UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Leonid Leonov’s Vor : a Soviet paradise lost Stelmaszynski, Margaret Burgess 1977

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L E O N I D L E O N O V ' S VOR: A S O V I E T PARADISE LOST by MARGARET BURGESS STELMASZYNSKI B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f A r t s i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Slavonic Studies) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e g u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977 cj Margaret Burgess Stelmaszynski, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e flny-M ?Q 1Q77 6 ABSTRACT LEONID LEONOV'S VOR: A SOVIET PARADISE LOST There i s a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t i n the assessments by Western c r i t i c s o f the two v a r i a n t s o f L e o n i d Leonov's n o v e l , Vor (The T h i e f ) : whereas the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n (1927) i s f r e q u e n t l y a c c l a i m e d as the f i n e s t and most a r t i s t i c a l l y honest o f a l l h i s l i t e r a r y endeavours, Leonov's r e v i s i o n o f the work (1959) i s g e n e r a l l y viewed as evidence o f h i s f i n a l c a p i t u l a t i o n t o the d i c t a t e s o f s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s t d o c t r i n e . The p r e s e n t study was i n i t i a t e d as an attempt to e l u c i d a t e c e r t a i n obscure thematic and symbolic elements p e r c e i v e d d u r i n g a c o n c e n t r a t e d examination o f the f i r s t n o v e l o n l y . G r a d u a l l y , however, as the s i g n i f i c a n c e of thesi elements became i n c r e a s i n g l y more e v i d e n t , a t t e n t i o n was s h i f t e d to the r e v i s i o n t o determine whether o r not they had s u r v i v e d the d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n and time. I f they had been p r e s e r v e d , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r r i s i n g from the o b s c u r i t y o f t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be overcome, then Leonov's t a r n i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n i n the West was d e c i d e d l y undeserved. S u r p r i s i n g l y , those elements most c r u c i a l to the e l u s i v e message o f the o r i g i n a l have not merely s u r v i v e d , but have o f t e n been c l a r i f i e d and e l a b o r a t e d as w e l l . The key to t h e i r understanding l i e s i n the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a l e v e l o f n a r r a t i o n "higher" than t h a t o f the everyday r e a l i t y o f s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d circumstances and events. For, i n a d d i t i o n to h i s concern w i t h t o p i c a l i s s u e s , Leonov r e v e a l s a profound i n t e r e s t i n the g r e a t m e t a p h y s i c a l con-f l i c t s t h a t are e t e r n a l l y r e - e n a c t e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f the human s o u l . The v e h i c l e f o r h i s d e p i c t i o n o f these con-f l i c t s i s a network of symbolism, p r i m a r i l y B i b l i c a l i n o r i -g i n , which has as i t s b a s i s the e p i c myth of "Paradise L o s t . " The e x e g e s i s o f t h i s symbolic framework has been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s : I) I n t r o d u c t i o n , II) P a r a d i s e L o s t , II I ) P a r a d i s e Regained, IV) P a r a d i s e R e j e c t e d , or the Theory of P r o g r e s s , and V) C o n c l u s i o n s . Chapter I s e t s the stage f o r the a n a l y s i s by p l a c i n g the t r a g i c " r i d d l e " o f human e x i s t e n c e (the c o n f l i c t o f Good versus E v i l ) i n the context o f the "march of the g e n e r a t i o n s , " or h i s t o r y . Chapter I I shows how the m e t a p h y s i c a l r e b e l l i o n (or " f a l l " ) o f Dmitry Vekshin (Leonov 1s " u n i v e r s a l Adam") i s r e -f l e c t e d i n the symbolic nucleus o f the n o v e l , the " b l i g h t e d b i r c h , " and o u t l i n e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p a r a l l e l f o r the f a t e s o f Vekshin and of R u s s i a . As the tragedy o f the f a l l e n Adam l e d to the promise of the r i s e n C h r i s t , so the s p i r i t u a l death s i g n i f i e d by Vek-s h i n 1 s own " f a l l " l eads t o the p o t e n t i a l i t y o f h i s " r e b i r t h . " Chapter I I I l o c a t e s Leonov's d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i n a p o l y p h o n i c s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s and events t h a t V i s h i g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f Dostoevsky, Chapter IV focuses on Vekshin's r e j e c t i o n o f s a l v a -t i o n and on the r e v i s e d n o v e l ' s g r e a t l y e l a b o r a t e d "theory of human p r o g r e s s , " i n which Leonov d e s c r i b e s the c o n f l i c t between "happiness" and "hope," between c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l human beings and the a b s t r a c t i d e a o f a " g r e a t e r human good." Dmitry Vekshin's. r e j e c t i o n o f " P a r a d i s e " u l t i m a t e l y s i g n i f i e s the author's own l a c k o f f a i t h i n the Communist i d e a l . In c o n c l u s i o n , Chapter V d i s c u s s e s s p e c i f i c i n d i c a -t i o n s o f Leonov's awareness o f the s u b v e r s i v e nature o f h i s i d e a s , and o f the dangers t o which he i s consequently exposed. I t i s a h i g h l y i r o n i c measure o f h i s success t h a t Leonov's s u r v i v a l i n S o v i e t s o c i e t y should have won him such a c c l a i m i n the S o v i e t Union and such condemnation i n the f r e e world. In any case, h i s achievements as an a r t i s t have been a t t a i n e d a t immense p e r s o n a l c o s t , and i t i s time they were r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r t r u e v a l u e . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . P a r a d i s e L o s t 20 I I I . P a r a d i s e Regained..... . .. 42 IV. P a r a d i s e R e j e c t e d , or The Theory of P r o g r e s s . . . . 60 V. C o n c l u s i o n s 79 Footnotes 92 B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Sources C o n s u l t e d 107 v i ACKNOWLE DGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Mr. Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i , Dr. Z b i g n i e w F o l e j e w s k i , Dr. M i c h a e l H. F u t r e l l , Dr. B a r b a r a H e l d t M o n t e r , Dr. C h r i s t o p h e r J . G. T u r n e r , and Mr. V a l e -r i a n R e v u t s k y f o r r e a d i n g and commenting on my t h e s i s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s d u r i n g i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. F o l e j e w s k i , who f i r s t e n c o u r a g e d my i n t e r e s t i n t h e s o - c a l l e d p r z e k l e t e p r o b l e m y ; t o my f a t h e r , Rev. W. E . B u r g e s s , f r o m whom I no d o u b t i n h e r i t e d t h i s i n t e r e s t , a s w e l l a s a tendency t o a p p l y i t t o t h e s t u d y o f l i t e r a t u r e ; . and t o my h u s b a n d , W o j t e k , who p a t i e n t l y s u f f e r e d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Any study of Leonid Leonov 1s n o v e l The T h i e f (Vor) i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e s some degree of comparison between the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1927,"^ and the major a d d i t i o n s and r e v i s i o n s o f the second v e r s i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1959.' Many s p e c u l a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d t o e x p l a i n the appearance of a s u b s t a n t i a l l y new and d i f f e r e n t n o v e l a t a time when r e - p u b l i c a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l had f i n a l l y become p o s s i b l e . The m a j o r i t y o f Western c r i t i c s has taken the r e v i s i o n to be s i g n i f i c a t i v e o f the f i n a l step i n the c a p i t u l a t i o n o f Leonov, i n what i s ve r y n e g a t i v e l y viewed as the author's f i n a l " s e l l o u t " t o the demands of s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m . At the more moderate end o f the spectrum of c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t Leonov are the views of Marc Slonim and E . J . Simmons, who express the o p i n i o n t h a t the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of the w r i t e r has f a i l e d to ac h i e v e f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n . " I t i s p r o b a b l e , " w r i t e s Slonim, " t h a t h i s d e l i b e r a t e endeavors t o conform l i m i t e d h i s freedom of s e l f -2 e x p r e s s i o n and curbed h i s n a t u r a l development." Simmons contends t h a t the be g i n n i n g o f Leonov's d e c l i n e as an a r t i s -t i c i n n o v a t o r c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s completion of the f i r s t v e r s i o n of The T h i e f . 2 L e o n o v was n e v e r a g a i n t o e x e r c i s e so c o m p l e t e l y t h e f r e e s p i r i t o f c r e a t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h a r t i s t i c a l l y d i g n i f i e s t h i s n o v e l . F o r i n h i s n e x t e f f o r t , t h e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r h e e d e d t h e " s o c i a l command" f o r f i c t i o n t h a t w o u l d f u r t h e r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e Communist P a r t y . 3 A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e i s t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y s u c h . . 4 c r i t i c s a s V e r a A l e x a n d r o v a , H e l e n M u c h n i c , and D a v i d B u r g . Of t h e s e t h r e e , t h e l a t t e r p r e s e n t s t h e most a r t i -c u l a t e and a l s o t h e most s c a t h i n g c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e s t a n c e ' a d o p t e d by L e o n o v d u r i n g t h e y e a r s t o come. H a v i n g a r r i v e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e " n o v e l o r i g i n a l l y d e a l -i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d by t h e R e v o l u t i o n h a s become 5 an a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s , " B u r g p r e s e n t s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c t m e n t o f L e o n o v ' s r e v i s i o n and o f i t s i n c l u s i o n , and t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l , i n t h e new, u p d a t e d C o l l e c t e d Works: What c o m p e l l e d L e o n o v t o d e v o t e so much t i m e t o an a c c o u n t i n g w i t h h i s own p a s t , and j u s t a t t h i s t i m e ? P r e v i o u s l y , h i s p a s t h a d n o t c a u s e d h i m w o r r y . I t had b een f o r g o t t e n ; he h a d a t o n e d f o r i t . B u t now, i t a p p e a r e d , t h e r e had s u d d e n l y come t o t h e s u r f a c e i n t h e p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s •an e p o c h o n c e d i s c a r d e d . Many o f t h e s t r i c t e s t t a b u s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h a t p r e - S t a l i n i s t , p o s t -S o v i e t t i m e w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s e t t i n g f o r The  T h i e f were f a l l i n g away. There- was n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e n o v e l f r o m a p p e a r i n g i n p r i n t . T h i s L e o n o v c o u l d n o t p e r m i t . E m b r a c i n g t h e "new mo-r a l i t y " — t h e m o r a l i t y o f d e v o t i o n t o t h e s t a t e w h i c h c a r r i e s o u t t h e w i l l o f h i s t o r y - - h e had l o n g s i n c e r e n o u n c e d t h e humanism w h i c h had i n -s p i r e d h i m i n t h e 1920's and s u p p r e s s e d h i s n a t u -r a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a n i f o l d v a r i e t y o f l i f e . T h u s , L e o n o v ' s i n n e r e v o l u t i o n came f u l l c i r c l e . H i s p a s t , w i t h i t s e s t h e t i c p r o b l e m s and t h e q u e s -t i o n s w h i c h he had .once a s k e d o f l i f e , had unex-3 p e c t e d l y become urgent once a g a i n . L e f t untouched, The T h i e f would have p r o v i d e d too s t r o n g an argu-ment a g a i n s t the c o n c l u s i o n s t o which the w r i t e r had come d u r i n g the course of h i s l i f e . 6 O f f i c i a l S o v i e t c r i t i c i s m has been f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s assessment of the changes. E a r l y r e a c t i o n to the appearance of the new v e r s i o n c o n t a i n e d the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the purpose of the r e v i s i o n was to c o r r e c t the i d e o l o -g i c a l e r r o r s of the o r i g i n a l . An example of t h i s i s E.V. 7 S t a r i k o v a ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the r e v i s i o n . L a t e r c r i t i -c ism, however, has been much more c a u t i o u s about a s s i g n i n g i n f l u e n c e to e x t e r n a l or o f f i c i a l demands, and S t a r i k o v a h e r s e l f i n a subsequent a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e d the two n o v e l s as being "permeated by Leonov's argument w i t h h i m s e l f , the argument of a s i x t y - y e a r - o l d w r i t e r w i t h a t w e n t y - f i v e year g o l d one." V.A. Kovalev, by f a r the most p r o l i f i c o f Leo-nov 's S o v i e t c r i t i c s , m a i n t a i n s t h a t the new n o v e l does not r e p r e s e n t merely a p a r t i a l improvement of the t e x t of the o r i g i n a l or a deeper e l a b o r a t i o n of the psychology of the c h a r a c t e r s , but r a t h e r t h a t i t s i g n i f i e s the r i p e n i n g of an 9 e n t i r e l y new c o n c e p t i o n of the n o v e l . On the whole, the emphasis of r e c e n t S o v i e t c r i t i c i s m i s on the matured t a l e n t o f the author, on h i s more r e f i n e d w r i t i n g technique and h i s e v o l v e d and c l a r i f i e d p h i l o s o p h y , which r e s u l t e d i n h i s p u r e l y p e r s o n a l d e s i r e t o smooth and p o l i s h the r o u g h l y c u t gem of h i s youth. Such i s the c l a i m of the w r i t e r h i m s e l f , and S o v i e t c r i t i c s are quick t o j u s t i f y t h e i r arguments by 4 f a l l i n g back on d i r e c t statements o f the author, many o f them drawn from p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s granted by Leonov. T y p i c a l i s the f o l l o w i n g statement of the author c i t e d by I.A. Demchenko: The n o v e l was p u b l i s h e d a t home and t r a n s l a t e d abroad. But I p e r s o n a l l y was always tormented by the knowledge of the incompleteness of s e v e r a l p l a c e s , of the f a c t t h a t the novel was not c o m p l e t e l y w r i t t e n , perhaps, not thought through to the end. And a f t e r t h i r t y years I s t i l l hadn't abandoned my i n t e n t i o n of somehow c u r s o r i l y going through the t e x t of the n o v e l w i t h pen i n hand...And f o r t h i s an o c c a s i o n p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f . A f t e r the appearance of the n o v e l The Russian F o r e s t i t was suggested t h a t I r e p u b l i s h The T h i e f , which was not i n c l u d e d i n the f i r s t " ~ C o l l e c E i ~ d Works, a f a c t which provoked many l e t t e r s from my r e a d e r s . I s a t down w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of a c c o m p l i s h i n g my aim i n t h r e e weeks or a month. And i t so happened t h a t I spent on i t . . . t w o and a h a l f y e ars of c o n c e n t r a t e d w r i t e r ' s work. And i t i s note-worthy t h a t when I had about twenty pages l e f t to the end of the work, I had to disassemble the n o v e l i n t o i t s component p a r t s and, w i t h today's hand and today's i n k , w r i t e the n o v e l s t i l l one more time. 1 0 Z.I. K e d r i n a , i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "On the High Road of P r o g r e s s , " openly r e f u t e s the p o s i t i o n of c r i t i c s who tend to r e g a r d the r e v i s i o n as a c o r r e c t i o n of o l d m i s t a k e s : " I t seems to me t h a t the p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e of c r i t i c s i n c l i n e d to see 'the i n many ways erroneous concep-t i o n of the n o v e l as a whole,' ( o b v i o u s l y , of the f i r s t v e r s i o n ) , i s not completely j u s t . " 1 1 K e d r i n a goes on to say: On the c o n t r a r y , i t seems to me t h a t i n the new v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l L e o n o v d o e s n o t r e p u d i a t e t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r , b u t r a t h e r p l a c e s t h e d o m i n a n t p r o b l e m i n i t o f s o c i a l e g o i s m and i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e human c h a r a c t e r on a more s o l i d s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s , a t t a i n i n g c l a r i t y o f h i s i d e a s and i m a g e s , e l i m i -n a t i n g t h e i m m a t u r i t y o f o t h e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l j u d g e m e n t s , e x c h a n g i n g t h e t e m p o r a l - c o n d i t i o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r t h e i r r e a l i s t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d d e p i c t i o n . 12 And she i n t u r n s u p p o r t s h e r c l a i m s w i t h a s t a t e m e n t drawn f r o m a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n o v : I u n d e r t o o k a new e d i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l b e c a u s e t h a t w h i c h was s e t i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n has now m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f . . . . I t i s l i k e an o b l i g a t i o n i n w h i c h i s c o n t a i n e d what i s i n i t s own way a p r o -m i s e f o r t h e f u t u r e , and a f t e r w a r d s i t i s e i t h e r j u s t i f i e d o r i t i s n o t . U n d e r n e a t h e v e r y e p o c h , w h e t h e r i t i s h e r o i c o r b a s e , v e r y b l o o d y o r q u i e t a n d i d y l l i c - - t h e r e a l w a y s l i e s a t h i c k l a y e r o f human e x i s t e n c e . I have a l w a y s t r i e d t o r e a c h t h i s l a y e r , t o p u l l i t o u t and examine what i s t a k i n g p l a c e t h e r e . When I w r o t e The  T h i e f , s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e C i v i l War, I t r i e d t o m a s t e r t h e new, b u t I d i d n o t y e t know t h e " h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c s " o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a n d I had t o f e e l my way. E x i s t e n c e f o r i t s own s a k e has n e v e r i n t e r e s t e d me; what i n t e r e s t s me i s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e l i f e p r o c e s s , and t h e f i r s t t i m e , n o t s t o p p i n g a l o n g t h e r o a d o f i t s r e s e a r c h , I e m p l o y e d t e m p o r a r y ,moulages o f e x i s t e n c e . And now t h e t i m e has come t o j u s t i f y t h i s o b l i g a t i o n w i t h t h e " p u r e g o l d " o f r e a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and t o remove t h e r u b b i s h . 13 R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i n c l i n a t i o n o f W e s t e r n s t u d e n t s o S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e t o r e l e g a t e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and t h e p r o b l e m , f o r e x a m p l e , o f " s o c i a l e g o i s m " ( r e f e r r e d t o by K e d r i n a above) t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , and w h e t h e r 6 or not t h i s tendency i s i n f a c t j u s t i f i a b l e with regard to the writings of Leonov, there i s nothing o v e r t l y reprehen-s i b l e i n the author's motivations for r e v i s i o n presented 14 above or i n other quotations which could be c i t e d . There i s no substantial i n d i c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to Western readers that any kind of c a p i t u l a t i o n has taken place, whether to pressures from without or from any other kind of incitement. While t h i s obviously cannot preclude such a p o s s i b i l i t y , a l t e r n a t i v e explanations for the re-working of the o r i g i n a l novel should be a l l o t t e d due consideration. Is i t incon-ceivable that a writer might have survived, and moreover, have been successful i n contemporary Soviet society without some kind of moral breakdown having taken place? Is i t not possible that anti-Soviet c r i t i c s have been a l l too w i l l i n g to assign blame to those "monstrosities of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m " which have come to be taken so much as a given i n any a n a l y t i c a l point of departure? Perhaps the most important of a l l motivations toward r e v i s i o n may be c l a r i f i e d by a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t approach to the issue. Kovalev, i n his a r t i c l e on the " r e b i r t h " of the novel — " V t o r o e rozhdenie romana Vor"—devotes a b r i e f section to the misunderstandings between the author and his c r i t i c s . "I don't suffer from conceit," Leonov i s quoted as having stated i n a newspaper a r t i c l e i n 1930, "and i t i s r i d i c u l o u s to say that they have not understood the author, but with 15 The Thief p r e c i s e l y such-a misunderstanding has occurred." 7 Kovalev blames the misunderstanding on the i n s i s t e n c e o f the c r i t i c s on i n t e r p r e t i n g the work p r i m a r i l y "as an a r t i s -t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the NEP p e r i o d " and as a p r e s e n t a t i o n of "a ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n ' o f contemporary s o c i e t y , " d e s p i t e the author's i n d i c a t i o n o f the need f o r f u r t h e r ana-l y s i s o f what he p e r s o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c h i e f m e r i t of the n o v e l , i . e . i t s treatment of the " c u l t u r a l r e v o l u -16 t i o n . " He quotes Leonov: "In The T h i e f I wanted t o say t h a t , a p a r t from the f i g h t f o r the c r e a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l v a l u e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t we master the huge c u l t u r e o f 17 the p a s t . " And Leonov h i m s e l f takes some of the blame f o r the m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : "But I expressed vaguely the fundamental s t r i v i n g of the hero...the v e r y t u r n i n g o f 18 Mitka towards c u l t u r e . For t h i s reason the n o v e l was not 19 understood by the re a d e r s and the c r i t i c s . " I t may w e l l be t h a t S o v i e t c r i t i c s today b e l i e v e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the above-described d i f f i c u l t i e s have been r e s o l v e d . A f t e r a l l , these remarks were made t h i r t y -f i v e y e a r s ago. I t would be w i s e r , however, t o remain s c e p t i c a l on t h i s p o i n t . I f the o r i g i n a l n o v e l was so abysmally misunderstood, i s i t p o s s i b l e t o be a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t the second v e r s i o n has not met w i t h a s i m i l a r f a t e ? Moreover, might not the b a s i c assumption t h a t Leonov intended or d e s i r e d h i s n o v e l to be com p l e t e l y understood by everyone i t s e l f be mistaken? Concealed beneath the complex maze of s u r f a c e a m b i g u i t i e s (so o f t e n complained about by 8 students and c r i t i c s a l i k e ) , might t h e r e not be a deeper l e v e l of meaning d i r e c t e d o n l y towards those who would be sympathetic to i t s f o r b i d d e n i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Leonov i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be easy r e a d i n g even by n a t i v e speakers of the Russian l a n g u a g e , ^ and one c r i t i c comments t h a t h i s books "are p r o b a b l y the most i n t e l l e c t u a l i n modern S o v i e t 21 l i t e r a t u r e . " The p r e d i l e c t i o n of the author f o r micro-, s c o p i c d e t a i l and l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r complex grammatical and p l o t s t r u c t u r e s , f o r deep p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought and i n t r i c a t e and animated po l e m i c s , g i v e s him a b e t t e r chance of e l u d i n g o f f i c i a l censure than most S o v i e t w r i t e r s . The l i t e r a t u r e of T s a r i s t R u s s i a , which had a l o n g h i s t o r y of r e p r e s s i o n and c e n s o r s h i p , was t r a d i t i o n a l l y the f i e l d which attempted to absorb and t r a n s m i t , by whatever means of e x p r e s s i o n p o s s i b l e , i d e a s and messages which would have been unmentionable i n any other area of endeavour. I m p l a u s i b l e and dangerous as i t might seem, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s t r a d i t i o n i n contemporary S o v i e t s o c i e t y should not be i g n o r e d . Max Hayward, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the anthology D i s s o n a n t V o i c e s i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , makes some remarks which are h i g h l y r e l e v a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t : L e o ni d Leonov, e a s i l y the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d and s u b t l e of the s u r v i v i n g S o v i e t n o v e l i s t s , and an avowed d i s c i p l e of Dostoevsky, c o n t i n u e d to w r i t e a l l through the worst p e r i o d without unduly com-pr o m i s i n g h i s a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y . But t h i s was an i s o l a t e d case. Leonov's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of h i s 9 p o s i t i o n was b a s e d on t h e same s o r t o f m y s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m , and p r o b a b l y c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e same r e l i g i o u s m e s s i a n i s m , as one f i n d s i n D o s t o e v s k y ' s D i a r y o f a W r i t e r , F o r L e o n o v b o l s h e v i s m i s o n l y one e p i s o d e i n t h e e t e r n a l d e s t i n i e s o f R u s s i a . He may e v e n have b e e n i n t r i g u e d by t h e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s o f w r i t i n g w i t h i n t h e cramped c o n f i n e s o f s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m and he may w e l l have r e g a r d e d h i s work i n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s as a k i n d o f p o d v i g ( s p i r i t u a l f e a t ) i n t h e R u s s i a n O r t h o d o x t r a d i t i o n . H i s was t h e n o b l e s t t y p e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n and i t was u n d o u b t e d l y m o t i v a t e d by a f e e l i n g o f d u t y t o w a r d s h i s g e n e r a t i o n . N o t e v e r y b o d y c o u l d e n j o y t h e r e l a t i v e l u x u r y o f s i l e n c e and he f e l t i t n e c e s -s a r y t o c o n v e y t o h i s r e a d e r s — t h r o u g h a l l t h e a l m o s t i n s u p e r a b l e b a r r i e r s — s o m e t h i n g o f t h e t r u t h a b o u t man and R u s s i a . I n t h i s , f o r a l l t h o s e c a p a b l e o f i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s s u b t l e a m b i g u i t i e s , he s u c -c e e d e d w e l l . H i s most i m p r e s s i v e " f e a t " was t h e n o v e l R u s s i a n F o r e s t , w r i t t e n i n t h e most d i f f i -c u l t y e a r s p r e c e d i n g S t a l i n ' s d e a t h and p u b l i s h e d i n 1953. I m p e c c a b l y " s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s t " i n t o n e and s t r u c t u r e , t h i s n o v e l y e t manages t o s u g g e s t b y d e v i o u s s y m b o l i s m t h a t human a f f a i r s and t h e f a t e o f R u s s i a a r e much more compl e x t h a n t h e c r u d e o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l t h o u g h t w o u l d e v e r f o l l o w . 22 I n an " I n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n i d L e o n o v , " p r i n t e d i n t h e December, 1961 E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e e d i t i o n o f t h e Moscow j o u r -n a l S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , a r e p l y i s made by L e o n o v t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f h i s work p r e s e n t e d by Hayward. The w r i t e r d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o r e j e c t Hayward's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " W e l l , I t h i n k t h e r e ' s no s e n s e i n e n t e r i n g i n t o p o l e m i c s o v e r d e -t a i l s o r o f r e f u t i n g t h i s o r t h a t f o r m u l a t i o n o r s t a t e m e n t , " s a y s L e o n o v . "The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g h e r e i s t h e a u t h o r s ' 23 g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h , t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o u s , t o o u r humanism." A s k e d how he f e l t a b o u t Hayward's s t a t e m e n t t h a t he r e g a r d e d h i s work as a k i n d o f p o d v i g o r s p i r i t u a l f e a t , L e o n o v r e p l i e d : The O r t h o d o x t r a d i t i o n . . . I t seems t o me t h e r e ' s some c o n f u s i o n o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e r e . P e r h a p s Hayward i s j u d g i n g by t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f my l a n g u a g e , by my c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r v e r b a l f r e s h -n e s s i n t h e r o o t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , i n t h e g e n e a -l o g y o f t h e word, so t o s p e a k . . , . I g r a n t t o o t h a t Hayward may have f o r m e d h i s v i e w s on my work as a r e s u l t o f my i n t e r e s t — s o m e -t i m e s a b s t r a c t , sometimes s p e c i f i c — i n t h e p r o b l e m o f Good and E v i l , s o m e t h i n g t h a t was a l w a y s a k i n t o t h e g r e a t R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n -t u r y . . . . ! a l s o t h i n k t h a t i t w o u l d be v e r y u s e f u l f o r a l l o f us i n t h e w o r l d i f we t h o u g h t more a b o u t Good and E v i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o d a y when we a r e a l l t h r e a t e n e d w i t h a common d a n g e r . I t ' s a g r e a t p i t y t h a t i n l i t e r a t u r e as a w h o l e r e f l e c t i o n s on Good and E v i l a r e n o t i c e a b l y d i s a p p e a r i n g , t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g r e p l a c e d more and more by what I c a l l e d i n my R u s s i a n F o r e s t ' n o v e l s on t h e l i v e s o f f l i e s . ' I t ' s h i g h t i m e f o r l i t e r a t u r e t o s t a r t a more s e r i o u s t a l k — i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t a l e n t , o f c o u r s e - - a b o u t g e n e r a l t h i n g s ( s i d e by s i d e w i t h u r g e n t t o p i c s ) , s u c h as t h e f u t u r e o f c u l t u r e o r t h e d e a d l y n a t u r e o f o u r k n o w l e d g e . . . . As f o r Max Hayward's r e f e r e n c e t o a ' k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l f e a t , ' I h a r d l y t h i n k he had i n mind t h e l i f e o f S t . B a r b a r a t h e M a r t y r b u t I a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t i n so f a r t h a t t h e work o f a w r i t e r , h i s s e r v i c e t o t h e c a u s e o f h u m a n i t y , h a d n e v e r b e e n e a s y . C o n c e r n i n g m y s e l f I c a n add t h a t I h a v e , i n d e e d , a l w a y s t r i e d as h o n e s t l y a s p o s s i b l e and i n t h e m easure o f my powers and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o k e e p a l i g h t t h e s p a r k o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g , n o t l e t t i n g i t be e x t i n g u i s h e d by t h e r a t h e r s h a r p g u s t s o f w i n d t h a t h a v e sometimes a r i s e n . . . . 24 L e o n o v a c c e p t s h i s r o l e as a w r i t e r i n " s e r v i c e t o t h e c a u s e o f h u m a n i t y " as a g r e a t m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n . "The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t b e f o r e t h e w o r l d , b e f o r e t h e f u t u r e h u m a n i t y i s t o d a y i m m e a s u r a b l e I And i t i s n e c e s s a r t o work w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f u l l m e asure o f t h i s 25 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " The a i m o f t h e t r u e a r t i s t i s , i n h i s 11 d e f i n i t i o n , " t o h e l p m a n k i n d t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s e l f , i t s p r e s e n t and i t s f u t u r e . " "From l i t e r a t u r e we a w a i t n o t v u l g a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s , b u t p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e e s -2 6 s e n c e o f t h i n g s and p r o c e s s e s . " L e o n o v 1 s o w n c h a r a c t e r , t h e w r i t e r F i r s o v , when a s k e d what k i n d o f a r t i s , i n h i s o p i n i o n , n e c e s s a r y (Kakoe t e b e nuzhno i s k u s s t v o ? ) , g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g most r e v e a l i n g a n swer: — Y o u s e e , my L a d y , t h e human s o u l i s a r a t h e r s t r a n g e mechanism. U n l i k e a s e w i n g m a c h i n e , f o r example, i t c a n n o t e n d u r e h a v i n g a s c r e w d r i v e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o i t . I t w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e any c h e m i s t r y i n t a b l e t s f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e v i l ; i t n e e d s t h e n a t u r a l p r o d u c t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w ants t o c o n t e m p l a t e p e r s o n a l l y e v e r y t h i n g o f w h i c h e x i s t e n c e i s composed, t h a t i s , e t e r n i t y , t h e s t r u g g l e o f L i g h t and D a r k n e s s , b e g i n n i n g s and e n d i n g s , and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a s w e l l i n w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d one d a y i n l i f e s t r i c t c h o i c e and r e f l e c t i o n , t h a t i s - - w i t h i t s own w i d e - o p e n e y e s , and n o t i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s o f p r a c t i s i n g mem-b e r s o f t h e l i t e r a r y g u i l d . Human i n s p i r a t i o n d o e s n o t l i k e i t o t h e r w i s e , i t f a d e s and p e r i s h e s , n o t h a v i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e v e r e n t i a l e x e r c i s e , a s a r e s u l t o f w h i c h m i g h t one d ay t u r n o u t some-t h i n g q u i t e t h e r e v e r s e o f a h i g h e r l e v e l . I n a word, I s t a n d f o r a r t w h i c h makes man b e t t e r i n g e n e r a l , and n o t i n some k i n d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e -e c o n o m i c o r , l e t ' s s a y , s a n i t a t i o n and h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n d e p a r t m e n t . . . 2 7 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t a r e h i g h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t f i r s t o f a l l f o r t h e s t r i k i n g l y n o n - S o v i e t ( i f n o t o u t r i g h t a n t i - S o v i e t ) c h a r a c t e r o f i t s p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e human s o u l , w h i c h i s r e s i s t a n t t o a l l a t t e m p t s , f r o m w h a t e v e r s o u r c e s , t o impose any e s t a -b l i s h e d c o d e o f m o r a l v a l u e s . Any r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e p r o -c e s s o f s e a r c h i n g and s e l f - c o n t e m p l a t i o n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s 12 the n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n of moral v a l u e s w i l l r e s u l t i n the f a d i n g and d y i n g away of the s o u l from pure l a c k of use, F i r s o v e x p l a i n s , w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t h a t i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e of Moses' Ten Commandments (" t a b l e t s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e v i l " ) . Rather, the human s o u l must be f r e e to con-template by and f o r i t s e l f a l l the v a r i o u s elements of e x i s t e n c e . I t i s on t h i s extremely i n t e r e s t i n g l i s t of the com-ponents of human e x i s t e n c e t h a t a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s e d : " e t e r n i t y , b e g i nnings and endings, the s t r u g g l e of L i g h t and Darkness." The a s s o c i a t i o n which immediately comes to mind i s Leonov's above-declared a b i d i n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the age-old dilemma of Good versus E v i l ( L i g h t = Good; Darkness = E v i l ) and r u e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " i n l i t e r a -t u r e as a whole r e f l e c t i o n s on Good and E v i l are r e g r e t -f u l l y d i s a p p e a r i n g . " Thus the q u e s t i o n of how Leonov has h i m s e l f d e a l t w i t h t h i s problem becomes c r u c i a l . I t i s to be the fundamental premise of t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t the n o v e l , The T h i e f , i n both i t s o r i g i n a l and f i n a l forms, i s f i r s t and foremost a major p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s s e r - t a t i o n on the moral concepts of Good and E v i l , and on the a l l - s u r p a s s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these concepts through a l l the v i c i s s i t u d e s of u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y . Furthermore, Leonov has entrenched h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s g r e a t p h i l o -s o p h i c a l debate i n a network of symbolism t h a t i s p r i m a r i l y B i b l i c a l i n o r i g i n . The " f i r s t p a r t of the a n a l y s i s w i l l be 13 devoted to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the symbolic b a s i s f o r the d e p i c t i o n of the most fundamental of human predicaments as i t i s embodied i n the e p i c tragedy of " P a r a d i s e L o s t , " or the " F a l l o f Man." The second s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h the promise of s a l v a t i o n and the r o l e of C h r i s t i n the a t t a i n -ment of " P a r a d i s e Regained." F i n a l l y , the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the study w i l l d e a l w i t h the author's c o n c e p t i o n of man's r a t h e r astounding r e a c t i o n s to the imminent attainment of " P a r a d i s e , " or the o b j e c t of a l l h i s s t r i v i n g s , and w i t h the r e l a t e d t h e o r y o f human p r o g r e s s , i n which i s c o n t a i n e d the major c o n t r i b u t i o n of the new n o v e l to the o r i g i n a l message of the o l d . A l l t h r e e a s p e c t s of t h i s theme, and an i n d i c a t i o n of Leonov's unique approach to them, are o u t l i n e d i n the r a t h e r l e n g t h y passage, newly i n t r o d u c e d i n the second v e r s i o n , i n which F i r s o v t e l l s the f o r t u n e of h i s (and Leonov's) l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r , the d i s i l l u s i o n e d Red Army Com-m i s s a r - t u r n e d - t h i e f of the October R e v o l u t i o n , Dmitry Ve k s h i n . A c c o r d i n g to the c o n c e p t i o n of my n o v e l , a l b e i t beyond i t s bounds, mankind i s d e s t i n e d soon to a t t a i n the summit o f happiness w i t h a l l i t s con-comitant b l e s s i n g s , i n p r o p o r t i o n to the need of every i n d i v i d u a l , of course, as w e l l as h i s t a s t e and i n s p i r a t i o n . From the t r e a s u r e houses of e x i s t e n c e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , we can o n l y c a r r y away as much as the c a p a c i t y of our pockets w i l l allow...When the time comes f o r humanity to move out of the slums of contemporaneity into, new d w e l l i n g s i n the Promised Land i t w i l l f l y over unanimously, l i k e the g r e a t waters when t h e i r chan-gin g shape i s commanded by the e a r t h ' s g r a v i t y . On the eve of the move commandants w i t h p i s t o l s w i l l d i s p o s s e s s t h e o l d w o r l d o n c e and f o r a l l , l e a v i n g i t w i t h o n l y u s e l e s s r e m n a n t s o f t h e p a s t - - s t o n e s g r o u n d down by t e a r s and i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r , b u r i a l g r o u n d s o f v a i n b a t t l e s and e n l i g h t e n m e n t s , tem-p l e s o f o v e r t h r o w n g o d s . However, n o t one h o u r w i l l h a v e p a s s e d en r o u t e t o t h e , p o i n t o f d e s t i n a -t i o n when a s t r a n g e y e a r n i n g w i l l be b o r n i n y o u r i r o n o r g a n i s m . . . i t won't t o u c h anyone e l s e , b u t f o r y ou i t w i l l seem as i f y o u r l e g s a r e t i e d . And w i t h e v e r y s t e p y o u w i l l be drawn more f a t a l l y t o c a s t a f a r e w e l l g l a n c e a t t h e d a r k e n i n g w a s t e -l a n d b e h i n d y o u , where y o u r a n c e s t o r s w a n d e r e d f r o m l a n d t o l a n d , where t h e y s u f f e r e d so much, wept, g r o a n e d and f r o z e i n f r o n t o f t h e i r c a v e f i r e s w h i l e l o o k i n g a t t h e s t a r s , where t h e y p r a y e d , p l a y e d , and, a l o n g w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i o n s , accom-p l i s h e d t h e c o m p l e t e l y i m p r o b a b l e . And s i n c e t h e t i m e o f L o t ' s i l l - f a t e d w i f e i t has b een f o r b i d d e n t o l o o k b a c k a t t h e a b a n d o n e d f i r e s , so t h a t t h e c o n t a g i o n w o u l d n o t be b r o u g h t h e r e . . . a n d i t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o anyone t o l o o k b a c k , f o r i n t h i s was t o c o n s i s t s a l v a t i o n ! . „ . O f my c h a r a c t e r s y o u a l o n e l o o k b a c k - - n o t o u t o f i n s o l e n c e , i n s p i t e o f t h e t h r e a t e n i n g i n t e r d i c t i o n , b u t b e c a u s e o f some sweet and d i s t u r b i n g i l l u m i n a t i o n . . . A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t i t i s f o r t h i s , t o my g r e a t m i s f o r t u n e , t h a t I have, grown f o n d o f y o u , D m i t r y V e k s h i n , R u s s i a n t h i e f a n d t r a n s g r e s s o r o f l a w s . A f t e r a l l , I h a v e n e v e r u n d e r t a k e n t o d e p i c t t h o s e who d i d n ' t l o o k b a c k . - - D o n ' t h i d e i t f r o m me...what s o r t o f t h i n g w i l l a p p e a r b e h i n d m e ? — t e r s e l y i n t e r j e c t e d Vek-s h i n . — B e f o r e I answer y o u r e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d q u e s t i o n , l e t me draw y o u r a t t e n t i o n f o r a mo-ment t o one p r e l i m i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e . E v e r y g e n e r a t i o n i m a g i n e s i t s e l f t o be t h e f u l l mas-t e r o f l i f e , when i t i s r e a l l y no more t h a n a l i n k i n a l o n g , l o g i c a l c h a i n . We a r e n ' t t h e o n l y o nes t o c r e a t e o u r own c u s t o m s and w e a l t h . . . A n d i n t h i s . s e n s e t h e C h r i s t i a n f a b l e o f o r i g i n a l s i n d o e s n ' t seem t o me t o be h ope-l e s s l y i n a n e . The p a s t f o l l o w s p e r s i s t e n t l y on o u r h e e l s , t o e s c a p e from, i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t h a n t o f l y away f r o m t h i s p l a n e t , o r t o t e a r o u r s e l v e s away f r o m t h e power o f the. s u b s t a n c e f r o m w h i c h we a r e f o r m e d . O n l y b e a u t i f u l e d i b l e f i s h e s and v a r i o u s b r i g h t l y - a r r a y e d b u t t e r f l i e s a r e s a v e d f r o m t h i s t o r m e n t i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e 15 p a s t , and i t i s not n e c e s s a r y , i t i s not neces-sary f o r s o c i e t y to a t t a i n t h i s i d e a l . 28 The c e n t r a l image of t h i s passage i s the p r o g r e s s i v e march of the g e n e r a t i o n s from the days o f the cave men up u n t i l the p r e s e n t . And every g e n e r a t i o n , says F i r s o v , f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e i t s p o s i t i o n as a mere l i n k i n t h i s l o n g h i s t o r i c a l c h a i n , c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f t o be the s o l e mas-t e r of l i f e . Every g e n e r a t i o n f e e l s i t s e l f t o be on the verge of a t t a i n i n g the summit, or the epitome, of happiness, the "Promised Land." But, as F i r s o v informs V e k s h i n , they are mistaken i n t h i n k i n g t h a t they are the o n l y ones to c r e a t e t h e i r own customs and wealth, and i n t h i s sense, the w r i t e r adds o b s c u r e l y , "the C h r i s t i a n f a b l e of O r i g i n a l S i n doesn't seem to me to be h o p e l e s s l y inane." What F i r s o v i s t r y i n g t o convey to h i s hero i s t h a t mankind w i l l never reach the "Promised' Land," or " P a r a d i s e Regained," because f o r every g e n e r a t i o n , indeed, f o r every i n d i v i d u a l , the a c t of " O r i g i n a l S i n , " which i s synonymous w i t h " P a r a d i s e L o s t , " i s enacted anew. And t h a t i s why F i r s o v f e e l s such empathy f o r h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s strange r e -l u c t a n c e to leave the c o n t a g i o n behind, f o r h i s undeniable urge to look back, h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to simply abandon the p a s t , which has g i v e n e v e r y t h i n g to ensxare the continuous onward march of p r o g r e s s . For what i s expressed here i s more than mere r e l u c t a n c e t o l e a v e the p a s t behind. I t i s i n f a c t the a b s o l u t e i m p o s s i b i l i t y of l e a v i n g the p a s t be-16 hind—man cannot " t e a r h i m s e l f away from the power of the v e r y substance o f which he i s made." And so the s t r u g g l e goes on, because man i s the very embodiment of t h i s s t r u g -g l e , which i s the essence and the meaning of l i f e , from which t h e r e i s o n l y one way out, and t h a t i s death. I t i s here t h a t man comes up a g a i n s t the a b s o l u t e i r r e s o l v a b i l i t y of the problem of Good and E v i l , which i s e p i t o m i z e d by Leonov i n what i s e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the n o v e l as the " r i d d l e " : . . . t h a t the L i g h t p l a y s w i t h the Darkness, and t h a t the Darkness i s the L i g h t ' s r i v a l , h i s equal i n power and w i t h him the parent of L i f e , t h e i r e t e r n a l c h i l d . 29 Man i s born i n t o and o f the c o n f l i c t , which w i l l plague him as an i n d i v i d u a l u n t i l the day he d i e s , and c o l l e c t i v e l y f o r as l o n g as there i s l i f e on e a r t h l e f t t o be l i v e d . The cosmic nature of Leonov's d e p i c t i o n of t h i s con-f l i c t , which i s h i g h l y Dostoevskian i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n , i s a m p l i f i e d and c l a r i f i e d by Vyacheslav Ivanov i n h i s pene-t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s of the t r a g i c p r i n c i p l e i n the w r i t i n g s of Dostoevsky: Not i n the e a r t h l y stage of being l i e the r o o t s of t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l substance, c l o t h e d i n f l e s h , which i s known as man, but i n an e x i s t e n c e beyond t h i s world; and each i n d i v i d u a l d e s t i n y has i t s "Prologue i n Heaven." In t h a t t r a n s c e n d e n t sphere where God and D e v i l do b a t t l e over the f a t e of the c r e a t u r e — a n d " t h e i r b a t t l e f i e l d i s i n the h e a r t s of men"—here i n c i p i t t r a g o e d i a . 30 17 Ivanov's study w i l l p r o v i d e the model f o r the e x e g e s i s o f the symbolic base of The T h i e f i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . Given the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f the c o n f l i c t and i t s un-shakeable presence on the h e e l s of every new g e n e r a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of every attempt to r e s o l v e or abandon i t , Hay-ward's c l a i m t h a t " f o r Leonov, b o l s h e v i s m i s o n l y one e p i -sode i n the e t e r n a l d e s t i n i e s of R u s s i a " may be regarded as e n t i r e l y r e a s o n a b l e . The p l a u s i b i l i t y o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f Leonov 1s w r i t i n g s i s suggested by the author's own e x p l a n a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e toward the world of the l o c k -smith Puchov, the Master of Blagusha: Around him l i f e was s e e t h i n g , men fought and d i e d , r e l i g i o n s p e r i s h e d and r e v i v e d a g a i n , but Master Puchov i n h i s c e l l a r h o l e j e a l o u s l y guarded h i s r i g h t t o labo u r i n peace a t h i s woodwork, and to laugh a t the e v e r l a s t i n g t u r m o i l of the world. 31 One wonders, i n f a c t , whether these words do not r e p r e s e n t the sentiments of Leonov h i m s e l f , h i s own f e e l i n g f o r the peace and r e l a t i v e s e c l u s i o n from the world which i s h i s a t 32 l e a s t d u r i n g h i s l o n g hours of w r i t i n g . And t h i s occupa-t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s him w i t h a unique and s p e c i a l vantage p o i n t from which to observe and contemplate the events which are t a k i n g p l a c e around him. I t should be emphasized a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t the purpose of t h i s study i s not to p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the a l t e r a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s made i n the second v e r s i o n of The T h i e f p u r e l y f o r the sake of comparison. Nor i s i t 18 the aim of t h i s t h e s i s to p r e s e n t a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the n o v e l i n a l l i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Rather, the focus o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be the symbolic b a s i s f o r the conveyance of l i v i n g i d e a s more complex and more deeply imbedded i n the h e r i t a g e o f the g r e a t Russian and European humanist t r a d i t i o n than S o v i e t o f f i c i a l d o m would ever be 33 w i l l i n g to r e c o g n i z e . For the s t o r y t o l d by Leonid Leonov i s f a r more than an ex c e r p t from the biography of a b o l s h e -v i k s o l d i e r who i s t e m p o r a r i l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s e x p e r i -ences d u r i n g the Russian R e v o l u t i o n and the subsequent l a p s e s of the NEP; the s t o r y of Dmitry Veks h i n i s , i n f a c t , a new a r t i s t i c r e n d e r i n g o f the c o n t i n u i n g u n i v e r s a l e p i c  of the tragedy of man. The ve r y name of Leonov's hero sup-p o r t s the t r u t h o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f o r "Vekshin" con-34 notes "vek," which means " l i f e , " " c e n t u r y , " "epoch." Dmitry Veksh i n i s the hero of h i s g e n e r a t i o n 'because he i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and the embodiment of the g r e a t advances and upheavals of h i s epoch. But even more than t h i s , a f a c t which none of the c r i t i c s seem to have r e c o g n i z e d , Dmitry Vekshin i s the u n i v e r s a l Adam; he i s the man of a l l ages. The task of p r o v i d i n g a complete a n a l y s i s of The  T h i e f i s fo r m i d a b l e i n i t s enormity, and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f g i v i n g i t the e x t e n s i v e and thorough treatment which i t would otherwise warrant u n r e a l i z a b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t s p r e -s c r i b e d f o r an M.A. t h e s i s . The aim of t h i s endeavour, 19 t h e r e f o r e , i s s i m p l y t o i n t r o d u c e as s u c c i n c t l y a s p o s s i b l e t h o s e b a s i c themes w h i c h must be r e c o g n i z e d a s c r u c i a l f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h i s n o v e l and t h e s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h must u l t i m a t e l y c a r r y t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f t h e work. H o p e f u l l y , t h i s i n i t i a l e f f o r t w i l l l e a d t o f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s a t a l a t e r d a t e , f o r t h e i s o l a t e d v o i c e o f t h i s g r e a t and p r o -f o u n d h u m a n i s t s t r i v i n g t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e o p p r e s s i v e b a r r i e r s o f h i s own s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t c a n n o t be i g n o r e d . CHAPTER II PARADISE LOST Leo n i d Leonov's prime concern i n w r i t i n g The T h i e f , was shown i n Chapter I of the p r e s e n t study to be the u n i v e r s a l moral c o n f l i c t of Good ve r s u s E v i l . The immense s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s dilemma, i n Leonov's e s t i m a t i o n , l i e s i n i t s p e r p e t u a t i o n of a s t a t e of human e x i s t e n c e which i s fundamentally t r a g i c i n n a t u r e . The scope of t h i s tragedy i s so v a s t , and so profound i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h a t f o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the n o v e l the author has f e l t compelled to t u r n to the m u l t i - v a l e n t language of myth; the s p e c i f i c myth which he has chosen f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the tragedy i s the g r e a t C h r i s t i a n e p i c of "Paradise L o s t . " The a n a l y -s i s w i l l b egin w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the symbolic base f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the myth w i t h i n the n o v e l . Leonov's s e l e c t i o n as w e l l as h i s treatment of h i s theme r e v e a l them-s e l v e s as b e i n g h i g h l y Dostoevskian i n n a t u r e . The p a r t i c u -l a r l i n e of Dostoevskian c r i t i c i s m which has proved most meaningful i n approaching The T h i e f i s Vyacheslav Ivanov's c l a s s i c study of Leonov's f a v o u r i t e author's"*" c o n c e p t i o n of the n o v e l - t r a g e d y . " I f one wishes f u l l y to understand the e p i c - t r a g e d y , " w r i t e s Ivanov i n h i s Freedom and the T r a g i c L i f e , 20 21 one must discover i n i t s hidden depths a nucleus that i s epic i n form, but t r a g i c i n i t s presen-t a t i o n of inner antagonism; a nucleus that con-tains from the beginning the f u l l symbolic force of the whole work, i t s ent i r e "higher realism": that i s to say, the o r i g i n a l i n t u i t i o n of a transcendental r e a l i t y , and of the event as taking place within t h i s r e a l i t y , which determines the ep i c a l f a b r i c of action i n the world of the senses. To describe t h i s nucleus of symbolic creation we use the word "myth." 2 The symbolic nucleus for the presentation of the "Paradise Lost" myth i s to be found very early i n The Thief. The "t r a g i c inner antagonism" of which Ivanov speaks i s stated with f u l l epic force i n the powerful image of the 3 "blighted b i r c h , " which i s gradually destroyed by an i n -s c r i p t i o n which has been gouged into i t s bark. From those f a t a l words, scored deep into i t s p i t h , the old b i r c h tree sickened. The misery and suf-f e r i n g of men, borne here upon the wind, found a nig h t l y shelter i n i t s long and drooping branches. Through the t i n y window of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n a t e r -r i b l e canker had forced i t s way into the bir c h ; the wound swelled, and black and c u r l i n g growths festered around i t s l i p s . The ulcer ate i n deeper, destroyed the wood, and, r e l e n t l e s s l y advancing, k i l l e d the tree. I t turned t h i s way and that, piteously r u s t l i n g i t s leaves; i t struggled against death, and i n the frenzy of the spring shed i t s bark, hoping that i t might slough o f f the accursed scar as well. A hurricane put an end to i t s agony, for one morning the old b i r c h lay on the ground, i t s mighty trunk stretching across the whole length of the meadow; i t lay i n the dust, exposing i t s secret to the sky, and the torment of i t s naked roots. In a single night the maidens had grown old and s t i f f , and t h e i r leaves had l o s t t h e i r v i r g i n freshness. The old tree rotted, and covered the whole meadow with debris; the death-dealing words met death themselves, and f e l l away l i k e a scab. Yet even i n death the o l d tree d i d not surrender, for from i t s roots i n the spring a slim and frag-rant shoot sprang up. 4 The " h i g h e r r e a l i s m " ( o r " m y s t i c a l r e a l i s m " ) " ' t o w h i c h I v a n o v r e f e r s a bove i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d a s an e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l r e a l i t y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e r e a l m o f m e t a p h y s i c s . ^ The f u n c t i o n o f " r e a l i s t i c s y m b o l i s m " i n a r t , a s I v a n o v ex-p l a i n s i t , i s t o " l e a d t h e s o u l o f t h e s p e c t a t o r a r e a l i b u s ad r e a l i o r a , . . . f r o m r e a l i t y on t h e l o w e r p l a n e , a r e a l i t y 7 o f l e s s e r o n t o l o g i c a l v a l u e , t o t h e more r e a l r e a l i t y . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s y m b o l i s t r e a l i s t work o f a r t must t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f n a r r a t i o n : (1) the. i n t r i c a c y o f t h e s t o r y - t e l l e r ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h a c -t u a l i t y and t h e m u l t i f o l d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e p l o t ; (2) t h e e v e n g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a n e , f o r w h i c h t h e f i r s t l e v e l p r o v i d e s a b a s i s ; and (3) t h e u p p e r m o s t , m e t a p h y s i c a l p l a n e , where t h e c o m p l e x i t y c f t h e f i r s t two l e v e l s g i v e s way t o t h e " g r e a t , b a r e s i m -g p l i c i t y o f t h e f i n a l . " I t i s on t h e t h i r d , m e t a p h y s i c a l p l a n e t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s w i l l be f o c u s e d . T h a t L e o n o v , t o o , i s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h i s l e v e l i s i n d i -c a t e d a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f h i s r e v i s i o n o f The T h i e f , i n t h e words o f a d v i c e g i v e n t o N i k o l a y Z a v a r i k h i n by h i s g r a n d f a t h e r : " O n l y t h a t w h i c h man has n o t t o u c h e d s t a n d s i n -d e s t r u c t i b l e , " t h e d e c e a s e d man u s e d t o s a y , i f t h e r o u g h s p e e c h o f t h e i l l i t e r a t e coachman i s smoothed o u t . " A p a r t f r o m t h e s t a r s i n t h e h e a -v e n s , we a l m o s t d o n ' t s e e t h e r e a l w o r l d ; more and more we s e e t h a t w h i c h has been made by hu-man h a n d s , and w h a t e v e r t h e y t o u c h , g r e e d y human h a n d s , i s doomed t o - i n s a t i a b l e and f a t a l r e s t -23 lessness. Protect yourself from that which i s temporary, grandson, and, in opposition to t h i s , s t r i v e for the eternal!" 9 "Down with Authority!" (Doloy nasil'e!) are the words carved into the b i r c h tree's tender bark, and as they were put there by an alleged a c t i v i s t against the T s a r i s t regime they are generally interpreted as a predominantly p o l i t i c a l gesture, s i g n i f i c a t i v e , i f not s o l e l y of directed p o l i t i c a l dissent, then of the r i s i n g "forces of revolutionary des-t r u c t i o n .... [directed against] the body of human Russia." 1^ Andrey Klokachev, the wandering photographer and pamphleteer who inscribed the f a t a l words on the old b i r c h , explained to Mitka when he spent the night i n the Vekshins' hayloft that "the world...was i n the t o i l s of E v i l , and the soul o f Man was crushed down by Authority, and was perishing," and although the young boy had no idea what t h i s cunning i n s u r r e c t i o n i s t was t a l k i n g about, " a l l the same his young soul was never afterward able to free i t s e l f from the s p e l l of t h i s night's conversation. The f a n a t i c a l , inexorable eyes.of the man i n the black hat had stamped themselves i n -d e l i b l y on his brain.""'" 1 A f t e r some contemplation of the words quoted above the i d e n t i t y of the black-hatted t r a v e l l e r begins to become c l e a r . Leonov's revised version of t h i s text, however, leaves no doubt as to either his i d e n t i t y or his intent. U n t i l midnight he revealed to Mitka that the 24 w o r l d was e n t a n g l e d i n E v i l , and e x p l a i n e d how, c o n s t r a i n e d by a g i g a n t i c t y r a n n y , t h e human s o u l was p e r i s h i n g . . . and i t seemed t o t h e boy t h a t , h i d i n g i n t h e d a r k n e s s t h e r e were c o i l s o f s e r -p e n t s a n d huge, i n t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f a l l humani-t y , d e a f e n i n g s h a c k l e s . 12 F o r t h e y o u n g M i t k a V e k s h i n t h i s v i c i o u s p r o p a g a n d i s t i s none o t h e r t h a n t h e D e v i l h i m s e l f , and t h e e f f e c t s o f h i s s e d i t i o u s r a v i n g s a r e u n m i s t a k e a b l e . I t [ t h e f a n a t i c a l v o i c e o f t h e w a n d e r i n g p h o t o -g r a p h e r ] l a y d e e p e r t h a n a s c a r on h i s s o u l , so t h a t a l l t h o s e m i r a c u l o u s c o p s e s w i t h g a y l y s i n g i n g b i r d s , and t h e meadows f u l l o f g e n t l e f l o w e r s , t h e summer s k y d r e s s e d i n c a r e f r e e f l e e c y c l o u d s , and t h e b l u e c h a l i c e o f w a t e r -s i d e s e d g e s , he v i e w e d a s i f t h r o u g h t h e brown c u t s o f t h a t s c a r . A r i v e r d o e s n ' t d a r e t o o p p o s e e v e n one o f i t s r e f l e c t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n e v e n t h e p r a n k s o f h i s y o u t h were marked i n M i t k a by an u n - c h i l d i s h o u t l o o k on t h e seamy s i d e o f l i f e . 13 The c o n n e c t i o n between M i t k a ' s c a t a s t r o p h i c e x p e r -i e n c e and t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e s y m b o l i c b i r c h , i m p l i e d o n l y i n d i r e c t l y i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l , i s i n c o n t e s -t a b l e i n t h e s e c o n d . And j u s t a s t h e o l d t r e e n e v e r s u c c e e d e d i n c o v e r i n g o v e r i t s wound w i t h c l e a n w h i t e b a r k , so was M i t k a ' s h e a r t u n a b l e t o s l o u g h o f f t h e s a d words w h i c h t h e w a n d e r i n g p h o t o g r a p h e r had w h i s p e r e d t o him on t h e eve o f h i s a r r e s t , w h i l e s p e n d i n g t h e n i g h t i n t h e V e k s h i n s ' h a y l o f t w i t h t h e b o y . 14 Thus L e o n o v has d e p i c t e d , i n a l l i t s t e r r i b l e m a g n i -t u d e , t h e e p i c t r a g e d y o f t h e " F a l l o f Man." The young M i t k a V e k s h i n , t h e a u t h o r ' s " u n i v e r s a l Adam," u n w i t t i n g l y 25 a l l o w s h i m s e l f t o be exposed to the p e r f i d i o u s t e a c h i n g s of the dark s t r a n g e r , and the damage done i s i r r e v o c a b l e . For the " c a l l t o r e v o l t and b a t t l e " (pryzyv na bunt i boy) has g o a l s f a r more ambitious than the mere d e s t r u c t i o n of the T s a r i s t a u t o c r a c y . The A u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t which the b l a c k -h a t t e d photographer d i r e c t s h i s " s o r c e r y " (volshebnoe remes-lo) i s n o t h i n g l e s s than the d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y of God. And so the tragedy b e g i n s . Tragedy, to c o n t i n u e w i t h the Dostoevskian model of a n a l y s i s as o u t l i n e d by Ivanov, i s born of the attempt to break away from the power of the C r e a t o r , t h i s "because e v e r y t h i n g must s u f f e r t h a t breaks away from the primary source of Being." "The t r a g i c s t r u g g l e must be fought out between the a c t u a l and the e f f e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s , " "between the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e i n the C r e a t u r e and the power of 1 the 15 P r i n c e of t h i s world,'" i . e . between the s p i r i t u a l and the m a t e r i a l elements of man and human na t u r e . "Man i s broad, even too broad. I'd have him nar-rower, . . . " w r i t e s Dostoevsky i n The B r o t h e r s Karamazov. "God and the d e v i l are f i g h t i n g t h e r e and the b a t t l e f i e l d 16 i s the h e a r t s of men." That Leonov has a l s o chosen to d e a l w i t h the e t e r n a l re-enactment of t h i s b a t t l e i s i n d i -c a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c l a r i t y not o n l y i n h i s f o r m u l a t i o n of the " r i d d l e , " c i t e d above, but a l s o i n the r e v i s e d n o v e l ' s v e r s i o n of F i r s o v ' s l o s t notebook. F i r s o v w r i t e s : Nowadays i n the world L u c i f e r and Beelzebub are 26 f i g h t i n g amongst themselves, j u s t as i f a t h i r d d i d n ' t e x i s t . Whenever one d e f e a t s the o t h e r , the v i c t o r immediately breaks i n two, and the ha l v e s begin to do b a t t l e . " W i l l i t always be t h a t way?" I ask him [Puchov]. "No," he answers, "only u n t i l the b i t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n . . . " 17 F i r s o v ' s .(and Leonov 1 s) c h o i c e o f c o n t e s t a n t s , how-ever, i n d i c a t e s a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e t e r n a l b a t t l e , f o r each o f the r i v a l s l i s t e d bears a name f o r the D e v i l . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s strange p r e s e n t a t i o n are of g r e a t importance f o r the understanding of the n o v e l . The name of Beelzebub, who i s r e f e r r e d t o i n Matthew 12:24 as the " p r i n c e o f d e v i l s , " c a r r i e s no meaning other than t h a t o f e v i l . L u c i f e r , on the o t h e r hand, was o r i g i n a l l y known as the b r i g h t "morning s t a r " who became a f a l l e n a n g e l , and o n l y l a t e r d i d h i s name 18 come t o be synonymous wit h t h a t o f the D e v i l . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , t h e r e are two forms which the r e b e l l i o n can take: the f i r s t i s a r e b e l l i o n so unequi-v o c a l as t o deny the very e x i s t e n c e o f God; the second con-t a i n s w i t h i n i t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f o p t i n g e i t h e r f o r or a g a i n s t God. The f i r s t c o n t e s t a n t i s m a t e r i a l man; the second i s the s p i r i t u a l l y - o r i e n t e d m e t a p h y s i c a l r e b e l . Both of these a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n The T h i e f : they are p o r t r a y e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by N i k o l k a Z a v a r i k h i n and Mitka V e k s h i n . That t h i s i s so i s i n d i c a t e d by y e t another e n t r y i n F i r s o v ' s notebook i n which the w r i t e r con-j u r e s up an imaginary s t r u g g l e which s t r a n g e l y r e c a l l s the 27 b a t t l e between L u c i f e r and B e e l z e b u b . A t t h e end o f t h e c h a p t e r a b o u t t h e r e t u r n f r o m t h e Kudema, i n s t e a d o f t h e o l d woman, M i t k a meets Z a v a r i k h i n on t h e t r a i n . T h e y r i d e and a r e s i -l e n t , s w a y i n g i n d i f f e r e n t e n d s o f t h e empty c a r . H a t r e d and t h e n i g h t . And when i t becomes un -b e a r a b l e — " C o m e on, l e t ' s f i n i s h , o r w e ' l l d i e u n s a t i s f i e d . . . S h a l l we g e t o f f , my f r i e n d , e h ? " A t t h e n e a r e s t , h a l f - s t a t i o n t h e y g e t o f f and go i n t o t h e n i g h t f i e l d b e y o n d t h e embankment. The l a s t k n i f e - b a t t l e o f d e c i s i v e m e a n i n g . The b l o o d i s n o t v i s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e d a r k n e s s . I n t h e meantime t h e t r a i n l e a v e s . 19 The n o v e l p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r i v a l r y b e t w e e n t h e two men. From t h e moment he f i r s t l a y s e y e s on M i t k a , Z a v a r i k h i n u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t V " w i t h s u c h a p e r s o n t h e r e i s e i t h e r e t e r n a l f r i e n d s h i p o r 20 m o r t a l s t r i f e . " c >"One i s n ' t o f f e n d e d by o n e ' s f i e r c e s t e n e m i e s , one k i l l s them," M i t k a r e m a r k s t o h i s s i s t e r T a n y a , r e f e r r i n g t o Z a v a r i k h i n . And he c o n t i n u e s : I t ' s c r o w d e d f o r us w i t h him on e a r t h . . . E v e n i f we were b o t h l e f t i n a u n i v e r s a l w a s t e l a n d and i t h a p p e n e d t h a t t h e two o f us met a t n i g h t , l i k e w o l v e s , t o h e a t a common p o t o v e r t h e f i r e , on t h e v e r y l a s t l i t t l e f i r e ! a l l t h e same we'd be a t e a c h o t h e r w i t h k n i v e s . I t has a l r e a d y accumu-l a t e d f o r a p a i n f u l l y l o n g t i m e , and t h e m a t t e r w i l l emerge on a huge s c a l e : he w i n s - - f o r me i t ' s an e t e r n a l y o k e ; w h e r e a s i f o n l y I am s p a r e d . . . 21 F i r s o v makes t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s i n a v e r y e a r l y e n t r y i n h i s n o t e b o o k : M i t k a ' s brow i s h o n e s t , p a l e , r e b e l l i o u s . The e a r t h , i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , p a s s i o n -l e s s i n i t s c r e a t i v e v i o l e n c e , g i v e s b i r t h t o 28 M i t k a and t o Z a v a r i k h i n i n one and t h e same h o u r . The f i r s t d e s c e n d s , t h e s e c o n d a s c e n d s : a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e i r p a t h s t h e r e i s u n a v o i d a b l e p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t and h a t r e d . B o t h a r e h e r a l d s o f t h e awakened m i l l i o n s — d o e s t h i s mean t h a t l i f e and t h e s t r u g g l e a r e b e g i n n i n g a g a i n ? Any e p o c h i s o n l y a r u n n i n g s t a r t t o t h e n e x t one a f t e r i t . . . 22 I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s t h a t t h e f i g h t i n w h i c h L e o n o v ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e l o c k e d i s f a r more t h a n a p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t b etween two men; r a t h e r , M i t k a and Z a v a r i k h i n a r e t y p e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a c o n f l i c t o f i d e a s . B o t h a r e r e b e l s a g a i n s t t h e "power o f t h e C r e a t o r , " o r t h e d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y o f God, b u t , l i k e L u c i f e r and B e e l z e b u b , t h e y f i g h t amongst t h e m s e l v e s a s i f t h e r e were no t h i r d power. Of t h e two o n l y t h e f o r m e r e x p e r i e n c e s t h e i n t e r n a l o. c o n f l i c t o f t h e k i n d r e c o g n i z e d by D o s t o e v s k y — i . e . t h e f i g h t b etween God and t h e d e v i l — a n d t h u s i t i s a r o u n d M i t k a V e k s h i n t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l c e n t r e s . B e f o r e Vek-s h i n 1 s i n t e r n a l dilemma c a n be r e s o l v e d , however, h i s b a t t l e w i t h Z a v a r i k h i n must be won. B u t what e x a c t l y i s t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s s t r u g g l e ? A l o n g w i t h h i s c o m p l a i n t t h a t The T h i e f had n o t b e e n u n d e r s t o o d by r e a d e r s and c r i t i c s a l i k e , L e o n o v i s q u o t e d i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n as h a v i n g s t a t e d t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f h i s n o v e l was i t s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l r e v o -l u t i o n , and t h a t t h e b a s i c s t r i v i n g o f h i s h e r o was t o w a r d s 23 t h e m a s t e r y o f c u l t u r e . The w r i t e r F i r s o v r e p e a t s t h i s s t a t e m e n t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e v i s e d n o v e l : 29 I n y o u r f a t e i s i n c l u d e d f o r me t h e v e r y a c u t e and b u r n i n g i s s u e o f t h e m a s t e r y o f c u l t u r e , w i t h o u t w h i c h a g r e a t d e a l c o u l d t u r n f o r us i n a d i r e c t i o n t h e r e v e r s e o f t o w a r d s a h i g h e r l e v e l . 2 4 J u s t e x a c t l y what t h e a u t h o r and h i s c h a r a c t e r have i n mind when t h e y s p e a k o f t h e " m a s t e r y o f c u l t u r e " i s n o t i m m e d i a t e -l y c l e a r . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t L e o n o v h a s c e n t r e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i s s u e a r o u n d two b a s i c s y m b o l s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a v e h i c l e f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c u l t u r e . The f i r s t , w h i c h i s t h e o n l y one r e l e v a n t f o r t h e p o r t r a y a l o f M i t k a 1 s d u e l w i t h Z a v a r i k h i n , i s t h e image o f t h e R u s s i a n t r o i k a . The s e c o n d , t h e m e a n i n g o f w h i c h i s f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r -m i n e , i s t h e e n i g m a t i c g l e a m — b l e s t i n k a v z r a c h k e — i n t h e eye o f a d y i n g man. The symbol o f t h e t r o i k a , t h e c o n t r o l o f w h i c h i s r e -l a t e d i n t h e n o v e l t o b o t h V e k s h i n and Z a v a r i k h i n , i s u s e d by L e o n o v i n i t s G o g o l i a n s e n s e o f t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f R u s s i a a n d i n t u i t i o n o f h e r d i v i n e d e s t i n y : And a r t t h o u n o t , my R u s s i a , s o a r i n g a l o n g e v e n l i k e a s p i r i t e d , n e v e r - t o - b e - o u t d i s t a n c e d t r o i k a ? ...and t h e t r o i k a t e a r s a l o n g , a l l - i n s p i r e d by G o d ! . . . W h i t h e r a r t t h o u s o a r i n g away t o t h e n , R u s s i a ? 25 T h i s l a s t q u e s t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y t h e one a s k e d by L e o n o v . The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s what e a c h o f h i s r i v a l c h a r a c -t e r s s e e k s power t o d e t e r m i n e . Z a v a r i k h i n ' s p o w e r f u l h ands l o n g t o " p o s s e s s , s u bdue, and b r i d l e , and t o c h a s e t h r o u g h 30 t h e n i g h t , t h e r e b e l l i o u s t r o i k a w i t h R u s s i a i t s e l f i n t h e 2 6 t r a c e s , " w h i l e V e k s h i n muses t h a t " a f f a i r s w o u l d go b a d l y f o r R u s s i a i f e v e r y two c e n t u r i e s t h e r e f a i l e d t o a p p e a r i n t h e coachman's s e a t a new d r i v e r who, s e t t i n g o f f i n c h a s e , 27 l a s h e d e v e r y t h i n g o u t o f t h e famous R u s s i a n t r o i k a . " T h u s , b o t h V e k s h i n and Z a v a r i k h i n a r e v y i n g f o r t h e power t o c o n t r o l t h e v e r y d e s t i n y o f R u s s i a ; t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r o l w h i c h e a c h s e e k s t o a c q u i r e , however, i s e n t i r e -l y d i f f e r e n t . Z a v a r i k h i n , t h e s i n g l e - m i n d e d and c o n t r i v i n g m a s t e r o f t h e a r t o f t h e r a p i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h , f e a r s and d i s t r u s t s a n y t h i n g t h a t m i g h t o b s t r u c t h i s p a t h o f e v e r g r e a t e r and g r e e d i e r m a t e r i a l g a i n , i n c l u d i n g t h e c i t y , women, and h i s own s o u l . V e k s h i n , on t h e o t h e r hand, e n -t a n g l e d i n h i s own" s p i r i t u a l a i l m e n t s , i s u n a b l e e v e n to' s e t a d i r e c t i o n f o r h i m s e l f and h i s a s p i r a t i o n s . The a p p a r e n t c a u s e o f a l l h i s m i s f o r t u n e s , an e v e n t w h i c h o c c u r s p r i o r t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h i s d i s i l l u s i o n -ment w i t h t h e NEP, i s t h e e p i s o d e o f M i t k a ' s n i g h t a t t a c k on t h e o f f i c e r who h a d k i l l e d h i s b e l o v e d h o r s e , S u l i m . And i t i s p r e c i s e l y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s e v e n t t h a t t h e symbol o f t h e b l e s t i n k a i s i n t r o d u c e d . The p u p i l s o f h i s c a p t i v e ' s e y e s g l i n t m o c k i n g l y as M i t k a p r e -p a r e s t o k i l l h im. Agey S t o l y a r o v , whose w a r - t i m e b i o g r a -phy i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o M i t k a ' s , d e s c r i b e s much t h e same e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a c c o u n t r e l a t e d t o F i r s o v o f how he l e a r n e d t o k i l l . Then I l i f t e d up the b u t t o f my r i f l e , and he looked a t me as you are doing now, i n a p l e a d i n g k i n d of way. I saw h i s eyes growing d u l l . They winked a t me and seemed to be wanting something. What d i d they want, Fyodor Fyodory.ch? And i t ' s t r u e i f a chap h i t s you wit h the b u t t of a r i f l e , i t i s n ' t i n the b u t t t h a t death i s , but i n the eyes. When he winked a t me I thought...'You're c h e a t i n g , ' thought I. 'You want t o get i n t o me through your eyes.'...And I screwed up my eyes, too. 28 I n d i c a t i o n s as to both the nature of Mitka's (and Agey's) crime and the m o t i v a t i o n behind i t are p r o v i d e d by the n o v e l . F i r s t o f a l l , much emphasis i s p l a c e d i n both v e r s i o n s o f the n o v e l on the q u e s t i o n as to whether or not i t i s p e r m i s s i b l e t o k i l l . And secondl y , as i s i n d i c a t e d by the words o f Agey, quoted above, some k i n d o f t h r e a t i s seen as e x i s t i n g i n the eyes o f a man who i s h i m s e l f t h r e a tened by death f o r as long as he i s s t i l l a l i v e . M itka's immediate s u c c e s s o r , Artashez (Atashez, i n the o r i g i n a l ) , suggests both p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mitka a f t e r the murder has taken p l a c e : ...why? E i t h e r you t h i n k t h a t now even you are p e r m i t t e d e v e r y t h i n g , . . . ? Or you saw some k i n d of d i s t a n t t h r e a t i n h i s eyes? 29 While both o f these suggested reasons f o r Mitka's crime a r important f o r the understanding of Leonov's n o v e l , i t i s the second which i s most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n of c u l t u r e and which w i l l t h e r e f o r e be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . 32 C o n t i n u i n g h i s r e p r o a c h f u l q u e s t i o n i n g o f M i t k a , A r t a s h e z s h e d s f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e d e e d : I know, s p e a k i n g s e c r e t l y , how one c a n o c c a -s i o n a l l y be s e i z e d by a s t r a n g e a n x i e t y . Here we f i g h t , s h e d o u r b l o o d , and b u r n so much t h a t e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d becomes c h a r r e d . . . b u t some da y w e ' l l g e t t i r e d and go t o s l e e p . Then a t h i r d who i s young and f u r i o u s , l i k e y o u and I , w i l l b u r s t o u t . . . H e won't come tomorrow, and he won't come d i r e c t l y t o u s , w i t h o u t a k n i f e e v e n . Look a t h i s t o r y , D m i t r y ! . . O u r t e m p l e s have begun t o t u r n g r e y , and he may n o t e v e n h ave b e e n b o r n y e t , so t h a t i t i s n o t g i v e n t o us t o r e a c h h i m w i t h a sword, n o t e v e n t o g i v e him c a n d y i n a d -v a n c e . Or maybe he a l r e a d y g o e s t o p r e p s c h o o l and i s l e a r n i n g t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s , eh? Such a t h i n , i n d u s t r i o u s boy w i t h a dreamy ex-p r e s s i o n ... T h a t ' s t h e way we were o n c e . And he s m i l e s , b u t I d o n ' t know why. And t h e n i n -v o l u n t a r i l y I want t o s t o p up a l l t h e c r a c k s f r o m w h i c h m i g h t a p p e a r t h i s j u v e n i l e , t h i s d e s c e n d a n t who s m i l e s f o r r e a s o n s unknown t o u s . . . 30 A t a s h e z ' comments s u p p l y t h e f i r s t c l u e a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b etween t h e a p p a r e n t l y u n r e l a t e d s y m b o l s o f t h e b l e s t i n k a and t h e t r o i k a by p l a c i n g M i t k a ' s d e e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s t o r y . The man who l o n g s f o r power enough t o c o n t r o l t h e v e r y d e s t i n y o f R u s s i a i s a l s o u n w i l l i n g t o grow o l d and d i e , and t o p a s s on t h e " r e i n s o f t h e t r o i k a " t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n v/ho i s t o s u c c e e d him. The " j e a l o u s y " r e f e r r e d t o by L e o n o v t h u s 31 b e g i n s t o make i t s e l f a p p a r e n t . F u r t h e r c l u e s a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s j e a l o u s y , however, g i v e much g r e a t e r d e p t h o f m e a n i n g t o t h e symbol.' F i r s o v d e s c r i b e s t h e b l e s t i n k a 33 and i t s immense s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t f r o m M i t k a 1 s " f o r t u n e " : B e h i n d y o u r b a c k w i l l a p p e a r , a l l i n smoke and r u i n s , o v e r t h r o w n and r e n d e r e d c o m p l e t e l y hairm-l e s s , t h e o l d w o r l d . You w i l l s e e b e h i n d y o u t h e most b a r r e n w i l d e r n e s s , a l r e a d y l o o k i n g a s t h o u g h n o t h i n g had e v e r h a p pened i n i t . . . n o t h i n g was l i v e d t h r o u g h , n o t h i n g l o v e d , n o t h i n g c r i e d o v e r ! L e a n i n g a g a i n s t a d e c a p i t a t e d t r e e , a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e g u i l t y f a r e w e l l dawn, y e s t e r d a y ' s w o r l d - s o u l , t h e h a s - b e e n , w i l l l o o k y o u i n t h e e y e . The most e c o n o m i c a l commandant's eye w i l l n o t d i s c o v e r i n i t a n y t h i n g w o r t h y o f s u b j e c t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . . . a p a r t f r o m , p e r h a p s , t h e i r r i t a t i n g l y c l e v e r and b e w i t c h i n g g l e a m i n i t s f a d i n g p u p i l . No one w i l l e v e n pay a t t e n t i o n t o s u c h a t r i f l e , b u t y o u w i l l n o t i c e i t w i t h o u t f a i l , D m i t r y E g o r y c h ! . . A n d h e r e y o u w i l l be s i n g e d by a b u r n i n g c o n j e c t u r e — i s n ' t i t a p e t t y t r i c k , t h i s s p a r k t h a t i s a l m o s t l i k e a d o t , so t h a t t h e r e ' s nowhere t o p u t t h e s e a l o f an i n v e n t o r y t a g — a n d i t i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a l u e o f e x i s t e n c e b e c a u s e i t i s s m e l t e d o u t o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has gone b e f o r e u s , t h e e x -p e r i e n c e o f human h i s t o r y . 32 C o n t a i n e d i n F i r s o v 1 s comments i s t h e l i n k w h i c h f o r m s t h e f i n a l c o n n e c t i o n between t h e c o n c e p t s and s y m b o l s w h i c h have b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s . The t i n y g l i m m e r , f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e e y e o f t h e o f f i c e r whom M i t -k a was a b o u t t o k i l l , i s now s e e n " l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a d e c a p i -t a t e d t r e e " a m i d s t t h e r u i n s o f t h e " o l d w o r l d . " (The image r e c a l l s t h e s c a r r e d b i r c h t r e e w h i c h was s i n g l e d o u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r a s t h e s y m b o l i c n u c l e u s f o r t h e t r a g e d y . ) T h i s t i n y d o t o f l i g h t i s i d e n t i f i e d h e r e a s t h e s o u l o f t h e o l d w o r l d and as t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a l u e  o f e x i s t e n c e , t h i s b e c a u s e i t i s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e e n t i r e 34 e x p e r i e n c e o f human h i s t o r y . In oth e r words, i t r e p r e s e n t s the c u l t u r e amassed by g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n . Leonov's c o n c e p t i o n o f c u l t u r e thus a c q u i r e s s p i r i -t u a l overtones which, when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the image o f the t r o i k a , suggest the profound i n f l u e n c e on the author, not o n l y of Dostoevsky, but a l s o o f Gogol, who, as Zenkovsky w r i t e s , i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Russian l i f e the theme which to the' p r e s e n t time has been one of the c e n t r a l themes of Russian s e a r c h i n g s : t h a t of the r e t u r n of c u l t u r e to the church and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new e c c l e s i a s t i c a l w o r l d - v i e w — t h e theme of an 'Orthodox c u l t u r e . ' 33 The "mastery of c u l t u r e , " t h e r e f o r e , would appear t o s i g n i f y f o r Leonov the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e l i g i o n or a s p i r i t u a l l y -o r i e n t e d world-view which would serve as the major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g , as had Orthodoxy b e f o r e i t s r e j e c t i o n by the R e v o l u t i o n , the d i r e c t i o n and the g o a l of a l l the f u t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s of Russians and of humanity i n g e n e r a l . The a s s o c i a t i o n of the i d e a s o f Leonov w i t h the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l world-view of Gogol, i f v a l i d , p r o v i d e s v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l support o f Hayward's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Leonov's w r i t i n g s r e p r e s e n t a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the Russian Orthodox t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n and d e s p i t e the p r e s e n t S o v i e t s t a t e . ^ In a d d i t i o n to being a response t o the " t h r e a t " o f the b l e s t i n k a , however, Mitka's crime was thought t o have 35 had y e t a n o t h e r m o t i v a t i o n . " [ D i d ] . . . y o u t h i n k t h a t now e v e n y o u a r e p e r m i t t e d e v e r y t h i n g ? " was A r t a s h e z 1 q u e s t i o n o f M i t k a d u r i n g t h e i r p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n a f t e r t h e m u r d e r , and t h e i s s u e w h i c h he r a i s e s h e r e i s i d e n t i c a l t o i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n by D o s t o e v s k y i n The B r o t h e r s Karama-z o v : i f God d o e s n o t e x i s t , e v e r y t h i n g i s p e r m i t t e d , w h e r e a s i f God d o e s e x i s t i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o commit a c r i m e 35 a g a i n s t God and a g a i n s t o n e ' s f e l l o w men. F a r f r o m b e i n g a t p e a c e w i t h h i m s e l f c o n c e r n i n g h i s a c t i o n s , M i t k a i s c o n s t a n t l y t o r m e n t e d by t h e k n o w l e d g e o f h i s c r i m e and by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t w h i c h he h i m s e l f d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d . C o n s u l t i n g F i r s o v a b o u t t h e s e f e e l i n g s , he a s k s : " I f i t ' s a l l a m a t t e r o f c o n s c i e n c e , . . . t h e n a f -t e r a l l , c o n s c i e n c e e x i s t s w h i l e y o u ' r e c u t t i n g o f f h i s arm, b u t o n c e t h e s w i n e i s i n t h e d i t c h what i s t h e n a t u r e o f my g u i l t b e f o r e him i f he i s no l o n g e r a l i v e ? I t c a n ' t be t h a t my g u i l t i s b e f o r e t h a t w h i c h no l o n g e r e x i s t s ! I n w h i c h c a s e who c a n c a l l upon me?"--"Then y o u w i l l c a l l upon y o u r s e l f , " a n s w e r s F i r s o v , " b e c a u s e i n k i l l i n g y o u k i l l y o u r s e l f i n him, y o u r l i v i n g r e f l e c t i o n i n h i s e y e s ! " 36 F i r s o v ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f M i t k a ' s p o s i t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t , f o r i t i s a b o u t h i s own c h a r a c t e r , i n d e e d , h i s own c r e a t i o n , t h a t he i s s p e a k i n g . "To k i l l a man means t o 37 k i l l o n e s e l f i n him," i s t h e w r i t e r ' s v e r d i c t , and when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t F i r s o v " e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d M i t k a ' s c r i m e as t h e l a s t c o n v u l s i o n s o f a new 3 8 s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h , " t h i s s t a t e m e n t p r o v i d e s a p r o f o u n d new i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i n n e r w o r k i n g s o f t h e n o v e l . 36 More than one of Leonov's c r i t i c s l i k e s to repeat the story, o r i g i n a l l y t o l d by Maxim Gorky, which Leonov re l a t e s i n a discussion of the problem of returning to an early work and re-writing i t many years a f t e r i t s o r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n . According to t h i s story, a writer who i s wandering around the streets of Moscow one cold- autumn evening suddenly meets his favourite character. Together, the two of them head for a bar where they can s i t and t a l k . But times have changed and everything i s now seen d i f f e r e n t -l y , i n the l i g h t of new experiences, so that i n the end the writer k i l l s his character by s t r i k i n g him on the temple with a beer mug. Leonov concludes the anecdote with the following comments about his own experience with his f a -vourite character: This work was perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t of a l l the fo r t y years of my l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y . And L when there remained only a few pages to the end I suddenly r e a l i z e d that i n the new e d i t i o n I had k i l l e d my hero, Mitka Vekshin. 39 The c r i t i c s who repeat t h i s story regard the "death" spoken of by Leonov to be the consequence of the author's distance from the events described i n the o r i g i n a l novel and of his changed attitude towards these events and towards h i s over-romanticized hero. However, although Mitka does change s l i g h t l y as a r e s u l t of the author's more abstract philoso-p h i c a l approach to the writing of the second novel, the above-described "death,"" i n actual f a c t , occurs i n both 37 v e r s i o n s . The death which Mitka Vekshin undergoes i s a s p i r i -t u a l death, f o r t h i s death, which i s f o l l o w e d by h i s even-t u a l r e b i r t h , i s the o n l y way t h a t he can f r e e h i m s e l f from the consequences of h i s " f a l l . " The e x p e r i e n c e i s p r e -o r d a i n e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y by the myth and by the symbolic d e p i c t i o n of t h i s myth i n the image of the t r e e . "Yet even i n death the o l d t r e e d i d not s u r r e n d e r , f o r from i t s r o o t s i n the s p r i n g a s l i m and f r a g r a n t shoot sprang up," the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n was quoted as s t a t i n g , and the r e v i s i o n i s even more e x p l i c i t i n d e s c r i b i n g the p u r i f y i n g e f f e c t of the trauma of death and r e b i r t h : Even when t h e ; n e x t storm f e l l e d the b i r c h , u n t i l i t s complete disappearance n o t h i n g — n e i t h e r death, nor worms, nor the passage of time--was powerful enough to save i t from Klokachev's markings. "But a l r e a d y f r a g r a n t and v i r g i n a l young shoots were r i s i n g a l l around, and they had n o t h i n g to do w i t h the o l d t r e e ' s biography, w i t h the d u s t -covered w r i t i n g on the mouldering l o g , or w i t h the s e c r e t torments of i t s exposed and naked r o o t s . So are we, p e o p l e , . . . " F i r s o v l y r i c a l l y c oncluded the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e c t i o n of Dmitry Vekshin's biography. 40 The symbolism employed here by Leonov i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used by Ivanov to e x p l a i n the e p i l o g u e of Crime and  Punishment, w i t h which the f i n a l scene of The T h i e f has long been compared: Dostoevsky d e p i c t s f o r us, i n the e p i l o g u e to Crime and Punishment, the s p i r i t u a l r e v i v a l of a man who i s i n h e r e n t l y good, but has gone 38 d a r k l y a s t r a y — a r e v i v a l l i k e t h a t o f a y o u ng s h o o t s p r o u t i n g v i g o r o u s l y f r o m h e a l t h y r o o t s when t h e w i t h e r e d o l d t r u n k h a s b e en b u r n t t o a s h e s by t h e t h u n d e r b o l t o f w r a t h . 41 Tha " F a l l , " however, has t a k e n p l a c e as a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e f r e e w i l l w i t h w h i c h man h a s been endowed I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e h i s f u l l s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n man must 4 make t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d e c i s i o n w h e t h e r " t o be o r n o t t o be," i . e . w h e t h e r t o be f o r o r a g a i n s t God. I v a n o v c o n t i n u e s : O n l y a h a l l o w e d s p i r i t u a l d e a t h , f o l l o w e d by r e b i r t h — t h e d e a t h o f t h e " o l d man" w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y — m i g h t s t i l l s a v e t h i s s o u l , g i v i n g i t s a l v a t i o n by t h e o f f e r e d boon o f c h a s t i s e m e n t . B u t t h i s d e a t h and r e b i r t h , w h i c h we have com-p a r e d t o t h e p u t t i n g - f o r t h o f a new s h o o t f r o m h e a l t h y r o o t s , c a n t a k e p l a c e o n l y i f t h e r o o t s a r e , i n f a c t , h e a l t h y - - t h a t i s t o s a y , i f t h e d e f e c t i o n f r o m God h a s n o t b e en t h e r e s u l t o f a f i n a l d e c i s i o n ' b y t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l Ego, b u t h a s s i g n i f i e d o n l y an a n t i t h e t i c a l i m p u l s e i n t h e s u p r a - c o n s c i o u s d r a m a — t h e i m p u l s e o f w i l f u l s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n f r o m God w h i c h comes o f a r r o -g a n c e and a d e s i r e f o r u n b r i d l e d e x e r c i s e o f s e l f . 4 3 A l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e n o v e l i s b e -tween Z a v a r i k h i n — m a t e r i a l man, and V e k s h i n - - t h e e p i t o m e o f s p i r i t u a l man, L e o n o v i n t r o d u c e s y e t a t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i n t o t h e s y m b o l i c m a i n s t r e a m o f e v e n t s . The f u n c t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t o p o r t r a y t h e d e p t h s t o w h i c h a man whose f i n a l m e t a p h y s i c a l d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n n e g a t i v e , o r a g a i n s t God, may f a l l . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s d e c i s i o n w i t h i n t h e N o v e l i s M i t k a ' s f e l l o w t h i e f and r i v a l i n l o v e , Agey S t o l y a r o v . T h r o u g h t h e example o f Agey, a c c o r d i n g t o L e o n o v 39 F i r s o v e n d e a v o u r s t o d e p i c t " t h e l i m i t s o f d e g r a d a t i o n a t 44 w h i c h a s u c c e s s f u l and u n p u n i s h e d c r i m i n a l m i g h t a r r i v e . " A g e y ' s w a r - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e s , as was s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , were much t h e same as M i t k a ' s , b u t t h e r e i s one c r u c i a l d i f f e r -e n c e between t h e two m u r d e r e r s . M i t k a i s n e v e r a b l e t o f r e e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e g u i l t w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f h i s d e e d , w h e r e a s Agey, o n c e he r e c o v e r e d f r o m an i n i t i a l f e e l i n g o f r e v u l s i o n , a c t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d a t a s t e f o r k i l l i n g , and e v e n -t u a l l y r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e where he " l o n g e d f o r e a c h a t t a c k 45 a s t h o u g h i t were E a s t e r Sunday." Agey has c h o s e n t o l i v e 46 " w i t h o u t God and i n f r e e d o m , " and t h e r e s u l t i s a s t a t e o f d e g r a d a t i o n and d e c a y f r o m w h i c h t h e r e i s no r e t r e a t . " T h e r e i s n ' t a bone i n my body t h a t i s n ' t a c c u r s e d , " A g ey i n f o r m s Masha a y e a r a f t e r t h e i r e l o p e m e n t ; "I'm r o t t e n 47 f r o m head t o f o o t . " And i n t h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n ' s d e p i c t i o n o f t h i s s c e n e , f o r w h i c h F i r s o v i s a l s o p r e s e n t , he a d d s : I h a v e become b l a c k t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h , e v e r y -t h i n g h as become p a r c h e d i n s i d e me...I d r i n k w a t e r , and i t b l a z e s w i t h i n l i k e k e r o s e n e . I w o u l d c r y o u t , b u t g r i e f h o l d s me by t h e t h r o a t . I want i t t o become as d a r k e v e r y w h e r e as i t i s i n s i d e me. 48 The i m a g e r y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e A g e y ' s c o n d i t i o n i s s u g g e s t i v e o f h e l l i t s e l f . Masha i s d e s c r i b e d a s t r y i n g t o " d r i v e t h e 49 d e v i l o u t o f h i s b o n e s , " and f o r h e r Agey h a s , i n f a c t , become t h e D e v i l . A r r i v i n g s u d d e n l y one n i g h t " w i t h t h e 50 o t h e r h a r b i n g e r s o f e v i l , " Agey a p p e a r s i n h e r n a t i v e town o f Rogovo ( t h e name o f w h i c h r e c a l l s t h e h o r n e d s t e r e o t y p e 40 f o r t h e D e v i l ) , and s o o n a f t e r w a r d s b r u t a l l y r a p e s Masha on t h e b a n k s o f t h e Kudema. A f t e r w a r d s , Masha b i t t e r l y c u r s e s M i t k a f o r a l l o w i n g 5 1 h e r t o " f a l l " t o Agey (k A g e y u na r o g a ) , i m p l y i n g t h a t he i s somehow r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s o c c u r r e n c e . O n l y t o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e r e v i s i o n d o e s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s become c l e a r . Masha's f a l l i s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f M i t k a 1 s f a i l u r e t o meet h e r a t a p r e v i o u s l y a r r a n g e d s e c r e t r e n d e z v o u s . The r e s u l t s a r e c a t a s t r o p h i c , b u t as L e o n o v i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t , F i r s o v 1 s ( o r h i s own) n o v e l c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e been w r i t t e n i f n o t f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s c r u c i a l e v e n t . F i r s o v saw t h e s o u r c e o f h i s t r o u b l e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t was s p e c i f i c a l l y Agey, and n o t someone e l s e , who came, upon Masha on t h e b a n k s o f t h e Ku-dema, a l t h o u g h i n t h e o p p o s i t e c a s e F i r s o v ' s n o v e l s i m p l y c o u l d n o t e x i s t . 52 F o r Masha's f a l l , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t r e a d i l y a p -p a r e n t , i s s t r a n g e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h M i t k a ' s . D e p i c t e d as t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f M i t k a ' s n e g l i g e n t f a i l u r e t o k e e p an a p p o i n t m e n t w h i c h he h i m s e l f had a r r a n g e d , i t i s i n f a c t s i g n i f i c a t i v e o f h i s own f a l l , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f h i s f a i l u r e t o p r o t e c t and h o n o u r t h e p u r i t y o f h i s own s o u l . V i e w e d i n t h e i r s y m b o l i c a s p e c t , n e i t h e r Masha n o r A g ey a r e c h a r a c -t e r s e x i s t i n g a p a r t f r o m M i t k a . R a t h e r , t h e y a r e e x t e n s i o n s o f M i t k a ' s p e r s o n a l i t y who e n a c t s e p a r a t e l y w i t h i n t h e n o v e l t h e c o n s e c u t i v e s t a g e s o f M i t k a ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l r e b e l l i o n and who c a r r y t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s a c t i o n s t o t h e i r c o n -4 1 ceptual extremes. The employment of t h i s device by the author allows him to leave open the fate of his cen t r a l character. Thus, while Agey's f a l l i s i r r e v e r s i b l e , Mitka's i s not. Vekshin •—Man, the universal A d a m — f e l l because of a r e b e l l i o n caused by pride and by lack of f a i t h . Yet i t i s p r e c i s e l y the s p i r i t u a l death which i s the r e s u l t of t h i s f a l l that gives r i s e to the p o t e n t i a l i t y of r e b i r t h . Out of the tragedy of the f a l l e n Adam emerges the promise of C h r i s t . It i s t h i s promise, along with i t s accompanying conception of "Paradise Regained," that w i l l provide the focus for the t h i r d chapter of the analysis. CHAPTER I I I PARADISE REGAINED I n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e myth o f " P a r a d i s e L o s t " and t h e e p i c o f t h e " F a l l o f Man," t h e r o l e p l a y e d by M a r i a Dolomanova i s none o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f E v e — A d a m ' s c o m p a n i o n i n t h e G a r d e n and t h e s u p p o s e d i n i t i a t o r o f h i s f a l l . S e d u c t r e s s , w i t c h , M u s e — " M a n k a t h e Snowstorm" i s condemned f o r e v e r t o l o n e l y s u f f e r i n g . F i r s o v and h e r own p r i d e w i l l n o t p e r m i t t h a t h e r f a t e be o t h e r w i s e . " T h e r e i s no i l l n e s s more t e r r i b l e t h a n t h e one f r o m Agey w h i c h y o u h a v e i n v e n t e d f o r me," she c o m p l a i n s t o F i r s o v i n t h e c l o s i n g s c e n e o f t h e r e v i s i o n , as she i s a b o u t t o be a b a n d o n e d by t h e a u t h o r i n f a v o u r o f a new Muse. F i r s o v , however, r e m a i n s adamant on 2 h i s f o r m e r s t a n d : "No, I w i l l n o t g i v e y o u M i t k a V e k s h i n ! " The d e c i s i o n i s n o t p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g b e e n r e a c h e d by F i r s o v a l o n e . R e p l y i n g t o T a n y a ' s f i e r c e d e f e n c e o f h e r b r o t h e r , Masha i n d i c a t e s t h a t h e r p o s i t i o n , as r e q u i r e d by t h e t r a g i c f o r m u l a , i s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f h e r own f r e e c h o i c e . I am a l m o s t a g r e e d t h a t i n t h i s l i f e l e s s b o i l i n g b r o t h , as y o u a p t l y e x p r e s s e d y o u r s e l f r e c e n t l y , a s c e n d i n g a n d , c o n v e r s e l y , s u b v e r t i n g c u r r e n t s a c t e l e m e n t a l l y . . . I d o n ' t h i d e t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by some e v e n t s f r o m my p e r s o n a l l i f e . F o r t u n a t e l y , however, above and b e y o n d f a t e we a r e a l s o endowed w i t h w i l l . . . A n d i f I have n o t had s u f -f i c i e n t w i l l t o w i t h d r a w i n d e p e n d e n t l y f r o m t h i s 42 43 w i c k e d game, t h e n f o r t h i s I b e a r f u l l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . 3 Masha i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h M i t k a ' s f a l l , a n d i s a l s o i n some i n t a n g i b l e way i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r h i s r e -c o v e r y , b u t t h e d o m i n a n t p a r t o f t h e p o r t r a y a l o f M i t k a ' s s t r u g g l e t o w a r d s s a l v a t i o n h a s b e e n a l l o t t e d t o - y e t a n o t h e r s y m b o l i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r , t o h i s i n n o c e n t a n d i d e a l i s t i c s i s t e r , T a n y a . A s t h e c o n n e c t i o n h e r e i s more t h a n o b s c u r e , c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d e v o t e d t o t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e r o l e p l a y e d b y T a n y a i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f M i t k a ' s s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . The c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l women i n M i t k a V e k s h i n ' s l i f e i s i n d i c a t e d v e r y e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f Z a v a r i k h i n . R o b b e d b y t h e f i r s t u p o n h i s a r r i v a l a t t h e Moscow t r a i n s t a t i o n i n t h e m o r n i n g , a n d d e t e r r e d f r o m a m a j o r c o n f r o n -t a t i o n w i t h h i s r i v a l i n a pub t h e n e x t e v e n i n g b y t h e s e c o n d , N i k o l k a muses o v e r t h e two women i n h i s s t a t e o f d r u n k e n s t u p o r . Two women s t o o d i n h i s memory: t h e one o f t h e m o r n i n g s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h i s , t h e e v e n i n g o n e . She o f t h e m o r n i n g was c l o s e b e c a u s e s h e c r i e d , She o f t h e e v e n i n g b e c a u s e o f h e r s m i l e ; a t t i m e s t h e y m e r g e d i n t o o n e , l i k e t h e h a l v e s o f a s l i c e d a p p l e . T h e i r c a p t i v i t y was p l e a s i n g a n d i n v i o l a b l e . 4 C o n t a i n e d i n t h i s l y r i c a l f l i g h t o f f a n c y i s t h e i n -f o r m a t i o n t h a t T a n y a a nd M a s h a , t h e two " h a l v e s o f a s l i c e d 44 apple," are representative of the constituent elements of one and the same concept or e n t i t y . The apple (which i s associated i n the novel p r i m a r i l y with Masha), i s s i g n i f i c a -t i v e of the temptation offered to Adam by Eve; the as yet unbitten f r u i t , however, hanging whole and perfect on the branches of the "Tree of L i f e , " s i g n i f i e s only p u r i t y and innocence. If Masha i s representative of the already f a l l e n seductress, then Tanya must stand for the pure, untainted Eve of God's o r i g i n a l Creation. The facts of Mitka's early biography c l e a r l y confirm t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Tanya, as 5 Mitka's s i s t e r , shares his childhood home i n Demyatino, but when she leaves, driven away by need and by t h e i r com-mon step-mother, her place i s immediately taken over by ^ 6 Masha, the "dark Masha" of Mitka's youth. Soon afterwards, Mitka himself i s expelled from home, and with the calm glow of the l a s t crimson sunset on the f a t e f u l day of his depar-ture, he leaves behind forever his happy Garden home. The serenely b e a u t i f u l Kudema of Leonov's novel i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as the author's equivalent of the symbolic paradise of the "Garden of Eden." The dispossessed and down-trodden representative of the "old world," the barin Manyu-kin, writes n o s t a l g i c a l l y i n his diary about the "corner of 7 Paradise on the Kudema" where he, too, spent his childhood, and then goes on to describe one p a r t i c u l a r l y glorious Sun-g day morning spent there as "the s i n l e s s morning of my l i f e . " Also included in Manyukin's ramblings i s the image of the "Tree of L i f e , " as he w r i t e s n o s t a l g i c a l l y t h a t the time has come f o r him "to l e a v e , t o f a l l from the Tree o f L i f e l i k e a 9 r i p e f r u i t i n autumn." I t i s Mitka's p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y , indeed, t h a t o f h i s e n t i r e g e n e r a t i o n , t o take over the s t r u g g l e where Manyukin has l e f t o f f . Mitka and Tanya, t h e i r p a s t s thus l i n k e d i n t h i s common ex p e r i e n c e o f the i d y l l i c p e r f e c t i o n of the Garden, are dependent upon each o t h e r f o r the re a t t a i n m e n t of t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e . Tanya's romance w i t h Z a v a r i k h i n , as w e l l as her p e r s o n a l f a t e , i s t i g h t l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h the d e a d l y r i v a l r y between M i t k a and N i k o l k a , and w i t h Mitka's own s e c r e t s p i r i t u a l a i l m e n t s . The focus f o r the c o n f l i c t between the two men i s p r o v i d e d by Tanya's announce-ment of her engagement to N i k o l k a and by her b r o t h e r ' s i n e v i t a b l e d i s a p p r o v a l . Convinced o f the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of the match and of the d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e which N i k o l k a ' s ambitious and g r a s p i n g nature w i l l have on h i s s i s t e r , M i t k a does e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n h i s power t o d i s c o u r a g e the marriage, even t o the p o i n t o f t r y i n g to "buy o f f " h i s f u t u r e b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . T h i s s t r u g g l e i s m a g n i f i e d and i n t e n s i f i e d by the second v e r s i o n ' s emphasis on the se-quence of events l e a d i n g up t o Tanya's death. The evening o f the a c c i d e n t N i k o l k a i s f o r c e d by Mi t k a t o make a c h o i c e between accompanying h i s f i a n c e e t o the c i r c u s or meeting w i t h her b r o t h e r i n order to n e g o t i a t e a v e r y p r o f i t a b l e b u s i n e s s d e a l . The a l t e r n a t i v e s are l o v e and greed, and 46 each i s , by n e c e s s i t y , m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e of the o t h e r . M itka's " t e s t " of h i s r i v a l i s , a t l e a s t from h i s p o i n t of view, s u c c e s s f u l . N i k o l k a chooses money over l o v e , and v/hen he does f i n a l l y a r r i v e a t the c i r c u s , i t i s o n l y j u s t b a r e l y i n time to witness Tanya's entrance f o r her l a s t , f a t a l , performance. M i t k a ! s v i c t o r y , won a t the c o s t of h i s s i s t e r ' s l i f e , would appear to be, a t b e s t , empty. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s i s not so: the e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s paradox, however, i s h i g h l y complex, and must be t r a c e d through a s e r i e s of ap-p a r e n t l y u n r e l a t e d events.. N i k o l k a ' s f i r s t i n v o l u n t a r y r e -a c t i o n t o Tanya's b r e a t h - t a k i n g c i r c u s a c t , the d i s t u r b i n g f a n t a s y which haunts F i r s o v throughout the w r i t i n g of h i s n o v e l , and the s p e c t a c u l a r f o r e i g n t o u r proposed f o r Tanya by the German i m p r e s s a r i o Mangold, are a l l c u r i o u s l y i n t e r -connected i n p r o v i d i n g the e x p l i c a t i o n o f the p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of Tanya's death. " F a l l ! " 1 ^ i s the imperious response evoked from N i k o l k a by H e l l a V e l t o n ' s (to use Tanya's c i r c u s name) performance. I t i s a command which would be c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s p e r p l e x i n g i f i t c o u l d be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the s t o r y of the l o s s of the garden p a r a d i s e . Leonov, however, has been f a r more shrewd than to permit h i s c h a r a c t e r s to r e - e n a c t the myth on a p u r e l y g r a p h i c l e v e l . Having i n -t e r p r e t e d the myth i t s e l f as c o n t a i n i n g a symbolic con-f i g u r a t i o n of personages-'-Adam and E v e — t o r e p r e s e n t an 47 e v e n t o r c o n f l i c t w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e v e r y human b e i n g , L e o n o v h a s r e a s s e s s e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l components o f t h e c o n f l i c t and r e - a l l o c a t e d t h e r o l e s u s e d t o d r a m a t i z e i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The r e s u l t i s a s c h e m a t i z a -t i o n t h a t i s a k i n t o t h e p o l y p h o n y o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s n o v e l s as a n a l y z e d by B a k h t i n . 1 1 The f o u r m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s ( e x c l u d i n g F i r s o v ) o f L e o n o v ' s n o v e l — M i t k a , N i k o l k a , Masha, T a n y a — t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t t h e p o l a r i t i e s o f m a t e r i a l i s m 12 and s p i r i t u a l i s m i n t h e i r m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a s p e c t s . • N i k o l k a ' s s p o n t a n e o u s c r y — " F a l l ! " — i s n o t m e r e l y t h e s u d d en whim o f a d r u n k e n e n t r e p r e n e u r ; r a t h e r , i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e i m p u l s e w h i c h may be e x p e -r i e n c e d by any human i n d i v i d u a l i n r e s p o n s e t o h i s i n t u i -t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f a " h i g h e r " r e a l m o f s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s and h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n w a v e r i n g f a i t h r e q u i r e d f o r t h e u p h o l d i n g o f s u c h v a l u e s . D m i t r y V e k s h i n i s f a c e d by , p r e c i s e l y t h e same c o n f l i c t , w i t h t h e c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a l l h i s s t r i v i n g s , i n d i r e c t o p p o s i -t i o n t o N i k o l k a ' s , must u l t i m a t e l y be t o w a r d s t h e r e a l i z a -t i o n , o r a t t a i n m e n t , o f t h i s s p i r i t u a l r e a l m . F i g h t i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f h i s own r e b e l l i o n and f a l l - - t h u s h i s c o n t e s t o f w i l l s w i t h M a s h a - - M i t k a ' s g o a l i s t h e r e a t t a i n -ment o f h i s o r i g i n a l u n s u l l i e d s t a t e . M i t k a ' s p e r p e t u a l b a t t l e w i t h Z a v a r i k h i n must t h e r e f o r e be r e c o g n i z e d as h i s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e b a s e r e l e m e n t s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , and N i k o l k a ' s r e s p o n s e as an a t t e m p t t o f e l l t h e b r a v e and 4 8 s h i n i n g s p i r i t ( r e p r e s e n t e d by Tanya) w h i c h i s b e y o n d h i s r e a c h i n h i s own s p i r i t u a l c o u n t e r p a r t , M i t k a . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u g g l e i s f o r e s h a d o w e d by F i r s o v " s b i z a r r e v i s i o n : I n h i s f a n c y he i m a g i n e d a s q u a r e i n w h i c h a t h i e f , M i t k a V e k s h i n , was t o be drawn and q u a r -t e r e d , a s i n t h e o l d d a y s . The crowd t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n l o o k e d on i n g r a v e s i l e n c e w h i l e t h e e a r t h l y b o d y o f M i t k a was d i s m e m b e r e d . F i r s o v was p r e s e n t i n t h e crowd, and a n o t h e r more s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c t a t o r , a s w e l l , who a t t r a c t e d a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n . N i -k o l k a Z a v a r i k h i n had a p p e a r e d s o u n d l e s s l y ; he had come s i l e n t l y o u t o f t h e d a r k n e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , and a t t a c h e d h i m s e l f t o r e a l i t y . I t was n o t u n t i l he was q u i t e c l o s e t h a t F i r -s o v r e m a r k e d h i s b r o a d s m i l e . 13 The.-importance o f t h i s r e m a r k a b l e p a s s a g e c a n n o t be u n d e r -e s t i m a t e d . F o r i n t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d 14 " a n c i e n t c u s t o m " i s s y m b o l i z e d no l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t an e v e n t t h a n t h e c r u c i f i x i o n o f C h r i s t , w i t h t h e r i t e o f d r a w i n g and q u a r t e r i n g s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t image o f t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e c r o s s . I t i s a l l a s f o r e t o l d b y t h e myth: Man's " O r i g i n a l S i n , " o r " F a l l , " i s r e c o r d e d i n t h e s t o r y o f Adam; h i s r e p e n t a n c e and s p i r i t u a l r e -g e n e r a t i o n a r e p r o m i s e d by t h e p r o p h e s y o f C h r i s t , t h e s e c o n d Adam; t h e P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t c o n s i s t s o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h on t h e c r o s s and t h e t r i u m p h o v e r d e a t h s i g n i f i e d b y h i s s u b s e q u e n t r e s u r r e c t i o n . To c l a i m t h a t D m i t r y V e k s h i n , L e o n o v ' s u n i v e r s a l Adam, a c t u a l l y becomes C h r i s t , w o u l d be an e x t r e m e and 49 e x a g g e r a t e d o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t , i n e m p l o y i n g i m a g e r y o f s u c h d e e p l y - r o o t e d e m o t i o n a l v a l u e . E v e n t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f " C h r i s t f i g u r e " must be a p p l i e d w i t h u t m o s t c a u t i o n and i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i a l , o r t e m p o r a r y , a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e t e r m . The e x p e r i e n c e o f V e k s h i n m i g h t be s a i d t o c o n t a i n , r a t h e r , t h e " p o s t u l a t e 15 o f C h r i s t , " i . e . t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f a r e n e w a l o f f a i t h w h i c h w o u l d c a u s e a t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t o f Adam i n t o t h e " S e c o n d Adam" o r C h r i s t . J u s t why t h i s i s so w i l l become a p p a r e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . I n t h e mean-t i m e , t h e e x i s t i n g n e t w o r k o f r e s u r r e c t i o n s y m b o l i s m must be c a r e f u l l y e l u c i d a t e d . The c o m p l e x s y m b o l i s m o f r e s u r r e c t i o n i s c e n t r e d by L e o n o v i n t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f T a n y a ' s c i r c u s c a r e e r . T a n -y a ' s r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e t r e a c h e r o u s " s h t r a b a t , " 16 d e s c r i b e d as h e r " d a i l y c o n t e s t w i t h d e a t h , " i s f a r more t h a n a d a r i n g t r a p e z e a c t . F o r , as F i r s o v w r i t e s , " l i f e 17 i s a c o n t i n u o u s ' s h t r a b a t . ' " I n o t h e r w o r d s , l i f e i t s e l f i s a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e w i t h d e a t h , a d e a t h w h i c h , i t must be e m p h a s i z e d , c a n n o t be d e f i n e d i n p u r e l y p h y s i c a l t e r m s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e s t r a n g e " i l l n e s s " w h i c h u n d e r -m i n e s T a n y a ' s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and e v e n t u a l l y c a u s e s h e r d e a t h i s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p e r f o r m e r h e r s e l f as i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t s u f f e r e d b y M i t k a . "Here I am, k n o c k i n g a b o u t t h e e n t i r e c i t y l i k e a pendulum, "I'm r u n n i n g away f r o m m y s e l f , " she r e m a r k s . "But i t ' s s t r a n g e t h a t p r e c i s e l y t h e same 50 [ i l l n e s s ] has b e f a l l e n my b r o t h e r . He r u n s and r u n s , and i s ] 8 o v e r t a k e n by h i m s e l f . " " M i t k a , who i s a l s o aware o f t h i s f a c t , has a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t o T a n y a t h a t she accompany h i m on h i s r e t u r n j o u r n e y t o t h e Kudema " t o be c u r e d by c h i l d -19 h o od," b u t s u c h a c u r e has n o t b een p r e s c r i b e d by T a n y a ' s d e s t i n y . T a n y a ' s a p p r o a c h i n g d e a t h h a s b e e n g i v e n an e x t e n -s i v e b u i l d - u p i n t h e r e v i s e d n o v e l , r e m o v i n g any e l e m e n t o f s u r p r i s e w h i c h m i g h t have been p r e s e n t i n t h e o r i g i n a l , b u t a l s o a s s i g n i n g t o t h e e v e n t f a r g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n f a c e o f s u c h ominous p o r t e n t s , H e r r M a n g o l d ' s p r o p o s e d f o r e i g n t o u r a p p e a r s f r o m t h e s t a r t t o be somewhat p r e p o s -t e r o u s . The i m p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s p r o p o s a l , h owever, s h o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o d e t r a c t f r o m t h e r e c o g n i -t i o n o f t h e p r o f o u n d i n t e n t o f M a n g o l d ' s scheme. B i l l e d a s 20 h e r "Swansong," t h i s t r i u m p h a n t t o u r i s t o be H e l l a V e l t o n ' s f a r e w e l l t o t h e c i r c u s , t h e g l o r i o u s c l i m a x o f h e r l o n g a n d b r i l l i a n t c a r e e r . By a l l a p p e a r a n c e s , t h e g l o r i o u s f i n a l e o f T a n y a ' s c a r e e r i s c r u e l l y a r r e s t e d by h e r p r e m a t u r e d e a t h . The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s e v e n t , however, must n o t be t a k e n a t f a c e v a l u e i f i t s t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e n o v e l i s t o be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . I t i s a m a j o r c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t v. T a n y a ' s i s a s y m b o l i c d e a t h w h i c h d o e s n o t i n a n y way s i g n i f y h e r d e f e a t . R a t h e r , h e r d e a t h i s her. t r i u m p h , h e r v i c t o r y o v e r t h e p e t t y , t e m p o r a l c o n f l i c t s o f l i f e and 51 h e r e n t r y i n t o t h e t i m e l e s s r e a l m o f t h e e t e r n a l . F u r t h e r -more, t h i s i s what was i n t e n d e d a l l a l o n g by t h e d e s i g n a -t i o n o f " f o r e i g n " t o u r , f o r i t i s i n t h i s i m m o r t a l , a l i e n r e a l m t h a t T a n y a has a t l a s t s u c c e e d e d i n t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e t r a n s i e n t i l l u s i o n s o f l i f e on e a r t h . D u r i n g t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e c a t a s t r o p h e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n T a n y a and h e r b r o t h e r b e g i n s t o make i t s e l f a p p a r e n t . S t a n d i n g b e s i d e h e r g r a v e a f t e r t h e f u n e r a l , t h e i r a n i m o s i t y momentar-i l y s t i l l e d by t h e i r s h a r e d r e s p e c t f o r t h e " f a l l e n s t a r , " M i t k a and Z a v a r i k h i n engage i n a s t r a n g e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s u r r e c t i n g t h e d e a d p e r f o r m e r . Z a v a r i k h i n t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f a s a i n t who p l a n t e d an a s p e n p o s t and t h e n p r a y e d u n t i l i t b l o s s o m e d , c l a i m i n g t h a t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f a i t h , T a n y a c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o l i f e a g a i n . V e k s h i n d i s -21 a g r e e s , a r g u i n g t h a t w i l l i s what i s n e e d e d . The p r e c i s e p o i n t o f t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s n o t c l e a r , b u t t h e i m p l i -c a t i o n w o u l d seem t o be t h a t f o r V e k s h i n t h e p r o b l e m i s p e r h a p s n o t so much one o f l a c k o f f a i t h a s o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f w i l l r e q u i r e d t o d i r e c t t h a t f a i t h . I n any c a s e , he i s w e l l aware t h a t h i s s i s t e r ' s d e a t h , and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r h i m s e l f w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i e d by t h i s d e a t h , a r e n o t i n any way f i n a l o r p e r m a n e n t . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e m e m o r i a l d i n n e r w h i c h , i n t h e r e v i s e d n o v e l , f o l l o w s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e f u n e r a l . L e o n o v h a s r e a r r a n g e d t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n i n . a n a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y f o r h i s 52 r e a d e r s t h e c r u c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e e v e n t s . The 22 " m e m o r i a l p a n c a k e s " ( p o m i n a l ' n y e b l i n y ) s e r v e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n s h o u l d be i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e t o anyone f a m i l i a r w i t h O r t h o d o x c u s t o m s as a t r a d i t i o n a l E a s t e r d i s h , s e r v e d i n h o n o u r o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t . The m e m o r i a l f e a s t , t h e r e f o r e , must a l s o s i g n i f y some k i n d o f r e s u r r e c -t i o n , and s i n c e T a n y a d o e s n o t r e a p p e a r b e f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e n o v e l t h i s " r e s u r r e c t i o n " must be u n d e r s t o o d as b e i n g s y m b o l i c o f t h e s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f V e k s h i n h i m s e l f . The d e p i c t i o n o f V e k s h i n ' s " r e b i r t h " t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s u n d e r g o n e by h i s " s i s t e r " r e p r e s e n t s t h e u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f L e o n o v ' s p o l y p h o n i c s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s and o f Man's e t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . The s y m b o l i s m o f C h r i s t , however, i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s e n a c t e d b y T a n y a . Of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t a r e M i t k a ' s l e t t e r t o h i s f a t h e r a n d v i s i t home, h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h h i s w a r - t i m e o r d e r l y , Sanka B a b k i n , and t h e p e c u l i a r t h i e v e s ' c o u r t w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e c l o s e t o t h e n o v e l ' s e n d . V e r y g r e a t e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d i n b o t h t h e o r i g i n a l and t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n s on M i t k a ' s l e t t e r t o h i s f a t h e r and e v e n t u a l r e t u r n home. H i s f i r s t a n x i o u s m i s g i v i n g s as he s e a r c h e s f o r h i s f a t h e r a t h i s b r o t h e r L e o n t y ' s w e d d i n g a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c r u c i a l r o l e p l a y e d by t h e s e e v e n t s i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f M i t k a ' s r e c o v e r y : 53 W i t h m o u n t i n g a n x i e t y he l o o k e d e v e r y w h e r e f o r E g o r V e k s h i n , f o r whose s a k e he was h e r e , and t o a s k was t e r r i f y i n g — n o t , however, b e c a u s e he l o v e d h i s f a t h e r , b u t b e c a u s e w i t h o u t t h i s l o g i -c a l r e p e n t a n t l i n k he d i d n o t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g s e e t h e r o a d t o h i s r e c o v e r y . 23 In I v a n o v ' s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e t u r n home o f t h e " P r o d i g a l Son" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r e t u r n t o God, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f w h i c h r e m a i n s e v e r o pen t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l whose " d e f e c t i o n f r o m God has n o t b een t h e r e s u l t o f a f i n a l d e c i s i o n by t h e meta-24 p h y s i c a l E g o." A f t e r t h e b i t t e r e x p e r i e n c e s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s t h a t s u c h an i m p u l s e p r o d u c e s , a f t e r a l l t h e e r r o r s and c r i m e s t o w h i c h i t l e a d s , t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e t u r n t o t h e F a t h e r ' s House, s t i l l a l w a y s t h e Pontine memento mei o f t h e r e p e n t a n t e v i l - d o e r . 2 5 Upon h e a r i n g t h e news o f h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , M i t k a ' s aims a r e f r u s t r a t e d , h i s h o p e s s h a t t e r e d . T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t n o v e l c l o s e s w i t h t h e f i n a l i t y o f M i t k a ' s f e e l i n g 2 6 t h a t "now...he c o u l d n e v e r r e t u r n . " I n t h e r e v i s e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s e p i s o d e e v e n t s a r e a l t e r e d and r e a r -r a n g e d . The r e u n i o n o f f a t h e r and s o n seems t o t a k e p l a c e d e s p i t e t h e d e a t h o f t h e f a t h e r . A t t h e s c e n e o f t h e g r a v e , e v e r y t h i n g seemed t o . r e t r e a t , t o t u r n away, so as n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e P r o d i g a l Son w i t h h i s f a t h e r . . . 27 And t h e l i t t l e g i r l who s e n d s M i t k a o f f i n t o t h e w i l d s w i t h an a p p l e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e w e d d i n g now a p p e a r s a t t h e s c e n e o f h i s f i n a l d e p a r t u r e . The h a r d - b o i l e d egg 54 i n c l u d e d i n h e r f a r e w e l l g i f t o f f o o d r e c a l l s and i s sym-b o l i c a l l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l o f M i t k a ' s a w a k e n i n g a f t e r s p e n d i n g h i s s e c o n d n i g h t i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e o u t s i d e D e m y a t i n o . He d i d n o t g e t t o s l e e p t i l l dawn b r o k e , and he woke when t h e sun s t o o d on t h e h o r i z o n , p e e l e d f r o m i t s c l o u d s l i k e an egg f r o m i t s s h e l l . 28 29 S y m b o l i c o f r e b i r t h and o f t h e t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f Time, b o t h t h e sun and t h e egg r e i n f o r c e t h e p r o m i s e o f s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n f o r t h e n o v e l ' s f a l l e n h e r o . " ^ S e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f M i t k a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Sanka ( t h e " B i c y c l e " ) B a b k i n a r e a l s o h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e s y m b o l i c p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t o r y o f C h r i s t . " M a s t e r ! " i s S a n k a ' s r e v e r e n t i a l f o r m o f a d d r e s s f o r V e k s h i n e v e n a f t e r a l l h i s e f f o r t s t o l e a v e b e h i n d t h e t h i e v e s ' gang and a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f h i s w i f e , K s e n y a . "Don't c a l l me, M a s t e r , I won't come. I ' l l d i e o f g r i e f , b u t I won't come," Sanka p l e a d s when V e k s h i n v i s i t s h i m a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e f r o m p r i s o n . And he c o n t i n u e s : And e v e n i f y o u a r e a b o u t t o d i e , and t h e y l e a d y o u p a s t w i t h a n o o s e a r o u n d y o u r n e c k . . . a l l t h e same, d o n ' t come k n o c k i n g a t my d o o r , have p i t y . I w i l l a l w a y s c a r r y y o u i n my h e a r t , I w i l l k i s s y o u r hand and y o u r f o o t , o n l y d o n ' t come...Leave me now i n — w h a t do y o u c a l l i t ? — i n my m i r e . 31 Sanka u n d e r s t a n d s p e r f e c t l y t h e n a t u r e o f V e k s h i n ' s s y m b o l i c i d e n t i t y and o f h i s own c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o l e , w h i c h 55 i s t h a t o f d i s c i p l e . He e v e n seems t o be aware o f h i s M a s t e r ' s i m m i n e n t c r u c i f i x i o n , v o w i n g t o k i s s h i s (wounded?) h a n d s and f e e t , a l t h o u g h s u b s t i t u t i n g a n o o s e f o r a c r o s s . F a r f r o m d e s t r o y i n g t h e c r u c i f i x i o n i m a g e r y , however, t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r e s h a d o w s T a n y a ' s a c c i d e n t and s t r e n g t h e n s t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d above o f T a n y a ' s r o l e i n t h e d e p i c -t i o n o f h e r b r o t h e r ' s s p i r i t u a l d e a t h and r e b i r t h . D e s p i t e h i s r e c o g n i t i o n and a f f i r m a t i o n o f h i s M a s t e r ' s p o s i t i o n - - h e d e l a y s f u l f i l l i n g M i t k a ' s s u b s e q u e n t r e q u e s t . f o r t h e l o a n o f h i s l i f e ' s s a v i n g s i n t h e h o p e s 32 t h a t h i s M a s t e r w i l l "see t h e god w i t h x n h i m s e l f " — S a n k a i s d e s t i n e d t o p l a y f o r M i t k a t h e same r o l e t h a t J u d a s p l a y e d f o r C h r i s t . The s y m b o l i c b e t r a y a l , t o w h i c h F i r s o v has p r e v i o u s l y a l l u d e d i n M i t k a ' s p r e s e n c e i n an a t t e m p t t o f o r e w a r n him, f i n a l l y t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e s c e n e where, a f t e r w a i t i n g h o u r s f o r M i t k a i n t h e c o l d o u t s i d e Masha's h o u s e t h e n i g h t o f h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h , S anka a s k s M i t k a t o k i s s him. I t i s o n l y a f t e r S a n ka r e p e a t s h i s s t r a n g e r e q u e s t t h a t M i t k a r e c o g n i z e s t h e n o t e o f m o c k e r y i n h i s v o i c e . S t i l l , he has a l r e a d y vowed t o s a v e h i s d i s c i p l e : And d o n ' t y o u f e a r f o r me: when t h e t i m e comes I w i l l emerge f r o m t h e p i t and I w i l l p u l l y o u o u t w i t h me. 33 The a c t u a l e v e n t o f t h e c r u c i f i x i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h i e v e s ' c o u r t w i t h w h i c h V e k s h i n ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e Moscow u n d e r g r o u n d e n d . _ F i r s o v ' s d e p i c t i o n o f t h i s e v e n t 56 i s v a g u e and c o n f u s e d . I n t h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n t h i s i s o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s " o v e r - c o n f i d e n t s u b s t i -t u t i o n o f t h e i n v e n t i o n s o f h i s t i r e d i m a g i n a t i o n f o r 34 d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . " I n t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l he was, d e s p i t e h i s w i s h e s , u n a b l e t o be p r e s e n t f o r t h i s s c e n e and was t h e r e f o r e f o r c e d t o b a s e h i s a c c o u n t on s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . E i t h e r way, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t r i a l a r e t h e same, w i t h o n l y a few m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n b o t h v e r s i o n s , a l t h o u g h i t i s Donka who i s l e d away by A n a t o l y M a s h l y k i n ( T o l y a ) t o be s h o t , i t i s T o l y a who a c t u a l l y g e t s k i l l e d . And i t i s a f t e r t h e c o n f u s i o n c a u s e d by t h i s s h o o t i n g t h a t M i t k a ' s f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h Sanka t a k e s p l a c e a n d t h e l a t t e r makes h i s a d m i s s i o n o f g u i l t . I m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e s a y i n g h i s l a s t f a r e w e l l s t o M i t k a i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l , Sanka makes t h e f o l l o w i n g h i g h l y o b s c u r e r e m a r k : " I ' v e l o v e d y o u and I ' v e 35 k i l l e d y o u - - a n d now n o t h i n g m a t t e r s ! " I n t h e r e v i s e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s c e n e he s p e a k s much more l o g i c a l l y and c r e d i b l y o f h i s i n a b i l i t y , d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d e f f o r t s , t o k i l l h i s m a s t e r and t o r m e n t o r . I n a c t u a l f a c t , however, t h e t r u e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s i n c l u d e s b o t h o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . F o r , j u s t a s t h e c r u c i f i x i o n was u l t i m a t e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l - - C h r i s t r o s e a g a i n a f t e r t h r e e d a y s — s o must be S a n k a ' s a t t e m p t t o k i l l M i t k a . The most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e o r i g i n a l B i b l i c a l s t o r y and L e o n o v ' s v e r s i o n o f i t i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r h a s b r o k e n up h i s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e momentous e v e n t o f t h e 57 c r u c i f i x i o n . M i t k a F s d e a t h has i n f a c t t a k e n p l a c e , on a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , l o n g ago, w i t h h i s murder o f t h e W h i t e o f f i c e r . M o r e o v e r , h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n d o e s n o t t a k e p l a c e a t t h e s c e n e o f t h e t r i a l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s t h e e x a c t p o i n t o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s e v e n t w h i c h i s most d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . The complex s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s w h i c h s u c c e e d t h e t r i a l i n t h e f i r s t n o v e l has l a r g e l y b e en o m i t t e d by t h e s e c o n d ; t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s e e v e n t s , however, has been r e t a i n e d . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f The T h i e f , a f t e r t h e t r i a l M i t k a , v e r y i l l , h e a d s d i r e c t l y f o r Masha Dolomanova's s m a l l a p a r t m e n t . H i s p e r i o d o f c o n v a l e s c e n c e , however, i s s p e n t u n d e r t h e c a r e o f t h e s i n g e r Z i n a B a l u e v a , a l t h o u g h h i s r e c o v e r y i s c o m p l e t e o n l y a f t e r a v i s i t f r o m Masha. Then M i t k a s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r s f o r a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , w i t h o n l y one b r i e f v i s i t t o t h e l o c k s m i t h P u c h o v a l o n g t h e way. E x c e p t f o r t h e v i s i t t o Pucho v , t h i s h as a l l b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h e s e c o n d n o v e l . M i t k a 1 s c o n v a l e s c e n c e , which c a r r i e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t h r e e d a y s b e t w e e n Good F r i d a y and E a s t e r , h a s n o t , however, been f o r g o t t e n . By v i r t u e o f t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e r e - o r d e r i n g o f t i m e and c h r o n o l o g y a c c o r d e d t o t h e w r i t e r , t h i s r e c o v e r y has been d e p i c t e d i n a d v a n c e . D e s p e r a t e f o r a p l a c e t o s t a y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n f r o m h i s v i s i t t o t h e c o u n t r y , M i t k a has a l r e a d y t u r n e d t o Masha. H a v i n g a p p e a r e d on h e r d o o r s t e p i n t h e m i d s t o f a r a g i n g b l i z z a r d , he has been o f f e r e d t h e u s e o f 58 a c o t i n Donka's l i t t l e c l o s e t f o r t h r e e n i g h t s o n l y , b e g i n n i n g t h e n e x t n i g h t when Donka h i m s e l f has r e t u r n e d . C o n t e m p l a t i n g t h i s i n v i t a t i o n t h e n e x t e v e n i n g as he w a i t s f o r Z a v a r i k h i n a t B a t a s h i k h a ' s m i l l ( t h i s i s a l s o t h e e v e n -i n g o f M i t k a ' s t e s t o f h i s f u t u r e b r o t h e r - i n - l a w and o f T a n y a ' s d e a t h ) , M i t k a wonders w h e t h e r he a c t u a l l y d a r e t u r n up a t Masha's as a r r a n g e d : D i d he d a r e t o d a y t o announce h i m s e l f u n d e r Masha's r o o f as i n t e n d e d , t o d i s r e g a r d t h e r i s k o f i m m e d i a t e e x p u l s i o n f r o m P a r a d i s e . I f , i n s p i t e o f a l l i n t e r d i c t i o n s , he was n o t e x p e l l e d , i t w o u l d mean t h a t P a r a d i s e was a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d , and t h e n i t w o u l d be a l l t h e more n e c e s s a r y f o r him t o be a t Masha's, i n o r d e r t o s a v e t h e woman f r o m t h e l o v e r who had f o r g o t t e n h i s p l a c e . 36 37 Upon l e a v i n g t h e " u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e p a r a d i s e " o f B a t a s h i k h a ' s m i l l — i n o t h e r w o r d s , H e l l — M i t k a h e a d s f o r Masha's w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t h i s a r r i v a l i n P a r a d i s e i s i m m i n e n t and t h a t s o o n a l l h i s s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g s and 3 8 c o n f u s i o n a r e t o be l e f t b e h i n d . En r o u t e he d i s c o v e r s Sanka f o l l o w i n g f u r t i v e l y b e h i n d h i m . I t i s t o be o n l y a few h o u r s l a t e r t h a t e v e n i n g , a f t e r w a i t i n g p a t i e n t l y i n t h e c o l d w h i l e M i t k a s u p p o s e d l y s e a r c h e s f o r a p r o m i s e d p a c k a g e o f c i g a r e t t e s , t h a t Sanka w i l l b e s t o w upon h i s M a s t e r h i s " k i s s o f d e a t h , " t h u s s e t t i n g i n m o t i o n t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e i n t h e s y m b o l i c c r u c i f i x i o n . H a v i n g p r o m p t l y f o r g o t t e n t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s s e a r c h — S a n k a ' s c i g a r e t t e s — M i t k a becomes a b s o r b e d i n t h e c o n t e n t s o f Donka's t r u n k . /Amidst a l l t h e p a p e r s c o v e r e d w i t h p o e t r y , M i t k a 59 comes a c r o s s a h a r d m e t a l o b j e c t w h i c h t u r n s o u t t o be an i c o n — " c o p p e r , o f a n t i q u e m o u l d i n g , w i t h e n a m e l , an image o f S a i n t N i k o l a y M i r l i k i y s k i y , t h e p r o t e c t o r o f t h o s e who h a v e l o s t t h e i r way, who have gone a s t r a y and who have s h e d 39 b l o o d . " M i t k a i s v a g u e l y d i s t u r b e d by t h e i c o n , w h i c h he d o e s n o t d i s c o v e r p u r e l y by c o i n c i d e n c e . H a v i n g h i m s e l f become l o s t , gone a s t r a y , and s h e d b l o o d , he i s somehow a b s o l v e d o f t h e s e e r r o r s s i m p l y t h r o u g h h a v i n g t o u c h e d t h e s a c r e d image. Masha h e r s e l f d o e s n o t o v e r t l y t a k e p a r t i n t h e c u r e , b u t t h e t r e a s u r e w i t h w h i c h M i t k a has been r e w a r d e d w h i l e w i t h i n t h e s h e l t e r o f h e r " s a n c t u a r y " i s s u f f i c i e n t t o r e v e r s e h i s t r a g i c f a t e . M i t k a ' s r e t u r n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e l i v i n g i s s e t and now a l l t h a t r e m a i n s f o r him i s t o f o l l o w t h e p r e s c r i b e d p a t h . "Beyond t h e m o u n t a i n p a s s t h e 40 sun s h i n e s , b u t t e r r i b l e i s t h e j o u r n e y t h r o u g h t h e p a s s ! " i s t h e l i n e q u o t e d by M i t k a i n t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l and by F i r s o v i n t h e r e v i s i o n . A l l t h a t r e m a i n s f o r M i t k a now i s t o c o n c l u d e h i s t r e a c h e r o u s j o u r n e y - - f r o m s p i r i t u a l d e a t h t o r e b i r t h — t h r o u g h t h e p a s s . CHAPTER IV PARADISE REJECTED, OR THE THEORY OF PROGRESS A b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i a l o g u e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e v e r y h e a r t o f L e o n o v ' s n o v e l a r e t h e i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r a b l e r e l a t e d by t h e w i s e o l d M a s t e r o f B l a g u s h a , t h e l o c k s m i t h P u c h o v . C o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p a r a b l e a r e a l l t h e most i m p o r -t a n t a s p e c t s o f L e o n o v ' s t h e m e - - t h e B i b l i c a l myth o f P a r a -d i s e L o s t , i t s d e r i v a t i v e n o t i o n o f m e t a p h y s i c a l r e b e l l i o n , and t h e c o n c e p t o f human p r o g r e s s . B e c a u s e o f i t s l e n g t h , o n l y p a r t s o f t h e p a r a b l e and t h e commentary w h i c h accom-p a n i e s i t w i l l be c i t e d h e r e . "By t h e way, i t was you who m e n t i o n e d t o me r e c e n t l y , F y o d o r F y o d o r y c h , . . . t h a t t h e e n e m i e s o f l i f e w i l l i m p r i s o n us i f we d o n ' t k e e p i n  s t e p w i t h p r o g r e s s . I k e e p e x p e c t i n g y o u r c h a r a c t e r s t o r e v o l t s ometime: enough, t h e y w i l l s a y , t h e c a g e w h i c h c i v i l i z a t i o n i s b u i l d i n g f o r i t s e l f i s g e t t i n g more and more crowded f o r u s . Y o u r t r u t h , s c i e n c e , p e r m i t s us t o g l a n c e i n t o t h e a b y s s , and may e v e n t h r o w us i n . . . a n d i n t o what an a b y s s ! H e r e , I ' l l t e l l y o u a p a r a b l e . I t ' l l be w o r t h w h i l e f o r y o u t o l i s t e n , t o o , M i t k a ! . . . . ...When t h a t same s l i p w i t h t h e a p p l e hap-pened t o Adam and E v e , t h e y were c h a s e d w i t h a broom o u t o f t h e g a r d e n P a r a d i s e . . . . Then t h e i r Temptor a p p r o a c h e d them, e x c e p t t h a t he had a l r e a d y c h a n g e d o u t o f h i s s e r p e n t ' s 60 61 s k i n i n t o d r e s s c l o t h e s , y o u u n d e r s t a n d , . . . . 'Don't g r i e v e , , c i t i z e n s , t h e r e ' s a n o t h e r r o a d i n t o t h e G a r d e n , G e t up, p l e a s e , t i m e i s money, I ' l l t a k e y o u t h e r e m y s e l f ! 1 . . . A n d he l e d them. And f r o m t h a t t i m e on h e ' s b e e n l e a d i n g u s . On-ward Adam s t r i k e s w i t h h i s w i f e , and b e h i n d them a l l o f u s , t h e i r i n n u m e r a b l e p o s t e r i t y , b l a c k w i t h s o o t . . . . T h e w i n d t e a r s o u r s k i n o f f i n s h r e d s , b u t a l r e a d y t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t h a t w i l l s a t i a t e o u r g r e e d . I t ' s t u r n e d o u t t o be a l o n g one, t h a t r o a d a r o u n d , and t h o s e p r o m i s e d g a t e s a r e s t i l l nowhere t o be s e e n ! . . . . " "And r i g h t l y s o ! " V e k s h i n s u l l e n l y i n t e r v e n e d . " B e c a u s e o f t h i s , o n c e t h e y g e t t h e r e t h e y ' l l be t h e m a s t e r s o f a l l . Man i s s u c h a p r o p h e t i c word, P u c h o v , t h a t i t i s h i g h e r t h a n a l l o t h e r t i t l e s on e a r t h . He c a n n o t be o t h e r w i s e : he must head o n -ward a n d upward, a l w a y s onward and upward..." "...To t h e b l a c k a n g e l , when he e r r e d i n t h e e a r l i e s t o f d a y s , i t a l s o seemed t h a t he was f l y -i n g onward and upward, t o o , b u t he was f a l l i n g h e a d o v e r h e e l s , M i t y a . " 1 The c o n c e p t o f p r o g r e s s o u t l i n e d h e r e i s , by a l l ap-p e a r a n c e s , an e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e one. Man i s d e p i c t e d as b e i n g e n g a g e d i n a f u t i l e c h a s e w h i c h w i l l l a s t t h r o u g h a l l e t e r n i t y , c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h he i s m o v i n g i s e v e r "onward and upward," when i n f a c t he i s o n l y p l u n -g i n g d e e p e r and d e e p e r i n t o t h e d e p t h s . P u c h o v ' s r e m a r k c o n c e r n i n g t h e e r r o n e o u s c o n c e p t i o n e n t e r t a i n e d by t h e " b l a c k a n g e l , " made i n r e s p o n s e t o M i t k a ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e p a r a b l e , c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e " F a l l " i n t e r m s o f a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y o f God as p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . What i s e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t h e r e , however, i s V e k s h i n ' s c l e a r l y d e c l a r e d s t a n d i n f a v o u r o f t h e p o s i -t i o n o f t h e r e b e l . How i s t h i s p o s i t i o n t o be r e c o n c i l e d 62 w i t h the network of C h r i s t symbolism surrounding h i s person as d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter? P a r t of the answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s to be d e r i v e d from the f a c t t h a t i t i s s t i l l e a r l y i n the n o v e l and Vekshi n has not y e t begun h i s t r a n s i t i o n from "Adam" to " C h r i s t , " the "Second Adam." Other a s p e c t s o f the q u e s t i o n w i l l h o p e f u l l y be r e s o l v e d i n the pages to f o l l o w . Dmitry Vekshin's argument, i t should be noted, com-mands c o n s i d e r a b l e support i n the d i s c u s s i o n which ensues f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the n o v e l . Of the c o n t r i b u t o r s to the debate, o n l y Manyukin and Puchov make any k i n d of statement a g a i n s t " p r o g r e s s . " Employing the r a t h e r obvious analogy of a t r a i n , R u ssia's " l a s t b a r i n " makes the f o l l o w i n g comments i n h i s d i a r y : You w i l l say, perhaps, t h a t the t r a i n i s s t i l l r a c i n g through the darkness o f the t u n n e l and has not reached y e t the l i g h t a t the o t h e r s i d e of the m o u n t a i n — b u t i s n ' t the t u n n e l r a t h e r l o n g , N i k o l a s h a ? Has i t any e x i t a t a l l ? Look out, i n case the darkness crushes you! 2 Manyukin's comments might w e l l be e a s i l y d i s m i s s e d as b e i n g merely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the b i t t e r a t t i t u d e o f d i s i l l u s i o n -ment which accompanies o l d age. Puchov 1s o u t l o o k on the world, however, i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t , and must con s e q u e n t l y be accorded f u r t h e r study. The stand taken by the master craftsman of Blagusha i s unequivocably opposed to t h a t o f the r e b e l who denies 63 God and t h e n s e e k s h i s i d e a l s , o r " P a r a d i s e , " i n t h e f o r m o f m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s b r o u g h t a b o u t by t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e -m e n t s . M i t k a 1 s w i s e " s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r " t h r o u g h a l l h i s e n d e a v o u r s i n Moscow, P u c h o v r e p r e s e n t s t h e i m p e t u s t o w a r d t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o " t h e F a t h e r ' s h o u s e , " o r God. P e r h a p s , s i n c e b o t h he and M i t k a a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " M a s t e r " i n t h e n o v e l , and s i n c e t h e " p o l y p h o n i c " a p p r o a c h has b e en shown t o be v a l i d i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e a n a l y s i s , he i s t h e l i v i n g p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s i m p u l s e w i t h i n V e k s h i n h i m s e l f . The l o c k s m i t h ' s own l i f e , i n any c a s e , i s q u i e t and s e r e n e . I n h i s s o u l he was t r a n q u i l , as men a r e t r a n -q u i l who s e e f a r . From h i s y o u t h up, M a s t e r P u c h o v had f e l t t h i s u r g e t o w a r d composure and t r a n q u i l i t y , and had g i v e n h i s h e a r t t o t h e j o i n e r ' s t r a d e . . . I n s e c r e t , t h o u g h , he b e l i e v e d i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o u n t r y where t h e r e grow g o l d e n t r e e s , and b i r d s t r i l l a l l d a y l o n g f r o m s i l v e r t h r o a t s . P e r h a p s i t was o n l y t o r e a l i z e t h e m i g h t y m e a n i n g o f P e a c e t h a t he had s e n t e n c e d h i m s e l f t o t h e l o c k s m i t h ' s c r a f t and t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p o f v i o l e n t men. 3 I n t h e s m a l l shop i n t h e b a c k s t r e e t s o f B l a g u s h a where he p r a c t i c e s h i s t r a d e , P u c h o v ' s "sun was h i s s t o v e , w h i c h he 4 had made i n h i s own image." A r o u n d him l i f e was s e e t h i n g , men f o u g h t and d i e d , r e l i g i o n s p e r i s h e d and r e v i v e d a g a i n , b u t M a s t e r P uchov i n h i s c e l l a r h o l e j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d h i s r i g h t t o l a b o r i n . p e a c e a t h i s woodwork and t o l a u g h a t t h e e v e r l a s t i n g t u r m o i l o f t h e w o r l d . 5 The p o s i t i o n h e l d by P u c h o v , however, h a s b e e n won 64 a t a c o s t ; t h e p e r s o n a l s e r e n i t y and p e a c e o f t h e w i s e c r a f t s m a n h a v e been a t t a i n e d a t t h e p r i c e o f h i s r e m o t e n e s s f r o m t h e t u r m o i l o f t h e w o r l d . P u c h o v has e x t r i c a t e d him-s e l f c o m p l e t e l y f r o m t h e a m b i t i o u s s t r i v i n g w h i c h c o n s t i -t u t e s l i f e i t s e l f , s u b s t i t u t i n g i n i t s p l a c e an e x i s t e n c e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t o f a h o l y man s e q u e s t e r e d i n h i s q u i e t m o n a s t i c c e l l . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r a b l e w h i c h P u c h o v r e l a t e s t o M i t k a , t h e o l d man s p e a k s o f t h e t i m e s i n h i s own y o u t h when t h e p r i e s t w i t h whom he u s e d t o s h a r e h i s m o n a s t e r y c e l l u s e d t o awaken h i s y o ung s t u d e n t w i t h t h e r e q u e s t t h a t he r e a d a l o u d t h e "song o f p r a i s e t o g e n t l e J e s u s " ( a k a f i s t s l a d c h a y s h e m u I s u s u ) . And a t t h e v e r y e n d o f t h e n o v e l , i n what i s p e r h a p s i n t e n d e d t o be a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l t o t h i s s t o r y , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c h a n g e t a k e s p l a c e between P u c h o v and h i s p r o t e g e : "What i s y o u r c u r e , O l d P r i m u s , c a u t e r i z a t i o n o r w h a t ? " " I t ' s t h e same c u r e t h a t He u s e d . . . " P uchov s u s t a i n e d a d e a t h l y p a u s e . "Go t o Communion f o r a s t a r t , M i t y a ! " And a g a i n t h e y were s i l e n t f o r a l o n g t i m e . " T h a t ' s o u t o f c h a r a c t e r f o r me, P u c h o v . . . And i f i t t e a r s ? " " I t won't, i t ' s s w e e t . And what makes y o u so s p e c i a l t h a t y o u a r e so p r o u d ? A h o r n e d b e a s t [ r o g a t i y s k o t ] m i g h t i n t h e same way be p r o u d t h a t i t i s n o t b u r i e d i n t h e damp e a r t h l i k e o t h e r l o w l y h u m a n i t y , b u t e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e b e l l i e s o f t h e s o v e r e i g n s o f t h e w o r l d i n t h e f o r m o f b e e f ! . 7 65 . The h u m i l i f y i n g c u r e p r e s c r i b e d by P u c h o v i s t h e c u r e o f C h r i s t , and t h e r i t u a l o f Communion w h i c h he recommends t o Vekshin e x a c t l y d u p l i c a t e s t h e c o m p l e x s y m b o l i s m o f d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n t r a c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . P u c h o v ' s r e p l y t o M i t k a ' s p r o t e s t t h a t t h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n d o e s n o t s u i t h i m e c h o e s h i s e a r l i e r r e s p o n s e t o M i t k a ' s comment on h i s f i r s t p a r a b l e . The d i s d a i n f u l r e j e c t i o n o f t h i s p r o f o u n d l y m e a n i n g f u l s a c r a m e n t s i g n i f i e s t h e same u n b e n d i n g p r i d e w h i c h condemned S a t a n h i m s e l f t o e t e r n a l d a m n a t i o n . ^ M i t k a a p p e a r s t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o P u c h o v ' s s u g g e s t i o n s , b u t h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n — w h e t h e r t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e c o u n s e l o f h i s f r i e n d — r e m a i n s a m b i g u o u s . "I 9 w i l l t r y t o move onward and upward, P u c h o v , " i s h i s imme-d i a t e r e s p o n s e a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n c i t e d a b o v e , b u t t h e t o n e o f t h e comments w h i c h f o l l o w i s s u b t l y a l t e r e d . "Your m e d i c i n e , O l d P r i m u s , i s o l d and a n t i q u a t e d , b u t t h a n k s a l l t h e same. You h a v e a l w a y s r e g a l e d me w i t h t h e b e s t o f what y o u h a v e come up w i t h d u r i n g y o u r l i f e . " " I f e l t s o r r y f o r y o u , M i t y a . " " I t h as a l w a y s seemed t o me t h a t e v e r y man, e v e n i n h i s f e a t u r e s and h i s s k i l l s , i s s i m i l a r t o h i s god. And y o u r s , I'm s u r e , i s a t e r r i b l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s , h a r d -w o r k i n g god. L a s t f a l l I h a p p e n e d t o s p e n d a n i g h t i n a h a y s t a c k and t o l o o k f o r a l o n g t i m e i n t o t h e n i g h t s k y . E v e r y now and t h e n a s t a r w o u l d b r e a k l o o s e and f a l l . . . a t r o u b l e s o m e b u s i n e s s 1 And I'm s u r e t h a t , l i k e y o u , y o u r god must c r a w l a r o u n d t h e h e a v e n s w i t h a s o l d e r i n g i r o n , and t h e n b u r y h i m s e l f i n t h e c l o u d s and s l e e p f o r a w h i l e . You o u g h t t o t a k e a r e s t , too., O l d P r i m u s ! " 10 66 P u c h o v ' s god, whom M i t k a e n v i s i o n s h i s s p i r i t u a l c o u n s e l l o r as r e s e m b l i n g , i s c o l o u r f u l l y d e p i c t e d as c r a w l i n g a r o U n d t h e h e a v e n s w i t h a s o l d e r i n g i r o n , i n d u s -t r i o u s l y r e s t o r i n g a l l t h e f a l l e n s t a r s t o t h e i r r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n s . M i t k a , who has h i m s e l f b e e n r e f e r r e d t o as a f a l l i n g s t a r , o r m e t e o r , 1 1 c o n c l u d e s h i s r e m a r k s w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t P u c h o v , l i k e h i s h a r d - w o r k i n g god, s h o u l d a l s o s t o p f o r a w e l l - d e s e r v e d r e s t . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e m e t a l c r a f t s m a n ' s o l d - f a s h i o n e d m e d i c i n e may w e l l h a v e b e e n more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a c u r s o r y e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s c e n e m i g h t i n d i c a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e r e i s m e n t i o n o f t h e as y e t " u n t r i e d a c t i o n o f t h i s m e d i c i n e " i n a s u c -12 c e e d m g p a r a g r a p h . How, t h e n , i s t h i s a p p a r e n t a m b i g u i t y t o be i n t e r p r e t e d ? T h i s q u e s t i o n may t o some e x t e n t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e t e m p o r a r y b e n e f i t s o f t h e act- o f t a k i n g Communion, o f t h e n e e d f o r c o n s t a n t r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f f a i t h i n God and o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f o n e ' s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o C h r i s t w h i c h a r e s y m b o l i z e d i n t h i s c eremony. P e r h a p s L e o n o v ' s "Adam-turned-C h r i s t " h a s t u r n e d i n p e n i t e n c e t o h i s " F a t h e r ' s h o u s e , " o n l y t o f a l l f r o m g r a c e o n c e more. The n o t i o n o f a s e c o n d f a l l i s e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o j e c t e d l i f e - p l a n f o r h i s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e n o v e l i s t w i t h i n t h e n o v e l , t h e w r i t e r F i r s o v . "Go o u t among 13 t h e p e o p l e , s e a r c h , s u f f e r , r e s u r r e c t , and f a l l a g a i n , " a r e t h e f i n a l words o f F i r s o v ' s p r o p h e c y f o r V e k s h i n . A t 67 t h e end o f L e o n o v ' s n o v e l t h i s p r o p h e c y a p p e a r s t o have b e e n r e a l i z e d , w i t h one m a j o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n a d d e d , however, t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s p r e d i c t e d outcome. M i t k a ' s s e c o n d f a l l must be u n d e r s t o o d as b e i n g i n t e n t i o n a l , a v o l u n t a r y  r e j e c t i o n o f t h e b l i s s f u l s t a t e ( " P a r a d i s e " ) b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , o r r e s u r r e c t i o n . The b a s i s f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by an e a r l y s t o r y o f F i r s o v ' s , a b o u t w h i c h t h e w r i t e r i s e a r -n e s t l y q u e s t i o n e d by S a n k a ' s w i f e , K s e n y a . A c c o r d i n g t o K s e n y a ' s p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e t a l e , a l o s t and w a n d e r i n g s a i l o r i s t a k e n i n by a b e a u t i f u l f a i r y who g i v e s h i m s h e l t e r f r o m e a r t h l y s t o r m s and m i s e r y and p r o v i d e s h i m w i t h e v e r y t h i n g he c o u l d p o s s i b l y n e e d t o make h i s h a p p i n e s s c o m p l e t e . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , however, t h e s a i l o r becomes t i r e d o f h i s i d y l l i c e x i s t e n c e , and "one f i n e d a y when t h e f a i r y was e x p e c t i n g h i m on h e r downy c l o u d (on e a r t h c a l l e d a ' f e a t h e r bed') t h e s a i l o r p u l l e d on h i s f a i t h f u l t o p b o o t s , h i s s a i l o r ' s j a c k e t , and h i s o i l s k i n s , p u t h i s f a i r y c l o t h e s i n t h e c o r n e r , and went away a g a i n t o wander o v e r t h e 14 h u n g r y , h o m e l e s s e a r t h . " The s a i l o r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s a c t i o n s , a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l , i s a s f o l l o w s : Human h a p p i n e s s i s n ' t d e c e n t , y o u c a n s e e t h r o u g h i t . . . y o u c a n see t h r o u g h t o a l l t h e shame. 15 K s e n y a a s k s F i r s o v why he " s p i t s on human h a p p i n e s s , " and 68 t h e n p r o c e e d s t o answer h e r own q u e s t i o n . H a p p i n e s s i s a l w a y s p e t i t b o u r g e o i s . H a p p i -n e s s b e g i n s a t t h e moment when t h e r e ' s nowhere f a r t h e r t o go, when y o u have a c h i e v e d e v e r y t h i n g , e v e r y t h i n g ! 16 The c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r s i o n o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s made i n t h e r e v i s e d n o v e l by S a n k a : The s a i l o r , he was m i g h t y c o n s c i e n t i o u s ! . . . I f h a l f a y e a r were t o be s p e n t i n c o m p l e t e h a p p i n e s s , n o t h i n g d e s i r e d and n o t h i n g s t r i v e n f o r , t h e n a l l p r o d u c t i o n on e a r t h w o u l d come t o a s t a n d s t i l l , t h e s o u l w o u l d s t i f f e n and become c o l d f o r e v e r . 17 K s e n y a , who i d e n t i f i e s s t r o n g l y w i t h F i r s o v ' s t a l e , c o n c l u d e s h e r own r e m a r k s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e k e y t o t h e e n t i r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e p r e s e n t e d by t h e n o v e l : I a d m i t t h a t my f e e l i n g s " a r e ambigu o u s , F y o d o r F y o d o r i c h . I n my h e a r t I u n d e r s t a n d y o u r s a i l o r . . . O n l y . . . i s hope r e a l l y b e t t e r t h a n  h a p p i n e s s ? 18 R e p h r a s e d , and p u t i n t h e mouths o f d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c -t e r s , t h i s q u e s t i o n i s p o s e d t i m e and a g a i n t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . F i r s o v s t a t e s t h e i s s u e i n h i s n o t e b o o k : B u t o n c e e v e r y dream d e p e n d s on i t s r e a l i z a t i o n , when e v e r y t h i n g e a r t h l y i s a t t a i n e d , what w i l l h a p p e n t o man? And when he g e t s t o know e v e r y -t h i n g t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h , won't he w i s h t h a t he knew j u s t a l i t t l e b i t l e s s ? 19 69 The o l d b a r i n , M a n y u k i n , p o s e s t h e q u e s t i o n f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f h i s own p e r s o n a l d e g r a d a t i o n : I s t o o d and a l l t h e t i m e I won d e r e d , where i s t h e t r u t h : d o e s t h e s t r i v i n g f o r j o y o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s u f f e r i n g move man f o r w a r d ? 20 Z i n a B a l u e v a , t h e n i g h t c l u b s i n g e r who i s a l s o M i t k a ' s r e j e c t e d m i s t r e s s , makes t h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s t o h e r bro-t h e r , M a t v e y : I t h i n k t h a t t h e f u r t h e r away h a p p i n e s s i s , t h e more p e o p l e d r i n k . . . a s i f dreams were made c l o s e r by w i n e . And h e r e F i r s o v s a y s t h a t dreams a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h a p p i n e s s : h a p p i n e s s p a s s e s , b u t hope, n e v e r . 21 F i n a l l y , F i r s o v e x p l a i n s h i s c o n c e p t i o n t o T a n y a t h e e v e n i n g when t h e p a t h s o f t h e i r s o l i t a r y e v e n i n g w a n d e r i n g s i n t e r -s e c t : T r u t h h a s a l w a y s b een d e a r e r t o p e o p l e t h a n h a p p i n e s s ... U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r t h e l a s t two t h o u s a n d y e a r s t h e y have n o t y e t e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l j u s t what t h i s t r u t h c o n s i s t s o f . . . . And I c a n ' t d e c i d e m y s e l f what i t i s - - h e r o i s m , t h e s t r i v i n g f o r u n i q u e n e s s , i n t o l e r a n c e o f t h e z o o l o g i c a l a s p e c t , o r s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d t h e bounds o f o u r p r e s e n t k n o w l e d g e ? 22 Of immense s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h a p p i n e s s o f V e k s h i n and Z a v a r i k h i n . To t h e l a t t e r . , h a p p i n e s s i s a mere commo-d i t y , s o m e t h i n g t o be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a s i m p l e b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n . " A f t e r w a r d s w e ' l l buy t h e most m a r v e l l o u s h a p p i n e s s , as g r e a t as t h e s u n , f r o m a g y p s y on t h e b l a c k 70 m a r k e t , a l r i g h t ? " i J N i k o l k a p r o m i s e s h i s t r o u b l e d f i a n c e e . M i t k a , on t h e o t h e r hand, w h i l e a l s o f o r m u l a t i n g h i s c o n -c e p t i o n i n t e r m s o f p r i c e , e x p r e s s e s v i e w s q u i t e t h e o p p o -s i t e t o t h o s e o f N i k o l k a : You k e e p w a n t i n g t o p a l m o f f b l i n d l y o n t o me h a p p i n e s s i t s e l f , j u s t l i k e a c a t i n a b a g . B u t d o n ' t y o u be i n s u c h a h u r r y , show me i t s a d v a n t a g e s . I s i t w o r t h t h e p r i c e t h a t y o u a r e a s k i n g ? 24 I s h a p p i n e s s - - i . e . " P a r a d i s e " - - w o r t h t h e p r i c e , M i t k a a s k s , and, s t r a n g e l y enough, h i s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h a t i t i s n o t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f a t e s o f a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n F i r s o v ' s n o v e l a r e i n some way d e p e n d e n t upon M i t k a ' s d e c i s i o n . T a n y a , Masha, and Sanka a l l c o m p l a i n b i t t e r l y a b o u t V e k s h i n ' s i m p e r i o u s d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d e s t i n i e s . I am o f f e n d e d t h i s t i m e . . . b y t h e u n p a r d o n a b l e c o n t e m p t w i t h w h i c h y o u d e s i g n a t e t h e f a t e s o f u s , l i v i n g p e o p l e . 25 Thus T a n y a p r o t e s t s M i t k a ' s p l a n n e d " t e s t " o f Z a v a r i k h i n on t h e eve o f h e r d e a t h . Masha, s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t T a n y a ' s i n s i s t e n t c l a i m t h a t h e r b r o t h e r ' s unknown c r i m e c o u l d n o t have b e e n s e r i o u s , makes t h e f o l l o w i n g comments: I w o u l d l i k e m y s e l f t o t h i n k t h a t I am m i s -t a k e n , b u t I wear c o n s t a n t l y on my own body t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f M i t k a ' s d e e d ... however, i t i s b e t t e r n o t t o d e l v e d e e p e r i n t o t h e m a t t e r , b e c a u s e i f you a r e g o i n g t o i n s i s t on p r o o f o r become a n g r y , as you d i d r e c e n t l y , t h e n I w i l l be f o r c e d t o r e v e a l m y s e l f and a t 71 t h e same t i m e t o a s k e v e r y o n e w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e n o t by any c h a n c e s u f f e r e d f r o m t h i s v e r y . . . l e t ' s c a l l i t c o n d i t i o n a l l y " i r o n - n e s s , " o f M i t k a * s . 26 I m p o r t a n t h e r e i s Masha's i n d i c a t i o n t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t ( t h e g a t h e r i n g i s i n h o n o u r o f Z i n k a ' s b i r t h d a y ) -has had o c c a s i o n t o s u f f e r as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f M i t k a ' s i r o n - l i k e n a t u r e . S a n k a , t o o , c o m p l a i n s a b o u t t h e t o t a l d o m i n a t i o n o f h i s l i f e by h i s M a s t e r . E v i d e n t l y , y o u have d e c i d e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n me i s y o u r s . . . . Y o u have t a k e n e v e r y t h i n g f r o m me, M a s t e r , y o u h a v e t o r n o u t my s o u l , 27 he r e m a r k s b i t t e r l y a f t e r t e l l i n g o f h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o k i l l M i t k a . V e k s h i n ' s s u f f e r i n g s , p r o f o u n d as t h e y a r e , h a v e a t l e a s t b e en o f h i s own c h o o s i n g , w h i l e S a n k a ' s have a l l b e e n e x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d . "You h a v e grown y o u r own s t o n e , 2 8 w h i l e mine has b e e n c a s t upon me," he d e s p a i r s a f t e r h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h . M i t k a ' s a p p a r e n t l y t h o u g h t l e s s t r e a t m e n t o f e a c h o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s i s l i n k e d t o t h e n e x t m a j o r i s s u e i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e . T a n y a , r e p e a t i n g F i r s o v ' s a r g u m e n t s , p r o v i d e s a v e r y p r e c i s e summary o f t h e c o n f l i c t . Someone c o n v i n c e d me t h e o t h e r d a y , w a s n ' t i t F i r s o v , t h a t i t i s s t i l l n o t known what e x a c t l y i s h i g h e r and more s a c r e d - - p e o p l e o r t h e a b s t r a c t  i d e a o f human good. B e c a u s e i f one s i m p l y l o v e s p e o p l e , w i t h o u t i d e a o r p l a n , t h e n n o t h i n g w i l l come o f i t , and one " i s i m m e d i a t e l y weakened by 72 dumb p i t y and becomes e n t a n g l e d i n i t , j u s t l i k e i n a mire. A f t e r a l l , t r u t h l i e s i n s e e i n g beyond need, even through the b l o o d o f one's contemporaries, one's g u i d i n g s t a r . . . i s n ' t t h a t t r u e ? 29 The c h o i c e between the two a l t e r n a t i v e s — " p e o p l e " and the " a b s t r a c t i d e a o f human g o o d " — i s extremely d i f f i c u l t , and i d e a l l y s h o u l d never have to be made. Yet, a c c o r d i n g to Leonov's n o v e l , a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n has to be made. The crux o f the matter l i e s i n the n o t i o n o f the need f o r some k i n d o f p l a n , f o r i t i s due p r e c i s e l y to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s concept t h a t the r e v i s e d n o v e l ' s theory o f p r o g r e s s d i f f e r s markedly from the unique p h i l o s o p h y o f the o r i g i n a l . Tanya's words, quoted above, are p a r t o f a d i s t r a u g h t p l e a f o r he l p f o r her b r o t h e r . Masha's r e p l y to t h i s p l e a and subsequent d i s c l o s u r e o f the nature o f the crime committed a g a i n s t her by Mitka r e v e a l the s p e c i f i c c h o i c e which Vekshin has made between the two a l t e r n a t i v e i d e a l s and the d i s a s -t r o u s consequences which have been the r e s u l t o f t h i s s e l e c t i o n . And I suppose t h a t he r e a l l y does l o v e them... not a c t u a l people, but humanity, which i s r a t h e r impersonal because i t i s so t e r r i b l y d i s t a n t , p l e a s a n t l y s i l e n t , even foggy, a t the d i s t a n c e o f c e n t u r i e s . . . and i n t h i s i t i s i n f i n i t e l y c o mfortable f o r l o v e ! A f t e r a l l , these are v a r y i n g t h i n g s , perhaps even c o n t r a d i c t o r y ! 30 Mitka's g u i l t b e f o r e Masha d e r i v e s from h i s f a i l u r e to keep an appointment which he h i m s e l f had arranged, the r e s u l t o f which was Masha's rape and subsequent elopement 73 w i t h Agey. A s k e d t h e r e a s o n f o r M i t k a ' s f a i l u r e t o a p p e a r as p r o m i s e d , Masha's r e p l y c o n t a i n s a d i s t i n c t n o t e o f s a r c a s m : " I d i d n ' t a s k , my d e a r s o m e h o w I w a s n ' t i n t e r e s t e d i n what t h e y were d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e , " Masha s m i l e d w i t h h e r l i p s o n l y . " I t was p r o b a b l y s o m e t h i n g t o do v / i t h u n i v e r s a l h a p p i -ne s s . " 31 Masha' s f a l l and s u b s e q u e n t s u f f e r i n g s have endowed ..her w i t h a wisdom t h a t i s unknown t o t h e n a i v e and i n n o c e n t T a n y a . I t i s w i t h p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t t h a t she a s c r i b e s much o f t h e blame f o r human s u f f e r i n g s t o t h e p a s s i v i t y o f a b s t r a c t i d e a l s . I f a l i t t l e more a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o i n d i v i d u a l p e o p l e , she s a y s , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h a t v a g u e e n t i t y known as 32 " h u m a n i t y , " " t h e r e w o u l d be a l i t t l e l e s s g r i e f on e a r t h . " F i r s o v ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f V e k s h i n f i g h t i n g a t t h e f r o n t d u r i n g t h e c i v i l war w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e r e v o l u t i o n e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s u c h a b s t r a c t i o n s . I n t h o s e y e a r s t h e y f o u g h t f o r t h e g r e a t good o f m a n k i n d , t h i n k i n g l i t t l e i n t h e c o n f u s i o n a b o u t a c t u a l p e o p l e . T h i s g r e a t l o v e , d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among a l l , a t t i m e s gave o f f no more warmth t h a n a wax c a n d l e . L o v i n g t h e w h o l e e a r t h w i t h t h e l o v e o f a p l o u g h , V e k s h i n endowed o n l y S u l i m w i t h a l o v e t h a t was t e n d e r , a l m o s t womanly. When, d u r i n g one h a n d - t o - h a n d f i g h t , a b u l l e t s t r u c k t h e h o r s e between t h e e y e s , V e k s h i n c a r r i e d h i m s e l f t h a t e v e n i n g a s i f t h e y had k i l l e d h a l f o f h i m s e l f . 33 Much ado i s made by t h e c r i t i c s o f M i t k a ' s s e n s e l e s s a c t o f r e v e n g e f o r t h e d e a t h o f h i s b e l o v e d h o r s e and o f t h e 7 4 overwhelming f e e l i n g s of g u i l t w i t h which he i s burdened a f t e r h i s murder o f the White O f f i c e r who k i l l e d the horse.' The i s s u e would be g r e a t l y c l a r i f i e d i f the d i s p u t e over p o s s e s s i o n of the horse was r e c o g n i z e d f o r i t s t r u e symbolic v a l u e . The name "Sulim" i s v e r y p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from the verb " s u l i t 1 , " " to promise." The horse, Sulim, i s t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a t i v e of the promise of the f u t u r e and of the hope which i s the v e h i c l e of Vekshin's f e a r l e s s r i d e to meet the f u t u r e . ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the horse d r i v e n by Vekshin's r i v a l , Z a v a r i k h i n , i s named "Fortunka," or "Fortune.") His hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s thus d e s t r o y e d , M itka h i m s e l f becomes l i k e one dead. His i r o n w i l l , h i t h e r t o undaunted by any o b s t a c l e , however g r e a t , has f i n a l l y become undermined. As Sanka p e r c e p t i v e l y observes, " r u s t " has s e t . 3 4 m . The o c c u r r e n c e of t h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , t h i s t o t a l breakdown of d r i v e and ambition, i n a f i g u r e who supposedly r e p r e s e n t s C h r i s t , i s h i g h l y p a r a d o x i c a l . For C h r i s t , d e s p i t e h i s p r a y e r s i n the Garden of Gethsemane t h a t he be r e l e a s e d from h i s burden, never once f a l t e r e d on h i s way to the c r o s s . I t must be remembered, however, t h a t Dmitry Vekshin i s o n l y a p a r t i a l C h r i s t - f i g u r e , i . e . t h a t he assumes the r o l e o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y . And i t i s here t h a t the above-mentioned concept of a p l a n becomes r e l e v a n t . A f t e r the death o f Sulim, or Hope, much of M i t k a 1 s apparent s t a g n a t i o n and i n e r t i a d e r i v e s from h i s 75 i n d e c i s i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h h i s f u t u r e s t r i v i n g s s h o u l d t a k e . H i m s e l f f u l l y aware o f t h e f a c t , M i t k a d i s c u s s e s t h i s p r o b l e m w i t h P u c h o v . And now I c a n ' t t a k e a s t e p u n t i l I r e a c h a p r e c i s e d e c i s i o n . . . B e c a u s e f r o m h e r e my m a j o r p l a n w i l l f l o w onward f o r a t h o u s a n d y e a r s , i n w h i c h d i r e c t i o n a r e we, V e k s h i n s , t o move? What a r e we t o s t r i v e f o r ? And t h r o u g h o b e -d i e n c e and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e n t h u s i a s m i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p i c k s u c h a p l a n t h a t i n a h u n d r e d c e n t u r i e s y o u won't h a v e e x h a u s t e d i t . . . e v e n i f one were t o t a k e t h o s e v e r y C h r i s t i a n M i d d l e A g e s . 35 W i t h t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f h i s d i l e m m a , t h e e n t i r e i s s u e w i t h w h i c h M i t k a i s c o n f r o n t e d b e g i n s t o make i t s e l f c l e a r . The immense t a s k w h i c h l i e s b e f o r e him i s n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of, t h e g o a l s t o be s t r i v e n f o r by t h e w h o l e o f m a n k i n d . F o r "we V e k s h i n s " a r e m a n k i n d . R e l a t i n g h i s s e c o n d p a r a b l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t o f f o l l o w i n g someone e l s e ' s w i l l r a t h e r t h a n d e t e r m i n i n g f o r o n e s e l f what i s r i g h t , P u c h o v r e f u s e s t o g i v e h i s f r i e n d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a d v i c e , b u t he d o e s p r o v i d e some f a i r l y b r o a d h i n t s as t o t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h he b e l i e v e s t o be n e c e s s a r y . A s k s P u c h o v : Can y o u , V e k s h i n , c o n s t r u c t a b r i d g e o v e r t h e a b y s s t h a t w o u l d s u s t a i n b u r d e n s p a s s i n g o v e r i t ? Or d e s c r i b e y o u r dream i n s u c h a way t h a t y o u r g r a n d c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t a l t e r i t ? Can y o u comprehend t h e F a t h e r and M a s t e r o f a l l e a r t h l y l i f e ? Or d i e f r o m g r i e f , h a v i n g one day p e r p e t r a t e d a l i e ? D o n ' t y o u f e a r y o u r i l l n e s s ; n o t e v e r y c a s e l e a d s t o harm! 36 76 The p a r a b l e w h i c h p r e c e d e s t h i s s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "Read t h e Song o f P r a i s e t o S w e e t e s t J e s u s ! " ( a k a f i s t s l a d c h a y s h e m u 37 I s u s u ) i s F a t h e r A g a f a d o r ' s r e q u e s t o f h i s somewhat l e s s t h a n z e a l o u s p u p i l . The a k a t h i s t i s a hymn o f p r a i s e t o t h e r e s u r r e c t e d C h r i s t , and t o t h e m e a n i n g w h i c h C h r i s t ' s p e r -s o n a l v i c t o r y o v e r d e a t h c a r r i e s f o r a l l men. What P u c h o v i s t r y i n g t o c o n v e y i s t h a t f o r M i t k a , and i n d e e d , f o r a l l m a n k i n d , t h e way o f C h r i s t i s t h e " b r i d g e " t h a t w i l l c a r r y him a c r o s s t h e a b y s s o f h e l l and d a m n a t i o n t o s a l v a t i o n . H i s c h a l l e n g e t o M i t k a i s t h a t he c r e a t e a dream, o r a s e t o f t e a c h i n g s , t h a t w i l l h a v e as p o w e r f u l and as l a s t i n g an e f f e c t a s t h e d o c t r i n e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , o r e l s e t h a t he r e a f f i r m t h e o r i g i n a l f a i t h by a l l o w i n g t h e " F a t h e r and M a s t e r o f a l l e a r t h l y l i f e " t o g i v e m e a n i n g t o h i s e x i s -t e n c e . P u c h o v ' s f i n a l c h a l l e n g e i s t h e most demanding o f a l l . " C o u l d y o u d i e o f g r i e f , h a v i n g c o m m i t t e d an u n t r u t h ( s o v e r s h i v n e p r a v d u ) ? " The " b r i d g e " t o w a r d s s a l v a t i o n must u l t i m a t e l y c o n s i s t o f a s p i r i t u a l d e a t h and s u b s e q u e n t r e b i r t h , and t h i s i s most c e r t a i n l y t h e way o f C h r i s t . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f L e o n o v ' s n o v e l d o e s n o t c o n -t a i n t h e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t o f p a r a l y z i n g i n d e c i s i o n made by M i t k a as s t a t e d a b o v e . I t d o e s , however, d e p i c t t h e dilemma i n a p e c u l i a r s c e n e w h i c h , when u n d e r s t o o d f o r i t s t r u e v a l u e , c a r r i e s some a d d i t i o n a l o v e r t o n e s w h i c h a r e o f u t m o s t s i g n i -f i c a n c e . The s c e n e i n q u e s t i o n i s t h a t c f M i t k a ' s f i r s t 77 v i s i t t o t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t , where he i s u n a b l e t o make a d e c i s i o n a s t o w h i c h o f two c h a i r s he s h o u l d s i t i n , a p p a r e n t l y c r e a t i n g a m a j o r i s s u e o u t o f a t r i f l e . "I c a n s i t down e i t h e r on t h i s one o r on t h a t one," s a i d M i t k a r e f l e c t i v e l y . "When I t h i n k b a c k , i t seems t o me t h a t I ' v e a l r e a d y s a t on one o f them.... T h e r e f o r e I must s i t down on t h a t one a g a i n . . . . I c a n ' t a f f o r d t o make a m i s t a k e . On w h i c h o f them am I t o s i t ? " "On w h i c h e v e r y o u l i k e , " t h e a n a l y s t s a i d s m i l i n g , and went up a l i t t l e c l o s e r t o M i t k a . "The one on t h e l e f t h as a n a i l s t i c k i n g o u t , b u t t h e one on t h e r i g h t i s q u i t e s a f e , p l e a s e n o t e t h a t . " "NO, i t i s n ' t a q u e s t i o n o f t h a t , " s a i d M i t k a c r o s s l y . " I t ' s a q u e s t i o n o f law...one o f two t h i n g s : e i t h e r I r e m a i n a l i v e o r I d o n ' t . . . . " 38 The m e a n i n g o f t h i s o t h e r w i s e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e dilemma c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h o i c e o f c h a i r i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e f i n a l p o s i t i o n p r e d e s t i n e d f o r C h r i s t . A f t e r h a v i n g s p e n t t h e a l l o t t e d t i m e amongst men on e a r t h , and h a v i n g f u l f i l l e d t h e p r o p h e c y o f d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n , C h r i s t i s t o assume h i s r i g h t f u l p l a c e o f h o n o u r - ~ o n t h e t h r o n e t o t h e r i g h t -h a n d s i d e o f God. F o r M i t k a t o s i t on t h e wrong c h a i r w o u l d be t a n t a m o u n t t o C h r i s t ' s f a i l u r e t o r e s u r r e c t . M i t k a ' s s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , t e m p o r a r y as i t may be, d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o a l t e r t h e f a t e o f R u s s i a o r o f u n i v e r -s a l h i s t o r y , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t make h i s s u f f e r i n g s and h i s s t r i v i n g s any l e s s monumental.. F o r , as h i s f o r m i d a b l e r i v a l i n l o v e s t a t e s n e a r t h e end o f t h e f i r s t n o v e l , M i t k a i s e v e r l a s t i n g . He i s t h e b e s t i n m a n k i n d . He i s t h e d i s a s t e r t h a t a n n o u n c e s g r e a t s t o r m s . 78 Men w i l l n e v e r l o v e him, b u t how d a r k t h e w o r l d w o u l d be w i t h o u t him! B u t no, h e ' l l a l w a y s be t h e r e a s t h e wave i s a l w a y s i n t h e s e a e v e n when i t ' s c a l m . " 39 W i t h a l l h i s s h o r t c o m i n g s and d o u b t s , M i t k a V e k s h i n ' s s p i r i -t u a l s t r i v i n g s , a c c o r d i n g t o L e o n o v , s t i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e most n o b l e i m p u l s e s m o t i v a t i n g m a n k i n d . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS F i r s o v ' s h i g h l y c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f h i s own n o v e l , p r i n t e d i n t h e E p i l o g u e o f L e o n o v ' s n o v e l , i s o s t e n s i b l y an a d m i s s i o n o f f a i l u r e , an a p o l o g y t o h i s r e a d e r s f o r h i s m i s t a k e s . I t i s a l s o , i f one r e f u s e s t o t a k e t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f h i s c r i t i q u e a t f a c e v a l u e , a v e r y c o n c i s e and r e v e a l i n g s u m m a r i z a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l themes and i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d by t h e n o v e l . T h u s , e v e n i d e a s s e v e r e l y condemned by F i r s o v - t h e - c r i t i c a r e i n d i c a t e d a s b e i n g o f g r e a t i m p o r -t a n c e t o F i r s o v - t h e - w r i t e r , s i m p l y by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t o f t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e a r t i c l e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e v e r s e l o g i c o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e n o v e l as a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e B i b l i c a l myth o f P a r a d i s e L o s t a n d a p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a i s u n d o u b t e d l y c o n f i r m e d . A n t i c i p a t i n g t h e words o f h i s f u t u r e c r i t i c s , F i r s o v w r i t e s : I t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o F y o d o r F y o d o r y c h t h a t t h e d i s -g r a c e f u l w o r l d war had w r e n c h e d o u t r o o t s and a l l t h e b r a n c h i n g B i b l i c a l t r e e u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f w h i c h ha d b een w r i t t e n t h e m a s t e r p i e c e s o f y e s t e r d a y ' s c i v i l i -z a t i o n . The new e r a was b o r n o f f i r e , a b o v e a l l , i n f l a m i n g a n g e r , on t h e r u i n s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r h o o d w i t h w h i c h . . . i n d e e d my f r i e n d s , i t i s a b s o l u t e l y s i n f u l to. d e c e i v e f o r so l o n g and on s u c h a s c a l e an h o n e s t p e o p l e . 1 79 30 S c a t h i n g as these remarks appear to be, they r e p r e s e n t a statement o f content f a r more s p e c i f i c than t h e i r author ever dared to i n c l u d e i n the o r i g i n a l n o v e l . And although S o v i e t c r i t i c s are very c a r e f u l i n t h e i r treatment o f such p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous i s s u e s , i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s have gone e n t i r e l y u n n o t i c e d . Leonov, however, le a v e s a very wide margin f o r h i s c r i t i c s , p r o v i d i n g them w i t h enough m a t e r i a l to make c i r -cumvention o f dangerous t o p i c s not o n l y p o s s i b l e , but even prob a b l e f o r any c r i t i c working w i t h i n the s o c i a l i s t -r e a l i s t framework. The e n t i r e i s s u e i s d i s c u s s e d by Leonov h i m s e l f w i t h i n the pages o f h i s n o v e l as p a r t of h i s t r e a t -ment o f the t h e o r e t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l problems encountered by F i r s o v . The range o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f h i s own n o v e l i s p o i n t e d out by F i r s o v d u r i n g h i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Tanya. But you need o n l y r a i s e the magnifying g l a s s o f the thorough i n v e s t i g a t o r t o any p o i n t , and you w i l l be s t r u c k by the harmony o f the composite p a r t s , the depth o f m o t i v a t i o n , the f i l i g r e e q u a l i t y o f the f i n i s h i n g touches, and f i n a l l y , the g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y , a r t f u l l y compressed i n t o the utmost s i m p l i c i t y , where any o b s e r v e r w i l l seek out f o r h i m s e l f a sub-j e c t i n keeping w i t h h i s own measure and t a s t e . . . . Even f o r a n o c t u r n a l s t r o l l e r l i k e me, wandering i n l a t e under the f a m i l y r o o f , t h e r e w i l l a l s o be found some comic food to correspond w i t h h i s j o v i a l frame o f mind. 2 Leonov h i m s e l f may w e l l be l a u g h i n g a t the s e r i e s of complex and s u b t l e d e c e p t i o n s which he has p e r p e t r a t e d upon h i s r e a d e r s , f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the network o f "devious 81 s y m b o l i s m " a s c r i b e d t o h i s works by Hayward (See I n t r o d u c -t i o n ) i s c o n f i r m e d w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . Once a g a i n e m p l o y i n g t h e d e v i c e o f a n t i c i p a t e d c r i t i c i s m , L e o n o v w r i t e s : Most o f t h e c r i t i c s ' s t i n g s F i r s o v s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e o f M i t k a , i n whose f i g u r e was p e r c e i v e d a w i c k e d s y m b o l i s m ( z l o s t n a y a s i m v o l i k a ) . 3 The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s s y m b o l i s m i s p r o v i d e d v e r y s o o n a f t e r w a r d s , i n L e o n o v ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d F i r s o v ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a " f i c t i t i o u s d o u b l e " i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e o f h i s n o v e l . I n an a t t e m p t t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f f r o m t h e a t t a c k s o f t h e c r i t i c s , a s w e l l as f r o m t h e o f f i c i a l i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s o f h i s s u p e r i o r s , F i r s o v r e s o r t e d t o a c o n s t a n t t o r t u r i n g o f t h e p l o t , as a r e s u l t o f w h i c h t h e n a r r a t i v e seemed t o d o u b l e , c r e a t i n g a s o r t o f d a z z l i n g e f f e c t upon r e a d i n g . T h i s d e v i c e i n v o l v e d , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h F i r s o v ' s own i n v a s i o n o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d l i f e o f t h e c a p i t a l , t h e a r r i v a l i n B l a g u s h a o f a s e c o n d s u c h w r i t e r , w i t h h i s same surname and' w i t h t h e e x a c t same g o a l o f w r i t i n g a n o v e l a b o u t c r i m i n a l l i f e . . . . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h i s i n f i n i t e l y c o m p l i c a t e d t h e d e p i c t i v e t a s k s o f t h e p r i m a r y F i r s o v ; i n r e t u r n , however, i t p e r m i t t e d r e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h m i r r o r - l i k e e x a c t n e s s t h e most c o m p l i c a t e d and f o r b i d d e n c i r -c u m s t a n c e s , t h u s s h i f t i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s d a n g e r o u s theme and f o r h i s own l i t e r a r y i n -e p t n e s s o n t o t h e u n s t e a d y band o f a c c o m p l i c e s w h i c h he h e a d e d . 4 T h i s a p p a r e n t f l a u n t i n g o f t h e s o c i a l i s t - r e a l i s t s t a t u s quo i s n o t an i s o l a t e d o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c r i t i c i s m j u s t i f i a b l y c h a r g e d him w i t h f a r - f e t c h e d n e s s i n t h e i d e a o f V e k s h i n and o f h i s g u i l t , b u t t h e w h o l e t r o u b l e was c o n -t a i n e d more i n t h e I l l e g a l i t y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l 8 2 p o s i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n t h a n i n t h e i m p e r f e c t t h i n k i n g o f t h e a u t h o r w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s h e r o . 5 One wonders how L e o n o v has managed t o g e t away w i t h m a k i n g s u c h o v e r t l y s u b v e r s i v e s t a t e m e n t s . B u t p e r h a p s t h e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s a l s o i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . I n r e p l y t o a c l a i m by V e k s h i n t h a t he i s l y i n g , F i r s o v s t a t e s : " O b v i o u s l y he i s l y i n g , " F i r s o v m a i n t a i n e d s t a u n c h l y , " b u t a f t e r a l l , t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i n a r t i s n o t a b o u t what, b u t who [ i t a l i c s L e o n o v ' s ] i s l y i n g . T r u e a r t l i e s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , t h a t i s , i n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l by t h e p a r t i c u l a r , o r t h e o t h e r way a r o u n d ! What I want t o s a y i s t h a t , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a r t i s a d e c e p t i o n p e r p e t r a t e d w i t h t h e u n w r i t t e n c o n s e n t o f t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . . . And by t h e way, t h a t i s why--don't y o u t h i n k , D m i t r y E g o r y c h - - t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t i s a l w a y s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i s theme?" 6 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t a r e r a t h e r a s t o u n -d i n g . D e p e n d i n g , o f c o u r s e , on whom t h e a u t h o r has i n mind when he s p e a k s o f t h e " u n w r i t t e n c o n s e n t o f t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d , " t h i s comment c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s an i n n o c e n t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and a c c e p t e d d e v i c e o f l i t e r a r y a r t i f i c e . However, t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e p e r s o -n a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i s theme e n c o u r a g e s a d d i t i o n a l s p e c u l a t i o n . C o u l d i t be t h a t L e o n o v ' s s t a t u s as an e s t e e m e d S o v i e t w r i t e r and p u b l i c i s t who has a l w a y s s p o k e n o u t ( o f f i c i a l l y , a t l e a s t ) i n f a v o u r o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n and i t s r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s has g r a n t e d him some measure o f p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e p e n e t r a t i n g e y e s o f c e n s o r s and c r i t i c s ? Or t h a t t h e o b s c u r i t y o f h i s 83 p r e s e n t a t i o n has made h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r seem l e s s d a n g e r o u s ? The e x i s t e n c e o f a " c o n s p i r a c y " i n s u p p o r t o f s u c h s u b v e r s i v e e l e m e n t s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , n o t t o m e n t i o n d a n g e r o u s , b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d n o t be r u l e d o u t e n t i r e l y . L e o n o v ' s v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e h i g h c a l l i n g o f t h e a r t i s t h a v e a l r e a d y b e en documented i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o 7 t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , t h i s " c a l l i n g " assumes t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f an a l m o s t s a c r e d m i s s i o n . " I h a v e a l r e a d y s a i d , F y o d o r F y o d o r y c h , t h a t i n y o u r own t e m p l e y o u a r e t o some e x t e n t an a c k n o w l e d g e d p r i e s t , w h i l e I am g o n l y an o r d i n a r y i n h a b i t a n t , " i s M i t k a ' s r e p l y t o F i r s o v ' s a b o v e - c i t e d q u e s t i o n . Masha Dolomanova, i n h e r r o l e as s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c r u e l and e n c h a n t i n g Muse, makes t h e f o l l o w -i n g comments: Upon v e r i f i c a t i o n , y o u r most s e l f - e v i d e n t h e r o e s t u r n o u t n o t t o be h e r o e s a t a l l , b u t a r e r a t h e r e c c e n t r i c s o f some s o r t , m a n i a c s , and e v e n l i t e r a l h o r n e d d e v i l s e x i s t i n y o u r e a r l y s t o r i e s . Oh, how wrong i t i s t o i n c u l c a t e upon t h e masses b e l i e f i n an u n c l e a n power!...What a r e y o u , an • a u t h e n t i c m y s t i c , o r o f s p i r i t u a l c a l l i n g ? 9 F i r s o v ' s answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s most r e v e a l i n g : M a r y a Fyodorovna, 1 ("* my w i s e and c l e v e r o n e . . . Masha, i t ' s so good t h a t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , unknown t o t h e w o r l d , I c a n come t o y o u and be s i l e n t a b o u t t h a t w h i c h i s most s a c r e d on e a r t h ! 11 I n s u b s e q u e n t p a s s a g e s , s u c h as t h e t i r a d e w h i c h 84 f o l l o w s t h e a b o v e - q u o t e d e x c h a n g e between F i r s o v a n d Masha, t h e w r i t e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s l i t e r a r y c a l l i n g t a k e s on m e s s i a n i c p r o p o r t i o n s : I have n o t h i n g w i t h w h i c h t o d e c e i v e y o u , b e c a u s e i n t r u t h my w e a l t h i s i m m e a s u r a b l e , and on e a r t h I a l o n e know t o what e x t e n t my k i n g d o m i s o f t h i s w o r l d . .... 12 The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a s s a g e f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l , w h i c h i s c u r i o u s l y a b s e n t f r o m H u b e r t B u t l e r ' s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , i s a s f o l l o w s : Y e s , my w e a l t h i s n o t o f t h i s w o r l d . . . . T h a t b e g g a r f r o m N a z a r e t h knew how t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f . A l l i s w i t h i n me and more t h a n a l l . 13 A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e I n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n i d L e o n o v p u b l i s h e d i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , t h e a u t h o r , s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t t h e " v e r y d a m a g i n g and d a n g e r o u s a s s u m p t i o n [ h e l d by A m e r i c a n s ] t h a t n o t h i n g t h a t i s w r i t t e n ' l e g a l l y ' i n o u r c o u n t r y c a n be any good," makes a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r e n c e t o C h r i s t : W e l l , i n t h e d a y s o f J e s u s C h r i s t t h e r e was a s a y i n g i n J u d e a . 'Can t h e r e any good t h i n g come o u t o f N a z a r e t h ? ' And l o o k what a s i l l y m i s -t a k e t h e y made! 14 Whether o r n o t L e o n o v may be d e c l a r e d a d i r e c t h e i r t o t h e t r a d i t i o n o f R u s s i a n m e s s i a n i s m o f D o s t o e v s k y and G o g o l r e m a i n s a p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n ; however, h i s l e a n i n g s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n a r e u n m i s t a k a b l e . T h a t L e o n o v c o n c e i v e s o f h i s v o c a t i o n i n S o v i e t R u s s i a t o be 85 i n some way e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e t a s k o f J e s u s o f N a z a r e t h i s n o t t o t a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e . F o r t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e g r o w t h and s u s t e n a n c e o f t h e s p i r i t u a l e l e m e n t s o f 15 human n a t u r e f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e s a s 16 w e l l a s i n h i s a r t i s t i c w o r k s . The t e r m " s p i r i t u a l " h as become a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , and s u c h e m i n e n t S o v i e t a n a l y s t s o f L e o n o v ' s works as K o v a l e v , S t a r i k o v a , F i n k , and Bogus-l a v s k a y a a l l r e f e r t o L e o n o v ' s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e " s p i r i t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t " o f R u s s i a i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s . T h a t t h i s i s so may e v e n be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e e f f o r t s o f L e o n o v and o f o t h e r s who s h a r e a s i m i l a r c a u s e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , however, L e o n o v ' s i d e a s have a l o n g way t o go b e f o r e t h e y c a n a t t a i n o f f i c i a l s t a t u s i n S o v i e t s o c i e t y , and F i r s o v ' s s e l f - c r i t i c a l r e v i e w c o n t a i n s o minous a l l u s i o n s t o t h e d a n g e r s o f L e o n o v ' s p r e s e n t p o s i -t i o n . A d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f t o F i r s o v , t h e i m a g i n a r y c r i t i c r a g e s : "You a r e o n l y an i g n o r a m u s and an i m p o s t o r , an 17 a p o s t a t e who d e s e r v e s t o be b u r n e d . " The p r o s p e c t i s n o t a t a l l e n c o u r a g i n g . 18 Y e t " e v e r y t r u t h b e g i n s w i t h a h e r e s y , " as F i r s o v i s c r i t i c i z e d f o r h a v i n g s t a t e d , and L e o n o v o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e s i n t h e power o f an i n i t i a l i s o l a t e d i n s p i r a t i o n t o t a k e h o l d and e v e n t u a l l y t o a c q u i r e s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s a s t o a l t e r t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y . R e t u r n i n g one l a s t t i m e t o M i t k a ' s " f o r t u n e , " F i r s o v p r e s e n t s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f m a n k i n d ' s p l a n s and human p r o g r e s s : "And y o u s u p p o s e t h a t I [ M i t k a ] am g o i n g t o d r i n k y o u r d e v i l i s h p o t i o n ? " " Y o u ' l l s w a l l o w i t , my f r i e n d . I w o u l d n ' t h a v e w r i t t e n a b o u t y o u i f i t w e r e n ' t s o . . . . F i r s t y o u ' l l j u s t t r y i t , and t h e n y o u won't be a b l e t o t e a r y o u r l i p s away f r o m i t . I t ' s more i n t o x i c a t i n g t h a n opium. A f t e r a c o u p l e o f s i p s y o u ' l l b e g i n t o s e e i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e o f p r o g r e s s , by some i r r a t i o n a l i n d i r e c t v i s i o n , a s t r a n g e u p h e a v a l o f m a j o r p l a n s . And s u d d e n l y on t h e f l a t c a n v a s o f r e a l i t y , a bove t h e r e a l , t h e r e w i l l a p p e a r i n t h e most t h r e a t e n i n g com-b i n a t i o n s , b o r d e r i n g on g e n e r a l madness, f l o w i n g s i g n s and numbers, f l i c k e r i n g l a n d s c a p e s and e v e n t s , as l u c k w o u l d have i t , o u t o f r e a c h o f t h e m a j o r i t y and j u s t i f i a b l y r e j e c t e d by o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s b e c a u s e I t [ i t a l i c s L e o n o v ' s ] a l w a y s h i n d e r e d . . . how c a n I p u t i t more e x a c t l y ? " "Who h i n d e r e d whom?" V e k s h i n s u l l e n l y t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f h i s h e s i t a t i o n . " W e l l . . . i t h i n d e r e d men b y means o f a r e a s o n -a b l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h r o u g h a l e v e l l i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s b etween t h e h e e l and t h e c a p r i c i o u s f a b r i c o f t h e b r a i n , i n o b t a i n i n g t h e h i g h e s t good f o r m a n k i n d - -d e l i v e r a n c e f r o m t h e most d a n g e r o u s o f a l l d i v i d -i n g e v i l s , f r o m i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e q u a l i t y . And i f my m i x t u r e d o e s n ' t s e t y o u on f i r e f r o m w i t h i n , t h e n sometime we w i l l r e t u r n a g a i n t o t h e p r e s e n t t o p i c . . . n o t I , b u t t h a t u l t i m a t e F i r s o v , who a f t e r a h u n d r e d y e a r s w i l l b e g i n t o o b t a i n r e s u l t s . He, t h e n , w i l l s e a l i n f o r e v e r me and y o u , D m i t r y V e k s h i n , on w r i t i n g p a p e r f o r h i s t o r y . " 19 The image o f t h e p o t i o n w h i c h F i r s o v has p r e p a n f o r h i s h e r o t o d r i n k i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s p r e o r d a i n e d f o r C h r i s t by God. " L e t t h i s c u p p a s s f r o m 20 me," a r e t h e words o f J e s u s ' p r a y e r i n t h e G a r d e n o f Gethsemane. The s e e m i n g l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t c r u c i f i x i o n o f C h r i s t w h i c h was t h e " d r i n k i n g " o f t h e "cup" p r o v i d e d 87 b a s i s f o r a new r e l i g i o n w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y assumed w o r l d -w i d e p r o p o r t i o n s and a f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y n o t o n l y t h e l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l men b u t gave h i s t o r i c a l d i r e c t i o n t o e n t i r e n a t i o n s as w e l l . The "major p l a n s " w i t h w h i c h M i t k a ' s s p i r i t u a l s t r i v i n g s a r e d e s t i n e d t o i n t e r f e r e a r e t h o s e f o r a s o c i a l i s t - m a t e r i a l i s t U t o p i a , t h e a s p i r a t i o n t o w a r d w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n o v e l by s u c h c h a r a c t e r s a s Z i n k a ' s b r o t h e r M a t v e y , C h i k e l y o v , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , b e c a u s e o f h i s r a r e a p p e a r a n c e s , A t a s h e z . By f a r t h e most v o c i f e r o u s o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s i s t h e f i n a n c i a l i n s p e c t o r a n d c h a i r m a n o f t h e House Com-m i t t e e , P y o t r G o r b i d o n y c h C h i k e l y o v . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e b o u r g e o i s p e t t y b u r e a u c r a c y ( m e s h c h a n s t v o ) a t i t s w o r s t , t h i s s p i t e f u l and c r a f t y l i t t l e man i s t h e m o u t h p i e c e w i t h i n t h e n o v e l o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f Utopian s o c i a l i s m i n i t s most s i m p l i s t i c and t e r r i b l e f o r m . C h i k e l y o v , t o o , c l a i m s 2 1 t o u p h o l d t h e i d e a l o f " s t r i v i n g f o r t h e h i g h e s t g o o d , " b u t h i s p e r s o n a l v i s i o n o f t h e f u t u r e " i d e a l " s o c i e t y i s h o r r i f y i n g . I f t h e y a p p o i n t e d me, l e t ' s s a y , d i r e c t o r o f t h e t e r r e s t r i a l g l o b e , I w o u l d i n g e n e r a l n o t p e r m i t anyone t o have p r i v a t e s e c r e t s . I w o u l d have i t so t h a t anyone c o u l d go up t o anyone e l s e a t any h o u r o f t h e day o r n i g h t and r e a d h i s moods by means o f a m a c h i n e w i t h m a g n e t i c a n t e n n a e , t h a t ' s how! W i t h t o d a y ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t — t h e d e a t h r a y and s n e e z i n g g a s ! — i t i s p o s s i b l e i n one i n s t a n t t o c o m p l e t e l y t e r m i n a t e l i f e . . . N o s i r , man must n e v e r be l e f t a l o n e w i t h 88 h i s t h i n k i n g w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n t h r o u g h a m a g n i -f y i n g g l a s s ! T h o u g h t — t h e r e i s t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f s u f f e r i n g and o f e v e r y i n e q u a l i t y , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l . T h u s , i n a l l s i m p l i c i t y , I s u p p o s e t h a t he who d e s t r o y s i t , t h e a c c u r s e d t h i n g , m a n k i n d w i l l r a i s e above t h e h e a v e n s i n i t s g r a t e f u l memory! 22 I n C h i k e l y o v ' s v i e w , human s u f f e r i n g i s c a u s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s a s c r e a t e d by t h e i r own u n i q u e c a p a c i t i e s f o r t h o u g h t . I r o n i c a l l y , h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y i s one i n w h i c h a l l t h o u g h t w o u l d be b r o u g h t down t o h i s own n a r r o w and un-i n s p i r e d l e v e l r a t h e r t h a n r a i s e d t o a l e v e l h i g h e r t h a n 23 h i s own. " F o r e x a m p l e , " s t a t e s C h i k e l y o v , " e v e r y g e n i u s i s an e x t r e m e l y a n t i - s o c i a l phenomenon, d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e 24 m o r a l d e p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g m a j o r i t y . . . " I , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , do n o t w i s h e v i l on a n y o n e , n o t i n t h e l e a s t . I am o n l y s t r i v i n g t o s i m p l i f y u n i v e r s a l l i f e by means o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a b u r n i n g t r u t h ! A f t e r a l l , t h a t ' s what h a p p i n e s s i s . . . " 25 I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t C h i k e l y o v ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F i r s o v , whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n t h e most c o m p l e x a s p e c t s o f human e x i s t e n c e , i s somewhat l e s s t h a n c o r d i a l . I n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l C h i k e l y o v i s r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g made t h e f o l l o w i n g r e mark a b o u t w r i t e r s : I f I were i n a u t h o r i t y I s h o u l d o r d e r a l l a u t h o r s t o d e s c r i b e l i f e f r o m i t s c h e e r f u l s i d e , f o r e v e r y -one o u g h t t o l a u g h . " 26 89 The r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l c o n t a i n s a much more ominous a l l u s i o n t o t h e s i l e n t t h r e a t t o F i r s o v and t o w r i t e r s i n g e n e r a l p o s e d by t h o s e members o f S o v i e t o f f i c i a l d o m who a r e o f t h e same m e n t a l i t y a s C h i k e l y o v . The f o l l o w i n g r e -marks o s t e n s i b l y summarize Z i n k a ' s a t t e m p t s t o c a l m C h i k e l y o v down f o l l o w i n g h i s h u m i l i a t i n g r u n - i n w i t h F i r s o v a f t e r h i s p u b l i c r e a d i n g o f M a n y u k i n ' s d i a r y . C h i k e l y o v was w e l l enough aware t h a t t h e R u s s i a n w r i t e r was a h o p e l e s s l y r o t t e n r a c e w h i c h had had t h e l u c k t o e s c a p e t h e n o o s e and t h e e x e c u t i o n e r ' s b l o c k , i t s own p i s t o l and t h a t o f i t s r i v a l s , b u t y e t w h i c h s t r o v e f o r c e r t a i n d e a t h f r o m h e a v y d r i n k i n g , w i t h a c a s e o f c o n s u m p t i o n as w e l l . And i f P y o t r G o r b i d o n y c h h a d n ' t a s y e t d r a f t e d a b i l l t h a t w o u l d o p p o r t u n e l y d i s t r i b u t e t h e s e p e o p l e among t h e m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , i t was p u r e l y o u t o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t , a f t e r a v e r y s h o r t i n t e r v a l , t h e r e w o u l d t h e n r e m a i n i n R u s s i a o n l y r e a d e r s . 27 From t h i s p o w e r f u l s t a t e m e n t , t h e t h r e a t o f w h i c h r e m a i n s a l a r m i n g l y r e a l i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n t o d a y , may be d e d u c e d L e o n o v ' s c o n t i n u e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d a n g e r o f h i s own p o s i t i o n . H i s f e a r f o r h i m s e l f , however, i s g r e a t l y s u r p a s s e d by h i s f e a r o f t h e damage w h i c h may be done by n a r r o w - m i n d e d and s h o r t - s i g h t e d p l a n n e r s ( o f whom C h i k e l y o v 2 8 i s a p a r o d y ) , by h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e e f f o r t s o f m e d i o -c r i t y t o s u r p a s s g e n i u s and o f a t h e i s m t o deny f a i t h . I n The T h i e f , L e o n o v (who h a s d e f i n e d t h e f u n c t i o n 29 o f a r t as a " r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s e r v i c e i n t o t h e f u t u r e " ) p r o c l a i m s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a " p l a n " o r a "dream" f o r t h e f u t u r e , b u t condemns t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s p l a n i n p u r e l y 90 m a t e r i a l t e r m s . L i k e h i s m a s t e r and p r e d e c e s s o r , Dos-t o e y s k y , L e o n o v v i e w s w i t h deep d i s t r u s t t h e p r o p o u n d e r s o f t h e g o a l s o f a t h e i s t i c humanism and t h e " i d e a l " Communist s t a t e . The r i c h a n d complex r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m woven i n t o t h e l a r g e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r L e o n o v ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f s p i r i t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t and t h e n e e d f o r a c l e a r l y s t a t e d m o r a l c o d e . Such a c o d e had b e en u p h e l d f o r c e n t u r i e s i n R u s s i a by O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n i t y , b u t w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f B o l s h e v i s m i t was r o u g h l y c a s t a s i d e . The r e s u l t o f t h i s d e n i a l o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e g u i d i n g r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p a s t was t h e s t a t e o f s p i r i t u a l t r a u m a and m o r a l l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n t h a t have b e e n d e p i c t e d i n D m i t r y V e k s h i n . L e o n o v d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e r e t u r n o f S o v i e t s o c i e t y s p e c i f i c a l l y t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , however, b u t r a t h e r s t a t e s t h e n e e d f o r e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l ( R u s s i a n and n o n - R u s s i a n ) t o come t o h i s own u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g r e a t m o r a l t r u t h s ( s u c h a s t h e B i b l i c a l commandment "Thou s h a l t n o t k i l l " ) . H i s o b j e c t i s n o t t o r e i n s t a t e C h r i s t i a n i t y a s o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e , b u t t o r e a f f i r m i t s p r i n c i p l e s t h r o u g h p r e s e n t - d a y e x p e r i e n c e on a l e v e l t h a t i s p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l t o e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l . As F i r s o v e x p l a i n s t o M i t k a : I am a f r a i d o f b e i n g i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o y o u , D m i t r y E g o r y c h , b u t s e v e r a l r e c e n t a r t i s t i c f a i l u r e s have l e d me t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s more c o n v e n i e n t t o o b s e r v e t h e h e r o e s o f o u r day, n o t t h r o u g h t h e m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s o f g e n e r a l l y - k n o w n m o r a l t r u t h s , o f w h i c h t h e 91 m a j o r i t y are b u r i e d under l a y e r s of c a t a s t r o -p h i c s o c i a l upheaval anyway!...not even i n the l i g h t of l y r i c a l tragedy, because even the most h e r o i c p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h a l l h i s e c s t a s i e s of l o v e w i l l be drawn at l e a s t s t r a n g e l y a g a i n s t the f i e r y sky of our r e a l i t y ! . . . b u t o n l y through the working p r o c e s s , i n which are u n i t e d h i s mind, h i s c a p a c i t y f o r l i f e , and h i s w i l l ! 30 T h i s statement (which e x p l a i n s Leonov 1s apparent change of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l i n subsequent works) i s f u r t h e r supported by F i r s o v ' s d e s i g n a t i o n of the type of a r t r e q u i r e d , p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . "I stand 31 f o r a r t which makes man b e t t e r m g e n e r a l , " F i r s o v was quoted as s a y i n g , the i m p l i c a t i o n being t h a t mere m a t e r i a l improvements i n h i s standard of l i v i n g are i n s u f f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e the s p i r i t u a l sustenance r e q u i r e d by every man. But, F i r s o v warns a t the same time, e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s (even i n the form of n o v e l s such as h i s own) are i n s u f f e r -a b l e . The human s o u l must "contemplate by i t s e l f e very-32 t h i n g of which i t s e x i s t e n c e i s composed." The freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l , and h i s freedom to choose h i s own d e s t i n y , cannot be denied. FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I ''"The n o v e l was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n s e r i a l f o r m i n t h e j o u r n a l K r a s n a y a nov', 1927, No. 1-7. I t was f i r s t pub-l i s h e d i n book f o r m i n 192 8. 2 Marc S l o n i m , S o v i e t R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e : W r i t e r s and  P r o b l e m s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 207. 3 E . J . Simmons, R u s s i a n F i c t i o n and S o v i e t I d e o l o g y : I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F e d i n , L e o n o v , and S h o l o k h o v (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 102. 4 V e r a A l e x a n d r o v a e x p r e s s e s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t " t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y L e o n o v , t h e e n t i r e 1927 v e r s i o n i s a g r o s s p o l i -t i c a l e r r o r , and he s p a r e s n e i t h e r e f f o r t n o r h i s h e r o e s i n o r d e r t o ' c o r r e c t ' t h e n o v e l . " See V e r a A l e x a n d r o v a , A H i s -t o r y o f S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s . M i r r a G i n s b u r g (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y & Company, I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 184. See a l s o V e r a A l e x a n d r o v a , L i t e r a t u r a i z h i z n ' : O c h e r k i s o v e t s k o g o ob-s h c h e s t v e n n o g o r a z v i t i y a ( M u n i c h : I . " B a s c h i r z e w B u c h d r u c k e r e i , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 23. H e l e n M u c h n i c d e v o t e s s e v e r a l p a g e s t o t h e a r gument t h a t c o n f o r m i t y came n a t u r a l l y t o L e o n o v , who n e v e r h a d any g r e a t a r t i s t i c v i s i o n o r o r i g i n a l i t y t o g i v e up i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . See H e l e n M u c h n i c , From G o r k y t o P a s t e r n a k : S i x  W r i t e r s i n S o v i e t R u s s i a (New Y o r k : Random House, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 296-303. 5 D a v i d B u r g , " L e o n i d L e o n o v ' s S e a r c h , " S t u d i e s on t h e  S o v i e t U n i o n , I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , No. 3, p. 135. ^ I b i d . , p. 136. 7 S t a r i k o v a ' s comments a r e c i t e d on page 4 ( f o o t n o t e 11) o f t h i s c h a p t e r . See a l s o V. A. K o v a l e v , " T v o r c h e s k i y p u t ' L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , " i n L e o n i d L e o n o v , S o b r a n i e s o c h i n e n i y v  s h e s t i tomakh, V o l . I (Moscow: G o s u d a r s t v e n n o e i z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o y l i t e r a t u r y , 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 8-10, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " m i s t a k e s " o f t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l . g E . V. S t a r i k o v a , "O romane L. L e o n o v a V o r , " i n h e r P o e z -i y a p r o z y . S t a t ' i (Moscow: S o v e t s k i y p i s a t e l ' , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 30. 92 93 9 V. A. K o v a l e v , " V t o r o e r o z h d e n i e romana Vor.," i n h i s T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a . K k h a r a k t e r i s t i k e t v o r c h e s k o y  i n d i v i d u a l ' n o s t i p i s a t e l y a ( M o s c o w - L e n i n g r a d : I z d a t e l ' s t v o AN SSSR, 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 242-43. 1 0 I . A. Demchenko, "Tema k u l 1 t u r y v k o n t s e p s i i V o r a , " i n T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a . I s s l e d o v a n i y a i s o o b s h c h e -n i y a . V s t r e c h i s Leonovym. B i b l i o g r a f i y a , e d . V. A. K o v a -l e v ( L e n i n g r a d : I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Nauka," L e n i n g r a d s k o e o t d e -l e n i e , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 201-2. Demchenko q u o t e s f r o m L e n i n s k o e  znamya, Moscow, 18 S e p t e m b e r 1961. 1 1 Z . S. K e d r i n a , "Na s t o l b o v o y d o r o g e p r o g r e s s a , " i n T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1969, p. 65. K e d r i n a ' s q u o t a t i o n i s f r o m S t a r i k o v a ' s i n t r o d u c t o r y a r t i c l e t o t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e v i s i o n i n 1959 ( L e o n i d L e o n o v , V o r , Moscow: G o s l i t i z d a t , 1959, p. 1 3 ) . 12 I b i d . , p. 65. 13 I b i d . , pp. 65-66. L e o n o v ' s words a r e c i t e d f r o m a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w o f t h e c r i t i c w i t h t h e a u t h o r . 14 See. f o r e xample, t h e " I n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n i d L e o n o v , " i n i t s c o m p l e t e f o r m i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , X I I (December, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 134-35, and K a r l S h n u r a , "Dva v a r i a n t y romana V o r L. M. L e o n o v a , " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 28. S h n u r a r e c e i v e d much t h e same s t a t e -ment f r o m t h e a u t h o r i n a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r w r i t t e n by t h e a u t h o r on 21 September 1964. L e o n o v w r i t e s : " D e s p i t e t h e d e f i n i t e s u c c e s s o f t h e n o v e l i n i t s own t i m e , c e r t a i n u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d a r e a s o f t h e p l o t and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n e x a c t n e s s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f my c h a r a c t e r s t r o u b l e d me f o r t h e n e x t t h i r t y y e a r s . " 15 K o v a l e v , T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1962, p. 236. The a r t i c l e q u o t e d was p r i n t e d i n L i t e r a t u r n a y a g a z e t a , 24 S e p t e m b e r 1930. " ^ I b i d . , p. 235. 17 I b i d . , p. 236. T h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e same a r t i c l e i n L i t e r a t u r n a y a g a z e t a , 24 S e p t e m b e r 1930. 94 The s p e c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n i n h e r e n t f o r L e o n o v i n t h e t e r m " c u l t u r e " w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I . 19 I b i d . , pp. 236-37. 20 See V. A. K o v a l e v , "L. M. L e o n o v , " i n I s t o r i y a r u s -s k o y s o v e t s k o y l i t e r a t u r y , V o l . IV (Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Nauka," 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 250. 21 K. Z e l i n s k y , " L e o n o v , " i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e . P r o b -lems and P e o p l e , t r a n s . O l g a S h a r t s e (Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 185. 22 Max Hayward, " S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , 1917-1962," I n t r o -d u c t i o n t o D i s s o n a n t V o i c e s i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , e d . P a t r i c i a B l a k e and Max Hayward (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. x x i v - x x v . 23 L e o n i d L e o n o v an d V a l e r i a I s a k o v i c h , " I n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n i d L e o n o v , " P a r t i s a n Review, XXIX ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 300-301. 24 I b i d . , pp. 301-2. 25 K e d r i n a , "Na s t o l b o v o y d o r o g e p r o g r e s s a , " i n T v o r -c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1969, p. 59. L e o n o v ' s s t a t e m e n t i s q u o t e d f r o m an a r t i c l e i n P r a v d a , 26 F e b r u a r y 1967. 1967, 2 6 I b i d . , p . 43. A l s o q u o t e d f r o m P r a v d a , 26 F e b r u a r y 2 7 L e o n i d L e o n o v , S o b r a n i e s o c h m e n i y v d e s y a t i tomakh, V o l . . I l l : V o r (Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o " K h u d o z h e s t v e n n a y a l i t e r a t u r a , " 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 486-87. T h i s e d i t i o n w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be r e f e r r e d t o as V o r I I , i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m t h e R u s s i a n o r i g i n a l o f t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n . T h i s s t u d y b a s e s i t s c o m p a r i s o n on t h e 19 70 e d i t i o n as t h e f i n a l f o r m o f t h e r e v i s e d n o v e l , as some a d d i t i o n a l c h a n g e s were made i n t h e r e v i s i o n i n 1965. I b i d . , pp. 135-36. 2 9 L e o n i d L e o n o v , The T h i e f , t r a n s . H u b e r t B u t l e r (New Y o r k : D i a l P r e s s , 1931; r e p r i n t e d . , w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by R u f u s W. Mathewson, J r . , New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 61. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e R u s s i a n o r i g i n a l w i l l s u b -s e q u e n t l y be r e f e r r e d t o as The T h i e f i n f o o t n o t e s f o r q u o t a t i o n s c i t e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e E n g l i s h . 95 V y a c h e s l a v I v a n o v , Freedom and t h e T r a g i c L i f e : A  S t u d y i n D o s t o e v s k y , e d . S. K o n o v a l e v , t r a n s . Norman Cameron w i t h a F o r e w o r d by S i r M a u r i c e Bowra (New Y o r k : The Noonday P r e s s , 1966) , p. 15. 3 1 T h e T h i e f , p. 110. 3? L e o n o v has more t h a n a p a s s i n g t e c h n i c a l i n t e r e s t i n h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s p r o f e s s i o n , f o r i n 1921, a f t e r he was r e -l e a s e d f r o m t h e Red Army t o c o n t i n u e h i s s t u d i e s i n Moscow, t h e y o u n g w r i t e r l i v e d f o r a t i m e w i t h h i s u n c l e , who was a m e t a l c r a f t s m a n l i k e P u c h o v , and h i m s e l f t o o k up t h e c r a f t i n o r d e r t o h e l p pay f o r h i s room and b o a r d . See "Leonov, L e o n i d M a k s i m o v i c h , " i n S o v e t s k i e p i s a t e l i . A v t o b i o g r a f i i , V o l . I (Moscow: G o s u d a r s t v e n n o e i z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t -vennoy l i t e r a t u r y , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 665. 33 L e o n o v ' s own d e f i n i t i o n o f " c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e " i s c i t e d i n Zoya B o g u s l a v s k a y a , L e o n i d L e o n o v (Moscow: S o v e t -s k i y p i s a t e l ' , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 104-5. The q u o t e i s t a k e n f r o m Na l i t e r a t u r n o m p o s t u , 1927, No. 5-6, p. 54. " C l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t w h i c h h a s g i v e n t h e b e s t , t h a t w h i c h i s u n f o r g e t t a b l e a b o u t man, h i s b e l i e f s , h i s s e a r c h i n g s , h i s e r r o r s , h i s j o y s and h i s d i s e n c h a n t m e n t s . C l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s , f i r s t o f a l l , l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t e v e r y man, w i t h o u t a t t a c h m e n t t o t r a n s i e n t c o n d i t i o n s : t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t i m e , p l a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y , a n d so on. A l l t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e o n l y t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e e t e r n a l image o f man on e a r t h . " 34 D. H. Ushakov, e d . , T o l k o v y y s l o v a r ' r u s s k o g o y a z y k a (4 v o l s . ; Moscow: G o s u d a r s t v e n n y y i n s t i t u t " S o v e t s k a y a e n t s i k l o p e d i y a , " 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 242. CHAPTER I I "'"Zoya B o g u s l a v s k a y a , Leonid. L e o n o v , p. 105. " I n answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n as t o w h i c h o f t h e c l a s s i c w r i t e r s he l i k e d b e s t , L e o n o v a n s w e r e d : 'I l i k e F. M. D o s t o e v s k y , w i t h a l l t h e e n s u i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s . ' And t o the. q u e s t i o n as t o t h e a r t i s t i c method o f w h i c h o f t h e c l a s s i c w r i t e r s was most s u i t e d t o t h e d e p i c t i o n o f o u r c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y , he r e p l i e d : 'F. M. D o s t o e v s k y , i f one has s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g . ' " The q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r p u b l i s h e d i n Na l i t e r a t u r n o m p o s t u , 1927, No. 5-6, p. 57. 96 I v a n o v , Freedom and t h e T r a g i c L i f e , p. 50. 3 See R u f u s Mathewson's d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s y m b o l , The  T h i e f , pp. v i i - v i i i . 4 T h e T h i e f , p. 60. 5 I v a n o v , Freedom, p. 45. V. V. Z e n k o v s k y , A H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I , t r a n s . G eorge L. K l i n e (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 27. Z e n k o v s k y p r o v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f " m y s t i c a l r e a l i s m " : " A l l m a t e r i a l t h i n g s s e r v e as means f o r e x p r e s s i n g a h i g h e r t r u t h , a h i g h e r b e a u t y . I n p h i l o s o p h i c t e r m s , t h i s i s a m y s t i c a l r e a l i s m , w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y , b u t s e e s b e h i n d i t a n o t h e r r e a l i t y ; b o t h s p h e r e s o f b e i n g a r e r e a l , but- t h e y a r e o f h i e r a r c h i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t v a l u e ; e m p i r i c a l b e i n g i s s u s t a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' i n a m y s t i c a l r e a l i t y . The t h e o c r a t i c i d e a o f C h r i s t i a n i t y amounts t o a s s e r t i n g t h e n e e d t o i l l u m i n a t e a l l t h a t i s v i s i b l e , a l l t h a t i s e m p i r i c a l , by r e l a t i n g i t t o a m y s t i c a l s p h e r e ; t h e who l e o f h i s t o r y , t h e who l e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , must be s a n c t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s f o r m i n g a c t i v i t y o f d i v i n e power i n t h e e m p i r i c a l s p h e r e . " 7 I v a n o v , Freedom,' p. 49. ^ I b i d . , p. 38. 9 V o r I I , p. 17. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d (and w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f I v a n o v ' s L a t i n ) , t h e i t a l i c s a r e mine. " ^ R u f u s Mathewson, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The T h i e f , p. v i i i . x x I b i d . , p. 61. 1 2 V o r I I , p. 76. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 76. 1 4 I b i d . , pp. 75-76. I v a n o v , Freedom, p. 40. 97 16 E l l i s S a n d o z , P o l i t i c a l A p o c a l y p s e : A S t u d y o f Dos-t o e v s k y ' s G r a n d I n q u i s i t o r ( B a t o n Rouge: L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. v i i . The same q u o t a t i o n o c c u r s i n F y o d o r D o s t o e v s k y , The B r o t h e r s Karamazov, t r a n s , w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by D a v i d M a g a r s h a c k ( M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 124. Sandoz' t r a n s l a t i o n was p r e f e r r e d . 1 7 V o r I I , p. 516. 18 P h i l i p B a b c o c k Gove, e d . , W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r -n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. & C. M e r r i a m Company, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 197, 1343. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t M i t k a r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f as a " f a l l e n a r c h a n g e l " i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l . See The T h i e f , p. 393. 1 9 V o r I I , pp. 522-23. 20 I b i d . , p. 27. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. "392-93. 22 I b i d . , p. 53. 23 See C h a p t e r I , p. 7, f o o t n o t e s 16-19. 2 4 V c r I I , p. 52. 25 N i k o l a i G o g o l , Dead S o u l s , t r a n s . B e r n a r d G u i l b e r t G u e r n e y w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Rene W e l l e k (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t & Co., I n c . , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 304. 2 6 V o r I I , p. 28. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 444. 2 8 T h e T h i e f , p. 118. 29 V o r I I , p. 57. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n t h e o r i g i -n a l M i t k a ' s s u p e r i o r i s n o t i d e n t i f i e d as A t a s h e z , who a p p e a r s l a t e r i n t h e n o v e l as a f o r m e r c o m r a d e - i n - a r m s . 30 I b i d . , p. 57. I t a l i c s L e o n o v 1 s . 98 31 See K o v a l e v , T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1962, pp. 236-37. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n by K o v a l e v f r o m L i t e r a t u r n a y a g a z e t a , 24 September 1930: "But I e x p r e s s e d v a g u e l y t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t r i v i n g o f t h e h e r o ( h i s e n v y o f t h o s e who c o n t r o l c u l t u r e - - e n v y c o m p l e t e l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t o f t h e l i m i t e d C h i k e l y o v , who w o u l d l i k e t o l o w e r t h e c u l t u r e o f h u m a n i t y t o h i s l e v e l ) , t h e v e r y t u r n i n g o f M i t k a t o w a r d s c u l t u r e . " 3 2 V o r I I , p . 137. 33 Z e n k o v s k y , A H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I , p. 175. 34 See C h a p t e r I , pp. 8-9, f o r Hayward's comments a b o u t L e o n o v a n d t h e O r t h o d o x t r a d i t i o n , and pp. 9-10 f o r L e o n o v ' s r e p l y t o t h e s e comments. 35 See D o s t o e v s k y , The B r o t h e r s Karamazov, pp. 92, 309, 371, 691, t o l i s t o n l y a few o f t h e a u t h o r ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s i s s u e . V o r I I , p. 367. F i r s o v ' s r e p l y e c h o e s D o s t o e v s k y ' s b e l i e f t h a t " e v e r y one o f us i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v e r y o n e e l s e i n e v e r y way." D o s t o e v s k y , The B r o t h e r s Karamazov, p. 339. 3 7 The T h i e f , pp. 264-65. I n t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t a l s o e x p r e s s e s t h i s v i e w : " I am a man, y o u ' r e a man t o o . I n so f a r as I k i l l y o u , I - k i l l m y s e l f . " The  T h i e f , p . 443. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 397. 39 Demchenko, "Tema k u l ' t u r y v k o n t s e p t s i i V o r a , " i n T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1969, pp. 201-2. The same a n e c d o t e i s r e l a t e d i n K o v a l e v , T v o r c h e s t v o L e o n i d a L e o n o v a , 1962, pp. 248-49. 40 V o r I I , p. 76. 41 I v a n o v , Freedom, pp. 13-14. 42 I b i d . , p. 32. T h i s i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f M a n y u k i n ' s d e s i g n a t i o n o f M i t k a as " P r i n c e o f Denmark." V 99 I b i d . , pp. 18-19. The " d e a t h o f t h e ' o l d man' w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y " may c o n t a i n t h e key t o t h e o b s c u r e c o n n e c -t i o n o f M i t k a t o M a n y u k i n as t h e l a t t e r ' s i l l e g i t i m a t e s o n , f o r M i t k a ' s r e b i r t h c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d e a t h o f t h e o l d b a r i n a n d h i s s u b s e q u e n t r e a p p e a r a n c e ( o r r e s u r r e c t i o n ) f o r t h e o c c a s i o n o f T a n y a ' s m e m o r i a l d i n n e r . : 4 4 V o r I I , p. 10 8. 4 5 T h e T h i e f , p. 118. 4 6 V o r I I , p. 151. 4 7 T h e T h i e f , p. 90. 4 8 V o r I I , p. 110. 4 9 T h e T h i e f , p. 90. J W I b i d . , p. 77. 5 1 V o r I I , p. 499. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 107. CHAPTER I I I x V o r I I , p. 626. 2 I b i d . , p. 198. 3 I b i d . , p. 312. I b i d . , p. 41. The e q u i v a l e n t p a s s a g e i n t h e o r i g i n a l n o v e l r e a d s a s f o l l o w s : Two women r o s e b e f o r e h i s mi n d : s h e Who h a d s e t h e r s e a l upon t h e p r e v i o u s m o r n i n g s t r u g g l e d i n h i s f a n c y w i t h t h e woman o f t h e e v e n i n g . She o f t h e m o r n i n g h a d e n d e a r e d h e r s e l f b e c a u s e she c r i e d , she o f t h e e v e n i n g b e c a u s e she s m i l e d , and a l t e r n a t e l y t h e y h e l d sway o v e r h im. To t h e end o f h i s l i f e he was t o l o v e them b o t h w i t h o u t b e t r a y i n g e i t h e r o f 100 them. They f u s e d t o g e t h e r i n t o one w h o l e , l i k e two h a l v e s o f a s l i c e d a p p l e ; t h e y h e l d h i m f a s t w i t h s t r o n g , u n b r e a k a b l e b o n d s . (The T h i e f , p. 29.) The c o n t r a s t between t h e two q u o t a t i o n s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . H a v i n g g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e a n i m o s i t y between M i t k a a n d h i s d o u b l e , N i k o l k a — w h o i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m a t e r i a l m a n — L e o n o v has deemed i t n o t o n l y i n n a p p r o p r i a t e b u t a l s o i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l a t t e r t o r e m a i n t r u e t o e i t h e r o f t h e s e two p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e human s o u l . 5 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t L e o n o v has d e r i v e d t h e name "Demy a t i n o " f r o m t h e word "myatezh," w h i c h means "mutiny,", o r " r e v o l t . " T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e " F a l l " as a r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y o f God. ^The T h i e f , p. 60. I n t h e r e v i s i o n M i t k a ' s p l a y m a t e ( p o d r u g a ) - - t r a n s l a t e d by B u t l e r as " d a r k M a s h a " — b e c o m e s " z l a y a Masha Dolomanova." V o r I I , p. 85. 7 V o r I I , p. 207. 8 I b i d . , p. 210. 9 T h e T h i e f , p. 167. V o r I I , p. 210. 1 0 V o r I I , p. 240. The T h i e f , p. 197. X iM. B a k h t i n , P r o b l e m y p o e t i k i D o s t o e v s k o g o (Moscow: S o v e t s k i y p i s a t e l ' , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 5-61. E . S t a r i k o v a ' s a r t i c l e "O romane L. L e o n o v a V o r " i n h e r P o e z i y a p r o z y (Moscow: S o v e t s k i y p i s a t e l ' , 1 9 6 2 ) , a l s o n o t e s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f B a k h -t i n V s t h e o r y t o L e o n o v ' s n o v e l . See pp. 37-38. 12 V y a c h e s l a v I v a n o v w o u l d a n a l y z e t h e s e m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a s p e c t s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s p i r i t and s o u l r e s p e c t i v e l y . See I v a n o v , Freedom, p. 57. 1 3 T h e T h i e f , p. 190. V o r I I , p. 232. 14 , V o r I I , p. 232 ( " r y a d d e y s t v i y po o b y c h a y u s t a r o d a v -nego v r e m e n i " ) . 15 I v a n o v , Freedom,-p. 29. 101 1 6 V o r I I , p. 68. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 275. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 492. 1 9 I b i d . , p . 394. 20 I b i d . , p. 512. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 596. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 598. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 436. 24 I v a n o v , Freedom, p. 18. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 19. 2 6 T h e T h i e f , p. 331. 2 7 V o r I I , p. 450. 2 8 T h e T h i e f , p. 328. 29 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s o f t h e sun and t h e egg, a l b e i t i n t e r m s o f I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y , s e e M i r c e a E l i a d e , Images and S y m b o l s : S t u d i e s i n R e l i g i o u s  S y m b o l i s m (New Y o r k : Sheed & Ward, 1969) , pp. 77-79. 30 L e o n o v has b u i l t t h i s p r o m i s e i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l as w e l l , e n d i n g e a c h o f i t s s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r d 3 1 V o r I I , p. 356 32 I b i d . , p. 358. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 405. 102 3 4 I b i d . , p. 610. 3 5 T h e T h i e f , p. 508. 3 6 V o r I I , p. 574. 37 . I b i d . , p. 559. 3 8 M i t k a ' s v e r y s t a y a t t h e m i l l , named by F i r s o v t h e " g a r b a g e heap o f s o u l s " ( V o r I I , p. 5 7 3 ) , i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f C h r i s t ' s d e s c e n t i n t o h e l l i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n . 3 9 V o r I I , p. 581. 40 V o r I I , p. 521. The T h i e f , p. 394. CHAPTER I V x V o r I I , pp. 160-62. 2 T h e T h i e f , p. 162. 3 T h e T h i e f , p. 12. V o r I I , p. 2'3. 4 T h e T h i e f , p. 109. V o r I I , p. 140. The T h i e f , p. 110. 6 T h e T h i e f , p. 265. V o r I I , p. 371. 7 V o r I I , p. 614. °In l i g h t o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e " h o r n e d b e a s t " r e f e r r e d t o by P u c h o v a c q u i r e s d u e l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s l i t e r a l m e a n i n g i t a l s o c o n t a i n s an a l l u -s i o n t o t h e D e v i l . 9 V o r I I , p. 615. I b i d . , p. 615. 103 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I b i d . , p. 529. I b i d . , p. 615. I b i d . , p. 139. The T h i e f , p. 374. Vor I I , pp. 527-28, The T h i e f , p. 375. I b i d . , p. 375. Vor I I , p. 528. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 I b i d . , p. 528. I b i d . , p. 516. I b i d . , p. 398. I b i d . , p. 225. I b i d . , p. 286. I b i d . , p. 281. I b i d . , p. 519. I b i d . , p. 566. I b i d . , p.t 314. I b i d . , p. 611. I b i d . , p. 587. I b i d . , p. 497.. I b i d . , pp. 497-98. I b i d . , pp. 499-500, 104 3 2 I b i d . , p. 500. 3 3 V o r I I , p. 55. The T h i e f , pp. 41-42, "34 V o r I I , p. 359. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 370. 3 6 V o r I I , p. 372. The T h i e f , p. 266. 3 7 V o r I I , p. 371. The T h i e f , p. 265. O Q The T h i e f , p. 400. 3 9 T b i d . , p. 492. CHAPTER V x V o r I I , p . . 6 2 2 . 2 I b i d . , p. 286. 3 I b i d . , p. 107. , . 4 I b i d . , pp. 109-10. 5 I b i d . , p. 374. . 6 I b i d . , p. 409. 7 See C h a p t e r I , pp. 10-11. See a l s o L e o n o v ' s a r t i c l e " T a l a n t i t r u d , " i n h i s L i t e r a t u r a i vremya. I z b r a n n a y a  p u b l i t s i s t i k a (2d e d . , e n l a r g e d ; Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o TsK VLKSM "Molodaya g v a r d i y a , " 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 212-30. 8 V o r I I , p. 409. 9 I b i d . , p. 409. x ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Masha's p a t r o n y m i c i s t h e same as F i r s o v ' s , an i n d i c a t i o n , p e r h a p s , o f h e r 105 s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e o f a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a -t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e mind o f t h e w r i t e r h i m s e l f . 1 1 V o r I I , p. 298. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 299. 1 3 V o r I , p. 240. 14 L e o n o v a n d I s a k o v i c h , " I n t e r v i e w w i t h L e o n i d L e o n o v , " S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , X I I (December, 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 135. T h i s p a r t o f t h e I n t e r v i e w i s n o t d u p l i c a t e d b y P a r t i s a n Review. 15 See, f o r e x ample, some o f L e o n o v ' s a r t i c l e s as pub-l i s h e d i n L i t e r a t u r a i v remya: " Z h i v a y a s v y a z 1 p o k o l e n i y , " pp. 246-48; " B e s k o r y s t n y y i s v e d u s h c h i y d r u g , " pp. 252-54; " S l o v o o T o l s t o m , " pp. 273-99. ^ I n t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l u n d e r a n a l y s i s , L e o n o v r e f e r s t o a " d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p l a c e o f i d e a s i n t h e w o r ks o f an a r t i s t , o f some o f t h e d a n g e r s o f d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomena o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e . . . 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" B i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e W o r k s o f L e o n i d L e o n o v , " O x f o r d S l a v o n i c P a p e r s , X I ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 3 7 - 5 0 . " L e o n i d L e o n o v , " F o r u m f o r M o d e r n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , I I ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 2 6 4 - 7 3 . . " L e o n i d L e o n o v , " i n h i s T h e P r e m a t u r e R e v o l u t i o n : R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e a n d S o c i e t y , 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 4 6 . L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d & N i c o l s o n , 1 9 7 2 . P . 2 7 7 - 9 5 . • . " L e o n o v ' s P l a y ' Z o l o t a y a k a r e t a ' , " T h e S l a v i c a n d E a s t E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l , X V I ( 1 9 7 2 ) , N o . 1 , p p . 4 3 8 - 4 7 . T u r k e v i c h , L u d m i l l a B . " S o v i e t P r o p a g a n d a a n d t h e R e b e l l i o u s A r t i s t , " R u s s i a n R e v i e w , X V ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 4 9 - 5 6 . U s h a k o v , D . N . , e d . T o l k o v y y s l o v a r ' r u s s k o g o y a z y k a . 4 v o l s . M o s c o w : G o s u d a r s t v e n n y y i n s t i t u t " S o v e t s k a y a e n t s i k l o p e d i y a , " 1 9 3 5 . Z a l e s k a y a , L . I . a n d Z a l e s k i y , M . P . " L e o n i d M a k s i m o v i c h L e o n o v , " i n S o v e t s k a y a l i t e r a t u r a . V y d a y u s h c h i e s y a  r u s s k i e p i s a t e l i d l y a s t u d e n t o v - i n o s t r a n t s e v . E d i t e d b y A . A . V o l k h o v , L . I . Z a l e s k a y a , a n d M . P . Z a l e s k i y . M o s c o w : I z d a t e l ' s t v o " V y s s h a y a s h k o l a , " 1 9 6 8 . P p . 2 2 6 - 4 6 . 113 Z e n k o v s k y , V. V. A H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n P h i l o s o p h y . V o l . I . T r a n s l a t e d by G eorge L. K l i n e . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 . Z e l i n s k y , K. "Leonov," i n h i s S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e : P r o b l e m s  a n d P e o p l e . T r a n s l a t e d by O l g a S h a r t s e . Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 0 . Pp. 1 8 0 - 8 7 . 

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