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Upon Thy holy hill : a history geography of the early vernacular church architecture of the southern… Sommer, Warren Frederick 1977

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UPON THY HOLY HILL: A HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE EARLY VERNACULAR CHURCH ARCHITECTURE OF THE SOUTHERN INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by WARREN FREDERICK SOMMER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 © W a r r e n F r e d e r i c k Sommer, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . r Department o f Geography The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 25. 1977 i ABSTRACT This thesis i s an examination of the early vernacular church architecture of the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Co-lumbia. The thesis addresses several main tasks, examining the location, form, o r i g i n s , and i n t r i n s i c meaning of early r u r a l churches. After an introductory statement discussing purpose, t h e o r e t i c a l foundations, and methods, the study i d e n t i f i e s the agents of organised r e l i g i o n i n early B r i t -i s h Columbia, examining their backgrounds, b e l i e f s , aims, and achievements. This i n i t i a l section concludes by dis-cussing the geography of denominational strengths that emerged i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a r e s u l t of inteer-denominational r i v a l -r i e s . The thesis then considers the theme of church construc-tion. Dates and places of church construction are i d e n t i f i e d and regional and temporal patterns are explained as functions of denominational geographies of strength, as well as of the the province's history of settlement and economic development. This section i l l u s t r a t e s the province's transmogrification i n the 1890's from a realm primarily of Indian churches to one i n which European churches predominated. The next section of the thesis describes and c l a s s i f i e s the v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the southern i n t e r i o r ' s churches; temporally and regional-l y and according to denomination. Subsequent chapters i d e n t i f y the i d e o l o g i c a l , techno-logical, and s t y l i s t i c forces that diffused from Europe and eastern Canada to mould the early churches of British Colum-bia. Concern focuses on the issue on innovation and tradi-tion in the frontier setting. The thesis concludes with a discussion of church and society in the pioneer province. The chapter includes an assessment of the role played by organised religion in the lives of early British Columbians. It discusses the image of the church (both as building and as institution) and concludes by comparing, events in Brit-ish Columbia with those of the wider world. The study suggests that the early churches of the southern interior were among the province's most conserva-tive buildings. The churches of the area were generally built according to the l i t u r g i c a l and a r t i s t i c traditions of Europe and eastern Canada. Evangelicalism, Tractarian-ism, the Catholic Revival, and neo-Mediaevalism largely influenced their form. With few exceptions, pioneer churches responded only slightly to the altered conditions of frontier l i f e . For the most part, early settlers longed to recreate the church architecture and religious l i f e they had known in their homelands. In frontier British Columbia, building dimensions might be reduced, floor-plans might be simplified, superfluous embellishments might be discarded, and unessen-t i a l furnishings might be temporarily discarded, but build-ers generally strove to retain as much architectural authen-t i c i t y as conditions permitted. At the same time, however, the province's builders were quick to master the t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s of the North American f r o n t i e r . Churches were b u i l t not w i t h the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l l o g and stone t e c h n o l o g i e s o f Europe and e a s t -ern Canada, but w i t h i n d u s t r i a l l y - p r o d u c e d m a t e r i a l s and modern t e c h n o l o g i e s . Although much of the southern i n t e r i o r long remained w i l d e r n e s s , i t must be borne i n mind t h a t the area was s e t t l e d d u r i n g an i n d u s t r i a l i s i n g age. Most o f the p r o v i n c e ' s lumber and other b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s were mass-produced i n f a c t o r i e s and m i l l s (though c r a f t was not e n t i r e l y dormant). F u r t h e r , though B r i t i s h Columbia was a d i s t a n t and not a l t o g e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t component of a f a r -f l u n g empire, she was a t no time severed from the i n f l u e n c e s of the wider world. E f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communica-t i o n systems f a c i l i t a t e d the f l o w o f goods and ideas from San F r a n c i s c o , Montreal, London, and P a r i s . Although the r o l e , dogmas, and s t a t u r e of o r g a n i s e d r e l i g i o n and the form and arrangement o f churches remained t r a d i t i o n a l , the tech-nology through which churches were b u i l t and f u r n i s h e d was very o f t e n f u l l y modern. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 INTRODUCTORY 2 2 INTER-DENOMINATIONAL RELATIONS 10 The E a r l i e s t Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y . i o C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n : The Work of the Oblates o f Mary Immaculate. 14 The I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y - 1858. 28 P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n s to the European P o p u l a t i o n : 1858-1890. 35 I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R i v a l r y : The Emergence of Denominational Geographies: 1858-1890. 37 I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s : 1890-1925, T e r r i t o r i a l C o n s o l i d a t i o n . 47 3 THE GEOGRAPHY OF CHURCH CONSTRUCTION 57 I n t r o d u c t o r y . 57 A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1858-1880. 58 Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1881-1890. 54 Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1891-1900. 68 Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1901-1910. 77 Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1911-1925. 82 CHAPTER v PAGE 4 THE CHURCH A R C H I T E C T U R E OF THE SOUTHERN I N T E R I O R : FORM AND STRUCTURE 90 I n t r o d u c t o r y . 90 Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e . 90 M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e . 120 P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e . 129 A n g l i c a n C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e . 136 5 E X P L A N A T I O N OF B U I L T FORMS: EUROPEAN AND E A S T E R N NORTH AMERICAN BACKGROUND 158 R e l i g i o u s R e v i v a l : T h e F o u n d i n g o f D o c t r i n a l a n d L i t u r g i c a l T r a d i t i o n s i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . 160 T h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l S e t t i n g o f R e f o r m e d L i t u r g i e s . 166 Roman C a t h o l i c W o r s h i p a n d A r c h i t e c t u r e . 167 M e t h o d i s t W o r s h i p a n d A r c h i t e c t u r e . 170 A n g l i c a n W o r s h i p a n d A r c h i t e c t u r e . 173 T h e T e c h n o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t : I n d u s t r i a l I n n o v a t i o n a n d t h e R e - e m e r g e n c e o f C r a f t . 181 A r c h i t e c t u r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s . 188 P r e - f a b r i c a t i o n . 197 T h e B a l l o o n F r a m e a n d o t h e r T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n n o v a t i o n s . 199 6 E X P L A N A T I O N OF B U I L T FORMS: THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIAN CONTEXT 202 T h e F r o n t i e r S o c i a l a n d M a t e r i a l E n v i r o n m e n t . 202 P l a n . 205 F a c a d e s : D e t a i l a n d M a s s i n g . 219 v i CHAPTER PAGE Building Materials and Construction Technology . 242 Interiors: Decoration, Arrangement, and Furnishings. 252 7 CHURCH AND SOCIETY IN EARLY BRITISH COLUMBIA 281 ABBREVIATIONS 293 FOOTNOTES , 294 BIBLIOGRAPHY , 3 5 2 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Strength of B r i t i s h Columbia's Four Main Denominations: 1891-1921. 51 2 Floorplan of a Hypothetical Crude Indian Chapel. 95 3 Floorplan of a Hypothetical Oblate Town or Mission Church. 95 4 Floorplan of Mount Ida Methodist Church. 122 5 Probable Floorplan of Salmon Arm Methodist Church. 122 6 Floorplan of Notch H i l l Methodist Church. 123 7 Floorplan of New Denver Methodist Church. 123 8 Floorplan of Me r r i t t Presbyterian Church. 131 9 Floorplan of Benvoulin Presbyterian Church. 131 10 Floorplan of the Anglican Mission Church at 137 Shulus. 11 Floorplan of the Anglican Church at Hope. I37 v i i i L I S T OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1 Indian Tribes of B r i t i s h Columbia. 11 2 Main Central Missions i n the Southern Int e r i o r . 21 3 P r i n c i p a l Indian V i l l a g e s i n the Southern Interior.. 25 4 B r i t i s h Columbian Indian Churches i n 1916. 65 5 White Church Construction: 1858-1890. 67 6 White Church Construction: 1891-1900. 76 7 White Church Construction: 1901-1910. 81 8 White Church Construction: 1911-1925. 85 i x LIST OF PLATES PLATE PAGE 1 Upon Thy Holy H i l l ( F r o n t i s p i e c e ) 1 2 Crude I n d i a n Chapel a t Shuswap 97 3 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Enderby 97 4 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t P a v i l i o n 100 5 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t N e c a i t 100 6 I n t e r i o r , Oblate Church a t N e c a i t 101 7 I n t e r i o r , Oblate Church a t Mt. C u r r i e 101 8 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Lower Kootenay 104 9 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Columbia Lake 105 10 I n t e r i o r , Oblate Church a t F o r t S t e e l e 106 11 Oblate Church a t Kelowna 108 12 Oblate M i s s i o n Church at Chuchuweyha 108 13 I n t e r i o r , Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Inkaneep 109 14 Discarded A l t a r a t P e n t i c t o n I n d i a n Church 109 15 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Qua'aout 111 16 Oblate M i s s i o n Church at N e s k a i n l i t h 111 17 I n t e r i o r , Oblate Church a t Bonaparte 112 18 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Bonaparte 112 19 I n t e r i o r , Oblate M i s s i o n Church at Qua'aout 113 20 Oblate M i s s i o n Church a t Shulus 113 21 Reunion Centre Church a t Kamloops 116 22 Reunion Centre Church a t St, Eugene 116 X PLATE PAGE 23 P a r o c h i a l C a t h o l i c Church a t P r o c t e r 119 24 P a r o c h i a l C a t h o l i c Church at Notch H i l l 119 25 Notch H i l l Methodist Church 124 26 Mount Ida Methodist Church 124 27 Kaslo P r e s b y t e r i a n Church 133 28 P r i n c e t o n P r e s b y t e r i a n Church 133 29 A n g l i c a n M i s s i o n Church a t Shakkan 139 30 A n g l i c a n Church a t Enderby 139 31 A n g l i c a n Church at Okanagan M i s s i o n 142 32 A n g l i c a n Church a t Sunmierland 142 33 I n t e r i o r of A n g l i c a n Church at Sorrento 152 34 I n t e r i o r , C e n t r a l A n g l i c a n M i s s i o n Church, L y t t o n 152 35 The A n g l i c a n Church Before E c c l e s i o l o g y 177 36 Cartoon from Punch, 1851 179 37 P l a t e from Pugin's Apology 179 38 T i t l e Page from Church and Chapel A r c h i t e c t u r e 195 39 A "Canterbury C a t h e d r a l " 195 40 The E c c l e s i o l o g i c a l P l a n 208 41 P l a n f o r an American g a l l e r i e d Meeting House 208 42 Church of St. M i c h a e l , Long Stanton 225 43 St. Mary's A n g l i c a n Church, Sapperton 225 44 St. P e t e r ' s Oblate Church, New Westminster 231 45 St. Mary's Oblate M i s s i o n 231 46 Design No. 103A, Benjamin P r i c e 239 47 Salmon Arm Methodist Church 239 x i PLATE PAGE 48 Richmond Methodist Church (Minoru Chapel) 240 49 Design 109, Benjamin P r i c e 241 50 A l t a r i n Oblate Church at Enderby 2 6 9 51 Stone Font i n A n g l i c a n Church a t Y a l e 271 52 Brass Eagle L e c t e r n a t Summerland 272 53 Designs f o r L e c t e r n s by Jones and W i l l i s 273 54 Wooden Font i n A n g l i c a n Church a t Mara 278 55 L e c t e r n , P u l p i t , and F a l d s t o o l at Hope 279 v. x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thi s t h e s i s owes much to the c o l l e c t i v e wisdom, en-couragement, and a s s i s t a n c e of many. I must f i r s t acknowledge the u n f l a g g i n g support of my f a m i l y , without whose help none of t h i s would have been p o s s i b l e . Secondly, I owe much to my a d v i s o r , Marwyn Samuels, and to my second reader, Cole H a r r i s . T h e i r endless p a t i e n c e and e n t h u s i a s t i c guidance i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I am a l s o indebted to my f e l l o w graduate students: Donna Cook, Deryck Holdsworth, Mary P h i l p o t , Angus Robertson, and Joan Schwartz. S p e c i a l thanks go to Dave Cook, Dick Lower, and W i l l i a m Driftwood f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t -ance . I a l s o extend my thanks to a l l those c l e r i c s , wardens, and p a r i s h i o n e r s , both white and Indian, who welcomed me i n t o t h e i r churches. S e v e r a l deserve s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n : Rev. C. Brown, Rev. Jim Dalton, Rev. E . J . Eagan, O.M.I., and Rev. Antho-ny Harding. R e c o g n i t i o n i s a l s o due M a r i l y n H a r r i s o n of the U n i t e d Church A r c h i v e s (B.C. Conference) and Rev. C.E.H. W i l l i a m s of the A n g l i c a n A r c h i v e s ( E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B.C. and the Yukon), both a t the Vancouver School of Theology. S e v e r a l of the s t a f f of the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s have a l s o helped much. F i n a l l y , I thank David of Bethlehem f o r my t i t l e and Archbishop Cranmer f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . 1 P l a t e 1. "Lord, who s h a l l dwell i n thy taber-n a c l e : or who s h a l l r e s t upon thy h o l y h i l l ? -Psalm 15 \ 2 C h a p t e r 1  I n t r o d u c t o r y . T h i s t h e s i s c o n s t i t u t e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f r u r a l . v e r n a c -u l a r c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e , a s i g n i f i c a n t component o f t h e r e l i c t c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e o f t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . The c h u r c h e s o f t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r a r e m a i n l y s i m p l e , b u t p i c t u r e s q u e wood-frame b u i l d i n g s . I n e a r l y B r i t i s h Colum-b i a c h u r c h e s were c e n t r a l t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The c h u r c h as s t r u c t u r e and as i n s t i t u t i o n f i l l e d b o t h r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r n e e d s i n i t s community. Few towns o r v i l l a g e s l a c k e d some s o r t o f c h u r c h , e v e n i f i t were o n l y p a r t o f a h a l l o r s c h o o l h o u s e . Many s e t t l e m e n t s h a d two o r t h r e e . Most I n d i a n v i l l a g e s h a d b u t one c h u r c h , g e n e r a l l y a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e v i l l a g e o r on a h i l l - t o p n e a r b y . To t h e c a s u a l o b s e r v e r , t h e c h u r c h e s o f t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r a r e among t h e p r o v i n c e ' s most a p p e a l i n g h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s . To t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s ( i f t h e y have any, f o r s e v e r a l c h u r c h e s h a v e a l l b u t b e e n a b a n d o n e d ) , t h e y a r e o f t e n b u i l d i n g s f r a u g h t w i t h memories and meaning. To t h e h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h e r , e a r l y v e r n a c u l a r c h u r c h e s a r e r e v e a l i n g s o c i a l documents. By s t u d y i n g them one c a n g a i n i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . I t i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s t h e s i s t o examine t h e e v o l u t i o n o f 3 the church architecture of the southern i n t e r i o r i n each of i t s major aspects: location, form, origins, and underlying meanings. P a r t i c u l a r attention w i l l focus on the transfer and adaption of derived (mainly European and eastern North American) l i t u r g i e s , tastes, and technologies. The study of r u r a l church buildings provides a par-t i c u l a r l y useful vehicle for the examination of relationships between immigrants and their new s o c i a l and material environ-ments. The church was a s o c i a l building: the product of the views of aggregates rather than of individuals. I t was a representative structure, r e f l e c t i n g the values (both active and f o s s i l i s e d ) , heritages, and ambitions of a whole community. The church was not imposed, but was rather, a structure co-incident with the b e l i e f s of i t s congregation. While one of several members i n the church community might at one time exert more influence than the others, co-operation and agree-ment between congregations, mission authorities, clergymen, and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l superiors was essential and seldom lacking. The church was a structure i n which a number of actors and forces competed and found resolution. B r i t i s h Columbia's early r u r a l churches developed i n response to i d e o l o g i c a l , technological, and environmental forces. Migrants into nineteenth century B r i t i s h Columbia were thrust into an awe-inspiring wilderness; into a vast, unfamiliar, and often h o s t i l e environment; into an e s s e n t i a l l y p r i s t i n e milieu. Much investigation of early North American buildings has seized upon this image of wilderness and has emphasised the 4 r o l e p l a y e d by environmental f o r c e s i n tempering t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . The s e t t l e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, however, were the o f f s p r i n g of an i n d u s t r i a l i s i n g age i n which l e a r n i n g and t e c h n o l o g i c a l power p r o l i f e r a t e d . T h e i r s was an age of i n c r e a s i n g mechanisation, mass p r o d u c t i o n , e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n . The age was one of i n t e l l e c t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , and s o c i a l upheaval. I t was a time of mass t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l m i g r a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l reform, and empire b u i l d i n g . The modern i n t e l l e c t u a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l context from which the s e t t l e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia emerged p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n shaping the r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g s of the p r o v i n c e . The chapters that f o l l o w w i l l suggest, as f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , the v a r i a b l e s t r e n g t h s of these f o r c e s - -a c r o s s space, through time, and between denominations. In answering the questions "why were the churches of the southern i n t e r i o r b u i l t where they were, what forms d i d they assume, and why d i d they assume those forms?," one does more than decipher b u i l d i n g p a t t e r n s . One a l s o gains i n s i g h t s i n t o the nature of an e a r l y immigrant s o c i e t y , i t s m a t e r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g , and i t s v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and a s p i r a t i o n s . The t h e s i s covers the years 1858-1925, a p e r i o d when most o f the southern i n t e r i o r was s e t t l e d and s u p p l i e d w i t h churches. The year 1925 i s a convenient t e r m i n a t i o n date, s i n c e i t r e p r e s e n t s the date of church union (when the r e -l a t i o n s of s e v e r a l denominations underwent n o t a b l e changes). F u r t h e r , most of the p r o v i n c e ' s " f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n " of churches were b u i l t by 1925. Only the f o u r main denominations of the 5 p r o v i n c e are c o n s i d e r e d (Anglicans, P r e s b y t e r i a n s , Roman C a t h o l i c s , and M e t h o d i s t s ) , f o r the impact of l e s s e r s e c t s was f a r too minor to warrant f u l l examination. The study emphasises the t e r r i t o r y l y i n g e a s t of the F r a s e r R i v e r to A l b e r t a , and south of the Thompson R i v e r to the American border. The area was chosen because i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l p h y s i o g r a p h i c , economic, and s o c i a l sub-regions (which might a f f e c t church a r c h i t e c t u r e ) , and because i t s r e l a t i v e l y compact s i z e l e n t i t s e l f to f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e f i e l d i n v e s t i -g ation, ( d u r i n g the summer of 1974 over 95% of the o l d s u r v i v i n g churches i n the area were v i s i t e d , photographed, and measured-- about 160 b u i l d i n g s . C o n s i d e r a b l e a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h f o l l o w e d ) . The c h a r a c t e r of immigrant s o c i e t y and settlements i s an important theme i n the study o f North American h i s t o r i c a l - c u l -t u r a l geography. Much work has concerned i t s e l f w i t h the le a v e n i n g e f f e c t s o f the new l a n d and o f new, a l t e r e d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . Questions of c u l t u r a l t r a n s f e r , of modernisation, and of adaption; and of consequent landscape e v o l u t i o n have been themes c e n t r a l to the s u b - d i s c i p l i n e . R u r a l v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s such as the church c o n s t i t u t e a set o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r a l d i s t i l l a t e s u s e f u l i n the examination o f such pro-cesses. S u r p r i s i n g l y , few geographers have examined churches i n t h i s l i g h t . Geographers have long r e a l i s e d t h a t r e l i c t c u l t u r a l landscape^ and v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r (the o r d i n -ary, humble s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t by the bulk o f the p o p u l a t i o n ) , 6 are major sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l geo-graphic s t u d i e s . An " i n t e r p r e t a b l e r e c o r d of h i s t o r i c a l events and c u l t u r a l processes i m p r i n t e d on the land,"''" v e r -n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e has commonly been examined from a man-land p e r s p e c t i v e ; as an element of landscape r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r p l a y of man and m i l i e u , as a f e a t u r e c o n t r i b u t o r y to the c h a r a c t e r of r e g i o n s . Thus, f o r example, there e x i s t s i n the g e o h i s t o i r e o f the French School a t r a d i t i o n o f sys-tematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l b u i l d i n g types. Studies by the French School t r e a t b u i l d i n g s as a r t i f a c t s of human -a c t i v i t y emerging w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l , temporal, and 2 s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . A s i m i l a r l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s i n Great 3 B r i t a i n . I n t e r e s t i n v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e has a l s o been expressed by geographers i n North America, most n o t a b l y by the Berkeley s c h o o l o f h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l geography, 4 and^by a group o f - s e t t l e m e n t morphologists i n the e a s t e r n U n i t e d States."' Essays by Sauer, K n i f f e n , and G l a s s i e have c a l l e d on h i s t o r i c a l geographers to r e c o g n i s e the c e n t r a l i t y of b u i l d i n g s to s t u d i e s of r e g i o n a l landscape h i s t o r y . D e s p i t e such p l e a s ( v o i c e d r e p e a t e d l y i n the 1940's, 1950's, and ^ J O 1960's), l i t t l e r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h was immediately forthcom-i n g , and the v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e of North America u n t i l r e c e n t l y remained a v i r t u a l l y untouched f i e l d . The s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n Canada, where u n t i l the e a r l y 1970's, n e i t h e r p o l i t e nor v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i -t e c t u r e had been s u b j e c t to much s c h o l a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As one writer reported the s i t u a t i o n i n 1972, the study of Canadian building " ( i s ) j u s t now reaching adolescence i n the p r o v i n c e s of Quebec and O n t a r i o , r e t a i n s i t s i n f a n c y i n the Maritimes, and s t i l l occupies the d e l i v e r y room out west." 7 Only i n the l a s t few years has the s i t u a t i o n begun to im-prove. S e v e r a l grand, though not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c i s i v e works have r e c e n t l y appeared on the popular market. P r i n c i p a l among o them are O n t a r i o Towns, R u r a l O n t a r i o , and the Barn. Two s t u d i e s o f r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e have j o i n e d them, Hallowed 9 Walls and Pioneer Churches. Of a l l these volumes, only Hallowed Walls has a s c h o l a r l y bent. Work by h i s t o r i c a l geographers has been l e s s voluminous, somewhat more low-keyed, and r a t h e r more a n a l y t i c . Important Canadian s t u d i e s i n c l u d e John Mannion's examination of I r i s h settlements i n e a s t e r n Canada and P e t e r Ennal's i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h century O n t a r i a n barns. Despite t h i s i n c r e a s e d r e s e a r c h , the s c h o l a r l y study of Canada's r e l i g i o u s v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e s t i l l remains a n e g l e c t e d f i e l d . Indeed, u n t i l r e c e n t l y few geographers anywhere have attempted to explore the i n t e r f a c e between t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and the study of r e l i g i o n . Sopher's survey i s perhaps pre-eminent i n a s p a r s e l y populated f i e l d , and work i n Landscape has been s e n s i t i v e , a l b e i t somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l . 1 " 1 " Y i - F u Tuan's T o p o p h i l i a c o n t a i n s some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r c h i t e c t u r e to r e l i g i o n , but does not thoroughly pursue the theme. This gap i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s not e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d . Many geographers have doubtless con-8 s i d e r e d churches p o l i t e r a t h e r than v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s . Humble p a r i s h churches, however, are e q u a l l y as v e r n a c u l a r as any barn, s t a b l e , or farmhouse. L i k e domestic and a g r i -c u l t u r a l b u i l d i n g s , v e r n a c u l a r churches are the humble pro-ducts of o r d i n a r y people, r e f l e c t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e needs, s k i l l s , and ambitions of t h e i r b u i l d e r s . They are s t r u c t u r e s worthy of geographic a n a l y s i s . For embryonic communities attempting e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the B r i t i s h Columbian w i l d e r n e s s i n the l a t t e r n i n e t e e n t h century, churches acted as r o o t i n g d e v i c e s . They were meaning-f u l s t r u c t u r e s about which people o r i e n t e d themselves. A church hearkened back to a p l a c e o f o r i g i n , p r o v i d i n g a sense of c o n t i n u i t y and s e c u r i t y . I t o f f e r e d s p a t i a l , temporal, and s o c i a l r o o t s ; g i v i n g p e r s p e c t i v e to the new l i f e i n the new la n d . -The church p r o v i d e d a haven of sacredness and e t e r n i t y i n an a s s y m e t r i c a l , u n f a m i l i a r , profane, and d i s -12 q u i e t i n g realm. At the same time,,however, i t underwent change. S e t t l e r s from a . v a r i e t y o f p l a c e s and adhering to a v a r i e t y of b e l i e f s migrated i n t o e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, met, exchanged ideas and elements o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , and u l t i -mately produced new landscape f u s i o n s of t h e i r own. Com-munities were upheaved, f r a c t u r e d , s c a t t e r e d , and j o i n e d t o -gether i n t o new u n i t i e s . Many s e t t l e r s l e a r n e d new technolo-g i e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s and r e c o n c i l e d themselves to the c o n s t r a i n t s of the new environment. The p r o v i n c e ' s e a r l y churches r e f l e c t these p r o c e s s e s . The a c t of t r a n s f e r i n t o a new s e t of m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s found r e s o l u t i o n i n 9 a l t e r e d landscape s t r u c t u r e s , i n t h i s case the r u r a l C h r i s t i a n p l a c e of worship. Before the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a b r i c of the e a r l y churches of the southern i n t e r i o r can be d i s c u s s e d , however, i t i s necessary to examine f i r s t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of de-nominational s t r e n g t h s and the geography of church c o n s t r u c -t i o n . The chapter t h a t f o l l o w s i d e n t i f i e s the main aims and a c t i v i t i e s o f the p r o v i n c e ' s f o u r major denominations, and suggests how i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s l e d to p e c u l i a r p a t t e r n s o f church c o n s t r u c t i o n . 10 Chapter 2 I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s The E a r l i e s t Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s f i r s t came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1789. Although two F r a n c i s c a n s had accompanied Juan Perez on h i s voyage of d i s c o v e r y i n 1774, none of the p a r t y set f o o t on land. 1" F i f t e e n years l a t e r , Don Estevan Jose Martinez, h i s two c h a p l a i n s , f o u r F r a n c i s c a n s , and a Spanish crew p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n mass at Nootka, and " p l a n t e d the cross w i t h 2 proper d e v o t i o n . " No evidence e x i s t s of a Spanish church b u i l d i n g at -Nootka. Though Howay c o u l d " s c a r c e l y conceive of Spain's form-i n g any s o r t of settlement and o m i t t i n g to p r o v i d e f o r the s p i r -i t u a l w e l f a r e o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , " two plans o f the g a r r i s o n sur-3 v i v e (1791, 1792), and n e i t h e r i n c l u d e s a church. The Spaniards may w e l l have e s t a b l i s h e d a s m a l l chapel i n p a r t of a b u i l d i n g , but there i s no d i r e c t evidence. The s h o r t - l i v e d Spanish p r e s -ence at Nootka (1789-1795) probably had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the r e l i g i o u s systems of adjacent n a t i v e Indians. Russian m i s s i o n a r y work (beginning a t S i t k a i n 1834) was c o n f i n e d to a r e s t r i c t e d p a r t of A l a s k a , but Russian Orthodox teachings d i f f u s e d to B r i t i s h Columbia at an e a r l y date. T h e i r impact was probably f e l t by the Tsimpsean and Haida t r i b e s . The T l i n g e t of A l a s k a undoubtedly p r o v i d e d the mechanism of t r a n s f e r , 12 c a r r y i n g Orthodox teachings to the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and the Skeena R i v e r system.^ At.the same time French-Canadian m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n what i s now the p r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , and Jesuit-work along the banks of the lower Columbia R i v e r , 7 probably i n f l u e n c e d nearby Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia's southern i n t e r i o r and lower c o a s t . While these e a r l y c o n t a c t s d i d not make C h r i s t i a n s of the n a t i v e s , they d i d c r e a t e a cur-r e n t of doubt i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e that l a t e r m i s s i o n a r i e s were o to s e i z e and b u i l d upon. The Roman C a t h o l i c e v a n g e l i s a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia be-gan i n earnest i n 1838, when two p r i e s t s from St. Boniface, Fathers Blanchet and Demers, journeyed o v e r l a n d to serve throughout the Columbia d i s t r i c t . The p r i e s t s found the n a t i v e s r e c e p t i v e to i n s t r u c t i o n . A f t e r a f o r t y - f i v e day campaign among the Indians of the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ( i n the summer of 1841), Demers d e c l a r e d that he had b a p t i s e d some 765 people, 350 of 9 these near the Hudson's Bay Company post at F o r t Langley. In the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g Demers began a second f o r a y i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia's southern i n t e r i o r , r e t u r n i n g to F o r t Vancouver a year l a t e r . Demers maintained that h i s m i s s i o n a r y venture had been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l . Although he lamented the moral c o n d i t i o n of the Indians ( " i t i s not to be wondered at i f they outdo even animals by the infamy of t h e i r conduct"),''"^ Demers had b a p t i s e d many. He had induced the Indians to b u i l d s m a l l , r u s t i c churches at F o r t A l e x a n d r i a , W i l l i a m s Lake, and F o r t Kamloops.''"''' T h i r t y years l a t e r , P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s would q u e s t i o n the thoroughness of these e a r l y conversions to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . 13 In 1861, A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y J . B.Good expressed r e g r e t that "some years ago a Romish p r i e s t . . . b a p t i s e d the c h i l d r e n by wholesale- taught the people a s o r t o f l i t u r g i c a l s e r v i c e and c o n s t i t u t e d an I n d i a n c h i e f - a s o r t of p r i e s t & set him over 12 them." S i m i l a r l y , h i s t o r i a n F. W. Howay doubted the v e r a -c i t y of Roman C a t h o l i c c l a i m s : "The successes of the e a r l y C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s as g i v e n by themselves are so sudden and so g r e a t t h a t a c e r t a i n degree of s u s p i c i o n of t h e i r r e a l i t y i s n a t -13 u r a l l y engendered." The p r i e s t p r e f e r r e d to b e l i e v e the b e s t of the Indians, b a p t i s i n g them a f t e r only a very few weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n . When the J e s u i t p r i e s t Joseph de Smet v i s i t e d the Indians o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1845 and a f t e r , he "encountered no a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e to h i s d e s i g n s , " and "went away w i t h the con-s o l i n g impression t h a t he had a b o l i s h e d a l l that he had spoken a g a i n s t . " 1 4 Undoubtedly, the p r i e s t s were m i s l e d by the enthusiasm o f t h e i r n a t i v e audiences. Although the Indians may have greeted the m i s s i o n a r i e s amicably and may well' have l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y to t h e i r e x h o r t a t i o n s , t h e i r c onversions were probably o n l y super-f i c i a l . By the e a r l y 1840's, North-West I n d i a n c u l t u r e had reached a c r i t i c a l stage i n i t s development. The response of B r i t i s h Columbia's Indians to the m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y was very much i n f l u e n c e d by the n a t i v e s ' own r e l i g i o u s u n c e r t a i n t y . D e b i l i t a t i n g smallpox epidemics ( i n the 1780's and 1790's, and i n 1836) had decimated and demoralised the n a t i v e population. 1"^ The advent of f u r t r a d e r s from e a s t e r n Can-, ada (from 1793), the emergence of prophet c u l t s , together w i t h 14 1 ft continued p e r i o d i c smallpox epidemics, d e a l t " c r i p p l i n g blows" the the Indians' c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own i n s t i t u t u t i o n s and b e l i e f systems, and c r e a t e d a vacuum t h a t m i s s i o n a r i e s were eager to f i l l . 1 7 When Demers and Blanchet a r r i v e d among the t r i b e s of the C o r d i l l e r a , n a t i v e cosmologies had a l r e a d y s u f f e r e d severe shocks. Indian r e l i g i o u s systems had proved to be f a l l i b l e and c o u l d not adequately meet the c h a l l e n g e s presented by the coming of Euro-peans. As a r e s u l t , n a t i v e prophets emerged by the l a t e 1820's 18 and f o r e t o l d the coming of "black-robed" p r i e s t s . S e l e c t e d elements of C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l - p u b l i c p r ayer, c o n f e s s i o n , and the making of the s i g n of the c r o s s - became popular among s e v e r a l 19 North-West I n d i a n t r i b e s . However, the o l d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of the Indians had not been destroyed. While the Indians were ready and w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to the m i s s i o n a r i e s , and would some-times adopt the outward p a r a p h e r n a l i a of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , they were seldom prepared to abandon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f l i f e . I t was not u n t i l a f t e r 1858, when Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y e f -f o r t s i n t e n s i f i e d , t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of B r i t i s h Columbian Indians became t r u l y C h r i s t i a n i s e d . C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n : The Work of the Oblates  of Mary Immaculate The year 1847 saw the b e g i n n i n g o f changes i n Roman C a t h o l i c t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n which had important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the e v a n g e l i s a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. Father Norbert Blan-chet was made Archbishop of.Oregon C i t y , w i t h Father Demers as 20 h i s s u f f r a g a n (deputy) and Bishop of Vancouver I s l a n d . Though 15 c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1847, Demers d i d not reach h i s see c i t y of V i c t o r i a u n t i l 1852. In August o f t h a t year he a r r i v e d by canoe at Cadboro Bay, s y m b o l i c a l l y " p r o s t r a t e d h i m s e l f and k i s s e d the pebbly beach; then r i s i n g , he k n e l t on a l o g , and i n the name of C a t h o l i c i s m , f o r the g r e a t e r g l o r y o f God and the s a l v a t i o n o f s o u l s , he took 21 p o s s e s s i o n of the heathen l a n d . " The opening of the B r i t i s h Columbian mainland (from 1858) to miners and s e t t l e r s hastened a f u r t h e r change i n Roman C a t h o l i c e p i s c o p a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . In 1863 the B r i t i s h Columbian mainland, together w i t h the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , became a v i c a r i a t e -22 a p o s t o l i c w i t h L o u i s d'Herbomez, 0. M. I . , at i t s head. Demers r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the Diocese of Vancouver I s l a n d . In 1890 the v i c a r i a t e - a p o s t o l i c was r a i s e d to diocesan s t a t u s (Diocese 23 of New Westminster) and i n 1908 achieved a r c h d i o c e s a n rank 0 / (Archdiocese of Vancouver). The s e p a r a t i o n of the mainland from Vancouver I s l a n d p l a c e d most of B r i t i s h Columbia under the p a s t o r a l care of d'Herbomez's Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s had f i r s t come to the P a c i f i c North-West i n 1847, i n response to an appeal from 25 Archbishop Blanchet. The order f i r s t c o n centrated i t s e f f o r t s among the Indians of Puget Sound and i n the i n t e r i o r of Washing-ton S t a t e . I t s e f f o r t s i n Washington were somewhat hampered by the h o s t i l i t y of the Indians and by c l a s h e s w i t h the government. By 1858, the Oblate C o u n c i l recommended an almost complete w i t h -drawal from American t e r r i t o r y and the establishment of an Oblate m i s s i o n a t Esquimalt. Oblate m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d on the mainland i n 1859 (Immaculate Conception M i s s i o n at Okanagan Mis-s i o n ph. Okanagan L a k e ) , ^ ' i n 1860 (St. Charles M i s s i o n at New 28 29 Westminster), and i n 1861 (St. Mary's M i s s i o n at M i s s i o n ) . With the esta b l i s h m e n t of the V i c a r i a t e - A p o s t o l i c under an Ob-l a t e bishop, m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y among the Indians o f the south-ern i n t e r i o r i n t e n s i f i e d . D'Herbomez's n e a r e s t e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s u p e r i o r was the non-Oblate Archbishop o f Oregon, but i f the V i c a r - A p o s t o l i c of B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s from anyone, i t was from the Oblate 30 S u p e r i o r General i n M a r s e i l l e s . B r i t i s h Columbia's Oblate b i s h -ops were, i n f a c t , v ery much f r e e agents, though o b v i o u s l y work-in g w i t h i n the terms o f r e f e r e n c e to which they had acceded a t 31 the time o f t h e i r appointments. Because of t h e i r i s o l a t e d s i t u a t i o n and r e l a t i v e l y independent s t a t u s , the Oblate v i c a r s of B r i t i s h Columbia were able to pursue courses of a c t i o n which d i f f e r e d from those o f other Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t h e i r time, and a l s o from those o f the p a r o c h i a l p r i e s t s o f Vancouver 32 I s l a n d . Demers' p a r o c h i a l p r i e s t s t r e a t e d I ndian v i l l a g e s much as they d i d white p a r i s h e s nearby. The Oblates, as w i l l be seen, had aimuch more a u t h o r i t i a r i a n "system." From 1858 u n t i l 1908, the Oblate Order was the s o l e Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y body a c t i v e among the southern i n t e r i o r In-33 d i a n s . The Congregation of M i s s i o n a r y Oblates o f Mary Immacu-l a t e was an order of French foundation, having been formed i n 1816 by Rev. Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod. The congrega-t i o n a c q u i r e d papal s a n c t i o n i n 1826 when Pope Leo XII appointed 35 de Mazenod as i t s f i r s t S u p e r i o r - G e n e r a l . By 1844, the Oblates possessed about f i f t y member p r i e s t s and b r o t h e r s who served as 17 m i s s i o n a r i e s i n S w i t z e r l a n d , C o r s i c a , England, and Quebec. Subsequent expansions o f the congregation's numbers p e r m i t t e d the establishment of m i s s i o n s i n South A f r i c a , Ceylon, and the 37 Canadian West. D'Herbomez f o r m a l l y began h i s m i n i s t r y i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a i n 1858. He based h i s p o l i c i e s on past experiences i n the 38 American t e r r i t o r i e s to the south. When appointed V i c a r of the Oblates, he had a l r e a d y spent f o u r t e e n years as a m i s s i o n a r y i n the P a c i f i c North-West. Most of h i s s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g h i s successor, P a u l Durieu, were of French or B e l g i a n o r i g i n , and few spoke E n g l i s h w e l l . Of h i s s t a f f of twenty-two ordained p r i e s t s and l a y b r e t h r e n , o n l y three ( a l l I r i s h ) were able to 39 serve the needs of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g congregations. The r e -mainder focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on work among the Indians. As the white p o p u l a t i o n o f the mainland was a t f i r s t s m a l l , the bishop c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e f f o r t s i n c o n v e r t i n g the 60,000 n a t i v e s of h i s diocese to Roman Catholicism.^° By 1875, Bishop D'Herbomez was i n r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h and too weak to h o l d o f f i c e u n a s s i s t e d . He had Father Paul Durieu appointed as h i s c o - a d j u t o r (deputy and automatic suc-cessor) , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t from 1875 u n t i l h i s death i n 1890, d'Herbomez was bishop i n name o n l y . ^ 1 L i k e h i s predecessor, Paul Durieu became both "bishop" of B r i t i s h Columbia and l o c a l supe-r i o r of the Oblate Congregation,(Durieu s u r v i v e d d'Herbomez by nine y e a r s ) . By h o l d i n g these d u a l p o s t s , he was a b l e to e x e r t s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over m i s s i o n a r y work i n the pro-v i n c e , and to continue the programmes of h i s predecessor. 18 D'Herbomez began h i s c a r e e r as Oblate s u p e r i o r by estab-l i s h i n g c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s at a number of c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s . Such s i t e s were s t r a t e g i c a l l y chosen and intended as r e g i o n a l f o c i f o r the c o n v e r s i o n of the mainland. Each m i s s i o n was a s s i g n e d a l o -c a l " s u p e r i o r " and was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the C h r i s t i a n i s a t i o n of the Indian t r i b e s w i t h i n i t s reach. C e n t r a l m i s s i o n s were s t a f f e d by a s u p e r i o r , two or three (or more) p r i e s t s , and sever-a l l a y b r o t h e r s . Once a c e n t r a l m i s s i o n had been s e c u r e l y estab-l i s h e d as a r e g i o n a l base, m i s s i o n a r i e s devoted themselves to con-v e r t i n g the surrounding Indians. While the m i s s i o n ' s c l e r g y were away a t t e n d i n g t h e i r c i r c u i t s , t h e i r l a y b r o t h e r s remained a t the m i s s i o n , occuppied i n a g r i c u l t u r a l , b u i l d i n g , and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . U n t i l the emergence of l a r g e European s e t t l e -ments, m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s remained r e g i o n a l headquarters f o r the southern i n t e r i o r ' s Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . The founding of c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s was p a r t of a grand Oblate design. D'Herbomez and Durieu hoped to convert the Indians, modernise t h e i r c u l t u r e , and s e t t l e them i n model C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e s . N a t i v e s were encouraged to gather f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a t the c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s f o r twice y e a r l y "reunions." In some p l a c e s , r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l schools were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h government a i d and grand r e u n i o n churches were b u i l t w i t h government a i d . 4 4 By f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s , Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s hoped to draw f a r -f l u n g bands c l o s e r to them. T h e i r u l t i m a t e s t r a t e g y c a l l e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of model v i l l a g e s based on the J e s u i t " r e d u c t i o n s " of 17th century Paraguay. 4"' The J e s u i t r e d u c t i o n s were c r e a t e d by u p r o o t i n g s e v e r a l small Indian bands, moving them to c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s and melding them i n t o s i n g l e s o c i a l u n i t s . 4 * * In the Paraguayan case the Indians were moved f o r c i b l y . In B r i t i s h Columbia the p r i e s t s used p e r s u a s i o n . Indian r e s i s t a n c e and the f a i l u r e of government to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t t r a c t s of good a g r i c u l t u r a l land, however, caused the Oblates to temper t h e i r p l a n s . Only a few r e d u c t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d : a t S e c h e l t , North Vancouver, and St. E u g ene. 4 7 Though s t i l l hoping to found r e d u c t i o n s i n a few a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s , Oblate m i s s i o n -a r i e s i n s t e a d concentrated on "improving" the Indians i n t h e i r a n c e s t r a l l o c a t i o n s . 4 8 Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s encouraged t h e i r Indians to s e t t l e i n permanent encampments, to b u i l d s i n g l e f a m i l y houses, and to take up a g r i c u l t u r e . As t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , i d e o l o g i e s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s faded, p r i e s t s r e p l a c e d them w i t h those of western Christendom. The c l o s e r an I n d i a n v i l l a g e resembled a white 49 settlement the b e t t e r i t was judged to be. As Father C h i -rouse wrote of Cheam i n 1880: "We are now i n a c i v i l i s e d p l a c e . C h i e f A l e x i s has e s t a b l i s h e d h i s v i l l a g e on a very f i r m foun-d a t i o n and, from the p o i n t of view of progress and c i v i l i s a t i o n , t h i s v i l l a g e ^ s t a n d s above a l l others along the F r a s e r . I t s houses are b u i l t l i k e European houses, i t s f i e l d s are c u l t i v a t e d , and there are many c a t t l e . In a word, the Cheams are farmers." 50 L i k e i d e a l i s e d mediaeval v i l l a g e r s , I n dian "peasants" were i n -tended to work t h e i r own f i e l d s , r a i s e l i v e s t o c k , and work at cottage i n d u s t r i e s . ^ 1 They were to obey the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i i e s , 52 i n t h i s case, the p r i e s t and h i s appointed "watchmen." Every day a t the c a l l o f the b e l l , they were to f l o c k to the church f o r prayers and t h a n k s g i v i n g . P r i e s t s would v i s i t at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s to c e l e b r a t e the Mass, bury the dead, perform bap-53 tisms and weddings, and mete out j u s t i c e . D'Herbomez's c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s took charge of conversions i n a l l adjacent Indian v i l l a g e s . T r u s t e d p r i e s t s who shared t h e i r bishop's v i s i o n were appointed l o c a l s u p e r i -ors."*^ The f i r s t c e n t r a l m i s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d on the mainland was that o f the Immaculate Conception. Begun i n 1859 by F r . C h a r l e s Pandosy, "Okanagan M i s s i o n " was j u s t south of p r e s e n t 55 day Kelowna. Through the next f i f t e e n years i t served as headquarters f o r a l l Oblate m i s s i o n a r y work i n the southern i n t e r i o r . S t . Mary's M i s s i o n (near M i s s i o n ) was e s t a b l i s h e d by F r . Leon Fouquet i n 1862 to f i l l s i m i l a r needs i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . P r e s s u r e on both c e n t r e s was r e l i e v e d i n 1867 when F r . James McGuckin began St. Joseph's M i s s i o n a t W i l l i a m s Lake, and a g a i n i n 1873 w i t h the f o u n d a t i o n o f the S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n ( d e d i c a t e d to Our Lady of Good Hope) by F r . Georges Blanchet and F r . Le J a c q . ^ 7 The W i l l i a m s Lake and S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n s " s e r v e d " the Indians of the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r r a t h e r than those of the south. Oblate ambitions i n the southern i n t e r i o r were f u r t h e r e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m i s s i o n i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t i n 1874 (by F r . Fouquet a t St Eugene) and of another i n the Thompson d i s t r i c t i n 1878 ( S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n at Kamloops, founded by F r , Chirouse Sr. and F r . 58 Le J a c q ) . L e s s e r m i s s i o n s were begun i n New Westminster i n 1860 (St. Charles M i s s i o n ) , and i n 1864 at North Vancouver (St 22 59 Paul's M i s s i o n ) . Both f e l l under the i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n o f F r . Fouquet, and both were a p p a r e n t l y s u b s e r v i e n t to St. Mary's . 60 M i s s i o n . Although most In d i a n v i l l a g e s w i t h i n a m i s s i o n a r y d i s t r i c t were approached w i t h i n a very few years of the establishment of a c e n t r a l m i s s i o n , the r a t e s a t which they converted v a r i e d con-s i d e r a b l y . While v i l l a g e s n e a r e s t to the m i s s i o n o f t e n e x p e r i -enced the most r a p i d r a t e of conve r s i o n , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of m i s s i o n a r i e s was not wholly determined by d i s t a n c e . Frequency of contact, r a t h e r , was the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e . Unless a p r i e s t c o u l d m a i n t a i n constant s u r v e i l l a n c e over the n a t i v e s under h i s " a u t h o r i t y , " h i s e f f o r t s were o f t e n i n v a i n . The frequency w i t h which a p r i e s t might v i s i t p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e s was i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s t r a i n t s of manpower and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Oblate m i s s i o n s might possess more c l e r g y than t h e i r P r o t e s t a n t r i v a l s , y e t to be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , m i s s i o n s r e -q u i r e d f a r more p r i e s t s than were a v a i l a b l e . I t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t those Oblates a c t i v e i n the f i e l d should concentrate t h e i r meagre r e s o u r c e s where the most good might be done the most rap-i d l y - a t the most r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e I ndian encampments. Hence, Oblate m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y proceeded g e o g r a p h i c a l l y from r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e areas to those t h a t were l e s s e a s i l y approached. En-campments along the p r o v i n c e ' s major r i v e r s and lakes g e n e r a l l y experienced the most i n t e n s e m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , w h i l e v i l l a g e s i n p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s were e v a n g e l i s e d o n l y at a much l a t e r d a t e . 6 2 M i s s i o n a r i e s s t a t i o n e d at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n and at 23 Okanagan M i s s i o n were the f i r s t Oblates i n t e n s i v e l y a c t i v e i n c o n v e r t i n g the t r i b e s of the i n t e r i o r . While c e r t a i n p r i e s t s may have endeavoured to reach the n a t i v e s o f the n o r t h , t h e i r main concern l a y w i t h the Indians of the F r a s e r and Okanagan V a l l e y s . The Indians of the south thus were converted f i r s t . T r i b e s i n the C h i l c o t i n and Cariboo d i s t r i c t s remained unevan-g e l i s e d f o r a f u l l e i g h t years beyond the beginning of mis-s i o n a r y work i n the south. I t was not u n t i l the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of F r . McGuckin's m i s s i o n at W i l l i a m s Lake i n 1867 t h a t the e v a n g e l i s a t i o n of the n o r t h t r u l y began. The Dene Indians of the n o r t h e r n lakes were e f f e c t i v e l y e v a n g e l i s e d only from 6 3 about 1873, when the S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n was founded. The t r i b e s of the Kootenays r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t i n t e n s i v e p a s t o r a l care i n 1874 (when St. Eugene's M i s s i o n was estab-l i s h e d ) w h i l e those of the Thompson and N i c o l a V a l l e y s were the l a s t to r e c e i v e a m i s s i o n of t h e i r own (1878, at Kam-l o o p s ) . ^ 4 Once these r e g i o n a l f o c i f o r m i s s i o n a r y work were f i r m l y founded, the C h r i s t i a n i s a t i o n of the Indians i n t h e i r fi 5 h i n t e r l a n d s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c c e l e r a t e d . As has been suggested, each c e n t r a l m i s s i o n was made r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n v e r s i o n of the I n d i a n t r i b e s w i t h i n i t s r e a c h . ^ P r i e s t s s t a t i o n e d at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n attended to the n a t i v e s of the L i l l o o e t , H a r r i s o n , and lower F r a s e r V a l l e y s . T h e i r charges i n the southern i n t e r i o r i n c l u d e d e i g h t v i l l a g e s i n the canyon of the F r a s e r ( P u c k a t h o l e t c h i n , Aywawwis, Y a l e , Spuzzum, Tuckkwiowhum, K o p c h i t c h i n , Shrypttahooks, and Kanaka) and e i g h t v i l l a g e s i n the L i l l o o e t area (Nequatque, N e c a i t , S l o s h , Cayoosh, L i l l o o e t , B ridge R i v e r , Fountain, and P a v i l i o n ) . T h i r t y - t w o c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s were a l s o w i t h i n t h e i r domain ( a l l were west of the L i l l o o e t Range of mountains); i n c l u d i n g s i x i n the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t V a l l e y , twenty-two i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (west of Hope) and about f o u r along the lower coast. Though small i n area, the t e r r i t o r y served by the m i s s i o n was densely i n h a b i t e d by Indians and c o n t a i n e d at l e a s t f o r t y - e i g h t ft 7 semi-permanent encampments. Okanagan M i s s i o n ' s t e r r i t o r y o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was con-s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r , having been reduced by the c r e a t i o n o f cen-t r a l m i s s i o n s a t St. Eugene and Kamloops. I t s charges comprised f o u r v i l l a g e s along Okanagan Lake (Equesis Creek, Westbank, P e n t i c t o n , and Okanagan Lake), the Similkameen v i l l a g e s of Cho-paka and Chuchuweyha, and the south Okanagan v i l l a g e of Inka-ft 8 neep. The n o r t h Okanagan encampments of Enderby and Salmon R. 69 may have-been served both from Kamloops and Okanagan M i s s i o n . The St. Eugene m i s s i o n a r y d i s t r i c t was s m a l l e r s t i l l , having custody of only f i v e Kootenay Indian v i l l a g e s : Columbia Lake, Shuswap, Tobacco P l a i n s , Lower Kootenay, and S t . Eugene i t s e l f . The d i s t r i c t ' s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n was t r a d i t i o n a l l y s mall and nomadic; the c r e a t i o n of the f i v e permanent v i l l a g e s i t e s was the d e c i s i o n of governmental a u t h o r i t i e s r a t h e r than of the Indians t h e m s e l v e s . 7 0 By c o n f i n i n g the Indians to v i l -lages i n the east Kootenay d i s t r i c t , the a u t h o r i t i e s c r e a t e d a v a s t t e r r i t o r y (from Okanagan Lake to Kootenay Lake) without any n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n (the Arrow Lakes bands having become e x t i n c t ) . The m i s s i o n d i s t r i c t c e n t r e d a t Kamloops was s i m i l a r i n 26 s i z e to that served from St. Eugene, but extended i t s i n f l u e n c e i n t o c o n s i d e r a b l y more v i l l a g e s . Besides a t t e n d i n g to the Thompson V a l l e y Indians of Switsemelph, Qua'aout, Sahhaltkum, N e s k a i n l i t h , Kamloops, Chu Chua, Deadman's Creek, and Bona-p a r t e , S t . L o u i s ' M i s s i o n was a l s o r e s p o s i b l e f o r the N i c o l a V a l l e y v i l l a g e s of Quilchena, Spahomin (Douglas Lake), Shulus, and Coldwater Creek. The n o r t h Okanagan encampments at Enderby and Salmon R i v e r may a l s o have been among i t s charges from time to time.7''" For s e v e r a l years d u r i n g F r . J . M. R. LeJeune's term as s u p e r i o r , m i s s i o n a r i e s from Kamloops appear to have r e l i e v e d St. Mary's M i s s i o n by m i n i s t e r i n g to n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s as f a r •7 r south as the F r a s e r Canyon v i l l a g e of K o p c h i t c h i n (North Bend). 1 The S t u a r t Lake and W i l l i a m s Lake M i s s i o n s were r e s p o n s i -b l e f o r a t l e a s t a f u r t h e r twenty-nine v i l l a g e s . Of these, most were i n the v a l l e y s of the F r a s e r , C h i l c o t i n , and Nechako R i v e r s or along the shores of the n o r t h e r n lakes ( S t u a r t Lake, Babine 73 Lake, Canim Lake, F r a n c o i s Lake, and o t h e r s ) . Of the approximately one hundred and three v i l l a g e s on the mainland served by Oblate M i s s i o n a r i e s , seventy-one were i n the p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r i o r . S i x t e e n were served from S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , f o u r t e e n were admi n i s t e r e d from Kamloops, seven f e l l under the c o n t r o l of Okanagan M i s s i o n , w h i l e o n l y f i v e were worked from S t . Eugene. A f u r t h e r twenty-nine were the respon-s i b i l i t y o f the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r m i s s i o n s . St.,Mary's M i s s i o n was a l s o i n charge of an a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t y - t w o v i l l a g e s near the c o a s t . In t h i s f a s h i o n , by the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century and w i t h -27 i n a decade of the founding of the l a s t Oblate c e n t r a l m i s s i o n at Kamloops (1878), v i r t u a l l y a l l the southern i n t e r i o r I n d i a n communities were a t l e a s t n o m i n a l l y converted to Roman C a t h o l i - ' cism. 7^" Moreover, by t h i s time too a new geography of r e l i g i o n was beginning to appear i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As the Oblates focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the Indians, others began to observe the i n c r e a s i n g white p o p u l a t i o n of the southern i n t e r i o r . A new f o r c e began to appear on the scene, P r o t e s t a n t i s m . To be sure, some Oblate c l e r i c s e v e n t u a l l y a s s i g n e d themselves to towns peopled by those of European o r i g i n , but i t was not u n t i l the t w e n t i e t h century that v i a b l e Roman C a t h o l i c congregations emerged i n the towns of the southern i n t e r i o r . 7 ^ In the mean-time, by the l a t e 1850's and e a r l y 1860's, P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a c t i v i t y was w e l l underway. The r e s u l t was the emergence of a geographic p a t t e r n t h a t was to set the tone of inter-denomina-t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r the remainder of the century and w e l l i n t o the next. That p a t t e r n was the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Roman C a t h o l i -cism i n the v i l l a g e - b a s e d , Indian h i n t e r l a n d v i z a v i z the urban and l a r g e l y European focus of P r o t e s t a n t i s m . Though that p a t t e r n was reshaped i n the wake of the i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , i t nonetheless served as the e s s e n t i a l geographic context f o r change, and i t was brought about p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of the coming of P r o t e s t -antism. 28 The I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y - 1858 The year 1858 was important f o r C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t -ants a l i k e . A g o l d r u s h of major p r o p o r t i o n s had begun i n the F r a s e r R i v e r system, and i n 1858 the mainland of what i s now the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia was d e c l a r e d a B r i t i s h C o l -7 6 ony. These two developments l e d Methodist m i s s i o n a r y author-i t i e s i n Toronto to send a group of clergymen to the c o l o n y . 7 7 At the same time, the Church ofEngland r e a c t e d by c r e a t i n g an 78 A n g l i c a n Diocese of Columbia. Endowment funds were estab-79 l i s h e d f o r the maintenance of the bishop and h i s c l e r g y . S i m i l a r l y , i n 1859 the Church of S c o t l a n d a d v e r t i s e d f o r a 80 m i s s i o n a r y to serve the P r e s b y t e r i a n s of V i c t o r i a . I t was a l s o i n 1858 t h a t the Oblate Congregation decided to d i r e c t i t s e n e r g i e s away from Washington and toward the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The d e c i s i o n was q u i t e u n r e l a t e d to P r o t e s t a n t ac-t i o n s and d i d not r e s u l t from an immediate concern f o r the colony's mining p o p u l a t i o n . The Oblate a c t i o n was i n s t e a d dependent on a d e s i r e to r e l i e v e the " s p i r i t u a l wants" of the 81 colony's n a t i v e Indians. Roman C a t h o l i c , Methodist, and A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s a l l reached the B r i t i s h Columbian main-land by e a r l y 1859. Although Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r y spheres of i n f l u e n c e d i f f e r e d somewhat, i n t e r - d e -nominational r i v a l r i e s were quick to emerge. But b e f o r e d i s -c u s s i n g the g e o g r a p h i c a l impact of these r i v a l r i e s , i t i s f i r s t a d v i s a b l e to i d e n t i f y the backgrounds and ambitions of each of the P r o t e s t a n t denominations i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. -29 The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of an A n g l i c a n Diocese: 1858 B r i t i s h Columbia d i f f e r e d somewhat from other B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s i n t h a t she r e c e i v e d q u i t e e a r l y her own A n g l i c a n 82 e p i s c o p a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r the B r i t i s h Colum-b i a n g o l d r u s h began i n 1858, thousands of miners and adven-t u r e r s c r o s s e d i n t o the colony from a s s o r t e d areas o f the American West. The i n f a n t colony had but three A n g l i c a n minis-' ' t e r s a t the time, and of these only one was posted to the main-8 3 l a n d . Less than a year l a t e r , Angela B u r d e t t - C o u t t s , the famed V i c t o r i a n p h i l a n t h r o p i s t ( l a t e r Baroness B u r d e t t - C o u t t s ) , wrote to the Archbishop of Canterbury and o f f e r e d the sum of L15,000 ( l a t e r r a i s e d to L25,000) as an e p i s c o p a l endowment 84 f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The Archbishop, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , and a t the suggestion of the donor, chose Rev. George H i l l s as the f i r s t Bishop of Columbia. H i l l s was very much a member of the High Church p a r t y , having r e c e i v e d p a r t of h i s t r a i n i n g 85 under Leed's famous Dr. Hook. L i k e many High Churchmen, H i l l s viewed Non-conformity w i t h d i s p l e a s u r e , and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h contempt. With the a i d of h i s supporters i n the S o c i e t y f o r the P r o p a g a t i o n of the Gospel i n F o r e i g n P a r t s ( i t s e l f an arm of the High Church), H i l l s was able to surround h i m s e l f 8 6 w i t h m i s s i o n a r i e s of s i m i l a r p e r s u a s i o n . The unique r e l a t i o n s h i p of B r i t i s h Columbian A n g l i c a n i s m to seats o f power i n England- both s p i r i t u a l and temporal- i s 87 c r i t i c a l to t h i s h i s t o r y . The c r e a t i o n of an A n g l i c a n bishop-r i c i n the colony was no minor matter. I t r e q u i r e d the a p p r o v a l not o n l y of the E n g l i s h Primate, but a l s o t h a t of the C o l o n i a l 88 S e c r e t a r y . The Queen h e r s e l f took an i n t e r e s t i n the pro-89 ceedings. The new bishop saw h i s c o n s e c r a t i o n not i n a hum-b l e p a r i s h church, but i n Westminster Abbey. H i s f a r e w e l l 90 meeting was h e l d i n London's p r e s t i g i o u s Mansion House and h i s a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a was a major s o c i a l event. The circum-stances surrounding the bishop's appointment were f a r d i f f e r -91 ent indeed from those of Roman C a t h o l i c p r e l a t e s . Although the Church of England was not designated B r i t i s h Columbia's e s t a b l i s h e d church, i t was most c e r t a i n l y the church of the establishment ( i n c l u d i n g the Governor, the Royal Navy, the Royal Engineers, and many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and businessmen). The church's bishop and c l e r g y were f i r m be-l i e v e r s i n the d e s t i n y of the B r i t i s h A n g l i c a n Empire. For B r i t i s h Columbia's A n g l i c a n e c c l e s i a s t i c s , the i d e n t i t i e s of Empire and Church were i n e x t r i c a b l y bound. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n j of the sacraments, the preaching of the Gospel, and the con-s t r u c t i o n of churches were important r e l i g i o u s and i m p e r i a l 92 d u t i e s . The c l e r g y of the Church of England i n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a drew most of t h e i r funding and support from the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation o f the Gospel ( h e r e a f t e r S. P. G.), a m i s s i o n a r y o r g a n i s a t i o n headquartered i n London. The archdeaconry, e p i s -c o p a l , and c l e r i c a l endowment funds e s t a b l i s h e d by Miss B u r d e t t -93 Coutts were p l a c e d under i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The S. P. G. was a m i s s i o n a r y body of e i g h t e e n t h century foundation, and 94 de d i c a t e d to m i n i s t e r i n g to e x p a t r i a t e B r i t o n s . I t s commit-ment to the e v a n g e l i s a t i o n of heathens w i t h i n the empire was o n l y secondary, t h i s task being more the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y . Had the A n g l i c a n b i s h o p r i c s of southern B r i t i s h Columbia been endowed by the e v a n g e l i c a l Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y ( h e r e a f t e r C. M. S.), r a t h e r than by the S. P. G. , a g r e a t e r emphasis on missions to the In-95 dians might have been forthcoming. As i t was, the S. P. G.'s involvement i n I n d i a n m i s s i o n work was c o n f i n e d to a s i n g l e m i s s i o n a t L y t t o n , w h i l e t h a t o f the C. M. S. was f a r more ex t e n s i v e , but c o n f i n e d to the n o r t h e r n Diocese of C a l e d o n i a ( c r e a t e d i n 1 8 7 9 ) . 9 6 The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Methodist Presence: 1858 Wesleyan Methodist i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia's s p i r i t u a l f u t u r e began i n 1858, o n l y a few months a f t e r the colony had been c r e a t e d . At the suggestion of Dr. E. Wood, mi s s i o n a r y superintendent of the Wesleyan Methodist Church i n , Canada, fo u r t r a i n e d men were s e l e c t e d to t r a v e l to the colony. The Wesleyans were among the f i r s t Canadians to a c t as m i s s i o n -97 a r i e s i n the west. The Wesleyan Church-was ; f u l l y aware o f the..importance of i t s a c t i o n s . The departure of i t s m i s s i o n -a r i e s on December 31st, 1858 was v e r y much the t a l k of Toron-98 to. Many expected t h a t the m i s s i o n a r i e s would not be seen again, f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was v e r y much t e r r a i n c o g n i t a , a d i s t a n t colony c l o a k e d i n mystery. The task a w a i t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l i e s t Methodist m i s s i o n a r i e s was overwhelming. Congregations a t V i c t o r i a and New Westminster r e q u i r e d f u l l time c l e r g y , w h i l e I n d i a n work 99 at F o r t Simpson engaged s t i l l another m i s s i o n a r y . The f o u r o r i g i n a l Methodist m i s s i o n a r i e s simply were not able to cover a l l the t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n t h e i r domain. A c c o r d i n g l y , the Rev. E. Robson sent an appeal to Toronto and requested the immediate reinforcement of h i s ranks: " L e t them be good preachers, f o r there i s much i n t e l l i g e n c e here; f e r v e n t men, f o r wickedness abounds here; s e l f - d e n y i n g and hardy men, f o r there are p r i v a -t i o n s to be endured, and work of many kinds to be d o n e . " 1 0 0 L i k e t h e i r e a r l y A n g l i c a n c o l l e a g u e s , Wesleyan m i n i s t e r s tended to stay i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r o n l y a very; few years. Of the f o u r f i r s t Methodist c l e r i c s to reach the p r o v i n c e i n 1859, one l e f t i n 1866, a second departed i n 1867, s t i l l an-other l e f t i n 1869, wh i l e the l a s t r e t u r n e d to Toronto i n 1 8 7 1 . 1 0 1 Rev. Browning, f o r example, viewed h i s reassignment of 1869 as "the p r i v i l e g e o f coming home," and l i k e many e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s to the p r o v i n c e , had a b s o l u t e l y no 102 i n t e n t i o n of s t a y i n g any longer than was necessary. P r i o r to about 1890, B r i t i s h Columbian Methodists were c o n s t a n t l y s h o r t o f man-power. Large congregations i n V i c t o r i a New Westminster, and Nanaimo r e q u i r e d the s e r v i c e s of f u l l - t i m e c l e r g y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l communities which developed i n the 1860's i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and i n southern Vancouver I s -la n d a l s o r e q u i r e d m i n i s t e r s o f t h e i r own. As a r e s u l t , the southern i n t e r i o r was ve r y much u n d e r s t a f f e d . While the mis-/ s i o n a r y s t a t i o n e d among the Indians o f C h i l l i w a c k might occa-s i o n a l l y h o l d s e r v i c e s i n the Methodist church at Y a l e , and while the m i n i s t e r a t B a r k e r v i l l e might sometimes venture 33 s l i g h t l y to the south, i t was not u n t i l a f t e r about 1890 that 103 Methodist m i s s i o n a r y work i n t e n s i f i e d . The l i m i t e d Methodist m i n i s t r y to the southern i n t e r i o r was d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y toward white s e t t l e r s and miners. Meth-o d i s t a c t i v i t y among the southern i n t e r i o r ' s Indians was even l e s s than t h a t of the A n g l i c a n s . While the Wesleyans welcomed o p p o r t u n i t i e s to preach to the Indians, they f u l l y r e a l i s e d the l i m i t e d nature of t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , and were w i l l i n g to acknowledge and r e s p e c t the successes enjoyed by the A n g l i c a n and Oblate p r i e s t s who had preceded t h e m . ^ 4 Althoough the Methodists e s t a b l i s h e d a c e n t r a l I n d i a n church at C h i l l i w a c k i n 1869 (designed as a p l a c e f o r annual "camp meetings" f o r the surrounding t r i b e s ) , the main Wesleyan t h r u s t s i n t o I n d i a n t e r -r i t o r y were on the coast and i n the Skeena R i v e r d i s t r i c t . 1 ^ The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of F r e s b y t e r i a n i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia: 1861 Many employees of the Hudson's Bay Company s t a t i o n e d i n the colony were of S c o t t i s h o r i g i n and, presumably, were at l e a s t n o m i n a l l y P r e s b y t e r i a n s . P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r s , how-ever, d i d not reach B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l 1861. Even the excitement of the colony's f i r s t g o l d r u s h was i n s u f f i c i e n t to arouse Canadian or S c o t t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n s to a c t i o n . C u r i -o usly, i t was the "Church of S c o t l a n d i n I r e l a n d " t h a t sent the colony i t s f i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n a r y (some fo u r years a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g of the g o l d r u s h ) , but he was s t a t i o n e d to V i c t o -r i a r a t h e r than to the m a i n l a n d . 1 ^ 7 Although the Church of S c o t l a n d ( i n Scotland) had a d v e r t i s e d as e a r l y as 1859 f o r a 34 m i n i s t e r to serve V i c t o r i a , i t s f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r r i v e d 108 there o n l y i n 1863. I t s second clergyman, Rev. G. Murray a r r i v e d i n the southern i n t e r i o r i n 1875, and b u i l t a church 109 f o r h i s N i c o l a V a l l e y congregation i n 1876. I n t e r n a l d i s u n i t y i n the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church,prevented a major commitment to e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1850, seven d i s t i n c t P r e s b y t e r i a n s e c t s were at work i n e a s t e r n Canada. Twenty-two years l a t e r , a f t e r s e v e r a l amalgamations, there were s t i l l f o u r . Not u n t i l 1875 d i d Canadian P r e s b y t e r i a n s achieve f u l l u n i t y and c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y v e n t u r e s . 1 1 0 Although the p e r i o d 1858-1875 was not c r i t i c a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c o l o n y - p r o v i n c e ' s f u t u r e growth, B r i t i s h Columbian Presby-t e r i a n i s m s u f f e r e d during these y e a r s . The Church of England was the s o l e winner as P r e s b y t e r i a n s fought t h e i r c i v i l w a r s . 1 1 1 Lack of communication between the v a r i o u s P r e s b y t e r i a n s e c t s was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r work both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n oth e r m i s s i o n f i e l d s . In e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia three separate P r e s b y t e r i a n churches b r i e f l y claimed the a l l e g i a n c e of the f a i t h f u l . Q u a r r e l s between the s e c t were e s p e c i a l l y b i t t e r i n V i c t o r i a where, from 1863 u n t i l 1870, there were two 112 competing P r e s b y t e r i a n K i r k s . During the same p e r i o d the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church was v i r t u a l l y unrepresented i n the southern i n t e r i o r . L i k e the Methodists, e a r l y P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r s -were committed more to the s e t t l e d urban and r u r a l congregations of the coast than they were to the sma l l , s c a t t e r e d and t r a n s i -ent settlements of the i n t e r i o r . As a consequence, i n t e n s i v e P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n work i n the southern i n t e r i o r d i d not b e g i n 35 u n t i l the e a r l y 1 8 9 0 ' s . 1 1 3 The s l i g h t commitment of e a r l y P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n a r -i e s to the i n h a b i t a n t s of the southern i n t e r i o r was not d i -r e c t e d toward n a t i v e Indians. P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n s to the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia were even fewer i n number than those of the Met h o d i s t s . None were l o c a t e d i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Instead, P r e s b y t e r i a n I n d i a n m i s s i o n s comprised but three v i l l a g e s on the south-west coast o f Vancouver I s -l a n d . 1 1 4 The r e s t r i c t e d extent o f P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n s to the n a t i v e s i s i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e to a d e c i s i o n i n 1866 of i t s c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s o c i e t y . R e a l i s i n g that the Roman C a t h o l i c and A n g l i c a n Churches had long been i n v o l v e d i n In d i a n m i s s i o n work, and n o t i n g that few B r i t i s h North American n a t i v e s l a c k e d some form o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , the M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church chose to sponsor s t a t i o n s o n l y i n areas unevangelised by any other d e n o m i n a t i o n . 1 1 ^ P r e s b y t e r i a n i n -volvement i n Indian m i s s i o n a r y work i n B r i t i s h Columbia was t h e r e f o r e minimal. P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n s to the European P o p u l a t i o n : 1858-1890 The A n g l i c a n c l e r g y of the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel were quick to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Bishop H i l l s a r r i v e d a t h i s c a t h e d r a l c i t y o f V i c -t o r i a i n e a r l y 1860, and immediately o r g a n i s e d e x p e d i t i o n s to the mining camps of the southern i n t e r i o r . He h e l d s e r v i c e s at s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s , and although u s u a l l y f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d , he was o f t e n shocked by the smal l number o f communicants i n h i s 36 congregations. Methodist preachers a r r i v e d i n the area at about the same time. They too were greeted w i t h mixed recep-t i o n s . On the whole, they may have f a r e d b e t t e r than the A n g l i c a n s , f o r they l a c k e d the Oxford accents and upper c l a s s mannerisms that tended to a l i e n a t e t h e i r l a r g e l y American audiences. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the s t r e n g t h of the C h r i s t i a n church among the miners. U n t i l the l a t e 1860's, most of the white p o p u l a t i o n .were adventurers from the American West.1''"7 While m i s s i o n a r i e s met w i t h great success i n t h e i r m i n i s t r y to the n a t i v e s o f the mainland, t h e i r r e c e p t i o n among the min-118 ers was mixed. In 1870, Rev. L. C. Lundin Brown looked back at h i s m i n i s t r y i n the colony and suggested t h a t "the m a j o r i t y of the i n h a b i t a n t s . . . had small d e s i r e f o r a p l a c e of worship. They appeared to t h i n k that r e l i g i o n was out of 119 p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Undoubtedly, many were o f the o p i n i o n t hat o r g a n i s e d C h r i s t i a n i t y was a l u x u r y or a l t e r n a t i v e -l y an unwanted i m p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y . Yet p a r t of Lundin Brown's f r u s t r a t i o n must s u r e l y have stemmed from the very nature of the r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s he o f f e r e d . The American miners w i t h i n h i s p a s t o r a t e were u s u a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the l i t u r g i c a l s e r v i c e of the A n g l i c a n Church. A n g l i c a n Church s e r v i c e s (as o f f e r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia) c o n s i s t e d of chanting, p r a y e r s , and responses, and culminated i n the c e l e b r a t i o n o f the E u c h a r i s t , an act u n l i k e l y to be understood by pioneer congregations. Thus, when Bishop H i l l s wrote to the S. P. G. i n J u l y , 1865, he r e p o r t e d w i t h r e g r e t that of a diocesan popu-37 l a t i o n of 65,000, o n l y 1587 were members of the Church of England, and of those, o n l y 235 were r e c o g n i s e d communi-120 c a n t s . D e s p i t e these d i s c o u r a g i n g f i g u r e s , the A n g l i c a n m i n i s t r y to the colony's European p o p u l a t i o n continued, even during the economic d e p r e s s i o n of the 1870's. Church,of Eng-l a n d successes i n c r e a s e d as A n g l i c a n clergymen e s t a b l i s h e d b e t t e r r a p p o r t w i t h t h e i r congregations and as the p o p u l a t i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y E n g l i s h . The A n g l i c a n achievement probably stemmed j u s t as much from the e f f o r t s of the c l e r g y as from the weakness of Non-conformist and C a t h o l i c c o m p e t i t i o n . Meth-o d i s t s e r v i c e s , of course, were i n themselves more a p p e a l i n g to the mining p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e they i n v o l v e d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r e a c h i n g and s i n g i n g . Even so, i n the 1860's and 1870's, few Wesleyan m i n i s t e r s frequented the mining camps. I t was not un-t i l the coming of the r a i l r o a d (1886) and the subsequent i n f l u x of permanent s e t t l e r s from e a s t e r n Canada and Great B r i t a i n t h a t white C h r i s t i a n churches became major f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e i r communities. In the i n t e r i m , the churches had to f i g h t f o r every s o u l , and s i n c e the A n g l i c a n s were foremost i n the f i e l d , t h e i r achievements, though s m a l l , outweighed those o f other denominations. I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R i v a l r y : The Emergence of Denominational Geographies: 1858-1890 I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t s should c o l l i d e w i t h Bishop d'Herbomez's Oblate c l e r g y , and from Bishop H i l l s ' 121 p o i n t of view, i t was d e s i r a b l e . A n g l i c a n (and to a c e r t a i n extent, Methodist) m i s s i o n a r y o b j e c t i v e s were q u i t e incompa-t i b l e w i t h those of the Roman C a t h o l i c s . Each p a r t y hoped to exclude the other from the m i s s i o n f i e l d . R i v a l r i e s f o r s i t e s and s o u l s were b i t t e r and i n t e n s e . Disputes began to occur from the e a r l y 1860's, f o r C a t h o l i c , Methodist, and A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s were by then a l l a c t i v e on the mainland. A n g l i c a n congregations had been o r g a n i s e d a t Hope, L y t t o n , Douglas, Y a l e , and L i l l o o e t . Wes-leyan m i s s i o n a r i e s had e s t a b l i s h e d themselves among the Indians of C h i l l i w a c k and made o c c a s i o n a l f o r a y s i n t o the mining camps of the middle F r a s e r R i v e r . Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s from M i s s i o n and the Okanagan were perhaps the most a c t i v e , spreading t h e i r m i s s i o n network throughout the south of the p r o v i n c e . Disputes began when any two p a r t i e s claimed the same s i t e . Severe r e -c r i m i n a t i o n s were made. The Oblate h i s t o r i a n F r . A d r i a n Mor-i c e , f o r example, c o n s i d e r e d the e a r l y Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n -ary achievement as a "seed" which " s c a r c e l y (had) time to ger-minate b e f o r e i t was choked by the c o c k l e of heresy brought... by the E n g l i s h . " 1 2 2 The Oblate Congregation had cause to f e a r the " E n g l i s h " P r o t e s t a n t presence. The A n g l i c a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r , and the Methodists to a l e s s e r extent, were quick to o r g a n i s e congre-g a t i o n s i n the towns of the colony, sometimes even b u i l d i n g churches. The Church of England was a c t i v e i n the v a l l e y and lower canyon of the F r a s e r , two, areas c o v e t t e d by the Church of Rome. A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t a t Y a l e i n 1860, and 123 at Hope and L i l l o o e t i n 1861. They were powerful, v i s i b l e 39 symbols of A n g l i c a n s t r e n g t h i n the European towns. When the Oblate p r i e s t G r a n d i d i e r reached L i l l o o e t i n 1861, he was shocked to see an A n g l i c a n church dominating the town, and "was g r i e v e d to f e e l the b l a s t i n g e f f e c t s of heresy." , C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s viewed P r o t e s t a n t i s m as a "damnable d o c t r i n e , " and i t s advocates as godless " m i n i s t e r s of e r r o r , " c l o s i n g "the doors o f heaven to (those) u n f o r t u -125 nates that p l a c e t h e i r t r u s t i n them." Thus, the Oblate Congregation viewed i t s task w i t h a sense of urgency. I f P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s were allowed to win on any f r o n t , then the souls of those converted by the " h e r e t i c s " would be e t e r -n a l l y damned. In 1886, one P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r y expressed both the Roman C a t h o l i c p o s i t i o n and the P r o t e s t a n t r e a c t i o n to i t . J . B;,Good spoke of a " . . . t h i s t l e t h a t once l u x u r i a n t l y f l o u r i s h e d amongst our people, and s t i l l r e a r s i t s hydra-head and s c a t t e r s i t s down f a r and wide wherever we go..., (of a) d o c t r i n e s e d u l o u s l y taught and i n s t i l l e d i n t o the h e a r t s of t h e i r hearers by c e r t a i n f a n a t i c a l agents of the Church of Rome, th a t every P r o t e s t a n t , be he A n g l i c a n or Genevan, the Queen on the throne or the h i n d of the f i e l d , i s i n e v i t a b l y damned as o u t s i d e the p a l e of the true Church; and we who are designated p r i e s t s or bishops are en-emies to the t r u t h , and w i t h our deluded vo-t a r i e s are doomed h e r e a f t e r to a l i k e burn i n the f i r e unquenchable." 126 Oblate p r i e s t s were not averse to t h r e a t e n i n g P r o t e s t a n t In-dians w i t h e t e r n a l damnation. As the A n g l i c a n n a t i v e s of Spuzzum lamented: "The French say we s h a l l a l l go to H e l l i f we a t t e n d King George ( E n g l i s h ) Church. They say, 'Why should you go and l i s t e n to the King George p r i e s t s , and then go be-low?' " 1 2 7 A l l combatants engaged i n v e r b a l warfare, perhaps the s o l e weapon a v a i l a b l e to c i v i l i s e d C h r i s t i a n e v a n g e l i s t s . M i l i t a r y metaphors were r i f e . The Methodists a c t i v e i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y d e s c r i b e d Roman C a t h o l i c a c t i v i t y i n the area 128 as "the continued a s s a u l t s of the enemy." The A n g l i c a n c l e r g y were even l e s s complimentary to t h e i r Oblate competi-t o r s . The Rev. W. B. Crickmer viewed C a t h o l i c i s m as a k i n to i d o l a t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as taught to the Indians. He r i d i c u l e d C a t h o l i c r o s a r i e s as "Madonna charms" and i n 1861 suggested t h a t : "... i f there be anything wanting to match the abomination of d e s o l a t i n g i d o l a t r y i n the case of the Great Romish Church i n i t s Papacy, s u r e l y the climax o f her i n i q u i t y i s to be found i n the a s s o c i a t e d s i n of t e a c h i n g heathens to worship i d o l s . " 129 Bishop H i l l s was h i m s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y r a b i d on the s u b j e c t of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , and saw i t s e d u c a t i o n a l programme as "the sapping of the v e r y l i f e b l o o d of the f u t u r e w i t h unsound 130 r e l i g i o n and i n f i d e l i t y . " E a r l y P r o t e s t a n t c l e r i c s were v e r y much w o r r i e d by the goals they a s c r i b e d to t h e i r Roman C a t h o l i c competitors. Pres-b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n boards f e a r e d a "Romish" p l o t to make Canada 131 s u b s e r v i e n t to the Pope and saw the C a t h o l i c p r o v i n c e o f 132 Quebec as P r o t e s t a n t i s m ' s g r e a t e s t m i s s i o n f i e l d . Bishop H i l l s h e l d the " f o r e i g n p r i e s t s " i n u t t e r contempt, a s s e r t i n g t h a t " t h e i r p r i n c i p a l t e a c h i n g i s the worship of the V i r g i n , and h a t r e d of the Americans and E n g l i s h w h i l e the French are e x a l t e d and e x t o l l e d . " 1 ' 3 ' 5 J . B. Good, p r i n c i p a l A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y at L y t t o n , suggested that "but f o r us and our success i n d e a l i n g w i t h those coming under our i n f l u e n c e and t r a i n i n g , the e n t i r e Indian p o p u l a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r of the mainland would have been l e f t to f o r e i g n m a n i p u l a t i o n X 3 A and c o n t r o l . " While three or f o u r C h r i s t i a n denominations c o u l d amicably found congregations i n a s i n g l e white settlement, i t was seldom i f ever, p o s s i b l e f o r even two denominations to e v a n g e l i s e s u c c e s s f u l l y the same Indian encampment. Only a prolonged s t r u g g l e c o u l d ensue, s e t t l e d by an uneasy s t a l e -mate or by the t o t a l withdrawal of one of the combatants. I t was not u n t i l the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century t h a t the f i v e mis-s i o n a r y denominations a c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( A n g l i c a n , Roman C a t h o l i c , Methodist, P r e s b y t e r i a n , and S a l v a t i o n Army) f i n a l l y agreed to an i n f o r m a l t r u c e , each s e c t remaining 135 w i t h i n i t s own r e c o g n i s e d t e r r i t o r y . In the i n t e r i m , i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s r e -mained b i t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y when the souls of Indians were at stake. The most b i t t e r exchanges were those between the A n g l i c a n s and the Roman C a t h o l i c s . As has been observed, the S o c i e t y f o r the P r o p a g a t i o n of the Gospel (the p r i n c i p a l sponsor of B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l i e s t A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s ) was a High Church o r g a n i s a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s to e x p a t r i a t e B r i t o n s . I t s i n t e r e s t i n n a t i v e e v a n g e l i s a t i o n 1 36 was secondary, even i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Yet, when the S. P. G.'s Rev. J . B. Good was a s s i g n e d to Y a l e i n 1866, he 42 was q u i c k l y beset by appeals from the Thompson Indians. The Indians had been exposed to C h r i s t i a n i t y by Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s a few years b e f o r e and were a p p a r e n t l y enamoured by what they had l e a r n e d . They consequently requested Good 137 to send a clergyman to i n s t r u c t them. Rather than see the n a t i v e s f a l l i n t o the grasp of nearby Oblate p r i e s t , the Ang-l i c a n bishop of the diocese agreed to Good's request f o r a t r a n s f e r , and the Church of England m i s s i o n at L y t t o n was LS 139 1 38 e s t a b l i s h e d . Other a i d by the S. P. G. to the Indians of the p r o v i n c e was l i m i t e d to a very few c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s The founding of the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n at L y t t o n depended on the t h r e a t of an Oblate conquest of the area and upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of funding f o r a m i s s i o n a r y . But when J . B. Good l e f t the diocese i n 1882, the funding necessary f o r the m i s s i o n was a p p a r e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d w i t h him. Indeed, the e n t i r e f u t u r e of the m i s s i o n remained i n jeopardy u n t i l an E n g l i s h p h i l a n t h r o -p i s t , o f f e r e d an endowment. 1^ 0 The S. P. G.'s commitment to the L y t t o n Indian M i s s i o n was very s l i g h t indeed. Because the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel was v i r t u a l l y u n a s s i s t e d i n i t s support of B r i t i s h Columbian mi s s i o n s u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 1890's, and because a v a i l a b l e funds remained so l i m i t e d , the A n g l i c a n Church had no a l t e r -n a t i v e but to r e s t r i c t i t s i n t e r e s t i n Indian m i s s i o n work to a few dozen v i l l a g e s i n the neighbourhood of L y t t o n . P r i n c i p a l among these were the Thompson R i v e r v i l l a g e s o f Pok h a i s t , L y t -ton, Spences Bridge (Shawnikken), and A s h c r o f t ; the N i c o l a V a l l e y encampments of Shulus, Canford, and Shakkan, and the F r a s e r Canyon v i l l a g e s o f Towinock, Nyshakep, N i t l i c h p a m , Stryen, Nuuautin, Nananahout, S i s k a , Inkatsaph, Sho-ook, 141 Boothroyd, K o p c h i t c h i n , and Spuzzum. The Church of England was able to c o n s o l i d a t e i t s p o s i t i o n i n the v i l l a g e s surrounding L y t t o n , d e s p i t e s i g n i -f i c a n t Oblate c o m p e t i t i o n . But the Oblate Congregation, w i t h i t s g r e a t e r manpower, and w i t h i t s s e r i e s of s t r a t e g i c a l l y , p l a c e d c e n t r a l m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s , was a formidable opponent. While the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n at L y t t o n had l i t t l e c a p a c i t y f o r expansion, the Roman C a t h o l i c spheres of i n f l u e n c e continued to grow, almost u n r e s i s t e d at times, throughout the B r i t i s h Columbian i n t e r i o r . A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s were powerless to r e a c t . An A n g l i c a n expansion i n t o the Oblate t e r r i t o r i e s to the south-east o f L y t t o n would o n l y have been p o s s i b l e i f the S. P. G. or some other body had granted funding. The Oblate expansion i n the south-east was p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n the 1870's. While t h i s was a decade of economic s t a g n a t i o n on the mainland, and a p e r i o d of P r o t e s t a n t r e -trenchment, i t was a l s o a time of Oblate m i s s i o n a r y i n t e n s i f i -c a t i o n . The establishment of Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n s at St. Eugene and Kamloops (and i n the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r ) p e r m i t t e d an Oblate advance of major p r o p o r t i o n s . By the mid-1890's almost a l l the Indians of the southern i n t e r i o r were converted to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . Only those w i t h i n reach of L y t t o n became A n g l i c a n s . Although open "warfare" was not unknown between compet-ing P r o t e s t a n t denominations, most major c o n f r o n t a t i o n s took 44 p l a c e on P r o t e s t a n t - C a t h o l i c l i n e s . Wherever P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s met i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e s f o r s o u l s , c o n f l i c t was sure to f o l l o w . The e x i s t e n c e o f embryonic l o y a l t i e s to p a r t i c u -l a r denominations i n s p e c i f i e d l o c a l e s was an open i n v i t a t i o n f o r a r i v a l p a r t y to perform i t s e v a n g e l i c a l m i s c h i e f . The Methodists, f o r example, had been a c t i v e i n C h r i s t i a n i s i n g the " I / O n a t i v e s near C h i l l i w a c k from the e a r l y 1860's. T h e i r suc-ces seemed to warrant c o n s t r u c t i o n of a m i s s i o n church, and t h e i r p o s i t i o n seemed secure. Yet by 1887, Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s had d e s t r o y e d the M e t h o d i s t s ' achievement. The church stood empty and u n u s e d . 1 4 4 S i m i l a r l y , an A n g l i c a n church begun at, Squatash i n 1885 was s t i l l l i t t l e more than a s h e l l i n 1887, and hopes f o r i t s completion seemed r e m o t e . 1 4 ^ By 1904, Ang-l i c a n churches b u i l t i n the 1870's a t Nicowmin, C h i l l i w a c k , Ohamil, and Popkum had f a l l e n i n t o d i s r e p a i r , and were e f f e c -1 46 t i v e l y p a r t of the Roman C a t h o l i c domain. Such developments d i d l i t t l e to reduce P r o t e s t a n t - C a t h o l i c acrimony. A n t i p a t h y between the competing f a i t h s l e s s e n e d as the century wore on and as most of the southern i n t e r i o r ' s n a t i v e s became i r r e v o c a b l y p a r t i s a n , but i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s o c c u r r e d a t i n t e r v a l s w e l l i n t o the 1890's. While, f o r ex-ample, a l l three denominations ( A n g l i c a n s , Methodists, and Roman C a t h o l i c s ) had b u i l t churches at Y a l e i n the e a r l y 1860's, an Oblate correspondant was s t i l l a b l e to w r i t e of the town i n 1887: "Yale e s t an champ de b a t a i l l e que d i s p u t e l e s a n g l i c a n s , l e s methodistes et l e s c a t h o l i q u e s . . . F l a t t e r i e s , menaces, promesses,tout e s t mise en oeuvre dans ce but." 147 The c o n f l i c t remained u n r e s o l v e d f o r many ye a r s . By the 1890's A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s were e f f e c t i v e l y stopped i n t h e i r advance from L y t t o n toward the south, w h i l e the Oblates experienced s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n converting Indians w i t h i n reach o f the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n at L y t t o n . J o i n t occupations o c c u r r e d i n v i l l a g e s along the l i n e s of c o n f l i c t . Both A n g l i c a n and Oblate churches were b u i l t i n Y a l e , Spuzzum, K o p c h i t c h i n , and Shulus. Two Methodist congregations s u r v i v e d i n In d i a n v i l l a g e s near C h i l l i w a c k , the s o l e pockets o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n an overwhelm-i n g l y Roman C a t h o l i c a r e a . 1 4 8 Methodist m i s s i o n a r i e s were g e n e r a l l y w i l l i n g to co-operate w i t h f e l l o w P r o t e s t a n t s . Plans f o r a m i s s i o n to the Indians of the N i c o l a V a l l e y were abandoned i n 1872, f o r Meth-o d i s t a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not wish t h e i r c l e r g y to compete w i t h 149 t h e i r A n g l i c a n c o l l e a g u e s at L y t t o n . The A n g l i c a n s , how-ever, were sometimes slow to r e c o g n i s e t h e i r own i n d i s c r e t i o n s . When the A n g l i c a n J . B. Good began to m i n i s t e r to the Indians of Nanaimo, Methodist Ebenezer Robson (whose m i s s i o n pre-dated Good's) lamented: "He does not reckon me as having equal r i g h t s w i t h him; looks upon h i s church as the only church and a c t s 150 a c c o r d i n g l y . " Methodists (and l a t e r , P r e s b y t e r i a n s ) r e -sented the p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n h e l d by the Church o f England (the church o f the establishment) but were powerless to change that p o s i t i o n . While the D i s s e n t i n g denominations were w i l l -i n g to co-operate w i t h the A n g l i c a n s , the Church of England was i n i t i a l l y o n l y b a r e l y w i l l i n g to t o l e r a t e the Methodists as a l l i e s a g a i n s t the " f o r e i g n p r i e s t s . ' " J " J " L F u r t h e r d i s p u t e s between the A n g l i c a n and Methodist Churches o c c u r r e d a t Esquimalt and Lakalzap. In the l a t t e r case, the Methodists l o c a t e d c l o s e to the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d m i s s i o n at K i n c o l i t h . As the A n g l i c a n W. H. C o l l i s o n sug-gested, " i t would have been more i n accord w i t h the true 1 s p i r i t o f m i s s i o n work had they occuppied the upper r i v e r 152 (the Nass), where but l i t t l e had y e t been done." Despite such disagreements, the P r o t e s t a n t denominations were u s u a l l y moved by a s p i r i t of c o - o p e r a t i o n . T e r r i t o r i a l d i s p u t e s be-tween the Methodist Church and the S a l v a t i o n Army ( a c t i v e i n the n o r t h from the 1890's) o c c u r r e d at Skidegate, Masset, and 153 P o r t Simpson. In most cases, amicable agreements were reached, w i t h one p a r t y withdrawing to a more s u i t a b l e l o c a -t i o n . While P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s might enter i n t o d i a l o g u e w i t h each other, r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , and work f o r the c o l l e c t i v e good of "reformed r e l i g i o n , " none would n e g o t i a t e w i t h the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. The Oblates were e q u a l l y h o s t i l e toward t h e i r P r o t e s t a n t r i v a l s . Both p a r t i e s were convinced of the T i g h t n e s s of t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s . They b e l i e v e d t h a t a r a p i d and complete e v a n g e l i s a t i o n of the na-t i v e s was of the utmost importance, and each p a r t y viewed i t s e l f as the o n l y d i v i n e l y s a n c t i o n e d m i s s i o n a r y body i n the p r o v i n c e . 47 I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s : 1890-1925, T e r r i t o r i a l  C o n s o l i d a t i o n I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s began to fade as the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y drew to a c l o s e . By 1900 the map o f na-t i v e a l l e g i a n c e s to the v a r i o u s C h r i s t i a n denominations was s t a b l e . With the e x c e p t i o n of an A n g l i c a n enclave around L y t t o n , the e n t i r e I ndian p o p u l a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r had become Roman C a t h o l i c . The Oblate advance toward the sea had been stopped i n the n o r t h but not i n the south. The lower F r a s e r V a l l e y became an Oblate p r e s e r v e , though a pocket of Methodism s u r v i v e d near C h i l l i w a c k . Low Church A n g l i c a n i s m prospered i n the n o r t h e r n c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the v a l l e y s of the Skeena and the Nass R i v e r s . Wesleyan Methodists f i l l e d some of the vacuums be-tween the A n g l i c a n v i l l a g e s and a l s o c o n t r o l l e d s i t e s on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and along the upper c o a s t . Van-couver I s l a n d was occupied by a l l f o u r main denominations. S e c u l a r ( p a r o c h i a l ) C a t h o l i c s were a c t i v e on i t s north-western coast and i n the area near V i c t o r i a . A n g l i c a n s maintained a f o o t h o l d on the n o r t h of the i s l a n d , w h i l e Methodists r i v a l l e d the C a t h o l i c s i n the south. L a t e - a r r i v i n g P r e s b y t e r i a n s claimed but three p r e v i o u s l y unoccupied v i l l a g e s on the south-west coast. By 1900 no untouched I n d i a n v i l l a g e s remained i n the p r o v i n c e . V i r t u a l l y a l l n a t i v e Indians had become at l e a s t n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n and i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r y was a l l but a t an end. J . B. Good was a b l e to r e p o r t t h a t "The Roman C a t h o l i c s and o u r s e l v e s have e s t a b l i s h e d a t a c i t concordat and keep w i t h i n our own l i n e s , and a l l we ask i s f a i r p l a y and no favour. m1->4 The geography of denominational s t r e n g t h s e x i s t i n g be-f o r e the 1890's was obvious by 1881, the year o f the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l c e n s u s . 1 ' ^ Of a t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n of 49,549:, 10,043 or 20.3% were reco r d e d as Roman C a t h o l i c s . Of these, the v a s t m a j o r i t y must have been Indians. A n g l i c a n s comprised o n l y 16% of the p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e Methodists ac-counted f o r 7% and P r e s b y t e r i a n s f o r 8%. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , many respondents (3970) d i d not s p e c i f y t h e i r r e l i g i o n . While t h i s f a c t may mean th a t a b s o l u t e numbers o f C a t h o l i c s , A n g l i -cans, Methodists, and P r e s b y t e r i a n s were hig h e r , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e i r rank-orders v a r i e d . Of the 39% "not s p e c i f i e d " p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n , many were probably semi-evangelised Indians, f o r by 1880-81, o n l y 1% o f B r i t i s h Columbians remained "pagans." Many others i n the "not s p e c i -f i e d " category may have been miners. A g n o s t i c i s m may have been p r e v a l e n t i n e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, but o u t r i g h t atheism was not. Only a h a n d f u l (0.36%) of the p r o v i n c e ' s 1880-81 p o p u l a t i o n p r o f e s s e d no r e l i g i o n at a l l . 1 " ' 7 Roman C a t h o l i c s t r e n g t h was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r i o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n the v a s t Cariboo enumeration d i s t r i c t . In 1881 the d i s t r i c t had a C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n o f 3012 and a P r o t e s t a n t p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s than 158 700. Most C a t h o l i c s were undoubtedly Indians w h i l e Pro-t e s t a n t s were mainly white. Roman C a t h o l i c i s m p r e v a i l e d i n w i l d e r n e s s area w h i l e P r o t e s t a n t i s m predominated i n most of 49 the camps, v i l l a g e s , and towns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mining indus-. t r y and w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C. P. R. In the somewhat more ur b a n i s e d census d i s t r i c t s o f Yale, New Westminster, and V i c t o r i a , Roman C a t h o l i c i s m was a l e s s f ormidable power. V i c t o r i a ' s C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n was outnumbered by A n g l i c a n s by a r a t i o o f two to one; and by othe r P r o t e s t a n t s by a s i m i l a r r a t i o . The town o f B a r k e r v i l l e had but 52 Roman C a t h o l i c r e s i d e n t s , compared to 287 A n g l i c a n s , 159 Methodists, and P r e s b y t e r i a n s . Nanaimo's C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n was o n l y 179, a t e n t h of that of the combined P r o t e s t a n t denomi-n a t i o n s . S i m i l a r P r o t e s t a n t - C a t h o l i c imbalances were ev i d e n t i n the predominantly white settlements o f New Westminster, Hope, Y a l e , and L y t t o n . T h i s geography of denominational s t r e n g t h s would soon change although the importance o f Indians m i s s i o n s r e l a t i v e to white church work d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y . While most of the south-ern i n t e r i o r ' s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n remained C a t h o l i c , incoming s e t t l e r s were mainly P r o t e s t a n t . Immigration a c c e l e r a t e d a f t e r about 1890 as s e t t l e r s , businessmen, s p e c u l a t o r s , and l a b o u r e r s - c a r r i e d by the r e c e n t l y completed Canadian P a c i f i c Railway- swarmed across the Rocky Mountains. New i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r s expanded i n t o p r e v i o u s l y l i t t l e -touched areas: the Okanagan V a l l e y , the Boundary Country, the Thompson-Nicola d i s t r i c t , and the Kootenays. U n l i k e the e a r l i e r p o p u l a t i o n o f the g o l d rush, many of these l a t e r s e t t l e r s were f i r m l y committed to permanent settlement and were devoted to C h r i s t i a n worship. Most of the p r o v i n c e ' s 50 \ new p o p u l a t i o n came from B r i t a i n and Ont a r i o , two areas of i fin s t r o n g l y P r o t e s t a n t c h a r a c t e r . In the mid-1890's, the southern i n t e r i o r ceased to be a Roman C a t h o l i c s t r o n g h o l d , not because i t s converts abandoned the f a i t h , but because they were l o s t i n a sea of P r o t e s t a n t s e t t l e r s . The i n f l u x o f P r o t e s t a n t s e t t l e r s a f t e r 1886 s t e a d i l y eroded the primacy of the C a t h o l i c f a i t h (though a b s o l u t e num-bers o f C a t h o l i c s continued i n c r e a s i n g ) . By 1891, 24% o f the B r i t i s h Columbian p o p u l a t i o n were A n g l i c a n s , 14.4% were Meth-o d i s t s , and 15.6% were P r e s b y t e r i a n s . 1 6 1 C a t h o l i c s accounted f o r o n l y 21.170 of the p o p u l a t i o n . In the years 1901-1921, Methodist s t r e n g t h remained r e l a t i v e l y constant, i n c o r p o r a t i n g 162 about 13%, of the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . The C a t h o l i c pro-p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n shrank s t e a d i l y from a h i g h i n 1891 of 21.1% to a low i n 1921 o f 1 2 . 1 % . 1 6 3 As C a t h o l i c percentages d e c l i n e d , t h e r e f o r e , A n g l i c a n s and P r e s b y t e r i a n s i n c r e a s e d . In 164 1881 onl y 8% o f the p o p u l a t i o n were P r e s b y t e r i a n s . By 1921 P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m claimed 23.4%, of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . S i -m i l a r l y .while only 16%, of the p o p u l a t i o n were A n g l i c a n s i n 1881, 31.1% were A n g l i c a n s i n 1 9 2 1 . 1 6 6 Because there were no untouched I n d i a n m i s s i o n f i e l d s a f t e r about 1890, clergymen con c e n t r a t e d on c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i r gains and on expanding t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the whites. In the white m i s s i o n f i e l d there was no . r i v a l r y , f o r white C h r i s t i a n s were not open to c o n v e r s i o n to other f a i t h s . N e i t h e r was there r i v a l r y f o r I n d i a n s o u l s , f o r the " t a c i t concordat" d e s c r i b e d by J . B. Good remained s t r o n g . In such 51 Fig. 1. Strengths of British Columbia's Four Main Denominations: 1891-1921. an atmosphere of quietude, a n t i - C a t h o l i c sentiment faded among P r o t e s t a n t clergymen. By the l a t e 1880's, n e i t h e r A n g l i c a n nor Methodist m i s s i o n a r y p e r i o d i c a l s c o ntained the s t r i d e n t l y a n t i - C a t h o l i c r h e t o r i c t h at had been common i n pr e v i o u s dec-ades. Some A n g l i c a n High Churchmen were even w i l l i n g to emphasise the C a t h o l i c i t y of the Church of England, w h i l e a t 1 fi7 the same time de-emphasising i t s Reformation c h a r a c t e r . But such a p o s i t i o n was an e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than the r u l e . P r o t e s t a n t a t t i t u d e s toward the Church of Rome had not neces-s a r i l y a l t e r e d , although they were l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ennunciated. C a t h o l i c - P r o t e s t a n t r i v a l r y had r u n i t s course, and from-a P r o t e s t a n t p o i n t o f view at l e a s t , l i t t l e c o u l d be gained by condemning the Roman C a t h o l i c achievement. By the beginning o f the t w e n t i e t h century, some P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y g r u d g i n g l y ad-m i t t e d t h a t C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s might perform some good work a-mong the Indians of the i n t e r i o r . At the same time,, however, they s t i l l contended that Oblate theology was unsound, i t * 168 advocates dangerously p o p i s h and f o r e i g n . The P r o t e s t a n t s had never f u l l y o r g a n i s e d to r e s i s t e a r l y Roman C a t h o l i c advances, though the A n g l i c a n s made a concerted e f f o r t at L y t t o n . The completion of the C.P.R., however, l e d to massive i n - m i g r a t i o n by white s e t t l e r s , and P r o t e s t a n t church a u t h o r i t i e s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The A n g l i c a n Church began to r e o r g a n i s e i n 1879 when Bishop H i l l s , perhaps a n t i c i p a t i n g events, sep-a r a t e d the mainland from h i s diocese (Columbia), and c r e a t e d two new b i s h o p r i c s , one i n the n o r t h (Caledonia) and one i n 53 169 the south (New Westminster). As settlement i n c r e a s e d i n the southern i n t e r i o r , f u r t h e r adjustments were made. Koo-tenay Diocese was separated from New Westminster i n 1900, and i n 1914, New Westminster was reduced f u r t h e r by the c r e -a t i o n of the Diocese of C a r i b o o . 1 7 ^ A s u c c e s s i o n o f a s s o c i a -t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the Columbia M i s s i o n S o c i e t y , the New West-minster and Kootenay M i s s i o n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Caledonia M i s s i o n a r y Union, were founded to a i d the d i o c e s e s . In 1910-11, the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Church A i d S o c i e t y (here-a f t e r , B.C.Y.C.A.S.) was e s t a b l i s h e d to supercede these organ-i s a t i o n s and to serve the e n t i r e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l province. 1 7''" Through the e f f o r t s o f these s o c i e t i e s , the B r i t i s h p u b l i c were awakened to the p l i g h t o f the p r o v i n c e ' s A n g l i c a n s , and funds and m i s s i o n a r i e s were s u p p l i e d as never b e f o r e . The Non-conformists a l s o r e o r g a n i s e d . In 1887, the Methodist Church e s t a b l i s h e d the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference 172 and separated i t from the parent Toronto Conference. Four d i s t r i c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p r o v i n c e : V i c t o r i a , Westmin-s t e r , Kamloops, and Simpson. With i n c r e a s e d l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , the p r o v i n c e ' s Methodists were able to work more e f f e c t -i v e l y . U n t i l 1887, the p r o v i n c e had been t r e a t e d as a west-ward e x t e n s i o n o f s e t t l e d , a g r a r i a n O n t a r i o . M i s s i o n p r a c t i c e s imposed from without were not always a p p l i c a b l e i n a p r o v i n c e 173 of t r a n s i e n t , i r r e l i g i o u s miners and l a b o u r e r s . A f t e r 1887, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own p o l i c i e s and m i n i s t e r e d w i t h g r e a t e r e f f e c t , among farmers, workers, and merchants a l i k e . The i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a f t e r 1890 can be a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y to the e n e r g e t i c p o l i c i e s of Rev. James Robertson, Superintendent o f Western M i s s i o n s f o r 1 74 the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada i n the years 1881-1902. Robertson's f i r s t appeal to e a s t e r n Canadian P r e s b y t e r i a n s came i n 1887, onl y a year a f t e r the Canadian West had been opened to settlement by the completion o f the C.P.R. In ex-h o r t i n g h i s church's General Assembly to a c t i o n he warned that "these t i d e s of immigration w i l l not wait f o r us... I f we l o s e these people now we s h a l l have a w i l d and godless West." 1 7"' Robertson's words f e l l on f e r t i l e ground and a Pr e s b y t e r y o f C a l g a r y was formed, i t s westernmost boundary being a l i n e running south from Revelstoke. A P r e s b y t e r y of Columbia had been or g a n i s e d i n 1886 and l a y immediately to the west. I t was superceded i n 1892 as three p r e s b y t e r i e s emerged to take i t s p l a c e : Vancouver I s l a n d , Westminster, and Kamloops. A P r o v i n c i a l Synod was formed to u n i t e the Calgary P r e s b y t e r y ' 176 wi t h the p r e s b y t e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. E x p l o r a t o r y e x p e d i t i o n s were sent to e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia l a t e i n 1887 and again i n the f o l l o w i n g summer. 1 7 7 The e a s t e r n Canadian m i s s i o n a r i e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these ventures were i n s t r u c t e d to take an i n f o r m a l census of Pres-b y t e r i a n s t r e n g t h i n the area and to conduct r e l i g i o u s s e r -v i c e s wherever p o s s i b l e . L i k e the Methodists, P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s found g r e a t scope f o r i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y . As a consequence, e f f o r t s were made to send m i n i s t e r s wherever they were needed. I n i t i a l l y , many such m i s s i o n a r i e s were 55 students from Toronto's Knox C o l l e g e and Kingston's Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , but a f t e r congregations were b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d , 178 f u l l y q u a l i f i e d m i n i s t e r s were sent to take charge. A f t e r the e a r l y 1890's any community that e s t a b l i s h e d a P r e s b y t e r i a n church g e n e r a l l y had a m i n i s t e r as w e l l (or shared one w i t h nearby communities). The Roman C a t h o l i c Church d i d l i t t l e to combat the P r o t e s t a n t onslaught. Only i n 1908 d i d the church b e g i n to make long overdue changes i n o r g a n i s a t i o n ; the Diocese of New Westminster was t r a n s f e r r e d , t o Vancouver and r a i s e d to 179 Arch d i o c e s a n s t a t u s . When sett l e m e n t by white C a t h o l i c s i n c r e a s e d i n the i n t e r i o r , new b i s h o p r i c s were c r e a t e d at Nelson and Kamloops. These changes were i n p a r t made necessary by the d e c l i n e of the Oblate Congregation. By 1908, B r i t i s h Columbian Oblates were short of p r i e s t s and most of t h e i r d u t i e s to white congregations were assumed by s e c u l a r . «_ 180 p r x e s t s . U n l i k e the P r o t e s t a n t s , the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y ( e s p e c i a l l y the Oblates) continued t h e i r war of words w i t h t h e i r r i v a l s w e l l i n t o the twe n t i e t h century. Oblate pub-l i c a t i o n s g l o a t e d over A n g l i c a n and Methodist set-backs i n the F r a s e r Canyon, and d e l i g h t e d i n exposing the a n t i -181 C a t h o l i c " c r i m es" o f E l i z a b e t h , Cranmer, and Knox. Ad-m i t t e d l y , many such a r t i c l e s o r i g i n a t e d i n European p u b l i c a -t i o n s , but even so, the views of the pr o v i n c e ' s Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y were not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t . I n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n was l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the P r o t e s t a n t s e c t s . Informal t a l k s between Methodists and P r e s b y t e r i a n s began i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century and culminated i n church union i n 1925. Even the A n g l i c a n Church, f o r m e r l y u n c i v i l to the Non-conformists, lowered i t s b a r r i e r s and tempered i t s p r e j u d i c e s ; s h a r i n g i t s churches and c o - o p e r a t i n g i n the mainly Non-conformist "Forward Movement" that f o l l o w e d the F i r s t World W a r . 1 8 2 Having o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r y o f i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the e a r l y southern i n t e r i o r , i t i s now p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s an a l l i e d t o p i c , t h at of church c o n s t r u c t i o n . To a major extent, the h i s t o r y and geography o f church con-s t r u c t i o n p a r a l l e l l e d the h i s t o r y and geography of i n t e r -denominational r e l a t i o n s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y so b e f o r e the 1890's, when r i v a l r i e s between m i s s i o n a r i e s were at t h e i r h e i g h t . A f t e r white immigration a c c e l e r a t e d , inter-denomina-t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s s t i l l p l a y e d a r o l e , but sett l e m e n t and eco-nomic development, more than anything, determined when and where churches would be b u i l t . 57 Chapter 3 The Geography of Church C o n s t r u c t i o n I n t r o d u c t o r y Church c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the southern i n t e r i o r was i n two d i s t i n c t phases. C o n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was l i m i t e d i n scope and was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s . Few churches were b u i l t f o r the white p o p u l a t i o n , but of those t h a t were, most were A n g l i c a n . Most churches b u i l t d u r i n g the p e r i o d were f o r the Indians, and _the> m a j o r i t y were C a t h o l i c . Churches b u i l t a f t e r the r a i l w a y ' s completion r e s u l t e d not o n l y from i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , but a l s o from the p r o v i n c e ' s r e g i o n a l economic development. As improvements were made to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks, new areas were opened to settlement, investment, and e x p l o i t a t i o n . As the p o p u l a t i o n swelled, mission, a c t i v i t y a c c e l e r a t e d . With permanent settlement, f a m i l i e s came and t r u s t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s re-emerged on the f r o n t i e r . Hundreds o f churches were b u i l t , not f o r the In-dians, but f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s European p o p u l a t i o n . Most new churches were P r o t e s t a n t r a t h e r than C a t h o l i c , and among the P r o t e s t a n t s , the A n g l i c a n s were the pre-eminent b u i l d e r s . 58 A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1858-1880 As has been observed, A n g l i c a n involvement i n the B r i t i s h Columbian m i s s i o n f i e l d was spurred by the g o l d r u s h of 1858. I n t e r e s t i n the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n was i n i t i a l l y o n l y minor, but when the Oblate presence was d i s c o v e r e d , A n g l i c a n work among the n a t i v e s i n t e n s i f i e d . The two r i v a l s e c t s v i e d both f o r s o u l s and s i t e s , and church c o n s t r u c t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a church was an a c t laden w i t h symbolism, a s i g n to other denominations t h a t the s e c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s e r e c t i o n had claimed that v i l l a g e as i t s own, and t h a t i t had the confidence and support of the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s . When denominational f r o n t i e r s of expansion overlapped, however, two r i v a l churches might be b u i l t at a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n (as at K o p c h i t c h i n and Shulus), or a pre-e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g might be abandoned as one of the combatants withdrew. 1 In the 1860's and 1870's dozens of s m a l l wooden chapels were b u i l t i n the Indian v i l l a g e s of the i n t e r i o r . As a l l denominations had l i m i t e d manpower, v i s i t s by m i s s i o n a r i e s to i n d i v i d u a l I ndian camps were n e c e s s a r i l y i n f r e q u e n t . The e r e c t i o n of modest v i l l a g e churches was a response to t h i s problem. I n d i a n congregations r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n from European c l e r i c s , and v i l l a g e l e a d e r s ("watch-men" and "policemen") were appointed to ensure t h a t p r a y e r s 2 were s a i d d u r i n g the m i s s i o n a r y ' s absence. The system was c o n s i d e r e d a means o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g the h o l d o f a denomination on the v i l l a g e s t h a t i t had e v a n g e l i s e d . The o r i g i n s of the procedure remain u n c e r t a i n ; although u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t of Bishop Durieu's m i s s i o n a r y "system," the p r a c t i c e began under Bishop d'Herbomez and was e q u a l l y popular i n 3 P r o t e s t a n t c i r c l e s . The f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c churches b u i l t i n the B r i t i s h Columbian i n t e r i o r were e r e c t e d i n 1842 and 1843 by the In-dians of W i l l i a m s Lake, F o r t A l e x a n d r i a , and Kamloops. 4 No others were b u i l t u n t i l the f i r s t Oblate advance i n the 1860's. Then, i n the 1860's and 1870's, a t l e a s t f o u r t e e n C a t h o l i c I n d i a n churches were b u i l t i n the southern i n t e r i o r , t h i r t e e n by Oblates working from St. Mary's M i s s i o n . By about 1880 there were churches at Hope, Spuzzum, Kanaka Bar, Shryptahooks, K o p c h i t c h i n , Tuckkwiowhum, Ruby Creek, Luksetissum, Aywaw-wis (Union Bar), P a v i l i o n , P u c k a t h o l e t c h i n (American B a r ) , Cayoosh Creek (near L i l l o o e t ) , and Yale."* Most of these churches were i n the F r a s e r Canyon, f o r Oblate m i s s i o n s had not yet p e n e t r a t -ed much f u r t h e r i n l a n d . Other churches were b u i l t i n the n o r t h ern i n t e r i o r and, i n 1868, when Bishop d'Herbomez b l e s s e d churches at Quesnel, C l i n t o n , A l e x a n d r i a , Soda Creek, T i t l e n a i -ten, and P a v i l i o n , he r e j o i c e d , f o r the church at P a v i l i o n was the f i f t y - f i f t h church on the mainland that he had b l e s s e d . , 6 i n f o u r y e a r s . The A n g l i c a n s b u i l t o n l y a few churches b e f o r e 1890. Most were f o r the white p o p u l a t i o n . Bishop H i l l s longed to e s t a b l i s h r o n the mainland the a n c i e n t p a r i s h system of the Church of England. He bought l o t s i n s t r a t e g i c p l a c e s , hoping that t h e i r v a l u e i n l a t e r years would j u s t i f y the i n i t i a l i nvestment. 7 The A n g l i c a n Church proposed to b u i l d a church i n every major settlement i n the i n t e r i o r , each w i t h i t s own r e s i d e n t v i c a r , c l e r g y house, and glebe. But although the A n g l i c a n Church would have p r e f e r r e d to b u i l d many churches w i t h r e s i d e n t clergymen, her m i s s i o n a r i e s d i d r e c o g n i s e the f u t i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a t mining encampments l a c k i n g permanent p o p u l a t i o n s . I t became A n g l i c a n p o l i c y to b u i l d o n l y i n l o c a t i o n s which were l i k e l y to become per-manent towns. H i l l s b e l i e v e d that the settlements of Hope, P o r t Douglas, L i l l o o e t , Y a l e , L y t t o n , and Spuzzum were des-t i n e d to become major c e n t r e s . Semi-permanent A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t a t each p l a c e : a t Hope, P o r t Douglas, and L i l l o o e t i n 1861, at Y a l e i n 1863, a t Spuzzum i n 1872, and at o L y t t o n s l i g h t l y l a t e r , Bishop H i l l s would have l i k e d a l a r g e r s t a f f to man h i s churches and r e g u l a r l y addressed appeals f o r f u r t h e r " a i d to the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1860 he requested that "14 able, f a i t h f u l , and zealous m i s s i o n a r i e s " be a s s i g n e d to h i s d i o c e s e . In 1864 he requested e i g h t e e n c l e r g y . 1 0 These u n r e a l i s t i c requests remained u n f i l l e d . S e v e r a l observers questioned H i l l s judgement. In 1864, f o r example, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t suggested t h a t the colony was a l r e a d y " l i t e r a l l y overrun w i t h reverend g e n t l e m e n . " 1 1 The C o l o n i s t lamented f u r t h e r : "At p r e s e n t we have more clergymen 12 i n the country than can f i n d c o ngregations." H i l l s may indeed have been over-zealous i n b u i l d i n g so many churches. By the mid-1860's much of the e a r l y p r o s p e r i t y t h a t had accompanied the g o l d r u s h of the middle F r a s e r R i v e r had vanished. S e v e r a l churches l a c k e d the congregations to warrant r e g u l a r v i s i t s by m i s s i o n a r i e s . The completion of the Cariboo Road l e d to the d e c l i n e of P o r t Douglas, w h i l e Derby was threatened by the removal of the mainland c a p i t a l to New Westminster. Both towns decayed and t h e i r churches were e v e n t u a l l y removed f o r use elsewhere. Yet A n g l i c a n m i n i s t r a t i o n s to the towns o f the southern i n t e r i o r c o n t i n -ued, and churches at Hope, Ya l e , Spuzzum, L y t t o n , and L i l -l o e t remained open. Most A n g l i c a n s r e g r e t t e d the c l o s u r e o f churches, but as Rev. A. D. P r i n g l e maintained i n 1861: "The Church of England d e s i r e s to m i n i s t e r to s o u l s . Should a p o p u l a t i o n remove from one l o c a t i o n to another, she deems i t her duty to f o l l o w them, although ten churches and as many parsonages are l e f t behind." "13 The A n g l i c a n c l e r g y were remarkably u n i f i e d i n t h e i r g o a l s . Most had f a i t h i n the colony's f u t u r e , b e l i e v i n g B r i t i s h Columbia would someday become a v i t a l l i n k i n an i m p e r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, and the scene o f g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 1 ^ 1 " The c l e r g y were a l l but unanimous i n s u p p o r t i n g i n t e n s i f i e d m i s s i o n work i n the colony. They were convinced that "the c i v i l w e l f a r e of (the) g o l d c o l o n i e s (was) dependent on the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n and e d u c a t i o n , " and b e l i e v e d that "the v o i c e of the m i s s i o n ^ ary... v e r y f r e q u e n t l y ( r e c a l l e d ) to mind former and b e t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . " 1 " ' Only the Rev. W. B. Crickmer (a Low Church-man) expressed s e r i o u s doubts about the f u t u r e of the Church of England on the mainland, m a i n t a i n i n g i n 1861: "For years to come, from the g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f the Colony, E n g l i s h emmigra-t i o n w i l l be wanting to support E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s to any great extent...We may get many Americans from Oregon and C a l i -f o r n i a , but -no E n g l i s h immigration." 16 Crickmer r e t u r n e d to England i n 1862, but the A n g l i c a n Dio-cese of Columbia continued i t s m i s s i o n to the i n h a b i t a n t s of the southern i n t e r i o r , even d u r i n g the economic depres-s i o n of the 1 870's. 1 7 I n d i a n m i s s i o n work was l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Although the Indians migrated s e a s o n a l l y between s e v e r a l semi-perma-nent encampments, they were f a r l e s s t r a n s i e n t than the mining p o p u l a t i o n . N a t i v e l i v e l i h o o d s depended not upon a s i n g l e non-renewable resou r c e , but upon hunting, f i s h i n g , and g a t h e r i n g . A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s c o u l d e s t a b l i s h churches at the most permanent In d i a n camps w i t h some conf i d e n c e that 18 they would serve as the n u c l e i of permanent I n d i a n v i l l a g e s . By 1872 the Church of England had e s t a b l i s h e d such churches at about a dozen p l a c e s : Shulus, L y t t o n , Boothroyd, Spuzzum, K o p c h i t c h i n , Nysakep, Y a l e , A s h c r o f t , Cook's F e r r y ( l a t e r 19 c a l l e d Spences B r i d g e ) , Stryen, and L y t t o n . A n g l i c a n churches stood wherever i n f l u e n c e had been wrested from the Oblates: from L y t t o n i n the west to Shulus i n the east, and from Nysakep i n the n o r t h to Y a l e i n the south. T h i s was a major achievementbut p a l e d somewhat when compared to Roman C a t h o l i c church c o n s t r u c t i o n (one should a l s o bear i n mind th a t many churches were b u i l t because t h i s was an area of h i g h I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y ) . In the colony's e a r l i e s t years church c o n s t r u c t i o n r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a i d from business and government. During the l a t e 1850's and e a r l y 1860's, the Hudson's Bay Company donated l o t s to any denomination w i s h i n g to b u i l d a church at one of 20 i t s t r a d i n g p o s t s . When the Crown C o l o n i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia were founded, Governor Douglas i n i t i a t e d a s i m i l a r p o l i c y , g r a n t i n g l a n d and p r o v i d i n g some f i n a n c i a l support to the f i r s t denomination b u i l d i n g a t each 21 white settlement. S e v e r a l churches were m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d by t h i s government a i d . O p p o s i t i o n to the grants emerged i n 1861 as a C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t m i n i s t e r i n V i c t o r i a and the e d i -t o r s of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and the B r i t i s h Columbian banded 22 together to condemn them. The grants were d i s c o n t i n u e d and r e l i g i o u s bodies were o b l i g e d to f i n a n c e t h e i r b u i l d i n g s w i t h -out a s s i s t a n c e from the Crown. The d e c i s i o n was not s o l e l y the r e s u l t of adverse comment, f o r Bishop H i l l s was h i m s e l f opposed to grants from government. The A n g l i c a n Church, of course, had the most to g a i n from the p o l i c y s i n c e i t was " f i r s t i n the f i e l d " i n 23 many p l a c e s . I f the p o l i c y were a p p l i e d , A n g l i c a n s would r e c e i v e most of the g r a n t s . H e r e i n l a y the problem. Bishop H i l l s f e a r e d "the c e r t a i n t y of m i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the charge of f a v o u r i t i s m " that might be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the govern-ment. He r e c o g n i s e d that any attempt by the government to favour h i s church over other denominations would only r e s u l t i n "much i r r i t a t i o n and c o n t e n t i o n , " and t h i s he was anxious 25 a v o i d . Whether more churches would have been b u i l t had government a i d continued i s u n c e r t a i n . A n g l i c a n churches at Douglas : and L i l l o o e t were b u i l t without government a s s i s t a n c e , but the D i s s e n t i n g denominations d i d not b u i l d a t L i l l o o e t u n t i l long a f t e r the grants were d i s c o n t i n u e d (the grants 26 stopped i n the mid-1860's). B u i l d i n g l o t s remained inex-pensive f o r many years, and those churches t h a t were b u i l t had o n l y s m a l l congregations. Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1881-1890 The decade 1881-1890 was not a time of much church c o n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As i n the p r e c e d i n g dec-ades, most churches e r e c t e d were f o r the Indian p o p u l a t i o n . Although the C.P.R. was completed i n 1886, white settlement d i d not a c c e l e r a t e u n t i l a f t e r about 1890 so few white churches were b u i l t . The A n g l i c a n s and Roman C a t h o l i c s were about e q u a l l y a c t i v e d u r i n g the decade. A second church f o r the A n g l i c a n n a t i v e s of L y t t o n was b u i l t i n 1885, w h i l e another may have been b u i l t a t Yankee F l a t a t about the same 27 time. The Indians of P o k h a i s t b u i l t a church i n 1882, w h i l e 28 those at North Bend r e b u i l t t h e i r e a r l i e r sanctuary of 1872. The c h i e f s of N i t l i c h p a m , Tikwalous, and Towinock may have 29 b u i l t .during the same decade. Churches f o r the predomiir: n a n t l y white settlements of Donald and Kamloops were b u i l t 30 i n 1887 and 1888. Both towns had r e c e n t l y become major cen t r e s f o r the C.P.R., and both seemed assured of permanent, " r e s p e c t a b l e " p o p u l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i n 1885, a small A n g l i c a n church was b u i l t near Armstrong (at Lansdowne), an E n g l i s h 31 v i l l a g e i n the n o r t h e r n Okanagan V a l l e y . In a l l , o n l y 66 about ten A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t , seven f o r the Indians and three f o r the whites. Roman C a t h o l i c a c t i v i t y was e q u a l l y r e s t r a i n e d . I n d i a n churches were b u i l t a t the east Kootenay Indian M i s s i o n of S t . Eugene i n 1880, a t Coldwater Creek and F o u n t a i n i n 1885, a t Douglas Lake i n 1888, and a t Ruby Creek i n 1 8 8 9 . 3 2 The e a r l i -e s t churches a t the P e n t i c t o n Indian Reserve and at the Inka-33 neep Indian Reserve may a l s o date from t h i s p e r i o d . A major re u n i o n church was b u i l t a t Okanagan M i s s i o n i n 1884, and r e -p l a c e d F r . Pandosy's f i r s t l o g c h a p e l - d w e l l i n g of 1861. C o n s t r u c t i o n i n white communities began i n 1885 when a church 35 was b u i l t a t Y a l e . Another was b u i l t i n the r a i l w a y town of Kamloops i n 1887, w h i l e another was b u i l t at O'Keefe i n 1 886. 3 6 Even i n 1890 the i n f l u e n c e of the Non-conforming denominations was s t i l l s l i g h t i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Methodist churches had been b u i l t at o n l y three l o c a t i o n s ; at Y a l e i n 1861 (a "miserable s h e l l o f a b u i l d i n g " ) , at Kamloops i n 1888, and a t Salmon Arm i n 1890. 3 7 The Church o f S c o t l a n d had b u i l t a church at N i c o l a i n 1876, w h i l e the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of Canada b u i l t a t Kamloops i n 1887 and 38 near Grand Forks i n 1890. P r e s b y t e r i a n a c t i v i t y was ham-pered by i n t e r n a l d i s u n i t y ( d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y ) , and by a shortage of funds and s t a f f . The Methodists were some-what b e t t e r organised, but they too s u f f e r e d shortages. Non-conformists sometimes s o l v e d b u i l d i n g shortages by s h a r i n g churches. I t i n e r a n t m i n i s t e r s of one denomina-V 68 tion were sometimes permitted to "borrow" churches belonging to other denominations. If a single community had two Non-conformist denominations but only one church and one minis-ter, the members of the church-less party generally worship-ped with the churched. When churches built by one denomina-tion were dedicated, representatives from the other usually 39 attended and sometimes helped direct the services. Be-cause of the co-operative spirit that prevailed in Non-con-formist missionary activity, neither Methodists nor Presby-terians felt obliged to match each other's church building programmes;:both often waited until a community had grown sufficiently to support two Dissenting churches. On some occasions even the Anglicans co-operated. In Barkerville, for example, Rev. G. A. Wilson rang the bell in the town's Anglican church to call his Presbyterian congregation to services held in the Methodist church.4^ Some rectors (such as Penticton's) even opened their pulpits to Non-conformist preachers. 4 1 The Anglicans stopped short of participating in "union churches" (to which diocesan funds could not be applied) since they preferred churches of their own, built to the specific needs of the Anglican liturgy. Church Construction: 1891-1900 Church construction accelerated significantly after 1890. Permanent settlers entered the province and the organ-ised churches rushed to their service. Many of these immi-grants were of a far different class from those who had swept through the gold colony a quarter-century before. Large numbers of s e t t l e r s , to be sure, probably viewed the church with disdain or suspicion, and saw l i t t l e need for church construction. But at the same time, a major section of the immigrants were middle-class i n outlook; industrious, mor-a l l y refined, and committed to family, home, empire, and the Ch r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . Wherever they went ...they b u i l t churches shortly a f t e r they s e t t l e d . The quarter-century preceding the outbreak of the F i r s t World War was a time of rapid population growth, marked eco-nomic development, and increased in-migration. I t was also when outward r e l i g i o u s observance seemed to reach i t s apogee. More churches were b u i l t during these decades than at any other time i n the history of the province. Missionary fervour was at i t s height, i t s rhetoric a blend of piety, moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and imperialism. B r i t i s h Roman Catho-43 l i e s and Orangemen a l i k e extolled God, King, and Empire. Imperial and r e l i g i o u s images were inextricaby mixed, mainly because most of the immigrants had B r i t i s h or B r i t i s h -Canadian antecedents. By the early twentieth century i t was clear that the province had become "the home of the English, esp e c i a l l y s e t t l e d by English and very often by English of the more cu l t i v a t e d and educated c l a s s e s . I t was "especial-l y incumbent" upon the Ch r i s t i a n church to follow B r i t i s h mi-grants "with the -eye of sympathy at every point i n t h e i r pas-sage from their old home to their new, to exercise a watch-f u l care oyer them, and to protect them from the dangers, moral and s p i r i t u a l , which beset t h e i r p ath." B r i t o n s f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t m a t e r i a l l y t h e i r e x p a t r i a t e b r e t h r e n , and o r g a n i s e d s o c i e t i e s f o r the purpose. P r i n c i p a l among t h e i r i n t e r e s t s was the p r o v i s i o n of churches. The aims of the B r i t -i s h Columbia and Yukon Church A i d S o c i e t y , f o r example, i n -cluded a s s i s t i n g "the Bishops i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r a d v i s o r s i n the a l l important task o f s e c u r i n g s i t e s of land, 46 and the e r e c t i o n o f cheap b u i l d i n g s thereon..." Other a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as the (Methodist) Ladies Home M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , had s i m i l a r a i m s . ^ Whether from O n t a r i o or from B r i t a i n , B r i t i s h Columbian A n g l i c a n s , Methodists, and Presby-t e r i a n s a l l r e c e i v e d such a i d . Funds were apportioned accord-in g to need and, as a r e s u l t , many churches were b u i l t w i t h l i t t l e l o c a l funding.^ 1" 8 U n l i k e other denominations, the p r o v i n c e ' s Roman Cath-o l i c s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a i d from B r i t a i n or e a s t e r n Canada. What l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e the Oblate Congregation d i d o b t a i n came main-l y from the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the F a i t h (found-49 ed i n Lyons i n 1822). As the n i n e t e e n t h century drew to a c l o s e , even t h i s a i d began to d e c l i n e . French a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m had l e d to the s u p p r e s s i o n of the Oblate Congregation i n 1879-80.^° With the order's a c t i v i t i e s c u r t a i l e d i n France, the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the F a i t h g r a d u a l l y l o s t s i g h t of Oblate a c t i v i t i e s overseas. By about 1900, Oblate ranks i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e d few reinforcements from e i t h e r France or Belgium, and Oblate c o f f e r s i n the p r o v i n c e r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a i d from the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation o f 71 the F a i t h . The Oblates were able to m a i n t a i n t h e i r e a r l i e r s t r e n g t h o n l y u n t i l about 1900; soon afterward, p a r t s of t h e i r d u t i e s were assumed by s e c u l a r p r i e s t s . ^ 1 In the l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h century, the fo u r main denominations b u i l t some e i g h t y - e i g h t .churches at new l o c a t i o n s i n the southern i n t e r i o r . D e s p i t e shortages of s t a f f and money, the Roman C a t h o l i c Church b u i l t at twenty-one p r e v i o u s l y unoccupied s i t e s . During the same p e r i o d the Church o f England, armed w i t h funds from B r i t a i n , b u i l t at twenty-two l o c a t i o n s . The Methodists b u i l t n i n e t e e n churches, and the P r e s b y t e r i a n s some twenty-six. Both Non-conformist denominations, l i k e the A n g l i c a n s , had i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n response to a c c e l e r a t e d settlement. As a r e s u l t , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f churches f o r the whites began to o u t s t r i p that f o r the Indians. During the f i f t y years b e f o r e 1891, onl y about f i f t y - t w o C h r i s t i a n churches had been b u i l t i n the south-ern i n t e r i o r , most of them f o r the n a t i v e Indians. Of the e i g h -t y - e i g h t churches b u i l t between 1891 and 1900, however, seventy-f o u r were f o r the white p o p u l a t i o n , and onl y f o u r t e e n f o r the Indians. Of the seventy-four churches f o r the whites, almost a l l ( s i x t y - s i x ) were P r o t e s t a n t . A l l f o u r t e e n Indian churches were b u i l t by Roman C a t h o l i c s . Oblate m i s s i o n s to the Indians reached t h e i r apogee i n the decade 1891-1900. Native chapels were b u i l t at about twelve v i l l a g e s i n the outhern i n t e r i o r , i n c l u d i n g the Kamloops-area v i l l a g e s o f Sahhaltkum (1892), N e s k a i n l i t h (1894), Qua'aout (c. 1895), Bonaparte (c. 1891), L i l l o o e t (c. 1899), Quilchena (1893-94) , and Enderby (c. 1899). D / L Indian churches were a l s o b u i l t at Okanagan Lake (1893), Equesis Creek (c. 1900), Westbank (c. 1895), Columbia Lake (c. 1892), and Shuswap (c. 1 8 9 2 ) . 5 3 The c o n s t r u c t i o n of Indian churches was p a r t l y a s s i s t e d by government a i d , f o r a f t e r about 1900, the Canadian govern-ment began to p r o v i d e funds f o r education to any denomina-t i o n t h at b u i l t a church or s c h o o l i n an Indian v i l l a g e . ^ 4 Through t h i s procedure the government i n e f f e c t granted semi-o f f i c i a l s t a t u s to denominations working i n p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e s . With government r e c o g n i t i o n o b tained by one denomination, r i v a l m i s s i o n a r i e s were u n l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e i n i t s work. Government a s s i s t a n c e may a l s o have aided r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d the Indian churches at Fountain, K o p c h i t c h i n , Doug-l a s Lake, P a v i l i o n , Kamloops, and St. Eugene were a l l r e b u i l t A i 55 on a grander s c a l e . Churches f o r the southern i n t e r i o r ' s p o p u l a t i o n of white C a t h o l i c s were fewer i n number, s i n c e the white C a t h o l i c popula-t i o n was small and d i s p e r s e d . The Oblate Congregation, of course r e f r a i n e d from e v a n g e l i s i n g the area's white P r o t e s t a n t s . The Oblates were " f o r e i g n p r i e s t s , " French-speaking C a t h o l i c s i n an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r e realm. Few p r i e s t s spoke E n g l i s h w e l l , and any attemptsas they made to convert P r o t e s t a n t s would have met r i d i c u l e or h o s t i l i t y . Thus, white C a t h o l i c churches were b u i l t at o n l y n i n e l o c a t i o n s : Donald (1892), Nelson (1893), K a s l o (1895-96), F o r t S t e e l e (1897), Vernon (1897), Moyie (1899), Greenwood (1899), Grand Forks (1899), and F e r n i e (1900). 5 The f i r s t g r e a t Non-conformist m i s s i o n a r y t h r u s t took 73 p l a c e i n the r e c e n t l y s e t t l e d e a s t e r n s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . In the e a r l y 1890's, both Methodists and P r e s b y t e r i a n s moved outward from t h e i r Kootenay bases at Nelson, and began a pro-gramme of e v a n g e l i s a t i o n remarkable f o r the r a p i d i t y and ex-te n t o f i t s church c o n s t r u c t i o n . Both denominations viewed church c o n s t r u c t i o n as a necessary t o o l of m i s s i o n work. S e v e r a l communities e r e c t e d churches even b e f o r e they were assured of m i n i s t e r s . Other settlements had churches b u i l t f o r them by clergymen whose c i r c u i t s were v e r y i l l - d e f i n e d , whose v i s i t s were s p o r a d i c and i n f r e q u e n t , and whose tenure was o f t e n v e r y s h o r t . C o n s t r u c t i o n by P r e s b y t e r i a n s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e x t e n s i v e , f o r the i n f o r m a l census conducted by Superintendent Robertson's envoys had suggested l o c a t i o n s 5 8 f o r f u t u r e churches. Robertson was determined to b u i l d P r e s b y t e r i a n churches i n every community c o n t a i n i n g Presby-59 t e r i a n s . In the f i r s t f i v e years of h i s superintendancy he e s t a b l i s h e d (on the average) one preaching s t a t i o n each fin week. By 1901 he had founded some 1,113 s t a t i o n s i n the Canadian West, had b u i l t 80 manses, and had arranged the 61 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 379 churches. Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches rose i n most Kootenay settlements of any s i z e : Methodist churches were b u i l t at Nelson (1891), New Denver (c. 1893), Ainsworth (1893), Rossland (1895), Slocan (1895), Kaslo (1895), T r a i l (1897), Grand Forks (1899), Cranbrook (1899), Greenwood (1900), 6 2 F e r n i e (1900), and Sandon (1900). During the same p e r i o d P r e s b y t e r i a n churches were b u i l t i n the Kootenay c e n t r e s of 74 Nelson (1892), Columbia (1893), Kaslo (1893), Windemere (1895), Spillamacheen (1895), Rossland (1895), New Denver (1897), S l o -can (1897), Nakusp (1897), F o r t S t e e l e (1897-98), Sandon (1898), C h r i s t i n a Lake (1898), Ymir.. (1898) , Cranbrook (1898), F e r n i e (1898-1900), Greenwood (1899-1900), and Grand Forks ( 1 9 0 0 ) . 6 3 Besides t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n the mining towns of the Kootenays, both denominations were a l s o a c t i v e i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . Methodist churches rose at Armstrong (1892), Vernon (1892-93), Enderby (1894), and Notch H i l l (c. 1 9 0 0 ) . 6 4 A lone Methodist church was b u i l t i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y (at Lower N i c o l a ) i n 1896. P r e s b y t e r i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Okanagan was on l y s l i g h t l y more e x t e n s i v e . Churches were e r e c t e d at Ben-v o u l i n (1891), Vernon (1891), Lumby (1895), Salmon Arm (1895), Kelowna (1898-99), and Chase ( 1 9 0 0 ) . 6 6 While Non-conformist m i s s i o n a r i e s were i m p e l l e d by a c e r t a i n sense of i m p e r i a l duty, i t was p r i m a r i l y the c l e r g y of the A n g l i c a n Church, coming as they d i d d i r e c t l y from England, who saw themselves as agents i n God's gr e a t scheme f o r the Empire. Many A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d that the Anglo-Saxon race was a modern "chosen people;" i t s m i s s i o n was to occupy, to c i v i l i s e , and to C h r i s t i a n i s e heathen t e r r i t o r i e s . I t was e s p e c i a l l y important t h a t A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s serve t h e i r b r e t h r e n overseas. B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h i t s l a r g e E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n , was an i d e a l m i s s i o n f i e l d . A n g l i c a n c l e r -i c s had noted as e a r l y as 1893 that " t h i s most w e s t e r l y prov-i n c e (had) some s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i v e power f o r members of the A n g l i c a n Communion over and above t h a t of other Canadian d i o -c e s e s . " By 1893, 24% of B r i t i s h Columbians were A n g l i c a n s , as compared to a Canadian average of 13.4%.^ 8 The Church of England p l a n t e d i t s b u i l d i n g s i n a l l s e c t i o n s of the southern i n t e r i o r , but i t s p r i n c i p a l s t r e n g t h l a y i n s e t t l e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l areas. While i t prospered w e l l enough i n the s e r v i c e towns, i t was r a t h e r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n the s m a l l e r , mining c e n t r e s . o f . t h e , Kootenays. Working-class miners o f t e n viewed the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y as u p p e r - c l a s s enemies, w i t h accents, a t t i t u d e s , and mannerisms much to be d i s d a i n e d . A n g l i c a n achievements i n the mining towns were, t h e r e f o r e , more dependent upon the i n f l u e n c e of a few g i f t e d clergymen than upon any l a t e n t l o y a l t y to the A n g l i c a n Church. Non-conform-i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s g e n e r a l l y met much g r e a t e r success i n the mining areas, though a g n o s t i c i s m remained q u i t e p r e v a l e n t . Non-conformists u s u a l l y b u i l t i n the mining camps b e f o r e the A n g l i c a n s d i d , whereas i n o r c h a r d i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , A n g l i c a n churches were g e n e r a l l y - b u i l t f i r s t . In the f i n a l decade of the n i n e t e e n t h century the A n g l i c a n s b u i l t at Enderby (1891), A s h c r o f t (1891-92), B a l f o u r (1892), P e n t i c t o n (1892), Vernon (1893), K a s l o (1895), F a i r v i e w (1895), Kelowna (1895>, Lumby (1895), Rossland (1896), Trout Creek (1897), Nelson (1898), F o r t S t e e l e (1898), Nakusp (1898), Westwold (1898), New Den-ver (1898), S i l v e r t o n (1899), T r a i l (1899), Cranbrook (1899), F e r n i e (1900), Phoenix (1900), Slocan (1900), and N i c o l a (1900). C u r i o u s l y , d e s p i t e the Canadian government's subsidy f o r denominations b u i l d i n g churches or schools i n Indian v i l l a g e s , o n l y one new Indian church was b u i l t (at MAP 6 ? WHITE CHURCH CONSTRUCTION: 1891-1900 r ;T\ A Roman Catholic ' © Anglican \ D Presbyterian o A Methodist L y t t o n , i n 1 8 9 5 ) . U 7 Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1901-1910 The f i r s t decade o f the t w e n t i e t h century was a time of g reat economic expansion and p o p u l a t i o n growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Most areas of the southern i n t e r i o r shared i n the gen e r a l p r o s p e r i t y . Mew towns and r u r a l settlements emerged i n p r e v i o u s l y unoccupied d i s t r i c t s w h i l e o l d e r communities grew. As a consequence, the decade was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by almost as much church c o n s t r u c t i o n as had oc c u r r e d i n the 1890's. S i x t y -f o u r churches were b u i l t between 1901 and 1910 ( e x c l u s i v e of second or replacement churches). Of these, f o u r t e e n were b u i l t by the Methodists, f i f t e e n by the P r e s b y t e r i a n s , f i f -teen by the A n g l i c a n s , and n i n e t e e n by the Roman C a t h o l i c s . By 1910 the Roman C a t h o l i c Church had b u i l t at s i x t y -four l o c a t i o n s , the Church of England at s i x t y , the P r e s b y t e r i a n s at f o r t y - t h r e e , and the Methodists at twenty-six. I f In d i a n chapels are deducted from these f i g u r e s , the P r e s b y t e r i a n s l e d wi t h f o r t y - t h r e e churches. The A n g l i c a n s f o l l o w e d w i t h f o r t y -two, w h i l e Methodists and Roman C a t h o l i c s t r a i l e d w i t h twenty-s i x and twenty r e s p e c t i v e l y . These l a t t e r f i g u r e s are more i n accord w i t h p r o v i n c i a l ' census f i g u r e s . By 1911, the Ang-l i c a n Church c o u l d c l a i m to be the l a r g e s t denomination i n the p r o v i n c e , w i t h 100,952 adherents. The P r e s b y t e r i a n s f o l -lowed w i t h 82,125 w h i l e the Roman C a t h o l i c s c o u l d c l a i m 58,397 and the Methodists 52,132. The f o u r main denominations accounted f o r 293,606 persons, or 75% of the p r o v i n c e ' s popula-78 t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , , i n 1911 o n l y 23,111 people or 5% gave t h e i r r e l i g i o n as " o t h e r " or f a i l e d to s p e c i f y . 7 ^ Thus, of B r i t i s h Columbia's 1911 p o p u l a t i o n of about 400,000, the v a s t m a j o r i t y were at l e a s t n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , P r o t e s t a n t . As the p r o v i n c e ' s white p o p u l a t i o n s w e l l e d , so d i d the frequency of P r o t e s t a n t church b u i l d i n g s . B r i t i s h Columbia's southern i n t e r i o r , once d o t t e d p r i m a r i l y by Roman C a t h o l i c Indian chapels, was i n c r e a s i n g l y covered by P r o t e s t a n t churches. Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches comprised a major p o r t i o n of the P r o t e s t a n t churches. Non-conformist c l e r i c s and con-g r e g a t i o n s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y f r i e n d l y toward one another, began i n the l a t e 1890's a>movement toward union t h a t was to have s i g n i -f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r church c o n s t r u c t i o n . Before the twen-t i e t h century, Methodists and P r e s b y t e r i a n s seldom j o i n e d f o r m a l l y i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r church b u i l d i n g programmes. Des p i t e i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , c o n s i d e r a b l e d u p l i c a t i o n had taken p l a c e as both denominations sometimes b u i l t i n the same small towns. Although c o - o p e r a t i o n was l e s s e s s e n t i a l i n the l a r g e r towns (where g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d support two D i s s e n t i n g churches), from the e a r l y 1900's settlements both l a r g e and small were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o - o p e r a t i v e experiments. O f f i c i a l t a l k s toward union began i n 1904 and a f o r m a l -i s e d p o l i c y o f " j u d i c i o u s c o - o p e r a t i o n " was put i n t o a c t i o n . 7 1 Both churches agreed to a v o i d competing w i t h each other wher-ever i t was p o s s i b l e . I f one denomination i n a town l a c k e d i t s adherents were not o n l y p e r m i t t e d , but expected to a t t e n d s e r -79 v i c e s at the n e a r e s t church b e l o n g i n g to the other D i s s e n t i n g denomination. Both p a r t i e s even agreed to prevent or at l e a s t a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n i n church c o n s t r u c t i o n , though congregations not sympathetic toward union sometimes ig n o r e d t h i s p o l i c y . S t i l l , by 1909, c o - o p e r a t i v e ventures had borne c o n s i d e r a b l e f r u i t : the Methodists a d m i n i s t e r e d to twenty-three B r i t i s h Columbian communities not served by the P r e s b y t e r i a n s , w h i l e the P r e s b y t e r i a n s worked at twenty-seven-points not served 72 by the Methodists (In d i a n communities excepted). F u r t h e r , even b e f o r e 1925 (the date of church u n i o n ) , Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n congregations sometimes co-operated i n the con-s t r u c t i o n of "union churches," b u i l d i n g s t h a t were shared by the two denominations. During the decade 1901-1910, the Non-conformist deno-minations i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the o r c h a r d i n g areas of the i n t e r i o r ' but a l s o maintained t h e i r commitment to the mining towns. Methodist churches were b u i l t f o r M i c h e l - N a t a l (c. 1901), Moyie (1901), Kimberley (1901), Hosmer (1902), Morissey (1902), Coal Creek (1902), Kelowna (1903), Phoenix (1904), P e n t i c t o n (1906), Creston (1907), Rutland (1908), Glenbank (1908), Harrop (1910), and M e r r i t t ( 1 9 1 0 ) . 7 3 Presby-t e r i a n churches were b u i l t at Phoenix (1901), Armstrong (1901), F a i r v i e w (1904), P e n t i c t o n (1904), Midway (1905), Wilmer (1905), Enderby (1906), Moyie (1908), Keremeos (1908), Okanagan Centre (1908), L i l l o o e t (1908), Wardner (1908), Creston (1909), West Summerland (c. 1910), and M e r r i t t ( 1 9 1 0 ) . 7 4 During the same p e r i o d A n g l i c a n c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the area 80 waned s l i g h t l y , perhaps because the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel was withdrawing i t s support. 7"* Only a very few A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t between 1901 and 1910, a t : Green-wood (1901), Grand Forks (1901), Arrowhead (1905), M i c h e l (1905), St. George's School (near L y t t o n , 1906), Salmon Arm (1907), Summerland (1909), Goose Lake (c. 1910), and W y c l i f f e ( 1 9 1 0 ) . 7 6 Indian chapels were b u i l t at Inkatsaph i n 1901 and at Kanaka i n 1905. 7 7 N a t i v e chapels were a l s o r e b u i l t at s e v e r a l p l a c e s , i n c l u d i n g Spuzzum (1903), Pokhaist (1903), and Spences Bridge (1905 and again i n 1 9 1 0 ) . 7 8 Roman C a t h o l i c c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y was e q u a l l y r e -s t r a i n e d . France's f i n a l a n t i - c l e r i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1901-05 79 was a major setback f o r the Oblate Congregation. A severe shortage of p r i e s t s and the meagrehess of B r i t i s h Columbia's white C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t a l l but the most necessary church c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n d i a n chapels s t i l l dominated Roman C a t h o l i c b u i l d i n g programmes, but c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r the whites i n c r e a s e d as white C a t h o l i c s e t t l e r s began to c l u s t e r . New churches were b u i l t i n n a t i v e v i l l a g e s at Salmon R i y e r (c. 1904), Chopaka (c. 1909), Chuchuweyha (c. 1905), Tobacco P l a i n s (1903), Shulus (1902),.Slosh (c. 1902), N e c a i t (c. 1905), O A Switsemelph (c. 1900), and Creston (1903). Churches f o r the white community emerged at S i l v e r t o n (1903), Nakusp (1903), Phoenix (1903), New Denver (1903),,Cranbrook (1901), Kelowna (1908), Salmon Arm (1908), and j ; M e r r i t t ( 1 9 0 1 ) . 8 1 The p r i n -c i p a l s t r e n g t h s o f the white Roman C a t h o l i c Church d e r i v e d from French-Canadian and southern European landowners and MAP 7 J WHITE CHURCH CONSTRUCTION: 1901-1910 A Roman Catholic © Anglican n Presbyterian A Methodist 82 lumbermen. Churches were b u i l t wherever such congregations were of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e and means to make b u i l d i n g ventures p o s s i b l e . The C a t h o l i c church at Nakusp, f o r example, owed 82 i t s o r i g i n s to f o r e s t i n d u s t r y workers from Quebec. S i m i l a r l y , I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s a t Kelowna and Spanish s e t t l e r s at M e r r i t t 83 made p o s s i b l e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e churches. Church C o n s t r u c t i o n : 1911-1925 Compared to b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n the p r e c e d i n g two decades, church c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the years 1911-25 was of minor p r o p o r t i o n s . Only a v e r y few (mainly A n g l i c a n ) churches were b u i l t d u r i n g the f o u r years p r e c e d i n g the outbreak of the F i r s t World War. Fewer s t i l l were b u i l t d u r i n g the war, f o r i n 1914 m i s s i o n funds were d i v e r t e d to other purposes. M i n i s t e r s of a l l denominations went to Europe as c h a p l a i n s , and theology students who might have takem t h e i r p l a c e themselves e n l i s t e d to serve i n the war. Strengths of congregations were s i m i l a r l y d i minished. Church b u i l d i n g was at a s t a n d s t i l l . Post-war recover y was slow; even i n the 1920's few churches were b u i l t . For some denominations, of course, e x t e n s i v e church c o n s t r u c t i o n became l e s s necessary. By about 1911, the Non-conformists had a p p a r e n t l y b u i l t most of the churches that they were to r e q u i r e . Thus, a f t e r about 1911, o n l y a few Methodist churches were b u i l t : at Naramata, Peachland, and 84 Summerland i n 1911, and at Oyama i n 1918. A l l f o u r churches were i n r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d o r c h a r d i n g communities i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . During the same years P r e s b y t e r i a n a c t i v i t y 83 was d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y toward the Kootenays, and was complement-ary to Wesleyan work i n the area. Churches were b u i l t at Burton, Brouse, and Athalmer i n 1911, at Summerland i n 1912, 85 and at P r o c t e r i n 1913. A f t e r the war Methodist c o n s t r u c t i o n ceased but the P r e s b y t e r i a n s b u i l t at P r i n c e t o n i n 1920, at O l i v e r i n 1922, and at Wynndel i n 1925. 8 6 The church at F a l k -la n d (a former schoolhouse) was, i n 1925, among the f i r s t b u i l d -87 ings d e d i c a t e d by the new U n i t e d Church of Canada. During the years immediately p r e c e d i n g the war the Oblate m i s s i o n s were c l e a r l y i n d e c l i n e . Apparently o n l y one Indian church was b u i l t (at Bridge R i v e r i n 1912) though c o n s t r u c t i o n 88 by s e c u l a r p r i e s t s f o r white C a t h o l i c s a c c e l e r a t e d s l i g h t l y . Churches f o r whites were probably b u i l t by 1915 at Slocan, Hope, 89 P e n t i c t o n (1914, O b l a t e ) , L y t t o n , and P r o c t e r . F u r t h e r con-s t r u c t i o n f o l l o w e d the war when churches were probably b u i l t a t Notch H i l l , Chase, B r i d e s v i l l e , Yahk, Grindrod, and perhaps Canal F l a t s . 9 0 In the f i f t e e n year p e r i o d from 1911 u n t i l 1925, the Roman C a t h o l i c s , Methodists, and P r e s b y t e r i a n s together b u i l t o n l y about twenty-four churches at p r e v i o u s l y unoccupied s i t e s . During the same p e r i o d , however:,;, the A n g l i c a n Church prospered, and b u i l t at l e a s t t h i r t y - f i v e churches. Such a volume of c o n s t r u c t i o n was probably necessary, f o r thousands of E n g l i s h A n g l i c a n s had a r r i v e d i n the years 1900-12. By 1921, 29% of B r i t i s h Columbians were of B r i t i s h b i r t h , compared to 15% i n O n t a r i o and a Canadian average of 12%. S i m i l a r l y , 31% of / B r i t i s h Columbians were A n g l i c a n s , compared to 22% i n O n t a r i o 84 and a Canadian average o f 16%. A f t e r 1911, A n g l i c a n s t r e n g t h s i n B r i t i s h Columbia l a y , as b e f o r e , w i t h B r i t i s h m i d d l e - c l a s s immigrants: second sons, 92 r e t i r e d m i l i t a r y men, adventurers, and o t h e r s . L i k e the clergymen who served them, many A n g l i c a n s e t t l e r s hoped to s e t t l e the p r o v i n c e w i t h f e l l o w Englishmen, and to e s t a b l i s h commercially sound a g r i c u l t u r a l communities. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l supporters i n England hoped to make the p r o v i n c e "the m i g h t i e s t adjunct o f (the) Kingdom anywhere beyond the seas," and to make i t s E n g l i s h i n h a b i t a n t s a " g o d - f e a r i n g and god-serving 93 people." Such ambitions, of course, d i d not appeal to a l l . As b e f o r e , many l a b o u r e r s viewed the A n g l i c a n Church as an 94 e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s m i n i s t e r s as "snobs." The Diocese of Kootenay r e c o g n i s e d these f e e l i n g s and as e a r l y as 1904 organ-95 i s e d a "Committee on the A l i e n a t i o n o f the Working Man." Even i n 1911, Rev. H. Beer had to r e p o r t t h a t " l i t t l e p rogress can be reco r d e d i n our work i n the s i l v e r and l e a d mining d i s t r i c t s . " 9 6 J u s t as the Church of England's appeal was l a r g e l y con-f i n e d to the m i d d l e - c l a s s , so were i t s b u i l d i n g s r e s t r i c t e d to p a r t i c u l a r areas. The p a t t e r n t h a t began l a t e i n the n i n e -teenth century continued a f t e r 1911: w h i l e Non-conformist churches rose i n most mining v i l l a g e s , A n g l i c a n churches c o u l d be found i n o n l y a few. A n g l i c a n s t r e n g t h s i n s t e a d c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the l a r g e r s e r v i c e centres and i n dozens of a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e -ments. Of the t w e n t y - f i v e A n g l i c a n churches e r e c t e d i n the four years p r e c e d i n g 1914, almost a l l were b u i l t i n r u r a l s e t t l e -MAP 8 WHITE CHURCH CONSTRUCTION: 1911-1925 A Roman Catholic 9 Anglican • Presbyterian A Methodist merits such as Wilmer, Creston, Peachland, Okanagan M i s s i o n , and Sorrento ( a l l b u i l t i n 1911); K e t t l e V a l l e y (moved from Rock Creek), Arrow Park, Willow P o i n t , Shakkan ( I n d i a n ) , Needles, and Trout Lake C i t y ( a l l b u i l t i n 1912); and Mara, P r o c t e r , Kokanee, Holmwood, Edgewood, Queen's Bay, Canford ( I n d i a n ) , 97 M e r r i t t , and Canoe ( a l l b u i l t c. 1913). A church was b u i l t 98 i n the mining town of P r i n c e t o n i n 1911. F u r t h e r churches i n mining areas were b u i l t i n 1914 at Hedley, Coalmont, and 99 South Slocan. Other war-time churches i n c l u d e those at Okanagan Centre, Ymir (subsequently ceded to the Roman Cath-o l i c s ) , Sho-ook ( I n d i a n ) , and G r i n d r o d ( 1 9 1 8 ) . 1 0 0 A f t e r the F i r s t World War, A n g l i c a n church c o n s t r u c t i o n r e c o v e r e d o n l y slowly, though admittedly, most p l a c e s t h a t were to r e q u i r e churches a l r e a d y had them by 1918. A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t at Keremeos and Invermere i n 1923 and at Kimberley and 1 0? Westbank i n 1925. In the l a t e 1920's A n g l i c a n church con-s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d once a g a i n as new E n g l i s h o r c h a r d i n g s e t t l ments emerged i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , but t h i s development l i e 103 beyond the scope of t h i s study. Summary In B r i t i s h Columbia's southern i n t e r i o r church b u i l d i n g were g e n e r a l l y e r e c t e d whenever and wherever sympathetic con-g r e g a t i o n s were l a r g e enough to warrant them and clergymen a v a i l a b l e to serve. R e g i o n a l and temporal p a t t e r n s of church c o n s t r u c t i o n were consequently dependent upon inter-denomina-t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and the p r o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y of settlement and 87 economic development. Thus, few churches f o r the white popula-t i o n were b u i l t b e f o r e the completion of the C.P.R., w h i l e scores were b u i l t t h e r e a f t e r . Most p r e - r a i l w a y churches were designed by Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s f o r use by Indians. Churches b u i l t a f t e r 1886, however, were mainly f o r white P r o t e s t a n t s . B r i t i s h Columbia's southeastern quadrant experienced s e v e r a l waves of European settlement between 1858 and 1925. Each of these l e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f churches. P r o t e s t a n t churches began to be b u i l t from the e a r l y 1860's as A n g l i c a n and Methodist clergymen m i n i s t e r e d to miners i n the F r a s e r and Cariboo d i s t r i c t s . Few European churches were b u i l t d uring the economic d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1870's. C o n s t r u c t i o n of churches f o r the area's n a t i v e s , however, continued unabated. Most of the f i r s t I n d i a n churches i n the Thompson, F r a s e r , and Okanagan V a l l e y s were b u i l t i n the 1860's and 1870's. Those b u i l t i n the d i s t r i c t around L y t t o n were A n g l i c a n s , w h i l e the r e s t were Roman C a t h o l i c s . Church c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r the whites resumed i n the 1880's, p r i m a r i l y i n centres a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C.P.R. The number of Roman C a t h o l i c I ndian churches a l s o rose i n the 1880's. Most such churches were i n the N i c o l a and Upper Thompson V a l l e y s , and i n the Kootenays. Oblate church c o n s t r u c t i o n reached i t s apogee i n the 1890's, wh i l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f churches f o r A n g l i c a n s continued u n t i l the outbreak o f the F i r s t World War. J u s t as churches were b u i l t wherever there were Indians, so were churches b u i l t at v i r t u a l l y every white settlement o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e . The 1890's were a p e r i o d o f remarkable p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic development 88 f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s Europeans. As Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n congregations grew, m i s s i o n a r i e s from e a s t e r n Canada came to serve them. E n g l i s h immigration c r e a t e d a s i m i l a r l y vigourous A n g l i c a n p o p u l a t i o n . The Non-conformist denominations found t h e i r g r e a t e s t support i n the wor k i n g - c l a s s camps and towns of the Kootenays, w h i l e A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r s were more f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d i n s e r v i c e towns and a g r i c u l t u r a l communities. A l -though t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n continued i n t o the t w e n t i e t h century, i t was not hard a n d , f a s t . The Church o f England d i d e v e n t u a l l y b u i l d i n wo r k i n g - c l a s s areas and n e i t h e r P r e s b y t e r i a n s nor Methodists were excluded from church c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the or-chardi n g d i s t r i c t s . Oblate m i s s i o n s to the Indians d e c l i n e d i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, w h i l e work by s e c u l a r p r i e s t s among white Roman C a t h o l i c s grew. Though not of major p r o p o r t i o n s , a pro-gramme of s e c u l a r church c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n the years a f t e r 1900. P r o t e s t a n t church c o n s t r u c t i o n remained v i g o u r o u s . Many Non-conformist churches rose i n the years b e f o r e the F i r s t World War, but A n g l i c a n c o n s t r u c t i o n was f a r more im p r e s s i v e . The once r e c o g n i s a b l e aggregations o f Oblate Indian churches became l e s s obvious as P r o t e s t a n t s t r u c t u r e s invaded t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . By the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, the southern i n t e r i o r , once an area o f Roman C a t h o l i c churches only, was f a r more ecumenical. Only i n those few areas not thoroughly per-meated by white settlement ( p a r t s o f the F r a s e r Canyon, f o r example) d i d Roman C a t h o l i c churches continue to dominate the landscape. 89 Church c o n s t r u c t i o n by a l l denominations v i r t u a l l y h a l t e d by about 1915, f o r most communites t h a t were to r e q u i r e sanctu-a r i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r denominational stamp had a l r e a d y f i l l e d t h e i r needs. This f a c t , coupled w i t h the slownness of pos t -war recovery, prevented any a c c e l e r a t i o n i n church c o n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l the mid-1920's, by which time many s t r u c t u r e s of e a r l i e r f o u n d a t i o n were e i t h e r b e ing enlarged or r e p l a c e d . 90 Chapter 4 -The Church A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Southern I n t e r i o r : Form and S t r u c t u r e I n t r o d u c t o r y Having d i s c u s s e d the f o r c e s t h a t l e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the e a r l y churches of the southern i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , and having i d e n t i f i e d r e g i o n a l and temporal p a t t e r n s of c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s now p o s s i b l e to move to an examination o f the b u i l t form i t s e l f . The pages that f o l l o w i d e n t i f y the p r i n -c i p a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each denomination's b u i l d i n g s , d i s c u s s i n g r e g i o n a l and temporal v a r i a t i o n s i n s t y l e , m a t e r i a l s , and b u i l d i n g technology. The subsequent two chap-t e r s w i l l examine the d o c t r i n a l , l i t u r g i c a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and environmental f o r c e s that moulded the a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. Roman C a t h o l i c Church A r c h i t e c t u r e Many e a r l y Roman C a t h o l i c churches of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia were b u i l t by the Oblate Congregation, the r e s t under the s u p e r v i s i o n of p a r o c h i a l ( s e c u l a r ) p r i e s t s . Oblate s t r u c t u r e s date mainly from b e f o r e 1908, the year i n which the pro v i n c e ' s diocesan c l e r g y adopted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r many par-i s h e s f o r m e r l y under Oblate care. ( Although a f t e r 1908 Indian m i s s i o n work remained the s o l e p r e s e r v e o f the Oblate Order, few Indian chapels were b u i l t . Churches b u i l t by p a r o c h i a l p r i e s t s were onl y s l i g h t l y more numerous ( s i n c e Oblate p r i e s t s had a l r e a d y b u i l t churches f o r many white c o n g r e g a t i o n s ) . While s e v e r a l congregations i n growing towns r e p l a c e d t h e i r o l d , out-moded churches w i t h more p r e t e n t i o u s s t r u c t u r e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n of v e r n a c u l a r churches was l i m i t e d . D e s p i t e the order's dimin-i s h e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , even i n 1925 Oblate churches were s t i l l the most p r e v a l e n t C a t h o l i c s t r u c t u r e s i n the southern i n t e r i o r . P a r o c h i a l C a t h o l i c churches were l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the r e c e n t l y s e t t l e d Kootenay d i s t r i c t . The western p o r t i o n o f the south-ern i n t e r i o r remained f o r many years ( a f t e r 1925) an area s t r o n g -l y Oblate i n c h a r a c t e r . Oblate churches can be d e f i n e d as crude I n d i a n chapels, as town churches and m i s s i o n churches proper, or as r e g i o n a l r e u n i o n churches. The second category c o n t a i n s the g r e a t e s t number of churches. Few crude Indian chapels s u r v i v e (though many were b u i l t ) , and o n l y one or two r e g i o n a l r e u n i o n churches were e r e c t e d i n a s i n g l e m i s s i o n a r y d i s t r i c t . While crude Indian chapels e x h i b i t l i t t l e r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y , other Oblate churches do. Crude I n d i a n chapels were the e a r l i e s t Oblate s a n c t u a r i e s . They were sma l l (perhaps 10 f e e t by 15 f e e t ) , p o o r l y b u i l t , and g e n e r a l l y d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from other v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e s . As Father Morice suggested, most "were n o t h i n g e l s e but lodges o f a s p e c i a l form.""'" Almost without e x c e p t i o n , these chapels were of l o g . Indians exposed to European b u i l d i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s sometimes squared t h e i r logs and attempted d o v e - t a i l j o i n t s , w h i l e those i n more t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g s continued to b u i l d much as they always had done. When logs were l e f t i n t h e i r n a t u r a l , round c o n d i t i o n , saddle-notch j o i n t s were o f t e n used. L o n g i t u d i n a l j o i n t s were o f t e n uneven, and c l a y c h i n k i n g was r e q u i r e d to make the chapels w e a t h e r - t i g h t . Logs of i n c o n s i s t e n t s i z e s were o f t e n used and b u i l d i n g s were consequently both s t r u c t u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y unsound. Crude Indian chapels were r e c t a n g u l a r i n p l a n and d e c i d -e d l y u n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n appearance. Roofs were a p p a r e n t l y gabled but g e n e r a l l y low p i t c h e d . Wooden poles served as pur-l i n s and supported hand-hewn shakes. Such chapels o f t e n l a c k e d windows; had no p r o v i s i o n f o r chancels, porches, towers, or b e l f r i e s ; and seldom had i n t e r i o r l u x u r i e s (such as h e a t i n g , v e n t i l a t o r s , or s e a t i n g ) . Doors might remain unhinged, and were b u i l t of hand-hewn boards i n s t e a d o f p r e c i s e l y m i l l e d p a n e l s . F l o o r s were of d i r t or t r e e bark and w a l l s r e s t e d d i r e c t l y on the ground. F a t h e r Morice's d e s c r i p t i o n o f a Dene In d i a n chapel i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to the f i r s t n a t i v e chapels of the southern i n t e r i o r : "Leur e g l i s e e s t b i e n m i s e r a b l e . . . I l s l a b a t i r e n t i l y a c i n q ans, apres l a premiere v i s i t e du p r e t r e , a l o r s q u ' i l s e t a i e n t tout a f a i t n o v i c e s en ce genre de c o n s t r u c t i o n . Les troncs d'arbres q u i en forment l e s murs l a i s s e n t e n t r e eux un v i d e q u i p e r m e t t r a i t de passer l e s bras, e t , l a n u i t , on p o u r r a i t sans peine a p e r c e v o i r l e s e t o i l e s par l e s trous du t o i t . " 2 As Morice suggested, such chapels were temporary s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were more the product of Indian t a s t e s and z e a l than of c l e r i c a l p l a n n i n g ; even t h e i r i n t e r i o r s seldom bore a r e c o g n i -sable denominational stamp. P r i m i t i v e Indian chapels were probably b u i l t a t many permanent or semi-permanent encampments, p r i n c i p a l l y i n the years from 1860 to the l a t e 1880's (but mainly, one suspects, i n the 1860's). Of the f i f t y - f i v e new Indian churches b l e s s e d by Bishop d'Herbomez i n the p e r i o d 1864-68, most were l i k e l y crude l o g h o v e l s , supplanted w i t h i n a few decades by b u i l d i n g s of f a r g r e a t e r p r e t e n s i o n . Most e a r l y chapels r e c e i v e d l i t t l e mention i n Oblate correspondence-- they were u n i n s p i r i n g b u i l d i n g s of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t to supporters i n France-- and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to compile a f u l l l i s t i n g of them. Crude Indian chapels v a r i e d l i t t l e e i t h e r through time or space. The s i z e and s p e c i e s of t r e e s used i n t h e i r con-s t r u c t i o n , to be sure, d i f f e r e d r e g i o n a l l y , but a chapel b u i l t from Douglas F i r looked much l i k e one of lodgepole p i n e or cedar. Father Demers' d e s c r i p t i o n i n 1841 of an Indian chapel at Cow-l i t z (Oregon T e r r i t o r y ) resembles Father Morice's r e f e r e n c e s to chapels b u i l t i n the 1880's. L i k e Morice (see above), Demers spoke of "a rude construction...made of round and rough t r e e trunks, notched and c r o s s e d at the ends to form the c o r n e r s , having a paving of n o t h i n g but some p i e c e s squared by an axe 3 and f i t t e d i n the same way, without c e i l i n g . " The e a r l i e s t chapels of the P a c i f i c North-West, whether b u i l t i n the 1840's near the c o a s t , or i n the 1870's f u r t h e r i n l a n d , were a l l s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r . A f t e r about 1890, the Oblates b u i l t dozens of semi-permanent wood frame churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t -i s h Columbia. Many such b u i l d i n g s r e p l a c e d o l d e r I n d i a n church-es , w h i l e others served congregations (both white and Indian) of more r e c e n t f o u n d a t i o n . Log s t r u c t u r e s were s t i l l b u i l t , but r a r e l y , and o n l y on Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s (at Equesis Creek and St. Eugene, f o r example). They were r e l a t i v e l y complex b u i l d i n g s , f a r l a r g e r and more c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d than t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . But whether of lumber or of l o g , town churches and Indian replacement churches shared the same s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s : nave, s a c r i s t y or c h a n c e l , and tower. A s a c r i s t y (a combined v e s t r y , k i t c h e n , and s l e e p i n g space) o f t e n stands beyond a nave's " e a s t e r n " w a l l , w h i l e a tower u s u a l l y r i s e s at the nave's "western" extremity. Since t r u e chancels (with e x t e r i o r s t r u c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n ) are somewhat uncommon, the sacred f u n c t i o n s are o f t e n accomodate on a p l a t -form i n s t e a d (at the nave's e a s t e r n end). Where true chancels do e x i s t , they are i n e v i t a b l y lower than t h e i r naves, covered by gabled r o o f s , and consequently e x t e r n a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from s a c r i s t i e s or v e s t r i e s . E n t r y to Oblate town and m i s s i o n churches i s always through the western end. Doorways are u s u a l l y c o ntained w i t h i n c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d f r o n t towers. Oblate towers are commonly square i n p l a n and s l i g h t l y set i n t o the mass of the nave, accounting f o r about o n e - t h i r d of the nave's width. Churches i n towns are l e s s l i k e l y to have b e l l towers (probably because white towns-people, u n l i k e I n d i a n neophytes, d i d n ' t have to be c a l l e d to p r a y e r ) . When towers are absent, doors are i n s e r t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the western facade. While Methodist and A n g l i c a n churches o f t e n have low, gabled porches i n s t e a d o f towers, Oblate churches do not. Feet ' » » " — ' 0 3 6 9 U 1 ~1 I Fig, 2. Floorplan of a Hypothetical Crude Indian Chapel. — i rzzn i i i i c D a — i i — i i — ) r — i c Fig. 3. Floorplan of a Hypothetical Oblate Town or Mission Church. Most Oblate church towers serve several purposes. They act as porches, house heavy bronze bells, and support symbolic spires and crosses. Churches lacking towers usually have asser-tive belfries, invariably placed above the western gable. Twin spired churches are rare in Oblate architecture. None were built in the southern interior, and only a few in the Lower Mainland (at Sechelt, Capilano, Musqueam, and Skookumchuck). Oblate town and mission churches are usually balloon frame structures, built with milled lumber and skilfully assembled. Most are sheathed with shiplap and roofed with wood-en shingles. A l l have fully furnished interiors, complete with pews (and kneelers), altars, and reredoses. Although chairs might be provided for the priests, pulpits and lecterns are conspicuous by their absence. Galleries sometimes stand above the nave's western door, increasing seating capacities or serving as choir lofts. Virtually a l l interiors have vertical wains-cotting and wooden barrel vaults. Most churches have space for fifty to one hundred people. their naves usually measure about 20 feet by 30, and most are of common proportions (about one unit of width to one and one-half or two units of length). The largest and smallest churches both share these proportions. Thus, the l i t t l e church at Slosh (15 feet 6 inches by 22 feet) and the large church at Kelowna (36 feet 6 inches by 60 feet), both approximate this relationship. Although Oblate town and mission churches always conform to certain structural norms, no two buildings are identical. P l a t e 3. Oblate m i s s i o n church at Enderby. Most, however, are members of s t y l i s t i c a l l y d e f i n e d r e g i o n a l sub-types. Four r e g i o n a l s t y l e s o f Oblate town and m i s s i o n churches e x i s t : i n the Boundary-Kootenay area, i n the Okanagan-Similkameen d i s t r i c t , i n the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t , and i n the Thompson and N i c o l a V a l l e y s . S t r i c t l y speaking, Thompson-N i c o l a churches are more an aggregation than a s t y l e , f o r many are unique compositions. D i s t i n c t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l churches e x i s t i n each of the other three r e g i o n s , but w i t h i n each o f those areas most b u i l d i n g s are of a common type. While the Boundary-Kootenay and Okanagan-Similkameen d i s t r i c t s f a l l f u l l y w i t h i n the study area, the other two d i s -t r i c t s do not. P a r t of the Thompson R i v e r b a s i n (the v a l l e y of the North Thompson R i v e r ) extends beyond the southern i n t e r i o r , and i s consequently beyond the scope of t h i s analy-s i s . S i m i l a r l y , o n l y p a r t of the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t l i e s w i t h i n the study area. The d i s t r i c t i n c l u d e s the F r a s e r V a l l e y ; the L i l l o o e t , H a r r i s o n , and Anderson b a s i n s ; and the southern-most p a r t o f the lower coast. An area p r i m a r i l y c o a s t a l i n i t s c h a r a c t e r and connections, the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t e x h i b i t s few p h y s i c a l a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the southern i n t e r i o r . The onl y b u i l d i n g s i n the study area w i t h i n i t s c o n f i n e s are those bor-d e r i n g the canyon o f the middle F r a s e r R i v e r . F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t churches are d i s t i n g u i s h e d mainly by t h e i r Gothic towers and s p i r e s . The towers of the d i s t r i c t r i s e as s i n g l e , s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s , u n i n t e r r u p t e d by v e r t i c a l s t a g i n a t i o n . Most are capped by low, pyramidal r o o f s which i n t u r n support p o l y g o n a l drums and t a l l , p o l y g o n a l s p i r e s . When p a r t i c u l a r l y lofty (as at Skookumchuck, Musqueam, and Harrison Mills), roof-top drums are enclosed by louvres. A l l examples surviving in the southern interior, however (Slosh, Necait, and Pavilion), are lower and open. Fraser-Lillooet spires are usually oct-agonal in plan (as at Musqueam, Harrison Mills, Pavilion, Katzie, Fountain, Skookumchuck, Sliammon, and Necait). A few (such as Slosh and Fort Langley) are hexagonal. Decorative shingle-work is common on their roofs and a l l are crowned by distinctive Oblate crosses. A few spires are vertically ribbed. Many display coronas of gablets around their bases. Churches in the district also have Gothic interiors. Most naves share a common type of barrel vault, notable for its angularity in section. Examples of the vault survive at Slosh, Necait, and Cayoosh Creek. A particularly fine variation at Mount Currie (destroyed by fire in 1953) had a scallopped lower edge supported by pendanted brackets. Fraser-Lillooet churches also have distinctive altars. Chancel furnishings in the district are often more complex and generally much more Gothic than those in other areas. The grand Gothic altars and lateral shrines of Skookumchuck, Necait, and Mount Currie, with their crocketted spires, pepperpots, trefoils, and canopied niches, know no equals elsewhere in the southern interior. Rem-nant chancel furnishings at Pavilion, Slosh, and Cayoosh Creek suggest that other churches in the district were similarly Gothic, though somewhat more restrained. The Oblate town and mission churches of the Boundary-Kootenay district are remarkably uniform (with three or four P l a t e 5. Oblate m i s s i o n church at N e c a i t . Both churches are i n the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t s t y l e . P l a t e 7. I n t e r i o r view of the Oblate church a t Mt. C u r r i e . Mt. C u r r i e and N e c a i t are both i n the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t s t y l e . e x c e p t i o n s ) . L i k e the churches of the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t area, they are e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r towers and s p i r e s . Bound-ary-Kootenay towers u s u a l l y r i s e i n two stages. Each l e v e l has i t s own s l o p e d r o o f , the upper t i e r i s u s u a l l y narrower than i t s supporter. F o u r - s i d e d b e l f r i e s and s p i r e s u s u a l l y stand atop each tower. The d i s t r i c t ' s bell-chambers are both open (as at Creston, Grand Forks, Greenwood, F o r t S t e e l e , and Moyie) and c l o s e d (as at F e r n i e , Columbia Lake, Shuswap, and r Cranbrook). S e v e r a l have d e c o r a t i v e r a i l i n g s and b r a c k e t s about t h e i r p i e r s . A l l support s p i r e s of moderate p r o p o r t i o n s . With the e x c e p t i o n of p o l y g o n a l examples at F e r n i e , Columbia Lake, Shuswap, and F o r t S t e e l e , a l l s p i r e s i n the d i s t r i c t are f o u r -s i d e d . S e v e r a l s p i r e s are b e l l - c a s t at t h e i r eaves, w h i l e others d i s p l a y s e t s o f f o u r f r e t t e d g a b l e t s . Boundary-Kootenay churches, l i k e those of the F r a s e r -L i l l o o e t area, are g e n e r a l l y Gothic i n mood (at l e a s t e x t e r n a l -l y ) . Round headed windows are never, employed, w h i l e c l a s s i c a l ones are used o n l y once ( i n the b a s i l i c a l Church of Mary Im-maculate at Nelson). V i r t u a l l y a l l Boundary-Kootenay windows are double-hung Gothic sashes. Most c o n s i s t of two to s i x panes decorated w i t h p l a i n bar ("Y") t r a c e r y . None have the s m a l l , s t a i n e d p erimeter panes common i n the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t . Other G o t h i c f e a t u r e s i n Boundary-Kootenay churches i n c l u d e f o u r - s i d e d s p i r e s , f r e t t e d b r a c k e t s , bargeboarded gab-l e t s , and s t e e p l y sloped r o o f s . Only a s i n g l e church (at F e r -n i e ) had nave and tower b u t t r e s s e s , though the s m a l l Indian churches at Columbia Lake and Shuswap each have p a i r s of tower 103 b r a c e s . W i t h t h e k n o w n e x c e p t i o n o f K a s l o , t h e d i s t r i c t ' s b a r r e l v a u l t s w e r e f u l l y r o u n d e d ( i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a n g u l a r v a u l t s o f t h e F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t a r e a ) . B o u n d a r y - K o o t e n a y v a u l t s s p a n t h e i r n a v e s i n s i n g l e , u n b r o k e n s w e e p s . Where t r u e c h a n c e l s e x i s t , t h e i r c e i l i n g s d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e i n t h e i r n a v e s , f o l l o w -i n g a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e . W h e t h e r t h e d i s t r i c t ' s v a u l t s a r e i n t e n d e d as R o m a n e s q u e , G o t h i c , o r n e o - C l a s s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s i s u n c l e a r . L i k e B o u b a r y - K o o t e n a y a l t a r s t h e y w e r e p e r h a p s i n t e n d e d s i m p l y t o a p p e a r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l l y E u r o p e a n . B o u n d a r y - K o o t e n a y a l t a r f u r n i s h i n g s i n c o r p o r a t e b o t h G o t h i c a n d C l a s s i c a l e l e m e n t s . T h e a l t a r a t F o r t S t e e l e , f o r e x a m p l e , i s c l e a r l y G o t h i c i n i t s p i n n a c l e d g a b l e s a n d two p o i n t e d a r c h e s . I t s e n g a g e d B a r o q u e c o l u m n s , r o u n d e d a r c h , a n d t r i o o f c l a s s i c s u n b u r s t s , h o w e v e r , a d d c o n s i d e r a b l e e c l e c t i c i s m . O t h e r c h u r c h e s h a v e f e w i n t e r n a l G o t h i c e l e m e n t s . A t M o y i e , a n e l e g a n t B a r o q u e b a l d a c h i n o r i s e s a b o v e a c l a s s i c a l a l t a r . C l a s -s i c a l b a l l u s t r a d e s , a l t a r s , a n d r e r e d o s e s s u r v i v e i n many o t h e r c h u r c h e s . U n l i k e F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t c h u r c h e s , t h o s e i n t h e B o u n d -a r y - K o o t e n a y d i s t r i c t t e n d e d t o b e s t y l i s t i c h y b r i d s , e x t e r n a l l y G o t h i c b u t g e n e r a l l y C l a s s i c a l i n s i d e . O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n c h u r c h e s a r e l e s s s t y l i s t i c a l l y u n i f i e d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t a n d B o u n d a r y - K o o t e n a y d i s t r i c t s . S e v e r a l c h u r c h e s i n t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y ( a t W e s t b a n k , O ' K e e f e , E q u e s i s C r e e k , a n d S a l m o n R i v e r ) d e p a r t s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e s t y l i s t i c n o r m s o f o t h e r O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n c h u r c h e s . 104 Plate 8. Oblate mission church at Lower Kootenay, near Creston. A t y p i c a l Boundary-Kootenay church. 105 Plate 9. Oblate mission church at Columbia Lake. A t y p i c a l Boundary-Kootenay church. 106 P l a t e 10. I n t e r i o r view of Oblate church a t F o r t S t e e l e . Note the mixture of Baroque and Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms. 107 Nonetheless, a d i s t i n c t i v e Okanagan-Similkameen s t y l e does e x i s t . I t s unique s p i r e d towers are i t s hallmarks. They are commonly squat i n appearance, enveloped by wooden s t r i n g or d e n t i l courses, and capped by low, pyramidal, b e l l - c a s t s p i r e s . An impression of h o r i z o n t a l i t y i s ensured by broad, overhanging eaves. U n l i k e the Oblate churches of other southern i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s , Okanagan-Similkameen churches do not have r o o f - t o p bei1-chambers. Instead, t h e i r b e l l s f i n d accomodation i n the uppermost p a r t of t h e i r towers (below the eaves). T h i s arrange-ment f u r t h e r decreases the v e r t i c a l i t y of towers and s p i r e s . No drums or i n t e r m e d i a t e supports span the d i s t a n c e between towers and s p i r e s . Bell-chamber windows have an arcaded appearance, f o r they are o f t e n l i n k e d i n p a i r s (as a t Inkaneep, Chuchuweyha, Enderby, and Vernon) or t r i o s (as at P e n t i c t o n , the P e n t i c t o n Indian Reserve, and Kelowna) by l i n k e d d e c o r a t i v e frames. Okanagan-Similkameen churches are among the p r o v i n c e ' s most C l a s s i c a l or Romanesque s a n c t u a r i e s . T h e i r squat, h o r i -z o n t a l l y banded towers suggest antecedents i n southern France, one of western Europe's l e a s t G o thic areas. A few o f the church-es of the Okanagan-Similkameen have Romanesque or C l a s s i c a l f a n -l i g h t s above t h e i r western doorways, and s e v e r a l boast c l a s s i c p i l a s t e r s and pediments (at Kelowna and the P e n t i c t o n I ndian Reserve, f o r example). D e s p i t e such tendencies, however, win-dows can be e i t h e r Gothic or rounded. A few windows, such as those at Chuchuweyha, Kelowna, and the P e n t i c t o n I n d i a n Reserve, are unique to the d i s t r i c t . A l l have rounded heads, are long and narrow, and are f i l l e d w i t h lead-camed diamond panes. 108 P l a t e 11. Oblate church at Kelowna. P l a t e 12. Oblate mission church at Chuchuweyha. Both churches are t y p i c a l of the Okanagan and Similkameen V a l l e y s . 109 P l a t e 13. I n t e r i o r view of the Oblate mission church at Inkaneep. Note the Gothic extravagance. P l a t e 14. Discarded a l t a r at the P e n t i c t o n Indian Reserve church. 110 Determining the i n t e r i o r designs o f the d i s t r i c t ' s churches i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r many Okanagan-Similkameen churches have long s i n c e been demolished. Others have been r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d i n compliance w i t h the l i t u r g i c a l recommendations of the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l . S u r v i v i n g evidence suggests that most church i n t e r i o r s were c e i l e d w i t h b a r r e l v a u l t s , though t h e i r p r o f i l e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The v a u l t a t Chuchuweyha, f o r example, i s almost h o r i z o n t a l . Salmon R i v e r ' s i s angular but deep, w h i l e examples at Enderby and Inkaneep are both f u l l y rounded. Equesis Creek's r i s e s to a peak. The d i s t r i c t ' s a l t a r s have s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e n o v a t i o n s and i t i s d i f -f i c u l t to suggest t h e i r former c o n d i t i o n . Some, such as Inka-neep' s, O'Keefe's, and the P e n t i c t o n Indian Reserve's are f u l l y G o t h i c . Others, such as Enderby's, were thoroughly Baroque. U n l i k e churches i n the F r a s e r - L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t , Okanagan-Similkameen churches have no l a t e r a l a l t a r s . The churches of the Thompson and N i c o l a V a l l e y s are a d i v e r s e group o f b u i l d i n g s . They form an aggr e g a t i o n r a t h e r than a s t y l e . Although a few churches i n the d i s t r i c t share minor, i s o l a t e d e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , Thompson-Nicola churches do not resemble one another s u f f i c i e n t l y to permit one to speak of a r e g i o n a l s t y l e . Two or three may share a s i m i l a r type o f tower w h i l e another p a i r may have a common type o f window, but no s i n g l e d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e s are shared by the area's m a j o r i t y of churches. The m i s s i o n churches at Quilchena and N e s k a i n l i t h , f o r example, have s i m i l a r towers and windows, but have l i t t l e i n common w i t h other churches i n the d i s t r i c t or w i t h churches P l a t e 15. Oblate m i s s i o n church at Qua'aout. A Thompson-Nicola church. P l a t e 16. Oblate m i s s i o n church at N e s k a i n l i t h . A Thompson-Nicola church. 112 P l a t e 17. I n t e r i o r view of the Oblate m i s s i o n church at Bonaparte. P l a t e 18. Oblate m i s s i o n church at Bonaparte. A Thompson-Nicola church. 114 i n adjacent d i s t r i c t s . Churches at the Kamloops Indian Reserve, Sahhaltkum, Qua'aout, and Bonaparte, on the other hand, are unique w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , and o n l y Bonaparte's resembles a church elsewhere (the f i r s t church a t S e c h e l t , long s i n c e d e s t r o y e d ) . Rather than c i t e more examples, a few i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s r e g i o n ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l d i v e r s i t y may serve to make the p o i n t . Three r e g i o n a l r e u n i o n churches were b u i l t i n the south-ern i n t e r i o r : a t Kamloops, Okanagan M i s s i o n , and St. Eugene. A few were b u i l t near the coast; at St. Mary's M i s s i o n , North Van-couver, and S e c h e l t . Others were b u i l t i n the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r , most n o t a b l y at F o r t St. James ( s i t e o f the l a r g e Church of Our Lady of Good Hope). Elsewhere i n the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r o r d i n a r y m i s s i o n churches were sometimes designated as r e u n i o n churches, though t h e i r main purpose remained w i t h s e r v i n g t h e i r own, i n -d i v i d u a l p a r i s h e s . Most r e g i o n a l r e u n i o n churches are f a r l a r g e r than other churches i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . They were b u i l t not o n l y to house l o c a l congregations, but a l s o to s h e l t e r annual " m i s s i o n s " or t r i b a l g a t h e r i n g s (what the Oblates sometimes c a l l e d "reunions'') . Hence, the r e u n i o n church at Kamloops ( s i t e of an Oblate c e n t r a l m ission) has a western facade 26% f e e t i n breadth. I t s t r a n s e p t s each p r o j e c t an a d d i t i o n a l 12 f e e t . With a nave 29 f e e t long, a c r o s s i n g 20 f e e t deep, and a chancel and s a c r i s t y 32 f e e t deep, and an area o f 2,625 square f e e t , St. Joseph's, Kamloops i s remarkably l a r g e . The m i s s i o n church a t Salmon R i v e r , i n c o n t r a s t , has an area of o n l y 462 square f e e t . The church at 115 Enderby, an a v e r a g e - s i z e d s t r u c t u r e , has a f l o o r area of but 1,440 square f e e t . The r e u n i o n church at St. Eugene i s e q u a l l y as impressive as St. Joseph's. Photographic evidence suggests that the southern i n t e r i o r ' s other r e u n i o n church, at Okanagan M i s s i o n (demolished) was of s i m i l a r s i z e . Reunion churches sometimes have i n t e r i o r s and facades o f remarkable complexity and r i c h n e s s .(they were, a f t e r a l l , the churches where m i s s i o n a r i e s spent most of t h e i r t i m e ) . The church at St. Eugene has a f i n e , l o f t y tower and s p i r e , d e c o r a t i v e wooden b u t t r e s s e s , a s p l e n d i d i n t e r i o r (complete w i t h s t a i n e d g l a s s ) , and f i n e e x t e r i o r ginger-bread work. Though not as opulent as St. Eugene, the r e u n i o n church at Kamloops i s nonetheless u n u s u a l l y complex. I t s main facade i s b u t t r e s s e d , enjoys r i c h f e n e s t r a t i o n , and terminates i n a d e c o r a t i v e , but massive b e l f r y . U n l i k e other r e u n i o n churches, St. Joseph's i s c r u c i f o r m i n p l a n (a r a r e i t y i n Oblate churches of any s i z e - t y p e ) . The i n t e r i o r of the church i s a l s o i m p r e s s i v e , i t s a l t a r e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e and grand. Evidence from other r e g i o n a l r e u n i o n churches suggests t h a t the i n t e r i o r of the church at Okanagan M i s s i o n was probably both r i c h and elegant, as b e f i t t e d i t s rank. Regi o n a l r e u n i o n churches were s u b j e c t to the same r e g i o n -a l i s i n g f o r c e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d Oblate town and m i s s i o n churches. As a consequence, r e u n i o n churches were sometimes s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r to l e s s e r Oblate churches nearby. Some Oblate town and m i s s i o n churches were simply s m a l l e r , p a l e r r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r d i s t r i c t ' s r e u n i o n churches ( t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n 117 the Boundary-Kootenay and Okanagan-Similkameen a r e a s ) . The m i s s i o n church a t Sahhaltkum, f o r example, w i t h i t s many windowed main facade and massive b e l f r y , shares s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the r e u n i o n church at Kamloops. S i m i l a r l y , the p o l y g o n a l , gabled broach s p i r e o f the Oblate church a t F e r n i e ( d e s t r o y e d ) , and the g a b l e t t e d s p i r e s of Creston, Moyie, and Greenwood, have much i n common w i t h the s p i r e on the r e u n i o n church at St. Eugene. In l i k e f a s h i o n , the facades of s e v e r a l Okanagan-Similkameen churches (Chuchuweyha, Chopaka, Inkaneep, P e n t i c t o n Indian r e s e r v e , Kelowna, and s e v e r a l o t h e r s ) resemble t h a t o f the r e u n i o n church at Okanagan M i s s i o n . The d i r e c t i o n of these s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s w i l l be examined i n a subsequent chapter. For the purposes of t h i s chapter i t i s necessary o n l y that the r e l a t i o n s h i p s be observed. In c o n c l u s i o n , Oblate r e u n i o n churches are u n u s u a l l y l a r g e and complex. They resemble one another o n l y i n terms of s i z e , e l a b o r a t e n e s s , and f u n c t i o n . While they may share m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m i l i t u d e w i t h l e s s e r Oblate churches i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s , they are by no means i d e n t i c a l to them. Most v e r n a c u l a r churches b u i l t under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f s e c u l a r ( p a r o c h i a l ) C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s s t i l l s u r v i v e . They are few i n number and d i v e r s e i n form, l a c k i n g the u n i t y of p l a n and massing of t h e i r Oblate p r e d e c e s s o r s . Most are i n d i v i d u a l compositions, and bear only s l i g h t resemblance to t h e i r f e l l o w s . Few can be mistaken f o r Oblate churches. S e c u l a r C a t h o l i c churches g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t of at l e a s t two s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s ; nave and s a c r i s t y . S a c r i s t i e s are l a c k i n g 118 at three locations only: Bridesville, Ymir, and Yahk (the church at Ymir was originally Anglican). Naves are similar in pro-portion to those in Oblate churches (one unit of width to one and one-half or two units of length), and are of similar d i -mensions. Most naves are about 20 to 30 feet wide and 30 to 40 feet deep. They generally seat about f i f t y to one hundred people. Altars, communion r a i l s , and perhaps organs and lecterns (two items seldom found in Oblate churches) always claim the eastern-most ends of naves, for in the southern interior, paro-chial Catholic churches were always built without chancels (per-haps because secular priests did not consider the isolation of the altar and the celebrant with quite the same sense of urgen-cy as did the Oblates). Unlike Oblate churches, secular churches often have low, gabled porches instead of towers (Ymir, Slocan, Yahk, and Proc-ter, for instance). Towers occur at but three locations (Brides-v i l l e , New Denver, and Chase). Of these, two (New Denver and Chase) are also equipped with open gabled porches. Churches lacking towers sometimes have roof-top belfries (Ymir, Notch H i l l , and Procter), but some (Yahk, Slocan, and Falkland) have no provision at a l l for bell-chambers. Were i t not for their exterior crosses, some would resemble Non-conformist meeting houses. Only two parochial churches, Chase and New Denver, have similar towers and spires; but otherwise, bell-chambers do not resemble one another (or, for that matter, towers on their Oblate predecessors). Secular Catholic churches are wood frame structures. P l a t e 23. P a r o c h i a l C a t h o l i c Church at P r o c t e r . P l a t e 24. P a r o c h i a l C a t h o l i c Church at Notch H i l l . 120 L i k e Oblate churches, they are u s u a l l y sheathed i n s h i p l a p and capped at t h e i r corners by end boards. T h e i r window frames are a l s o wooden, double-hung rather, than f i x e d , and s u b d i v i d e d by narrow cames. A s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n are r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape. G o t h i c windows are found o n l y at Chase, Notch H i l l , and Ymir.~ Round headed windows are even l e s s common, o c c u r i n g at the U k r a i n i a n C a t h o l i c Church a t G r i n d r o d and nowhere e l s e . S e c u l a r C a t h o l i c i n t e r i o r s are much more r e s t r a i n e d than those i n Oblate b u i l d i n g s . B a r r e l v a u l t s are not uncommon (they e x i s t at Ymir, Yahk, Notch H i l l , and probably elsewhere), though they are r a t h e r low and unassuming. F l a t c e i l i n g s are a l s o com-mon, and sometimes f i n i s h e d w i t h p l a s t e r (Oblate c e i l i n g s were i n v a r i a b l y of wooden l o n g i t u d i n a l b o a r d s ) . A l t a r s i n p a r o c h i a l churches are but p a l e r e f l e c t i o n s of e a r l i e r Oblate s h r i n e s . The a l t a r a t Yahk, ad m i t t e d l y , i s f u l l y t i e r e d and backed by an e l a b o r a t e r eredos, but by and l a r g e , s e c u l a r a l t a r s are p l a i n and unexuberant. Most are simply decorated, perhaps w i t h modest, moulded p a n e l s . Some have reredoses, but these too appear s t a i d i n comparison w i t h those of t h e i r Oblate f o r e b e a r s . Methodist Church A r c h i t e c t u r e Methodist churches were among the s i m p l e s t churches b u i l t i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Two d i s t i n c t types e x i s t ; the meeting house type and the "Akron" type. Meeting houses u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of a s i n g l e s t r u c t u r a l u n i t , an e n c l o s e d gabled b u i l d i n g combin-in g the f u n c t i o n s of both nave and sanctuary. Akron p l a n churches each i n c o r p o r a t e two rooms, one f o r s e r v i c e s and one f o r c l a s s e s or meetings. The two rooms can be s i d e by s i d e , 121 end t o end, o r a r r a n g e d i n an "L." F o l d i n g o r s l i d i n g doors p e r m i t the two chambers t o be j o i n e d , o r s e p a r a t e d a t w i l l . Churches o f the A k r o n type a r e o f t e n e x t e r n a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from s i n g l e u n i t meeting houses. The m e e t i n g house type o f c h u r c h i s by f a r the commonest o f the two v a r i e t i e s . W h i l e the A k r o n p l a n was p o p u l a r i n communities n e a r e r t h e c o a s t (examples can be found i n Sumas, Maple Bay, Richmond, and i n the c i t i e s ) , few specimens were b u i l t i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r . Save f o r Akron p l a n churches a t Golden (an "L"-shaped b u i l d i n g ) , Arm-s t r o n g , Salmon Arm, Mount I d a , Hedgemans Corner (and perhaps e l s e w h e r e ) , a l l M e t h o d i s t churches were p r o b a b l y m e e t i n g houses. M e t h o d i s t churches were among the s m a l l e s t churches i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r . S i n g l e u n i t m e e t i n g houses c o u l d s e a t from f i f t y t o one hundred p e o p l e , Akron p l a n churches as many as one hundred and f i f t y . Most m e e t i n g houses had dimensions of about twenty f e e t by t h i r t y f e e t . Akron p l a n b u i l d i n g s were, of c o u r s e , g e n e r a l l y s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . M e t h o d i s t churches were, on the average, s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o the naves o f s m a l l O b l a t e town and m i s s i o n c h u r c h e s . The Akron p l a n c h u r c h a t Mount I d a (20 f e e t by 30 f e e t ) and the m e e t i n g house a t Notch H i l l (19 f e e t by 26 f e e t 6 i n c h e s ) , b o t h s t i l l \ s t a n d i n g , a r e t y p i c a l . Churches a t Kamloops and Salmon Arm ( b o t h demolished) were u n u s u a l l y l a r g e . \They p r o b a b l y measured about t h i r t y . . f e e t by f o r t y o r f i f t y f e e t . None o f the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r ' s Meth-o d i s t churches were l a r g e r (save f o r n o n - v e r n a c u l a r s t r u c t u r e s i n the l a r g e r towns). Whatever t h e i r d i m e n s i o n s , most churches were l o n g e r t h a n they were wide. T h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s v a r i e d from 122 F i g . 4. F l o o r p l a n of Mount Ida Methodist Church. T I F i g . 5. Probable F l o o r p l a n of Salmon Arm Methodist Church. 123 I 1 1 I F i g . 6. F l o o r p l a n o f N o t c h H i l l M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h . i i i- » F i g . 7. F l o o r p l a n o f New D e n v e r M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h . 124 P l a t e 25. Methodist church at Notch H i l l . P l a t e 26. Methodist church a t Mount Ida. 125 1:1% (at Mount Ida) to 1:2% (at New Denver). The absence of v e s t r i e s , s a c r i s t i e s , and chancels, and the frequent omission of porches, however, o f t e n c r e a t e d a shallow appearance. Methodist churches were seldom ( i f ever) p r o v i d e d w i t h chancels. P u l p i t s , communion t a b l e s , and other chancel f u r n i s h -ings were accomodated i n s t e a d on p l a t f o r m s w i t h i n the b a s i c church u n i t . In meeting house churches, p l a t f o r m s were set ag a i n s t the "eastern"wwall. Platforms i n Akron p l a n b u i l d i n g s were s i m i l a r l y p l a c e d , and open to view from both chambers. Akron p l a n churches at Hedgemans Corner (near Salmon Arm) and at Mount Ida, f o r example, had c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d p l a t f o r m s . T h e i r meeting rooms l a y through doors behind the p l a t f o r m , w h i l e the congregation's chamber l a y bef o r e i t . N e i t h e r type of church had v e s t r y wings. Porches were s l i g h t l y more common, o c c u r i n g on about h a l f the churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Porches always stood at a church's western e x t r e m i t y . A l l were gabled and enclosed, and lower than the church i t s e l f . Examples s t i l l s u r v i v e at Notch H i l l , New Denver, Mount Ida, and M e r r i t t . Towers c o u l d a l s o serve as porches, but few Methodist churches had them. Only f o u r towered churches have beenxlocated; at Salmon Arm, Grand Forks, and P e n t i c t o n ( a l l demolished), and at L i l l o o e t . Of these, on l y one (Grand Forks) had a c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d tower. A l l others had t h e i r towers on one s i d e . Roof-top b e l f r i e s were no more common than towers. Only fo u r examples havedbeen l o c a t e d (at M e r r i t t , Hedgemans Corner, A s h c r o f t , and Mount Ida). L i k e b e l f r i e s on Roman C a t h o l i c 126 churches, they sat on the western r o o f s of naves. A l l churches having b e l f r i e s ( i n other areas of the p r o v i n c e as w e l l as i n the southern i n t e r i o r ) a l s o had f r o n t porches. Many churches w i t h porches, however, d i d not have b e l f r i e s . Methodist churches were simple i n e l e v a t i o n as w e l l as i n p l a n . Most l a c k e d the s t r u c t u r a l appendages (chancels, v e s t r i e s , porches, towers, and b e l l c o t e s ) r e q u i s i t e to a p i c -turesque s i l h o u e t t e . T h e i r facades were e q u a l l y s t a i d . V i r -t u a l l y a l l churches were b a l l o o n frame s t r u c t u r e s c l a d i n p l a i n h o r i z o n t a l s h i p l a p . Only a few had s h i n g l e d outer w a l l s (Salmon Arm, f o r example) and o n l y one (at Lower Summerland), a b u i l d i n g e r e c t e d by B a p t i s t s and subsequently s o l d , had d e c o r a t i v e h a l f -t i m b e r i n g . Most facades were i n t e r r u p t e d o n l y by windows and doors, and o c c a s i o n a l l y , by v e n t i l a t o r s . Methodist towers and b e l f r i e s were e q u a l l y sober. Towers u s u a l l y r o s e i n stages (as at Salmon Arm, Grand Forks, and L i l -l o o e t ) , t e r m i n a t i n g i n f o u r - s i d e d s p i r e s of low to medium h e i g h t . None had f r e t t e d s p i r e supports or d e c o r a t i v e g a b l e t s , and o n l y a s i n g l e example (at Grand Forks) was covered w i t h s c a l l o p p e d s h i n g l e s . Methodist b e l f r i e s had low, pyramidal r o o f s i n l i e u of s p i r e s . Some b e l f r i e s were open ( M e r r i t t and A s h c r o f t , f o r example). None were embellished. L i k e towers, many were simply symbolic, and not equipped w i t h b e l l s . B e l f r y r o o f s and s p i r e s never terminated i n c r o s s e s . A few had turned wood f i n i a l s (Mt. Ida, Hedgemans Corner, and A s h c r o f t ) w h i l e others were topped w i t h elegant weather-vanes (Salmon Arm and M e r r i t t , f o r example). 127 Windows on Methodist churches were u s u a l l y simple Gothic sashes. Most were double-hung, and c o n s i s t e d of from two to e i g h t l i g h t s each. Only a v e r y few (such as Notch H i l l ) i n -c o r p o r a t e d t r a c e r y . None were leaded or s t a i n e d , and none i n c l u d e d the sm a l l p e r i p h e r a l panes commonly seen i n Oblate windows. Methodist windows were (apparently) never Romanesque or C l a s s i c a l . A m i n o r i t y (Salmon Arm, Lower N i c o l a , and New Denver, f o r example) were square-headed, much i n the s t y l e of domestic windows. They too were double-hung sashes, and each window contained from two to f o u r l i g h t s o nly. Methodist meeting houses were g e n e r a l l y two bays deep. P a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e churches (such as that at Vernon) i n c l u d e d a f o u r t h . Because of t h e i r two-winged p l a n , Akron-plan churches were l e s s r e g u l a r l y bayed. Churches of both v a r i e t i e s o f t e n had windows f l a n k i n g t h e i r "western" doorways. E a s t e r n w a l l s were u s u a l l y b l i n d . Only two known examples ( L i l l o o e t and Pen-t i c t o n ) had e a s t e r n windows. Many churches (of both plans) had c i r c u l a r , l o u v r e d v e n t i l a t o r s (or g l a z e d , b u l l s ' - e y e windows) h i g h i n t h e i r gabled ends. Examples o c c u r r e d a t Kamloops, Kaslo, T r a i l , New Denver, and elsewhere ( s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s e x i s t e d on many c o a s t a l churches; at Sumas, C h i l l i w a c k , Richmond,> North Burnaby, Sea I s l a n d , Ladner, and M i s s i o n ) . In c o n t r a s t to t h e i r Oblate c o u n t e r p a r t s , few Methodist churches have f a n windows above t h e i r p l a i n l y p a n e l l e d western doors. Exceptions i n c l u d e churches at Mount Ida, Hedgemans Corner, and M e r r i t t . Methodist churches commonly '."had;, s t a r k i n t e r i o r s . Un-p a i n t e d v e r t i c a l w a i n s c o t t i n g g e n e r a l l y sheathed the lowest p a r t 128 of t h e i r w a l l s . Top and i n t e r m e d i a t e w a l l s e c t i o n s were covered w i t h l a t h e s and p l a s t e r . C e i l i n g s v a r i e d i n p r o f i l e . Many were t o t a l l y f l a t (Notch H i l l and Mount Ida, f o r example), w h i l e others were r a i s e d to resemble b a r r e l v a u l t s (as at Salmon Arm and New Denver). Some were p l a s t e r e d , but many were sheathed by planed, narrow boards. Although i n t e r i o r w a l l s and c e i l i n g s might be pa i n t e d , they were never decorated f u r t h e r . R e l i g i o u s s c u l p t u r e s , p i c t u r e s , and symbols were always absent. Meeting houses and Akron p l a n churches shared the same i n t e r n a l arrangement. Akron p l a n churches d i f f e r e d o n l y i n having a u x i l i a r y meeting rooms. In both types of churches, ' " c h a n c e l " p l a t f o r m s stood at one a i s l e end, doorways a t the other. P l a t f o r m s were u s u a l l y r a i s e d by a s i n g l e step, had communion t a b l e s i n t h e i r c e n t r e s , and p u l p i t s and pianos (or organs) to t h e i r s i d e s . As Methodist congregations were o f t e n q u i t e s m a l l , o r g a n i s e d c h o i r s were r a r e , and few churches had c h o i r s t a l l s or benches. Heavy wooden b a l l u s t r a d e s marked the western edges o f p l a t f o r m s , and separated c l e r g y from congrega-t i o n s . S u b s t a n t i a l pews (without k n e e l e r s ) f l a n k e d each church's a i s l e . L i k e other f u r n i s h i n g s i n Methodist churches, pews were g e n e r a l l y of p r o f e s s i o n a l manufacture. Many were worked from imported hardwoods and most were l e f t unpainted. Few f u r n i s h i n g s adhered s t r i c t l y to r e c o g n i s e d a r t i s t i c s t y l e s ; most were m i l d l y h i s t o r i c a l but otherwise bland and f u n c t i o n a l . P r e s b y t e r i a n Church A r c h i t e c t u r e V i r t u a l l y a l l the P r e s b y t e r i a n churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r were meeting houses. Akron p l a n churches were o f t e n b u i l t by congregations on the coast (many were l a r g e , a r c h i t e c t -designed s t r u c t u r e s ) , but few were b u i l t i n the i n t e r i o r . Only a s i n g l e example has been l o c a t e d (at P e n t i c t o n , d e s t r o y e d ) , though others doubtless e x i s t e d . S e v e r a l other plans were used by S c o t t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n s ; the e c c l e s i o l o g i c a l p l a n , the t r a d i -t i o n a l " T - p l a n , " the a u d i r o r i u m p l a n , and the a i s l e d , g a l l e r i e d "preaching box." Of these, only one, the T-plan, was used i n B r i t i s h Columbia's southern i n t e r i o r , and o n l y then i n a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n (at B e n v o u l i n ) . P r e s b y t e r i a n churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r v a r i e d i n s i z e , but most were l a r g e r than t h e i r Methodist and Oblate c o u n t e r p a r t s . Most churches had dimensions averaging about 30 f e e t by 50 f e e t , and f l o o r areas of about 1500 square f e e t . Churches at Grand Forks (28 f e e t by 60 f e e t ) , Kaslo (32 f e e t 6 inches by 50 f e e t ) , Armstrong (30 f e e t 8 inches by 56 f e e t 4 i n c h e s ) , and Midway (25 f e e t by 48 f e e t ) approximated these dimensions. The church at N i c o l a (19 f e e t by 27 f e e t ) was the s m a l l e s t P r e s b y t e r i a n church i n the southern i n t e r i o r , w h i l e that a t Rossland (40 f e e t by 70 f e e t ) was probably the l a r g e s t . Churches of a l l dimensions were u s u a l l y p r o p o r t i o n e d wider than Methodist and Roman C a t h o l i c churches. R a t i o s of width to l e n g t h u s u a l l y ranged between 1:1 1/3 and 1:1 3/4. P r e s b y t e r i a n churches were more complexly massed than Methodist ones. Few c o n s i s t e d of "nave" u n i t s o nly. Most had 130 t o w e r s , p o r c h e s , o r b e l f r i e s w h i l e some i n c o r p o r a t e d h a l l s , v e s t r i e s , and more r a r e l y , c h a n c e l s . A b o u t h a l f t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r ' s P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s h a d t o w e r s . Towers were p l a c e d t o t h e f r o n t s o f c h u r c h e s , e i t h e r a t t h e c e n t r e o r t o t h e s i d e . E xamples o f t h e f o r m e r t y p e s u r v i v e a t Midway, N i c o l a , A r m s t r o n g , A s h c r o f t , and Summerland; examples o f t h e l a t t e r a t M e r r i t t , C r e s t o n , K a s l o , B e n v o u l i n , R o s s l a n d , and N e l s o n . A c h u r c h ' s l o c a t i o n p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o s i -t i o n i n g o f i t s t o w e r . C h u r c h e s l o c a t e d a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s u s u a l l y had t o w e r s a t w h i c h e v e r c o r n e r was v i s i b l e f r o m b o t h s t r e e t s . C h u r c h e s i n m i d - b l o c k , o r i n l a r g e , open s p a c e s had c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d t o w e r s i n s t e a d . P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s w i t h o u t t o w e r s o f t e n h a d g a b l e d e n t r y p o r c h e s on t h e i r f r o n t f a c a d e s . P o r c h e s were g e r e r a l l y a b o u t h a l f as h i g h as m a i n c h u r c h u n i t s and u s u a l l y m e a s u r e d a b o u t 8 f e e t s q u a r e . Examples s u r v i v e a t P r o c t e r , New Denver, P r i n c e t o n , G r a n d F o r k s , S l o c a n , and F o r t S t e e l e . O t h e r s have l o n g - s i n c e b e e n d e m o l i s h e d . S e v e r a l c h u r c h e s w i t h p o r c h e s h a d r o o f - t o p b e l f r i e s i n l i e u o f t o w e r s . G a b l e d b e l f r i e s were b u i l t a t S l o c a n , G r a n d F o r k s , arid p r o b a b l y e l s e w h e r e . A s i n g l e h i p p e d r o o f b e l f r y r e m a i n s a t P r i n c e t o n . V e s t r i e s were a t t a c h e d t o o n l y a few P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s ( F o r t S t e e l e , Midway, and K a s l o , f o r e x a m p l e ) . S e v e r a l c h u r c h e s had p a r i s h h a l l s b e y o n d t h e i r e a s t e r n w a l l s ( M e r r i t t , S l o c a n , A r m s t r o n g , R o s s l a n d , and C r e s t o n ) . C h a n c e l s were b u i l t r a r e l y . Examples r e m a i n o n l y a t G r a n d F o r k s and B e n v o u l i n . Basements were a l s o uncommon ( t h e y were s e l d o m b u i l t by any d e n o m i n a t i o n ) . T . 8. Floorplan of Merritt Presbyterian Church. 9. Floorplan of Benvoulin Presbyterian Church. 132 While s e v e r a l churches had p a r t i a l basements, and one church (Kaslo) had a f u l l one, most were set on cedar b l o c k s or r u b b l e masonry. U t i l i t i e s ( o f t e n o n l y h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g ) were housed i n v e s t r i e s , h a l l s , or i n the church i t s e l f . P r e s b y t e r i a n e x t e r i o r s were seldom e l a b o r a t e , though they were g e n e r a l l y more d e t a i l e d than Methodist ones. Fa-cades were o f t e n embellished w i t h ginger-bread-work. S t r i n g courses, d e n t i l s , arcades, and other f e a t u r e s decorated towers at A s h c r o f t , Creston, K a s l o , M e r r i t t , and Armstrong. I r o n and wooden c r e s t i n g s o u t l i n e d r o o f - t o p s at Nelson, F o r t S t e e l e , A s h c r o f t , T r a i l , and elsewhere. E l a b o r a t e t r u s s e s of s t i c k s supported Armstrong's s p i r e . A b u t t r e s s e d tower at Kaslo, V i c t o r i a n Bargeboards at Nelson, and Gothic hood-moulds at Grand Forks are f u r t h e r examples of P r e s b y t e r i a n d e t a i l . Not a l l P r e s b y t e r i a n churches were so r i c h l y decorated. Tower-less meeting houses at P r i n c e t o n , New Denver, S p i l l a m a -cheen, Salmon Arm, T r a i l , P r o c t e r , and Vernon were j u s t as p l a i n as any Methodist b u i l d i n g . Churches without porches or b e l f r i e s might e a s i l y be mistaken f o r Methodist churches were i t not f o r the wider p r o p o r t i o n s of P r e s b y t e r i a n b u i l d i n g s . Most Presby-t e r i a n churches, however, d i d have porches, b e l f r i e s , or towers. Though t h e i r facades might be p l a i n , t h e i r complex massing u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from Methodist churches. Almost a l l e a r l y P r e s b y t e r i a n churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r were balloonif.Eame s t r u c t u r e s . Most were c l a d i n s h i p -la p , though a few poorer examples were sheathed w i t h boards and battens (the f i r s t p r i m i t i v e church at Rossland, f o r example). 133 Churches at Kaslo, N i c o l a , M e r r i t t , and P r i n c e t o n were sheathed w i t h clapboards. Only a s i n g l e church (at Spillamacheen, now an A n g l i c a n p r o p e r t y ) was b u i l t of l o g s . S e v e r a l churches have long s i n c e been stuccoed (Rossland and Summerland, f o r example) w h i l e others have had t h e i r cedar s h i n g l e r o o f s r e p l a c e d w i t h t a r and g r a v e l s h i n g l e s . Most P r e s b y t e r i a n churches were three bays deep by three bays wide. P a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l churches were on l y two bays deep ( N i c o l a and Spillamacheen, f o r i n s t a n c e ) w h i l e l a r g e r churches were commonly f o u r or even f i v e bays deep (Armstrong, Rossland, K a s l o , and Summerland). Most moderately l a r g e churches had windows f l a n k i n g t h e i r towers or porches. Only one church ( N i -c o l a ) had an e a s t e r n window, though a few (Nelson, M e r r i t t , Creston, and Kaslo) had l a r g e western windows (made p o s s i b l e by o f f - s e t towers). Western windows were u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t from a church's other windows. They c o u l d d i f f e r i n s i z e , s t y l e , or complexity. Side windows on P r e s b y t e r i a n churches were g e n e r a l -l y simple Gothic sashes. A few had t r i a n g u l a r heads ( F o r t S t e e l e , P r i n c e t o n , and New Denver) w h i l e a s i m i l a r number had r e c t a n g u l a r heads ( P e n t i c t o n , Spillamacheen, T r a i l , Midway, and the second church at Salmon Arm). Only one church (at A s h c r o f t ) had round-headed windows. Windows of a l l d e s c r i p -t i o n s u s u a l l y c o ntained from two to e i g h t panes each. L i k e Methodist windows, P r e s b y t e r i a n examples seldom contained t r a c e r y (windows at Grand Forks and Nelson are e x c e p t i o n s ) . Only a h a n d f u l of windows had s t a i n e d p e r i p h e r a l panes (Armstrong and Nelson, f o r example) and none had leaded cames. Few Presby-135 t e r i a n churches had b u l l s ' - e y e windows or v e n t i l a t o r s i n t h e i r gabled ends. Where they were i n s t a l l e d , such f e a t u r e s v a r i e d i n shape; c i r c u l a r at Vernon, Armstrong, Slocan, and P r i n c e t o n , e l l i p t i c a l at T r a i l , square at Grand Forks, and diamond-shaped at F o r t S t e e l e . Fan window's were u s u a l l y Gothic i n o u t l i n e but were u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d to l a r g e churches only. Examples remain at Summerland, F o r t S t e e l e , Rossland, Creston, P r i n c e t o n , Arm-strong, A s h c r o f t , Nelson, and M e r r i t t . P r e s b y t e r i a n church i n t e r i o r s were u s u a l l y as p l a i n as Methodist ones. Most had wainscots of n a t u r a l l y f i n i s h e d boards. Upper w a l l s e c t i o n s were e i t h e r p l a s t e r e d or p a n e l l e d . Many c e i l i n g s were s l i g h t l y r a i s e d to form f l a t , shallow, b a r r e l v a u l t s . Most c e i l i n g s were p l a s t e r e d but s e v e r a l ( P r o c t e r and A s h c r o f t , among others) were sheathed w i t h s t a i n e d and v a r n i s h e d s h i p l a p . E x p l i c i t r e l i g i o u s symbols ( c r o s s e s , s c u l p t u r e s , and p i c t u r e s ) were g e n e r a l l y absent. Most P r e s b y t e r i a n churches shared a common i n t e r n a l arrangement. Since none had chancels, p u l p i t s and c l e r g y benches were p l a c e d i n s t e a d on s l i g h t l y r a i s e d p l a t f o r m s . P u l p i t s were u s u a l l y c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , w i t h c h a i r s or benches behind. Par-t i c u l a r l y l a r g e churches (such as Nelson's) had benches f o r t h e i r e l d e r s . Only a few had c h o i r s t a l l s , though most had organs or pianos. Communion t a b l e s were u s u a l l y p l a c e d at nave l e v e l , immediately below the centres of p l a t f o r m b a l l u s t r a d e s . Rows of heavy pews f i l l e d a church's remaining spaces. Pews were g e n e r a l l y grouped on. e i t h e r s i d e of a c e n t r a l a i s l e . Churches at Benvoulin and K a s l o (and probably elsewhere) had two a i s l e s each. T h e i r pews were arranged i n three groups r a t h e r than i n two. P r e s b y t e r i a n church f u r n i s h i n g s o f t e n resembled those i n Methodist churches. Most were s t y l i s t i c a l l y n e u t r a l and v a r -n i s h e d r a t h e r than p a i n t e d . Many were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y manu-f a c t u r e d from e a s t e r n hardwoods. A n g l i c a n Church A r c h i t e c t u r e V i r t u a l l y a l l the southern i n t e r i o r ' s e a r l y A n g l i c a n churches adhere to a s i n g l e p l a n . While no two churches are e x a c t l y a l i k e , most i n c o r p o r a t e the same s t r u c t u r a l elements: nave and porch, b e l f r y or tower, and q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , chancel and v e s t r y . A few are c r u c i f o r m but none conform to Akron or other s t r i c t l y North American p l a n s . A n g l i c a n churches d i f f e r from each other mainly i n d e t a i l s . Although r e c o g n i s a b l e r e -g i o n a l and temporal v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t , they are by no means as marked as those i n Roman C a t h o l i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . A n g l i c a n churches v a r y i n s i z e , though most have s e a t i n g c a p a c i t i e s comparable to moderately l a r g e P r e s b y t e r i a n churches (one hundred to two hundred p e o p l e ) . A n g l i c a n naves are com-monly about twenty to tw e n t y - f i v e f e e t wide by t h i r t y to f i f t y f e e t deep. Summerland's nave i s by f a r the l a r g e s t i n the southern i n t e r i o r (37 f e e t by 66 f e e t ) , w h i l e Nysakep's i s the s m a l l e s t (16 f e e t by 15 f e e t ) . Whatever t h e i r dimensions, most naves share common p r o p o r t i o n s (one u n i t of width to every one and one-half or two u n i t s of l e n g t h ) . Naves at Armstrong and Slocan are u n u s u a l l y long o n l y because of a d d i t i o n s made i n the tw e n t i e t h century. The nave at Nysakep i s u n u s u a l l y shallow 137 Fig. 10. Floorplan of the Anglican Mission Church at Shulus. Fig. 11. Floorplan of the Anglican Church at Hope. 138 ( i t i s a l m o s t s q u a r e ) ; p r o b a b l y because i t was b u i l t by I n d i a n s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h A n g l i c a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . Other I n d i a n churches may have been s i m i l a r l y p r o p o r t i o n e d and e q u a l l y s m a l l (one h e s i t a t e s t o speak o f crude I n d i a n c h a p e l s i n the A n g l i c a n c o n t e x t , f o r the e v i d e n c e i s l a c k i n g ) . E n t r y t o A n g l i c a n churches i s u s u a l l y t h r o u g h p o r c h e s , and more . r a r e l y , t h r o u g h towers. Porches a r e always lower than naves, a r e u s u a l l y e n c l o s e d , and i n e v i t a b l y g a b l e d . U n l i k e M e t h o d i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n , and Roman C a t h o l i c p o r c h e s , t h e y a r e o f t e n p l a c e d on the nave's s o u t h e r n s i d e . S o u t h e r n porches a r e commonest among n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c h u r c h e s . Most a r e found i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s o u t h - w e s t e r n s e c t i o n : a t Hope, L i l l o o e t ( p a r t l y d e m o l i s h e d ) , Armstrong, the L y t t o n I n d i a n Reserve ( a l -t e r e d ) , Enderby, K a s l o , Westwold, N i c o l a , Greenwood, and Summer-l a n d . S o u t h e r n porches were a l s o b u i l t a t s e v e r a l churches i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and on Vancouver I s l a n d ( i n c l u d i n g New W e s t m i n s t e r , S a p p e r t o n , P o r t Douglas, Quamachan, Nanaimo, Met-c h o s i n , and E s q u i m a l t ) . Most churches w i t h s o u t h e r n porches were b u i l t i n the 1860's and 1870's. S e v e r a l were b u i l t i n the 1880's and 1890's but few date from the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Churches w i t h o u t s o u t h e r n porches u s u a l l y have w e s t e r n ones i n s t e a d . Indeed, about h a l f the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r ' s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A n g l i c a n churches have w e s t e r n p o r c h e s . Ex-amples s u r v i v e a t Y a l e , Spuzzum, Donald (moved to Windemere), P e n t i c t o n ( a l t e r e d ) , B a l f o u r , F o r t S t e e l e , S h u l u s , New Denver, S i l v e r t o n , Cranbrook ( a l t e r e d ) , and S l o c a n . T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y specimens a r e somewhat more numerous, f o r a f t e r 1900, o n l y two P l a t e 29. A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n church a t Shakkan. A w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d l o g b u i l d i n g resembling Oblate m i s s i o n churches. I t has a f r o n t tower and an i n t e r i o r b a r r e l v a u l t . P l a t e 30. A n g l i c a n church a t Enderby. A t y p i c a l e a r l y white A n g l i c a n church. 140 side-porched churches were b u i l t . Churches without porches sometimes have towers i n s t e a d . Towered churches were b u i l t mainly In the t w e n t i e t h century: at white settlements at Arrowpark, P r o c t e r , Invermere, Kimberley, and Monte Creek; and at the Indian v i l l a g e s of I n k i t s a p h , Spences Bridge, P o k h a i s t , Shakkan, and Canford (and probably o t h e r s ) . Indian towers are always at the nave's western end. Towers atta c h e d to white churches are o f t e n at the s i d e s (as at Ash-c r o f t , Arrowpark, P r o c t e r , and Monte Creek). Only one towered church dates from the n i n e t e e n t h century ( A s h c r o f t , 1891-92). Indian churches b u i l t p r i o r to 1900 were probably s l i g h t l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than t h e i r Oblate c o u n t e r p a r t s , but they were s t i l l r a t h e r simple b u i l d i n g s . Nineteenth century white churches were more complex, and had b e l f r i e s and porches i n -stead of towers. Of f i f t y A n g l i c a n churches b u i l t between 1861 and 1925, o n l y 20% are towered. About 78% have southern or western porches, w h i l e the remaining 2% ( e x e m p l i f i e d by Indian churches at A s h c r o f t and Nysakep) have n e i t h e r porches nor towers. A n g l i c a n towers u s u a l l y r i s e i n a s i n g l e stage from ground to eaves. In c o n t r a s t to most Oblate examples, A n g l i c a n b e l l -chambers are u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the main tower u n i t , r a t h e r than i n separate s t r u c t u r e s above. Most are marked by open or l o u v r e d Gothic archways. Few towers have stairway windows (un-l i k e Oblate towers) and most terminate i n f o u r - s i d e d s p i r e s of low to medium h e i g h t . Arrowpark's p o l y g o n a l s t e e p l e , Spences Bridge's helm r o o f , and Invermere's p o l y g o n a l pepperpot are 141 whimsical but l o c a l i s e d exceptions to the r u l e . Churches without towers and s p i r e s o f t e n have b e l f r i e s at t h e i r naves' western ends. Only the c r u c i f o r m church at B a l f o u r had a b e l f r y elsewhere (at the c r o s s i n g of nave, chancel, and t r a n s e p t s ) . P a r t i c u l a r l y e a r l y b e l f r i e s are u s u a l l y open, and i n v a r i a b l y gabled. They resemble the e a r l y b e l f r i e s o f Norman England and are consequently termed "Norman." Norman b e l f r i e s were b u i l t at Hope, Yale, Armstrong, L i l l o o e t , and Spuzzum, and at contemporary churches elsewhere i n the p r o v i n c e (Derby, New Westminster, Sapperton, Metchosin, Cedar H i l l , Saanich, B a r k e r v i l l e , and P o r t Douglas). B e l f r i e s b u i l t i n subsequent years ( a f t e r about 1885) are somewhat more v a r i e d , though few are Norman. Most are small and terminate i n low, pyramidal r o o f s . A few are n e a r - c i r c u l a r (as at Enderby and Keremeos), w h i l e others (Donald, f o r example) are unique. S e v e r a l l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century . churches have no p r o v i s i o n f o r b e l l s (Kaslo, Westwold, S i l v e r -ton, Cranbrook, N i c o l a , Slocan, Grand Forks, Nysakep, Peach-land, Mara, K e t t l e V a l l e y , M e r r i t t , and Hedley). At l e a s t one A n g l i c a n church (Greenwood) has a detached, timber b e l l - s u p p o r t on i t s grounds, w h i l e two churches (Sorrento and Grindrod) have b e l l s suspended from extended western gables. B e l f r i e s and s p i r e s (of a l l times and p l a c e s ) are u s u a l l y capped by simple L a t i n c r o s s e s . The peaks of gabled r o o f s ( u s u a l l y the nave's but sometimes the chancel's) o f t e n have d e c o r a t i v e crosses as w e l l . Most are L a t i n but a few Kootenay examples (Arrowpark, K e t t l e V a l l e y , K a s l o , Cranbrook, and Donald) are C e l t i c . P l a t e 31. A n g l i c a n church at Okanagan M i s s i o n . Note the churchyard s e t t i n g and the h a l f - t i m b e r e d e x t e r i o r . P l a t e 32. A n g l i c a n church a t Summerland. Note the E n g l i s h romantic l a n d s c a p i n g . A stone church. 143 About h a l f the A n g l i c a n churches i n the southern i n t e r i o r have c h a n c e l s . Whether or not a church r e c e i v e d a chancel depended p a r t l y upon the c h a r a c t e r of i t s congregation and p a r t l y upon the i n f l u e n c e of i t s clergyman. B u i l d i n g s d i r e c t e d by clergymen almost always have chancels. Churches planned by committees of laymen are l e s s l i k e l y to have chancels. Chan-c e l s are s t r u c t u r e s r e s e r v e d mainly f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n of the E u c h a r i s t . Clergymen and m i d d l e - c l a s s congregations r e v e r e d the r i t e and g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r i t s proper a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g . Mining and other predominantly w o r k i n g - c l a s s congrega-t i o n s seldom understood the mysteries of the Holy Communion, they p r e f e r r e d a s e r v i c e w i t h r o u s i n g hymns and e n e r g e t i c ser-mons. The lament o f the A n g l i c a n v i c a r o f Rock Creek i n 1915 i l l u s t r a t e s these two approaches to worship: " I t w i l l be some years b e f o r e the m a j o r i t y of Canadians r e a l i s e the d i f f e r e n c e between 'hearing sermons' and 'acts of worship.' " 4 Few miners were f u l l communicants so chancels were n e i t h e r wanted nor s t r i c t -l y needed. Churches without chancels i n c l u d e those i n most Kootenay mining centres (Kaslo, New Denver, S i l v e r t o n , Slocan, M i c h e l , Spillamacheen, and Kimberley), s e v e r a l churches i n the west ( L i l l o o e t , A s h c r o f t , Summerland, Sorrento, Peachland, Hed-le y , Canoe, L i s t e r , Keremeos, Lytton-white, and Monte Creek), and most Indian churches (Nysakep, Inkatsaph, A s h c r o f t , Canford, Shakknan, Shulus, and probably o t h e r s ) . Indians, l i k e miners, saw l i t t l e need f o r chancels. At the time when churches were being b u i l t , few Indians were p e r m i t t e d to take Communion. Ser-v i c e s c o n s i s t e d mainly of p r a y e r s , sermons, and i n s t r u c t i o n , 144 and t r u e chancels were not necessary. Churches b u i l t by committees were sometimes a l t e r e d a f t e r the a r r i v a l of r e s i d e n t clergymen. When Dr. E. C. Paget reached h i s I i v i n g i n Revelstoke (about 1900) he f e l t compelled to add a porch and chancel to St. P e t e r ' s , a church b u i l t by committee i n 1896.^ In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , Rev. J . B. Good i n 1880 added a chancel to St. John's Church i n Y a l e ( b u i l t by c o n t r a c t o r s i n 1863), w h i l e Rev. H. Beacham added a chancel and v e s t r y to Cran-brook's C h r i s t Church i n 1903 ( b u i l t by p a r i s h i o n e r s i n 1899). Other clergymen simply added rood screens to t h e i r churches, t h e r e l y s e p a r a t i n g a l t a r from nave. T h i s s o l u t i o n was adopted at Kaslo, Westwold, Sorrento, and St. George's School. A few churches have both chancels and rood screens (Grand Forks, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Armstrong, Enderby, and P e n t i c t o n ) w h i l e many s t i l l have "temporary c h a n c e l s " at t h e i r naves' e a s t e r n ends. Dimensions of chancels v a r y w i t h those of naves. Green-wood's u n u s u a l l y l a r g e nave (26 f e e t by 54 f e e t ) i s matched by a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e chancel (18 f e e t by 24 f e e t ) . F o r t S t e e l e ' s r a t h e r s m a l l nave leads i n t o a s i m i l a r l y small chancel (12 f e e t 4 inches by 6 f e e t ) . Most chancels are s l i g h t l y wider than they are deep, w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s of width to depth a p p r o x i -mating 1 1/3/31. Few chancels are much more than a dozen f e e t deep ( u n l i k e E n g l i s h examples). Most range between 12 and 18 f e e t wide, and have f l o o r areas of 160 to 200 square f e e t . Churches at B a l f o u r and Hope have p a r t i c u l a r l y shallow chancels (3 u n i t s wide by 1 u n i t deep) w h i l e no chancel i s deeper than Yale's (1 u n i t wide by 2 u n i t s deep). 145 About h a l f the A n g l i c a n churches i n the, southern i n t e r i o r have v e s t r i e s . V e s t r i e s were b u i l t i n most areas of the prov-i n c e and at a l l times dur i n g i t s development. Only i n the t e r -r i t o r y around L y t t o n are v e s t r i e s r a r e , f o r few Indian chapels (the predominant type of church i n the area) r e q u i r e d them. Most Indian churches were q u i t e c l o s e to the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n at L y t t o n . Clergymen c o u l d g e n e r a l l y r i d e <fco them, h o l d s e r -v i c e s , and r e t u r n home a l l on a s i n g l e day. P a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t a n t v i l l a g e s sometimes had houses r e s e r v e d f o r use by v i s i t -i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s , so even t h e i r churches seldom have v e s t r i e s . Churches at Shulus and Shakkan have unusual i n t e r n a l v e s t r i e s (screened c u b i c l e s ) but these were meant f o r v e s t i n g r a t h e r than f o r o v e r n i g h t accomodation. The churches o f St. M i c h a e l and A l l Angels at Spences Bridge, St. Mary and St. Paul at L y t -ton, and St. AidenrafcePokhaist are the onl y ( s u r v i v i n g ) examples w i t h v e s t r i e s . ^ S l i g h t l y more than h a l f the southern i n t e r i o r ' s white A n g l i c a n churches have v e s t r i e s . Most are used s o l e l y f o r the storage of vestments, a l t a r l i n e n s , and a l t a r v e s s e l s . In a few p a r i s h e s (as A. W. S i l l i t o e , f i r s t Bishop o f New Westminster lamented i n 1889) they were a l s o used as r e c t o r i e s . When v e s t -r i e s are l a c k i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n s are o f t e n assumed by r e c t o r i e s or p a r i s h h a l l s . At present none are used as housing, f o r p a r i s h e s without r e c t o r i e s are u s u a l l y served by p r i e s t s who l i v e i n adjacent communities. V e s t r i e s are u s u a l l y found o n l y at churches equipped w i t h chancels (Canoe, L i s t e r , Invermere, L y t t o n , and Kimberley-- a l l t w e n t i e t h century b u i l d i n g s - - are the s o l e e x c e p t i o n s ) . Most v e s t r i e s are l o c a t e d at t h e i r chancel's n o r t h e r n or southern s i d e . Only the Church of St. Stephen at New Denver has a v e s t r y behind i t s chancel, w h i l e St. George's School Chapel near Lytton,has a v e s t r y i n i t s narthex. V e s t r i e s at Cran-brook, Armstrong, and Hope are housed under s h e d - l i k e r o o f s ; w h i l e those at Sorrento, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Grindrod, Canoe, Windemere, Enderby, and Invermere are under gabled r o o f s (and set at r i g h t angles to the a x i s of the nave). V e s t r i e s i n c r u c i f o r m churches always occupy at l e a s t p a r t o f a t r a n s e p t , w i t h s e a t i n g , u t i l i t i e s , and chapels consuming the spaces r e -maining. Examples of v e s t r i e s i n t r a n s e p t s s u r v i v e at B a l f o u r , Queen's Bay, Ya l e , Salmon Arm, and the L y t t o n I ndian Reserva-t i o n . A n g l i c a n naves are g e n e r a l l y three or fou r bays deep by one or three bays wide. P a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e churches have naves as many as s i x bays deep (Kimberley and Armstrong, f o r example). Unusually sma l l churches, such as the Indian chapel at Nysakep, are sometimes on l y a s i n g l e bay long. Though three bays wide, churches w i t h western towers or porches seldom have easternwindows. Only a few such churches ( B a l f o u r , L y t t o n Indian Reserve, Okanagan M i s s i o n , and Cranbrook-- the l a t t e r i s now a l t e r e d ) have windows above t h e i r western porches. Fewer s t i l l have windows f l a n k i n g t h e i r western porches ( u n l i k e many Oblate churches). Large western windows are found o n l y on s i d e -porched or side-towered churches. Examples e x i s t at Hope, Ash-c r o f t , Enderby, Westwold, N i c o l a , Summerland, Arrowpark (now removed to Nakusp), P r o c t e r , M e r r i t t , and Monte Creek. B l i n d western facades are r a r e , and s u r v i v e at only two l o c a t i o n s (Armstrong and Greenwood). E a s t e r n windows are much more common than western ones. They e x i s t at about h a l f the southern i n t e r i o r ' s A n g l i c a n church es. Only f o u r white churches w i t h chancels ( N i c o l a , Y a l e , Mer-r i t , and Mara) l a c k e a s t e r n windows. B l i n d e a s t e r n facades are found a l s o at seven c h a n c e l - l e s s churches ( A s h c r o f t , Kaslo, Westwold, Summerland, L y t t o n , Kimberley, and Monte Creek) and at three temporary churches ( F o r t S t e e l e , Peachland, and L i s t e r ) No Indian churches have e a s t e r n windows. With the e x c e p t i o n of the Indian churches near L y t t o n (whose designs may owe much to Oblate p r o t o - t y p e s ) , churches without e a s t e r n windows are not r e g i o n a l l y c l u s t e r e d . Such churches were b u i l t both by clergymen and by committees, and at v a r i o u s times between 1880 and 1925. Temporary churches were o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t as s c h o o l -houses, and were consequently not equipped w i t h e a s t e r n windows. Churches without chancels probably l a c k e d e a s t e r n windows e i t h e r because t h e i r b u i l d e r s were not l i t u r g i c a l l y minded or because t h e i r m i n i s t e r s hoped to a t t a c h chancels i n the f u t u r e . The absence of e a s t e r n windows from A n g l i c a n Indianschurches; i s l e s s easi-Oiylexpitained/,..unless/Indian!churches w e r e ^ b u i l t u c o n s c i o u s l y o r a u n b o n s c i o u s l y i n i m i t a t i o n of adjacent Oblate churches. A n g l i c a n windows are somewhat more v a r i e d than those of other denominations. Three main types e x i s t : North American domestic, m u l l i o n e d ( s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e ) , and G o t h i c . Gothic windows i n c o r p o r a t e three sub-types: l a n c e t , decorated, and 148 m u l t i p l e ( p a i r e d , T r i n i t i e s , and quadruple). Lancets and domestic windows are u s u a l l y double-hund sashes w h i l e decorated G o t h i c , m u l l i o n e d , and m u t i p l e Gothic windows are g e n e r a l l y f i x e d or hinged. Gothic windows are by f a r the most common type i n A n g l i c a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . They c o n s t i t u t e nave windows i n h a l f the A n g l i c a n churches i n ^ t h e southern i n t e r i o r . Domestic win-dows are used i n about 30% of the area's naves. M u l l i o n e d win-dows account f o r most of the remaining 20%. Gothic and m u l l i o n e d windows have been used c o n t i n u o u s l y by A n g l i c a n b u i l d e r s s i n c e 1861. The use of domestic windows, however, dates mainly from a f t e r 1900. Domestic windows were o f t e n used by congregations of modest means and by Indians. A few are found i n o n c e - s e c u l a r b u i l d i n g s ( i n c l u d i n g A n g l i c a n churches at Peachland, F o r t S t e e l e , and L i s t e r ; b u i l d i n g s o r i g i n a l l y ! e r e c t e d as schoolhouses). Romanesque or round-headed windows were a p p a r e n t l y not used much by A n g l i c a n church b u i l d e r s , though domestic windows w i t h c l a s s i c a l l i n t e l s are found a t Indian c h u r c h e s / i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y (Shakkan, Shulus, and Canford). S i m i l a r window surrounds s u r v i v e at Lower N i -c o l a 's Turner Methodist Church and at s e v e r a l other s i t e s i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y ( i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l houses i n the v i l l a g e s of Upper and Lower N i c o l a ) . The s t y l e p robably owes i t s o r i g i n to l o c a l c o n t r a c t o r s , and not to A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . A n g l i c a n churches d i f f e r somewhat from those of other denominations i n t h e i r deployment of windows. U n l i k e Methodist, P r e s b y t e r i a n , and Roman C a t h o l i c churches, A n g l i c a n examples f r e q u e n t l y have l a r g e and complex e a s t e r n and western windows. 149 Such windows o f t e n take the form of T r i n i t y l a n c e t s or m u l l i o n e d T r i n i t i e s . A n g l i c a n windows o f t e n resemble European prototypes v e r y c l o s e l y . T r a c e r y i s f r e q u e n t l y t h i c k , complex, and a r c h a e o l o - . g i c a l l y c o r r e c t (or at l e a s t as c o r r e c t as c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h wood p e r m i t t e d ) . Window t r a c e r y used by Roman C a t h o l i c and Non-conformist b u i l d e r s i s g e n e r a l l y t h i n , simple, and uncon-v i n c i n g . A n g l i c a n m u l l i o n s are s o l i d and p r o p e r l y p r o p o r t i o n e d . They c o n t r a s t w i t h the f l i m s y , s t i c k - l i k e m u l l i o n s so o f t e n used by other denominations. F u r t h e r , A n g l i c a n window panes are f r e q u e n t l y diamond shaped, and d e f i n e d by leaded cames. Leaded A n g l i c a n windows date mainly from the 1890's. Examples sur-v i v e at Hope, Armstrong, Ka s l o , St. George's School, K e t t l e V a l l e y , M e r r i t t , Queen's Bay, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Westbank, and Monte Creek. A n g l i c a n windows are a l s o sometimes s t a i n e d , e i t h e r w i t h leaded f i g u r e s or p l a i n c o l o u r e d g l a s s . S t a i n e d g l a s s , of course, does not always date from a church's year of con-s t r u c t i o n . Many windows have been i n s t a l l e d as war memorials or i n honour of deceased p a r i s h i o n e r s . Examples e x i s t i n a l l areas of the southern i n t e r i o r : at L y t t o n (Indian church), Cranbrook, Grand Forks, K a s l o , Enderby, Keremeos, Grindrod, Arrowpark (church removed to Nakusp), Canoe, Westwpld, B a l f o u r , K e t t l e V a l l e y , and Greenwood. Expensive f i g u r e d g l a s s i s mainly c o n f i n e d to wealthy, predominantly m i d d l e - c l a s s , churches. Such windows are u s u a l l y i n s t a l l e d i n the most conspicuous p l a c e s , e i t h e r as e a s t e r n or western windows. When i n s t a l l e d i n the east, s t a i n e d g l a s s windows p r o v i d e a dramatic background f o r 150 a l t a r s . The e x t e r i o r c o v e r i n g o f an A n g l i c a n church o f t e n i n -d i c a t e s i t s date o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . Because A n g l i c a n churches continued to be b u i l t i n l a r g e numbers long a f t e r Non-conformist and Roman C a t h o l i c b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y had subsided, t h e i r facades i n c o r p o r a t e m a t e r i a l s not found on e a r l i e r churches. Non-conformist and Roman C a t h o l i c b u i l d i n g s are u s u a l l y sheathed i n s h i p l a p , f o r most were b u i l t b e f o r e other m a t e r i a l s became popular. Most of the southern i n t e r i o r i s A n g l i c a n church-es are b a l l o o n frame s t r u c t u r e s . Many (about 60%) are f i n i s h e d i n s h i p l a p , but others have sheathings of clapboards, h a l f -timbering, s h i n g l e s , and stucco. B u i l d i n g s w i t h s h i p l a p date mainly from about 1885. Clapboarded churches date from b e f o r e 1901 (only f o u r remain; Hope, Yale, Slocan, and Greenwood). Stucco, s h i n g l e s , and h a l f - t i m b e r i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y popular a f t e r about 1910 ( l a r g e l y at the expense of s h i p l a p ) . S h i n g l e d churches s u r v i v e at e i g h t l o c a t i o n s l l n v e r m e r e , Queen's Bay, P r o c t e r , M e r r i t t , Monte Creek, Spences Bridge, Westwold, and Cranbrook), h a l f - t i m b e r e d and stuccoed churches at f i v e (Winde-mere, Sorrento, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Lytton-white, Grindrod, and Westbank). S e v e r a l churches (at L i l l o o e t , Hope, and Ya l e , as w e l l as at s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n the south-west) are of heavy-timber c o n s t r u c t i o n . They were b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1860's, p o s s i b l y by members of the Regiment of Royal Engineers. L i k e b a l l o o n frame s t r u c t u r e s , they are sheathed w i t h clapboards or s h i p l a p . A s i m i l a r l y s m a l l group of b u i l d i n g s are b u i l t of l o g . Of 151 these, a l l save one (the ranchers' church at Spillamacheen, b u i l t by P r e s b y t e r i a n s but ceded to the A n g l i c a n s ) are L y t t o n - a r e a I n d i a n churches. Log s t r u c t u r e s were probably once more common, but s i n c e most Indian p a r i s h e s have r e p l a c e d t h e i r e a r l i e s t chapels w i t h b u i l d i n g s of g r e a t e r p r e t e n s i o n , few now remain. While f i n e stone churches stand at Nelson, Kelowna, P e n t i c t o n , Summerland, and St. George's School, only the l a t t e r two are t r u l y v e r n a c u l a r . Stone churches were b u i l t mainly i n the t w e n t i e t h century, and o n l y by prosperous, l a r g e , and predomi-n a n t l y E n g l i s h congregations. Most are replacements f o r out-moded wood frame s t r u c t u r e s . A n g l i c a n church i n t e r i o r s are u s u a l l y q u i t e d i s t i n c t i v e , f o r most are dominated by warm, n a t u r a l woodwork and c e i l e d w i t h open timber r o o f s . Where Roman C a t h o l i c (and to a l e s s e r extent, Non-conformist, wainscots, w a l l s , and c e i l i n g s are com-monly p a i n t e d , A n g l i c a n i n t e r i o r s are p a n e l l e d or sheathed w i t h v a r n i s h e d f i r , p i n e , and cedar) Naves and chancels are normal-l y c e i l e d by open timber r o o f s or by n a t u r a l l y f i n i s h e d b a r r e l v a u l t s . F l a t p l a s t e r roofs,ccommon i n Non-conformist a r c h i t e c t -ure, are found i n only a few A n g l i c a n churches : Nysakep and Kimberley, and three former schoolhouses at L i s t e r , F o r t S t e e l e , and Peachland. B a r r e l v a u l t s c e i l most Indian churches ( i n c l u d -i n g L y t t o n , Shakkan, Canford, Shulus, Spences Bridge, and Ash-c r o f t ) but p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y fewer European churches (Invermere, Canoe, K e t t l e V a l l e y , P r o c t e r , Arrowpark, and A s h c r o f t ) . V a u l t s i n white A n g l i c a n churches are always unpainted w h i l e those i n Indian churches are u s u a l l y b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d . P a i n t e d s u r f a c e s Plate 33. Interior of the Anglican church at Sorrento, with raised a l t a r and rood screen. Plate 34. Interior of the central Anglican mission church at Lytton. Note the b a r r e l vault and iron tie-rods. 153 are p r o b a b l y more i n accord w i t h n a t i v e Indian t a s t e s , w h i l e n a t u r a l l y f i n i s h e d woodwork agrees w i t h E n g l i s h A n g l i c a n t r a d i -t i o n s . At l e a s t h a l f the southern i n t e r i o r ' s A n g l i c a n churches have exposed timber r o o f t r u s s e s . Almost a l l are n a t u r a l l y f i n i s h e d . S e v e r a l sub-types e x i s t : s c i s s o r t r u s s e d r o o f s , hammerbeamed r o o f s , h o r i z o n t a l l y beamed r o o f s , and arch-braced r o o f s . A few churches combine elements from s e v e r a l types. S c i s s o r t r u s s e d r o o f s are by f a r the commonest. Examples sur-v i v e at Y a l e , Armstrong, B a l f o u r , K a s l o , New Denver, Slocan, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Queen's Bay, Grindrod and probably elsewhere (as w e l l as at s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and on Vancouver I s l a n d ) . Hammerbeam r o o f s are found o n l y at Summerland and Enderby, w h i l e h o r i z o n t a l l y - b e a m e d t r u s s e s ( u s u a l l y braced w i t h sloped s t r u t s ) e x i s t at Hope, L i l l o o e t , Mara, P e n t i c t o n , and Sorrento. Arched-braced b a r r e l v a u l t s , f i n a l l y , were b u i l t at Donald (removed to Windemere), Cranbrook, and Rossland (and p o s s i b l y elsewhere i n the Kootenays). In a number of cases, open timber r o o f s have proved more ornamental than s t r u c t u r a l l y f u n c t i o n a l . I r o n t i e - r o d s have been added to s e v e r a l churches and s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y ensured-;. A n g l i c a n i n t e r i o r s are a l l arranged i n much the same f a s h i o n . N a t u r a l l y f i n i s h e d pews (with k n e e l e r s ) f i l l each s i d e of the nave's c e n t r a l a i s l e . Only a few naves have r e -c o g n i s a b l e s i d e a i s l e s and none are arcaded. Chancels or chan-c e l p l a t f o r m s l i e to the east and are u s u a l l y r a i s e d by a s i n g l e step, though many (25%) are r a i s e d by two. Chancels accomodate l e c t e r n s , c l e r g y s t a l l s , and octagonal p u l p i t s at t h e i r lowest l e v e l s , and a l t a r s at t h e i r h i g h e s t . Most a l t a r s are p l a c e d one or two l e v e l s above the r e s t of the chancel, f o r a t o t a l of three steps above the nave. The three l e v e l s t r a d i t i o n a l l y symbolise e i t h e r the T r i n i t y or the three l e v e l s of p r i e s t -hood (deacon, p r i e s t , and b i s h o p ) . Most a l t a r s are backed e i t h e r by d o s s a l s or r e r e d o s e s . A few a l t a r s have both (Shulus, Armstrong, and Okanagan M i s s i o n ) . S e v e r a l are f l a n k e d by o f f e r t o r y t a b l e s (to the south) and by bishop's thrones or c h a i r s (to the n o r t h ) . Chancel r a i l s g e n e r a l l y stand i n f r o n t of the a l t a r . A few churches (such as K e t t l e V a l l e y ) have two sets of r a i l s ; one at the chancel's entrance and one i n f r o n t of the a l t a r . Other necessary f u r n i s h i n g s i n A n g l i c a n churches i n c l u d e l i t a n y desks, organs, and f o n t s . P o r t a b l e l i t a n y desks (or f a l d s t o o l s ) are found at a l l but a few churches (Armstrong, Kaslo, Nysakep, K e t t l e V a l l e y , and L i s t e r ) . They are u s u a l l y p l a c e d at the f o o t of the chancel s t a i r s (at the head of the nave's c e n t r a l a i s l e ) or b e f o r e or behind the l e c t e r n . In p a r t i c u l a r l y small churches ( i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l Indian churches near L y t t o n ) , f a l d s t o o l s take the p l a c e of c l e r g y s t a l l s . The placement of organs v a r i e s l i t t l e . V i r t u a l l y a l l are p l a c e d e i t h e r at the western end of the nave or i n i t s n o r t h - e a s t e r n or north-western corner. A n g l i c a n churches s e r v i n g white p a r i s h e s have organs, but s e v e r a l Indian churches l a c k them (probably because of c o s t ) . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e most white churches have f o n t s (or at l e a s t an a p p r o p r i a t e p o r t a b l e 155 v e s s e l i n the v e s t r y ) , I ndian churches appear to r e l y on make-s h i f t b a s i n s . Fonts are normally p l a c e d near the f o o t of the chancel or toward the nave's western w a l l . The completeness and q u a l i t y of a church's f u r n i s h i n g s are sometimes indeces of the wealth of i t s p a r i s h . Only par-t i c u l a r l y prosperous, well-endowed, or f e r v e n t congregations were able to p r o v i d e complete sets of expensive f u r n i s h i n g s f o r t h e i r churches. S e v e r a l poor p a r i s h e s (and some not so poor) allowed t h e i r l e c t e r n s to double as p u l p i t s ( a l l I n d i a n churches, and t w e n t i e t h century white churches at St. George's School, Sorrento, Peachland, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Queen's Bay, and L i s t e r ) . Though most churches have f o n t s ( F o r t S t e e l e , Shakkan, Canford, Spences Bridge, Nysakep, and perhaps Slocan are the o n l y excep-t i o n s ) o n l y a few c o u l d a f f o r d f o n t s of stone. Examples e x i s t at Hope, Y a l e , Enderby, Cranbrook, Summerland, Canoe, Sorrento, L y t t o n , and Invermere. Less f o r t u n a t e p a r i s h e s commonly have octagonal f o n t s of wood (oak, f i r , or c e d a r ) . While every A n g l i c a n church has a l e c t e r n , few are of oak (Cranbrook, B a l -f o u r , St. George's Chapel, K e t t l e V a l l e y , K a s l o , Queen's Bay, and perhaps others) and o n l y two are of brass (Enderby and Summerland). Most were worked from n a t i v e B r i t i s h Columbian wood. A few congregations saw f i t to i n s t a l l b i shops' thrones and rood screens i n t h e i r churches. These f u r n i s h i n g s are not s t r i c t l y e s s e n t i a l to A n g l i c a n worship though they do enhance i t s s e t t i n g . T h e i r a d d i t i o n to a church r e f l e c t s both enthusiasm and wealth. F i n e l y carved bishops' c h a i r s are found i n nine 156 w e l l f u r n i s h e d churches (Windemere, the L y t t o n Indian Reserve, Cranbrook, St. George's School, Nakusp, Sorrento, Okanagan M i s s i o n , Mara, and Queen's Bay). Rood screens e x i s t i n about a dozen churches (mainly i n the predominantly E n g l i s h Okanagan V a l l e y , and onl y i n churches b u i l t b e f o r e 1912: Armstrong, En-derby, P e n t i c t o n , Kaslo, Westwold, Cranbrook, Grand Forks, St. George's School, Arrowpark, Sorrento, and Okanagan M i s s i o n ) . Regardless o f t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e r i c h n e s s , A n g l i c a n church f u r n i s h i n g s are u s u a l l y r e c o g n i s a b l e as such. Though almost always of Gothic design, A n g l i c a n f u r n i s h i n g s l a c k the b r i g h t c o l o u r s (to some t a s t e s g a r i s h ) and pompous d e t a i l s t y p i c a l of Oblate f u r n i s h i n g s . N e i t h e r do they share the c o l d s o b r i e t y and heaviness o f (Non-conformist f u r n i s h i n g s . A n g l i c a n f u r n i s h -ings are o f t e n s c h o l a r l y works, c o n v i n c i n g l y executed i n n a t u r a l -l y f i n i s h e d wood. Most are based, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , upon mediaeval models. They agree both i n t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s and i n t h e i r d e t a i l w i t h c e n t u r i e s - o l d E n g l i s h p r o t o t y p e s . A n g l i c a n churches are o f t e n found i n r a t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e s e t t i n g s . Save f o r Indian churches, most s i t amid spacious lawns. Many are a l s o surrounded by t r e e s and flower gardens. S e v e r a l have yards enclosed by fences or hedges. A few even have l y c h - g a t e s ( L y t t o n Indian Reserve, Shulus, Cranbrook, Y a l e -now removed, Enderby, and Okanagan M i s s i o n ) . A h a l f - d o z e n churches have churchyards adjacent. Examples e x i s t at Sorrento, L i s t e r , Spillamacheen, Westwold, and Okanagan M i s s i o n (churches once stood i n the A n g l i c a n cemeteries at P e n t i c t o n and Summerland as w e l l ) . Churches b u i l t by m i d d l e - c l a s s o r c h a r d i s t s u s u a l l y 157 e x h i b i t the most thorough la n d s c a p i n g , w h i l e the grounds of churches b u i l t i n mining communities (such as S i l v e r t o n , Slocan, New Denver, M i c h e l , N a t a l , and Hedley) have long been r a t h e r n e g l e c t e d . 158 C h a p t e r 5 E x p l a n a t i o n o f B u i l t Forms: E u r o p e a n and E a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a c k g r o u n d D u r i n g t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E u r o p e and e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a were b e s e t by c h a n g es i n r e l i g i o u s o u t l o o k and w o r s h i p t h a t were n o t h i n g s h o r t o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e o n s l a u g h t o f i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n l e d t o m a j o r changes i n c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . B o t h s e t s o f f o r c e s e x e r t e d c o n -s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c h u r c h e s . Such c hanges were e x p e r i e n c e d i n i t i a l l y i n l o n g - s e t t l e d a r e a s , b u t t h e i r i m p a c t was a l s o f e l t i n f r o n t i e r r e g i o n s . Thus, i f t h e e a r l y c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t o be t r u l y u n d e r s t o o d , one must f i r s t examine i t s p r e c e d e n t s i n E u r o p e and e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was an age w h i c h o b s c u r e d i t s own p r e s e n t t h r o u g h a r e v i v a l o f t h e p a s t . A n c i e n t and m e d i -a e v a l C h r i s t i a n l i t u r g i e s , p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c r a f t s , and h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e ( G o t h i c i n p a r t i c u l a r ) were a l l s u b j e c t t o r enewed i n t e r e s t . I n one s e n s e s u c h r e v i v a l s were i n n o v a t i v e and r e v o l u t i o n a r y . The a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e m i d d l e ages were i n t e r p r e t t e d as a modern s t y l e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D o c t r i n e s and l i t u r g i e s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e P r i m i t i v e and m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h s u p p l a n t e d s e e m i n g l y a r c h a i c p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s o f more r e c e n t o r i g i n . I n - a n o t h e r s e n s e , 159 such r e v i v a l s were u t t e r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , perhaps even r e a c t i o n -a r y . 1 For some they were u n r e a l i s t i c and romantic s t r i v i n g s a f t e r c o n d i t i o n s that c o u l d not and ought not to be r e v i v e d . C r i t i c s of the Gothic and A n g l o - C a t h o l i c r e v i v a l s , f o r example, condemned the "new" movements i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o g y as a r e t u r n to Popery. Opinions on the r e v i v a l s of the n i n e t e e n t h century v a r i e d over time, through space, and across denominational l i n e s . By the time i n t e n s i v e settlement began i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1858), C h r i s t i a n s i n B r i t a i n had accepted the d o c t r i n a l and l i t u r g i c a l reforms o f Wesley and the Anglo-C a t h o l i c s ( T r a c t a r i a n s ) as e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t s . A n g l i c a n s em-braced neo-Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e wholeheartedly, though Non-co n f o r m i s t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s r e t a i n e d r e s e r v a t i o n s . E a s t -ern North Americans were i n some ways more s k e p t i c a l ; a c c e p t i n g Wesley's Methodist r e v i v a l but d i s t r u s t i n g T r a c t a r i a n i s m and p r e f e r r i n g to continue t h e i r own a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one can s a f e l y s t a t e that even i n 1858, e a s t e r n North Americans were q u i c k l y becoming accustomed to r e v i v e d or 2 other a l t e r e d l i t u r g i e s and a r c h i t e c t u r e . Movements begun e a r l i e r i n the century were i n the process of becoming t r a d i -t i o n a l . By the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e and m e d i a e v a l i s e d d o c t r i n e s and l i t u r g i e s had become normative and n o n - i n n o v a t i v e , not onl y i n . B r i t a i n but a l s o throughout North America and western Europe. This i s not to say t h a t such r e v i v a l s were u n i v e r s a l l y accepted, but r a t h e r t h a t they ceased to be judged as n o v e l . The d o c t r i n a l , l i t u r g i c a l , and 160 s t y l i s t i c antecedents of B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y churches were thus doubly t r a d i t i o n a l , drawn from both s i d e s of the A t l a n t i c and from the r e c e n t as w e l l as the d i s t a n t p a s t . The church reforms of the n i n e t e e n t h century, the r e v i v a l of the Gothic s t y l e , and the c o n s t r u c t i o n technology of the i n d u s t r i a l age a l l have t h e i r r o o t s i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century. By the end of the 1700's, the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n was w e l l underway. I t s e f f e c t s were f e l t f i r s t i n B r i t a i n and subsequently i n western North America. The s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and p h y s i c a l upheavals r e s u l t i n g from i n d u s t r i a l i -s a t i o n have been w e l l documented elsewhere. They bear o n l y i n d i r e c t l y on t h i s argument. What is_ important i s the impact of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n upon d o c t r i n e , l i t u r g y , s t y l e , and technology. R e l i g i o u s R e v i v a l : The Founding of D o c t r i n a l and L i t u r g i c a l  T r a d i t i o n s i n the Nineteenth Century In the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century the Church of England began to undergo changes t h a t were to have s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e of the f o l l o w i n g century. The A n g l i c a n Church of the 1700's was a body long overdue f o r reform. D e s c r i b e d by some as "the p r a y i n g s e c t i o n of the 3 Tory P a r t y , " the Church had been reduced to a q u i e t and non-c o n t r o v e r s i a l arm of the e s t a b l i s h e d order. I t s episcopacy was w o r l d l y and l e t h a r g i c , and r i d d l e d w i t h nepotism and s e c u l a r p o l i t i c s . Many of i t s c l e r g y " d i d n o t h i n g i n par-t i c u l a r and d i d i t v e r y w e l l , " 4 w h i l e o t h e r s , a c c o r d i n g to J . B. Good,' "were f a r more conspicuous i n the (fox) hunting 161 f i e l d " " * t h a n i n t h e i r p u l p i t s . An u r b a n c o n t e m p o r a r y d i s -p a r a g i n g l y d e s c r i b e d them as " c o n s t a n t r e a d e r s o f t h e G e n t l e -man 's M a g a z i n e , deep i n t h e a n t i q u i t i e s o f t h e s i g n s o f i n n s , s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o what becomes o f s w a l l o w s i n w i n t e r , and w h e t h e r hedgehogs, o r o t h e r u r c h i n s , a r e most j u s t l y a c c u s e d o f s u c k i n g cows d r y a t n i g h t . " Many c l e r g y were s i m p l y u n g i f t e d and unwanted s e c o n d sons who p r e f e r r e d l i f e i n com-f o r t a b l e r u r a l r e c t o r i e s t o c a r e e r s i n d r a u g h t y army t e n t s . H undreds o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c l e r g y m e n h e l d s e v e r a l p a r i s h l i v i n g s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a t t e n d i n g t o none. I n s u c h c a s e s , p a r o c h i a l d u t i e s were a s s i g n e d t o u n d e r p a i d and o v e r w o r k e d c u r a t e s . 7 B e c a u s e o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e C h u r c h s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . C o n d i t i o n s were r i p e f o r r e f o r m . The f i r s t waves o f r e f o r m t o a s s a i l t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h were t h o s e s e t l o o s e by J o h n W e s l e y ' s M e t h o d i s t R e v i v a l . W e s l e y ' s r e f o r m s r e - i n t r o d u c e d l i f e and e n t h u s i a s m i n t o a c h u r c h t h a t was s t a i d and i r r e l e v a n t . W i t h a r e t u r n t o s i m p l e , l i t e r a l i s t C h r i s t i a n i t y , W e s l e y and h i s e v a n g e l i c a l s h o ped t o i n t r o d u c e "a r e l i g i o n o f l o v e and p l e a s a n t n e s s and j o y " ( t h o u g h 8 i n p r a c t i c e M e t h o d i s m was o f t e n s t e r n and a u s t e r e ) . U n l i k e t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h , W e s l e y ' s d i s c i p l e s were d e d i c a t e d t o t h e w o r k i n g p o o r , o p p o s i n g c h i l d l a b o u r and s l a v e r y , and work-i n g f o r b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , h o u s i n g , s a n i t a t i o n , and l a b o u r l e g i s -9 l a t i o n . The M e t h o d i s t a p p e a l was i n a s e n s e a r o m a n t i c one. T h r o u g h i t s p o p u l a r (and e n t e r t a i n i n g ) o r a t o r y and hymns i t o f f e r e d an a t t a i n a b l e h a p p i n e s s on e a r t h (as h a d b e e n o f f e r e d by P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y ) and a p r o m i s e o f a g r e a t e r r e w a r d to come. Though Wesley never viewed h i m s e l f as anything but an e v a n g e l i c a l A n g l i c a n , h i s successors broke from the Estab-l i s h e d Church to found Wesleyan, P r i m i t i v e , and other Methodist Churches. Many e v a n g e l i c a l s , however, remained i n the Church of England and formed a Low Church p a r t y (as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from 11 the "High and Dry" p a r t y ) . Methodism and Low Church A n g l i c a n -ism became the r e l i g i o n o f the lower c l a s s e s , w h i l e High Church 12 A n g l i c a n i s m remained an upper c l a s s p r e s e r v e . By the mid-n i n e t e e n t h century, though, the e v a n g e l i c a l d o c t r i n e s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and of p e r s o n a l moral duty had i n f i l t r a t e d the uppermost s t r a t a of the E n g l i s h Church. The middle and upper c l a s s e s began to view themselves as l e a d e r s of p u b l i c morality,''" s e t t i n g standards, p r o v i d i n g examples, and a c t i n g as guardians f o r s o c i e t y as a whole. Though the e v a n g e l i c a l d i s c i p l i n e was u n a t t r a c t i v e to the educated (who c o u l d not always concur w i t h i t s s i m p l i s t i c d o c t r i n e s ) , i t r e c e i v e d a l i m i t e d acceptance i n t h e i r homes. F a m i l i e s prayed together, parents d i r e c t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n B i b l e study, and popular r e l i g i o u s a r t appeared on p a r l o u r w a l l s . 1 4 Wesley's e v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l s e t the stage f o r even g r e a t e r church reforms, t h i s time o r c h e s t r a t e d by the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y themselves. When a major b i l l , the Reform Act of 1832, was'passed by the B r i t i s h P arliament, many c l e r g y saw a d i s t i n c t t h r e a t not o n l y to the Tory P a r t y (and the o l d , landed order) but to the E s t a b l i s h e d Church as w e l l . R a t h e r than see Church powers eroded by a s e c u l a r p a r l i a m e n t , a group of l e a d i n g Oxford clergymen (among them Keble, Pusey, and Newman) r e s o l v e d to 163 change the Church from w i t h i n . Dating from 1833 (the year of Keble's famous A s s i z e Sermon), t h i s "Oxford Movement" c a l l e d f o r a reawakening of p r i e s t l y conscience, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and 16 behaviour. The Oxford reformers argued t h a t the c l e r g y of the A n g l i c a n Church had been ordained through an a p o s t o l i c succes-s i o n , and owed t h e i r p o s i t i o n , f e a l t y , and l i v e s to C h r i s t . The Church of England, they d e c l a r e d , was p a r t of the one Holy, A p o s t o l i c , and C a t h o l i c Church e s t a b l i s h e d by C h r i s t and h i s D i s c i p l e s . 1 7 I t s modern-day Bishops should be p i o u s , devoted, and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g , 7 s ' n o t w o r l d l y , complacent, and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t . They ought to be l e a d e r s i n s o c i e t y , not an i n a c t i v e arm of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t . I f need be, they should oppose the s t a t e to save the i n t e g r i t y of the Church. Modern-day bishops were the s p i r i t u a l h e i r s of S a i n t s Peter, Augustine, and Thomas a Becket. In Newman's o p i n i o n they c o u l d h a r d l y wish f o r a "more b l e s s e d t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r course, than the 18 s p o i l i n g of t h e i r goods, and martyrdom." For the Oxford reformers, the e a r t h l y Church of C h r i s t had once aga i n become 19 "a d i v i n e s o c i e t y and a sacred mystery;" i t s c l e r g y ought not to take t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l i g h t l y . L i k e the Methodist and e v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l s , the Oxford Movement was f e d by the s p i r i t of romanticism. Both movements sought refuge i n the p a s t , opposing an e i g h t e e n t h century 20 r a t i o n a l i s m t h a t had i n f i l t r a t e d the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. Methodists and e v a n g e l i c a l s attempted to r e v i v e the church 21 of the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n c e n t u r i e s . The Oxford " T r a c t a r i a n s " (so named f o r t h e i r s e r i e s of p u b l i s h e d T r a c t s f o r the Times) 164 looked back, i n Pusey's words, "to the o l d times and the o l d p a t h s , " to the church o f the seventeenth century, of the middle 22 ages and beyond. Both groups sought a modern r e b i r t h of an c i e n t C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e , and as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s , V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n became (at l e a s t outwardly) i n -23 c r e a s i n g l y r e l i g i o u s . Quite understandably, the Oxford T r a c t a r i a n s met con-s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e . E v a n g e l i c a l s l a b e l l e d the reformers as agents o f the Church o f Rome (a most hated i n s t i t u t i o n , even a f t e r the C a t h o l i c Emmancipation Act of 1829). A n g l i c a n Churchmen questioned the movement's v e r y a l l e g i a n c e to Pro-t e s t a n t i s m . Archdeacon Thorp denounced i t s more r a d i c a l aims 25 as a "damnable heresy." The refo r m e r s ' cause was done l i t t l e good when, i n 1845, Newman announced h i s c o n v e r s i o n to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . The v e r y worst f e a r s o f the movement's c r i t i c s 26 had been s u b s t a n t i a t e d . But the reformers had the support of a new g e n e r a t i o n of c l e r g y (then being t r a i n e d a t Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham) and many of t h e i r d o c t r i n e s soon became accepted. Clergymen became more p r i e s t - l i k e , a c t i n g as much as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s as pre a c h e r s . P l u r a l i t i e s were a b o l i s h e d and c l e r i c a l pay s c a l e s r e a d j u s t e d . Sabbath observance became wide-27 spread as r e l i g i o n was i n f u s e d i n t o everyday l i f e . At the same time "as B r i t a i n was undergoing e x t e n s i v e church reforms, France (the source of B r i t i s h Columbia's Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s ) began to experience a remarkable r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l . A n i n e t e e n t h century C h r i s t i a n r e n a i s s a n c e began i n 1801 as Napoleon's Concordat w i t h the Pope r e t u r n e d the church 165 i t s b u i l d i n g s (though not i t s lands) and c r e a t e d an episcopacy 28 w i t h G a l l i c a n l o y a l t i e s . , D e s p i t e t h i s compromise, s u c c e s s i v e French governments continued the a n t i - c l e r i c a l a s s a u l t s begun by the R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s of 1789, g r a d u a l l y d e p r i v i n g the church of p r o p e r t y , s t a t u s , and a u t h o r i t y . These measures climaxed in.1879-80 w i t h the e x p u l s i o n of the J e s u i t s and the suppres-29 s i o n of a l l r e l i g i o u s orders save f o u r . Included among the outlawed orders were the Oblates of Mary Immaculate who, l i k e other o u t c a s t congregations, f l e d to the s a f e t y of Rome. A second and f i n a l a n t i - c l e r i c a l onslaught came i n 1905. A l l r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g s became s t a t e p r o p e r t y , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n ceased, and c l e r i c a l s a l a r i e s f a c e d r e d u c t i o n s . 3 0 L P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s same adverse l e g i s l a t i o n l e d to a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the v e r y church i t was intended to destroy. In the f a c e of government r e s t r i c t i o n s and harassment, and de.-. s p i t e p u b l i c i n d i f f e r e n c e or apathy, the f a i t h of French Cath-o l i c s prospered. Although the temporal powers of the church were being undermined, those C a t h o l i c s who clung to the f a i t h 31 d i d so w i t h unprecedented f e r v o u r . But not o n l y d i d long-time C a t h o l i c s r e a f i r m t h e i r b e l i e f s , f o r many former a g n o s t i c s r e - e n t e r e d the f o l d . Thus, between the years 1801 and 1879 "more new congregations, s o c i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s emerged than i n any p r e v i o u s century i n the h i s t o r y of the Roman Cath-32 o l i c Church, or, indeed, of any church." Though the church s u f f e r e d endless i n d i g n i t i e s i n France, i t was France who produced more f o r e i g n m i s s i o n a r i e s than any other country i n 33 Europe. 166 The French Roman C a t h o l i c r e v i v a l was both romantic and r e a c t i o n a r y . For many i t meant a r e t u r n to the r i g h t f u l order that the R e v o l u t i o n of 1789 had swept away. Many of i t s l e a d e r s (such as Chateaubriand and de Mazenod) were r e t u r n e d emigrees who regarded the excesses of the r e v o l u t i o n w i t h h o r r o r . Quite f r e q u e n t l y , C a t h o l i c r e v i v a l i s t s looked back f a r beyond the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s and toward the middle ages. T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n "modernism','-- a movement w i t h i n the church d e v e s t i n g Roman C a t h o l i c i s m of i t s m y s t i c a l t r a i t s , b e l i t t l i n g the a p o s t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n , and denegrating the p r i e s t h o o d and the sacraments-- was as much a l o n g i n g f o r the order of the middle ages as i t was a r e j e c t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h century secu-35 l a r i s a t i o n . Though many Frenchmen c o u l d not accept a r e -t u r n to the France of L o u i s XVI, the p r o s p e c t of a neo-mediaeval church appealed to tens of thousands. The r e v i v a l of C a t h o l i c i s m i n n i n e t e e n t h century France i s i n l a r g e measure a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h a t appeal. The A r c h i t e c t u r a l S e t t i n g of Reformed L i t u r g i e s Each of the n i n e t e e n t h century's major r e l i g i o u s up-h e a v a l s - - the Oxford Movement, the C a t h o l i c r e v i v a l , the reforms of Wesley, and the e v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l - - expressed i t s goals and b e l i e f s i n statements of d o c t r i n e . Changing r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s , of course, l e d to a l t e r e d l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e s and c o n s i d e r a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l adaption. Although d o c t r i n a l and l i t u r g i c a l p o s i t i o n s continued to evolve as the n i n e t e e n t h century wore on, i t i s nonetheless p o s s i b l e to o u t l i n e s e v e r a l 167 fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the b u i l t form. Roman C a t h o l i c Worship and A r c h i t e c t u r e The new-found p i e t y and enthusiasm of French Roman Cath-o l i c s found e x p r e s s i o n i n mediaeval r e v i v a l i s m . The m y s t i c a l b e l i e f s , forms, and p r a c t i c e s of the church of the middle ages were o f t e n adopted u n h e s i t a t i n g l y . The sacraments ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the E u c h a r i s t ) were viewed w i t h i n c r e a s i n g v e n e r a t i o n . F r a t e r -n i t i e s arose to d e d i c a t e themselves to the p e r p e t u a l a d o r a t i o n of the B l e s s e d Sacrament, a t t e n d i n g mass upon mass to deter D i v i n e wrath a g a i n s t those who a b s t a i n e d . A modern-day " c u l t of the V i r g i n " developed as newly e s t a b l i s h e d congregations (such as de Mazenod's Oblates) devoted themselves to the "Mother 37 of God." I n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e d i c a t e d t h e i r l i v e s to the s a i n t s of the mediaeval and p r i m i t i v e church. Shrines were r a i s e d at the s i t e s of martyrdoms and m i r a c l e s . S o c i e t i e s f o r the a d o r a t i o n of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and f o r the 38 r e v i v e d use of r o s a r i e s and S t a t i o n s of the Cross f l o u r i s h e d . S i t e s of s a i n t l y a p p a r i t i o n s became major pilgrimmage centres 39 (La S a l e t t e and Lourdes i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . Worship became i n c r e a s i n g l y r i t u a l i s t i c , the p r i e s t and the a l t a r as d i s t a n t as d u r i n g the middle ages. French mediaeval r e v i v a l i s m had a s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i t e c t u r -a l impact. Aided by the w r i t i n g s of Comte de M a i s t r e , Chateau-b r i a n d , Hugo, and the Annales arch£oToglques, many French Cath-o l i c s (though by no means a l l ) came to view Gothic as the o n l y v a l i d C h r i s t i a n s t y l e . The p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1819 of Joseph Marie 168 Comte de M a i s t r e ' s Du Pape was an e a r l y i n f l u e n c i a l work c a l l i n g f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of the Papacy's mediaeval a u t h o r i t y 40 and g l o r i e s . Though not e s p e c i a l l y concerned w i t h a r c h i -t e c t u r e , Comte de M a i s t r e ' s volume d i d g i v e neo-mediaevalism a s i g n i f i c a n t boost. I n t e r e s t i n Gothic r e c e i v e d a f u r t h e r impetus i n 1831 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of V i c t o r Hugo's Notre  Dame de P a r i s . Hugo's i n t e n t was to promote sympathy w i t h the cause of c a t h e d r a l r e s t o r a t i o n . In t h i s he succeeded, f o r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n mediaeval a r t s w e l l e d , i n f l u e n c i n g many areas of f a s h i o n . Even government responded-- i n 1837 L o u i s P h i l i p p e e s t a b l i s h e d a commission to r e s t o r e a n c i e n t French church b u i l d i n g s . 4 1 Though others were important, France's p r i n c i p a l n i n e -teenth century advocate of a r e v i v a l of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e was Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand. In h i s Genie de C h r i s t -iariism (1800, r e p u b l i s h e d throughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) , Chateaubriand decreed Gothic the v e r y embodiment of the C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t . I t s ascendant l i n e s evoked images of heaven. I t s mysterious shadows, angles, c o l o u r s , and massing d e f i e d r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s : " I t was i m p o s s i b l e to enter a Gothic church without f e e l i n g a s o r t of c h i l l i n g s e n s a t i o n and r e c e i v i n g a vague presentiment of the d e i t y . . . A n c i e n t France seemed to l i v e a g a in... The more remote those times were, the more magical they seemed to us, the more they i n s p i r e d i n us the kinds of thoughts which i n v a r i a b l y end i n r e f l e c t i o n s on the i n s i g -n i f i c a n c e of man and the b r e v i t y of human 1 l i f e . . . E v e r y t h i n g i n Gothic churches r e c a l l s l a b y r i n t h i n e f o r e s t s , e v e r y t h i n g evokes r e l i g i o u s awe, the m y s t e r i e s and the D e i t y . " 42 169 For Chateaubriand and h i s d i s c i p l e s G othic was more than a p i c t u r e s q u e s t y l e , more than one of s e v e r a l C h r i s t i a n s t y l e s . I t was the on l y s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e f i t f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n of the d i v i n e m y s t e r i e s . I t s b u i l d i n g s were m i r a c l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n , d e f y i n g p h y s i c a l laws and human l o g i c . Gothic b u i l d i n g s were o b v i o u s l y of D i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n and b u i l t by a m o r a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s o c i e t y . Mediaeval worship, v a l u e s , and genres de v i e ought to be r e v i v e d ; mediaeval churches ought to be r e s t o r e d ; and modern churches should s u r e l y be 4-3 b u i l t i n the Gothic s t y l e . Chateaubriand's appeals was taken up by Adolphe-Napoleon Didron and the e d i t o r s o f the Anna1es Archeologiques (1844-69). For Didron, archeology was synonymous w i t h "the h i s t o r y of mediaeval r e l i g i o u s a r t . " 4 4 His j o u r n a l was devoted to the p o p u l a r i s a t i o n of mediaeval a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n i t s C h r i s t i a n context. In a p p e a l i n g f o r a r e v i v a l o f Gothic forms f o r both s e c u l a r and sacred b u i l d i n g s , Didron o f t e n s o l i c i t e d a r t i c l e s from V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , the noted church r e -s t o r e r . 4 ' But d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s , the m a j o r i t y of French-men d e c l i n e d to equate Gothic w i t h the s o l e , v a l i d s t y l e f o r C h r i s t i a n worship. They agreed w i t h Raoul-Rochette who sug-gested i n 1855: "We would be doing an i n j u s t i c e to C h r i s t i a n i t y , or completely m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s s p i r i t , i f we were to assume that i t had need of a s p e c i a l k i n d o f a r t i n order to express i t s b e l i e f s . " 46 Gothic might be both French and C h r i s t i a n , but there were e q u a l l y v a l i d h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s a v a i l a b l e . N ineteenth century French C a t h o l i c churches were consequently a d i v e r s e group of b u i l d i n g s : C l a s s i c a l , Norman, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and even e c l e c t i c . Few churches of any d e s c r i p t i o n were i n f a c t b u i l t , f o r France had l i t t l e need of new churches. The J e s u i t s had b u i l t scores of churches i n the seventeenth century, and d e s p i t e e i g h t e e n t h century d e s e c r a t i o n s , most mediaeval b u i l d i n g s continued to be u s e d . 4 ^ Although numbers of a c t i v e C a t h o l i c s had swollen, p r e - e x i s t i n g churches were abl e to absorb new c o n v e r t s . Though new Gothic churches were not as numerous as the Gothic r e v i v a l ' s advocates might hope, p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r mediaeval C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m and a r t i n c r e a s e d phenomenally. The c a t h e d r a l s and'churches of the middle ages underwent ex-t e n s i v e r e s t o r a t i o n . L a t e r a l a l t a r s , S t a t i o n s of the Cross, and images of s a i n t s reappeared i n p a r i s h churches. S t a t u a r y devoted to the c u l t s of the Sacred Heart and of Mary Immaculate rose i n p o p u l a r i t y . S t a i n e d g l a s s windows c a s t i n g a dim, r e l i g i o u s l i g h t h elped c r e a t e a mood of mystery. A l t a r s be-came i n c r e a s i n g l y grand, were b r i l l i a n t l y c o l o u r e d , encrusted w i t h d e t a i l , and backed by l o f t y , p i n n a c l e d reedoses. Furn-i s h i n g s i n C l a s s i c and Baroque churches were e q u a l l y imposing, designed to evoke p i e t y and to g l o r i f y an e a r l i e r age of French C a t h o l i c i s m . Methodist Worship and A r c h i t e c t u r e In h i s quest to r e v i v e the s p i r i t of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i -t y , John Wesley r e i n s t a t e d the l i t u r g y of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n worship (as best he understood i t ) . Wesley rejected the staid, plodding (and scholarly) sermons of the "High and Dry" Estab-l i s h e d Church and the mystical masses and devotions of Roman Catholicism. Wesleyan services instead emphasised the joys of C h r i s t i a n fellowship and the majesty of God's grace. To outsiders, Methodist meetings were marked by an outward d i s -.play of "enthusiasm," i n Dr. Johnson's words, "a vain con-fidence of divine favour or communication." 4 8 At their extremes, ce r t a i n l y , many services evoked fervour and convulsions and even Hallelujahs. Most services, however, were by no means so emotional. Congregational hymns were emphasised, and seen as "a means of r a i s i n g or quickening the s p i r i t of devotion; of confirming the believer's f a i t h ; of enlivening his hope; and of kin d l i n g and increasing his love to God and man." 49 Extempore prayers supplemented the regular Offices (based on the Book of Common Prayer) and s o l i c i t e d Divine attention to l o c a l and immediate concerns. The Eucharist was viewed as refreshment for the f a i t h f u l and as a "means of grace to unbe-l i e v e r s . " ^ 0 Sermons constituted the central part of the service and usually emphasised man's path from s i n to redemption."'1 In each of i t s forms the Methodist message was simple and couched i n the straightforward terms that appealed to working-class audiences. A l l men were sinners, but through an accept-ance of Christ as th e i r Saviour, a l l might be redeemed to experience eternal joy. To the movement's many detractors, Methodist teachings were overly s i m p l i s t i c . Some saw Wesleyan 172 s e r v i c e s as t h e a t r i c a l events, entertainment but not t r u e 52 worship. Newman was a p r i n c i p a l c r i t i c o f both e v a n g e l i c a l i s m and Methodism and lamented i n 1838, "they aim at experience 53 w i t h i n , ( r a t h e r ) than at him t h a t i s without." D e s p i t e such c r i t i c i s m s the Methodists prospered. T h e i r message was v o i c e d by i t i n e r a n t preachers and l a y readers i n p l a c e s where the E s t a b l i s h e d c l e r g y would not t r e a d : i n the slums, on s t r e e t -c o r n e r s , i n r e n t e d h a l l s and e v e n t u a l l y , i n the Methodists own churches. Wesley's Methodists had no need of t h e i r own church b u i l d i n g s u n t i l the e a r l y 1840's (when A n g l i c a n r e c t o r s began to deny Methodist preachers access to the p u l p i t s of the E s t a b l i s h e d Church). The f i r s t Methodist chapels, c a l l e d "preaching houses" by Wesley, were simply p a l e r r e f l e c t i o n s of the A n g l i c a n churches of the time."* 4 Most were of b r i c k , s q u a r i s h i n p l a n , g a l l e r i e d , and chancel-less. Few had towers or b e l f r i e s . I n t e r i o r s were f i l l e d w i t h box-pews and dominated by massive, looming p u l p i t s ( b e f i t t i n g symbols of the S e r v i c e of the Word). Methodist churches had no a l t a r s , but many had modest communion t a b l e s . Although the s i n g i n g of hymns was an 55 important component of worship, organs were r a r e . In s t r i v i n g to r e i n t r o d u c e the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l i t u r g y of the P r i m i t i v e church, Methodist l e a d e r s developed a narrow-minded approach to a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e . Simple f a i t h and p i e t y were the s o l e r e q u i s i t e s of C h r i s t i a n worship. Since a r t and beauty o f t e n produced p l e a s u r e , they were o b v i o u s l y s i n f u l , and 5 6 i n a p p r o p r i a t e to a house of C h r i s t i a n worship. Because Methodists l a c k e d the c a p a c i t y to use, enjoy,or encourage d e c o r a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e i r meeting houses were kept as sim p i e and as p l a i n as p o s s i b l e . Many resembled the domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the time, though s t r i p p e d of i t s d e c o r a t i v e (and to Methodists, d i s t r a c t i n g ) excesses."* 7 D e s p i t e t h e i r p u r i t a n i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , Methodist churche g r a d u a l l y became more A n g l i c a n i s e d . Though t h e i r i n t e r i o r s remained r a t h e r s t a r k (decorated o n l y by r e l i g i o u s t e x t s ) , and though t h e i r f l o o r p l a n s long remained immutable, chapel ex-t e r i o r s were by the 1860's and 1870's becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y 58 G o t h i c . Then, as the t w e n t i e t h century neared, Methodist f l o o r - p l a n s underwent r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . Churches were b u i l t as a u d i t o r i a , as Greek cr o s s e s (with a p l a t f o r m f o r the p u l p i t n e s t l e d i n one of the c r o s s ' s arms), and u l t i m a t e l y , as A n g l i c a n p a r i s h churches (with naves chancels, 59 s i d e a i s l e s , and v e s t r i e s ) . The Methodist l i t u r g y evolved together w i t h i t s b u i l d i n g s . S e r v i c e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y sacramental, though the preaching of the Word of God remained c e n t r a l to Methodist worship. A n g l i c a n Worship and A r c h i t e c t u r e The appeals of the Oxford Movement f o r g r e a t e r r e c o g n i -t i o n of the C a t h o l i c and A p o s t o l i c o r i g i n s of the A n g l i c a n Church l e d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y to an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n r i t u a l 6 0 and mysticism. Though the movement's l e a d e r s , such as Pusey, p r o t e s t e d that t h e i r aims were t h e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than l i t u r g i c a l , T r a c t a r i a n i s m became equated w i t h Puseyism, and 174 61 Puseyism w i t h r i t u a l i s m . The o r i g i n a l T r a c t a r i a n s had c a l l e d 6 2 f o r a r e d i s c o v e r y "of the v a l u e s of the middle ages." T h e i r successors demanded a r e v i v a l of mediaeval l i t u r g y . For evan-g e l i c a l A n g l i c a n s such suggestions were a k i n to an appeal f o r Popery, and Puseyism became "a d o c t r i n e that reaked w i t h the l e t h a l vapour of incense, that suggested the s i n f u l r u s t l e of vestments, and p o i n t e d the way to a d i s g u s t i n g and improper use 63 of c a n d l e s . " For High Church sympathisers, however, " I t was as i f the T r a c t a r i a n s had d e c l a r e d that on the drab, d i r t y and distempered w a l l s w i t h i n which E n g l i s h churchmen were accustomed to worship there were wonderful p i c t u r e s t h a t when uncovered would transform the whole b u i l d -i n g i n t o something mysterious and sublime." 64 The T r a c t a r i a n s had i n a d v e r t e n t l y spawned a r e v i v a l of the l i t u r -gy and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the mediaeval church. The t r a n s l a t i o n of the Oxford Movement's t h e o l o g i c a l p l e a s i n t o new conceptions of a r c h i t e c t u r e and worship was remarkably r a p i d . P u b l i c enthusiasm f o r the a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the middle ages had long s i n c e been aroused. E i g h t e e n t h century l i t e r a t u r e had p r o c l a i m e d the g l o r i e s , beauty, and mysteries of mediaeval B r i t a i n . E c c e n t r i c r u r a l gentlemen t h e i r houses i n the "Gothick" s t y l e (or r a i s e d sham Gothic r u i n s i n t h e i r 65 gardens). The middle ages even i n f i l t r a t e d A n g l i c a n church a r c h i t e c t u r e . Scores of pseudo-Gothic facades concealed churches that were otherwise u t t e r l y Georgian. T h i s i n i t i a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the a r t of the middle ages was a d m i t t e d l y o n l y s h a l -low. Were i t not f o r the Oxford T r a c t a r i a n s and t h e i r a l l i e s the G o t h i c r e v i v a l would have been noth i n g but a f l e e t i n g fancy. 175 The success o f B r i t a i n ' s G othic r e v i v a l i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n f l u e n c e o f A. W. N. Pugin, the Cambridge Camden S o c i e t y , and John Ruskin. A. Welby Pugin f i r s t came to p u b l i c n o t i c e w i t h h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1835 of C o n t r a s t s : or a P a r a l l e l between the Noble E d i f i c e s of the Fourteenth Cy and S i m i l a r B u i l d i n g s o f the Present Day: Shewing the Present Decay 67 of Taste. For Pugin (converted to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i n 1834, ten years b e f o r e Newman), a r c h i t e c t u r e had become a matter of m o r a l i t y . The c i t i e s of the n i n e t e e n t h century i n d u s t r i a l world were abominations, f i l l e d w i t h every imaginable v i c e and s i n . Row houses, p r i s o n s , workhouses, and f a c t o r i e s l i n e d t h e i r s t r e e t s , and s k y l i n e s , once dominated by abbey, church, and c a t h e d r a l s p i r e s , were now d e f i l e d by the chimney stacks of i n d u s t r y . By a c c e p t i n g the P r o t e s t a n t Reformation, the Age of Reason, and c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , Pugin argued, Englishmen had turned from God to Mammon. I n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s r e f l e c t e d greed and inhumanity, whereas mediaeval c i t i e s had been founded 68 on (so he sa i d ) C h r i s t i a n l o v e and c h a r i t y . Only by r e v i v i n g the v a l u e s o f the middle ages c o u l d C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y be r e -s t o r e d . Only by r e v i v i n g the ( p r i m a r i l y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l ) a r c h i -t e c t u r e o f the middle ages c o u l d n i n e t e e n t h century c i t i e s remain i n h a b i t a b l e . Pugin's message was by no means an unpopular one. His a l l e g i a n c e to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , however, discouraged widespread 69 a c c o l a d e s . I t remained f o r an a s s o c i a t i o n of A n g l i c a n c l e r g y -men and a n t i q u a r i a n s , the Cambridge Camden S o c i e t y ( l a t e r , the E c c l e s i o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y ) to s t i r sympathy to a c t i o n . The Cam-176 b r i d g e Camden S o c i e t y was founded by a group of Cambridge under-graduates i n 1839. 7^ The S o c i e t y ' s aims were to promote the study of a n c i e n t church b u i l d i n g s , to encourage t h e i r "proper" r e s t o r a t i o n , and to r e v i v e the mediaeval r i t u a l w i t h i n neo-Gothic churches. The e c c l e s i o l o g i s t s e f f e c t i v e l y took the m y s t i c a l urgings of the Oxford T r a c t a r i a n s and the mediaeval romanticism of Pugin (and others) and melded them together, t h e r e -by r e v o l u t i o n i s i n g A n g l i c a n (and u l t i m a t e l y , Roman C a t h o l i c and Non-conformist) worship and a r c h i t e c t u r e . 7 1 The e c c l e s i o l o g i s t s s t r i v e d f o r n o t h i n g l e s s than the complete r e s t o r a t i o n of the C a t h o l i c r i t u a l of the middle 72 ages, a l b e i t w i t h i n the context of Common Prayer worship. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of A n g l i c a n worship was to be e x c l u -s i v e l y G othic (the o n l y s t y l e a p p r o p r i a t e to the mediaeval l i t u r g y and the s t y l e of an "uncorrupted" age). Churches were to be designed along l i n e s d i c t a t e d by the S o c i e t y . Through i t s j o u r n a l , the E c c l e s i o l o g i s t , the Camden S o c i e t y proclaimed the r u l e s of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . Any departures from i t s d i c t a t e s , e i t h e r by c l e r g y or a r c h i t e c t s , were soundly con-73 demned. The S o c i e t y became s u r p r i s i n g l y powerful, d e s p i t e i t s u n o f f i c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n Church.^ 4 Many of i t s e a r l i e s t members were unsuspecting a n t i q u a r i a n s (subsequently s c a r e d away by the vehemence of the S o c i e t y ' s r h e t o r i c ) , but many were like-minded Churchmen: G o t h i c i s t s and r i t u a l i s t s . By 1843 the S o c i e t y had i n f i l t r a t e d the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of the Church. I t s membership of over 700 i n c l u d e d 16 a r c h i t e c t s , 21 archdeacons and r u r a l deans, 7 deans and c h a n c e l l o r s , 31 P l a t e 3 5 . The A n g l i c a n p a r i s h c h u r c h b e f o r e the O x f o r d and Cambridge Movements. "The v i l l a g e c h u r c h w h i c h the v i c a r s e t h i s h e a r t upon r e s t o r i n g and r a d i c a l l y r e f o r m i n g , was a monument o f the c a r e l e s s n e s s and n e g l e c t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e s e t i m e s . Moth e a t e n pews, c o l d damp f l a g s t o n e s green w i t h age and mildew; Chancel and a l t a r d e s e c r a t e d , and d i l a p i d a t e d w h i t e washed w a l l s ; f i n e o l d ar c h e s b l o c k e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y one a t the west end w h i c h was u t t e r l y h i d d e n by a huge s i n g i n g - g a l l e r y where the s e x t o n and some h a l f dozen v i l l a g e w o r t h i e s used t o d e l i g h t t h e m s e l v e s , when s e l e c t i o n s from Tate and Brady were g i v e n out a t the time o f s e r v i c e w i t h sounds o f base v i o l and c l a r i n e t . " -J.B. Good, "The Utmost Bounds o f the West." peers and Members of Parliament, 16 bishops, and 2 archbishops. The Camden Society's doctrines met a mixed reception. Most clergymen and laymen were easily won over. Evangelicals and particularly conservative clergy, however, condemned the Society as too Romanist by far. Archdeacon Thorp, for example, regarded the typical ecclesiological church as a: "fa i r chamber of popish imagery... speak-ing in a language not to be misunderstood, 'MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH!' " 76 Despite such rancour, opposition to the Society's aims faded with the passage of time. Ecclesiological principles became increasingly accepted. As an indirect result of the Society's endeavours, similar groups were founded throughout the British Isles, carrying the message of ecclesiology wherever there were Anglicans to hear (and non-Anglicans to overhear). 7 7 The success of the Cambridge ecclesiologists was not entirely of their own making. Though hardly a formal ally, A. W. N. Pugin had already laid the ground rules of ecclesiolo-gy, both in his writings and in his architectural designs. Of equal- importance was the compliance of influencial clergymen. In 1841, for example, the much respected rector of Leeds, Dr. W. F. Hook (mentor of Bishop H i l l s ) , rebuilt his Church of St. Peter "with a regard to ecclesiastical propriety previously 78 unknown." Hook had evidently been influenced by John Jebb's 7 Q Choral Service .of .the- United Church of England and. Ire land. ' His church included several features that the Camden Society were later to declare obligatory: a chancel to accomodate a surpliced choir of laymen, a sacrarium far removed from the 179 P l a t e 36. "Please Mr Bishop, which i s Popery and which i s Puseyism?" Cartoon from Punch, 1851. Punch was not alone i n asking t h i s q u e s t i o n . P l a t e 37. P l a t e from Pugin's Apology, the neo-Gothic v i s i o n at i t s extreme. 180 nave, and an a l t a r r a i s e d h i g h above the congregation. Though not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e c c l e s i o l o g i s t s , Hook l e n t t h e i r aims a c e r t a i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Many of h i s c o l l e a g u e s f o l l o w e d h i s example, adding chancels to t h e i r churches, ' 80 i n t r o d u c i n g c h o i r s , and i s o l a t i n g t h e i r a l t a r s . E c c l e s i o l o g y r e c e i v e d i t s f i n a l impetus from the pen of John Ruskin. In the l a s t q u a r t e r of the t w e n t i e t h century John Ruskin i s b a r e l y known, h i s works seldom read. But i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , Ruskin's 81 fame knew few bounds. His w r i t i n g s enjoyed e x t e n s i v e c i r c u -l a t i o n (French-speaking Oblates were among h i s r e a d e r s h i p ) and 82 were h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l . In p u b l i s h i n g h i s Seven Lamps of A r c h i t e c t u r e (1849) and subsequently, The Stones of Venice (1851), Ruskin aroused p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r Gothic to un-8 3 precedented h e i g h t s . While p o p u l a r i s i n g the polychromatic Gothic o f Northern I t a l y , Ruskin a l s o proclaimed a new view of C r e a t i o n . 8 4 For Ruskin and h i s d i s c i p l e s , the e a r t h , humani-ty and the works of man ceased to be laden w i t h s i n and corrup-t i o n . God was to be found not o n l y i n Heaven but i n h i s . e a r t h l y c r e a t i o n s as w e l l : "He was to be sought i n the depths of the seas or upon the mountains, a l s o i n the l i f e and a r t of those men who had l i v e d c l o s e s t to Him and to Nature, and who had b u i l t grey Gothic towers i n n o r t h e r n f o r e s t s . . . " 85 God c o u l d i n s p i r e men to r e v e r e n t i a l works of beauty. Europe's Gothic l e g a c y was a v i s i b l e s i g n of D i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n , and a legacy worthy of emulation. P u b l i c acceptance o f the Gothic s t y l e i n c r e a s e d as the n i n e t e e n t h century progressed. By i t s f i n a l q u a r t e r , v i r t u a l l y a l l A n g l i c a n churches were b u i l t w i t h a view to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s and l i t u r g i c a l p r o p r i e t y (though many congregations continued to oppose the extreme C a t h o l i c r i t u a l ) . Of equal importance was the spread (from the mid-1800's) of Gothic r e v i v a l i s m to other denominations. While m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l i n t e g r i t y , Roman C a t h o l i c s , M ethodists, and P r e s b y t e r i a n s began to draw s e l e c t i v e l y from the Gothic vocabulary. Whether i n Europe, e a s t e r n Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s , by 1900 r i t u a l i s t s and e v a n g e l i c a l s a l i k e were paying i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g s of worship. The T e c h n o l o g i c a l Context: I n d u s t r i a l Innovation and the  Re-emergence of C r a f t L i k e much of western North America, B r i t i s h Columbia was s e t t l e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . The n i n e t e e n t h century i n d u s t r i a l age was a time when r e g i o n a l landscape and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t i e s faded i n the fa c e o f s t a n d a r d i s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r c e s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t was a l s o a time o f r e v i v a l f o r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and c r a f t s . While c a p i t a l i s m , machines and the f a c t o r y system c o n s p i r e d , i n Ruskin's o p i n i o n , to make a " t o o l " o f the workman, Ruskin, 87 Pugin, M o r r i s , and others fought back. R e a l i s i n g t h a t i n -du s t r y had degraded labour and hence a r t , these and other reformers (or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , r e a c t i o n a r i e s ) attempted to r e s t o r e h a n d i c r a f t s to t h e i r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n o f ° 182 8 8 supremacy. T h e i r s was a romantic dream, of course, but mediaeval c r a f t s were nonetheless r e v i v e d . Only r a r e l y d i d they prosper, f o r hand-worked c r a f t s were expensive. The popular t a s t e s of the time were more atuned to the mass-produced products of the f a c t o r y system. Yet, a number of c r a f t workshops d i d s u r v i v e , making s p e c i a l i s e d products f o r wealthy c l i e n t s w i t h sympathetic t a s t e s . A r c h i t e c t u r e was not d i v o r c e d from these p r o c e s s e s . Before the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , r u r a l v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s emerged i n response to l o c a l i s e d m a t e r i a l environments, s t y l e s , 89 and c r a f t s . B u i l d i n g forms and technology were t r a d i t i o n a l , handed from master to a p p r e n t i c e through the c e n t u r i e s . Only l o c a l m a t e r i a l s were used (a r e f l e c t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s ) . Innovations were slow to be accepted, perhaps even h e l d i n s u s p i c i o n . Thus, the b u i l d i n g s of a s i n g l e county, departement, s t a t e , or p r o v i n c e (or even a p o r t i o n t h e r e o f ) were o f t e n q u i t e u n l i k e those of adjacent areas. Cotswold ma-sons b u i l t p e c u l i a r l y gabled houses i n l o c a l o o l i t i c lime-90 stone. Carpenters i n nearby L a n c a s h i r e e r e c t e d " b l a c k and 91 white" houses around heavy-timber frames. Peasants i n the Pyrenees b u i l t maisons b l o c s a t e r r e . In the Languedoc, on l y 92 a few m i l e s away, d i s t i n c t i v e maisons hautes were r a i s e d . S i m i l a r l y , i n e a s t e r n North America, r e g i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t s t y l e s • of b u i l d i n g s emerged i n Quebec, New England, Newfoundland, and the Middle A t l a n t i c . With the advent of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n these 93 r e g i o n a l v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s began to d i s s o l v e . From the l a t e 183 e i g h t e e n t h century, mass p r o d u c t i o n , l i t e r a c y , and p u b l i s h i n g , and s i m p l i f i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d flows of goods, t e c h -niques, and i d e a s . B u i l d i n g s t y l e ceased i n l a r g e measure to be an unconscious e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l needs and v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s , and l o c a l environmental c o n s t r a i n t s . T r a d i t i o n was r e p l a c e d by i n n o v a t i o n and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , l o c a l i s a t i o n by d i f f u s i o n . Cheap r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n moved Welsh r o o f - s l a t e s i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y thatched Hampshire. B r i c k s from k i l n s i n l t h e Midlands supplanted K e n t i s h clapboards and C o r n i s h granite.' F l e m i s h t i l e s were shipped to B r i t t a n y and the A q u i t a i h e . Mass c i r c u l a t e d b u i l d i n g plans s t a n d a r d i s e d f l o o r - p l a n s and facades, both i n Europe and i n North America. Widely d i s t r i b u t e d books of designs i n t r o d u c e d new b u i l d i n g s t y l e s to c a r p e n t e r s and masons once bound by t r a d i t i o n . G othic cottages arose i n O n t a r i o , I t a l i a n v i l l a s on the I s l e of Wight. Long dormant h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s were a l s o r e v i v e d , i n f u s e d w i t h new meaning, and imposed on landscapes p r e v i o u s l y unacquainted w i t h them. Moorish facades were b u i l t i n London and Romanesque l i b r a r i e s were b u i l t i n Massachusetts. With i n c r e a s e d mechani-s a t i o n , many b u i l d i n g components (and even whole s t r u c t u r e s ) were p r e - f a b r i c a t e d i n f a c t o r i e s and shipped wherever needed. Together w i t h the popular t a s t e s of the n i n e t e e n t h century, mass p r o d u c t i o n , i n e x p e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d l i t e r a c y c o n s p i r e d to produce landscapes of remarkably s t a n d a r d i s e d c h a r a c t e r . Pugin was among the f i r s t to condemn i n d u s t r y ' s e f f e c t upon a r c h i t e c t u r e . He lamented i n 1841: 184 "England i s r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s venerable garb; a l l p l a c e s are becoming, a l i k e ; every good o l d gabled i n n i s turned i n t o an u g l y h o t e l w i t h a stuccoed p o r t i c o , and a v u l g a r c o f f e e room l i n e d w i t h s t a r i n g paper, w i t h i m i t a t i o n s c a g l i o l a columns, composition g l a s s frames, an obsequious cheat of a w a i t e r , and twenty per c e n t . " 94 In Pugin's view a r c h i t e c t u r a l t a s t e s had become u t t e r l y de-based. Land developers c o n t r o l l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n and were f a r more i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o f i t s than a e s t h e t i c s . Workmen were e q u a l l y o b l i v i o u s to beauty and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o p r i e t y . They regarded t h e i r tasks as labour, not a r t . Nouveau r i c h e consumers were e q u a l l y to blame, f o r i n Pugin's e s t i m a t i o n , i t was t h e i r abominable t a s t e t h a t p e r m i t t e d the f a c t o r y system to t h r i v e . Pugin's s o l u t i o n encompassed not o n l y a r e v i v a l of the s t y l e of the middle ages, but a l s o a r e t u r n to the s p i r i t of mediaeval craftsmanship. The a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the n i n e t e e n t h century would remain degraded "unless the same f e e l i n g s which i n f l u e n c e d the o l d designers i n the composition of t h e i r Works, can be r e s t o r e d . . . i t i s only by s i m i l a r g l o r i o u s 95 f e e l i n g s t h a t s i m i l a r g l o r i o u s r e s u l t s can be o b t a i n e d . " Pugin's c a l l was echoed by the Cambridge Camden S o c i e t y . In the S o c i e t y ' s view, l i t e r a c y among workmen and s c h o l a r s h i p among designers might be h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , but enthusiasm:— and commitment were f a r more important. I t was e s p e c i a l l y v i t a l t h a t b u i l d e r s of churches should enter i n t o the s p i r i t of t h e i r work. Churches were meant f o r h o l y purposes. T h e i r b u i l d e r s ought to be pious and God-fearing men i f b e a u t i f u l churches were to r e s u l t . In the words of the Camden S o c i e t y : "we have remarkable p r o o f that f e e l i n g without knowledge w i l l do more than knowledge without f e e l i n g . " S p e c u l a t i o n s by Pugin and the Camden S o c i e t y were put i n t o p r a c t i c e by John Ruskin and W i l l i a m M o r r i s , n e i t h e r o f whom were a r c h i t e c t s , though both were very i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f i e l d . In 1855 Ruskin engaged a group of I r i s h stone 97 c u t t e r s to e m b e l l i s h a new museum at Oxford. Ruskin had d e l i b e r a t e l y sought out workmen whose hands and minds were u n s u l l i e d by i n d u s t r i a l e v i l s . Far from exuding a s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n p i e t y and f r a t e r n i t y , the c a r v e r s q u a r r e l l e d and swore to such an extent t h a t they were e v e n t u a l l y sent home. I t was a n a i v e a l b e i t s i n c e r e experiment. W i l l i a m M o r r i s was somewhat more s u c c e s s f u l . L i k e those who preceded him, M o r r i s b e l i e v e d degraded a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e the product of a s i c k s o c i e t y . I n d u s t r i a l technology had f o r c e d a r t i s a n s i n t o f a c t o r i e s , s t r i p p e d them of t h e i r s k i l l s , and robbed themtiof t h e i r p r i d e . I f beauty were to be r e s t o r e d to the world, then the 98 workers' s e l f r e s p e c t must f i r s t be r e - k i n d l e d . To f u r t h e r t h i s end, M o r r i s and like-minded a s s o c i a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d work-shops f o r the r e v i v a l of a n c i e n t c r a f t s . U n l i k e the products of f a c t o r i e s , M o r r i s ' works were made l a r g e l y by hand, were i n d i v i d u a l l y designed, and formed by hands imbued w i t h p r i d e . Notable among M o r r i s ' ventures were the Kelmscott Press, f u r -n i t u r e and wallpa p e r manufactures, and a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l 99 s t a i n e d g l a s s works. M o r r i s was not alone i n h i s endeavours Dozens of s i m i l a r e s tablishments arose on both s i d e s of the A t l a n t i c , and M o r r i s ' appeals enjoyed wide c i r c u l a t i o n . I r o n -i c a l l y , c r a f t workshops were o b l i g e d to compromise w i t h indus-t r y . Many r e q u i r e d heavy c a p i t a l investments, p l a c e d t h e i r work-ers on s a l a r y , p u b l i s h e d catalogues of designs, and d i s r e g a r d e d , . 100 r e g i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s . Church a r c h i t e c t u r e was perhaps l e s s s u b j e c t to the s t a n d a r d i s i n g i n f l u e n c e s of n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h century i n d u s t r i a l technology than were other types of b u i l d i n g s . L i k e the members of the Cambridge Camden S o c i e t y , Pugin, Ruskin, and M o r r i s were a l l a c t