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The Sikhs of Vancouver : a case study in minority-host relations Campbell, Michael Graeme 1977

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THE SIKHS OF VANCOUVER: A Case Study In Minority-Host Relations by MICHAEL GRAEME CAMPBELL B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia,1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF' THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science) We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 Michael Graeme Campbell, 197 7 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 29, 1977 ABSTRACT This thesis i s concerned with the relationship be-tween the Sikhs of Vancouver and the host society. A l -though the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic aspects of the rel a t i o n s h i p are examined, the emphasis i s on t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n . This study contends that the Sikhs were i s o l a t e d from the host society u n t i l 1972, when a substantial increase i n East Indian immigrants forced a change i n the Sikhs 1 relationship with the host society by necessitating an end to the Sikhs' i s o l a t i o n . The working hypothesis of t h i s - t h e s i s focuses on the ef-fects of government sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s versus ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s on the host-minority r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p r i n c i p a l data for t h i s thesis were gathered from three main sources,(1) government publications con-cerned with immigration, (2) a questionnaire administered to members of the East I Indian community who were selected randomly from the pages of The Telephone Directory of the  East Indian Community and (3) interviews conducted with eighteen leaders of the Sikh community and s i x o f f i c i a l s of Vancouver's municipal government. The p r i n c i p a l findings of t h i s thesis indicate that the p o l i t i c s of both the ethnic community and the host society's p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to immigrants have a d i r e c t impact on minority-host r e l a t i o n s . Interviews with Sikh i i i l eaders r e v e a l t h a t there i s a deep d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the community which g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r a b i l i t y to e f f e c t cohesive a c t i o n i n the host s o c i e t y . On the other hand, the p o l i c i e s of the f e d e r a l government do l i t t l e to en-courage the harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n of the m i n o r i t i e s and the m a j o r i t y i n Canada. However, as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of r a c i a l i n c i d e n t s i n South Van-couver, the municipal government has e s t a b l i s h e d a num-ber of programs th a t are designed to encourage concordant s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n between East Indians and the host s o c i e t y . Sikh leaders and municipal p o l i t i c i a n s agree th a t these programs have c o n t r i b u t e d a great deal i n easing the tensions between the Sikhs and the host s o c i e t y . I t i s the conclusion of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t i f harmonious r e l a t i o n s are to e x i s t between Canada's min-o r i t i e s such as the Sikhs,and m a j o r i t y , then both the e t h n i c community and f e d e r a l and municipal governments must take an a c t i v e r o l e i n encouraging t h e i r p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. The East Indians of Canada: The Origins of Isolation page 1 Chapter I I . Host-Minority Contact: The Impact of Immigration page 45 Chapter I I I . Vancouver Sikh P o l i t i c s : Internal Divisions and External • < Relations.... page 74 Chapter IV. Conclusions page 102 Bibliography page 107 Appendix I page 114 Appendix II page 115 Appendix III page 122 V . LIST OF TABLES Table I East Indians Immigration to Canada, 1900-1969 page 24 Table II East Indian Entrants to Canada by Broad Age and Sex Categories, 1921-1942 page 33 Table III Canada: Immigration S t a t i s t i c s , 1945-1974 . page 46 Table IV Proportional Ethnic Group Representation i n the G.V.R.D., 1951-71 (% of t o t a l population) page 49 Table V Intended Occupations of Immigrant East Indians and Chinese, 1968-1974 page 54-55 Table VI Vancouver C i t y : Age D i s t r i b u t i o n among Selected Asian Origins page 56 Table VII VancouverCity : Selected Asian Origins, 1971. . . . page 57 Table VIII Canadian Attitudes to Immigration by Education, 1965 and 1975, Surveys Compared page 64 v i . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Graph I Post War Immigration of East Indians into Canada, 1946-1969 page 35 Graph II Number of Immigrants Coming into Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, by Country of Last Permanent Residence, 1964-1974 . .. ..page 48 v i i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e p e o p l e who f a c i l i t a t e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . S u r v e y r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f many p e o p l e , n o t t h e l e a s t o f whom a r e t h e i n f o r m a n t s who s p a r e d t h e t i m e t o answer q u e s t i o n s . The h o s p i t a l i t y and a s s i s t a n c e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s S i k h com-m u n i t y was o v e r w h e l m i n g . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e community who went o u t o f t h e i r way t o make i t e a s i e r f o r me t o g a t h e r t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . I am v e r y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e , a t e v e r y s t a g e o f r e s e a r c h , o f my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r J o h n R. Wood o f t h e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t . The h e l p o f A l l e n F r o e s e , an a s s o c i a t e i n t h e A n t h r o p o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t , i n g a t h e r i n g and s i f t i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e g o v e r n -ment d a t a on E a s t I n d i a n s was i n v a l u a b l e . I s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e o t h e r members o f my c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r s S t e p h e n M i l n e and P a u l T e n n a n t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o my m o t h e r , Mrs. M a r g a r e t C a m p b e l l f o r t y p i n g t h e t h e s i s , and t o Dr. I a n S l a t e r , f o r e d i t i n g i t . Need-l e s s t o s a y , none o f t h o s e whose a s s i s t a n c e i s h e r e b y g l a d l y a c k n o w l e d g e d i s i n any way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s t h e s i s o r t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d i n i t , l e a s t o f a l l f o r i t s e r r o r s and d e f i c i e n c i e s . M i c h a e l Graeme C a m p b e l l CHAPTER I . The E a s t I n d i a n s , o f Canada: The O r i g i n s o f I s o l a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e S i k h com-m u n i t y t o t h e h o s t s o c i e t y i n V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c u r r e n t S i k h - h o s t community r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c s p h e r e s w i l l be exa m i n e d a n d p l a c e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n -t e x t t o d e t e r m i n e i f any change i n t h e S i k h - h o s t community r e l a t i o n s h i p has o c c u r r e d . I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e i m m i g r a n t community w i t h i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y t e n d s t o b r e a k down t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t f r o m t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e r a p i d i n f l u x o f i m m i g r a n t s i n t o c o n c e n t r a t e d a r e a s h a s com-p l i c a t e d a s s i m i l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s ±<n. b o t h t h e i m m i g r a n t and h o s t c o m m u n i t i e s . F i n a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s .contends t h a t t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t i n t o t h e h o s t s o c i e t y depends upon t h e s t r e n g t h o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h e n -c o u r a g e o r d i s c o u r a g e h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s e m a n a t i n g .from t h e e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e o r d i s c o u r a g e t h e immigrant-Is p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i s own community w i l l d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i m m i g r a n t w i l l a s s i m i l a t e w i t h i n t h a t community. In 1967 Canada removed those r e s t r i c t i o n s on immigra-tion .which were based on race, r e l i g i o n or ethnic back-: ground. x The l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of Canadian immigration laws led to an unprecedented surge of non-white immigrants from Third World Countries. Newspaper a r t i c l e s , interviews with host society and immigrant leaders, and public opinion p o l l s r e f l e c t the f a c t that t h i s i n f l u x of non-white im-migrants has altered Canadian attitudes towards immigration These sources also suggest that the i n f l u x has severely strained the relationship between:some immigrant minorities and the host Canadian society. The results of two nationwide Gallup p o l l s conducted i n 1969-70 and 1970-71 r e f l e c t a changing public attitude towards immigration. Whereas i n the former study 42% of those questioned " f e l t that immigration i s good for Canada" in the l a t t e r only 30% of those questioned f e l t the same 2 way. The re s u l t s of a 1976 Canadian Television Network study reveal a continuation of t h i s trend. Seventy-four percent of a l l Canadians questioned favoured changes i n Canada's immigration p o l i c y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y 60% of the population favoured r e s t r i c t i o n s being placed on Third 3 World immigrants. Nowhere was the i n f l u x of immigrants as acutely f e l t as i n Canada's major urban centers, Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto. As early as 1974, Mayor Art P h i l l i p s of Vancouver pointed out that Canada's immigration p o l i c y .3 makes "our crowded spaces more crowded."-1 Over the next year Mayor P h i l l i p s continued to press for a review of Canada's immigration p o l i c i e s . On March 5, 1975 he sug-gested: "Our most recent r a c i a l problems have revolved a-round the East Indian community... A l l parties who are f a m i l i a r with the s i t u a t i o n agree on one thing - that ten-sions are increased i f the rate of immigration .of any group from a dramatically d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l background i s too 5 great for the community to absorb." F i n a l l y , to lend credence to his presentation before the Special Joint Committee on Immigration P o l i c y at i t s hearings i n Vancouver on May 25, 1975, P h i l l i p s claimed: "I believe that we should cut the immigration flow i n h a l f . . . I have received hun-dreds of phone c a l l s and l e t t e r s i n my o f f i c e and I would say f u l l y 9 8% of those responses have been favourable to my p o s i t i o n . " I f immigrant-host society relationships are to be harmonious i n the Canadian context, i t i s important that we begin to grasp the fundamental causes of immigrant-host society c o n f l i c t . The Sikhs provide an excellent opportunity to examine immigrant-host society relationships for a number of rea-sons. F i r s t , t h e i r physical appearance and d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l customs make them an e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e target to the host society members who do not favour Asian immigra-ti o n . Second, u n t i l 1961 Vancouver was the center of the .4 t h e C a n a d i a n S i k h c o m m u n i t y . U n t i l t h a t t i m e o v e r 9 0% o f a l l S i k h s i n C a n a d a l i v e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i t h t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S i k h p o p u l a t i o n 6 b e i n g f o u n d i n V a n c o u v e r . S i n c e t h e n , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a - : . t i o n s t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n t h e i n t e n d e d d e s t i n a -t i o n o f j u s t u n d e r o n e h a l f o f t h e S i k h s i n C a n a d a , w i t h 7 m o s t o € t h e o t h e r s g o i n g t o O n t a r i o . V a n c o u v e r a n d T o r o n t o h a v e t h e l a r g e s t S i k h c o m m u n i t i e s i n C a n a d a . T h i s c r e a t e s a l a r g e r i n t e r f a c e f o r c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e i m m i g r a n t s o c i e t y a n d t h e h o s t s o c i e t y a n d t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e s a more f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r s t u d y . I n s p i t e o f t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y f o r e x t e n d e d s t u d y , t h e r e h a s b e e n a n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f r e s e a r c h on t h e C a n a d i a n S i k h s . T h i s d e a r t h o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e -s e a r c h h a s p r o m p t e d P r o f e s s o r G a r y H e s s t o r e f e r t o t h e 8 E a s t I n d i a n s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a a s t h e " F o r g o t t e n A s i a n s . " The l a c k o f c u m u l a t i v e r e s e a r c h o r e x t e n s i v e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l o n E a s t I n d i a n s h a s two p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s o n a n y a t t e m p t t o s t u d y t h i s g r o u p . The f i r s t i s t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l r e s e a r c h m u s t s t a r t w i t h p r i m a r y d e m o g r a p h i c a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o p o l i t i c a l i n -q u i r i e s . The s e c o n d i s t h a t m o s t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l d a t a m u s t be g a t h e r e d f i r s t h a n d , t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c o m -m u n i t y m e m b e r s . C h a p t e r One o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l d i s c u s s c o n c e p t s a n d e x a m i n e some p r o m i n e n t t h e o r i e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o a c c o u n t for the i s o l a t i o n of minorities. In addition, h i s t o r i c a l events that have di r e c t bearing on the current r e l a t i o n -ship between the host and Sikh community are examined. The h i s t o r i c a l material i s gathered from the few scholarly works that are available and from the f i l e s of Vancouver newspapers. The second chapter concentrates upon the e f f e c t of East Indian immigration i n the seventies on the Sikhs' economic and c u l t u r a l relationship with the host society. The chapter i s divided into four main sections i n order to determine the nature of reasons for the current re l a t i o n s h i p : (1) a description of the Sikh community i n Vancouver, (2) the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Sikh community, (3) the reaction of the host community to the East Indian im-migration, and (4) the response of the government. The description of the Sikh community includes an oc-cupational, age and generational breakdown of the community, as well as a description of the i r settlement patterns. The . data for t h i s section are taken from government publications on immigration, namely the "Green Paper" and related studies, 1971 Census of Canada data and s t a t i s t i c s supplied by the Social Planning Department of Vancouver City H a l l . Where possible these data have been supplemented by the res u l t s of a survey I conducted i n the summer of 1976. F i f t y East Indian fa m i l i e s , including twenty-six Sikh families were .6 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m The T e l e h p o n e D i r e c t o r y o f t h e  E a s t I n d i a n Community. The i n f o r m a n t s had t o have im-m i g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m ple. T h i s p r o v i d e d an u p - t o - d a t e p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e S i k h communi t y . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e S i k h com-m u n i t y was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r o m i n e n t mem-b e r s o f t h e S i k h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as w e l l as f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h e summer s u r v e y o f 19 76. A l i s t o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e I mmigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y on Seymour S t r e e t . I n t e r v i e w s were t h e n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e h e ads o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E a c h r e s p o n d e n t was a s k e d t o o u t l i n e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and e s t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n by t h e community. They were a l s o a s k e d t o compare t h e c u r r e n t e x t e n t o f S i k h p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h a t o f p a s t y e a r s . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d on h o s t s o c i e t y a t t i t u d e s t o im-m i g r a t i o n and E a s t I n d i a n s i s drawn f r o m t h e few s t u d i e s a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e s t u d i e s were o b t a i n e d f r o m Dr. J a c k Kehoe o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n V a n c o u v e r . The i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e government s p o n s o r e d i n s t i t u -t i o n s and p r o g r a m s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i m m i g r a n t s was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members o f t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e rnment. The main s o u r c e s were f o r m e r V a n c o u v e r Mayor A r t P h i l l i p s , A l d e r m e n H a r r y R a n k i n and D a r l e n e M a r z a r i , C i t y Manager, F r i t z Bowers, Doug P u r d y o f t h e S o c i a l P a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f V a n c o u v e r and f o r m e r E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t t o t h e Mayor, Gordon C a m p b e l l . C h a p t e r t h r e e o f t h e t h e s i s c e n t e r s on t h e i n t e r n a l p o l -i t i c s o f , and d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e S i k h community and t h e i r e f f e c t upon t h e S i k h s ' p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s men-t i o n e d , t h e c h a p t e r d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e S i k h s ' i n t e r a c -t i o n w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y on a g r o u p l e v e l . T h i s i n f o r m a - : t i o n was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s i x m u n i c i p a l o f -f i c i a l s and e i g h t e e n p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e S i k h community. The m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f therir.-"," r e p u t a t i o n s , . f o r b e i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n and w e l l b e i n g o f m i n o r i t i e s , as w e l l a s f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s o f power. The S i k h s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r n o t i c e a b l y a c t i v e p a r -t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e S i k h community. By c o n s u l t i t h e f i l e s o f t h e l o c a l a nd e t h n i c n e w s p a p e r s , as w e l l a s know l e d g e a b l e p e o p l e i n t h e community, a l i s t o f p r o m i n e n t S i k h s was drawn up. E a c h i n f o r m a n t was a s k e d two i m p o r t a n t q u e s -t i o n s . F i r s t l y , t h e y were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s and d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e community w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e s e v e n t i e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e y were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e S i k h community i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . From I s o l a t i o n t o A s s i m i l a t i o n : Some T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t made h e r e t o u n d e r t a k e a c r i t i q u e o f t h e v a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on m i n o r i t y - h o s t r e l a t i o n s . I n s t e a d t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s meant t o p r o v i d e some t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e c e n t r a l i n q u i r i e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The two m a i n c o n c e p t s d i s c u s s e d a r e a m i n o r i t y ' s i s o l a t i o n and t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t and t h e m i n o r i t y ' s a s s i m i l a t i o n and t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t i t . The l a c k o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s on E a s t I n d i a n s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t many o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s be d r a w n , a l b e i t c a u t i o u s l y / f r o m m i n o r i t y s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s . L o u i s W i r t h i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f " m i n o r i t y " g r o u p s by d e f i n i n g them as a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a r e s i n g l e d o u t f r o m t h e o t h e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l and u n e q u a l t r e a t m e n t , and t h e r e -f o r e r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s a s o b j e c t s o f c o l l e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f a m i n o r i t y i n a s o c i e t y i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d o m i n a n t g r o u p w i t h h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s and g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e s . M i n o r i t y s t a t u s c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e e x c l u s i o n f r o m f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l i f e o f a s o c i e t y . 9 .'. . W i r t h 1 s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s two i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e m i n o r i t y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h ' t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . The f i r s t i s t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e m i n o r i t y . The s e c o n d i s t h e e x c l u s i o n f r o m c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . Why a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p i s s i n g l e d o u t f o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t r e a t m e n t i s i n p a r t a a p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n and i s b e t t e r a n s w e r e d by p s y c h o -l o g i s t s . However, c e r t a i n n o n - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t a m i n o r i t y and t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e m i n o r i t y f r o m t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . I s o l a t i o n o f a g r o u p s i m p l y d e n o t e s t h e s t a t e o f l i v i n g a p a r t f r o m o t h e r g r o u p s . I s o l a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e n o t an a b s o l u t e t e r m b u t a r e l a t i v e one. I t i s t h e r e f o r e im-p o s s i b l e t o measure p r e c i s e l y t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a g r o u p i s i s o l a t e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e however, t o a s s e s s a m i n o r i t y ' i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e h o s t community r e l a t i v e t o i t s own p a s t and t h e r e b y a s s e s s any change i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . W i r t h ' s d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i s o l a t i o n o f a m i n o r i t y i s s o l e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e a c t i o n s a n d w i s h e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p . T h i s i g n o r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e m i n o r i t y may want t o i s o l a t e i t s e l f . I s o l a t i o n c a n a l s o be b r o u g h t a b o u t e i t h e r v o l u n t a r i l y o r by force."'"''" The t e r m " f o r c e d i s o l a t i o n " d e n o t e s a s t a t e o f i s o l a t i o n im-p o s e d by t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . I t c a n be b r o u g h t a b o u t e i t h e r by f o r m a l l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s o r i n f o r m a l s o c i a l ones C u r r e n t l y , t h e b e s t example o f f o r c e d i s o l a t i o n i s f o u n d i n S o u t h A f r i c a , where t h e n o n - w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n i s p r o -h i b i t e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n most a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m o f t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p by t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y o f a p a r t h e i d . I n f o r m a l l y f o r c e d i s o l a t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e H a r i j a n s , ( u n t o u c h a b l e s ) i n I n d i a . Members o f t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p w i l l s u p p o r t m e a s u r e s t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e m i n o r i t y i f t h e y p e r -c e i v e t h e m i n o r i t y a s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r own e c o n o m i c , 12 s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . The p o i n t a t w h i c h members o f t h e h o s t community p e r c e i v e t h e s i z e o f a m i n o r i t y as a t h r e a t , i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t " . J . L . Moreno i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f a r a c i a l " s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t " by s t a t i n g t h a t , " a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n may be s a t u r a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n m i n o r i t y g r o u p a t a g i v e n t i m e . I f an e x c e s s o f members o f t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p move i n t o a community f r o m t h e o u t s i d e i n numbers e x c e e d i n g t h i s p o i n t - t h e r a c i a l s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t -13 f r i c t i o n s and v a r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s b r e a k o u t . " The c o n -c e p t i s d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e i m m i g r a n t g r o u p . When t h e r e i s a s h a r p r i s e i n h o s t i l i t y t o new i m m i g r a n t s , t h e n t h e s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t has b e en r e a c h e d . x 4 A number o f r e l a t e d f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r i s e o f h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e h o s t community t o w a r d s an i m m i g r a n t g r o u p . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f an i m m i g r a n t m i n o r i t y i n a p a r t i -c u l a r a r e a c a n c r e a t e t e n s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l a r g e r t h e number o f o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h . c a n be made between a member o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and t h e i m m i g r a n t the larger the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g . J"J Dessai found t h i s to be true i n studying East Indian immigration to B r i t a i n where the v i s i b l e c u l t u r a l differences of the East Indians were a major source of the c o n f l i c t with the . .• . .• 16 host society. T y p i c a l l y h o s t i l e reaction to the immigrant society focuses on the sphere of i n t e r a c t i o n where the host 17 society feels most insecure. The competition of the im-migrant group i s most resented i n areas where there i s a scarcity of resources. For example, John Rex and Robert Moore, i n t h e i r study of Birmingham, England, conclude that housing shortages accounted for much of the h o s t i l i t y to-18 wards immigrant groups. S i m i l a r l y , Tienhaara concludes, i n studying post-second world war Gallop P o l l s , that h o s t i l e reactions towards immigrants are f a r more prevalent among blu e - c o l l a r workers because they are more vulnerable to unemployment problems created when immigrants enter the labour marker. These variables provide a guide for examining the a t -titudes of Vancouver's host society towards East Indians. By assessing Sikh settlement patterns and occupational tendencies, by examining the economic and s o c i a l conditions of the c i t y , and by interviewing elected o f f i c i a l s and leaders of the Sikh community, i t i s possible to evaluate the relevance of these factors i n explaining the host society' .12 reaction to the Sikhs i n Vancouver. Voluntary i s o l a t i o n from the host society may also occur when the minority feels threatened. Discriminatory treatment by members of the dominant group may discourage the minority from i n t e r a c t i n g with the host society and 20 encourage i t to set up a p a r a l l e l society. For instance, i n the l a t e r nineteenth century the I r i s h of the urban centers of the northeastern United States, were "unable to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the normal associational a f f a i r s of the community... and f e l t obliged to erect a society within a 21 society, to act together i n t h e i r own way." As s h a l l be seen l a t e r , such was also the case with Vancouver's Sikhs before they received f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p rights i n 1948. A minority may also seek i s o l a t i o n for the sake of i t s c u l t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s preservation. I f the minority perceives a threat to i t s c u l t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y , then i t seeks to preserve that i d e n t i t y through i s o l a t i n g 22 i t s e l f from the influences of the host society. In the case of the Sikhs i t i s important to assess the degree to which the leaders of the community seek to preserve t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l heritage and the e f f e c t that t h e i r p o l i c i e s have on t h e i r r elations with the host society. The process which changes the host-minority r e l a t i o n -ship from one of i s o l a t i o n to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the minority i n society i s most often referred to as "assimi-, , .13 l a t i o n " . " Milton M. Gordon i n his book, Assimilation in American L i f e , sees assimilation as a process with 24 eight i d e n t i f i a b l e stages. He characterizes these as (1) i s o l a t i o n , (2) acculturation, whereby the minority changes i t s c u l t u r a l patterns to those of the host society, (3) s t r u c t u r a l assimilation, whereby the minority p a r t i -cipates i n the host society's i n s t i t u t i o n s on a personal l e v e l , (4) marital assimilation and (5) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the part of the minority group, followed by (6) attitude reception (7) behavior reception and (8) c i v i c assimilation 25 on the part of the host society. In the case of Vancouver's Sikhs only the stages of i s o l a t i o n and acculturation are applicable. "Cultural as-si m i l a t i o n or acculturation i s l i k e l y to be the f i r s t of the types of assimilation to occur when a minority group 2 6 arrives on the scene." I t i s important to look at these stages on what I w i l l c a l l the e l i t e and mass levels of the Sikh community. The mass l e v e l refers to the degree to which the Sikh community as a whole has been assimilated. The e l i t e l e v e l refers to the degree to which the leaders of the Sikh community have been assimilated. Studies on race r e l a t i o n s show that contact i s the catalyst i n the process of assimilation. Contact does not mean simply encountering the other group, but rather^.im-\ . p l i e s that interaction of a p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic or c u l t u r a l nature i s t a k i n g p l a c e . Contact need not always be p o s i t i v e to i n i t i a t e a s s i m i l a t i o n , i f i n spi.te of the negative experience the contact i s continued.. In those instances where contact leads to c o n f l i c t and v i o l e n c e i s deemed t o be an unacceptable method of s o l v i n g m i n o r i t y -host problems, the r e l a t i o n s h i p can evolve i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . In each case the host s o c i e t y government can play an important r o l e . The government may i n s t i t u t e mea-sures to l i m i t the contact between the m i n o r i t y and! host s o c - r i i e t y thereby f o r c i n g the m i n o r i t y ' s i s o l a t i o n , as was the case w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia's Sikhs before 1947. Or conversely the government may encourage through i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , harmonious contact and accommodation of the m i n o r i t y , thereby l e a d i n g . . . 27 to a s s i m i l a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l contact can take many forms depending upon the degree of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the community. At one extreme there i s i n d i v i d u a l contact, where each member of the community acts as an i n d i v i d u a l unconcerned w i t h the a c t i o n s of other m i n o r i t y members. At the other extreme, the m i n o r i t y o r -ganizes and a c t i v e l y seeks c o n t r o l of government. Between these two extremes l i e a v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l types. M i n o r i t y p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n may take the form of l o c a l chapters a s s o c i a t e d w i t h host p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or the m i n o r i t y may form an i n t e r e s t group w i t h no p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . Economic a s s i m i l a t i o n i s dependent upon the extent of oc-cup a t i o n a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the m i n o r i t y w i t h i n the host com-munity. C u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n denotes the extent to which there i s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contact on a personal l e v e l . .15 Although Gordon's main concern i s w i t h the c o n t a c t and a s s i m i l a t i o n of m i n o r i t i e s i n t o the host community, he does i d e n t i f y an a l t e r n a t i v e . He r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t t h a t the new immigrant may be a s s i m i l a t e d by h i s own e t h n i c community i n s t e a d of the host community. Raymond Breton f e e l s t h a t "the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the immigrant should not be seen from a p u r e l y a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o i n t of view i n which i n t e g r a t i o n i s s a i d t o have taken p l a c e when the immigrant 2 8 i s absorbed i n the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y . " He i n s t e a d sug-gests t h a t the immigrant can be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o e i t h e r the host community or the immigrant community. I t stands to reason t h a t as the m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n t a c t w i t h the host s o c i e t y i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y . However, the community wi t h which the immigrant chooses to make and r e t a i n c o n t a c t to a l a r g e extent depends upon the f o r c e s encouraging and d i s c o u r a g i n g the immigrant t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p a r t i c u l a r community. These f o r c e s are e x h i b i t e d i n the a t t i t u d i n a l and i n s t i t u -t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the host s o c i e t y and e t h n i c community towards the immigrant. T h e r e f o r e , the q u e s t i o n needs to be asked / to what extent do the a t t i t u d e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the host s o c i e t y and e t h n i c community encourage the immi-grant to make c o n t a c t w i t h e i t h e r group? In answering t h i s q u e s t i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to examining .only the government sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s designed t o serve the immigrants, as w e l l as the a t t i t u d e s o f the host s o c i e t y t o w a r d s E a s t I n d i a n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e S i k h community and a t t i t u d e s o f its"; l e a d e r s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . The g o a l s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n t h a t government e s t a b l i s h e s f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t s , d e t e r m i n e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e a c -c e p t a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n i m m i g r a n t g r o u p s and .the k i n d o f i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e h o s t s o c i e t y , t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e g r o u p s . H i s t o r i c a l l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t h r e e main t h e o r i e s o r g o a l - s y s t e m s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n have emerged. V a r i o u s l o c a l i z e d f o r c e s have m o d i f i e d t h e s e t h r e e c o n c e p t s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n y e t t h e c e n t r a l themes have p e r s i s t e d . T h e s e may be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e t h e o r y o f " A n g l o - c o n f o r m i t y " , t h e t h e o r y o f t h e " m e l t i n g p o t " a n d t h e t h e o r y o f " c u l t u r a l 29 p l u r a l i s m " . B r i e f l y , t h e c e n t r a l theme o f e a c h o f t h e s e g o a l - s y s t e m s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s . A n g l o - c o n f o r m i t y r e q u i r e s t h e c o m p l e t e r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t ' s c u l -t u r e i n f a v o u r o f t h e b e h a v i o r a n d mores o f t h e d o m i n a n t A n g l o - S a x o n c o r e g r o u p . The i d e a o f t h e m e l t i n g p o t g a i n e d a g r e a t d e a l o f p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , A m e r i c a was e n v i s a g e d as t h e " m e l t i n g p o t " o f a l l r a c e s , whereby t h r o u g h .the i n t e r -m a r r i a g e o f A n g l o - S a x o n and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s a b l e n d i n g o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s w o u l d r e s u l t i n a new i n d i g e n o u s A m e r i c a n t y p e . 3 ( ^ C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i s i n vogue p r e s e n t l y and i s p r o m i n e n t i n s t u d i e s o f i m m i g r a t i o n and e t h n i c i t y t o d a y . C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m a d v o c a t e s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o n e ' s c u l t u r a l heritage and customs i n the context of c i t i z e n -ship and p o l i t i c a l and economic integration into the host society. A l l of the theories share one central aim, that of maintaining the primacy of English i n s t i t u t i o n s , language and mores. Nevertheless, despite t h e i r common aim, the d i f f e r e n t theories can have d i f f e r e n t e f fects on the type of immigrants allowed i n the country. For example, i n the 1950's, Canada's p o l i c y favoured Anglo-conformity and the immigrants were selected accordingly, as t h i s quote from the Immigration Minister i l l u s t r a t e s . We t r y to select as immigrants those who w i l l have to change t h e i r ways least i n order to adapt themselves to Canadian l i f e and to con-tribu t e to the development of the Canadian nation. That i s why entry into Canada i s v i r -t u a l l y free to c i t i z e n s of the United Kingdom, the United States, and France. 31 Cultural p l u r a l i s t s on the other hand, do not oppose any group as long as the immigrants adopt the p o l i t i c a l and :. economic standards of the host community. The d i f f e r e n t theories can also have an e f f e c t on the types of government sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s established to deal with new immigrants. Under the influence of the Anglo-conformity or the melting-pot theories, the govern-ment i s more l i k e l y to establish i n s t i t u t i o n s that encourage the immigrant to adopt Canadian s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l stan-dards. Under c u l t u r a l pluralism there i s usually l i t t l e .18 attempt made to encourage the immigrant to adopt such standards. In f a c t , the immigrant i s encouraged to main-tai n his c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . In Canada today, the federal government has a p o l i c y of c u l t u r a l pluralism which i s c a l l e d "multiculturalism". This policy has influenced the approach of the p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments i n dealing with immigrant . minorities. Its e f f e c t on minority-host r e l a t i o n s w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Two. The attitudes of the minority group and t h e i r i n s t i t u -tions also have profound e f f e c t s on i t s assimilation into and relations with the host society. Raymond Breton, i n his Montreal-based study of thirty-one ethnic groups, con-cludes that the single most important factor determining the immigrant's d i r e c t i o n of assimilation i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness of the ethnic community, that i s , the extent to which the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the ethnic group can act as 32 substitutes for the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the host society. "Within the ethnic group there develops a network of organization and informal s o c i a l relationships which per-mits and encourages the members of the ethnic group to re-main within the confines of the group for a l l of t h e i r primary relationships and some of t h e i r secondary r e l a t i o n -33 ships throughout a l l the stages of the l i f e cycle." This network of organization at times so completely substitutes for the i n s t i t u t i o n of the host society that the immigrant . , ,19 n e e d n o t ma,ke c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s o c i e t y a t l a , r g e . F o r example, t h e r e a r e numerous c a s e s o f i m m i g r a n t s who h a v i n g l i v e d i n t h e i r e t h n i c community, i n New Y o r k f o r d e c a d e s a r e 34 s t i l l u n a b l e t o s p eak E n g l i s h . The l e v e l o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o m p l e t e n e s s o f an e t h n i c community s t r e t c h e s f r o m one e x t r e m e where t h e r e a r e o n l y p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s and no f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o one where f u n c t i o n s s u c h as e d u c a t i o n , work, consumer n e e d s , m e d i c a l c a r e , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , n e w s p a p e r s , r a d i o , f i l m s and r e l i g i o n a r e p r o v i d e d . Raymond, B r e t o n i n h i s a r t i c l e " I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o m p l e t e n e s s o f E t h n i c G r o u p s " has a t t e m p t e d a r o u g h o r d e r i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e community. B r e t o n . ; s t a t e s t h a t t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n . - . f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a g r o u p ' s e t h n i c s o l i d a r i t y i s t h e c h u r c h . The c h u r c h i s n o t o n l y t h e r e l i g i o u s c e n t e r b u t i s t h e c e n t e r o f much o f t h e community's s o c i a l l i f e i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e become i n v o l v e d and as a r e s u l t become t i e d t o g e t h e r i n a 35 c o h e s i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l n e t w o r k . The e x i s t e n c e o f e t h n i c c h u r c h e s r e i n f o r c e s t h e m i n o r i t y ' s i s o l a t i o n and r e t a r d s a s s i m i l a t i o n o n l y i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where t h e r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n p r a c t i s e d i n t h e c h u r c h .i&: a m a j o r s o u r c e o f : . c u l t u r a l ; ; d i s t i h c t i o n g : . . J " J . .= Such i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e S i k h s i n V a n c o u v e r . Many o f t h e i r v i s i b l e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e b a s e d on r e l i g i o u s t r a d i -t i o n and hence t h e c h u r c h t e n d s t o r e i n f o r c e t h o s e d i s t i n c -.20 tions. The second most important factor assuring, that members of the ethnic group associate primarily inside t h e i r own community i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of entertainment and informational f a c i l t i i e s . The existence of entertain-ment f a c i l i t i e s such as theatres, movies or community h a l l s as well as radio and newspapers can help to reinforce the 36 immigrant's ethnic i d e n t i t y . However, Breton does not allow for the p o s s i b i l i t y that such f a c i l i t i e s may decen-t r a l i z e the community's i n s t i t u t i o n s , thereby d i f f u s i n g the latters: influence and a t t r a c t i o n on the minority members. The attitude of the immigrant group towards assimila-tion i s largely determined by i t s r e l i g i o u s or c u l t u r a l 37 background. Many immigrant groups are f i e r c e l y proud of t h e i r culture. The pride may be founded on r e l i g i o n or n a t i o n a l i t y . Some ethnic groups f e e l that i n order to perpetuate t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and customs, i t i s necessary to maintain a state of i s o l a t i o n and so not 3 8 sink to the c u l t u r a l l e v e l of North America. In addition, t h e i r r e l i g i o n may preach that s p i r i t u a l , purity rests i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to remain apart from the mainstream of the host society. As the h i s t o r i c a l d i s -cussion w i l l i l l u s t r a t e , such i s the case with Vancouver's Sikhs. The concepts and a n a l y t i c a l approaches discussed above serve as a guide i n answering the c e n t r a l question of t h i s study: What are the f a c t o r s t h a t s u s t a i n , increase or d i m i n i s h the i s o l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Sikhs and the host s o c i e t y ? The working hypothesis i s t h a t the i s o l a t i o n or a s s i m i l a t i o n of an e t h n i c group l i k e the Sikhs i s determined by the streng t h of e t h n i c versus host s o c i e t y i n s t i t u t i o n s which a t t r a c t or r e p e l the immigrant t o and from the d i f f e r e n t communities. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s argued here t h a t the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a m i n o r i t y does not take place simultaneously i n a l l aspects of the m i n o r i t y ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the host community, but r a t h e r i n each sphere of i n t e r a c t i o n independently. The working hypothesis gives r i s e to two main e m p i r i -c a l questions which have guided the research and provided a framework f o r the d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s . 1. What i s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l make-up of the m i n o r i t y com-munity and what i s i t s e f f e c t on the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the m i n o r i t y ? In order to discuss t h i s question i t i s important to describe the i n s t i t u t i o n a l complete-ness of the Sikh community, and the extent to which these i n s t i t u t i o n s encourage the members to p a r t i c i -pate i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Sikh community. The e f f e c t of the a t t i t u d e s of the Sikh leaders on the d i s -p o s i t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n s to encourage or discourage the Sikhs' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the host s o c i e t y are a l s o examined. What government sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s encourage or discourage the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the e t h n i c group? In t h i s regard the a s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s of the municipal and f e d e r a l governments w i l l be discussed The a t t i t u d e of both Vancouver's p o l i t i c a l leaders and general population w i l l be examined i n order to give i n s i g h t i n t o the reasons f o r the k i n d and func t i 6 n of the government sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s . .23 The H i s t o r i c a l Origins of Isolation The history of the Sikhs i n B r i t i s h Columbia can be divided into three main periods - pre-1948, 1948 - 1967 and post - 1967. These periods correspond with Canada's changing attitudes and p o l i c i e s toward Asian immigrants. It has been argued that the esse n t i a l nature of the "immigrant experience" of East Indians coming to Canada has remained b a s i c a l l y the same throughout. According to Ames, "three main p r i n c i p l e s have governed Canadian im-migration p o l i c y since the beginning: free enterprise, 39 racism and c u l t u r a l uniformitarianism". This may be an accurate description of Canada's immigration p o l i c y before 196 7 but since that time the issue has become i n -creasingly complex. Since 1967, Canada's immigration policy has r e f l e c t e d the change i n philosophy regarding the goals of assimilation set down by the L i b e r a l government. The Liberal's policy has sh i f t e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l em-phasis on Anglo-conformity to c u l t u r a l pluralism. However, u n t i l 1967, Canada's immigration p o l i c y r e f l e c t e d the popular prejudice and bigotry which permeated a l l aspects of the minority-host r e l a t i o n s h i p . From the outset, the East Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia were i s o l a t e d from the host society. Although there i s evidence to suggest that East Indians arrived i n Canada as early as 1897, o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of East Indian im-40 migration begin i n 1904. Table I demonstrates the rapid r i s e of immigration during 1906-1907. P r a c t i c a l l y no discriminationnagainst the Sikhs existed i n the f i r s t two years of immigration. However, with t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the economic sector increasing, they soon met with a n t i -Asian sentiment. Moreover, resentment and c o n f l i c t had arisen e a r l i e r over the use of Chinese immigrants as s t r i k e -breakers or "scabs", and suspicions were extended against a l l A s i a t i c labourers. Anti-Asian r i o t s occurred i n Vancouver i n 1907 over unemployment problems i n the c i t y . According to Jain, by the summer of 1907 "some'700(East Indians) were unemployed, joined by another 800 the next 41 winter, and a l l of them staying i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Alexander S. Monroe, Dominion Immigration Agent at Vancouver summed up the perceived economic threat of the Sikhs i n Vancouver i n a report to the Superintendent of Immigration. As competitors of white labour they are the most dangerous we have, as they p r a c t i c a l l y engage i n the same class of work as the white labourers do, v i z : m i l l work and street work. They w i l l not en-gage i n domestic labour, gardening or a g r i c u l t u r a l work that whitemen leave untouched, but seek the same li n e s of employment usually followed by the white labourers. 42 As far as the host population was concerned the " r a c i a l saturation point" had been reached. The white population of B r i t i s h Columbia was determined to p r o h i b i t further East Indian immigration. This sentiment was echoed by the Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, Richard MacBride, when he TABLE I .25 East Indian Immigration to Canada, 1900-69 F i s c a l Year Number F i s c a l Year Number F i s c a l Year Number 1900- 01 — 1901- 02 --1902- 03 — 1903- 04 — 1904- 05 45 1905- 06 387 1906- 07 2, 124 1907- 08 2, 623 1908- 09 6 1909- 10 10 1900- 10 5, 195 1930- 31 1931- 32 1932- 33 1933- 34 1934- 35 1935- 36 1936- 37 1937- 38 1938- 39 1939- 40 1930- 40 1931- 40 47 1960- 61 744 62 1961- 62 830 33 1962- 63 1,331 33 1963- 64 2,077 21 1964- 65 3,491 13 1965- 66 4,094 14 1966- 67 5,827 14 1967- 68 4,686 11 6 1968- 69 7,059 254 1960- 69 30,139 1900- 69 39,972 1910-11 5 1911-12 3 1912-13 5 1913-14 88 1914-15 — 1915-16 1 1916-17 — 1917-18 --1918-19 — 1919-20 10 1910-20 112 1920-21 13 1921-22 21 1922-23 40 1923-24 46 1924-25 62 1925-26 60 1926-27 56 1927-28 52 1928-29 58 1929-30 80 1920-30 488 1940- 41 1941- 42 1942- 43 1943- 44 1944- 45 1945- 46 1946- 47 1947- 48 1948- 49 1949- 50 1940- 50 1941- 51 1 8 167 64 54 93 390 SOURCE: 1950- 51 1951- 52 1952- 53 1953- 54 1954- 55 1955- 56 1956- 57 1957- 58 1958- 59 1959- 60 1950-60 99 172 140 177 249 332 334 459 741 691 3,394 Sushil East Kumar India i s Jain, i n Canada Research Supplement for 9, June Group The European pp. 3 1 P 7 1 , Ha jue: Migration Prbblems, 8, and 9 stated c a t e g o r i c a l l y that "to admit O r i e n t a l s i n large numbers would mean i n the end the extinction of white peoples and we have always i n mind the necessity of keep-. 43 ing t h i s a white man's country." In 190 8 the various lev e l s of government undertook steps to l i m i t the flow of East Indian immigration. The act that v i r t u a l l y eliminated East Indian immigration was the "continuous passage" Act. Under i t , a person was per-mitted entry into Canada only by taking a boat d i r e c t l y from his homeland. This regulation assured the elimina-tion of East Indian immigration as there were no ships that s a i l e d d i r e c t l y from India. The discriminatory intention of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was c l e a r l y demonstrated i n 1914 with the "Komagata Maru incident". A Sikh named Gurdit Singh chartered the ship Komagata Maru and s a i l e d on a continuous passage from India to Vancouver. A l l other requirements of the immigration regulations were met by the passengers. However, the passengers were forbidden to land. While Gurdit Singh's lawyers srgjued the case unsuccessfully i n the courts, the conditions aboard the ship became increasingly i n t o l e r a b l e . After a two month wait the ship was boarded on July 26, 1914 by members of the Canadian cruiser H.M.C.S, "Rainbow" and was forced to depart from Vancouver harbour. 4 4 The incident has l e f t a b i t t e r memory for the East Indian com-munity that exists to t h i s day. For Sikhs, i t exempli f i e the unjust and discriminatory treatment they experienced . i n Canada before 1947 - 1948, when they received t h e l f u l l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l rights accorded the white majority. The economic and s o c i a l threat that was caused by Asian immigration was s t i l l i n evidence i n 1923 when the federal government debated the issue of extending the franchise to the East Indians. Mr. J. McBride, the mem-ber for the Cariboo, epitomized the views of those not i n favour of extending the franchise when he stated We i n B r i t i s h Columbia want no more Hindus... we have on the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia Chinamen and Japs running our stores. They are run-ning the white people out. We have Greeks there running our hotels and we have the Jews running our second-hand stores, and now some people want to bring i n the Hindus to run our m i l l s ... If t h i s country wants to cast B r i t i s h Columbia a d r i f t then:, l e t her cast i t a d r i f t before more Orientals come i n . I f they do, we white people out on the P a c i f i c w i l l prevent any more Orientals coming to B r i t i s h Col-umbia. 45 The r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on East Indian immigration were not only r a t i o n a l i z e d on economic and s o c i a l grounds but on c u l t u r a l ones as well . One of the more prevalent rationales for r e s t r i c t i n g Asian immigration was based on what was believed to be t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to assimilate into the rest of the society. A statement from the .28 C h r i s t i a n Western Methodist Recorder/ i s t y p i c a l of t h i s r a t ionale. The economic aspect of the Oriental question i s serious enough because i t means unequal competition - labour and some li n e s of business - by men of d i f f e r e n t standards and ideals; but the s o c i a l and moral aspects are much more serious to contemplate. I t i s not merely unreasoned prejudice that influences Western f e e l i n g , i t i s that they are d i f f e r e n t , so d i f - .'. ferent that the two races are incom-patible , and as such an attempt to fuse them as common people i s useless and would inevitably r e s u l t i n a lowered standard of c i v i l i z a t i o n which would hardly look a t t r a c t i v e even to the most ardent advocate of Hindu rights to unrestricted immigra-ti o n on the plea of brotherhood of man and fellow B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p . Surely i t i s utter nonsense to argue race i s not better o f f i n i t s own natural, environment, and when, too the unrestrained mixing of the races on t h i s coast would lead to economic disaster and ethnical demoralization. 461 The i s o l a t i o n of the Sikhs i n B r i t i s h Columbia extended to t h e i r s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l r e l ations with the host white community. Further, because of the immigra-tion r e s t r i c t i o n s , the community was also i s o l a t e d from India. From 1908 to 1947, only a limited few entered Canada. Those Sikhs who were i n B r i t i s h Columbia were treated as :J second-class c i t i z e n s . They were denied the vote i n federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal elections. "They could not carry out such public r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as serving on j u r i e s . They could not hold property i n some parts of the c i t y of Vancouver .29 and they could not enter professions such as law or medicine 47 because they did not have f u l l r ights of c i t i z e n s . " The p o l i c i e s of the various lev e l s of government toward im-migration were guided by t h e i r basic desire for and b e l i e f s i n Anglo-conformity, and as such the East Indians were un-welcome immigrants. It i s important to understand that the East Indians * i s o l a t i o n was also a product of t h e i r own attitudes. From the outset the majority of the East Indian immigrants were male Punjabi Sikh farmers who hoped to make enough money to return to India and l i v e i n comfort o f f t h e i r earnings. I t i s evident that the motive behind t h e i r immigration was primarily economic. Since most of the Sikhs did not intend to l i v e i n Canada permanently they did not make much e f f o r t to assimilate. The Sikhs had neither the time nor the i n c l i n a t i o n to pa r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the l i f e of the host society. The r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and history of Sikhism hold an important key to understanding the voluntary i s o l a t i o n of the community. Sikhism was founded i n the Punjab i n the f i f t e e n t h century by Guru Nanak. Sikhism was developed during the reign of the Moslem ru l e r s i n India. The Mos-lems were intolerant of other r e l i g i o n s and as a r e s u l t persecuted the Sikhs. This persecution produced numerous martyrs and helped unit the Sikhs The persecution had two profound effects on Sikhism that p e r s i s t to .30 t h i s day. F i r s t l y , t h e n e e d f o r u n i t y was e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h community o r g a n i z a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , i t was i n s i s t e d t h a t e v e r y S i k h be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e by f o l l o w i n g t h e f i v e K a k k a s . The a d h e r e n c e t o t h e Kakkas d i c t a t e d t h a t e v e r y S i k h w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by k e e p i n g h i s h a i r and b e a r d u n c u t , (hence t h e w e a r i n g o f a t u r b a n ) , w e a r i n g a b r a c e l e t on h i s l e f t w r i s t , k e e p i n g a d a g g e r and comb on h i s p e r s o n a t a l l t i m e s and w e a r i n g a s p e c i a l make o f u n d e r s h o r t s . The n a t u r e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s g r o u p i t s e l f f u r t h e r e n -c o u r a g e s a s e n s e o f e x c l u s i v e n e s s . As w i t h a l l r e l i g i o n s , S i k h i s m p u r p o r t s t o embody t h e " t r u t h " . Any m i x i n g w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o n s o r p h i l o s o p h i e s may r e s u l t i n a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h a t " t r u t h " . F o r t h e r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c , t h e r e c a n be no change i n t h e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o r t r a d i t i o n s , f o r t h a t may a l s o l e a d t o a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e t r u t h . S i n c e S i k h i s m i s n o t o n l y a r e l i g i o n b u t a way o f l i f e , c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s o r s o c i a l g r o u p s i s s e e n as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . C o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o change, and t o t h e f e r v e n t b e -l i e v e r , change i s a r o a d t o t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e " T r u t h " . B e i n g a m i n o r i t y g r o u p f e a r i n g t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f H i n d u i s m has a l s o added t o t h e S i k h s ' e m p h a s i s on e x c l u s i v e -n e s s . A l s o , t h e i r m i n o r i t y s t a t u s i n I n d i a and t h e o v e r s e a s c o m m u n i t i e s i n c r e a s e t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e m a i n i s o l a t e d . T h u s , t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e community i s t a k e n as a r e l i g i o u s mat-t e r by many S i k h s . .31 Vancouver's Sikhs established t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s which further slowed th e i r s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l contact with the host society. They began i n 1907 with the formation of the Khalsa Diwan Society. The objectives of the Society were i n i t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s , educational and philanthropic, but i t soon became the center of East Indian 49 p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . The following year the Committee for the Management of Sikh Diwans and Temples was formed and claimed to speak for the majority of East Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The next few years saw the appearance of several Sikh sponsored newspapers i n both English and Pun-j a b i . These papers tended to reinforce ethnocentric values, while at the same time meeting the. needs of the non-English speakers. The formation of t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s and newspapers v i r t u a l l y assured the i s o l a t i o n of the Sikh community, for there was no reason to make c u l t u r a l , r e l i -gious or s o c i a l contact with the host community. It i s hardly surprising that the Sikhs showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c s of the host community considering that they were barred from running for public o f f i c e and denied the vote. They did however, try to influence the government's immigration p o l i c y and attempted to get the franchise extended. Between 1908-1947 those were the only areas i n which the Indians t r i e d to influence government po l i c y . The Sikhs did invest a great deal of energy i n power struggles within t h e i r own community. The leadership strug-gles occurred, .between the educated and uneducated Sikhs. ^ On the one side, the educated Sikhs were more exposed to B r i t i s h culture and values and f e l t that the present leader-ship comprised of uneducated Punjabi farmers was not doing enough to better the l i f e of the Sikhs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The older, uneducated Sikhs f e l t there was no need to bet-ter t h e i r r elations with the host community and government. The leadership of the Sikh community soon became dominated by the better educated and more agressive Sikhs, who worked 51 hard to gain p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r i g h t s . The members of the Sikh community also had great i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c s of the Punjab, and a c t i v e l y supported the Ghadr Movement, which sought the removal of the B r i t i s h from India. By 1940, nearly 70% of the East Indian population had returned to India. As few women had immigrated, there was no extensive natural increase i n the population. (See Table I I ) . This f a c t had a profound e f f e c t on the assimilation of the East Indians, for there were no succeeding generations for whom assimilation became easier. However, i n the years preceeding 1947, a number of factors contributed to changing the attitudes of the Canadian people and government toward East Indians. The experience of the Second World War had proven the Sikhs to be courageous fighters and l o y a l subjects of the B r i t i s h Empire. In ...33 TABLE II East Indian Entrants to Canada by Broad Age and Sex Categories, 1921-42. F i s c a l year ending March 31, 19 — Adult Males Adult Females Children / Totals 1921 7 * (70) 2 ( 20) I (10) 10 1922 5 (38) 4 ( 31) 4V (31) 13 1923 12 (52) 5 ( 25) 4 (23) 21 1924 25 (63) 11 ( 27) 4 (10) 40 1925 21 (46) 14 ( 30) i i (24) 46 1926 6 ( 9) 18 ( 29) 39 (62) 63 1927 6 ( 9) 19 ( 31) 37 (60) 62 1928 2 ( 3) 25 ( 45) 29 (52) 56 1929 4 ( 8) 25 ( 47) 24 (45) 53 1930 2 ( 4) 21 ( 36) 35 (60) 58 1931 6 ( 7) 28 ( 35) 46 (58) 80 1932 4 ( 8) 9 ( 19) 34 (72) 47 1933 7 (11) 8 ( 13) 48 (76) 63 1934 6 (18) 9 ( 27) 18 (55) 33 1935 2 (• 6) 12 ( 36) 19 (58) 33 1936 1 ( 5) 4 ( 19) 16 (76) 21 1937 - 4 ( 31) 9 (69) 13 1938 - 6 ( 43) 8 (57) 14 1939 - 6 ( 43) 8 (57) 14 1940 2 6 ( 54) 5 (46) 11 1941 - 4 ( 67) 2 (33) 6 1942 - - 3(100) 3 Totals from L906 5,392 256 423 6,071 SOURCE: This table was taken from the Report of the 8th Conference, Institute of P a c i f i c Relations, Mt. Tremblant, P.Q., 1942. Paper No. 1, Study Group of the Winnipeg Branch, C.I.I.A., p. 9. "East Indian entrants to Canada." Adapted from George H. Lowes, " The Sikhs of B r i t i s h Columbia," Unpublished B.A. essay, U.B.C, Department of History, 1952, p. 60. * NOTE - Percentages are given i n brackets. . . . 34 addition, India had gained her independence i n 19 47 and Canada and India were experiencing a period of extremely 53 c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s . These factors were d i r e c t l y res-ponsible for Canada changing her immigration p o l i c y to-wards the East Indians as well as for the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government extending the franchise to them. In 1951, r e s t r i c t i o n s were relaxed for those immi-grants coming from: India, Pakistan and Ceylon. A quota system was established f o r immigrants from these countries whereby 150 nationals from India, 100 from Pakistan and 50 from Ceylon were to be admitted annually. In 1956, the allowable numbers were raised to 300, 100, and 50 respec-54 t i v e l y . The quota of immigrants was f i l l e d primarily by the r e l a t i v e s of those East Indians already i n Canada. Between 1946 and 1955 some 1,865 Indians immigrated to Canada. Since that time, immigration, has increased s t e a d i l y . (See Graphs I and I I ) . Even the major revisions i n s t i t u t e d i n 1962 comprised only a small change i n immigration p o l i c y , since the Act s t i l l favoured a p a r t i c u l a r class of immigrant. The new immigration regulations "removed (except for a group of spec i f i e d r e l a t i v e s who could be sponsored) the emphasis upon country of o r i g i n as a major selection c r i t e r i o n . . . , instead, those acquired c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were desired i n immigrants were set out i n general terms, and the a b i l i t y of immigrants to e s t a b l i s h themselves continued to be .36. s t r e s s e d . E x p l i c i t l y s o u g h t w e r e p e r s o n s who b y r e a s o n o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g a n d s k i l l s o r o t h e r s p e c i a l q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s w e r e l i k e l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s s u c c e s s f u l l y 55 i n C a n a d a . " The new q u a l i f i c a t i o n s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y f a v o u r e d i m m i g r a n t s f r o m E u r o p e . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n W o r l d War I I a n d 1967 t h e E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y . H o w e v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e same p r o -p o r t i o n o f E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s e n t e r i n g C a n a d a a s b e f o r e , f o r now a t l e a s t 50% o f t h e new i m m i g r a n t s w e r e g o i n g t o O n t a r i o . The number o f E a s t I n d i a n s e n t e r i n g V a n c o u v e r was i n c r e a s i n g b u t n o t a t s u c h a r a t e a s t o c a u s e t h e h o s t c o m m u n i t y t o f e e l t h r e a t e n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d p r o s p e r i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was s u c h a s t o e a s i l y a c c o m m o d a t e t h e new i m m i g r a n t s w i t h o u t f o r c i n g them i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h members o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m u n i t y f o r j o b s . E v e n t h o u g h a l l l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s h a d b e e n r e -moved d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e S i k h s r e m a i n e d r e l i g i o u s l y a n d c u l t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e h o s t c o m m u n i t y . P o l i t i c a l l y t h e S i k h s w e r e f r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e b u t t h e y l i m i t e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t o p e t i t i o n i n g t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o r e m o v e a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s o n E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a t i o n . T o -g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r own s e n s e o f e x c l u s i v e n e s s one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e S i k h s ' l a c k o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e h o s t c o m m u n i t y was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e h o s t c o m m u n i t y d i d l i t t l e t o a c t i v e l y e n -.37 courage Sikh p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s a f f a i r s . Thus, u n t i l 1967, the h i s t o r i c a l r elationship between the Sikhs and Canadians can be described as one of mutual i s o l a t i o n . Neither group did anything to encourage i n t e r -action. In terms of Gordon's stages of assimilation, there are signs that some individuals had begun acculturating but on the whole, the East Indians had not. In fact, a f t e r 1947, they were largely ignored by the host society. There-i n l i e s an important difference between the immigrants that had arrived before 1947 and those that have come since. For the f i r s t immigrants were met with i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d discrim-ination and were treated as second-class c i t i z e n s . This treatment at the hands of the host society tended to reinforce t h e i r desire for i s o l a t i o n . The second wave of immigrants on/the other hand, entered a society that largely ignored them. They were allowed to remain i n t h e i r own ethnic com-munity but were not forced to do so. The ambivalence of the host society toward the East Indians tended to encourage r e c i -procal feelings on the part of the Sikhs. These d i f f e r e n t reactions on!.the part of the host society to the two waves of immigration tended to i n s t i l l d i f f e r e n t attitudes toward assimilation i n the two groups of Sikh immigrants. This d i v i s i o n had important repercussions for the future of the relati o n s h i p between the Sikhs and the host society. The d i f f e r e n t reactions towards the immigrants of the two periods we're due mainly to the fact that i n the f i r s t . . 3 8 instance the r a c i a l saturation point was reached, while i n the second i t was not. As Tienhaara and Breton have pointed out the saturation point i s reached when the host society perceives the minority as posing a threat to i t s p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l or economic p o s i t i o n . In the case of the Sikhs two factors had d i r e c t influence on those perceived feelings of threat i n the f i r s t immigration and the lack of them i n the second. The f i r s t factor i s the economic condition of the host society. The f i r s t immigrants entered an unstable economic environment and were forced to compete for jobs with established members of the host community. On the iDther hand, the second group of immigrants entered a highly i n d u s t r i a l society capable of e a s i l y absorbing them i n the expanding economic sector. The second factor a f f e c t i n g the host community's feelings of threat i s the number of immigrants that s e t t l e d into d i s t i n c t geographical areas i n Vancouver. With the huge immigration of 1906-1907, the increased concentration of Sikhs i n Vancouver d i r e c t l y increased the host society's f e e l i n g of being threatened. However, i n the second period of immigration, the numbers a r r i v i n g were controlled and comparatively small. The host society had no cause for fear, and i n f a c t as pointed out, v i r t u a l l y ignored the new East Indian immigrants. In 1967, however, the immigration laws again changed and had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the size and make-up of . . 3 9 . East Indian immigration. As was the case i n the early 1900's, East Indian immigration again rose sharply, with settlement being concentrated i n a few main centers. S i m i l a r l y , Canada's economy was unstable with unemployment r i s i n g . The next chapter w i l l examine the reaction of the Canadian public and government to t h i s new wave of immigra-ti o n , and study i t s e f f e c t on the economic and s o c i a l relationship between the Sikhs and the host community of Vancouver. CHAPTER I - FOOTNOTES For a detailed history of Canada's changing immigration regulations see Freda Hawkins, Canada and immigration: Public Policy and Public Concern, Montreal: McGill - Queen's University Press, 19 72; or Louis Parai, "Canada's Immigration Policy, 1962-74", Immigration Manpower Review, Volume IV, no. 1, F a l l 1969, pp. 5-24. Nancy Tienhaara, Canadian Views on  Immigration and Population, Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974, p. 31. Canadian Television Network, "C.T.V. Inquiry: Immigration." W-5 programme, shown August 8, 19 76. (One-hour spe c i a l on the Green Paper and public concern on immigration). Speech by Art P h i l l i p s at the C i t i e s ' Common Interest Conference, Edmonton, Alberta, July 29, 1974. Speech by Art P h i l l i p s , Bonnycastle Memorial Lectures, March 5, 1975. Adrian C. Mayer, "A Report on the East Indian Community i n Vancouver". Working Paper of the Institute of Social and Economic Research, U.B.C., 1959, p. 45. Canada, Immigration S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa: Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1967-1975. Gary Hess, "The Forgotten American Asians: The East Indian Community i n the United States," P a c i f i c His t o r l e a l Review, XLIII, 1974, 576-596. Louis Wirth, "The Problem of Minority Groups," i n Ralph Lenton (ed.), The  Science of Man i n the World C r i s i s , New York: Columbia University Press, 1947, p. 347. See T.W. Adorno et, ...al.,' The Authoritarian  Personality, New York: Harper, 1950. Amos H. Hawley, "Interindividual and Inter-group Competition", i n Edgar T. Thompson and Everett C. Hughes, eds., Race, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free Press, 195 8, p. 200. Nancy Tienhaara, op. c i t , p. 29. J.L. Moreno, c i t e d i n E.L. Hartley and A. Mintz, "A Technique for the Study of the Dynamics of the Racial Saturation Point," Sociometry, Volume 9, 1946, p. 15. It i s interesting to note that when Hartley and Mintz tested t h e i r techniques for measuring the r e l a t i v e saturation points of t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups on a sample of one hundred college students i n New York, the "Hindus" ranked as the least desirable.. Raymond Breton, J i l l Armstrong, Les Kennedy, The So c i a l Impact of Changes i n Population  Size and Composition, Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974, p. 9. R. Desai, Indian Immigrants i n B r i t a i n , London: Oxford University Press, 1963. Raymond Breton et a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 17-24. John Rex and Robert Moore, Race, Community and  C o n f l i c t : A Study of Sparkbrook, London: Oxford University Press, for Ins t i t u t e of Race Relations, 1967, p. 16. Nancy Tienhaara, op. c i t . , p. 31. Bernard J . Siegel,"Defensive Cultural Adapta-t i o n " , i n Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr, The History of Violence i n America, New York. Frederick A. Praeger, 1969, , • pp. 764-787. Oscar Handlin, Boston's Immigrants, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1959 (Rev. ed.), p. 176. Bernard J . Siegel, op. c i t . , pp. 764-787. .42 23. For an excellent discussion of ethnic groups and assimilation, see Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation i n American L i f e , New York: Oxford University Press, 1964. 24. i b i d . , p. 71. 25. i b i d . , p. 71. 26. i b i d . , p. 77. 27. Some well known studies dealing with contact and the assimilation of minorities are Robert E. Park, Race and Culture, Glencoe: Free Press, 1950. p. 150; W.O. Brown, "Culture Contact and Race C o n f l i c t , " i n E.B. Reuter (ed.), Race and C u l t u r a l Contacts, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934., E.C. Glick, "Social Roles and Types i n Race Relations", i n A.W. Lind, (ed.), Race Relations i n World  Perspective, Honolulu! University of Hawaii Press, 1955. 28. . Raymond Breton, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Completeness of Ethnic Communities and the Personal Relations of Immigrants", The American  Journal of Sociology,Vol. 70, 1964. p. 193. 29. For a more in-depth discussion of these three ideologies of assimilation goals see, Milton M. Gordon, op. c i t . , Ch. 4, 5 and 6. 30. i b i d . , p. 85. 31. Quoted i n Anthony H. Richmond, "Aspects of the Absorption and Adaptation of Immigrants," Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974, p. 14. 32. Raymond Breton, op. c i t . , p. 194. 33. Milton M. Gordon, op. c i t . , p. 34. 34. Nathan Glazer, "Ethnic Groups i n America: From National Culture to Ideology", i n Monroe Berger, Theodore Abel, and Charles H. Page, (eds.), Freedom and Control i n Modern Society, New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1954, pp. 163-164. 35. Raymond Breton, op. c i t . , p. 197. i b i d . , pp. 198-199 . . . . 43 37. Anthony H. Richmond, op. c i t . , pp. 14-16. 38. Robert E. Park and Herbert A. M i l l e r , Old  World T r a i t s Transplanted, New York: Harper and Bros., 1921, pp. 304-305. 39. Michael Ames i n I.M. Muthanna, People of India  In North America (Part F i r s t ) , Bangalore: Lotus Printers, 1975. p.v., 40. For a detailed discussion of Sikh immigration and history i n B r i t i s h Columbia see B r i j L a i , "East Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1904-1914: An h i s t o r i c a l Study i n Growth and Integration," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 76. 41. Sushil Kumar Jain, East Indians i n Canada, The Hague: Research Group for European Migration Problems, Supplement 9, June 1971, p. 4. 42. From A.S. Monroe to W.O. Scott, (ca. 1911) Immigration Branch, Vol. 384 part 4, P.A.C, Quoted i n B r i j L a i , op. c i t . , pp. 114-114. 43. Quoted i n B r i j L a i , op. c i t . , p. 152. 44. Ted Ferguson, A White Man's Country: An  Exercise i n Canadian Prejudice, Toronto: Doubleday Canada Limited, 1975. p. 12. 45. House of Commons Debates, 1923, p. 4648. 46. Western Methodist Recorder, XV, no. I, July 1914, p. 12. Quoted i n , B r i j L a i , op. c i t . , pp. 210-211. 47. Joseph Scanlon, "The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study of the Role of the Media i n Ethnic Relations," UNESCO, 1975, p. 22, c i t e d i n Dave Singh, "Some Factors i n the Relationship Between the Police and East Indians", Unpublished paper, p. 15. 48. Khalsa Diwan Society, "The Religious Philosophy of the Sikhs", Unpublished paper, 19 71, p. 4. 49. For a detailed discussion of the p o l i t i c s of the East Indian community of Vancouver before 1947 see B r i j L a i , op. c i t . , pp. 50-87. ... 44 50. i b i d . , p. 55. 51. i b i d . , pp. 55-56. 52. For an extensive examination of the Ghadr Movement see, Khushwant Singh et a l . , Ghadr  1915: India's F i r s t Armed Revolution, New Delhi: R & K Publishing House, 1966. 53. See Dale C. Thomson, "India and Canada: A Decade of Co-operation 194 7-1957," Internationa1  Studies, Vol. 9, July 1967 - A p r i l 1968, pp. 404-430. 54. Sushil Kumar Jain, op. c i t . , p. 6. 55. i b i d . , p. 7. ... 45 CHAPTER I I . Host-Minority Contact: The Impact of Immigration. In the 1960's, the L i b e r a l government's s h i f t from t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y favouring Anglo-conformity to c u l t u r a l pluralism resulted i n changes i n the regulations governing immigration. No longer were the applicants screened for t h e i r a b i l i t y to adapt s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y to Canadian society. The essential q u a l i f i c a t i o n was t h e i r a b i l i t y to esta b l i s h themselves economically. A l l r e s t r i c t i o n s based on race, r e l i g i o n or country of o r i g i n were removed. In addition, two other major changes i n the Immigration Act took place that had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the number of immigrants entering Canada. The r i g h t to apply for landed immigrant status while i n Canada was reinstated and the Immigration Appeal Board was established. These changes, together with the tightening of im-migration regulations i n other countries such as B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand resulted i n an unprecedented i n -flux of immigrants and an almost complete loss of control by the Canadian au t h o r i t i e s . As Table III i l l u s t r a t e s , .the percentage of immigrants increased enormously from 1967 -1974. And although Toronto surpasses Vancouver as the largest receiving center for immigrants, Vancouver's pro-TABLE III Canada: Immigration. S t a t i s t i c s , 1945-1974 Distribution by Country of Last Permanent Residence Source Area 1946-677 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 % % % % Q . "D o. % % B r i t a i n 26.5 18.4 17. 8 16.0 11.7 14.9 14.6 17.6 Dther Europe 55.9 47.2 36.9 35.2 31.0 27.1 24.4 23.0 Africa 1.0 2.8 2.0 2.0 2.3 6.8 4.5 4.8 Asia 3.9 11.8 14.4 14.3 18.2 19.1 23.4 23.2 Australasia 1.4 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.5 1.2 U.S.A. 6.6 9.3 11.9 14.1 17.0 18.5 13.8 12.1 Other North & Central Americj i 3.2 6.2 10.8 11.5 12.6 7.6 11.2 11.6 South America 1.1 1.5 3.0 3.4 4.2 3.5 6.0 5.7 Oceania and Others 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 TOTALS 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 NUMBERS PER ANNUM: (average! 132,802 183,974 161,531 147,71 3 121,900 122,006 184,200 218,465 Source: Department of Manpower and Immigration: Annual S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. .47 portion of East Indian and other Asian groups remains higher. By a l l accounts Vancouver's Sikh population has more than doubled since 1967 (See Graph I I ) . The e f f e c t of t h i s increase on the relationship between the Sikhs and the host Vancouver community provides the focus for the re-mainder of t h i s thesis. The Sikh Community of Vancouver As has been stated e a r l i e r t h i s section w i l l discuss important factors which influence the reaction of the host society to the Vancouver Sikhs. The increases i n number and concentration of the Sikhs i n Vancouver, the Sikh com-munity's economic make-up, as well as the age and genera-t i o n a l breakdown of the community w i l l be examined. The 1971 census showed that there were 6,615 persons of Indo-Pakistani o r i g i n l i v i n g i n Vancouver and 10,640 l i v i n g i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . However, thi s i s considered to be a gross underenumeration by many l o c a l authorities and by the East Indians themselves. Quite apart from the numbers being suspect, i t i s not clear as to what constitutes an Indo-Pakistani. Does Indo-Pakistani refer to someone who was born i n India or whose parents were born i n India? Of does th i s category include East Indians who come from other parts of the globe, such as F i j i ? With the large number of Ugandan refugees entering Canada since 19 72 i t has also become important to know whether the immigration figures concerning East Indians issued by S t a t i s t i c s Canada and the Department of Manpower and Immigra-t i o n , include immigrants from A f r i c a of East Indian o r i g i n as Indo-Pakistanis. When questioned, o f f i c i a l s of these organizations say ;that they believe that the figures do not include Africans of East Indian o r i g i n i n t h i s category but they can not be sure. Up to 1972, the government figures for East Indians refer primarily to Sikhs. Although according to Immigration o f f i c i a l s , the proportion of Sikhs comprising immigrants from India has dropped i n the l a s t decade, s t i l l about 60% of the immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada from India are from the Punjab. I t i s impossible to state accurately the exact number of Sikhs i n Vancouver but recent trends i n immigration and estimates from various concerned organizations make i t possible to place the number of Sikhs i n Vancouver proper at about 12,000. In the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t there may be as many as 20,000 Sikhs. TABLE IV ProportionalEthnic Group Representation in the G.V.R.D., 1951 - 71. (% of t o t a l population) 1951 1961 1971 B r i t i s h 70.9% Other Europeans... 19.9 French 3.6 Asian 2.4 Others 3.2 62.1% 27.8 3.9 3.2 3.1 58.6% 23.4 3.9 5.6 8.4 Total Population..530,728 790,165 1,028,335 Source: Census Canada, 19 71, Supplied by Vancouver City Hall's Social Planning Department. • • • 50 In the years since the 19 71 GDensus the proportion of Asians has grown even more markedly. Although B.C. now contains a smaller proportion of the t o t a l number of East Indian immigrants than i n the past, i t s t i l l contains the largest concentration i n r e l a t i o n to the host society. The number of East Indians coming to Vancouver has also increased steadily. In addition to the large number of immigrants from India and Pakistan, large increases from F i j i and Uganda raised Vancouver's East Indian population even higher. The o v e r a l l East Indian population of Greater Vancouver i s currently estimated to be about 40,000."'" The immigration of other people of East Indian o r i g i n has •§ajsignificant e f f e c t on the Sikh community's rel a t i o n s with the host society. Canadians who do not favour Asian immigration do not make fine d i s t i n c t i o n s between members of the various groups: they are a l l "Hindus", "Sikhs" or "East Indians" to them, i n the same sense that some members of the host society do not make d i s t i n c t i o n s between any Asian groups. The host society's f a i l u r e to d i s t i n g u i s h the various groups has the e f f e c t of i n t e n s i f y i n g the feelings of threat on the part of the host population. For many, Vancouver has been experiencing an Asian invasion i n the seventies.^ For the most part the Chinese have not been an open target for those opposed to Asian immigration. One possible .51 reason i s that they are much more established i n Vancouver. A large Chinese community has existed i n Vancouver for de-cades and second and t h i r d generation Chinese are well established s o c i a l l y and economically. Over one half of the East Indians on the other hand, have arrived since 1970 and have few t i e s to the host community. The East Indians are not only i d e n t i f i a b l e targets but safe ones as well, for there can be l i t t l e economic or p o l i t i c a l r e t a l i a t i o n from a minority, not well established i n the host society. The actual number of East Indians entering Vancouver i s not as c r u c i a l i n t h e i r r elations with the host community as i s the concentration of East Indians i n s p e c i f i c geogra-ph i c a l areas. This observation i s substantiated by i n t e r -views with the mayor and aldermen of Vancouver. Former Vancouver Mayor, Art P h i l l i p s , stated that the sudden change in the ethnic and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 'of certain neigh-bourhoods caused by the settlement of East Indians into concentrated areas was one of the major causes of r a c i a l tensions i n Vancouver from 1973 to 1975. By 1959, Vancouver's East Indians were concentrated i n two main areas. The f i r s t and older Vancouver settlement was i n the Fairview-Mount Pleasant area. Newer immigrants tended to s e t t l e i n the Sunset and Victoria-Fraserview area of South Vancouver. The trend of settlement i n the South Vancouver area has continued due to the proximity of the m i l l s and lumber yards of the Fraser River, where many 4 of the Sikhs work. Presently, the proximity of the Khalsa Diwan Temple i s also a factor influencing settlement of 5 new immigrants. The settlement pattern of the Sikhs has not been consistent enough to produce a ghetto-like i s o -l a t i o n from the rest of the population. Nevertheless, the trend has been strong enough to make a section of the c i t y e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as "heavily East Indian". This area provides new East Indian immigrants with a section of the c i t y which can s a t i s f y a l l t h e i r s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic needs, thus l i m i t i n g the necessity f o r contact outside the s p e c i f i c area. The 1971 Census and the 1976 summer survey indicate that while many of the new immigrants from the Punjab have shown a tendency to move to the south of Vancouver, the established Sikhs have started to move to other areas of the c i t y . The expansion of the established Sikh community to other areas of the c i t y such as Shaughnessy and Renfrew-Collingwood as well as to the suburbs of Surrey, Delta and Richmond r e f l e c t s t h e i r growing occupational and economic d i v e r s i t y . I t also underlines the occupational and economic gaps a r i s i n g between old and new immigrants. These gaps have important consequences for the unity of the Sikh community. Since 1971, there have been indications that the new East Indian immigrants have proven to be at y p i c a l when com-* • • 33 pared to immigrants from other countries. In 1974, the authors of the Green Paper summarized recent immigration i n part by noting that more immigrants were s e t t l i n g i n B.C. with i d e n t i f i a b l e occupational trends: "-the continuing strong growth i n the propor-t i o n of the managerial and professional category;" "-the sharp declines since the 1950's i n the labouring, service and recreation (blue-co l l a r ) categories;" "-the gradual s h i f t from b l u e - c o l l a r to white-c o l l a r occupations." During the past decade, East Indians have been entering the Canadian labour force i n increasing numbers, esp e c i a l l y since 1972. However, as Table V i l l u s t r a t e s , the proportion of East Indians entering the labour force as white-collar workers has f a l l e n markedly. Of the Sikhs interviewed that had arrived within the l a s t decade, 70.37% were employed i n b l u e - c o l l a r jobs. Of those, 50.8% were employed i n un-s k i l l e d manual labour, while 18.52% were involved i n s k i l l e d manual labour. While these percentages are higher than those provided by the Immigration Department, the trend i s the same. The difference may be explained i n part by the fact that some immigrants are unable to obtain a job i n the f i e l d i n which they were trained before immigrating. The East Indian community's occupational make-up has important consequences for t h e i r r elations with the host society. The concentration of the East Indian immigrants • • • "54 TABLE V Intended Occupations of Immigrant East Indians and Chinese, 1968-74: Number and (Percentage). Key: Column A "White C o l l a r " (Professional, administrative, managerial, a r t i s t i c , commercial, c l e r i c a l and sales workers). Column B "Blue C o l l a r " (Service, construction, a g r i -c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , processing, and other labourers). Column C Total Destined to Labour Force Column D Total Not Destined (Immediately) to Labour Force. Column E Grand Total Immigrants. COUNTRY A B C D E 1968 1. India 1,033 (78) 285 (22) ; 1,318 (41) 1,911 (59) 3,229 2.China 2,085 (76) 661 (24) 2,746 (33) 5,636 (67) 8,382 1969 I. India 1,958 (74) 673 (26); 2,631 2,764 (51) 5,395 2. China 2,032 (62.) 3,259 (39) 5,013 (61) 8,272 1970 1.India 1,557 (61.) 1,009 (39) 2,566 (45) 3,104 (55) 5,670 2.China 1,370 (63) 802 (37) 2,172 (40) 3,205 (60) 5,377 1971 1.India 1,328 (50) 1,313 (50) 2,641 (50) 2,672 (50) 5,313 2.China 1,397 (62) 870 (38) 2,267 (45) 2,742 (55) 5,009 19 72 1.India 1,220 (55) 995 (45) 2,215 (44) 2,834 (56) 5,049 2 .China 1,673 (61) 1,081 (39) 2,754 (44) 3,543 (56) 6,297 1973 1.India 2,164 (44) 2,802 (56.) 4,966 (54) 4,237 (46) 9,203 2.China 2,634 (54) 2,282 (46^ 4,916 (34) 9,746 (66) 14,662 • • • 55 Table V- ( contd) COUNTRY A B C D : E 1974 1.India 2.China TOTAL IS 1,717 (30) 2,673 (56) 69-19 74 3,930 (70) 2,093 (44) 11,007 (50) 6,326 (40) 21,224 (51) 1 £,647 (44) ;4,766 (38) 21,984 (47) L4,703 (38) 42,297 (45) :7,221!(56) 7,938 i (62) 24,743•(53) 23,969;(62) 51,462:(55) 12,868 12,704 46,727 38,672 93,759 1. India 2 .China 3. Total Asia 10,977 (50) 8,377 (60) 20,873 (49) Source: Immigration S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa: Information Canada, 1969-1974. . . . 56 into one area of employment, the b l u e - c o l l a r occupations, i n t e n s i f i e s the economic threat perceived by the host due to the immigrants' competition for jobs. The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sikh community may also explain much of the host community's h o s t i l i t y based on economic f r u s t r a t i o n s . Nearly 50% of the East Indians i n Vancouver belong to the "most employable" age bracket of 20 - 44 years. Thus, nearly half of the East Indian popu-l a t i o n finds i t s e l f i n d i r e c t competition with the white community for jobs. This f a c t , combined with Canada's economic troubles, may account for some of the problems that the minority has i n i t s r e l a t i o n s with the host com-munity. TABLE VI Vancouver C i t y : Age Distribution: Among Selected Asian Origins (1) by ethnic group and (2) by mother tonque spoken; 1971 7 Number and (%) Ages Chinese East Indians (1) Ethnic Groups 0 - 1 9 . 14,245 (39) 4,450 (42) 20 - 44 13,520 (37) 5,225 (49) 45 - 64 5,800 (15) 815 (8) 65 plus 3,340 (9) 150 (lj Totals 36,405 (100) 10,640 (100) (2) Mother Tongues: Chinese Indo-Pakistani 0 - 19 10,135 (35) 2,750 (38) 20 - 44 11,185 (39) 3,755 (52) 44 - 64 4,435 (15) 600 (8) 65 plus 3,225 (11) 130 (2) Totals 28,985 (100) 7,230 (100) Source: Census Canada, 1971. Supplied by Vancouver City Hall's Social Planning Department. .57 Another factor influencing the acceptance of an ethnic minority by the host group i s the extent to which the minority i s f i r s t generation or succeeding generational. The i s o l a t i o n of an.ethnic group i s d i f f i c u l t to maintain as succeeding generations grow up and come i n contact with primary agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n such as the host society's schools and t h e i r playgrounds. They learn to speak English well, and are exposed to western ideas and customs. The western economic attitudes are introduced i n the school and reinforced i n the home, for according to our survey over 70% of the Sikhs interviewed immigrated to Canada for economic reasons. This s i t u a t i o n encourages at least some degree of conformity with western standards of behavior. The r e s u l t i s that through these children the contacts with the host community increase and acculturation begins. In-herent i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s the p o t e n t i a l clash of values of the old and new systems. This clash i s at the root of many of the family problems i n Sikh homes and indeed i s the cause of the d i v i s i o n within the community i t s e l f . TABLE VII Vancouver City, Selected Asian Origins, 1971 Total China/India born % Balance % Chinese ethnic ori g i n s . 30,780 15,065 (51.0) 15,715 (49.) East Indian ethnic origins 6,615 3,925 (59.3) 2,690 (40.7) Source: Census Canada, 1971, Supplied by Vancouver City Hall's Social Planning Department. .58 Table VII shows that the East Indian community of Vancouver has a s i g n i f i c a n t number of f i r s t generationals compared with Canadian born. Since the new immigration has increased the size of the Sikh population so drama-t i c a l l y , a r i s e i n the number of f i r s t generationals should be expected, '.probably i n the order of 80%. The P u l l of the Sikh Community on the immigrants The pattern of contacts made i n the new country which determines the community into which the Immigrant assimilates i s influenced by two main factors, the immigrant's motiva-tion for immigrating to a p a r t i c u l a r location and the i n s t i t u t i o n s that are set up by the various communities to a t t r a c t the immigrant. Although the majority of Sikhs immigrated to Canada for economic reasons, the p r i n c i p a l reason for s e t t l i n g i n Vancouver was to j o i n family or friends. In fact over 90% of the Sikhs interviewed stated that they had come to Vancouver for that reason. I t i s not surprising then that upon .their a r r i v a l 66.67% stayed with family and an additional 18.52% stayed with friends. As a r e s u l t of making f i r s t contact with family or friends, the new immigrants tend to follow the pattern of adaptation to Canadian l i f e that i s set by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . This i n turn tends to reinforce the ex i s t i n g attitudes towards ;teheir own and the host community, for t h i s pattern i s based on • • • 59 a n d t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e b i a s o f h i s f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s . A r e s u l t o f making f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h a r e l a t i v e o r f r i e n d i s t h a t i t m i n i m i z e s t h e r o l e t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n any o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l p l a y . The f a m i l y becomes a s u b s t i t u t e i n s t i t u t i o n . F o r example, among s u r v e y e d i m -m i g r a n t s r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e o f any k i n d .upon a r r i v a l i n Canada, 87% r e c e i v e d i t f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s . F u n c t i o n s t h a t u s e d t o be c a r r i e d o u t by t h e t e m p l e o r g o v ernment i n s t i t u -t i o n s a r e now more l i k e l y t o be c a r r i e d o u t by t h e f a m i l y . Of t h e new i m m i g r a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d 37% s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t made c o n t a c t w i t h any o f t h e i r e t h n i c community i n s t i t u -t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no c o m p a r a b l e f i g u r e s f o r e a r l i e r d e c a d e s , l e a d e r s f r o m t h e S i k h community f e e l t h a t t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s a g r e a t d r o p i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e 5 e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . E v e n so t h e t e m p l e i s s t i l l t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u -t i o n i n t h e S i k h community. Y e t i t s f u n c t i o n s t o o have been r e d u c e d o v e r t h e p a s t d e c a d e . I t u s e d t o a c t as t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s c e n t e r o f t h e community. O t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community now p e r f o r m some o f t h o s e f u n c t i o n s . W i t h t h e i n f l u x o f E a s t I n d i a n im-" . m i g r a n t s i t has now become p r o f i t a b l e f o r S i k h b u s i n e s s m e n t o s p o n s o r many s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s i n t h e h o s t community. Ten y e a r s ago i n V a n c o u v e r t h e r e was o n l y one w e e k l y s h o w i n g o f P u n j a b i f i l m s . T h e r e a r e now a t l e a s t f i v e t h e a t r e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a s h o w i n g f i l m s i n P u n j a b i .60. r e g u l a r l y - t h e R a j , The R e a l , t h e Y o r k , t h e O l y m p i a and t h e M e t r o . T h e r e i s a l s o a g r o w i n g number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a t h a t c a t e r t o t h e S i k h r e a d e r s h i p . Two o f t h e s e , t h e L o k t a and t h e Watno P u r p u b l i s h e x c l u s i v e l y i n P u n j a b i and a r e c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h t h e l o c a l comrrmnity and P u n j a b i l i t e r a t u r e . S i k h Samarchar p u b l i s h e s i n b o t h P u n j a b i and E n g l i s h and i s p r i m a r i l y a r e l i g i o u s m a g a z i n e s p o n s o r e d by t h e Gurdwara S o c i e t y . The o t h e r t h r e e - t h e P a r i v e r t a n , t h e R a n j e e t a n d t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n M a g a z i n e pub-l i s h i n E n g l i s h and a r e c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h news f r o m I n d i a . T h i s f a c t h a s t e l l i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e S i k h s i n C a n a d a . The n e wspapers as w e l l as t h e g r o w t h o f l o c a l r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n shows d i r e c t e d a t t h e S i k h a u d i e n c e h e l p s t o i n s t i l l and r e i n f o r c e a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y w i t h i n t h e community. T h i s s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e S i k h community i s a l s o r e i n f o r c e d a t t h e temples,: n o t j u s t by t h e r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s b u t a l s o i n t h e P u n j a b i l e s s o n s g i v e n t h e r e . T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s e x e r t tremendous p r e s s u r e on t h e i m m i g r a n t t o m a i n t a i n h i s t i e s w i t h t h e e t h n i c community. The i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f t h e S i k h s a r e e x t e n s i v e enough t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h o s e o f t h e h o s t community i n t h e a r e a s o f r e l i g i o n , e n t e r -t a i n m e n t and i n f o r m a t i o n . Of t h e S i k h s i n t e r v i e w e d , 62% had made c o n t a c t w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r own e t h n i c com-munity, 41% made contact to f u l f i l l more than one need. That i s , they looked to the ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s to f u l f i l l more than just a r e l i g i o u s or s o c i a l need but a combination of many needs. This figure suggests the l i k e l i h o o d of i s o -l a t i o n from the host community. The greater the substitu-tion of /services i n the ethnic community the less l i k e l y contact with the host community becomes. The fact that 41% of the Sikh population looks to th e i r ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s to f u l f i l l more than a single need i s f e l t to be a surprising drop by leaders of the Sikh com-7 munity. According to them, the figure would have been much higher i n the 195 0's and 1960's, but now many Sikhs' needs are being f u l f i l l e d elsewhere. As the survey revealed part of thi s need i s being met by the families of the new immigrants but s i g n i f i c a n t l y part of the need i s being met by the host community. As the more established immigrants s e t t l e and the second generation comes of age, they have a tendency to increase t h e i r contacts with the host society. They no longer need the security of t h e i r own community. As t h e i r needs i n the ethnic community decrease, t h e i r community's p u l l on them decreases as well. •62 The Response of the Host Community The host community responds to the new immigrants on two l e v e l s . The primary l e v e l i s the in d i v i d u a l response of members of the host community. The secondary l e v e l i s the governmental response. I f , on the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the attitudes and responses are discriminatory, the immigrant i s , o f course,more l i k e l y to avoid i n t e r a c t i o n . The govern-ment's response may, as was the case with the Sikhs before 19 47, reinforce the minority's i s o l a t i o n . On the other hand, the government may try to lessen the differences between the groups by encouraging i n t e r a c t i o n through i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . To establish i n t e r a c t i o n , however, t h i s en-couragement must be active and involve the East Indians not only economically but s o c i a l l y , . c u l t u r a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y as well. George C. Homans has pointed out that i n those situations where a state of i s o l a t i o n has developed, both minority and majority members of society w i l l choose to remain i s o l a t e d unless substantial encouragement or rewards 9 i s afforded by one of the groups. Homans' statement seems applicable to Vancouver's Sikhs. In t h e i r case i t was not enough for the government to simply remove a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s on minority p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t did i n 1948, for the pre-cedent of non-participation had been established for f i v e decades. There are few studies available that are concerned •63 d i r e c t l y with Canadian attitudes towards East Indians. How-ever, there are several indicators that suggest that the host society has an unfavourable o v e r a l l attitude. Although not concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with East Indians, i t i s im-portant to note that nation-wide Gallup P o l l s indicate a drop i n the number of people i n favour of immigration be-tween 1965 and 1975. "The promotional view of immigration has f a l l e n for a l l educational lev e l s and i s now supported by only 10% of the adult population. In contrast a r e s t r i c -t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n i s now supported by 39% compared with only 7% in.1965." 1 0 As Table VIII indicates, attitudes tend to be less favourable the lower the respondents' l e v e l of education and occupation. The p r i n c i p a l reason i s that "lower income groups, u n s k i l l e d occupational positions, (and) uneducated persons (are) a l l more vulnerable to unemployment problems than those on the opposite end of each continuum." x x This tendency has important consequences f o r the Sikhs' relationship with the host society, f o r as already pointed out, the highest concentration of Sikhs i s to be found i n bl u e - c o l l a r occupation. Thus, the majority of Sikhs are employed i n jobs where the general attitudes of t h e i r Canadian co-workers towards immigration i s negative. This attitude i s not l i k e l y to encourage s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the groups. .64 TABLE VIII Canadian Attitudes to Immigration by Education 196 5 and 19 75 Surveys Compared Education Low Average High Total % % % % % % % % Attitude to Immigration 1965 1975 1965 1975 1965 1975 1965 1975 Promotional 14 7 25 8 36 21 22 10 Maintain Status Quo 73 52 70 53 62 44 71 51 R e s t r i c t i o n i s t 13 41 5 39 2 35 7 39 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Source: Anthony H. Richmond, "The Green Paper - Reflections on the Canadian Immigration and Population Study, "Canadian  Ethnic Studies, Vol. V i i , 1975, p. 11 Studies have also been carried out i n schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia on students' attitudes towards East Indians. The responses show a d e f i n i t e pattern of discrimination. For example, when grade eight and eleven students were asked whether "there should be a law to prevent a church being b u i l t i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area", 22.5% responded af-firmatively i f the church was Anglican, 33.3% said "yes" i f the church was Jehovah Witness, while over 47% responded i n the affirmative i f the church was "Hindu". When asked i f a l l q u a l i f i e d teachers applying for jobs i n the school system should be given equal opportunity, the responses again discriminated against East Indians. Over 91% of the respondents f e l t there should be equal opportunity given to a l l graduates, while only 62.34% f e l t that equal opportunity should include immigrants, and thi s percentage dropped to 65 58.8% when considering East Indian applicants. These attitudes were prevalent not only i n areas of r e l i g i o n and employment but extended to questions about the use of public f a c i l i t i e s as well. When asked i f the manager of a public f a c i l i t y should be allowed to r e s t r i c t the time certa i n groups were permitted to use the f a c i l i t i e s , 19.5% agreed that he should be able to i n the case of women, 25.0% agreed i n the case of teenagers and over 31% agreed with 12 the r i g h t to make r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the case of East Indians. * In each case the East Indians were discriminated against more than other groups. The East Indians are also discriminated against more than other Asian groups. In a survey conducted i n the Richmond school system, grade f i v e , s i x and seven students were asked to compare the Japanese with the East Indians. Both ethnic groups l i v e i n Richmond i n large numbers, with the Japanese having a larger concentration. The children marked the degree to which they f e l t each group was good-bad, beautiful-ugly, sweet-sour, clean-dirty, kind-cruel, nice-awful, honest-dishonest, and f a i r - u n f a i r . In every category 13 the East Indians compared unfavourably with the Japanese. Both surveys indicate that the East Indians are held i n low esteem by the school children interviewed. The extent to which these attitudes are a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r parents' i s debatable but the trend i s not. East Indians are per-ceived negatively by many members of the host society. ... 66 Another indicator of the negative reaction of the host society towards East Indians i s found i n the Vancouver newspapers. (See Appendix I ) . For t h i s discussion i t i s not es s e n t i a l to discuss the extent to which the newspapers create or report the host community's negative reactions. It i s important however, to note that i n analyzing the con-tent of the Vancouver newspapers from t h e i r post-1946 f i l e s , there has been a decline i n items which can be categorized as "positive" towards the East Indians, while "negative" a r t i c l e s have increased sharply. The relationship between the East Indians and the host society has increasingly been characterized as h o s t i l e . The r i s e i n the t o t a l number of a r t i c l e s pertaining to the East Indian could also i n d i -cate a growing awareness of the East Indians by the host community. Another indicator of the worsening rela t i o n s h i p be-tween the East Indians and host society was the increase of r a c i a l incidents i n the south of Vancouver between 1972 14 and 1975. Although i t i s impossible to determine the ex-act number of and motivation for the incidents, the problem was serious enough to prompt the municipal government to 15 introduce a new system of p o l i c i n g f o r the area i n 1973. A forerunner of the "team p o l i c i n g " concept was i n i t i a t e d . x ( Under i t a group of twenty-five o f f i c e r s are assigned to patr o l a p a r t i c u l a r area of the c i t y . In that way, the • • • 63 o f f i c e r s become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e a r e a and t h e r e s i d e n t s become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o f f i c e r s . T h i s ap-p r o a c h has p r o v e n t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n r e d u c i n g t e n s i o n s i n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . A l t h o u g h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be c o n c l u s i v e a b o u t t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n s , t h e s u r -v e y s , n e wspapers and t h e need o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f "team p o l i c i n g " s u g g e s t an o v e r a l l n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e . The n e g a -t i v e r e s p o n s e and i n c r e a s e d c o v e r a g e i n t h e n e wspapers n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e s a r i s e i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n s , b u t may a l s o be an i n d i c a t o r o f i n c r e a s e d E a s t I n d i a n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f g o v ernment d i d l i t t l e t o e n c o u r a g e c u l t u r a l o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between m i n o r i t i e s and t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . However, w i t h t h e s u r g e o f n o n - w h i t e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o V a n c o u v e r i n t h e 1970's and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n f r o m many members o f t h e h o s t community, t h e m u n i c i p a l g o vernment was f o r c e d t o a c t . The i n c r e a s e o f E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s w i t h no c o n c u r r e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e i r e t h n i c community f o r c e d many o f t h e new i m m i g r a n t s i n t o s e e k i n g o u t g o v e r n -ment i n s t i t u t i o n s t o h e l p them s e t t l e i n and a d a p t t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . To t h i s e n d , t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s i n i t i a t e d a number o f p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s between t h e S i k h s and h o s t community. A l t h o u g h t h e p r o g r a m s a r e i n p a r t s p o n s o r e d by t h e f e d e r a l •68 and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e i m p e t u s has come f r o m t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . The g o a l o f many o f t h e p r o g r a m s has b e e n t o i n t r o d u c e E a s t I n d i a n s t o C a n a d i a n ways o f l i v i n g a nd t h e r e b y a i d i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e p r o g r a m s a r e a l -most e n t i r e l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e E a s t I n d i a n community. T h e r e have been few a t t e m p t s by any l e v e l o f government t o f a c i l i t a t e a change i n a t t i t u d e s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . The a i m i s t h a t t h e E a s t I n d i a n community w i l l c h a n g e , o r t o some e x t e n t a d j u s t t o Canada. The most s u c c e s s f u l o f t h e government s p o n s o r e d p o r -grams i n V a n c o u v e r h a s b e e n t h e Imm i g r a n t S e r v i c e s C e n t r e on M a i n S t r e e t i n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s a p r i m a r y l i n k w i t h t h e h o s t community's o t h e r s e r v i c e s . I t was d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i m m i g r a n t t o make c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t community. The c e n t r e p r o v i d e s E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s , t r a n s l a t i o n , h e a l t h and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r -v i c e s . One o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s i s t o p r o v i d e "a c o m p r e h e n s i v e . 17 p r o g r a m o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o C a n a d i a n l i f e " f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t . I t e n c o u r a g e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t m o t h e r s and c h i l -d r e n w i t h C a n a d i a n s i n o r d e r t o promote b e t t e r c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e c e n t r e ' s a c t i v i t i e s g o e s p a s t t h e s e r v i c e s t a g e t o " i n c l u d e c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e e l u s i v e and i n t a n g i b l e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e s 18 t h e i m m i g r a n t i s e x p e c t e d t o make." .69 The centre has been designed mainly to encourage contacts between the East Indian and host community by way of government services. The rate of increase i n con-tacts made with the centre has been s t a r t l i n g i n the past year. In 1975, the centre aided 2,921 immigrants, while i n 1976, the figure increased 70% to 5,104. Of those making contact with the centre i n 19 76, 84% or 4,3 28 were East Indian, and according to the workers at the centre most were Sikhs. These figures not only i l l u s t r a t e the increasing contacts made between the Sikhs and host com-munity but go some'..-way i n accounting for the decline i n the contacts made with t h e i r own .ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Other programs financed by the three lev e l s of govern-ment and under the guidance of the Social Planning Depart-ment of the c i t y have s i m i l a r goals. The Sunset community school has a program designed to encourage s o c i a l i n t e r -action between the East Indians and the host society. I t encourages the immigrant and host communities to improve communication and helps the immigrant to "develop p o s i t i v e 19 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " Although,, the project report does not elaborate on i t s goal to "develop p o s i t i v e characteris-; t i c s " , taken i n the context of the report i t becomes ob-vious that the reference i s to adaptation 'of- the immigrant to acceptable s o c i a l norms of behavior. The Vancouver School Board sponsors classes taught i n Punjabi at .. 7° M o b e r l y S c h o o l where t h e i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n a r e i n t r o -d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e i r m o t h e r t o n g u e t o t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and t o C a n a d i a n customs as w e l l . S i m i l a r p r o g r a m s o f c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e g o i n g on t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . Many o f t h e pr o g r a m s i n i t i a t e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v ernment a r e d e s i g n e d t o change t h o s e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s t h a t p r o v e t o be most i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h C a n a d i a n s t a n d a r d s . T h i s i s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m . Under i t t h e government b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l g r o u p s s h o u l d be e n -c o u r a g e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The m u n i c i -p a l government however, i s a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g t o l e s s e n t h e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e p e a c e f u l r e l a - . t i o n s between t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and i m m i g r a n t m i n o r i t i e s . The m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s i m m i g r a n t - o r i e n t e d p r o -grams seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e government r e c o g n i z e s t h e need t o a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e t h e m i n o r i t y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . T h i s i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d by t h e E q u a l Employ-ment O p p o r t u n i t y P r o g r a m c u r r e n t l y b e i n g d e b a t e d a t V a n c o u v e r C i t y H a l l . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t a r e b e i n g a t t a c k e d , t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r t h e need t o a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t m i n o r i t i e s f o r employment p o s i -21 t i o n , i s a g r e e d upon by a l l . I n t h e p a s t , p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f e q u a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m i n o r i t i e s has not been adequate i n assuring t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c i v i c government, t h e r e f o r e aggressive encouragement i s now needed. The s t a t i s t i c s of the Immigrant Services Centre, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s i m i l a r programs i n the c i t y , combined w i t h the drop i n the Sikhs', contact w i t h t h e i r own i n s t i -t u t i o n s suggest an i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h the host community. This increased i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s that the s o c i a l c u l t u r a l and economic i s o l a t i o n of a small but i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of the Sikh community i s breaking down. CHAPTER II - FOOTNOTES 1. Interview with Harold Winch, June 12, 19 76; Interview with Lorna Ashley, July 8, 1976; Interview with Kehar Sekhon, August 3, 1977. 2. "Vancouver's Asian Invasion", Immigration Panel Discussion, C.K.V.U. Television, October, 1976. 3. Interview with Art P h i l l i p s , July 26, 1977. 4. Interview with Jack Uppal, August 18, 1977. 5. Interview with Gurdit Singh, July 20, 1977. 6. Interview Interview with with Kesar Singh Bhatti, Sadhu Singh Dhaesi, July, 1977; August 6, 19 77 7. i b i d . 8. Interview with Lorna Ashley, July 8, 1976. 9. George C. Homans, Soc i a l Behavior: Its Elementary Forms, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961, pp. 373-377. 10. Anthony Richmond, "Green Paper: Reflections," Canadian Ethnic Studies, A p r i l , 1975, p. 10. 11. Nancy Tienhaara, op_. c i t . , p. 31. 12. B r i t i s h Columbia C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Association, Unpublished Survey, 1977. 13. Jack Kehoe, "Elementary School Children's Attitudes Towards East Indian and Japanese i n Richmond, B.C.", Unpublished Survey, 19 76. 14. For example see Vancouver Province, "A Matter of Shame for the Vancouver Community", October 21, 19 74, p. 4., Vancouver Province, "East Indian Says White Shot at Him", October 29, 19 74, p. 27; Vancouver Sun, "Paradise a.Hell for (Sikh) Family." February 26, 1975, p. 5., Vancouver Sun, "Vancouver Grapples with Racial Tension", November 23, 1974, p. 23. 73 15. For a discussion of the incidents of crime that took place i n South Vancouver see, David Singh, "Some Factors i n the Relationship Between the Police and East Indians", Unpublished Report, 1975. 16. Interview with Art P h i l l i p s , July 26, 1977. 17. Interview with Doug Purdy, S o c i a l Planning Department of Vancouver, July 28, 19 77. 18. Annual Report of the Immigrant Services Centre, Unpublished, 1976, p. 13. 19. Sunset Community School; Program Report, Unpublished, 1976, p. 2. 20. "Women, Racial Minorities and the Phys i c a l l y Handicapped i n the C i v i c Workforce", A Report Prepared for the Equal Employment Opportunity Committee of the Vancouver City Council, Unpublished, 19 77. 21. Interview with Darlene Marzari, August 5, 1977, Interview with F r i t z Bowers, August 10, 1977. 74 CHAPTER I I I . V a n c o u v e r S i k h P o l i t i c s ; I n t e r n a l D i v i s i o n s arid E x t e r n a l  R e l a t i o n s . As C h a p t e r I I e x p l a i n s , t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c b a r r i e r s between t h e S i k h s and t h e h o s t s o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r a r e b r e a k i n g down. C h a p t e r I I I d i s c u s s e s t h e i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s o f t h e S i k h community and i t s e f f e c t on t h e S i k h s ' p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e S i k h s ' p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y , t h e e m p h a s i s w i l l be o n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e community as a w h o l e t h a t a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s o f t h e go v e r n m e n t . Iritr'a-Communa'l P o l i t i c s : The B a s i s o f D i v i s i o n . Members o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , h ave wondered why t h e r e has n o t been more e x t e n s i v e e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e government and s o c i e t y . T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s f o r t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f c o h e s i v e and c o - o r d i n a t e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The f a c t i s t h a t t h e r e a r e p o l i t i c a l r i f t s w i t h i n t h e S i k h community w h i c h p r e v e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t f r o m f o r m i n g and a d v a n c i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e community. R e l i g i o n i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t a r o u n d w h i c h b o t h t h e u n i t y • • • 75 and d i v i s i o n s o f t h e community r e v o l v e . T h e i r r e l i g i o n g i v e s t h e S i k h s a common h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e mai n d i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e community i s b a s e d on d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f ;the r e l i g i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i s s u e i s w h e t h e r t o a l l o w t h o s e S i k h s who do n o t a d h e r e t o t h e f i v e K a k k a s , p a t t i t S i k h s , t o be on t h e management committee o f t h e t e m p l e . T h i s i s s u e t a k e s many f o r m s w i t h -i n t h e community b u t e s s e n t i a l l y i t i s a d i v i s i o n between t h e o r t h o d o x and u n o r t h o d o x S i k h s . I t i s a d i v i s i o n t h a t has . d i v i d e d t h e community a t l e a s t s i n c e 1952. Of c o u r s e , t h e r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e S i k h com-m u n i t y has s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . F o r t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p t h e r e i s o n l y one way " t o be a S i k h " and t h a t i s t o f o l l o w a l l t h e t e n e t s o f S i k h i s m , T h e r e i s no room o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r compromise; I n o r d e r t o r e m a i n r e l i g i o u s l y p u r e , t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o m a i n t a i n i t s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . I t w h o l l y s u p p o r t s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f ' m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , f o r u n d e r i t t h e S i k h s a r e a s s u r e d , t h a t t h e y w i l l be a l l o w e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h o u t government i n t e r f e r e n c e . The u n o r t h o d o x g r o u p on t h e o t h e r hand, f a v o u r s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . T h i s g r o u p does n o t want t o s a c r i f i c e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f S i k h i s m b u t does f e e l t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o do away w i t h some of t h e " r i t u a l i s t i c 2 t r a d i t i o n s " w h i c h s e t them a p a r t f r o m C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . • • • $6 T h e r e i n l i e s t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e : t o what e x t e n t s h o u l d t h e community do away w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s t h a t make them s t a n d o u t i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y ? T h e r e a r e a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e members o f t h e S i k h community i n c h o o s i n g w h e t h e r t o f o l l o w t h e l e a d o f o r t h o d o x o r u n o r t h o d o x l e a d e r s h i p . The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f e a c h g r o u p show t h a t t h e two most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a r e t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e S i k h a r r i v e d i n Canada, and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e S i k h i s e c o n o m i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e h o s t community. When t h e i s o l a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f t h e e a r l y d a y s i s c o n s i d e r e d i t i s : • n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t t h e p i o n e e r S i k h s s u p p o r t t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p . T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been one o f e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and t h e i r d e -s i r e t o p r e s e r v e t h e S i k h t r a d i t i o n s . The most r e c e n t S i k h i m m i g r a n t s have a l s o been, d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . I n a d d i -t i o n , new a r r i v a l s h a v e n o t h a d enough c o n t a c t w i t h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y t o e n c o u r a g e t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s t o C a n a d i a n norms. The u n o r t h o d o x g r o u p i s p r i m a r i l y s u p p o r t e d by t h o s e S i k h s who a r r i v e d i n t h e s e c o n d p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n . T h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y was a l s o p r i m a r i l y e c o -nomic and on t h e w h o l e t h e y were n o t t r e a t e d b a d l y . They, more t h a n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s o f i m m i g r a n t s , a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and have t h e most t o l o s e f r o m p o o r r e -l a t i o n s w i t h i t . Thus, t h e y e n c o u r a g e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h .77 the host s o c i e t y i n order to b e t t e r the S i k h community's 4 r e l a t i o n s . The orthodox group on the other hand, does not have the same extent of s o c i a l and economic i n t e r e s t s i n Canada and are more concerned w i t h Sikhism than t h e i r 5 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the host s o c i e t y . The d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the Sikh community most o f t e n manifests i t s e l f i n the p o l i t i c s of the temples. Being the center of community l i f e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the str u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l of the temple i s the focus of p o l i t i -c a l a c t i o n . The f i r s t open, d i v i s i o n among the Sikhs i n Vancouver occurred i n 1952. The i s s u e centered on the acceptance of the candidacy of p a t t i t Sikhs f o r e l e c t i o n to the managing committee of the Khalsa Diwan Temple. Many of the o l d e r immigrants d i d not approve of a l l o w i n g such persons to run f o r o f f i c e i n the temple. Younger immigrants and some second generation Sikhs favoured p e r m i t t i n g p a t t i t Sikhs to be considered f o r candidacy. Up to tha t p o i n t , the temple committee had i n v a r i a b l y been c o n t r o l l e d by the o l d e r orthodox members of the temple. The younger immigrants and Canadian born Sikhs wanted to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the management of the temple, but were at f i r s t refused because many of them had dispensed w i t h t h e i r beard and turban. The younger Sikhs c a r r i e d the vote and e s t a b l i s h e d the precedent of p e r m i t t i n g p a t t i t Sikhs t o run f o r o f f i c e i n the temple. Some of those Sikhs who:, f e l t t h a t t h i s was s a c r i l e g i o u s and contrary to Si k h i d e a l s broke away from the • • • 78 Khalsa Diwan Soc i e t y to form t h e i r own temple, the A k a l i Singh Temple on Eleventh Avenue. Other orthodox mem-bers of the community remained a t Khalsa Diwan to continue the f i g h t . The d i v i s i o n w i t h i n :the community was opened and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . This event not only r e f l e c t e d the r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the community but a l s o the d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o -wards a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . The younger Sikhs saw no t h r e a t i n doing away w i t h what they f e l t were un-necessary and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l t r a d i t i o n s , w h i l e the o l d e r immigrants f e l t t h a t t h i s was the f i r s t step to l o s i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . A l l respondents agreed t h a t the s i x t i e s were calm years f o r p o l i t i c s w i t h i n the temples, f o r much of the d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the community had ended with.'.the: formation of the A k a l i Singh Temple. The stance of each temple was w e l l known and members of the community attended the temple t h a t s u i t e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f s . New immigrants kept a r r i v i n g i n Canada during the s i x t i e s . Their experiences and background tended to be l i k e those of the other immigrants of the f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s . The membership of the Khalsa Diwan grew w i t h the new immigrant i n f l u x u n t i l t hat temple represented the m a j o r i t y of the Sikh population i n Vancouver. The increased support and use of the temple n e c e s s i t a t e d the b u i l d i n g of a l a r g e r f a c i l i t y . I n 1970, t h e l a r g e s t S i k h t e m p l e o u t -s i d e o f I n d i a was b u i l t on Ross S t r e e t i n t h e s o u t h o f V a n c o u v e r a t an e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f $500,000. T h i s e n t i r e 7 c o s t was met by d o n a t i o n s f r o m t h e S i k h community. S i n c e 19 72, t h e new t e m p l e has b e e n t h e s c e n e o f c o n -f l i c t s and d i s s e n s i o n among t h e membership o f t h e t e m p l e . Once a g a i n t h e s y m b o l i c i s s u e i s r e l i g i o u s . (See A p p e n d i x I I ) . The o r t h o d o x g r o u p f e e l s t h a t a l l t h o s e who e n t e r t h e t e m p l e s h o u l d do so w i t h t h e i r heads c o v e r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e p a t t i t S i k h s s h o u l d n o t be 8 p e r m i t t e d t o s e r v e on t h e management c o m m i t t e e . The u n o r t h o d o x g r o u p f e e l s t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t f o r c e t h e p e o p l e t o c o v e r t h e i r h e a d s , and b e l i e v e s t h a t any S i k h s h o u l d be 9 a l l o w e d t o s e r v e on t h e management c o m m i t t e e . I n t r a - C o m m u n a l . . P o l i t i c s : The S t r u g g l e f o r C o n t r o l Most o f t h e e i g h t e e n S i k h l e a d e r s i n t e r v i e w e d empha-s i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no o f f i c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d o r e l -e c t e d l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e g r o u p s v y i n g f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e K h a l s Diwan's managing c o m m i t t e e . However, when a s k e d t o name t h e most p r o m i n e n t men o f t h e o p p o s i n g g r o u p s , t h e y a d m i t t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r t h a n f o r s p e c i f i c " l e a d e r s may be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . L i k e most r e l i g i o n s S i k h i s m d o e s n o t ~ c o n d o n e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y c u l t s , and e m p h a s i z e s t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l .. .80 i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n f o l l o w i n g t h e man. M o l l a S i n g h and J a g i r S i n g h a r e w i d e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p . B o t h a r e b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s who have been i n Canada f o r n e a r l y t w e n t y y e a r s . I t i s a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e t o p a r t i c i -p a t e i n C a n a d i a n l i f e t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e men s p e a k s E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y . F o r t h e k i n d o f c o n t a c t t h e y have w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y , p r i n c i p a l l y e c o n o m i c , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y . N e i t h e r man was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e i n I n d i a b e f o r e im-m i g r a t i n g t o Canada. They a r e i n v o l v e d now b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and t r a d i t i o n s a r e b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by some t e m p l e members. M o l l a S i n g h , J a g i r S i n g h and o t h e r s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p a s s o c i a t e two p r o m i n e n t men w i t h t h e o p p o s i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , Dr. G u r d e v S i n g h G i l l and K e h a r Sekhon. Dr. G i l l was t h e f i r s t E a s t I n d i a n m e d i c a l d o c -t o r t o g r a d u a t e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Mr. Sekhon i s a t e a c h e r w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . B o t h men a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e h o s t community and '.•: have been a c t i v e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e S i k h community f o r many y e a r s . Many p e o p l e f e e l t h a t w i t h o u t Dr. G i l l t h e Ross S t r e e t t e m p l e w o u l d n e v e r have b e e n b u i l t . He was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i t s p l a n n i n g and f i n a n c i n g . B o t h men i m m i g r a t e d t o Canada i n t h e f i f t i e s and n e i t h e r h a d a b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e P u n j a b . However, b o t h men a r e a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ...81 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The orthodox group i s more organized than the un-orthodox group. Through the Shiromani A k a l i Dal A s s o c i a -t i o n , of which M o l l a Singh i s p r e s i d e n t , the l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v e l y encourages the support of the Sikh community i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e to r e s t o r e " t r u e " Sikh t r a d i t i o n s i n the temple. The open v e r b a l a t t a c k s of the orthodox group on those members of the community who were p a t t i t Sikhs p o l a r i z e d the c o n f l i c t i n t o a power s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l of the temple's managing committee. The f i r s t open s p l i t i n temple membership since 1952 took place i n 1 9 7 3 . T h e dispute arose over the v o t i n g procedure t o be fo l l o w e d i n e l e c t i n g the new management committee. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the vote had been taken by a show of hands but on the day of the e l e c t i o n , January 7, 1973, the temple was very crowded and f i s t f i g h t s broke out between supporters of the opposing groups. The d i s r u p t i o n s and the overcrowded temple made i t impossible to proceed i n an o r d e r l y manner and count the hands. The p r e s i d e n t of the managing committee, Mr. Kernal Singh J o h a l , a supporter of the unorthodox group, declared t h a t the election-would be postponed. The new e l e c t i o n was to be c a r r i e d out according to the r e g i s t e r e d c o n s t i t u t i o n . The orthodox group refused t o p a r t i c i p a t e and e l e c t e d t h e i r own managing committee, w i t h M o l l a Singh as p r e s i d e n t . The temple e l e c t i o n s went ahead on January .82 26, with ths orthodox group refusing to p a r t i c i p a t e . Bakshish Singh Johal was elected president with the sup-port of the unorthodox group. The procedural differences can be stated simply. The orthodox group favours open membership and a show of hands for the voting. The unorthodox group, on the other hand, favours a secret b a l l o t with only those members who have paid a membership fee, as outlined i n the constitution, J; being permitted to vote. Although the r e s t r i c t i o n placed on those persons who had not paid a membership fee had also been enforced i n 1952 and 1953, i t had not been i n e f f e c t since that time. Several incidents occurred at the temple i n 1973 that prompted the Vancouver City Police to enter into the d i s -pute. They arbitrated several meetings between the two groups i n the hopes of finding a compromise to the voting procedure problem. l x Several meetings took place but no compromise was reached. However, i n the 1974 el e c t i o n no r e s t r i c t i o n s were placed on non-paying members and a--secret b a l l o t was not used. For the sake of the unity of the Sikh community a com-promise candidate was elected president. Gurdial Singh Neel was acceptable to the orthodox group because he had re-cently arrived from India and followed a l l the Sikh tenets. He was acceptable to the unorthodox group because he was a respected man of learning. ...83 C o n f l i c t at the Khalsa Diwan Society again erupted i n A p r i l of 19 74 when Harbhajan Yogi, the self-proclaimed leader of Sikhism i n North America, came to v i s i t the Sikh temple from Los Angeles. He was shocked that members were allowed to enter the temple without t h e i r heads being covered and claimed that he and his followers would force them to do so. Fighting ensued and p o l a r i z a t i o n of the temple membership increased. During t h i s time a t h i r d group entered the p o l i t i c s of the community. The Maoists under the leadership of Hardial Bains supported the orthodox point of view. Their sole purpose was to gain a foothold i n the community. Their methods were v i o l e n t . Members of both the unorthodox and orthodox groups agree that the communists were the cause of many of the vi o l e n t confrontations that followed i n 1975. In 19 75, the el e c t i o n for the management committee again took place, without secret b a l l o t or r e s t r i c t i o n s being placed on non-paying members. The unorthodox group won by a small margin and Surgit Singh G i l l was elected president. The e l e c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t i n that despite t h e i r narrow defeat, i t gave concrete proof to the orthodox group of : thei r s o l i d support within the temple. The orthodox group claimed that the el e c t i o n was not v a l i d because the votes had been counted u n f a i r l y and that ... 84 i t should be held again. This was refused and the con^-f l i c t continued. Violence erupted i n the temple on March 30, 1975. Both groups agree that the violence was pre-c i p i t a t e d by the Maoists. A number of people were beaten including the secretary of Khalsa Diwan, Budha Singh. A number of court cases ensued but only one communist was convicted, Mr. H.R. Durha. Once again on A p r i l 20, 1975, the communists t r i e d to disrupt temple proceedings. A number of f i g h t s and stab-bings followed. Although these disturbances received only limited treatment by the l o c a l media, they contributed to 12 the "poor image" of the Sikh community i n the press. After t h i s incident members of the Khalsa Diwan and A k a l i Singh Temples joined together and condemned Bains and his f o l -lowers. Hardial Bains l e f t town and the Maoists have never played a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n temple p o l i t i c s since. Members of the Sikh community f e e l that the orthodox group was hurt by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the communists. Since the com-munists directed t h e i r attacks against the unorthodox group, many temple members f e l t that the orthodox group must be associated with the Maoists. Although, i t i s impossible to prove t h i s l i n k existed, the perceived association between the two groups has hurt the c r e d i b i l i t y of the orthodox group. In the l a s t two years the elections for the management ... 85 committee have followed the procedures set out i n the con-s t i t u t i o n . The orthodox group has taken the case to the courts but the constitution was upheld. The orthodox group has not contested the e l e c t i o n of the management committee i n the l a s t two years. As a result/two moderates, who have received the support of the unorthodox group, were elected president. Avtar Gossal, a wealthy business man was elected i n 1976 and Kesar Singh Bhatti, an engineer with B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone, was elected i n 1977. The l a s t two years have been considerably calmer i n the temple, but the same debate s t i l l goes on. The r e l i -gious group does not seem to have the support necessary to force the issue any more. The incidents fomented by Hardial Bains have moved many temple members to seek r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Hardial Singh Johal, the editor of Sikh Samarchar believes that many of the orthodox members of the Khalsa Diwan have 14 chosen to attend the A k a l i Singh Temple instead. One indicati o n of this trend i s r e f l e c t e d i n the annual budget of the Akali Singh Temple. In 1972, the budget for the temple was $40,000; i n 1976 i t was $114,000. The A k a l i Singh Temple management now f e e l s that i t s f a c i l i t i e s are too small and i s planning to b u i l d a new Temple at an estimated cost of $2,000,000. Such d i v i s i o n s within the community can obviously a f f e c t the p o l i c i e s and interests pursued by the Sikhs i n . . .86 t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . G i v e n t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f an i n t e r e s t g r o u p on t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e h o s t community i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h o f t h a t g r o u p , t h e d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e community have s e r i o u s l y weakened t h e p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e S i k h s . Now t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d S i k h s i s t o e n l i s t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i r own community. To do so t h e y must h e l p t h e community overcome i t s i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s and c o n v i n c e t h e S i k h s o f t h e i r common needs and t h u s common need f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The S i k h s ' P o l i t i c a l R e l a t i o n s w i t h the. H o s t S o c i e t y : I n t e r e s t Group A c t i o n The r a n g e o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a m i n o r i t y w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y i s w i d e . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h o s e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s by t h e S i k h community as a whole t h a t a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n -f l u e n c i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s - o f t h e h o s t g o vernment. The p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f c e r t a i n p r o m i n e n t men i n t h e • S i k h community w i l l a l s o be m e n t i o n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s a nd government e n c o u r a g e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s i n h o s t s o c i e t y p o l i t i c s w i l l a l s o be examined. The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e S i k h l e a d e r s and members o f •87 the community r e v e a l t h a t i n t e r e s t groups are the most common type of o r g a n i z a t i o n s designed to ex e r t pressure on the p o l i t i c a l system of the host s o c i e t y . No attempt to form or as s o c i a t e the Sikh community w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r party has met w i t h wide-spread support. In f a c t , the sum-mer survey reveals t h a t under 5% of the Sikhs i n t e r v i e w e d belonged to a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Given the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the S i k h community^it i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the community has any o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t claims to speak f o r a l l the Sikhs. The East Indian Canadian C i t i z e n ' s Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n i s the body which enjoys the support of the temples i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It. was formed i n 1952 a f t e r the inauguration of the A k a l i Singh Temple. I t was organized to give the Sikhs one voic e i n approaching the various l e v e l s of government. The prime concern of the A s s o c i a t i o n has centered on immigration matters. The easing of immigration r e s t r i c t i o n s was the one goal t h a t had un-animous support i n the community. A l l members wanted to see a more open p o l i c y without r e s t r i c t i o n s based on race or e t h n i c i t y . For t h i s reason the East Indian Canadian C i t i z e n ' s Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n has been a c t i v e l y supported by both temples, yet they do not t r y to d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e the issues and p o l i c i e s pursued by the A s s o c i a t i o n . Although members of both temples serve i n the A s s o c i a t i o n , the temples do not i n v o l v e themselves d i r e c t l y w i t h i t s opera-• • • 88 t i o n . The Association i s an organization serving only the interests of the East Indian community. The Associa-t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been Sikh dominated, mainly be-cause of t h e i r overwhelming numerical strength i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t that the Welfare Association can have on the government i s of course d i r e c t l y related to the support i t can muster within the community. - In"-the 1950's and early 1960's the p o t e n t i a l of the Association was l i m i t e d by the small size Of :the: East Indian community, for i t was unable to reward or punish a p a r t i c u l a r candi-date or party at e l e c t i o n time. The support of the Associa-tion was further weakened by i n t e r n a l disputes. Jagat Uppal f e l t that one such dispute permanently l i m i t e d the 15 effectiveness of the Association. In 1962, a man named Amar Singh Khalsa sued the Welfare Association for l i b e l . Khalsa claimed to be receiving v i s i o n s from God. He gained a great deal of support i n the host community and was accepting monetary contributions from the general public. The Welfare Association made a number of statements con-demning him as a fraud and i n return Khalsa sued. The case went to court and Khalsa was supported by the A k a l i Singh Temple i n his s u i t against the Association. The s p l i t be-tween the Khalsa Diwan Society and A k a l i Singh Temple mem-bers i n the Welfare Association was b i t t e r . The Welfare 89 Association, without the support of the A k a l i Singh, won the case but at a cost of $10,000 i n l e g a l fees and i t s claim to speak for the whole community was severely damaged. After some time the A k a l i Singh Temple returned to the Welfare Association but the organization never re-turned to i t s former l e v e l of effectiveness. In the l a s t several years the Welfare Association has not had the support of the new East Indian immigrant groups in the c i t y . With the immigration of the Ismalias and F i j i a n s , the membership of the Association no longer ac-curately r e f l e c t s the r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n s within the East Indian population. And i t can no longer claim the support 16 of the entire East Indian population. Further, the Association i s divided by the same issues that a f f e c t the Sikh community as a whole. Recently i t has become dominated by the unorthodox members of the East Indian community and 17 i t can not e n l i s t the support of the r e l i g i o u s element. In addition, for the past seven years, the p o l i t i c a l focus of community members has been on the Khalsa Diwan Society elections and support for the Welfare Association has waned. Nevertheless the Welfare Association i s the only recognized body acting on behalf of the East Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, for the temples are t o t a l l y unconcerned with the p o l i t i c s of the host society. The reasons for the lack of p o l i t i c a l involvement of the Sikhs center on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community i t s e l f and the lack of 90 e f f o r t made by the host society's i n s t i t u t i o n s and . i:'. p o l i t i c i a n s to a t t r a c t Sikh p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In interviewing many of the elected o f f i c i a l s of the municipal government, most had made l i t t l e e f f o r t i n th e i r e l e c t i o n 18 bids to a c t i v e l y e n l i s t the support of the Sikhs. There have been some p o l i t i c i a n s , such as Harold Winch and Grace McGuiness, who have made concerted e f f o r t s to act on be-half of and e n l i s t the support of the Sikh community, but 19 they seemed to be the exception to the r u l e . Of the p o l i t i c i a n s and bureaucrats interviewed, no one knew of any e f f o r t by the municipal government to s p e c i f i c a l l y encourage the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of minorities. The fact that the elected o f f i c i a l s of the community do not make a concerted e f f o r t to e n l i s t the support of the Sikhs r e f l e c t s the lack of p o l i t i c a l influence c i t y . p o l i t i c i a n s perceive the group to have. I t also i l l u s t r a t e s the lack of cohesive action by the East Indians despite the fact that with a population of 25,000 inside the c i t y they c e r t a i n l y could have an e f f e c t on elections i f they voted as a bloc. Many Sikhs f e e l that the leaders and mem-bers of the community do not yet recognize t h e i r p o t e n t i a l 20 for p o l i t i c a l action. This lack of recognition may re-f l e c t t h e i r lack of intere s t i n p o l i t i c s outside the com-munity, but may also show t h e i r limited appreciation of the change of size of the community i n the l a s t f i v e years and • 91 of the accompanying r i s e i n poten t i a l for p o l i t i c a l i n -fluence. This view i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the thoughts of Sadhu Singh Dhaesi, chairman of the Ak a l i Singh Temple, who feels that the community and ,the temple do not support a p a r t i c u l a r candidate because they do not have enough 21 Sikhs i n a p a r t i c u l a r area to a f f e c t the outcome. Surely, t h i s would not be the case i n Vancouver South where there i s an estimated East Indian population of 15,000. The Sikhs' lack of in t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c s of the host society may also be a r e s u l t of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sikh community i t s e l f . More than 25% of the Sikh population have arrived i n Canada within the l a s t three years and hence do not have the r i g h t to vote either provin-c i a l l y or fe d e r a l l y . Furthermore, as many as 80% of the Sikhs aire first.-generational and'tend not. to have developed an i n t e r e s t i n Canadian p o l i t i c s . The more recently arrived immigrants are understandably concerned primarily about establishing themselves economically. These facts ex-pl a i n i n part why among Sikhs interviewed who were e l i g i b l e to vote i n federal and p r o v i n c i a l elections, only 44% did so. A l l Sikhs are e l i g i b l e to vote i n municipal elections because they are B r i t i s h subjects. However, only 28% of those interviewed exercised t h e i r r i g h t . Although these figures are not sub s t a n t i a l l y lower than the average voter turnout, they i l l u s t r a t e the i n a b i l i t y of the host society's p o l i t i c i a n s to i n t e r e s t and e n l i s t the support of Vancouver's •92 S i k h s . Some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o l i t i c i a n s ' i n a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t S i k h p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e no d o u b t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e a s o n s e x p l a i n i n g t h e a p a t h y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a s a w h o l e , b u t c e r t a i n l y t h e S i k h s ' b r e v i t y o f r e s i d e n c e i n Canada compounds t h e p r o b l e m . L e a d e r s o f b o t h t h e S i k h community and m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n -ment i d e n t i f y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t h a t c o n c e r n s t h e S i k h s . The S i k h s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n o f t h e h o s t community and'.:.their"'-image i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, a c c o r d i n g t o members o f t h e c i t y ' s S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , t h e E a s t I n d i a n community has n o t p r o p o s e d any s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m s 22 d e s i g n e d t o e a s e t h e p r o b l e m . T h i s may a g a i n r e l a t e t o t h e l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e E a s t I n d i a n community. No s i n g l e g r o u p c a n c l a i m t o speak f o r t h e community as a whole and as a r e s u l t o n l y c o n c e r n e d i n - . d i v i d u a l s a p p r o a c h t h e go v e r n m e n t . Former Mayor A r t P h i l l i p s p o i n t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y as i m p e d i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o h e s i v e a c t i o n . I n d e e d , he s t a t e d t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e S i k h community as a whole b e i n g f o c u s e d on i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s a l l o w s l i t t l e t i m e f o r t h e i r b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e 23 h o s t s o c i e t y . A l d e r m e n M a r z a r i and R a n k i n i d e n t i f y a common s t r a t e g y u s e d by t h o s e S i k h s t r y i n g t o g e n e r a t e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . 2 4 The s t r a t e g y i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h o s e u s e d i n I n d i a . • 93 The Sikhs prefer to approach the p o l i t i c i a n s they per-ceive to be powerful. Alderman Harry Rankin feels that t h i s i s one of the main reasons that East Indians approach him so often. The East Indians--feel that his p o s i t i o n as a lawyer and alderman can benefit t h e i r various needs and int e r e s t s . Another p o l i t i c a l l i n k associated with the East Indians i s former alderman Setty Pendakur. The Sikh com-munity considers Pendakur to have connections i n the municipal government and to be sympathetic to t h e i r needs. Currently Pendakur, who i s not a Sikh, i s chairman of the Ak a l i Singh Building Committee. The committee, through Pendakur, has approached the municipal government and secured some land on which they are going to construct th e i r new temple. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note however, that when Pendakur ran for alderman i n 1972 and 1974 there was no indi c a t i o n that he received any organized support from any 25 existing organizations i n the East Indian community. Pendakur was welcomed to speak at both of Vancouver's Sikh temples, as any person i s permitted to address the .members, but he did not receive the endorsement of either the A k a l i Singh Temple or the Khalsa Diwan Society. Although Penda-kur did receive more support i n the southeast part of the c i t y , there aire no data available which show, the degree of support he received from the voters i n the East Indian com-2 6 munity. The reason f o r the Sikhs' limited support of ..94 Pendakur may again be due to the East Indians' tendency to be issue-oriented as opposed to leader-oriented. How-ever, i t i s probably also due to the aforementioned reasons contributing to the Sikhs' lack of in t e r e s t i n host society p o l i t i c s . In addition to Pendakur, many others of East Indian o r i g i n are active i n Canadian p o l i t i c s . However, none act as representatives of the East Indian community. Harkipal Sara and' Malkit Prahar are active within the L i b e r a l Party, Sabu Singh, Avtar Gossal and Avtar Berar within the Social Credit Party and Kehar Sekhon and Dr. Gurdev Singh G i l l are involved with the New Democratic Party. The i n t e r -views revealed that these men may at times serve as the.', l i a i s o n between a party and the community but no o f f i c i a l or even widely recognized relationship e x i s t s . The orientation of the Vancouver Sikhs to issues and not men or parties i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to int e r e s t group p o l i t i c s . The f i r s t national organization representing East Indians i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. The. National Association of Canadians of Origins i n India,(NACOI), was conceived i n October, 197 5 and the founding conference was held i n August, 1976. NACOI can be viewed as the response of established East Indians to the host society's h o s t i l e 27 reaction to the i n f l u x of immigrants i n the seventies. Canadian attitudes are seen as threatening the economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the established East Indians. The goals • . - 95 of the organization r e f l e c t the desire to protect the East Indian Community. NACOI i s dedicated to improving the J. image of East Indians i n Canadian society. In order to do so, i t s t r i v e s to have the contribution of the East Indians i n Canadian society recognized. Furthermore, NACOI w i l l -.. encourage Canadians of East Indian o r i g i n to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n Canadian l i f e . (See Appendix II I , Part A, for the draft constitution of NACOI). The leaders of NACOI appreciate that one of the most important factors contributing to the poor re l a t i o n s between the East Indians and the host society i s the minority's 2 8 i s o l a t i o n . NACOI hopes that increased communication and inter a c t i o n between the groups w i l l help remedy the sit u a t i o n . Although NACOI does not have a f f i l i a t i o n s with any p o l i t i c a l party, the leadership sees i t s primary role as giving the East Indian community a united p o l i t i c a l voice. At the second annual conference of NACOI, held i n Vancouver i n August, 1977, numerous speakers emphasized the need for an e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l organization i f the East Indians' image and rights were to be protected i n Canada. NACOI v will.pressure the three levels of government to encourage• harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n between the host society and East Indians. Thus, NACOI w i l l encourage at least the p a r t i a l assimilation of the East Indians into Canadian society. The pot e n t i a l success of the organization rests on i t s a b i l i t y to gain support within the East Indian community. . . .96 T h i s w i l l p r o v e an o n e r o u s t a s k g i v e n t h e e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s w i t h -i n t h e community, as w e l l as t h e d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t , however, t h a t NACOI i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada. Whereas i n I n d i a t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s w o u l d have l i t t l e i n common, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n : a g a i n s t a l l o f them i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s a common bond and c r e a t e s a common need f o r a c t i o n . T h i s n e e d f o r a c t i o n i s o f c o u r s e most s t r o n g l y f e l t by t h o s e E a s t I n d i a n s who have t h e most t o l o s e i n t e r m s o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n Canada and so, i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t .the most a c t i v e members o f NACOI a r e t h o s e E a s t I n d i a n s who a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . The c u r r e n t membership i n NACOI i s a l m o s t e n -t i r e l y made up o f E a s t I n d i a n l a w y e r s , d o c t o r s , p r o f e s s o r s , and s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s m e n . One c a n o n l y wonder how s u c c e s s -f u l s u c h men w i l l be i n c o n v i n c i n g t h e a v e r a g e E a s t I n d i a n t h a t NACOI c a n a l s o s e r v e t h e i r n e e d s , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f E a s t I n d i a n s may f e e l t h a t t h e y have v e r y l i t t l e e c o n o m i c o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n t o p r o t e c t . NACOI i s a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s g a i n i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f o t h e r E a s t I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada. One o f t h e mai n c o m p l a i n t s v o i c e d , by some E a s t I n d i a n s i s t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e t h a t NACOI has a c l o s e d l e a d e r s h i p and n o t a l l t h e E a s t I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s were e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i -. . . 97 c i p a t e . Thus, i t s . d e t r a c t o r s f e e l t h a t NACOI c a n n o t a c c u r a t e l y c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e n t i r e E a s t I n d i a n com-m u n i t y . (See A p p e n d i x I I I , P a r t B ) . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r c h a p t e r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s f o r t h e second, a n n u a l NACOI c o n f e r e n c e w o u l d l e a d one t o b e -l i e v e t h a t any o v e r s i g h t i n i n f o r m i n g a l l E a s t I n d i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s was a c c i d e n t a l and was due t o d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e ' s o r g a n i z i n g c o m m i t t e e . NACOI has a l r e a d y s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m s t h a t d i v i d e t h e S i k h community. The S h i r o m a n i A k a l i D a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada r e s e n t s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f S i k h s w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s . I n an open l e t t e r t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e J o h n R o b e r t s o f t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t , t h e S h i r o m a n i A k a l i D a l A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e s " t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s new g r o u p , NACOI, i s t o g i v e i m p o r t a n c e t o n o n - S i k h p e o p l e , o f I n d i a n o r i g i n , s u c h as H i n d u s , F i j i a n s , West-I n d i a n s , a n d . t h e l i k e . S i k h s n a t u r a l l y w o u l d n o t be i n -t e r e s t e d i n s u c h a g r o u p , b e c a u s e S i k h s have a s t r o n g c u l -29 t u r e , r e l i g i o n a nd p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i e t y o f t h e i r own." (See A p p e n d i x I I I , P a r t C ) . Th u s , t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e o r t h o d o x g r o u p i s c o n t e n t t o r e m a i n i s o l a t e d f r o m o t h e r E a s t I n d i a n g r o u p s . Any a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s o r r e l i g i o n s i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . The p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and t h e S i k h s i s i n an e m b r y o n i c s t a t e . The l i m i t e d S i k h p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n t h e h o s t community's p o l i t i c s r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , .98 from the host community's d i s i n t e r e s t i n the Sikhs as a p o l i t i c a l force. John Fraser, Member of Parliament for Vancouver South showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v e l y at-trac t i n g East Indian support. 3^ His attitude was re i t e r a t e d by many municipal p o l i t i c i a n s as well. The lack of concerted e f f o r t by the host society's p o l i t i c i a n s to a t t r a c t East Indian support r e f l e c t s the limited p o l i t i c a l power they perceive the Sikhs to have. This attitude i s based on the fac t that the East Indians have shown very l i t t l e a b i l i t y to act as a cohesive p o l i t i c a l unit. Many East Indian leaders interviewed con-cur with t h i s assessment of the s i t u a t i o n . Thus, they believe they must organize before t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n Canadian society w i l l be protected. NACOI i s the product of t h i s b e l i e f . One reason for the lack of p o l i t i c a l organization i n the Sikh community may be that before the new immigrants arrived, the minority community was s a t i s f i e d with i t s re-lati o n s with the host society. However, the host society's h o s t i l e reaction to the new immigrants threatened the Sikhs' economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n Canada. Thus, a need for p o l i t i c a l action arose. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that the other time period i n which the Sikhs organized p o l i t i c a l l y was between 1904 and 1917, when the host society's reaction to a sharp increase i n immigration again created a need. .99 Beyond t h i s t h e p o l i t i c a l f o c u s o f t h e S i k h community has b een on t h e s t r u g g l e f o r power i n t h e K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y . The l e a d e r s o f t h e community have e n c o u r a g e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s . And we have s e e n how t h e s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e t e m p l e n o t o n l y d i s t r a c t s t h e community's a t t e n t i o n f r o m e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , -but a l s o e x a c e r b a t e s t h e d i v i s i o n s w i t h -i n t h e community. On t h e o t h e r hand, V a n c o u v e r ' s m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s o r government have done l i t t l e t o show t h e S i k h s t h a t t h e i r n e e d s c a n be s e r v e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n -ment. The l a c k o f s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e v o t i n g a c t i v i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l S i k h s makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e p r e -c i s e l y w h e t h e r t h e d e g r e e o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c h a n g i n g . However, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NACOI i t w o u l d seem t h a t on a g r o u p l e v e ^ i n v o l v e m e n t i s i n c r e a s i n g . More members o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S i k h community a r e a c t i v e i n NACOI t h a n any p r e c e e d i n g S i k h o r g a n i z a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s made i n 32 t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . NACOI i s t h e f i r s t E a s t I n d i a n o r g a n i z a -t i o n whose p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s t o e n c o u r a g e an end t o t h e E a s t I n d i a n s ' i s o l a t i o n i n Canada. CHAPTER III - FOOTNOTES 100 1. Interview with Molla Singh, August 21, 1977. 2. Interview with Kehar Sekhon, August 3, 1977. 3. Interview with Jagat Uppal, August 18, 1977. 4. Interview with Blanche D i l l o n , August 10, 1977. 5. Interview with Harry Rankin, July 28, 1977. 6. The following account of the 1952 s p l i t i n the Khalsa Diwan Society i s drawn from interviews with Sadhu Singh Dhaesi, August 6, 1977; Kesar Singh Bhatti, July 29, 19 77; Dr. Gurdev Singh G i l l , August 24, 1977 and Molla Singh, August 21, 1977. 7. Interview with Kesar Singh Bhatti, July 29, 19 77. 8. Interview with Molla Singh, Jagir Singh, Prem Singh, August 21, 1977. 9. Interview with Kesar Singh Bhatti, July 29, 1977; Dr. Gurdev Singh G i l l , August 24, 19 77 and Blanche D i l l o n , August 10, 1977. 10. The following description of the c o n f l i c t s within the Khalsa Diwan society i s drawn primarily from interviews with Dr. Gurdev Singh G i l l , Kehar Sekhon, Hardial Singh Johal, August 7, 1977; Kera Singh Bains, July 20, 1977 and Molla Singh. 11. Dave Singh, op_. c i t . , p. 30. 12. See Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 3, 1975, p. 40 or Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 21, 1975, p. 1. 13. Interview with Jagat Uppal, August 18, 1977. 14. Interview with Hardial Singh Johal, August 7, 1977. 15. Interview with'Jagat Uppal, August 18, 1977. 16. Interview with Blanche D i l l o n , August 10, 1977. 17. Interview with Nirmal D i a l , July 23, 1977. The respondents were Art P h i l l i p s , F r i t z Bowers, Harry Rankin, Darlene Marzari and Gordon Campbell. For a summary of Harold Winch's contribution to the Sikh community see the Vancouver Province, "Sikhs Honor Winch", July 17, 1972, p. 6. Interview with Malkit Prahar, July 17, 1977; Interview with Dr. S:. Li.•„ Khanna, August 26, 1977. Interview with Sadhu Singh Dhaesi, August 16, 1977 Interview with Doug Purdy, August 5, 197 7. Interview with Art P h i l l i p s , July 26, 1977. Interview with Darlene Marzari, August 5, 1977. Interview with Harry Rankin, July 28, 1977. The heads o f each Sikh organization were asked i f th e i r organization had a c t i v e l y or even openly supported Pendakur and every response was i n the negative. Vancouver Sun, "Vancouver Grapples with Racial Tension", November 23, 1974. Interview with Ranjife; H a l l , August 26, 1977. Most of the information on N.A.CO.I. was obtained by attending and interviewing delegates at the second annual N.A.CO.I. conference held i n Vancouver, August 26 - 28, 1977, as well as attending meetings of the Vancouver chapter of N.A.CO.I. Open l e t t e r to the Honourable John Roberts, Secretary of State of Canada, from Molla Singh, President, Shiromani A k a l i Dal Association of Canada, August 23, 197 7. Interview with John Fraser, A p r i l 16, 1977. B r i j L a i , op_. c i t . , pp. 50-88. Interviews with Dr. Gurdev Singh G i l l , Blanche D i l l o n , Kehar Sekhon and Dr. S.L. Khanna. . 1 0 2 CHAPTER IV Conclusions The evidence suggests that the Sikhs are i n t e r -acting more with the host society than i n the past. The increased in t e r a c t i o n i s mainly the r e s u l t of the sharp r i s e i n the Sikh population of Vancouver and the programs established by the municipal government to encourage i n t e r -action. The sharp increase i n the minority population had the e f f e c t of p r e c i p i t a t i n g h o s t i l e reaction on the part of the host society. Furthermore, the increase i n East Indian population was so great as to make i t impossible for the ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s to absorb the new immigrants. As a re-sult* -many immigrants only made contact with t h e i r f a m i l i e s . In addition, the s t a t i s t i c s of the Immigrant Services Centre indicate that increased contact was also made with the host society i n s t i t u t i o n s . The h o s t i l e reaction of the host society was due not only to the i n f l u x of immigrants per se, but to the housing and'job shortages i n the c i t y which many host community members believed would be made worse by the incoming im-migrants. The interviews with municipal o f f i c i a l s and Sikh leaders reveal that the r i s e i n host society h o s t i l i t i e s . 1Q3 a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e Sikhs.' c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e s e s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . The c a s e o f t h e S i k h s i n V a n c o u v e r s u p p o r t s t h e r a c i a l s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t a p p r o a c h t o h o s t s o c i e t y h o s t i l i t i e s . The c a s e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S i k h s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e de-g r e e t o w h i c h t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e m i n o r i t y and h o s t s o c i e t y i s p o s i t i v e and e n c o u r a g e s a s s i m i l a t i o n , depends l a r g e l y upon t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a i d i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e m i n o r i t y . I n r e s p o n s e t o . t h e h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y , t h e m u n i c i p a l government o f V a n c o u v e r e s t a b l i s h e d a number o f p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e p o s i t i v e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e S i k h s a n d t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s and m i n o r i t y l e a d e r s , t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e i n a l a r g e way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e improvement i n r e l a t i o n s between .the two g r o u p s . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e S i k h s r e i n f o r c e • / t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n by o n l y e n c o u r a g i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e S i k h community. The i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s i n -s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as t h e d e c r e a s e i n r a c i a l h o s t i l i t i e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e S i k h s , t h e w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s t e n a b l e . The a v a i l a b l e d a t a and t h e l i m i t s s e t do n o t p e r m i t t h e s t u d y t o be c o n c l u s i v e , b u t a t t h i s p o i n t i t seems t h a t t h e i s o l a t i o n o r a s s i m i l a t i o n o f a .104 m i n o r i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r e n g t h w i t h w h i c h e t h n i c v e r s u s h o s t s o c i e t y i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t r a c t o r r e p e l t h e im-m i g r a n t t o and f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g m i n o r i t y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h o s t s o c i e t y i n s t i t u t i o n s and v i c e v e r s a i s n e e d e d b e f o r e t h e h y p o t h e s i s c a n be p r o v e d c o n c l u s i v e l y . The f a c t t h a t t h e S i k h s seem t o be more e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y t h a n p o l i t i c a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t does n o t t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n as M i l t o n G o r d o n s u g g e s t s . I n s t e a d , t h e i m m i g r a n t ' s a s s i m i l a t i o n c a n t a k e p l a c e i n e a c h s p h e r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y , as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r e n g t h o f a t t r a c t i o n o r r e p u l s i o n o f e a c h s p h e r e i n e i t h e r community. F o r example, t h e h o s t s o c i e t y may p r o -v i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t ' s e c o n o m i c a s s i m i l a t i o n , b u t t h i s - does n o t a s s u r e h i s c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l a s s i m i l a -t i o n . The c a s e o f t h e S i k h s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e s p h e r e s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e S i k h l e a d e r s h i p shows t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n i n one s p h e r e does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e i m m i g r a n t i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n any o t h e r s p h e r e . I n s o f a r as s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n b etween t h e h o s t and m i n o r i t y c o m m u n i t i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l i f r a c i a l t e n -s i o n s a r e t o be a v o i d e d , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , as i t i s p r e s e n t l y i m p l e m e n t e d , i s .105. u n s u i t a b l e . Although i n theory i t does encourage c u l t u r a l groups to share t h e i r h e r i t a g e w i t h other Canadians, i n p r a c t i c e , m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m as implemented has had a tendency to r e i n f o r c e the i s o l a t i o n of the e t h n i c groups. The c h i e f mechanism through which the f e d e r a l government encourages the d i f f e r e n t groups to share t h e i r c u l t u r e w i t h the r e s t of Canada i s by the awarding of f i n a n c i a l grants to s o l i c i t -i n g groups. This p o l i c y i s designed f o r those groups w i t h enough i n i t i a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n to apply f o r the money. The onus i s put upon the e t h n i c group to apply, the f e d e r a l government does l i t t l e to encourage t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . In the case of an i s o l a t e d m i n o r i t y l i k e the S i k h s , i t i s not enough f o r the government to only encourage c u l t u r a l i n t e r -a c t i o n i n theory. The implementation of t h i s theory must a c t i v e l y encourage the m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the host s o c i e t y . The s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver South forced the m u n i c i p a l government to take a more a c t i v e r o l e i n encouraging pos-i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between the m i n o r i t y and host s o c i e t y . The approaches of the f e d e r a l and municipal government are not t o t a l l y . ' i n c o m p a t i b l e , yet the passive approach of the f e d e r a l government towards the a s s i m i l a t i o n of immigrants proved to be inadequate. The f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments do i n s i s t on m a intaining the o f f i c i a l languages and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the dominant s o c i e t y but these p o l i c i e s do . 1 0 6 l i t t l e t o a i d i n t h e i m m i g r a n t s ' a d a p t a t i o n a n d c r e a t i o n o f h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . T h e p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f C a n a d i a n e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s d o e s n o t p a r a l l e l t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , who a r e f i g h t i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l p o w e r w i t h i n t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . The C a n a d i a n p r o b l e m i s t h e l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y m i n o r i t i e s i n C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s . To t h i s p o i n t , t h e h o s t s o c i e t y h a s d o n e l i t t l e t o a t t r a c t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s . I f t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s n o t r e c t i f i e d , p o o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n t h e v i s i b l e i m m i g r a n t g r o u p s a n d h o s t s o c i e t y w i l l r e m a i n a n d r a c i a l v i o l e n c e w i l l be a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t . T h e a b s e n c e o f m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s l e a v e s u n u s e d o n e o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h i s l a c k o f c o m -m u n i c a t i o n was p a r t i a l l y t o b l a m e f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s n o t r e a l i z i n g t h e e f f e c t o f i t s i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y o n t h e m i n o r i t i e s ' r e l a t i o n s w i t h s o c i e t y . I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s n o t r e c t i f i e d t h r o u g h a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S i k h s , t h e r e s u l t c o u l d p r o v e c o s t l y i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l l o s s e s . .107 BIBLIOGRAPHY Al l e n , G.P. "Ethnic Organizations i n Canadian Society":" International Migration Review, Vol. I l l , no. 2, Spring, 1969, pp. 67-73. 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Immigration and Population S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974. Canada. Highlights from the Green Paper on immigration. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1975. Canada: Report to Parliament (by the Special Joint Committee on Immigration P o l i c y ) . Ottawa: Information Canada, 1975. Canada. Towards Understanding: prejudice and discrimination. F a i r Employment Practices, (n.d.). Canadian Television Network: "C.T.V. Inquiry: Immigration." W-5 programme, shown August 8, 19 76. (One-hour special on the Green Paper and public opinion on immigration). ...108 Chandra, Kanour V. Racial Discrimination i n Canada; Asian  Min o r i t i e s . San Francisco: R. and E. Research Associates, 1973. Desai, R. Indian Immigrants i n B r i t a i n , London: Oxford University Press, 1963. Dobell, Peter and d 1Aquino, Susan, "The Special Joint Committee on Immigration P o l i c y , 1975: an exercise i n pa r t i c i p a t o r y democracy." Behind the Headlines, (Canadian Institute of International A f f a i r s , Toronto). Eisenstadt, S.N., The Absorption of Immigrants. London: Routledge, 1954. Epstein, Larry. Immigration and I n f l a t i o n . Ottawa: Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1974. Evenden, L.J. and Cunningham, F.F. (eds.) Cu l t u r a l Discord  i n the Modern World. Vancouver: B.C. Geographical Series, No.20, 1974. Feinstein, Otto (ed.) Ethnic Groups i n the C i t y , Lexington, Massachusetts: HeathLexington Books, 1971. Gelfand, Donald E. Ethnic C o n f l i c t s and Power: a Cross  National Perspective. New York: Wiley, 19 73. Gibson, E.M. "Lotus Eaters, Loggers and the Vancouver Land-scape." Vancouver Review, Vol. I I , 1974. pp. 57-74 Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation i n American L i f e . New York: Oxford University Press, 1964. Hartley, E.L. and Mintz, A. "A Technique for the Study of the Dynamics of the Racial Saturation Point." Sodometry, Volume 9, 1946, pp. 14-20. Hawkins, Freda, Canadian and Immigration: Public P o l i c y and  Public Concern; Montreal: McGill - Queen's University Press. "Uganda Asians i n Canada." New Community (London) Vol. 2, no. 3, 1973, pp. 267-275. (1974a) "Canadian Immigration Policy and Management." Immigration and Manpower Review, Vol. VIII no. 2, Summer 1974, pp. 141-153. . 109 (1974b) Immigration Policy and Manage- ment i n Selected Countries. Ottawa: Department of Man-power and Immigration, 19 74. (19 75a) "Review of the Green Paper on Immigration," Social Sciences i n Canada. Vol. 3, nos. 1-2, 1975. pp. 29-32. (1975b) "Canada's Green Paper on Im-migration Poli c y . " Immigration and Manpower Review, Vol. IX, no. 2, Summer 1975. pp. 237-249. Hess, Gary. "The Forgotten American Asians: The East Indian Community i n the United States." P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l  Review, XLIII, 1974, pp. 576-596. Jain, Sushil Kumar. East Indians i n Canada. The Hague: Research Group for European Migration Problems, Supplement 9, June 19 71. Jeness, R.A. "Canadian Migration and Immigration Patterns and Government Policy . " Immigration and Manpower Review, Vol. VIII, no. 2, Summer 1974, pp. 5-22. Joseph, Fr. Thomas, and Fr. Lopez. (Madras and Khandwa, India). "Indian migration. . . i n the past, and i n the future." Migration News, no. 3, May-June 19 71, pp. 3-8. Kalbach, Warren E. The Ef f e c t of Immigration Oh Population. Ottawa: Department of P o l i t i c a l Science, 1974. L a i , B r i j . "East Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1904-1914: an h i s t o r i c a l study i n growth and integration,. " Un-published M.A. thesis, U.B.C, Department of History, 1976. Lawless, D.J. "Attitudes of Leaders of Immigrant and Ethnic Societies i n Vancouver Towards Integration i n Canadian L i f e . " International Migration, Vol. 2, no. 3, 1964. pp. 201-211. Lioy, Michele. Social Trends i n Greater Vancouver. Vancouver: United Way, 1975. Lowes, George H. "The Sikhs of B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished B.A. essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of History, 1952. McGee, Reece. Social Disorganization i n America. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co., 1962. . 110 Mannas, Kashmir Singh, and Sangh, Sohan Singh, "A Bri e f Submitted to the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on the Green Paper on Immigra-tion P o l i c y . " (mimeo). Vancouver: The East Indian Canadian Citizens Welfare Association, May 1975. Mayer, Adrian C. "A Report on the East Indian Community in Vancouver." Working Paper of the Insti t u t e of So c i a l and Economic Research, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959. Minghi, J.V. (ed.) Peoples of the Liv i n g Land: Geography  of Cultural Diversity i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: B.C. Geographical Series, no. 15, 19 72. Morrish, Ivor. The Background of Immigrant Children. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1971. Moynihan, Daniel P. and Glazer, Nathan (eds.). E t h n i c i t y . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975. Munday, Jennifer. (Mrs. P. B u t t e r f i e l d ) . "East Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished B.A. essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Sociology, 1953. Muthanna,I.M. People of India i n North America (Part F i r s t ) . Bangalore: Lotus P r i n t e r s , 1975. Nann, Richard C. and Stewart, Penelope, "Community Services and Ethnic Minority C l i e n t e l s . " (mimeo) Vancouver: 1975. Nikolinakos, Marios. "Notes towards.a general theory of migration i n late capitalism." Race and Class, Vol. XVII, no. 1, Summer 1975. Norris, John. Strangers Entertained; a history of the  ethnic groups of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Evergreen Press, 1971. Palmer, Howard. Immigration and the Rise of Multiculturalism. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1975. Parai, Louis. The Economic Impact Of Immigration. Ottawa: Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1974. •— "Canada's Immigration Policy, 1962-74." Immigration and Manpower Review, Vol. IX, no. 4, Winter 19 75. pp. 449-477. Parekh, Bhikhu (ed.) Colour, Culture and Consciousness. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1974. Park, Robert E. Race and Culture. Glencoe: Free Press, 1950. Ramchandani, R.R. Ugandan Asians: the end of an enterprise. Bombay: United Asia Publications, 1976. Richmond, Anthony. "Immigration and Pluralism i n Canada." Immigration and Manpower Review, Vol. IV, no. 1, F a l l 1969. pp. 5-24. Aspects of the Absorption and Adapta- tion of Immigrants. Ottawa: Department of Manpower and Immigration, 19 74. Rose, E.J.B. Colour and Citizenship: A Report On B r i t i s h  Race Relations. Toronto: Oxford, 1969. Sampat-Mehta, R. International Barriers - Aliens, Immigra- ti o n , and Citizenship i n Canada. Ottawa: Canada Research Bureau, 1973. (See especially Chapter I I I , "Indian Immigra-tio n " ; 1867-1972.) Minority Rights and Obligations. Ottawa: Canada Research Bureau, 19 73. Scanlon, J.F.,"The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study i n the Role of the Media i n Ethnic Relations," UNESCO, 1975. Schermerhorn, R.A. Comparative Ethnic Relations; a Frame- work for Theory and Research. New York: Random House, 1970. Siegel, B.J. "Defensive Cultural Adaptation." Hv Graham and T. Gurr (eds.) The History of Violence i n America, New York: Bantam Books, 1969. Singh, David. "Some Factors i n the Relationship Between the Police and East Indians," Unpublished paper, 1975. Smith, M.W., and H.W. Boulter. "Sikh Se t t l e r s i n Canada." Asia and the Americas. Vol. XLIV, no. 8, 1944, pp. 359-364. Tienhaara, Nancy. Canadian Views on Immigration - and  Population; an analysis of post-war Gallup p o l l s . Ottawa: Dept. of Manpower and Immigration, 1974. Walhouse, Freda. "The Influence of Minority Ethnic Groups on the Cultural Geography of Vancouver."Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Geography, 1961. .112 Wirth, Louis. "The Problem of Minority Groups." Ralph Linton (ed.), The Science of Man i n the World C r i s i s , New York: Columbia University Press, 1945. INTERVIEWS Ashley, Lorna. Bains, Keva Singh. Bhatti, Kesar Singh. Bowers, F r i t z . Campbell, Gordon. Dhaesi, Sadhu Singh. D i a l , Nirmal. D i l l o n , Blanche. Fraser, John. G i l l , Gurder Singh. H a l l , Ranjit. Johal, Hardial Singh, Khanna, S.L. Marzari, Darlene. P h i l l i p s , Art. Prahar, Malkit. Co-ordinator, Immigrant Services Centre. President, Khalsa Diwan Society. City Manager, Vancouver. Executive Assistant to the Mayor, Vancouver, 1972-1976. Chairman, Ak a l i Singh Temple Former President, East Indians Canadian Citizens Welfare Association. Executive, Vancouver Chapter of NACOI. Member of Parliament, Vancouver South. Former President, Khalsa Diwan Society. Former President, NACOI. Editor, Sikh Samarchar. Executive, Vancouver Chapter of NACOI. Alderman, Vancouver. Former Mayor, Vancouver. Former Publisher, India News  and Views; Founder l o c a l East Indian Radio Programs on K.E.R.I., 104 F.M. and K.L.Y.W., 106 F.M. .113 P u r d y , Doug. R a n k i n , H a r r y . Sambhi, H a r h i j a n S i n g h . S i n g h , G u r d i t . S i n g h , J a g i r . S i n g h , M o h i n d e r . S i n g h , M o l l a . S i n g h , Prem. Sekhon, K e h a r . U p p a l , J a g a t . Winch, H a r o l d . S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r . A l d e r m a n , V a n c o u v e r . E x e c u t i v e , A k a l i S i n g h Temple; E x e c u t i v e , S i k h Y o u t h F e d e r a t i o n . Employee, I m m i g r a n t S e r v i c e s C e n t r e . F ormer e x e c u t i v e , K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y . F u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e a t t h e K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y . F o r m e r e x e c u t i v e , K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y ; P r e s i d e n t , S h i r o m a n i A k a l i D a l A s s o c i a t i o n . P r e s i d e n t , E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n . F o r m e r P r e s i d e n t , K h a l s a Diwan W o c i e t y . F o r m e r Member o f P a r l i a m e n t , F o r m e r C o - o r d i n a t o r Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . APPENDIX I 114 TABLE I Breakdown of News Items S p e c i f i c a l l y Pertaining to East Indians i n B.C., 1944-75: Number and (Percentage). 1944-1969 A B . . . c . . •. . D : . . . E . , . F G 54 122 25 (46) 14(11) 23 (43) 30 (24) 17.(31) 54 (44) 0(0) 30 (24) 4(7) 20 (16) 1 .1(2) 45 (36) > 1971-1975 Source: The Vancouver Sun, 1944 - 75. Total number of i n d i v i d u a l news items Column A B D E F G "Human i n t e r e s t " s t o r i e s , often informative or educational, about East Indians; t h e i r c u l t u r a l events or practices portrayed i n a po s i t i v e ( i f "exotic") l i g h t ; and reports i l l u s t r a t i n g "intracommunal" cooperation and s o l i d a r i t y . A r t i c l e s by newspaper s t a f f e r s or freelancers in d i c a t i n g p o s i t i v e e d i t o r i a l comment, ad-vocating East Indians' r i g h t s , and/or condemning discrimination against East Indians; reports i l -l u s t r a t i n g "inter-communal" cooperation; and references to p o s i t i v e Government action or as-sistance toward t h i s ethnic group. News items covering incidents or anti-East Indian discrimination, prejudice or bigotry; and b l a t a n t l y inflammatory a r t i c l e s , i n d i c a t i n g negative e d i t o r i a l comment. Reports of incidents (or threats) of "Inter- communal" violence or c o n f l i c t . Reports of incidents (or threats) of " i n t r a - communal" discord/or violence. Reports of i l l e g a l immigration and other East Indian crimes. NOTES: These categories are not always mutually exclusive; i . e . , some news items f i t into two or three columns. Therefore, percentages w i l l t o t a l more than 100 due to multiple entries, as well as s t a t i s t i c a l rounding, APPENDIX -II 115 P.O. Box 58043, Postal Station. "L", VANCOUVER, BC May 12th, 1977. The President, Khalsa Diwan Society, Sikh Temple 8000 Ross Street, VANCOUVER, BC Dear S i r , We the undersigned members of Khalsa Diwan Society, 8000 Ross Street, Vancouver, B.C. and the sikh sangat of lower mainland wish to bring i t to your attention that the sacrilege actions are taking place during the r e l i g i o u s congregations i n the temple (Gurdwara). The following undisciplined and sacrilege actions were noticed by the congregations:-(a) Addressing to the congregation, i n the presence of S i r i Guru Granth Sahib j i , without covering of heads by some speakers. (b) D i s t r i b u t i o n of Holy Dog (Parsad) by a nOn-baptised sikh. (c) Taking of donations i n the prayer h a l l by members of the Society without covering t h e i r heads. (d) Sacrilege speeches and comentaries made by members of the executive of the Society and by some members of the Society, from the Holy stage of congregation, i n the presence of Holy S i r i Guru Granth Sahib. (e) Interference to sacrilege the continuous r e c i t a l of Holy Akhand Path of S i r i Guru Granth Sahib, by holding other functions at the same time. (f) Notices of adherent of sikh d i s c i p l i n e , before entering the main prayer h a l l of the temple, are not d i s -played. (g) On Saturday May 7th, 1977, Bhai Jiwan Singh & Jatha, preachers from Patna Sahib (one of the f i v e high places of authorities of sikhs), was r e c i t i n g the Holy Keertan. Bhai Sahib requested the congregation to adhere to the d i s c i p l i n e required by the sikh dharma, before entering to the prayer h a l l . I t i s regretted that some of the members of Khalsa Diwan Society purposly entered i n the main prayer h a l l under the influence of alcohol and also without covering t h e i r heads. According to the sikh f a i t h i t i s absolutely forbidden to enter into the temple whilst under influence of Alcohol, tobacco, with shoes and without covering of heads. This mischievous,unruly . 116 an u n d i s c i p l i n e d b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s e members d i s r u p t e d t h e h e a v e n l y s p r i t u a l a s s e m b l y o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . We now u n d e r s t a n d t h a t B h a i S a h i b J i w a n S i n g h & J a t h a , u n d e r t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w i l l n o t r e c i t e t h e i r d i v i n e K e e r t a n c e r e m o n i e s . T h i s l o s s o f K e e r t a n i s p a i n f u l l y f e l t by t h e d e d i c a t e d s i k h s o f l o w e r m a i n l a n d . We w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e i f g u i d a n c e f o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s be t a k e n and o b s e r v e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e "REHAT MARYADA" r u l e s s e t b y t h e h i g h a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e s i k h s . ADMINISTRATION:-I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h e S o c i e t y i s r u n n i n g a P u n j a b i S c h o o l i n t h e t e m p l e ( G u r d w a r a ) . However a t t h e same t i m e we do n o t u n d e r s t a n d what has i t t o do w i t h t h e E a s t I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s C i t i z e n s * W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n . I t i s n o t i c e d f r o m t h e D i r e c t o r y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t h a t t h e s c h o o l has b e e n r u n by t h e so c a l l e d w e l f a r e a s s o c i a t i o n . I t h as a l s o b e e n n o t i c e d t h a t t h e management o f S i k h t e m p l e i s a l l o w i n g t h e E a s t I n d i a n s C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s ' W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n t o h o l d t h e i r m e e t i n g s a t t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h e t e m p l e . We a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t e i t h e r s u c h m e e t i n g s s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d i n t h e t e m p l e o r t h e manage-ment o f t h e t e m p l e s h o u l d a l s o p e r m i t o t h e r s o c i e t i e s t o h o l d t h e i r m e e t i n g s i n t h e t e m p l e as w e l l . On B a i s a k h i Day c e l e b r a t i o n , some o f t h e s i k h s a n g a t g o t p a r k i n g t i c k e t s as t h e y c o u l d n o t f i n d s u i t a b l e p l a c e f o r p a r k i n g o f t h e i r c a r s . Due t o l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t p a r k i n g s p a c e around' t h e t e m p l e , we w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e i f t h e a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y t o t h e t e m p l e be c o n v e r t e d i n t o p r o p e r p a r k i n g a r e a . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n a s s e m b l i e s o f s i k h s o f l o w e r m a i n l a n d and a l s o t o a v o i d m i s h a p s a n d u n n e c e s s a r y t e n s i o n s i n t h e t e m p l e , i t w i l l h e l p i f p r o p e r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h i s l e t t e r . We w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r d e t a i l e d a n d prompt r e p l y t o o u r r e q u e s t l e t t e r . * • * T h a n k i n g y o u , Y o u r s t r u l y , MEMBERS: & SIKH SANGAT -KHALSA DIWAN SOCIETY, VANCOUVER s i g n e d by 374 p e r s o n s (Members o f S i k h S a n g a t ) c c . The R e g i s t r a r o f Companies V i c t o r i a , B.C. c . c . The O f f i c e o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , V i c t o r i a , B.C. c . c . The O f f i c e o f t h e Mayor, V a n c o u v e r , B.C. c . c . The O f f i c e o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , Ottawa, Ont. c . c . S i k h Temples i n B.C. a n d a b r o a d . c . c . The P r e s i d e n t , S. G. P. C , A m r i t s a r , I n d i a . .118 KHALSA DIWAN SOCIETY SIKH TEMPLE 8000 Ross Street at Marine Drive Vancouver, B.C. V5X 4C5 TELEPHONE: 32 4-2010 Dated: 1st Aug'1977 AN OPEN LETTER IN RESPONSE TO TWO LETTERS SENT BY REGISTERED MAIL TO THE PRESIDENT OF KHALSA DIWAN SOCIETY BY SOME MEMBERS OF THE SIKH COMMUNITY Dear concerned members of Sikh Community, Sat S i r i Akal. I received your registered l e t t e r s on June 28, 19 77, I regret the delay i n answering them. There i s a reason ^ for that. I w i l l explain. Most of you are well aware that certain individuals have been carrying on a steady propaganda compaign against the Management at Ross Street Temple. Their objective i s to di s c r e d i t the Khalsa Diwan Society i n the eyes of public. By doing t h i s they hope to change the management at the Temple. There i s nothing wrong with th i s idea except t h e i r approach and means they adopt to achieve t h i s . We have not responded to t h i s hate compaign. Neither have we thought f i t to defend ourselves against such v i l i -f i c a t i o n . Indulgence i n such undignified t a c t i c s i s un-becoming of a Sikh. Further more i t would not serve the cause of the Cumminity. I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s would cause great harm and unpleasantness i n the com-munity. We have had enough of that. We wanted to move away from that, however, these individuals don't leave us alone. Their continuous condemnation of Sahej Dh^rJ^^iJshs and the Temple compels us to inform the public" for what they are. They claim themselves to be 'Singhs' of Guru Gobind Singh and defenders of Sikh f a i t h . A very e g o t i s t i c as-sumption to say the lea s t . A Singh of Guru Gobind Singh i s a Saint Soldier. He i s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e everything, even his l i f e , for the preservation and protection of the poor, the weak and the defenceless. He i s never a con-querer. He i s not v i n d i c t i v e . He figh t s only to protect . 119 U others, never to s o l i d i f y or enhance his own p o s i t i o n . In other words, he i s a Saint f i r s t and then a s o l d i e r . With-out s a i n t l i n e s s , a warrior i s nothing more than a pro-fessi o n a l s o l d i e r who i s trained to f i g h t and k i l l . A true Singh i s f u l l of humility, compassion, love and forgive-r ness. These virtues were best examplified by Bhai Ghaniya. A l l of us f a l l short of these virtues-including the 'Singhs' who have f a i l e d to set a good example f o r others to follow. From my personal observation and discussion with these few 'Singhs' - not a l l are included here, obviously a l o t of you are good singhs - I have come to the conclusion that they are neither genuinely interested i n the propogation of Sikh ideas to the younger generation of C a n a d i a n s nor are they interested i n the general wellfare of the Sikh Community. A l l they aspire to i s control the Management at the Temple. They don't f e e l at east i n Canada, always look to Punjab as t h e i r home; import bad p o l i t i c s from there into temples and our homes. In the name of r e l i g i o n they want to sanc-t i f y t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s which have no relevance i n Canada. They l i v e i n the past and do not want to face the future i n Canada, otherwise they would be more constructive with t h e i r c r i t i c i s m , not.destructive as they are now. I would suggest they adopt to the Canadian s i t u a t i o n here and leave Punjab or India's p o l i t i c s alone. Sikhism has much to give to the Western World and we have f a i l e d even to impart i t to our own children. Whose f a u l t i s i t ? You answer that question yourself. I suggest the dedicated Sikhs come forward and set good example for our children to follow. For the sake of the community I beg these people to stop these d i v i s i v e and antagonistic a c t i v i t i e s . Our. community has suffered enough. Our image had become tarnished. I t ' s time to heal the wounds caused by r i f t and dissension. Let us also not take our problems outside the community. The management of the temple has not been perfect but there has been improvement over the l a s t couple of years. We are continuing this task of reconstruction and restora-tion of mutual f a i t h and respect. Much remains to be done. It w i l l take time. Let us show patience and r e s t r a i n t and not make unreasonable and u n r e a l i s t i c demands on management. A l l of you have the r i g h t to become members of the Society by November of t h i s year. Then you can take part in the e l e c t i o n of next year's committee. This i s the r i g h t you must exercise. You can e l e c t whom you consider most suitable to carry out r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n accordance with 120 S i k h R e h a t and M a ryada. T h i s i s t h e o n l y a c c e p t a b l e and r a t i o n a l way t o b r i n g a b o u t a change i n t h e management. I f y o u f a i l t o e x e r c i s e t h a t r i g h t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e n . t h e r e i s no p o i n t i n b l a m i n g o t h e r s . 1 No one i n d i v i d u a l can c l a i m t o be t h e p r o t e c t o r o f S i k h R e l i g i o n . God and o u r Gurus do n o t : . r e q u i r e o u r p r o t e c t i o n . They c a n s t a n d on t h e i r own. I t i s us who r e q u i r e p r o t e c -t i o n . S i m i l a r l y t h e h o n o u r o f GURU GRANTH SAHIB i s n o t p r o t e c t e d by any i n d i v i d u a l . An i n d i v i d u a l ; w h o i n t h e p r e -s e n c e o f Guru G r a n t h S a h i b d i s p l a y s v i o l a n c e i n t h e p r o -t e c t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f M a r y a d a , i n my o p i n i o n , shows c o m p l e t e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d i s r e g a r d f o r what G u r u G r a n t h S a h i b e mbodies. L e t us pay more a t t e n t i o n t o what i s w r i t t e n i n t h e H o l y Book r a t h e r t o t h e i d o l w o r s h i p . Now I w o u l d l i k e t o answer y o u r ; s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s o r c o m p l a i n t s . \ MEMBERSHIP. I . S e p a r a t e r e c e i p t s b o o k s , and n o t d i f f e r e n t ones, a r e k e p t f o r membership o n l y . . The r e c e i p t Nos r e s e r v e d f o r membership a r e n o t u s e d f o r g e n e r a l d o n a t i o n s . 2. Membership c a r d s s h a l l be m a i l e d s t a r t i n g i n S e p t . REHAT MARYADA. We e n c o u r a g e e v e r y b o d y t o c o v e r h i s o r h e r h e a d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e Temple. However we do not: b e l i e v e i n u s i n g c o e r c i o n . I t must be v o l u n t a r y . You c a n ' t f o r c e r e l i g i o n on p e o p l e . I t has t o f o l l o w f r o m w i t h i n . T h e r e f o r e we l e a v e S e v a d a r s i n t h e t e m p l e t o t h e i r own c o n s c i e n c e , w h e t h e r t o c o v e r t h e i r heads o r n o t . We do e n c o u r a g e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d c o v e r them. Under t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s we do n o t f e e l a n y t h i n g w i l l be g a i n e d b y t a k i n g a h a r d s t a n d on .the i s s u e . G i v e n more t i m e i t w i l l r e s o l v e i t s e l f . The s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g K i r t a n o f B h a i J i w a n was c r e a t e d by him. We had i n v i t e d him t o t h e Temple h o p i n g t h a t p e r h a p s he w o u l d i n c u l c a t e , t h r o u g h h i s K i r t a n and ex-p o s i t i o n o f G u r b a n i , much d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f G u r b a n i t o t h e S a n g a t e v e n n o n b e l i e v e r s , b u t he f a i l e d t o do s o . H i s c o n s t a n t c o n d e m n a t i o n o f ' P a t t i t S i k h s ' made them un-c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e Temple. Some o f t h e S i n g h s a c t e d i n a v e r y u n d i g n i f i e d manner i n t h e t e m p l e . Of c o u r s e t h e r e -a c t i o n was u n d e s i r e a b l e . I t was most u n f o r t u n a t e i n c i d e n t and I am n o t p r o u d o f what happened on"-that day; o n l y I may t e l l y o u a l o t w o rse c o u l d have happened b u t d i d n o t . L e t us a l l f o r g e t t h a t and a l l o f us must t r y t o a v o i d r e c u r r e n c e o f s u c h u n p l e a s a n t i n c i d e n t s i n t h e Temple. To answer y o u r o t h e r q u e s t i o n s ; .121 (a) East Indian Canadian Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n (EICCWA) does not run Punjabi School i n the temple. Your i n -formation i s not c o r r e c t . (b) There i s no harm i n having meetings, l e c t u r e s , or cl a s s e s i n the temple, as long as these meetings or l e c t u r e s ( i ) are not of p o l i t i c a l nature; ( i i ) are done f o r the general b e n i f i t of the Sikh Community; ( i i i ) do not go against the s p i r i t and tenets of Sikhism; (iv) are conducted p e a c e f u l l y and q u i e t l y and e f f i c i e n t l y and do not i n t e r f e r e the r e g u l a r temple a c t i v i t i e s . (c) With the funds i n hand we are t r y i n g to do as many improvements as p o s s i b l e on p r i o r i t y b a s i c . Parking i s next on our l i s t . This e x p l a i n s the p o s i t i o n of my Committee. We welcome your c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestions f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . S i n c e r e l y Yours (KESAR SINGH BHATTI) APPENDIX III - PART A .122 DRAFT CONSTITUTION" OF BY-LAWS (Revised) ARTICLE I NAME: The Association s h a l l be known as National Association of Canadians of Origins i n India (NACOI). Interpretations: "Canadians" includes landed immigrants to Canada, of o r i g i n s i n India. "Origins i n India" applies to a l l persons who have t h e i r o r i g i n i n India by b i r t h , marriage or ancestry. ARTICLE II DEFINITIONS: The Association s h a l l be a non-profit charitable corporation as defined under the Federal Internal Revenue Act. ARTICLE III AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To encourage Canadians of origins i n India to f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n Canadian Society. 2. To provide a national voice to Canadians of o r i g i n s i n India. 3. To provide a forum fo r exchange of ideas, issues and common concerns. 4. To f a c i l i t a t e communication within and with other organizations. 5. To assure and protect the rights of Canadians of origins i n India. 6. To a s s i s t i n the orientation and adapta-t i o n of Canadians of origins i n India to the Canadian milieu and to bring about a better understanding of Canada and other Canadians. 7 . To formulate guidelines for improving the c o l l e c t i v e image of Canadians of o r i g i n s i n India. 8. To assure due recognition of the c o n t r i -butions of Canadians of o r i g i n s i n India to Canada. .123 ARTICLE IV HEADQUARTERS: The n a t i o n a l Head O f f i c e s h a l l be l o c a t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l R e g i o n (Ottawa-H u l l ) a t a p l a c e t h e r e i n where t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o t i m e be c o n d u c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e N a t i o n a l Head o f f i c e , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n may e s t a b l i s h o t h e r o f f i c e s a nd r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s anywhere i n Canada as t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s may deem e x p e d i e n t by r e s o l u t i o n . APPENDIX III - PART B .124 AN OPEN LETTER 5361 Wallace Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6N 2A1 August 18, 1977. The Honourable Ron Basford Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, Parliament Buildings, Ottawa. Dear Mr. Basford: In an e a r l i e r l e t t e r I have already explained to you why our East Indian Canadian community at large i s exas-perated and unhappy at t h i s f a r c i c a l organization c a l l e d NACOI (National Association of Canadians of Origins i n India). The decision of the Honourable Secretary of State to dole away f i v e thousand do l l a r s of the tax payers' money to NACOI, which i s not a representative group, has heightened the disappointment and anger of our people. Please advise the Honourable Secretary of State to cancel this u n j u s t i f i e d grant to NACOI so that our L i b e r a l Government i s saved from public censure and disgrace. For your knowledge allow me to sum up the objections of our people i n a more s p e c i f i c manner: 1. Why did the promoters of NACOI i n Ottawa not approach a l l organizations of East Indian Canadian community i n B r i t i s h Columbia? 2. Why did these conveners i n Ottawa choose to i n v i t e only two organizations from B.C., namely, East Indian Canadians Welfare Associa-tion and Hindu Wishva Parishad, for an organizational meeting i n Ottawa nearly a year and a half ago? Why did they ignore and over-look the oldest and largest segment, that i s , the Sikhs of B r i t i s h Columbia who have over twenty Sikh temples i n t h i s province and who constitute almost eighty per cent of the o v e r a l l East Indian community i n B.C.? 3. Why were those individuals who are active i n community work and i n p o l i t i c a l parties kept i n dark a l l along? .125 4. Why d i d t h o s e f o u r o r f i v e p e r s o n s who a t t e n d e d t h e O t tawa m e e t i n g , who now s i t on t h e e x e c u t i v e and ad h o c c o m m i t t e e o f t h e B.C. C h a p t e r o f NACOI, c h o o s e t o r e m a i n s i l e n t f o r a y e a r and a h a l f ? Why d i d t h e y n o t on t h e i r r e t u r n f r o m Ottawa i n f o r m t h e community a b o u t t h e f o u n d i n g o f NACOI? Why were t h e y a f r a i d o f t h e demo-c r a t i c p r o c e s s ? How c a n t h e y now a s k t h e p e o p l e t o a p p r o v e t h e NACOI c o n s t i t u t i o n , whose d r a f t was n e v e r shown t o t h e p e o p l e ? 5. Why d i d t h e p r e s i d e n t o f NACOI, one R a n j i t ' H a l l , who i s a c i v i l s e r v a n t , make no a t t e m p t t o meet t h e community a t l a r g e when he v i s i t e d V a n c o u v e r a b o u t two months ago? The b u r e a u c r a t i c v p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r e s i d e n t i s a l s o objectionab.le.nand:.cannot be c o n d u c i v e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o u r E a s t I n d i a n community. 6. The b u r e a u c r a t s i n t h e Dept. o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e and i n t h e D e p t . o f I m m i g r a t i o n s h o u l d n o t t r y t o p u s h f o r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o u r community. Our community does n o t n e e d g u i d a n c e and s p o o n f e e d i n g f r o m t h e b u r e a u c r a t s , some o f whom seem k e e n on s u p e r i m p o s i n g on C a n a d i a n S i k h s an a r t i f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e NACOI. The C a n a d i a n S i k h community c a n l o o k a f t e r i t s n e e d s , as i t a l w a y s has s i n c e 1904. R e g a r d s . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , [ ( s i g n e d ) H a r k i r p a l S i n g h S a r a , P r e s i d e n t , M a r p o l e L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Copy t o : The R i g h t Hon. P.E. T r u d e a u , P r i m e M i n i s t e r The Hon. S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e The Hon. R . J . P e r r a u l t , S e n a t o r The Hon. J . P . Gunn, The P r e s i d e n t , S h i r o m a n i A k a l i D a l A s s ' n o f Canada. APPENDIX III - PART C . 126 SHIROMANI AKALI DAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA P.O. Box 67605 Postal Station "O" Vancouver, B.C. Canada, V5W 3V1 2421,East 49th avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5S 1J3 2 3rd August,197 7 The Honourable John Roberts, P.C., M.P. Secretary of State of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Dear Mr. Roberts: Our organization i s the h i s t o r i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l organization of Sikhs that has been responsible for f i g h t i n g for Sikh causes for over two centuries, since the Khalsa (Sikh) confederation of baptized Sikhs was es-tablished by our l a s t and Tenth Prophet S r i Guru Gobind Singh, i n A.D. 1699. However, there are numerous Sikh organiza-tions a l l across Canada today. These are doing good work, in t h e i r f i e l d s , be those c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , l i t e r a r y or other. They go under various names i n many of our Canadian provinces. Yet, we are now given to understand that some c i v i l - s e r v a n t i n i t i a t e d organization by the name of "National Association of Canadians of Origins i n India" i s being currently promoted, on the assumption that a national organization of so-called "East-Indians" i s necessary. As far as the SIKHS are concerned the des-c r i p t i o n "East-Indian" i s not only a mis-nomer, but also highly p r e j u d i c i a l to Sikhs to whom i t i s mutatis mutandis a p p l i e d — for administrative convenience, i f for no other reason. Sikhs would be happy i f they are not generally termed "East-Indians". We would be content: to be just SIKHS. Sikhs are not only members of a Sikh f a i t h , but are also members of a Sikh nation. Sikhs were sovereign and ruled the Kingdom of the Punjab, u n t i l i t f e l l to the B r i t i s h i n A.D. 1846. We are proudf to be Canadian Sikhs now. • 127 We go on r e c o r d as b e i n g o p p o s e d t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f S i k h s i n t h e new, and s p u r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g p e d d l e d as NACOI a f o r e s a i d . None o f t h e S i k h o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d s u r r e n d e r t h e i r e n t i t i e s t o i t , and we b e l i e v e o n l y one o r two o u t o f s c o r e s o f C a n a d i a n S i k h o r g a n i z a t i o n s have e v e n c o n s e n t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s f o r t h c o m i n g m e e t i n g l a t e r t h i s month a t SFU. On b e h a l f o f S i k h s o f Canada, we t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e above move i s a d i s t i n c t manoeuvre t o b r e a k t h e S i k h p o s i t i o n i n Canada, b e c a u s e S i k h s a r e n u m e r i c a l l y i n m a j o r i t y , and h a v e b e e n t h e p i o n e e r i m m i g r a n t p e o p l e s e t t l i n g i n Canada s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . We c a n n o t s t o p new o r g a n i z a t i o n s coming i n t o b e i n g . However, we w o u l d s t r o n g l y o b j e c t t o any i f t h e s e a r e c a l c u l a t e d t o s h o r t - c i r c u i t , s o t o s p e a k , g e n u i n e and m a j o r i t y p e o p l e , t h e S i k h s o f Canada. We s u b m i t , t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s new g r o u p , NACOI, i s t o g i v e i m p o r t a n c e t o n o n - S i k h p e o p l e , o f I n d i a n o r i g i n , s u c h as H i n d u s , F i g i a n s , W e s t - I n d i a n s , and t h e l i k e . S i k h s n a t u r a l l y w o u l d n o t be i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c h a g r o u p , b e c a u s e S i k h s have a s t r o n g c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n a n d p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i e t y o f t h e i r own. We do n o t w i s h t o be lumped w i t h some p e o p l e s o f " O r i g i n s i n I n d i a " . T h e r e a r e M u s l i m s who had once o r i g i n s i n I n d i a . They have t h e i r own d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n and a r e a s e p a r a t e p e o p l e , same as a r e t h e S i k h s . We f e e l t h a t t h e Government o f Canada o u g h t t o be made aware o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and p e o p l e i n C a n a d a — o f w h i c h S i k h s a r e an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . S h o u l d S i k h s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e n o t b e i n g g i v e n a f a i r s h a k e , so t o s p e a k , i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n government and o u r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , p e r h a p s t h e C a n a d i a n S i k h s m i g h t t h i n k i t .'••.urgent t h e n t o e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l f r o n t o r body o f t h e i r own as w o u l d r e p r e s e n t , a t l e a s t i n t o k e n , t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a -t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s o f C a n a d i a n S i k h s a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s m i g h t become n e c e s s a r y , i f , e s p e c i a l l y we a r e n o t meted o u t a f a i r s h a r e we d e s e r v e i n t h i s c o u n t r y where we have made h i s t o r y i n a number o f ways a l r e a d y . We e x p e c t t h e n a t i o n a l g o v ernment t o be v i g i l a n t i n t h e s e m a t t e r s . S i k h s f e e l t h a t o u r n a t i o n a l g o v ernment s h o u l d have w i t h i n t h e p a s t 10 y e a r s a p p o i n t e d o u r p e o p l e t o d e s e r v i n g p o s i t i o n s i n t h e government o f t h e c o u n t r y , . 128> s u c h as t h e b e n c h . We have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d i n Canada, b u t have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l as y e t i n h a v i n g a c a n d i d a t e n o m i n a t e d t o c o n t e s t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . Our s t r e n g t h ' i s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b u t we have o u r p e o p l e s e t t l e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s i n most o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f Canada, and i n a l m o s t e v e r y w a l k . o f l i f e . We r e g r e t -f u l l y have t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g overnment c o u l d have done b e t t e r w i t h r e g a r d s t o o u r l e g i t i m a t e p o s i t i o n and r i g h t s as an i m p o r t a n t m i n o r i t y g r o u p o f Canada. However, we a r e n o t d e s p o n d e n t , and c e r t a i n l y l o o k f o r w a r d t o a s p e e d y a c t i o n a t t h i s day and age on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l g overnment. We do hope t h a t t h i s b r i e f w o u l d b e t t e r s t a t e o u r p o s i t i o n as C a n a d i a n S i k h s , and t h e g overnment w i l l n o t f a l l i n t o e r r o r i n d e a l i n g w i t h q u e s t i o n s when-e v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f s o - c a l l e d " E a s t - I n d i a n s " o r " O r i g i n s i n I n d i a " comes up. E v e n o u r " o r i g i n s " go f a r t h e r t h a n " I n d i a " , s i n c e o u r p e o p l e a r e composed o f t h e I n d o -S c y t h i a n s t o c k t h a t s e t t l e d i n n o r t h e r n I n d i a s i n c e 1s t c e n t u r y A.D. W i t h o u r g o od w i s h e s , Y o u r s S i n c e r e l y , ( s i g n e d ) M o l l a S i n g h , P r e s i d e n t . 

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