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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Content analysis of The reading teacher, 1948-1977 1977

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CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE READING TEACHER - 19 4 8-19 7 7 by CATHERINE COLETTE TOLSMA B.B.A.> U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of READING EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard T h e s i s S u p e r v i s o r A d v i s o r UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 (jO Catherine Colette Tolsma In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t . t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y - a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying.of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Reading Educ a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada. V6T 1W5 September, 19 7 7 i i i ABSTRACT The r e s u l t s f r o m a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f an e l e m e n t a r y r e a d - i n g e d u c a t i o n j o u r n a l , The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . R e t r o s p e c t i v e b i b l i o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e j o u r n a l f o c u s s e d on t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30, d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d c o n t e n t t r e n d s and d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 30, and a n a l y s i s o f r e f e r e n c e d j o u r n a l s i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30. The 20 Y e a r A n n o t a t e d Index t o The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , c o n - t a i n i n g 18 m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s and 31 s u b - c a t e g o r i e s , was u s e d as a b a s e f o r t h e s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . E m p i r i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e 844 a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d i n Volumes 2 1 - t h r o u g h 30 r e s u l t e d i n t h e a d d i t i o n o f f i v e a d d i t i o n a l s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . D emographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a r t i c l e s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g e i g h t v a r i a b l e s : t o p i c a l t r e n d s , m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p , sex o f a u t h o r , a u t h o r o c c u p a t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f a u t h o r , c i t a t i o n s p e r volume, t y p e o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d , and age o f c i t e d m a t e r i a l . D a t a were p r e s e n t e d i n f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s and p e r c e n t a g e s , and c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e t e n - y e a r t i m e p e r i o d s t o d e t e c t t r e n d s and s h i f t s i n emphases o v e r t h e t h i r t y volume y e a r s . W i t h a r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r , two a r e a s r e c e i v e d t h e g r e a t e s t e m p h a s i s : R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n and S k i l l D e v e l o p m e n t . M a j o r c a t e g o r i e s r e m a i n e d q u i t e s t a b l e o v e r t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s , w i t h s h i f t s o c c u r r i n g among t h e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . The m a j o r i t y o f a r t i c l e s were s i n g l e a u t h o r e d (82.6%); a u t h o r s h i p was approximately e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between men and women over.the t h i r t y volume y e a r s , w i t h a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n male authors i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The most p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h c o l l e g e s . a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s and r e s i d e d i n the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The number of p u b l i c a t i o n s . c i t e d showed a steady i n c r e a s e across the t h i r t y volume p e r i o d , w i t h an i n c r e a s e observed i n the number and percentage of books c i t e d and a s l i g h t decrease i n j o u r n a l c i t a t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y h i g h median ages were found f o r c i t e d m a t e r i a l with a t r e n d toward c i t a t i o n of newer, m a t e r i a l and c i t e d m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t i n g . a r c h i v a l and near a r c h i v a l ages i n comparison w i t h s i m i l a r r e s u l t s from s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of the study i n v e s t i g a t e d the core and support l i t e r a t u r e s t r u c t u r e of elementary r e a d i n g based on the frequency w i t h which d i f f e r e n t j o u r n a l s were c i t e d by authors p u b l i s h i n g i n Volumes .21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher. I t was found t h a t the Pareto c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i d e n t i f i e d i n previous r e s e a r c h h e l d f o r t h i s l i t e r a t u r e c o l l e c t i o n with e i g h t . t i t l e s accounting f o r 51.14 percent of the c i t e d j o u r n a l s . These e i g h t t i t l e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d the core elementary reading j o u r n a l s , and i n c l u d e t h r e e r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s , two g e n e r a l elementary j o u r n a l s , . two e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h journals,. and one E n g l i s h j o u r n a l . A wide v a r i e t y of support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d suggesting: t h a t elementary r e a d i n g i n t e r a c t s with a broad i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y base r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r academic f i e l d s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Statement of the Problem 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study . . . . . 4 L i m i t a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . . . . . . . 6 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE . . . 7 Content A n a l y s i s 8 S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . 9 T o p i c a l Trend A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . 10 M u l t i p l e A u t horship . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sex o f Author . . . . . . 14 Author Occupation . . . . . . . . . 15 Geographic L o c a t i o n of Author . 16 C i t a t i o n s per Volume . . . 17 Type of P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d . . . . . . . . . . 19 Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l 21 Core and Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e . ... . . 22 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27 P u b l i c a t i o n o f The Reading Teacher . 27 S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A r t i c l e s . . . . . 28 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . 31 T o p i c a l Trend A n a l y s i s . . . . . 32 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE M u l t i p l e A u t horship • . • . . . . . . . 32 Sex of Author . . . . . . . . . . . .•. . . . 33 Author Occupation . . ... .•. . . . . . . .•. 33 Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Author . . . . . . . . 33 C i t a t i o n s per Volume . . . . . 34 Type of P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d . . . . . . . . .•.• 34 Age of C i t e d M a t e r i a l . . . . . . .•. . . .•. 35 Core and Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . 35 Summary . • . . . . . . . . 36 IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 37 S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A r t i c l e s . . . . . 37 De m o g r a p h i c . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . 40 T o p i c a l Trend A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . 40 M u l t i p l e A u t horship . . .•.-. . . . . . . . . 48 Sex of Author . . . . . . . . . . 51 Author Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Author . . . 54 C i t a t i o n s per Volume . . . . . . 54 Type of. P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d 56 Age of C i t e d M a t e r i a l . . . .•. . . . . . . . 58 Core and Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . 58 V SUMMARY,. CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY . . . . . . . 70 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A r t i c l e s . . . . 70 v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . 71 Core and Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e 7 3 Conclusi o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•. . . . 74 Recommendations . . . . . . . .•. . . . . . . . 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY • . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 79 APPENDICES . • . • . . . . . 83 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I ARTICLES BY MAJOR. CATEGORIES ACROSS..THREE TIME..PERIODS . . . . . . . . 41- II ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN READING INSTRUCTION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 4 3 I I I ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN DEVELOPMENT OF READING SKILLS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . 45- IV ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 V ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN READING PERSONNEL ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . = . . . . . . . 47 VI ARTICLES CLASSIFIED WITHIN. READING PROBLEMS ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . 49 VII MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . 50 V I I I SEX OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 52 IX AUTHOR OCCUPATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . 53 X GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 XI TYPE OF PUBLICATION CITED ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 XII AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY PUBLICATION TYPE ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 59 XI I I ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY TYPE OF PUBLICATION ACROSS THREE TIME PERIODS 60 XIV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25 . . . . . . 62 XV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30 6 3 XVI JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30 66 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 2 JOURNALS CITED IN THE READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 26-30 . . . . . . 65 3 JOURNALS CITED IN THE.READING TEACHER, VOLUMES 21-30 . 69 X LIST OF APPENDICES PAGE APPENDIX A DATA CODING SYSTEM 84 APPENDIX B TABLES XVII THROUGH XXVII . . . . . 86 TABLE XVII ARTICLE FREQUENCY BY MAJOR AND SUB- CATEGORIES ACROSS 30 VOLUME YEARS 7 86 XVIII MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP BY VOLUME 92 XIX SEX OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME . 9 3 XX AUTHOR OCCUPATION BY VOLUME 94 XXI GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF AUTHOR BY VOLUME . . . . 95 XXII CITATIONS BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION . . 97 XXIII AGE OF CITED MATERIAL BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION 99 XXIV ARCHIVAL MATERIAL CITED BY VOLUME AND TYPE OF PUBLICATION 105 XXV JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 25 I l l XXVI JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30 116 XXVII JOURNALS BY NUMBER OF CITATIONS RECEIVED FROM THE READING TEACHER IN VOLUMES 21 THROUGH 30 122. x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. Edward G. Summers, my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and advice throughout a l l stages o f the study. G r a t i t u d e i s expressed t o Dr. Robert D. Chester, my a d v i s o r , f o r h i s c o o p e r a t i o n and encouragement. To my c h i l d r e n , V a l e r i e , M e l i s s a , G e r r i t , and Jeremy, I thank you f o r your c o n s c i e n t i o u s . a s s i s t a n c e .in t a b u l a t i n g data whenever p o s s i b l e ; I a l s o thank you f o r your t o l e r a n c e when you were unable t o h e l p . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The Reading Teacher has grown from i t s i n f a n c y at Temple U n i v e r s i t y i n 194 8 t o a mature/ h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d j o u r n a l . I t enjoys a world audience, i t s p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s are wid e l y c i t e d , and i t i s r e c o g n i z e d as a str o n g f o r c e i n the development of r e a d i n g as a d i s t i n c t and separate f i e l d w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n . Herschman (1970) suggests t h a t the f u n c t i o n of a p r o f e s - s i o n a l j o u r n a l i s b a s i c a l l y t h r e e f o l d : to r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n , disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n , and convey p r e s t i g e and r e c o g n i t i o n . Borko and B e r n i e r (19 75) e l a b o r a t e d on these t h r e e f u n c t i o n s . 1. I t disseminates i n f o r m a t i o n among members of a s c i e n t i f i c [ p r o f e s s i o n a l ] community who have s i m i l a r o r o v e r l a p p i n g i n t e r e s t s and who need t o m a i n t a i n a c u r r e n t awareness by keeping up wi t h developments i n t h e i r f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t . 2. I t l i n k s producers and users of i n f o r m a t i o n by a r e c o r d of achievements t h a t can be used f o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e s e a r c h i n g . The j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s a p u b l i c r e c o r d , prepared w i t h q u a l i t y c o n t r o l through the e d i t o r - r e f e r e e system, a means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t y , and an o r d e r l y b a s i s f o r tr a n s f o r m i n g data i n t o i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r r e l a t i n g new knowledge to p r i o r knowledge so as t o form a corpus. I t packages r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h and development. 3. I t performs an important s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , f o r i t conveys p r e s t i g e and r e c o g n i t i o n upon i t s authors, (pp. 147-148) The r e l a t i v e importance of these three f u n c t i o n s has s h i f t e d over the y e a r s . The c u r r e n t awareness r o l e has le s s e n e d : r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s are now presented at conventions and meetings, wi t h the j o u r n a l a r t i c l e r e p o r t i n g the r e s e a r c h f o l l o w i n g the 2 i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e expansion i n v i r t u a l l y every d i s c i p l i n e has made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r or p r a c t i - t i o n e r to be, " c u r r e n t l y aware" of a l l primary j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s r e l e v a n t i n h i s f i e l d . Because of p u b l i c a t i o n l a g and the sheer volume of m a t e r i a l b e i n g p r i n t e d , the c u r r e n t awareness f u n c t i o n of the j o u r n a l has decreased i n importance. Thus, the use of the j o u r n a l as an a r c h i v a l resource has i n c r e a s e d . I t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y impor- t a n t t h a t good r e t r o s p e c t i v e b i b l i o g r a p h i e s be developed to p r o v i d e access t o the l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n now a v a i l - a ble on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s . The j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e becomes an e d u c a t i o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l resource of accumulated knowledge. J o u r n a l s remain of primary importance today, as noted by Kuney (1968), who emphasized t h a t "as a medium f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i t [the j o u r n a l ] remains the most widely used t o o l o f f e r e d by the present system of i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r . " Background A j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y has a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the growth and development of t h a t f i e l d . The Reading Teacher, as the primary elementary p u b l i c a t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n (IRA) f o r the p a s t t h r e e decades, has p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n the d i s s e m i - n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s e a r c h about the t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g and the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . K l i n e , in.an e d i t o r i a l p u b l i s h e d i n the j o u r n a l i n 1972, commented on d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n the melding of r e s e a r c h , classroom,, and j o u r n a l . 3 A p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l ' s r o l e i s to t r y to accommodate a u n i t y w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n — i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a u n i t y between r e s e a r c h e r and p r a c t i t i o n e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the detached o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of uncontaminated data t h a t are so c r u c i a l t o e x c e l - l e n c e i n formal r e s e a r c h appear to p r e c l u d e the s y n t h e s i s , c r e a t i v i t y , and o c c a s i o n a l warm f u z z i n e s s t h a t are among the s o r e s t needs i n a t e a c h e r , and v i c e v e r s a , (p; 724) Statement of the Problem T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n uses content a n a l y s i s as a b i b l i o m e t r i c r e s e a r c h t o o l t o determine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i d e n t i f y trends and developments i n The Reading Teacher across i t s t h i r t y volume ye a r s . The a n a l y s i s focuses on three dimensions of the- p r o f e s - s i o n a l r e a d i n g j o u r n a l . 1. A r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher are c l a s s i f i e d . i n t o a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the e m p i r i c a l l y developed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme used i n the 20,Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher (Summers, 1969). 2. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t h i r t y p u b l i s h e d volumes of The Reading Teacher are determined, i n c l u d i n g a t o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s with data presented i n three time p e r i o d s to a f f o r d compari- sons; f o u r author c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g number of authors per a r t i c l e , sex, geographic l o c a t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n ; and c i t a t i o n analyses based on the number of c i t a t i o n s per volume, type of p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d , and age of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s . 3. J o u r n a l t i t l e s from a r t i c l e s r e f e r e n c e d i n the most r e c e n t (1967-1977) ten volumes are t a b u l a t e d and 4 ranked t o i l l u s t r a t e the core and support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e s t r u c t u r e of elementary r e a d i n g . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study By o b j e c t i v e l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g the t h i r t y volume years o f The Reading Teacher r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s o f the j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s can be determined. Since the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s i s used, a l l d i f f e r e n c e s observed w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the three dimensions of content a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g : 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r t i c l e s i n the ten most re c e n t volumes, combined wi t h n o t a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s to which a r t i c l e s i n the f i r s t twenty volumes were assigned, p r o v i d e s data which can be f u r t h e r analyzed to determine s u b s t a n t i v e emphases and trends i n elementary r e a d i n g . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o serves as the f i r s t step i n updating the 20 Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher and improving access to the t o t a l t h i r t y year content of the j o u r n a l . 2. The demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f . t h e a r t i c l e s can be determined d i r e c t l y from a t t r i b u t e s o f content; the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d of the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l emerges, and trends and s h i f t s of emphases can be noted. As Summers (1969) p o i n t e d out, "In a sense, the h i s t o r y o f the IRA i s a l s o the h i s t o r y o f The Reading Teacher." 3. By examining the core and support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e 5 s t r u c t u r e the i n t e r a c t i o n s between elementary readi n g and o t h e r f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n can be observed. The core j o u r n a l s ( t i t l e s most h e a v i l y c i t e d ) d e f i n e the c e n t r a l nucleus of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o elementary read i n g w h i l e the support j o u r n a l s (those l e s s h e a v i l y c i t e d ) i n d i c a t e broader i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r a c t i o n s . L i m i t a t i o n s S e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s are i n h e r e n t i n a content a n a l y s i s o f t h i s type. F i r s t , the e x t e n s i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s based on s u b j e c t i v e judgment. Although an attempt was made to o b j e c t i v e l y a s s i g n a r t i c l e s to c a t e g o r i e s according to t h e i r s u b s t a n t i v e content, the background and b i a s o f the c l a s s i f i e r are i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f i n a l judgment as t o the i n c l u s i o n of an a r t i c l e i n a . s p e c i f i c category. Secondly,.a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s e x i s t on the t o p i c of elementary r e a d i n g . T h i s study i s l i m i t e d to o n l y those a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d from 19 4 8 to 19 77 i n t h i r t y volume years of The Reading Teacher. As an o f f i c i a l organ of a p r o f e s - s i o n a l r e a d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , it.was f e l t t h a t the contents o f the j o u r n a l p r o v i d e a v a l i d data base which can be used to g e n e r a l i z e developments and trends i n the f i e l d . A t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n of the study i n v o l v e s the c i t a t i o n a n a l y s i s . I t i s assumed t h a t authors are c i t i n g m a t e r i a l s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to t h e i r work and not f o r p r e s t i g e or f r i v o l o u s , purposes. Thus, a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p can be assumed to e x i s t between the c i t i n g and c i t e d documents, so t h a t f u r t h e r analyses 6 of these communication linkages are accurate and relevant. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The following d e f i n i t i o n s are applicable i n t h i s study: 1. Content analysis A bibliometric research technique which provides descriptive data as to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a population of journal a r t i c l e s . 2. Subjective c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The descriptor(s) assigned to a group of a r t i c l e s with si m i l a r sub- stantive content. 3. C i t a t i o n Any material an author references i n an a r t i c l e , i n either reference l i s t s or footnotes. 4. Core and support journals Groups of journal t i t l e s c i t e d by The Reading TeacherAauthors which are ranked and clustered according to frequency of c i t a t i o n . Overview The present study i s a content analysis of The Reading Teacher, involving the three dimensions discussed previously. Chapter II reviews l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the problem and synthesizes previous research to provide the conceptual frame- work. In Chapter III the methodology i s outlined, along with the mechanics involved i n c o l l e c t i n g and analyzing the data and preparing portions of i t for computer analysis. The results of the study are presented i n Chapter IV. The study i s summarized in Chapter V, and conclusions and recommendations for further research complete the report. 7 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL BASE Contents o f p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s , t r e n d s , and developments w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s o r g a n i z e d body o f knowledge can be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined i n numerous ways. Formal a n a l y t i c and p r e d i c t i v e techniques have been developed i n the f i e l d o f i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e t o a i d the r e s e a r c h e r i n the study o f s u b j e c t l i t e r a t u r e s . As a group, these techniques are r e f e r r e d t o as b i b l i o m e t r i c s . F a i r t h o r n e (1969) d e f i n e d b i b l i o m e t r i c s as "the q u a n t i t a t i v e treatment o f the p r o p e r t i e s o f reco r d e d d i s c o u r s e and behaviour a p p e r t a i n i n g to i t . " A c c o r d i n g t o Buckland (1974), i t i s an area t h a t i s l i k e l y t o become more important f o r two reasons: (1) i t i s unavoidable i f the new emphasis on measures of performance [ i n l i b r a r y ' and i n f o r m a t i o n systems] i s here t o . s t a y ; and (2) analyses o f growth, epidemics, s c a t t e r i n g , obsolescence, and the l i k e take on new s i g n i f i c a n c e when seen . . . a s the means of e x p l o r i n g the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t s . (p. 364) L i t e r a t u r e analyses can c o n t r i b u t e both understanding and i n s i g h t t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d , and can focus on numerous areas, i n c l u d i n g : (1) the h i s t o r y o f the f i e l d , (2) the problems toward which i t i s or was o r i e n t e d , ° (3) the contents o f accumulated knowledge, (4) the communication means and channels, 8 (5) s u b s t a n t i v e trends and developments, and (6) the people i n the f i e l d . T h i s chapter reviews b i b l i o m e t r i c s t u d i e s from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g both s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , to p r o v i d e a conceptual base f o r the content a n a l y s i s of The Reading Teacher. A b r i e f s e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s u b j e c - t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d . Nine aspects of content a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h are i n v e s t i g a t e d : (1) t o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s , (2) m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p , (3) sex of author, (4) author occupa- t i o n , (5) geographic l o c a t i o n of author, (6) c i t a t i o n s per volume, (7) type of p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d , (8) age of c i t e d m a t e r i a l , and (9) core and support j o u r n a l s . Content A n a l y s i s . A c c o r d i n g to H o l s t i (1969) content a n a l y s i s i s "a m u l t i - purpose r e s e a r c h method developed s p e c i f i c a l l y . f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a broad spectrum of problems i n which the content of communica- t i o n serves as the b a s i s of i n f e r e n c e . " The d e s i g n o f a content a n a l y s i s study i s dependent upon the q u e s t i o n s addressed. S c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . o f communication content r e q u i r e s o b j e c - t i v i t y , system, and g e n e r a l i t y . To have o b j e c t i v i t y , the a n a l y s i s must be c a r r i e d out on the b a s i s of e x p l i c i t l y formulated r u l e s which w i l l enable two or more persons to o b t a i n the same r e s u l t s from the same documents. In a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s the i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n of content or c a t e g o r i e s i s done a c c o r d i n g to c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d c r i t e r i a o f . s e l e c t i o n ; t h i s requirement e l i m i n a t e s analyses i n which onl y m a t e r i a l s s u p p o r t i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s hypotheses are examined. By g e n e r a l i t y we mean t h a t the f i n d i n g s must have t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e ; p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e information, about content, u n r e l a t e d to o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s of content or to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sender or. r e c i p i e n t 9 of the message, i s of l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e . These th r e e requirements are not unique t o content a n a l y s i s , but are necessary 1 c o n d i t i o n s , f o r a l l s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . (p. 598) Data i n content a n a l y s i s are presented i n frequency counts and percentages. The r e s u l t a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e data d e r i v e meaning when used as bases f o r comparisons and meaningful i n f e r e n c e s . S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C a t e g o r i e s i n the 20_ Year Annotated Index to . The Reading Teacher were e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d . L a n c a s t e r (1972) d e f i n e s the process of e m p i r i c a l l y g e n e r a t i n g a c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary f o r i n d e x i n g . In t h i s approach: . . . the i n i t i a l vocabulary, i s ..derived by means of the f r e e i n d e x i n g of a sample.of documents. The candidate terms r e s u l t i n g from t h i s procedure are then reviewed, grouped,.and s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a u s e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n . (p. 27) Any f u r t h e r updating of an index should m a i n t a i n the e x i s t - i n g c a t e g o r i e s and f o l l o w the o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n developing new c a t e g o r i e s . As H o l s t i (1969) p o i n t s out: The advantage o f . s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n are the same as i n any area of s c h o l a r s h i p : r e s u l t s may be compared acro s s s t u d i e s and f i n d i n g s w i l l tend to become cumulative. (p. 101) Based on an e x t e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to i n d e x i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , D a r t n e l l (1977) s t r o n g l y emphasized the d e s i r a b i l i t y of an e m p i r i c a l approach to develop- ment of c a t e g o r i e s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s r a t h e r than an ; approach, based on preconceived, c a t e g o r i e s generated by a s i n g l e i n v e s t i - g a t o r or a committee of a u t h o r i t i e s i n - t h e f i e l d . Such an approach i n s u r e s t h a t the r e s u l t a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , schedule r e f l e c t s the a c t u a l s u b s t a n t i v e content of the .document 10 c o l l e c t i o n and avoids a r t i f i c i a l i t y induced through committee b i a s o r o v e r s i g h t . The v a l i d i t y of the e m p i r i c a l .approach was. r e c e n t l y supported i n a study by J e r o s k i (1977) wherein an e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n of d i s s e r t a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n secondary r e a d i n g was s u c c e s s f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d through a n a l y s i s of document content. T o p i c a l Trend A n a l y s i s ©elineatien of s u b s t a n t i v e trends i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n areas have been r e p o r t e d based on a n a l y s i s of p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Sewell (1965) examined the types, magnitudes, and adequacy of r e s e a r c h . . i n t e r e s t s i n the f i e l d o f r u r a l s o c i o l o g y as i l l u s t r a t e d by a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Rural S o c i o l o g y d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1936-1965. Data were presented by ten-year p e r i o d s , w i t h a r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to major areas and t o p i c s . I t was concluded t h a t a.number of trends i n r u r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h w i t h a r a t h e r f i r m e m p i r i c a l base were i d e n t i f i e d . A number of l e s s well-documented impressions were a l s o d i s c u s s e d . D i c k i n s o n and R u s n e l l (1971) analyzed twenty volumes o f A d u l t Education.published.between 1950 and 19 70 to a s c e r t a i n trends and p a t t e r n s i n the development.of the d i s c i p l i n e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . V a r i a b l e s were examined by f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s . S e v e r a l d i s t i n c t trends were noted, which were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of developments g e n e r a l l y i n the study and - p r a c t i c e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Long and Agyekum (1974) used t h i s study as a base and extended t h e i r a n a l y s i s to examine the circumstances t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the i n c r e a s i n g number of research-based a r t i c l e s 11 and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i f f e r e n t e d i t o r s t o c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s . Nine complete volumes of Adult. E d u c a t i o n spanning the years 1964 to 19 73 were analyzed. The authors concluded t h a t A d u l t E d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t e d changes and trends i n . t h e d i s c i p l i n e d u r i n g the p e r i o d examined, i n t h e i r study. A study conducted by Foreman (1966) used content a n a l y s i s t o i d e n t i f y p u b l i c a t i o n trends i n c o u n s e l i n g j o u r n a l s . A r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n s i x c o u n s e l i n g r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s from 1954 through 1965 were - c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to b a s i s of f i n a n c i a l support and approach to a problem ( t h e o r e t i c a l - s p e c u l a t i v e or e m p i r i c a l ) . Evidence p r e s e n t e d by Foreman i n d i c a t e d t h a t j o u r n a l s i n c o u n s e l i n g psychology were moving.on.several dimensions i n the d i r e c t i o n of growing s i m i l a r i t y t o the more t r a d i t i o n a l psy- chology j o u r n a l s . A l s o i n the d i s c i p l i n e of c o u n s e l i n g , Munley (1974) r e p o r t e d a content a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t . 19 volumes of the J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology. A r t i c l e s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o seventeen content c a t e g o r i e s and t h r e e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s were recorded: (1) s u b j e c t population, s t u d i e d , (2) sex composition of sample, and (3) number o f s u b j e c t s . Munley concluded t h a t h i s g e n e r a l content a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d a.view of c o u n s e l i n g psychology i d e n t i t y in-terms o f r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s . Three decades of S o c i a l Education-were s t u d i e d by Chapin and Gross (1970). A sample of 600 a r t i c l e s . p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the time p e r i o d s 1937-38, 1947-48,.1957-58, and 1967-68 p r o v i d e d the data base. A r t i c l e s were c l a s s i f i e d . i n t o s u b j e c t areas and s h i f t s in.emphases were noted. The authors i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n had r e f l e c t e d changes 12 i n the d i s c i p l i n e , but f e l t t h a t the j o u r n a l had not always been "on the c u t t i n g edge of change." A content a n a l y s i s o f the IPA secondary p u b l i c a t i o n , the J o u r n a l of Reading, was r e p o r t e d i n a r e c e n t study by D a r t n e l l (1977). An e m p i r i c a l l y based c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was developed, and the 984 a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n 19 volume years were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 13 major c a t e g o r i e s and .41. s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . O v e r - a l l trends i n c a t e g o r i e s and sub - c a t e g o r i e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d as to major s u b s t a n t i v e groupings of p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s and s h i f t s i n t o p i c a l emphases. A n a l y s i s of the 13 c a t e g o r i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t they remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over time, although s h i f t s d i d occur w i t h i n the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . One of the sub-category s h i f t s was r e l a t e d to a change i n e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y . In the J o u r n a l o f - Reading a r t i c l e s , the most e v i d e n t change due to the thr e e s h i f t s i n e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y a cross the time span was the i n c r e a s e i n secondary, remedial program . d e s c r i p t i o n s . U n t i l Volume 8, the j o u r n a l d i d not accept a r t i c l e s on -remedial o r c o r r e c t i v e r e a d i n g . Thus, to make a judgment on the r e l a t i v e importance o f t h i s sub-category over time, based on a comparison between the number o f a r t i c l e s i n the f i r s t time p e r i o d and the t h i r d , would be m i s l e a d i n g . (pp. 168-169) Current l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e education was analyzed by Ayers (1974) . Nine j o u r n a l s were chosen t o r e p r e - sent the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , and the 2,09 3 a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n the j o u r n a l s between January 1970 and December 1971 served.as .the data base.. Trends.were determined i n both type and scope.of a r t i c l e s . From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the author was a b l e to determine gaps i n the s c i e n c e education l i t e r a t u r e and make recommendations r e g a r d i n g areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 13 M u l t i p l e A u thorship A u t h o r s h i p p a t t e r n s can r e p r e s e n t the extent of c o l l a b o r a - t i v e r e s e a r c h and e f f o r t i n a f i e l d . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n chemistry ( P r i c e , 196 3), b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s (Parker, P a i s l e y and G a r r e t t , 1967), and s o c i o l o g y ( L i n and Nelson, 1969) suggested t h a t c o - a u t h o r s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s i n g . S e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s have a l s o r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n c o - a u t h o r s h i p . D i c k i n s o n and R u s n e l l (1971), i n , t h e i r content a n a l y s i s o f twenty volume years o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , found an i n c r e a s e i n mean authors per a r t i c l e , from. 1.13 i n Volumes 1-5 to 1.41 i n Volumes 16-20. B a r n e t t (1976) examined a c o l l e c t i o n o f r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e and r e p o r t e d a steady d e c l i n e i n the s i n g l e - authored document: onl y 55 percent of a r t i c l e s , p u b l i s h e d i n the l a t e 1960's were s i n g l e authored, compared wi t h 75 percent i n the e a r l y 1940's. These r e s u l t s suggested: . . . a t r e n d i n reading to more c o l l a b o r a t i v e work, and may i n d i c a t e t h a t f i n a n c i a l support of p r o j e c t - type a c t i v i t y i n reading r e s e a r c h i s becoming more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the f i e l d . (pp. 125-126) S i n g l e versus m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p i n . the J o u r n a l of Reading was examined by D a r t n e l l (19 77). A u t h o r s h i p data were t a b u l a t e d f o r each a r t i c l e , i n one of f o u r categories.: one, two, t h r e e , and f o u r or more authors. Percentages of a r t i c l e s i n the l a t t e r two c a t e g o r i e s remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t over the n i n e t e e n - year p e r i o d . An i n c r e a s e i n dual authorship was noted, which corresponded w i t h a change i n e d i t o r s h i p of the j o u r n a l . 14 Sex of Author The p r o p o r t i o n of male and female authors appears t o be of minimal i n t e r e s t t o r e s e a r c h e r s . T h i s seems s u r p r i s i n g i n view o f the women's movement du r i n g the l a s t decade; perhaps i t would be c o n s i d e r e d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t o i n c l u d e author.sex as a v a r i a b l e i n content a n a l y s i s . A n . a n a l y s i s by sex would.seem.an important v a r i a b l e i n edu c a t i o n w i t h i t s l a r g e percentage o f female p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A r e c e n t r e p o r t by Waters (1975) suggests s i g - n i f i c a n t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n ..written composition on v a r i a b l e s such as s u b j e c t matter, word c h o i c e , tone, metaphor, and per- s p e c t i v e . Content a n a l y s i s by sex c o u l d i l l u m i n a t e some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . i n p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g . Changes were found i n percentages o f male and female authors..in. S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n (Chapin and Gross, 1970). The h i g h e s t percentage (28%) o f women authors was observed i n the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d of the j o u r n a l ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1937-38. During the .most r e c e n t . p e r i o d , 1967-68, onl y 14 percent of the a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by females. The authors s p e c u l a t e d as to the cause o f the s h i f t i n g percentages. These changes may r e f l e c t the a c t u a l - r a t i o . c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l s t u d i e s , which p a r a l l e l . a t o t a l i n c r e a s e i n . t h e percentage o f male t e a c h e r s . i n elementary and secondary'educa- t i o n i n the. l a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y . There are probably fewer women, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and i n the secondary s c h o o l as compared t o the 1937-38 period..' I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o sp e c u l a t e whether.the downward t r e n d w i l l c o n tinue, (p. 794) In a follow-up t o . t h e a n a l y s i s . o f the 20 volume years o f the J o u r n a l of.Reading, D a r t n e l l (1977a) found approximately two - t h i r d s o f 984 a r t i c l e s authored by males and o n e - t h i r d by 15 f e m a l e s . M a l e a u t h o r s h i p has d e c l i n e d o v e r t h e t w e n t y y e a r s f r o m a f i g u r e o f t h r e e - f o u r t h s t o t w o - t h i r d s . A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n The r o l e f o c u s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s w r i t i n g i n a f i e l d has been e x a m i n e d i n c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h u s i n g j o u r n a l c o l l e c t i o n s . D i c k i n s o n and R u s n e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , A y e r s ( 1 9 7 4 ) , C h a p i n and G r o s s (1970), and D a r t n e l l (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s were a u t h o r e d by e d u c a t o r s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h c o l l e g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s . P e r c e n t a g e s o f a u t h o r s e m p l o y e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f o u r s t u d i e s r a n g e d f r o m 60.7 t o 77.2 p e r c e n t . T h i s s u b - s e c t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y b a s e d a u t h o r s was f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d by G o o d s t e i n (196 3) who c a t e g o r i z e d e a c h o f 351 m a j o r a r t i c l e s t h a t a p p e a r e d i n t h e f i r s t e i g h t v o l u m e s o f t h e J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i d e n t i - f i c a t i o n o f a u t h o r ( s ) . The a n a l y s i s was t o p r o v i d e some u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s s h a p i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e j o u r n a l and i d e n t i f y c e n t e r s o f c o u n s e l i n g r e s e a r c h and s c h o l a r s h i p . G o o d s t e i n ' s s t u d y was l a t e r r e p l i c a t e d and e x t e n d e d by Bohn, J r . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . I n s t i t u t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 9 t h r o u g h 12 o f t h e J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y were t a b u l a t e d and c o m p a r i s o n s were made w i t h G o o d s t e i n ' s t a b u l a t i o n f o r Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 8. Changes i n t h e s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s l e a d i n g i n p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s were n o t e d . G r a d u a t e s c h o o l o r i g i n s o f J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a u t h o r s were r e v i e w e d by W a l s h , F e e n e y , and R e s n i c k ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The 16 f o u r t e e n - y e a r p e r i o d from 1954 t o 1967 was analyzed, w i t h the data d i v i d e d i n t o two seven-year p e r i o d s . Comparisons were made between high r a n k i n g graduate s c h o o l o r i g i n s and h i g h ranking i n s t i t u t i o n a l producers as i d e n t i f i e d by Goodstein (1963) and Bohn, J r . (1966), w i t h a c o n s i s t e n c y noted. The a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t no .on e , . i n s t i t u t i o n seemed t o dominate p u b l i s h i n g i n the j o u r n a l and t h a t changes i n rank from the f i r s t t o second time p e r i o d were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Long and Agyekum extended t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f author a f f i l i - a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t o r s . t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . They were s u r p r i s e d .to ..discover .that "the p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u - t o r s . . . [were] not g e n e r a l l y . t h e r e p u t a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . " The authors concluded t h a t t h e r e appeared t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e d i t o r and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i - a t i o n o f c o n t r i b u t o r s . For e x a m p l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s from Chicago graduates were h i g h e s t when White, a.graduate of t h a t i n s t i t u - t i o n , was e d i t o r . S i m i l a r l y , the percent and aggregate .number o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d by Wisconsin graduates were h i g h e s t d u r i n g Boyd's tenure. Boyd i s on the f a c u l t y a t Wisconsin. (p. 114) Geographic L o c a t i o n o f Author . Inherent i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an author's i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n i s h i s geographic l o c a t i o n . Meaningful comparisons of author p r o d u c t i v i t y can a l s o be made b y . d e s i g n a t i n g geo- g r a p h i c r e g i o n s and t a b u l a t i n g where a r t i c l e s o r i g i n a t e d . Authors of S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n were.tabulated by geographic area w i t h i n f i v e d esignated r e g i o n s i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s (Chapin and G r o s s 1 9 7 0 ) . The g r e a t e s t m a j o r i t y o f authors were from 17 the E a s t ; however, t h i s percentage d e c l i n e d over the y e a r s , and the F a r West r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d . The remaining three r e g i o n s p r o v i d e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e numbers of a r t i c l e s over the t h i r t y - y e a r time p e r i o d . F i v e U n i t e d S t a t e s geographic areas were als o . u s e d by Ayers (1974) to examine the o r i g i n s . o f 2,093-journal a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n s c i e n c e . e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Again, the m a j o r i t y of authors r e s i d e d i n t h e . e a s t e r n h a l f . o f the United S t a t e s . The author s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h i s ' c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the h i g h p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h a t . s e c t i o n . of the country.. D a r t n e l l ' s . (1977a) a n a l y s i s of twenty.volumes of the J o u r n a l o f Reading r e v e a l e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . o f geographic spread w i t h Eastern, authors accounting f o r over: 32 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l a r t i c l e s . -A-heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n . t h e Great Lakes was a l s o noted (22.3%) wi t h the. Southeastern r e g i o n i n c r e a s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y . i n . r e c e n t years and accounting: f o r 14.9 percent o f t o t a l a r t i c l e s f o r the twenty y e a r s . C i t a t i o n s per Volume C i t a t i o n s i n . a r t i c l e s , i n d i c a t e the extent t o which the author i s w r i t i n g i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y ' or i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e of the f i e l d . I t has a l s o o f t e n been s t a t e d , w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h a t extent of c i t a t i o n s can i n d i c a t e t h e o r e l a t i v e " s c h o l a r l i n e s s " o f p u b l i c a t i o n s . In an attempt to d e s c r i b e the t o t a l world network of s c i e n t i f i c papers, P r i c e (1965) r e p o r t e d an.average of about 15 r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n each p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l . a r t i c l e , . o f which 12. were to. o t h e r s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . H e • f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d the i n c i d e n c e of r e f e r e n c e s : 18 . . . about 10 percent o f the papers c o n t a i n no r e f e r e n c e s a t a l l ; t h i s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , 50 percent of the r e f e r e n c e s come from the 85 percent of the papers t h a t are o f the "normal" r e s e a r c h type and c o n t a i n 25 or fewer r e f e r e n c e s a p i e c e . (p. 145) In t h e i r study of e i g h t s o c i a l s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s i n psy- chology and s o c i o l o g y , Parker, P a i s l e y and G a r r e t t (1967) r e p o r t e d an average of 8.4 c i t a t i o n s per a r t i c l e , i n 19 50, 9.4 i n 1955, 15.2 i n 1960 and 15.2, a g a i n , i n 1965. B a r n e t t (19 76), s u r v e y i n g developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e c o l l e c t i o n . , noted a steady i n c r e a s e in.average number o f c i t a t i o n s per a r t i c l e . T h i s f i g u r e i n c r e a s e d from 6.89 c i t a t i o n s . p e r - a r t i c l e in.1959 to 12.61 c i t a t i o n s per a r t i c l e i n 1 9 7 2 s u g g e s t i n g a . c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n l i t e r a t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n i n reading r e s e a r c h - o v e r the 13 year p e r i o d of- the study. C i t a t i o n s per volume were examined by D a r t n e l l (1977) to p r o v i d e a rough index of the i n t e r a c t i o n between authors and the extant i n f o r m a t i o n base in.. secondary . r e a d i n g . The number of c i t a t i o n s , e x c l u d i n g those from reviews and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , were t a b u l a t e d f o r each o f n i n e t e e n volumes of the J o u r n a l of Reading. Data were presented i n three time p e r i o d s , and a steady i n c r e a s e i n c i t a t i o n s per volume was observed when a l l a r t i c l e s were c o n s i d e r e d : the average rose from 2.44 c i t a t i o n s i n the f i r s t time p e r i o d to.4.25 c i t a t i o n s i n the most r e c e n t time p e r i o d . A d j u s t i n g the data to i n c l u d e only those a r t i c l e s c a r r y i n g c i t a - t i o n s underscored t h i s i n c r e a s e ; average . c i t a t i o n s per a r t i c l e i n c r e a s e d from 4.75. in.Volumes 1-7 to 6.26 i n Volumes 15-19. Uneven c i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s were r e p o r t e d f o r S o c i a l . E d u c a t i o n 19 (Chapin and Gross, 1970). B i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s were c l a s s i - f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : books; p e r i o d i c a l s ; and monographs, l e t t e r s , b u l l e t i n s , newspapers, documents, e t c . There were no c o n s i s t e n t patterns, observed i n , t h e t h r e e . c a t e g o r i e s by volume. A r t i c l e s c o n t a i n i n g no b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s were f u r t h e r examined; again an uneven pattern, emerged. In 1937-38, 40% of the a r t i c l e s had no b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s . In 1947-48, 46% o f the a r t i c l e s had no b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s . w h i l e , i n 1957-58 the f i g u r e rose to 7 8%. Then there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i - cant change from 19 57-5 8.to 1967-68; only 48% of a l l a r t i c l e s i n 1967-68 co n t a i n e d no b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s . (pw 791) Type of P u b l i c a t i o n . C i t e d Type of p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d c a n . r e v e a l the degree to which a f i e l d i n t e r a c t s w i t h the more " c u t t i n g edge" j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e as compared to book and monograph sources. G e n e r a l l y , those f:i-eIds' w i t h h e a v i e r r e s e a r c h paradigms le a n to j o u r n a l r a t h e r than book c i t a t i o n , i n t h e i r , j o u r n a l . l i t e r a t u r e . . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , P r i c e (1965).concluded t h a t the m a j o r i t y of authors of s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l - a r t i c l e s c i t e o t h e r . s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s (12 o f the average 15 r e f e r e n c e s were to other j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s ) . In r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , Barnett. (1976) found t h a t j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s accounted for.a. r e l a t i v e l y , steady 50 percent of the c i t a t i o n s , w i t h books c o n t r i b u t i n g another 35 percent.. Somewhat d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s were.reported f o r the documents c i t e d by authors of the J o u r n a l o f Reading: o v e r - a l l percentages r e v e a l e d 37.4 pe r c e n t of c i t a t i o n s t o books and 37.1 percent t o j o u r n a l s ( D a r t n e l l , ; 1 9 7 7 ) , r e f l e c t i n g l e s s o f a.research emphasis i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l , j o u r n a l as compared.to ot h e r 20 j o u r n a l r e s e a r c h sources i n r e a d i n g . References c i t e d . b y authors i n the 19 65 volume o f the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review were analyzed by Broadus (1967). Of the t o t a l 1 , 4 4 8 . b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s , 558 (38.54%) were t o s e r i a l s and 890' (61.46%) were, to n o n - s e r i a l s . C i t a t i o n s i n these two groupings were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d by s u b j e c t area (using L i b r a r y of Congress C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) , age i n y e a r s , and language rep r e s e n t e d . Broadus concluded t h a t i f the sample s t u d i e d r e p r e s e n t e d the f i e l d as a w h o l e , , s o c i o l o g i s t s use books more than p e r i o d i c a l s as r e s e a r c h sources, s u b j e c t scope i s narrowing s l i g h t l y , and the m a t e r i a l s c i t e d are f a i r l y r e c e n t and h e a v i l y f a v o r the E n g l i s h language. Cotton and Anderson (19 73) analyzed c i t a t i o n s i n f i v e volumes of the J o u r n a l o f Counseling Psychology to i d e n t i f y changing p a t t e r n s . C i t a t i o n s from the years 1954, 1958, 1962, 1966, and 1970 were recorded, counted, and.tabulated by source and. by author. The study r e v e a l e d t h a t sources o f c i t a t i o n s remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over the y e a r s , but authors c i t e d changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g the time p e r i o d . C i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the f i e l d o f i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e were examined by F e n i c h e l (1969). A "same-channel" tendency was r e v e a l e d , w i t h j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s c i t i n g j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s c i t i n g r e p o r t s . Myers and DeLevie (1966) surveyed f i v e years (1960-1964) of f o u r j o u r n a l s i n the f i e l d of c o u n s e l i n g psychology to i d e n t i f y authors and p u b l i c a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d . Eleven "most eminent" c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s and the seven most c i t e d 21 p u b l i c a t i o n s ( s i x books and one t e s t manual) were l i s t e d . Age of C i t e d M a t e r i a l B i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s , c a n serve as u n o b t r u s i v e measures of s c i e n t i f i c communication.. Much s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i s cumula- t i v e , w i t h each study b u i l d i n g upon one.or more, ( u s u a l l y q u i t e recent) p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . P r i c e (1975) d e s c r i b e d the i n t e r - connections of s c i e n t i f i c papers as f o l l o w s : When one analyzes the c i t a t i o n : p a t t e r n s , one sees t h a t t h e r e i s . a very c l o s e - k n i t s t r u c t u r e here. S c i e n t i f i c papers are assembled by a process r a t h e r l i k e k n i t t i n g o r the way i n which p i e c e s o f a j i g - saw p u z z l e are h e l d t o g e t h e r by i n t e r l o c k i n g with t h e i r neighbors. Each s c i e n t i f i c - paper seems to b u i l d onto about a dozen p r e v i o u s papers. Another way of l o o k i n g a t . i t i s t o say t h a t , roughly speaking, i t i s l i k e a human f a m i l y , . e x c e p t t h a t i n s t e a d of i t t a k i n g two parents, to make a c h i l d i t . takes about a dozen a s s o r t e d . p a r e n t s — a n d they move around l i k e a very f r e e s o c i e t y , e n j o y i n g such a d e l i c i o u s l y c omplicated setup as a dozen f o r a quorum, w i t h each combination producing about a c h i l d a year. (pp. 125-126) C i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s of a p o o l of 300 a r t i c l e s from c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r s e r i a l l i t e r a t u r e were analyzed by McMurtray and G i n s k i (1972) to determine the l e n g t h .of time necessary f o r c i t a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e . .In t h i s study j o u r n a l c i t a t i o n reached a peak the t h i r d year a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n . However, some a r t i c l e s were c i t e d d u r i n g the same, year they were p u b l i s h e d , which may.indicate: t h a t . a u t h o r s c o n s u l t e d an. i n f o r m a t i o n source o t h e r than a p u b l i s h e d ..journal. In i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e . l i t e r a t u r e s t u d i e d by F e n i c h e l (1969) 80 p e r c e n t of the c i t a t i o n s were l e s s than f i v e years o l d , w i t h j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s . c i t i n g l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was,, on,the average, l e s s than two years o l d . 22 In a n a l y z i n g r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , B a r n e t t (1976) found a steady d e c l i n e i n the c i t e d documents 10 years or o l d e r i n age w i t h , however, only 21.percent of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s being 0-4 years i n age. . P r i c e (1965) estimated t h a t w i t h o n l y 22 per- cent of documents.cited l e s s than f i v e y e a r s o l d the f i e l d tended to be a r c h i v a l without an observable r e s e a r c h f r o n t . C i t e d m a t e r i a l was d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , a r c h i v a l ( c i t e d m a t e r i a l which exceeded t w e n t y - f i v e years i n age) and more recent,, and. analyzed i n a study of J o u r n a l of Reading a r t i c l e s ( D a r t n e l l , 1977). Of the more r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s , the median age of books c i t e d . i n . t h e n i n e t e e n volumes was 7.1 y e a r s . J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s were more, recent;, the median age of a r t i c l e s c i t e d was 5.9 y e a r s . Core and' Support J o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r e Samuel Clement B r a d f o r d , a B r i t i s h l i b r a r i a n and documen- t a l i s t , d i s c o v e r e d an e m p i r i c a l law d e s c r i b i n g a r e g u l a r i t y found i n many s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e s . . He found t h a t a r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between the q u a n t i t y o f . j o u r n a l s and the number of a r t i c l e s of i n t e r e s t i n a s u b j e c t area. B r a d f o r d f i r s t pub- l i s h e d h i s law i n an a r t i c l e i n 1934 and r e s t a t e d i t i n h i s book Documentation (1948). The c l a s s i c statement-of h i s d i s c o v e r y has been quoted by i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n t i s t s i n r e c e n t years (Donohue, 1973.; Saracevic...and Perk, 1973) and i s as f o l l o w s : . . . i f - s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s are arranged i n order of d e c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y of a r t i c l e s on a g i v e n s u b j e c t , they may.be d i v i d e d i n t o a n u c l e u s . o f p e r i o d i c a l s more p a r t i c u l a r l y devoted to the s u b j e c t and several.groups or zones c o n t a i n i n g the same number of a r t i c l e s as the 23 nucleus, where the number o f p e r i o d i c a l s i n the nucleus and succeeding zones w i l l be as 1 : N : n 2 : n 3 . . . . (S a r a c e v i c and Perk, 1973, p. 121) U n d e r l y i n g p r o b a b i l i s t i c theory f o r t h e . B r a d f o r d Law was presented by P r i c e (1976). A Cumulative Advantage D i s t r i b u t i o n was proposed which was a ' s t a t i s t i c a l model -for the "success- breeds-success" phenomena. In core j o u r n a l - a n a l y s e s , the e s s e n t i a l nucleus of most c i t e d j o u r n a l s i s found by c a l c u l a t i n g the square r o o t of the t o t a l number of j o u r n a l s c i t e d . In p r e v i o u s research' ( P r i c e , 1963) t h i s has.been l a b e l l e d the "Pareto c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . " The sub-set.of c i t a t i o n s to j o u r n a l t i t l e s i n a l i t e r a t u r e can be used to d e f i n e groups of h i g h l y c i t e d core and l e s s c i t e d support j o u r n a l s . Sengupta (1974) ranked p e r i o d i c a l s i n the f i e l d o f m i c r o b i o l o g y t o i d e n t i f y a core o f j o u r n a l s which e f f e c t i v e l y covered the s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d . Three.volumes of the Annual Review of M i c r o b i o l o g y were used as source j o u r n a l s f o r c i t a t i o n counting.and.preparing a ranking t a b l e . An index of the s c i e n t i f i c v alue of papers p u b l i s h e d i n a j o u r n a l was computed and c o r r e c t e d f o r the bulk of m a t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d i n a year. T i t l e s were then reranked. The author suggested t h a t t h i s f i n a l r anking of ten j o u r n a l s c o u l d be used as a p r i o r i t y l i s t f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of j o u r n a l s i n the f i e l d . Core, j o u r n a l t i t l e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h r e e ways by B a r n e t t (1976) to p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i v e data.on a c o l l e c t i o n of r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . (1) On the b a s i s . o f the number.of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n the Annual Summary of Reading Research, 9 o f 24 the 10 8 r e f e r e n c i n g j o u r n a l s accounted f o r approximately 50 percent of the t o t a l number of a r t i c l e s . (2) The r e f e r e n c i n g j o u r n a l s generated 7,642.references. When rank.ordered on the b a s i s of r e f e r e n c e p r o d u c t i v i t y , the top 12 j o u r n a l s . c o n t r i b u t e d approximately . 50 percent o f the r e f e r e n c e s . (3) Core j o u r n a l s were then: d e s i g n a t e d on.the b a s i s of number.of c i t a t i o n s r e c e i v e d . . Nineteen of the 448 j o u r n a l s c i t e d were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r approximately 50 p e r c e n t . o f the t o t a l . c i t a t i o n s . The cores f o r the t h r e e l i s t s f o l l o w e d the expected Pareto d i s - t r i b u t i o n , demonstrating the.predominance o f . a s m a l l number of j o u r n a l s ' a s primary nodes i n . t h e r e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n network and the e x i s t a n c e o f . a wide a r r a y . o f support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to .reading research.. G a r f i e l d . (1972) ranked j o u r n a l s . b y frequency and impact of c i t a t i o n s ( r a t i o o f number o f a r t i c l e s produced to times the j o u r n a l , was c i t e d ) i n one of the l a r g e s t c i t a t i o n s t u d i e s conducted i n r e c e n t y e a r s . A three-month sample was e x t r a c t e d from the Science C i t a t i o n Index d a t a base and analyzed i n an attempt to map the network of j o u r n a l . i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r . Three l i s t i n g s were produced: j o u r n a l , c i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s , s t a t i s t i c s . o n c i t e d j o u r n a l s , and s t a t i s t i c s on c i t i n g j o u r n a l s . The data demonstrated a s m a l l group of j o u r n a l s predominating i n each l i s t i n g . D a r t n e l l ' s . (1977a) r e c e n t study r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r the 25 secondary l e v e l J o u r n a l of Reading authors c i t e d 212 j o u r n a l s over the 20 y e a r h i s t o r y o f the j o u r n a l . The 14 core j o u r n a l s accounted f o r s l i g h t l y more than 50 percent o f the t o t a l c i t a - t i o n s . Although some s h i f t s occurred,- the core, j o u r n a l s remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over time. A wide a r r a y of educa- t i o n a l f i e l d s and areas r e l a t e d t o education.were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the 19 8 remaining j o u r n a l t i t l e s suggesting a r i c h i n t e r a c t i o n between secondary reading:and i t s support l i t e r a t u r e as r e p r e s e n t e d by the j o u r n a l s authors, are c i t i n g . i n t h e i r J o u r n a l o f Reading a r t i c l e s . Summary Methodology from studies, reviewed i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a sound conceptual, base f o r a content a n a l y s i s of The Reading Teacher. The f o l l o w i n g summary groups the s t u d i e s a c c o r d i n g to the three dimensions of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1. Indexing techniques developed i n . the f i e l d o f i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e ..can. be used t o s u b j e c t i v e l y c l a s s i f y the 844 a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d i n Volumes 21 through 30 of.The Reading Teacher w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme developed.for the 840 a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 1 through 20. 2. The t o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s can.be conducted i n a.manner comparable to s i m i l a r s t u d i e s conducted by Sewell (1965), D i c k i n s o n and R u s n e l l (1971), Long and Agyekum (1974) , Foreman (1966) , Munley (1974), Chapin and Gross. ( 1 9 7 0 ) , . D a r t n e l l (1977), 26 and Ayers (1974). The f o u r a u t h o r s h i p v a r i a b l e s — m u l t i p l e authorship,.sex of author, author occupation,.and geographic l o c a t i o n of a u t h o r - were i n v e s t i g a t e d - i n one or more o f . t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d s t u d i e s or by an a n a l y s i s o f r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e conducted by B a r n e t t (1976) and secondary..reading j o u r n a l . l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t e d by D a r t n e l l . (1977a). The conceptual b a s e . f o r the c i t a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s d e r i v e d from t h e . s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s as w e l l as s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 2ti Methodology f o r a n a l y z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r o d u c t i v i t y of j o u r n a l s i n a s u b j e c t area has been developed i n the f i e l d of i n f o r m a t i o n - s c i e n c e . Three s t u d i e s (Sengupta, 1974; B a r n e t t , 1976; D a r t n e l l , 1977a) were reviewed in, which an a n a l y s i s of j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d by authors was used to rank (by frequency of c i t a t i o n ) and i d e n t i f y the h i g h l y c i t e d core j o u r n a l s and l e s s h i g h l y c i t e d support j o u r n a l s i n a f i e l d . The rankings can a l s o i l l u m i n a t e the e x t e n t of the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r a c t i o n of elementary reading w i t h . i t s immediate i n t e l l e c t u a l neighbors and w i t h the f a m i l y o f educa- t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s and d i s c i p l i n e s in. o t h e r academic f i e l d s . 27 CHAPTER I I I DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The content a n a l y s i s o f The Reading Teacher c o n s i s t e d o f three major p a r t s . F i r s t the a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 21 through 30 were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the ca t e g o r i e s . d e v e l o p e d by Summers (1969) i n the 20_ Year Annotated Index t o The Reading Teacher. Then a r t i c l e s from the e n t i r e t h i r t y - y e a r c o l l e c t i o n were analyzed a c c o r d i n g to a number of demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d the core and support j o u r n a l l i t e r a - t u r e r e l a t e d t o elementary read i n g .based on the j o u r n a l t i t l e s c i t e d by authors p u b l i s h i n g i n The Reading Teacher. P u b l i c a t i o n o f The Reading Teacher Examination o f volumes of The Reading Teacher, the pre v i o u s twenty year index developed by Summers (1969), and the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d h i s t o r y of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n ( J e r r o l d s , 1977) p r o v i d e s h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the b i r t h and growth of The Reading Teacher. Volume 1 Number 1 of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the Improvement o f Reading I n s t r u c t i o n B u l l e t i n was i s s u e d on November 15, 1948 as the o f f i c i a l organ of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the Improvement of Reading I n s t r u c t i o n (ICIRI). Volumes 1 and 2 each co n t a i n e d f o u r i s s u e s and.were mimeographed at Temple U n i v e r s i t y . Volume 2 Number 4 was dated June 1, 1950, a f t e r which Nancy L a r r i c k assumed e d i t o r s h i p o f . t h e J o u r n a l . The next i s s u e was p u b l i s h e d i n October, 1950 and was l a b e l e d 28 Volume 4 Number 1, which was a p p a r e n t l y an e r r o r which r e s u l t e d i n the omission of Volume 3. During the f i r s t decade of p u b l i c a t i o n the j o u r n a l under- went a number of changes. Volumes 1 through 5 were produced on 8h by 11 i n c h paper; the s m a l l e r page s i z e and the i n c l u s i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g was adopted w i t h Volume 6. In 1951 the name o f the j o u r n a l was changed to.The Reading Teacher. The February 1956 i s s u e announced - the merger of ICIRI and the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Remedial Teaching (NART) i n t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . The number of. i s s u e s p r i n t e d per year has f l u c t u a t e d : f o u r i s s u e s i n Volumes 1, 2, and.4; then f i v e i s s u e s i n Volumes 5 and 6; f o l l o w e d by Volume 7 through 13 which each:contained f o u r i s s u e s . With Volume 14.issues were i n c r e a s e d t o f i v e , then to s i x i n Volumes 15 and 16. Volume 17 c o n t a i n e d e i g h t i s s u e s , and t h a t p a t t e r n has continued to the p r e s e n t . There was a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n . t h e number of a r t i c l e s per volume over the three decades. Volumes 1 through .10 contained a t o t a l o f 250 a r t i c l e s , or.an average of 2 8 a r t i c l e s per volume. During the second, ten years the t o t a l i n c r e a s e d t o 59 0 a r t i c l e s , averaging.59 a r t i c l e s . p e r volume. An average of 84 a r t i c l e s appeared i n each-of the ten most re c e n t volumes, f o r a t o t a l of 844 a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 through 30. S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A r t i c l e s An annotated index of the a r t i c l e s c o n tained i n Volumes 1 through 20 of The Reading Teacher was p u b l i s h e d i n 1969, which 29 c l a s s i f i e d the a r t i c l e s i n t o 18 major c a t e g o r i e s and 31 sub- c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study was t o c l a s s i f y the 844 a r t i c l e s which appeared i n Volumes 21-30 w i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s developed f o r the 20 Year Annotated Index (Summers, 1969). The major c a t e g o r i e s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of the c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n .scheme were . as f o l l o w s . I. Research Analyses and Reviews I I . R e a d i n g / I n s t r u c t i o n General P r e - s c h o o l , E a r l y Reading, Readiness Primary General B a s a l Reading I n d i v i d u a l i z e d Reading L i n g u i s t i c s and Reading Comparisons of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs Intermediate J u n i o r and Se n i o r High School C o l l e g e and A d u l t 1 Reading i n Other C o u n t r i e s I I I . Development of Reading S k i l l s Word R e c o g n i t i o n , Phonics, and Vocabulary Comprehension, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and.Creative Reading C r i t i c a l R e a d i n g C o n c e p t Development, and T h i n k i n g S t u d y . S k i l l s 30 Rate and F l e x i b i l i t y Reading T a s t e s , H a b i t s , and I n t e r e s t s IV. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s R e a d a b i l i t y and L e g i b i l i t y C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e Workbooks A-V M a t e r i a l s Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n T.V. and Reading V. Reading Personnel P r e - S e r v i c e and I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Necessary S k i l l s and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s C e r t i f i c a t i o n Requirements Reading S u p e r v i s o r s , S p e c i a l i s t s , and Consultants Reading Tastes and Habits V I . Grouping and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Plans V I I . T e s t i n g and E v a l u a t i o n V I I I . Reading and the Content. F i e l d s IX. Reading I n s t r u c t i o n : and the G i f t e d X. T h e - C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t XI. Guidance and Reading X I I . The L i b r a r y and Reading X I I I . P a r e n t a l Help and I n f l u e n c e s XIV. -Sociology, o f Reading XV. A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n XVI. V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 31 X V I I . P e r s o n a l i t y X V I I I . R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o R e a d i n g . D i s a b i l i t y D i a g n o s i s o f R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s T r e a t m e n t o f R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s R e a d i n g C l i n i c s A c a r d c o n t a i n i n g t h e c o m p l e t e b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n was t y p e d f o r e a c h a r t i c l e . c o n t a i n e d . i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30. E x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s t u d y were e d i t o r i a l s , book r e v i e w s , and r e g u l a r d e p a r t m e n t f e a t u r e s . The a r t i c l e s were t h e n r e a d , and i f t h e t i t l e d i d n o t p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e ' s c o n t e n t , a . b r i e f . a n n o t a t e d e x t r a c t was added t o t h e c a r d . E a c h a r t i c l e was. t h e n a s s i g n e d t o a m a j o r s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r y and c h e c k e d a g a i n s t those, a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d t o m a i n - t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y . A d d i t i o n a l s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were e m p i r i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d when, n e c e s s a r y and some e x i s t i n g . s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were m o d i f i e d t o more, a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e a r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n . t h e m . When".' new s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were a s s i g n e d , - a r t i c l e s p r e v i o u s l y i n c l u d e d i n t h a t m a j o r . c a t e g o r y were r e v i e w e d and a l s o p l a c e d i n t h e n e W . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i f i t was more a p p r o p r i a t e . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was renumbered f r o m Roman Numerals' t o an ope n - e n d e d A r a b i c s y s t e m . C a t e g o r y t i t l e s were s h o r t e n e d whenever, p o s s i b l e . D e m ographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s J D e t a i l e d c o n t e n t , a n a l y s e s . w e r e , p e r f o r m e d t o d e l i n e a t e t r e n d s o v e r t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . . S e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n was c o d e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e 1,684 32 a r t i c l e s (see c o d i n g s y s t e m i n A p p e n d i x A) and t h e n k e y p u n c h e d and v e r i f i e d f o r c omputer a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) p r o g r a m . E i g h t d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d , i n c l u d i n g t o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s , m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p , s e x o f a u t h o r , a u t h o r o c c u p a t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f a u t h o r , c i t a t i o n s p e r volume, t y p e o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d , and age o f c i t e d m a t e r i a l . D a t a f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e were examined by volume and t h e n c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s - Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 10,.Volumes 11 t h r o u g h 20, and Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 3 0 — t o i d e n t i f y c h a n g i n g t r e n d s and emphases i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d o f t h e j o u r n a l . T o p i c a l T r e n d A n a l y s i s To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i c l e s by s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h e SPSS Subprogram C r o s s t a b s was u s e d t o g e n e r a t e t a b l e s c l a s s i f y i n g a l l a r t i c l e s i n t o t h e i r a s s i g n e d m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . S u b - c a t e g o r i e s were t h e n c o l l a p s e d w i t h i n m a j o r h e a d i n g s and a c r o s s t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s and p e r c e n t a g e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s . M u l t i p l e A u t h o r s h i p C o n s i s t e n t upward t r e n d s i n t h e a v e r a g e number o f a u t h o r s p e r a r t i c l e have b e e n n o t e d i n a number o f s t u d i e s s i m i l a r t o t h i s one. The number o f a u t h o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h a r t i c l e was r e c o r d e d and t a b u l a t e d t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h i s t r e n d was p r e s e n t i n The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . 33 Sex of Author Male versus female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of authors i n the j o u r n a l was of i n t e r e s t ; a t a b u l a t i o n was made of t h i s v a r i a b l e . In some i n s t a n c e s authors chose to use only t h e i r f i r s t i n i t i a l s , and i t was necessary to i n c l u d e a "no sex" category. Author Occupation F i v e c a t e g o r i e s were used to d e s c r i b e author o c c u p a t i o n : s c h o o l based, d i s t r i c t / c o u n t y / s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l , c o l l e g e / u n i v e r - s i t y , o ther, and unknown. Most a r t i c l e s i n c l u d e d . a d e s c r i p t i v e note about the author(s) which p r o v i d e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I f , t h i s was not a v a i l a b l e the author o c c u p a t i o n was coded as "unknown." Geographic L o c a t i o n of Author The f o u r t h a u t h o r s h i p v a r i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t e d was geographic l o c a t i o n of author t o determine the d i s p e r s i o n of a r t i c l e pro- duction.. The f o u r . r e g i o n s o f Canada.and seven r e g i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s d e l i n e a t e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i - a t i o n were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o . t h e t h i r t e e n c a t e g o r i e s . The number o f authors l o c a t e d i n each of the areas which f o l l o w was t a b u l a t e d . (1) Far West (United States) (2) Rocky Mountains (United States) (3) Southwest (United States) (4) E a s t (United States) (5) P l a i n s (United States) (6) Great Lakes (United States) (7) S o u t h e a s t ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) (8) T r a n s m o u n t a i n (Canada) (9) R u p e r t s l a n d (Canada) (10) L a u r e n t i a n (Canada) (11) A t l a n t i c (Canada) (12) O u t s i d e N o r t h A m e r i c a (13) Unknown A g a i n , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n o t a - t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h o r s w h i c h u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d e a c h a r t i c l e . C i t a t i o n s p e r Volume The t o t a l number o f r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d a t t h e end o f e a c h a r t i c l e was t a b u l a t e d . The e a r l i e r v olumes u s e d f o o t n o t e s r a t h e r t h a n r e f e r e n c e l i s t s ; t h e s e were i n c l u d e d as c i t a t i o n s . A r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews c a t e - g o r y were e x c l u d e d f r o m a l l c i t a t i o n a n a l y s e s so as n o t t o i n f l a t e t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e s . Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d S i x c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d by D a r t n e l l (1977) i n a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g were u s e d t o c l a s s i f y e a c h o f t h e c i t a t i o n s : book, c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g o r y e a r b o o k , j o u r n a l , u n p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l o r t e s t , o o t h e r s o u r c e . The t y p e o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d was t a b u l a t e d by a r t i c l e , volume, and a c r o s s t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s . 35 Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l Again, the system d e v i s e d by D a r t n e l l (1977) was. used to analyze the age of c i t e d m a t e r i a l . C i t a t i o n s , were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: (1) c i t e d m a t e r i a l which .had been p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n t w e n t y - f i v e years of c i t a t i o n , or "more.recent" m a t e r i a l s ; and (2) c i t e d m a t e r i a l s whose p u b l i c a t i o n date exceeded t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , o r " a r c h i v a l " m a t e r i a l s . The median age of the more r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s .was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each type of . p u b l i c a t i o n , and frequency of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s was t a b u l a t e d f o r each type of p u b l i c a t i o n . Range i n years was t a b u l a t e d f o r . b o t h recent.and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . Core and Support J o u r n a l - L i t e r a t u r e J o u r n a l t i t l e s c i t e d by authors i n Volumes 21 through 30 were t a b u l a t e d to i d e n t i f y the core and support j o u r n a l s f o r the t h i r d decade of:The Reading.Teacher. In t h i s a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e i t was expected t h a t a s m a l l group of j o u r n a l s would account f o r a l a r g e percentage o f . t h e c i t a t i o n s and. t h a t a wide ar r a y of d i s c i p l i n a r y support j o u r n a l s : r e l a t e d to elementary read i n g would emerge. Each j o u r n a l t i t l e cited.was. typed i n t o . a computer f i l e and i d e n t i f i e d by volume f o r each o f the a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 21 through 30. The l i s t i n g : was then s o r t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by t i t l e . A F o r t r a n program.was w r i t t e n t o o b t a i n a frequency count f o r each t i t l e and rank the j o u r n a l . t i t l e s . f r o m most c i t e d t o l e a s t c i t e d f o r each of the ten volumes. For comparison purposes, the ten volumes were d i v i d e d i n t o two f i v e - y e a r b l o c k s , ranked by ascending order of frequency, and cumulative 36 percentages were . c a l c u l a t e d . The e n t i r e data base was then c o l l a p s e d i n t o one l i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l ten-year p e r i o d . The UBC PLOT (Subroutine ALGRAF) program was. used t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the Pareto c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the th r e e l i s t i n g s and i l l u s t r a t e the demarcation o f the core and support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . . Summary The study was designed t o be completed i n th r e e s t e p s . (1) A r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21-30 of The Reading Teacher were c l a s s i f i e d by s u b j e c t t o update the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher. (2) Data were.generated on s e l e c t e d demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a content a n a l y s i s o f the t h i r t y volume c o l l e c t i o n . , (3) J o u r n a l t i t l e s . c i t e d i n the l a s t t e n volumes, spanning 1967-1977, were analyzed t o d e f i n e the core and support j o u r n a l - l i t e r a t u r e . f o r elementary: r e a d i n g as r e p r e - sented by authors p u b l i s h i n g a r t i c l e s i n The Reading Teacher. 37 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r p a r a l l e l s t h e t h r e e m a i n d i v i s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y : .(1) s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30 o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , (2) c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 30 o f t h e j o u r n a l , and (3) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o r e and s u p p o r t j o u r n a l s f o r Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30. S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A r t i c l e s F i v e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were added t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e 20_ Y e a r A n n o t a t e d Index t o The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . E m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30 n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b - h e a d i n g s : 2.35 Language E x p e r i e n c e / i . t . a . 4.7 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r P r e p a r e d M a t e r i a l s 4.8 C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s 5.4 P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t 5.5 P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s C o n t e n t d e s c r i p t o r s were m o d i f i e d f o r e i g h t o f t h e e x i s t i n g m a j o r h e a d i n g s and s u b - h e a d i n g s . The f i n a l s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n s y s t e m c o n t a i n e d 18 m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s and 38 s u b - c a t e g o r i e s and was as f o l l o w s . 01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 02 R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 38 0 2.1 General 02.2 P r e - s c h o o l / E a r l y Reading/Readiness 0 2.3 Primary 02.31 g e n e r a l 02.32 b a s a l r e a d i n g 02.33 i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e a d i n g 02.34 l i n g u i s t i c s / p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s • 02.35 language e x p e r i e n c e / i . t . a . 02i36 comparisons o f . i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs 02.4 Intermediate 02.5 J u n i o r / S e n i o r High School 02.6 C o l l e g e / A d u l t 02.7 Reading i n Other C o u n t r i e s 0 3 Development of Reading S k i l l s 0 3.1 Word Recognition/Phonics/Vocabulary 0 3.2 Co m p r e h e n s i o n / I n t e r p r e t a t i o n / C r e a t i v e Reading/ L i s t e n i n g 0 3.3 C r i t i c a l . R e a d i n g / C o n c e p t Development/Thinking/ Questioning 03.4 Study S k i l l s 03.5 F l e x i b i l i t y 0 3.6 Reading T a s t e s / H a b i t s / I n t e r e s t s / A t t i t u d e s 04 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 04.1 R e a d a b i l i t y / L e g i b i l i t y 04.2 C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e 04.3 Workbooks 0 4.4 A.V. Materials/Games 39 0 4.5 Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n 04.6 T.V. and.Reading 04.7 Student/Teacher Prepared. M a t e r i a l s 04.8 Content. A n a l y s i s 05 Reading Personnel 05.1 P r e - S e r v i c e / I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g 05.11 necessary s k i l l s / q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 05.12 c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirements 05.2 Reading S u p e r v i s o r s / S p e c i a l i s t s / C o n s u l t a n t s 05.3 Reading T a s t e s / H a b i t s 05.4 P r o f e s s i o n a l . Development 05.5 P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s 06 G r o u p i n g / O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Plans 07 . T e s t i n g / E v a l u a t i o n / A c c o u n t a b i l i t y 08 Reading and.the Content F i e l d s 09 Reading I n s t r u c t i o n and.the G i f t e d 10 The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t 11 Guidance and Reading 12 The L i b r a r y and. Reading 13. P a r e n t a l . H e l p and,Influences 14 Sociology, of Reading 15 A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 16 V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 17 P e r s o n a l i t y 18 Reading Problems 18.1 F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reading D i s a b i l i t y 18.2 Diagnosis of Reading. Problems 40 18.3 T r e a t m e n t o f R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s 18.4 R e a d i n g C l i n i c s D e m o graphic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s , o f d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Volumes 1 through.30 o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : t o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s ; f o u r a u t h o r s h i p v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g m u l t i p l e , a u t h o r s h i p , . sex o f a u t h o r , a u t h o r o c c u p a t i o n , and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f a u t h o r ; and t h r e e c i t a - t i o n a n a l y s e s , i n c l u d i n g c i t a t i o n s p e r volume, t y p e o f p u b l i c a - t i o n c i t e d , and age o f c i t e d m a t e r i a l . . T o p i c a l T r e n d . A n a l y s i s M a i n c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e I p r e s e n t s a breakdown o f a r t i c l e s i n t o s u b j e c t a r e a s a c r o s s t h e t h r e e , t i m e p e r i o d s . . ( T a b u l a t i o n s f o r t h e 18 m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s and 38 s u b - c a t e g o r i e s a c r o s s t h e t h i r t y v o l u m e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e X V I I . i n t h e A p p e n d i x . ) INSERT TABLE I ABOUT HERE A r t i c l e s r e l a t i n g t o R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n have been t h e most d o m i n a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e j o u r n a l , w i t h an a v e r a g e o f 28.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 1 t h r o u g h 30 c l a s s i - f i e d i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . The g r o u p o f a r t i c l e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h S k i l l D e v e l o p m e n t .was c o n s i s t e n t l y r a n k e d s e c o n d i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s , f o r a n . o v e r a l l a v e r a g e o f 17.5 p e r c e n t . A number o f c h a n g e s i n . i n t e r e s t s and emphases a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d . T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s e x h i b i t e d g r o w t h a c r o s s e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t i m e 41 TABLE I " A r t i c l e s ' by, M a j o r C a t e g o r i e s A c r o s s , T h r e e Time P e r i o d s Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11--20 21 -30 T o t a l M a j o r C a t e g o r y n % n % n • % n % R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 3 1.2 20 3.4 7 .8 30 1.8 R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 72 28.8 181 30.8 220 26.1 473 28.1 S k i l l Development 47 18.8 97 16.4 150 17.8 294 17.5 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 14 5.6 52 8.8 84 10.0 150 8.9 R e a d i n g P e r s o n n e l 7 2.8 58 9.8 83 9.8 148 8.8 C l a s s r o o m O r g a n i z a t i o n 17 6.8 12 2.0 16 1.9 45 2.7 T e s t i n g / E v a l u a t i o n 11 4.4 19 3.2 73 8.6 103 6.1 R e a d i n g and t h e C o n t e n t F i e l d s 22 8.8 16 2.7 12 1.4 50 3.0 R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e G i f t e d 9 3.6 8 1.4 2 .2 19 1.1 The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t 0 0 19 3.2 46 5.5 65 3.9 Guidance and R e a d i n g 1 .4 2 .3 6 .7 9 .5 The L i b r a r y and R e a d i n g 5 2.0 14 2.4 5 .6 24 1.4 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e 14 5.6 7 1.2 22 2.6 43 2.6 S o c i o l o g y o f R e a d i n g 0 0 5 .8 3 .4 8 .4 A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 0 7 1.2 5 .6 12 .7 V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 2 .8 11 1.9 8 .9 21 1.2 P e r s o n a l i t y 4 1.6 4 .7 17 2.0 25 1.5 R e a d i n g Problems 22 8.8 58 9.8 85 10.1 165 9.8 T o t a l 250 590 844 1684 42 p e r i o d s : I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t , and Reading Problems. S l i g h t d e c l i n e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y e v i d e n t i n Classroom O r g a n i z a t i o n , Reading and the Content F i e l d s , Reading I n s t r u c t i o n and the G i f t e d , and The. L i b r a r y . and Reading. Su b - c a t e g o r i e s . A r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d within...the f i v e l a r g e s t - m a i n c a t e g o r i e s w e r e . f u r t h e r examined, t o determine whether s h i f t s h a d o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e s e . s u b j e c t areas. Table I I c o n t a i n s a breakdown of a r t i c l e s , c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n R e a d i n g . I n s t r u c t i o n . Although the number.of a r t i c l e s concerned wi t h Pre-school/Readiness i n c r e a s e d over each of the three time p e r i o d s , the percentage of the t o t a l d e c l i n e d . Two o f the sub- c a t e g o r i e s i n Primary show evidence o f i n c r e a s e d concern over INSERT TABLE I I ABOUT HERE the y e a r s : L i n g u i s t i c s / P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s and Language E x p e r i - ence/!.t.a. The s i n g l e l a r g e s t category both in.number and percentage of a r t i c l e s was.Comparison of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs i n the second time p e r i o d , Volumes 11 through 20. T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by the p r e s e n t a t i o n and fo.l-low-up. of ; the F i r s t Grade Studie s which took p l a c e d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . A d e c l i n e i n th r e e c a t e g o r i e s - — I n t e r m e d i a t e , J u n i o r / S e n i o r High School, and C o l l e g e / A d u l t — i s . a p p a r e n t . T h i s d e c l i n e corresponds w i t h the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a second IRA j o u r n a l , the J o u r n a l o f ..Reading,, which co n c e n t r a t e s on the t e a c h i n g of read- i n g above the elementary l e v e l . A r t i c l e emphasis, i n Development, of. Reading S k i l l s has 43 TABLE I I A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d W i t h i n R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 T o t a l G e n e r a l 24 33.3 P r e - s c h o o l / R e a d i n e s s 12 16.8 P r i m a r y G e n e r a l 3 4.2 B a s a l R e a d i n g 3 4.2 I n d i v i d u a l i z e d R e a d i n g 1 1.4 L i n g u i s t i c s / P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s 1 1.4 Language E x p e r i e n c e / i . t . a . 1 1.4 Comparisons o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs 1 1.4 I n t e r m e d i a t e 3 4.2 J u n i o r / S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l 14 19.4 C o l l e g e / A d u l t 6 8.3 R e a d i n g i n O t h e r C o u n t r i e s 3 4.2 T o t a l 72 20 11.0 66 30.1 109 23.1 24 13.2 33 15.0 69 14.6 8 2 15 4.4 1.1 8.3 3.9 24 3 13 19 11.0 1.4 5.9 8.7 36 8 29 27 7.6 1.7 6.2 5.7 3 1.7 23 10.5 27 5.7 32 17.7 12 5.5 45 9.5 11 6.1 4 1.8 18 3.8 17 9.4 1 .5 32 6.8 17 9.4 1 .5 24 5.1 25 13.8 20 9.1 48 10.2 181 219 472 44 remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . Word Recognition/Phonics/Vocabulary has continued t o r e c e i v e the g r e a t e s t emphasis. I n t e r e s t i n INSERT TABLE I I I ABOUT HERE two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s appears to have d e c l i n e d : Study S k i l l s and F l e x i b i l i t y . Table IV prese n t s a r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s across the three time p e r i o d s . The m a j o r i t y of the a r t i c l e s (30%) r e l a t e to C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e . The o r i g i n a l INSERT TABLE IV ABOUT HERE high percentage (28.6%) of a r t i c l e s focused on T.V. and Reading has s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d , w i t h only 2.4 percent of a r t i c l e s i n Volumes 21 through 30 c l a s s i f i e d i n t h a t category. The number of a r t i c l e s d i r e c t e d toward Workbooks has d e c l i n e d to n i l . Student/Teacher Prepared M a t e r i a l s and Content A n a l y s i s , the two c a t e g o r i e s added i n t h i s study, accounted f o r a combined t o t a l of 38.1 percent o f a r t i c l e s c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s i n the t h i r d time p e r i o d . Over h a l f o f the t o t a l a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h Reading Personnel d e a l t with Necessary S k i l l s / E f f e c t i v e Teaching. Two INSERT TABLE V ABOUT HERE 45 TABLE I I I A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d W i t h i n Development o f R e a d i n g S k i l l s A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11-20 21-30 T o t a l S ub-Category n & n % n Word R e c o g n i t i o n / P h o n i c s / V o c a b u l a r y 22 46.8 32 33.0 61 40.7 115 39.1 Comprehension/ I n t e r p r e t a t i o n / C r e a t i v e R e a d i n g / L i s t e n i n g 7 14.9 21 21.6 31 20.7 59 20.1 C r i t i c a l R e a d i n g / Concept Development/ T h i n k i n g / Q u e s t i o n i n g 2 4.3 19 19.6 20 13.3 41 14.0 S t u d y S k i l l s 0 0 5 5.2 3 2.0 8 2.7 F l e x i b i l i t y 2 4.3 7 7.2 2 1.3 11 3.7 R e a d i n g T a s t e s / H a b i t s / I n t e r e s t s / A t t i t u d e s 14 29.7 13 13.4 33 22.0 60 20.4 T o t a l 47 97 150 294 46 TABLE IV A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d Within I n s t r u c t i o n a l Materials Across Three Time Periods Sub-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n Total R e a d a b i l i t y / L e g i b i l i t y 0 0 7 13.4 13 15.5 20 13.3 Children's L i t e r a t u r e 6 42.9 17 32.7 22 26.2 45 30.0 Workbooks 1 7.1 3 5.8 0 0 4 2.7 AV Materials/Games 3 21.4 9 17.3 10 11.9 22 14.7 Programmed Inst r u c t i o n 0 0 4 7.7 5 5.9 9 6.0 TV and Reading 4 28.6 8 15.4 2 2.4 14 9.3 Student/Teacher Prepared Materials 0 0 0 0 11 13.1 11. 7.3 Content Analysis 0 0 4 7.7 21 25.0 25 16.7 Total 14 52 84 150 47 TABLE V A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d W i t h i n R e a d i n g P e r s o n n e l A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s S u b -Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n T o t a l P r e - S e r v i c e / I n - S e r v i c e N e c e s s a r y S k i l l s / E f f e c t i v e T e a c h i n g 6 85.7 27 46.6 46 55.4 79 53.4 C e r t i f i c a t i o n R e q u irements 0 0 5 8.6 3 3.6 8 5.4 R e a d i n g S u p e r v i s o r s / S p e c i a l i s t s / C o n s u l t a n t s 1 14.3 20 34.5 11 13.3 32 21.6 R e a d i n g T a s t e s / H a b i t s 0 0 4 6.9 3 3.6 7 4.7 P r o f e s s i o n a l Development 0 0 2 3.4 13 15.7 15 10.2 P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s 0 0 0 0 7 8.4 7 4.7 T o t a l 7 58 83 148 48 r e c e n t trends appear i n Volumes 21 through 30: a r t i c l e s concern- i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l Development and P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s were p u b l i s h e d i n The Reading Teacher. In the area of Reading Problems, a r t i c l e emphasis has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . The number of a r t i c l e s focussed on the l a r g e s t category, Treatment of Reading Problems, i n c r e a s e d INSERT TABLE VI ABOUT HERE over the three time p e r i o d s although the percentage of a r t i c l e s decreased s l i g h t l y . F a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o reading d i s a b i l i t y con- s i s t e n t l y ranked second i n emphasis across the t h r e e time p e r i o d s . M u l t i p l e A u t h o r s h i p As evidenced i n Table V I I , the overwhelming m a j o r i t y (82.6%) of a r t i c l e s i n The Reading Teacher are s i n g l e authored. The percentage of s i n g l e authored a r t i c l e s has d e c l i n e d over the INSERT TABLE VII ABOUT HERE three time p e r i o d s , however, from 96.0 percent i n Volumes 1 through 10 to 77.1 p e r c e n t i n the l a s t ten volumes. A t r e n d toward m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p i s e v i d e n t , w i t h the two author category r e p r e s e n t i n g 18.9 percent of the a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 through 30. ( M u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p i s t a b u l a t e d by Volume i n Table XVIII i n the Appendix.) 49 TABLE V I A r t i c l e s C l a s s i f i e d . W i t h i n R e a d i n g Problems A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s S u b-Category Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n Volumes 21-30 n T o t a l n F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t y D i a g n o s i s o f R e a d i n g Problems Treatment o f R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s R e a d i n g C l i n i c s T o t a l 5 22.7 16 27.6 29 34.1 50 30.3 3 13.6 6 10.3 12 14.1 21 12.7 14 63.7 28 48.3 34 40.0 76 46.1 0 0 8 13.8 10 11.8 18 10.9 22 58 85 165 50 TABLE V I I M u l t i p l e A u t h o r s h i p A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Number o f A u t h o r s Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 n % Volumes 21-30 n T o t a l n 1 2 3 4 o r more T o t a l 241 8 1 1 251 96.0 3.2 .4 .4 500 72 13 5 590 84.7 12.2 2.2 .9 650 159 24 10 843 77.1 18.9 2.8 1.2 1391 239 38 16 1684 82.6 14.1 2.3 1.0 51 Sex of Author Females p u b l i s h e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n Volumes 1 through 10; i n the ot h e r two.time p e r i o d s male authored a r t i c l e s were more predominant. The t o t a l f i g u r e s i n Table V I I I i n d i c a t e t h a t a u t h o r s h i p i s approximately e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between men and women over the t h i r t y volume y e a r s , but the t r e n d i s toward a INSERT TABLE V I I I ABOUT HERE g r e a t e r number of male-authored a r t i c l e s . (Complete data f o r sex of author by volume i s i n c l u d e d i n Table XIX i n the Appendix.) Author Occupation An examination of author o c c u p a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t the most p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s were overwhelmingly a f f i l i a t e d w i t h c o l l e g e s s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s ; 63 percent of the t o t a l authors were employed a t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . School-based authors were ranked second i n Volumes 1.through 10, but dropped t o t h i r d i n INSERT TABLE IX ABOUT. HERE the next two time p e r i o d s . Authors h o l d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i - t i o n s a t the d i s t r i c t , county, s t a t e , o r . p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s peaked d u r i n g the second.time p e r i o d and then d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y ; t h i s category ranked second i n the t o t a l f i g u r e s . (Complete data f o r author o c c u p a t i o n by volumesappears i n Table XX.in the Appendix.) 52 TABLE V I I I Sex o f A u t h o r A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Volumes Volumes Volumes 1-10 11-20 21-30 T o t a l Sex o f A u t h o r n % n % n Male 92 34.7 Female 172 64.9 No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1 ,.4 T o t a l 265 390 55.1 601 55.6 1083 52.7 314 44.4 477 44.1 963 46.9 4 .5 3 .3 8 .4 708 1081 2054 53 TABLE IX A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n Volumes 1-10 n Volumes 11-20 Volumes 21-30 n T o t a l S c h o o l Based C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t , C ounty, S t a t e , P r o v i n c i a l O t h e r Unknown T o t a l 51 19.2 63 8.9 125 11.6 239 11.6 140 52.8 438 61.9 715 ' 66.1 1293 63.0 40 26 8 265 15.1 9.8 3.1 150 47 10 708 21.2 6.6 1.4 141 80 20 1081 13.0 7.4 1.9 331 153 38 2054 16.1 7.4 1.9 54 Geographic L o c a t i o n of Author . The Reading Teacher o r i g i n a t e d a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a , and authors from the E a s t e r n U n i t e d States have produced the l a r g e s t percentage (41.3%) o f a r t i c l e s s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . (Examination.of Geographic L o c a t i o n of Author by Volume data c o n t a i n e d i n Table XXI of the Appendix shows t h a t i n o n l y one' of the t h i r t y volumes were, there more authors l o c a t e d i n a geographic area o t h e r than the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g i o n : i n Volume 27 the Great..Lakes r e g i o n out- ranked, the East.) C o n t r i b u t o r s , from the Great Lakes have con- s i s t e n t l y ranked second,, and account f o r 19.3 percent o f the INSERT TABLE X ABOUT HERE t o t a l a r t i c l e s . Four o t h e r U n i t e d States r e g i o n s have shown i n c r e a s e s over each o f the three time p e r i o d s , i n c l u d i n g the Far West,. Rocky Mountains, Southwest,.and Southeast. Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e ; o n l y 1.5 percent of the t o t a l authors were l o c a t e d i n Canada. C i t a t i o n s per Volume The number of p u b l i c a t i o n s c i t e d showed a steady i n c r e a s e across the t h i r t y volume p e r i o d . In Volumes 1 through 10 the a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n i n g one. or more c i t a t i o n comprised 35.9 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l . a r t i c l e . p o p u l a t i o n ; t h i s percentage i n c r e a s e d t o 4 8.8 i n Volumes, 11.through 20; 72.2 percent of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 through.30 i n c l u d e d one or more, c i t a t i o n s . Look- i n g o n l y a t those a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n i n g c i t a t i o n s and computing 55 TABLE X G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n o f A u t h o r A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Volumes Volumes Volumes G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n 1-10 11-20 21-30 T o t a l o f A u t h o r n % n % n % n F a r West ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) 21 7.9 61 8.6 103 9.5 185 9.0 Rocky M o u n t a i n (U.S.) 2 .8 8 1.1 27 2.5 37 1.8 Southwest (U.S.) 4 1.6 20 2.8 76 7.0 100 4.9 P l a i n s (U.S.) 11 4.2 44 6.2 58 5.4 113 5.5 G r e a t Lakes (U.S.) 63 23.8 130 18.4 203 18.8 396 19.3 S o u t h e a s t (U.S.) 12 4.5 46 6.5 150 13.9 208 10.1 E a s t (U.S.) 136 51.3 349 49.3 363 33.6 848 41.3 T r a n s m o u n t a i n (Canada) 0 0 4 .6 10 .9 14 .7 R u p e r t s l a n d (Canada) 3 1.1 1 .1 8 .7 12 .6 L a u r e n t i a n (Canada) 0 0 0 0 2 .2 2 .1 A t l a n t i c (Canada) 0 0 1 .1 1 .1 2 .1 O u t s i d e N o r t h A m e r i c a 0 0 18 2.5 43 4.0 61 3.0 Unknown 13 4.8 26 3.8 37 3.4 76 3.6 T o t a l 265 708 1081 2054 56 the average number of c i t a t i o n s per a r t i c l e r e v e a l e d l i t t l e change over the t h r e e time p e r i o d s : t h e r e were an average o f 8.9 c i t a t i o n s ' i n Volumes 1 through 10, 9.7' in. the second time p e r i o d , and 9.1 i n the most r e c e n t ten volumes. (A t a b u l a t i o n of c i t a t i o n s per volume i s i n c l u d e d i n Table XXII i n the Appendix.) Type of P u b l i c a t i o n - C i t e d A r t i c l e s a c r o s s the t h i r t y volume p u b l i c a t i o n span of The Reading Teacher generated a t o t a l of 8,973 c i t a t i o n s . Each c i t a t i o n was c a t e g o r i z e d , and t h i s t a b u l a t i o n was c o l l a p s e d i n t o the t h r e e time p e r i o d s i n ..Table XI. C i t a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d i n the INSERT TABLE XI ABOUT HERE "other" category were to items such as newspapers and magazines, speeches, p e r s o n a l communication, computer programs, f i l m s , and b u l l e t i n s . The m a j o r i t y o f the c i t a t i o n s (69.9% o f the t o t a l ) r e f e r r e d to books or journals'. A. s t e a d y i n c r e a s e .in . the number and per- centage o f books c i t e d was observed a c r o s s the t h r e e time p e r i o d s , and a corresponding decrease i n the number of j o u r n a l s c i t e d . O v e r - a l l percentages, however, r e v e a l a l a r g e r propor- t i o n , 37.5 p e r c e n t , of j o u r n a l s c i t e d than, books, a t 32.4 per- cent. C i t a t i o n s t o unpublished m a t e r i a l s . ( t h e s e s and d i s s e r t a - t i o n s ) ranked t h i r d i n the o v e r f a l l t o t a l s . . ( A • t a b u l a t i o n of type o f p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d by volume i s i n c l u d e d i n Table XXII i n the Appendix.) 57 TABLE X I Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n C i t e d A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Volumes "1-10 n Volumes 11-20 Volumes 21-30 n T o t a l Book J o u r n a l C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t O t h e r T o t a l 213 26.8 755 28.1 1940 35.3 2908 32.4 355 44.8 1145 42.6 1868 34.0 3368 37.5 35 4.4 103 3.8 125 2.3 263 2.9 61 7.7 188 7.0 658 11.9 907 10.1 25 3.1 197 7.3 564 10.3 786 8.8 105 13.2 300 11.2 336 6.2 741 8.3 794 2688 5491 8973 58 Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l Tables XII and XIII p r e s e n t age of c i t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r the two c a t e g o r i e s , r e c e n t and a r c h i v a l ( published 25 years or more be f o r e the c i t a t i o n ) m a t e r i a l s . INSERT TABLES XII AND X I I I ABOUT HERE From Table XII i t can be seen t h a t the median age of books i s 6.7 y e a r s ; f i f t y p e rcent o f books cited-were p u b l i s h e d l e s s than 6.7 years b e f o r e the c i t a t i o n date. J o u r n a l s were s l i g h t l y more r e c e n t : the median age was 5.9 years w i t h a range o f 46 y e a r s . Medians across the three time p e r i o d s ..did not e x h i b i t c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s . O v e r - a l l medians f o r Conference Proceeding, Yearbook and Unpublished M a t e r i a l were.lowest a t 5.1 y e a r s . F i f t y percent o f a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and t e s t s were 7.7 years of age or. o l d e r . Table XI t a b u l a t e s c i t a t i o n s t o m a t e r i a l s c l a s s i f i e d as a r c h i v a l , which comprise 7.8 percent of the t o t a l c i t a t i o n s which were analyzed.. Approximately. t h r e e s fourths... of these c i t a - t i o n s were Ibo books o r j o u r n a l s . (See Tables. XXIII and XXIV i n the Appendix f o r complete data.on c i t e d m a t e r i a l s . i n each of the two c a t e g o r i e s . ) .Core, and Support J o u r n a l - L i t e r a t u r e The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e o f the study was t o analyze j o u r n a l c i t a t i o n s i n Volumes 21 through 30 in. an.attempt to d e f i n e the core, and support j o u r n a l s and i l l u s t r a t e . t h e d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r - a c t i o n o f elementary reading w i t h other areas. Data were 59 TABLE X I I Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l by P u b l i c a t i o n Type A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Volume 1-10 Volume 11-20 Volume 21-30 T o t a l Books median range i n y e a r s J o u r n a l s median range i n y e a r s C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median range i n y e a r s U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median range i n y e a r s I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median range i n y e a r s O t h e r median range i n y e a r s 6.0 (185) 6.2 (685) 7.0 (1798) 6.7 (2668) 31 31 32 50 (1926-57) (1936-67) (1944-76) (1926-76) 6.0 (333) 4.8 (1011) 6.3 (1780) 5.9 (3124) 25 6.2 (35) 19 30 32 4.5 (86) 27 27 46 (1931-56) (1936-66) (1945-77) (1931-77) 5.5 (127) 5.1 (248) 38 (1936-55) (1937-64) (1947-74) (1936-74) 5.2 (49) 4.5 (176) 5.2 (627) 5.1 (852) 25 26 25 45 (1931-56) (1941-67) (1951-76) (1931-76) 8.5 (14) 5.6 (147) 8.2 (488) 7.7 (649) 21 27 32 42 (1932-56) (1939-66) (1945-77) (1932-77) 6.1 (73) 4.3 (230) 5.7 (306) 5.2 (609) 25 28 29 46 (1930-56) (1938-66) (1947-76) (1930-76) 60 TABLE X I I I A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l C i t e d by Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n A c r o s s Three Time P e r i o d s Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Volume 1-10 Volume 11-20 Volume 21-30 T o t a l , Book 8 71 157 236 J o u r n a l 13 82 144 239 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g o r Yearbook 1 3 6 10 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l 1 4 7 12 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t 1 24 46 71 Oth e r 4 27 33 64 T o t a l 28 211 393 632 61 t a b u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , f o r . e a c h o f the. ten volumes and.then com- bin e d f o r a n a l y s i s . C o n f l a t i o n o f c i t a t i o n s from Volumes 21 through 25 and 26 through 30 are p r e s e n t e d . i n Tables XIV andXV. In both time INSERT TABLES XIV AND XV ABOUT HERE pe r i o d s c i t a t i o n s t o approximately seven t o e i g h t j o u r n a l s account f o r 50 perc e n t o f t o t a l c i t a t i o n s , and 31 to 35 j o u r n a l s make up 75 perc e n t o f the t o t a l c i t a t i o n s . Complete l i s t i n g s are i n c l u d e d i n Tables XXV through XXVII.in the Appendix. F i g u r e s 1 and 2 are g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the complete l i s t i n g s , w i t h demarcation of the 50.percent and 75 percent core j o u r n a l s i n d i c a t e d . INSERT FIGURES 1 AND 2 ABOUT HERE When the c i t a t i o n s from the e n t i r e ten-year p e r i o d are c o l l a p s e d , e i g h t j o u r n a l s account f o r approximately 50 percent of t o t a l c i t a t i o n s and t h i r t y - s e v e n j o u r n a l t i t l e s account f o r 75.09 percent of the t o t a l c i t a t i o n s . A t o t a l o f 265 d i f f e r e n t INSERT TABLE XVI ABOUT HERE j o u r n a l s were c i t e d d u r i n g the ten-year p e r i o d - analyzed. F o l l o w i n g P r i c e ' s Paerto s t a t i s t i c , the square r o o t of the t o t a l demarcates the core' j o u r n a l s i n a s e t of l i t e r a t u r e . I t would 62 TABLE XIV J o u r n a l s by Number of C i t a t i o n s Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 21 through 25 J o u r n a l Number of C i t a t i o n s Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology C h i l d Development J o u r n a l o f Reading American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f Experimental E d u c a t i o n American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y Elementary E n g l i s h Review P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y Childhood E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f Gen e t i c Psychology School Review J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l Behavior E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l . Measurement J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review J o u r n a l o f Psychology J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l o f Communication American P s y c h o l o g i s t O n t a r i o J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research 184 79 58 46 32 31 28 20 16 15 13 11 11 11 10 9 8 8 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 20.98 29.99 36 .60 41.85 45.50 49 , 52. 54. 56 , 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64 , 69, 70 , 71, 71, 72, 72, 73, 73, 74, 74 75 03 22 50 32 03 51 76 01 26 40 65.43 66 .46 67 .37 68.28 69.08 76 44 01 58 15 72 29 ,75 ,21 ,68 ,13 6 3 TABLE XV Journals by Number of Citations Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 2 6 through 3 0 Number of Journal Citations Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher 1 6 8 1 6 . 6 7 Elementary English 8 1 2 4 . 7 1 Elementary School Journal 6 6 3 1 . 2 6 Reading Research Quarterly 5 7 3 6 . 9 1 Journal of Educational Psychology 4 2 4 1 . 0 8 Journal of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s 3 5 4 4 . 5 5 Journal of Reading 2 9 4 7 . 4 3 Journal of Educational Research 2 8 5 0 . 2 1 Exceptional Children 1 9 5 2 . 0 9 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 1 5 5 3 . 5 8 C h ild Development 1 5 5 5 . 0 7 • Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s 1 3 5 6 . 3 6 Harvard Educational Review 1 1 5 7 . 4 5 Phi Delta Kappan 1 1 5 8 . 5 5 Education 1 0 5 9 . 5 4 Psychological Review 1 0 6 0 . 5 3 American Educational Research Journal 1 0 6 1 . 5 3 Psychology i n the Schools 1 0 6 2 . 5 2 Childhood Education 1 0 6 3 . 5 1 Journal of Applied Psychology 9 6 4 . 4 0 National Elementary P r i n c i p a l 9 6 5 . 3 0 American Psychologist 8 6 6 . 0 9 Journal of Reading Behavior 8 6 6 . 8 9 E nglish Journal 8 6 7 . 6 8 Psychological Reports 8 6 8 . 4 7 Review of Educational Research 7 6 9 . 1 6 Journal of Experimental Education 7 6 9 . 8 6 B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology 7 7 0 . 5 5 L ibrary Journal 7 7 1 . 2 5 American Journal of Mental Deficiency . 7 7 1 . 9 4 Educational and Psychological Measurement 6 7 2 . 5 4 Young Children 6 7 3 . 1 3 College English 6 7 3 . 7 3 American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 6 7 4 . 3 2 Educational Leadership 6 7 4 . 9 2 Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 5 7 5 . 4 2 64 J o u r n a l s C i t e d i n The Reading Teacher, Volumes 21-25 F i g u r e 2 J o u r n a l s C i t e d i n The Reading Teacher, Volumes 26-30 66 TABLE XVI J o u r n a l s by Number of C i t a t i o n s Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 21 through 30 Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage The Reading Teacher 352 18. ,67 Elementary E n g l i s h 160 27. ,16 Elementary School J o u r n a l 124 33. ,74 Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y 89 38. ,46 J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 74 42. ,39 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology 73 46 . ,26 J o u r n a l o f Reading 49 48. ,86 C h i l d Development 43 51. ,14 J o u r n a l o f Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s 37 53. ,10 E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 34 54. ,90 American E d u c a t i o n a l Research. J o u r n a l 26 56 . ,28 P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s 23 57. ,50 Educati o n 23 58. ,72 J o u r n a l of V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l Behavior 21 59 . ,83 Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review 20 60 . ,89 Childhood E d u c a t i o n 18 61. .84 J o u r n a l o f Experimental E d u c a t i o n 18 62, .79 American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 17 63. .69 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review 15 64. .49 P h i D e l t a Kappan 14 65. .23 Elementary E n g l i s h Review 13 65, .92 N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l 13 66 , .61 Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research 12 67, .25 J o u r n a l o f Genetic Psychology 12 67, .88 E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement 12 68, .52 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports 12 69, .16 American P s y c h o l o g i s t 12 69, .79 M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y 11 70 , . 37 School Review 11 70 , .96 Psychology i n the Schools 11 71, .54 E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 10 72, .07 J o u r n a l of Applied.Psychology 10 72, .60 American J o u r n a l o f Mental D e f i c i e n c y 10- 73, .13 J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology 10 73, .66 E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership 9 74, .14 J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior 9 74 .61 J o u r n a l o f Educat i o n 9 75 .09 67 be expected, then, t h a t 16 (square r o o t of 265) j o u r n a l s would account f o r f i f t y percent of the c i t a t i o n s . In the sample s t u d i e d 61.84 p e r c e n t o f the c i t a t i o n s were from-the top s i x t e e n j o u r n a l s , which f o l l o w . The Reading Teacher Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l of ,Educational Psychology J o u r n a l of Reading C h i l d Development J o u r n a l of L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l of V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l Behavior Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review Childhood E d u c a t i o n The f i r s t e i g h t t i t l e s account f o r about h a l f (51.14%) of the t o t a l c i t a t i o n s . The t o p . j o u r n a l i n the rankings was The Reading Teacher; 352 of the 1,885 t o t a l c i t a t i o n s (18.67%) were s e l f - c i t a t i o n s . The e i g h t journals- i n t h i s c o r e . l i s t i n g i n c l u d e three r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s , two g e n e r a l elementary j o u r n a l s , two e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s , and one E n g l i s h j o u r n a l . The curve p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the predominance o f . a core 68 INSERT FIGURE 3 ABOUT HERE of highly c i t e d journals i n The Reading Teacher, with the 50 percent and 75 percent demarcation points indicated. In examining the journals l i s t e d for the two five-year periods and f o r the t o t a l ten volume years, i t i s obvious that authors of reading a r t i c l e s have consistently, over.the years, interacted with a highly, c i t e d set of core journals i n reading, elementary education,.educational research, and English. In addition,: they have also referred to a wide array of support l i t e r a t u r e consisting of .253 journal t i t l e s representing d i s c i - plines i n education .and .disciplines i n other academic areas. 69 F i g u r e 3 J o u r n a l s C i t e d i n The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , Volumes 21-30 70 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the t h i r t y volume years (194 8-197 7) of an elementary reading j o u r n a l , The Reading Teacher, using a content a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . The r e t r o - s p e c t i v e b i b l i o m e t r i c study was conducted i n three p a r t s ; summaries of those three s e c t i o n s f o l l o w . S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A r t i c l e s In 1969 the 20_ Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher was p u b l i s h e d . A r t i c l e s were e m p i r i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d (they were allowed t o "index themselves" a c c o r d i n g t o s u b s t a n t i v e content) and o r g a n i z e d i n t o 18 major c a t e g o r i e s and 31 s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was to c a t e g o r i z e the a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n Volumes 21 through 30 of the j o u r n a l i n the e x i s t - i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, adding o r modifying headings when necessary. A f t e r e m p i r i c a l examination and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 844 a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d i n the l a s t t e n volumes, the 18 major headings were r e t a i n e d ; d e s c r i p t o r s were m o d i f i e d i n some cases to more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the i n c l u s i o n of the l a t e r a r t i c l e s . F i v e a d d i t i o n a l s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were added: one under read i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , two i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and two i n the rea d i n g personnel category. 71 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T o p i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s . T a b u l a t i o n s were made of a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d i n each major heading and sub-heading f o r each o f the t h i r t y volumes. The data were c o l l a p s e d i n t o three ten-year time p e r i o d s f o r analysis.. Nearly h a l f o f the a r t i c l e s (45.6%) r e - l a t e d t o Reading i n s t r u c t i o n and S k i l l Development. C o n s i s t e n t l y g r e a t e r emphasis was p l a c e d on I n s t r u c t i o n a l - M a t e r i a l s , The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t , and Reading Problems. P u b l i c a t i o n s de- c l i n e d i n the areas o f Classroom O r g a n i z a t i o n , Reading and the Content F i e l d s , Reading I n s t r u c t i o n and the G i f t e d , and The L i b r a r y and Reading. Sub-categories i n the f i v e major areas (Reading I n s t r u c t i o n , Reading S k i l l s , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , Reading P e r s o n n e l , and.Reading Problems) were f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n terms of changing emphases.across, the t h r e e time p e r i o d s . M u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p . Growth, i n m u l t i p l e a u t h o r s h i p was present across each time p e r i o d . The o v e r - a l l m a j o r i t y of a r t i c l e s (82.6%), however, were s i n g l e authored. Sex of-, author. Over the t o t a l t h i r t y volume years the p r o p o r t i o n o f male (52.7%) and female (46.9%) authored a r t i c l e s i s n e a r l y equal.. When these data are grouped i n t o the three time p e r i o d s d i s t i n c t trends are noted: the p r o p o r t i o n o f male authors has c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s e d ; the o p p o s i t e holds t r u e f o r females. F u r t h e r , the s h i f t o c c u r r e d most d r a m a t i c a l l y between the f i r s t two time p e r i o d s , with o n l y minimal changes between, the second and t h i r d time p e r i o d s . The author sex v a r i a b l e may have s t a b i l i z e d a t t h i s p o i n t , so t h a t approximately s i x out of ten Reading Teacher authors are male. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note 72 t h a t male a u t h o r s h i p i s i n c r e a s i n g i n The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r b u t d e c r e a s i n g i n t h e J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g ( D a r t n e l l , 1 9 7 7 a ) . A u t h o r - o c c u p a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t h i r t y volume y e a r s t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e (63.0%) o f a u t h o r s have been c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y b a s e d . The s e c o n d l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y , r e p r e s e n t i n g employment a t t h e d i s t r i c t , c o u n t y , s t a t e , o r p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , r e p r e s e n t e d 16.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a u t h o r s . O n l y 11.6 p e r c e n t o f a u t h o r s were s c h o o l b a s e d and c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d as d i s s e m i n a t i n g f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m . G e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f a u t h o r . A u t h o r l o c a t i o n was t a b u - l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t w e l v e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o r e g i o n s d e f i n e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h f i n d i n g s p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( A y e r s , 1974; C h a p i n and G r o s s , 1970; D a r t n e l l , 1 9 7 7 a ) , t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (41.3%) o f a u t h o r s r e s i d e d i n t h e E a s t . I f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g i o n s a r e c o l l a p s e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s , E a s t and West, an o v e r w h e l m i n g 70.7 p e r c e n t o f a r t i c l e s o r i g i n a t e i n t h e e a s t e r n h a l f o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . O n l y 30 o f t h e 2,054 a u t h o r s (1.5%) were f r o m Canada. C i t a t i o n s p e r volume. A u t h o r s c i t e d an a v e r a g e o f 5.3 documents p e r a r t i c l e ( e x c l u d i n g r e v i e w s and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s ) a c r o s s t h e t h i r t y volume y e a r s . I f o n l y t h o s e a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n - i n g c i t a t i o n s - a r e e x amined (683 a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n e d no c i t a t i o n s ) , t h i s p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s t o 9.2 c i t a t i o n s p e r a r t i c l e , s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n t h e a v e r a g e o f 15 r e f e r e n c e s f o r e a c h s c i e n t i f i c p a p e r r e p o r t e d by P r i c e (1965) f o r s c i e n c e s . The t o t a l number o f c i t a t i o n s p e r volume i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m 73 794 i n Volumes 1 through 10 to 5,491 i n Volumes 21 through 30. Type, of p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d . The t o t a l 8,97 3 documents c i t e d by authors across the t h i r t y volume years were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to f i v e p u b l i c a t i o n types: book, j o u r n a l , conference proceeding o r yearbook, unpublished m a t e r i a l or t e s t , or o t h e r . The two l a r g e s t c a t e g o r i e s , books (32.4%) and j o u r n a l s (37.5%), accounted f o r a combined t o t a l of 6,276 of the c i t a t i o n s , or 69.9 p e r c e n t . Age of c i t e d m a t e r i a l . C i t e d m a t e r i a l s were f i r s t d i v i d e d i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s , r e c e n t (published l e s s than 25 years b e f o r e c i t a t i o n ) and a r c h i v a l (published 25 years or more p r i o r t o the c i t a t i o n ) and then analyzed s e p a r a t e l y . Median age was computed f o r the r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s and range o f p u b l i c a t i o n date was noted. J o u r n a l s . c i t e d were s l i g h t l y more r e c e n t (median age of 5.9 years) than books (median 6.7). A r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s , which r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 7.8 percent of the t o t a l c i t a t i o n s , were t a b u l a t e d by frequency f o r e a c h . p u b l i c a t i o n type. Core and Support J o u r n a l . L i t e r a t u r e The t h i r d s e c t i o n of the study i n v e s t i g a t e d the frequency with which d i f f e r e n t j o u r n a l s were c i t e d by authors, p u b l i s h i n g i n Volumes 21 through 30 of The Reading Teacher. I t was found t h a t e i g h t t i t l e s accounted f o r 51.14 percent o f the c i t e d j o u r n a l s ; these e i g h t t i t l e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as the core j o u r n a l s , and are as f o l l o w s : The Reading Teacher Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary.School J o u r n a l 74 R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g C h i l d . -Development A w i d e a r r a y o f j o u r n a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n and o u t s i d e e d u c a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d as t h e s u p p o r t l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n t e r a c t s w i t h e l e m e n t a r y . r e a d i n g as i n d i c a t e d by t i t l e s c i t e d i n t h e works o f a u t h o r s . p u b l i s h i n g i n The Read- i n g T e a c h e r . C o n c l u s i o n s The m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y has b e e n t o r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y examine t h i r t y volume y e a r s o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . S t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d d e s c r i b i n g s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e 1,684 a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d f r o m 1948 t o 1977. As r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I I , a s i m i l a r s t u d y was r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d by D a r t n e l l (1977, 1977a) a n a l y z i n g t h e n i n e t e e n y e a r p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d o f t h e J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g . B o t h t h e J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g and The- R e a d i n g T e a c h e r a r e o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e I n t e r - n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r aimed t o w a r d t h e e l e m e n t a r y s e c t o r o f r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n and t h e J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g c o n t a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o s e c o n d a r y , c o l l e g e , and a d u l t r e a d i n g . M e a n i n g f u l c o n c l u s i o n s c a n . b e drawn by m a k i n g c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e two p r o j e c t s i n a number o f a r e a s . I n b o t h j o u r n a l s , , when a r t i c l e s were e m p i r i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e b u l k o f a r t i c l e s were i n t h e 75 same two c a t e g o r i e s . A t o t a l of 41 percent of J o u r n a l of Reading a r t i c l e s d e a l t w i t h Reading Programs and Reading S k i l l s . A comparable 45.6 percent of The Reading Teacher a r t i c l e s were r e l a t e d to Reading I n s t r u c t i o n and S k i l l Development. Both s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d t h a t broad c a t e g o r i e s remained q u i t e s t a b l e over time, w i t h s h i f t s o c c u r r i n g among the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i s p r e d i c t a b l e , as a good c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i l l d e f i n e the major c a t e g o r i c a l areas i n a f i e l d w i t h the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s designed t o allow f o r s h i f t s and e n t r y of new s u b s t a n t i v e empha- ses and content i n the l i t e r a t u r e over time. A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of a r t i c l e s i n The Reading Teacher were s i n g l e authored, 82.6 percent as opposed to 76.42 percent i n the J o u r n a l of Reading. However, The Reading Teacher began p u b l i c a t i o n ten years p r i o r t o the J o u r n a l of Reading. I f only the l a s t twenty volumes of The Reading Teacher are used i n the comparison, r e s u l t s are very s i m i l a r : 7 5.9 percent of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the l a s t twenty years were s i n g l e authored. Both s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d a steady i n c r e a s e i n dual a u t h o r s h i p , r e f l e c t i n g the t r e n d toward g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n p r e s e n t i n many d i s c i p l i n e s today. The a u t h o r s h i p . d a t a r e f l e c t about equal sex r e p r e s e n t a t i o n over time with a t r e n d i n r e c e n t years to g r e a t e r male p a r t i c i p a t i o n . i n The Reading Teacher. Approximately the same percentage of authors i n both j o u r n a l s were a f f i l i a t e d w ith c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s , 6 3.0 percent i n The Reading Teacher and 67.5 percent i n the J o u r n a l of Reading, suggesting t h a t the major c o n t r i b u t i n g group remains c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y o r i e n t e d . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t 76 s c h o o l - b a s e d a u t h o r s h i p may b e . i n c r e a s i n g i n more r e c e n t volumes o f t h e j o u r n a l . C i t a t i o n a n a l y s e s c o m p a r i s o n s p o i n t o u t s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e age and t y p e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s c i t e d i n t h e two j o u r n a l s . I n b o t h c a s e s r e f e r e n c e . c i t a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d . a n d age o f c i t e d m a t e r i a l s has d e c r e a s e d o v e r t i m e , s u g g e s t i n g a move t o w a r d c i t i n g o f more r e c e n t m a t e r i a l s . However, median, ages o f c i t e d m a t e r i a l s a r e s t i l l h i g h i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s and s u b s t a n t i a l m a t e r i a l c i t e d i s s t i l l a r c h i v a l o r n e a r a r c h i v a l i n n a t u r e . T h i s t r e n d . i s s u p p o r t e d b y . t h e f i n d i n g t h a t book c i t a t i o n o v e r t i m e has i n c r e a s e d w h i l e t h e t r e n d . i s t o w a r d a d e c r e a s e i n j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e c i t a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r - t i o n o f book v e r s u s j o u r n a l c i t a t i o n , however, s t i l l p l a c e s e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g a s : a " t y p i c a l " s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d when c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s u l t s w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h s u c h as t h a t r e p o r t e d by B r o a d u s (196 7 ) . I n g e n e r a l , t o p i c s ..addressed, a u t h o r s , and c i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n t h e two r e a d i n g j o u r n a l s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r . The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s , d e l i n e a t i n g t h e c o r e and s u p p o r t j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t t i t l e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e c i t a t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when t h e s e e i g h t t i t l e s a r e compared w i t h a r e c e n t l i s t i n g ( A x e l r o d , 1975) o f most w i d e l y r e a d r e a d i n g - r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s , f i v e o f t h e s e t i t l e s a p p e a r on b o t h l i s t s : The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , and J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g . 77 A wide v a r i e t y of support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d w ith which authors i n t e r a c t i n w r i t i n g and conducting r e s e a r c h i n elementary r e a d i n g . The core and support j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for. elementary reading are s i m i l a r to those r e p o r t e d f o r other d i s c i p l i n e s i n s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s c i e n c e and f o r r e a d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r as r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s u s i n g r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s (Barnett, 1976) and a r t i c l e s from a secondary r e a d i n g j o u r n a l ( D a r t n e l l , 1977, 1977a). The core concept i s indeed u b i q u i t o u s , with a key s e t of j o u r n a l s being c o n s i s t e n t l y used and a wide a r r a y of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y t i t l e s being turned to as support l i t e r a t u r e i n elementary r e a d i n g . . Recommendations S e v e r a l recommendations can be made concerning r e l a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and extensions of t h i s study. 1. G r e a t e r . a c c e s s to the c o l l e c t i o n would.be pr o v i d e d by updating the 2_0 Year Annotated Index to The Reading Teacher. T h i s c o u l d be accomplished i n three s t e p s : a. Informative annotations must.be w r i t t e n f o r each of the.844 a r t i c l e s appearing i n Volumes 21 through 30 of the j o u r n a l . b. The p u b l i s h e d index c l a s s i f i e d each a r t i c l e i n the one most a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t i v e category; . i f an a r t i c l e was.strongly r e l a t e d t o a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i t was c r o s s - i n d e x e d v i a a " s e e - a l s o " l i s t i n g . In t h i s study, each a r t i c l e was a s s i g n e d to o n l y the major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t . 78 would be necessary, to review the a r t i c l e s and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e them.when warranted. c. A Keyword i n Context Index (KWIC), based on s u b s t a n t i v e vocabulary contained i n the t i t l e s of a r t i c l e s , would p r o v i d e another u s e f u l p o i n t of access i n u t i l i z i n g an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y . 2. No attempt was made i n t h i s study t o i d e n t i f y and analyze t h o s e . a r t i c l e s which were r e p o r t i n g r e s e a r c h . An a n a l y s i s c o u l d be made of the q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s , t a b u l a t i n g and comparing the r e s e a r c h method used, means o f c o l l e c t i n g data, s t a t i s t i c s employed i n p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s , and the s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s o f the s t u d i e s and how they r e l a t e t o the s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t i n elementary r e a d i n g , 3. Core j o u r n a l s were i d e n t i f i e d i n . t h i s study which were c o n s i s t e n t l y c i t e d by authors p u b l i s h i n g i n elementary r e a d i n g . An i n t e r e s t i n g study would be to take the core j o u r n a l s i d e n t i f i e d , s e l e c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of. r e c e n t a r t i c l e s , and determine the e x t e n t to which these j o u r n a l s c i t e The Reading Teacher. Is the i n t e r a c t i o n of elementary r e a d i n g with o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s i d i o - s y n c r a t i c or i s i t a two-way phenomenon wit h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s showing s i m i l a r i n t e r a c t i o n with reading r i n t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s ? 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ax e l r o d , J . The most w i d e l y - r e a d r e a d i n g - r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s . Elementary E n g l i s h , 1975, 52, 356-360, 366. Ayers, J . E ; A n a l y s i s o f the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . School Science and Mathematics, 19 74, 4, 309-314. Bar n e t t , D. J . B i b l i o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Unpublished master' s"~thesis , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. Bohn, M. J . , J r . I n s t i t u t i o n a l sources of a r t i c l e s i n t h i s J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology:—four years l a t e r . J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 489-490. Borko, H., & B e r n i e r , C. I. A b s t r a c t i n g concepts and methods. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1975. B r a d f o r d , S. C. Documentation. London, England: Crosby, Lockwood and Son, L t d . , 1948. Broadus, R. N. A c i t a t i o n study f o r s o c i o l o g y . American S o c i o l o g i s t , 1967, 2, 19-20. Buckland, M. K. The.management o f l i b r a r i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t e r s . In C. A. Cuadra, A. W. Luke & J . L. H a r r i s (Eds.), Annual Review.of Information Science and Technology (Vol. 9T~- WasETngton, D.C. : The American S o c i e t y f o r Information Science, 19 74. Chapin, J . R., & Gross, R. E. A barometer of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s : three decades of S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1970, 34, 788-795. Cotton, M. C , & Anderson, W. P. C i t a t i o n changes i n the J o u r n a l o f Counseling Psychology. J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 1973, 20, 272-274. D a r t n e l l , D. J . Content a n a l y s i s of the J o u r n a l of R e a d i n g — 1957-1976 wit h annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y , keyword i n context (KWIC) and author indexes. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 77. D a r t n e l l , D. J . P e r s o n a l correspondence, September, 1977(a). D i c k i n s o n , G., & R u s n e l l , G. A content a n a l y s i s of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1971, 21, 177-185. 80 Done-hue, J . C, Understanding s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e : a b i b l i o - metric approach. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1973. Fairthorne, R. A. Empirical hyperbolic d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Bradford- Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and predic- t i o n . Journal of Documentation, 1969 , 2_5, 319-343. Fenichel, C. J . C i t a t i o n patterns i n information science,. Unpublished master' s thesis, 19~§"9~ (ERIC Document Repro- duction Service No. ED 048 864) Foreman, M. E. Publication trends i n counseling journals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 481-485. Ga r f i e l d , E. C i t a t i o n analysis as a t o o l i n journal evaluation. Science, 1972, 178, 471-479. Goodstein, L>, D. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l sources of a r t i c l e s i n the Journal of Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1963, 10, 94-95. Herschman, A. The primary journal: past, present, and future. Journal of Chemical Documentation, 1970, 10_, 37T42. Ho l s i , 0. Content analysis. In G. Lindzey, L. Gardner, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social -Psychology (Vol. 2). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1968. H o l s t i , O. Content analysis for the s o c i a l sciences and humanities. Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : . Addison Wesley Co., 1969 . Jeroski, S. F. The d i s s e r t a t i o n research requirement i n secondary reading. Unpublished master's thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. Jerrolds, B. W. Reading r e f l e c t i o n s : the history of the Inter- national Reading Association^ Newark, Delaware: Inter- national Reading Association, 1977. Kline, L. W. Research, classroom and journal. The Reading Teacher, 1972, 25, 724-726. Kuney, J. H. Publication and d i s t r i b u t i o n of information. In C. Cuadra (Ed.)/Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (Vol. 3). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1968. Lancaster, F. W. Vocabulary, control for.information r e t r i e v a l . Washington, D.C.: Information Resources Press, 1972. 81 L i n , N., & Nelson, C. E. B i b l i o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s i n core s o c i o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s . The American S o c i o l o g i s t , 1969, 4, 47-50. Long, H. B., & Agyekum, S. K. A d u l t education 1964-1973: r e f l e c t i o n s o f a changing, d i s c i p l i n e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1974, 24, 99-120. McMurtray, F., & G i n s k i , J . M. C i t a t i o n . p a t t e r n s of the c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r s e r i a l l i t e r a t u r e . J o u r n a l of the American S o c i e t y f o r Information Science, 1972, 2_3, 172-175. Munley, P. H. A content a n a l y s i s of the J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology. J o u r n a l o f Counseling Psychology, 1974, ITT, 305-310. Myers, R. A., & DeLevie, A. S. Frequency o f c i t a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n o f eminence. J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 13, 245-246. Parker,.E. B., P a i s l e y , W. J . , & G a r r e t t , R. B i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n s as. unob t r u s i v e measures of s c i e n t i f i c communica- t i o n . I n s t i t u t e f o r Communication Research, S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. P r i c e , D. J . de S. L i t t l e s c i e n c e , b i g science.. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. P r i c e , D. J . de S. Networks of s c i e n t i f i c papers. Science, 1965, 149^, 510-515. P r i c e , D. de•S. Science s i n c e Babylon. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. Price., D. J . de S. A.general theory of b i b l i o m e t r i c and ot h e r cumulative advantage p r o c e s s e s . J o u r n a l of the American S o c i e t y f o r Information Science, 1976, 27_, 292-306 . S a r a c e v i c , T., & Perk, L. J . A s c e r t a i n i n g . a c t i v i t i e s i n a s u b j e c t area through b i b l i o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s . J o u r n a l of the American S o c i e t y f o r .Information S c i e n c e , 1973 , 27~, 120-134. Sengupta, I. N. The l i t e r a t u r e o f m i c r o b i o l o g y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i b r a r y Review, 1974, 6, 353-369. Sewell, W. H. R u r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , 1936-1965. Ru r a l Research, 1965, 30, 428-451. Summers, E. G. (Ed.) . 20_ year annotated index t o The Reading Teacher. Newark, Delaware: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969. 82 Walsh, W. B., Feeney, D., & Resnick, H. Graduate s c h o o l o r i g i n s of J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology authors. J o u r n a l of Counseli n g Psychology, 1969, 16, 375-376. Waters, B. L. She w r i t e s l i k e a woman. Paper presented a t the Southeast. Conference on L i n g u i s t i c s , A t l a n t a , November 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 115 113) 83 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: DATA CODING SYSTEM APPENDIX B: TABLES X V I I THROUGH XXVII 84 DATA CODING SYSTEM. Si x d i g i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number; columns 1-2 = - volume number " 3 = i s s u e number " 4-6 = f i r s t page number Four d i g i t s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Number o f authors Sex of author(s) column 14 = number of males " 15 = number of females " 16 = number unknown Occupation of author(s) column 17 = s c h o o l based " 18 = c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y " 19 = d i s t r i c t / c o u n t y / s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l " 20 = other " 21 = unknown Geographic l o c a t i o n of author(s) column 22 - Far West 23 — Rocky Mountains 24 = -Southwest 25 = P l a i n s 26 = Great Lakes 27 = • Southeast 28 = East 29 = Transmountain 30 = Rupertsland 31 = L a u r e n t i a n 32 — A t l a n t i c 33 = Outside North America 34 = Unknown T o t a l number of c i t a t i o n s Type of p u b l i c a t i o n c i t e d columns 40-41 = books 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 . 54-55 56-57 j o u r n a l s conference proceedings/yearbooks unpublished documents t e s t s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s other monographs b u l l e t i n s Columns 59-60 Number o f s e l f - c i t a t i o n s D a t a t a b u l a t e d i n columns; 40-57 were combined and r e c o d e d by computer i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : Books/Monographs (columns 40-41 and 54-55) J o u r n a l s (columns 42-43) U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l s (columns 46-47) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s / T e s t s (columns 48-49 and 50-51) Y e a r b o o k s / C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s (columns 44-45) O t h e r / B u l l e t i n s . (columns 52-53 and 56-57) 86 TABLE XVII A r t i c l e Frequency by Major and S u b - C a t e g o r i e s A c r o s s 30 Volume Years Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 01 Research A n a l y s e s and Reviews 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 02 Reading I n s t r u c t i o n 02.10 0 1 0 4 6 3 3 4 0 3 24 02.20 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 4 1 0 12 02.30 02.31 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 02.32 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 02.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 02. 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 02.35 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.36 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.40 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 02.50 0 0 0 5 4 2 1 2 0 0 14 02.60 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 6 02.70 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 3 03 Development o f Reading S k i l l s 03.10 0 1 0 3 3 2 2 4 6 1 22 03.20 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 2 0 7 03.30 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 03.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 03.60 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 2 1 3 14 04 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 04.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.20 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 6 04.30 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 04.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 3 04.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.60 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 04.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05 Reading P e r s o n n e l 05.10 05.11 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 6 05.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87 TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 T o t a l 01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 1 7 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 0 20 02 R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 02.10 2 1 1 0 2 4 0 3 3 4 20 02.20 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 6 10 3 24 02.30 02.31 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 2 8 02.32 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 02.33 3 0 2 4 1 3 0 1 0 1 15 02.34 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 0 0 7 02.35 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ' 1 1 0 3 02.36 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 15 15 32 02.40 2 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 2 1 11 02.50 1 0 1 4 3 4 4 0 0 0 17 02.60 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 4 0 17 02.70 0 3 3 2 1 7 1 2 5 1 25 03 Development o f R e a d i n g S k i l l s 03.10 1 0 2 6 2 3 2 4 5 7 32 03.20 3 3 3 0 3 1 1 3 2 2 21 03.30 0 3 7 1 4 0 1 0 2 1 19 03.40 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 5 03.50 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 7 03.60 0 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 0 13 04 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 04.10 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 7 04.20 0 3 1 3 0 1 4 0 3 2 17 04.30 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3 04.40 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 9 04.50 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 4 04.60 5 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8 04.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 05 R e a d i n g P e r s o n n e l 05.10 05.11 0 0 0 7 3 1 2 3 8 3 27 05.12 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 88 TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d C a t e g o r i e s and Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l 01 R e s e a r c h A n a l y s e s and Reviews 1 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 02 R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n 02.10 5 6 6 15 5 5 8 6 7 3 66 02.20 5 7 5 3 1 1 3 3 0 5 33 02.30 02.31 3 5 4 0 2 2 2 2 3 2 25 02.32 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 02.33 0 0 0 6 0 1 3 1 1 1 13 02.34 4 1 4 1 0 2 1 2 2 2 19 02.35 3 6 5 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 23 02.36 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 12 02.40 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 02.50 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.60 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 02.70 2 2 3 0 1 2 2 2 3 3 20 03 Development o f R e a d i n g S k i l l s 03.10 7 4 8 3 3 4 11 6 7 8 61 03.20 1 7 5 3 2 2 0 4 3 4 31 03.30 3 5 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 2 20 03.40 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 03.50 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 03.60 4 4 3 4 2 2 5 4 1 4 33 04 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 04.10 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 3 3 1 13 04.20 0 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 1 7 22 04.30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04.40 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 10 04.50 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 5 04.60 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 04.70 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 11 04.80 1 3 2 0 1 1 3 1 7 2 21 05 R e a d i n g P e r s o n n e l 05.10 05.11 0 4 7 4 9 4 6 2 4 6 46 05.12 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 89 TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l 05.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 05.30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 G r o u p i n g 1 7 0 1 3 1 3 0 0 1 17 07 T e s t i n g 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 1 2 11 08 R e a d i n g and C o n t e n t F i e l d s 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 6 2 6 22 09 R e a d i n g and t h e G i f t e d 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 7 0 9 10 The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Guidance & R e a d i n g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 12 L i b r a r y & Read i n g 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 5 13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 1 0 4 14 14 S o c i o l o g y o f 0 Re a d i n g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 A u d i t o r y 0 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 17 P e r s o n a l i t y 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 4 18 R e a d i n g Problems 18.10 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 5 18.20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 3 18.30 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 3 4 14 18.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T o t a l 1 13 : o 21 33 33 44 39 31 35 250 90 TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 T o t a l 05.20 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 10 20 05.30 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 05.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 05.50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 G r o u p i n g 4 1 1 0 1 0 0 ' 1 1 3 12 07 T e s t i n g 1 1 2 2 4 1 1 2 3 2 19 08 R e a d i n g and C o n t e n t F i e l d s 4 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 1 1 16 09 Readi n g and t h e G i f t e d 0 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 8 10 The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 3 7 19 11 Guidance & R e a d i n g 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 12 L i b r a r y & R e a d i n g 1 1 0 2 0 2 7 1 0 0 14 13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 7 14 S o c i o l o g y o f R e a d i n g 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 5 15 A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 7 16 V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 11 17 P e r s o n a l i t y 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 4 18 R e a d i n g Problems 18.10 0 2 0 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 16 18.20 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 6 18.30 1 0 1 1 4 2 5 4 8 2 28 18.40 0 2 0 . 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 8 T o t a l 34 37 40 52 53 58 63 75 89 89 590 91 TABLE X V I I c o n t i n u e d Volume S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l 05.20 05.30 05.40 05.50 0 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 5 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 11 3 13 7 06 G r o u p i n g 3 0 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 16 07 T e s t i n g 4 4 1 17 8 13 9 5 6 6 73 08 R e a d i n g and C o n t e n t F i e l d s 1 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 5 12 09 R e a d i n g and t h e G i f t e d 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 10 The C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t 5 5 3 11 4 3 2 3 3 7 46 11 Guidance & R e a d i n g 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 12 L i b r a r y & Read i n g 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 5 13 P a r e n t a l H e l p and I n f l u e n c e 2 1 9 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 22 14 S o c i o l o g y o f Readi n g 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 5 16 V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 8 17 P e r s o n a l i t y 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 4 3 0 17 18 R e a d i n g Problems 18.10 18.20 18.30 18.40 4 1 9 4 5 1 3 1 6 1 6 1 3 1 6 3 1 2 3 0 2 1 0 0 4 1 2 1 0 1 2 0 3 1 3 0 1 2 0 0 29 12 34 10 T o t a l 91 103 95 96 70 67 87 73 75 87 844 TABLE X V I I I M u l t i p l e A u t h o r s h i p by Volume Number o f A u t h o r s Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 1 13 2 3 4 o r more T o t a l A r t i c l e s 1 13 21 33 33 44 1 21 33 33 45 36 2 1 39 29 1 1 31 31 4 30 4 34 3 35 34 37 36 2 2 40 41 8 2 1 52 45 8 50 8 53 58 Number o f Volume A u t h o r s 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l 1 56 68 68 72 69 82 85 74 53 56 61 51 58 61 1391 2 6 6 14 13 18 18 9 19 14 10 18 20 12 21 239 3 1 1 3 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 6 4 4 38 4 o r more 4 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 16 T o t a l A r t i c l e s 63 75 89 89 91 103 95 96 70 67 86 73 75 87 1684 TABLE XIX Sex o f A u t h o r by Volume Sex o f A u t h o r s Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Male 9 17 9 20 18 12 25 21 28 36 31 37 Female 11 16 24 16 36 23 18 27 13 19 17 34 29 29 No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Sex o f A u t h o r s Volume 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l M ale 26 47 66 73 80 78 58 86 59 48 53 51 41 47 1083 Female 45 36 57 35 38 50 48 37 32 31 66 48 56 71 963 No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n TABLE XX A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n by Volume Volume A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 S c h o o l Based 5 3 8 2 9 9 11 4 4 3 7 8 5 6 C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y 1 7 10 12 24 20 30 23 13 27 30 30 43 38 37 D i s t r i c t / S t a t e / P r o v i n c i a l 8 5 6 8 2 11 6 4 3 13 12 17 O t h e r 8 1 8 2 7 1 2 5 3 6 4 No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1 1 2 4 1 1 3 2 Volume A u t h o r O c c u p a t i o n 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l S c h o o l Based 9 4 13 4 16 14 12 10 8 2 18 19 13 13 239 C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y 39 45 76 73 75 89 75 84 44 56 78 59 68 87 1293 D i s t r i c t / S t a t e / P r o v i n c i a l 14 26 27 28 17 22 13 19 12 13 9 14 9 13 331 O t h e r 8 7 6 5 10 3 6 9 17 8 7 6 8 6 153 No I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1 1 1 1 11 7 1 38 LD TABLE XXI Geo g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n o f A u t h o r by Volume G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n Volume 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 F a r West Rocky Mtns. Southwest P l a i n s G r e a t Lakes S o u t h e a s t E a s t T r a n s m o u n t a i n R u p e r t s l a n d L a u r e n t i a n A t l a n t i c O u t s i d e N.A. Unknown 1 5 14 1 1 1 4 1 22 1 9 1 21 14 2 19 1 7 14 2 19 9 4 13 4 1 1 8 1 20 1 3 3 4 21 3 4 1 25 2 1 4 8 1 21 3 2 2 3 18 2 36 9 1 2 15 6 27 1 2 15 6 29 TABLE XXI c o n t i n u e d G e o g r a p h i c Volume L o c a t i o n 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l F a r West 6 8 3 13 13 12 10 13 11 8 6 11 13 6 185 Rocky Mtns. 1 2 4 6 5 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 37 Southwest 1 3 12 5 8 4 7 4 3 12 5 10 18 100 P l a i n s 3 3 14 7 4 8 5 7 1 5 8 7 8 5 113 G r e a t Lakes 13 11 19 24 26 32 19 20 13 12 20 28 21 12 396 S o u t h e a s t 2 2 13 9 10 17 8 15 15 13 20 17 11 24 208 E a s t 43 50 59 38 38 35 47 54 33 25 40 26 24 41 848 Tr a n s m o u n t a i n 1 3 2 1 1 3 14 R u p e r t s l a n d 1 2 1 3 2 12 L a u r e n t i a n 1 1 2 A t l a n t i c 1 1 2 O u t s i d e N.A. 2 2 2 2 7 5 3 5 4 3 4 10 61 Unknown 4 4 6 1 13 1 1 8 2 7 1 3 1 76 LO CTl TABLE X X I I C i t a t i o n s by Volume and Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Book 20 2 59 59 17 40 16 13 30 81 22 91 68 J o u r n a l 14 23 96 60 42 63 51 28 15 139 97 108 113 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook 12 6 2 4 6 3 4 4 5 8 16 17 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l 2 17 16 10 7 6 4 9 10 16 9 18 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t 2 5 7 4 7 6 2 9 16 6 6 O t h e r 2 1 23 31 8 26 8 9 9 28 24 34 39 T o t a l 49 18 28 206 175 81 146 91 64 69 272 183 264 261 TABLE X X I I c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T o t a l Book 96 91 116 147 194 189 177 148 151 182 231 201 237 230 2908 J o u r n a l 142 195 126 182 201 240 211 147 96 153 211 169 237 203 3368 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook 16 15 8 10 38 16 19 14 5 5 7 8 7 6 263 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l 49 19 16 38 61 65 59 77 15 42 81 81 78 99 907 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t 75 14 46 17 40 22 22 59 16 92 60 45 40 168 786 O t h e r 34 45 37 41 20 31 26 36 17 33 61 33 43 36 741 T o t a l 412 379 349 435 554 563 514 481 300 507 651 537 642 742 8973 W5 CO 99 TABLE XXIII Age o f C i t e d M a t e r i a l by Volume and Type of P u b l i c a t i o n Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Volume Books median range i n y e a r s J o u r n a l s median range i n y e a r s C o n f erence P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median range i n y e a r s U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median range i n y e a r s I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median range i n y e a r s 8.00 (13) 21 (1926-1947) 3.50 (7) 5 (1945-1950) 9.00 (12) 12 (1936-1948) 10.50 (4) 13 (1934-1947) 10.00 (2) 6 (1940-1946) 3.00 (23) 16.30 (22) 1 10 (1950-1951) (1933-1943) 3.00 (2) 0 (1950) Other median range i n y e a r s 10.00 (3) 13 (1936-1949) 14.00 (2) 14.00 (1) 0 0 (1938) (1939) 100 TABLE XXIII continued Type of Volume Publica t i o n 6 7 8 9 10 Books median 4.50 (58) 6.00 (45) 5.50 (14) 6.00 (34) 8.83 (19) range i n years 23 23 23 21 21 (1929-1952) (1930-1953) (1931-1954) (1934-1955) (1936-1957) Journals median 5.50 (94) 7.50 (38) 5.50 (36) 6.13 (63) 7.75 (50) range i n years 21 21 20 21 22 (1931-1952) (1932-1953) (1935-1955) (1934-1955) (1934-1956) Conference Proceeding, Yearbook median 6.00 (6) 5.00 (1) 7.50 (4) 4.50 (7) 9.00 (3) range i n years 4 0 3 13 15 (1946-1950) (1950) (1948-1951) (1942-1955) (1940-1955) Unpublished Material median 12.50 (13) 5.00 (14) 3.38 (10) 5.00 (5) 2.50 (3) range i n years 21 18 13 15 11 (1931-1952) (1935-1953) (1941-1954) (1940-1955) (1945-1956) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Material or Test median 17.00 (3) 13.00 (3) 7.50 (6) 10.00 (2) range i n years 12 14 21 16 (1935-1947) (1939-1953) (1932-1953) (1940-1956) Other median 8.00 (21) 4.33 (18) 7.00 (9) 3.50 (14) 6.00 (5) range i n years 22 8 19 15 16 (1930-1952) (1945-1953) (1933-1952) (1940-1955) (1940-1956) 101 TABLE X X I I I c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 11 12 13 14 15 Books median 5.00 (12) 4.50 (31) 8.33 (75) 5.50 (22) 7.05 (88) range i n y e a r s 12 22 22 21 23 (1945-1957) (1936-1958) (1937-1959) (1939-1960) (1938-1961) J o u r n a l s median 5.80 (28) 5.50 (13) 5.60 (125) 4.43 (89) 6.07 (93) range i n y e a r s 11 20 23 20 23 (1946-1957) (1937-1957) (1936-1959) (1940-1960) (1938-1961) C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median 4.50 (2) 9.00 (3) 5.00 (5) 3.33 (8) 4.38 (14) range i n y e a r s 3 19 21 21 20 (1953-1956) (1937-1956) (1938-1959) (1940-1961) (1941-1961) U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median 2.50 (2) 4.50 (8) 5.25 (12) 7.00. (7) 11.13 (8) ra n g e i n y e a r s 1 8 6 11 20 (1956-1957) (1950-1958) (1952-1958) (1949-1960) (1941-1961) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median 3.00 (1) 8.00 (9) 5.50 (5) 8.00 (5) range i n y e a r s 0 15 3 22 (1956) (1943-1958) (1955-1958) (1939-1961) O t h e r median 7.00 (9) 9.00 (8) 6.50 (18) 4.50 (21) 5.50 (23) range i n y e a r s 9 20 22 13 21 (1948-1957) (1938-1958) (1938-1960) (1947-1960) (1940-1961) 102 TABLE X X I I I c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 16 17 18 19 20 Books median 7.75 (57) 5.75 (90) 5.32 (83) 5.92 (96) 6.50 (131) range i n y e a r s 22 21 23 24 24 (1940-1962) (1942-1963) (1941-1964) (1942-1966) (1943-1967) J o u r n a l s J median 4.11 (90) 4.21 (107) 4.53 (181) 4.75 (112) 5.75 (173) range i n y e a r s 24 24 2*3 20 23 (1939-1963) (1940-1964) (1942-1965) (1946-1966) (1943-1966) C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median 3.50 (12) 3.40 (14) 5.17 (13) 5.00 (7) 5.38 (8) ra n g e i n y e a r s 5 10 17 4 15 (1957-1962) (1953-1963) (1947-1964) (1960-1964) (1949-1964) U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median 4.30 (19) 4.39 (45) 4.42 (18) 6.00 (19) 3.15 (38) range i n y e a r s 15 17 13 16 22 (1947-1962) (1947-1964) (1951-1964) (1949-1965) (1945-1967) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median 3.00 (3) 3.92 (66) 3.50 (3) 8.88 (46) 5.50 (9) range i n y e a r s 9 23 4 21 21 (1953-1962) (1941-1964) (1959-1963) (1944-1965) (1945-1966) Ot h e r median 3.83 (33) 3.90 (23) 2.67 (39) 4.50 (29) 6.00 (27) range i n y e a r s 23 14 22 20 23 (1939-1962) (1949-1963) (1943-1965) (1945-1965) (1943-1966) 103 TABLE X X I I I c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 21 22 23 24 25 Books median 7.25 (160) 6.83 (163) 7.30 (180) 7.50 (131) 6.73 (142) range i n y e a r s 23 23 24 23 22 (1944-1967) (1945-1968) (1946-1970) (1947-1970) (1950-1972) J o u r n a l s median 6.13 (170) 6.13 (218) 6.03 (196) 6.10 (145) 5.60 (89) range i n y e a r s 22 24 24 24 24 (1945-1967) (1945-1969) (1946-1970) (1947-1971) (1948-1972) C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median 4.50 (35) 5.31 (14) 4.42 (22) 5.00 (15) 4.25 (4) range i n y e a r s 20 7 10 22 21 (1947-1967) (1961-1968) (1959-1969) (1947-1969); (1949-1970) U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median 4.38 (59) 4.35 (67) 4.00 (60) 5.19 (70) 5.00 (15) range i n y e a r s 17 18 12 18 18 (1951-1968) (1951-1969) (1957-1969) (1952-1970) (1953-1971) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median 9.00 (34) 7.00 (24) 8.40 (20) 9.50 (49) 7.50 (15) range i n y e a r s 21 16 17 19 19 (1945-1966) (1951-1967) (1951-1968) (1950-1969) (1950-1969) Ot h e r median 7.00 (21) 7.00 (28) 6.00 (33) 5.63 (43) 4.08 (16) range i n y e a r s 14 7 15 23 12 (1954-1968) (1961-1968) (1954-1969) (1947-1970) (1960-1972) 104 TABLE X X I I I c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 26 27 28 29 30 Books median 6.85 (165) 6.10 (236) 6.68 (183) 7.12 (224) 8.26 (214) range i n y e a r s 23 24 21 22 22 (1950-1973) (1950-1974) (1954-1975) (1954-1976) (1954-1976) J o u r n a l s median 5.91 (145) 6.59 (237) 6.30 (164) 7.19 (219) 7.42 (197) range i n y e a r s 23 21 23 22 24 (1949-1972) (1953-1974) (1952-1975) (1953-1975) (1953-1977) C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook median 6.50 (7) 6.00 (9) 12.00 (8) 7.00 (6) 8.00 (7) range i n y e a r s 17 10 12 17 7 (1955-1972) (1962-1972) (1956-1968) (1956-1973) (1967-1974) U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l median 4.00 (41) 6.39 (73) 5.29 (74) 5.33 (72) 7.50 (96) range i n y e a r s 13 21 23 23 22 (1960-1973) (1952-1973) (1951-1974) (1952-1975) (1954-1976) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t median 8.06 (83) 6.00 (50) 8.00 (29) 9.40 (40) 8.63 (144) range i n y e a r s 23 15 18 14 24 (1949-1972) (1958-1973) (1955-1973) (1959-1973) (1953-1977) O t h e r median 6.14 (28) 5.83 (51) 8.83 (19) 3.50 (37) 6.50 (30) range i n y e a r s 19 15 20 15 20 (1952-1971) (1958-1973) (1954-1974) (1960-1975) (1956-1976) TABLE XXIV A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l C i t e d by Volume and Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 1 2 • 3 Books f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s J o u r n a l s f r e q u e n c y 1 range i n y e a r s 1923 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook f r e q u e n c y 1 range i n y e a r s 1925 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c y r ange i n y e a r s I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t f r e q u e n c y r ange i n y e a r s O t h e r f r e q u e n c y r ange i n y e a r s 106 TABLE XXIV c o n t i n u e d Type o f Volume P u b l i c a t i o n 6 7 8 9 10 Books f r e q u e n c y 1 3 3 1 range i n y e a r s 1926 1922-1928 1900-1922 1916 J o u r n a l s f r e q u e n c y 1 2 5 2 2 range i n y e a r s 1923 1925-1928 1912-1930 1917-1931 1931-1932 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c y 1 range i n y e a r s 1927 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s O t h e r f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 2 1925-1926 1 1927 1 1930 107 TABLE XXIV c o n t i n u e d Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n 11 12 Volume 13 14 15 Books f r e q u e n c y 1 range i n y e a r s 1927 1 1910 1910-1933 10 1908-1937 J o u r n a l s f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1934 14 1911-1935 1885-1935 1929-1936 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1926 1 1935 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t f r e q u e n c y 1 range i n y e a r s 1925 Other f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1930 3 1930-1935 3 1907-1930 108 TABLE XXIV c o n t i n u e d Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n 16 Volume 17 18 19 20 Books f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1868-1938 1929-1939 1893-1940 1913-1938 1909-1942 17 10 11 J o u r n a l s f r e q u e n c y 13 range i n y e a r s 1900-1938 1923-1939 10 1907-1940 11 1894-1940 10 1926-1939 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1925 1 1925 1 1933 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1934 1 1935 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1900-1934 1867-1939 1 1940 11 1898-1936 Ot h e r f r e q u e n c y 5 4 range i n y e a r s 1909-1938 1935-1938 1 1933 1930-1941 1922-1939 109 TABLE XXIV c o n t i n u e d Type o f P u b l i c a t i o n 21 Volume 22 23 24 25 Books f r e q u e n c y 28 range i n y e a r s 1890-1943 14 1911-1943 1910-1940 15 1910-1946 1928-1947 J o u r n a l s f r e q u e n c y 28 range i n y e a r s 1910-1942 21 1918-1943 1917-1945 1857-1943 1917-1946 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g , Yearbook f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1 1917 1 1942 1 1925 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1925-1937 1 1942 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l o r T e s t f r e q u e n c y range i n y e a r s 1916-1943 1938-1939 1 1938 1840-1942 1 1943 Ot h e r f r e q u e n c y 4 9 range i n y e a r s 1907-1943 1926-1942 110 TABLE XXIV continued Type of Pub l i c a t i o n 26 Volume 27 28 29 30 Books frequency 6 14 23 range i n years 1885-1945 1922-1946 1908-1950 33 1908-1951 13 1926-1952 Journals frequency 10 14 15 21 10 range i n years 1901-1948 1923-1948 1921-1944 1913-1951 1936-1951 Conference Proceeding, Yearbook frequency range i n years 1937-1938 Unpublished Material frequency range i n years 1 1942 1925-1942 1 1947 In s t r u c t i o n a l Material or Test frequency 9 range i n years 1879-1948 1932-1940 1940-1943 1939-1945 11 1932-1952 Other frequency 5 3 5 3 4 range i n years 1905-1948 1925-1948 1921-1948 1870-1948 1948-1950 I l l TABLE XXV J o u r n a l s by Number of C i t a t i o n s Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 21 through 25 Number o f Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage The Reading Teacher 184 20.98 Elementary E n g l i s h 79 29.99 Elementary School J o u r n a l 5 8 36.60 J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 46 41.85 Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y 32 45.50 J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology 31 49.0 3 C h i l d Development 28 52.22 J o u r n a l of Reading 20 54.50 American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l 16 56.32 E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 15 58.03 Educati o n 13 59.51 J o u r n a l of Experimental Education 11 60.76 American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 11 62.01 Elementary E n g l i s h Review 11 6 3.26 P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s 10 64.40 Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review 9 65.43 M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y 8 66.46 Childhood E d u c a t i o n 8 67.37 J o u r n a l of Genetic Psychology 8 6 8.28 School Review 7 69 .0 8 J o u r n a l of V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l Behavior 6 69.76 E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement 6 70.44 J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology 5 71.01 Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 5 71.58 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review 5 72.15 J o u r n a l of Psychology 5 72.72 Jo u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y 5 7 3.29 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 4 7 3.75 J o u r n a l o f Communication 4 74.21 American P s y c h o l o g i s t 4 74.68 O n t a r i o J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 4 75.13 Sig h t - S a v i n g Review I n s t r u c t o r Teachers C o l l e g e Record N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 4 76.96 4 75.59 4 76.05 4 76.50 TABLE XXV continued Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage J o u r n a l of Educat i o n 4 77 .41 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports 4 77.87 N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l 4 78.33 E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n 3 78.67 J o u r n a l of Experimental Psychology 3 79 .01 American J o u r n a l of Mental D e f i c i e n c y 3 79.36 Phi D e l t a Kappan 3 79.70 E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership 3 80.04 J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g Psychology 3 80.38 Research i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h 3 80.72 J o u r n a l of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 3 81.07 American J o u r n a l of Optometry 3 81.41 J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement 3 81.75 Peabody J o u r n a l of Educat i o n 3 82.09 J o u r n a l of Developmental Reading 3 82 .43 Modern Language J o u r n a l 3 82.78 J o u r n a l of the Reading S p e c i a l i s t 3 83.12 J o u r n a l of Teacher Educa t i o n 3 83.46 J o u r n a l of the American Me d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 3 83.80 Ar c h i v e s of Neurology and P s y c h i a t r y 2 84.03 J o u r n a l . o f School Psychology 2 84 .26 Today 1 s Educat i o n 2 84.49 Reading Newsreport 2 84.71 E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 2 84.94 I l l i n o i s School Research 2 85.17 American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y 2 85.40 Nations Schools 2 85.62 B e h a v i o r a l Science 2 85 .85 J o u r n a l o f Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s 2 86 .08 S o v i e t E d u c a t i o n 2 86 . 31 P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s 2 86 .54 Boston U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l of Education 2 86 .76 American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 2 86 .99 Language 2 87.22 School and S o c i e t y 2 87 .45 113 TABLE XXV c o n t i n u e d J o u r n a l Number o f C i t a t i o n s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e J o u r n a l o f Programmed R e a d i n g A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n The C l e a r i n g House J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g D i s o r d e r s R e h a b i l i t a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e P s y c h o m e t r i k a T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f T y p o g r a p h i c R e s e a r c h S c i e n c e S c h o o l L i b r a r y J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y and Q u a r t e r l y Review o f P s y c h i a t r y and N e u r o l o g y - D e v e l o p m e n t a l M e d i c i n e and C h i l d N e u r o l o g y P e d i a t r i c s A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Home E c o n o m i c s C o n t e m p o r a r y P s y c h o l o g y L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y F o r e i g n Language A n n a l s R e a d i n g and I n q u i r y A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g B e h a v i o r A n n u a l Review o f P s y c h o l o g y T e a c h e r s W o r l d G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y Monographs E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P i t t s b u r g h S c h o o l s A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O p t o m e t r y and A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n Academy o f O p t o m e t r y J o u r n a l o f N e u r o s u r g e r y C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l The F l o r i d a R e p o r t e r J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 87 .68 87.90 88.13 88 . 36 88.59 88.82 89 .05 89.27 89 .50 89 .73 89 .96 90.07 90.19 90 . 30 90 .42 90 .53 90.64 90.76 90.87 90.99 91. 91, 91, 91. 91, 91, 91, 91 92 10 21 33 44 55 67 79 90 02 92.13 92, 92, 92 92 92 24 36 47 59 70 114 TABLE XXV continued Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage Electroencephalography and C l i n i c a l Neurophysiology 1 92.81 P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y Reports 1 92.93 American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 1 93.04 J o u r n a l of Psychosomatic Research 1 9 3.16- ASHA: J o u r n a l of the American Speech and Hearing A s s o c i a t i o n 1 93.27 Language and Speech 1 9 3.38 A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research i n Nervous and Mental Disease 1 93.50 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review of Education 1 93.61 Educati o n D i g e s t 1 93.73 P e r c e p t i o n and Psychophysics 1 9 3.84 American J o u r n a l of D i s o r d e r s i n C h i l d r e n 1 9 3.95 J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology 1 94.07 C o l l e g e E n g l i s h 1 94.18 Mental Hygiene 1 94.30 The Urban Review 1 94.41 J o u r n a l of Comparative and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Psychology 1 94.53 Experimental Neurology 1 9 4.64 Psychology i n the Schools 1 9 4.75 American J o u r n a l of P u b l i c Health 1 94.87 J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Psychology 1 9 4.98 A r c h i v e s of Opthalmology 1 95.10 J o u r n a l of the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n 1 95.21 Sociology, of Education 1 9 5.32 IDEA Reporter 1 9 5.44 E d u c a t i o n a l Review 1 9 5.55 Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l 1 9 5.67 American J o u r n a l of Diseases of C h i l d r e n 1 95.78 J o u r n a l of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and P s y c h i a t r y • 1 95.89 B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l 1 96.01 New Zealand J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Studies 1 9 6.12 The Nervous C h i l d 1 96.24 Grade Teacher 1 96.35 Elementary E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 1 96.46 Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n 1 96.58 115 TABLE XXV c o n t i n u e d J o u r n a l Number o f C i t a t i o n s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e A n n a l s o f O t o l o g y , R h i n o l o g y , and L a r y n g o l o g y J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y B a r n a r d ' s J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n Modern E d u c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s I l l i n o i s E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r P s y c h o a n a l y t i c S t u d y o f t h e C h i l d A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y D e n v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s I n s t r u c t i o n News J o u r n a l o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n UNESCO, E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s and Documents J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h and De v e l o p m e n t i n E d u c a t i o n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f Negro E d u c a t i o n A r c h i v e s o f D i s e a s e i n C h i l d h o o d J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l C a t h o l i c E d u c a t i o n a l Review Review of. A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y A u d i o V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n Review The R e c o r d C o m p r e h e n s i v e P s y c h i a t r y S c h o o l and Community A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y C a r n e g i e Q u a r t e r l y B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 1 96.69 1 96.81 1 96 .92 1 97 .03 1 97.15 1 97.26 1 97.38 1 97.49 1 97 .60 1 97.72 1 97 .83 1 97.95 1 98.06 1 98.17 1 98.29 1 98.40 1 98.52 1 98.63 1 98.74 1 98 .86 1 98.97 1 99.09 1 99.20 1 99.31 1 99.43 1 99.54 1 99 .66 1 99.77 1 99 .88 1 100.00 116 TABLE XXVI J o u r n a l s by Number of C i t a t i o n s Received from The Reading Teacher i n Volumes 26 through 30 J o u r n a l Number of C i t a t i o n s Cumulative Percentage The Reading Teacher Elementary E n g l i s h Elementary School J o u r n a l Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. J o u r n a l of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s J o u r n a l of Reading J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l Behavior C h i l d Development P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review Ph i D e l t a Kappan Educati o n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l Psychology, i n the Schools Childhood E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology N a t i o n a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l American P s y c h o l o g i s t J o u r n a l o f Reading Behavior E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l of Experimental E d u c a t i o n B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology L i b r a r y J o u r n a l American J o u r n a l of Mental D e f i c i e n c y E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement Young C h i l d r e n C o l l e g e E n g l i s h American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership 168 16 .67 81 24.71 66 31.26 57 36 .91 42 41.08 35 44.55 29 47.43• 28 50 .21 19 52.09 15 53.58 15 55.07 13 56 . 36 11 57.45 11 58.55 10 59.54 10 60.53 10 61.53 10 62.52 10 63.51 9 64.40 9 65.30 8 66.09 8 66 .89 8 67.68 8 68.47 7 69.16 7 69 . 86 7 70.55 7 71.25 7 71.94 6 72.54 6 73.13 6 73.73' 6 74.32 6 74.92 117 TABLE XXVI continued J o u r n a l Number of C i t a t i o n s Cumulative Percentage J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology School and S o c i e t y J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading Developmental Psychology Grade Teacher J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n Speech Teacher Psychometrika E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n J o u r n a l of Genetic Psychology School Review J o u r n a l of the Reading S p e c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n D i g e s t Teachers C o l l e g e Record Human R e l a t i o n s Academic Therapy Q u a r t e r l y Peabody-Journal of Education J o u r n a l o f School Psychology J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of Comparative and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Psychology Psychonomic Science i J o u r n a l of Experimental Psychology J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l Education J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s , J o u r n a l of Speech and Hearing D i s o r d e r s P u b l i c Opinion Q u a r t e r l y A r i t h m e t i c Teacher I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Psychology Today's E d u c a t i o n M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y F l o r i d a Reading Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y Reading Improvement 5 75.42 5 75.91 5 76 .41 5 76 .90 5 77.40 5 77.90 4 78 . 30 4 78.69 4 79 .09 4 79 .49 4 79 . 88 4 80.28 4 80.68 4 81.07 3 81. 37 3 81.67 3 81.96 3 82.26 3 82 .56 3 82.86 3 83.15 3 83.45 3 83.75 3 84.05 3 84.35 3 84.65 3 84.94 2 85.14 2 85. 34 2 85.54 2 85.73 2 85.93 2 86 .13 2 86.33 2 86 .53 118 TABLE XXVI c o n t i n u e d Number o f C u m u l a t i v e J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s P e r c e n t a g e B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n 2 86 .73 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement 2 86 .92 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e 2 87.12 R e a d i n g N e w s r e p o r t 2 87.32 E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review 2 87.52 J o u r n a l o f N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e 2 87.72 A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y 2 87 .92 I m p r o v i n g Human P e r f o r m a n c e 2 88.11 E v a l u a t i o n Comment 2 88.31 J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y 2 88.51 Word 2 88.71 J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 2 88.91 S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n 2 89 .11 S c i e n c e and C h i l d r e n 2 89.30 T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e J o u r n a l . 2 89 .50 R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h 2 89 .70 Language and Speech 1 89.80 B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 1 89 .90 J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n 1 90.00 A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n 1 90 .10 P e d i a t r i c C l i n i c s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a 1 90 .20 E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 1 90 . 30 J o u r n a l o f Human R e s o u r c e 1 90.39 The J o u r n a l o f N u r s e r y E d u c a t i o n 1 90.49 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 1 90 .59 A p p a l a c h i a 1 90.69 J o u r n a l f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t o r s o f t h e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d 1- 90 .79 Advancement o f S c i e n c e 1 90 . 89 P s y c h o a n a l y t i c S t u d y o f t h e C h i l d 1 90.99 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e and C o u n s e l i n g 1 91.09 J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s 1 91.19 The C h r o n i c l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 1 91.29 J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 1 91.39 C o n t e m p o r a r y P s y c h o l o g y 1 91.49 J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y 1 91.58 119 TABLE XXVI c o n t i n u e d Number o f C u m u l a t i v e J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s P e r c e n t a g e A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 1 91.68 P h y s i c a l T h e r a p y 1 91.78 Der S p i e g e l 1 91.88 J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c O p h t h a l m o l o g y 1 91.98 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n E d u c a t i o n 1 92.08 L i b r a r y T r e n d s 1 9 2.18 A u d i o - V i s u a l I n s t r u c t o r 1 92.28 I l l i n o i s S c h o o l R e s e a r c h 1 92.38 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f D i s e a s e s o f C h i l d r e n 1 92.48 R e a d i n g 1 92.58 F o c u s on E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 1 9 2.68 J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y - 1 92.78 S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s 1 92.87 J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s 1 92.97 C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h D i g e s t 1 93.'07 J o u r n a l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s 1 93.17 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y 1 9 3.27 O h i o S c h o o l s 1 93.37 E d u c a t i o n a l H o r i z o n s 1 9 3.47 J o u r n a l o f F l o r i d a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 1 9 3.57 The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 1 9 3.67 New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 1 9 3.77 A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y 1 9 3.87 I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i o l o g y o f Language 1 93.97 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h 1 94.07 R e a d i n g Forum 1 94.16 E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h J o u r n a l 1 94.26 J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g 1 94.36 S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n 1 94.46 J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h 1 94.56 C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y 1 94.66 J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n S p e e c h and H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n 1 94.76 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y ' 1 94.86 P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l 1 94.96 E d u c a t i o n (New Z e a l a n d ) 1 95.06 120 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage J o u r n a l of Negro Educat i o n 1 95 .16 Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r K i n d e r p s y c h i a t r i e 1 95 .26 Mathematics i n Michigan 1 95 . 35 B e h a v i o r a l Science 1 95 .45 J o u r n a l of American F o l k l o r e 1 95 .55 Scandinavian J o u r n a l of Psychology 1 95 .65 P e r c e p t i o n and Psychophysics 1 95 .75 E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d 1 95 .85 J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r i c Research 1 95 .95 The Mathematics Teacher 1 96 .05 Language A r t s 1 96 .15 Daedalus 1 96 .25 J o u r n a l of Communication 1 96 .35 Teaching E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 1 96 .45 P h i l o s o p h i c a l S t u d i e s 1 96 .55 E d u c a t i o n a l Technology 1 96 .64 J o u r n a l of General Psychology 1 96 .74 V o c a t i o n a l Aspect of E d u c a t i o n 1 96 .84 Ohio Reading Teacher 1 96 .94 A u d i o v i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n 1 97 .04 J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r a l A n a l y s i s 1 97 .14 Science 1 97 .24 Paedogogisch Forum 1 97 .34 E n g l i s h Record 1 97 .44 J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues 1 97 . 54 T r a n s a c t i o n 1 97 .64 J o u r n a l of the American Optometric A s s o c i a t i o n 1 97 .74 Current M e d i c a l D i g e s t 1 97 .83 J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s 1 97 .93 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 1 98 .03 Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l 1 98 .13 Duke U n i v e r s i t y Research Studies i n Education 1 98 .23 J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology 1 98 . 33 A "I Viewpoints 1 98 . 4 3 L e a r n i n g 1 98 .53 121 TABLE XXVI continued Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage E d u c a t i o n a l Record 1 98.63 Personnel Psychology 1 98.73 Reading World 1 9 8.83 Language Learning 1 9 8.93 Developmental Medicine and C h i l d Neurology, 1 99.03 Measurement i n E d u c a t i o n 1 99.12 The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y 1 99.22 J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n 1 99.32 E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 1 99.42 The Elementary E n g l i s h Review 1 99.52 The School L i b r a r i a n and School L i b r a r y Review 1 99.62 Research i n E d u c a t i o n 1 9 9.72 Today's Speech 1 99.82 Tennessee E d u c a t i o n 1 99.92 The S c h o l a s t i c Teacher 1 100.00 122 TABLE XXVII J o u r n a l s by Number o f C i t a t i o n s R e c e i v e d f r o m The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r i n Volumes 21 t h r o u g h 30 Number o f C u m u l a t i v e J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s P e r c e n t a g e The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g C h i l d Development. J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review P h i D e l t a Kappan E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h Review N a t i o n a l E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y S c h o o l Review P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s E n g l i s h J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p 352 18.67 160 27.16 124 33.74 89 38.46 74 42.39 73- 46 .26 49 48.86 43 51.14 37 53.10 34 54.90 26 56.28 23 57.50 23 5 8.72 21 59.83 20 60 . 89 18 61.84 18 62 .79 17 63.69 15 64.49 14 65.23 13 65.92 13 66 .61 12 67.25 12. 67.88 12 68.52 12 69 .16 12 69.79 11 70.37 11 70.96 11 71.54 10 72.07 10 72.60 10 73.13 10 73.66 9 74.14 123 TABLE XXVII continued J o u r n a l Number of C i t a t i o n s Cumulative Percentage J o u r n a l of Reading Behavior 9 74.61 J o u r n a l o f Educat i o n 9 75.09 Teachers C o l l e g e Record 8 75.51 Jo u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y 8 75.94 B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology 8 76.36 J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading 8 76 .79 School and S o c i e t y 7 77.16 L i b r a r y J o u r n a l 7 77.53 E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and 77.90 S u p e r v i s i o n 7 J o u r n a l of Psychology 7 78.28 C o l l e g e E n g l i s h 7 78.65 J o u r n a l of the Reading S p e c i a l i s t 7 79 .02 Young C h i l d r e n 6 79 . 34 Grade Teacher 6 79.66 Peabody. J o u r n a l o f Educat i o n 6 79.97 J o u r n a l of Experimental Psychology 6 80 .29 J o u r n a l of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 6 80.61 Psychometrika 6 80.93 Developmental Psychology 5 81.20 J o u r n a l o f Communication 5 81.46 Research i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h 5 81.73 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 5 81.99 Education D i g e s t 5 82 .26 J o u r n a l o f School Psychology 5 82.52 P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s 5 82.79 J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement 5 83.05 J o u r n a l of Speech and Hearing D i s o r d e r s 5 83.32 Academic Therapy Q u a r t e r l y 4 83.53 J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology 4 83.74 Boston U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l o f Educat i o n 4 83.96 Reading Newsreport 4 84.17 Today's Ed u c a t i o n 4 84.38 I n s t r u c t o r 4 84 .59 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 4 84.81 J o u r n a l of Teacher Education 4 85.02 ) 124 TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d J o u r n a l Number o f C i t a t i o n s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e S i g h t - S a v i n g Review 4 85. ,23 J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r a t i v e and P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y 4 85. ,44 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e 4 85. ,65 O n t a r i o J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 4 85. ,87 S peech T e a c h e r 4 86 . ,08 T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e J o u r n a l 4 86 . ,29 J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 4 86 . ,50 J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y 3 86 . ,66 B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e 3 86 . ,82 Modern Language J o u r n a l 3 86. ,98 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y 3 87. ,14 I l l i n o i s S c h o o l R e s e a r c h 3. 87 . ,30 S c i e n c e 3 87. ,45 P s y c h o n o m i c S c i e n c e 3 87. ,61 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O p t o m e t r y 3 87. ,77 J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y 3 87. .93 A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 3 88 . .09 P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y 3 88, .25 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 3 88, .41 J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y 3 88 , .57 Human R e l a t i o n s 3 88, .73 F l o r i d a R e a d i n g Q u a r t e r l y 2 88 , .84 Language 2 88, .94 Word 2 89 , .05 J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s 2 89 , .15 C o n t e m p o r a r y P s y c h o l o g y 2 89, .26 P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l 2 89 . 37 A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y 2 89 .47 E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 2 89 .58 New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 2 89 .68 The C l e a r i n g House 2 89 .79 J o u r n a l o f Programmed R e a d i n g 2 89 .90 A r c h i v e s o f N e u r o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y 2 90 .00 P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n 2 90 .10 A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n 2 90 .22 125 TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d J o u r n a l Number o f C i t a t i o n s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h J o u r n a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y J o u r n a l J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y A r i t h m e t i c T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h I m p r o v i n g Human P e r f o r m a n c e D e v e l o p m e n t a l M e d i c i n e and C h i l d N e u r o l o g y N a t i o n s S c h o o l s S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e E v a l u a t i o n Comment R e a d i n g Improvement A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f D i s e a s e s o f C h i l d r e n J o u r n a l o f Ne g r o E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r J o u r n a l o f T y p o g r a p h i c R e s e a r c h S c i e n c e and C h i l d r e n P s y c h o a n a l y t i c S t u d y o f t h e C h i l d A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y Language and S p e e c h S o v i e t E d u c a t i o n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y P h y s i c a l T h e r a p y Advancement o f S c i e n c e J o u r n a l o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e and C o u n s e l i n g M a t h e m a t i c s i n M i c h i g a n The F l o r i d a R e p o r t e r J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y and Q u a r t e r l y Review o f P s y c h i a t r y and N e u r o l o g y ASHA: J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n S p e e c h and H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n R e a d i n g 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 90.32 90.43 90 .54 90 .64 90.75 90 .85 90 .96 91.07 91.17 91.28 91. 91. 91. 91, 91, 91, 92, 92, 92, 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 38 49 60 70 81 92 02 13 23 34 92.45 92.55 92.66 92.76 92.81 ,87 ,92 ,97 ,03 ,08 ,13 ,18 1 1 93.24 93.29 93.34 126 TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d J o u r n a l Number o f C i t a t i o n s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f D i s o r d e r s i n C h i l d r e n 1 9 3.40 J o u r n a l o f F l o r i d a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 1 93.45 E d u c a t i o n (New Z e a l a n d ) 1 9 3.50 J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h 1 9 3.56 A s s o c i a t i o n f o r R e s e a r c h i n N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e 1 9 3.61 J o u r n a l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s 1 9 3.66 C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y 1 9 3.71 P a e d a g o g i s c h Forum 1 9 3.77 A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O p t o m e t r y and A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n Academy o f O p t o m e t r y 1 9 3.82 J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c R e s e a r c h 1 9 3.87 F o r e i g n Language A n n a l s 1 9 3.93 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l 1 9 3.98 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n E d u c a t i o n 1 94.03 G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y Monographs 1 94.09 A n n u a l Review o f P s y c h o l o g y 1 94.14 Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n 1 9 4.19 A m e r i c a n S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 1 94.25 J o u r n a l o f N e u r o s u r g e r y 1 9 4.30 E d u c a t i o n a l H o r i z o n s 1 94.35 J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s 1 9 4.40 T e a c h i n g E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 1 94.46 J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y 1 94.51 B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 1 94.56 P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l 1 9 4.62 A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 1 94.67 J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g 1 94.72 E l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h y , and C l i n i c a l N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y 1 94.78 L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 1 94.83 The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 1 9 4.88 I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i o l o g y o f Language 1 9 4.94 TABLE XXVII continued Number of Cumulative J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s Percentage Barnard's J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n 1 94.99 Reading Forum 1 9 5.04 Annals o f Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 1 9 5.09 J o u r n a l of Home Economics 1 95.15 Duke U n i v e r s i t y Research Studies i n E d u c a t i o n 1 95.20 J o u r n a l of the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n 1 95.25 School and Community 1 95.31 J o u r n a l of American Speech and Hearing A s s o c i a t i o n 1 95.36 Daedalus 1 9 5.41 P e d i a t r i c C l i n i c s o f North America 1 95.47 Z e i t s c h r i f t Fur K i n d e r p s y c h i a t r i e 1 95.52 J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology 1 95.58 Experimental Neurology 1 9 5.62 Ohio Reading Teacher 1 9 5.68 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 1 95.73 IDEA Reporter 1 9 5.78 A r c h i v e s of General Psychology 1 95.84 P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y Reports 1 95.89 The Mathematics Teacher 1 95.94 J o u r n a l of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and P s y c h i a t r y 1 96.00 E d u c a t i o n a l Review 1 96.05 Language A r t s 1 96.10 Research i n E d u c a t i o n 1 96.16 J o u r n a l of American Indian Education 1 96.21 C a t h o l i c E d u c a t i o n a l Review 1 96.26 P h i l o s o p h i c a l S t u d i e s 1 96.31 V o c a t i o n a l Aspect of E d u c a t i o n 1 9 6.37 J o u r n a l of Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s 1 96.42 E n g l i s h Record 1 96.47 Mental Hygiene 1 96.53 The Elementary E n g l i s h Review 1 96.58 J o u r n a l of American F o l k l o r e 1 96.63 A u d i o v i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n 1 96.69 Reading and I n q u i r y 1 96.74 T r a n s a c t i o n 1 96.79 128 TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d Number o f C u m u l a t i v e J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s P e r c e n t a g e J o u r n a l o f Human R e s o u r c e 1 96 . 84 Der S p i e g e l 1 96. 90 J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n O p t o m e t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n 1 96. 95 S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s 1 97 . 00 J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r a l A n a l y s i s 1 97. 06 C o m p r e h e n s i v e P s y c h i a t r y 1 97. 11 O h i o S c h o o l s 1 97 . 16 V i e w p o i n t s 1 97 . 22 J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r i c R e s e a r c h 1 97 . 27 F o c u s on E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n 1 97. ,32 Modern E d u c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s 1 97. , 38 S o c i o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n 1 97 . ,43 I l l i n o i s E d u c a t i o n 1 97 . ,48 A r c h i v e s o f D i s e a s e i n C h i l d h o o d 1 97. ,53 P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 97. ,59 The J o u r n a l o f N u r s e r y E d u c a t i o n 1 97. ,6 4 J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c O p h t h a l m o l o g y 1 97 , .69 E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d 1 97 . .75 L anguage L e a r n i n g 1 97 . .80 S c a n d i n a v i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 1 97 , . 85 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f E d u c a t i o n 1 97, .91 C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h D i g e s t 1 97, .96 P e d i a t r i c s 1 98 , .01 V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y 1 98 , .07 J o u r n a l , o f S o c i a l I s s u e s 1 98 .12 E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d 1 98 .17 L e a r n i n g 1 98 .22 T e a c h e r s W o r l d 1 98 .28 J o u r n a l f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t o r s o f t h e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d 1 98 . 33 A u d i o - V i s u a l I n s t r u c t o r 1 98 . 38 P i t t s b u r g h S c h o o l s 1 98 .44 The S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n and S c h o o l L i b r a r y Review 1 98 .49 J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 1 98 . 54 E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y 1 98 .60 Measurement i n E d u c a t i o n 1 98 .65 129 TABLE XXVII c o n t i n u e d Number o f C u m u l a t i v e J o u r n a l C i t a t i o n s P e r c e n t a g e S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s 1 9 8.70 J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y 1 9 8.75 C u r r e n t M e d i c a l D i g e s t 1 9 8.81 L i b r a r y T r e n d s 1 98.86 The R e c o r d 1 9 8.91 J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t i n E d u c a t i o n 1 9 8.97 G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s 1 99.02 The C h r o n i c l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 1 99.07 A r c h i v e s o f O p t h a l m o l o g y 1 99.13 T o d a y ' s S p e e c h 1 99.18 C a r n e g i e Q u a r t e r l y ' 1 99.23 R e a d i n g W o r l d 1 99.29 A u d i o V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n Review 1 99.34 The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l 1 99.39 Den v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s I n s t r u c t i o n News 1 99.44 T e n n e s s e e E d u c a t i o n 1 99.50 A p p a l a c h i a 1 99.55 The S c h o l a s t i c T e a c h e r 1 99.60 B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l 1 99.66 Review o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 1 9 9.71 A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y 1 9 9.76 The N e r v o u s C h i l d 1 99.82 UNESCO, E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s and Documents 1 99.87 The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y 1 99.92 The U r b a n Review 1 100.00

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