ; there i s e x t i n c t i o n , but no man i s e x t i n g u i s h e d ; there i s a path, y e t no goer e x i s t s . . 'Or, Empty pair; sure,  alternatively: of s t a b i l i t y , beauty, p l e a s u r e , and s u b s t a n t i a l i t y i s the f i r s t empty of s e l f i s the d e a t h l e s s s t a t e ; empty of s t a b i l i t y , p l e a and s u b s t a n t i a l i t y i s the path; i n these are emptiness.'"11  23 Emptiness t e l l s us  that everything,  not be s e l f - e x i s t e n t or s u f f i c i e n t cause of paticcasamuppada-.  The  whether p h y s i c a l or m e n t a l , can-  (sabhava-) or s u b s t a n t i a l ( a t t a n - )  be-  human p e r s o n a l i t y i s not a s t a t i c e n t i t y ,  but a sequence of e v e n t s , f r e e or not depending on whether the p e r s o n i s i n s i g h t f u l and  s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d or not.  There i s no s e l f or s o u l t h a t i s  i n bondage or f r e e , r a t h e r events t h a t are  f r e e or  not.  Notes l " I n the t e x t s and the commentaries the words a t t a and a t t a are used i n s e v e r a l senses: (1) c h i e f l y meaning ' o n e - s e l f or 'one's own, e.g., a t t a h i t a y a p a t i p a n n o no p a r a h i t a y a ( a c t i n g i n one's own i n t e r e s t , not i n the i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r s ) or a t t a n a va katam sadhu (what i s done by one's own s e l f i s good); (2) meaning 'one's own p e r s o n , ' the p e r s o n a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g b o t h body and mind, e.g., i n a t t a b h a v a ( l i f e ) , a t t a p a t i l a b h a ( b i r t h i n some form of l i f e ) ; (3) s e l f , as a s u b t l e m e t a p h y s i c a l e n t i t y , ' s o u l , ' e.g. a t t h i me a t t a (do I have a ' s o u l ' ? ) , sunnam idam a t t e n a va a t t a n i y e n a va ( t h i s i s v o i d of a ' s e l f or a n y t h i n g to do w i t h a ' s e l f ) , e t c . It is w i t h the t h i r d meaning t h a t we are here concerned, the e n t i t y t h a t i s conc e i v e d and sought and made the s u b j e c t of a c e r t a i n c l a s s of views c a l l e d i n e a r l y B u d d h i s t t e x t s a t t a d i t t h i , a t t a n u d i t t h i ( s e l f - v i e w s or h e r e s y of s e l f ) and a t t a g a h a ( m i s c o n c e p t i o n r e g a r d i n g s e l f ) . " From BE, v o l . I , p. 567. For t h e i r a n a l y s i s on a n a t t a n - see pp. 567-76; f o r a n i c c a - see pp. 657-63. 1  2  S e e E m p t i n e s s , p.  3  I b i d . , pp.  0  36-37.  4 V i s . 1 8 : 2 8 , t r a n s , by ^Compendium , p. 0  6  36.  Nyanamoli  7.  W a l p o l a R a h u l a , What the Buddha Taught, New  ?S.3:167. 8  M.2:263.  9  Vis.21:48.  1 0  V i s . 1 7 : 2 8 3 , t r a n s , by Nyanamoli.  1 1  Vis.16:90.  York, 1962,  p.  66.  24  THE  The  CONCEPT OF THE  d o c t r i n e s of c a u s a l i t y and  as the c e n t r a l or c h i e f " r e l i g i o u s " they e x p l a i n bondage and  i t s cessation,  d e n t a l i s m , and to be  WAY"  u n s u b s t a n t i a i i t y are h i g h l y  regarded  d o c t r i n e s of Buddhism, because:  the nature of r e a l i t y and account  (1)  f o r the human c o n d i t i o n of  (2) they s t e e r c l e a r of the extremes of e t e r n a l -  ism and a n n i h i l a t i o n i s m , and s t r i c t  fulfill  "MIDDLE  (3) they s a t i s f y  determinism  and  i n d e t e r m i n i s m or  c e r t a i n key concerns  acci-  that a " r e l i g i o n " must  "religious."  (1) Because of c a u s a l i t y ,  everything i s said  to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  impermanence, u n s u b s t a n t i a i i t y , and d i s - e a s e ( a n i c c a - , a n a t t a n - , and dukkha-) .  C a u s a l i t y or.dependent  "Whever A i s p r e s e n t B w i l l occur." process  duce C or D,  e t c . , o n l y B,  nonoccurrence  which through  of events, i . e . ,  i . e . , " i n v a r i a b i l i t y ; " and  i.e.,"conditionality."  (4) A as the ante-  C to become, and for v o l i t i o n a l  so on.  In t h i s way,  (dukkhata-)  for v o l i t i o n a l  ignorance i s the n e c e s s a r y  f o r m a t i o n s , e t c . , which through  nature  C to become, and  i n t e r a c t i o n with other c o n d i t i o n s ,  t h e i r mutual  and c d - o r i g i n a t i o n are the c o n d i t i o n s which cause satisfactory  cause  B then becomes a c o n d i t i o n ,  ignorance i s the necessary c o n d i t i o n  formations, e t c . , which through  and  i . e . , " n e c e s s i t y ; " (3) A w i l l not pro-  i n t e r a c t i o n with other c o n d i t i o n s , causes  In t h i s way,  not  (1) the c a u s a l  of B r e p r e s e n t s the mutual i n t e r a c t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s which  B to become a c t u a l ,  so on.  says,  f a i l u r e B w i l l become when A i s p r e s e n t  not become when A i s absent,  cedent  four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  i s as r e a l as the o c c u r r e n c e and (2) without  (paticcasamuppada-)  occur, and whenever A i s absent B w i l l  T h i s u n i f o r m c a u s a l law has  "objectivity;" will  co-origination  condition  interdependence  the disharmonious  of the human c o n d i t i o n .  causes  T h i s causes  and the  un-  25  regeneration of ignorance, i.e.,  samsara-. To  end  occurrence  Bondage  of ignorance This w i l l  thirst  world  their  i s empty  entities. reality  ( p a n u b b h a v a - ) one  through  theory  call  entities.  of c a u s a l i t y ,  the Buddhist  a b s o l u t e or u l t i m a t e sense,  static  i n an  and  u n s u b s t a n t i a l , i . e . , empty, b e c a u s e  (2) A c c o r d i n g  they  Eternalism posits  strict  able " s e l f " altogether  or " s o u l " (this  t h i n g s as c a u s a l a g e n t s ,  even these they  altogether.  substantiaiity  and  c a t a g o r i e s are  should  o f an  never s l i p  things we  impermanent  indeterminism as  i t does not  hold-  or a c c i d e n t a l i s m .  the grounds  individual,  for continuity  an u n c h a n g i n g ,  immut-  continuity  t o t h e d e n i a l o f kamma- and  go  the c o n t r a r y , the  o p p o s e " b e i n g " and  into  and a n n i h i l a t i o n i s m  the e x i s t e n c e of a permanent s e l f  On  whose  too are c a u s a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d  entity  extension leads  yet  (attan-)  purposes,  (attan-); while a n n i h i l a t i o n i s m denies  Buddhism denies  continuity  determinism  i n the case  d e n i a l by  the  categories f o r communciation,  d o c t r i n e , one  a self-substantiated  ( o r as c a u s a l a g e n t s ) ,  that  represent.  to Buddhist  and  of  non-  i s empty o f  relational  i n g onto the extremes o f e t e r n a l i s m ( s a s s a t a v a d a - ) (ucchedavada-),  or  (sabhava-) or s u b s t a n t i a l  F o r c o n v e n t i o n a l and  yet  sara-) .  maintains  are a c t u a l l y mental f a b r i c a t i o n s  i n t o seemingly  the e x t e r n a l w o r l d  and  dukkha-.  "thing"  d i v i d e a dynamic w o r l d  like  (nirodha-)  are p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e , s i n c e the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d  substantial  of i n s i g h t  non-  o f t h e o t h e r members  the c o m p l e t e c e s s a t i o n  (sunna-) o f s e l f - e x i s t e n t  What we  dukkha-.  must c a u s e the  the o c c u r r e n c e  l e a d to the nonoccurrence  (apunabbhava-) of  B a s e d on  as  and  t w e l v e f o l d c a u s a l c h a i n and  rebecoming  to the "Wheel o f Becoming,"  (bandha-) i s the c o n t i n u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of  t h i s c y c l e of rebecoming  self-control. the  e t c . , here equal  or  self-existent  t o t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e and t h e o r i e s of c a u s a l i t y  "non-being" with  sam-  "becoming."'-  deny  and  un-  S t r i c t determinism is r i g i d l y  determined by what one  i n d i v i d u a l has causation  feel  did  in the past  no c o n t r o l over h i s d e s t i n y  and  free w i l l ) .  dividual effort strictly  (niyativada-) maintains that everything  i n that  i s sometimes a f a c t o r i n c a u s a l  determined.  f r e e to a c t and  "The  proof  exercise  of t h i s was  our  effort,  are  called  A theory  unpredictable,  which b e l i e v e s  tuitous circumstances exist,  rather  this  fact  i s not  that  our. ' i n i t i a t i v e '  we  (arab-  1,2  and. that  the world i s  u n i f o r m c a u s a l process  that moral d e g r a d a t i o n and  (ahetuvada-).  p u r i t y are due  to  for-  Buddhism m a i n t a i n s that n i h i l i s m doesn't  ignorance of causes does e x i s t .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a u s a t i o n  self-  or n i h i l i s m maintains t h a t a l l events  denying any  (S.3:69).  the  i t maintains that i n -  r e l a t i o n s , and  f o r t u i t o u s (adhiccasamuppada- or y a d r c c h a - ) ,  c h a o t i c and  (a d e n i a l of  the e m p i r i c a l  bhadhatu) i n many s i t u a t i o n s (A. I I I , 3 3 7 , 3 3 8 ) . Indeterminism, a c c i d e n t a l i s m ,  (S.4:230), or t h a t  or nature  Buddhism d i f f e r s  which occurs  I t c o u n t e r s w i t h the  (objectivity, necessity,  four  invariability,  and  conditionality). The  doubts and  m a n i f e s t e d as that  in fact  freedom are a choice,  1  f e a r s of s t r i c t  f a t a l i s m and  as we  such that say."  3  what i s bound to happen. from, s i n c e  the  Skepticism involved  sufficient  they can i t i s the This  The  f e a r of f a t a l i s m i s "the  conditions  be w i t h i n my  allow  f e a r s that "the  one  o c c u r r e n c e s and  sufficient conditions."^  do can b r i n g about hoped-for r e s u l t s .  can  do  can  alter  of freedom-  of h i s c o n t r o l .  nonoccurrences that  I t i s the  to  that I 'have  the p o s s i b i l i t y  person i s at the mercy of f o r c e s out  fear  of events l e a d i n g  c o n t r o l , so  f e a r that nothing  does not  i n d e t e r m i n i s m become  i n the attainment of complete freedom are not  to necessary and can  skepticism.  the necessary and not  determinism and  are  r e g u l a r l y connected  fear that nothing  T h i s does not a l l o w  one  the p o s s i -  27  bility  of freedom-to, s i n c e  the person cannot a n t i c i p a t e and c o n t r o l  events which concern him because those events are i r r e g u l a r l y To c o n t r o l events he must be a b l e sequences and be c o n f i d e n t  to count on the r e c u r r e n c e  his decisions  and a c t i o n s w i l l  those  connected. of c e r t a i n  be s u c c e s s f u l . ^  C a u s a l i t y and u n s u b s t a n t i a i i t y a r e termed the "Middle Way" because they s t e e r c l e a r o f the above extremes. Eightfold  Path  T should  add here that  (ariya-attangika-magga-) or i n g e n e r a l  of Enlightenment  (bodhi-pakkiya-dhamma, l i t e r a l l y  the 37  the Noble  Constituents  " t r u t h s which are p a r t s  of enlightenment") a r e regarded as the "Middle Way" which s t e e r s c l e a r o f the extremes o f s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n and a d d i c t i o n to s e n s u a l one  slips  into holding  release.  In the I n t r o d u c t i o n  I s a i d that:  " R e l i g i o u s man may be regarded  as one who sees the human c o n d i t i o n or e x i s t e n t i a l problem, f i r m l y b e l i e v e s its  that  r e s o l u t i o n as h i s h i g h e s t  provide  If  onto any o f these extremes, he w i l l c o n t i n u e t o wander  i n samsara- and hot g a i n (3)  pleasures.  s i t u a t i o n as a s e r i o u s  t h i s c o n d i t i o n can be overcome, and regards a s p i r a t i o n . " (p. 1)  i t s adherents with c o n c e p t u a l  Religious traditions  maps or schemes that p r o j e c t the  nature of r e a l i t y and man's p o s i t i o n i n i t to e x p l a i n "where" man i s , "where" he should plain  be heading, and "how" he i s to get there,  the c o n d i t i o n s  necessary  which cause the human dilemma and the c o n d i t i o n s  to overcome i t , and p r o v i d e  for r e s u l t s .  i . e . , they ex-  On the c o n t r a r y ,  guidance as to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n hoped-  a "non-religious  man may be regarded as one  who (1) sees no dilemma or c o n s i d e r s i t as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , the dilemma and regards  or (2) who sees  i t as s e r i o u s , but i s s k e p t i c a l that  there  isa  s o l u t i o n or that he can a c h i e v e c e r t a i n hoped-for r e s u l t s . . . ." ( f o o t note #1, p. 3) The  chief doctrines  o f Buddhism, pat i c e asamuppada- and a n a t t a n - , a r e  28  " r e l i g i o u s " because they s a t i s f y cause they a v o i d man." has to  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , doubts and  They e s t a b l i s h bondage as a s e r i o u s the c a p a c i t i e s to gain  (i.e.,  had  the concerns of " r e l i g i o u s man,"  insight),  attained  way,  freedom-from  i . e . , complete  the c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e s  (1)  they attempt  and  (2)  tiality,  everything  employed  and  One  rather recognizes  to guide the person  fact  freedoin-  that Gotama Buddha  p o s s i b l e , but  actual. of f a i t h  f e a r s of f a t a l i s m and  to c r o s s  once a person has longer  actions.  In  this  because skepticism,  unsatisfactory,  that  never grasp onto them as  they are but. r e l a t i v e to n o b i l i t y .  In the  j u s t as a person who  gained a b s o l u t e  needs to- r e l y on  truths same  longer  builds a  never c a r r i e s that r a f t with him  mapping and  on  temporary  afterwards,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e a l i t y as i t those r e l a t i v e  truths  to d i r e c t h i s  the normal realms of knowledge two  way  needs  Thus, the c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e s beckon the Buddhist  that knowledge which transcends  c h a p t e r on c o n c e p t u a l  and  to reach a d e s i r e d - d e s t i n a t i o n no  a torrent r i v e r  is', he no  should  from n o r m a l i t y  f o r f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n , or,  thoughts and gain  The  man  be understood as empty of permanence, substan-  lasting satisfaction.  having used a map  that map  really  the doubts and  that  s e l f - c o n t r o l ) and  i s impermanent, u n s u b s t a n t i a l ,  should  absolute, t r u t h s , , but  so too,  only  "non-religious  insist  of Buddhism become b u t t r e s s e s  to r e s o l v e  even these d o c t r i n e  raft  (i.e.,  be-  they generate a deep c o n v i c t i o n to purpose.  Since  as one  dilemma and  freedom.  freedom makes freedom not  f e a r s of  and  truths  to  (see  the  i n Buddhism).  Notes ^Buddhaghosa comments on the contemporary t h e o r i e s of h i s time which did not correspond to f a c t : "The f i r s t component w i l l deny the f a l s e view of e t e r n i t y and so on, and the second w i l l prevent t h e - n i h i l i s t i c type of view and others l i k e i t , w h i l e the two together show the t r u e way that i s meant.  29  "The f i r s t : the word 'dependent ( p a t i c c a ) ' i n d i c a t e s the combination of c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e s t a t e s i n the process of o c c u r i n g e x i s t i n dependence of the combining o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s ; and i t shows that they a r e not e t e r n a l , e t c . , thus denying the v a r i o u s ^ i o c t r i n e s o f E t e r n a l i s m , No-cause, F i c i t i t i o u s cause, and Power-wielder (see Nyanamoli's f o o t n o t e ) . What purpose indeed would the combining of c o n d i t i o n s serve, i f things were e t e r n a l , or i f they o c c u r r e d without a cause, and so on? "The second: the world ' o r i g i n a t i o n (samuppada)' i n d i c a t e s the a r i s i n g of s t a t e s , s i n c e these occur when t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s combine, and i t shows how to prevent a n n i h i l a t i o n i s m , e t c . , thus p r e v e n t i n g the v a r i o u s d o c t r i n e s of A n n i h i l a t i o n (of a S o u l ) , N i h i l i s m , ('there i s no use i n g i v i n g , ' e t c . , ) and f o r when s t a t e s (are seen to) a r i s e again and again, each c o n d i t i o n e d by i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , how can the d o c t r i n e s of A n n i h i l a t i o n i s m , N i h i l i s m , and M o r a l - i n e f f i c a c y - o f - a c t i o n be maintained? "The two taken together: s i n c e any g i v e n s t a t e s a r e produced without i n t e r r u p t i n g the ( c a u s e - f r u i t ) c o n t i n u i t y o f any g i v e n combination o f cond i t i o n s , the whole e x p r e s s i o n 'dependent o r i g i n a t i o n (paticca-samuppada)', r e p r e s e n t s the middle way, which r e j e c t s the d o c t r i n e s 'He who a c t s i s he who reaps' and 'One a c t s w h i l e another reaps' ( S . i i , 2 0 ) , and which i s the proper way d e s c r i b e d thus 'Not i n s i s t i n g on l o c a l language, and not o v e r r i d i n g normal usage (M. i i i , 234).." V i s . 17-21-24, t r a n s , by Nyanamoli. Also f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on the d o c t r i n e s o f e t e r n a l i s m and a n n i h i l a t i o n i s m see BE, v o l . I, pp. 567-76. 1  E a r l y B u d d h i s t , p. 445. For a d i s c u s s i o n on the n o t i o n w i l l " see C a u s a l i t y , pp. 123-24. 2  0  0  3  P r e s u p p o s t i o n s , p. 50.  4  lbid.,  0  The  p. 49.  analysis follows  Potter's,  I b i d . , pp. 49-50.  of "free  30  HABITUAL BEHAVIOR (KAMMA-) AND RENUNCIATION (NEKKHAMMA-)  According factors: motives.  to Buddhism, human b e h a v i o r i s determined  (1) e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i , The f i r s t  (2) c o n s c i o u s motives,  i s a r e f l e x response  caused  by one o f three  or (3) unconscious  by s e n s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h  an e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s , e.g., "an innocent l i t t l e baby l y i n g on i t s back q u i c k l y draws back i t s hand or foot i f i t happens to touch a l i v e Because such b e h a v i o r i s unmotivated e n t i r e l y by p h y s i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n ,  ember."'-  ( a s a n c e t a n i k a - or a c e t a n i k a - ) , caused  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r i t i s not l a i d on  the person h i m s e l f . Second, there i s that a c t i v i t y which i s v o l i t i o n a l nature, determined greed  by e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s motives,  ( r a g a - ) , a v e r s i o n or h a t r e d  absence  (alobha-, adosa-,  and amoha-); o r , t h i r d , by unconscious  (amaritukama-) (both r e l a t e d  instinct"),  and the d e s i r e  motives  to what Freud c a l l e d  the " l i f e  f o r p l e a s u r e (sukhakama-) and a v e r s i o n to p a i n  (both r e l a t e d  These motives  or  ( j i v i t u k a m a - ) and the d e s i r e to  a v o i d death  ciple").  such as attachment  (dosa-), and d e l u s i o n (moha-), or t h e i r  such as the d e s i r e to p e r p e t u a t e l i f e  (dukkha pa t ikku1a-)  (cetanika-) i n  result  to what Freud c a l l e d  from a fundamental  the " p l e a s u r e p r i n -  misunderstanding  about  the nature of e x i s t e n c e and o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y complex.  S i n c e the  later  the i n d i v i d -  ual of  types o f b e h a v i o r are p u r e l y m o t i v a t i o n a l or v o l i t i o n a l ,  may be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s b e h a v i o r . activity "While  type  to which we w i l l be a d d r e s s i n g o u r s e l v e s . human b e h a v i o r i s i t s e l f  by c o r r e l a t e d consequences. consequence  It i s this v o l i t i o n a l  c o n d i t i o n e d by cause,  i t i s followed  T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between a c t i o n  (karma) and  (vipaka or phala) c o n s t i t u e s the d o c t r i n e of karma i n Buddhism."  Depending on the nature o f kamma- and the circumstances  i n which i t i s com-  31  mitted,  there w i l l  kamma- and  be a p p r o p r i a t e consequences.  The determinism  p h a l a - i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i s done. .. In t h i s way,  kamma- i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ,  between  i n which the a c t i o n  because i t i s dependent  upon the p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l at that moment and circumstances  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l  Kamma- may  i s p e r s o n a l l y involved.3  be d e f i n e d as " i n t e n t i o n a l or w i l l f u l a c t i v i t y with  tant e f f e c t s . "  the mental  concomitants,  a c t i o n and  results  (samkhara,  "dis-  f o r m a t i o n s " ) and a c t s i n attempting  or a c c o m p l i s h i n g t a s k s , i . e . , cetana- determines  the aim of a c t i o n .  what i s determined  motives  V o l i t i o n or c o n a t i o n (cetana-) a r i s e s  c o - o p e r a t i v e s , or a c t i v a t o r s  p o s i t i o n s or a t t i t u d e s , " " v o l i t i o n a l obtain desired  resul-  I t i s a c t i v i t y m o t i v a t e d by c o n s c i o u s and unconscious  that d e s i r e to a c h i e v e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . from  the  Cetana-  (i.e., desired).  4  to the  f u n c t i o n s as the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of A c c o r d i n g to H.V.  Guenther:  That which arouses and s u s t a i n s a c t i v i t y on the p a r t of the human psyche i s c a l l e d ce tana. Broadly speaking, i t i s a s t i m u l u s , and i n a sense, may be c o n s i d e r e d as a motive and a l s o as a d r i v e . A drive i s a stimulus that arouses p e r s i s t e n t mass a c t i v i t y , and a motive i s a s t i m u l u s that s u s t a i n s a c t i v i t y u n t i l the s t i m u l u s i s removed, as by e a t i n g i n the case of hunger, or u n t i l the organism has moved out of the range of the s t i m u l u s , as i n the case of a p i n - p r i c k . S i n c e cetana and Karman are synonymous . . . t h i s idea of motive and d r i v e a p p l i e d to Karman would mean that the i n d i v i d u a l i s bound and f e t t e r e d to the e f f e c t i v e range of Karman, hence the e q u a t i o n of attainment of Nirvana and c e s s a t i o n of a l l Karman.5 "Volition  is action,  thus I say, bh_ikkhus,  f o r as soon as  a r i s e s one does the a c t i o n , whether b o d i l y , v o c a l l y , Kamma- i s a c t i o n which s t r i v e s sake of the doer,'and any  o b j e c t or r e s u l t  When the motives  i g n o r a n t that  volition  or m e n t a l l y .  to g a i n d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , done f o r the in reality  there i s no doer,  that i s permanent, s u b s t a n t i a l , and  and d r i v e s are removed by i n s i g h t and  l e t alone  satisfactory.  self-control,  then  there occurs the c e s s a t i o n of a l l kamma-. We  may  c o n t r a s t kannia- as " f o r c e f u l " a c t i v i t y  i n comparison  to the  32 "nonforcefulness" his  habits  of spontaneity';  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e man  n e s s i s meant e s s e n t i a l l y c a u s e d by  or  the  two  the  who  things.  activity  o f one  i s completely First,  who  free.  i s bound By  by  forceful-  kamma- i s c o m p u l s i v e  behavior  fdrce of h a b i t ( s ) .  The i n d i s p e n s a b l e k e y t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the Buddha's t h e r a p e u t i c a t t a c k u p o n s u f f e r i n g i s b e s t g r a s p e d i n t h e West t h r o u g h t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m p u l s i v e b e h a v i o r , u n d e r s t o o d as b e h a v i o r d r i v e n by u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s w h i c h e x p l o i t a l l p o w e r s o f s e n s a t i o n and t h o u g h t and t h u s p e r m i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l no a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . I t i s as t h o u g h t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w e r e b l o c k e d and t u r n e d i n t o n e u r o t i c , i . e . , r i g i d and c o m p u l s i v e demands . . . . b e h a v i o r i s c o m p u l s i v e as l o n g as i t i s m o t i v a t e d , i . e . , a r o u s e d , d r i v e n , and c o n t r o l l e d by f o r c e s o f whose i d e n t i t y a p e r s o n i s u n a w a r e . 8  Behavior of  this  nature  o f s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and  i s conditioned  i n s i g h t ) and  k h a r a ) w h i c h a f f e c t e i t h e r an reaction with  t o w a r d s an  ignorance,  object.  As  Second, h a b i t u a l behavior  of habits ibility petuated  habits  f o r c e s man  and by  long  as  will  continually  This  p r e s u p p o s e d as  or  neutral  present,  coupled  occur.  ones.  This  by  the d r i v e of  new  in  regeneration  o r r u t s w h i c h deny him  c y c l e of h a b i t s breeding  i g n o r a n c e and  lack  (sam-  (kamma-) i s f o r c e f u l b e c a u s e i t c a u s e s  (tanha-) which causes i n t e n t i o n a l s t r i v i n g mistakenly  i . e . , the  dispositions  d i s p o s i t i o n s are  into habitual patterns  impulse of  (avi j j a - ,  c e r t a i n acquired  or r e i n f o r c e s previous  spontaneity. the  ignorance  a t t r a c t i o n - t o or r e p u l s i o n - f r o m  habitual, activity  r e t u r n e i t h e r new  by  by  habits  thirst  or  flex- ' is  per-  craving  (kamma-) d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s  objects  p e r m a n e n t , s u b s t a n t i a l , and s a t i s f a c t o r y .  By i g n o r a n c e t h e b e i n g f a i l s t o v i e w t h e t r u e i m p e r m a n e n t and subs t a n c e l e s s nature of e x i s t e n c e . He r e l i s h e s t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d , t a k i n g them t o be r e a l and l a s t i n g and c r e a t e s a c r a v i n g f o r them. Due t o h i s c r a v i n g s , he g r a s p s t o a t t a i n one and a v o i d t h e o t h e r . T h i s c r a v i n g leads to the c o n t i n u i t y of h i s l i f e - p r o c e s s , a c h a i n of struggle for l i v i n g . H i s c r a v i n g s and g r a s p i n g s do n o t end w i t h t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h i s p h y s i c a l f r a m e , b u t t h e y k e e p t h e s t r u g g l e on i n another b i r t h . 9 I g n o r a n c e and  thirst  lead  to subsequent attachment or c l i n g i n g  (upa-  33 dana) to sensual havior  objects.  o f one a t t a c h e d  which h i s a c t i o n s  The b e h a v i o r which we c a l l kamma- i s the be-  (by h a b i t )  are d i r e c t e d .  (nekkhamma-) and the c o u n t e r p a r t ment is  to the f r u i t s o f a c t i o n or to the o b j e c t s The c o u n t e r p a r t  o f kamma- i s r e n u n c i a t i o n  o f attachment or c l i n g i n g i s n o n a t t a c h -  (viraga-, l i t e r a l l y "dispassion").  The necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r both  the f a i t h born o f the c o n v i c t i o n that one i s c a p a b l e o f m a s t e r i n g what-  ever c h a l l e n g e  confronts  him. Without f a i t h ,  aware o f h i s dilemma, he may r e f u s e  even though the person maybe  t o e x e r t h i s powers.  This  i s resigna-  t i o n not r e n u n c i a t i o n . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between these two p o l a r a t t i t u d i n a l concepts i s that w h i l e the r e s i g n e d man doubts h i s a b i l i t y to master t h a t which he i s r e s i g n e d t o , the man who renounces i s c o n f i d e n t o f h i s a b i l i t y to g a i n that which he renounces but f i n d s more m a s t e r y - g r e a t e r f r e e d o m — i n meeting the c h a l l e n g e o f not e x e r t i n g h i s power f o r g a i n . The man who renounces has f a i t h i n h i s powers, w h i l e the r e s i g n e d man does not have f a i t h and doubts h i s c a p a c i t y to e f f e c t a l l that he wishes . . . . And that which s i g n i f i e s l a c k o f f a i t h i s doubt, t h a t doubt born o f an inadequate c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f , a c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f broken o f f from others and from the world i n which we l i v e i n some way s e t s l i m i t s on man's c a p a c i t i e s i n g e n e r a l . T h i s doubt i s m a n i f e s t e d inwardly as f e a r , the f e a r that one i s a t the mercy o f some or a l l o f one's environment s i n c e i t i s i r r a d i c a b l y other than o n e s e l f and thus i n c a p a b l e o f being brought under c o n t r o l . 1 0 A g a i n , i n t h i s way Buddhism may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as a r e l i g i o n and i t s adherents r e l i g i o u s  (as opposed to the n o n - r e l i g i o u s  man) because they  possess the f i r m c o n v i c t i o n that man can overcome h i s present condition. and  The B u d d h i s t has f a i t h  t h a t f a i t h becomes the u l t i m a t e  inadequate  that complete freedom i s p o s s i b l e , concern which d i r e c t s h i s a c t i v i t i e s .  R e n u n c i a t i o n r e f e r s to man's c a p a c i t y  to g i v e up or renounce what-  ever g a i n or l o s s might r e s u l t from e x e r t i n g  that c a p a c i t y .  This  leads  to nonattachment to the f r u i t s o f one's a c t i o n . We saw t h a t as one succeeds i n g a i n i n g c o n t r o l over n a t u r e , over o t h e r s , and over h i m s e l f , one i n e v i t a b l y runs t h e r i s k o f being bound by h i s own success . . . . One who can m a n i p u l a t e the t h i n g s o f t h i s world i s tempted to use h i s a b i l i t y to g a i n more goods, and so f a l l s i n t o bond-  34  age to the very a b i l i t y which c o u l d be used by him as a l e v e r toward self-improvement; the t h i n g that i s l a c k i n g i n him i s the r i g h t a t t i tude toward wealth, namely, nonattachment t o i t s presence or absence. L i k e w i s e , one who by h i s a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y can w i e l d c o n t r o l over other human beings, who i s loved by many, i s tempted to use t h i s a b i l i t y f o r the g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s d e s i r e s ; he once a g a i n l a c k s the r i g h t a t t i t u d e o f nonattachment to the f r u i t s o f h i s a b i l i t y . And f i n a l l y , even one who has mastered h i m s e l f , who has self-knowledge and s e l f - c o n t r o l , may f a l l prey to the e r r o r o f p r i d e , and become s e l f - s a t i s f i e d and content i n h i s own r i g h t e o u s n e s s . Once a g a i n the source o f e r r o r i s a l a c k o f the r i g h t a t t i t u d e , f o r the proud man i s here, perhaps without h i m s e l f knowing i t , forming a p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f and g i v e s a f a l s e sense o f s e c u r i t y and c o n t e n t m e n t - - f a l s e because i t .habituates him t o r u t s which r o b him of r e s i l i e n c y i n n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s . The- a n t i dote to t h i s i s once more nonattachment to the s a t i s f a c t i o n he d e r i v e s from h i s a b i l i t y to form t h i s p i c t u r e . H Although  there i s a d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between "good" and "bad"  from the s t a n d p o i n t  o f complete freedom a l l kamma-and karmic f o r c e s must  be e l i m i n a t e d i n o r d e r  f o r complete freedom to occur.  who i s w e l l on h i s way on the road  Even the adherent  to freedom w i l l not reach  his  distina-  t i o n so long as h i s a c t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d towards d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . . h a b i t s developed dissolved,  kamma-,  to g a i n a f i r m e r footage  s i n c e they  too deny f l e x i b i l i t y  The  on the path must e v e n t u a l l y be and s p o n t a n e i t y .  A person c a n  become bound j u s t as e a s i l y by good h a b i t s as by bad ones. Whatever one does or r e f r a i n s Unless  i n a situation  i t i s an a c t o f r e n u n c i a t i o n i t i s bound t o breed  (bandha-), and s u f f e r i n g  (dukkha-).  not between which a c t i o n w i l l  tached.  The l a t t e r  ka_mma-, bondage  F o r Buddhism, the c h o i c e o f a c t i o n i s  to the f r u i t s  c h o i c e i s the most c r u c i a l ,  o f a c t i o n or a c t i n g unats i n c e one leads  to bondage,  the o t h e r , r e n u n c i a t i o n or nonattachment, leads to freedom.  timate v a l u e o f a c t i o n does not r e s t  i n the f r u i t s  t h e r e r e s u l t s p e r s o n a l g a i n or l o s t ,  but i n t r i n s i c a l l y  i.e.,  i s an a c t i o n .  have consequences which a r e d e s i r a b l e o r n o t ,  but r a t h e r between a c t i n g a t t a c h e d  while  from doing  a c t i n g according  The u l -  o f a c t i o n , i . e . , whether i n acting freely,  to one's c a p a c i t i e s , u n r e s t r a i n e d by h a b i t u a l f o r c e s .  35  Renunciation  i s the maximum concern  A necessary It  i s necessary  one's c a p a c i t i e s of  c o n d i t i o n f o r r e n u n c i a t i o n or s e l f - c o n t r o l to have self-knowledge  i s insight.  o f one p e r s o n a l i t y make-up and  i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , and f u l l  awareness o f the nature  the s i t u a t i o n in. order to s u c c e s s f u l l y renounce and become f r e e .  must be a b l e to a n t i c i p a t e ing  f o r freedom a l o n e .  i n anticipation,  the r e s u l t s  o f h i s a c t i o n s , as opposed to w a i t -  i n order to have f u l l  c o n t r o l over h i s a c t i o n s . I n -  s i g h t , which r e p l a c e s ignorance, and r e n u n c i a t i o n , which r e p l a c e s and c l i n g i n g , a r e both  the s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r complete  The man endowed with i n s i g h t self-control  (i.e.,  freedom-from), h i s behavior  the person empty  from  freedom.  the karmic  First,  i s of a n o n f o r c e f u l n a t u r e . i t i s spontaneous  f o r c e s of ignorance and t h i r s t  activity compelling  to s t r i v e a f t e r d e s i r e d o b j e c t s ; o b j e c t s which i n r e a l i t y a r e  (suffna-).  Spontaneity  i n s i g h t f u l , and i n f u l l contrast  thirst  ( i . e . , what amounts to freedom-to) and  By n o n f o r c e f u l n e s s i s meant two t h i n g s . because i t i s f r e e  One  i s the a c t i o n o f one who i s a t ease,  c o n t r o l o f h i m s e l f and the s i t u a t i o n .  to one whose a c t i o n s a r e compelled  Spontaneity  i s a c t i o n f r e e from  This i s i n  by f o r c e s out o f h i s c o n t r o l .  attachment.  Second, the man who i s c o m p l e t e l y because i t does not reproduce  resilient,  f r e e , h i s behavior  i s nonforceful  new kamma-, which leads to bondage, e t c .  From the p r o c e e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f kamma- and r e n u n c i a t i o n . (nekkhamma-), one  can surmise  sole a b i l i t y  that the Buddhist  to determine  c o n c e i v e s o f man as one who possesses the  the nature o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r .  Ig-  norance,  t h i r s t , attachment, h a b i t s o f mind and a c t i o n a r e a l l o f h i s own  accord.  Likewise,  i t i s he alone who r i d s h i m s e l f o f these  f o r c e s which rob him of f l e x i b i l i t y who causes  and s p o n t a n e i t y .  self-imposed  I t i s the i n d i v i d u a l  h i s own bondage and b r i n g s about h i s own freedom.  36  Notes Hi.1:324, t r a n s , by Kalupahana, BP, p. 47. 2  Ibid.,  J  T h e p r o c e e d i n g paragraphs f o l l o w the e x p l a n a t i o n  ^See  p. 47. i n B_P, pp. 46-47.  Compendium , pp. 235-36. 0  ^Guenther, P h i l o s o p h y and Psychology o f Abhidharma, Lucknow,  1957, p.  62. ^A.6:13. In r e s p e c t the other f o u r .  to the f i v e aggregates, the samkhara's a c t i v a t e  The i d e a of " f o r c e f u l " and " n o n f o r c e f u l " are taken from Presuppositions° pp. 131-35. ~~ 7  Q Nolan Jacobson, Buddhism: The R e l i g i o n of A n a l y s i s , London, 1966, pp. 72-73.. ^Bhikkhu J . Kashyap, The Abhidhamma P h i l o s o p h y , p. 212, c i t e d by Jacobson, J_bid. , p. 72. ^Presuppositions , 0  U  I b i d . , pp. 38-39'.  pp. 15-16.  THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BONDAGE AND FREEDOM  T h i s chapter  i s an examination of the word papanca- as  the P a l i Canon and  i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Theravadin  i n t e r n a l conscious  process  world.  conception  the e x t e r n a l p e r c e i v e d and  knowledge (pafma-) i n r e l a t i o n  (i.e.,  Consciousness or D i s c r i m i n a t i v e Knowledge The  samsara-) and  to transcendence  (i.e.,  regenerate  identifying  abiding ego-entity underlying " I n Buddhism there  i t , when man  from p e r c e p t i o n .  penetrative  the e n t i r e p r o c e s s .  process  and  mistakenly  pre-  satisfactory,  as  the continuum of c o n s c i o u s  i s no a c t o r a p a r t  hu-  (Vinnana-)  supposes phenomena to be permanent, s u b s t a n t i a l , and w e l l as m i s t a k e n l y  to the  nibbana-).  human dilemma of bondage a r i s e s from the c o n s c i o u s  the f o r c e s which c o n d i t i o n and  the  a n a l y s i s of  of d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge (vinnana-) i n r e l a t i o n  c o n d i t i o n or e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n  of  in  interpreted  I t i s a l s o an examination of the Theravada Buddhist  the nature man  and  i t occurs  As  s t a t e s as  an  previously stated,  from a c t i o n , no p e r c i p i e n t a p a r t  In other words, there i s no conscious  subject  behind  consciousness."1 Consciousness  (vinnana-) may  an o b j e c t , " i . e . , the s u b j e c t ship. lies  I t i s c o n d i t i o n e d by i t and  by  and  that a f f e c t  (arammanika-)-object  of  (arammana-) r e l a t i o n -  the d e l u s i o n t h a t an a b i d i n g s u b j e c t under-'  the d e l u s i o n that o b j e c t s o u t s i d e o n e s e l f can be  of as o b j e c t i v e r e a l s , reality;  be d e f i n e d as "a s u b j e c t c o g n i z a n t  conceived-  i . e . , t h a t one's c o g n i t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t  i t i s c o n d i t i o n e d by c e r t a i n a c q u i r e d d i s p o s i t i o n s (samkhara ) 2  e i t h e r an a t t r a c t i o n - t o or r e p u l s i o n - f r o m ,  towards a phenomenon.  I t i s c o n t i n u a l l y regenerated  by  or n e u t r a l r e a c t i o n the  impulse of  38  ignorance, or i n t h i s case, the want of i n s i g h t  into  the nature of  reality,  whereby a l l c o g n i t i o n s by t h e i r  i n h e r e n t nature are seen as d e l u s i o n s or  empty, because both s u b j e c t and  o b j e c t , as w e l l as the judgments p r o j e c t e d  onto  the world are h e l d to be s u b s t a n t i a l l y  empty.  Consciousness  i s a l s o r e g e n e r a t e d by the d r i v e of t h i r s t  which causes h a b i t u a l a c t i v i t y posed  as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t Vinriana- may  "cognition"  r e a l , w h i l e i n t r u t h they are  directed  or craving,  towards o b j e c t s mistakenly, presup-  entities.  a l s o be d e s c r i b e d as " d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge" or as  (i.e.,  awareness + judgment).-^  i t i s r e l a t i v e because i t i s  the i n t e r a c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x t e r n a l p e r c e i v e d world and i n t e r n a l conceived world. mental  image, e.g.,  o b j e c t i v e world  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s m a n i f e s t e d as.some s o r t  concepts,  i d e a s , judgments, words, e t c . , r e l a t e  i n t o s u b j e c t i v e terms.  t i v e n o t i o n s are h e l d by the i l l u s i o n a r y word papauca- as found tionship. the world  the  Because of ignorance, these s e l f as o b j e c t i v e l y  i n the N i k a y a s ^ r e p r e s e n t s t h i s  real.  interacting  of  the relaThe rela-  I t serves the f u n c t i o n of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g or d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i n t o phenomena.  In i t s s u b j e c t i v e aspect i t i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  i n i t s o b j e c t i v e aspect i t i s the phenomenal world.  I w i l l have more to  A/  say about The  papanca- i n the succeeding s e c t i o n s of t h i s  t r a n s i t o r y c h a r a c t e r ( a n i c c a l a k k h a n a - ) of the human e x i s t e n c e i s  represented  i n t e r n a l l y by  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and body.  chapter.  the f l e e t i n g moments of thought  e x t e r n a l l y by  The Buddhist compare t h i s  i n b i r t h and  or s t a t e s or  the slow, y e t c o n t i n o u s change of the to the flow of a r i v e r h a v i n g . i t s  source  i t s mouth i n death.  S i n c e b i r t h and death are merely communicating doors from one l i f e to another, the stream of c a u s a l l y connected processes — that i s , continuous p r o c e s s e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( i n which alone e x i s t e n c e i s r e p r e s e n t e d ) - - i s the medium u n i t i n g the d i f f e r e n t l i v e s of an i n -  39 d i v i d u a l ( a s w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n t moments and p h a s e s w i t h i n one l i f e ) . . . . t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e r i v e r ' s e x i s t e n c e , and d o u b t l e s s one c a n s p e a k o f i t s r e a l i t y i n a c e r t a i n s e n s e . But t h i s i s not o b j e c t i v e i n a m a t e r i a l sense. I t i s the r e l a t i o n s of m a t e r i a l , t e m p o r a l , and s p a t i a l k i n d , e x i s t i n g among t h e c h a n g i n g c o m p o n e n t s , t h a t form the c o n s t a n t element. I n t h e same way, t h e c o n s t a n c y o f r e l a t i o n s i n the e v e r r e n e w i n g p r o c e s s o f becoming c o n s c i o u s (being, c o n s c i o u s does not e x i s t i n r e a l i t y , b u t o n l y c o n s t a n t becoming c o n s c i o u s ) , c r e a t e s the i l l u s i o n o f an ' e g o - e n t i t y ' or an u n c h a n g e a b l e personality.5 Consciousness  i s , a c c o r d i n g t o G o v i n d a ' s a n a l y s i s , " a phenomenon o f  res i s t e n c e - - a n o b s t r u c t i o n of the stream t h e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n two sents  the r a d i c a l  c o m p o n e n t s : movement and  becoming or t r a n s i t o r i n e s s  the d e s i r e l a t e n t  i n the c o n s c i o u s  arid s a t i s f a c t i o n ;  and  duration "self"  i n conscious  i n man.  of being  process  . . . ."^ inertia.  Figuratively  r e p r e s e n t e d by  of  Movement r e p r e -  of a l l t h i n g s .  f o r permanence,  the d e s i r e f o r s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e - o r beings  a result  Inertia  is  substantiality,  the d e s i r e f o r  the n o t i o n o f a  persisting  speaking,  The S t r e a m o f B e i n g , t h e n , i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o n d i t i o n o r f a c t o r , t h e £ine qua* non o f p r e s e n t c o n s c i o u s e x i s t e n c e ; i t i s t h e r a i s o n d ' ^ t r e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i f e ; i t i s t h e l i f e - c o n t i n u u m ; i t i s , as i t w e r e , t h e b a c k g r o u n d on w h i c h t h o u g h t p i c t u r e s a r e d r a w n . It is c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e c u r r e n t o f a r i v e r when i t f l o w s c a l m l y o n , u n h i n d e r e d by any o b s t a c l e , u n r u f f l e d by any w i n d , u n r i p p l e d by any wave; and n e i t h e r r e c e i v i n g t r i b u t a r y w a t e r s , n o r p a r t i n g w i t h i t s c o n t e n t s to the w o r l d . And when t h a t c u r r e n t i s o p p o s e d by a n obs t a c l e o f t h o u g h t f r o m t h e w o r l d w i t h i n o r p e r t u r b e d by t r i b u t a r y streams o f the senses from the w o r l d w i t h o u t , then t h o u g h t s (vithicitta's) arise. B u t i t m u s t n o t be s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e s t r e a m o f b e i n g i s a subplane from which thoughts r i s e to the s u r f a c e . There i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f momentary s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s u b l i m i n a l and s u p r a l i m i n a l , t h r o u g h o u t a l i f e - t i m e and f r o m e x i s t e n c e t o e x i s t e n c e . B u t t h e r e i s no s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f s u c h s t a t e . 7  The  t e n s i o n o r v i b r a t i o n b e t w e e n movement and  interrupts  the s t r e a m  of being.  t h e more i n t e n s i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s  The  longer this  inertia  seemingly  interruption  continues  becomes.  B e c a u s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f , as a phenomenon o f r e s i s t e n c e , i s a c o n s t a n t l y r e n e w e d e f f o r t t o p e r s i s t , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i n e v e r y phase i d e n t i c a l w i t h the p r e v i o u s ones. H e n c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e " I am I." One c o u l d d e f i n e f u r t h e r m o r e : i f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a phenomenon  40  of r e s i s t e n c e i t must appear the most i n t e n s i v e i n those forms of e x i s t e n c e which are exposed to the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e s . 8  The more change, the more movement, the more o s c i l l a t i o n of form, stronger  the d e s i r e f o r p e r s i s t e n c y  between movement and The  becomes.  the d e s i r e f o r i n e r t i a  I t i s under t h i s that consciousness  t e n s i o n caused by an apparent o b s t r u c t i o n  as  c r e a t e d when man  tension operates.  to the Stream of Being,  then, i s the disharmony, d i s e q u i l i b r i u m , d i s j o i n t e d n e s s , kha-)  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y sets h i m s e l f  or d i s - e a s e  in opposition  (duk-  to  reality  i t really i s . T h i s mental disharmony i s c a l l e d a v i j j a , ignorance, or " S e l f - d e l u s i o n . Under i t s i n f l u e n c e e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be v a l u e d from the e g o c e n t r i c stand p o i n t of d e s i r e (tariha) . . . . The v e r y essence of l i f e i s change, w h i l e the essence of c l i n g i n g i s to r e t a i n , to s t a b i l i z e , to p r e v e n t change. T h i s i s why change appears to us as s u f f e r i n g . . . . It is t h e r e f o r e not the "world" or i t s t r a n s i t o r i n e s s which i s the cause of s u f f e r i n g but our a t t i t u d e towards i t , our c l i n g i n g to i t , our t h i r s t , our i g n o r a n c e . ^ Human b e h a v i o r , whether i t be c r a v i n g  or r e j e c t i o n ( i . e . , on whether one whether one  repulsion-from),  (i.e.,  a t t r a c t i o n - t o ) , aversion  or freedom from both extremes, depends  i s i n harmony or disharmony with h i m s e l f  i s endowed with i n s i g h t and  A t t r a c t i o n - t o and  repulsion-from  the world,  s e l f - c o n t r o l or ignorance and  are attempts t o a d j u s t  a m i s t a k e n l y presupposed s e l f - e x i s t e n t " I " or "ego" and  and  and  the  tensions  or thirst  between  self-existent "this'  " t h a t ' s , " e i t h e r f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of one's d e s i r e s or to a n n i h i l a t e  opposing f o r c e s . an e q u a l l y causal  Every such v o l i t i o n a l  (kamma-) o c c a s i o n s ,  in return  strong' r e a c t i o n back to the source of a c t i o n , i . e . , back to  agent.  Every d e s i r e begets more w i l l i n g ,  begets more r e s i s t e n c e to change. faction  action  every a c t of  obstruction  Every a c t done f o r the sake of  i s the seed sown which y i e l d s as  the  self-satis  i t s f r u i t more seeds to be  sown  later. Harmony or e q u i l i b r i u m between s u b j e c t  and  object  cannot occur so  long  41  as  (1) the d e l u s i o n  of m i s t a k i n g  subject  and o b j e c t ,  and the judgments  superimposed on both, as s u b s t a n t i a l e n t i t i e s ' o c c u r s ; so long as (2) consciousness  continues  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the world  i n t o " I ' s , " " t h i s ' . s " and  " t h a t ' s " which have no o b j e c t i v e b a s i s ; and so- long as (3) an for  obsession  the s o - c a l l e d " t h i n g s " o f the world i s p r e s e n t . The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of the e q u i l i b r i u m o f the s t a t e o f t e n s i o n , the t o t a l d i s c r e p a n c y between s u b j e c t i v e w i l l i n g and o b j e c t i v e l y g i v e n f a c t s , the disharmony between i d e a t i o n and a c t u a l i t y , i s what we c a l l s u f f e r i n g . The conquest o f t h i s disharmony, o f these i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , the l o s i n g of the above-mentioned t i e , i n s h o r t , the r e l e a s e i n t o the s t a t e o f inner freedom, does not come about through the s u p p r e s s i o n o f the w i l l , but through the removal o f the vaccum, that i s , through the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f the i l l u s i o n ( c o n s i s t i n g prec i s e l y i n the t a k i n g o f the ego f o r an a b s o l u t e ) . A l l suffering a r i s e s from a f a l s e a t t i t u d e . The world i s n e i t h e r good nor bad. I t i s s o l e l y our r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t which makes i t e i t h e r the one or the other.10 The  world i s never what we c o n c e p t u a l l y  of the "normal" person to the world disharmony w i t h h i m s e l f and  against  and  satisfactory.  all  contrast  i s that o f ignorance and t h i r s t , o f  and the e x t e r n a l world, o f p e r s o n a l  The o b j e c t s  as " t h i n g s , " to other  o f one's p e r c e p t i o n s  clothed  struggle for  s o - c a l l e d " t h i n g s " and from one's imaginary  from the c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s , sume that both s u b j e c t does not correspond  become " I " - c o n d i t i o n e d ,  i n a t t r i b u t e s d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e ,  due to the presence of ignorance and t h i r s t .  as i t r e a l l y  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r c e s s u b j e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as permanent, s u b s t a n t i a l ,  differentiated setin  make i t .  "self,"  The human dilemma a r i s e s  s i n c e f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o f u n c t i o n i t must a s -  and o b j e c t  to f a c t .  are s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e a l .  this  As such, the normal man can never see r e a l i t y  i s because he sees the world  s c i o u s mind, a mind c o n d i t i o n e d  Papanca- and S e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n  Objectively  through the workings of the con-  by ignorance and t h i r s t . "  42  Buddhism r e c o g n i z e d that a l l average and normal i n d i v i d u a l s g a i n knowledge from the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e i r s e n s e - f a c u l t i e s (of which ma no- i s one), and r e s p e c t i v e s e n s e - o b j e c t s . The r e s u l t a n t type of knowledge a r i s i n g , from t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s c a l l e d papanca" d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , m u l t i p l i c i t y , expansiveness." T h i s term r e f e r s more or l e s s to the mental and m a t e r i a l organism as p e r c e i v e r and the e x t e r n a l world as perceived.12 Papancamay  be  (pa + pane-: " t o spread  t r a n s l a t e d as e i t h e r " d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  liferation for  out, expand, d i f f u s e , m a n i f e s t ,  (of c o n c e p t s ) . "  I t i s the g e n e r i c  the i n t e r n a l mental apparatus and  interpreted  subjec t i v e l y by  the  sense-perception.I  1)  An  impersonal,  tive  2)  tense  term used i n the Nikayas  the e x t e r n a l world  perceived  and  paparfca- i s connected w i t h  the  process  4  nonsubjective (vedana-).  suggestive  tone i s found The  process  only up  now  takes  of d e l i b e r a t e or v o l i t i o n a l  to the p o i n t of on a p e r s o n a l , activity  feelsubjec-  (kamma-), evident,  the change i n grammatical s t r u t u r e . . . . what one senses, one p e r c e i v e s ; what one p e r c e i v e s , one reckons or r e f l e c t s on ( v i t a k k e t i ) ; what one reckons, one d i f f e r e n t i a t e s or p r o l i f e r a t e s (conceptually) (papanceti); . . .  Vitakka-  (reckoning, reasoning,  of thought, w h i l e The  pro-  Because of s i g h t and m a t e r i a l shapes, B r o t h e r s , v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( a r i s e s ) ; the coming together of the three i s s e n s u a l c o n t a c t : because of s e n s u a l c o n t a c t s e n s a t i o n ( a r i s e s ) ; . . .  ing or s e n s a t i o n  by  or  individual.  In the M a d h u p i n d i k a - s u t t a ^ of  etc.")  r e f l e c t i n g ) denotes the i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n  papanca- r e f e r s  to the consequent p r o l i f i c i t y  tendency towards d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of concepts  in ideation.  i s the fundamental sense  A/  of papanca- as a p p l i e d here.  The  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of concepts  papanca- tends to obscure o b j e c t i v e l y g i v e n process  of p e r c e p t i o n , inasmuch as  eventually gives r i s e entiated.  envisaged  facts received i n i t i a l l y  by i n the  i t i s an unwarrented d e v i a t i o n which  to an obsession-'--' f o r the s o - c a l l e d " t h i n g s " d i f f e r -  43  The vedeti and  deliberate activity  the t h i r d person v e r b s , v i z . ,  (he s e n s e s ) , s a n j a n a t i (he p e r c e i v e s ) , v i t a k k e t j . (he r e c k o n s ) ,  papanceti  (he d i f f e r e n t i a t e s ) ,  i s the most t e l l i n g  ends a t p a p a n c e t i .  stage of c o g n i t i o n .  mere c o n t i n g e n t p r o c e s s , nor an  i m p l i e d by  "Apparently,  What occurs  i t i s no longer a  i s i t an a c t i v i t y d e l i b e r a t e l y d i r e c t e d , but  i n e x o r a b l e s u b j e c t i o n to an o b j e c t i v e order of t h i n g s .  stage of sense p e r c e p t i o n , he who the h a p l e s s 3)  next  At  this  final  has h i t h e r t o been the s u b j e c t now  becomes  object."l^  . . . what one d i f f e r e n t i a t e s or p r o l i f e r a t e s ( c o n c e p t u a l l y ) , because of t h a t , concepts c h a r a c t e r i z e d by obsessed p e r c e p t i o n s a s s a i l a man i n r e g a r d to the v i s i b l e o b j e c t s c o g n i z e d by s i g h t b e l o n g i n g to the past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . . . . (M.1:111)  T h i s f i n a l passage r e f e r s izing  to the world  tendency of the c o n s c i o u s mind  p e r c e i v e d by the p r o l i f i c  (papanca-sanna-samkha).  evolved.  person  becomes overwhelmed or s u b j e c t e d by  the concepts  p a r t l y due  i n h e r e n t i n the medium of language.  to c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s  he has  The  conceptual-  This i s  Language i s composed of c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s which are'but  symbolic  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the r e a l o b j e c t i v e world,  are s u b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s used to r e l a t e the o b j e c t i v e world t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l modes of communication, whose r e a l i t y e x i s t e n t only i n the mind. stability  with  Because of ignorance,  or a l l of these mistaken  differentiating person time  These d e s i g n a t i o n s enjoy a sense of r e l a t i v e  one w i l l  the t h i n g s they p o i n t a t , e t c . (see pp.  by one  20-21).  tendency i n h e r e n t i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  processes  into  seemingly  equate v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s Conditioned  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and  "a l a b y r i n t h i n e network of concepts  through  i n t o conven-  i s purely subjective,  i n that they d i v i d e a d y n a m i c a l l y becoming world  s t a t i c beings.  i . e . , they  either  because of the  constant  papanca- weaves i n the  connecting  the three p e r i o d s of  of r e c o g n i t i o n , r e t r o s p e c t i o n , and  speculation.  The  44  t a n g l e maze w i t h  i t s apparent o b j e c t i v i t y  o b s e s s e s and o v e r w h e l m s h i m . sciousness  to a conjuror's  e n t i c e s the w o r l d i n g  The Buddha h a s c o m p a r e d  trick  o r an i l l u s i o n  and u l t i m a t e l y  the aggregate of con-  (may!')  . . . .  "'The K i n s m a n o f t h e Sun', ( t h e Buddha) h a s c o m p a r e d c o r p o r e a l i t y t o a mass o f foam, f e e l i n g s t o a b u b b l e , p e r c e p t i o n s t o a m i r a g e , v o l i t i o n a l - a c t i v i t i e s t o a p l a n t a i n - t r e e , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o an i l l u s i o n . " (S.3:142)17 What d i f f e r e n t i a t e s that  t h e man  who  t h e man who  i s completely  i s f r e e f r o m t h e man  free t r u l y understands  who  the nature  c e p t i o n s , a n d as s u c h , d o e s n o t become o b s e s s e d by them.  and  who i s  believes  poverty,  that  beauty  u g l i n e s s , r i g h t a n d w r o n g , g o o d and e v i l , money, a n d s o o n — a r e  tively  r e a l , when i n t r u t h  For and  fame, w o r t h , p r e s t i g e , p o s i t i o n ,  of a l l con-  The man  i g n o r a n t , a t t h e m e r c y o f h i s own " I " - c o n d i t i o n e d t h i r s t s , concepts—e.g., wealth,  i s bound i s  they  a r e but r e l a t i v e  i n s t a n c e , p e o p l e o f t e n a r g u e o v e r what  "wrong," from a p o s i t i o n they  t i o n of opposing personal physical conflict. national  ideology  armed c o n f l i c t . priorities,  often leads  nor vide  Wars a r e f o u g h t  over m e n t a l l y  t o be A  "right"  confronta-  sometimes  to the l e v e l  of a  o f t e n t h e outcome i s  fabricated values,  opinions,  e t c . , b e c a u s e t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d a r e o b s e s s e d by what  they  o r d e s i r a b l e , e t c . , and a c t a c c o r d i n g  perceptions. are mental  f a b r i c a t i o n s whose r e l a t i v e  f r o m p e r s o n t o p e r s o n and f r o m t i m e t o t i m e .  s u b s t a n t i a l , and by no means w o u l d t h e B u d d h i s t lasting  Truths,  perceive  t o v e r b a l and  opposing another n a t i o n a l ideology  A l l verbal designations varies  they  When t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s e l e v a t e d  p e r c e i v e as r i g h t and wrong, v a l u a b l e to t h e i r  subjective values.  believe i s absolutely true.  opinions  objec-  satisfaction.  Even v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s  o r s a m s a r a - and n i b b a n a - , s h o u l d  reality  They a r e n e i t h e r e t e r n a l maintain,  can they  such as t h e f o u r  be u n d e r s t o o d a s s y m b o l i c  proNoble  repre-  45  s e n t a t i o n s of the human c o n d i t i o n , i t s r e s o l u t i o n , and the nature  of e x i s -  tence,  beyond  their  not as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s inherent  i n an a b s o l u t e  l i m i t a t i o n s , most important,  sense.  To p e n e t r a t e  to p e n e t r a t e  to the a b s o l u t e  t r u t h beyond a l l r e l a t i v e p r o j e c t i o n s one must g a i n t h a t p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge  or i n s i g h t  (panria-) which transcends  the o p e r a t i o n s  o f the c o n s c i o u s  mind. What occurs  i n the process  of sense-perception  r e c e i v e s a s e n s a t i o n from a sense f a c u l t y with  i t s respective object  (visaya-).  the ego-consciousness i n t r u d e s The  i s that the mind (mano-)  ( i n d r i y a - ) having  come i n c o n t a c t  A f t e r the p o i n t o f s e n s a t i o n  t h e r e a f t e r f a s h i o n i n g the remaining  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , then,  In t h i s case,  inherent  papanca- r e f e r s to (1) the s u b j e c t as p e r -  c e i v e r obsessed by h i s own p e r c e p t i o n s , c e i v e d by one's p e r c e p t i o n s .  process.  s u b j e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t s the s e n s a t i o n ac-  c o r d i n g h i s d i s p o s i t i o n and h i s i d e a t i o n a l and c o g n i t i v e processes in consciousness.  (vedana-),  and (2) the o b j e c t i v e world  ". . . we a r e t o l d  as con-  that the s i x spheres (aya-  tana-) o f c o n t a c t between the. senses and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o b j e c t s conduce to the o p e r a t i o n o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and that both l e a d to disharmony or dukkha-: Anguttara-Nikaya  II.162-3:  So long as the s i x spheres o f c o n t a c t operate, b r o t h e r , so too does d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ; so long as d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n operates, so too do the s i x spheres of c o n t a c t . B r o t h e r , the c e s s a t i o n and calming down o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s due to the complete and p a s s i o n l e s s c e s s a t i o n o f the s i x sense spheres of c o n t a c t . Other passages that may be r e l a t e d to the above are the f o l l o w i n g : S u t t a Nipata 530: Having severed each and every d i v e r s i f i e d mental and m a t e r i a l (component) both i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y (as) the r o o t o f s i c k n e s s , u t t e r l y f r e e d from the bonds, of the r o o t o f every s i c k n e s s , such a person i s proclaimed to be i n r e a l i t y the one who has found o u t .  46  Maj jhima-Nikaya  1.65  Monks, whatever t o i l e r s or brahmans do not p e n e t r a t i v e l y know the a r i s i n g and disappearance of these two f a l s e o p i n i o n s ( i . e . , of a n n i h i l a t i o n and becoming), as w e l l as ( t h e i r ) r e l i s h , danger, and escape as they r e a l l y are, (they) are a t t a c h e d , (they) have a v e r s i o n , (they) are deluded, (they) have c r a v i n g , (they) have c l i n g i n g , (they) are i g n o r a n t , (they) have approved ( t h i s attachment) and are o b s t r u c t e d (by anger), they take p l e a s u r e i n d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ; (as such) they are not u t t e r l y f r e e d from ( r e - ) b i r t h , a g e i n g , sorrows, l a m e n t a t i o n s , physi c a l p a i n s , mental g r i e f s , d e s p a i r s , I say they are not u t t e r l y f r e e d from disharmony. Samyutta-Nikaya IV.71: Men i n g e n e r a l are possessed of the n o t i o n of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . Possessed of t h i s n o t i o n they approach the a r t i f i c e of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . Having d i s p e l l e d a l l that c o n s i s t s of mano- (the t h i n k i n g organ or p r o c e s s ) and ( a l l t h a t ) i s connected to the l a y - l i f e , he approaches that which i s connected to r e n u n c i a t i o n . . Sutta Nipata  734:  Whatever disharmony a r i s e s , a l l (of i t ) comes from c o n d i t i o n e d cons c i o u s n e s s ; with the c e s s a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s d i s harmony a l s o c e a s e s . "These passages the mental  reveal  p r o c e s s — l e a d man  of t h i s process  that e m p i r i c a l ,  sensual p e r c e p t i o n — i n d e e d ,  to bondage i n samsara- or papanca-.  i s i d e a t e d as the phenomenal w o r l d . " I  T u r n i n g back to the Madhupindika-sutta,  The o b j e c t  8  M.1:109:  I f , 0 monk, one n e i t h e r d e l i g h t s i n , nor a s s e r t s , nor c l i n g s to, that which makes one s u b j e c t to concepts c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p r o l i f i c tendency, then that i t s e l f i s the end of the p r o c l i v i t i e s to attachment, views, p r i d e , ignorance, and attachment to becoming. That i t s e l f i s the end of t a k i n g the s t i c k , of t a k i n g the weapon, of q u a r r e l i n g , contending, d i s p u t i n g , a c c u s a t i o n , s l a n d e r , and l y i n g speech. Here i t i s that these e v i l u n s k i l l e d s t a t e s cease without r e s i d u e . 1 9 What one  should n e i t h e r d e l i g h t  c e p t i o n s which a r i s e  i n , nor a s s e r t , nor c l i n g  o b s e s s i o n s generated  conceit  con-  from the process of s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n , here a process  which comprehends the o b j e c t i v e world The  to are the  from a s u b j e c t i v e p o i n t of view.  by s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n are c r a v i n g or t h i r s t  (mana-), and dogmatic views  (tanha-),  ( d i t t h i - ) or s p e c u l a t i o n s , a l l bound up  47 with  the notions  of " I " and  "mine."  j e c t u n d e r l y i n g consciousness  The  (paparfca-)  or sub-  essence of vi?nfena-.  From the  ( s e n s a t i o n ) , the dichotomy or t e n s i o n between s u b j e c t and  i s maintained tion.  n o t i o n of an a b i d i n g ego  i s a fundamental p r e s u p p o s i t i o n of the s u b j e c t -  o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s the v e r y of vedana-  The  until  fully  c r y s t a l i z e d and  paradox i s the o b j e c t i v e f a c t i n thought and  justified  stage object  at the l e v e l of concep-  that the ego-notion  i s an  extension  not ,true to o b j e c t i v e f a c t s .  Given the ego-consciousness, the e v e r - p r o l i f i c process of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n a l l i t s complex r a m i f i c a t i o n s , s e t s i n . From one a s p e c t , the n o t i o n of " I " with i t s concomitant n o t i o n s of "my" and "mine," develops towards c r a v i n g (tanha). Viewed from another a s p e c t , as i n e v i t a b l y and i n e x t r i n c a b l y bound up with the n o t i o n s of " n o t - I , " of "thou" and " t h i n e , " i t i s a form of measuring or value-judgment (mana). Yet another aspect i s the dogmatic adherence to the concept of an ego as a t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . Thus C r a v i n g , C o n c e i t , and Views (tanha, mana, d i t t h i ) are but three aspects of the self-same ego-consciousness, and we f i n d these a l l u d e d to i n the Madhupindika S u t t a by the e x p r e s s i o n s , "abhinanditabbam," "abhivaditabbam," and "ajjhosetabbam" ( " d e l i g h t s i n , a s s e r t s , c l i n g s " ) . . . . Of s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e are the three s t a n d p o i n t s from which the w o r l d i n g i s s a i d to view each of h i s F i v e Aggregates when he t h i n k s of them as " T h i s i s mine" ("etam mama"), " T h i s am I" ("eso' ham asmi"), " T h i s i s my s e l f " ("eso me a t t a " ) . . . . . . . the three terms C r a v i n g , C o n c e i t , and Views . . . a r i s e from the self-same m a t r i x of the super-imposed ego, they are not to be c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . Now the p r o l i f i c i t y i n concepts suggested by the term "papanca" m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f through the above three main c h a n n e l s , so much so t h a t , the term has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with them  C r a v i n g , C o n c e i t , and Views . . . these a r e t h e r e f o r e " d e f i n i t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n , " seeking to d e f i n e "paparfca" by g i v i n g i t s most n o t a b l e i n s t a n c e s . 20 We  may  now  summarize the message of the Madhupindika-sutta.  become f r e e from the yoke of p r o l i f e r a t i n g the t e n s i o n between s u b j e c t and e q u i l i b r i u m , d i s - e a s e ) , provided obsessed  by way  of t h i r s t ,  concepts,  c o n c e i t , and  may  thereby e r a d i c a t i n g  o b j e c t , i . e . , dukkha- (disharmony, that one  One  dis-  does not e n t e r t a i n or become  dogmatic views with r e g a r d  to  the  48 phenomenal world as p e r c e i v e d s u b j e c t i v e l y perception.  through the process of sense-  As such, the person w i l l not become entangled i n d i s p u t e s or  c o n f l i c t s with-another over p e r s o n a l wants, v a l u e judgments, t h e o r i e s , p o i n t s of view, and  the p r o c l i v i t i e s  and s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  e t c . ; and f r e e from p e r s o n a l b i a s e s and  towards  objects believed  to be e t e r n a l ,  papa'nca-,  substantial,  formula o f sense-percep-  be regarded as the l ocus c l a s s l c u s  papa*nca-  prejudices,  the person i s f r e e to see r e a l i t y as i t r e a l l y i s .  A c c o r d i n g , then, to the Madhupindika-sutta's t i o n , which may  or s p e c u l a t i o n s ,  f o r our examination o f  i s used as a g e n e r i c term to d e s c r i b e (1) the  individual  as p e r c e i v e r obsessed w i t h (2) what he has c o n c e i v e d , i . e . , the phenomenal world.  The h a b i t u a l or i n v e t e r a t e tendency  towards  differentiation  which  leads to the t h r e e f o l d o b s e s s i o n s (tanha-, mana-, and d i t t h i - ) e s t r a n g e s the person from nibbana-. He who i s g i v e n to d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , d e l i g h t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , he f a i l s to g a i n nibbana-, the unsurpassed freedom from bondage. And he who h a v i n g g i v e n up d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , d e l i g h t i n g on the path to n o h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , he gains nibbana-, the unsurpassed freedom from bondage.21 A c c o r d i n g to James S a n t u c c i : The person i n bondage . . . i s i n c a p a b l e of s e e i n g the world as i t r e a l l y i s . His v i s i o n of i t i s l i m i t e d by h i s mental apparatus (veda_na, sa^rTa-, samkhara-, vinnana-) which i n t u r n i s clouded and made impure by the d e f i l e m e n t s (J5.ile£a-), t a i n t s (asava-), c l i n g i n g s (upadana-), etc. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n we a r r i v e at c o n c e r n i n g papanca-, t h e r e f o r e , i s that i t i s nothing but a p e r c e p t u a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e c h n i c a l term e q u i v a l e n t to samsara.22 The V e p a c i t t i - s u t t a , S.4:202f., b r i n g s i n t o c l e a r r e l i e f differentiating papanca-,  tendency  the v i c i o u s  i n the c o g n i t i v e - i d e a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i m p l i e d  by  and the bondage i t causes.  . . . so s u b t l e , monks, i s the bondage of V e p a c i t t i , y e t even more  49  s u b t l e is" the bondage of Mara. He who imagines, monks, i s bound by Mara; he who does not imagine i s f r e e d from the E v i l One. " I am," this is imagination. " I am t h i s , " t h i s i s i m a g i n a t i o n . " I w i l l become," . . . " I w i l l not become," . . . " I w i l l become embodied," . . . " I w i l l become f o r m l e s s , " . . . " I w i l l become p e r c e p t u a l l y aware or c o n s c i o u s (sa*nni, "having p e r c e p t i o n " ) , " . . . " I w i l l not become p e r c e p t u a l l y aware," . . . " I w i l l become n e i t h e r p e r c e p t u a l l y aware nor unaware," . . . . Imagination, monks, i s a d i s e a s e , i m a g i n a t i o n i s an a b s c e s s , i m a g i n a t i o n i s a barb. Whereby, monks, (you must say:) "we w i l l abide with minds f r e e from i m a g i n a t i o n . " In t h i s way, you must d i s c i p l i n e y o u r s e l v e s .  The  " I am,"  monks, t h i s  is agitation  " I am,"  monks, t h i s  is palpitation  " I am,"  monks, t h i s  is differentiation  " I am,"  monks, t h i s  is conceit  d e l u s i o n of an ego  as w e l l as and  imagination  conceit  .  ... . . . .  (managata-).  The  (of concepts)  . . . .  as the agent behind (mannita-),  or p r o l i f e r a t i o n  a l l a c t i o n i s the r o o t of papanca-  agitation  n o t i o n " I am"  (injita-),  palpitation  i s none other  than  (phandita-),  this  concept  of an a b i d i n g ego which must be e l i m i n a t e d e l s e the problem of bondage w i l l continue.  T h i s i s brought out c l e a r l y  i n the T u v a t a k a - s u t t a ,  Sutta  Nipata  915-16: I ask.you, .who are a kinsman of the A d i c c a s and a g r e a t sage, about s e c l u s i o n and the s t a t e of peace, with what manner of i n s i g h t , and not g r a s p i n g a n y t h i n g i n t h i s world, does a bhikkhu r e a l i z e Nibbana? Let him c o m p l e t e l y cut o f f the r o o t of concepts t i n g e d w i t h the l i f i c tendency, namely, the n o t i o n " I am the t h i n k e r . " So s a i d Buddha, "Whater inward c r a v i n g s there be, l e t him t r a i n h i m s e l f subdue them b e i n g always mindful.23 The mistaken assumption " I am" It  leads  to attachment or p a s s i o n  delusion  (moha-), as w e l l as  quarrels  (kalaha-), s t r i f e  slander "'To  is said  to be  the r o o t of a l l disharmony.  ( r a g a - ) , a v e r s i o n or h a t r e d  their  symptomatic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  (viggaha-), dispute  (pesurma-), j e a l o u s y and  avarice  prothe to  (dosa-),  and  i n s o c i e t y as  (vivada-), conceit  (manatimana-),  (issamacchariya-), etc.  know' means to have a c o n d i t i o n i n g (and c o n d i t i o n e d )  apparatus  50  for is  interiorizing  existence.  i n t e r p r e t e d ; and  provided  by  refers  to the c o n s c i o u s  A person apprehends that aspect  subject  and  proclivities,  as w e l l as  In t h i s case,  " o b j e c t " e s t a b l i s h e d on  object with  occur w i t h o u t the  to p e r c e i v e  the  entities,  the  the  relationship (i.e.,  ledge"  t h a t endows both  As  the p e r c e p t i o n s  interdependent  such, they cannot be Considered  co-  d i s p o s i t i o n s ( a v i j j a - and  for  their  as s u b s t a n t i a l  or f a b r i c a t i o n s (paparfca-). samkhara) are absent,  whelmed by e i t h e r an a t t r a c t i o n - t o or r e p u l s i o n - f r o m  The  trans-  three elements, v i z . , s u b j e c t ,  i n v e t e r a t e tendency to p r o l i f e r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y  ceases to  to  i n t e r a c t i o n between-  false c r i t e r i a  as merely mental c o n s t r u c t i o n s  When ignorance and  Papanca-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n themselves  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , are m u t u a l l y  but  which  s e l f - e x i s t e n c e (sabhava-). - Consciousness cannot  subject-object  momentary o c c u r r e n c e .  . . . ."24  papanca- i s the  a l e s c e to form a phenomenon), whereby the o b j e c t , and  of e x i s t e n c e  a c t i v i t i e s which i n t e r p r e t the world a c c o r d i n g  into conceptions.  " s u b j e c t " and  becomes human e x i s t e n c e when i t  i n c l u d e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e scheme  of s e n s i t i v i t y permit him  one's p e r s o n a l lated  human e x i s t e n c e  cognition.  h i s patterns  Existence  and  then  to become over-  what one  conceived  occur. conscious  mind cannot e x i s t  that appear to be e x t e r n a l  dency i n h e r e n t  i n the c o n s c i o u s  become obsessed by  one's own  independent of the " o b j e c t s  to the mind.  process  It is this habitual  to c o n s t r u c t  constructions  of know-  phenomena and  tento  that, i s the source of bondage.  From a s u b j e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the phenomenal world was seen to depend on c r a v i n g ( t r s n a ) f o r i l l u s i o n a r y " t h i n g s ; " t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , however, r e s u l t e d i n b i n d i n g the e n e r g i e s of l i f e , and t h i s bondage i s experience as sorrow (duhkha).25 In c o n t r a s t , when one  fully realizes  t h a t h i s mental  constructions  A/A/  are empty  (sunna-), then the  f a l s e c r i t e r i a which e s t a b l i s h e s  differentia-  51  tion One  (papanca-) d i s s i p a t e s becomes completely  f r e e i n g him  from the net of h i s own  thoughts.  aware that there i s no " t h i n g " d i s s i p a t e d nor a  d i s s i p a t o r a s i d e d from the c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g concepts. and  after  In t h i s way,  the l i b e r a t e d man  i l l u s i o n a r y u l t i m a t e s and  constructions The man  to l i b e r a t i n g  i s r e l e a s e d from t h i r s t i n g f o r  converts h i s energies  from b i n d i n g  disintegration.  endowed w i t h " r e l i g i o u s "  or " s a y i n g knowledge"  understands  that there i s no " b e i n g " o u t s i d e of " b e i n g v e r b a l l y d e s i g n a t e d . " t h i s not because such knowledge melts  nor because i t r e l a t e s  to an i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s or ego,  i n s i g h t f u l and  s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d man  (self-existence). s u b j e c t behind  sees  And  facts  and  r a t h e r , because  the  t h a t a l l t h i n g s are empty of sabhava-  There i s no u l t i m a t e essence  consciousness.  He knows  away the f r o z e n d i s t i n c t i o n s of con-  c e p t s back to some p r e e x i s t i n g essence, feelings  these  or essences  because the man  and  endowed w i t h  no a b i d i n g saving  knowledge sees a l l t h i n g s as empty, he n e i t h e r has h a t r e d or d e s i r e f o r them. trol  He has  no d e s i r e to c o n t r o l  them and  realizes  t h a t they cannot con-  him. According  to Buddhist  d o c t r i n e , then, man  must r e a l i z e  that  there  are no d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h i n g s because t h a t which i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d has  some k i n d of i n t r i n s i c  e l s e , and  this  r e a l i t y which "marks" i t o f f from something  i s c o n t r a r y to  fact.  What human beings p e r c e i v e as d i s t i n c t i v e e n t i t i e s or segments of e x i s t e n c e i s a r e s u l t of mental f a b r i c a t i o n s . These e n t i t i e s . . . do not e x i s t i n themselves; they e x i s t because they are "named"-d i s t i n g u i s h e d from something e l s e . And the names g i v e n to t h a t conglomerate of impulses, p e r c e p t i o n s , and s e n s a t i o n s c a l l e d " t h i n g s " are u s e f u l only f o r p r a c t i c a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l of l i f e . 2 6 The  dilemma of papanca- i s that the person  slips  i n t o the e r r o r of r e g a r d -  i n g these c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s as a b s o l u t e f a c t s ,  unable  52 to see that these d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y empty of o b j e c t i v e  reality.  Every o b j e c t of p e r c e p t i o n or i m a g i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s a mental f a b r i c a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e every d i s t i n c t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s f a b r i c a tion . . . . I f , on the other hand, t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s accompanied by the assumption or c o n v i c t i o n of an a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y , then p s y c h i c e n e r g i e s are s t i m u l a t e d which bind the person to the f a b r i c a t i o n . I t i s b e i n g bound to f a b r i c a t i o n which i s samsara. Because o f the danger i n language to p o s i t an e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y w i t h i d e a s , mental a c t i v i t y has been regarded w i t h d i s f a v o r as a means f o r r e a l i z i n g U l t i m a t e Truth.27 It i s ignorance and cepts and  the h a b i t u a l  t h i r s t which  l e a d to attachment i n r e g a r d  tendency to c o n c e p t u a l i z e and become obsessed w i t h  one's own mental c o n s t r u c t i o n s that i s the source of bondage. papanca-  is a technical  to con-  term used as a synonym f o r samsara-.  In t h i s  way,  The r o u t e to  freedom from bondage to concepts i s the path o f n o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . To g a i n freedom, we must t r a i n o u r s e l v e s not t o t h i n k o f an " I " d i s t i n c t from a " t h a t , " and . to do t h a t , we must t r a i n o u r s e l v e s not to think of " t h a t s " clothed i n d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s . By doing t h i s , we g a i n freedom; we a l s o g a i n a d i r e c t i n s i g h t i n t o t h i n g s - i n - t h e m s e l v e s which c o n s t i t u t e s the stream of r e a l i t y  N o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Nippapanca-), I n s i g h t or P e n e t r a t i v e Knowledge and Freedom (Vimokkha-)  (Panna-),  The path of n o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or n o n p r o l i f e r a t i o n of concepts ( n i p papanca-) i s d i s c u s s e d In t h i s d i s c o u r s e ,  i n the Sakkapanha-sutta of the D i g h a - N i k a y a . ^  the Buddha t r a c e s  the o r i g i n of disharmony  c a u s a l l y connected s e r i e s of mental s t a g e s , v i z . : e n v i n e s s and ( i s s a - m a c c h a r i y a - ) a r i s e because of p r o c l i v i t i e s disliked  (piyappiya-);  towards  through a selfishness  things l i k e d  t h i n g s l i k e d and d i s l i k e d a r i s e because of d e s i r e  (chanda-.) ; d e s i r e from r a t i o c i n a t i o n or r e c k o n i n g ( v i t a k k a - ) ; and  ratiocin-  <*V~  A/  ation  from concepts c h a r a c t e r i z e d by obsessed p e r c e p t i o n s A/  samkha-). sists  The.path  and  (papanca-sanna-  <*V  l e a d i n g to the c e s s a t i o n of papanca-sanna-samkha- con-  of a method of mental c u l t i v a t i o n  e l i m i n a t i o n of v i t a k k a - and v i c a r a -  (bhavana-)  (initial  aimed  at the p r o g r e s s i v e  and s u s t a i n e d t h o u g h t ) . ^ 3  53  A c c o r d i n g to the  Sakkapanha-sutta:  But how, s i r , has t h a t bhikkhu gone about, who has reached the path s u i t a b l e f o r and l e a d i n g to the c e s s a t i o n of concepts t i n g e d w i t h the p r o l i f e r a t i n g tendency? Happiness, r u l e r of gods, I d e c l a r e to be t w o f o l d , a c c o r d i n g as i t i s to be f o l l o w e d a f t e r or a v o i d e d . Unhappiness too, I d e c l a r e to be t w o f o l d . . . . Equanimity, too, I d e c l a r e to be twofold . . . . And the d i s t i n c t i o n I have a f f i r m e d i n h a p p i n e s s , was drawn on these grounds: When i n f o l l o w i n g a f t e r happiness one p e r c e i v e s t h a t bad q u a l i t i e s , develop and good q u a l i t i e s are d i m i n i s h e d t h a t k i n d of happiness should be a v o i d e d . And when f o l l o w i n g a f t e r happiness one p e r c e i v e s that bad q u a l i t i e s are d i m i n i s h e d and good q u a l i t i e s develop, then such happiness s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d . Now o f such h a p p i ness as i s accompanied by r a t i o c i n a t i o n ( v i t a k k a ) and of such as i s not accompanied, the l a t t e r i s more e x c e l l e n t . Again, r u l e r of gods, when I d e c l a r e Unhappiness to be t w o f o l d . . . the l a t t e r i s the more e x c e l l e n t . . . . A g a i n , r u l e r o f gods, when I d e c l a r e equanimity to be twofold . . . the l a t t e r i s the more excellent. And i t i s i n t h i s wise t h a t a bhikkhu, 0 r u l e r of gods, must have gone about, who has reached the path s u i t a b l e f o r the l e a d i n g to the c e s s a t i o n of concepts t i n g e d with the p r o l i f e r a t i n g tendency.31 It  i s important to note, that a l t h o u g h v i t a k k a - a n d v i c a r a - are used  to develop the c u l t i v a t i o n o f wholesome mental the e l i m i n a t i o n of unwholesome mental must be e l i m i n a t e d  to make way  states,  s t a t e s and conducive to they themselves,  i n turn,  f o r p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge or i n s i g h t  T h i s i s a c h i e v e d much i n the same way  as a c a r p e n t e r d r i v i n g out a b l u n t  peg w i t h a s u c c e s s i o n of s h a r p e r ones, whereby each s u c c e s s i v e peg p l a c e d by a sharper one u n t i l  finally  with ease the s h a r p e s t of them a l l . e l i m i n a t i o n of the tendency sutta,  (panna-  the c a r p e n t e r i s a b l e to p u l l  is reout  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o g r e s s i v e  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e appears  i n the  Potthapada-  D.l:184f.:  So, from the time Potthapada, that the bhikkhu i s thus c o n s c i o u s i n a way brought about by h i m s e l f ( i . e . , from the time of the F i r s t R a p t u r e - ^ ) , he goes on from one stage to the next, and from that to the next, u n t i l he reaches the summit of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . And when he i s on the summit of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t may occur to him: "To be  54  t h i n k i n g at a l l , i s the i n f e r i o r s t a t e . I t were b e t t e r not to be t h i n k i n g . Were I to go on t h i n k i n g and f a n c y i n g these i d e a s , these s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , I have reached, would pass away, but o t h e r c o a r s e r ones, might a r i s e . And so I w i l l n e i t h e r t h i n k or fancy any more." And he does not. And to him n e i t h e r t h i n k i n g any more, nor f a n c y i n g , the i d e a s , the s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s he had, pass away; and no o t h e r s , c o a r s e r than they a r i s e . So he touches (the s t a t e o f ) Cessation. Thus i s i t , Potthapada, t h a t the m i n d f u l a t t a i n m e n t of the c e s s a t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n s takes p l a c e step by step.34 The  s u t t a - e x p l a i n s how  the person steps out of the o b s e s s i v e c e n t r i p e t a l  f o r c e s of papanca- h a v i n g gone through  the l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  until  he transcends that mode o f knowledge w i t h the h i g h e s t sphere of knowledge, i.e.,  p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge (paruVa-) which p e n e t r a t e s the v e i l s  - - i . e . , mental  c o n s t r u c t i o n s — to see r e a l i t y as i t r e a l l y  of transcendence  is.  of  illusion  T h i s sense 7-8:  i s e v i d e n t i n the U r a g a - s u t t a of the S u t t a N i p a t a ,  From whom ( a l l ) r e c k o n i n g ( v i t a k k a - ) which has been s u b j e c t i v e l y f a b r i c a t e d are d e s t r o y e d without r e s i d u e , t h a t bhikkhu renounces the h i g h e r and lower realms j u s t as a snake (sheds) i t s worn-out skin. He who n e i t h e r goes beyond (or t r a n g r e s s e s ) or lags behind, he has transcended a l l o b s e s s i o n (papanca-), that bhikkhu renounces the h i g h e r and lower r e a l m s . j u s t as a snake (sheds) i t s worn-out s k i n . Ethically fruits  speaking, the person who  has  s u c c e s s f u l l y renounced  of a c t i o n , sees that those once c o n c e i v e d f r u i t s  tional action  (kamma-) are a c t u a l l y empty.  the  or aims of i n t e n -  He " n e i t h e r t r a n s g r e s s e s nor  lags behind," i . e . , he no l o n g e r i n t e n t i o n a l l y a c t s overwhelmed by h i s p r o j e c t i o n s of what he d i f f e r e n t i a t e s as d e s i r a b l e and n o n d e s i r a b l e . The  consummation of the d i s c i p l i n e of s e n s e - r e s t r a i n t develops  mental  capacity  data.  A c c o r d i n g to the Bodhivagga  the  to >refrain from t h i n k i n g " i n terms o f " (mannana-) sensory of the Udana:  Then, Bahiya, thus must you t r a i n y o u r s e l f : " I n the seen t h e r e w i l l be j u s t the seen; i n the heard, j u s t the heard; i n the sensed ( i . e . , the sense impressions r e c e i v e d by s m e l l i n g , t a s t i n g , and t o u c h i n g ) , j u s t the sensed; i n the c o g n i z e d , j u s t the c o g n i z e d . That i s how, 0 Bahiya, you must t r a i n y o u r s e l f . Now, when, Bahiya, i n the seen  55  there w i l l be to you j u s t the seen, i n the heard . . . j u s t the cogn i z e d , then Bahiya, you w i l l have no 'thereby;' when you have no 'thereby,' then B a h i y a , you w i l l have no ' t h e r e i n ; ' as*you, B a h i y a , w i l l have no ' t h e r e i n ' i t f o l l o w s that you w i l l have no 'here' or 'beyond,' or midway-between. That i s j u s t the end of 111."35 1  Bhikkhu  1  Nanananda comments on t h i s  passage:  The f i r s t p a r t o f the e x h o r t a t i o n p r e s e n t s s u c c i n c t l y the sura-total of s e n s e - r e s t r a i n t , w h i l e the l a t t e r part i n t e r p r e t s the p h i l o s o p h y behind i t . T h i s s e n s e - r e s t r a i n t c o n s i s t s i n " s t o p p i n g - s h o r t , " a t the l e v e l o f sense-data without being l e d a s t r a y by them. He who succeeds i n t h i s , has t r u l y comprehended the nature of sense-data so that he no longer thinks i n term.9 erf them ('na tena' - no ' t h e r e by;' 'na t a t t h a ' = no ' t h e r e i n ' ) . He has thus transcended the supers t i t i o n s of the grammatical s t r u c t u r e as a l s o the v e r b a l dichotomy (nev* idha, na huram, na ubhayamantare = ' n e i t h e r here nor beyond nor midway-between ). In s h o r t , he has a t t a i n e d the Goal.36 1  In t h i s way,  nippapanca-,  the aim of s e n s e - r e s t r a i n t ,  f o r nibbana- much l i k e papanca- f o r samsara-. mation  i s used as a synonym  As a r e s u l t of the consum-  of the path of n o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the parson d e s i s t from v a i n  (kamma-) caused as a r e s u l t of the h a b i t u a l t u a l l y , whereby one c l i n g s to h i s s u b j e c t i v e u n r e a l i t y and disharmony.  tendency  aversion,  The path of nippapanca-  The c l e a r , immediate,  and d e l u s i o n  enables the d i s c i p l e to Such a v i s i o n i s f r e e  (_raga-, dosa-, and moha-) .  i n t u i t i v e , objective  v i s i o n of r e a l i t y as i t r e a l l y  to p r o l i f e r a t e concep-  interpretations slipping into  stand a l o o f and view a l l sense-data o b j e c t i v e l y . from attachment,  striving  (,etc.) discernment  i s i s known as panna-: " p e n e t r a t i v e  or know-  ledge, i n s i g h t , (the h i g h e s t ) knowledge or u n d e r s t a n d i n g , wisdom, e t c . " Wisdom i s a "means o f knowing" which r e l e a s e s a p e r s o n from the a t tachment to things . . . wisdom i s the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n f o r , and the c u l m i n a t i o n of, the n e g a t i o n of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t e n t i t i e s . The aim of wisdom i s to melt the c h a i n s of greed and t h i r s t f o r p o s s e s s i o n of " t h i n g s . " Or to s t a t e the same t h i n g from the v i e w p o i n t o f a r e l i g i o u s g o a l , i t s aim i s to r e l a t e o n e s e l f to a l l " t h i n g s " i n a em ipty r e l a t i o n s h i p , i . e . , t o t a l freedom.37 According associated  to Buddhaghosa, £ann|- " i s knowledge c o n s i s t i n g i n i n s i g h t  with wholesome t h o u g h t . "  3 8  He c o n t i n u e s i n a l e n g t h y d e s c r i p -  56  t i o n of (1) " i n what sense are i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  i s i t p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge?", and (2) "what  f u n c t i o n , m a n i f e s t a t i o n , and proximate  cause?"^  I t i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g (pan'na) i n the sense o f a c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g (pajanana). What i s t h i s a c t of understanding? I t i s knowing Qanana) i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode separate from the modes o f p e r c e i v i n g (sarfjjnana) and c o g n i z i n g ( v i janana). For though the s t a t e of knowing (janana-bhava) i s e q u a l l y present i n p e r c e p t i o n (sanrfa), i n cons c i o u s n e s s (virfnana), and i n understanding (panna), n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r c e p t i o n i s o n l y the mare p e r c e i v i n g o f an o b j e c t as, say, " b l u e " or " y e l l o w ; " i t cannot b r i n g about the p e n e t r a t i o n o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as impermanent, p a i n f u l , and n o t - s e l f . Consciousness knows the o b j e c t as blue and y e l l o w , and i t b r i n g s about the p e n e t r a t i o n o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i t cannot b r i n g about, by endeavouring, the mani f e s t a t i o n o f the (supermundane) path. U n d e r s t a n d i n g knows the o b j e c t i n the way a l r e a d y s t a t e d , i t b r i n g s about the p e n e t r a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i t b r i n g s about, by endeavouring, the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the path. That i s why t h i s a c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g should be understood as "knowi n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode separate from the modes of p e r c e i v i n g and cognizing." F o r t h a t i s what the words " i t i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the sense o f a c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g " r e f e r t o . Understanding has the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e n e t r a t i n g ^ the i n d i v i d u a l essence o f s t a t e s ( i . e . , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e ) . I t s f u n c t i o n i s to a b o l i s h the darkness of d e l u s i o n , which c o n c e a l s the i n d i v i d u a l essences o f s t a t e s . I t i s m a n i f e s t e d as n o n - d e l u s i o n . Because of the words "One who i s c o n c e n t r a t e d knows and sees c o r r e c t l y " i t s proximate cause i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n (samadhl).41 From t h i s passage tinguished  from sanna-  f o u r t h i n g s can be e s t a b l i s h e d :  (1) paffffa- i s d i s -  and v i n n a n a - because  and v i n n a n a - a r e  (2) sanna-  not equated with the c o n d i t i o n s which cause the o c c u r r e n c e o f complete freedom, t h e r e f o r e , it  (3) panna- i s the h i g h e s t means of knowledge  because  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h i g h e s t g o a l , nibbana-; and ( 4 ) , there i s a  c o r r e l a t i o n between knowledge and v i s i o n , e.g., one who knows sees as i t r e a l l y  is.  I w i l l have more to say about  this point  reality  latter.  P e r c e p t i o n and c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e l e g i t i m a t e means o f knowledge i n regards t o c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l m a t t e r s , but because the world  i n t o " I " and "non-I,"  the person from  the mistaken  " t h i s ' s " and " t h a t ' s , "  assumption  they  differentiate  they f a i l  to f r e e  of n i c c a - , at tan-, and sukha-  57 (permanence, s u b s t a n t i a l i t y , and from sanna- and  f r e e from ignorance and  n o n p e n e t r a t i o n of  of the Noble T r u t h s . "  the Noble T r u t h s , " Paj&a- d i s p e l l s  beyond,  i n that  thirst;  ignorance defined  w h i l e parma- i s "the  ignorance, t h i r s t ,  about the complete c e s s a t i o n of bondage and Penetrative  What d i s t i n g u i s h e s panna-  vinnana- i s that the person endowed w i t h p e n e t r a t i v e know-  ledge i s completely "the  satisfaction).  (sunnata-),  whereby one  r e a l i z e s t h a t even the n o t i o n of "emptiness" i s not  never to  be Panna-  endowed w i t h panna-  an e x p r e s s i o n  of "some-  i s i t a p r o p o s i t i o n about something.  Penetrative i s not  for  t r u t h which knows these d i s t i n c t i o n s as empty.  the knowledge of "emptiness"  nor  step  i t c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e s that d i s t i n c t i o n s c o n s t r u c t e d  confused with a b s o l u t e  thing,"  brings  freedom.  knowledge i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h nippapanca-, y e t one  c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l purposes i n the phenomenal world are  is  penetration  e t c . , and  the o c c u r r e n c e of  as  to be  knowledge, though i t i s a p e r f e c t i o n of man's  equated w i t h c o n c e p t u a l  knowledge.  It functions  away a l l attachments to e n t i t i e s which are a c t u a l l y mental and  intellect, by  draining  emotional  fabrications. T h i s c a p a c i t y (to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and to become a t t a c h e d to what one d i f f e r e n t i a t e s ) e x i s t s because the mind or c o n s c i o u s n e s s does not e x i s t independent of the " o b j e c t s of knowledge" t h a t appear e x t e r n a l to the mind . . . . From e a r l y Buddhism onward, the c o n s c i o u s mind (vinnana, y i j n a n a ) was understood not as a f a c u l t y that e x i s t e d i n dependent of p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t s , but as a r i s i n g from the i n t e r a c t i o n of " s u b j e c t i v e " and " o b j e c t i v e " elements. As every e x i s t i n g t h i n g , the c o n s c i o u s mind i s something which has "become;" and the becoming i s due to " f o o d , " i . e . , a s t i m u l u s . I f the s t i m u l u s c e a s e s , then "what becomes" c e a s e s . Wisdom i s , i n p a r t , a c o n c e n t r a t i v e e x e r c i s e which d i s s o l v e s the mental and emotional attachment of the apparent mind to " t h i n g s " ( i n c l u d i n g ideas or a s s e r t i o n s ) , for i t i s the awareness t h a t a l l " t h i n g s " are empty.42 The worldly  i n s i g h t f u l and  se1f-controlJed  or otherwise, but  lets  man  does not  i t a l l go " t o g i v e  rely  on  anything,  the r e s u l t i n g emptiness  58  a f r e e run, u n o b s t r u c t e d  by a n y t h i n g whatever, or by the f i g h t a g a i n s t i t .  To stop r e l y i n g on anything, is  t o be supported  to seek nowhere any r e f u g e or support,  by the ' p e r f e c t i o n of wisdom.'"43  c a p a c i t y or power which operates  spontaneously,  that  p nna- i s the mental a  f r e e from the h a b i t u a l  tendency to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and to become a t t a c h e d t o what one d i f f e r e n t i a t e s ; and  as the p e r f e c t i o n o f man's i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  l a t i o n a l knowledge with as i t r e a l l y i s ) .  i t transcends  the p e n e t r a t i o n o f a b s o l u t e t r u t h  Mrs. Rhys Davids  conventional-re( = to r e a l i t y  writes:  Panna was not simply e x e r c i s e of thought on matters o f g e n e r a l knowledge and p r a c t i c e , nor was i t d i a l e c t i c , nor d e s u l t o r y r e v e r i e . I t was i n t e l l i g e n c e d i v e r t e d by--or r a t h e r a s - - c o n c e n t r a t e d v o l i t i o n , from lower p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s t i l l , as a f u s i o n o f sympathy, s y n t h e s i s , synergy, i t "made t o become" that s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n which had not been before.44 In Buddhism, "becoming" and "knowledge" are c o e x t e n s i v e .  The c h a r a c t e r  of the i n d i v i d u a l "becomes" or changes along the s c a l e from ignorance t o insight.  The u n e n l i g h t e n e d  man c o n s t r u c t s h i s own world  c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge (vinnana-) So long as he d i f f e r e n t i a t e s energies  (kamma-) c o n t i n u e  through  his dis-  and produces.attachments i n the p r o c e s s .  the world  i n t o s o - c a l l e d " t h i n g s " and h i s  t h i s mental and emotional  c o n s t r u c t i o n and the  attachment which f o l l o w s , the i g n o r a n t man w i l l remain c o n t i n u a l l y i n bondage, c o n s t a n t l y i n disharmony w i t h i n and w i t h o u t .  Mrs. Rhys  Davids  d e s c r i b e s the dilemma: T h i n k i n g r e s u l t s i n d e s i r e , through d e s i r e o b j e c t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o what we l i k e and what we d i s l i k e , hence envy and s e l f i s h n e s s , hence q u a r r e l i n g and f i g h t i n g . 4 5 The  binding energies  (kamma-) d i s s i p a t e when one achieves  that a l l f a b r i c a t e d phenomena a r e empty o f s e l f - e x i s t e n c e . sees the world will  o b j e c t i v e l y , as i t r e a l l y  no longer be i n disharmony  that p e n e t r a t i o n When one t r u l l y  i s , then h i s v i s i o n and a c t i o n  (dukkha-) to the way t h i n g s are.46  59 The has  man o f i n s i g h t and knowledge  h i s energies  reality  impaired  Panna- should The  (vipassana-nana-  bound by h i s ignorance  and t h i r s t ,  by s u b j e c t i v e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s .  = panna-) no l o n g e r  nor h i s v i s i o n o f  He i s completely  free.  be understood not as a means t o an end, but the end i n i t s e l f .  i g n o r a n t man i s bound, w h i l e Freedom or l i b e r a t i o n  the man o f i n s i g h t and knowledge i s f r e e .  (vimokkha-) i s s a i d  to be three  fold:  They a r e these t h r e e , namely, the s i g n l e s s , the d e s i r e l e s s , and the void. F o r t h i s i s s a i d : "When one who has g r e a t r e s o l u t i o n b r i n g s ( f o r m a t i o n s ) to mind as impermanent, he a c q u i r e s the s i g n l e s s l i b e r a t i o n . When one who has g r e a t t r a n q u i l l i t y b r i n g s (them) t o mind, as p a i n f u l , he a c q u i r e s the d e s i r e l e s s l i b e r a t i o n . When one who has g r e a t wisdom b r i n g s (them) to mind as n o t - s e l f , he a c q u i r e s the v o i d aspect o f l i b e r a t i o n . " 4 7 Shwe Aung remarks:. I t i s termed the " S i g n l e s s " ( a n i m i t t a ) when the m e d i t a t o r contemplates t h i n g s as impermanent by r i d d i n g h i s mind o f the s i g n s o f the three d e l u s i o n s — namely, o f the h a l l u c i n a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n , thought, and views ( s a n n a - v i p a l l a s a , c i t t a - v i p a l l a s a , and d i t t h i - v i p a l l l s a ) , which have l e d mankind to b e l i e v e that impermanent things a r e permanent. I t i s termed "the U n d e s i r e d " ( a p p a n i h i t a ) when he contemplates t h i n g s as e v i l by r i d d i n g h i s mind o f the c r a v i n g which l e a d mankind t o covet t h i n g s as i f they were good. I t i s termed "the V o i d , " or "Emptiness" (sunnata), when he contemplates t h i n g s as u n s u b s t a n t i a l by r i d d i n g h i s . mind o f the i d e a o f an ego, or soul.48 In t h i s way, freedom or l i b e r a t i o n .freedom i s equate w i t h  (vimokkha-) i s equal  the man endowed with  t o panna- i n that  p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge who sees  t h i n g s as they r e a l l y a s , impermanent, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and u n s u b s t a n t i a l , and who, because o f such knowledge, i s no l o n g e r To conclude,  according  to F r e d e r i c k  attached.  Streng:  MA/  • • • (Panna-) which p e r m i t t e d one " t o see t h i n g s as they r e a l l y a r e , " was s i g n i f i c a n t from a r e l i g i o u s p o i n t o f view s i n c e one "became" what one knew . . . . In summary we would say that the i n s i g h t i n t o the emptiness o f a l l t h i n g s d e s t r o y e d i l l u s i o n ; f o r t h i s i l l u s i o n was c r e a t e d by p o s i t i n g s e l f - e x i s t e n c e on " t h i n g s " d i s t i n g u i s h e d by p e r c e p t i o n or i m a g i n a t i o n . Wisdom was not i t s e l f an u l t i m a t e view, nor was i t an a s s e r t i o n about an a b s o l u t e b e i n g . Wisdom was the p r a c t i c e (carya) o f d i s s o l v i n g the g r a s p i n g - a f t e r - h o p e d - f o r - u l t i m a t e s e i t h e r i n the phenomenal world or  60  the realm o f i d e a s . I.e., void  to r e a l i z e  To know "emptiness" was to r e a l i z e  that a l l t h i n g s  emptiness. ^ 4  are empty means to l i v e a l i f e  of attachments to things which a r e i n r e a l i t y  empty or  empty.  V Knowledge and V i s i o n  (Nanadassana-)  Throughout the Nikayas the emphasis was on p e r s o n a l ledge as the c'ondition necessary one  seeing.  f o r freedom.  Knowledge was d e s c r i b e d as  The Buddha was s a i d to be one who "knowing, knows and s e e i n g ,  sees having become s i g h t and knowledge."^^ of  and d i r e c t know-  the Buddha as " t h e knowing and s e e i n g  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n  one" ( j a n a t a p a s s a t a ^ l )  s a i d o f what he claims  to know that he both "knows and sees"  janami passami t i ^ ) .  The c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e s  2  "seen." "seen"  i s usually  (tarn aham  or t r u t h s o f Buddhism are  One "comprehends the Noble T r u t h s and sees t h e m . N i b b i n a - i s (nibbanam passeyyan _ti-* ) a n a l o g o u s l y 4  v i o u s l y b l i n d h a v i n g been cured by a  to the s e e i n g  o f a man  pre-  physican.  The Buddha i s one who "has knowledge and i n s i g h t i n t o a l l t h i n g s " (sabbesu dhammesu c a n a n a - d a s s l , S u t t a N i p a t a 4 7 8 ) and " t h e r e l i gious l i f e i s l e a d under the E x a l t e d One f o r the knowledge, i n s i g h t , a t t a i n m e n t , r e a l i z a t i o n and comprehension o f what i s not known, not seen, not a t t a i n e d , not r e a l i z e d and not comprehended" ( A . I V . 3 8 4 ) . It i s s a i d that the statement " I know, I see" i s d e s c r i p t i v e o f one who c l a i m s to such knowledge i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h bhavana-vada or the c l a i m to mental c u l t u r e and development through m e d i t a t i o n (A. 'IV.42,44)..55When i t was s a i d that t h i s knowledge was to be had " p e r s o n a l l y " o r " i n d i v i d u a l l y " (samam) i t i s n e c e s s a r y .to p o i n t out that what i s meant i s not that h i s knowledge was incommunicable or s u b j e c t i v e . The primary reason f o r the frequent use o f 'samam' to q u a l i f y the verb from<Jdxs in these c o n t e x t s , seems to be to emphasize, the f a c t that h i s knowledge, i s to be had by d i r e c t l y s e e i n g " o n e s e l f " and not i n d i r e c t l y by h e a r i n g i t from some source (as i n the Vedic t r a d i t i o n ) . It  i s s a i d "a monk does not hear t h a t  a beautiful g i r l The  distinction  i n such and such a v i l l a g e  or woman but has h i m s e l f i s that he has h i m s e l f  there was  seen h e r (samam p a s s a t i ) . " - ^  seen h e r i n s t e a d of assuming i t to  61  be  the case having  having  heard i t from some a u t h o r i t y .  heard the t e a c h i n g  pacities  (dhamma-) c u l t i v a t e s  In the same way, one  (bhavana-) h i s mental c a -  to p e r f e c t i o n so that he may see the dhamma- h i m s e l f .  emphasizes that "he has seen i t by h i m s e l f a f t e r having  The Buddha  . . . and he i s not s a y i n g so  heard from another r e c l u s e or brahmin."-'  "Would i t be  8  he remarked, " f o r him to say so . . . i f he had not known, seen, realized,  and apprehended w i t h h i s p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge  Buddha c l a i m s  conduct h i m s e l f  the dhamma- f o r themselves:  n  e  " L e t an i n -  long, an i n v i t a t i o n the w i s e , i s  l o n g he would h i m s e l f know and  6 0  The.dhamma-, which i s d e s c r i b e d  as " b e a r i n g  to 'come and see,'  fruit  i n this  life  before  l e a d i n g to the g o a l and v e r i f i a b l e  to be p e r s o n a l l y r e a l i z e d ; y e t i t i s not a p r i v a t e or  s u b j e c t i v e experience  The  ^  the d o c t r i n e s so that on my i n s t r u c t i o n s he would  i n such a way that b e f o r e  h i m s e l f see . . . , "  fasion  (parma-)?"59  person come to me, s i n c e r e , honest, and s t r i g h t f o r w a r d ; I s h a l l  i n s t r u c t him and teach  by  experienced,  that what he preaches he h i m s e l f has p e r s o n a l l y v e r i f i e d and  i n s t r u c t s h i s adherents to v e r i f y telligent  proper,"  which cannot be communciated or r e l a t e d i n some l i m i t e d  (please t u r n back to the d i s c u s s i o n on Conceptual Mapping, pp. 5-7).  p o i n t i s t h a t although  one's knowledge can be communicated  i n some d i s -  t o r t e d r e l a t i v e p r o j e c t i o n , that knowledge must be d i r e c t l y r e a l i z e d by one to  whom  the knowledge was r e l a t e d ; i . e . , t o r e a l i z e  which r e l a t e s h i s knowledge and v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y communication, one must t r a n s c e n d  i n c o n v e n t i o n a l modes o f  by one's own i n i t i a t i v e ,  intuitive,  and o b j e c t i v e .  as a product  n a t u r a l development o f the mind due to the o p e r a t i o n o f c a u s a l and  not d e r i v e d  teaching,  those modes o f knowledge and g a i n t h a t  knowledge and v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y which i s d i r e c t , T h i s knowledge i s gained  the Buddha's  from some s u p e r n a t u r a l  source.  o f the processes  62  Buddhism s t r e s s e s g e t t i n g r i d of h a b i t s  the importance o f e l i m i n a t i n g s u b j e c t i v e b i a s and of mind which cause the person to f a l l  into error.  The f i r s t s c h o o l of S c e p t i c s s a i d that t r u t h cannot be a r r i v e d a t and i t was always a s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r such as attachment (chando), p a s s i o n (rago), hate (doso), or r e p u l s i o n ( p a t i g h o ) , which makes one accept a p r o p o s i t i o n as true . . . . We . . . see the i n f l u e n c e (on Buddhism) of the above d o c t r i n e o f the S c e p t i c s where i t i s s a i d t h a t there a r e " f o u r ways of f a l l i n g i n t o i n j u s t i c e " or u n t r u t h ( a g a t i gammanani, A. 11.18), namely out of attachment (chanda-), h a t r e d (dosa-), ignorance (moha-), and f e a r (bhaya-); the arahant or the " i d e a l person" i n Buddhism i s not m i s l e d i n any o f these f o u r ways (D. I l l , 1 3 3 ) . 6 2  The  important d i f f e r e n c e  ( e s p e c i a l l y from a r e l i g i o u s p o i n t o f view) be-  tween Buddhism and s k e p t i c i s m  i s that Buddhism i s not t o t a l l y s k e p t i c a l  in  of r e a l i z i n g  regards to the p o s s i b i l i t y  the t r u t h o b j e c t i v e l y .  emotional d i s p o s i t i o n s , whether i t be one's l i k e or d i s l i k e s , the  t r u t h and the Buddha warns h i s d i s c i p l e s , " I f others  of me,' the dhamma -, and the samgha- (the " o r d e r " do .  not bear any hatred  or i l l - w i l l  "if  others  should  were to speak i l l  or "community" o f monks),  towards them or be d i s p l e a s e d  ( c r i t i c i s m s ) o f others  not be happy, d e l i g h t e d ,  to know  were f a i r or not?"  and e l a t e d a t h e a r t  Or,  i t will  . . . f o r i f you were only be a danger to  . . . ." For any statement to be true  i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d on evidence  warrents i t s a s s e r t i o n and not on the grounds o f one's p e r s o n a l The  a t heart  were t o speak i n p r a i s e o f me, my dhamma-, or my samgha-, you  to be happy, d e l i g h t e d , and e l a t e d a t h e a r t , you  can d i s t o r t  . . f o r i f you were t o be enraged and upset, w i l l you be a b l e  whether these statements  One's  terms used f o r " t r u e " or " t r u t h " a r e bhuta- and t a c c h a - . ^  that  prejudice.  4  The use o f bhutam i n the sense o f " t r u e " i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t l i t e r a l l y f o r i t l i t e r a l l y means " f a c t , i . e . , what has become, taken p l a c e or happened." L i k e w i s e yathabhutam, which means " i n accordance with f a c t i s o f t e n used synonymously with t r u t h . I t i s the o b j e c t o f knowledge"one knows what i s i n accordance with f a c t " (yathabhutam p a j a n a t i , D. 1.83,84) . . ." . F a l s i t y i s here d e f i n e d as the d e n i a l of f a c t or as  63  what does not accord To a s c e r t a i n the and  r a t h e r on as  The nized  one's mind must be empty of s u b j e c t i v e  f a c t s w i l l become obscured.  ( = to the r e a l i t y of a g i v e n  understood) i s not  reality  fact.^5  facts clearly,  h a b i t s of mind, e l s e the  of t r u t h  but  with  the d i r e c t , i n t u i t i v e ,  i t really  is  o b j e c t i v e knowledge and  d e s i r e or t h i r s t  t h i r s t c l i n g i n g (occurs)  clinging  One  causal  . . ."  (tanhapaccaya upadanam^) .  (ditthupadana-),  types of c l i n g i n g .  One  i n that way,  believes  whereby, i t may  o u t l o o k or u n d e r s t a n d i n g are c o r r e l a t e d . a l y z e d as cation  t h r e e f o l d : (1) the  (kamatanha-),  (bhavatanha-), and tanha-).°  7  (2)  (3)  the  that those who  Our  sire  (2)  theories  concern here i s with  i n c e r t a i n dogmatic views i s compelled by h i s  s a i d that one's d e s i r e s These d e s i r e s pleasures  or  f o r becoming or p e r s o n a l  the and  desires and  (tanha-) are  thirst  an-  sens-gratifiimmortality  f o r nonbecoming or a n n i h i l a t i o n d e s i r e s were not c o r r e l a t e d with  (vibhavaany  i n the P a l i Canon, most probably i t would have been s a i d  desired personal  immortality C  of p e r s o n a l  be  (4) c l i n g i n g to  for sensual  the t h i r s t  Clinging is  (kamupadana-),  thirst  Although these s t r o n g  particular beliefs  desires  and  t h e o r i e s of s o u l or s u b s t a n t i a l i t y because he to b e l i e v e  recog-  (3) c l i n g i n g to dogmatic and/or  of s o u l or s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (attavadupadana-). two  v i s i o n of  statement made i s that "because of  (silabbhatupadana-),  metaphysical speculations  latter  prejudices,  (tanha-) i s a l s o c l e a r l y  f o u r f o l d : (1) c l i n g i n g to sensual  to r i t u a l s  and  and  (yathabhuta).  i n Buddhist d o c t r i n e .  as  penetration  s i t u a t i o n r i g h t l y ascertained  e s t a b l i s h e d on one's s u b j e c t i v e b i a s e s  impact of s t r o n g  described  The  bias  immortality  would have b e l i e v e d  P O  ( i . e . , M a t e r i a l i s t ) theory  9  theory  a strong  de-  Q  ( b h a v a d i t t h i - ) , w h i l e those who  f o r a n n i h i l a t i o n or power^  in a  had  would have b e l i e v e d i n an a n n i h i l a t i o n i s t  (vibhavaditthi-7^).  .64  The b e l i e f s i n s o u l and substance thus not o n l y have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n our l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s 71 but a l s o i n a c r a v i n g i n us to b e l i e v e i n them . . . . The s t r e s s l a i d on the importance o f e l i m i n a t i n g s u b j e c t i v e b i a s i s t h e r e f o r e probably due to the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s impact o f d e s i r e on b e l i e f . The o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t should be a c h i e v e d i n i n t r o s p e c t i o n a f t e r a t t a i n i n g the f o u r t h jhana ( i . e . , stage or trance o f meditation72) i d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : " J u s t as one person should o b j e c t i v e l y observe another, a parson s t a n d i n g should observe a person seated or a person seated a person lyingdown, even so, should one's o b j e c t of i n t r o s p e c t i o n be. well-apprehended, w e l l r e f l e c t e d upon, w e l l - c o n t e m p l a t e d and w e l l - p e n e t r a t e d with one's knowledge" (A. 11.1,27). T h i s emphasis on the importance o f g e t t i n g r i d of our p r e j u d i c e s and h a b i t s o f mind, which make us f a l l i n t o e r r o r reminds us o f Bacon's " i d o l s , " which a c c o r d i n g to him' i n t e r f e r e w i t h the o b j e c t i v i t y of our t h i n k i n g . 7 3 s  In s h o r t , to g a i n that knowledge and v i s i o n o f t h i n g s as they are  ( y a t h i b h i l t a ) , which c o n s i s t  'existing'  really  of knowing and s e e i n g "what e x i s t s as  and what does not e x i s t as 'not e x i s t i n g ' , " ^  4  i s partly established  by e l i m i n a t i n g s u b j e c t i v e b i a s e s , c e r t a i n h a b i t s o f t h i n k i n g , and d e s i r e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be nonconducive to the p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h i n g s . What, then, i s t h e means o f knowledge which c o n s t i t u t e s t h i s o b j e c t i v e "knowledge and v i s i o n " (janati passati)? revelation,  means are i n d i r e c t  (nanadassana-) or "knowing and s e e i n g "  We may d i s m i s s the sources o f knowledge such as d i v i n e  testimony,  p r o o f or a p r i o r i  alleged  and r e a s o n i n g i n the sense  o f takka-  (i.e.,  proof) as the means o f knowing and s e e i n g because and not p e r s o n a l l y genuine.  "Proper  reflection  manasikara) i n v o l v e s both e x p e r i e n c e and r e f l e c t i o n or r e a s o n i n g .  indirect these (yoniso Thus the  Buddha r e c o g n i z e d e x p e r i e n c e both sensory and e x t r a s e n s o r y , and r e a s o n i n g or i n f e r e n c e based  on e x p e r i e n c e as sources  o f knowledge."^^  D i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n , both sensory and e x t r a s e n s o r y , p r o v i d e s man w i t h the knowledge of phenomena (dhamrne 'nana), and on the b a s i s o f t h i s d i r e c t knowledge, the Buddha made i n d u c t i v e i n f e r e n c e s w i t h r e g a r d to the u n i v e r s a l i t y of (1) c a u s a l i t y (paticcasamuppada), (2) impermanence ( a n i c c a t a ) , (3) u n s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s (dukkhata), and (4) nons u b s t a n t i a l i t y ( a n a t t a t a ) . These i n f e r e n c e s came t o be known as i n f e r e n t i a l knowledge (anvaye ~n ana).76 >  Knowledge and v i s i o n  (rfanadassana-)  a l s o denotes not only "knowledge  65 and  i n s i g h t of t h i n g s as they r e a l l y a r e "  d i s t i n g u i s h e s as w e l l the "knowledge and " t h e r e arose  e.g t h a t my  (yathabhuta-nanadassana-),  i n s i g h t of complete freedom" ( v i i n ma  freedom i s unshakable, that t h i s  but  the knowledge and  i s the  last birth,  and  insight that  there  77 i s no  further rebirth."''  In t h i s  sense, nanadassana- i s e q u i v a l e n t  to  arma- ( f i n a l knowledge), a term used e x c l u s i v e l y to denote t h i s knowledge of f i n a l s a l v a t i o n .  7 8  The means of p e r c e p t i o n are both normal (i.e.,  extrasensory).  For p e r c e p t i o n  i z e d by nippapanca-. corresponding  o b j e c t s , and  not p e r c e i v e d by two  Both sensory  7 9  ;  paranormal  to be o b j e c t i v e i t must be  character-  extrasensory  p e r c e p t i o n have  the o b j e c t s of e x t r a s e n s o r y  the normal sense f a c u l t i e s .  forms of p e r c e p t i o n  tion"  sensory) and  and  (i.e.,  "The  perception are  i t i s s a i d , "He  saw  penetra-  with h i s  tele-  p a t h i c knowledge . . . r e t r o c o g n i t i v e knowledge . . . h i s human eye d i v i n e eye." is  that "the  The  d i f f e r e n c e between sensory  p e r c i p i e n t seer u s i n g , as  dibba-cakkhu--not  the  'eye  and  those  d i f f e r e n c e between the  seems to be a d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree of  whereas, i n the Niddesa 1:323  their  extrasensory  or  perception  i t ware, another s e n s e — p a n n a - ,  of f l e s h ' . " ^ 8  What i s meant by "seen"  or  may  denote e i t h e r normal or paranormal p e r c e p t i o n , however, nanadassana- generally sensory  i s used to denote the knowledge and v i s i o n d e r i v e d perception.  s e e i n g " are mainly, tration  (samadhi-).  knowledge and v i s i o n  In t h i s way,  "knowledge and v i s i o n " or "knowing  "The  and  though not e x c l u s i v e l y , a byproduct of mental concenWhen the Buddha says t h a t " t h e r e arose t h a t Uddaka Ramaputta had  i n him  d i e d the p r e v i o u s  i t must be presumed that h i s knowledge and v i s i o n was sensory  from e x t r a -  had  the  night," ''8  by means of e x t r a -  perception. extrasensory  perceptions  or powers  MM  (abhinna) r e c o g n i z e d  in early  66 Buddhism are as f o l l o w s : 1.  P s y c h o k i n e s i s (iddhividha.), which i s not a form o f knowledge but a power. I t c o n s i s t i n the v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the 'power o f w i l l ' ( a d h i t t h a n a i d d h i ) i n the jhanas.  2.  C.lairaudience ( d i b b a s o t a ) , the f a c u l t y o f p e r c e i v i n g sounds even a t a d i s t a n c e , f a r beyond the range of o r d i n a r y a u d i t o r y f a c u l t i e s . T h i s e x t e n s i o n o f a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n both i n extent and i n depth enable the person t o p e r c e i v e d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d phenomena which are otherwise o n l y i n f e r r e d .  3.  T e l e p a t h y ( c e t o p a r i y a n a n a ) , which enable one t o comprehend the gene r a l s t a t e as w e l l as the f u n c t i o n i n g o f anothers mind.  4.  R e t r o c o g n i t i o n (pubbenivasanussatinana), the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e one's own past h i s t o r y . I t i s dependent on memory ( s a t i ) , and t h i s memory of past e x i s t e n c e i s a t t a i n e d through a c t s o f i n t e n s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n (samadhi), as i n the development of other f a c u l t i e s .  5.  C l a i r v o y a n c e (dibbacakkhu or cut'upapatanana), the knowledge of the decease and s u r v i v a l o f other beings who wander i n the c y c l e o f e x i s tence i n accordance w i t h t h e i r b e h a v i o r (karma). T h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h r e t r o c o g n i t i o n , enables one t o v e r i f y the phenomenon o f r e b i r t h .  6.  Knowledge, o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f d e f i l i n g impulses (asavakkhayarfana) which, together w i t h the l a s t f o u r mentioned above, p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the four Noble T r u t h s . " 8 2  Inference  (anumana-) or i n d u c t i v e knowledge (anayanana-) i s based on  the knowledge of c a u a l i t y , e s t a b l i s h e d on the data o f p e r c e p t i o n both normal and  paranormal, whereby i n f e r e n t i a l knowledge i s the knowledge t h a t a c a u s a l  sequence or concomitant observed to h o l d good i n a number o f present would as w e l l have taken p l a c e i n the unobserved past and w i l l the unobserved f u t u r e . ageing  and dying  (occur)" ( j a t i p a c c a y a jaramaranam ) ±  to be born e v e n t u a l l y age and d i e .  to ageing  take p l a c e i n  F o r example, the statement that "because o f b i r t h  e r a l i z a t i o n based on the o b s e r v a t i o n  t i v e knowledge  instances  83  s  a  n  e m p i r i c a l gen-  that a l l those who are "known and seen" From observed cases,  then,  the induc-  (anayanana-) i s made t h a t a l l those who a r e born a r e s u b j e c t  and dying, whether i n the past  or i n the f u t u r e .  Knowledge of these c a u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s or sequences i.s c a l l e d " t h e  67 knowledge of phenomena" (dhamrne n a n a m ) . OH  I f i s then s t a t e d t h a t :  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s the knowledge of phenomena; by s e e i n g , e x p e r i e n c i n g , a c q u i r i n g knowledge b e f o r e long and d e l v i n g i n t o these phenomena, he draws an i n f e r e n c e (nayam n e t i ) with r e g a r d to the past and the f u t u r e ( a t l t a n a g a t e ) as f o l l o w s : " A l l those r e c l u s e s and brahmins who thoroughly understood the nature of decay and death, i t s cause, i t s c e s s a t i o n and the path l e a d i n g to the c e s s a t i o n of decay and death d i d so i n the same way as I do at p r e s e n t ; a l l those r e c l u s e s and brahmins who i n the f u t u r e w i l l t h o r o u g h l y - u n d e r s t a n d the nature of decay and death . . . w i l l do so i n the same way as I do at p r e s e n t " - - t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s h i s i n d u c t i v e knowledge (idam assa anvaye nanam)„85 Thus, p e r c e p t i o n (normal  and paranormal) and  the means of knowledge and v i s i o n  i n f e r e n c e are c o n s i d e r e d  (nanadassana-).  The emphasis t h a t "knowing" (janam) must be based on " s e e i n g " (passam) or d i r e c t p e r c e p t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , makes Buddhism a form of E m p i r i c i s m . We have, however, to modify the use of the term somewhat t o mean not o n l y t h a t a l l our knowledge i s d e r i v e d from s e n s e - e x p e r i e n c e but from e x t r a s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . . . . E a r l y (as w e l l as orthodox) Buddhism should t h e r e f o r e be regarded not as a system of metaphysics but as a v e r i f i a b l e h y p o t h e s i s d i s c o v e r e d by the Buddha i n the course of h i s " t r i a l and e r r o r " e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h the d i f f e r e n t ways of life. We agree w i t h Dr. Warder when he says t h a t "the Buddha legend s y t h e s i z e s the quest f o r t r u t h on s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s r e g a r d l e s s of past t r a d i t i o n s : o b s e r v a t i o n of l i f e , experiments i n a s c e t i c i s m (under v a r i o u s teachers and i n d e p e n d e n t l y ) , the f i n a l d e d u c t i o n of a way to end s u f f e r i n g . " We a l s o agree w i t h him when, comparing Buddhism w i t h Epicureanism, he says, "Both a t t a c k e d o l d s u p e r s t i t i o n s and sought knowledge of nature, knowledge which we may c h a r a c t e r i z e as s c i e n t i f i c on account of i t s b a s i s of p e r c e p t i o n , i n f e r e n c e , v e r i f i c a t i o n , e t c . ( i t a l i c s mine  )"86  In  the Sabba-sutta,  S.4:15:  Here a contemporary of the Buddha, a p h i l o s o p h e r named J a n u s s o n i q u e s t i o n s him w i t h r e g a r d to " e v e r y t h i n g " (sabba), t h a t i s , the metap h y s i c a l q u e s t i o n s as to what c o n s t i t u t e s " e v e r y t h i n g " i n t h i s u h i - -. verse. The Buddha's immediate response i s t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g " means the eye, form, ear, sound, nose, odor, tongue, t a s t e , body, t a n g i b l e o b j e c t s , mind, and mental o b j e c t s or concepts. In s h o r t , " e v e r y t h i n g " c o n s i s t s of the s i x senses and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t s . The Buddha goes on t o say t h a t t h e r e may be o t h e r s who would not agree w i t h him and who would p o s i t v a r i o u s other t h i n g s as " e v e r y t h i n g . " But such s p e c u l a t i o n s lead only to v e x a t i o n and worry, because any such t h i n g would be beyond the sphere of e x p e r i e n c e ( a v i s a y a ) . 8 7 Finally, is  i t should be noted here t h a t panria- ( p e n e t r a t i v e ' knowledge)  V A/ synonymous w i t h nanadassana-; nanadassana are t e c h n i c a l terms used  to  68 d e s c r i b e panna-.  "A person who  need not make an e f f o r t of w i l l it  knows arid sees t h i n g s as they r e a l l y (saying),  'I s h a l l become d i s i n t e r e s t e d ;  i s the nature of t h i n g s (dhammata-) that a person who  becomes d i s i n t e r e s t e d , " ified  8 8  i . e . , the man  of wisdom, who  the Noble Truths with h i s knowledge and v i s i o n ,  tively;  and because of h i s wisdom he  which are i n r e a l i t y from attachment,  empty.  from t h i s  knpws and  has sees  i s f r e e d from attachments  to t h i n g s  Thus, "becoming i n d i f f e r e n t , he becomes f r e e freedom from attachment  he  i s l i b e r a t e d , when  p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge  (paT~ma-).  Destroyed  is rebirth,  lived  done i s what must be done, there i s n o t h i n g more to  that  i s the best  this."  8 9  Truths i n Buddhism The  chapter on Conceptual Mapping d i s c u s s e d the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s  of mapping r e a l i t y worth.  The  i n t o r e l a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l schemes and  their  pragmatic  problem which a r i s e s i s t h a t when one does not possess  awareness of these two  f a c t s — l i m i t a t i o n and n e c e s s i t y — h e w i l l  aware to h i s s u b j e c t i v e view of r e a l i t y way  sees  things objec-  the knowledge, 'I am r e l e a s e d , ' then he has  Two  1  personally ver-  he i s r e l e a s e d he has  life,  are  t h i n g s are o b j e c t i v e l y .  thinking  i t trully  the  cling  reflects  un-  the  As a r e s u l t , he becomes obsessed w i t h the  world he c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n s t r u c t s . How, avoid  then, can the B u d d h i s t r e l a t e t h e i r d o c t r i n e s (dhamma) and y e t  the problem  trines,  of having  become a t t a c h e d to those doc-  i . e . , h o l d i n g on to what i s r e l a t i v e as i f i t were a b s o l u t e ?  can they speak about and  t h e i r adherents  nibbana-,  ( p u d g a l a - ) , about  e t c . , as i f they were r e a l e n t i t i e s , when i n r e a l i t y  e x i s t o n l y as mental the Buddhist  the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y  fabrications?  i n t r o d u c e a system  To a v o i d such c o n f u s i o n and  of two  truths:  How  samsarathey  problems  conventional-relational  69 t r u t h and a b s o l u t e t r u t h . In order to a v o i d a c o n f u s i o n i t should be mentioned here t h a t there are two kinds of t r u t h s : c o n v e n t i o n a l t r u t h (sammuti-sacca, S k t . samv r t i - s a t y a ) and u l t i m a t e t r u t h (paramattha-sacca, S k t . paramartha-satya). When we use such e x p r e s s i o n s i n our d a i l y l i f e as " I , . " "you," " b e i n g , " " i n d i v i d u a l , " e t c . , we do not l i e because there i s no s e l f or being as such, but we speak a t r u t h conforming to the c o n v e n t i o n of the w o r l d . But the u l t i m a t e t r u t h i s t h a t there i s no " I " of " b e i n g " in r e a l i t y . 9 0 There e x i s t s no i n t r i n s i c a l l y t i n c t i o n between " r e l a t i v e different  different  o b j e c t s of knowledge.  t r u t h " and " a b s o l u t e  The d i s -  t r u t h " does not p e r t a i n to  o b j e c t s of knowledge, r a t h e r , i t r e f e r s t o the manner by which  " t h i n g s " are p e r c e i v e d ,  the means o f knowledge by which " t h i n g s " a r e known.  Mundane t r u t h i s based on the i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional attachment to ideas or sense o b j e c t s whereby such o b j e c t s of knowledge were used as i f they had an e x i s t e n c e independent of the p e r c e i v e r . Such t r u t h d i s c r i m i n a t e s , i d e n t i f i e s , and c a t e g o r i z e s segments of e x i s t e n c e as "door," "room," "money," " I , " "you," or any mental or s e n s u a l o b j e c t of c o g n i t i o n . A l l men use such t r u t h to c a r r y on the everyday a f f a i r s of l i k e . L i k e w i s e a l l r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s and t h e o r i e s about the nature of e x i s t e n c e f a l l w i t h i n the bounds o f mundane t r u t h , f o r they a r e fabrications. U l t i m a t e t r u t h , on the other hand, i s a q u a l i t y of l i f e expressed i n the complete i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n or c e s s a t i o n of " t h i n g s . " U l t i m a t e T r u t h i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f dependent coo r i g i n a t i o n whereby there i s no attachment to f a b r i c a t e d " t h i n g s " - not even to the f o r m u l a t i o n of dependent c o - o r i g i n a t i o n . 9 1 In t h i s way, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two kinds t i o n i n the l e v e l of understanding, ledge.  it  t r u t h i s " e s t a b l i s h e d by the nature  i s opposed t o mere o p i n i o n . "  lished  i . e . , between h i g h e r  Conventional-relational truth i s "just  absolute  on a r e l a t i v e c r i t e r i o n  t a t i o n s and c u r r e n t s , w h i l e of view at a l l .  9 2  and lower know-  an erroneous view,"  of t h i n g s  while  (sabhava-siddam),  C o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l t r u t h i s estab-  of v a l u e s ,  absolute  On a p r a c t i c a l  of t r u t h s i s a d i s t i n c -  subject  to s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e -  t r u t h i s o b j e c t i v e , empty o f any p o i n t  l e v e l i t i s necessary  and c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  t r u e to say that "a c h a i r i s not a t a b l e , " when when known and seen w i t h one's p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge, terms l i k e " c h a i r " and " t a b l e " are seen as  70  empty of s e l f - e x i s t e n c e  (sabhava-) t o which language  A c c o r d i n g t o Buddhism, i t i s ignorance  implies s ° misleadingly.  ( a v i j j a - ) which causes  one t o t h i n k  that v e r b a l d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e u l t i m a t e s , that r e l a t i v e t r u t h s a r e a b s o l u t e l y true. The Buddhist w e l l r e c o g n i z e the pragmatic v a l u e of c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a tional  t r u t h not o n l y i n d a i l y  the person  social  from bondage t o freedom.  i n t e r a c t i o n s , but as an a i d t o l e a d F o r example, one i s to develop h i s  i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s of understanding ceptually at f i r s t ,  t o apprehend the Noble T r u t h s  con-  then t o transcend such c o n c e p t u a l knowledge w i t h a  p e r f e c t view (samma d i t t h i - ) of the Noble T r u t h s .  One begins  the E i g h t f o l d  Noble Path L e a d i n g t o the C e s s a t i o n o f Dukkha- .by a d o p t i n g what the B u d d h i s t 93  c o n c e i v e as c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t r u e . adherent  p r o g r e s s e s through  concentration  With t h i s r i g h t view (samma d i t t h i - ) the  the c u l t i v a t i o n of v i r u t e  ( s I l a - ) and mental  (samadhi-) and then e v e n t u a l l y back t o samma d i t t h i - ,  now the  A/A/  the p e r f e c t e d v i s i o n of r e a l i t y  equal to panna-.  In s h o r t , he has moved  AVA/-  A/A/  from d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge (vinnana-) samsara- to nibbana-,  to p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge  t r a n s c e n d i n g the lower  know and see t h i n g s as s t a t i c  entities  (panna-),  l e v e l s o f knowledge which  through  c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l means  o.f knowledge. The a b i l i t y  to understand  a c o n c e p t u a l scheme i s an a b i l i t y  to a c h i e v e the " g o a l , " i n the same way as t h e a b i l i t y  to a c c u r a t e l y r e a d  a map and road s i g n s enables one to reach h i s d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n getting  lost  or d i s t r a c t e d .  In the " P a r a b l e o f t h e R a f t , "  ( d o c t r i n e or t e a c h i n g ) i s compared t o a r a f t son a c r o s s a t o r r e n t r i v e r , it  g i v e s the adherent  to n o b i l i t y .  i . e . , the purpose  necessary  9 4  without  the dhamma-  c o n s t r u c t e d t o c a r r y the perthe dhamma- s e r v e s i s t h a t  an i n s t r u c t u r a l v e h i c l e t o c a r r y him from n o r m a l i t y  Y e t i n the end, when the d e s t i n a t i o n i s reached,  one does  71  not c a r r y the r a f t w i t h him a f t e r w a r d s , cling The  onto the dhamma- having reached  and i n the same way, one should not  the other shore  (i.e.,  nibbana-).  danger i s t h a t : I f one t r i e s to h o l d l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as an a b s o l u t e norm f o r t r u t h of r e a l i t y , he i s doomed to f a i l u r e . L o g i c a l and d i s c u r s i v e thought as a process o f meaning i s a s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s , and t h i s s e l e c t i v i t y prevents i t from being a b l e to express the t o t a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e , or the t o t a l human e x p e r i e n c e of e x i s t e n c e . T h i s p r i n c i p l e of s e l e c t i v i t y i s both the s t r e n g t h and weakness of d i s c u r s i v e thought. On the one hand, i t permits meaningful communication; on the o t h e r , i t l i m i t s the awareness a c c o r d i n g t o h a b i t s o f apprehens i o n . 95 What the system of two t r u t h s achieves  f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  as w e l l as the pragmatic  v a l u e of c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l t r u t h s . d e s i g n a t i o n s are i n d i r e c t absolute  expressions  t r u t h , which enable  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g 'realities'  i s that i t recognizes  the d i f yet limited  I t i s the awareness t h a t v e r b a l  of t r u t h which serve as symbols o f  one t o transcend c o n v e n t i o n a l - r e l a t i o n a l modes  and r e a l i z e a b s o l u t e t r u t h .  " I f thoughts  o f mundane  were not imbued with an awareness o f emptiness,  they  perverted  the t r u t h and p o s i t e d s e l f - e x i s t e n c e i n the o b j e c t s of sense or imagination.  I t i s t h i s attachment  to ' t h i n g s ' towards which mundane t r u t h was  prone, that the t r u t h o f emptiness attempted t o d i s p e l . " ^  The system o f  9  two  t r u t h s as w e l l ,  then r e c o g n i z e s  and  seen t h i n g s as empty, f r e e s the person  t h i n g s once c o n c e i v e d world  t h a t h i g h e r knowledge, h a v i n g known  t o be s u b s t a n t i a l .  a r e not d e s t r o y e d ,  from p r e v i o u s attachments t o Thus, " t h e t h i n g s o f the apparent  but they a r e r e e v a l u a t e d i n such  no longer have the power e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y life."  9 7  Most important,  who view the w o r l d  they  t o c o n t r o l human  the system of two t r u t h s r e c o g n i z e s  that  those  from the s t a n d p o i n t o f mundane t r u t h a r e bound i n sam-  s a r a - and those who view the world have achieved  a way t h a t  nibbana-.  from the s t a n d p o i n t df u l t i m a t e t r u t h  72  Notes •'-Compendium , p.  7.  0  "'Consciousness i n an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l sense i s almost always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ' d i s p o s i t i o n s ' (samkhara). The nature of the samkharas i s e x e m p l i f i e d by a statement i n the A n g u t t a r a Nikaya t h a t one who has a t t a i n e d 'the s t a t e of c o n c e n t r a t i o n f r e e from c o g i t a t i v e and r e f l e c t i v e thought can comprehend w i t h h i s mind the mind of another, and by o b s e r v i n g how the mental samkharas are disposed i n the mind of that p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , (he can) a l s o pred i c t that he would t h i n k such and such a thought at a l a t e r time.' (A.1.171) 2  1  ". . . i t i s s a i d that d i s p o s i t i o n s c o n d i t i o n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . these d i s p o s i t i o n s are u l t i m a t e l y the r e s u l t s of p e r c e p t i v e a c t i v i t y . This i s c l e a r l y i m p l i e d i n a passage i n the Samyutta that d i s c u s s e s the d i f f e r e n c e between a dead man (mato k a l a k a t o ) and a man who has entered the s t a t e of mental c o n c e n t r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c e s s a t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n and sens a t i o n (sannavedayjtanirodham samapanno). 'In the case of a dead man, his d i s p o s i t i o n s , b o d i l y , v e r b a l and mental, cease to e x i s t and are p a c i f i e d ; l i f e has come to an end,breath i s calmed, and the senses are d e s t r o y e d . But in the case of a man who has a t t a i n e d the s t a t e of c e s s a t i o n of percept i o n and s e n s a t i o n , even though h i s d i s p o s i t i o n s have ceased to e x i s t and are p a c i f i e d , h i s l i f e has not come to an end, b r e a t h i s not calmed, and the senses are not d e s t o r y e d . (S.4.294) "According to t h i s account, a l t h o u g h the senses of the man who has a t t a i n e d the s t a t e of c e s s a t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n and s e n s a t i o n are i n t a c t , because there i s a temporary c e s s a t i o n of p e r c e p t i v e a c t i v i t y he does not accumulate any d i s p o s i t i o n s . The obvious c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t d i s p o s i t i o n s are the r e s u l t s of p e r c e p t i v e a c t i v i t y . Not only the tendencies i n the c o n s c i o u s mind but even those i n the unconscious process are the r e s u l t s of p e r c e p t i o n . " C a u s a l i t y , pp. 120-21. 1  0  •^According to M. 1:292, " I t d i s c r i m i n a t e s ( v i j a n a t i ) , t h e r e f o r e i t i s c a l l e d d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge ( v i n n a n a - ) . And what does i t d i s c r i m i n a t e ? I t d i s c r i m i n a t i e s p l e a s u r e , p a i n , and n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e or p a i n . " According to A t t h a s . 112: " J u s t as, 0 great k i n g , a town guard s i t t i n g at the c r o s s roads i n the middle of the town c o u l d see a man coming from the e a s t , c o u l d see a man coming from the west, south, n o r t h , so too, 0 great k i n g , whatever m a t e r i a l shape he sees with ( h i s ) s i g h t , he d i s c r i m i n a t e s ( v i j a n a t i ) that by h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge, what sound he hears by h i s ear, what s m e l l he smells w i t h h i s nose, what t a s t e he t a s t e s by h i s tongue,, what t a n g i b l e he touches with h i s body, what mental phenomena (dhamma: idea) he d i s c r i m i n a t e s with the mind (manasa) he d i s c r i m i n a t e s by d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge" (these v e r s e s t r a n s , by S a n t u c c i , BPT, p. 86). Vinnana- i s a pregnate term i n Buddhism. I t can mean mere s e n s u a l awareness. However, the d e f i n i t i o n used throughout t h i s paper r e f e r s to i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i . e . , awareness + judgment. For i n s t a n c e , the guard judges that the o b j e c t (awareness)jmpving towards him i s a man. A c c o r d i n g to Kalupahana, ". . . the term vinnana . . . i s used i n the e a r l y Buddhist t e x t s ^ i n a wide v a r i e t y of meanings . . . . At l e a s t three important uses of vinnana can be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . F i r s t , i t i s used to denote p s y c h i phenomena i n g e n e r a l , synonymous with the terms c i t t a , 'mind,' and mano, 'thought.' Second, i t i s used to d e s c r i b e a complete act of p e r c e p t i o n or c o g n i t i o n ; and t h i r d , i t stands f o r the c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between two- l i v e s , a form of  73  of consciousness^, that l a t e r came to be d e s i g n a t e d ' r e b i r t h consciousness' ( p a t i s a n d h i - v i n n a n a ) . " C a u s a l i t y , p. 119. For our purpose, we w i l l be concerned with vinnana- d e f i n e d as " p e r c e p t i o n " or " c o g n i t i o n . " 0  ^The Nikayas ( C o l l e c t i o n s ) belong to the S u t t a - P i t a k a (Basket of D i s c o u r s e s ) . There are f i v e , v i z . , Digha-Nikaya ( C o l l e c t i o n of Long D i s c o u r s e s ) , Ma j jhima-Nikaya ( C o l l e c t i o n of Medium D i s c o u r s e s ) , Samyu t t a - N i k a y a ( C o l l e c t i o n of Connected D i s c o u r s e s ) , A n g u t t a r a - N i k a y a ( C o l l e c t i o n of Item-more D i s c o u r s e s ) , and Khuddaka-Nikaya ( C o l l e c t i o n of L i t t l e T e x t s ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l A t t i t u d e , p. 0  frlbid.,  see pp.  129-32.  ^Compendium , pp.  11-12.  0  0p_.  8  9  c i t . , p.  Ibid.,  1 0  Ibid.,  pp.  129.  131.  54-55.  p.  80.  •'•'•The p r e c e e d i n g a n a l y s i s on disharmony, t e n s i o n , and r e s i s t e n c e f o l lows c l o s e l y that of Govinda's, I b i d . , pp. 79-82 and 129-142, and Aung's, Compendium , pp. 2-11. 0  1 2  I P T B , p.  5.  D i s c u s s e d i n Concept and R e a l i t y , pp. 2-9; IPTB, pp. 5-7; BP, pp. 2--21 and 77-78; C a u s a l i t y , pp. 121-25; and by E.R. S a r a t c h a n d r a , Buddhist Psychology of Percept i o n , Colombo, Ceylon, 1958. Much of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s Nanananda's, C_oncep_t and R e a l i t y , pp. 2-20. 1 3  0  0  0  •^By s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n i s meant s e n s u a l awareness i n t e r p r e t e d or judged s u b j e c t i v e l y through the i n d i v i d u a l ' s conscious processes, c o n d i t i o n e d by samkharas ( d i s p o s i t i o n s ) . The s i x sense spheres are, v i z . , (1) cakkhu" s i g h t , eye" and i t s o b j e c t , rupa- " v i s i b l e o b j e c t s , c o l o r , m a t e r i a l shapes," (2) s o t a - " h e a r i n g , e a r " and i t s o b j e c t , sadda- "sound," (3) ghana- " s m e l l , nose" and i t s o b j e c t , gandha- " s m e l l , odor," (4) j i v h a - " t a s t i n g , tongue" and i t s o b j e c t , r a s a - " t a s t e , f l a v o r , " and (5) mano- " t h i n k i n g , organ of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " and i t s o b j e c t s , dhamma "mental phenomena, mental d a t t a , ment a l images," e.g., concepts, i d e a s , judgments, names or words. •^Kalupahana t r a n s l a t e s papanca- as "obsessed p e r c e p t i o n s , " p. 20, or C a u s a l i t y , p. 122. 0  16  1  7  1 8  C o n c e p t and I  b i d . , pp.  I P T B , pp.  R e a l i t y , p. 0  6-7. 5-6.  .  -  5.  see  BP,  74  2 0  Ibid.,  2 1  Theragatha  22  pp.  I _ P T B , p.  10-11. 980,990.  7.  2  ^trans.  by N a n a n a n d a ,  2  ^ E m p t i n e s s Q , pp.  2 5  Ibid.,  p.  59.  2 6  Ibid.,  p.  69.  2 7  Ibid.,  pp.  28  2 9  0  p.  31.  17-18.  52-53.  P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ° , p. cited  C o n c e p t and R e a l i t y ,  141.  i n C o n c e p t and R e a l i t y , 0  p.p. 22-24.  - ^ A c c o r d i n g ^ t o Nanananda, I b i d . , p. 23: "The c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n between v i t a k k a and papanca-sanna-samkha might, at f i r s t s i g h t , appear i n t r i g u i n g . A c q u a i n t a n c e with the Madhupindika formula of s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n (Sicl. vitakka papanca) might make one wonder whether we have here a r e v e r s a l of the c o r r e c t order ( v i t a k k a papanca-sanna-samkha). But the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s more apparent than r e a l . The a s s e r t i o n of the Sakkapanha s u t t a that vi_takka o r i g i n ates from papanca-sarina-samkha only means that i n the case of. the w o r l d i n g the word or concept grasped as an o b j e c t f o r r a t i o c i n a t i o n , i s i t s e l f a product of papanca. T h i s i n i t s t u r n breeds moire of i t s k i n d when one proceeds to i n d u l g e i n c o n c e p t u a l p r o l i f e r a t i o n (papanca). Concepts c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p r o l i f e r a t i n g tendency (papanca-sanffa-samkha) c o n s t i t u t e the raw-materi a l f o r the process and the end product i s much the same i n k i n d though with t h i s d i f f e r e n c e that i t has g r e a t e r potency to obsess, b e w i l d e r , and overwhelm, the w o r l d i n g . Thus there i s a c u r i o u s r e c i p r o c i t y between v i t a k k a and papanca-sanna-samkha--a k i n d of v i c i o u s c i r c l e , as i t were. Given papancasan'na-samkha there comes to be v i t a k k a and g i v e n v i t a k k a there a r i s e s more pa pal?c a-san'na-samkha, r e s u l t i n g i n the s u b j e c t i o n to the same." J  t r a n s , by Nanananda, I b i d . , p. Simile  24.  found i n V i t a k k a s a r i t h a n a - s u t t a ,  M.1:119.  -^"Rapture" here r e f e r s to the term jhana-. "Jhana i s e x p l a i n e d i n Vis.4:119 as .'meditating or r e f l e c t i n g upon ( u p a n i j j h a n a t o ) the o b j e c t (arammana) or (va) ( i t i s s o - c a l l e d ) due to i t s b u r n i n g (jhapanato 'dest r o y i n g ' ) of an adverse o b j e c t ( p a c c a n i k a - ) . ' A c c o r d i n g to the d e s c r i p t i o n of jhana, we f i n d that the word never r e f e r s to m e d i t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , but to a s t a t e or s t a t e s as d e s c r i b e d below. The o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these s t a t e s of m e d i t a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o four s t a g e s . The f i r s t stage i s achieved when the m e d i t a t o r f r e e s h i s mind from sensuous and w o r l d l y i d e a s , c o n c e n t r a t e s h i s mind upon a m e d i t a t i o n s u b j e c t . He concentrates by u s i n g v i t a k k a ' i n i t i a l thought' and v i c a r a ' s u s t a i n e d thought; i n v e s t i gation.' The r e s u l t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the l i b e r a t i o n of the f i v e  75  n i v a r a n a ' s (kamacchanda 'excitement of or f o r s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e ' or ' s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e and excitement'; vyapada ' i l l - w i l l ' ; thinamiddha ' s l o t h and t o r p o r ' ; uddhaccakukkucca ' a g i t a t i o n and worry'; and v i e i k i c c h a 'doubt, p e r p l e x i t y ' ) . F o l l o w i n g upon t h i s , p l t i ' j o y ' and sukha 'happiness' a r i s e . Thus the f i r s t stage of jhana comprises the f o u r elements of v i t a k k a , v i c a r a , p i t i , and sukha. "With the second jhana, we'find that v i t a k k a and v i c a r a are suppressed, and p i t i and sukha remain, being e x p e r i e n c e d by the m e d i t a t o r i n h i s e n t i r e being. "The t h i r d jhana comes about when P_Iti i s suppressed and e x p e r i e n c e s only sukha. "The f o u r t h jhana comes about when the m e d i t a t o r d i s p o s e s of both ' d i s ease' (dukkha) and 'ease' or 'happiness' (sukha) and a t t a i n s equanimity (upekka). " T h i s l i s t i n g appears i n D.1:73-77; M„l:276-78, 454f.; Vis.4:79-197; A.1:163, 3:394f.; e t c . " B P T , . p . 28. trans,  3 4  by flfanananda, Concept  and R e a l i t y , p. 0  25.  Minor A n t h o l o g i e s of the P a l i Canon 10, Sacred Books of the B u d d h i s t s , c i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 28. J  II,  I b i d . , p. 28. The p r o c e e d i n g a n a l y s i s on nippapancathat of "R'anananda's, I b i d . , pp. 22-34„ 37  Emptiness°,  3 8  Vis.l4:2  :  3 9  p.  follows  closely  82.  Vis.l4:l  ^ B e c a u s e p e n e t r a t i o n i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of panna-, I t r a n s l a t e i t as " p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge." 4  4 J  - V i s . 14: 3, 5, 7, t r a n s , by Nyanamoli  42  Emptiness°,  p.  91.  E d w a r d Conze, Buddhist Wisdom Books, London, 1958, E m p t i n e s s , p. 85. 43  p. 94.  Cited i n  0  C . A . F . Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology, London, 1914, i n E m p t i n e s s , p. 91. 44  p. 133.  Cited  0  45 I b i d . , pp. 87-88.  Cited  i n Emptiness , 0  p.  38.  T h e a n a l y s i s on knowledge and becoming as c o - e x t e n s i v e was E m p t i n e s s , pp. 38-39. H D  0  q  'Vis.21:70,  48  Cotnpendium°,  49  Emptiness°,  t r a n s , by p. p.  67. 98.  Nyanamoli.  taken  from  76  50  M.1:111.  51  M.2:111.  52 .1:329. M  S u t t a N i p a t a 229.  5 3  54  M.1:511.  -'-'Early B u d d h i s t , p. 418. The p r o c e e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s on nanadassana- f o l l o w s J a y a t i l l e k e ' s , E a r l y B u d d h i s t , pp. 417-43 and 457-64. Most o f the c i t a t i o n s were e x t r a c t e d from these pages, however, many o f the t r a n s l a t i o n s are mine own (unless otherwise n o t e d ) . 0  0  5 6  Ibid.,  pp. 426-27.  57  A.3:90.  5 8  I t i v u t t a k a 58.  59  M.1:475.  60  M.2:44, t r a n s ,  61  M.1:37.  62  0p_. c i t . , p. 428.  63  D.1:3.  64  M.2:170.  • Early 6 5  by J a y a t i l l e k e , E a r l y B u d d h i s t , p. 427. 0  B u d d h i s t , p. 352. 0  66  M.1:261.  67  M.1:48, 299; 3:250.  68  A.1:83.  ^ V i b h a v a - may be t r a n s l a t e d 9  as e i t h e r " a n n i h i l a t i o n " or "power."  M.1:65.  70  7 1  see  Early_ B u d d h i s t , pp. 102-3 and 319-20. 0  1? i.e., 7 3  74  the stage o f equanimity  0 p . c i t . , pp. 430-31.  A.5:36.  (upekka-).  77  B P , p. 20  7 5  7 6  lb i d . ,  p. 22.  M.1:67;  77  3:162.  7 8  see  7 9  B P , p. 22.  80  81  '<  M.2:43; 3:29;  Compendium°  >  S.l:24.  p. 225.  H.1:70.  B P , pp. 21-22. F o r a more complete a n a l y s i s see E a r l y pp. 438-41, and the e n t i r e 12th chapter of the V i s . 8 2  83  S.2:28.  84  S.2:58.  8 5  Early  Buddhist ,  8 6  Ibid.,  8 7  B P , pp. 23-24.  0  pp. 442-42.  Buddhist , 0  C i t a t i o n S.2:58„  pp. 463-64.  88  A.5:313.  89  Mahavagga  1:21.  ^ R a h u l a , What the Buddha Taught, p. 55. A c c o r d i n g to J a y a t i l l e k e , E a r l y Buddhist°, pp. 361-68, there appears i n the P a l i Canon no c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between these two k i n d s of t r u t h . The d o c t r i n e of two t r u t h s i s a l a t e r emergence. I n s t e a d , i n the P a l i Canon sammuti-sacca- and paramattha-sacca- r e f e r to two types of s u t t a s ( d i s c o u r s e s ) , those of d i r e c t meaning ( n l t a t t h a - ) and those of i n d i r e c t meaning ( n e y y a t t h a - ) . An i n d i r e c t sutta-would say, e.g., " t h e r e i s an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y (pudg a l a - ) , " w h i l e a d i r e c t s u t t a - would say, e.g., " t h e r e i s no pudgala-." Because the Buddha, as with a l l r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r s , i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the use of language which has m i s l e a d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , we have to at times i n f e r what he means. T h i s means i s i n d i r e c t . When he i s p o i n t i n g out the m i s l e a d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of language without use of these i m p l i c a t i o n s , h i s meaning i s p l a i n and d i r e c t , nothing i s to be i n f e r r e d . 91  E m p t i n e s s ° , p. 39.  L e d i Sadaw, "Some P o i n t s on Buddhist D o c t r i n e , " J o u r n a l of the P a l i Texts S o c i e t y (1914), p. 129. 9 2  T h e E i g h t f o l d Noble Path i s , v i z . , p e r f e c t (samma) view ( d i t t h i - ) , i n t e n t i o n (samkappa-), speech ( v a c a - ) , a c t i n g (kammanta-), l i v i n g ( a j l v a - ) , e f f o r t , (vayama-), i n s p e c t i v e r e c o l l e c t i o n or m i n d f u l n e s s ( s a t i - . ) , and con9 3  centration  (samadhi-).  94 .i i34f. M  9  :  ^Emptiness , 0  9 . 6  9 7  Ibid.  t  p >  p. 9 6  79 CONCLUSION: NIBBANA- THE  The  I t i v u t t a k a 38f. s t a t e s  with substrate l e f t l i f e s p a n ! ) and nibbana-  ANTITHESIS OF  that nibbana-  SAMSARA-  i s of two k i n d s : (1) nibbana-  ( s a u p a d i s e s a - , i . e . , nibbana-  a t t a i n e d d u r i n g one's  (2) nibbana- without s u b s t r a t e (ahupadisesa-, i . e . , the  of the dead arahant-, "noble  one").  What i s the nature of nibbana- w i t h s u b s t r a t e l e f t riibbana- a t t a i n e d  in this  l i v i n g arahant-?  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , human e x p e r i e n c e and  are  l i f e here and now;  (saupadisesa-), i . e .  causally conditioned.  faculties  (indriya-) start  impressions.  or, what i s the nature of the  From the time the i n d i v i d u a l  personality  i s born h i s sense  f u n c t i o n i n g and through these doors e n t e r  These impressions or sense data  (phassa-, " c o n t a c t " )  sense  produce  i n him f e e l i n g s or s e n s a t i o n s (vedana-), p l e a s u r a b l e , p a i n f u l , or n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e or p a i n . thirst  arises,  From here on,  and because  detailed analysis  i t i s stated  of t h i r s t  that because  c l i n g i n g a r i s e s , and  i s found i n the M a d h u p i n d i k a - s u t t a .  a t i o n of the c a u s a l process of s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n , we a f t e r vedana- the ego-consciousness  i n t r u d e s and  of s e n s a t i o n so on.  A more  Here, i n an e x p l a n -  find  that  immediately  t h e r e a f t e r c o n d i t i o n s the  e n t i r e p r o c e s s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the g e n e r a t i o n of o b s e s s i o n s , e i t h e r c o n c e i t , or dogmatic of  these o b s e s s i o n s .  tachment  The  i n d i v i d u a l then becomes the h a p l e s s o b j e c t  T h i s i s the normal  order of t h i n g s (dhammata-).  (raga-) and a v e r s i o n or r e p u l s i o n  that one develops of  views.  s u b j e c t and  ( p a t i g h a - ) t h a t one  towards the t h i n g s of the world are due  ignorance and h a b i t s of mind. o b j e c t and  thirst,  One  At-  develops  to the presence  i s i g n o r a n t , i n t h i s case, that  both  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t ( s ) which  results  i n the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of concepts  (papanca-) are empty o f  self-exis-  tence.  T h i s i s the manner i n which "normal" human beings behave when they  80 come i n t o c o n t a c t with who  the e x t e r n a l w o r l d .  f o l l o w s the stream"  inclinations,  Such a person i s c a l l e d  (anusotagami-), i . e . , one  f o l l o w i n g h i s own  will.  who  gives  "one  into his  own  Thus i t i s d e c l a r e d :  Those who g i v e r e i n to p a s s i o n s , i n t h i s world Not p a s s i o n - f r e e d , i n sense d e s i r e s d e l i g h t i n g , These o f t and o f t s u b j e c t to b i r t h and e l d ; Bondsmen to c r a v i n g , down the c u r r e n t g o . l The  Buddha r e c o g n i z e d  positions"  (samkhata-) and  khata-).  The  good and  bad,  while  two  m u t t i - ) and  (sukha-).  v i o u s l y mentioned — p h y s i c a l o r g a n i c  last  and  asamkhata-. . Human beings  t i o n s are  those  described  those whose behavior  The  first  i n o r g a n i c order,  o r d e r , may  whose behavior  (dukkha-  to. freedom ( v i -  four causal pattern  be c l a s s e d under the former p r o c e s s ,  p a t t e r n mentioned, i d e a l s p i r i t u a l  latter,  dis-  disharmony or d i s - e a s e  undetermined by d i s p o s i t i o n s leads  harmony or ease  and moral o r d e r — m a y  "determined by  determined by d i s p o s i t i o n s (samkhara-), both  to bondage (bandha-) and  the c a u s a l process  one  the other "undetermined by d i s p o s i t i o n s " (asam-  c a u s a l process leads  causal processes,  pre-  psychological samkhata-.  be c l a s s e d under i s determined by  order The  the  disposi-  as " f o l l o w i n g the stream" (anusotagami-), xrtiile  i s not determined by d i s p o s i t i o n s , i . e . , those,  who  have a t t a i n e d the p a c i f i c a t i o n of a l l d i s p o s i t i o n s (sabbasamkharasamatha-), e i t h e r go a g a i n s t  the stream, remain s t e a d f a s t , or have c r o s s e d  f l o o d of e x i s t e n c e  (samsar'ogha-).  Going a g a i n s t the stream,  s t e a d f a s t , or c r o s s i n g over i s achieved control, tion).  i . e . , panna- and v i r a g a Because of i n s i g h t and  life  of one  like  the l o t u s  l u t e d water.  who  has  as a r e s u l t  In t h i s way,  the  remaining  of i n s i g h t and  (nonattachment) or nekkhamma-  self-  (renuncia-  s e l f - c o n t r o l nibbana- i s a t t a i n e d , and  a t t a i n e d nibbana- i s one  (pundarika-)  over  the  of transcendence ( l o k u t t a r a - ) ,  t h a t remains unsmeared by "normal" human e x i s t e n c e  the s u r r o u n d i n g  pol-  (samsara-) i s c o n t r a s t e d  81  w i t h the freedom of nibbanaThere follows life  is.said  to be t h r e e types of persons  the. stream,"  avoiding e v i l  (patisotagami-).  a t t a i n e d by the "noble one" ( a r a h a n t - ) .  The f i r s t  type g e n e r a l l y attempts  a c t i o n s , he i s c a l l e d The second  the f i v e k i n d s o f f e t t e r s  unsmeared by the world  (parangata-) and remains Such a person  (samyojana- ). 2  through mental  i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h a sense  cultivation  p e r c e p t i o n plus s e l f - c o n t r o l .  into  nonattachment  (bhavana-) has d i s c i p l i n e d h i s mind When an e x t e r n a l sense  o b j e c t comes  the nature of the process of sense-  Once t h i s  i n t r u s i o n i s prevented,  the i n f l u x of unwholesome mental  as c o v e t i n g ( a b h i j j h a - ) and d e j e c t i o n the o u t s i d e world,  o u t s i d e him i s i n t u r m o i l .  f a c u l t y he can prevent the i n t r u s i o n of ego-con-  s c i o u s n e s s , s i n c e he has i n s i g h t  to a r r e s t  l i k e one who has " c r o s s e d over"  i n s a f e t y when the world  i s able t o c o n t r o l i t as he wishes.  possible  (anagaml-) t o  type o f person i s the one who i s f u l l y e n l i g h t e d and i s c o m p l e t e l y  f r e e d , who remains  and  "one who goes a g a i n s t the stream"  the stage o f " n o n r e t u r n e r "  t h i s world, because he has destroyed last  to f o l l o w a good  type i s one who has advanced f u r t h e r along the  path to freedom and has reached  The  c o n t r a s t e d to the "one who  (domanassa-).  i n s t e a d o f g e n e r a t i n g attachment  (viraga-).  states  it is  ( a k u s a l a dhamma)  When c o n f r o n t e d w i t h (raga-) he generates '  •'  , •  P e r c e i v i n g the aggregates that c o n s t i t u t e the p s y c h o p h y s i c a l persona l i t y as being n o n s u b s t a n t i a l (anatta) and p r e v e n t i n g the e g o - c o n s c i ousness from a s s a i l i n g - h i m s e l f when the p r o c e s s 'of p e r c e p t i o n takes p l a c e , "a l e a r n e d Aryan d i s c i p l e has r e v u l s i o n f o r ( n i b b a n d a t i ) the p h y s i c a l form (rupa ), f e e l i n g (vedana) . ^ p e r c e p t i o n ( s a n ^ ) , d i s p o s i t i o n s (samkhara), and c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( v i n n a n a ) . Haying r e v u l s i o n , he i s not a t t a c h e d ; being nonattached he i s f r e e d , and i n him who i s thus f r e e d a r i s e s the knowledge of. freedom: Destroyed i s b i r t h , l i v e d i s the h i g h e r l i f e ; done i s what ought to be done; t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r existence." (S.3:83f.) 4  In  t h i s way, with the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the f a l s e n o t i o n o f the ego-con-  s c i o u s n e s s and the development o f panna-, the normal process of sense-per-  3  82  c e p t i o n i s changed With the attainment of mental c o n c e n t r a t i o n or r e s t r a i n (saravara), one i s a b l e to p r e v e n t the i n f l u x of i m p u r i t i e s ( k i l e s a ) such as attachment (raga) and a v e r s i o n ( p a t i g h a ) . A c c o r d i n g to the desc r i p t i o n i n the t e x t , t h i s i s going a g a i n s t ( p a t i s o t a ) the normal causal pattern. Yet i t r e p r e s e n t s a c a u s a l p a t t e r n with d i f f e r e n t c a u s a l f a c t o r s . T h i s c a u s a l p a t t e r n may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : The e l i m i n a t i o n of egb-consciousness produces r e v u l s i o n ( n i b b i d a ) w i t h r e g a r d to tilings which e a r l i e r were grasped as b e i n g s u b s t a n t i a l . R e v u l s i o n produces detachment ( v i r a g a ) . Detachment produces f r e e dom ( v i m u t t i ) , and t h e r e f o r e one a t t a i n s s t a b i l i t y ( t h i t a t a ) of mind so that one does not tremble or i s not a g i t a t e d .as a r e s u l t of g a i n (labha) or l o s s ( a l a b h a ) , good repute (yasa) or d i s r e p u t e (ayasa), p r a i s e (pasamsa) or blame ( n i n d a ) , happiness (sukha) or s u f f e r i n g (dukkha). These are the e i g h t w o r l d l y phenomena ( a t t h a lokadhamma) by which one i s c o n s t a n t l y a s s a i l e d i n t h i s l i f e (D.3: 260). Hence, the h i g h e s t p o i n t of " b l e s s e d n e s s " (mangala) i s achieved, a c c o r d i n g to the Maha-mangala-sutta, by a person "whose mind i s not overwhelmed when i n c o n t a c t with w o r l d l y phenomena (lokadhamma), i s f r e e d from sorrow, t a i n t l e s s and secure ( S u t t a Nipata 268)." Such a person f e e l s secure and at peace i n the midst of a l l the d e s t r u c t i o n and c o n f u s i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n the world.5 The  arahant-,  then, experiences  sense f a c u l t i e s ,  coming through h i s  yet what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the "noble one"  human beings i s that he or a v e r s i o n .  a l l sense impressions  For him,  i s able  from "normal"  to prevent the g e n e r a t i o n  a l l sense impressions  of attachment  are p r o p e r l y  understood  through h i s p e n e t r a t i v e knowledge or i n s i g h t (panna-) and  because of  attainment of s e l f - c o n t r o l .  A l t h o u g h these impressions  r e s p e c t i v e sensations — pleasure, arahant- remains unmoved by t t h i t a - ) or not as  such, nothing  or  loss, birth, The  He  i n t h i s world w o r r i e s ageing,  or dying,  and  samsara-, and  i n s i g h t and  brings  him so  their  pain—the (appati-  i n t h i s world,  or causes him  p a i n , e.g.,  and, gain  on.  s e l f - c o n t r o l causes the c e s s a t i o n of  about the o c c u r r e n c e of nibbana-.  self-control,  freedom, are synonymous w i t h  or  i s n e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d on  ( a n i s s i t a - ) anything  attainment of i n s i g h t and  dukkha- and t h i s way,  p a i n , or n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e  them.  leaning against  produce  the  In  the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r complete  nibbana-.  What i s meant by  "with  the  sub-  83  strate l e f t " In yet  i s that  there remains  a r e s i d u e o f kamma- l e f t  to be burnt up.  the same way as when a p o t t e r d i s c o n t i n u e s s p i n n i n g h i s p o t t e r ' s the wheel c o n t i n u e s to s p i n on i t s own energy u n t i l  caused  i t to s p i n i n the f i r s t p l a c e burns i t s e l f  come to r e s t ;  so too w i l l  up or exhausts  that energy  wheel, which  out c a u s i n g the wheel to  the arahant- remain i n t h i s  l i f e u n t i l he burns  the r e s i d u e o f kamma- which has b u i l t up due t o p a s t a c t i o n s ,  then he comes to r e s t . The most misunderstood a s p e c t of nibbana- i s t h a t of nibbana- " w i t h out  substrate l e f t , "  arises  or o f the arahant- who passed away.  i s what happens to the arahant- a f t e r death?  The q u e s t i o n which  Does he e x i s t s ,  i n what  form, or i s he completely d e s t r o y e d ? I f a f t e r denying that the t a t h a g a t a s u r v i v e s death, the Buddha maint a i n e d that he i s a n n i h i l a t e d he would have been g u i l t y o f s a y i n g somet h i n g that i s not based or dependent on any source of knowledge. Hence, the most reasonable, way to i n t e r p r e t the Buddha's statements on t h i s problem and not m i s r e p r e s e n t him would be to say that the s t a t e o f the arahant a f t e r death cannot be known by the a v a i l a b l e means o f knowing (pamana, Sk. pramana). T h i s e x p l a i n s the Buddha's d e c i s i o n to l e a v e t h i s q u e s t i o n u n d e l c a r e d (avyakata)."6 It  i s not the purpose  speculations  o f t h i s r e p o r t to e i t h e r examine or r e s o l v e the  that have a r i s e n i n the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s of Buddhist  thought,  i n c l u d i n g Theravada Buddhism, c o n c e r n i n g the q u e s t i o n : "What happens to the arahant- a f t e r death?"  Rather, s i n c e the purpose  of t h i s r e p o r t i s to ex-  amine the c o n d i t i o n s which cause the human c o n d i t i o n o f samsara-,  and the  c o n d i t i o n s which cause i t s c e s s a t i o n , such d i s c u s s i o n i s not n e c e s s a r y t o fulfill  our purpose.  in  life,  this  We need o n l y concern o u r s e l v e s w i t h nibbana- a c h i e v e d  here and now.  And as such, I s h a l l  ample and remain s i l e n t on t h i s F o r m a l l y d e f i n e d , nibbananis  f o l l o w the Buddha by ex-  issue. l i t e r a l l y means "blowing o u t " (from p r e f i x  " o u t , " and r o o t va " t o blow").  84  Buddhaghosa (Vis.8:247) s t a t e s that nibbana i s c a l l e d such "because i t has gone out ( n i k k h a n t o ) , escaped from ( n i s s a t o ) , i s detached from (visamyutto) t h i r s t (tanhaya), so c a l l e d as 'vana' ( f a s t e n i n g ) because to ensure s u c c e s s i v e becoming, t h i r s t serves as a j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r , a b i n d i n g , a l a c i n g t o g e t h e r of the four kinds of g e n e r a t i o n , f i v e dest i n i e s , seven s t a t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and n i n e abodes' of b e i n g . " Nyanamoli (p. 319, note 72) b e l i e v e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l meaning of nibbana was p r o b a b l y an e x t i n c t i o n of a f i r e by c e a s i n g to b l o w on i t with a b e l l o w s . Then i t was extended t o the e x t i n c t i o n of f i r e by any means; and by analogy, nibbana was a p p l i e d to the e x t i n c t i o n of greed, e t c . , i n the Arahant. In the o l d e r t e x t s there are passages which r e l a t e to the going out of a f i r e through l a c k of f u e l . In M.1:487 the f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e occurs between Buddha and Vaccha: " I f , good Gotama, someone were to q u e s t i o n me thus: T h i s i s b l a z i n g i n f r o n t of you--what i s the reason t h a t t h i s b l a z i n g ? - - I , good Gotama, on b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d thus r e p l y . . . t h i s f i r e i s b l a z i n g because of a supply (upadana) and s t i c k s .  f i r e that fire is thus: of grass  " I f t h a t f i r e t h a t was i n f r o n t of you, Vaccha, were to be quenched (nibbayeyya) would you know: T h i s f i r e t h a t was i n f r o n t of me has been quenched ( n i b b u t o ) ? " . . . F o r , good Gotama, t h a t f i r e b l a z e d because of a supply of grass and s t i c k s , y e t having t o t a l l y consumed t h i s and from the l a c k of other f u e l , b e i n g without f u e l i t i s reckoned to be quenched." (Horner, M i d d l e Lenght Sayings, I I , pp. 165-66). In  S.2:85 a s i m i l a r statement  arises:  " V e r i l y , t h a t g r e a t b o n f i r e , when the f i r s t l a i d f u e l were come to an end, and i t were not fed by other f u e l , would without food become e x t i n c t (nibbayeyya)." (Woodward, Kindred Sayings, I I , pp. 59-60. • In M.3:245 we f i n d t h a t the quenching enlightened.person:  of the " f i r e " i s a p p l i e d to the  "He comprehends t h a t on the b r e a k i n g up of the body a f t e r the l i f e - p r i n c i p l e has come to an end a l l e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s here w i l l become c o o l ( s i t i b h a v i s s a n t i ) . "Monk, an o i l - l a m p burns on account of the o i l and on account of the wick but goes out ( n i b b a y a t i ) from the l a c k of f u e l i f the o i l and the wick come to an end and no o t h e r s are brought, even so, monk, e x p e r i e n c i n g a f e e l i n g t h a t i s l i m i t e d by the body . . . l i m i t e d by the l i f e - p r i n c i p l e , he comprehends t h a t he i s e x p e r i e n c i n g l i m i t e d by the l i f e - p r i n c i p l e , he comprehends t h a t he i s e x p e r i e n c i n g f e e l i n g l i m i t e d by the body . . . l i m i t e d by the  85  life-principle. He comprehends that on the b r e a k i n g up of the body a f t e r the l i f e - p r i n c i p l e has come to an end a l l e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s here w i l l come c o o l . " (Horner, M i d d l e Length S a y i n g s , I I I , pp. 291-92. What i s e x t i n g u i s h e d i s the t h r e e f o l d f i r e o f raga " p a s s i o n , " dosa " h a t r e d , " and mo ha " d e l u s i o n " among other d e f i l e m e n t s . 7  Buddhaghosa t e l l s us t h a t , " I t has peace as i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . function  i s not to d i e ; or i t s f u n c t i o n i s to comfort.  I t i s manifested  as the s i g n l e s s ; or i t i s m a n i f e s t e d as n o n - d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n Nibbana-  i s a l s o equated w i t h the t h i r d Noble T r u t h ,  Its  (nippapa'nca) . "  8  the c e s s a t i o n ( n i r -  odha- ) of dukkha-, i . e . , i t i s the r e m a i n d e r l e s s f a d i n g away and c e s s a t i o n 9  of d u k k h a - .  10  For our i n t e n t and purpose,' we may conclude that nibbana- r e f e r s t o the e x t i n c t i o n of t h i r s t (viraga-).  (tanhakkhaya-), hence the s t a t e o f nonattachment  A c c o r d i n g to the d o c t r i n e of kamma-, one c o n t i n u e s t o wander  i n samsara-, 'from b i r t h  to b i r t h ,  as a r e s u l t  o f ignorance ( a v i j j a - ) ,  ( t ^ n h a - ) , and the r e s u l t a n t c l i n g i n g or g r a s p i n g (upadana-). mutti-H)  or the a t t a i n m e n t of nibbana- c o n s i s t s  (tanhakkhaya-)  s e l f - c o n t r o l or r e n u n c i a t i o n .  and n o n c l i n g i n g  As the complete  Freedom ( v i -  i n the e x t i n c t i o n of these  karmic f o r c e s through the c u l t i v a t i o n o f i n s i g h t or knowledge the e l i m i n a t i o n of t h i r s t  thirst  ( v i j j a-) and  (anupadana-) through  c e s s a t i o n of the c a u s a l con-  d i t i o n s which generate and p e r p e t u a t e dukkha-, nibbana- may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the end of dukkha- (dukkhass'anta-) and the s t a t e o f p e r f e c t  happiness  (parama sukha, "ease or harmony"). Nibbana- i s c a l l e d d i t i o n s which  " u n c o n d i t i o n e d " (asamkhata-^) because  those con-  cause dukkha- and i t s c o n t i n u e n c e are c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d .  They no l o n g e r a f f e c t  the wise s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d man.  may be regarded as the a n t i t h e s i s  of samsara-  because  In t h i s way, nibbanathe a r a h a n t - i s no  longer c o n t i n u a l l y bound to h i s h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o r (kamma-) which  results  86  in  f r u s t r a t i o n , tension,  of  life  o f one i n p e r f e c t  human c o n d i t i o n  of  harmony  of disharmony  f o r Buddhism nibbanahaving  and d i s h a r m o n y  transcended  (dukkha-).  I t i s t h e " n o b l e " way  (parama s u k h a ) , compared t o t h e " n o r m a l "  (dukkha-) and bondage  i s the h i g h e s t  goal,  And as s u c h ,  t h e summon bonum, t h e s t a t e o f  t h e human d i l e m m a o f b o n d a g e  s e l f - c o n t r o l ) by one endowed w i t h  (bandha-).  (i.e.,  o f i g n o r a n c e and l a c k  i n s i g h t and s e l f - c o n t r o l .  Notes ^A.2:5f.,  trans,  by K a l u p a h a n a , B P , p. 72.  ^ A c c o r d i n g t o N y a n a t i l o k a , B u d d h i s t D i c t i o n a r y , p. 161, t h e r e a r e t e n f e t t e r s , b u t we a r e c o n c e r n e d h e r e o n l y w i t h t h e l a s t f i v e , v i z . : (6) c r a v i n g for f i n e - m a t e r i a l existence (rupa-raga-), (7) c r a v i n g f o r i m m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e ( a r u p a - r a g a - ) , (8) c o n c e i t ( m a n a - ) , (9) r e s t l e s s n e s s ( u d d h a c c a - ) , a n d (10) i g n o r a n c e ( a v i j j a - ) . from  3  4  BP,  5  BP,  A.2:5f. pp. 7 2 - 7 3 .  Ibid.,  p. 73.  ^ I _ b i d . , p. 80. pp. 69-88. 7  The p r o c e e d i n g a n a l y s i s  closely follows  K a l u p a h a n a s, 1  B P T , pp. 40-41.  °Vis.16:66,  trans,  by N y a n a m o l i .  ^ A c c o r d i n g t o Buddhaghosa, Vis.16:18: " ( N i r o d h a ' c e s s a t i o n ' ) : t h e word n i d e n o t e s a b s e n c e , and t h e w o r d r a d h a , a p r i s o n . Now t h e t h i r d t r u t h i s v o i d o f a l l d e s t i n i e s (by r e b i r t h ) a n d s o t h e r e i s no c o n s t r a i n t ( r o d h a ) o f s u f f e r i n g h e r e r e c k o n e d as t h e p r i s o n o f t h e r o u n d o f r e b i r t h s ; o r when t h a t c e s s a t i o n h a s b e e n a r r i v e d a t , t h e r e i s no more c o n s t r a i n t o f s u f f e r i n g r e c k o n e d as t h e p r i s o n o f t h e r o u n d o f r e b i r t h s . A n d b e i n g t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h a t p r i s o n , i t i s c a l l e d d u k k h a - n i r o d h a ( c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g ) . Or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t i s c a l l e d ' c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g ' because i t i s a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g c o n s i s t i n g i n n o n - a r i s i n g . " ( t r a n s , by Nyanamoli) 1 0  viz.:  from  Vis.16:64.  H y i m u t t i - r e f e r s t o t h e f r e e d o m f r o m s u c h ' e v i l s a s t h e a s a v a s (D.3:68), the i n t o x i c a n t o f s e n s u a l d e s i r e s (kamasava-), t h e i n t o x i c a n t o f be-  87  coming ( b h a v l s a v a - ) , the i n t o x i c a n t of ignorance ( a v i j j i s a v a - ) of the four Noble T r u t h s , and the i n t o x i c a n t of views ( d i t t h a s a v a - ) , i . e . , s p e c u l a t i o n s and wrong v i e w s ) . 12  A.1:152; S.4:369f;  Milp.  270.  v.  1  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aung, Shwe Zan. Compendium of P h i l o s o p h y . London, 1972. Conze, Edward. Buddhism: I t s Essence  and Development. New York,  1951.  --Buddhis t Thought i n I n d i a . London, 1962. --Buddhist Wisdom Books. London, Dasgupta, Surendranath. v o l . I, pp. 78-124.  1958.  A H i s t o r y of I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y . Cambridge, 1951.  Davids, Rhys C.A.F. Buddhist Psychology. Davids, T.W.  London, 1914.  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