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Theatre Vancouver Virdi, Nirbhai Singh 1977

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THEATRE VANCOUVER by NIRBHAI SINGH /viRDI B. A r c h . (HONS.) 1967 Ch a n d i g a r h C o l l e g e o f A r c h i t e c t u r e Punjab U n i v e r s i t y . INDIA THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 (2) N i r b h a i S i n g h V i r d i , 1977 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be al lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date N o v / 7 7 i i ABSTRACT Theatres have existed throughout the human c i v i l i z a t i o n as places of a r t i s t i c expression and l e i s u r e . Throughout various Western cultures such as the Greek, Roman, I t a l i a n and Shakespearean etc., d i f f e r e n t theatre forms emerged. The essence of the theatre l i e s i n the actor to audience rel a t i o n s h i p . With the invention of motion pictures, part of the theatre talent (actors, directors and technicians, etc.) switched to the motion picture industry and a further change took place with the more recent invention of t e l e v i s i o n i n 1927. Each industry thus created became a self-supporting form of art and the process strengthened the parent art due to competition and public demands for higher performance standards. I decided to design a theatre for Vancouver that s a t i s f i e s the needs of the community. There are a number of variables that govern the design of a theatre such as: the needs of the l o c a l community as to the size and type of a theatre dictate the seating capacity and i t s functional usage (drama, opera, orchestra or multipurpose, e t c . ) ; economics dictate the administrative and technical structure and space-needs; and the desired actor to audience relationship dictate the stage design and seating layout. To e s t a b l i s h a design program (space needs) a questionnaire was prepared and a number of persons connected with theatre arts were interviewed for comments and suggestions. The questions were designed to explore needs for - type of theatre, seating capacity, actor to audience relationship, orchestra s i z e , public areas, stage design, workshop spaces, actors' accommodation, administrative organization, mechanical services and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an open-air-theatre, etc. A s i t e for the proposed theatre was selected by establishing c r i t e r i a for s i t e selection and then testing a number of possible s i t e s i n the c i t y against these c r i t e r i a . Some of the c r i t e r i a were: a c c e s s i b i l i t y by car, rapid t r a n s i t access, land costs, parking a v a i l a b i l i t y , s i t e area, population d i s t r i b u t i o n and proximity of buildings of other c u l t u r a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l usage and environmental setting. Out of f i v e possible s i t e s i n the c i t y , Vanier Park s i t e was selected as the most appropriate s i t e for the proposed theatre as i t q u a l i f i e d best against the established c r i t e r i a . The f i n a l proposed design has the following features: the theatre i s s i t e d towards the Music School building; public spaces such as lobbies, restaurants and lounges, etc., are directed to the best view towards -the Burrard I n l e t , the downtown core and the mountains; basic actor to audience rela t i o n s h i p has a 90 degree encirclement; seating capacity 800; stage design i s a combination of proscenium stage and thrust stage with hydraulic l i f t s for changing scenery; a flytower over proscenium stage for f l y i n g and storing i v backcloths; provision for production, administrative and actor's spaces; workshops (scene shop, paint shop, metals shop and costume shop) large enough to put up a medium sized set; a projection room with l i g h t control and sound control rooms i n between orchestra and balcony f l o o r s ; a back stage projection room; four exits designed from each orchestra and balcony f l o o r ; stage designed with three f i r e - e x i t s ; technical areas designed with two f i r e exits and a small independent open-air-theatre for 150 seats. The only two modes of transportation - pedestrian and vehicular, have been separated from one another. Concrete i s used as the primary material of construction with large span roofs of auditorium and fly-tower of steel-space-frame trusses. The sloping roofs are l i n e d with orange coloured clay t i l e s . The main stage and rehearsal stage f l o o r i n g i s tongue and grooved Columbia-pine softwood. Orchestra and balcony f l o o r i s carpeted. A large lake i s planned on the pedestrian plaza l e v e l with a l l elements of landscape. The proposed theatre can either be owned by the c i t y as at present i t owns a number of them or owned pr i v a t e l y as many such ventures are running quite p r o f i t a b l y . Chapter TABLE OF CONTENTS V Page I Traditions i n Western theatre design and study of some recent theatres 1 II Kind of theatre needed i n Vancouver and i t s location i n the c i t y (a) Questionnaire and building program 34 (b) Site selection 59 III Design C r i t e r i a (A) Stage planning and stage scenery 72 (B) Administrative organization, actors organization and production accommodation 82 (C) Public areas 9 3 (D) Acoustics 98 (E) Sight l i n e s 102 (F) Stage l i g h t i n g , sound control and f i l m projection 105 (G) F i r e safety and exits . 110 (H) Heating and a i r conditioning 113 IV The proposed theatre design 115 V Cost breakdown and r e a l i z a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s 179 VI Summary 186 Bibliography 19 3 V I LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Rating of si t e s against c r i t e r i a 69 V I 1 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Photograph Page Photographs of e x i s t i n g s i t e 1. View 1 117 2. View 2 118 3. View 3 119 4. View 4 120 5. View 5 121 6. View 6 122 7. View 7 123 8. View 8 124 Photographs of f i n a l model 9. Plate 1 141 10. Plate 2 142 11. Plate 3 143 12. Plate 4 144 13. Plate 5 145 14 . Plate 6 14 6 15 . Plate 7 147 16 . Plate 8 148 Photographs of study model 17. Plate 1 149 18. Plate 2 150 19. Plate 3 151 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure " Page 1 360 degree encirclement 6 2 Transverse stage 7 3 210 degree encirclement 9 4, 180 degree encirclement 11 5 90 degree encirclement 12 6 Proscenium stage 14 7 Space stage 16 8 Total theatre 18 9 Arena stage theatre 20 10 Vivian Beaumont theatre 22 11 Stratford Shakespearean F e s t i v a l theatre 24 12 Tyrone Guthrie theatre 26 13 Open stage with f i l m projection 28 14 F l e x i b l e proscenium theatre 30 15 Interchangeable theatre 32 16 Experimental theatre 3 3a 17 Ex i s t i n g t r a f f i c pattern 60 18 Population density 62 19 Site selection 64 20 Fl y i n g g r i d 75 21 Methods of changing sets 76 22 Administrative organization 87 23 Actors organization 88 24 Production organization 92 ix 25 Public areas 95 26 Functional relationship 97 27 Sight l i n e s and seating rake 104 28 E x i s t i n g s i t e views 116 29 Evolution of form - phase 1 126 30 Evolution of form - phase 2 127 31 Evolution of form - phase 3 12 8 32 Evolution of form - phase 4 129 33 Evolution of form - phase 5 130 34 T r a f f i c pattern 135 35 Proposed s i t e perspectives 170 X LIST OF DRAWINGS (Cabif)^' ^) Drawing Page 1 E x i s t i n g master plan 70 2 E x i s t i n g s i t e plan 71 3 Proposed master plan 152 4 Proposed s i t e plan 153 5 Second parking plan 154 6 F i r s t parking plan 155 7 Entrance lobby plan 156 8 Orchestra f l o o r plan 157 9 Balcony lobby plan 158 10 Balcony f l o o r plan 159 11 Roof plan 160 12 Reflected c e i l i n g plan 161 13 West elevation 162 14 East elevation 163 15 North elevation 164 16 South elevation 165 17 Section 1 166 18 Section 2 16 7 19 Section 3 16 8 20 Section 4 169 21 Perspective 1 171 22 Perspective 2 172 23 Perspective 3 173 24 Perspective 4 174 x i 25 Perspective 5 175 26 Perspective 6 176 27 Perspective 7 177 28 Perspective 8 178 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my deep sense of gratitude and thanks to Mr. Wolfgang Gerson (Prof, of Architecture responsible for graduate studies, U.B.C.) and Mr. Richard Wilcox (Assoc. prof, and scene designer, Theatre dept. U.B.C.) for t h e i r guidance i n theatre design and development and preparation of this manuscript. In addition, I thank the following gentlemen for t h e i r comments on the questionnaire and valuable suggestions about the needs of the c i t y of Vancouver for a theatre building. Mr. Christopher Newton ( A r t i s t i c director) Playhouse theatre company Vancouver. Mr. David H.Y. Lui (Independent producer and empressario). Often present international a r t i s t s i n Vancouver. Mr. Cameron Porteous (Design director) Playhouse theatre company, Vancouver. Mr. Ian Dobbin (General Manager) Queen Elizabeth theatre, Vancouver. I am also grateful to Mr. Evart Wetherill (Assoc. prof., School of Architecture, U.B.C.) for comments and guidance on acoustic design of the proposed theatre and to the public o f f i c i a l s i n the Ci t y H a l l , Parks Board, Community Arts Council for advice on possible theatre s i t e s , future development goals and theatre surveys. x i i i My special thanks to my wife Manjit V i r d i without whose help t h i s would not have been possible. NIRBHAI S. VIRDI 7 CHAPTER 1 1 TRADITIONS IN WESTERN THEATRE DESIGN  AND STUDY OF SOME RECENT THEATRES I t can be conjectured that the cave man was the f i r s t actor. With spare time on hand from hunting he acted out his experiences to his friends. He might have stood up imitating the scenes of that morning's hunt to one of his fellow hunters while other tribesmen watched and v i s u a l i z e d the scene. At that moment, the history of the theatre can be said to have begun, the actor perhaps standing up on high ground and his audience s i t t i n g around him on stones. This r e l a t i o n s h i p of actor and audience strengthened under various c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Those who were g i f t e d i n t h i s form of art performed, while others went to watch. Later, with the knowledge of building techniques, s p e c i a l i z e d struc- . tures were erected to house the theatre. As time passed on, various theatre forms emerged i n various cultures such as the Greek, Roman and I t a l i a n , etc. These were suitable to the needs and b e l i e f s of the people of s p e c i f i c c i v i l i z a t i o n s at s p e c i f i c times in t h e i r cultures. In a l l of these types of theatres the basic problem has been the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the actors to t h e i r audience and the interaction between the two. This i n t e r a c t i o n i s s t i l l the essence of the theatre. As we are now i n a period which produces h i s t o r i c a l theatres of a l l ages and cultures and includes modern experiments i n i t s repertory, a dilemma arises as to the kind of actor to audience relationship to choose. Most buildings can be made f l e x i b l e only to a c e r t a i n extent, so a decision has to be made as to the relationship of actor to audience. In the l i v e theatre of today there has been a strong re-action against the separation of the actor from the audience caused by the proscenium theatre of the recent past. This had led to experimentation with new actor to audience relationships and r e v i v a l of some older theatre forms. The tendency i s to bring the actor closer to or r i g h t into the audience so that a greater sense of intimacy can be achieved. This can be done by grouping the audience around the stage. There i s a great d i s -agreement between the stage designers and a r t i s t i c directors of today as to the i d e a l degree of encirclement. Some of the v a r i ables i n making a decision for a p a r t i c u l a r degree of e n c i r c l e -ment are described here: (1) The a r t i s t i c director's approach to the theatre and the plays he wishes to produce. Some a r t i s t i c directors do t h e i r best work with a mono-di mensional play and therefore prefer a proscenium stage while others want a m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l more intimate e f f e c t , therefore preferring a theatre with some degree of encirclement. The de-gree of encirclement can be up to 360 degrees. The decision on the degree of encirclement i s somewhat personal but technical l i m i t a t i o n s of stage l i g h t i n g , voice projection and acoustics also play an important r o l e . 3 (2) Resident playwriter's approach to theatre a r t s . In a theatre with a resident playwriter, his opinions must be considered i n the design of the stage i f the major bulk of plays to be produced are based on his own writing. I f he adapts c l a s s i c a l plays then the stage-form s h a l l be dictated by the requirement of those p a r t i c u l a r plays. (3) E f f e c t of audience intimacy. A greater degree of encirclement produces a greater physi-c a l and psychological e f f e c t of intimacy between the actors and audience and a greater number of audience can be seated closer to the stage. A theatre with a given number of seats can be planned with varying degrees of encirclement to produce a v a r i -ety of stage and seating layouts. (4) Visual l i m i t a t i o n s . There i s a physical l i m i t up to which an actor can hold h i s audience. This i s accepted to be 66 feet (from the stage to the l a s t row i n the auditorium) and works out to about 20-25 seating rows. Furthermore, there are always physical and s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s on the proscenium opening and auditorium width. In a theatre with a large audience s i z e , v i s u a l l i m i t s w i l l rule out the design of a proscenium stage layout i n favour of a stage with some degree of encirclement (90-360 degrees) to keep the distance between the actor and patron on the l a s t row to 66 feet or l e s s . (5) Acoustic l i m i t a t i o n s . The acoustic q u a l i t i e s of a theatre are dependent upon the 4 behavior of sound r e f l e c t i o n s and the period of reverberation. Within the v i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s of 66 feet, the side walls of a proscenium theatre reinforce the actors 1 voice whereas i f the degree of encirclement increases these side walls become less useful for sound r e f l e c t i o n s . In a design of 360 degree encir-clement there are no side walls and the actor has to project his voice unaided by r e f l e c t i o n s from side walls onto a l l sides of the auditorium. The period of reverberation depends upon the amount of absorption i n the auditorium surface materials and the volume of the auditorium. The volume of the auditorium i s a physical quantity and the theatre-form can be adjusted to f a l l within the required volume per seat. The amount of absorption depends upon the side walls, end walls and c e i l i n g materials. Acoustic de-sign of an auditorium can be controlled by designing surface materials with varying sound absorption and r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . Some common forms that emerged i n the history of theatre, i n which the actor to audience relationship d i f f e r s , are describ-ed as follows: 360 DEGREE ENCIRCLEMENT In t h i s form the acting area i s surrounded on a l l sides by the audience and the play i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l . I t i s also c a l l e d theatre-in-the-round, arena stage, isla n d stage or centre stage. The seating form can be c i r c u l a r , square, rectangular 5 or polygonal. Actors enter the stage through vomitories from under the audience seating. Figure 1, page 6. The advantages of t h i s form are that of good v i s u a l l i m i t s . The distance to the patrons on the l a s t row i s r e l a t i v e l y small as compared to a proscenium stage layout since the patrons are s i t t i n g a l l around the stage. However, there are a number of disadvantages. Voice projection, though good for patrons i n front, becomes very poor for patrons s i t t i n g behind an actor and actors mask each other. Scenery setting has to be extreme-l y well planned as i t presents v i s u a l problems for the patrons. Lighting g a l l e r i e s are generally v i s i b l e which i s extremely annoying to the patrons. Because of s t r u c t u r a l problems a f l y -tower cannot be used and some other way of storing the scener-ies and backcloths has to be designed. TRANSVERSE STAGE This layout i s a v a r i a t i o n of the 360 degree encirclement wherein the audience s i t s on two sides only, facing one another, across the stage. This form has si m i l a r advantages and disadvantages as that of 360 degree encirclement. One additional advantage i s that by making provision for d i v i d i n g the stage, i t can be used as two independent theatres. Figure 2, page 7. 8 210 DEGREE ENCIRCLEMENT (GREEK TYPE) The c l a s s i c a l Greek and H e l l e n i s t i c theatres were of 210 degree encirclement. They were open-air-theatres (which can be attributed to the lack of building materials and technology to span large areas) and the play times were early morning hours so as to use the sunlight to l i g h t up the actor and the set. This further helped to avoid glare on the audience who had th e i r backs to the sun. In th i s form, the acting area i s surrounded at 210 degrees by the audience. Seating layout can be c i r c u l a r , square, rec-tangular, or polygonal. Actors enter the stage from the back stage, side stage and/or through vomitories from under the audience seating. The p r i n c i p a l acting area takes the form of a thrust stage and the play i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l . Figure 3, page 9. The advantages of t h i s form are good v i s u a l l i m i t s , good audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the backstage can be used for sets. Lighting g a l l e r i e s are positioned a l l around the auditorium for greater f l e x i b i l i t y of l i g h t i n g the actors and the set. The disadvantages of t h i s form are poor voice projection to patrons s i t t i n g behind an actor due to pronounced d i r e c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of human voice and actors mask each other. Lighting g a l l e r i e s are v i s i b l e (from opposite sides) which i s annoying to the pa-trons. P r i n c i p a l setting area i s the main stage behind the thrust stage which i s not v i s i b l e from a l l seats. © \ III ». y' .,• 10 180 DEGREE ENCIRCLEMENT (ROMAN TYPE) The Roman t h e a t r e s were of 180 degree e n c i r c l e m e n t and the Renaissance t h e a t r e s c o p i e d the same form. In t h i s form the back w a l l (a permanent s t r u c t u r e ) became the a c t i n g boundary and a p a r t of the s e t . The a c t i n g area i s surrounded at 180 degrees by the audience. S e a t i n g l a y o u t can be c i r c u l a r , square, r e c t a n g u l a r or p o l y g o n a l . A c t o r s e n t e r the stage from the back stage, s i d e stage and/or through v o m i t o r i e s from under the a u d i -ence s e a t i n g . P r i n c i p a l a c t i n g area i s the t h r u s t stage and the p r i n c i p a l s e t t i n g area i s the back stage. The p l a y i s m u l t i - . d i r e c t i o n a l . T h i s form has s i m i l a r advantages and disadvantages as the 210 degree e n c i r c l e m e n t due to extreme c l o s e n e s s of the degree of e n c i r c l e m e n t . F i g u r e 4, page 11. 90 DEGREE ENCIRCLEMENT In t h i s form a c t i n g area i s surrounded a t 90 degrees by the audience. The stage form i s a proscenium w i t h a l a r g e apron stage or a proscenium w i t h a t h r u s t stage. S e a t i n g l a y o u t can be c i r c u l a r , square or p o l y g o n a l . A c t o r s e n t e r the stage from back stage, or s i d e stage. P r i n c i p a l a c t i n g area i s the t h r u s t stage and p r i n c i p a l s e t t i n g area i s the proscenium stage. P l a y i s m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n a l . F i g u r e 5, page 12. The advantages of t h i s form are of extremely good v i s u a l l i m i t s , audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t o r s always have the back-drop of the scenery as compared wi t h forms of high e r degree of © 0 13 encirclement. Lighting g a l l e r i e s though quite f l e x i b l e i n func-ti o n don't s p i l l l i g h t into the auditorium. Acoustic design i s good as the actor I s natural voice i s reinforced with sound re-f l e c t i o n s from auditorium side walls. Space above the prosceni-.. um stage can be designed with a flytower which can be u t i l i z e d for f l y i n g and storing. A theatre with a 90 degree encirclement can be used (as with proscenium stage) as a motion picture house to generate added revenues which i s impossible with higher de-grees of encirclement due to the seating layout. PROSCENIUM STAGE ( I t a l i a n Type) Proscenium stage theatres originated i n the Renaissance period i n I t a l y . The buildings were designed i n the Barogue style of Architecture and the paint and canvass scenery were used for the f i r s t time to create l a v i s h sets as compared to the permanent back stage walls of the Greek and the Roman the-atres . In this form the seating layout i s i n a l i n e a r or s l i g h t l y curved form p a r a l l e l to the stage. The audience i s separated from the stage by a proscenium arch giving a picture-frame ef-fect to the play. Actors enter the stage from back stage or side stage and the play i s mono-dimensional. Figure 6, page 14. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n to t h i s i s an apron stage, wherein the stage i s extended a few feet beyond proscenium arch. Another s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i s zero degree encirclement where the audience and actors share the same space without a proscenium 15 arch. The advantages of t h i s form are a good acoustic design as the audience i s s i t t i n g i n front of the actors and the actors' voices are reinforced by sound r e f l e c t i o n s from two side walls of the theatre. Some of the disadvantages of t h i s form are poor v i s u a l l i m i t s as the l a s t row may well exceed the accepted l i m i t of 66 feet from the stage for drama (99 feet for opera and musicals). The actor to audience rel a t i o n s h i p i s very weak as they are on opposite sides of the proscenium arch which acts l i k e a physical and psychological b a r r i e r . In a theatre with large seating capacity ( i f the distance to the l a s t row i s kept under 66 feet) the width of the h a l l may become more which w i l l require an extra wide stage that w i l l add extra f i n a n c i a l bur-den on the theatre company to f i l l i t up with sets. This w i l l also weaken the act since the actors w i l l seem to be l o s t i n space. Accepted width of proscenium arch for a medium sized play i s 35-45 feet. SPACE STAGE In t h i s layout the stage surrounds the audience on three or a l l four sides. This i s an experimental theatre form. An ancient market square i s an example of space stage on a grand scale where a l l the important buildings l i k e a church, a palace, a market place, etc., were a l l grouped around a forum. A plana-tarium i s an example of space stage where the act happens a l l around the audience. Figure 7, page 16. STUDY OF SOME RECENT THEATRES 17 Although there i s a continuous appearance of new types of theatres, I would l i k e to mention a few proposals which have dared to be innovative i n the theatre arts i n the l a s t 50 years. TOTAL THEATRE.1 Architect - Walter Gropius The theatre was proposed i n 1927 with a proscenium stage and fixed seating. F l e x i b i l i t y of use of the theatre was achive-ed by placing a 50 foot diameter revolving platform i n between the stage and the seating. The platform had a 20 foot diameter stage placed on one side and the rest of the area was used for seating. Figure 8, page 18. Thus the theatre could be used three ways. A As a thrust stage by placing the small stage next to the proscenium stage. B • As an arena stage by placing the small stage i n the middle of the theatre with seating a l l around i t . C As a proscenium stage by substitution of the small stage with seating and using only the main stage. Gropius, Walter Gropius - Buildings, Plans, Projects 1972. pp.42-43. 1906-1969; 19 ARENA STAGE THEATRE. Washington, D.C. Architect - Harry Weese Theatre consultant - Zelda Fichandler The arena stage theatre has two separate buildings, one housing the theatre and the other housing entrance lobbies, administrative o f f i c e s and dressing rooms, etc. The seating layout i s of 360 degree encirclement around a rectangular stage and the distance to the patron on the l a s t row from the stage i s 33 feet. Actors go on the stage through four vomitories placed diagonally under the seating t i e r s . One part of the seating t i e r can be folded away so that the theatre can be used as a thrust stage with 210 degree encirclement. Figure 9, page 20. The scenery used on the stage i s minimal. No flytower i s incorporated i n the design and l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s are posi-tioned a l l around the stage. New image, old plan for Arena Stage theatre, Architectura1  Record. February 1962. pp.121-124. 21 VIVIAN BEAUMONT THEATRE." New York Architect - Eero Sarrinen Theatre Consultant - Jo Mielziner Beaumont theatre i s the home of the Lincoln Centre Repertory Company i n New York and i s designed for 1100 seats. The stage form i s a proscenium stage with a medium sized thrust stage. The thrust stage can be substitued with 7 rows of audi-ence seats thereby using only the proscenium stage. The seat-ing layout i s of 180 degree encirclement and the distance of the patron on the l a s t row from the stage i s 65 feet. Figure 10, page 22. The main stage with two side stages and a backstage has a combined f l o o r area of 11,000 square feet thus allowing grand and l a v i s h performances to be performed i n the theatre (an average stage for medium sized drama i s 3,000 square f e e t ) . The reported o v e r a l l l i g h t i n g and acoustic design of the theatre i s extremely good. 'Vivian Beaumont Repertory theatre, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, September 1962. pp.143-145. © frALOOU^ 'JUS/EL-r p i l l O C Z T H E S T K M L E V E L . 23 STRATFORD SHAKESPEAREAN FESTIVAL THEATRE. O n t a r i o A r c h i t e c t s - Rounthwaite and F a i r f i e l d . T h e a t r e c o n s u l t a n t s - Tyrone G u t h r i e and Tanya M o i s e i w i t s c h The b a s i c d e s i g n o f the t h e a t r e i s w i t h a s e a t i n g l a y o u t o f 210 degree e n c i r c l e m e n t . The s e a t i n g p l a n t a k e s a f u l l c i r c u l a r shape. I t has a t h r u s t s t a g e w i t h a permanent s e t made f o r Shakespearean p l a y s and no space i s p r o v i d e d f o r scene o r back d r o p s . A c t o r s go on the st a g e by s i d e s t a g e f l a n k s o r t h r o u g h 2 v o m i t o r i e s from under the s e a t i n g t i e r s . F i g u r e 11, page 24. S m i t h , R., Rehousing t h e Drama, P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e , F e b r u a r y 1962, p.103. rfe. 0 0 25 THE TYRONE GUTHRIE THEATRE. Minneapolis, Minn. Architect - Ralph Rapson Theatre Consultants - Tyrone Guthrie and Tanya Moiseiwitsch The theatre i s designed with a seating layout of 210 degree encirclement for 1437 seats and with a thrust stage. It has a part of the balcony seating t i e r that runs down to the auditorium f l o o r and the orchestra i s placed i n the audi-torium. The distance of the patron on the l a s t row from the stage i s 54 feet. Actors go on the stage by side stage flanks and through 2 vomitories placed under the seating t i e r s . Light-ing g a l l e r i e s are di s t r i b u t e d a l l around the auditorium. Figure 12, page 26. This theatre i s an improvement over the Stratford Theatre due to certain design refinements such as - i t does not have a permanent set on the stage and a shallow l i n e r space i s provided for the scenes and backdrops. Reported l i g h t i n g and acoustic design of the theatre i s very good. Progressive Architecture, January 1961. 27 OPEN STAGE WITH FILM PROJECTION." Theatre project for Ford Foundation Architect - Paul Rudolph Theatre Consultant - Ralph Alswang The theatre i s proposed for grand scale productions for 2000 seats and the distance of the patron on the l a s t row from the stage i s 80-^ 100 feet. I t has a single form stage (zero encirclement) with proscenium type opening blending into the auditorium walls. The seating layout i s of about 72 degree encirclement and the theatre can also be used for motion p i c -ture shows. Figure 13, page 28. The theatre has 6 projection rooms, 3 mounted on the rear of the auditorium and the other 3 mounted on the rear stage wall. The designers anticipate the use of wide-screen projection techniques to create d i f f e r e n t settings a l l around the stage and auditorium. The idea looks far-fetched from r e a l i t y which i s the actor and i t looks more l i k e an experi-mental theatre. The Ideal Theatre - Eight concepts, 1961. p.15-28. Progressive Architecture, February 1962. pp.110-111. Ffe.(j^) Or&U S\AGZ> FILM P E A i E ^ t ^ . 29 FLEXIBLE PROSCENIUM THEATRE. Theatre project for Ford Foundation Architect - Edward L. Barnes Theatre Consultant - Jo. Mielziner The theatre i s proposed for intimate music-drama and opera-house for 1000 seats i n a single seating t i e r . Seating layout i s fan-shaped with 9 0 degree encirclement around a proscenium stage with a large apron. Figure 14, page 30. The proposed layout i s good for opera performances. The acoustic c e i l i n g forms a continuous cover over the audi-ence, orchestra and fore-stage. Three projection areas are provided on the back-stage wall and the entire proposal r e l i e s very heavily on projection for backlighting cyclorama and backcloths for special e f f e c t s . The Ideal Theatre - Eight Concepts, 1961. p.109-126. Progressive Architecture, February 1962. pp.112-113 FIC5. (\4) F L E X I L E P K^S^EUIUM -fHEKTKE,. 31 INTERCHANGEABLE THEATRE." Theatre project for Ford Foundation Architect - Peter Blake Theatre consultant - David Hays This theatre i s proposed for an average c i t y l o t of 60 feet x 100 feet with a seating capacity of 299 seats. No area i n the theatre i s committed for any one usage. Tiered g a l l e r i e s of seats surround the central courtyard and they can be moved mechanically to interchange the stage and audience forms. Figure 15, page 32. The theatre can be used three ways: A As arena theatre - by d i s t r i b u t i n g the seating t i e r s around the central stage. B As apron theatre - by d i s t r i b u t i n g the seating t i e r s around an apron stage. C As transverse stage - by d i s t r i b u t i n g the seating t i e r s on eith e r side of the stage. The atmosphere i n such a small theatre s h a l l be of greater actor to audience intimacy and the f l e x i b i l i t y poses a creative challenge to the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . The Ideal Theatre - Eight Concepts, 1961. p.55-72. Progressive Architecture, February 196 2. pp.114-115. FIG. (\S) 33 EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE." Theatre project for Ford Foundation Architect - Paul Schweikher Theatre consultant - George C. Izenour Out of t o t a l of 8 proposals for the Ford Foundation only t h i s theatre had an actual program and was b u i l t for Theatre Department at the Carnegie I n s t i t u t e of Technology. It has a main theatre of 500 seats adaptable to proscenium,arena or three quarter arena forms; a studio theatre of 200 seats for students only and an experimental theatre with t o t a l f l e x i b i l i t y of stage and auditorium forms. Figure 16, page 33a. The whole design concept r e l i e s very heavily on hydraulic l i f t s to interchange seating and stage r e l a t i o n s h i p . Theatre school (with classrooms), workshops, main theatre and studio theatre form a building enclosure around a central courtyard (over the experimental theatre) that serves as students 1 common space. The Ideal Theatre - Eight Concepts, 1961. p.73-90. Progressive Architecture, February 1962. pp.116-120. , . - 7 - + _ ; f ~ F\G>. (16.) EXPE^IMfeM-fAL "tMEAip:e,. CHAPTER 2 34 KIND OF THEATRE NEEDED IN VANCOUVER  AND ITS LOCATION IN THE CITY (a) QUESTIONNAIRE AND BUILDING PROGRAM To esta b l i s h the theatre building program a questionnaire was compiled incorporating the general and technical data requirements that a f f e c t the building program and so i t s physical shape. A series of discussions were held on t h i s questionnaire with persons connected d i r e c t l y with the t h e a t r i c a l arts to esta b l i s h the needs of the c i t y and e x i s t i n g market trends to es t a b l i s h a suitable building program. Following persons were interviewed separately, but t h e i r answers have been compiled together for comparison. Mr. Christopher Newton. ( A r t i s t i c Director) Playhouse Theatre Company, Vancouver Mr. David H.Y. L u i . (Independent Producer & Empressario) Often presents international a r t i s t s i n Vancouver Mr. Cameron Porteous. (Design Director) Playhouse Theatre Company, Vancouver Mr. Ian Dobbin. (General Manager) Queen Elizabeth Theatre, Vancouver The following format has been used for each question to arrive at building space needs for the proposed theatre. (A) General Explanation (B) Answers of Interviewees (C) Analysis (D) My own Decision QUESTION 1. WHAT KIND OF THEATRE IS NEEDED? (A) General Explanation: There i s a wide range of types of production which may have to be housed i n a theatre c a l l i n g the building to have some f l e x i b i l i t y of usage. The choice of one type of performance over the others generates i t s own set of require-ments and making i t a building best suited for that p a r t i c u l a r performance. Most common productions that can be housed i n a theatre are: Drama - An average straight play has about 10-30 players. Large Scale Drama - Some plays such as Shakespeare h i s t o r i e s have large cast with many extras (up to 100 players). Grand Opera, B a l l e t - These performances include singers, dancers and musicians. Concert - I t includes grand scale performance with up to 120 musicians. Multipurpose - For a l l above mentioned usages and motion picture projection thus requiring f l e x i b i l i t y of use. 36 (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - A theatre for a small drama company of 20-30 players. Lui (Pro.) - A multipurpose h a l l for drama, dance, r e c i t a l and motion picture shows, etc. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A theatre only for drama. Dobbin (Mgr.) - A multipurpose theatre for drama, dance, concert and motion picture, etc. (C) Analysis: A multipurpose theatre has to put up functions of drama, r e c i t a l , concert and motion-picture, etc., each of which needs a d i f f e r e n t seating layout, stage layout and acoustic design. For the proper enjoyment of any of these arts, i t i s extremely esse n t i a l that the theatre be designed only for one p a r t i c u l a r usage. A theatre for medium-sized drama with i t s own resident company of 20-30 players outweighs a multipurpose theatre because of the c l a r i t y of one function. (D) Decision. The most urgent needs of the c i t y seem to be i n a theatre for drama only with a medium sized resident company of 20-30 players. 37 QUESTION 2. WHAT SHOULD BE THE SEATING CAPACITY? (A) General Explanation: Theatres can be divided into three categories depending upon the number of seats. up to 500 seats. (neighbourhood theatre.) 500 - 1000 seats. (medium- sized theatre.) 1000 & over seats. (large theatre;.) The seating capacity i s derived from a number of variables such as market analysis of e x i s t i n g theatres i n c i t y and future needs of community. Vis u a l and acoustic l i m i t s also have d e f i n i t e bearing on the seating capacity. For intimate drama performance, the actors' f a c i a l expressions and natural projected voice are extremely important thus l i m i t i n g the seating capacity. For b a l l e t , grand opera and concert, t o t a l sound e f f e c t and slow movements are of importance thereby accommodating large audience. The policy of the theatre company for scale of production, pattern of use (Repertoire> Repertory or Long run) and number of shows to be performed for expected audience i t serves i s also very important. (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - C i t y needs a series of small theatres with 500-800 seats. 38 Lui (Pro.) - A theatre of 900-1200 seats i s needed. The p o l i c y of the theatre company as to scale of production and expected audience size affects t h i s decision. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A theatre of about 800 seats seems adequate. A large theatre has compounded problems of vi s u a l and acoustic l i m i t s . A twin theatre may be considered as an economic alternative since the two theatres share common f a c i l i t i e s . Dobbin (Mgr.) - A large theatre of 1500-2000 seats i s desirable. (C) Analysis: A medium sized theatre with 700-900 seats seems more desirable. A theatre with seating capacity of less than 1000 seats has intimate audience to actor relationship which i s extremely important for drama. Such a theatre has the distance of actor to the patron on l a s t row well within the accepted l i m i t of 66 feet and v i s u a l and acoustic design i s good. A theatre with less than 500 seats, although has even better v i s u a l and acoustic design, would be uneconomical for the theatre company due to small audience s i z e . A theatre with more than 1000 seats has compounded problems of v i s u a l and acoustic design and actors loose t h e i r hold over the audience due to the great distance required to house a l l the seats. Actors waste a great deal of energy for voice projection due to magnitude of distances involved. 39 (D) Decision. The seating capacity s h a l l be + 800 seats (distributed between orchestra f l o o r and balcony f l o o r so as to keep the distance of the l a s t row from the stage within the accepted l i m i t of 66 f e e t ) . QUESTION 3. WHAT SHOULD BE THE AUDIENCE TO ACTOR RELATIONSHIP? (A) General Explanation: The seating layout i n r e l a t i o n to the stage-form i s the basis of audience to actor r e l a t i o n s h i p . The seating layout varies with the function of the theatre and the desired e f f e c t . The degree of encirclement varies from 0 degrees i n a proscenium stage to 360 degrees i n an arena stage. For drama, there i s no one u n i v e r s a l l y accepted degree of encirclement while i n the case of b a l l e t and musicals, the proscenium stage has been used quite extensively as these performances are monodimensional. The v i s u a l l i m i t s a f f e c t the seating layout since to project the act on the audience, the actor should have least distance to patrons on the l a s t row. For drama, where the f a c i a l expression are very important for f u l l enjoyment of the act, a distance of 66 feet i s universally accepted. For musicals and opera., this distance can be increased to 99 feet since the f a c i a l expression i s of less importance. 40 The acoustic l i m i t s are important for c l a r i t y of unaided speech i n drama. This i s dependent on the behaviour of sound r e f l e c t i o n s and reverberation time. The sound r e f l e c t i o n i s derived by the actors'voice being r e f l e c t e d from walls and c e i l i n g surfaces and then reaching the audience. The i d e a l form i s a proscenium type where the side walls of the auditorium are used as sound r e f l e c t o r s . As the degree of encirclement increases, there are less and less wall surfaces that can be used for sound r e f l e c t i o n , the maximum encirclement being 360 degrees where there are no walls that can be used for sound r e f l e c t i o n s . (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art.Dir.) - A theatre should have the a b i l i t y to interchange seating and stage form under id e a l conditions by the usage of mechanical methods. The mechanical methods used must be simple, inexpensive and less time consuming. For drama, a thrust stage with 90-135 degrees of encirclement i s more desirable than a proscenium stage. Lui (Pro.) - The theatre should be designed with a 90 degree encirclement layout. Mechanical systems should not be used to interchange seating and stage layout as they are expensive and time consuming. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A large thrust stage with 180 degree of encirclement i s i d e a l . The degree of encirclement i s a matter of opinion and varies from d i r e c t o r to d i r e c t o r . Some of Europe's best directors work on proscenium stages. Dobbin (Mgr.) - The theatre form and the degree of encirclement should be decided with the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . (C) Analysis: The seating layout should be designed for 9 0 degree encirclement i n such a layout,,as:the audience to actor r e l a t i o n -ship i s good. The voice projection i s also very e f f e c t i v e since the audience i s seated i n a fan-type layout facing the stage and there are no patrons seated behind the actors. With seating layout of greater degree of encirclement (180, 210 or 360 degrees), the actor to audience rel a t i o n s h i p increases as the actor feels more surrounded by the audience. The stage form i n such a layout i s a thrust stage. Scene and backcloth placing i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and nothing more than a few low l y i n g props can be used i n a set. Any large sets of backcloths block o f f a p a r t i a l view at a l l times to some section of patrons. Since sound travels i n a conical form from i t s source of o r i g i n - the actor, voice projection and a u d i b i l i t y to a l l patrons at a given time i s not the same. The play on such a stage i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l and actors very often mask each other. The l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s are positioned a l l around the auditorium and stage l i g h t i n g becomes d i s t r a c t i o n to the patrons. With a proscenium stage or zero degree encirclement, the audience sees a monodimensional picture-frame type of play. This form i s not good for audience to actor r e l a t i o n s h i p as the audience and actors are divided physically and psychologi-c a l l y by the proscenium arch. (D) Decision: A combination of proscenium stage with a f a i r sized thrust stage s h a l l be used with 90 degree encirclement for seating layout. Any mechanical methods to interchange seating and stage layout s h a l l not be used due to high costs involved to achieve f l e x i b i l i t y of use. QUESTION 4. HOW ELABORATE AN ORCHESTRA IS NEEDED? (A) General Explanation: For drama, the conventional size of the orchestra varies from as l i t t l e as 5 players to as many as 20 players. The usual position for orchestra u n t i l recently has been i n the orchestra p i t i n between actors and audience. Recent advances in theatre design with degree of encirclement more than 9 0 degrees has brought out the orchestra from i t s usual orchestra p i t location into audience thereby making i t a part of the whole show. (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art.Dir.) - Orchestra for drama should be of a small size (5-10 players). I t should preferably be i n the audience and not i n the conventional orchestra p i t . Lui (Pro.) - Usual orchestra size i s of 10-20 players. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A small sized orchestra of about 10 players should be interwoven with the actors and audience. Orchestra space should be i n the audience and not i n the orchestra p i t . (C) Analysis: A small sized orchestra of 10-15 players i s s u f f i c i e n t for medium sized dramas. I t should be positioned i n the auditorium rather than i n orchestra p i t for the dignity of the orchestra players, thus making i t a part of the whole show. This open position has the added advantage of d i r e c t sound projection onto the audience. (D) Decision: A small sized orchestra space s h a l l be designed for 10-15 players i n the auditorium (not i n orchestra pit) with an unobstructed view of the p r i n c i p a l acting area to the conductor. Provision s h a l l be made to close o f f t h i s space when the orchestra i s not needed. 44 QUESTION 5. HOW ELABORATE SHOULD THE PUBLIC AREAS BE? (A) General Explanation: The public areas i n a theatre, such as lobbies, lounges and restaurants, etc., serve as the s o c i a l spaces for the theatre going society. Other areas such as exhibition space and g a l l e r i e s , etc., serve as the informational and educational spaces where space i s rented out for one-man shows of paintings and sculptures, etc. (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art.Dir.) - The public areas should be grand and spacious. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A theatre building should never dominate an actor. The s i z e , colour, materials and l i g h t i n g , etc., must be toned down to bring out the act and not the building. Dobbin (Mgr.) - The public areas should be designed for the comfort of patrons. These spaces should be clear i n t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and the whole e f f e c t should be one of c l a r i t y and not confusion to the patron. (C) Analysis: Public areas as they serve as patrons' s o c i a l and physical spaces should be designed for the comfort of patrons. The main lobby i s generally of larger f l o o r area than the balcony lobby since i t houses a l l the service spaces (box o f f i c e , coat check, restaurant, lounge and display, etc.) and the orchestra f l o o r which normally has more numbers of seats than the balcony f l o o r . (D) Decision: The f l o o r area of the public spaces s h a l l be enough to accommodate a l l the patrons' services. This space s h a l l be designed as an open-space with views to the outside. QUESTION 6. HOW ELABORATE SHOULD THE STAGE DESIGN BE AND WHAT METHODS OF CHANGING SCENERY BE USED? (A) General Explanation: Planning the stage i s an extremely complex and technical problem. Its form and physical shape affects the d i r e c t i o n of the whole play. For changing scenery during the play, revolving platforms and wagon stages, etc., have been used for quite some time. With recent advances i n mechanics of hydraulics, stage l i f t s are used i n a variety of ways to move the scenery. In some recent experimental theatres, the stage and auditorium area i s designed with sectional hydraulic l i f t s and the entire f l o o r area can be changed to s u i t the desired auditorium to stage relationship for each play. The system although being extremely f l e x i b l e , i s costly to i n s t a l l and operate. A flytower i s generally used for storing scenes, f l a t s and backcloths for future use. I t i s also used to suspend curtains, pelmets and other s p e c i a l - e f f e c t objects i n the play. The size of the proscenium opening i s related to the seating and stage layout. The height of the proscenium opening governs the height of the flytower. The height of the flytower should be at least 2^ times, preferably 3 times the height of the proscenium arch. (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - A combined proscenium and thrust stage of 2000-3000 square feet i s adequate for a medium sized theatre. Sectional hydraulic l i f t s have many advantages over revolving stages because they can be used as part of the set. Lui (Pro.) - A main stage (40-50 feet wide and 40-50 feet deep) with two side stages and a backstage i s required for drama. The hydraulic stage gives more f l e x i b i l i t y of planning and acting than a revolving stage. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - A large thrust stage (about 30 x 30 feet) combined with a proscenium stage (1500-2000 square feet) should be designed. For special e f f e c t s and f l y i n g , a f l y i n g g r i d cannot be used over thrust stage as i t w i l l be v i s i b l e and d i s t r a c t i v e to actors and audience. Flytower i s not an absolute must for a theatre as the backcloths and sceneries can be r o l l e d up and stored i n the basement. 47 Dobbin (Mgr.) - The main stage should be at least 3000 square feet, preferably 4000-5000 square feet with two side stages and a back stage. The use of hydraulic l i f t s verses revolving stage i s purely a matter of economics. A flytower i s a must for storing the sceneries. (C) Analysis: With 9 0 degree encirclement, i t seems advisable to use a combination of thrust stage and proscenium stage. Thrust stage alone cannot be used i n 9 0 degree encirclement because of the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by seating layout. A f a i r sized proscenium stage with a large thrust stage offers greater f l e x i b i l i t y to the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r to produce a play with a variety of d i r e c t i o n a l frames. Sectional hydraulic stage l i f t s have added advantages over revolving stages as they can be used as part of the set to create d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Flytower s t i l l i s the i d e a l way of storage of sceneries and backcloths. Structural proscenium opening should be much larger than the curtain proscenium opening. This w i l l help to change the theatre building to put up any unforeseen performances of the future. (D) Decision. A combined proscenium stage (2000-2500 square feet) and thrust stage (15-20 feet deep), s h a l l be designed with hydraulic 48 l i f t s for changing scenery. Proscenium opening (40 feet wide and 30 feet high) and a flytower s h a l l be incorporated i n the design. One side-stage s h a l l be provided for storing an extra set during the play. QUESTION 7. SHOULD THE THEATRE BE DESIGNED FOR A RESIDENT OR A VISITING COMPANY AND WHAT KIND OF WORKSHOPS ARE NEEDED? (A) General Explanation: A medium sized resident company can produce i t s own shows enough to sustain a theatre. The size of the resident company varies from one organization to another. Some theatres run only on v i s i t i n g companies, thereby saving running costs of i t s own technical s t a f f . (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - A f u l l y independent resident company i s needed for a successful theatre operation. Medium sized workshops are a must for a resident company. A medium sized play does not require elaborate sets and these can be e a s i l y assembled on the premises i n work-shops . Lui (Pro.) - A theatre must have i t s own resident company with adequate workshop spaces. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - Small theatre companies produce far better productions than large theatre companies. A small theatre company i s a must for good performing art s . An established resident company tends to generate a theatre school of i t s own. A theatre school may e n r o l l 10-12 student-actors per year for a three year program. There should not be more than 3-4 student-actors per director i n the school for the actors to have a personal touch with the di r e c t o r s . Ample space i s needed for rehearsal stage and lecture studios for acting, movement and voice projection, etc. The tech-n i c a l s t a f f should have change rooms, lunch rooms and common: room etc. Dobbin (Mgr.) - An elaborate system of workshops i s a must to produce a f a i r sized set. Although the resident companies are e f f i c i e n t for a variety of performances, some theatres perform only with touring theatre companies for greater variety. (C) Analysis: A medium sized resident company (li k e the e x i s t i n g Playhouse Theatre Co.) with 20-30 players seems more advisable than a large theatre company which requires high patron attendance to function p r o f i t a b l y . Medium sized workshops are required on the premises to put up sets for drama. I f the theatre i s i n a t i g h t c i t y l o t with very high land value, i t might be economically feasible to have the sets made out i n an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t outside the c i t y 50 and have them t r a n s p o r t e d f o r the p l a y . A c a r e f u l economic study i s needed s i n c e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , labour c o s t s i n l o a d i n g and unloading and time r e q u i r e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e t c . , may exceed the i n i t i a l savings i n c o s t of e x t r a l a n d r e q u i r e d on the t h e a t r e s i t e f o r workshops over the l i f e span of b u i l d i n g . (D) D e c i s i o n The t h e a t r e s h a l l be designed f o r a r e s i d e n t company of 20-30 p l a y e r s w i t h f a i r s i z e d workshops (scene shop, p a i n t shop, costume shop and metals shop) to put up a medium s i z e d s e t by t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . QUESTION 8. HOW ELABORATE SHOULD THE ACTORS ACCOMMODATION BE? (A) General E x p l a n a t i o n : Some of the o l d e x i s t i n g t h e a t r e s are equipped w i t h extremely poor accommodation f o r a c t o r s . A c t o r s have to spend long hours i n t h e i r d r e s s i n g rooms d u r i n g the performances and du r i n g r e h e a r s a l s which may l a s t f o r weeks. I n d i v i d u a l and group d r e s s i n g rooms are r e q u i r e d f o r the a c t o r s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s t a t u s i n the pl a y and wit h the company. The r e h e a r s a l stage should be as spacious as the main stage with ample space around i t f o r d i r e c t o r s and t e c h n i c a l c o o r d i n a -t o r s . 51 (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - A drama company of 20-30 players should have f a i r sized i n d i v i d u a l and group dressing rooms. These should be near the main stage and t h e i r approach and int e r n a l movements should be independent from technical s t a f f and technical f a c i l i t i e s such as workshops and stores, etc. The dressing rooms must have natural l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n since actors spend long hours i n these rooms. Lui (Pro.) - Small provision should be made for 20-30 players for s e l f contained dressing and common rooms. Good views and v e n t i l a t i o n are a must for these spaces. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - Nicely designed spaces are needed for actors since they are very moody people. Rehearsal stage should be as spacious and graceful as the main stage. Dobbin (Mgr.) - Dressing rooms should be spacious i n fl o o r areas and separate from other production areas. They must have views to outside and must be pleasant to work i n . (C) Analysis: F a i r sized i n d i v i d u a l and group dressing rooms are required for 20-30 players. These should be t o t a l l y self-contained with dressing space, storage lockers and washrooms, etc. with nice views and natural v e n t i l a t i o n as actors spend long hours waiting for t h e i r part i n the play. Provision should be made to curtain-off natural l i g h t as make-up i s applied under same l i g h t quality as that on main stage. There should be a proper d i s t i n c t i o n between the actors dressing rooms according to t h e i r status with the company and the play. A l l the dressing rooms must be very close h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y to the main stage (as actors e s p e c i a l l y minor players have to stand i n for 3-4 d i f f e r e n t roles i n a play requiring a t r i p each time to the dressing rooms) and t o t a l l y separate from the workshops and technical areas. (D) Decision: Dressing rooms s h a l l be designed close to the main stage and be grouped according to the status of players as follows: * Hero & Heroine - each with t h e i r own dressing room, lounge and washroom. * Eight lead players (Men & Women) - with separate group dressing rooms, common lounge and washroom for each sex. * Twenty extras (Men & Women) - with separate group dressing rooms, washroom and common lounge for each sex. * Ten to f i f t e e n orchestra players - with one common dressing room. A sound proofed rehearsal stage of same size and form as the main stage and a music studio s h a l l be provided i n the proposed theatre. 53 QUESTION 9. WHAT KIND OF ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION IS NEEDED? (A) General Explanation: If the theatre i s designed only for the touring companies, the administration s h a l l only be concerned with the box-office, front house, b u i l d i n g maintenance and arrangements for touring companies to use the premises. On the other hand, i f the theatre has a resident company that makes i t s own productions, the administrative s t a f f structure becomes quite complex. The general manager's s t a f f manages business management, promotion and community r e l a t i o n s , etc. The a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r d i r e c t s the show and coordinates with other technical personnel such as designers, l i g h t i n g coordinators, sound coordinators and musicians. The production manager coordinates the work of stage designer and workshop (scene, paint, wardrobe, metal) s t a f f and i s i n charge of general management of rehearsal stage. The house manager i s i n charge of public r e l a t i o n s , box-office, usherettes,cleaners, building maintenance, restaurants and soda-bars, etc. (B) Answer of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - I t should not be very elaborate but has to be e f f i c i e n t for a successful operation. L i u (Pro.) - E f f e c t i v e business management i s a must since along with pure arts, a theatre has to make money to keep i n operation. Adequate areas should be provided for administrative personnel. Dobbin (Mgr.) - Proper spaces should be provided for s t a f f , v i s i t o r s , box o f f i c e , t i c k e t sales, promotion and interviews, etc. and should be as d i g n i f i e d as actors spaces. (C) Analysis: E f f e c t i v e administrative s t a f f i s needed for a theatre to function p r o f i t a b l y . This can be divided into general business administration s t a f f (responsible for the finances and public relations) and technical s t a f f (responsible for production of sets and putting up the play). (D) Decision: Adequate spaces s h a l l be provided for the administrative and technical s t a f f , positioned i n the building according to t h e i r functions. A lunch room and change room with lockers w i l l also be provided. QUESTION 10. ANY COMMENTS ON MECHANICAL SERVICES (AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING, ACOUSTICS, LIGHTING), T.V. PRODUCTION AND FILM PROJECTION, ETC. (A) General Explanation: A l l the mechanical services are physical i n nature and can be controlled for maximum e f f i c i e n c y . Television coverage of l i v e shows could be d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y of the next decade. The incl u s i o n of f i l m projection as an aid to the backdrop scenery and the use of theatre as a motion picture house for added revenues i s e s s e n t i a l . (B) Answers of Interviewees: Newton (Art. Dir.) - A l l these services are extremely technical i n nature and s p e i a l i s t s should be engaged for these services i n early stages of design. Lui (Pro.) - The comfort of patrons and actors i s a prerequisite for proper enjoyment of the act. A i r conditioning noise must be controlled to make a r e l a t i v e l y low background sound. Space must be provided for l i v e T.V. coverage of the act i n the rear of the auditorium away from the patrons view. Porteous (Des. Dir.) - Lighting and acoustics are very important factors i n a play. A thrust stage needs a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t i n g design and coordination than a proscenium stage. A theatre with good acoustics needs only less than 25% of actors' energy to project the act on the audience whereas one with bad acoustics may consume up to 75% of actors' energy to project the act on the audience. Dobbin (Mgr.) - A l l these services must be well coordinated with t h e i r consultants i n the i n i t i a l stages of design and not added as aft e r thoughts. 56 (C) Analysis: Theatre acoustics should be designed for one function only such as drama or concert and not for a multipurpose h a l l as the reverberation time varies greatly for drama and music. A certain f l e x i b i l i t y of acoustic design i s possible by either changing the volume of h a l l to compensate for difference i n reverberation time or adjusting the reverberation time by ele c t r o n i c ways. Mechanical ways of changing the volume of the h a l l are generally complex and costly and actors do not l i k e the e l e c t r o n i c ways to change the q u a l i t y of t h e i r voices. So both these should be avoided. Lighting should be designed with f l e x i b i l i t y of use so that l i g h t can be thrown on any place on the stage from a variety of positions. Tele v i s i o n studios are needed for l i v e coverage of the plays. This could be a d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y of the next decade. Foresight to accept t h i s i s needed to include T.V. studios i n the beginning rather than adding them at a l a t e r stage when thi s addition would be much more costl y . These should be sealed o f f from auditorium and public spaces due to noise and f i r e hazard. (D) Decision: The following mechanical services s h a l l be incorporated i n the proposed theatre. 57 * Isolated and sprinked T.V. studios at the rear of the auditorium. * A motion picture projection room next to sound room and l i g h t control room. * Backstage projection room for back-lighting cyclorama and backcloths. * Very f l e x i b l e l i g h t i n g system with l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s i n the c e i l i n g and rear auditorium wall. * H a l l designed with reverberation time of 0.5 to 1.0 seconds (for drama only). * Loud speakers i n s t a l l e d a l l around the auditorium for special sound e f f e c t s i n drama and motion picture shows. * Whole building air-conditioned. QUESTION 11. WHAT ARE THE POTENTIALS FOR AN OPEN AIR THEATRE? (A) General Explanation: The usage of an open a i r theatre i s affected by variables such as climate, seating capacity and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , etc. For greater f l e x i b i l i t y of usage, a projection room i s needed so that i t can be used for general and c u l t u r a l picture shows. (B) Answers of Interviewees: Lui (Pro.) - An outdoor theatre with projection room has good potentials for use. I f attached to the theatre, i t should be t o t a l l y independent i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y and 58 usage. I t should have fixed seats and i t should preferably take advantage of dressing rooms i n the main theatre. (C) Analysis: An open-air-theatre serves as c u l t u r a l and recreational space of the community. I t should be independent of the theatre building i n i t s function and usage so that both the buildings can be used separately. (D) Decision: An open-air-theatre for 150 seats s h a l l be designed independent from the main theatre with i t s own projection room and washrooms. (b) SITE SELECTION 59 The f i r s t consideration i n the design of the theatre was the selection of an appropriate s i t e . A good number of s i t e s are available for a theatre building i n Vancouver. The choice of one f i n a l s i t e over others was done by establishing c r i t e r i a for the s i t e selection and q u a l i f y i n g a l l of them against these. In general, the c r i t e r i a were as follows: ACCESSIBILITY BY CAR As the majority of patrons come to the theatre by car, th i s mode of transportation becomes very important i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . The s i t e should be accessible by e x i s t i n g f a s t -vehicular a r t e r i e s from the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Figure 17, page 60. RAPID TRANSIT ACCESS When choosing a theatre s i t e a c c e s s i b i l i t y by rapid t r a n s i t (existing and proposed) should be taken into consideration. Due to continually increasing higher fuel prices t h i s could be the primary mode of transportation i n the future. Although at present, the l o c a l buses are the only mode of rapid t r a n s i t i n Vancouver, subways are planned on the e x i s t i n g tracks i n the c i t y . Figure 17, page 60. LAND COSTS Cost of land i s an important factor i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . I t may cost m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s to buy a p r i v a t e l y owned s i t e i n a downtown block, thus adding great s t r a i n on the economic 61 f e a s i b i l i t y of the theatre. On the ou t s k i r t s , some tracts of land (Government owned, Parks Board owned and Indian reservation lands, etc.) can be purchased or leased freehold for only a token fee, thus saving a great deal on land costs. PARKING AVAILABILITY Parking a v a i l a b i l i t y i s another factor for s i t e s e l e c t i o n . In the downtown core where street parking i s being slowly eliminated, the e x i s t i n g parking garages charge a heavy fee for parking. I f a s i t e has ample space around i t for parking or has shared parking with other e x i s t i n g b u i l ding at no cost i t becomes quite comforting to the patrons. SITE AREA A theatre with f a i r sized production f a c i l i t i e s needs a s i t e at least 200 feet x 200 feet only for the building. Additional s i t e area i s needed for pedestrian plazas, parking, f i r e truck access and landscaping, etc. On a c i t y l o t i n a downtown area, such large l o t s usually have to be consolidated from a number of i n d i v i d u a l owners which drives t h e i r prices way out of proportion. On the c i t y outskirts a number of large s i t e s are generally available to house a theatre. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION The proposed s i t e should be near the population hub of the community and the whole region should be considered i n e s t a b l i s h -ing a common central point of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . Figure 18, page 62. * , . ^ " » j f / A . no. Qa) tnnmni IKd^f -A "t-'i i \Ng rl m*k ' - i i ENGLISH BAY UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT Vi'j/A ^'^X Ji> LANDS KJ. tibi P • MAIN BOAO) OTMM KJAOS * O U NO A*t|* ttOOt *e i V4 X^Yy/^l'ir-7 t -ERAS fit? 63 BUILDINGS OF OTHER CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL USES The s i t e should be selected close to other buildings of c u l t u r a l and recreational use so that patrons can browse around i f spare time i s on hand. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING A theatre by i t s function should demand a majestic setting. As Vancouver has waterfront and mountains around i t , the proposed s i t e should exploit these elements of nature to t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l . On a t i g h t c i t y l o t the close proximity of other buildings and lack of open space takes away the setting required for a theatre. In my opinion f i v e s i t e s i n the c i t y had merits to be considered for the proposed theatre and one of these was chosen. Figure 19, page 64. A number of discussions were held with City o f f i c i a l s , Parks Board o f f i c i a l s and other persons interested i n the l i v e arts on these f i v e s i t e s against the established c r i t e r i a to be able to select the best s i t e for the proposal. An analysis of each s i t e i s described as follows and i n the end these are compiled in a table. Table 1, page 69. (1) DOWNTOWN CORE SITE At present there are a number of theatres and motion picture houses i n the downtown area. The long-term goals for the downtown-planning c a l l for development of Georgia Street with buildings of major c u l t u r a l and administrative usage and Granville Street as a pedestrian mall. 1 5 I \ ^ _ r\G. @ SITS SSCl£GT\OU 0 <2) FALSE- ^ B £ t C . 5>CAklVILLE, ISLAUQ, 1= i # D LL SECOND dKHifl '1 -) . |'r°t°t' i l i E J—4', i .. . v j • O U N D A W H *OCK MO • 44 i : ^ 1 S ! H S p ! : @ .V P U S no* '7* . 1 ' EE" R' J *• T. J>H [|-vR~.;Ui|.bvmi V/ :r! : : : : U b t U . . p ^ "villi TT; Ideally the proposed theatre should be close to the Art Gallery on Georgia Street so as to form a group of buildings of c u l t u r a l values. Access to t h i s proposed s i t e i s generally overcrowded and slow i n t r a f f i c movement. The s i t e has excellent rapid t r a n s i t connection with the region. Land cost s h a l l be i n mul t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r range since a l l subdivisions are small and p r i v a t e l y owned. Parking a v a i l a b i l i t y i s poor and e x i s t i n g parking i n garages i s co s t l y . Physical s i t e area as i t exists s h a l l not be large enough for the theatre. Population density i n downtown i s maximum per acre for the whole region. Nevertheless the s i t e i s extremely poor i n the environmental se t t i n g required for a theatre. (2) GRANVILLE ISLAND SITE Long term planning goals of the Granville Island c a l l for rea l l o c a t i o n of a l l e x i s t i n g industries to the e x i s t i n g indus-t r i a l parks i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t and conversion of the whole i s l a n d for business and recreational uses. Some of the e x i s t i n g warehouses can be converted into a theatre. The access to the proposed s i t e by car i s very poor with no rapid t r a n s i t service. The land and e x i s t i n g structure cost s h a l l be much less i n comparison to some downtown locations. Parking a v a i l a b i l i t y i s very poor. The proposed s i t e i s close to high density population areas of downtown and K i t s i l a n o . At present there i s no other building of c u l t u r a l and 66 recreational use on the i s l a n d except a few restaurants remodelled from old warehouses. The whole Island lacks the environmental s e t t i n g required for a theatre and the Granville Bridge i s an overpowering s t r u c t u r a l element that dwarfs every building. (3) FALSE CREEK SITE The False Creek Area has been developed into medium density c l u s t e r housing of low-rise buildings. The Fourth Avenue i s proposed to be developed into a major t r a f f i c artery and the e x i s t i n g railway tracks are to be used for future rapid t r a n s i t . C i t y planners had an open mind to include a theatre building on the s i t e . Access to the proposed s i t e by car and rapid t r a n s i t i s good. The land cost s h a l l be n i l as i t can be leased-freehold from the c i t y . Parking a v a i l a b i l i t y i s quite poor at present time on the s i t e . The s i t e area i s not enough as the clu s t e r housing has not l e f t enough open space. The proposed s i t e i s close to high density population areas of downtown and K i t s i l a n o . There i s no other building of c u l t u r a l or recreational use nearby. The s i t e i s good for environmental setting except the Granville Bridge that divides the s i t e v i s u a l l y from the mountains and sea. (4) JERICHO PARK SITE The Jericho Park has fi v e a i r c r a f t hangers of World War II 67 on the waterfront. In 1972 the s i t e was transferred to the Parks Board thus giving i t public ownership and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . A study was commissioned by Parks Board to assess the f e a s i b i l i t y of use of ex i s t i n g structures for some community uses. The study proposed to keep only three hangers on the si t e and converting them into public buildings such as an indoor gymnasium, community centre and restaurant, etc. A theatre can be proposed on t h i s s i t e . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y by car to the s i t e i s good v i a 4th Avenue, but the bus service at present i s very poor. The land cost s h a l l be n i l since i t can be leased freehold from the Parks Board. The ex i s t i n g parking a v a i l a b i l i t y i s excellent. The s i t e i s quite distant from high density r e s i d e n t i a l zones. At present there are no other buildings of c u l t u r a l and recreational use i n the v i c i n i t y . The s i t e commands an excellent environmental setting by being i n a large natural park with sea and mountains backdrop. (5) VANIER PARK SITE This i s the Government Reserve s i t e along the K i t s i l a n o Beach with the Planatarium, Archives, Maritime Museum and Music School Buildings. The ex i s t i n g Marina and Boat Club has been relocated from the waterfront by the City of Vancouver. The s i t e i s connected to the Granville Island and the False Creek development by sea-walk and parkland. The Maritime Museum i s set out deep near the t i p of the beach and the other three buildings make a nice c i v i c space. A proposal for a 68 theatre can be incorporated into t h i s cluster alongside the Music School i n front of the Archives Building. The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the proposed s i t e by car and rapid t r a n s i t i s good v i a 4th Avenue, Burrard Street and Cornwall Street. The land could be leased freehold from the Government. At present there are 433 car parking spaces of three buildings and another 120 spaces of boat-launching parking. The pro-posed s i t e has enough s i t e area around i t for space needs of a theatre building. This s i t e i s i d e a l because of the proximity of high population density of downtown and K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t i a l areas. The e x i s t i n g buildings around the proposed s i t e area are of c u l t u r a l and recreational uses. The environmental setting of the proposed s i t e i s excellent with park setting, Burrard I n l e t , downtown core and f u l l view of the mountains. Out of a l l the fi v e possible s i t e s discussed above, the Vanier Park Site i s best suited for the proposed theatre building according to the c r i t e r i a set out for s i t e s e l e c t i o n . Drawing 1 and 2, page 70 and 71. < Q Ci o fD M 0 H h-1 !U Z H- P- cn 3 3 (D O fD < rt H 0 o O M ^ h r-1 n fD fD 0) fD CO rV H rV H H-** CO rt CO CO fD H- CO H-rt H- f+ • fD te fD Site i-3 > ro tr1 M cn cn Ci < a < *n • H n • < m M Ci cn • < M Ci n • <n M H n Ci < M • a Ci • < < < o • • cn n * • < < td M Ci • • n • • < M cn a • • • M cn a < n X o o o o o o o w a a K t"1 tr1 n M O O H3 A c c e s s i b i l i t y by Car A c c e s s i b i l i t y by Rapid Transit Land Cost Parking Availa-b i l i t y Site Area Population Density Other Bldg's of Cultural/Rec. Uses Environmental Setting RATING % H a cn o CO H i-3 H to > o O o o H 2! Q H3 O O H t-3 M H CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CRITERIA 3(A): STAGE PLANNING AND STAGE SCENERY STAGE PLANNING The stage planning i s a complex part of the theatre design and has many technical requirements described as follows: PROVISION FOR ORCHESTRA Usual place for orchestra u n t i l recently has been i n the orchestra p i t , i n between the actors and the audience wherein the conductor faces the stage and conducts the orchestra from a space hidden from the patrons' view. As further development, th i s space for the orchestra p i t was conceived as a multi-functional space. With hydraulic l i f t s the f l o o r was raised (when the orchestra was not needed) and used with the stage as apron stage or used for the audience by placing a few rows of patron seating. Hydraulic rams, screw jacks or elevator l i f t s can be used for r a i s i n g or lowering the orchestra p i t . The choice of one of these systems over the others i s a matter of economics and safety. STAGE FLOOR In addition to physical shape and size of the stage, there are a number of variables a f f e c t i n g i t s design. Stage fl o o r should not be of r i g i d construction such as concrete, brick, e t c . x Materials such as wood give i t f l e x i b i l i t y of use and change. Timber can be bolted on s t e e l framework and the framework can be changed as the needs change or grow. A further step i n increasing the f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability of the stage i s to make the stage i n sections which can be moved separately. This can be achieved by hydraulic l i f t s or rams. The choice of the f l o o r stage material has c o n f l i c t i n g factors. Hardwood floo r s are good for f i r e resistance but softwood floors with shorter l i f e span (of about 5 years) are generally preferred over hardwood f l o o r s . A good quality tongue and grooved softwood such as Columbian pine i s used. The f l o o r i s stained to a darker colour to avoid r e f l e c t i o n s from stage l i g h t i n g . CHANGING SCENERY The stage should be designed to allow for rapid changing of scenery during a play. This can be provided as one or two side stages and the back stage. The size of the production and sets s h a l l dictate the space needs for set storage during the play. The stage scenery and backcloths can be changed by the system of f l y i n g and stored i n the flytower above the stage out of view of the audience. The f l y i n g i s done on a gri d Ham R. Theatre Planning. 1972. p. 69. w i t h s t e e l c a b l e s and ropes, u s i n g a system of couterweights from the l o a d i n g g a l l e r i e s . The d e s i r a b l e h e i g h t f o r the g r i d i s three times the h e i g h t of the proscenium opening (the minimum r e q u i r e d h e i g h t i s two and a h a l f times the h e i g h t of 2 the proscenium opening). F i g u r e 20, page 75. 3 R e v o l v i n g stages are another a l t e r n a t i v e to the stage l i f t s . F i g u r e 21, page 76. Three or four s e t s can be b u i l t on a r e v o l v i n g stage and d u r i n g the p l a y , the change of s e t can be accomplished i n no time. A f u r t h e r improvement to t h i s s i n g l e r e v o l v i n g stage i s the t w i n - r e v o l v i n g stage where s e t s are b u i l t i n two halves each on the separate r e v o l v e g i v i n g a l a r g e r s e t f o r viewing. 4 Wagon stages are complete s e t s b u i l t on shallow p l a t f o r m s and s t o r e d on s i d e stages which are r o l l e d manually, t u r n by t u r n , f o r d i f f e r e n t s e t s . F i g u r e 21, page 76. The wagon stage system takes too much space i n the form of s i d e stages as each wagon i s about the s i z e o f the p r i n c i p a l a c t i n g p l u s s i t t i n g a r e a. SAFETY CURTAIN The s a f e t y c u r t a i n i s s l i g h t l y b i g g e r than the s t r u c t u r a l proscenium opening which i n t u r n may be b i g g e r than the d e c o r a t i v e proscenium opening. F i g u r e 20, page 75. The Ham R. Theatre p l a n n i n g . 1972. pp.72-75. 3 Burris-Meyer & C o l e . Theatres & Auditoriums. 1949. pp.120-121 4 I b i d . pp.114-119. 77 f u n c t i o n o f t h e s a f e t y c u r t a i n i s t o s e a l o f f st a g e agea from the audience a r e a i n case o f f i r e . I t i s made up o f heavy s t e e l s h e e t s i n r i g i d s t e e l frame w i t h s h e e t a s b e s t o s sand-wiched i n between the s t e e l s h e e t s . The s a f e t y c u r t a i n i s suspended on s t e e l w i r e s and c o u n t e r w e i g h t e d , so t h a t when a c t i v a t e d by f i r e , i t s l i d e s down under i t s own w e i g h t . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o s e a l o f f the pr o s c e n i u m opening i n 30 seconds. AUTOMATIC SMOKE VENT The f u n c t i o n o f the a u t o m a t i c smoke v e n t i s t o exhau s t smoke and fumes i n case o f f i r e . F i g u r e 20, page 75. I t i s p r o v i d e d over t h e f l y t o w e r w i t h an a r e a o f one t e n t h the f l o o r a r e a o f the main s t a g e . I n case o f f i r e , the t h i n (blackened) g l a s s o f the smoke v e n t b r e a k s under the he a t b u i l d - u p from the f i r e and h e a t e d a i r . P r o v i s i o n f o r opening the smoke v e n t can a l s o be done by e l e c t r i c i t y w i t h f u s i b l e l i n k s . STAGE SCENERY The f u n c t i o n o f t h e st a g e s c e n e r y i s t o p r o v i d e the a c t o r w i t h a p h y s i c a l environment t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a time and a p l a c e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p l a y . T h i s makes the t h e a t r e a p l a c e o f f a n t a s y i n which the audience doesn't c h a l l e n g e the f e e l i n g o f i l l u s i o n b u t goes a l o n g w i t h i t . The stage s e t t i n g i s made up o f s c e n e r y , b a c k d r o p s , costumes and p r o p s , e t c . The s c e n e r y and the costume h e l p t o 78 express the time and the a t t i r e and the props help to create the setting (such as a sword, tables and thrones, e t c . ) . In the early c l a s s i c a l Greek, Roman and Elizabethan theatres, the audience surrounded the stage and the set was the permanent bu i l d i n g behind the stage. With the development of perspective, a r t i s t s became aware of the use of scenery background that could be disposed of after i t s use and the discovery of stage l i g h t i n g added a greater f l e x i b i l i t y to the design of stage scenery. Some variables that a f f e c t the stage setting are as follows: REQUIREMENTS OF THE LICENSING AUTHORITY The l i c e n s i n g authority has controls over the materials and the quantity of scenery that can be used i n one show. I f the theatre building i s not equipped with safety curtain and other f i r e f i g h t i n g devices, such as automatic smoke vent and sprinklers over stage, they may l i m i t the scenery on the stage and even the quantity of materials which are used i n making the scenery. The authority makes a periodic check of materials used for making scenery, backcloths, etc. against established f i r e safety standards. THE PHYSICAL SIZE OF THE STAGE The physical size of the stage determines how b i g set i s required to f i l l the space. Too big a stage dominates the scale of the actor to setting and requires an expansive set of huge size to f i l l the stage. Too small a stage overcrowds the setting and upsets the actors to setting scale and proportion. FORM OF THE STAGE On a proscenium stage, backcloths and f l a t s can be used quite extensively to create a setting. In a thrust stage or on stages with more than 120 degrees of encirclement, the backcloths and f l a t s can not be used and the scenery i s reduced to only a few low ly i n g objects (so as not to obstruct the viewing) and stage l i g h t i n g i s mostly r e l i e d upon to create the desired environment. METHODS USED IN CHANGING SCENERY There are a number of ways that can be used i n changing scenery. Proscenium stage generally has a flytower where f l y i n g i s used to change scenery. Other methods are revolving stages, wagon stages, stage l i f t s , etc. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of one or more of these factors affects the o v e r a l l setting. STAGE LIGHTING There i s no set b u i l t now a days, the design of which i s not based on the stage l i g h t i n g . Different forms of l i g h t i n g have to be co-ordinated with the scene designer i n the preliminary planning to obtain desired e f f e c t s . 80-81 USE OF CYCLORAMA AND BACKCLOTHS The cyclorama i s a large p l a i n surface, usually of stretched f a b r i c , placed at the back of the stage and around i t . I t i s usually v e r t i c a l l y r o l l e d over a cone so as to take up less space when i t i s not being used. Different tones of l i g h t can be thrown on the cyclorama to create i l l u s i o n s of depth, mood and creative backgrounds. Backcloths are large sheets of canvass usually larger than the proscenium opening. These are suspended on battens and serve as a setting background. These are made up of smaller canvasses joined together and can be stored i n the flytower or stored as f l a t s on the side stage when not i n use. 82 3(B): ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION, ACTORS ORGANIZATION AND PRODUCTION ACCOMMODATION ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION The extent of the o f f i c e space i s determined by the administrative structure of the resident company and i t varies from one theatre to another depending upon the scale of the production and the type of the theatre. Figure 22, page 8'6. The general functional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the space needs of the s t a f f are given below. (If the scale of the production i s small, some s t a f f members may be i n charge of two or more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) . ARTISTIC DIRECTOR * Responsible for choice of plays, d i r e c t i o n and a r t i s t s etc. * O f f i c e space close to rehearsal stage and conference room where he can hold meeting with other technical coordinators. LIGHTING DESIGNER * Coordinates l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s . * O f f i c e space close to a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . 83 COSTUME DESIGNER * Responsible for selection and design of costumes. * Of f i c e space close to a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . RESIDENT PLAYWRITER * Responsible for adapting new and old material for the play. * Office space close to the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . TECHNICAL DIRECTOR OR SCENE DESIGNER * Responsible for scene design and production. * O f f i c e space next to workshop and large enough for a few drawing boards and space to make models. STAGE MANAGER * Responsible for running the stage during rehearsals and plays. * Office space close to rehearsal stage. PRODUCTION MANAGER * Coordinates the work of stage manager and scene designer. Also responsible to the business manager for the cost of the sets. * Office space near stage manager's and business manager's o f f i c e s . 84 MUSIC DIRECTOR/COMPOSER * Responsible for composing and conducting the music. * Sound-proofed room with enough space for a piano. Should be close to the music room where he can coordinate his compositions with other instruments. GENERAL MANAGER * Responsible for o v e r a l l show, management, community relations and p u b l i c i t y , etc. * Of f i c e space close to the technical s t a f f entrance and the general o f f i c e s . BUSINESS MANAGER * Responsible for business management, also assistant to general manager. * Office space next to the general manager. HOUSE MANAGER * Responsible for the box o f f i c e and other front-of-house s t a f f such as box o f f i c e , usherettes, soda bars, building cleaners, building maintenance, etc. * Of f i c e space in the entrance foyer close to the main lobby. CATERING MANAGER * Responsible for the restaurant and bar management. 85 * O f f i c e space or counter space i n the restaurant. * If the restaurant contract i s leased out, then this place s h a l l be independent of the theatre. If the restaurant i s run by theatre management, the house manager s h a l l be i n charge of the restaurant. PROP LADY * Responsible for d i s t r i b u t i n g r i g h t costumes and props to every actor and for preparing any food or drinks that have to be used on the set. OFFICE AND SECRETARIAL SPACE * This space can be shared as a pool and should be close to the o f f i c e s i t serves. BOARDROOM/INTERVIEW ROOM * Space which can function as board room and an interview room for jobs other than acting. CONFERENCE ROOM * Space where a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r s h a l l hold meetings with other technical coordinators. ENTRANCE AND SECURITY CHECK * One common entrance i s required for a l l three organiza-tions with reception and security check space. .JSC CJEETjAE4AC S°S<3ri \ / : \ LIGHT M4<S- OtS\<8rJt 87 Large companies may have assistants for many of the above mentioned functions. WASHROOM FACILITIES * Separate washroom f a c i l i t i e s for each sex. ACTORS ORGANIZATION The space needs for the actors organization i s proportional to the scale of the production that i s to be put up i n the theatre. Figure 23, page 88. If the theatre i s used only for opera or b a l l e t , 2 to 3 single dressing rooms are required for lead players. Rest of about 80 to 120 musicians or dancers have shared group dressing space for each sex. For a s o l o i s t concert performance, 2 to 4 single dressing rooms are required for lead players. Rest of about 200 to 250 choristers have group dressing space for each sex. If the theatre i s used for drama, the actors organiza-tion depending upon the scale of production, may be as follows: Lead stars - 2 to 4, requiring separate dressing rooms. Minor lead stars - 8 to 16, requiring group dressing rooms for each sex. Supporting cast - 20 to 60, requiring large group dressing rooms for each sex. Orchestra players - 5 to 20, requiring a common dressing room. © IM£>t*C ric^ . (£3) A C T O f s 89 A green room serves as actors' common room, lounge and lunch room. A l l the actors organization should be grouped together near the main stage with maximum of 2 floo r s up or down the main stage l e v e l . This space should be separate from the technical space (workshops, etc.) and access to the rehearsal space from the dressing rooms should be easy. ' PRODUCTION ACCOMMODATION The production spaces are needed to put up a set together. Depending upon the type and scale of the play, these spaces vary i n th e i r space requirements. Figure 24, page 9 2 . In general these are: RECEIVING AND STORAGE This area has an unloading bay where a l l the raw and finished materials are received and registered. The receiving room should be on the main stage l e v e l and next to the scene shop as major bulk of materials received here are used i n the production of the set. SCENE SHOP A l l the sets are made i n the scene shop. I t has space for handling and cutting the raw materials such as lumber, etc. into required sizes and shapes and an assembly area where the 90 set i s assembled. Average set i s considered about 16 foot cube. Large sets, i f required, are usually put together on the main stage. PAINT SHOP Raw sets made i n the scene shop and backcloths are painted i n the paint shop. Its area should be large enough to hold a f a i r sized set. The backcloths and f l a t s are painted canvasses used i n the sets. This shop should be con-nected to the scene shop and the main stage by heavy metal doors. COSTUME SHOP In this shop, costume designer's sketches are made into costumes for actors. The costume lady i s i n charge of the costume shop. The costume shop requires a storage space for raw cl o t h , a dyeing and drying store, cutting and sewing machines, f i t t i n g rooms (where costumes are t r i e d on each actor for possible further alterations) and f i n a l l y a space where costumes., are washed, ironed and stored for the f i n a l play. METALS SHOP Metal props and objects are made i n the metals shops. Although metal props are generally small i n si z e , a great many number of them are used i n every play. In addition to the space for the metals workshop, a space for materials (raw and finished) and metals foreman's o f f i c e i s required. 91 PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO Photography can be used quite extensively i n the sets and for p u b l i c i t y . I t needs a photographic studio with a dark room and a space for storage of raw materials and finished photographs. PROPERTY STORES Property stores are needed to store the props. Storage space i s required i n the form of open shelving for general props and lockable storage for expansive props such as s i l v e r sets, swords, costumes and thrones, etc. The property stores are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the property master who has a separate o f f i c e space for safe keeping and records. LUNCH ROOM AND MEETING ROOM A common lunchroom with a f a i r sized kitchen and a self-serve counter i s required for the production s t a f f and administrative s t a f f . This space also functions as a lounge and meeting room. CHANGE ROOMS Change room f a c i l i t i e s with storage lockers and change cubicals are required for men who work i n production areas to change from d a i l y clothes to work o v e r a l l s . 93 3(C): PUBLIC AREAS In a l i v e theatre, the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between patrons i s as a t t r a c t i v e an event as the performance i t s e l f . This i s comparable to a motion picture premiere night wherein a l l patrons dress up for the show. U n t i l recently, the patrons would dress up according to s o c i a l structure and the rate class i n the auditorium. Recent anti-establishment attitudes of the new generation, i n the l a s t two decades, have rejected the t r a d i t i o n of dressing up to go to a theatre. This again seems to be changing back to formal dresses now a days. Public areas such as foyers, lobbies, etc. help to create an atmosphere introducing the audience to the performance. Although public areas have to be functional i n t h e i r physical space needs, they can give p o s i t i v e or negative reaction to the audience. The entrances through the carpark and the outdoor pedestrian plaza lead to an entrance foyer with box o f f i c e where patrons who do not have previous reservations buy t h e i r t i c k e t s . This space should be spacious and graceful as each member of the audience has to go through t h i s space. The entrance foyer has the o f f i c e of the house manager who i s i n charge of box o f f i c e , usherettes and public r e l a t i o n s , etc. From the entrance foyer, the patrons enter the main lobby which i s the main a c t i v i t y space. The lobby contains general c i r c u l a t i o n access to the auditorium and the balcony f l o o r , 94 coat check counter and storage, lounge, display areas, soda bars, telephone booths, restaurant, bar, washrooms, etc. A general rule of space area for lobby i s 5-10 sq. ft./patron. A l l these sub-functions within the lobby should be intercon-nected and s i t e d by p l o t t i n g the general patron movement system, so as not to confuse the patron v i s u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . Figure 25, page 95. I f the balcony lobby i s not higher than 2 f l o o r -heights from the entrance lobby, patrons would enjoy walking up these s t a i r s rather than wait t h e i r turns for the elevator. At least, one elevator should be provided to connect the main lobby with the balcony lobby, for the handicapped persons. Also steps should be avoided for seats and washrooms to be used by the handicapped. The lobby should have nice views. Although the auditorium i s t o t a l l y inward a c t i v i t y space, i t doesn't dictate the lobbies to f u l f i l the same function. On a grand s i t e , a l l the views should be exploited to t h e i r maximum extent. Washrooms should be designed for physical space needs of the patrons. Each l o c a l authority has i t s own standards (which are minimum standards) for the number of fi x t u r e s to be provided per number of seats. The washroom i s a space that i s used by every patron and i t should be spacious and with generous numbers of fixtures so that patrons are not forced to stand i n l i n e s waiting for t h e i r turns. Soda-bars are an e s s e n t i a l service i n a theatre. P U & U C AREAS . 96 Audience usually come into the theatre about h a l f an hour before the play and have some time for a soft drink, etc. Also most of the patrons do not use the main restaurant during the i n t e r v a l due to the length of time and the formalities involved i n a restaurant service. A licenced bar may be included i n the lobby i f the l o c a l by-laws allow and the theatre company feels i t s r e a l need. While a s o c i a l drink before the play i s a l r i g h t , there might be problems with the problem-drinkers during the play. A restaurant i s usually included i n a theatre building. Some people make the evening a complete outdoor one by a r r i v i n g an hour or two before show time and dine comfortably and then see the play. A restaurant i s one of the better revenue generating ventures i n a theatre. The restaurant can be opened out to the public each day, i f i t has nice location and established prestige, to generate added revenues. Overall functional r e l a t i o n s h i p of the theatre i s shown in Figure 26, page 97. _ 7K" Mouse 98 3(D) ACOUSTICS The acoustic q u a l i t i e s of a theatre-shell e f f e c t every production held i n i t . Some amplification of actors' and singers' voices can be done but excessive amplification i s not a reasonable alternative to proper acoustic design of the theatre. Since so many diverse functions are performed i n a theatre such as drama, music and singing, etc., a decision must be made as to the p r i o r i t y of functions, and the theatre acoustics t a i l o r e d to that p a r t i c u l a r functional requirement at the early stages of design. The theatre must be properly i s o l a t e d from a l l the exterior noise sources. Noise from the secondary sources such as dressing rooms, lobbies, washrooms, A.C. plant and mechanical ducts, etc., should be inaudible (not exceeding 20 dBA. as recorded) inside the auditorium. For a theatre with up to 500 seats the acoustic design i s generally good and less complicated because the distance of the patron on the l a s t row from the stage i s r e l a t i v e l y small. When the seating capacity exceeds 1000, the acoustic design becomes more complex and the design becomes more d i f f i c u l t as the seating capacity i s further increased. This i s due to the greater h a l l size required to house more number of seats. The basic plan form of the theatre also affects i t s acoustic design. Semi-circular, c i r c u l a r or regular polygonal shapes are bad for acoustics because they tend to focus r e f l e c t e d sound from the walls thus giving uneven sound d i s t r i b u t i o n . A rectangular shape i s generally considered to be one of the best shapes for music. The length of a rectangular h a l l should not be more than twice i t s width otherwise the h a l l w i l l sound l i k e a shooting gallery due to repeated sound r e f l e c t i o n s from the p a r a l l e l side walls. Sound travels i n straight l i n e s and i t s behavior can be predicted by studying the sound r e f l e c t i o n s . The side .walls and c e i l i n g s should be designed to aid the sound to reach the l i s t e n e r s by r e f l e c t i o n s . The rear wall of the auditorium should be t o t a l l y sound absorbant otherwise, sound r e f l e c t i o n s from th i s wall w i l l come back to the audience as delayed echoes. Reflectors are used over the stage to r e f l e c t the actors' voice to the patrons on the l a s t rows. Normally these should be faceted and non porous and should weigh not 2 2 5 less than 5 kg per M for speech and 25 kg per M for music. A good seating rake i s extremely important for better a u d i b i l i t y and helps sound reaching a l l patrons d i r e c t l y . The loudspeakers, i f used for reinforcement, should be placed at the front of the auditorium, v i s i b l e from a l l seating positions. The same p r i n c i p l e s hold good for sound reception i n motion picture projection and other sound ef f e c t s used i n drama. This i s achieved simply by ensuring that no Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. p.40. 100 structure such as balconies, etc., obstructs the l i n e of sight from l i s t e n e r s to loudspeakers. When choosing a seating layout i n r e l a t i o n to the stage an important point should be remembered that human voice has pronounced d i r e c t i o n a l properties. Speech i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y behind the speaker's head i s much less than i n front. Members of the audience d i r e c t l y behind the speaking actor are e f f e c t i v e l y up to four times farther away i n terms of i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y than a member of audience i n the d i r e c t i o n the actor faces. This has a marked e f f e c t on the a b i l i t y to hear a performance on a stage, with degree of encirclement of 180 and more. Reverberation improves the acoustic q u a l i t i e s for the p a r t i c u l a r performance. Generally accepted reverberation time for d i f f e r e n t functions i s : Drama 0.8 to 1.2 seconds Opera 1.2 to 1.4 seconds Orchestra 1.4 to 1.9 seconds Chorus 2.0 to 3.4 seconds Reverberation i s d i r e c t l y proportional to the volume of the auditorium and inversely proportional to the amount of absorption i n i t . For drama with common i n t e r i o r materials 3 such as wood and plaster, etc., a volume of 3M per seat i s 3 considered s a t i s f a c t o r y and for music th i s figure i s 9M per 7 seat. The volume may vary from th i s i f there, are certain ^Egan D. Concepts i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Acoustics. 1972. p.40. 7 Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. p.39. 101 physical l i m i t a t i o n s such as sight l i n e s , l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s and proscenium opening height, etc. Under such conditions a good acoustic design can s t i l l be achieved by designing walls and c e i l i n g surfaces of higher sound absorption q u a l i t i e s . 102 3(E): SIGHT LINES With establishment of the distance of the patron on the l a s t row from the stage and the p r i n c i p a l acting and setting area on the stage, a physical shape for the auditorium can be developed. Sight l i n e s are very important for designing the seating layout and seating rakes for orchestra and balcony f l o o r s . A universally accepted average height for the human eye, while i n s i t t i n g position i n a theatre, i s taken as 3 feet 8 inches from the f l o o r l e v e l and a further 5 inches i s g allowed for the head. The design of the chair i s the f i r s t requirement, which dictates the chair width and the row spacing, designed for the comfort of the patron within reasonable economic l i m i t s . Usual chair width with arm-rests i s taken as 18" to 24". The row spacing varies from 2 feet 9 inches to 3 feet 6 inches. Narrow row spacing i s tough on knees and i s inconvenient to other patrons passing by, whereas the extra wide spacing w i l l make the h a l l longer and thus uneconomical. 9 The seating rake i s calculated by f i r s t e stablishing a focal point "F" usually knee-height at the p r i n c i p a l acting stage. The eye l e v e l of the patron on the f i r s t row P^, i s established about 12" above the stage l e v e l . A st r a i g h t l i n e i s drawn from F on stage to P^ + 5" on the f i r s t row, where this l i n e intersects 2nd row that point i s P 0, the eye l e v e l of Burris-Meyers & Cole. Theatres & Auditoriums. 1949. p.36. Ham R. Theatre Planning. 1972. pp.30-36. 103 patron i n 2nd row. Again a l i n e i s drawn from F on the stage to P^ + 5" on the 2nd row to get the eye l e v e l of the patron on the 3rd row, P^ and so on. A l l these eye levels P l ' P2' P3 a r e m a r ^ e c ^ down 3 feet 8 inches giving the auditorium rake. This t h e o r e t i c a l rake i s then smoothed out to give the p r a c t i c a l rake which i s a smooth curve. This rake i s plotted from many positions to design the entire auditorium f l o o r . The maximum accepted auditorium rake with-out steps i s 1:10. Same system i s applied to pl o t the balcony rake. The balcony rake(usually more than 1:10 accepted for pedestrian ramps) i s evened out with regular sized steps. The maximum accepted balcony rake i s 35 degrees to the horizontal. Figure 27, page 104. V e r t i c a l sight l i n e s are drawn from the eye l e v e l of patrons i n the l a s t row of auditorium to the top of proscenium arch to arrive at balcony c e i l i n g height l i m i t s . In a theatre where a l l the patrons look down on the stage (as compared to looking up the screen i n a motion picture theatre) i t i s extremely annoying to have other patrons' heads and balcony r a i l i n g blocking the act. This i s avoided by designing the seating rake f i r s t and then staggering seats i n alternate rows. 105 3(F): STAGE LIGHTING, SOUND CONTROL AND FILM PROJECTION STAGE LIGHTING The Greeks had open-air-theatres and sun was the only l i g h t i n g source. When the theatre became an enclosed-building-structure candles and o i l lamps were used as the l i g h t i n g sources. U n t i l the nineteenth century gas-lighting was used and f i n a l l y e l e c t r i c i t y replaced i t . Now stage l i g h t i n g i s used as a means of a r t i s t i c expression and i s an important element of the play. Lighting designer s i t s on early meetings with the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r and the scene designer, so that he can contribute his v i t a l opinions before a set i s made in the workshop. The only chance the l i g h t i n g designer gets to try out his lighting-set-up i s when the set has been finished and placed on the main stage during f i n a l rehearsals. The setting-up i s done frame by frame, by setting-up lanterns i n the l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s , one by one and recording the entire process to avoid confusion at the time of actual play. Recently, computers are being used to record t h i s sequence. Once the pattern of general l i g h t i n g of the actor and the setting has been established, s p e c i f i c decorative or dramatic e f f e c t s or a suggestion of the o r i g i n of l i g h t source such as sunlight and moonlight, etc., can be studied. This i s c a l l e d "motivating l i g h t i n g ' . 106 The l i g h t i n g design must make provision for l i g h t i n g any part of the stage from a wide range of angles around the auditorium. The l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s should be positioned so that the l i g h t should s t r i k e actor's face at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal. I f the angle i s much steeper, i t w i l l produce dark u n f l a t t e r i n g shadows under the eyebrows and i f i t i s at a shallow angle there i s the danger of unwanted shadows on the set or on other a c t o r s . 1 ^ The l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s are used to l i g h t the play and to d i r e c t , focus and i n s t a l l colour f i l t e r s on the l i g h t lanterns. These should have a r e s i l l i a n t and shock-proof f l o o r such as linoleum. The l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s should have clear headroom, good working width and nice v e n t i l a t i o n . The l i g h t i n g control room i s the nerve centre of l i g h t i n g process and i s placed i n the auditorium with a clear view of the s t a g e . 1 1 There are a variety of consoles for the stage l i g h t i n g systems and the choice of one over the other depends upon the functions of the theatre. Auditorium general l i g h t i n g i s also controlled from t h i s room. 1 0Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. pp.113-114. i : L I b i d . pp.120-124 . 107 SOUND CONTROL The sound i n s t a l l a t i o n i s as technical as the stage l i g h t i n g and experts must be included i n the early planning stages of the design. The sound room should be placed next to the l i g h t control room as these two special e f f e c t s are i n t e r r e l a t e d . This room should have f u l l view of the stage and the orchestra space. The sound room has a sound mixing desk and an a u x i l i a r y 12 sound desk with two turntables and two tape players. Loud speakers should be i n s t a l l e d so that the audience hears the voice from the stage side. This further helps when the theatre i s used as a motion picture house to generate added revenues. FILM PROJECTION A f i l m projection room should be included i n a theatre building so that i t can be used as a motion picture house to general added revenues and for special e f f e c t s to plays. Usually, 35 mm and 70 mm films are used for screening of films i n theatres. The projectors for these are of carbon-arc type. Each spool of r e e l i s 600 meters long and takes about two minutes to play. At least two, preferably three Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. pp.136-147 108 p r o j e c t o r s are used i n the p r o j e c t i o n room. The p r o j e c t i o n room should be w e l l v e n t i l a t e d to exhaust the heat generated by carbon arc p r o j e c t o r s . At p r e s e n t , there are three methods of f i l m p r o j e c t i o n : d i r e c t , i n d i r e c t and r e a r p r o j e c t i o n . D i r e c t p r o j e c t i o n i s by f a r the most commonly used. I n d i r e c t p r o j e c t i o n r e q u i r e s m i r r o r s and i s used where d i r e c t p r o j e c t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e . Rear p r o j e c t i o n has l i m i t e d use but has some added advantages to c r e a t e s p e c i a l e f f e c t s on a back c l o t h or cyclorama. Aspect r a t i o i s the r a t i o of width to h e i g h t of the standard s i z e of the cinematograph f i l m , the screen b e i n g a d i r e c t enlargement of t h i s r a t i o . A v a r i e t y o f aspect r a t i o s are used now a days i n a d d i t i o n to the standard aspect r a t i o 13 of 1.375:1 such as: wide screen 1.75 : 1 cinema scope 2.35 : 1 70 mm 2.2 : 1 D 150 2.2 : 1 These are the wide screen types used e f f e c t i v e l y to enlarge the p i c t u r e without d i s t o r t i o n as the human eye p e r c e i v e s more h o r i z o n t a l l y than v e r t i c a l l y . The p r o j e c t i o n room i n some cases, cannot be p o s i t i o n e d Ham R. Theatre p l a n n i n g . 1972. pp.158-159. 109 on the centre axis of the screen. The projection axis of the projector to the centre of the screen usually has an angle to the horizontal c a l l e d " t i l t " or projector rake. The maximum l i m i t of the projector rake i s 15 degrees to the horizontal f o r 35 mm f i l m s . The centre l i n e of the screen and the projection room should be same i n plan form of the auditorium. 110 3(G): FIRE SAFETY AND EXITS In a proscenium type theatre, the f i r e hazards originate from the stage as canvass and timber are used i n scene construction. The fi r e - p r o o f i n g of scenic canvasses does not make them non-combustible but only delays i t s i g n i t i o n time. Also when i t i s on f i r e , i t gives o f f extremely pungent smoke as compared to a non^fire-proofed canvass. A f i r e on stage does not spread over to the auditorium immediately, and there could be less danger of human l i v e s i f panic can be avoided. The r e a l problem i s more of a psychological nature than a physical nature. The proscenium wall i s designed to provide a f i r e and smoke separation between the stage and the auditorium. The openings i n the proscenium wall are of bare minimal neces-s i t i e s such as openings to orchestra space and actor vomitories etc., and are equipped with f i r e rated doors. A l l the stage walls that enclose the flytower are of non-combustible material (such as concrete). The proscenium opening i s equipped with a f i r e curtain of heavy s t e e l frame with sandwiched asbestos sheet panels that drops down automatically i n case of f i r e and t o t a l l y seals o f f the auditorium from the stage. The high space of the flytower acts l i k e a chimney. A stage lantern of thin glass i s provided over the flytower (with an area at least one tenth of the f l o o r area of the stage) which breaks up i n the early seconds of f i r e under great heat b u i l d up thus se t t i n g up a natural draft for the smoke to escape. I l l The auditorium v e n t i l a t i o n i s designed to maintain a constant flow of a i r to the stage. This further helps to check any smoke generated on the stage from flowing to the auditorium side. 14 Panic i s by far the worst k i l l e r i n the theatre f i r e s . I t often arises without any r e a l danger of the f i r e . Unfortunately, there i s not much research done on the panic situations and human behaviour. Panic can be further avoided i f the f i r e warning systems can be set off slowly or s i l e n t l y and the general l i g h t i n g put on emergency c i r c u i t s so that the exits are c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . The noise absorption material on the ductwork should be non-combustible such as glass wool or mineral wool. Otherwise a f i r e around the ductwork s h a l l r e s u l t i n transmit-ting the smoke to the auditorium through the ductwork. At least two exits must be provided from each f l o o r independent of one another. The number of exits and th e i r widths should be such as to permit a l l members of the 15 audience to e x i t the auditorium i n 2h minutes. A l l exits should be c l e a r l y indicated by illuminated signs. Doors i n escape routes should a l l open i n the di r e c t i o n of escape. Revolving doors or t u r n s t i l e s do not count as e x i t s ; they can Moley A. Theatres & picture houses. 1916-p.71. Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. p.51. 112 be very dangerous i n case of panic and should never be used. High f i r e r i s k areas such as main stage, l i g h t i n g g a l l e r i e s , T.V. studios, stores, workshops, mechanical spaces and parking areas should be i n s t a l l e d with sprinkler system. 113 3(H): HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING Heating and v e n t i l a t i o n are very important mechanical services i n a theatre design. Regulations w i l l require an auditorium to be ventilated and i t i s convenient that the a i r supply should at the same time provide whatever heating i s required. I t i s then not normally necessary to have any other form of heating such as radiators. V e n t i l a t i o n must be designed to produce the correct a i r movement and the desired r e s u l t i n g temperature. People are most comfortable when fresh a i r i s blown towards t h e i r faces rather than from behind t h e i r heads. A certa i n amount of mild turbulance set upby the incoming a i r stream gives a f e e l i n g of freshness. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of a i r i n the auditorium can either be with input at a low l e v e l and extraction above which reinforces the natural c i r c u l a t i o n of the hot a i r upwards or the input can be at the top with extract from underneath the seats. The air-conditioning system for the auditorium and the production spaces should be on d i f f e r e n t switches as th e i r usage time varies. Excessive noise from the v e n t i l a t i o n ducts adversely affects the d e l i c a t e character of the performer on the stage. For small and medium size theatres, the noise c r i t e r i o n of 25 dBA maximum are t o t a l levels and the mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n 16 should be designed to be quieter than t h i s . V e n t i l a t i o n standards are 28 m3/person/hour. This may consist of 75% of fresh a i r d i r e c t from outside mixed with 25% of r e c i r c u l a t e d a i r . The a i r extraction standards require 75% of the a i r input to be extracted mechanically. This 17 leaves 25% to fi n d i t s own way out. Ham R. Theatre planning. 1972. p.239. "^Ibid. p.236 . 115 CHAPTER 4 THE PROPOSED THEATRE DESIGN With the establishment of Vanier Park as the f i n a l s i t e for the proposed theatre and the theatre program f i n a l i z e d from the questionnaire, the design of the theatre building was conceived. The whole program i s quite complex and has been divided under d i f f e r e n t headings as follows: 1. SITE SYNTHESIS The view i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l . The primary view i s from south-east to north-west of Burrard I n l e t , the downtown core and the mountains beyond. From south-east to south-west, the view i s r e s t r i c t e d by the l i n e a r form of the Burrard Bridge. From south-west to north-west, the view i s of the Music School, the Planetarium building and the single family r e s i d e n t i a l houses beyond Cypres Street. Figure 28, page 116. Photographs 1-8, pages 117-124. 2. MASTER PLAN The s i t e f or the proposed theatre i s 560 feet wide from the approach road to the Burrard Bridge and 1,360 feet long from the Music School to the Burrard Inlet water mark. I t was decided at the early stages of design of master plan to l i m i t the physical size of the proposed \io OS I JJ) LU 122 ul t-X ul > theatre to a minimum and s i t i n g i t towards the Music School building thus leaving the rest of the s i t e towards the Burrard Inlet as the continuation of the e x i s t i n g parkland. The east side boundary of the theatre i s kept i n l i n e with the boundary of e x i s t i n g Archives b u i l d i n g . The theatre building i s s i t e d i n such a way that the main lobby and the lounges face the primary north-east view, thus leaving the stage side facing south-west. A l l the serviant spaces of the main lobby are grouped around the auditorium on the north to east side and the production and administrative spaces are groupd around the stage on the south to west side. EVOLUTION OF FORM The basic r e l a t i o n s h i p of the audience to the actor with a 90 degree encirclement was the basis of evolution of the form. Figures 29-33, pages 126-130. I t was decided to d i s t r i b u t e the proposed seating capacity of 800 seats allowing + 500 seats for the orchestra f l o o r and + 300 seats f o r the balcony f l o o r - which gave the o v e r a l l form to the auditorium. The main lobby along with i t s serviant spaces such as coat check, soda-bar, restaurant, lounge, exhibition space and washrooms, etc., i s conceived around the rear wall of the auditorium. The main lobby i s connected v i s u a l l y and physically by two grand s t a i r s 126 128 129 and one elevator (for handicapped) to the balcony lobby which i s proportionately of lesser f l o o r area since i t serves only + 300 seats. The balcony lobby has i t s own serviant spaces of a soda-bar and washrooms, etc. The main lobby i s approached by one central entrance foyer housing the box o f f i c e and o f f i c e of the house manager. The entrance foyer i s connected to the outdoor plaza for the pedestrian and rapid t r a n s i t patrons. I t i s connected to the two underground parking levels by two s t a i r s and one elevator (for handicapped) for patrons who park t h e i r cars i n the garage. The stage design i s a combination of a proscenium stage and a thrust stage. For the medium sized productions to be put up i n the proposed theatre, a stage depth of 35 feet with a proscenium opening 40 feet wide and 35 feet high was considered appropriate. A thrust stage projecting 16 feet follows the seating layout i n the auditorium. Space i s provided on one side of the main stage for storing an extra set while the other side acts as an orchestra space. As required by f i r e regula-tions, the stage has three f i r e e x i t s . A l l the producti and administrative areas are interconnected to the main stage through a corridor (with two f i r e e x i t staircases) for reasons of functional proximity of a l l these areas to the stage. 132 A l l the production spaces such as scene shop, paint shop, costume shop and metals' shop, etc., are planned on one side of the stage. A l l these shops are d i s t r i b u t e d v e r t i c a l l y along the stage with the scene shop on the same l e v e l as the main stage for the ease of moving large sets from the scene shop through paint shop to the main stage. The other side of the stage corridor has actors change rooms and administrative o f f i c e s . The actors' change rooms are planned on the main stage l e v e l and one f l o o r above whereas the administrative o f f i c e s are two f l o o r s below. The rehearsal stage of almost the same acting area as the main stage i s planned d i r e c t l y under the main stage. I t i s of the same form as the main stage and has space around i t for directors and technical coordinators. A small open-air-theatre for 150 seats with projection room and washrooms has been designed on the north-west side, free from the t r a f f i c noise of the Burrard Bridge. The walls of the main theatre form a perfect enclosure to the open-air-theatre. The usage of the open-air-theatre i s t o t a l l y independent of the main theatre. A flytower i s conceived d i r e c t l y over the main stage for f l y i n g and storing the back-cloths, etc. The flytower i s s l i g h t l y larger than the main stage to accommodate the f l y i n g g a l l e r i e s and counterweights. 133 The height of the f l y i n g grid i n the fly-tower i s 105 feet from the main stage l e v e l (three times the proscenium opening height of 35 f e e t ) . The physical shape of the auditorium f l o o r and balcony f l o o r are established from the seating layout and s i t e l i n e s . The acceptable volume of 122 cubic feet per seat for good acoustics (for drama) gives the volume of auditorium and i t s c e i l i n g heights. The projection room along with sound control room and l i g h t control room i s placed i n between the orchestra f l o o r and the balcony f l o o r . This w i l l l i m i t the projector rake to the centre of the screen within the maximum l i m i t of 15 degrees to the horizontal to avoid undue d i s t o r t i o n of motion picture projection. For reasons of safety i n case of f i r e , two independent exits are designed from each t i e r of seats which s p i l l d i r e c t l y to outside. Two grand s t a i r s that are designed to be used for entrance to the balcony f l o o r are also used as f i r e e x i t s . This i s allowed by the l o c a l f i r e code to assume 50% of the occupant load to be exited through the main lobby. The stage being a primary source of f i r e hazard has three independent f i r e e x i t s . The production and the administrative o f f i c e s have two f i r e e x i t s t a i r s . The flytower being the highest physical space i n the design i s given a bold and massive form. A l l the rest of the spaces are designed with sloping roofs i n a series of stepped t i e r s as i f they aspire to blend into the high mass of the fly-tower. The sloping roofs give another dimension and colour to the o v e r a l l design. Th< entire theatre i s sp l i t - u p into d i f f e r e n t forms and a l l the functions and sub-functions have t h e i r own space i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r master spaces for functional truth and c l a r i t y . This i s done in contrast to many of the e x i s t i n g theatres where a l l the serviant functions are packaged together under a large structure and very often they loose t h e i r own space value and physical existence. TRAFFIC PATTERN It i s assumed that most of the patrons w i l l be coming to the theatre i n t h e i r own cars. The main vehicular entrance takes them down to the parking garage under the main lobby. The parking garages are connected to the main entrance foyer through secondary foyers placed on each of the two parking l e v e l s . The upper parking l e v e l i s designed with a pedestrian plaza to serve as the main drop-off and pick-up point for patrons. Figure 34, page 135. The patrons coming by rapid t r a n s i t and as pedestrians w i l l enter the main entrance foyer from the outdoor plaza which i s independent from the vehicular entrance. This w i l l also be used by the patrons who park t h e i r cars on the other shared parking l o t s i n the entire complex. There i s a provision for 76 cars i n two parking l e v e l s under the theatre. Another 70 cars open-air-parking i s provided around workshop and administrative spaces. The l a t t e r i s used by the technical s t a f f during the day and theatre patrons during the night. For c l a r i t y and safety of the vehicular t r a f f i c , the t r a f f i c pattern i s designed one-way. Patrons w i l l enter the garage on the west side and come out on the south side. For obvious reasons of security and check control a l l the production, administrative and actors' spaces have only one entrance. Every person has to be screened when going out as some of the equipment and props are very c o s t l y . This entrance i s kept t o t a l l y independent of the patrons 1 vehicular and pedestrian entrances so that each space can be used independently of the other. The scene shop which i s on the main stage l e v e l has an unloading dock where the d e l i v e r i e s to the workshops, restaurants and o f f i c e s , etc. are received, recorded and stored for d i s t r i b u t i o n . MATERIALS The choice of materials depends upon a number of variables 137 such as: (a) F i r e by-laws -Which regulate the materials for construction depending upon the seating capacity of the auditorium. (b) The size of the project -Wood can be used for a small theatre whereas st e e l and concrete s h a l l have to be used for huge spans of a large theatre. (c) A v a i l a b i l i t y of materials -Wood i s cheap as i t i s available l o c a l l y while s t e e l and concrete are expensive due to higher costs. (d) Methods of construction -Depending on an exi s t i n g plant i n l o c a l i t y , precast concrete s h a l l be much cheaper than c a s t - i n - s i t u concrete due to expensive form-work and construction time involved. (e) Designer's personal l i k i n g for a material -Where two or more materials have r e l a t i v e l y same cost index, the designer's choice and o v e r a l l coordination s h a l l p r e v a i l . 138 (f) E x i s t i n g building complex -The choice of materials s h a l l also be affected by the materials used for the e x i s t i n g buildings to make a harmonious e f f e c t on the whole complex. In the proposed theatre wood was ruled out as material for construction due to the size of the theatre and the huge spans involved. Concrete was chosen as the main material for construction since i t matches a l l the three exi s t i n g buildings i n the complex. More over, i t does not need a f i n i s h i n g material and can be l e f t exposed to weather gracefully with time. A l l the spaces with short spans such as parking l e v e l s , lobbies, production areas, administrative areas, orchestra f l o o r and balcony f l o o r , etc., are c a s t - i n - s i t u concrete. The r e l a t i v e l y simple and r e p e t i t i v e walls of auditorium and fly-tower are of pre-cast concrete for ease i n shuttering and casting time. The extra large roof spans of auditorium and fly-tower are of s t e e l space-frame trusses. The space-frame trusses are of lesser depth as compared to the conven-t i o n a l roof trusses. A l l the sloping roofs are waterproofed, insulated and l i n e d with clay t i l e s as f i n i s h i n g material rather than built-up roofing. This s h a l l add another dimension of colour to the entire theatre and soften the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of concrete walls. 139 Inside the theatre, concrete i s furred and covered with gypsum board, cedar-siding or glass t i l e s , etc., depending upon the i n t e r i o r decoration e f f e c t s desired. The auditorium wall that forms part of the main lobby i s exposed concrete with murals of ceramic t i l e s i n t e r -locking the c y l i n d r i c a l air-conditioning d i f f u s e r s . The auditorium wall over the balcony e x i t i s f u l l y glazed giving double space e f f e c t to the lobby's glazed roof. Flooring i n the foyers and lobbies i s ceramic t i l e s . The restaurant, lounge, orchestra f l o o r and balcony flo o r i s a l l carpeted for the comfort of the patrons and to reduce the foot noise. Main stage and rehearsal stage f l o o r i n g i s tongue and grooved Columbia-pine s o f t -wood. The corridor and o f f i c e s are carpeted while the workshops, s t a i r s , stores, mechanical spaces and parking l e v e l s , etc., are a l l exposed concrete. Outside walkways and outdoor plaza i s also of exposed concrete. A l l the l a d i e s ' and gents' washrooms on the patrons' and production side have ceramic t i l e s on f l o o r and walls up to 6 feet height. Rest of the walls above 6 feet height and c e i l i n g s are painted gypsum board. The main auditorium's walls and c e i l i n g s are of cedar-siding of d i f f e r e n t density and surface pattern. This helps the acoustics designer to create d i f f e r e n t sound 140 absorbing and sound r e f l e c t i n g surfaces for the t o t a l acoustic design of the auditorium. The c e i l i n g s i n the patrons' areas vary from cedar-siding, lath and plaster, glass t i l e s to sky-light roofing. Ceilings in the administrative and actors' dressing rooms are of acoustic t i l e s while those i n workshops, projection room, T.V. studio and parking garage, etc., are of exposed concrete. 6. LANDSCAPING On the pedestrian entrance plaza side a huge lake i s planned which w i l l bind the proposed theatre with the e x i s t i n g buildings and environment beyond by water r e f l e c t i o n s . This lake has sculptures with water fountains that make a healthy w a t e r - f a l l noise. Tree plantation s h a l l be i n clusters to break up the massive e f f e c t of the concrete surfaces of the proposed theatre. Low height shrubbery s h a l l be used to hide out the open parking l o t of the proposed theatre. A l l the elements of landscape such as lake, w a t e r f a l l , concrete f l o o r i n g , outdoor sculptures, l i g h t i n g , benches, lawn, trees and shrubs, etc., s h a l l be a l l blended to create a sound e f f e c t on the c i t y scape. Photographs of f i n a l model - pages 141-148. Photographs of study model - pages 149-151. Drawings of proposed theatre - pages 152-178. 141 142 PLA1B 2 FIMAL MODEA-144 PLAiE 4 FIMAL MODEL I PLAtE <b FIWAL P L A t L 7 FINAL M O D B L PLATE. O plWAL M O D E L I4e> StUOf MODE.L ISO PLATE 2 STUDY MODEL PLAtE. 3 StUDY MOPtvL W e CHAPTER 5 ^^gclcX I^W^ COST BREAKDOWN AND REALIZATION POSSIBILITIES In the r e a l i z a t i o n of such a large undertaking as the building of a theatre, the economics and financing are an important consideration. Two areas of cost expenditure must be taken into account - ones that make the whole project possible and others that continue to keep i t running. I t i s not possible for me to go deeply into the way such a project may be r e a l i z e d but I can point out some of the areas that produce i t s i n i t i a l c a p i t a l costs and maintenance and running costs. A l l must be included i n a proper analysis s t a r t i n g with the cost of s i t e and s i t e s e l ection, architects and other consultants' fees, down to furniture and furnishings. THE FEES STRUCTURE The complexity of the theatre design involves the expertise of a wide range of s p e c i a l i s t s . Professional fees s h a l l be a large share of the t o t a l cost of work. A general process may be as follows. The owner selects an architect with the help of an a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r . I f he does not own a s i t e already, they set out i n search of a proper s i t e for the proposed theatre. This i s done by setting out a c r i t e r i a for the s i t e selection and comparing i t with the price of the s i t e . Once a s i t e i s 180 selected, s o l i c i t o r s help to f i n a l i s e the s i t e sale and ownership documents. Architect then commissions the land surveyers to p l o t the s i t e , s i t e services and topography. The architect i n consultation with the owner and the a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r engages the services of consultants such as: s t r u c t u r a l engineers, mechanical engineers, e l e c t r i c a l engineers, a i r conditioning consultants, stage layout con-sultants , stage l i g h t i n g consultants, acoustic consultant, sound system consultants, furniture consultants, i n t e r i o r designers, graphic designers and landscape ar c h i t e c t s , etc. A l l these consultants' work i s i n t e r r e l a t e d and the architect manages the whole show of bringing t h e i r services together i n form of drawings, s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and samples. The owner pays for the professional fees of each consultant. This can be done through the architect i f the ar c h i t e c t has the f u l l services contract or c l i e n t pays them d i r e c t l y i f the architect's contract i s only to provide a r c h i t e c t u r a l services and coordinate the work of other consultants. 2. THE BUILDING PROCESS A l l the drawings and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are then sent out for tendering by general contractors and one of the general contractors i s awarded the work on merits of contract price, his experience with theatre building, his reputation and 181 completion time, etc. The general contractor then awards sub-contracts for sub-trades concerned with the building. Sub-trades structure includes sub-contractors for: s t r u c t u r a l work, e l e c t r i c a l work, heating, v e n t i l a t i o n , a i r conditioning, plumbing, drainage, stage equipment, workshop equipment, theatre chairs, general o f f i c e furniture, restaurant and kitchen equipment, carpets, paints, i n t e r i o r design elements, doors, windows, skylights, elevators and landscaping, etc. The architect and the other consultants coordinate with the sub-contractors through the general contractor and keep a qua l i t y control by s i t e v i s i t s . The general contractor sends invoices to the architect of the percentage amount of work completed which upon architect's approval becomes due from the owner. This b i l l i n g i s done usually monthly or bi-monthly depending on the prearrangement between the contractor and the owner. 3. RUNNING COST STRUCTURE The owner makes a f a i r l y reasonable draft budget of the expected running costs of the building. The running costs and the c a p i t a l costs of a building are i n t e r r e l a t e d . The c a p i t a l cost may be cut i n i t i a l l y (by sub-standard materials and workmanship, etc.) but w i l l incur greater running costs. The economics of labour cost versus the machine costs should 182 be studied (machines can do human work such as parking t i c k e t machines and other vending machines, e t c . ) . Running cost can be c l a s s i f i e d under the following groups: * Interest on loan and repayment of mortgage for purhcase of s i t e . * Interest on the loan and repayment of mortgage for the theatre building. * Building maintenance contracts such as A.C. plants, heating plant, l i f t s , kitchen equipment, stage l i g h t i n g equipment, sound equipment, etc. * Local taxes and building services fees. * Power and u t i l i t y b i l l s . * J a n i t o r i a l contracts. * F i r e and general insurances. * Accounting and l e g a l fees. * Salaries of a r t i s t i c , administrative and technical s t a f f . * Production costs for scenery, l i g h t i n g , costumes and props, etc. * Promotional costs such as p r i n t i n g and advertising, etc. * Tax base p r o b a b i l i t y on the t o t a l p r o f i t s . 4. SOURCE OF CAPITAL FINANCE Once the owner has an o v e r a l l estimate of c a p i t a l 183 required to b u i l d a theatre, there are many sources of c a p i t a l finance that are open to him such as: * Private g i f t s and endowments. * Loans from banks, insurance companies, l o c a l authorities or private i n d i v i d u a l s . * Grants from arts councils or government i n s t i t u t i o n s . * Charitable trusts with i n t e r e s t i n theatre a r t s . * Fund r a i s i n g appeal such as dinners, l o t t e r i e s , charity performances, etc. 5. SOURCES OF INCOME Once the b;uilding i s complete the c l i e n t can expect a continuous source of income which can be c l a s s i f i e d as under: A. Direct Source of Revenues from the A c t i v i t i e s of the Theatre * Mainly t h i s i s the box-office receipts from each performance. * Sale of refreshments on the soda-bars which can either be managed by the owner or leased out on annual contract. * Restaurant p r o f i t s which can again be managed by the owner or leased out on annual contract. 184 * Film and t e l e v i s i o n r i g h t s : - I f a production i s extremely successful t h i s factor could net extremely good p r o f i t s by making a motion picture production of i t or with a l i v e t e l e v i s i o n coverage of the same. * Leasing out the display space i n the main lobby to either painters, sculptors or other.professionals for t h e i r .one-man shows. * Revenues from transfer of successful productions:-A successful production can either be sold or leased out to other theatre companies. * Koisk sale of old sets and miniature props and other a r t i f a c t . * Renting out of costumes and scenery to outside groups. B. Indirect Sources of Revenue from the A c t i v i t i e s of the Theatre * Touring companies using the theatre pay fees as per show or per season basis. * Charging for the parking f a c i l i t i e s of the building during non-use hours. C. Revenues from Sources Generated Outside the Theatre * Local authorities or government may choose to support a theatre with revenue grant from the 185 tax base:- Most of the theatres i n North America are subsidized i n some form of the other by the government. Local authority education grants may be another major revenue source:- This could be i n the form of plays put on for school examination and evaluation or for creating general awareness of the theatre arts f o r the students. Arts council grants which are i n turn funded by l o c a l and/or federal government may be a good source of revenue. Some wealthy people who have i n t e r e s t i n l i v e arts can make sizable amounts of private g i f t s to lower down th e i r tax-base since a l l these g i f t s are tax free. Theatre can generate enough revenues from fund r a i s i n g dinners by i n v i t i n g top ranking actors and public figures who are generally w i l l i n g to oblige. 186 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Theatres have existed throughout the human c i v i l i z a t i o n as places of a r t i s t i c expression and l e i s u r e . Various theatre forms emerged i n various cultures (such as Greek, Roman and It a l i a n , , etc.) and those were suitable to the b e l i e f s , needs and available technology of those times. The basic problem of the theatre design i s the actor to audience relationship that dictates the degree of encirclement for seating layout. There i s no one accepted degree of encirclement i n theatre arts today and opinions vary very considerably as to the idea l degree of encirclement. In the l i v e theatre of today there i s a strong reaction against the separation of actors from audience caused by the proscenium theatres of recent past. This has led to the r e v i v a l of some older theatre forms. Some variables that a f f e c t the decision for a p a r t i c u l a r degree of encirclement are - a r t i s t i c director's approach to arts, resident playwriter's work, desired actor to audience intimacy, v i s u a l l i m i t s of perception and acoustic l i m i t a t i o n s , etc. Some common theatre forms that emerged i n the history are: 360 degree encirclement (Arena type) Transverse stage 210 degree encirclement (Greek type) 187 180 degree encirclement (Roman type) 90 degree encirclement Proscenium theatre Zero degree encirclement Space stages I also studied some recent examples of theatre design which are considered d i f f e r e n t and innovative. A questionnaire was compiled to fi n d out the needs of the Gity of Vancouver for a theatre building. I t i s l i s t e d below. 1. What kind of theatre i s needed? 2. What should be the seating capacity? 3. What should be the actor to audience relationship? 4. How elaborate an orchestra i s needed? 5. How elaborate should the public areas be? 6. How elaborate should the stage design be and what methods of changing scenery be used? 7. Should the theatre be designed for a resident or a v i s i t i n g company and what kind of workshops are needed? 8. How elaborate should the actors' accommodation be? 9. What kind of administrative organization i s needed? 10. Any comments on mechanical services (air-conditioning, heating, acoustics and l i g h t i n g , e t c . ) , T.V. promotion and f i l m projection, etc. 188 11. What are potentials f o r an open-air-theatre? A series of discussions were held on t h i s questionnaire with persons connected d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y with the t h e a t r i c a l a r t s . Their answers were analysed to arrive at the required spaces for the proposed theatre as given below. 1. Proposed theatre s h a l l be designed for drama and with a medium sized resident company of 20-30 players. 2. Seating capacity of + 800. 3. A combination of proscenium and thrust stage with a 90 degree encirclement for seating layout. 4. Small orchestra for 10-15 players positioned i n the auditorium. 5. Public areas spaceous enough to accommodate a l l public services. 6. Proscenium stage equipped with hydraulic l i f t s (for changing scenery) and flytower (for f l y i n g and storing backcloths, e t c . ) . 7. F a i r - s i z e d workshops to put up medium sized sets. 8. Individual and group dressing rooms for actors. 9. Adequate space for administrative and technical s t a f f . 10. Following mechanical services: Isolated T.V. studios. Motion picture projection room. Back stage projection room. F l e x i b l e l i g h t i n g system. 189 Loud speakers d i s t r i b u t e d a l l around the auditorium. Reverberation time of auditorium to be 0.8 to 1.2 seconds. Whole building air-conditioned. 11. A t o t a l l y independent open-air-theatre for 150 seats. Vanier park s i t e was selected as the f i n a l choice for the proposed theatre bu i l d i n g , out of a number of possible theatre s i t e s i n the c i t y . A c r i t e r i a was established for s i t e selection and a l l s i t e s were matched against i t . In general the c r i t e r i a were: A c c e s s i b i l i t y by car. Rapid t r a n s i t access. Land costs. Parking a v a i l a b i l i t y . S i te area. Population d i s t r i b u t i o n . Buildings of other c u l t u r a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l usage. Environmental s e t t i n g . With the selection of Vanier park as the f i n a l s i t e and establishment of theatre building program from the questionnaire, theatre design was conceived. The design process i s described as under: 190 1. SITE SYNTHESIS AND MASTER PLAN The view from the s i t e i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l with primary view towards the Burrard-Inlet, Downtown core and mountains beyond, that i s exploited for public areas such as lobbies, lounges and restaurants, etc.. Workshops are s i t e d on the rear side towards the Burrard bridge and Music School. The theatre b u i l d i n g i s s i t e d towards the Music School side thereby leaving natural parkland towards the Burrard-Inlet as a continuation of e x i s t i n g Vanier Park towards the Granville Island and False Creek. 2. EVOLUTION OF FORM. The basic actor to audience relationship with 90 degree encirclement and 800 seats d i s t r i b u t e d inbetween orchestra and balcony f l o o r (to keep the v i s u a l l i m i t s under 66 feet) i s the basis of whole design. Stage design i s a combination of proscenium stage (35 feet deep) and a thrust stage (16 feet deep) with a proscenium opening of 4 0 feet width and 30 feet height. Proscenium stage i s designed with 9 hydraulic l i f t s each 8 feet x 8 feet (for changing scenery) and flytower (for f l y i n g and storing backclots, e t c . ) . A l l the production, administrative and actors' areas are connected to the stage by a wrap-around corridor. F a i r - s i z e d workshops (scene shop, paint shop, metals shop and costume shop) are provided to put up a medium sized set on the main stage. A projection room with l i g h t control and sound control room i s 191 placed i n between the orchestra and balcony f l o o r s to l i m i t the projector rake to less than maximum accepted 15 degrees to the horizontal for motion picture viewing. A backstage projection room i s provided for special e f f e c t s . Four f i r e - e x i t s are designed from each orchestra and balcony f l o o r s , two of which s p i l l d i r e c t l y to the outside. Stage i s designed with 3 f i r e - e x i t s . Flytower i s the highest physical space i n the theatre and a l l other spaces are designed with sloping roofs i n a series of stepped t i e r s . A small open-air-theatre (with projection room and washrooms) for 150 seats i s s i t e d i n a b u i lding enclosure formed by theatre walls. 3. TRAFFIC PATTERN The only two modes of transportation, pedestrian and vehicular, have been separated from one another. Pedestrians enter through a large landscaped outdoor plaza. Vehicular entrance goes down to two underground parking levels (with parking for 76 cars) that are connected to the entrance foyer by two s t a i r s and one elevator. Surface parking i s provided for 70 cars which i s used by technical s t a f f during the day and theatre patrons at night. Vehicular t r a f f i c pattern i s designed one-way for safety and c l a r i t y . 4. MATERIALS Concrete i s used as the primary material for construction since i t matches a l l other e x i s t i n g buildings i n the complex. Large span r o o f s o f au d i t o r i u m and f l y t o w e r are s t e e l space-frame t r u s s e s f o r economy i n c o s t and e r e c t i o n time. E x t e r i o r m a t e r i a l s are exposed t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e , g l a s s and c l a y t i l e s . I n t e r i o r spaces have a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s such as m i r r o r t i l e s , ceramic murals, aluminium s i d i n g , cedar s i d i n g and p a i n t e d gypsum board, e t c . to c r e a t e v a r i o u s moods and decor e f f e c t s . Lobby and entrance f o y e r f l o o r i n g i s ceramic t i l e s and r e s t a u r a n t , lounge, o r c h e s t r a and balcony f l o o r i n g i s ca r p e t e d . Main stage and r e h e a r s a l stage i s tongue and grooved Columbia-pine s o f t wood. A l l washroom f l o o r s and w a l l s are ceramic t i l e s . A u d i t o r i u m w a l l s and c e i l i n g s are of s t a i n e d cedar s i d i n g of v a r y i n g d e n s i t i e s and s u r f a c e p a t t e r n . 5. LANDSCAPING A l a r g e l a k e i s planned with metal s c u l p t u r e s and w a t e r f a l l s on p e d e s t r i a n p l a z a s i d e which w i l l b l e n d the proposed t h e a t r e with the e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s and environment beyond by water r e f l e c t i o n s . A l l the elements o f landscape such as l a k e , w a t e r f a l l , water s c u l p t u r e s , concrete f l o o r i n g , l i g h t i n g , benches, lawns, t r e e s , shrubs and outdoor s c u l p t u r e s are designed to c r e a t e a p l e a s a n t e f f e c t on the c i t y scape. 193 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Burris-Meyer, Harold and Edward Cole. Theatres and  Auditoriums. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1949. 228 p.p. Cogswell, Margaret. The Ideal Theatre - Eight Concepts (2nd ed.). New York: The American Federation of Arts N.Y. and October House Inc. N.Y., 1964. 142 p.p. Egan, David. Concepts i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Acoustics. U.S.A.: McGraw H i l l Book Company, 1972. 217 p.p. Gropius, Walter. Walter Gropius - Buildings, Plans, Projects - 19 70-69 (2nd ed.). Connecticut: The Meriden Gravure Co., 19 73. 79 p.p. Ham, Roderick. Theatre Planning. London: The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1972. 292 p.p. *Leacroft, Richard. C i v i c Theatre Design. London: Dennis Dobson Ltd., 1949. 123 p.p. Meloy, Arthur. Theatres and Picture Houses. New York: Federal P r i n t i n g Co., 1916. 120 p.p. PERIODICALS Smith, R. "Rehousing the Drama". Progressive Architecture February 1962. p. 103. "Experimental Theatre". Progressive Architecture: February 1962. p.p. 116-120. "Fl e x i b l e Proscenium Theatre". Progressive Architecture: February 1962. p.p. 112-113. "Interchangeable Theatre". Progressive Architecture: February 1962. p.p. 114-115. "New Image, Old Plan for Arena Stage Theatre". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record: February 1962. p.p. 121-124. "Open Stage with Film Projection". Progressive Architecture: February 1962. p.p. 110-111. 194 "The Tyrone Guthrie Theatre". Progressive Architecture; January 1961. p.p. 104-105. "Vivian Beaumont Theatre". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record: September 1962. p.p. 143-145. •Actually consulted, but not included i n footnotes. 

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