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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social communications in planning Carney, Pat 1977

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SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS IN PLANNING by Patricia  Carney  B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1960  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the School o f Community and Regional P l a n n i n g University of B r i t i s h  We accept t h i s  Columbia  t h e s i s as conforming to  the r e q u i r e d  standard  May 1977 (c) P a t r i c i a Carney 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  available for  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  It  copying o f t h i s  thesis  i s understood that copying or  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  that  r e f e r e n c e and study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to e x p l o r e the r o l e of communications i n p l a n n i n g and to suggest  the design  specific-  a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which w i l l enable p l a n n e r s an " i n f o r m a t i o n ecology"  to cope with the demands o f  (Nanus, 19 72, p.398) o r environment  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s i n g flows of i n f o r m a t i o n and of i n f o r m a t i o n systems.  complexity  In such an environment, there i s a  need to p r o v i d e f o r an element of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the planning process.  The  overall  use of i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i s  d e s c r i b e d as " s o c i a l communications", which we  have d e f i n e d  as "the use o f information/communications systems t o p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s normally  achieve  i n c o r p o r a t i n g an element of  s o c i a l change". Our  t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s based on the concept  the s o c i e t a l f o r c e s behind ecology may society  be f i r s t ,  ( B e l l , 1973)  the ^evolution of an  that  information  the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l i n which i n f o r m a t i o n , or knowledge, becomes  a major resource; and second, the r i s i n g demands o f to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making such d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t them.  citizens  p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when  In d e s i g n i n g our s o c i a l  c a t i o n s d e l i v e r y system, t h e r e f o r e , we  communi-  have attempted to  i n c o r p o r a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s as one mode of communication.  iii.  The s t u d y r e v i e w s t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d of p l a n n i n g t h e o r y , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communications. I t describes the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t r a d i t i o n a l communications modes, and p r e s e n t s a case s t u d y i n which a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program was used as a s o c i a l communications mode. F i n a l l y , i t p r e s e n t s models f o r "one-way" and "two-way" communications  systems f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c  social  participation  i n a s o c i a l communications program, and f o r a s o c i a l  communications  d e l i v e r y system w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l l t h r e e e l e m e n t s , e.g. b o t h "one-way" and "two-way" channels and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r may u t i l i z e a s o c i a l communication system i f he has a need t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s and a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l need to o b t a i n r e s p o n s e , o r feedback, from h i s t a r g e t groups. i s l i k e l y t o be t h e case i f he i s p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n . a l s o concludes the planner's success i n u t i l i z i n g communications his  This It  social  i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l depend l a r g e l y on  s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  mode o f communication.  Other e s s e n t i a l elements a r e t h e  s e l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t u n i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e d e s i g n o f an e f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r y  system.  The s t u d y i s based m a i n l y on a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission and r e l a t e d a g e n c i e s .  The s t u d y  iv. a l s o draws on the p r o f e s s i o n a l work o f the author when she served as A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , Information,  Canadian  H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t , on the o c c a s i o n o f the s t a g i n g i n Vancouver o f HABITAT: U n i t e d Nations Settlements, May 31 - June 11, 1976.  Conference  on Human  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  v  L i s t o f Tables and F i g u r e s  viii  Acknowledgement  ix  CHAPTER ONE: THE CHALLENGE 1.1  INTRODUCTION  1.2  RATIONALE .  1.3  DEFINITIONS  1.4  OBJECTIVES  1.5  SCOPE  1.6  METHODOLOGY  1.7  ORGANIZATION  .  . .  1 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1  .  .  .  .  .  .  3  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  7  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  8  .  .  .  .  .  .  9  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  10  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  10  .  CHAPTER TWO: THE CONCEPTS 2.1  INTRODUCTION  2.2  THE PLANNING PROCESS  .  .  .  .  .  15  2.3  THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATIONS  .  .  .  .  27  T h e o r e t i c a l Approaches t o Communications A d d i t i o n a l T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts . . S o c i a l Communications C r i t e r i a . .  . .  2.4  .  13 .  .  .  .  THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION  .  .  13  .  27 37 45  .  .  .  48  C o n s t r a i n t s on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Communications and P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Public Participation C r i t e r i a . .  . .  . .  59 63 66  .  .  CHAPTER THREE: COMMUNICATIONS MODES 3.1  INTRODUCTION  .  .  3.2  COMMUNICATIONS MODES  .  70 .  .  . .  . .  Face-to-Face . . . . . Telephone . . . . . . B r o a d c a s t i n g Systems . . . Cable T e l e v i s i o n . . . . D i g i t a l Information Relay Systems . Satellites . . . . . Print . . . . . . .  . .  . . . .  70 .  . .  .  .  . .  .  71  . . .  73 73 75 80 88 97 98  vi Table o f Contents (cont.) 3.2  3.3  ~ Page  Cont. Video-tape and F i l m . . . . . Media Access Groups . . . . Community Information Centres . .  . . .  . . .  102 108 108  SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODES  .  .  109  .  .  CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY (HABITAT)  114  4.1  INTRODUCTION  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  114  4.2  BACKGROUND  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  115  Goals and O b j e c t i v e s , Scope and Timing . . Methodology . . . 4.3  4.4  MODES OF COMMUNICATION  . .  .  . . .  .  . . .  .  .  116 119 121  .  122  .  . . .  Face-to-Face (Volunteer Speakers Bureau). Telephone System . . . . . . Broadcast Systems . . . . . . Cable T e l e v i s i o n . . . . . . Computers and S a t e l l i t e s . . . . Video-tape and A u d i o - v i s u a l . . . Print . . . . . . . . . Community Information Centres . . . P a r t i c i p a t i o n Modes o f Communicationq .  . .  122 125 126 127 12 8 12 9 130 132 133  NEIGHBOURHOOD WALKS PROGRAM HABITAT HABITAT HABITAT HABITAT HABITAT  4.5  .  . .  .  .  .  .  134  Mount P l e a s a n t Walk . West P o i n t Grey Walk . West End Walk . . C y c l e Event . . . U.E.L. F o r e s t Walk .  . . .  . . .  . . .  137 140 142 144!. 145  PROGRAM EVALUATION  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  146  CHAPTER FIVE: A SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS DELIVERY SYSTEM  154  5.1  INTRODUCTION  154  5.2  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  5.3  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODEL  .  .  .  .  163  5.4  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION MODEL  .  .  .  .  166  5.5  PARTICIPATION COMMUNICATION MODEL  .  Fogo I s l a n d ( R e c y c l i n g Model) H a b i t a t Walks (Ripple Model)  . .  . .  .  . . .  .  . . .  15 6  172 172 176  vii Table o f Contents (cont.)  Page  5.6  DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS .  5.7  SUMMARY  .  .  .  F u r t h e r Research  .  .  . .  . .  .  178  .  181  .  .  .  .  .  .  182  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  183  APPENDIX  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  190  viii  LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES TABLES  Page  TABLE I. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION MODES  .  .  .  .  I l l  FIGURES FIGURE 1.  MEIER'S MODEL OF COMMUNICATIONS FLOW  FIGURE 2.  EIGHT RUNGS ON THE LADDER OF PARTICIPATION by Sherry Ri A r n s t e i n  .  .  .  .  30  .  .  .  60  FIGURE 3.  SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - ONE-WAY  .  .  .  164  FIGURE 4.  SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - TWO-WAY  .  .  .  16 5  FIGURE 5.  NINE LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION  .  .  .  168  FIGURE 6.  DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION  .  .  .  170  FIGURE 7.  FOGO ISLAND MODEL (RECYCLING MODEL)  .  .  174  FIGURE 8.  HABITAT WALKS  .  .  .  176  FIGURE 9.  DELIVERY OF INFORMATION FLOWS  .  .  .  178  .  (RIPPLE MODEL)  IX  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The  author wishes  Dr.  John  in  Collins  t o thank f o rtheir  the preparation  of this  Dr. M i c h a e l S e e l i g assistance thesis.  and  a n d comments  CHAPTER ONE THE  1.1  CHALLENGE  INTRODUCTION There i s a conceptual undercurrent  running  through  the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e which views i n f o r m a t i o n as both a source  and a means o f energy, o r power.  and B e l l The  Both Meier  (1962)  (1973) view i n f o r m a t i o n as an energy flow o r system.  impact o f i n f o r m a t i o n as energy i s deemed by s e v e r a l  w r i t e r s t o a f f e c t both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l aspects o f human s e t t l e m e n t s . Kalba  (1973) expresses  the p r e v a i l i n g viewpoint when  he argues t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s and systems w i l l have as s i g n i f i c a n t an impact on the shape and a c t i v i t i e s o f f u t u r e communities as the automobile has had on e x i s t i n g settlement patterns. the concept  Sackman and Boehm (19 72) have e x p l o r e d  o f the i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y , which w i l l  link  communities o f t h e f u t u r e by means o f computers, v i d e o r e c o r d e r s and o t h e r communications technology  i n t o a wired  world.  communications  Wise  (1971) suggests  can both expand people's  that e l e c t r o n i c  awareness o f t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and  d i f f e r e n c e s , and thus b r i n g them c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , and i s o l a t e them by e n c l o s i n g many s o c i a l and c u t l u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the home.  2. Nanus argues t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s as important human c o n d i t i o n as water or energy and of  a community may  be r e - o r g a n i z e d around a new  ecology" (1972, p . 398) residents. of  suggests  with profound  impacts on  t h a t the  Nanus p o i n t s out "...  life  "information community  Comparing the impact o f i n f o r m a t i o n with  the automobile,  that  the automobile  the s k y s c r a p e r reshaped the c i t y but i n the process absorbing  to the  and  of  these changes the c i t y i n t u r n reshaped the  life-  s t y l e s , i n t e r e s t s and values of i t s r e s i d e n t s " (1972, p „ 3 7 5 ) . Despite  t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t , most urban  planners  have i g n o r e d the r o l e o f communications or i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g , a p p a r e n t l y - i f the absence o f d e f i n i t i v e a n a l y s i s in  the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e i s taken  p l a n n i n g techniques infancy.  One  as an index - because  i n t h i s f i e l d appear to be i n t h e i r  popular viewpoint,  heard  repeatedly i n p r i v a t e  d i s c u s s i o n s with p l a n n e r s , i s t h a t the b e s t way  to convey  i n f o r m a t i o n about a p l a n i s to "leak i t to the p r e s s " . Yet the emerging importance of i n f o r m a t i o n systems i n f o r m a t i o n flows w i t h i n the planner's r a i s e s a number of i n t r i g u i n g  and  sphere of o p e r a t i o n  questions:  1.  What c o n s t i t u t e s " i n f o r m a t i o n " or i n f o r m a t i o n systems?  2.  Why  i s the impact of i n f o r m a t i o n systems and  communities and the people who so  important?  flows  on  l i v e i n them becoming  3. 3.  What developments i n p l a n n i n g theory take i n t o account the emerging importance of i n f o r m a t i o n systems  and  flows? 4.  How  can planners  accommodate i n f o r m a t i o n systems  flows i n the p l a n n i n g 5.  Can  and  process?  e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g techniques,  such as p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , be u t i l i z e d as a mode or method of i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n systems and o v e r a l l planning 6.  flows i n t o  the  process?  What new  techniques  planners  to cope with the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e of i n f o r m a t i o n  flows, and  might be evolved which w i l l  complexity  In t h i s study, we  enable  of i n f o r m a t i o n systems?  have chosen to e x p l o r e the p o t e n t i a l  r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communications, s i n c e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e people, communication between people was communication  (Meier, 1962).  and  face-to-face  the e a r l i e s t form of  The  l i n k a g e between people  and  communication g i v e s us a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n our search f o r techniques  and s t r a t e g i e s to enable  the planner  c h a l l e n g e posed by the impact of the i n f o r m a t i o n  to face the ecology  d e s c r i b e d by Nanus (19 72).  1.2  RATIONALE I f i n f o r m a t i o n i s indeed a source  we  and means of power,  contend t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n systems can be designed  c a r e f u l l y as o t h e r energy systems.  Drucker  as  (1969) d e f i n e s  4.  e n g i n e e r i n g as the " c o d i f i c a t i o n of the r i g h t way task"  (1968, p.270).  develop  I f we  to do a  accept t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , we  the f o l l o w i n g analogy  between i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n i n g  and p i p e l i n e p l a n n i n g , which a l s o i n v o l v e s energy In s e l e c t i n g the right-of-way,  o r ROW,  flows.  the p i p e l i n e  engineer must choose the most e f f i c i e n t route, w i t h i n c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by the t e r r a i n , the technology system and the s o c i a l , economic and environmental his  project.  his  system through the human landscape  enables  him  can  the  of h i s impact of  S i m i l a r l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n planner must route i n a manner which  to reach h i s t a r g e t o r market, i n the most c o s t -  e f f e c t i v e manner and with a minimum of i n t e r f e r e n c e from external  sources.  In h i s p l a n n i n g , the p i p e l i n e engineer must account f o r both the c o n s t r u c t i o n impact o f h i s p r o j e c t and i t s o p e r a t i o n s phase, when h i s a t t e n t i o n s h i f t s from the u t i l i t y t r a n s m i s s i o n of energy f l o w i n g through i t .  to the  In t u r n , the  i n f o r m a t i o n planner must view h i s communications system as a conduit or a u t i l i t y , which t r a n s m i t s messages or t r a n s a c t i o n s . Each component has  d i f f e r e n t planning implications.  The p i p e l i n e engineer  takes i n t o account the s i z e  and  s t r e n g t h o f the p i p e used to c o n s t r u c t h i s l i n e , to ensure t h a t i t can w i t h s t a n d it.  The  the pressure o f energy f u n n e l l e d through  i n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r must design h i s system w i t h i n  c e r t a i n s t r e s s t o l e r a n c e s to ensure t h a t h i s messages are  5. transmitted a  from  point  of  origin  to  point  of  destination  in  c o n t r o l l e d manner. The  of and  p i p e l i n e planner  energy as  over  time,  markets  Similarly,  are  the  the  ability  and  should  as  of  his  target  upgrade  the  a  suggests  that  between  information  to the  main  energy his  line  to  by  In  installs  pumping  as and  an  community reception  energy  as  distribution  the  a  efficient into  of  his  source,  gauge  flow  (1962)  per  product,  cent  of  for of  and  instance,  a  quantity  even  that  time.  double He  or may  loop  of  markets  centres,  The  and  tap  constructs  pipeline  the  from  different  planner  repeater  line  laterals  pressure  energy;  to  main  communication  the  system  his  build  information  boost  flow  the  recipient,  markets.  stations to  the  carefully  increase  variety of  diverse  information  tools planner  in his  system  information stations,  facilitate  the  such  dissemination  messages.  the  flow  the  may  turn,  incorporates  Just his  service  maintain  planner  by  at  assimilate his  sixty  energy.  utilizing  to  and  throughput  destination.  Meier  service different  sources.  network  of  to  period.  thirty  of  his  stream  should  and  d i s s i p a t e d over  flow  designed  and  content  is retained  the  point  planner  p i p e l i n e planner  increase  the  increases come o n  groups  sustained  i s slowly The  at  information  over  amount  supplies  found  messages  of  slowly  at  pipeline planner the  systems,  may  i n t e r s e c t i o n of the  information  reduce the  the  main  planner  may  pressure  line  and  need  to  of local  6.  a l t e r t h e form and content o f h i s mainstream messages t o allow for regional or ethnic differences, levels of l i t e r a c y ,  local  concerns and the c a p a b i l i t y o f l o c a l d e l i v e r y systems. Both energy systems r e q u i r e m o n i t o r i n g  and feedback  devices t o ensure an o r d e r l y flow and t o i d e n t i f y trouble spots. an o v e r l o a d ;  Too much energy i n e i t h e r system can produce indeed,  the p r e o c c u p a t i o n  with  o v e r l o a d " i n the absence o f p r o p e r l y designed e v i d e n t i n the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . inadequate  potential  "information systems i s  The consequences o f  p l a n n i n g f o r both systems can be e x p l o s i v e ;  the  p o i n t has been made t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n system which i s open to m a n i p u l a t i o n ,  or which t r a n s m i t s b i a s e d messages aimed a t  g e n e r a t i n g d i s c o r d and d i s o r d e r can have as p o t e n t i a l l y damaging,an impact as a Candu r e a c t o r which has been from p e a c e f u l use i n t o a n u c l e a r bomb  (Axworthy, 1971).  Axworthy s t a t e s "... any l i n k i n the communication which purposely  o r otherwise  to an instantaneous  converted  withholds  system  information could lead  t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n c o r r e c t o r incomplete  i n f o r m a t i o n and i f c a r r i e d t o an extreme, a n u c l e a r  holocaust"  (1971, p. 3) . I f we assume t h a t the authors  noted  above are c o r r e c t  i n t h e i r assessment o f the impact o f i n f o r m a t i o n flows on human s e t t l e m e n t systems and a c t i v i t i e s , to develop  techniques which w i l l enable  there i s a c l e a r need planners t o i n c o r p o r a t e  an i n f o r m a t i o n element i n the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . use o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g may be d e s c r i b e d as s o c i a l communications.  The  7. 1.3  DEFINITIONS At t h i s p o i n t , some c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f terminology  be u s e f u l .  might  The term "communications" i s used i n a number  o f ways i n the l i t e r a t u r e , o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y terms " i n f o r m a t i o n " ,  "cybernetics"  with the  (or man-made communication),  "mass communication", "media", " i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t i e s " , e t c . Goldstein  (1974) p o i n t s out t h a t the term i n f o r m a t i o n  has been used more or l e s s synonymously with theory,  and t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n between  theory  communication  the two i s r a r e l y made.  He then goes on t o suggest d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each which are o f l i m i t e d use t o us;  communication theory,  f o r instance, i s  d e f i n e d i n h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d mathematic terms and theory  i s equated with c y b e r n e t i c s  (1974, p . 1 3 ) .  information Meier  a d r o i t l y evades the task by d i s m i s s i n g the meaning o f communication as " f a i r l y s e l f - e v i d e n t " (1962, p . 2 ) . borrowing l i b e r a l l y  By  from the l i t e r a t u r e and by j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g  words and meanings we have evolved  the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s  f o r the purposes o f t h i s work:  Information  i s d e f i n e d as knowledge, messages o r t r a n s a c t i o n s  which are t r a n s m i t t e d v i a an i n f o r m a t i o n o r communications system; Information  System i s d e f i n e d as a "sequence o f s t a t e s o f  an i n t e r a c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , each s t a t e being a f u n c t i o n of preceding  s t a t e s " (Meier,  1962, p.2)  i n which the  p o p u l a t i o n i s deemed t o be composed o f people, t e c h n i c a l components encompasses may  o r messages'''.  Since t h i s  definition  technology as w e l l as t r a n s a c t i o n s , the term  be used i n t e r c h a n g a b l y w i t h communications system;  8. Social  Communication  i s defined  communications normally Public  systems  t o be  to achieve  i n c o r p o r a t i n g an  Participation  the decision-making  to  some  degree,  as  the  process,  of  planning  element  i s defined  in  the use  of  information^ objectives  social  change;  involvement and  of decision-making  of  citizens  the  sharing,  i n the  planning  implies power  process.  These  definitions  will  be  refined  i n the body  of  the  study.  1.4  OBJECTIVES The  purpose  communications for  a  social  planners we  will  of this  thesis  i n planning  communication  and  to suggest  delivery  i n achieving planning suggest  participation  ways  i n which  strategies  i s to explore  goals  and  social  role  design  system which  planners  in a  the  the  specifications  will  aid  objectives.  may  of  Further,  incorporate public  communications  delivery  system. The  1.  To  study  review  objectives are  the planning  participation  2.  and  identify  those  planning  at the  To  d e s c r i b e how  used  i n a  set out  process  social  and  follows:  the  would  social  of  public  i n order  appear  to  relevant to  level;  public participation  specific  role  communications  elements which community  as  strategies  communications  case  were  study;  9. 3.  To d e s i g n the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which i n c o r p o r a t e s a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n element.  1.5  SCOPE In d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l communications, t h e r e i s a v e r y  r e a l danger o f b e i n g d i s t r a c t e d by t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f communications systems, as e x e m p l i f i e d by Rosen  (1976) w i t h  h i s f u t u r i s t i c v i s i o n s o f t e l e p u r c h a s i n g , t e l e p o l l i n g and even f l e x m a i l - a f a c s i m i l e system o f t r a n s m i t t i n g l e t t e r s . T h i s tendency i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . t h e s i s , however,  This  attempts t o c o n c e n t r a t e on i n f o r m a t i o n as a  p l a n n i n g t o o l , which w i l l become more i m p o r t a n t as the new communications "hardware" comes i n t o g e n e r a l use. There are a d d i t i o n a l s u b s t a n t i v e and s p a t i a l t o the scope o f the s t u d y .  limitations  I n r e g a r d t o the former, emphasis  has been p l a c e d where p o s s i b l e on the Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework n e c e s s a r i l y draws on a b r o a d e r base.  I n r e g a r d t o the l a t t e r , the case study  chosen e x p l o r e s p l a n n i n g i s s u e s a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  There  i s c l e a r l y a danger i n a t t e m p t i n g h o l i s t i c e x t r a p o l a t i o n s t o an i s s u e based on l o c a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h i s  limitation  must be taken i n t o account i n f o r m u l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p o l i c i e s .  10. 1.6  METHODOLOGY The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s study i n v o l v e d an e x t e n s i v e  l i t e r a t u r e review, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on p l a n n i n g theory, s o c i a l communications, and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The v a r i o u s  approaches t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n are w e l l documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e ;  the sparseness o f a n a l y t i c a l work i n the  f i e l d o f s o c i a l communications i s w i d e l y acknowledged. In p a r t i c u l a r , the resources u t i l i z e d i n c l u d e the l i b r a r y and r e s e a r c h s t a f f o f t h e Canadian R a d i o - T e l e v i s i o n Commission i n Ottawa, which proved t o be a most p r o d u c t i v e source o f material.  The case study was based  on the r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  program developed by the author f o r Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t , on the o c c a s i o n o f HABITAT, U n i t e d Nations Conference on Human Settlements, h e l d i n Vancouver May 31 t o June 11, 1976. In a d d i t i o n , numerous i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d out i n t h e f i e l d w i t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the media o r s o c i a l tions f i e l d .  communica-  T h i s aspect o f the r e s e a r c h program a l s o  i n v o l v e d viewing o f f i l m s and v i d e o - t a p e s . The reader w i l l note t h a t r e f e r e n c e s t o books and a r t i c l e s i n the t e x t f o l l o w the s t y l e adopted  by the J o u r n a l o f the  American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s .  1.7  ORGANIZATION T h i s study i s o r g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  Chapter One i n c l u d e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study and o u t l i n e s the r a t i o n a l e , o b j e c t i v e s , scope and the methodology u t i l i z e d .  11 Chapter Two p r e s e n t s  an o v e r v i e w o f r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l  approaches t o p l a n n i n g  and d i s c u s s e s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communication.  the r o l e of p u b l i c  C h a p t e r Three d e a l s  with  the t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f communication o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t t o p l a n n e r s and d i s c u s s e s  c u r r e n t t r e n d s and f u t u r e e x p e c t -  ations . Chapter Four r e v i e w s t h e case s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t h e use o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a communications mode. and p r e s e n t s  Chapter F i v e summarizes o u r f i n d i n g s  p o s s i b l e models f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system. I t also presents  o u r d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s f o  a s o c i a l communications system w h i c h i n c l u d e s a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n element w i t h comments on f u r t h e r a r e a s f o r research  i n this  field.  12. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER ONE  1  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s adapted from Meier, R i c h a r d L. ... (1962) A Communications  Theory o f Urban Growth, p , 2  Mass.; Cambridge  Technology Press o f Massachusetts  (Cambridge,  I n s t i t u t e o f Technology) who uses i t to d e f i n e any system.  CHAPTER THE  2.1  flow  Chapter  These  trends  himself  importance  t o have  with  t h e need  few g u i d e l i n e s  to those  already  Why  the  We may  be  found  environment  back  to provide  who  i n them.  finds  the emerging  h i s plan-making,  He may  find  that  f o r the task  are required i n  answers  to the following  One:  of information within  flows  and  the context  i n planning  importance  t o show  that  which  theory  systems  of planning  take  of information  possible  i n two s o c i e t a l within  on.  live  at  level?  developments  hope  who  a v a i l a b l e t o him.  so dominant  emerging  on the s t r u c t u r e  f o r the planner,  i n formulating  i n Chapter  community  What the  seeks  i s the impact  becoming  o f people  techniques  addition  raised  impact  planning  new  questions  communications  are inadequate  and t h a t  chapter  the increasing  concepts  hand,  This  of  t o accommodate  to f a l l  planning  how  a profound  a challenge  of information  conventional  described  and t h e a c t i v i t i e s  pose  faced  have  and t h e c o m p l e x i t y  are expected  communities  with  O n e , we  of information  systems  at  CONCEPTS  INTRODUCTION In  of  TWO  answers  forces which  the planner  into  account  flows?  t o these  are altering  functions.  The  questions the first  i s the emergence o f the P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y where i n f o r m a t i o n , or knowledge, i s construed important  economic r e s o u r c e ,  (Bell,  1973)  to be the most  and where the a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l  or command i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l determine the degree of  social  and economic power wielded by v a r i o u s groups i n s o c i e t y (Meier,  1962).  Kalba suggests t h a t i n a p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a  the c e n t r a l task f a c i n g the planner w i l l be the need to p l a n for  innovation.  He  d e s c r i b e s t h i s task, or demand, as  " p l a n o v a t i o n " o r the need to determine "the process  f o r implementing a given i n n o v a t i o n "  The  appropriate (1974, p.152).  second s o c i e t a l f o r c e i s the i n c r e a s i n g demands  b e i n g made by c i t i z e n s and the decision-making a f f e c t them.  c i t i z e n s ' groups to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  process,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when such d e c i s i o n s  T h i s demand has been d e s c r i b e d as c i t i z e n  or  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and has been w e l l documented i n p l a n n i n g literature  (Cahn and P a s s e t t , 1971;  Draper, 1971).  Kalba  expects the demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e i n the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y to the p o i n t where " p a r t i c i p a n t planning"  (1974, p. 149)  w i l l override rational decision-  making. We  w i l l attempt to show t h a t the l i n k between these  f o r c e s - the emergence o f the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i s information.  We  d e s c r i b e d the use of i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g communications.  L a t e r i n t h i s study we  two  of  have a l r e a d y as  social  d i s c u s s methods of  15. utilizing  s o c i a l communications as a process  or planning f o r innovation.  We  will  f o r "planovation"  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s ways of  u t i l i z i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s as a mode of communication. our i n i t i a l  First,  however, we  must address  social  o u r s e l v e s to  study o b j e c t i v e :  To review  the p l a n n i n g process  and  the r o l e of p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l communication i n order to i d e n t i f y those elements which would appear r e l e v a n t to p l a n n i n g at the community  First, process  we w i l l attempt to d e f i n e what the  i s a l l about, and what new  emerging.  Second, we w i l l  to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  review  THE  planning  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  are  the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches  T h i r d , we w i l l examine developments  i n the s o c i a l communications  2.2  level.  field.  PLANNING PROCESS  An e x t e n s i v e review of the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches t o p l a n n i n g i s beyond the scope o f t h i s work.  We  will  adopt  the p r e v a i l i n g view t h a t p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s c h o i c e s , and i n turn, choices involve values. p l a n n i n g as "... determining choices" "...  that,  D a v i d o f f and Reiner d e f i n e  a s e t of procedures  ... a process  for  a p p r o p r i a t e f u t u r e a c t i o n through a sequence of  (1962, p.103).  Fox  d e f i n e s p l a n n i n g as a  formulated method of doing something ... the  formulation  o f o b j e c t i v e s and meeting  t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f  an o b j e c t i v e "  The  (1970/  t e r m s " g o a l s and  p.213).  objectives",  " c h o i c e s and  alternatives  " v a l u e s and e v a l u a t i o n " a r e t h e c u r r e n c y o f p l a n n i n g . says  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p a r a d i g m i s "...  Kalba  largely  c o n c e i v e d as a s e q u e n c e o f a n a l y t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d moving from problem  and g o a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n  to projection  e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o s e l e c t i o n and a t i o n of programs" has  a similarly  (1974, p . 1 5 3 ) .  c h o i c e and  planning process  g e n e r a l l y suggested  The  (as) "...  a method  a r e s e e k i n g and on t h e m o s t (1968, p . l ) .  as o u t l i n e d by F o x  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as  p l a n n e r seeks  to i d e n t i f y  (1970) i s  Planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s develop programs which  one  follows:  and u n d e r s t a n d  the  range o f p r e f e r e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t groups i n our 2.  Gans  emphasizes e x p l i c i t g o a l -  e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m s t o a c h i e v e them"  1.  implement-  r a t i o n a l goals-means d e t e r m i n a t i o n , so t h a t d e c i s i o n s  c a n be b a s e d on t h e g o a l s p e o p l e  The  and  City planner Herbert  s t r u c t u r e d view of p l a n n i n g  of p u b l i c decision-making which  steps,  a set of  likely society;  alternative  r e f l e c t the preferences of these  In o r d e r to serve m i n o r i t y p r e f e r e n c e s , the  groups.  alternative  programs w o u l d i n c l u d e components t h a t w o u l d s e r v e  and  p r o t e c t m i n o r i t y as w e l l as p o p u l a r p r e f e r e n c e s ; 3.  The  a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s w o u l d be  debated  and/or i t s p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ;  by t h e  public  17. 4.  The p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n would f i r m up a l t e r n a t i v e plans i n l i g h t o f the debate by the p u b l i c and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s so t h a t they may  be c o n s i d e r e d f o r  f i n a l action; 5.  The p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p u b l i c would s e l e c t the p l a n f o r a c t i o n .  There i s l e s s unanimity on the i s s u e s of where p l a n n i n g s t a r t s , o r more i m p o r t a n t l y p l a n n i n g process  stops.  Fox  argues t h a t the  i s not merely a case of s p e c i f y i n g an  o b j e c t i v e and a way  o f a t t a i n i n g i t , but a constant  weighing  o f o b j e c t i v e s i n the l i g h t of a l t e r n a t i v e s : " I f the c o s t i s more than the i n d i v i d u a l or the o r g a n i z a t i o n can a f f o r d , then the o b j e c t i v e i s changed and new Friedmann  (19 73)  process without another one  (1970,p.214).  c o n s i d e r s p l a n n i n g an on-going, o r e v o l v i n g , s p e c i f i c ends;  emerges.  t h a t a necessary  plans are c o n s i d e r e d "  once an o b j e c t i v e i s reached,  In c o n t r a s t , D a v i d o f f and Reiner  component of the p l a n n i n g  a c t i s the  feel  achieve-  ment o f ends:  Our  d e f i n i t i o n of p l a n n i n g i n c o r p o r a t e s a concept of a  purposive  process  Such ends may  keyed to p r e f e r r e d , ordered  be d i r e c t i o n s or r a t e s of change, as w e l l  as t e r m i n a l s t a t e s . own  Means are not proposed f o r t h e i r  sake, but as instruments  (1962, p.106)  ends.  to accomplish  these".  18. They q u a l i f y t h i s somewhat r i g i d stance by  adding  "... ends are not g i v e n , i r r e v o c a b l e but are s u b j e c t t o analysis"  (1962, p.106).  However, the authors - who  t h a t p l a n n i n g assumes t h a t man  maintain  controls h i s destiny - apparently  do not conceive o f d e s t i n y as open-ended and u n d i r e c t e d . However, the s e l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s and the means o f a t t a i n i n g them impose r e l a t i v e l y minor burdens on the p l a n n e r , compared w i t h the problems o f weighing  a l t e r n a t i v e s and with  attempting t o d e a l w i t h f u t u r e u n c e r t a i n t i e s .  The  values  on which c h o i c e s are made cannot be v e r i f i e d by e m p i r i c a l data, and i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t value standards, note D a v i d o f f and Reiner  (1962, p.106).  Fox  (1970) confesses t h a t d e s p i t e  h i s e a r l i e r i l l u s i o n s , he has concluded t h a t the  unbiased  engineer, economist  exist.  o r o t h e r t e c h n i c i a n does not  Value a n a l y s i s as p r a c t i c e d by F i e l d i n g l o c a t i o n i s a pragmatic  attempt  (1970) i n freeway  to change people's v a l u e s  time through the u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and  over  participation  technologies. The  concepts o f advocacy o r p l u r a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g , as  developed by D a v i d o f f (1965) and Goodman (1971), were  attempts  to r e f l e c t the values o f m i n o r i t i e s o r i n t e r e s t groups i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . purge themselves  But not everyone wants p l a n n e r s t o  o f the s i n of v a l u e - r i d d e n concepts.  worker A r t Blue urged  Native  community development workers a t t e n d i n g  a Canadian seminar t o h o l d to a v i s i o n  (Gwyn, 1972):  You say t o me, ... I don't want t o go i n t o communities and change them. themselves.  I want t o a l l o w them t o change f o r  Don't f o o l w i t h me ... You have i d e a l s ,  and you have meaning, and i f you have meaning, you must a l s o have t h i s v i s i o n .  You cannot go empty, o r  you would n o t go a t a l l .  I f values cannot be measured, D a v i d o f f and Reiner c l a i m they can be r e f e r r e d t o o t h e r v a l u e statements hierarchical structure.  Rosen  (1976) reproduces  (1962)  i n the  a "value  s c a l e " designed by M i l t o n Rokeach t o measure p e r s o n a l values and p r i o r i t i e s by income groups.  Rosen argues t h a t p e r s o n a l  values o f s o c i a l groups are important  indicators of future  change, s i n c e values change w i t h age.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n the  v a l u e s o f s p e c i f i c age groups can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h demog r a p h i c s h i f t s i n the p o p u l a t i o n t o a s s i s t i n making f u t u r e projection. age,  S t a t i s t i c a l comparisons can be made f o r d i f f e r e n t  income and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . Webber (19 63)  a s s i g n s to planners the important  of d e l i n e a t i n g the probable  range o f f u t u r e c h o i c e .  task Bell  (1968) claims t h a t w h i l e the f u t u r e cannot be f o r e c a s t , c e r t a i n events o r i n n o v a t i o n s can be p r e d i c t e d .  However, Kalba  makes the i n t r i g u i n g p o i n t t h a t " i n n o v a t i o n p l a n n i n g "  (1974)  will  r e q u i r e a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the development o f new p l a n n i n g mechanisms,  t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h techniques -  i n s h o r t , a major " r e t o o l i n g " o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , from the conceptual t o the implementation i s as f o l l o w s .  stage.  The argument  20. S o c i o l o g i s t Daniel B e l l  (1973) maintains  t h a t the  world's i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s - i n c l u d i n g the U.S. are moving towards a new  and Canada -  economic e r a , which i s dominated by  the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than by the p r o d u c t i o n  of  goods and where the, p u b l i c s e c t o r becomes a major employer. B e l l terms t h i s e r a the " P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y " or the s u c c e s s o r to the era o f I n d u s t r i a l  Revolution.  These s t r u c t u r a l changes are a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n our society.  In Canada, l e s s than t h i r t y years ago,  three employees worked at producing 1975).  two  out of  goods of some s o r t  (Post,  Only one out of three h e l d a government job, or  worked i n an o f f i c e or o t h e r s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n . s i t u a t i o n i s reversed.  Today the  Already more than s i x t y per cent of  Canada's workforce i s employed i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , compared to only twenty per cent i n manufacturing cent i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  T h i s t r e n d i s expected  and s i x per  to continue i n  the f u t u r e , and s i m i l a r developments are t a k i n g p l a c e i n the U.S.  I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t by 19 80, c l o s e to seven i n every  ten workers i n the U.S. (Grappert,  w i l l be i n s e r v i c e occupations  1974).  B e l l l i s t s the f i v e p r i n c i p a l components of the  Post-  I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y as:  The  s h i f t from a goods-producing labour f o r c e to a  s e r v i c e - p r o d u c i n g economy;  21.  The  growing i n f l u e n c e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l and  technical  class in society; The  c e n t r a l r o l e of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge as the  of innovation increased i.e. The  and  of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n  c o n t r o l o f and p l a n n i n g  for society;  f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l growth,  a future o r i e n t a t i o n ; c r e a t i o n o f a new  i n t e l l e c t u a l technology to manage  l a r g e s c a l e systems through i n f o r m a t i o n (Bell,  manipulation  19.73).  In B e l l ' s a n a l y s i s , the growth i n d u s t r i e s , or o f the f u t u r e , are h e a l t h , education,  research  and  In the p r i v a t e s e c t o r he emphasizes the growth o f insurance,  source  r e a l e s t a t e and wholesale and  retail  services government.  finance,  trade.  What B e l l i s d e s c r i b i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e l i t i s t where knowledge i s power, and power i s c o n t o l l e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s and  research  organizations.  I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , p r o f e s s i o n a l s and up the new  "working c l a s s " .  knowledge, o r i n f o r m a t i o n ,  The  society,  the  In B e l l ' s Post-  t e c h n i c i a n s w i l l make  ability  w i l l be the key  to a c q u i r e  and  use  t a l e n t i n demand  i n such an economic system. Despite  t h i s apparent t e c h n o l o g i c a l b i a s , B e l l argues  t h a t f u t u r e decision-making w i l l be more p o l i t i c a l before,  s i n c e choice w i l l become more conscious,  making centres bargaining  more exposed to view.  But  than ever  and  decision-  i f political  i s to r e p l a c e r a t i o n a l i t y , asks Kalba i n making h i s  22.  c e n t r a l p o i n t , then how w i l l t h i s be done? gap between technocracy  "How w i l l the  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n be d e a l t with?"  (1974, p.149). He reviews developed  as p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s t h e "planning models"  by John Friedmann  (1973).  Departing  from  classical  or t r a d i t i o n a l views o f p l a n n i n g , Friedmann views p l a n n i n g as a s t r a t e g y f o r change, o r "... concerned with producing and w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y of  change"(1973, p . x v - x v i ) .  concept  under c o n d i t i o n s  Kalba i n t e r p r e t s Friedmann's  as one which abandons plan-making, o r the p l a n n i n g  method o f g o a l s , a l t e r n a t i v e s , e v a l u a t i o n , and under h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l . concept  change  implementation  Friedmann terms t h i s  "command" p l a n n i n g , and suggests  three o p t i o n s :  " p o l i c i e s p l a n n i n g " , "corporate p l a n n i n g " and " p a r t i c i p a n t planning". (Kalba, 1974, p.149);  Kalba  l a b e l s these P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l  S o c i e t y o p t i o n s as the t e c h n o c r a t i c , t h e o l i g a r c h i c and the p a r t i c i p a t o r y , and summarizes them as f o l l o w s :  P o l i c i e s P l a n n i n g maintains  c o n t r o l through the p r o v i s i o n o f  g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s , c r i t e r i a and m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d planning. of  T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e r e q u i r e s more knowledge  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o l i c y i n c e n t i v e s and t h e i r  outcomes than does command p l a n n i n g .  Corporate  Planning  i n v o l v e s n e g o t i a t i o n s between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f major i n t e r e s t groups which aims a t a temporary mutual adjustment of i n t e r e s t s . the p o l i t i c a l process may  T h i s v a r i a t i o n on  be expanded  i n the f u t u r e to  i n c l u d e government and c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as e s t a b l i s h e d corporate e n t i t i e s , suggests Kalba. P a r t i c i p a n t Planning  i s favoured by Friedmann  decision-making  and i n v o l v e s  a t the community l e v e l , i n the form o f  neighbourhoods, c o o p e r a t i v e s , o r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l planner's  role i n p a r t i c i p a n t planning  i s l i m i t e d to t h a t of animator and i n f o r m a t i o n  dispensor:  . . . [ i t i n c l u d e s ] r a l l y i n g the community around the common t a s k s , h e l p i n g i t s members t o l e a r n about the problems they  are f a c i n g and the  a v a i l a b l e methods of d e a l i n g with them, and p r o v i d i n g a constant those  stream of i n f o r m a t i o n  about,  r e l e v a n t aspects o f the e x t e r n a l environment  (1973.. p. 78) Instead o f B e l l ' s e l i t i s t  s o c i e t y , where the  technocrats  c o n t r o l i n f o r m a t i o n - and by i m p l i c a t i o n , power Friedmann  p o s t u l a t e s a s o c i e t y where i n f o r m a t i o n i s  c o n t r o l l e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l by small u n i t s , o r : ... a c e l l u l a r h i e r a r c h y o f assemblies,  with a  s m a l l - s i z e working group as the base o f each aggregation  ... Guidance w i l l be accomplished  by the i n v i s i b l e hand of working groups which are v e r b a l l y processing great q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r mation, aided by t e c h n i c a l s e c r e t a r i a t s (the planners)  and t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e i r needs to  s u c c e s s i v e l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f guidance 1974,  p.150).  (Kalba,  24. Friedmann f a i l s t o e x p l a i n how w i l l a c t u a l l y work, p a r t i c u l a r l y how w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d . Kalba  Bell  this organic structure the i n f o r m a t i o n  (1973), Friedmann  flows  (1973) and  (1974) a l l admit there are b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l problems  to be overcome.  These i n c l u d e :  The need to make t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n more w i d e l y a c c e s s i b l e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , without  triggering  information overload; The need to d e v i s e b e t t e r means of communicating demands to bureaucrats such expensive  without  local  r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on  i n p u t s as census data, o p i n i o n p o l l s ,  case workers, e t c . ; The need to develop facilitate  decision-making  mechanisms which  i n t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n of  issues.  The s o l u t i o n s to these s t r u c t u r a l problems imply technology futuristic  new  and i n n o v a t i o n - i n c l u d i n g the whole range of communications hardware - and i t i s the c r i t i c a l  i s s u e o f p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n , o r " p l a n o v a t i o n " which i s r a i s e d by Kalba:  I t i s t h i s i s s u e o f determining for  the a p p r o p r i a t e  process  implementing a g i v e n i n n o v a t i o n around which p o s t -  i n d u s t r i a l planning w i l l  take shape.  t r u e whether the s p e c i f i c concern  This w i l l  be  i s l a n d development,  w e l f a r e programs, energy c o n s e r v a t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n  utilities. such  ultimately,  a publicly-condoned  social  very  And,  and economic  it  is  the  process  of  introducing  changes  new  societal  age  The  need  "planovation",  little  knowledge Rather,  to  or  do w i t h  Kalba,  (1974,  Bell's  Friedmann's  argues  The  for  . . . "  it  . . .  that  search  for  major  characterizes  the  p.152).  as  envisaged  projected  fancies  very  about  by  growth public  in  Kalba,  has  theoretical  participation.  reflects:  impact o f a p p l i e d knowledge on the p u b l i c ' s under-  standing o f planning  issues  (e.g. a r s e n i c from g o l d  mining p o l l u t e s w a t e r ) ; The  input o f journalism i n disseminating  t h i s information The  and d r a m a t i z i n g  (possible victims of arsenic  poisoning);  emergence o f powerful i n t e r e s t groups, o r n a t i o n a l  l o b b i e s w i t h the power t o f o r c e change  (Indian Brotherhood  f o r c e s f e d e r a l h e a l t h survey o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n to a s c e r t a i n evidence o f a r s e n i c  poisoning).  Kalba acknowledges t h a t the need to accommodate a more informed p u b l i c w i l l  lead to increased p a r t i c i p a n t planning,  but he i s more i n c l i n e d to the view t h a t a new p l a n n i n g mode will  develop.  E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s new mode would be an  expanded form o f corporate groups n e g o t i a t e w i t h each p a r t y  p l a n n i n g , where major i n t e r e s t  t r a d e - o f f s on an ad hoc o r c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s , "seeking  t o expand the scope o f d e c i s i o n -  making i n r e t u r n f o r a r e d u c t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y concerning the decision-making environment"  (1974, p . 1 5 2 ) .  He terms t h i s mode c o m p e t i t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r three reasons:  Since i n n o v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s l i k e l y  to take p l a c e i n a  m u l t i - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , m u l t i - i n t e r e s t context,  there  w i l l probably be c o n s i d e r a b l e n e g o t i a t i o n among competing i n t e r e s t s a t each p l a n n i n g phase; -  Since not a l l r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t s c o u l d reasonably  be  i n v o l v e d i n each p l a n n i n g e f f o r t , p a r t i c i p a n t s would compete f o r i n p u t ; -  The c u r r e n t competitive approach to p l a n n i n g among p l a n n i n g agencies a t a l l l e v e l s i s l i k e l y  to  continue  i n the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g methodology are  Kalba suggests  profound.  t h a t h i s more open p l a n n i n g environment  r e q u i r e a more continuous planners and the planned w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e "...  will  process o f i n t e r a c t i o n between the for.  T h i s i m p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n flow  a r e d e s i g n o f the u n d e r l y i n g p l a n n i n g  paradigm as a dynamic process i n which numerous i n t e r e s t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r a c t through  time"  (1974, p.154).  In t u r n , these emerging energy flows w i l l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n take i n t o account methods and i n t e r a c t i v e procedures, use o f video-tape  and  require that  information-processing through  role-playing,  f i l m s , and o t h e r i n n o v a t i v e methods.  "Indeed", says Kalba, s u p p o r t i n g the t h r u s t of t h i s  study,  "the use of inexpensive f i l m and v i d e o methods c o u l d g e n e r a l l y enhance the planner's a b i l i t y information"  (1974, p.154).  to d e a l with  qualitative  27. T h i s s e c t i o n has reviewed, at a macro l e v e l ,  prevailing  t h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g to p l a n n i n g and emerging concepts which call  f o r a r e d e s i g n of more t r a d i t i o n a l concepts.  We  next to a review o f the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to  2.3  turn  communications.  THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATIONS E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter we  (19 74)  i n t r o d u c e d Kalba's concept  o f " p l a n o v a t i o n " , or p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n .  We  reviewed Kalba's argument t h a t the i s s u e o f d e t e r m i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e s s f o r implementing i n n o v a t i o n w i l l  dominate  p l a n n i n g i n the emerging p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a . We  a l s o d e f i n e d s o c i a l communications  as the use of  communication/information systems t o achieve s p e c i f i c  social  o b j e c t i v e s n o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g an element o f change. t h i s s e c t i o n , we w i l l may  attempt t o show t h a t s o c i a l  be an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e s s f o r p l a n o v a t i o n .  review the rele'vant t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to and suggest c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a , communications  In  communications We  will  communications  or elements, which such a  system s h o u l d possess i f i t i s t o be an  e f f e c t i v e process f o r planning f o r innovation.  T h e o r e t i c a l Approaches  to  Communications  There i s no g e n e r a l theory of communications 1956).  Even Meier  (1962), who  (Fanelli,  i s e x t e n s i v e l y quoted i n most  b i b l i o g r a p h i e s on the s u b j e c t and t i t l e d h i s work, A Communic a t i o n s Theory o f Urban Growth, never got around to d e v e l o p i n g  28. a r i g o r o u s communications model  ( G o l d s t e i n , 1974).  The  book, i n i t i a l l y viewed by Meier as an i n t e r i m r e p o r t , has never been updated by the author, nor has he p u b l i s h e d a more e x p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l model.  Although the work i s w i d e l y  known, Meier's ideas have not been advanced by o t h e r s , nor has h i s c h a l l e n g e t h a t communications approach.to urbanism c o u l d p r o v i d e powerful i n s i g h t s i n t o urban systems.  The  l a c k o f comment on Meier's work i s not unique;  Elliot  comments t h a t as a g e n e r a l r u l e , mass communications appear to be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s u b j e c t ;  relative (1974)  researchers  the l i t e r a t u r e i s  f u l l of attempts to r e p u d i a t e o l d approaches and s t a r t  new  ones. Meier conceives o f the c i t y as a l i v i n g system, w i t h s p e c i f i c components  t h a t evolve through an i d e n t i f i a b l e  process o f b i r t h , development, m a t u r i t y and d e c l i n e .  He  argues t h a t c i t i e s e v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y t o a i d or f a c i l i t a t e communication between people.  In the b e g i n n i n g , c i t i e s made  i t p o s s i b l e f o r people to communicate i n a small space.  by l i v i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r  As the c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced, and more  complex forms of communication were r e q u i r e d , the urban system grew c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more complex.  He suggests there i s a  c o r r e l a t i o n between communications, knowledge  and c o n t r o l s and  the growth o f c i t i e s . Meier says t h a t communications o f a l l  types have come  to dominate the urban scene and to shape urban development.  Examples are the automobile, the p o s t a l systems, the o f newspapers, magazines and r a d i o , telephones  and  journals, television  flood  channels,  telecommunications.  He suggests t h a t there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n t e n s i t y of communications and the growth of c i t i e s . a t t r i b u t e s , such as "economies of s c a l e " or accessibility"  Urban  "increased  are r e f l e c t i o n s of communications phenomena;  f o r i n s t a n c e , s c a l e economies r e s u l t from i n c r e a s e d  clustering,  which i m p l i e s improved p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f communications, access  and  r e f l e c t s i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to communicate. S e v e r a l years b e f o r e s o c i o l o g i s t D a n i e l B e l l  conceived o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n e l i t e - the academics  (1973) and  i n t e l l e c t u a l s whom B e l l expected to corner the market on i n f o r m a t i o n - Meier p e r c e i v e d the p o t e n t i a l o f as a c o n t r o l agent.  He makes the important  information  point:  I f , by d e f i n i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n b r i n g s with i t the c a p a c i t y to s e l e c t from an ensemble of a l t e r n a t i v e s , whoever has  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n a p o s i t i o n to d i s c o v e r  t h a t some of the a l t e r n a t i v e s y i e l d more of the commodit i e s t h a t are t e m p o r a r i l y s c a r c e than o t h e r s . wherever i n f o r m a t i o n i s h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d ,  Thus one  expects  to f i n d s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , wealth o r p o l i t i c a l power, sometimes a l l three together  (1962, p.150).  He a l s o observed t h a t the flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n , as a s o c i a l u n i t , has many of the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the  flow  30.  of  economic  value be  values;  t o a communications  measured  can  both  i n units  measure  money  opportunity  f o r using  environment.  which  basic  or  services,  i n a society.  communication  transactions a preference  develops into  represent  messages  lead  an i n f o r m a t i o n  between  A  may  ..."  between  control  o f urban  sender  messages,  emitting  are  screens from  transfer the  Privacy  messages,  l a g between  i s the shield against  communication. libraries,  While  archives  (1962,  p.40).  people or  and  with  own.  always  in social  environment  his  ...  or relationship  day, an i n d i v i d u a l i n an urban time  goods  relations.  are transmitted between  groups  involve  transaction  to a linkage  some  the  individuals or  Each  and spends  information  i s the transaction  of information  flow  we  to manipulate the  system  for a specific  which  the  can  as  the greater  The exchange  a network  which  1.  but not necessarily.  Repeated  The  reasoned,  information  an exchange  some  which  Meier  that  attribute  i n t h e same m a n n e r  And t h e g r e a t e r  i n Meier's  involves  groups,  o r message,  See F i g u r e  unit  "... i m p l i e s  participating  commodity,  o r time.  i n a message,  The  and r e c e i v e r  of u t i l i t y  transmitted  social  the sender  transactions  receiver. i s bombarded  messages o f  messages. television  a n d museums  s e n d i n g and r e c e i v i n g messages  Homes and  radio  accommodate  by s t o r i n g  them.  32. Education "Education  may  communication concepts  allows  more  conveys  the higher  mation which  upon  level"  the education that  that  rates  conveyed  suggests,  (1962,  that  p.163).  t h e more This  used.  t o measure t h e b i t s  by measuring  typical  "hubits"  The amount  i s a cultural  of information  and i s lower  He  or a " b i t " of meaningful  b y a human b e i n g .  flow  o f time  by the target population.  i s r e t a i n e d b y a human  per capita  a fashion  can be t r a n s m i t t e d . t o be  of  a n d m u l t i p l y i n g them b y t h e amount  the term  received  proposes:  level,  i ti s possible  to the activity  introduces  i n such  sophisticated procedures suggests  Meier  as an o r d e r l y p r o c e s s  symbols  level  amounts o f i n f o r m a t i o n  allocated  he  which  are the concepts  transmission  The  a l s o be c o n c e i v e d  that  Meier or  communication,  c a n be pyramided  He a r g u e s complex  promotes  of  than  information  characteristic.  i s a function  i n villages  infor-  o f urban  i n larger  size,  urban  centres. Meier of  argues  information  which  mation for  s u f f e r s from  Increases  sleep,  there  meals,  reduce etc.  limit  overload"  o f time  t h e amount  beyond or  devoted  o f time  he c i t e s  than  t h e case  to  infor-  available  Sometimes t h e o v e r l o a d  deficiency, rather  f o r information;  t o t h e amount  a t any one time,  "information  i n t h e amount  o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  innate c a p a c i t y  i s an upper  c a n be conveyed  a c t i v i t i e s would  sport,  result  which  t h e system  congestion.  that  i s a  people's where  people performed h a p p i l y i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n operating  efficiently.  so long as i t was  When t r a n s a c t i o n s became more  and backlogs accumulated, people made e r r o r s and of stress  showed signs  (1962, p . 7 2 - 7 4 ) . 1  Meier has  estimated t h a t the per c a p i t a annual growth  r a t e i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n per cent  frequent,  (1962 , p . 133).  o f " h u b i t s " i s between three At t h a t r a t e , he  take l e s s than t h i r t y years - or before  says,  1992  p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s of human communications and  and  six  i t would  - to reach  the  l e s s than seventy-  f i v e y e a r s to reach the t h e o r e t i c a l l i m i t s . Meier develops h i s concept of a c i t y as a " l i v i n g t o the p o i n t where he a p p l i e s the  laws of p h y s i c s ,  to entropy, which he d e f i n e s as "...  a derived,  relating  second-order  concept t h a t can i n d i c a t e the l o s s o r gain i n order i z a t i o n ) due system"  to e n e r g e t i c  (1962, p.144).  system"  (organ-  t r a n s a c t i o n s between p a r t s of a He  explains  that during  some work  on the s o c i a l and economic consequences o f automation, a r r i v e d at a fundamental i n s i g h t , "...  he  t h a t of a c i t y as  an  open system t h a t must, i f i t i s to remain v i a b l e , conserve negative  entropy  [information]"  entropy can be measured "... considers  (1962, p . v ) .  by an accounting  He  system t h a t  both the stock of knowledge a v a i l a b l e at  addresses and  adds t h a t  various  the content of the messages r e c e i v e d " .  further defines  He  "open system" as "...one which r e q u i r e s a  flow of i n p u t s from the environment and a t r a n s f e r to the environment o f a flow of outputs ..."  (1962, p.144).  He develops t h i s argument i n an attempt t o p o s t u l a t e a " c i v i c man"  who would a c t i n some r a t i o n a l manner t o s t i m u l i  i n the same f a s h i o n t h a t "economic man"  responds to economic  stimuli. Meier uses the s i m p l i s t i c analogy o f energy as a "downhill flow", moving from h o t t e r bodies to c o o l ones. E x t r a e f f o r t , o r energy, i s r e q u i r e d to r e v e r s e the flow "uphill"  from c o o l e r t o h o t t e r b o d i e s .  the q u a n t i t y o f entropy.  T h i s heat l o s s measures  Over time, p o s t u l a t e s M e i e r , the  h o t t e s t elements would become c o o l e r and the c o o l e r elements would become warmer.  E v e n t u a l l y the system would  converge  at some temperature where the energy flows were almost infinitesimal.  Since n o t h i n g more c o u l d happen, he  the system would be l i f e l e s s , without energy.  implies  By analogy,  the c i t y would be immobilized, without dynamic e n e r g i z e r s t o m a i n t a i n the flow of communication the urban system  a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d to keep  functioning.  Meier p r u d e n t l y c i t e s the warning i s s u e d by Cherry (1957) a g a i n s t the o v e r - z e a l o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of the entropy concept:  Since t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been p o i n t e d out we  have  heard o f e n t r o p i e s o f languages, s o c i a l systems and economic studies.  systems and of i t s use i n v a r i o u s method-starved I t i s the k i n d o f sweeping g e n e r a l i t y which  35. people w i l l c l u t c h l i k e a straw ... the w r i t e r would a s s e r t t h a t i n t r u e communications the concept o f entropy  need not be evoked a t a l l (1957, p.187).  Without commenting on the debate we would note t h a t Meier's "fundamental i n s i g h t " need not c o n s t r a i n h i s b a s i c point.  He has a l r e a d y d e f i n e d a system as "... a sequence  o f s t a t e s o f an i n t e r a c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , each s t a t e being a function of preceding  s t a t e s " (1962, p . 2 ) .  i m p l i e s t h a t there i s some energy source interaction.  This  definition  p r o p e l l i n g the  Without the b a s i c e n e r g i z e r , the t r a n s a c t i o n s  w i l l not take p l a c e , and the system w i l l s e i z e up. can be l i t t l e a process,  There  argument w i t h the concept of communication as  o r d i a l o g u e , which r e q u i r e s p a r t i c i p a n t s , t r a n s -  a c t i o n s and messages i n order t o f u n c t i o n a t a l l . Although he f a i l s t o evolve  an e x p l i c i t model, Meier  develops some s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , as f o l l o w s :  P r o p o s i t i o n I : " I f a s o c i e t y o f mortal  individuals i s to  s u r v i v e , i n f o r m a t i o n must be conserved"  (1962, p.150)  Meier augments t h i s statement by a d m i t t i n g t h a t  there  i s always a l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a t t r i t i o n by random environmental events. accumulation  He e x p l a i n s t h a t  information  must proceed a t l e a s t as r a p i d l y as the average  r a t e o f a t t r i t i o n , and need n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between i n f o r m a t i o n stored or transmitted.  36. Proposition I I :  "A s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y t h a t grows i n i n f l u e n c e ,  wealth o r power, measured i n a b s o l u t e experience a growth i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r to or simultaneously growth  terms, must  flow that  w i t h the other  occurred  recorded  (1962, p.151).  Meier p l a c e s one c o n s t r a i n t on t h i s statement. "information  overload"  As  b u i l d s up, and people s t a r t working  c l o s e to t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n  capacity, greater r e l i a n c e w i l l  have t o be p l a c e d on the t r a n s f e r o f r o u t i n e i n f o r m a t i o n automation.  by  Thus he would i n c l u d e i n t e r a c t i o n s between  automatic equipment as w e l l as between  people.  P r o p o s i t i o n I I I : " I f advanced s o c i e t i e s are to i n c r e a s e organization  their  (and c a p a c i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n )  the i n t e r a c t i o n s between automata i n t h e i r s e r v i c e must i n c r e a s e even more r a p i d l y " ( 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 5 1 ) .  Meier p o i n t s out t h a t as the stock o f i n f o r m a t i o n  grows,  the marginal value o f adding t o the stock w i l l d e c l i n e f o r decision-making purposes.  There i s a s t r o n g  i n c e n t i v e to  have automated equipment work w i t h t h i s stock o f  information  and make simple d e c i s i o n s , r e s e r v i n g the r o l e of c u l t u r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n  f o r people.  37. A d d i t i o n a l T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts Although Meier's book appears to dominate what  sparse  d i s c u s s i o n e x i s t s on the s u b j e c t of communications and  urban-  i z a t i o n , the work of others has p o t e n t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r planners,  and should be r e f e r r e d to  here.  G e n e r a l l y , comment on communications and tends to f a l l w i t h i n two  s u b j e c t areas.  e f f e c t on the s p a t i a l and p h y s i c a l nature The  The  urbanization first  i s the  of u r b a n i z a t i o n .  second i s more s u b j e c t i v e , and deals with the e f f e c t  people's sense o f "community", and on t h e i r  interrelationships.  There are a number of i n t e r e s t i n g ideas i n the group o f commentators. i n d u s t r i a l c i t y may  Kalba  on  first  (1974) suggests t h a t the  not be a c i t y at a l l i n the  post-  conventional  sense:  ... i f the s c e n a r i o of the i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y accurate,  the l o c a t i o n of businesses  as w e l l as house-  honds w i l l no l o n g e r be c o n s t r a i n e d by Random s o c i a l access  proximity.  and non-contiguous economies of  s c a l e w i l l r e p l a c e the t e r r i t o r i a l imperatives p l a c e theory  Pred  is  of c e n t r a l  (1974, . 3 2 9 ) . p  (1975) i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the l i n k a g e s between metro-  p o l i t a n centres and m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e s .  In h i s work  on i n f o r m a t i o n a l l i n k a g e s between c i t i e s and m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l f i r m s , he makes two  points:  38. The most i m p o r t a n t  non-local linkages  (e.g. o u t s i d e  an urban c e n t r e ) are not those between the  metropolis  and the h i n t e r l a n d - as p o s t u l a t e d i n c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y - but those between l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n T h i s has  important  areas.  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r growth c e n t r e s ;  The o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f m e t r o p o l i t a n i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s y m e t r i c a l s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e s or organi z a t i o n s i s complex. One reason i s t h a t m e t r o p o l i t a n centres of a given s i z e f r e q u e n t l y provide job c o n t r o l and o t h e r l i n k s t o l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n complexes. A n o t h e r r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s an e x t e n s i v e c r i s s c r o s s i n g o f economic t i e s between l a r g e metro areas on one hand, and medium and s m a l l metro c e n t r e s on the o t h e r hand.  Pred says t h a t these p o i n t s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , s i n c e the number of j o b s under the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n based m u l t i l o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s expanding r a p i d l y . how  P r e d wonders  a g r e a t e r r e g i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s  be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e a r r a n g i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g  the  spatial  s t r u c t u r e o f numerous m u l t i - l o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he a s k s : "How  can e x p l i c i t and  implicit  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s be i n f l u e n c e d o r c o n t r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o h e l p b r i n g about g r e a t e r r e g i o n a l e q u a l i t y i n terms o f p e r c a p i t a income, l a b o u r market a l t e r n a t i v e s and public service accessibility?"  (1975, p.139).  the  P r e v i o u s l y we noted Meier's argument  t h a t changes i n  the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f c i t i e s are p r i m a r i l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f messages f o r o t h e r i n p u t s - such as human time, movement, energy, water, c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s whose c o s t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g over time. discusses  Wellman  (1973)  the concept o f the network-based community, which  can develop w i t h o u t much r e g a r d f o r s p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . He suggests t h a t s p a t i a l communities, such as l o c a l bourhoods, are only one type o f community. by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications  neigh-  Others are l i n k e d  facilities.  The s c a l e  of the c i t y and the range o f p o s s i b l e l i n k a g e s encourage the development o f s p e c i a l i z e d communities, whose members w i l l be bonded by common i n t e r e s t s .  Most u r b a n i t e s w i l l belong t o  many such communities i n a more p l u r a l s o c i e t y . Harris  (19 67) was among the f i r s t t o comment on the  impact o f communications technology on the c o n s t r u c t i o n and operation  of c i t i e s .  The conversion from  face-to-face  communications to i n t e r a c t i o n by r a d i o and wire have important s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s which he acknowledges.  Tonuma  (1970)  analyzed the e f f e c t s o f communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on human s e t t l e m e n t s , and came to the c o n c l u s i o n  that by the  year 2000, Japan might become a s i n g l e urban complex/ o r a "network  city".  Some c o n s t r a i n t s on t h i s l i n e o r argument have been presented by L i v i n g s t o n e  (1969) who summarized  a conference  which concluded t h a t the major urban c e n t r e s i n h i g h l y  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s do not have a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r communications than o t h e r l o c a t i o n s i n those c o u n t r i e s , and the l a r g e urban c e n t r e ' s advantage o f speed and economy i n communication has d i m i n i s h e d i n the past century.  T h i s would  suggest t h a t a t some p o i n t , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of communications to urban growth d i m i n i s h e s i n importance.  Katzman  (19 70)  continues the u n h e l p f u l debate on communication flow and  social  entropy. The s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f communications d e a l s mainly w i t h man  and h i s world, and the w r i t e r s i n t h i s area have more  scattered interests.  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n about  the process o f communication a t the community Fanelli  (1956) develops the concept o f  e x t e n s i v e n e s s , o r the range o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s contacts.  level. commun1cation communications  He suggests t h a t the range of c o n t a c t s o f any  i n d i v i d u a l depends on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the community and h i s a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s .  Since a  person's p e r c e p t i o n o f community a f f a i r s i s thus a f u n c t i o n o f h i s communications e x t e n s i v e n e s s , F a n e l l i advocates the removal o f communications b a r r i e r s between  v a r i o u s groups i n a community  Webber and Webber (1956) add some support to F a n e l l i ' s argument w i t h t h e i r work on the d i f f e r e n t uses of communications by v a r i o u s groups i n North American s o c i e t y .  They suggest  t h a t the s o - c a l l e d " i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e " u t i l i z e a l a r g e number  of  communication  journals  and  of  shared  On  the  i n t e r e s t and hand,  of  the  Individuals be  widely  home. will  the  their  basis  that  to  the  as  academic  communicate spatial  class" people  suggested  (1971)  of  tend  on  to  Webber's grow  dichotomy  than  between  later more  diminish.  " i n t e r e s t communities"., rather  their  residential  communications will  basis  create  and  Melvin  a  separation.  kinship  "community"  space,  i s more  separation  of  cations  business,  and  to  p u b l i c a t i o n preceded  belong  time,  -  telephone,  to  rural  an  and  which  may  ancestral urban  areas  disappear. Wise  He  modes  site-specific  will  mails,  overcome  on  distributed in  In  the  "working  This  (1963) w h i c h  flexible,  to  association  propinquity. work  -  transportation  other  networks  channels  to  suggests cultural  people  from  include  the  balance  Wise  rather  than  people  that  by  providing  them  development  activities  within  community.  increased concludes narrow  with  r e c r e a t i o n a l and  this  their  concerned  the  that  via  shopping  to  telecommunications  choices  of  activity  telecommuni-  many could  factors  f o r people  social  activities.  enclose  home, w h i c h  Limiting  propensity  possible  access  would  the  the  on  social alienate  this  travel, will  available  argumen and  on  expand to  urban  dwellers. Riley not  be  and  Riley  separated  communications  from  between  (1959) the  also  social  warn  that  process.  i n d i v i d u a l s are  not  the  message  They random  suggest or  should that  unrelated  acts,  butpart  between single of  o f an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n  a larger  group.  transactions  the information  and  tends  argue  social this  between flow  between  or indirectly,  system  and t h i s  interactions  communications  and receiver;  as  a great  deal  two i n d i v i d u a l s i s i n d i r e c t group  members.  They  i n t h e communication  arerelated  t o one a n o t h e r  communications  flow  process,  i n the  takes place  within  system.  (1966)  views  defining  and binding  However,  Seeley  element,  and suggests  tions  who  sender  a l l individuals involved  Deutsch  some  do n o t view  t o p r o l i f e r a t e through other  that  directly  They  o f on-going  implies change  gives  people  (1962)  that  instead  of  t h emedia  that  of  man, o f h i s b o d y ,  central  - both  o f communica-  Marshall  system  nervous  that  o f our inner  (1965)  perceives  - as  system  t h emedia  and that  McLuhan  i s t h e message",  o f communication  group.  as a bonding  interrupted,  sought.  postulates  of reality  a national  thepresence  " t h e medium  h i s  McLuhan  into  has been  i sbeing  - one form  as t h e key element i n  communications  a community  us t h e phrase  perceptions  together  rejects  i n society  intellect.  communication  extensions  and h i s  distort our  selves  and our outer  environment:  The of  constraints print,  missions, within more  on r e a l i t y  absence  o f v i s u a l dimension  a n d t h e power  the film  apparent  arethe linear  than  real  from  o f t h e cameraman  o r the viewer  a sense  (Starrs  constraints radio  trans-  t o generate  o f involvement  and Stewart,  1971,  p.63).  43.  Blumler and Katz use mass communication  (1974) make the p o i n t t h a t people to connect, o r d i s c o n n e c t themselves w i t h  d i f f e r e n t kinds of others.  T h i s concept i s more s u b j e c t i v e  than the hardware-oriented v i s i o n o f a "wired world", which l i n k s i n d i v i d u a l s i n a network o f c a b l e s , microwave and  systems  satellites. Axworthy  (1971) draws the comparison between the i n c r e a s i n g  technology o f communication government.  He n o t e s : "Government i s the b a s i s o f c i v i l i z *  a t i o n - and communication p.l).  and the r i s i n g complexity o f  i s the b a s i s o f government"  (1971,  He poses the problem o f e n s u r i n g an open system o f  i n f o r m a t i o n i n a w o r l d which i s r a p i d l y e n s n a r i n g i t s e l f i n complicated t e c h n o l o g i c a l communications ments must p l a n t h e i r programs  systems.  Y e t govern-  on the b a s i s o f some p e r c e p t i o n  o f p u b l i c demand - a process t h a t r e q u i r e s some form o f communication. The working paper on C i t i z e n Involvement developed f o r the O n t a r i o government's  Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y  says t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l approaches t o communications the governments  between  and the governed, tend t o s t r e s s a "one-way"  flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n , from government t o c i t i z e n , o r from c i t i z e n t o government. flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n . developments  The new requirement i s f o r a "two-way" The working paper r e p o r t s t h a t new  i n communications  "two-way" channel p o s s i b l e .  technology w i l l make such a I t p r e d i c t s t h a t s e p a r a t e systems  f o r telephone, t e l e g r a p h , t e l e v i s i o n and data t r a n s m i s s i o n  w i l l d i s a p p e a r , t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h one for  a l l k i n d s o f messages.  total,  s i n g l e u n i f i e d network  Communication w i l l become a  i n t e g r a t e d interdependent  system u t i l i z i n g  a variety of  media;  i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l f l o w through the network as o n - o f f  digital  s i g n a l s , and w i l l appear as p i c t u r e s , sound o r p r i n t  depending on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e . The w o r k i n g paper r a i s e s some c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s about the r e g u l a t i o n o f the new  technology.  Who  s h o u l d have the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing and c o n t r o l l i n g the development o f the new  technology - Kalba's  interest?  " p l a n o v a t i o n " - i n the p u b l i c  S h o u l d the community b e i n g s e r v e d have some c o n t r o l  over t e l e v i s i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and who  s h o u l d pay f o r them?  What g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be developed  t o r e g u l a t e the  tricky  q u e s t i o n o f access t o the communications system? S t a r r s and Stewart developed  (1971) i n another w o r k i n g  paper  f o r the Committee c l a i m t h a t the media today  are  m a i n l y one-way communications c h a n n e l s , whose messages are determined  by sponsors  and a d v e r t i s e r s , u s i n g the c r i t e r i a  of  profitability:  In  the p l a c e o f a two-way l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , the media  have become a v e h i c l e through w h i c h the few t o whom a c c e s s i s p e r m i t t e d educate o t h e r s i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r own  p e r c e p t i o n s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (1971,  p.63).  S t a r r s and Stewart o v e r r a t e the r o l e p l a y e d by sponsors and a d v e r t i s e r s i n determining message c o n t e n t , but they are c o r r e c t i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f media r e l u c t a n c e to open up the communications channel. phenomenon.  Nor i s t h i s a p u r e l y Canadian  W r i t i n g on the involvement o f viewers i n t e l e -  v i s i o n programming P a t r i c i a Wood (1971) sums up:  The mass media i n America  are b u s i n e s s e s .  No c i t i z e n  involvement i s a p p r e c i a t e d , except i n buying the products t h a t keep the airwaves f i l l e d (1971,  and the newspapers t h i c k  p.287).  Access t o the media can be gained by the c r e a t i o n o f a "media event" o r the s t a g i n g , by c i t i z e n s , o r some program which a t t r a c t s  coverage by the media  ( G o l d f a r b , 1977).  In  t h i s way, t e r r o r i s t s can commandeer space to a i r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , demonstrators  can convey  t h e i r p o i n t o f view to a mass  audience, p r i s o n e r s can win a i r time t o p r o t e s t g r i e v a n c e s essentially  internal  t o the p r i s o n system,  o f s o l i t a r y confinement,  such as the use  o r "the h o l e " as a d i s c i p l i n a r y  measure.  Social  Communications C r i t e r i a In t h i s s e c t i o n , we have summarized the t h e o r e t i c a l  approaches  t o communications.  E a r l i e r we d e f i n e d s o c i a l  communications as the use o f information/communication  systems  for  planning  purposes,  Planning  for  change,  by  and  will,  the  Kalba  underlying  numerous (1974,  would  the  planners  1.  in his  view,  require  paradigm  a  i s termed  as  organizations  appear  and  identify  a  "...  change  element.  "planovation" a  redesign  of  dynamic  process  in  interact  through  time"  have  the  receiver  information  and  have  some  or  sender  to  Channel:  to  and  between  information  of  message value,  a  justify  which  feedback  Kalba,  social in  to  be  and  likely  and  here  communications  must  a  role.  be  a  specific  transmitted. to  The  either  the  transmission;  i n order  mechanism, may  be  receivers. to  between  transaction  utility,  its  contribute  such  a  there  messages  senders i s not  a  messages  could  communications,  information  flow  by  involve  or  of  interaction  effective  sender,  Social  requires  responses forth  be  a  or  must  effective,  receivers  communications  unit  Two-way  transmission  elements which  a  receiver  and  process  i f i t i s to  Since  the  for, envisaged  between of  that  senders  planned  some o f  Message:  us  continuous  the  should  to  between  more  message  2.  innovation,  planning  transactions  system  incorporating  p.154).  towards  we  or  i n t e r e s t s and  It or  normally  so  accommodate  be  that  relayed A  to  back  one-way social  goals;  3.  Access: implies  The  c o n t r o l of  power,  transmission  since  system  the  information possession  enables  groups  and of or  information messages  and  i n d i v i d u a l s to  flows the  choose  between  various  alternatives.  information  system  affected  "planovation",  the  by  hands  of  Audience: a  sender  system, cases,  and  the  the  i s the  to  not  any  individuals  concentrated  in  of a  audience may  be  target  group  a message two-way  of  an  may  the  implies  both  communications  other.  In  some  e n t i r e community.  In  represent  only  groups  a  a  portion  community.  transmit cations  Since  messages system  accommodate  a  different  by  different  should  the  needs  Dimension;  communications by  be  bonded  of  a  social  in  modes,  a  sufficiently  the  social  may  be  the  target  proximity.  Other  The  communications  scope  system  to  components  audience;  spatially  interests.  communi-  comprehensive  s o c i e t y , or of  community  Some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a  system  special by  be  pluralistic  reflect  Spatial  bonded  and  In  audience  Multi-modal:  should  open  transmission  receiver.  the  be  the  few;  The  each  others, of  a  should  Therefore  social  separated  and  participants and  should  may  distribution take  this  into  account;  Conservation/Repetition: commodity,  constantly  Those messages valuable  over  which time  made o b s o l e t e , contain  should  inforced,  so  that  Avoidance  of  Information  with  messages,  some p r i v a c y .  and A  Information  be  i t i s not  erect social  is a  constantly  information conserved, prematurely  Overload; b a r r i e r s or  perishable  which renewed  is and  re-  dissipated.  People  are  shields to  communications  renewed.  system  bombarded achieve should  48.  c o n t a i n o n l y those messages w h i c h are r e l e v a n t t o t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e , and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f messages s h o u l d be t i m e d so t h a t t h e audience i s ready t o r e c e i v e them, i.e. 9.  consider t h e i r content.  Avoidance o f A l i e n a t i o n : of  s o c i a l communication  V a r i o u s modes and messages can a l i e n a t e p e o p l e from t h e i r  p h y s i c a l community - by p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the home n o r m a l l y s u p p l i e d by t h e w i d e r community - and from each Other, by c r e a t i n g o r r e i n f o r c i n g b a r r i e r s between groups; 10.  Animator/Animation:  Even i n a two-way  communication  system, t h e r e i s a danger t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f messages w i l l be s t a l l e d by i n e r t i a , d i s c o n t i n u i t y o r o t h e r impediments. or  The system r e q u i r e s an a n i m a t o r ,  a n i m a t i n g f o r c e , t o p r o v i d e the dynamic  element  r e q u i r e d t o keep the system r u n n i n g .  The p l a n n e r a l r e a d y has a t h i s d i s p o s a l c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s which he can u t i l i z e s o c i a l communications  system.  i n designing a  One such t o o l i s p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i a l o g u e between d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y .  We now t u r n t o a r e v i e w  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g .  2.4  THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION So f a r i n t h i s c h a p t e r we have i d e n t i f i e d the p o t e n t i a  need f o r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o become more open and dynami i n t h e f u t u r e i n o r d e r t o enable p l a n n e r s t o accommodate the  demands of  "planovation"  i n n o v a t i o n i n the that  (Kalba, 1974)  postindustrial  s o c i a l communications may  p l a n o v a t i o n , or the this section, public  we  era.  be  introduction  will  participation  an  We  for  have a l s o  suggested  a p p r o p r i a t e process  of change elements.  review the and  or p l a n n i n g  theoretical  suggest t h a t  for  In  approaches to  t h i s planning t o o l  could  p r o v i d e a "two-way" communications channel, between the  planners  and  We  the planned f o r , i n a more open p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  will  a l s o i d e n t i f y the elements which a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program should i n c l u d e i n order to c a r r y Few  principles  out  this  role.  i n p l a n n i n g are  p r i n c i p l e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . embraced, r e j e c t e d , case  (Starrs  entire  and  as  controversial  It is  d e r i d e d , c o n s t r a i n e d and  Stewart, 1971)  as  the  alternatively i n at l e a s t  expanded to i n c l u d e  one  the  world. Sociologist  many people pay  Sherry A r n s t e i n  l i p service  (19 71)  to the  observes t h a t  while  concept, they choke on  the  implementation:  The  i d e a of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  e a t i n g spinach;  no  i t i s good f o r you  one ...  is a l i t t l e  like  i s a g a i n s t i t i n p r i n c i p l e because the  applause i s reduced to p o l i t e  handclaps, however, when t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s advocated the havenot b l a c k s ... participation consensus on  and  when the  havenots d e f i n e  as r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, the the  American  fundamental p r i n c i p l e explodes  many shades of o u t r i g h t p o l i t i c a l opposition  racial,  ethnic,  (1971, p.294)  by  into  ideological  and  In language too e x p r e s s i v e t o paraphrase, Cahn and Cahn conclude  that evaluating c i t i z e n  i s r i d d l e d with r i s k . i s t ' s badlands, nightmare"  participation  I t s e v o l u t i o n has been "... a j o u r n a l -  a s o c i a l planner's d i s a s t e r , and a p o l i t i c i a n ' s  (1971, p. 16).  participation  authors  The authors  i s expensive,  add t h a t c i t i z e n  time consuming, u n p r e d i c t a b l e ,  i n v i s i b l e , sometimes treacherous and o f t e n u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . They sum up:  Even a t i t s b e s t , and when most f u l l y r e a l i z e d , i t i s p r e c a r i o u s , f r a g i l e , v u l n e r a b l e and e a s i l y or p e r v e r t e d .  destroyed  I t i s t h r e a t e n i n g , l i k e l y to i n v i t e  r e t a l i a t i o n , and l i k e l y t o generate and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s i t u a t i o n s  highly explosive  (1971, p.10).  They add t h a t w i t h a l l o f i t s f a u l t s i t i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e . The p r i n c i p l e i s defended but i t s p r a c t i c e i s d e f e c t i v e , i n the view o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l drop-out  Robert  Goodman  (1971)  who claims t h a t the e f f o r t s o f advocacy planners such as Paul D a v i d o f f t o e s t a b l i s h a new form o f urban democracy have come t o n o t h i n g . attempting  C i t i n g h i s own a b o r t i v e experience i n  t o i n v o l v e people i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , Goodman  accuses planners o f being " s o f t cops", g u i l t y o f s u p p o r t i n g the s t a t u s quo a t best and o u t r i g h t d e s t r u c t i v e a t worst. Proponents o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n don't a c t u a l l y mean i t , he charges;  i t i s j u s t another way o f p a c i f y i n g the masses.  51. Such vigorous to underline a planning  d i s c u s s i o n of the p r i n c i p l e merely  serves  the f a c t t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has become  t o o l , whose use  i s , at best,  tricky.  The  purpose  of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to d e f i n e the concept, to review b r i e f l y the circumstances which have l e d to i t s e v o l u t i o n and d i s c u s s i t s p o t e n t i a l uses and  constraints.  to  Finally,  we  hope to i d e n t i f y those elements of the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process which may  be u s e f u l f o r the purposes o f s o c i a l  communi-  cation. A p r e v a i l i n g theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e views  citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e attempt by groups of t o achieve power.  Burke d e f i n e s power as "...  the  to e x e r c i s e one's w i l l even over the o p p o s i t i o n of (1968, p.292).  Arnstein describes  (19 71)  pressure  ability others"  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  a " c a t e g o r i c a l term f o r c i t i z e n power" Head  citizens  (1971, p.71)  while  views the phenomenon as a form of c o u n t e r v a i l i n g  exerted  by some groups who  are attempting to i n f l u e n c e  government w h i l e l i m i t i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r Other d e f i n i t i o n s are not p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as "...  so hard edged.  groups. Warner d e f i n e s  a c t i o n s taken by those not  having  decision-making a u t h o r i t y to i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s of those who  do"  (1971, p . 2 ) .  C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  be viewed as a g o a l i n i t s e l f  (Davis, undated) where the involvement o f c i t i z e n s i s d e s i r a b l e f o r a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e , such as s o c i a l reform or  citizen  52. t r a i n i n g o r i n c r e a s e d s e l f esteem. (Burke,  1968;  L a z a r , 1971)  where p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one goal.  Other commentators  view i t as a p l a n n i n g  process,  o f s e v e r a l means t o a b r o a d e r s o c i a l  Burke s y n t h e s i z e s these two  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a "process  concepts i n t o t h a t o f goal"  (1968, p.288) o r  a p r o c e d u r e t o e n a b l e communities t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own  problem-  solving capacities. There i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the impetus f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been the i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e and of b u r e a u c r a t i c decision-making,  complexity  and the r i s i n g demands f o r  p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d society.  D e a l i n g w i t h t h e f i r s t a s p e c t , the Committee on  Government P r o d u c t i v i t y e s t a b l i s h e d by the Government o f Ontario  reported:  ...  i t may  be the paradox o f our time t h a t , i n the  i n t e r e s t s of improving  the w e l f a r e o f the  individual,  governments have grown so huge and so complex t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s t h a t he does not p e r s o n a l l y m a t t e r t o them (1973, Report #10,  p. 19)  I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h i s a p p a r e n t l y e x h a u s t e d the committee's v i e w s on t h e m a t t e r ,  s i n c e o n l y f o u r p a r a g r a p h s were  devoted t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t i z e n s and and the many b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d  were d i s m i s s e d w i t h the comment:  " S e v e r a l improvements were s u g g e s t e d t o meet t h i s (1973, Report #10,  p.19).  government  challenge"  The a p p r o p r i a t e mix o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e o c c u p i e s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f many o b s e r v e r s .  Woodbury  (1966) argues t h a t one o f t h e g r e a t weaknesses o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s t h e t r e n d toward l i m i t i n g p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n by emphasizing the t e c h n i c a l aspects o f planning.  He says t h i s  i s dangerous, s i n c e :  ... t h e more t h e t e c h n i c a l end grows, and t h e a r e a s o f p u b l i c concern c o n t r a c t , t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t w i l l become f o r p l a n n i n g t o command s t r o n g and w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c s u p p o r t w i t h o u t which i t s g r e a t e r ends w i l l n o t be r e a l i z e d (1966, p.573).  The f o r c e s which have g i v e n r i s e t o t h e phenomenon o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e b e s t summarized i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e by Cahn and P a s s e t t (19 71)  f o r t h e American e x p e r i e n c e and  i n t h e v a r i o u s w o r k i n g papers o f t h e Committee Productivity  on Government  (1973) f o r t h e Canadian e x p e r i e n c e .  These  p o i n t s are reviewed here. Cahn and P a s s e t t s u g g e s t t h a t i f i n c r e a s e d b u r e a u c r a c y and e x p e r t i s e a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e c i t i z e n  participation  phenomenon, c i v i l r i g h t s and urban redevelopment i n t h e 1960's were t h e i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k s .  These two i s s u e s , w h i c h  i n v o l v e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e poor and t h e r i g h t s o f t h o s e a f f e c t e d by development t o be h e a r d , c r e a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l impetus w h i c h l e d t o t h e demands o f t h e p u b l i c t o  participation  i n the decision-making  participation  programs  forming the of  and d i s s o l v i n g  principle "maximum  into  In  when a on  around  act creating  Canada,  rule  cipation  cited  The  initial  goal-oriented,  ends.  I n t h e U.S.,  formalized  t h e "War  when  o f the poor, on P o v e r t y "  the  was  concept  written  (Head,  1 9 7 1 , p.18)  of citizen participation  earliest  form  Involvement  Productivity  was  struggles  of the Family  representative  Citizen  specific  the evolution  the e l i t i s t  t o be  participation"  i n the country's  more  tended  of participation  feasible  t h e 1964  rooted  thus  process.  f o r self-government,  C o m p a c t was  o f government.  prepared  replaced  The w o r k i n g  f o r t h e Committee  the following  i s  pressures  on  by paper  Government  for citizen  parti-  (1973) :  Rising  levels  of education,  desire  to participate  which  have  i n the decisions  encouraged which  people's  concern  them; The  increasing  organizations of  the  The in A  administer  and p e r v a s i v e n e s s and l e g i s l a t e  use o f r e s t r i c t i v e c r i t e r i a ,  lack  rationalized  of faith  political  A  which  complexity  places future  of  cultural more  behalf  as economic  institutional  characterized  growth,  decision-making;  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  by p e r i o d i c  voting  and  representation; shift,  emphasis  gains;  such  i n the effectiveness  process,  principle  major  on  of  public;  narrowly  the  size,  affecting  public  on t h e p r e s e n t  than  values, on  which  possible  55.  The  r a t e of change, which tends to undermine t r a d i t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  to encourage new  be more responsive  ones which appear to  to people's d e s i r e s .  I f the o r i g i n a l purposes o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n were g o a l - o r i e n t e d , i t d i d not take long f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  to  p e r c e i v e the e f f e c t i v e u s e f u l n e s s of the movement as a  process  in  itself. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  extended to cover a wide range  o f uses, from the l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of programs or as a r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive  method o f c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about a community  (Davis, 1974).  i n some cases, the concept was  used to co-opt  the p u b l i c by i n v o l v i n g them i n the decision-making  process.  Warner (1971) summarizes the p o s s i b l e uses of c i t i z e n  partici-  p a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  Engaging p u b l i c support  f o r planning e f f o r t ,  i n f o r m a t i o n and education and  their  through  about the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s  consequences;  E l i c i t i n g a r e a c t i o n from a f f e c t e d p u b l i c s about proposed plans i n order to judge t h e i r s o c i a l  viability;  E l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from v a r i o u s p u b l i c s about p e r c e p t i o n s o f problems and their  their  s o l u t i o n s , i n order to a s c e r t a i n  values;  Developing  a t r u s t i n the p l a n n i n g process  and  a commitmeht  t o the f i n a l p l a n on the p a r t of the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c .  56. Burke  (1968), i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f c i t i z e n  participation  as a s t r a t e g y , p e r c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g uses f o r t h e c o n c e p t :  As e d u c a t i o n - t h e r a p y , when c i t i z e n s work t o g e t h e r t o l e a r n how t o r e s o l v e community problems and t o d e v e l o p a sense o f c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f r e l i a n c e i n t h e i r  ability  t o change t h e i r community; As a s t a f f supplement, i n o r d e r t o r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s t o c a r r y o u t t a s k s beyond s t a f f r e s o u r c e s , and t o supplement the e x p e r t i s e o f t h e p l a n n i n g agent; As c o - o p t a t i o n , where t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o i n v o l v e  citizens  i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n o r d e r t o head o f f a n t i c i p a t e d obstruction; -  As a community power s t r a t e g y , w h i c h s t r e s s e s change t h r o u g h c o n f l i c t and c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  Burke u n d e r l i n e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h may be f a c e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g any o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , b u t he does n o t , on b a l a n c e , deny t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . u t i l i z i n g citizen participation draws t h e most c r i t i c i s m ;  Possibly the o b j e c t i v e of  t o a c h i e v e b e h a v i o u r a l change  Goodman says t h i s approach assumes  t h a t t h e economic system i s r i g h t b u t t h e p e o p l e don't f i t : "Change t h e p e o p l e who don't f i t , c u r e them o f t h e i r d i s e a s e s ... and t h e system w i l l o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y "  (1971, p.31).  In g e n e r a l , t h e proponents o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n the  make  f o l l o w i n g c a s e , as summarized by t h e w o r k i n g paper on  Citizen  Involvement f o r t h e Committee  on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y :  57. Citizen participation:  Has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on e d u c a t i o n and s e l f development; Has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on i n t e g r a t i o n , by e x p o s i n g  people  t o a range o f new i d e a s and d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y , and promoting  a f e e l i n g o f community;  Can be a f o r c e f o r s t a b i l i t y and o r d e r , by f a c i l i t a t i n g b r o a d acceptance  o f d e c i s i o n s made i n t h e p r o c e s s ,  viewed  as a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t ; Can h e l p a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c community g o a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , energy and urban development; Can i n c r e a s e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y o f m i n o r i t y groups, who t r a d i t i o n a l l y . h a v e had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e t o share i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; Enhances an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e s t e e m by promoting  indep-  endence and c h a l l e n g i n g i n i t i a t i v e ; Can be an e f f i c i e n t and c o s t e f f e c t i v e method o f d e c i s i o n making, s i n c e i t may i d e n t i f y consequences which might not be p e r c e i v e d o t h e r w i s e by d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ; Can p r o v i d e a v i t a l and e f f e c t i v e two-way communication c h a n n e l , which can i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c o f government programs and p l a n s , and, i n t u r n , i n f o r m t h e p o l i c y makers about p e o p l e ' s v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s .  Observers (1971),  such as Goodman (1971), D a v i s  P i v e n (1965), A l t s h u l e r  (1974), L a z a r  (1965) and S t a r r s and S t e w a r t  (1971) v o i c e t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c i t i z e n participation:  58. The  concept  with  new  groups,  who  conflict  are  i t can to  reluctant  act  techno-  specific  achieving  which  may  interest  change  not  be  through  in  the  ineffectiveness of  and the  inefficiency, decision-  may  be  chiefly  income  groups  middle-class  generally  are  more  decision-makers;  increase  elitism  inequalities, since the  a  necessary  rather  many  than  citizen's  knowledge  and  reduce  groups  do  information  to  change;  higher  may  co-opt,  their  or  distract  energies  on  community  local  issues  leaders  with  a  priority;  Participation community  as  "the  conflict  can  be  various public  generate  Canadian  pressure  the  in  by  effectiveness  to  low  oppose  expending  average  the  appears  Participation  The  anticipatory  quickly;  since  to  possess  define  incompatible  a n a l y t i c a l and  manipulation  encourage  reduce  Participation political  to  interested  may  phenomenon,  from  is  interest;  process  affect  increased  confrontation  Participation  not  comprehensive,  utilizes  i s open  and  community  makers  decision-making  capabilities;  concept  since  towards  which  logical  The  broad-based  trends  planning  The  of  for  unstabilizing influence  groups  struggle  i n t e r e s t " and d i s t r u s t and  mainstream  voter  system  of  shows  as  for  the  the  on  a  mandate  confrontation  a l i e n a t i o n among  political  participation;  Canadian  present  an  to  and  neighbours.  culture  generates  little  evidence  indicates  the  little  representative  desire  to  depart  government.  from  59. The w o r k i n g paper on C i t i z e n Involvement  f o r the  Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y suggests two g e n e r a l c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e use o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e between t h e p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e effects.  F i r s t , decision-makers  and p l a n n e r s s h o u l d r e a l i z e  t h a t n o t a l l forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n are p r o d u c t i v e , and t h a t t h o s e l i k e l y t o have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . S e c o n d l y , new forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be  developed,  i n c l u d i n g t h o s e which p l a c e t h e p l a n n e r o r p o l i t i c i a n i n a s u p p o r t i v e , o r e n a b l i n g r o l e r a t h e r than i n a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , and which encourage a more u n s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s .  These two  c o n s t r a i n t s a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e argument p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n .  C o n s t r a i n t s on C i t i z e n Davis  Participation  (19 74) makes t h e p o i n t t h a t much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e  on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends t o adopt an u n c r i t i c a n s t a n c e o f the concept.  L i k e Motherhood, " c i t p a r t " i s viewed as  i n t r i n s i c a l l y good.  Wengert adds t h a t any c r i t i c i s m o f  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n g r a t e s on many  Americans:  To suggest t h a t t h e p r o c e s s , r o l e and f u n c t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n and may even be s u b j e c t t o l i m i t a t i o n i s regarded as a d e n i a l t h a t a l l men a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l and c o n s t r u e d as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f American democracy  (1961,p.24)  Yet many p r a c t i t i o n e r s to t h e i r sorrow, t h a t is essential  o f the a r t have found, sometimes  some form o f c o n s t r a i n t  t o i t s success.  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Burke (1968) notes t h a t the  need t o meet d e a d l i n e s , o r budget l i m i t a t i o n s may d i c t a t e some c o n s t r a i n t s  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  A r n s t e i n ' s w i d e l y quoted  typology o r l a d d e r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , reproduced i n F i g u r e 2., i s an attempt t o d e f i n e and c l a s s i f y v a r i o u s methods o f participation  i n accordance w i t h p r e v i o u s l y determined  8  CITIZEN CONTROL  7  DELEGATED POWER  6  PARTNERSHIP  5  PLACATION  4  CONSULTATION  3  INFORMING  2  THERAPY  1  MANIPULATION  FIGURE 2.  DEGREES OF CITIZEN POWER  DEGREES OF TOKENISM  NONPARTICIPATION  EIGHT RUNGS ON THE LADDER OF PARTICIPATION by Sherry R. Arnst'e'in  objectives.  Manipulation  and theory,  the two  lowest  l a d d e r are c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - p a r t i c i p a t o r y .  rungs of They  the  represent  the attempts of the power-holders to "cure" or "educate" public.  The next three rungs - i n f o r m i n g , c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  p l a c a t o r y - are c l a s s i f i e d as degrees of tokenism. i s permitted  to v o i c e i t s v i e w p o i n t s ,  decision-makers.  The  o f c i t i z e n power.  The p u b l i c  or at b e s t , advise  l a s t three rungs - p a r t n e r s h i p ,  power, c i t i z e n c o n t r o l - are c l a s s i f i e d  delegated  as e f f e c t i v e degrees  to make t r a d e - o f f s .  At  h i g h e s t l e v e l s , p a r t i c i p a n t s e i t h e r have m a j o r i t y or  decision-making  the  A t the p a r t n e r s h i p l e v e l , p a r t i c i p a n t s  have the power to n e g o t i a t e and two  the  the full  power.  B l u n t l y speaking,  c i t i z e n participation i s a legitimate  attempt t o achieve power.  The  degree of power must be  n e g o t i a t e d between the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , and depends to some, e x t e n t on the i s s u e i n v o l v e d .  The  key t o e f f e c t i v e  citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n advance, of the p r e c i s e degree of c o n t r o l which the decision-maker i s w i l l i n g to away.  Lazar emphasizes t h a t the kinds and amount of  bargain  parti-  c i p a t i o n d e s i r a b l e f o r any program can only be d e f i n e d i n terms o f i t s s p e c i f i c g o a l s , the community i n v o l v e d and the stage r e a d i n e s s o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  He p o i n t s out:  "The  r o l e of a  c i t i z e n i s l e s s c e n t r a l i n a s u r g i c a l team than i t i s i n a rent s t r i k e  ..."  (1971, p. 108).  of  Pessimists  l i k e Goodman (1971) and Head  out t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y ,  community a c t i o n programs have not shown  much success i n a c h i e v i n g t h a t a prime reason was  (1971) p o i n t  their objectives.  One  would  the f a i l u r e to s t i p u l a t e to a l l p a r t i e s  concerned the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n being n e g o t i a t e d At best,  such f a i l u r e c r e a t e s  participation.  suspect  away.  an i l l u s t i o n of p u b l i c  At worst, i t can be d e v a s t i n g  to the people  i n v o l v e d by encouraging them to b e l i e v e t h a t they can make a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the decision-making p r o c e s s and disregarding  t h e i r advice  and  more d e s t r u c t i v e than not  then  thus f r u s t r a t i n g them.  seeking  t h e i r advice  This i s  i n the  first  place. In c o n s t r a s t w i t h the A r n s t e i n s t r u c t u r e d approach to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , some w r i t e r s advocate a more f l e x i b l e unstructured  implementation.  Involvement f o r the O n t a r i o Producitivity  (19 72)  The working paper on C i t i z e n Government Committee on Government  e s t a b l i s h e s the  u l t i m a t e model f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , nor determine i n advance whether any  f a c t t h a t there i s i t possible  i s no to  p a r t i c u l a r model w i l l work.  The working paper suggests t h a t the fundamental u n i t of o r g a n i z a t i o n  f o r a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program should be  problem s o l v i n g group, between f i v e and u n i t would be  small enough  twelve people.  a  small The  to ensure the meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o f each member, y e t l a r g e enough to i n c l u d e expert  resources  to  deal  with  the issue  government assigned  The  unit  would  group would making  have  be temporary  acknowledge  new  which all  theory defines  citizens.  Communications Efforts  i n nature,  agency  between  and would  be  and  members.  disband  o r sponsoring  body  should  concerns o f the public  the decisions  affecting  and  o f d e m o c r a t i c government participation (1971,p  them.  to  Frederick  towards  out that  a monopoly  government adds:  imply  i n many  on i n f o r m a t i o n .  adequately  as t h e c e n t r a l  right  one  of  .3)  increasing  Axworthy  points  i s emerging,  Participation  necessarily  He  communication  conflicts  the legitimate  decision-making  the  both  summarizes:  A  to  from  expertise.  face-to-face  t h e government,  a say i n influencing  Thayer  come  The group would  i t s own  f o rresolving  would  i t s recommendations.  Finally, publicly  sectors.  to hire  employ  be r e s p o n s i b l e  after  Membership  and non-government  the resources  The would  a t hand.  public  participation i n  increased cases,  access  t h e government  It i s difficult  formidable  data  information. retains  fora citizen  respond t o a planned development agencies'  to  when  group  i t lacks  and r e s e a r c h  base.  ...  a system  o f communication  government  t o t h e needs  subsequent  new  the  new  forms  forms  s p e c i a l l y geared  of citizen  organizations  of organization  of decision-making  by t h e and  are essential i f  a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e  (1971, . 8) p  Axworthy dealing mode a  with  makes two  Meier's  information  larger  specific  urban  Yet  that  maintaining cohesion  kind  though  they  may  area,  community.  they  desire,  debates them  logy  I f there  that  they  precise  be  are better  and d e t a i l e d  then  sense  i s essential for  i s a way  enabling  of  together,  separated able  i n a  to feel  even  metropart  can r e c e i v e ,  information  of when  o f the  on i s s u e s  that  affect  o f a l i e n a t i o n c a n be  o f t h e new  the capacity  (1971, p.10)  up t h e  and  o f government  their  ... t h e t e s t  i s whether  make  ethnic,  o f community  I f i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups  directly,  exists.  a sense  geographically  and discussions  diminished  that  i n t e r e s t s t o communicate  then  supply  of linguistic,  of information  among p e o p l e .  o f common  i s for a  says:  and enhancing  people  a  He  the need  not necessarily  and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups  i t i s this  politan  does  First,  the particular interests of  to the multitude  community.  points.  overload",  supplies  T h e mass m e d i a  neighbourhood  important  "information  o f communication  community.  further  communications  f o r allowing  this  techno-  t o happen  The second p o i n t i s the obvious need f o r feedback mechanisms which can communicate the needs and concerns o f the p u b l i c back to the decision-maker.  We  He notes:  are b e g i n n i n g to l e a r n t h a t one reason why  programs o f t e n f a i l  government  i s t h a t they are designed to f i t  the p e r c e p t i o n s o f problems as seen by the p l a n n e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r or p o l i t i c i a n , not the p e r c e p t i o n of the problem as seen by the people who (1971,  experience the  problem.  p.10)  Thus Axworthy has s e t t h r e e c r i t e r i a f o r a s o c i a l c a t i o n s system which i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs.  communiFirst,  i t must be designed t o supply q u a n t i t i e s of r e l e v a n t data to a c i t i z e n group. i n t e r e s t groups  Second, i t must meet the needs of p a r t i c u l a r i n the community who  may  be separated s p a t i a l l y .  T h i r d , i t must i n c l u d e a "feedback mechanism" t o c y c l e the p e r c e p t i o n s o f c i t i z e n s groups back t o the decision-maker. The requirements  suggested by Axworthy are more s t r i n g e n t  and s p e c i a l i z e d than the communications process d e s c r i b e d by Meier  (1962).  In Meier's model, t h e r e i s a sender, a message,  a channel, a r e c e i v e r , a share of the r e c e i v e r ' s a common language,  time, and a t l e a s t one purpose  attention, to be served.  Meier p o i n t s out t h a t there can be a m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f messages;  f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e c e i v e r can r e -  t r a n s m i t the message to o t h e r s .  He a l s o u s e f u l l y d e f i n e s  a t t e n t i o n as "... a p r o p o r t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h e f r a c t i o n o f symbols a c t u a l l y comprehended from among those p r e s e n t e d " (1962, p.9). per  cent.  He e s t i m a t e s t h i s p r o p o r t i o n a t f i f t y t o e i g h t y  Thus t h e sender r e q u i r e s r e p e t i t i o n t o g e t h i s  message a c r o s s . M e i e r o b s e r v e s t h a t time i s o f t e n i g n o r e d i n d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l communications.  "Communications  i s always a r a t e  p r o c e s s and f o r humans t h e minimum time f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a s i g n a l f a l l s i n t h e range o f 10-20 m i l l i s e c o n d s "  (1962, p.10).  S i n c e time i s a s c a r c e commodity, bonded by t h e l i m i t s o f a human l i f e - s p a n , he argues t h a t message t r a n s m i s s i o n must be efficient.  Public Participation In  Criteria  reviewing the p r i n c i p l e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the  a s p e c t w h i c h i s most u s e f u l t o us here i s i t s p o t e n t i a l as a "two-way" communications c h a n n e l between t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , f i r s t as a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e p u b l i c t o be a f f e c t e d , and second as a means o f c o n v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about impending p l a n s o r programs. In o r d e r f o r a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program t o be an e f f e c t i v e communications c h a n n e l , i t appears t o us t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g elements s h o u l d be p r e s e n t :  Pub l i e  In f e r e s t :  public  m u s t be  Interest may  not  aware  program issue  unless  they  involved.  any  issue  the  affected  in participating.  initiative,  programmed  to  Degree  of  program degree  since  until  the  a  they  group  are  made  Access:  convey  of  a  taking  into  other  Process  are  of  in  the  a  must  be  absorb i t ;  the  precise  willing by  will  to  bargain  Arnstein  be  flow  account  of  be  which  is  frustrated  an  a  an  and  to  accessible  interest  function  information  information  l e v e l s of  broadly  have  is often  available,  the  system  a l l .target  literacy,  of  in  ethnic,  groups,  language  variables;  Orientation:  Since  the  process  as  and  should  product  rather  a  public participation  defined  access  participation, the  to  some p o i n t  community  Since  a  content  ability  public  into  available  P a r t i c i p a t i o n must  information  should  be  successful  as  input  understanding  and  planners  the  have  fail;  participating. of  quantity  "consultation"  a l l segments  must  public's  "manipulation"  of  cannot  thorough  s t i p u l a t e at  program w i l l  kind  the  c o n t r o l which  If  Degree  a  Participation: A  of  merely  have  and  meet  should  away.  People  Information  flow,  and  in  Information:  continuing  to  to. w o r k ,  interested  necessarily  interested  is  of i t ;  Relevant  the  a program  genuinely  i s not be  If  than  structured  there of be  and  i s no  ultimate  participation is flexible  narrowly  and  model as  of  important  supportive,  conceived;  Size/Scale The  size  the  specific  and  the  be for  an  and  scale  of  goals,  medium  of  the  the  program  nature  communication  e f f e c t i v e form  decision-making;  for  of  should the  be  tailored  community  chosen.  A  demonstration,  but  mass not  to  involved, . rally  may  necessarily  68. 7.  Scope: I f the  i s s u e s are p u r e l y l o c a l  on  of minorities,  the r i g h t s  local  level.  I f the p e o p l e  i s s u e s may  be  a f f e c t e d by  locally  made d e c i s i o n s c o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t method o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  flow of i n f o r m a t i o n to the p u b l i c .  participation  p r o g r a m s h o u l d accommodate  between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  themselves;  Visibility:  s h o u l d be  place. to  all,  Participation  The and  decision-making the  necessarily  b r o a d l y based  In t h i s  s e c t i o n , we  probably  find  channel.  some f e e d b a c k  are  and  visible  at i n order  provide  to  a  of "two-  will  t h i s mode o f  policies  e x e r c i s e , he may  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s modes. Three.  taken  t o s i t u a t i o n s where he  from the t a r g e t groups a f f e c t e d .  i n Chapter  a  dialogue  However, t h e p l a n n e r  limited  scope of h i s p l a n n i n g  discussed  Similarly,  a mode, o r method  p r o g r a m s can  i n f o r m a t i o n about p l a n s  more t r a d i t i o n a l  as  d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b l e  that his opportunities to u t i l i z e  communications  to disseminate  overall  p r o g r a m s as  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , where s u c h  communications"  important  s h o u l d be  arrived  feed-  support.  have b r i e f l y  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the  s e e n t o have  process  d e c i s i o n s openly  achieve  social  minorities,  changed;  the  way  the  i n a w i d e r a r e a , o r where  b a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c i s as  social  at  the d e c i s i o n  F e e d b a c k M e c h a n i s m s : In p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  9.  infringe  decided  a larger population  be  use  do n o t  involve  t h e d e g r e e and  8.  and  and  recover  Within wish to  T h e s e modes  wants  the utilize  are  69. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER  TWO  Meier suggests t h a t a person's c a p a c i t y t o r e c e i v e information  i s b a s i c a l l y a f u n c t i o n of h i s r e a d i n g speed.  70. CHAPTER  THREE  COMMUNICATIONS  3.1  INTRODUCTION Management  in  the period  switched By  from  ing  that  working, 'glue'  War  now  together  Chapter Five,  we  planning  components We  a  have  planning  tool  which  mode,  since  plans  and p o l i c i e s  priorities  values  have  attempted  which  than  social  and a c t i v i t i e s  stem  to identify  from  on  system  In t h i s  systems.  specifications for  to enable planners chapter,  we  will  modes, o r c h a n n e l s , w h i c h communications  be u s e d programs  groups.  some  the increasing  of information  may  to  describe be  used  system.  public  participation i s  as a s o c i a l can recycle  o f the plan-makers  of the target  Observ-  p329).  suggested that  participation  the production,  individuals,  delivery  may  earned  channels are the  objectives.  already  economy.  and i n f o r m a t i o n .  suggest the design  i n a social  has  of every dollar involve  that  time watching t e l e v i s i o n  and c o m p l e x i t y  some o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s as  half  more  f o r planners  communications  States  economy t o a knowledge  of ideas  s t u d y , we  will  suggests  "Information  (1973,  f a r i n this  of information  achieve  spend  (1968)  the United  economy w o u l d  Kalba concludes: link  Drucker  Two,  producing  and procurement  the implications  social  Peter  he p r e d i c t e d  day-to-day basis"  flow  a  World  a goods  Americans  that  So  In  since  spent i n the American  distribution  of  consultant  1970's,  the late  and  a  MODES  communications information  and the values  However,  i n many  about  and cases,  the  planner may  f i n d more t r a d i t i o n a l communications modes adequate  f o r h i s purposes.  T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes now  taking place  will  p l a c e a new s e t o f communications t o o l s a t h i s d i s p o s a l . The planner who  does not know how  modes w i l l l i k e l y  and when to employ  these  f i n d t h a t h i s e f f o r t s w i l l be c o n f i n e d to  those people with whom he can communicate  on a f a c e - t o - f a c e  b a s i s , w i t h l i m i t e d impact on a wider audience and on government decision-making. Since i n f o r m a t i o n i s w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d as power ( B e l l , Kalba,  1974) the planner's  1973  c e n t r a l c h a l l e n g e i s the e q u i t a b l e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s power throughout a l l s t r a t a of s o c i e t y (Sackman and Boehm, 1972).  There i s a p u z z l i n g l a c k of  r e s e a r c h i n the area o f media consumption and Rosengren concludes  t h a t there i s no typology  i s widely  accepted,  (19 74)  of mass media content  and emphasizes the l a c k o f  which  systematic  r e s e a r c h i n the area of needs, problems, and g o a l s .  Elliott  (1974) r e p o r t s t h a t most media r e s e a r c h uses a uses and g r a t i f i c a t i o n s model, which has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g or e f f e c t i v e .  Mendelsohn  (1974) p o i n t s out t h a t the needs-  u s e s - g r a t i f i c a t i o n s model can be e a s i l y d i s t o r t e d , s i n c e i t i s v u l n e r a b l e to the value systems o f those making the determination:  Thus the teacher sees o n l y the need f o r an the p h y s i c i a n f o r therapy; the communicator  the preacher  education;  for morality;  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and entertainment.  the p h y s i c i a n o f t e n o f f e r s e d u c a t i o n ;  the teacher  Yet tries  to  inculcate  preacher in Dr.  Marcus  The  that In the of  3.2  presents  a dramatic  offers  on t h e p l a n n e r  hisefforts planner  many  the times  and t e l e v i s i o n ' s  therapy  should  on a  continuing  2.  Telephone  3.  Broadcasting  4.  Cable  5.  Digital  of this into  a manipulative towards  b y common of  Satellites;  7.  Print;  8.  Video-tape  and  (1962)  exercise.  h i s objectives,  sense  and t h e f e a r  credibility.  study,  we may  the following  system; relay  systems;  film.  i s discussed  briefly  classify the  modes:  system;  information  6.  responsi-  opinion  system;  television  mode  heavy  MODES  system  Face-to-face;  Meier's  hispublic  or the loss  t h e purposes  1.  accept  be c o n s t r a i n e d  k i l l "  communications  modes p l a c e s  i s essentially  COMMUNICATIONS  Each  i f we  t o manipulate  "over  For  milieu;  medical  use o f communications  communications  media  v a r i e t i e s of information  or entertaining  Welby  and p r o p r i e t y ;  (1974, p.304)  basis.  bilities  principles of ethics  i n turn.  Face-to-Face In  the  beginning,  "information  o v e r l o a d " and  communication. primarily  to  accommodate was  clay  symbols,  tablets,  later  followed the  Face-to-face  probably  the  by  and  form  of  cities  evolved  Face-to-face  alphabet.  of written  speeches  and  personal  of  had f a c e - t o - f a c e  record-makings  is effectively  meetings,  primary  that  the  standardization  public  we  concept  communication.  augmented music,  the  worlds",  surmises  human  communication  interviews,  evolved  "wired  (1962)  Meier  communication  press  b e f o r e we  such  The  as  printing  communication.  carried  out  surveys,  through  and  remains  communication.  Telephone In have the  at  Canada, least  face  the  eliminate Ball  the  also  influence.  He  our  for  to  criteria a l l and  Blumenfeld  telephone of  He  desire  (1968),  telephone  n i n e t y - f o u r per  has  to  demand  notes  the  that  communicate for a  reviewing  the  agree  a^-social  that  cent  of  (1967)  the  that  revolutionary  i t permitted  constraints  the  households  suggests  most  since  of  face-to-  telephone  did  not  face-to-face,  and  thus  central  p e r c e i v e s the  would  been  communication,  t r a n s m i t t e d beyond  communication. the  than  telephone.  history  t o be  eliminate  the  of  i n the  messages  not  one  invention  change  more  business  district.  sociological  implications  telephone  a  the  telephone  communications  i t i s pervasive, putting  as  the  of  decentralizing meets  system:  world  did  two  i t is  within  of accessible  reach  of  the  caller.  inclined caller it  However,  to  or  answer  sender  difficult  action, time  in  spent In  First,  on  of  the  Canada,  voice  of  interconnecting services  services,  and  Its  a  a  circuits  sections  of  known  can  as  accessible,  TWX  network  value  of  the  This  on  the  makes  trans-  received,  use  are a  two  and  the  systems, Telex,  main  purposes  communications,  i t provides  barely  a  such  sub-network as  CATV o r  tapped.  telephone  voice  Video  The  to  teletype cable  for  In  learn  response.  In  already  telephone radio  communications  show  designed  the  one  systems  univer Tele-  remote-access  been -  one  instruction.  are  on  has  York,  Montreal,  language  phones which  New  mathematics,  computerized  are  "phone-in"  two-way  serves  user-to-user  and  accommodate  U.S. or  a  is  capacity.  communications  "openline"  one  knowledge  information  Second,  s i m i l a r method can  the  since  transmitted.  place  communications  systems.  face-to-face  of  be  two-way p r i v a t e  programmed  using  previous  to  to  telephone  p o t e n t i a l uses  information  the  bits  microwave  students  dialling  phone  the  communications.  exchange  is  receiver  the  i t provides  ghetto  message  intruder,  process.  or  sity  the  the  terms  an  i t s ring without  of  for  i t i s also  market the of  for in  basis the  available  few to  some for truly nearly  everyone. A the  more  concept  telephone  l i m i t e d use of  and  of  the  telphone  teleconferencing, amplification units  which to  for participation is  consists  enable  the  of  using  the  participants  to  hear  and  to  be  electronically in  different The  Region)  communities,  in  and  pollution, experience,  however,  participants  travel  know  at  least  time  can  Broadcasting  and  systems  include  of  which  Both  rely  on  microwave  Each The on  a  jurisdiction  transmitter number given  of  as  airport  and  The  information  concerns. best  put  savings  in  noise  In  when  can  quick  our  the faces cost  to and  Systems  both  the  topics  to  great.  services,  under  new  such  eye.  included  of  beforehand,  mind's  people  sharing  environmental  other  (Pacific  Community  Benefits  rapid  groups  energy.  encouraging  process.  on  and  a  can  other  Canada  t e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g works  i n the  Broadcasting  also  of  with  time  organize  objective  awareness  each  be  group  travel  to  ideas,  transit  a  technology  Association of  political  social  rapid  the  to  as  reducing  technology  feedback  increased  voices,  this  the  meeting  Planning  project, with  response  Teleconferencing  people  Community  participate  and  link  utilized  Exchange  heard.  uses  of a  messages,  channel  available  within  available  is  require  depends  that  sometimes  the  of  which  frequencies, of  on  total  called  and  the  The with  television  i n Canada  telecommunications  amount  channel.  radio  over-the-air-transmitter.  facilities,  group or  an  both  carriers.  called  information number  number  width  of  of the  are  a  channel.  transmitted  of  frequencies  frequencies channel.  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e competition  f o r use o f these  f r e q u e n c i e s by a number o f users - t a x i - f l e e t s , d e l i v e r y f l e e t s , p o l i c e and f i r e departments, a i r l i n e s , government and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s , remote-control  systems, amateur and short-wave r a d i o  as w e l l as r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n broadcast any  frequency  systems.  Use o f  i s l i c e n c e d , not owned, and s u b j e c t t o f a i r l y  stringent regulations.  In Canada the r e g u l a t i n g body i s the  Canadian R a d i o - T e l e v i s i o n Commission, which a d m i n i s t e r s the Broadcasting The  A c t enacted  on A p r i l  1, 1968.  CRTC i t s e l f was s e t up t o p r o v i d e some form o f p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by encouraging a two-way flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . and  I t i s charged with a p p l y i n g the views  information s o l i c i t e d  casting  with  from the p u b l i c i n developing  broad-  policies.  I t can be argued  (Goldfarb, 1977; Gossage, 1974) t h a t  r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and other  forms o f mass media p r o v i d e a form  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s u p p l y i n g " r e c e i v e r s " with hard news or i n f o r m a t i o n , o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o them.  items,  Weather  r e p o r t s and emergency d i r e c t i v e s d u r i n g d i s a s t e r s are messages aimed a t h e l p i n g the r e c e i v e r make a d e c i s i o n a f f e c t i n g h i s own w e l f a r e  and the r e c e i v e r i s turned  a participant. bad  from a s p e c t a t o r i n t o  Gossage argues: "When the r a d i o t e l l s you o f  i c i n g c o n d i t i o n s on the l o c a l highway, you are no longer a  spectator but a r e c e i v e r of e s s e n t i a l information"  (1974, p . 2 ) .  Despite television public,  such  broadcasting  apart  find  i t s most  Wood  (1971)  program  from  describes  provided  the actors  housing,  employment  completed,  process.  Both access  their  than  this  repeated radio  paid  public  peak  ness.  commercial  Television  leaders, channels,  provide  does  announcements p e r i o d s , which  another  form  but the initiative,  of  five  education,  n o t seem  the series  users  t o have  success. systems  and through  provide  unpaid  allow  public  businessmen,  t o communicate  with  o r commercials.  are normally can reduce  featuring  of access  Spanish  topics,  When  broadcasting  media  shows,  which  i n the evaluation  i t s apparent  the use o f "spots"  "talk"  television  area,  consumer  The a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  and o t h e r  o f Canada.  and o t h e r  problems.  advertisements,  service  action  i n the production  experiment  despite  through  coast  the program  dealing with  and t e l e v i s i o n  agencies  market  unpaid  shows  announcements.  government  to decide  Rican  the residents participated  through  service  Puerto  and education  However,  been w i d e l y  community  seems t o  i n t h e development and  and a s s i s t e d  television  show, w h i c h  Jersey metropolitan  of the project;  residents helped  closed to the  on t h e west  an e f f e c t i v e  speaking  half-hour  radio  environment  York/New  r a d i o and  are relatively  line"  resident participation  implementation  was  the commercial  systems  t h e "open  prolific  i n t h e New  utilizes  rationales,  aired  their  local  at  less  effective-  events  t o commercial  and t h e e d i t o r i a l  The  and  television  jurisdiction  78. over content i s normally i n the hands o f the b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a f f , not i n the hands o f the person being i n t e r v i e w e d . In  Canada, c i t i z e n access has been p r o v i d e d t o both  r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n channels.  Community r a d i o i s one  social  communication t o o l which i s overlooked by p l a n n e r s , but which i s i n c r e a s i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y as a community programming mode. I t has c e r t a i n key advantages when compared to i t s more glamorous b r o a d c a s t i n g c o l l e a g u e , t e l e v i s i o n .  An important  one  i s cost;  Baer (1974) estimates t h a t an e n t i r e r a d i o broadcast  facility,  composed o f two o r three s t u d i o s and p o r t a b l e  equipment, can be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the funds r e q u i r e d simply to  equip a two-camera t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o .  Since r a d i o techno-  logy i s l e s s complicated, maintenance c o s t s are lower for  television. Mitchell  (1974) and o t h e r commentators r e p o r t t h a t r a d i o  a d d i t i o n a l advantages are i t s immediacy, f l e x i b i l i t y of  than  q u a l i t y producion.  Many people who  and ease  s t a r t i n community  t e l e v i s i o n programming and who become i n t i m i d a t e d by the equipment, switch to community In of  urban areas, community  audiences  i n a l i m i t e d area.  radio. r a d i o may  cover a wide range  One example i s Wired World,  a Kitchener-Waterloo, O n t a r i o , community p r o j e c t which p r o v i d e complete access f o r c i t i z e n s o f the community  and d i v e r s e  programming i n c l u d i n g b r e a k f a s t programs, women's and consumer programs, and s p e c i a l programming f o r c h i l d r e n and f o r s e n i o r citizens.  Another example i s Vancouver Co-op Radio, which  79. started broadcasting  in April,  1975,  t r a n s m i t t e r and even lower v o l t a g e  w i t h a low  powered  financing.  Co-op Radio  i s managed by a Workers' C o u n c i l , which approves programming and  editorial policy.  C o u n c i l members represent  the  groups i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , such as the news team, o r e t h n i c programming u n i t . a r t s and  various the  Co-op Radio a c t i v e l y supports  disadvantaged groups, and  attempts to p r o v i d e  the  view-  p o i n t s which are d i f f e r e n t from those s t a t e d by government industry leaders  i n the commercial media.  e x p l a i n s the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  We  One  group member  policy:  b e l i e v e i n u s i n g the medium as a t o o l and  sure t h a t people have access to t h i s t o o l .  i n making We  f a c i l i t i e s of Co-op Radio are a p u b l i c resource o f resource polies.  We  In northern s p a t i a l pattern,  t h a t has  and  heretofore  been r e s e r v e d  think  the  - a type  f o r mono-  a c t i v e l y seek involvement from the p u b l i c .  o r r u r a l areas, a more cohesive  r a d i o may  1  have a d i f f e r e n t  audience and  a unique  use.  In many areas r a d i o i s the o n l y mode of communication a v a i l a b l e . In the Mackenzie r e g i o n of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , i n s t a n c e , the Mackenzie network o f the CBC  provides  the  r e g i o n a l communications coverage, both i n E n g l i s h and s e v e r a l l o c a l n a t i v e languages.  The  region's  l i m i t e d mainly to the s p e c i f i c urban centres the l o c a l n a t i v e press  for only  in  newspapers are  they serve,  i s mainly p r i n t e d i n E n g l i s h .  and  80.  On the B.C. west coast, V i s u a l Educational native  Indian  RAVEN, o r the Radio and Audio  Network, maintains communications between  groups, separated by d i s t a n c e  unique c u l t u r e .  but u n i t e d by a  RAVEN u t i l i z e s a s i n g l e side-band  radio  frequency and sometimes uses the network f o r conferences between d i f f e r e n t c h i e f s and t h e i r bands. have i n c r e a s e d  Although RAVEN'S r a d i o  units  from 54 t o 92 ( M i t c h e l l , 1974), i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  use o f video equipment has decreased.  A s i d e from the unique s p a t i a l and e t h n i c s e r v i c e s which r a d i o can p r o v i d e ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l areas, the use o f  r a d i o as a s o c i a l communications t o o l may be c o n s t r a i n e d nature o f i t s audience.  With some e x c e p t i o n s ,  by the  radio i s  g e n e r a l l y viewed i n the i n d u s t r y as the "youth" communications mode.  Dominated by rock and r o l l  and country and western  music, r a d i o s t a t i o n s attempt t o s o l i c i t "under t h i r t y "  age group.  radio i s often a solace shut-ins  A t the o t h e r end o f the spectrum,  and an i n e x p e n s i v e companion f o r the  and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , who may f i n d the c o s t o f t e l e -  vision prohibitive. are  t h e i r audiences i n the  The persons i n the middle years - which  a l s o the years when people are most i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i -  pating  i n community programs - may be tuned out t o r a d i o .  Cable T e l e v i s i o n In theory, the communications mode known as CATV, o r community antenna t e l e v i s i o n holds g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r the p l a n n e r seeking to e n e r g i z e  h i s clientele into participating i n  a s o c i a l communications e x e r c i s e . not  y e t been taken up.  In f a c e , the c h a l l e n g e has  81. In Canada, community programming r e c e i v e d i t s b i g g e s t impetus i n J u l y , 1971, when the CRTC announced i t would encourage owners o f c a b l e systems t o p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n one channel f o r •the use o f the community. Perhaps i t i s a l l too new; of  the most i n t e r e s t i n g  aspect  community programming i s the l i m i t e d degree to which i t i s  u t i l i z e d by c i t i z e n ' s groups.  Lyman and M a r t i n  (1974), i n  t h e i r r e p o r t on access to the media by community groups, p o i n t out  t h a t access must be e x e r c i s e d i f i t i s to have any meaning,  and  concluded t h a t with few e x c e p t i o n s , access t o community  channels has not been u t i l i z e d much by the p u b l i c .  They sum  up:  The simple f a c t o f the matter i s t h a t most people i n the community don't want t o produce t e l e v i s i o n .  I t does  not  o f f e r them the k i n d of feedback, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  the  i n t e r a c t i o n , that f i l l s  t h e i r needs (1974, p.16).  Gossage says the c h a l l e n g e i s t o c r e a t e e n t i r e l y uses f o r the technology o f t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o .  different  The f i r s t  o b j e c t i v e must be p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n :  The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e problem ... i s i n c r e a s i n g the p u b l i c ' s awareness t h a t they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the most mysterious o f a l l means o f communication ... t h a t they can  do something themselves w i t h the most powerful  instruments o f communication and image-making t h a t man has i n v e n t e d ... (1974, p.20).  82. Yet the p o t e n t i a l i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  In terras of  n a t i o n a l p e n e t r a t i o n by c a b l e , Canada i s the most w i r e d n a t i o n i n the world, and B r i t i s h Columbia i s the most densely province.  covered  By March, 19 71, there were 342 CATV o p e r a t i o n s i n  Canada, many of them c l o s e t o the U.S. American t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s .  border w i t h i n reach of  In B.C.,  there are  seventy-  three separate cable s t a t i o n s , whose s u b s c r i b e r s amount to n e a r l y seventy per cent o f a l l households  i n the p r o v i n c e .  Some e i g h t y - f i v e per cent o f B.C.'s 74 9,000 households  are i n  l i c e n c e d areas, and n i n e t y - f i v e per cent of those are wired for cable.  In s h o r t , c a b l e system coverage  eighty-one per cent of a l l households, coverage  of B.C.  covers  almost e q u a l l i n g  the  o f the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h e i g h t y -  nine per cent o f a l l households. A c a b l e system operates by p i c k i n g up o v e r - t h e - a i r broadcasts by means of an e s p e c i a l l y equipped t r a n s m i t t e d CATV s i g n a l s v i a copper community p i c k up.  antenna and  c o - a x i a l c a b l e to the  In Canada, telephone  companies normally  control the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f CATV s i g n a l s w i t h i n a community because they p r o v i d e the telephone pole network needed to c a r r y the d i s t r i b u t i o n cables from the community p i c k up, o r headend, t o each i n d i v i d u a l  household.  In Canada, most CATV systems o f f e r o n l y a one-way or d i r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e to the Gustomer.  In the U.S.,  some systems  have the c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e l i m i t e d two-way communications which enable programs to o r i g i n a t e i n l o c a l i t i e s remote  from  83. the  main  distribution  However, way  i t i s the  planners  p o i n t which  which  community  stations  information  accessibility community  of  and  for  the  public;  The  first  might  reluctant  equipment,  and  programming, "hands  on"  citizens train  the be  i n the on  them  system.  provide  the  two-  head-end  serve they  editorial  as  second  input  or  experts  and  a  the  citizen  utilize  from  production  to  their  and  the  The provide  programming  the  problems manage-  etc. to  One  community  approach  to  his  groups. actual  of  i n ownership,  professional  process.  equipment,  raises  produces  produce.  o f f " approach.  citizen open  interaction  public  to  and  Community  approaches  access  output,  communication  This  the  "hands  broadcasting  serve.  owners.  allows  i s more  define  the  content,  two  station  termed  his  commercial  for participation  prefers to  to  to  the  highly centralized  construed  describes  provide  with  into  communications  i t s community.  community  approach  people  enable  to  (1974)  to  community  production,  by  excited  mainly  the  p r o v i d i n g mechanisms  programming  fed  s u b s c r i b e r and  disseminate  i s normally  Mitchell  to  to  exist  facility  ment p r o g r a m  be  systems  conventional, or  tend  needs  f o r CATV  the  has  then  years.  contrast to  stations,  is  between  i n recent  In  of  potential  communications  distribution  p o i n t s , and  The  expensive skills The  owner colour  in  second,  participation o w n e r may  or by  offer  to  professional  help  goals  prepare  and  to  84. t h e i r production. o f programming,  He may be more f l e x i b l e about the frequency  normally scheduled i n h a l f - h o u r o r one-hour  segments. Richards community  (1974) suggests f i v e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f  television stations.  They a r e : 0  1.  The adoption o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y and democratic d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e s , w i t h one vote f o r each person;  2.  Ownership by community in  3.  members, i n c l u d i n g  participation  financing;  P r o v i s i o n f o r l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g and p r o d u c t i o n o f programs, and the p r o v i s i o n f o r audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n or "feedback'! programming  4.  formats;  A commitment t o t r a i n i n g l o c a l groups i n the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f equipment:  5.  A commitment t o l o c a l needs, f o r i n s t a n c e , by s c h e d u l i n g of programs and by p r o v i d i n g services  flexible  communication  (such as weather, t r a f f i c time r e p o r t s ,  etc.).  Community Video L t d . , which operates Community Ten T e l e v i s i o n i n North Vancouver, p r o v i d e s a schedule f o r p r o gramming which may be c o n s i d e r e d t y p i c a l f o r community Programming  i s decided by a programming  committee, composed  f o u r f u l l time p r o d u c e r - d i r e c t o r s and a community meeting a t l e a s t once a week. includes:  stations.  Community  of  co-ordinator,  programming  85. 1.  A  live  production,  community  groups  or  on  open  major  ended  forum  with  i s s u e s , such  as  various housing,  abortion, multiculturalism; 2.  S p e c i a l programming  f o r women a n d  3.  Weekly  local  their 4.  so  1.  Given  potential  the  little of  Time  success  reports  and  has  effort:  produce  Technical  a  to  Conflicts  by  be  in  and  to  the  amount  between  the  and  of  groups as  often  and  TV  certain costs  and  i s not  kinds  and  this  groups,  who  message,  politically  find  or  can  interest; be  necessarily  the  community  involves  groups  point  counteracting  they  lose  of and  the  who  merely  win  to want  view.  Most  see  community  the  influence  s e r v i c e groups  cannot  conflicts  c o n t r o l access  leftist,  while  of  required  constraints;  Usually  broadcasting, goals  suggests  surprised  energy  show,  service/interest  a means o f  conventional information  are  is  stations.  i n Canada  are  time  half-hour  groups:  their  question  community  field  frustrating.  given  communicate  channel  candidates  relevant;  communicate  facility,  media  this  by  Non-professionals the  a l l  access,  reported  between media/information  to  parliament  c o n s t r a i n t s : T e l e v i s i o n equipment  information,  the  of  conferences,  been  "one-shot"  intimidating way  as  published  exhausted  . best  members  for citizen  f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s may  to  3.  such  etc.  and  2.  specials,  meetings,  survey  the  from  constituents;  Weekly  why A  reports  children;  access  to  of  with air  short time.  86. 4.  C o n f l i c t between media groups: In some communities, s e v e r a l media groups,  f i n a n c e d by s h o r t term funding  programs, compete among themselves  t o c o n t r o l or dominate  access t o the l o c a l community s t a t i o n , thus becoming a new media "establishment"; 5.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h commercial  t e l e v i s i o n : Many c i t i z e n s  groups f e e l t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n should be as smooth as the Canadian  B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e i r own  as p r o f e s s i o n a l as L l o y d Robertson.  performance  As viewers, they  expect t o be p a s s i v e l y e n t e r t a i n e d , and thus negate the p a r t i c i p a t o r y b e n e f i t s o f community programming; 6.  S p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s : The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a b l e l i c e n c e s i n some urban areas f o l l o w no r e c o g n i z a b l e community boundaries, e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l ,  geographical or s p a t i a l .  T h i s works a g a i n s t e f f e c t i v e community programming; 7.  Apathy o f s t a t i o n owners: Some owners, who are complying w i t h the CRTC r e g u l a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e a community channel, to so t o meet the requirements o f the l i c e n c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , not the needs o f the community;  8.  Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n and evaluation:, Operating w i t h modest funds, many s t a t i o n s do not have a budget f o r promoting programs o r a d v e r t i s i n g t h e i r schedule, r e d u c i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l audiences.  Since they l a c k adequate  feedback  o r e v a l u a t i o n from viewers, they may not be s u p p l y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e programming.  As noted e a r l i e r , the most immediate s o l u t i o n t o some o f these problems i s improved  p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n about the p o t e n t i a l  of community programming f o r c i t i z e n access t o decision-making bodies.  Other s o l u t i o n s noted  (Lyman, 1974; M a r t i n , 1974) :  87. More  flexible  existing  programming  conventional  unstructured  to  groups  the  avoid  the  long  are  as set  by  the  is  to  service  role  Greater  which to  cuts  bodies  In  emphasis  who  knows  the  channel,  how  two be  those  tool  by geared  programs  and  order  results the  mutually, the  in  for  goal,  the  media  priorities  group's  needs;  with  local  community  on  cable  citizens  relevant  other  colleges  as  the  as  groups  a  resource  community  be  and w i t h  to  service in  order  decision-making  information.  planner's  an  information  system boundaries,  suggestions  come t o role  for  the  of  if  mind.  make u s e  a specific  it  First,  animator,  to  planner  appropriate a degree  as  groups  advocate  mode c h o s e n b y  should  effectively  or  model,  a metropolitan-wide  than  the  offered  tangible  set  group,  debates;  programming,  produce  live,  community;  is  co-ordinate  rather  Second,  communication messages  to  for  are  programs  the  development  share  should  of  supplement  input;  of  to  are  this  a c c e s s by  addition,  the  group.  and  that  In  across  increase  to  or  community,  goals  community  programming  to  served.  co-operation  Co-ordination  needs  and  being  community  the  range  conflicts,  community  such  for  of  Examples  Examples  within  would  meetings  content  information  Formulation to  group  programs.  specific  meeting  of  programming  conventional  which  programming.  coverage  Alternative  formats,  as is  citizen  his to  of  interest social deliver  participation.  88. D i g i t a l Information Relay Systems One  o f the most e x c i t i n g concepts o f urban p l a n n i n g i s  t h a t o f the wired world, composed of network neighbourhoods, l i n k e d e l e c t r o n i c a l l y across s p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s .  By means  o f two-way communications, the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s world  can  s t a t e t h e i r views on l o c a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , tap the r e s o u r c e s o f the world's and purchase  g r e a t l i b r a r i e s , communicate with t h e i r  friends,  goods and s e r v i c e s without l e a v i n g t h e i r homes.  The t e c h n i c a l importance  of CATV systems  is  their  p o t e n t i a l to become the t h i r d wired system i n a community, along w i t h e l e c t r i c power c a b l e s and telephone l i n e s .  With the  a d d i t i o n of a two-way f e a t u r e and telephone hook-up, a CATV system c o u l d be l i n k e d w i t h a c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d d i g i t a l f o r the purposes  of assembling,  storing, retrieving,  computer  compressing  and r e a c t i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y , o r "hardware" f o r computer communication a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n the form of c a b l e v i s i o n , s a t e l l i t e s , microwave t r a n s m i s s i o n , e t c .  This capacity i s  a l s o the product o f the e x p l o s i o n i n computer technology World War  Two.  Sackman and Boehm (1972) observe  one per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the U.S.  since  that only which has grown  up s i n c e World War  Two  has been i n v o l v e d w i t h computers i n a  s i g n i f i c a n t way.  But the next g e n e r a t i o n , by the year 2000,  w i l l probably f i n d t h a t computer usage has been extended one hundred per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n .  They  add:  to  89. The  s o c i a l problems f o l l o w i n g i n the wake of t h i s  u n p a r a l l e l l e d e x t e n s i o n of computer s e r v i c e s to g e n e r a l p u b l i c can boggle the mind  the  (1972, p.4).  L i m i t e d use o f computer communications are a l r e a d y  being  made, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d o f education where computeri z e d i n s t r u c t i o n and data r e t r i e v a l systems are becoming more common. access" audio  For i n s t a n c e , one  Connecticut  s c h o o l operates  a  "dial  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system which can r e t r a n s m i t e i t h e r  tapes o r videotapes  on a wide range of s u b j e c t .  l i n k i n g o f m i c r o - f i l m technology  The  with a c l o s e r c i r c u i t  infor-  mation r e t r i e v a l system makes i t p o s s i b l e to view documents v i a t e l e v i s i o n monitors a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y . The b i g g e s t c o n s t r a i n t on widespread d i s s e m i n a t i o n t h i s technology  i s cost.  Sackman and Boehm (1972)  of  estimate  t h a t computer power doubles and computer c o s t s drop by one every  three years;  industry before  they p r e d i c t a m u l t i b i l l i o n d o l l a r  information  the end of the 1970's.  But even i f the technology can be estimated,  e x i s t s and the c o s t breakthrough's  the s o c i a l consequences of implementing  p a r t i c u l a r "planovation"  cannot be p r e d i c t e d with any  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the conference  half  on i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t i e s  this  accuracy.  1969  h e l d i n Chicago, which  serves as the b a s i s f o r Sackman and Boehm"s book on the  subject,  agreed on the t e c h n o l o g i c a l imminence of mass i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t i e s , but d i s a g r e e d on the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s .  The which has  community i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y  i s the  technology  emerged out of the component p a r t s of c a b l e systems,  computers, telephone  systems, e t c .  information u t i l i t y  Sackman d e f i n e s  an  as:  ... mass communications systems i n which the consumer i n t e r a c t s d i r e c t l y with a c e n t r a l computer and i t s associated information f i l e s his  home, o f f i c e , o r s c h o o l - i n h i s n a t u r a l environment -  i n a manner such his  from a remote t e r m i n a l at  t h a t he r e c e i v e s the i n f o r m a t i o n  at  t e r m i n a l almost immediately a f t e r r e q u e s t i n g i t  (1972 , p.17).  Sackman makes some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s information u t i l i t y  regarding  compared w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ,  such as gas, water and e l e c t r i c power. t r a n s p o r t homogeneous commodities; i s heterogeneous.  These  utilities  i n contrast,  Traditional u t i l i t i e s  information  serve m a t e r i a l needs;  information u t i l i t i e s  s e r v i c e i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional  s p i r i t u a l needs.  concludes  He  the p o t e n t i a l to formulate i v e t t h e task of ensuring to  the  and  that information u t i l i t i e s  s o c i a l values.  have  T h i s makes impera-  that information u t i l i t i e s  are  dedicated  a l l segments o f s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n  segments o f s o c i e t y . Kalba  (19 73)  suggests t h a t the CIU w i l l become the home  communications centre of the f u t u r e .  The  various  i n c l u d i n g computer t e r m i n a l s , d i s p l a y monitors, and  components,  video  recorders,  f a c s i m i l e machines, a l l l i n k e d to other communication  centres  91. by  co-axial cable,  will  problems.  The  information  a v a i l a b l e to  overload.  The  second  local  and  perceptions  is  the  needs  provision of  intensive  uses  summarized  of  as  the  is  the  Municipal  improving to  where  works  and  could  "bank"  CIU's  environmental useful  and  to  third  provide  help  of  transmitting  The  third and  utilities  can  be  citizen  problems  the  services,  managing and  i n short  without  the  A  town-meeting etc.  possible  term  public  simplify records,  enforcement  process.  as  etc.,  CIU type  However,  discussions  such  tax  such  the  etc.  education,  CIU  need  could  for  labour-  communication;  participation:  referenda,  of  work,  could  CIU trends,  services,  records,  code  face-to-face  for holding  participants inherent  assessment  public  areas  demographic  CIU  is  transit,  specifications,  regulation, a  information  Increasing  about  municipal first  i n these  municipal  recreation, social  of  The  utilities,  system  personal  expensive  conducting  as  protection;  files,  intensive,  classes  employed.  rationalize  area,  routine  means  be  class of  and  operating  protection,  the  information  dispersed  three  information  major  administration to  are  s e r v i c e s , such  second  the  the  methods  information  could  For  In  technical  avoiding  for widely  proposed  demand p a t t e r n s ,  etc.,  the  of  issues.  service  access  amount  potential  decison-makers.  s e r v i c e s : There  technological  as  the  three  public while  mechanisms of  to  follows:  services  2.  solutions  is increasing  discussion  The  1.  first  hold  could  provide  discussions,  there  are  the  involving several  political feedback.  hundred  instability On  the  other  92. hand, t h e f a c i l i t y c o u l d v e n t i l a t e o t h e r w i s e e x p l o s i v e resentment, and p r o v i d e more s p e c i f i c feedback on c i t i z e n p e r c e p t i o n s o f government s e r v i c e s , c r i m e , h o u s i n g quality, etc. The CIU c o u l d a l s o a l l e v i a t e l o n e l i n e s s by e n a b l i n g p e o p l e t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s i n a more e f f i c i e n t manner than such p r e s e n t methods as p e r s o n a l ads., i n f o r m a l n e w s l e t t e r s and c l u b circulars. G r e a t e r c i t i z e n feedback would be o b t a i n e d by i n s t a l l i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i t y i n a c e n t r a l n e i g h b o u r hood l o c a t i o n , such as a f i r e h a l l , t o p e r m i t access t o decision-makers. One form o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a " s t o r e and scan" f e a t u r e w h i c h would p e r m i t a p e r s o n t o e x p r e s s h i s v i e w s , and f o r h i s statement t o be scanned by o t h e r s ; 3.  E d u c a t i o n : A CIU, as an in-home e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y c o u l d p r o v i d e access t o c l a s s r o o m s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . Public l i b r a r i e s c o u l d provide c o l l e g e - l e v e l l e a r n i n g to people w i t h o u t t h e time t o go t o c o l l e g e . John Farquhar (1972) suggests t h a t the CIU can make every man master o f h i s own e d u c a t i o n a l f a t e . Rosen (1976) d e s c r i b e s an a u d i o v i s u a l t e a c h i n g machine which l o o k s l i k e a t e l e v i s i o n s e t , but which a c t s l i k e a p r i v a t e t u t o r . A CIU c o u l d encourage t h e p o s t i n g o f l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s ;  4.  O n - l i n e p o l l i n g and v o t i n g : The  technology  necessary  for  o n - l i n e p o l l i n g i s a two-way c a b l e s e r v i c e which s u p p l i e s the u s e r w i t h e i t h e r a 12-button response pad, those on t e l e p h o n e s ,  such as  a t y p e w r i t e r or a t e l e t y p e keyboard.  I n v o l u n t a r y p o l l i n g c o u l d i n c l u d e r e c o r d i n g the v i s i o n c h a n n e l s watched.  Voluntary p o l l i n g  i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , v i a t h e CIU making.  Parker  tele-  could  in p o l i t i c a l decision-  (1972) s u g g e s t s t h a t because o f  the  need f o r a randomly drawn sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  the  p o p u l a t i o n , the o n - l i n e p o l l i n g w i l l be one of the  last  93.  services  added t o a CIU, a s s u m i n g t h a t by t h e n t h e  information  utility  households. stringent unfair  i s universally  Similarly,  distribution  to a l l  v o t i n g systems would  requirements  to allow the r i c h  a machine, w h i l e  available  t o vote  the l e s s wealthy  need  s i n c e i t would be  from  their  homes, v i a  a r e f o r c e d t o go t o  a p u b l i c p l a c e t o use a v o t i n g machine. potential  of on-line p o l l i n g  reduction  i n cost of holding elections,  An  important  o r v o t i n g i s the a n t i c i p a t e d or presenting  referenda; 5.  T e l e p u r c h a s i n g and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s :  Like i t s precedessors,  the m a i l order catalogue  "buy l i n e s " ,  service  could enable  without  leaving  the e n t i r e of  h i s home.  However, t h e C I U c o u l d  transaction involved, including  t h e merchant banks.  o f funds  the placement  Simpson-Sears L t d . o f Toronto,  has i n s t a l l e d  system which p e r m i t s  of i t s kindsin  an a u t o m a t e d t e l e p h o n e  "round  Industrial access  preparation, and  suited 7.  into  users  and a n a l y s i s ,  library  vocational training.  t o o b t a i n the types  Thus i t  o f s e r v i c e s most  and news s e r v i c e s :  Canadian d a i l y  newspapers a r e a l r e a d y s w i t c h i n g t o  production  it  engineering design  t o t h e i r needs from whatever t h e s o u r c e  Entertainment politan  supply  c a t a l o g u e s , c o n s u l t a n t s , document  reference services,  would enable  using  i s i n stock;  and v o c a t i o n s e r v i c e s : A CIU c o u l d  t o supply  order  the c l o c k " shopping  a computer t o check whether t h e i t e m o r d e r e d 6.  cover  between t h e shopper  an i n n o v a t i o n b e l i e v e d t o be t h e f i r s t  the world,  this  t h e CIU u s e r t o make h i s p u r c h a s e s  t h e o r d e r and t h e t r a n s f e r  and in  o r telephone  o f supply; metro-  computerized  p r o c e s s e s , where t h e r e p o r t e r ' s copy i s fed"  a desk c o n s o l e and n e v e r  emerges i n t h e f o r m  touched  o f a newspaper.  by hand a g a i n A CIU news  until channel  may p r o v i d e i n s t a n t access t o news, background s t o r i e s and f e a t u r e s .  Readers would browse e l e c t r o n i c a l l y  r e a d i n g those items - indexed t o d i f f e r e n t channels w h i c h i n t e r e s t them.  The s o c i a l impact o f these developments alarms some observers.  Selwyn (1972) suggests t h a t as t h e CIU becomes  more i n t e g r a t e d i n t o b u s i n e s s and homes, t h e p r i m a r y j o b o f some w o r k e r s w i l l be t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e u t i l i t y .  The a l i e n -  a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n c r e a s i n g l y o r i e n t e d t o a home communications c e n t r e r e c e i v e s wide a t t e n t i o n .  S i n c e our d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e s  on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l communication, i t i s u s e f u l t o summarize t h e p o s s i b l e impacts s u g g e s t e d  i n the  literature:  The CIU c o u l d become a p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l propaganda machine, p r e s e n t i n g s t e r e o t y p e d concepts o f norms and values. I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s c o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the~:use o f t h e CIU by p l a n n e r s , who t e n d t o base t h e i r a n a l y s e s on p r e v a i l i n g norms and v a l u e s ; The impact o f t h e CIU c o u l d i n c r e a s e c i t i z e n i n the p o l i t i c a l  process.  participation  One w r i t e r , E u l a u  a n t i c i p a t e d a p a r t i c i p a t o r y nightmare,  with  (1970),  legislative  power p a s s i n g from t h e s e a t o f government t o t h e c i t i z e n ' s l i v i n g room.  He suggested  t h a t i f an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t -  a t i v e was t o r e s t r i c t h i m s e l f t o m i r r o r i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s , he may as w e l l be r e p l a c e d by a computerized  decisional  apparatus;  95.  On  the other hand, the CIU c o u l d reduce e f f e c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n c r e a s i n g the number and d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t groups i n t o a more fragmented p o l i t i c a l  process;  Since home v o t i n g machines would be e a s i e r t o use and more a c c e s s i b l e , v o t i n g would probably  i n c r e a s e , and  s i n c e the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l would improve, h i s a b i l i t y t o make an informed  vote may r i s e ;  While t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e may gain by g r e a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s , such i n c r e a s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e c o u l d l i m i t h i s freedom i n b a r g a i n i n g and negotiation; Since t h e CIU would encourage the emergence o f the i n f o r m a t i o n power broker,  o r "gatekeeper" who serves as  i n t e r p r e t e r , summarizers, e t c . , the u t i l i t y  could  increase  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power o r c o n t r o l o f i n f o r m a t i o n into r e l a t i v e l y Increased  access  few hands; t o t e l e v i s e d entertainment  would d i v e r t  time and a t t e n t i o n away from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and citizen participation i n local  The  affairs.  c e n t r a l t h e s i s t o Sackman s argument  need f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y technology all  (1972) i s the  1  and r e s e a r c h a t  l e v e l s , throughout a l l stages o f the i n f o r m a t i o n  evolution.  He d e f i n e s p a r t i c i p a t o r y technology  utility's  as the i n c l u s i o n  o f people i n t h e s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l process o f d e v e l o p i n g , implementing and r e g u l a t i n g technology  i f they are a f f e c t e d  by the technology. Three forms o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y technology f o r example, t h e c i t i z e n c h a l l e n g e s p o l l u t e the environment;  technology  are l i t i g a t i o n ;  the r i g h t o f a u t i l i t y t o assessment, o r i d e n t i f y i n g  and p u b l i c i s i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y ;  and ad hoc a  a c t i v i t y , such as s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups which are aimed a t a l t e r i n g technology.  Sackman (1972) would add t o t h i s p r o c e s s t h e  onrcept o f c i t i z e n feedback i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l system ment.  develop-  He suggests t h i s c o u l d be done, i n the case o f the  CIU,  by p a r t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n - o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l prototype. Kalba  (1973) d e s c r i b e s such a p r o t o t y p e , c a l l e d the  Minnesota Experimental C i t y  (MXC)  which i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e  a t e s t bed f o r t h e development and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d human s e r v i c e s .  He o u t l i n e s the n a t u r e o f  t h e proposed i n n o v a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n CIU,  and  i d e n t i f i e s some o f t h e t r a d e - o f f s between t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s u p p o r t e d s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d use. He makes t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t h a t t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t o f t h e CIU and the w i r e d c i t y s h o u l d not become l o s t i n the technocratic planning. f o r MXC  may  The communications t e c h n o l o g y  outlined  improve b u s i n e s s e f f i c i e n c y , decrease p o l i c y  and  emergency response time and i n c r e a s e a c c e s s t o f o r e i g n - l a n g u a g e education; home may  b u t t h e a b i l i t y t o work, shop, l e a r n and v o t e  from  a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t a community's c o h e s i o n i n as y e t  u n c r e c o g n i z e d ways. Turoff  (1973) p r e d i c t s a r a p i d use o f computer-based D e l p h i  c o n f e r i n g systems i n t h e immediate f u t u r e .  Not everyone i s as enchanted w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e computer as a communications t o o l . e x p e r t Gordon Thompson a l l o c a t e s  Canadian communications computer  o n l y s i x p o i n t s , on a s c a l e o f 0 - 36. the t e l e p h o n e  1.  I n h i s v i e w , a communications i n n o v a t i o n  characteristics:  I t i n c r e a s e s t h e ease o f access o r r e t r i e v a l o f s t o r e d human  2.  I n c o n t r a s t , he awards  17 p o i n t s , books and l i b r a r i e s 24 and b r o a d -  c a s t i n g o n l y 11. has t h r e e  terminals  experience;  I t i n c r e a s e s t h e s i z e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n space  shared  i n common by communicants; 3.  I t i n c r e a s e s t h e ease w i t h w h i c h shared p e r c e p t i o n s and views can be d i s c e r n e d and d e v e l o p e d , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a consensus.  Thompson, w a r n i n g t h a t we a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g  paralyzed  by " i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d " s u g g e s t s t h a t one s o l u t i o n i s a v i s u a l language, which he terms "visemes", o r s t i c k - l i k e drawings l i n k e d t o communicate i d e a s o r c o n c e p t s .  Reading,  he s u g g e s t s , would become s i m i l a r t o w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n .  Satellites Canada has p l a c e d p a r t i c u l a r r e l i a n c e on s a t e l l i t e communications, f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n and b r o a d c a s t s i g n a l s and f o r a h o s t o f o t h e r uses.  T e l e s a t Canada, t h e  98. agency  responsible  launched The  the world's  future  scope  role  of  this  It  should  may  crowd  are  very  to  f o r domestic  of  satellites  be  costly,  communications areas,  from  that  information.  thus  or information,  flow  f o r domestic use  i n urban planning  n o t e d , however,  local  blanked large  cations  satellite  communication, i n 19 73.  i s beyond  the  study.-  out  programming  first  satellite  sender  Since  ground  communication  terminal  coverage v i a s a t e l l i t e  restricting and  to  satellite  inputs  increasing  the  of  stations  tends  local  "one-way"  communi-  receiver.  Print American  sociology,  womb o f A m e r i c a n Dedmon of  the behavioural  media  that as  a  journalist:and  journalism.  (1968) m a k e s  argues  any  ... as  an  vehicle views  scientist  He  which  However,  and  social  might  result  views  from  the  goals  journalist.  He  the  process  the  Emmett  between  change.  communications  out of  journalist  those of the  scientist  to effect the  (1968) g r e w  important distinction  the behavioural  change  product.  says Lerner  communications  In as  contrast, the goal  the process  is a  the  itself, by-  explains:  though a means,  sufficient  the the  social  scientist  journalist  tends  e n d (1968, p . 1 8 5 ) .  may  see  [communication]  to regard  i t as  a  These d i f f e r e n t and d i v e r g e n t views o f the g o a l s o f communications a p p l y p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the a r e a o f p r i n t j o u r n a l ism.  The  t e l e v i s i o n v i e w e r may  use h i s own  eyes and  ears  to p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y as i t u n f o l d s on h i s s c r e e n , but the newspaper r e a d e r i s h e a v i l y dependent on the p e r c e p t i o n s  and  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the newspaper r e p o r t e r and e d i t o r i n a s s e s s i n g t h e u t i l i t y , o r v a l u e , o f any  information.  In most c a s e s , the assessment o f the u t i l i t y of a b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n by the e d i t o r i s u n l i k e l y t o match t h a t of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . Goldfarb explains  Canadian media c o n s u l t a n t M a r t i n  why:  A newspaper can't push change, because b a s i c a l l y i t i s a m i r r o r , which r e f l e c t s the o p i n i o n s o f i t s r e a d e r s . A newspaper f u n c t i o n s t o e n f o r c e y o u r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t y o u r neighbourhood i s okay (1977).  The m i r r o r e f f e c t d e s c r i b e d here i s used by G o l d f a r b r e f u t e the s u g g e s t i o n way"  t h a t p r i n t j o u r n a l i s m i s m a i n l y a "one-  communication mode, t r a n s m i t t i n g messages from sender t o  r e c e i v e r w i t h few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r feedback. may  Participation  be i n d i r e c t but i t e x i s t s i n t h r e e ways, says G o l d f a r b .  Readers p a r t i c i p a t e through the m i r r o r e f f e c t , s e e k i n g for  t h e i r views.  support  S e c o n d l y , r e a d e r s p a r t i c i p a t e by r e c e i v i n g  h a r d news and a d v e r t i s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r to  to  them, i n t h e manner d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r by Gossage  interest (1974).  100. F i n a l l y , p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h use o f the a d v e r t i s i n g columns, and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h r o u g h l e t t e r s t o the e d i t o r which a r e r e p r i n t e d i n the newspaper.  Goldfarb  argues  t h a t t h e newspaper i s t h e o n l y medium t h r o u g h which an i n d i v i d u a l can communicate w i t h h i s community by b u y i n g space i n i t s columns a t a r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t . The newspaper i s r e l a t i v e l y cheap, w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d , and a c c e s s t o i t s columns i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y open t o anyone who can p u t pen o r t y p e w r i t e r t o paper.  One o f i t s most i m p o r t a n t  characteristics i s i t s relative efficiency.  Farquhar  (1972)  o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e average d a i l y paper has p r i n t i n g space f o r 600,000 words, w h i c h would r e q u i r e about f o r t y hours t o r e a d a l o u d , a t normal announcing speeds.  Another important f e a t u r e  i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o n g l i f e o f t h e message t r a n s m i t t e d ;  TV and  r a d i o s i g n a l s come and go, b u t i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d i n a newspaper can be r e a d , s t o r e d and r e t r i e v e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y trouble.  The i n c r e a s i n g d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n  knowledge, and t h e a t t e n d a n t t h r e a t o f i n f o r m a t i o n  little and  "overkill"  has g i v e n r i s e t o t h e s m a l l , s p e c i a l i z e d magazines aimed a t s e l e c t e d audiences. Despite  t h e s e a t t r a c t i o n s , the growth of m e t r o p o l i t a n  newspapers no l o n g e r i s a foregone c o n c l u s i o n . Goldfarb  I n Canada,  r e p o r t s t h a t c i r c u l a t i o n o f major d a i l i e s  s h a r p l y f i v e o r s i x y e a r s ago, and i n the U.S.,  dropped  the Newspaper  A d v e r t i s i n g Bureau I n c . , i n New Y o r k , showed an " i n e x p l i c a b l e drop" i n r e a d e r s h i p  i n 1973, t h e l a s t y e a r f o r w h i c h f i g u r e s  101.  are  available.  levels  continued  seventy-three levels  the  dollars; the  the  value  NAB f i g u r e s newspaper  levels with  than  high  school  tended  and  newspapers  they  with  their  distinct  variations  on household  shows  $10,000  a n dup r e a d  incomes.  people  with  more w h i t e s  lowest  i n the  trends  (19 60)  Larsen  and  Edelstein  newspaper  can  effectively  survey  people  t o be year,  among  with  patterns.  newspapers,  concluded  develop  did  tended  o r neighbourhood  s l a c k c r e a t e d b y l a g g i n g growth  that  education  than  readership  o f smaller weekly suburb  newspapers i n  college  degree  education  and females  I ti n d i c a t e s some  t o a greater  the  income,  t h a t more m a l e s  showing  weekly  purchase  are  females  papers.  can  people;  there  non-white  the  t oother  turn t o  I n t h e U.S.,  d i d non-whites  metropolitan  people  bonds.  than  particular  considered  reference points;  readers  a  not  t o seek  newspaper  growth  are  observes  that  Similarly,  the  1973).  He s a y s  education.  However,  cent  and  i nlower  graduates  per  stocks  depending  incomes, o f  dropped t o  Goldfarb  years  relative  what  that  Thestudy  d i d people  t o read  less  o ftheir  readership  household  earn  worth;  indicate  andrace.  1973  with  are  i n order  circulation  77-78  the  (Simmons,  thirty  o f newspapers.  houses  from  statistics,  under  they  although  readership  a decade  o f detailed  mature  that  newspaper  than  age groups  as they  their  reported  for a l l adults  i n s t a n c e , how m u c h  what  in  absence  readers  newspapers for  cent  f o r more  i n Canada,  important  t o advance,  per  achieved In  that  Thebureau  has  serving  taken up  metropolitan that  a n dextend  the  urban  people's  102. i d e n t i t y and involvement w i t h t h e i r community.  G o l d f a r b (1977)  c i t e s s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n Canada where major m e t r o p o l i t a n newspapers have h a l t e d o r r e v e r s e d t h e i r dropping by t a c k l i n g  the weekly papers i n t h e i r own  l o c a l or "street"  market, by  featuring  news, and opening a d v e r t i s i n g columns to  l o c a l merchants at reduced In  circulation  19 77, the NAB  newspapers' performance  rates.  i s conducting a major study t o examine r e l a t i v e to o t h e r media and to study  the r o l e o f newspapers as a consumer i n f o r m a t i o n source.  Video-tape and  Film  There i s a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n i n the media t h a t i f you are not i n the pages of the paper or i n the lens of the camera, then you don't e x i s t .  You are a member  of the s i l e n t m a j o r i t y . I r i s h p o l i t i c i a n Bernadette D e v l i n , i n t e r v i e w e d on CBC's "Ninety-Minutes L i v e " January 31, 1976 Bernadette D e v l i n was  responding to i n t e r v i e w e r P e t e r  Gzowski's q u e s t i o n on what she had been doing l a t e l y , and was  attempting to convince him t h a t she was  a l b e i t out o f the p u b l i c eye.  She was  doing j u s t  referring  she"  fine,  t o what  communications e x p e r t s c a l l the " m i r r o r " e f f e c t , which d e s c r i b e s how  people look to the media to c o n f i r m r e a l i t y .  i n the paper, or on TV,  i t is real;  If i t is  i f i t i s unrecorded,  r e a l i t y appears to be an i l l u s i o n , without  substance.  then  103.  The  m i r r o r most  half-inch operate, It  video-tape easy  to  i s probably  The  communications  in  late  1960's  of  Memorial  Service  direction is  further The  concept to a  of  NFB  trust  consensus.  and  between  people  to  modify  their  vailing  the  "outpost"  their  attitudes  the  planned  to  operate.  two-way for.  film/video-tape for  Board  and  Newfoundland,  Low.  The  the  Extension  under  Fogo  out  the  Island  process  Five. designed the  i n the  use  to of  as  light  of  saw  other  and  to  between  hoped  they  a  new  communication  community  communication  problems  produce  to  achieve individuals  encourage  them,  and  to  viewpoints  pre-  community.  time was  the  project  formulating  form  Islanders to  of  the  Low  was  I t was "white  policy  expected  initiated,  i t s policies  Colin  with  Islander's concerns.  on  anticipated  paper",  makers  producer the  of  film-makers  i n the  the  Island Project carried  was  groups  communities,  a  use  development,  communities.  become  Colin  facilitating  express  Newfoundland  the  By  of  i n Chapter  between  is  to  achieving  the  National Film  Island project  i n the  At  could  producer  of  and  Fogo  University  i n community  build  the  inexpensive  way  planners  i s the  by  discussed Fogo  relatively  practical  the  to planners  I t i s portable, simple  e x e r c i s e i n the  social the  and  most  between  classic  available  technology.  learn  the  communication  readily  the the  government island's  that  the  film  expressing  the  views  i n St.  t o make one  or  John's. two  of  films  E v e n t u a l l y , however,  of  Initially, dealing he  made.  104. a s e r i e s o f about twenty-eight s h o r t f i l m s , each d e a l i n g w i t h a specific  subject.  The immediate outcome of the Fogo I s l a n d p r o j e c t was a d r a s t i c r e v i s i o n o f Newfoundland's p o l i c y of s i p h o n i n g the p o p u l a t i o n from the outposts i n t o newly d e f i n e d r e g i o n a l growth centres.  But f o r Fogo I s l a n d , there were more s p e c i f i c  results.  A subsequent NFB f i l m ,  "Memo from Fogo I s l a n d " ,  completed i n 1972 r e v e a l s a community which has met i t s immediate g o a l s , and i s now phere o f economic and s o c i a l  f o r m u l a t i n g new ones i n an atmosregeneration.  On balance, the Fogo I s l a n d p r o c e s s i s slow, p a i n s t a k i n g and enormously e f f e c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l change.  It  was used elsewhere i n Newfoundland and C o l i n Low's group was asked to undertake a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t i n C a l i f o r n i a .  Considering  i t s impact and acknowledged s u c c e s s , however, the Fogo I s l a n d process has not been w i d e l y used.  In a p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h the author i n the f a l l o f 1976, C o l i n Low e x p l a i n e d t h a t the process i s not welcomed by governments o r agencies seeking change because o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the people i n v o l v e d might veto the planned development.  Two-way communication i s a  double-edged sword, and s i n c e most p a r t i c i p a t o r y gestures on t h e p a r t of government and i n d u s t r y are sought t o stamp  approval  on a p r o j e c t a l r e a d y d e f i n e d , few bureaucrats are w i l l i n g to risk a participatory  No!  105.  During a two-week seminar on F i l m , Video-tape  and  S o c i a l Change, sponsored by the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f Montreal U n i v e r s i t y o f Newfoundland  i n 1972, the f o l l o w i n g uses o f the  Fogo I s l a n d process were r e p o r t e d f o r r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l areas  (Gwyn, 19 72):  1.  As a t o o l t o encourage c r e a t i v i t y i n the community: The community development o f f i c e r l e f t  video-tape  equipment i n a h i g h s c h o o l , and r e t u r n e d to f i n d the students had made t h e i r own p r o d u c t i o n and arranged t o l e a r n p r o d u c t i o n techniques at a l o c a l s t u d i o ; 2.  As a t o o l t o i n v o l v e young people i n community development: A community development o f f i c e r , who  f e l t young  people  were b e i n g ignored i n the development p r o c e s s , asked to make t h e i r own of  tape.  them  As a r e s u l t , they became members  the development a s s o c i a t i o n and one student became  secretary; 3.  As a means o f communication between  students and t e a c h e r s :  The students made a tape o f t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s and and the teachers responded with a taped 4.  As a means o f communication between  complaints  reply;  teachers and p a r e n t s :  Parents, uneasy about the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l e v e l s i n s t e a d of  grades i n the l o c a l s c h o o l , were reassured when they  viewed tapes o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r s c h o o l work. 5.  As a means o f d e v e l o p i n g community p a r t i c i p a t i o n : At one community, no one would get up and speak a t a meeting to o r g a n i z e an improvement  committee.  The community  development o f f i c e r i n t r o d u c e d VTR a t a f i v e n i g h t workshop on p u b l i c speaking, and by the t h i r d n i g h t everybody  106.  had stood up and g i v e n t h e i r names.  On the f i f t h n i g h t  the workshop h e l d a mock-meeting - and one o f the l a s t people to g i v e h i s name o f f e r e d to be 6.  chairman;  As a means o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n : A semi-urban area l a c k e d water.  Residents formed an a c t i o n committee, and made  a tape of t h e i r demands and presented i t t o c o u n c i l , which r e c o g n i z e d a r i v a l f o r power, and consented t o the necessary expansion o f the water supply. "old"  VTR p e r m i t t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n t o be. p r e s e n t e d i n a more  forceful  manner; 7.  As a means o f communication and c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l :  In a  mainly I n n u i t commuty, without broadcast r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n , VTR i s used t o disseminate community i n f o r m a t i o n . By making tapes i n Eskimo, people are m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r language; 8.  As a means o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : Tapes on record-keeping f o r fishermen, f i s h h a n d l i n g , food technology, m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a r e one means by which people i n r u r a l can up-grade t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . u t i l i z e r e g u l a r classroom space a f t e r  9.  communities  They can a l s o  hours;  As a means o f e x p r e s s i n g community v a l u e s : By having l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a c t out t h e i r own s t o r i e s ,  i n a games p l a y i n g  r o l e , one community worker used VTR t o enable people t o express community c o n f l i c t s and deep, u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s - and t o packed 10.  houses;  As a means o f o r g a n i z i n g a community: By producing a "video b l i t z " o f tapes on l o c a l i s s u e s from l a c k o f utilities  t o l a g g i n g employment, a community development  worker e n t i c e d more than h a l f to view the product.  the p o p u l a t i o n o f a community  By the end o f the showing, sub-  committees had been formed t o press f o r gas and water l i n e s , sewers, e t c .  107. I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t many o f the uses f o r VTR.in r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l areas c e n t r e d around the consensus f u n c t i o n , i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e d i s c u s s i o n and d i a l o g u e .  In  c o n t r a s t , the seminar l e a r n e d t h a t i n urban s i t u a t i o n s ,  the  emphasis i s on a c o n f r o n t a t i o n f u n c t i o n .  The  fragmented  n a t u r e o f urban s o c i e t y , the predominance of mass media, and  the  f r u s t r a t i o n s o f urban l i v i n g are among the reasons g i v e n f o r the c o n f r o n t a t i o n f o c u s .  1.  Some examples i n c l u d e d :  S t r e e t r e s e a r c h , showing tapes of power s t r u c t u r e s l o c a l i s s u e s t o encourage p e o p l e t o o r g a n i z e  2.  f o r change;  Documentation o f the a c t i o n s o f c i t i z e n s groups, t o a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s who the  3.  and  are a f r a i d o f  "taking-on"  establishment;  M o n i t o r i n g m e e t i n g s , so t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t a k e more care about what commitments are made, and t o ensure t h a t such commitments are  4.  kept;  A n a l y s i s o f c o n d i t i o n s i n an area as a p r e l u d e r e n e w a l , so t h a t l o c a l v a l u e s were  One  p a r t i c i p a n t i n the 1972  r o l e o f VTR  t o urban  preserved.  c o n f e r e n c e summed up  the  i n community development;  I b e l i e v e t h a t w h i l e VTR  does not b a s i c a l l y change the  community development p r o c e s s ,  i t does seem t o a c c e l e r a t e  i t , most s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the p r o c e s s o f b r i n g i n g the community t o g e t h e r and g i v i n g i t s members a f e e l i n g of u n i t y and s t r e n g t h  (Gwyn, 1972,  p.12).  108. Some community  development o f f i c e r s had r e s e r v a t i o n s  about t h e use o f VTR as a s o c i a l communication t o o l .  Among  them:  1.  I t can become a c r u t c h .  I f t h e VTR i s n ' t w o r k i n g , a l l  work on t h e development p r o c e s s s t o p s ; 2.  I t can be used as a m a n i p u l a t i v e t o o l t o a c h i e v e power by s p l i n t e r groups who f o r c e a "consensus" on t h e more t i m i d and uncommitted, o r who e d i t u n f a i r l y ;  3.  I t can l e a d t o u n f u l f i l l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , i f p e o p l e do not  recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the technology.  Media A c c e s s Groups These g r o u p s , w h i c h a r e found m a i n l y i n urban c e n t r e s , o f f e r s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t o c i t i z e n ' s groups s e e k i n g a c c e s s t o the media.  I n t h e main, they o f f e r t r a i n i n g ,  equipment,  a d v i c e , a i d and o t h e r s u p p o r t t o groups who need i n how t o use t h e media.  Media A c c e s s Groups a r e n o t p r i m a r i l y  i n t e r e s t e d i n programming. community  instruction  N o r m a l l y , t h e y work t h r o u g h v a r i o u s  groups r a t h e r than w i t h t h e community  itself.  Their  a c t i v i t i e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . An example o f a f u n c t i o n media a c c e s s group i s Metro M e d i a , o p e r a t i n g i n Vancouver.  Community I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s As i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r names, t h e s e c e n t r e s e x i s t t o meet l o c a l needs f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . on community  These may i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n  s e r v i c e s , neighbourhood groups, r e c r e a t i o n  109.  facilities,  and s p e c i f i c events.  They can p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e  feedback f u n c t i o n by r e c o r d i n g the needs expressed i n incoming calls,  s i n c e such c a l l s can h e l p to i d e n t i f y  local priorities.  They can serve as both a resource f o r the p l a n n e r , seeking i n f o r m a t i o n about l o c a l groups, and as a feedback mechanism if  such c e n t r e s are p r o p e r l y s e t up.  3.3  SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS MODES In t h i s chapter, we have d e s c r i b e d some o f the communi-  c a t i o n s modes, o r channels, which may communications system. objective of this specifications which may defined  be used i n a s o c i a l  T h i s task i s p r e l i m i n a r y to the  study, which i s to suggest the d e s i g n  f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system  be used as a p l a n n i n g t o o l .  In Chapter One,  we  " s o c i a l communications" as "the use of i n f o r m a t i o n /  communications systems to achieve p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g an element of s o c i a l change" Two,  overall  (p.8).  normally  In Chapter  we i d e n t i f i e d some of the c r i t e r i a which a s o c i a l  communications system should meet i f i t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e , suggested t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  a s o c i a l communications mode.  programs c o u l d be u t i l i z e d In t h i s  s e c t i o n , we w i l l  analyze t o what extent the communications modes d e s c r i b e d , including public participation, established for social  and  meet the c r i t e r i a we  communications.  have  110.  The r e s u l t s o f o u r a n a l y s i s i s s e t o u t i n T a b l e I . below.  I t shows t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs, i f  p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d , have a v e r y h i g h p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l communications  compared w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l modes, meeting  a l l ten c r i t e r i a l i s t e d i n the table.  Each r a t i n g f o r each  mode i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s and e a r l i e r chapters.  Rather than d i s c u s s each r a t i n g i n t u r n , we w i l l  d e s c r i b e how t h e r a t i n g s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r two modes, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r i n t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs n o r m a l l y c o n t a i n a message, o r b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be t r a n s m i t t e d , and can s e r v e as a "two-way" communication planned f o r .  c h a n n e l between t h e p l a n n e r and t h e  Such programs can be a c c e s s i b l e t o any i n t e r e s t e d  p e r s o n o r p a r t y who w i s h e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . a s s u r e d by t h e "two-way" c h a n n e l .  An audience i s  Multi-modal d i s t r i b u t i o n  systems can be b u i l t i n t o such programs, s i n c e they may u t i l i z e a v a r i e t y o f communications  channels - p u b l i c meetings,  ethnic  p r e s s . r e l e a s e s , p r i n t and t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s e t c . to reach the t a r g e t audience.  Such programs may be d e s i g n e d  t o i n c l u d e p e o p l e who l i v e c l o s e t o each o t h e r , as i n a neighbourhood,  o r who a r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d s p a t i a l l y b u t  l i n k e d by a common i n t e r e s t .  Programs may be r e p e a t e d o r  adapted i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p e o p l e ' s awareness o f t h e messages being transmitted.  The avoidance o f a l i e n a t i o n and o v e r l o a d  can be d e s i g n e d i n t o such programs, i f t h e s e g o a l s a r e k e p t i n mind by t h e program p l a n n e r .  Finally, public  participation  programs p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y scope f o r t h e element o f a n i m a t i o n .  1  ;  TABLE  I.  SOCIAL  COMMUNICATON  MODES  i  F A C E TO FACE  TELEPHONE  Message  yes  yes  yes  2-way  yes  yes  yes yes  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION  VTR  PRINT  yes  yes  yes  yes  no  limited  limited  no  yes  yes  no  limited  limited  limited  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  yes  yes*  no  yes  no  no  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Conservation/ Repetition  no  no  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  S §  Avoidance o f overload  yes  no  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  j |  Avoidance o f alienation  yes  no  no  Animator/animation  yes  no  no  CRITERIA  channel  Access j  (control)  Audience MuIti-modal Spatial  dimension  limited  C A B L E TV  BROADCAST '  i  t i  ,  (j  yes  yes  no  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  8  5  10  i 1 t  TOTAL " y e s "  7  3  6  6  1  1m  112. Print "two-way"  also  channel  participate message the  is  reflects  audience in  11  may  but print  The r e a d e r  of  who  control  newspaper society,  of  new m a g a z i n e s ,  to  capture  required We  Four,  we  may  a feature which  i n dealing  with  can e s t a b l i s h ,  will  participation  used  feel leads  the print then,  used  that  print  an  study  to  content  audience  and t h e  available  groups and  satisfies  be s t o r e d  and simply  can c o n t r i b u t e  to  and by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n few  people;  " m i r r o r e d " i n t h e pages o f from  the mainstream  to the periodic press  ventures  Finally,  establishment which  seek  no a n i m a t o r i s  mode. public  participation  communications  i n this  over  age and income  may  to  Access  I t also  alienated  audience.  a case  control  of relatively  views  as a s o c i a l  present was  o f access  o r "underground"  the alienated  successfully  However,  their  space.  information overload  i n t h e hands  o r magazine  of  messages  can avoid  do n o t f i n d  the printed  are letters  widely  dimension.  since  by t h e e x c l u s i o n  editorial  people a  i s certainly  not reading the material.  alienation  that  i s clearly  to certain  as a  does n o t  i s not multi-modal,  of spatial  conservation/repetition"  by  editorial There  be c o n f i n e d m a i n l y  the c r i t e r i a  repeated.  of advertising  normally  Print  the public  Exceptions  of the editors.  areas.  but i t s potential  to the extent  own v i e w s .  since  messages,  specific  meets  but only  their  i s limited,  print  since  and t h e purchase  i n t h e hands  for  a message,  i s limited,  directly,  editor,  print  conveys  which  manner.  mode.  In  d e s c r i b e s how  may: b e Chapter public  113,  FOOTNOTES:  1  CHAPTER  THREE  The Ubyssey,  November 5 1976,  p.2  CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY  4.1  (HABITAT)  INTRODUCTION In e a r l i e r chapters, we  have suggested  that s o c i a l  communications systems can help to p r o v i d e a more open and dynamic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , w i t h continuous  opportunities for  i n t e r a c t i o n between the planners and the planned  for.  need f o r t h i s k i n d o f p l a n n i n g process i s a n t i c i p a t e d Kalba  (1974) who  The by  argues t h a t the demands of " p l a n o v a t i o n " ,  or p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n , w i l l r e q u i r e a r e d e f i n i t i o n of the p l a n n i n g process as North American s o c i e t y evolves t o wards the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a .  We  have a l s o suggested  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s can p r o v i d e an  that  important  element i n a s o c i a l communications system. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l d e s c r i b e how  t h i s concept  was  employed i n f o r m u l a t i n g a r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n program f o r HABITAT:  U n i t e d Nations Conference  h e l d i n Vancouver, B.C.,  May  on Human Settlements,  31 - June 11, 1976.  w i t h the second o b j e c t i v e s e t out i n Chapter  To d e s c r i b e how  I t deals  One:  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were  used i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l communications case  In so doing, we w i l l i n Chapter  One:  study.  attempt to answer the q u e s t i o n r a i s e d  115. Can  e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g techniques,  such as p u b l i c par-  t i c i p a t i o n , be u t i l i z e d as a mode or method of i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n systems and planning  4.2  flows i n t o the  overall  process?  BACKGROUND When the author was  r e t a i n e d on January 12,  s i g n , implement and manage a r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  1976  to  de-  division  f o r Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t i n the host c i t y of Vancouver, the resources a v a i l a b l e were one brown envelope of i n f o r m a t i o n data and an order f o r 50,000 buttons. Information  Vancouver had  a s t a f f of 36 people  almost one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . a c t i v i t y was  F i v e months a f t e r ,  The  reason  and had  CHS  spent  f o r the a c c e l e r a t e d  the u n a n t i c i p a t e d r o l e which i n f o r m a t i o n assumed  i n order to help achieve  conference  goals.  The o r i g i n a l p l a n n i n g f o r Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t , the host country  agency, d i d not envisage  a major p u b l i c  i n f o r m a t i o n program on HABITAT f o r Vancouver, the s i t e and host c i t y . were mainly  The  information d i v i s i o n ' s  conference  responsibilities  p e r c e i v e d to be concerned with Canada's r o l e  host of the conference. flected this bias;  Information's  as  budget and programs r e -  the bulk of funds had been a l l o c a t e d to  the p r o d u c t i o n o f a brochure and a f i l m aimed at p r o s p e c t i v e delegates abroad, and the d i v i s i o n ' s l o c a l  responsibilities  were deemed to be the p r o d u c t i o n o f such conference as were r e q u i r e d by the U n i t e d Nations ference .  handbooks  f o r the Vancouver con-  116.  Originally who  operated  support with  CHS  without  the  press  and  There  the  market  local Not  and  was  the  who  little  beyond  little  either  was  the  r e j e c t e d the  concept  of  Nations  conference  hosting the  HABITAT,  possibility The  policy the in  several  aimed  the  host  Information  Goals  design the  security  raising  The  was  created  the  the  p u b l i c or  about  fact  Fall  local  poli-  strategy,  largest of  aimed City  United  1975,  their  sheet.  conference  when V a n c o u v e r  the  voiced  contact  both  the  opposition to  the  to  city  and  problems. to  develop  level  of  to  position f o r the  regional  awareness  create  of  a  a  of  information  HABITAT  favourable  Assistant  and  climate  Director-General,  organization of  a  Vancouver  Office.  Objectives  The  most  goals  In  about  clear  staff  available for  mimeographed  anticipated costs  o b j e c t i v e s , and  and  an  the  city.  Information,  of  t h e r e f o r e , was  at  conference  i n view  information  hosting  c o u n c i l members  of  need,  held.  any  information  information  Council  officer,  person-to-person  general  different  information  secretary or  known  became  ever  a  inexpensive,  region,  and  city  one  seeking  published  an  for a  of  people  and  Mayor  host  need  only  maintained  other  surprisingly,  The  had  assistance  with  i t s o b j e c t i v e s by  ticians. at  the  whatsoever,  HABITAT.  or  Vancouver  urgent  appropriate and  task  f a c i n g the  information  objectives of  an  Vancouver  strategy,  information  office  was  establishing program  and  to first  the  delivery  systems necessary  Since flect  the goals  reviewed  1.  Information's  a)  International  Raise  necessarily  Conference  had t o r e -  itself,  these  are  level  Goals  o f awareness  urbanization,  and  mass  a b o u t t h e phenomenon  migration  i t s consequences on p a r t  non-government interested  organizations  to  (NGO's),  various  ing  phenomenon  and s o l u t i o n s  and  of this  found  more  phenomenon or less  and  mendations  f o r action  settlements,  a p p r o a c h e s t o manag-  that  to the conse-  have  been  tried  successful;  Develop, debate and r e f e r  human  media  citizens;  and expose  this  settlements,  o f governments,  Identify  quences  c)  goals.  x  of  b)  those  objectives  o f t h e HABITAT  below:  HABITAT,  to achieve  t o governments  at the national  policies,  recom-  level  strategies  on  and  programs;  2.  Canadian a)  To  Goals raise  the level  nomenon  of urbanization  vinces,  and o u r major  sequences  of this  governments, interested b)  o f awareness  Canada  settlements,  phenomenon  NGO's, m e d i a ,  and d i s c u s s  this  consequences tried  i n Canada,  i n the proand t h e c o n -  on t h e p a r t  opinion  of  molders and  citizens;  To i d e n t i f y managing  about t h e phe-  various  phenomenon, of this  and found  more  and abroad;  approaches to  and s o l u t i o n s  phenomenon or less  that  to the  have  successful i n  been  118.  c)  To u s e HABITAT - i t s p r e p a r a t o r y p r o c e s s , t h e conference -  itself  to achieve  tives  and p o s t - c o n f e r e n c e  a g r e a t e r consensus  and s u b s t a n c e  refine  activity  on t h e o b j e c -  o f a CHS a n d t o p r o m o t e and  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l and  public/private  mechanisms a n d p r o c e s s  t o im-  plement i t ; d)  To d e v e l o p for, on  and t o a d o p t  Regional a)  and promote a Canadian  t h e recommendations  eration 3.  an a w a r e n e s s i n Canada o f t h e n e e d  in field  for international  position co-op-  o f human s e t t l e m e n t s .  Goals  To c r e a t e an a w a r e n e s s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n ments, m e d i a , NGO's a n d c i t i z e n s o f V a n c o u v e r and  B.C. o f what HABITAT i s a b o u t ,  mean t o them and how t h e y ipate b)  c a n and s h o u l d p a r t i c -  and c o n t r i b u t e .  To s o s t a g e HABITAT - t h e e v e n t s conference is  what i t c a n  and t h e c o n f e r e n c e  preceding the  itself  - that i t  p e r c e i v e d t o be a s u c c e s s and a c r e d i t t o  Canada, B.C. and V a n c o u v e r .  Within  the context o f these broad  goal statements, the  I n f o r m a t i o n d i v i s i o n o f CHS h a d s p e c i f i c s u b - g o a l s .  These  were:  i)  To s u p p o r t Canada's r o l e Conference  ii) iii)  as a  i n t h e UN HABITAT  participant;  To s u p p o r t Canada's r o l e  a s t h e host.;  To s u p p o r t Canada's o n g o i n g problem  concern  o f human s e t t l e m e n t s .  with the  Scope  and  Timing  The all  Vancouver  Information  with  other  caster, the  information  Information  spatial  distribution  Office  extended In  FORUM,  Broad-  Information  and  the p a r a l l e l  con-  o p e r a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d  mation,  across  distribution  Information  such  as conference  handbooks,  posters  and promotion  materials  duction  f o rthe Canadian  was  domestic  missions  Columbia,  During the  information  o u t b y CHS east  but the bulk  content  delegates' i n both  language  Vancouver  was  o f conference  and a l s o  infor-  brochures,  E n g l i s h and  i n Spanish  translation  Information  and/or  i n Ottawa,  of this  pro-  primarily and  m a t e r i a l was p r o d u c e d  i n  responsible f o rthe editor-  o f HABITAT S t a t i o n ,  o f a l l t h e community  French  f o r the  o f A l b e r t a , o r f o rposts  CHS V a n c o u v e r w a s a l s o  and program  amalgamation  market  French  distribution  abroad,  Vancouver.  Some  carried  In terms  Canada.  o f f u n c t i o n s , CHS  Nations.  British  of public  by  the conference,  Territories.  responsible f o rthe production  languages  period.  of information, before  and Northwest  the s p a t i a l  terms  primarily  United  meshed  a s t h e CBC H o s t  of Public  o f HABITAT  of the over-  i n t u r n , was  responsible f o rservicing  and t h e Yukon  conference,  ial  Nations  such  was p a r t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f u n c t i o n s , and time  Alberta  for  agencies,  o f the division's  CHS V a n c o u v e r w a s  wall  o f CHS, w h i c h ,  division  scope  spatial  was  division  f o rnon-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  of  program  the United  ference  Information  cable  created  television  through  the  distribution  120. systems i n o r d e r t o b r i n g l i v e coverage of the to  conference  viewers. In terms o f t i m i n g , the r e g i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the Van-  couver d i v i s i o n ' s o p e r a t i o n was  expanded t o encompass  n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l coverage, w i t h the a r r i v a l o f Director-General of Information for  the  and h i s s t a f f from Ottawa  the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o and d u r i n g the  Confer-  ence . CHS achieve  I n f o r m a t i o n Vancouver had o n l y f o u r months t o  i t s pre-conference  objectives.  This r e l a t i v e l y  short  p e r i o d of time c o n s t r a i n e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program i n terms of the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . In t h e o r y , t h e p l a n was  t o e s t a b l i s h an  information  program i n i t i a l l y i n the h o s t r e g i o n , d e f i n e d as  Greater  Vancouver and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which d i r e c t l y b o r d e r e d the area.  When t h i s was  accomplished,  tend f i r s t to the I n t e r i o r of B.C.,  the p r i o r i t i e s would  then t o A l b e r t a and '  f i n a l l y t o t h e two n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s . and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e  ex-  In f a c t , t h e t i m e  Information's  the h o s t r e g i o n l i m i t e d the r e s o u r c e s  objectives i n  a v a i l a b l e to service  the r e s t o f the r e g i o n w i t h some i m p o r t a n t  exceptions.  S i m i l a r l y , the s c h e d u l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n programs  was  p l a n n e d t o a c h i e v e peak p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e m e n t p r i o r to  the c o n f e r e n c e  itself,  (when p u b l i c i n t e r e s t would be  empted by the a c t u a l c o n f e r e n c e  proceedings).  l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e t o d e s i g n , mount and  In f a c t ,  implement  prethe  121. i n f o r m a t i o n programs meant t h a t some programs o v e r l a p p e d c o n f e r e n c e , and some impact was  the  lost.  Methodology A number o f approaches were developed methodology f o r the I n f o r m a t i o n program. i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was  i n d e s i g n i n g the  F i r s t , an  organ-  d e s i g n e d as the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s  to be performed were f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d and then s t a f f e d a c c o r dingly.  These f u n c t i o n s were p r e s s s e r v i c e s , community  r e l a t i o n s , p r o d u c t i o n , c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Second, i n a d d i t i o n t o more t r a d i t i o n a l promotion p u b l i c i t y t e c h n i q u e s , the means used t o a c h i e v e CHS  and  Vancouver  I n f o r m a t i o n ' s g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the h o s t r e g i o n i n c l u d e d a degree o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  There were p r a g -  m a t i c reasons f o r d e v e l o p i n g a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. One  reason was  the f a c t t h a t the l e a k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l -  a b l e had c r e a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t degree o f f r u s t r a t i o n h o s t i l i t y among p e o p l e who HABITAT, and who A n o t h e r was  and  wanted o r needed t o know about  wanted t o become " i n v o l v e d " i n the p r o j e c t .  the f a c t t h a t the l i m i t e d time and s t a f f made i t  p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o meet every r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r f o r speakers  and programs from CHS's own  c r i t i c a l f a c t o r was  resources.  the d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n v e y i n g , t o t h e  A local  p u b l i c , the g o a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f a c o n f e r e n c e d e a l i n g m a i n l y w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s beyond the  exper-  i e n c e o r i m a g i n a t i o n o f most V a n c o u v e r i t e s .  Thus a p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n program proved  alternative,  t o be a prudent  and  122. a  special  participation  organization  Specifically,  develop  the  To  develop  an  make g r e a t e r adding  to  oriented  disseminate delivery Using  section  4.3  modes  MODES OF  Face-to-Face  opened,  of  and  among  i n order  for  to  coherent  were:  "HABITAT  i s How  Canadians  existing  which the  among  government people  concept  People  t h a t we  resources  that as  most  and  only  Live";  should  rather  of  provide  than  a  from  they  should  programs  for  H A B I T A T was  and  themselves;  solution-  140  countries  experiences.  communication  monitor to  this  were  feedback, the  i n Chapter  summarizes  that  f o r those  delegates  appropriate  described  Canadians  cannot  problem-solving  aspect  utilizing  target  Three, of  to the  cliencele.  the  the  adopted  following  program.  COMMUNICATION  (Volunteer  the  i t was  our  awareness  information  briefly  From  Information  developed,  themes  that  v a r i o u s modes  system  the  of  conference,  exchanged  Fourth,  concept  use  a l l levels  convey  these  awareness  an  facilities To  the  them;  develop  ask  to  for consistent design  To  To  added  i n f o r m a t i o n themes were  some b a s i s  programs.  was  structure.  Third, provide  unit  day  that  inundated  Speakers  the  Bureau)  Vancouver  with  requests  Information from  people  office who  wanted  123. to be i n v o l v e d somehow i n HABITAT.  Since the o f f i c e  was  a l s o inundated w i t h requests f o r HABITAT speakers, i t was decided to combine the two f u n c t i o n s . The v o l u n t e e r speakers ical,  i n c l u d e d an engineer on  sabbat-  t e a c h e r s , u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , wealthy matrons and  theology students, young people seeking job e x p e r i e n c e , housewives. In  A l l attended one-day HABITAT t r a i n i n g  the three months the v o l u n t e e r s operated,  addressed  and  seminars. they  some 250 church, community, s e r v i c e groups and  reached about 10,000 people i n f a c e - t o - f a c e communication. T h e i r audiences  i n c l u d e d a h a n d f u l of c l e r k s i n a bank t o  a i r p o r t workers meeting i n a c a f e t e r i a t o formal groups.  Initially  lecture-hall  o p e r a t i n g i n the Vancouver area, they  e v e n t u a l l y reached i n t o the F r a s e r V a l l e y , up i n t o the I n t e r ior  and p a r t of Vancouver I s l a n d .  They were  Information's  f r o n t - l i n e troups, encountering i n the f i e l d  indifference,  hostility,  antagonism and i n c r e a s i n g l y , as t h e i r e f f o r t s  ex-  panded, i n t e r e s t and a p p r o v a l . They disseminated and c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d i n g Information w i t h a "two-way" communications channel w i t h p a r t of  the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  Each speaker was  equipped w i t h  i n f o r m a t i o n k i t , p o s t e r s , buttons, one or two  f i l m s , and a  "feedback"  addressed,  form.  These forms noted the group  l o c a t i o n and date, number i n attendance, d i s c u s s e d , a u d i o - v i s u a l m e t e r i a l used, r e a c t i o n and i n t e r e s t areas. submit  a completed  an  aspect o f HABITAT  and g e n e r a l  Each speaker was  audience  r e q u i r e d to  form b e f o r e being assigned a new  speaking  124. d a t e , s i n c e i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d was a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t  as t h e messages b e i n g  These feedback forms p r o v i d e d  disseminated.  I n f o r m a t i o n w i t h speedy,  d i r e c t and e f f i c i e n t data on p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c  viewpoints.  There was n o t s u f f i c i e n t time t o mount a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s o r t o conduct o p i n i o n p o l l s o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e by the time t h e r e s u l t s c o u l d be c o m p i l e d t h e c o n f e r e n c e would be o v e r . and  Audience response was r a t e d as " p o s i t i v e " ,  "neutral".  "negative",  Many speakers r e p o r t e d t h a t an a u d i e n c e w h i c h  was i n i t i a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t o r n e u t r a l f i n a l l y g e n e r a t e d a p o s i t i v e response a f t e r t h e f i l m s were shown, i n f o r m a t i o n  dis-  t r i b u t e d and d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d . An a n a l y s i s o f 13 8 v o l u n t e e r speakers'  feedback forms  f o r t h e p e r i o d March 24 t o May 14, 1976, i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g breakdown o f r e s p o n s e s :  POSITIVE  NEGATIVE  NEUTRAL  INCOMPLETE  111  2  20  5  Answers t o t h e most r e c u r r e n t q u e s t i o n s  and c o n c e r n s  were p r e p a r e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o s p e a k e r s and t o t h e I n f o r mation C e n t r e .  The major concerns i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e feedback  forms were d e a l t w i t h i n news r e l e a s e s , and i n t h e speeches o f CHS o f f i c i a l s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , t o reduce concern about t h e nature of conference v i s i t o r s , press releases pointed out that the l a r g e s t group coming was t h e World C o u n c i l o f Churches.  125.  To counter concern over c o s t s , i t was of  the money was  p o i n t e d out t h a t most  b e i n g spent t o c r e a t e employment and pur-  chase s u p p l i e s i n Vancouver.  To counter concern about  l e n c e , the e l a b o r a t e s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s were s t r e s s e d . t h i s way, was  the i n f o r m a t i o n on p u b l i c concerns and  vioIn  attitudes  c o l l e c t e d , a n a l y s e d , and answered i n Information m a t e r i a l  d i s t r i b u t e d as w i d e l y as p o s s i b l e , and through a number of modes.  Telephone  System  Initially, CHS  a l l p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s were f e d i n t o the c e n t r a l  o f f i c e and answered by the s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f , which proved  inadequate t o handle the volume o f c a l l s . mation Centre was  A community  Infor-  opened as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y , s t a f f e d by com-  petent p e r s o n n e l on a t w o - s h i f t b a s i s and o u t f i t t e d w i t h adequate telephone switchboards. phone number was  The HABITAT I n f o r m a t i o n t e l e -  c a r r i e d i n s m a l l , i n e x p e n s i v e advertisements  repeated i n the l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n newspapers. Telephone  i n q u i r i e s s h o r t l y exceeded  handled by a b i l i n g u a l s t a f f .  100 c a l l s a day,  In a three-month  p e r i o d , almost  100,000 p e r o p l e were served by the Information Centre the telephone and p e r s o n a l v i s i t s . q u i r i e s was  through  The nature o f a l l i n -  t a b u l a t e d i n weekly r e p o r t s t o the o f f i c e of the  A s s i s t a n t - D i r e c t o r General of Information i n o r d e r t o monitor p u b l i c concerns and i n f o r m a t i o n needs. P r e - p l a n n i n g requirements had e s t a b l i s h e d a new mation number, l i s t e d i n the c i t y c i r e c t o r y .  Infor-  At the time of  126.  the  conference,  i n order  ten-man  switchboard  basis.  Languages  cluded ian. of  English, During  23,108  calls,  type,  French,  the  calls  So  and  a  f a r as  by  by  time  with  the  and  German,  with  12  a  possible, and  reported  a  a  24-hour crew i n -  Persian  and  Hungar-  to  15,  a  June nigh  interest  inquiries  on  demand,  inquiry  daily  phenomenal  period,  staffed  p e r i o d May  handled, truly  anticipated  telephone  Spanish,  one-month were  cope  installed  spoken  indicating  events.  was  to  were to  of  in  2,200  conference  tabulated  CHS  total  by  Information  management.  Broadcast  Systems  The  use  television the by  of  and  radio,  conference, the  United  conference  or  appeal radio.  Information  To time  demonstration and  to  and  the  of  s e r v i c e s were  on-air  self-help  project,  confined  programs which  themselves, and  d e f i n e d as  was  Office  support.  valuable  grams  services, to  the  commercial  period  preceeding  f u n c t i o n was  Public  Information  assumed during  the  editorial  and  itself.  advertising  ticipation  since  Nations  Broadcast  thus  broadcase  the  This  attract -  efforts  were  conveyed  discussed  the  approach  "media  helped  was  were  had  and  design  that  themes  the  of  par-  i s , proin  awareness  Neighbourhood  chosen  the  -  news v a l u e s  reported  augment  to  events",  Information  later,  attention  w e r e made  Similarly,  various walks  f o r both  editorial  p r o j e c t s which  indirectly.  be  utilized  Walks  f o r i t s media on  television  normal  routine  and of  127. p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s and "stand-up" i n t e r v i e w s o f c o n f e r e n c e o f f i c i a l s and expanded t h e o n - a i r t i m e d e v o t e d t o p r e - c o n f e r ence a c t i v i t i e s . T e l e v i s i o n was used as an a d v e r t i s i n g medium t o r e a c h a p r o v i n c e - w i d e and r e g i o n a l a u d i e n c e , s i n c e m e t r o p o l i t a n and weekly newspapers c o n f i n e d coverage t o the G r e a t e r Vancouver area.  I n f o r m a t i o n feedback mechanisms had conveyed p e o p l e ' s  view o f human s e t t l e m e n t s as a d r e a r y s u b j e c t , which i n e v i t a b l y l e d t o demands on t h e Canadian t a x p a y e r f o r more f o r e i g n aid.  T h e r e f o r e , we chose a l i g h t , animated approach t o t e l e -  vision advertising.  F o r s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l we used o t h e r  c o u n t r i e s ' s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r human s e t t l e m e n t problems, t o convey t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s e c o u n t r i e s were h a n d i l y  resolving  t h e i r problems w i t h m i n i m a l o u t s i d e h e l p - and t h a t some o f t h e i r s o l u t i o n s might be u s e f u l t o Canadians f a c i n g s i m i l a r issues.  T h i s d u a l approach o f u s i n g a n i m a t i o n and s t r e s s i n g  s o l u t i o n s was a l s o adopted f o r p r i n t a d v e r t i s i n g .  Examples  a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. Radio was used p r i m a r i l y f o r r e a c h i n g t h e younger, m o b i l e audience and s e n i o r s who were more c o n f i n e d t o t h e i r homes.  C o n c e r t e d a t t e m p t s were made t o a i d r a d i o s t a t i o n s  b r o a d c a s t i n g i n languages o t h e r than E n g l i s h .  Cable T e l e v i s i o n Community t e l e v i s i o n was used as a major mode b e f o r e and during the conference.  I n the p r e - c o n f e r e n c e p e r i o d , a w e e k l y  h o u r - l o n g t e l e v i s i o n show was produced on Vancouver's community  128. station the  and " b i c y c l e d "  lower  ference a  mainland  itself,  community  in  All  CHS,  was  "software".  events  Major  peated  viewers  taken  Information  Computers  record  by  cooperative  which were  through  facili-  were  their  separate  home  production  aired  televised  several live,  interest  by t h e f a c t  content,  a l l conference  complaints  times  andr e generated  that on  calls  from  program-  A t the end o f the conference,  room was d i s m a n t l e d ,  system  broadcast  department o f  reported  The extreme  300 a d a y .  micro-  venture.  and t h e o n - a i r  i n f o r m a t i o n o r making  s t u d i o and c o n t r o l  removed  the cables  and t h e l o c a l  community  programming.  and S a t e l l i t e s  Computers to  Information  linked  o f another  may b e m e a s u r e d  reached  resumed  stations  of the television  events  basis.  up, t h e microwave  stations  Station,  and r e l a y e d t o t h e i r  staffers  broadcasts  conference  seeking  small  stations  the con-  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p r o g r a m m i n g  Station  changes  sites,  the provision  on a s e l e c t i v e  HABITAT  ming  conference  and compiled  daily.  were  to  t h e p e r i o d was h a n d l e d  the responsibility  Information  During  of various  seconded  The s t a t i o n s  up b y t h e n e t w o r k  facilities  the  during  While  composed  and e n t i r e l y  stations i n  mode w a s H A B I T A T  i n an unprecedented  a t t h e HABITAT  audiences.  community  Island.  prime  network  period.  production  picked  by  mainland  and by cable,  ties  or  Information's  the ten-day  wave  to other  and on V a n c o u v e r  television  the lower  for  around  were  and provide  used  e x t e n s i v e l y by conference  i n f o r m a t i o n , and s a t e l l i t e  planners  transmission  129. of conference events was c o n s i d e r a b l e .  However, n e i t h e r o f  these modes were the d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f I n f o r m a t i o n .  Video-tape and A u d i o - v i s u a l Video-tape  and a u d i o - v i s u a l modes were used i n I n f o r -  mation's p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs, and to reach a key audience - school children.  A l o c a l a u d i o - v i s u a l u n i t , Vancouver  H i s t o r i c a l I n s i g h t s L t d . , was r e t a i n e d to d e s i g n and implement the outreach program f o r school-aged audiences.  By f i e l d i n g  speakers, each c o v e r i n g two o r three s c h o o l s o r more d a i l y , I n s i g h t s managed t o reach 61,214 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n a two-anda-half-month  p e r i o d , and was f o r c e d t o t u r n down requests f o r  a d d i t i o n a l bookings.  The a/v program, which d e a l t w i t h the  growth and development o f Vancouver and then e v o l v e d i n t o a g l o b a l view o f the problems,  proved  to be p a r t i c u l a r l y  effec-  t i v e a mode of reach young audiences. In a d d i t i o n , a l o b r a r y o f f i l m s and s l i d e s on human s e t t l e m e n t i s s u e s and on the conference was q u i c k l y  assembled  from U n i t e d Nations and CHS sources and made a v a i l a b l e t o the public.  Information purchased  a d v e r t i s i n g - mainly on bus  s i g n s - t o support a N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada program o f films.  HABITAT S t a t i o n c a r r i e d the bulk o f the 2 30 audio-  v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s produced  by 120 c o u n t r i e s and p r e s e n t e d  at the conference t o show l o c a l s o l u t i o n s t o human s e t t l e m e n t problems.  130.  Print HABITAT  attracted  early  major  metropolitan papers,  close  to  the  two-and-a-half  conference.  ners paper  readers  ference,  a  the at  bulk the  with  of  changes,  through  The more  a  gratifying The for  or  impact  sought  the  Since  up  weekly  local  by  to  than  story a  Similarly,  the  f o r HABITAT  City  on  problems  w r i t t e n by  an  active  and  "inside"  obvious  municipaleditorial  were  i n some  solicited cases  Information  n e w s p a p e r was  human  weeklies",  in  dollars,  traffic  other  most  or  and  aimed  primarily  and  identified  con-  (Meier,1962)  "ring  boundaries,  news-  zoning,  the  The  plan-  m e d i a was  dealt  were  to  encouraged,  print  visits,  prior  impending  was  which  advertising  i n a weekly  story  papers  audiences.  copy  the  issues included  personal  editorial  just  "overload".  papers  the  average,  subject,  of  i n the  i t , were  solid  meetings,  top  metro  from  Information  the  aware  on  day  to  to  papers,  these  a  clear  construction, school  adjacent  of  coverage  effort  w i t h i n Vancouver  supply  line,  of  support  running,  Information  community  reaching  dinner  of  allocated  of  subjects, the  backed  dailies. was  case  Information  directly  were  necessarily  the  or weeklies  support/  space  interest  housing  sustained  i t became  the  mode o f  ities  pages  not  issues.  settlement  with  were  small weekly  local  print  the  classic  While  which  However,  that despite  and  staff.  judged  to  have  page  of  the  major  co-operation  of  the  weeklies  participant  events  in their  area,  with  results. delivery  television,  system  r a d i o and  for a l l press print  r e l e a s e s and  m e d i a was  a  local  pictures  public  131. r e l a t i o n s and p r e s s c o u n s e l l i n g f i r m , w h i c h h a n d l e d p r e s s contacts, press i n q u i r i e s , press conferences, press releases, p r e s s c o u n s e l l i n g , m a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout t h e twop r o v i n c e , two- t e r r i t o r y r e g i o n .  During  four-and-one-half  months, t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i r m produced and h a n d l e d an undetermined formation.  98 p r e s s r e l e a s e s ,  amount o f p r e s s r e q u e s t s f o r i n -  Attempts were made t o q u a n t i f y t h e number o f sub-  sequent s t o r i e s which appeared  i n the r e g i o n a l papers, but  the e x e r c i s e was abandoned when t h e n e w s c l i p s were d e l i v e r e d d a i l y i n boxes.  C l i p s were f i l e d i n a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y a t  the c o n f e r e n c e s i t e and made a v a i l a b l e t o j o u r n a l i s t s s e e k i n g background  information.  The p r e s s r e l e a s e s were m a i l e d o u t  t o 300 r e g i o n a l media o u t l e t s , i n c r e a s i n g t o 800 r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l media o u t l e t s by May and f i n a l l y t o 1,100 Canada-wide outlets. In terms o f p r i n t p r o d u c t i o n , t h e c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s were t h e r e c e s s i o n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e economy and t h e i n i t i a l h o s t i l i t y t o t h e i d e a o f h o l d i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e i n Vancouver at a l l .  I n f o r m a t i o n p l a n n e r s d e c i d e d t h a t no attempt s h o u l d  be made t o produce g l o s s y , m u l t i - c o l o u r b r o c h u r e s o r f l y e r s which might s e r v e t o remind t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e $2 0 m i l l i o n c o s t o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o Canada.  I n s t e a d , low-key,  b l a c k and w h i t e f a c t s h e e t s and f l y e r s were chosen as t h e p r i n t v e h i c l e s f o r t h e HABITAT I n f o r m a t i o n themes. A s p e c i a l "in-house" p r o d u c t i o n u n i t w i t h i n HABITAT I n f o r m a t i o n produced news r e l e a s e s , b r o c h u r e s , f a c t s h e e t s ,  132. church  bulletins,  conference  reprints  purlications  distribution  unit  mation  posters,  kits,  professional services  but  stores  the  which  create  and a  wanted  and  During  the  As  of  siphon  off  access  to  local  type  copy  original  for  use  by  A  infor-  school  a d d i t i o n to  and  community  of  a  and  the  constant.  production  the  print,  CHS, One  k i t " for  of  needed  specifications size  of  Infor-  costly  a l l information  in  of  d i s p l a y themes.  the  Vancouver  pictures  for a  normally  produced  in  logo  to  kit  or  and  HABITAT  Information CHS  staff  newspaper,  Ottawa.  Centres first  community  hostility  press  division  restraints.  by  i n both  Information  the  of  using  another  and  information  The  in  HABITAT  contained  indicated earlier, of  etc.,  the  Nations.  thousands  lists  d i s p l a y s , but  Information  establishment  United  "specifications  permit  conference,  the  a  develop  not  code,  HABITAT B u l l e t i n ,  Community  of  decals  s u p p l i e d by  copyright  produced  the  necessarily close  to  did  window  colour  insignia,  also  were  d i s p l a y was  included  hundreds  production  mations' s budget posters  out  by  i n a d d i t i o n to  lists.  graphics  was  required  buttons,  c o - o r d i n a t i o n was  example  articles,  association mailing  mailing  All  sent  of  and  information providing Canada's  Centre for  priority  was  given  centre  to  quick  and  official  i n Gastown  was  to  the  help efficient  languages. also  audio-visual events.  designed A  small  22-seat m i n i - t h e a t r e was  b u i l t , t o show f i l m s t o s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n and members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  D i s p l a y areas  were i n s t a l l e d , and press conferences were scheduled f o r the Centre to encourage the media to "check i n " and keep up w i t h HABITAT events t a k i n g p l a c e around the c i t y . the c e n t r e was  donated  by a Gastown developer who  i n c r e a s e customer t r a f f i c i n the a r e a . was  w e l l designed,  The space f o r  The  wished to  Information  i n e x p e n s i v e , a t t r a c t i v e , s t a f f e d by  Centre bilin-  gual personnel i n blue HABITAT uniforms, and very h e a v i l y utilized. At the time o f the conference, the Gastown i n f o r m a t i o n centre was was  c l o s e d down and the p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n f u n c t i o n  moved to HABITAT P a v i l i o n , a hugh, d r a f t y s t r u c t u r e b u i l t  on the Vancouver Courthouse grounds, u t i l i z i n g paper mache s h e l l s decored by s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . t e l e v i s i o n viewing areas, and was  The P a v i l i o n i n c l u d e d d i s i g n e d to p r o v i d e  local  access t o the proceedings of the conference which were t a k i n g p l a c e i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the c i t y .  Some 60,000 people  v i s i t e d the P a v i l i o n d u r i n g i t s two-week  life.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Modes of Communication The  l a c k o f pre-conference p l a n n i n g and the s h o r t time-  p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e to design and implement the  Information  f u n c t i o n c r e a t e d many problems and s h o r t f a l l s i n Information programming.  Many t h i n g s  which ought not to be done were  done, and others which should have been done were not.  134. However, t h e I n f o r m a t i o n s t r a t e g y w h i c h emerged from the feedback mechanisms was based on t h e c o n c e p t t h a t i n f o r mation s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l who wanted t o l e a r n about HABITAT.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was c l e a r t h a t  Information  c o u l d n o t adopt a h i g h p r o f i l e w i t h o u t t h e r i s k o f g e n e r a t i n g even g r e a t e r h o s t i l i t y from t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , whose f e a r s as r e p o r t e d by t h e I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e c o v e r e d  a range o f con-  c e r n s , i n c l u d i n g b e i n g a t t a c k e d i n back a l l e y s by g l o b a l " h i p p i e s " who were a t t r a c t e d t o Vancouver by t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t o t h e f e a r t h a t exposure o f Vancouver on g l o b a l t e l e v i s i o n would i n c r e a s e i m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e concept  o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a mode o f s o c i a l communication was e x p l o r e d as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o more c o n v e n t i o n a l modes o f communication. There were many p a r t i c i p a t o r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n HABITAT, from a t t e n d i n g HABITAT Forum, t h e c o u n t e r c o n f e r e n c e  staged  e n t i r e l y f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t o g e l e v i s i o n p h o n e - i n shows. However, one major emphasis on p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a communication mode was c e n t r e d on t h e Neighbourhood Walks program, d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y below.  4.4  NEIGHBOURHOOD WALKS PROGRAM The Neighbourhood Walks program was d e s i g n e d  to deal with  the a l l - t o o - o b v i o u s d i s p a r i t y between c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the r i c h and poor n a t i o n s who would be s e n d i n g d e l e g a t e s t o HABITAT: U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on Human S e t t l e m e n t s .  The  135. type o f human s e t t l e m e n t s e x i s t i n g i n many of the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s was  beyond the a b i l i t y of most V a n c o u v e r i t e s t o  comprehend, and t h e r e f o r e they found i t d i f f i c u l t to  some of the conference o b j e c t i v e s .  Walks program was  to relate  The Neighbourhood  an attempt t o t r a n s l a t e these o b j e c t i v e s  i n t o a form which V a n c o u v e r i t e s c o u l d understand, i n t h e i r neighbourhoods. t h e i r own  Residents were asked to take a f r e s h look a t  neighbourhood,  suggest new  own  i n v e n t o r y t h e i r community a s s e t s ,  ways of u s i n g what they a l r e a d y had,  and  r a t h e r than  ask governments f o r more f a c i l i t i e s . The program leaned h e a v i l y on the concept t h a t every community has some f e a t u r e s which generate p r i d e i n i t s c i t i zens  ( S e e l i g , 1974).  As the program developed, elements were  borrowed from a program of walks suggested by Zacharias and Seelig was  (1974).  An expanded program of ten Neighbourhood Walks  l a t e r submitted by Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t to a con-  ference p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n i n N a i r o b i f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l event, but the l a c k of adequate  p r e p a r a t i o n time  p r e c l u d e d i t s development a t the time. In  essence, the HABITAT Neighbourhood Walks Program  was  a community program to promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n developing  1.  the f o l l o w i n g  objectives:  To promote a c i t i z e n i n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g community facilities,  to analyze whether these f a c i l i t i e s may  used f o r other f u n c t i o n s , and to suggest where a p p r o p r i a t e ;  be  alternatives  136. 2.  To  heighten  to  their  using  In prior ment  own  their  total,  to the  Grey  were and  community own  with  a r e a s where  from  citizens.  cessful West  End  Forest the  was  to  reported  ity This  a  Walks with  met.  Walks  Walk,  "pilot"  on  walks,  When  were  Cycle  Point These they  proposals of  might  the  E v e n t , aimed  suc-  including  Endowment at  City  arouse  these proved  staged,  a University  pro-  since  the part which  depart-  West  techniques.  p r e p a r e d t o a c t on  n o t be  staged  planning  two  initial  reluctance  official  were  a  Land  attracting  of  the Neighbourhood  Walks  program  i n t h e HABITAT  conference i t s e l f .  staging  of media  "events"  would  of  Walks  be  might  themselves  interest  techniques  terest  was  a HABITAT  a  help termed  be  traditional  series  program,  c o v e r a g e may  might  initiate  the  coverage  First,  could  v i a t h e more  sequential  improvements  cyclists.  increase the  of  communities,  different  f o r the  secondary objective  through  Media  of  diverse  t o undertake programs  other  and  interest A  chosen  Neighbourhood  Walk,  can  of Vancouver,  using  T h e r e was  which  three  they  consultation  i n two  the C i t y  officials  expectations  In  the C i t y  Pleasant,  were  which  citizens  HABITAT N e i g h b o u r h o o d  undertaken  Mount  among  resources.  five  neighbourhoods were  planning  awareness  conference.  officials  jects  the  be  of can  small  which  modes  related  f o l l o w , one initially,  greatest  "ripple" i n the  of and  such  two  as  the  patterns.  increase  as  public-  enthusiasm f o r the  effect.  initial  widely  communication.  events,  to generate public the  of  be  Second,  stages,  media  when  the  event.  i n event  has ed  novelty the  value,  "novelty"  program tially sign,  planners  f o r both  the  successful. plan  and  conference  itself,  excitement  of  Since  place  of  the the  when  planned,  then  faded  zation,  Mount relatively European  80 The  community Planning  program  was  close  and  term-  was  to  the  were  as  the  output  Walks  and  conceive, the  Walks  timing  blocks cent  of  in  Department.  and  media  air  of  the by  and  the  largest  UN  initially  as  events  and  personal-  time.  below  i n terms  of  organi-  coverage.  community of  of  people  community  about  of  is in a  replacing family the  HABITAT Mount groups  world's  imposing  de-  Walk  is a  The  more  par-  overshadowed  increased  summarized  percentage  origin.  the  their  only  limited,  to  programs  columns  Pleasant  high  per  be  effect  attempt  required  coverage  as  are  Pleasant  apartment  Almost  news  Walks  planning  HABITAT Mount  with  the  five  "ripple"  this  i n Vancouver  general  The  might  internationally-acclaimed dignitaries  staging  claimed  The  generally  time  local  Thus  ities  time.  the  perilously  conference. and  chose  However,  implement  took  presence  over  conference  in particular.  themselves  the  diminish  effect.  Information objectives  and  Pleasant  co-operation  Chinese state of homes  accommodation  20,000, w i t h  in  and  certain  areas.  i s r e n t a l ?~ organized  with  Vancouver  the  was  East  transition,  W a l k was  Participation  a  by  by  local  City  invitation  only.  138. The of  fifty the  Local  participants  community politicians  selected  as  scheduled included a  visit  tour  represented  by  the  raised  to  lead  the  a  to  City  Hall,  new  the  lunch  cross-section  program  organizers.  community  participants  scheduled  condominium,  and  a  local  in  S p e c i f i c events at  tea  for  at  at  the  local  orientation  and  the  were  ..  along the  the  a  tour  Sikh  branch  Temple,  of  the  Legion. a  pre-walk  discussion  the  experiences  was  also  of  session  the  use  HABITAT Mount government's  by  each  workshop  (late  p a r t i c i p a n t by  W a l k was  used  in  group  of  of  the  Canadian  Legion  Saturday  afternoon)  local  area  from  the (NIP)  recorded  the  Hall)  record  the  federal which  is  community  utilizing  Unfortunately,  and  Output  Program  participants  "design-in",  the  a  questionnaire  in planning  Improvement  sections  artist-animator. (the  detailed  Pleasant  limited  location  A  itself,  formalize  department.  Neighbourhood  a  to  planning  selected  in  held  walk  the  implemented The  was  participants.  d i s t r i b u t e d to for  vations  were  guides  look  post-walk  one  who  route.  After  planner  perceived  a  Canadian  being  as  selected  and  the  their  services  s e l e c t i o n of the  timing  severely  obserof  the  of  the  restricted  dis-  cussion. On agreed  balance,  that  the  however,  neighbourhood  requiring  more  children,  pedestrian  and  possible  the  family  Mount  Pleasant  participants  is primarily  a  housing,  supervised  play  walkways,  facilities  for  r e c r e a t i o n a l use  of  warehouse  "people" areas  place, for  existing  roof-tops.  parks  139.  An made by  e v a l u a t i o n of the Mount P l e a s a n t l o c a l area planning  appended to t h i s study.  p a r t i c i p a n t process  a s s i s t a n t , Mitch  Taylor, i s  He made the f o l l o w i n g  substantive  comments: 1.  The  HABITAT Walk and  valuable  accompanying summary were extremely  to the p l a n n i n g  i n g b e t t e r i n s i g h t and diverse 2.  The  department as a means of  understanding o f the  department f e l t t h a t the walk and  promoting neighbourly The  s i m i l a r neighbour-  contributions  towards  relations;  " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " b y i n v i t a t i o n " was  of achieving  4.  community's  facets;  hood p r o j e c t s can make v a l u a b l e  3.  gain-  c i t i z e n i n p u t , but  required better  organization;  The  l a c k of any  follow-up  was  a constraint.  an e f f e c t i v e way  the post-walk  session  on the walkers' recommendations  Mount P l e a s a n t  l a c k s any  strong  citi-  zens' group which c o u l d have been asked to undertake task of c a r r y i n g on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n program at neighbourhood Since  t h i s was  low-key approach was v i s i o n was  the  level. the  f i r s t experimental walk, a r e l a t i v e l y  taken i n s o l i c i t i n g media coverage.  Tele-  s e l e c t e d as the most l i k e l y v e h i c l e , s i n c e the  ence o f two  prominent c i v i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s , an alderman and  former mayor gave the event news i n t e r e s t . a t i o n of the  l o c a l weekly "The  through p e r s o n a l  the  contact,  Mount P l e a s a n t  a  a c t i v e co-oper-  News" was  sought  p r o v i s i o n of e d i t o r i a l m a t e r i a l ,  purchase of a d v e r t i s i n g space and spent by the e d i t o r , who  The  pres-  payment f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n  became co-chairman of the Walk.  time  140. T e l e v i s i o n coverage was p r o v i d e d by CBC d u r i n g the initial  phases o f the event and was c a p s u l i z e d on the evening  news.  The l e a d i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n newspaper c a r r i e d a f a i r l y  e x t e n s i v e a r t i c l e on the walk. Two d i s p l a y s were o b t a i n e d f o r use a t the Information Centre  i n Gastown.  The f i r s t was a d i s p l a y o f the Mount  P l e a s a n t community prepared by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department and i n c l u d e d i n a 'resource show' a t a neighbourhood mall.  The second d i s p l a y was composed o f drawings  shopping  prepared  by a l o c a l a r t i s t d u r i n g the post-walk d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d . These drawings c o n t a i n e d g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the more prominent concerns  f o r the area recorded by community r e s i d e n t s  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the HABITAT Mount P l e a s a n t Walk.  HABITAT West P o i n t Grey Walk West P o i n t Grey i s a community o f about 12,000 r e s i d e n t s , more than  70 per cent o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n .  r e s i d e n t s own t h e i r own homes.  3  The m a j o r i t y o f  O r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f the 5,000  acre land grant given the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, ity  has remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e i t was  planned  and  the commun-  carefully  developed.  The HABITAT West P o i n t Grey Walk was o r g a n i z e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . of  largely  The walk was i n f o r m a l and a l l members  the community were encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  t a t i o n s e s s i o n s were conducted  i n a l o c a l school.  Three o r i e n Participants  were s u p p l i e d w i t h P o l a r o i d cameras t o a s s i s t them i n r e c o r d i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s along any route they chose to f o l l o w by  141. f o o t , b i c y c l e o r c a r . Buses were p r o v i d e d to t r a n s p o r t c i t i z e n s and handicapped members o f the community.  senior  The p o s t -  walk s e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f a ' d e s i g n - i n ' conducted i n the gymnasium of the s c h o o l .  Animators a s s i s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  g r a p h i c a l l y e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r ideas about the community on a 200  foot r o l l  o f paper posted on the w a l l s o f the gym.  Photo-  graphs taken were a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s mural, which was l a t e r forwarded t o c i t y p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s . presented to Vancouver C i t y  A summary was  Council.  U n l i k e the Mount P l e a s a n t Walk, where the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' comments were c h a n n e l l e d i n t o the NIP program, Grey Walk l a c k e d a p a r t i c u l a r program  focus.  the West P o i n t The Neighbourhood  Walkers, r a n g i n g i n age from two t o eighty-two y e a r s o f f e r e d e x t e n s i v e comments c o v e r i n g such d i v e r s e s u b j e c t s as b i c y c l e paths, housing, use o f l a n e s , parks, s e r v i c e s , s t r e e t s and p a r k i n g , and t r e e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n .  The main concern o f the  Walkers appeared to be the need to keep t h e i r garden community a green o a s i s i n the urban scene.  The r o l e o f the neighbour-  hood i n r e l a t i o n to i t s a d j a c e n t community, the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia was a l s o e x p l o r e d . C o n s i d e r a b l e promotion was undertaken p r i o r to the HABITAT West P o i n t Grey Walk by CHS s t a f f .  Newspaper advertisements  appeared i n the l o c a l weekly f o r the two c o n s e c u t i v e i s s u e s proceeding the event.  P o s t e r s , s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n to the i n i t i a l  advertisement, were a l s o produced f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o merchants in  the West P o i n t Grey area.  Front event  page  i n the  details  of  local  written  the  post-walk  by  Vancouver  The  End  urban  or  by  Three various  included  celebrity.  The  One enabled  the  two  the  was  containing  project  included  in  distribution  written  in size  End  of  i s one  was  mainly  The  by  CHS  carried  the  according by  staff.  by  length,  to  Vancouver  single  walk and  highrises,  was  was  transco-  open  to  Sunday.  were  i n the  held  to  accommodate  community.  architect  the walks  diversity  a  densely  huge  o f young,  Council  s t a g e d on  resident  focus of  the most  neighbourhood  Community  varying  of  i s dominated  a r e a p l a n n e r , an  the  unique  of  significant  America  i s composed  groups  recognize of  i n North  e v e n t was  walks, age  story,  the proceedings.  people.  The  local  lifestyles  page  up-coming  newspaper.  the walk,  of Vancouver  t h e West  a  to  on  cover  story  local a  the  purpose  page  same  on  The  and  full  Its cityscape  retired  public.  pants  the  quarter  areas  i t s population  sponsored  the  of  A  given  Walk  planners.  ients  the  End  paper.  newspaper w i t h  one  Sun"  West  populated city  staff.  local  about  HABITAT West  and  CHS  were  itinerary  a half-page article  article  "The  community  edition  Another  An  headlines  the proposed  was  carried  advance  was  i n the  and  a  to enable  Walk  leaders  media the  architectural  particiform  and  area. feature  was  hundred-odd  the  "Bird's  participants  Eye  Walk",  to view  which  their  community  143. from the  top  existing  space  root  rops  asked  to  -  the  were  firty-two including  could  be  the  lifestyles  of  suggestions  lots,  utilized.  the  were  compiled  for  the  who  or  later  see  how  landscaped  of  people  transients  to  Residents  architecture  group  were  building  parking  of  single  the  storey  better  how  young,  impressions and  a  observe  affected they  -  of  setbacks,  were  also  apartment  lived  senior  in  buildings  them,  whether  citizens.  recorded  in  presentation  a  The  "design-in"  to  planning  authorities. Perceptions "design-in" populated between to  dealt  preserve  glare  Radio  was  Neighbourhodd  on  three  population newspaper  the  and r a d i o  While  of  for  the  the  major  for  the of  in  roof the  daily  papers  weekly,  to  reach  As  day in  of  the the  relationship the  need  tops care  cost  for  centres.  advertising  for  spots  a  was  this  for  diversity  event  use  on  of  both  printed  of  jogging  advertisement  radio  were  densely  the  emphasis  the  retail/service  may b e  the  a complement to  flyers  events,  roof  time  a newspaper  reporting  previous  of  gardens,  thirty-second  order  local  use  the  the  buildings;  first  local  coverage,  newspaper two  and the  community.  ution^ from s e v e r a l  than  in  stations in  demolish older  Although  development  local  construction;  employed  and p l a c e d  the  highrise  courts,  Walk.  of  the  and  ball  nature  comments on  citizens  racquet  unique  in  included  senior  tracks,  the  participants  They  than  for  from the  with  rather  housing  was  mainly  community.  wind,  produced  solicited  for  the distrib-  establishments. event  was  less  lack  of  coverage  explained  in  part  by  extensive by the  either fact  144. that  a  comprehensive  covering carried  details a short  CBC  than  review  news  participants,  HABITAT  Cycle  Bike this  asked they  the  Parks Two  to  for  of  "bird's  was  Neighbourhood  eye  were  more  compre-  Walks.  The  view".  Vancouver were  from  invited  suggestions  were  were  to p a r t i c i p a t e  o f t h e new  Stanley  t o don  Park  bicycle  HABITAT  and  were  trails  At least  attendance,  in  to Jericho  costumes  f o r new  routes  i n active  of the cyclists  invited  the opening  features of the cycle  the event  pedestrians.  awareness  special  HABITAT  and d i s t r i b u t e d  the question  the t r a i l ,  these  End Walk  two  and  as  Vancouver  comments  included i n a report to  Board.  streets,  arose  paper  a f e a t u r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f walk  the six-mile bike  increase public  city  previous  t o mark  through  Commissioners  proposals  community  picture.  o f a l l ages  to record their  and  local  issued  Event  Participants  followed  Parks  gaining a  The  o f t h e West  contained  designed  route  Beach.  coverage  riders  event,  bicycle  and  f o r t h e two  evening  r e l e a s e had p r e v i o u s l y been  o f the walk.  Television ensive  press  such  event  deserve  o f t h e number blue  bike  comment.  of cyclists  banners  to participants.  Second,  cyclists  as beaches  and s h o r e l i n e s , n o r m a l l y  decided  sections, i n order  that  cyclists  to dramatize  and  using  commissioned  o f whether  I t was  should  were  First,  use those  should  identify  there parts  used  indeed  by  bike  potential  145. areas  of  sought  conflict.  and  The  obtained  co-operation of  for critical  the  traffic  city  areas,  police  such  as  was bridge  crossings. A  combination  posters  and  flyers  of  radio  was  used  project.  Flyers  most  shops w i t h i n  cycle  (smaller  versions of  newspapers. the  West  CBC  Radio  End  coverage The  of  the  of  public  event  University city.  awareness  of  was  open  was  co-sponsored  whose members A  steady  determined ordered  f o r such  participated  i n the  explain  their  made  the  the  at  an  of  the  the  limited  this  distributed  in  local  to  community  same e x t e n t  main  i n a l l metro  Lands  as  in  conference,  newspapers.  television  aim  of  the  the  the  public  and  University  as  tour  coverage.  to  carried  discussion  of  this  held  on  deter  HABITAT  f u t u r e U.E.L.  s e s s i o n were  responsible provincial  to  on  a  the  increase  forested  habitat.  Saturday.  Regional  the  Park  and  or  It  Committee,  Parks were  and  fifty  especially Commissioners  invited  development.  recorded  authorities.  forty  umbrellas  Vancouver  kilometer hike  on  forest  w a l k was  Land  eventuality. five  a  leaders.  failed  who  position  support  possibilities  downpour  walkers,  eve  to  of  advertisements  carried  used  lacking  The  to  served  and  scope  Walk  the  by  regional  produced  were  the  Endowment  a major  event  on  advertisements,  Newspaper  was  provide  Forest  The  poster)  was  the  city.  promotion  d i d , however,  The  the  Held  newspaper  t o meet  p o s t e r s were  the  Walk.  HABITAT U.E.L.  edge  and  spots,  to  Comments  forwarded  to  146.  Both Cycle  the  Event  HABITAT  presented  U.E.L.  F o r e s t Walk  problems  regarding  appropriate  advertising  regional  or  city-wide  interest  of  previous  was  required.  expensive. radio.  on  However,  the  colourful  metropolitan  4.5  because HABITAT  of  the  umbrellas  to  devise  and  traditional  experimental  the  However, significant hood  and  the  that  that the  on  event  won  community  publicity  be  too  the  i n the  of  use  of  local was  space  carried encountered.  in  the  mounted  under  establishment  of  program.  for  the  First,  e v a l u a t i o n models strict  an  time  exist.  constraints,  evaluation  framework  exercise. the  amount  planning.  process  no  p r o g r a m was  precluded  part of  to  evaluation criteria  it  as  local  poor weather  participation  which  of  EVALUATION  is difficult  the  proved  this  public  Second,  the  widespread  placed of  selection  centred  Neighbourhood Walks was  to  Walks,  coverage  HABITAT  newspapers.  PROGRAM It  opposed  was  the  b o t h . p r o j e c t s were  advertising  No  possibly  the  advertisements  advertisement  newspaper.  television,  as  Neighbourhood  Newspaper  single  Since  interest  Consequently,  A  community  modes.  and  the  Neighbourhood of  citizen  Information Walks  Walks  input  into  planners  program  material collected  project  should should  local  had  d i d generate area  decided  have  some  be  useful  or  early  visible to  a  neighbourin  the  output,  planners  and  147.  politicians. which all  Thus  encouraged  suggestions  authorities. a  number  format and  of  used  the  successful  recorded  1.  were  output  variables, record  per  designed  such  as  a  Walk  including  was  the  suggestions,  to  sent  mixed,  purpose  the  be  in a  form  "design-in",  subsequently  s e c t i o n summarizes  the  neighbourhood  program  HABITAT e x p e r i e n c e West  was  participation,  The  to  output  to  and of  number  and  the  relevant  depended  the  of  Walk,  on the  participants  weather.  This  and  the  Point  with  walk the  two  elements on  "pilot"  required  the  basis  for of  a  the  p r o j e c t s i n Mount  Pleasant  Grey.  Involvement  of  a  Community  of  a Neighbourhood  is  valuable  Walk  by  Organization: a  community  Sponsorship  organization  because:  members  have  can  help  not  obvious  members  some k n o w l e d g e  identify  can  residents  to  resources  "outside"  help  i n the  of  to  their  and  community  special  and  qualities  organizers;  involve other  community,  and  organizations  to  publicize  and  the  event; a  community  walk  2.  Selection of Walk  should  to  an  should  pation.  Some  day.  and  Appropriate  be  present  Date:  Since  excitement  f i n d i n g s of  at  may  to  the  best  or  Neighbourhood statutory  encourage  their be  i f family participation  the  agencies.  a weekend  selected i n order are  the  municipal  public,  communities  this  However,  can  appropriate  involve the  holiday  Saturday  the  group  partici-  liveliest  on  a  captured  on  that  is desired,  Sunday  148. may  prove  should  more  appropriate.  reflect  the type  The  ultimate  and s c a l e  decision  of local participation  desired. Preparation Walk.  time  Arrangements  (preparation ments,  e t c . ) may  publicity  Choice  Pleasant  was  Walk  Point  given on  Phasing  the future  t h e Walk:  A  A  is  t o be  committee  Mount  recommenda-  Improvement  number  from  of participants  and  exchanging  neighbourhood four,  inventory  phases:  Session:  a starting  o f t h e Walk  can o u t l i n e  The  community.  and p o s s i b l y  carried out.  of  Point  d i d n o t emerge  of evaluating  successful  objectives  be  general p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to formulate  a greater  of their  need  options; HABITAT  West  advantages.  program  Orientation  Participants the  Walk,  require  cross-section  to the Neighbourhood  three,  pre-Walk  a r e two  t h e HABITAT  to encourage  specific  Grey  of time  p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  representative  the opportunity  involves  that  participants helped  a  of the  o r open p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  and have t h e i r  While  West  a  organized  f o r submission  Program.  a)  amount  refresh-  considered.  Albernatively,  worked w e l l  walk  be  materials  i n terms  The  demonstrated  to contain  Both  ideas  also  and  of the  questionnaires,  required.  Walk  Walk  were  kits,  participation,  Grey  the  for facilities  should  community.  tions  the complexity  underestimated  time  Pleasant  structured the  be  with  of P a r t i c i p a t i o n : B a s i c a l l y , there  controlled Mount  vary  of inventory  organizational for  will  point,  to learn  a r e , a n d how  Members  of the  the objectives.  what  the program organizing  149. Participants their  also should  be made aware o f how  community h a s c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e - how i t  b e g a n , where i t i s a t now, evolve  i n the future.  and t h e way  i t might  Audio-visual aids are  useful. For  t h e Mount P l e a s a n t  Walk, a l o c a l  grew up i n t h e community r e c a l l e d in  Mount P l e a s a n t  when he was  alderman  t h e way  a boy, and  of  who life  described  some o f t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h have t a k e n p l a c e  i n this  highly  Point  t r a n s i e n t community.  G r e y Walk, a s l i d e pants with The  Walk  their  presentation  route  unstructured,  guides,  with  little  The  West P o i n t  route  Walk was o r g a n i z e d  flexibility  pilot  respond  a  route, There  with  a suggested their  Parti-  "inventory"  own  routes,  B o t h methods  results.  Session:  p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t many p e o p l e  to the challenge  communities initiate  with  i n the timetable.  modes o f t r a n s p o r t , and t i m e t a b l e .  The  or timetable.  points of interest.  and a s k e d t o s e l e c t  produced informative  i n order  themselves.  with  be  G r e y Walk was more i n f o r m a l .  c i p a n t s were p r o v i d e d  A Post-Walk  structured,  o r i t may  no p a r t i c u l a r  and s p e c i f i c  was  list  be t i g h t l y  and i t i n e r a r y ,  Mount P l e a s a n t  check  partici-  Itself:  a specific  tour  acquainted  community's e v o l u t i o n .  A n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a l k may  The  F o r t h e West  of looking at their  t o seek changes they  can  A post-walk s e s s i o n  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y  to describe  gives and  150. discuss phase  their  of  both  Participants  in  Walk  into  their  small  part  in  input  case  was  sought  the  to  increase  Information  a)  A  b)  c)  A  pilot  to  the  may  have  Walk  record  Point  where  a  their  Grey  team  of  recording  poster.  walk  where local  be  awareness  of  feel  of  NIP  program.  a  their  program own  local participation  their  local  information  objective, citizen  merely  communities,  They  of  specific  the  may  i f people  walks.  a  Pleasant,  attention  views  planning  kits  were  will  be  agencies.  prepared  included:  objectives,  or  what  the  exercise  about;  map  of  the  community,  and  a  and  note  Key  demographic  A  to  West  huge w a l l  Mount  most  Simple  statement  (Who  a  Pleasant  graphically  i n planning  increased  proposed  Are  short  route  showing  for  the  key  walks,  facilities and  a  pencil  pad;  community,  d)  In  Kits:  was  of  people's  community.  brought  in  on  neighbourhood  be  the  "Design-In",  walk  the  Or  may  observations.  groups  in  assisted  Implementation:  neighbourhood  as  both  in a  post-walk  animators  their  discussion  observations  the  HABITAT Mount  a s s i s t e d them  Post-Walk A  the  Participants  took  artists  for  projects,  i n expressing  concerns.  5.  pilot  In  participants  formed  d)  experiences.  by  Your  information  ethnic  status,  on  who  age,  lives sex,  in  income,  Neighbours?):  inventory  list  of  things  to  the  look  at;  etc.  151. e)  A r e p o r t i n g form, i n d i c a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s ' suggestions use.  6.  f o r a l t e r n a t i v e o r more i n t e n s i v e  T h i s may be i n p r i n t o r g r a p h i c  form.  P u b l i c i t y : The p u b l i c i t y r e q u i r e d t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l depend on t h e scope o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s i r e d . open i n v i t a t i o n events,  For  publicity i s essential.  P u b l i c i t y might i n c l u d e : L e t t e r s o f i n v i t a t i o n t o l o c a l community groups, e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , s c h o o l s , churches, e t c . ; Rosters; -  News s t o r i e s and a d v e r t i s i n g f o r l o c a l media;  -  P r i n t e d n o t i c e s f o r home d i s t r i b u t i o n .  A d v e r t i s i n g i n l o c a l community media w i l l h e l p generate the e d i t o r i a l coverage r e q u i r e d t o help ensure the success 7.  o f the p r o j e c t .  Financing:  Despite  publicizing,  the apparent c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g ,  and implementing a Neighbourhood Walk,  c o s t s a r e minimal, c o n s i d e r i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r h e i g h t ened community awareness and t a n g i b l e output f u t u r e p l a n n i n g o f community.  regarding  The maj\or c o s t s  involved  concern i n v e n t o r y m a t e r i a l s , p u b l i c i t y , and f a c i l i t y r e n t a l t o accommodate the a c t i v i t i e s .  The c o s t s o f the  p i l o t p r o j e c t s were i n t h e r e g i o n of $1,000, e x c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l time, and assuming a v o l u n t e e r  Appendix A c o n t a i n s  workforce.  samples o f a d v e r t i s i n g formats,  community i n v e n t o r y c h e c k l i s t s , statement o f o b j e c t i v e s , demographic i n f o r m a t i o n p i l o t project.  and s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l used f o r one  152 .  T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d  a case s t u d y w h i c h u t i l i z e d  a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program as a communications mode, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r , more t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f communication. In our f i n a l c h a p t e r , we w i l l t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o the d e s i g n of a s o c i a l communication d e l i v e r y system i n c o r p o r a t i n g element o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  an  153. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER FOUR  1  The i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h HABITAT i s drawn from the unpublished working f i l e s o f the Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Information D i v i s i o n , and i s a v a i l a b l e through  the M i n i s t r y , o f S t a t e f o r Urban  A f f a i r s , Ottawa.  2  C i t y o f Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department L o c a l Areas,  3  (mimeo) A p r i l  C i t y o f Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department L o c a l Areas,  (1975) Vancouver  (mimeo) A p r i l .  (1975) Vancouver  154. CHAPTER FIVE A SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS DELIVERY SYSTEM  5.1  INTRODUCTION The  c e n t r a l purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to e x p l o r e  r o l e of communications i n p l a n n i n g and t o suggest  the  the design  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a s o c i a l communications d e l i v e r y system which w i l l enable planners ecology"  to cope with the demands of an  (Nanus, 1972,  "information  p.398), or environment c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  i n c r e a s i n g flows of i n f o r m a t i o n and complexity  of i n f o r m a t i o n  systems. A review of p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s to us t h a t the s o c i e t a l f o r c e s behind may  the e v o l u t i o n of an i n f o r m a t i o n  ecology  be f i r s t , the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y  ( B e l l , 1973) r e s o u r c e ; and  i n which i n f o r m a t i o n , or knowledge, becomes a major second, the r i s i n g demands of c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i -  c i p a t e i n the decision-making d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t them.  p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when such  In d e s i g n i n g our  d e l i v e r y system, t h e r e f o r e , we  social  communications  have attempted t o i n c o r p o r a t e  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s as one mode of communication. E a r l i e r i n t h i s study we have documented the views of some planners  (Kalba, 1973;  Meier,  t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n systems and an impact on the shape and  1962;  Sackman and Boehm,  s e r v i c e s w i l l have as  1972)  significant  a c t i v i t i e s of f u t u r e communities as  the automobile has had on e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s .  I f we  155.  assume  that  impact  of information,  which w i l l in  these authors are correct  enable planners  the overall  planning have  may  defined  to  achieve  of  social In  there  planning  i s a clear  need  to incorporate  process.  be d e s c r i b e d  i n their  assessment  to develop  an e l e m e n t  of the  techniques  of  information  The u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n  as " s o c i a l  communications",  which  we  as " t h e u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c o m m u n i c a t i o n s systems  planning change"  objectives  normally  incorporating  an  element  ( C h a p t e r One, p . 8 ) .  C h a p t e r One,  the study objectives  were  s e t o u t as  follows:  1.  To review t h e p l a n n i n g participation  2.  and s o c i a l  those elements which  planning  a t t h e community  in  how  a specific  To d e s i g n  social  Chapter public the  Two  conventional  Chapter cipation  Four  describes  i n Chapter  to  relevant  strategies case  to  system which  were  used  study;  and c o n s t r a i n t s  for a  incorporated  social a  element.  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .  modes  as a s o c i a l  identified  participation  reviews the theoretical  participation  public  i n order  appear  communications  delivery  participation  would  of  level;  the specifications  communications public  public  and t h e r o l e  communications  identify  To d e s c r i b e  3.  process  o f communications a case  study which  communications Three.  mode,  approach t o planning, Chapter available utilized  Three  outlines  to planners. public  i n addition  parti-  t o those  156. In  t h i s chapter  w h i c h r e q u i r e s us m i g h t be  used  essence,  we  we  will  to suggest  in a social  will  d e a l with the  third  ways i n w h i c h p u b l i c  communications d e l i v e r y  d e a l with the  two  objective, participation system.  questions raised  in  In  Chapter  One:  How  can p l a n n e r s  the p l a n n i n g -  accommodate  i n f o r m a t i o n systems i n  process?  What new  t e c h n i q u e s m i g h t be  planners  t o cope w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g  flows,  and  First,  we  complexity  will  evolved which w i l l  public we  1962).  further refine  participation  will  a social of  suggest  the concept  suggest  in a social  the d e s i g n  of  social  communications two  model  models f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g  communications program.  specifications  communications d e l i v e r y  and  constraints for  s y s t e m w h i c h i n c l u d e s an  Finally,  we  will  Next  comment on  element  further  areas.  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Before  to  will  public participation.  research  5.2  T h e n we  of information  of i n f o r m a t i o n systems?  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e l a b o r a t i n g on M e i e r ' s (Meier,  size  enable  s e t out  evolved.  developing these  concepts  further,  i t is  necessary  the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y may  be  In Chapter  alternative planning processes  have  Two,  been examined, the  theoretical  have b e e n r e v i e w e d  and  their  approaches to c i t i z e n  s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s  participation noted,  157. and developments i n the communications f i e l d have been examined. From t h i s wide range of c h o i c e s , we based on the f o l l o w i n g key  1.  can c o n s t r u c t our framework,  assumptions:  The world's i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g the U.S. Canada, are moving towards a new  and  economic e r a , termed  the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ( B e l l , 1973), which i s dominated by the p r o d u c t i o n of s e r v i c e s , r a t h e r than the of 2.  production  goods;  The most important  resource i n such an economic system  w i l l be knowledge, or i n f o r m a t i o n . suggested  Drucker  t h a t the United S t a t e s has a l r e a d y  (196 9)  has  switched  from a goods-producing economy to a knowledge economy, and t h a t by the end earned and  of the decade, h a l f of every  dollar  spent i n the American economy w i l l i n v o l v e the  p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and procurement of ideas  and  information; 3.  The  ability  t o c o n t r o l or command i n f o r m a t i o n  will  determine the degree of s o c i a l and economic power wielded by v a r i o u s groups i n the economy.  Meier  (1962) p o i n t s  out t h a t s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n i m p l i e s the c a p a c i t y to choose among a l t e r n a t i v e s , the o p p o r t u n i t y to e f f e c t change, or to manipulate the s o c i a l environment w i l l v a r y  directly  w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to d i r e c t or c o n t r o l i n f o r m a t i o n flows; 4.  At the same time, the c o n t i n u i n g developments i n communic a t i o n s technology d i s t r i b u t i o n and  w i l l p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t the  spatial  s t r u c t u r e of human s e t t l e m e n t s , as  d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s v i a cable t e l e v i s i o n and  the  information  u t i l i t i e s augment or supplant the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s v i a automotive v e h i c l e s and  freeways;  158. 5.  S i m i l a r l y , the emergence of the p o s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a w i l l r e i n f o r c e the p r e s s u r e s which have h i s t o r i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d the demand f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g  rising  e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s , a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e s of change, i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and complexity  of b u r e a u c r a t i c decision-making,  and  expanding demands f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e i n a technology o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . others  (Friedmann, 1973;  decision-making  Kalba, 1974)  and  anticipate that future  w i l l be more p o l i t i c a l than i n the p a s t ,  and the centre of decision-making 6.  Thus both B e l l  more exposed t o view;  Planners w i l l f i n d themselves working i n a more f l u i d p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d environment, and w i l l  and  increasingly  seek s u b s t i t u t e s f o r more t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g models and skills. 1973)  The  concept  of "command p l a n n i n g "  (Friedmann,  or plan-making under h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l  g i v e way  to the concept  will  of p l a n n i n g as a s t r a t e g y f o r  p r o d u c i n g change w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . The p l a n n e r s ' c e n t r a l task w i l l be t o develop  planning  processes and modes t o cope w i t h the d u a l and o f t e n conf l i c t i n g elements o f i n c r e a s e d technology  - which  preclude p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making  - and  may  rising  demands f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n an environment i n which change i s the o n l y c o n s t a n t .  It i s d i f f i c u l t planner. may  change;  t o imagine a g r e a t e r c h a l l e n g e f o r the  The p o i n t i s not t h a t the focus of h i s p l a n n i n g  efforts  i n the p a s t , p l a n n e r s have shown a marked c a p a c i t y  to adapt to changes i n the nature of the demands f o r plan-making. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the impetus f o r p l a n n i n g grew out of the need f o r o r d e r l y development of a p h y s i c a l townsite, normally or near an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . the automobile,  located at  However, w i t h the development of  planners r e a d i l y accommodated the change i n  159. impact loose  on  urban  structure.  industries  which  place  transportation  and  cheap  settlement  had  profound  of  human  has  planners  school  to  site  we  cope  are  higher  labour  than  impacts  p a r t by  cable  of  specific  urban  in  the  past  due  In  the  summary,  not  with  selection  in  changing  a  the  emergence  priority to  on  on  foot-  access  resources the  of  growth  to  and  commercial  and  location  settlements.  Therefore, of  Similarly,  unduly  the  i n an  e r a where or  s e r v i c e s may the  the  demands p l a c e d  on  where be  impact  planner  here  with  the  ability  p o s s i b l e d e c l i n e i n importance  television,  to  concerned  of  the  relatively  likely  by  may  spatial  adapt  emerging  be  delivered  distribution  less  communications  will him  education  of  important  than  technology.  quite well  to  communications  technology. What  i s at  alternative  (1974)  Kalba steps, and  to  the  as  moving  issue  "a  from  e v a l u a t i o n of  implementation In  i s the  planning  sequence  analytically  problem  planners  may  not  planning  exercise.  that  matter,  process  may  not, may  itself  to  goal  know w h a t He  may  care be  paradigm,  to  devise  an  summarized  by  differentiated  clarification  solutions  society the  may  to  projection  selection  be  i n the  very  h i s main  d e s c r i b e d by  problem  not  participate he  to  and  (1974, p.153).  programs"  postindustrial  or  of  alternative  of  ability  traditional  the  may,  planner's  much  i s until  able  to  concern.  the  the  process, outcome;  I f he  the  end  d e f i n e what  planning about  Bell,  cannot  of  the  elements nor,  for  the structure  160.  some s o r t of o r d e r l y p r o c e s s which w i l l  s a t i s f y the  dualities  of  t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x c l u s i v i t y and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , he  be  l e f t w i t h chaos.  p l a n n i n g , may  will  His r o l e , as i n Friedmann's p a r t i c i p a n t  be l i m i t e d mainly  to that of animator and  infor-  mation d i s p e n s o r : ... r a l l y i n g the community around the common t a s k s , h e l p i n g i t s members to l e a r n about the problems they are f a c i n g and the a v a i l a b l e methods of d e a l i n g w i t h them, and v i d i n g a c o n s t a n t stream of i n f o r m a t i o n about r e l e v a n t aspects of the e x t e r n a l environment  pro-  those (1973, p .xv-xvi)  In t h i s v o l a t i l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e environment, the e s s e n t i a l task f a c i n g the planner w i l l be t o d e v i s e a method or process  f o r p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n , or what Kalba  (1974)  terms " p l a n o v a t i o n " . I t i s important demand, not a p r o c e s s .  to note t h a t " p l a n o v a t i o n " as such i s a As d e s c r i b e d by Kalba, the demand  i m p l i e d by p l a n o v a t i o n i s the need to determine "the process  appropriate  f o r implementing a g i v e n i n n o v a t i o n around which p o s t -  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g w i l l take shape"  (1974, p.152).  t h i s demand w i l l e x i s t , whether the o b j e c t of the  He  suggests  planning  e x e r c i s e i n v o l v e s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , land development, energy c o n s e r v a t i o n or i n f o r m a t i o n systems. In attempting  to d e v i s e such a p r o c e s s , the b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l  problems d e f i n e d by Kalba, Friedmann and  Bell include:  161. The  need  t o make  accessible  t o the general  "information The  need  needs  technical information  p u b l i c without  widely  triggering  overload";  t o devise  b e t t e r means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g  t o bureaucrats  expensive  more  inputs  without  as census  relying  data,  local  e x c l u s i v e l y on such  opinion  polls,  case-  workers , e t c . ; The  need  t o develop  facilitate  decision-making  mechanisms  which  the i n t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n andr e s o l u t i o no f  issues.  Kalba's process  own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s e a r c h  f o r planning  planning  mode,  Essentially, corporate  which  this  temporary model  competing  basis.  participation uncertainty Beyond very  However,  interest  of interests  negotiate Each  groups  concept  he does  suggest  the following  form  seeking  arrangement,  1974).  o f Friedmann s 1  negotiations  (Friedmann,  group  i s presumed i nr e t u r n  i nt h e decision-making this  (Kalba,  between  a mutual but  1973).  Kalba's  whereby  various  t r a d e - o f f s o n an ad hoc o r  i n decision-making  f a r i n designing  accommodate  involves  o f a new  planning  be an expanded  a more p e r m a n e n t  interests  continuing  go  o f major  i s h i s concept  competitive  would  mode, w h i c h  adjustment  envisages  he terms  new mode  planning  representatives  f o r innovation  f o r an appropriate  willing  to trade-off  f o ra reduction of  environment.  o f a new p l a n n i n g  mode,  Kalba  does n o t  the specifications  f o r planovation.  that  process  a planovation  elements:  should  162. -  I t should h e l p to b r i d g e the gap between and  technocracy  participation;  -  I t should accommodate a more informed  public;  -  I t r e q u i r e s a more open p l a n n i n g environment;  -  I t r e q u i r e s a more continuous, dynamic p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n between the planners and the planned  f o r i n which  numerous i n t e r e s t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r a c t  through  time; -  I t r e q u i r e s i n t e r a c t i v e p l a n n i n g procedures, use of r o l e - p l a y i n g , use of v i d e o - t a p e ,  through  and f i l m s  the  and  other i n n o v a t i v e methods.  In t h i s study, we  are suggesting t h a t one  "appropriate  p r o c e s s " f o r p l a n n i n g f o r i n n o v a t i o n i s the use of communications systems.  We  social  are f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s can be used, under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s d e f i n e d below, as a mode of s o c i a l communication i n order t o meet the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. developed  1.  We  have t h e r e f o r e  the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y t i c a l framework:  P l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g process r a t h e r than the attainment  of s p e c i f i c ends.  and o b j e c t i v e s have been reached,  new  Once c e r t a i n g o a l s ones may  emerge  i n their place; 2.  The  initial  i n p u t i n t o the p l a n n i n g process f o r i n n o v a t i o n  should normally be a change element; 3.  The  t a r g e t group a f f e c t e d by the p l a n should be i n v o l v e d i n  the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , to ensure t h a t the p l a n i s c o h e r e n t l y conceived  and  implemented;  163. 4.  The of  5.  A  quality the  quality  capacity  planners  In these  and  the  5.3  target  develop of  It  be  may  Kalba  recalled  information  flows  but  not  i t does  receivers (Starrs  back  and  allow to  Stewart,  channel  disseminate and  target  for a  between  employed  social  Chapter on  Two how  developed  i t has  sender.  planner  Yet  or  by  Meier  we  a vehicle  will  refine  delivery  to  system  was  for  recycled  from  Axworthy  planning to  (197 1)  that  a  collect  and  others  (1976) a n d  Low  (1974) h a v e d e s c r i b e d video-tape  communi-  public  one  channel program-  information  priorities.  and  the  o b j e c t i v e s and  and  print  receivers  effective uses  might  one-way  two-way  values  as  Friedmann  flows  and  be  channel  neither  messages  decision-maker  about  feedback  such  as  process.  information  senders,  f o r messages  that  i s t o be  modes,  the  participation.  i f there  the  process;  n e c e s s a r i l y have  chapter,  i s required  groups'  communications  from  information  planning  planning  point  uses  Goldfarb  be  make t h e  The  function  appropriate;  197 1)  participation.  elements  the  direct  MODEL  model  only;  this  models  (1974) e l a b o r a t e d The  when  i n the  of  public  COMMUNICATIONS  transmitted.  cation  communication  elements  should  communication  group  sections  is a  i n the  s t r a t e g i e s can  SOCIAL  (1973) o r  the  the  and  used  system  "two-way"  remaining  concepts,  "product"  information  for  "two-way"  incorporating  to  of  planning  Public participaiton for  be  the  functioning information  the  6.  of  how  on  traditional  produce  a  mirror effect;  people p a r t i c i p a t e by seeking a r e f l e c t i o n of  t h e i r own v a l u e s i n t h e media. We have a l r e a d y e n l a r g e d M e i e r ' s c o n c e p t o f a "system" t o f o r m u l a t e our own d e f i n i t i o n o f a communication system as "a sequence o f s t a t e s o f an i n t e r a c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , each^ s t a t e being the f u n c t i o n o f preceding s t a t e s " i n which p o p u l a t i o n i s h e l d t o be composed o f p e o p l e , t e c h n i c a l components o r messages (Chapter One, p . 7 ) .  Thus we m i g h t r e v i s e M e i e r ' s model t o  accommodate t h e m i r r o r  effect.  In o u r one~way communications model, t h e l e t t e r "R" r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e o p l e , o r r e c e i v e r s , t h e boxed "K" r e p r e s e n t s a u n i t o r u n i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e l e t t e r "T" s t a n d s f o r t e c h n i c a l components.  As i m p l i e d i n F i g u r e 3. below, any p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e degree i n w h i c h p e o p l e ' s v i e w s o r v a l u e s conform t o t h o s e t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e sender v i a t h e K u n i t s  Messages ^ "•""^ Sender  Interacting population  m T  FIGURE 3.  Receiver  Output  p  V /  R  —> -  R  —»  SOCIAL COMMUNICATION - ONE-WAY  Mirror Effect  lbo. Our  concept of  perceptions  (19 68)  communications change. "the  that  media,  Therefore  use  social  have  as  i s derived  scientist  a vehicle  defined  "social  One,  Basic  to t h i s  since  way  or  two-way  for  innovation,  the  specific  program  from  target  the  exercise  that past  selection The  an  of  definition planner  i s unlikely  i . e . seeking or plan, group. not  social  to achieve of  social  as  the  planning  change"  and I f he  plans  recycle  from  input  change  of  a  the a d d i t i o n  the target  out  about  a  priorities  planning he  can  in his  goals.  described  of a  one-  i n Figure  element  into  feedback  4.  the  channel to  group.  Messages  Receiver  Sender  R  S  R R  SOCIAL  and a  a  i s planning  t o a i d him  or  change  change  information  values  quo,  of action model  he  i n some m a n n e r ,  the status  introduction and  either  channel unless  communications  system  to require  i s carrying  involve  alternative  the  of a  collecting  or  social  introduction  to disseminate  experience,  communication  F I G U R E 4.  the  communications"  element  i s the  communications  does  accommodates  Change Element  views  Dedmon's  p.8).  element, a  incorporating  from  to e f f e c t  of communication/information systems  (Chapter  on  the behavioural  o r modes,  we  objectives- normally  draw  communication  COMMUNICATION  -  TWO-WAY  Output  Values and Priorities  166. 5.4  PUBLIC We  be  PARTICIPATION  have  attracted  she/he  a l r e a d y made  the point that  the planner  to the social  communications  process  s h e / h e may  portion  of the task  analogy  i n Chapter  participation involved, that  degree  involving  local  constrained dictate  to widen  planner  crux  case,  appropriate  i n determining of public  different  location  station  h i s task i s spacing  located at  which  certain  i n order,  i n terms  or the  of the benefits  community  impacts,  h e may  participation  i n order  to achieve  wish  goals.  of the issue  i s the careful  o f two k e y e l e m e n t s .  The f i r s t  o r a two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  channel  public  entirely  while  be q u i t e  limited  environmental  by e n t i r e l y  o f compressor  m o d i f i c a t i o n s might  Again,  and  f o ran  be s e q u e n t i a l l y  i n v o l v e d deemed  planning  process. of  In this  planning  may b e  the issue of right-of-way  stations  the degree  The  way  route  costs  received.  such  t h e need  participation,  communities.  a  the thickness of pipe  of participation  h e may p e r c e i v e of public  f o rmerely  n o t r e q u i r e any p u b l i c  i n the engineering  by the economics  that  distances,  optimum  experts  i n dealing with  may  only  channel.  to our pipeline  o f determining  o r the r e l e v a n t degree  different  extra  i n the task  a channel  To r e t u r n  One, t h e p l a n n e r  However,  groups,  a t hand.  of technical  field.  r e q u i r e such  will  i f , i n fact,  r e q u i r e s a one-way o r two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  Alternatively,  to  MODEL  The second  i s the selection  participation  f o r each  identification  i s t h e need  f o ra  i n the overall  one-  planning  of the appropriate  component  by the  of the overall  degree plan.  167. The point,  question  since  of  those  who  participates  groups which  may  interested  in participating,  are  identified  until  flows  channel  i s  her  (19 69)  typology  participation.  8  Citizen  7  likely  are  to  be  who  may  be  adequately  initiated,  or  the  "output"  of  provided  eight  rungs  typology,  us  on  with  the  a  basis  f o r our  model  ladder  described  of  citizen  i n Chapter  Two,  i s :  control power  Degrees  of  Citizen  Power  Degrees  of  Placation  4  Consultation  3  Tokenism  Informing  2  Therapy  1  Non-participation  Manipulation  We  have  manner. "0",  that  modified  First, to  we  shown  we  have  below  the  have  accommodate  participation  Secondly, as  affected, or  this  Partnership  5  or  not  has  Her  Delegated  6  be  at  utilized.  Arnstein with  information  i s irrelevant  A r n s t e i n model  added  our  another  point  that  for a  particular  amended  some o f  in Figure  5.  i n the  rung, the  designated  planner  component  the  following  elements  may  i s not i n her  zero, decide  appropriate. typology,  168.  Q NONPARTICIPATORY  D E G R E E S OF PARTICIPATION  FIGURE  No  concept  of  local  input  Self-promotion  Planner's i n t e r e s t s promoted without target group input  2  Research.  Target group 'researched p l a n n e r b u t no d i r e c t consultation  3  Information  Information provided to target group t o help them p l a n t h e i r own activities  4  Consultation  Views of t a r g e t group sought p r i o r t o p l a n and p o l i c y formulation  5  Accommodation  1  by  Modification of plans possible after consultation with t a r g e t group Target group i s part of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g team  Partnership  a  OF  5  0 of  7  Delegated  8  Citizen control  NINE LEVELS  These  Levei  cognizance  1  6 DEGREES CITIZEN POWER  No  l e v e l s may  (No c o g n i z a n c e ) public  stricted  OF  be  power  Power t o d e c i d e o r i m p l e ment i s d e l e g a t e d t o t a r g e t group target  group  makes  decision  PARTICIPATION  described  implies  that  p a r t i c i p a t i o n does to technological  as  follows:  f o r some r e a s o n ,  not apply,  input;  o r may  the  concept  be r e -  169. L e v e l 1 (Self-promotion) maker i s seeking  i m p l i e s the p l a n n e r or d e c i s i o n to promote h i s own  i n p u t from p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . one-way stream of i n f o r m a t i o n information Level 2  k i t s , press  i n t e r e s t s without T h i s may  involve a  i n the form of brochures,  releases, etc.;  (Research) i m p l i e s t h a t the planner/decision-maker  would c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n or values  o f s p e c i f i c t a r g e t groups without t h e i r  T h i s might apply other  on the nature, requirements  to the c o l l e c t i o n of demographic data  statistical  information  to p l a n t h e i r own  planner/decision-maker  to other groups to enable them  activities.  i n v o l v e government agencies, general  and  information;  L e v e l 3 (Information) i m p l i e s t h a t the w i l l provide  input.  These groups might municipal  a u t h o r i t i e s or  the  public;  L e v e l 4 (Consultation)  i m p l i e s t h a t the  w i l l seek the views o f v a r i o u s formulating  plans  planner/decision-maker  t a r g e t groups p r i o r to  and p o l i c y , but  there  i s no  commitment to implement proposed changes. remains w i t h the  specific  Total control  decision-maker;  L e v e l 5 (Accommodation) i m p l i e s t h a t the decision-maker i s prepared to accommodate p l a n s  and  policies,  in total  or  i n p a r t , a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the t a r g e t groups; L e v e l 6 (Partnership)  i m p l i e s t h a t the v a r i o u s  are p a r t of the decision-making team, and ordinated  i n any way.  t a r g e t groups are not  sub-  C o n t r o l over decision-making i s  shared; Level  7 (Delegated power) i m p l i e s t h a t the t a r g e t groups may delegated  be  power to make d e c i s i o n s , or to implement programs  i n areas chosen by the decision-maker, or n e g o t i a t e d the groups involved,'  with  170. Level  8  (Citizen  control)  decision-makers,  and that  is  bound t o implement  to  carry  It  i s evident  two-way of  implies  that  communication  their  participation.  t h e need  channels This  groups  the planner or project decisions,  o u t implementation  that  the target  o r t o enable  them  o r nature  of the social,  or  varies  i n Figure  with  t h e degree  6.:  PLAN  INFORM  PLAN  CONSULT  — ACCOMMODATE PARTNERSHIP  CITIZEN POWER  30  *  K  >  T  PLAN  +  —«—  KEY firm •-> p o s s i b l e  F I G U R E 6.  initiator  themselves.  involved  i s shown  a r et h e  D E G R E E OF P A R T I C I P A T I O N  PLAN  171. For feedback  channel.  directly  into  At  plan  the  not  At  Level  to  the  take  designated  to  the  is  t a r g e t groups,  necessarily  with  there by  disseminated  Consultation, there  feedback  "K"  flows  7,  base  utilized Most  the  perceptions  and  is  "K"  to  limited  no  flows  the  public.  feedback.  is recycled  additional  into  input  from  and  case,  groups  ("I  told  us").  The  what  parties of  the of  directly on  the  views  there  8,  adjusted  feedback.  Citizen  extensive.  control,  Information  and  in fact,  from the  success  subject,  any  level  or  be  were  them  or  directly  information  of  itself  to  of  the  taken and  participation  on  feel  into  "they  clear  participation i n the  overall  and  actually  be are  account.  being If  between  didn't  communication the  may  they  bitterness  doing",  planners  differing  decision-maker  social  depends  degree  participation  the  i s acrimony  of  between  t a r g e t groups  will  t h e m w h a t we  the  and  attributed  planner  inform;  the  power,  is  negative  i n communication  The  their  and/or  plan  information  planner.  parties  to  Partnership,  final  becomes,  by  both  the  6,  t a r g e t groups,  be  not  matter  the  f o r can  only  consulted,  scope  the  undertaken.  seeking  to  plan which by  and  i s f a r more  breakdowns  planned  both  Delegated  directly final  and  positive  channel  the  being  Accommodation,  account  into  the  5,  Level  the  to  as  i s then  t a r g e t groups  into  At  is  4,  and  Information,  groups.  flows to  plan  flows  but  or  Information,  the  Level  Information the  3,  instance, at Level  that both  listen  process,  no  understanding  by  i n v o l v e d , and project.  the  172. 5.5  PARTICIPATION Once  "one-way" or  to  the planner or  the  i s to select  transmit  traditional telephones discussed  i n Chapter  The  as  and  first  Chapter  Three,  and  i s based  Walks,  and  may  As Fogo  be may  on  land's  producer  Two  on  t h e medium Colin  Low  communications  mode  receivers.  such as  elect  print,  his in  order  The  cablevision,  to participation  termed  concept of the  teamed  the  Ripple with  are  participants  be  presented  between  here.  experiment, described Recycling  Model.  other  Model.  The  Neighbourhood In both  modes  i n  of  models,  communication.  Model)  development of  film the  and  the o v e r a l l  project  formulating  the province's  and  will  the  the messengers  t h e HABITAT  i n Chapter Three,  of  or  Island  the  termed  to u t i l i z e  units,  models  t h e Fogo  community  policies  Through  may  be  i n the process  selected  of participation,  accessibility  may  be  has  Three.  (Recycling  discussed  Island  input  on  requirement f o r a  c h a n n e l and  s e n d e r s and  his transmisison  i s based  Island  their  receivers.  participation  degree  modes,  the planner  second  Fogo  between  communications  However,  senders  communications  the appropriate  messages  MODEL  determined the  appropriate  e t c . , and  themselves  has  "two-way"  negotiated  task  COMMUNICATION  "outpost"  of  to  of  seek  public  the government  video-tape,  staff  was  goal  of  the  Newfound-  communities. National  the Extension  Film  Service  Board of  173.  Memorial express series and  U n i v e r s i t y sought their  of  problems  film  or  video  aspirations of  capital,  St.  utilization  scale  John's. of  the  the  various  1.  The  stages  are  initial  confidence  are and  information  3.  Initially, or  taped  or  augment  The  to 4.  edit  This  of  or the  likely other  agreeing second  goals  in  the  subsequent  Figure model  r e c y c l i n g of  in  the  7.  are  the  information.  form  of  goal  As p a r t i c i p a n t s '  increase,  more c o n t r o v e r s i a l  introduced;  one  i s then  who  to  this  a  or to  two  i n d i v i d u a l s are  them  so  that  to  large  they  may  filmed edit  remarks;  Again,  tape will  may  with phase;  new  may  his a  they  then  respond  have  a  are  group,  given  the  whose opportunity  opinions;  find  modify  people  shown  their  the  and  in  general.  replayed  augment  challenged,  that  then  of  the  refined in  in  inputs,  be  elecited.  phase  is  may  produce  expressing  as  to  below:  fairly  veiws  tape  participant,  he  kept  their  or  the  described  inputs  and  are  and  to  decision-makers  elements  understanding  the  edited  views  key  Islanders  and  is illustrated  information  statements,  the  process,  participation  Fogo  them,  papers"  to  technique  of  saw  "white  The  i n d i c a t e d , the  encourage  they  Islanders  As  The  2.  as  to  his  replayed  views  earlier to  to  In  statements, alternative  introduced  the  augmented,  accordingly.  right  ideas  be  by  first  or  practice, noting viewpoints,  participants in  Feedback System  1, Reformulation of  NEW  goals  CYCLE  KEY: firm -•^ p o s s i b l e  FIGURE  7.  FOGO I S L A N D  MODEL  ( R E C Y C L I N G MODEL)  f  175. 5.  The v i d e o - t a p e i s then p l a y e d t o t h i r d group, and t h e i r responses f i l m e d , e d i t e d and r e p l a y e d t o Group Two. The p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d on an i n c r e a s i n g s c a l e ; as each group reaches some degree o f consensus, the r e f o r m u l a t e d tape can then be used t o a c h i e v e consensus w i t h a l a r g e r group, u n t i l f i n a l l y t h e f i l m o r tape r e f l e c t s the common v i e w p o i n t s - not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l consensus s t a t e ments - o f t h e e n t i r e community o r t a r g e t group;  6.  T h i s taped p r o d u c t i s then p l a y e d t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , who respond v i a t h e same medium, i . e . f i l m o r tape. T h i s response i s shown t o t h e community, o r group, may  o f f e r new  which  i n s i g h t s or m o d i f i d a t i o n s i n l i g h t of  new  i n f o r m a t i o n from the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ; 7.  The f i n a l taped responses o f t h e t a r g e t group a r e r e t u r n e d t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , who  i n c o r p o r a t e the r e l e v a n t  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o the-plan-making 8.  process;  Once t h e i n i t i a l g o a l i s a c h i e v e d , the t a r g e t group may r e f o r m u l a t e i t s g o a l s f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e o f development, and a new c y c l e may be i n i t i a t e d .  The Fogo I s l a n d p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l use o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communications f o r the purposes o f community development.  W h i l e i t i s not  expensive  i n terms o f equipment and m a t e r i a l s - v i d e o - t a p e i s r e l a t i v e l y cheap - i t i s e x p e n s i v e i n terms o f t i m e .  However, the  o r i g i n a t o r s o f the t e c h n i q u e f e e l the b i g g e s t c o n s t r a i n t on  use  o f t h e t e c h n i q u e by government and i n d u s t r y i s t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s ; or p o l i c y .  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s might v e t o a proposed  project  176,; Clearly,  then,  decision-maker  only  this  a t o r above  Habitat  (Ripple  The and  Ripple  Model  distributed  over  It  i n Figure  Level  6  be used t o adopt  i s an a d a p t a t i o n  a wide  of the Recycling  area,  r e q u i r i n g some  linkage  mechanism.  8.:  (closed)  U.B.C.  West P t . Grey Cycle  (open)  m LU •  KEY: firm  <-> p o s s i b l e  8.  Model  potential participants are spatially  Mount Pleasant  FIGURE  a degree o f  (Partnership).  West End  ->  by t h e p l a n n e r /  Model)  may b e u s e f u l w h e r e  i s shown  should  i fhe h a s e l e c t e d  participation  Walks  model  H A B I T A T WALKS  ( R I P P L E MODEL)  w S!  O  o o a H  H3 KJ  177. The  1.  v a r i o u s stages are d e s c r i b e d  as f o l l o w s :  The i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x e r c i s e  (goal i n p u t s ,  change  elements, degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e t c . , ) i s c o n f i n e d to two s p e c i f i c t a r g e t groups, who may be l i n k e d by common i n t e r e s t s over a wide area, o r s p a t i a l l y c o n s o l i dated, f o r example, i n a neighbourhood.  These two  groups may l i m i t t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n t o an exchange o f e x p e r i e n c e s , o r they may choose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n each other's 2.  exercise;  From t h i s i n i t i a l base, s p i n - o f f p a r t i c i p a t o r y  exercises  i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e r number and range o f groups a r e formulated.  T h i s process may develop through media  coverage o f the i n i t i a l 3.  groups'  As the number o f groups i n v o l v e d changes i n c r e a s e s ,  activities; i n participatory  the messages are t r a n s m i t t e d  inter-  and  c o l l e c t e d i n an ever widening s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n u n t i l the p a r t i c i p a t o r y network encompasses the e n t i r e  target  area.  The Model.  R i p p l e Model i s more f l e x i b l e than the R e c y c l i n g I t i s not dependent on any one communications mode -  such as video-tape - and can u t i l i z e any number o f modes, such as f a c e - t o - f a c e , The  telephones, c a b l e v i s i o n  systems, e t c .  a p p r o p r i a t e degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be reduced from  Level  6 (Partnership) i n the R e c y c l i n g  degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Model, t o the lowest  (Information) i n the R i p p l e Model.  178. 5.6  DELIVERY  OF INFORMATION  O n c e we h a v e cipation  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to  construct  It  should  way, for  main  be n o t e d  or social one-way  Figure  communication  d e l i v e r y systems  that  i s Level  0  can proceed  allows  i fthe appropriate  flows.  f o r twobe  used  level of  The model  i s shown  Feedback  L  Distribu-  DELIVERY  basic from  developed  V  O F INFORMATION  purpose  as f o l l o w s :  K  Modes  R  v  Systems  FLOWS  of our information  the senders  Revised  Reinforcing  TT  tion  Groups  Compile  Initial  and  pation  Target  9.  Select  Degree o f  Modes o f  messages  we  but can also  (No c o g n i z a n c e ) .  Identify  The  system  channels,  Partici-  Units  —*  models)  of parti-  f o rinformation  our information  flows,  (degrees  9. :  K  is  our subsystems  communications  Identify  FIGURE  line  information  participation in  designed  FLOWS  system  (S) t o t h e r e c e i v e r s  i s to  (R).  transmit  The  process  179. 1.  First,  the sender should  wishes t o t r a n s m i t .  i d e n t i f y what i n f o r m a t i o n  At t h i s stage, he may  not know what  his  problems are, and thus he i s i n no p o s i t i o n to  his  f i n a l , c r u c i a l messages.  have some i n f o r m a t i o n ;  he  However,, he w i l l  select  probably  a company wishes to b u i l d  a  p i p e l i n e i n a c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z e d area, or a group i s seeking to develop a p a r c e l of land f o r a s p e c i f i c 2.  On  the b a s i s of t h i s i n i t i a l  use;  i n f o r m a t i o n , he s e l e c t s the  a p p r o p r i a t e degrees o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  for specific  components  o f the p r o j e c t ; 3.  Next, he s e l e c t s h i s i n i t i a l where a p p r o p r i a t e , and T h i s may  "one-way" o r "two-way" models  i n i t i a t e s the flow of  information.  be i n the form of an announcement about an  anti-  c i p a t e d p r o j e c t , a s e r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n brochures, e st ablishment  the  of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , p r o v i s i o n f o r "mail i n "  response forms, or whatever appears p r o d u c t i v e ; 4.  On the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d v i a the back" communication channel, s e l e c t the most important transmitted.  "feed-  he i s then i n a p o s i t i o n to  i n f o r m a t i o n messages (K) to be  T h i s i s a c r u c i a l phase, s i n c e the s e l e c t i o n  of i r r e l e v a n t messages w i l l not be p e r c e i v e d by  the  r e c e i v e r , through i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d , or through indifference 5.  sheer  (Meier, 1962) ;  When h i s i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s are s e l e c t e d , the planner  can  then i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c t a r g e t groups w i t h i n h i s t a r g e t area.  For i n s t a n c e , i f the i n f o r m a t i o n base has  an  environmental component, he can more e a s i l y i d e n t i f y  the  v a r i o u s environmental groups he wishes to communicate with.  S i m i l a r l y , i f a p i p e l i n e or freeway r o u t i n g  been e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the necessary has been c o l l e c t e d and  p a r t i c i p a t o r y feedback  accommodated, he w i l l be able to  i d e n t i f y the i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups who by the p r o j e c t ;  has  w i l l be a f f e c t e d  180. Once may  his  target  groups  then  select  the  shown  have  As  white,  middle  income  groups  years,  he  choose  to  particularly community  small  community  communication  may  involve  be  In  interested in  In  northern  ments may A of  element  units,  portion of  receiver a  flow  of  transmit easily  line  to  the  a  may  not  of  with  by  utilize allow  them.  The  time  This  several  themselves to  will  news  various the  age  may  groups.  native  major  groups  medium  broadcasts. in  of  State-  local  and  newspapers  community events. i n an  a  infor-  that  only  a s s i m i l a t e d by  systems  may  include  series  of  workshops,  information The  installation  regenerate  perception  i s actually These  i s the  centres,  careful  ordered  sequence,  the  will  starting  a  to  c o n t r o v e r s i a l concepts,  over  element  important  is particularly  the  the  planner  a s s i m i l a t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b u i l d i n g up or  for  utilizing  older  system  Meier's  announcements,  h i s messages  to  the  audience;  generate  1962).  at  p r o j e c t , but  offer  are  thirty  larger  will  in  at  newspapers,  respond  proposed  information to  over  reach  messages  languages,  message  various  sophisticated time.  in each  establishment staging  the  systems  press  he  information  there  target  the  choose  likely  distribution  i s working  may  i t will  native  the  (Meier,  of  he  i n English, published  in  reinforcing  mation a  reach  group  affect  i s multi-lingual radio  intent,  never  key  services  different  of  in  Canada, where  communication  age  t a r g e t group  citizens  facilities  be  speaking  of  cases,  senior  daycare  his  planner  i s aiming  metropolitan  he  modes m o s t  some  i f he  Similarly,  of  transmission  different;  about  utilize  level,  characteristics  languages.  i n the  weeklies.  the  Three,  I f , however,  neighbourhood  the  communications  project will  (p.lOl).  or  ethnic  i n Chapter  i f the  local  clarified,  appropriate  modes.  may  been  with  more  period i f  of he  181. is  seeking  individuals  cannot  do  not  sufficient  in  their  their 8.  significant  The  have own  own  final  or  element  in  ibed  here,  the  assimilate be  the  in  an  the  ad  hoc  to  i t is  information "R"  in  our  number  of  probably  information It  be  should  be  an  system.  via  assimilate  5.7  information systems, the  and  have  on  which  respond  If  the  process  descr-  ability than  to  would  disseminated however,  that  Efficiency,  function  messages  increases  in  the  n e c e s s a r i l y measure  is a  relevant  a process  i t  they  identify,  is  greater  noted,  of  receivers  to  their  u n i t s were  efficiency  information  the  r e c e i v e r s , and  will  basis.  transmit  likely  d e l i v e r e d through  not  to  i f  i t to  model.  r e c e i v e r s does  ability  since  project  system  of  of  a  about  number  terms  the  of  to  their  desired  in  the  the  the  planner's  relevant  ability  to  manner.  SUMMARY In  or  as  been  i f the  impact  the  messages,  case  much  groups,  activities;  designated has  target  understanding  minds, what  information  from  contribute  values,  receiver,  input  this  chapter,  decision-maker  information about obtain  response  likely  to We  depend  be have  participation  relevant  information  attempted  choose has  to  a  need at  policies  and  or  feedback  from  case  also on  i f he  shown his  and  the  the  information,  delivery  system.  and  show a  that  social  disseminate  least  a  target  planner  communication  need  groups.  for  a  information  partial  to  This  is  innovation.  key  to  his  the  appropriate  appropriate  e s s e n t i a l elements of  to  i s planning  that  to  utilize  his  s e l e c t i o n of  required,  Other units  i f he  have  and  the  largely  ations.  should  system  projects  we  success  modes  are  the  the  design  will  degree of  communic-  s e l e c t i o n of of  an  of  the  efficient  182. Further  Research  There aspects field and  has been  considerable  of public participation,  of social  communications  only  passing  reference  linkages  between  t h e two.  research  are v i r t u a l l y  Two p a r t i c u l a r potential  carefully  video-tape  19 71).  project.  or film  most  neglected  communications. t h e scope  i n the planning  t o any  opportunities  come  t o mind.  f o r further  One  process,  of  social (1974) b u t  - planning I t i s with  which  of participation, interaction  tool regret  study.  that  involves  the  important  i n the f i e l d  Island  and t h e use o f  between  a t t e n t i o n as t h e most  of this  involves the  r e f e r r e d t o by Kalba  The Fogo  to provide  the  little  i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e Fogo  program  the public, merits  varied  unlimited.  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Future Environments o f North America (Garden C i t y , New York: N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Press) Z a c h a r i a s , John and S e e l i g , M i c h a e l . (1974) A Guide t o Unguided Tours (Vancouver: School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia)  190.  APPENDIX  Examples o f p r i n t a d v e r t i s i n g T a y l o r e v a l u a t i o n of Mount P l e a s a n t Walk Examples o f West P o i n t Grey Walk data base  1  _^  \J r  191 Frank'Mayrs c c . M. C o b l e y D .Lam C. Peclersen D. P e a c o c k Pat  Carney  OUR 1 HE -  J  1  1  H;«tfl?.l*?.l  I OUR f U E - V . S f r f l f N C f  DATE  A p r i l 1, 1976  TV COMMERCIALS The f o l l o w i n g memo r e c a p s o u r p r o p o s a l s f o r an animated/, f i l m e d s e r i e s o f t e l e v i s i o n c o m m e r c i a l s on H a b i t a t f o r p r o d u c t i o n i n A p r i l and a i r i n g i n May. I t i s b a s e d o n • the f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s : 1.  Our a u d i e n c e i s m a i n l y r e g i o n a l , b u t t h e c o m m e r c i a l s s h o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e f o r n a t i o n a l u s e .  2.  Our t a r g e t g r o u p i s t h e man-on-the-str.eet, who d o e s n ' t know a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o r themes o f H a b i t a t  3.  We do n o t want t o shock o u r a u d i e n c e , b u t b e c a u s e we a r e c o n d u c t i n g a media b l i t z , we want t o s u r p r i s e o r s t a r t l e and c a t c h a u d i e n c e a t t e n t i o n  4.  B e c a u s e o f p r o d u c t i o n d e a d l i n e s , v/e w a n t . s i m p l e c o m m e r c i a l s r e q u i r i n g m i n i m u m ' r e s e a r c h and p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s .  5.  We want t o r e t a i n t h e u s e o f t h e l o g o , and t h e "Man... s h e l t e r , , , a n d t h e g l o b a l s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s " framework i f p o s s i b l e , but t h i s i s not imperative. Alternatively the theme c o u l d be H a b i t a t i s how p e o p l e l i v e . The c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d f o r t e l e v i s i o n c a n be u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r p r o m o t i o n i n o t h e r media.  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s i s t o i n f o r m and e n t i c e t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i t h t h e concept t h a t H a b i t a t i s g o i n g t o be d e d i c a t e d t o d e t e r m i n i n g p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o human s e t t l e m e n t p r o b l e m s v;hich a r e r e a l l y g o i n g t o h e l p p e o p l e - o u r s e l v e s i n c l u d e d - and t h a t Canadian a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s e s o l u t i o n s . The v e h i c l e s h o u l d be 30 o r 60 second c o m m e r c i a l s u s i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e d r a w i n g s , a n i m a t i o n o r o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s t o convey s i m p l e s t o r y l i n e s o f a p r o b l e m a n d t h e s o l u t i o n . The m u s i c s h o u l d b e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l ; i t c o u l d be L a t i n A m e r i c a n , A r a b i c , o r w h a t e v e r s e r v e s a s an a t t e n t i o n g e t t e r . T h e r e i s a l m o s t a v a u d e v i l l e a p p r o a c h t o some p r o p o s e d c o m m e r c i a l s . T h e t o n e o f  F O R K U l i NOSMAUI SEfc£;2t>-l D E  L ON -  t h e commercialo s h o u l d be subjects are suggested. I-  .Settlement. on t h e "Sand  II.  Water. people  light  but  informative,  The  following  The s t o r y l i n e f o r .this one c o u l d b e Dune F i x a t i o n " , w h i c h i s . a t t a c h e d .  The s t o r y l i n e s h o u l d o u t l i n e resolved t h e i r water problems.  One b i l l i o n p e o p l e i n t h e w o r l d w a t e r from, a n y s o u r c e .  based  a simple case • Example:  do n o t h a v e  where  safe  .. I n t h e v i l l a g e o f K u p a n g , I n d o n e s i a , e v e r y b o d y u s e d t h e same w a t e r h o l e . d o g s . c a t s . . . p e o p l e (for drinking, washing, and bathing) So  the villagers The  f i r s t p o o l was (water f a l l )  The  s e c o n d f o r human (water trough)  The  third.for  And  the last  A l l  i n the centre  A  dimple  Because III.  Climate. solutions  f o r drinking  bathing  fox- t h e d o g s of a  . and  .  cats  park  one which  could  help  others..  :  live  So  Canadians  i n a  cold  and Example:  climate  i t rains  (pictures  (pictures  went  underground  of underground  they'went  over  practical  cares  to build  cities  shopping malls  i n high  rise  buildings'  ground  o f skyways  nobody  Because  system  washing...  of Habitat,  else  Nov/  reserved  water  solution  Or  Or  a new  The story line could outline the problems associated with global climate extremes.  Canadians  A  devised  connecting  i f i t snows.  solution  of Habitat,  buildings Or  above  street  rains.  . "•••'• one which  could  help  others.  /3  level)  wj.wv.il m.t.vj ^.t-^j.i. n w t> L U J . y xj-uu cou' "• s t a t e trie Drocier, i» o f r n i g r a c C n i r o n t h e r u r a l a r e a s to( uie. c i t i e s . Example?93 I n C o l u m b i a , one day, t h e p e o p l e came and  came...  and  came...  I n a spontaneous m i g r a t i o n t o the c i t y . The  government d i d c a l l o u t t h e axm.y. _  • I n s t e a d , t h e nev/comers were g i v e n l a n d and l o a n s ' and e n c o u r a g e d to b u i l d t h e i r own homes. A peaceful solution. B e c a u s e o f H a b i t a t , one w h i c h c o u l d h e l p V.  others.  U r b a n R e d e v e l o p m e n t. The s t o r y l i n e c o u l d i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f o u r c i t i e s , and t h e need t o p r e s e r v e what we v a l u e i n o u r c i t i e s , and n o t s i m p l y t o d e s t r o y . Example: In Vancouver, the people i n Strathcona p a t h o f a p r o p o s e d f r e e way.  lived i n the  One day t h e b u l l d o z e r s came. The p e o p l e o f S t r a t h c o n a v a l u e d t h e i r t h e i r way o f l i f e . (show v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups)  community, and  So t h e y worked t o g e t h e r t o r e b u i l d t h e i r community and p r e s e r v e i t s u n i q u e h e r i t a g e . . . . and  t h e b u l l d o z e r s went away.  A satisfying solution. could help others. V I  -  One w h i c h , t h r o u g h H a b i t a t ,  L i t e r a c y . The s t o r y l i n e s h o u l d i l l u s t r a t e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p r o b l e m o f i l l i t e r a c y on a g l o b a l s c a l e . Example:. More t h a n h a l f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t e n h a s n e v e r been t o s c h o o l . I n Cuba, p e o p l e who went t o s c h o o l t a u g h t who t a u g h t  others... (adults teaching  who t a u g h t  others... (children teaching  Nov;, many Cubans c a n r e a d a n d w r i t e ( we s h o u l d check f i g u r e s )  others...  children) adults)  A helpful solation. help others.  One; wh.i <:h, t h r o u g h H a b i t a t ,  could  The s u b j e c t s s k e t c h e d a b o v e a r c o n l y s u g g e s t i o n s . However, v/e h a v e a r e s o u r c e p o o l o f p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e UBC School o f P l a n n i n g , who c a n s u g g e s t a n d a u t h e n t i c a t e t h e s e a n d o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i t h a minimum o f t i m e . A n o t h e r example of s e l f h e l p i s t h e reel eve lopraenb o f t h e . t h e T o n d o a r e a o f M a n i l a , w h i c h was t h e w i n n i n g s u b j e c t o f t h a i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n among a r c h i t e c t s , a n d w h i c h w i l l be f e a t u r e d a t t h e A r t G a l l e r y during Habitat. Please  l e t me  know y o u r  comments.  .ATKOWSKI & CO., 12 W A T E R ST. {604}  HABITAT  -  Television  :30  second  .5-7264  r l  "WATER" AUDIO  VIDEO 1.  Drawing and  of village  animals  water  people  gathered  SFX: APPROPRIATE MUSIC In t h e v i l l a g e o f Rupang, Indonesia...everyone used t h e same w a t e r h o l e . . .  2.  Dogs--.cats..-people...  around  hole.  Quick cuts of individuals and a n i m a l s m e n t i o n e d i n audio. 3.  1.  W h i c h made t h e w a t e r for everyone...  Reaction o f people and animals a f f e c t e d by unclean water.  Drawing Water  of water  trough  with  fall people  unsafe  so t h e v i l l a g e r s devised a new w a t e r s y s t e m . 4.  The  first  pool  f o r drinking  5.  The  second  6.  The  last  7.  A l li n the centre  f o r bathing...  using i t . Drawing o f p o o l with and dogs u s i n g i t .  cats  O v e r - a l l drav/ing o f p a r k s e t t i n g with pool system 3.  Smiling  Animated  for. dogs  and  of a  cats  pari  as  i n #1  . . .a s i m p l e s o l u t i o n . .". t h a can h e l p o t h e r s .  Habitat  logo/  Through H a b i t a t . - . a G l o b a l search f o r solutions.  group  signature. Habitat United Nations Conference o n Human Settlements M a y 31 - J u n e 1 1 Vancouver  •J  196  27.MAY1976  Hew the Japanese are coping with the worlds most colossal traffic headache.  moving twice as fas One creative solution they called th&"Dual Mode Bus S y s t e m " - a new type of commuter bus that . runs on both"driverless"guideways and regular streets. It can pick up passengers at their'door, then miss all the cross-town traffic— very inventive! * When the twenty million people around Tokyo all decide to drive to the city at once, it can create some of the world's biggest traffic jams. A very sticky problem. So, they meditated over their plight. Then acted.  Another new idea is a kind of "push-button" bus s t o p enabling waiting passengers to re-route busses to their stop. Ingenious, those Japanese  Innovative solutions that can help others-Through HABITAT... a global search for solutions.  HABITAT  United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada  19.MWW'  0  JO j  into an  ATale of One City.  When gravel deposits were discovered near the town of Holme Pierrepont in England, the landscape was soon turned Into an unsightly wasteland of pocks and pits. Pity.  They converted the old worked •out gravel pits into a community recreation area-complete with an Olympic rowing course! Clever, those British.  So the townspeople decided to do something about it. They put their heads together and came up with a remarkable solution  United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada  A novel solution that could help others Through HABITAT. a global search lor solutions  (Delta, J5.U)  198  with $12  Sliding a hospital  nd a little help from your friends, In Sierra L e o n e , it is traditional lor the p e o p l e to w o r k together to build each other's houses. S o w h e n they  W h e n other a g e n c i e s s a w this spirit of self-help in a c t i o n , they t o o d e c i d e d to help. 5'  W h e n the hospital w a s c o m p l e t e d , not only d i d Port L o k o have i m p r o v e d m e d i c a l facilities, but this traditional spirit of self-help was carried on throughout Sierra L e o n e to other c o m m u n i t y projects.  needed a new hospital in Port  Loko-the people  decided to  build  it themselves. Starting with just $12 a n d  100  b a g s of c e m e n t !  A c o - o p e r a t i v e solution that c a n help o t h e r s T h r o u g h H A B I T A T . a g l o b a l s e a r c h for solutions.  TAT  United Nations Conference on Human Settlements May 31-June 11,1976 Vancouver, Canada  C i T Y P L A N N I F M l i U b P / \ M I IVI t  V> I  I  I  I  —'  i  199 vv-;;.:  Avenue. V a i i c o u v . v  p,i.-..;i> .':  C n n n d . r V S Y IV-t  T d i i y i o n ; - ?>',;. rw  A i v a C o d e 60-1  File No. im D a  K  A  1435 Y  2-'  1  9  7  6  Pah Carney, Habitat Information O f f i c e r 1;entail Centra P.O. 49183  IS--,.  Vancr<i.iver B . C .  V7X IKS  Lear Ms. Carneyj Attached•for your information please find a C i t y Planning Department • snranar-y of the Habitat-Mount Pleasant 17a lk held on Saturday A p r i l 10 1976. Also f o r your information, A i f Uorthington has been s e r i o u s l y i i i with pneumonia during the past month and has not yet been able to complete- h i s tabulation and sunmary of the "walkers' response sheets." The Habitat walk and accompanying summary are proving extremely valuable to the Planning Department as one means to help gain b e t t e r insight and understanding of the community's diverse faces. Also, the Planning Department believes that the Habitat walk, neighbourhood, f a i r s and other community get-togethers are valuable contributions to promoting good r e l a t i o n s among neighbours. Regarding the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n v i t a t i o n " and "post-walk d i s c u s s i o n " techniques u t i l i z e d i n the Mount Pleasant walk I. submit the f o l l o w i n g : a) The concept of " p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n v i t a t i o n " is-an effective: way to easily, achieve a diverse, representative and manageable sized group of walkers. Witness the spontaneous i n t e r mingling of d i f f e r e n t age groups, and ethnic backgrounds. b) The concept of "post-walk discussion" i s good. However, the Mount Pleasant discussion only achieved mediocrity for three •reasons: — T h e dining h a l l location was not conducive to meaningful discussion --The post-walk discussion needed to be better prepared beforehand. Unfortunately.; the walk organizers, walk leaders and animators did not commit themselves to meetingbeforehand to organize the post-wall; session. —Some of the walk p a r t i c i p a n t s were unwilling or unable to enter into a ful.l-hearted discussion of people's reactions, to and conclusions ab^.rt -walk, sightings. c) As f a r as 1 know nobody was designated responsible f o r ensuringt'- - fo) ov;-th:c-v.!Qh on v;al.k imo-e'ssions and con elusions v;as ;  1  :  •'..-;'...  -  i d M' . •.  /\p p r o p r i a •..  I y, •.• st;*-:-Pj  c i t i z e n s ' group should nave vo I s.".t«ared or beer; assigned to un dart a k.e t-vi s- task. (iJnfortui.-.it.eiy no such f u l l time group appears to exist i n Mount Pleasant at this, time.) In nenex.al, I believe the walk was a success i n that a manageable nu.ixn- of Mount Pleasant's c i t i z e n s came together to walk and discuss.  -2I am c e r t a i n t h a t each p a r t i c i p a n t came away somewhat more k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f h i t h e r t o unknown aspect:; o f Mount P l e a s a n t . Yours  {•".":  truly,  i:ch T a y l o r  I.'iouirc  I  P l e a s a n t N.I'.P. P l a n n i n g  encl. 1  Assistant  200  City of Vancouver  j  I  ly  Inter-Offico Correspondence  F i l e : LOS M36 N15 M35 May 5, 1976  MEMO TO: FROM:  P i l e s L85 M36 and N15 H35  M i t c h T a y l o r , Mount P l e a s a n t P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n t  SUBJECT:  H a b i t a t - M o u n t P l e a s a n t Neighbourhood V.'alk h e l d on S a t u r d a y A p r i l 10, 1976 9:00 a.m. t o 4 : 0 0 p.m. . '  On S a t u r d a y A p r i l 10, 1976 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f Mount P l e a s a n t ' s p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a H a b i t a t sponsored Mount P l e a s a n t neighbourhood w a l k . The Mount P l e a s a n t walk was one o f two p i l o t neighbourhood w a l k s i n Vancouver sponsored by H a b i t a t (The second walk t o o k p l a c e A p r i l 26 1976 in Point Grey). The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e two i n i t i a l w a l k s ax~e: "a) To d e v e l o p t h e theme t h a t H a b i t a t i s HOW PEOPLE L I V E b) To promote t h e concept o f e n c o u r a g i n g C a n a d i a n s t o s t u d y ways t o make b e t t e r / m o r e e x t e n s i v e useagc o f e x i s t i n g community r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n adding t o them. c) T c d e v e l o p c r i t e r i - ' . w h i c h may be used t o i n i t i a t e s i m i l a r w a l k s i n o t h e r urluv, c e n t r e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e Mount P l e a s a n t w a l k e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o : . d) Take an i n d e p t h l o o k a t one's community w i t h a v i e w t o i d e n t i f y i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g what i s good about Mount P l e a s a n t , what needs changing and why i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t o r absent. e) Attempt t o v i s u a l i z e what t h e f u t u r e h o l d s i n s t o r e ( g i v e n t r e n d s ) and what a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e perhaps more d e s i r a b l e f o r Mount P l e a s a n t . The H a b i t a t - M o u n t P l e a s a n t U'alk was o r g a n i z e d by members o f t h e l o c a l community under t h e c o - c h a i r m a n s h i p o f A l f W o r t h i n g t o n ( l o c a l r e s i d e n t ) and M i t c h T a y l o r (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g .Department). A l l participant :ed Mv i n w i '. i c-\ ~v\6 b r v - ^ c o l l v c. c r i r-e a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f thv> Mount i-i s a I population. f o r t o >-y:- :.A; :•: 1 f o r o r g a n ; n a t i o n d e t a i l s and t o Appendix 11 f o r l i s ' , o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The wall; was r o u t e d so as t o p e r m i t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o e x p e r i e n c e and attempt t o • u n d e r s t a n d such i t e m s a s : h o u s i n g - v a r i e t y o f type,-  202  -2age and c o n d i t i o n ; commercial area-, and a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e r . ; s t r e e t scenes; f a c i l i t i e s - porks, s c h o o l s , chruches, b o y s / g i r l s c l u b s , v a c a n t p r o p o r t i o s / o p e n s p a c e , e t c . ; v i e w c o r r i d o r s t o t h e n o r t h and e a s t ; a r c h i t e c t u r e - o l d and new; examples o f v a n d a l i s m and c r i m e ; s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l happening...; - e g . , t e a a t t h e S i k h Temple; t r a f f i c , n o i s e , z o n i n g , a b i r d ' s eye v i e w o f Mount P l e a s a n t ; and more. P l e a s e r e f e r t o Appendix 111 f o r r o u t e d e t a i l s and a map. Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e walk a l u n c h e o n and d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n were h o l d a t t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n M i n i n g H a l l , 117 Hast Broadway. A f t e r l u n c h , walk p a r t i c i p a n t s d i v i d e d i n t o subgroups t o d i s c u s s t h e day's e v e n t s and f o l l o w i n g t h a t r e g r o u p e d t o open s e s s i o n t o summarize t h e i r concerns and recommendations f o r change. The f o l l o w i n g i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s as r e c o r d e d by Don S i n c l a i r , E r n s t S n i j d e r s and M i t c h T a y l o r . G e n e r a l Comments: -Walk p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n g e n e r a l agreement t h a t i n Mount P l e a s a n t we have a community o f h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t , l o w e r income p e o p l e crowded o n t o a s m a l l l a n d a r e a w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s t o adequately, meet t h e i r needs, ( i f one e x c l u d e s t h e l a n d o c c u p i e d by l i g h t i n d u s t r y Mount P l e a s a n t has a much h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y t h a n most o t h e r V a n c o u v e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ) . A l s o , c u r r e n t development t r e n d s t h a t a r e o c c u r r i n g n o r t h o f Broadway t e n d t o a g o r e v a t e an a l r e a d y a c u t e situation. ( T h i s comment r e f e r s t o apartment b u i l d i n g s t h a t house f a m i l i e s b u t do not c o n t a i n any c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a s ) . -At p r e s e n t i n Mount P l e a s a n t , as i n most o t h e r i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , o v e r b u i l d i n g i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h l i t t l e o r no f o r e t h o u g h t about f u t u r e consequences. -The w a l k brought t o g e t h e r members o f t h e community w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h members o f d e c i s i o n making b o d i e s a f f e c t i o n t h e community ( P l a n n i n g , P o l i c e , R e s o u r c e s E d . , e t c . ) t o o p e n l y and i n f o r m a l l y examine and comment upon v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f Mount P l e a s a n t . Because many o f t h e walk p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e , o r w i l l b e , i n v o l v e d i n shaping Mount P l e a s a n t ' s f u t u r e , t h e e x t r a l i t t l e b i t c f knowledge g a i n e d t o d a y s h o u l d h e l p make t h e f u t u r e t h a t much b e t t e r . -Mount P l e a s a n t i s a f o r g o t t e n community. Over t h e l a s t AO y e a r s many o f Mount P l e a s a n t ' s t a x d o l l a r s t h a t s h o u l d have been r e t u r n e d t o t h e community'have been d i r e c t e d e l s e w h e r e . -Mount P l e a s a n t c o n t a i n s a v a s t amount o f untapped s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d be harnes ,-d i f t h e key can be ;  c--.  ...unity HK.:,t their such  an  Mount P l e a s a n t resident::, -..o not t o t e active interest i n community. Many r e g a r d i t as a " p r o v i n g ground" b e f o r e moving on t o g r e e n e r p a s t u r e . A l s o , numerous facilities as some c h u r c h e s and s c h o o l s a r e g r o s s l y underu t i l i z e d a f t e r - r e g u l a r h o u r s , '.'/aIk p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t o h e l p c o r r e c t t h e above c o - q r o.' 1 p. a to c i co mm if: •. c n t from v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s i s needed so a s t o h e l p r e s t o r e s e l f - e s t e e m t o Mount  203  -3- .  Pleasant.' Mount Pleasant Team P o l i c i n g , Resources Bd., N.I,P. are p o s i t i v e steps i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  and  -The walk was considered as fun and worthwhile revealing many hitherto unknown q u a l i t i e s to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , everyone seemed g r a t e f u l for the warm hearted reception extended by the Sikh community during tea break. S p e c i f i c Concerns and Recommendations, for Change• -Participants were extremely distressed by the lack of children's playarea's, useable open space,, and adequate storage f a c i l i t i e s • " i n new apartment development. I t was generally agreed that i t was important to maintain a s o l i d stock of family oriented housing throughout a l l parts of Mount Pleasant. As such, i t was recommended that the C i t y and developers undertake to r e c t i f y above noted inadequacies. • -Parks development i s a high p r i o r i t y item. Useable f a c i l i t i e s and e f f e c t i v e open-structured programs (such as Kivan and Kimount) are e s s e n t i a l i n order to channel the area's youth into construct i v e a c t i v i t i e s . In the long run such f i n a n c i a l outlays w i l l be mora than o f f s e t by savings in s o c i a l costs. -2 forms of street improvements are needed: a) Aesthetic •- curbing, paving and boulevard trees are deemed advisable. On behalf of several l o c a l clubs some walk p a r t i c i p a n t s indicated a willingness to i n s t a l l wooden curb's ( e x - r a i l r o a d t i e s ) and plant trees for nominal c o s t " fund r a i s i n g projects - i f the materials cau be arranged. b) T r a f f i c - pedestrians should take preferance over • v e h i c l e s . 12th Avenue was i d e n t i f i e d as a case i n point. I t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible for a pedestrian to safely cross 12th Ave. at certain hours at p a r t i c u l a r crosswalks ( i e . , outside Kivan Boys/Girls Club.) VJalk p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t that i n as much as Highway No. 1 signs, were recently erected that special 30 r'iph signs should also be i n s t a l l e d so as to emphasize to motorists that 12th Avenue i s a r e s i d e n t i a l street in addition to serving as part of the Trans Canada Highwayl! -Junked cars and half renovated at owners' expense -A new  homes should be removed or remedied  home for Kivan Boys/Girls Club i s needed to replace the  -The f l a t roofs of i n d u s t r i a l plant should be opened for r e c r e a t i o n a l use; eg., tennis, .beer, gardens, chess, etc. -Additional community meeting f a c i l i t i e s are needed, i n Mount Pleasant. Presently undo rut il.i zed churches would be adequate i f the congregations would agree and i f operating costs could be secured.  204 ...|-  -V.'alk p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t that existing shopping f a c i l i t i e s were generally adequate and well, located though not n e c e s s a r i l y of g o o d design. (Kingsgate Mall's inward-looking design received critical-comment). -Strong community s p i r i t i s needed i n Mount Pleasant. Developments and happenings such as Sunnymoon Park ([ith and Carolina) whereby l o c a l residents come together to improve t h e i r community are successful means to achieve the above. -The high l e v e l of e t h n i c i t y in Mount Pleasant i s viewed as a valuable asset to the community and mingling of d i f f e r e n t ethnic backgrounds (such as happened during the Habitat walk) are valuable to good r e l a t i o n s and understanding among neighbours. In summary, the walk p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n general agreement that the Habitat walk was an enjoyable and worthwhile e xpox*icnce» The information, concerns, and suggestions brought to l i g h t by the wall: p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be incorporated into the C i t y Planning Department's growing knowledge base on Mount Pleasant. Also, items that s p e c i f i c a l l y relate to the Neighbourhood Improvement Program (N.I .P.) located i n the southeast quadrant of Mount Pleasant w i l l bo fed into the Departments N.I .P. data base. Appendix IV i s a copy of the "Walkers K i t " that was d i s t r i b u t e d to each p a r t i c i p a n t .  Mitch Taylor^ Mojint Pleasant Planning Assistant MT/rn  205  TTHHI S S UUNGDHANYE W E > ^ RO Is West Point Grey a perfect Three orientation s e ^  area-or can it b e improved h e r e walk will get you off onthe ,._ and there? blstory of Point Grey in s».^ " features and facilities withYthe Vancouver Historical Insights. '^ourhood being put Polaroids provided so groups can do ? b  J  V *;  \  «  w  e  camerainventoryof whattheysee (or whynot bringyour own?). Hand-out maps a\\o\N youto set your own walking tour—orbring your hikesto seeibal mucb more. Some buses also available. •^etoOur La6yof Perpetual Help ^ 5 0 Camosun St. It'sthis Orientation at p.m.—as you ^^hool  0  *  206  HABITAT-WEST POINT GREY NEIGHBOURHOOD WALK SUNDAY, APRIL 25, 1976  PURPOSE;  - 11.30  am - 5.00  pm  To explore and assess e x i s t i n g community resources and a s s e t s and to suggest new and a l t e r n a t i v e uses f o r them, where a p p r o p r i a t e ; to heighten awareness among c i t i z e n s of improvements to t h e i r community which they can i n i t i a t e themselves to s t r e s s t h a t HABITAT i s a beginning of a g l o b a l search f o r s o l u t i o n s t o the problems of human s e t t l e m e n t s , or how and where people l i v e .  DATE AND  TIME:  Sunday, A p r i l 25, 1976, from Our Lady of P e r p e t u a l Help School, 2550 Camosun S t r e e t . P a r t i c i p a n t s may come a t 11.30 a.m., 12.30 p.m. or 1.15 p.m. f o r pre-walk b r i e f i n g s and depart i n s m a l l groups. There w i l l be no guides. Each group w i l l be loaned a P o i n t Grey map and a P o l a r o i d camera to take up to e i g h t p i c t u r e s along i t s r o u t e . A c t i v i t i e s w i l l end by 5 p.m.  PARTICIPANTS;  Open to a l l P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n . O r g a n i z e r s hope f o r a l a r g e turnout of f a m i l i e s with b i c y c l e s who can cover a l a r g e area i n a s h o r t time. Residents from other c i t y s e c t i o n s are a l s o welcome.  ROUTE:  There i s no p r e s c r i b e d route - but area to be covered i s bounded by Alma, 16th Avenue, Blanca, t o r e s i d e n t i a l n o r t h e a s t s e c t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands and North West Marine D r i v e , EXCLUDING a l l government p r o p e r t i e s , HABITAT FORUM s i t e and J e r i c h o Beach park. Walkers and b i k e r s (car r i d i n g i s a l s o permitted) should take p i c t u r e s of p o i n t s of p a r t i c u l a r community i n t e r e s t , such as s i t e s and b u i l d i n g s t h a t might be put to new or a l t e r n a t i v e uses.  POST WALK SESSION: P a r t i c i p a n t s may r e t u r n to s c h o o l with camera and p i c t u r e s a t any time. They w i l l t r a c e and mark t h e i r route on a huge a e r i a l map of P o i n t Grey, r e p o r t on t h e i r impressions and use p i c t u r e s f o r " d e s i g n - i n " , a f r e e s t y l e g r a p h i c i n v e n t o r y of community a s s e t s . Animators w i l l r e c o r d the impressions of the participants. Musicians w i l l be on hand. SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS:  FOR  INFORMATION:  L i g h t refreshments w i l l be a v a i l a b l e . Senior c i t i z e n s not f i r m of f o o t and p h y s i c a l l y handicapped may take a t o u r of the area i n A i r p o r t e r buses s p e c i a l l y c h a r t e r e d f o r the event, which w i l l depart from the s c h o o l every h a l f hour a f t e r 12 noon. Pat Carney:  Rick Scobie:  207  NEIGHBOURHOOD INVENTORY CHECK LIST  Canada has more community r e s o u r c e s than most o f the 140 c o u n t r i e s which w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d a t HABITAT: Human Settlements  United Nations Conference  i n Vancouver May 31 - June .11.  on  The c h a l l e n g e to  Canadians i s t o make g r e a t e r use of our e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s , r a t h e r than adding  to them.  HOW TO VIEW YOUR COMMUNITY West P o i n t Grey i s a unique community w i t h i n Vancouver.  When you are walking,  the l a r g e r C i t y o f  b i k i n g or busing through  the com-  munity, ask y o u r s e l f : —What do I enjoy about our community? —What do I wish t o preserve?  What do I d i s l i k e ?  What would I l i k e t o change?  —How d i d our community emerge?  Where i s i t going?  —What r e s o u r c e s do we have i n our community?  What do we l a c k ?  What can we p r o v i d e o u r s e l v e s ? —Who are my neighbours? WHAT TO LOOK FOR West P o i n t Grey's resources i n c l u d e the beaches and p o t e n t i a l  park-  lands b o r d e r i n g the area, the s p e c t a c u l a r view o f the mountains and the sea, i t s d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n .  Here i s a p a r t i a l l i s t  t o get you s t a r t e d  on your i n v e n t o r y : PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS  LIBRARIES  SWIMMING POOLS  STREETS/ROADS  BICYCLE PATHS  SHOPPING AREAS  TREES  BUS SERVICE  OPEN/WASTED SPACE  PARKING SPACES  CHURCHES/CHURCH HALLS  SINGLE FAMILY HOMES  SCHOOLS  APARTMENTS  COMMUNITY CENTRES  FIRE HALLS  DAY CARE CENTRES  OTHER BUILDINGS  ... and anything e l s e you p e r c e i v e t o be a community resource! B r i n g your ideas back t o the "Design-In" Help School  Gym.  a t Our Lady o f P e r p e t u a l  208  VANCOUVER  18 W A T E R  HISTORICAL  INSIGHTS  STREET VANCOUVER  LIMITED  B.C. V 6 B  1A4  SCENARIO FOR THE SLIDE PRESENTATION ON THE'DEVELOPMENT'OF POINT GREY The development o f V a n c o u v e r ' s P o i n t G r e y a r e a d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y from t h a t o f o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f the c i t y . Because o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , P o i n t G r e y ' i s p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y a r e a i n t h e c i t y w h i c h has r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e i t s f i n e homes were c o n s t r u c t e d . O r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f t h e 5,000 a c r e l a n d g r a n t g i v e n the C . P . R . by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t Grey ceded from S o u t h V a n c o u v e r i n 1 9 0 8 . The m i d d l e - i n c o m e groups who s e t t l e d P o i n t G r e y s e a r c h e d f o r q u a l i t y urban e n v i r o n m e n t s and d i d n o t want t o be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e b y - l a w s i n V a n c o u v e r , b y - l a w s w h i c h were much l o w e r i n s t a n d a r d t h a n t h e e l i t e P o i n t G r e y r e s i d e n t s desired. T h r o u g h o u t V a n c o u v e r ' s h i s t o r y , r e s i d e n t i a l development tended t o f o l l o w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r - u r b a n and s t r e e t c a r r o u t e s . The o r i g i n a l s t r e e t c a r l i n e went from the West End t o S t r a t h c o n a and t h e s e a r e a s were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . When the s t r e e t c a r l i n e was extended a c r o s s F a l s e Creek t o 1 6 t h Avenue ( t h e s o u t h e r n l i m i t o f V a n c o u v e r ) , a r e a s such as Mount P l e a s a n t , F a i r v i e w , and l a t e r Shaughnessey were b u i l t u p . From 1910 u n t i l the 1 9 3 0 ' s , p a r c e l s o f l a n d i n E a s t Vancouver and South V a n c o u v e r and s u b d i v i s i o n s i n K i t s i l a n o and P o i n t G r e y were d e v e l o p e d . A g a i n , t h e develppment f o l l o w e d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s t r e e t c a r and i n t e r u r b a n r o u t e s . U n l i k e the e a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l development and t h a t o f E a s t and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r , P o i n t Grey was d e v e l o p e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n to n e i g h b o u r h o o d a m e n i t i e s . S t r e e t s were paved and t r e e d , s i d e w a l k s were c o n s t r u c t e d , u t i l i t y l i n e s were l o c a t e d a l o n g back l a n e s , and o r n a m e n t a l s t r e e t l i g h t i n g was i n s t a l l e d . Hoines i n each s u b d i v i s i o n o f P o i n t Grey were d e s i g n e d t o complement one a n o t h e r i n both a r c h i t e c t u r e and p o s i t i o n on t h e property. Each s u b d i v i s o n had i t s d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r . When P o i n t Grey amalgamated w i t h V a n c o u v e r i n 1929, i t gave up c o n t r o l o f i t s by-laws. By t h i s t i m e , however, development was more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e . Andw w h i l e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s c l o s e t o downtown and i n E a s t and South V a n c o u v e r have changed d r a m a t i c a l l y from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i g h r i s e s and a p a r t m e n t s , t h e P o i n t Grey a r e a has r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y i n t a c t . What t h e f u t u r e h o l d s w i l l depend upon the i n v o l v e r i e n t o f P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r community. 11  ****** To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s t o r y o f P o i n t G r e y , I w o u l d s u g g e s t u s i n g s l i d e s w h i c h w o u l d b r i e f l y t r a c e the development o f t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , f o l l o w e d by s l i d e s o f the i n t e r u r b a n l i n e s . E a r l y s h o t s o f P o i n t Grey s u b d i v i s i o n s c o u l d t h e n be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the unplanned, haphazard development i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the c i t y . The u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r o f P o i n t Grey w o u l d become o b v i o u s .  _  . ^  West P o i n t Grey i s l o c a t e d i n the most n o r t h - w e s t e r n c o r n e r o f V a n c o u v e r . I t i s bounded by the b e a u t i f u l beaches o f S p a n i s h Banks on the n o r t h and the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment lands t o the south and w e s t . A major Park development i s now underway a d j a c e n t t o the W a t e r f r o n t a t J e r i c h o . Over 70% o f West P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s have e t h n i c o r i g i n s i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Over 38% have gone t o U n i v e r s i t y compared to 17% i n the C i t y . Over 30% o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e a c h i n g / m e d i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . Incomes are h i g h e r than i n the c i t y as a w h o l e . Many houses were b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1900's when the area was f i r s t p o p u l a t e d . Many homes a f f o r d b e a u t i f u l views o f E n g l i s h Bay because of the h i l l y n a t u r e o f the a r e a .  C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department A p r i l , 1975  I]"]  .  .  ;  :  >  LOCAL  AREA:  WEST POINT GREY 1971  STATISTICS  POPULATION  1.4 square  2.  AREA  3.  DENSITY SEX  896  -  Male  14 19 34  0  AGE  15 20  'J4  65 MARITAL  Over  STATUS  FAMILIES  47.2% 52.8  2,400 1,125 2,720 2,765  20.2%  5,370 5,270 1,225  f ami I i e s f ami I i e s  2.940 340 2,600  Number  of C h i l d r e n  Living  al  9.5 22.9 23.3 11.1 13.0  44.4 10.3 100% 11.6% 88.4  (0 - 24)  home 41.2%  1,210  None One  560  19.  Two  580  three  330  19, 11. 8,  four Average  5,605 6,265  S i ng I e Marr i ed Other  (Total) 1 parent 2 parcul  persons/acre  1,315 1,550  64  miles  acres  13.24  I c.Miici I e  in  100%  11,865  255  i  Number  of c h i l d r e n  0-24  2.25  f ami I i e s  HOUSEHOLDS (Total) TemaIe Head M a l e Head  3,955 1,025 2,930  100%  DWELLINGS  3,945  100%  (Total)  25.9% 74.1  1 enure: Owned  2,625 1,320  Ren l e d Type: Single detached Apartment All  2,980 795 170  other  112  66.5% 33.5  75.5% 20.2 4.3  211  f  OWE 1.1 INGS ( c o n t ' d ) Length of R e s i d e n c e : Less than I year I - 2 years 3 - 5 years • o - IO y e a r s O y e r IO y e a r s A v e r a g e p e r s o n s p e r room: T. i n g l e d e l a c h e d Apa r tmen t Al1 o t h e r  IO.  Owner-Occupiod Value 1 <><v\ t h a n $ 17499 112500 - $174 99 117500 - $22499 • • $72500 - $27499 $2 7500 - $32499 $52500 - $37499 $37500 - $42499 $42500 - $52499 $52500 - $62499 $62500 o r more  2,625 15 55 210 425 555 410 .325 360 125 160  100% .5%  11,165  :  n  P1MN1 f: GROUPS  (By E t h n i c O r i g i n )  Mr It i sh 1 s 1 e s 1 r enoh German  .  8,675 1,235 605 325 155 175 11,885 8,405 305 540  con I ' d  113  |  j  100% 2.6% " 4.2  Ml 1MBf R Or INTERMUNICIPAL MOVES OF POPULA1ION  j j  i  1,305 35 55 80 185 280 320 155 50 50 105  7  V  .49 49 52 • 54  T e n a n t - O c c u p i e d Cash Rent: Loss than $ 5 0 $50 - $74 W 5 - $99 $100 - $174 $125 - $ 1 4 9 1150 - $ 1 74 $175 - $199 $200 - $224 $275 - $249 $250 K o v e r  Mo moves i n p a s t 5 y e a r s Moved o n c e i n p a s t 5 y e a r s 2 moves i n p a s t 5 y e a r ' s i rriovns j pnsl' 5 y e a r s 4 moves i n pant 5 y e a r s 5 o r more moves i n p a s t 5 y e a r s 11.  18.0% 14.5 15.1 15.0 37.4  710 575 595 590 1,475  14.1 6.1 21.4 24.2 11.8 3.8 3.8  !  j j  2.1 8.0 16.1 21.1 15.4 12.3 13.7 4.7 6.1  |  1  100% 77.7% 11.0 5.4 2.9 1.4 1.6 100% 70.7 2.6 4.5  j j  212  f I ?..  I 3.  M .  ETHNIC GROUPS  ItaI i an CMi nese I n<Jo-Pak i sf on i J apanese Crook Ne I her I ands Scand i nav i an Portuguese o r Spanish f a s t European Other and not" s t a t e d  9,465  None Kindergarten - Grade 6 Grades 7 - 9 Grades IO - 13 I - 2 years U n i v e r s i t y 3 or more years U n i v e r s i t y  45 185 980 4,535 1,020 2,700  LABOUR FORCE  5,750  i  1 i  i  i  100% .5% 2.0 10.3 47.9 10.8 28.5 100% 8.26%  Labour Force 3,380 2,370  EXPERIENCED LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPAT1 ON  5,295  Manager i a I Professional Teachi n g / M e d i c a l CI or i cn I S.i I os Serv ice Pr i many Processing Con', 1 rue 1 i on 1r n u s p o r l a t ion Other  365 700 925 1,140 755 595 80 330 145 185 80 INDUSTRY  Resources M.HIIIf nr t ur i ng H I ! . 1 1 uc 1 i on transportation & U t i l i t i e s 1 ra.lo  Finance, Insurance & Real Estate Community B u s i n e s s & P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e 1 ,i "V.'M  |  o/  SCHOOLING  IXPIpnNcrn LABOUR FORCE BY  l  —it  R7  -  i r,.  j  1.0% 3.7 .7 .3 .8 1.4 3.2 .8 5.3 5.0  120 440 80 40 95 160 385 90 630 590  PERCENTAGE WITH ENGLISH AS MOTHER TONGUE  Unemp I oymen t" Percentage ot - Mole" - female I b.  (cont'd)  l.fllCII 1  114  58.8% 41.2 100% 6.9% 13.2 17.5 21.5 14.3 11.2 1.5 6.2 2.7 3.4 1.6  5,300 125 595 135 420 820 340 2,450 410  100%  1  2.4% 11.2 2.6 7.9 15.5 6.4 46.2 7.8  i  r  - Source:  100%  3,945  I MCfiMK T o t a l w i t h Income No income U n d e r $4000 $4000 - !6')9Q $7000 - $ 9 9 9 9 $10000 - $12099 $ i 3000 - $ I 3 9 0 9 $16000 o r more  I 7.  . 3%  10 585 580 615 620 495 1,040  14.8 14.7 15.6 15.7 12.5 26.4  1971 Census Data  Definitions: 1.  Family: Consists of a husband and wife with or without children who have never been married, regardless of age, or a parent with one or more children never married, l i v i n g i n the same dwelling. A family may also consist of a man or woman l i v i n g with a guardianship child or a ward under 21 years for whom no pay was received.  2.  Household:  3.  Dwelling: Refers to a structurally separate set of l i v i n g quarters with a private entrance from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. Dwellings under construction are not included. There are private and c o l l e c t i v e dwellings, but data on housing were collected for private dwellings only.  A person cr group-of persons occupying one dwelling  4. Number of inter-municipal moves of population: 5 years and over. • 5.  Schooling:  This refers to persons  T h i s r e f e r s t o persons 15 y e a r s and o v e r .  6. Labour force: This refers to persons 15 years and over. Note:  A l l numbers have been random rounded so as not t o s i n g l e Out any i n d i v i d u a l . Differences i n population t o t a l s i n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s r e s u l t i n p a r t from random rounding.  115  \ • '*,  /-/ A «3' T ^ "7"  w i s t -  Adrires:  Name .....  (^o. <^Jr~ CSK t  J  h I.  J r /  ••'  v . -  '  ... /  <  -  -  » ^ ~ - A . •> ^~  Address  Name  d c ^ ^ & d r ^ y t  A 7/ •  c  A . / . . . AL  V  ' U c ;  (/I  A  (/  IJ /-••i.y  /•/. A / / 4,p.cA/ A ir  /  I  - 7 ----- . /A- , '  •  / f / A  A  r l  4GG^  LO  12-  ,7 A -  7  L, L y-T r  A.  VJ  OJ  AI.  -  (  /7_  liame  Address  . ft V i W ' K x y K  ^ K U x , i ^ e x ^ /  /C rf  U)  C  f<L  \Mo^x.,  , ..^x?.<..xx,- // /W->rxx 'j c  fyi  x?  xx  v  K.  Oy  / .  /  0 / L?~r-Z,C<-Ct '^i/t-  •^•Xtx-ci rx.  Lunsz-C C-  ('•  1  /{'!  Xx*-?^  ;  ;-/ . . v  c  . J.).  u  X 4> -X  -xxx — 3 ^ 2  .  ,;x-x/U.  i ^-c,rl  <  < <f L i  9lM . X (£.£y>r-g.  /v.  ^v  f x  < x  •• •  /  /  i X  x  Xy  Oni<i.X^:/X  Ky  «^t  Ma  I/) ufc/v 3 c Kl.  •CC  K( r'  .•X-Xc-^ f:  '1  /  x  -  ?  X) , .ui/} x <j' io . / 6) ' cU-<. X •;  <HK IK  a). ;</ K- X}+  r.  i,x>  • f x  IP ,  ) ! • -  ..'X-'7/.ci-  c.'.  •i x  ? 6 ,, •;  •• X V o  yJ  iV i.,X  K  217  • Address  Name  4 XX XX-X^ AA >r bJ;  .e.-~\A f  I  " p  i;  •>AvK,kAcr >'Ap p  id-'  -1 try.^ A  A rxcCp  i-v-^:  . H( O A  v  i-i «• ^  /  .  ( A> ..G^X  . -/.'  t  sA  At  vv  '. !A  , /TV-,  j X.  ..  f.  ' "  ;  >' -~-vr"' 1  •x -  XA'AX/I- V '<j.  : 1  (  fee  ;  -\  x  V  A A a  19  )x  7  / Z f f J K w J . . 0 l 4 - /X.jVX)  p .  ,"X£  A  //-7  r : A C(Ti W S  j/X^/X/o  4$:  55/3 |,4s^/^ fe o^ B.C, |M:x?-^ r]  n£  LH  kti/fij^if,  .fa.  / ,X_..-"rf---»_-<L.---L---C_^A--" XW / A ^ i c  Atl/L/C/'Ji-  *.  Xt  r  '  ^ A Ac' A ^ - / ^ /  A 8 7 <' t / J x^x ,A.->^^X . - / a 9 - A-J //-'^  r'  3  r  > j  7  "l-tAA  ^  • J  ^  ' ?  x i x V/  <4,x > •.^4.  v A > f 5  '  P i  

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