UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Content analysis of The reading teacher, 1948-1977 Tolsma, Catherine Colette 1977-02-18

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 T64.pdf [ 6.87MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094066.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094066-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094066-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094066-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094066-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094066-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094066-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094066-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094066.ris

Full Text

CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE READING TEACHER - 19 4 8-19 7 7 by CATHERINE COLETTE TOLSMA B.B.A.> University of Iowa, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of READING EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard Thesis Supervisor Advisor UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 (jO Catherine Colette Tolsma In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at.the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely -available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying.of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Reading Education The University of British Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada. V6T 1W5 September, 19 7 7 iii ABSTRACT The results from a content analysis of an elementary read ing education journal, The Reading Teacher, are reported in this study. Retrospective bibliometric analysis of the journal focussed on three dimensions: subjective classification of articles published in Volumes 21 through 30, determination of selected content trends and demographic characteristics of articles published in Volumes 1 through 30, and analysis of referenced journals in Volumes 21 through 30. The 20 Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher, con taining 18 major categories and 31 sub-categories, was used as a base for the subjective classification. Empirical classification of the 844 articles contained in Volumes 21-through 30 resulted in the addition of five additional sub-categories. Demographic characteristics of the articles were determined using eight variables: topical trends, multiple authorship, sex of author, author occupation, geographic location of author, citations per volume, type of publication cited, and age of cited material. Data were presented in frequency counts and percentages, and collapsed into three ten-year time periods to detect trends and shifts in emphases over the thirty volume years. With articles classified according to subject matter, two areas received the greatest emphasis: Reading Instruction and Skill Development. Major categories remained quite stable over the three time periods, with shifts occurring among the sub-categories. The majority of articles were single authored (82.6%); authorship was approximately equally divided between men and women over.the thirty volume years, with a noticeable increase in male authors in recent years. The most productive contributors were affiliated with colleges.and universities and resided in the eastern sections of the United States. The number of publications.cited showed a steady increase across the thirty volume period, with an increase observed in the number and percentage of books cited and a slight decrease in journal citation. Relatively high median ages were found for cited material with a trend toward citation of newer, material and cited material representing.archival and near archival ages in comparison with similar results from science disciplines. The third section of the study investigated the core and support literature structure of elementary reading based on the frequency with which different journals were cited by authors publishing in Volumes .21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher. It was found that the Pareto characteristic identified in previous research held for this literature collection with eight.titles accounting for 51.14 percent of the cited journals. These eight titles could be considered the core elementary reading journals, and include three reading journals, two general elementary journals,. two educational research journals,. and one English journal. A wide variety of support journal literature was identified suggesting: that elementary reading interacts with a broad interdisciplinary base representative of education and other academic fields. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Background ............. 2 Statement of the Problem 3 Significance of the Study ..... 4 Limitations . . . . . ... . ... . .... . 5 Definition of Terms . . . . . . .... . . . . . 6 Overview . . ... . ... . . .-. . ... . . . 6 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE ... 7 Content Analysis 8 Subjective Classification ... 9 Topical Trend Analysis ........... 10 Multiple Authorship . . . .... ... . . . 13 Sex of Author ...... 14 Author Occupation ......... 15 Geographic Location of Author . 16 Citations per Volume . .  17 Type of Publication Cited .......... 19 Age of Cited Material 21 Core and Support Journal Literature . ... . . 22 Summary . . ... . ... . ... . 25 III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27 Publication of The Reading Teacher . 27 Subjective Classification of Articles ..... 28 Demographic Characteristics ..... 31 Topical Trend Analysis . . ... 32 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Multiple Authorship • . • . . ... . . 32 Sex of Author . . .... . . . . . .•. . . . 33 Author Occupation . . ... .•. . . ... . .•. 33 Geographic Location of Author ........ 33 Citations per Volume . . . . . 34 Type of Publication Cited ... . ... . .•.• 34 Age of Cited Material . . ... . .•. . . .•. 35 Core and Support Journal Literature ... . . . 35 Summary . • . . . . . . . . 36 IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . ... ... . ... . . . 37 Subjective Classification of Articles . . ... 37 Demographic.Characteristics .......... 40 Topical Trend Analysis . . . . . ... . . . 40 Multiple Authorship . . .•.-. . .... ... 48 Sex of Author .......... 51 Author Occupation . ...... ... . . ... 51 Geographic Location of Author ... 54 Citations per Volume . . ... . 54 Type of. Publication Cited 56 Age of Cited Material . . . .•. . ... . . . 58 Core and Support Journal Literature ... . . . 58 V SUMMARY,. CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY ....... 70 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Subjective Classification of Articles .... 70 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Demographic Characteristics ... 71 Core and Support Journal Literature 7 3 Conclusions . ... . .... ... . .•. . . . 74 Recommendations . . . ... . .•. . .... . . 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY • . • . . . . • . . ... . ... 79 APPENDICES .  . • . . ... 83 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I ARTICLES BY MAJOR. CATEGORIES ACROSS..THREE TIME..PERIODS . . ...... 41-II ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN READING INSTRUCTION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 4 3 III ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN DEVELOPMENT OF READING SKILLS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . ... . . . . 45-IV ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . ... . ... . 46 V ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN READING PERSONNEL ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . = . . . . . . . 47 VI ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN. READING PROBLEMS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . 49 VII MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS ... 50 VIII SEX OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 52 IX AUTHOR OCCUPATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS .... 53 X GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . .... . . 55 XI TYPE OF PUBLICATION CITED ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . ... . ... 57 XII AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY PUBLICATION TYPE ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 59 XIII ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY TYPE OF PUBLICATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 60 XIV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25 ..... . 62 XV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30 6 3 XVI JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30 66 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-25 . . ............ 64 2 JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 26-30 ..... . 65 3 JOURNALS CITED IN THE.READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-30 . 69 X LIST OF APPENDICES PAGE APPENDIX A DATA CODING SYSTEM 84 APPENDIX B TABLES XVII THROUGH XXVII ..... 86 TABLE XVII ARTICLE FREQUENCY BY MAJOR AND SUB CATEGORIES ACROSS 30 VOLUME YEARS 7 86 XVIII MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP BY VOLUME 92 XIX SEX OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME . 9 3 XX AUTHOR OCCUPATION BY VOLUME 94 XXI GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME .... 95 XXII CITATIONS BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION . . 97 XXIII AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION 99 XXIV ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION 105 XXV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25 Ill XXVI JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30 116 XXVII JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30 122. xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. Edward G. Summers, my thesis advisor, for his assistance and advice throughout all stages of the study. Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert D. Chester, my advisor, for his cooperation and encouragement. To my children, Valerie, Melissa, Gerrit, and Jeremy, I thank you for your conscientious.assistance .in tabulating data whenever possible; I also thank you for your tolerance when you were unable to help. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The Reading Teacher has grown from its infancy at Temple University in 194 8 to a mature/ highly respected journal. It enjoys a world audience, its published articles are widely cited, and it is recognized as a strong force in the development of reading as a distinct and separate field within education. Herschman (1970) suggests that the function of a profes sional journal is basically threefold: to record information, disseminate information, and convey prestige and recognition. Borko and Bernier (19 75) elaborated on these three functions. 1. It disseminates information among members of a scientific [professional] community who have similar or overlapping interests and who need to maintain a current awareness by keeping up with developments in their fields of interest. 2. It links producers and users of information by a record of achievements that can be used for retrospective searching. The journal provides a public record, prepared with quality control through the editor-referee system, a means for establishing priority, and an orderly basis for transforming data into information and for relating new knowledge to prior knowledge so as to form a corpus. It packages results of research and development. 3. It performs an important social function, for it conveys prestige and recognition upon its authors, (pp. 147-148) The relative importance of these three functions has shifted over the years. The current awareness role has lessened: research reports are now presented at conventions and meetings, with the journal article reporting the research following the 2 initial presentation. Literature expansion in virtually every discipline has made it impossible for the researcher or practi tioner to be, "currently aware" of all primary journal articles relevant in his field. Because of publication lag and the sheer volume of material being printed, the current awareness function of the journal has decreased in importance. Thus, the use of the journal as an archival resource has increased. It becomes increasingly impor tant that good retrospective bibliographies be developed to provide access to the large quantities of information now avail able on specific topics. The journal literature becomes an educational and historical resource of accumulated knowledge. Journals remain of primary importance today, as noted by Kuney (1968), who emphasized that "as a medium for the publication and distribution of scientific knowledge it [the journal] remains the most widely used tool offered by the present system of information transfer." Background A journal published and distributed by a professional society has a significant impact on the growth and development of that field. The Reading Teacher, as the primary elementary publication of the International Reading Association (IRA) for the past three decades, has played a vital role in the dissemi nation of information and research about the teaching of reading and the reading process. Kline, in.an editorial published in the journal in 1972, commented on difficulties encountered in the melding of research, classroom,, and journal. 3 A professional journal's role is to try to accommodate a unity within the profession—in this instance, a unity between researcher and practitioner. Unfortunately, the detached observation and analysis of uncontaminated data that are so crucial to excel lence in formal research appear to preclude the synthesis, creativity, and occasional warm fuzziness that are among the sorest needs in a teacher, and vice versa, (p; 724) Statement of the Problem This investigation uses content analysis as a bibliometric research tool to determine characteristics and identify trends and developments in The Reading Teacher across its thirty volume years. The analysis focuses on three dimensions of the- profes sional reading journal. 1. Articles published in Volumes 21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher are classified.into a modified version of the empirically developed classification scheme used in the 20,Year Annotated Index to The  Reading Teacher (Summers, 1969). 2. Demographic characteristics of the thirty published volumes of The Reading Teacher are determined, including a topical trend analysis with data presented in three time periods to afford compari sons; four author characteristics including number of authors per article, sex, geographic location, and occupation; and citation analyses based on the number of citations per volume, type of publication cited, and age of cited materials. 3. Journal titles from articles referenced in the most recent (1967-1977) ten volumes are tabulated and 4 ranked to illustrate the core and support journal literature structure of elementary reading. Significance of the Study By objectively and systematically analyzing the thirty volume years of The Reading Teacher retrospectively, character istics of the journal articles can be determined. Since the total population of journal articles is used, all differences observed will be significant. More specifically, the three dimensions of content analysis will provide the following: 1. Classification of articles in the ten most recent volumes, combined with notation of categories to which articles in the first twenty volumes were assigned, provides data which can be further analyzed to determine substantive emphases and trends in elementary reading. The classification also serves as the first step in updating the 20  Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher and improving access to the total thirty year content of the journal. 2. The demographic characteristics of.the articles can be determined directly from attributes of content; the historical record of the professional journal emerges, and trends and shifts of emphases can be noted. As Summers (1969) pointed out, "In a sense, the history of the IRA is also the history of The Reading Teacher." 3. By examining the core and support journal literature 5 structure the interactions between elementary reading and other fields of education can be observed. The core journals (titles most heavily cited) define the central nucleus of literature related to elementary reading while the support journals (those less heavily cited) indicate broader interdisciplinary interactions. Limitations Several limitations are inherent in a content analysis of this type. First, the extension of the classification system is based on subjective judgment. Although an attempt was made to objectively assign articles to categories according to their substantive content, the background and bias of the classifier are influential in the final judgment as to the inclusion of an article in a.specific category. Secondly,.a proliferation of publications exist on the topic of elementary reading. This study is limited to only those articles published from 19 4 8 to 19 77 in thirty volume years of The Reading Teacher. As an official organ of a profes sional reading association, it.was felt that the contents of the journal provide a valid data base which can be used to generalize developments and trends in the field. A third limitation of the study involves the citation analysis. It is assumed that authors are citing materials directly relevant to their work and not for prestige or frivolous, purposes. Thus, a direct relationship can be assumed to exist between the citing and cited documents, so that further analyses 6 of these communication linkages are accurate and relevant. Definition of Terms The following definitions are applicable in this study: 1. Content analysis A bibliometric research technique which provides descriptive data as to the characteristics of a population of journal articles. 2. Subjective classification The descriptor(s) assigned to a group of articles with similar sub stantive content. 3. Citation Any material an author references in an article, in either reference lists or footnotes. 4. Core and support journals Groups of journal titles cited by The Reading TeacherAauthors which are ranked and clustered according to frequency of citation. Overview The present study is a content analysis of The Reading  Teacher, involving the three dimensions discussed previously. Chapter II reviews literature relating to the problem and synthesizes previous research to provide the conceptual frame work. In Chapter III the methodology is outlined, along with the mechanics involved in collecting and analyzing the data and preparing portions of it for computer analysis. The results of the study are presented in Chapter IV. The study is summarized in Chapter V, and conclusions and recommendations for further research complete the report. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE Contents of professional journals reflect the interests, trends, and developments within a discipline. This organized body of knowledge can be systematically examined in numerous ways. Formal analytic and predictive techniques have been developed in the field of information science to aid the researcher in the study of subject literatures. As a group, these techniques are referred to as bibliometrics. Fairthorne (1969) defined bibliometrics as "the quantitative treatment of the properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it." According to Buckland (1974), it is an area that is likely to become more important for two reasons: (1) it is unavoidable if the new emphasis on measures of performance [in library' and information systems] is here to.stay; and (2) analyses of growth, epidemics, scattering, obsolescence, and the like take on new significance when seen . . .as the means of exploring the production, distribution, and utilization of intellectual products. (p. 364) Literature analyses can contribute both understanding and insight to a professional field, and can focus on numerous areas, including: (1) the history of the field, (2) the problems toward which it is or was oriented, ° (3) the contents of accumulated knowledge, (4) the communication means and channels, 8 (5) substantive trends and developments, and (6) the people in the field. This chapter reviews bibliometric studies from various disciplines, representing both scientific fields and the social sciences, to provide a conceptual base for the content analysis of The Reading Teacher. A brief section characterizing subjec tive classification is included. Nine aspects of content analysis research are investigated: (1) topical trend analysis, (2) multiple authorship, (3) sex of author, (4) author occupa tion, (5) geographic location of author, (6) citations per volume, (7) type of publication cited, (8) age of cited material, and (9) core and support journals. Content Analysis . According to Holsti (1969) content analysis is "a multi purpose research method developed specifically . for investigating a broad spectrum of problems in which the content of communica tion serves as the basis of inference." The design of a content analysis study is dependent upon the questions addressed. Scientific analysis.of communication content requires objec tivity, system, and generality. To have objectivity, the analysis must be carried out on the basis of explicitly formulated rules which will enable two or more persons to obtain the same results from the same documents. In a systematic analysis the inclusion and exclusion of content or categories is done according to consistently applied criteria of.selection; this requirement eliminates analyses in which only materials supporting the investigator's hypotheses are examined. By generality we mean that the findings must have theoretical relevance; purely descriptive information, about content, unrelated to other attributes of content or to the characteristics of the sender or. recipient 9 of the message, is of little scientific value. These three requirements are not unique to content analysis, but are necessary1 conditions, for all scientific inquiry. (p. 598) Data in content analysis are presented in frequency counts and percentages. The resultant quantitative data derive meaning when used as bases for comparisons and meaningful inferences. Subjective Classification Categories in the 20_ Year Annotated Index to . The Reading Teacher were empirically derived. Lancaster (1972) defines the process of empirically generating a controlled vocabulary for indexing. In this approach: . . . the initial vocabulary, is ..derived by means of the free indexing of a sample.of documents. The candidate terms resulting from this procedure are then reviewed, grouped,.and structured into a useful organization. (p. 27) Any further updating of an index should maintain the exist ing categories and follow the original classification scheme in developing new categories. As Holsti (1969) points out: The advantage of.standardization are the same as in any area of scholarship: results may be compared across studies and findings will tend to become cumulative. (p. 101) Based on an extensive evaluation of the literature related to indexing and classification, Dartnell (1977) strongly emphasized the desirability of an empirical approach to develop ment of categories and sub-categories rather than an; approach, based on preconceived, categories generated by a single investi gator or a committee of authorities in-the field. Such an approach insures that the resultant classification, schedule reflects the actual substantive content of the .document 10 collection and avoids artificiality induced through committee bias or oversight. The validity of the empirical .approach was. recently supported in a study by Jeroski (1977) wherein an extensive collection of dissertation research in secondary reading was successfully classified through analysis of document content. Topical Trend Analysis ©elineatien of substantive trends in various social science and education areas have been reported based on analysis of published journal literature. Sewell (1965) examined the types, magnitudes, and adequacy of research..interests in the field of rural sociology as illustrated by articles published in Rural  Sociology during the period 1936-1965. Data were presented by ten-year periods, with articles classified according to major areas and topics. It was concluded that a.number of trends in rural sociological research with a rather firm empirical base were identified. A number of less well-documented impressions were also discussed. Dickinson and Rusnell (1971) analyzed twenty volumes of Adult Education.published.between 1950 and 19 70 to ascertain trends and patterns in the development.of the discipline of adult education. Variables were examined by five-year periods. Several distinct trends were noted, which were characteristic of developments generally in the study and - practice of adult education. Long and Agyekum (1974) used this study as a base and extended their analysis to examine the circumstances that contributed to the increasing number of research-based articles 11 and the relationship of different editors to certain findings. Nine complete volumes of Adult. Education spanning the years 1964 to 19 73 were analyzed. The authors concluded that Adult  Education reflected changes and trends in.the discipline during the period examined, in their study. A study conducted by Foreman (1966) used content analysis to identify publication trends in counseling journals. Articles published in six counseling related journals from 1954 through 1965 were -classified according to basis of financial support and approach to a problem (theoretical-speculative or empirical). Evidence presented by Foreman indicated that journals in counseling psychology were moving.on.several dimensions in the direction of growing similarity to the more traditional psy chology journals. Also in the discipline of counseling, Munley (1974) reported a content analysis of the first. 19 volumes of the Journal of Counseling Psychology. Articles were classified into seventeen content categories and three methodological character istics were recorded: (1) subject population, studied, (2) sex composition of sample, and (3) number of subjects. Munley concluded that his general content analysis provided a.view of counseling psychology identity in-terms of research publications. Three decades of Social Education-were studied by Chapin and Gross (1970). A sample of 600 articles.published during the time periods 1937-38, 1947-48,.1957-58, and 1967-68 provided the data base. Articles were classified.into subject areas and shifts in.emphases were noted. The authors interpreted their findings to indicate that Social Education had reflected changes 12 in the discipline, but felt that the journal had not always been "on the cutting edge of change." A content analysis of the IPA secondary publication, the Journal of Reading, was reported in a recent study by Dartnell (1977). An empirically based classification system was developed, and the 984 articles published in 19 volume years were classified into 13 major categories and .41. sub-categories. Over-all trends in categories and sub-categories were investigated as to major substantive groupings of published articles and shifts in topical emphases. Analysis of the 13 categories revealed that they remained relatively stable over time, although shifts did occur within the sub-categories. One of the sub-category shifts was related to a change in editorial policy. In the Journal of - Reading articles, the most evident change due to the three shifts in editorial policy across the time span was the increase in secondary, remedial program . descriptions. Until Volume 8, the journal did not accept articles on -remedial or corrective reading. Thus, to make a judgment on the relative importance of this sub-category over time, based on a comparison between the number of articles in the first time period and the third, would be misleading. (pp. 168-169) Current literature in the field of science education was analyzed by Ayers (1974) . Nine journals were chosen to repre sent the current literature of science education, and the 2,09 3 articles published in the journals between January 1970 and December 1971 served.as .the data base.. Trends.were determined in both type and scope.of articles. From this information the author was able to determine gaps in the science education literature and make recommendations regarding areas for future research and dissemination of information. 13 Multiple Authorship Authorship patterns can represent the extent of collabora tive research and effort in a field. Earlier studies in chemistry (Price, 196 3), behavioral sciences (Parker, Paisley and Garrett, 1967), and sociology (Lin and Nelson, 1969) suggested that co-authorship is generally increasing. Several recent studies have also reported an increase in co-authorship. Dickinson and Rusnell (1971), in,their content analysis of twenty volume years of Adult Education, found an increase in mean authors per article, from. 1.13 in Volumes 1-5 to 1.41 in Volumes 16-20. Barnett (1976) examined a collection of reading research journal literature and reported a steady decline in the single-authored document: only 55 percent of articles, published in the late 1960's were single authored, compared with 75 percent in the early 1940's. These results suggested: . . . a trend in reading to more collaborative work, and may indicate that financial support of project-type activity in reading research is becoming more characteristic of the field. (pp. 125-126) Single versus multiple authorship in. the Journal of Reading was examined by Dartnell (19 77). Authorship data were tabulated for each article, in one of four categories.: one, two, three, and four or more authors. Percentages of articles in the latter two categories remained relatively consistent over the nineteen-year period. An increase in dual authorship was noted, which corresponded with a change in editorship of the journal. 14 Sex of Author The proportion of male and female authors appears to be of minimal interest to researchers. This seems surprising in view of the women's movement during the last decade; perhaps it would be considered discriminatory to include author.sex as a variable in content analysis. An.analysis by sex would.seem.an important variable in education with its large percentage of female professionals. A recent report by Waters (1975) suggests sig-nificantsex differences in ..written composition on variables such as subject matter, word choice, tone, metaphor, and per spective. Content analysis by sex could illuminate some interesting differences.in professional writing. Changes were found in percentages of male and female authors..in. Social Education (Chapin and Gross, 1970). The highest percentage (28%) of women authors was observed in the earliest period of the journal's publication, in 1937-38. During the .most recent.period, 1967-68, only 14 percent of the articles were written by females. The authors speculated as to the cause of the shifting percentages. These changes may reflect the actual-ratio.changes that have occurred in the field of social studies, which parallel.a total increase in.the percentage of male teachers.in elementary and secondary'educa tion in the. last half-century. There are probably fewer women, proportionately, in social studies in higher education and in the secondary school as compared to the 1937-38 period..' It is difficult to speculate whether.the downward trend will continue, (p. 794) In a follow-up to.the analysis.of the 20 volume years of the Journal of.Reading, Dartnell (1977a) found approximately two-thirds of 984 articles authored by males and one-third by 15 females. Male authorship has declined over the twenty years from a figure of three-fourths to two-thirds. Author Occupation The role focus of professionals writing in a field has been examined in content analysis research using journal collections. Dickinson and Rusnell (1971), Ayers (1974), Chapin and Gross (1970), and Dartnell (1977) reported that the majority of journal articles in their respective studies were authored by educators affiliated with colleges or universities. Percentages of authors employed in higher education in the four studies ranged from 60.7 to 77.2 percent. This sub-section of university based authors was further analyzed by Goodstein (196 3) who categorized each of 351 major articles that appeared in the first eight volumes of the Journal  of Counseling Psychology according to the institutional identi fication of author(s). The analysis was to provide some under standing of the influences shaping the development of the journal and identify centers of counseling research and scholarship. Goodstein's study was later replicated and extended by Bohn, Jr. (1966). Institutional sources of articles in Volumes 9 through 12 of the Journal of Counseling Psychology were tabulated and comparisons were made with Goodstein's tabulation for Volumes 1 through 8. Changes in the specific institutions leading in production of articles were noted. Graduate school origins of Journal of Counseling Psychology authors were reviewed by Walsh, Feeney, and Resnick (1969). The 16 fourteen-year period from 1954 to 1967 was analyzed, with the data divided into two seven-year periods. Comparisons were made between high ranking graduate school origins and high ranking institutional producers as identified by Goodstein (1963) and Bohn, Jr. (1966), with a consistency noted. The analysis suggested that no .one,.institution seemed to dominate publishing in the journal and that changes in rank from the first to second time period were not significant. Long and Agyekum extended their analysis of author affili ation to identifying individual contributors.to Adult Education. They were surprised .to ..discover .that "the productive contribu tors . . . [were] not generally.the reputational leaders in adult education." The authors concluded that there appeared to be a relationship between the editor and institutional affili ation of contributors. For examplecontributions from Chicago graduates were highest when White, a.graduate of that institu tion, was editor. Similarly, the percent and aggregate .number of articles published by Wisconsin graduates were highest during Boyd's tenure. Boyd is on the faculty at Wisconsin. (p. 114) Geographic Location of Author . Inherent in identification of an author's institutional affiliation is his geographic location. Meaningful comparisons of author productivity can also be made by.designating geo graphic regions and tabulating where articles originated. Authors of Social Education were.tabulated by geographic area within five designated regions in the United States (Chapin and Gross1970). The greatest majority of authors were from 17 the East; however, this percentage declined over the years, and the Far West representation steadily increased. The remaining three regions provided relatively stable numbers of articles over the thirty-year time period. Five United States geographic areas were also.used by Ayers (1974) to examine the origins.of 2,093-journal articles published in science.education literature. Again, the majority of authors resided in the.eastern half. of the United States. The author speculated that this' could be attributed to the high population concentration in that. section . of the country.. Dartnell's. (1977a) analysis of twenty.volumes of the Journal of Reading revealed a similar pattern.of geographic spread with Eastern, authors accounting for over: 32 percent of total articles. -A-heavy concentration in.the Great Lakes was also noted (22.3%) with the. Southeastern region increasing considerably.in. recent years and accounting: for 14.9 percent of total articles for the twenty years. Citations per Volume Citations in.articles, indicate the extent to which the author is writing idiosyncratically' or interacting with the literature of the field. It has also often been stated, with appropriate reservations, that extent of citations can indicate theorelative "scholarliness" of publications. In an attempt to describe the total world network of scientific papers, Price (1965) reported an.average of about 15 references cited in each published journal.article,.of which 12. were to. other serial publications. He•further discussed the incidence of references: 18 . . . about 10 percent of the papers contain no references at all; this notwithstanding, 50 percent of the references come from the 85 percent of the papers that are of the "normal" research type and contain 25 or fewer references apiece. (p. 145) In their study of eight social science journals in psy chology and sociology, Parker, Paisley and Garrett (1967) reported an average of 8.4 citations per article, in 19 50, 9.4 in 1955, 15.2 in 1960 and 15.2, again, in 1965. Barnett (19 76), surveying developmental characteristics of a reading research journal literature collection., noted a steady increase in.average number of citations per article. This figure increased from 6.89 citations.per - article in.1959 to 12.61 citations per article in 1972suggesting a.considerable increase in literature interaction in reading research-over the 13 year period of- the study. Citations per volume were examined by Dartnell (1977) to provide a rough index of the interaction between authors and the extant information base in.. secondary . reading . The number of citations, excluding those from reviews and bibliographies, were tabulated for each of nineteen volumes of the Journal of Reading. Data were presented in three time periods, and a steady increase in citations per volume was observed when all articles were considered: the average rose from 2.44 citations in the first time period to.4.25 citations in the most recent time period. Adjusting the data to include only those articles carrying cita tions underscored this increase; average .citations per article increased from 4.75. in.Volumes 1-7 to 6.26 in Volumes 15-19. Uneven citation patterns were reported for Social.Education 19 (Chapin and Gross, 1970). Bibliographic citations were classi fied into three categories: books; periodicals; and monographs, letters, bulletins, newspapers, documents, etc. There were no consistent patterns, observed in,the three.categories by volume. Articles containing no bibliographic citations were further examined; again an uneven pattern, emerged. In 1937-38, 40% of the articles had no bibliographic citations. In 1947-48, 46% of the articles had no bibliographic citations.while, in 1957-58 the figure rose to 7 8%. Then there was a statistically signifi cant change from 19 57-5 8.to 1967-68; only 48% of all articles in 1967-68 contained no bibliographic citations. (pw 791) Type of Publication. Cited Type of publication cited can.reveal the degree to which a field interacts with the more "cutting edge" journal literature as compared to book and monograph sources. Generally, those f:i-eIds' with heavier research paradigms lean to journal rather than book citation, in their, journal .literature.. As discussed earlier, Price (1965).concluded that the majority of authors of scientific journal-articles cite other.serial publications (12 of the average 15 references were to other journal articles). In reading research literature, Barnett. (1976) found that journal articles accounted for.a. relatively, steady 50 percent of the citations, with books contributing another 35 percent.. Somewhat different results were.reported for the documents cited by authors of the Journal of Reading: over-all percentages revealed 37.4 percent of citations to books and 37.1 percent to journals (Dartnell,;1977), reflecting less of a.research emphasis in the professional, journal as compared.to other 20 journal research sources in reading. References cited.by authors in the 19 65 volume of the American Sociological Review were analyzed by Broadus (1967). Of the total 1,448.bibliographic citations, 558 (38.54%) were to serials and 890' (61.46%) were, to non-serials. Citations in these two groupings were further classified by subject area (using Library of Congress Classifications), age in years, and language represented. Broadus concluded that if the sample studied represented the field as a whole,,sociologists use books more than periodicals as research sources, subject scope is narrowing slightly, and the materials cited are fairly recent and heavily favor the English language. Cotton and Anderson (19 73) analyzed citations in five volumes of the Journal of Counseling Psychology to identify changing patterns. Citations from the years 1954, 1958, 1962, 1966, and 1970 were recorded, counted, and.tabulated by source and. by author. The study revealed that sources of citations remained relatively stable over the years, but authors cited changed significantly during the time period. Citation patterns within the field of information science were examined by Fenichel (1969). A "same-channel" tendency was revealed, with journal articles citing journal articles and reports citing reports. Myers and DeLevie (1966) surveyed five years (1960-1964) of four journals in the field of counseling psychology to identify authors and publications most frequently cited. Eleven "most eminent" counseling psychologists and the seven most cited 21 publications (six books and one test manual) were listed. Age of Cited Material Bibliographic citations,can serve as unobtrusive measures of scientific communication.. Much scientific research is cumula tive, with each study building upon one.or more, (usually quite recent) previous studies. Price (1975) described the inter connections of scientific papers as follows: When one analyzes the citation:patterns, one sees that there is. a very close-knit structure here. Scientific papers are assembled by a process rather like knitting or the way in which pieces of a jig saw puzzle are held together by interlocking with their neighbors. Each scientific - paper seems to build onto about a dozen previous papers. Another way of looking at.it is to say that, roughly speaking, it is like a human family,.except that instead of it taking two parents, to make a child it. takes about a dozen assorted . parents—and they move around like a very free society, enjoying such a deliciously complicated setup as a dozen for a quorum, with each combination producing about a child a year. (pp. 125-126) Citation patterns of a pool of 300 articles from cardio vascular serial literature were analyzed by McMurtray and Ginski (1972) to determine the length .of time necessary for citation of the literature. .In this study journal citation reached a peak the third year after publication. However, some articles were cited during the same, year they were published, which may.indicate: that.authors consulted an. information source other than a published ..journal. In information science.literature studied by Fenichel (1969) 80 percent of the citations were less than five years old, with journal articles.citing literature that was,, on,the average, less than two years old. 22 In analyzing reading research literature, Barnett (1976) found a steady decline in the cited documents 10 years or older in age with, however, only 21.percent of cited materials being 0-4 years in age. . Price (1965) estimated that with only 22 per cent of documents.cited less than five years old the field tended to be archival without an observable research front. Cited material was divided into two categories, archival (cited material which exceeded twenty-five years in age) and more recent,, and. analyzed in a study of Journal of Reading articles (Dartnell, 1977). Of the more recent materials, the median age of books cited.in.the nineteen volumes was 7.1 years. Journal articles were more, recent;, the median age of articles cited was 5.9 years. Core and' Support Journal Literature Samuel Clement Bradford, a British librarian and documen-talist, discovered an empirical law describing a regularity found in many scientific literatures.. He found that a relation existed between the quantity of.journals and the number of articles of interest in a subject area. Bradford first pub lished his law in an article in 1934 and restated it in his book Documentation (1948). The classic statement-of his discovery has been quoted by information scientists in recent years (Donohue, 1973.; Saracevic...and Perk, 1973) and is as follows: . . . if - scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may.be divided into a nucleus.of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several.groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the 23 nucleus, where the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be as 1 : N : n2 : n3 . . . . (Saracevic and Perk, 1973, p. 121) Underlying probabilistic theory for the.Bradford Law was presented by Price (1976). A Cumulative Advantage Distribution was proposed which was a'statistical model -for the "success-breeds-success" phenomena. In core journal-analyses, the essential nucleus of most cited journals is found by calculating the square root of the total number of journals cited. In previous research' (Price, 1963) this has.been labelled the "Pareto characteristic." The sub-set.of citations to journal titles in a literature can be used to define groups of highly cited core and less cited support journals. Sengupta (1974) ranked periodicals in the field of microbiology to identify a core of journals which effectively covered the significant literature in the field. Three.volumes of the Annual Review of Microbiology were used as source journals for citation counting.and.preparing a ranking table. An index of the scientific value of papers published in a journal was computed and corrected for the bulk of material published in a year. Titles were then reranked. The author suggested that this final ranking of ten journals could be used as a priority list for acquisition of journals in the field. Core, journal titles were identified in three ways by Barnett (1976) to provide descriptive data.on a collection of reading research journal literature. (1) On the basis.of the number.of articles published in the Annual Summary of Reading Research, 9 of 24 the 10 8 referencing journals accounted for approximately 50 percent of the total number of articles. (2) The referencing journals generated 7,642.references. When rank.ordered on the basis of reference productivity, the top 12 journals.contributed approximately . 50 percent of the references. (3) Core journals were then: designated on.the basis of number.of citations received.. Nineteen of the 448 journals cited were responsible for approximately 50 percent.of the total.citations. The cores for the three lists followed the expected Pareto dis tribution, demonstrating the.predominance of.a small number of journals'as primary nodes in.the reading information network and the existance of.a wide array.of support journal literature related to .reading research.. Garfield . (1972) ranked journals.by frequency and impact of citations (ratio of number of articles produced to times the journal, was cited) in one of the largest citation studies conducted in recent years. A three-month sample was extracted from the Science Citation Index data base and analyzed in an attempt to map the network of journal.information transfer. Three listings were produced: journal, citation frequencies, statistics.on cited journals, and statistics on citing journals. The data demonstrated a small group of journals predominating in each listing. Dartnell's. (1977a) recent study reported that for the 25 secondary level Journal of Reading authors cited 212 journals over the 20 year history of the journal. The 14 core journals accounted for slightly more than 50 percent of the total cita tions. Although some shifts occurred,- the core, journals remained relatively stable over time. A wide array of educa tional fields and areas related to education.were represented in the 19 8 remaining journal titles suggesting a rich interaction between secondary reading:and its support literature as represented by the journals authors, are citing.in their Journal  of Reading articles. Summary Methodology from studies, reviewed in previous sections of this chapter provides a sound conceptual, base for a content analysis of The Reading Teacher. The following summary groups the studies according to the three dimensions of this investigation. 1. Indexing techniques developed in. the field of information science ..can. be used to subjectively classify the 844 articles contained in Volumes 21 through 30 of.The Reading Teacher within the classification scheme developed.for the 840 articles published in Volumes 1 through 20. 2. The topical trend analysis can.be conducted in a.manner comparable to similar studies conducted by Sewell (1965), Dickinson and Rusnell (1971), Long and Agyekum (1974) , Foreman (1966) , Munley (1974), Chapin and Gross. (1970),.Dartnell (1977), 26 and Ayers (1974). The four authorship variables— multiple authorship,.sex of author, author occupation,.and geographic location of author-were investigated - in one or more of.the previously listed studies or by an analysis of reading research journal literature conducted by Barnett (1976) and secondary..reading journal.literature reported by Dartnell . (1977a). The conceptual base.for the citation analysis is derived from the.studies reported in the natural sciences as well as social sciences. 2ti Methodology for analyzing the relationships and productivity of journals in a subject area has been developed in the field of information - science. Three studies (Sengupta, 1974; Barnett, 1976; Dartnell, 1977a) were reviewed in, which an analysis of journal literature cited by authors was used to rank (by frequency of citation) and identify the highly cited core journals and less highly cited support journals in a field. The rankings can also illuminate the extent of the interdisciplinary interaction of elementary reading with.its immediate intellectual neighbors and with the family of educa tional disciplines and disciplines in. other academic fields. 27 CHAPTER III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The content analysis of The Reading Teacher consisted of three major parts. First the articles in Volumes 21 through 30 were classified according to the categories.developed by Summers (1969) in the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher. Then articles from the entire thirty-year collection were analyzed according to a number of demographic characteristics. The third section identified the core and support journal litera ture related to elementary reading .based on the journal titles cited by authors publishing in The Reading Teacher. Publication of The Reading Teacher Examination of volumes of The Reading Teacher, the previous twenty year index developed by Summers (1969), and the recently published history of the International Reading Association (Jerrolds, 1977) provides historical information on the birth and growth of The Reading Teacher. Volume 1 Number 1 of the International Council for the  Improvement of Reading Instruction Bulletin was issued on November 15, 1948 as the official organ of the International Council for the Improvement of Reading Instruction (ICIRI). Volumes 1 and 2 each contained four issues and.were mimeographed at Temple University. Volume 2 Number 4 was dated June 1, 1950, after which Nancy Larrick assumed editorship of.the Journal. The next issue was published in October, 1950 and was labeled 28 Volume 4 Number 1, which was apparently an error which resulted in the omission of Volume 3. During the first decade of publication the journal under went a number of changes. Volumes 1 through 5 were produced on 8h by 11 inch paper; the smaller page size and the inclusion of advertising was adopted with Volume 6. In 1951 the name of the journal was changed to.The Reading Teacher. The February 1956 issue announced - the merger of ICIRI and the National Association of Remedial Teaching (NART) into the International Reading Association. The number of. issues printed per year has fluctuated: four issues in Volumes 1, 2, and.4; then five issues in Volumes 5 and 6; followed by Volume 7 through 13 which each:contained four issues. With Volume 14.issues were increased to five, then to six in Volumes 15 and 16. Volume 17 contained eight issues, and that pattern has continued to the present. There was a corresponding increase in.the number of articles per volume over the three decades. Volumes 1 through .10 contained a total of 250 articles, or.an average of 2 8 articles per volume. During the second, ten years the total increased to 59 0 articles, averaging.59 articles.per volume. An average of 84 articles appeared in each-of the ten most recent volumes, for a total of 844 articles published in Volumes 21 through 30. Subjective Classification of Articles An annotated index of the articles contained in Volumes 1 through 20 of The Reading Teacher was published in 1969, which 29 classified the articles into 18 major categories and 31 sub categories. The first objective of this study was to classify the 844 articles which appeared in Volumes 21-30 within the categories developed for the 20 Year Annotated Index (Summers, 1969). The major categories and sub-categories of the classifi cation .scheme were . as follows. I. Research Analyses and Reviews II. Reading/Instruction General Pre-school, Early Reading, Readiness Primary General Basal Reading Individualized Reading Linguistics and Reading Comparisons of Instructional Programs Intermediate Junior and Senior High School College and Adult 1 Reading in Other Countries III. Development of Reading Skills Word Recognition, Phonics, and Vocabulary Comprehension, Interpretation, and.Creative Reading Critical ReadingConcept Development, and Thinking Study.Skills 30 Rate and Flexibility Reading Tastes, Habits, and Interests IV. Instructional Materials Readability and Legibility Children's Literature Workbooks A-V Materials Programmed Instruction T.V. and Reading V. Reading Personnel Pre-Service and In-Service Training Necessary Skills and Qualifications Certification Requirements Reading Supervisors, Specialists, and Consultants Reading Tastes and Habits VI. Grouping and Organizational Plans VII. Testing and Evaluation VIII. Reading and the Content. Fields IX. Reading Instruction: and the Gifted X. The-Culturally Different XI. Guidance and Reading XII. The Library and Reading XIII. Parental Help and Influences XIV. -Sociology, of Reading XV. Auditory Discrimination XVI. Visual Discrimination 31 XVII. Personality XVIII. Reading Problems Factors Related to Reading.Disability Diagnosis of Reading Problems Treatment of Reading Problems Reading Clinics A card containing the complete bibliographic citation was typed for each article.contained.in Volumes 21 through 30. Excluded from the study were editorials, book reviews, and regular department features. The articles were then read, and if the title did not provide an accurate indication of the article's content, a .brief.annotated extract was added to the card. Each article was. then assigned to a major subjective category and checked against those, already classified to main tain consistency. Additional sub-categories were empirically developed when, necessary and some existing .sub-categories were modified to more, accurately reflect the articles classified within.them. When".' new sub-categories were assigned, - articles previously included in that major.category were reviewed and also placed in the neW.classification if it was more appropriate. The classification scheme was renumbered from Roman Numerals' to an open-ended Arabic system. Category titles were shortened whenever, possible. Demographic Characteristics J Detailed content, analyses.were, performed to delineate trends over the three decades of publication of The Reading Teacher.. Selected information was coded from each of the 1,684 32 articles (see coding system in Appendix A) and then keypunched and verified for computer analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Eight demographic variables were investigated, including topical trend analysis, multiple authorship, sex of author, author occupation, geographic location of author, citations per volume, type of publication cited, and age of cited material. Data for each variable were examined by volume and then collapsed into three time periods-Volumes 1 through 10,.Volumes 11 through 20, and Volumes 21 through 30—to identify changing trends and emphases in the historical record of the journal. Topical Trend Analysis To determine the distribution of articles by subject matter the SPSS Subprogram Crosstabs was used to generate tables classifying all articles into their assigned major categories and sub-categories. Sub-categories were then collapsed within major headings and across the three time periods and percentages were calculated for comparison purposes. Multiple Authorship Consistent upward trends in the average number of authors per article have been noted in a number of studies similar to this one. The number of authors associated with each article was recorded and tabulated to ascertain whether this trend was present in The Reading Teacher. 33 Sex of Author Male versus female representation of authors in the journal was of interest; a tabulation was made of this variable. In some instances authors chose to use only their first initials, and it was necessary to include a "no sex" category. Author Occupation Five categories were used to describe author occupation: school based, district/county/state/provincial, college/univer sity, other, and unknown. Most articles included.a descriptive note about the author(s) which provided this information. If, this was not available the author occupation was coded as "unknown." Geographic Location of Author The fourth authorship variable investigated was geographic location of author to determine the dispersion of article pro duction.. The four.regions of Canada.and seven regions of the United States delineated by the International Reading Associ ation were incorporated into.the thirteen categories. The number of authors located in each of the areas which follow was tabulated. (1) Far West (United States) (2) Rocky Mountains (United States) (3) Southwest (United States) (4) East (United States) (5) Plains (United States) (6) Great Lakes (United States) (7) Southeast (United States) (8) Transmountain (Canada) (9) Rupertsland (Canada) (10) Laurentian (Canada) (11) Atlantic (Canada) (12) Outside North America (13) Unknown Again, this information was derived from the descriptive nota tions concerning the authors which usually accompanied each article. Citations per Volume The total number of references listed at the end of each article was tabulated. The earlier volumes used footnotes rather than reference lists; these were included as citations. Articles classified in the Research Analyses and Reviews cate gory were excluded from all citation analyses so as not to inflate the average percentages. Type of Publication Cited Six categories developed by Dartnell (1977) in a content analysis of the Journal of Reading were used to classify each of the citations: book, conference proceeding or yearbook, journal, unpublished source, instructional material or test, o other source. The type of publication cited was tabulated by article, volume, and across the three time periods. 35 Age of Cited Material Again, the system devised by Dartnell (1977) was. used to analyze the age of cited material. Citations, were divided into two groups: (1) cited material which .had been published within twenty-five years of citation, or "more.recent" materials; and (2) cited materials whose publication date exceeded twenty-five years, or "archival" materials. The median age of the more recent materials .was calculated for each type of .publication, and frequency of archival materials was tabulated for each type of publication. Range in years was tabulated for.both recent.and archival materials. Core and Support Journal -Literature Journal titles cited by authors in Volumes 21 through 30 were tabulated to identify the core and support journals for the third decade of:The Reading.Teacher. In this analysis of the literature it was expected that a small group of journals would account for a large percentage of.the citations and. that a wide array of disciplinary support journals: related to elementary reading would emerge. Each journal title cited.was. typed into.a computer file and identified by volume for each of the articles in Volumes 21 through 30. The listing: was then sorted alphabetically by title. A Fortran program.was written to obtain a frequency count for each title and rank the journal.titles.from most cited to least cited for each of the ten volumes. For comparison purposes, the ten volumes were divided into two five-year blocks, ranked by ascending order of frequency, and cumulative 36 percentages were .calculated. The entire data base was then collapsed into one listing representing the total ten-year period. The UBC PLOT (Subroutine ALGRAF) program was. used to graphically represent the Pareto characteristics of the three listings and illustrate the demarcation of the core and support journal literature. . Summary The study was designed to be completed in three steps. (1) Articles published in Volumes 21-30 of The Reading Teacher were classified by subject to update the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher. (2) Data were.generated on selected demographic characteristics in a content analysis of the thirty volume collection., (3) Journal titles.cited in the last ten volumes, spanning 1967-1977, were analyzed to define the core and support journal-literature.for elementary: reading as repre sented by authors publishing articles in The Reading Teacher. 37 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY The organization of this chapter parallels the three main divisions of the study: .(1) subjective classification of articles contained in Volumes 21 through 30 of The Reading  Teacher, (2) content analysis of Volumes 1 through 30 of the journal, and (3) identification of core and support journals for Volumes 21 through 30. Subjective Classification of Articles Five sub-categories were added to the classification scheme developed for the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher. Empirical examination and classification of articles in Volumes 21 through 30 necessitated the addition of the following sub-headings: 2.35 Language Experience/i.t.a. 4.7 Student/Teacher Prepared Materials 4.8 Content Analysis 5.4 Professional Development 5.5 Paraprofessionals Content descriptors were modified for eight of the existing major headings and sub-headings. The final subjective classifi cation system contained 18 major categories and 38 sub-categories and was as follows. 01 Research Analyses and Reviews 02 Reading Instruction 38 0 2.1 General 02.2 Pre-school/Early Reading/Readiness 0 2.3 Primary 02.31 general 02.32 basal reading 02.33 individualized reading 02.34 linguistics/psycholinguistics • 02.35 language experience/i.t.a. 02i36 comparisons of.instructional programs 02.4 Intermediate 02.5 Junior/Senior High School 02.6 College/Adult 02.7 Reading in Other Countries 0 3 Development of Reading Skills 0 3.1 Word Recognition/Phonics/Vocabulary 0 3.2 Comprehension/Interpretation/Creative Reading/ Listening 0 3.3 Critical.Reading/Concept Development/Thinking/ Questioning 03.4 Study Skills 03.5 Flexibility 0 3.6 Reading Tastes/Habits/Interests/Attitudes 04 Instructional Materials 04.1 Readability/Legibility 04.2 Children's Literature 04.3 Workbooks 0 4.4 A.V. Materials/Games 39 0 4.5 Programmed Instruction 04.6 T.V. and.Reading 04.7 Student/Teacher Prepared. Materials 04.8 Content. Analysis 05 Reading Personnel 05.1 Pre-Service/In-Service Training 05.11 necessary skills/qualifications 05.12 certification requirements 05.2 Reading Supervisors/Specialists/Consultants 05.3 Reading Tastes/Habits 05.4 Professional. Development 05.5 Paraprofessionals 06 Grouping/Organizational Plans 07 .Testing/Evaluation/Accountability 08 Reading and.the Content Fields 09 Reading Instruction and.the Gifted 10 The Culturally Different 11 Guidance and Reading 12 The Library and. Reading 13. Parental.Help and,Influences 14 Sociology, of Reading 15 Auditory Discrimination 16 Visual Discrimination 17 Personality 18 Reading Problems 18.1 Factors Related to Reading Disability 18.2 Diagnosis of Reading. Problems 40 18.3 Treatment of Reading Problems 18.4 Reading Clinics Demographic Characteristics Results are presented from the analysis, of demographic characteristics in Volumes 1 through.30 of The Reading Teacher in the following areas: topical trend analysis; four authorship variables, including multiple, authorship,. sex of author, author occupation, and geographic location of author; and three cita tion analyses, including citations per volume, type of publica tion cited, and age of cited material.. Topical Trend. Analysis Main categories. Table I presents a breakdown of articles into subject areas across the three, time periods.. (Tabulations for the 18 major categories and 38 sub-categories across the thirty volumes are included in Table XVII.in the Appendix.) INSERT TABLE I ABOUT HERE Articles relating to Reading Instruction have been the most dominant throughout the history of the journal, with an average of 28.1 percent of all articles in Volumes 1 through 30 classi fied in that category. The group of articles concerned with Skill Development .was consistently ranked second in each of the three time periods, for an.overall average of 17.5 percent. A number of changes in. interests and emphases are also indicated. Three categories exhibited growth across each of the three time 41 TABLE I "Articles' by, Major Categories Across,Three Time Periods Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11--20 21 -30 Total Major Category n % n % n • % n % Research Analyses and Reviews 3 1.2 20 3.4 7 .8 30 1.8 Reading Instruction 72 28.8 181 30.8 220 26.1 473 28.1 Skill Development 47 18.8 97 16.4 150 17.8 294 17.5 Instructional Materials 14 5.6 52 8.8 84 10.0 150 8.9 Reading Personnel 7 2.8 58 9.8 83 9.8 148 8.8 Classroom Organization 17 6.8 12 2.0 16 1.9 45 2.7 Testing/Evaluation 11 4.4 19 3.2 73 8.6 103 6.1 Reading and the Content Fields 22 8.8 16 2.7 12 1.4 50 3.0 Reading Instruction and the Gifted 9 3.6 8 1.4 2 .2 19 1.1 The Culturally Different 0 0 19 3.2 46 5.5 65 3.9 Guidance and Reading 1 .4 2 .3 6 .7 9 .5 The Library and Reading 5 2.0 14 2.4 5 .6 24 1.4 Parental Help and Influence 14 5.6 7 1.2 22 2.6 43 2.6 Sociology of Reading 0 0 5 .8 3 .4 8 .4 Auditory Discrimination 0 0 7 1.2 5 .6 12 .7 Visual Discrimination 2 .8 11 1.9 8 .9 21 1.2 Personality 4 1.6 4 .7 17 2.0 25 1.5 Reading Problems 22 8.8 58 9.8 85 10.1 165 9.8 Total 250 590 844 1684 42 periods: Instructional Materials, The Culturally Different, and Reading Problems. Slight declines were consistently evident in Classroom Organization, Reading and the Content Fields, Reading Instruction and the Gifted, and The. Library . and Reading. Sub-categories. Articles classified within...the five largest-main categories were.further examined, to determine whether shifts hadoccurred within these.subject areas. Table II contains a breakdown of articles, classified within Reading.Instruction. Although the number.of articles concerned with Pre-school/Readiness increased over each of the three time periods, the percentage of the total declined. Two of the sub categories in Primary show evidence of increased concern over INSERT TABLE II ABOUT HERE the years: Linguistics/Psycholinguistics and Language Experi ence/!.t.a. The single largest category both in.number and percentage of articles was.Comparison of Instructional Programs in the second time period, Volumes 11 through 20. This can be explained by the presentation and fo.l-low-up. of; the First Grade Studies which took place during that period. A decline in three categories-—Intermediate, Junior/Senior High School, and College/Adult—is.apparent. This decline corresponds with the inauguration of a second IRA journal, the Journal of ..Reading,, which concentrates on the teaching of read ing above the elementary level. Article emphasis, in Development, of. Reading Skills has 43 TABLE II Articles Classified Within Reading Instruction Across Three Time Periods Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 Total General 24 33.3 Pre-school/Readiness 12 16.8 Primary General 3 4.2 Basal Reading 3 4.2 Individualized Reading 1 1.4 Linguistics/ Psycholinguistics 1 1.4 Language Experience/ i.t.a. 1 1.4 Comparisons of Instructional Programs 1 1.4 Intermediate 3 4.2 Junior/Senior High School 14 19.4 College/Adult 6 8.3 Reading in Other Countries 3 4.2 Total 72 20 11.0 66 30.1 109 23.1 24 13.2 33 15.0 69 14.6 8 2 15 4.4 1.1 8.3 3.9 24 3 13 19 11.0 1.4 5.9 8.7 36 8 29 27 7.6 1.7 6.2 5.7 3 1.7 23 10.5 27 5.7 32 17.7 12 5.5 45 9.5 11 6.1 4 1.8 18 3.8 17 9.4 1 .5 32 6.8 17 9.4 1 .5 24 5.1 25 13.8 20 9.1 48 10.2 181 219 472 44 remained relatively stable. Word Recognition/Phonics/Vocabulary has continued to receive the greatest emphasis. Interest in INSERT TABLE III ABOUT HERE two sub-categories appears to have declined: Study Skills and Flexibility. Table IV presents articles classified within Instructional Materials across the three time periods. The majority of the articles (30%) relate to Children's Literature. The original INSERT TABLE IV ABOUT HERE high percentage (28.6%) of articles focused on T.V. and Reading has steadily declined, with only 2.4 percent of articles in Volumes 21 through 30 classified in that category. The number of articles directed toward Workbooks has declined to nil. Student/Teacher Prepared Materials and Content Analysis, the two categories added in this study, accounted for a combined total of 38.1 percent of articles classified within Instructional Materials in the third time period. Over half of the total articles dealing with Reading Personnel dealt with Necessary Skills/Effective Teaching. Two INSERT TABLE V ABOUT HERE 45 TABLE III Articles Classified Within Development of Reading Skills Across Three Time Periods Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11-20 21-30 Total Sub-Category n & n % n Word Recognition/Phonics/ Vocabulary 22 46.8 32 33.0 61 40.7 115 39.1 Comprehension/ Interpretation/ Creative Reading/ Listening 7 14.9 21 21.6 31 20.7 59 20.1 Critical Reading/ Concept Development/ Thinking/Questioning 2 4.3 19 19.6 20 13.3 41 14.0 Study Skills 0 0 5 5.2 3 2.0 8 2.7 Flexibility 2 4.3 7 7.2 2 1.3 11 3.7 Reading Tastes/Habits/ Interests/Attitudes 14 29.7 13 13.4 33 22.0 60 20.4 Total 47 97 150 294 46 TABLE IV Articles Classified Within Instructional Materials Across Three Time Periods Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n Total Readability/Legibility 0 0 7 13.4 13 15.5 20 13.3 Children's Literature 6 42.9 17 32.7 22 26.2 45 30.0 Workbooks 1 7.1 3 5.8 0 0 4 2.7 AV Materials/Games 3 21.4 9 17.3 10 11.9 22 14.7 Programmed Instruction 0 0 4 7.7 5 5.9 9 6.0 TV and Reading 4 28.6 8 15.4 2 2.4 14 9.3 Student/Teacher Prepared Materials 0 0 0 0 11 13.1 11. 7.3 Content Analysis 0 0 4 7.7 21 25.0 25 16.7 Total 14 52 84 150 47 TABLE V Articles Classified Within Reading Personnel Across Three Time Periods Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n Total Pre-Service/In-Service Necessary Skills/ Effective Teaching 6 85.7 27 46.6 46 55.4 79 53.4 Certification Requirements 0 0 5 8.6 3 3.6 8 5.4 Reading Supervisors/ Specialists/Consultants 1 14.3 20 34.5 11 13.3 32 21.6 Reading Tastes/Habits 0 0 4 6.9 3 3.6 7 4.7 Professional Development 0 0 2 3.4 13 15.7 15 10.2 Paraprofessionals 0 0 0 0 7 8.4 7 4.7 Total 7 58 83 148 48 recent trends appear in Volumes 21 through 30: articles concern ing Professional Development and Paraprofessionals were published in The Reading Teacher. In the area of Reading Problems, article emphasis has remained relatively stable. The number of articles focussed on the largest category, Treatment of Reading Problems, increased INSERT TABLE VI ABOUT HERE over the three time periods although the percentage of articles decreased slightly. Factors related to reading disability con sistently ranked second in emphasis across the three time periods. Multiple Authorship As evidenced in Table VII, the overwhelming majority (82.6%) of articles in The Reading Teacher are single authored. The percentage of single authored articles has declined over the INSERT TABLE VII ABOUT HERE three time periods, however, from 96.0 percent in Volumes 1 through 10 to 77.1 percent in the last ten volumes. A trend toward multiple authorship is evident, with the two author category representing 18.9 percent of the articles published in Volumes 21 through 30. (Multiple authorship is tabulated by Volume in Table XVIII in the Appendix.) 49 TABLE VI Articles Classified. Within Reading Problems Across Three Time Periods Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n Total n Factors Related to Reading Disability Diagnosis of Reading Problems Treatment of Reading Problems Reading Clinics Total 5 22.7 16 27.6 29 34.1 50 30.3 3 13.6 6 10.3 12 14.1 21 12.7 14 63.7 28 48.3 34 40.0 76 46.1 0 0 8 13.8 10 11.8 18 10.9 22 58 85 165 50 TABLE VII Multiple Authorship Across Three Time Periods Number of Authors Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n % Volumes 21-30 n Total n 1 2 3 4 or more Total 241 8 1 1 251 96.0 3.2 .4 .4 500 72 13 5 590 84.7 12.2 2.2 .9 650 159 24 10 843 77.1 18.9 2.8 1.2 1391 239 38 16 1684 82.6 14.1 2.3 1.0 51 Sex of Author Females published more frequently in Volumes 1 through 10; in the other two.time periods male authored articles were more predominant. The total figures in Table VIII indicate that authorship is approximately equally divided between men and women over the thirty volume years, but the trend is toward a INSERT TABLE VIII ABOUT HERE greater number of male-authored articles. (Complete data for sex of author by volume is included in Table XIX in the Appendix.) Author Occupation An examination of author occupation revealed that the most productive contributors were overwhelmingly affiliated with collegessand universities; 63 percent of the total authors were employed at that educational level. School-based authors were ranked second in Volumes 1.through 10, but dropped to third in INSERT TABLE IX ABOUT. HERE the next two time periods. Authors holding administrative posi tions at the district, county, state, or.provincial levels peaked during the second.time period and then declined slightly; this category ranked second in the total figures. (Complete data for author occupation by volumesappears in Table XX.in the Appendix.) 52 TABLE VIII Sex of Author Across Three Time Periods Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11-20 21-30 Total Sex of Author n % n % n Male 92 34.7 Female 172 64.9 No Identification 1 ,.4 Total 265 390 55.1 601 55.6 1083 52.7 314 44.4 477 44.1 963 46.9 4 .5 3 .3 8 .4 708 1081 2054 53 TABLE IX Author Occupation Across Three Time Periods Author Occupation Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 Volumes 21-30 n Total School Based College or University District, County, State, Provincial Other Unknown Total 51 19.2 63 8.9 125 11.6 239 11.6 140 52.8 438 61.9 715 ' 66.1 1293 63.0 40 26 8 265 15.1 9.8 3.1 150 47 10 708 21.2 6.6 1.4 141 80 20 1081 13.0 7.4 1.9 331 153 38 2054 16.1 7.4 1.9 54 Geographic Location of Author . The Reading Teacher originated at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and authors from the Eastern United States have produced the largest percentage (41.3%) of articles since its inception. (Examination.of Geographic Location of Author by Volume data contained in Table XXI of the Appendix shows that in only one' of the thirty volumes were, there more authors located in a geographic area other than the Eastern United States region: in Volume 27 the Great..Lakes region out ranked, the East.) Contributors, from the Great Lakes have con sistently ranked second,, and account for 19.3 percent of the INSERT TABLE X ABOUT HERE total articles. Four other United States regions have shown increases over each of the three time periods, including the Far West,. Rocky Mountains, Southwest,.and Southeast. Canadian representation is negligible; only 1.5 percent of the total authors were located in Canada. Citations per Volume The number of publications cited showed a steady increase across the thirty volume period. In Volumes 1 through 10 the articles containing one. or more citation comprised 35.9 percent of the total.article.population; this percentage increased to 4 8.8 in Volumes, 11.through 20; 72.2 percent of articles published in Volumes 21 through.30 included one or more, citations. Look ing only at those articles containing citations and computing 55 TABLE X Geographic Location of Author Across Three Time Periods Volumes Volumes Volumes Geographic Location 1-10 11-20 21-30 Total of Author n % n % n % n Far West (United States) 21 7.9 61 8.6 103 9.5 185 9.0 Rocky Mountain (U.S.) 2 .8 8 1.1 27 2.5 37 1.8 Southwest (U.S.) 4 1.6 20 2.8 76 7.0 100 4.9 Plains (U.S.) 11 4.2 44 6.2 58 5.4 113 5.5 Great Lakes (U.S.) 63 23.8 130 18.4 203 18.8 396 19.3 Southeast (U.S.) 12 4.5 46 6.5 150 13.9 208 10.1 East (U.S.) 136 51.3 349 49.3 363 33.6 848 41.3 Transmountain (Canada) 0 0 4 .6 10 .9 14 .7 Rupertsland (Canada) 3 1.1 1 .1 8 .7 12 .6 Laurentian (Canada) 0 0 0 0 2 .2 2 .1 Atlantic (Canada) 0 0 1 .1 1 .1 2 .1 Outside North America 0 0 18 2.5 43 4.0 61 3.0 Unknown 13 4.8 26 3.8 37 3.4 76 3.6 Total 265 708 1081 2054 56 the average number of citations per article revealed little change over the three time periods: there were an average of 8.9 citations' in Volumes 1 through 10, 9.7' in. the second time period, and 9.1 in the most recent ten volumes. (A tabulation of citations per volume is included in Table XXII in the Appendix.) Type of Publication-Cited Articles across the thirty volume publication span of The  Reading Teacher generated a total of 8,973 citations. Each citation was categorized, and this tabulation was collapsed into the three time periods in ..Table XI. Citations classified in the INSERT TABLE XI ABOUT HERE "other" category were to items such as newspapers and magazines, speeches, personal communication, computer programs, films, and bulletins. The majority of the citations (69.9% of the total) referred to books or journals'. A. steady increase .in . the number and per centage of books cited was observed across the three time periods, and a corresponding decrease in the number of journals cited. Over-all percentages, however, reveal a larger propor tion, 37.5 percent, of journals cited than, books, at 32.4 per cent. Citations to unpublished materials.(theses and disserta tions) ranked third in the overfall totals.. (A•tabulation of type of publication cited by volume is included in Table XXII in the Appendix.) 57 TABLE XI Type of Publication Cited Across Three Time Periods Type of Publication Volumes "1-10 n Volumes 11-20 Volumes 21-30 n Total Book Journal Conference Proceeding, Yearbook Unpublished Material Instructional Material or Test Other Total 213 26.8 755 28.1 1940 35.3 2908 32.4 355 44.8 1145 42.6 1868 34.0 3368 37.5 35 4.4 103 3.8 125 2.3 263 2.9 61 7.7 188 7.0 658 11.9 907 10.1 25 3.1 197 7.3 564 10.3 786 8.8 105 13.2 300 11.2 336 6.2 741 8.3 794 2688 5491 8973 58 Age of Cited Material Tables XII and XIII present age of cited materials for the two categories, recent and archival (published 25 years or more before the citation) materials. INSERT TABLES XII AND XIII ABOUT HERE From Table XII it can be seen that the median age of books is 6.7 years; fifty percent of books cited-were published less than 6.7 years before the citation date. Journals were slightly more recent: the median age was 5.9 years with a range of 46 years. Medians across the three time periods ..did not exhibit consistent trends. Over-all medians for Conference Proceeding, Yearbook and Unpublished Material were.lowest at 5.1 years. Fifty percent of all instructional materials, and tests were 7.7 years of age or. older. Table XI tabulates citations to materials classified as archival, which comprise 7.8 percent of the total citations which were analyzed.. Approximately. threes fourths... of these cita tions were Ibo books or journals. (See Tables. XXIII and XXIV in the Appendix for complete data.on cited materials.in each of the two categories.) .Core, and Support Journal - Literature The third objective of the study was to analyze journal citations in Volumes 21 through 30 in. an.attempt to define the core, and support journals and illustrate.the disciplinary inter action of elementary reading with other areas. Data were 59 TABLE XII Age of Cited Material by Publication Type Across Three Time Periods Type of Publication Volume 1-10 Volume 11-20 Volume 21-30 Total Books median range in years Journals median range in years Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook median range in years Unpublished Material median range in years Instructional  Material or Test median range in years Other median range in years 6.0 (185) 6.2 (685) 7.0 (1798) 6.7 (2668) 31 31 32 50 (1926-57) (1936-67) (1944-76) (1926-76) 6.0 (333) 4.8 (1011) 6.3 (1780) 5.9 (3124) 25 6.2 (35) 19 30 32 4.5 (86) 27 27 46 (1931-56) (1936-66) (1945-77) (1931-77) 5.5 (127) 5.1 (248) 38 (1936-55) (1937-64) (1947-74) (1936-74) 5.2 (49) 4.5 (176) 5.2 (627) 5.1 (852) 25 26 25 45 (1931-56) (1941-67) (1951-76) (1931-76) 8.5 (14) 5.6 (147) 8.2 (488) 7.7 (649) 21 27 32 42 (1932-56) (1939-66) (1945-77) (1932-77) 6.1 (73) 4.3 (230) 5.7 (306) 5.2 (609) 25 28 29 46 (1930-56) (1938-66) (1947-76) (1930-76) 60 TABLE XIII Archival Material Cited by Type of Publication Across Three Time Periods Type of Publication Volume 1-10 Volume 11-20 Volume 21-30 Total, Book 8 71 157 236 Journal 13 82 144 239 Conference Proceeding or Yearbook 1 3 6 10 Unpublished Material 1 4 7 12 Instructional Material or Test 1 24 46 71 Other 4 27 33 64 Total 28 211 393 632 61 tabulated separately, for.each of the. ten volumes and.then com bined for analysis. Conflation of citations from Volumes 21 through 25 and 26 through 30 are presented.in Tables XIV andXV. In both time INSERT TABLES XIV AND XV ABOUT HERE periods citations to approximately seven to eight journals account for 50 percent of total citations, and 31 to 35 journals make up 75 percent of the total citations. Complete listings are included in Tables XXV through XXVII.in the Appendix. Figures 1 and 2 are graphical representations of the complete listings, with demarcation of the 50.percent and 75 percent core journals indicated. INSERT FIGURES 1 AND 2 ABOUT HERE When the citations from the entire ten-year period are collapsed, eight journals account for approximately 50 percent of total citations and thirty-seven journal titles account for 75.09 percent of the total citations. A total of 265 different INSERT TABLE XVI ABOUT HERE journals were cited during the ten-year period - analyzed. Following Price's Paerto statistic, the square root of the total demarcates the core' journals in a set of literature. It would 62 TABLE XIV Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 21 through 25 Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher Elementary English Elementary School Journal Journal of Educational Research Reading Research Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology Child Development Journal of Reading American Educational Research Journal Exceptional Children Education Journal of Experimental Education American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Elementary English Review Perceptual and Motor Skills Harvard Educational Review Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Childhood Education Journal of Genetic Psychology School Review Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Educational and Psychological. Measurement Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Review of Educational Research Psychological Review Journal of Psychology Journalism Quarterly California Journal of Educational Research Journal of Communication American Psychologist Ontario Journal of Educational Research 184 79 58 46 32 31 28 20 16 15 13 11 11 11 10 9 8 8 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 20.98 29.99 36 .60 41.85 45.50 49 , 52. 54. 56 , 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64 , 69, 70 , 71, 71, 72, 72, 73, 73, 74, 74 75 03 22 50 32 03 51 76 01 26 40 65.43 66 .46 67 .37 68.28 69.08 76 44 01 58 15 72 29 ,75 ,21 ,68 ,13 63 TABLE XV Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 26 through 30 Number of Journal Citations Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher 168 16 .67 Elementary English 81 24.71 Elementary School Journal 66 31.26 Reading Research Quarterly 57 36 .91 Journal of Educational Psychology 42 41.08 Journal of Learning Disabilities 35 44.55 Journal of Reading 29 47.43 Journal of Educational Research 28 50.21 Exceptional Children 19 52.09 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 15 53.58 Child Development 15 55.07• Perceptual and Motor Skills 13 56 .36 Harvard Educational Review 11 57.45 Phi Delta Kappan 11 58.55 Education 10 59.54 Psychological Review 10 60.53 American Educational Research Journal 10 61.53 Psychology in the Schools 10 62 . 52 Childhood Education 10 63.51 Journal of Applied Psychology 9 64.40 National Elementary Principal 9 65.30 American Psychologist 8 66 .09 Journal of Reading Behavior 8 66 .89 English Journal 8 67.68 Psychological Reports 8 68 .47 Review of Educational Research 7 69.16 Journal of Experimental Education 7 69.86 British Journal of Educational Psychology 7 70.55 Library Journal 7 71.25 American Journal of Mental Deficiency .7 71.94 Educational and Psychological Measurement 6 72.54 Young Children 6 73.13 College English 6 73.73 American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 6 74.32 Educational Leadership 6 74.92 Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 5 75.42 64 Journals Cited in The Reading Teacher, Volumes 21-25 Figure 2 Journals Cited in The Reading Teacher, Volumes 26-30 66 TABLE XVI Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 21 through 30 Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage The Reading Teacher 352 18. ,67 Elementary English 160 27. ,16 Elementary School Journal 124 33. ,74 Reading Research Quarterly 89 38. ,46 Journal of Educational Research 74 42. ,39 Journal of Educational Psychology 73 46 . ,26 Journal of Reading 49 48. ,86 Child Development 43 51. ,14 Journal of Learning Disabilities 37 53. ,10 Exceptional Children 34 54. ,90 American Educational Research. Journal 26 56 . ,28 Perceptual and Motor Skills 23 57. ,50 Education 23 58. ,72 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21 59 . ,83 Harvard Educational Review 20 60 . ,89 Childhood Education 18 61. .84 Journal of Experimental Education 18 62, .79 American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 17 63. .69 Psychological Review 15 64. .49 Phi Delta Kappan 14 65. .23 Elementary English Review 13 65, .92 National Elementary Principal 13 66 , .61 Review of Educational Research 12 67, .25 Journal of Genetic Psychology 12 67, .88 Educational and Psychological Measurement 12 68, .52 Psychological Reports 12 69, .16 American Psychologist 12 69, .79 Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 11 70 , . 37 School Review 11 70 , .96 Psychology in the Schools 11 71, .54 English Journal 10 72, .07 Journal of Applied.Psychology 10 72, .60 American Journal of Mental Deficiency 10- 73, .13 Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 10 73, .66 Educational Leadership 9 74, .14 Journal of Reading Behavior 9 74 .61 Journal of Education 9 75 .09 67 be expected, then, that 16 (square root of 265) journals would account for fifty percent of the citations. In the sample studied 61.84 percent of the citations were from-the top sixteen journals, which follow. The Reading Teacher Elementary English Elementary School Journal Reading Research Quarterly Journal of Educational Research Journal of ,Educational Psychology Journal of Reading Child Development Journal of Learning Disabilities Exceptional Children American Educational Research Journal Perceptual and Motor Skills Education Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Harvard Educational Review Childhood Education The first eight titles account for about half (51.14%) of the total citations. The top.journal in the rankings was The  Reading Teacher; 352 of the 1,885 total citations (18.67%) were self-citations. The eight journals- in this core.listing include three reading journals, two general elementary journals, two educational research journals, and one English journal. The curve plotted in Figure 3 illustrates the predominance of.a core 68 INSERT FIGURE 3 ABOUT HERE of highly cited journals in The Reading Teacher, with the 50 percent and 75 percent demarcation points indicated. In examining the journals listed for the two five-year periods and for the total ten volume years, it is obvious that authors of reading articles have consistently, over.the years, interacted with a highly, cited set of core journals in reading, elementary education,.educational research, and English. In addition,: they have also referred to a wide array of support literature consisting of .253 journal titles representing disci plines in education .and .disciplines in other academic areas. 69 Figure 3 Journals Cited in The Reading Teacher, Volumes 21-30 70 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary The purpose of this study was to examine the thirty volume years (194 8-197 7) of an elementary reading journal, The Reading  Teacher, using a content analysis research design. The retro spective bibliometric study was conducted in three parts; summaries of those three sections follow. Subjective Classification of Articles In 1969 the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher was published. Articles were empirically classified (they were allowed to "index themselves" according to substantive content) and organized into 18 major categories and 31 sub-categories. The first objective of this study was to categorize the articles published in Volumes 21 through 30 of the journal in the exist ing classification scheme, adding or modifying headings when necessary. After empirical examination and classification of the 844 articles contained in the last ten volumes, the 18 major headings were retained; descriptors were modified in some cases to more accurately reflect the inclusion of the later articles. Five additional sub-categories were added: one under reading instruction, two in instructional materials, and two in the reading personnel category. 71 Demographic Characteristics Topical trend analysis. Tabulations were made of articles contained in each major heading and sub-heading for each of the thirty volumes. The data were collapsed into three ten-year time periods for analysis.. Nearly half of the articles (45.6%) re lated to Reading instruction and Skill Development. Consistently greater emphasis was placed on Instructional-Materials, The Culturally Different, and Reading Problems. Publications de clined in the areas of Classroom Organization, Reading and the Content Fields, Reading Instruction and the Gifted, and The Library and Reading. Sub-categories in the five major areas (Reading Instruction, Reading Skills, Instructional Materials, Reading Personnel, and.Reading Problems) were further discussed in terms of changing emphases.across, the three time periods. Multiple authorship. Growth, in multiple authorship was present across each time period. The over-all majority of articles (82.6%), however, were single authored. Sex of-, author. Over the total thirty volume years the proportion of male (52.7%) and female (46.9%) authored articles is nearly equal.. When these data are grouped into the three time periods distinct trends are noted: the proportion of male authors has consistently increased; the opposite holds true for females. Further, the shift occurred most dramatically between the first two time periods, with only minimal changes between, the second and third time periods. The author sex variable may have stabilized at this point, so that approximately six out of ten Reading Teacher authors are male. It is interesting to note 72 that male authorship is increasing in The Reading Teacher but decreasing in the Journal of Reading (Dartnell, 1977a). Author-occupation. Throughout the thirty volume years the greatest percentage (63.0%) of authors have been college or university based. The second largest category, representing employment at the district, county, state, or provincial levels, represented 16.1 percent of the total authors. Only 11.6 percent of authors were school based and could therefore be considered as disseminating first-hand information from the classroom. Geographic location of author. Author location was tabu lated for each of twelve geographic areas, which corresponded to regions defined by the International Reading Association. Consistent with findings previously reported by other researchers (Ayers, 1974; Chapin and Gross, 1970; Dartnell, 1977a), the largest percentage (41.3%) of authors resided in the East. If the United States regions are collapsed into two sections, East and West, an overwhelming 70.7 percent of articles originate in the eastern half of the United States. Only 30 of the 2,054 authors (1.5%) were from Canada. Citations per volume. Authors cited an average of 5.3 documents per article (excluding reviews and bibliographies) across the thirty volume years. If only those articles contain ing citations- are examined (683 articles contained no citations), this percentage increases to 9.2 citations per article, still considerably less than the average of 15 references for each scientific paper reported by Price (1965) for sciences. The total number of citations per volume increased dramatically from 73 794 in Volumes 1 through 10 to 5,491 in Volumes 21 through 30. Type, of publication cited. The total 8,97 3 documents cited by authors across the thirty volume years were classified according to five publication types: book, journal, conference proceeding or yearbook, unpublished material or test, or other. The two largest categories, books (32.4%) and journals (37.5%), accounted for a combined total of 6,276 of the citations, or 69.9 percent. Age of cited material. Cited materials were first divided into two broad categories, recent (published less than 25 years before citation) and archival (published 25 years or more prior to the citation) and then analyzed separately. Median age was computed for the recent materials and range of publication date was noted. Journals .cited were slightly more recent (median age of 5.9 years) than books (median 6.7). Archival materials, which represented only 7.8 percent of the total citations, were tabulated by frequency for each.publication type. Core and Support Journal.Literature The third section of the study investigated the frequency with which different journals were cited by authors, publishing in Volumes 21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher. It was found that eight titles accounted for 51.14 percent of the cited journals; these eight titles could be considered as the core journals, and are as follows: The Reading Teacher Elementary English Elementary.School Journal 74 Reading Research Quarterly Journal of Educational Research Journal of Educational Psychology Journal of Reading Child. -Development A wide array of journals representing disciplines within education and outside education were identified as the support literature which interacts with elementary.reading as indicated by titles cited in the works of authors. publishing in The Read ing Teacher. Conclusions The main objective of this study has been to retrospectively examine thirty volume years of The Reading Teacher. Statistical information has been presented describing selected variables related to the 1,684 articles published from 1948 to 1977. As reported in Chapter II, a similar study was recently completed by Dartnell (1977, 1977a) analyzing the nineteen year published record of the Journal of Reading. Both the Journal of Reading and The- Reading Teacher are official publications of the Inter national Reading Association, with The Reading Teacher aimed toward the elementary sector of reading education and the Journal  of Reading containing literature pertaining to secondary, college, and adult reading. Meaningful conclusions can.be drawn by making comparisons between the two projects in a number of areas. In both journals,, when articles were empirically classified according to subject matter, the bulk of articles were in the 75 same two categories. A total of 41 percent of Journal of Reading articles dealt with Reading Programs and Reading Skills. A comparable 45.6 percent of The Reading Teacher articles were related to Reading Instruction and Skill Development. Both studies reported that broad categories remained quite stable over time, with shifts occurring among the sub-categories. This is predictable, as a good classification system will define the major categorical areas in a field with the sub-categories designed to allow for shifts and entry of new substantive empha ses and content in the literature over time. A greater proportion of articles in The Reading Teacher were single authored, 82.6 percent as opposed to 76.42 percent in the Journal of Reading. However, The Reading Teacher began publication ten years prior to the Journal of Reading. If only the last twenty volumes of The Reading Teacher are used in the comparison, results are very similar: 7 5.9 percent of articles published during the last twenty years were single authored. Both studies reported a steady increase in dual authorship, reflecting the trend toward greater collaboration present in many disciplines today. The authorship.data reflect about equal sex representation over time with a trend in recent years to greater male participation.in The Reading Teacher. Approximately the same percentage of authors in both journals were affiliated with colleges or universities, 6 3.0 percent in The Reading Teacher and 67.5 percent in the Journal  of Reading, suggesting that the major contributing group remains college/university oriented. There is no indication that 76 school-based authorship may be.increasing in more recent volumes of the journal. Citation analyses comparisons point out similarities in the age and types of publications cited in the two journals. In both cases reference . citation has increased.and age of cited materials has decreased over time, suggesting a move toward citing of more recent materials. However, median, ages of cited materials are still high in comparison with other disciplines and substantial material cited is still archival or near archival in nature. This trend.is supported by.the finding that book citation over time has increased while the trend.is toward a decrease in journal literature citation. The relative propor tion of book versus journal citation, however, still places elementary reading as:a "typical" social science field when comparing the results with other social science research such as that reported by Broadus (196 7). In general, topics ..addressed, authors, and citation practices in the two reading journals are quite similar. The third section of the analysis, delineating the core and support journal literature for the last decade of The Reading  Teacher, identified eight titles accounting for approximately half of the citations. Interestingly, when these eight titles are compared with a recent listing (Axelrod, 1975) of most widely read reading-related journals, five of these titles appear on both lists: The Reading Teacher, Elementary English, Reading Research Quarterly, Journal of Educational Research, and Journal of Reading. 77 A wide variety of support journal literature was identified with which authors interact in writing and conducting research in elementary reading. The core and support journal literature characteristics for. elementary reading are similar to those reported for other disciplines in science and social science and for reading in particular as reported in studies using reading research articles (Barnett, 1976) and articles from a secondary reading journal (Dartnell, 1977, 1977a). The core concept is indeed ubiquitous, with a key set of journals being consistently used and a wide array of interdisciplinary titles being turned to as support literature in elementary reading. . Recommendations Several recommendations can be made concerning related investigations and extensions of this study. 1. Greater.access to the collection would.be provided by updating the 2_0 Year Annotated Index to The  Reading Teacher. This could be accomplished in three steps: a. Informative annotations must.be written for each of the.844 articles appearing in Volumes 21 through 30 of the journal. b. The published index classified each article in the one most appropriate subjective category; . if an article was.strongly related to additional categories it was cross-indexed via a "see-also" listing. In this study, each article was assigned to only the major classification. It. 78 would be necessary, to review the articles and cross-reference them.when warranted. c. A Keyword in Context Index (KWIC), based on substantive vocabulary contained in the titles of articles, would provide another useful point of access in utilizing an annotated bibliography. 2. No attempt was made in this study to identify and analyze those.articles which were reporting research. An analysis could be made of the quantitative research articles, tabulating and comparing the research method used, means of collecting data, statistics employed in presenting the results, and the substantive conclusions of the studies and how they relate to the state-of-the-art in elementary reading, 3. Core journals were identified in .this study which were consistently cited by authors publishing in elementary reading. An interesting study would be to take the core journals identified, select a representative sample of. recent articles, and determine the extent to which these journals cite The Reading Teacher. Is the interaction of elementary reading with other disciplines idio syncratic or is it a two-way phenomenon with other disciplines showing similar interaction with reading r in their publications? 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY Axelrod, J. The most widely-read reading-related journals. Elementary English, 1975, 52, 356-360, 366. Ayers, J.E; Analysis of the current literature of science education. School Science and Mathematics, 19 74, 4, 309-314. Barnett, D. J. Bibliometric analysis of reading research journal  literature. Unpublished master' s"~thesis , University of British Columbia, 1976. Bohn, M. J., Jr. Institutional sources of articles in this Journal of Counseling Psychology:—four years later. Journal  of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 489-490. Borko, H., & Bernier, C. I. Abstracting concepts and methods. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Bradford, S. C. Documentation. London, England: Crosby, Lockwood and Son, Ltd., 1948. Broadus, R. N. A citation study for sociology. American  Sociologist, 1967, 2, 19-20. Buckland, M. K. The.management of libraries and information centers. In C. A. Cuadra, A. W. Luke & J. L. Harris (Eds.), Annual Review.of Information Science and Technology (Vol. 9T~- WasETngton, D.C. : The American Society for Information Science, 19 74. Chapin, J. R., & Gross, R. E. A barometer of the social studies: three decades of Social Education. Social Education, 1970, 34, 788-795. Cotton, M. C, & Anderson, W. P. Citation changes in the Journal  of Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1973, 20, 272-274. Dartnell, D. J. Content analysis of the Journal of Reading— 1957-1976 with annotated bibliography, keyword in context (KWIC) and author indexes. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, 19 77. Dartnell, D. J. Personal correspondence, September, 1977(a). Dickinson, G., & Rusnell, G. A content analysis of Adult Education. Adult Education, 1971, 21, 177-185. 80 Done-hue, J. C, Understanding scientific literature: a biblio-metric approach. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1973. Fairthorne, R. A. Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and predic tion. Journal of Documentation, 1969 , 2_5, 319-343. Fenichel, C. J. Citation patterns in information science,. Unpublished master' s thesis, 19~§"9~ (ERIC Document Repro duction Service No. ED 048 864) Foreman, M. E. Publication trends in counseling journals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 481-485. Garfield, E. Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science, 1972, 178, 471-479. Goodstein, L>, D. The institutional sources of articles in the Journal of Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling  Psychology, 1963, 10, 94-95. Herschman, A. The primary journal: past, present, and future. Journal of Chemical Documentation, 1970, 10_, 37T42. Holsi, 0. Content analysis. In G. Lindzey, L. Gardner, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social -Psychology (Vol. 2). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1968. Holsti, O. Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Menlo Park, California:. Addison Wesley Co., 1969 . Jeroski, S. F. The dissertation research requirement in secondary reading. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977. Jerrolds, B. W. Reading reflections: the history of the Inter national Reading Association^ Newark, Delaware: Inter national Reading Association, 1977. Kline, L. W. Research, classroom and journal. The Reading  Teacher, 1972, 25, 724-726. Kuney, J. H. Publication and distribution of information. In C. Cuadra (Ed.)/Annual Review of Information Science and  Technology (Vol. 3). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1968. Lancaster, F. W. Vocabulary, control for.information retrieval. Washington, D.C.: Information Resources Press, 1972. 81 Lin, N., & Nelson, C. E. Bibliographic reference patterns in core sociological journals. The American Sociologist, 1969, 4, 47-50. Long, H. B., & Agyekum, S. K. Adult education 1964-1973: reflections of a changing, discipline. Adult Education, 1974, 24, 99-120. McMurtray, F., & Ginski, J. M. Citation.patterns of the cardio vascular serial literature. Journal of the American  Society for Information Science, 1972, 2_3, 172-175. Munley, P. H. A content analysis of the Journal of Counseling  Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1974, ITT, 305-310. Myers, R. A., & DeLevie, A. S. Frequency of citation as a criterion of eminence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 245-246. Parker,.E. B., Paisley, W. J., & Garrett, R. Bibliographic citations as. unobtrusive measures of scientific communica tion . Institute for Communication Research, Stanford University, 1967. Price, D. J. de S. Little science, big science.. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963. Price, D. J. de S. Networks of scientific papers. Science, 1965, 149^, 510-515. Price, D. de•S. Science since Babylon. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975. Price., D. J. de S. A.general theory of bibliometric and other cumulative advantage processes. Journal of the American  Society for Information Science, 1976, 27_, 292-306 . Saracevic, T., & Perk, L. J. Ascertaining.activities in a subject area through bibliometric analysis. Journal of the  American Society for .Information Science, 1973 , 27~, 120-134. Sengupta, I. N. The literature of microbiology. International  Library Review, 1974, 6, 353-369. Sewell, W. H. Rural sociological research, 1936-1965. Rural  Research, 1965, 30, 428-451. Summers, E. G. (Ed.) . 20_ year annotated index to The Reading  Teacher. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association, 1969. 82 Walsh, W. B., Feeney, D., & Resnick, H. Graduate school origins of Journal of Counseling Psychology authors. Journal of  Counseling Psychology, 1969, 16, 375-376. Waters, B. L. She writes like a woman. Paper presented at the Southeast. Conference on Linguistics, Atlanta, November 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 115 113) 83 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: DATA CODING SYSTEM APPENDIX B: TABLES XVII THROUGH XXVII 84 DATA CODING SYSTEM. Six digit identification number; columns 1-2 = - volume number " 3 = issue number " 4-6 = first page number Four digit subjective classification Number of authors Sex of author(s) column 14 = number of males " 15 = number of females " 16 = number unknown Occupation of author(s) column 17 = school based " 18 = college/university " 19 = district/county/state/provincial " 20 = other " 21 = unknown Geographic location of author(s) column 22 - Far West 23 — Rocky Mountains 24 = -Southwest 25 = Plains 26 = Great Lakes 27 = • Southeast 28 = East 29 = Transmountain 30 = Rupertsland 31 = Laurentian 32 — Atlantic 33 = Outside North America 34 = Unknown Total number of citations Type of publication cited columns 40-41 = books 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 . 54-55 56-57 journals conference proceedings/yearbooks unpublished documents tests instructional materials other monographs bulletins Columns 59-60 Number of self-citations Data tabulated in columns; 40-57 were combined and recoded by computer into the following categories: Books/Monographs (columns 40-41 and 54-55) Journals (columns 42-43) Unpublished Materials (columns 46-47) Instructional Materials/Tests (columns 48-49 and 50-51) Yearbooks/Conference Proceedings (columns 44-45) Other/Bulletins . (columns 52-53 and 56-57) 86 TABLE XVII Article Frequency by Major and Sub-Categories Across 30 Volume Years Volume Sub-Categories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 01 Research Analyses and Reviews 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 02 Reading Instruction 02.10 0 1 0 4 6 3 3 4 0 3 24 02.20 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 4 1 0 12 02.30 02.31 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 02.32 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 02.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 02. 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 02.35 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.36 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.40 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 02.50 0 0 0 5 4 2 1 2 0 0 14 02.60 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 6 02.70 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 3 03 Development of Reading Skills 03.10 0 1 0 3 3 2 2 4 6 1 22 03.20 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 2 0 7 03.30 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 03.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 03.60 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 2 1 3 14 04 Instructional Materials 04.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.20 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 6 04.30 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 04.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 3 04.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.60 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 04.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05 Reading Personnel 05.10 05.11 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 6 05.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87 TABLE XVII continued Volume Sub-Categories 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total 01 Research Analyses and Reviews 1 7 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 0 20 02 Reading Instruction 02.10 2 1 1 0 2 4 0 3 3 4 20 02.20 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 6 10 3 24 02.30 02.31 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 2 8 02.32 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 02.33 3 0 2 4 1 3 0 1 0 1 15 02.34 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 0 0 7 02.35 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ' 1 1 0 3 02.36 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 15 15 32 02.40 2 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 2 1 11 02.50 1 0 1 4 3 4 4 0 0 0 17 02.60 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 4 0 17 02.70 0 3 3 2 1 7 1 2 5 1 25 03 Development of Reading Skills 03.10 1 0 2 6 2 3 2 4 5 7 32 03.20 3 3 3 0 3 1 1 3 2 2 21 03.30 0 3 7 1 4 0 1 0 2 1 19 03.40 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 5 03.50 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 7 03.60 0 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 0 13 04 Instructional Materials 04.10 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 7 04.20 0 3 1 3 0 1 4 0 3 2 17 04.30 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3 04.40 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 9 04.50 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 4 04.60 5 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8 04.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 05 Reading Personnel 05.10 05.11 0 0 0 7 3 1 2 3 8 3 27 05.12 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 88 TABLE XVII continued Categories and Volume Sub-Categories 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total 01 Research Analyses and Reviews 1 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 02 Reading Instruction 02.10 5 6 6 15 5 5 8 6 7 3 66 02.20 5 7 5 3 1 1 3 3 0 5 33 02.30 02.31 3 5 4 0 2 2 2 2 3 2 25 02.32 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 02.33 0 0 0 6 0 1 3 1 1 1 13 02.34 4 1 4 1 0 2 1 2 2 2 19 02.35 3 6 5 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 23 02.36 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 12 02.40 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 02.50 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.60 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.70 2 2 3 0 1 2 2 2 3 3 20 03 Development of Reading Skills 03.10 7 4 8 3 3 4 11 6 7 8 61 03.20 1 7 5 3 2 2 0 4 3 4 31 03.30 3 5 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 2 20 03.40 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 03.50 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 03.60 4 4 3 4 2 2 5 4 1 4 33 04 Instructional Materials 04.10 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 3 3 1 13 04.20 0 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 1 7 22 04.30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.40 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 10 04.50 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 5 04.60 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 04.70 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 11 04.80 1 3 2 0 1 1 3 1 7 2 21 05 Reading Personnel 05.10 05.11 0 4 7 4 9 4 6 2 4 6 46 05.12 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 89 TABLE XVII continued Volume Sub-Categories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 05.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 05.30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 Grouping 1 7 0 1 3 1 3 0 0 1 17 07 Testing 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 1 2 11 08 Reading and Content Fields 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 6 2 6 22 09 Reading and the Gifted 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 7 0 9 10 The Culturally Different 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Guidance & Reading 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 12 Library & Reading 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 5 13 Parental Help and Influence 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 1 0 4 14 14 Sociology of 0 Reading 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 Auditory 0 Discrimination 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 Visual Discrimination 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 17 Personality 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 4 18 Reading Problems 18.10 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 5 18.20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 3 18.30 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 3 4 14 18.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 1 13 : o 21 33 33 44 39 31 35 250 90 TABLE XVII continued Volume Sub-Categories 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total 05.20 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 10 20 05.30 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 05.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 05.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 Grouping 4 1 1 0 1 0 0 ' 1 1 3 12 07 Testing 1 1 2 2 4 1 1 2 3 2 19 08 Reading and Content Fields 4 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 1 1 16 09 Reading and the Gifted 0 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 8 10 The Culturally Different 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 3 7 19 11 Guidance & Reading 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 12 Library & Reading 1 1 0 2 0 2 7 1 0 0 14 13 Parental Help and Influence 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 7 14 Sociology of Reading 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 5 15 Auditory Discrimination 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 7 16 Visual Discrimination 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 11 17 Personality 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 4 18 Reading Problems 18.10 0 2 0 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 16 18.20 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 6 18.30 1 0 1 1 4 2 5 4 8 2 28 18.40 0 2 0 . 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 8 Total 34 37 40 52 53 58 63 75 89 89 590 91 TABLE XVII continued Volume Sub-Categories 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total 05.20 05.30 05.40 05.50 0 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 5 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 11 3 13 7 06 Grouping 3 0 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 16 07 Testing 4 4 1 17 8 13 9 5 6 6 73 08 Reading and Content Fields 1 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 5 12 09 Reading and the Gifted 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 10 The Culturally Different 5 5 3 11 4 3 2 3 3 7 46 11 Guidance & Reading 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 12 Library & Reading 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 5 13 Parental Help and Influence 2 1 9 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 22 14 Sociology of Reading 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 Auditory Discrimination 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 5 16 Visual Discrimination 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 8 17 Personality 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 4 3 0 17 18 Reading Problems 18.10 18.20 18.30 18.40 4 1 9 4 5 1 3 1 6 1 6 1 3 1 6 3 1 2 3 0 2 1 0 0 4 1 2 1 0 1 2 0 3 1 3 0 1 2 0 0 29 12 34 10 Total 91 103 95 96 70 67 87 73 75 87 844 TABLE XVIII Multiple Authorship by Volume Number of Authors Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 1 13 2 3 4 or more Total Articles 1 13 21 33 33 44 1 21 33 33 45 36 2 1 39 29 1 1 31 31 4 30 4 34 3 35 34 37 36 2 2 40 41 8 2 1 52 45 8 50 8 53 58 Number of Volume  Authors 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total 1 56 68 68 72 69 82 85 74 53 56 61 51 58 61 1391 2 6 6 14 13 18 18 9 19 14 10 18 20 12 21 239 3 11343212116 44 38 4 or more 4 11 12 1211 16 Total Articles 63 75 89 89 91 103 95 96 70 67 86 73 75 87 1684 TABLE XIX Sex of Author by Volume Sex of Authors Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Male 9 17 9 20 18 12 25 21 28 36 31 37 Female 11 16 24 16 36 23 18 27 13 19 17 34 29 29 No Identification Sex of Authors Volume 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total Male 26 47 66 73 80 78 58 86 59 48 53 51 41 47 1083 Female 45 36 57 35 38 50 48 37 32 31 66 48 56 71 963 No Identification TABLE XX Author Occupation by Volume Volume Author Occupation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 School Based 5 3 8 2 9 9 11 4 4 3 7 8 5 6 College/University 1 7 10 12 24 20 30 23 13 27 30 30 43 38 37 District/State/Provincial 8 5 6 8 2 11 6 4 3 13 12 17 Other 8 1 8 2 7 1 2 5 3 6 4 No Identification 1 1 2 4 1 1 3 2 Volume Author Occupation 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total School Based 9 4 13 4 16 14 12 10 8 2 18 19 13 13 239 College/University 39 45 76 73 75 89 75 84 44 56 78 59 68 87 1293 District/State/Provincial 14 26 27 28 17 22 13 19 12 13 9 14 9 13 331 Other 8 7 6 5 10 3 6 9 17 8 7 6 8 6 153 No Identification 1 1 1 1 11 7 1 38 LD TABLE XXI Geographic Location of Author by Volume Geographic Location Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Far West Rocky Mtns. Southwest Plains Great Lakes Southeast East Transmountain Rupertsland Laurentian Atlantic Outside N.A. Unknown 1 5 14 1 1 1 4 1 22 1 9 1 21 14 2 19 1 7 14 2 19 9 4 13 4 1 1 8 1 20 1 3 3 4 21 3 4 1 25 2 1 4 8 1 21 3 2 2 3 18 2 36 9 1 2 15 6 27 1 2 15 6 29 TABLE XXI continued Geographic Volume Location 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total Far West 6 8 3 13 13 12 10 13 11 8 6 11 13 6 185 Rocky Mtns. 1 2 4 6 5 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 37 Southwest 1 3 12 5 8 4 7 4 3 12 5 10 18 100 Plains 3 3 14 7 4 8 5 7 1 5 8 7 8 5 113 Great Lakes 13 11 19 24 26 32 19 20 13 12 20 28 21 12 396 Southeast 2 2 13 9 10 17 8 15 15 13 20 17 11 24 208 East 43 50 59 38 38 35 47 54 33 25 40 26 24 41 848 Transmountain 1 3 2 1 1 3 14 Rupertsland 1 2 1 3 2 12 Laurentian 1 1 2 Atlantic 1 1 2 Outside N.A. 2 2 2 2 7 5 3 5 4 3 4 10 61 Unknown 4 4 6 1 13 1 1 8 2 7 1 3 1 76 LO CTl TABLE XXII Citations by Volume and Type of Publication Type of Volume Publication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Book 20 2 59 59 17 40 16 13 30 81 22 91 68 Journal 14 23 96 60 42 63 51 28 15 139 97 108 113 Conference Proceeding, Yearbook 12 624634 458 16 17 Unpublished Material 2 17 16 10 7 6 4 9 10 16 9 18 Instructional Material or Test 2 5 7 47629 16 66 Other 2 1 23 31 8 26 8 9 9 28 24 34 39 Total 49 18 28 206 175 81 146 91 64 69 272 183 264 261 TABLE XXII continued Type of Volume Publication 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total Book 96 91 116 147 194 189 177 148 151 182 231 201 237 230 2908 Journal 142 195 126 182 201 240 211 147 96 153 211 169 237 203 3368 Conference Proceeding, Yearbook 16 15 8 10 38 16 19 14 5 5 7 8 7 6 263 Unpublished Material 49 19 16 38 61 65 59 77 15 42 81 81 78 99 907 Instructional Material or Test 75 14 46 17 40 22 22 59 16 92 60 45 40 168 786 Other 34 45 37 41 20 31 26 36 17 33 61 33 43 36 741 Total 412 379 349 435 554 563 514 481 300 507 651 537 642 742 8973 W5 CO 99 TABLE XXIII Age of Cited Material by Volume and Type of Publication Type of Publication Volume Books median range in years Journals median range in years Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook median range in years Unpublished Material median range in years Instructional  Material  or Test median range in years 8.00 (13) 21 (1926-1947) 3.50 (7) 5 (1945-1950) 9.00 (12) 12 (1936-1948) 10.50 (4) 13 (1934-1947) 10.00 (2) 6 (1940-1946) 3.00 (23) 16.30 (22) 1 10 (1950-1951) (1933-1943) 3.00 (2) 0 (1950) Other median range in years 10.00 (3) 13 (1936-1949) 14.00 (2) 14.00 (1) 0 0 (1938) (1939) 100 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume  Publication 6 7 8 9 10 Books median 4.50 (58) 6.00 (45) 5.50 (14) 6.00 (34) 8.83 (19) range in years 23 23 23 21 21 (1929-1952) (1930-1953) (1931-1954) (1934-1955) (1936-1957) Journals median 5.50 (94) 7.50 (38) 5.50 (36) 6.13 (63) 7.75 (50) range in years 21 21 20 21 22 (1931-1952) (1932-1953) (1935-1955) (1934-1955) (1934-1956) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 6.00 (6) 5.00 (1) 7.50 (4) 4.50 (7) 9.00 (3) range in years 4 0 3 13 15 (1946-1950) (1950) (1948-1951) (1942-1955) (1940-1955) Unpublished  Material median 12.50 (13) 5.00 (14) 3.38 (10) 5.00 (5) 2.50 (3) range in years 21 18 13 15 11 (1931-1952) (1935-1953) (1941-1954) (1940-1955) (1945-1956) Instructional  Material  or Test median 17.00 (3) 13.00 (3) 7.50 (6) 10.00 (2) range in years 12 14 21 16 (1935-1947) (1939-1953) (1932-1953) (1940-1956) Other median 8.00 (21) 4.33 (18) 7.00 (9) 3.50 (14) 6.00 (5) range in years 22 8 19 15 16 (1930-1952) (1945-1953) (1933-1952) (1940-1955) (1940-1956) 101 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume  Publication 11 12 13 14 15 Books median 5.00 (12) 4.50 (31) 8.33 (75) 5.50 (22) 7.05 (88) range in years 12 22 22 21 23 (1945-1957) (1936-1958) (1937-1959) (1939-1960) (1938-1961) Journals median 5.80 (28) 5.50 (13) 5.60 (125) 4.43 (89) 6.07 (93) range in years 11 20 23 20 23 (1946-1957) (1937-1957) (1936-1959) (1940-1960) (1938-1961) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 4.50 (2) 9.00 (3) 5.00 (5) 3.33 (8) 4.38 (14) range in years 3 19 21 21 20 (1953-1956) (1937-1956) (1938-1959) (1940-1961) (1941-1961) Unpublished  Material median 2.50 (2) 4.50 (8) 5.25 (12) 7.00. (7) 11.13 (8) range in years 1 8 6 11 20 (1956-1957) (1950-1958) (1952-1958) (1949-1960) (1941-1961) Instructional Material or Test median 3.00 (1) 8.00 (9) 5.50 (5) 8.00 (5) range in years 0 15 3 22 (1956) (1943-1958) (1955-1958) (1939-1961) Other median 7.00 (9) 9.00 (8) 6.50 (18) 4.50 (21) 5.50 (23) range in years 9 20 22 13 21 (1948-1957) (1938-1958) (1938-1960) (1947-1960) (1940-1961) 102 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume  Publication 16 17 18 19 20 Books median 7.75 (57) 5.75 (90) 5.32 (83) 5.92 (96) 6.50 (131) range in years 22 21 23 24 24 (1940-1962) (1942-1963) (1941-1964) (1942-1966) (1943-1967) Journals J median 4.11 (90) 4.21 (107) 4.53 (181) 4.75 (112) 5.75 (173) range in years 24 24 2*3 20 23 (1939-1963) (1940-1964) (1942-1965) (1946-1966) (1943-1966) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 3.50 (12) 3.40 (14) 5.17 (13) 5.00 (7) 5.38 (8) range in years 5 10 17 4 15 (1957-1962) (1953-1963) (1947-1964) (1960-1964) (1949-1964) Unpublished  Material median 4.30 (19) 4.39 (45) 4.42 (18) 6.00 (19) 3.15 (38) range in years 15 17 13 16 22 (1947-1962) (1947-1964) (1951-1964) (1949-1965) (1945-1967) Instructional  Material  or Test median 3.00 (3) 3.92 (66) 3.50 (3) 8.88 (46) 5.50 (9) range in years 9 23 4 21 21 (1953-1962) (1941-1964) (1959-1963) (1944-1965) (1945-1966) Other median 3.83 (33) 3.90 (23) 2.67 (39) 4.50 (29) 6.00 (27) range in years 23 14 22 20 23 (1939-1962) (1949-1963) (1943-1965) (1945-1965) (1943-1966) 103 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume  Publication 21 22 23 24 25 Books median 7.25 (160) 6.83 (163) 7.30 (180) 7.50 (131) 6.73 (142) range in years 23 23 24 23 22 (1944-1967) (1945-1968) (1946-1970) (1947-1970) (1950-1972) Journals median 6.13 (170) 6.13 (218) 6.03 (196) 6.10 (145) 5.60 (89) range in years 22 24 24 24 24 (1945-1967) (1945-1969) (1946-1970) (1947-1971) (1948-1972) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 4.50 (35) 5.31 (14) 4.42 (22) 5.00 (15) 4.25 (4) range in years 20 7 10 22 21 (1947-1967) (1961-1968) (1959-1969) (1947-1969); (1949-1970) Unpublished  Material median 4.38 (59) 4.35 (67) 4.00 (60) 5.19 (70) 5.00 (15) range in years 17 18 12 18 18 (1951-1968) (1951-1969) (1957-1969) (1952-1970) (1953-1971) Instructional  Material  or Test median 9.00 (34) 7.00 (24) 8.40 (20) 9.50 (49) 7.50 (15) range in years 21 16 17 19 19 (1945-1966) (1951-1967) (1951-1968) (1950-1969) (1950-1969) Other median 7.00 (21) 7.00 (28) 6.00 (33) 5.63 (43) 4.08 (16) range in years 14 7 15 23 12 (1954-1968) (1961-1968) (1954-1969) (1947-1970) (1960-1972) 104 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume  Publication 26 27 28 29 30 Books median 6.85 (165) 6.10 (236) 6.68 (183) 7.12 (224) 8.26 (214) range in years 23 24 21 22 22 (1950-1973) (1950-1974) (1954-1975) (1954-1976) (1954-1976) Journals median 5.91 (145) 6.59 (237) 6.30 (164) 7.19 (219) 7.42 (197) range in years 23 21 23 22 24 (1949-1972) (1953-1974) (1952-1975) (1953-1975) (1953-1977) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 6.50 (7) 6.00 (9) 12.00 (8) 7.00 (6) 8.00 (7) range in years 17 10 12 17 7 (1955-1972) (1962-1972) (1956-1968) (1956-1973) (1967-1974) Unpublished  Material median 4.00 (41) 6.39 (73) 5.29 (74) 5.33 (72) 7.50 (96) range in years 13 21 23 23 22 (1960-1973) (1952-1973) (1951-1974) (1952-1975) (1954-1976) Instructional  Material  or Test median 8.06 (83) 6.00 (50) 8.00 (29) 9.40 (40) 8.63 (144) range in years 23 15 18 14 24 (1949-1972) (1958-1973) (1955-1973) (1959-1973) (1953-1977) Other median 6.14 (28) 5.83 (51) 8.83 (19) 3.50 (37) 6.50 (30) range in years 19 15 20 15 20 (1952-1971) (1958-1973) (1954-1974) (1960-1975) (1956-1976) TABLE XXIV Archival Material Cited by Volume and Type of Publication Type of Volume Publication 1 2 • 3 Books frequency range in years Journals frequency 1 range in years 1923 Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency 1 range in years 1925 Unpublished  Material frequency range in years Instructional  Material  or Test frequency range in years Other frequency range in years 106 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Volume  Publication 6 7 8 9 10 Books frequency 13 3 1 range in years 1926 1922-1928 1900-1922 1916 Journals frequency 12 5 2 2 range in years 1923 1925-1928 1912-1930 1917-1931 1931-1932 Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range in years Unpublished  Material frequency 1 range in years 1927 Instructional  Material  or Test frequency range in years Other frequency range in years 2 1925-1926 1 1927 1 1930 107 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Publication 11 12 Volume 13 14 15 Books frequency 1 range in years 1927 1 1910 1910-1933 10 1908-1937 Journals frequency range in years 1 1934 14 1911-1935 1885-1935 1929-1936 Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range in years Unpublished  Material frequency range in years 1 1926 1 1935 Instructional  Material  or Test frequency 1 range in years 1925 Other frequency range in years 1 1930 3 1930-1935 3 1907-1930 108 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Publication 16 Volume 17 18 19 20 Books frequency range in years 1868-1938 1929-1939 1893-1940 1913-1938 1909-1942 17 10 11 Journals frequency 13 range in years 1900-1938 1923-1939 10 1907-1940 11 1894-1940 10 1926-1939 Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range in years 1 1925 1 1925 1 1933 Unpublished  Material frequency range in years 1 1934 1 1935 Instructional  Material  or Test frequency range in years 1900-1934 1867-1939 1 1940 11 1898-1936 Other frequency 5 4 range in years 1909-1938 1935-1938 1 1933 1930-1941 1922-1939 109 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Publication 21 Volume 22 23 24 25 Books frequency 28 range in years 1890-1943 14 1911-1943 1910-1940 15 1910-1946 1928-1947 Journals frequency 28 range in years 1910-1942 21 1918-1943 1917-1945 1857-1943 1917-1946 Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range in years 1 1917 1 1942 1 1925 Unpublished  Material frequency range in years 1925-1937 1 1942 Instructional Material or Test frequency range in years 1916-1943 1938-1939 1 1938 1840-1942 1 1943 Other frequency 4 9 range in years 1907-1943 1926-1942 110 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Publication 26 Volume 27 28 29 30 Books frequency 6 14 23 range in years 1885-1945 1922-1946 1908-1950 33 1908-1951 13 1926-1952 Journals frequency 10 14 15 21 10 range in years 1901-1948 1923-1948 1921-1944 1913-1951 1936-1951 Conference  Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range in years 1937-1938 Unpublished  Material frequency range in years 1 1942 1925-1942 1 1947 Instructional Material or Test frequency 9 range in years 1879-1948 1932-1940 1940-1943 1939-1945 11 1932-1952 Other frequency 5 3 5 3 4 range in years 1905-1948 1925-1948 1921-1948 1870-1948 1948-1950 Ill TABLE XXV Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 21 through 25 Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage The Reading Teacher 184 20.98 Elementary English 79 29.99 Elementary School Journal 5 8 36.60 Journal of Educational Research 46 41.85 Reading Research Quarterly 32 45.50 Journal of Educational Psychology 31 49.0 3 Child Development 28 52.22 Journal of Reading 0 54.50 American Educational Research Journal 16 56.32 Exceptional Children 15 58.03 Education 13 59.51 Journal of Experimental Education 11 60.76 American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1 62.01 Elementary English Review 11 6 3.26 Perceptual and Motor Skills 0 64.40 Harvard Educational Review 9 65.43 Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 8 66.46 Childhood Education 8 67.37 Journal of Genetic Psychology 8 6 8.28 School Review 7 9 .0 8 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6 69.76 Educational and Psychological Measurement 6 70.44 Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 5 71.01 Review of Educational Research 5 71.58 Psychological Review 5 72.15 Journal of Psychology  72.72 Journalism Quarterly 5 7 3.29 California Journal of Educational Research 4 7 3.75 Journal of Communication 4 74.21 American Psychologist 4 74.68 Ontario Journal of Educational Research 4 75.13 Sight-Saving Review Instructor Teachers College Record National Education Association Journal 4 76.96 4 75.59 4 76.05 4 76.50 TABLE XXV continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Journal of Education 4 77 .41 Psychological Reports 4 77.87 National Elementary Principal 4 78.33 Educational Administration and Supervision 3 78.67 Journal of Experimental Psychology 3 79 .01 American Journal of Mental Deficiency 3 79.36 Phi Delta Kappan 3 79.70 Educational Leadership 3 80.04 Journal of Consulting Psychology 3 80.38 Research in the Teaching of English 3 80.72 Journal of Special Education 3 81.07 American Journal of Optometry 3 81.41 Journal of Educational Measurement 3 81.75 Peabody Journal of Education 3 82.09 Journal of Developmental Reading 3 82 .43 Modern Language Journal 3 82.78 Journal of the Reading Specialist 3 83.12 Journal of Teacher Education 3 83.46 Journal of the American Medical Association 3 83.80 Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 2 84.03 Journal.of School Psychology 2 84 .26 Today 1s Education 2 84.49 Reading Newsreport 2 84.71 English Journal 2 84.94 Illinois School Research 2 85.17 American Journal of Psychiatry 2 85.40 Nations Schools 2 85.62 Behavioral Science 2 85 .85 Journal of Learning Disabilities 2 86 .08 Soviet Education 2 86 . 31 Perceptual Motor Skills 2 86 .54 Boston University Journal of Education 2 86 .76 American Sociological Review 2 86 .99 Language 2 87.22 School and Society 2 87 .45 113 TABLE XXV continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage Journal of Programmed Reading American Journal of Psychology. Progressive Education The Clearing House Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders Rehabilitation Literature Psychometrika Teachers College Journal Journal of Typographic Research Science School Library Journal Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychology and Quarterly Review of Psychiatry and Neurology-Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Pediatrics Academic Therapy Quarterly Journal of Home Economics Contemporary Psychology Library Quarterly Vocational Guidance.Quarterly Journal of Counseling Psychology Foreign Language Annals Reading and Inquiry American Anthropologist Journal of Reading Behavior Annual Review of Psychology Teachers World Genetic Psychology Monographs Educational Research Pittsburgh Schools American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry Journal of Neurosurgery Canadian Journal of Psychology National Education Association Elementary Principal The Florida Reporter Journal of Applied Psychology 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 87 .68 87.90 88.13 88 . 36 88.59 88.82 89 .05 89.27 89 .50 89 .73 89 .96 90.07 90.19 90 . 30 90 .42 90 .53 90.64 90.76 90.87 90.99 91. 91, 91, 91. 91, 91, 91, 91 92 10 21 33 44 55 67 79 90 02 92.13 92, 92, 92 92 92 24 36 47 59 70 114 TABLE XXV continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1 92.81 Project Literacy Reports 1 92.93 American Statistical Association Journal 1 93.04 Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1 9 3.16-ASHA: Journal of the American Speech and Hearing Association 1 93.27 Language and Speech 1 9 3.38 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease  93.50 International Review of Education 1 93.61 Education Digest 1 93.73 Perception and Psychophysics 1 9 3.84 American Journal of Disorders in Children 1 9 3.95 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 1 94.07 College English 1 94.18 Mental Hygiene  94.30 The Urban Review  94.41 Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1 94.53 Experimental Neurology 1 9 4.64 Psychology in the Schools  9 4.75 American Journal of Public Health 1 94.87 Journal of Social Psychology 1 9 4.98 Archives of Opthalmology 1 95.10 Journal of the National Education Association 1 95.21 Sociology, of Education 1 9 5.32 IDEA Reporter  9 5.44 Educational Review  9 5.55 Personnel and Guidance Journal 1 9 5.67 American Journal of Diseases of Children 1 95.78 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry • 1 95.89 British Medical Journal 1 96.01 New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 1 9 6.12 The Nervous Child 1 96.24 Grade Teacher  96.35 Elementary English Journal 1 96.46 Programmed Instruction  96.58 115 TABLE XXV continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology Journal of Personality Barnard's Journal of Education Modern Educational Problems School Science and Mathematics Illinois Education Educational Researcher Psychoanalytic Study of the Child American Education Journal of General Psychology Denver Public Schools Instruction News Journal of Rehabilitation UNESCO, Educational Studies and Documents Journal of Pediatrics General Linguistics Journal of Research and Development in Education Science Education Journal of Negro Education Archives of Disease in Childhood Journal of Orthopsychiatry The High School Journal Catholic Educational Review Review of. Applied Psychology Audio Visual Communication Review The Record Comprehensive Psychiatry School and Community Archives of General Psychology Carnegie Quarterly British Journal of Educational Psychology 1 96.69 1 96.81 1 96 .92 1 97 .03 1 97.15 1 97.26 1 97.38 1 97.49 1 97 .60 1 97.72 1 97 .83 1 97.95 1 98.06 1 98.17 1 98.29 1 98.40 1 98.52 1 98.63 1 98.74 1 98 .86 1 98.97 1 99.09 1 99.20 1 99.31 1 99.43 1 99.54 1 99 .66 1 99.77 1 99 .88 1 100.00 116 TABLE XXVI Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 26 through 30 Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher Elementary English Elementary School Journal Reading Research Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology. Journal of Learning Disabilities Journal of Reading Journal of Educational Research Exceptional Children Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Child Development Perceptual and Motor Skills Harvard Educational Review Phi Delta Kappan Education Psychological Review American Educational Research Journal Psychology, in the Schools Childhood Education Journal of Applied Psychology National Elementary Principal American Psychologist Journal of Reading Behavior English Journal. Psychological Reports Review of Educational Research Journal of Experimental Education British Journal of Educational Psychology Library Journal American Journal of Mental Deficiency Educational and Psychological Measurement Young Children College English American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Educational Leadership 168 16 .67 81 24.71 66 31.26 57 36 .91 42 41.08 35 44.55 29 47.43• 28 50 .21 19 52.09 15 53.58 15 55.07 13 56 . 36 11 57.45 11 58.55 10 59.54 10 60.53 10 61.53 10 62.52 10 63.51 9 64.40 9 65.30 8 66.09 8 66 .89 8 67.68 8 68.47 7 69.16 7 69 . 86 7 70.55 7 71.25 7 71.94 6 72.54 6 73.13 6 73.73' 6 74.32 6 74.92 117 TABLE XXVI continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology School and Society Journal of Developmental Reading Developmental Psychology Grade Teacher Journal of Education Speech Teacher Psychometrika Educational Administration and Supervision Journal of Genetic Psychology School Review Journal of the Reading Specialist Education Digest Teachers College Record Human Relations Academic Therapy Quarterly Peabody-Journal of Education Journal of School Psychology Journalism Quarterly Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Psychonomic Science i Journal of Experimental Psychology Journal of Special Education Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Perceptual Motor Skills , Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders Public Opinion Quarterly Arithmetic Teacher International Journal of Psychology Today's Education Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Florida Reading Quarterly Journal of Personality American Journal of Sociology Reading Improvement 5 75.42 5 75.91 5 76 .41 5 76 .90 5 77.40 5 77.90 4 78 . 30 4 78.69 4 79 .09 4 79 .49 4 79 . 88 4 80.28 4 80.68 4 81.07 3 81. 37 3 81.67 3 81.96 3 82.26 3 82 .56 3 82.86 3 83.15 3 83.45 3 83.75 3 84.05 3 84.35 3 84.65 3 84.94 2 85.14 2 85. 34 2 85.54 2 85.73 2 85.93 2 86 .13 2 86.33 2 86 .53 118 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Boston University Journal of Education 2 86 .73 Journal of Educational Measurement 2 86 .92 Rehabilitation Literature 2 87.12 Reading Newsreport 2 87.32 Elementary English Review 2 87.52 Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2 87.72 Academic Therapy 2 87 .92 Improving Human Performance 2 88.11 Evaluation Comment 2 88.31 Journal of Social Psychology 2 88.51 Word 2 88.71 Journal of Psychology 2 88.91 Social Education 2 89 .11 Science and Children 2 89.30 Teachers College Journal. 2 89 .50 Research in the Teaching of English 2 89 .70 Language and Speech 1 89.80 British Journal of Psychology 1 89 .90 Journal of American Indian Education 1 90.00 American Education 1 90 .10 Pediatric Clinics of North America 1 90 .20 Educational Research 1 90 . 30 Journal of Human Resource 1 90.39 The Journal of Nursery Education 1 90.49 National Education Association Journal 1 90 .59 Appalachia 1 90.69 Journal for Special Educators of the Mentally Retarded 1- 90 .79 Advancement of Science 1 90 . 89 Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1 90.99 Elementary School Guidance and Counseling 1 91.09 Journal of Reading Disabilities 1 91.19 The Chronicle of Higher Education 1 91.29 Journal of the American Medical Association 1 91.39 Contemporary Psychology 1 91.49 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1 91.58 119 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage American Sociological Review 1 91.68 Physical Therapy 1 91.7Der Spiegel  91.88 Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology 1 91.98 University of California Publications in Education 1 92.08 Library Trends  9 2.18 Audio-Visual Instructor 1 92.28 Illinois School Research  92.38 American Journal of Diseases of Children 1 92.48 Reading 1 92.5Focus on Exceptional Children 1 9 2.68 Journal of Physiology- 1 92.78 School Libraries 1 92.87 Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 1 92.9Canadian Education and Research Digest 1 93.'07 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 1 93.17 American Journal of Psychiatry 1 9 3.27 Ohio Schools 1 93.3Educational Horizons 1 9 3.47 Journal of Florida Medical Association 1  3.57 The Research Quarterly 1 9 3.67 New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 1  3.77 Archives of General Psychiatry 1 9 3.87 International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1 93.97 American Journal of Public Health 1 94.07 Reading Forum 1 94.16 Elementary English Journal 1 94.26 Journal of Research in Science Teaching 1 94.36 Science Education  94.4Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 1 94.56 Cognitive Psychology 1 94.66 Journal of American Speech and Hearing Association 1 94.76 American Journal of Psychology' 1 94.86 Personnel Journal  94.9Education (New Zealand) 1 95.06 120 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Journal of Negro Education 1 95 .16 Zeitschrift fur Kinderpsychiatrie 1 95 .26 Mathematics in Michigan 1 95 . 35 Behavioral Science 1 95 .45 Journal of American Folklore 1 95 .55 Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 1 95 .65 Perception and Psychophysics 1 95 .75 Exceptional Child 1 95 .85 Journal of Psychiatric Research 1 95 .95 The Mathematics Teacher 1 96 .05 Language Arts 1 96 .15 Daedalus 1 96 .25 Journal of Communication 1 96 .35 Teaching Exceptional Children 1 96 .45 Philosophical Studies 1 96 .55 Educational Technology 1 96 .64 Journal of General Psychology 1 96 .74 Vocational Aspect of Education 1 96 .84 Ohio Reading Teacher 1 96 .94 Audiovisual Instruction 1 97 .04 Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis 1 97 .14 Science 1 97 .24 Paedogogisch Forum 1 97 .34 English Record 1 97 .44 Journal of Social Issues 1 97 . 54 Transaction 1 97 .64 Journal of the American Optometric Association 1 97 .74 Current Medical Digest 1 97 .83 Journal of Pediatrics 1 97 .93 Special Education 1 98 .03 Personnel and Guidance Journal 1 98 .13 Duke University Research Studies in Education 1 98 .23 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1 98 . 33 A "I Viewpoints 1 98 . 4 3 Learning 1 98 .53 121 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Educational Record 1 98.63 Personnel Psychology  98.7Reading World  9 8.83 Language Learning 1 9 8.93 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology,  99.03 Measurement in Education 1 99.12 The Journal of Psychiatry  99.22 Journal of Teacher Education 1 99.32 Educational Researcher 1 99.42 The Elementary English Review 1 99.5The School Librarian and School Library Review 1 99.62 Research in Education 1 9 9.72 Today's Speech 1 99.8Tennessee Education  99.92 The Scholastic Teacher 1 100.00 122 TABLE XXVII Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher in Volumes 21 through 30 Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage The Reading Teacher Elementary English Elementary School Journal Reading Research Quarterly Journal of Educational Research Journal of Educational Psychology Journal of Reading Child Development. Journal of Learning Disabilities Exceptional Children American Educational Research Journal Perceptual and Motor Skills Education Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Harvard Educational Review Childhood Education Journal of Experimental Education American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Psychological Review Phi Delta Kappan Elementary English Review National Elementary Principal Review of Educational Research Journal of Genetic Psychology Educational and Psychological Measurement Psychological Reports American Psychologist Merrill-Palmer Quarterly School Review Psychology in the Schools English Journal Journal of Applied Psychology American Journal of Mental Deficiency Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Educational Leadership 352 18.67 160 27.16 124 33.74 89 38.46 74 42.39 73- 46 .26 49 48.86 43 51.14 37 53.10 34 54.90 26 56.28 23 57.50 23 5 8.72 21 59.83 20 60 . 89 18 61.84 18 62 .79 17 63.69 15 64.49 14 65.23 13 65.92 13 66 .61 12 67.25 12. 67.88 12 68.52 12 69 .16 12 69.79 11 70.37 11 70.96 11 71.54 10 72.07 10 72.60 10 73.13 10 73.66 9 74.14 123 TABLE XXVII continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage Journal of Reading Behavior 9 74.61 Journal of Education 9 75.09 Teachers College Record 8 75.51 Journalism Quarterly 8 75.94 British Journal of Educational Psychology 8 76.36 Journal of Developmental Reading 8 76 .79 School and Society 7 77.16 Library Journal 7 77.53 Educational Administration and 77.90 Supervision 7 Journal of Psychology 7 78.28 College English 7 78.65 Journal of the Reading Specialist 7 79 .02 Young Children 6 79 . 34 Grade Teacher 6 79.66 Peabody. Journal of Education 6 79.97 Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 80 .29 Journal of Special Education 6 80.61 Psychometrika 6 80.93 Developmental Psychology 5 81.20 Journal of Communication 5 81.46 Research in the Teaching of English 5 81.73 National Education Association Journal 5 81.99 Education Digest 5 82 .26 Journal of School Psychology 5 82.52 Perceptual Motor Skills 5 82.79 Journal of Educational Measurement 5 83.05 Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 5 83.32 Academic Therapy Quarterly 4 83.53 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 4 83.74 Boston University Journal of Education 4 83.96 Reading Newsreport 4 84.17 Today's Education 4 84.38 Instructor 4 84 .59 California Journal of Educational Research 4 84.81 Journal of Teacher Education 4 85.02 ) 124 TABLE XXVII continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage Sight-Saving Review 4 85. ,23 Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 4 85. ,44 Rehabilitation Literature 4 85. ,65 Ontario Journal of Educational Research 4 85. ,87 Speech Teacher 4 86 . ,08 Teachers College Journal 4 86 . ,29 Journal of the American Medical Association 4 86 . ,50 Journal of Personality 3 86 . ,66 Behavioral Science 3 86 . ,82 Modern Language Journal 3 86. ,98 American Journal of Psychiatry 3 87. ,14 Illinois School Research 3. 87 . ,30 Science 3 87. ,45 Psychonomic Science 3 87. ,61 American Journal of Optometry 3 87. ,77 Journal of Social Psychology 3 87. .93 American Sociological Review 3 88 . .09 Public Opinion Quarterly 3 88, .25 American Journal of Psychology 3 88, .41 Journal of Consulting Psychology 3 88 , .57 Human Relations 3 88, .73 Florida Reading Quarterly 2 88 , .84 Language 2 88, .94 Word 2 89 , .05 Journal of Pediatrics 2 89 , .15 Contemporary Psychology 2 89, .26 Personnel and Guidance Journal 2 89 . 37 Academic Therapy 2 89 .47 Educational Research 2 89 .58 New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 2 89 .68 The Clearing House 2 89 .79 Journal of Programmed Reading 2 89 .90 Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 2 90 .00 Progressive Education 2 90 .10 American Education 2 90 .22 125 TABLE XXVII continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage International Journal of Psychology Elementary English Journal School Library Journal Journal of General Psychology Arithmetic Teacher Perception and Psychophysics American Journal of Public Health Improving Human Performance Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Nations Schools Social Education Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Evaluation Comment Reading Improvement American Journal of Diseases of Children Journal of Negro Education Educational Researcher Journal of Typographic Research Science and Children Psychoanalytic Study of the Child American Journal of Sociology Language and Speech Soviet Education Science Education Journal of Counseling Psychology Canadian Journal of Psychology Physical Therapy Advancement of Science Journal of Rehabilitation Elementary School Guidance and Counseling Mathematics in Michigan The Florida Reporter Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychology and Quarterly Review of Psychiatry and Neurology ASHA: Journal of the American Speech and Hearing Association Reading 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 90.32 90.43 90 .54 90 .64 90.75 90 .85 90 .96 91.07 91.17 91.28 91. 91. 91. 91, 91, 91, 92, 92, 92, 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 38 49 60 70 81 92 02 13 23 34 92.45 92.55 92.66 92.76 92.81 ,87 ,92 ,97 ,03 ,08 ,13 ,18 1 1 93.24 93.29 93.34 126 TABLE XXVII continued Journal Number of Citations Cumulative Percentage American Journal of Disorders in Children 1 9 3.40 Journal of Florida Medical Association 1 93.45 Education (New Zealand) 1 9 3.50 Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 1  3.56 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease 1 9 3.61 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 1 9 3.66 Cognitive Psychology 1  3.71 Paedagogisch Forum  9 3.77 American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry 1 9 3.82 Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1 9 3.87 Foreign Language Annals 1 9 3.93 National Education Association Elementary Principal  9 3.98 University of California Publications in Education 1 94.03 Genetic Psychology Monographs 1 94.09 Annual Review of Psychology  94.14 Programmed Instruction 1 9 4.19 American Statistical Association Journal 1 94.25 Journal of Neurosurgery  9 4.30 Educational Horizons 1 94.35 Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 1 9 4.40 Teaching Exceptional Children 1 94.46 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1 94.51 British Journal of Psychology 1 94.56 Personnel Journal  9 4.62 American Anthropologist 1 94.67 Journal of Research in Science Teaching 1 94.72 Electroencephalography, and Clinical Neurophysiology 1 94.78 Library Quarterly  94.83 The Research Quarterly 1 9 4.88 International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1 9 4.94 TABLE XXVII continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Barnard's Journal of Education 1 94.99 Reading Forum 1 9 5.04 Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology  9 5.09 Journal of Home Economics 1 95.15 Duke University Research Studies in Education 1 95.20 Journal of the National Education Association  95.25 School and Community 1 95.31 Journal of American Speech and Hearing Association 1 95.36 Daedalus  9 5.41 Pediatric Clinics of North America 1 95.47 Zeitschrift Fur Kinderpsychiatrie 1 95.52 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1 95.58 Experimental Neurology 1 9 5.62 Ohio Reading Teacher  5.68 Special Education  95.73 IDEA Reporter 1 9 5.78 Archives of General Psychology 1 95.84 Project Literacy Reports 1 95.89 The Mathematics Teacher  95.94 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1 96.00 Educational Review  96.05 Language Arts  96.10 Research in Education 1 96.16 Journal of American Indian Education 1 96.21 Catholic Educational Review 1 96.26 Philosophical Studies 1 96.31 Vocational Aspect of Education 1 9 6.37 Journal of Reading Disabilities  96.42 English Record 1 96.47 Mental Hygiene  96.53 The Elementary English Review 1 96.58 Journal of American Folklore  96.63 Audiovisual Instruction 1 96.69 Reading and Inquiry 1 96.74 Transaction 1 96.79 128 TABLE XXVII continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage Journal of Human Resource 1 96 . 84 Der Spiegel 1 96. 90 Journal of the American Optometric Association 1 96. 95 School Science and Mathematics 1 97 . 00 Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis 1 97. 06 Comprehensive Psychiatry 1 97. 11 Ohio Schools 1 97 . 16 Viewpoints 1 97 . 22 Journal of Psychiatric Research 1 97 . 27 Focus on Exceptional Children 1 97. ,32 Modern Educational Problems 1 97. , 38 Sociology of Education 1 97 . ,43 Illinois Education 1 97 . ,48 Archives of Disease in Childhood 1 97. ,53 Personnel Psychology. 1 97. ,59 The Journal of Nursery Education 1 97. ,6 4 Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology 1 97 , .69 Educational Record 1 97 . .75 Language Learning 1 97 . .80 Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 1 97 , . 85 International Review of Education 1 97, .91 Canadian Education and Research Digest 1 97, .96 Pediatrics 1 98 , .01 Vocational Guidance Quarterly 1 98 , .07 Journal, of Social Issues 1 98 .12 Exceptional Child 1 98 .17 Learning 1 98 .22 Teachers World 1 98 .28 Journal for Special Educators of the Mentally Retarded 1 98 . 33 Audio-Visual Instructor 1 98 . 38 Pittsburgh Schools 1 98 .44 The School Librarian and School Library Review 1 98 .49 Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1 98 . 54 Educational Technology 1 98 .60 Measurement in Education 1 98 .65 129 TABLE XXVII continued Number of Cumulative Journal Citations Percentage School Libraries 1 9 8.70 Journal of Physiology 1 9 8.75 Current Medical Digest  9 8.81 Library Trends  98.86 The Record 1 9 8.91 Journal of Research and Development in Education  9 8.97 General Linguistics 1 99.02 The Chronicle of Higher Education 1 99.07 Archives of Opthalmology 1 99.13 Today's Speech  99.18 Carnegie Quarterly ' 1 99.23 Reading World 1 99.29 Audio Visual Communication Review 1 99.34 The High School Journal 1 99.39 Denver Public Schools Instruction News 1 99.44 Tennessee Education 1 99.50 Appalachia 1 99.55 The Scholastic Teacher  99.60 British Medical Journal 1 99.66 Review of Applied Psychology 1 9 9.71 Archives of General Psychiatry 1 9 9.76 The Nervous Child 1 99.82 UNESCO, Educational Studies and Documents  99.87 The Journal of Psychiatry 1 99.92 The Urban Review 1 100.00 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094066/manifest

Comment

Related Items