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Content analysis of The reading teacher, 1948-1977 Tolsma, Catherine Colette 1977

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CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE READING TEACHER - 19 4 8-19 7 7  by  CATHERINE COLETTE  TOLSMA  B.B.A.> U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of  READING EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  Thesis Supervisor  Advisor  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  September, 1977 (jO Catherine Colette Tolsma  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an Columbia,  the  -available f o r reference  be  of  this  thesis  my  written  s h a l l make i t  study.  I further  copying.of t h i s  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  Library  and  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  the  I t i s understood that for financial  Reading  gain  the  Columbia  of  British  freely  for  that scholarly  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  copying or  s h a l l not  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 20 75 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada. V6T 1W5 September, 19 7 7  of  agree  thesis  Head o f my  permission.  Department o f  fulfillment  advanced degree a t . t h e U n i v e r s i t y  I agree t h a t  permission  in partial  be  his  publication  allowed  without  iii  ABSTRACT  The ing  results  education  study.  from  journal,  Retrospective  focussed  on  articles  published  selected  content  articles  published  referenced The taining base  three  18  major  the  a d d i t i o n of  Demographic  cited  per  detect  trends  years.  With  through 21  Index and  30,  and and  to 31  The  articles  r e c e i v e d the  and  Skill  Development.  sub-categories.  time The  the  Reading  three  i n emphases  majority  Teacher,  con-  articles multiple  was  used  as  a  classification 30  cited,  resulted  ten-year the  emphasis:  to  shifts articles  determined  authorship,  and  i n frequency  over  were  location  of age  counts  time  author, of and  periods  thirty subject  to  volume matter,  Reading I n s t r u c t i o n  c a t e g o r i e s remained  of  of of  21-through  according  periods, with  of  analysis  Empirical  geographic  presented  Major  of  30.  publication  greatest  and  this  sub-categories.  of  classified  areas  three  of  in  journal  sub-categories,  trends,  collapsed into shifts  the  read-  determination  30,  i n Volumes  topical  Data were  reported  characteristics  through  additional  type  two  the  1  occupation,  volume,  material.  percentages,  over  through  characteristics  author  are  analysis of  demographic  contained  variables:  author,  citations  21  i n Volumes  five  elementary  subjective classification  i n Volumes  articles  an  Teacher,  subjective classification.  in  of  and  categories  844  eight  Reading  Annotated  the  using  analysis of  bibliometric  trends  Year  f o r the  The  i n Volumes  journals  20  content  dimensions:  of  sex  a  quite  o c c u r r i n g among were  single  stable the  authored  (82.6%); men  a u t h o r s h i p was  and women o v e r . t h e  increase  approximately  t h i r t y volume y e a r s , w i t h  i n male a u t h o r s  i n recent years.  c o n t r i b u t o r s were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h resided  i n the  and  volume p e r i o d , w i t h  percentage  citation.  an  third  publishing was  found  and  titles and  results  s e c t i o n of the  w i t h which d i f f e r e n t  t h a t the Pareto  f o r 51.14  j o u r n a l s , . two  characteristic  number  for  cited  percent  of the  considered the  core  educational research  A wide v a r i e t y  of support  interdisciplinary  other  academic  fields.  with  by  and  authors  in  It  previous  These e i g h t  reading journals,  general  elementary one  English  journal literature reading  the  eight.titles  journals.  j o u r n a l s , . and  suggesting: t h a t elementary  broad  core  Reading Teacher.  elementary  j o u r n a l s , two  ages i n  disciplines.  identified  cited  and  r e a d i n g b a s e d on  collection  the  in journal  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  30 o f The  literature  include three reading  identified  i n the  j o u r n a l s were c i t e d  i n Volumes .21 t h r o u g h  c o u l d be  journal.  The  near a r c h i v a l  from s c i e n c e  study  and  increase across  a s l i g h t decrease  s t r u c t u r e of elementary  research held for this accounting  States.  h i g h m e d i a n ages were f o u n d  similar  literature  frequency  productive  a t r e n d t o w a r d c i t a t i o n o f newer, m a t e r i a l  comparison w i t h  support  most  increase observed  c i t e d m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t i n g . a r c h i v a l and  The  a noticeable  colleges.and universities  showed a s t e a d y  o f books c i t e d  Relatively  material with  The  e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s of the U n i t e d  number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s . c i t e d thirty  e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between  was  i n t e r a c t s with  base r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of education  and  a  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION AND  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Statement  3  o f t h e Study  Limitations  . . . . . . . .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  II  2  o f t h e Problem  Significance  Overview  1  . . . . .  . . . . . .  5  . . . . . . .... . . . . .  6  . . . .  . . . .  . . . . .  . . .-. . . . .  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE  . . .  6  . . .  7  Content A n a l y s i s Subjective Topical Multiple  8  Classification  Trend Analysis  . . .  Authorship . . . . . . .  Author Occupation Geographic Location  9  . . . . . . . . . . .  Sex o f A u t h o r  . . .  Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  14  . . . . . . . . .  15 16  .  17  . . . . . . . . . .  19 21  Core and Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e  III  .  of Cited Material  Summary  . . . . .  . . . .  . ... . .  22  . . . .  25  .  DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Publication Subjective  27  o f The Reading Classification  Teacher of Articles  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Topical  Trend Analysis  13  . . . . . .  . . Cited  10  . . .  o f Author  C i t a t i o n s p e r Volume  Age  4  .  27  . . . . .  28  . . . . .  31  . . . . .  32  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE Multiple Sex  Authorship  o f Author  • .• . . . . .  . . . . . .  Author Occupation  o f Author  C i t a t i o n s p e r Volume Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  Summary IV  . . .  . . . . .  Subjective  Topical Multiple  . . .  . . . . . .  . . . ... . . .  . . . .  Classification of Articles  Trend Analysis  . . .  . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  A u t h o r s h i p . . .•.-. . . . . .  o f Author  Author Occupation  . . . . . . .  . . .  Type o f . P u b l i c a t i o n  34 35 35 36 37 37  40  . . .  48 51 51  . . .  54  .  Cited  and Support J o u r n a l  34  . . .  . . . . .  Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l  33  . . . . .  o f Author  C i t a t i o n s p e r Volume  33  40  . . . . . . . . . .  Geographic Location  V  . .•. . . .•.  Literature  Demographic.Characteristics  Core  . .•.•  .• . . . . .  RESULTS OF THE STUDY  Sex  . . . .  32  33  . . . .  Cited  and Support J o u r n a l  . .•.  . . . . . . . .  .  Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l Core  . . . . . .•. . . .  . . ... .•. . . . . .  Geographic Location  . .  54 56  . . . .•. . . . .  . . .  58  Literature  . . .  58  . . .  SUMMARY,. CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary Subjective  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Classification  of Articles  . . . .  70 70 70  vii  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE Demographic  Characteristics  . . .  C o r e and S u p p o r t J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e Conclusions  . . . .  Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES  . . . . .  . . . . . .  . . .  .  73  . .•. . . .  . .•. . . . . .  • .• . . . .• . . . . .  71  . .  . . . .  • .• . . . . .  74 77 79 83  viii  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE I  II III IV  V  VI  PAGE ARTICLES BY MAJOR. CATEGORIES ACROSS..THREE TIME..PERIODS . . . . . . . .  41-  ARTICLES C L A S S I F I E D WITHIN READING INSTRUCTION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  43  ARTICLES C L A S S I F I E D WITHIN DEVELOPMENT OF READING SKILLS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . .  45-  ARTICLES C L A S S I F I E D WITHIN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . .  .  46  ARTICLES C L A S S I F I E D WITHIN READING PERSONNEL ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . = . . . . . . .  47  ARTICLES C L A S S I F I E D WITHIN. READING PROBLEMS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI  MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP  . .  49  ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  . . .  SEX OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS AUTHOR OCCUPATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  50 52  . . . .  GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . TYPE OF PUBLICATION CITED ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53  55 57  AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY PUBLICATION TYPE ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  59  ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY TYPE OF PUBLICATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS  60  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25 . . . . .  .  62  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30  63  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30  66  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 2  3  PAGE JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 26-30 . . . . . JOURNALS CITED IN THE.READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-30 .  64 .  65  69  X  L I S T OF  APPENDICES PAGE  APPENDIX  A  DATA CODING SYSTEM  84  APPENDIX  B  TABLES X V I I THROUGH XXVII  . . . . .  86  TABLE XVII  XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV  XXVI  XXVII  ARTICLE FREQUENCY BY MAJOR AND SUBCATEGORIES ACROSS 30 VOLUME YEARS 7  86  MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP BY VOLUME  92  SEX OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME  .  AUTHOR OCCUPATION BY VOLUME GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME CITATIONS BY VOLUME AND  94 . . . .  TYPE OF PUBLICATION  AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION  93  . .  95 97 99  ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION  105  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25  I l l  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30  116  JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30  122.  xi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . Edward G. Summers, my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , stages  f o rh i s assistance  and a d v i c e  throughout a l l  o f the study.  Gratitude  i s e x p r e s s e d t o D r . R o b e r t D. C h e s t e r ,  for h i s cooperation  my  and encouragement.  To my c h i l d r e n , V a l e r i e , M e l i s s a , G e r r i t ,  and Jeremy, I  thank y o u f o r y o u r c o n s c i e n t i o u s . a s s i s t a n c e .in t a b u l a t i n g whenever  advisor,  data  p o s s i b l e ; I a l s o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t o l e r a n c e when y o u  were u n a b l e t o h e l p .  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND  The  R e a d i n g T e a c h e r has grown f r o m i t s i n f a n c y a t Temple  University  i n 194 8 t o a m a t u r e / h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d  enjoys  a world  cited,  and i t i s r e c o g n i z e d  of reading  audience,  as a d i s t i n c t  Herschman sional  and s e p a r a t e  journal.  f o r c e i n the development  f i e l d within  education.  that the function of a profes-  threefold:  to record  information,  i n f o r m a t i o n , and c o n v e y p r e s t i g e and r e c o g n i t i o n . (19 75)  e l a b o r a t e d on t h e s e  three  functions.  I t d i s s e m i n a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n among members o f a s c i e n t i f i c [ p r o f e s s i o n a l ] community who have s i m i l a r o r o v e r l a p p i n g i n t e r e s t s and who n e e d t o m a i n t a i n a c u r r e n t a w a r e n e ss by k e e p i n g up w i t h developments i n t h e i r f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t .  2.  I t l i n k s p r o d u c e r s and u s e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n by a r e c o r d o f a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t c a n be u s e d f o r retrospective searching. The j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s a p u b l i c record, prepared with q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t h r o u g h t h e e d i t o r - r e f e r e e s y s t e m , a means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t y , and an o r d e r l y b a s i s f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g d a t a i n t o i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r r e l a t i n g new k n o w l e d g e t o p r i o r k n o w l e d g e so as t o f o r m a c o r p u s . I t packages r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t .  3.  I t p e r f o r m s an i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , f o r i t c o n v e y s p r e s t i g e and r e c o g n i t i o n upon i t s a u t h o r s , (pp. 147-148)  relative  It  are widely  1.  importance of these  the years.  research with  as a s t r o n g  (1970) s u g g e s t s  Borko and B e r n i e r  over  i t s published a r t i c l e s  journal i s basically  disseminate  The  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  three  f u n c t i o n s has s h i f t e d  The c u r r e n t a w a r e n e s s r o l e  r e p o r t s a r e now p r e s e n t e d  the journal a r t i c l e  has l e s s e n e d :  a t conventions  reporting the research  and m e e t i n g s ,  following the  2  initial  presentation.  discipline tioner  has  L i t e r a t u r e expansion i n v i r t u a l l y  made i t i m p o s s i b l e  t o be, " c u r r e n t l y  relevant  in his  f o r the  aware" o f  a l l primary  decreased archival tant  the  current  on  good r e t r o s p e c t i v e  specific  educational Journals  and  the  topics. historical  of  information  articles  journal  journal  journal  of  be  as  developed  information  literature  k n o w l e d g e i t [the o f f e r e d by  the  importo  now  availan  knowledge.  n o t e d by  a medium f o r t h e  Kuney  publication  journal]  present  has  an  becomes  accumulated  i m p o r t a n c e t o d a y , as "as  the  material  I t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  resource of  scientific  most w i d e l y u s e d t o o l  of  of the  bibliographies  The  emphasized t h a t  distribution  practi-  s h e e r volume o f  use  large quantities  remain of primary  (1968), who  the  Thus, the  increased.  p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o the able  journal  awareness f u n c t i o n  i n importance. r e s o u r c e has  that  or  field.  B e c a u s e o f p u b l i c a t i o n l a g and being printed,  researcher  every  and  remains  system  of  transfer."  Background A  journal  s o c i e t y has of  that  the  past  nation  a significant  field.  publication  of  three  of  published  The the  the  reading  the  journal  the  melding of  i m p a c t on  International  d e c a d e s , has and  process.  i n 1972,  d i s t r i b u t e d by the  R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , as  information  and  and  research  commented on  research,  professional  g r o w t h and the  development  primary  elementary  Reading A s s o c i a t i o n  played  Kline,  a  a vital  r o l e i n the  about the  in.an  teaching  editorial  difficulties  c l a s s r o o m , , and  (IRA)  for  dissemiof  reading  published  encountered  journal.  in in  3  A p r o f e s s i o n a l journal's r o l e i s to t r y to accommodate a u n i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n — i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a u n i t y between r e s e a r c h e r and p r a c t i t i o n e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e d e t a c h e d o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f u n c o n t a m i n a t e d d a t a t h a t a r e so c r u c i a l t o e x c e l l e n c e i n formal r e s e a r c h appear to p r e c l u d e the s y n t h e s i s , c r e a t i v i t y , and o c c a s i o n a l warm f u z z i n e s s t h a t a r e among t h e s o r e s t needs i n a t e a c h e r , and v i c e v e r s a , (p; 724)  Statement of the This research and  investigation tool  sional 1.  The  and  Reading Teacher a c r o s s  a n a l y s i s focuses  Articles  published  on  three  identify  trends  i t s thirty  volume  d i m e n s i o n s o f the- p r o f e s -  i n Volumes 21  Reading Teacher are  v e r s i o n of the scheme u s e d  classified.into  (Summers,  a topical  presented  i n three  sons;  four author  of authors and  per  occupation;  and  age  Journal t i t l e s recent  thirty  sex,  citation per  The  published  determined, data  to afford  characteristics  number o f c i t a t i o n s cited,  of the  time p e r i o d s  and  modified  Index t o  trend a n a l y s i s with  article,  a  of  1969).  Reading Teacher are  including  30  classification  2 0,Y e a r A n n o t a t e d  Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v o l u m e s o f The  through  e m p i r i c a l l y developed  i n the  Reading Teacher  3.  a n a l y s i s as a b i b l i o m e t r i c  reading journal.  The  2.  uses content  to determine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  d e v e l o p m e n t s i n The  years.  Problem  compari-  i n c l u d i n g number  geographic analyses  volume, type  location,  b a s e d on  the  of p u b l i c a t i o n  of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s . from a r t i c l e s  referenced  (1967-1977) t e n v o l u m e s a r e  i n the  tabulated  most  and  4 ranked  t o i l l u s t r a t e the  literature  objectively  and  volume y e a r s o f The istics total  of the  of the  will  can  significant.  dimensions of content 1.  be  trends also  i n the  provides  improving  2.  The  as t h e  3.  By  first  step  Index t o The  access  the  the  three  the f o l l o w i n g : t e n most  recent  t w e n t y v o l u m e s were  reading.  first  to the  determined  be  further  The  and  classification  i n updating  the  Reading Teacher  total  directly  the h i s t o r i c a l  j o u r n a l emerges, and noted.  a sense,  history  Since  t h i r t y year  20  and  content  journal.  content;  c a n be  character-  n o t a t i o n of categories to  demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  c a n be  "In  i n the  d a t a which can  i n elementary  serves  the  thirty  t o d e t e r m i n e s u b s t a n t i v e emphases  Year Annotated  of  provide  of a r t i c l e s  which a r t i c l e s  determined.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  v o l u m e s , combined w i t h  analyzed  Study  i s used, a l l d i f f e r e n c e s  analysis w i l l  Classification  assigned,  reading.  Reading Teacher r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y ,  journal articles  be  journal  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g the  population of journal a r t i c l e s  observed  support  s t r u c t u r e of elementary Significance  By  c o r e and  As  examining  the  Summers  core  from a t t r i b u t e s  trends  Reading  articles of  r e c o r d of the p r o f e s s i o n a l  the h i s t o r y  o f The  of.the  and  shifts  of  (1969) p o i n t e d o f the  IRA  emphases out,  i s also  the  Teacher." and  support  journal  literature  5 structure reading  the  and  observed. cited)  other The  define  related  i n t e r a c t i o n s between fields  of  e d u c a t i o n can  core journals the  (those  be  ( t i t l e s most  c e n t r a l nucleus of  to elementary reading  journals  elementary  less heavily  literature  w h i l e the cited)  heavily  support  indicate  broader i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r a c t i o n s .  Limitations Several this  l i m i t a t i o n s are  type.  b a s e d on  First,  the  subjective  extension  judgment.  objectively  assign  substantive  content, the  are  influential  article  inherent  articles  i n the  of  the  to  categories  b a c k g r o u n d and  final  classification  A l t h o u g h an  a t t e m p t was according  bias  judgment as  of  the  t o the  system made  to  of is  to  their  classifier  i n c l u s i o n of  an  i n a . s p e c i f i c category.  Secondly,.a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of t o p i c of  elementary reading.  those a r t i c l e s y e a r s o f The sional  i n a content analysis  d e v e l o p m e n t s and A third  directly  trends  it.was  i n the the  I t i s assumed t h a t  purposes. between the  an  19 77  official  felt  that  study  involves  authors are  t o t h e i r work and  and  be  only  volume  organ of the  the  a  profes-  contents of  used to  the  generalize  field.  not  the  citing  citation materials  for prestige  T h u s , a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p can citing  in thirty  d a t a b a s e w h i c h can  l i m i t a t i o n of  relevant  As  e x i s t on  study i s l i m i t e d to  f r o m 19 4 8 t o  association,  provide a v a l i d  analysis.  This  Reading Teacher.  reading  journal  published  publications  c i t e d documents, so  be  or f r i v o l o u s ,  assumed t o  that  further  exist analyses  6  of  these communication l i n k a g e s are accurate and r e l e v a n t . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The  f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s  1.  Content a n a l y s i s  study:  A b i b l i o m e t r i c research  technique which p r o v i d e s d e s c r i p t i v e data as t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p o p u l a t i o n o f j o u r n a l articles. 2.  Subjective c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The d e s c r i p t o r ( s )  assigned t o a group of a r t i c l e s w i t h s i m i l a r subs t a n t i v e content. 3.  Citation  Any m a t e r i a l an author r e f e r e n c e s i n  an a r t i c l e , i n e i t h e r r e f e r e n c e l i s t s o r f o o t n o t e s . 4.  Core and support j o u r n a l s  Groups o f j o u r n a l  c i t e d by The Reading TeacherAauthors  titles  which are ranked  and c l u s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o frequency of c i t a t i o n . Overview The present study i s a content a n a l y s i s of The Reading Teacher, Chapter  i n v o l v i n g the three dimensions I I reviews  discussed previously.  l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the problem and  s y n t h e s i z e s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t o p r o v i d e the conceptual framework.  In Chapter  I I I the methodology i s o u t l i n e d , along w i t h  the mechanics i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g the data and p r e p a r i n g p o r t i o n s o f i t f o r computer a n a l y s i s . the study are presented i n Chapter  IV.  The r e s u l t s o f  The study i s summarized  i n Chapter V, and c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h complete the r e p o r t .  7  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE Contents trends,  of professional  journals reflect  and d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e .  body o f k n o w l e d g e c a n b e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ways.  Formal  developed  analytic  i n the f i e l d  and p r e d i c t i v e  the interests, This organized  e x a m i n e d i n numerous  techniques  of information science to a i d the  researcher i n the study o f s u b j e c t l i t e r a t u r e s . these techniques  have b e e n  are referred  (1969) d e f i n e d b i b l i o m e t r i c s  As a  t o as b i b l i o m e t r i c s . as " t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e  group,  Fairthorne treatment o f  the p r o p e r t i e s o f r e c o r d e d d i s c o u r s e and b e h a v i o u r a p p e r t a i n i n g to  it."  likely  According t o Buckland  (1974),  t o become more i m p o r t a n t  i t i s an a r e a t h a t i s  f o r two r e a s o n s :  (1)  i t i s u n a v o i d a b l e i f t h e new e m p h a s i s on measures o f performance [ i n l i b r a r y ' and i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s ] i s h e r e t o . s t a y ; and  (2)  a n a l y s e s o f growth, epidemics, s c a t t e r i n g , o b s o l e s c e n c e , and t h e l i k e t a k e on new s i g n i f i c a n c e when s e e n . . . a s t h e means o f e x p l o r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l products. (p. 364)  Literature insight  a n a l y s e s c a n c o n t r i b u t e b o t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  to a professional  field,  and c a n f o c u s on numerous  areas,  including: (1)  the h i s t o r y  of the f i e l d ,  (2)  t h e problems toward  (3)  t h e contents o f accumulated  (4)  t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n means and c h a n n e l s ,  w h i c h i t i s o r was o r i e n t e d , knowledge,  °  8  (5)  substantive  (6)  the  This  chapter reviews b i b l i o m e t r i c  disciplines, sciences, of  The  tive  people i n the  representing  to provide  analysis  research  (2) m u l t i p l e (5)  (7)  and  c o r e and  (9)  are  studies  both s c i e n t i f i c  sex  l o c a t i o n of  type of p u b l i c a t i o n support  from  fields  of  the  content  social  analysis  characterizing  (1)  subjec-  content  t o p i c a l trend  author,  author, cited,  various  and  Nine aspects of  investigated: (3)  and  field.  i s included.  geographic  developments,  A brief section  authorship,  volume,  and  a c o n c e p t u a l base f o r the  Reading Teacher.  classification  tion,  trends  (4)  (6)  (8)  analysis,  author  occupa-  citations  age  of  per  cited  material,  journals.  Content A n a l y s i s . According  to H o l s t i  purpose research a broad tion  analysis  study  Scientific tivity,  analysis  i s "a  method d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y . f o r  spectrum of  s e r v e s as  (1969) c o n t e n t  the  problems i n which the basis  of  inference."  i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  analysis.of  s y s t e m , and  communication  investigating  content of The  communica-  design of  questions  multi-  a  content  addressed.  content requires  objec-  generality.  To have o b j e c t i v i t y , t h e a n a l y s i s must be c a r r i e d o u t on t h e b a s i s o f e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d r u l e s w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e two o r more p e r s o n s t o o b t a i n t h e same r e s u l t s f r o m t h e same d o c u m e n t s . In a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s t h e i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n o f c o n t e n t o r c a t e g o r i e s i s done a c c o r d i n g t o c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d c r i t e r i a o f . s e l e c t i o n ; t h i s requirement eliminates analyses i n which only m a t e r i a l s s u p p o r t i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s hypotheses are examined. By g e n e r a l i t y we mean t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s must have t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e ; p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e information, about content, unrelated to other a t t r i b u t e s of content or t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e n d e r or. r e c i p i e n t  9  o f t h e message, i s o f l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e . These t h r e e requirements are not unique t o c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , but are n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s , f o r a l l scientific inquiry. (p. 598) 1  Data i n content and  percentages.  when u s e d as  Subjective  a n a l y s i s are  The  bases  presented  i n frequency  counts  r e s u l t a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e data derive  f o r comparisons  and  meaningful  meaning  inferences.  Classification  Categories  i n the  20_ Y e a r A n n o t a t e d  T e a c h e r were e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d .  Lancaster  process of e m p i r i c a l l y generating indexing.  In  this  Index t o . The  Reading  (1972) d e f i n e s  a c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary  the  for  approach:  . . . t h e i n i t i a l v o c a b u l a r y , i s ..derived by means o f the f r e e i n d e x i n g o f a sample.of documents. The c a n d i d a t e terms r e s u l t i n g from t h i s procedure are then reviewed, grouped,.and s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a u s e f u l organization. (p. 27) Any ing  f u r t h e r updating of  categories  developing  and  new  an  f o l l o w the  categories.  index should  original  As  Holsti  m a i n t a i n the  classification (1969) p o i n t s  exist-  scheme i n  out:  The a d v a n t a g e o f . s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a r e t h e same as i n any a r e a o f s c h o l a r s h i p : r e s u l t s may be compared a c r o s s s t u d i e s and f i n d i n g s w i l l t e n d t o become cumulative. (p. 101) B a s e d on to indexing  an  and  emphasized the ment o f  extensive  evaluation  classification, desirability  categories  and  of  Dartnell an  preconceived, categories  gator  a committee of  approach i n s u r e s reflects  the  that  the  g e n e r a t e d by  related  strongly  approach to  rather  authorities in-the  the  literature  (1977)  empirical  sub-categories  b a s e d on or  of  t h a n an  ;  approach,  a single  field.  develop-  Such  investian  r e s u l t a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , schedule  actual substantive  content of  t h e .document  10  collection  and  avoids  bias or oversight. recently  reading  The  supported  extensive  validity  i n a study  collection  was  artificiality  induced  of the  by  successfully classified  committee  e m p i r i c a l .approach  Jeroski  of d i s s e r t a t i o n  through  (1977) w h e r e i n  research  in  was.  an  secondary  through a n a l y s i s of  document  content. T o p i c a l Trend  Analysis  ©elineatien of and  education  published  areas  ten-year  during  the  areas  and  rural  sociological  topics.  articles  research with A number o f  and  Rusnell  patterns  adult education. Several d i s t i n c t  and  a n a l y s i s of  published  types,  field in  according  of  Rural  D a t a were p r e s e n t e d  by  to major  t h a t a.number o f t r e n d s  in  a r a t h e r f i r m e m p i r i c a l base  l e s s well-documented  (1971) a n a l y z e d  i n the  impressions  1950  and  twenty volumes 19 70  development.of the  V a r i a b l e s were e x a m i n e d by trends  Long and  extended t h e i r  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  Agyekum  study  a n a l y s i s t o examine t h e  of  five-year periods. characteristic  and - p r a c t i c e o f  (1974) u s e d t h i s  of  to a s c e r t a i n  discipline  were n o t e d , w h i c h were  of developments g e n e r a l l y i n the education.  articles  concluded  science  (1965) e x a m i n e d t h e  classified  Education.published.between and  social  discussed.  Dickinson  trends  by  p e r i o d 1936-1965.  I t was  were i d e n t i f i e d .  Adult  Sewell  illustrated  periods, with  were a l s o  i n various  adequacy o f r e s e a r c h . . i n t e r e s t s i n the  s o c i o l o g y as  Sociology  trends  have b e e n r e p o r t e d b a s e d on  journal literature.  m a g n i t u d e s , and rural  substantive  study  as  adult a base  circumstances  i n c r e a s i n g number o f r e s e a r c h - b a s e d  that articles  11  and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i f f e r e n t  editors  Nine complete volumes o f A d u l t . E d u c a t i o n t o 19 73 were a n a l y z e d . Education  reflected  The  c h a n g e s and  t h e p e r i o d examined, i n t h e i r A study  conducted  by  to i d e n t i f y p u b l i c a t i o n published 1965  approach t o a problem  psychology  d i r e c t i o n of growing chology  reported  Foreman  a content  seventeen  content  in.the discipline  (1966) u s e d  concluded  j o u r n a l s from  during  analysis  through  support  and  empirical).  that journals i n  were m o v i n g . o n . s e v e r a l similarity  Articles  1954  (theoretical-speculative or  dimensions  i n the  t o t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l  o f c o u n s e l i n g , Munley of the  Psychology.  c a t e g o r i e s and  psy-  f i r s t . 19 v o l u m e s o f  three methodological  (3) number o f s u b j e c t s .  that h i s general content  (1970).  identity  in-terms  A sample o f 600  of research  findings to indicate  character-  The  (2)  sex  Munley  publications.  s t u d i e d by  articles.published  A r t i c l e s were c l a s s i f i e d . i n t o  i n . e m p h a s e s were n o t e d .  into  a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d a.view o f  p e r i o d s 1937-38, 1947-48,.1957-58, and  data base.  the  A r t i c l e s were c l a s s i f i e d  Three decades of S o c i a l Education-were Gross  (1974)  (1) s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n , s t u d i e d ,  o f s a m p l e , and  counseling psychology  shifts  content  according to b a s i s of f i n a n c i a l  analysis  were r e c o r d e d :  composition  time  1964  that Adult  trends i n counseling journals.  i n the d i s c i p l i n e  Journal of Counseling  and  the years  journals.  Also  istics  findings.  study.  p r e s e n t e d by Foreman i n d i c a t e d  counseling  spanning  concluded  trends  i n s i x counseling related  were - c l a s s i f i e d  Evidence  authors  to certain  Chapin during  the  1967-68 p r o v i d e d  the  s u b j e c t areas  authors  interpreted  t h a t S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n had  reflected  and their changes  12  in  the d i s c i p l i n e ,  "on  t h a t t h e j o u r n a l had n o t always been  t h e c u t t i n g edge o f c h a n g e . " A content  Journal  and  a n a l y s i s o f t h e IPA s e c o n d a r y p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e  o f R e a d i n g , was r e p o r t e d  (1977).  i n a recent  An e m p i r i c a l l y b a s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t h e 984 a r t i c l e s  into in  but f e l t  published  study  s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d ,  i n 19 volume y e a r s  13 m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s a n d .41. s u b - c a t e g o r i e s .  categories  substantive emphases.  and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s  within related  articles  A n a l y s i s o f t h e 13 c a t e g o r i e s  and s h i f t s  revealed  that  shifts  One o f t h e s u b - c a t e g o r y  t o a change i n e d i t o r i a l  classified  Over-all  s t a b l e over time, although  the sub-categories.  were  trends  were i n v e s t i g a t e d as t o m a j o r  groupings of published  remained r e l a t i v e l y  by D a r t n e l l  i n topical they d i d occur  shifts  was  policy.  I n t h e J o u r n a l o f - R e a d i n g a r t i c l e s , t h e most e v i d e n t change due t o t h e t h r e e s h i f t s i n e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y a c r o s s t h e t i m e s p a n was t h e i n c r e a s e i n s e c o n d a r y , r e m e d i a l program . d e s c r i p t i o n s . U n t i l Volume 8, t h e j o u r n a l d i d n o t a c c e p t a r t i c l e s on - r e m e d i a l o r corrective reading. T h u s , t o make a judgment on the r e l a t i v e importance o f t h i s sub-category over t i m e , b a s e d on a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e number o f a r t i c l e s i n t h e f i r s t t i m e p e r i o d and t h e t h i r d , w o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g . (pp. 168-169) Current analyzed sent  literature  by A y e r s  the current  articles  i n the f i e l d  (1974) . literature  published  both type  of science  literature research  education,  base..  1970 and  Trends.were  From t h i s  and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g of information.  determined  information the  t o d e t e r m i n e gaps i n t h e s c i e n c e  and d i s s e m i n a t i o n  was  and t h e 2,09 3  i n t h e j o u r n a l s between J a n u a r y  and s c o p e . o f a r t i c l e s .  a u t h o r was a b l e  education  N i n e j o u r n a l s were c h o s e n t o r e p r e -  December 1971 s e r v e d . a s .the d a t a in  of science  education  areas  f o r future  13  Multiple  Authorship  Authorship tive  research  chemistry and  patterns  and  effort  (Price,  represent  in a field.  sociology  that co-authorship  Several recent co-authorship.  to  1.41  journal  Dickinson  and  i n Volumes  per  Rusnell  literature  studies i n (Parker, P a i s l e y  Nelson,  1969)  an  increase i n  (1971), i n , t h e i r  of Adult Education,  article,  f r o m . 1.13  (1976) e x a m i n e d a c o l l e c t i o n and  reported  document:  the  1960's were s i n g l e  in  ( L i n and  of c o l l a b o r a -  content  found  an  i n Volumes  1-5  16-20.  authored late  Earlier  s t u d i e s have a l s o r e p o r t e d  i n mean a u t h o r s  Barnett  extent  i s generally increasing.  a n a l y s i s o f t w e n t y volume y e a r s increase  the  196 3 ) , b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s  G a r r e t t , 1 9 6 7 ) , and  suggested  can  only  t h e e a r l y 1940's.  55  a steady  percent  research  d e c l i n e i n the  single-  of a r t i c l e s , published  authored,  These r e s u l t s  of reading  compared w i t h  75  in  percent  suggested:  . . . a t r e n d i n r e a d i n g t o more c o l l a b o r a t i v e work, and may i n d i c a t e t h a t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f p r o j e c t t y p e a c t i v i t y i n r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h i s b e c o m i n g more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the f i e l d . (pp. 125-126) Single versus  multiple authorship  was  e x a m i n e d by  for  e a c h a r t i c l e , i n one  and  f o u r o r more a u t h o r s .  two  c a t e g o r i e s remained r e l a t i v e l y  year  period.  corresponded  D a r t n e l l (19 7 7 ) .  An with  of  i n . the  Authorship  four categories.:  Journal of d a t a were  tabulated  one,  three,  two,  Percentages of a r t i c l e s  increase i n dual  c o n s i s t e n t over authorship  Reading  was  i n the the  latter  nineteen-  noted,  a change i n e d i t o r s h i p o f t h e j o u r n a l .  which  14  Sex  o f Author The  proportion  minimal i n t e r e s t  o f male and female a u t h o r s appears t o be o f  to researchers.  o f t h e women's movement d u r i n g be  considered  in  content  variable  i n education  professionals.  the l a s t  An.analysis with  A recent  important  i t s l a r g e percentage o f female  r e p o r t by Waters  (1975) s u g g e s t s s i g -  d i f f e r e n c e s i n ..written c o m p o s i t i o n  on v a r i a b l e s  tone, metaphor, and p e r -  C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s by sex c o u l d  interesting  decade; perhaps i t would  by s e x would.seem.an  s u c h as s u b j e c t m a t t e r , word c h o i c e , spective.  seems s u r p r i s i n g i n v i e w  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t o i n c l u d e a u t h o r . s e x as a v a r i a b l e  analysis.  nificantsex  This  i l l u m i n a t e some  differences.in professional writing.  Changes were f o u n d i n p e r c e n t a g e s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e authors..in. S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n highest  percentage  earliest During  (28%)  ( C h a p i n and G r o s s , 1 9 7 0 ) .  o f women a u t h o r s was o b s e r v e d i n t h e  p e r i o d o f t h e j o u r n a l ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1937-38.  t h e .most r e c e n t . p e r i o d ,  1967-68, o n l y  a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by f e m a l e s . the  The  cause o f the s h i f t i n g  14 p e r c e n t  of the  The a u t h o r s s p e c u l a t e d  as t o  percentages.  T h e s e c h a n g e s may r e f l e c t t h e a c t u a l - r a t i o . c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , which p a r a l l e l . a t o t a l i n c r e a s e i n . t h e percentage o f m a l e t e a c h e r s . i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y ' e d u c a t i o n i n the. l a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y . There are probably f e w e r women, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l as compared t o t h e 1937-38 period..' I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c u l a t e w h e t h e r . t h e downward t r e n d w i l l continue, (p. 794) In a f o l l o w - u p the  Journal  two-thirds  to.the  a n a l y s i s . o f t h e 20 volume y e a r s o f  of.Reading, D a r t n e l l o f 984 a r t i c l e s  (1977a) f o u n d  approximately  a u t h o r e d b y m a l e s and o n e - t h i r d by  15  females. from  a  Male  figure  Author  a u t h o r s h i p has of  role  examined  focus  and  the  twenty  years  to two-thirds.  and  journal  articles  educators  (1977)  in their  affiliated employed  from  This  60.7  by  articles  that  to  77.2  Goodstein  Chapin  appeared  of  author(s).  standing  of  the  university who  i n the  collections. and  were  Gross  authored  universities.  based  by  Percentages  four  The  authors  categorized  first  eight  according to  influences  identify  been  the majority of  studies  or  has  studies  percent.  (196 3)  fication  and  colleges  field  journal  (1974),  reported that  in a  i n higher education i n the  Counseling Psychology  journal  Ayers  respective  with  sub-section of  analyzed  writing  research using  (1971),  Dartnell  authors  professionals  analysis  Rusnell  (1970),  ranged  of  i n content  Dickinson  of  three-fourths  over  Occupation  The  of  declined  analysis shaping  centers of  the  further  each  of  351  volumes  of  the J o u r n a l  the was  was  institutional to  provide  development  major  identi-  some of  counseling research  under-  the  and  scholarship. Goodstein's Bohn, 9  Jr.  through  tabulated for  (1966). 12  of  and  later  Institutional Journal of  and  sources  articles  of  extended  Changes  specific  i n production of  articles  1 through  school origins reviewed  by  i n the were  Feeney,  were tabulation  institutions  noted.  of Journal of  Walsh,  by  i n Volumes  Counseling Psychology  8.  were  comparisons  replicated  Goodstein's  Graduate authors  the  was  w e r e made w i t h  Volumes  leading  study  and  Counseling Resnick  Psychology  (1969).  The  16  fourteen-year  p e r i o d f r o m 1954 t o 1967 was a n a l y z e d ,  data d i v i d e d i n t o  two s e v e n - y e a r  between h i g h r a n k i n g institutional  graduate  producers  C o m p a r i s o n s were made  school origins  and h i g h  as i d e n t i f i e d by G o o d s t e i n  Bohn, J r .  (1966),  suggested  t h a t no . o n e , . i n s t i t u t i o n  in  with  periods.  with the  a c o n s i s t e n c y noted.  ranking  (1963) and  The a n a l y s i s  seemed t o d o m i n a t e p u b l i s h i n g  t h e j o u r n a l and t h a t changes i n rank from t h e f i r s t  time  t o second  p e r i o d were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Long a n d Agyekum e x t e n d e d t h e i r  ation to identifying  individual  a n a l y s i s o f author  contributors.to Adult  affili-  Education.  They were s u r p r i s e d .to ..discover . t h a t " t h e p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u tors  . . . [were] n o t g e n e r a l l y . t h e r e p u t a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n  adult education." be  The a u t h o r s  concluded  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e d i t o r  t h a t there appeared t o  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  affili-  ation of contributors. F o r e x a m p l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s from C h i c a g o graduates were h i g h e s t when W h i t e , a . g r a d u a t e o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n , was e d i t o r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p e r c e n t and a g g r e g a t e .number o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d b y W i s c o n s i n g r a d u a t e s were h i g h e s t d u r i n g Boyd's t e n u r e . Boyd i s on t h e f a c u l t y a t W i s c o n s i n . (p. 114)  Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Author . Inherent affiliation of  author  i n identification  i s h i s geographic  productivity  graphic regions Authors  location.  institutional  Meaningful  comparisons  c a n a l s o b e made b y . d e s i g n a t i n g  geo-  a n d t a b u l a t i n g where a r t i c l e s o r i g i n a t e d .  of S o c i a l Education were.tabulated  area w i t h i n f i v e and  o f an a u t h o r ' s  Gross1970).  designated  regions  by  i n the United  geographic States  The g r e a t e s t m a j o r i t y o f a u t h o r s  were  (Chapin from  17  the E a s t ;  however, t h i s  percentage d e c l i n e d over the years,  t h e F a r West r e p r e s e n t a t i o n three  regions  over the  provided  Ayers  States  population  articles  were a l s o . u s e d  literature.  Again,  h a l f . o f the  t h a t t h i s ' c o u l d be  concentration  remaining  o r i g i n s . o f 2,093-journal  resided i n the.eastern  author speculated  The  s t a b l e numbers o f  geographic areas  i n science.education  of authors  increased.  period.  (1974) t o examine t h e  published  The  relatively  t h i r t y - y e a r time  Five United  steadily  the  United  majority  States.  a t t r i b u t e d t o the  i n t h a t . s e c t i o n . of the  J o u r n a l o f Reading r e v e a l e d  a similar  spread  accounting  total  Eastern, authors  articles.  also noted  (22.3%) w i t h  considerably.in. recent  years  total  twenty  articles  C i t a t i o n s per  f o r the  and  percent  of  Lakes  was  in.the Great region  the  geographic  f o r over: 32  the. S o u t h e a s t e r n  high  country..  pattern.of  -A-heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n  by  articles  D a r t n e l l ' s . (1977a) a n a l y s i s o f t w e n t y . v o l u m e s o f  with  and  increasing  a c c o u n t i n g : f o r 14.9  percent  years.  Volume  Citations  t o which  the  author i s w r i t i n g i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y ' or i n t e r a c t i n g with  the  literature  i n . a r t i c l e s , i n d i c a t e the extent  of the  appropriate  field.  I t has  a l s o o f t e n been s t a t e d ,  reservations, that extent  of c i t a t i o n s  can  with  indicate  the relative  "scholarliness" of publications.  I n an  describe  t o t a l world  papers, P r i c e  o  the  (1965) r e p o r t e d published  network o f s c i e n t i f i c  a n . a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 15  references  He•further  discussed  the  incidence  attempt  cited  j o u r n a l . a r t i c l e , . o f w h i c h 12. were to. o t h e r  publications.  of  of  to  i n each  serial references:  18  . . . a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a p e r s c o n t a i n no r e f e r e n c e s a t a l l ; t h i s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s come f r o m t h e 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a p e r s t h a t a r e o f t h e " n o r m a l " r e s e a r c h t y p e and c o n t a i n 25 o r f e w e r r e f e r e n c e s a p i e c e . (p. 145) In t h e i r chology  and  1955,  average of  15.2  Barnett a reading  of e i g h t s o c i a l  sociology, Parker,  r e p o r t e d an in  study  i n 1960  12.61  increase 13  year  provide  number o f  per  again,  Garrett  a r t i c l e , i n 19 50,  in  developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s collection., noted  citations  per  article.  in 1972suggesting  interaction  i n reading  of the  considered:  those  from reviews  i n three  p e r volume was the  the  underscored  increased  steady  to  a.considerable  research-over  this  The  the  to  and  the  number o f  b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , were  a steady  when a l l a r t i c l e s  f r o m 2.44  citations  Reading. increase  were  i n the  first  i n t h e most r e c e n t t i m e p e r i o d .  to include only  those  articles  carrying  i n c r e a s e ; average . c i t a t i o n s per  f r o m 4.75. i n . V o l u m e s 1-7  Uneven c i t a t i o n  in.1959  volumes o f the J o u r n a l o f  observed  average rose  data  and  t i m e p e r i o d s , and  time p e r i o d to.4.25 c i t a t i o n s Adjusting  of  This  i n t e r a c t i o n between a u t h o r s  f o r each o f n i n e t e e n  citations  a  D a r t n e l l (1977)  i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e in.. s e c o n d a r y . r e a d i n g .  D a t a were p r e s e n t e d  9.4  1965.  p e r volume were e x a m i n e d by  excluding  (1967)  study.  a rough index  tabulated  tions  per  j o u r n a l s i n psy-  citations.per - article  article  p e r i o d of- t h e  citations,  in  15.2,  surveying  in literature  Citations  extant  citations  i n c r e a s e d f r o m 6.89 citations  P a i s l e y and  journal literature  increase in.average figure  and  (19 7 6 ) ,  research  8.4  science  t o 6.26  i n Volumes  cita-  article 15-19.  p a t t e r n s were r e p o r t e d f o r S o c i a l . E d u c a t i o n  19  ( C h a p i n and G r o s s , fied  1970).  Bibliographic  into three categories:  letters,  c i t a t i o n s were  b o o k s ; p e r i o d i c a l s ; and  b u l l e t i n s , n e w s p a p e r s , documents, e t c .  consistent Articles  patterns, observed in,the  containing  e x a m i n e d ; a g a i n an uneven p a t t e r n ,  monographs,  T h e r e were  three.categories  no b i b l i o g r a p h i c  classi-  c i t a t i o n s were  by  no  volume.  further  emerged.  In 1937-38, 40% o f t h e a r t i c l e s h a d no b i b l i o g r a p h i c citations. I n 1947-48, 46% o f t h e a r t i c l e s h a d no b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s . w h i l e , i n 1957-58 t h e f i g u r e r o s e t o 7 8%. Then t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t change f r o m 19 57-5 8.to 1967-68; o n l y 48% o f a l l a r t i c l e s i n 1967-68 c o n t a i n e d no b i b l i o g r a p h i c citations. (pw 791)  Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n . C i t e d Type o f p u b l i c a t i o n field as  c i t e d c a n . r e v e a l the degree t o which a  i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e more " c u t t i n g edge" j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e  compared  t o book  and monograph  f:i-eIds' w i t h h e a v i e r r e s e a r c h t h a n book earlier,  Price  (1965).concluded t h a t  In r e a d i n g  research  were  to journal  rather  As  the majority  discussed  of authors of  literature,  to other journal  accounted for.a. r e l a t i v e l y , steady  r e s u l t s were.reported  authors of the Journal  another  revealed  37.4  journals  (Dartnell,;1977),  journal  50 p e r c e n t o f t h e 35 percent..  f o r t h e documents  o f Reading:  (12  articles).  B a r n e t t . (1976) f o u n d t h a t  c i t a t i o n s , w i t h books c o n t r i b u t i n g different  those  journal-articles cite other.serial publications  t h e a v e r a g e 15 r e f e r e n c e s  articles  paradigms lean  Generally,  c i t a t i o n , i n their, journal .literature..  scientific of  sources.  Somewhat  c i t e d by  o v e r - a l l percentages  p e r c e n t o f c i t a t i o n s t o b o o k s and 37.1 p e r c e n t t o r e f l e c t i n g less of a.research  emphasis i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l , j o u r n a l  as c o m p a r e d . t o  other  20  journal  research  sources  in  References cited.by American Of  the  these  authors  i n the  19 65 volume o f  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review were a n a l y z e d  total  serials  reading.  and  two  1,448.bibliographic 890'  by  citations,  (61.46%) were, t o n o n - s e r i a l s .  represented  Broadus concluded  the  field  more t h a n p e r i o d i c a l s as narrowing s l i g h t l y , and  Cotton  and  the m a t e r i a l s  English  Anderson  1966,  and  and. by  1970  (19 73)  author.  The  remained r e l a t i v e l y  study  analyzed  Citation  revealed  during  the  Fenichel  (1969).  revealed, with  journal articles  reports  reports.  citing  M y e r s and four  DeLevie  j o u r n a l s i n the  authors  and  years  recent  in  1954,  years,  identify 1958,  of  by  1962, source  citations  authors  cited  of  information  science  "same-channel" tendency  citing  journal articles  f i v e years  of counseling  p s y c h o l o g i s t s and  five  period.  field A  but  the  Eleven  s e v e n most  was  and  (1960-1964)  psychology to  p u b l i c a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d .  eminent" c o u n s e l i n g  fairly  citations  t h a t sources  (1966) s u r v e y e d  field  are  books  scope i s  Psychology to  time  p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the  were e x a m i n e d by  and  sample  counted, and.tabulated  s t a b l e over the  changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n years,  subject  cited  C i t a t i o n s from the  were r e c o r d e d ,  age  area  language.  volumes o f the J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g changing p a t t e r n s .  subject  t h a t i f the  sources,  to  Citations in  a w h o l e , , s o c i o l o g i s t s use  research  and  h e a v i l y f a v o r the  as  (1967).  (38.54%) were  g r o u p i n g s were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d by  language represented. studied  Broadus  558  (using L i b r a r y of Congress C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) ,  the  of  identify "most  cited  21  publications  Age  ( s i x b o o k s and  one  t e s t manual) were  listed.  of Cited M a t e r i a l Bibliographic  of s c i e n t i f i c t i v e , with  s e r v e as u n o b t r u s i v e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . Much s c i e n t i f i c  each study b u i l d i n g  recent) previous connections  citations,can  studies.  r e s e a r c h i s cumula-  upon o n e . o r more, ( u s u a l l y  Price  of s c i e n t i f i c  measures  papers  (1975) d e s c r i b e d t h e  quite  inter-  as f o l l o w s :  When one a n a l y z e s t h e c i t a t i o n : p a t t e r n s , one s e e s that there is. a very c l o s e - k n i t s t r u c t u r e here. S c i e n t i f i c p a p e r s a r e a s s e m b l e d by a p r o c e s s r a t h e r l i k e k n i t t i n g o r t h e way i n w h i c h p i e c e s o f a j i g saw p u z z l e a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by i n t e r l o c k i n g w i t h t h e i r neighbors. E a c h s c i e n t i f i c - p a p e r seems t o b u i l d onto about a dozen p r e v i o u s p a p e r s . Another way o f l o o k i n g a t . i t i s t o say t h a t , r o u g h l y s p e a k i n g , i t i s l i k e a human f a m i l y , . e x c e p t t h a t i n s t e a d o f i t t a k i n g two p a r e n t s , t o make a c h i l d i t . takes about a dozen a s s o r t e d . p a r e n t s — a n d they move a r o u n d l i k e a v e r y f r e e s o c i e t y , e n j o y i n g s u c h a d e l i c i o u s l y c o m p l i c a t e d s e t u p as a d o z e n f o r a quorum, w i t h e a c h c o m b i n a t i o n p r o d u c i n g a b o u t a c h i l d a year. (pp. 125-126) C i t a t i o n patterns of a pool of vascular Ginski  serial  reached  of the  articles  from c a r d i o -  l i t e r a t u r e were a n a l y z e d by M c M u r t r a y  (1972) t o d e t e r m i n e  citation  300  literature.  a peak t h e t h i r d  a r t i c l e s were c i t e d  t h e l e n g t h .of t i m e .In t h i s  year  study  necessary  journal  after publication.  d u r i n g the  same, y e a r  and for  citation However, some  t h e y were p u b l i s h e d ,  w h i c h m a y . i n d i c a t e : t h a t . a u t h o r s c o n s u l t e d an. i n f o r m a t i o n o t h e r than  a p u b l i s h e d ..journal.  In i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e . l i t e r a t u r e 80  p e r c e n t o f t h e c i t a t i o n s were l e s s  journal less  articles.citing  than  source  two  years o l d .  literature  s t u d i e d by than  Fenichel  (1969)  f i v e years o l d , with  t h a t was,, o n , t h e  average,  22  In a n a l y z i n g r e a d i n g found in 0-4  a steady  age  with,  years  research  d e c l i n e i n the  however, o n l y  i n age. . P r i c e  cent of documents.cited t e n d e d t o be  cited  documents 10  (1965) e s t i m a t e d than  a r c h i v a l without  an o b s e r v a b l e two  (Dartnell,  m e d i a n age  i n a study  1977).  Of  o l d the  years  being 22  per-  front. archival  i n age)  of Journal of  and  Reading  t h e more r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s ,  o f books c i t e d . i n . t h e n i n e t e e n  5.9  older  field  research  v o l u m e s was  J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s were more, r e c e n t ; , t h e m e d i a n age c i t e d was  or  only  categories,  ( c i t e d m a t e r i a l which exceeded t w e n t y - f i v e  articles  (1976)  years  that with  five years  divided into  more r e c e n t , , and. a n a l y z e d  Barnett  21.percent of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s  less  C i t e d m a t e r i a l was  literature,  7.1  of  the years.  articles  years.  C o r e and' S u p p o r t J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e Samuel C l e m e n t B r a d f o r d , talist, found  discovered  an  a British  e m p i r i c a l law  i n many s c i e n t i f i c  librarian  describing a  literatures..  He  found  e x i s t e d between t h e q u a n t i t y o f . j o u r n a l s and articles  of  interest  regularity that a  relation  t h e number o f  Bradford  r e s t a t e d i t i n h i s book  i n an  article  Documentation  (1948).  The  b e e n q u o t e d by  documen-  i n a subject area.  l i s h e d h i s law  has  and  i n 1934  classic  information  (Donohue, 1973.; Saracevic...and  and  statement-of  scientists P e r k , 1973)  first  his  pub-  discovery  i n recent  years  and  follows:  i s as  . . . i f - s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s are arranged i n order of d e c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a r t i c l e s on a g i v e n s u b j e c t , t h e y may.be d i v i d e d i n t o a n u c l e u s . o f p e r i o d i c a l s more p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v o t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t and several.groups o r z o n e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e same number o f a r t i c l e s as t h e  23  n u c l e u s , where t h e number o f p e r i o d i c a l s i n t h e and s u c c e e d i n g zones w i l l be as 1 : N : n : n ( S a r a c e v i c and P e r k , 1973, p. 121) 2  Underlying presented was  by  probabilistic  Price  p r o p o s e d w h i c h was  breeds-success" essential the  (1976).  square  previous  o f most c i t e d  r o o t of the  total  Distribution "success-  j o u r n a l s i s found  by  calculating  number o f j o u r n a l s c i t e d .  1963)  was  j o u r n a l - a n a l y s e s , the  In  t h i s has.been l a b e l l e d  sub-set.of  citations  to j o u r n a l t i t l e s  used to d e f i n e groups of h i g h l y c i t e d  support field  In c o r e  Law  the  characteristic."  The can be  Advantage  a ' s t a t i s t i c a l model -for the  research' (Price,  "Pareto  for the.Bradford  A Cumulative  phenomena.  nucleus  theory  nucleus . . . .  3  journals.  Sengupta  of microbiology  effectively  covered  (1974) r a n k e d  to identify  the  in a  core  literature  and  periodicals  less  cited  i n the  a core o f j o u r n a l s which  significant  literature  i n the  field.  T h r e e . v o l u m e s o f t h e A n n u a l Review o f M i c r o b i o l o g y were u s e d source  journals for citation  table.  An  index  a j o u r n a l was  of the  i n a year.  suggested  that this  as  a priority  scientific  computed and  published  list  counting.and.preparing value  final  ranking  (1976) t o p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i v e  reading  research  (1)  The  author  j o u r n a l s i n the  were i d e n t i f i e d  Barnett  journal  reranked.  of material  o f t e n j o u r n a l s c o u l d be  f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of  Core, j o u r n a l t i t l e s  ranking  of papers p u b l i s h e d i n  c o r r e c t e d f o r the bulk  T i t l e s were t h e n  a  as  field.  i n t h r e e ways  by  data.on a c o l l e c t i o n  literature.  On  t h e b a s i s . o f t h e number.of  articles  in  t h e A n n u a l Summary o f R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h ,  used  published 9 of  of  24  the  10 8 r e f e r e n c i n g j o u r n a l s a c c o u n t e d  approximately  50  percent  of the  for  t o t a l number  of  articles. (2)  The  (3)  The  referencing journals generated  When r a n k . o r d e r e d  on  the  productivity,  the  top  approximately  . 50  12  percent  basis of  7,642.references. reference  journals.contributed o f the  references.  C o r e j o u r n a l s were then: d e s i g n a t e d  cores  on.the  basis  o f number.of c i t a t i o n s  received.. Nineteen  the  were r e s p o n s i b l e  448  journals cited  approximately  50  f o r the  lists  tribution,  three  demonstrating  percent.of  the  followed  of  for  total.citations.  the  expected Pareto  dis-  t h e . p r e d o m i n a n c e o f . a s m a l l number  j o u r n a l s ' a s p r i m a r y nodes i n . t h e r e a d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n network  the  journal  existance  related  o f . a wide a r r a y . o f  to .reading  support  ( r a t i o o f number o f  j o u r n a l , was  c i t e d ) i n one  conducted i n recent from the  Science  a t t e m p t t o map  years.  Citation  the  The each  data  cited  literature  A  frequency  largest citation  impact the  extracted  analyzed  in  an  journal.information transfer. journal, c i t a t i o n  j o u r n a l s , and  s t a t i s t i c s on  frequencies, citing  journals.  demonstrated a s m a l l group of j o u r n a l s predominating  listing. D a r t n e l l ' s . (1977a) r e c e n t  of  studies  t h r e e - m o n t h sample was  Index d a t a b a s e and  network o f  and  a r t i c l e s produced to times  of the  T h r e e l i s t i n g s were p r o d u c e d : statistics.on  and  research..  G a r f i e l d . (1972) r a n k e d j o u r n a l s . b y citations  of  study  reported  that  for  the  in  25  secondary  level  J o u r n a l o f Reading  o v e r t h e 20 y e a r h i s t o r y accounted tions.  tional the  The  212  journals  14 c o r e  journals  f o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  relatively  fields  and  19 8 r e m a i n i n g  between s e c o n d a r y r e p r e s e n t e d by of  of the j o u r n a l .  A l t h o u g h some s h i f t s  remained  authors c i t e d  Reading  o c c u r r e d , - t h e core, j o u r n a l s  stable over time.  areas r e l a t e d journal t i t l e s  A wide a r r a y o f  t o education.were suggesting a r i c h  authors, are c i t i n g . i n  educa-  represented i n interaction  reading:and i t s support l i t e r a t u r e  the j o u r n a l s  cita-  as  their  Journal  articles.  Summary Methodology this  studies, reviewed  c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a sound  a n a l y s i s o f The the  from  studies  Reading  i n previous sections  conceptual, base  Teacher.  The  f o r a content  following  a c c o r d i n g to the three dimensions  of  summary  groups  this  investigation. 1.  Indexing techniques developed in. the f i e l d information classify  s c i e n c e ..can. be  t h e 844  21 t h r o u g h  30 o f . T h e  classification articles 2.  The  articles  Sewell  c o n t a i n e d i n Volumes  Reading  Teacher w i t h i n 840  p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h  20.  topical  trend analysis  (1974), C h a p i n  the  can.be c o n d u c t e d i n  to s i m i l a r  studies  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , D i c k i n s o n and  Long and Agyekum  of  subjectively  scheme d e v e l o p e d . f o r t h e  a.manner c o m p a r a b l e by  used t o  (1974) , Foreman  of  Rusnell  conducted (1971),  (1966) , M u n l e y  and G r o s s . ( 1 9 7 0 ) , . D a r t n e l l ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,  26  and  Ayers  multiple  (1974).  The  four  authorship  authorship,.sex of  author,  variables—  author  occupation,.and geographic l o c a t i o n of were i n v e s t i g a t e d - i n one listed  studies  journal  o r by  literature  secondary..reading  an  author-  o r more o f . t h e  previously  analysis of reading  c o n d u c t e d by  Barnett  research  (1976)  j o u r n a l . l i t e r a t u r e reported  D a r t n e l l . (1977a).  The  conceptual  citation  analysis i s derived  reported  i n the  natural  base.for  from  sciences  and by  the  the.studies as w e l l  as  social  sciences. 2i t  Methodology f o r a n a l y z i n g productivity  of  journals  developed i n the Three s t u d i e s Dartnell, of  field  (by  highly support also  cited  core  journals  interaction intellectual  fields.  of  and  in a field.  elementary  n e i g h b o r s and  disciplines  and  Barnett,  has  been  of  1976;  i n , w h i c h an  analysis  a u t h o r s was  used  c i t a t i o n ) and  extent  area  and  information - science.  c i t e d by  journals  i l l u m i n a t e the  tional  of  1977a) were r e v i e w e d  frequency of  relationships  i n a subject  ( S e n g u p t a , 1974;  journal literature  rank  the  identify  less highly  to  the  cited  The  rankings  the  interdisciplinary  reading  with.its  with the  disciplines  can  immediate  family of in. other  educa-  academic  27  CHAPTER I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The three  content analysis  major  parts.  were c l a s s i f i e d  First  according  o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r c o n s i s t e d o f the a r t i c l e s  t o the categories.developed  (1969) i n t h e 20_ Y e a r A n n o t a t e d Index Then a r t i c l e s  ture  third  t o The R e a d i n g  from t h e e n t i r e t h i r t y - y e a r c o l l e c t i o n  analyzed according The  i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30  section  Teacher. were  t o a number o f d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . identified  t h e c o r e and s u p p o r t j o u r n a l  r e l a t e d t o e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g .based on t h e j o u r n a l  c i t e d by a u t h o r s p u b l i s h i n g  i n The R e a d i n g  P u b l i c a t i o n o f The R e a d i n g E x a m i n a t i o n o f volumes twenty  (Jerrolds, growth  h i s t o r y of the International 1977) p r o v i d e s h i s t o r i c a l  o f The Reading  (1969), a n d t h e r e c e n t l y Reading  information  Association on t h e b i r t h and  Council  f o r the  I n s t r u c t i o n B u l l e t i n was i s s u e d o n organ o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l  f o r t h e Improvement o f R e a d i n g  Volumes 1 and 2 e a c h c o n t a i n e d a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y .  Teacher.  Teacher.  November 15, 1948 as t h e o f f i c i a l Council  titles  Teacher  Volume 1 Number 1 o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Improvement o f R e a d i n g  litera-  o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , t h e p r e v i o u s  y e a r i n d e x d e v e l o p e d by Summers  published  four  Instruction  issues  (ICIRI).  and.were mimeographed  Volume 2 Number 4 was d a t e d June  a f t e r w h i c h Nancy L a r r i c k assumed e d i t o r s h i p o f . t h e The  by Summers  n e x t i s s u e was p u b l i s h e d  1, 1950,  Journal.  i n O c t o b e r , 1950 and was l a b e l e d  28  Volume 4 Number 1, w h i c h in  was  t h e o m i s s i o n o f Volume During  the f i r s t  of  11  i n c h paper;  a d v e r t i s i n g was  the  j o u r n a l was  1956  issue  decade o f p u b l i c a t i o n  Reading  a d o p t e d w i t h Volume 6.  changed to.The  6;  T h e r e was articles  2, and.4; t h e n f i v e  and  t h e name o f  The  and t h e  February  National International  articles  16.  volumes,  issues  each:contained  a corresponding increase  to f i v e ,  and  four then  to  issues,  and  i n . t h e number o f  p e r volume o v e r t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s . o f 250  p e r volume.  o f 84  four  i n Volumes 5  Volume 17 c o n t a i n e d e i g h t  articles  for a total  articles,  Volumes 1  or.an average  averaging.59  appeared  o f 844  total  a r t i c l e s . p e r volume.  i n each-of  articles  through  of 28  D u r i n g t h e second, t e n y e a r s t h e  i n c r e a s e d t o 59 0 a r t i c l e s , average  fluctuated:  c o n t i n u e d t o the p r e s e n t .  contained a t o t a l  An  t h e t e n most r e c e n t  p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes  21  30. Subjective  through  I n 1951  W i t h Volume 1 4 . i s s u e s were i n c r e a s e d  i n Volumes 15  An  inclusion  p e r y e a r has  f o l l o w e d by Volume 7 t h r o u g h 13 w h i c h  through  on  and t h e  (NART) i n t o t h e  number of. i s s u e s p r i n t e d  t h a t p a t t e r n has  .10  Teaching  5 were p r o d u c e d  Teacher.  announced - t h e merger o f ICIRI  i n Volumes 1,  issues. six  Reading  under-  Association.  The issues  the j o u r n a l  Volumes 1 t h r o u g h  t h e s m a l l e r page s i z e  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Remedial  resulted  3.  went a number o f c h a n g e s . 8h by  a p p a r e n t l y an e r r o r w h i c h  Classification  of  annotated index of the a r t i c l e s 20 o f The  Reading  T e a c h e r was  Articles  c o n t a i n e d i n Volumes  p u b l i s h e d i n 1969,  1  which  29  classified  the a r t i c l e s  categories. the  844  first  18 m a j o r  categories  objective of this  a r t i c l e s which  categories 1969).  The  into  and  s t u d y was  a p p e a r e d i n Volumes 21-30  to  categories  c a t i o n .scheme were . as I.  the  (Summers,  and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e  classifi-  follows.  R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and  II.  sub-  classify  within  d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e 20 Y e a r A n n o t a t e d Index  The m a j o r  31  Reviews  Reading/Instruction General Pre-school, Early  Reading,  Readiness  Primary General Basal  Reading  Individualized  Reading  Linguistics  and  Reading  Comparisons  of I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Programs  Intermediate J u n i o r and  1  III.  Senior High School  College  and  Reading  i n Other  Development  Adult Countries  o f Reading  Skills  Word R e c o g n i t i o n , P h o n i c s , and V o c a b u l a r y Comprehension,  Interpretation, and.Creative  Reading Critical  ReadingConcept  Thinking Study.Skills  Development,  and  30  R a t e and  Flexibility  Reading T a s t e s , IV.  Habits,  and  Interests  Instructional Materials Readability  and  Children's  Legibility  Literature  Workbooks A-V  Materials  Programmed  Instruction  T.V. a n d R e a d i n g V.  Reading  Personnel  Pre-Service  and I n - S e r v i c e  Necessary  Skills  Certification  Training  and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  Requirements  Reading S u p e r v i s o r s ,  Specialists,  Consultants Reading T a s t e s and VI.  Habits  G r o u p i n g and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Plans  VII.  Testing  and  VIII.  Reading  and t h e C o n t e n t . F i e l d s  IX.  Reading  I n s t r u c t i o n : and t h e G i f t e d  X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI.  Evaluation  The-Culturally Guidance  Different  and Reading  The L i b r a r y and R e a d i n g Parental  H e l p and  Influences  -Sociology, o f Reading Auditory Visual  Discrimination Discrimination  and  31  XVII.  Personality  XVIII.  Reading  Problems  Factors  Related  Diagnosis  o f Reading  Problems  Treatment  o f Reading  Problems  Reading A card typed  Excluded  from  regular if  containing  f o r each  article's card.  category tain  against  When".' new  included  t o a major  reflect  added  to the  subjective t o main-  were e m p i r i c a l l y  the articles  major.category  scheme was  were  classified  assigned, - a r t i c l e s were  renumbered  system.  and  of the  reviewed and  i n t h e n e W . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i f i t was more  classification  and  read,  classified  were  was  30.  e x i s t i n g .sub-categories  sub-categories  i n that  then  indication  Additional sub-categories  Numerals' t o an open-ended A r a b i c shortened  were  those, a l r e a d y  a n d some  reviews,  e x t r a c t was  assigned  t o more, a c c u r a t e l y  placed The  was. t h e n  when, n e c e s s a r y  previously also  an a c c u r a t e  21 t h r o u g h  book  The a r t i c l e s  a .brief.annotated  article  within.them.  bibliographic citation  editorials,  d i d not provide  consistency.  modified  were  features.  and checked  developed  t h e complete  t h e study  content,  Each  Clinics  a r t i c l e . c o n t a i n e d . i n Volumes  department  the t i t l e  to Reading.Disability  from  Category  appropriate.  Roman titles  were  whenever, p o s s i b l e .  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  J Detailed trends  over  Teacher..  content, analyses.were, performed  the three  Selected  decades  information  to delineate  o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f The was  coded  from  each  Reading  o f t h e 1,684  32  articles  (see c o d i n g  and  verified  for  the  f o r computer  Social  variables  system  Sciences  were  investigated,  a u t h o r s h i p , sex  location  of  and  examined  by  author, age  of  1 through  through  30—to  Topical To the  were  and  calculated  this was  Data  demographic trend  type  of  f o r each  through trends  analysis,  occupation,  into  and  geographic  publication variable  t h r e e time  20,  Package  and  periods-  Volumes  emphases  were  in  21 the  distribution  C r o s s t a b s was into  of  articles  used  their  three  subject  to generate  assigned major  S u b - c a t e g o r i e s were  across the  by  time  then  matter  tables categories  collapsed  p e r i o d s and  within  percentages  purposes.  Authorship  article one.  upward  have The  recorded  present  Statistical  topical  volume,  keypunched  journal.  f o r comparison  Consistent per  the  a l l articles  headings  Multiple  11  then  Eight  author  collapsed  changing  the  sub-categories.  major  then  and  Analysis  Subprogram  classifying and  of  per  material.  identify  determine  SPSS  and  program.  author,  citations  A)  using the  including  10,.Volumes  record  Trend  of  cited  volume  Volumes  historical  analysis  (SPSS)  multiple  cited,  i n Appendix  number  and  i n The  been  trends noted of  in a  authors  tabulated  Reading  i n the  to  average  number  associated  ascertain  Teacher.  of  number  studies with  whether  of  authors  similar  each this  to  article trend  was  33  Sex  of  Author  Male versus was  of i n t e r e s t ;  some i n s t a n c e s and  female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of authors  i t was  Author  a t a b u l a t i o n was  authors  necessary  journal  made o f t h i s v a r i a b l e .  chose t o use  to include a  only  "no  their  sex"  first  In  initials,  category.  Occupation  Five  c a t e g o r i e s were u s e d t o d e s c r i b e  author  school based, d i s t r i c t / c o u n t y / s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l , sity,  i n the  other,  and  note about the t h i s was  not  unknown.  author(s)  Most a r t i c l e s which p r o v i d e d  a v a i l a b l e the  occupation:  college/univer-  included.a descriptive this  author occupation  information. was  coded  If,  as  "unknown." Geographic Location of The  fourth authorship  l o c a t i o n of duction.. United  Author  author t o determine the  The  States  four.regions  authors  d i s p e r s i o n of a r t i c l e  the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading  into.the thirteen categories.  l o c a t e d i n each of the  tabulated. (1)  F a r West  (2)  Rocky M o u n t a i n s  (3)  Southwest  (4)  East  (5)  Plains  (6)  Great  (United  States) (United  (United  (United  Lakes  States)  States)  States)  (United  geographic  o f Canada.and s e v e n r e g i o n s  d e l i n e a t e d by  a t i o n were i n c o r p o r a t e d number o f  v a r i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t e d was  States)  (United  States)  areas  of  prothe  AssociThe  which f o l l o w  was  (7)  Southeast  (United  (8)  Transmountain  (9)  Rupertsland  (10)  Laurentian  (11)  Atlantic  (12)  Outside  (13)  Unknown  Again, tions  this  (Canada) (Canada)  (Canada)  (Canada) North  America  i n f o r m a t i o n was  concerning  States)  the  d e r i v e d from  authors  which  the  usually  descriptive  accompanied  nota-  each  article.  Citations The article rather  Volume  total was  than  Articles gory  per  number  tabulated.  excluded  inflate  the  Type  Publication  of Six  analysis of  the  other  earlier  from  these  of  the  the  used  end  and  analyses  each  footnotes  i n c l u d e d as  Analyses  of  citations.  Reviews  so  as  not  cateto  percentages.  Cited  book,  unpublished  volume,  were  a l l citation  Journal of  The  at  volumes  Research  categories developed  source.  article,  The  i n the  average  citations:  journal,  references listed  reference l i s t s ;  classified  were  of  and  Dartnell  Reading  conference  source,  type  by  of  across  were  used  to  proceeding  instructional  publication the  (1977)  three  content  classify or  was  each  yearbook,  material or  cited time  in a  test,  tabulated  periods.  by  o  35  Age  of Cited Material A g a i n , the  analyze two  the  age  groups:  or  The  years  of  citation,  or  m e d i a n age  C i t a t i o n s , were d i v i d e d  tabulated  tabulated  for.both  Journal  recent.and  titles  were t a b u l a t e d  within and  twenty-five  to  literature  i t was  identify  authors  the  core  i n Volumes 21 and  support  support  In t h i s  expected that a small  through  journals  for  analysis of  group of  citations  30 the  the  journals  would  and. t h a t a w i d e  journals: r e l a t e d to  elementary  emerge.  Each j o u r n a l t i t l e i d e n t i f i e d by  cited.was. typed  volume f o r e a c h o f  through  30.  title.  A Fortran  The  l i s t i n g : was  cited  and  i n t o . a computer f i l e  articles  i n Volumes  rank the  to obtain  of  21  a  frequency  j o u r n a l . t i t l e s . f r o m most  t e n volumes.  For  v o l u m e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two  ascending order  and  t h e n s o r t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by  f o r each of the ten  the  program.was w r i t t e n  count f o r each t i t l e  purposes, the  was  archival materials.  account f o r a l a r g e percentage of.the  would  Range i n y e a r s  Support J o u r n a l - L i t e r a t u r e  c i t e d by  of d i s c i p l i n a r y  calculated  frequency of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s  decade of:The Reading.Teacher.  r a n k e d by  into  "more.recent" m a t e r i a l s ;  f o r each type of p u b l i c a t i o n .  C o r e and  to l e a s t  been p u b l i s h e d  o f t h e more r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s .was  was  reading  to  "archival" materials.  e a c h t y p e o f . p u b l i c a t i o n , and  array  (1977) was. u s e d  whose p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e e x c e e d e d  for  third  Dartnell  c i t e d m a t e r i a l w h i c h .had  cited materials  years,  by  of c i t e d m a t e r i a l .  (1)  twenty-five (2)  system d e v i s e d  f r e q u e n c y , and  cited  comparison five-year  cumulative  blocks,  36  percentages collapsed period.  i n t o one l i s t i n g The UBC PLOT  graphically listings journal  were . c a l c u l a t e d .  The e n t i r e  d a t a b a s e was  representing the t o t a l  then  ten-year  ( S u b r o u t i n e ALGRAF) p r o g r a m was. u s e d t o  represent the Pareto  and i l l u s t r a t e  characteristics  the demarcation  of the three  o f t h e c o r e and s u p p o r t  literature. . Summary  The  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d  (1) A r t i c l e s  t o The R e a d i n g  Teacher  b y s u b j e c t t o u p d a t e t h e 20_ Y e a r A n n o t a t e d Teacher.  (2) D a t a w e r e . g e n e r a t e d  demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s volume c o l l e c t i o n . , volumes, spanning support  i n three steps.  p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21-30 o f The R e a d i n g  were c l a s s i f i e d  and  t o be c o m p l e t e d  selected  i n a content analysis o f the t h i r t y  (3) J o u r n a l t i t l e s . c i t e d  i n the l a s t ten  1967-1977, were a n a l y z e d t o d e f i n e t h e c o r e  journal-literature.for  s e n t e d by a u t h o r s  on  Index  publishing  e l e m e n t a r y : r e a d i n g as r e p r e -  articles  i n The R e a d i n g  Teacher.  37  CHAPTER  R E S U L T S OF  The  organization  divisions  of the study:  articles  contained  Teacher,  (2) c o n t e n t  journal,  and  Volumes  of this  analysis  classification  main  of  21 t h r o u g h  30 o f T h e  Reading  o f Volumes  1 through  30 o f t h e  o f core  Classification  sub-categories  were  f o r t h e 20_ Y e a r  Empirical  examination  through  the three  and s u p p o r t  journals f o r  30.  developed  21  STUDY  chapter parallels  (3) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Subjective Five  THE  .(1) s u b j e c t i v e  i n Volumes  21 t h r o u g h  IV  added  Annotated  of  to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  30 n e c e s s i t a t e d  Articles  the addition  t o The R e a d i n g of articles  of the  scheme Teacher.  i n Volumes  following  sub-headings: 2.35  Language  4.7  Student/Teacher  4.8  Content  5.4  Professional  5.5 Content major  and  was  Prepared  Materials  Analysis Development  Paraprofessionals descriptors  headings  cation  Experience/i.t.a.  system as  were m o d i f i e d  and sub-headings. contained  18 m a j o r  f o r eight  of the  The f i n a l  subjective  categories  follows.  01  Research  02  Reading  Analyses  and  Instruction  Reviews  a n d 38  existing classifi-  sub-categories  38  03  0 2.1  General  02.2  Pre-school/Early  0 2.3  Primary  Reading/Readiness  02.31  general  02.32  basal  02.33  individualized  02.34  linguistics/psycholinguistics •  02.35  language  02i36  comparisons  reading reading  experience/i.t.a. of.instructional  02.4  Intermediate  02.5  J u n i o r / S e n i o r High School  02.6  College/Adult  02.7  Reading i n Other  Development o f Reading  programs  Countries  Skills  0 3.1  Word R e c o g n i t i o n / P h o n i c s / V o c a b u l a r y  0 3.2  Comprehension/Interpretation/Creative  Reading/  Listening 0 3.3  Critical.Reading/Concept  Development/Thinking/  Questioning  04  03.4  Study  03.5  Flexibility  0 3.6  Reading  Instructional 04.1  Skills  Tastes/Habits/Interests/Attitudes  Materials  Readability/Legibility  04.2  Children's  04.3  Workbooks  0 4.4  A.V.  Literature  Materials/Games  39  05  0 4.5  Programmed  04.6  T.V.  04.7  Student/Teacher Prepared. M a t e r i a l s  04.8  Content. A n a l y s i s  Reading 05.1  Instruction  and.Reading  Personnel Pre-Service/In-Service 05.11  necessary  05.12  certification  Training  skills/qualifications requirements  05.2  Reading  Supervisors/Specialists/Consultants  05.3  Reading  Tastes/Habits  05.4  P r o f e s s i o n a l . Development  05.5  Paraprofessionals  06  Grouping/Organizational  Plans  07  .Testing/Evaluation/Accountability  08  Reading and.the Content F i e l d s  09  Reading  10  The  11  G u i d a n c e and  12  The  13.  Parental.Help  14  Sociology, of  15  Auditory  16  Visual  17  Personality  18  Reading  I n s t r u c t i o n and.the G i f t e d  Culturally  Different  Reading  L i b r a r y and. R e a d i n g and,Influences Reading  Discrimination Discrimination  Problems  18.1  Factors  Related  18.2  Diagnosis  of  t o Reading  Disability  Reading. P r o b l e m s  40 18.3  Treatment  18.4  Reading  of  Reading  Clinics  Demographic Results  are  characteristics in  the  and  tion  analyses,  tion  cited,  Topical  of  location  citations  the  18  areas  major  volumes  Table  across  are  dominant  throughout percent  in that  to  Reading the  of  of  Teacher authorship  author,  author;  and  per  volume,  type  author  three  cita-  of publica-  category.  and  D e v e l o p m e n t .was  three  time  number o f  periods, changes  categories  38  X V I I . i n the  of  the  consistently  of  and  e x h i b i t e d growth  the  Appendix.)  been  journal, 1  articles  ranked  emphases across  of  most  an  average  through  30  classi-  concerned i n each  17.5  are  each  the  with  second  f o r a n . o v e r a l l average  in. interests  across  HERE  i n Volumes  group  articles  (Tabulations  sub-categories  I ABOUT  of  periods..  I n s t r u c t i o n have  history  The  a breakdown  three, time  a l l articles  Skill  Three  four  of  included i n Table  relating  fied  Reading  analysis;  I presents  the  categories  Articles  28.1  The  demographic  cited material..  INSERT TABLE  of  trend  of  m u l t i p l e , a u t h o r s h i p , . sex  categories.  subject  thirty  analysis, of  Trend. A n a l y s i s  Main  for  topical  including age  the  1 through.30  geographic  and  Characteristics  from  i n Volumes  including  occupation,  into  presented  following areas:  variables,  Problems  of  with of  percent.  the A  also indicated. the  three  time  41  TABLE I " A r t i c l e s ' by, M a j o r C a t e g o r i e s A c r o s s , T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 11--20  Volumes 1-10 Major  Category  Research Analyses and Reviews Reading I n s t r u c t i o n S k i l l Development Instructional Materials Reading Personnel Classroom Organization Testing/Evaluation Reading and t h e Content F i e l d s Reading I n s t r u c t i o n and the G i f t e d The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t  %  n  n  %  Volumes 21 -30 % n•  Total n  %  3 72 47 14 7  1.2 28.8 18.8 5.6 2.8  20 181 97 52 58  3.4 30.8 16.4 8.8 9.8  7 220 150 84 83  .8 26.1 17.8 10.0 9.8  30 473 294 150 148  1.8 28.1 17.5 8.9 8.8  17 11  6.8 4.4  12 19  2.0 3.2  16 73  1.9 8.6  45 103  2.7 6.1  22  8.8  16  2.7  12  1.4  50  3.0  9 0  3.6 0  8 19  1.4 3.2  2 46  .2 5.5  19 65  1.1 3.9  Guidance and R e a d i n g The L i b r a r y a n d R e a d i n g P a r e n t a l H e l p and Influence Sociology o f Reading Auditory Discrimination  1 5  .4 2.0  2 14  .3 2.4  6 5  .7 .6  9 24  .5 1.4  14 0 0  5.6 0 0  7 5 7  1.2 .8 1.2  22 3 5  2.6 .4 .6  43 8 12  2.6 .4 .7  Visual Discrimination Personality Reading Problems  2 4 22  .8 1.6 8.8  11 4 58  1.9 .7 9.8  8 17 85  .9 2.0 10.1  21 25 165  1.2 1.5 9.8  Total  250  590  844  1684  42  periods:  I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , The C u l t u r a l l y  Reading Problems.  S l i g h t d e c l i n e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y e v i d e n t i n  Classroom Organization, Instruction  Sub-categories.  I I contains  Reading.Instruction. with  Articles  hadoccurred  c l a s s i f i e d within...the  i n Primary  examined, t o d e t e r m i n e  within these.subject  Although  areas.  t h e number.of a r t i c l e s  increased over  the percentage of the t o t a l  categories  five  a breakdown o f a r t i c l e s , c l a s s i f i e d  Pre-school/Readiness  periods,  Reading  a n d The. L i b r a r y . and R e a d i n g .  categories were.further  whether s h i f t s Table  Reading and t h e Content F i e l d s ,  and t h e G i f t e d ,  largest-main  D i f f e r e n t , and  show e v i d e n c e  within  concerned  each o f t h e t h r e e  declined.  time  Two o f t h e s u b -  o f i n c r e a s e d concern  over  INSERT TABLE I I ABOUT HERE  the y e a r s : ence/!.t.a.  Linguistics/Psycholinguistics The s i n g l e  percentage o f a r t i c l e s in  largest  category  and Language E x p e r i both  in.number and  w a s . C o m p a r i s o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs  t h e s e c o n d t i m e p e r i o d , Volumes 11 t h r o u g h 20.  T h i s c a n be  e x p l a i n e d by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d fo.l-low-up. o f t h e F i r s t ;  S t u d i e s which took p l a c e d u r i n g A decline i n three High School, corresponds  that period.  categories-—Intermediate,  and C o l l e g e / A d u l t — i s . a p p a r e n t . with  the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a second  J o u r n a l o f ..Reading,, w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e s ing  above t h e e l e m e n t a r y Article  Grade  Junior/Senior  This decline IRA j o u r n a l , t h e  on t h e t e a c h i n g  of read-  level.  emphasis, i n Development, of. R e a d i n g  S k i l l s has  43  TABLE I I A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d W i t h i n Reading I n s t r u c t i o n A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 1-10  Volumes 21-30  Total  Sub-Category  n  General  24  33.3  20  11.0  66  30.1  109  23.1  Pre-school/Readiness  12  16.8  24  13.2  33  15.0  69  14.6  General  3  4.2  8  4.4  24  11.0  36  7.6  Basal Reading  3  4.2  2  1.1  3  1.4  8  1.7  1  1.4  15  8.3  13  5.9  29  6.2  Linguistics/ Psycholinguistics  1  1.4  3.9  19  8.7  27  5.7  Language E x p e r i e n c e / i.t.a.  1  1.4  3  1.7  23  10.5  27  5.7  Comparisons o f Instructional Programs  1  1.4  32  17.7  12  5.5  45  9.5  3  4.2  11  6.1  4  1.8  18  3.8  High School  14  19.4  17  9.4  1  .5  32  6.8  College/Adult  6  8.3  17  9.4  1  .5  24  5.1  Reading i n Other Countries  3  4.2  25  13.8  20  9.1  48  10.2  n  Primary  Individualized  Intermediate  Reading  Junior/Senior  Total  72  181  219  472  44  remained r e l a t i v e l y has  stable.  Word  Recognition/Phonics/Vocabulary  c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e the g r e a t e s t emphasis.  Interest i n  INSERT TABLE I I I ABOUT HERE  two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r s  t o have d e c l i n e d :  Study  S k i l l s and  Flexibility. Table Materials articles  IV p r e s e n t s  articles  classified within  a c r o s s the t h r e e time (30%) r e l a t e  periods.  Instructional  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e  to Children's Literature.  The  original  INSERT TABLE IV ABOUT HERE  high percentage has  steadily  (28.6%) o f a r t i c l e s  declined, with only  Volumes 21 t h r o u g h of  articles  directed  Student/Teacher categories of  30 c l a s s i f i e d  Prepared  added i n t h i s  i n the t h i r d  Over h a l f Personnel  2.4 p e r c e n t o f a r t i c l e s i n i n that category.  The  number  t o w a r d Workbooks has d e c l i n e d t o n i l . M a t e r i a l s and C o n t e n t study,  38.1 p e r c e n t o f a r t i c l e s  Materials  f o c u s e d on T.V. and R e a d i n g  time  of the t o t a l  accounted  A n a l y s i s , t h e two  f o r a combined  classified within  total  Instructional  period. articles  d e a l t with Necessary  dealing with  Skills/Effective  INSERT TABLE V ABOUT HERE  Reading  Teaching.  Two  45  TABLE I I I A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d W i t h i n Development o f Reading A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 1-10 Sub-Category  n  Volumes 11-20 &  n  Skills  Volumes 21-30 %  Total  n  Word R e c o g n i t i o n / P h o n i c s / Vocabulary 22  46.8  32  33.0  61  40.7  115  39.1  Comprehension/ Interpretation/ Creative Reading/ Listening  7  14.9  21  21.6  31  20.7  59  20.1  C r i t i c a l Reading/ Concept Development/ Thinking/Questioning  2  4.3  19  19.6  20  13.3  41  14.0  Study S k i l l s  0  0  5  5.2  3  2.0  8  2.7  Flexibility  2  4.3  7  7.2  2  1.3  11  3.7  14  29.7  13  13.4  33  22.0  60  20.4  Reading Tastes/Habits/ Interests/Attitudes Total  47  97  150  294  46  TABLE IV A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d Within I n s t r u c t i o n a l A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 1-10 Sub-Category  Materials  n  n  Total  n  Readability/Legibility  0  0  7  13.4  13  15.5  20  13.3  Children's  6  42.9  17  32.7  22  26.2  45  30.0  Workbooks  1  7.1  3  5.8  0  0  4  2.7  AV Materials/Games  3  21.4  9  17.3  10  11.9  22  14.7  Programmed  0  0  4  7.7  5  5.9  9  6.0  4  28.6  8  15.4  2  2.4  14  9.3  0  0  0  0  11  13.1  11.  7.3  0  0  4  7.7  21  25.0  25  16.7  Literature  Instruction  TV and Reading Student/Teacher Prepared M a t e r i a l s Content A n a l y s i s Total  14  52  84  150  47  TABLE V Articles  C l a s s i f i e d Within Reading Personnel A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Sub-Category  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 1-10 n  Total  n  n  Pre-Service/In-Service Necessary  Skills/  E f f e c t i v e Teaching  6  85.7  27  46.6  46  55.4  79  53.4  0  0  5  8.6  3  3.6  8  5.4  1  14.3  20  34.5  11  13.3  32  21.6  Reading Tastes/Habits  0  0  4  6.9  3  3.6  7  4.7  P r o f e s s i o n a l Development  0  0  2  3.4  13  15.7  15  10.2  Paraprofessionals  0  0  0  0  7  8.4  7  4.7  Certification Requirements Reading Supervisors/ Specialists/Consultants  Total  7  58  83  148  48  recent ing in  trends  a p p e a r i n Volumes 21  P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t and The  Reading  In the  largest  30:  articles  concern-  P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s were p u b l i s h e d  Teacher.  a r e a of Reading Problems, a r t i c l e  remained r e l a t i v e l y the  through  stable.  category,  The  emphasis  number o f a r t i c l e s  has  focussed  Treatment o f Reading Problems,  on  increased  INSERT TABLE VI ABOUT HERE  over  the  t h r e e time  decreased  slightly.  sistently  ranked  periods  although  Factors related  the percentage to reading  of  articles  disability  second i n emphasis a c r o s s the t h r e e  con-  time  periods. Multiple As  Authorship evidenced  i n Table V I I , the overwhelming m a j o r i t y  (82.6%) o f a r t i c l e s The  percentage  i n The  of single  Reading Teacher are  authored  articles  has  single  authored.  d e c l i n e d over  the  INSERT TABLE V I I ABOUT HERE  t h r e e time  p e r i o d s , however, f r o m 96.0  percent  through  t o 77.1  ten volumes.  10  percent  i n the  last  toward m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p  i s evident, with  category  percent  r e p r e s e n t i n g 18.9  Volumes 21  through  Volume i n T a b l e  30.  XVIII  (Multiple i n the  of the  two  articles  authorship  Appendix.)  the  i n Volumes A  1  trend  author published i n  i s tabulated  by  49  TABLE V I Articles  C l a s s i f i e d . Within Reading A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 1-10 Sub-Category  Problems  n  n  Total n  n  Factors Related to Reading D i s a b i l i t y  5  22.7  16  27.6  29  34.1  50  30.3  Diagnosis o f Reading Problems  3  13.6  6  10.3  12  14.1  21  12.7  Treatment o f Reading Problems  14  63.7  28  48.3  34  40.0  76  46.1  Clinics  0  0  8  13.8  10  11.8  18  10.9  Total  22  Reading  58  85  165  50  TABLE V I I M u l t i p l e Authorship Across  Authors  %  n  n  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 1-10 Number o f  T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Total n  n  1  241  96.0  500  84.7  650  77.1  1391  82.6  2  8  3.2  72  12.2  159  18.9  239  14.1  3  1  .4  13  2.2  24  2.8  38  2.3  4 o r more  1  .4  5  .9  10  1.2  16  1.0  Total  251  590  843  1684  51  Sex  of Author F e m a l e s p u b l i s h e d more  in  frequently  i n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h  t h e o t h e r two.time p e r i o d s male a u t h o r e d a r t i c l e s  predominant.  The t o t a l  figures  were more  i n Table VIII indicate  a u t h o r s h i p i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n men women o v e r t h e t h i r t y  volume y e a r s , b u t t h e t r e n d  10;  that and  i s toward  a  INSERT TABLE V I I I ABOUT HERE  g r e a t e r number  o f male-authored  articles.  sex o f a u t h o r by volume i s i n c l u d e d  (Complete  data f o r  i n T a b l e XIX i n t h e  Appendix.) Author  Occupation  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f a u t h o r o c c u p a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y collegessand  universities;  ranked  second  a f f i l i a t e d with  63 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  employed a t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . i n Volumes 1 . t h r o u g h  t h e most  School-based  a u t h o r s were a u t h o r s were  10, b u t d r o p p e d  to third i n  INSERT TABLE IX ABOUT. HERE  the  n e x t two t i m e p e r i o d s .  tions  Authors h o l d i n g  a t the d i s t r i c t , county,  peaked d u r i n g t h e second.time this  category ranked  second  state, period  or.provincial  i n the t o t a l  figures.  posi-  levels  and t h e n d e c l i n e d  d a t a f o r a u t h o r o c c u p a t i o n by v o l u m e s a p p e a r s Appendix.)  administrative  slightly;  (Complete  i n Table XX.in the  52  TABLE V I I I Sex o f A u t h o r A c r o s s Three  Volumes 1-10 Sex o f A u t h o r  Male Female No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Total  n  Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 11-20 %  n  Volumes 21-30 %  Total  n  92  34.7  390  55.1  601  55.6  1083  52.7  172  64.9  314  44.4  477  44.1  963  46.9  1  ,.4  4  .5  3  .3  8  .4  265  708  1081  2054  53  TABLE I X A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 1-10 Author  Occupation  n  School  Based  51  19.2  63  8.9  140  52.8  438  D i s t r i c t , County, State, Provincial  40  15.1  Other  26 8  College or University  Unknown Total  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Total  n  265  11.6  239  11.6  61.9  715 ' 6 6 . 1  1293  63.0  150  21.2  141  13.0  331  16.1  9.8  47  6.6  80  7.4  153  7.4  3.1  10  1.4  20  1.9  38  1.9  708  125  1081  2054  54  Geographic L o c a t i o n of Author . The  Reading  Philadelphia,  Teacher o r i g i n a t e d  P e n n s y l v a n i a , and  a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y i n  a u t h o r s from the E a s t e r n U n i t e d  S t a t e s have p r o d u c e d t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e since  i t s inception.  (41.3%) o f  (Examination.of Geographic L o c a t i o n  A u t h o r by Volume d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e XXI shows t h a t  i n o n l y one' o f t h e t h i r t y  authors l o c a t e d United  of the  of  Appendix  v o l u m e s were, t h e r e more  i n a geographic area other than the E a s t e r n  States region:  ranked, the E a s t . ) sistently  articles  i n Volume 27 t h e Great..Lakes r e g i o n  C o n t r i b u t o r s , f r o m t h e G r e a t L a k e s have  r a n k e d s e c o n d , , and  a c c o u n t f o r 19.3  outcon-  percent of the  INSERT TABLE X ABOUT HERE  total  articles.  F o u r o t h e r U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g i o n s have shown  i n c r e a s e s over each o f the t h r e e time p e r i o d s , F a r West,. Rocky M o u n t a i n s , representation  Southwest,.and  i s negligible;  a u t h o r s were l o c a t e d  only  1.5  including  Southeast.  the  Canadian  percent of the  total  i n Canada.  C i t a t i o n s p e r Volume The across  number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s  the t h i r t y  articles  cited  volume p e r i o d .  containing  i n Volumes, 1 1 . t h r o u g h  i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h . 3 0 ing only  20;  this  72.2  comprised  35.9  containing  o r more, c i t a t i o n s . citations  and  the  percent  percentage increased  percent of a r t i c l e s  i n c l u d e d one  at those a r t i c l e s  increase  I n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 10  one. o r more c i t a t i o n  of the t o t a l . a r t i c l e . p o p u l a t i o n ; 4 8.8  showed a s t e a d y  to  published Look-  computing  55  TABLE X G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n o f A u t h o r A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes 1-10  Volumes 11-20  Volumes 21-30  Geographic Location of Author  n  F a r West  21  7.9  61  8.6  103  9.5  185  9.0  2  .8  8  1.1  27  2.5  37  1.8  4  1.6  20  2.8  76  7.0  100  4.9  11  4.2  44  6.2  58  5.4  113  5.5  63  23.8  130  18.4  203  18.8  396  19.3  12  4.5  46  6.5  150  13.9  208  10.1  136  51.3  349  49.3  363  33.6  848  41.3  0  0  4  .6  10  .9  14  .7  3  1.1  1  .1  8  .7  12  .6  0  0  0  0  2  .2  2  .1  0  0  1  .1  1  .1  2  .1  0  0  18  2.5  43  4.0  61  3.0  13  4.8  26  3.8  37  3.4  76  3.6  (United States)  Rocky Mountain Southwest Plains  (U.S.)  (U.S.)  Great Lakes Southeast East  (U.S.)  (U.S.)  (U.S.)  (U.S.)  Transmountain Rupertsland Laurentian Atlantic  (Canada)  (Canada) (Canada)  (Canada)  Outside North America Unknown Total  %  265  n  %  708  n  Total %  1081  n  2054  56 the average  number o f c i t a t i o n s  per a r t i c l e  change o v e r t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s : 8.9  c i t a t i o n s ' i n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h  period,  and  9.1  of c i t a t i o n s  revealed  t h e r e were an 10,  little  average  9.7' i n . t h e s e c o n d  i n t h e most r e c e n t t e n v o l u m e s .  (A  of  time  tabulation  p e r volume i s i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e XXII i n the  Appendix.) Type o f  Publication-Cited  Articles Reading  a c r o s s the t h i r t y  Teacher  c i t a t i o n was  generated  volume p u b l i c a t i o n  a total  c a t e g o r i z e d , and  of  this  span o f  8,973 c i t a t i o n s .  t a b u l a t i o n was  t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s i n ..Table X I .  Citations  The  Each  collapsed  classified  into  i n the  INSERT TABLE XI ABOUT HERE  "other"  c a t e g o r y were t o i t e m s  speeches,  such  as n e w s p a p e r s and  magazines,  p e r s o n a l communication, computer programs, f i l m s ,  and  bulletins. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c i t a t i o n s t o books o r journals'. centage  cited. tion,  and  tions)  ranked  type o f p u b l i c a t i o n Appendix.)  i n the o v e r f a l l  per-  time  a larger  propor-  than, b o o k s , a t 32.4  t o u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s . ( t h e s e s and  third  referred  i n t h e number o f j o u r n a l s  however, r e v e a l  percent, of journals c i t e d  Citations  the  across the three  a corresponding decrease  cent.  in  observed  O v e r - a l l percentages, 37.5  of the t o t a l )  A. s t e a d y i n c r e a s e . i n . t h e number and  o f b o o k s c i t e d was  periods,  (69.9%  totals..  per-  disserta-  (A•tabulation of  c i t e d by v o l u m e i s i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e  XXII  57  TABLE X I T y p e o f P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Volumes "1-10 Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  Volumes 21-30  Volumes 11-20  Total  n  n  Book  213  26.8  755  28.1  1940  35.3  2908  32.4  Journal  355  44.8  1145  42.6  1868  34.0  3368  37.5  35  4.4  103  3.8  125  2.3  263  2.9  61  7.7  188  7.0  658  11.9  907  10.1  25  3.1  197  7.3  564  10.3  786  8.8  105  13.2  300  11.2  336  6.2  741  8.3  Conference Yearbook  Proceeding,  Unpublished  Material  Instructional M a t e r i a l o r Test Other Total  794  2688  5491  8973  58  Age  of Cited Material Tables  two  XII  and  XIII present  c a t e g o r i e s , r e c e n t and  before  the  age  archival  From T a b l e X I I 6.7  than  years;  6.7  fifty  i t c a n be percent  years before  more r e c e n t : years.  the  consistent trends. Y e a r b o o k and Fifty  percent  years  o f age XI  was  date.  5.9  J o u r n a l s were  years with  three time  Unpublished  of  books  published  less  slightly  a range o f  p e r i o d s ..did n o t  O v e r - a l l medians f o r Conference  46  exhibit  Proceeding,  M a t e r i a l w e r e . l o w e s t a t 5.1  o f a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and  years.  t e s t s were  7.7  or. o l d e r . tabulates citations  w h i c h were a n a l y z e d . .  7.8  to materials c l a s s i f i e d  percent  of the  total  journals.  as  citations  A p p r o x i m a t e l y . t h r e e s fourths... o f t h e s e  t i o n s were Ibo b o o k s o r the Appendix  s e e n t h a t t h e m e d i a n age  citation  the  a r c h i v a l , which comprise  two  o r more  X I I I ABOUT HERE  o f books c i t e d - w e r e  t h e m e d i a n age  Medians a c r o s s  Table  ( p u b l i s h e d 25 y e a r s  citation) materials.  INSERT TABLES X I I AND  is  of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r the  (See T a b l e s . X X I I I  and  cita-  XXIV i n  f o r complete data.on c i t e d m a t e r i a l s . i n each o f  the  categories.) .Core, and The  citations core, and  Support  Journal - Literature  t h i r d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h support  j o u r n a l s and  a c t i o n of elementary  30  to analyze  journal  in. an.attempt t o d e f i n e  illustrate.the disciplinary  reading with other  areas.  D a t a were  the inter-  59  TABLE X I I Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l b y P u b l i c a t i o n A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  Type  V o l u m e 1-10  V o l u m e 11-20  V o l u m e 21-30  6.0  6.2  7.0  Total  Books median  (185) 31  range i n years  (685) 31  (1798)  6.7  32  (1926-57)  (1936-67)  (1944-76)  6.0  4.8  6.3  (2668) 50  (1926-76)  Journals median  (333) 25  range i n years  (1011)  (1780)  5.9  32  30  (1931-56)  (1936-66)  (1945-77)  6.2  4.5  5.5  (3124) 46  (1931-77)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median  (35)  27  19  range i n years  (86)  (127)  5.1  38  27  (1936-55)  (1937-64)  (1947-74)  5.2  4.5  5.2  (248)  (1936-74)  Unpublished Material median  (49) 25  range i n years  (176) 26  (627)  5.1  25  (1931-56)  (1941-67)  (1951-76)  8.5  5.6  8.2  (852) 45  (1931-76)  Instructional M a t e r i a l or Test median  (14) 21  range i n years  (147) 27  (488)  7.7  32  (1932-56)  (1939-66)  (1945-77)  6.1  4.3  5.7  (649) 42  (1932-77)  Other median range i n years  (73) 25  (1930-56)  (230) 28  (1938-66)  (306) 29  (1947-76)  5.2  (609) 46  (1930-76)  60  TABLE X I I I A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l C i t e d b y Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n A c r o s s T h r e e Time P e r i o d s  Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  Book Journal Conference  V o l u m e 11-20  V o l u m e 21-30  Total,  8  71  157  236  13  82  144  239  1  3  6  10  1  4  7  12  1  24  46  71  4  27  33  64  28  211  393  632  Proceeding  or Yearbook Unpublished M a t e r i a l Instructional or  V o l u m e 1-10  Material  Test  Other Total  61  tabulated bined  separately, for.each  o f the. t e n v o l u m e s a n d . t h e n com-  f o r analysis. Conflation of citations  through  f r o m Volumes 21 t h r o u g h  30 a r e p r e s e n t e d . i n  T a b l e s XIV a n d X V .  25 and 26  In both  time  INSERT TABLES X I V AND XV ABOUT HERE  periods  citations  t o approximately  a c c o u n t f o r 50 p e r c e n t make up 75 p e r c e n t are  included Figures  complete percent  of total  of the t o t a l  journals  c i t a t i o n s , and 31 t o 35 citations.  Complete  journals  listings  i n T a b l e s XXV t h r o u g h X X V I I . i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 1 and 2 a r e g r a p h i c a l  representations  of the  l i s t i n g s , w i t h d e m a r c a t i o n o f t h e 5 0 . p e r c e n t and 75 core  journals  indicated.  INSERT FIGURES  When t h e c i t a t i o n s collapsed, of  seven t o e i g h t  total  eight  75.09 p e r c e n t  2 ABOUT HERE  from t h e e n t i r e  journals  citations  1 AND  ten-year period are  account f o r approximately  and t h i r t y - s e v e n  of the t o t a l  journal t i t l e s  citations.  A total  50  percent  account f o r  o f 265  different  INSERT TABLE XVI ABOUT HERE  j o u r n a l s were c i t e d Following  during  Price's Paerto  the ten-year period - analyzed.  statistic,  d e m a r c a t e s t h e core' j o u r n a l s  the square r o o t  i n a set of literature.  of the t o t a l I t would  62 TABLE X I V J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d f r o m The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 25  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  184 79 58 46 32  20.98 29.99 36 .60 41.85 45.50  Journal o f Educational Psychology C h i l d Development J o u r n a l o f Reading American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l Exceptional Children  31 28 20 16 15  49 ,03 52. 22 54. 50 56 ,32 58, 03  Education Journal o f Experimental Education American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s  13 11 11 11 10  59, 51 60, 76 62, 01 63, 26 64 ,40  9 8 8  65.43 66 .46 67 .37 68.28 69.08  6 6 5 5 5  69, 76 70 ,44 71, 01 71, 58 72, 15  5 5  72, 72 73, 29  4 4 4 4  73,,75 74,,21 74 ,68 75 ,13  Journal The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y  H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Childhood Education Journal o f Genetic Psychology S c h o o l Review J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and Verbal Behavior E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l . Measurement J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review Journal o f Psychology Journalism Quarterly C a l i f o r n i a Journal of Educational Research J o u r n a l o f Communication American P s y c h o l o g i s t Ontario J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research  63 TABLE XV J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 2 6 through 3 0  Journal  Number o f Citations  The Reading Teacher Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology  168 81 66 57 42  16 2 4 31 36 41  .67 . 7 1 .26 .91 .08  4 4 5 5  . . . .  J o u r n a l o f Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s J o u r n a l o f Reading J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research Exceptional Children J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l Behavior  3 2 2 1  15  5 3 . 5 8  C h i l d Development P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review P h i D e l t a Kappan Education  1 1 1 1 1  5 3 1 1 0  55 56 5 7 58 59  .07• .36 . 4 5 .55 .54  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l Psychology i n the Schools Childhood Education J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology  1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 9  6 6 6 6 6  0 1 2 3 4  . 5 3 . 5 3 . 52 . 5 1 . 4 0  9 8 8 8 8  6 6 6 6 6  5 6 6 7 8  . 3 0 .09 .89 . 6 8 .47  Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l o f Experimental Education B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology Library Journal American J o u r n a l o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y  7 7 7 7 .7  6 6 7 7 7  9 9 0 1 1  . . . . .  1 8 5 2 9  6 6 5 5 4  E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement Young C h i l d r e n College English American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology  6 6 6 6 6 5  7 7 7 7 7 7  2 3 3 4 4 5  . . . . . .  5 1 7 3 9 4  4 3 3 2 2 2  N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l American P s y c h o l o g i s t J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior English Journal P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports  5 9 8 9  Cumulative Percentage  4 7 0 2  5 4 2 0  5 3 1 9  64  Journals Cited  i n The  Reading  T e a c h e r , Volumes  21-25  Figure  Journals Cited  i n The  2  Reading  T e a c h e r , Volumes 26-30  66 TABLE XVI J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d f r o m The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30  Journal  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  352 160 124 89 74  18.,67 27.,16 33.,74 38.,46 42.,39  Journal o f Educational Psychology J o u r n a l o f Reading C h i l d Development Journal of Learning Disabilities Exceptional Children  73 49 43 37 34  46 .,26 48.,86 51.,14 53.,10 54.,90  American E d u c a t i o n a l Research. J o u r n a l P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s Education J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and Verbal Behavior H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review  26 23 23  56 .,28 57.,50 58.,72  21 20  59 .,83 60 .,89  Childhood Education Journal of Experimental Education American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review P h i D e l t a Kappan  18 18 17 15 14  61..84 62,.79 63..69 64..49 65..23  E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h Journal o f Genetic Psychology E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement  13 13 12 12 12  65,.92 66 , .61 67,.25 67,.88 68,.52  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports American P s y c h o l o g i s t Merrill-Palmer Quarterly S c h o o l Review Psychology i n the Schools  12 12 11 11 11  69,.16 69,.79 70 , . 37 70 , .96 71,.54  English Journal Journal of Applied.Psychology American J o u r n a l o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y Educational Leadership J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior Journal of Education  10 10 1010 9 9 9  72,.07 72,.60 73,.13 73,.66 74,.14 74 .61 75 .09  The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School Journal Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research  67  be  expected, then,  account f o r f i f t y studied  61.84  t h a t 16 percent  percent  j o u r n a l s , which The  (square of the  of the  root of  265)  citations.  citations  j o u r n a l s would  In t h e  sample  were f r o m - t h e t o p  sixteen  follow.  Reading  Teacher  Elementary  English  Elementary  School  Reading Research  Journal Quarterly  Journal of Educational  Research  Journal of ,Educational  Psychology  Journal of Child  Reading  Development  Journal of Learning Exceptional  Disabilities  Children  American E d u c a t i o n a l  Research  Perceptual  Skills  and  Motor  Journal  Education Journal  of Verbal  Learning  Harvard Educational Childhood The the  total  first  Verbal  Review  The  account  f o r about h a l f  t o p . j o u r n a l i n the  Reading Teacher;  352  of the  self-citations.  The  eight journals- i n this  three  reading  educational curve  j o u r n a l s , two  research  Behavior  Education  eight t i t l e s  citations.  and  1,885  general  j o u r n a l s , and  plotted i n Figure  total  rankings  citations  3 illustrates  was  journals,  English journal. the  of  The  (18.67%) were  core.listing  elementary one  (51.14%)  include two The  predominance o f . a  core  68  INSERT FIGURE 3 ABOUT HERE  of h i g h l y c i t e d j o u r n a l s i n The Reading Teacher, with the 50 percent and 75 percent demarcation  points indicated.  In examining the j o u r n a l s l i s t e d f o r the two f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s and f o r the t o t a l t e n volume y e a r s , i t i s obvious authors o f r e a d i n g a r t i c l e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y , over.the  that  years,  i n t e r a c t e d w i t h a highly, c i t e d s e t o f core j o u r n a l s i n r e a d i n g , elementary  e d u c a t i o n , . e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , and E n g l i s h .  In  a d d i t i o n , : they have a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a wide a r r a y o f support l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f .253 j o u r n a l t i t l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s i n e d u c a t i o n .and . d i s c i p l i n e s  i n o t h e r academic a r e a s .  69  Figure  Journals  Cited  i n The  3  Reading  Teacher,  Volumes  21-30  70  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary The years  purpose o f t h i s  (194 8-197 7)  Teacher, using  study  was t o examine t h e t h i r t y  o f an e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g  a content  analysis research  s p e c t i v e b i b l i o m e t r i c study summaries o f t h o s e  three  organized  The  first  published ing  the  Index t o The R e a d i n g  themselves" according  into  18 m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s and 31 study  i n V o l u m e s 21 t h r o u g h  classification  sub-categories.  30 o f t h e j o u r n a l i n t h e e x i s t -  scheme, a d d i n g  contained  t o more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t  or modifying  i n the l a s t  h e a d i n g s when  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t e n v o l u m e s , t h e 18 m a j o r  the i n c l u s i o n  a d d i t i o n a l sub-categories  instruction, reading  content)  was t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e a r t i c l e s  A f t e r e m p i r i c a l examination  844 a r t i c l e s  Teacher  ( t h e y were  to substantive  h e a d i n g s were r e t a i n e d ; d e s c r i p t o r s were m o d i f i e d  Five  parts;  of Articles  objective of this  necessary.  The r e t r o -  A r t i c l e s were e m p i r i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d  t o "index  and  design.  was c o n d u c t e d i n t h r e e  I n 1969 t h e 20_ Y e a r A n n o t a t e d  allowed  j o u r n a l , The R e a d i n g  sections follow.  Subjective C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  was p u b l i s h e d .  volume  i n some  of the l a t e r  were a d d e d :  one u n d e r  cases  articles. reading  two i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and two i n t h e  personnel  category.  71  Demographic  Characteristics  Topical contained thirty  T a b u l a t i o n s were made o f a r t i c l e s  i n each major heading  volumes.  periods lated  trend analysis.  and sub-heading  The d a t a were c o l l a p s e d i n t o  f o r analysis..  t o Reading  Nearly  half  instruction  f o r each o f t h e  three ten-year  of the a r t i c l e s  and S k i l l  time  (45.6%) r e -  Development.  Consistently  g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on I n s t r u c t i o n a l - M a t e r i a l s , The Culturally clined  Different,  i n the areas  o f Classroom  Content  Fields,  Library  and R e a d i n g .  (Reading  Reading  Instruction,  Reading P e r s o n n e l , in  present articles Sex  n e a r l y equal..  time  areas  Instructional Materials,  periods.  The o v e r - a l l m a j o r i t y o f  Over t h e t o t a l  When t h e s e trends  data  authored.  thirty  (52.7%) and f e m a l e  volume y e a r s t h e  (46.9%) a u t h o r e d  a r e grouped i n t o  are noted:  Further, the s h i f t  the  first  two t i m e  the  second and t h i r d  t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f male  o n l y m i n i m a l c h a n g e s between,  periods.  The a u t h o r  s e x v a r i a b l e may  p o i n t , so t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  ten Reading Teacher authors  true f o r  o c c u r r e d most d r a m a t i c a l l y between  periods, with time  articles  the three  increased; the opposite holds  females.  at this  t h r e e time  Growth, i n m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p was period.  has c o n s i s t e n t l y  have s t a b i l i z e d  Skills,  however, were s i n g l e  periods d i s t i n c t  authors  Reading  a n d The  i n t h e f i v e major  emphases.across, the  of-, a u t h o r .  p r o p o r t i o n o f male is  Sub-categories  each time  (82.6%),  O r g a n i z a t i o n , R e a d i n g and t h e  I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e G i f t e d ,  authorship.  across  P u b l i c a t i o n s de-  a n d . R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s ) were f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d  terms o f changing Multiple  and R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s .  a r e male.  s i xout of  I t i s interesting  t o note  72  that  male  authorship  decreasing  i n the  is  i n c r e a s i n g i n The  Journal  Author-occupation. greatest  percentage  university  based.  employment  at  represented  16.1  authors  as  disseminating  were  to  f o r each  regions  district,  with  largest  percentage  and  West,  the  eastern  authors  Chapin  States an  across ing  the  half  per  per  percentage  scientific total  Gross,  the  of  of  areas,  70.7  Authors  (excluding years.  examined  than  States.  the  reported citations  considered  was  by  corresponded  other  two  the  East.  If  sections,  articles 30  researchers  1977a),  i n the  Only  tabu-  of  East  originate in the  2,054  Canada.  volume.  volume  of  percent  Association.  Dartnell,  percent  levels,  classroom.  which  resided  the  or  11.6  location  collapsed into  United  from  1970;  be  the  reported  authors  are  increases  less  paper  number  and  article  thirty  considerably  Author  college  Only  therefore from  years  provincial  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading  regions  of  citations- are  this  the  (41.3%)  (1.5%) were  documents  author.  geographic  overwhelming  Citations  could  but  representing  authors.  information  of  volume  been  state, or  Teacher  1977a).  category,  total  and  thirty have  largest  findings previously  1974;  United  by  the  authors  the  based  twelve  (Ayers,  the  of  location of  (Dartnell,  county,  first-hand  defined  Consistent  of  second  school  Geographic lated  (63.0%)  percent  of  Reading  Throughout  The  the  of  Reading  (683 to  9.2  per  an  average  reviews  and  If only  those  articles  Price  of  15  (1965)  volume  of  5.3  bibliographies) articles  contained  citations  average by  cited  per  increased  citations),  article,  references for  no  contain-  s t i l l  for  each  sciences.  The  dramatically  from  73  794  i n V o l u m e s 1 t h r o u g h 10  to  5,491  Type, o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d . by  authors across  according  to  five  the  thirty  i n Volumes 21  The  total  two  l a r g e s t c a t e g o r i e s , books  a c c o u n t e d f o r a combined t o t a l 69.9  of  Age  of  cited material.  t e s t , or  journals  the  two  broad  categories,  Cited materials recent  before  c i t a t i o n ) and  archival  t o the  c i t a t i o n ) and  then analyzed  computed f o r t h e  of  6,276 o f  conference other.  (37.5%),  citations,  or  percent.  into  was  or  (32.4%) and  cited  classified  book, j o u r n a l ,  proceeding or yearbook, unpublished m a t e r i a l The  30.  8,97 3 documents  volume y e a r s were  p u b l i c a t i o n types:  through  noted. 5.9  The  (published  materials  than books  which r e p r e s e n t e d  C o r e and  (published 25  by  only  and  third  percent  of  years  M e d i a n age  Archival the  total  for each.publication  was  (median  age  materials, citations,  were  type.  Journal.Literature  s e c t i o n of  through  titles  25  range of p u b l i c a t i o n date  the  study  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  w i t h w h i c h d i f f e r e n t j o u r n a l s were c i t e d by i n Volumes 21  divided  y e a r s o r more p r i o r  separately.  (median 6.7).  7.8  frequency  Support  that eight  l e s s than  J o u r n a l s . c i t e d were s l i g h t l y more r e c e n t  years)  tabulated  recent  were f i r s t  30  o f The  journals;  these eight  journals,  and  are  The  Reading  as  Elementary  titles  could  be  follows: Teacher English  Elementary.School  authors, p u b l i s h i n g  Reading Teacher.  a c c o u n t e d f o r 51.14  Journal  frequency  percent  I t was  of the  considered  as  found  cited the  core  74  Reading  Research  Quarterly  Journal  of  Educational  Research  Journal  of  Educational  Psychology  Journal  of  Reading  C h i l d . -Development A  wide  education  and  literature by ing  array  titles  of  journals  outside  which cited  representing  education  were  interacts with i n the  works  of  disciplines  identified  as  within  the  support  elementary.reading  as  indicated  authors. p u b l i s h i n g  i n The  Read-  Teacher.  Conclusions The examine  main thirty  information related  to  reported by  and  The-  toward  of  articles II, a 1977a)  Journal  Reading  of  Teacher  study The  published  Reading.  Reading  containing  literature  adult  of  reading.  comparisons  1977.  year  Journal  Reading  pertaining  to  of  Reading  the  and  Inter-  aimed the  Journal  secondary,  conclusions  projects  published  Teacher  education  As  completed  publications of  The  two  to  recently  the  reading  the  1948  nineteen  Meaningful  between  Statistical  selected variables  was  Both  Association, with  to r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y  Teacher.  from  the  official  sector  making  study  analyzing  elementary  and  been  Reading  similar  are  has  describing  the  college, by  (1977,  the  this  presented  1,684  Reading  national  of  the  been  i n Chapter  of  of  volume years  has  Dartnell  record  objective  in  a  can.be  drawn  number  of  areas. In  both  according  to  j o u r n a l s , , when subject  matter,  articles the  bulk  were of  empirically articles  were  classified in  the  75 same two  categories.  articles  d e a l t w i t h R e a d i n g Programs and  comparable  45.6  A total  p e r c e n t o f The  related  t o Reading  studies  reported  Instruction  predictable,  Reading  A  Reading Teacher a r t i c l e s and  Skill  occurring  Reading  Skills.  Development.  were Both  t h a t broad c a t e g o r i e s remained q u i t e  over time, w i t h s h i f t s is  o f 41 p e r c e n t o f J o u r n a l o f  stable  among t h e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s .  as a g o o d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system w i l l  define  major c a t e g o r i c a l  areas i n a f i e l d w i t h the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s  designed to allow  for shifts  s e s and  and e n t r y o f new  content i n the l i t e r a t u r e  in  a u t h o r e d , 82.6  publication the l a s t  studies reported  reflecting  empha-  Teacher  t o 76.42 p e r c e n t  Reading  T e a c h e r began If only  Reading Teacher are used i n the  are very s i m i l a r :  the l a s t  Reading  t o the J o u r n a l of Reading.  t w e n t y v o l u m e s o f The  published during Both  However, The  ten years p r i o r  comparison, r e s u l t s  i n The  p e r c e n t as o p p o s e d  the J o u r n a l of Reading.  substantive  the  over time.  A greater proportion of a r t i c l e s were s i n g l e  This  7 5.9  percent of  t w e n t y y e a r s were s i n g l e  a steady increase  i n dual  articles  authored.  authorship,  the t r e n d toward g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n p r e s e n t i n  many d i s c i p l i n e s  today.  The  authorship.data r e f l e c t  about  equal  sex r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o v e r t i m e w i t h a t r e n d  i n recent years to  g r e a t e r male p a r t i c i p a t i o n . i n  Teacher.  Approximately  i n The  of Reading,  Reading  t h e same p e r c e n t a g e o f a u t h o r s i n b o t h  j o u r n a l s were a f f i l i a t e d percent  The  with colleges or u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  R e a d i n g T e a c h e r and  suggesting that  college/university  oriented.  67.5  percent i n the  the major c o n t r i b u t i n g There  i s no  6 3.0 Journal  group  indication  that  remains  76  school-based of  the  authorship  and  both  analyses  types  cases  of  has  citing  more  of  materials  in  are  nature.  s t i l l  high  decrease  in journal  elementary  volumes  as:a  results  is s t i l l  other  t o p i c s ..addressed,  The support  third  of  the  widely  read  appear  on  with  a  the  analysis,  f o r the  last  Reading  Research  Journal  of  listing  near  cited  archival  that  book  toward  s t i l l  a  propor-  places  field  when  research  The  and  citation  quite  similar.  delineating decade  Reading  when  of  for  five  such  as  Teacher,  core  and  Reading  approximately  these  of  the  The  eight  ( A x e l r o d , 1975)  Quarterly, Journal of  Reading.  of  relative  science  accounting  Interestingly,  recent  lists:  or  science  authors,  reading-related journals,  both  The  journals are  eight titles  citations.  compared  of  literature  identified  toward  (196 7 ) .  reading  section  journal  Teacher,  two  cited  disciplines  trend.is  however,  social  In  other  the  In  of  a move  finding  the  social  Broadus  i n the  by.the  citation,  "typical"  with  age  archival  citation.  r e p o r t e d by general,  with  in  journals.  However, median, ages  increased while  journal  two  suggesting  supported  literature  versus  the  practices  are  has  reading  comparing  half  time  i n the  i n comparison  trend.is  over  that  recent  similarities  increased.and  time,  material cited  This  book  over  has  recent materials.  citation  of  p o i n t out  publications cited  decreased  substantial  tion  comparisons  reference . citation  materials  and  b e . i n c r e a s i n g i n more  journal.  Citation age  may  these  of  titles  most  titles  Elementary  English,  Educational Research,  and  77  A wide v a r i e t y with which authors in  elementary  for  research reading indeed  as  articles journal  core  as  support are  literature  to  social  those science  reported i n studies using  1977,  a key  literature  research  journal  similar  and  articles  1977a).  set of  The  core  i n elementary  titles  and  reading  from a  secondary  concept  journals being  a wide a r r a y o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  support  identified  conducting  i n s c i e n c e and  ( B a r n e t t , 1976)  (Dartnell,  and  reading  disciplines  ubiquitous, with  u s e d and to  The  in particular  j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e was  i n w r i t i n g and  for. elementary  f o r other  reading  interact  reading.  characteristics reported  of support  is  consistently  being  turned  reading.  . Recommendations S e v e r a l recommendations investigations 1.  and  extensions  Greater.access by  updating  to the  the  a.  of t h i s  c o l l e c t i o n would.be  T h i s c o u l d be  provided  Index t o  The  accomplished  in  steps:  Informative  annotations  each o f the.844 a r t i c l e s 21 b.  related  study.  2_0 Y e a r A n n o t a t e d  Reading Teacher. three  can be made c o n c e r n i n g  through  30 o f t h e  The  p u b l i s h e d index  the  one  . i f an  must.be w r i t t e n f o r appearing  journal. classified  categories  assigned  each a r t i c l e  in  most a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r y ;  a r t i c l e was.strongly  listing.  i n Volumes  i t was In t h i s  related  cross-indexed study,  to  additional  via a  "see-also"  each a r t i c l e  was  to o n l y the major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  It.  78  w o u l d be  necessary, t o review  c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e them.when c.  A Keyword i n C o n t e x t  of  articles,  of access 2.  No  attempt  was  (KWIC), b a s e d  contained i n the  would p r o v i d e another  in utilizing  and  warranted.  Index  substantive vocabulary  the a r t i c l e s  on titles  useful  point  an a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y .  made i n t h i s  study  to identify  and  a n a l y z e t h o s e . a r t i c l e s w h i c h were r e p o r t i n g r e s e a r c h . An  analysis  c o u l d be made o f t h e  research a r t i c l e s ,  tabulating  r e s e a r c h method u s e d , statistics the  employed  quantitative  and  comparing  means o f c o l l e c t i n g  r e l a t e t o the  data,  i n p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s ,  s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s of the  they  the  state-of-the-art  s t u d i e s and in  and how  elementary  reading, 3.  C o r e j o u r n a l s were i d e n t i f i e d were c o n s i s t e n t l y elementary  reading.  to take the core representative determine The  c i t e d by An  interesting  study  Is the  study would select  similar r  their publications?  a  and  interaction  of idio-  o r i s i t a two-way phenomenon w i t h showing  be  journals cite  reading with other d i s c i p l i n e s  disciplines  which  publishing i n  sample of. r e c e n t a r t i c l e s ,  the extent to which these  elementary  in  authors  journals identified,  Reading Teacher.  syncratic  i n .this  i n t e r a c t i o n with  other reading  79  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Axelrod, J . The most w i d e l y - r e a d r e a d i n g - r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s . E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 1975, 52, 356-360, 366. Ayers, J . E ; A n a l y s i s o f the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e of s c i e n c e education. S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 19 74, 4, 309-314. B a r n e t t , D. J . Bibliometric analysis of reading research literature. U n p u b l i s h e d master' s"~thesis , U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976.  journal of  Bohn, M. J . , J r . I n s t i t u t i o n a l sources of a r t i c l e s i n t h i s Journal of Counseling Psychology:—four years l a t e r . Journal o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 13, 489-490. B o r k o , H., & B e r n i e r , C. I . A b s t r a c t i n g concepts New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1975. B r a d f o r d , S. C. Documentation. London, E n g l a n d : Lockwood and Son, L t d . , 1948. B r o a d u s , R. N. A citation S o c i o l o g i s t , 1967, 2,  study f o r s o c i o l o g y . 19-20.  and  methods.  Crosby, American  B u c k l a n d , M. K. The.management o f l i b r a r i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n centers. I n C. A. C u a d r a , A. W. Luke & J . L. H a r r i s ( E d s . ) , A n n u a l R e v i e w . o f I n f o r m a t i o n S c i e n c e and Technology ( V o l . 9T~WasETngton, D.C. : The A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r I n f o r m a t i o n S c i e n c e , 19 74. C h a p i n , J . R., & G r o s s , R. E . A barometer of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s : t h r e e decades of S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n . Social Education, 1970, 34, 788-795. C o t t o n , M. C , & A n d e r s o n , W. P. C i t a t i o n changes i n the J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology. J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 1973, 20, 272-274. D a r t n e l l , D. J . Content a n a l y s i s of the J o u r n a l of R e a d i n g — 1957-1976 w i t h a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , k e y w o r d i n c o n t e x t (KWIC) and a u t h o r i n d e x e s . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19 77. Dartnell,  D.  J.  Personal correspondence,  D i c k i n s o n , G., & R u s n e l l , G. A content Education. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1971,  September,  1977(a).  analysis of Adult 21, 177-185.  80 Done-hue, J . C, Understanding s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e : m e t r i c approach. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT 1973.  a biblioPress,  F a i r t h o r n e , R. A. E m p i r i c a l h y p e r b o l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n s (BradfordZipf-Mandelbrot) f o r b i b l i o m e t r i c d e s c r i p t i o n and p r e d i c tion. J o u r n a l o f Documentation, 1969 , 2_5, 319-343. F e n i c h e l , C. J . C i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n i n f o r m a t i o n science,. Unpublished master' s t h e s i s , 19~§"9~ (ERIC Document Reprod u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 048 864) Foreman, M. E. P u b l i c a t i o n trends i n c o u n s e l i n g j o u r n a l s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g Psychology, 1966, 13, 481-485. G a r f i e l d , E. C i t a t i o n a n a l y s i s as a t o o l i n j o u r n a l e v a l u a t i o n . S c i e n c e , 1972, 178, 471-479. Goodstein, L>, D. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l sources o f a r t i c l e s i n the J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g Psychology. J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g Psychology, 1963, 10, 94-95. Herschman, A. The primary j o u r n a l : p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . J o u r n a l of Chemical Documentation, 1970, 10_, 37T42. H o l s i , 0. Content a n a l y s i s . In G. L i n d z e y , L. Gardner, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of S o c i a l -Psychology ( V o l . 2 ) . Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1968. H o l s t i , O. Content a n a l y s i s f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and humanities. Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : . Addison Wesley 1969 .  Co.,  J e r o s k i , S. F. The d i s s e r t a t i o n r e s e a r c h requirement i n secondary r e a d i n g . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. J e r r o l d s , B. W. Reading r e f l e c t i o n s : the h i s t o r y o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n ^ Newark, Delaware: International Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977. K l i n e , L. W. Research, classroom and j o u r n a l . Teacher, 1972, 25, 724-726.  The  Reading  Kuney, J . H. P u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . In C. Cuadra ( E d . ) / A n n u a l Review o f Information Science and Technology ( V o l . 3). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1968. L a n c a s t e r , F. W. Vocabulary, c o n t r o l f o r . i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l . Washington, D.C.: Information Resources P r e s s , 1972.  81  Lin,  N., & N e l s o n , C. E . Bibliographic reference patterns i n c o r e s o c i o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s . The A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i s t , 1969, 4, 47-50.  L o n g , H. B., & Agyekum, S. K. A d u l t e d u c a t i o n 1964-1973: r e f l e c t i o n s o f a changing, d i s c i p l i n e . Adult Education, 1974, 24, 99-120. M c M u r t r a y , F., & G i n s k i , J . M. C i t a t i o n . p a t t e r n s of the c a r d i o vascular s e r i a l literature. J o u r n a l o f the American S o c i e t y f o r I n f o r m a t i o n S c i e n c e , 1972, 2_3, 172-175. M u n l e y , P. H. A content a n a l y s i s of the Journal of Counseling Psychology. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, ITT, 305-310. M y e r s , R. A., & D e L e v i e , A. S. Frequency o f c i t a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n o f eminence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 245-246. P a r k e r , . E . B., P a i s l e y , W. J . , & G a r r e t t , R. B i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s as. u n o b t r u s i v e m e a s u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c communicat i o n . I n s t i t u t e f o r Communication Research, S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. P r i c e , D. J . de S. L i t t l e science, b i g science.. C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. P r i c e , D. J . de S. Networks o f s c i e n t i f i c 1965, 149^, 510-515. P r i c e , D. de•S. Science s i n c e Babylon. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975.  New  papers.  New  York:  Science,  Haven:  Yale  P r i c e . , D. J . de S. A . g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f b i b l i o m e t r i c and o t h e r cumulative advantage p r o c e s s e s . J o u r n a l o f the American S o c i e t y f o r I n f o r m a t i o n S c i e n c e , 1976, 27_, 292-306 . S a r a c e v i c , T., & P e r k , L . J . A s c e r t a i n i n g . a c t i v i t i e s i n a subject area through b i b l i o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s . Journal of the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r . I n f o r m a t i o n S c i e n c e , 1973 , 27~, 120-134. S e n g u p t a , I . N. The l i t e r a t u r e o f m i c r o b i o l o g y . L i b r a r y Review, 1974, 6, 353-369. S e w e l l , W. H. Research,  International  R u r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , 1936-1965. 1965, 30, 428-451.  Rural  Summers, E . G. (Ed.) . 20_ y e a r a n n o t a t e d i n d e x t o The R e a d i n g Teacher. Newark, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969.  82  W a l s h , W. B., F e e n e y , D., & R e s n i c k , H. Graduate s c h o o l o r i g i n s of J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology authors. Journal of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1969, 16, 375-376. W a t e r s , B. L . She w r i t e s l i k e a woman. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S o u t h e a s t . C o n f e r e n c e on L i n g u i s t i c s , A t l a n t a , November 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 115 113)  83  APPENDICES  APPENDIX  A:  DATA  CODING  APPENDIX  B:  TABLES XVII  SYSTEM THROUGH  XXVII  84  DATA CODING SYSTEM.  Six  d i g i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number; columns 1-2 = - volume number " 3 = i s s u e number " 4-6 = f i r s t page number  Four  digit  subjective classification  Number o f a u t h o r s Sex o f a u t h o r ( s ) column 14 = number o f m a l e s " 15 = number o f f e m a l e s " 16 = number unknown Occupation of author(s) column 17 = s c h o o l b a s e d " 18 = c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y " 19 = d i s t r i c t / c o u n t y / s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l " 20 = o t h e r " 21 = unknown Geographic l o c a t i o n of author(s) column 22 - F a r West 23 — Rocky M o u n t a i n s 24 = - S o u t h w e s t 25 = P l a i n s 26 = G r e a t L a k e s 27 = • S o u t h e a s t 28 = E a s t 29 = T r a n s m o u n t a i n 30 = R u p e r t s l a n d 31 = L a u r e n t i a n 32 — A t l a n t i c 33 = O u t s i d e N o r t h A m e r i c a 34 = Unknown Total  number o f c i t a t i o n s  Type o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d columns 40-41 = b o o k s journals 42-43 conference proceedings/yearbooks 44-45 u n p u b l i s h e d documents 46-47 tests 48-49 instructional materials 50-51 other 52-53 monographs . 54-55 bulletins 56-57  Columns 59-60  Number  of  self-citations  D a t a t a b u l a t e d i n columns; 40-57 w e r e c o m b i n e d computer i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : Books/Monographs Journals  (columns  Unpublished  (columns  and  54-55)  42-43)  Materials  Instructional  40-41  and r e c o d e d by  (columns  Materials/Tests  Yearbooks/Conference  46-47) (columns  Proceedings  O t h e r / B u l l e t i n s .(columns  52-53  48-49  (columns  and  56-57)  and  44-45)  50-51)  86  TABLE Article  XVII  F r e q u e n c y by M a j o r Across  and S u b - C a t e g o r i e s  30 V o l u m e  Years  Sub-Categories  1  2  3  4  Volume 5 6  7  8  9  10  01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  3  02.10  0  1  0  4  6  4  02.20  0  0  1  1  4  0 1  3  0  3 5  3  0  24 12  02.31 02.32  0 0  1 1  0 0  0  0 1  1  0  0  0 0  1  0  1  0 0  02.33 02. 34  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0  0 0 1 1 0 4 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1  1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1  0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  3 3 0 0 0 0  3 0 0 0 0  2  4 1 0 0 1 2  6 2 0 0 0 1  1 0 0 0 0  3  2 1 1 0 0 1  04.10 04.20 04.30 04.40 04.50  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 1 1  0 1 0  0 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0  1 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 2 0 1 0 0  0 1 0 1 0  04.60 04.70 04.80  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0 0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0  2 0  0 0  1 0  02 R e a d i n g  Total  Instruction 0  02.30  02.35 02.36 02.40 02.50 02.60 02.70 03 D e v e l o p m e n t o f Reading S k i l l s 03.10 03.20 03.30 03.40 03.50 03.60 04  0 1 0 1 4  0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0  3  3 3 1 1 1 1 3 14 6 3  22 7 2 0 2 14  Instructional Materials  0  0 0  0 1 0 0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0 3 0  0 6 1 3 0 4  0  0 0  1 0  6 0  05 R e a d i n g P e r s o n n e l 05.10 05.11 05.12  0 0  87  TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d  Sub-Categories  01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 02 R e a d i n g Instruction 02.10 02.20 02.30 02.31 02.32 02.33 02.34 02.35 02.36 02.40 02.50 02.60 02.70 03 D e v e l o p m e n t o f Reading S k i l l s 03.10 03.20 03.30 03.40 03.50 03.60 04  Instructional Materials 04.10 04.20 04.30 04.40 04.50 04.60 04.70 04.80  05 R e a d i n g Personnel 05.10 05.11 05.12  Volume 16 15  17  18  19  20  3  1  2  2  0  20  2 1  4 1  0 2  3 6  3 10  4 3  20 24  0 0 4 0 0 0 2 4 2 2  0 1 1 0 0 0 3 3 2 1  0 0 3 1 1 0 1 4 1 7  1 1 0 2 0 1 0 4 2 1  5 0 1 4 ' 1 0 0 0 0 2  0 0 0 0 1 15 2 0 4 5  2 0 1 0 0 15 1 0 0 1  8 2 15 7 3 32 11 17 17 25  2 3 7 0 0 2  6 0 1 0 1 1  2 3 4 1 2 2  3 1 0 1 2 1  2 1 1 1 1 2  4 3 0 1 0 1  5 2 2 0 0 1  7 2 1 1 0 0  32 21 19 5 7 13  0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 2 0 1 0 0  1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0  2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0  0 4 2 1 2 0 0 0  1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0  0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 2 0 3 0 0 0 4  7 17 3 9 4 8 0 4  0 0  0 2  7 2  3 0  1 0  2 0  3 0  8 0  3 1  27 5  11  12  13  14  1  7  1  1  2  2 0  1 0  1 0  0 1  0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 2 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3  0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 3  1 3 0 0 1 0  0 3 3 0 0 3  0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0  0 0  Total  88  TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d  C a t e g o r i e s and Sub-Categories  01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 02 R e a d i n g Instruction 02.10 02.20 02.30 02.31 02.32 02.33 02.34 02.35 02.36 02.40 02.50 02.60 02.70 03 D e v e l o p m e n t o f Reading S k i l l s 03.10 03.20 03.30 03.40 03.50 03.60 04  Instructional Materials 04.10 04.20 04.30 04.40 04.50 04.60 04.70 04.80  05 R e a d i n g Personnel 05.10 05.11 05.12  Volume 26 25  27  28  29  30  0  0  0  1  0  7  5 1  5 1  8 3  6 3  7 0  3 5  66 33  0 0 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 0  2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1  2 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 2  2 1 3 1 2 0 1 0 0 2  2 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 2  3 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 3  2 0 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 3  25 3 13 19 23 12 4 1 1 20  8 5 3 0 0 3  3 3 2 1 0 4  3 2 1 1 0 2  4 2 1 0 0 2  11 0 2 0 0 5  6 4 1 1 0 4  7 3 0 0 0 1  8 4 2 0 0 4  61 31 20 3 2 33  2 1 0 2 0 0 3 3  0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2  0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0  0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1  2 3 0 0 0 1 0 1  1 2 0 1 0 1 0 3  3 3 0 1 2 0 1 1  3 1 0 2 0 0 2 7  1 7 0 2 0 0 3 2  13 22 0 10 5 2 11 21  4 0  7 0  4 0  9 2  4 0  6 0  2 0  4 0  6 0  46 3  21  22  23  24  1  3  2  0  0  5 5  6 7  6 5  15 3  3 0 0 4 3 3 0 0 0 2  5 0 0 1 6 6 0 0 0 2  4 0 0 4 5 1 1 0 0 3  7 1 3 0 2 4  4 7 5 0 0 4  1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1  0 1  Total  89  TABLE X V I I  continued  1  2  3  4  Volume 5 6  7  8  9  10  05.20 05.30 05.40 05.50  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  06 G r o u p i n g  1  7  0  1  3  1  3  0  0  1  17  07  0  0  0  0  2  1  3  2  1  2  11  08 R e a d i n g a n d Content F i e l d s  0  1  0  0  2  2  3  6  2  6  22  09 R e a d i n g a n d the G i f t e d  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  7  0  9  10 The C u l t u r a l l y Different  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  11 G u i d a n c e  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  12 L i b r a r y & R e a d i n g  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  2  0  5  13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e  0  0  0  0  1  2  6  1  0  4  14  14 S o c i o l o g y Reading  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Auditory Discrimination  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  16 V i s u a l Discrimination  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  2  17  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  1  0  4  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 2 0  2 1 2 0  0 0 2 0  1 0 1 0  1 0 3 0  1 1 4 0  5 3 14 0  1  13  :o  21  33  33  44  39  31  35  250  Sub-Categories  15  Testing  & Reading  of  Personality  18 R e a d i n g 18.10 18.20 18.30 18.40 Total  Problems  Total  90  TABLE X V I I  continued  Volume 15 16  17  18  19  20  0 0 0 0  2 0 0 0  1 1 1 0  2 0 1 0  2 0 0 0  10 0 0 0  20 4 2 0  0  1  0  0 '  1  1  3  12  2  2  4  1  1  2  3  2  19  1  0  1  0  1  2  5  1  1  16  0  0  0  1  1  5  0  1  0  0  8  10 The C u l t u r a l l y Different  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  7  3  7  19  11 G u i d a n c e  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  2  12 L i b r a r y & R e a d i n g  1  1  0  2  0  2  7  1  0  0  14  13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  5  0  2  7  14 S o c i o l o g y Reading  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  1  1  5  Auditory Discrimination  0  0  0  1  1  0  2  1  1  1  7  16 V i s u a l Discrimination  0  0  2  1  0  1  1  2  1  3  11  17  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  4  0 0 1 0  2 0 0 2  0 0 1 0 .  0 1 1 2  1 2 4 1  2 1 2 0  3 2 5 0  1 0 4 2  4 0 8 0  3 0 2 1  16 6 28 8  34  37  52  53  58  63  75  89  89  590  11  12  13  14  05.20 05.30 05.40 05.50  0 1 0 0  1 1 0 0  1 1 0 0  1 0 0 0  06 G r o u p i n g  4  1  1  07  1  1  08 R e a d i n g a n d Content F i e l d s  4  09 R e a d i n g a n d the G i f t e d  Sub-Categories  15  Testing  & Reading  of  Personality  18 R e a d i n g 18.10 18.20 18.30 18.40 Total  Problems  40  Total  91  TABLE X V I I  continued  Volume 26 25  27  28  29  30  1 0 5 2  0 0 1 0  2 0 0 2  2 0 0 0  1 1 1 0  11 3 13 7  1  1  4  3  1  1  16  17  8  13  9  5  6  6  73  0  2  0  1  2  0  1  5  12  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  2  5  5  3  11  4  3  2  3  3  7  46  2  0  2  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  6  12 L i b r a r y & R e a d i n g  0  0  0  2  1  0  1  0  1  0  5  13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e  2  1  9  1  2  1  1  2  1  2  22  14 S o c i o l o g y Reading  1  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  Auditory Discrimination  0  2  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  5  16 V i s u a l Discrimination  2  2  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  1  8  17  3  2  1  1  2  1  0  4  3  0  17  4 1 9 4  5 1 3 1  6 1 6 1  3 1 6 3  1 2 3 0  2 1 0 0  4 1 2 1  0 1 2 0  3 1 3 0  1 2 0 0  29 12 34 10  91  103  95  96  70  67  87  73  75  87  844  21  22  23  24  05.20 05.30 05.40 05.50  0 2 0 0  3 0 1 0  1 0 0 1  0 0 0 1  1 0 5 1  06 G r o u p i n g  3  0  1  1  07  4  4  1  08 R e a d i n g a n d Content F i e l d s  1  0  09 R e a d i n g a n d the G i f t e d  0  10 The C u l t u r a l l y Different 11 G u i d a n c e  Sub-Categories  15  Testing  & Reading  of  Personality  18 R e a d i n g 18.10 18.20 18.30 18.40 Total  Problems  Total  TABLE  XVIII  M u l t i p l e A u t h o r s h i p by Volume  Volume 8  Number o f Authors  1  1  21  13  33  33  2  12  13  14  15  16  36  29  31  30  34  36  41  45  50  1  2  1  4  4  3  2  8  8  8  2  2  58  1 1  4 o r more  1  21  33  33  45  39  31  35  34  37  40  52  53  19  20  21  22  23  Volume 24 25  26  27  28  29  30  Total  68  68  72  69  82  85  74  53  56  61  51  58  61  1391  6  6  14  13  18  18  9  19  14  10  18  20  12  21  239  1  1  3  4  1  13  Number o f Authors  17  18  1  56  2 3 4 o r more Total Articles  11  44  3  Total Articles  10  4  63  75  89  3  2 1  89  91  1  2  1  103  1 1  95  96  1  6  2  4 1  70  67  86  2  73  1  4  38  1  75  16  87  1684  TABLE X I X Sex o f A u t h o r by Volume  Volume 8  Sex o f Authors  11  11  12  13  14  15  16  9  17  9  20  18  12  25  21  28  36  31  37  16  24  16  36  23  18  27  13  19  17  34  29  29  Male  Female  10  No Identification  Sex o f Authors  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  Volume 24 25  26  27  28  29  30  Total  Male  26  47  66  73  80  78  58  86  59  48  53  51  41  47  1083  Female  45  36  57  35  38  50  48  37  32  31  66  48  56  71  963  No Identification  TABLE XX A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n by Volume  Author  Occupation  School  Based  College/University  1  1  11  12  13  14  15  16  5  6  5  3  8  2  9  9  11  4  4  3  7  8  5  6  7  10  12  24  20  30  23  13  27  30  30  43  38  37  8  5  6  8  2  11  6  4  3  13  12  17  8  1  8  2  1  2  5  3  6  4  1  1  3  2  3  Other 1  Identification  10  4  2  District/State/Provincial  No  Volume 8 9  7  7  1  2  4  26  27  28  29  30  Total  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  Volume 24 25  9  4  13  4  16  14  12  10  8  2  18  19  13  13  239  College/University  39  45  76  73  75  89  75  84  44  56  78  59  68  87  1293  District/State/Provincial  14  26  27  28  17  22  13  19  12  13  9  14  9  13  331  Other  8  7  6  5  10  3  6  9  17  8  7  6  8  6  153  No  1  1  1  1  11  7  1  Author  Occupation  School  Based  Identification  38  LD  TABLE X X I Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Author by Volume  Volume 8  Geographic Location  10  F a r West Rocky  1  Mtns.  Plains Great  Lakes  1  1  3  3  4  3  2  2  9  8  3  4  8  18  15  15  2  4  1  4  1  1  2  6  6  19  13  20  21  25  21  36  27  29  2  3  1  2  1  5  4  9  14  14  1  1  2  22  21  19  Laurentian Atlantic  Unknown  16  1  2  Rupertsland  N.A.  15  9  Transmountain  Outside  14  1  1  14  East  13  1  7  1  Southeast  12  4  1  1  Southwest  11  TABLE X X I c o n t i n u e d  Geographic Location  Far  West  Rocky  17  18  19  20  21  22  Volume 23 24  25  26  27  28  29  30  6  8  3  13  13  12  10  13  11  8  6  11  13  6  1  2  4  6  5  3  4  3  2  2  1  1  1  3  12  5  8  4  7  4  3  12  5  10  18  100  3  3  14  7  4  8  5  7  1  5  8  7  8  5  113  13  11  19  24  26  32  19  20  13  12  20  28  21  12  396  2  2  13  9  10  17  8  15  15  13  20  17  11  24  208  43  50  59  38  38  35  47  54  33  25  40  26  24  41  848  3  2  1  1  Mtns.  Southwest Plains Great  Lakes  Southeast East Transmountain  1  Rupertsland  1  2 1  Laurentian  Outside Unknown  N.A. 4  14  3 2  3  2  2  2  4  6  1  13  7  12 2 2  1  2  185 37  1  1  Atlantic  1  Total  5 1  1  3  5  4  3  4  10  61  8  2  7  1  3  1  76  LO CTl  TABLE X X I I C i t a t i o n s b y V o l u m e a n d Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n  Type o f Publication  Book  1  2  3  4  20  Journal Conference Proceeding, Yearbook  14  Instructional Material or Test  7  8  2  59  59  17  23  96  60  42  6  2  2  Other  Total  6  12  Unpublished Material  49  Volume 9  5  2  4  17  16  5  7  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  40  16  13  30  81  22  91  68  63  51  28  15  139  97  108  113  16  17  9  18  6  10  3  4  7  4  4  6  7  4  6  5  9  2  8  10  9  16  16  6  6  2  1  23  31  8  26  8  9  9  28  24  34  39  18  28  206  175  81  146  91  64  69  272  183  264  261  TABLE X X I I  continued  Type o f Publication  17  18  19  20  21  22  Book  96  91  116  147  194  189  177  142  195  126  182  201  240  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook  16  15  8  10  38  Unpublished Material  49  19  16  38  Instructional Material or Test  75  14  46  Other  34  45  412  379  Journal  Total  Volume 23 24  25  26  27  28  29  30  Total  148  151  182  231  201  237  230  2908  211  147  96  153  211  169  237  203  3368  16  19  14  5  5  7  8  7  6  263  61  65  59  77  15  42  81  81  78  99  907  17  40  22  22  59  16  92  60  45  40  168  786  37  41  20  31  26  36  17  33  61  33  43  36  741  349  435  554  563  514  481  300  507  651  537  642  742  8973  W5 CO  99  TABLE X X I I I Age  of Cited  Material  by Volume and Type  of  Publication  Volume  Type o f Publication  Books 8.00  median range  10.00  (13)  6  21  i n years  (2)  (1940-1946)  (1926-1947) Journals 3.50  median  (7)  3.00  (23)  5  1  (1945-1950)  (1950-1951)  9.00  3.00  range i n years  16.30  (22)  10 (1933-1943)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  i n years  (12)  (2) 0  12 (1936-1948)  (1950)  Unpublished Material 10.50  median range  i n years  (4)  13 (1934-1947)  Instructional Material or  Test  median range  i n years  Other median range i n y e a r s  10.00  (3)  13 (1936-1949)  14.00  (2) 0  (1938)  14.00  (1) 0  (1939)  100  TABLE XXIII c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  6  Volume 8  7  9  10  Books median range  4.50 i n years  (58)  6.00  23  (45)  5.50  23  (14)  6.00  23  (34)  8.83  21  (19) 21  (1929-1952)  (1930-1953)  (1931-1954)  (1934-1955)  (1936-1957)  5.50  7.50  5.50  6.13  7.75  Journals median range  i n years  (94) 21  (38) 21  (36) 20  (63) 21  (50) 22  (1931-1952)  (1932-1953)  (1935-1955)  (1934-1955)  (1934-1956)  6.00  5.00  7.50  4.50  9.00  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  (6)  i n years  (1)  (4)  (7) 13  (3)  4  0  3  15  (1946-1950)  (1950)  (1948-1951)  (1942-1955)  (1940-1955)  3.38  5.00  2.50  Unpublished Material median range  12.50 i n years  (13)  5.00  21  (14) 18  (10) 13  (1931-1952)  (1935-1953)  17.00  13.00  (1941-1954)  (5) 15  (3) 11  (1940-1955)  (1945-1956)  7.50  10.00  Instructional Material or T e s t median range  i n years  (3)  12  (3)  14  (1935-1947)  (1939-1953)  8.00  4.33  (6) 21  (2)  16  (1932-1953)  (1940-1956)  3.50  6.00  Other median range i n y e a r s  (21) 22  (1930-1952)  (18) 8  (1945-1953)  7.00  (9) 19  (1933-1952)  (14) 15  (1940-1955)  (5) 16  (1940-1956)  101  TABLE X X I I I  continued  Type o f Publication  11  Volume 13  12  14  15  Books median range  5.00 i n years  (12)  4.50  12  (31)  8.33  22  (75)  5.50  22  (22)  7.05  21  (88) 23  (1945-1957)  (1936-1958)  (1937-1959)  (1939-1960)  5.80  5.50  5.60  4.43  (1938-1961)  Journals median range  i n years  (28) 11  (13) 20  (125) 23  (89)  6.07  20  (93) 23  (1946-1957)  (1937-1957)  (1936-1959)  (1940-1960)  4.50  9.00  5.00  3.33  (1938-1961)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  i n years  (2) 3  (3) 19  (5) 21  (8)  4.38  21  (14) 20  (1953-1956)  (1937-1956)  (1938-1959)  (1940-1961)  2.50  4.50  5.25  7.00. (7)  (1941-1961)  Unpublished Material median range  i n years  (2)  (8)  (12)  1  8  6  (1956-1957)  (1950-1958)  (1952-1958)  (1949-1960)  8.00  5.50  11.13  11  (8)  20 (1941-1961)  Instructional Material or  Test  median range  3.00 i n years  (1) 0  (9) 15  (1956)  (5)  8.00  3  (1943-1958)  (1955-1958)  6.50  4.50  (5) 22  (1939-1961)  Other median range  7.00 i n years  (9) 9  (1948-1957)  9.00  (8) 20  (1938-1958)  (18) 22  (1938-1960)  (21) 13  (1947-1960)  5.50  (23) 21  (1940-1961)  102  TABLE X X I I I  continued  Type o f Publication  16  Volume 18  17  19  20  Books median range  7.75 i n years  (57)  5.75  22  (90)  5.32  21  (1940-1962)  (83) 23  (1942-1963)  range  6.50  (131) 24  (1942-1966)  (1943-1967)  J  4.11 i n years  (96) 24  (1941-1964)  Journals median  5.92  (90)  4.21  (107)  4.53  (181)  4.75  (112)  24 (1939-1963)  24 (1940-1964)  2*3 (1942-1965)  20 (1946-1966)  3.50  3.40  5.17  5.00  5.75  (173)  23 (1943-1966)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  i n years  (12)  (14)  (13)  (7)  5 (1957-1962)  10 (1953-1963)  17 (1947-1964)  4 (1960-1964)  4.30  4.39  4.42  6.00  5.38  (8)  15 (1949-1964)  Unpublished Material median range  i n years  (19) 15  (45) 17  (18) 13  (19)  3.15  16  (1947-1962)  (1947-1964)  (1951-1964)  (1949-1965)  3.00  3.92  3.50  8.88  (38) 22  (1945-1967)  Instructional Material or  Test  median range  i n years  (3) 9  (66) 23  (3) 4  (46)  5.50  21  (1953-1962)  (1941-1964)  (1959-1963)  (1944-1965)  3.83  3.90  2.67  4.50  (9) 21  (1945-1966)  Other median range  i n years  (33) 23  (1939-1962)  (23) 14  (1949-1963)  (39) 22  (1943-1965)  (29) 20  (1945-1965)  6.00  (27) 23  (1943-1966)  103  TABLE X X I I I  continued  Type o f Publication  21  Volume 23  22  24  25  Books median range  7.25 i n years  (160)  6.83  23  (163)  7.30  23  (180)  7.50  24  (131)  6.73  23  (142) 22  (1944-1967)  (1945-1968)  (1946-1970)  (1947-1970)  6.13  6.13  6.03  6.10  (1950-1972)  Journals median range  i n years  (170) 22  (218) 24  (196) 24  (145)  5.60  24  (89) 24  (1945-1967)  (1945-1969)  (1946-1970)  (1947-1971)  4.50  5.31  4.42  5.00  (1948-1972)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  i n years  (35) 20  (14) 7  (22) 10  (15)  4.25  22  (4) 21  (1947-1967)  (1961-1968)  (1959-1969)  (1947-1969);  4.38  4.35  4.00  5.19  (1949-1970)  Unpublished Material median range  i n years  (59) 17  (67) 18  (60) 12  (70)  5.00  18  (1951-1968)  (1951-1969)  (1957-1969)  (1952-1970)  9.00  7.00  8.40  9.50  (15) 18  (1953-1971)  Instructional Material or  Test  median range  i n years  (34) 21  (24) 16  (20) 17  (49)  7.50  19  (1945-1966)  (1951-1967)  (1951-1968)  (1950-1969)  7.00  7.00  6.00  5.63  (15) 19  (1950-1969)  Other median range  i n years  (21) 14  (1954-1968)  (28) 7  (1961-1968)  (33) 15  (1954-1969)  (43) 23  (1947-1970)  4.08  (16) 12  (1960-1972)  104  TABLE X X I I I  continued  Type o f Publication  26  Volume 28  27  29  30  Books median range  6.85 i n years  (165)  6.10  23  (236)  6.68  24  (183)  7.12  21  (224)  8.26  22  (214) 22  (1950-1973)  (1950-1974)  (1954-1975)  (1954-1976)  5.91  6.59  6.30  7.19  (1954-1976)  Journals median range  i n years  (145) 23  (237) 21  (164) 23  (219)  7.42  22  (1949-1972)  (1953-1974)  (1952-1975)  (1953-1975)  6.50  6.00  12.00  7.00  (197) 24  (1953-1977)  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median range  i n years  (7) 17  (9) 10  (8)  12  (6)  8.00  17  (1955-1972)  (1962-1972)  (1956-1968)  (1956-1973)  4.00  6.39  5.29  5.33  (7) 7  (1967-1974)  Unpublished Material median range  i n years  (41) 13  (73) 21  (74) 23  (72)  7.50  23  (1960-1973)  (1952-1973)  (1951-1974)  (1952-1975)  8.06  6.00  8.00  9.40  (96) 22  (1954-1976)  Instructional Material or  Test  median range  i n years  (83) 23  (50) 15  (29) 18  (40)  8.63  14  (1949-1972)  (1958-1973)  (1955-1973)  (1959-1973)  6.14  5.83  8.83  3.50  (144) 24  (1953-1977)  Other median range  i n years  (28) 19  (1952-1971)  (51) 15  (1958-1973)  (19) 20  (1954-1974)  (37) 15  (1960-1975)  6.50  (30) 20  (1956-1976)  TABLE X X I V Archival  Type o f Publication  Material  1  C i t e d by Volume and Type o f  2  •  Publication  Volume 3  Books frequency range i n years  Journals frequency  1  range i n years  1923  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n years  Unpublished Material frequency range i n years  Instructional Material or  Test  frequency range i n years  Other frequency range i n years  1 1925  106  TABLE X X I V c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  6  Volume 8  7  9  10  3  1  1922-1928  1900-1922  1916  5  2  2  1912-1930  1917-1931  1931-1932  Books frequency  1  range i n years  1926  3  Journals frequency range i n years  1 1923  2 1925-1928  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n years  Unpublished Material frequency range i n years  1 1927  Instructional Material or  Test  frequency range i n y e a r s  Other frequency range i n years  2 1925-1926  1 1927  1 1930  107  TABLE X X I V c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  11  12  1  1  Volume 13  14  15  Books frequency range i n years  1927  1910  10 1908-1937  1910-1933  Journals 1  frequency  1934  range i n y e a r s  14 1911-1935  1885-1935  1929-1936  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n y e a r s  Unpublished Material frequency range i n years  1  1  1935  1926  Instructional Material or  Test  frequency range i n years  1 1925  Other frequency range i n y e a r s  1 1930  3  3  1930-1935  1907-1930  108  TABLE X X I V c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  16  Volume 18  17  19  20  Books frequency range i n y e a r s  1868-1938  11  10  17 1929-1939  1893-1940  1913-1938  10  11  1909-1942  Journals frequency range i n years  13 1900-1938  1923-1939  1907-1940  1894-1940  10 1926-1939  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n years  1  1  1  1933  1925  1925  Unpublished Material frequency range i n years  1 1934  1 1935  Instructional Material or  Test 1  frequency range i n years  1900-1934  1867-1939  5  4  1909-1938  1935-1938  1940  11 1898-1936  Other frequency range i n years  1 1933  1930-1941  1922-1939  109  TABLE X X I V c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  21  22  28  14  Volume 23  24  25  Books frequency range i n y e a r s  1890-1943  1911-1943  15 1910-1940  1910-1946  1928-1947  1917-1945  1857-1943  1917-1946  Journals frequency range i n years  28  21  1910-1942  1918-1943  1  1  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n y e a r s  1917  1 1925  1942  Unpublished Material 1  frequency range i n years  1942  1925-1937  Instructional Material or  Test  range i n years  1916-1943  1938-1939  4  9  1907-1943  1926-1942  Other frequency range i n years  1  1  frequency  1938  1840-1942  1943  110  TABLE XXIV c o n t i n u e d  Type o f Publication  26  27  Volume 28  29  30  6  14  23  33  13  Books frequency range i n y e a r s  1885-1945  1922-1946  10  14  1908-1950  1908-1951  1926-1952  21  10  Journals frequency range i n y e a r s  1901-1948  1923-1948  15 1921-1944  1913-1951  1936-1951  Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency 1937-1938  range i n y e a r s  Unpublished Material 1  1  frequency  1942  range i n y e a r s  1925-1942  1947  Instructional Material or  Test  frequency range i n y e a r s  11  9 1879-1948  1932-1940  1940-1943  1939-1945  1932-1952  5  3  5  3  4  1905-1948  1925-1948  1921-1948  1870-1948  1948-1950  Other frequency range i n y e a r s  Ill  TABLE  XXV  J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d f r o m The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n V o l u m e s 21 t h r o u g h 25 Number o f Citations  Journal  The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School Journal J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y  Cumulative Percentage  184 79 58 46 32  20.98 29.99 36.60 41.85 45.50  Journal of Educational Psychology C h i l d Development J o u r n a l o f Reading American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l Exceptional Children  31 28 20 16 15  49.0 3 52.22 54.50 56.32 58.03  Education Journal of Experimental Education American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s  13 11 11 11 10  59.51 60.76 62.01 6 3.26 64.40  H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Childhood Education Journal of Genetic Psychology S c h o o l Review  9 8 8 8 7  65.43 66.46 67.37 6 8.28 69 .0 8  J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and Verbal Behavior E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review  6 6 5 5 5  69.76 70.44 71.01 71.58 72.15  Journal of Psychology Journalism Quarterly C a l i f o r n i a Journal of Educational J o u r n a l o f Communication American P s y c h o l o g i s t  5 5 4 4 4  72.72 7 3.29 7 3.75 74.21 74.68  4 4 4 4 4  75.13 75.59 76.05 76.50 76.96  Research  Ontario J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research S i g h t - S a v i n g Review Instructor Teachers C o l l e g e Record National Education Association Journal  TABLE XXV  continued Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  Journal of Education P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports National Elementary P r i n c i p a l E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Supervision Journal of Experimental Psychology  4 4 4  77 .41 77.87 78.33  3 3  78.67 79 .01  American J o u r n a l o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y P h i D e l t a Kappan Educational Leadership Journal of Consulting Psychology Research i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h  3 3 3 3 3  79.36 79.70 80.04 80.38 80.72  Journal of Special Education American J o u r n a l o f Optometry J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement Peabody J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading  3 3 3 3 3  81.07 81.41 81.75 82.09 82 .43  Modern L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f the Reading S p e c i a l i s t J o u r n a l of Teacher Education J o u r n a l o f the American M e d i c a l Association A r c h i v e s o f N e u r o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y  3 3 3  82.78 83.12 83.46  3 2  83.80 84.03  Journal.of School Psychology Today s E d u c a t i o n Reading Newsreport English Journal I l l i n o i s School Research  2 2 2 2 2  84 .26 84.49 84.71 84.94 85.17  American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y Nations Schools Behavioral Science Journal of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s Soviet Education  2 2 2 2 2  85.40 85.62 85 .85 86 .08 86 . 31  P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s Boston U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l of A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review Language S c h o o l and S o c i e t y  2 2 2 2 2  86 .54 86 .76 86 .99 87.22 87 .45  1  Education  113  TABLE  XXV  continued  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  J o u r n a l o f Programmed R e a d i n g American J o u r n a l of Psychology. Progressive Education The C l e a r i n g House J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g D i s o r d e r s  2 2 2 2 2  87 .68 87.90 88.13 88 . 36 88.59  Rehabilitation Literature Psychometrika Teachers College Journal Journal of Typographic Research Science  2 2 2 2 2  88.82 89 .05 89.27 89 .50 89 .73  Journal  89 .96  School Library Journal J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y and Q u a r t e r l y Review o f P s y c h i a t r y and NeurologyD e v e l o p m e n t a l M e d i c i n e and C h i l d Neurology Pediatrics Academic Therapy Quarterly  1 1 1  90.19 90 . 30 90 .42  J o u r n a l o f Home E c o n o m i c s Contemporary Psychology Library Quarterly Vocational Guidance.Quarterly Journal of Counseling Psychology  1 1 1 1 1  90 .53 90.64 90.76 90.87 90.99  F o r e i g n Language Annals Reading and Inquiry American Anthropologist J o u r n a l of Reading Behavior Annual Review o f P s y c h o l o g y  1 1 1 1 1  91. 91, 91, 91. 91,  10 21 33 44 55  Teachers World G e n e t i c Psychology Monographs Educational Research Pittsburgh Schools American J o u r n a l o f Optometry and A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n Academy o f Optometry  1 1 1 1  91, 91, 91 92  67 79 90 02  Journal of Neurosurgery Canadian Journal of Psychology National Education Association Elementary Principal The F l o r i d a R e p o r t e r Journal of Applied Psychology  1 1  92, 24 92, 36  1 1 1  92 92 92  90.07  92.13  47 59 70  114  TABLE XXV  continued Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  1 1 1 1  92.81 92.93 93.04 9 3.16-  1  93.27  Language and S p e e c h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research i n Nervous and M e n t a l D i s e a s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f E d u c a t i o n Education Digest P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s  1  9 3.38  1 1 1 1  93.50 93.61 93.73 9 3.84  American J o u r n a l o f D i s o r d e r s i n C h i l d r e n Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology College English Mental Hygiene The U r b a n Review  1 1 1 1 1  9 3.95 94.07 94.18 94.30 94.41  J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r a t i v e and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Psychology Experimental Neurology Psychology i n the Schools American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h Journal o f S o c i a l Psychology  1 1 1 1 1  94.53 9 4.64 9 4.75 94.87 9 4.98  1  95.10  1 1 1 1 1  95.21 9 5.32 9 5.44 9 5.55 9 5.67  American J o u r n a l o f D i s e a s e s o f C h i l d r e n J o u r n a l o f N e u r o l o g y , N e u r o s u r g e r y , and Psychiatry • B r i t i s h Medical Journal New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s The N e r v o u s C h i l d  1  95.78  1 1 1 1  95.89 96.01 9 6.12 96.24  Grade T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h J o u r n a l Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n  1 1 1  96.35 96.46 96.58  Journal  E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y and C l i n i c a l Neurophysiology P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y Reports American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l Journal o f Psychosomatic Research ASHA: J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n S p e e c h and H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n  A r c h i v e s o f Opthalmology Journal of the National Education Association Sociology, o f Education IDEA R e p o r t e r E d u c a t i o n a l Review P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l  115  T A B L E XXV  continued  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  Annals o f Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology Journal of Personality Barnard's Journal o f Education Modern E d u c a t i o n a l Problems School Science and Mathematics  1 1 1 1 1  96.69 96.81 96 .92 97 .03 97.15  Illinois Education Educational Researcher P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study o f t h e C h i l d American Education Journal of General Psychology  1 1 1 1 1  97.26 97.38 97.49 97 .60 97.72  1 1  97 .83 97.95  1 1 1  98.06 98.17 98.29  J o u r n a l o f Research and Development i n Education Science Education J o u r n a l o f Negro Education Archives of Disease i n Childhood Journal of Orthopsychiatry  1 1 1 1 1  98.40 98.52 98.63 98.74 98 .86  The H i g h S c h o o l Journal C a t h o l i c E d u c a t i o n a l Review Review of. A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y Audio V i s u a l Communication Review The Record  1 1 1 1 1  98.97 99.09 99.20 99.31 99.43  Comprehensive P s y c h i a t r y S c h o o l a n d Community Archives of General Psychology Carnegie Quarterly British Journal of Educational  1 1 1 1 1  99.54 99 .66 99.77 99 .88 100.00  Journal  Denver P u b l i c Schools I n s t r u c t i o n Journal of Rehabilitation UNESCO, E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s a n d Documents Journal of Pediatrics General Linguistics  News  Psychology  116  TABLE XXVI J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d from The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n Volumes 26 t h r o u g h 30  Journal The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology.  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  168 81 66 57 42  16 .67 24.71 31.26 36 .91 41.08  Journal of Learning Disabilities J o u r n a l o f Reading J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research Exceptional Children J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and Verbal Behavior  35 29 28 19  44.55 47.43• 50 .21 52.09  15  53.58  C h i l d Development P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review P h i D e l t a Kappan Education  15 13 11 11 10  55.07 56 . 36 57.45 58.55 59.54  10 10 10 10 9  60.53 61.53 62.52 63.51 64.40  N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l American P s y c h o l o g i s t J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior English Journal. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports  9 8 8 8 8  65.30 66.09 66 .89 67.68 68.47  Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h Journal of Experimental Education B r i t i s h Journal o f Educational Psychology Library Journal American J o u r n a l o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y  7 7 7 7 7  69.16 69 . 86 70.55 71.25 71.94  E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement Young C h i l d r e n College English American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y Educational Leadership  6 6 6 6 6  72.54 73.13 73.73' 74.32 74.92  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review American E d u c a t i o n a l Research Psychology, i n the Schools Childhood Education Journal o f Applied Psychology  Journal  117 TABLE XXVI  continued Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  5 5 5 5 5  75.42 75.91 76 .41 76 .90 77.40  Journal of Education Speech T e a c h e r Psychometrika E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Supervision Journal of Genetic Psychology  5 4 4  77.90 78 . 30 78.69  4 4  79 .09 79 .49  S c h o o l Review J o u r n a l o f t h e Reading S p e c i a l i s t Education Digest Teachers C o l l e g e Record Human R e l a t i o n s  4 4 4 4 3  79 . 88 80.28 80.68 81.07 81. 37  Academic Therapy Q u a r t e r l y Peabody-Journal of Education Journal o f School Psychology Journalism Quarterly J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r a t i v e and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Psychology  3 3 3 3  81.67 81.96 82.26 82 .56  3  82.86  Psychonomic Science i Journal of Experimental Psychology Journal of Special Education Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s ,  3 3 3 3 3  83.15 83.45 83.75 84.05 84.35  J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g Disorders Public Opinion Quarterly A r i t h m e t i c Teacher I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of Psychology Today's E d u c a t i o n  3 3 2 2 2  84.65 84.94 85.14 85. 34 85.54  Merrill-Palmer Quarterly F l o r i d a Reading Q u a r t e r l y Journal of Personality American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y R e a d i n g Improvement  2 2 2 2 2  85.73 85.93 86 .13 86.33 86 .53  Journal  J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l Psychology S c h o o l and S o c i e t y J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading Developmental Psychology Grade T e a c h e r  118  TABLE  XXVI  continued  Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  Boston U n i v e r s i t y Journal o f Education J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement Rehabilitation Literature Reading Newsreport Elementary E n g l i s h Review  2 2 2 2 2  86 .73 86 .92 87.12 87.32 87.52  J o u r n a l o f Nervous and Mental Academic Therapy I m p r o v i n g Human P e r f o r m a n c e E v a l u a t i o n Comment Journal o f S o c i a l Psychology  2 2 2 2 2  87.72 87 .92 88.11 88.31 88.51  Word Journal o f Psychology Social Education Science and C h i l d r e n Teachers College Journal.  2 2 2 2 2  88.71 88.91 89 .11 89.30 89 .50  Research i n the Teaching of English Language and Speech B r i t i s h Journal o f Psychology Journal o f American Indian Education American Education  2 1 1 1 1  89 .70 89.80 89 .90 90.00 90 .10  P e d i a t r i c C l i n i c s o f North America Educational Research J o u r n a l o f Human R e s o u r c e The J o u r n a l o f N u r s e r y Education National Education Association Journal  1 1 1 1  90 .20 90 . 30 90.39 90.49 90 .59  Appalachia Journal f o r Special Educators of the Mentally Retarded Advancement o f S c i e n c e P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study o f t h e C h i l d Elementary School Guidance and Counseling  1  90.69  11 1 1  90 .79 90 . 89 90.99 91.09  J o u r n a l o f Reading Disabilities The C h r o n i c l e o f H i g h e r Education J o u r n a l o f t h e American Medical Association Contemporary Psychology J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology  1 1  91.19 91.29  1 1  91.39 91.49  1  91.58  Disease  1  119  TABLE  XXVI  continued  Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review P h y s i c a l Therapy Der S p i e g e l Journal o f P e d i a t r i c Ophthalmology University of California Publications in Education  1 1 1 1  91.68 91.78 91.88 91.98  1  92.08  L i b r a r y Trends Audio-Visual Instructor I l l i n o i s School Research American Journal o f Diseases Reading  1 1 1 1 1  9 2.18 92.28 92.38 92.48 92.58  Focus on E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n Journal o f PhysiologySchool L i b r a r i e s Journal of the Royal Society of Arts Canadian E d u c a t i o n and Research D i g e s t  1 1 1 1 1  9 2.68 92.78 92.87 92.97 93.'07  J o u r n a l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s American Journal o f P s y c h i a t r y Ohio Schools Educational Horizons Journal of Florida Medical Association  1 1 1 1 1  93.17 9 3.27 93.37 9 3.47 9 3.57  The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s Archives of General Psychiatry International Journal of the Sociology of Language American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c Health  1 1 1  9 3.67 9 3.77 9 3.87  1  93.97  1  94.07  Reading Forum Elementary E n g l i s h Journal Journal o f Research i n Science Teaching Science Education J o u r n a l o f Speech and Hearing Research  1 1 1 1 1  94.16 94.26 94.36 94.46 94.56  Cognitive Psychology J o u r n a l o f American Speech and Association American Journal o f Psychology' Personnel Journal Education (New Z e a l a n d )  1  94.66  1 1 1 1  94.76 94.86 94.96 95.06  of Children  Hearing  120  TABLE XXVI  continued Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  J o u r n a l o f Negro E d u c a t i o n Zeitschrift fur Kinderpsychiatrie Mathematics i n Michigan Behavioral Science J o u r n a l of American F o l k l o r e  1 1 1 1 1  95 95 95 95 95  .16 .26 . 35 .45 .55  Scandinavian J o u r n a l of Psychology P e r c e p t i o n and Psychophysics Exceptional Child J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r i c Research The M a t h e m a t i c s T e a c h e r  1 1 1 1 1  95 95 95 95 96  .65 .75 .85 .95 .05  Language A r t s Daedalus J o u r n a l o f Communication Teaching E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n Philosophical Studies  1 1 1 1 1  96 96 96 96 96  .15 .25 .35 .45 .55  Educational Technology Journal of General Psychology V o c a t i o n a l Aspect of Education Ohio Reading Teacher Audiovisual Instruction  1 1 1 1 1  96 96 96 96 97  .64 .74 .84 .94 .04  1 1 1 1 1  97 97 97 97 97  .14 .24 .34 .44 . 54  1  97 .64  1 1 1 1  97 97 97 98  1  98 .13  1  98 .23  1 1 1  98 . 33  Journal of Applied Behavioral Science P a e d o g o g i s c h Forum E n g l i s h Record J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues Transaction J o u r n a l of the American Association Current Medical Digest Journal of P e d i a t r i c s Special Education  Analysis  Optometric  P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l Duke U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s i n Education J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology Viewpoints Learning  .74 .83 .93 .03  98 . A4 "I3 98 .53  121  TABLE XXVI c o n t i n u e d Number o f Citations  Journal  E d u c a t i o n a l Record Personnel Psychology Reading World Language L e a r n i n g D e v e l o p m e n t a l M e d i c i n e and Neurology,  Cumulative Percentage  1 1 1 1  98.63 98.73 9 8.83 9 8.93  1  99.03  Measurement i n E d u c a t i o n The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y Journal of Teacher Education Educational Researcher The E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review  1 1 1 1 1  99.12 99.22 99.32 99.42 99.52  The S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n and Review Research i n E d u c a t i o n Today's Speech Tennessee E d u c a t i o n The S c h o l a s t i c T e a c h e r  1 1 1 1 1  99.62 9 9.72 99.82 99.92 100.00  Child  School L i b r a r y  122  TABLE  XXVII  J o u r n a l s b y Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d from T h e R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n V o l u m e s 21 t h r o u g h 30  Journal  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  352 160 124 89 74  18.67 27.16 33.74 38.46 42.39  Journal o f Educational Psychology Journal o f Reading C h i l d Development. Journal of Learning Disabilities Exceptional Children  7349 43 37 34  46 .26 48.86 51.14 53.10 54.90  American Educational Research Journal P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s Education J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l Learning and Verbal Behavior H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review  26 23 23  56.28 57.50 5 8.72  21 20  59.83 60 . 89  Childhood Education Journal of Experimental Education American Journal o f Orthopsychiatry P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review P h i D e l t a Kappan  18 18 17 15 14  61.84 62 .79 63.69 64.49 65.23  Elementary E n g l i s h Review National Elementary P r i n c i p a l Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research Journal of Genetic Psychology E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement  13 13 12 12.  65.92 66 .61 67.25 67.88  12  68.52  Psychological Reports American P s y c h o l o g i s t Merrill-Palmer Quarterly School Review Psychology i n the Schools  12 12 11 11 11  69 .16 69.79 70.37 70.96 71.54  English Journal Journal of Applied Psychology American Journal o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology Educational Leadership  10 10 10  72.07 72.60 73.13  10 9  73.66 74.14  The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School Journal Reading Research Quarterly Journal o f Educational Research  123  TABLE XXVII  continued Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  9 9 8 8 8  74.61 75.09 75.51 75.94 76.36  J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading S c h o o l and S o c i e t y Library Journal E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Supervision Journal of Psychology  8 7 7  76 .79 77.16 77.53  7 7  77.90 78.28  College English J o u r n a l o f the Reading S p e c i a l i s t Young C h i l d r e n Grade T e a c h e r Peabody. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n  7 7 6 6 6  78.65 79 .02 79 . 34 79.66 79.97  Journal of Experimental Psychology Journal of Special Education Psychometrika Developmental Psychology J o u r n a l o f Communication  6 6 6 5 5  80 .29 80.61 80.93 81.20 81.46  Research i n the Teaching o f E n g l i s h National Education Association Journal Education Digest Journal o f School Psychology P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s  5 5 5 5 5  81.73 81.99 82 .26 82.52 82.79  J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g Disorders Academic Therapy Q u a r t e r l y Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology Boston U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l o f Education  5 5 4 4 4  83.05 83.32 83.53 83.74 83.96  Reading Newsreport Today's E d u c a t i o n Instructor C a l i f o r n i a Journal of Educational Journal of Teacher Education  4 4 4 4 4  84.17 84.38 84 .59 84.81 85.02  Journal J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior Journal of Education Teachers C o l l e g e Record Journalism Quarterly B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  )  Psychology  Research  124  TABLE  XXVII  continued  Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  4  85. ,23  4 4 4 4  85. ,44 85. ,65 85. ,87 86 .,08  Teachers College Journal J o u r n a l of the American Medical Association Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y Behavioral Science Modern Language J o u r n a l  4  86 .,29  4 3 3 3  86 .,50 86 .,66 86 .,82 86. ,98  American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y I l l i n o i s School Research Science Psychonomic Science American J o u r n a l of Optometry  3 3. 3 3 3  87. ,14 87 .,30 87. ,45 87. ,61 87. ,77  Journal of S o c i a l Psychology American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review Public Opinion Quarterly American Journal of Psychology Journal of Consulting Psychology  3 3 3 3 3  87. .93 88 ..09 88, .25 88, .41 88 ,.57  Human R e l a t i o n s F l o r i d a Reading Q u a r t e r l y Language Word Journal of P e d i a t r i c s  3 2 2 2 2  88, .73 88 ,.84 88, .94 89 ,.05 89 ,.15  Contemporary Psychology P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l Academic Therapy Educational Research New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies  2 2 2 2  89, .26 89 . 37 89 .47 89 .58  2  89 .68  The C l e a r i n g House J o u r n a l o f Programmed R e a d i n g A r c h i v e s o f N e u r o l o g y and Psychiatry Progressive Education American Education  2 2 2 2 2  89 89 90 90 90  Sight-Saving Review Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Rehabilitation Literature Ontario Journal of Educational Speech Teacher  Research  .79 .90 .00 .10 .22  125  TABLE  XXVII  continued  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  International Journal of Psychology Elementary E n g l i s h Journal School L i b r a r y Journal Journal o f General Psychology Arithmetic Teacher  2 2 2 2 2  90.32 90.43 90 .54 90 .64 90.75  P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c Health I m p r o v i n g Human Performance Developmental M e d i c i n e and C h i l d Neurology Nations Schools  2 2 2  90 .85 90 .96 91.07  2 2  91.17 91.28  Social Education J o u r n a l o f Nervous and Mental D i s e a s e E v a l u a t i o n Comment Reading Improvement American J o u r n a l o f Diseases o f C h i l d r e n  2 2 2 2 2  91. 91. 91. 91, 91,  38 49 60 70 81  J o u r n a l o f Negro E d u c a t i o n Educational Researcher Journal o f Typographic Research Science and C h i l d r e n P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study o f t h e C h i l d  2 2 2 2 2  91, 92, 92, 92, 92  92 02 13 23 34  American J o u r n a l o f Sociology Language and Speech Soviet Education Science Education Journal of Counseling Psychology  2 2 2 2 1  92.45 92.55 92.66 92.76 92.81  Canadian J o u r n a l o f Psychology Physical Therapy Advancement o f S c i e n c e Journal of Rehabilitation Elementary School Guidance and C o u n s e l i n g  1 1 1 1 1  92 92 92 93 93  Mathematics i n Michigan The F l o r i d a R e p o r t e r J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y and Q u a r t e r l y Review o f P s y c h i a t r y and Neurology ASHA: J o u r n a l o f t h e American Speech and H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n Reading  1 1  93 ,13 93 ,18  Journal  ,87 ,92 ,97 ,03 ,08  93.24 1 1  93.29 93.34  126  TABLE  XXVII  continued  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  1 1 1 1  9 3.40 93.45 9 3.50 9 3.56  1  9 3.61  1 1 1  9 3.66 9 3.71 9 3.77  1 1  9 3.82 9 3.87  F o r e i g n Language Annals National Education Association Elementary P r i n c i p a l University of California Publications in Education G e n e t i c Psychology Monographs Annual Review o f Psychology  1  9 3.93  1  9 3.98  1 1 1  94.03 94.09 94.14  Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Journal Journal o f Neurosurgery Educational Horizons Journal o f the Royal Society of Arts  1 1 1 1 1  9 4.19 94.25 9 4.30 94.35 9 4.40  Teaching Exceptional Children J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology Personnel Journal American Anthropologist  1  94.46  1 1 1 1  94.51 94.56 9 4.62 94.67  Journal o f Research i n Science Teaching E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y , and C l i n i c a l Neurophysiology Library Quarterly The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y International Journal of the Sociology of Language  1  94.72  1 1 1  94.78 94.83 9 4.88  1  9 4.94  Journal  American J o u r n a l o f Disorders i n Children Journal of Florida Medical Association Education (New Z e a l a n d ) J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research i n Nervous and M e n t a l D i s e a s e J o u r n a l o f C h i l d Psychology and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s Cognitive Psychology P a e d a g o g i s c h Forum American J o u r n a l o f Optometry and A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n Academy o f Optometry Journal o f Psychosomatic Research  TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d  Journal  Barnard's J o u r n a l of Education R e a d i n g Forum A n n a l s o f O t o l o g y , R h i n o l o g y , and Laryngology J o u r n a l o f Home E c o n o m i c s Duke U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s in Education  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  1 1  94.99 9 5.04  1 1  9 5.09 95.15  1  95.20  1 1  95.25 95.31  1 1 1  95.36 9 5.41 95.47  Z e i t s c h r i f t Fur K i n d e r p s y c h i a t r i e J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology Experimental Neurology Ohio Reading Teacher Special Education  1  95.52  1 1 1 1  95.58 9 5.62 9 5.68 95.73  IDEA R e p o r t e r Archives of General Psychology P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y Reports The M a t h e m a t i c s T e a c h e r Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and P s y c h i a t r y  1 1 1 1  9 5.78 95.84 95.89 95.94  1  96.00  E d u c a t i o n a l Review Language A r t s Research i n E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l of American Indian E d u c a t i o n C a t h o l i c E d u c a t i o n a l Review  1 1 1 1 1  96.05 96.10 96.16 96.21 96.26  Philosophical Studies Vocational Aspect of Education J o u r n a l o f Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s E n g l i s h Record Mental Hygiene  1 1 1 1 1  96.31 9 6.37 96.42 96.47 96.53  The E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review J o u r n a l o f American F o l k l o r e Audiovisual Instruction R e a d i n g and I n q u i r y Transaction  1 1 1  96.58 96.63 96.69  1  96.79  J o u r n a l of the N a t i o n a l Education Association S c h o o l and Community J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n S p e e c h and H e a r i n g Association Daedalus P e d i a t r i c C l i n i c s of North America  1  96.74  128  TABLE  XXVII  continued  Number o f Citations  Journal  Cumulative Percentage  J o u r n a l o f Human R e s o u r c e Der Spiegel Journal of the American Optometric Association S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis  1 1  96 . 84 9 6 . 90  1 1 1  9 6 . 95 97 . 00 9 7 . 06  Comprehensive P s y c h i a t r y Ohio Schools Viewpoints Journal of P s y c h i a t r i c Research F o c u s on E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n  1 1 1 1 1  9 7 . 11 97 . 16 97 . 22 97 . 27 9 7 . ,32  Modern E d u c a t i o n a l Problems Sociology of Education Illinois Education Archives of Disease i n Childhood Personnel Psychology.  1 1 1 1 1  97. , 38 97 .,43 97 .,48 97. ,53 97. ,59  The J o u r n a l o f N u r s e r y Education Journal of P e d i a t r i c Ophthalmology Educational Record Language L e a r n i n g Scandinavian Journal of Psychology  1 1 1 1 1  97. ,6 4 97 ,.69 97 ..75 97 ..80 97 ,. 85  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f Education C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h D i g e s t Pediatrics V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Quarterly Journal, of Social Issues  1 1 1 1 1  97, .91 97, .96 98 ,.01 98 ,.07 98 .12  Exceptional Child Learning Teachers World Journal f o r Special Educators Mentally Retarded Audio-Visual Instructor  1 1 1  98 .17 98 .22 98 .28  1 1  98 . 33 98 . 38  1  98 .44  1 1 1 1  98 98 98 98  of  Pittsburgh Schools The S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n and S c h o o l Review Journal of Orthopsychiatry Educational Technology Measurement i n E d u c a t i o n  the  Library  .49 . 54 .60 .65  129  TABLE  XXVII  continued  Journal  Number o f Citations  Cumulative Percentage  School L i b r a r i e s Journal o f Physiology Current Medical Digest L i b r a r y Trends The R e c o r d  1 1 1 1 1  9 8.70 9 8.75 9 8.81 98.86 9 8.91  J o u r n a l o f Research and Development in Education General L i n g u i s t i c s The C h r o n i c l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n Archives o f Opthalmology Today's Speech  1 1 1 1 1  9 8.97 99.02 99.07 99.13 99.18  Carnegie Quarterly ' Reading World Audio V i s u a l Communication Review The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l D e n v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s I n s t r u c t i o n News  1 1 1 1 1  99.23 99.29 99.34 99.39 99.44  Tennessee Education Appalachia The S c h o l a s t i c T e a c h e r B r i t i s h Medical Journal Review o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y  1 1 1 1 1  99.50 99.55 99.60 99.66 9 9.71  Archives o f General Psychiatry The N e r v o u s C h i l d UNESCO, E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s a n d Documents The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y The U r b a n Review  1 1  9 9.76 99.82  1 1 1  99.87 99.92 100.00  

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