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Social communications in planning Carney, Pat 1977

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SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS IN PLANNING by P a t r i c i a Carney B.A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1960 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the School of Community and Regional Planning University of B r i t i s h Columbia We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard May 1977 (c) P a t r i c i a Carney 1977 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Depa rtment ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s to explore the role of communications i n planning and to suggest the design s p e c i f i c -ations and constraints for a s o c i a l communications delivery system which w i l l enable planners to cope with the demands of an "information ecology" (Nanus, 19 72, p.398) or environment characterized by increasing flows of information and complexity of information systems. In such an environment, there i s a need to provide for an element of information i n the o v e r a l l planning process. The use of information i n planning i s described as " s o c i a l communications", which we have defined as "the use of information/communications systems to achieve planning objectives normally incorporating an element of s o c i a l change". Our t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s based on the concept that the s o c i e t a l forces behind the ^evolution of an information ecology may be f i r s t , the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l society ( B e l l , 1973) i n which information, or knowledge, becomes a major resource; and second, the r i s i n g demands of c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making process, p a r t i c u l a r l y when such decisions a f f e c t them. In designing our s o c i a l communi-cations delivery system, therefore, we have attempted to incorporate public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies as one mode of communication. i i i . The study reviews the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of planning theory, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communications. I t describes the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t r a d i t i o n a l communications modes, and presents a case study i n which a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program was used as a s o c i a l communications mode. F i n a l l y , i t presents models f o r "one-way" and "two-way" s o c i a l communications systems f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l communications program, and f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which i n c l u d e s a l l three elements, e.g. both "one-way" and "two-way" channels and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The study concludes t h a t the planner may u t i l i z e a s o c i a l communication system i f he has a need to disseminate i n f o r -mation about p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s and at l e a s t a p a r t i a l need to o b t a i n response, or feedback, from h i s t a r g e t groups. This i s l i k e l y to be the case i f he i s planning f o r in n o v a t i o n . I t a l s o concludes the planner's success i n u t i l i z i n g s o c i a l communications i n the planning process w i l l depend l a r g e l y on h i s s e l e c t i o n of the appropriate degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and mode of communication. Other e s s e n t i a l elements are the s e l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t u n i t s of informat i o n and the design of an e f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r y system. The study i s based mainly on a review of the l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o f f i c i a l s of the Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission and r e l a t e d agencies. The study i v . also draws on the professional work of the author when she served as Assistant Director-General, Information, Canadian Habitat Secretariat, on the occasion of the staging i n Vancouver of HABITAT: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, May 31 - June 11, 1976. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables and Figures v i i i Acknowledgement ix CHAPTER ONE: THE CHALLENGE 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 RATIONALE . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . 7 1.4 OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . 8 1.5 SCOPE . . . . . . . . 9 1.6 METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . 10 1.7 ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER TWO: THE CONCEPTS 13 2.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 13 2.2 THE PLANNING PROCESS . . . . . 15 2.3 THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATIONS . . . . 27 Theoretical Approaches to Communications . 27 Additional Theoretical Concepts . . . 37 Social Communications C r i t e r i a . . . 45 2.4 THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION . . . 4 8 Constraints on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . 59 Communications and P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . 63 Public P a r t i c i p a t i o n C r i t e r i a . . . . 66 CHAPTER THREE: COMMUNICATIONS MODES 70 3.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 70 3.2 COMMUNICATIONS MODES . . . . . 71 Face-to-Face . . . . . . . 73 Telephone . . . . . . . . 73 Broadcasting Systems . . . . . 75 Cable Television . . . . . . 80 D i g i t a l Information Relay Systems . . . 88 S a t e l l i t e s . . . . . . . 97 Pri n t . . . . . . . . . 98 v i Table of Contents (cont.) ~ Page 3.2 Cont. Video-tape and Film . . . . . . . 102 Media Access Groups . . . . . . 108 Community Information Centres . . . . 108 3.3 SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODES . . . . 109 CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY (HABITAT) 114 4.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 114 4.2 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . 115 Goals and Objectives , . . . . 116 Scope and Timing . . . . . . 119 Methodology . . . . . . . 121 4.3 MODES OF COMMUNICATION . . . . . 122 Face-to-Face (Volunteer Speakers Bureau). . 122 Telephone System . . . . . . 125 Broadcast Systems . . . . . . 126 Cable Television . . . . . . 127 Computers and S a t e l l i t e s . . . . . 12 8 Video-tape and Audio-visual . . . . 12 9 P r i n t . . . . . . . . . 130 Community Information Centres . . . . 132 Pa r t i c i p a t i o n Modes of Communicationq . . 133 4.4 NEIGHBOURHOOD WALKS PROGRAM . . . . 134 HABITAT Mount Pleasant Walk . . . . 137 HABITAT West Point Grey Walk . . . . 140 HABITAT West End Walk . . . . . 142 HABITAT Cycle Event . . . . . . 144!. HABITAT U.E.L. Forest Walk . . . . 145 4.5 PROGRAM EVALUATION . . . . . . 146 CHAPTER FIVE: A SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS DELIVERY SYSTEM 154 5.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 154 5.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK . . . . . 15 6 5.3 SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODEL . . . . 163 5.4 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION MODEL . . . . 166 5.5 PARTICIPATION COMMUNICATION MODEL . . . 172 Fogo Island (Recycling Model) . . . . 172 Habitat Walks (Ripple Model) . . . . 176 v i i Table of Contents (cont.) Page 5.6 DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS . . . . 178 5.7 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . 181 Further Research . . . . . . 182 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . 183 APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . 190 v i i i LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES TABLES Page TABLE I. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION MODES . . . . I l l FIGURES FIGURE 1. MEIER'S MODEL OF COMMUNICATIONS FLOW . . 30 FIGURE 2. EIGHT RUNGS ON THE LADDER OF PARTICIPATION by Sherry Ri Arnstein . . . . . 60 FIGURE 3. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - ONE-WAY . . . 164 FIGURE 4. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - TWO-WAY . . . 16 5 FIGURE 5. NINE LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION . . . 168 FIGURE 6. DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION . . . . 170 FIGURE 7. FOGO ISLAND MODEL (RECYCLING MODEL) . . 174 FIGURE 8. HABITAT WALKS (RIPPLE MODEL) . . . 176 FIGURE 9. DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS . . . 178 I X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o t h a n k Dr. M i c h a e l S e e l i g and Dr. J o h n C o l l i n s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and comments i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER ONE THE CHALLENGE 1.1 INTRODUCTION There i s a conceptual undercurrent running through the planning l i t e r a t u r e which views information as both a source and a means of energy, or power. Both Meier (1962) and B e l l (1973) view information as an energy flow or system. The impact of information as energy i s deemed by several writers to a f f e c t both the physical and s o c i a l aspects of human settlements. Kalba (1973) expresses the p r e v a i l i n g viewpoint when he argues that information services and systems w i l l have as s i g n i f i c a n t an impact on the shape and a c t i v i t i e s of future communities as the automobile has had on e x i s t i n g settlement patterns. Sackman and Boehm (19 72) have explored the concept of the information u t i l i t y , which w i l l l i n k communities of the future by means of computers, video-recorders and other communications technology into a wired world. Wise (1971) suggests that e l e c t r o n i c communications can both expand people's awareness of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences, and thus bring them closer together, and i s o l a t e them by enclosing many s o c i a l and c u t l u r a l a c t i v i t i e s within the home. 2. Nanus argues that information i s as important to the human condition as water or energy and suggests that the l i f e of a community may be re-organized around a new "information ecology" (1972, p. 398) with profound impacts on community residents. Comparing the impact of information with that of the automobile, Nanus points out "... the automobile and the skyscraper reshaped the c i t y but i n the process of absorbing these changes the c i t y i n turn reshaped the l i f e -s t y l e s , interests and values of i t s residents" (1972, p„375). Despite t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the subject, most urban planners have ignored the role of communications or information i n planning, apparently - i f the absence of d e f i n i t i v e analysis i n the planning l i t e r a t u r e i s taken as an index - because planning techniques i n t h i s f i e l d appear to be i n t h e i r infancy. One popular viewpoint, heard repeatedly i n private discussions with planners, i s that the best way to convey information about a plan i s to "leak i t to the press". Yet the emerging importance of information systems and information flows within the planner's sphere of operation raises a number of i n t r i g u i n g questions: 1. What constitutes "information" or information systems? 2. Why i s the impact of information systems and flows on communities and the people who l i v e i n them becoming so important? 3. 3. What developments i n planning theory take into account the emerging importance of information systems and flows? 4. How can planners accommodate information systems and flows i n the planning process? 5. Can e x i s t i n g planning techniques, such as public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , be u t i l i z e d as a mode or method of incorporating information systems and flows into the o v e r a l l planning process? 6. What new techniques might be evolved which w i l l enable planners to cope with the increasing s i z e of information flows, and complexity of information systems? In t h i s study, we have chosen to explore the p o t e n t i a l role of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communications, since public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies involve people, and face-to-face communication between people was the e a r l i e s t form of communication (Meier, 1962). The linkage between people and communication gives us a s t a r t i n g point i n our search for techniques and strategies to enable the planner to face the challenge posed by the impact of the information ecology described by Nanus (19 72). 1.2 RATIONALE If information i s indeed a source and means of power, we contend that information systems can be designed as c a r e f u l l y as other energy systems. Drucker (1969) defines 4 . engineering as the " c o d i f i c a t i o n of the right way to do a task" (1968, p.270). If we accept t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , we can develop the following analogy between information planning and pipeline planning, which also involves energy flows. In s e l e c t i n g the right-of-way, or ROW, the p i p e l i n e engineer must choose the most e f f i c i e n t route, within the constraints imposed by the t e r r a i n , the technology of his system and the s o c i a l , economic and environmental impact of his project. S i m i l a r l y , the information planner must route his system through the human landscape i n a manner which enables him to reach his target or market, i n the most cost-e f f e c t i v e manner and with a minimum of interference from external sources. In his planning, the pipeline engineer must account for both the construction impact of his project and i t s operations phase, when his attention s h i f t s from the u t i l i t y to the transmission of energy flowing through i t . In turn, the information planner must view his communications system as a conduit or a u t i l i t y , which transmits messages or transactions. Each component has d i f f e r e n t planning implications. The pipeline engineer takes into account the size and strength of the pipe used to construct his l i n e , to ensure that i t can withstand the pressure of energy funnelled through i t . The information planner must design his system within cert a i n stress tolerances to ensure that his messages are 5. t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m p o i n t o f o r i g i n t o p o i n t o f d e s t i n a t i o n i n a c o n t r o l l e d manner. The p i p e l i n e p l a n n e r s l o w l y i n c r e a s e s h i s t h r o u g h p u t o f e n e r g y o v e r t i m e , as s u p p l i e s come on s t r e a m a t t h e s o u r c e , and as m a r k e t s a r e f o u n d a t t h e p o i n t o f d e s t i n a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y gauge t h e a b i l i t y o f h i s t a r g e t g r o u p s t o a s s i m i l a t e h i s p r o d u c t , and s h o u l d u p g r a d e t h e c o n t e n t a n d i n c r e a s e t h e f l o w o f m essages o v e r a s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d . M e i e r (1962) f o r i n s t a n c e , s u g g e s t s t h a t between t h i r t y and s i x t y p e r c e n t o f a q u a n t i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e t a i n e d by t h e r e c i p i e n t , and e v e n t h a t amount i s s l o w l y d i s s i p a t e d o v e r t i m e . The p i p e l i n e p l a n n e r may d o u b l e o r l o o p h i s main l i n e t o i n c r e a s e t h e f l o w o f e n e r g y . He may b u i l d l a t e r a l s f r o m t h e m a i n l i n e t o s e r v i c e d i f f e r e n t m a r k e t s and t a p d i f f e r e n t e n e r g y s o u r c e s . I n t u r n , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r c o n s t r u c t s h i s n e t w o r k by u t i l i z i n g a v a r i e t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o o l s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v i c e d i v e r s e m a r k e t s . The p i p e l i n e p l a n n e r i n s t a l l s pumping s t a t i o n s t o b o o s t t h e p r e s s u r e i n h i s s y s t e m and m a i n t a i n an e f f i c i e n t f l o w o f e n e r g y ; t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t o h i s s y s t e m r e p e a t e r s t a t i o n s , s u c h as community i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s , t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n and r e c e p t i o n o f messages. J u s t as t h e p i p e l i n e p l a n n e r may r e d u c e t h e p r e s s u r e o f h i s e n e r g y f l o w a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e m a i n l i n e and l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r may n e e d t o 6 . a l t e r the form and content of his mainstream messages to allow for regional or ethnic differences, levels of l i t e r a c y , l o c a l concerns and the c a p a b i l i t y of l o c a l delivery systems. Both energy systems require monitoring and feedback devices to ensure an orderly flow and to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l trouble spots. Too much energy i n either system can produce an overload; indeed, the preoccupation with "information overload" i n the absence of properly designed systems i s evident i n the planning l i t e r a t u r e . The consequences of inadequate planning for both systems can be explosive; the point has been made that an information system which i s open to manipulation, or which transmits biased messages aimed at generating discord and disorder can have as p o t e n t i a l l y damaging,an impact as a Candu reactor which has been converted from peaceful use into a nuclear bomb (Axworthy, 1971). Axworthy states "... any l i n k i n the communication system which purposely or otherwise withholds information could lead to an instantaneous transmission of incorrect or incomplete information and i f ca r r i e d to an extreme, a nuclear holocaust" (1971, p. 3) . If we assume that the authors noted above are correct i n t h e i r assessment of the impact of information flows on human settlement systems and a c t i v i t i e s , there i s a clear need to develop techniques which w i l l enable planners to incorporate an information element i n the o v e r a l l planning process. The use of information i n planning may be described as s o c i a l communications. 7. 1.3 DEFINITIONS At t h i s point, some c l a r i f i c a t i o n of terminology might be useful. The term "communications" i s used i n a number of ways i n the l i t e r a t u r e , often interchangeably with the terms "information", "cybernetics" (or man-made communication), "mass communication", "media", "information u t i l i t i e s " , etc. Goldstein (1974) points out that the term information theory has been used more or less synonymously with communication theory, and that a d i s t i n c t i o n between the two i s ra r e l y made. He then goes on to suggest d e f i n i t i o n s for each which are of li m i t e d use to us; communication theory, for instance, i s defined i n highly structured mathematic terms and information theory i s equated with cybernetics (1974, p.13). Meier a d r o i t l y evades the task by dismissing the meaning of communication as " f a i r l y self-evident" (1962, p.2). By borrowing l i b e r a l l y from the l i t e r a t u r e and by juxtapositioning words and meanings we have evolved the following d e f i n i t i o n s for the purposes of th i s work: Information i s defined as knowledge, messages or transactions which are transmitted v i a an information or communications system; Information System i s defined as a "sequence of states of an in t e r a c t i n g population, each state being a function of preceding states" (Meier, 1962, p.2) i n which the population i s deemed to be composed of people, technical components or messages'''. Since t h i s d e f i n i t i o n encompasses technology as well as transactions, the term may be used interchangably with communications system; 8. S o c i a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d t o be t h e u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n ^ c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s t o a c h i e v e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s n o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g an e l e m e n t o f s o c i a l c h ange; P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and i m p l i e s t h e s h a r i n g , t o some d e g r e e , o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be r e f i n e d i n t h e body o f t h e s t u d y . 1 . 4 OBJECTIVES The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e t h e r o l e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g and t o s u g g e s t t h e d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e l i v e r y s y s t e m w h i c h w i l l a i d p l a n n e r s i n a c h i e v i n g p l a n n i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . F u r t h e r , we w i l l s u g g e s t ways i n w h i c h p l a n n e r s may i n c o r p o r a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d e l i v e r y s y s t e m . The s t u d y o b j e c t i v e s a r e s e t o u t as f o l l o w s : 1 . To r e v i e w t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h w o u l d a p p e a r r e l e v a n t t o p l a n n i n g a t t h e community l e v e l ; 2. To d e s c r i b e how p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were u s e d i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a s e s t u d y ; 9. 3. To design the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which in c o r p o r a t e s a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n element. 1.5 SCOPE In d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l communications, there i s a very r e a l danger of being d i s t r a c t e d by the t e c h n i c a l aspects of communications systems, as e x e m p l i f i e d by Rosen (1976) w i t h h i s f u t u r i s t i c v i s i o n s of t e l e p u r c h a s i n g , t e l e p o l l i n g and even f l e x m a i l - a f a c s i m i l e system of t r a n s m i t t i n g l e t t e r s . This tendency i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l i t e r a t u r e . This t h e s i s , however, attempts to concentrate on inform a t i o n as a planning t o o l , which w i l l become more important as the new communications "hardware" comes i n t o general use. There are a d d i t i o n a l s u b s t a n t i v e and s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o the scope of the study. In regard to the former, emphasis has been placed where p o s s i b l e on the Canadian experience, although the t h e o r e t i c a l framework n e c e s s a r i l y draws on a broader base. In regard to the l a t t e r , the case study chosen explores planning i s s u e s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . There i s c l e a r l y a danger i n attempting h o l i s t i c e x t r a p o l a t i o n s to an i s s u e based on l o c a l i z e d experiences, and t h i s l i m i t a t i o n must be taken i n t o account i n f o r m u l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p o l i c i e s . 10. 1.6 METHODOLOGY The preparation of thi s study involved an extensive l i t e r a t u r e review, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on planning theory, s o c i a l communications, and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The various approaches to public p a r t i c i p a t i o n are well documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e ; the sparseness of a n a l y t i c a l work i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l communications i s widely acknowledged. In p a r t i c u l a r , the resources u t i l i z e d include the l i b r a r y and research s t a f f of the Canadian Radio-Television Commission in Ottawa, which proved to be a most productive source of material. The case study was based on the regional information program developed by the author for Canadian Habitat Secretariat, on the occasion of HABITAT, United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, held i n Vancouver May 31 to June 11, 1976. In addition, numerous interviews were carr i e d out i n the f i e l d with p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the media or s o c i a l communica-tions f i e l d . This aspect of the research program also involved viewing of films and video-tapes. The reader w i l l note that references to books and a r t i c l e s i n the text follow the sty l e adopted by the Journal of the American Inst i t u t e of Planners. 1.7 ORGANIZATION This study i s organized i n the following manner. Chapter One includes the introduction to the study and outlines the rationale, objectives, scope and the methodology u t i l i z e d . 11 Chapter Two presents an overview of r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to planning and discusses the r o l e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communication. Chapter Three deals w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l modes of communication of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t to planners and discusses c u r r e n t trends and futu r e expect-a t i o n s . Chapter Four reviews the case s e l e c t e d f o r study, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the use of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a communications mode. Chapter F i v e summarizes our f i n d i n g s and presents p o s s i b l e models f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system. I t a l s o presents our design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s fo a s o c i a l communications system which in c l u d e s a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n element w i t h comments on f u r t h e r areas f o r research i n t h i s f i e l d . 12. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER ONE 1 This d e f i n i t i o n i s adapted from Meier, Richard L. .. (1962) A Communications Theory of Urban Growth, p,2 (Cambridge, Mass.; Cambridge Technology Press of Massachusetts In s t i t u t e of Technology) who uses i t to define any system. CHAPTER TWO THE CONCEPTS 2.1 INTRODUCTION In C h a p t e r One, we have d e s c r i b e d how t h e i n c r e a s i n g f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s a r e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m m u n i t i e s and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p e o p l e who l i v e i n them. T h e s e t r e n d s p o s e a c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e p l a n n e r , who f i n d s h i m s e l f f a c e d w i t h t h e n e e d t o accommodate t h e e m e r g i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n f o r m u l a t i n g h i s p l a n - m a k i n g , w i t h few g u i d e l i n e s t o f a l l b a c k on. He may f i n d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e t a s k a t hand, and t h a t new p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e q u i r e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o him. T h i s c h a p t e r s e e k s t o p r o v i d e answers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n C h a p t e r One: Why i s t h e i m p a c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s and s y s t e m s b e c o m i n g so d o m i n a n t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p l a n n i n g a t t h e community l e v e l ? What d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p l a n n i n g t h e o r y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e e m e r g i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s ? We hope t o show t h a t p o s s i b l e answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s may be f o u n d i n two s o c i e t a l f o r c e s w h i c h a r e a l t e r i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r f u n c t i o n s . The f i r s t i s the emergence of the Post-Industrial Society ( B e l l , 1973) where information, or knowledge, i s construed to be the most important economic resource, and where the a b i l i t y to control or command information w i l l determine the degree of s o c i a l and economic power wielded by various groups i n society (Meier, 1962). Kalba suggests that i n a p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era the central task facing the planner w i l l be the need to plan for innovation. He describes t h i s task, or demand, as "planovation" or the need to determine "the appropriate process for implementing a given innovation" (1974, p.152). The second s o c i e t a l force i s the increasing demands being made by c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n s ' groups to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making process, p a r t i c u l a r l y when such decisions a f f e c t them. This demand has been described as c i t i z e n or public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and has been well documented i n planning l i t e r a t u r e (Cahn and Passett, 1971; Draper, 1971). Kalba expects the demand for public p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l increase i n the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l society to the point where "participant planning" (1974, p. 149) w i l l override r a t i o n a l decision-making. We w i l l attempt to show that the l i n k between these two forces - the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era and of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i s information. We have already described the use of information i n planning as s o c i a l communications. Later i n t h i s study we discuss methods of 15. u t i l i z i n g s o c i a l communications as a process for "planovation" or planning for innovation. We w i l l further discuss ways of u t i l i z i n g public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies as a mode of s o c i a l communication. F i r s t , however, we must address ourselves to our i n i t i a l study objective: To review the planning process and the role of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l communication i n order to i d e n t i f y those elements which would appear relevant to planning at the community l e v e l . F i r s t , we w i l l attempt to define what the planning process i s a l l about, and what new t h e o r e t i c a l concepts are emerging. Second, we w i l l review the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Third, we w i l l examine developments i n the s o c i a l communications f i e l d . 2.2 THE PLANNING PROCESS An extensive review of the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to planning i s beyond the scope of t h i s work. We w i l l adopt the p r e v a i l i n g view that planning involves choices, and that, i n turn, choices involve values. Davidoff and Reiner define planning as "... a set of procedures ... a process for determining appropriate future action through a sequence of choices" (1962, p.103). Fox defines planning as a "... formulated method of doing something ... the formulation o f o b j e c t i v e s and the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f m e e t i n g an o b j e c t i v e " (1970/ p.213). The terms " g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s " , " c h o i c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s " v a l u e s and e v a l u a t i o n " are t h e c u r r e n c y o f p l a n n i n g . K a l b a says t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g paradigm i s "... l a r g e l y c o n c e i v e d as a sequence o f a n a l y t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t e p s , moving from problem and g o a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o p r o j e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o s e l e c t i o n and implement-a t i o n o f programs" (1974, p.153). C i t y p l a n n e r H e r b e r t Gans has a s i m i l a r l y s t r u c t u r e d v i e w o f p l a n n i n g (as) "... a method o f p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h emphasizes e x p l i c i t g o a l -c h o i c e and r a t i o n a l goals-means d e t e r m i n a t i o n , so t h a t d e c i s i o n s can be based on t h e g o a l s p e o p l e are s e e k i n g and on the most e f f e c t i v e programs t o a c h i e v e them" (1968, p . l ) . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as o u t l i n e d by Fox (1970) i s one g e n e r a l l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as f o l l o w s : 1. The p l a n n e r seeks t o i d e n t i f y and u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i k e l y range o f p r e f e r e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t groups i n our s o c i e t y ; 2. P l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p a s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e programs wh i c h r e f l e c t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e s e groups. In o r d e r t o s e r v e m i n o r i t y p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e programs would i n c l u d e components t h a t would s e r v e and p r o t e c t m i n o r i t y as w e l l as p o p u l a r p r e f e r e n c e s ; 3. The a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s would be debated by t h e p u b l i c and/or i t s p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; 17. 4. The planning organization would firm up a l t e r n a t i v e plans i n l i g h t of the debate by the public and i t s representatives so that they may be considered for f i n a l action; 5. The p o l i t i c a l representatives of the public would select the plan for action. There i s less unanimity on the issues of where planning s t a r t s , or more importantly stops. Fox argues that the planning process i s not merely a case of specifying an objective and a way of attaining i t , but a constant weighing of objectives i n the l i g h t of a l t e r n a t i v e s : " I f the cost i s more than the i n d i v i d u a l or the organization can afford, then the objective i s changed and new plans are considered" (1970,p.214). Friedmann (19 73) considers planning an on-going, or evolving, process without s p e c i f i c ends; once an objective i s reached, another one emerges. In contrast, Davidoff and Reiner f e e l that a necessary component of the planning act i s the achieve-ment of ends: Our d e f i n i t i o n of planning incorporates a concept of a purposive process keyed to preferred, ordered ends. Such ends may be directions or rates of change, as well as terminal states. Means are not proposed for t h e i r own sake, but as instruments to accomplish these". (1962, p.106) 18. They q u a l i f y this somewhat r i g i d stance by adding "... ends are not given, irrevocable but are subject to analysis" (1962, p.106). However, the authors - who maintain that planning assumes that man controls his destiny - apparently do not conceive of destiny as open-ended and undirected. However, the se l e c t i o n of objectives and the means of attai n i n g them impose r e l a t i v e l y minor burdens on the planner, compared with the problems of weighing alternatives and with attempting to deal with future uncertainties. The values on which choices are made cannot be v e r i f i e d by empirical data, and involve d i f f e r e n t value standards, note Davidoff and Reiner (1962, p.106). Fox (1970) confesses that despite hi s e a r l i e r i l l u s i o n s , he has concluded that the unbiased engineer, economist or other technician does not e x i s t . Value analysis as practiced by F i e l d i n g (1970) i n freeway location i s a pragmatic attempt to change people's values over time through the u t i l i z a t i o n of information and p a r t i c i p a t i o n technologies. The concepts of advocacy or p l u r a l i s t i c planning, as developed by Davidoff (1965) and Goodman (1971), were attempts to r e f l e c t the values of minorities or i n t e r e s t groups i n the planning process. But not everyone wants planners to purge themselves of the s i n of value-ridden concepts. Native worker Art Blue urged community development workers attending a Canadian seminar to hold to a v i s i o n (Gwyn, 1972): You say to me, ... I don't want to go into communities and change them. I want to allow them to change for themselves. Don't f o o l with me ... You have i d e a l s , and you have meaning, and i f you have meaning, you must also have th i s v i s i o n . You cannot go empty, or you would not go at a l l . If values cannot be measured, Davidoff and Reiner (1962) claim they can be referred to other value statements i n the hi e r a r c h i c a l structure. Rosen (1976) reproduces a "value scale" designed by Milton Rokeach to measure personal values and p r i o r i t i e s by income groups. Rosen argues that personal values of s o c i a l groups are important indicators of future change, since values change with age. Differences i n the values of s p e c i f i c age groups can be correlated with demo-graphic s h i f t s i n the population to a s s i s t i n making future projection. S t a t i s t i c a l comparisons can be made for d i f f e r e n t age, income and educational l e v e l s . Webber (19 63) assigns to planners the important task of delineating the probable range of future choice. B e l l (1968) claims that while the future cannot be forecast, certain events or innovations can be predicted. However, Kalba (1974) makes the i n t r i g u i n g point that "innovation planning" w i l l require a r e d e f i n i t i o n of the planning process, the development of new planning mechanisms, teaching and research techniques -i n short, a major "retooling" of the planning process, from the conceptual to the implementation stage. The argument i s as follows. 20. So c i o l o g i s t Daniel B e l l (1973) maintains that the world's i n d u s t r i a l countries - including the U.S. and Canada -are moving towards a new economic era, which i s dominated by the provision of services rather than by the production of goods and where the, public sector becomes a major employer. B e l l terms th i s era the "Post-Industrial Society" or the successor to the era of I n d u s t r i a l Revolution. These s t r u c t u r a l changes are already evident i n our society. In Canada, less than t h i r t y years ago, two out of three employees worked at producing goods of some sort (Post, 1975). Only one out of three held a government job, or worked i n an o f f i c e or other service p o s i t i o n . Today the s i t u a t i o n i s reversed. Already more than six t y per cent of Canada's workforce i s employed i n the production of services, compared to only twenty per cent i n manufacturing and s i x per cent i n agriculture. This trend i s expected to continue i n the future, and s i m i l a r developments are taking place i n the U.S. I t i s anticipated that by 19 80, close to seven i n every ten workers i n the U.S. w i l l be i n service occupations (Grappert, 1974). B e l l l i s t s the f i v e p r i n c i p a l components of the Post-I n d u s t r i a l Society as: The s h i f t from a goods-producing labour force to a service-producing economy; 21. The growing influence of the professional and technical class i n society; The central role of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge as the source of innovation and of p o l i c y formulation for society; increased control of and planning for technological growth, i . e . a future orientation; The creation of a new i n t e l l e c t u a l technology to manage large scale systems through information manipulation (B e l l , 19.73). In B e l l ' s analysis, the growth ind u s t r i e s , or services of the future, are health, education, research and government. In the private sector he emphasizes the growth of finance, insurance, r e a l estate and wholesale and r e t a i l trade. What B e l l i s describing i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e l i t i s t society, where knowledge i s power, and power i s contolled by the u n i v e r s i t i e s and research organizations. In B e l l ' s Post-Industrial Society, professionals and technicians w i l l make up the new "working cl a s s " . The a b i l i t y to acquire and use knowledge, or information, w i l l be the key talent i n demand i n such an economic system. Despite t h i s apparent technological bias, B e l l argues that future decision-making w i l l be more p o l i t i c a l than ever before, since choice w i l l become more conscious, and decision-making centres more exposed to view. But i f p o l i t i c a l bargaining i s to replace r a t i o n a l i t y , asks Kalba i n making his 22. central point, then how w i l l this be done? "How w i l l the gap between technocracy and p a r t i c i p a t i o n be dealt with?" (1974, p.149). He reviews as possible options the "planning models" developed by John Friedmann (1973). Departing from c l a s s i c a l or t r a d i t i o n a l views of planning, Friedmann views planning as a strategy for change, or "... concerned with producing change and with maintaining organizational s t a b i l i t y under conditions of change"(1973, p.xv-xvi). Kalba interprets Friedmann's concept as one which abandons plan-making, or the planning method of goals, alternatives, evaluation, and implementation under highly centralized control. Friedmann terms this concept "command" planning, and suggests three options: " p o l i c i e s planning", "corporate planning" and "participant planning". (Kalba, 1974, p.149); Kalba labels these Post-Industrial Society options as the technocratic, the o l i g a r c h i c and the part i c i p a t o r y , and summarizes them as follows: P o l i c i e s Planning maintains control through the provision of general guidelines, c r i t e r i a and material incentives, and the dissemination of information for decentralized planning. This alternative requires more knowledge of the relationships between p o l i c y incentives and t h e i r outcomes than does command planning. Corporate Planning involves negotiations between representatives of major i n t e r e s t groups which aims at a temporary mutual adjustment of i n t e r e s t s . This v a r i a t i o n on the p o l i t i c a l process may be expanded i n the future to include government and c i t i z e n interests as well as established corporate e n t i t i e s , suggests Kalba. Part i c i p a n t Planning i s favoured by Friedmann and involves decision-making at the community l e v e l , i n the form of neighbourhoods, cooperatives, or voluntary organizations. The professional planner's role i n p a r t i c i p a n t planning i s l i m i t e d to that of animator and information dispensor: . . . [ i t includes] r a l l y i n g the community around the common tasks, helping i t s members to learn about the problems they are facing and the available methods of dealing with them, and providing a constant stream of information about, those relevant aspects of the external environment (1973.. p. 78) Instead of B e l l ' s e l i t i s t society, where the technocrats control information - and by implication, power -Friedmann postulates a society where information i s controlled at the l o c a l l e v e l by small units, or: ... a c e l l u l a r hierarchy of assemblies, with a small-size working group as the base of each aggregation ... Guidance w i l l be accomplished by the i n v i s i b l e hand of working groups which are verbally processing great quantities of i n f o r -mation, aided by technical secretariats (the planners) and transmitting t h e i r needs to successively higher lev e l s of guidance (Kalba, 1974, p.150). 24. Friedmann f a i l s to explain how th i s organic structure w i l l a c t u ally work, p a r t i c u l a r l y how the information flows w i l l be transmitted. B e l l (1973), Friedmann (1973) and Kalba (1974) a l l admit there are basic s t r u c t u r a l problems to be overcome. These include: The need to make technical information more widely accessible to the general public, without triggering information overload; The need to devise better means of communicating l o c a l demands to bureaucrats without r e l y i n g exclusively on such expensive inputs as census data, opinion p o l l s , case workers, etc.; The need to develop decision-making mechanisms which f a c i l i t a t e intensive discussion and resolution of issues. The solutions to these s t r u c t u r a l problems imply new technology and innovation - including the whole range of f u t u r i s t i c communications hardware - and i t i s the c r i t i c a l issue of planning for innovation, or "planovation" which i s raised by Kalba: I t i s t h i s issue of determining the appropriate process for implementing a given innovation around which post-i n d u s t r i a l planning w i l l take shape. This w i l l be true whether the s p e c i f i c concern i s land development, welfare programs, energy conservation or information u t i l i t i e s . A n d , u l t i m a t e l y , i t i s t h e v e r y s e a r c h f o r s u c h a p u b l i c l y - c o n d o n e d p r o c e s s o f i n t r o d u c i n g m a j o r s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s . . . t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e new s o c i e t a l a g e . . . " ( 1 9 7 4 , p . 1 5 2 ) . The n e e d f o r " p l a n o v a t i o n " , as e n v i s a g e d b y K a l b a , h a s v e r y l i t t l e t o do w i t h B e l l ' s p r o j e c t e d g r o w t h i n t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e o r F r i e d m a n n ' s f a n c i e s a b o u t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R a t h e r , a r g u e s K a l b a , i t r e f l e c t s : The impact of applied knowledge on the public's under-standing of planning issues (e.g. arsenic from gold mining pollutes water); The input of journalism i n disseminating and dramatizing th i s information (possible victims of arsenic poisoning); The emergence of powerful i n t e r e s t groups, or national lobbies with the power to force change (Indian Brotherhood forces federal health survey of native children to ascertain evidence of arsenic poisoning). Kalba acknowledges that the need to accommodate a more informed public w i l l lead to increased participant planning, but he i s more i n c l i n e d to the view that a new planning mode w i l l develop. E s s e n t i a l l y , this new mode would be an expanded form of corporate planning, where major i n t e r e s t groups negotiate trade-offs on an ad hoc or continuing basis, with each party "seeking to expand the scope of decision-making i n return for a reduction of uncertainty concerning the decision-making environment" (1974, p . 1 5 2 ) . He terms t h i s mode competitive planning for three reasons: Since innovation planning i s l i k e l y to take place i n a multi-organizational, multi-interest context, there w i l l probably be considerable negotiation among competing interests at each planning phase; - Since not a l l relevant interests could reasonably be involved i n each planning e f f o r t , participants would compete for input; - The current competitive approach to planning among planning agencies at a l l l e v e l s i s l i k e l y to continue in the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era. The implications for planning methodology are profound. Kalba suggests that his more open planning environment w i l l require a more continuous process of in t e r a c t i o n between the planners and the planned for. This implied information flow w i l l necessitate "... a redesign of the underlying planning paradigm as a dynamic process i n which numerous interests and organizations inter a c t through time" (1974, p.154). In turn, these emerging energy flows w i l l require that planning education take into account information-processing methods and i n t e r a c t i v e procedures, through role-playing, use of video-tape and films, and other innovative methods. "Indeed", says Kalba, supporting the thrust of t h i s study, "the use of inexpensive f i l m and video methods could generally enhance the planner's a b i l i t y to deal with q u a l i t a t i v e information" (1974, p.154). 27. This section has reviewed, at a macro l e v e l , p r e v a i l i n g theories r e l a t i n g to planning and emerging concepts which c a l l for a redesign of more t r a d i t i o n a l concepts. We turn next to a review of the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to communications. 2.3 THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATIONS E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter we introduced Kalba's concept (19 74) of "planovation", or planning for innovation. We reviewed Kalba's argument that the issue of determining the appropriate process for implementing innovation w i l l dominate planning i n the emerging p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era. We also defined s o c i a l communications as the use of communication/information systems to achieve s p e c i f i c s o c i a l objectives normally incorporating an element of change. In thi s section, we w i l l attempt to show that s o c i a l communications may be an appropriate process for planovation. We w i l l review the rele'vant t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to communications and suggest c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a , or elements, which such a communications system should possess i f i t i s to be an e f f e c t i v e process for planning for innovation. Theoretical Approaches to Communications There i s no general theory of communications ( F a n e l l i , 1956). Even Meier (1962), who i s extensively quoted in most bibliographies on the subject and t i t l e d his work, A Communi- cations Theory of Urban Growth, never got around to developing 28. a rigorous communications model (Goldstein, 1974). The book, i n i t i a l l y viewed by Meier as an interim report, has never been updated by the author, nor has he published a more e x p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l model. Although the work i s widely known, Meier's ideas have not been advanced by others, nor has his challenge that communications approach.to urbanism could provide powerful insights into urban systems. The r e l a t i v e lack of comment on Meier's work i s not unique; E l l i o t (1974) comments that as a general r u l e , mass communications researchers appear to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with the subject; the l i t e r a t u r e i s f u l l of attempts to repudiate o ld approaches and s t a r t new ones. Meier conceives of the c i t y as a l i v i n g system, with s p e c i f i c components that evolve through an i d e n t i f i a b l e process of b i r t h , development, maturity and decline. He argues that c i t i e s evolved primarily to aid or f a c i l i t a t e communication between people. In the beginning, c i t i e s made i t possible for people to communicate by l i v i n g close together i n a small space. As the c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced, and more complex forms of communication were required, the urban system grew correspondingly more complex. He suggests there i s a co r r e l a t i o n between communications, knowledge and controls and the growth of c i t i e s . Meier says that communications of a l l types have come to dominate the urban scene and to shape urban development. Examples are the automobile, the postal systems, the flood of newspapers, magazines and journals, t e l e v i s i o n channels, radio, telephones and telecommunications. He suggests that there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n t e n s i t y of communications and the growth of c i t i e s . Urban attr i b u t e s , such as "economies of scale" or "increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y " are r e f l e c t i o n s of communications phenomena; for instance, scale economies r e s u l t from increased c l u s t e r i n g , which implies improved p o s s i b i l i t i e s of communications, and access r e f l e c t s increased opportunities to communicate. Several years before s o c i o l o g i s t Daniel B e l l (1973) conceived of his information e l i t e - the academics and i n t e l l e c t u a l s whom B e l l expected to corner the market on information - Meier perceived the p o t e n t i a l of information as a control agent. He makes the important point: I f , by d e f i n i t i o n , information brings with i t the capacity to select from an ensemble of a l t e r n a t i v e s , whoever has t h i s information i s i n a p o s i t i o n to discover that some of the alternatives y i e l d more of the commodi-t i e s that are temporarily scarce than others. Thus wherever information i s highly concentrated, one expects to f i n d s o c i a l influence, wealth or p o l i t i c a l power, sometimes a l l three together (1962, p.150). He also observed that the flow of information, as a s o c i a l unit, has many of the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the flow 30. o f e c o n o m i c v a l u e s ; b o t h t h e s e n d e r and r e c e i v e r a t t r i b u t e v a l u e t o a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s commodity, o r message, w h i c h c a n be m e a s u r e d i n u n i t s o f u t i l i t y i n t h e same manner as we can measure money o r t i m e . And t h e g r e a t e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d i n a message, M e i e r r e a s o n e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u s i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . See F i g u r e 1. The b a s i c u n i t i n M e i e r ' s s y s t e m i s t h e t r a n s a c t i o n w h i c h "... i m p l i e s an exch a n g e between i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s o c i e t y . The e x c h a n g e may i n v o l v e goods ... o r s e r v i c e s , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y . A t r a n s a c t i o n a l w a y s i n v o l v e s some c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n ..." (1962, p . 4 0 ) . R e p e a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s l e a d t o a l i n k a g e between p e o p l e o r g r o u p s , a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l o r r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h d e v e l o p s i n t o a n e t w o r k o f u r b a n r e l a t i o n s . The messages w h i c h a r e t r a n s m i t t e d i n s o c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t an i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w between s e n d e r and r e c e i v e r . E a c h day, an i n d i v i d u a l i n an u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t i s bombarded w i t h messages, and spe n d s some t i m e e m i t t i n g messages o f h i s own. P r i v a c y i s t h e s h i e l d a g a i n s t m e s s ages. Homes a r e s c r e e n s f r o m c o m m u n i c a t i o n . W h i l e t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o t r a n s f e r m e s s a g e s , l i b r a r i e s , a r c h i v e s and museums accommodate t h e l a g between s e n d i n g and r e c e i v i n g messages by s t o r i n g them. 3 2 . E d u c a t i o n p r o m o t e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M e i e r p r o p o s e s : " E d u c a t i o n may a l s o be c o n c e i v e d as an o r d e r l y p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h c o n v e y s symbols i n s u c h a f a s h i o n t h a t c o n c e p t s c a n be p y r a m i d e d l e v e l upon l e v e l " ( 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 6 3 ) . He a r g u e s t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , t h e more complex a r e t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t c a n be t r a n s m i t t e d . T h i s a l l o w s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e s t o be u s e d . M e i e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o measure t h e b i t s o r amounts o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d by m e a s u r i n g t y p i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t e s and m u l t i p l y i n g them by t h e amount o f t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o t h e a c t i v i t y b y t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . He i n t r o d u c e s t h e t e r m " h u b i t s " o r a " b i t " o f m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r -m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by a human b e i n g . The amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s r e t a i n e d b y a human i s a c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The p e r c a p i t a f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f u r b a n s i z e , he s u g g e s t s , and i s l o w e r i n v i l l a g e s t h a n i n l a r g e r u r b a n c e n t r e s . M e i e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e i s an u p p e r l i m i t t o t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n be c o n v e y e d a t any one t i m e , b e y o n d w h i c h t h e s y s t e m s u f f e r s f r o m " i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d " o r c o n g e s t i o n . I n c r e a s e s i n t h e amount o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o i n f o r -m a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d r e d u c e t h e amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r s p o r t , s l e e p , m e a l s , e t c . Sometimes t h e o v e r l o a d i s a r e s u l t o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y , r a t h e r t h a n p e o p l e ' s i n n a t e c a p a c i t y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; he c i t e s t h e c a s e where people performed happily i n an organization so long as i t was operating e f f i c i e n t l y . When transactions became more frequent, and backlogs accumulated, people made errors and showed signs of stress (1962, p.72-74) 1. Meier has estimated that the per capita annual growth rate i n the transmission of "hubits" i s between three and s i x per cent (1962 , p. 133). At that rate, he says, i t would take less than t h i r t y years - or before 1992 - to reach the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s of human communications and less than seventy-f i v e years to reach the t h e o r e t i c a l l i m i t s . Meier develops his concept of a c i t y as a " l i v i n g system" to the point where he applies the laws of physics, r e l a t i n g to entropy, which he defines as "... a derived, second-order concept that can indicate the loss or gain i n order (organ-ization) due to energetic transactions between parts of a system" (1962, p.144). He explains that during some work on the s o c i a l and economic consequences of automation, he arrived at a fundamental insight, "... that of a c i t y as an open system that must, i f i t i s to remain viable, conserve negative entropy [information]" (1962, p . v ) . He adds that entropy can be measured "... by an accounting system that considers both the stock of knowledge available at various addresses and the content of the messages received". He further defines "open system" as "...one which requires a flow of inputs from the environment and a transfer to the environment of a flow of outputs ..." (1962, p.144). He develops th i s argument i n an attempt to postulate a " c i v i c man" who would act i n some r a t i o n a l manner to s t i m u l i i n the same fashion that "economic man" responds to economic s t i m u l i . Meier uses the s i m p l i s t i c analogy of energy as a "downhill flow", moving from hotter bodies to cool ones. Extra e f f o r t , or energy, i s required to reverse the flow " u p h i l l " from cooler to hotter bodies. This heat loss measures the quantity of entropy. Over time, postulates Meier, the hottest elements would become cooler and the cooler elements would become warmer. Eventually the system would converge at some temperature where the energy flows were almost i n f i n i t e s i m a l . Since nothing more could happen, he implies the system would be l i f e l e s s , without energy. By analogy, the c i t y would be immobilized, without dynamic energizers to maintain the flow of communication a c t i v i t i e s required to keep the urban system functioning. Meier prudently c i t e s the warning issued by Cherry (1957) against the over-zealous application of the entropy concept: Since t h i s relationship has been pointed out we have heard of entropies of languages, s o c i a l systems and economic systems and of i t s use i n various method-starved studies. It i s the kind of sweeping generality which 35. people w i l l clutch l i k e a straw ... the writer would assert that i n true communications the concept of entropy need not be evoked at a l l (1957, p.187). Without commenting on the debate we would note that Meier's "fundamental insight" need not constrain his basic point. He has already defined a system as "... a sequence of states of an int e r a c t i n g population, each state being a function of preceding states" (1962, p.2). This d e f i n i t i o n implies that there i s some energy source propelling the in t e r a c t i o n . Without the basic energizer, the transactions w i l l not take place, and the system w i l l seize up. There can be l i t t l e argument with the concept of communication as a process, or dialogue, which requires p a r t i c i p a n t s , trans-actions and messages i n order to function at a l l . Although he f a i l s to evolve an e x p l i c i t model, Meier develops some s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s of information, as follows: Proposition I: " I f a society of mortal individuals i s to survive, information must be conserved" (1962, p.150) Meier augments t h i s statement by admitting that there i s always a loss of information attributable to a t t r i t i o n by random environmental events. He explains that information accumulation must proceed at least as rapidly as the average rate of a t t r i t i o n , and need not dis t i n g u i s h between information stored or transmitted. 36. Proposition I I : "A sector of society that grows i n influence, wealth or power, measured i n absolute terms, must experience a growth i n information flow that occurred p r i o r to or simultaneously with the other recorded growth (1962, p.151). Meier places one constraint on this statement. As "information overload" builds up, and people s t a r t working close to th e i r information capacity, greater reliance w i l l have to be placed on the transfer of routine information by automation. Thus he would include interactions between automatic equipment as well as between people. Proposition I I I : " I f advanced s o c i e t i e s are to increase t h e i r organization (and capacities for c u l t u r a l interaction) the interactions between automata i n t h e i r service must increase even more rapidly" (1962, p.151). Meier points out that as the stock of information grows, the marginal value of adding to the stock w i l l decline for decision-making purposes. There i s a strong incentive to have automated equipment work with t h i s stock of information and make simple decisions, reserving the role of c u l t u r a l exploration and innovation for people. 37. Additional Theoretical Concepts Although Meier's book appears to dominate what sparse discussion exists on the subject of communications and urban-i z a t i o n , the work of others has p o t e n t i a l implications f o r planners, and should be referred to here. Generally, comment on communications and urbanization tends to f a l l within two subject areas. The f i r s t i s the e f f e c t on the s p a t i a l and physical nature of urbanization. The second i s more subjective, and deals with the e f f e c t on people's sense of "community", and on t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There are a number of i n t e r e s t i n g ideas i n the f i r s t group of commentators. Kalba (1974) suggests that the post-i n d u s t r i a l c i t y may not be a c i t y at a l l i n the conventional sense: ... i f the scenario of the information u t i l i t y i s accurate, the location of businesses as well as house-honds w i l l no longer be constrained by proximity. Random s o c i a l access and non-contiguous economies of scale w i l l replace the t e r r i t o r i a l imperatives of central place theory (1974, p.329). Pred (1975) i s interested i n the linkages between metro-poli t a n centres and m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l businesses. In his work on informational linkages between c i t i e s and m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l firms, he makes two points: 38. The most important n o n - l o c a l linkages (e.g. outside an urban centre) are not those between the metropolis and the h i n t e r l a n d - as p o s t u l a t e d i n c e n t r a l place theory - but those between l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. This has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r growth centres; The o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of m e t r o p o l i t a n interdependence a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s y m e t r i c a l s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e s or organ-i z a t i o n s i s complex. One reason i s that m e t r o p o l i t a n centres of a given s i z e f r e q u e n t l y provide job c o n t r o l and other l i n k s to l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n complexes. Another reason i s t h a t there i s an extensive c r i s s -c r o s s i n g of economic t i e s between large metro areas on one hand, and medium and small metro centres on the other hand. Pred says t h a t these p o i n t s have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l planning, since the number of jobs under the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of m e t r o p o l i t a n based m u l t i -l o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s expanding r a p i d l y . Pred wonders how a g r e a t e r r e g i o n a l e q u a l i t y of labour market c o n d i t i o n s be a t t a i n e d through rearranging and manipulating the s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e of numerous m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he asks: "How can e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s be i n f l u e n c e d or c o n t r o l l e d i n order to help b r i n g about gr e a t e r r e g i o n a l e q u a l i t y i n terms of per c a p i t a income, labour market a l t e r n a t i v e s and the p u b l i c s e r v i c e a c c e s s i b i l i t y ? " (1975, p.139). Previously we noted Meier's argument that changes i n the physical structure of c i t i e s are primarily a t t r i b u t a b l e to the substitution of messages for other inputs - such as human time, movement, energy, water, construction materials -whose costs are increasing over time. Wellman (1973) discusses the concept of the network-based community, which can develop without much regard for s p a t i a l constraints. He suggests that s p a t i a l communities, such as l o c a l neigh-bourhoods, are only one type of community. Others are linked by transportation and communications f a c i l i t i e s . The scale of the c i t y and the range of possible linkages encourage the development of speci a l i z e d communities, whose members w i l l be bonded by common in t e r e s t s . Most urbanites w i l l belong to many such communities i n a more p l u r a l society. Harris (19 67) was among the f i r s t to comment on the impact of communications technology on the construction and operation of c i t i e s . The conversion from face-to-face communications to in t e r a c t i o n by radio and wire have important s o c i a l implications which he acknowledges. Tonuma (1970) analyzed the ef f e c t s of communication and transportation on human settlements, and came to the conclusion that by the year 2000, Japan might become a single urban complex/ or a "network c i t y " . Some constraints on t h i s l i n e or argument have been presented by Livingstone (1969) who summarized a conference which concluded that the major urban centres i n highly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries do not have appreciably better communications than other locations i n those countries, and the large urban centre's advantage of speed and economy i n communication has diminished i n the past century. This would suggest that at some point, the contribution of communications to urban growth diminishes in importance. Katzman (19 70) continues the unhelpful debate on communication flow and s o c i a l entropy. The subjective analysis of communications deals mainly with man and his world, and the writers i n th i s area have more scattered i n t e r e s t s . There i s considerable discussion about the process of communication at the community l e v e l . F a n e l l i (1956) develops the concept of commun1cation  extensiveness, or the range of an indi v i d u a l ' s communications contacts. He suggests that the range of contacts of any in d i v i d u a l depends on his relationship to the community and his actual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s . Since a person's perception of community a f f a i r s i s thus a function of his communications extensiveness, F a n e l l i advocates the removal of communications barri e r s between various groups i n a community Webber and Webber (1956) add some support to F a n e l l i ' s argument with t h e i r work on the d i f f e r e n t uses of communications by various groups i n North American society. They suggest that the so-called " i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e " u t i l i z e a large number o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a n n e l s - t h e m a i l s , t e l e p h o n e , a c a d e m i c j o u r n a l s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes - t o communicate on a b a s i s o f s h a r e d i n t e r e s t and t o overcome t h e i r s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h and, " w o r k i n g c l a s s " p e o p l e t e n d t o c r e a t e t h e i r n e t w o r k s o f a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f k i n s h i p and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p i n q u i t y . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n p r e c e d e d M e l v i n Webber's l a t e r work (1963) w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t as c o m m u n i c a t i o n s grow more f l e x i b l e , t h e s i t e - s p e c i f i c "community" w i l l d i m i n i s h . I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l b e l o n g t o " i n t e r e s t communities"., w h i c h may be w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n s p a c e , r a t h e r t h a n t o an a n c e s t r a l home. I n t i m e , t h e d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n r u r a l and u r b a n a r e a s w i l l d i s a p p e a r . W i s e (1971) i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e s o c i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f p e o p l e by p r o v i d i n g them a c c e s s v i a t e l e c o m m u n i -c a t i o n s t o b u s i n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n a l and s h o p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d e n c l o s e many s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e home, w h i c h c o u l d a l i e n a t e p e o p l e f r o m t h e i r community. L i m i t i n g f a c t o r s on t h i s argumen i n c l u d e t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o p e n s i t y f o r p e o p l e t o t r a v e l , and on b a l a n c e W i s e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i l l e xpand r a t h e r t h a n n a r r o w t h e c h o i c e s o f a c t i v i t y a v a i l a b l e t o u r b a n d w e l l e r s . R i l e y and R i l e y (1959) a l s o warn t h a t t h e message s h o u l d n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s . They s u g g e s t t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n o t random o r u n r e l a t e d a c t s , b u t p a r t o f an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f o n - g o i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s b e tween a l a r g e r g r o u p . They do n o t v i e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a s s i n g l e t r a n s a c t i o n s between s e n d e r and r e c e i v e r ; a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w b etween two i n d i v i d u a l s i s i n d i r e c t a nd t e n d s t o p r o l i f e r a t e t h r o u g h o t h e r g r o u p members. They a r g u e t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , a r e r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r i n t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m and t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f l o w t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h i s s y s t e m . D e u t s c h (1966) v i e w s c o m m u n i c a t i o n as t h e key e l e m e n t i n d e f i n i n g and b i n d i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r i n t o a n a t i o n a l g r o u p . However, S e e l e y (1962) r e j e c t s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s as a b o n d i n g e l e m e n t , and s u g g e s t s i n s t e a d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f communica-t i o n s i m p l i e s t h a t a community has b e e n i n t e r r u p t e d , and t h a t some change i n s o c i e t y i s b e i n g s o u g h t . M a r s h a l l McLuhan (1965) who g i v e s us t h e p h r a s e " t h e medium i s t h e message", p e r c e i v e s o f t h e m e d i a - one f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m - as e x t e n s i o n s o f man, o f h i s body, h i s c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m and h i s i n t e l l e c t . McLuhan p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e m e d i a d i s t o r t o u r p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y - b o t h o f o u r i n n e r s e l v e s and o u r o u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t : The c o n s t r a i n t s on r e a l i t y a r e t h e l i n e a r c o n s t r a i n t s o f p r i n t , a b s e n c e o f v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n f r o m r a d i o t r a n s -m i s s i o n s , and t h e power o f t h e cameraman t o g e n e r a t e w i t h i n t h e f i l m o r t h e v i e w e r a s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t more a p p a r e n t t h a n r e a l ( S t a r r s and S t e w a r t , 1971, p . 6 3 ) . 43. Blumler and Katz (1974) make the point that people use mass communication to connect, or disconnect themselves with d i f f e r e n t kinds of others. This concept i s more subjective than the hardware-oriented v i s i o n of a "wired world", which lin k s individuals i n a network of cables, microwave systems and s a t e l l i t e s . Axworthy (1971) draws the comparison between the increasing technology of communication and the r i s i n g complexity of government. He notes: "Government i s the basis of c i v i l i z * ation - and communication i s the basis of government" (1971, p . l ) . He poses the problem of ensuring an open system of information i n a world which i s rapidly ensnaring i t s e l f i n complicated technological communications systems. Yet govern-ments must plan t h e i r programs on the basis of some perception of public demand - a process that requires some form of communication. The working paper on C i t i z e n Involvement developed for the Ontario government's Committee on Government Productivity says that conventional approaches to communications between the governments and the governed, tend to stress a "one-way" flow of information, from government to c i t i z e n , or from c i t i z e n to government. The new requirement i s for a "two-way" flow of information. The working paper reports that new developments i n communications technology w i l l make such a "two-way" channel possible. I t predicts that separate systems for telephone, telegraph, t e l e v i s i o n and data transmission w i l l disappear, to be replaced w i t h one s i n g l e u n i f i e d network f o r a l l kinds of messages. Communication w i l l become a t o t a l , i n t e g r a t e d interdependent system u t i l i z i n g a v a r i e t y o f media; in f o r m a t i o n w i l l flow through the network as on-off d i g i t a l s i g n a l s , and w i l l appear as p i c t u r e s , sound or p r i n t depending on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s choice. The working paper r a i s e s some c r u c i a l questions about the r e g u l a t i o n of the new technology. Who should have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing and c o n t r o l l i n g the development of the new technology - Kalba's "planovation" - i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ? Should the community being served have some c o n t r o l over t e l e v i s i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and who should pay f o r them? What g u i d e l i n e s should be developed to regulate the t r i c k y question of access to the communications system? S t a r r s and Stewart (1971) i n another working paper developed f o r the Committee c l a i m t h a t the media today are mainly one-way communications channels, whose messages are determined by sponsors and a d v e r t i s e r s , using the c r i t e r i a of p r o f i t a b i l i t y : In the place of a two-way l e a r n i n g process, the media have become a v e h i c l e through which the few to whom access i s permitted educate others i n the l i g h t of t h e i r own perceptions and understanding (1971, p.63). Starrs and Stewart overrate the role played by sponsors and advertisers i n determining message content, but they are correct i n the perception of media reluctance to open up the communications channel. Nor i s t h i s a purely Canadian phenomenon. Writing on the involvement of viewers i n t e l e -v i s i o n programming P a t r i c i a Wood (1971) sums up: The mass media i n America are businesses. No c i t i z e n involvement i s appreciated, except i n buying the products that keep the airwaves f i l l e d and the newspapers thick (1971, p.287). Access to the media can be gained by the creation of a "media event" or the staging, by c i t i z e n s , or some program which att r a c t s coverage by the media (Goldfarb, 1977). In t h i s way, t e r r o r i s t s can commandeer space to a i r t h e i r grievances, demonstrators can convey t h e i r point of view to a mass audience, prisoners can win a i r time to protest grievances e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r n a l to the prison system, such as the use of s o l i t a r y confinement, or "the hole" as a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure. Soci a l Communications C r i t e r i a In t h i s section, we have summarized the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to communications. E a r l i e r we defined s o c i a l communications as the use of information/communication systems f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s , n o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g a change e l e m e n t . P l a n n i n g f o r change, o r i n n o v a t i o n , i s t e r m e d " p l a n o v a t i o n " by K a l b a a n d w i l l , i n h i s v i e w , r e q u i r e "... a r e d e s i g n o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g p l a n n i n g p a r a d i g m as a dynamic p r o c e s s i n w h i c h numerous i n t e r e s t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r a c t t h r o u g h t i m e " (1974, p . 1 5 4 ) . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t o us t h a t t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f messages o r t r a n s a c t i o n s b etween s e n d e r s and r e c e i v e r s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e more c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between p l a n n e r s and t h e p l a n n e d f o r , e n v i s a g e d by K a l b a , and h e r e we i d e n t i f y some o f t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s h o u l d have i f i t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e i n s u c h a r o l e . 1. M e s s a g e: S i n c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e a t r a n s a c t i o n between a r e c e i v e r and a s e n d e r , t h e r e must be a s p e c i f i c u n i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r message t o be t r a n s m i t t e d . The message must have some v a l u e , o r u t i l i t y , t o e i t h e r t h e r e c e i v e r o r s e n d e r t o j u s t i f y i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n ; 2. Two-way C h a n n e l : S o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , r e q u i r e s a f e e d b a c k mechanism, so t h a t r e s p o n s e s t o i n f o r m a t i o n messages may be r e l a y e d b a c k and f o r t h between s e n d e r s a n d r e c e i v e r s . A one-way i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i s n o t l i k e l y t o accommodate s o c i a l g o a l s ; 3. A c c e s s : The c o n t r o l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s i m p l i e s power, s i n c e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f messages and t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s t e m e n a b l e s g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o c h o o s e between v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d be o p en t o any i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d by " p l a n o v a t i o n " , and n o t c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands o f a few; A u d i e n c e : The t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a message i m p l i e s b o t h a s e n d e r and r e c e i v e r . I n a two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m , e a c h i s t h e a u d i e n c e o f t h e o t h e r . I n some c a s e s , t h e a u d i e n c e may be an e n t i r e community. I n o t h e r s , t h e t a r g e t g r o u p may r e p r e s e n t o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e community. M u l t i - m o d a l : S i n c e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n a community t r a n s m i t messages by d i f f e r e n t modes, a s o c i a l communi-c a t i o n s s y s t e m s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e t o accommodate a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , o r t h e components s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e n e e d s o f t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e ; S p a t i a l D i m e n s i o n ; Some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m may be s p a t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d and b o n d e d b y s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . O t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s may be bonded by p r o x i m i t y . The s c o p e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s h o u l d t a k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t ; C o n s e r v a t i o n / R e p e t i t i o n : I n f o r m a t i o n i s a p e r i s h a b l e commodity, c o n s t a n t l y made o b s o l e t e , c o n s t a n t l y renewed. T h o s e messages w h i c h c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s v a l u a b l e o v e r t i m e s h o u l d be c o n s e r v e d , renewed and r e -i n f o r c e d , s o t h a t i t i s n o t p r e m a t u r e l y d i s s i p a t e d . A v o i d a n c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n O v e r l o a d ; P e o p l e a r e bombarded w i t h m e s s a g e s , and e r e c t b a r r i e r s o r s h i e l d s t o a c h i e v e some p r i v a c y . A s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s h o u l d 4 8 . c o n t a i n only those messages which are r e l e v a n t to the t a r g e t audience, and transm i s s i o n of messages should be timed so t h a t the audience i s ready to r e c e i v e them, i . e . consider t h e i r content. 9. Avoidance of A l i e n a t i o n : Various modes and messages of s o c i a l communication can a l i e n a t e people from t h e i r p h y s i c a l community - by p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the home normally s u p p l i e d by the wider community - and from each Other, by c r e a t i n g o r r e i n f o r c i n g b a r r i e r s between groups; 10. Animator/Animation: Even i n a two-way communication system, there i s a danger t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n of messages w i l l be s t a l l e d by i n e r t i a , d i s c o n t i n u i t y or other impediments. The system r e q u i r e s an animator, or animating f o r c e , to provide the dynamic element r e q u i r e d to keep the system running. The planner already has at h i s d i s p o s a l c e r t a i n p lanning t o o l s and techniques which he can u t i l i z e i n designing a s o c i a l communications system. One such t o o l i s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r dialogue between d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y . We now t u r n to a review of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning. 2.4 THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION So f a r i n t h i s chapter we have i d e n t i f i e d the p o t e n t i a need f o r the planning process to become more open and dynami i n the f u t u r e i n order to enable planners to accommodate the demands of "planovation" (Kalba, 1974) or planning for innovation i n the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era. We have also suggested that s o c i a l communications may be an appropriate process for planovation, or the introduction of change elements. In t h i s section, we w i l l review the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to public p a r t i c i p a t i o n and suggest that this planning t o o l could provide a "two-way" communications channel, between the planners and the planned for, i n a more open planning process. We w i l l also i d e n t i f y the elements which a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program should include i n order to carry out t h i s r o l e . Few p r i n c i p l e s i n planning are as controversial as the p r i n c i p l e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . It i s a l t e r n a t i v e l y embraced, rejected, derided, constrained and i n at least one case (Starrs and Stewart, 1971) expanded to include the entire world. Sociologist Sherry Arnstein (19 71) observes that while many people pay l i p service to the concept, they choke on the implementation: The idea of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l i t t l e l i k e eating spinach; no one i s against i t in p r i n c i p l e because i t i s good fo r you ... the applause i s reduced to p o l i t e handclaps, however, when thi s p r i n c i p l e i s advocated by the havenot blacks ... and when the havenots define p a r t i c i p a t i o n as r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, the American consensus on the fundamental p r i n c i p l e explodes into many shades of outright r a c i a l , ethnic, i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l opposition (1971, p.294) In language too expressive to paraphrase, authors Cahn and Cahn conclude that evaluating c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r i d d l e d with r i s k . Its evolution has been "... a journal-i s t ' s badlands, a s o c i a l planner's disaster, and a p o l i t i c i a n ' s nightmare" (1971, p. 16). The authors add that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n is expensive, time consuming, unpredictable, i n v i s i b l e , sometimes treacherous and often uncontrollable. They sum up: Even at i t s best, and when most f u l l y r e a l i z e d , i t i s precarious, f r a g i l e , vulnerable and e a s i l y destroyed or perverted. I t i s threatening, l i k e l y to i n v i t e r e t a l i a t i o n , and l i k e l y to generate highly explosive and controversial situations (1971, p.10). They add that with a l l of i t s f a u l t s i t i s indispensable. The p r i n c i p l e i s defended but i t s practice i s defective, i n the view of planning school drop-out Robert Goodman (1971) who claims that the e f f o r t s of advocacy planners such as Paul Davidoff to esta b l i s h a new form of urban democracy have come to nothing. C i t i n g his own abortive experience i n attempting to involve people i n the planning processes, Goodman accuses planners of being "soft cops", g u i l t y of supporting the status quo at best and outright destructive at worst. Proponents of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n don't actually mean i t , he charges; i t i s ju s t another way of pacifying the masses. 51. Such vigorous discussion of the p r i n c i p l e merely serves to underline the fact that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has become a planning t o o l , whose use i s , at best, t r i c k y . The purpose of this section i s to define the concept, to review b r i e f l y the circumstances which have led to i t s evolution and to discuss i t s p o t e n t i a l uses and constraints. F i n a l l y , we hope to i d e n t i f y those elements of the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process which may be useful for the purposes of s o c i a l communi-cation. A p r e v a i l i n g theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e views c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a legitimate attempt by groups of c i t i z e n s to achieve power. Burke defines power as "... the a b i l i t y to exercise one's w i l l even over the opposition of others" (1968, p.292). Arnstein describes c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a "categorical term for c i t i z e n power" (1971, p.71) while Head (19 71) views the phenomenon as a form of countervailing pressure exerted by some groups who are attempting to influence government while l i m i t i n g the influence of other groups. Other d e f i n i t i o n s are not so hard edged. Warner defines public p a r t i c i p a t i o n as "... actions taken by those not having decision-making authority to influence the decisions of those who do" (1971, p.2). C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be viewed as a goal i n i t s e l f (Davis, undated) where the involvement of c i t i z e n s i s desirable for a s p e c i f i c objective, such as s o c i a l reform or c i t i z e n 52. t r a i n i n g or increased s e l f esteem. Other commentators (Burke, 1968; Lazar, 1971) view i t as a planning process, where p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one of s e v e r a l means to a broader s o c i a l g o a l . Burke synthesizes these two concepts i n t o t h a t of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a "process goal" (1968, p.288) or a procedure to enable communities to develop t h e i r own problem-s o l v i n g c a p a c i t i e s . There i s general agreement th a t the impetus f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been the increase i n the s i z e and complexity of b u r e a u c r a t i c decision-making, and the r i s i n g demands f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . Dealing w i t h the f i r s t aspect, the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y e s t a b l i s h e d by the Government of Ontario reported: ... i t may be the paradox of our time t h a t , i n the i n t e r e s t s of improving the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l , governments have grown so huge and so complex th a t the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s t h a t he does not p e r s o n a l l y matter to them (1973, Report #10, p. 19) I t i s worth n o t i n g that t h i s apparently exhausted the committee's views on the matter, s i n c e only four paragraphs were devoted to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t i z e n s and government and the many b r i e f s presented were dismissed w i t h the comment: "Several improvements were suggested to meet t h i s challenge" (1973, Report #10, p .19). The appropriate mix of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e occupies the a t t e n t i o n of many observers. Woodbury (1966) argues t h a t one of the great weaknesses of r e g i o n a l p lanning i s the trend toward l i m i t i n g p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n by emphasizing the t e c h n i c a l aspects of planning. He says t h i s i s dangerous, s i n c e : ... the more the t e c h n i c a l end grows, and the areas of p u b l i c concern c o n t r a c t , the more d i f f i c u l t i t w i l l become f o r planning to command strong and widespread p u b l i c support without which i t s greater ends w i l l not be r e a l i z e d (1966, p.573). The forces which have given r i s e to the phenomenon of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are best summarized i n the l i t e r a t u r e by Cahn and Passett (19 71) f o r the American experience and i n the various working papers of the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y (1973) f o r the Canadian experience. These po i n t s are reviewed here. Cahn and Pas s e t t suggest t h a t i f increased bureaucracy and e x p e r t i s e are the foundations of the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n phenomenon, c i v i l r i g h t s and urban redevelopment i n the 1960's were the i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k s . These two i s s u e s , which i n v o l v e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , the a l i e n a t i o n of the poor and the r i g h t s of those a f f e c t e d by development to be heard, created the o r i g i n a l impetus which l e d to the demands of the p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s t h u s t e n d e d t o be g o a l - o r i e n t e d , f o r m i n g and d i s s o l v i n g a r o u n d s p e c i f i c e n d s . I n t h e U.S., t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was f o r m a l i z e d when t h e c o n c e p t o f "maximum f e a s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n " o f t h e p o o r , was w r i t t e n i n t o t h e 1964 a c t c r e a t i n g t h e "War on P o v e r t y " (Head, 1971, p.18) In Canada, t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r o o t e d i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s e a r l i e s t s t r u g g l e s f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , when t h e e l i t i s t r u l e o f t h e F a m i l y Compact was r e p l a c e d by a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r m o f government. The w o r k i n g p a p e r on C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y c i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e s s u r e s f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i -c i p a t i o n (1973) : R i s i n g l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h have e n c o u r a g e d p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h c o n c e r n them; The i n c r e a s i n g s i z e , c o m p l e x i t y and p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r and l e g i s l a t e on b e h a l f o f t h e p u b l i c ; The u s e o f r e s t r i c t i v e c r i t e r i a , s u c h as e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , i n n a r r o w l y r a t i o n a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; A l a c k o f f a i t h i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p e r i o d i c v o t i n g and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; A m a j o r c u l t u r a l s h i f t , a f f e c t i n g p u b l i c v a l u e s , w h i c h p l a c e s more emphasis on t h e p r e s e n t t h a n on p o s s i b l e f u t u r e g a i n s ; 55. The rate of change, which tends to undermine t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and to encourage new ones which appear to be more responsive to people's desires. If the o r i g i n a l purposes of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n were goal-oriented, i t did not take long for administrators to perceive the e f f e c t i v e usefulness of the movement as a process i n i t s e l f . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was extended to cover a wide range of uses, from the l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of programs or as a r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive method of c o l l e c t i n g information about a community (Davis, 1974). in some cases, the concept was used to co-opt the public by involving them i n the decision-making process. Warner (1971) summarizes the possible uses of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -pation as follows: Engaging public support for planning e f f o r t , through information and education about the various alternatives and t h e i r consequences; E l i c i t i n g a reaction from affected publics about proposed plans i n order to judge t h e i r s o c i a l v i a b i l i t y ; E l i c i t i n g information from various publics about t h e i r perceptions of problems and solutions, i n order to ascertain t h e i r values; Developing a trust i n the planning process and a commitmeht to the f i n a l plan on the part of the affected public. 56. Burke (1968), i n h i s a n a l y s i s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y , perceived the f o l l o w i n g uses f o r the concept: As education-therapy, when c i t i z e n s work together to l e a r n how t o re s o l v e community problems and to develop a sense of confidence and s e l f r e l i a n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to change t h e i r community; As a s t a f f supplement, i n order to r e c r u i t v o lunteers to c a r r y out tasks beyond s t a f f resources, and to supplement the e x p e r t i s e of the planning agent; As c o - o p t a t i o n , where the o b j e c t i v e i s to i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n decision-making i n order to head o f f a n t i c i p a t e d o b s t r u c t i o n ; - As a community power s t r a t e g y , which s t r e s s e s change through c o n f l i c t and c o n f r o n t a t i o n . Burke underlines the d i f f i c u l t i e s which may be faced i n implementing any o f these s t r a t e g i e s , but he does not, on balance, deny t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . P o s s i b l y the o b j e c t i v e of u t i l i z i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n to achieve behavioural change draws the most c r i t i c i s m ; Goodman says t h i s approach assumes t h a t the economic system i s r i g h t but the people don't f i t : "Change the people who don't f i t , cure them of t h e i r diseases ... and the system w i l l operate e f f e c t i v e l y " (1971, p.31). In g e n e r a l , the proponents o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n make the f o l l o w i n g case, as summarized by the working paper on C i t i z e n Involvement f o r the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y : 57. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n : Has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on education and s e l f development; Has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on i n t e g r a t i o n , by exposing people to a range o f new ideas and d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y , and promoting a f e e l i n g of community; Can be a force f o r s t a b i l i t y and order, by f a c i l i t a t i n g broad acceptance o f d e c i s i o n s made i n the process, viewed as a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t ; Can help achieve s p e c i f i c community goals, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d o f education, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , energy and urban development; Can increase the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y of m i n o r i t y groups, who t r a d i t i o n a l l y . h a v e had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e to share i n decision-making; Enhances an i n d i v i d u a l ' s self-esteem by promoting indep-endence and c h a l l e n g i n g i n i t i a t i v e ; Can be an e f f i c i e n t and cost e f f e c t i v e method of d e c i s i o n -making, since i t may i d e n t i f y consequences which might not be perceived otherwise by decision-makers; Can provide a v i t a l and e f f e c t i v e two-way communication channel, which can inform the p u b l i c of government programs and plans, and, i n t u r n , inform the p o l i c y makers about people's values and p r i o r i t i e s . Observers such as Goodman (1971), Davis (1974), Lazar (1971), Piven (1965), A l t s h u l e r (1965) and S t a r r s and Stewart (1971) voic e the f o l l o w i n g r e s e r v a t i o n s regarding c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n : 5 8 . The c o n c e p t o f b r o a d - b a s e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h new t r e n d s t o w a r d s c o m p r e h e n s i v e , a n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g w h i c h u t i l i z e s i n c r e a s e d a n a l y t i c a l and t e c h n o -l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ; The c o n c e p t i s open t o m a n i p u l a t i o n by s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a c h i e v i n g change t h r o u g h c o n f l i c t and c o n f r o n t a t i o n w h i c h may n o t be i n t h e community i n t e r e s t ; The p r o c e s s may e n c o u r a g e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n e f f i c i e n c y , s i n c e i t c a n r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e d e c i s i o n -makers t o a c t q u i c k l y ; P a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be c h i e f l y a m i d d l e - c l a s s phenomenon, s i n c e low income g r o u p s g e n e r a l l y a r e more r e l u c t a n t t o o p p o s e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ; P a r t i c i p a t i o n may i n c r e a s e e l i t i s m r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e p o l i t i c a l i n e q u a l i t i e s , s i n c e many c i t i z e n ' s g r o u p s do n o t p o s s e s s t h e n e c e s s a r y knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n t o a f f e c t c h ange; P a r t i c i p a t i o n may c o - o p t , o r d i s t r a c t community l e a d e r s f r o m e x p e n d i n g t h e i r e n e r g i e s on l o c a l i s s u e s w i t h a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y ; P a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be an u n s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e on a community as v a r i o u s g r o u p s s t r u g g l e f o r t h e mandate t o d e f i n e " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " and as c o n f r o n t a t i o n and c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t e d i s t r u s t and a l i e n a t i o n among n e i g h b o u r s . The C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e g e n e r a t e s l i t t l e p r e s s u r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n v o t e r shows l i t t l e d e s i r e t o d e p a r t f r o m t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v ernment. 59. The working paper on C i t i z e n Involvement f o r the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y suggests two general c o n s t r a i n t s on the use of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n order to achieve a balance between the p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s . F i r s t , decision-makers and planners should r e a l i z e t h a t not a l l forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are pr o d u c t i v e , and th a t those l i k e l y to have a negative e f f e c t should be avoided. Secondly, new forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be developed, i n c l u d i n g those which place the planner or p o l i t i c i a n i n a suppo r t i v e , or enabling r o l e r a t h e r than i n a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , and which encourage a more unstructured process. These two c o n s t r a i n t s are c e n t r a l to the argument presented i n t h i s paper and w i l l be discussed i n t u r n . C o n s t r a i n t s on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Davis (19 74) makes the p o i n t t h a t much of the l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends to adopt an u n c r i t i c a n stance of the concept. L i k e Motherhood, " c i t p a r t " i s viewed as i n t r i n s i c a l l y good. Wengert adds t h a t any c r i t i c i s m of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n grates on many Americans: To suggest t h a t the process, r o l e and f u n c t i o n of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n and may even be subject to l i m i t a t i o n i s regarded as a d e n i a l t h a t a l l men are created equal and construed as a challenge to the very foundation of American democracy (1961,p.24) Yet many pr a c t i t i o n e r s of the art have found, sometimes to t h e i r sorrow, that some form of constraint on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to i t s success. Burke (1968) notes that the need to meet deadlines, or budget l i m i t a t i o n s may dictate some constraints on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Arnstein's widely quoted typology or ladder of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , reproduced i n Figure 2., i s an attempt to define and c l a s s i f y various methods of pa r t i c i p a t i o n i n accordance with previously determined objectives. 8 CITIZEN CONTROL DEGREES 7 DELEGATED POWER OF CITIZEN POWER 6 PARTNERSHIP 5 PLACATION DEGREES 4 CONSULTATION OF TOKENISM 3 INFORMING 2 THERAPY NON-MANIPULATION PARTICIPATION 1 FIGURE 2. EIGHT RUNGS ON THE LADDER OF PARTICIPATION by Sherry R. Arnst'e'in Manipulation and theory, the two lowest rungs of the ladder are c l a s s i f i e d as non-participatory. They represent the attempts of the power-holders to "cure" or "educate" the public. The next three rungs - informing, consultation, placatory - are c l a s s i f i e d as degrees of tokenism. The public i s permitted to voice i t s viewpoints, or at best, advise the decision-makers. The l a s t three rungs - partnership, delegated power, c i t i z e n control - are c l a s s i f i e d as e f f e c t i v e degrees of c i t i z e n power. At the partnership l e v e l , p articipants have the power to negotiate and to make trade-offs. At the two highest l e v e l s , participants e i t h e r have majority or f u l l decision-making power. Bluntly speaking, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a legitimate attempt to achieve power. The degree of power must be negotiated between the parties involved, and depends to some, extent on the issue involved. The key to e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n advance, of the precise degree of control which the decision-maker i s w i l l i n g to bargain away. Lazar emphasizes that the kinds and amount of p a r t i -cipation desirable for any program can only be defined i n terms of i t s s p e c i f i c goals, the community involved and the stage of readiness of the population. He points out: "The role of a c i t i z e n i s less central i n a s u r g i c a l team than i t i s i n a rent s t r i k e ..." (1971, p. 108). Pessimists l i k e Goodman (1971) and Head (1971) point out that h i s t o r i c a l l y , community action programs have not shown much success i n achieving t h e i r objectives. One would suspect that a prime reason was the f a i l u r e to s t i p u l a t e to a l l parties concerned the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n being negotiated away. At best, such f a i l u r e creates an i l l u s t i o n of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . At worst, i t can be devasting to the people involved by encouraging them to believe that they can make a major contribution to the decision-making process and then disregarding t h e i r advice and thus f r u s t r a t i n g them. This i s more destructive than not seeking t h e i r advice i n the f i r s t place. In constrast with the Arnstein structured approach to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , some writers advocate a more f l e x i b l e unstructured implementation. The working paper on C i t i z e n  Involvement for the Ontario Government Committee on Government Pr o d u c i t i v i t y (19 72) establishes the fact that there i s no ultimate model for p a r t i c i p a t i o n , nor i s i t possible to determine i n advance whether any p a r t i c u l a r model w i l l work. The working paper suggests that the fundamental unit of organization for a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program should be a small problem solving group, between f i v e and twelve people. The unit would be small enough to ensure the meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n of each member, yet large enough to include expert resources to d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e a t hand. Membership w o u l d come f r o m b o t h government and no n - g o v e r n m e n t s e c t o r s . The g r o u p w o u l d be a s s i g n e d t h e r e s o u r c e s t o h i r e i t s own e x p e r t i s e . The u n i t w o u l d employ f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between members. The g r o u p w o u l d be t e m p o r a r y i n n a t u r e , and w o u l d d i s b a n d a f t e r m a k i n g i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , t h e government, a g e n c y o r s p o n s o r i n g body s h o u l d p u b l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n s o f t h e p u b l i c t o have a s a y i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g them. F r e d e r i c k T h a y e r s u m m a r i z e s : A new t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t i s e m e r g i n g , one w h i c h d e f i n e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as t h e c e n t r a l r i g h t o f a l l c i t i z e n s . (1971,p .3) Co m m u n i c a t i o n s and P a r t i c i p a t i o n E f f o r t s t o w a r d s i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n . A x w o r t h y p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n many c a s e s , t h e government r e t a i n s a monopoly on i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a c i t i z e n g r o u p t o a d e q u a t e l y r e s p o n d t o a p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t when i t l a c k s t h e g o vernment a g e n c i e s ' f o r m i d a b l e d a t a and r e s e a r c h b a s e . He a d d s : ... a s y s t e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p e c i a l l y g e a r e d by t h e government t o t h e need s o f c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s u b s e q u e n t new forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l i f t h e new forms o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e (1971, p. 8) Axworthy makes two f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s . F i r s t , d e a l i n g w i t h M e i e r ' s " i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d " , t h e n e e d i s f o r a mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t s u p p l i e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s o f a community. The mass m e d i a does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f l i n g u i s t i c , e t h n i c , n e i g h b o u r h o o d and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s t h a t make up t h e l a r g e r u r b a n community. He s a y s : Y e t i t i s t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and e n h a n c i n g a s e n s e o f community and c o h e s i o n among p e o p l e . I f t h e r e i s a way o f e n a b l i n g p e o p l e o f common i n t e r e s t s t o communicate t o g e t h e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may g e o g r a p h i c a l l y be s e p a r a t e d i n a m e t r o -p o l i t a n a r e a , t h e n t h e y a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o f e e l p a r t o f a community. I f i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s can r e c e i v e , when t h e y d e s i r e , p r e c i s e and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e d e b a t e s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s o f government on i s s u e s t h a t a f f e c t them d i r e c t l y , t h e n t h e i r s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n c an be d i m i n i s h e d ... t h e t e s t o f t h e new c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o -l o g y i s w h e t h e r t h e c a p a c i t y f o r a l l o w i n g t h i s t o happen e x i s t s . (1971, p.10) The second point i s the obvious need for feedback mechanisms which can communicate the needs and concerns of the public back to the decision-maker. He notes: We are beginning to learn that one reason why government programs often f a i l i s that they are designed to f i t the perceptions of problems as seen by the planner, administrator or p o l i t i c i a n , not the perception of the problem as seen by the people who experience the problem. (1971, p.10) Thus Axworthy has set three c r i t e r i a for a s o c i a l communi-cations system which involves p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs. F i r s t , i t must be designed to supply quantities of relevant data to a c i t i z e n group. Second, i t must meet the needs of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t groups i n the community who may be separated s p a t i a l l y . Third, i t must include a "feedback mechanism" to cycle the perceptions of c i t i z e n s groups back to the decision-maker. The requirements suggested by Axworthy are more stringent and s p e c i a l i z e d than the communications process described by Meier (1962). In Meier's model, there i s a sender, a message, a channel, a receiver, a share of the receiver's attention, a common language, time, and at le a s t one purpose to be served. Meier points out that there can be a m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t i n the transmission of messages; f o r instance, a receiver can re-transmit the message to others. He also u s e f u l l y defines a t t e n t i o n as "... a p r o p o r t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the f r a c t i o n of symbols a c t u a l l y comprehended from among those presented" (1962, p.9). He estimates t h i s p r o p o r t i o n at f i f t y to e i g h t y per cent. Thus the sender r e q u i r e s r e p e t i t i o n to get h i s message across. Meier observes t h a t time i s o f t e n ignored i n d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l communications. "Communications i s always a rat e process and f o r humans the minimum time f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of a s i g n a l f a l l s i n the range of 10-20 m i l l i s e c o n d s " (1962, p.10). Since time i s a scarce commodity, bonded by the l i m i t s of a human l i f e - s p a n , he argues t h a t message t r a n s m i s s i o n must be e f f i c i e n t . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n C r i t e r i a In reviewing the p r i n c i p l e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the aspect which i s most u s e f u l to us here i s i t s p o t e n t i a l as a "two-way" communications channel between the decision-makers and the general p u b l i c , f i r s t as a means of determining the values and p r i o r i t i e s of the p u b l i c t o be a f f e c t e d , and second as a means of conveying information about impending plans or programs. In order f o r a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program to be an e f f e c t i v e communications channel, i t appears to us t h a t the f o l l o w i n g elements should be present: Pub l i e I n f e r e s t : I f a p r o g r a m i s to. work, t h e a f f e c t e d p u b l i c must be g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I n t e r e s t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n i t i a t i v e , s i n c e a g r o u p may n o t be i n t e r e s t e d i n any i s s u e u n t i l t h e y a r e made aware o f i t ; R e l e v a n t I n f o r m a t i o n : P e o p l e c a n n o t have i n p u t i n t o a p r o g r a m u n l e s s t h e y have a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i s s u e i n v o l v e d . I n f o r m a t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e i n a c o n t i n u i n g f l o w , and t h e q u a n t i t y and c o n t e n t must be programmed t o meet t h e p u b l i c ' s a b i l i t y t o a b s o r b i t ; D egree o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A s u c c e s s f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s h o u l d s t i p u l a t e a t some p o i n t t h e p r e c i s e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l w h i c h p l a n n e r s a r e w i l l i n g t o b a r g a i n away. I f " c o n s u l t a t i o n " as d e f i n e d by A r n s t e i n i s m e r e l y " m a n i p u l a t i o n " t h e p u b l i c w i l l be f r u s t r a t e d and t h e p r o g r a m w i l l f a i l ; D e g r e e o f A c c e s s : P a r t i c i p a t i o n must be b r o a d l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l segments o f a community w h i c h have an i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . S i n c e a c c e s s i s o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f t h e k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d c o n v e y a f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l . t a r g e t g r o u p s , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t l e v e l s o f l i t e r a c y , e t h n i c , l a n g u a g e and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ; P r o c e s s O r i e n t a t i o n : S i n c e t h e r e i s no u l t i m a t e m odel o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s as i m p o r t a n t as t h e p r o d u c t and s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e and s u p p o r t i v e , r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r e d and n a r r o w l y c o n c e i v e d ; S i z e / S c a l e The s i z e and s c a l e o f t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be t a i l o r e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c g o a l s , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e community i n v o l v e d , . and t h e medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h o s e n . A mass r a l l y may be an e f f e c t i v e f o r m f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; 68. 7. Scope: I f the i s s u e s are p u r e l y l o c a l and do not i n f r i n g e on the r i g h t s o f m i n o r i t i e s , i s s u e s may be decided at the l o c a l l e v e l . I f the people a f f e c t e d by the d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n i n a wider a r e a , or where l o c a l l y made d e c i s i o n s c o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t m i n o r i t i e s , the degree and method of p a r t i c i p a t i o n may n e c e s s a r i l y be changed; 8. Feedback Mechanisms: In p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the feed-back o f i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i c i s as important as the flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n to the p u b l i c . S i m i l a r l y , a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program should accommodate dialo g u e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves; 9. V i s i b i l i t y : P a r t i c i p a t i o n should be seen to have taken p l a c e . The decision-making process should be v i s i b l e to a l l , and the d e c i s i o n s openly a r r i v e d at i n o r d e r to achieve b r o a d l y based support. In t h i s s e c t i o n , we have b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b l e use o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs as a mode, or method o f s o c i a l communications, where such programs can p r o v i d e a "two-way communications" channel. However, the planner w i l l probably f i n d t h a t h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to u t i l i z e t h i s mode of s o c i a l communications are l i m i t e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where he wants to disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n about p l a n s and p o l i c i e s and r e c o v e r some feedback from the t a r g e t groups a f f e c t e d . W i t h i n the o v e r a l l scope of h i s p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , he may wish to u t i l i z e more t r a d i t i o n a l communications modes. These modes are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three. 69. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER TWO Meier suggests that a person's capacity to receive information i s b a s i c a l l y a function of his reading speed. 70. CHAPTER THREE COMMUNICATIONS MODES 3.1 INTRODUCTION Management c o n s u l t a n t P e t e r D r u c k e r (1968) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e W o r l d War Two, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has s w i t c h e d f r o m a goods p r o d u c i n g economy t o a knowledge economy. By t h e l a t e 1970's, he p r e d i c t e d h a l f o f e v e r y d o l l a r e a r n e d and s p e n t i n t h e A m e r i c a n economy w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o c u r e m e n t o f i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n . O b s e r v -i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n s now s p e n d more t i m e w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n t h a n w o r k i n g , K a l b a c o n c l u d e s : " I n f o r m a t i o n c h a n n e l s a r e t h e s o c i a l ' g l u e ' t h a t l i n k t o g e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , v a l u e s and a c t i v i t i e s on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s " (1973, p329). So f a r i n t h i s s t u d y , we have a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n e r s w h i c h stem f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n and c o m p l e x i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s . In C h a p t e r F i v e , we w i l l s u g g e s t t h e d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d e l i v e r y s y s t e m t o e n a b l e p l a n n e r s t o a c h i e v e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , we w i l l d e s c r i b e some o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s modes, o r c h a n n e l s , w h i c h may be u s e d as components i n a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m . We have a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p l a n n i n g t o o l w h i c h may be u s e d as a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s mode, s i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s c a n r e c y c l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p l a n s and p o l i c i e s o f t h e p l a n - m a k e r s and t h e v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s . However, i n many c a s e s , t h e planner may f i n d more t r a d i t i o n a l communications modes adequate for his purposes. Technological changes now taking place w i l l place a new set of communications tools at his disposal. The planner who does not know how and when to employ these modes w i l l l i k e l y f i n d that his e f f o r t s w i l l be confined to those people with whom he can communicate on a face-to-face basis, with l i m i t e d impact on a wider audience and on government decision-making. Since information i s widely perceived as power (B e l l , 1973 Kalba, 1974) the planner's central challenge i s the equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s power throughout a l l s t r a t a of society (Sackman and Boehm, 1972). There i s a puzzling lack of research i n the area of media consumption and Rosengren (19 74) concludes that there i s no typology of mass media content which i s widely accepted, and emphasizes the lack of systematic research i n the area of needs, problems, and goals. E l l i o t t (1974) reports that most media research uses a uses and g r a t i f i c a t i o n s model, which has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y revealing or e f f e c t i v e . Mendelsohn (1974) points out that the needs-use s - g r a t i f i c a t i o n s model can be e a s i l y distorted, since i t i s vulnerable to the value systems of those making the determination: Thus the teacher sees only the need for an education; the physician for therapy; the preacher for morality; the communicator for information and entertainment. Yet the physician often offers education; the teacher t r i e s t o i n c u l c a t e p r i n c i p l e s o f e t h i c s and p r o p r i e t y ; t h e p r e a c h e r p r e s e n t s v a r i e t i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n many t i m e s i n a d r a m a t i c o r e n t e r t a i n i n g m i l i e u ; and t e l e v i s i o n ' s Dr. M a r c u s Welby o f f e r s m e d i c a l t h e r a p y on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . (1974, p.304) The use o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s modes p l a c e s h e a v y r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s on t h e p l a n n e r i f we a c c e p t M e i e r ' s o p i n i o n (1962) t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m a n i p u l a t i v e e x e r c i s e . I n h i s e f f o r t s t o m a n i p u l a t e h i s p u b l i c t o w a r d s h i s o b j e c t i v e s , t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d be c o n s t r a i n e d by common s e n s e and t h e f e a r o f m e d i a " o v e r k i l l " o r t h e l o s s o f c r e d i b i l i t y . 3.2 COMMUNICATIONS MODES F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , we may c l a s s i f y t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g modes: 1. F a c e - t o - f a c e ; 2. T e l e p h o n e s y s t e m ; 3. B r o a d c a s t i n g s y s t e m ; 4. C a b l e t e l e v i s i o n s y s t e m ; 5 . D i g i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a y s y s t e m s ; 6. S a t e l l i t e s ; 7. P r i n t ; 8. V i d e o - t a p e and f i l m . E a c h mode i s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n t u r n . F a c e - t o - F a c e I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , b e f o r e we e v o l v e d t h e c o n c e p t o f " i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d " and " w i r e d w o r l d s " , we h a d f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M e i e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) s u r m i s e s t h a t c i t i e s e v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y t o accommodate human c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n was l a t e r augmented by r e c o r d - m a k i n g s s u c h as c l a y t a b l e t s , s y m b o l s , m u s i c , and t h e a l p h a b e t . The p r i n t i n g p r e s s f o l l o w e d t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s p e e c h e s and s u r v e y s , and r e m a i n s p r o b a b l y t h e p r i m a r y f o r m o f p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T e l e p h o n e In Canada, more t h a n n i n e t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f h o u s e h o l d s have a t l e a s t one t e l e p h o n e . B l u m e n f e l d ( 1 9 6 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e t e l e p h o n e has b een t h e most r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s i n c e i t p e r m i t t e d messages t o be t r a n s m i t t e d b e y o n d t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f f a c e - t o -f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He n o t e s t h a t t h e t e l e p h o n e d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e d e s i r e t o communicate f a c e - t o - f a c e , and t h u s d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e demand f o r a c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . B a l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) , r e v i e w i n g t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e t e l e p h o n e a l s o p e r c e i v e s t h e t e l e p h o n e as a d e c e n t r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e . He w o u l d a g r e e t h a t t h e t e l e p h o n e meets two o f o u r c r i t e r i a f o r a ^ - s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m : i t i s a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l and i t i s p e r v a s i v e , p u t t i n g t h e w o r l d w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e c a l l e r . However, i t i s a l s o an i n t r u d e r , s i n c e one i s i n c l i n e d t o answer i t s r i n g w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s knowledge o f t h e c a l l e r o r s e n d e r o f t h e message t o be t r a n s m i t t e d . T h i s makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e r e c e i v e r t o p l a c e a v a l u e on t h e t r a n s -a c t i o n , i n t e r m s o f t h e b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d , and t h e t i m e s p e n t on t h e p r o c e s s . In Canada, t h e t e l e p h o n e n e t w o r k s e r v e s two m a i n p u r p o s e s F i r s t , i t p r o v i d e s two-way p r i v a t e u s e r - t o - u s e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , o r v o i c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . S e c o n d , i t p r o v i d e s a s u b - n e t w o r k o f i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s , s u c h as t e l e t y p e e x c h a n g e s e r v i c e s known as TWX and T e l e x , CATV o r c a b l e s e r v i c e s , and m i crowave c a p a c i t y . I t s p o t e n t i a l u s e s a r e b a r e l y t a p p e d . In New Y o r k , g h e t t o s t u d e n t s c a n u s e a t e l e p h o n e t o l e a r n m a t h e m a t i c s , d i a l l i n g a programmed v o i c e r e s p o n s e . In M o n t r e a l , one u n i v e r s i t y i s u s i n g a s i m i l a r method f o r l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n . T e l e -phone c i r c u i t s can accommodate c o m p u t e r i z e d r e m o t e - a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s . V i d e o phones w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y on t h e m a r k e t i n some s e c t i o n s o f t h e U.S. The t e l e p h o n e has b e e n t h e b a s i s f o r t h e " o p e n l i n e " o r " p h o n e - i n " r a d i o show - one o f t h e few t r u l y a c c e s s i b l e , two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s a v a i l a b l e t o n e a r l y e v e r y o n e . A more l i m i t e d u s e o f t h e t e l p h o n e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e c o n c e p t o f t e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f u s i n g t h e t e l e p h o n e and a m p l i f i c a t i o n u n i t s t o e n a b l e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o h e a r and t o be h e a r d . T e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g t e c h n o l o g y c a n e l e c t r o n i c a l l y l i n k p e o p l e m e e t i n g as a g r o u p w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s i n d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s , r e d u c i n g t r a v e l t i m e and e n e r g y . The Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada ( P a c i f i c R e g i o n ) u t i l i z e d t h i s t e c h n o l o g y t o o r g a n i z e a Community Exchange p r o j e c t , w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f e n c o u r a g i n g p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . B e n e f i t s i n c l u d e d q u i c k r e s p o n s e and f e e d b a c k t o i d e a s , r a p i d s h a r i n g o f new i n f o r m a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l a w a reness on s u c h t o p i c s as a i r p o r t n o i s e p o l l u t i o n , r a p i d t r a n s i t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s . I n o u r e x p e r i e n c e , however, t e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g works b e s t when t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s know e a c h o t h e r b e f o r e h a n d , and can p u t f a c e s t o v o i c e s , a t l e a s t i n t h e mind's e y e . The s a v i n g s i n c o s t and t r a v e l t i m e can be g r e a t . B r o a d c a s t i n g Systems B r o a d c a s t i n g s y s t e m s i n c l u d e b o t h r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e s , b o t h o f w h i c h r e q u i r e an o v e r - t h e - a i r - t r a n s m i t t e r . B o t h a l s o r e l y on m i c r o w a v e f a c i l i t i e s , w h i c h i n Canada a r e u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a r r i e r s . E a c h t r a n s m i t t e r u s e s a g r o u p o f f r e q u e n c i e s , c a l l e d a c h a n n e l . The number o f messages, o r amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d on a g i v e n c h a n n e l depends on t h e t o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c i e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h a t c h a n n e l . The number o f f r e q u e n c i e s a v a i l a b l e i s sometimes c a l l e d w i t h w i d t h o f t h e c h a n n e l . There i s considerable competition for use of these frequencies by a number of users - t a x i - f l e e t s , delivery f l e e t s , police and f i r e departments, a i r l i n e s , government and m i l i t a r y services, remote-control systems, amateur and short-wave radio as well as radio and t e l e v i s i o n broadcast systems. Use of any frequency i s licenced, not owned, and subject to f a i r l y stringent regulations. In Canada the regulating body i s the Canadian Radio-Television Commission, which administers the Broadcasting Act enacted on A p r i l 1, 1968. The CRTC i t s e l f was set up to provide some form of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n by encouraging a two-way flow of information with the general public. It i s charged with applying the views and information s o l i c i t e d from the public i n developing broad-casting p o l i c i e s . It can be argued (Goldfarb, 1977; Gossage, 1974) that radio, t e l e v i s i o n and other forms of mass media provide a form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by supplying "receivers" with hard news items, or information, of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to them. Weather reports and emergency d i r e c t i v e s during disasters are messages aimed at helping the receiver make a decision a f f e c t i n g his own welfare and the receiver i s turned from a spectator into a participant. Gossage argues: "When the radio t e l l s you of bad i c i n g conditions on the l o c a l highway, you are no longer a spectator but a receiver of e s s e n t i a l information" (1974, p.2). D e s p i t e s u c h r a t i o n a l e s , t h e c o m m e r c i a l r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g s y s t e m s a r e r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e d t o t h e p u b l i c , a p a r t f r o m t h e "open l i n e " r a d i o show, w h i c h seems t o f i n d i t s most p r o l i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e w e s t c o a s t o f Canada. Wood (1971) d e s c r i b e s an e f f e c t i v e community a c t i o n t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m i n t h e New York/New J e r s e y m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , w h i c h u t i l i z e s r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t ; P u e r t o R i c a n and o t h e r S p a n i s h s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s h e l p e d t o d e c i d e t h e p r o g r a m t o p i c s , p r o v i d e d t h e a c t o r s and a s s i s t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f i v e h a l f - h o u r t e l e v i s i o n shows d e a l i n g w i t h consumer e d u c a t i o n , h o u s i n g , employment and e d u c a t i o n p r o b l e m s . When t h e s e r i e s was c o m p l e t e d , t h e r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . However, t h i s e x p e r i m e n t does n o t seem t o have b e e n w i d e l y r e p e a t e d d e s p i t e i t s a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s . B o t h r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g s y s t e m s p r o v i d e a c c e s s t h r o u g h p a i d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and t h r o u g h u n p a i d p u b l i c s e r v i c e announcements. The a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l l o w b u s i n e s s m e n , g o vernment a g e n c i e s and o t h e r m e d i a u s e r s t o communicate w i t h t h e i r m a r k e t t h r o u g h t h e use o f " s p o t s " o r c o m m e r c i a l s . The u n p a i d p u b l i c s e r v i c e announcements a r e n o r m a l l y a i r e d a t l e s s t h a n peak c o m m e r c i a l p e r i o d s , w h i c h c an r e d u c e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e -n e s s . T e l e v i s i o n " t a l k " shows, f e a t u r i n g l o c a l e v e n t s and l e a d e r s , p r o v i d e a n o t h e r f o r m o f a c c e s s t o c o m m e r c i a l t e l e v i s i o n c h a n n e l s , b u t t h e i n i t i a t i v e , and t h e e d i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n 78. over content i s normally i n the hands of the broadcasting s t a f f , not i n the hands of the person being interviewed. In Canada, c i t i z e n access has been provided to both radio and t e l e v i s i o n channels. Community radio i s one s o c i a l communication tool which i s overlooked by planners, but which i s increasing i n popularity as a community programming mode. It has certain key advantages when compared to i t s more glam-orous broadcasting colleague, t e l e v i s i o n . An important one i s cost; Baer (1974) estimates that an entire radio broadcast f a c i l i t y , composed of two or three studios and portable equipment, can be established with the funds required simply to equip a two-camera t e l e v i s i o n studio. Since radio techno-logy i s less complicated, maintenance costs are lower than for t e l e v i s i o n . M i t c h e l l (1974) and other commentators report that radio additional advantages are i t s immediacy, f l e x i b i l i t y and ease of q u a l i t y producion. Many people who s t a r t i n community t e l e v i s i o n programming and who become intimidated by the equipment, switch to community radio. In urban areas, community radio may cover a wide range of audiences i n a limited area. One example i s Wired World, a Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, community project which provide complete access for c i t i z e n s of the community and diverse programming including breakfast programs, women's and consumer programs, and special programming for children and for senior c i t i z e n s . Another example i s Vancouver Co-op Radio, which 79. started broadcasting i n A p r i l , 1975, with a low powered transmitter and even lower voltage financing. Co-op Radio i s managed by a Workers' Council, which approves programming and e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y . Council members represent the various groups i n the organization, such as the news team, or the ethnic programming unit. Co-op Radio a c t i v e l y supports the arts and disadvantaged groups, and attempts to provide view-points which are d i f f e r e n t from those stated by government and industry leaders i n the commercial media. One group member explains the organization's p o l i c y : We believe i n using the medium as a t o o l and i n making sure that people have access to t h i s t o o l . We think the f a c i l i t i e s of Co-op Radio are a public resource - a type of resource that has heretofore been reserved for mono-poli e s . We a c t i v e l y seek involvement from the p u b l i c . 1 In northern or r u r a l areas, radio may have a d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l pattern, a more cohesive audience and a unique use. In many areas radio i s the only mode of communication available. In the Mackenzie region of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , for instance, the Mackenzie network of the CBC provides the only regional communications coverage, both i n English and i n several l o c a l native languages. The region's newspapers are li m i t e d mainly to the s p e c i f i c urban centres they serve, and the l o c a l native press i s mainly printed i n English. 80. On the B.C. west coast, RAVEN, or the Radio and Audio Vis u a l Educational Network, maintains communications between native Indian groups, separated by distance but united by a unique culture. RAVEN u t i l i z e s a single side-band radio frequency and sometimes uses the network for conferences between different chiefs and t h e i r bands. Although RAVEN'S radio units have increased from 54 to 92 (Mitchell, 1974), i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the organization's use of video equipment has decreased. Aside from the unique s p a t i a l and ethnic services which radio can provide, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l areas, the use of radio as a s o c i a l communications tool may be constrained by the nature of i t s audience. With some exceptions, radio i s generally viewed i n the industry as the "youth" communications mode. Dominated by rock and r o l l and country and western music, radio stations attempt to s o l i c i t t h e i r audiences i n the "under t h i r t y " age group. At the other end of the spectrum, radio i s often a solace and an inexpensive companion for the shut-ins and senior c i t i z e n s , who may f i n d the cost of t e l e -v i s i o n p r o h i b i t i v e . The persons i n the middle years - which are also the years when people are most interested i n p a r t i c i -pating i n community programs - may be tuned out to radio. Cable Television In theory, the communications mode known as CATV, or community antenna t e l e v i s i o n holds great p o t e n t i a l for the planner seeking to energize his c l i e n t e l e into p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s o c i a l communications exercise. In face, the challenge has n o t yet been taken up. 81. In Canada, community programming received i t s biggest impetus i n July, 1971, when the CRTC announced i t would encourage owners of cable systems to provide and maintain one channel for •the use of the community. Perhaps i t i s a l l too new; the most in t e r e s t i n g aspect of community programming i s the limi t e d degree to which i t i s u t i l i z e d by c i t i z e n ' s groups. Lyman and Martin (1974), i n th e i r report on access to the media by community groups, point out that access must be exercised i f i t i s to have any meaning, and concluded that with few exceptions, access to community channels has not been u t i l i z e d much by the public. They sum up: The simple f a c t of the matter i s that most people i n the community don't want to produce t e l e v i s i o n . I t does not o f f e r them the kind of feedback, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the i n t e r a c t i o n , that f i l l s t h e i r needs (1974, p.16). Gossage says the challenge i s to create e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t uses for the technology of t e l e v i s i o n and radio. The f i r s t objective must be public education: The greatest single problem ... i s increasing the public's awareness that they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the most mysterious of a l l means of communication ... that they can do something themselves with the most powerful instruments of communication and image-making that man has invented ... (1974, p.20). 82. Yet the pot e n t i a l i s c l e a r l y established. In terras of national penetration by cable, Canada i s the most wired nation i n the world, and B r i t i s h Columbia i s the most densely covered province. By March, 19 71, there were 342 CATV operations i n Canada, many of them close to the U.S. border within reach of American t e l e v i s i o n stations. In B.C., there are seventy-three separate cable stations, whose subscribers amount to nearly seventy per cent of a l l households i n the province. Some eighty-five per cent of B.C.'s 74 9,000 households are i n licenced areas, and ninety-five per cent of those are wired for cable. In short, cable system coverage of B.C. covers eighty-one per cent of a l l households, almost equalling the coverage of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, with eighty-nine per cent of a l l households. A cable system operates by picking up over-the-air broadcasts by means of an e s p e c i a l l y equipped antenna and transmitted CATV signals v i a copper co-axial cable to the community pick up. In Canada, telephone companies normally control the d i s t r i b u t i o n of CATV signals within a community because they provide the telephone pole network needed to carry the d i s t r i b u t i o n cables from the community pick up, or head-end, to each i n d i v i d u a l household. In Canada, most CATV systems o f f e r only a one-way or d i r e c t i o n a l service to the Gustomer. In the U.S., some systems have the capacity to provide l i m i t e d two-way communications which enable programs to originate i n l o c a l i t i e s remote from 83. t h e main d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t s , and t h e n be f e d i n t o t h e s y s t e m . However, i t i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r CATV s y s t e m s t o p r o v i d e two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between t h e s u b s c r i b e r and t h e h e a d - e n d o r d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t w h i c h h a s e x c i t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e x p e r t s and p l a n n e r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I n c o n t r a s t t o c o n v e n t i o n a l , o r c o m m e r c i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s , w h i c h t e n d t o d i s s e m i n a t e h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d o u t p u t , community s t a t i o n s e x i s t m a i n l y t o s e r v e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d s o f t h e community t h e y s e r v e . Community a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s n o r m a l l y c o n s t r u e d as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e community f a c i l i t y and i t s community. T h i s r a i s e s t h e p r o b l e m s o f p r o v i d i n g mechanisms f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o w n e r s h i p , manage-ment p r o g r a m p r o d u c t i o n , e d i t o r i a l c o n t e n t , e t c . M i t c h e l l (1974) d e s c r i b e s two a p p r o a c h e s t o community programming by community s t a t i o n owners. One a p p r o a c h p r o d u c e s f o r t h e p u b l i c ; t h e s e c o n d a l l o w s t h e p u b l i c t o p r o d u c e . The f i r s t m i g h t be t e r m e d a "hands o f f " a p p r o a c h . The owner i s r e l u c t a n t t o p r o v i d e c i t i z e n a c c e s s t o h i s e x p e n s i v e c o l o u r e q u i p m e n t , a n d p r e f e r s t o u t i l i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s i n programming, w i t h i n p u t f r o m c i t i z e n g r o u p s . The s e c o n d , o r "hands on" a p p r o a c h i s more open t o a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by c i t i z e n s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . The owner may o f f e r t o t r a i n p e o p l e on h i s e q u i p m e n t , and p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p t o e n a b l e them t o d e f i n e t h e i r programming g o a l s and t o p r e p a r e 84. t h e i r production. He may be more f l e x i b l e about the frequency of programming, normally scheduled i n half-hour or one-hour segments. Richards (1974) suggests f i v e basic p r i n c i p l e s of community t e l e v i s i o n stations. They are: 0 1. The adoption of p a r t i c i p a t o r y and democratic decision-making structures, with one vote for each person; 2. Ownership by community members, including p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n financing; 3. Provision for l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning and production of programs, and the provision for audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n or "feedback'! programming formats; 4. A commitment to t r a i n i n g l o c a l groups i n the operation and maintenance of equipment: 5. A commitment to l o c a l needs, for instance, by f l e x i b l e scheduling of programs and by providing communication services (such as weather, t r a f f i c time reports, e t c . ) . Community Video Ltd., which operates Community Ten Televi s i o n i n North Vancouver, provides a schedule for pro-gramming which may be considered t y p i c a l for community stations. Programming i s decided by a programming committee, composed of four f u l l time producer-directors and a community co-ordinator, meeting at le a s t once a week. Community programming includes: 85. 1. A l i v e p r o d u c t i o n , o r open ended f o r u m w i t h v a r i o u s community g r o u p s on m a j o r i s s u e s , s u c h as h o u s i n g , a b o r t i o n , m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m ; 2. S p e c i a l programming f o r women and c h i l d r e n ; 3. Weekly r e p o r t s f r o m l o c a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s ; 4. Weekly s p e c i a l s , s u c h as c o n f e r e n c e s , a l l c a n d i d a t e s m e e t i n g s , e t c . G i v e n t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c i t i z e n a c c e s s , t h e q u e s t i o n i s why so l i t t l e s u c c e s s has b e en r e p o r t e d by community s t a t i o n s . A s u r v e y o f r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s f i e l d i n Canada s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s may be r e l e v a n t ; 1. Time and e f f o r t : N o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e o f t e n s u r p r i s e d and e x h a u s t e d by t h e amount o f t i m e and e n e r g y r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a " o n e - s h o t " h a l f - h o u r show, and l o s e i n t e r e s t ; 2. T e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s : T e l e v i s i o n e q u i p m e n t can be i n t i m i d a t i n g and f r u s t r a t i n g . TV i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e . b e s t way t o communicate c e r t a i n k i n d s o f community i n f o r m a t i o n , g i v e n t h e c o s t s and c o n s t r a i n t s ; 3. C o n f l i c t s b etween g r o u p s : U s u a l l y t h i s i n v o l v e s c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n m e d i a / i n f o r m a t i o n g r o u p s , who c o n t r o l a c c e s s t o t h e f a c i l i t y , and s e r v i c e / i n t e r e s t g r o u p s who m e r e l y want t o communicate t h e i r message, o r p o i n t o f v i e w . M o s t m e d i a g r o u p s a r e p o l i t i c a l l y l e f t i s t , and s e e t h e community c h a n n e l as a means o f c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g , w h i l e s e r v i c e g r o u p s w i t h s h o r t i n f o r m a t i o n g o a l s f i n d t h e y c a n n o t w i n a c c e s s t o a i r t i m e . 86. 4. C o n f l i c t between media groups: In some communities, several media groups, financed by short term funding programs, compete among themselves to control or dominate access to the l o c a l community st a t i o n , thus becoming a new media "establishment"; 5. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with commercial t e l e v i s i o n : Many c i t i z e n s groups f e e l t h e i r production should be as smooth as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and t h e i r own performance as professional as Lloyd Robertson. As viewers, they expect to be passively entertained, and thus negate the parti c i p a t o r y benefits of community programming; 6. Spatial constraints: The d i s t r i b u t i o n of cable licences i n some urban areas follow no recognizable community boundaries, either p o l i t i c a l , geographical or s p a t i a l . This works against e f f e c t i v e community programming; 7. Apathy of station owners: Some owners, who are complying with the CRTC regulations to provide a community channel, to so to meet the requirements of the l i c e n c i n g regula-tions, not the needs of the community; 8. Lack of information and evaluation:, Operating with modest funds, many stations do not have a budget f o r promoting programs or advertising t h e i r schedule, reducing t h e i r p o t e n t i a l audiences. Since they lack adequate feedback or evaluation from viewers, they may not be supplying appropriate programming. As noted e a r l i e r , the most immediate solution to some of these problems i s improved public education about the pot e n t i a l of community programming for c i t i z e n access to decision-making bodies. Other solutions noted (Lyman, 1974; Martin, 1974) : 8 7 . M o r e f l e x i b l e p r o g r a m m i n g f o r m a t s , w h i c h w o u l d s u p p l e m e n t e x i s t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g . E x a m p l e s a r e l i v e , u n s t r u c t u r e d c o v e r a g e o f g r o u p m e e t i n g s o r d e b a t e s ; A l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m m i n g c o n t e n t t o t h a t o f f e r e d b y c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . E x a m p l e s a r e p r o g r a m s g e a r e d t o s p e c i f i c g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , o r p r o g r a m s m e e t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ; F o r m u l a t i o n o f l o n g r a n g e g o a l s f o r p r o g r a m m i n g , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t s , and t o p r o d u c e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y b e i n g s e r v e d . In t h i s m o d e l , t h e g o a l , s u c h a s c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s s e t m u t u a l l y , t h e p r i o r i t i e s a r e s e t b y t h e c o m m u n i t y g r o u p , a n d t h e m e d i a g r o u p ' s r o l e i s t o s e r v i c e t h o s e n e e d s ; G r e a t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s as a r e s o u r c e f o r p r o g r a m m i n g i n p u t ; C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n - w i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e w h i c h c u t s a c r o s s l o c a l c a b l e s y s t e m b o u n d a r i e s , i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e a c c e s s b y c i t i z e n s g r o u p s t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d i e s a n d t o s h a r e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , two o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s come t o m i n d . F i r s t , t h e e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be o n t h e p l a n n e r ' s r o l e a s a n i m a t o r , who knows how t o c o - o r d i n a t e c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t o make u s e o f t h e c h a n n e l , r a t h e r t h a n a s a n a d v o c a t e f o r a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p . S e c o n d , t h e mode c h o s e n b y t h e p l a n n e r a s h i s s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o o l s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e i f i t i s t o d e l i v e r m e s s a g e s e f f e c t i v e l y a n d w i t h a d e g r e e o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 88. D i g i t a l Information Relay Systems One of the most ex c i t i n g concepts of urban planning i s that of the wired world, composed of network neighbourhoods, linked e l e c t r o n i c a l l y across s p a t i a l constraints. By means of two-way communications, the inhabitants of t h i s world can state t h e i r views on l o c a l p o l i t i c a l issues, tap the resources of the world's great l i b r a r i e s , communicate with t h e i r friends, and purchase goods and services without leaving t h e i r homes. The technical importance of CATV systems i s t h e i r potential to become the t h i r d wired system i n a community, along with e l e c t r i c power cables and telephone l i n e s . With the addition of a two-way feature and telephone hook-up, a CATV system could be linked with a c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d d i g i t a l computer for the purposes of assembling, storing, r e t r i e v i n g , compressing and reacting to information. The technological capacity, or "hardware" for computer communication already exists i n the form of cablevision, s a t e l l i t e s , microwave transmission, etc. This capacity i s also the product of the explosion i n computer technology since World War Two. Sackman and Boehm (1972) observe that only one per cent of the t o t a l population of the U.S. which has grown up since World War Two has been involved with computers i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way. But the next generation, by the year 2000, w i l l probably f i n d that computer usage has been extended to one hundred per cent of the population. They add: 89. The s o c i a l problems following i n the wake of t h i s u n p a r a l l e l l e d extension of computer services to the general public can boggle the mind (1972, p.4). Limited use of computer communications are already being made, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of education where computer-ized i n s t r u c t i o n and data r e t r i e v a l systems are becoming more common. For instance, one Connecticut school operates a " d i a l access" information r e t r i e v a l system which can retransmit either audio tapes or videotapes on a wide range of subject. The l i n k i n g of micro-film technology with a closer c i r c u i t i n f o r -mation r e t r i e v a l system makes i t possible to view documents v i a t e l e v i s i o n monitors at Laval University. The biggest constraint on widespread dissemination of t h i s technology i s cost. Sackman and Boehm (1972) estimate that computer power doubles and computer costs drop by one half every three years; they predict a m u l t i b i l l i o n d o l l a r information industry before the end of the 1970's. But even i f the technology exists and the cost breakthrough's can be estimated, the s o c i a l consequences of implementing t h i s p a r t i c u l a r "planovation" cannot be predicted with any accuracy. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that participants i n the 1969 conference on information u t i l i t i e s held i n Chicago, which serves as the basis for Sackman and Boehm"s book on the subject, agreed on the technological imminence of mass information u t i l i t i e s , but disagreed on the s o c i a l implications. The community information u t i l i t y i s the technology which has emerged out of the component parts of cable systems, computers, telephone systems, etc. Sackman defines an information u t i l i t y as: ... mass communications systems i n which the consumer interacts d i r e c t l y with a central computer and i t s associated information f i l e s from a remote terminal at his home, o f f i c e , or school - i n his natural environment -i n a manner such that he receives the information at his terminal almost immediately a f t e r requesting i t (1972 , p.17). Sackman makes some in t e r e s t i n g observations regarding the information u t i l i t y compared with t r a d i t i o n a l public u t i l i t i e s , such as gas, water and e l e c t r i c power. These u t i l i t i e s transport homogeneous commodities; i n contrast, information i s heterogeneous. T r a d i t i o n a l u t i l i t i e s serve material needs; information u t i l i t i e s service i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional and s p i r i t u a l needs. He concludes that information u t i l i t i e s have the p o t e n t i a l to formulate s o c i a l values. This makes impera-ivetthe task of ensuring that information u t i l i t i e s are dedicated to a l l segments of society, rather than r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n segments of society. Kalba (19 73) suggests that the CIU w i l l become the home communications centre of the future. The various components, including computer terminals, display monitors, video recorders, and facsimile machines, a l l linked to other communication centres 91. by c o - a x i a l c a b l e , w i l l h o l d s o l u t i o n s t o t h r e e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s . The f i r s t i s i n c r e a s i n g t h e amount o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c w h i l e a v o i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d . The s e c o n d i s i m p r o v i n g t h e methods o f t r a n s m i t t i n g l o c a l n eeds and p e r c e p t i o n s t o d e c i s o n - m a k e r s . The t h i r d i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f mechanisms f o r w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d and i n t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f i s s u e s . The u s e s o f t h e p r o p o s e d i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t i e s c a n be s ummarized as f o l l o w s : 1. M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s : T h e r e a r e t h r e e c l a s s e s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s where CIU's c o u l d be e m p l o y e d . The f i r s t i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as u t i l i t i e s , t r a n s i t , p u b l i c w o r ks a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n ; i n t h e s e a r e a s CIU c o u l d "bank" u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d e m o g r a p h i c t r e n d s , s e r v i c e demand p a t t e r n s , s y s t e m s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , e t c . F o r t h e s e c o n d m a j o r c l a s s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d r e g u l a t i o n , a C I U c o u l d s i m p l i f y a c c e s s t o o p e r a t i n g f i l e s , a s s e s s m e n t r e c o r d s , t a x r e c o r d s , e t c . , a n d t o h e l p r a t i o n a l i z e t h e c o d e e n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e s s . I n t h e t h i r d a r e a , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as e d u c a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i a l work, e t c . , CIU c o u l d p r o v i d e r o u t i n e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e n e e d f o r l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e , e x p e n s i v e f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; 2. I n c r e a s i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n : A CIU c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e means f o r h o l d i n g t o w n - m e e t i n g t y p e d i s c u s s i o n s , c o n d u c t i n g r e f e r e n d a , e t c . However, t h e r e a r e t h e p r o b l e m s o f managing d i s c u s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n s h o r t t e r m p u b l i c f e e d b a c k . On t h e o t h e r 92. hand, the f a c i l i t y could v e n t i l a t e otherwise e x p l o s i v e resentment, and provide more s p e c i f i c feedback on c i t i z e n perceptions of government s e r v i c e s , crime, housing q u a l i t y , e t c . The CIU could a l s o a l l e v i a t e l o n e l i n e s s by e n a b l i n g people to communicate wi t h others w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s i n a more e f f i c i e n t manner than such present methods as personal ads., i n f o r m a l newsletters and club c i r c u l a r s . Greater c i t i z e n feedback would be obtained by i n s t a l l i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y i n a c e n t r a l neighbour-hood l o c a t i o n , such as a f i r e h a l l , to permit access to decision-makers. One form of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a "store and scan" feature which would permit a person to express h i s views, and f o r h i s statement to be scanned by o t h e r s ; 3. Education: A CIU, as an in-home education f a c i l i t y could provide access t o classrooms across the country. P u b l i c l i b r a r i e s c o u l d provide c o l l e g e - l e v e l l e a r n i n g to people without the time to go to c o l l e g e . John Farquhar (1972) suggests t h a t the CIU can make every man master of h i s own e d u c a t i o n a l f a t e . Rosen (1976) describes an audio-v i s u a l teaching machine which looks l i k e a t e l e v i s i o n s e t , but which acts l i k e a p r i v a t e t u t o r . A CIU c o u l d encourage the p o s t i n g of l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s ; 4. On-line p o l l i n g and v o t i n g : The technology necessary f o r o n - l i n e p o l l i n g i s a two-way cable s e r v i c e which s u p p l i e s the user w i t h e i t h e r a 12-button response pad, such as those on telephones, a t y p e w r i t e r or a t e l e t y p e keyboard. Involuntary p o l l i n g could i n c l u d e recording the t e l e -v i s i o n channels watched. Voluntary p o l l i n g could i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , v i a the CIU i n p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -making. Parker (1972) suggests that because of the need f o r a randomly drawn sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o p u l a t i o n , the o n - l i n e p o l l i n g w i l l be one of the l a s t 93. s e r v i c e s added to a CIU, assuming t h a t by then the i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y i s u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l households. S i m i l a r l y , v o t i n g systems would need s t r i n g e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n requirements s i n c e i t would be u n f a i r t o allow the r i c h to vote from t h e i r homes, v i a a machine, w h i l e the l e s s wealthy are f o r c e d to go to a p u b l i c p l a c e to use a v o t i n g machine. An important p o t e n t i a l of o n - l i n e p o l l i n g o r v o t i n g i s the a n t i c i p a t e d r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t o f h o l d i n g e l e c t i o n s , o r p r e s e n t i n g r e f e r e n d a ; 5. T e l e p u r c h a s i n g and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s : L i k e i t s p r e c e d e s s o r s , the m a i l order catalogue o r telephone "buy l i n e s " , t h i s s e r v i c e c o u l d enable the CIU user to make h i s purchases without l e a v i n g h i s home. However, the CIU c o u l d cover the e n t i r e t r a n s a c t i o n i n v o l v e d , i n c l u d i n g the placement of the o r d e r and the t r a n s f e r o f funds between the shopper and the merchant banks. Simpson-Sears L t d . o f Toronto, i n an i n n o v a t i o n b e l i e v e d t o be the f i r s t of i t s k i n d s i n the world, has i n s t a l l e d an automated telephone o r d e r system which permits "round the c l o c k " shopping u s i n g a computer t o check whether the item ordered i s i n s t o c k ; 6 . I n d u s t r i a l and v o c a t i o n s e r v i c e s : A CIU c o u l d supply access t o supply c a t a l o g u e s , c o n s u l t a n t s , document p r e p a r a t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g design and a n a l y s i s , l i b r a r y and r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e s , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Thus i t would enable users t o o b t a i n the types of s e r v i c e s most s u i t e d to t h e i r needs from whatever the source o f supply; 7. Entertainment and news s e r v i c e s : Canadian d a i l y metro-p o l i t a n newspapers are a l r e a d y s w i t c h i n g t o computerized p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , where the r e p o r t e r ' s copy i s fed" i n t o a desk console and never touched by hand again u n t i l i t emerges i n the form of a newspaper. A CIU news channel may provide i n s t a n t access to news, background s t o r i e s and f e a t u r e s . Readers would browse e l e c t r o n i c a l l y reading those items - indexed to d i f f e r e n t channels -which i n t e r e s t them. The s o c i a l impact of these developments alarms some observers. Selwyn (1972) suggests t h a t as the CIU becomes more i n t e g r a t e d i n t o business and homes, the primary job of some workers w i l l be to i n t e r a c t w i t h the u t i l i t y . The a l i e n -a t i o n of people i n c r e a s i n g l y o r i e n t e d to a home communications centre r e c e i v e s wide a t t e n t i o n . Since our d i s c u s s i o n centres on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l communication, i t i s u s e f u l to summarize the p o s s i b l e impacts suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e : The CIU could become a pervasive s o c i a l propaganda machine, presen t i n g stereotyped concepts of norms and values. I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s could be p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the~:use of the CIU by planners, who tend to base t h e i r analyses on p r e v a i l i n g norms and value s ; The impact of the CIU could i n c r e a s e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l process. One w r i t e r , Eulau (1970), a n t i c i p a t e d a p a r t i c i p a t o r y nightmare, w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e power passing from the seat of government to the c i t i z e n ' s l i v i n g room. He suggested t h a t i f an e l e c t e d represent-a t i v e was to r e s t r i c t himself to m i r r o r i n g the preferences of h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s , he may as w e l l be replaced by a computerized d e c i s i o n a l apparatus; 95. On the other hand, the CIU could reduce e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by increasing the number and d i v e r s i t y of int e r e s t groups into a more fragmented p o l i t i c a l process; Since home voting machines would be easier to use and more accessible, voting would probably increase, and since the information available to the i n d i v i d u a l would improve, his a b i l i t y to make an informed vote may r i s e ; While the elected representative may gain by greater i n t e r a c t i o n with his constituents, such increased surveillance could l i m i t his freedom i n bargaining and negotiation; Since the CIU would encourage the emergence of the information power broker, or "gatekeeper" who serves as interpreter, summarizers, etc., the u t i l i t y could increase the concentration of power or control of information into r e l a t i v e l y few hands; Increased access to televised entertainment would d i v e r t time and attention away from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l a f f a i r s . The central thesis to Sackman1s argument (1972) i s the need fo r co-operative p a r t i c i p a t o r y technology and research at a l l l e v e l s , throughout a l l stages of the information u t i l i t y ' s evolution. He defines p a r t i c i p a t o r y technology as the inclus i o n of people i n the s o c i a l and technical process of developing, implementing and regulating technology i f they are affected by the technology. Three forms of pa r t i c i p a t o r y technology are l i t i g a t i o n ; for example, the c i t i z e n challenges the ri g h t of a u t i l i t y to pollute the environment; technology assessment, or i d e n t i f y i n g and p u b l i c i s i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of technology; and ad hoc a a c t i v i t y , such as s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups which are aimed at a l t e r i n g technology. Sackman (1972) would add to t h i s process the onrcept o f c i t i z e n feedback i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l system develop-ment. He suggests t h i s could be done, i n the case of the CIU, by p a r t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l experimentation - or an experimental prototype. Kalba (1973) describes such a prototype, c a l l e d the Minnesota Experimental C i t y (MXC) which i s designed to provide a t e s t bed f o r the development and experimentation of techno-l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d human s e r v i c e s . He o u t l i n e s the nature of the proposed i n n o v a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a f i r s t generation CIU, and i d e n t i f i e s some of the t r a d e - o f f s between telecommunications-supported s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land use. He makes the important p o i n t t h a t the s o c i a l aspect of the CIU and the wired c i t y should not become l o s t i n the t e c h n o c r a t i c planning. The communications technology o u t l i n e d f o r MXC may improve business e f f i c i e n c y , decrease p o l i c y and emergency response time and increase access to foreign-language education; but the a b i l i t y to work, shop, l e a r n and vote from home may adversely a f f e c t a community's cohesion i n as yet uncrecognized ways. Turoff (1973) p r e d i c t s a r a p i d use of computer-based Delphi c o n f e r i n g systems i n the immediate f u t u r e . Not everyone i s as enchanted w i t h the p o t e n t i a l of the computer as a communications t o o l . Canadian communications expert Gordon Thompson a l l o c a t e s computer te r m i n a l s only s i x p o i n t s , on a s c a l e of 0 - 36. In c o n t r a s t , he awards the telephone 17 p o i n t s , books and l i b r a r i e s 24 and broad-c a s t i n g only 11. In h i s view, a communications in n o v a t i o n has three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. I t increases the ease of access or r e t r i e v a l of st o r e d human experience; 2. I t increases the s i z e o f the i n f o r m a t i o n space shared i n common by communicants; 3. I t increas e s the ease w i t h which shared perceptions and views can be discerned and developed, i n order to achieve a consensus. Thompson, warning t h a t we are already being p a r a l y z e d by "information overload" suggests t h a t one s o l u t i o n i s a v i s u a l language, which he terms "visemes", or s t i c k - l i k e drawings l i n k e d to communicate ideas o r concepts. Reading, he suggests, would become s i m i l a r to watching t e l e v i s i o n . S a t e l l i t e s Canada has placed p a r t i c u l a r r e l i a n c e on s a t e l l i t e communications, f o r tra n s m i s s i o n of t e l e v i s i o n and broadcast s i g n a l s and f o r a host of other uses. Tel e s a t Canada, the 98. a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d o m e s t i c s a t e l l i t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , l a u n c h e d t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t s a t e l l i t e f o r d o m e s t i c u s e i n 19 73. The f u t u r e r o l e o f s a t e l l i t e s i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s study.-I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t s a t e l l i t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n may crowd o u t l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . S i n c e g r o u n d t e r m i n a l s t a t i o n s a r e v e r y c o s t l y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o v e r a g e v i a s a t e l l i t e t e n d s t o b l a n k e d l a r g e a r e a s , t h u s r e s t r i c t i n g i n p u t s o f l o c a l p r ogramming o r i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n c r e a s i n g t h e "one-way" communi-c a t i o n s f l o w f r o m s e n d e r t o r e c e i v e r . P r i n t A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g y , s a y s L e r n e r (1968) grew o u t o f t h e womb o f A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l i s m . However, j o u r n a l i s t Emmett Dedmon (1968) makes an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e g o a l s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t and t h o s e o f t h e j o u r n a l i s t . He a r g u e s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t v i e w s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m e d i a as a v e h i c l e t o e f f e c t s o c i a l c hange. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e j o u r n a l i s t : - v i e w s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o c e s s as t h e g o a l i t s e l f , and any change w h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t f r o m t h e p r o c e s s i s a by-p r o d u c t . He e x p l a i n s : ... t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t may s e e [ c o m m u n i c a t i o n ] as a means, t h e j o u r n a l i s t t e n d s t o r e g a r d i t as a s u f f i c i e n t e nd (1968, p . 1 8 5 ) . These d i f f e r e n t and divergent views of the goals of communications apply p a r t i c u l a r l y to the area of p r i n t j o u r n a l -ism. The t e l e v i s i o n viewer may use h i s own eyes and ears to perceive r e a l i t y as i t unfolds on h i s screen, but the news-paper reader i s h e a v i l y dependent on the perceptions and observations of the newspaper r e p o r t e r and e d i t o r i n assessing the u t i l i t y , or value, of any i n f o r m a t i o n . In most cases, the assessment of the u t i l i t y of a b i t of i n f o r m a t i o n by the e d i t o r i s u n l i k e l y to match th a t of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . Canadian media consultant M a r t i n Goldfarb e x p l a i n s why: A newspaper can't push change, because b a s i c a l l y i t i s a m i r r o r , which r e f l e c t s the opinions of i t s readers. A newspaper f u n c t i o n s to enforce your c o n v i c t i o n t h a t your neighbourhood i s okay (1977). The m i r r o r e f f e c t described here i s used by Goldfarb to r e f u t e the suggestion t h a t p r i n t j o u r n a l i s m i s mainly a "one-way" communication mode, t r a n s m i t t i n g messages from sender to r e c e i v e r w i t h few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r feedback. P a r t i c i p a t i o n may be i n d i r e c t but i t e x i s t s i n three ways, says Goldfarb. Readers p a r t i c i p a t e through the m i r r o r e f f e c t , seeking support f o r t h e i r views. Secondly, readers p a r t i c i p a t e by r e c e i v i n g hard news and a d v e r t i s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to them, i n the manner described e a r l i e r by Gossage (1974). 100. F i n a l l y , people p a r t i c i p a t e through use of the a d v e r t i s i n g columns, and to a l e s s e r extent, through l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r which are r e p r i n t e d i n the newspaper. Goldfarb argues t h a t the newspaper i s the only medium through which an i n d i v i d u a l can communicate w i t h h i s community by buying space i n i t s columns at a r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t . The newspaper i s r e l a t i v e l y cheap, widely d i s t r i b u t e d , and access t o i t s columns i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y open to anyone who can put pen or t y p e w r i t e r to paper. One of i t s most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s i t s r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . Farquhar (1972) observes that the average d a i l y paper has p r i n t i n g space f o r 600,000 words, which would r e q u i r e about f o r t y hours to read aloud, at normal announcing speeds. Another important fea t u r e i s the r e l a t i v e l y long l i f e o f the message t r a n s m i t t e d ; TV and radio s i g n a l s come and go, but i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d i n a news-paper can be read, s t o r e d and r e t r i e v e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t r o u b l e . The i n c r e a s i n g d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge, and the attendant t h r e a t of inform a t i o n " o v e r k i l l " has given r i s e to the s m a l l , s p e c i a l i z e d magazines aimed at s e l e c t e d audiences. Despite these a t t r a c t i o n s , the growth of metro p o l i t a n newspapers no longer i s a foregone co n c l u s i o n . In Canada, Goldfarb reports t h a t c i r c u l a t i o n of major d a i l i e s dropped sharply f i v e o r s i x years ago, and i n the U.S., the Newspaper A d v e r t i s i n g Bureau Inc., i n New York, showed an " i n e x p l i c a b l e drop" i n readership i n 1973, the l a s t year f o r which f i g u r e s 101. a r e a v a i l a b l e . The b u r e a u r e p o r t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h c i r c u l a t i o n l e v e l s c o n t i n u e d t o a d v a n c e , newspaper r e a d e r s h i p d r o p p e d t o s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t f o r a l l a d u l t s f r o m t h e 77-78 p e r c e n t l e v e l s a c h i e v e d f o r more t h a n a de c a d e (Simmons, 1973). I n t h e a b s e n c e o f d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s , G o l d f a r b o b s e r v e s t h a t i n Canada, age g r o u p s u n d e r t h i r t y y e a r s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t r e a d e r s o f n e w s p a p e r s . He s a y s t h a t p e o p l e t u r n t o new s p a p e r s a s t h e y m a t u r e i n o r d e r t o se e k r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , how much t h e y e a r n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r p e o p l e ; what t h e i r h o u s e s a r e w o r t h ; what t h e y c a n p u r c h a s e w i t h t h e i r d o l l a r s ; t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r s t o c k s and b o n d s . I n t h e U.S., t h e NAB f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n s i n n e wspaper r e a d e r s h i p d e p e n d i n g on h o u s e h o l d income, e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s and r a c e . The s t u d y shows t h a t more m a l e s and f e m a l e s w i t h h o u s e h o l d incomes, o f $10,000 and up r e a d n e w s p a p e r s i n 1973 t h a n d i d p e o p l e i n l o w e r i n c o m e s . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s a n d p e o p l e w i t h some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n t e n d e d t o r e a d n e w s p a p e r s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n d i d p e o p l e w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , more w h i t e s t e n d e d t o be newsp a p e r r e a d e r s t h a n d i d n o n - w h i t e s i n t h e s u r v e y y e a r , w i t h n o n - w h i t e f e m a l e s s h o w i n g t h e l o w e s t r e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s . However, t h e g r o w t h o f s m a l l e r w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s , s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r m e t r o p o l i t a n s u b u r b o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d has t a k e n up t h e s l a c k c r e a t e d b y l a g g i n g g r o w t h t r e n d s among m e t r o p o l i t a n p a p e r s . L a r s e n and E d e l s t e i n (19 60) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e u r b a n w e e k l y newspaper c a n e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p and e x t e n d p e o p l e ' s 102. i d e n t i t y and involvement with t h e i r community. Goldfarb (1977) ci t e s several instances i n Canada where major metropolitan newspapers have halted or reversed t h e i r dropping c i r c u l a t i o n by t a c k l i n g the weekly papers i n t h e i r own market, by featuring l o c a l or "street" news, and opening advertising columns to l o c a l merchants at reduced rates. In 19 77, the NAB i s conducting a major study to examine newspapers' performance r e l a t i v e to other media and to study the role of newspapers as a consumer information source. Video-tape and Film There i s a general impression i n the media that i f you are not i n the pages of the paper or i n the lens of the camera, then you don't e x i s t . You are a member of the s i l e n t majority. I r i s h p o l i t i c i a n Bernadette Devlin, interviewed on CBC's "Ninety-Minutes Live" January 31, 1976 Bernadette Devlin was responding to interviewer Peter Gzowski's question on what she had been doing l a t e l y , and she" was attempting to convince him that she was doing just f i n e , a l b e i t out of the public eye. She was r e f e r r i n g to what communications experts c a l l the "mirror" e f f e c t , which describes how people look to the media to confirm r e a l i t y . I f i t i s in the paper, or on TV, i t i s r e a l ; i f i t i s unrecorded, then r e a l i t y appears to be an i l l u s i o n , without substance. 103. The m i r r o r most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n n e r s i s t h e h a l f - i n c h v i d e o - t a p e t e c h n o l o g y . I t i s p o r t a b l e , s i m p l e t o o p e r a t e , e a s y t o l e a r n and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e t o o p e r a t e . I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e most p r a c t i c a l way o f a c h i e v i n g two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e p l a n n e d f o r . The c l a s s i c e x e r c i s e i n t h e u s e o f f i l m / v i d e o - t a p e f o r s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s t h e Fogo I s l a n d P r o j e c t c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e l a t e 1960's by t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d and t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f NFB p r o d u c e r C o l i n Low. The Fogo I s l a n d p r o c e s s i s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . The Fogo I s l a n d p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e a new c o n c e p t i n community d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e u s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o b u i l d t r u s t between g r o u p s i n t h e community and t o a c h i e v e a c o n s e n s u s . By f a c i l i t a t i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and between c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e f i l m - m a k e r s h o p e d t o e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r p r o b l e m s as t h e y saw them, and t o m o d i f y t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i n t h e l i g h t o f o t h e r v i e w p o i n t s p r e -v a i l i n g i n t h e community. A t t h e t i m e t h e p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d , t h e g o vernment o f N e w f o u n d l a n d was f o r m u l a t i n g i t s p o l i c i e s on t h e i s l a n d ' s " o u t p o s t " c o m m u n i t i e s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e f i l m c o u l d become a f o r m o f " w h i t e p a p e r " , e x p r e s s i n g t h e v i e w s o f t h e I s l a n d e r s t o t h e p o l i c y makers i n S t . J o h n ' s . I n i t i a l l y , p r o d u c e r C o l i n Low e x p e c t e d t o make one o r two f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e I s l a n d e r ' s c o n c e r n s . E v e n t u a l l y , however, he made. 104. a series of about twenty-eight short films, each dealing with a s p e c i f i c subject. The immediate outcome of the Fogo Island project was a dr a s t i c r e v i s i o n of Newfoundland's po l i c y of siphoning the population from the outposts into newly defined regional growth centres. But for Fogo Island, there were more s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s . A subsequent NFB f i l m , "Memo from Fogo Island", completed i n 1972 reveals a community which has met i t s immediate goals, and i s now formulating new ones i n an atmos-phere of economic and s o c i a l regeneration. On balance, the Fogo Island process i s slow, painstaking and enormously e f f e c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l change. I t was used elsewhere i n Newfoundland and Colin Low's group was asked to undertake a s i m i l a r project i n C a l i f o r n i a . Considering i t s impact and acknowledged success, however, the Fogo Island process has not been widely used. In a personal conversation with the author i n the f a l l of 1976, Colin Low explained that the process i s not welcomed by governments or agencies seeking change because of the p o s s i b i l i t y that the people involved might veto the planned development. Two-way communication i s a double-edged sword, and since most pa r t i c i p a t o r y gestures on th e part of government and industry are sought to stamp approval on a project already defined, few bureaucrats are w i l l i n g to r i s k a p a r t i c i p a t o r y No! 105. During a two-week seminar on Film, Video-tape and  So c i a l Change, sponsored by the Extension Service of Montreal University of Newfoundland i n 1972, the following uses of the Fogo Island process were reported for r u r a l and semi-rural areas (Gwyn, 19 72): 1. As a t o o l to encourage c r e a t i v i t y i n the community: The community development o f f i c e r l e f t video-tape equipment i n a high school, and returned to f i n d the students had made t h e i r own production and arranged to learn production techniques at a l o c a l studio; 2. As a t o o l to involve young people i n community development: A community development o f f i c e r , who f e l t young people were being ignored i n the development process, asked them to make t h e i r own tape. As a r e s u l t , they became members of the development association and one student became secretary; 3. As a means of communication between students and teachers: The students made a tape of t h e i r grievances and complaints and the teachers responded with a taped reply; 4. As a means of communication between teachers and parents: Parents, uneasy about the introduction of l e v e l s instead of grades i n the l o c a l school, were reassured when they viewed tapes of t h e i r children at t h e i r school work. 5. As a means of developing community p a r t i c i p a t i o n : At one community, no one would get up and speak at a meeting to organize an improvement committee. The community development o f f i c e r introduced VTR at a f i v e night work-shop on public speaking, and by the t h i r d night everybody 106. had stood up and given t h e i r names. On the f i f t h night the workshop held a mock-meeting - and one of the l a s t people to give his name offered to be chairman; 6. As a means of confrontation: A semi-urban area lacked water. Residents formed an action committee, and made a tape of t h e i r demands and presented i t to council, which recognized a r i v a l for power, and consented to the necessary expansion of the water supply. VTR permitted "old" information to be. presented i n a more f o r c e f u l manner; 7. As a means of communication and c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l : In a mainly Innuit commuty, without broadcast radio or t e l e -v i s i o n , VTR i s used to disseminate community information. By making tapes i n Eskimo, people are maintaining t h e i r language; 8. As a means of adult education: Tapes on record-keeping for fishermen, f i s h handling, food technology, municipal services are one means by which people i n r u r a l communities can up-grade t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . They can also u t i l i z e regular classroom space a f t e r hours; 9. As a means of expressing community values: By having l o c a l residents act out t h e i r own s t o r i e s , i n a games playing ro l e , one community worker used VTR to enable people to express community c o n f l i c t s and deep, underlying s o c i a l issues - and to packed houses; 10. As a means of organizing a community: By producing a "video b l i t z " of tapes on l o c a l issues from lack of u t i l i t i e s to lagging employment, a community development worker enticed more than half the population of a community to view the product. By the end of the showing, sub-committees had been formed to press f o r gas and water l i n e s , sewers, etc. 107. I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t many of the uses f o r VTR.in r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l areas centred around the consensus f u n c t i o n , i n order to create d i s c u s s i o n and dialogue. In c o n t r a s t , the seminar learned t h a t i n urban s i t u a t i o n s , the emphasis i s on a c o n f r o n t a t i o n f u n c t i o n . The fragmented nature of urban s o c i e t y , the predominance of mass media, and the f r u s t r a t i o n s of urban l i v i n g are among the reasons given f o r the c o n f r o n t a t i o n focus. Some examples i n c l u d e d : 1. S t r e e t research, showing tapes of power s t r u c t u r e s and l o c a l i s s u e s t o encourage people to organize f o r change; 2. Documentation of the a c t i o n s of c i t i z e n s groups, to a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s who are a f r a i d of "taking-on" the establishment; 3. Monitoring meetings, so t h a t decision-makers take more care about what commitments are made, and to ensure t h a t such commitments are kept; 4. A n a l y s i s of c o n d i t i o n s i n an area as a prelude to urban renewal, so that l o c a l values were preserved. One p a r t i c i p a n t i n the 1972 conference summed up the r o l e of VTR i n community development; I b e l i e v e that w h i l e VTR does not b a s i c a l l y change the community development process, i t does seem to a c c e l e r a t e i t , most s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the process of b r i n g i n g the community together and g i v i n g i t s members a f e e l i n g of u n i t y and s t r e n g t h (Gwyn, 1972, p.12). 108. Some community development o f f i c e r s had r e s e r v a t i o n s about the use of VTR as a s o c i a l communication t o o l . Among them: 1. I t can become a cru t c h . I f the VTR i s n ' t working, a l l work on the development process stops; 2. I t can be used as a manipulative t o o l to achieve power by s p l i n t e r groups who force a "consensus" on the more t i m i d and uncommitted, or who e d i t u n f a i r l y ; 3. I t can lead to u n f u l f i l l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , i f people do not recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the technology. Media Access Groups These groups, which are found mainly i n urban cen t r e s , o f f e r support s e r v i c e s to c i t i z e n ' s groups seeking access to the media. In the main, they o f f e r t r a i n i n g , equipment, advice, a i d and other support to groups who need i n s t r u c t i o n i n how to use the media. Media Access Groups are not p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n programming. Normally, they work through various community groups r a t h e r than w i t h the community i t s e l f . T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are expected t o increase i n the next few years. An example of a f u n c t i o n media access group i s Metro Media, operat i n g i n Vancouver. Community Information Centres As i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r names, these centres e x i s t to meet l o c a l needs f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . These may i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on community s e r v i c e s , neighbourhood groups, r e c r e a t i o n 1 0 9 . f a c i l i t i e s , and s p e c i f i c events. They can provide a valuable feedback function by recording the needs expressed i n incoming c a l l s , since such c a l l s can help to i d e n t i f y l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s . They can serve as both a resource for the planner, seeking information about l o c a l groups, and as a feedback mechanism i f such centres are properly set up. 3.3 SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODES In t h i s chapter, we have described some of the communi-cations modes, or channels, which may be used i n a s o c i a l communications system. This task i s preliminary to the o v e r a l l objective of t h i s study, which i s to suggest the design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a s o c i a l communications delivery system which may be used as a planning t o o l . In Chapter One, we de f i n e d " s o c i a l communications" as "the use of information/ communications systems to achieve planning objectives, normally incorporating an element of s o c i a l change" (p.8 ) . In Chapter Two, we i d e n t i f i e d some of the c r i t e r i a which a s o c i a l communications system should meet i f i t i s to be e f f e c t i v e , and suggested that public p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs could be u t i l i z e d as a s o c i a l communications mode. In th i s section, we w i l l analyze to what extent the communications modes described, including public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , meet the c r i t e r i a we have established for s o c i a l communications. 110. The r e s u l t s of our a n a l y s i s i s set out i n Table I. below. I t shows th a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs, i f pro p e r l y designed, have a very high p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l communications compared w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l modes, meeting a l l ten c r i t e r i a l i s t e d i n the t a b l e . Each r a t i n g f o r each mode i s based on informat i o n contained i n t h i s and e a r l i e r chapters. Rather than discuss each r a t i n g i n t u r n , we w i l l d escribe how the r a t i n g s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r two modes, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r i n t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs normally c o n t a i n a message, or b i t of i n f o r m a t i o n to be t r a n s m i t t e d , and can serve as a "two-way" communication channel between the planner and the planned f o r . Such programs can be a c c e s s i b l e to any i n t e r e s t e d person o r p a r t y who wishes t o p a r t i c i p a t e . An audience i s assured by the "two-way" channel. Multi-modal d i s t r i b u t i o n systems can be b u i l t i n t o such programs, since they may u t i l i z e a v a r i e t y of communications channels - p u b l i c meetings, e t h n i c p r e s s . r e l e a s e s , p r i n t and t e l e v i s i o n advertisements e t c . -to reach the t a r g e t audience. Such programs may be designed to i n c l u d e people who l i v e c l o s e to each other, as i n a neighbourhood, or who are widely d i s t r i b u t e d s p a t i a l l y but l i n k e d by a common i n t e r e s t . Programs may be repeated or adapted i n order t o increase people's awareness of the messages being t r a n s m i t t e d . The avoidance of a l i e n a t i o n and overload can be designed i n t o such programs, i f these goals are kept i n mind by the program planner. F i n a l l y , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs provide necessary scope f o r the element of animation. ; 1 1 1 m TABLE I . SOCIAL COMMUNICATON MODES CRITERIA FACE TO FACE TELEPHONE i BROADCAST ' CABLE TV VTR PRINT PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Message y e s yes y e s y e s y e s y e s y e s 2-way c h a n n e l y e s y e s no l i m i t e d l i m i t e d no y e s A c c e s s ( c o n t r o l ) y e s yes no l i m i t e d l i m i t e d l i m i t e d y e s j A u d i e n c e y e s yes y e s y e s y e s y e s y e s M u I t i - m o d a l l i m i t e d no y e s y e s yes* no y e s S p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n no no y e s y e s y e s y e s y e s C o n s e r v a t i o n / R e p e t i t i o n no no y e s y e s y e s y e s y e s S A v o i d a n c e o f § o v e r l o a d y e s no y e s y e s y e s i y e s y e s j A v o i d a n c e o f | a l i e n a t i o n y e s no no y e s t i y e s no y e s A n i m a t o r / a n i m a t i o n y e s no no , ( j y e s y e s no y e s TOTAL " y e s " 7 3 i 1 t 6 6 8 5 10 112. P r i n t a l s o c o n v e y s a message, b u t i t s p o t e n t i a l as a "two-way" c h a n n e l i s l i m i t e d , s i n c e t h e p u b l i c does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y , b u t o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p r i n t e d m e ssage r e f l e c t s t h e i r own v i e w s . E x c e p t i o n s a r e l e t t e r s t o t h e e d i t o r , and t h e p u r c h a s e o f a d v e r t i s i n g s p a c e . A c c e s s t o p r i n t i s l i m i t e d , s i n c e n o r m a l l y e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l o v e r c o n t e n t i s i n t h e hands o f t h e e d i t o r s . T h e r e i s c l e a r l y an a u d i e n c e f o r p r i n t m e s s a g e s , b u t p r i n t i s n o t m u l t i - m o d a l , and t h e a u d i e n c e may be c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o c e r t a i n age a n d income g r o u p s i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s . P r i n t i s c e r t a i n l y w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e and meets t h e c r i t e r i a o f s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n . I t a l s o s a t i s f i e s 11 c o n s e r v a t i o n / r e p e t i t i o n " s i n c e messages may be s t o r e d and r e p e a t e d . The r e a d e r c a n a v o i d i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d s i m p l y b y n o t r e a d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l . However, p r i n t c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a l i e n a t i o n by t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a c c e s s and by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l i n t h e hands o f r e l a t i v e l y few p e o p l e ; p e o p l e who do n o t f i n d t h e i r v i e w s " m i r r o r e d " i n t h e pa g e s o f a newspaper o r m a g a z i n e may f e e l a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f s o c i e t y , a f e a t u r e w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e p e r i o d i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new m a g a z i n e s , o r " u n d e r g r o u n d " p r e s s v e n t u r e s w h i c h seek t o c a p t u r e t h e a l i e n a t e d a u d i e n c e . F i n a l l y , no a n i m a t o r i s r e q u i r e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r i n t mode. We c a n e s t a b l i s h , t h e n , t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may: be s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d as a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s mode. I n C h a p t e r F o u r , we w i l l p r e s e n t a c a s e s t u d y w h i c h d e s c r i b e s how p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was u s e d i n t h i s manner. 113, FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER THREE 1 The U b y s s e y , November 5 1976, p.2 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY (HABITAT) 4.1 INTRODUCTION In e a r l i e r chapters, we have suggested that s o c i a l communications systems can help to provide a more open and dynamic planning process, with continuous opportunities for in t e r a c t i o n between the planners and the planned for. The need for t h i s kind of planning process i s anticipated by Kalba (1974) who argues that the demands of "planovation", or planning for innovation, w i l l require a r e d e f i n i t i o n of the planning process as North American society evolves to-wards the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era. We have also suggested that public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies can provide an important element i n a s o c i a l communications system. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l describe how t h i s concept was employed i n formulating a regional information program for HABITAT: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, held i n Vancouver, B.C., May 31 - June 11, 1976. I t deals with the second objective set out i n Chapter One: To describe how public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies were used in a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l communications case study. In so doing, we w i l l attempt to answer the question raised i n Chapter One: 115. Can e x i s t i n g planning techniques, such as public par-t i c i p a t i o n , be u t i l i z e d as a mode or method of incor-porating information systems and flows into the o v e r a l l planning process? 4.2 BACKGROUND When the author was retained on January 12, 1976 to de-sign, implement and manage a regional information d i v i s i o n for Canadian Habitat Secretariat i n the host c i t y of Vancouver, the resources available were one brown envelope of information data and an order for 50,000 buttons. Five months a f t e r , CHS Information Vancouver had a s t a f f of 36 people and had spent almost one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The reason for the accelerated a c t i v i t y was the unanticipated role which information assumed in order to help achieve conference goals. The o r i g i n a l planning for Canadian Habitat Secretariat, the host country agency, did not envisage a major public information program on HABITAT for Vancouver, the conference s i t e and host c i t y . The information d i v i s i o n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were mainly perceived to be concerned with Canada's role as host of the conference. Information's budget and programs re-f l e c t e d t h i s bias; the bulk of funds had been allocated to the production of a brochure and a f i l m aimed at prospective delegates abroad, and the d i v i s i o n ' s l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were deemed to be the production of such conference handbooks as were required by the United Nations for the Vancouver con-ference . 116. O r i g i n a l l y CHS V a n c o u v e r had o n l y one i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e r , who o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a s e c r e t a r y o r any s t a f f s u p p o r t w h a t s o e v e r , and who m a i n t a i n e d p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r e s s and w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t HABITAT. T h e r e was l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e l o c a l m a r k e t b e y o n d an i n e x p e n s i v e , mimeographed f a c t s h e e t . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , l i t t l e was known a b o u t t h e c o n f e r e n c e o r i t s o b j e c t i v e s by e i t h e r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c o r l o c a l p o l i -t i c i a n s . The n e e d f o r a d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s t r a t e g y , aimed a t t h e h o s t c i t y and r e g i o n , became c l e a r when V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f h o s t i n g t h e l a r g e s t U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n f e r e n c e e v e r h e l d . I n t h e F a l l o f 1975, b o t h t h e Mayor and s e v e r a l c o u n c i l members v o i c e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o h o s t i n g HABITAT, i n v i e w o f a n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s t o t h e c i t y and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m s . The n e e d , t h e r e f o r e , was t o d e v e l o p a r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p o l i c y a i m e d a t r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s o f HABITAT and t h e c o n f e r e n c e o b j e c t i v e s , and t o c r e a t e a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e i n t h e h o s t c i t y . The p o s i t i o n o f A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , I n f o r m a t i o n , was c r e a t e d f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a V a n c o u v e r I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e . G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s The most u r g e n t t a s k f a c i n g t h e V a n c o u v e r o f f i c e was t o d e s i g n an a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n s t r a t e g y , e s t a b l i s h i n g f i r s t t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o g r a m and t h e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e t h o s e g o a l s . S i n c e I n f o r m a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s n e c e s s a r i l y h a d t o r e -f l e c t t h e g o a l s o f t h e HABITAT C o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f , t h e s e a r e r e v i e w e d b e l o w : x 1. HABITAT, I n t e r n a t i o n a l G o a l s a) R a i s e l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s a b o u t t h e phenomenon o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , mass m i g r a t i o n t o s e t t l e m e n t s , and i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s on p a r t o f g o v e r n m e n t s , n o n - g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s (NGO's), m e d i a a n d i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s ; b) I d e n t i f y and e x p o s e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o manag-i n g t h i s phenomenon and s o l u t i o n s t o t h e c o n s e -q u e n c e s o f t h i s phenomenon t h a t have been t r i e d and f o u n d more o r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l ; c) D e v e l o p , d e b a t e and r e f e r t o g o v e r n m e n t s recom-m e n d a t i o n s f o r a c t i o n a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l on human s e t t l e m e n t s , p o l i c i e s , s t r a t e g i e s and p r o g r a m s ; 2. C a n a d i a n G o a l s a) To r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s a b o u t t h e phe-nomenon o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i n C a n a d a , i n t h e p r o -v i n c e s , and o u r m a j o r s e t t l e m e n t s , and t h e c o n -s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s phenomenon on t h e p a r t o f g o v e r n m e n t s , NGO's, m e d i a , o p i n i o n m o l d e r s a n d i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s ; b) To i d e n t i f y a n d d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o managing t h i s phenomenon, and s o l u t i o n s t o t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s phenomenon t h a t h a v e b e e n t r i e d and f o u n d more o r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n Canada and a b r o a d ; 118. c) To use HABITAT - i t s p r e p a r a t o r y p r o c e s s , the conference i t s e l f and post- c o n f e r e n c e a c t i v i t y - to achieve a g r e a t e r consensus on the o b j e c -t i v e s and substance o f a CHS and to promote and r e f i n e the development of inte r g o v e r n m e n t a l and p u b l i c / p r i v a t e mechanisms and process to im-plement i t ; d) To develop an awareness i n Canada of the need f o r , and t o adopt and promote a Canadian p o s i t i o n on the recommendations f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-op-e r a t i o n i n f i e l d o f human s e t t l e m e n t s . 3 . R egional Goals a) To c r e a t e an awareness on the p a r t o f the govern-ments, media, NGO's and c i t i z e n s o f Vancouver and B.C. of what HABITAT i s about, what i t can mean to them and how they can and should p a r t i c -i p a t e and c o n t r i b u t e . b) To so stage HABITAT - the events p r e c e d i n g the conference and the conference i t s e l f - t h a t i t i s p e r c e i v e d to be a success and a c r e d i t t o Canada, B.C. and Vancouver. W i t h i n the context o f these broad g o a l statements, the Information d i v i s i o n of CHS had s p e c i f i c sub-goals. These were: i ) To support Canada's r o l e i n the UN HABITAT Conference as a p a r t i c i p a n t ; i i ) To support Canada's r o l e as the host.; i i i ) To support Canada's ongoing concern w i t h the problem o f human s e t t l e m e n t s . Scope and T i m i n g The V a n c o u v e r I n f o r m a t i o n d i v i s i o n was p a r t o f t h e o v e r -a l l I n f o r m a t i o n p r o g r a m o f CHS, w h i c h , i n t u r n , was meshed w i t h o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a g e n c i e s , s u c h as t h e CBC H o s t B r o a d -c a s t e r , t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s O f f i c e o f P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n and th e I n f o r m a t i o n d i v i s i o n o f HABITAT FORUM, t h e p a r a l l e l c o n -f e r e n c e f o r non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The s c o p e o f t h e d i v i s i o n ' s o p e r a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by s p a t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f u n c t i o n s , and t i m e p e r i o d . I n t e r m s o f s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , b e f o r e t h e c o n f e r e n c e , CHS V a n c o u v e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and t h e Yukon and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . D u r i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n was e x t e n d e d a c r o s s Canada. In t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n s , CHS I n f o r m a t i o n V a n c o u v e r was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o n f e r e n c e i n f o r -m a t i o n , s u c h as c o n f e r e n c e h a ndbooks, d e l e g a t e s ' b r o c h u r e s , w a l l p o s t e r s and p r o m o t i o n m a t e r i a l s i n b o t h E n g l i s h and F r e n c h l a n g u a g e s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n m a r k e t and a l s o i n S p a n i s h f o r t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . Some F r e n c h l a n g u a g e t r a n s l a t i o n a n d / o r p r o -d u c t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t by CHS I n f o r m a t i o n i n Ot t a w a , p r i m a r i l y f o r d o m e s t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n e a s t o f A l b e r t a , o r f o r p o s t s and m i s s i o n s a b r o a d , b u t t h e b u l k o f t h i s m a t e r i a l was p r o d u c e d i n V a n c o u v e r . CHS V a n c o u v e r was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e d i t o r -i a l and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t o f HABITAT S t a t i o n , c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f a l l t h e community c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n 120. systems i n order to b r i n g l i v e coverage of the conference to viewers. In terms of t i m i n g , the r e g i o n a l aspects of the Van-couver d i v i s i o n ' s operation was expanded to encompass n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l coverage, w i t h the a r r i v a l of the D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l of Information and h i s s t a f f from Ottawa f o r the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r to and during the Confer-ence . CHS Information Vancouver had only four months to achieve i t s pre-conference o b j e c t i v e s . This r e l a t i v e l y short p e r i o d of time const r a i n e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program i n terms of the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . In theory, the plan was t o e s t a b l i s h an i n f o r m a t i o n program i n i t i a l l y i n the host r e g i o n , defined as Greater Vancouver and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which d i r e c t l y bordered the area. When t h i s was accomplished, the p r i o r i t i e s would ex-tend f i r s t to the I n t e r i o r of B.C., then to A l b e r t a and ' f i n a l l y to the two northern t e r r i t o r i e s . In f a c t , the time and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d to achieve Information's o b j e c t i v e s i n the host region l i m i t e d the resources a v a i l a b l e to s e r v i c e the r e s t of the region w i t h some important exceptions. S i m i l a r l y , the scheduling of i n f o r m a t i o n programs was planned to achieve peak p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and involvement p r i o r to the conference i t s e l f , (when p u b l i c i n t e r e s t would be pre-empted by the a c t u a l conference proceedings). In f a c t , the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e to design, mount and implement 121. infor m a t i o n programs meant th a t some programs overlapped the conference, and some impact was l o s t . Methodology A number of approaches were developed i n designing the methodology f o r the Information program. F i r s t , an organ-i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was designed as the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s to be performed were f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d and then s t a f f e d accor-d i n g l y . These fu n c t i o n s were press s e r v i c e s , community r e l a t i o n s , p r oduction, c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Second, i n a d d i t i o n to more t r a d i t i o n a l promotion and p u b l i c i t y techniques, the means used to achieve CHS Vancouver Information's goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the host region i n -cluded a degree of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There were prag-matic reasons f o r developing a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. One reason was the f a c t t h a t the leak of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l -able had created a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of f r u s t r a t i o n and h o s t i l i t y among people who wanted or needed to know about HABITAT, and who wanted to become "in v o l v e d " i n the p r o j e c t . Another was the f a c t t h a t the l i m i t e d time and s t a f f made i t p h y s i c a l l y impossible to meet every request f o r i n f o r m a t i o n or f o r speakers and programs from CHS's own resources. A c r i t i c a l f a c t o r was the d i f f i c u l t y i n conveying, to the l o c a l p u b l i c , the goals and a s p i r a t i o n s of a conference d e a l i n g mainly w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n other c o u n t r i e s beyond the exper-ience or imagination of most Vancouverites. Thus a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program proved to be a prudent a l t e r n a t i v e , and 122. a s p e c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n i t was added t o t h e I n f o r m a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . T h i r d , i n f o r m a t i o n themes were d e v e l o p e d , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e some b a s i s f o r c o n s i s t e n t d e s i g n and f o r c o h e r e n t p r o g r a m s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e themes w e r e : To d e v e l o p t h e c o n c e p t t h a t "HABITAT i s How P e o p l e L i v e " ; To d e v e l o p an a w a r e n e s s among C a n a d i a n s t h a t we s h o u l d make g r e a t e r use o f o u r e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n a d d i n g t o them; To d e v e l o p an a w a r e n e s s among C a n a d i a n s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a s k a l l l e v e l s o f g o vernment o n l y f o r t h o s e p r o g r a m s and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e c a n n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s ; To c o n v e y t h e c o n c e p t t h a t HABITAT was a s o l u t i o n -o r i e n t e d c o n f e r e n c e , as d e l e g a t e s f r o m 140 c o u n t r i e s e x c h a n g e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . F o u r t h , v a r i o u s modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n were a d o p t e d t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and m o n i t o r f e e d b a c k , u t i l i z i n g t h e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e t a r g e t c l i e n c e l e . U s i n g t h e modes d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n b r i e f l y summarizes t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m . 4.3 MODES OF COMMUNICATION  F a c e - t o - F a c e ( V o l u n t e e r S p e a k e r s Bureau) From t h e day t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r I n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e o p e n e d , i t was i n u n d a t e d w i t h r e q u e s t s f r o m p e o p l e who w a n t e d 123. to be involved somehow in HABITAT. Since the o f f i c e was also inundated with requests for HABITAT speakers, i t was decided to combine the two functions. The volunteer speakers included an engineer on sabbat-i c a l , teachers, university professors, wealthy matrons and theology students, young people seeking job experience, and housewives. A l l attended one-day HABITAT t r a i n i n g seminars. In the three months the volunteers operated, they addressed some 250 church, community, service groups and reached about 10,000 people i n face-to-face communication. Their audiences included a handful of clerks i n a bank to air p o r t workers meeting in a c a f e t e r i a to formal l e c t u r e - h a l l groups. I n i t i a l l y operating i n the Vancouver area, they eventually reached into the Fraser Valley, up into the Inter-i o r and part of Vancouver Island. They were Information's f r o n t - l i n e troups, encountering i n the f i e l d i n d i f f e r e n c e , h o s t i l i t y , antagonism and increasingly, as t h e i r e f f o r t s ex-panded, in t e r e s t and approval. They disseminated and c o l l e c t e d information providing Information with a "two-way" communications channel with part of the target population. Each speaker was equipped with an information k i t , posters, buttons, one or two films, and a "feedback" form. These forms noted the group addressed, location and date, number i n attendance, aspect of HABITAT discussed, audio-visual meterial used, and general audience reaction and i n t e r e s t areas. Each speaker was required to submit a completed form before being assigned a new speaking 124. date, since i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t the information c o l l e c t e d was at l e a s t as important as the messages being disseminated. These feedback forms provided Information w i t h speedy, d i r e c t and e f f i c i e n t data on p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c viewpoints. There was not s u f f i c i e n t time to mount a t t i t u d e surveys or to conduct o p i n i o n p o l l s of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e by the time the r e s u l t s could be compiled the conference would be over. Audience response was rated as " p o s i t i v e " , "negative", and " n e u t r a l " . Many speakers reported t h a t an audience which was i n i t i a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t or n e u t r a l f i n a l l y generated a p o s i -t i v e response a f t e r the f i l m s were shown, in f o r m a t i o n d i s -t r i b u t e d and d i s c u s s i o n s were held . An a n a l y s i s of 13 8 volunteer speakers' feedback forms f o r the p e r i o d March 24 t o May 14, 1976, i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w -i n g breakdown of responses: POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL INCOMPLETE 111 2 20 5 Answers to the most re c u r r e n t questions and concerns were prepared and d i s t r i b u t e d to speakers and to the I n f o r -mation Centre. The major concerns i d e n t i f i e d i n the feedback forms were d e a l t w i t h i n news r e l e a s e s , and i n the speeches of CHS o f f i c i a l s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , to reduce concern about the nature of conference v i s i t o r s , press r e l e a s e s pointed out that the l a r g e s t group coming was the World C o u n c i l of Churches. 125. To counter concern over costs, i t was pointed out that most of the money was being spent to create employment and pur-chase supplies i n Vancouver. To counter concern about v i o -lence, the elaborate security provisions were stressed. In t h i s way, the information on public concerns and attitudes was c o l l e c t e d , analysed, and answered i n Information material d i s t r i b u t e d as widely as possible, and through a number of modes. Telephone System I n i t i a l l y , a l l public i n q u i r i e s were fed into the central CHS o f f i c e and answered by the s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f , which proved inadequate to handle the volume of c a l l s . A community Infor-mation Centre was opened as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y , s t a f f e d by com-petent personnel on a two-shift basis and o u t f i t t e d with ade-quate telephone switchboards. The HABITAT Information t e l e -phone number was carried i n small, inexpensive advertisements repeated i n the l o c a l , regional and metropolitan newspapers. Telephone i n q u i r i e s shortly exceeded 100 c a l l s a day, handled by a b i l i n g u a l s t a f f . In a three-month period, almost 100,000 perople were served by the Information Centre through the telephone and personal v i s i t s . The nature of a l l i n -qui r i e s was tabulated i n weekly reports to the o f f i c e of the Assistant-Director General of Information i n order to monitor public concerns and information needs. Pre-planning requirements had established a new Infor-mation number, l i s t e d i n the c i t y c i r e c t o r y . At the time of 126. t h e c o n f e r e n c e , i n o r d e r t o cope w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d demand, a ten-man s w i t c h b o a r d was i n s t a l l e d and s t a f f e d on a 2 4 - h o u r b a s i s . L a n g uages s p o k e n by t h e t e l e p h o n e i n q u i r y crew i n -c l u d e d E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , S p a n i s h , German, P e r s i a n and H u ngar-i a n . D u r i n g t h e one-month p e r i o d May 12 t o J u n e 15, a t o t a l o f 23,108 c a l l s were h a n d l e d , w i t h a d a i l y n i g h o f 2,200 c a l l s , i n d i c a t i n g a t r u l y phenomenal i n t e r e s t i n c o n f e r e n c e e v e n t s . So f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n q u i r i e s were t a b u l a t e d by t y p e , and by t i m e p e r i o d , and r e p o r t e d t o CHS I n f o r m a t i o n management. B r o a d c a s t Systems The u s e o f b r o a d c a s e s e r v i c e s , d e f i n e d as c o m m e r c i a l t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o , was c o n f i n e d t o t h e p e r i o d p r e c e e d i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e , s i n c e t h e I n f o r m a t i o n f u n c t i o n was assumed by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s O f f i c e o f P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f . B r o a d c a s t s e r v i c e s were u t i l i z e d f o r b o t h e d i t o r i a l and a d v e r t i s i n g s u p p o r t . To a t t r a c t e d i t o r i a l a t t e n t i o n - and t h u s v a l u a b l e o n - a i r t i m e - e f f o r t s were made t o d e s i g n p a r -t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s w h i c h were "media e v e n t s " , t h a t i s , p r o -grams o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s w h i c h h a d news v a l u e s i n t h e m s e l v e s , and c o n v e y e d t h e I n f o r m a t i o n themes o f a w a r e n e s s and s e l f - h e l p i n d i r e c t l y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walks p r o j e c t , t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , was c h o s e n f o r i t s m e d i a a p p e a l and t h e v a r i o u s w a l k s were r e p o r t e d on t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o . T h i s a p p r o a c h h e l p e d augment t h e n o r m a l r o u t i n e o f 127. press conferences and "stand-up" i n t e r v i e w s of conference o f f i c i a l s and expanded the o n - a i r time devoted to pre-confer-ence a c t i v i t i e s . T e l e v i s i o n was used as an a d v e r t i s i n g medium to reach a province-wide and r e g i o n a l audience, s i n c e m e t r o p o l i t a n and weekly newspapers confined coverage to the Greater Vancouver area. Information feedback mechanisms had conveyed people's view of human settlements as a dreary s u b j e c t , which i n e v i t -ably l e d to demands on the Canadian taxpayer f o r more f o r e i g n a i d . Therefore, we chose a l i g h t , animated approach to t e l e -v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g . For subject m a t e r i a l we used other c o u n t r i e s ' s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r human settlement problems, to convey the idea t h a t these c o u n t r i e s were h a n d i l y r e s o l v i n g t h e i r problems w i t h minimal outside help - and tha t some of t h e i r s o l u t i o n s might be u s e f u l t o Canadians f a c i n g s i m i l a r i s s u e s . This dual approach of using animation and s t r e s s i n g s o l u t i o n s was a l s o adopted f o r p r i n t a d v e r t i s i n g . Examples are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. Radio was used p r i m a r i l y f o r reaching the younger, mobile audience and s e n i o r s who were more confined t o t h e i r homes. Concerted attempts were made to a i d r a d i o s t a t i o n s broadcasting i n languages other than E n g l i s h . Cable T e l e v i s i o n Community t e l e v i s i o n was used as a major mode before and during the conference. In the pre-conference p e r i o d , a weekly hour-long t e l e v i s i o n show was produced on Vancouver's community 128. s t a t i o n and " b i c y c l e d " a r o u n d t o o t h e r community s t a t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . D u r i n g t h e c o n -f e r e n c e i t s e l f , I n f o r m a t i o n ' s p r i m e mode was HABITAT S t a t i o n , a community t e l e v i s i o n n e t w o r k composed o f v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and e n t i r e l y s e c o n d e d t o I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e t e n - d a y p e r i o d . The s t a t i o n s were l i n k e d by m i c r o -wave and b y c a b l e , i n an u n p r e c e d e n t e d c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e . A l l p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d was h a n d l e d t h r o u g h f a c i l i -t i e s a t t h e HABITAT c o n f e r e n c e s i t e s , and t h e o n - a i r b r o a d c a s t p i c k e d up b y t h e n e t w o r k s t a t i o n s and r e l a y e d t o t h e i r home a u d i e n c e s . W h i l e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t o f CHS, I n f o r m a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l programming c o n t e n t , o r " s o f t w a r e " . I n f o r m a t i o n s t a f f e r s r e p o r t e d a l l c o n f e r e n c e e v e n t s and c o m p i l e d b r o a d c a s t s w h i c h were a i r e d s e v e r a l t i m e s d a i l y . M a j o r c o n f e r e n c e e v e n t s were t e l e v i s e d l i v e , a n d r e -p e a t e d on a s e l e c t i v e b a s i s . The e x t r e m e i n t e r e s t g e n e r a t e d by HABITAT S t a t i o n may be m e a s u r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t c a l l s f r o m v i e w e r s s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o r m a k i n g c o m p l a i n t s on p r o g r a m -ming changes r e a c h e d 300 a day. A t t h e end o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e s m a l l s t u d i o and c o n t r o l room was d i s m a n t l e d , t h e c a b l e s t a k e n up, t h e microwave s y s t e m removed and t h e l o c a l community s t a t i o n s resumed t h e i r s e p a r a t e programming. Computers and S a t e l l i t e s Computers were u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by c o n f e r e n c e p l a n n e r s t o r e c o r d and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n , and s a t e l l i t e t r a n s m i s s i o n 129. of conference events was considerable. However, neither of these modes were the d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Information. Video-tape and Audio-visual Video-tape and audio-visual modes were used i n Infor-mation's p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs, and to reach a key audience - school children. A l o c a l audio-visual unit, Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l Insights Ltd., was retained to design and implement the outreach program f o r school-aged audiences. By f i e l d i n g speakers, each covering two or three schools or more d a i l y , Insights managed to reach 61,214 school children i n a two-and-a-half-month period, and was forced to turn down requests for additional bookings. The a/v program, which dealt with the growth and development of Vancouver and then evolved into a global view of the problems, proved to be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c -ti v e a mode of reach young audiences. In addition, a lobrary of films and s l i d e s on human settlement issues and on the conference was quickly assembled from United Nations and CHS sources and made availa b l e to the public. Information purchased advertising - mainly on bus signs - to support a National Film Board of Canada program of films. HABITAT Station c a r r i e d the bulk of the 2 30 audio-v i s u a l presentations produced by 120 countries and presented at the conference to show l o c a l solutions to human settlement problems. 130. P r i n t HABITAT a t t r a c t e d e a r l y and s u s t a i n e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e m a j o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p a p e r s , w h i c h were r u n n i n g , on a v e r a g e , c l o s e t o t w o - a n d - a - h a l f pages o f c o v e r a g e a day j u s t p r i o r t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e . However, i t became c l e a r t o I n f o r m a t i o n p l a n -n e r s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e s p a c e a l l o c a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t , news-p a p e r r e a d e r s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y aware o f t h e i m p e n d i n g c o n -f e r e n c e , a c l a s s i c c a s e o f I n f o r m a t i o n " o v e r l o a d " . ( Meier,1962) W h i l e t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e m e t r o p a p e r s was e n c o u r a g e d , t h e b u l k o f t h e I n f o r m a t i o n e f f o r t i n t h e p r i n t m e d i a was a i m e d a t t h e s m a l l w e e k l y community p a p e r s , w h i c h d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h l o c a l i s s u e s . S i n c e t h e s e i s s u e s i n c l u d e d z o n i n g , t r a f f i c c h a n g e s , h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , s c h o o l p r o b l e m s and o t h e r human s e t t l e m e n t s u b j e c t s , t h e w e e k l y p a p e r s were t h e most o b v i o u s p r i n t mode o f r e a c h i n g l o c a l a u d i e n c e s . The " r i n g w e e k l i e s " , o r w e e k l i e s w i t h i n V a n c o u v e r C i t y b o u n d a r i e s , o r i n m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o i t , were i d e n t i f i e d and e d i t o r i a l s u p p o r t / b a c k e d up by s o l i d a d v e r t i s i n g d o l l a r s , were s o l i c i t e d t h r o u g h d i n n e r m e e t i n g s , p e r s o n a l v i s i t s , and i n some c a s e s w i t h a s u p p l y o f e d i t o r i a l c opy w r i t t e n by I n f o r m a t i o n s t a f f . The l i n e , o r t o p s t o r y i n a w e e k l y newspaper was j u d g e d t o have more i m p a c t t h a n a s t o r y on an " i n s i d e " page o f t h e m a j o r d a i l i e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e w e e k l i e s was s o u g h t f o r HABITAT p a r t i c i p a n t e v e n t s i n t h e i r a r e a , w i t h g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s . The d e l i v e r y s y s t e m f o r a l l p r e s s r e l e a s e s and p i c t u r e s f o r t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o and p r i n t m e d i a was a l o c a l p u b l i c 131. r e l a t i o n s and press c o u n s e l l i n g f i r m , which handled press conta c t s , press i n q u i r i e s , press conferences, press r e l e a s e s , press c o u n s e l l i n g , m a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the two-province, two- t e r r i t o r y r e g i o n . During four-and-one-half months, the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i r m produced 98 press r e l e a s e s , and handled an undetermined amount of press requests f o r i n -formation. Attempts were made to q u a n t i f y the number of sub-sequent s t o r i e s which appeared i n the r e g i o n a l papers, but the e x e r c i s e was abandoned when the newsclips were d e l i v e r e d d a i l y i n boxes. C l i p s were f i l e d i n a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y at the conference s i t e and made a v a i l a b l e to j o u r n a l i s t s seeking background i n f o r m a t i o n . The press r e l e a s e s were mailed out to 300 r e g i o n a l media o u t l e t s , i n c r e a s i n g to 800 r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l media o u t l e t s by May and f i n a l l y to 1,100 Canada-wide o u t l e t s . In terms of p r i n t p r o d u c t i o n , the c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s were the recessionary nature of the economy and the i n i t i a l h o s t i l i t y to the idea of ho l d i n g the conference i n Vancouver at a l l . Information planners decided t h a t no attempt should be made to produce g l o s s y , m u l t i - c o l o u r brochures or f l y e r s which might serve to remind the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of the $2 0 m i l l i o n cost of the conference to Canada. Instead, low-key, black and white f a c t sheets and f l y e r s were chosen as the p r i n t v e h i c l e s f o r the HABITAT Information themes. A s p e c i a l "in-house" production u n i t w i t h i n HABITAT Information produced news r e l e a s e s , brochures, f a c t sheets, 132. c h u r c h b u l l e t i n s , r e p r i n t s o f a r t i c l e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e p u r l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . A d i s t r i b u t i o n u n i t s e n t o u t h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f i n f o r -m a t i o n k i t s , p o s t e r s , b u t t o n s , d e c a l s e t c . , u s i n g s c h o o l and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n m a i l i n g l i s t s i n a d d i t i o n t o community s e r v i c e s m a i l i n g l i s t s . A l l g r a p h i c s were s u p p l i e d by a n o t h e r d i v i s i o n o f CHS, b u t c o - o r d i n a t i o n was n e c e s s a r i l y c l o s e and c o n s t a n t . One example was t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a " s p e c i f i c a t i o n s k i t " f o r s t o r e s w h i c h wanted t o d e v e l o p HABITAT d i s p l a y themes. I n f o r -m a t i o n s ' s b u d g e t d i d n o t p e r m i t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o s t l y p o s t e r s and window d i s p l a y s , b u t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o c r e a t e a d i s p l a y was c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s k i t and i n c l u d e d c o l o u r code, t y p e o f p r i n t , s i z e o f l o g o o r HABITAT i n s i g n i a , and c o p y r i g h t r e s t r a i n t s . D u r i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e V a n c o u v e r I n f o r m a t i o n s t a f f a l s o p r o d u c e d t h e copy and p i c t u r e s f o r a CHS n e w s p a p e r , HABITAT B u l l e t i n , n o r m a l l y p r o d u c e d i n O t t a w a . Community I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , f i r s t p r i o r i t y was g i v e n t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a community i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e t o h e l p s i p h o n o f f l o c a l h o s t i l i t y by p r o v i d i n g q u i c k and e f f i c i e n t a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n i n b o t h Canada's o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s . The o r i g i n a l I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e i n Gastown was a l s o d e s i g n e d f o r use by t h e p r e s s and f o r a u d i o - v i s u a l e v e n t s . A s m a l l 22-seat mini-theatre was b u i l t , to show films to school children and members of the general public. Display areas were i n s t a l l e d , and press conferences were scheduled for the Centre to encourage the media to "check i n " and keep up with HABITAT events taking place around the c i t y . The space f o r the centre was donated by a Gastown developer who wished to increase customer t r a f f i c i n the area. The Information Centre was well designed, inexpensive, a t t r a c t i v e , s t a f f e d by b i l i n -gual personnel i n blue HABITAT uniforms, and very heavily u t i l i z e d . At the time of the conference, the Gastown information centre was closed down and the public information function was moved to HABITAT Pa v i l i o n , a hugh, drafty structure b u i l t on the Vancouver Courthouse grounds, u t i l i z i n g paper mache sh e l l s decored by school children. The P a v i l i o n included t e l e v i s i o n viewing areas, and was disigned to provide l o c a l access to the proceedings of the conference which were taking place i n various locations i n the c i t y . Some 60,000 people v i s i t e d the P a v i l i o n during i t s two-week l i f e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n Modes of Communication The lack of pre-conference planning and the short time-period available to design and implement the Information function created many problems and s h o r t f a l l s in Information programming. Many things which ought not to be done were done, and others which should have been done were not. 134. However, the Information s t r a t e g y which emerged from the feedback mechanisms was based on the concept t h a t i n f o r -mation should be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l who wanted to l e a r n about HABITAT. Nevertheless, i t was c l e a r that Information could not adopt a high p r o f i l e without the r i s k of generating even greater h o s t i l i t y from the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , whose fe a r s as reported by the Information Centre covered a range of con-cerns, i n c l u d i n g being attacked i n back a l l e y s by g l o b a l " h i p p i e s " who were a t t r a c t e d to Vancouver by the conference, to the f e a r that exposure of Vancouver on g l o b a l t e l e v i s i o n would increase immigration to Canada. Therefore, the concept of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a mode of s o c i a l communication was explored as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to more conventional modes of communication. There were many p a r t i c i p a t o r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n HABITAT, from attending HABITAT Forum, the counter conference staged e n t i r e l y f o r the general p u b l i c , to g e l e v i s i o n phone-in shows. However, one major emphasis on p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a communication mode was centred on the Neighbourhood Walks program, discussed b r i e f l y below. 4.4 NEIGHBOURHOOD WALKS PROGRAM The Neighbourhood Walks program was designed to deal w i t h the a l l - t o o - o b v i o u s d i s p a r i t y between c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the r i c h and poor nations who would be sending delegates to HABITAT: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements. The 135. type of human settlements e x i s t i n g i n many of the developing countries was beyond the a b i l i t y of most Vancouverites to comprehend, and therefore they found i t d i f f i c u l t to relate to some of the conference objectives. The Neighbourhood Walks program was an attempt to translate these objectives into a form which Vancouverites could understand, i n t h e i r own neighbourhoods. Residents were asked to take a fresh look at t h e i r own neighbourhood, inventory t h e i r community assets, and suggest new ways of using what they already had, rather than ask governments for more f a c i l i t i e s . The program leaned heavily on the concept that every community has some features which generate pride i n i t s c i t i -zens (Seelig, 1974). As the program developed, elements were borrowed from a program of walks suggested by Zacharias and Seelig (1974). An expanded program of ten Neighbourhood Walks was l a t e r submitted by Canadian Habitat Secretariat to a con-ference planning session i n Nairobi for consideration as an in t e r n a t i o n a l event, but the lack of adequate preparation time precluded i t s development at the time. In essence, the HABITAT Neighbourhood Walks Program was a community program to promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n develop-ing the following objectives: 1. To promote a c i t i z e n inventory of e x i s t i n g community f a c i l i t i e s , to analyze whether these f a c i l i t i e s may be used for other functions, and to suggest alternatives where appropriate; 136. 2. To h e i g h t e n t h e a w a r e n e s s among c i t i z e n s o f improvements t o t h e i r own community w h i c h t h e y c a n i n i t i a t e t h e m s e l v e s u s i n g t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . I n t o t a l , f i v e HABITAT N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walks were s t a g e d p r i o r t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e . I n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p l a n n i n g d e p a r t -ment o f f i c i a l s w i t h t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , two " p i l o t " p r o -j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n i n two d i v e r s e c o m m u n i t i e s , West P o i n t G r e y and Mount P l e a s a n t , u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s . T h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s were c h o s e n f o r t h e i n i t i a l w a l k s , s i n c e t h e y were a r e a s where t h e C i t y was p r e p a r e d t o a c t on p r o p o s a l s f r o m c i t i z e n s . T h e r e was a r e l u c t a n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e C i t y p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s t o u n d e r t a k e p r o g r a m s w h i c h m i g h t a r o u s e e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be met. When t h e s e p r o v e d s u c -c e s s f u l t h r e e o t h e r o f f i c i a l Walks were s t a g e d , i n c l u d i n g a West End N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walk, a U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d F o r e s t Walk, and a HABITAT C y c l e E v e n t , aimed a t a t t r a c t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f c y c l i s t s . A s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walks p r o g r a m was t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h e HABITAT c o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f . t h r o u g h t h e s t a g i n g o f m e d i a " e v e n t s " w h i c h w o u l d be w i d e l y r e p o r t e d v i a t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M e d i a c o v e r a g e o f a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d e v e n t s , s u c h as t h e s e q u e n t i a l Walks p r o g r a m , can f o l l o w , one o f two p a t t e r n s . F i r s t , c o v e r a g e may be s m a l l i n i t i a l l y , and i n c r e a s e as p u b l i c -i t y t e c h n i q u e s h e l p t o g e n e r a t e p u b l i c e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e e v e n t . T h i s m i g h t be t e r m e d t h e " r i p p l e " e f f e c t . S e c o n d , m e d i a i n -t e r e s t m i g h t be g r e a t e s t i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s , when t h e e v e n t has n o v e l t y v a l u e , and d i m i n i s h o v e r t i m e . The m i g h t be t e r m -e d t h e " n o v e l t y " e f f e c t . I n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r s c h o s e t h e " r i p p l e " e f f e c t as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s f o r b o t h t h e c o n f e r e n c e g e n e r a l l y and t h e Walks p r o g r a m i n p a r t i c u l a r . However, t h i s a t t e m p t was o n l y p a r -t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . S i n c e t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o n c e i v e , de-s i g n , p l a n and i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d , t h e W alks t h e m s e l v e s t o o k p l a c e p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o t h e t i m i n g o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f , when l o c a l p r o g r a m s were o v e r s h a d o w e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - a c c l a i m e d d i g n i t a r i e s a n d t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f s t a g i n g i n V a n c o u v e r t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t UN c o n f e r e n c e . Thus g e n e r a l c o v e r a g e i n c r e a s e d i n i t i a l l y a s p l a n n e d , and t h e n f a d e d as more i m p o s i n g e v e n t s and p e r s o n a l -i t i e s c l a i m e d t h e news columns and a i r t i m e . The f i v e Walks a r e s ummarized b e l o w i n t e r m s o f o r g a n i -z a t i o n , p l a n n i n g o u t p u t and m e d i a c o v e r a g e . HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk Mount P l e a s a n t i s a community o f a b o u t 20,000, w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e o f C h i n e s e and E a s t E u r o p e a n o r i g i n . The community i s i n a s t a t e o f t r a n s i t i o n , w i t h a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s r e p l a c i n g f a m i l y homes i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . A l m o s t 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e accommodation i s r e n t a l ?~ The HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk was o r g a n i z e d by l o c a l community g r o u p s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n was by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y . 138. The f i f t y p a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t e d a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e community as p e r c e i v e d by t h e l o c a l p r o g r a m o r g a n i z e r s . L o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s who were r a i s e d i n t h e community were .. s e l e c t e d as t o u r g u i d e s t o l e a d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a l o n g a s c h e d u l e d r o u t e . S p e c i f i c e v e n t s s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e t o u r i n c l u d e d a l o o k a t a new condominium, t e a a t t h e S i k h Temple, a v i s i t t o C i t y H a l l , and l u n c h a t t h e l o c a l b r a n c h o f t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n . A f t e r a p r e - w a l k o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e w a l k i t s e l f , a p o s t - w a l k d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n was h e l d t o f o r m a l i z e and r e c o r d t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d t o e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t by t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r f o r u s e by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . O u t p u t f r o m t h e HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk was u s e d i n p l a n n i n g t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s N e i g h b o u r h o o d Improvement P r o g r a m (NIP) w h i c h i s b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e community The s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c o r d e d t h e i r o b s e r -v a t i o n s i n a l i m i t e d " d e s i g n - i n " , u t i l i z i n g t h e s e r v i c e s o f one a r t i s t - a n i m a t o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n ( t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n H a l l ) and t h e t i m i n g o f t h e w o r k s h o p ( l a t e S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n ) s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d d i s -c u s s i o n . On b a l a n c e , however, t h e Mount P l e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a n t s a g r e e d t h a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s p r i m a r i l y a " p e o p l e " p l a c e , r e q u i r i n g more f a m i l y h o u s i n g , s u p e r v i s e d p l a y a r e a s f o r c h i l d r e n , p e d e s t r i a n walkways, f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x i s t i n g p a r k s and p o s s i b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f w a r e h o u s e r o o f - t o p s . 139. An evaluation of the Mount Pleasant p a r t i c i p a n t process made by l o c a l area planning assistant, Mitch Taylor, i s appended to t h i s study. He made the following substantive comments: 1. The HABITAT Walk and accompanying summary were extremely valuable to the planning department as a means of gain-ing better insight and understanding of the community's diverse facets; 2. The department f e l t that the walk and s i m i l a r neighbour-hood projects can make valuable contributions towards promoting neighbourly r e l a t i o n s ; 3. The "participation"by i n v i t a t i o n " was an e f f e c t i v e way of achieving c i t i z e n input, but the post-walk session required better organization; 4. The lack of any follow-up on the walkers' recommendations was a constraint. Mount Pleasant lacks any strong c i t i -zens' group which could have been asked to undertake the task of carrying on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n program at the neighbourhood l e v e l . Since t h i s was the f i r s t experimental walk, a r e l a t i v e l y low-key approach was taken in s o l i c i t i n g media coverage. Tele-v i s i o n was selected as the most l i k e l y vehicle, since the pres-ence of two prominent c i v i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s , an alderman and a former mayor gave the event news i n t e r e s t . The active co-oper-ation of the l o c a l weekly "The Mount Pleasant News" was sought through personal contact, provision of e d i t o r i a l material, purchase of advertising space and payment for organization time spent by the editor, who became co-chairman of the Walk. 140. Television coverage was provided by CBC during the i n i t i a l phases of the event and was capsulized on the evening news. The leading metropolitan newspaper carried a f a i r l y extensive a r t i c l e on the walk. Two displays were obtained for use at the Information Centre i n Gastown. The f i r s t was a display of the Mount Pleasant community prepared by the City Planning Department and included i n a 'resource show' at a neighbourhood shopping mall. The second display was composed of drawings prepared by a l o c a l a r t i s t during the post-walk discussion period. These drawings contained graphic representations of the more prominent concerns for the area recorded by community residents p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the HABITAT Mount Pleasant Walk. HABITAT West Point Grey Walk West Point Grey i s a community of about 12,000 residents, more than 70 per cent of B r i t i s h o r i g i n . 3 The majority of residents own t h e i r own homes. O r i g i n a l l y part of the 5,000 acre land grant given the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the commun-i t y has remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged since i t was c a r e f u l l y planned and developed. The HABITAT West Point Grey Walk was organized largely by professional planners. The walk was informal and a l l members of the community were encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e . Three orien-tation sessions were conducted i n a l o c a l school. Participants were supplied with Polaroid cameras to a s s i s t them i n recording t h e i r observations along any route they chose to follow by 141. foot, b i c y c l e or car. Buses were provided to transport senior c i t i z e n s and handicapped members of the community. The post-walk session consisted of a 'design-in' conducted i n the gym-nasium of the school. Animators assisted participants i n graphically expressing t h e i r ideas about the community on a 200 foot r o l l of paper posted on the walls of the gym. Photo-graphs taken were also incorporated into t h i s mural, which was la t e r forwarded to c i t y planning o f f i c i a l s . A summary was presented to Vancouver City Council. Unlike the Mount Pleasant Walk, where the par t i c i p a n t s ' comments were channelled into the NIP program, the West Point Grey Walk lacked a p a r t i c u l a r program focus. The Neighbourhood Walkers, ranging i n age from two to eighty-two years offered extensive comments covering such diverse subjects as b i c y c l e paths, housing, use of lanes, parks, services, streets and parking, and tree b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . The main concern of the Walkers appeared to be the need to keep t h e i r garden community a green oasis i n the urban scene. The role of the neighbour-hood i n r e l a t i o n to i t s adjacent community, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was also explored. Considerable promotion was undertaken p r i o r to the HABITAT West Point Grey Walk by CHS s t a f f . Newspaper advertisements appeared i n the l o c a l weekly for the two consecutive issues pro-ceeding the event. Posters, s i m i l a r i n design to the i n i t i a l advertisement, were also produced f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to merchants in the West Point Grey area. F r o n t page advance h e a d l i n e s were g i v e n t h e u p-coming e v e n t i n t h e l o c a l community p a p e r . The c o v e r s t o r y , c o n t a i n i n g d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o p o s e d i t i n e r a r y and p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o j e c t was w r i t t e n by CHS s t a f f . A f u l l page s t o r y was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p o s t - w a l k e d i t i o n o f t h e same l o c a l newspaper. A n o t h e r l o c a l n e w s p a p e r w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n c a r r i e d a h a l f - p a g e a r t i c l e on t h e w a l k , w r i t t e n by CHS s t a f f . An a r t i c l e a b o u t one q u a r t e r page i n s i z e was c a r r i e d b y "The V a n c o u v e r Sun" on t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . HABITAT West E n d Walk The West E n d o f V a n c o u v e r i s one o f t h e most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d u r b a n a r e a s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a c c o r d i n g t o V a n c o u v e r c i t y p l a n n e r s . I t s c i t y s c a p e i s d o m i n a t e d by huge h i g h r i s e s , and i t s p o p u l a t i o n i s composed m a i n l y o f young, s i n g l e t r a n s -i e n t s o r r e t i r e d p e o p l e . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a l k was c o -s p o n s o r e d by t h e West E n d Community C o u n c i l and was open t o t h e p u b l i c . The e v e n t was s t a g e d on a Sunday. T h r e e w a l k s , o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h , were h e l d t o accommodate t h e v a r i o u s age g r o u p s r e s i d e n t i n t h e community. Walk l e a d e r s i n c l u d e d a l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r , an a r c h i t e c t and a m e d i a c e l e b r i t y . The f o c u s o f t h e w a l k s was t o e n a b l e t h e p a r t i c i -p a n t s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v e r s i t y i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m and l i f e s t y l e s o f t h e a r e a . One u n i q u e f e a t u r e was t h e " B i r d ' s E y e Walk", w h i c h e n a b l e d t h e two h u n d r e d - o d d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o v i e w t h e i r community 143. f r o m t h e t o p o f a f i r t y - t w o s t o r e y b u i l d i n g t o s e e how e x i s t i n g s p a c e - i n c l u d i n g p a r k i n g l o t s , l a n d s c a p e d s e t b a c k s , r o o t r o p s - c o u l d be b e t t e r u t i l i z e d . R e s i d e n t s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o o b s e r v e how t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s a f f e c t e d t h e l i f e s t y l e s o f t h e p e o p l e who l i v e d i n t h e m , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e y o u n g , s i n g l e t r a n s i e n t s o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . T h e i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e g r o u p w e r e l a t e r r e c o r d e d i n a " d e s i g n - i n " a n d s u g g e s t i o n s w e r e c o m p i l e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . P e r c e p t i o n s s o l i c i t e d f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e " d e s i g n - i n " d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h t h e u n i q u e n a t u r e o f t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d c o m m u n i t y . T h e y i n c l u d e d comments on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w i n d , g l a r e a n d t h e h i g h r i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n ; t h e n e e d t o p r e s e r v e r a t h e r t h a n d e m o l i s h o l d e r b u i l d i n g s ; t h e c o s t o f h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s a n d t h e u s e o f r o o f t o p s f o r j o g g i n g t r a c k s , r a c q u e t b a l l c o u r t s , r o o f g a r d e n s , d a y c a r e c e n t r e s . R a d i o was e m p l o y e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a d v e r t i s i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o d d W a l k . A l t h o u g h a n e w s p a p e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t was p r o d u c e d a n d p l a c e d i n t h e l o c a l w e e k l y , e m p h a s i s f o r t h i s e v e n t was on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i r t y - s e c o n d r a d i o s p o t s f o r u s e o n t h r e e l o c a l s t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . As a c o m p l e m e n t t o b o t h t h e n e w s p a p e r a n d r a d i o c o v e r a g e , f l y e r s w e r e p r i n t e d f o r d i s t r i b -u t i o n ^ f r o m s e v e r a l l o c a l r e t a i l / s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . W h i l e n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t i n g o f t h e e v e n t was l e s s e x t e n s i v e t h a n f o r t h e two p r e v i o u s e v e n t s , t h e l a c k o f c o v e r a g e b y e i t h e r o f t h e m a j o r d a i l y p a p e r s may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t b y t h e f a c t 144. t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r e s s r e l e a s e h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i s s u e d c o v e r i n g d e t a i l s o f t h e w a l k . The l o c a l community p a p e r c a r r i e d a s h o r t r e v i e w and p i c t u r e . T e l e v i s i o n c o v e r a g e o f t h e West End Walk was more compre-e n s i v e t h a n f o r t h e two p r e v i o u s N e i g h b o u r h o o d W a l k s . The CBC e v e n i n g news c o n t a i n e d a f e a t u r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w a l k p a r t i c i p a n t s , g a i n i n g a " b i r d ' s e y e v i e w " . HABITAT C y c l e E v e n t B i k e r i d e r s o f a l l ages were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s e v e n t , d e s i g n e d t o mark t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e new HABITAT b i c y c l e r o u t e t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r f r o m S t a n l e y P a r k t o J e r i c h o B e a c h . P a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v i t e d t o don costumes and were a s k e d t o r e c o r d t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r new b i c y c l e t r a i l s as t h e y f o l l o w e d t h e s i x - m i l e b i k e r o u t e s A t l e a s t two V a n c o u v e r P a r k s C o m m i s s i o n e r s were i n a c t i v e a t t e n d a n c e , and comments and p r o p o s a l s o f t h e c y c l i s t s were i n c l u d e d i n a r e p o r t t o t h e P a r k s B o a r d . Two f e a t u r e s o f t h e c y c l e e v e n t d e s e r v e comment. F i r s t , t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e number o f c y c l i s t s u s i n g c i t y s t r e e t s , s p e c i a l HABITAT b l u e b i k e b a n n e r s were c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r t h e e v e n t and d i s t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s . S e c o n d , t h e r e a r o s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r c y c l i s t s s h o u l d use t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e t r a i l , s u c h as b e a c h e s and s h o r e l i n e s , n o r m a l l y u s e d by p e d e s t r i a n s . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t c y c l i s t s s h o u l d i n d e e d b i k e t h e s e s e c t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o d r a m a t i z e and i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l 145. a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t . The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c i t y p o l i c e was s o u g h t a n d o b t a i n e d f o r c r i t i c a l t r a f f i c a r e a s , s u c h as b r i d g e c r o s s i n g s . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f r a d i o s p o t s , newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , p o s t e r s and f l y e r s was u s e d t o meet t h e r e g i o n a l s c o p e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . F l y e r s and p o s t e r s were p r o d u c e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o most c y c l e s h o p s w i t h i n t h e c i t y . Newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ( s m a l l e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e p o s t e r ) were c a r r i e d i n l o c a l community n e w s p a p e r s . R a d i o p r o m o t i o n was u s e d t o t h e same e x t e n t as i n t h e West E n d Walk. H e l d on t h e eve o f t h e m a i n c o n f e r e n c e , c o v e r a g e o f t h e e v e n t was l a c k i n g i n a l l m e t r o n e w s p a p e r s . The CBC d i d , however, p r o v i d e l i m i t e d t e l e v i s i o n c o v e r a g e . HABITAT U.E.L. F o r e s t Walk The U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s s u p p o r t a f o r e s t on t h e edge o f a m a j o r c i t y . The a i m o f t h e w a l k was t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s f o r e s t e d h a b i t a t . The e v e n t was open t o t h e p u b l i c and h e l d on a S a t u r d a y . I t was c o - s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y L a n d R e g i o n a l P a r k Committee, whose members s e r v e d as t o u r l e a d e r s . A s t e a d y downpour f a i l e d t o d e t e r t h e f o r t y o r f i f t y d e t e r m i n e d w a l k e r s , who c a r r i e d HABITAT u m b r e l l a s e s p e c i a l l y o r d e r e d f o r s u c h an e v e n t u a l i t y . V a n c o u v e r P a r k s C o m m i s s i o n e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f i v e k i l o m e t e r h i k e and were i n v i t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n on f u t u r e U.E.L. d e v e l o p m e n t . Comments made a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n were r e c o r d e d and f o r w a r d e d t o t h e r e s p o n s i b l e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 146. B o t h t h e HABITAT U.E.L. F o r e s t Walk and t h e HABITAT C y c l e E v e n t p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e a d v e r t i s i n g modes. S i n c e b o t h . p r o j e c t s were o f r e g i o n a l o r c i t y - w i d e i n t e r e s t as o p p o s e d t o t h e l o c a l community i n t e r e s t o f p r e v i o u s N e i g h b o u r h o o d W a l k s , w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c i t y was r e q u i r e d . Newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r o v e d t o be t o o e x p e n s i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a d v e r t i s i n g c e n t r e d on t h e use o f r a d i o . A s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t was p l a c e d i n t h e l o c a l community newspaper. No c o v e r a g e o f t h i s e v e n t was c a r r i e d on t e l e v i s i o n , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e p o o r w e a t h e r e n c o u n t e r e d . However, t h e c o l o u r f u l HABITAT u m b r e l l a s won s p a c e i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n n e w s p a p e r s . 4.5 PROGRAM EVALUATION I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e v i s e e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walks p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . F i r s t , i t was e x p e r i m e n t a l and no t r a d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n m o d e l s e x i s t . S e c o n d , t h e p r o g r a m was mounted u n d e r s t r i c t t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i c h p r e c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e v a l u a t i o n framework as p a r t o f t h e e x e r c i s e . However, t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walks p r o j e c t d i d g e n e r a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f c i t i z e n i n p u t i n t o l o c a l a r e a o r n e i g h b o u r -hood p l a n n i n g . I n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r s h a d d e c i d e d e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s t h a t t h e Walks p r o g r a m s h o u l d have some v i s i b l e o u t p u t , and t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d s h o u l d be u s e f u l t o p l a n n e r s and 147. p o l i t i c i a n s . Thus t h e o u t p u t was d e s i g n e d t o be i n a f o r m w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s u c h as a " d e s i g n - i n " , and a l l s u g g e s t i o n s r e c o r d e d were s u b s e q u e n t l y s e n t t o t h e r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t i e s . The o u t p u t p e r Walk was m i x e d , and d e p e n d e d on a number o f v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e Walk, t h e f o r m a t u s e d t o r e c o r d s u g g e s t i o n s , t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e w e a t h e r . T h i s s e c t i o n summarizes t h e e l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r a s u c c e s s f u l n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a l k p r o g r a m on t h e b a s i s o f t h e HABITAT e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e two " p i l o t " p r o j e c t s i n Mount P l e a s a n t and West P o i n t G r e y . 1. I n v o l v e m e n t o f a Community O r g a n i z a t i o n : S p o n s o r s h i p o f a N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walk by a community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e : members have some knowledge o f t h e i r community and c a n h e l p i d e n t i f y r e s o u r c e s and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s n o t o b v i o u s t o " o u t s i d e " o r g a n i z e r s ; members can h e l p t o i n v o l v e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e s i d e n t s i n t h e community, an d t o p u b l i c i z e t h e e v e n t ; a community g r o u p c a n p r e s e n t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e w a l k t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s . 2. S e l e c t i o n o f an A p p r o p r i a t e D a t e : S i n c e t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Walk s h o u l d i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c , a weekend o r s t a t u t o r y h o l i d a y s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . Some c o m m u n i t i e s a r e a t t h e i r l i v e l i e s t on a S a t u r d a y and t h i s e x c i t e m e n t may b e s t be c a p t u r e d on t h a t day. However, i f f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r e d , Sunday 148. may p r o v e more a p p r o p r i a t e . The u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e t y p e and s c a l e o f l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s i r e d . P r e p a r a t i o n t i m e w i l l v a r y w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e Walk. A r r a n g e m e n t s f o r f a c i l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s ( p r e p a r a t i o n o f i n v e n t o r y k i t s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , r e f r e s h -ments, e t c . ) may be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i n terms o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t i m e r e q u i r e d . The amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e f o r p u b l i c i t y s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . C h o i c e o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n : B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e two o p t i o n s ; c o n t r o l l e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o r open p a r t i c i p a t i o n . HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be s t r u c t u r e d t o c o n t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e community. A l b e r n a t i v e l y , t h e HABITAT West P o i n t G r e y Walk was o r g a n i z e d t o e n c o u r a g e g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n B o t h w o r k e d w e l l and have t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s . The Mount P l e a s a n t Walk p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l p e d t o f o r m u l a t e recommenda-t i o n s f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Improvement Program. W h i l e a s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m d i d n o t emerge f r o m t h e West P o i n t G r e y Walk, a g r e a t e r number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f e v a l u a t i n g and e x c h a n g i n g i d e a s on t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i r community. P h a s i n g t h e Walk: A s u c c e s s f u l n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n v e n t o r y w a l k i n v o l v e s t h r e e , and p o s s i b l y f o u r , p h a s e s : a) A p r e - W a l k O r i e n t a t i o n S e s s i o n : P a r t i c i p a n t s n e e d a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , t o l e a r n what t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Walk a r e , and how t h e p r o g r a m i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t . Members o f t h e o r g a n i z i n g c o m m i t t e e can o u t l i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s . 1 4 9 . P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o should be made aware of how t h e i r community has changed over time - how i t began, where i t i s a t now, and the way i t might evolve i n the f u t u r e . A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s are u s e f u l . For the Mount P l e a s a n t Walk, a l o c a l alderman who grew up i n the community r e c a l l e d the way of l i f e i n Mount P l e a s a n t when he was a boy, and d e s c r i b e d some o f the changes which have taken p l a c e i n t h i s h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t community. For the West P o i n t Grey Walk, a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n acquainted p a r t i c i -pants w i t h t h e i r community's e v o l u t i o n . The Walk I t s e l f : A neighbourhood walk may be t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d , w i t h a s p e c i f i c route and i t i n e r a r y , or i t may be u n s t r u c t u r e d , w i t h no p a r t i c u l a r route o r t i m e t a b l e . The Mount P l e a s a n t Walk was o r g a n i z e d w i t h a route, tour guides, and s p e c i f i c p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t . There was l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n the t i m e t a b l e . The West P o i n t Grey Walk was more i n f o r m a l . P a r t i -c i p a n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h a suggested " i n v e n t o r y " check l i s t and asked t o s e l e c t t h e i r own r o u t e s , modes of t r a n s p o r t , and t i m e t a b l e . Both methods produced i n f o r m a t i v e r e s u l t s . A Post-Walk S e s s i o n : The p i l o t p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t many people respond to the c h a l l e n g e of l o o k i n g a t t h e i r communities i n o r d e r to seek changes they can i n i t i a t e themselves. A post-walk s e s s i o n g i v e s the p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d e s c r i b e and 150. d i s c u s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t h e p o s t - w a l k p h a s e o f b o t h p i l o t p r o j e c t s , a n i m a t o r s a s s i s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk f o r m e d i n t o s m a l l d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s t o r e c o r d t h e i r c o n c e r n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e West P o i n t G r e y Walk t o o k p a r t i n a " D e s i g n - I n " , where a team o f a r t i s t s a s s i s t e d them i n g r a p h i c a l l y r e c o r d i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s on a huge w a l l p o s t e r . d) P o s t - W a l k I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : A n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a l k may have a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e , as i n t h e c a s e o f Mount P l e a s a n t , where c i t i z e n i n p u t was s o u g h t i n p l a n n i n g t h e l o c a l NIP p r o g r a m . Or t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a l k may be m e r e l y a p r o g r a m t o i n c r e a s e p e o p l e ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i r own community. In most c o m m u n i t i e s , l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be i n c r e a s e d i f p e o p l e f e e l t h e i r v i e w s w i l l be b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . 5. I n f o r m a t i o n K i t s : S i m p l e i n f o r m a t i o n k i t s were p r e p a r e d f o r b o t h p i l o t w a l k s . They i n c l u d e d : a) A s t a t e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s , o r what t h e e x e r c i s e was a b o u t ; b) A map o f t h e community, s h o w i n g k e y f a c i l i t i e s and a p r o p o s e d r o u t e f o r t h e w a l k s , and a p e n c i l and n o t e pad; c) Key d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n on who l i v e s i n t h e community, by e t h n i c s t a t u s , age, s e x , i n c o m e , e t c . (Who A r e Y o u r N e i g h b o u r s ? ) : d) A s h o r t i n v e n t o r y l i s t o f t h i n g s t o l o o k a t ; 151. e) A reporting form, i n d i c a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s ' suggestions for alternative or more intensive use. This may be in p r i n t or graphic form. 6. P u b l i c i t y : The p u b l i c i t y required to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l depend on the scope of p a r t i c i p a t i o n desired. For open i n v i t a t i o n events, p u b l i c i t y i s e s s e n t i a l . P u b l i c i t y might include: Letters of i n v i t a t i o n to l o c a l community groups, elected o f f i c i a l s , schools, churches, etc. ; Rosters; - News sto r i e s and advertising for l o c a l media; - Printed notices for home d i s t r i b u t i o n . Advertising i n l o c a l community media w i l l help generate the e d i t o r i a l coverage required to help ensure the success of the project. 7. Financing: Despite the apparent costs involved i n planning, p u b l i c i z i n g , and implementing a Neighbourhood Walk, costs are minimal, considering the poten t i a l for height-ened community awareness and tangible output regarding future planning of community. The maj\or costs involved concern inventory materials, p u b l i c i t y , and f a c i l i t y rental to accommodate the a c t i v i t i e s . The costs of the p i l o t projects were i n the region of $1,000, excluding professional time, and assuming a volunteer workforce. Appendix A contains samples of advertising formats, community inventory c h e c k l i s t s , statement of objectives, demographic information and s i m i l a r material used for one p i l o t project. 152 . This chapter has described a case study which u t i l i z e d a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program as a communications mode, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other, more t r a d i t i o n a l forms of communication. In our f i n a l chapter, we w i l l turn our a t t e n t i o n to the design of a s o c i a l communication d e l i v e r y system i n c o r p o r a t i n g an element of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 153. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER FOUR 1 The information dealing with HABITAT i s drawn from the unpublished working f i l e s of the Canadian Habitat Secretariat, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Information Divi s i o n , and i s available through the Ministry,of State for Urban A f f a i r s , Ottawa. 2 City of Vancouver, Planning Department (1975) Vancouver  Local Areas, (mimeo) A p r i l 3 City of Vancouver, Planning Department (1975) Vancouver  Local Areas, (mimeo) A p r i l . 154. CHAPTER FIVE A SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS DELIVERY SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION The central purpose of t h i s thesis i s to explore the role of communications in planning and to suggest the design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for a s o c i a l communications delivery system which w i l l enable planners to cope with the demands of an "information ecology" (Nanus, 1972, p.398), or environment characterized by increasing flows of information and complexity of information systems. A review of planning l i t e r a t u r e indicates to us that the s o c i e t a l forces behind the evolution of an information ecology may be f i r s t , the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l society (B e l l , 1973) i n which information, or knowledge, becomes a major resource; and second, the r i s i n g demands of c i t i z e n s to p a r t i -cipate i n the decision-making process, p a r t i c u l a r l y when such decisions a f f e c t them. In designing our s o c i a l communications del i v e r y system, therefore, we have attempted to incorporate public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies as one mode of communication. E a r l i e r i n t h i s study we have documented the views of some planners (Kalba, 1973; Meier, 1962; Sackman and Boehm, 1972) that information systems and services w i l l have as s i g n i f i c a n t an impact on the shape and a c t i v i t i e s of future communities as the automobile has had on e x i s t i n g settlement patterns. If we 155. assume t h a t t h e s e a u t h o r s a r e c o r r e c t i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i m p a c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e i s a c l e a r n eed t o d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e p l a n n e r s t o i n c o r p o r a t e an e l e m e n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g may be d e s c r i b e d as " s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " , w h i c h we have d e f i n e d as " t h e u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s t o a c h i e v e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s n o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g an e l e m e n t o f s o c i a l c h a n g e " ( C h a p t e r One, p . 8 ) . I n C h a p t e r One, t h e s t u d y o b j e c t i v e s were s e t o u t as f o l l o w s : 1. To r e v i e w t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h w o u l d a p p e a r r e l e v a n t t o p l a n n i n g a t t h e community l e v e l ; 2. To d e s c r i b e how p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were u s e d i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a s e s t u d y ; 3. To d e s i g n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d e l i v e r y s y s t e m w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e l e m e n t . C h a p t e r Two r e v i e w s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . C h a p t e r T h r e e o u t l i n e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n n e r s . C h a p t e r F o u r d e s c r i b e s a c a s e s t u d y w h i c h u t i l i z e d p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n as a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s mode, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . 156. In t h i s chapter we w i l l d e a l with the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e , which r e q u i r e s us to suggest ways i n which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n might be used i n a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system. In essence, we w i l l d e a l w i t h the two q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n Chapter One: How can p l a n n e r s accommodate i n f o r m a t i o n systems i n the p l a n n i n g process? - What new techniques might be evolved which w i l l enable p l a n n e r s to cope w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e of i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s , and complexity of i n f o r m a t i o n systems? F i r s t , we w i l l f u r t h e r r e f i n e the concept of s o c i a l communications, e l a b o r a t i n g on Meier's communications model (Meier, 1962). Then we w i l l suggest two models f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l communications program. Next we w i l l suggest the d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which i n c l u d e s an element of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , we w i l l comment on f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e a s . 5.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Before d e v e l o p i n g these concepts f u r t h e r , i t i s necessary t o s e t out the t h e o r e t i c a l framework w i t h i n which they may be evolved. In Chapter Two, a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s have been examined, the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n have been reviewed and t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses noted, 157. and developments i n the communications f i e l d have been examined. From t h i s wide range of choices, we can construct our framework, based on the following key assumptions: 1. The world's i n d u s t r i a l countries, including the U.S. and Canada, are moving towards a new economic era, termed the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l society ( B e l l , 1973), which i s dominated by the production of services, rather than the production of goods; 2. The most important resource i n such an economic system w i l l be knowledge, or information. Drucker (196 9) has suggested that the United States has already switched from a goods-producing economy to a knowledge economy, and that by the end of the decade, half of every d o l l a r earned and spent i n the American economy w i l l involve the production, d i s t r i b u t i o n and procurement of ideas and information; 3. The a b i l i t y to control or command information w i l l determine the degree of s o c i a l and economic power wielded by various groups i n the economy. Meier (1962) points out that since information implies the capacity to choose among al t e r n a t i v e s , the opportunity to e f f e c t change, or to manipulate the s o c i a l environment w i l l vary d i r e c t l y with the opportunity to d i r e c t or control information flows; 4. At the same time, the continuing developments i n communi-cations technology w i l l profoundly a f f e c t the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and structure of human settlements, as the d e l i v e r y of services v i a cable t e l e v i s i o n and information u t i l i t i e s augment or supplant the delivery of services v i a automotive vehicles and freeways; 158. 5. S i m i l a r l y , the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l era w i l l r einforce the pressures which have h i s t o r i c a l l y increased the demand for c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , including r i s i n g education l e v e l s , accelerating rates of change, increasing size and complexity of bureaucratic decision-making, and expanding demands for professional s k i l l s and expertise i n a technology oriented society. Thus both B e l l and others (Friedmann, 1973; Kalba, 1974) anticipate that future decision-making w i l l be more p o l i t i c a l than i n the past, and the centre of decision-making more exposed to view; 6. Planners w i l l f i n d themselves working i n a more f l u i d and p o l i t i c a l l y oriented environment, and w i l l increasingly seek substitutes for more t r a d i t i o n a l planning models and s k i l l s . The concept of "command planning" (Friedmann, 1973) or plan-making under highly centralized control w i l l give way to the concept of planning as a strategy for producing change while maintaining organizational s t a b i l i t y . The planners' central task w i l l be to develop planning processes and modes to cope with the dual and often con-f l i c t i n g elements of increased technology - which may preclude p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making - and r i s i n g demands for public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n an environment i n which change i s the only constant. It i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine a greater challenge f o r the planner. The point i s not that the focus of h i s planning e f f o r t s may change; i n the past, planners have shown a marked capacity to adapt to changes i n the nature of the demands for plan-making. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the impetus for planning grew out of the need f o r orderly development of a physical townsite, normally located at or near an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . However, with the development of the automobile, planners r e a d i l y accommodated the change i n 159. i m p a c t on u r b a n s t r u c t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e emergence o f f o o t -l o o s e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h p l a c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on a c c e s s t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c h e a p l a b o u r t h a n t o r e s o u r c e s and c o m m e r c i a l s e t t l e m e n t has had p r o f o u n d i m p a c t s on t h e g r o w t h and l o c a t i o n o f human s e t t l e m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , we a r e n o t u n d u l y c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n n e r s t o c o p e w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e d e c l i n e i n i m p o r t a n c e o f s c h o o l s i t e s e l e c t i o n i n an e r a where e d u c a t i o n may be d e l i v e r e d i n p a r t b y c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , o r where t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i f i c u r b a n s e r v i c e s may be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n i n t h e p a s t due t o t h e i m p a c t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y . I n t h e summary, t h e p l a n n e r w i l l l i k e l y a d a p t q u i t e w e l l t o c h a n g i n g demands p l a c e d on him b y e m e r g i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y . What i s a t i s s u e i s t h e p l a n n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o d e v i s e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p a r a d i g m , summarized by K a l b a (1974) as "a s e q u e n c e o f a n a l y t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t e p s , m o v i n g f r o m p r o b l e m t o g o a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o p r o j e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o s e l e c t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s " (1974, p.153). I n t h e p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y d e s c r i b e d b y B e l l , t h e p l a n n e r s may n o t know what t h e p r o b l e m i s u n t i l t h e end o f t h e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . He may n o t be a b l e t o d e f i n e what e l e m e n t s may, o r may n o t , p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , n o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , may he c a r e v e r y much a b o u t t h e outcome; t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f may be h i s m a i n c o n c e r n . I f he c a n n o t s t r u c t u r e 160. some sort of orderly process which w i l l s a t i s f y the d u a l i t i e s of technological e x c l u s i v i t y and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , he w i l l be l e f t with chaos. His r o l e , as i n Friedmann's p a r t i c i p a n t planning, may be limited mainly to that of animator and i n f o r -mation dispensor: ... r a l l y i n g the community around the common tasks, helping i t s members to learn about the problems they are facing and the available methods of dealing with them, and pro-vid i n g a constant stream of information about those relevant aspects of the external environment (1973, p .xv-xvi) In t h i s v o l a t i l e and unpredictable environment, the e s s e n t i a l task facing the planner w i l l be to devise a method or process for planning for innovation, or what Kalba (1974) terms "planovation". I t i s important to note that "planovation" as such i s a demand, not a process. As described by Kalba, the demand implied by planovation i s the need to determine "the appropriate process for implementing a given innovation around which post-i n d u s t r i a l planning w i l l take shape" (1974, p.152). He suggests t h i s demand w i l l e x i s t , whether the object of the planning exercise involves s o c i a l planning, land development, energy conservation or information systems. In attempting to devise such a process, the basic s t r u c t u r a l problems defined by Kalba, Friedmann and B e l l include: 161. The need t o make t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n more w i d e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i t h o u t t r i g g e r i n g " i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d " ; The need t o d e v i s e b e t t e r means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g l o c a l n e e d s t o b u r e a u c r a t s w i t h o u t r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on s u c h e x p e n s i v e i n p u t s a s c e n s u s d a t a , o p i n i o n p o l l s , c a s e -w o r k e r s , e t c . ; The need t o d e v e l o p d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g mechanisms w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f i s s u e s . K a l b a ' s own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s e a r c h f o r a n a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e s s f o r p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n i s h i s c o n c e p t o f a new p l a n n i n g mode, w h i c h he t e r m s c o m p e t i t i v e p l a n n i n g ( K a l b a , 1974) . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s new mode w o u l d be an expanded f o r m o f F r i e d m a n n 1 s c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g mode, w h i c h i n v o l v e s n e g o t i a t i o n s b etween r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f m a j o r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s s e e k i n g a m u t u a l b u t t e m p o r a r y a d j u s t m e n t o f i n t e r e s t s ( F r i e d m a n n , 1973) . K a l b a ' s model e n v i s a g e s a more pe r m a n e n t a r r a n g e m e n t , whereby v a r i o u s c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s n e g o t i a t e t r a d e - o f f s o n an ad hoc o r c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . E a c h g r o u p i s presumed w i l l i n g t o t r a d e - o f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n r e t u r n f o r a r e d u c t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . Beyond t h i s c o n c e p t o f a new p l a n n i n g mode, K a l b a d o e s n o t go v e r y f a r i n d e s i g n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n o v a t i o n . However, he d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t a p l a n o v a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d accommodate t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : 162. - It should help to bridge the gap between technocracy and p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; - It should accommodate a more informed public; - It requires a more open planning environment; - I t requires a more continuous, dynamic process of i n t e r -action between the planners and the planned f o r i n which numerous inte r e s t s and organizations i n t e r a c t through time; - I t requires i n t e r a c t i v e planning procedures, through the use of role-playing, use of video-tape, and films and other innovative methods. In t h i s study, we are suggesting that one "appropriate process" for planning for innovation i s the use of s o c i a l communications systems. We are further suggesting that public p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies can be used, under ce r t a i n conditions defined below, as a mode of s o c i a l communication i n order to meet the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s described above. We have therefore developed the following a n a l y t i c a l framework: 1. Planning involves a continually evolving process rather than the attainment of s p e c i f i c ends. Once c e r t a i n goals and objectives have been reached, new ones may emerge i n t h e i r place; 2. The i n i t i a l input into the planning process for innovation should normally be a change element; 3. The target group affected by the plan should be involved i n the planning process, to ensure that the plan i s coherently conceived and implemented; 163. 4. The q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g " p r o d u c t " i s a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; 5. A f u n c t i o n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y have t h e c a p a c i t y f o r "two-way" c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e t a r g e t g r o u p when a p p r o p r i a t e ; 6. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a i t o n s t r a t e g i e s c a n be employed as a v e h i c l e f o r "two-way" c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , we w i l l r e f i n e t h e s e c o n c e p t s , and d e v e l o p m o d e l s f o r a s o c i a l d e l i v e r y s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t i n g e l e m e n t s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 5.3 SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODEL I t may be r e c a l l e d f r o m C h a p t e r Two t h a t n e i t h e r F r i e d m a n n (1973) o r K a l b a (1974) e l a b o r a t e d on how i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s m i g h t be t r a n s m i t t e d . The m odel d e v e l o p e d by M e i e r was f o r one-way i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s o n l y ; i t has s e n d e r s , m essages and r e c e i v e r s b u t i t d o e s n o t a l l o w f o r messages t o be r e c y c l e d f r o m t h e r e c e i v e r s back t o t h e s e n d e r . Y e t A x w o r t h y (197 1) and o t h e r s ( S t a r r s and S t e w a r t , 197 1) make t h e p o i n t t h a t a two-way communi-c a t i o n c h a n n e l i s r e q u i r e d i f t h e r e i s t o be e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p l a n n e r o r d e c i s i o n - m a k e r u s e s one c h a n n e l t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p r o g r a m -e l e m e n t s and u s e s t h e f e e d b a c k c h a n n e l t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s ' v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s . G o l d f a r b (1976) and Low (1974) have d e s c r i b e d how t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s modes, s u c h as p r i n t and v i d e o - t a p e p r o d u c e a m i r r o r e f f e c t ; people p a r t i c i p a t e by seeking a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own v a l u e s i n the media. We have already enlarged Meier's concept of a "system" to formulate our own d e f i n i t i o n of a communication system as "a sequence of s t a t e s of an i n t e r a c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , each^ s t a t e being the f u n c t i o n of preceding s t a t e s " i n which p o p u l a t i o n i s held t o be composed of people, t e c h n i c a l components or messages (Chapter One, p.7 ). Thus we might r e v i s e Meier's model t o accommodate the m i r r o r e f f e c t . In our one~way communications model, the l e t t e r "R" represents the people, or r e c e i v e r s , the boxed "K" represents a u n i t or u n i t s of inf o r m a t i o n and the l e t t e r "T" stands f o r t e c h n i c a l components. As i m p l i e d i n Figure 3. below, any p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to the degree i n which people's views or values conform to those t r a n s m i t t e d by the sender v i a the K u n i t s Messages Receiver Output p V ^ I n t e r - / Sender "•""^  a c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n m R —-> Mirror E f f e c t T R —» FIGURE 3. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - ONE-WAY lbo . Our c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m Dedmon's p e r c e p t i o n s (19 68) t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t v i e w s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m e d i a , o r modes, as a v e h i c l e t o e f f e c t s o c i a l c h a n g e . T h e r e f o r e we have d e f i n e d " s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " a s t h e " t h e u s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n / i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s t o a c h i e v e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s - n o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g an e l e m e n t o f s o c i a l c h a n g e " ( C h a p t e r One, p . 8 ) . B a s i c t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a change e l e m e n t , s i n c e t h e p l a n n e r i s u n l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e e i t h e r a o n e -way o r a two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l u n l e s s he i s p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n , i . e . s e e k i n g t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m o r p l a n , and c o l l e c t i n g v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s f r o m t h e t a r g e t g r o u p . I f he i s c a r r y i n g o u t a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e t h a t d o e s n o t i n v o l v e change i n some manner, he c a n draw on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , o r t h e s t a t u s quo, t o a i d him i n h i s s e l e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s o f a c t i o n o r g o a l s . The s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m o d e l d e s c r i b e d i n F i g u r e 4. accommodates t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a change e l e m e n t i n t o t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m and t h e a d d i t i o n o f a f e e d b a c k c h a n n e l t o r e c y c l e i n p u t f r o m t h e t a r g e t g r o u p . M e s s a g e s R e c e i v e r O u t p u t Change E l e m e n t Sender S R R R V a l u e s and P r i o r i t i e s FIGURE 4. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - TWO-WAY 166. 5.4 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION MODEL We have a l r e a d y made t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e p l a n n e r w i l l o n l y be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o c e s s i f , i n f a c t , she/he r e q u i r e s a one-way o r two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s h e/he may r e q u i r e s u c h a c h a n n e l f o r m e r e l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e t a s k a t h a n d . To r e t u r n t o o u r p i p e l i n e p l a n n i n g a n a l o g y i n C h a p t e r One, t h e p l a n n e r may n o t r e q u i r e any p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e i n v o l v e d , o r t h e r e l e v a n t d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be l i m i t e d t o t h a t o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s i n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f i e l d . However, he may p e r c e i v e t h e need f o r a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , by e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e o f r i g h t - o f - w a y l o c a t i o n i n v o l v i n g l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t h i s c a s e , w h i l e h i s t a s k i s c o n s t r a i n e d b y t h e e c o n o m i c s o f c o m p r e s s o r s t a t i o n s p a c i n g w h i c h d i c t a t e t h a t s u c h s t a t i o n s be s e q u e n t i a l l y l o c a t e d a t c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e s , r o u t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s m i g h t be q u i t e i n o r d e r , o r t h e e x t r a c o s t s i n v o l v e d deemed a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r m s o f t h e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d . A g a i n , i n d e t e r m i n i n g community i m p a c t s , he may w i s h t o w i d e n t h e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e optimum p l a n n i n g g o a l s . The c r u x o f t h e i s s u e i s t h e c a r e f u l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y t h e p l a n n e r o f two k e y e l e m e n t s . The f i r s t i s t h e need f o r a o n e -way o r a two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l i n t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The s e c o n d i s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r e a c h component o f t h e o v e r a l l p l a n . 167. The q u e s t i o n o f who p a r t i c i p a t e s i s i r r e l e v a n t a t t h i s p o i n t , s i n c e t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h may be a f f e c t e d , o r who may be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g , a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be a d e q u a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d u n t i l i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s a r e i n i t i a t e d , o r t h e " o u t p u t " c h a n n e l i s u t i l i z e d . A r n s t e i n (19 69) h a s p r o v i d e d us w i t h a b a s i s f o r o u r m o d e l w i t h h e r t y p o l o g y o f e i g h t r u n g s on t h e l a d d e r o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Her t y p o l o g y , d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r Two, i s : 8 C i t i z e n c o n t r o l D e g r e e s o f 7 D e l e g a t e d power C i t i z e n Power 6 P a r t n e r s h i p 5 P l a c a t i o n D e g r e e s o f 4 C o n s u l t a t i o n T o k e n i s m 3 I n f o r m i n g 2 T h e r a p y N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 M a n i p u l a t i o n We have m o d i f i e d t h e A r n s t e i n m odel i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. F i r s t , we h a v e added a n o t h e r r u n g , d e s i g n a t e d z e r o , o r " 0 " , t o accommodate o u r p o i n t t h a t t h e p l a n n e r may d e c i d e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r component i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e . S e c o n d l y , we h a v e amended some o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n h e r t y p o l o g y , a s shown b e l o w i n F i g u r e 5. 168. NON-PARTICIPATORY DEGREES OF PARTICIPATION DEGREES OF C I T I Z E N POWER Q No c o g n i z a n c e 1 S e l f - p r o m o t i o n 2 R e s e a r c h . 3 I n f o r m a t i o n 4 C o n s u l t a t i o n 5 Accommodation 6 P a r t n e r s h i p 7 D e l e g a t e d power No c o n c e p t o f l o c a l i n p u t P l a n n e r ' s i n t e r e s t s p r o m o t e d w i t h o u t t a r g e t g r o u p i n p u t T a r g e t g r o u p ' r e s e a r c h e d 1 by p l a n n e r b u t no d i r e c t c o n s u l t a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t o t a r g e t g r o u p t o h e l p them p l a n t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s V i e w s o f t a r g e t g r o u p s o u g h t p r i o r t o p l a n and p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n M o d i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n s p o s s i b l e a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t a r g e t g r o u p T a r g e t g r o u p i s p a r t o f a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g team Power t o d e c i d e o r i m p l e -ment i s d e l e g a t e d t o t a r g e t g r o u p 8 C i t i z e n c o n t r o l t a r g e t g r o u p makes d e c i s i o n FIGURE 5 NINE LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION T h e s e l e v e l s may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : L e v e i 0 (No c o g n i z a n c e ) i m p l i e s t h a t f o r some r e a s o n , t h e c o n c e p t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y , o r may be r e -s t r i c t e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n p u t ; 169. Level 1 (Self-promotion) implies the planner or decision-maker i s seeking to promote his own interests without input from public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This may involve a one-way stream of information i n the form of brochures, information k i t s , press releases, etc.; Level 2 (Research) implies that the planner/decision-maker would c o l l e c t information on the nature, requirements or values of s p e c i f i c target groups without th e i r input. This might apply to the c o l l e c t i o n of demographic data and other s t a t i s t i c a l information; Level 3 (Information) implies that the planner/decision-maker w i l l provide information to other groups to enable them to plan t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . These groups might involve government agencies, municipal authorities or the general public; Level 4 (Consultation) implies that the planner/decision-maker w i l l seek the views of various target groups p r i o r to formulating plans and p o l i c y , but there i s no s p e c i f i c commitment to implement proposed changes. Total control remains with the decision-maker; Level 5 (Accommodation) implies that the decision-maker i s prepared to accommodate plans and p o l i c i e s , i n t o t a l or i n part, af t e r consultation with the target groups; Level 6 (Partnership) implies that the various target groups are part of the decision-making team, and are not sub-ordinated i n any way. Control over decision-making i s shared; Level 7 (Delegated power) implies that the target groups may be delegated power to make decisions, or to implement programs i n areas chosen by the decision-maker, or negotiated with the groups involved,' 170. L e v e l 8 ( C i t i z e n c o n t r o l ) i m p l i e s t h a t t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s a r e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , and t h a t t h e p l a n n e r o r p r o j e c t i n i t i a t o r i s b o u n d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , o r t o e n a b l e them t o c a r r y o u t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e n e e d o r n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l , o r two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a n n e l s i n v o l v e d v a r i e s w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s i s shown i n F i g u r e 6.: INFORM PLAN CONSULT PLAN ACCOMMODATE PARTNERSHIP C I T I Z E N POWER 30 * — PLAN + K > PLAN T —«— KEY f i r m •-> p o s s i b l e FIGURE 6. DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION 171. F o r i n s t a n c e , a t L e v e l 3, o r I n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e i s no f e e d b a c k c h a n n e l . I n f o r m a t i o n , as d e s i g n a t e d by "K" f l o w s d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e p l a n and i s t h e n d i s s e m i n a t e d t o t h e p u b l i c . A t L e v e l 4, C o n s u l t a t i o n , t h e r e i s l i m i t e d f e e d b a c k . I n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s t o t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s , and i s r e c y c l e d i n t o t h e p l a n b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l i n p u t f r o m t h e g r o u p s . A t L e v e l 5, Accommodation, and 6, P a r t n e r s h i p , i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s t o t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s a n d t h e f i n a l p l a n i s a d j u s t e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t p o s i t i v e a n d / o r n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k . A t L e v e l 7, D e l e g a t e d power, and 8, C i t i z e n c o n t r o l , t h e f e e d b a c k c h a n n e l i s f a r more e x t e n s i v e . I n f o r m a t i o n o r "K" f l o w s d i r e c t l y t o t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s , and f r o m them d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e f i n a l p l a n w h i c h becomes, i n f a c t , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e u t i l i z e d by t h e p l a n n e r . M o s t breakdowns i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e p l a n n e d f o r can be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s by b o t h p a r t i e s on t h e l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t u a l l y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n . The p l a n n e r o r d e c i s i o n - m a k e r may be s e e k i n g o n l y t o i n f o r m ; t h e t a r g e t g r o u p s f e e l t h e y a r e b e i n g c o n s u l t e d , and t h e i r v i e w s w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I f t h a t i s n o t t h e c a s e , t h e r e i s a c r i m o n y and b i t t e r n e s s between b o t h g r o u p s ("I t o l d them what we were d o i n g " , " t h e y d i d n ' t l i s t e n t o u s " ) . The s u c c e s s o f any s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , no m a t t e r what t h e s u b j e c t , depends on t h e c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g by b o t h p a r t i e s o f t h e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l v e d , and t h e s c o p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f i n t h e o v e r a l l p r o j e c t . 172. 5.5 PARTICIPATION COMMUNICATION MODEL Once t h e p l a n n e r has d e t e r m i n e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a "one-way" o r "two-way" c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l and has s e l e c t e d o r n e g o t i a t e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , h i s t a s k i s t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s mode i n o r d e r t o t r a n s m i t messages between s e n d e r s and r e c e i v e r s . The t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s modes, s u c h as p r i n t , c a b l e v i s i o n , t e l e p h o n e s e t c . , and t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . However, t h e p l a n n e r may e l e c t t o u t i l i z e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e m s e l v e s as h i s t r a n s m i s i s o n u n i t s , o r t h e m e s s e n g e r s between s e n d e r s and r e c e i v e r s . Two models w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The f i r s t i s b a s e d on t h e Fogo I s l a n d e x p e r i m e n t , d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , and may be t e r m e d t h e R e c y c l i n g M o d e l . The s e c o n d i s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e HABITAT N e i g h b o u r h o o d W a l k s , and may be t e r m e d t h e R i p p l e M o d e l . I n b o t h m o d e l s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be teamed w i t h o t h e r modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Fogo I s l a n d ( R e c y c l i n g Model) As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e o v e r a l l g o a l o f t h e Fogo I s l a n d community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t was t o s e e k p u b l i c i n p u t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g t h e government o f Newfound-l a n d ' s p o l i c i e s on t h e p r o v i n c e ' s " o u t p o s t " c o m m u n i t i e s . T h r o u g h t h e medium o f f i l m and v i d e o - t a p e , N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d p r o d u c e r C o l i n Low and t h e s t a f f o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f 173. M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y s o u g h t t o e n c o u r a g e Fogo I s l a n d e r s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r p r o b l e m s as t h e y saw them, and t o p r o d u c e a s e r i e s o f f i l m o r v i d e o " w h i t e p a p e r s " e x p r e s s i n g t h e g o a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f I s l a n d e r s t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n t h e c a p i t a l , S t . J o h n ' s . The p r o c e s s , as r e f i n e d i n s u b s e q u e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 7. As i n d i c a t e d , t h e key e l e m e n t s i n t h i s m o del a r e t h e s c a l e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e r e c y c l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The v a r i o u s s t a g e s a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w : 1. The i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t s , i n t h e f o r m o f g o a l s t a t e m e n t s , a r e k e p t f a i r l y g e n e r a l . As p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n f i d e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n c r e a s e , more c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t s may be i n t r o d u c e d ; 2. I n i t i a l l y , t h e v e i w s o f one o r two i n d i v i d u a l s a r e f i l m e d o r t a p e d and t h e n r e p l a y e d t o them so t h a t t h e y may e d i t o r augment t h e i r r e m a r k s ; 3. The e d i t e d t a p e i s t h e n shown t o a l a r g e g r o u p , whose v i e w s a r e e l e c i t e d . A g a i n , t h e y a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e d i t o r augment t h e i r o p i n i o n s ; 4. T h i s p h a s e o f t h e t a p e may t h e n be r e p l a y e d t o t h e f i r s t p a r t i c i p a n t , who w i l l f i n d h i s v i e w s augmented, o r c h a l l e n g e d , and may r e s p o n d a c c o r d i n g l y . I n p r a c t i c e , he i s l i k e l y t o m o d i f y h i s e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t s , n o t i n g t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e have a r i g h t t o a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s , o r a g r e e i n g w i t h new i d e a s i n t r o d u c e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e c o n d p h a s e ; F e e d b a c k S y s t e m 1, R e f o r m u l a t i o n NEW CYCLE o f g o a l s KEY: f i r m -•^  p o s s i b l e FIGURE 7. FOGO ISLAND MODEL (RECYCLING MODEL) f 175. 5. The video-tape i s then played to t h i r d group, and t h e i r responses f i l m e d , e d i t e d and replayed to Group Two. The process i s repeated on an i n c r e a s i n g s c a l e ; as each group reaches some degree of consensus, the reformulated tape can then be used to achieve consensus w i t h a l a r g e r group, u n t i l f i n a l l y the f i l m or tape r e f l e c t s the common viewpoints - not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l consensus s t a t e -ments - of the e n t i r e community or t a r g e t group; 6. This taped product i s then played to the decision-makers, who respond v i a the same medium, i . e . f i l m or tape. This response i s shown to the community, or group, which may o f f e r new i n s i g h t s or m o d i f i d a t i o n s i n l i g h t of new inform a t i o n from the decision-makers; 7. The f i n a l taped responses o f the t a r g e t group are returned to the decision-makers, who i n c o r p o r a t e the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o the-plan-making process; 8. Once the i n i t i a l goal i s achieved, the t a r g e t group may reformulate i t s goals f o r the next stage of development, and a new c y c l e may be i n i t i a t e d . The Fogo I s l a n d process i s considered to be the most s u c c e s s f u l use of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communications f o r the purposes of community development. While i t i s not expensive i n terms of equipment and m a t e r i a l s - video-tape i s r e l a t i v e l y cheap - i t i s expensive i n terms of time. However, the o r i g i n a t o r s of the technique f e e l the b i g g e s t c o n s t r a i n t on use of the technique by government and i n d u s t r y i s the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s ; the p a r t i c i p a n t s might veto a proposed p r o j e c t or p o l i c y . 176,; C l e a r l y , t h e n , t h i s m o del s h o u l d be u s e d by t h e p l a n n e r / d e c i s i o n - m a k e r o n l y i f he h a s e l e c t e d t o a d o p t a d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t o r above L e v e l 6 ( P a r t n e r s h i p ) . H a b i t a t Walks ( R i p p l e Model) The R i p p l e M o d e l i s an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e R e c y c l i n g M o d e l and may be u s e f u l where p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a w i d e a r e a , r e q u i r i n g some l i n k a g e mechanism. I t i s shown i n F i g u r e 8.: Mount P l e a s a n t ( c l o s e d ) West End U.B.C. West P t . Gre y (open) C y c l e KEY: -> f i r m <-> p o s s i b l e m L U • w S! O o o a H H3 KJ FIGURE 8. HABITAT WALKS (RIPPLE MODEL) 177. The various stages are described as follows: 1. The i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y exercise (goal inputs, change elements, degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , etc.,) i s confined to two s p e c i f i c target groups, who may be linked by common interests over a wide area, or s p a t i a l l y c o n s o l i -dated, for example, i n a neighbourhood. These two groups may l i m i t t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n to an exchange of experiences, or they may choose to pa r t i c i p a t e i n each other's exercise; 2. From th i s i n i t i a l base, spin-off p a r t i c i p a t o r y exercises involving a larger number and range of groups are formulated. This process may develop through media coverage of the i n i t i a l groups' a c t i v i t i e s ; 3. As the number of groups involved i n par t i c i p a t o r y i n t e r -changes increases, the messages are transmitted and col l e c t e d i n an ever widening s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n u n t i l the p a r t i c i p a t o r y network encompasses the entire target area. The Ripple Model i s more f l e x i b l e than the Recycling Model. I t i s not dependent on any one communications mode -such as video-tape - and can u t i l i z e any number of modes, such as face-to-face, telephones, cablevision systems, etc. The appropriate degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be reduced from Level 6 (Partnership) i n the Recycling Model, to the lowest degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Information) i n the Ripple Model. 178. 5.6 DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS Once we have d e s i g n e d o u r s u b s y s t e m s ( d e g r e e s o f p a r t i -c i p a t i o n a nd p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n m o d e l s ) we c a n p r o c e e d t o c o n s t r u c t m a i n l i n e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t o u r i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m a l l o w s f o r two-way, o r s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l s , b u t can a l s o be u s e d f o r one-way i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s , i f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s L e v e l 0 (No c o g n i z a n c e ) . The model i s shown i n F i g u r e 9. : I d e n t i f y K U n i t s D egree o f P a r t i c i -p a t i o n L S e l e c t I n i t i a l and F e e d b a c k Modes C o m p i l e R e v i s e d K I d e n t i f y —* T a r g e t Groups Modes o f D i s t r i b u -t i o n V R e i n f o r c i n g v TT Systems R FIGURE 9. DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS The b a s i c p u r p o s e o f o u r i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i s t o t r a n s m i t messages f r o m t h e s e n d e r s (S) t o t h e r e c e i v e r s ( R ) . The p r o c e s s i s d e v e l o p e d as f o l l o w s : 179. 1. F i r s t , the sender should i d e n t i f y what information he wishes to transmit. At t h i s stage, he may not know what his problems are, and thus he i s i n no p o s i t i o n to s e l e c t his f i n a l , c r u c i a l messages. However,, he w i l l probably have some information; a company wishes to b u i l d a pipeline i n a c e r t a i n generalized area, or a group i s seeking to develop a parcel of land for a s p e c i f i c use; 2. On the basis of t h i s i n i t i a l information, he selects the appropriate degrees of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for s p e c i f i c components of the project; 3. Next, he selects his i n i t i a l "one-way" or "two-way" models where appropriate, and i n i t i a t e s the flow of information. This may be i n the form of an announcement about an a n t i -cipated project, a series of information brochures, the establishment of public hearings, provision for "mail i n " response forms, or whatever appears productive; 4. On the basis of the information c o l l e c t e d v i a the "feed-back" communication channel, he i s then i n a p o s i t i o n to select the most important information messages (K) to be transmitted. This i s a c r u c i a l phase, since the selection of i r r e l e v a n t messages w i l l not be perceived by the receiver, through information overload, or through sheer indifference (Meier, 1962) ; 5. When his information units are selected, the planner can then i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c target groups within his target area. For instance, i f the information base has an environmental component, he can more e a s i l y i d e n t i f y the various environmental groups he wishes to communicate with. S i m i l a r l y , i f a pipeline or freeway routing has been established a f t e r the necessary p a r t i c i p a t o r y feedback has been co l l e c t e d and accommodated, he w i l l be able to i d e n t i f y the individuals or groups who w i l l be affected by the project; 180. Once h i s t a r g e t g r o u p s h ave b e e n c l a r i f i e d , t h e p l a n n e r may t h e n s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t i o n modes. As shown i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , i f he i s a i m i n g a t w h i t e , m i d d l e income g r o u p s i n t h e age g r o u p o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s , he may c h o o s e t o u t i l i z e m e t r o p o l i t a n n e w s p a p e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e p r o j e c t w i l l a f f e c t t h e l a r g e r community ( p . l O l ) . I f , however, he i s w o r k i n g a t t h e l o c a l o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l , he may c h o o s e t o u t i l i z e s m a l l community w e e k l i e s . S i m i l a r l y , he w i l l a l l o w f o r e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i s t a r g e t g r o u p by u t i l i z i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n modes most l i k e l y t o r e a c h them. T h i s may i n v o l v e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s . In some c a s e s , t h e messages t h e m s e l v e s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t ; s e n i o r c i t i z e n s may n o t r e s p o n d t o news a b o u t d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n a p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t , b u t may be i n t e r e s t e d i n s e r v i c e s i t w i l l o f f e r o l d e r age g r o u p s . In n o r t h e r n Canada, where t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s n a t i v e g r o u p s s p e a k i n g d i f f e r e n t n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s , t h e m a j o r medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s m u l t i - l i n g u a l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . S t a t e -ments o f i n t e n t , i n E n g l i s h , p u b l i s h e d i n l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s may n e v e r r e a c h t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e ; A key e l e m e n t i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i s t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f r e i n f o r c i n g s y s t e m s t o g e n e r a t e and r e g e n e r a t e i n f o r -m a t i o n u n i t s , i n l i n e w i t h M e i e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t o n l y a p o r t i o n o f e a c h message i s a c t u a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d b y t h e r e c e i v e r ( M e i e r , 1 9 6 2 ) . T h e s e s y s t e m s may i n c l u d e a f l o w o f p r e s s announcements, a s e r i e s o f w o r k s h o p s , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e s t a g i n g o f v a r i o u s e v e n t s . The c a r e f u l p l a n n e r w i l l t r a n s m i t h i s messages i n an o r d e r e d s e q u e n c e , s t a r t i n g w i t h e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b u i l d i n g up t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l c o n c e p t s , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . The t i m e e l e m e n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i f he 181. i s s e e k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n p u t f r o m t a r g e t g r o u p s , s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s c a n n o t c o n t r i b u t e much t o a p r o j e c t i f t h e y do n o t have s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t i t t o i d e n t i f y , i n t h e i r own m i n d s , what i m p a c t i t i s l i k e l y t o have on t h e i r own v a l u e s , o r a c t i v i t i e s ; 8. The f i n a l e l e m e n t i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i s t h e r e c e i v e r , d e s i g n a t e d as "R" i n o u r m o d e l . I f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e en d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s d e s c r -i b e d h e r e , t h e number o f r e c e i v e r s , and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a s s i m i l a t e m e s s a g e s , w i l l p r o b a b l y be g r e a t e r t h a n w o u l d be t h e c a s e i f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s were d i s s e m i n a t e d i n an a d h o c b a s i s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h e number o f r e c e i v e r s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y measure t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m . E f f i c i e n c y , i n t e r m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s , i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o t r a n s m i t t h e r e l e v a n t messages t o t h e r e l e v a n t r e c e i v e r s v i a a p r o c e s s w h i c h i n c r e a s e s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a s s i m i l a t e i t a n d r e s p o n d i n t h e d e s i r e d manner. 5.7 SUMMARY In t h i s c h a p t e r , we have a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t a p l a n n e r o r d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s h o u l d c h o o s e t o u t i l i z e a s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i f he has a n e e d t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o j e c t s a n d p o l i c i e s and a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l n e e d t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e o r f e e d b a c k f r o m h i s t a r g e t g r o u p s . T h i s i s l i k e l y t o be t h e c a s e i f he i s p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n . We have a l s o shown t h a t t h e key t o h i s s u c c e s s w i l l d e p e n d l a r g e l y on h i s s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e d , and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e modes o f communic-a t i o n s . O t h e r e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s a r e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t u n i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e d e s i g n o f an e f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r y s y s t e m . 182. F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h e r e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t o many v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b u t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s so f a r as i t c o n c e r n s p l a n n i n g and o n l y p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e (Axworthy, 19 71). t o any l i n k a g e s between t h e two. Thus o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d . Two p a r t i c u l a r a v e n u e s come t o mind. One i n v o l v e s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f games and r o l e - p l a y i n g as a mode o f s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a p o s s i b i l i t y r e f e r r e d t o by K a l b a (1974) b u t n o t e x p l o r e d . The s e c o n d i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e Fogo I s l a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t . The Fogo p r o c e s s , w h i c h i n v o l v e s a c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d p r o g r a m o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e use o f v i d e o - t a p e o r f i l m t o p r o v i d e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e p u b l i c , m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t - and t h e most n e g l e c t e d - p l a n n i n g t o o l i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . 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(1965) "Whom Does the Advocate Planner Serve?" Pp.43-65 i n Richard A. Cloward and Frances Fox Piven (eds.) The P o l i t i c s of Turmoil; Essays on Poverty, Race and the Urban C r i s i s (New York: Pantheon Books) Pred, Allan . (1975) "On the Spacial Structure of Organizations and the Complexity of Metropolitan Interdependence," Papers of the Regional Science Association, 35; 115-142 Prinn, Elizabeth, et a l . (1973) "Communication Via Televi s i o n and Film," E k i s t i c s , 35 (June): 342-348 Post, George. (1975) What's Ahead f o r the Canadian Economy? Canadian Persepctive: An Economic Overview, notes from a speech to the 104th Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Manufacturers Association, Toronto, June 2, 1975 188. R i c h a r d s , C a t h e y . (1974) "Community Programme F o r m a t s , " Pp.101-L05 i n C a n a d i a n R a d i o - T e l e v i s i o n C o m m i s s i o n A R e s o u r c e  f o r t h e A c t i v e Community (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada) R i l e y , J.W. and R i l e y , M.S. (1959) "Mass C o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e S o c i a l System," i n R.K. M e r t o n (ed.) S o c i o l o g y Today.  P r o b l e m s and P r o s p e c t s (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books) R i v k i n , S t e v e n R. (1972) " C r e a t i n g Community I n f o r m a t i o n U t i l i t i e s - The R e g u l a t o r y P r o b l e m , " Pp.401-429 i n H a r o l d Sackman an d B a r r y W. Boehm (eds.) P l a n n i n g Community  I n f o r m a t i o n U t i l i t i e s ( M o n t v a l e , New J e r s e y : AFIPS P r e s s ) Rosen, S t e p h e n . (19 76) F u t u r e F a c t s (New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r ) R o s e n g r e n , K a r l E r i k . (1974) "Uses and G r a t i f i c a t i o n s : ; A P a r a d i g m O u t l i n e d , " Pp.269-2 85 i n J a y G. B l u m l e r and E l i h u K a t z (eds.) The U ses o f Mass C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ( B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s ) Sackman, H a r o l d , a n d Boehm, B a r r y W. (1972) P l a n n i n g Community  I n f o r m a t i o n U t i l i t i e s ( M o n t v a l e , New J e r s e y : AFIPS P r e s s ) S e e l e y , J o h n R. (1962) " C o m m u n i c a t i o n , C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and Community," i n J o h n A. I r v i n g (ed.) Mass M e d i a i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s ) S e e l i g , M i c h a e l . (1974) " A r e a C o n s e r v a t i o n as an A s s e t t o P l a n n i n g - N o t a ' N e c e s s a r y E v i l ' , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d (December): 106-109 S e l w y n , Lee L. (1972) " I n d u s t r i a l and V o c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , " Pp. 137-172 i n H a r o l d Sackman and B a r r y W. Boehm (eds.) P l a n n i n g Community I n f o r m a t i o n U t i l i t i e s ( M o n t v a l e , New J e r s e y : AFIPS P r e s s ) Simmons, W.R. (1973) 1973 D a i l y Newspaper R e a d e r s h i p D e m o g r a p h i c  T a b l e s : One-day an d F i v e - d a y Reach, G r o s s I m p r e s s i o n s  and G r o s s R a t i n g P o i n t s (New Y o r k : Newspaper A d v e r t i s i n g B u r e a u I n c . ) S t a r r s , K a t h r y n , and S t e w a r t , G a i l . See O n t a r i o , Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y S z a b l o w s k i , George J . See O n t a r i o , Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y T h a y e r , F r e d e r i c k . See O n t a r i o , Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y Thompson, G o r d o n . (November 27, 19 76) F i n a n c i a l P o s t : 20 189. Tonuma, Koichi. (19 70) "The Network City," E k i s t i c s , XXIX (June): 458-66 Turoff, Murray. (1973) "Human Communication Via Data Networks," E k i s t i c s , 35 (June): 337-341 Ubyssey, The. (November 5, 1976) Pp.2 Warner, Katherine P. (1971) Public P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Water  Resource Planning, prepared for the National Water Commission, Arlington, Va. Webber, Melvin M. (1963) "Order i n Di v e r s i t y : Community without Propinquity," Pp.2 3-54 i n Lowdon Wingo (ed.) C i t i e s and Space: The Future Use of Urban Land (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press) Webber, Melvin M., and Webber, Carolyn C. (1967) "Culture, T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , and the E l a s t i c Mile," i n Wentworth Eldredge (ed.) Taming Megalopolis Vol.1: What Is and What Could Be. (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, Double-day) Wellman, Barry. (1973) "The Network Nature of Future Communities r" Paper presented to the annual meeting, Society for the Study of Social Problems, August 1973, New York Cit y . Wengert, Norman C. (1961) The Administration of Natural Resources: The American Experience, issued under the auspices of the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi (New York: Asia Publishing House) Wise, Arnold. (1971) "The Impact of Ele c t r o n i c Communications on Metropolitan Form," E k i s t i c s , XXXII (July): 22-31 Wood, P a t r i c i a A. (1971) 'Resident P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Mass Media," Pp. 287-294 i n Edgar S. Cahn and Barry A. Passett (eds.) C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E f f e c t i n g Community Change (New York: Praeger Publishers) Woodbury, Coleman (1966) "The Role of the Regional Planner i n Preserving Habitats and Scenic Values," PP. 568-587 i n F. Fraser Darling and John P. Milton (eds.) Future  Environments of North America (Garden City, New York: Natural History Press) Zacharias, John and Seelig, Michael. (1974) A Guide to Unguided Tours (Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 190. APPENDIX Examples of p r i n t a d v e r t i s i n g Taylor e v a l u a t i o n of Mount Pleasant Walk Examples of West P o i n t Grey Walk data base Frank'Mayrs c c . M. Cobley D .Lam C. Peclersen D. Peacock Pat Carney 1 _ ^  \J r 191 1 OUR 1 HE - H;«tfl?.l*?.l J 1 I OUR f U E - V . S f r f l f N C f DATE A p r i l 1, 1976 TV COMMERCIALS The f o l l o w i n g memo recaps our pr o p o s a l s f o r an animated/, f i l m e d s e r i e s of t e l e v i s i o n commercials on H a b i t a t f o r p r o d u c t i o n i n A p r i l and a i r i n g i n May. I t i s based on • the f o l l o w i n g assumptions: 1. Our audience i s mainly r e g i o n a l , but the commercials sh o u l d be ac c e p t a b l e f o r n a t i o n a l use. 2. Our t a r g e t group i s the man-on-the-str.eet, who doesn't know anything about the content o r themes of H a b i t a t 3. We do not want to shock our audience, but because we are c o n d u c t i n g a media b l i t z , we want t o s u r p r i s e or s t a r t l e and c a t c h audience a t t e n t i o n 4. Because of p r o d u c t i o n d e a d l i n e s , v/e want.simple commercials r e q u i r i n g minimum'research and p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 5. We want t o r e t a i n the use of the lo g o , and the "Man... s h e l t e r , , , and the g l o b a l search f o r s o l u t i o n s " framework i f p o s s i b l e , but t h i s i s not i m p e r a t i v e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y the theme c o u l d be H a b i t a t i s how people l i v e . The concepts developed f o r t e l e v i s i o n can be used as b a s i s f o r promotion i n other media. a The o b j e c t i v e of the commercials i s t o inform and e n t i c e the g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i t h the concept t h a t H a b i t a t i s going t o be d e d i c a t e d t o dete r m i n i n g p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o human s e t t l e m e n t problems v;hich are r e a l l y g o i n g to h e l p people - o u r s e l v e s i n c l u d e d - and t h a t Canadian are c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s e s o l u t i o n s . The v e h i c l e should be 30 or 60 second commercials u s i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e drawings, animation or o t h e r techniques t o convey simple s t o r y l i n e s o f a problem and the s o l u t i o n . The music s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e t o the commercial; i t c o u l d be L a t i n American, A r a b i c , o r whatever serves as an a t t e n t i o n g e t t e r . There i s almost a v a u d e v i l l e approach t o some proposed commercials. The tone o f F O R K U l i NOSMAUI SEfc£;2t>- l D E L - O N T h e f o l l o w i n g I - . S e t t l e m e n t . T h e s t o r y l i n e f o r . t h i s one c o u l d b e b a s e d o n t h e "Sand Dune F i x a t i o n " , w h i c h i s . a t t a c h e d . I I . W a t e r . The s t o r y l i n e s h o u l d o u t l i n e a s i m p l e c a s e w h e r e p e o p l e r e s o l v e d t h e i r w a t e r p r o b l e m s . • E x a m p l e : One b i l l i o n p e o p l e i n t h e w o r l d do n o t h a v e s a f e w a t e r from, a n y s o u r c e . .. I n t h e v i l l a g e o f Ku p a n g , I n d o n e s i a , e v e r y b o d y u s e d t h e same w a t e r h o l e . d o g s . c a t s . . . p e o p l e ( f o r d r i n k i n g , w a s h i n g , a n d b a t h i n g ) So t h e v i l l a g e r s d e v i s e d a new w a t e r s y s t e m T h e f i r s t p o o l was r e s e r v e d f o r d r i n k i n g ( w a t e r f a l l ) T h e s e c o n d f o r human b a t h i n g ( w a t e r t r o u g h ) T h e t h i r d . f o r w a s h i n g . . . . . And t h e l a s t fox- t h e dogs a n d c a t s A l l i n t h e c e n t r e o f a p a r k A d i m p l e s o l u t i o n B e c a u s e o f H a b i t a t , one w h i c h c o u l d h e l p o t h e r s . . I I I . C l i m a t e . T h e : s t o r y l i n e c o u l d o u t l i n e t h e p r o b l e m s a n d s o l u t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g l o b a l c l i m a t e e x t r e m e s . E x a m p l e : C a n a d i a n s l i v e i n a c o l d c l i m a t e O r e l s e i t r a i n s So C a n a d i a n s w e n t u n d e r g r o u n d t o b u i l d c i t i e s ( p i c t u r e s o f u n d e r g r o u n d s h o p p i n g m a l l s i n h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g s ' O r t h e y ' w e n t o v e r g r o u n d ( p i c t u r e s o f s k y w a y s c o n n e c t i n g b u i l d i n g s a b o v e s t r e e t l e v e l ) Nov/ n o b o d y c a r e s i f i t snows. O r r a i n s . A p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n . "•••'• B e c a u s e o f H a b i t a t , one w h i c h c o u l d h e l p o t h e r s . t h e c o m m e r c i a l o s h o u l d be l i g h t b u t i n f o r m a t i v e , s u b j e c t s a r e s u g g e s t e d . / 3 V. wj.wv.il m.t.vj ^.t-^j.i. n w t> L U J . y xj-uu cou' "• s t a t e trie Drocier, i » of rnigracC n i r o n the r u r a l a r e a s to( uie. c i t i e s . Example?93 In Columbia, one day, the people came and came... and came... I n a spontaneous m i g r a t i o n to the c i t y . The government d i d c a l l out the ax_m.y. • I n s t e a d , the nev/comers were gi v e n l a n d and l o a n s ' and encouraged to b u i l d t h e i r own homes. A p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n . Because of H a b i t a t , one which c o u l d help o t h e r s . Urban Redevelopment. The s t o r y l i n e c o u l d i l l u s t r a t e the r e b u i l d i n g of our c i t i e s , and the need t o p r e s e r v e what we val u e i n our c i t i e s , and not simply to d e s t r o y . Example: In Vancouver, the people i n Strathcona l i v e d i n the pat h of a proposed f r e e way. One day the b u l l d o z e r s came. The people o f Strathcona v a l u e d t h e i r community, and t h e i r way of l i f e . (show v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups) So they worked together to r e b u i l d t h e i r community and pre s e r v e i t s unique h e r i t a g e . . . . and the b u l l d o z e r s went away. A s a t i s f y i n g s o l u t i o n . One which, through H a b i t a t , c o u l d h e l p o t h e r s . V I - L i t e r a c y . The s t o r y l i n e s h o u l d i l l u s t r a t e the overwhelming problem of i l l i t e r a c y on a g l o b a l s c a l e . Example:. More than h a l f the world's p o p u l a t i o n over t e n has never been t o s c h o o l . In Cuba, people who went to sch o o l taught o t h e r s . . . who taught o t h e r s . . . ( a d u l t s t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n ) who taught o t h e r s . . . ( c h i l d r e n t e a c h i n g a d u l t s ) Nov;, many Cubans can read and w r i t e -( we should check f i g u r e s ) A h e l p f u l s o l a t i o n . One; wh.i <:h, t h r o u g h H a b i t a t , c o u l d h e l p o t h e r s . The s u b j e c t s s k e t c h e d above arc o n l y s u g g e s t i o n s . However, v/e have a r e s o u r c e p o o l o f p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e UBC S c h o o l o f P l a n n i n g , who can s u g g e s t and a u t h e n t i c a t e t h e s e and o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i t h a minimum o f t i m e . A n o t h e r example of s e l f h e l p i s t h e reel eve lopraenb of the. t h e Tondo a r e a o f M a n i l a , w h i c h was t h e w i n n i n g s u b j e c t o f t h a i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n among a r c h i t e c t s , and w h i c h w i l l be f e a t u r e d a t t h e A r t G a l l e r y d u r i n g H a b i t a t . P l e a s e l e t me know y o u r comments. .ATKOWSKI & CO., 12 WATER ST. {604} .5-7264 HABITAT - T e l e v i s i o n :30 s e c o n d r l "WATER" VIDEO 1. D r a w i n g o f v i l l a g e p e o p l e and a n i m a l s g a t h e r e d a r o u n d w a t e r h o l e . AUDIO 1. SFX: APPROPRIATE MUSIC I n t h e v i l l a g e o f Rupang, I n d o n e s i a . . . e v e r y o n e u s e d t h e same w a t e r h o l e . . . 3. Q u i c k c u t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d a n i m a l s m e n t i o n e d i n a u d i o . R e a c t i o n o f p e o p l e a n d a n i m a l s a f f e c t e d b y u n c l e a n w a t e r . 2. D o g s - - . c a t s . . - p e o p l e . . . W h i c h made t h e w a t e r u n s a f e f o r e v e r y o n e . . . s o t h e v i l l a g e r s d e v i s e d a new w a t e r s y s t e m . D r a w i n g o f w a t e r f a l l W a t e r t r o u g h w i t h p e o p l e u s i n g i t . D r a w i n g o f p o o l w i t h c a t s a n d d o g s u s i n g i t . O v e r - a l l d r a v / i n g o f p a r k s e t t i n g w i t h p o o l s y s t e m 3. S m i l i n g g r o u p as i n #1 4. The f i r s t p o o l f o r d r i n k i n g 5. The s e c o n d f o r b a t h i n g . . . 6. The l a s t f o r . d o g s and c a t s 7. A l l i n t h e c e n t r e o f a p a r i . . .a s i m p l e s o l u t i o n . .". t h a c a n h e l p o t h e r s . A n i m a t e d H a b i t a t l o g o / s i g n a t u r e . H a b i t a t U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e on Human S e t t l e m e n t s May 31 - J u n e 11 V a n c o u v e r T h r o u g h H a b i t a t . - . a G l o b a l s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s . • J 27.MAY1976 196 Hew the Japanese are coping with the worlds most colossal traffic headache. moving twice as fas One creative solution they called th&"Dual Mode Bus System"-a new type of commuter bus that . runs on both"driverless"guideways and regular streets. It can pick up passengers at their'door, then miss all the cross-town traffic— very inventive! * Another new idea is a kind of "push-button" bus s top-enabling waiting passen-gers to re-route busses to their stop. Ingenious, those Japanese When the twenty million people around Tokyo all decide to drive to the city at once, it can create some of the world's biggest traffic jams. A very sticky problem. So, they meditated over their plight. Then acted. Innovative solutions that can help others-Through HABITAT... a global search for solutions. HABITAT United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada 19.MWW'0 JO j into an When gravel deposits were dis-covered near the town of Holme Pierrepont in England, the land-scape was soon turned Into an unsightly wasteland of pocks and pits. Pity. ATale of One City. They converted the old worked •out gravel pits into a community recreation area-complete with an Olympic rowing course! Clever, those British. So the townspeople decided to do something about it. They put their heads together and came up with a remarkable solution A novel solution that could help others Through HABITAT. a global search lor solutions United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada (Delta, J5.U) with $12 198 Sliding a hospital nd a little help from your friends, In Sierra Leone, it is traditional lor the people to work together to build each other 's houses. So when they needed a new hospital in Port Loko-the people decided to build it themselves. Starting with just $12 and 100 bags of cement! When other agencies saw this spirit of self-help in act ion, they too dec ided to help. 5' When the hospital was completed, not only d id Port L oko have improved med ica l facilities, but this traditional spirit of self-help was carr ied on throughout S ierra Leone to other commun i t y projects. A co-operat ive solution that can help others Through H A B I T A T . a g lobal sea rch for solutions. TAT United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada C i T Y P L A N N I FM l i U b P/ \ M I IVI t I vv-;;.: Avenue. Va i icouv .v p,i.-..;i> .': Cnnnd . rVSY IV-t T d i i y i o n ; - ?>',;. rw A i v a C o d e 60-1 V > I I I — ' i 199 File No. im 1435 D a K A Y 2-' 1 9 7 6 IS--,. Pah Carney, Habitat Information Officer 1;entail Centra P.O. 49183 Vancr<i.iver B . C . V7X IKS Lear Ms. Carneyj Attached•for your information please find a City Planning Department • snranar-y of the Habitat-Mount Pleasant 17a lk held on Saturday April 10 1976. Also for your information, Aif Uorthington has been seriously i i i with pneumonia during the past month and has not yet been able to complete- his tabulation and sunmary of the "walkers' response sheets." The Habitat walk and accompanying summary are proving extremely valuable to the Planning Department as one means to help gain better insight and understanding of the community's diverse faces. Also, the Planning Department believes that the Habitat walk, neighbourhood, fairs and other community get-togethers are valuable contributions to promoting good relations among neighbours. Regarding the "participation by invitation" and "post-walk discussion" techniques u t i l i z e d in the Mount Pleasant walk I. submit the following: a) The concept of "participation by invitation" is-an effective: way to easily, achieve a diverse, representative and manageable sized group of walkers. Witness the spontaneous inter-mingling of different age groups, and ethnic backgrounds. b) The concept of "post-walk discussion" i s good. However, the Mount Pleasant discussion only achieved mediocrity for three •reasons: —The dining hall location was not conducive to meaningful discussion --The post-walk discussion needed to be better prepared beforehand. Unfortunately.; the walk organizers, walk leaders and animators did not commit themselves to meeting-beforehand to organize the post-wall; session. —Some of the walk participants were unwilling or unable to enter into a ful.l-hearted discussion of people's reactions, to and conclusions ab^.rt -walk, sightings. c) As far as 1 know nobody was designated responsible for ensuring-t'- ;- fo) 1 ov;-th:c-v.!Qh on v;al.k imo-e'ssions and con elusions v;as : •'..-;'... - i d M' . •. /\p p r o p r i a •.. I y, •.• st;*-:-Pj c i t i z e n s ' group should nave vo I s.".t«ared or beer; assigned to un dart a k.e t-vi s- task. (iJnfortui.-.it.eiy no such f u l l time group appears to exist in Mount Pleasant at this, time.) In nenex.al, I believe the walk was a success in that a manageable nu.ixn- of Mount Pleasant's citizens came together to walk and discuss. -2- 200 I am c e r t a i n t h a t each p a r t i c i p a n t came away somewhat more knowledgeable o f h i t h e r t o unknown aspect:; o f Mount P l e a s a n t . Yours t r u l y , {•".": i:ch T a y l o r I I.'iouirc P l e a s a n t N.I'.P. Pla n n i n g A s s i s t a n t e n c l . 1 City of Vancouver j I ly Inter-Offico Correspondence F i l e : LOS M36 N15 M35 May 5, 1976 MEMO TO: P i l e s L85 M36 and N15 H35 FROM: M i t c h T a y l o r , Mount P l e a s a n t Planning A s s i s t a n t SUBJECT: Habitat-Mount Pleasant Neighbourhood V.'alk held on Saturday A p r i l 10, 1976 9:00 a.m. t o 4 : 0 0 p.m. . ' On Saturday A p r i l 10, 1976 approximately 50 people r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of Mount P l e a s a n t ' s p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a H a b i t a t sponsored Mount Pleasant neighbourhood walk. The Mount P l e a s a n t walk was one of two p i l o t neighbourhood walks i n Vancouver sponsored by H a b i t a t (The second walk took p l a c e A p r i l 26 1976 i n P o i n t G r e y ) . The general o b j e c t i v e s of the two i n i t i a l walks ax~e: "a) To develop the theme t h a t H a b i t a t i s HOW PEOPLE LIVE b) To promote the concept of encouraging Canadians t o study ways t o make better/more e x t e n s i v e useagc of e x i s t i n g community resources r a t h e r than adding to them. c) T c develop c r i t e r i - ' . which may be used t o i n i t i a t e s i m i l a r walks i n other urluv, c e n t r e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the Mount P l e a s a n t walkers were requested t o : . d) Take an indepth look at one's community w i t h a view t o i d e n t i f y i n g and understanding what i s good about Mount P l e a s a n t , what needs changing and why items are present or absent. e) Attempt t o v i s u a l i z e what the fu t u r e holds i n s t o r e ( g i v e n t r e n d s ) and what a l t e r n a t i v e s are perhaps more d e s i r a b l e f o r Mount P l e a s a n t . The Habitat-Mount P l e a s a n t U'alk was organized by members o f the l o c a l community under the co-chairmanship o f A l f Worthington ( l o c a l r e s i d e n t ) and M i t c h T a y l o r (Vancouver C i t y P lanning .Department). A l l p a r t i c i p a n t :ed Mv i nwi '. i c-\ ~v\6 brv-^collv c. c r i r-e a cr o s s - s e c t i o n of thv> Mount i-i s a I p o p u l a t i o n . f o r to >-y:- : .A ; :•: 1 for organ; nation d e t a i l s and to Appendix 11 f o r l i s ' , o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The wall; was routed so as to permit the p a r t i c i p a n t s to experience and attempt to•understand such items as: housing - v a r i e t y of type,--2-202 age and c o n d i t i o n ; commercial area-, and as s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e r . ; s t r e e t scenes; f a c i l i t i e s - porks, s c h o o l s , chruches, b o y s / g i r l s c l u b s , vacant proportios/open space, e t c . ; view c o r r i d o r s to the north and east; a r c h i t e c t u r e - o l d and new; examples of vandalism and crime; s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l happening...; - eg., tea at the S i k h Temple; t r a f f i c , n o i s e , zoning, a b i r d ' s eye view of Mount P l e a s a n t ; and more. Please r e f e r to Appendix 111 f o r route d e t a i l s and a map. Upon completion of the walk a luncheon and d i s c u s s i o n session were hold at the Canadian Legion Mining H a l l , 117 Hast Broadway. A f t e r lunch, walk p a r t i c i p a n t s d i v i d e d i n t o subgroups t o d i s c u s s t h e day's events and f o l l o w i n g t h a t regrouped to open session t o summarize t h e i r concerns and recommendations f o r change. The f o l l o w i n g i s a c o l l e c t i o n of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s as recorded by Don S i n c l a i r , Ernst S n i j d e r s and M i t c h T a y l o r . General Comments: -Walk p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n general agreement t h a t i n Mount P l e a s a n t we have a community of h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t , lower income people crowded onto a small land area w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s t o adequately, meet t h e i r needs, ( i f one excludes t h e land occupied by l i g h t i n d u s t r y Mount Pl e a s a n t has a much higher p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y than most o t h e r Vancouver neighbourhoods). A l s o , current development t r e n d s t h a t are o c c u r r i n g north of Broadway tend t o agorevate an alr e a d y acute s i t u a t i o n . ( T his comment r e f e r s to apartment b u i l d i n g s t h a t house f a m i l i e s but do not contai n any c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a s ) . -At present i n Mount P l e a s a n t , as i n most other inner c i t y neighbourhoods, o v e r b u i l d i n g i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h l i t t l e o r no forethought about f u t u r e consequences. -The walk brought t o g e t h e r members of the community w i t h each other and w i t h members of d e c i s i o n making bodies a f f e c t i o n the community ( P l a n n i n g , P o l i c e , Resources Ed., etc . ) to openly and i n f o r m a l l y examine and comment upon v a r i o u s aspects o f Mount P l e a s a n t . Because many of the walk p a r t i c i p a n t s are, o r w i l l be, i n v o l v e d i n shaping Mount P l e a s a n t ' s f u t u r e , the e x t r a l i t t l e b i t c f knowledge gained today should help make the f u t u r e that much b e t t e r . -Mount Plea s a n t i s a f o r g o t t e n community. Over the l a s t AO years many of Mount P l e a s a n t ' s t a x d o l l a r s t h a t should have been re t u r n e d t o the community'have been d i r e c t e d elsewhere. -Mount Pleasant c o n t a i n s a vast amount of untapped s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l resources t h a t could be harnes ;,-d i f the key can be c--. ..unity HK.:,t Mount Pl e a s a n t resident::, -..o not t o t e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n their community. Many regard i t as a "pr o v i n g ground" before moving on to greener pasture. A l s o , numerous f a c i l i t i e s such as some churches and schools are g r o s s l y under-u t i l i z e d a f t e r - r e g u l a r hours, '.'/aIk p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t o help c o r r e c t the above c o - q r o'. 1 p. a to c i co mm if: •. c n t from v a r i o u s government agencies i s needed so as t o help r e s t o r e self-esteem t o Mount 203 -3- . Pleasant.' Mount Pleasant Team Policing, Resources Bd., and N.I,P. are positive steps in this direction. -The walk was considered as fun and worthwhile revealing many hitherto unknown qualities to the participants. In particular, everyone seemed grateful for the warm hearted reception extended by the Sikh community during tea break. Specific Concerns and Recommendations, for Change• -Participants were extremely distressed by the lack of children's playarea's, useable open space,, and adequate storage f a c i l i t i e s • " i n new apartment development. It was generally agreed that i t was important to maintain a solid stock of family oriented housing throughout all parts of Mount Pleasant. As such, i t was recommended that the City and developers undertake to rectify above noted inadequacies. • -Parks development i s a high priority item. Useable f a c i l i t i e s and effective open-structured programs (such as Kivan and Kimount) are essential in order to channel the area's youth into construc-tive a c t i v i t i e s . In the long run such financial outlays w i l l be mora than offset by savings in social costs. -2 forms of street improvements are needed: a) Aesthetic •- curbing, paving and boulevard trees are deemed advisable. On behalf of several local clubs some walk participants indicated a willingness to i n s t a l l wooden curb's (ex-railroad ties) and plant trees for nominal cost" fund raising projects - i f the materials cau be arranged. b) T r a f f i c - pedestrians should take preferance over • vehicles. 12th Avenue was identified as a case in point. It is v i r t u a l l y impossible for a pedestrian to safely cross 12th Ave. at certain hours at particular crosswalks (ie., outside Kivan Boys/Girls Club.) VJalk participants f e l t that in as much as Highway No. 1 signs, were recently erected that special 30 r'iph signs should also be installed so as to emphasize to motorists that 12th Avenue is a residential street in addition to serving as part of the Trans Canada Highwayl! -Junked cars and half renovated homes should be removed or remedied at owners' expense -A new home for Kivan Boys/Girls Club i s needed to replace the -The flat roofs of industrial plant should be opened for recreational use; eg., tennis, .beer, gardens, chess, etc. -Additional community meeting f a c i l i t i e s are needed, in Mount Pleasant. Presently undo rut i l . i zed churches would be adequate i f the congregations would agree and i f operating costs could be secured. 204 ...|--V.'alk participants felt that existing shopping f a c i l i t i e s were generally adequate and well, located though not necessarily of good design. (Kingsgate Mall's inward-looking design received critical-comment). -Strong community s p i r i t i s needed in Mount Pleasant. Develop-ments and happenings such as Sunnymoon Park ([ith and Carolina) whereby local residents come together to improve their community are successful means to achieve the above. -The high level of ethnicity in Mount Pleasant i s viewed as a valuable asset to the community and mingling of different ethnic backgrounds (such as happened during the Habitat walk) are valuable to good relations and understanding among neighbours. In summary, the walk participants were in general agreement that the Habitat walk was an enjoyable and worthwhile e xpox*icnce» The information, concerns, and suggestions brought to light by the wall: participants w i l l be incorporated into the City Planning Department's growing knowledge base on Mount Pleasant. Also, items that s p e c i f i c a l l y relate to the Neighbourhood Improvement Program (N.I .P.) located in the southeast quadrant of Mount Pleasant w i l l bo fed into the Departments N.I .P. data base. Appendix IV i s a copy of the "Walkers Kit" that was distributed to each participant. Mitch Taylor^ Mojint Pleasant Planning Assistant MT/rn 205 THIS SUNDAY T H R O G H N E W E> ^ Is West Point Grey a perfect Three orientation se^ area-or can it b e improved here walk will get you off on the ,._ and there? with the blstory of Point Grey in s».^  " features and facilities b Y Vancouver Historical Insights. '^ourhood being put Polaroids provided so groups can do ? camera inventory of what they see (or why not bring your own?). Hand-out maps a\\o\N you to set your J w e own walking tour—or bring your hikes to see ibal mucb more. Some buses also available. •^e to Our La6y of Perpetual Help ^ 5 0 Camosun St. It's this Orientation at p.m.—as you ^^hool V *; « 0 * \ 206 HABITAT-WEST POINT GREY NEIGHBOURHOOD WALK SUNDAY, APRIL 25, 1976 - 11.30 am - 5.00 pm PURPOSE; To explore and assess existing community resources and assets and to suggest new and al t e r n a t i v e uses for them, where appropriate; to heighten awareness among c i t i z e n s of improvements to th e i r community which they can i n i t i a t e themselves to stress that HABITAT i s a beginning of a global search for solutions to the problems of human settlements, or how and where people l i v e . DATE AND TIME: Sunday, A p r i l 25, 1976, from Our Lady of Perpetual Help School, 2550 Camosun Street. Participants may come at 11.30 a.m., 12.30 p.m. or 1.15 p.m. for pre-walk brie f i n g s and depart in small groups. There w i l l be no guides. Each group w i l l be loaned a Point Grey map and a Polaroid camera to take up to eight pictures along i t s route. A c t i v i t i e s w i l l end by 5 p.m. PARTICIPANTS; Open to a l l Point Grey residents, including children. Organizers hope for a large turnout of families with bicycles who can cover a large area i n a short time. Residents from other c i t y sections are also welcome. ROUTE: There i s no prescribed route - but area to be covered i s bounded by Alma, 16th Avenue, Blanca, to residen-t i a l northeast section of University Endowment Lands and North West Marine Drive, EXCLUDING a l l govern-ment properties, HABITAT FORUM s i t e and Jericho Beach park. Walkers and bikers (car r i d i n g i s also permitted) should take pictures of points of p a r t i -cular community i n t e r e s t , such as s i t e s and buildings that might be put to new or al t e r n a t i v e uses. POST WALK SESSION: Participants may return to school with camera and pictures at any time. They w i l l trace and mark the i r route on a huge a e r i a l map of Point Grey, report on the i r impressions and use pictures for "design-in", a f r e e s t y l e graphic inventory of community assets. Animators w i l l record the impressions of the par-t i c i p a n t s . Musicians w i l l be on hand. Light refreshments w i l l be av a i l a b l e . Senior c i -tizens not firm of foot and p h y s i c a l l y handicapped may take a tour of the area i n Airporter buses sp e c i a l l y chartered for the event, which w i l l depart from the school every half hour afte r 12 noon. SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS: FOR INFORMATION: Pat Carney: Rick Scobie: NEIGHBOURHOOD INVENTORY CHECK LIST 207 Canada has more community resources than most of the 140 countries which w i l l be represented at HABITAT: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements i n Vancouver May 31 - June .11. The challenge to Canadians i s to make greater use of our exis t i n g resources, rather than adding to them. HOW TO VIEW YOUR COMMUNITY West Point Grey i s a unique community within the larger Ci t y of Vancouver. When you are walking, biking or busing through the com-munity, ask yourself: —What do I enjoy about our community? What do I d i s l i k e ? —What do I wish to preserve? What would I l i k e to change? —How did our community emerge? Where i s i t going? —What resources do we have i n our community? What do we lack? What can we provide ourselves? —Who are my neighbours? WHAT TO LOOK FOR West Point Grey's resources include the beaches and poten t i a l park-lands bordering the area, the spectacular view of the mountains and the sea, i t s diverse population. Here i s a p a r t i a l l i s t to get you started on your inventory: PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS SWIMMING POOLS BICYCLE PATHS TREES OPEN/WASTED SPACE CHURCHES/CHURCH HALLS SCHOOLS COMMUNITY CENTRES DAY CARE CENTRES LIBRARIES STREETS/ROADS SHOPPING AREAS BUS SERVICE PARKING SPACES SINGLE FAMILY HOMES APARTMENTS FIRE HALLS OTHER BUILDINGS ... and anything else you perceive to be a community resource! Bring your ideas back to the "Design-In" at Our Lady of Perpetual Help School Gym. 208 VANCOUVER HISTORICAL INSIGHTS LIMITED 18 WATER STREET VANCOUVER B.C. V6B 1A4 SCENARIO FOR THE SLIDE PRESENTATION ON THE'DEVELOPMENT'OF POINT GREY The development o f Vancouve r ' s P o i n t Grey area d i f f e r e d markedly from t h a t o f o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l areas o f the c i t y . Because o f these d i f f e r e n c e s , P o i n t G r e y ' i s p r o b a b l y the o n l y area i n the c i t y wh ich has remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e i t s f i n e homes were c o n s t r u c t e d . O r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f the 5,000 ac re l and g ran t g i v e n the C . P . R . by the P r o v i n c i a l Government, the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t Grey ceded from South Vancouver i n 1908. The midd le - income groups who s e t t l e d P o i n t Grey searched f o r q u a l i t y urban envi ronments and d i d not want to be c o n t r o l l e d by the by- laws i n Vancouver , by - l aws wh ich were much lower i n s t andard than the e l i t e P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e d . Throughout Vancouve r ' s h i s t o r y , r e s i d e n t i a l development tended to f o l l o w the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r - u r b a n and s t r e e t c a r r o u t e s . The o r i g i n a l s t r e e t c a r l i n e went from the West End to S t r a thcona and these areas were developed i n the 1 8 9 0 ' s . When the s t r e e t c a r l i n e was extended ac ros s F a l s e Creek to 16th Avenue ( the sou thern l i m i t o f V a n c o u v e r ) , a reas such as Mount P l e a s a n t , F a i r v i e w , and l a t e r Shaughnessey were b u i l t up. From 1910 u n t i l the 1 9 3 0 ' s , p a r c e l s o f l a n d i n Eas t Vancouver and South Vancouver and s u b d i v i s i o n s i n K i t s i l a n o and P o i n t Grey were deve loped . A g a i n , the develppment f o l l o w e d the e x t e n s i o n o f the s t r e e t c a r and i n t e r u r b a n r o u t e s . U n l i k e the e a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l development and t ha t o f Eas t and South V a n c o u v e r , P o i n t Grey was deve loped s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was g iven to neighbourhood a m e n i t i e s . S t r e e t s were paved and t r e e d , s i d e w a l k s were c o n s t r u c t e d , u t i l i t y l i n e s were l o c a t e d a long back l a n e s , and ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t i n g was i n s t a l l e d . Hoines i n each s u b d i v i s i o n o f P o i n t Grey were des igned to complement one another i n both a r c h i t e c t u r e and p o s i t i o n on the p r o p e r t y . Each s u b d i v i s o n had i t s d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r . When P o i n t Grey amalgamated w i t h Vancouver i n 1929, i t gave up c o n t r o l o f i t s 1 1 b y - l a w s . By t h i s t i m e , however, development was more o r l e s s comple te . Andw w h i l e r e s i d e n t i a l areas c l o s e to downtown and i n Eas t and South Vancouver have changed d r a m a t i c a l l y from the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h igh r i s e s and apa r tmen t s , the P o i n t Grey area has remained v i r t u a l l y i n t a c t . What the f u t u r e ho lds w i l l depend upon the i n v o l v e r i e n t o f P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r community. ****** To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s t o r y o f P o i n t G r e y , I would suggest u s i n g s l i d e s wh ich would b r i e f l y t r a c e the development o f the o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , f o l l o w e d by s l i d e s o f the i n t e r u r b a n l i n e s . E a r l y sho ts o f P o i n t Grey s u b d i v i s i o n s c o u l d then be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the unplanned , haphazard development i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the c i t y . The unique c h a r a c t e r o f P o i n t Grey would become o b v i o u s . _ . ^ West Po in t Grey i s l o c a t e d i n the most nor th-western corner o f Vancouver. I t i s bounded by the b e a u t i f u l beaches o f Spanish Banks on the nor th and the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment lands to the south and west . A major Park de-velopment i s now underway adjacent t o the Water f ront a t J e r i c h o . Over 70% o f West P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s have e t h n i c o r i g i n s i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Over 38% have gone to U n i v e r s i t y compared to 17% i n the C i t y . Over 30% of the l abour fo rce i s i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t each ing /med ica l c a t e g o r i e s . Incomes are h igher than i n the c i t y as a whole . Many houses were b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1900's when the area was f i r s t popula ted . Many homes a f f o r d b e a u t i f u l views o f E n g l i s h Bay because of the h i l l y nature o f the a rea . C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department I]"] A p r i l , 1975 . . ; : > LOCAL AREA : WEST POINT GREY 2. 3 . 1971 S T A T I S T I C S P O P U L A T I O N AREA 11,865 100% 1.4 square miles 896 acres DENS ITY 13.24 persons/acre SEX - M a l e I c.Miici I e 5,605 6,265 47.2% 52.8 AGE 0 15 20 65 14 19 34 'J4 64 O v e r 2,400 1,125 2,720 2,765 1,315 1,550 20.2% 9.5 22.9 23.3 11.1 13.0 M A R I T A L STATUS S i ng I e M a r r i e d O t h e r 5,370 5,270 1,225 44.4 10.3 F A M I L I E S ( T o t a l ) 1 p a r e n t f ami I i e s 2 p a r c u l f ami I i e s Numbe r o f C h i l d r e n ( 0 - 2 4 ) L i v i n g a l home None One Two t h r e e f o u r i A v e r a g e Numbe r o f c h i l d r e n 0 - 2 4 i n f ami I i e s 2.940 340 2,600 1,210 560 580 330 255 2.25 HOUSEHOLDS ( T o t a l ) T e m a I e H e a d M a l e H e a d 3,955 1,025 2,930 100% 11.6% 88.4 41.2% 19. 19, 11. 8, 100% 25.9% 74.1 DWELL INGS ( T o t a l ) 1 e n u r e : Owned Ren l e d 3,945 2,625 1,320 T y p e : S i n g l e d e t a c h e d A p a r t m e n t A l l o t h e r 2,980 795 170 100% 66.5% 33.5 75.5% 20.2 4.3 112 211 f OWE 1.1 INGS ( c o n t ' d ) Length of R e s i d e n c e : j Les s than I y e a r 710 18.0% j I - 2 y e a r s 575 14.5 | 3 - 5 y e a r s 595 15.1 • o - IO y e a r s 590 15.0 Oyer IO y e a r s 1,475 37.4 Ave rage p e r s o n s p e r room: .49 T. i n g l e d e l ached 49 j Apa r tmen t 52 i Al1 o t h e r • 54 T e n a n t - O c c u p i e d Cash R e n t : 1,305 100% Loss t han $ 5 0 35 2.6% $50 - $74 55 " 4.2 ! W5 - $99 80 6.1 j $100 - $174 185 14.1 $125 - $149 280 21.4 1150 - $ 1 74 320 24.2 $175 - $199 155 11.8 $200 - $224 50 3.8 $275 - $249 50 3.8 $250 K o v e r 105 j Owner -Occup i od V a l u e 2,625 100% | 1 <><v\ than $ 17499 15 .5% 112500 - $174 99 55 2.1 1 117500 - $22499 • • 210 8.0 $72500 - $27499 425 16.1 $2 7500 - $32499 555 21.1 $52500 - $37499 410 15.4 $37500 - $42499 .325 12.3 $42500 - $52499 360 13.7 $52500 - $62499 125 4.7 $62500 o r more 160 6.1 IO. Ml 1MBf:R Or INTERMUNICIPAL MOVES 11,165 100% OF POPULA1ION Mo moves in pa s t 5 y e a r s 8,675 77.7% Moved once in p a s t 5 y e a r s . 1,235 11.0 2 moves in pa s t 5 year ' s 605 5.4 7i r r i o v n s j n pns l ' 5 y e a r s 325 2.9 4 moves in pant 5 y e a r s 155 1.4 5 o r more moves in p a s t 5 y e a r s 175 1.6 11. P1MN1 f: GROUPS (By E t h n i c O r i g i n ) 11,885 100% Mr It i sh 1s1es 8,405 70.7 j 1 r enoh 305 2.6 V German 540 4.5 j con I ' d 113 212 f ETHNIC GROUPS (cont 'd) ItaI i an 120 1.0% j CMi nese 440 3.7 I n<Jo-Pak i sf on i 80 .7 l J apanese 40 . 3 Crook 95 .8 Ne I her I ands 160 1.4 | Scand i nav i an 385 3.2 i Portuguese or Spanish 90 .8 1 fast European 630 5.3 i i Other and not" stated 590 5.0 i I ?.. PERCENTAGE WITH ENGLISH AS R7 — i t MOTHER TONGUE o / I 3 . SCHOOLING 9,465 100% None 45 .5% Kindergarten - Grade 6 185 2.0 Grades 7 - 9 980 10 .3 Grades IO - 13 4,535 4 7 . 9 I - 2 years Un ivers i ty 1,020 10.8 3 or more years Un ivers i ty 2,700 28.5 M . LABOUR FORCE 5,750 100% Unemp I oymen t" 8.26% Percentage ot Labour Force - Mole" 3,380 58.8% - female 2,370 41 .2 I b. EXPERIENCED LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPAT1 ON 5,295 100% Manager i a I 365 6.9% Profess ional 700 13.2 Teachi ng/Medical 925 17.5 CI or- i cn I 1,140 21.5 S .i I os 755 14 .3 Serv ice 595 11 .2 Pr i many 80 1.5 Processing 330 6.2 Con', 1 rue 1 i on 145 2.7 1r nusporla t ion 185 3.4 Other 80 1.6 i r,. IXPIpnNcrn LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRY 5,300 100% Resources 125 2.4% M.HIIIf nr t ur i ng 595 11.2 H I ! . 1 1 uc 1 i on 135 2.6 transportat ion & U t i l i t i e s 420 7.9 1 ra.lo 820 15.5 F i n a n c e , I n s u r a n c e & R e a l E s t a t e 340 6.4 Community B u s i n e s s & P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e 2,450 46.2 1 ,i "V.'M l . f l l C I I 1 410 7.8 i 1 114 r I 7. I MCfiMK 3,945 100% T o t a l w i t h Income No income Under $4000 $4000 - !6 ')9Q $7000 - $9999 $10000 - $12099 $ i 3000 - $ I 3909 $16000 o r more 1,040 10 585 580 615 620 495 14.8 14.7 15.6 15.7 12.5 26.4 . 3% \ • '*, - Source: 1971 Census Data Definitions: 1. Family: Consists of a husband and wife with or without children who have never been married, regardless of age, or a parent with one or more children never married, l i v i n g i n the same dwelling. A family may also consist of a man or woman living with a guardianship child or a ward under 21 years for whom no pay was received. 2. Household: A person cr group-of persons occupying one dwelling 3. Dwelling: Refers to a structurally separate set of li v i n g quarters with a private entrance from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. Dwellings under construction are not included. There are private and collective dwellings, but data on housing were collected for private dwellings only. 4. Number of inter-municipal moves of population: This refers to persons 5 years and over. • Note: A l l numbers have been random rounded so as not to single Out any i n d i v i d u a l . Differences i n population t o t a l s i n d i f f e r e n t categories r e s u l t i n part from random rounding. 5. S c h o o l i n g : T h i s r e f e r s to persons 15 years and ove r . 6. Labour force: This refers to persons 15 years and over. 115 /-/ A «3' T ^ "7" w i s t - (^o. <^Jr~ CSK t < - - » ^ ~ - A . •> ^~ Name A d r i r e s : ..... J h I. J r / ••' v . - ' ... / Name d c ^ ^ & d r ^ y t Address c A 7/ • ' U c ; /•/. A / / / I - 7 ----- -. /A- , ' • r l A ,7 A - 7 A . / . . . AL (/I I J V (/ A / - • • i . y ir / f / A 4 G G ^ L O 12-A. O J - ( 4,p.cA/ A L, L r y-T VJ AI . /7_ liame Address . ft V i W , ..^x?.<..xx,- // /W->rxx 'j c fyi x? O y / x x v K. / . . i ^-c,rl ,;x-x/U. 0 / L?~r-Z,C<-Ct '^i/t-' K x y K ^ K U x , i ^ e x ^ / < C/C rf U) f<L ;-/v.c. \Mo^x.,u . J.). X 4> -X -xxx — 3 ^ 2 •^•Xtx-ci rx. Lunsz-C C-9 l M 1 ('• /{'! . < <f Li X X x * - ? ^ ; /v . (£.£y>r-g. / i X x « ^  t I/) ufc/v •CC .•X-Xc-^  f : • f x r' / r. '1 IP , ) ! • -f x ^ v < x •• • / Ky Oni<i.X^:/X Xy Ma x - ? X) , .ui/} x <j' io . / 6) ' cU-<. 3 c Kl. K( X •; <HK IK a). ;</ K- X}+ i,x> . . ' X - ' -7/.ci- •i x ? 6 ,, •; iV •• X V o yJ i.,X c.'. K 217 N a m e • Address .e.-~\A i-v-^ : A rxcCp 4;XX XX-X^  fee . i; A A> r b J - ( A> ..G^X f -1 try.^ id-' A I " p '. •>AvK,kAcr >'Ap p sA . H( O A v / i-i «• ^ ( . - / . ' t At vv !A .. f . ' " ; , /TV-, >'1-~-vr"' j X. XA'AX/I- V '<j. 1 / Z f f J K w J . . 0 l 4 - / X . j V X ) p . / / - 7 A ,"X£ j/X^/X/o r : A C(Ti W S 4$: LH kti/fij^if, .fa. A 8 7 r<' t/J . -/a9- A-J //-'^  ^ •x - -\ x V 19 : ; A A a ) x7 / , X_..-"rf---»_-<L.---L---C_^A--" X W Atl/L/C/'Ji-/ A ^ i c *. X t r ' ^  A Ac' A ^ - /^ / 55/3 |,4s^ /^  fen£o^r]B.C, |M:x?-^ r'3 x^x ,A. >^^X > j 7 ^ • J ' ? " l - t A A x ix V/ <4,x> •.^4. v A > f 5 ' P i 

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