UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ethnicity and politics in the Northwest Territories Potts, Randall Charles 1977

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ETHNICITY AND POLITICS IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES by RANDALC CHARLES POTTS A.B., Nebraska Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1977 C) R a n d a l l C h a r l e s P o t t s , 1977 i n In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f j^ikVaJft ^JLV^JP The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s con-c e n t r a t e s on the p e r i o d from 1966 t o 1976 and i s o r g a n i z e d around the c e n t r a l theme o f e t h n i c i t y . While o t h e r approaches to p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. are p o s s i b l e , t h a t o f p o l i t i c a l development has been r e j e c t e d as i n a p p r o p r i a t e and t h a t o f dependence has been s e t a s i d e i n so f a r as p o s s i b l e t o a l l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l system i n the N.W.T. Th i s t h e s i s attempts t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t i n p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. and t o d e s c r i b e the r e s u l t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n . E t h n i c groups are d e f i n e d as groups s h a r i n g a common s e t o f v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and g o a l s , bound by k i n s h i p t i e s , and p o s s e s s i n g a s e t o f communal i n s t i t u t i o n s s e p a r a t e and a p a r t from those o f o t h e r groups. I f e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t , then e v i d e n c e s h o u l d be found t h a t c r i t i c a l i s s u e s deal w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f s c a r c i t y , t h a t c o n f l i c t groups are o r g a n i z e d a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s , and t h a t problems o f l e g i t i m a c y a r i s e from the tendency toward s e c e s s i o n i n h e r e n t where e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t . A framework i i i i i f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by N o r d l i n g e r i n h i s C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n i n D i v i d e d S o c i e t i e s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o o f Europeans i s p r o v i d e d a l o n g w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the changes br o u g h t by the f u r t r a d e , m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n , and the development o f permanent s e t t l e m e n t s a f t e r WW I I . A f t e r 1966 i n s t e a d o f a s i n g l e i n t e g r a t e d s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e i n the N.W.T., th e r e i s a dual economy and s o c i e t y d i v i d e d a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s between Whites w i t h t h e i r m i d d l e - c l a s s , s o u t h e r n Canadian c u l t u r e on the one hand, and the two i n d i g e n o u s n a t i v e groups, the Dene and the I n u i t , on the o t h e r . These d i v i s i o n s are r e f l e c t e d i n t he e x i s t e n c e o f both a modern wage economy and a t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d - b a s e d economy i n the N.W.T. and i n the d i f f e r i n g s e t s o f g o a l s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s o f n a t i v e and White pe o p l e i n the N.W.T. E v i d e n c e f o r the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i s p r o v i d e d i n t h r e e a r e a s : 1) each o f the c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n the N.W.T. i n v o l v e s s c a r c i t y i n t h a t both n a t i v e and White p o s i t i o n s cannot be adopted s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , 2) c o n f l i c t groups are a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s , and 3) l e g i t i m a t i o n problems are e v i d e n t a t the t h r e e l e v e l s o f e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. are examined i n terms o f the elements n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l v c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n as s e t i v out by N o r d l i n g e r . While the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e d e l i t e predominance appears t o e x i s t , c o n f l i c t group l e a d e r s appear to l a c k c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives which would c r e a t e s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the o n l y c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e which appears t o o f f e r any hope o f s u c c e s s i s a co m b i n a t i o n o f compromise and c o n c e s s i o n . The attempt t o produce a workable compromise might i n t r o d u c e d i v i s i o n among n a t i v e groups i n the N.W.T. and even o f the N.W.T. i t s e l f . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e v i s i n g any compromise which c o u l d r e g u l a t e c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. i s made even more remote by the dependent s t a t u s o f the N.W.T. and o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e f o r development. V TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t o f T a b l e s v i Cha p t e r I: Approaches t o P o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. 1 Notes 14 Chapter I I : Development o f a D i v i d e d S o c i e t y 16 The Pre-European North 16 E x p l o r a t i o n and F u r Trade 19 M i n e r a l s 26 Permanent S e t t l e m e n t s and P u b l i c S e r v i c e s 26 Notes 3 6 C h a p t e r I I I : Dual Economy and S o c i e t y 40 Modern Wage Economy 41 T r a d i t i o n a l Land-Based Economy 48 N a t i v e S o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. 49 White S o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. 60 Notes 64 68 68 Chapter IV: S a l i e n c e o f E t h n i c i t y I ssues C o n f l i c t Groups °4 Arenas 9 3 Notes 1 1 4 C h a p t e r V: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n 122 Notes 135 B i b l i o g r a p h y 136 v v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE I 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: TURNOUT 98 TABLE II 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: VOTES BY PARTY 98 TABLE I I I 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: DISTRIBUTION OF PARTY SUPPORT 100 TABLE IV 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: POLLS CARRIED BY PARTY 100 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I t i s my hope t h a t t h i s t h e s i s may make a t l e a s t a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the r e s o l t u i o n o f the problems which are des-c r i b e d i n i t . In t h i s way I hope t o b e g i n repayment t o the p e o p l e o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s f o r t h e i r f r i e n d l i n e s s and h o s p i t a l i t y i n my two y e a r s w i t h them, though i t i s c l e a r t h a t I owe them much more than I can e v e r hope t o repay. I would l i k e t o thank the graduate s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y i n the Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e a t U.B.C. f o r t h e i r h e l p i n f o r m u l a t i n g and t e s t i n g my id e a s and e s p e c i a l l y my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r A l a n C. C a i r n s . A t t h i s p o i n t I can c l a i m s o l e c r e d i t f o r l i t t l e more than t h o s e e r r o r s o f f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which may remain. F i n a l l y , I s h o u l d a l s o thank my c l o s e f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r encourage-ment, s u p p o r t , and p a t i e n c e w h i l e I c o n v e r t e d one o f my f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t s i n t o a t h e s i s . CHAPTER I APPROACHES TO POLITICS IN THE N.W.T. The appointment o f the R o y a l Commission on the Development o f Government i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n 1965 s i g n a l e d the ge n e r a l awareness t h a t changes would soon be r e q u i r e d i n the way the N.W.T. was governed. The p r o c e s s e s o f change a t work i n n o r t h e r n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l p l a c e d new demands on the p o l i t i c a l system. The system o f d i r e c t r u l e from Ottawa p r o v i d e d few e f f e c t i v e c h a nnels f o r l o c a l i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and no d i r e c t method f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the N.W.T. A d d i t i o n a l l y , g o v e r n i n g from Ottawa was p r o v i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r the demands f o r p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s t o n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t s and the n o r t h e r n economy. I t was hoped t h a t new i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements c o u l d be d e v i s e d t h a t would be s u i t -a b l e to the new c o n d i t i o n s and p r o v i d e a s t a b l e , e f f i c i e n t frame-work f o r government and p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. The ten y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the Commission have seen the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the a l r e a d y r a p i d pace o f change i n the n o r t h and the u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o g r a f t t he s o u t h e r n Canadian p a t t e r n o f p o l i t i c a l arrangements 1 2 t o s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. T h i s p r o c e s s o f change i n the p o l i t i c a l system has been viewed as one o f f a i l e d p o l i t i c a l development by the p o l i c y -makers r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the N.W.T. i n the f e d e r a l and T e r r i t o r i a l governments. The problem o f c r e a t i n g new p o l i t i c a l arrangements i n the N.W.T. has been framed i n terms p a r a l l e l t o the now d i s -c r e d i t e d academic c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development. The p e r -s i s t e n c e o f c o n f l i c t which cannot be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the new i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i s r e g a r d e d n o t as e v i d e n c e o f mi s s t a t e m e n t o f the problem, b u t as a s i g n o f the g r e a t e r e f f o r t s r e q u i r e d . I hope t o show b r i e f l y t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the concept o f p o l i t i c a l development t o the N.W.T. i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y and to r e f o r m u l a t e the problem on the b a s i s o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y . The importance o f such a r e f o r m u l a t i o n l i e s i n the p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from t h i s changed p e r s p e c t i v e . The f a i l u r e to p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f y the n a t u r e o f the c o n f l i c t can o n l y make attempts t o r e s o l v e i t more d i f f i c u l t . The c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development i n academic l i t e r a t u r e had i t s p a r a l l e l i n the p o p u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n o f an o r d e r l y and easy t r a n s i t i o n from a c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n to r e s p o n s i b l e govern-ment. O b s e r v e r s i d e n t i f i e d changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the n o r t h w i t h m o d e r n i z a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n w i t h p o l i t i c a l development. Economic development, improvement o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication f a c i l i t i e s , and the s p r e a d o f e d u c a t i o n were to b r i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s 3 n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s p o n s i b l e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have i n c r e a s i n g l y abandoned the c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development, i t remains a f i x t u r e o f p u b l i c debate on the f u t u r e o f the N.W.T. The c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development appeared i n the a r e a o f c o m p a r a t i v e p o l i t i c s around 1960, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the end o f the c o l o n i a l e r a . I t was meant t o deal w i t h the change o f forme r c o l o n i e s i n t o n a t i o n - s t a t e s , w i t h the change from t r a d i t i o n a l t o modern p o l i t i c a l systems. The p u b l i c a t i o n o f The P o l i t i c s  o f D e v e l o p i n g Areas i n 1960 e d i t e d by Almond and Coleman marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a s e p a r a t e l i t e r a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l development. 1 As the c o n c e p t d e v e l o p e d i t drew on a s p e c t s o f both economics and s o c i o l o g y , b o r r o w i n g h e a v i l y from economic development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i e s . By 1966 the p o l i t i c a l development l i t e r a t u r e was e x t e n s i v e enough t o s u g g e s t the need f o r a summary. L. Pye attempted to e x t r a c t common themes from the v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n f o r p o l i t i c a l development i n h i s book A s p e c t s o f P o l i t i c a l Development. Pye found t h a t p o l i t i c a l development g e n e r a l l y d e a l t w i t h p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s i n g e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c i t y o f the p o l i t i c a l system, and i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l development c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the w i d e r p o p u l a r view o f p o l i t i c a l change i n the N.W.T. In 1965 the M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s a p p o i n t e d a Royal Commission 4 t o r e p o r t on the "development" o f government i n the N.W.T. When the T e r r i t o r i a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e was c r e a t e d i t i n c l u d e d a Depart-ment o f L o c a l Government whose p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was " t o 3 f a c i l i t a t e p o l i t i c a l development a t the l o c a l l e v e l . " A p o s i t i o n paper t a b l e d i n the C o u n c i l o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n September o f 1975 recommending a committment by the f e d e r a l government t o o r d e r l y development t o p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s f o r the 4 N.W.T. was t i t l e d " P o l i t i c a l Development." And j u s t as the academic and p o p u l a r concepts o f p o l i t i c a l development use s i m i l a r t e r m i n o l o g y i n r e a c h i n g p a r a l l e l c o n c l u s i o n s , so t h e t arguments a g a i n s t the f i r s t a p p l y e q u a l l y to the second. By the end o f the 1960's the f i r s t c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t he c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development began t o appear, e s p e c i a l l y i n the j o u r n a l Cdmparative P o l i t i c s . In an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "The Quest f o r P o l i t i c a l Development" J . D. Montgomery argued t h a t p o l i t i c a l .development had e i t h e r too b r o a d o r too narrow a meaning 5 t o have any use as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o l i t i c a l development i s e i t h e r a narrow r e f l e c t i o n o f the p r e f e r e n c e s o f academics f o r change i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s o r an u m b r e l l a concept t h a t c o v e r s a l l forms o f p o l i t i c a l change. I f the f i r s t were t r u e p o l i t i c a l development would be l i t t l e more than an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t . I f the second were t r u e p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s would have done b e t t e r t o have borrowed from t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l change and begun the study o f p o l i t i c a l change. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the s t u d y o f p o l i t i c a l change might be a more a p p r o p r i a t e approach 5 was s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d by S. P. Hu n t i n g t o n i n h i s a r t i c l e "The Change t o Change: M o d e r n i z a t i o n , Development, and P o l i t i c s . " I f p o l i t i c a l development i s merely t o d e s c r i b e non-modern p o l i t i c a l systems and how they change, then i t appears t o be unnecessary and even c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e to attempt t o use t h i s c o n c e p t as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . Yet p o l i t i c a l development t h e o r y a d d i t i o n a l l y s h a r e s those same fundamental assumptions t h a t make the work o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s l i t t l e more than i d e o l o g i c a l . ^ P o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , . l i k e m o d e r n i z a t i o n , assumes p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f change. These f a v o u r e d changes are r e g a r d e d as p o s i t i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e , as development.- A l l o t h e r changes o r f a i l u r e s t o change are lumped t o g e t h e r i n a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y c a l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l o r n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e . Only one path l e a d s t o p o l i t i c a l development, t h a t o f i n c r e a s i n g e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f the p o l i t i c a l system, and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . The ends o f p o l i t i c a l development are g i v e n and change i s e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f movement toward o r away from t h i s p r e f e r r e d outcome. F o r the N.W.T. t h i s p r e f e r r e d outcome i s the r e p l i c a t i o n o f the s o u t h e r n Canadian p o l i t i c a l system i n the N.W.T. The c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development i s e s p e c i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n l i k e t h a t o f the N.W.T. where the i n d u s t r i a l , European c u l t u r e o f s o u t h e r n Canada comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h two s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s , the I n u i t and the Dene. When two such d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r e s come i n t o c o n t a c t one group n e v e r s i m p l y g i v e s up i t s c u l t u r e f o r t h a t 6 o f the o t h e r . I n s t e a d a pr o c e s s o f change i s i n d u c e d i n both c u l t u r e s . R a r e l y i s the exchange o f c u l t u r e t r a i t s an equal one and n e v e r does one c u l t u r e emerge e n t i r e l y untouched. The e n c o u n t e r almost always r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e d s i m i l a r i t y between the two c u l t u r e s , l e a v i n g one o f them dominant.° W h i l e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e may p r o v i d e some r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f which c u l t u r e w i l l emerge as dominant i n the N.W.T., the outcome i s i n no way p r e d e t e r m i n e d . A l l t h a t i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t a l l c u l t u r e s i n v o l v e d must change and t h a t the scope o f " p o l i t i c a l development" i s too myopic t o r e f l e c t the wide range o f p o s s i b l e outcomes. Once we have g i v e n up the h a b i t o f v i e w i n g p o l i t i c s i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as a case study i n p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p -ment, i t i s perhaps n a t u r a l to loo k f o r prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t might p o i n t t o othermore r e l e v a n t bodies o f l i t e r a t u r e . Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e imm e d i a t e l y s t r i k i n g . One i s the dependent s t a t u s o f the N.W.T. w i t h i n Canada and the o t h e r i s t he m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. Important as i t i s , the q u e s t i o n o f dependence w i l l , i n t h i s paper, remain a secondary concern i n d e a l i n g w i t h the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. There i s no doubt t h a t the f a c t o f dependence has i m p o r t a n t consequences f o r i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s , b u t the two are i n a sense s e p a r a b l e q u e s t i o n s t h a t can be pur s u e d i n p a r a l l e l . In h i s book The N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t : The P o l i t i c s o f N o r t h e r n Development,:; 1968-:75,. Edgar Dosman s t a t e s t h a t h i s focus 7 . . . i s not on the development o f l o c a l government i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , i m p o r t a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g as t h a t t o p i c might prove. Rather, and n e c e s s a r i l y , i t c e n t r e s on Ottawa and r e l a t i o n s . . . a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l s t h a t d e t e r m i n e d the framework o f n o r t h e r n development." Thus, i n t h i s paper I w i l l adhere t o t h i s d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r l e a v i n g the q u e s t i o n o f dependence as such to Dosman and o t h e r s i n o r d e r to c o n c e n t r a t e on the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. Though the q u e s t i o n o f dependence may be s e t a s i d e , i t cannot be f o r g o t t e n . In i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s the f a c t o f dependence s e t s the r e a l i s t i c bounds f o r p o l i t i c s i n the N.W.T. The v e r y p r e s e n c e o f the N.W.T. i n Canada s e t s l i m i t s t o the p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l arrangements and even more c l e a r l y c r e a t e s the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the p o l i t i c a l arrangements adopted w i l l be s i m i l a r t o those o f the r e s t o f Canada. Some i m p o r t a n t areas o f co n c e r n , such as c o n t r o l o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s by the f e d e r a l government and the d o m i n a t i o n o f the economy by s o u t h e r n c o r p o r a t i o n s , c l e a r l y i n v o l v e p o werful a c t o r s from o u t s i d e the N.W.T. S t i l l I hope i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the e f f e c t s o f dependence on the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than on the q u e s t i o n o f dependence d i r e c t l y . The second s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , i t s m u l t i c u l t u r a l ism, i s more fundamental to the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I t immediately s u g g e s t s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e o f e t h n i c p o l i t i c s and p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s . 8 The f a c t t h a t the groups c o n s t i t u t i n g a m a j o r i t y i n the N.W.T. are a s m a l l m i n o r i t y i n the l a r g e r Canadian n a t i o n w i l l perhaps p r e c l u d e a p p l i c a t i o n o f some o f the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from non-Canadian examples. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f i t can be assumed t h a t the i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s are s i m i l a r i n a l l e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t i e s , i n c l u d i n g those which are p a r t o f some l a r g e r system, then the academic l i t e r a t u r e d e r i v e d from the study o f o t h e r ' e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d n a t i o n s s h o u l d p o i n t the way f o r s t u d i e s o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Academic a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d t o p o l i t i c a l problems r e s u l t i n g from c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s by L o u i s W i r t h i n h i s a r t i c l e "The Problem o f M i n o r i t y Groups" p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 4 5 . ^ W i r t h d e f i n e s m i n o r i t i e s as h a v i n g the o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b e i n g d i s t i n c t i v e , d i s a d v a n t a g e d , and s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d , and as w e l l the s u b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h a v i n g a s e p a r a t e s e t o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and forms o f b e h a v i o u r . H i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f the problem as one o f a dominant m a j o r i t y w i t h the a c t i v e e x c l u s i o n o f a m i n o r i t y l i m i t s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s comments t o the N.W.T. For here we have the case o f a dominant and p r i v i l e g e d m i n o r i t y which hopes t o a s s i m i l a t e the m a j o r i t y . S t i l l W i r t h ' s attempt t o p r o v i d e a t y p o l o g y o f m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f number and r e l a t i v e s i z e o f groups, degree o f e x c l u s i o n o f each group, n a t u r e o f i n t e r g r o u p s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and the g o a l s o f each group, p o i n t s us toward the q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d . • 9 A s i m i l a r , though more e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s can be found i n Schermerhorn's Comparative E t h n i c R e i a t i o n s , p u b l i s h e d some 25 y e a r s a f t e r W i r t h ' s e s s a y . 1 1 Schermerhorn b e g i n s by a t t e m p t i n g t o c l e a r away t h r e e problems from p a s t work i n e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s ; the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r e j u d i c e and d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n , the d e p i c t i o n o f m i n o r i t y groups s o l e l y as v i c t i m s , and the tendency t o view p r o g r e s s i n the d i s c i p l i n e as a p r o c e s s o f a d d i n g new case s t u d i e s o r u p d a t i n g o l d e r work. S c h e r m e r h o r n 1 s work i s u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i v i d e d s o c i e t i e s more d e t a i l e d than W i r t h ' s and i n p r o v i d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t i o n as a t h r e e - f o l d problem o f ac c e p t a n c e o f a u t h o r i t y , e x i s t e n c e o f common v a l u e s , and pres e n c e o f common o r c o m p a t i b l e goal d e f i n i t i o n s . He sees the c e n t r a l c oncern o f e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s p r o p e r l y as what c o n d i t i o n s f o s t e r o r p r e v e n t the i n t e g r a t i o n o f e t h n i c groups i n t o t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s o c i e t y . He assumes t h a t e t h n i c i t y must pass o u t o f e x i s t e n c e i n the i n e v i t a b l e e v o l u t i o n toward modern s o c i e t y , once a g a i n i n t r o d u c i n g the b i a s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h a t so c r i p p l e d the c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l development. E n l o e begins h e r book E t h n i c C o n f l i c t and P o l i t i c a l Develop- men t w i t h an attempt t o s e p a r a t e the concepts o f p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p -12 ment and m o d e r n i z a t i o n . T h i s a l l o w s h e r t o a c c e p t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p o l i t i c a l development might take p l a c e even w i t h the s u r v i v a l o f e t h n i c i t y and, f u r t h e r , t h a t e t h n i c i t y might have p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s t h a t account f o r i t s s u r v i v a l . " P o l i t i c a l development" 10 becomes the s e r i e s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t e n a b l e a s o c i e t y t o cope w i t h new demands, the c r e a t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s r e l e v a n t to needs o f groups w i t h i n the s o c i e t y . P o l i t i c a l underdevelopment i s seen as the i n a b i l i t y o f l e a d e r s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t o r s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s o f the v a r i o u s groups t h a t make up the s o c i e t y . E t h n i c i t y might advance p o l i t i c a l development, w h i l e e t h n i c c o n f l i c t might s e r v e t o thwa r t i t . Here E n l o e has q u i t e c l e a r l y moved much c l o s e r t o the st u d y o f p o l i t i c a l change r a t h e r than p o l i t i c a l development j u s t as Hu n t i n g t o n s u g g e s t e d . E n l o e p r o v i d e s a l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e t h n i c groups which p r o v i d e s a good b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f e t h n i c groups i n the N.W.T. These i n c l u d e t he s h a r i n g o f common b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , the g e n e r a l absence o f exogamy and the r e s u l t i n g b i o -l o g i c a l s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i o n , the p o s s e s s i o n o f communal i n s t i t u t i o n s p a r a l l e l i n g those o f the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and the e x i s t e n c e o f a r e g u l a r network o f communication and i n t e r a c t i o n . For E n l o e the degree o f p l u r a l i s m p r e s e n t i s a f u n c t i o n o f the i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e o f e t h n i c p o l i t i c s and p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s does, the n , p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r an approach t o the st u d y o f the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. From the work o f W i r t h , Schermerhorn, and Enloe i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e r i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f an e t h n i c group and a l i s t i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i v i d e d s o c i e t i e s r e l e v a n t to p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . E t h n i c groups a r e , then, groups s h a r i n g a common s e t o f v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , symbols, and g o a l s , bound 11 by k i n s h i p t i e s , and p o s s e s s i n g a s e t o f communal i n s t i t u t i o n s s e p a r a t e and a p a r t from those o f o t h e r groups. Of importance to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t w i l l be the degree o f d i f f e r e n c e between groups, the degree o f s e p a r a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and the e x t e n t o f common ground among the groups. Once the e x i s t e n c e o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. has been e s t a b l i s h e d i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o show the e v i d e n c e o f the s a l i e n c e o f t h i s e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . Robert Mel son and Howard Wolpe have p r o v i d e d u s e f u l c r i t e r i a f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r a r t i c l e " M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the P o l i t i c s o f Communalism: A T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " T h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f communal ism c o r r e s p o n d s to the d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n i c groups adopted above. Communalism i s s a i d t o r e f e r t o the p o l i t i c a l a s s e r t i v e -ness o f groups h a v i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s h a r i n g a common c u l t u r e , p o s s e s s i n g a network o f i n s t i t u t i o n s c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e o f i n d i v i d u a l s , and b e i n g i n t e r n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 13 by w e a l t h , s t a t u s , and power. Fo r Melson and Wolpe communalism tends toward s a l i e n c e f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the n a t u r e o f communalism tends t o c a l l the very e x i s t e n c e o f the s o c i e t y i n t o q u e s t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l f o r s e c e s s i o n i s a g g r a v a t e d by the l o s s o f l e g i t i m a c y by any i n s t i t u t i o n i n an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y which comes t o be dominated by a s i n g l e group. S e c o n d l y , once e s t a b l i s h e d communal grouping s tend to p e r s i s t and changes i n the s o c i e t y w i l l most 12 o f t e n s e r v e t o s t r e n g t h e n group l o y a l t i e s . I H T h i s second c r i t i c a l e l e ment i s emphasized by N o r d l i n g e r i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f a " d i v i d e d 15 s o c i e t y " and by Rabushka and S h e p s l e i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f 16 a " p l u r a l s o c i e t y . " Both h o l d t h a t a s o c i e t y can be l a b e l e d " d i v i d e d " o r " p l u r a l " o n l y when the p r e s e n c e o f communal d i v i s i o n s r e s u l t s i n o r g a n i z e d c o n f l i c t groups. A t h i r d c r i t i c a l element i n the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i s s u g g e s t e d by Schermerhorn i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l e v a n c e o f what he c a l l s " p o w e r - c o n f l i c t t h e o r y " t o e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s . 1 7 F o r Schermerhorn an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the emergence o f c o n f l i c t between e t h n i c groups i s the c l a s h o f i n t e r e s t s o v e r s c a r c e v a l u e s . These may c o v e r a wide range s t r e t c h i n g from i n t a n g i b l e s such as p r e s t i g e t o t a n g i b l e economic goods, but the c l a s h c l e a r l y r e s u l t s from the p e r c e p t i o n o f s c a r c i t y . To the e x t e n t t h a t no group d e s i r e s a l a r g e r s h a r e o f some "good" h e l d by a n o t h e r o r so l o n g as no group attempts t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f some new o r p r e v i o u s l y f r e e good, p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y c o u l d be a v o i d e d . . In the f a c e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f t h r e a t s o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and the p e r s i s t e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y Mel son and Wolpe f i n a l l y p o i n t t o the importance o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s coming t o terms w i t h e t h n i c i t y . S t a b i l i t y o f c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s i s t h r e a t e n e d n o t by communal ism, p e r s e , b u t by the f a i l u r e o f n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y to r e c o g n i z e and accommodate e x i s t i n g communal d i v i s i o n s and i n t e r e s t s . ^ A framework f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f such c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d 13 by N o r d l i n g e r i n h i s book C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n i n D i v i d e d S o c i e t i e s . He s u g g e s t s the s i x f o l l o w i n g c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e p o s s i b l e i n d i v i d e d s o c i e t i e s : 1) c r e a t i o n o f a s t a b l e g o v e r n i n g c o a l i t i o n ; 2) a d o p t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y ; 3) e x e r c i s e o f mutual v e t o ; 4) d e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s e n s i t i v e 19 i s s u e s ; 5) compromise; and 6) c o n c e s s i o n s . N o r d l i n g e r s t r e s s e s the importance o f the r o l e o f group l e a d e r s i n b r i n g i n g about any o f these accommodations, o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i n g c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives and o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . I f t h e s e s i x p r a c t i c e s e x h a u s t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n and i t can be shown t h a t the s u c c e s s o f any o f the s i x i s u n l i k e l y , then the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. must be d e s c r i b e d as a s t a l e m a t e . Whether the s t a l e m a t e i s s t a b l e w i l l be a f u n c t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the groups i n v o l v e d and o f the i n f l u e n c e o f o u t s i d e f a c t o r s . The f o c u s o f t h i s paper i s , t h e n , on the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n the p o l i t i c s o f the N.W.T. and the r e s u l t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n . - A f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h o f the development o f the d i v i d e d s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. the f i r s t t a sk w i l l be to d e s c r i b e the p r e s e n t e x t e n t o f the d i v i s i o n s . The second t a s k w i l l be to show the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c s and the f i n a l t a s k t o e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e g u l a t i o n o f the r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t a l o n g the l i n e s s u g g e s t e d by N o r d l i n g e r . FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 1 1 G a b r i e l A. Almond and James S. Coleman, The P o l i t i c s o f  D e v e l o p i n g Areas (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, and Co., 1960). 2 L u c i e n Pye, A s p e c t s o f P o l i t i c a l Development ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.:- P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966). 3 Annual Report o f the Government o f the N.W.T., 1974, ( Y e l l o w k n i f e , N.W.T.: Department o f I n f o r m a t i o n , 1974), p. 65. 4 " P o l i t i c a l Development," T a b l e d Document 1-57, C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T., September 29, 1975. 5 J . D. Montgomery, "The Quest f o r P o l i t i c a l Development," Comparative P o l i t i c s , I ( J a n u a r y 1969), 285-95. 6 S. P. H u n t i n g t o n , "The Change t o Change: M o d e r n i z a t i o n , Development, and P o l i t i c s , " Comp a r a t i ve Pol i t i c s , I I I ( A p r i l 1971), 283-322. 7 See A. G. Frank, The- S o c i o l o g y o f Development and the Under  development o f S o c i o l o g y , (London: Pluto" P r e s s , 1970), f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f flaws i n m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i e s . 8 P e t e r F a r b , Man's R i s e to C i v i l i z a t i o n As Shown by the Indi a n s o f North America from P r i m e v a l Times t o the Coming o f the I n d u s t r i a l S t a t e , (New York: Avon Books ,"T96l37, p. 312. Edgar J . Dosman, The N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t : The P o l i t i c s o f  No r t h e r n DevelOpment, 1968-75, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1975), p. x v i i . 1 0 L o u i s W i r t h , "The Problem o f M i n o r i t y Groups," i n The S c i en ce o f Man i n World C r i s i s, ed. by Ralph L i n t o n (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1945), pp. 347-372. 15 1 1 R. A. Schermerhorn, Comparative E t h n i c R e i a t i o n s : A Framework f o r Theory and Research (New York: Random House, 12 C y n t h i a H. E n l o e , E t h n i c C o n f l i c t and P o l i t i c a l Development ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown, and Co., 1973), pp. 20-25. 13 R o b e r t Mel son and Howard Wolpe, " M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the P o l i t i c s o f Communalism: A T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " The American  P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, LXIV (December 1970), 1112. 1 4 Melson, p. 1129. 15 E r i c A. N o r d l i n g e r , C d n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n i i i D i v i d e d S o c i e t i e s , ( C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1972"] O c c a s i o n a l Papers i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , No. 29 ( J a n u a r y 1972), p. 7. 1 g A l v i n Rabushka and Kenneth A. S h e p s l e , P o l i t i c s i n P l u r a l  S o c i e t i e s (Columbus, Ohio: C. E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 21. 1 7 Schermerhorn, p. 41. 1 o Melson, p. 1129. 19 N o r d l i n g e r , pp. 21-53. 1. CHAPTER II DEVELOPMENT OF A DIVIDED SOCIETY The development o f an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t phenomenon. P r i o r t o the 16th Century two i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s e x i s t e d i n the N.W.T. ha v i n g l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r o r the r e s t o f the w o r l d . While i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r c u l t u r e was s t a t i c o r unchanging b e f o r e t h i s time, i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t both were g r e a t l y a l t e r e d by t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h European c u l t u r e . F o r more than 300 y e a r s c o n t a c t was p r i m a r i l y through the f u r t r a d e and though a l t e r e d , each c u l t u r e remained l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d and the s o l e c u l t u r e o f i t s a r e a . I t was the growth o f White s e t t l e m e n t a f t e r W.W. I I , a l o n g s i d e b u t l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d to n a t i v e s o c i e t y , t h a t produced an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. The b e g i n n i n g o f White s e t t l e m e n t i n the p e r i o d from 1939 t o 1966 marks the t r a n s i t i o n from an a r e a w i t h two s i m i l a r and harmonious i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s t o an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y . The Pre-European North Though the I n u i t and the Dene were s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t 16 17 p e o p l e s , t h e r e were g r e a t s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i r c u l t u r e s . Both were band s o c i e t i e s based on s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g economies and l a c k i n g complex i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements. There were a l s o no g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups w i t h i n the two c u l t u r e s . The Dene speak f o u r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d Athabaskan languages ( D o g r i b , S l a v e , Loucheux, and Chipewyan) and are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r i m a r i l y by language. The I n u i t e x h i b i t remark-a b l e u n i f o r m i t y i n language and c u l t u r e from S i b e r i a a c r o s s North America and i n t o G r e e n l a n d . A l l I n u i t s t i l l speak m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e d i a l e c t s o f the same language, I n u k t i t u t . Both I n u i t and Dene s o c i e t y were based on aggregates o f f a m i l y based groups o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as camps. These s m a l l groups u s u a l l y moved from p l a c e t o p l a c e i n a c c o r d w i t h the s e a s o n s . D u r i n g the summer s e v e r a l camps would come t o g e t h e r f o r meetings and c e l e b r a t i o n s o f the l a r g e r u n i t c a l l e d a band. A band c o n s i s t e d o f camps h u n t i n g a n d . f i s h i n g i n the same a r e a and bound by e x t e n s i v e k i n s h i p t i e s . There were few f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o b i n d t h e s e bands and, t h u s , . t h e i r very e x i s t e n c e depended on a h i g h degree o f customary c o o p e r a t i o n . The a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t P e t e r Farb has d e s c r i b e d how c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s such as m a r r i a g e customs and taboos h e l p e d r e i n f o r c e t h i s n e c e s s a r y 1 c o o p e r a t i o n . Bands were l e d by headmen whose p o s i t i o n s c o u l d sometimes be i n h e r i t e d . However, i n I n u k t i t u t the t i t l e f o r t h e s e head-2 men t r a n s l a t e s "He who knows b e s t " and among the Dene the 18 headman was u s u a l l y the b e s t o r o l d e s t a c t i v e h u n t e r . In both cases l e a d e r s h i p was p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n o f wisdom and e x p e r i e n c e . The headman was o f t e n a d v i s e d by an i n f o r m a l c o u n c i l and no f o r m a l mechanism e x i s t e d i n any band s o c i e t y t o e n f o r c e a l e a d e r ' s 4 d e c i s i o n s . Those d i s a g r e e i n g on i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s always had the o p t i o n o f l i v i n g a p a r t from the band o r moving t o j o i n a n o t h e r band. Communication between bands o v e r v a s t d i s t a n c e s has been m a i n t a i n e d s i n c e b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f Europeans, though c o n t a c t s between I n u i t and Dene were l i m i t e d . There a r e documented cases o f Eskimo songs s p r e a d i n g from A l a s k a t o G r e e n l a n d w i t h i n one 5 y e a r , an i n d i c a t i o n o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f the network. M a r r i a g e s between bands were f r e q u e n t and h e l p e d p r e s e r v e communication through g f a m i l y t i e s . Though s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t f o r n e c e s s i t i e s , bands exchanged raw m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , and armaments as a common p r a c t i c e / Warfare between bands was i n f r e q u e n t and l i m i t e d t o s u r p r i s e r a i d s g t o s e t t l e s c o r e s , thus never i n v o l v i n g t e r r i t o r y changing hands. C o n t a c t s between I n u i t and Dene were l i m i t e d both by language d i f f e r e n c e s and r e s i d e n t i a l s e p a r a t i o n . The Dene i n h a b i t e d the r e g i o n s o f the s u b a r c t i c f o r e s t s t r e t c h i n g a l o n g the Mackenzie V a l l e y and around G r e a t Bear and G r e a t S l a v e Lakes. The I n u i t l i v e d on the t r e e l e s s , b a r r e n grounds t o the n o r t h and e a s t o f the Dene, p r i m a r i l y a l o n g the mainland and A r c t i c i s l a n d c o a s t s . Records o f c o n t a c t s between the two are marked by s u s p i c i o n , 19 h o s t i l i t y , and a remarkable l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h each o t h e r even i n the Mackenzie D e l t a a r e a where s e t t l e m e n t by t h e two c u l t u r e s g converged. Both c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and s p a r s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n meant t h e r e would be l i t t l e c o n f l i c t o v e r t e r r i t o r y . The s u b s i s t e n c e economy o f the Dene and I n u i t was one o f f e a s t o r famine l a r g e l y because o f i n e f f i c i e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and, t h u s , the i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h s u r p l u s . Food s u p p l y was undependable, e s p e c i a l l y i n l a t e s p r i n g when h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g were made d i f f i c u l t by breakup c o n d i t i o n s . S u r p l u s c o u l d be n e i t h e r s t o r e d through the warm weather n o r e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t e d d u r i n g the s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s . The i n a b i l i t y t o s t o r e s u r p l u s was p r o b a b l y a l s o the o r i g i n o f the custom o f e x t e n s i v e s h a r i n g and g i f t - g i v i n g w i t h i n the b a n d . 1 ^ Both the I n u i t and the Dene had two k i n d s o f p r o p e r t y , communal and p e r s o n a l . N e i t h e r had any co n c e p t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 1 1 N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s on which bands were dependent, and e s p e c i a l l y the l a n d , were communal p r o p e r t y w i t h each f a m i l y h a v i n g the r i g h t t o use a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n . P e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y was l i m i t e d t o tho s e t h i n g s which an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d use o r wear and, a g a i n , was kept t o a minimum by s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s . No person e v e r h e l d t o o l s o r c l o t h i n g t o the e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r band members from a f a i r s h a r e . Both s u r p l u s and s h o r t a g e were s h a r e d . E x p ! o r a t i o n and Fur Trade The e a r l i e s t c o n t a c t s between n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the N.W.T. 20 and European s o c i e t y came w i t h the e x p e d i t i o n s by Europeans i n s e a r c h o f the Northwest Passage t o A s i a . The s e a r c h f o r an a l l - w a t e r r o u t e t o the n o r t h o f North America was l a r g e l y c a r r i e d o u t by the E n g l i s h b e g i n n i n g w i t h the e x p e d i t i o n s o f M a r t i n F r o b i s h e r i n 1576, 1577, and 1578. E x p e d i t i o n s were undertaken by sea by Davis (1585-87), Hudson (1610-11), Button (1612-13), B a f f i n (seven voyages from 1612-1622), Foxe (1631), James (1631), Ross (1818 and 1829-33), and P a r r y (1819, 1824-25, and 1827) and by l a n d by F r a n k l i n i n a s e r i e s o f e x p e d i t i o n s s t r e t c h i n g from 1819 t o h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e i n 1845. The e x i s t e n c e o f the Northwest Passage was e s t a b l i s h e d by P a r r y i n h i s voyage o f 1819 and the s u r v e y o f the c o a s t west t o P o i n t Barrow was completed by a Hudson's Bay Company e x p e d i t i o n l e d by Dease and Simpson 12 i n 1839. Ice c o n d i t i o n s made the passage u s e l e s s but the s e a r c h f o r the passage had g r e a t l y extended E n g l i s h knowledge o f the area and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r c l a i m t o the s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r i t o r y . The d i s c o v e r y o f Hudson's Bay i n 1610 was e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as by the 1660 1s the Hudson's Bay t r a d e r o u t e had begun t o r e p l a c e the o l d S t . Lawrence r o u t e f o r f u r s . C o n t a c t s between Europeans and n a t i v e p e o p l e s p r e a d i n T a n d w i t h the f u r t r a d e . A t f i r s t f u r s moved down the r i v e r s o f the i n t e r i o r t o the p o s t s on Hudson's Bay, b u t e v e n t u a l l y the two g r e a t f u r companies e s t a b l i s h e d p o s t s i n l a n d , f i r s t on Lake A t h a b a s c a and then t h r o u g h o u t the Northwest. Samuel Hearne re a c h e d the A r c t i c c o a s t o v e r l a n d by way o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake and the Coppermine 21 R i v e r i n 1768 on b e h a l f o f Hudson's Bay Company. In 1789 A l e x a n d e r Mackenzie s e t out f o r the r i v a l Northwest Company i n s e a r c h o f f u r s and a w a t e r r o u t e t o the P a c i f i c but s u f f e r e d the " d i s a p p o i n t -ment" o f d e s c e n d i n g the r i v e r t h a t bears h i s name to the B e a u f o r t Sea. A t f i r s t t r a d e w i t h the Europeans merely brought new items i n t o exchange s u p p l e m e n t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l t r a d e between bands. Furs i n demand i n Europe were t r a d e d f o r i r o n k e t t l e s , k n i v e s , axes, guns and gunpowder, b l a n k e t s , and l i q u o r . By 1670 European goods had begun t o d i s p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c r a f t s t h r o u g h o u t North America and dependence on t r a d e w i t h Europeans 13 was thus e s t a b l i s h e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Rea i n the P o l i t i c a l Economy o f the Canadian N o r t h , ". . . the e f f e c t o f the f u r t r a d e was t o ' c o m m e r c i a l i z e ' the n a t i v e s e c t o r so f a r back i n the h i s t o r y o f the n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s t h a t the e n t i r e economy had a commercial, 14 e x p o r t base f o r the whole p e r i o d [ f o l l o w i n g 1905]." As t r a d e became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the economy permanent t r a d i n g p o s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h o u t the N.W.T. Permanent t r a d i n g p o s t s came f i r s t t o the Mackenzie V a l l e y w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Northwest Company p o s t s a l o n g the r i v e r b e g i n n i n g w i t h F o r t Simpson i n 1804 and F o r t Good Hope i n 1805. In 1821 c o m p e t i t i o n i n the f u r t r a d e i n the northwest was l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d by the merger o f the Northwest Company and Hudson's Bay Company. The new Hudson's Bay Company opened a p o s t a t F o r t McPherson i n 1840 and by the 1870's had p o s t s i n e v e r y p a r t 22 o f the M a c k e n z i e - G r e a t S l a v e r e g i o n . P o s t s e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t r a d e w i t h the I n u i t were n o t e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l one hundred y e a r s a f t e r those a l o n g the Mackenzie. In 1912 a p o s t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t and i n 1913 a n o t h e r a t Cape D o r s e t . By the end o f the 1920's permanent p o s t s f o r t r a d e e x i s t e d w i t h i n reach o f a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the N.W.T.15 The f u r t r a d e b r o u g h t v a s t changes t o the n o r t h , b u t i t d i d n o t b r i n g the immediate e x t i n c t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e . Though n a t i v e p e o p l e had adopted c e r t a i n t o o l s and goods from the Europeans and i n the p r o c e s s t r a n s f o r m e d t h e i r own c u l t u r e , they s t i l l p o s s e s s e d a c u l t u r e d i s t i n c t and r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d from t h a t o f the r e s t o f Canada. Trade f o r c e r t a i n commodities had become a n e c e s s i t y and the n o r t h e r n economy was i r r e v o c a b l y t i e d t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Yet as n o r t h e r n areas seemed u n s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , the N.W.T. was d e s t i n e d to remain i s o l a t e d u n t i l the s e a r c h f o r m i n e r a l w e a l t h t u r n e d northward. As i n s o u t h e r n Canada w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t was to be pr e c e d e d by t r a d e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s , w i t h RCMP detachments n o t f a r b e h i n d . The f i r s t detachment i n the w e s t e r n A r c t i c was e s t a b l i s h e d , a t F o r t McPherson i n 1903 and the f i r s t i n the e a s t a t Pond I n l e t i n 1921. The M e t i s appeared i n the N.W.T. almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the Whites. Many moved west from Rupert's Land w i t h the f u r t r a d e and t h e i r numbers were augmented by f u r t h e r m a r r i a g e s between White t r a d e r s and Dene women. 1 7 L a t e r they were j o i n e d by o t h e r M e t i s who f l e d up the A t h a b a s c a and S l a v e R i v e r s t o escape 23 the f l o o d o f White s e t t l e m e n t on the p r a i r i e s . The M e t i s remained a s m a l l m i n o r i t y i n almost e v e r y area' u n t i l a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g o f permanent White s e t t l e m e n t f o l l o w i n g W.W. I I . Perhaps because o f t h e i r s m a l l numbers and as they s h a r e d the same way o f l i f e as f u l l - b l o o d e d I n d i a n s , no s e p a r a t e M e t i s community e v o l v e d . I n s t e a d I n d i a n s and.Metis l i v e d c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e Dene s o c i e t y , one i n which M e t i s sometimes even assumed p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p . At the time o f T r e a t i e s 8 and 11 the M e t i s were g i v e n the c h o i c e o f " t a k i n g t r e a t y " and thus becoming l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z e d •j o as " I n d i a n s " o r r e c e i v i n g s c r i p redeemable i n cash o r l a n d . Those Dene descended i n the male l i n e from I n d i a n s o r M e t i s who "took t r e a t y " became T r e a t y I n d i a n s . Descendents o f those M e t i s who d i d n o t " t a k e t r e a t y " remained M e t i s . The number o f M e t i s has been i n c r e a s e d by the c h i l d r e n o f T r e a t y I n d i a n women who have m a r r i e d n o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n men, both Dene and White, and have thus l o s t t h e i r s t a t u s as " I n d i a n s . " The d i s t i n c t i o n between Met i s and T r e a t y I n d i a n s has thus become l e g a l , r a t h e r than r a c i a l o r c u l t u r a l . The Yukon g o l d rush b r o u g h t p r o s p e c t o r s and s e t t l e r s s t r e a m i n g n o r t h , many o v e r l a n d from Edmonton} In 1897 an A l b e r t a I n d i a n agent recommended t o the M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r t h a t a t r e a t y be c o n c l u d e d s t r e t c h i n g from n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a to the s o u t h s h o r e o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date. He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , . 24 From a l l appearances t h e r e w i l l be a rush o f miners t o t h e Yukon and the m i n e r a l r e g i o n s o f the A t h a b a s c a d u r i n g the n e x t y e a r . . . In the f a c e o f t h i s i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s i n t o t h a t c o u n t r y no time s h o u l d be l o s t by the government i n making a t r e a t y w i t h the I n d i a n s f o r t h e i r r i g h t s o v e r t h i s t e r r i t o r y . They w i l l be more e a s i l y d e a l t w i t h now than they would be when t h e i r c o u n t r y i s o v e r r u n w i t h p r o s p e c t o r s and v a l u a b l e mines d i s c o v e r e d . They would then p l a c e a h i g h e r v a l u e on t h e i r r i g h t s than they would b e f o r e t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s are made.19 In the t e x t o f T r e a t y 8 s i g n e d a t v a r i o u s times i n the summers o f 1899 and 1900, b e f o r e any mention o f peace and f r i e n d s h i p o r I n d i a n r i g h t s , we f i n d the purpose o f the t r e a t y c l e a r l y s t a t e d as b e i n g ". . . t o open f o r s e t t l e m e n t , i m m i g r a t i o n , t r a d e , t r a v e l , m i n i n g , l u m b e r i n g , and such o t h e r purposes as t o Her M a j e s t y may seem meet, a t r a c t bounded and d e s c r i b e d as h e r e i n a f t e r mentioned, and t o o b t a i n the c o n s e n t t h e r e t o o f 20 h e r I n d i a n s u b j e c t s i n h a b i t i n g the s a i d t r a c t . . ." T r e a t y 8 was extended o n l y t o the s o u t h s h o r e o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake and n o t t o the I n d i a n s o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y because I n d i a n Commissioner F o r g e t s a i d i n 1889, Beyond the s e p o i n t s , however, I do n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t the government would be j u s t i f i e d i n u n d e r t a k i n g n e g o t i a t i o n o f t r e a t i e s which would i n v o l v e very heavy o u t l a y f o r c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n a d e q u a t e r e t u r n s i n s o f a r as the v a l u e o f the t e r r i t o r y to be ceded . . . The Mackenzie B a s i n i s a t p r e s e n t o n l y a f f e c t e d to a l i m i t e d e x t e n t by the Gold Movement . . .2' For some y e a r s b e f o r e the s i g n i n g o f T r e a t y 11 i n 1921 church o f f i c i a l s had urged a t r e a t y f o r the Indians o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y . They hoped the I n d i a n s might then r e c e i v e government 25 b e n e f i t s which would h e l p r e l i e v e t h e i r d e s p e r a t e c o n d i t i o n caused by r e c u r r e n t famine and e p i d e m i c d i s e a s e . D e s p i t e these p l e a s and the a c t i v i t i e s o f m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n companies i n the a r e a the government d i d n o t f e e l t h a t the development p o t e n t i a l j u s t i f i e d the expense o f the t r e a t y u n t i l 1920. C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , i n August o f 1920 I m p e r i a l O i l d r i l l e d i t s f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l w e l l i n the Norman W e l l s O i l F i e l d . The next summer a t r e a t y p a r t y was i n the f i e l d t o s e c u r e adherence t o T r e a t y 11. T r e a t y 11 f o l l o w e d T r e a t 8 almost word f o r word, both were w r i t t e n i n Ottawa and p r e s e n t e d to the n a t i v e p e o p l e i n E n g l i s h f o r s i g n a t u r e . The T r e a t y Commissioners were not a u t h o r i z e d t o make any changes i n the t e x t o f the t r e a t y . As many European concepts have no e q u i v a l e n t i n the Athabascan languages the n a t i v e p e o p l e were dependent on the e x p l a n a t i o n s o f thes e s t r a n g e terms g i v e n by the Commissioners through i n t e r p r e t e r s . In h i s book As Long As T h i s Land S h a l l L a s t F a t h e r Fumoleau o f Y e T l o w k n i f e has documented the n a t i v e p e o p l e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t r e a t y . They saw i t as a t r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p and i n almost e v e r y case agreed t o s i g n the t r e a t y o n l y a f t e r they were a s s u r e d t h a t they would be p e r m i t t e d t o pursue t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e w i t h o u t h i n d r a n c e , t o hunt, t r a p , f i s h , and move f r e e l y o v e r the l a n d . F o r Dene p e o p l e ownership o f the l a n d c o u l d have no o t h e r meaning than the r i g h t to use i t . M i n e r a l s , Permanent S e t t l e m e n t s , and P u b l i c S e r v i c e s Whatever the t r e a t i e s meant t o n a t i v e p e o p l e , t o the govern-ment and b u s i n e s s community o f s o u t h e r n Canada they s i g n i f i e d the opening o f a v a s t h i n t e r l a n d o f r e s o u r c e s t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . With the end o f the boom i n the Yukon p r o s p e c t o r s began t o comb the Mackenzie V a l l e y , the Great Bear Lake, and the G r e a t S l a v e Lake areas i n s e a r c h o f the n e x t b i g s t r i k e . The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y i n the N.W.T. came a t Gr e a t Bear Lake i n 1930. The f i r s t mine opened t h e r e i n 1933 and by 1934 t h e r e were t h r e e mines i n o p e r a t i o n p r o d u c i n g s i l v e r and radium. These o p e r a t i o n s remained s m a l l s c a l e b u t they d i d have s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s e s p e c i a l l y i n the g e n e r a l encourage ment g i v e n t o p r o s p e c t o r s w o r k i n g i n the n o r t h . They a l s o brought the r e a c t i v a t i o n o f the Norman W e l l s o i l f i e l d t o p r o v i d e f u e l f o r the o p e r a t i o n s and improvement.of r i v e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from the r a i l h e a d i n A l b e r t a w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n o f N o r t h e r n T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n Company i n 1937 by E l dorado Mines, the l a r g e s t mine 22 at G r e a t Bear. The s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n a t G r e a t Bear Lake combined w i t h the pegging o f g o l d a t $35 p e r ounce i n 1934 made the s e a r c h f o r g o l d i n the N.W.T. a t t r a c t i v e . There was a s m a l l c l a i m i n g rush i n the Y e l l o w k n i f e a r e a where g o l d had a l r e a d y been d i s -c o v e r e d and by 1936 the f i r s t mine o p e r a t i o n s were b e i n g o r g a n i z e d The f i r s t g o l d b r i c k was poured i n Y e l l o w k n i f e i n 1938. The 27 i n c r e a s e d m i n i n g a c t i v i t y c o n v i n c e d the f e d e r a l government to e n t e r a j o i n t p r o j e c t w i t h the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a t o p r o v i d e a w i n t e r r o a d from Peace R i v e r to the south s h o r e o f G r e a t S l a v e 23 L a k e / J World War II broug h t v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y t o the N.W.T. wi t h m i l i t a r y p r o j e c t s i n m i n e r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t , and communication. In 1944 E l d o r a d o Mines was n a t i o n a l i z e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance o f i t s uranium h o l d i n g s a t G r e a t Bear Lake. As a r e s u l t i t s s u b s i d i a r y , the N o r t h e r n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company, became-a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n and the f e d e r a l government a c q u i r e d a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n r i v e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the n o r t h . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p i p e l i n e from the Norman W e l l s o i l ; , f i e l d t o Whitehorse was undertaken by a U.S. c o n s o r t i u m on b e h a l f o f the U.S. Army i n 1942-44. T h i s b r o u g h t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ten a i r f i e l d s s t r e t c h i n g from Edmonton t o Norman W e l l s , improved r i v e r t r a n s p o r t due t o v a s t i n c r e a s e s i n f r e i g h t h a n d l i n g , and improvement o f the w i n t e r r o a d to G r e a t S l a v e Lake t o highway s t a n d a r d s . A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the war m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s a t Gre a t B e a r Lake were s h u t down and the p i p e l i n e was d i s m a n t l e d , but the improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s remained. As wi t h the t r e a t i e s , government a c t i v i t y had once a g a i n h e l p e d open the n o r t h , though t h i s time i n d i r e c t l y . Government i n v o l v e m e n t i n the N.W.T. c o n t i n u e d a f t e r the war. By t h i s time i t was appa r e n t t h a t the g o l d r e s e r v e s a t Y e l l o w k n i f e p r o v i d e d a f a i r l y s e c u r e b a s i s f o r permanent s e t t l e -ment. There were f o u r g o l d mines i n o p e r a t i o n i n Y e l l o w k n i f e 28 i n the 1950's employing a t o t a l o f some 750 m i n e r s ^ and the 25 p o p u l a t i o n had rea c h e d 3,100 by 1956. The No r t h e r n Canada Power Commission was o r g a n i z e d i n 1948 t o take o v e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h y d r o e l e c t r i c power i n the Y e l l o w k n i f e a r e a and began c o n s t r u c t i o n o f d i e s e l p l a n t s i n the o t h e r l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s . In the l a t e 1950 1s the D i e f e n b a k e r government a u t h o r i z e d a Development Road Program c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the Roads To Resources Program i n the p r o v i n c e s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 1300 m i l e s o f highway i n the N.W.T. was a u t h o r i z e d a t an e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f $64 m i l l i o n . R i v e r t r a n s p o r t was g r e a t l y improved and the season l e n g t h e n e d by the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t e e l - h u l l e d d i e s e l tugs and s t e e l barges by the government-27 owned N o r t h e r n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the D i s t a n t E a r l y Warning L i n e r a d a r s y s tem i n the p e r i o d from 1955 t o 1957 a l s o p r o v i d e d both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t impetus t o development i n the N.W.T. A t i t s peak i t employed some 4,000 wor k e r s , p r o v i d i n g wage employment t e m p o r a r i l y 28 i n remote a r e a s . I t s r e a l v a l u e , however, l a y i n the r e s u l t i n g improvement i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication f a c i l i t i e s i n the hi g h a r c t i c . D e t a i l e d c h a r t i n g o f the mai n l a n d c o a s t was completed 29 and n i n e a i r f i e l d s were c o n s t r u c t e d . The a i r f i e l d s were o f b e n e f i t t o nearby s e t t l e m e n t s i n en d i n g t h e i r t o t a l dependence on the s h o r t m a r i t i m e s h i p p i n g s e a s o n . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f the N.W.T. i n t o the l a r g e r Canadian economy proceeded s l o w l y i n the 1950's w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 29 t h i s p r o c e s s f a l l i n g t o p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . The p a t t e r n o f economic growth was c o n s i s t e n t l y one o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d by s o u t h e r n c o r p o r a t i o n s , b u i l t by s o u t h e r n c o n t r a c t o r s , s t a f f e d by l a b o u r brought i n from the s o u t h , and p r o d u c i n g a flow o f raw m a t e r i a l s and p r o f i t s t o the s o u t h . The slow pace o f growth has been c r e d i t e d by Rea more t o the l a c k o f i n v e s t m e n t i n l a r g e s c a l e and e f f i c i e n t " s o c i a l overhead c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s " 30 than the r e s u l t o f f a c t o r s such as i s o l a t i o n o r c l i m a t e . O f t e n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t both t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and complete communities t o s u p p o r t a p r o j e c t , an i n d i c a t i o n o f the l a c k o f t i e s t o the e x i s t i n g l o c a l economy. N a t i v e p e o p l e r e c e i v e d l i t t l e b e n e f i t from any o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s . Few s e c u r e d permanent wage employment. There was no compensation f o r land use o r d i s r u p t i o n o f h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g . Nor, as m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was l a c k i n g , was t h e r e any b e n e f i t i n terms o f c r e a t i o n o f a l o c a l t a x base. I n s t e a d , s o u t h e r n Canadian s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g were i n t r o d u c e d t o the n o r t h i n the r e s o u r c e - b a s e d communities w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e to a c h i e v e a s i m i l a r s t a n d a r d . P r o j e c t s were undertaken o n l y by v e r y l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s and, then, o n l y when some government a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be a r r a n g e d . North Rankin N i c k e l Mines o p e r a t e d a t Rankin I n l e t from 1957 to 1961 a f t e r government a i d i n habour c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n the form o f the o n l y government s p o n s o r e d attempt to t r a i n a l o c a l 31 l a b o u r f o r c e f o r m i n i n g i n the N.W.T. Canada Tungsten began m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s n e a r the Yukon b o r d e r i n 1961 f o l l o w i n g an agreement 30 f o r s h a r i n g r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l government.""" A l s o i n 1961 th e f e d e r a l government reached an agreement w i t h Cominco Mines t o s h a r e c o s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l r o a d n o r t h from Grimshaw, A l b e r t a , t o Cominco's l e a d - z i n c d e p o s i t s a t P i n e P o i n t on the s o u t h s h o r e o f G r e a t S l a v e . L a k e . CN r e c e i v e d a g r a n t o f $86.25 m i l l i o n from the f e d e r a l government f o r the con-s t r u c t i o n o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake Railway. Cominco p r o v i d e d CN 33 w i t h $12.5 m i l l i o n p l u s a guara n t e e d annual f r e i g h t tonnage. P r i o r t o W.W. II government p o l i c y toward the N.W.T. had been one o f benign n e g l e c t . Only token a p p r o p r i a t i o n s were made f o r p u b l i c w e l f a r e and e d u c a t i o n and these were g e n e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d through the m i s s i o n s o r the Hudson's Bay Company. The post-war p e r i o d saw a change i n the a t t i t u d e o f the f e d e r a l government toward both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y i n the n o r t h . A s s i s t a n c e was made a v a i l a b l e to encourage p r i v a t e development and i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r the government moved t o i n t r o d u c e s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the r e s t o f Canada. In 1948 t h e r e were n i n e m i s s i o n h o s p i t a l s , a Red Cross 34 h o s p i t a l , and one I n d i a n A f f a i r s h o s p i t a l i n the N.W.T. There were 13 day s c h o o l s and f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , w i t h 35 a l l but one run by the m i s s i o n s . T r a n s f e r o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e a l t h c a r e i n the N.W.T. from the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o the Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e came i n 1945 and by 1951 a program had been i n s t i t u t e d p r o v i d i n g f o r the 31 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l h o s p i t a l s i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s w i t h 36 n u r s i n g s t a t i o n s t o s e r v e s m a l l e r communities. A new e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y was adopted i n 1947 g i v i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f a l l s c h o o l s t o the T e r r i t o r i a l government. Only 23% o f c h i l d r e n aged 6 t o 16 were i n s c h o o l i n 1950-51 37 b u t t h i s f i g u r e had been i n c r e a s e d t o 75% by 1960-61. I n u v i k was e s t a b l i s h e d by the f e d e r a l government i n 1955 t o s e r v e as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r the Mackenzie D e l t a communities a t a l o c a t i o n where s e r v i c e s o f a s o u t h e r n s t a n d a r d 38 c o u l d be p r o v i d e d . By the end o f the 1960's p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and programs s i m i l a r t o those a v a i l a b l e i n the south were a v a i l a b l e i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . U n t i l 1951 the N.W.T. was governed e n t i r e l y by c i v i l s e r v a n t s r e s i d e n t i n Ottawa w i t h no p r o v i s i o n b e i n g made f o r l o c a l r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n . When the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s was c a r v e d down r o u g h l y t o i t s p r e s e n t b o u n d a r i e s w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a i n 1905 i t r e v e r t e d t o a n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e form o f t e r r i t o r i a l government. P r o v i s i o n was made f o r the appointment 39 o f a Commissioner and a n o n - e l e c t i v e a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l , y e t f o r the ne x t s i x t e e n y e a r s no c o u n c i l was a p p o i n t e d nor were any o r d i n a n c e s passed. I n s t e a d the Deputy Commissioner o f the Royal North-West Mounted P o l i c e was a p p o i n t e d Commissioner and 40 the N.W.T. was a d m i n i s t e r e d d i r e c t l y by the RNWMP. In 1921 renewed i n t e r e s t i n m i n e r a l w e a l t h i n the N.W.T. sp a r k e d the appointment o f a T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , a C o u n c i l composed o f 32 c i v i l s e r v a n t s , based i n Ottawa, and e n l a r g e d from f o u r t o s i x 41 members a t the end o f the y e a r . From t h a t time through W.W. II the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T. f u n c t i o n e d as "an i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l a d v i s o r y committee c o o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f s e v e r a l f e d e r a l 4 2 r departments w i t h i n the T e r r i t o r i e s " "and the N.W.T. was governed by s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s h o l d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n o t h e r departments 43 i n Ottawa. With the growth o f White s e t t l e m e n t and the a p p e a l s o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y f o r v a r i o u s forms o f a s s i s t a n c e came the f i r s t 44 o p p o s i t i o n t o the o l d system. School d i s t r i c t s were c r e a t e d a t F o r t Smith and Y e l l o w k n i f e i n 1939 and a L o c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i s t r i c t e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n Y e l l o w k n i f e 45 January 1, 1940. In 1947 the e n t i r e D i s t r i c t o f Mackenzie was combined w i t h the Yukon i n t o a s i n g l e r i d i n g , thus p r o v i d i n g P a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the White r e s i d e n t s o f the w e s t e r n 46 h a l f o f the N.W.T. In 1952 the Yukon-Mackenzie e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t was d i v i d e d and the D i s t r i c t o f Mackenzie r e c e i v e d i t s own MP. R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s i n the N.W.T. were e n f r a n c h i s e d i n 1953, b u t I n u i t r e s i d e n t s d i d n o t r e c e i v e the r i g h t to vote u n t i l 1962 when 47 the Mackenzie r i d i n g was extended t o c o v e r a l l o f the N.W.T. L o c a l demands f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more r e s p o n s i v e t o l o c a l needs r e s u l t e d i n the amendment o f the N.W.T. A c t i n 1951 to p r o v i d e the Commissioner w i t h an a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o f e i g h t members. Three o f th e s e were t o be e l e c t e d , b u t the Commissioner was t o r e t a i n e x c l u s i v e e x e c u t i v e power and remain r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y t o 33 the M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r i n O t t a w a . 4 0 The e a s t e r n and f a r n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f the N.W.T. were e x c l u d e d from even t h i s m i nor measure o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as a l l t h r e e e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s 49 were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Mackenzie D i s t r i c t . Throughout the 1950's and 1960's minor adjustments were made i n the N.W.T. A c t . t r a n s f e r r i n g a d d i t i o n a l powers to the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t e d members t o the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , 50 and a l l o w i n g g r e a t e r powers f o r l o c a l improvement d i s t r i c t s . S t i l l , however, the p a t t e r n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n from Ottawa by a Commissioner a p p o i n t e d by the f e d e r a l C a b i n e t and a d v i s e d by a C o u n c i l , p a r t i a l l y e l e c t e d and p a r t i a l l y a p p o i n t e d , was main-t a i n e d up to 1966, In 1966 the Royal Commission on the Development o f Govern-ment i n the N.W.T. handed down i t s recommendations f o r the N.W.T. Tha t t h i s three-man commission d i d have one n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t as a member and h e l d h e a r i n g s i n the N.W.T. as w e l l as i n Ottawa, 51 i s i n i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n o f a new a t t i t u d e toward the n o r t h . The p r i n c i p a l recommendations o f the Commission were t h a t the Commissioner o f the N.W.T. and the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d both be r e s i d e n t i n the N.W.T. and t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , 52 but n o t r e s p o n s i b l e , government be e s t a b l i s h e d . The C a r r o t h e r s Commission fou n d n e i t h e r a l a r g e enough t a x - b a s e n o r a s u f f i c i e n t "human r e s o u r c e base" t o j u s t i f y p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s and added, I t i s n o t c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the c e n t r a l government would convey t i t l e i n the m i n e r a l s and p e t r o l e u m r e s o u r c e s o f 1/3 o f the l a n d mass o f Canada t o a 34 government o f l e s s than 0.2% o f the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , 3/5 o f whom are i n d i g e n o u s peoples who, however g r e a t t h e i r p o t e n t i a l , a re a t the p r e s e n t time p o l i t i c a l l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d . 53 The y e a r s from 1966 t o the p r e s e n t have seen the gradual implement-a t i o n o f the recommendations o f the C a r r o t h e r s Commission, c u l -m i n a t i n g i n the amendments t o the N.W.T. A c t i n 1974 which r e -54 moved the l a s t a p p o i n t e d members from t he T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l . The two most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on the course o f development i n the N.W.T. i n the p e r i o d from 1966 t o 1976 were the d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a T e r r i t o r i a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e s i d e n t i n the n o r t h and the b e g i n n i n g o f o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n on a massive s c a l e i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , the B e a u f o r t Sea, and the A r c t i c I s l a n d s . Both were t o b r i n g i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t between the i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s and the dominant s o u t h e r n Canadian economy and c u l t u r e . Both were t o b r i n g i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f Whites t o l i v e i n the N.W.T, many on a permanent b a s i s . D e s p i t e the i n f l u x o f Whites i n t o the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s f o l l o w i n g W.W. I I , n a t i v e p e o p l e have remained a m a j o r i t y , but i n a v a s t l y a l t e r e d N.W.T. The i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s have themselves been t r a n s f o r m e d . From semi-nomadic s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g bands has come a n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n permanent s e t t l e m e n t s , y e t s t i l l o n l y l o o s e l y t i e d t o the l a r g e r Canadian economy through t r a d e . As s u g g e s t e d i n a r e c e n t p o s i t i o n p a p e r o f the I n u i t T a p i r i s a t , The most s e r i o u s change i n the I n u i t mode o f l i f e began about 30 y e a r s ago when s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and 35 h e a l t h c a r e programs were i n i t i a t e d . . . f a m i l y a l l o w -ances and o l d age s e c u r i t y tended t o f a c i l i t a t e the g a t h e r i n g o f the I n u i t i n t o p e r m a n e n t N s e t t l e m e n t s and a g e n e r a l w i t h d r a w a l from the p u r s u i t o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l e conomy." N a t i v e p e o p l e f i r s t s e t t l e d a t t r a d i n g p o s t s t o take advantage o f permanent a c c e s s t o t r a d e and l a t e r , as h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s became avai1 a b l e , they s t a y e d on i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers u n t i l few were l e f t l i v i n g o u t s i d e permanent s e t t l e m e n t s . Yet n a t i v e s o c i e t y remained based on s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g w i t h incomes supplemented by t r a p p i n g , s e a s o n a l wage employment, and a growing volume o f t r a n s f e r payments. In the meantime a f o r e i g n s o c i e t y had grown up a l o n g s i d e the i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s , a s o c i e t y based on wage employment i n r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The growth o f thes e two s e p a r a t e s o c i e t i e s s i d e by s i d e t h r o u g h o u t the N.W.T. produced an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d s o c i e t y . The e x t e n t o f t h i s d i v i s i o n w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n the next c h a p t e r , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the p e r i o d from 1966 t o 1976. FOOTNOTES CHAPTER II F a r b , pp. 64 and 77. 2 Fa r b , p. 63. 3 K e i t h J . Crowe, A H i s t o r y o f the O r i g i n a l Peoples o f N o r t h e r n Canada ( M o n t r e a l : McGi11-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Press," 1974), p. 34. 4 Farb, p. 82. 5 F a r b , p. 57. Crowe, p. 27. 7 Crowe, p. 24. g Crowe, p. 28. q A l e x a n d e r M a c k e n z i e , J o u r n a l o f a Voyage bv Bark Cartoe from Lake A t h a b a s c a t o the P a c i f i c Ocean i n the Summer o f 1789, ed. by T.>H. McDonald (Norman, Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1966), pp. 81-2. ^ As i n the case o f the G r e a t B a s i n Shoshone d e s c r i b e d by Farb pp. 49-50. 1 1 F a r b , p. 69. 12 D a v i d M o u n t f i e l d , A Hi s t o r y o f P o l a r E x p ! o r a t i o n (New York: D i a l P r e s s , 1974), pp. 70-86. 1 3 F a r b , p. 82. 14 Kenneth J . Rea, The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f the Canadian North ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 19687", p. 322. 37 1 5 T r a v e l a r c t i c , E x p l o r e r s Guide: Canada's A r c t i c 1974 ( Y e l l o w k n i f e : Department o f I n f o r m a t i o n , 1974), pp. 8-11. 1 g Nora K e l l y and W i l l i a m K e l l y , The Royal Canadian Mounted  P o l i c e : A C e n t u r y o f H i s t o r y , 1873-1973 (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1973), pp. 107 and 153. 1 7 Crowe, p. 75. 1 o Rene Fumoleau, As Long As T h i s Land S h a l l L a s t ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart,~T975), p. 58 and Crowe p. 159. 19 Fumoleau, p. 56. 20 T r e a t y 8, r e p r i n t e d i n Fumoleau, pp. 70-73. 21 Fumoleau, p. 59. 22 Rea, p. 117. 23 Ray P r i c e , Y e l l o w k n i f e ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n A s s o c i a t e s , 1967), pp. 125-40. 24 Rea, pp. 134-5. 2 5 Census o f Canada, 1961, Volume I, T a b l e 5, p. 5-94. 2 6 Rea, p. 244. 2 7 Rea, p. 254. 2 8 Rea, p. 310. 29 C o l i n S. Gray, Canadi an Defense P r i o r i t i e s : A Q u e s t i o n  o f Relevance ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n , and Co., 1972), p. 187. 30 Rea, p. 314, and W. K e i t h Buck and J . F. Henderson, The Role o f M i n e r a l Resources i n the Development and C o l o n i z a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n Canada," i n Canadi an P o p u l a t i o n and N o r t h e r n C o l o n i z a t i o n , ed. by V. W. Bladen ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1962), p. 92. 31 Rea, pp. 142-3, and Buck, p. 95. 3 2 Rea, p. 143-4. 3 3 Rea, p. 262. 34 Rea, p. 295. 38 3 5 Rea, p. 288. 3 6 Rea, p. 295. 3 7 Rea, p. 291. 3 8 T r a v e l a r c t i c , E x p l o r e r ' s Giride, p. 10. 39 S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 4-5 Edward VII (1905) c. 27. 40 C. C. L i n g a r d , " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Canadian N o r t h l a n d , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XII ( F e b r u a r y 1946), p. 60. 41 M o r r i s Zaslow, "A P r e l u d e t o Self-Government: The Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1905-1939," i n The Canadian Northwest: I t s P o t e n t i a l i t i e s , ed. by Frank H. U n d e r h i l l ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1959), p. 91. 42 Zaslow,,p. 92. 43 Rea, p. 35 and Zaslow, p. 91. 44 Zaslow, p. 93. 45 L i n g a r d , p. 68. 4 6 Rea, p. 43. 47 Crowe, p. 201. R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s i n the N.W.T. were e n f r a n c h i s e d i n 1953 as a r e s u l t o f the e x t e n s i o n o f the Yukon r i d i n g t o c o v e r t h e D i s t r i c t o f Mackenzie. As no r e s e r v e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the N.W.T. a l l R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s were l i v i n g o f f r e s e r v e and thus became e l i g i b l e t o v o t e . 48 S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 15 George VI (1951) c. 21. 49 Rea, p. 40. 5 0 Rea, p. 40 and f f . 51 R e p o r t o f the A d v i s o r y Commission on the Development o f  Government i n the N.W.T., (Ottawa, 1966), pp. 3-21. 52 A d v i s o r y Commission, p. 158-214. 53 A d v i s o r y Commission, p. 148. 54 "Amendments to the N.W.T. A c t G i v e I l l u s i o n o f Power," News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 3, 1974. 55 I n u i t T a p i r i s a t o f Canada, " P o s i t i o n Paper t o the P l e n a r y S e s s i o n on S o c i a l J u s t i c e and the Q u e s t i o n o f D i f f e r i n g Values and C u l t u r e s , " H a b i t a t Forum, Vancouver, B.C., June 1, 1976, p. 3. CHAPTER I I I DUAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY I n s t e a d o f one i n t e g r a t e d s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e whose members s h a r e common v a l u e s , g o a l s , and b e l i e f s , work i n the same economy, and use the same networks o f communication, t h e r e e x i s t s a dual economy and s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. I t i s a s o c i e t y e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d between t h e Whites w i t h t h e i r m i d d l e - c l a s s , s o u t h e r n Canadian c u l t u r e on the one hand, and the two in d i g e n o u s n a t i v e groups, the I n u i t and the Dene, on the o t h e r . The I n u i t are a group o f some 13,000 s p r e a d o v e r t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n h a l f o f t h e N.W.T. above the t r e e l i n e . 1 The Dene are a group composed o f the 7,000 R e g i s t e r e d . T r e a t y Indians and from 5,000 to 7,000 M e t i s l i v i n g i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n h a l f o f the T e r r i t o r i e s . The T r e a t y Indians and the M e t i s l i v e i n the same s e t t l e m e n t s s h a r i n g the same way o f l i f e and are s e p a r a t e d m a i n l y by the p r o v i s i o n s o f the I n d i a n A c t which e x c l u d e persons o f mixed b l o o d i n the male l i n e from legail. s t a t u s as " I n d i a n s . " The r e m a i n i n g 11,000 t o 12,000 r e s i d e n t s o f the N.W.T. are n o r m a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as "Whites." T h i s i s i n no way a r a c i a l term, b u t i n s t e a d i n d i c a t e s t h o s e l i v i n g i n the n o r t h who are p a r t o f the dominant Canadian 40 41 c u l t u r e . A s i m i l a r use o f the term "White" i s e x p l a i n e d by P e t e r Farb as f o l l o w s , . . . I am n o t r e a l l y t a l k i n g about any p a r t i c u l a r C a u c a s o i d s b u t an a b s t r a c t i o n , a composite o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic a t t i t u d e s h e l d by c e r t a i n p e o p l e whose s k i n i s u s u a l l y l i g h t e r than most o f the world ' s p o p u l a t i o n and who behaved i n a c e r t a i n way toward p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s whenever they were e n c o u n t e r e d around the g l o b e . The White i s a c o l o n i z e r who e a r l y d e v e l o p e d an advanced t e c h n o l o g y ; he i s an e x p l o i t e r o f human and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; he has d e s t r o y e d , o f t e n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , a lmost e v e r y a l i e n c u l t u r e he has come i n c o n t a c t w i t h . . . 2 L o c a l usage o f the term "White" i s a l s o r a c i a l l y b l i n d and one r e g u l a r l y sees r e f e r e n c e to both Negroes and Chinese as White. Modern Wage Economy The e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s between n a t i v e p e o p l e and Whites i n the N.W.T. have a p a r a l l e l r e f l e c t i o n i n the dual economy o f the n o r t h . While i t might be tempting t o l a b e l t h e s e d i v i s i o n s " c l a s s e s " because economic and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o i n c i d e , they remain p r i m a r i l y e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s as d e s c r i b e d by W i r t h , Schermerhorn, and En l o e . The e t h n i c groups i n the N.W.T. are c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e and s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d . They possess d i v e r g e n t s e t s o f b e l i e f s and va l u e s and have i n s t i t u t i o n s p a r a l l e l -i n g those o f the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Because one e t h n i c group i s dominant and the o t h e r s c l e a r l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d , t h e r e i s a tendency t o r e v e r t to the co n c e p t o f c l a s s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . However, i n the N.W.T. the economic s i t u a t i o n s e r v e s t o r e i n f o r c e and m a i n t a i n the e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . 42 The economy o f the N.W.T. can be thought o f as two s e p a r a t e b u t l o o s e l y - r e l a t e d systems. I t has both a modern wage s e c t o r and a t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d - b a s e d s e c t o r . Dene and I n u i t p e o p l e l i v e i n a s o c i e t y based on an economy d i f f e r e n t and l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d from the modern wage economy which i s the b a s i s o f White s o c i e t y i n the n o r t h . While the d i v i s i o n i s i n no way a b s o l u t e the con-t a c t s between the two economies are minimal and few i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y r o l e s which span the gap. The modern wage economy r e q u i r e s the m a j o r i t y o f the White working-age p o p u l a t i o n t o exchange i t s l a b o u r on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r a wage which can i n t u r n be exchanged f o r goods and s e r v i c e s . There i s l i t t l e p r o d u c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l use but r a t h e r almost e x c l u s i v e l y p r o d u c t i o n f o r exchange. The p u b l i c s e c t o r o f the modern wage economy has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,100 employees a t t h r e e 3 l e v e l s o f government, f e d e r a l , t e r r i t o r i a l , and m u n i c i p a l . Only a few o f th e s e employees are i n v o l v e d i n pri m a r y p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s such as power g e n e r a t i o n o r c o n s t r u c t i o n ; most are employed i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 o n e - t h i r d o f the employees i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r are n a t i v e p e o p l e . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f the economy o f the N.W.T. has been d e s c r i b e d by the f e d e r a l government's P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n A s s e s s -ment Group as b e i n g "... c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l n e s s o f s i z e , 5 l a c k o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and hig h c o s t s . " True as t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s , i t n e g l e c t s two more prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h a t the modern wage economy i s l a r g e l y the p r e s e r v e o f a s i n g l e e t h n i c group and t h a t the p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f the modern wage economy i s dominated 43 i n v i r t u a l l y a l l areas by l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s . Only i n f o o d p r o c e s s i n g ( w i t h f o u r f i s h c a n n e r i e s , t h r e e b a k e r i e s , and two s o f t - d r i n k b o t t l i n g p l a n t s ) and i n the lumber i n d u s t r y ( w i t h g s i x s a w m i l l s ) i s l a r g e - s c a l e c o r p o r a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n absent. Some o p p o r t u n i t i e s a l s o e x i s t f o r the independent e n t r e p r e n e u r o r f a m i l y b u s i n e s s i n r e t a i l t r a d e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and o t h e r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s a l l these a c t i v i t i e s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y dominated by the a c t i v i t i e s o f l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h e r e are a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,400 employees i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f the wage economy, v i r t u a l l y a l l employed i n r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . 7 Banking and f i n a n c e i s , o f c o u r s e , dominated by c h a r t e r e d n a t i o n a l banks. However, p r i v a t e b a n k i n g and f i n a n c e i s i t s e l f o f t e n overshadowed by government l o a n programs, p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t , o r s e l f - f i n a n c e d c o r p o r a t e p r o j e c t s . The Canadian I m p e r i a l Bank o f Commerce has f i v e branches i n the N.W.T. and, i n a d d i t i o n , o p e r a t e s a monthly " f l y i n g bank" s e r v i c e t o remote communities. The Royal Bank and the Bank o f Mont r e a l each have two branches i n the N.W.T. w h i l e the Bank o f Nova S c o t i a and the T o r o n t o -Dominion Bank have one each. I t was not p o s s i b l e t o s e c u r e f i g u r e s on l e n d i n g volumes t h a t would a l l o w comparison o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y , b u t i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c e r t a i n t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s o f the c h a r t e r e d banks a re f a r more e x t e n s i v e than those o f the two s m a l l c r e d i t unions o r the c o o p e r a t i v e s , but l e s s i m p o r t a n t than c o r p o r a t e o r government a c t i v i t y . I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t the 44 major d e c i s i o n s on f i n a n c i a l matters are made o u t s i d e the N.W.T., e i t h e r i n the head o f f i c e s o f the banks, i n c o r p o r a t e boardrooms, o r by the f e d e r a l government i n Ottawa. By f a r the l a r g e s t amount o f economic a c t i v i t y i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the non-renewable r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s . I t i s o i l , gas, and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d d e v e l o p -ment p r o j e c t s t h a t p r o v i d e the major s o u r c e o f non-governmental employment i n the N.W.T. In 1973 mines o p e r a t i n g i n the N.W.T. employed 1,344 p e o p l e , n o t i n c l u d i n g those employed s e a s o n a l l y 8 i n e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . O i l and n a t u r a l gas e x p l o r a t i o n p r o -g v i d e d some 656 jo b s i n the 1972-73 season. I m p e r i a l O i l i s the o n l y company c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c i n g o i l i n the N.W.T. P r o d u c t i o n from the Norman W e l l s f i e l d accounts f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1% o f I m p e r i a l ' s t o t a l Canadian p r o d u c t i o n . 1 0 N a t u r a l gas i s produced both a t Norman W e l l s and a t the P o i n t e d Mountain f i e l d , n e a r the Yukon-B.C. b o r d e r . O i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s dominated by the major m u l t i n a t i o n a l o i l companies. As a pe r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l a r e a f o r which e x p l o r a t i o n p e r m i t s had been i s s u e d by 1975, 50.7% was h e l d by c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h o v e r 50% U.S. o w n e r s h i p ^ 30.9% by Canadian c o r p o r a t i o n s , 7.2% by F r e n c h , and 4.8% by B r i t i s h c o r p o r a t i o n s . 1 1 Minimum Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y has been s e c u r e d by f e d e r a l government ownership o f a 12 c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t i n P a n a r c t i c O i l s and, as w e l l , by the r e c e n t a c q u i s i t i o n o f A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Canada by P e t r o c a n , the Crown c o r p o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d to f u r t h e r guarantee Canadian 45 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o i l i n d u s t r y . The m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i s dominated by s i x companies which a c c o u n t f o r 100% o f the t o a l p r o d u c t i o n v a l u e o f m i n e r a l s f o r the N.W.T. C o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h r e e o f these i s h e l d by Cominco Mines and i n the o t h e r s by F a l c o n b r i d g e , Dome Mines, and 13 III I n t e r n a t i o n a l o f Delaware r e s p e c t i v e l y . These s i x a r e t o be j o i n e d by a seventh e a r l y i n 1977 when p r o d u c t i o n begins a t S t r a t h c o n a Sound on B a f f i n I s l a n d , where a l e a d - z i n c complex i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d by a c o n s o r t i u m o f European m u l t i n a t i o n a l s 14 w i t h m i n o r i t y f e d e r a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l m i n e r a l s produced i n the N.W.T. i n de s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f p r o d u c t i o n 15 v a l u e are z i n c , l e a d , g o l d , s i l v e r , t u n g s t e n , and copper. S h o u l d p r e s e n t m i n e r a l p r i c e s p r e v a i l r e s e r v e s o f e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n and, i n d e e d , expansion o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , even those few areas which m i g h t o f f e r some scope f o r i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s are dominated by l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s . In a i r t r a n s p o r t the major c a r r i e r o f both passengers and f r e i g h t i s P a c i f i c Western A i r l i n e s , a t p r e s e n t owned by the government o f A l b e r t a . R e g i o n a l and c h a r t e r o p e r a t i o n s a r e s t i l l l a r g e l y the p r e s e r v e o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s though t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s i n a s m a l l e r number o f f i r m s . F r e i g h t s e r v i c e by barge on the Mackenzie system and by r a i l t o the s o u t h s h o r e o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake i s p r o v i d e d by the Nor t h e r n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company and Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s , 46 both Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s . O t h e r a s p e c t s o f economic a c t i v i t y show v a r i o u s mixes o f l a r g e and s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s . R e t a i l t r a d e i s s t i l l l a r g e l y a monopoly o f the Hudson's Bay Company, though t h e r e have been attempts t o p r o v i d e c o m p e t i t i o n through r e t a i l c o o p e r a t i v e s . "The Bay" s t i l l has some f o r t y r e t a i l o u t l e t s i n the N.W.T. There are some 150 b u i l d i n g t r a d e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r m s o p e r a t i n g i n the N.W.T., b u t l a r g e p r o j e c t s a r e u s u a l l y the p r e s e r v e o f Keen I n d u s t r i e s o r Po o l e C o n s t r u c t i o n , both o f Edmonton. The f i e l d s o f h o t e l accommodation and foo d s e r v i c e s t i l l p r o v i d e t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , even i f many o f th e s e are f r a n c h i s e o p e r a t i o n s . Communication and.power s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d by a mi x t u r e o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y . The CBC p r o v i d e s r a d i o s e r v i c e t o a l l b u t the s m a l l e s t s e t t l e m e n t s and t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e t o the major c e n t r e s v i a Anik s a t e l l i t e . In the e a s t e r n h a l f o f the T e r r i t o r i e s t e l e p h o n e and tel e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d by B e l l Canada and i n the western h a l f by CN Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . The N o r t h e r n Canada Power Commission (NCPC) remains r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g e l e c t r i c i t y t o the major s e t t l e m e n t s from both h y d r o e l e c t r i c s i t e s and o i l - f i r e d g e n e r a t o r s . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f power i n the G r e a t S l a v e Lake a r e a i s h a n d l e d by P l a i n s Western Gas and E l e c t r i c , a company c o n t r o l l e d by the German m u l t i n a t i o n a l 16 E l e c t r i s c h e L i c h t und K r a f t Lagenung, an i n d i c a t i o n both o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y i n l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s and 47 o f the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the modern wage economy o f the n o r t h i n t o the l a r g e r n a t i o n a l and w o r l d economies. In terms o f the e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. the two most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the modern wage economy are the f a c t t h a t c o n t r o l o f major e n t e r p r i s e s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , l i e s o u t s i d e the N.W.T. and t h a t i t s l a b o u r f o r c e i s pr e d o m i n a n t l y White. The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the N.W.T. a r e made o u t s i d e the N.W.T. L o c a l i n p u t s may be c o n s i d e r e d i n q u e s t i o n s o f how a p r o j e c t i s to p r o c e e d , but the more fundamental q u e s t i o n s o f whether t h e r e a r e t o be p r o j e c t s and what k i n d o f p r o j e c t s t h e s e s h o u l d be are answered by n o n - r e s i d e n t s . The e x i s t e n c e o f a pr e d o m i n a n t l y White l a b o u r f o r c e i n an a r e a which has r o u g h l y t w o - t h i r d s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the low r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the modern wage economy o f n a t i v e p e o p l e . No f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e on employment by e t h n i c group f o r the N.W.T. The o n l y i n d i c a t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e i s the number o f n a t i v e employees o f the T e r r i t o r i a l government. I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o assume t h a t t h i s f i g u r e o f 29% i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the modern s e c t o r as a whole. I f a n y t h i n g t h i s would t e n d t o o v e r -e s t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n because o f s p e c i a l r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g programs o f the Government o f the N.W.T. 29% o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i n the modern s e c t o r p l u s the 370 pe o p l e employed f u l 1 -time i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r i n the N.W.T. would g i v e a f i g u r e 48 o f 3,437 n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , o r a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 2 5 . 0 % . 1 7 T h i s would mean t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e a t a r a t e j u s t under o n e - h a l f t h a t o f the 1 o Canadian p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. Even t h i s may g i v e an u n r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f the e x t e n t o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t i g n o r e s the i n t e r m i t t e n t n a t u r e o f employment f o r l a r g e numbers o f n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t the lower employment l e v e l s . T r a d i t i o n a l Land-Based Economy Ye t i t i s not t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e a r e engaged f u l l - t i m e i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s o f h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g and t h e r e f o r e do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n the modern wage economy. As m e n t ioned above, the 1971 Census Labour F o r c e S urvey found o n l y 370 p e o p l e , out o f a t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e o f 10,950, g i v i n g those as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . R a t h e r n a t i v e p e o p l e are p o o r l y s i t u a t e d t o compete i n the j o b market i n the modern wage economy due t o low l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , almost n o n - e x i s t e n t job e x p e r i e n c e , 19 and r e l a t i v e i n a b i l i t y t o r e l o c a t e to s e c u r e permanent j o b s . Some employment i s p r o v i d e d by the 32 n a t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e s but t h i s i s u s u a l l y o n l y i n h a n d i c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s o r i n m a r k e t i n g 20 o f t r a d i t i o n a l goods and thus tends t o m a i n t a i n the i s o l a t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e from the modern wage economy. The t w o - t h i r d s o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T. t h a t i s n a t i v e i s thus p r i m a r i l y d i s p e r s e d among the t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d -based a c t i v i t i e s o f h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g on a p a r t - t i m e 49 b a s i s w i t h incomes supplemented by s e a s o n a l wage employment and t r a n s f e r payments. A good d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n i n most s e t t l e m e n t i s g i v e n i n the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e Assessment, Very few N a t i v e f a m i l i e s l i v e e x c l u s i v e l y e i t h e r from cash o r income i n - k i n d g a i n e d d i r e c t l y from the l a n d . F o r most communities, the t y p i c a l f a m i l y d e r i v e s i t s l i v e l i h o o d from a m i x t u r e o f wage employment and r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g , w i t h t r a p p i n g p r o v i d i n g e x t r a cash and h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p r o v i d i n g much o f the f a m i l y ' s f o o d requirements.21 R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s p a t t e r n i s found i n the w e l f a r e system a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Government o f the N.W.T.'s Department o f S o c i a l Development. Two c a t e g o r i e s o f a i d are a v a i l a b l e , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between " s o c i a l s u p p o r t " payments t o those un-a b l e t o work and "economic w e l f a r e " payments t o those who do work b u t whose incomes are i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet " s t a n d a r d budgetary r e q u i r e m e n t s . " Communities a l o n g the n o r t h shore o f G r e a t S l a v e Lake and the c e n t r a l A r c t i c c o a s t were found t o have a p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy dependence on economic w e l f a r e payments, w i t h some communities r e c e i v i n g o v e r $300 p e r c a p i t a and w i t h t o t a l payments o f o v e r $500,000 t o the seven communities i n 1973-74. 2 2 N a t i v e S o c i e t y I t s h o u l d be kept i n mind, however, t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a dual s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. as w e l l as a dual economy. N a t i v e p e o p l e do not comprise a group i s o l a t e d from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y s o l e l y f o r economic r e a s o n s . As w e l l , n a t i v e p e o p l e possess a c u l t u r e d i f f e r i n g from t h a t which complements the modern wage 50 economy o f the r e s t o f Canada. They possess d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and go a l s than Whites. T h e i r l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y based on the wage economy i s more than j u s t a f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e p l a c e s i n t h a t economy. I t i s a l s o a f u n c t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e o f competing s u b - c u l t u r e s . While I n u i t and Dene p e o p l e are o f t e n grouped t o g e t h e r i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f the n o r t h , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to remember t h a t they do not r e g a r d themselves as a s i n g l e group. T h i s f e e l i n g o f d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s a r e s u l t both o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s which l i m i t c o n t a c t s and o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . While t h e r e i s a b a s i c g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y between the two t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s , d i f f e r e n c e s o f language, custom, and. t r a d i t i o n a re e x t e n s i v e enough t o p r o v i d e t he b a s i s f o r s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s . The degree o f t h i s s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the s u g g e s t i o n o f the d i v i s i o n o f the N.W.T. a l o n g the t r e e l i n e i n the I n u i t l a n d c l a i m s u b m i t t e d t o the f e d e r a l government. S t i l l , when d e a l i n g w i t h the p r e s e n t d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. the g u l f between the White and n a t i v e c u l t u r e s o b s c u r e s the more minor d i f f e r e n c e s between the two n a t i v e c u l t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s . C o n f l i c t i n the n o r t h i s r a r e l y between Dene and I n u i t , b u t r a t h e r between one o f the two n a t i v e c u l t u r e s and the White. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the s i m i l a r i t y o f the p r e s e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o f both groups a l l o w s drawing g e n e r a l comparisons v a l i d f o r both n a t i v e groups. The s e t o f b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and goals a t p r e s e n t h e l d by Dene and I n u i t people are b r o a d l y s i m i l a r . 51 N a t i v e p e o p l e have s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e s toward the l a n d and t h e i r communities which p e r s i s t d e s p i t e the d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r c u l t u r e s . Many s t i l l make a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e i r l i v i n g from the l a n d o r t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s and c r a f t s , but even those w i t h p o s i t i o n s i n the modern s e c t o r r e t a i n t h i s s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e . For n a t i v e 23 p e o p l e the l a n d i s ". . . a p l a c e t o l i v e , not a p l a c e t o t a p . " I t i s more than a s o u r c e o f income and the p r o d u c t s o f the l a n d are more i m p o r t a n t than t h e i r monetary v a l u e . N a t i v e p e o p l e * p r e f e r c o u n t r y f o o d t o s t o r e - b o u g h t . They take p l e a s u r e i n time s p e n t h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i n the bush. T h i s a t t i t u d e toward the l a n d i s perhaps b e s t e x p r e s s e d by P e t e r Usher, a s o c i o l o g i s t w orking f o r the Committee f o r O r i g i n a l P e o p l e ' s E n t i t l e m e n t (COPE) i n the Mackenzie D e l t a a r e a , To n a t i v e p e o p l e , the l a n d i s more than j u s t a s o u r c e o f f o o d o r cash. I t i s the permanent s o u r c e o f t h e i r s e c u r i t y and sense o f w e l l - b e i n g . . . Around e v e r y community t h e r e are p l a c e s t o t r a p , to f i s h , t o g e t water and wood . . . the community depends on t h e s e p l a c e s . The t h i n g s t h a t are done t h e r e are p a r t o f community l i f e . W i t h o u t t h e s e p l a c e s , community l i f e i s p o o r e r , and i n d e e d l e s s p o s s i b l e . 4 T h i s s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e toward the l a n d i s but one o f a s e t o f v a l u e s t h a t do n o t mesh w e l l w i t h the White c u l t u r e based on the wage economy. N a t i v e p e o p l e a l s o possess a s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r communities, one which overshadows i n d i v i d u a l i s m . Each i n d i v i d u a l i s a member o f a community which e x i s t s as a complex web o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Among the D o g r i b s , t h i s de-emphasis o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m t r a d i t i o n a l l y went so f a r t h a t no one 52 was e v e r a d d r e s s e d d i r e c t l y by name. I n s t e a d some d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a n o t h e r person was used, as "my n i e c e " 25 o r " b r o t h e r o f so-and-so." N a t i v e p e o p l e have t h e i r i d e n t i t y i n t h e i r community and f i n d s u p p o r t i n t h e i r f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s t h e r e . In t h e i r communities, .". . . peopl e h e l p each o t h e r and by t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s make l i f e b e t t e r f o r ev e r y member 26 o f the community." The t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f p r o p e r t y i s r o o t e d i n these s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e s toward the community and the l a n d . There was no con c e p t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y as the p r i v i l e g e o f e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s from p l a c e s o r t h i n g s no one was u s i n g , n o r c o u l d any person from o u t s i d e the community h o l d p r o p e r t y i n the community. There e x i s t e d o n l y r i g h t s o f use s a n c t i o n e d by the community. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s then the s o u r c e o f n a t i v e c o n f u s i o n and resentment when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n c u r s i o n s i n t o the l a n d t h e y a r e u s i n g by o i l , gas, and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n teams 27 w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n from t he communities a f f e c t e d . T h i s d i v e r g e n c e o f v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s p r e s e n t s a d d i t i o n a l problems f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e who attempt t o take p a r t i n the wage economy. Not o n l y must n a t i v e p e o p l e a c q u i r e f a c i l i t y i n a f o r e i g n language and s k i l l s f o r e i g n t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , but they must a l s o a c q u i r e a f o r e i g n s e t o f a t t i t u d e s . Again a c c o r d i n g t o Usher, R a r e l y do n a t i v e p e o p l e have a l i f e t i m e committment t o wage employment o r the a s s o c i a t e d a t t i t u d e s toward 53 s a v i n g , s p e n d i n g , and c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i m p l i c i t i n t h i s way o f l i f e . 2 8 Given t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e a re i n a poor p o s i t i o n t o modify the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f the wage economy i n the s h o r t r u n , i n o r d e r t o s u c c e e d they must a c q u i r e a t t i t u d e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and c a r e e r i s m , a t t i t u d e s i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . When one c o n s i d e r s the l a r g e adjustment n e c e s s a r y and, as w e l l , the i n t e r m i t t e n t n a t u r e o f wage employment i n most areas and f o r most n a t i v e p e o p l e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t so many have e i t h e r f a i l e d o r r e f u s e d t o make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . N a t i v e p e o p l e a re o f t e n i n a r e a l sense caught between two w o r l d s , between t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e which can no l o n g e r s u p p o r t them f u l l y n o r m a i n t a i n the s t a n d a r d o f s e r v i c e s p r e s e n t i n the communities and the modern wage economy f o r which they l a c k the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There a r e o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d - b a s e d c u l t u r e and way o f l i f e appear to o f f e r the b a s i s f o r a v i a b l e and d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Foremost among t h e s e i s the f a c t t h a t most n a t i v e p e o p l e s t i l l r e t a i n t h e i r n a t i v e language as a f i r s t language a f t e r o v e r 30 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h . A m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the N.W.T. had a mother tongue 29 o t h e r than E n g l i s h i n 1971. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l drum dances, n a t i v e games, and n a t i v e c r a f t s a re i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r 30 a f t e r h i t t i n g a low p o i n t i n the l a t e 1950's. L e a d e r s h i p i s s t i l l found w i t h i n the n a t i v e communities 54 though the t r a d i t i o n a l l o o s e s e t o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has become more f o r m a l i z e d . F o r T r e a t y I n d i a n s the I n d i a n A c t has gi v e n l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o the C h i e f s and Band C o u n c i l s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i r bands and has e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a r p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . In I n u i t s e t t l e m e n t s t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s appear t o have been abs o r b e d by l o c a l s e t t l e -ment c o u n c i l s s e t up by the Government o f the N.W.T. t o p r o v i d e 31 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . L o c a l n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p has r e c e n t l y been i n v o l v e d i n i s s u e s such as a l c o h o l abuse and e d u c a t i o n . The importance o f the l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e has caused the p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n between bands to become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . Dene p e o p l e are o r g a n i z e d i n t o p a r a l l e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s so as t o p r o v i d e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f j o i n t a c t i o n d e s p i t e p r o v i s i o n s o f the I n d i a n A c t s e p a r a t i n g them. The I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o f the N.W.T. was o r g a n i z e d i n 1969 w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the Company o f Young Canadians and the Department o f I n d i a n 32 A f f a i r s . Many o f i t s o r i g i n a l s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , were former CYC community workers. The M e t i s and 33 Non-Status A s s o c i a t i o n o f the N.W.T. was o r g a n i z e d i n 1972 and f o r the p a s t two y e a r s has h e l d j o i n t annual g e n e r a l a s s e m b l i e s w i t h t h e I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d i n the attempt t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . The I n u i t T a p i r i s a t o f Canada was founded i n 1971. I t has s i x r e g i o n a l a f f i l i a t e s , w i t h f o u r o f these and a m a j o r i t y 34 o f the membership i n the N.W.T. The Dene p e o p l e are s e r v e d by a r e g i o n a l newspaper, The N a t i v e P r e s s , p u b l i s h e d i n Y e l l o w k n i f e 55 s i n c e 1971, f i r s t by the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o f the N.W.T. and 35 l a t e r by the N a t i v e Communications S o c i e t y . I n u i t Today has been p u b l i s h e d by the I n u i t T a p i r i s a t o f Canada i n Ottawa s i n c e 1971 and s e r v e s a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n f o r the I n u i t i n the N.W.T. The n a t i v e c u l t u r e s do possess s e p a r a t e languages, l e a d e r -s h i p , v a l u e s and customs, and c e r t a i n s p e c i a l channels o f communi-c a t i o n , y e t they are no l o n g e r independent s o c i e t i e s . Each i s but one e t h n i c group i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i n the N.W.T. dominated by the White c u l t u r e and i t s wage economy. As t h i s White c u l t u r e has come t o dominate s o c i e t y i n the n o r t h , n a t i v e p e o p l e have l o s t c o n t r o l o f c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e i r communal l i f e which had g i v e n them some independence. Trade was the l a r g e s t f o r c e f o r change i n n a t i v e c u l t u r e , b u t the p r o c e s s o f a d o p t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y was the f i r s t d i r e c t s t e p t o l o s s o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e f o r the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e o f the n o r t h . F o r t h i s p r o c e s s o f . c o n v e r s i o n was not j u s t a p r o c e s s o f e x c h a n g i n g one s e t o f b e l i e f s f o r a n o t h e r , b u t r a t h e r the 37 f i r s t s t e p i n the p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The b e l i e f s and va l u e s t a u g h t by the m i s s i o n a r i e s were an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and br o u g h t w i t h them an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t way o f l i f e . I t was the m i s s i o n s t h a t f i r s t b rought the h e a l t h c a r e and e d u c a t i o n systems o f the White c u l t u r e to the n o r t h . C h r i s t i a n i t y was a powerful f o r c e f o r change from n a t i v e ways, y e t u n f o r t u n a t e l y a new economy was not a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h i s change. While the 56 o r i g i n a l C a t h o l i c and A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n s have attempted t o a c c o m p l i s h the c o n v e r s i o n o f a p e o p l e , t h e r e has l a t e l y been a t u r n both toward e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h i t s promise o f p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n and a t u r n away from C h r i s t i a n i t y toward a r e v i v a l o f 38 t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and ceremonies. N a t i v e p e o p l e l o s t c o n t r o l o f h e a l t h c a r e very soon a f t e r t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h Whites. D i s e a s e s a g a i n s t which they had no n a t u r a l immunity and a g a i n s t which t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i c i n e was i n e f f e c t i v e wiped out thousands o f n a t i v e p e o p l e i n a s e r i e s o f e p i d e m i c s . J u s t b e f o r e W.W. II t h e r e was even s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e m i g h t d i e out a l t o g e t h e r i n the n o r t h , b u t improved h e a l t h c a r e a f t e r the war r e v e r s e d t h e i r d e c l i n e . Once a g a i n , however, the n a t u r a l b a l a n c e s were ups e t and the r e s u l t has been demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the N.W.T. b r o a d l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f those o f l e s s - d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s and i n marked c o n t r a s t to th o s e o f the r e s t o f Canada. Both the b i r t h r a t e , a t 34.4 p e r 1,000 i n 1972, and the i n f a n t death r a t e o f 48.8 p e r 1,000 l i v e b i r t h s were more than 39 d o u b l e the r a t e s f o r Canada as a whole. The median age f o r the N.W.T. was 19.1 y e a r s i n 1971, as opposed to 26.3 f o r a l l Canada. The yo u t h dependency r a t i o was 78.2 f o r e v e r y 100 a d u l t s o f w o r k i n g age (15 t o 64), w h i l e i t was 58.1 f o r a l l Canada. Average f a m i l y s i z e was 4.3 i n 1971, compared to 317 f o r Canada 40 as a whole. These l a s t t h r e e f i g u r e s r e f l e c t the heavy burden o f dependence imposed by a r a p i d l y growing p o p u l a t i o n . Even the most c o n s e r v a t i v e S t a t i s t i c s Canada p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s show a d o u b l i n g o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the 30 y e a r s from 1971 t o 41 2001, almost e n t i r e l y due t o n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the f i r s t m i s s i o n s c h o o l s i n 1867 n a t i v e p e o p l e began to l o s e c o n t r o l o f the e d u c a t i o n o f 42 t h e i r c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the m i s s i o n s c h o o l s n o t o n l y a c q u i r e d a f o r e i g n e d u c a t i o n w i t h s k i l l s o f l i t t l e v a l u e to t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , they were a l s o removed from d a i l y l i f e i n the community, thus l o s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways f u l l y . F o r the few c h i l d r e n g o i n g on t o the h i g h e r grades t h i s p r o v e d an even g r e a t e r problem as most had to l e a v e t h e i r communities t o a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s . From the b e g i n n i n g the aim o f e d u c a t i o n brought n o r t h by Whites has been the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n and n a t i v e p e o p l e s t i l l b e l i e v e t h i s remains t r u e t o t h i s day. The I n u i t T a p i r i s a t has s t a t e d , The e d u c a t i o n program has had a c l e a r i n t e n t o f g e n e r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the I n u i t . L i t t l e has been done t o e n a b l e the I n u i t to p r e s e r v e t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . ^ 3 The s i t u a t i o n i s the same f o r the Dene and n a t i v e p e o p l e have o n l y r e c e n t l y won the c o n c e s s i o n o f n a t i v e c l a s s r o o m a s s i s t a n t s i n the lower grades who speak the language o f the c h i l d r e n . Few n a t i v e c h i l d r e n , however, complete t h e i r b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . Only 44 seven I n u i t were e n r o l l e d i n Grade 10 i n 1972 and o n l y 243 c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n Grade 12 f o r the whole o f the N.W.T., 58 the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f th e s e b e i n g W h i t e . H J While n a t i v e c h i l d r e n are d e p r i v e d o f an e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e , they f a i l t o a c q u i r e the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o s u c c e e d i n the White c u l t u r e . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s b r o u g h t the n a t i v e p e o p l e l o s s o f c o n t r o l o f t h e i r economy. Trade brought dependence on the o u t s i d e w o r l d economy and, as p r i c e s f o r f u r s d e c l i n e d , so d i d cash income a v a i l a b l e t o n a t i v e p e o p l e . C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n s e t t l e m e n t s , combined w i t h the v a s t i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e t o depend s o l e l y on sub-s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g . E d u c a t i o n made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e t o f o l l o w t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s , both i n d e p r i v i n g them o f the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s as c h i l d r e n and i n c a u s i n g a g e n e r a l r i s e i n the m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e . Both Whites and n a t i v e p e o p l e themselves have become i n c r e a s -i n g l y aware o f the have-not s t a t u s o f the n a t i v e p e o p l e , o f t h e i r f a i l u r e to s u c c e e d i n the White w o r l d . F a m i l y incomes i n the N.W.T. show a wide d i v e r g e n c e from the p a t t e r n o f the r e s t o f Canada, w i t h 31.2% o f f a m i l i e s i n the N.W.T. h a v i n g incomes below $4,000 i n 1971 as opposed to 20.2% f o r a l l Canada. In 1971 the p o v e r t y l i n e f o r a f a m i l y o f f o u r was $4,697. When average f a m i l y s i z e i n the N.W.T. b e i n g 0.6 l a r g e r than a l l Canada and the h i g h e r c o s t o f l i v i n g have been taken i n t o a c c o u n t , the f i g u r e o f 45.6% o f f a m i l i e s h a v i n g incomes below $7,000 i s perhaps 46 a more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f the e x t e n t .of p o v e r t y i n the N.W.T. 59 T h i s l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e l i v i n g a t p o v e r t y l e v e l s i s , once a g a i n , more s i m i l a r to a l e s s - d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n than t o the p a t t e r n i n s o u t h e r n Canada, though the a b s o l u t e c o n d i t i o n o f the poor i n a weal t h y n a t i o n may have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o t h a t o f the poor i n l e s s - d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s . Both p o v e r t y and p o p u l a t i o n growth a r e problems new t o the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n the l a s t 30 years'. P o p u l a t i o n growth has been caused by improved m e d i c a l c a r e l o w e r i n g the death r a t e and i n c r e a s i n g l i f e e x p e c t a n c y w h i l e t he b i r t h r a t e has remained unchanged. P o v e r t y i n the sense o f r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n i s a l s o a new problem as l i f e i n the n o r t h was p r e v i o u s l y a t a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l f o r a l l . With the p r e s e n c e o f White r e s i d e n t s , the e x t e n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , and the a s s a u l t o f the s o u t h e r n media, t h e r e has been the n o t - s u r p r i s i n g r i s e i n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the n a t i v e p e o p l e . While both o f t h e s e problems are r e a l , the p r e s e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. cannot be e x p l a i n e d s o l e l y as a p o v e r t y problem o r a p o p u l a t i o n problem. There remains the problem o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n , the l a c k o f c u l t u r a l congruence. The v a l u e s and goa l s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e remain v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from those o f n o r t h e r n Whites, even though they may have come t o e x p e c t s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s . I t i s n o t s i m p l y a case o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n where White v a l u e s r e p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e v a l u e s . While t he example o f White a f f l u e n c e may s u g g e s t to n a t i v e p e o p l e t h a t they need not n e c e s s a r i l y be p o o r l y f e d , c l o t h e d , and housed, i n many ways n a t i v e p e o p l e r e t a i n t h e i r own c o n c e p t i o n o f how t h i s s h o u l d 60 be a c c o m p l i s h e d . White S o c i e t y Whites i n the N.W.T. attempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e themselves from s o u t h e r n Canadians by em p h a s i z i n g t h a t they a r e " n o r t h e r n e r s . " T h i s f e e l i n g o f n o r t h e r n n e s s i s , however, measured by and based on the a b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e a s o u t h e r n m i d d l e - c l a s s l i f e s t y l e i n the f a c e o f the adverse n o r t h e r n environment. A t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s show l i t t l e d e v i a t i o n from t h o s e o f Whites i n s o u t h e r n Canada. Hugh Brody fou n d t h a t White s o c i a l l i f e e x h i b i t s c o n v e n t i o n s common i n the south and r e v o l v e s around i n s t i t u t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those i n s m a l l towns i n the s o u t h , the s c h o o l , the p o s t o f f i c e , the s t o r e , the d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e , and the government 47 o f f i c e . He has d e s c r i b e d n o r t h e r n Whites a s , . . . i n bu t n o t o f the n o r t h ; they have c r e a t e d i n s m a l l p o c k e t s the c o n d i t i o n s o f the s o u t h and have e s t a b l i s h e d a mode o f l i f e t h a t i s as m i d d l e - c l a s s as i t i s White. 8 The p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e - c l a s s n a t u r e o f White s o c i e t y i n the n o r t h i s not s u r p r i s i n g as most n o r t h e r n Whites h o l d j o b s t h a t are b a s i c a l l y m i d d l e c l a s s . Whites are i n v o l v e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n the modern wage economy, i n t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s , t h e t r a d e s , o r government p o s i t i o n s . The few e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s p e o p l e are i n a dependent, c l i e n t s t a t u s w i t h r e g a r d t o the l a r g e c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the Government o f the N.W.T. As White s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r r e d o n l y r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y those who might have taken up lower c l a s s p o s i t i o n s have e i t h e r found t h e i r 61 way back south o r moved up i n the r a p i d l y expanding economy. In the E a s t e r n A r c t i c an i n f o r m a l s u r v e y i n 1972 showed the average income o f w o r k i n g Whites to be $11,177, a f i g u r e above the average f a m i l y income f o r a l l Canadians even b e f o r e a l l o w i n g f o r the l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s w i t h more than one wage-earner 49 among n o r t h e r n Whites. N o r t h e r n Whites, t h e n , p o s s e s s a c u l t u r e s i m i l a r i n a l l r e s p e c t s t o t h a t o f the dominant m i d d l e c l a s s i n s o u t h e r n Canada, a c u l t u r e based on m a t e r i a l goods, f a m i l y l i f e , and the same i n s t i t u t i o n s . W i t h i n the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l system the r e s u l t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s b r i n g s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the task o f "development" i n the n o r t h t o compensate f o r the r e s t r i c t e d n a t u r e and number o f l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . L e a d e r s h i p i s p r o v i d e d by persons from p o s i t i o n s i n the community s i m i l a r t o those i n the s o u t h , lawyers and businessmen, but independent r o l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y i n m u n i c i p a l government, the a d v i s o r y T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , o r the l o c a l b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Others must f i n d t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l o r T e r r i t o r i a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , o f whom Brody comments, I n d i v i d u a l s who c a r r y o u t i n the h i n t e r l a n d the purposes o f the c o l o n i z i n g n a t i o n o f t e n themselves have h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i d e a l s o f s e r v i c e to h u m a n i t y . 5 ^ Those who f a i l t o f i n d m o t i v a t i o n i n i d e a l i s m o f t e n f i n d t h e i r l o y a l t y cemented by p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r a p i d p r o m o t i o n i n the ex-p a n d i n g b u r e a u c r a c y . F o r n o r t h e r n Whites, . . . the m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s l i f e are th e r e b y enhanced by acc e s s to and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a group t h a t i s v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a r u l i n g g r o u p . 5 ! No f a c t o r such as r e s i d e n c e p h y s i c a l l y d i v i d e s Whites from n a t i v e p e o p l e . Though most Whites l i v e i n the l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e y a r e p r e s e n t i n a l l communities. S t i l l , Brody found i n the e a s t e r n A r c t i c t h a t . . . s o c i a l c o n t a c t between n o r t h e r n Whites' and Eskimos i s minimal o r absent. T h e r e i s s c a n t b a s i s f o r e v e r y -day s o c i a b i l i t y , c u l t u r a l and c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s a r e compounded by a s e r i o u s language p r o b l e m . 5 2 The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t h r o u g h o u t the N.W.T. Few Whites, n o t even t h o s e who have l i v e d i n the n o r t h o v e r ten y e a r s , speak a n a t i v e language, w h i l e n a t i v e languages remain the f i r s t language o f the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f I n u i t and Dene p e o p l e . The d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. between n a t i v e people, and Whites are e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s which c o r r e s p o n d t o economic d i v i s i o n s The n a t i v e and White segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n are s e p a r a t e d by l i n g u i s t i c , c u l t u r a l , and economic d i f f e r e n c e s . N a t i v e p e o p l e have l o s t t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e s a c u l t u r e i n the l o s s o f c o n t r o l o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , and economy, y e t they r e t a i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t i v e s e t o f g o a l s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s , The n a t i v e e t h n i c groups emphasize c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e l a n d and a sense o f community i n c o n t r a s t to the White emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m , m a t e r i a l i s m , and p r o g r e s s . The n a t i v e p e o p l e l i v e i n an economy based on p a r t - t i m e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the l a n d w i t h incomes supplemented by wage employment and t r a n s f e r payments w h i l e Whites e x i s t almost e x c l u s i v e l y as wage employees s i n c e ownership and c o n t r o l o f the l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d o m i n a t i n g the N.W.T. l i e s o u t s i d e the N.W.T. These e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s a r e the b a s i s o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. today; a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y w i l l be p r o v i d e d i n the next c h a p t e r FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I I I R e l i a b l e f i g u r e s f o r p o p u l a t i o n by e t h n i c group are n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the N.W.T. E s t i m a t e s g i v e n are based on S t a t i s t i c s Canada's e s t i m a t e o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T. January 1, 1974 gi v e n i n P o p u l a t i o n P r o j e c t i o n s f o r Canada and the P r o v i n c e s , 1971-2001 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , .'1977)7 p. 61, and" tRe" number o f R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s i n the N.W.T. on the same date from the O f f i c e o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , Government o f the N.W.T. F i g u r e s f o r the o t h e r groups are e s t i m a t e s by the Deputy R e g i s t r a r o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s f o r the N.W.T. d e r i v e d from the above f i g u r e s . 2 F a r b , p. 24. 3 The e s t i m a t e o f 4,100 employees i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i s based on the f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r employment by i n d u s t r y i n the N.W.T. i n the 1971 Census, Volume I I I , P a r t 4, T a b l e 2, pp. 2-13 through 2-24. F o r the p u b l i c s e c t o r I have combined the c a t e g o r i e s o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and defense (2,475), e d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s (780), and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e (545). The t o t a l o f 3,800 i n 1971 would be 35% o f the work f o r c e compared w i t h o n l y 20% g i v e n i n the same s o u r c e f o r those c a t e g o r i e s f o r Canada as a whole, thus i n d i c a t i n g a f a i r l y l a r g e p u b l i c s e c t o r . F o r 1974 the f i g u r e f o r 1971 has been i n c r e a s e d by 9% on the assumption t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n a comparable i n c r e a s e i n the work f o r c e and t h a t i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n between the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s has not s h i f t e d . See ^ P o p u l a t i o n  P r o j e c t i o n s , p. 61, f o r 1971 to 1974 p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e e s t i m a t e . 4 T h i s e s t i m a t e i s based on the f i g u r e s f o r employment o f n a t i v e p e o p l e by the Government o f the N.W.T. gi v e n as " j u s t under 500" out o f 1,673 t o t a l employees i n 1974, o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 29^- F i n a l R e p o r t o f the Commissioner o f the N.W.T. on the Task  F o r c e Report on Pe r s o n n e l P o l i c y and Management ( Y e l l o w k n i f e , A p r i l 1976), p. 100. 5 P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n Assessment Group, Mackenzie V a l l e y  P i p e l i n e Assessment (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1975), p. 38. 64 65 Community'Data Book, 19 74 ( Y e l l o w k n i f e , Department o f I n -f o r m a tionT~nT~dT), passim. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n c i t e d below c o n c e r n i n g b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y i n the N.W.T. i s taken from t h i s s o u r c e which g i v e s b a s i c d a t a on economic a c t i v i t y f o r each s e t t l e m e n t i n the N.W.T. 7 The e s t i m a t e o f 7,400 employees i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r has been d e r i v e d from f i g u r e s f o r t o t a l work f o r c e (10,950), g i v e n i n the 1971 Census, Volume I I I , P a r t 4, T a b l e 2, pp. 2-13 through 2-24, s u b t r a c t i n g the number f o r the p u b l i c s e c t o r (3,800) and those i n h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g ( 3 8 5 ) , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 6,765. F o r 1974 t h i s f i g u r e was i n c r e a s e d by 9% as i n f o o t n o t e 3. 8 P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n Assessment Group, p. 63. g P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n Assessment Group, p. 59. ^ Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and No r t h e r n Development, North o f 60 P r o s p e c t u s (Ottawa, 1974), p. 2-2.2. 1 1 Dosman, p. 45. 1 2 A 45% i n t e r e s t , Dosman, p. 44. 13 See F i n a n c i a l P o s t S urvey o f Mines, 1970 through 1975 i n c l u s i v e . 14 " N a n i s i v i k Nears S t a r t o f A r c t i c L e a d - Z i n c P r o d u c t i o n , News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 22, 1975. 15 North o f 60 P r o s p e c t u s , p. 3-13. 16 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, I n t e r c o r p o r a t e Ownership, 1972, (Ottawa, 1974), p. 546. 1 7 F i g u r e s f o r t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e and number employed i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r o f the economy from Census o f Canada, 1971, Volume I I I , P a r t 2, T a b l e 2, pp. 2-22 through 2-40] The" T a F o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r the N.W.T. has been e s t i m a t e d by u s i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s to a r r i v e a t an e s t i m a t i o n o f the number o f n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . 1 T h i s f i g u r e was then> .divided by the e s t i m a t e d n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n ages 14 and ove r o f 13,710, a f i g u r e d e r i v e d from Census o f Canada, 1971, V o l u m e ! , P a r t 2, T a b l e 7, pp. 7-9 and 7-10 on the assumption t h a t 2/3 o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T. 14 and o v e r i s n a t i v e . 1 g The l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r a l l Canada was 56.1% o f thos e ages 14 and o v e r i n 1971. See M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y , T r a d e , and Commerce, P e r s p e c t i v e Canada, 1974 (Ottawa, 1974), p. 119. 66 19 P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n Assessment Group, p. 24. 20 Community Data Book, passim. 21 P i p e l i n e A p p l i c a t i o n Assessment Group, p. 54. 22 Department o f Economic Development, Government o f the N.W.T., "Economic F a c t o r s i n S e l e c t i o n o f Two Communities f o r Development o f a Community Employment S t r a t e g y i n the N.W.T.," Y e l l o w k n i f e , June 23, 1975. (Mimeographed.) 23 C h i e f J i m A n t o i n e , F o r t Simpson Band, quoted by A. Fotheringham, The Vancouver Sun, September 11, 1975. 24 P e t e r Usher, " N o r t h e r n e r s and the Land," Canadian Dimension Volume 11, No. 2 ( O c t o b e r 1975), p. 26. 25 Crowe, p. 49. 2 6 Usher, p. 26. 27 "COPE Opposes Meetings on B e a u f o r t Sea D r i l l i n g , " News o f  the North. January 28, 1976, a n d . " I n u i t P r o t e s t E x p l o r a t i o n P l a n s , " I n u i t Today Volume 4, No. 9 ( O c t o b e r 1975), p. 26. 2 8 Usher, p. 26. 29 Census o f Canada, 1971, Volume I, P a r t 3, T a b l e 19, pp. 19-13 and 19-14. ™ 30 C h i e f J im A n t o i n e , F o r t Simpson Band, p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w , F o r t Simpson N.W.T., J u l y 24, 1974. 31 "Repo r t Says L o c a l Government E x c l u d e s N a t i v e P e o p l e , " News o f the N o r t h , January 22, 1975. 32 " I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d E l e c t s New Pi r e c t o r s , " News o f the  North September 11, 1974. 33 " M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n R e o r g a n i z e d a t Co n f e r e n c e , " News o f the North September 4, 1974. 34 I n u i t T a p i r i s a t , An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t i e Eskimo People o f Canada and T h e i r N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , (Ottawa: ITC, n. d . ) , p. 5. 35 "Communications S o c i e t y i n the Western N.W.T., I n u i t  Today Volume 4, No. 6 (June 1975), p. 24. 36 See I n u i t Today Volume 1, No. 1. 67 37 See C D . E l l i s , "The I n f l u e n c e o f the M i s s i o n a r y , " i n People o f L i g h t and Dark, ed. Maja van S t e e n s e l (Ottawa: D e p a r t -ment o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, 1966), pp. 14-19. ^ Crowe, p. 151. 39 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s P r e l i m i n a r y Annual  Report, 1972 (Ottawa: 1974), . p . 7. 40 P e r s p e c t i v e Canada, p. 12. 41 P O p u l a t i o n P r O j e c t i o n s , p. 61. 42 Fumoleau, p. 143. 43 I n u i t T a p i r i s a t , " P o s i t i o n Paper . . ." p. 10. 44 I n u i t T a p i r i s a t , " P o s i t i o n Paper . . ." p. 4. 45 / Commissioner s Annual R e p o r t , 1972 ( Y e l l o w k n i f e : Department o f I n f o r m a t i o n , 1972), p. 86. 46 P e r s p e c t i v e Canada, pp. 154 and 173. 47 Hugh Brody, The P e o p l e ' s Land (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1975), pp. 68 and 39. 48 ° Brody, p. 39. 49 Brody, p. 42. ^ Brody, p. -53. 5 1 Brody, pp. .53-4. 5 2 Brody, p. 75. CHAPTER IV SALIENCE OF ETHNICITY Once the e x i s t e n c e o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. has been e s t a b l i s h e d and once a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r development has been p r o v i d e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y to p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t these e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s are p o l i t i c a l l y s a l i e n t . I f o t h e r f a c t o r s were s a l i e n t they would p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r e f o r p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t and s u g g e s t approaches t o i t s r e g u l a t i o n . But i f e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t , then any e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n must b e g i n w i t h a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t . I f e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t , then i n an ex a m i n a t i o n o f the i s s u e s i n q u e s t i o n , the c o n f l i c t groups, and the arenas f o r c o n f l i c t . w e s h o u l d f i n d e v i d e n c e t h a t the i s s u e s d e a l w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f s c a r c i t y , t h a t c o n f l i c t groups are o r g a n i z e d a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s , and t h a t problems o f l e g i t i m a c y a r i s e from the tendency toward s e c e s s i o n i n h e r e n t where e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t . I s s u e s P o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. r e v o l v e s around t h r e e 68 69 c e n t r a l and i n t e r r e l a t e d i s s u e s a t a l l l e v e l s . These same i s s u e s are g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as themost i m p o r t a n t by both n a t i v e and White groups even though each group's d e f i n i t i o n s o f the i s s u e s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t i t s p o s i t i o n i n the c o n f l i c t . In h i s Opening Address t o the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T. i n January o f 1976 Commissioner Hodgson o u t l i n e d what he c a l l e d the " t h r e e major northern preoccupations" o f government a t the present t imeJ Though h i s statement o f the problem reflects the s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government and n o r t h e r n Whites, i n s p e a k i n g o f d e c i s i o n s n e c e s s a r y on a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h n a t i v e p e o p l e , on development o f o i l and n a t u r a l gas r e s o u r c e s , and on f u r t h e r s t e p s toward r e s p o n s i b l e government he has r a i s e d the more g e n e r a l i s s u e s o f l a n d c l a i m s , the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development i n the N.W.T., and the n a t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are t o govern the N.W.T. As a grand d e s i g n f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s i s u n r e a l i s t i c i n the s h o r t run, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n must be viewed i n terms o f these i s s u e s . The most p r e s s i n g i s s u e s e p a r a t i n g n a t i v e and White groups i s t h a t o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development to take p l a c e i n the N.W.T. The term "development" r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y to changes i n the economy o f the N.W.T. b u t i t i s used to s u g g e s t both the s p e c i f i c changes and t h e i r l a r g e r s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . A l l s i d e s agree t h a t an economy ca p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T. a t a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l i s a n e c e s s i t y , b u t the n a t u r e o f the changes r e q u i r e d and the r a t e a t which they are t o o c c u r are 70 matters o f b i t t e r d i s p u t e . I f Whites hope t o c o n v i n c e n a t i v e p e o p l e to a c c e p t t h e i r view o f the p r o p e r c o u r s e o f development they must show t h a t i t s b e n e f i t s would be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l r e s i d e n t s o f the N.W.T. a t a p r i c e t h a t does n o t demand too g r e a t a s a c r i f i c e . The p r i n c i p a l t a s k s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the White view o f d e v e l o p -ment are the c r e a t i o n o f employment and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f i s c a l base f o r government s u f f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The means o f development a r e t o be p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n r e s o u r c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r y and government p r o v i s i o n o f the n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f t r a n s p o r t , power, and communication f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g f o r the economy. -Whites t e n d t o view the n o r t h as a s t o r e h o u s e o f r e s o u r c e s t o be e x p l o i t e d and the r e p l i c a t i o n o f the s o u t h e r n Canadian p a t t e r n o f development has r a r e l y been q u e s t i o n e d i n the White community i n the n o r t h . Fo r n a t i v e p e o p l e the purpose o f development i s to p r o v i d e a m a t e r i a l b a s i s f o r the s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and, t h u s , the n a t u r e o f development becomes an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . In i t s " D e c l a r a t i o n oh Development" the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d c l e a r l y s t a t e d i t s p o s i t i o n on the importance o f the k i n d o f development t o t a k e p l a c e s a y i n g , We cannot c a l l development any a c t i v i t y t h a t takes c o n t r o l away from o u r p e o p l e . True development must g i v e us more c o n t r o l and g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . 2 S i n c e the n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f development i s l e s s o r i e n t e d to the m a t e r i a l ends o f development than t o the means o f development, 71 the a c c e p t a b l e r a t e o f change becomes a measure o f how much change can be a b s o r b e d w i h t o u t s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n t h a t would under-mine the goal o f independence. The o p i n i o n t h a t the r a t e o f change i s a l r e a d y too r a p i d i n the n o r t h was o f t e n h eard a t the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y . A n a t i v e w e l f a r e worker i n A k l a v i k e x p r e s s e d t h i s f e e l i n g as f o l l o w s : I would l i k e t o see more time and y e a r s f o r the p e o p l e t o u n d e r s t a n d what's r e a l l y g o i n g on. E v e r y t h i n g i s g o i n g too f a s t and we need more time t o t h i n k and l e a r n about i t more . . . N a t i v e concerns w i t h r e g a r d t o development are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case o f N a n i s i v i k Mines n e a r A r c t i c Bay. Fears c e n t r e around d i s r u p t i o n t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t may cause i n nearby s e t t l e -ments. L o c a l p e o p l e have v o i c e d t h e i r concerns about the i n c r e a s e d 4 a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l i q u o r i n the r e g i o n , about the p o s s i b l e d e t e r i o -a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n s u r r o u n d i n g s e t t l e m e n t s due to d i v e r s i o n o f 5 funds t o the new t o w n s i t e b e i n g b u i l t a t the mine, about the d r a i n o f community l e a d e r s and p r o d u c t i v e workers from e x i s t i n g g s e t t l e m e n t s t o t h i s new town, and about the i n f l u e n c e o f an i n f l u x o f o u t s i d e r s . 7 Both the f e d e r a l and T e r r i t o r i a l governments view the N a n i s i v i k p r o j e c t as i m p o r t a n t i n the c r e a t i o n o f wage employment i n a remote a r e a . In a d d i t i o n t o d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g o f the p r o j e c t by the f e d e r a l government as an i n v e s t o r , the T e r r i t o r i a l government has p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s such as c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t o w n s i t e and h i r i n g an employment c o u n s e l l o r to r e c r u i t a o work f o r c e . The T e r r i t o r i a l government has responded t o the 72 e x p r e s s i o n s o f concern by n a t i v e p e o p l e w i t h the s t a t e m e n t t h a t communities i n the a r e a "... have been i n the p i c t u r e on d e v e l o p -g ment a t S t r a t h c o n a Sound from the b e g i n n i n g . " But n a t i v e p e o p l e were no t asked t o approve o r d i s a p p r o v e the p r o j e c t , they were asked o n l y t o say something about how the p r o j e c t s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t and n o t h i n g about whether i t i s the r i g h t k i n d o f p r o j e c t a t the r i g h t time. A s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e toward c o n s u l t a t i o n i s seen i n the d i s -putes o v e r the e x t e n s i o n o f the r o a d system i n the N.W.T. To encourage development the f e d e r a l government has embarked on a r o a d - b u i l d i n g program i n the N.W.T. i n c l u d i n g major highways down the Mackenzie V a l l e y and a c r o s s the Yukon t o the Mackenzie D e l t a . I t has been assumed t h a t cojununi t i es would welcome thes e roads but t h i s has not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v e d t o be the case. N a t i v e p e o p l e i n W r i g l e y , Eskimo P o i n t , and Tuktoyaktuk have s u g g e s t e d t h a t roads b r i n g i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t w i t h s o u t h e r n Canada t h a t communities may not be p r e p a r e d t o cope w i t h . 1 ^ Jean C h r e t i e n , then M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , responded t o the o p p o s i t i o n o f the W r i g l e y C o u n c i l i n the f o l l o w i n g terms. We are g o i n g ahead w i t h the highway. I t i s up t o t h i s C o u n c i l whether you want i t near the s e t t l e m e n t so t h a t y o u can p a r t i c i p a t e i n development o r whether you want i t f a r away. I'm s i m p l y not p r e p a r e d to b u i l d i t f a r t h e r than 12 m i l e s away . . . In I n u v i k the N o r t h e r n Roads F a c t F i n d i n g h e a r i n g s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h two c o n f l i c t i n g views on road c o n s t r u c t i o n . White. members o f the community c o u n c i l s f a v o u r e d r o a d c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h 73 the south and between n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t s as a means to lower f r i e g h t r a t e s and a way t o p r o v i d e some wage employment f o r 19 n a t i v e p e o p l e . The Committee f o r O r i g i n a l P e o p l e ' s E n t i t l e m e n t argued t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e do n o t want a roa d because o f the d i s r u p t i o n i t b r i n g s i n terms o f a l c o h o l a v a i l a b i l i t y , i n c r e a s e d 13 c o n t a c t s w i t h the s o u t h , and an i n f l u x o f o u t s i d e r s . A l o c a l employment c o u n s e l l o r added t h a t p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n highway c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the n o r t h shows ve r y l i t t l e u t i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l l a b o u r . The proposed Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e has b r o u g h t the most w i d e s p r e a d a t t e n t i o n t o the problem o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development i n the N.W.T. N a t i v e p e o p l e have made t h e i r p o s i t i o n c l e a r a t the community h e a r i n g s o f the P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y . The w e i g h t o f t h e i r t e s t i m o n y and i t s c o n s i s t e n c y s u p p o r t the c l a i m o f the n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e p r e s e n t the views o f the p e o p l e as a whole. In the Mackenzie D e l t a community h e a r i n g s n a t i v e p e o p l e a g a i n e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f e a r o f the s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n t h a t would come w i t h the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l c o h o l and the i n e v i t a b l e i n f l u x o f s o u t h e r n e r s . Even Canadian Gas A r c t i c ' s own study o f the s o c i a l impact o f the p i p e l i n e notes t h a t a l c o h o l problems a re much worse i n n a t i v e communities t h a t a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g 15 some development. The s i t u a t i o n i n F a i r b a n k s and V a l d e z , A l a s k a , g i v e s a p i c t u r e o f the s o c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a 1 g l a r g e t r a n s i e n t work f o r c e . N a t i v e p e o p l e a l s o f e a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage con n e c t e d w i t h the p i p e l i n e . Hunters and t r a p p e r s t e s t i f i e d 74 to the harmful e f f e c t s on f i s h , muskrat, and c a r i b o u from o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a l r e a d y t a k i n g p l a c e i n the Mackenzie D e l t a . 1 7 Such e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage i s an immediate t h r e a t to the most dependable s o u r c e o f f o o d f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e . F i n a l l y , n a t i v e p e o p l e oppose the l o s s o f c o n t r o l o f the way o f l i f e i n t h e i r communities. P h i l B l a k e , a n a t i v e s o c i a l w o r k e r from F o r t McPherson, p o i n t e d t o the r e s u l t s o f t h i s l o s s o f independence. "Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s the way t h a t I n d i a n p e o p l e chose t o have t h i s community? Do .you t h i n k the peopl e here had any v o i c e i n p l a n n i n g the community? Do you t h i n k they would have p l a n n e d i t so t h a t i t d i v i d e d them and gave them a p o o r e r s t a n d a r d than t r a n s i e n t Whites who came i n , s u p p o s e d l y t o h e l p them?"18 N a t i v e p e o p l e c o n s i s t e n t l y p u t f o r t h the p o s i t i o n adopted by the n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h a t no p i p e l i n e be b u i l t u n t i l l a n d c l a i m s a r e s e t t l e d , i n the hope t h a t t h i s would a l l o w them t o 19 r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f the pace o f change i n t h e i r own communities. N a t i v e p e o p l e a r e r s k e p t i c a l about the promised w i n d f a l l from t h e p i p e l i n e , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e p r i n c i p a l , b e n e f i t o f f e r e d i s temporary employment i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . The P r e s i d e n t o f the In u v i k Hunters and T r a p p e r s A s s o c i a t i o n s a i d , " I t took a l o n g time 20 t o f i n d out t h a t j o b s don't l a s t but the l a n d and fo o d do." The White community i n the n o r t h tends t o view the proposed p i p e l i n e as a p r o j e c t which would p r o v i d e a h e a l t h y economic environment o f e x p a n s i o n i n the n o r t h . In 1974 the News o f the North h e a d l i n e d "Development Boom E x p e c t e d to S t a r t Soon" and t a l k e d o f the growth o f b u s i n e s s e s and f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y to 21 s u p p o r t such a p r o j e c t . The N.W.T. Chamber o f Commerce has 75 g i v e n v o c a l s u p p o r t to the p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t and w o r r i e s o n l y 2 t h a t the p r o j e c t w i l l be too l a r g e to i n v o l v e n o r t h e r n b u s i n e s s e s . The P r e s i d e n t o f the Chamber o f Commerce i n F o r t Simpson s t r e s s e d t h a t F o r t Simpson "needs" a p i p e l i n e t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a b l e economy, b u t a g a i n e x p r e s s e d the c o n c e r n t h a t l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and b u s i n e s s e s need s u f f i c i e n t time and money to p r e p a r e f o r a p i p e -23 l i n e . The town c o u n c i l s o f Hay R i v e r and I n u v i k , the two major c e n t r e s t o be a f f e c t e d by the p i p e l i n e , both endorsed the p i p e l i n e b u t lamented t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t p r o p e r time f o r p l a n n i n g 24 and p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n . The a l l - e l e c t e d T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l p a s s e d a motion i n F e b r u a r y o f 1976 r e a f f i r m i n g s u p p o r t e x p r e s s e d by the p r e v i o u s C o u n c i l f o r p e t r o l e u m e x p l o r a t i o n and development, i n c l u d i n g 25 a s s o c i a t e d p i p e l i n e s . White C o u n c i l l o r s pushed f o r a p p r o v a l o f the motion i n o r d e r t o r e a s s u r e both the f e d e r a l government and the o i l companies t h a t the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the T e r r i t o r i a l government c o u l d be e x p e c t e d s h o u l d e i t h e r the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e o r the n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e from the A r c t i c I s l a n d s be b u i l t . S u p p o r t o f the I n u i t C o u n c i l l o r s was s e c u r e d by the a d d i t i o n o f the p r o v i s o t h a t such a p p r o v a l was to be e f f e c t i v e December 1, 1976, t o a l l o w time f o r n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s to be h eard. The two I n d i a n C o u n c i l l o r s r e f u s e d to commit themselves t o a p i p e l i n e i n p r i n c i p l e , h o l d i n g t h a t such m a t t e r s can be d e c i d e d o n l y a f t e r l a n d c l a i m s have been s e t t l e d and t h a t the p r e s e n t T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l s h o u l d n o t attempt to commit n a t i v e p e o p l e t o such p r o j e c t s i n advance.' 76 In p u s h i n g f o r a p p r o v a l o f the p i p e l i n e the White C o u n c i l l o r s were a c t i n g on an assumption s h a r e d w i t h the l a r g e r White community. T h i s i s the assumption t h a t the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l i s competent t o d e c i d e such q u e s t i o n s as i t i s the body from which r e s p o n s i b l e government w i l l g r a d u a l l y emerge as i t d i d i n the case o f the " O l d Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s " some 70 y e a r s e a r l i e r . However, the q u e s t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which are t o govern the N.W.T. i s i n i t s e l f the second i s s u e s e p a r a t i n g White and n a t i v e groups. In h i s Opening Address t o the C o u n c i l i n 1976 Commissioner Hodgson r e f e r r e d t o the "... s t e p s t o be taken toward r e s p o n s i b l e T e r r i t o r i a l government i n p l a c e o f the p r e s e n t 26 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government." D a v i d S e a r l e , Speaker o f the C o u n c i l , i n d i s c u s s i o n s on l a n d c l a i m s s t a t e d t h a t two p r i n c i p i e s ought not be s u b j e c t t o n e g o t i a t i o n i n t a l k s between n a t i v e p e o p l e and the f e d e r a l government, "the s o v e r e i g n t y o f P a r l i a m e n t and t h i s C o u n c i l o v e r a l l t e r r i t o r i a l lands and w a t e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f how they are owned," and the p r i n c i p l e o f democracy i n which 27 no group p o s s e s s e s s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . The C o u n c i l l o r f o r Y e l l o w k n i f e North s t a t e d h i s o p i n i o n t h a t "... the p e o p l e o f Y e l l o w k n i f e s t i l l a n x i o u s l y d e s i r e the same p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s 28 and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a c c o r d e d t o t h e i r f e l l o w Canadians." N a t i v e p e o p l e r e j e c t t h i s assumption t h a t the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the N.W.T. w i l l be s i m p l y reformed v e r s i o n s o f the e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and the same as those i n s o u t h e r n Canada. The Dene have taken the d e n u n c i a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g 77 government i n s t i t u t i o n s and the a s s e r t i o n o f t h e i r r i g h t to s e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n f a r t h e s t . In a document put f o r w a r d i n 1975 c a l l e d the "Dene D e c l a r a t i o n " the goals o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s e l f -r e l i a n c e , and an in d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n Canada are s e t o u t a l o n g w i t h r e j e c t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s m , dependence, and a s s i mi 1 a t i o n . "The Dene f i n d themselves as a p a r t o f a c o u n t r y ; t h a t c o u n t r y i s Canada. But the Government o f Canada i s n o t the Government o f the Dene. ! The Government o f the N.W.T. i s n o t the Government o f the Dene. These govern-ments were not the c h o i c e o f the Dene, they were imposed on the D e n e . " 2 9 The e x i s t i n g system o f government i n the N.W.T. i s a d d i t i o n a l l y d e s c r i b e d as c o l o n i a l and c o r p o r a t i o n - d o m i n a t e d i n a companion document t i t l e d the "Dene M a n i f e s t o . " I n . i t the I n d i a n B r o t h e r -hood notes t h a t i n the N.W.T., " r e a l power l i e s w i t h a han d f u l o f l a r g e companies who o p e r a t e w i t h f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n o f the 30 T e r r i t o r i a l and f e d e r a l governments." White response t o these Dene documents has been l a r g e l y d i s b e l i e v i n g . Judd Buchanan, then M i n i s t e r o f No r t h e r n A f f a i r s , d e s c r i b e d the s t a t e m e n t s as "a bunch o f gobbledygook" and s a i d " s e p a r a t i s t " documents were " u n a c c e p t a b l e " as a b a s i s f o r 31 b e g i n n i n g l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s . White C o u n c i l l o r s tended t o take the p o s i t i o n t h a t n a t i v e l e a d e r s and White r a d i c a l a d v i s e r s ". . . are t r y i n g t o impose these r a d i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l views 32 on p e o p l e who c a n ' t judge t h e i r v a l i d i t y . " B ut t h i s p i c t u r e o f u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p and r a d i c a l a d v i s e r s as. the 78 e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e papers i s d i s p u t e d by Hugh McCullum. "Whites charge t h a t the Dene m a n i f e s t o i s l e f t - w i n g r h e t o r i c p r e p a r e d by w h i t e c o n s u l t a n t s . . . as one o f o n l y two w h i t e j o u r n a l i s t s who s a t through the l o n g c a r e f u l debates i n f o u r languages a t F o r t Simpson, I have no doubt t h i s p o s i t i o n was c a r e f u l l y worked o u t by the n a t i v e p e o p l e . " 3 I n u i t s t a t e m e n t s have been ph r a s e d i n l e s s s t r i d e n t terms than t h o s e o f the Dene b u t t h i s i s l e s s a f u n c t i o n o f d i s s i m i l a r aims than o f the r e l a t i v e p r e s s u r e on each group. The I n u i t l a n d c l a i m asks s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t I n u i t lands be removed from the a u t h o r i t y o f the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T. P r e s i d e n t A r v a l u k has s t a t e d t h a t the ITC's Board o f D i r e c t o r s f e e l s , ". . . very s t r o n g l y t h a t whatever agreement i s r e a c h e d w i t h n a t i v e p e o p l e w i l l s e t the co u r s e f o r f u t u r e development, and the p r e s e n t T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l must n o t determine the f u t u r e o f n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s .'•34 Though some form o f t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t u s i s s t i l l e n v i s i o n e d , a p r i m a r y aim o f the I n u i t remains s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . In the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l C o u n c i l l o r E r n e r k s t r e s s e d t he importance o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r the I n u i t p e o p l e i n areas l i k e e d u c a t i o n , game laws, and the j u s t i c e system as a means to p r e s e r v e I n u i t c u l t u r e . He emphasized the w i d e s p r e a d . b e l i e f i n the importance o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n s a y i n g , "Many o f the peop l e I r e p r e s e n t f e a r t h a t the b a t t l e f o r the s u r v i v a l o f the I n u i t language and c u l t u r e i s b e i n g l o s t and t h a t i s because the I n u i t themselves d i d not determine the k i n d o f . . . system which c o u l d have p r e s e r v e d t he k i n d o f l i f e s t y l e they p r e f e r r e d . " 3 F o r n a t i v e p e o p l e l a n d c l a i m s i s the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t 79 i s s u e s e p a r a t i n g n a t i v e p e o p l e and Whites. They see the n a t u r e o f the l a n d s e t t l e m e n t as the p r i n c i p a l d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r o f both the n a t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o govern the N.W.T. and the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development t o take p l a c e i n the N.W.T. Fo r Whites the i s s u e o f l a n d c l a i m s i s bu t one o f th r e e major i s s u e s and one s e p a r a b l e from the o t h e r s . F o r n a t i v e p e o p l e l a n d c l a i m s must be s e t t l e d b e f o r e a l l o t h e r i s s u e s . C o u n c i l l o r N i c k e r s o n a s s e r t e d i n the C o u n c i l t h a t "the argument t h a t the p o l i t i c a l development paper would i n some way j e o p a r d i z e t h e n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s i s c o m p l e t e l y and u t t e r l y f a l s e . " Whites t e n d t o see the l i n k i n g o f l a n d c l a i m s t o o t h e r i s s u e s o n l y as a b a r g a i n i n g p l o y and a da n g e r o u s l y powerful one. C o u n c i l l o r S e a r l e e x p r e s s e d h i s f e a r t h a t , ". . . i f the Canadian government e v e r agreed t o t h a t o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y , then n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d h o l d the pe o p l e o f Canada to ransom s i m p l y by d r a g g i n g t h e i r f e e t and n o t n e g o t i a t i n g i n good f a i t h . . . Whites can o n l y view the p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o l a n d c l a i m s as a b a r g a i n i n g p l o y because they e n v i s i o n o n l y one k i n d o f l a n d s e t t l e m e n t . S e a r l e has s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t would be improper f o r the f e d e r a l government t o n e g o t i a t e a n y t h i n g more than l a n d owner-38 s h i p w i t h n a t i v e p e o p l e . That Whites h o l d a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f what a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t i s t o i n v o l v e i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by C o u n c i l l o r S t e w a r t o f Hay R i v e r . " I f e e l t h a t they [the government o f Canada] a r e b e n d i n g o v e r backwards to b r i n g about a speedy and j u s t s e t t l e m e n t . They have and are c o n t i n u i n g t o fund the v a r i o u s n a t i v e 80 o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e s e a r c h the b a s i s o f t h e i r c l a i m s . P a t i e n t l y they w a i t f o r the terms o f a s e n s i b l e s e t t l e -ment to be s u g g e s t e d to t h e m . " ™ A s e n s i b l e s e t t l e m e n t f o r Whites would presumably f o l l o w the James Bay model i n which n a t i v e r i g h t s were e x t i n g u i s h e d i n r e t u r n f o r t i t l e t o a l i m i t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l lands and a cash s e t t l e m e n t . A s e t t l e m e n t c o ncerned o n l y w i t h l a n d ownership and e x t i n c t i o n o f n a t i v e r i g h t s would, i n d e e d , have l i t t l e d i r e c t impact on the o t h e r two prominent i s s u e s . The I n u i t l a n d c l a i m p r o p o s a l s u b m i t t e d t o the f e d e r a l government i n March o f 1976 goes f a r beyond s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s o f l a n d ownership. While i t does o f f e r t o n e g o t i a t e the e x t i n g u i s h -ment o f n a t i v e r i g h t s , i t does so o n l y under terms d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e r v e o r r e e s t a b l i s h I n u i t c o n t r o l o f t h e i r lands and way o f l i f e . P r e s i d e n t A r v a l u k c a u t i o n e d t h a t w h i l e d e t a i l s o f the c l a i m a r e n e g o t i a b l e , the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f the c l a i m i s a demand f o r "... c o n t r o l o f our l a n d , o u r l i v e s , and our d e s t i n y . 40 T h i s i s one c o r n e r s t o n e o f o u r p r o p o s a l which i s n o t n e g o t i a b l e . The f i n a l d r a f t o f I n u i t l a n d c l a i m s p r o p o s a l was w r i t t e n and approved by 100 d e l e g a t e s from 32 I n u i t communities meeting 41 a t Pond I n l e t from O c t o b e r 29 to November 2, 1975. The main s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i r c l a i m i s o u t l i n e d i n the I n u i t Land  Use and Occupancy Study, a two-year r e s e a r c h study d e t a i l i n g p a s t and p r e s e n t I n u i t l a n d use i n the N.W.T. completed under the 42 d i r e c t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r M i l t o n Freeman o f McMaster U n i v e r s i t y . B r i e f l y , the c l a i m c a l l s f o r e x c l u s i v e ownership o f 250,000 81 square m i l e s o f l a n d w i t h t i t l e t o be h e l d by community and r e g i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . The r e m a i n i n g 500,000 square m i l e s o f l a n d would be ceded t o the Crown w i t h the I n u i t r e t a i n i n g e x c l u s i v e h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g , and f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n the a r e a . S u b s u r f a c e r i g h t s would be ceded to the Crown i n r e t u r n f o r a p o r t i o n o f any r e s o u r c e development revenue i n the form o f a r o y a l t y . F i n a l l y , the c l a i m asks t h a t a s e p a r a t e I n u i t t e r r i t o r y be e s t a b l i s h e d c a l l e d "Nunavut" and c o m p r i s i n g t h a t p o r t i o n o f the N.W.T. l o c a t e d above the t r e e l i n e . 1 T h i s new t e r r i t o r y would be governed under a system s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x i s t i n g a t p r e s e n t i n the N.W.T., b u t w i t h the r e s t r i c t i o n o f the f r a n c h i s e t o those born i n the t e r r i t o r y o r t o t h o s e who have l i v e d i n the t e r r i t o r y f o r a p e r i o d o f 43 ten y e a r s . The Dene l a n d c l a i m s p r o p o s a l was s u b m i t t e d t o the f e d e r a l government i n November o f 1976. A j o i n t assembly o f I n d i a n and Me t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was h e l d O c t o b e r 8 t o 10, 1976, i n F o r t Simpson to d r a f t the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l . The c l a i m has been based on l a n d use r e s e a r c h s i m i l a r t o the I n u i t Land Use and Occupancy Study c a r r i e d out by f i e l d w o r k e r s o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d and the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n o v e r the p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . As d e s c r i b e d by former P r e s i d e n t o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , James Wah-Shee, and j u s t as i n the I n u i t p r o p o s a l , "Land n o t money i s the focus o f the l a n d s e t t l e m e n t . The I n d i a n p e o p l e are not s e e k i n g to s e l l t h e i r l a n d f o r money no m a t t e r how much! . . . A l a n d s e t t l e m e n t i s seen as the o n l y means o f s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n i n the f a c e o f the enormous changes b e i n g programmed f o r the N.W.T. 82 A s o l i d l a n d base i s e s s e n t i a l f o r s u r v i v a l as a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y and p r o t e c t i o n from the d e v a s t a t i o n which promises t o be p a r t o f the proposed p l a n o f development f o r the N.W.T. "• Two c r i t i c i s i s m o f the I n u i t p r o p o s a l by Dene l e a d e r s r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e s which may be e x p e c t e d i n the two p r o p o s a l s . Rick Hardy, P r e s i d e n t o f the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n , c r i t i c i z e d the I n u i t p r o p o s a l f o r o f f e r i n g to g i v e up n a t i v e r i g h t s i n r e t u r n f o r v a r i o u s g u a r a n t e e s , r a t h e r than s e e k i n g t o p r e s e r v e n a t i v e 45 r i g h t s . Wah-Shee s t r e s s e d t h a t the goal o f the Dene i s 46 " f o r m a l i z a t i o n " r a t h e r than e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e r i g h t s . S e c o n d l y , Erasmus c r i t i c i z e d the I n u i t p r o p o s a l f o r i t s a c c e p t a n c e o f White models f o r government i n the r e t e n t i o n o f a Commissioner and C o u n c i l system and f o r economic development i n assuming 47 the p a s s i v e r o l e o f c o l l e c t i n g r o y a l t i e s f o r I n u i t p e o p l e . T h i s g r e a t e r concern f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f . n a t i v e r i g h t s and e s t a b l i s h -ment o f n a t i v e c o n t r o l o f development i s , undoubtedly, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y the r e s u l t o f g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e s f o r development o f Dene l a n d s . Y e t , a c l a i m which i n v o l v e s new forms o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and new models f o r development can o n l y be f u r t h e r from the c o n c e p t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t h e l d by the f e d e r a l government and n o r t h e r n Whites. An attempt was made by the I n d i a n p e o p l e o f the N.W.T. to f i l e a c a v e a t w i t h t h e R e g i s t r a r o f Land T i t l e s i n the N.W.T. warning t h a t t i t l e t o l a n d i n the N.W.T. was i n q u e s t i o n and, th u s , t o d e l a y development w h i l e a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t was n e g o t i a t e d . 83 The Supreme C o u r t o f the N.W.T. o r i g i n a l l y u pheld the r i g h t o f 48 the Indians t o f i l e the c a v e a t i n O c t o b e r 1973, b u t t h i s d e c i s i o n was o v e r t u r n e d by the N.W.T. C o u r t o f Appeals i n Novem-b e r 1975 on the grounds t h a t c a v e a t s cannot be f i l e d a g a i n s t 49 u n a l i e n a t e d Crown l a n d s . A s i m i l a r attempt to p r e v e n t development b e f o r e s e t t l e m e n t o f the l a n d c l a i m s has come w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d and the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n i n the Mac-k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y . The n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t any d e c i s i o n t o go ahead w i t h a p i p e l i n e must await s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s . The i s s u e s o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development, the n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l a n d c l a i m s have become s a l i e n t n o t o n l y because the p o s i t i o n s o f e t h n i c groups d i f f e r on these q u e s t i o n s but a l s o because they p r e s e n t an appearance o f d e a l i n g w i t h s c a r c i t y , s c a r c i t y i n t h a t the demands o f both n a t i v e s and Whites cannot be s a t i s f i e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S o l u t i o n s which would s a t i s f y both groups are n o t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t as both p e r c e i v e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . The v a l u e s i n v o l v e d are seen as fundamental t o the very e x i s t e n c e o f each group and the a d o p t i o n o f the p o s i t i o n o f one group on any o f these i s s u e s appears t o t h r e a t e n the s u r v i v a l o f the o t h e r . P r e c i s e l y because the s e i s s u e s i n -v o l v e l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s than the d i s t r i b t u i o n o f m a t e r i a l goods and because p o s i t i o n s are o r appear t o be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , a compromise where each group makes some gains would be d i f f i c u l t t o d e v i s e . The p e r c e p t i o n o f the h i g h s t a k e s i n v o l v e d and the 84 i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f both n a t i v e and White a s p i r a t i o n s b e i n g s a t i s f i e d c r e a t e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s are i n d e e d i n s h o r t s u p p l y and thus ensures the s a l i e n c e o f these i s s u e s . C o n f l i c t Groups The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t groups i s a second i n d i c a t i o n o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. N a t i v e p e o p l e have s e t up a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to pursue the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c groups. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re a l l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t c r e a t i o n s w i t h the e a r l i e s t b e i n g o r g a n i z e d i n 1969, and a l l f o c u s v e r y c l e a r l y on l a n d c l a i m s as the c e n t r a l i s s u e . A l l t h r e e groups a r e h e a v i l y depend-e n t on the f e d e r a l government f o r f u n d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the form o f g r a n t s from the N a t i v e C i t i z e n s Program o f the O f f i c e o f 50 the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . As the e x p e r i e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l i s r e l a t i v e l y new, as i t i s based on the s i n g l e i s s u e o f l a n d c l a i m s , and as i t depends on f e d e r a l f u n d i n g , u n i t y among n a t i v e groups may be more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n than i t was t o a c h i e v e . The g e o g r a p h i c i s o l a t i o n o f the Dene and the I n u i t has a l r e a d y caused them t o approach the f e d e r a l government s e p a r a t e l y i n l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s . Among the Dene the u n i t y i n p r i n c i p l e on demands f o r a l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t may be more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n a t the s t a g e o f d e t a i l e d n e g o t i a t i o n s , both as a r e s u l t o f the e x i s t e n c e o f s e p a r a t e M e t i s and I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n terms o f disagreements w i t h i n each o r g a n i z a t i o n . Whites i n the N.W.T., however, l a c k any e t h n i c a l l y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n 85 as t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n by Whites o f t h e i r own e x i s t e n c e as an e t h n i c group. The n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re b u i l t on a membership base t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n c l u d e s a l l members o f each e t h n i c group. There i s no formal p r o c e s s o f j o i n i n g one o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a l l members o f the e t h n i c group are e l i g i b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e . The membership o f the I n d i a n b r o t h e r h o o d i s , t h u s , made up o f the 7,000 r e g i s t e r e d T r e a t y I n d i a n s o f the N.W.T. As the I n d i a n A c t d e f i n e s c l e a r l y who i s e l i g i b l e t o be-'-registered as a T r e a t y I n d i a n t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt who i s e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d and as the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o p e r a t e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y on the b a s i s o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a wide degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s guaranteed. F or the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n and the I n u i t T a p i r i s a t the l i n e s a re l e s s c l e a r l y drawn. In p r a c t i c e i t seems t h a t those o f one-q u a r t e r n a t i v e l i n e a g e a re e l i g i b l e f o r membership, a g u i d e l i n e s i m i l a r t o t h a t adopted i n the A l a s k a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t . W h i le n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re f o c u s e d on i s s u e s a t a " n a t i o n a l " l e v e l , they a r e o r g a n i z e d as f e d e r a t i o n s o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d the t r a d i t i o n a l bands are the l o c a l u n i t s . An assembly o f C h i e f s and Band C o u n c i l l o r s s e l e c t s the o f f i c e r s o f the B r o t h e r h o o d and as w e l l a five-man Board o f D i r e c t o r s from among themselves t o guide the B r o t h e r h o o d between 51 annual a s s e m b l i e s . The M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n and the I n u i t T a p i r i s a t have no such for m a l l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to b u i l d from. The 86 M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n c h a r t e r s l o c a l s i n each s e t t l e m e n t and e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the l o c a l s meet i n b i e n n i a l assembly to s e l e c t the o f f i c e r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n . The ITC f u n c t i o n s as a f e d e r a t i o n o f s i x r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f o u r o f which are (located i n the N.W.T. These are the B a f f i n I n u i t A s s o c i a t i o n , the Keewatin I n u i t A s s o c i a t i o n , the K i t i k m e o t I n u i t A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Committee f o r O r i g i n a l People's E n t i t l e m e n t (COPE). Though membership i s d i r e c t i n these r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the t w e l v e -member Board o f Governors and the o f f i c e r s o f the ITC are e l e c t e d 52 by an annual meeting o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each s e t t l e m e n t . H e a d q u a r t e r s f o r the ITC was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Edmonton b u t soon s h i f t e d to.Ottawa. A . c e n t r a l o f f i c e l o c a t e d i n the so u t h was f e l t t o be n e c e s s a r y because o f d i f f i c u l t y i n communication, both between n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n c e n t r e s and between one n o r t h e r n community and a n o t h e r . A t the 1976 annual meeting o f the ITC the d e c i s i o n was made t o s h i f t , the h e a d q u a r t e r s t o the n o r t h and a committee w a s . e s t a b l i s h e d to recommend a date 53 and p l a c e . Both the IBNWT and the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n m a i n t a i n t h e i r c e n t r a l o f f i c e s i n Y e l l o w k n i f e . The i s s u e o f g r e a t e s t importance w i t h i n the n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l u n i t s and the membership a t l a r g e . . The P r e s i d e n t o f the ITC, James A r v a l u k , was u n s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d f o r r e - e l e c t i o n a t the 1976 annual meeting o v e r t h i s i s s u e . His opponent c r i t i c i z e d him f o r n e g l e c t i n g the ta s k o f c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l communities d u r i n g f o r m u l a t i o n o f the 87 I n u i t l a n d c l a i m . The I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d the l e a d e r s h i p q u e s t i o n i n the summer o f 1976 a f t e r a l o n g d i s p u t e w i t h t h i s same i s s u e as a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n . P r e s i d e n t Wah-Shee was r e l i e v e d o f the d u t i e s o f h i s o f f i c e 55 O c t o b e r 31, 1975 by the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the B r o t h e r h o o d . The c o n f l i c t stemmed from Wah-Shee's d e c i s i o n t o s t a n d f o r e l e c t i o n t o the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T. i n March o f 1975, a d e c i s i o n n o t w e l l - r e c e i v e d by a l l segments o f the B r o t h e r h o o d . Wah-Shee won the G r e a t S l a v e Lake s e a t by a c c l a m a t i o n . : .The immediate c r i s i s o v e r h i s dual p o s i t i o n s as P r e s i d e n t o f the B r o t h e r h o o d and T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r came w i t h the d i s c l o s u r e o f a paper d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l development p r e p a r e d a t a c l o s e d s e s s i o n o f the 56 C o u n c i l i n September o f 1975. Though Wah-Shee p u b l i c l y opposed the paper, i t was f e l t t h a t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such c l o s e d s e s s i o n s c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the B r o t h e r h o o d membership and the Board o f D i r e c t o r s . The p o l i t i c a l development paper was r e g a r d e d as but one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s l a r g e r problem o f c o n s u l t a t i o n between the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r l o c a l u n i t s . C h i e f J im A n t o i n e o f the F o r t Simpson Band, a member o f the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , has s t r e s s e d t h a t Wah-Shee's removal was the r e s u l t o f a g e n e r a l l a c k o f communication between the Y e l l o w k n i f e o f f i c e and the 57 communities. B e f o r e h i s removal was r a t i f i e d by a s p e c i a l assembly i n Rae i n December, Wah-Shee c o u n t e r c h a r g e d t h a t t h i s 88 a t t a c k on h i s l e a d e r s h i p was a p l o t by the s t a f f i n the B r o t h e r -hood's Y e l l o w k n i f e o f f i c e and t h e i r White a d v i s e r s t o c e n t r a l i z e 58 c o n t r o l i n t h e i r hands. I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s was the case as Wah-Shee was a b l e t o s e c u r e t h e s u p p o r t o f o n l y two o f 59 s i x t e e n C h i e f s a t the s p e c i a l assembly. The new P r e s i d e n t o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h h o d s e l e c t e d a t the annual assembly i n F o r t McPherson was Georges Erasmus. Erasmus s t r e s s e d h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l committment t o s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r I n d i a n p e o p l e , s t a t i n g t h a t he f e l t these g o a l s were i m p o r t a n t enough t o be worth some m a t e r i a l s a c r i f i c e s 60 i n the p r e s e n t . C l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p was promised, both as n e c e s s a r y f o r d e v e l o p i n g a s u c c e s s f u l l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t and as a way o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g whatever c l a i m i s made s i n c e "... the government, won' t b e l i e v e t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the pe o p l e i n the communities want what they've s a i d they want i n l a n d c l a i m s . " A s e cond i m p o r t a n t i s s u e w i t h i n n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e . The f i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f the ITC, Tagak C u r l e y , r e t i r e d t o head the I n u i t E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e which was s e t up t o pursue t he goal o f d e v e l o p i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n 62 programme f o r the I n u i t . An I n u i t Language Commission was a l s o s e t up under the a u s p i c e s o f the ITC t o d e v e l o p a s t a n d a r d w r i t i n g system f o r I n u k t i t u t and to promote the i n c r e a s e d use o f ft 3 I n u k t i t u t i n r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . B e f o r e j o i n i n g the s t a f f o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , Erasmus was 89 i n v o l v e d i n a p r o j e c t c o m p i l i n g a grammar t e x t o f h i s n a t i v e Dogrib language. A c c o r d i n g t o Erasmus t h i s p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e need n o t be s o l e l y a r e t r o s p e c t i v e p r o c e s s a s , Dene c u l t u r e can adapt and e v o l v e d u r i n g the y e a r s o f d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f economic d e v e l o p -ment and e d u c a t i o n as l o n g as the Dene have c o n t r o l o v e r the l a n d and the s y s t e m . 6 The M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n has s p o n s o r e d a Me t i s h i s t o r y p r o j e c t and a t t h e i r 1976 assembly r e j e c t e d a proposed union w i t h the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d s t r e s s i n g t h a t M e t i s p e o p l e possess a h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f I n d i a n p e o p l e 65 and worthy o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . T h i s emphasis i n a l l t h r e e groups on p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the h e i g h t e n e d sense o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y t o be e x p e c t e d where e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t . In a l l t h r e e n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e r e i s a r e c u r r i n g problem o f r e c o n c i l i n g demands p l a c e d on l e a d e r s w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t r a n d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u t l u r e . The p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n demands l e a d e r s who are f a m i l i a r w i t h White s o c i e t y and e s p e c i a l l y l e a d e r s who are f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . T h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h the t r a d i t i o n o f l o o k i n g to o l d e r members o f the bands f o r l e a d e r -s h i p as they t e n d to l a c k the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the government and mass media. The r e s u l t has o f t e n been the e l e v a t i o n o f y o u n g e r p e o p l e t o l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s , b u t u s u a l l y t h o s e who s t r e s s the importance o f l i s t e n i n g t o the o l d p e o p l e . In h i s campaign f o r the P r e s i d e n c y o f the B r o t h e r h o o d Erasmus 90 s t r e s s e d the r o l e t h a t o l d people have t o p l a y as "our h i s t o r y books" and t h e i r importance i n s a y i n g what i s needed f o r a f a i r 66 and j u s t l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t . Y e t , w h i l e i t has become i m p o r t a n t f o r l e a d e r s t o be a b l e t o use E n g l i s h e f f e c t i v e l y , a t the same time Erasmus was a t t a c k e d by h i s opponent f o r the p r e s i d e n c y f o r b e i n g a b l e t o communicate b e t t e r i n E n g l i s h than i n h i s i 67 n a t i v e language.• No s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r group o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s has p r o v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e as spokesman f o r the White community i n the n o r t h . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , the n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f the f a c t t h a t the White community does no t t h i n k o f i t s e l f as an e t h n i c community nor does i t r e c o g n i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t e t h n i c i t y might have c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s . E t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d as o b s t a c l e s to p r o g r e s s i n the n o r t h and o f t e n r e f e r r e d to a s . t h e p u r s u i t o f " s e l f i s h " s e l f - i n t e r e s t 6 8 by n a t i v e groups. One o f the White members o f the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d t h i s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n when he s a i d , . . . i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r us to work t o g e t h e r as p e o p l e , not p e o p l e o f t h i s e t h n i c background o r t h a t r a c i a l background, b u t as p e o p l e o f the N.W.T.69 In a d d i t i o n the dependent n a t u r e o f White s o c i e t y i n the North and the p r e s e n c e i n the n o r t h o f the f u l l a r r a y o f c l e a v a g e s p r e s e n t i n White s o c i e t y i n the s o u t h d e s p i t e the s m a l l e r s c a l e both c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s f a i l u r e o f the White community t o t h i n k o f i t s e l f as an e t h n i c group. 91 The f a i l u r e o f the Chamber o f Commerce t o become a spokes-man f o r White i n t e r e s t s i s a r e s u l t o f a l l t h r e e o f these f a c t o r s . The Chamber o f Commerce s u p p o r t s s e t t l e m e n t o f l a n d c l a i m s as i t would remove an " o b s t a c l e " to d e v e l o p m e n t . 7 0 The members o f the Chamber are s m a l l businessmen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; they do not c o n t r o l the l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s which r e a l l y dominate the economy n o r the government b u r e a u c r a c y . 7 1 In f a c t , the members o f the Chamber o f Commerce are o f t e n i n a c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h both the government and the s o u t h e r n dominated c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h u s , l a c k the independence n e c e s s a r y f o r a v i g o r o u s p u r s u i t o f the i n t e r e s t s o f the White community where they d i f f e r from f e d e r a l government o r c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s . While the Chamber does s u p p o r t both a l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t and the g r a n t i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s t o the N.W.T., i t has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h o s e who have the power t o d e c i d e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y the Chamber o f Commerce i s seen by o t h e r members o f the White community as r e p r e s e n t i n g o n l y a narrow segment o f . t h e community, the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , and i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n r e g a r d e d w i t h h o s t i 1 i t y by o t h e r Whites who f e e l no community o f i n t e r e s t w i t h l o c a l businessmen. F o r s i m i l a r reasons t r a d e unions have f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r White l e a d e r s h i p , as might have been e x p e c t e d t o be p o s s i b l e i n a s i t u a t i o n where a m a j o r i t y o f the work f o r c e i s employed by l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Trade unions a r e , a g a i n , i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the narrow p u r s u i t o f the i n t e r e s t s o f a s i n g l e group w i t h i n White s o c i e t y . As w e l l , the t r a d e union movement has been r e n t by 92 i n t e r n a l s c h i s m s . The U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d o r g a n i z e d workers i n m i n i n g b u t s i n c e 1974 has been s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u a l r a i d i n g by the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f S m e l t e r and A l l i e d Workers. The g e n e r a l i s s u e has been t h a t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l versus n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , but more s p e c i f i c a l l y i t has been t h a t o f 72 p o o r s e r v i c e g i v e n to the l o c a l s by the U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s . A v a r i e t y o f o t h e r s e r v i c e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n the White.community b u t none even attempt to p r o v i d e the b r o a d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p f o r Whites as an e t h n i c group t h a t i s p r o v i d e d f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e by the IBNWT, the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n , o r the ITC. The f a c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e p a r a t i o n , i . e . t h a t Whites t e n d t o l i v e i n the l a r g e r and p r e d o m i n a n t l y White s e t t l e m e n t s , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the f a i l u r e o f Whites t o p e r c e i v e themselves as an e t h n i c group. Because they are a m a j o r i t y i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s and because they are a p a r t o f the l a r g e r Canadian m a j o r i t y , t h e r e i s no f e e l i n g o f b e i n g an a l i e n and m i n o r i t y community. S i n c e White s o c i e t y i n the n o r t h e x i s t s as an e x t e n s i o n o f s o u t h e r n Canadian s o c i e t y l e a d e r s h i p i n the White community i n the n o r t h can be found i n the same p l a c e s i t would be found i n White communities i n s o u t h e r n Canada, e x c e p t where dependence i s a f a c t o r . As t r u l y i n d e p e n d e n t p o s i t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , White l e a d e r s a r e found i n o r s e e k i n g the few e l e c t i v e o f f i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the n o r t h , e i t h e r a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , i n the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , o r i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s do n o t e x i s t a t the m u n i c i p a l o r T e r r i t o r i a l .93 l e v e l -- they do, however, e x i s t a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l . In the e l e c t i o n s s i n c e 1968 a l l t h r e e major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have f i e l d e d c a n d i d a t e s i n the N.W.T. r i d i n g . F e d e r a l p o l i t i c s has s e r v e d both as an arena f o r p l a y i n g o u t e t h n i c c o n f l i c t and a t the same time as a f a c t o r m i t i g a t i n g t h i s c o n f l i c t . Arenas When we come t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the arenas f o r p l a y i n g ou t p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. we s h o u l d f i n d t h a t the l e g i t i m a c y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a t - t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f any o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e p e r c e i v e d as the p r e s e r v e o f a s i n g l e e t h n i c group. C o n f l i c t a t the l o c a l l e v e l r e v o l v e s around m u n i c i p a l government, a t the T e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l around the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T., and a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l around the s i n g l e M.P. from the N.W.T. The e v i d e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i s most c l e a r a t the l o c a l l e v e l and more ambiguous a t the f e d e r a l than T e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l . The 1974 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the o p e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n r e l a t i o n t o e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s . W h i le no p a r t y campaigned on an appeal e x c l u s i v e l y t o a s i n g l e e t h n i c group, one p a r t y c l e a r l y had the b u l k o f i t s s u p p o r t i n the White community, a n o t h e r i n the n a t i v e communities, and the t h i r d attempted t o h o l d down the m i d d l e ground. The NDP nominated W a l l y F i r t h , a M e t i s from the Mackenzie 94 D e l t a , f o r a second term, w h i l e the C o n s e r v a t i v e s once a g a i n nominated Bob Ward, a Y e l l o w k n i f e businessman and t h e i r c a n d i d a t e i n 1972. The L i b e r a l n o m i n a t i o n was c o n t e s t e d by t h r e e p e o p l e , R i c h a r d W h i t f o r d , o u t g o i n g P r e s i d e n t o f the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n ; Joe M e r c r e d i , a F o r t Simpson p u b l i s h e r ; and P e t e r E r n e r k , an I n u i t employee o f the Government o f the N.W.T.'s Department o f 73 I n f o r m a t i o n . The campaign sheds l i g h t both on the i s s u e s prominent i n the N.W.T. and the c o n s t i t u e n c y o f each p a r t y . The PC c a n d i d a t e campaigned on the b a s i s o f s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " and asked v o t e r s n o t t o ". . . ge t s o c i a l improvements mixed up w i t h s o c i a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . " He c o n t i n u e d w i t h the s t a t e m e n t t h a t he f a v o u r e d , . . . a p h i l o s o p h y o f f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , wherein the i n d i v i d u a l i s rewarded f o r h i s o r her e f f o r t s , where encouragement i s g i v e n t o i n d i v i d u a l s and b u s i n e s s e s t o i n v e s t i n Canada, and when invest m e n t s show g a i n s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s and b u s i n e s s e s are n o t ta x e d o u t o f e x i s t e n c e as a r e w a r d . ? 4 The PC's were n o t , however, opposed t o government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the N.W.T. t o remove o b s t a c l e s t o development and a t Ward's no m i n a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n the d e l e g a t e s approved r e s o l u t i o n s c a l l i n g f o r s e t t l e m e n t o f l a n d c l a i m s " w i t h o u t d e l a y , " c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y Highway and P i p e l i n e , s p e c i a l tax r e l i e f f o r n o r t h e r n e r s , changes i n the N.W.T. A c t l e a d i n g toward r e s p o n s i b l e government, and the c r e a t i o n o f a s e p a r a t e C a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o f o r N o r t h e r n Development w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n A f f a i r s b e i n g s h i f t e d to the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o u r e d r a p i d r e p l i c a t i o n o f the s o u t h e r n Canadian s o c i e t y and economy i n the n o r t h . The NDP campaigned on the b a s i s o f F i r t h ' s r e c o r d i n the House o f Commons. A d v e r t i s e m e n t s emphasized h i s e x p e r i e n c e and h i s r e c o r d o f defence o f n o r t h e r n i n t e r e s t s . 7 ^ F i r t h s t r e s s e d t h a t he d i d n o t f a v o u r developments such as the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e as they promise ". . . o n l y a boom and a very l o n g b u s t . A g a i n i t i s a p l a n t o syphon o f f gas a n d c o i l f o r the American market w i t h o u t b e n e f i t s f o r n o r t h e r n e r s . " 7 7 The NDP annual c o n v e n t i o n l a t e r r e a f f i r m e d the p a r t y ' s commitment t o p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s f o r the N.W.T. and to a j u s t l a n d s e t t l e m e n t , but i n c o n t r a s t t o the PC statements t h e s e were both seen as means to s e c u r e n o r t h e r n c o n t r o l o v e r development and n o t j u s t as 78 ways to remove o b s t a c l e s t o development. R i c h a r d W h i t f o r d won the L i b e r a l . n o m i n a t i o n and campaigned on an appeal t o the v o t e r s t o r e j e c t . t h e extremes o f the PC's and the NDP by e l e c t i n g a n a t i v e businessman. W h i t f o r d e n d o r s e d c o m p l e t i o n o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y Highway, the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b r i d g e o v e r the Mackenzie R i v e r a t F o r t P r o v i d e n c e , and an 79 e a r l y l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t . The L i b e r a l p a r t y was s a i d t o f a v o u r " b a l a n c e d development and p r o t e c t i o n o f the environment" and warned t h a t the p o s i t i o n o f the NDP would cause " e c o n o m i c 80 development t o g r i n d to a h a l t , " . . w h i l e c a u t i o n i n g t h a t the C o n s e r v a t i v e p o s i t i o n n e g l e c t e d concerns o f the environment and 81 n a t i v e r i g h t s i n the d e s i r e f o r r a p i d development. 96 Thus, w h i l e no p a r t y made what was o v e r t l y an e t h n i c a p p e a l , both the NDP and the PC's ad v o c a t e d programs which had t h e i r g r e a t e s t appeal t o a s i n g l e e t h n i c group. The NDP's s t r o n g defense o f n a t i v e r i g h t s a p p e a l e d to a l l t h r e e n a t i v e groups, y e t was o f l i m i t e d appeal to the White community. F i r t h ' s s u p p o r t was broadened o n l y by the s u p p o r t o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i n the n o r t h f o r the NDP. Ward's appeal t o the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e e t h i c was, o f c o u r s e , o f l i m i t e d appeal o u t s i d e the c u l t u r e i n which i t de v e l o p e d . Persons l a c k i n g the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o compete s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system are n o t e a s i l y persuaded t o s u p p o r t such a p o s i t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t he PC's i n t h e N.W.T. have s u p p o r t e d an o p e n l y a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c y toward n a t i v e p e o p l e and c o n s i s t e n t l y downplay the importance o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s . The L i b e r a l campaign i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h i s gap between the a p p e a l s o f the o t h e r two p a r t i e s and attempted t o f i l l i t . I t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t the c a n d i d a t e s f o r the L i b e r a l n o m i n a t i o n were a l l n a t i v e p e o p l e s u c c e s s f u l i n White terms. T h i s i s con-s i s t e n t w i t h the l a r g e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l P a r t y i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e on v i e w i n g French and E n g l i s h r e l a t i o n s as q u e s t i o n s o f p r o t e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than communal r i g h t s . These a p p e a l s t o v a r i o u s e t h n i c segments are r e f l e c t e d i n the e l e c t o r a l r e s u l t s f o r the 1974 e l e c t i o n as w e l l as i n the campaign. Though the number o f v o t e r s i n the N.W.T. i s too s m a l l to a l l o w s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e 97 t o draw some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s from them. A rough d i v i s i o n o f the r e s u l t s i n t o r u r a l and urban c a t e g o r i e s as i n the t a b l e s below p r o v i d e s a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f v o t i n g p a t t e r n s . Grouping Y e l l o w k n i f e , Hay R i v e r , I n u v i k , and F o r t Smith t o g e t h e r g i v e s a r o u g h l y urban g r o u p i n g as t h e s e are the f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which have a c h i e v e d town o r c i t y s t a t u s under the N.W.T. M u n i c i p a l O r d i n a n c e . T h i s p l a c e s 45% o f the e l i g i b l e v o t e r s i n the urban c a t e g o r y and 55% i n the r u r a l c a t e g o r y . In a d d i t i o n t h i s g r o u p i n g s h o u l d p l a c e r o u g h l y more than.80% o f the White v o t e r s i n the urban c a t e g o r y , though i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to s e c u r e a c c u r a t e pop-go u l a t i o n f i g u r e s by e t h n i c group as mentioned e a r l i e r . F i r t h was r e - e l e c t e d w i t h 5,410 votes to 4,271 f o r Ward and 3,173 f o r W h i t f o r d w i t h a t u r n o u t o f 61%. (See T a b l e s I and III;) Though t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t u r n o u t between urban and r u r a l a r e a s , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r the t h r e e p a r t i e s . In the r u r a l s e c t o r the NDP won an a b s o l u t e m a j o r i t y and some 68% o f i t s t o t a l v o t e s . F o r the PC's the s i t u a t i o n was r e v e r s e d w i t h the p a r t y w i n n i n g a p l u r a l i t y and some 57% o f i t s votes i n the urban a r e a s . - The L i b e r a l p a r t y t r a i l e d i n both s e c t o r s , w i n n i n g i t s votes i n r o u g h l y equal p r o p o r t i o n from the r u r a l and urban p o l l s . (See T a b l e I I I . ) The outcome o f the 1974 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m s the p i c t u r e o f e t h n i c s u p p o r t f o r each p a r t y e x p e c t e d from an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the campaign. The appeal o f the NDP t o n a t i v e p e o p l e i s shown both by i t s drawing more than t w o - t h i r d s o f i t s 98 TABLE I 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: TURNOUT # # E l i g i b l e V o t i n g * % T o t a l N.W.T. 21,299 13,008 61 Rur a l 11,868 7,330 62 Urban 9,431 5,678 60 Y e l l o w k n i f e 4,163 2,838 68 Hay R i v e r 2,310 1 ,086 47 In u v i k 1,683 979 58 F o r t Smith 1,275 775 61 *Number v o t i n g w i l l be h i g h e r than t o t a l s g i v e n i n T a b l e II because o f s p o i l e d b a l l o t s , 109 r u r a l and 45 urban. TABLE II 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: VOTES BY PARTY T o t a l NDP PC L i b e r a l # # % # % # % T o t a l N.W.T. 12,854 5,410 42 4,271 33 3,173 25 Ru r a l 7,221 3,682 51 1,844 26 1,695 23 Urban 5,633 1,728 31 2,427 43 1,478 26 Y e l l o w k n i f e 2,818 809 1,340 669 Hay R i v e r 1 ,077 277 585 215 In u v i k 969 347 305 317 F o r t Smith 769 295 197 277 99 votes from r u r a l p o l l s w i t h t h e i r h e a v i l y n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s and by i t s w i n n i n g a m a j o r i t y i n 42 r u r a l p o l l s and a p l u r a l i t y i n an a d d i t i o n a l 9 r u r a l p o l l s o u t o f a t o t a l o f some 79 r u r a l p o l l s w i t h o v e r 25 e l i g i b l e v o t e r s . The r e l a t i v e weakness o f the NDP"s appeal to White v o t e r s i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s p o o r e r showing i n the urban p o l l s where the NDP won a m a j o r i t y o r p l u r a l i t y i n o n l y 10 o f 43 p o l l s . The s t r e n g t h o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n the urban p o l l s where the White p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d bears o u t i t s s t r o n g e r appeal t o the White community. The PC's'won a p l u r a l i t y o r m a j o r i t y i n f o u r - f i f t h s o f the urban p o l l s and r e c e i v e d 57% o f t h e i r votes i n the urban p o l l s which have o n l y 44% o f the e l i g i b l e v o t e r s . The s c a t t e r e d s u p p o r t f o r the L i b e r a l P a r t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d by i t s w i n n i n g a p l u r a l i t y i n . o n l y 13 o f the t o t a l 122 p o l l s h a v i n g 25 o r more e l i g i b l e v o t e r s . A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f the d i v e r s e appeal o f the L i b e r a l s i s the f a c t t h a t i t s votes were drawn i n equal p r o p o r t i o n . f r o m the urban and r u r a l p o l l s . (See T a b l e I I I - ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y w i t h o u t e x t e n s i v e f i e l d s t u d i e s o f v o t i n g b e h a v i o u r i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o t e s t any o f t h e s e i n f e r e n c e s c o n c l u s i v e l y , b u t t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e e v i d e n c e to c o n t r a d i c t the c o n c l u s i o n s which have been drawn w i t h r e g a r d t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s as an a r e n a f o r e t h n i c c o n f l i c t . Only the r e l a t i v e l y s u r p r i s i n g showing o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n c e r t a i n r u r a l p o l l s goes a g a i n s t the p i c t u r e o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y drawing the b u l k o f i t s s u p p o r t from the White community, the NDP from n a t i v e TOO TABLE I I I 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: DISTRIBUTION OF PARTY SUPPORT Rural Urban NDP 68% 32% PC 43% 57% L i b e r a l 53% 47% TABLE IV 1974 FEDERAL ELECTION: POLLS CARRIED BY PARTY* N.W.T. RURAL URBAN T o t a l M a j o r i t y P l u r a l i t y T o t a l Maj. P l . T o t a l Maj. Pl NDP 61 44 17 51 42 9 10 2 8 PC: 48 19 29 17 5 12 31 14 17 L i b e r a l 13 0 13 11 0 11 2 0 2 *Qf a t o t a l o f 122 p o l l s h a v i n g more than 25 e l i g i b l e v o t e r s , 79 r u r a l and 43 urban. 101 p e o p l e , and the L i b e r a l s from the attempt to b r i d g e the gap. The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y s t i l l won o n l y 26% o f the r u r a l v o t e , a f i g u r e n o t g r e a t l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the White p o p u l a t i o n i n r u r a l p o l l s . Ward's c a r r y i n g o f c e r t a i n r u r a l p o l l s can be e x p l a i n e d by one o f t h r e e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In e l e v e n o f the r u r a l p o l l s he c a r r i e d t h e r e was a p r o b a b l y m a j o r i t y o f White v o t e r s . In the o t h e r cases t h e r e were e i t h e r low v o t e r t u r n o u t s which might s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r White and n a t i v e v o t e r s i n some communities o r t h e r e was an e x t r e m e l y even three-way s p l i t o f the vot e s g i v i n g Ward a p l u r a l i t y . F e d e r a l p o l i t i c s i s then one arena f o r e t h n i c c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T., but t h i s c o n f l i c t i s l i m i t e d by i t s f e d e r a l c o n n e c t i o n s . E t h n i c d i v i s i o n s do appear t o s e t the i s s u e s t o be d i s c u s s e d and do appear to i n f l u e n c e v o t i n g p a t t e r n s , b u t the e x t e n s i o n o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y system t o the N.W.T. p r e v e n t s f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s from becoming s o l e l y an e t h n i c b a t t l e g r o u n d . The commitment o f both C o n s e r v a t i v e s and L i b e r a l s on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l t o an i d e o l o g y . o f l i b e r a l i s m r e i n f o r c e s the tendency o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n the N.W.T. to downplay the importance o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s and l i b e r a l t e n d e n c i e s t o d e f i n e e t h n i c i s s u e s i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than communal r i g h t s . The i n f l u e n c e o f the f e d e r a l NDP broadens the appeal o f the NDP i n the n o r t h by add i n g s u p p o r t from o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r to t h a t from n a t i v e p e o p l e . T h i s has d i r e c t l y r e s u l t e d i n a degree o f s u p p o r t f o r n a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s by o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r as i n the endorsement o f a l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t 102 by the U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s , and aga i n i l l u s t r a t e s the m i t i g a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y system on e t h n i c c o n f l i c t . The T e r r i t o r i a l Government p r o v i d e s a second p o l i t i c a l a r e n a f o r e t h n i c c o n f l i c t , but i n t h i s case i t i s an are n a m o d i f i e d by the f a c t o f dependence. No one group w i t h i n the N.W.T. can hope t o c a p t u r e the i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s o f power d i r e c t l y . The T e r r i t o r i a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n remains f i r m l y i n the hands o f the f e d e r a l government. T h i s r e s u l t s , however, i n a more complete e x c l u s i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e than Whites. The f a c t t h a t the White community e x i s t s as an e x t e n s i o n o f the s o u t h e r n s o c i e t y and economy means t h a t c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s o f power f a l l t o the Whites d e s p i t e t h e i r dependent s t a t u s . These b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e both p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s which promote o b j e c t i v e s s i m i l a r t o those o f n o r t h e r n Whites as w e l l as d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through employment i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e . The t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t u s o f the N.W.T. c r e a t e s the s i t u a t i o n , somewhat anomalous i n the Canadian c o n t e x t , o f the s e p a r a t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e branches o f government w i t h the e x e c u t i v e e n j o y i n g the s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n . As the C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T. i s o n l y an a d v i s o r y body the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n takes on a r o l e r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly. The N.W.T. A c t was amended i n 1974 t o p r o v i d e f o r a f u l l y e l e c t e d C o u n c i l f o r the f i r s t time, y e t the amendments l e f t the i n d e p e n d e n t power o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b a s i c a l l y untouched. The Commissioner remains the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r and remains 103 r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y t o the M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . P r o v i s i o n was made by the M i n i s t e r , though not s e t o u t i n the N.W.T. A c t , f o r the appointment o f two members o f the C o u n c i l to an E x e c u t i v e 86 Committee t o a d v i s e the Commissioner. T h i s committee i s composed o f the Commissioner, the Deputy Commissioner, one A s s i s t a n t Commissioner, and the two C o u n c i l l o r s . E a c h . o f the members o f the committee heads one o r more departments i n a q u a s i - c a b i n e t system. The two C o u n c i l l o r s h o l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a t the p l e a s u r e o f both the Commissioner and the C o u n c i l and are bound by r u l e s o f e x e c u t i v e 87 committee s o l i d a r i t y as i n a c a b i n e t system. The f i r s t e l e c t i o n s f o r the a l l - e l e c t e d C o u n c i l were h e l d i n March o f 1975 and r e s u l t e d i n a n a t i v e m a j o r i t y i n the new 88 C o u n c i l . 60% o f the v o t e r s t u r n e d o u t to e l e c t s i x White C o u n c i l l o r s , s i x I n u i t , two I n d i a n , and one M e t i s C o u n c i l l o r 89 from the f i f t e e n e l e c t o r a l , d i s t r i c t s . In the f i v e d i s t r i c t s w i t h a p r o b a b l y m a j o r i t y o f White v o t e r s a l l c a n d i d a t e s were White. In the r e m a i n i n g ten d i s t r i c t s , a l l o f which had p r o b a b l e m a j o r i t i e s o f n a t i v e v o t e r s , o n l y one White C o u n c i l l o r was e l e c t e d even though seven d i s t r i c t s were c o n t e s t e d by both n a t i v e and White c a n d i d a t e s . In the South B a f f i n d i s t r i c t B r i a n P e a r s o n , a White s t o r e o w n e r from F r o b i s h e r Bay, was r e t u r n e d to the C o u n c i l d e s p i t e the n a t i v e m a j o r i t y i n h i s d i s t r i c t . Pearson had s e r v e d on the p r e v i o u s C o u n c i l and h i s r e - e l e c t i o n was p r o b a b l y on the b a s i s o f h i s r e c o r d o f outspoken o p p o s i t i o n t o the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s t r o n g defense o f n o r t h e r n and n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s . 104 In a p r i v a t e caucus o f the C o u n c i l i n May o f 1975 a Speaker and two C o u n c i l l o r s t o s e r v e on the E x e c u t i v e Committee were s e l e c t e d . D a v i d S e a r l e , the member f o r Y e l l o w k n i f e South, was 90 e l e c t e d Speaker as the l o n g e s t s t a n d i n g member o f C o u n c i l . A r n o l d McCallum, member f o r S l a v e R i v e r and a f o r m e r h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , was g i v e n a s e a t on the E x e c u t i v e Committee and r e s -p o n s i b l i t y f o r the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . The o t h e r s e a t on the E x e c u t i v e Committee went to a n a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r , P e t e r E r n e r k , member f o r the Keewatin and a f o r m e r a s s i s t a n t to the A s s i s t a n t Commissioner. E r n e r k was g i v e n r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r the Department o f S o c i a l Development. I t s h o u l d be noted, however, t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one o f the departments does n o t i n c l u d e power t o s e t budgets 91 o r t o h i r e and f i r e s t a f f . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h o l d i n g a p o s i t i o n on the E x e c u t i v e Committee and thus b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Commissioner, the C o u n c i l , and one's c o n s t i t u e n t s a l l a t . t h e same time became imm e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t f o r E r n e r k . A t a c o n f e r e n c e o f community c o u n c i l s from the. Keewatin d i s t r i c t E r n erk was s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee p o s i t i o n . A motion p a s s e d a t the c o n f e r e n c e s t r e s s e d t h a t i t was the f e e l i n g o f those a t t e n d i n g t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p e o p l e o f the Keewatin and t o speak f r e e l y i n the C o u n c i l , w h i l e r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Commissioner f o r a $30,000 a y e a r j o b a t the 92 same time. By f a l l the c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f e a r s were borne o u t when E r n e r k was c r i t i c i z e d i n C o u n c i l by the Commissioner 105 f o r g i v i n g h i s own view i n C o u n c i l debate and n o t l i m i t i n g h i s 93 comments t o the p o s i t i o n taken by the E x e c u t i v e Committee. At the same time as the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l f a i l e d to s e c u r e any r e a l power o v e r the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t s r o l e as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly was a l s o c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . The immediate i s s u e b r i n g i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g o u t i n t o the open was the p o l i t i c a l development paper mentioned e a r l i e r . T h i s paper r e q u e s t e d t h a t the f e d e r a l government s e t o u t a p o s i t i v e programme f o r " p o l i t i c a l development" f o r the N.W.T. I t was s u g g e s t e d i n the paper t h a t t h i s programme i n c l u d e a commitment to e v e n t u a l p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s f o r the N.W.T., a commitment t o s e t t l e m e n t o f the l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e , a commitment by the f e d e r a l government to withdraw from the p r o v i s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l type s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the N.W.T., and a fo r m u l a f o r f i n a n c e f o r the government o f the N.W.T. t h a t would 94 remove f e d e r a l c o n t r o l o f the budget. A f t e r v i g o r o u s o p p o s i t i o n from a l l t h r e e n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s the C o u n c i l agreed t o . d e l a y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p a p er u n t i l u a f t e r the s e t t l e m e n t o f l a n d c l a i m s o r the January 1979 s e s s i o n o f the C o u n c i l , w h i c h e v e r comes f i r s t . 9 5 O p p o s i t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l development paper w i t h i n C o u n c i l came i n the form o f a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t s i g n e d by f i v e n a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s c a l l i n g f o r d e l a y i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the paper u n t i l n a t i v e p e o p l e c o u l d be c o n s u l t e d on whether they f e l t i t c o n f l i c t e d 96 w i t h t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . R i c k Hardy, P r e s i d e n t o f the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n , p o i n t e d o u t t h a t 106 The C o u n c i l paper s u g g e s t s t h a t a N.W.T. C o u n c i l committee be s e t up t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h the f e d e r a l government f o r the t r a n s f e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f government r e s o u r c e s t o the N.W.T. C o u n c i l . . . We view t h i s recommendation as a c l e a r and a b s o l u t e d i s r e g a r d f o r and a f f r o n t t o the a s p i r a t i o n s and e f f o r t s o f the Dene p e o p l e i n ou r p r e s e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . 9 7 As P r e s i d e n t o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , James Wah-Shee s t r e s s e d t h a t a l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t must come b e f o r e any n e g o t i a t i o n s on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y . l e s t the p o s i t i o n o f the I n u i t 98 and Dene be un d e r c u t by t a l k s on p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s . Among some Dene l e a d e r s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l development paper a l o n g . w i t h a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p l e o f a Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e l e d to r e j e c t i o n o f the i d e a . o f the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly. Not o n l y d i d i t l e a d t o the removal o f Wah-Shee as P r e s i d e n t o f the B r o t h e r h o o d , b u t i t a l s o l e d to the r e s i g n a t i o n o f the C o u n c i l l o r f o r M a c k e n z i e - G r e a t Bear. In a s t a t e m e n t f o l l o w i n g h i s r e s i g n a t i o n George Barnabe s a i d , How can I s t a y on C o u n c i l knowing t h a t C o u n c i l agrees t o a p i p e l i n e ? The Dene p e o p l e have c l e a r l y s a i d they want no p i p e l i n e b e f o r e a l a n d c l a i m and y e t C o u n c i l i g n o r e d the v o i c e o f the p e o p l e . " F o r the ITC the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l became i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e l e v a n t as t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s u b m i t t e d t o the f e d e r a l government i n March o f 1976 s u g g e s t e d t h a t the N.W.T. be d i v i d e d and a s e p a r a t e I n u i t t e r r i t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d . The p o l i t i c a l development paper d i v i d e d the C o u n c i l a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s o v e r the q u e s t i o n o f the p r o p e r r o l e f o r the C o u n c i l . While f o r Whites the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l 107 remains the l i k e l y r e c i p i e n t o f f u r t h e r powers from the f e d e r a l government l e a d i n g t o e v e n t u a l p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s , f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e the C o u n c i l has come t o be viewed as p a r t o f the package o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o be n e g o t i a t e d w i t h the f e d e r a l govern-ment as a p a r t of. a l a r g e r l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t . In the N.W.T. the t h i r d l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which p r o v i d e s arenas f o r p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i s the l e v e l o f l o c a l o r m u n i c i p a l government. A t t h i s l e v e l the f a c t o r o f dependence once a g a i n i n t e r v e n e s to l i m i t the a r e n a s , f o r t h e r e i s o n l y a sm a l l measure o f l o c a l autonomy i n the N.W.T. In 1975 t h e r e were f o u r t e e n n o m i n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the N.W.T. Of t h o s e , seven were hamlets whose c o u n c i l s have o n l y l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y t o spend funds a u t h o r i z e d by the T e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The seven e n j o y i n g g r e a t e r autonomy than hamlets were the c i t y o f Y e l l o w k n i f e , the towns o f Hay R i v e r , I n u v i k , and F o r t Smith, and the v i l l a g e s o f F r o b i s h e r B a y , , F o r t Simpson, and Pin e P o i n t . S i n c e t h a t time t h e r e has been o n l y one change i n s t a t u s and t h i s was the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l i n F r o b i s h e r Bay and i t s r e v e r s i o n t o hamlet s t a t u s due t o what was d e s c r i b e d by the Department o f L o c a l Government as a " l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l . " 1 ^ V i l l a g e s c o n t r o l some o f t h e i r own revenue through s e t t i n g l i c e n s e f e e s and tax r a t e s f o r r e a l p r o p e r t y , b u t depend l a r g e l y on T e r r i t o r i a l government g r a n t s and are c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d by the T e r r i t o r i a l government. Only towns and c i t i e s e n j o y r e l a t i v e independence, b u t even the s e are c r i p p l e d by i n s u f f i c i e n t t a x 108 bases. I n u v i k , t h e second l a r g e s t m u n i c i p a l i t y , i s a good example as i t had o n l y 130 o f some 4,000 r e s i d e n t s p a y i n g m u n i c i p a l taxes i n 1975 and d e r i v e d most o f i t s revenue from government g r a n t s i n l i e u o f taxes as government p r o p e r t y a c c o u n t e d f o r 80% o f the * * i • • i + 1 0 2 t o t a l m u n i c i p a l assessment. I s s u e s o f con c e r n a t the l o c a l l e v e l are i l l u s t r a t e d by concerns e x p r e s s e d a t a 1974 c o n f e r e n c e o f s e t t l e m e n t c o u n c i l s l o c a t e d a l o n g the Mackenzie R i v e r . The c o n f e r e n c e urged the T e r r i t o r i a l government t o s t a f f p o s i t i o n s i n the communities w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e whenever p o s s i b l e , t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n .up t o grade n i n e i n ev e r y s e t t l e m e n t , t o e s t a b l i s h programmes t o encourage home ownership, t o improve emergency s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the s e t t l e m e n t s , t o i n s u r e l o c a l . c o n s u l t a t i o n i n la n d . u s e d e c i s i o n s , t o g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l c o h o l e d u c a t i o n , and to 103 e s t a b l i s h an a l c o h o l t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e i n the N.W.T. T h i s same range o f concerns i s found a t the l o c a l l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t the N.W.T. and w h i l e p r i o r i t i e s d i f f e r i n each s e t t l e m e n t , a l c o h o l problems u s u a l l y head the l i s t . Under l o c a l o p t i o n p r o v i s i o n s o f the N.W.T. L i q u o r O r d i n a n c e p l e b i s c i t e s may be h e l d i n any s e t t l e m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h l o c a l p r o h i b i t i o n , p r o v i d i n g 60% a p p r o v a l i s o b t a i n e d w i t h a m a j o r i t y 104 o f r e s i d e n t s v o t i n g . Numerous l o c a l c o u n c i l s have e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n such p l e b i s c i t e s and two have a l r e a d y been h e l d . These r e s u l t e d i n the narrow d e f e a t o f p r o h i b i t i o n i n . F r o b i s h e r B a y 1 0 5 and i t s a p p r o v a l by 76% o f the v o t e r s i n R a e - E d z o . 1 0 6 109 I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n these two votes was the o p p o s i t i o n t o p r o h i b i t i o n o f the White p o p u l a t i o n i n F r o b i s h e r Bay, w h i l e Rae-Edzo has o n l y a ver y s m a l l White p o p u l a t i o n . ^ 7 Important as the problem o f a l c o h o l i s , i t i s not s u b j e c t to a c t i o n by l o c a l c o u n c i l s as the conduct o f p l e b i s c i t e s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the L i q u o r C o n t r o l System. In F o r t Simpson the c o n f l i c t between n a t i v e and White p e o p l e o v e r a l c o h o l p o l i c y was b r o u g h t o u t i n t o the open by a r e q u e s t o f the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d and the l o c a l Band. C o u n c i l t h a t the T e r r i t o r i a l government o r d e r l i q u o r o u t l e t s i n F o r t Simpson c l o s e d d u r i n g t h e i r annual General Assembly which was t o be h e l d J u l y 17-23, 1975. Ho t e l owners i n F o r t Simpson sought a c o u r t . i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t the c l o s i n g when the L i q u o r C o n t r o l >Board a g r e e d t o the r e q u e s t . The h o t e l owners were s u p p o r t e d i n t h e i r attempt t o p r e v e n t the c l o s u r e by the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l , a c o u n c i l w i t h a l l 1 Qg White members i n a community w i t h a f a i r l y even p o p u l a t i o n s p l i t . The Chairman o f the C o u n c i l , Gary B l a c k , opposed the c l o s i n g o f the l i q u o r o u t l e t s s a y i n g , 1 . . . the members o f the F o r t Simpson v i l l a g e c o u n c i l are the l e g a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the r e s i d e n t s , a l l the r e s i d e n t s , o f the v i l l a g e o f F o r t Simpson. As such we are the ones who must make the d e c i s i o n s which w i l l a f f e c t the r e s i d e n t s . ^ 9 The C h i e f o f the F o r t Simpson Band, J i m A n t o i n e , c o u n t e r e d the arguments o f the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l by s t a t i n g , The v i l l a g e c o u n c i l i s o n l y used by White businessmen to g a i n t h e i r own ends and p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r the town. I t has i g n o r e d the band c o u n c i l f o r y e a r s . Gary n o B l a c k and the o t h e r s have l i v e d here f o r o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s . I f they e x p e c t the I n d i a n p e o p l e who w i l l l i v e and d i e here t o ask those p e o p l e i f we can do something f o r o u r s e l v e s -- t h e r e ' s no way we are go i n g t o do t h a t J ^ The Supreme C o u r t o f the N.W.T. g r a n t e d the i n j u n c t i o n to the h o t e l owners on the grounds t h a t t h e r e was no p r o v i s i o n f o r temporary p r o h i b i t i o n w i t h o u t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g under the L i q u o r O r d i n a n c e . A s p e c i a l r e p o r t p r e p a r e d i n 1975 by the Department o f Lo c a l Government f o r the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l found t h a t F o r t Simpson i s not an i s o l a t e d example and t h a t the development o f m u n i c i p a l government i n the N.W.T. ". . . has p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the p o l i t i c a l e x c l u s i o n and community i s o l a t i o n o f many o f the o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . 1 1 1 The r e p o r t c i t e s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s e x c l u s i o n . These are the " r e d tape" i n v o l v e d i n r u n n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n and/or knowledge o f the f u n c t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l government,,and the p r i o r e x i s t e n c e o f the C h i e f and band c o u n c i l system i n I n d i a n communities. C e r t a i n l y t h i s l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . In the 1974.municipal e l e c t i o n s i n Y e l l o w k n i f e , Hay R i v e r , and F o r t Smith t h e r e were 112 no n a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s . In January o f 1976 an E x e c u t i v e Committee e v a l u a t i o n o f L o c a l Government .programs s u g g e s t e d examining the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t r o d u c i n g a ward system t o m u n i c i p a l governments i n the N.W.T. i n the hope t h a t t h i s would guarantee n a t i v e 113 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s approach m f a i l s to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e may be p o s i t i v e reasons f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e ' s f a i l u r e to take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s . The l o c a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t have been s e t up i n the n o r t h a re modeled on i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n Canada. They are f a m i l i a r t o the White r e s i d e n t s and tend to s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the modern wage economy. In many cases they have come t o be r e g a r d e d as i n s t r u m e n t s o f the White p o p u l a t i o n and thus t o l a c k l e g i t i m a c y as would, as Melson and Wolpe s u g g e s t , any i n s t i t u t i o n which 114 becomes the p r e s e r v e o f a s i n g l e e t h n i c group. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the case o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e who possess competing t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been somewhat more s u c c e s s f u l i n I n u i t s e t t l e m e n t s b u t t h i s i s s m a l l c o n s o l a t i o n i n the f a c e o f the I n u i t l a n d c l a i m which proposes c r e a t i o n o f new community o r g a n i z a t i o n s to r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n -ments. The ver y f a c t t h a t both n a t i v e and White p e o p l e a re r a r e l y i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l government when they l i v e i n the same s e t t l e m e n t s i s t e s t i m o n y to the e x i s t e n c e o f s e p a r a t e e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s and d i f f e r i n g s e t s o f v a l u e s . The l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l o c a l government s u g g e s t s t h a t e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t on t h a t l e v e l . Two f u r t h e r arenas which might have been i n c l u d e d here a r e the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y and l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s between the f e d e r a l government and n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Though 112 both l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s and the p i p e l i n e debate i n v o l v e a c t o r s from o u t s i d e the N.W.T. (and f o r t h a t reason have not been d e a l t w i t h i n d e t a i l h e r e ) , both have c e r t a i n l y had i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s i n i n c r e a s i n g the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n the N.W.T. The very f a c t t h a t c o n f l i c t o v e r these i s s u e s i s t o be p l a y e d out t o a l a r g e e x t e n t o u t s i d e the normal i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the fundamental n a t u r e o f the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . These s p e c i a l arrangements are a reminder o f both the dependent s t a t u s o f the N.W.T. and the l e g i t i m a t i o n problems o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the N.W.T. While n e i t h e r l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s nor the P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y have produced any u n i f i e d p o s i t i o n among Whites, they have p r o v i d e d a focus f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r n a t i v e groups and, as w e l l , funds f o r . o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work. A d d i t i o n a l l y the P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y has brought a h e i g h t e n e d awareness o f the i s s u e s o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development and l a n d c l a i m s as fundamental t o even the s m a l l e s t s e t t l e m e n t s through i t s community h e a r i n g s . The l a c k o f o r g a n i z e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Whites i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e arenas has l e f t them the p r e s e r v e o f the n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Each o f the arenas f o r p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y . A l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f government have f a i l e d t o s e c u r e the. f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f both n a t i v e and White r e s i d e n t s , though a t the f e d e r a l and T e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f a . m i t i g a t i n g i n f l u e n c e which appears a b s e n t on the l o c a l l e v e l . N a t i v e p e o p l e have p a r t i c i p a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s i n f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s and i n 113 T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l e l e c t i o n s , b u t the l e g i t i m a c y o f the M.P. has been c h a l l e n g e d by d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the f e d e r a l government and the a u t h o r i t y o f the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l has been e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d by n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s who f e e l t h a t i t i s p a r t o f a package t o be n e g o t i a t e d w i t h the f e d e r a l government. A t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l f a i l u r e o f j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y . Thus, the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y has f o c u s e d p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. on the i s s u e s o f n a t u r e and r a t e o f development, n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l a n d c l a i m s . ' E t h n i c i t y has r e s u l t e d i n h e i g h t e n e d e t h n i c i d e n t i t y f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t groups a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s , i n the case o f Whites by d e f a u l t as they have come to dominate community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which n a t i v e p e o p l e do.not p a r t i c i p a t e . F i n a l l y , s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y undermines u s e f u l n e s s o f e x i s t i n g arenas i n f i n d i n g ways to r e g u l a t e c o n f l i c t s by i n t r o d u c i n g the problem o f l e g i t i m a c y . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r I w i l l deal w i t h the r e s u l t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n o f the r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the problem o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. around the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y . FOOTNOTES CHAPTER IV I S. Hodgson, Debates o f the C o u n c i l o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 58th S e s s i o n , . 8 t h C o u n c i l , J a nuary 26, 1976, p. 2. 2 I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , " D e c l a r a t i o n on Development," News o f the N o r t h , August 13, 1975. 3 F. M a r i n , q u o t e d i n " A k l a v i k P e o ple Ask B e r g e r t o Save T h e i r Way o f L i f e , " News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 9, 1975. 4 A r c t i c Bay R e s i d e n t s are Concerned About the New Mine," News o f the N o r t h , J a n u a r y 30, 1974. 5 "Development o f S t r a t h c o n a Sound Townsite Could D e s t r o y A r c t i c Bay," News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 2, 1975. g "Development o f S t r a t h c o n a . . •.," News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 2, 1975, and " B a f f i n R e s i d e n t s P r e f e r t o Commute t o S t r a t h -cona Mine," News o f the N o r t h , May 21, 1975. 7 "Government Says A r c t i c Bay C o n s u l t e d on S t r a t h c o n a Mine," News o f the No r t h , May 21, 1975. "Government Says . . .," News o f the N o r t h , May 21, 1975. 9 Government Says . . ., News o f the N o r t h , May 21, 1975. 1 0 " W r i g l e y C o u n c i l W i l l Decide Where They Want the Highway," News o f the N o r t h , January 23, 1974; "Eskimo P o i n t Says No To R o a d ^ N e w s o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 1, 1975; and " C o n f l i c t i n g Views on Tuk Road Given t o N o r t h e r n Roads Tour," News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 1, 1975. I I " W r i g l e y C o u n c i l . . .," News o f the N o r t h , January 23, 1974. 12 " C o n f l i c t i n g Views . . .," News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 1 , 1975. 114 115 1 3 " C o n f l i c t i n g Views . . .," News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 1, 1975. 1 4 " C o n f l i c t i n g Views . . .," News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 1, 1975. 15 Gemini N o r t h , " S o c i a l and Economic Impact o f the Proposed A r c t i c Gas P i p e l i n e i n N o r t h e r n Canada," p r e p a r e d f o r Canadian A r c t i c Gas, ( Y e l l o w k n i f e , 1974). 1 6 " F a i r b a n k s Got the S h o r t End," News o f the N o r t h , January 21, 1976. 1 7 " A k l a v i k People Ask B e r g e r t o Save T h e i r Way o f L i f e , " News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 9, 1975. 18 " N a t i v e N o r t h e r n e r s Would Rather F i g h t Than S w i t c h , " News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 16, 1975. 19 " A k l a v i k People Ask B e r g e r t o Save T h e i r Way o f L i f e , " News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 9, 1975. 20 " I n q u i r y Sets White A g a i n s t Native,". News o f the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 4, 1975. 21 "Development Boom E x p e c t e d t o S t a r t Soon," News o f the No r t h , January 23, 1974. y 22 "Businessmen:.Eye F o r t u n e s , " News o f the N o r t h , June 4, 1975. 23 "N.W.T. Would Give Away Resources," News o f the N o r t h , September 10, 1975. 24 "Hay R i v e r Ready But Not S e t F o r P i p e l i n e Boom," News o f the N o r t h , June 4, 1975; "Mackenzie P i p e l i n e Boom May B u s t Town o f I n u v i k , " News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 16, 1975; " I n u v i k C o u n c i l In Favour o f P i p e l i n e , " News o f the N o r t h , December 31, 1975. 25 C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y 12, 1976, pp. 751-757. 26 S. Hodgson, Counci 1 Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 26, 1976, p. 2. 27 D. S e a r l e , Counci1 Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , J a n u a r y 30, 1976, p. 149. 28 D. N i c k e r s o n , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 29, 1976, p. 1W. 116 "Dene D e c l a r a t i o n , " N a t i v e P r e s s , August 20, 1975. 3D o u "Dene M a n i f e s t o , " News o f the N o r t h , August 13, 1975. 31 "Buchanan C a l l s Dene Paper 'Gobbledygook'," News o f the No r t h , A p r i l 28, 1976. 32 " N i c k e r s o n Slams Dene Concept," News o f the N o r t h , September 24, 1975. 33 Hugh McCullum, "The P a t i e n c e o f Tom B e r g e r , " The Canadian, December 20, 1975, p. 9. 34 James A r v a l u k , " D e c i s i o n on N.W.T. P o l i t i c a l F u t u r e Must Wait," i n u i t Today Volume V, No. 3 (March 1976), p. 15. 35 P. E r n e r k , Coiinci 1 Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 30, 1976, p. 165. 36 D. N i c k e r s o n , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 29, 1976, p. 140. 37 D. S e a r l e , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 30, 1976, p. 149. 38 D. S e a r l e , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , p. 149. 39 D. S t e w a r t , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 27, 1976, p._2TJr 40 " A r v a l u k Defends ITC Claims P r o p o s a l , " News o f the N o r t h , May 12, 1976. 41 " I n u i t Make H i s t o r y a t Pond I n l e t , " ' I n u i t ' T o d a y Volume 5, No. 1 ( J a n u a r y 1976), p. 26. 42 "Making a Case f o r the I n u i t , " Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n i n Su p p o r t o f N a t i v e Peoples B u l l e t i n Volume,;T7, No. 1 (March 1976), pp. 9-12. 43 "The P r o p o s a l s F o r I n u i t Land C l a i m s , " I h u i t : T o d a y Volume 5, No. 3 (March 1976), pp. 28-31. 44 James Wah-Shee, "A Land S e t t l e m e n t , — What Does I t Mean?" (Address p r e s e n t e d to " D e l t a Gas: Now o r L a t e r ? " a c o n f e r e n c e s p o n s o r e d by the Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee, Ottawa, May 24, 1974), r e p r i n t e d i n The Y e l l o w k n i f e r , May 30, 1974. 117 45 " M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n Reacts t o ITC," News o f the N o r t h , March 3, 1976. 46 James Wah-Shee, "Toward a Developmental Land S e t t l e m e n t i n the N.W.T.," (Address p r e s e n t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, S a s k a t o o n , O c t o b e r 8, 1976), r e p r i n t e d i n News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 23, 1976. 4 7 G. Erasmus, " I n u i t Land C l a i m s : What T h i s Means f o r Dene," N a t i v e P r e s s , March 15, 1976. 48 " C o u r t o f Appeals Says No Caveat," N a t i v e P r e s s , November 29, 1975, and "Land C l a i m Appeal Returns to C o u r t , " News o f the No r t h , May 21, 1975. 49 " I n d i a n s Lose Round Two i n Caveat B a t t l e , " News o f the N o r t h , November 19, 1975. 50 "ITC To Move Headquarters N o r t h , " I n U i t Today Volume V, No. 3 (March 1976), p. 28. 51 " I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d Elects ;~New D i r e c t o r s , " News o f the N o r t h , September 11, 1974. 52 "What the Eskimo B r o t h e r h o o d Is T r y i n g To Do," News o f the Nor t h , F e b r u a r y 13, 1974. 53 "ITC To Move Headquarters N o r t h , " I n u i t Today Volume V, No. 3 (March 1976), p. 28, and "What the Eskimo B r o t h e r h o o d . . .," News o f the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 13, 1974. 54 " A r v a l u k R e - E l e c t e d F o r P r e s i d e n t , " N a t i v e P r e s s , A p r i l 12, 1976. 55 "Wah-Shee S t r i p p e d o f A l l Powers, N a t i v e P r e s s , November 10, 1975. 56 "Wah-Shee F o r c e d t o R e s i g n , N a t i v e P r e s s , December 19, 1975. 57 " C h i e f A n t o i n e o f F o r t Simpson Speaks Out," N a t i v e P r e s s , A p r i l 12, 1976. 58 "Wah-Shee Says White A d v i s e r s , S t a f f B e h i n d Move t o Oust Him," News o f the N o r t h , November 5, 1975. 59 "Confused Rae Assembly," News o f the N o r t h , December 10, 1975. 60 " S t r o n g L e a d e r s h i p Promised," N a t i v e P r e s s , A p r i l 12, 1976. ^ " S t r o n g L e a d e r s h i p Promised," N a t i v e P r e s s , A p r i l 12, 1976. 118 62 "What the Eskimo B r o t h e r h o o d Is T r y i n g To Do," News o f  the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 13, 1974. fi 3 " I n u i t Language Commission," I n u i t Today Volume V, No. 3 (March 1976), p. 73. 64 Dene A s k i n g F o r Ownership and C o n t r o l to Develop D i f f e r e n t P o l i t i c a l System," News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 14, 1976. 65 " M e t i s Vote A g a i n s t S i n g l e Dene Group," News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 14, 1976. fifi " S t r o n g L e a d e r s h i p Promised," N a t i v e P r e s s , A p r i l 12, 1976. 6 7 " U n i t y Shown a t IBNWT Assembly," N a t i v e P r e s s , J u l y 22, 1976. ^ D. N i c k e r s o n , Counci1 Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , J a n u a r y 29, 1976, p. ~\W. 69 T. B u t t e r s , C o u n c i l Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , , 8 t h C o u n c i l , January 29, 1976, p. 144. 7 0 " S e t t l e Now-Chamber," News o f the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 25, 1976. 7 1 "New NWT Chamber o f Commerce P r e s i d e n t Wants D r i v e F o r P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u s , " News o f the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 26, 1975. 7 2 "New Union a t G i a n t ? " News o f the N o r t h , F e b r u a r y 25, 1976. 73 "Three-way F i g h t E x p e c t e d A g a i n i n F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n on J u l y 8 t h , " News o f the NOrth, May 15, 1974. 74 R. D. S. Ward, "Open L e t t e r t o V o t e r s , " News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 3, 1974. 75 "PC's Approve Nine R e s o l u t i o n s a t Annual M e e t i n g i n Y e l l o w -k n i f e , " News o f the N o r t h , June 5, 1974. 7 6 "Wally F i r t h , MP," The Y e l l o w k n i f e r , J u l y 4, 1974. 7 7 "How the Ca n d i d a t e s View the Issues F a c i n g V o t e r s , " News o f the North, J u l y 3, 1974. 78 "NDP Convention i n Y e l l o w k n i f e , " News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 2, 1975. 79 How the C a n d i d a t e s View the Issues F a c i n g V o t e r s , " News o f the No r t h , J u l y 3, 1974. 8 0 "What the P i p e l i n e Would Mean t o Y e l l o w k n i f e , " The Y e l l o w - k n i f e r , June 27, 1974. 119 8 1 R. W h i t f o r d , "Open L e t t e r , " News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 3, 1974. 82 R e p o r t o f the C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r , 30th G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n , pp. 1201-1204. 83 The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the f o u r l a r g e s t s e t t l e m e n t s was 15,082 i n 1974, (see E x p l o r e r ' s Guide, 1974, p. 12). I f 65% o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n were White, t h i s would amount to 9,803 p e o p l e , o r o v e r 80% o f the e s t i m a t e d t o t a l White p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T., (see Ch a p t e r I I I , F o o t n o t e 1 ) . As 65% i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f the pe r c e n t a g e o f White p o p u l a t i o n i n each o f the f o u r s e t t l e m e n t s and assuming t h a t v o t i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d r o u g h l y e q u a l l y t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s would p l a c e more than 80% o f the White v o t e r s i n the urban c a t e g o r y . 84 " S t e e l w o r k e r s S u p p o r t Land C l a i m s , " N a t i v e P r e s s , September 27, 1975. 85 "Amendments t o N.W.T. A c t Give I l l u s i o n o f Power," News o f the N o r t h , A p r i l 3, 1974. 86 S. Hodgson, C o u n c i l Debates, 55th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , May 1, 1975, pp. 19-21. 87 "NWT C o u n c i l l o r s F e e l E x e c u t i v e Committee Would C r e a t e C o n f 1 i c t , " News o f the N o r t h , A p r i 1 3, 1974. 88 A l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t he N.W.T. C o u n c i l e l e c t i o n taken from Report o f the C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r , C o u n c i l o f the N.W.T., pp. 15-29, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e noted. "NWT C o u n c i l , " i n u i t Today Volume IV, No. 3 (March 1975), p. 13, and " N a t i v e People Win M a j o r i t y on New T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , " News o f the N o r t h , March 12, 1975. 90 C o u n c i l Debates, 55th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , May 1, 1975, p. 1. 91 "McCallum Heads E d u c a t i o n , E r n e r k Gets S o c i a l Development," News o f the N o r t h , May 7, 1975. 92 "Keewatin C o u n c i l Condemns E r n e r k ' s Appointment," News o f the N o r t h , May 7, 1975. 93 S. Hodgson, C o u n c i l Debates, 57th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , September 29, 1975, p. 17. 94 C o u n c i l Debates, 57th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , September 29, 1975, pp. 3-4. 120 95 Couiici 1 Debates, 58th S e s s i o n , 8th C o u n c i l , January 21, 1976, pp. 136 and 146. Qfi " N a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s W i l l Not Be Pushed," I n u i t Today Volume IV, No. 10 (December 1975), p. 20, and "More Study C a l l e d For By N a t i v e C o u n c i 1 1 o r s , " News o f the N o r t h , O c t o b e r 8, 1975. 97 " M e t i s Oppose Paper," News o f the N o r t h , December 24, 1975. 98 " P o l i c y Papers D i s c u s s e d on S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Development," N a t i v e P r e s s , O c t o b e r 22, 1975. 99 "Erasmus and Barnaby E n t e r L e a d e r s h i p Race," News o f the N o r t h , March 24, 1976. Commissioner's Annual R e p o r t , 1973, p. 67. ^ "Government Takes Over F r o b i s h e r , " News o f the N o r t h , November 12, 1975. 102 " I n u v i k P e o p l e Want C o n t r o l , " News o f the N o r t h , September 24, 1975. ~~ 103 " S e t t l e m e n t C o u n c i l s Ask For.Sweeping Changes i n Government," News o f the N o r t h , May 8, 1974. 1(14 " P r o h i b i t i o n Vote S e t f o r Rae-Edzo," News o f the N o r t h , June 30, 1976. 105 "Vote A t F r o b i s h e r Keeps L i q u o r Taps F l o w i n g , " News o f the N o r t h , May 29, 1976. I gg "Rae Becomes F i r s t Community i n Decades t o P r o h i b i t A l c o h o l , " News o f the N o r t h , August 18, 1976. 1 0 7 "Vote At F r o b i s h e r Bay . . .," News o f the N o r t h , May 29, 1976. 108 "Simpson H o t e l s Take L i q u o r Board t o C o u r t , " News o f the Nor t h , J u l y 16, 1975. 109 "Simpson H o t e l s . . .."News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 16, 1975. 1 1 0 "Simpson H o t e l s . . .," News o f the N o r t h , J u l y 16, 1975. 1 1 1 " R e p o r t Says L o c a l Government E x c l u d e s N a t i v e P e o p l e , " News o f the N o r t h , January 22, 1975. 121 1 > C "Seven C o n t e s t Four Vacant S e a t s on Y e l l o w k n i f e C i t y C o u n c i l , " News o f t h e N o r t h , November 20, 1974, and "Hay R i v e r and F o r t Smith Draw P l e n t y o f M u n i c i p a l C a n d i d a t e s , " News o f the No r t h , November 20, 1974. 113 "Commissioner's Memo to L o c a l Government C h i e f , " News o f the N o r t h , J a n u a r y 28, 1976. Melson, p. 1120. CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS FOR CONFLICT REGULATION The problem t o be d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r has been p h r a s e d c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n r a t h e r than c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o imagine any way o f removing e i t h e r e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s o r t h e i r s a l i e n c e i n the s h o r t run. The g u l f s e p a r a t i n g n a t i v e and White r e s i d e n t s o f the N.W.T. i s too l a r g e t o be overcome e a s i l y o r q u i c k l y even i f p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d agree i t was d e s i r a b l e . S e c o n d l y , as mentioned i n my d i s c u s s i o n o f s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y , Melson and Wolpe s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s n o t the e x i s t e n c e o f e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s t h a t t h r e a t e n s s t a b i l i t y i n a p o l i t i c a l system, b u t r a t h e r the f a i l u r e o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o r e c o g n i z e and accommodate t h o s e d i v i s i o n s . 1 In e x t e n d i n g t h i s argument to the N.W.T. I.would h o l d t h a t i t i s the f a i l u r e o f p o l i c y makers i n the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s t o r e c o g n i z e and accommodate the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y t h a t t h r e a t e n s s t a b i l i t y . The f e d e r a l government i s c l e a r l y the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h i s case and i t s n o r t h e r n p o l i c y makers have c o n s i s t e n t l y adhered t o the p o s i t i o n s e t f o r t h i n the Report o f the A d v i s o r y 122 123 Commission on the Development o f Government i n the Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s i n 1966. The Commission o u t l i n e d the s i x f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f v a l u e s t h a t u n d e r l a y i t s s p e c i f i c recommendations: 1) t h a t the l a r g e s t number o f r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s p o n s i b l e government as soon as p o s s i b l e ; 2) t h a t the govern-ment o f the N.W.T. have s u f f i c i e n t powers and r e s o u r c e s t o f u l f i l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; 3) t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of. government adopted i n the N.W.T s h o u l d not be f o r e i g n to Canadian p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s ; 4) t h a t n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d have economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d i i n g a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the r e s t o f Canada; 5) t h a t p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r economic development remain w i t h the f e d e r a l government; and 6) t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e have the r i g h t 2 t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s . Taken t o g e t h e r these s i x s tatements a l l o w no r e a l room f o r any p o l i c y approach o t h e r than one based on a co n c e p t o f " p o l i t i c a l development" where the i n s t i t u i o n s and s o c i e t y o f s o u t h e r n Canada w i l l be r e c r e a t e d i n the n o r t h . Yet the s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. i s n o t merely a case o f a r r e s t e d p o l i t i c a l development. N a t i v e p e o p l e possess c u l t u r e s s e p a r a t e and a p a r t from the White European c u l t u r e o f the r e s t o f Canada g i v i n g them a s e p a r a t e s e t o f v a l u e s , g o a l s , and communal i n s t i t u t i o n s . N a t i v e p e o p l e have not o r g a n i z e d t o w r e s t p e r m i s s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the White s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , but r a t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h an a l t e r n a t i v e means t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r own c u l t u r e s . N o r t h e r n White s o c i e t y e x i s t s as an e x t e n s i o n o f the c u l t u r e o f 124 s o u t h e r n Canada, a c u l t u r e which tends t o view o t h e r c u l t u r e s as i n f e r i o r and as p o t e n t i a l " o b s t a c l e s " t o f u l f i l l m e n t o f i t s own ends. F o r Whites, the f a c t t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the n o r t h have no t been a s s i m i l a t e d a f t e r t h i r t y y e a r s o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h White c u l t u r e i s t e s t i m o n y o n l y t o the need f o r g r e a t e r e f f o r t s a t a s s i m i l a t i o n and t o the s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the n a t i v e o u t l o o k , r a t h e r than to any p o s i t i v e v a l u e i n o r r e s i l i e n c e o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e s . The problem i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i s not t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e have f a i l e d t o a c q u i r e a "modern" o u t l o o k , b u t r a t h e r t h a t they p o s s e s s a l t e r n a t i v e o u t l o o k s which t h e y w i s h t o p r e s e r v e and de v e l o p . • So l o n g as f e d e r a l p o l i c y makers h o l d t o the model o f p o l i t i c a l development and f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y , p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n w i l l be min i m a l . In o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n on the b a s i s o f p o l i c i e s which r e c o g n i z e the t r u e n a t u r e o f the c o n f l i c t two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s must be ketp i n mind. These a re the dependent s t a t u s o f the N.W.T. and the e x i s t e n c e o f o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e f o r economic development. The f a c t t h a t the N.W.T. i s a dependency o f Canada makes t he f e d e r a l government the c r u c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r p o l i c y making. Yet i t i s i n no way a n e u t r a l a r b i t e r o f c o n f l i c t between groups i n the N.W|T. Nor are i t s i n t e r e s t s i d e n t i c a l t o those o f any one group. However, the f a c t t h a t n o r t h e r n White s o c i e t y e x i s t s as an e x t e n s i o n o f the s o u t h e r n Canadian s o c i e t y and economy means t h a t l o c a l w h i t e i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s are b r o a d l y s i m i l a r t o those o f the f e d e r a l government and t h a t they w i l l l a c k any r e s o u r c e s 125 f o r i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n where they do d i f f e r . Thus the f e d e r a l government assumes the r o l e o f a major p a r t i c i p a n t i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. and n o r t h e r n Whites are r e l e g a t e d to p l a y i n g o n l y an i n d i r e c t r o l e . P r e s s u r e f o r economic development comes from the North American b u s i n e s s community which wishes to expand i t s o p e r a t i o n s i n the N.W.T. on the same p a t t e r n as i n the r e s t o f Canada, from f e d e r a l government departments whose s o l e purpose i s t o a i d p r i v a t e development, and from f e d e r a l government departments r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the N.W.T. who see economic development on the s o u t h e r n Canadian model as both i n e v i t a b l e and d e s i r a b l e f o r the N.W.T. Were i t not f o r t h i s p r e s s u r e a s o r t o f s t a b l e s t a l e m a t e might be p o s s i b l e , one i n which Whites would c o n t i n u e to dominate the "modern" s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y and the economy w h i l e n a t i v e p e o p l e would r e t a i n the l i m i t e d autonomy o f f e r e d by i n c o m p l e t e a s s i m i l a t i o n and i n c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e . Yet such a s t a b l e s t a l e m a t e i s so u n l i k e l y as t o r e q u i r e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n because p r e s s u r e f o r development, i s u n l i k e l y t o rece d e . In h i s book The N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t : The P d l i t i c s o f N o r t h e r n Development,  1968-75, Dosman has documented the f e d e r a l government's commitment to p r o j e c t s such as the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e . T h i s commitment e x i s t s both i n terms o f d i r e c t p a r t n e r s h i p s i n e n t e r p r i s e s , as i n P a n a r c t i c O i l s and N a n i s i v i k Mines, and i n programs d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e the s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t such p r o j e c t s . Even s h o u l d s p e c i f i c major p r o j e c t s f a i l t o m a t e r i a l i z e , l i t t l e s h o r t 126 o f a t o t a l c o l l a p s e o f the Canadian and w o r l d economies would r e -move t h i s p r e s s u r e e n t i r e l y . In h i s C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n i n D i v i d e d S o c i e t i e s N o r d l i n g e r s t r e s s e s t h a t two f a c t o r s a r e c r i t i c a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n i n a s o c i e t y where communal d i v i s i o n s make s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s s a l i e n t and r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t some form o f s t r u c t u r e d r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between l e a d e r s and n o n - e l i t e s . Four p o s s i b l e types o f s t r u c t u r e d e l i t e predominance are s u g g e s t e d by N o r d l i n g e r : 1) a p o l i t i c a l q u i e s c e n c e on the p a r t o f n o n - e l i t e s , 2) n o n - e l i t e a c q u i e s c e n t a t t i t u d e s toward a u t h o r i t y , 3) p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s pyramided to the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and 4) e x i s t e n c e o f mass 3 p a r t i e s w i t h e x t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The second and most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r f o r N o r d l i n g e r i s the p o s s e s s i o n o f c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives by group l e a d e r s . In the N.W.T. the ITC, the I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , and the M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e a form o f s t r u c t u r e d e l i t e predominance s i m i l a r t o mass p a r t i e s . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s were c r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p r o v i d e a means t o deal w i t h the f e d e r a l government i n the attempt to r e s o l v e major i s s u e s i n the N.W.T. Among Whites i n the N.W.T. the e x i s t e n c e o f s t r u c t u r e d e l i t e predominance i s more p r o b l e m a t i c . The White community i s n o t o r g a n i z e d as an e t h n i c group, nor w i l l i t be d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r the ma j o r i s s u e s . Y e t the f a c t t h a t the White community i s dependent on the f e d e r a l government and the s o u t h e r n Canadian economy, combined 127 w i t h the l e g i t i m a c y p o s s e s s e d by the f e d e r a l government as the government o f Canada, would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t the White community would a c c e p t s o l u t i o n s p r o p o s e d on t h e i r b e h a l f w i t h more o r l e s s good g r a c e . W h i le the s i t u a t i o n i n the N.W.T. may f u l f i l l N o r d l i n g e r ' s n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e o f s t r u c t u r e d e l i t e predominance, c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives do not appear t o predominate among the l e a d e r s h i p o f any o f the groups. N o r d l i n g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t a t l e a s t one o f the f o u r f o l l o w i n g c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives must be p r e s e n t : 1) f e a r o f a common e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , 2) d e s i r e to a v o i d economic d i s r u p t i o n o r h a r d s h i p , 3) d e s i r e to a c q u i r e o r r e t a i n p o l i t i c a l power, o r 4) d e s i r e t o a v o i d b l o o d s h e d and s u f f e r i n g 4 by members o f the group. Among Whites the problem i s a g a i n c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t o r o f i n d i r e c t . l e a d e r s h i p , y e t i t i s s a f e t o say t h a t White l e a d e r s a t n e i t h e r the f e d e r a l n o r t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l see any e x t e r n a l t h r e a t n o r f e e l any r e a l i n t e r n a l t h r e a t t o the s a f e t y . o f Whites whetheroor not the c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d . In n e g o t i a t i n g from a c o l o n i a l p o s i t i o n the f e d e r a l government i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h n e i t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n n o r r e t e n t i o n 1 o f p o l i t i c a l power, bu t r a t h e r w i t h i t s d e v o l u t i o n , a p r o c e s s made d i f f i c u l t by the e x i s t e n c e o f the c o n f l i c t . F i n a l l y , Whites a t both l e v e l s are more l i k e l y t o view r e g u l a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t as the most l i k e l y r o u t e t o economic h a r d s h i p f o r the White community. For Whites see the problem as one o r removing " o b s t a c l e s " t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , h a r d l y a m o t i ve c o n d u c i v e to c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n . 128 C o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g motives a l s o appear a b s e n t among n a t i v e l e a d e r s . N a t i v e p e o p l e do p e r c e i v e an e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , b u t i t i s White s o c i e t y i t s e l f t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h i s t h r e a t . N a t i v e p e o p l e f e e l they have l i t t l e t o l o s e i n an economic sense due to t h e i r p o v e r t y and poor i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t he White economy. N a t i v e p e o p l e have no d e s i r e f o r p o l i t i c a l power i n the p r e s e n t system.as i t would be o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o s h a r e . s u c h power w i t h Whites. F i n a l l y , n a t i v e p e o p l e f e e l t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as a p e o p l e i s a l r e a d y i m p e r i l e d and, thus, t h a t s u f f e r i n g f o r t h e i r own groups i s b e s t a v o i d e d by p u r s u i n g t h e i r own ways. I t i s , t h e n , the f a c t t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on m a j o r i s s u e s are r e g a r d e d as fundamental to t h e i r own s u r v i v a l by both n a t i v e and White groups t h a t m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t t h e i r l e a d e r s p o s s e s s i n g c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g m o t i v e s . Yet i f they d i d p o s s e s s such m o t i v e s , i t might then be p o s s i b l e t o r e g u l a t e c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. through use o f one o f the s i x c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e s which N o r d l i n g e r s u g g e s t s may be e f f e c t i v e . • C o n f l i c t might be r e g u l a t e d through c r e a t i o n o f a s t a b l e g o v e r n i n g c o a l i t i o n , through a d o p t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e . o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , through e x e r c i s e o f mutual v e t o , through d e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s * through com-promise, o r through c o n c e s s i o n . However, the mutual e x c l u s i v i t y o f the n a t i v e and White p o s i t i o n s makes t h r e e o f N o r d l i n g e r ' s s i x p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n o p e r a b l e . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e p o l i t i c i z e i s s u e s such as l a n d . c l a i m s , nor to o p e r a t e a g o v e r n i n g c o a l i t i o n when the n a t u r e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t 129 are t o govern i s i n q u e s t i o n , n o r to s a t i s f y e i t h e r n a t i v e p e o p l e o r Whites w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a l s h a r e o f the p o s i t i o n s i n the bureau-c r a c y o r economy w i t h i n a system which they f e e l undermines the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e i r way o f l i f e . A mutual veto i s r u l e d out by the p r e s s u r e from o u t s i d e the N.W.T. f o r development. As N o r d l i n g e r has a l r e a d y r u l e d out f e d e r a l i s m , m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m , and f o r g i n g o f a common n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y as e f f e c t i v e c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e s , o n l y compromise and c o n c e s s i o n remain among 5 c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t remain e q u a l l y l i m i t e d . E t h n i c d i v i s i o n s cannot be removed i n the s h o r t run; they have n o t d i s a p p e a r e d i n t h i r t y y e a r s o f c o n t a c t between n a t i v e and White c u l t u r e s and are even more u n l i k e l y to d i s a p p e a r now t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e have come t o v a l u e t h e i r c u l t u r e s c o n s c i o u s l y . And j u s t as p r e s s u r e f o r development i s u n l i k e l y to drop, so the White community i s u n l i k e l y to abandon i t s p o s i t i o n i n the N.W.T. I f a s o l u t i o n i s n o t found i n c o n c e s s i o n and compromise, then the c o n f l i c t may be pursued u n t i l one group can impose i t s w i l l on the o t h e r . On f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a r r a n g i n g a s u c c e s s f u l package o f compromises o r c o n c e s s i o n s appear s l i m on the same grounds t h a t c o a l i t i o n , p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , and d e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n a r e i m p o s s i b l e . Y e t , as the f e d e r a l government's p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i n the N.W.T. i s i n r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , i t might be p r e p a r e d to make c o n c e s s i o n s i n the areas o f l a n d c l a i m s and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e d major development p r o j e c t s c o u l d 130 p r o c e e d as plan n e d . The Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e i s the major development p r o j e c t p l a n n e d f o r the N.W.T., a p r o j e c t p l a n n e d j o i n t l y by s e v e r a l m u l t i n a t i o n a l o i l companies w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s o f the f e d e r a l government and a major p r o j e c t by any measure. Due t o i t s importance the f e d e r a l government might be p r e p a r e d t o make c o n c e s s i o n s on o t h e r i s s u e s i n o r d e r t o c l e a r the way f o r the p r o j e c t . With the Dene, however, t h i s s t i l l p r o v i d e s l i t t l e r e a l p r o s p e c t o f s u c c e s s f u l compromise as the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e -l i n e i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r g o a l s i n the o t h e r major i s s u e s . The b u i l d i n g o f a p i p e l i n e cannot be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the Dene r e t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development i n t h e i r areas and the ownership o f the l a n d . As I n u i t lands a r e f o r the most p a r t r e l a t i v e l y remote from the proposed r o u t e o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e and as no o t h e r major development p r o j e c t s a r e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t h i s time, i t might be p o s s i b l e f o r the i s s u e o f the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development to take p l a c e t o be s e t a s i d e i n n e g o t i a t i o n s between the I n u i t and the f e d e r a l govern-ment. D e l a y i n g d e a l i n g w i t h t he i s s u e t h a t appears to have the g r e a t e s t p r i o r i t y f o r the f e d e r a l government might then a l l o w a compromise w i t h the I n u i t o v e r l a n d c l a i m s and the n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The f e d e r a l government might be p r e p a r e d t o make such c o n c e s s i o n s t o the I n u i t i f t h i s seemed t o p r o v i d e a way out o f the impasse o v e r development i n the remainder o f the N.W.T. B e i n g a b l e to s e t a s i d e t e m p o r a r i l y the i s s u e o f n a t u r e 131 and r a t e o f development and b e i n g o f f e r e d c o n c e s s i o n s on the o t h e r major i s s u e s , the I n u i t might be i n c l i n e d t o a c c e p t such a compromise. I t i s t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f compromise t h a t s u g g e s t s the most l i k e l y s c e n a r i o f o r c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t i o n i n the N.W.T. A d i v i s i o n o f the N.W.T. a l o n g the t r e e l i n e i n acc o r d a n c e w i t h the I n u i t l a n d c l a i m s p r o p o s a l i s the most l i k e l y compromise f o r the N.W.T. Areas under p r e s s u r e e f o r development have h i s t o r i c a l l y been c u t o f f from the remainder o f the N.W.T. as i n the case o f the Yukon i n 1898, A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i n 1905, and the northward e x t e n s i o n o f Quebec, O n t a r i o , and Manitoba i n 1912.^ The b e s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t such a d i v i s i o n may take p l a c e l i e s i n the a p p r o v a l o f a second MP f o r the N.W.T. by the House o f Commons i n Febru a r y o f 1975. The f e d e r a l boundary commission which was e s t a b l i s h e d t o recommend a s u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n i n t o two r i d i n g s recommended d i v i s i o n a l o n g the t r e e l i n e so as t o ". . . g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f the m a j o r i t y o f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s . " 7 A d i v i s i o n o f the N.W.T. would f a c i l i t a t e a s e t t l e m e n t o f o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s i n both h a l v e s o f the N.W.T. c o n c e s s i o n s t o the I n u i t would be much e a s i e r f o r the f e d e r a l government as t h e i r t e r r i t o r y would have both an i n s i g n i f i c a n t White p o p u l a t i o n and ve r y l i t t l e p r e s s u r e ; ' f o r development. A d d i t i o n a l l y , p r o v i s i o n s i n the I n u i t l a n d c l a i m s p r o p o s a l f o r a r o y a l t y system seem t o i n d i c a t e a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n s i d e r the k i n d o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n 132 p r o j e c t s t o which the f e d e r a l government i s a l r e a d y committed i n the n o r t h . Such a d i v i s i o n would a l s o p l a c e the f e d e r a l government i n a much s t r o n g e r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n i n the o t h e r h a l f o f the N.W.T. where p r e s s u r e f o r development i s immediate. The Mackenzie d i s t r i c t a l r e a d y has a f a i r l y even b a l a n c e o f n a t i v e and White p o p u l a t i o n . Of the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l r i d i n g s l o c a t e d i n the Mackenzie d i s t r i c t , s i x have White C o u n c i l l o r s w h i l e o n l y f o u r have n a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s . Thus, the f e d e r a l government c o u l d o f f e r t o s e t t l e the q u e s t i o n o f l a n d ownership w i t h the Dene p e o p l e w h i l e o f f e r i n g to r e s o l v e the o t h e r i s s u e s through the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l as the assembly r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l the r e s i d e n t s o f the N.W.T. Such a compromise would not.be w e l l r e c e i v e d by the Dene o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u t t h e i r p o s i t i o n would.be undermined by a s e t o f p r o p o s a l s a c c e p t a b l e t o both the I n u i t and n o r t h e r n Whites. S h o u l d the f e d e r a l government and n a t i v e groups f a i l t o n e g o t i a t e such a.compromise s e t t l e m e n t o r s h o u l d one o r more n a t i v e groups f a i l to agree to such a s e t t l e m e n t , the most l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y i s a f o r c e d s e t t l e m e n t . The dependent s t a t u s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e i r i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n r e l a t i o n to Canada as a whole make the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l . r e s i s t a n c e s m a l l . Armed r e s i s t a n c e o f s m a l l bands o f f e r s l i t t l e r e a l t h r e a t t o the White p o p u l a t i o n , even i f o n l y because o f the l a r g e degree o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . Sabotage o f development p r o j e c t s , though d i f f i c u l t t o p r e v e n t , l i k e w i s e o f f e r s l i t t l e r e a l p r o s p e c t o f f o r c i n g f e d e r a l 133 c a p i t u l a t i o n t o n a t i v e demands. The s t r o n g e s t weapon n a t i v e p e o p l e possess i s p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n the s o u t h . Y e t a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign by the f e d e r a l government combined w i t h what appears t o Whites t o be a generous s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r s o u t h e r n o b s e r v e r s t o d i s t i n g u i s h a f o r c e d s e t t l e m e n t from the p r o c e s s o f c o n c e s s i o n and compromise. Yet as n a t i v e p e o p l e f e e l t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s . a t s t a k e i n t h i s c o n f l i c t , they w i l l n o t be e a s i l y persuaded to abandon the s t r u g g l e m e r e l y because t h e i r chances f o r s u c c e s s appear s m a l l . I f c o n f l i c t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e g u l a t e d and use o f f o r c e t o be a v o i d e d , then the s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n p o l i t i c s i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s must be r e c o g n i z e d and a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y adjustments made by the f e d e r a l government. The European o c c u p a t i o n o f North America has f i n a l l y r e a c h e d the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f the c o n t i n e n t . S i n c e W.W. II a s e p a r a t e ;White s o c i e t y , has grown up i n the N.W.T. a l o n g s i d e the Dene and I n u i t s o c i e t i e s . These n a t i v e c u l t u r e s have themselves been changed by c o n t a c t s w i t h White c u l t u r e and they a re n o . l o n g e r f u l l y independent. Y e t they s t i l l p r o v i d e n a t i v e p e o p l e w i t h a s e p a r a t e s e t o f v a l u e s , g o a l s , and communal i n s t i t u t i o n s . E t h n i c i t y remains s a l i e n t i n the p o l i t i c s o f the N.W.T. The s a l i e n c e o f e t h n i c i t y i n the N.W.T. has r e s u l t e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e t h n i c based c o n f l i c t groups and has c r e a t e d a he i g h t e n e d sense o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . I t has f o c u s e d c o n f l i c t on the i s s u e s o f l a n d c l a i m s , the n a t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 134 to govern the N.W.T., and the n a t u r e and r a t e o f development to tak e p l a c e i n the N.W.T. E t h n i c i t y has undermined t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f govern-ment i n the N.W.T. and has c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n the very e x i s t e n c e o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as a p o l i t i c a l u n i t . P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e g u l a t i o n o r r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n the N.W.T. appear as s l i m as the o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e f o r and f e d e r a l 'commitment t o J development are g r e a t . 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