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Ueda Akinari 1734-1809 : scholar, poet, writer of fiction Young, Blake Morgan 1976

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UEDA AKINARI (1734-1809): SCHOLAR, POET, WHITER OF FICTION by Blake Morgan Young B.A., University of Alberta, 1966 M.A., University of British Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1976 (c) B i t J :o r.or.;:s"! Youn-":, l ° 7 o In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f( an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g ree tha the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f /i>,,an Sti<<Itt± The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 3o lh,;). )"/ 76 ABSTRACT Ueda Akinari was born i n Osaka i n 1734 to an unwed mother but, adopted by a prosperous merchant who lived nearby, he grew up i n well-to-do circumstances i n the commercial center of eighteenth-century Japan* His temperament inclined him toward literature and scholarship, but the more u t i l i t a r i a n values of the merchant class i n which he was raised led to an inner conflict that he resolved, i f at a l l , only during the last few years of his l i f e * When his adoptive father died i n 1761 he dutifully took over the family business, but continued his literary a c t i v i t i e s on the side, and when the shop was destroyed by fi r e i n 1771 he made no attempt to rebuild i t * For the next few years he trained as a physician, and began his own medical practice i n 1776* This new occupation was more compatible with his li t e r a r y avocations, but i n 1787 a combination of f a i l i n g health and dissatisfaction with his work drove him to retire and devote his f u l l time to study and writing* In spite of poverty,.failing eyesight, worsening health, and a nagging conscience over doing nothing productive, he continued this way of l i f e u n t i l his death i n Kyoto i n 1809. His reputation today rests almost entirely on Ugetsu monogatari. a collection of ghostly tales that he published in 1776, just shortly after becoming a physician* Although i t represents only a fraction of his total output, i t has so outshone a l l his other writings that few people associate his name with anything else, and the average person tends to think of him as an inveterate romantic, obsessed with magic and the occult* This study i s an attempt to broaden that view; to create a portrait of the total man based on his own statements and the - i i -comments of those who knew him, and to show the nature and variety of his major works* Akinari f i r s t broke into l i t e r a r y circles In his late teens, writ-ing haiku poetry. In his early thirties he produced two collections of humorous stories about the townsman class, which sold well when they appeared and are now generally regarded as the last significant utefly^-pijlflfrfl to be written. Gradually, however, he was steered away from popular literature toward more serious pursuits. Uaetsu was his attempt to recreate the beauty of Japanese classical literature i n contemporary f i c t i o n . After completing i t he concentrated on studying the old masterpieces and writing commentaries on them. He had tried his hand at waka verse early i n his career, and after moving to Kyoto i n 1793 he became quite active i n the capital's poetry circles for a time. He also practiced the art of preparing tea, and fashioned tea vessels of his own design. Having a s t r i c t and moralistic outlook, he deplored f r i v o l i t y and hypocrisy, but saw that the world was f u l l of such vices. Unable to compromise his principles, he constantly f e l t alienated from society, enjoying the companionship of just a few close friends. Far from be-ing a dreamer, he was meticulously rationalistic, insisting on evidence for a l l of his conclusions* Resolute i n his own convictions, he en-gaged i n a prolonged dispute with Motoori Norinaga, perhaps the fore-most scholar of the day, condemning the man's indifference to logic* His views on society and the meaning of l i f e were expressed i n both s a t i r i c a l sketches and straightforward statements. In Harusame mono- gatarl. his last major work, he used the medium of fic t i o n to sum up - i i i -hls views on ancient Japanese history, scholarship, literature, r e l i -gion, ethics, morality, and the nature of man* In his writings, as i n his personal l i f e , he stood alone, proudly independent* He drew i n -spiration from many sources, but refused to adhere to any one teacher or school, and though he has influenced generations of younger writers, there are none who can be called his disciples* In a country where people traditionally find their identity within their peer group, Aki-nari to the end zealously remained an individual. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract. ••••••••••••••••.1 Abbreviations. .v Introduction* •• *1 I. Aklnari'e Birth and Early Life 4 I I . The Beginnings of a Literary Career..... I........31 III* Kashima-mura ........70 IV. TJgetsu monogatari 86 V* The Scholar-Physician of Osaka 125 VI* The Quail's Abode .........169 VII. Kyoto.. 197 VIII. The Final Years * 222 Bibliography 275 - V -ABBREVIATIONS The following' abbreviations are used i n footnote references and in the bibliography* ' HJAS—-Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies J AS—Journal of Asian Studies JK--Josh^al kofofrun, i ^ KBKKK—Kokubungaku kalshaku to kyozai no kenkyu ||) JC:^ ^  £. KK—Kokugo kokubun 1^1 & $ £_ KKB—Kokugo to kokubungaku g T $ ^ £ | ^ X f KKK—Kokubungaku kalshaku to kansho fy^f $ f jfiZ'ttyk^ KZ--Kokueakuin zasshi $ f • ft # !& MN—Monumenta Hibponica MB—Hlhon bungakn $ NKBT—Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei &/h& $ K%f^h INTRODUCTION He was the outstanding popular author i n Japan between the Genroku and Bunka-Bunsei Eras, but he was not merely a link i n the chain from Saikaku to Bakin. He was a dedicated student of the Japanese classics, yet he does not really f i t into the scholarly pedigree from Keichu to Hirata Ateutane. He strove for excellence i n poetry writing, but his work does not belong to any particular school. Whatever the pursuit, he maintained his independence, refusing to be bound by traditions. He stands alone and unique i n a l l of his intellectual and li t e r a r y en-deavors. His personal l i f e was much the same. Though i t spanned the retrenchment of the Kyoho Reform, the laxness and extravagance of the Tanuma administration, and the new/ retrenchment of the Kansei Reform, his writings show l i t t l e evidence that he f e l t affected by the p o l i t i -cal and economic events of his time, or was even aware of them. Through i t a l l , he refused to follow the trends i n society but tried to li v e according to his own precepts. He never attained the recognition he sought as a scholar and poet, but he inadvertently achieved fame because of a collection of nine short stories. He was outspokenly rationalistic, and intolerant of those who were not, yet he was also quite superstitious~and again i n -tolerant of those who scoffed. He suffered from an i n f e r i o r i t y com-plex, but he did not hesitate to challenge Japan's leading intellects. He scorned wealth and material possessions for himself, but experienced acute feelings of guilt at being unable to provide such things for his family. He was known as a misanthropic recluse, yet he loved his wife, was fond of children, and often stayed up a l l night talking to friends. His parents' Identity Is uncertain, and he l e f t no descendents; he was born i n an Osaka brothel and died penniless, thinking himself a failure, yet his name had already become widely known during his lifetime and has survived the more than century and a.half since his death. If, as Westerners have long maintained, Japan i s a nation of con-tradictions, then Ueda Akinari was a true product of his homeland. He has been widely misunderstood even by his fellow countrymen. But the contradictions i n his l i f e must be recognized and accepted, for they are a l l true aspects of the total man. When I f i r s t set out to prepare this biography my intention was to focus my attention on Akinari's l i f e story, with only passing refer-ence to his writings. However, as the task progressed, I became con-vinced that i t was neither desirable nor, i n the long run, possible to consider a writer apart from his works. At the same time I realized that commenting i n detail upon a l l of his works would not only become an endless task, but would ultimately overshadow the biographical em-phasis of this study. The compromise solution was to be selective, and that i s what I have done. To a degree my choice has been arbi-trary. The works discussed are those which I myself liked, and which I personally considered most interesting and relevant to a Western audience. I have virtually ignored some of his major scholarly works, feeling that they were not very meaningful apart from study of the Japanese classics that they explicate, while his literary works can be enjoyed on their own merits. Another point that I came to realize i s that much of the mlsunder--3-standing about Aklnarl has been lack of sound evidence. I had resolved to dig down to the facts and meticulously separate verifiable truth from speculation. Often, however, I found that I could do no more than identify conjecture as such. There are, consequently, many blank spaces i n the narrative that follows, and many questions that remain unanswered. Where firm conclusions could not be drawn I have f e l t i t best to heed Akinari's own advice on such matters, and not force an interpretation of evidence that i s insufficient, ambiguous, or nonex-istent. While I am well aware of the limitations and imperfections of this biography, I offer i t nevertheless, i n the hope that i t w i l l lead to a greater understanding of Aklnarl as a person and stimulate others to delve further into his writings. B. M. Young CHAPTER I AKINARI'S BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE Ueda Akinari X S ^^.wae an illegitimate child born In Sonezaki ^^Li%» a pleasure quarter of Osaka, i n 1734. This much i s relatively certain. The Identity of his parents and the exact circumstances of his birth remain shrouded i n uncertainty, but present a fascinating puzzle nevertheless. Akinari himself appears to have been reluctant to talk about the matter, for he referred to i t directly only twice i n his known writings, both times i n his old age. Shortly before his death he stated, "Born i n Naniwa, I have been a guest i n the capital for sixteen years. I had no father; I do not know the reason why. When I was four years old my mother also cast me away. Fortunately I was taken i n by Mr. Ueda.1,1 A few years earlier he had written that he knew nothing of his true father's l i f e or death, and had met his 2 real mother only once. From the records of the S a i f u k u j i \ $ T e m p l e , where Akinari's remains are interred, we know that he died i n the 6th year of the Bun-Era, 6th month, 27th day (August 8, 1809) at the age of seventy-3 six, so he must have been born i n 1734. Supporting evidence i s pro-vided by Akinari's friend Ota Nampo^C W iff jtft. (1749-1823) 's record of a party that was held i n Osaka in the 3rd year of the Kyowa^. -fa Era (1803), 6th month, 25th day i n honor of Akinari's seventieth birthday. 4 This confirms 1734 as the year of his birth, but t e l l s us nothing more. By 1803 Akinari was residing i n Kyoto. He was merely vi s i t i n g Osaka on this occasion, and the party was held during an important religious -5-festiva!, more l i k e l y just a convenient time for him and his friends to get together, rather than the actual anniversary of his birth. Some twenty-two years after Akinari's death, one of his former associ-ates wrote that his original surname had been TanakaiS ""j7 , and that he had been born i n Sonezaki. 5 Here began the common view that Akinari's mother was a courtesan named Tanakai and his father an anonymous custom-er. Years of tradition and lack of conflicting evidence have caused this view to be accepted with l i t t l e question until recent years. It was not un t i l 1959 that publication of the following passage provided the stimulus for research that has led to a plausible alternative ex-planation. In the capital there was called Ueda Yosai who lived by studying the national learning. He had formerly been the master of a brothel i n Shinchi i n the northern part of Osaka, but, having, other aspirations, he fled that exis-tence and thereafter lived i n the capital. Having recently heard these facts, I make note of them. Yosai was the grand-son of a hatamoto family from Edo. His grandfather was an o f f i c i a l whose son had been called to serve as a page boy and bedchamber attendant. By nature this youth enjoyed de-bauchery and pleasure, and when leaving his post would often go straight to the gay quarters. One night, while disporting himself i n f u l l ceremonial dress, he held a courtesan at his side, concealed her under his clothing, and l e f t the brothel. Having grown thoroughly weary of such dissipation, his father considered how to deal with him. He decided to put his son under house arrest i n a place under his administration, on the pretext that the boy had become deranged. He summoned an o f f i c i a l from the village to Edo and had him escort his son back. While the son was l i v i n g i n that village i n the province of Yamato, he had relations with the daughter of the village headman, and the child that was born was Yosai. For some reason the g i r l went to a brothel i n Osaka when she gave birth. The boyjread books and learned to compose waka poetry. He was called Tosaku. Someone told him the truth about his birthplace and lineage, and when he had verified this he re-gretted a l l the more having fallen into that brothel, so he ran away and became a recluse. At f i r s t he lived i n the north of Osaka, but later he made his home i n the capital. He took the name of Akinari, and was also known as Mucho. It has been less than ten years since his death* He was more than seventy when he died. 6 The above lines were written about 1814 or 1815 by the dist i n -guished Confucian scholar Ral S h u n s u i ^ ( 1 7 4 6 - 1 8 1 6 ) . Shunsui had studied and taught i n Osaka from 1764 until 1781, when he was called into the service of his daimyo. Thereafter he spent much of his time i n the l o r d 1 s Edo mansion at Kasumigaseki^ <rfi\ , and between 1802 and from which the above passage was taken. There i s no evidence that Shunsui ever met Akinari i n person, but his close associates in. Osaka certainly had opportunity to hear about him from reliable sources. S t i l l , Shunsui's statements must be interpreted with caution. There i s not a shred of evidence that Akinari ever earned his l i v i n g by running a- brothel; everything that we know would indicate that this i s a mistake. Other points that Shunsui mentioned, however, such as the various names by which Akinari was known, his literary pursuits, his places of residence, and the time of his death are a l l correct, so the passage deserves careful, attention. Moreover, a close study of Akinari's movements reveals that he did indeed have family ties i n the Yamato region. In the spring of 1788 he made an excursion to the Yo-shino area, and i n his account of the t r i p he mentioned calling on four different relatives, a l l of whom lived within; the borders of 7 Yamato Province, on the way. One of these was the headman of the village of Nagara^: Jf i^ j (now a part of Gose-shi, Nara-ken), a man whom 1815 he jotted down the notes that Akinari described as his cousin. In addition to his natural parents, Akinari had an adoptive father and two foster mothers, and i t i s impos-sible to prove conclusively through which of these he traced his rela-tionship to the man, but the existence of this kinsman immediately calls to mind Pal Shunsui*s report that Akinari's real mother was the daughter of a village headman from Yamato. It i s also worth noting that although Akinari denied having more than a superficial acquain-tance with his real mother, he was nevertheless informed when she died i n 1780, and that he assumed responsibility for holding the proper 9 r i t e s i n her behalf, so he probably knew more of her than he admitted* Research has confirmed that Akinari's cousin i n Nagara was Sue-yoshi S h o z o ^ ^ / f ^ , whose family held the post of village headman until the Meiji period. In Akinari's time, Nagara and i t s neighbor-ing villages were under the administration of the Kobori/.K ^  family, who were of hatamoto rank, a fact which reminds us of Shunsui's state-ment that Akinari's natural father was the son of an Edo hatamoto but had been banished for misconduct to a village i n Yamato that was under his father's jurisdiction. The administrative center of the Koborl lands i n Yamato was the village of Mashi J|& . If a member of the family was placed i n confinement i n the area i t would probably have been there. The chief magistrate of Mashi at the time of Akinari's birth was one Nakamura Tadasuke , whose wife had come from the Sueyoshi family of Nagara. A l l of this i s verifiable. The key to the matter, then, becomes the question of whether there was ai member of the Kobori family who meets Shunsui's description of Akinari's far-ther. It i s unfortunately at this crucial Juncture that the evidence 8-falters, forcing us to f a l l back on speculation. Investigation of the Kobori family tree reveals that Kobori MasamineiBC^ (d. 1760) had a time he reached that age, the son of a man of Masamine's position would normally have been called upon to perform certain ceremonial duties for the government, but no record of such service exists i n Sa-mon's case. The reason could possibly be that the boy f e l l into dis-grace and had his record blotted out. Thus i t i s conceivable, though certainly not conclusive, that Samon distressed his father with his dissolute behavior and was discreetly exiled to the countryside where, as one of the f i n a l acts of his short l i f e , he seduced a g i r l from the Sueyoshl family and then died before the child was born. If this i s Indeed what happened, then Aklnarl, though illegitimate, was born to a woman of good family, and was a descendent of the renowned tea mas-ter and garden designer, Kobori EnshuiH ')'|'| (1579-1647). Regrettably, evidence that would be accepted as proof i n a court of law i s not available, but considered i n the light of the information that can be verified, Rai Shunsul's account of Akinari's birth seems to be basic-a l l y correct. The view that Akinari was the by-product of a chance encounter i n a house of pleasure i s no more than a logical interpreta-tion of the reports that he was born in Sonezaki and was totally igno-rant of his true paternity. Shunsul's story at least has evidence that seems to support I t . son named died i n 1733 at the age of seventeen. By the Just across the river from Sonezaki, i n Dojima Ita-cho^ j ^ ^ ^ t f T f , near the present-day site of the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun office, there -9-was an o i l and paper shop called the Shimaya^j J> , owned and operated by a former samurai named Ueda Mosuke^JJ/j. His family had lived for generations i n the village of Ueda i n the Hikami^K-3^ d i s t r i c t of Tam-ba Province, where they had served as retainers to the local daimyo, but Mosuite's father had quarreled with his superior and resigned his post, bringing his wife and two sons to Osaka. He had hoped to find employment there, but his training as a warrior was of l i t t l e use i n the commercial world. His savings were soon exhausted and his wife took sick and died. Mosuke found day-to-day employment i n a govern-ment office and helped the family to eke out a, bare l i v i n g u n t i l the father died also. The younger son, J i z o ^ J ^ , had the good fortune to be adopted by a sake brewer i n Kuroi-murajt jf #-J , i n hie old home dis-t r i c t of Hikami, and then Mosuke was similarly taken i n by the propri-etor of the Shimaya. 1 1 Very l i k e l y he married his benefactor's daugh-12 ter at the same time. In any case, by the time Aklnarl was born, Mosuke had a wife and a daughter, and was doing very well as an o i l and paper merchant. It may have been through his business that he es-tablished contact with the Sueyoshl clan, for the family earned part of i t s livelihood preparing o i l from rapeseed (a product for which the 13 Nagara area was noted) and sending i t to Osaka for distribution. Perhaps he even arranged for their daughter to go to Sonezaki to give birth to her child, away from the prying eyes; of the Nagara villagers. Or perhaps he merely became aware of the child's existence when sup-plying his merchandise to the Sonezaki quarter, and met the mother's 14 family later. The record i s not clear. But whatever the circum-stances, when Akinari was four years old he became the adopted eon of -10-UedatMosuke and was brought up at the Shimaya. The next year he contracted smallpox. The disease became severe, and his foster parents were beside themselves with anxiety. When the attending physician gave up hope for recovery, Mosuke journeyed to the Kashima Inari Shrine on the northern outskirts of the city. It was late at night when he arrived, and he must have fallen into a doze while offering his prayer, for the shrine deity appeared to him i n a dream and assured him that his son would not die, but would be granted a l i f e of sixty-eight years. Indeed, to his parents' great joy, the boy's condition began to improve almost immediately thereafter, and i n due time he recovered completely. Every month, from that time, Aki-nari »s parents took him back to the shrine to pay homage to the deity 15 and offer thanks for his recovery. Akinari himself believed that he owed his l i f e to divine intervention, and he remained a faithful pa-tron of the Kashima. Inari Shrine for the rest of his days. In 1801, when he reached the promised age of sixty-eight, he composed sixty-eight waka*. verses which he presented to the shrine as a token of gra-t i t u d e . 1 6 He had overcome his i l l n e s s , but he remained permanently scarred by i t . An Infection settled i n the joints of his fingers and caused two of them to atrophy, leaving the second finger on his l e f t hand too short to be of much use, and the third finger on his right hand about the same length as the f i f t h . When he tried to hold a writing brush, he lamented, the third finger might as well have been missing altoge-ther. Because of this deformity he was never able to master the arts of calligraphy or painting. 1 7 About the middle of the same year, his -11-18 foster mother died. It i s not really certain whether this happened before or after his own il l n e s s , but presumably she had exhausted her strength i n caring for him and succumbed to the smallpox herself. 19 Even though Akinari said later that he had no recollection of her, losing two mothers i n the space of a single year must have l e f t scars on his young mind. Mosuke did not remain a widower for long, but took a new wife, a 20 young woman about twenty-six years old, and she proved to be devoted to her stepchildren. Although she was the third person to f i l l the role for Akinari, whenever he used the word "mother" without qualify-ing adjectives i n his writings, i t was she to whom he was referring. He was plagued with a weak constitution, subject to frequent illnesses and occasional epileptic f i t s , and he gave the credit for bringing him 21 safely through childhood to this woman and her loving care. Thus he grew up. It was the time when Osaka had passed the peak of i t s economic prosperity and was losing i t s position as the nation's center of commerce and the arts. Edo, long the p o l i t i c a l center, was now becoming independent i n the economic and cultural fields as well, and would i n time overshadow Osaka. Government policies i n the early part of the century that had been designed to assert the central ad-ministration's p o l i t i c a l power over the merchants' economic strength had had their effect. Among the townsmen the emphasis had shifted from unrestrained economic growth to consolidating their holdings and preserving the status quo. In their l i f e styles as well, they had be-come more subdued and conservative. A l l this was relative, however. The free-wheeling s p i r i t of the Genroku ft, ^ B r a (1688-1703) had been -12-broken, but Osaka remained a bustling commercial city, and Dojima, where Akinari was raised, was the center of the nation's rice market. Well over a thousand exchange houses and brokerage agencies were loca-ted there, with financial representatives from a l l over the country. It was the scene of feverish speculation, with huge sums being made and lost, and the-abundance of ready cash supported thriving enter-tainment di s t r i c t s with their theaters, eating and drinking establish-22 ments, brothels, bath houses, and the l i k e . A high demand for o i l and paper gave the Shimaya i t s share of the general prosperity. It was surely a stimulating environment to grow up i n , and the young Aki-nari would probably have been surprised to hear that he was l i v i n g i n a time of economic and cultural decline. Regrettably, i t i s impossible to reconstruct a picture of his childhood and adolescence. After his bout with smallpox the record i s virtually silent u n t i l he was nearly twenty. We do know that when he was ten years old he was attacked by a stray dog while at play, and 23 was rescued by a nearby fishmonger, but this i s the only other childhood event that he specifically described. Frightening though the experience must have been, i t would be d i f f i c u l t and pretentious to relate i t to any subsequent development i n his l i f e . Akinari himself claimed that his youth was misspent. He was 24 often away from home, he said, making the moors his dwelling place. "Moors" may be a euphemism for questionable houses of pleasure, but i t might just as well mean that he spent a l o t of time i n the countryside, alone with himself. He was never a gregarious person—indeed, i n old age he was noted for his reclusiveness—and he certainly had much to -13-brood over. He was aware of the unsavoury circumstances surrounding his birth, and apparently he was the subject of some gossip In the community because of i t . Later i n l i f e he replied defensively that as long as a person was not a member of the outcast class he was free to mingle with society and do as he pleased, and he proclaimed his own 25 self-sufficiency. His early childhood had been unsettled. He had lost two mothers i n the space of a year, and had been old enough to feel the deprivation. Moreover, there were his hands. Sensitive by nature, he was acutely self-conscious about his deformity, and never completely adjusted to i t . He could not help but be reminded of his handicap every time he picked up a writing brush, and this may well have made the psychological wound deeper as the years passed. Later he self-mockingly called himself Mucho^.jf|^ , "The Crab," because he fancied that his hands resembled a crab's claws, and he chose Senshl K i j i n f y$Bjfyv , "The Pruned Eccentric," as a pen name for one of his works. As long as he lived he hated meeting people for the f i r s t time because of his appearance. He probably did spend considerable time alone, reflecting on hie situation, and perhaps indulging i n the fan-tasies that were later to appear i n his stories. He also said that he was lax i n his studies and prone to be led away from them by frivolous companions who had neither education nor interest i n acquiring i t . His father tried to make him study, but Akinari maintained that while he was young he had not known how to 27 read, and one of his later associates stated that as a youth he had indulged solely i n pleasure, and by his twentieth year was the laugh-ing stock of his neighborhood because he could not even read the kana -14-28 syllabary. Caution i s needed in interpreting these remarks, however. In the f i r s t place, we have every reason to believe that Akinari's early l i f e was much li k e that of the average son of a well-to-do mer-chant family—and most such youths received some formal education. Not only had the a b i l i t y to read and write become essential for carry-ing on trade, but i n the more subdued commercial atmosphere of the day the townsmen had more time to devote to intellectual and cultural pursuits. It was partly for this reason that many of the scholars, artists, and literary figures of the middle and late Tokugawa period came from mercantile backgrounds. Moreover, Ueda Mosuke was a s t r i c t man, and we can scarcely believe that Akinari was rebellious enough to avoid getting even a rudimentary education for so long. And f i n a l l y , by the time Akinari was twenty-two his haiku poetry was appearing i n published collections, and i n his early thir t i e s he wrote two long pieces of popular literature which sold well and today are recognized as masterpieces of their genre. This i s hardly what we should expect of a man who was i l l i t e r a t e at the age of twenty. Akinari*s autobiographical writings make i t clear that i n his de-clining years he f e l t that he had fallen short of both his own and his parents 1 expectations. Feelings of self-reproach probably made him portray himself as worse than he actually was. And, as he became more and more immersed i n classical scholarship, he came to despise his earlier activities i n the realm of popular literature. When he said that as a young man he did not know how to read, he probably meant simply that his literary tastes had not yet f u l l y developed and he had foolishly spent his time reading material of l i t t l e value. It i s cer-tain that he received more education as a youth than he claimed credit for, but i t remains d i f f i c u l t to identify i t s sources or judge i t s ex-tent. He received some instruction from hie father, but schools for the merchant class: were then becoming popular, and i t stands to reason that Akinari would have attended one. The Kaitokudo t ^ ^ S ^ , one of the more famous of such institutions, was convenient to his home. There i s no actual record of his; attending that school, but he v/as ac-quainted (and on bad terms) with Nakai Chikuzan tp-?f VjUl (1730-1804) and his brother R i k e n ^ 'jjt^ (1732,-1817), two Confucian scholars whose father, Nakai Shuan^/^(1693-1758), had founded the school i n 1726. He also 3poke respectfully of Goi Ranshu jj^ jfj|P}fj)|>j (1698-1762), a Con-fucian scholar and commentator on the Japanese classics, who taught at - 29 the Kaitokudo, even referring to him as: "Sensei." which was a term he applied to just a select few. The Kaitokudo was one of those schools that provided for the commoners the same kind of full-scale education i n the Chinese classics that the o f f i c i a l l y sponsored schools provided for the samurai class, and Akinari definitely began his study 30 of such works i n his youth. Thus, assuming that he did attend the Kaitokudo, his basic; texts v/ould probably have been the Four Books and the Five Classics, read as kambun. with rote memorization stressed' 31 over rational inquiry. In addition, he must have received practical training i n business matters at home in the shop, and he seems to have read a\ fa i r amount of popular literature in his spare time. Thus, despite his repeated self-criticism, the young Akinari was apparently more serious than he depicted himself. There i s l i t t l e justification for the common view that sees- him as a prodigal son who -16-neglected his responsibilities, frequenting the gay quarters and wasting his father's money. This i s not to say that he was perfect, of course, or that he failed to sample the pleasures that were avail-able. His early stories show a familiarity with the demimonde that must have been based on personal observation. One may easily imagine the young Akinari making deliveries of o i l and paper to Sonezaki, pausing i n his duties to exchange fl i r t a t i o u s remarks with the g i r l s , and being invited to come back in the evening. As an old man he spe-c i f i c a l l y recalled v i s i t i n g the Shimabara ^ amusement d i s t r i c t i n Kyoto i n his youth, and lamented how the courtesans of the present had 32 deteriorated compared to those of his younger days. But patronizing such establishments did not constitute abnormal behavior for a young man of Akinari's circumstances, and i n any case there was more than just opportunity for sensual debauchery to be found i n the gay quarters. They served as a social gathering place, and courtesans, at least those of higher rank, were better educated and more refined i n tastes and manners than the average young woman. One of the characters i n Aki-nari 's f i r s t work of f i c t i o n i s a courtesan who tries to amuse her 33 patrons by composing poetry i n both Japanese and Chinese. Another indication that Akinari's youthful waywardness has been exaggerated i s the role he played when his sister ran away from home. L i t t l e i s known about this girl—Mosuke•s daughter by his f i r s t mar-riage—not even her name or age. Akinari never referred to her i n any way except "elder sister," and said virtually nothing about their home l i f e . However, when he was twenty-two, his sister carried on a secret love affair with a man of whom her parents disapproved. Finally she -17-l e f t home and supported herself at some disreputable occupation—per-haps by running a teahouse or brothel. Enraged, Mosuke disinherited his daughter, but Akinari rose i n her defense. As an adopted son, he told his father, he had no right to inherit the family estate i f the natural child were cast off. If Mosuke were to sever ties with his daughter, he ought to do the same to Akinari. Mosuke protested that blood ties were of minor importance. The Chinese sages had taught that i t was better to give inheritance to someone of upright heart even i f he were not a true relative. After this Akinari acted as me-diator between his father and sister, and eventually brought about a reconciliation. As Mosuke saw that his daughter was doing well at her business he conceded that she at least deserved credit for being able to make her own way i n the world, and accepted her as his child once 34 more. This incident provides our only real insight into Akinari*s home situation. The father's behavior displays both the s t r i c t moralism of a samurai and the pragmatism of a merchant, a combination that may be traced to his own background. Raised as a warrior, Mosuke had seen his father accept a. l i f e of poverty for both himself and his family rather than compromise his principles. The man by whom he had been adopted was a habitual drunkard, so addicted to wine that i t eventually cost him his sight, but like a true son, or loyal retainer, Mosuke had con-tinued to serve him f a i t h f u l l y . When the Shimaya and a wide surround-ing area were destroyed by f i r e , he was able to prove his resourceful-ness and f i d e l i t y . Looking for some footwear to buy for his foster father, he had come upon a burned-out geta shop. Sensing an opportu--18-nlty, lie had bought up a l l the undamaged stock and sent to Tamba for his brother. After helping Mosuke to hawk the geta In the streets, Jizo had hurried back to Tamba with the profits and reinvested them In tobacco leaves, which he brought back to Osaka for sale. With the ca-p i t a l thus raised, Mosuke had rebuilt the Shimaya and made a. fresh start In business, accumulating two thousand ryo In gold within a few 35 years. Having himself experienced numerous hardships which he had overcome through his own efforts, Mosuke could understand and even ad-mire his daughter for doing the same, even though her trade might not be respectable. Akinari made no mention of the mother's role i n this trouble, but his scattered references to her i n his writings indicate that she was a kind and understanding woman who gave her husband's children a l l the care and attention expected from a real mother. The young man with a stern father and a doting mother appears often enough i n Akinari's fiction to justify the assumption that his own home l i f e was much the same. Akinari himself, In this incident, does not come across as a dissipated youth, but as a man concerned for others' wel-fare and willing to make sacrifices i n order to hold the family toge-ther. Considering Mosuke's treatment of his daughter, i t i s hard to conceive of him being so kindly disposed toward Akinari i f he were dissatisfied with his conduct. We should note In passing that i t was most l i k e l y Akinari's close association with his sister at this time, when she was engaged i n work of a questionable nature, that gave rise to the rumor that he himself had once been the proprietor of a brothel. From time to time he enjoyed travel excursions. These included a 37 t r i p to Yamato with his father when he was a child, i n the course of -19-which he may have met his relatives i n the area. In his early twen-ties he seems to have spent a relatively long time at his uncle Jizo* s 38 home i n Tamba, and he also visited the Kinosakl hot springs and the 39 nearby Ama no Hashidate. He made frequent excursions to Kyoto, and 40 just possibly may once have journeyed as far as the Kanto region. The l i k i n g for travel that he showed i n middle and old age appears to have been born during his youth. In his late teens, using the name of Gyoen^.^ , he began to write haiku poetry and to participate i n haikal circles i n the Kamigata area. His f i r s t published verses appeared i n 1755, but their quality and their position i n the collections indicate that he already ranked f a i r l y high i n the groups, which means that he must have begun this 41 activity some years earlier. Even at this early date he displayed the aloofness and jealous preservation of his independence that was to characterize his whole l i f e . Most of his early poems appeared i n collections by members of the cir c l e of Ono Shorend<§f%&Jj^ (d. 1761), but he also associated with Matsuki Dandan^^;-^/? (1674-1761) and Shiimoto Kushu $$£t|'|(1704-1780) and others, and gave none of them his allegiance. The only haiku master to whom he referred as a teacher was Takai K i k e l ^ T f f i t (1687-1761), who lived i n Kyoto. Akinari f i r s t met him about 1756. He would get together with Kikei's follow-ers i n Osaka and compose linked verse whenever Kikei came to v i s i t the 42 city, but these contacts would have been sporadic, and Kikei did not l i v e for many years after their f i r s t meeting, so i t appears doubtful that he was Akinari*s teacher i n the s t r i c t sense. Akinari probably used the word only as a term of respect. Nevertheless, i n 1758 he -20 participated with Kikei and one other poet i n the production of a linked-veree sequence, and was even given the honor of composing the 43 opening stanza. This gives some idea of Kikei*s estimation of him. Moreover, Akinari developed a true and long-lasting friendship with Kikei's son K l t o / l ^ (1741-1789), who later described him as a talent-ed man who wrote good poetry, Man'yoshu 7? J l ^ - s t y l e waka. and haikai i n the vein of Nishiyama S o i n ^ ^ ^ ^ (1605-1682), Kamijima Onitsura 44 — he stayed aloof from society. In time his friendship with Kito helped him to associate with Kito's teacher, the renowned haiku poet It was with haikai that Akinari made his f i r s t efforts i n the literary world, and he retained his liking for the pursuit throughout his l i f e , but his interests soon broadened to other areas that began to take precedence. People he met i n haikai circles may even have provided part of the stimulus. Among such acquaintances he numbered Fujitani N a r i a k i r a ^ i ^ 0 i % (1738-1779) of Kyoto, 4 5 who i s actually remembered as a waka poet and student of Chinese and Japanese l i t e r a -ture, not as a writer of haikai. What Akinari probably meant was that Nariakira composed haiku for recreation, much as he himself did. He did not consider i t an art form, and he was even intolerant of those who took the pursuit too seriously. Most l i k e l y they met at a gather-ing of haikai devotees but became friends because of their mutual i n -terests i n the more refined ac t i v i t i e s of waka and classical studies. The same may be true of Akinari*s friendship with Katsube Seigyo ^ \& (d. 1789), a physician and haikai poet from Nishinomiya whom he (1654-1716), but lamented that and painter Yosa Buson ^ ^^.^(1716-178^) met around 1759. Seigyo had studied both Chinese classical and ver-nacular literature, and may have been one of the f i r s t men to i n f l u -ence Akinari i n that direction. Undoubtedly some influence also came from Goi Ranshu, who was a great admirer of K e i c h u ^ (1640-1701), the monk whose studies of the Japanese classics had been largely re-sponsible for generating the revival of interest i n the past that came into f u l l flower i n A k i n a r i ^ day. But i t was to a man named Kojima. Shigeie ,]xj|j (d. 1760) that Akinari gave the credit for guiding 47 him into classical studies through study of Keichu's works. ' He said that he had been about thirty when he met him, but actually he would have been at few years younger, for he was only twenty-seven when Koji-mai died. Very l i t t l e i s knovra of Kojima, aside from the fact that he lived i n Kyoto, not far from the noted wakat poet Ozawa Roani)^ JjvjMlb (1723-1801), of whom he was a close friend. Akinari's own association with Roan i n their old age raises the possibility that he had heard of him through Shigeie even at this early date. In 1760 Akinari was married to Ueyama.. Tamai$jjyj f< l£ , a g i r l of twenty-one. The daughter of a. Kyoto farmer, she had been adopted at an early age: by the Ueyama family and taken to liv e i n Osaka.^8 How 49 she and Akinari came to meet i s not clear, but whether i t was a love match or one arranged for convenience, i t was to prove a happy union for both parties. No children were ever born to them, and most of their l i f e together was spent in poverty and uncertainty, but for the next thirty-seven years Akinari was to find in Tama. a. faithful and de-voted companion who understood him and even shared many of his inter-ests. -22-Aklnari's wedding may have had a significance beyond the fact that he had reached a.very marriageable age. His sister died about this time, and her death would have l e f t him the sole heir to the Ueda family estate. If she had indeed passed away before the wedding, then the marriage may be seen as an attempt by the parents to get Akinari settled and help him to prepare for his future responsibilities. A l l we know for certain, however, i s that the daughter died shortly before 50 her father, and that Mosuke himself died i n mid-1761. Of course, i f his own health had been visibly f a i l i n g , that i n i t s e l f would have been reason enough to hasten plans for the marriage. With his f a t h e r ^ death, our account of A k i n a r i ^ early l i f e pro-perly comes to an end. At the age of twenty-eight he found himself the owner of a business, with the responsibility for supporting his new wife and widowed mother resting squarely upon his own shoulders. NOTES 1. Jizo hakogaki fi j f f i - ^ a ^ . i n Akinari ibun. ed. F u j l i Otoo (Tokyo: Shubunkan, 1919), pp. 498, 499. 2. Letter to the abbot of the J i p p o - i n ^ ^ ^ , Ibun. pp. 631-633, N.B. p. 632. 3. The Saifukujl's record of his death i s quoted i n Takada Mamoru, Ueda Akinari nempu kosetsu (Tokyo: Meizendo Shoten, 1964), p. 347. In Akinari's day a person•s age was equivalent to the number of calen-dar years i n which he had lived. He was considered to be a year old -23-at birth, and a year older at the beginning of each new year. See Her-schel Webb, Research i n Japanese Sources: A Guide (New York: Colum-bia University Press, 1965), pp. 42-44. To avoid confusion, a l l ages of persons i n this study w i l l be expressed i n Japanese terms. 4. From a manuscript i n the Nihon University Library, quoted i n Asano Sampei, "Ueda Akinari no shussei to kazoku," JK, 36 (Feb. 1965), 1-10, N.B. p. 2; also quoted i n Mori Senzo, "Mucho Okina zakki," Kami- gata. 45 (Sept. 1934), 54-62, N.B. pp. 57, 58, but "25th day" i s mis-takenly printed as "20th." 5. Fujita Gyofff-|0$]|j , Kashlma Inari Sha ken*el waka .1o ifeib^fe^i j £ i n Ueda Akinari zenshu. ed. Iwahashi Koyata, 2 vols. (To-kyo: Kokusho Kankokai, 1918; rpt. 1969), I, 149. It i s not certain who Fujita Gyo was, but since he refers to Akinari as "Ueda Sensei," he was presumably one of Akinari»s pupils. 6. Quoted i n Rai Momosaburo, "Akinari den kikigaki," NB, 8, No. 6 (June 1959), 6-10, N.B. p. 7. Unless specifically acknowledged, a l l translations i n this study are my own. 7. See Iwahashi no k i & ^ g f f i , . Ibun. pp. 263-286. 8. Ibid., p. 286. 9. Letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 631. The year of her death i s given here as Meiw&HfyjpO , 9th year, kanoe ne#j, , an obvious error since the Meiwa Era had no ninth year. Kanoe ne was the calendar des-ignation for An'et^Jj^, 9th year (1780). -24-10. This and most of the information on Akinari's birth and paren-tage that follows i s taken from Takada Mamoru, "Akinari no himitsu" fyd^%$l* 1 x 1 Akinari nempu. pp. 350-360. 11. Akinari, J i d e n f t ^ . Ibun, pp. 255-262, N.B. pp. 257, 258. 12. It has been suggested that "Tanaka" was not the name of Aki-nari 's real mother, but of Mosuke»s foster father, and that Mosuke re-assumed the Ueda surname after his wife and her father had died. This i s a possible explanation of the report that Akinari's original sur-name was Tanaka. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 5. 13. Takada, "Akinari no himitsu," Akinari nempu. p. 354. 14. A possible flaw i n the whole story of Akinari's birth i s the fact that one of his relatives i n Yamato was named Ueda, and Akinari described him as "like my brother." See Iwahaahi no k i . Ibun. p. 274. The common surname would suggest that Akinari was related to the man through his foster father, and geographical proximity that a l l of Aki-nari 's Yamato kinsmen were relatives from the same side. But i t i s strange that Mosuke would have close relatives i n Yamato, as his fami-ly had lived i n Tamba for generations, and his only brother, who had gone back to Tamba from Osaka, was s t i l l l i v i n g there at least as late as 1779. See Akinari, Aklyama no kl-yfatiL-^g,. Zenshu. I, 43-61, N.B. p. 61. Of course, coincidence could have given Akinari a. maternal rela-tive named Ueda. The surname was by no means uncommon, and none of the four relatives Akinari identified had the same family name. The phrase, "Like my brother," does raise questions, however. One Japanese -25-scholar has even suggested that the man was an Illegitimate son of Ueda Mosuke by Akinari's natural mother. See Oba Shunsuke, Akinari no  tenkansho to demon (Tokyo: Ashi Shobo, 1969), pp. 31, 32. While this i s an extreme view, there i s insufficient evidence for us to say that i t i s incorrect. 15. See Fujita, Ken'ei waka .1o. Zenshu. I, 149; Akinari, Kashlma  Inari Sha ken'ei waka. Zenshu. I, 150-155, N.B. p. 155. There are a few discrepancies i n the two accounts, perhaps inevitably, as Fujita wrote ninety-three years after the occurrence of events he did not witness, and Akinari, being quite young and extremely i l l , probably had no clear recollection of what happened. 16. This was, of course, the Kashlma Inari Sha ken'ei waka. men-tioned i n note 15 above. The Kashlma Inari Shrine, now known as the Kaguwashi J i n j a ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ j : , i n Higashi Yodogawa-ku, Osaka, i s about three miles as the crow f l i e s from where Akinari lived, and i n 1738 the journey would have entailed crossing the river by ferry boat. It i s not certain why Mosuke went to such an inconvenient place to offer prayers. It i s possible that he already had a friendly relationship with the priests of the shrine. Moreover, although Inari shrines were dedicated to agricultural deities, i n the Kansai area these same dei-ties had come to be household gods of the merchant class. See Noda Hisao, Kinsei bungaku no halkei (Tokyo: Koshobo, 1964; rpt. 1971), p. 95. Besides, the priests of the shrine were reputed to be endowed with special powers for exorcising fox s p i r i t s . See Kaguwashi Jin.ia  to Ueda Akinari no shlori (pamphlet; Osaka: Kaguwashi Jinja Keishin -26-Kenkokai, 1965); Akinari, Tandai shoshin roku f@fjYfc'$L. i n Ueda Aki- nari shu. ed. Nakamura Yukihiko, NKBT, Vol. 56 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1959; rpt. 1968), LVI, 251-361, N.B. no. 34, p. 276. Mosuke may have hoped as a last resort that these powers would extend to curing diseases. 17. Tandai. no. 89, NKBT, LVI, 305, 306. 18. Letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 631. 19. S e l k o k i ^ ^ f . . Zen shu. I, 112-115, N.B. p. 114. 20. Assumed because she died i n 1789 at the age of seventy-six. See Akinari's letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 631; Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. It i s not known exactly when Mosuke remarried, but i t seems to have been not long after his f i r s t wife's death. 21. Jizo hakogaki. Ibun. p. 498. 22. For Akinari's own description of the commercial scene i n his home area, see his Seken tekake katagj ^Pl^^j %\ , i n Ueda Akinari  zenshu. ed. Suzuki Toshiya (Tokyo: Fuzambo, 1938), pp. 99-190, N.B. p. 157. 23. Akinari, Daimyo Kokushi gazo no k i O f l l ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . Ibun. pp. 497, 498. 24. Jlden. Ibun. p. 255. 25. Tandai. no. 110, NKBT, LVI, 317, 318. 26. See Shigetomo Ki, "Senehi K i j i n no gigo to sono raiyu" ^jMkk -27-t (1935), i n Akinari no kenkvu. by Shigetomo Ki (Tokyo: Bunri Shoin, 1971), pp. 161-168. 27. Jiden. Ibun. p. 255. 28. Fujita, Ken'ei waka .1o. Zenshu. I, 149. 29* Tandal. no. 26, NKBT, LVI, 267, 268. Akinari's scorn for the Nakai brothers i s also apparent i n this passage. 30. See Jiden. Ibun. p. 255. 31. On education i n general at this time, see R. P. Dore, Educa- tion In Tokugawa Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965). 32. Tandai, nos. 55, 57, NKBT, LVI, 187, 188. 33. See Shodo kiklmiml sekenzaru ^fri^L-fft fJf\$ . i n Ueda Akinari  zenshu. ed. Suzuki, pp. 1-97, N.B. pp. 73-78. 34. Jiden. Ibun. pp. 259, 260. 35. See Ibid., pp. 258, 259. Akinari dated the f i r e 1723, but there i s no record of a fi r e of such proportions i n Osaka i n that year. It was probably an error for 1724, when such a f i r e did occur, perhaps made by Mosuke when recounting the story to Akinari. See Asano, "Ueda Akinari no shussei to kazoku," pp. 6, 7. 36. This rumor appears to have been widely believed during Aki-nari 's lifetime. It i s mentioned, for example, i n Honma Yueei 's -28-miscellany, Mlmltokawa ^-ffifnl , quoted i n F u j i i Otoo, "Ueda Akinari den," i n Ibun. pp. 1-52, N.B. p. 4. 37. See Iwahashi no k i . Ibun. p. 267. 38. See Akinari, Kozo no shiori ^ T ^ f f i ^ f , Zenshu. I, 165-172, N.B. pp. 167, 171. The exact year of his v i s i t i s not clear, but Kozo i s a record of a journey made in 1779, and Akinari says that he had been to his uncle's place more than twenty years before. 39. In Akiyama no k i . also a record of his journey i n 1779, he said that he had visited these places twenty years earlier. See Zen- shu. I, 49, 50. 40. See Akinari, Fu.1i San setsu^-t,!,^. . Ibun. pp. 491, 492; Shigetomo Ki, "Akinari zatsuwa"$;/^.$!£|^(1932), in Akinari no kenkyu. pp. 291-293; Takada, Akinari nempu, p. 179. 41. Most of the material on Akinari's early haikai activities i s taken from Nakamura Yuklhiko, Kinsei sakka kflnkyu (Tokyo: San'ichi Shobo, 1961), pp. 201-218. 42. In his preface for Zoku akegarasu^flft , compiled i n 1776 for Kikei's seventeenth death anniversary, Akinari said i t had been twenty years before that he had met Kikei. The preface i s quoted in P u j i i , "Ueda Akinari den," Ibun. pp. 6, 7. 43. The sequence i s reproduced i n Nakamura, Kinsei sakka kenkvu. pp. 207-209. -29-44. Quoted i n Iwahashi Koyata, "Haijin Mucho," KZ, 18, No. 7 (July 1912), 55-62, N.B. p. 56. The source i s not given. 45. See Tandai. no. 23, NKBT, LVI, 267. 46. See Akinari's preface to the 1789 commemorative collection of Seigyo's verses, Nishinomiya gusaffi^*^ , quoted i n Takada, Akinari  nempu. pp. 167, 168. 47. See Akinari, Aki no kumo fafi^ , Zenshu. I, 157-164, N.B. p. 157. 48. See Akinari, Tsuzurabumlj^-^-fir]'^ , Zenshu. I, 1-142, N.B. p. 141. The year of marriage i s calculated from her age at death ( f i f t y -eight) i n 1797. 49. There has been speculation, based on a remark by Akinari i n Yomotsubumi X^t^7yL , Zenshu. I, 132-135, N.B. p. 134, that Tama had come into the Ueda house, perhaps as a serving maid, when she was about fourteen. The passage i s ambiguous, however. For discussion of i t s meaning see Fuji!, "Ueda Akinari den," Ibun. p. 35; Takada, Akinari  nempu. pp. 28-30; and Takada, "• Uedai Akinari nempu kosetsu' h o i " ^ j j ^ , i n Kinsei chuki bungaku no shomondai. ed. Kinsei Bungakushi Kenkyu no Kai (Tokyo: Meizendo Shoten, 1966), pp. 69-113, N.B. pp. 75, 76. The latter source, which concludes that there i s no evidence that Akinari and Tama had any contact before their marriage, i s especially convinc-ing. 50. See Jiden. Ibun. p. 260; for the date of Mosuke's death, see •30-Akinari's letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 631. In Jizo hakogaki. Ibun. p. 498, Akinari said that he was thirty-seven years old when his father died. This must have been a s l i p of the pen for twenty-seven, for additional evidence supports 1761 as the date. (By Japanese reck-oning, Akinari would have been twenty-eight i n 1761, but Jizo hakogaki was written i n 1804, so an error of one year i s not surprising.) In 1801 Akinari said that he had been separated from his father for over forty years, and i n 1808 he wrote of his plans to hold services observ-ing his father's f i f t i e t h death anniversary. He would scarcely have been thinking of such r i t e s i f Mosuke had not died un t i l 1770. See Seikoki. Zenshu. I, 114; Seburui no okina den . Ibun, pp. 395-400, N.B. p. 399. -31-CHAPTER II THE BEGINNINGS OF A LITERARY CAREER As master of the Shlmaya, Akinari proved to be a willing s p i r i t encumbered by weak flesh. After the death of his father he bowed to his mother's wishes and tended the shop,^ but he confessed to a lack 2 of diligence i n doing so. We have no concrete information on his commercial activities, but during his ten years as a merchant he began to study and write waka poetry, wrote at least two full-length collec-tions of short stories, and became an accomplished student of both Chinese and Japanese classical literature. The attention he gave to the o i l and paper trade must have been less than wholehearted, and one may doubt whether the two thousand r.vo that Ueda Mosuke had accumulated remained intact i n the hands of his adopted SOB and heir. Although Akinari said l i t t l e of a specific nature about his stu-dies during this period, we know that when he was "about thirty" he met some Koreans with whom he was able to converse i n writing. This was probably early i n 1764, when an embassy from Korea i s known to have arrived i n Osaka by ship, from whence i t s members travelled over-land to Edo. If time permitted, students of Chinese were often a l -lowed to test their a b i l i t y to communicate with these visitors from across the sea, and Akinari's success indicates that he had attained a f a i r degree of proficiency. As a sidelight to this experience, Akinari recorded that later i n the same year, as the Korean envoys were pre-paring to leave Japan, one member of the party was murdered by a war-rio r from Tsushima. The criminal was shortly apprehended and put to -32 death i n front of the Korean ship, and i n his memoirs Akinari recalled seeing him being paraded through the streets of Osaka enroute to the place of execution, and hearing the courtesans i n the nearby gay quar-4 ter lamenting the fate of such a handsome young man. Akinari continued to enjoy travel, and sometimes took time off from work to make sightseeing trips i n the countryside. It would ap-pear that his interest i n the literature of Japan had not yet extended to the travel diary, however, for he l e f t no such accounts of these early excursions. It i s only his poetic descriptions of later journeys that enable us to speculate about travels i n his younger days. For example, when he went to the Yamato area i n 1782 he recalled having 5 seen the same places some twenty years before. In 1799 he spoke of having once made, with a company of pilgrims, an excursion of several days' duration that included v i s i t s to a number of famous and sacred spots i n the mountains of Yoshino. This had been more than thirty 6 years earlier, he said. And i n 1803, when he wrote a postscript to a collection of scenic views of Waka-no-ura^p^;4j» painted by Kuwayama Gyokushu^iln £' }\'\'\ (1746-1799), he spoke of seeing the actual place 7 forty years before. A l l of these outings appear to have been made during the 1760's, and since they are known today only because Akinari found occasion to remember them years after the events, i t i s virtually certain that they were not the only trips he took. He enjoyed seeing the natural wonders of his native land and his heart was tuned to the traditions and sentiments associated with them* In time this would lead to expression i n verse and l y r i c a l prose, though at the time i t was merely another distraction from his commercial duties. -33-He was also writing. Early i n 1766 he published a collection of stories entitled Shodo kikimimi sekenzaru. A similar work, Seken te- kake katagi. appeared just a year later. Both may be classified as kataglmono ^ f f i . a sub-genre of the ukiyo-zoshi :AwJ^%- , which had long been the leading variety of popular literature. It i s not sur-prising that Akinari chose this style for his literary debut, for he had grown up i n the city where the ukiyo-zoshi had been born and had flourished, and he was a member of the society which such works por-trayed. Popular literature had been a growing Industry i n Japan since the early Tokugawa period. As the long years of warfare gave way to peace, there was general economic prosperity and a continually rising stan-dard of l i v i n g . Virtually everyone in the country was affected to some degree. Literacy Increased as well. It proved indispensable as govern-ment by the sword gave way to government by bureaucracy, and equally essential as business transactions became increasingly complex. More-over, as people came to have more money to spend and more leisure time to enjoy, learning for i t s own sake became a luxury that many could indulge i n . Even the more prosperous farmers managed to get at least a basic education. And as the number of people able to read and write increased, so did the demand for reading material. Printing had begun to prosper i n the last decade of the sixteenth century and on into the seventeenth. In part this was due to patronage by the central govern-ment, the imperial court, and leading Buddhist temples, but credit must also be given to Improved printing techniques that were brought back from Korea by Hideyoshi's invading forces. Before long, merchants -34 saw the chance to elevate printing and the sale of mass-produced books to the level of profitable business. Before the middle of the seven-teenth century more than a hundred publishing businesses had been es-g tablished; by the early eighteenth century their number had risen to 9 an estimated six hundred or more, and competition among them had be-come s t i f f . They had already begun to form guilds for the purpose of controlling their own numbers, regulating prices and production, and preventing piracy of their works. As the supply of books increased, their prices came down, and together with the rise i n personal income, this soon put them within the common man's reach. By the early eight-eenth century, commoners formed a large segment of the reading public. It was i n this way that for the f i r s t time i n Japan's history, a truly popular literature came into being. Printed editions of the Japanese classics began to appear from early on, but the f i r s t literary publications to be aimed at a mass audience were collections of fairy tales and adventure stories.that had been handed down verbally or in manuscript form. Original works soon followed. This early popular literature covered a wide range of subject matter. It included materials designed to educate or enlight-en, as well as those intended to entertain. Frequently these functions were combined. Didactic tracts which were aimed at disseminating a particular viewpoint might enhance their readability with a?, story for-mat. Guides to letter writing techniques sometimes took the form of epistolary tales. Travel guides often incorporated their geographical descriptions into a fi c t i o n a l narrative about a person making a jour-ney. Because these works were produced for an audience of limited •35' education they were written primarily i n the native syllabary, with just occasional use of Chinese characters, and for this reason, despite the variety of their contents, they are collectively known by the ge-neric name of kanazoshi^fcfeffi • 1 0 As literature for popular consumption became firmly entrenched, i t s characters came to be drawn more and more from the ranks of the common people, and the stories, often based on actual events, increas-ingly came to depict r e a l i s t i c details of the contemporary world. In time a more sophisticated brand of literature emerged, one directed specifically at a. townsman audience, portraying the lives and sur-roundings of the merchants i n the main commercial centers, and usually written by members of the merchant c l a s s — a literature "of the towns-men, for the townsmen, by the townsmen." These were the ukiyo-zoshi. Koshoku ichidai o t o k o ^ g ' f f i , a.recounting of a young rake's amor-ous adventures, written by Ihara Saikaku rfjffffi^jfa (1642-1693) and pub-lished i n 1692, became the prototype of this genre, though subsequent works by Saikaku and others often subordinated the erotic theme to de-pictions of practical economic problems or d i f f i c u l t i e s related to one's station i n l i f e . Some were no more than collections of tales gleaned from a l l over the country. By the mid-seventeenth century the meaning of "ukiyo" had broadened from i t s original reference to the transient world of Buddhist doctrine to include the current of l i f e . Life i t s e l f was seen as a "floating world" i n which one lived for the moment, leaving the future to the whims of fate. Life could end at anytime, fortunes could be made or lost overnight, and the courtesan's f i d e l i t y lasted no longer than her patron's money. Ukiyo-zOshi. then, -36-were books about contemporary l i v i n g , and i t was not long before a special variety, the kataglmono appeared.^-The term "katagi" referred to human personality, interests, ac-tions, habits, or character; thus "kataglmono" became the label ap-plied to stories about human characteristics* The style was pioneered by Ejima KisekiC/Hj^/Sfff (1667-1736), who, about 1699, became associa-ted with Hachimonjiya Jisho i\%~^-f%. ^  ^ (d. 1745), the proprietor of a Kyoto publishing house called the Hachimonjiya. The Jisho-Kiseki team proved to be a lucrative combination, and made the Hachimonjiya so famous that works of popular literature published from roughly 1700 through 1767 are often called hachimon.llyabon. whether printed there or not. When Kiseki appeared on the literary scene, ukiyo-zoshi had reached a state of stagnation, i f not of decline. With few exceptions the writers were merely producing insipid Imitations of Salkaku's ero-t i c works. Kiseki, however, was able to inject new l i f e into the genre, and most of the credit must go to his kataglmono style. Actu-a l l y i t was a style with which he had experimented during a period of independence, while he was estranged from Jisho, but after their recon-c i l i a t i o n i t became the hallmark of the Hachimonjiya. A typical kata- glmono by Kiseki was a collection of stories about similar types of people—persons of similar age, occupation, or social status, for ex-ample—whose personalities and idiosyncrasies were portrayed i n an exaggerated, often s a t i r i c a l fashion. Humor would arise from the cari-cature, and from the people doing things unbefitting their assigned roles i n the feudal hierarchy. Usually a moral lesson would be append-ed. Such was the formula used by Kiseki i n Seken musuko katagi tfT -37-^•/t'^W (pub. 1715), Seken musume k a t a g i ^ f f i l j ^ l M i (pub. 1717), and Uklyo oya.1l k a t a g l ^ lfM/f£-3H& (pub. 1720). Meanwhile contemporary authors published numerous imitations, and similar works continued to appear unt i l near the end of the century. It i s often said that popular literature was deteriorating when Akinari made his appearance. Poetry, prose, and drama were as profuse as they had ever been, but i n large measure the arts had become s t y l -ized for commercial purposes. A dearth of fresh-ideas had made them conventionalized and insipid; there was l i t t l e of the creativity and spontaneity that had characterized the earlier period. Even at their best, Kieekl's works had been divorced from the real world. His char-acters and plots had lacked v i t a l i t y ; they were not li v i n g creations, but manufactured to f i t their preasslgned roles.. He had never suc-ceeded i n portraying l i f e ' s r e a l i t i e s with the Incisive satire and c r i t i c a l insight of Saikaku. nor had he created characters who could be empathized with. The same was largely true of his successors. But even when advancing i n new directions, literature draws on i t s antece-dents. It develops either by improving on the style of previous works or by revolting against i t . Akinari chose the former course and pro-duced the last significant uklyo-zoshi to be published. Akinari's paper business may have helped him to get involved i n the world of popular literature. Writer and publisher generally oper-ated on a contract basis, so I f Akinari supplied paper to publishing houses he would have had ample opportunity to make the necessary con-tacts. Customers who knew of his literary interests may have even urged him to write for them. Be that as i t may, Shodo" VHkinrtmi Rflfenn--38-zaru was published early i n 1766, though the record shows that i t had probably been completed more than a year before. When a publisher wished to print a new work, he would f i r s t send the manuscript, togeth-er with a request for permission to prepare the printing blocks, to the representatives of the publishers' guild. After determining that publication of the material would not violate any law, and that i t was not an infringement on any existing published work, the representatives would normally give their approval for the preparation of the printing blocks and submit a request to the government o f f i c i a l s concerned for permission to print the work. Only after this permission had been granted could the printing begin. The publisher paid a fee, based on the number of pages to be printed, to the guild representatives, and an additional fee to the authorities* When permission to publish was granted, the guild representatives would give the publisher a permit to market the work. A record of these proceedings would be kept on 12 f i l e by the guild for future reference. The publisher's request for 13 permission to print Sekenzaru dates from the end of 1764. On this document the author's name was given as Sontokuso^t/jf-jj?, "Old Man Profit and Loss," of Dojima Era-cho, probably a reference to Akinari's commercial enterprises, but when the book appeared i n print the pen name had been changed to Wayaku Texo fajfij^'h Since delays i n pub-licat i o n and changes of pen names were f a i r l y common at that time, they are probably of no immediate importance i n this case. "Wayaku Taro" might be rendered into English as "Jesting Taro," "Taro the Absurd," or "Taro the Mischievous." It was a f i t t i n g pseudo-nym for the author of a book such as Sekenzaru. which was published i n -39-five volumes, each containing three d r o l l and s a t i r i c a l tales that portray the townsmen i n a wide variety of situations. The generally playful and humorous tone i s established at the outset with a short preface that seems to have been consciously designed to frustrate the reader who would grasp i t s true meaning. It i s like a butterfly that allows i t s e l f to be approached and observed, but stays just out of reach of the collector's net. One can almost hear Akinari chuckling in the background as he tries to come to grips with i t s elusive phrases. The abstruseness may be related to the author's desire to remain incog-nito, but the style i s i n keeping with the s p i r i t of the whole work. The author implies that his book-is a collection of gossip picked up here and there (a point also suggested by the t i t l e ) , and that he wrote i t with the well-known figure of the three monkeys who "speak no e v i l , see no e v i l , and hear no e v i l " i n mind. In relation to these virtuous monkeys, Akinari's Worldly Monkey stands i n ostentatious de-fiance. He does not have his hands cupped over his ears to shut out maliscious gossip, but behind them, the better to hear i t . And what he hears, he repeats. He i s a metaphorical expression of mischief. Akinari placed himself i n the role of this monkey and told an assort-ment of tales about the townsmen of his day. But he himself was also a townsman, so he appropriately dubbed his stories a collection of laughs at his fellow simians' red posteriors, b l i s s f u l l y unaware of 14 the color of his own backside. One may see i n Sekenzaru a combination.of the flavor of Kisekl's katagimono with the method of Saikaku's collections of tales from the This was a self-mocking reference to the monkey who -AO-provinces. Akinari drew his material from a variety of sources. He took pains to conceal his debt, however, often drawing from more than one source for a single tale, and so changing his material that the finished product bears l i t t l e resemblance to what inspired i t . Some of the characters and events were drawn from real l i f e . Certain Seken- zaru characters have been identified with well-known persons of Aki-nari's day, and he may have used other, less obvious, l i v e models as well. It would be in keeping with the s p i r i t of the t i t l e and the preface for a l l of the stories to have some basis i n fact, and such may well be the case. S t i l l other material and inspiration were gleaned from earlier ukiyo-zoshi. a common practice among popular wri-ters, but Akinari did not engage i n wholesale borrowing. He drew from his sources only i n fragments, and usually adapted what he did borrow. Moreover, sLnoe the ^ r d "wayaku" was generally written i n kana sylla« bles, the Chinese characters that Akinari selected for his pen name suggest that his book may feature some translations from foreign works. It i s unlikely that this was mere coincidence, for at least four of the fifteen Sekenzaru tales appear to have been partially drawn from Chinese sources. This i s a further indication that Akinari had been reading not only Japanese popular fiction but Chinese works as well. We should see the name Wayaku Taro as a reference to borrowing or adap-tation rather than translation, but s t i l l remain aware of the nuances of meaning.1^ Sekenzaru probably reflects the degree of Akinari's knowledge and his way of thinking at the time i t was written. The numerous quota-tions or parodies of quotations from the Japanese classics, and the -41-casual references to Chinese and Japanese works and authors show that he was well read, and the pedantic tone suggests that he was proud of the fact. The prose i s often s t i f f and intricate, and so adorned with allusion and unorthodox word usage that virt u a l l y every phrase requires careful reading. Akinari's knowledge must have been equal to that of nearly any other uklyo-zoshi writer, but his use of such material con-veys the impression that while he had acquired the learning, he had yet to really digest i t . Katagimono were conventionally written i n a light-hearted comic tone. The author would take a position of amused detachment to laugh at human imperfections and the misfortunes that inevitably result. Akinari followed this pattern i n Sekenzaru. but while the general prac-tice was to end on a cheerful note, showing the failure but ignoring the repercussions, Akinari often has pathos mixed with his humor. He was not always unsympathetic toward his characters. Even in his early light writings we can find signs of the pessimism that became so ap-parent in his later years. In the f i r s t tale of Book II, for example, Akinari directs criticism at the social system which bound a son to support an undeserving family. The father i s a drunkard and a gambler, the mother a stubborn and lazy woman, and the younger son has contract-ed syphilis i n the gay quarters and become an invalid. The elder son, Uranosuke, however, i s a paragon of f i l i a l piety, and works diligently to support his impoverished family, but they are singularly ungrateful. Such i s no more than his duty, they feel. They are sparing with their thanks and complain bitterly when he f a l l s short of their expectations. An amateur sumo wrestler, Uranosuke enters a contest i n Osaka, but -42. hard work and inadequate food have made him weak. He loses badly, and returns home to be upbraided by his family. Humbly enduring their i n -sults, he finds employment as a fisherman's helper. The new job car-ries the fringe benefit of a high protein diet, and his strength re-turns. He wins'decisively at a local sumo contest, and buoyed up by this success, he starts out for the capital to wrestle for higher stakes. Enroute, however, he encounters a decrepit old man who turns out to be the god of poverty* Uranosuke f a l l s sick, his dreams of prosperity dashed. The story i s told i n a dr o l l style, but the s e r i -ous themes are apparent. Besides the implied social criticism, we see the role of luck or destiny i n man's l i f e . It i s bad luck that con-demns Uranosuke to striving to raise his family's fortunes; i t Is good luck that restores his strength and makes him a potential sumo champi-on. And i t i s bad luck once again, or perhaps the cynical workings of fate, that brings him to cross paths with the god of poverty. Man's power i s limited, Akinari seems to be saying. In large measure he i s at the mercy of forces beyond his control. This latter idea appears with more force i n the third tale of Book III. A former malko. now over f i f t y , longs for her former popu-l a r i t y , and spends her time trying to convince men that i t i s the state of the heart, not of the body, that i s important. Perhaps a pa-rody on the Buddhist idea of "consciousness only" i s intended. Grow-ing old i s , of course, unescapable, but her i n a b i l i t y to accept the fact makes her pleas for affection a l l the more pathetic. As a fur-ther example of man's ina b i l i t y to control his destiny, her son i6 i n -troduced. This boy i s a handsome and talented lad, but he was con--43-ceived as the result of a liaison on the night of kanoe s a r u ^ ^ ; ac-cording to tradition, such a child grows up to be a kleptomaniac. The i boy becomes apprenticed to a rich man i n Edo, but just as feared, he shows a penchant for stealing. Discharged by his master and disinher-ited by his mother, he ends up as a catamite for the young braves of Edo, doomed, i t would appear, not by any personal flaw, but by his ho-roscope. Probably the most amusing of the fifteen tales i s the f i r s t one of Book III. A samurai from the capital, accompanied by his servant, i s going about seeing the sights of Edo. Caught i n a sudden rainstorm, they seek shelter i n a nearby Buddhist temple. A young nun of striking beauty, her appearance marred only by a bandaged wound on her fore-head, receives them. She invites them inside, feeds them, and even offers to l e t them spend the night i f the rain persists. The warrior has a lascivious imagination, and the nun's considerate actions, to-gether with her physical charms and the fact that she seems to be a-lone i n the temple convince him that she i s not a nun at heart, but a young widow who has withdrawn behind a religious facade i n order to look for men. The faci a l sore i s a venereal infection, he assumes, but he finds her so enchanting that he decides the risk i s worth taking. So he awaits his chance, but when, feeling that the time i s propi-tious, he starts to make advances, the nun responds with a challenge to a< fencing contest. The man i s taken aback. He denies his samurai status and insists that he i s only a merchant travelling i n the guise of a warrior. He i s adept at a l l the gentle arts, he says, such as poetry writing, the tea ceremony, preparing incense, the courtly game -44-of football, playing the samisen, painting i n the Chinese style, and so on, but knows nothing of military prowess. In reply to his query, "How did a g i r l like you...?" the nun answers that she has practiced the martial arts from her childhood. Her family had long been dis-tressed by her pugnacious disposition, and after a». recent quarrel with a group of young men, in which she felled four or five of her assail-ants but sustained the wound on her forehead, they had forced her to take the tonsure. Then she demonstrates her s k i l l with the halberd, and when she threatens to attack the man for presenting a false front, he and his servant forget about the downpour outside and dash away i n terror. On f i r s t reading, this tale appears to be mocking the decay of martial s k i l l among the military class, but the Japanese of Akinari's day i n the Kamigata area would have seen i t as poking fun at a real person. When the man denies his samurai status, he says that his name i s Yanagiya Gombei^JJ)^|^^, otherwise known as Riko>lj£. Consider-ing the numerous arts at which he claims to be proficient, the name i must be taken as a pun on that of Yanagi RLkyo$j) (also called Ya-nagisawa. ELenj[lf$1j$;$[i 1706-1758), a resident of Kyoto who was quali-fied as an instructor i n sixteen different arts. As he had only re-cently died when Akinari wrote the story, the pun would have been obvi-ous: to his readers. The same i s true of the nun's name, Jokei^- 1^ Readers would have recognized i t as a play on the name of Shokei£./J|_, ai nun who had recently created a scandal by taking a Kyoto physician as her lover and livi n g with him at her temple. The foregoing illustrates how Akinari selected his material for -45-Sekenzaru. Yanagi Rikyo i s portrayed as a dilettante who puts on airs and i s an out and out lecherer at heart. The caricature with which he i s presented, along with the exposure of his disguise and the frustra-tion of his lust, provides considerable humor, but in fact the man bears l i t t l e resemblance to the real Rikyo, nor does the nun bear much similarity to the real Shokei. If their names were not given, the live models for these characters would be impossible to identify. The same i s true for most of the characters in the other stories who are or may have been inspired by real persons. Making fun of samurai decay was probably not Akinari's intention in the tale of the militant nun, but he does mock the breakdown of traditional values i n the f i r s t story of Book I, by showing us a world in which the abacus has become mightier than the sword. The charac-ters are stock opposing types. Konlshi Sanjuro i s a merchant who wants to be a warrior; Yamamoto Kanroku i s a warrior who wants to be a merchant. Yearning after the past glories of the military clan from which he traces his ancestry, Sanjuro assiduously studies the martial arts, and even remodels his shop on the lines of a.military stronghold. Kanroku, however, believes that the way of the warrior i s no longer the way to success; he has become a ronin i n order to learn how to carry on a commercial business. Sanjuro cultivates Kanroku's friend-ship i n hopes of learning more of warlike s k i l l s , but Kanroku would rather talk about his entrepreneurial ambitions. In time a certain daimyo, impressed with Kanroku's commercial knowledge, hires him to manage the financial affairs of his f i e f . Meanwhile Sanjuro, having neglected his business i n order to study the arts of war, goes bank-46-rupt. After f a l l i n g i n a number of attempts to make a l i v i n g , he makes his way i n rags and despair to Kanroku1s new home. Moved to tears by his old friend 1s plight, Kanroku gives him a job selling goods to the daimyo's retainers, but this apparent kindness i s really the plot of a scheming merchant. After Sanjuro has sold the goods, Kanroku claims such a large share as compensation for his services as middleman that Sanjuro takes a net loss. Sanjuro vows to get revenge, and l i e s i n ambush for Kanroku, but Kanroku manages to evade him. Pursuing the way of the merchant has won a post i n the service of a daimyo for one man, while pursuing the way of the warrior has led to ruin for another. It i s an ironic twist, but there was no doubt a high degree of truth i n i t at that time, when Japan's economy was becoming more and more commercialized. In the second tale of Book II, use of the ironic twist provides a wry look at extreme religious piety. A devout adherent of the True Pure Land Sect, whose members petition Amida Buddha with singleminded devotion, or ikko isshin wftj^'/vv , has two sons. The younger shares his father's temperament, but the elder scorns such a l i f e and seeks a career on the kabuki stage. The younger son sets off on a religious pilgrimage, but i s waylaid and k i l l e d by a band of robbers on the way. When the father hears this news he does not grieve, however, but re-joices that his son has been so favored as to be taken so early into paradise, away from the cares of this transient world. Tragedy con-tinues. The elder son's wife becomes sick and dies; then a fatal i l l -ness overtakes one of the grandchildren. S t i l l the father's only re-action i s to rejoice that his loved ones have found everlasting b l i s s . -47-He i s likewise overjoyed even when the family cat f a l l s down the well and drowns. But when the l i f e of his eldest son, the kabuki actor, i s claimed by a stage accident, the father's piety i s at last shown to have i t s limits. Perhaps feeling that his turn i s next, he petitions Amida Buddha with lkko isshin that his own salvation be delayed. The ironic twist i s a recurring device. In the second tale of Book I an unscrupulous man marries the devout widow of a Shinto priest and persuades her to s e l l her daughter to a brothel. As time passes, the man turns into a kindly religious person, while his wife becomes greedy and devilish, and fi n a l l y drives him out of the house* In the third tale of Book III, a brothel keeper goes to the home of a dead-beat customer only to find the man gone and the house stripped of even the tatami mats* When he fi n a l l y tracks the man down, the object of his search i s shivering i n an underheated room, clad only i n a l o i n -cloth* Instead of collecting the b i l l , the brothel keeper gives money to his delinquent patron* In the second tale of Book III, a young man who scorns working i n his parents' apothecary shop leaves home and dr i f t s from one mean occupation to another until he i s unemployed and destitute. Then he chances to meet a fortune t e l l e r who t e l l s him that he has an innate talent to be an apothecary. The youth goes home to find that his parents have died, but he reopens their shop and be-comes very prosperous. The f i r s t tale of Book IV i s interesting for i t s possibly auto-biographical nature. It features two brothers, again opposite charac-ter types* The elder tends the family shop with an excess of d i l i -gence* A shrewd and stingy man, he refuses to leave his business af--48-falrs even to view the cherry blossoms once a year, or to make an oc-casional v i s i t to the theater, nor w i l l he take the time to attend festivals other than those i n honor of deities connected with commerce. The younger brother scorns the l i f e of a tradesman, considering i t an unworthy way to make a l i v i n g . Scrupulously honest himself, he de-tests flattery, and cultivates nobility of soul. He lives simply, feels deeply, seeks harmony with nature, and practices the arts of Noh and renga. His preference for the quiet scholarly l i f e outweighs even his respect for the code of f i l i a l piety. Despite his widowed moth-er's pleading, he refuses to become encumbered with a wife and family. When his mother dies and the business f a i l s , he becomes a priest. Aki-nari must have f e l t some identification with this character. At the time he wrote this story, he himself was managing his own family's business, but probably spending as much i f not more energy on the arts. The younger son's views, with some exaggeration, may be an expression of his own. The characters of Sekenzaru are well portrayed throughout. One of the best examples i s a man from the f i r s t tale of Book V, whose stinginess provides most of the humor. In Kyoto, the house of Isoemon has become a stopping-off place for men on their way to Shimabara. Among the regular attenders i s one Shichlzaemon, a wealthy but unbe-lievably miserly individual. "Loathing the expense of candles, he would go home with someone who had a lantern. He would depend on oth-ers:; for tobacco and for paper to wipe his nose. When a collection was taken for an evening snack, he would rush off saying that he had for-gotten an important engagement, but i f someone offered to treat the -49-group, ho would not refuse though the sushi be made of snake's f l e s h . " 1 Naturally he incurs the group's disfavor. One night, when only Isoe-mon, Shichizaemon, and another friend, Sumigoro, are present, Isoemon drops a remark to Sumigoro about the fascinating exhibition of fox catching that they had been able to witness a few nights before at no charge. Shichizaemon pricks up his ears at the.prospect of free en-tertainment, and begs his friends to arrange for him to see this sight also. Isoemon and Sumigoro express doubt that the ronin who catches foxes w i l l agree to a second demonstration, but agree to speak to him. A few days later they inform Shichizaemon that, since they are his special friends, the ronin has agreed to exhibit his s k i l l just one more time. Shichizaemon i s so overjoyed that he Insists on at least giving the man a bottle of wine for his pains. On the appointed night the three men meet the ronin and accompany him to the moors. The ro- nin leaves them, saying that he i s going to set his snare, and warns them not to follow u n t i l he c a l l s . Time passes. At last Isoemon, feigning impatience, goes to see i f anything i s wrong. When he does not return, Sumigoro and Shichizaemon at last go to search also, and come upon the ronin and Isoemon quarreling violently. The ronin ac-cuses the three of them of trying to spy out the secrets of his hered-itary art, and to placate him, Shichizaemon i s forced to treat him i n the restaurants and theaters. Sekenzaru's immediate success can be inferred from the publication of a similar work by the same author within a< year of i t s f i r s t appear-ance, and from the fact that i t was reprinted twice after Akinari's death, i n 1839 and 1849, we may infer i t s enduring popularity. Of a l l -50-Akinari's works, only Ugetsu monogatarlj|j f\ffi)M was more widely read. A request for permission to publish Akinari's second ukiyo-zoshi. Seken tekake katagi. was submitted during the latter part of 1766, but was refused, probably because of deficiencies i n the written application. A second request was sent out i n the f i r s t month of the next year and approved. The addresses of those i n charge of the publication, miss-ing from the f i r s t application, were included i n the second one, and the name of one of them was changed. The author's name too was changed — — Id — from Wayaku Taro to Shimaya Senjiro j i l u X j ^ * Presumably Senjiro was one of Akinari's o f f i c i a l names, as i t was customary for a writer's real name to appear on a publication request (though failure to do so had caused no apparent d i f f i c u l t y i n the case of Sekenzaru). Carving the printing plates for a work was not to be started until permission had been received, but Tekake katagi was published promptly in the f i r s t month of 1767. 1 9 Tekake katagi i s a collection of twelve items, i n reality ten tales, since two of them are continuations of the story which pre-cedes them* It was published i n four volumes, a puzzling departure from the general rule that such works consist of five or six* Perhaps, due to the success of Sekenzaru. the publisher was impatient to put out another work by the same author, and so considered four volumes adequate. Tekake katagi does bear the marks of being tailor-made for the publisher. "Siiodo kikimimi sekenzaru" i s an unorthodox t i t l e that bespeaks i t s author's individuality, but "Seken tekake katagi" could easily be overlooked i n a l i s t of similar t i t l e s . The preface, i n which Akinari freely acknowledged his debt to Kiseki, Jisho, and Sal-kaku, i s straightforward and-quite similar i n tone to that, of the typi-cal katagimono. unlike the impertinently incomprehensible preface to Sekenzaru. The style of the text i s also more orthodox, more polished and refined than that of Sekenzaru. but lacking the freshness of i t s free and novel expressions. Akinari had. probably been asked by his publisher to follow the accepted katagimono style more closely. S t i l l , certain aspects of Tekake katagi may be seen as reflecting a.greater degree of maturity on the part of i t s author, which i s only to be expected i f he had written Sekenzaru three years earlier and continued to widen his f i e l d of knowledge In the interval. The delib-erately pedantic style of Sekenzaru i s softened i n Tekake katagi. and the direct references to Chinese and Japanese classics are fewer i n number. Probably Akinari was now more confident of his own a b i l i t y and did not feel the need to show off so much—a natural stage i n a writer's development. At times, however, we find what seems to be an attempt to echo the style of certain classical works, which might be considered a more refined sort of pedantry. This classical style i s interwoven with, and modifies, the colloquial style of the ukiyo-zo- shi. Waka poetry i s used to a greater degree than i n Sekenzaru. An appropriate verse, either an original composition or a parody from an old collection, appears at the beginning of each tale, and i n places wakai are fitt e d smoothly into the narrative. This may be a further reflection of the degree to which Akinari had been influenced by Chi-nese literature, for i t was characteristic of Chinese vernacular f i c -tion to commence each tale or chapter with a poem. For reasons such as these, Tekake katagi can be seen as a>transitional piece moving to-ward Ugetsu monogatari. As a katagimono. Tekake katagi presents stereotyped portraits of mistresses, but the f i e l d i s not confined to women l i v i n g i n unnatural seclusion such as the modern-day reading of the character^ , "mekake," suggests. At the time, being a mistress was simply one of the lines of work open to ai woman, and society recognized the Institution along with marriage. Two of the ten tales deal with real wives; mistresses become legal spouses i n four others. St r i c t l y speaking, they are stories of relationships between men and women, rather than of i l l i c i t love alone. As i n Sekenzaru. Akinari portrayed his characters' f r a i l -ties, often drawing laughs as a result, but with an undercurrent of sympathetic understanding. He was not merely te l l i n g stories about stock characters; he also recognized the pathos i n their li v e s . Born out of wedlock, abandoned by his real mother, separated by death from his f i r s t foster mother, and l e f t deformed by a debilitating i l l n e s s , Akinari was aware of the pain i n the world and could not rise above i t to the position of a sneering, completely detached observer. Some of the tales are thought provoking; others merely offer a-musement for i t s own sake. Of the latter variety, perhaps the most entertaining i s the story comprised by the second and third sections of Book I. Akinari made no attempt to conceal his debt to the Urashima legend; indeed the heroine's father, Jusai, i s identified as a descend-ant of Urashima Taro. Jusai i s on the verge of despair because he has no child to carry on the family name. Now an old man, there i s nothing he can do except appeal to the gods for a miracle. On the last night of the year, as he stands on the beach i n prayer, he i s visited by two 53. messengers from the realm of the Dragon King, who t e l l him that he w i l l be granted his heart's desire. They give him a small Jewelled box and t e l l him that the child w i l l l i v e indefinitely i f he w i l l but refrain from opening i t . Jusai carries the box home and discovers a baby g i r l beside his door. Since i t i s now the f i r s t day of spring according to the lunar calendar, he names her O-haru, and brings her up as his daugh-ter. When O-haru becomes eighteen years of age he adopts av young phy-sician as a husband for her, and dies satisfied that the family name wi l l not be extinguished. But O-haru's husband soon.passes away also, and she remarries with Denzaburo, a sailor. After Denzaburofleaves on a voyage, O-haru waits for three years, but the ship never returns, so, giving him up for dead, she marries once again, this time to a blind masseur named Rokuemon. Then Denzaburo, who had been shipwrecked and stranded i n China and Korea, comes home to find his wife married to another man. Bloodshed i s forestalled only by the intervention of a mutual friend who proposes that, circumstances being what they are, Denzaburo be reinstated as the proper husband, but that Rokuemon be permitted to li v e in the neighboring house as O-haru's male concubine. This proves acceptable to a l l parties, and the triangular arrangement continues harmoniously until the two men both die i n old age. O-haru remains to a l l appearances a young woman i n her mid-twenties. In the .second half of the story, O-haru, s t i l l outwardly young, marries her fourth husband, a scholar named Tamon, but Tamon proves unfaithful and soon finds himself caught between a demanding mistress and a jealous wife. One night, while pondering over his dilemma, he hears the sound of rats gnawing i n the background. Suddenly he has a -54-flash of inspiration. Going home, he confesses his i n f i d e l i t y to his wife and promises to see his mistress no more. Relieved, O-haru goes to bed, and after she has fallen asleep, Tamon stealthily places some sweetmeats, which he had purchased on his way home, upon the jewelled box that the Dragon King's messengers had entrusted to O-haru's father years before. On the third morning thereafter, O-haru awakens to find herself turned into a shrivelled old hag. Rats have chewed holes i n the box. O-haru i s unaware of her husband's treachery, and spends the rest of her l i f e waging a personal feud against rats. The villagers c a l l her Neko Irazu Nezuml-tori Baba^ff i t , '5^"j^ffi<7^ , or Rat Catching Granny who Needs no Cat. When she dies, they give her the posthumous tron deity of rat extermination. A pebble from her grave mound, i f kept i n the house, w i l l drive a l l rats away, so powerful i s her spi-r i t , and this proves a boon to the people i n the area who make their l i v i n g from sericulture. l i g i o n . In the third tale of Book III, Ginshlchi, a t a i l o r , and his beautiful wife O-ito, open a shop i n the capital, pretending to be brother and widowed elder sister. O-ito appears to be devoutly r e l i c t gious. She faithfully tends the household altar and makes frequent v i s i t s to the temple, and i n due time she acquires six priestly ad-mirers whose interest i n her has nothing to do with religion. A. quar-r e l develops over which one of them w i l l receive her favors. At last Ginshichi intercedes. He proposes that each priest spend two months of the year with his "sister," the order to be determined by drawing Madame Cat, and revere her as the pa-Like Sekenzaru. Tekake katagi also takes a. s a t i r i c a l look at re--55-lots, using the six characters in the invocation to Amida Buddha. The priests ha i l this as a b r i l l i a n t idea. They send appropriate gifts, and gladly rent a separate house in deference to Ginshichi's plea that the neighbors w i l l be offended by the arrangement. At the appointed time the six priests arrive at the house wearing festive attire over their robes, i t being the season of O-bon. Ginshichi and O-ito are waiting for them with a group of people from the neighborhood, but not, i t turns out, as a welcoming committee. Falling on the priests, they beat them, strip them of their clothes, and drive them away. Using the booty as a start, Ginshichi and his wife open a< used-clothing shop. The clever scheme i s a feature of other tales as well. In the f i r s t story of Book IV, an old woman passing through a secluded place i s accosted by an attractive young woman who introduces herself as a fox i n human form, searching for her child who has been captured and sold. She begs the old woman to help her, and i f possible to buy the young fox back. Touched that even animals have tender maternal feel-ings, the old woman sends her servant to the market place, where he finds the fox pup and purchases i t . The old woman returns i t to i t s mother, and the mother fox asks how she can repay the favor. The old woman makes a similar motherly request. She explains that her son, Wasaburo by name, has divorced his wife and i s now li v i n g with a cour-tesan whom he has ransomed, and she begs the fox to use her magic pow-er to bring him to his senses. Not long after, her son indeed does come home. He announces that he has severed relations with his mis-tress, and begs his mother's pardon for the pain he has brought her. -56-Thereafter he' acts like a truly reformed man* Sometime later the old woman i s approached by a matchmaker who wishes to arrange a marriage between Wasaburo and the daughter of a certain ronin* Overjoyed that her son w i l l be able to marry a respectable g i r l , and convinced that the grateful fox has brought a l l this about, she gives her consent* The marriage takes place, but after the nuptial ceremony i s over the bride l i f t s her v e i l to reveal hersel* as the "fox." In reality she i s the son's mistress. It has a l l been a trick to enable Wasaburo to marry her against his mother's wishes. The f i r s t tale of Book I also features, a clever scheme. Hanazono i s the mistress of a Kyoto aristocrat, but loses her heart to an impe-cunious townsman named Hampei. Her love has i t s limits, however; i t is. not so strong as her desire for a l i f e of luxury. She does not want to work for a. l i v i n g , and so cannot bring herself to abscond with her lover. But when Hampei t e l l s her that he i s going to steal f i f t y ryo that has been entrusted to him, and shows her the bag containing the money, she agrees, to run away with him. So they set out, but when,they are clear of the capital, Hampei confesses that the bag ac-tually contains no money, only pieces of t i l e . Hanazono realizes that she has been deceived, but i t i s too late to return to her former para-mour. Since there i s nothing else she.can do, she changes her name to the more plebeian one of O-sono and makes her l i v i n g with Hampei, op-erating a teahouse at the Ausaka Barrier. Coming to grief l i k e this through greed i s a recurrent theme. In the second tale of Book II, Saburoshichi, a prosperous merchant of Edo, approaches Densuke, who sells rice cakes at the neighboring shop, and 57-asks for help. He must spend the next year In Nagasaki, he says, and since he must make some arrangement for his concubine, O-sumi, he pro-poses to marry her off to his lazy shop clerk, Hachizaemon. He plans to provide an ample dowry for O-sumi, and promises to reward Densuke handsomely i f he w i l l act as go-between. Densuke readily agrees. 0-sumi protests the arrangement at f i r s t , swearing undying f i d e l i t y , but at last gives i n . Thus Saburoshichi departs, and the wedding takes place. At the marriage feast Densuke announces that he w i l l now read a l i s t of the items provided for O-suml's dowry. But, to the conster-nation of a l l concerned, the supposed l i s t turns out to be a declara-tion from Saburoshichi to the effect that he knew O-sumi had been un-true, granting her favors to Hachizaemon. He has permitted her to marry her lover, but the dowry, he now admits, was a false promise. O-sumi must spend her l i f e married to a penniless clerk. Since Den-suke had assisted i n arranging their meetings, says Saburoshichi, he likewise w i l l receive no reward. The second tale of Book IV presents another variation of the theme. Despairing of finding a. husband worthy of their beautiful daughter i n their rural home, a ronin and his wife move to the capital, hoping to place her i n the mansion of a nobleman. But the pampered daughter has become even more fastidious than her parents. She refuses a l l offers, and at length her father, discouraged by his failure to find a suitable position for her, dies. The daughter then sets out on her own to find a wealthy patron, and indeed does succeed i n becoming the mistress of a man to her li k i n g , but she demands so many luxuries and services that he f i n a l l y leaves her. At last she ends up as the wife of a -58-shopkeeper. The stories described above are typical of Tekake katagi. but there i s one that stands out i n contrast. This i s the tale of Fujino, i n the second and third sections of Book III. It lacks the scorn and satire, the jesting and exaggeration, of the other stories, being a simple and straightforward tale of love and duty. Saitaro, a wealthy farmer, loses everything he owns by speculating on the Osaka rice ex-change. Shunned by his family, he lives an aimless l i f e i n Osaka with Fujino, a former courtesan whom he has ransomed. When i n despair he begs Fujino to leave him for her own sake, she refuses, and proposes instead that she return to the brothel where she was formerly inden-tured and l e t him make a fresh start with the money she receives. Sai-taro agrees. The brothel keeper, Eigoro, provides f i f t y ryo as a lump sum, and Saitaro journeys to Hachijo Island where he uses the money to buy local fabrics, expecting to s e l l them at a high profit i n the Kami-gata region. But on the way back to the mainland his boat i s attacked by pirates. He escapes with his l i f e , but his purchases are a l l stolen. Once again he i s destitute. The action now shifts to the brothel i n Osaka where Fujino i s working and awaiting word from Saitaro. One morning her master calls her privately to his room and t e l l s her that Saitaro i s dead. He then reads to her the letter that Saitaro had sent him, te l l i n g of his misfortune and his determination to put an end to his l i f e . In the letter, Saitaro begs Eigoro not to allow Fu-jino to follow him i n death or take religious vows, but to encourage her to serve out her time i n her present situation and l i v e for the future. Kind and understanding, Eigoro" gives Fujino forty-nine days -59-to observe the rituals of mourning, and even summons a priest to read sutras on every seventh day. On the f i f t i e t h day, Fujino returns to work, and thereafter she serves her master with impeccable f i d e l i t y . Numerous admirers try to ransom her, but no matter how high their of-fers, Eigoro refuses, saying that the decision must rest with Fujino. When her term of service ends, Fujino makes her li v i n g as a hairdress-er. She remains unmarried and continues to faithfully observe the proper memorial services for Saitaro. Such f i d e l i t y comes from her heart; i t i s more than social conventions of the time required. Fu j i -no i s the earliest example of Akinari's feminine ideal—the faithful, loving, and long-suffering woman epitomized by Miyagi i n Ugetsu mono- gat a r i and by another female character, also named Miyagi, i n his last work of fic t i o n , Harusame monogatari,/^^^//!^. In the back of the last volume of Sekenzaru there i s an advertise-ment for two forthcoming works by the same author—Seken tekake katagi and Shokoku kaisen &eaor±M$\l&-fy&jfi. When Tekake katagi appeared i n print i t carried a further advertisement for Kaisen dayori. and one for another t i t l e , Saigyo hanashi uta. makura someburoshikl xTQ^pa fa I, dayori t i t l e had been expanded to Sekenzaru kohen shokoku kaisen dayori pendent composition, but later decided to style i t as a sequel to his f i r s t ukiyo-zoshi. Akinari's publisher may have been behind the change. It was sound business practice to publish a "sequel" to a successful literary venture, and there were numerous precedents for so doing. We can only guess whether Akinari ever completed or even commenced these However, i n this second announcement the Shokoku kaisen that Akinari f i r s t planned the work as an inde-60-intended works. They never appeared in published editions, nor are any manuscripts known to exist. Indeed, nothing more of any descrip-tion was ever published under the name of Wayaku Taro, and from this point on, as far as can be determined, Akinari moved in a different direction. Perhaps he had rebelled against the prospect of becoming a hack for his publisher; perhaps too he had been distressed when his true identity was revealed. But i t i s also true that Akinari's ukiyo- zoshi were ill-timed. Few similar works were then being published, and i n the same month that Tekake katagi appeared, the Hachimonjiya, in a state of near bankruptcy, sold i t s printing materials to an Osaka firm and v/ent out of business. This was tantamount to a death knell for ukiyo-zoshi. and must have been a shock to Akinari, enjoying his f i r s t literary success. Perhaps he saw the handwriting on the wall and decided to abandon this kind of writing immediately. The ukiyo-zoshi as a genre f e l l into disrepute. Scholars have generally conceded that Sekenzaru and Tekake katagi are historically significant as the last noteworthy examples of such works, but for the most part they have dismissed them as merely early efforts of the au-thor of Ugetsu monogatari. Few have been willing to say that they have any literary value i n their own right. Yet both works are able to stand on their own merits. They are not collections of pedestrian tales for an undiscriminating audience, but can be understood and ap-preciated only by readers whose level of knowledge approaches that of Akinari himself. In a l l , they display a degree of maturity surprising for an author's f i r s t offerings. In more recent years, some scholars have at last begun to look at these stories for their intrinsic worth. -6L Another factor, perhaps the most important one, i n Akinari's de-cision to give up light literature was his increasing involvement in classical scholarship. Information i s inadequate and contradictory, making reconstruction of exactly how he became a kokugakushalIHf , or student of the national learning, impossible, but even though he himself mentioned no dates, the decade of the 1760's was a crucial time. As he himself described his scholarly progress, he was engrossed in the study of haikai until he was nearly forty. His teachers praised his talent, but certain persons who regarded haikai as a plebeian pur-suit urged him to shift his efforts to the more respectable art of waka. .Having always thought waka. to be the prerogative of the court nobles, Akinari was reluctant to commit himself, but i n the end he en-rolled in the Shimo no Reizeike"f <fl T^fyJ^L school, which traced i t s line back to Fujiwara T a m e s u k e ^ ^ ^ ^ (1263-1328), and which advo-cated a style relatively free from conventions. Again Akinari found himself praised for his talent, but he seems to have wanted to delve into literary theory rather than obediently follow his teacher's ad-vice on how to compose waka. Discouraged at getting nothing but eva-sive answers to his questions, he l e f t his teacher and turned to p r i -vate study of the works of Keichu. S t i l l many questions remained un-answered. He sought instruction from the scholar and writer Takebe Ayatari ^ ^ 1^^(1719-1774), but found his knowledge unsatisfactory. Apparently realizing his own inadequacy, Ayatari introduced him to Kato Umaki#tf j j | ^ 7 ) ^ L (1721-1777), and "the road to the ancient learn-21 ing was opened up." 62 But when did a l l this happen? One of his associates said that 22 Akinari and Umaki met for the f i r s t time i n the autumn of 1766, but Ayatari did not come to the Kamigata region un t i l the spring of 1767, so either the date of their meeting or the report that Ayatari sup-. plied the introduction must be rejected. It i s possible, though by no 23 means certain, that Umaki was i n Osaka* during part of 1765 and 1766, but Akinari's account of Ayatari's role i n his meeting with Umaki i s too straightforward to be taken l i g h t l y . Akinari once stated that he 24 corresponded with Umaki over a period of seven years, and since Uma-k i died i n 1777, one might assume that their f i r s t encounter took place i n 1770. This i s possible. Umaki was i n Kyoto from mid-1768 unt i l at least the tenth month of 1769, and very l i k e l y stayed even longer. It i s even possible that he spent some time i n Osaka i n 1770. But i t i s not necessary to assume that Akinari met Umaki exactly i n 1770. He did not say that he knew Umaki for seven years, but that he corresponded with him for that length of time. Nor i s i t essential to place Umaki i n Osaka at the time of their meeting, as a brief look at the careers of Umaki and Ayatari w i l l show. Originally from Hirosaki, i n northeastern Japan, Ayatari had l e f t home i n disgrace i n 1738, following an i l l i c i t a f fair with his broth-er's wife. Eventually he made his way to Kyoto, where he took the tonsure, but soon began to practice haikai with various teachers i n the region. In 1747 he went to Edo, where he turned to more scholarly pursuits, eventually enrolling with Kamo Mabuchi $$#.7Sj (1697-1769) in 1762 to study kokugaku. From 1767 unt i l 1771, when he returned to Edo, he was i n Kyoto, giving lectures and engaging i n the two pursuits -63-for which he i s best remembered, painting and story writing. Umaki, who was one of Mabuchi's top-ranking disciples, had become a ronin around 1762 and purchased go-kenin status a year or two later. His new position involved spending each third year on o f f i c i a l duties at either the Osaka Castle or the Nijo Castle i n Kyoto, and i t must have", been on one such assignment that he met Akinari. By 1767 Ayatari had become a well-known man of letters, so i t i s reasonable to assume that when he came to the capital Akinari, attract-ed by his reputation, took the trouble to attend some of his lectures and seek his advice on studying the classics. Akinari was probably making periodic trips to Kyoto then anyway, i n order to v i s i t his hai- kai associates. Ayatari probably did go to Osaka occasionally, but since his relationship with Akinari was one of teacher to pupil, i t i s most l i k e l y that their contacts were primarily i n the capital. Umaki i s only specified as being "in the castle" when Akinari met him, not 25 i n any particular city. Thus Akinari could have met Umaki i n Kyoto as early as 1768 with Ayatari, who knew Umaki through their mutual studies with Mabuchi, as the intermediary, associated with him un t i l his return to Edo, probably in 1770, and then corresponded with him u n t i l he died i n 1777. Umaki may have been on duty at the Osaka Cas-t l e i n 1771, and almost definitely was in 1774, so the seven-year period probably included some personal contact, but this could merely mean that their relationship was primarily by correspondence rather than entirely so. S t i l l , this i s just a possibility. In the final; analysis, Akinari*s f i r s t meeting with Umaki cannot be dated precisely. More important than the chronology of their association i s the effect -64-that i t had on Akinari's subsequent ac t i v i t i e s . In any case, Akinari's statement that he f i r s t began to study wakatwhen about forty years old must be untrue. By Japanese reckoning he would have been forty i n 1773. Even i f by "about forty" he actually meant, say, thirty-six or thirty-seven, i f he had commenced the study of waka;. at that age, then privately studied Keichu's works for, as he 27 said i n one source, "two or three years," then received instruction for a time from Takebe Ayatari, and only after that met Kato TJmaki, he would not have had seven years before Umaki's death i n which to cor-respond with him. "About forty" was probably an error or a deliberate 28 fabrication for "about thirty." There i s no real information on the nature of Akinari's associa-tion with Ayatari. We only know that however cordial i t may have been at the start, i t went sour. Akinari later described Ayatari as "a clod who couldn't read Chinese characters at a l l " and was taken aback 29 whenever he was asked a question, and he called Ayatari's Nishivama monogatarivfeik "a. useless: tale that leads good people astray," when writing his own account of the incident on which the story was based. Considering Ayatari less intelligent than himself, Akinari was envious of his fame and came to regard him as ai r i v a l . There i s l i t t l e of a concrete nature about Akinari's relationship 31 with Umakl either. Since Uraaki spent most of his time i n Edo, their personal contacts were limited, but they became very close even so. The tone of Umaki's letters implies that he considered Akinari more a friend than a disciple, and Akinari to his death remained loyal to the memory of Umaki and conscious of his own position as an intellectual -.65-descendant of Mabuchi. One of the strongest indications of his high regard i s that after Umaki passed away Akinari made no effort to find another teacher, but turned once again to private study. Umaki had. l e f t an indelible impression on the younger man* He could not be re-placed. S t i l l , we must not imagine that Akinari became a classical scholar only because he studied with Umaki. The reverse i s more near-l y true, but nevertheless i t was under Umaki's influence that his own views began to take shape. No doubt he experienced a growing desire to emulate his teacher. Perhaps this i s why he seemed more willing to talk about himself after he met Umaki, while remaining secretive and apparently ashamed of hie earlier experiences* Introduction to Umaki was, to Akinari, the turning point i n his l i f e . He f e l t that he had been reborn, and he rejected his former self. In 1802, a man named Tamiya Y u z o ^ ^ ^ J ^ came to Akinari and asked him some questions about Sekenzaru. He had been sent by Ota Nampo, who had recently become friendly with Akinari. Nampo probably realized that the matter was a. touchy one, and thus decided to ap-proach Akinari through a. third party. Just what i t was that Tamiya asked i s not c e r t a i n — i t apparently had something to do with some of the l i v e character models—but Akinari flew into a rage and refused to 32 have anything more to do with him. Even as an old man i t pained Akinari to be reminded of his early writings or to have others learn about them. Such was the impact that Umaki had made, and such was the width of the r i f t that Akinari f e l t with his past. In his own view, he had attained enlightenment, and his ukiyo-zoshi were a blotch on the record of the classical scholar he had striven to become. As a -66. repentant man forsakes the evils of this world to strive for rebirth in paradise, so Akinari, after experimenting with the fashionable nov-els of the street, l e f t them to seek the beauty of ancient times in the classics. NOTES 1. Jlden t Ibun. p. 255. 2. Ibid., p. 260. 3. Tandai. no. 61, NKBT, LVI, 289. Akinari also recalled this experience i n R e i g o t s u ^ ^ g , Zenshu. II, 409-438, N.B. p. 422. Con-cerning Korean embassies to Japan at this time, see George B. McCune, "The Exchange of Envoys Between Korea and Japan During the Tokugawa. Period" (1946), i n Japan; Enduring Scholarship, ed. John A. Harrison (Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 1972), pp. 83-100; pp. 85-89 give some information about this particular embassy. 4. Tandai. no. 62, NKBT, LVI, 289, 290. 5. YamazutotL Ibun. pp. 345-363, N.B. p. 349. 6. Mitake Bo.liffipjfc^ >) U" , Zenshu. I, 71-80, N.B. pp. 71, 72. 7. Quoted i n Takada-, "'Ueda Akinari nempu kosetsu' hoi," p. 77. 8. See Noda, Kinsei bungaku n" haikrf, p. 117, -67-9. See Dore, Education i n Tokugawa Japan, p. 20. 10. See Richard Lane, "The Beginnings of the Modern Japanese Novel (Kanazoshi. 1600-1682)," HJAS. 20, No. 3-4 (Dec. 1957), 644-701. 11. For general treatment of ukiyo-zoshi. see Ivan Morris, ed. & trans., The Life of an Amorous Woman and Other Writings by Ihara Sai- kaku (Norfolk, Connecticut: New Directions, 1963); Howard Hibbett, The Floating World i n Japanese Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959). 12. See Noda, Kinsei bungaku no haikei. p. 138. 13. Osaka. Tosho Shuppangyo Kumiai, ed., Kyoho igo Osaka shuppan  shoseki mokuroku (Osaka: Osaka Tosho Shuppangyo Kumiai, 1936), p. 65. The actual publication data from the 1766 edition i s quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 42. 14. On the monkey's significance i n oriental art and literature, see U. A. Casal, "Far Eastern Monkey Lore," MN, 12 (1956), 13-49. 15. The most ambitious and authoritative study to date of Aki-nari 's Sekenzaru sources i s Takada Mamoru, Ueda. Akinari kenkyu .Iosetsu (Tokyo: Nara Shobo, 1968), pp. 15-74. Information about the l i v e character models may be found i n Nakamura Yukihiko, "Akinari ni egaka-reta hitobito," Part I, KK, 32, No. 1 (Jan. 1963), 1-11. 16. This point i s discussed more ful l y i n Asano Sampei, "Shodo kikimimi sekenzaru ron," JK, 15 (Oct. 1959), 46-56. -68-17. Ueda Aklnarl zenshu. ed. Suzuki, pp. 79, 80. 18. Both publication requests are reproduced i n Ibid., pp. 101, 102. 19. Publication data quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 51. 20. Most of the ideas expressed i n this paragraph are treated more ful l y i n Asano Sampei, "Seken tekake katagi wo megutte—Shokoku kaisen dayori, Uta makura someburoshiki n i oyobu," KKB. 36, No. 5 (May 1959), 38-48. 21. Ihon Tandai shoshin roku^ ^  , NKBT, LVT, 370-377, N.B. pp. 372, 373. 22. Fujita Gyo, Ken'ei waka^  .1o. Zenshu. I, 149. 23. This and subsequent references to Umaki's whereabouts at given times; are taken from Takada Mamoru, "Umaki nyumon nendai ko , n| ,^^A.P1 £f f(\ % » l n Akinari nempu. pp. 361-376. 24. Ihon Tandai. NKBT, LVT, 373. 25. Ibid. 26. Despite ample debate, Japanese scholars have yet to agree on the date of Akinari's f i r s t meeting with Umaki. In "Umaki nyumon nen-dai ko," Takada argues i n favor of 1766. Maruyama Sueo supports the 1770 view i n "Akinari no Umaki nyumon ho toshi sono ta," Wagimo. 13, No. 3 (Mar. 1936), 42-45, and i n "Akinari den no mondaiten," _KK£., 265 (June 1958), 7-11, Nakamura Yukihiko proposes that the f i r s t meeting -69-took place i n 1767. A l l three reach their conclusions by accepting some pieces of evidence, rejecting others, and making certain arbi-trary assumptions. No matter which view one subscribes to, some of the evidence has to be assumed to be erroneous* 27. Tandai shoshin roku kakioki no koto ^ f o 3 / f l ^ , NKBT, LVT, 363-370, N.B. p. 366. 28. Probably a deliberate fabrication, since i t appears i n both Ihon Tandai and Kakioki no koto. See NKBT, LVI, 365, 372. 29. Ihon Tandai. NKBT, LVI, 373. 30. Akinari, Masurao monogatari 1 Hj^j fc , Ibun. pp. 406-418. His criticism of Nishiyama appears on p. 408. 31. An attempt to draw inferences about their relationship through analyzing the written record has been made by Nakamura Yukihiko i n "Umaki to Akinari" (1958), i n Akinari. ed. Nihon Bungaku Kenkyu Shiryo Kankokai (Tokyo: Yuseido, 1972), pp. 150-157, 32. Letter from Tamiya to Nampo i n Ichi wa i c h i gen . i n Shin hyakka zeirin Shoku San.lin zenshu. ed. Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 5 vols. (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1907, 1908), IV, 806. -70-CHAPTER III  KASHIMA-MURA Fire broke out i n a teahouse in Sonezaki about noon one day i n the spring of 1768. The blaze crossed th© river into Dojima, creating a conflagration that lasted u n t i l approximately six o'clock the f o l -• lowing morning. Thirteen lives were lost and about 6,500 buildings destroyed.'"' The Ueda family's home and business, the Shimaya, was l o -cated i n the burned-over area, but judging from Akinari's silence on the matter, the shop must have escaped serious damage. Ironically, i t was to be a smaller f i r e three years later that would rob him of his property and change the course of his l i f e . It was almost certainly i n 1771 that Akinari was burned out and 2 financially ruined, but no more precise date can be given. The only fi r e of major proportions that occurred i n Dojima i n that year was on the seventeenth day of the f i r s t month, though i f the description i s 3 accurate the flames stopped well short of Akinari's home. Flying sparks from the main blaze could have descended upon the Shimaya, but just as l i k e l y the shop f e l l prey to a local f i r e which caused such insignificant damage to the neighborhood, as a whole that no record survives. Akinari's house and his means of livelihood had gone up i n smoke. To compound the disaster, looters came and made off with what l i t t l e • 4 property the flames had spared, leaving the Ueda family destitute. Two years were to pass before they were again settled i n permanent lodgings. In the meantime they drifted from one temporary abode to -71-5 another, changing their residence more than ten times i n a l l . Akinari probably had mixed feelings about his loss. On the one hand, he may well have f e l t a sense of r e l i e f . Normally we would ex-pect a burned-out merchant at least to attempt a fresh start, but there i s no evidence whatever that Akinari tried to re-establish his business or ever had intentions of doing so. Never being inclined toward the world of commerce, he apparently determined to use the f i r e as an ave-nue of escape. As long as the business that his father had l e f t him remained i n his hands, he had fel t duty bound to operate i t , but i t s loss seems to have given him the reason he was searching for i n his decision to leave the merchant l i f e . On the other hand, however, the shop that had been such a burden had also been a source of income, and another steady source was not readily available. Much as he had f e l t out of his element as a merchant, this was the f i r s t period of want that he had ever experienced, and as head of the family he f e l t the burden of responsibility. It was no doubt a trying time for him. The frequency with which he mentioned the f i r e i n his later.writings sug-gests the degree to which the loss upset him. Any sense of freedom that he may have immediately f e l t was surely tempered by trepidation and regret. It i s uncertain just what Akinari did for the next two years. Possibly he tried to set himself up as a professional scholar, private-ly studying to advance his own knowledge while liv i n g off the revenue he received from lessons and writings. At least part of his income does seem to have come from giving lectures on the classics, as a col-lection of notes for such lessons has survived from this- period. En-t i t l e d Kokin .1o kikigaki ;^T/Mfl:|r , i t was dated Meiwa Era, 9th year of Ueda Akinari." The Fuji family had presided over the Kashima Ina-r i Shrine since the late Kamakura period, and continue to do so to the present day. Akinari's supposedly miraculous recovery from smallpox and his consequent patronage of this shrine since childhood had given him a long-standing intimate relationship with the family. In addition to the genuine friendship which they held for each other, Akinari's gratitude to the deity naturally extended to the priests of the shrine, and they were surely pleased to see i n Akinari l i v i n g proof of the pow-er of the god they served. Teibu was known as a clever man, a skilled painter and writer of kyoka verse, and was a*, prominent figure i n the neighborhood* Thirteen years Akinari's junior, he held deep respect for Akinari's seniority and superior learning, but knew him as a. friend of the family as well. Undoubtedly he received special consideration among Akinari's students, of whom there were several i n the Kashima area. The Kashima Inari Shrine may even have been the Uedas' princi-pal residence for the f i r s t two years after they lost their own home. S t i l l , Akinari's record indicates that for at least part of this time they lived from day to day, going here and there i n search of whatever means of livelihood was offered. Sono yuki kage1|Mf.|R , a haiku ,c61-lection prepared by Takai Kito to commemorate the thirteenth anniver-sary of his father's death, and published near the end of 1772, car-ried a verse by Gyoen, which would have been expected: since Akinari had once belonged to Kikei's c i r c l e , but his contribution was not an original composition. It has been suggested that Akinari, as he was (1772), 12th month, 3rd day, and signed "Fuji 6 73-continually moving from place to place, could not be contacted, and so 7 Kito arbitrarily selected one of his old compositions. It i s indeed possible that Akinari tried to become a professional scholar. He could have been li v i n g for short periods with a number of different students or friends between 1771 and 1773, which might ex-plain his unsettled existence during those years. But teaching and writing would have been a poor source of income for a l l but the most established men of letters, and certainly a premature step for Akinari to take at that time. Stringent l i v i n g soon convinced him of the need to establish himself i n a remunerative line of work, and so, sometime i n 1773, Akinari established himself, with his wife and mother, in a small cottage not far from the Inari Shrine i n Kashima-mura, and he g began to study medicine. Sumitsukishi Should you look for traces^ Mukashi no an no Of the hut where I dwelt Ato toeba In years gone by, Suzu no hana saku Search below the river bank g Klshi no shita ne ni Where the spring flowers bloom. Thus Akinari wrote about his home beneath the dike on the Mikuni River. 1 0 It was a peaceful environment, but by no means isolated from c i v i l i z a t i o n , and the Fuji family, who had probably assisted with the move, kept a protective watchful eye over him and his family. Perhaps Akinari*s study of medicine had actually begun before he moved to Kashima-mura. True enough, in one reference to this activity 11 he indicated that i t began only after he had moved to the countryside, but i n another he implied that this undertaking preceded the move and -74-12 that he merely intensified his efforts at Kashlma. It does seem im-probable that he spent two aimless years deciding what to do, and delv-ing into medical lore might well have occupied a part of his time dur-ing that period. Be that as i t may, Akinari studied diligently at Ka-shima, "not sleeping at night, and working even harder during the day," as he hyperbolically described his a c t i v i t i e s . In deciding to become a physician, Akinari was not necessarily sacrificing his dreams of a literary career. There was ample prece-dent for combining the two roles. Among his friends at the time he counted Katsube Seigyo, the haiku poet, and Kawai Rissai)i)4^#j|j" , a disciple of Goi Ranshu and scholar of the national learning, both of whom were physicians. Very l i k e l y acquaintances such as these had en-couraged him to study medicine. In addition there was Tsuga Teisho ^W^^.(1718?-1795?), who i s widely believed to have been Akinari»s medical instructor. No definite proof that Teisho f i l l e d this role survives, but Akinari was decidedly influenced by his writings and personally acquainted with him. Finally, there was Motoori Norinaga ^/^It-lt (1730-1801), whose commentaries on the Ko.liki jiffi jg. were making him a leader i n the kokugaku f i e l d , and whose career was con-temporaneous with Akinari's. Although i t i s uncertain whether the two men had yet heard of each other, Norinaga was at that time the out-standing example of the successful scholar-physician. And medical study was far from being Akinari*s only pursuit at Kashlma. He continued to investigate the classics, and he remained active i n literary circles, making occasional trips to Osaka in order 14 to give lectures, and presumably to meet with his colleagues. He -75-probably continued to v i s i t the capital from time to time as well. During this period he either wrote or revised Ugetsu monogatari. and the Kaguwashi Shrine preserves a number of unpublished manuscripts that date from this time, including Ise monogatari ko 15 lengthy commentary on the Ise monogatari. Moreover, he continued to conduct study sessions for a group of students i n the v i c i n i t y . Per-haps i t was activities such as these, i n addition to study of the healing arts, that l e f t him no time to sleep at night. A request for permission to-publish a work called Yasaisho /jtjf 16 was submitted i n the ninth month of 1773. The author was lis t e d as Ueda Tosaku^ 1^ , which was Akinari's true personal name, but i t i s not certain whether he actually did the writing. Three of his students supplied a preface to the published edition i n which they claimed that they themselves had written i t as a record of his lectures on haikai 17 theory. They confessed that, harboring doubts about the validity of Akinari's teachings because they sometimes differed from the more re-spected traditions, they had secretly gone to the capital, shown their notes to Yosa Buson, and asked his opinion. Buson, i t turned out, was very much impressed with Akinari's ideas, and strongly urged the three to make them public. Thus encouraged, the students said, they had made arrangements with the publisher and had everything ready when Aki-nari became aware of their actions and, having an innate aversion to fame, upbraided! them severely and ordered the publication to be sus-pended. Not u n t i l 1787 did he f i n a l l y relent and allow the work to go to press. YaBaisho was indeed not published u n t i l 1787, though the printing -76-18 blocks had been prepared by early 1774. In his own preface, which also was written early i n 1774, Buson confirmed the students' v i s i t to 19 him and his reaction to Akinari's views as contained i n their notes. Akinari's refusal to allow the manuscript to be published also sup-ports Buson's and the students' accounts. Had he written i t himself, he must have intended i t for circulation. S t i l l , i t seems strange that three of Akinari's students would rewrite their lecture notes as a formal treatise, sign his name to i t , and proceed with the business of getting i t published while keeping the whole matter a secret from him. An alternative view i s that Akinari did write Yasaisho and went ahead with plans to publish i t , but before the printing was carried out he had second thoughts and withdrew the manuscript. It was only years later, probably under pressure from his colleagues, that he re-lented, and then only on condition that i t be made to appear as some-one else's work. This i s plausible. Denying authorship of one's own works was a measure which protected one'against both accusations of pride or pedantry i f the work succeeded, or of incompetence i f i t failed, and the practice was not uncommon among writers of Akinari's day. Nevertheless, there i s no real concensus among Japanese schol-ars as to v/hether Akinari was the real author of Yasaisho or not, and a. definite answer to the question appears to be impossible. Whoever did the actual writing, however, the views expressed are undoubtedly those of Akinari. Just three months before the publication request for Yasaisho was submitted, Akinari's friend Fujitani Nariakira had completed Ayuisho fotyiAffi, a philological work that tried to explain the meanings and -77^  usages of certain particles, auxiliary verbs, interjections, and suf-fixes, with i l l u s t r a t i v e examples from old waka. The author of Yasai- sho i s believed to have f i r s t read Avuisho and then written his own work, making a deliberate effort to emulate the style of the earlier 20 piece, as i t s format i s quite similar. Yasaisho i s a discussion of the role of kire.Hfrfl^ i n the writing of haikai. The author begins by deploring the lack of new studies and developments among haikai ; -poets. He c r i t i c i z e s their reliance on the old explanations of the renga schools, and calls his own work an attempt to improve the situa-tion. What follows amounts to a summary of Akinari's views on the two common kire.1l. yai^and kana^'. An exhaustive treatment of their meanings and usage i s given, and numerous haiku by the recognized mas-ters are quoted as illustrations. Improper uses of these words are also pointed out and condemned. Yasaisho does bear the marks of being written when Japanese philology was s t i l l underdeveloped—many points require revision when viewed by present-day grammarians—but as a pio-neer work i t was outstanding. At the time i t was written i t was the most detailed and authoritative work on. i t s subject yet to appear. - In his preface to Yasaisho. Buson referred to Akinari as his friend. Just how long they had been acquainted i s uncertain. Buson belonged to the same line of haikai poets as Takai Kikei, so Akinari had probably at least heard his name from Kikei i n the course of their lessons together, fifteen or more years earlier. There i s even a chance that Akinari and Buson met then for the f i r s t time, when Buson was about forty and Akinari i n his early twenties, but although Buson had f i r s t arrived i n Kyoto i n 1751, i t i s not certain how long he -78-stayed or just when Akinari began to study with Kikei. In any event, their actual association took place only later, when Akinari had es-tablished more of a reputation. Indeed, i t may be that Yasaisho marked the beginning of their real friendship. Akinari was i n contact with Kito while l i v i n g at Kashima, and since Kito, like his father, was ac-tive i n the same circle as Buson, some of Buson's ideas may have passed through Kito to Akinari and thus onto the pages of Yasaisho. That could be one reason why Buson found the work so much to his l i k i n g . Perhaps, impressed with Yasaisho. he even took the i n i t i a t i v e i n ar-ranging an introduction to Akinari, and wrote his preface i n order to place his own prestigious stamp of approval on the work and thus en-sure i t s favorable reception. A l l this i s , admittedly, speculative, but some months after Akinari had moved back to Osaka, Buson s t i l l re-ferred to him as "Kashima Hoshi" ;£$*y»21 implying that i t was the image of Akinari at Kashima that remained dominant i n his mind. Buson's preface described Akinari as "my friend Mucha the Layman" who "lives i n seclusion i n the village of Kashima i n the province of Tsu, refusing visitors and not mingling with the common crowd." This was surely an exaggeration, but i t was a* portrait of Akinari that other acquaintances would also express. One need not suppose that he total-l y shunned human society at this time, but his l i f e was much quieter than i t had been at Dojima. No longer was he a tradesman. Perhaps to proclaim the break with his past, he shaved his head i n the style of a Buddhist priest. Such was a. common practice i n his feudal society. In theory, at least, i t was impossible to move from one class to another, so when a man retired or otherwise ceased to be an active member of -79-of his own social group, and wished to make the fact clear, he fre-quently shaved his head, as does the central character i n one of the 22 Ugetsu tales. Of course, shaving one's head was a common practice 23 among physicians of the day, and Akinari's action may have i n i t i a l l y had no more meaning than that, but pictures and clay figurines of him, even those made after he had given up the medical profession, invari-ably show him with his head shaven, so his withdrawal—at least his psychological withdrawal—appears to have been unwavering. The name "Mucho" by which Buson called him, and which subsequent-l y became perhaps his most popular cognomen, apparently came into use about this time. As stated earlier, the name means "crab" and was a self-mocking reference to his deformed hands, but Akinari also used i t to point out the relative seclusion i n which he was then l i v i n g . Tsuki ni asobu Playing i n the moon, Ono ga yo wa^ari He finds a world of his own, 24 Minashi kani The poor orphan crab. So he had written when he moved to the countryside. Moreover, as a crab has a soft body beneath i t s hard exterior, so the name was sup-posed to refer to Akinari's outwardly stern but inwardly gentle dispo-25 sition. Also dating from this time, or at least no later, i s Akinari's companionship with Kimura Kenkado.. Certain common factors i n their backgrounds probably helped make them congenial friends. The eldest son of an Osaka-sake brewer,. Kenkado was plagued from birth by poor health. One remembers Akinari*s own childhood illness and his result-ant weak constitution. When Kenkado was fifteen his father died', and -80-he attempted to assume responsibility for the business, but he lacked the energy and, like Akinari i n similar circumstances, the inclination to take an active part. Having long been interested i n botany and Ja-panese antiquity, he devoted himself to the investigation of such things, eventually becoming well-known as a compiler of a l l sorts of unusual information. His interests were diverse and his reputation far ranging. Besides being a top-ranking authority on medicinal herbs he was an accomplished student of art and a painter i n his own right, as well as an authority on the tea ceremony and well-versed i n things Chinese. At the height of his career his companionship was very much sought out by writers, painters, and scholars of the Kamigata region. 26 Akinari often called on him for advice on medicinal plants. It i s not certain whether they became acquainted i n time for Kenkado to i n -fluence Akinari's decision to become a physician, but they had become 27 good friends by no later than 1774. Their relationship continued unt i l Kenkado's death, and must have been intimate, to judge from the 28 — frequency of their v i s i t s to each other. Akinari once invited Kato Umaki to join himself, along with Kimurai and Hosoai Hansel on a boat-29 ing excursion, and this also indicates that he considered Kimura a friend, and not just a fellow scholar. Thus, by studying medicine and literature, and by teaching and writing, Akinari continued his quiet existence at Kashlma, but then tragedy intervened. In the last month of 1775, I e h i d e ^ , ^ , the head of the Fuji family and the twenty-first priest of the Kashima Inari Shrine, died at the age of sixty-two. Teibu took over his father's 30 duties, but only a month later death struck him down as well. The 81-deaths of father and son i n such quick succession suggests that a con-tagious disease was the cause, and Akinari, now qualified as a physi-cian, probably attended at their sickbeds. The role of family head and chief priest now f e l l to Utsuna, then aged twenty-six. Of course he continued to v i s i t Akinari and render whatever assistance he could, but with Iehide and Teibu gone Akinari could hardly have found Kashima the same. There were painful memories attached to the place now, and i t v/as a convenient time to move on. He may have been content with the l i f e he had been li v i n g , but his 31 mother was urging him to return to Osaka'. He f e l t obliged to raise his personal income and provide his wife and mother with a standard of livi n g more to their l i k i n g . And so, with the poetic reflection, Dare ka mata One day, perhaps Sumikawaruran Another w i l l take my place Yu ni taeshi In this borrowed lodging Toshi no mitose no Where I bore my sorrows 32 Kari no yadori wo For the space of three years. 33 Akinari, sometime in 1776, took his family back to Osaka- and opened a medical practice i n Amagasaki-cho , not far from their old home in Dojima. NOTES 1. Setsuyo kikan. V§1. 32, i n Naniwa soshor ed. Funakoshi Seiichi-ro, Vol. 4 (Osaka, 1927), IV, 83-159, N.B. p. 157. The date of the fire i s given as Meiwa Era, 5th year (1768), 3rd month, 23rd day. -82-2. He stated i n three different writings that he was thirty-eight at the time. See Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 293; Jiden. Ibun. p. 260; Jizo hakogaki. Ibunf pp. 498, 499. 3. Setfiuyo k^kan,, Vol. 32, Naniwa sosho. IV, 181. 4. Jiden. Ibun. p. 260. 5. Jizo hakogaki. Ibun. p. 499. See also Jiden. Ibun. p. 255. 6. See Takada, Akinari nempuf p. 72. Fuji Teibu was also called I e t o k i ^ : ^ - . This may be the earliest recorded use of the name "Aki-nari," but Takada himself ignores this instance and states that the name f i r s t appears i n Kusagusa no fumi %iiXf\ completed i n 1775 by Teibu's brother Utsunafj' (also called Ietaka^-^,). See Akinari  nempu. p. 76. Another scholar contends that the name's earliest ap-pearance v/as i n the preamble to a verse composed on the occasion of Kato Umaki's departure after his f i r s t period of association with Aki-nari. See Oiso Yoshio, "Ueda Akinari wa futari i t a , " Kokugo kokubun- gaku ha. 13 (April 1961), 11-16. Oiso surmises that Akinari received his name from Umaki, or perhaps even earlier from his Shimo no Reizeike instructor, since i t i s most often used i n connection with waka. and kokugaku. On the use of names i n pre-modern Japan, see Webb. Research  in Japanese Sources, pp. 46-49. 7. See Nakamura, Kinsei sakka kenkvu. p. 210. 8. Jiden. Ibunf p. 255. 9. See Asano Sampei, Akinari zenkashu to sono kenkyu (Tokyo: Ofu-sha, 1969), p. 58. 10. Now the Kanzakl River. At the conclusion of his Nagara no  miyako ko J l ^ f f i j ^ (unpublished manuscript preserved at the Kaguwashi Jinja), Akinari said that he had written i t while residing near the Mkuni River. On the basis of that statement, and the verse quoted above, i t has been surmised that Akinari's dwelling was beside the dike on the river, not far from the shrine. See Noma Koshin, "Kashima insei j i d a i no Akinari," Kamigata. 58 (Aug. 1936), 2-10. 11. See note 8, above. 12. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 293. 13. Jlden. Ibun. p. 255. 14. Fuji Utsuna, Kusagusa no fumi. quoted i n Takada, Akinari nem-pu , p. 76. 15. Pointed out i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 76. 16. Osaka shuppan shoseki mokuroku. p. 94. 17. Yasaisho. Zenshu. II, 449-477. For the students' preface, see p. 450. 18. Publication data i n Zenshu. II, 477. 19. For Buson's preface, see Zenshu. II, 449. 20. See Takeoka Masao, "Fujitanl Nariakira to Ueda Akinari no kankei," Kokugo. 2 (Sept. 1953), 222-228. 21. See Buson's letter to Masanaji. % dated 9th month, 6th day, presumably of 1776, i n Buson shu. ed. Otani Tokuzo, Okada Rihei, and Shimai Kiyoshi, Koten Haibungaku Taikei, Vol. 12 (Tokyo: Shueisha, 1972), XII, 433. 22. Ugetsu monogatari. NKBT, LVI, 33-141, N.B. p. 77. 23. See Oba, Akinari no tenkansho. p. 44. 24. From his students' preface to Yasaisho. Zenshu. II, 450; un-published translation by Leon M. Zolbrod. 25. Ibid. 26. See Akinari, Ashlkabi no kotoba h L-pv 7>'V) z Zenshu. I, 185-190. 27. Ashikabi was written i n the second month of 1774. See Ibid, p. 190. 28. See Mizuta Norihisa, ed. Kenkado nikki (Osaka, 1972), pp. 6, 9, 16, 39, 41, 45, 51, 58, 69, 75, 77, 78, 89, 96, 97, 122, 129, 130, 133, 145, 151, 160, 163, 165, 167, 171, 187, 355, 357, 386, 396, 416, 424, 425, 441, 450. The entries on these pages record a total of for ty-four meetings between Akinari and Kenkado. 29. See Akinari's letter to Umaki i n Fumihogu <i ?? fa , Zenshu. I, 191-228, N.B. pp. 193, 194. 30. See Takada, Akinari nemnu. pp. 88, 89. Technically, Iehide 85-dled early i n 1776, according to the Western calendar. 31. Jiden. Ibun. p. 255. 32. See Asano, Akinari zenkashu. p. 204. 33. The possibility that the move took place late i n 1775 cannot be ruled out. In Tandai. no. 5, NKBT, LVI, 254, Akinari said that he was forty-three when he began to practice as a physician, but i n Ibid., no. 69, p. 293, he said that he was forty-two. 1776 i s most l i k e l y the correct date, however, because Akinari probably would not have l e f t Kashima while Iehide was seriously i l l , and because spring would have been a more convenient time than the dead of winter to find a new home • CHAPTER IV UGETSU MONOGATARI Shortly after returning to Osaka, Akinari published the collec-tion of nine tales of the supernatural that he called Ugetsu monogata-r i . 1 Based i n large measure on Chinese sources, but so adapted to the Japanese scene as to make them a unique blending of both cultures, the Ugetsu tales have come to rank among the representative works of Ja-panese literature. Scholars are almost unanimous i n calling them Aki-nari 's masterpiece. Although the tales defy characterization, Ugetsu must be seen as an early example of yomihonfl', JJN a style of prose literature that had begun to appear by mid-century. Originally the term "yomihon" referred simply to books whose main point was their written content rather than their pictures. In that context i t was applied to the hachimon.iiyabon to distinguish them from the l i b e r a l l y illustrated books that were popular at the same time. Now, however, as a technical term i n Japan-ese literary history, the word denotes a category of books that were written on a grand scale i n a blend of elegant and colloquial styles, their intricate plots generally borrowed from Chinese sources but com-bined with Japanese history and legend. Books of this variety, repre-sented by the works of Santo K y o d e n J j ^ ^ ^ (1761-18!/$) and Takizawa Baking ;XJ|/i" (1767-1848), came out i n profusion i n Edo during the Bunka (1804-1817) and BunseiJL$£ (I8I87I830) Eras, but their early predecessors, most of which appeared i n the Kamigata region, share the same qualities. These include Tsuga Teisho»s Hanabusa zoshi $L ^ -87-(pub. 1749) and Shlgeshlge vawa^fif^Cnub. 1766), Takebe Ayatari's Nishiyama monogatari (pub. 1768) and Honcho Suikoden (pub» 1773), and Akinari's Ugetsu monogatari. Books such as these l a i d the groundwork for what was to follow. Most of the early yomihon were relatively short works or collections of stories. With the exception of Honcho suikoden. few were written on a "grand scale," but they do possess a l l the other recognized characteristics of the later yemihon. and they have an intellectual quality that sets them apart from the ukiyo-zoshi. Effectively, the year 1767, when the Hachimonjiya. ceased opera-tions and sold i t s printing materials, marks the end of the ukiyo-zo- shi genre. No works of merit were published after that date, and i t was roughly about that time that the yomihon began to appear. Yomihon were not so much an offspring of the ukiyo-zoshi as a.reaction against them—a conscious effort to create something better. Actually, trans-lations or adaptations of Chinese literary works were common among the kanazoshi and ukiyo-zoshi. but around the beginning of the eighteenth century a class of Chinese novel known as pal hua.-fo , or vernacular stories, started coming into Japan, and books of this kind proved most influential i n the development of the yomihon. Dating largely from the Yuan and Ming dynasties, they were written i n a style closely re-sembling the spoken language of their day. Their elaborate plots of-ten featured bizarre or supernatural themes, or heroic deeds, but were frequently interspersed with intellectual asides by the characters, or with comments by the author on historical or cultural matters. An overt stress on ethical principles was common. The market for such 88-novels was at f i r s t limited to those who could read Chinese, but before long their admirers began to produce annotated editions and transla-tions into Japanese. Thanks to the efforts of men like Okajima Kanzan chuan ^ Icfltf ^ £ to be annotated for reading as a kambun text, Chinese vernacular fi c t i o n had become quite popular i n Japan by mid-century. Credit must also be given to the Bakufu's emphasis on Confucian teach-ings, as well as to the general trend towards education that followed the Genroku Era—which as we have seen was partly due to government suppression of economic excesses. It was only a matter of time before men who were looking for a new direction to take from the ukiyo-zoshi style of literature began to try their hands at adaptations from the Chinese. One such man was Tsuga Teisho. From wide reading i n Chinese works he had acquired an abundance of material that he might transpose with relatively minor revisions into a Japanese setting. His adapta-tion was at times incomplete, however, for he was so faithful to his sources that his works are sometimes more li k e translations than adap-tations. Aside from giving Japanese names to the places and charac-ters, and a more local flavor to the conversation, he added l i t t l e that was original. Inconsistencies in the characters' thoughts and the customs they observe sometimes appear. Frequently Teisho even took the original Chinese language directly into his Japanese version, a move which i n some instances helped to preserve the Chinese mood, but more often just yielded an immature effect. Such weaknesses were most apparent i n Hanabusa zoshi. In subsequent works, like Shigeshige yawa and gusaJfr-'H] 4^K(nub. 1786), he improved his techniques, making (1674-1728), who began work on the f i r s t edition of Shui hu 89-his stories less conspicuously Chinese in origin, and his language more purely Japanese. Unlike the hachimon.1 iyabon. which portrayed the contemporary world, Teisho's adaptations were of supernatural tales* Such foreign-flavored, sometimes even bizarre stories had a refreshing newness which many readers found fascinating and worthy of emulation. S t i l l , one must not assume Akinari's supernatural tales to be i n -debted only to eerie stories from China. The ghostly tale i n Japan has a much longer history. Many tales with supernatural elements may be found i n the Nihon r.volki %.fii> of the Nara period, the monogatari s h u # 7 ^ ^ o f late Heian times, or the setsuwa-^ J$ literature of the middle ages. During the Tokugawa period an abundance of such stories appeared among the kanazoshi. and i n spite of certain exceptions, these can be seen as not developing into the ukiyo-zoshi. but as bypassing them and contributing to the development of the early 2 yomihon. Many of these tales were drawn from earlier Japanese narra-tives or from Chinese stories. K l i zodan shu falfffiN%Lljt. for example, which was written i n late Muromachi times, though not published u n t i l 1687, borrowed l i b e r a l l y from such works as the Kon.laku monogatari shu and U.1i shui monogatari^ *7<^^ffi7f& T but also contained translations of three tales from the Chinese collection Chien teng hsin hua ffi X^tPiMi* which had recently been imported. Later, Asai Ryoi H "f (ca. 1612-1691) published adaptations from the same t i t l e i n his Otogi bokojffi/fl(7 •4j? J (pub. 1666) and i t s sequel, Inu hariko)[£lffi 3- (pub. 1692), and other authors produced similar collections. When Akinari wrote Ugetsu. then, he had available both adaptations of Chinese tales and the indi -genous material i n such collections. He may also have made his way -90-3 back to the Chinese originals. But i n the writing of Ugetsu. Akinari was directly indebted more to Tsuga Teisho than to any other author. Even the five-volume, nine-tale format was copied from Teisho's collections. Like Teisho he adapted most of the tales from Chinese sources, though unlike the old-er author he fully digested his material and embellished i t with de-t a i l s from Japanese history and classical literature. Akinari's f l a i r for literary style also made his stories literary works i n their own right, sometimes superior to their models. They were i n no sense plagiarisms. But Akinari's personal relationship with Teisho i s not at a l l clear. Ota Nampo said that Akinari had learned from Teisho, and i t has been widely assumed that what he learned was medicine, but the only basis for this conjecture i s that he was studying to become a phy-sician at the time Teisho's influence on his writings i s most evident. The only firm proof that they knew each other i s the fact that Teisho wrote a preface for Akinari's Yasumigoto^ n i n 1792.5 Even i f Teisho did serve as his teacher, Akinari never indicated a regard for him comparable to his respect for Umaki. Teisho was not a true scholar, but used his a b i l i t y to read popular Chinese novels i n order to adapt them to the tastes of the book-buying public. He v/as not the man to study under i f one's concern was for academic purity. Having studied Chinese i n his youth, Akinari very l i k e l y did not feel the need for further instruction. He may have sought companionship with Teisho as a popular author whose name would be good advertising for his own writings, but he probably learned more from Teisho's works than from Teisho as a man, at least as far as literary matters go. -91-Takebe Ayatari, whose Nishiyama monogatari had combined a roman-ti c plot with a kokugakusha's knowledge of the native classics, must also be considered among those who helped set the stage for Ugetsu. Although he had based his novel upon a contemporary event, he had made use of an elegant form of Japanese reminiscent of the language of the Heian court romances. This was the so-called gabun style, which many others strove to copy or improve upon. To a degree, Ayatari 1s style was an a r t i f i c i a l construction. He had deliberately used expressions from old classics and even noted the sources i n the text. But despite the pedantry, Nishiyama. sparked considerable discussion. As a purely Japanese tale i t was, i n a sense, a reaction against the popular trans-lations and adaptations from the Chinese. Subsequently Ayatari wrote Honcho suikoden. v/hich was, of course, inspired by the Chinese tale Shul hu chuan. but he managed to break free from his source and adapt the story smoothly to a Japanese setting. This v/ork also created great interest i n literary circles, and Takizawa Bakin even called i t the 6 fxrst yomihon. In their efforts to get away from the ukiyo-zoshi and break new ground, the early yomihon authors came to look to the Japan-ese classics for inspiration. The classics were seen as absolutes; the ideal goal, then, was not to modernize them but to emulate their style. Even Teisho's works, despite their lack of originality and their prof-it-motivated orientation, had such a revolutionary aim. In his pref-ace to Hanabusa zoshi. Teisho called his work a book unlike the popu-lar literature of the day, having aims common to those of Tsurezure- fflsa|I.S ^ and The Tale of Gen.1l.7 Ayatari's Nishiyama' was a s t i l l more obvious attempt to go back to the classics. Even the use of 92-"monogatari" in the t i t l e betrays that intention. Akinari signed Ugetsu with the psuedonym Senshi K i j i n , the only time he used the name, which seems f i t t i n g for Ugetsu. As a reference to his deformed hands, i t was derived from the experience that had given him an enduring belief i n the supernatural. Nevertheless, one should be wary of accounting for Ugetsu simply i n the light of i t s au-thor's acceptance of such things. True, i t i s beyond dispute that Akinari did believe i n a world bey<5hd the one he lived i n , but i n this respect he was no different from the average person of his day. Not every believer i n the supernatural produces a masterpiece of l i t e r a -ture about i t ~ n o t even every believer with literary talent. Nor should a belief in ghosts and demons even be necessary i n order to write vivid stories about them. A keen imagination and a g i f t for expression looms far more important. Moreover, i t i s only i n Ugetsu. of a l l Akinari's writings, that the supernatural takes on dominant proportions. It does appear i n some of his other fic t i o n , but on nowhere near the same scale—none of those works can be called ghost stories. Yet Ugetsu has overshadowed a l l of Akinari's other work to such a degree that he has come to be known, to the popular mind, as a confirmed romantic ab-sorbed i n the occult. Just how obsessed with metaphysical things was he? We know that Akinari did believe i n supernatural manifestations and took issue with those who denied their occurrence. In response to certain rationalists who maintained that so-called fox possession was nothing more than the symptoms of disease, for example, he countered that there were numerous cases of such possession on record. He noted -93-the experience of Hosoai Hansel who, while v i s i t i n g a certain temple in the capital, had seen the sun apparently go down i n the middle of the day. Stating his conviction that Hosoai had been deceived by a fox or badger, Akinari went on to relate a personal experience. When he was an old man, li v i n g in Kyoto, he said, he had once set out to v i s i t a temple i n the northeastern part of the city* Although the path was clear and wide, he inexplicably went astray and ended up far off the mark. After correcting his error, he reached his intended destination and related what had happened to the abbot, who told him that his mistake was a sign of illn e s s , and advised him to take care. But even though he took special pains to follow the right path on the return journey, he lost his way once again. He concluded that a fox 9 had bewitched him. On another occasion, also after he had moved to Kyoto, he set out to v i s i t a shrine at which i t was his custom to pay his respects each month, the enshrined deity being the tutelary god of his birthplace i n Osaka. He reached the shrine, completed his worship, and started home before noon. Enroute he was caught i n a rain shower. Suffering from fatigue and troubled by his eyes, which were then verging on blindness, he stopped at the home of a friend and ate the mid-day meal with him. The host offered to c a l l a palanquin or let him stay the night, but the rain had eased, home was no more than a.mile away, and he was quite familiar with the route, so he decided to start out on foot once again. The rain intensified, but the road was wide, so Akinari kept on, thinking there was no chance of mistaking the way, but he did get lost, and went astray again while trying to correct his error. Night was -94' fa l l i n g by the time he reached home. Experiences such as these, said Akinari, proved that foxes and badgers really do cast spells over men, and he ridiculed Nakai Riken, who maintained that such things never happened. Riken could make such statements, Akinari said, only because he stayed shut up i n his school and never ventured into the real world 10 to see for himself. Nevertheless, aside from these experiences and a few remarks on the supernatural here and there i n hie writings, Akinari on the whole maintained a rational view of l i f e . He realized that some things could not be explained s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , but even so, his use of what were, to him, factual examples of fox possession to counter Riken's arguments illustrates his rational position. We should also note that these supposed experiences with the supernatural occurred long after the ap-pearance of Ugetsu and were not necessarily connected with i t . Nor i s there any evidence that Akinari's belief in the supernatural extended to a l l of i t s manifestations that appear i n his work. It i s probably better to explain his authorship of Ugetsu i n the light of the ghostly element i n the Chinese and Japanese stories that he read, and the de-sire, common at the time, to emulate the style of the classics. Aug-menting his sources with his own imagination, and weaving his plots together with an elegantly poetic style, Akinari produced a work of eerie beauty that represents the highest a r t i s t i c level reached by the supernatural tale i n Japan. His actual belief i n the other world, though helpful, was surely not the decisive factor. The Ugetsu preface i s dated late spring, 1768, yet the tales were not published u n t i l 1776. Why was there such a long delay? Alterna--95-tively, did Akinari write the preface before he wrote the book? Or did he have some reason for falsifying the actual date of completion? The second of these three questions should cause l i t t l e concern. The preface speaks of the tales as being already finished. The established practice was to write one's preface after the work had been completed, and i t i s unnatural to do otherwise. The other two questions, however, have been the subjects of considerable discussion. However high the li t e r a r y merit of Akinari's ukiyo-zoshi may be, they are quite unlike Ugetsu in content and literary style. It i s hard to imagine their author turning out a work so different i n only a year's time. Talent requires time to mature, especially when moving in new directions. Common sense t e l l s us that Akinari would have needed more than a year in which to broaden and deepen his a r t i s t i c sense to the point where Ugetsu became possible. But i f the tales were not complete by 1768, why did Akinari a f f i x that date to his preface? One possible answer i s his feelings of jealousy toward Take-be Ayatari. Ayatari's Nishiyama monogatari had been based on a real event and written i n imitation of the classical style; his Honcho Sui- koden had been based on a Chinese source but s k i l l f u l l y adapted to a Japanese setting. Thus by 1776, when Ugetsu was published, the quali-ties of which i t could boast had already been introduced by Ayatari. Akinari did not lik e Ayatari, and considered himself the better man. Perhaps he even f e l t that he had made his own literary developments independently, but realized that i f he dated Ugetsu correctly he would be considered indebted to Ayatari. Such a debt he refused to acknowl-edge, and so he f a l s i f i e d the date of Ugetsu to make i t appear contem--96-porary with Nishlyama. This view seems plausible. But i t i s easy to overestimate Aki-nari* s scorn for Nishlyama. Granted, he already had acrimonious feel-ings toward i t s author, but he did not openly condemn,the work i t s e l f until 1806, when he met the protagonist of the incident on which i t was based, learned the facts of the affair, and was outraged at Aya-ta r i *s distortion of them. S t i l l , this outrage did not deter him from writing his own fictionalized version of the incident, which he includ-ed i n his Harusame monogatari. Furthermore, i f Akinari had really wanted to avoid any appearance of indebtedness to Ayatari, why did he not make Ugetsu seem to clearly antedate Nishlyama?. Nishlyama had ap-peared i n the second month of 1768. The "late spring" date for Ugetsu suggests that i t was completed a bit later. If the date was a fabri-cation designed to upstage Ayatari, i t was a careless one. It i s more li k e l y that Ugetsu. or at least the f i r s t draft, was indeed finished i n the spring of 1768, but for reasons that are not clear the publication was delayed for eight years. This i s not to say that the Ugetsu of 1768 was the same work that was fin a l l y published i n 1776. The shift from the everyday world of Sekenzaru and Tekake  katagi to the transcendence of reality found in Ugetsu could not be accomplished overnight. More l i k e l y the original draft of Ugetsu was in the vein of ukiyo-zoshi. The reader w i l l r e c a l l that the published edition of Tekake katagi had carried an advertisement for a forthcom-ing work by the same author entitled Salgyo hanashi uta makura somebu- roshlkl..and w i l l notice that the f i r s t tale i n the Ugetsu collection has the poet-priest Saigyo as i t s central character. Quite l i k e l y the -97-f i n a l version, of Ugetsu grew out of stories that were written earlier, at least some of which were originally intended for Someburoshiki. To be sure, this remains a reasoned guess, but Akinari does appear to have written more than he published around that time. In his preface to Tekake katagi he implied that i t s ten tales had been selected! from over twenty that he had composed. Presumably then, when he wrote Uge- tsu he f i r s t made use of material that he had intended for Kaisen da- yori and Someburoshiki. Then, before the manuscript went to press, he saw the wisdom of abandoning the ukiyo-zoshi style, but unwilling to discard what he had written, he kept i t and revised i t over the years unt i l he was satisfied. The period of rewriting was a.time of consi-derable intellectual and a r t i s t i c development for Akinari, and he i n -corporated into the work the new knowledge that he had gained from his studies. Part of i t was also a time of economic hardship, which pro-bably made him think more seriously about l i f e , and sobered his gener-al outlook. A l l this required time to be f u l l y digested, however, and so eight years elapsed between completion of the f i r s t draft of Ugetsu and publication i n i t s f i n a l form. The above i s very l i k e l y what did happen, but i n the fi n a l analy-sis i t i s impossible to say just when Ugetsu was written. The problem of dating i t remains another of the intriguing, but as yet insoluble, mysteries of Akinari's career. Early i n 1771 a notice appeared for a. soon-to-be-published five-volume collection of supernatural stories 11 called Ugetsu monogatari. written by one Senshi Sanjln, very nearly the same pen name. By 1771, therefore, Ugetsu v/as close enough to i t s present form to be identifiable as a five-volume collection of super--98-natural tales, although the advertisement does not necessarily mean that the work was complete. Indeed, there i s no record of the publi-cation of Ugetsu. the date 1776 merely being that on the oldest extant copy. Perhaps i t was published primarily at the author's own expense.1. If so, a further reason for delay comes to mind. Around the time that the notice of forthcoming publication appeared, Akinari was burned out of his home and business and l e f t in penury. Not only may this disas-ter have l e f t him unable to finance the publication, but i f he had not yet turned the manuscript over to the publisher, i t may have been des-troyed i n the f i r e , necessitating further rewriting from memory. Novels that had been produced by the courtly society were regarded with near reverence i n Akinari's time, but contemporary fic t i o n , which was generally aimed at pleasing the masses for commercial purposes, tended to be dismissed as light literature. Even popular works of discernible literary merit suffered this neglect, and i t was conse-quently hard for a writer of fiction to be taken seriously. Akinari himself had come to see the literature of his day as being i n a sorry state. As his acquaintance with the masterpieces of the past broad-ened, i t was natural that he feel a yearning for the glories of a by-gone age and a desire to elevate contemporary literature to a similar plane. In his preface to Ugetsu. Akinari compared his work to Shui hu  chuan and The Tale of Gen.1l. It i s doubtful whether he really expected i t to prove equally monumental, but i t represented his conscious at-tempt to revive the s p i r i t of the Heian classics, and he had polished i t meticulously. He must have been proud of Ugetsu. Notwithstanding the humble terms i n which he described his own work in the preface, 99. the fact that he chose such outstanding works against which to judge i t suggests a degree of conceit. Akinari wrote his preface in Chinese, perhaps as a gesture toward the Chinese stories from which he had drawn inspiration, or perhaps as a pedantic display of his a b i l i t y , or maybe because a Chinese preface was a precedent that Teisho and Ayatari had established. The preface i s short. Akinari began by saluting the a r t i s t i c achievment of the authors of Shui hu chuan and Gen.11. despite the tradition that both received divine chastizement for publishing falsehood. He assured his own readers that his tales were not true, and no one should be deceived by them. In closing, he described how he had completed the stories on a night when the moon shone dimly through the clouds after the rain, and so had chosen the t i t l e Ugetsu monogatari. which means "Tales of Moonlight and Rain," or perhaps-more accurately, "Tales of a Clouded Moon." Whether this was true or not, the t i t l e was taken from Ugetsu. - 13 aNoh drama* in which Saigyo appears i n the waki's role. Ugetsu was Akinari's only venture into the literature of the supernatural, yet i t proved superior to a l l i t s predecessors and f o l -lowers i n the genre i n Japan. Like no other work, i t combines a vivid ghostly atmosphere with a poetic style that i s a delight to read. Into the world of the classics, which was a dream world, one not to be known but f e l t , Akinari blended fantasy, imagination, and a supernatural element which suggested mystery and a kind of warped beauty. While striving to emulate the s p i r i t of the Heian classics, he drew much plot material from China. This was no contradiction. He recognized that Japan was indebted to China for many aspects, of i t s own culture. •loo-This awareness i s implicit i n his parallel consideration of Shui hu  chuan and The Tale of Gen.ii i n the preface. Throughout Ugetsu. Akinari retained control over his ghosts, never letting them get the better of him. He used them not to convey terror for i t s own sake but to enhance the ideas and sensibility that he wished to stress. In the f i r s t tale, "Shiramine."-^^ , for example, the ghost's taking on a ghoulish form i s terrifying, but of secondary importance. The opening lines carry no hint of the nether world, merely setting an appropriate mood for the story. The reader i s taken on a journey from the capital region up to the Kanto and Tohoku areas, then back down through Osaka.and on to the island of Shikoku, passing through places whose names are imbued with tradition and tinged with emotion i n the Japanese mind. This, together with the aura of sweet sadness that so often accompanies a journey i n Japan—the beauties of the landscape tempered by the fatigue of travel and the hardships of the journey, the changing of the seasons that gives the viewer a renewed awareness of his own mortality, the implied sorrow of separation from beloved persons and places, intensified by the uncertainty of ever seeing them again—serve to transfer the reader from the present into an unreal world of long ago. With the mood thus established, Akinari proceeds to construct the setting. It i s night i n early winter. The thick vegetation that makes the site dim and gloomy even on a clear day i n -tensifies the darkness, and the mists that rise from the deep gorge below add their own sombreness to the scene. In this lonely and deserted place, the once proud Sutoku has come to rest i n an insignificant tomb, and here Saigyo sorrowfully prays 9 -101-for the departed emperor's soul. In this manner the atmosphere for the ghost's appearance i s created, yet the s p i r i t of Sutoku does not come as a frightening specter, and the main body of the tale i s not a ghost story at a l l , but a debate between opposing views of history and p o l i t i c a l action—a confrontation between Mencius* doctrine of the right to revolt and Saigyo»s view that rebellion to satisfy personal ambition i s not appropriate for Japan. Akinari i n effect uses Saigyo as his alter ego. The p o l i t i c a l and historical ideas spoken by Saigyo are those of Akinari, who betrays his kokugaku background with a rejection of the continental philosophy in favor of the Japanese tradition of the unbroken imperial l i n e . But the tale amounts to more than an intellectual discourse, for through the mood that has been established, Akinari gives a kind of tragic beauty to Sutoku's f a l l . Moreover, we see the f i r s t instance of a re-curring theme i n Ugetsu—the idea that human feelings can carry over from this l i f e into the next and even affect the course of history. It i s to underline this point that, toward the end of the story, Su-toku transfigures himself into the form of the demon he has become. Only then does he emerge as a terrifying figure, but his fearsome ap-pearance and the subsequent fulfillment of his dire prophecies leaves the reader awed by his power. But here, as i n the other tales, cheap sensationalism i s avoided. Throughout Ugetsu the apparition's func-tion i s nearly always to stress the author's ethical views, either acting as his mouthpiece or, as i n the case of Sutoku and others, em-phasizing his views by standing in opposition to them. An ethical theme pervades the whole of the v/ork, but i t i s not simply the "reward -102-virtue and punish vice" of Confucian ethics, which became standard fare in the later yomihon. Rather i t i s a c a l l for expression of the innate goodness of man, the nature of the pure Japanese s p i r i t as ex-pressed i n the classics. The ethical focus i s even more apparent i n the second tale, "Ki-kuka. no c h i g i r i " ^ ^ ^ > ^ , considered by some to be the most nearly perfect of the nine stories. Like "Shiramine," i t s mood i s established at the beginning, though with a moral discourse, not a, travel scene. "Green, green grows the spring willow. But never plant i t i n your garden. Never pick a falsehearted man for a friend. Although the willow may bud early, does i t hold up when autumn's f i r s t wind blows? A falsehearted man makes friends easily, but he i s fi c k l e . Whereas the willow for many springs takes on new colour, a falsehearted man w i l l break off with you and never c a l l again." The next sentence intro-duces the hero and the setting i n straightforward prose: "In the prov-ince of Harima> in the town of Kako there dwelt a scholar whose name 14 was Hasebe Samon," but the reader has already been transported out of his real world by the l y r i c a l parallel passages of the opening hom-i l y . These introductory lines, and those of the conclusion, which are a simple restatement, reveal Akinari's intention i n "Kikuka," The f i -delity of Samon and Akana stands out i n contrast to the fickle man whom Akinari warns against. He extols those who live lives of sinceri-ty i n a world of fickleness and dishonesty; those whose f i d e l i t y and devotion to duty transcend any attachment to l i f e and self-interest. Unlike "Shiramine" and most of the other tales, the setting of "Kikuka" i s of no particular importance. It does nothing to advance -103-the plot;, Kako was just one of the stops on the route that Akana was taking from Qmi to Izumo, and Akinari selected i t arbitrarily. It i s a story that could have happened anywhere, and thus the ethical theme i s free from distractions and remains uppermost in the narrative. Sa-mon lives in the manner of the ideal scholar, unconcerned about mater-i a l things, leading a simple and honest l i f e , concentrating on his studies and shunning a l l f r i v o l i t y . His mother, who i s likened to that of Mencius, supports him i n his chosen profession. Akinari may have seen in her some reflection of his own mother, who endured considerable discomfort and anxiety for the sake of his scholarly pursuits. When Samon encounters the ail i n g Akana, he dismisses warnings that the dis-ease may overtake him as well, and selflessly nurses the man back to health. After he has recovered and sworn vows of brotherhood to Samon, Akana's duty as a warrior forces him to leave, but he remembers his promise to return on the appointed day. He must keep i t at the expense of his honor, so when, detained i n the castle, he finds i t beyond his power to f u l f i l l his word, he takes his own l i f e and, freed from mor-ta l bonds, makes the journey to Samon's house as a s p i r i t . Upon learn-ing what has happened, Samon f u l f i l l s his duty to Akana by avenging his death. It i s a vivid portrayal of loyalty i n the Japanese feudal tradition. Samon and Akana are truly the antitheses of the falseheart-ed man, of whom we are once more warned as the story ends. In addition to being a; great moral tale, "Kikuka" i s also a mas-terpiece of the art of storytelling. Few of Akinari's works display this talent so well. In this, as i n a l l of the Ugetsu tales, his key technique i s to keep himself out of the action. He avoids saying more -104-about i t than i s necessary. This makes the reader unable to play the role of detached observer and forces him to become an active p a r t i c i -pant with the hero. Knowing no more than the protagonist, the reader has no choice but to follow him—in effect, to identify with him. Reader and hero have an intimate relationship. They act and feel to-gether. As the events unfold, the reader reacts i n his real world as the central character does i n his imaginary one. "Kikuka" i s told en-ti r e l y from Samon1s point of view. When Akana departs for Izumo the reader i s l e f t with Samon, and like him knows nothing of Akana's fate. There i s no indication of what i s going to happen. Like Samon, the reader can only wait and see. Nevertheless, just like Samon's mother, the reader cannot help feeling some misgivings when her son, doubting nothing, begins to prepare for his friend's return. The day passes, and the totally unconnected people, none of them Akana, who pass by on the highway intensify the mood of mounting impatience. Now the read-er's uneasiness increases. Perhaps Akanai w i l l not come. Perhaps he i s dead. Perhaps he i s the falsehearted man who was mentioned i n the opening lines. But though the reader begins to waver, Samon stands firm, and at last his trust i s vindicated. Akana appears, though not before Akinari has arranged the appropriate setting: "The Milky Way shimmered with a. pale li g h t . The moon's icy wheel shed i t s glow on him, aggravating his loneliness. A' watchdog's bark rang out through the clear air, and the sound of the waves i n the bay seemed as i f surging round the very place where he stood. The moon presently dis-appeared behind the mountain peaks, and about to give up, Samon de-cided to go back i n and close the door, when he happened to take a -105-15 last look." And so Akana arrives. The reader, having been kept i n ignorance of what has transpired i n Izumo, naturally rejoices along with Samon. While he quickly senses from Akana*s demeanor that a l l i s not as i t should be, he i s only slightly ahead of Samon in realizing that the vis i t o r i s a ghost. This i s the high point of the story. Samon's journey to Izumo to avenge Akana, and Tsunehisa's decision not to pursue such a shining example of loyalty, are necessary to give the tale a satisfactory conclusion, but they are nevertheless anticlimac-t i c . The same storytelling method i s s k i l l f u l l y employed in the third tale. Unlike the two that precede i t , "Asaji gatyado";% has no l y r i c a l passage of introduction to set the mood. In a matter-of-fact way the scene i s placed i n the village of Mama, di s t r i c t of Katsushika, province of Shimosa. This i s f i t t i n g , for at the outset the story appears to be about the unpoetic subject of commerce. Attracted: by the prospect of easy and substantial profit, Katsushiro, the hero, has invested everything he owns in fabrics and i s about to depart for the capital, where he intends to market them. It has been noted that Ka-tsushiro i s an impractical man whose poor judgment and lack of d i l i -gence have already cost him much of his property. Kis wife, Miyagi, recognizes his weakness and feels uneasy about this risky venture, but being a devoted wife, she hides her misgivings. Thus she bids fare-well to her husband, to whom the possibility of failure seems never to have occurred. The reader accompanies Katsushiro to the capital. We are told that Miyagi i s caught i n the midst of warring armies, that her safety i s threatened by neighbors whose hearts have succumbed to -106-the moral decay that accompanies famine and hardship, but that she stays on while others flee, faithfully awaiting her husband's return. But we are granted only this small glimpse of Miyagi i n her home village. Then, leaving us in suspense, Akinari takes us to the capital to Join Katsushiro, and like him we remain ignorant of her fate. We follow Katsushiro as he se l l s his wares for the expected high sum, only to have i t taken by robbers; then we accompany him while he i s detained by illn e s s and by reports that the fighting has made i t impos-sible to return home. During the seven years he i s away, neither he nor the reader hears anything about Miyagi. Thus, when he fin a l l y does: begin the journey back to Mama, we share his anticipation and trepidation; when he finds his house undamaged and Miyagi waiting for him, we share his joy and r e l i e f . To be sure, there are warnings that a l l i s not as i t appears. It i s after sundown when Katsushiro arrives, and louring rainclouds intensify the gloom. In addition to the fore-boding atmosphere, the village i s i n shambles, the fields untilled, and everything so changed that Katsushiro can scarcely find his way. Strange Indeed that only his house remains as of old. Miyagi's voice has changed; she i s dirty and emaciated, and her hair disheveled, quite unlike her former self. Yet so subtly are these points expressed that we, li k e Katsushiro, are inclined to attribute them to coincidence and to Miyagi's age and the trying conditions under which she has been l i v i n g . Thus we share his shock and dismay v/hen he awakens the next morning to find his house i n shambles and his wife gone, and realizes that he has spent the night with a<ghost. The tale ends not at this climax, but in an extended decrescendo of sadness. Only then do we -107-learn a l l that has befallen Miyagi. Like "Kikuka," "Asaji" i s a. tale of f i d e l i t y , i n this case a.wife's f i d e l i t y to her husband. The epitome of the traditional Japanese wo-man, Miyagi i s perhaps Akinari's most s k i l l f u l l y portrayed character. Her husband, however, i s not very satisfying as a hero. We are unable to be very sympathetic with his failure to return home for so long. While i t i s true that he has l i t t l e hope of finding his wife alive, we expect him at least to make an attempt to go to her. He accepts the hopelessness too readily; his attitude strikes us as more of the care-lessness and irresponsibility that had caused him grief before the story opened. Yet Katsushiro's very weakness serves to emphasize Mi-yagi 's strength. While there i s l i t t l e i n Katsushiro to inspire un-dying f i d e l i t y , Miyagi faithfully waits for him as her world collapses about her. Such devotion i s , i t would appear, strong enough to trans-cend the bonds of death, so that even though she has l e f t the world she i s on hand to welcome Katsushiro when he arrives home. Then, her duty carried out and her f i d e l i t y proven, she dissolves into the dawn like the morning dew. There i s a. beauty i n this kind of feminine devotion that Akinari took very much to heart. Perhaps Miyagi reflected some-thing of Tama's devotion to him. In any case, Miyagi was by no means a new character for him, but ai direct outgrowth of Fujino, the out-standing heroine of the Tekake katagi tales. Having introduced his feminine ideal i n his earlier work, Akinari brought her to perfection 16 in Ugetsu, likening her to the legendary Mama no Tegona, rememberedl in song by Man'yoshu poets, who drowned herself in despair at her i n -17 ab i l i t y to please a l l of her many lovers. It was i n order to con--108-nect the story with her that Akinari set his tale i n the village of Mama. the supernatural functions not to awe or frighten the reader, but to delight Mm. There are elements of eerie strangeness, but none of terror. A gentle humor pervades the story. Although the reader does not know v/hy Kogi the priest i s able, immediately after his return to l i f e , to describe i n such detail what Taira and his friends have been doing, Akinari casts his prose i n such a way that we do not share the characters 1 wonder and discomfiture, but are entertained by i t . We are also amused by Kogi's deliberations, when hungry, as he weighs the consequences of taking or leaving the fisherman's bait, and after he has been caught, by his vain efforts to attract his captor's attention. It i s the standard comedy device of pain or distress becoming funny when too unreal to be taken seriously. Like the clown scenes i n a. Shakespearean tragedy or the farces that come i n between Noh plays, "Muo no rigyo" provides Ugetsu with a> note of comic r e l i e f . But even more than the humor, i t i s the fantasy that gives this tale i t s appeal. Anyone who has dreamed of flying like a bird, swinging through the trees like a monkey, performing superhuman feats of strength, or what-ever, can identify with Kogi, v/ho realizes his desire to swim like a fi s h . Technically, the story could have occurred around any body of water, but since Akinari chose as his protagonist the historical Kogi, who v/as a. monk at the Mil Temple, the water had to be that of Lake ELwa. Conversely, he may have chosen Kogi as the hero because he wanted to write about the locality of Lake Biwa. Whatever the case, differs from the preceding tales i n that -109-he used the setting to great advantage, taking the reader on a tour around the lake and showing him i t s various beauty spots from a. fish's eye view. Again, i n his poetic discription of these natural wonders, a l l of them famed in poetry, we see his legacy from the national learn-ing. with ai poetic opening passage: "Japan, the Land of Peace and Calm, had long been true to i t s name. Its people rejoiced i n their labour and s t i l l found time to relax underneath the cherry-blossoms i n spring and to v i s i t the many-coloured groves of trees i n autumn. Those who wished might take long trips by sea. with the t i l l e r as their pillow and v i s i t the strange shores of Tsukushi, Yet others could set their hearts on the pleasure of climbing such peaks as Mt. Fuji and Tsukuba," The implied praise of the Tokugawa. shogunate, which had brought this e r a i of tranquility to the land, should not be overlooked. Although Akinari was sharply c r i t i c a l of his society, he did not see p o l i t i c a l reform as the way to change things for the better. Later, i n 1789, he even wrote a short piece i n praise of the Edo government and the peace 19 enjoyed under i t s administration. As a story, "Bupposo" i s quite simple. While spending the night on Mt, Koya, the haiku poet Muzen and his son encounter the ghostly retinue of Toyotomi Hidetsugu and his retainers, who years before had taken their own lives on the mountain. The spectral visitors hold a nighttime drinking party, during which they discuss the meaning of a poem, and f i n a l l y they c a l l upon the mortal Muzen, who has been cower-ing i n the background, to join them and compose the opening stanza for util i z e s the technique of setting the mood -110-a*. linked-verse sequence. Like "Shiramine," "Bupposo" i s as much a discourse as a. story. Akinari uses the narrative format to convey reverence for the traditions of Mt. Koya>, to present his own views on certain historical persons and events, and to discuss poetry. Never-theless the setting i s expertly portrayed;; the atmosphere of Mt. Koya, both sacred and eerie, pervades the tale. Here in the silence of the night, broken only by the sound of running water and the occasional cry of the unseen bird, the stage i s set for the appearance of Hide-tsugu and his followers. As the spot where these warriors committed suicide, as the site of the Tamagawa River which i s the subject of - - 20 the debated verse, and as the home of the bird called bupposo. whose cry sounds in the background, Mt. Koyai i s indispensable as the setting. S t i l l , "Bupposo" i s too simple to make a very satisfying story. Not much really happens, and the abrupt digression from the action to a lengthy discussion on the correct interpretation of a>. poem which has no connection with the events of the story i s distracting. The dis-course i t s e l f has l i t t l e meaning except for readers i n possession of specialized knowledge. This detracts from the story, but i t may be a reflection of Akinari's desire to appeal to a different kind of audi-ence than he had i n the past. Remembering his lighter works, he may have wanted to stress to the reader (and to himself as well) how much he had changed his views and come to appreciate ai higher degree of learning. For readers dissatisfied with "Bupposo," "Kibitsu no kama" ^H^jHF A seems more than adequate compensation. Like "Asaji gai yado," this i s also a tale of a foresaken wife, but whereas Akinari presented - I l l -Miyagi as his ideal of the patient and long-suffering woman, i n Isora. he portrays the epitome of the woman scorned. As Miyagi 1s love and devotion transcend even the grave, so does Isora 1s bitterness. Miyagi faithfully waits for her husband and returns after death to v/elcome him home, whereas Isora dies in vexation and comes back from the grave to wreak a bloody vengeance on those who have wronged her. Miyagi i s Akinari's most endearing character; Isora^ his most terrifying one. While Miyagi*s gentleness and f i d e l i t y may remind us of Yugao i n The:  Tale of Genii. Isora*s vengeful s p i r i t evokes memories of Lady Rokujo i n the same book. Women of Akinari's time were bound by conventions set by men, and had few rights. The san.1u< , or "three subordinations," required a woman to obey her parents while single, her husband while married, and her eldest son when widowed, while the shichi kvo-K £ set down the seven reasons—unfilial conduct, i n f e r t i l i t y , i n f i d e l i t y , jealousy, gossiping, stealing, and poor health—for which she could be divorced. Even i f her husband transferred his affections to another woman or abandoned her altogether, as Shotaro does i n "Kibitsu," her duty was to continue her responsibilities as wife of the house, marriage being a union not of individuals but of families. This Isora does, while she l i v e s . In a society that condoned polygyny and male i n f i d e l i t y , jealously was a passion that many wives were forced to contend with. There i s no indication that Akinari meant to attack the system which bred such jealousy, but he called for wisdom and restraint on the part of men. The tale begins with a short discourse on the perils of a jealous wife, and argues; that a man must protect himself against this -112-jealousy by disciplining his own conduct and extending guidance to his mate. Jealousy, Akinari implies, i s an inborn fault of women against which men must be on guard. Shotaro f a i l s to do so and suffers the fearsome consequences. Living, Isora shows the self-denial of the ideal wife; dead, she displays the self-interest of a beast. As ai mortal she appears to accept her husband's philandering with resignation but the fires, of jealousy arise and consume her. Once out of this world, she i s free from lav; and convention. No longer human, she may vent her primitive passions. Akinari saw i n non-humans a f i d e l i t y to the self, noting with keen interest that animals respond to a different kind of logic than do people. One day, he recorded, while walking down a street, he saw a dog steal a fish from a fishmonger's basket. He called the man's attention to the theft and watched as the fishmonger put down his bas-ket, beat the dog with a rod, retrieved his fish, and continued on his way. But, Akinari observed, the dog followed after the man with an expression and demeanor suggesting that i t considered i t s e l f the vic-21 txm of a crime, not a. justly punished thief. Akinari also recalled the story of a.maidservant who unwittingly poured a tub of dirty water over a sleeping fox. The fox awoke and promptly possessed the g i r l — a; natural reaction for him. The maid had committed her mistake with-out malice, but the fox's simple animal nature could not see her mor-al innocence. He could only understand that he had been v/ronged, so 22 he turned to a simple and direct kind of revenge. Elsewhere Akinari told of a.maiden who, her lover being forbidden to v i s i t her, would go to his lodgings by night over a\ mountain pathway. On one such occasion -113-she met a hungry wolf. Pleading with the beast to allow her one last v i s i t to her lover, she promised to return and surrender herself to him i f he would grant her this one favor. The wolf let her go. Later that night she returned to the place, expecting to be devoured on the spot, but the v/olf was nowhere to be seen. The next time she made the journey, she l e f t a- gi f t of food beside the path, and found when she returned that i t had a l l been eaten. She continued to leave similar offerings on subsequent v i s i t s . In time a certain highwayman heard of her nocturnal journeys and lay i n wait beside the path to apprehend her. But when the g i r l passed by and he accosted her, the wolf sprang out of the darkness and k i l l e d him. In the same vein, Akinari recalled the story of Hada no Otsuchi from the,NihongjX^f^-fa, • Otsuchi had come upon two wolves fighting. He begged them to desist, and having restrained them he cleansed their wounds and sent them away, thus saving their l i v e s . In gratitude the wolves appeared to the emperor in a dream and advised him to take Otsuchi into his service. In this way Otsuchi rose from being a humble merchant to keeper of the imper-23 i a l treasury. On the basis of such reports, Akinari contended that foxes and badgers and other animals, unlike people, have no moral sense of right and wrong, but merely reward what i s good for them and punish what i s bad. The deities of Japan were of the same nature, he believed, bless-ing those who serve them and cursing those who neglect them, unlike 24 Buddhas and sages, who have human bodies and feelings. In animals and supernatural beings Akinari saw &•. quality that rose above consi-derations of good and e v i l — a simple, pure, and amoral instinct, be--114-yond normal logic, of protecting one's self and one's personal inter-ests* Such i s the behavior of Isora the ghost as opposed to Isora the mortal. "Kibitsu" i s a tale of events rather than of setting or atmosphere. Except for i t s proximity to the Kibitsu Shrine, with i t s famed divin-ing cauldron, the location i s of minor importance. It i s what actual-ly takes place that gives the story i t s stunning f i n a l i t y . Akinari heightens the terror of the supernatural by describing i t only vaguely. Thus, after Shotaro deceives his wife and absconds with Sode, she be-comes i l l , and the malady has a i suspicious character about i t , but the reader can only suspect that Isora!s jealousy i s the cause. Nor i s there anything unusual about the g i r l tending the new grave near Sode's, who takes Shotaro to meet her grieving mistress. Like Shotaro, the reader i s prepared to accept everything as genuine unt i l the pale and emaciated Isora suddenly appears. Only then do we learn that she i s really dead and her s p i r i t lusting for revenge. As Shotaro takes ref-uge i n his house, the doors and windows sealed with charms, and the story approaches i t s climax, Isora i s now represented only as a voice, more terrifying than any tangible object. Suspense mounts as the days pass un t i l , a s Shotaro and the reader believe, the danger period i s over. But as he prematurely opens the door, Shotaro emits a. blood-curdling scream—and simply vanishes. More than any detailed account, the topknot of hair and the blood trickling down the w a l l — a l l that remain—attest to the awful fury of the specter and the thoroughness; of Shotaro's; destruction. "Jasei no i n " ^ ! ^ / , ^ , the longest of the nine tales, repeats -115-the theme of lax behavior and i t s consequences, though with a di f f e r -ent emphasis. While Toyoo's behavior i s not immoral, he spends his time at effeminate pursuits and does not live i n a steadfast and dis-ciplined' manner, and as a result he becomes an easy target for the serpent Manage Even so, he i s sympathetically portrayed. Perhaps Akinari identified with him, attributing to Toyoo some of his own faults. At the time he was writing Ugetsu Akinari's a r t i s t i c inter-ests were conflicting with hard economic reality, and even Toyoo's home, with i t s s t r i c t father and indulgent mother bears comparison with the author's own childhood environment. Akinari again places the reader i n the participant's role. One goes through the tale knowing l i t t l e more than Toyoo himself, for Aki-nari as usual drops only subtle hints that things are not a l l they seem to be. The reader by this time knows that he i s reading a i ghost story and i s therefore alert for.suspicious details, but he never gets enough information to remove the shock from the events when they oc-cur. It i s strange that Toyoo could have failed to know of such a conspicuous figure as Manago i f she really had, as she t e l l s him, been liv i n g i n his village for some years, yet we become truly suspicious only when, searching for Manago's home, Toyoo can find no one who has heard of her, and when he at last does locate the house, discovering i t to be identical to the mansion i n his dream of the previous night. But these and subsequent developments do not really prepare us for the discovery that Manago's stately dwelling i s really a ruin over-grown with weeds, nor for Manago's dramatic disappearance in a. clap of thunder. With a growing awareness of her true nature, we accompany -116-Toyoo with a. sense of foreboding to his sister's home in Yamato. True to our expectations, Manago reappears, and Toyoo reveals his weakness of character by accepting her patently flimsy explanation and once more taking her in as his bride. But indeed the reader himself i s tempted to believe her, so earnest are her entreaties. Even so, we are again forcibly reminded; of her demon nature when she suddenly disappears into the waterfall and gives rise to a. cloud-burst. We know that we have not seen the last of her, and yet her next appearance where we least expect i t — i n the person of Tomiko, Toyoo's new bride—comes as s t i l l another shock. The serpent's tena-city and guile astounds us. Like Toyoo, we are inclined to despair. No one, i t seems, can subdue Manago. Significantly, Toyoo succeeds i n escaping from her clutches only after he ceases to flee from her and determines to sacrifice himself i n order to protect others. Paradox-i c a l l y , when he submits to Manago, in f u l l knowledge of what she i s , and pleads for Tomiko's l i f e , he shakes off his passive nature and acts like a strong man. Significant too i s the fact that Toyoo him-self must accomplish the task of overcoming Manago, pinioning her be-neath the charmed cloth and forcing himself to ignore her feminine appeals for mercy. "Jasei no i n " i s ai masterfully woven tale, and Manago deserves to be ranked alongside Miyagi as one of Akinari's best drawn characters. Although she i s not really human, she i s s k i l l f u l l y portrayed as a person—a sensuous woman currying favor according to her present whim. If there i s any dissatisfying element, i t i s the fi n a l scene. The subjugation of Manago strikes us as too easy. In view of the power -117-that she has heretofore demonstrated^, we expect a more dramatic con-frontation. But the very simplicity of the task emphasizes the e f f i -cacy of Hokai Osho's sincere efforts as opposed to the pompous over-confidence of the priest who lost his l i f e i n his own attempt to over-come Manago. Also, i t emphasizes how the exorcism i s mainly accom-plished by Toyoo's disciplining himself and meeting his problem head on, thus pointing up Akinari's view that i f one lives steadfastly a l l w i l l be well, but i f one i s careless the consequences may be severe. Some readers w i l l no doubt be dissatisfied with Tomiko's fate, for i t seems unjust that an innocent party must be the one to die. But her death illustrates that the results of lax behavior affect not only ourselves, but extend to others as well. The consequences of unrestrained behavior are shown once again i n "Aozukin" "A slothful mind creates a monster, a rigorous one 25 enjoys the fru i t of the Buddha," says the main character, and the tale i s essentially an i l l u s t r a t i o n of this idea. As he seeks lodging for the night, the itinerant priest Kaian Zenji i s told the story of the abbot of a>. local temple who has allowed himself to be overpowered by sorrow and frustration. In an excess of grief over the death of a youth whom he had loved beyond the bounds of propriety, the abbot has turned into a.fearsome being who terrorizes the neighborhood. Deter-mined: to bring the demon monk to his senses, Zenji makes his way to the temple. As i n the other tales, the setting i s suitably eerie. It i s autumn, and night i s approaching. Long shunned by everyone but i t s lone ghoulish inhabitant, the temple yard i s overgrown with brambles and moss; spider webs are stretched between the images, and bird drop-•118. pings cover the altar. Now the monk appears, though not in his demon form. He merely receives his visitor and gives him permission to spend the night. Then he leaves his guest alone. Total darkness f a l l s , broken only by a crescent moon, while only the sound of running water disturbs the silence. The scene i s indeed similar to that on Mt. Koya in "Bupposo." Later that night the abbot returns, apparently intending to de-vour his guest, but Zenji has been rendered invisible to his eyes. Not un t i l dawn breaks can he be seen. Now the abbot i s convinced of his visitor's virtue and listens willingly to his remonstrations. Having established the monk's?desire to reform, Zenji places his own blue hood upon the monk's head, gives him a Zen problem to meditate upon, and leaves him seated on a fl a t rock. Not unti l a year later does he return. He finds the temple yard completely overgrown and the buildings beginning to collapse, but the demon monk, to a l l appearances, has not moved. Oblivious to the confusion around him, he s i t s meditat-ing, his body emaciated, his hair and beard long and disheveled. Zenji observes the scene; then, abruptly, he strikes the monk on the head and demands the solution to the problem. Thus stimulated, the monk suddenly attains enlightenment and dissolves into thin air, leaving behind only the blue hood and a.pile of bones. Thus the story ends, a simple tale but a. strong statement of Akinari's belief that human na-ture i s neither irrevocably good nor irrevocably e v i l . A bad environ-ment or personal carelessness may cause moral deterioration, i n, but the same person, given instruction and self-discipline, may pro-gress even to Buddhahood. -119-Finally there i s the tale "Hinpukuron'^sl i^T. Here the super-natural takes the form of a.tiny smiling old man, the s p i r i t of the hero's gold. There i s nothing frightening about him. Only his size and his self-introduction indicate that he i s more than mortal. There i s no dramatic action, no ghostly atmosphere. Thus "Hinpukuron" i s of l i t t l e interest as a ghost story;, i n fact i t i s of l i t t l e interest as a story, for i t amounts only to a logical discourse on the capricious nature of fortune. At the core of the story i s a universal question, one that, in Japan, neither Confucian nor'Buddhist doctrines had been able to ex-plain: Why i s the morally upright man seldom rich, and why i s the wicked man so often prosperous? A degree of cynicism i s apparent. The s p i r i t attacks the o f f i c i a l feudal ethic that termed the pursuit of wealth a social e v i l , and he condemns the Confucian doctrine that one can be happy without wealth. Such an idea, he says, leads schol-ars astray and may even cause the warriors to forget that \vealth i s the basis of a strong state, leading them to scorn money and crave glory won on the battlefield, to the sorrow of a l l concerned. To seek gold i s as honorable as to desire fame, the s p i r i t says. One's abun-dance or lack of wealth has nothing to do with his good or bad conduct i n a former existence, as the Buddhists say. As; a>. s p i r i t the l i t t l e man has no sense of human standards of right and wrong. Like animals and Shinto deities, he i s motivated by a simpler, more selfish inter-est. He rewards those v/ho honor and serve him and ignores those v/ho do not. Akinari had found his own half-hearted! efforts i n commerce unre--120-warding financially, and hie wholehearted efforts i n letters even less so. A l l around him he saw bad men who were wealthy and good men who were impoverished. It was evident to his logical mind that wealth i s not a reward for righteousness;, but comes only to those who foresake other gods to follow Mammon. But to say so directly was to contradict the o f f i c i a l code of his feudal society, so he found i t prudent to present this idea i n a story format. He could always deny that his meaning was serious. He had already stressed i n his preface that his tales were pure fiction, and the proponent of the heresy was the spir-i t of the gold, voicing exactly the ideas one would expect from such a being. Protecting himself from censure may also have been Akinari's motive for closing the story, which i s set during the administration of Hideyoshi, with a prophecy of the coming ascendency of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who would at last bring peace to the land. Akinari may have intended this complimentary reference to.the Edo government, with the accompany-ing condemnation of Nobunaga. and: Hideyoshi, to allay any suspicion of subversive intent. Such i s the content of Ugetsu monogatari. A superb combination of originality and adaptation, i t s characters and events never f a i l to f i t naturally into the Japanese scene; i n some of the tales the Japan-ese setting even becomes an essential part of the story. The reader who has not been told of the book's; foreign antecedents finds no d i -rect reference to them in the text. The prose i s elegantly constructed; to read i t i s an aesthetic experience. The tales conform to the high-est traditions of the storyteller's art. They demand to be read. The reader shares the hopes: and fears, joys and sorrows, wonder and amaze--121-ment of the characters as the events unfold. Underlying each of the stories i s the theme of man and his fate. A l l of the characters, mor-ta l and immortal, are memorable in their own right, each having his or her own distinctive and clearly defined qualities. For such rea-sons, Ugetsu has become a classic. It went through successive print-ings during the author's lifetime, and today holds a place i n Japanese literature no less secure than that of The Tale of Gen.ii. NOTES 1. The f i r s t edition i s dated "An'ei 5th year, early summer"— that i s , mid-1776. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 92. 2. See Moriyamai Shigeo, Hoken shomin bungaku no kenkyu (Tokyo: San'ichi Shobo, 1960; rpt. 1971), pp. 253-262. 3. For an exhaustive catalogue of the sources related to each Ugetsu tale, see Uzuki Hiroshi, Ugetsu monogatari hyoshaku (Tokyo: Kadogawa Shoten, 1969), pp. 707-712. 4. See Nakamura, Kinsei sakkan kenkyu. p. 161. 5. Yasumigoto. Zenshu. I, 465-489; for Teisho's preface, see p. 465. Teisho's signature appears on the manuscript copy i n the Tenri Library. See Nakamura, Kinsei sakka' kenkyu. p. 163. 6. Bakin, Kinsei mono no hon Edo sakusha burui. ed. Klmura*Miyogo (Nara: Privately published, 1971), p. 128. -122-7. Hanabusa zoshi f ITishlyama monogatari. Ugetsu monogatari. Haru- same monogatari. ed. Nakamura Yukihiko, Takada Mamoru, and Nakamura Hiroyasu, Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshu, Vol. 48 (Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1973), XLVIII, 73, 74. 8. See Tandai. no. 13, NKBT, LVI, 258. 9. See Ibid., no. 29, pp. 270, 271. 10. Ibid., pp. 271, 272; see also Akinari, Kitano Kamo ni mozuru k i ^ t ' f ^ l J / f c c l ^ ^ l f , Ibun. pp. 372-380. 11. Shonin ichidai michi no naka z u k a i M ? ^ K$ 1. falft|. This was compiled by the same firm that published Ugetsu i n Kyoto. Photo-graphic reproductions of the notice can be seen i n Takada, Akinari  nempu. p. 65, and Uzuki, Ugetsu hyoshaku. p. 703. 12. Suggested i n Uzuki, Ugetsu hyoshaku. p. 699. 13. For a detailed explanation of the t i t l e , see Leon M. Zolbrod, trans., Ugetsu Monogatari: Tales of Moonlight and Rain (London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1974), pp. 19-21. See Zolbrod's complete intro-duction to the collection (pp. 19-94) for a c r i t i c a l discussion of the background of Ugetsu. 14. NKBT, LVT, 47, 48; Zolbrod, trans., Ugetsu. p. 109. 15. NKBT, LVI, 53, 54; Zolbrod, trans., Ugetsu. p. 114. 16. For a. discussion of this recurring character type i n Akinari's works, see Cmiyayama E i k o ^ v ^ j ^ ^ -^ , "Miyagi ron: ningen tsuikyu no -123-kokoromi toshite" ^ ~ J^1^&%,(r\%\^ k L i (1959), In Akinari. ed, Ninon Bungaku Kenkyu Shiryo Kankokai, pp. 127-133, 17. See Man'yoshu. noe. 431, 432, NKBT, IV, 206, 207; nos. 1807, 1808, NKBT, V, 416, 417; nos. 3386, 3387, NKBT, VI, 416, 417. 18. NKBT, LVI, 77; Zolbrod, trans., Ugetsu. p. 139. 19. Kansei kaieent| jflf flf /f,. Ibuq. pp. 425-429. 20. Eurystomus orientalis. A sraall bird, green rust i n color. It was called sambocho " ^ i because i t was supposed to emit a cry sounding like "bupposo." that i s , the Buddha, the sutras, and the monas-ti c orders, the "three treasures" of Buddhism. Actually this i s the cry of another bird, the konohazuku (Otus SCOPS .japonicus). but the mistake was not discovered u n t i l 1935. See Dai Nihon hyakka .jiten 1i $ v f t (Encyclopedia Japonica) . 23 vols. (Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1967-1972), VII, 535; XV, 629. 21. Tandai. no. 27, NKBT, LVI, 269. 22. Ibid., no. 28, pp. 269, 270. 23. Related i n Akiyamai no k i . Zenshu. I, 54-57. For the Nlhongj version of the story of Hada no Otsuchi and the wolves, see NKBT, LXVTII, 62, 63; W. G. Aston, trans., Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan  from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. 2 vols, in one (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1956), II, 36, 37. Akinari also relates this story and comments on i t i n Tandai. no. 31, NKBT, LVI, 272, 273. -124-24. See Tandai. no. 13, NKBT, LVI, 258; see also nos. 30, 31, pp. 272-274. 25. NKBT, LVI, 126; Zolbrod, trans., Ugetsu. p. 189. -125-CHAPTER V  THE SCHOLAR-PHYSICIAN OF OSAKA It was unfortunate) i n a sense, that Ugetsu monogatari was so good, for It has so eclipsed everything else Akinari wrote that i t i s now his only work that i s widely known. It has become more than syn-onymous with his name—indeed, while most present-day Japanese are at least familiar with this t i t l e , there are many who have never heard of Ueda Akinari. Perhaps this was Inevitable. Yet Ugetsu does not mark the culmination of Akinari's literary career, but only a crucial turn-ing point. After his attempt to recreate the s p i r i t of the classics i n his own f i c t i o n , Akinari shifted his efforts toward explicating this s p i r i t In scholarly terms. Although he never again wrote fi c t i o n for i t s own sake, he produced learned writings i n profusion. His d i -versified interests and the wide range of his talents can be seen clearly In the latter half of his l i f e . Meanwhile, when Akinari returned to Osaka, he concentrated f i r s t on practical matters. His wife and aging mother were dependent upon him, and they had endured considerable privation since the loss of the family business, Akinari f e l t obliged to make i t up to them. More-over, he f e l t the responsibility that he had assumed by becoming a physician, and he approached his new duties seriously and with deter-mination. Medical practitioners of the day frequently supplemented their earnings by engaging i n sidelines such as moneylending, match-making, acting as vendors' agents, or by cultivating wealthy patrons, but Aklnarl considered activities l i k e these to be a disgrace to the -126-profession, and resolved from the beginning to take no part In them. Determined to compensate through consideration and diligence for his lack of experience, he would v i s i t a patient several times a day i f the ailment seemed to require such attention, and he made no claim to knowledge that he did not have. Pride would not deter him from c a l l -ing i n a more experienced physician i f his own s k i l l s were taxed, but even when he did so he would retain interest In the case and continue to v i s i t the patient himself. In time such kindness and concern won him a large clientele. The resultant financial prosperity"'' provided some compensation for the fact that the work kept him "running east, 2 west, south, and north every day." While Akinari was s t i l l learning the healing arts, one of his fellow students had become i l l , and no one In the group had been able to ease his suffering. At length the patient's elder brother arrived from the family home i n Ise. He thanked the attending physicians for their efforts, but then dismissed them and applied his own techniques. Stripping his brother naked, he cooled him with a fan, fed him at i n -tervals on a thin gruel, and administered a medicinal concoction pre-pared from a bear's l i v e r . Within two days the fever had broken and the patient was able to eat. Before long he had recovered completely, whereupon he returned home with his brother, apparently convinced of the superiority of the local brand of medicine. The incident impressed Akinari. He said that he was very close to agreement with the physi-cian from the brothers' native village who had stated, "What you think i s enough i s too much," and advocated light clothing and moderate eat-lng as the way to avoid sickness. Such an approach to medicine suited -127 Akinari's own temperament* He himself believed i n simple l i v i n g , and he had no faith i n extravagant remedies or flamboyant cures* He thought that genuine concern and conscientious attention were the keys to ef-4 ective healing. "Medicine," he once wrote, " i s the heart*" By the end of 1780, Akinari was able to purchase a house i n Awajl-choi^Hftj , about six hundred yards west of the quarters he had rented i n Amagasaki. The house was renovated during the winter, and when spring came the Uedas at last were able once again to move into a per-manent home of their own* "For the f i r s t time, my mother showed a 5 smiling face," Aklnarl said of the occasion* The house cost sixteen kamme. or 270 r.vo. probably a d i f f i c u l t sum for a physician who re-fused to engage i n sidelines to save i n so short a period. Aklnarl 6 just said that he "managed i t somehow," implying that some of the money was borrowed* Thus i t would appear that he had become prosper-ous enough to be considered a good credit r i s k . Now, as a man of pro-perty, his standing i n the community no doubt rose even higher. Sub-sequently he purchased another house nearby, which he rented to a fish -7 monger* Materially, this was the high point of his l i f e . Even so, Akinari's heart was not solely devoted to his o f f i c i a l occupation. There Is no question that he worked hard at i t , and that i n i t i a l l y , at least, he restricted his literary activities to do so, but the evidence does not point to a complete curtailment of his out-side interests. He i s known to have gone to Kyoto and stayed at the home of Takai Kito early i n 1776,8 probably about the same time that he was moving back to Osaka. He apparently saw Buson as well on this 9 v i s i t , and contributed, or at least discussed, some verses, most -128-l i k e l y those for Zoku akeaarasu. the haikai collection that was pub-lished later that year to commemorate the seventeenth anniversary of Kito's father, Takal Kikei's death* It i s certain that Akinari was very much in Buson*a thoughts around this time, for his name appears 10 often i n Buson's letters, but usually Buson simply asked the recip-ient to convey his regards to Akinari* It would appear that i n the early days of his medical practice Akinari concentrated on establish-ing himself, and though he had contact with Buson's acquaintances In Osaka, he had l i t t l e time for socializing with friends i n Kyoto. Later, however, he did find more time to v i s i t the capital and participate with Buson and Kito In their haikai c i r c l e . He was barely settled In his new l i f e when he experienced another turning point i n his career* He had spent part of his time at Kashlma preparing for publication Amavo monogatari tamikotoba^A'/^^^^-c fcffi , Kato Umaki's commentary on the well-known section of The Tale of Qen.1l i n which Qenji and his friends pass a rainy evening discussing the virtues and shortcomings of the women they have loved. Umaki had completed the work i n 1769; Akinari's preface to i t was dated 1775, 1 1 12 and the publication was carried out i n the fourth month of 1777. L i t t l e had Akinari suspected that i t would be his parting g i f t to his teacher* Just two months later Umaki died suddenly i n Kyoto while — 13 serving at the Nijo Castle* As soon as word reached him, Akinari hurried to the capital to oversee funeral arrangements. Such was his duty as Umaki's senior disciple, but i t was more than a sense of responsibility that drew him there* Their relationship had gone beyond that of the ordinary master--129-dleclple connection* Akinari had respected Umaki for his learning, but he had also loved him as a friend, and the loss l e f t a deep scar on his mind. Tears later, near the end of his own l i f e , as Akinari recorded the message that Umaki's widow had sent him after receiving the hair that he had shaved from the corpse, he added, "Even as I copy 14 this down, my heart i s crushed with thoughts of long ago." For Akl-narl there was an air of f i n a l i t y about Umaki's death. Umaki was i r -replaceable. Akinari could not conceive of anyone being able to equal the man, and so he continued i n the scholarly world on his own. It was now a matter of standing on his own feet or not standing at a l l . Umaki's passing may be seen as the event which brought Akinari to ma-turity as a scholar. Among Umaki's effects Akinari discovered a portion of a manuscript of g o j i j ^ j j e j ^ ^ l i ^ , the monumental commentary on the Ko.liki that Motoori Norinaga was then working on. As they had both been disciples of Kamo Mabuchi, Norinaga had permitted Umaki to examine some of his work. One of Norinaga's associates, a certain Tonami I m a m l c h i ^ ; ^ ^ attended the funeral, and Aklnarl entrusted the manuscript to him for return to i t s owner. Norinaga was pleased and composed a waka verse 15 to Imamichl In gratitude —gratitude that surely extended to Aklnarl. This Is the f i r s t known instance of any form of contact between Aki-nari and Norinaga, and i t i s ironical that i t should have been so ami-able, for an acrimonious dispute was to break out between them i n just a few years. In the autumn of 1779 Akinari took time off from his work i n or-der to make an excursion to the hot springs at Kinosakl. Ostensibly -130-the t r i p was for hie health. He had been suffering from pains i n his legs for the past three years; medicine having proven ineffective, a colleague had suggested that he try the healing baths at Kinosaki. He decided to take Tama along. It would appear, however, that the ex-cursion was taken as much for pleasure as for his health, for both Akinari and his wife enjoyed i t immensely. A f a i r portion of the journey seems to have been made on foot, so despite Akinari's com-plaints his legs could not have been i n really bad condition. The trip also reflects his improved financial situation. An excursion such as this one, of approximately six weeks' duration, surely en-tailed much expense, to say nothing of the cost i n lost earnings. That Akinari was able to take the time off and s t i l l go ahead with the purchase of a home a year later, bespeaks his new-found prosperity. This was Akinari's second v i s i t to Kinosaki. He had gone there 17 for his health once before i n his younger days, and reminiscing to Tama about the familiar sights no doubt made the journey even more en-joyable. They started out i n the early-morning c h i l l of the twelfth day of the ninth month, friends accompanying them as far as Nishino-miya. In good time they made their way as far as Sumiyoshi, where they spent the night. Next day, blessed with fine weather, they walked along the shoreline of Suma, enjoying the sight of boats going to and fro on the calm sea, with fishermen plying their trade and the mountains overlooking the scene. The setting called to Tama's mind Prince Genji's exile to Suma, and she expressed wonder that a sea so placid could ever have raged so violently, as depicted i n the tale. Where, she asked, was the exact place where Genji had dwelt? -131-According to Akinari's poetic diary, an itinerant priest who was near-by overheard her question and volunteered an answer* The Tale of Gen.1l and should not be regarded as the truth. Indeed, said the priest, Mu-raeaki had been condemned to eternal suffering for writing such a col-writing Shul hu chuan by having three generations of his posterity 18 born deaf and dumb* According to Akinari's written account, because the priest was following the same route as themselves, he f e l l into step with them and expanded his statement as they went along. By the time their paths diverged he had made a lengthy c r i t i c a l discourse on The Tale of Qen.1l. The priest rejected such commonly-held views as that the tale was an allegorical presentation of Buddhist teachings, that Murasaki was ac-tually a Buddha In disguise, or that, being a mere woman, she could not have produced such a masterpiece on her own and so must have been assisted by her father. He praised Genji's character as being i n no way inferior to that of the Chinese sages. But, he concluded, while the tale does portray the glories of the past, the world i t depicts was fated to break up i n disorder. Thus, he said, The Tale of Qen.1l should be read s t r i c t l y for entertainment; i t Is useless to see i t as anything more than a source of pleasure. Of course this episode probably never occurred, at least not i n the manner i n which i t was related. Tama was by no means uneducated, and she shared her husband's interest i n literature to a degree. Very l i k e l y she did speak of The Tale of Qen.1l while passing through Suma, had paid the penalty for -132-but the priest•s appearance i s too apropos to be credible, and his discourse too formal to be impromptu. Probably what really happened was that when Akinari was writing his account of the journey he f e l t that Suma was the logical place to include some of his own opinions on Gen.1l—indeed. he and his wife may actually have discussed similar points as they walked along—and so introduced the priest to act as his mouthpiece* To state the views as his own would have smacked of pedantry and detracted from the story format of his diary, but masked as the ideas of a chance acquaintance they f i t smoothly into the nar-rative as talk heard on the way* By introducing such a f i c t i o n a l epi-sode into his record, Akinari was doing no more than following prece-dent. Convention did not require the literary diary to be absolutely faithful to reality, but to Improve upon i t . Material could be added or deleted as necessary to f u l f i l l this function. The passage de-serves special attention, however, because the priest's views fore-shadow those expressed i n Nubatame Twak^ QtdT' £-<n & t Akinari's more ambitious criticism of QenJi. which was also connected with his tr i p to Kinosakl. Akinari and Tamai spent that night at OkuradanJ/C^,y^ (now a part of Akaehl-shi), and enjoyed watching the moon on the beach, i t being the thirteenth night of the month* Next day they pushed on with their journey, ignoring most of the opportunities for sightseeing, but they did v i s i t a certain Sonezaki, Shrine, which was having a festival, where they witnessed a large-scale tug-of-war by country folk, though Akinari confessed to being quite unimpressed with i t a l l * They slept that night at a place called Mamezaki^'!]' • Next morning, the fifteenth -133-day of the month, they set out before dawn, passing over a moor In the province of Harlma, enjoying the variety of flowers i n bloom along the way, and watching birds catching fish i n the marshes* A light rain began to f a l l , but Akinari was more impressed by the beauty of the mountains half shrouded i n the mist than he was troubled by getting wet* They were now i n an Isolated section of the country; few human beings besides themselves were In evidence* At length they stopped at a certain village to rest and eat, and the sun was inclining toward the west by the time they started out again* They followed the upper reaches of the Ichikawa River, awed by the rapids and the mountains which towered on either side, to a village called Yakata^, a misera-ble-looking place, but for want of anywhere better they stopped there for the night* The record i s not entirely clear for the next three days. On the sixteenth they appear to have pushed on over the provincial boundary into Tajima and lodged at the village of Takeda, famous for i t s lac-quer ware, though Akinari also mentioned a v i s i t to the nearby village of Awaga to sample i t s tea. He was later to achieve some recognition as an authority on the tea ceremony, and seems to have been interested In the cult even at this date. From Wadayama, he said, the country became more and more familiar, and he recalled with nostalgia the sights that he had come to know twenty years before. Descending the river by boat on the last leg of their journey, they arrived at Kino-saki on the nineteenth day of the month* The inn where he had stayed on his previous v i s i t had changed but l i t t l e , but familiar faces were few, he found* Children he had known were now mature adults* Occa--134-sionally people would ask Akinari i f he remembered them, and only then would he recognize an old acquaintance* Akinari's former host was now old and retired, and his son, whom Akinari remembered as a young boy, had taken over management of the inn* The weather was rainy most of the time i n Kinosaki, and generally they remained indoors, passing the hours with other guests or with ac-quaintances i n the d i s t r i c t , and enjoying the natural hot-spring baths* Nearly a f u l l month went by i n this manner* The period of their stay had now elapsed, and Akinari's mother would be expecting them to return* But before going back to the r e a l i t i e s of everyday l i f e i n Osaka, Akinari wanted to v i s i t Amanohashidate. Twenty years before, he had seen this celebrated beauty spot, which i s ranked with Matsushima and Kiyajima as one of the "Three Views of Japan," and now he wished to relive the experience and share i t with his wife. On the morning of the sixteenth day of the tenth month Akinari and Tama l e f t the inn and made their way to the i n l e t of Kumi. They had considered taking a boat along the coastline, but fearing the weather would not hold they decided to make the t r i p overland. So they journeyed to Iwataki, enjoying the autumn colors on the way. At Iwataki they hired a small boat to take them to Amanohashidate on the opposite shore, and while the sand bar overgrown with pine trees twisted into weird shapes came into view, Akinari related to his wife the leg-ends surrounding the place. Amanohashidate was said to be the rem-nant of the Floating Bridge of Heaven, upon which the deities Izanami and Izanagi had stood when they stirred up the ocean and created the islands of Japan. Nevertheless, although Akinari appreciated the tra--135-dltlon, he wae too much the r e a l i s t not to be skeptical. He did not think the scene really looked as though i t had fallen from heaven, and he decried people who lead others astray with ill-founded gossip. After passing the night at Miyazu, the Uedas rose while i t was s t i l l dark and commenced the homeward journey, making their way over the Fuko Pass and on to Fukuchiyama, where they secured lodgings. Next morning they found the scene shrouded i n frost. As they travelled along that day they passed the village of Kuroi i n the Hikami dis-t r i c t of Tamba, which was the home of Ueda Jizo, Akinari's foster father's brother. Aklnarl would have liked to stop and v i s i t his uncle, but he was worried about his mother, and both he and his wife were beginning to feel the pangs of homesickness, so they passed the village by. Next morning the frost was heavy again; winter was clear-l y on the way. Osaka was now only a one or two days' journey, but they fel t that even one more night spent on the road would seem like an eternity, so eager were they to be home* Aklnarl ended his narra-tive on this note. He did not say just when they reached Osaka, and we can only guess at his mother's joy and r e l i e f to see them safely back. For Akinari, the time had been well spent. It was the f i r s t time, as far as we know, that he had been able to make an excursion with his wife. It i s rather surprising that he did so, for i t was hardly soci-a l l y approved for a married couple to travel together as Akinari and Tama had done. The fact that they chose to violate convention attests to the depth of their mutual affection and independence of s p i r i t * As a "second honeymoon," the t r i p gave them time to be together, away -136-from the interferences of others, and free from the cares of dally l i f e * Surely i t served to strengthen their already close relationship. Moreover, the t r i p provided the material for two literary travel records. Akinari appears to have written the f i r s t of these, Akivama no k i . shortly after getting back to Osaka; the second, Kozo no shiorl. i n the autumn of the following year, as we infer from i t s t i t l e and from the preamble, which speaks of wild geese flying by under a wintry 19 moon. Each account mentions certain things that the other omits, and there are, as mentioned earlier, a few apparent departures from the truth for the sake of literary effect, but on the whole both ac-counts treat the same events, and the dates generally agree, so we may consider them reasonably accurate as history. Both were written i n the conventional style of the travel diary, the events being subordi-nated to the sights and sentiments of the journey, with numerous l i t -erary allusions, and the prose narrative interspersed with poems. Akl- yama no k i especially abounds with descriptions of natural beauty, but the most obvious difference between the two accounts Is that the poems in Ak^ Yama, no are waka. while those i n Kozo no shlori are haiku. A further indication that Akinari found the t r i p to Kinosaki un-forgettable i s that he used i t for the background setting of Hubatama 20 no rnaki. According to Akinari's preface to Hubatama. while he was staying at the inn at Kinosaki i n the autumn of 1779, he became acquain-ted with a man i n a neighboring room, who had a manuscript In his pos-session. Since the manuscript was written i n a style too abstruse for his understanding, the man begged Akinari to rewrite the work for him i n a simpler, more readily comprehensible form. Akinari obliged, and -137-since the manuscript bore no t i t l e , he called the work Nubatama no  maki, "Nubatama no yoru wa sugara n l . " or " A l l through the dark night," being the opening line of the text* Thus Akinari accounted for i t * The story need not be taken seriously, of course, though i t Is quite possible that Akinari did write Nubatama. or at least a draft of i t , at Kinosaki. Doing so could have occupied much of his time during the rainy weather* Nubatama no maki l e at once Akinari's criticism of The Tale of 21 6en.1l. of which he was a great admirer, and an expression of his general views on the role of fic t i o n i n society. More than any of his other works, i t reveals what Akinari saw the purpose of the novel to be. Although a serious literary essay, i t i s couched i n story form, revealing the penchant for fic t i o n that Akinari retained even after he stopped writing i t as such. The protagonist of Nubatama i s a man called S o c h i n f l ^ , who supposedly lived during the last years of the Ashlkaga shogunate, a time of incessant warfare* Grieved by the suf-fering and corruption around him, but feeling powerless to fight a-gainst i t , and unable to l i v e up to monastic vows i f he tried to re-ti r e from the world, So chin turned for solace to The Tale of Gen.1l* Sincerely believing that i t was equal to the combined teachings of Buddhism and Confucianism, he devoted his l i f e to copying the manu-script, hoping thus to serve mankind by making i t available to others* As Akinari's account opens, Sochin i s an old man* He has copied the entire Gen.1l manuscript a total of twenty-four times, and i s s t i l l hard at work. One night he f a l l s asleep over his task, and i n a dream finds himself walking on the shore of Akashi Bay. He i s not a--138-22 lone, for there i s a* man who looks about f i f t y years of age seated beneath some pine trees nearby, gazing at the moon. He invites Sochin to join him* Struck by the beauty* of the moon shining upon the placid water, Sochin becomes lost i n reminiscences of Genji's exile to Aka-shl. He rambles on, talking more to himself than to his companion, when the man interrupts his reverie to state that The Tale of Qen.1l. however s k i l l f u l l y written i t may be, or however much i t may delight the reader, i s of no real value* It i s foolish to believe that i t can be a source of moral instruction for the world* His interest thus a-roused, Sochin begins to ask questions* Why, he asks the man, does he speak so disparagingly of the tale, when for years learned men have interpreted i t as an allegorical explication of Buddhist and Confucian teaohings, and thus a moral document of immeasurable value? At this point the story format gives way to a didactic one, as the stranger launches into a discourse on the nature of f i c t i o n . The novel, he says, should exist for i t s own sake. It should be an a r t i s t i c crea-tion that brings joy to those who read i t , but i t s proper fuction ends there* It should portray people and events r e a l i s t i c a l l y , neither as totally good nor totally e v i l , but just as they are* Being no more than a means of amusement, i t s role i s not to encourage virtue and de-cry vice* But nevertheless, he says i n a more affirmative tone, even though f i c t i o n i s pure falsehood, a note of truth may be found therein, for the author may, obliquely, i n a; manner that the casual reader might f a i l to discern, inject his own observations about contemporary society into his work, and by so doing, take on the role of social, or even p o l i t i c a l , c r i t i c * The matters that trouble the writer w i l l be -139-refleeted In his stories, i n a veiled fashion, of course, lest he i n -cur the displeasure of society or the holders of p o l i t i c a l power, but nevertheless i n a fashion easily discernible to readers of l i k e mind* Fiction, then, i s a portrayal of the drama i n contemporary human l i f e * To disguise his true intentions the author may set his story i n the distant past, but his thoughts remain i n the present* Such i s the principal message of Nubatama. though i t s narrator goes on to discuss fiction i n general and Qen.1l i n particular to great theoretical lengths* It would appear that Akinari, li k e other i n t e l -lectuals of his day, had reacted against the view of fiction as a mor-a l i s t i c tool. Fiction was falsehood; therefore i t s function wasIto en-tertain, not to instruct* Accordingly, literary masterpieces should be interpreted as works of art, and no more* Yet even so, such an ap-parently useless thing as f i c t i o n was really of social value, for through the medium of his prose the author could convey to the reader the truths he had perceived* That i s to say that i n fic t i o n , through the vehicle of untruth, truth may be transmitted* Late i n 1781 a request was submitted for permission to publish the t i t l e Qen.1l no^«t^m^ ^fi k1i~^fV^' v^;f t said to have been — 23 written by one Sochin. Considering the author's name, the similarity of the t i t l e s , Nubatama's connection with Qen.1l. and the fact that Akinari i n one of his writings stated that the expression, "no naru  matama" *ff r1h % was equivalent to "nubatama. "^^ the work i n ques-tion must have been Nubatama no mafrfl- Permission to publish was quickly granted, but no printed edition of Nubatama i s known to exist* 25 Most l i k e l y the publication was never carried out* -140-The character by whom Sochin i s instructed i n Hubatama i s identi-fied as the Man'yoshu poet Kaklnomoto Hitomaro , and Akinari choice of him as his mouthpiece probably reflects the interest that he had i n the poet around this time* Significantly enough, i t was either shortly before or shortly after this that he wrote his study of Hito-maro's l i f e , Kaseldenffiffijf: . A piece of biographical research, Ka-seiden consists mainly of quotations from sources that t e l l of Hito-maro, together with Akinari's comments about them* Akinari's inten-tion apparently was to assemble as much information on his topic as possible, and the result i s probably the most exhaustive treatise on Hitomaro to be written up to that time* Mostly a collection of data, i t does not read smoothly. S t i l l , i t displays the author's remarkably wide knowledge of source materials and his painstakingly thorough i n -27 vestigation. Akinari must have developed his interest i n the Man'yo shu early i n l i f e , certainly no later than his study of Keichu's works — 28 and this interest was surely nurtured by Kato Umaki* But Kaseiden was his f i r s t actual writing about the Man'yoshu. and may be regarded — — 29 as the springboard for his Man'yoshu scholarship. Akinari may have tried to make autumn pleasure excursions a regu-lar practice* His t r i p to Kinosaki, discussed above, was one such outing, and during the tenth month of the following year, 1780, he visited the Shugakuin{|^r^ j % Detached Palace i n the northeastern h i l l s 30 of Kyoto, going by way of the Minase River and enjoying the scenery 31 there on the way* Two brief accounts, Hakoya no yama and Mlnasegawa describe this excursion* Two years later, again i n the tenth month, he made a five-day sightseeing t r i p to Nara with three friends. Aki--141-nari's travel diary, I s ^ m & ^ , describee the events of this t r i p 32 i n some detail. In his role as an Intellectual descendent of Kamo Mabuchi through Kato Umaki, Aklnarl spent some time during the 1780's editing a col-lection of notes on Mabuchi's lectures on the Kokin waka shu. A certain Nomura Tomohiko had received instruction from Mabuchi, and her husband, Nomurai Nagahira-JLz> b , had planned to help her prepare her notes for publication, but before they had completed the task, both of them died* Nagahira's younger brother, Nobumotol^Kj-, was a practicing physician i n Osaka. He knew Akinari and was aware of his interest i n the Japanese classics and of his Indirect connection with Mabuchi. He asked Akinari to take over the editing of the manuscripts, and Akinari agreed to do so, carrying out the work over an extended period, apparently i n snatches of leisure time* He l e f t the notes largely as Tomohiko had written them, merely inserting statements of Mabuchi and Umaki and also of his own into the text* He gave the f i n -ished product the t i t l e Kokin waka shu u c h l i d J d . ^ / ^ : r ^ ^ f ftfe. and a request for permission to publish the f i r s t seven volumes was submit-33 ted late i n 1784. Akinari finished editing the rest of the twenty 34 volumes about a year later, but the publication request was not sub-35 mitted u n t i l another year had elapsed, and the actual publication 36 was delayed u n t i l 1789, after Akinari had retired from medical prac-tice and moved out of Osaka* Early i n 1787, by the Western calendar (twelfth month of the sixth year of the Temmei^. &f\ Era) the forthcoming publication of a work with the t i t l e Kaklzome kleen no ma±^i]i&)^A was announced*37 when i t -142-38 appeared In print the following month, the "no" had been deleted, making the t i t l e ^aki^Q^ft kigenkai. The author was called Rakugai HankyoJin$Mf ^M-JK » °* "Half-Mad Man on the Outskirts of the Capi-t a l . " If the pen name was chosen In order to preserve the author's anonymity i t succeeded quite well* for i t was not un t i l the twentieth 39 century that frpk^fffl'? was discovered to be the work of Akinari. "Kakizome" refers to the calligraphy that was traditionally prac-ticed to usher i n the Hew Tear; "kigenkai" i s a pun on "kigenkae" • The t i t l e , then, calls attention to the changing, or easily changeable, feelings that people may experience when an old year gives 40 way to a new one. Akinari admitted that he had taken the main theme of Kakizome from Saikaku's Seken mune san'vo prfflflfrlfflflj , 4 1 Both works are about events of the New Tear, the difference being that Saikaku»s stories are about the last day of the old year, and Akinari's about the f i r s t day of the new. A short piece, Kakizome consists of three sections, each of them about one of the three main urban centers—Kyoto, Edo and Osaka—of the day. Two of the sections have a story format, but each i s pre-ceded by introductory remarks of almost equivalent length, which de-scribe and c r i t i c i z e social conditions. The third section has no story at a l l , so i t i s doubtful that Akinari saw Kakizome as a work of f i c -tion. The three sections, In effect, form a series of sketches about Japan i n his time. They are best seen as his attempt to laugh at the world. He took the position of observer, looking down on the scene with a bemused, sometimes regretful, sometimes sharply c r i t i c a l ex-pression. Although there i s l i t t l e overt didacticism, this tone i s -143-unmistakeably present throughout. But. the message does not really comes, across, and It sold poorly. Akinari himself admitted this, say-ing that his advancing age had made him too logical, no longer able to 42 write works with popular appeal. To date no one appears to have disagreed with this assessment. Kakizome attracted l i t t l e attention among modern-day scholars u n t i l i t was known to be the work of Akinari and i t s chief claim to fame remains the identity of i t s author. Kakizome kigenkai may have been a failure, but even so, by the early 1780's Akinari had become a man of letters i n his own right. He had won the admiration of fellow participants i n the leading haikai circles of the day. His fi c t i o n had been well received by the reading public, and he counted some of the top l i t e r a r y figures i n Japan among his friends. A. leading disciple of Kamo Mabuchi had taken him as a pupil and treated him nearly as an equal. Moreover, he was now finan-c i a l l y successful as well. No longer was i t necessary to rely on others for a livelihood. In both the literary and the workaday world he was independent. His talents had been weighed i n the balance and not found wanting* It was natural that he experience a surge of self-confidence, natural too that this would lead to greater reluctance to remain silent when he disagreed with a colleague. The only surprising thing i s the stature of the opponent with whom he chose to do battle* Born i n 1730, Motoori Norinaga was only four years older than Akinari* Though his native home of Matsuzaka i n Ise was a far more rural environment than Osaka, he, lik e Akinari, had been raised i n a merchant family* His.father had died when he was eleven, and eight -144-years later lie was adopted Into a family i n nearby Yamada. His real family tried to carry on their trade after the father's death, but i t f e l l into a slow though steady decline, and when Norinaga returned to his own house at the age of twenty-two, his mother sent him to Kyoto to study to become a. physician. Like Akinari i n similar circumstances, however, he combined classical studies with his medical training, be-ing especially stimulated by the writings of Keichu and Kamo Mabuchi. He returned to Matsuzaka i n 1757 and set himself up as a physician, but i n his spare time he continued his efforts to master the Japanese classics, giving lectures on them, and writing works of li t e r a r y c r i -ticism. In 1762 he had an audience with Kamo Mabuchi. It was their f i r s t and only meeting, but from this encounter Norinaga was inspired to write his commentary on the Ko.liki. Begun In 1764, the Ko.liki den occupied much of Norinaga's leisure time u n t i l 1796. It was not printed i n i t s entirety u n t i l 1822. Norinaga's reputation, therefore, was s t i l l being made at the time Akinari squared off against him, but even then he was a formidable opponent. It i s a measure of Akinari's talent that he acquitted himself so well In their dispute. Akinari and Norinaga had pursued the same line of scholarship. Norinaga's meeting with Mabuchi antedated Akinari's meeting with Umaki by just a few years* Their ages, their upbringing i n merchant house-holds, and even the manner i n which they became involved i n kokuaaku studies were a l l similar. But there were differences, too. Matsuzaka was the commercial center of Ise, i t Is true, but i t was rustic In comparison to Osaka, the commercial center for a l l Japan. Norinaga's only prolonged experience with a real urban environment had been the -145-flve years he spent In Kyoto. Akinari considered Norinaga a country 43 bumpkin and spoke of him as such. No doubt he resented the recog-nition that had come to such a man, when he himself lived In the eco-nomic and cultural heart of the nation, with access to a l l the best i n the scholarly and literary worlds. Moreover, while i t i s surely an oversimplification to account for their different viewpoints In the light of their native homes, i t would be a.mistake to ignore the point. Growing up i n the spiritual center of Japan may have contributed to Norinaga's tendency to naively accept the Japanese myths, which led him to make frequent irrational statements, while Akinari's insistance on logic and reasoned Interpretation may have been i n part a legacy from the severe economic competition he had experienced i n Osaka. Whatever i t s true influence may have been, their different environ-ments symbolize their respective positions i n their quarrel* The Aki-nari-Norinaga confrontation may be seen as a clash between the rustic's blind faith and the urbanite's c r i t i c a l skepticism* To be sure, Aklnarl and Norinaga never, i t would appear, met face to face. A l l intercourse between them was carried on through a go-between named Arakida Suetomoso^® (also known as Kikuya Hyobe 1735-1801)* A priest at the Ise Shrine, Kikuya had been an associate, perhaps a student of sorts, of Aklnarl, but i n 1784 he for-44 mally entered Norinaga's school* He i s f i r s t mentioned i n Akinari's 45 writings In 1782, though we have no concrete evidence as to just when they f i r s t met, nor of the true nature of their relationship* Possibly they became acquainted at a haikai c i r c l e , for Kikuya i s known to have engaged i n such pursuits* 4 6 The distance between their -146-homess must have ruled out frequent contact, but a letter from Akinari to Kikuya that has been preserved implies that Kikuya did occasionally come to Osaka and c a l l on Akinari. S t i l l , this letter begins with Aki-nari's apologies for having taken so long to reply, so even correspond-47 ence between them must have been infrequent. But for the matter at hand, the most important fact about Kikuya i s that while Akinari and! Norinaga grew to despise each other, he was able to maintain a cordial relationship with both of them. Norinaga trusted Kikuya sufficiently to lend him manuscripts, which Kikuya i n turn would lend to Akinari, indicating trust between them as well. Akinari also f e l t free to speak c r i t i c a l l y of Norinaga to Kikuya, apparently without fear of giving offense.* 8 Thus i t was largely through Kikuya that Akinari was able to familiarize himself with Norinaga's works. The Akinari-Norinaga dispute took place sporadically over a period of years. It cannot be stated precisely just when i t began or ended. In the autumn of 1783, for instance, Akinari wrote Asama no kemuri *% P^XlEabout the disastrous eruption of Mt. Asama i n the summer of that year. He looked at the calamity from a scientific viewpoint, and derided "a certain person" who expounded on Japanese antiquity, and who would explain such catastrophes as violent acts of the malevolent deities, or Magatsui no kami ^ f^.^m " f f i * * 9 Akinari avoided naming the object of his scorn, but Japanese scholars have seen his remarks as a reference to Norinaga's 1771 work, Naobi no mitama|jjif ^  j 5 0 i n which Norinaga had argued that i f the Japanese people would cast off corrupt-ing foreign practices and adhere faithfully to the virtues of ancient times, the nation would be protected, for the Magatsui wo kami would -147« be rendered powerless by their benevolent oppositee, the Naobi no kami. Again, i n 1784. a farmer i n the province of Chikuzen discovered i n his f i e l d a golden seal bearing the inscription "Kan Ito Koku-o." that i s , "King of the Province of Ito of Han." In ancient times this area, now a part of Fukuoka-ken, had been called the province of Ito, and the seal, i f genuine, would Indicate that the former inhabitants had paid allegiance to the Chinese emperor. The same year that the seal was found, Akinari wrote an argument upholding the validity of the seal, i n which he quoted from Norinaga's Kara osame no uretf T"^ff"tr'?^ 1^^ ^  «5' We can say, then, that by no later than 1783, Akinari had begun reading Norinaga*s writing. Ultimately these included Kara osame. the twelfth and thirteenth scrolls of Ko.liki den, and Temakura^^ , which he re-52 turned a l l together, as we gather from his letter to Suetomo,, but there i s every reason to believe that he was able to read others as well* In the letter, Akinari noted that he had found some of Nori-naga' s conclusions hard to agree with, and we know that he wrote a criticism of Kara osame called O-o sokai^A JCffij , which he apparently sent to Norinaga*by way of Suetomo. Unfortunately no manuscript of O-o sokai has ever been discovered, nor do we even know precisely when i t was written. The t i t l e and the nature of i t s contents are included 53 i n a letter from Norinaga to Suetomo, but that i s the extent of our information. Accepting that i t i s impossible to reconstruct a precise chro-nology of the quarrel, one must turn to i t s nature. The principal re-cord that has survived i s Kakaika. It presents the dispute i n the form of a debate, with Akinari f i r s t stating his position and Norinaga -148-then offering hie rebuttal. But i t must be remembered that Kakaika i s not an original record. Even though Iwahashi Koyata included i t i n his Ueda; Akinari zenshu. i t has nevertheless been edited by Norinaga. Akinari had no part i n i t s compilation. For a l l we know, Norinaga may have omitted some of Akinari's arguments that he found hard to refute. His purpose i n preparing i t was to uphold the verity of his own con-clusions, so he took pains to present himself as the wise man silencing the upstart. I f the original manuscripts were available, Akinari's position might conceivably be seen i n a more favorable l i g h t . In any case, the Akinari-Norinaga dispute covered two distinct topics. These are best considered separately. The f i r s t concerned the phonetics of the old Japanese language, and especially the ques-tion of whether the "n" sound had occurred i n the ancient tongue. No-rinaga 's stand was that old Japanese, unlike other languages, had con-tained only pure unvoiced sounds, and hence that "n" had not occurred i n the ancient speech, but was m corruption that foreign influences had brought into the language. He stated that the "n" sound did not appear In any ancient work, and this fact, he contended, constituted proof that i t had not existed. Akinari conceded that the sound was missing from ancient texts, but he denied that this proved that the sound had not occurred i n speech. People had naturally used i t i n the spoken language, he said, but since there was no Chinese character pronounced "n" by Itself, there had been no way to express the sound i n writing u n t i l a phonetic script was developed. Therefore, he said, the "n" sound had been represented i n writing with characters that were ordinarily pronounced "mu," but people had nevertheless said "n" 149' when speaking. An exerpt from the record w i l l best il l u s t r a t e their respective 1 positions. Akinari stated his case as follows: To prove my statement that the "n" sound did occur i n ancient times, i n the f i r s t place, i t appears i n Chinese characters. Norinaga himself has admitted this from the start. Numerous words written with such characters can be'' seen In the Man'yoBhu: aiton%#. , t s u g e k e n ^ , vukuran ff §_, wakarenan^j % , midarekon kamo M. 7$r^ f\ , or koiva knra-SSSiJ^A!ijL.%S~ • It Is clear that these characters have the "n" sound. However, since there was no established character for expressing this sound by i t s e l f t J $ r , tM , and others were adopted. When they are used,' we should follow the natural speech patterns and pronounce them "mu" or "n" according to the sound sequence. I f we read them "mu" i n every case, the niceties of speech would be paralyzed for the sake of characters.54 Norinaga responded: In ancient times, sounds such as "ten," "ken," "ran," and "nan," mentioned above, were, without question, pro-nounced "temu," "kemu," "ramu," and "namu." As for the prac-tice of writing them with characters having the "n" sound, such asv^, , ^  ,^ || , and if] , these were adopted because of the "n" sound's phonetic nearness to the "mu." Among the many such examples i n both the Man'voshu and other books, consider one such as writing the geographical name "Kannami" as t) if J . If we consider writing i t with a character bearing the "n" sound to be proof that i t was definitely pronounced "n," do we then say that i n ancient times Kannami was called "Kannan?" Moreover, i n words such as "wakarenamu," ..above, the "namu" was sometimes written with the c h a r a c t e r . Even today, "H i s read "namu" but never "nan." Again, toe.provincial name "Taniwa" i s w r i t t e n f l ^ ^ , but i n the Wamyosho and other old writings, i t i s read "Taniwa;" we never see i t pronounced "Tanba." From these illustrations you should understand that characters having the "n" sound were selected for that sound's resemblance to "mu." "Taniwa," mentioned above, has been called "Tanba" since medieval times. You ought to re-alize from this that "n" sounds are a l l corruptions broken down for euphony. There are many examples of this. If you look i n the ancient writings, you can learn for yourself. Moreover, i n grammar, i f a word i s preceded by "koso," i t ends with the fourth sound Ci.e. the "e" vowel rowl; i f the word i s preceded by "zo," i t ends with the third sound -150-d.e* the "u" vowel rowH* To Illustrate, i f we say "kpso" before "mimu" or "kikamu." they become "mime" and "kikame." The "mu" and "me" are phonetic shifts within the same column, changing from the third sound to the fourth* But i f we say "min" or "kikan," "n" and "me," not being sounds from the same column, differ from other examples* Further, concerning your statement that the niceties of speech may become paralyzed for the sake of characters, you are clinging to what you are accustomed to i n today's world and disregarding the proper speech of old* I w i l l speak i n detail below on the reasons for t h a t * 5 5 In essence, Akinari was saying that, depending on what sounds pre-cede and follow a given utterance, there are times when i t is 1natural to say "n" and times when i t i s natural to say "mu." Since this was just as true i n ancient times as now, i t stands to reason that the men of old also used both "n" and! "mu," depending on which was the more natural sound i n the particular situation* We should draw con-clusions from rational deduction and not be misled by the inadequacies of the ancient writing system* To Norinaga, however, the Japanese classics were sources of absolute authority. The fact that the "n" sound was not to be seen i n them proved that i t had not existed. By the same token, the "p" sound also had not occurred i n ancient Japan-ese, he maintained. Norinaga's faith i n the classics (or i n his, own interpretation of them) rendered him deaf to reason. To Akinari's contention that people would naturally have said "n" for ease i n speaking, Norinaga could only reply that natural speech i s what one i s accustomed to hearing. "Mu" was natural for the ancients because they were accustomed to i t ; "n" was natural In his own day for the same reason. Norinaga argued from a position of strong confidence backed up by a great store of knowledge about the classics and the ancient -151-language. His learning i n those fields surpassed Akinari's. and i n this part of their quarrel he was able to present the stronger case. The weakness of Norinaga's position lay i n his uncompromising view of the classics as gospel, which made him unable even to consider alter-native explanations. This quality of Norinaga's was precisely what Akinari took exception to. He would probably have agreed that the question of whether the ancient Japanese people said "n" or not was a t r i v i a l one. He did not object to Norinaga's convictions so much as to his way of propounding them. Akinari f e l t that Norinaga's reputa-tion was undeserved, and he could not remain silent while a man whom he considered his inferior came to surpass him i n the public eye. The factor of envy cannot be ignored when accounting for Akinari's ani-mosity. In the f i n a l analysis, i t i s probably impossible to determine exactly how a people who lived before the days of audio recorders and phonetic alphabets pronounced their language. The phonetic portion of the Akinari-Norinaga dispute i s not so interesting from the standpoint of who was right and who was wrong, as from observing the workings of 56 these two scholars' minds. The other part of Akinari's quarrel with Norinaga centered on an-cient Japanese legends and Japan's position i n the world vis a vis other nations. Most people consider i t the more Interesting aspect of their contest of views. Its genesis can be said to have been the ap-pearance of a work known as Shokohatsu^f $ i n 1781. Written by Fuji Teikan/)^|j tyfr, a Buddhist priest and student of archeology, this treatise argued that the traditional Japanese chronology would have to -152-be shortened by six hundred years i n order to make i t coincide with the chronology of the Chinese and Korean histories. Teikan also main-tained that the Japanese language, customs, institutions, and even the imperial line had originated i n Korea. He cast doubt on the value of the Ko.-j-^ k^  and Nlhongj as historical documents, pointing out contra-dictions between their chronology and that of continental records. Teikan*s arguments were not airtight, but were nevertheless based on a growing knowledge of the ancient languages, cultures, and histories of China, Korea, and Japan. But to Motoori Norinaga, who saw the Japanese legends as historical facts, and regarded the Ko.Uki as virtually a sacred scripture, Teikan's conclusions were the words of a madman. In 1785 he wrote Kenk.vo.1iitMfr£./v as a reply to Shokohatsu. Like Teikan, Norinaga based his contentions on a wide ranging knowledge of the sub-ject, but where Teikan had brought skepticism, Norinaga brought his unshakeable faith In the Ancient Way. Though i t was not published u n t i l 1821, Kenkyo.lin circulated i n manuscript form among Norinaga*s associates, and i n time found i t s way to Akinari, who apparently had managed to read Shokohatsu as well. Al-though motivated more by i n a b i l i t y to stomach Norinaga*s pomposity and blind faith than by admiration for Teikan*s arguments, Akinari, some-time i n 1786, wrote Kenk.vo.1in ian^^Akf , 5 7 i n which he defended Teikan*s views. Norinaga took this as a personal attack on himself and responded accordingly. Thus the second phase of their quarrel arose, a dispute rooted In Norinaga*s uncompromising assertion that Japan, as the land of the gods, was supreme over a l l other nations, and that the sun goddess, Amaterasu C^mikami f-J^ t reigned over -153-the whole world. In Norinaga1 s view, the sun goddess of the Ko.liki and Nihongj was none other than the sun i t s e l f . Being the land of her birth, he said, Japan, as illuminator of a l l the earth, deserved homage from every other country i n the world. Akinari advocated a more ra-tional approach. Japan, he believed, should be seen i n relation to other countries. Since every country had i t s own traditions, those of Japan could not be regarded as true, and a l l others as false, unless there was supporting evidence. Norinaga was not unlike the fundamen-t a l i s t Christian who considers the Bible absolutely correct and to be interpreted l i t e r a l l y , while Akinari i n some ways resembled the ration-a l c r i t i c who contends that contemporary secular knowledge demands reinterpretatlon of the Scriptures. Akinari believed i n recognizing empirical reality, not i n placing blind faith i n tradition. He did not believe that legends could be taken as proof of the actual circum-stances of former days. But Norinaga did not consider the ancient traditions to be legendary, and he refused to allow any conjecture about them. To do so, he believed, was a manifestation of "Chinese s p i r i t " — a selfish and perverted nature that had come into Japan like a plague In ancient times along with cultural influences from the con-tinent, and warped the pure s p i r i t of old Japan. He believed l i t e r a l l y that the unsullied character of the ancients could be revived i n the present by purging this "Chinese s p i r i t " away. But Akinari realized that returning to the past was Impossible; i t was too i d e a l i s t i c a goal, however desirable. The past was past and the present was pres-ent, he believed. One could not escape the present, but rather should endeavor i n a\ r e a l i s t i c fashion to bring the s p i r i t of the past into -154-the contemporary situation. Again, an exerpt best serves to i l l u s -trate their attitudes. Akinari stated: Concerning the sun goddess, what of the saying that she shines over the four seas and a l l nations? While legends about this deity say that, "The resplendent lustre of this child shone throughout the six quarters," they say also .that, "She closed the door to the Heavenly Rock Cave and shut her-self inside. Then the Plain of High Heaven was a l l i n dark-ness, and the Central Land of the Reed Plains was completely dark. Because of this, constant night reigned." The term "six quarters" does mean the four directions of heaven and earth, but here, I believe, i t i s used i n reference to our country, and does not mean the four seas and a l l nations. We gather this from, "The Central Land of the Reed Plains was completely dark." Aside from these examples, i n what writings do we find the tradition that the sun goddess gives light not Just to Japan but to a l l nations of the world? 5 9 Norinagaicountered: Your contentions about the sun goddess spring from your Chinese s p i r i t , which you often manifest, and therefore i t pains me to speak about them. Nevertheless, I w i l l offer a few words. In what writings, you ask, does one find the tradition that this great august deity gives light to a l l the nations of the world? How foolish I First of a l l , though I w i l l forgive you for twisting the meaning of the Nihongi's "shone throughout the six quarters" to refer to our country, what do you make of her honored t i t l e of "sun god-dess?" Will you twist that as well, and say i t was a name for the moment? The f i r s t book of the Nihongj says also that "she shone looking over heaven and earth." What do you make of that?. Are the heaven and earth of China and India and other lands different from the heaven and earth of Japan? Book I says further, "The sun and moon had already been born; then the leech child was born also," and so on. How about this? You may strain to twist the meaning and say that these were the sun goddess and the moon god, not the sun and moon, but what do you make of the plain statement, "sun and moon?" Such examples are numerous. Look carefully i n the "Record of the Age of the Gods." Now then, do you consider the sun and moon of India to be different from the sun and moon of our country? Amazing J If only a small patch of the cloud of your Chinese s p i r i t would clear away, the meaning of the sacred records would be so obvious. How sad i t i s that, Im-peded by that bit of dark cloud, you cannot see the great l i g h t . -155-Further, from the Ko.llkl's statement that "the Central Land of the Reed Plains was entirely dark." you c r i t i c i z e me, saying that "the six quarters" does not mean the four seas and a l l nations* But i n a l l such cases the principal place i s mentioned, and the others are naturally included* There are numerous cases like this* I w i l l i l l u s t r a t e . In the capital there was a wealthy merchant who opened a branch shop i n Edo. At one time there was an epidemic throughout the whole country. There came a letter from a clerk at the Edo shop to the master i n the capi-t a l , which said, "There i s an epidemic i n your area, I under-stand. Here too everyone i n the shop, without exception, i s down with i l l n e s s . " Reading this, one man said, "If everyone in the shop, without exception, i s sick, then the epidemic must have spread a l l over Edo." But another said, "No, not so. If i t had spread a l l over Edo, he ought to say ' a l l over Edo.' Since he says 'in the shop,' we can say that i n Edo the epidemic has spread only to our store." Whose opinion was right, do you think? Moreover, because i t says that both the Plain of High Heaven and the Central Land of the Reed Plains were darkened, we know that the thing which hid i n the Rock Cave was the sun. If i t were not the sun, then even though i t hid i t s e l f , why should there have been darkness? Since i t surely was the sun, and no different from the sun of China and India, why do you doubt that those countries also were darkened? Or i s the sun of China and India d i f f e r e n t ? 6 0 When presented thus, Akinari's argument does not appear very im-pressive, but he was trying to start a discussion, not score debating points. He was merely attempting to say that the Japanese people should not try to make their legends apply to the whole world. After a l l , the written record only stated that Amaterasu's retreat into the Rock Cave l e f t the Central Land of the Reed Plains (that i s , Japan) i n darkness. It said nothing about the rest of the world, and i n any case the record's authenticity could not be proven. Akinari enjoyed intellectual activity for i t s own sake, and did not in s i s t on reaching a conclusion i n his studies. His own position was that i f the meaning of a passage was not clear, one should l e t the matter stand unresolved, -156-rather than force an Interpretation. He was able to recognize the diversity of mankind, whereas Norinaga Insisted on the universal as-pirations of the human race. His uncompromising nature i s apparent i n his response to Akinari. He could not agree that Akinari had a point worthy of discussion; he could only say that Akinari was wrong, and then try to prove i t . One gets the impression that he f e l t threatened, and over-reacted, trying to smother Akinari with an excess of verbiage. His rebuttal was more than three times the length of Akinari's state-ment. Subsequently, Akinari turned his attention to the world maps used by Dutch navigators: When we look at the maps they have prepared to aid them in their goings and comings, we see that countries which use Chinese characters are few, and as for the others, we have never heard even the names of most of them* Furthermore, we see lands of huge dimensions, but when we look where our realm l i e s on these maps, we find i t to be a small island, looking lik e a solitary leaf that has quietly fallen to the surface of a big pond. Now, suppose we were to say to the peoples of foreign lands, "This l i t t l e Island was verily cre-ated before a l l other nations, and i s the land where the sun and moon, which shine over the whole world, f i r s t appeared. Therefore there i s no country which does not receive favor from our nation. Since this i s so, offer us tribute and come to pay homage*" Not only would no country obey, but they would ask, "On what grounds do you say these things?" When we replied, "Because of our ancient traditions," they would dispute our claim, saying, "We have such traditions i n our own countries* Truly, the sun and moon appeared long ago i n our lands*" Who would be able to judge and decide the matter? It i s said i n India that at f i r s t the brightness of the Buddha's person gave light to_the country^ but that he later commanded the bodhisattvas Hoo and Klchljo to create the sun and moon. In China, however, i t i s said that Pan Ku's eyes became the sun and moon, but i t i s said also that the Earthly Emperor "established the sun, moon, and stars, dividing day from night." Moreover, i n countries that do not use Chinese characters as well, there are a l l kinds of miraculous tradl-157-tion8. They do not accept those of other lands* It i s f i t -ting that the Japanese people, like Norinaga, faithfully be-lieve i n the wonderful legends of old, but i f we try to ex-tend their words to other countries, even writings l i k e Kara  osame ureframftgotc- should be viewed with a discerning eye* A l l the classics see one country as the whole world* Applying their sayings to other lands calls to mind the adage, "Evi-dence from a concerned party," which i s hard to take heed of* Long ago there was a man named Masuho So-and-So i n my village. While talking about the wonders of antiquity he said i n fun, "As an experiment, I would like to marry a deaf man to a deaf woman, send them to l i v e i n an uninhabited re-gion, and see how the children born there would turn out. Would they not be much like the people of ancient times?" And I say i n fun, "If we could cause Norinaga to be born i n China and India, and learn the traditions of three nations, what would his opinions be lik e after that?" I would like to hear them. Akinari's arguments were more te l l i n g here, and Norinaga apparent-l y realized i t . Thoroughly aroused, he leaped to the attack with a vengeance. It i s amusing that you pretentiously speak of seeing a map of the world as i f i t were a rare thing. In this day, i s there anyone who has not seen such a map? And i s there any-one who i s not aware that this realm i s of a most unimposing size? The refinement or vulgarity, the beauty or ugliness of a thing i s not determined by i t s size alone. A great stone of several fathoms i s not equal to a gem of one inch. Cows and horses are large, but unequal to men. No matter how big i t may be, an inferior country i s an Inferior country. Even though i t be small-, a superior country i s a superior country. Looking at a map of the world, we see a vast and desolate land beneath the South Pole. Grass and trees do not grow there, and there are no people. This huge land comprises nearly a third of the earth. I suppose you consider i t the most splendid country i n the four seas. Our realm i s the source and the suzerain of a l l nations. The fact that i t i s not large i n area muBt surely be for some deep reason that was decided when the two p i l l a r s , those great august deities, created our land. That reason certain-l y cannot be comprehended by the limited knowledge of ordi-nary men* If I speak like this, you w i l l probably say that I am trying to excuse my ignorance, but what should I say i f not that incomprehensible things are Incomprehensible? To try and force comprehension of the Incomprehensible i s the -158-way of a Chinese heart showing off Its limited knowledge* Let us lay that incomprehensible reason aside, for wonderful ways i n which our land surpasses a l l others stand out among things we can see with our eyes. I w i l l not speak again of our unbroken imperial l i n e . As for other things, the beauty of the rice and grain which preserve the lives of the people surpasses that of a l l other nations. I lack the time to l i s t other excellent things. Moreover, though you say our boundaries are not wide, we have never been trespassed upon by foreign nations since the Age of the Gods. It was our country alone that could not at last be violated even by the mighty power of that scion of China's Yuan Dynasty. We are not like those other nations that were made to suffer by their neighboring countries and at last were swallowed up. By this fact alone, you should realize that some incompre-hensible reason exists. China i s a wealthy nation among the barbarians, I am told, but i t Is inferior to our realm» Our country's area i s much smaller than China's, but China cannot compare with our many rice fields and great numbers of people. That coun-try has vast land indeed, but much of i t i s marshland, moun-tains, and wilderness. Compared to our nation, rice fields are extremely scarce, and people few and far between. Thus, i f one argues just from the standpoint of land size, he errs greatly. In sum, for dense population, and for wealth and prosperity, there i s no country i n the world that matches our own. No matter how much one ponders these facts, he must conclude that there i s some incomprehensible reason. Yet generations of men have gone astray by concentrating solely upon the Chinese classics, and cannot know of these noble and superlative qualities of our own nation. What a misfortune that you too are stuck i n the old rut and, unable to understand these things, put out your superficial criticism. A l l nations have their ancient legends, you say. But the legends of other nations are not correct. Some are errone-ously reported fragments; some are groundless falsehoods that deceive foolish people. The legends of countries that do not use Chinese characters are mostly of the same sort. Like the Christian teachings revered i n those far-off nations of the West, a l l are fabrications. But the ancient traditions of our realm, unlike those of foreign lands, are true and authentic accounts which show that the state of men and the world today coincides i n every respect with the Age of the Gods. The wonder of this cannot be expressed. You, how-ever, have scorned them as being one with the legends of other lands. You cannot comprehend their beauty, because that patch of dark cloud s t i l l has not cleared away. As long as this dark cloud f a i l s to disperse, no matter how hard I may remonstrate, I w i l l be like the proverbial wind i n a horse's ear. Nevertheless, I w i l l try and convince you with a parable. 159-For the original manuscript of the one hundred poems which Fujiwara Teika collected i n his mountain v i l l a i n Ogura, there must, of course, have been one sheet of paper for each poem. Today there are perhaps ten persons who claim to have the original manuscript. This i s lik e a l l countries having their own legends, a l l of them resembling one another, and yet one among them surely being true, and the others false. Your present argument i s that a l l of them are false. This i s like saying that you doubt a l l ten manuscripts. If you knew that a l l were false, i t may be wise not to be deceived, but to f a l l to realize that one among them i s surely the genuine arti c l e , and to consider them a l l much the same—what i s that? It i s thoughtlessness. It i s saying that, being unable to discern the truth, simply not to be deceived by fabrications i s wise. What i s wise about that? To discern the one true manuscript and believe i n i t — t h a t i s wisdom. When I speak thus, you would probably reply, "Even though there surely i s one genuine manuscript among them, each of the ten owners w i l l reject the appraiser's report and uphold the verity of his own manuscript's history, say-ing that what he holds i s the true a r t i c l e . How could we decide which was authentic?" This i s a doubt which springs from your in a b i l i t y to distinguish truth from falsehood for yourself. When you have completely washed away the thought-lessness of your Chinese heart, and open your pure and un-sullied eyes on the ancient learning, you w i l l naturally un-derstand that our traditions of the Age of the Gods are won-derful and true, and you should not be confused i n the least by those nine forgeries. When you have reached that stage, you naturally w i l l feel ashamed at having considered the true object as one with the fabrications. Tour saying that only the people of Japan should faithfully believe i n the wondrous traditions of old i s another manifestation of your thought-less heart. It i s the error of a man who cannot discern what he should believe. Talking l i k e this i s not believing, but acting as though you believe. Such i s the habitual de-ceiving way of the Chinese. Since this i s one world, i f something i s really to be believed, not only the people of this country, but the people of a l l countries ought to be-lieve i t . But you say, "Only the people of Japan...*" This i s l i k e saying, "Don't really believe i t , just act as though you do." How can you say that this is? proper. 6 3 A careful reading of Akinari's remarks on Japan's small size i n relation to other nations w i l l show that i t was not his intention to c a l l Japan an insignificant country. He meant only to il l u s t r a t e that since Japan looked insignificant to the people of foreign lands, those -160-people would not be disposed to consider the truth of the Japanese tra-ditions to be self-evident* Yet Norinaga'e zeal led him to misunder-stand* making much of his rebuttal irrelevant* He thought that Akl-narl was equating Japan's unimpressive size with i t s worth as a nation, and he seized on the issue to uphold Japan's supremacy, but he was try-ing to refute a point that had never been made* In this portion of the debate, Norinaga's words are more like a sermon than an argument* He seems to have been simply trying to t e l l Akinari what was right, seeing no need to supply proof that i t Indeed was right* He appealed to the ancient legends to support his own position as though he had failed to realize that i t was those very legends that were under at-tack* He could not understand how anyone could question them; he could not tolerate any viewpoint other than complete acceptance of his own beliefs. Akinari merely wanted the Japanese traditions to be exa-mined rationally, but Norinaga could only see him as ax misguided here-t i c who needed to be reformed* As stated before, Norinaga l e f t his version of the quarrel for posterity. He completed Peda Akinari ronnan do" ben3C*iK&ffiffi0ff . 64 the record of their clash on ancient phonetics, early i n 1787, and Peda Aklnarl Kenkyo.lln hvo do ben, their conflict on the ancient tra-ditions, probably about the same time, though the exact date i s not 65 known. Subsequently the two manuscripts were published together under the t i t l e Kakaika. which l i t e r a l l y means "Reproving the Reed Cutter." This was a derogatory reference to Osaka, where Akinari lived, the area having traditionally been associated with reeds since ancient times. The t i t l e may also be read "Ashi kari voshi." however, and i n -161-thie reading there i s a pun on "ashi." which may be interpreted as "wickedness" as well as "reeds." The implication i s that Norinaga. saw himself as the good man ("yoshi") cutting down the e v i l one. We may say that the quarrel ended at this point, for Akinari never made a formal response to Norinaga's rebuttal. In a. letter to Suetomo he restated his position that the past could not be restored, but only learned from, and Indicated that he was ceasing to study Norinaga's writings and calling off the dispute. He was too busy, he 66 said, to carry things further. He apparently thought i t pointless to go on trying to reason with a man whose mind was closed, and' so with-drew from the fray, settling for less than a clear victory. Norinaga probably interpreted Akinari's silence as capitulation, and so let the affair rest. Thus overt h o s t i l i t i e s came to an end, but there was no formal armistice. For the rest of his l i f e , Akinari remained hos-t i l e to Norinaga, never missing an opportunity to hurl verbal barbs at him. Even after Norinaga^was dead, Akinari called him "Kojlki Dembei" ^ f f f , 6 7 a-name obviously derived from the t i t l e of Norinaga's masterwork, but which may be interpreted to mean "Dembei the Beggar," referring to Norinaga's desire for fame and followers, which Akinari considered unbecoming a true scholar. Such was the depth of feeling that accompanied their quarrel. More than Its subject matter, i t i s the thought patterns of the two men as revealed i n their conflict that arouses our interest today, but i n their own time their dispute amounted'. to a contest of world views. It remains one of the famous scholarly 68 confrontations of pre-modern Japan. -162-NOTES 1. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 293. 2. Ibid., no. 5, p. 253. 3. Ibid., no. 14, pp. 258, 259. Compare Samon's treatment of Akana In "Kikuka no c h l g i r i , " p. 49. 4. Ibid., no. 69, p. 293. 5. Jiden. flbun. p. 255. A map showing the locations of Akinari's birthplace (Sonezaki), the Shlmaya-, his rented home i n Amagasakl, and this new home Is included i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 111. 6. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 293. 7. Ibid., no. 50, p. 283. 8. From Kito's manuscripts, dated An'el Era, 5th year (1776), 2nd month, 18th day. Quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 90. 9. Implied i n a.letter from Buson, apparently to Kito, dated An'el 5th year, 2nd month, 21st day. See Buson shu. ed. Otani, et a l , p. 360. Buson also mentioned a v i s i t to Kyoto by Akinari, perhaps the same one, i n a letter to Toshif! ^  dated An'el 5th year, 2nd month, 18th day. See Ibid., p. 431. In Akinari nemnu. p. 96, Takada, for unstated reasons, dates this letter a year later. 10. Besides those mentioned i n Note 9, above, see Buson's letters i n Buson shu. ©d. Otani, et a l , to Kito, dated An'ei 5th year, 9th -163-month, 28th day (p. 365); to Maeana, dated An'el 5th year, 9th month, 6th day (p. 433); to Masana<(?), dated An'el 5th year, 9th month, 22nd day (pp. 433, 434); to Toshi, dated An'el 5th year, 12th month, 13th day (pp. 435 , 436); to Maeana and Shunsaku^'^ , dated An'el 6th year, 5th month, 24th day (pp. 436, 437). 11. For Akinari's preface, see Ibun. pp. 507, 508. 12. Publication data given i n Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 98, 99. 13. Akinari gave Umaki's death date as "6th month, 10th day." See Fumlhogu. Zenshu. I, 194. This corresponds to the date i n the register at the Sambo j i ^ ^ i?jr , where Umaki was interred. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 99. 14. Fumihogu. Zenshu. I, 195. 15. See Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 99, 100. 16. See Akiyama no k i . Zenshu. I, 43; Kozo no shiori £ \ *M #f , Zenshu. I, 165-172, N.B. p. 165. The baths at Einosakl are considered especially effective for neuralgia, gastro-intestinal complaints, and gynecological disorders. See Pal Ninon hvakkai .1iten. V, 483. 17* Some twenty years earlier, as mentioned i n Akiyama. no k l . Zenshu. I, 43, 49. 18. Ibid., p. 44. Previously Akinari had referred to the tradi-tional fates of Murasaki and Lo i n his preface to Ugetsu. See NKBT, LVI, 35. -164-19. Zenshu. I. 165. See also p. 172, where Akinari says that he wrote Kozo during the winter of the year after the one i n which he wrote 20. Hubatama no maki, Ibun. pp. 95-124. For the preface, see pp. 95, 96. 21. For instance, he once composed a sequence of fifty-four waka, each one related to one of the fifty-four chapters of Genji. See Zen- shu. I, 39-42. 22. Compare the physical description of this man with that of the priest who discourses on Qen.1i i n Akjyama. See Ibun. p. 98; Zenshu. I, 44. 23. See Osaka shuppan shoseki mokurokn. p. 118. 24. Koyo .lo/wnj? $ , Zenshu. II, 235-244, N.B. p. 236. 25. See Takada, ftfe-i^ar*, ^enP11T P* 115. 26. Kaseiden. Zenshu. II, 245-270. Although the exact date of i t s completion i s unknown, i t seems to be indebted to a work that was pub-lished i n 1774, and so could not have been finished earlier than that year. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 102. Even so, i n 1799 Akinari mentioned having written Kaseiden some thirty years before. See Mitake  so.11. Zenshu. I, 71, 73. A postscript to Kaseiden. called Kaseiden  tsulko^4 fi. , i s dated 1785. See Zenshu. II, 270. We can only say, i n sum that Kaseiden was completed between 1774 and 1785, though i t may well have been started even earlier. -165-27. For a l i s t of the sources quoted from i n Kaseiden. see Takada, Kenkyu .losetsu. p. 408. 28. In a letter to Akinari, Umaki spoke of lending him Man1yoshu manuscripts. See Fnmihogn. Zenshu. I, 193. 29. Manihoshu ~f\ ^ ] | , a collection of kyoka published i n 1775, was reported to be the work of Akinari, and i f true, i t probably predated Kaseiden. But the evidence for Akinari's authorship i s quite tenuous, and i t seems unlikely that his f i r s t Man'yoshu-inspired work would be a s a t i r i c a l treatment. See Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 86-88. 30. See Hakova no yama^l^^.li , Ibun. pp. 382-384. 31. Not stated i n so many words, but very l i k e l y so because of the closeness of the dates. See Minasegawa?]^ ffhffi n) . Zenshu. I, 89. 32. Yamazuto. Ibun. pp. 345-363. 33. Osaka shuppan shoseki mokuroku. p..125. 34. Nomura Nobumoto's preface, quoted i n Takada, Akinari nemnu. p. 131, i s dated Temmei Era, 5th year (1785), 10th month. 35. Osakat shuppan shoseki mokuroku. pp. 131, 132. 36. Publication data given i n Takada, Ak^ n^ r;*-., n,fflp% p. 160. 37. 5saka. shuppan shoseki mokuroku. p. 132. 38. As given i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 140. -166-39. Kakizome kigenkai. ed. Maruyamai Sueo (Tokyo: Koten Bunko. 1951), pp. 1-77. Akinari disclosed his authorship i n a letter to Nakahara 0e*f'2 h » dated 3rd month, 23rd day, apparently of 1791. Portions of this letter are quoted In Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 138, 177. See also Asano Sampei, "Kakizome kigenkai n i tsuite," KKB. 35, No. 2 (Feb. 1958), 41-49; Harusame monogatari. ed. Maruyama Sueo (Tokyo: Koten Bunko, 1951), pp. 26-36. 40. The meaning of the t i t l e , and other aspects of Kakizome are explained i n Asano, "Kakizome kigenkai n l tsnite." See also Asano's "Mlttsu no fushlteki sakuhin—Kakizome kigenkai, Kuse monogatari, Mani-hoshu," KKK, 23, No. 2 (June 1958), 42-46. 41. See his letter to Nakahara i n Takada, Akinari, nempuT p. 138. 42. Ibid. 43. See Tandai, no. 101, NKBT, LVI, 312. 44. See Okubo Tadashl, "Akinari to Norinaga—ronso no k e i - i to ta i r i t s u no lmi," KBKKK. 12, No. 10 (Aug. 1967), 121-126, N.B. p. 121. 45. See Yamazuto. Ibun. p. 354. 46. See Takada, Akinari nemnu. p. 123. 47. See Fumihogu. Zenshu. I, 195. 48. Ibid. 49. Asama no kemuri. Ibun. pp. 190-201, N.B. p. 194. -167-50. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 120; Okubo, "Akinari to Nori-naga," p. 122. 51. Kan, %%o Koku-5 Jfln'&n 9 EftnehS, I. 491-495, N.B. pp. 492, 493. 52. Fumjhoffl, Zensh^, I, 195. 53. The letter i s found i n KakalkaV^ i j -^ , Zenshu. I, 423-464, N.B. p. 464. It i s dated "8th month, 20th day," but no year i s given. 54. Kakaika. Zenshu. I, 440, 441. 55. Ibid. 56. For more technical and detailed analysis of the phonetic side of the quarrel, see Fukunaga Shizuya, "Akinari to Norinaga no ronso," JK, 31 (Dec. 1963), 7-19; Takada Mamoru, "Kakaika ronso no keisei ka-t e i s h i k S ' ^ ] ^ J ^ f ' ^ A ^ ^ | ^ ^ , i n Akinari nempu. pp. 385-401. 57. The probable t i t l e , though no original manuscript i s known to exist. The work forms the basis of Akinari's criticism i n Kakaika. 58. See Yasumigoto. Zenshu; I, pp. 480, 487-489. 59. Kakaika. Zenshu. I, 425. Actually Norinaga's quotation of Akinari's argument goes on, but this exerpt suffices to establish the tone and gist of his remarks. 60. Ibid., pp. 426, 427. •168-61. See Tandai. no. 5, NKBT, LVT, 254. 62. Kakalka. Zenshu. I, 425, 426* 63. Ibid., pp. 427-430. 64. For this date, see Ibid., p. 464. In Akinari nempu. p. 139, Takadai points out that this date also appears on Norinaga.' s original handwritten manuscript. 65. The printed version was taken from a<copy of the original, dated Kansei^ i ^ C E r a , 2nd year (1790), 6th month. See Kakalka. Zen- shu. I, 437. 66. See Fumihogu. Zenshu. I, 195, 196. 67. Tandai. no. 5, NKBT, LVT, 254. 68. More detailed treatment of the debate on Japanese traditions may be found i n Nakamura Hiroyasu, "Yuko n&\ honshitsu, muko na. honshi*-t s u — 'Hi no kami' ronso ni tsulte"/^ £tf r 0 ^ f f j S ^ K 1 *.* 1 , i n Akinari. ed. Nihon Bungaku Kenkyu Shlryo Kankokai, pp. 158-174;; Takada, Kankvu -josetsu. pp. 362-381. -169-CHAPTER VI THE QUAIL'S ABODE In the spring of 1787. at the invitation of a friend named Hirase SukemichU^;^^^ , Akinari went to enjoy the cherry blossoms at Ara-shiyamo. He had gone there the previous summer, staying at the quarters of a certain priest from the Tenryujl Temple, and he lodged there with Sukemichi on this v i s i t as well. The mountains and the river were v i r -tually i n the priest's garden, Akinari said, and they spent three or four pleasant and relaxing days there. On the f i r s t day of the third month, as he passed through Kyoto on his way home, Akinari witnessed the ceremonial procession of a certain TakatsukasaJI , who had just been appointed to the office of kampaku.1 But more interesting than his account of the t r i p i s his statement that i t was taken during a period of respite from his i l l n e s s . Less than two months later he gave up his medical practice and moved out of Osaka, giving as reasons the need to care for his aili n g body and to find a place to dispose of 2 his corpse when he died. It would appear that his health had begun to f a i l during the previous year, and he f e l t that his l i f e was about to end. Although the nature of his malady i s unclear, poor health probably was Akinari's immediate reason for leaving the medical profession. Even so, though his physical condition subsequently improved, hie re= tirement was f i n a l . In spite of financial embarrassment he never again practiced medicine as a means of livelihood, so we must conclude that he was not sorry to give i t up. In a day when medical science =170-was undeveloped, a diligent physician surely found his work frustrating and often heartbreaking, and as we have seen, Akinari had been such a person. He had earnestly tried to help his patients, and his failures had brought him anguish and cause for reflection. Repeatedly he spoke of his lack of s k i l l i n a profession that he had entered late i n l i f e . Causing the death of a young g i r l through mistaken diagnosis and yet being kindly treated by her parents, who had accepted their loss as 4 inevitable, gave him particular pain. This may have been the deciding factor. His own i l l n e s s may well have been due to overwork and the psychological burden of responsibility. Akinari's writings that touch on his personal l i f e give the im-pression that he suffered from feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y and self-pity, 5 and they seem to have been especially strong around this time. We must remember too that medicine was a line of work that he had entered not from interest but as a means of supporting his dependents. More-over, i t would appear that his feelings of antipathy toward unconscien-tious physicians intensified over the years. In Kuse monogatari JflYiffik for example, which he wrote not long after retiring, he stated that physicians lik e those of former times were no longer to be found i n the world, and went on to flay medical practitioners of his own day for pretending to have knowledge they lacked, with an eye to acquiring patrons, thinking more of profit than of alleviating pain, and engaging in side businesses—conduct which he considered disgraceful for a true physician. In a l l probability i t was a combination of these things that sent Akinari into retirement. Feeling his work to be a drain on both his f a i l i n g health and his peace of mind, nagged by doubts about -171-his competence, embarrassed by colleagues who gave his profession a bad name, and not having any real love for the work, he seems to have be the consequences what they may* Thus Akinari, accompanied by his mother, his wife, and his wife's 7 mother, who had also come to li v e with them, moved to Nagara-mura. ¥\ $ a village on the outskirts of Osaka not far from his old Q haunts at the Kashlma Inari Shrine. Here Akinari built a small thatched hut which he called the Uzurai|$]y^ , or the Quail's Abode, likening himself to the bird which has no fixed dwelling but takes 9 shelter wherever i t may. It was not without feelings of guilt that he brought his family to their new. home. Bowing his head to the floor, he apologized to his mother for this u n f i l i a l act, but his mother ac-cepted this change i n her fortunes and took i t i n s t r i d e * 1 0 A kind and understanding woman, she may well have foreseen such a turn of events. In his own words, Akinari had "crept back to the countryside" 1 1 12 to "become an idl e r , passing the time writing poetry and prose." This was surely an exaggeration, but most of bis verifiable acts during his stay at Nagara concerned the world of letters—studying, teaching, editing, and writing. His excursions for sightseeing or meeting l i t -erary colleagues increased from this point, Implying that he was free to absent himself from home without fear of the consequences. Just how he dealt with the once so acutely f e l t responsibility of feeding his dependents i s not known* He must have realized a small income from teaching, and he probably had a substantial, though dwindling sum decided to give i t up and do what he had really wanted to do a l l along, -172-on hand from savings and the sale of his Osaka property. Nevertheless, the family's l i v i n g standard had taken a dramatic f a l l . One night a thief broke into their house and made off with most of their possessions, but next morning, looking at the hole the intruder had made i n the wall, Akinari merely reflected poetically: Ware yori mo Because there was one Mazushiki hito no Poorer than I lo n i mo areba In this world, Ubara karatachi He stooped to creep through a gap Hima kuguru nari In the flowers and thorns. He refashioned the hole into mwindow, called i t "my burglar's window," 13 and Jokingly remarked to visitors that i t was good for ventilation. Being robbed does not appear to have been a* disaster for them, and>. the reason was probably that they had so l i t t l e to be stolen. While l i v i n g i n Osaka he had acquired two promising disciples, Oka KunioVt) $fj&* (also known as Otori^Jra ) and Kuwana M a s a n o r i ^ ^ ftfet? • They had assisted with the editing of Kokin wakashu u c h l g i k i . 1 4 and i t was Kunio's report of the eruption of Mt. Asama in 1783 on 15 which Akinari had based his Asama no kemuri. Akinari referred to 16 Kunio as "a kindred s p i r i t , " and to Masanori as "a trustworthy friend," 17 and when Kunio's wife died, he composed an elegy for her. He ap-pears to have treated his favorite students more like friends than disciples, just as Umaki had done with him. Kunio and Masanori are usually mentioned together In Akinari's writings, which suggests that they were fellow students of comparable a b i l i t y , and were both highly regarded by their teacher. Nevertheless, both men remain obscure, for -173-along with their other common tr a i t s , each of them died prematurely, before his talents had borne f r u i t , Kunlo died suddenly from Illness In the spring of 1788, and Masanorl's death apparently occurred only a 18 short time after* Their loss was ai personal tragedy for Akinari* Besides his genuine affection for them, he had seen the pair as d i s c i -ples worthy to carry on his teachings, and he reacted to their death like a father to the demise of his sons* After being predeceased by 19 those two, he said, he stopped looking for friends, and i t i s true that i n his old age he was averse to accepting disciples. He enjoyed a longer-lasting relationship with another of his stu-dents, Hashimoto Tsuneakira^^^-^. (also known by the surname of Ta-chibanafva! j 1760-1806). An attendant at the Umenomiya/j^^ Shrine i n Umezai-mura^;'^'^ on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Tsuneakira was to achieve some fame as a wakai poet and authority on ancient court prac-tices* The date and circumstances of their f i r s t meeting are not known, but his name appears frequently i n Akinari*s writings after the move to Nagara* He seems to have been an intimate friend, though i t i s clear that he also asked Akinari's advice on matters of scholarship* On one occasion, for example, Tsuneakira acquired a copy of Kada Azuma-maroi^l^ ^ / l l *s comments on the Salmeiki wazauta. a.poem from the Na-tional known from ancient times as a d i f f i c u l t verse to interpret* Tsuneakira asked Akinari's opinion of the manuscript, and Akinari obliged by outlining his doubts concerning Kada's interpretation. This occurred sometime between 1787 and 1792, but clearly during the 20 time Akinari was l i v i n g at Nagara* Akinari had also become friends with Matsumurai Qekkei -174-(also known as Qoshun^^ ; 1752-1811), a painter and haiku poet who had studied with Buson. Although i t was certainly not their f i r s t en-counter, the earliest record of a meeting between them was the 8th year of the Temmel Era (1788), 1st month, 29th day, when Akinari went to Kyoto and stayed at Gekkel's home. Tsuneakira, who was also a friend of Gekkel's, came to v i s i t , and the three of them stayed up; talking u n t i l quite late. Towards dawn a fi r e broke out i n the cit y . Fanned by strong winds i t developed into a disastrous conflagration and burned a l l through the next day. By noon Gekkel's house had been destroyed, and Akinari had joined the refugees i n the streets. It was an appall-ing spectacle, he later wrote. "The smoke scorched the clouds, and the light of the sun and moon could not be seen. The sound of things collapsing resounded lik e myriad thunders. People ran about i n confu-sion, weeping and shouting. The scene was sad beyond compare. The several houses where I had planned to stay were now gone completely. I was terribly miserable, and could scarcely t e l l whether i t was a. dream or re a l i t y . " At last he found shelter i n Takai Kito's home, but after a short rest he decided to return to Nagara. Late i n the after-noon he set out, and he witnessed many scenes of pain and suffering on the way. When he arrived at Fushlmi he learned that there was no boat for Osaka that night, so he had no choice but to sleep i n the open with other refugees. There was a thunderstorm and a strong wind, and the flames continued to burn, turning the sky red. After a miserable 21 night, he was fi n a l l y able to get a boat and return home. His deci-sion to leave Kyoto had been prudent, for Kito's house also was lost i n the blaze. -175-Juet a few weeks later, Aklnarl made a tr i p to Yoshino, Niehi-kawa Tadanaoy^;4/i i£- » a scholar with whom he was acquainted, had long wanted to see the area, and being sixty years old was anxious to make the journey while he was s t i l l able. Thinking that i t would afford him a chance to keep his promise to v i s i t his cousin i n Nagara-mura i n Yamato, and to c a l l on some other relatives as well, Akinari accepted Nishikawa's invitation to accompany him. In his account of the excur-22 sion Akinari was vague as to just when they started out, but they passed through Kashiwara^^, and stopped at the village of Kuniwake iD-^ to v i s i t his kinsman named NishloytJ who received them very cordially. Pressing on, they came to the village of Tatsuta$,$ , where they spent a night, and worshipped at the Dharma Temple of Kata-oka^^]. Then they reached T a w a r a m o t o , where they found lodgings and heard to their dismay that the cherry blossoms at Yoshino had a l -ready fallen. Next day, by now the fourteenth of the third month, they went to Miwayama t^^^A and visited the shrine there, where; Aki-nari recalled a previous pilgrimage with his father many years before. From there they went on to Ama no Kagu Yam«i.^/»|} f l ^ • By then Nishikawa was becoming fatigued, so they cut their sight-seeing short and made their way to an unspecified village where they were put up by a man named Ueda<, the man whom Akinari described as like 23 his brother. That evening they visited the nearby Tachlbana Temple, and the next day they went to see another relative, a man named Ikeda rfeffl , i n the village of Hlrao^/% , but they found him i l l , and though he made an effort to be hospitable, Akinari regretted having disturbed him. Afterwards they carried on to the Yoshino area, to find that the 176-report was correct. Most of the blossoms were gone, and many trees had been blown down by strong winds. After spending the night, they walked around Mt. Yoshino, v i s i t i n g many famous spots. Akinari took notes; on the places they passed by, asking local people about their history and traditions, and recalling the facts that he already knew about them. Repeatedly he mentioned that he had passed this way long ago, and i t would appear that he was virtually retracing the path he and his father had followed on that previous excursion. Next morning, after spending the night at Kamiichiji-^ , they descended by river. Although they had enjoyed good weather most of the time, this day was rainy. After losing their way and finding i t again, they came to the village of Nagara. The headman here was Akinari's cousin—the man he had promised to v i s i t — a n d Akinari ended his account with their arrival at his house, providing no further details. His literary account of this excursion, which he wrote later that year, i s doubly interesting. It showa Akinari's extensive knowledge of the history and legends of the Yoshino area, and also provides material for speculation about his true parentage. As previously mentioned, the complete Kokln wakashu uchlglki was f i n a l l y published i n 1789. Thereafter Akinari continued to edit and publish works by Mabuchi and persons associated with him. He prepared a fresh copy of Umaki's Tosa nikki kai, i-lfcQp and wrote a preface 24 for i t that showed his own detailed knowledge of the Tosa Diary. But publication was never carried out, possibly due to lack of funds. He was more successful, having the backing of Nomura Nobumoto, with anthologies of verse by Mabuchi and Umaki. Planning to publish a col--177-lection of Umaki's poems for the thirteenth anniversary of his death. he had unfortunately missed the date. Therefore, when Nomura approached! him about compiling a book of poems by Mabuchi, Akinari seized the chance to issue his collection of Umaki's verses along with i t . A 25 publication request was submitted early In 1791, and the two antholo-gies, Aeatal kafdmg&ffi f by Mabuchi and. Shizunova kashu* # / f iffl&by 26 Umaki were published as a single volume three months later. The Shizunoya t i t l e may have been an allusion to the name of Yuya. Shizuko (1733-1752), a female disciple of Mabuchl's with whom Umaki was widely rumored to have been romantically involved. In 1790 Aki-nari had written a preface for a new edition of Ayannno \ /p , a collec-27 tion of her poems, presumably at the request of someone who thought that i n view of Umaki's reported love for Shizuko, i t was f i t t i n g for 28 his leading disciple to write the preface. Meanwhile, i n 1787, he had f i n a l l y relented and allowed Yasaisho to be published. His haiku continued to appear occasionally i n printed collections, and thanks to his new abundance of leisure time, his friendship with Takal Kito took on new l i f e . Kito was- then at the height of his career, most of the members of Buson's group having gathered around him after the master's death i n 1784. It i s during this period that Akinari's name appears with greatest frequency i n Kito's journals. They got together f a i r l y often during 1789, compos-ing poetry together or with other members of Kito's c i r c l e , or some-29 times just talking and exchanging opinions on each other's work. and when they were unable to meet personally they exchanged letters. Such activities added variety to Akinari's l i f e at Nagara, but this was ended abruptly late i n 1789 by Kito's sudden death. In mid-1789 Aklnarl went to Kyoto to participate i n services 30 marking the thirteenth anniversary of Umaki's death. He had barely 31 returned when his wife's mother passed away. Only a year before he had seen his two most prized disciples die an untimely death, and now a similar tragedy struck i n his immediate family. In the autumn of the year, after the appropriate ceremonies had been completed, Akinari took his wife to Kyoto to entomb her mother's ashes. It was Tama's f i r s t v i s i t to the capital since moving with her foster parents to Osaka years before, and seeing her former home again helped to alleviate the sadness of the occasion. On the eleventh day of the ninth month, i n appropriately rainy weather, the ashes were en-— 32 trusted to a temple i n Nijogawara. His duty to the dead having been completed, Akinari went to v i s i t Kito the following day, and together with another member of Kito's group they went to the Nanzenji ^ 33 Temple and composed a number of poems i n honor of their meeting. Despite his apparently good health, Kito had only a few weeks to l i v e , and. this was probably the last time Akinari saw him. The next day Akinari and his wife, together with a. g i r l who seems< to have been one of Tama's relations, set out for Sagano to enjoy the autumn colors and to watch the moon. It was the thirteenth day of the month, and Sagano was traditionally an ideal place for moon viewing. On the way they stopped at Umezu to c a l l on Hashimoto Tsuneakira, but found him away attending to his priestly duties at the shrine. His mother invited then to stop there for the night, but they chose to press on to their destination. Akinari had visited Sagano just one -179-year earlier. He had stayed at the hut of a certain nun, and i t was to her hermitage that they now went for shelter. There they spent the evening, watching the moon and composing waka. on the scene, u n t i l the cold wind forced them reluctantly to r e t i r e . The next day they wan-dered about enjoying the scenery, and returned late i n the afternoon to find Tsuneakira waiting for them. Akinari seems to have found him especially easy to talk to. They conversed u n t i l evening. When Tsu-neakira started for home Akinari and Tama, accompanied him as far as the river, where they exchanged verses about the moon shining on the water before saying good-bye. In the morning Tsuneakira returned and guided them around the famous places i n the area. Towards evening he escorted them to his home and lodged them for the night. Once settled, Tamai observed, the men became deeply involved i n an intellectual dis-cussion about the distant past—things she herself had never heard o f — while the women spent the time i n "womanly talk." One senses that she f e l t l e f t out. That night i t rained, but by morning the sky showed promise of clearing, and anxious to be home, they declined an invita-tion to prolong their stay and set out for Fushimi, which they reached O A In time to catch a boat for Osaka that evening. Upon reaching Osaka, Akinari may have sent Tama- on to Nagara by herself while he stayed i n the city to v i s i t his mother, who earlier that year had moved from the Quail's Abode to li v e with some of her 35 relatives. In any case, just a week later, when Tsuneakira came to Osakai to attend to some business, Akinari was on hand to meet him, and escort him to the Quail's Abode to spend the night. Akinari and Tamai had promised to take Tsuneakira on a tour around Mt. Mino to repay his -180-klndnees i n showing them around Sagano. They planned to start out early i n the morning, but as usual Akinari and Tsuneakira became en-grossed i n conversation that continued long after they had gone to bed. When morning came both of them were too tired to get up, i n spite of Tama's urging, and i t was after midday when they f i n a l l y l e f t the house. Taking shelter i n a.mountain temple that night, they rose be-fore dawn to watch the sunrise. From there they hiked: to the water-f a l l of Mino, where they made tea and warmed sake over an open fi r e of pine cones and dry leaves. They spent the remainder of the day simply enjoying the scenery u n t i l the time came for them to part at the foot of the mountain and return to their homes. Subsequently Tsuneakira and Akinari collaborated i n writing a literary account of the outing. However, these pleasant excursions were merely intervals of re-l i e f from the tragedy and misfortune that were now beginning to over-take Akinari. He s t i l l had nearly twenty years to l i v e , but these fi n a l two decades were to be filled'with d i f f i c u l t i e s as one by one his friends and family members died. He grew more and more alienated from the world, his poverty increasing and his health slowly but re-lentlessly deteriorating. It was just a month after the excursion to Mt. Mino, for example, that Takai Kito suddenly collapsed and died. Akinari f e l t the loss keenly. In Kanetsukuba^YJk , a commemorative volume published early the following year by Kito's associates, he contributed the following verse: Ototo Shimmei wo kanashimu Lamenting my younger brother, Shimmei: -181-Fuyu karete Withered i n winter Yukashige mo naki And with nought to draw me thither--37 Miyako kana S t i l l , the Capital. Although Akinari referred to Kito as his brother, he did not care for some of the other members of the group. He contributed the above verse out of respect for Kito, but nevertheless he quarelled with Miya Shigyo:>^Stf^> , who led the ci r c l e for a time, about the compilation of Kanetsukuba. apparently miffed at not being called upon to play a 38 — greater role himself. Later, when Shigyo was preparing the manu-script of Kito's Yoshino kiko JT t ^ f 1^ for publication, Akinari sub-mitted a short preface, which Shigyo rejected on the grounds that i t s length would add to the printing costs. He asked Akinari to shorten i t , but Akinari angrily declined to do so, asking Matsumura Gekkel to — 39 inform Shigyo of his desire to cease relations with the group. Sig-nificantly, Gekkei himself largely withdrew from haikai circles after Kito's death and concentrated on his painting. Kito's ashes were scarcely cold when Akinari's mother passed away 40 toward the end of the same year. She had come to him as a stepmother but had given him a l l the care and love a natural parent could, and though she had been the third person to f i l l the maternal role for him, i t was she to whom he had given his f i l i a l devotion. From the time he was six years old u n t i l just a few months before herdeath she had lived i n the same house as he, being a source of companionship and a.sympa-thetic consultant i n times of uncertainty, even after he had reached maturity. Akinari never once hinted that looking after her In her old -182' age was a; burden. He only expressed regret that he could not care for her better. The family now consisted of Akinari and Tama alone. Prompted by the succession of tragic events, Tama took religious vows, and there-after was known by the monastic name of Koren$$^, which she took from the name of a jewelled s a c r i f i c i a l vase mentioned i n the Confu-41 cian Analects. It was an appropriate selection, for "Tama" i t s e l f means "jewel." Despite i t s lofty origin, however, when Akinari asked his wife how her new name was written, she laughingly told him to choose any characters he liked. She had chosen the name because he 42 constantly drew her attention by calling "Korekore I " she said. Misfortune next took the form of poor health. Koren suffered from an il l n e s s early i n 1790, and though she had recovered by the 43 44 middle of the year, she was ai l i n g again towards i t s close. From spring of the same year, Akinari experienced severe pain i n his hand and arm which continued u n t i l the summer. Shortly after the suffering abated he began to have trouble with his vision, and by the end of the summer his l e f t eye had failed completely. He was understandably de-pressed, for the loss of one eye and the danger of losing the other threatened to rob him of the ab i l i t y to read and write—without which his main purpose i n l i f e would be gone. He fe l t that he had experi-enced nothing but misfortune ever since the fi r e that had destroyed his o i l and paper business, and he believed that he was being punished 45 for the unproductive way he had lived. When he retired to the coun-tryside he had tried to see himself as following the examples of men like Kamo no Chomei and Yoshida.Kenko, but he could shake off neither -183-the merchants' work ethic nor feelings of guilt for not following i t . He also saw his i l l n e s s and blindness as punishments for bringing his own and his wife's mothers out into the country to die. No one had 46 accused him, but he blamed himself nevertheless. His ailments may have been at least partly psychosomatic. Certainly he was. on the verge of despair, irrationally convinced that heaven had selected him for special chastising, or that some e v i l deity had attached i t s e l f to him. He appears to have temporarily lost the rational objectivity that had served him so well i n his dispute with Norinaga. But glimpses into his home l i f e show that throughout these tribu-lations his wife remained loving and fait h f u l , and a great comfort to him. One winter's evening, as Akinari was closing the flimsy bamboo door against the cold, Koren remarked that, pleasant as their Osaka home had been, she had always been extremely busy there, and faced with troubles of which her husband had been unaware. In comparison, she said, l i f e i n this humble cottage had been so peaceful, one could scarcely say that i t was ai worse place to l i v e . Somewhat overcome, Akinari called her his guardian deity, one who had spent the years taking care of a madman like himself. Partly, but by no means entire-l y i n jest, he bowed his head to the floor i n obeisance. Smiling, Ko-ren voiced regret that people who misunderstood her husband could not witness this scene. She would continue to serve him, she said, no 47 matter what transpired, with no thought of sorrow or bitterness. It was under such circumstances that Akinari wrote Kuse monogata- r i . his best-known effort from this period. Completed in the spring of 1791, 4 8 i t i s commonly considered a work of fict i o n , and indeed -184-doee contain some fict i o n a l episodes, but i t i s really more like a zuihitsu i n form. It consists of a preface and twenty-five miscella-neous sketches; that c r i t i c i z e or poke fun at the habits and personali-ties of scholars, physicians, haiku and waka poets, tea. masters, priests, courtesans and their patrons, musicians, kabuki actors, and other characters. Akinari's intention seems to have been similar to that i n Kakizome kigenkai. but Kuse monogatari. with i t s broader scope and more finely tuned style, totally eclipsed that earlier work. Be-ing a book about people's faults, i t s tone lends support to the view that Akinari retreated from society because he could not endure i t . Many of the episodes appear to have been based on things he had heard or experienced, and which had made him angry. Some of the sketches are self-mocking, others lightly jesting, but on the whole the tone i s one of condemnation, written from the point of view of a disapproving and sarcastic onlooker. As i t s t i t l e suggests, Kuse monogatari i s a s t y l i s t i c parody of Ise monogatari. Akinari's interest i n The Tales of Ise went back at least as far as his years at Kashima-mura, where he had prepared his own annotated manuscript of the work, Ise monogatari ko. About the same time that he wrote Kuse. he was preparing for publication Kamo Mabuchi's Ise monogatari k o l % h. , to which he appended his own Yoshi 49 ya ashi va / t •C' fa t f • This was a collection of explanations of phrases from Ise selected from Ise monogatari ko—apparently portions of the work that Akinari found himself s t i l l pleased with twenty years after they were written. Kuse may be seen as an outgrowth of this ac-t i v i t y . Actually, the idea, of writing a parody of Ise did not origin--185-ate with Akinari. Numerous such burlesques had appeared during the Tokugawa period, probably the most famous being the early-seventeenth-century Nise monogatari^^y^fj^. 5 0 Ruse monogatari reveals Akinari's thorough familiarity with and f u l l understanding of Ise. and i t s satire and adroit blending of elegant and common language illustrates his keen wit and s k i l l f u l classical style. Parodies of lines and passages from Ise. and to a lesser extent from the other classics, dot the pa-51 ges, and as a result the irony i s unintelligible to anyone who i s not well versed in old Japanese literature. No wonder few scholars have been so bold as to attempt a study of i t . The twenty-five sketches are a hodgepodge, having no apparent or-ganization. Some are brief stories; others are merely descriptive anecdotes about society. Although most of them begin with "mukashl." after the manner of Ise monogatari. the reader should remember that Akinari was not really talking about the paBt, but of people and events of his own time. He did not take a self-righteous position, however. After making stabs at various and assorted other character types, he concluded by turning his barbs on himself, as exemplified by the f o l -lowing specimen from the text. In former times there was a man who, perhaps because he was tired of the world, sought out a dwelling i n the village of Fukakusa and lived in seclusion. Though i t seemed to him that he had been there but a short time, four or five years had already gone by. Whenever he thought fondly of the capi-t a l he would fix his gaze on the sky i n that direction. Hav-ing leisure time i n abundance, he took as his sole companion a pillow beneath his window, and as he slept he heard i n a dream, amidst the chirping of the birds that played i n the branches of his garden, a robin who spoke rapidly, but exact-ly like a human being. "I come to play at this hermitage ev-ery spring," the robin said, "and never i s the master doing -186-any kind of work. V/hat a lazy man ! Is there any profit i n livi n g like this? How detestable he i s 1 " A magpie who was at play i n the branches below heard the robin and answered, "This man originally came from the capi-t a l . He i s narrow-minded by nature. He i s afraid of incur-ring debts i f he tries to make a normal livelihood. Men of broader outlook w i l l l i e or do wicked acts without thinking, i f i t does no harm to others, but whenever this man sees or hears of such things, he becomes sorrowful and angry. When he reads books, only the past pleases him, and he abhors the world of today. When he engages in the arts, he looks up to the men of old, s k i l l f u l and clumsy alike, as noble and re-fined, but he scorns a l l he sees of the present and takes no delight i n i t . That i s why he passes the time to no purpose. We ought to pity him." At this the robin laughed aloud. "Just as I thought," i t said. "He pampers himself. What a mean s p i r i t he has 1 " "But the master never wears fine clothing nor eats good food," the magpie replied. "He makes do with paper bedding and paper curtains, and seems to be frugal in a l l things. He does not appear to be pampering himself." "That i s not what I meant by •pamper,'" the robin said. "The master has a worsening case of hypersensitivity and cannot control i t . So, although he does not exalt himself, he indulges his heart by regarding everybody as impure. Nei-ther a world nor a people that would match his ideal has ex-isted since ancient times. Is i t not because the writings of both China and Japan state unceasingly that the people of this world are dishonest and lament that they are generally corrupt? Even though people may accept the teachings i n those books, there seem to be none who act i n accordance with them. The master too i s that sort of person. Whether or not one practices the teachings does not depend on his wisdom or ignorance. Even though a wise man may follow them, i f the world mistreats him, they would appear to have no value.... We may say that i t i s good not to become impure even though one i s buffeted by the world. But unless one presents a sullied appearance, he can hardly mingle with society. The master cannot do so. When he hears of Impurity he has to despise i t , but when he sees that such i s the human condition he cannot loudly condemn i t . . . . If he moved with the times he would not get angry or resentful at the things he hears and sees. When he laments over things that are contrary to the Way, he pampers his self-centered heart. He eats poor food and wears thin clothing, but i f we gave him fine ap-parel he would probably wear i t , and i f we sent him good food he would probably eat i t . It i s not that he shuns lux-ury; he lives thus because he i s poor." So saying, the robin laughed aloud, and a l l the other birds joined i n . The magpie also gave a merry laugh, and the mountains and the moors laughed too. Thereupon I awoke from -187. my springtime drowsiness and penned these idle tales of l i f e , which you may c a l l Kamneki dan, or Kuse monogatari. or what-ever you please. 5^ This was surely very much how Akinari saw himself at that time. He believed that, ideally, a man should be involved i n the real world around him, work hard and cultivate himself. Even his fiction re-flects this view—his characters who stray from that path invariably suffer. He did not believe that literature was a thing a man should spend his l i f e at• Time and again he used the word " a s o b i " z * ' i n reference to writing prose and poetry and studying the classics, and when he gave i n to the temptation to devote himself to such pursuits i t caused him some pain and loss of self-respect. But from the begin-ning he had felt out of place i n society, and his alienation increased as his interest in the classics and Japanese antiquity intensified his hatred of the present and his a f f i n i t y with an idealized past. From Umaki he had acquired the view that ancient society had been natural for ancient times, and contemporary society was natural for his own dayj that even i f i t was impure one should live i n i t anyway. But although he reached this conclusion logically, he could not accept i t in practice. He could only withdraw. S t i l l , he was too honest with himself to see his withdrawal as other than an act of self-indulgence. He had done nothing for society by leaving i t , and his action had i n -convenienced his family. No one but himself had benefitted. The self-portrait that he added to his castigations of others was his own ad-mission that he was really no better than the world he c r i t i c i z e d . Although their confrontation was over, neither Akinari nor Nori-naga had capitualted. Each man had, i n effect, declared himself the -188-winner and tried to f o r t i f y himself against future assaults. To shore up his own position, Norinaga had compiled the two works that together became Kakalka. Late i n 1792, Akinari finished writing Yasumigoto. which summed up his own views on the subjects they had quarreled over. He discussed history and administration i n ancient Japan, and consi-dered the country i n relation to other nations. He restated his view that the past cannot be recreated i n the present, that Japan was not necessarily the supreme nation of the world, and that natural disas-ters are caused by nature, not by malevolent deities. Notably, he dismissed the Ko.liki as a spurious work, as he thought i t appeared to contain interpolations by various editors, and he upheld the Nihongi'. as a superior historical document. Without mentioning him by name, but with no ambiguity, he attacked Norinaga1e misguided reverence for the Ko.liki. Akinari's criticism of the Ko.liki subsequently led to him being called a traitor by Kato Chikagefltf$r^-j*| (1735-1808),53 a former student of Mabuchi who had become one of the day's leading waka* poets and kokugaku scholars. Perhaps i t was owing to this remark that Aki-nari called Chikage an i l l i t e r a t e poetaster who owed his reputation to 54 his money. During their residence at the Quail's Abode, Akinari and his wife had become friendly with the family i n the neighboring house and were naturally interested when their son was married. In 1790 the couple had a child, but the next year the mother took sick and died, Akinari and Koren had never had children of their own, and now they turned their unfulfilled parental instincts on the motherless boy next door. They took great delight i n watching him grow and learn to talk. Aki-189-narl became so absorbed i n playing with the child that he would forget his own bad health, and Koren, too poor to buy cloth, would remake items of her own and her husband's clothing into things for the boy to wear. But i n the autumn of 1792 the child became i l l . Akinari tried frantically to find an effective medicine, and the father offered prayers without ceasing, but their combined efforts proved f u t i l e . The boy's condition steadily worsened until the day of the festival of Jlvo&fy i n 1793, when he died, as though this bodhisattva had carried him away. Akinari was beside himself with grief. He assumed a l l the expenses for the funeral and cremation and personally made the journey to Osaka for the f i n a l interment of the ashes, feeling, no doubt, as though he were doing i t for his own son. There seemed l i t t l e point to go on l i v i n g . The loss of the child was only the latest i n a series of events that had made Nagara a place of bitter memories. Akinari and Koren decided to abandon their home and set out on a f i n a l journey that would end when they f e l l down and died. Thus they l e f t Nagara^and started out for Kyoto, arriving i n time for the Gion Festival that summer. S t i l l sorrowful, and both of them i n poor health, they had l i t t l e inclination to participate i n the fes t i v i t i e s , but they ventured out into the crowded streets neverthe-less, an old couple on unsteady feet. But they could only think of how the child would have enjoyed the festival, and of how they would have found pleasure i n taking him. Young children i n the crowd remind-ed them of the one they had lost, and wares in the shops made them think of the presents they could no longer give him. They went away more unhappy than they had come. -190-Later, when they were about to continue on their journey, friends i n the capital offered comforting words and pleaded with them to stay longer. "Tour grief w i l l lessen as time passes," they said, "and there i s much to see i n the capital." Akinari and Koren gave i n to their 55 persuasion and found temporary lodgings, but though they planned to stay only for the time being, the move was to be permanent. Kyoto was where both of them spent the rest of their l i v e s . NOTES 1. Akinari, Uzura no yai^j? . Ibun. pp. 418-425; for his account of this excursion, see pp. 419-423. It i s Akinari's report of seeing the procession of the new kampaku that enables us to date this t r i p . The historical record states clearly that Takatsukasa Sadahei^j^ was raised to that office i n Temmei Era, 7th year (1787), 3rd month, 1st day. See Dokuehi biyo. ed. Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku Shiryo Hensan Jo (Tokyo: Naigai Shoseki Kabushiki Kaisha, 1933), p. 245. 2. See Uzura no ya. Ibun. p. 423. Akinari gave the date of their move from Osaka as 4th month, 20th day. This must have been i n 1787, as he described the move as though i t was made directly after his ex-cursion to Arashiyama. In two other sources, however, Akinari said that he was f i f t y - f i v e when he gaVe up medicine, which would make the year 1788. See Jiden. Ibun. p. 256; Tandai. no. 5, NKBT, LVT, 254. S t i l l , both of these writings were completed during Akinari's fi n a l years, while Uzura no ya. to judge from i t s style, was written during -191-the same year as the events i t describes, and so i s probably the more reliable source. 3. Tandai. no. 5, NKBT, LVI, 254; Jiden. Ibun. pp. 256, 261. 4. Jiden. Ibun. p. 261. 5. See particularly the opening lines of Pzura no ya. Ibun. p. 418. 6. Kuse monogatari. Zenshu. I, 329-350, N.B. p. 332. 7. See Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. Tama's "mother" was most li k e l y her foster mother, Mrs. Ueyama. Presumably her husband had died before she came to li v e with them. It i s not certain whether she accompanied them to Nagara-mura. or.joined them there later. 8. Nagara-mura was also known as Awajisho-mura;\^^-^;^. Its pre-cise location i s not clear. Most scholars believe i t was in present-day Higashi Yodogawa^ku, but Asano Sampei, i n "Akinari den ni okeru ni san no mondaiten," KKB. 38, No. 6 (June 1961), 42-52, argues for a l o -cation i n Oyodo-ku, on the opposite side of the Yodo River. Takada Mamoru presents a convincing case against Asano's view in Akinari nem-£u, pp. 146, 147; see also the maps on p. 145. Care should be taken to avoid confusing this Nagara-mura with the Nagara i n Yamato where Akinari's cousin was village headman. Awajisho-murai also should be kept distinct from the Awaji-cho i n Osaka.where he had been l i v i n g . The coincidence of place names i s interesting, but does not seem to have any special significance. -192-9. See Uzura no ya. Ibun. pp. 423, 424; Tsuzurabuml^ffiff] ^  , Part 2, Zenshu. I, 37. 10. See Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. 11. Jiden. Ibun. p. 256. 12. Ibid., pp. 261, 262. 13. Tsuzurabuml. Part 2, Zenshu. I, 37. 14. See Kokin wakashu uchigikl fugen^I^ , Ibun,, pp. 520-527, N.B. pp. 526, 527. 15. Kunio was a native of the province of Kozuke, which suffered severe damage i n the eruption. For Akinari's quotations from his re-port, see Asama no kemuri. Ibun,f pp. 196-200. 16. Machibumi j ^ t t / , Ibun. pp. 212-244, N.B. p. 218. 17. Tsuzurabuml. Part 1, Zenshu. I, 19, 20. Most of this poem i s also quoted i n Machibumi. Ibun. pp. 217, 218. 18. For the time of Kunio's death, see Akinari's letter to Tsune-akira, quoted i n Takada^ Akinari nempuf p. 153. On Masanori's death, close on the heels of Kunio's, see Tsuzurabuml. Part 2, Zenshu. I, 37. 19. Tsuzurabuml. Part 2, Zenshu. I, 37. 20. See Kada< Shi kundoku Saimeiki wazauta zonal {%T$^i") iviv|rPfj it %$.f$fcs> Zenshu. II, 1-7, Tsuneakira's copy was dated 1787 (see p. 2); the published version of Akinari's comments was taken from a manu--193-script dated 1792 (see p. 7). 21. Akinari recounted this adventure i n Kagutsuchi no arabi{/y 8-P&fcfffat* Iblttli PP. 363-368. 22?. Iwahashi no k i . Ibun. pp. 263-286. The entire description of the t r i p i s taken from this work. 23. See Chapter I, note 14, p. 24. 24. Tosa nikki kai .1o. Ibun. pp. 532-537. This was written i n 1790. 25. Osaka shuppan shoseki mokuroku. p. 139. 26. See Akinari's Agatal kashu .1o. Ibun. pp. 540-543;;  kashu batsu. Ibun. pp. 543, 544. 27. Saihan Avanuno .1o jfi-tyfcjrjhfj , Ibun,. pp. 538 , 539. The f i r s t edition of Ayanuno had been published i n 1758. 28. Suggested by Takada i n Akinari nempu. p. 175. 29. Concerning Akinari's meetings with Kito i n 1789, see Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 159, 161-163. 30. The nagauta that Akinari offered on this occasion appears i n Tsuzurabumi. Part 1, Zenshu. I, 17, 18. The fact that Akinari remained loyal to Umaki long after his death i s underlined by the v i s i t he re-ceived from Umaki's adopted son while l i v i n g at Nagara. See his: l e t -ter to Tsuneakira i n Kada Shi kundoku Saimeiki wazauta zongi f Zenshu. -194-II, 7. 31. In his letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 6322, Akinari gave the date as 6th month, 20th day. See also Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. 32. Tama, Tsuyu wake goromo^/>fc , Zenshu. I, 135-138. 33. Kito, Shimmei shu ffiffi^. quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 165. 34. These events are a l l related i n Tsuvu wake goromo. 35. See Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVT, 294, and note 8 for comment. 36. Mino v u k i f f i ^ 1^. Ibun. pp. 368-371. 37. Quoted i n Takada1, Akinari nempu. p. 172. 38. See Akinari's letter to Matsumurai Gekkei, dated simply "28th day," Ibun. pp. 583-585. 39. Letter to Gekkei, 6th month, 2nd day (presumably 1790), Ibun. pp. 585-589. 40. On the 21st day of the 11th month. See Akinari's letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 631. In Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVT, 294, however, Akinari said that his mother died five years after he l e f t Osaka, which would be 1792. This was probably no more than a s l i p of the pen. In the same passage he said that both Tama's mother and his own died i n the same year, and his letter to the Jippo-in gives 1789 as the year of death for both women. -195-41. For the term "koren" and commentary on i t , see Rongo i ^ f e . Shinshaku Kambun Taikei, I (Tokyo: Meiji Shoin, 1960), 103. 42. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. It i s not certain just when Tama, took her vows, but Akinari's letter to Gekkei, 6th month, 2nd day (presumably 1790) refers to her as Koren. See Ibun, p. 588. 43. Letter to Gekkei, Ibun. pp. 588, 589. 44. Letter to Gekkei, probably 1790 (see note 45, below), 12th month, 16th day, Ibun. pp. 577, 578. 45. Ibid. In Jizo hakogakif Ibun. p. 499, Akinari said that he was fifty-seven when he lost this eye. It i s this statement that en-ables us to date the letter to Gekkei. 46. Machibumi. IbunT p. 212. 47. Pzurai. Zenshu. I, 115-118, N.B. pp. 115, 116. Akinari said this incident happened thirty years after their marriage—thus i n or around 1790. 48. In his letter to Nakahara Oe, Akinari said that Kakizome k i - genkai (published i n 1787) was written four years prior to Kuse mono- gatari. See Takada, Akinari nemnuT pp. 177, 178. Since the fi n a l words of Kuse seem to have been written i n the springtime, we may as-sume that i t was completed i n spring, 1791. It was not published un-t i l 1822. 49. These two works were published together i n 1793. See Yoshi -196-ya ashi ya. Zenshu. II, 385-408, N.B. p. 408 for publication data. Akinari's preface to Ise monogatari koi appears i n Ibun. pp> 544-546. 50. See Jack Hucinski, "A Japanese Burlesque: Nise Monogatari," MN, 30, No. 1 (Spring 1975), 1-18. 51. For examples see Asano, "Mittsu no fushiteki sakuhin," pp. 43, 44. 52. Kuse monogatari. Zenshu. I, 348-350. 53. See Nakamura Yukihiko's introduction to NKBT, LVI, 6. Naka-mura?. does not give the source of this information. 54. Tandai. no. I l l , NKBT, LVI, 318. 55. The account of the child's death and their move to Kyoto i s drawn from Koren's Natsuno no tsuyu j^y^vf? T Zenshu. I, 138-141. -197= CHAPTER VII  KYOTO The move to Kyoto may not have been as accidental as Koren im-plied. Having set out to t e l l a sad story, she made use of a l l the devices that l i t e r a r y license permitted, exaggeration and distortion included, to intensify the feeling of tragedy. Aklnarl never men-tioned the child i n his own writings, but said rather that he went to Kyoto as a concession to his wife, who was lonely for her native home** S t i l l , hie own fondness for the capital must not be Ignored. After their mothers had died, Akinari and Koren had sold the articles that were of no use to them and had made frequent pleasure excursions to 2 Kyoto on the proceeds. The desire to settle permanently i n the capi-t a l may well have developed gradually In the course of such v i s i t s . Moreover, Akinari's interests were now concentrated i n Kyoto. After giving up his work i n Osaka, he had moved to Nagara with the Intention of spending the rest of his l i f e there, but his expected demise had not occurred, and as time passed he had grown dissatisfied with his attempt to withdraw from society. Most of his friends and colleagues were now i n Kyoto, and moving there offered easier association with them, as well as a change of scene* One of his companions later noted that as he grew older he Increasingly f e l t out of place i n the commer-c i a l atmosphere of Osaka. Kyoto would offer quieter surroundings, he thought, and Its people would be of a more congenial nature* Even so, there Is no reason for doubting that the death of the child i n Nagara did provide the immediate stimulus for moving* Aklnarl said that the -198-L action was taken on a t r i a l basis, and In the autumn of the year they 5 moved he gave his residence as Settsu, or Osaka, implying that he did not yet regard Kyoto as his home* The decision to remain permanently appears to have been made later* They came to Kyoto with f i f t y rvo to their name and moved into lodgings i n Fukuro-machijt$ j near the C h i o n - i n ^ e |1 Temple, In what i s now Matsubara-eho, Higashiyama-kn. There, i n Akinari's words, they "lived a plain and simple l i f e , eating grain and drinking tea made from g parched r i c e * " For livelihood Aklnarl r e l i e d upon the pittances he 7 received from his publishers, probably some occasional remuneration from teaching, and just possibly some revenue from practicing medicine on a part-time basis* Together these would have amounted to only a small and irregular Income, but even though Koren described their quar-ters as " d i f f i c u l t to get both knees Inside,'' and though Aklnarl said that they arrived In the capital to find, l i k e Drashima Taro, that persons they could c a l l upon had a l l vanished, 1 0 they appear to have been reasonably contented, and they did have a number of friends who gave them help* One such person was Hakura Nobuyoshi-^^/i?^; (also known by the surname of Kadaf^j $ ; b. 1750), a disciple of the poet Ozawa Roan* Akinari had met him before moving to Kyoto, and they had become quite Intimate by that time, i t would appear, for Nobuyoshi took him to meet Roan shortly after his arrival i n the capital* It i s unlikely that Nobuyoshi would have paid a short-term casual acquaintance the honor of a formal introduction to his teacher* Perhaps they had met through Hashimoto Tsuneakira, a mutual acquaintance, out whatever the origin •199-of their relationship may have been* i t developed into a genuine friendship. From the time Akinari came to l i v e In Kyoto u n t i l he died, and even thereafter, Nobuyoshi was an unfailing source of aid* Roan also became a\ true and lasting friend* When Akinari f i r s t went to his home, Roan received him kindly, and acted as though he had been Impatiently awaiting his a r r i v a l . No doubt Roan had already read and been Impressed by some of Akinari's work and was looking forward to meeting him i n person* Akinari too, i n his younger days, had heard much about Roan from Kojima Shigeie, the man whom he credited with In-troducing him to classical studies* Roan's and Akinari's mutual es-teem for Shigeie, and their fond reminiscences of him, helped them to feel a common bond at their f i r s t encounter* Besides Nobuyoshi, Tsune-akira was also present at this meeting* He and Roan played the koto together, and a number of poems were composed to celebrate the occa-sion—though Akinari mentioned having Nobuyoshi act as scribe i n his own behalf, implying that his eyesight was giving him some trouble* 1 1 Akinari may have found his dwelling at the Chion-in with the as-sistance of Murase Kotei, who was one of Qekkei's associates* Kotei's residence was very close to Akinari's, and considering their mutual friendship with Gekkei, this proximity was probably not due to mere chance. For some time Akinari had had a growing interest i n the tea ceremony, and since Kotei was a tea master of some standing, Akinari found his companionship very rewarding. During the time they were neighbors, Kotei did much to guide and develop Akinari's own interest 12 i n the art of tea. Yotsugi Makazu , quite a wealthy merchant i n the capital, 200-was another friend who enjoyed the tea ceremony. Again, the origin of their friendship i s one1ear. but Akinari had become acquainted with him at least a few years prior to moving to Kyoto* Qekkel or Tsune-akira may have furnished the Introduction. In a letter to Qekkel In 13 1791, Akinari mentioned receiving a painting from Yotsugi, and short-l y after he had become settled i n the capital, he and Yotsugi went to UJi together to v i s i t Tsuneakira, who was staying there at the time* On this t r i p they took shelter i n Tsuneaklra's lodgings, made tea with the pure water from the river, and went through the usual round of poetry composition* Subsequently they a l l went by boat to see the Byodo-in Temple* Enroute they were surprised to find numerous small boats on the river, their occupants picking bundles of firewood from the water* In answer to their query they learned that a few miles up-stream a wagon loaded with firewood had overturned, s p i l l i n g i t s con-tents into the river, and the local inhabitants were profiting from the mishap* Akinari seems to have found this Incident most interest-ing, for he described i t i n detail but said vir t u a l l y nothing about - - 14 the Byodo-in i n his account* Another good friend was the poet and kokugaku scholar Ban Kokei {f4^t; (1733-1806), who was a close associate of Roan, and lik e him was known as one of the "Four Heavenly Kings 1 1 i n waka.circles i n the 15 capital* Nevertheless, I t would appear that Akinari had met him In-dependently of Roan before going to Kyoto, as Kokei mentioned i n his 16 writings sending correspondence to Akinari at Nagara* It has been reported that when Akinari went to l i v e i n the capital he I n i t i a l l y relied upon Kokei for assistance, but that shortly a r i f t developed -201-17 between them, and he then turned to Roan. But even If this was so, their estrangement could not have been serious. Akinari wrote a pref-ace for Kokei's Ptanshibumi warawa no satoshi & % v& i n the winter 18 of 1793, and they were clearly on good terms a few years later. Nev-ertheless, i t i s true that they did not see eye to eye a l l of the time. - 19 Kokei once sharply cr i t i c i z e d a verse that Akinari had written, and on another occasion, when Kokei suggested that the two of them try composing poetry after the fashion of the then-defunct shokunin uta--poetry competitions i n which the verses had the s k i l l s of the various artisans as their subject matter—Aklnarl, who f e l t that poetry had.become too commercialized, sarcastically replied that i n the present day the name should be changed to shoninK?! A utaawase. or "merchants' poetry competitions." He added, with obvious satisfac-20 tion, that his retort effectively silenced Kokei. But such episodes need not be interpreted as evidence of i l l feeling between them. More l i k e l y they just indicate that neither Akinari nor Kokei were inclined to compromise their beliefs for the sake of harmonious relations. When they disagreed they made their feelings known, but they were not unable to tolerate opposing viewpoints. Indeed i t i s not inconceivable that Akinari might have become friendly even with Norinaga, had Norinaga not been so adamant and patronizing. Akinari's students i n Kyoto also gave him assistance at times. Not much i s really known about them, but they did Include a Ueda Sane-yuki £ $ jt?V.^  , who was apparently quite well-to-do, to judge from Aki-nari's reeord of v i s i t i n g his v i l l a i n the northern h i l l s of the capi-21 29 t a l . Akinari described him as "not a writer of poetry" -.perhaps -202-he was not particularly talented, but their friendship was such that Saneyuki prepared the f i n a l copies of Akinari's manuscripts on at least two occasions* Another student was Tani Naomi^-pL^- (also called Etsu Qyoshin^f 7, ), who, among other things, wrote Man'yo shu 24 nchlgjki. a collection of notes on Akinari's lectures, Akinari and Koren lived an unsettled existence i n the capital* In the spring of 1794, less than a year after settling there, they l e f t their hut at the Chion-in and moved into quarters within the pre-cincts of the Nanzenjl, having been invited by someone to do so* The new dwelling was small, but larger than the one they had been occupy-ing, and Akinari' liked the Increase i n l i v i n g space and the stream of 25 clear water that flowed nearby* The house consisted of a single eight-mat room, about half of which was taken up by household furnish-ings* There was also a veranda outside, shaded by means of a reed screen hung from the eaves* The windows provided a pleasing view of the mountain scenery, and the cries of birds could be heard mingled with the sound of running water. Akinari called this h«t the Uzurai, 26 after his former home i n Nagara* It was a quiet and relaxing envi-ronment, but before long, for unspecified reasons, they moved into a tenement building at Todo-in Shijovf f^jVEv^^, about a mile and a half 2" west of the Chion-in. This was the building where Qekkel was l i v i n g * But their stay here also was brief* Soon they moved, again for unspe-c i f i e d reasons, to the v i c i n i t y of M a r u t a - m a c h i a n d Koromodana-cha{v^f#f , 2 8 about a mile to the north* This abode likewise proved temporary* "We did not s i t there either," Akinari wrote, "but moved, back to our former fukuro i n Fukuro-machi, i n front of the gate of the -203-29 Chion-in." Their nomadic l i f e drew laughs from some of the people 30 they knew, he noted, but he seems to have been less concerned about public opinion after moving to Kyoto* When an acquaintance asked him where he was going to move next, Akinari replied i n verse: Kaze no ue n i The clouds that dance on the wind Taehl man kumo no Have no destination, Yukue naku And I shall decide Asu no a r i ka wa Tomorrow*s dwelling place Yoku zo sadamen. Tomorrow, Akinari was Informed that when the man received this poem he made a gesture of scorn and called him a detestable person, but Akinari's 31 record of the incident does not suggest that he was upset* One little-known fact about Akinari i s that he was a; vegetarian and a teetotaller. He claimed to have disliked sake and preferred tea 32 since his younger days* On the wall of his home he hung a l i s t of "forbidden things," which Included wine, f i s h , tobacco, and o i l y foods— as well as literary men, tea masters, rich people, anything with a 33 strong smell, and selling medicine* Abstaining from intoxicants was consistent with Akinari's s t r i c t nature, but the fact that he had shunned them even while engaging i n other forms of dissipation i n his 34 youth suggests that his aversion may have been physical as well as mental. And he appears to have been tolerant of those who did not share his aversion, including hie wife, who, he noted, was fond of a d r i n k . 3 5 Akinari's preference for tea over wine nurtured his interest i n Its preparation. He had probably become at least roughly acquainted -204 with the tea ceremony at a relatively young age, for one of the few pieces of information he gave about his sister was that she had stud-36 led under a master of the art* His subsequent deeper Interest may have been aroused by such men as Tsuga Teisho and Kimura Kenkado* He became conspicuously active i n the way of tea while l i v i n g at Nagara-mura and after moving to Kyoto—a period when he and Kenkado were get-ting together quite often, to judge from the entries i n Kenkado*s d i a r y — but even his Ashikabi no kotoba. which he had written for Kenkado i n 37 1774, mentioned tea i n i t s opening lines* If he really was a descend-ant of Kobori Enshu, and aware of the fact, then a desire to emulate his progenitor may also have contributed to his interest* Moreover, In Kyoto he enjoyed the companionship of Murase Kotei and Yotsugi Ma-kazu, both of whom, as we have seen, were tea enthusiasts, and he fre-quently praised the pure water that flowed past his Nanzenjl dwelling 38 as ideal for making tea?. It was In the senchado.^^T^ , or the way of green tea, that Aki-nari achieved distinction* This was a r i t u a l method, Chinese i n o r i -gin, of preparing green tea, simpler than the formal ceremony using the powdered jfc • The sonohado had been Introduced from the continent only i n the early Tokugawa period, and was s t i l l i n i t s evolutionary stages by Akinari's time* Indeed, he and Murase Kotei are today known as two of the men who brought Its rules to their f i n a l form* 3 9 It was Akinari's own "Book of Tea." Seifu sagen ;fy^f|>f^ that earned him much of this credit* The work was published late i n 1794, though just when I t was written Is uncertain* Murase, i n the preface he wrote, Implied that Akinari composed Seifu during his l e i --205-40 sure hours l a Kyoto, and i n a letter written when he was seventy-two, that i s , In 1805, Aklnarl mentioned having produced such a work ten 41 years earlier* From the text i t s e l f , however, Nagara-mura would ap-42 pear to have been the place of writing* Of course this does not rule out the possibility that Akinari revised i t i n Kyoto prior to publication* Seifu sagen covers such topics as the nature of tea, the varieties of the beverage, Its history i n China and Japan, areas of production, methods of cultivating tea plants, the manufacture of tea, and ways of preparing i t for drinking* Details of the tea ceremony and general information for the gentleman of taste are also included* Akinari drew his information from a wide range of Chinese and Japanese works, but he did not plagiarize* He cited the sources for a l l his conclu-sions, supplemented what he had gleaned from books with his personal experiences, and expressed his own views freely* Seifu displays both the wide extent of Akinari's knowledge and research, and his apprecia-tion of tea as a true art form* He saw i t as a spi r i t u a l art. He had long considered himself a seeker after purity i n an impure world, and i n tea he found not a mere drink, but a temporary r e l i e f from the pains of l i f e ; something that did not corrupt the heart as wine did, but purified i t * The verse, Nigorlshi to X cannot run away To wa nogarenedo From this polluted world, Tanlmizu n i But I can make tea Cha wo nite kokoro With water from a mountain stream Sumasu bakarl zo And put my heart to rest 43 206-reflects this attitude. In the soothing effect of the drink, and i n the tranquil beauty of i t s r i t u a l preparation, he could find peace of mind* It was as an extension of this.feeling that he began to delve into tea lore, and ultimately to create his own earthenware vessels for making tea* In this latter pursuit he achieved a high degree of s k i l l and a.far-reaching reputation* People came to learn pottery-44 making from him, and a teapot he and Murase designed became so popu-la r , i t was reported, that there was no dealer i n tea wares from the three main urban centers to the farthest outlying regions who did: not s e l l i t * Some of the tea vessels that Akinari made with his own hands are s t i l l i n existence, being highly prized by collectors, and as with his ceramics, so with his book* Seifu sagen was only one among many similar works, but i t established Akinari as a first-ranking au-thority on tea* It seems to have been widely read when i t f i r s t ap-46 peered, and i t s t i l l i s highly acclaimed* Akinari continued his scholarship i n other fields as well* After coming to Kyoto, or perhaps even before, he began to write Reigotsu.., a comprehensive work i n six sections, one each on the names of Shinto deities, the names of Japan's provinces, noted products of the various regions, poetry, terminology, and kana orthography* The kana- section 47 was completed by the winter of 1795 and published i n early 1797* Unfortunately this was the only part ever to be published, and the manuscripts of the other five sections have a l l been lost* In the kana section of Reigotsu. Akinari took issue with most of the scholars of his day on the matter of kana orthography* It would appear that toward the end of the Heian period the Japanese language -207-anderwent appreciable phonetic changes that eliminated distinctions between the pronunciation of such kana symbols as h and 1; , c > and fo , Z. and j ^ . , and so on, with resultant confusion as to which symbol should be used i n a i given word* Writers generally followed the histo-r i c a l spelling, using the symbols that had always been used for each word, but some disunity was inevitable* A very real: problem had de-veloped by the Kamakura period, and proposals for standardization were being heard from such figures as Fujiwara Teika^/ljC 1!- (1162-1241) and Hlnamoto Chlkayakl^f ^ ' f f * In the latter half of the fourteenth century their ideas were f i n a l l y codified by Chikayuki's grandson, (Jyoaff m In fl^na, mo 11, CThf4 4 £ f ^ T h ± B system, known as ffejka kanazukai. became the standard among waka poets and was followed by most other people as well u n t i l the Edo period, when further phonetic changes occurred i n the language, and competing views on kana orthogra-phy again began to emerge* The strongest advocate of reform was Kel-chu, who thoroughly revised the Telka system on the basis of the old historical conventions he had gleaned from ancient writings* Keichu's system won wide acceptance among kokugaku scholars and people i n re-lated lines of study, but there were dissenters* Of these, one of the most prominent was Tayasu Munetake (1715-1771), a son of the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Yoshlmune^^ « and a student of Kamo Mabuchi* He contended that kana should be written according to the sound* If a phonetic change occurred i n the language, the symbol express the particular sound should also be changed, he said* In Relgotsu. Akinari b u i l t upon Munetake's opinions, maintaining that the rules for kana, orthography were a l l man-made, not natural, and so one need not -208-48 feel bound to adhere to any particular system. He saw having more than one symbol to express the Bame sound as needless pedantry, which made what.was simple seem complex, and he went to great lengths to show the Irrationality of contemporary kana usage* In ancient times, he said, kana was written according to the sounds expressed, and i t was only logical to do likewise i n his.own day. Thus he advocated no codified system, but simply discarding the old conventions and writing words as they were pronounced* Such a view brought Akinari some cen-sure from other scholars, notably from Murata Harumi/f\f ©4K"^ (1746-49 1811), but more recently he has been seen as one of the early advo-cates of a truly phonetic script, an idea which began to acquire mo-50 mentum after the Heiji Restoration* His other writings of this period include M/yi'yftiffll'u k a l s e t s u 4 r ^ . His f i r s t general discourse on the Man'yoshq. I t was completed i n 1794, though the bulk of I t could have been written earlier* A short piece, i t briefly treats such topics as the meaning of the Man'yoshu t i t l e , the identity of the compiler, the number and variety of the,poems i n -eluded, and so on. For the most part Akinari was content to echo the conclusions of other scholars, expressing few opinions of his own, but despite Its lack of originality the work remains noteworthy as another forerunner of his more exhaustive Man,'yoshu scholarship* In collaboration with Hakura Nobuyoshi he collected stray items of poetry by Kada Azumamaro and compiled,them into an anthology to which he gave the t i t l e Shun'yoshu 1 ^ |> * It was completed by the 52 autumn of 1795, according to the postscript to the collection, though i t was not published u n t i l 1798* Also i n the f i e l d of poetry, Akinari -209-appolnted himself to carry on the work begun by Mabuchi i n his 1757 work. KjanJAk£!j j.j'/t . This had been a study of makura kotoba i n the Man'yoshu. Mabuchi had arranged selected words i n alphabetical order and explained the origin and meaning of each one i n minute detail. In 1796 Akinari completed Kanllko z o k u c h o ^ i i ^ . 5 3 which, l i k e i t s prede-cessor, consisted of selected "pillow words" l i s t e d i n go-.1u-on order, and defined and commented upon* It was a solid work of philology that modern scholars s t i l l mention as an extension of the Important work that Mabuchi had begun.^ Akinari changed his area of emphasis a number of times, but the literary form that he continued to practice over a longer period than any other was the tanka. A recent collection of his thirty-one-syllable 55 poems contains a total of 2337 such verses* His earliest known waka appeared i n his flkj,yp--<yghJ|T and he continued to compose them for the rest of his l i f e . Nevertheless, i t was only after he had moved to Kyoto and been introduced to waka circles there that he became a poet of standing* Credit for this must go principally to Ozawa Roan* After Umaki's death Akinari had carried on by himself, but i t was d i f f i c u l t to break into poetry circles and achieve recognition without the back-ing of a teacher* It was i n this respect that Roan offered invaluable assistance* Not only did he go out of his way to assist Akinari mater-i a l l y , keeping a close watch over his welfare and sending him fuel every 56 winter, but he also took special pains to put him i n contact with men of common interests* Roan often Invited Akinari to his home, and through taking part In poetry sessions there Akinari began to get ac-quainted with prominent waka poets i n the capital* Thus he formed -210-conneotlons with the Tadagoto^^^ school, of which Roan was a leader, and with poets from the Imperial court as well* The record shows that i n 1799 he participated three times with the court poets i n their New 57 Year poetry sessions* Nevertheless, he was known as an outsider, even though he was re-spected as a proficient one* He himself was inclined toward the Kogaku style of poetry, advocated by Mabuchi, which aimed at recapturing the purity and simplicity of ancient times, subordinating craftsman-ship to the direct portrayal of human feelings* Its ideal was to go back to the Man'yoshu. or even beyond i t to the poetry of the fip.Ukft and Nihongi. This style was generally opposed by the poets i n Kyoto, who mostly looked to the Kokinshu as their model. But Akinari was far from inflexible i n the matter of poetry* He did not become a disciple of Roan by any means, though he did send poems of his own composition 58 to Roan with a request for criticism* It was this willingness to explore other poetic styles rather than narrowly adhere to a single one that enabled him to win acceptance among poets i n the capital* Although Akinari was happier i n Kyoto, bitter experiences did not cease* Indeed, during his last years he saw nearly a l l of his close associates die before him* At some time, probably while he was s t i l l l i v i n g at Nagara, he had acquired a student named Xkenaga Hatara;€7")c /f: ?4 •• A member of an Osaka merchant family, Hatara had shown lit e r a r y talent,from childhood, and ultimately abandoned commercial pursuits 59 entirely* Early i n 1794 he came to v i s i t Akinari and stayed for 60 several days, which suggests a strong degree of intimacy* There were probably other v i s i t s as well, though the next one recorded took 211-plaee late i n 1795, nearly two years later, when Hatara brought the manuscript of his Man'yoshS mlvasu hosei and asked Aki-nari to read and c r i t i c i z e i t . Akinari declined, pleading the d i f f i -culty of doing i t with just one eye, nor was he i n the mood to l i s t e n while Hatara read i t aloud* Hatara was moved to tears by this refusal, so eagerly had he been anticipating Akinari's help. In the end he l e f t the manuscript with Akinari anyway, promising to come back for i t i n the spring. But he was never to return* Towards the end of spring he became sick, and i n the sixth month, not yet thirty years old, he died* Akinari was shocked and repentent. Hatara was his third pro-mising disciple to be nipped i n the bud by death, and he now said that their relationship had been l i k e that between father and son. Not long afterwards the publisher who had agreed to print mvam hosai came calling on Akinari i n search of the manuscript. Finding much that he could not agree with when he,finally took the trouble to read Hatara's work, Akinari refused to l e t i t go to press i n that form. He wrote a revision which he turned over to the publisher i n the winter of 61 that year. The f i n a l version, which was not published u n t i l 1809, may actually be more Akinari's work than Hatara's* Even more bitter for.Akinari may have been the loss of Tsune-akira, for I t came about not through death but desertion* notwith-standing his high regard for Akinari, Tsuneakira appears to have been an opportunist, not one to hesitate out of loyalty i f he f e l t his i n -terests lay elsewhere. In 1793, shortly before Akinari moved to Kyoto, Norinaga,had also gone there to l i v e * Tsuneakira had helped him to meet certain influential persons, and he continued to associate with -212-him thereafter* Under these circumstances i t would have been hard for Akinari to remain kindly disposed toward Tsuneakira, and relations be-tween them appear to have cooled shortly after Akinari's arrival i n the capital* There i s no specific proof of an estrangement, but ver i -fiable contacts between them ceased not long after. As late as 1793, or possibly even later, Akinari wrote that he regarded Tsuneakira as a brother, but the last record of good relations between them was the preface that Tsuneakira wrote for Shun*yoshu In 1795* Thereafter Aki-nari made no mention of him, not even when he died In 1806, nor i s 63 Akinari mentioned In any of Tsuneakira'e writings* It i s worthwhile to note that In 1800 Ozawa Roan formally rejected Tsuneakira as a dls-64 ciple on grounds of "bad behaviour." Perhaps he too had had occasion to feel slighted by Tsuneakira's opportunism* In the autumn of 1797 Akinari and Koren made an excursion to Ku-saka-mura$ 'f %<\ i n the province of Kawachi to v i s i t their friend, the nun Yulshlnt)f^-« Yuishln was the widow of Hlrase Sukemichi, with whom Akinari had gone to Arashlyama i n the spring of 1787* when her husband had died, since her parents too were no longer l i v i n g , she had taken the tonsure and retired to a hermitage i n Kusaka where, Akinari said, she spent the time reading and practicing calligraphy. Presumably she and her husband had been friendly with the Uedas i n Osaka, for Akinari said that he had known her for twenty years or more 65 by this time* Perhaps Akinari had even given her some assistance with her li t e r a r y Interests* In any ease, both he and his wife must have considered her a valuable friend, to make a special t r i p of con-siderable distance to c a l l on her* As part of this t r i p they took the -213-opportunlty to pass by the Kanhlma Inari Shrine and renew their acquain-66 tanee with the Fuji family as well* This must have been the last time that Akinari and his wife ever went anywhere together, for Keren died quite suddenly that winter, . 67 January 31, 1798 (Kansel Era, 9th year, 12th month, 15th day)* Aki-nari was prostrated with grief* "Casting myself down, I writhed about, stamped, my feet, and wept," he wrote, "but there was nothing to be done, so I sent her to the moors and l e t her go up In smoke* In her ooffin I wrote these words of regret: Tsurakazishl The pain and misery Kono toshl tsukl no Of your years and months with me Mukul shite Made you take revenge* Ikaniseyo to ka Now that you have foresaken me, Ware wo suteken What can I ever do?" Undemonstrative though he may have been with his affection, Akinari had loved and needed Koren. She had stayed beside him through thirty-seven years of married l i f e , few of which could have been pleasant for her* Now she was gone, leaving him i n poor health, with f a l l i n g eye-sight, and his financial resources exhausted. This was the low point of his l i f e . There i s a note of resentment In his expression of grief, as though he f e l t that she had died deliberately as an act of betrayal* Boan In particular offered considerable assistance, and sent numer-ous verses of condolence, and most of Akinari's other friends also came to express sympathy, but he refused to be comforted and i n time 69 they l e f t him to himself* Sorting through Keren's belongings, he was surprised to come upon two manuscripts that she had written* Un-214-t l l then he had been unaware of their existence. His f i r s t impulse was to throw them away, lest they c a l l back painful memories, but after reading them over he thought them worthy of preservation for the l i t e r -ary talent they displayed. The manuscripts were i n very rough form with many words and phrases crossed out and rewritten. It was obvious that Koren had planned to rewrite them, so during the early part of 1798 Akinari addressed himself to the task of preparing clean copies. After completing the work he entrusted the manuscripts, Tsuvu wake go-romo and Nat anno no tsuvu. together with the messages of condolence 70 that his friends had sent, to the Jippo-in Temple. This was probab-l y on the forty-ninth day after her death, when her ashes were interred. Shortly thereafter, at the end of the cherry-blossom season, Akl-narl went by himself to Kawachi to v i s i t with Yuishin and apparently stayed for some time. He had remained despondent and had even contem-plated taking his own l i f e , but retracing the path that he and Koren had followed on their last journey together, and sharing reminiscences 71 about their late spouses with Yuishin brought him comfort* But mis-fortune persisted* Eight years before, as though brought on by grief at the death of his mother, he had lost the use of his l e f t eye. Now, i n the same way, close on the heels of his wife's death, the trouble 72 spread, and within five months of her passing he was completely blind* NOTES 1* SSB&al, no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294;; Machibmni. Ibun. p. 213. •215-2. Tandai. no* 69, NKBT, LVI, 294, 3* Fujita, Ken,'el waka .jg, gejjshji, I, 149. 4* Tandai. no* 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. 5* See Kalfnso b a t e u ^ ) A ^ £ . Ibun. pp. 552, 553. 6. Tandai. no* 69, NKBT, LVI, 295* 7. Ibid. 8. In hie Kftko mmktf&&f * Tsumura Seikyo ^Mtfc mentioned becoming i l l while on a v i s i t to Kyoto and receiving medi-cine from Ueda Yosal, to whom he was Introduced by Murase Kotel^f ^xf • This was In mid-1793, just after Aklnarl had come to the capi-t a l * See Takada, AfrflnffTiriti ntflP^t P« 3-87. On Murase Kotei, see p. 199, above* 9* Natauno no tsavu. Zenshu. I, 141. 10* Machftbumj, Ibun. p. 213* 11* Akinari described his f i r s t meeting with Boan i n Machibumi. S-_Si P* 2-3* See also Akfl, go kumo, Ze^eh^, I, 157; Tsuzurabuml. Part 2, Zenshu. I, 36. 12* See Tandai. no* 69, NKBT, LVI, 294; also Hotel's preface to Svlfli Pffiffl* ZgfisMt II. ^ 79, 480. 13* See Ibun. P . 577. -216-14. See MflffhA^MAT Ipun. pp. 213-215* Akinari described this ex-cursion as though i t was made In the same year that he moved to the capital* Presumably i t was around the tenth month of the year* In Tsuzurabuml. Part 2, Zenshu. I, 24, there i s a verse with a prefatory note to the effect that i t was composed the morning after a night spent at Tsuneakira»s home i n UJi, "about the Godless Month*" 15. Helen no Waka Shitenno <f * The other two were Chogetsu;f f] (1714-1798) and JUinfejg (1748-1805). 16. Kokei, fnJaUDuAtwffltiZJf t quoted i n Hakamura«s supple-mentary notes to Tandai. NKBT, LVI, 397. 17. Honma Yusei, Mimitokawa. quoted i n Nakamura's notes, Ibid. 18. Akinari dated his preface, "Winter of this year of Kansei." Since U^evshiburaj, was published i n Kansei 6th year (1794), the preface must have been written i n 1793. See Takada, Akinari nemnu. pp. 191, 192. 19. See Machlbmnl. Ibun. pp. 230, 231. 20. Tandai. no. 3, NKBT, LVI, 252. 21. M^hj^bujyl, Ibunf p. 216. 22. jju, a r o w m f ^ i » 2SBE&* i . 147, 148. 23. These were Juu vogen and Man'yoshu kaJsetsu. See Zenshu. I, 148; IX, 20. -217-24* Unpublished and of uncertain date* See Maeno Sadao, "Ueda Akinari no Man'yogaku," KBKKK. 4, No. 7 (June 1959), 62-71, N»B. pp. 70, 71* 25* See Akinari's letter to Roan i n FW^tefffHr Zenshu. I, 200* It may have been the Osawa^ C^ /t and I s o g a i ^ ^ $ families, who were very helpful to Akinari while he lived at the Nanzenjl, who Invited him to come there* Concerning these two families, see Iwahashl Koyata, "Zui-ryuzan ka no Ueda Akinari," Wakatake. 13, No. 3 (March 1920), 5-10; No* 5 (May 1920), 7-13. 26* See Uzural. Zenshu. I, 120, for a detailed description of this dwelling* 27. See Tandai. no* 69 and note 23, NKBT, LVI, 294. 28* Ibid* 29* Ibid. Note 25 says that this move was made In Kansei 8th year (1796), 3rd month* See also Takada, Akinari nemmt. p. 214; Tsujimori Shuei, Ueda Akinari no shogal (Tokyo: YUkosha, 1942), p. 40. None of these references give their source of information* 30. MachAbupA, Ibun. p. 213. 31. P ^ r f i ^ W 1 - Part 2, Zenshu. I, 36, 37. 32. Letter to Odate Komon^^| ;^ , Ibun. pp. 572-577, N.B. p. 573* -218-33* KabegaM^^ , Ibun. p. 570, By lit e r a r y men and tea masters Akinari must have meant those who engaged In the pursuits for commercial gain rather than for love of their art, 3 4 • Jlden. Ibun. p. 255* 35. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 294. 36. Ibid., no. 53, p. 286. 37. See AsUtehl, Zsashi* I, 185. 38. See, for example, Cha no uta,. Ibun. pp. 457, 458. 39. See gaJi N^on, hyakfta, Utrftlli « » 44. 40. Seifu aagen. Zenahu. II, 479-502. For publication data, see p. 502; for Murase's remarks, pp. 479, 480. 41* See his letter to Odate. Ibun. pp. 573, 577. 42. See Selfq. Zenshu. II, 480, 492. 43. From C^ a, Bo u^a, Ibun., p. 457. 44. See Fumihogu. Zenshu. I, 202. 45. Stated by Tanomura Chikuden v j l ^ i ) H ' (1776-1834), a painter and associate of Murase, i n Tosekl BaBar6kntf/yf.fti»ffi. quoted i n Ta-kada, flynqrl iwimn» p* 207. 46. For more comprehensive treatment of Akinari's ac t i v i t i e s i n the art of tea, see Sakada Mo toko, "Ueda Akinari to senchado," JK, 31 -219-(Deo. 1963), 62-76; Tsujimori, no ehogal. pp. 321-336. 47. Reigotsu. Zenshu. II, 409-438. For publication data, see p. 438. The preface by Etsu Qyoshln (pp. 409, 410) was written near the end of 1795, but i t says that Akinari had been working on Reigotsu for the past two years. It i s this preface that t e l l s us the nature of the missing sections, 48. I am Indebted to Nihon bungaku dai.liten. ed, Fujimura Tsukuru, 8 vols, (Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1950-1952), II, 24-26 for most of the i n -formation on the history of kana orthography. For Akinari's comment specifically on this point, see for instance Zenshu. II, 421-422. 49. See Tandai. no. 4, NKBT, LVI, 252, 253. 50. See Nihon bungaku dai.liten. I, 23. 51. M"fl'Y"f?hn kaisetsu. Zenshu. II, 9-20. For the date of comple-tion, see p. 20. 52. Quoted i n Takada, Afrflffifflrl nffflPnr P* 211 • Akinari's preface to Shun'yoshu appears i n Ibun. pp. 555-557. 53. Kan.llko zokucho. Zenshu. II, 271-384. For the date of comple-tion, see p. 275. 54. See Nihon bungaku dal.1lten. II, 112. 55. Asano Sampei, Aklnarl y.enkanhu to Bono kenkvn (Tokyo: Ofusha, 1969). . -220-56. See IfofflfihiflMT Zenshu. I, 201. 57. Twice i n the last month of Kansei 11, and once i n the f i r s t month of Kansei 12. See Asano, ^ i W l l r»enkashu. pp. 514-519. 58. See Fmnihogu. Zenahu. Z, 200. 59. Sugino Tsu n e f j f f ^ , Tensekl flakusha b e n r a n ^ ^ ^ ^ |g (comp. 1812), quoted i n Takada, ^mrX IffifflTOt P« 215. 60. For Akinari's record of this v i s i t , see WflchAftHBllr Ibun. pp. 218-221; for the date, Yukl wa h l k u ^ f f i , 2§a§h£. I» 94-97, N.B. pp. 94, 95. 61. See Man'ySahS mlvasn hosel .1o. Ibun. pp. 553-555. 62. In a copy of the Iznmo fudokl that Tsuneakira had borrowed, thinking i t to be Tsuneakira's own book. It i s not clear just when Akinari did this, but the printing date of the Izumo fudokl copy was Kansei 5th year (1793), 2nd month. See Harusame monogatari. ed. Maru-yamat p. 41. 63. Pointed out by Takada i n AJf^^^rt, n?FlPTh p. 261. 64. Ibid., p. 260. 65. See ffiffliMffibMiTilt Part 2, Zenshu. I, 36; Machlbuml. Ibun. pp. 223, 224; Yamagiri no k i J ^ g ^ , Jfcufl, pp. 287-314, N.B. p. 287. 66. Material at the Kaguwashi Jinja, quoted i n Takada, Akinari,  nempu. pp. 218, 219. It i s not definite that this v i s i t was part of -221-the t r i p to Kusaka, but most l i k e l y so* 67* See }Sss)^SBlXt Ibun. p. 222$ also Akinari's letter to the Jippo-in, Ibun. p. 632* 68* Maohlbuml, JJjun., p. 222. 69* Ibid., pp. 222, 223; see also Flunihogft. Zenshu. I, 202, 203. 70* See ffa.tsnnp ng nh1KlP?jg^t J-_m> P* 5 6 0 5 Akinari's postscript to gsnyu. fake fioromo and Hatsuno no tsuvu. Zenshu. I, 141; Ban Kokei's postscript to the two manuscripts, quoted i n Takada, Aki- nari nempu. p. 222; Mac^bumj., Ibun. p. 223* 71. See MacJUJjujBl, IJjun., pp. 223, 224. 72. Ibid., p. 224. -222-CHAPTER VIII  THE FINAL YEARS After losing both his wife and hie eyesight, one might expect Akinari to have become a helpless old man, but he was not really alone* At some previous time he and Koren had adopted a g i r l as their daughter, and this woman stayed i n the house to assist him after his wife died* 1 L i t t l e i s known about her, however* Her name Is believed to have been Mineko^-^ , 2 and she may have been the g i r l who accompanied them on their excursion to Sagano i n the autumn of 1789, but even these points are mere assumptions* Akinari did not get along well with her—the fact Is implied, I f not explicitly stated, i n nearly every reference to her that he made—which suggests that the adoption had been Koren's idea and Akinari had simply acquiesced i n the matter* The daughter i s known to have taken religious vows, presumably after Koren's death, and she suffered from poor health, which apparently rendered her unable to give Akinari and the domestic tasks her undivided attention* It was probably for this reason that a second woman, an elderly nun from Osaka named Hatsuyama Telko^ ^ ^ / t , joined their household*4 It has been supposed that she had been a maidservant i n Akinari's home when he was 5 practising medicine, but this too i s pure conjecture, and she remains, indeed, just as obscure a person as the adopted daughter* Neverthe-less, we do know that between them these two women took care of Akl-narl and provided him with a measure of companionship* Yuishin remained a third woman i n his l i f e * Even though they continued to l i v e far apart, they maintained close ti e s and enjoyed -223-one another'8 company* It was at her invitation that i n 1798, towards the end of the f i f t h month, Akinari and his daughter set out for her 6 home i n Kawachi, Intending both to v i s i t with her and to consult an 7 eye specialist i n Osaka* Roan came to see them off, and they stopped — 8 by Kokei's place to exchange parting verses on the way* They must have passed through Osaka enroute to Yuishin's home, for Klmura Kenka-do recorded being visited by Aklnarl and his daughter on the twenty-g eighth day of the f i f t h month that year, and Akinari very l i k e l y made his f i r s t v i s i t to the physician then* The f i r s t date he mentioned after reaching Kusaka-mura was 6th month, 12th day (though his account indicates that they had arrived some time before), and he apparently could see well enough to enjoy watching the moon that evening* 1 0 Just what kind of treatment he received i s not known, but he did Credit his physician with restoring a degree of vision to his l e f t eye, 1 1 which had been sightless for the past eight years* Strangely, i t was his right eye, which had failed only a month or so earlier, that proved beyond remedy* S t i l l , the cure must have been less than perfect even i n his l e f t eye, for he continued to dictate much of his work to a scribe, and he stated repeatedly that his eyes were dim and of l i t t l e use* Moreover, on the fourteenth day of the month, when he returned to Yuishin•s hermitage to find her suffering from severe abdominal pains, he was i n no condition to look after her* Rather he moved with his daughter, who was also a i l i n g , to a nearby temple to be taken care 12 of himself* He stayed there for a f u l l month, keeping busy conduct-ing poetry competitions and associating with people i n the d i s t r i c t . It i s not clear when he returned to the capital* The poems with -224-which Roan and Kokei had bidden him farewell suggest that he was plan-ning on a lengthy absence, and Kenkado*s diary indicates that he was 13 i n Osaka for at least a week near the end of the ninth month* Quite possibly he had stayed with Yuishin un t i l then, and stopped over i n Osaka on his way back to Kyoto. After his return he moved with Teiko and his daughter to a detached dwelling at the home of Hakura Nobuyo-14 shi i n Maruta-machi, near the Kamo River* He went there, he said. 15 because he was expecting to die. In fact, he had almost eleven more years to l i v e , but the feeling that his days were numbered seems to have roused him to an unprecedented le v e l of literary activity* De-spite his f a i l i n g health and vision, the last decade of his l i f e was the most productive of a l l for sheer volume of material* It Included a number of short pieces of prose and poetry, but some very lengthy works of scholarship and fi c t i o n as well* He also gave lessons on the classics to a young Kyoto aristocrat i l y had been Involved i n the so-called "HorekL Incident" of 1758, when the Tokugawa bakufu had taken punitive action against members of the imperial court who had spoken to the emperor against the despotic rule of the shogunate* The head of the family had been dismissed from of-fice, placed under house arrest, and subsequently ordered to take the tonsure* It was not u n t i l 1769 that his son, Kiminori•s father, was allowed to hold a government position* Akinari's friendship with the family need not be taken as evidence that he himself opposed the Toku-gawa hegemony, for the f i r s t record of his a f f i l i a t i o n with them i s the congratulatory verse that he sent on the occasion of Kiminori 1s -225-17 ceremonial i n i t i a t i o n into manhood, i n 1786, Akinari appears to have seen Kiminori as a promising student who could carry on his teachings* He once recorded sending three boxes of his books to Kiminori, together with the verse: Ima wai tada Now there i s only Oinami yosuru A crumbled shore, washed Kuzuregishi By the waves of old age, Fumi todomeyo to And you, anking me Tanomu kimi kana* To leave you my books* — 18 He received ten rvo i n gold i n return* He was finding i t necessary to s e l l his personal book collection i n order to make ends meet, but i n this case the books seem to havebeen sent as a g i f t , and Kiminori's money more of a donation than a payment* There i s no doubt that they were very close, but I t was as though becoming Akinari's favored dis-ciple was to invite personal disaster, for, i n the manner of Oka Kunlo, Kuwana Masanorl, and Xkenaga Hatara.before him, Kiminori died i n the autumn of 1800 at the age of twenty-eight* Early In the summer of 1800 Akinari commenced writing Nara no 8SB&$$<AM* » 1 9 which he planned as a commentary on the entire Man'vo- shu. but he stopped well short of completion* Since he was writing i t primarily for Kiminori, he had l i t t l e inclination to continue after his student's death, but his immediate reason for suspending the task was that his vision and general health had deteriorated further. By autumn It had become necessary to go to Osaka for more treatment* Thinking i t probable that he would never return, he took pains to put his personal affairs i n order before leaving* He requested the abbot -226-of the Jlppo-in Temple to hold appropriate r i t e s at the proper times for his adoptive parents, his real mother, his wife, his mother-in-law, and for himself, i f he should die on the journey* His depression when he wrote the letter i s obvious* He told the abbot that he had no know-ledge of his true father and l i t t l e of his real mother, that he had been u n f i l l a l to his foster parents, losing his entire inheritance i n a f i r e and spending the rest of his l i f e aimlessly, u n t i l now he was separated from his old home and family, blind, and l i v i n g off the char-i t y of others* He had accomplished nothing of value, and had earned censure from the world for his useless writings, he said* He was a-shamed of himself and wished to die, but kept on l i v i n g * Thus he set out for Osaka* with instructions hung around his neck that his ashes, - 20 or at least word of his death, be sent to the Jippo-in* It i s not clear whether his daughter accompanied him* Matsuyama 21 Teiko had died the previous winter, and with just the two of them i n the house, relations between Akinari and his daughter had become even more strained* Indeed, not long after TeikO'.died, Aklnarl dreamed that she appeared to him with a message from his wife, whom she had met In the nether world, urging him to try to get along better with 22 their daughter — a clear indication that the problem was very much on his mind* The purpose of his journey to Osaka was probably as muoh to pay f i n a l v i s i t s to certain friends as for improving his vision* He real-l y was expecting to die, so he was anxious to be off without delay* Kiminori had been taken i l l a week or two before, but Akinari l e f t Kyoto anyway, about the middle of the eighth,month, going f i r s t to -227-Yuishin's hut i n Kusaka-mura. It was here that word reached him, on the sixth day of the ninth month, that Kiminori had died five days be-fore* Having Yuiahin act as his scribe, he sent-his condolences to the family, expressing his own profound shock and grief, but he was not strong enough to return to the capital* Instead, he had someone carry him to a temple i n Osaka, and offered prayers for Kiminori 23 there* Not long afterwards he went to Kashima-mura and stayed u n t i l 24 sometime the following year* It may have been while he was at Kashima-mura that he had his f i r s t meeting with Ota Nampo, which took place at the Joganji^/iLxf Temple i n Osaka* Nampo had been impressed by "a strange piece of writ-ing" by Akinari—presumably Ugetsu monogatari—that he had read, so he made a point of meeting the author when his duties as a shogunate of-f i c i a l took him to Osaka* The encounter went well* Each man was fa-vorably impressed with the other, and though opportunities for subse-quent meetings were few, i t was nevertheless the beginning of a frlend-25 ship* Although Akinari later said bluntly that Nampo, despite his exalted reputation, was an inept writer of poetry, he had high praise for his kambun* Nampo, however, had no such reservations* He said that when i t came to writing, Akinari had eight £& of the nation's kokn of talent (a jfco. being the tenth part of a koku) * The remark was made i n Jest, of course, but i t shows Nampo's regard for Akinari*s a b i l i t y . 2 6 Akinari appears to have been away from Kyoto and slow to be i n -formed when Ozawa Roan died i n mid-1801, for there i s no record of his attending the funeral, and very l i t t l e reference to Roan's death i n his -228-writinge. Very l i k e l y he was s t i l l at Kashlma. There must have been some such reason, for he had had a long and genuine friendship with Roan, and owed him a debt of gratitude as well. Akinari had, of course, been writing waka for many years before coming to Kyoto, but they had not attracted much notice. After his arrival i n the capital Roan had guided him as a superior and given him periodic instruction. His work was often included i n waka; collections by Roan's recognized disciples, showing that he was accepted as one of them. Roan believed that true waka poetry embodied the innate s p i r i t of Japan, and therefore should not be forced to conform to conventions at the expense of spontaneity. According to his view, a poet should not consciously strive for any goal other than to express his thoughts simply and naturally In his own words. This was not unlike what Kato Umaki had preached, and Aki-nari had no trouble accepting i t . Thus, unlike most of his contempo-raries, he took no poet or poetic collection as his handbook, but sought to learn from a l l and incline towards none. Rules were to be a guide, he believed, not an unbreakable law. As we have seen, he had grown up thinking waka composition to be a courtly pursuit, but over the years bis attitude became so changed that he was able to argue with strong conviction that a person's worth as a poet had nothing to do with his social status. It was the heart that was of c r i t i c a l impor-tance. A man of good character could produce good poetry even though 27 he might he of low birth or mean occupation. Thus he concentrated on simplicity and freedom of expression, confident i n his own a b i l i t y . He studied the classics for what guidance they could offer, but re-fused to be tied down. His wakaT as a result, are rich i n variety. -229-Some do smack of the Man'yoshu or the Koklnshu. or of other collections, but many others defy classification. Since he subscribed to no set of conventions, i t i s not surpris-ing that he l e f t no coherent discourse on poetic theory. His thoughts on the subject appear as random remarks scattered through his writings, which the reader must piece together for himself. Even so, Akinari stated plainly that he considered the source of Japanese poetry to be - - 28 the Man'yoshu. and he advised a l l would-be poets to study i t . He shared Mabuchi's view that perfection i n poetry was not something to be discovered, but to be rediscovered and emulated. To do this one should study the Man'yoshu and try to capture i t s essence i n one's own poems. He considered waka a medium for expressing the thoughts and feelings of the heart, but he f e l t that excessive emphasis on poetic artistry had suppressed the expression of human emotions, which was the outstanding feature of the Man'yoshu. But while he condemned the Kyoto poets for f a i l i n g to comprehend the Man'yoshu'a s p i r i t , he him-self did not necessarily try to Imitate i t s style. He saw the Man'yo- shu^  much the same way as he saw the distant past. Neither was a thing to be restored i n the present, but simply to be understood and learned from. Thus he sought to write poetry that Incorporated the s p i r i t of the Man'yoshu. This i s why his style appears relatively straightfor-ward and unadorned compared to most of the other poets of the day. He was opposed to lavish verbal embellishments, for he believed that the ancient poetry had been written i n the vernacular and merely expressed what the people had f e l t i n their hearts. To do more than this, he believed, was to cultivate a r t i f i c i a l i t y . Thus i n order to be good, a -230-verse had to be natural, not forced, and the poet himself must have a heart free from deceit* It was not-necessary to memorize a lot of old waka before trying one's own hand at writing them* Rather, i f one's heart was right, he would automatically produce poetry without effort* It was partly his belief that there were few upright hearts around that made him think i t useless to try and teach the techniques of poetry composition* In his view, literary a b i l i t y was something one either had or did not have* If he had been born with the g i f t , a teacher was not really necessary; i f he had not been born with i t , no amount of teaching could give i t to him* Roan once strongly urged him to take poetry students as a means of supplementing his meager income, but Akinari refused* To do so would be to make fools of those who were not talented by birth, he said. A person might be capable i n some pursuits, but could never master those for which he was not g i f t -ed* He added that Roan offered no rebuttal, i n his account of this 29 incident* His view that poetic talent was inborn, not acquired, was 30 precisely what Umaki had told him years before* - It was useless to rely on a teacher, he believed* One could scarcely acquire half of his teacher's a b i l i t y , and that teacher would have acquired only half 31 of his own teacher'8 proficiency* In addition to his conviction that any effort to teach a person how to write poetry was f u t i l e , he was unwilling to follow the example of many of the local teachers who* he f e l t , were plying their trade s t r i c t l y for profit* Such was a prosti-tution of one's own talent, he believed* He was greatly pained by the commercialism i n nearly a l l of the arts, as well as In scholarship, and he was loath to follow the crowd even i f the alternative were pov--231-opty. Aklnarl must have been considered a good poet i n his day. Roan would hardly have urged him to teach i f he had thought otherwise, and the fact that forgeries of Akinari's calligraphy were being sold while 32 he was s t i l l alive may be seen as a further indication* Nor would the recognized masters i n the capital have deigned to permit an unknown amateur to participate with them formally. In Ko.llnshu ruidal jfr jt. a collection of more than 2700 waka by poets of the Tokugawa period, published i n 1812, Akinari ranks f i f t h among the thirty-seven poets represented i n terms of number of verses included. He i s sur-passed by men lik e Kamo Mabuchi and Kada Azumamaro, but trailed by Keichu, Motoorl Norinaga, Ban Kokei, Kato Umaki, and Ozawa Roan, and others, and some outstanding poets are not even represented* This provides some idea of Akinari's popularity with the compiler, i f nothing 33 more. But after Roan died, Akinari seems to have dropped out of waka, circles and continued on his own, following his old preference for private study. It was hard to achieve lasting recognition as a poet unless one became a renowned teacher, but as we have seen, Aki-nari shunned this role, and none of the few men who could be called his students became sufficiently well-known to advertise his name* Nor did he belong to any particular school or make any real contribu-tion to waka theory. Moreover, his poetry, l i k e his f i c t i o n and his scholarship, has been overshadowed by Ugetsu monogatari. It i s for reasons such as these that he has not been remembered as a poet since his death. 3 4 He had been expecting to die ever since he moved to Nagara-mura -232-i n 1787, but In 1801 he found himself s t i l l alive* He was now sixty-eight years old, and he saw this as a fulfillment of the prophecy given to his father many years before by the deity of the Kashlma Inari Shrine. To express his gratitude he composed a series of sixty-eight 35 waka and presented them to the priests. But now he had exhausted his allotted l i f e span, and no doubt f e l t that he was l i v i n g on bor-rowed time. Kimura Kenkado*s death early i n 1802 continued the trend of Aki-nari's friends leaving him behind* S t i l l , though their ranks were thinning, his old friends remained loyal, and he had made some new ones as well. These Included Morlkawa Chlkuso^)«| Vf^ ?.t a calligrapher from Osaka, and Shodo ^ - . J^ (d. 1811), a priest from the province of Bingo, a student of Murase Kotei, and apparently of Akinari as well to some degree. It was at their instigation that a collection! of Akinari's poetry and short prose works was prepared for publication. It was not Akinari's ideal to publish poetry In order to gain recognition. That, he believed, was best l e f t for a poet's admirers to carry out after he was dead, much as he had done for Mabuchi and Umaki. Thus he had never attempted to edit his own numerous verses Into a<single collection. In 1802, as part of his preparations for death, Akinari had prepared his own grave under a plum tree at the Saifukuji, a subsidiary temple 36 of the Hanzenji, and ordered a coffin to be made for him. At the same time he had entrusted a basket (tsuzura^ |'£ ) containing a number of unpublished manuscripts to the head priest. Knowing of the exist-ence of these writings, Shodo, i n collaboration with others, obtained them from the abbot and commenced editing them. According to Shodo, -233-when Akinari became aware of what was going on: he was most displeased 37 and only reluctantly allowed the work to proceed* Nevertheless, he must have cooperated to some degree, for a few writings that were not among those i n the basket were included when the work was published* Because of the source of most of i t s material, the collection was given 38 the t i t l e of gfflgnrftbumjL* In the summer of 1802 Takizawa Bakin visited the capital and tried without success to meet Akinari. Later he expressed high praise for Akinari's talent, but described him as a man who hated the world and 39 did not mingle with people. Other persons had much the same opinion, but Akinari did find time to associate with his small circle of friends. He went to Osaka with his daughter In mid-1803 and stayed i n quarters near the Oe/v;£- Bridge, which was not far from his old home i n Do-jima. It was while he was there, on the twenty-fifth day of the sixth month, that his Osaka-friends held a party to congratulate him on reaching the age of seventy. Ota Nampo sent his good wishes from Edo for the occasion. About two weeks later, Akinari participated i n a 41 memorial service for Roan* He went to Osaka again just over one year 42 later, and became sick during the v i s i t , but he was well enough to enjoy a v i s i t from Nampo, who was on his way to a new assignment i n 43 Nagasaki* Nampo had called on him i n Kyoto i n the spring of 1802, 44 but this was their f i r s t meeting i n more than two years* At this encounter Nampo was asked to supply a postscript for Ififflffi'WfofflnV which was then being readied for the press* Shodo may have been present and made the request himself, though Akinari's words are too ambiguous to be certain* Shodo had already asked Murase Kotei to write this post--234-script, bnt Kotei had kept on postponing the task, so Shodo f i n a l l y transferred his request to Nampo* Nampo agreed, and sent the promised postscript from Nagasaki after he had arrived there* Murase's failure to write the postscript may Indicate that relations between him and Akinari were strained at the time* When they met i n 1807 i t was said 45 to be for the f i r s t time i n eleven years* This would mean that i n spite of the proximity of Murase»s dwelling, Akinari had had no asso-ciation with him during his second period of residence at the Chion-in, and indeed there i s no record of any contact between them during the eleven-year period* Shodo's preface to Tsuzurabuml was dated Bunka Era, 1st year.(1804), 46 3rd month; Nampo's postscript i n mid-winter of the same year* The f i r s t three scrolls were published i n 1805; a new edition consisting of a l l six scrolls, but with a few changes i n the f i r s t three, came out 47 i n the autumn of 1806* For undetermined reasons, another edition, 48 again with certain revisions, was Issued the following spring* Tsu- zurabuml had been conceived as a collection of Akinari's poems, to be supplemented with a few prose writings, but In i t s f i n a l form i t be-came an anthology of his poetry, zulhltsn. travel diaries, and fiction* The f i r s t two scrolls were devoted entirely to poetry, containing a total of.656 tanka and choka on a wide range of topics* Many of them were composed for specific occasions, and have accompanying explana-tory prose passages* The third s c r o l l i s taken up by Akinari's poetic account of bis t r i p to Kinosaki i n 1779, ftyftYWy*) TV* frft- The last three scrolls together Include twenty znlhitsu items, four travel accounts, three short stories, and a congratulatory piece* Additional poems ap-235-pear l a most of these* To complete this assortment, Koren's Tsuyu wake goromo and Natsuno no tsuyu were appended* The publication of this collection has preserved many of Akinari's short works that might otherwise have been lost . At the time, however, i t sold poorly, and 49 the publisher suffered a severe loss. While Tsuzurabuml was being edited, Akinari had been writing Kinsa ^J&\f, which, with i t s brief afterword, Kinsa .logenffi] , i s by far his longest work. Kinsa i t s e l f bears no date, but Akinari claimed to have written i t i n the same year as Jogen, which he completed i n the f i r s t 50 month of 1804. He implied that he wrote i t during a short period of concentrated effort, but even i f he were i n the best of health he could hardly have completed the whole of i t i n less than a month. Near the beginning of Kinsa; he mentioned looking at the autumn scenery while 51 writing, from which we can assume that he began the work during the autumn of 1803, finished i t shortly after the New Tear, and then pro-ceeded to Kinsa logon. Even so, i t shows a remarkable surge of energy on Akinari's part. An Interpretative collection of outstanding verses from the Man'yoshu. Kinsa proves beyond any doubt that Akinari was thoroughly acquainted with the whole collection, and marks the culmi-nation of his classical scholarship. The poems i n Kinsa are arranged under topical headings. For each division Akinari selected verses from throughout the Man'yoshu. transcribed them from Man'yogana into contemporary script, Included the name of the poet, and added his own c r i t i c a l comments* Kinsa logon complemented this selective work with a general consideration of the Man'yoshu as a whole. It was probably about this time that he finished writing Machi--236-buml. "Stopped writing?1 might be a more accurate expression, for he had begun i t at Nagara-mura i n 1787, and added bits and pieces to i t over the years. A miscellany, i n some respects a literary diary, i t i s a catalogue of events that occurred while he was l i v i n g i n Nagara and Kyoto. It includes reflections i n prose and poetry on the i n c i -dents mentioned, with some chronology. The contents are of an intense-l y personal nature, and for this reason i t was never published. Aki-nari's expressions of self-pity and discouragement often show him i n an unflattering l i g h t . Shodo said In his preface to Taap.urabupi that the editors had considered including Machibumtf but that Akinari was ashamed of i t and had adamantly refused. During the autumn of 1805 Akinari moved out of Hakura Nobuyoshi's establishment and took up temporary residence at the Salfukuji, which three years earlier he had decided upon as his burial place. He stayed 52 there for about two hundred days, u n t i l spring of the following year, when permanent quarters at the Nanzenji were ready for him. He had gone to Nobuyoshi*s mansion expecting to die shortly, but, "Since I was not able to die," he wrote, "I again built a hut on the site of my Nanzenji hermitage of former times, and moved there i n the spring of 53 my seventy-third year." It would appear that his daughter was no longer with him at the time of this move. She i s on record as serving as his scribe toward 54 the end of 1803, and as accompanying him and Nobuyoshi on a v i s i t to — 55 the Shugakuln Detached Palace about a year later, but Akinari's next reference to her was to say that she had run away. This had apparently 5fi happened by the fourth month of 1805. Akinari Is known to have been -237-57 vi s i t i n g Osaka at that time, and It may well be that she took advan-tage of his absence to abscond. About this same time Akinari wrote a short story about an old man who lived with his daughter. In this tale the g i r l loses a shell of priceless value while her father i s away. The old man i s so grieved by the loss that he takes to his bed, but, after being comforted by his friends, he comes to accept the mis-fortune and forgives his daughter. This has been seen as an allegori-cal representation of the events underlying Akinari's own daughter's disappearance. The story i s interpreted to mean that the g i r l was se-duced while Akinari was away from home, and ran off with her lover. Akinari was at f i r s t very upset, but at length gave i n to his friends' 58 remonstrations and extended his foregiveness. This Is no more than speculation, but i t does give a plausible explanation for the daughter's f l i g h t . S t i l l , even though Akinari may have pardoned her misconduct, she was never again mentioned i n his writings. One may search his works i n vain for a complimentary reference to her, yet she stayed with him for at least seven years after his wife's death, so she must have had strong feelings of obligation, I f not of love, toward him. As mentioned i n Chapter IV, when Aklnarl went to v i s i t the Kitano Kamo Shrine i n the winter of 1801 he lost his way and arrived home late, convinced that a fox had bewitched him. In his accounts of this ex-perience he noted.that when he finally.reached home i t was to find his 59 daughter standing by the roadside i n the heavy rain, waiting for him. This does indicate that she was concerned for his welfare, as does the fact that she often accompanied him on his travels i n spite of her own poor health. But this regard did have i t s limits, and now she was gone. -238-Akinari appears to have become quite at ease after moving back to the Nanzenji. Dissatisfied with the world but recognizing his i n a b i l i -ty to create a better one, he had decided to stoically accept whatever happened, waiting patiently u n t i l death overtook him* Indeed, he want-ed to die. His body was worn out, and a l l of his family members and most of his old friends were dead. Hosoai Hansel had died i n 1803, and Ban Kokei's death i n 1806 depleted their number even further. HIB l i f e was, i n effect, over; i t was a divine punishment, he believed, that he should continue to l i v e , and he thought that he must be paying for some misdeed committed either i n his present or i n a previous i n -60 carnation. "I can do nothing more," he wrote, "so I drink green tea 61 and look forward to death." He had achieved a kind of inner peace. The Osawa and Isogal families, who continued to assist him, remembered him as.having a gentle disposition, but this must have been only rela-tive, for a member of the Osawa family who was born nearly f i f t y years after Akinari died recalled being frightened as a child with the warn-ing that Yoeai-san would come and scold him i f he misbehaved. Evident-l y he had not mellowed completely. Nor had he lost his sense of humor. Each night an elderly woman from the Isogal house would prepare a bath for him, and after he had bathed Akinari would invite her to make use of the water. She would often accept, but the edge of the tub was un-usually high, and Aklnarl had many a laugh watching her efforts to climb In. Again, one hot summer day he was dozing inside his hut when his nap was disturbed by a> stranger who introduced himself as the kvo-k^ poet Shikatsube Magaoj*|J^$j^ fify (1753-1829). A student of Ota Nampo, he had probably oome at Nampo's suggestion. But when Akinari -239-asked the purpose of his v i s i t , the caller replied In extremely pom-pous language that he had taken the opportunity to come by while making a journey to various places celebrated In poetry* Piqued by bis haughty demeanor, Akinari responded with a spontaneous verse, mercilessly mock-ing his vi s i t o r ' s name with puns that defy translation* Shikatsube na You who journey Asa gamlshlmo no In formal linen attire Uta makura Through places known i n song, Sonna magao wa Ah, cease that solemn countenance Maa yoshinasai. And relax* The traveller did no such thing, however, but promptly ran away* Ob-viously Akinari's mind remained keenly alert* nor was the condition of his body so bad that he was unable to make a journey over the mountains to Otsu i n the autumn of 1806, where he stayed at the v i l l a of an ac-63 qualntance and enjoyed watching the moon on Lake Blwa at night* A l -so, he apparently assisted the priests at the Saifukuji with their record keeping, and perhaps with other miscellaneous tasks on occasion* The temple's principal function was to conduct funerals, and there are some entries i n i t s death register that appear to be i n Akinari's handwriting. 6* He maintained good relations with a small but loyal c i r c l e of friends* Around 1804 he and Gekkei collaborated i n producing gyo.1l zukan !f xf f f^| |0^t a series of fourteen sketches by Qekkel and 65 twenty-five haiku by Akinari. To celebrate his seventy-second birth-day his Kyoto friends joined with him i n composing waka on seventy-two 6*$ topics that he had selected, and when he vent to Osaka not long af--240-ter, he showed the results to his friends there, and they promptly 6' tried their own hands at a similar effort, though this time i n kambun. Towards the end of 1805 Ota Nampo called on him at the Saifukuji* He was guided there by Tamiya Tuzo, with whom Akinari had recently severed relations when questioned about his connection with Shodo kikimimi se- kenzaru* It i s not certain whether Tamiya was actually present at the 68 meeting, but Nampo himself reported a cordial reception* Nampo, who was one of the leading kvoka poets i n Edo, may have been the inspira-tion behind KaidS kvo ntaawase iM&K^rh* which Akinari wrote that 69 same winter* But i n spite of these friends and the companionship they provided, he f e l t lonely and out of place* He once said that he had found two friends i n the capital, but none whom he really considered a kindred 70 s p i r i t * and on another occasion that he had no intimate friends i n any of the three main urban centers, and only three acquaintances—Ota 7 Nampo i n Edo, Ozawa Roan and Murase Kotei i n Kyoto, and none i n Osaka* One may think i t strange that he would accord such an honor to these three, for he had looked up to Roan as a senior, his acquaintance with Nampo was relatively new and their meetings were Infrequent, and he had gone for eleven years without seeing Kotei. But he explained that those whom he called "acquaintances" (the word he used was "cbiJki" %1 (L) were not people who t r i f l e d with literature, but who were able to understand i t and exchange ideas about i t * Such was his estimation of Roan, Kotei, and Nampo, but he specifically denied that they were friends* Apparently he f e l t that for him there was no person worthy of the name. S t i l l , he remembered those who were or had been close to -241-him, In spite of crushing poverty* Early i n 1808, i n preparation for memorial services for his wife and father, he wrote the short story, Seburui no oklna den, and begged Yotsugi Makazu to buy i t for a sum 72 sufficient to provide flowers and incense* A year and a half earlier he had offered commemorative verses before Umaki's grave on the t h i r -73 tieth anniversary of his death* On a happier note, when Nampo cele-brated his sixtieth birthday i n Edo i n 1808, Akinari sent him 108 74 verses with the wish that he might l i v e to be 106 years old* / In 1806, as part of his attempt to put his affairs i n order i n preparation for death, he commenced writing Chaka enlgen^ ^ y j j ^ . . * The t i t l e suggests that i t was originally planned as a further commentary on tea, and Akinari and Murase Kotei spoke of i t as such at their 1807 meeting. But Akinari apparently changed his mind while writing, for he included a number of personal events and opinions, and the result, 75 which was probably completed toward the end of 1807, was a miscellany. The references to himself seem to be part of his attempt to show him-self as he wanted to be remembered after death. It was this same d e -sire that led him, i n the autumn of 1807, to throw five bundles of his manuscripts down a well. He f e l t very much relieved after doing so, 76 he said, and he penned the lines, Nagaki yume Long-felt delusions Mi-hatenu hodo n i Shall never more disturb me, Waga tama no For my soul has gone Furu 1 ni ochite Cast into an ancient w e l l — 77 Kokoro samushi mo. And how cold my heart now grows. 78 In Chaka suigen he noted that these included Kinsa. but i f this was -242-true then someone must have been waiting nearby to fish the papers out of the well as soon as Akinari's baok was turned, for the work sur-vives* It has been noted that the extant manuscripts of Kinsa and 79 Nubatama no maki do look as though they had once been i n the water* Sometime i n 1807 he prepared Akl no knmoiT^'i 7 , a collection of 80 his own poems, with his comments about them* Earlier, he said i n the preamble, he had compiled 360 of his verses i n imitation of the MaigetsuBhS f\ 'f of Sone l o s h l t a d a g l ^ ^ , but since they had not been appreciated by those to whom he had shown them, he had decided to prepare this collection with his own comments, explanations, and c r i -ticism* The larger collection has been lost, but Akl no kumo appears to be a selection of poems from i t that Akinari was especially pleased 81 with* As such, It may be seen as a guide to what he considered good poetry to be* This too may have been a deliberate step toward get-ting his affairs i n order* Another such step was the publication i n 1808 of Fumlhogu. a c o l -82 lection of his letters and miscellaneous fragmentary writings* It was said to have been published because Osawa Shunsaku.^^j had secret-l y made copies of the materials, and had then entrusted them to Matsu-moto R y u s e i ^ A ^ i i ^ , a former disciple of Roan's, for editing. This i s doubtful, however, for the explanatory notes contain Information that could hardly have been obtained without Akinari's cooperation* Moreover, a manuscript copy of Fumlhogu i n Akinari's handwriting i s extant today* The contents range from letters that Akinari sent to Kato Umaki to some items written as late as 1807* Together they con-stitute a valuable source of biographical information* -243-Even more valuable for what It t e l l s us about him Is Tandai sho-shln roku. This collection of stray notes was probably a miscellany In the true sense of the word, added to from time to time over the years, though i t i s evident from the text that i t was put into i t s fi n a l form i n 1808. Written i n a mixture of colloquial and li t e r a r y language, i t provides a good cross section of his opinions on such matters as history, scholarship, poetry, and contemporary society, along with considerable information about himself and his associates-including biting criticism of many who were supposed to be his friends* Its value as a source of information and the variety of i t s contents are both perhaps best illustrated by the number of times and assorted reasons for which i t has been cited i n this study* Another collection of notes about his l i f e , untitled, but now known as Jiden. was also written i n 1808* It may originally have been Intended as part of Tan-83 dai* He wrote a further collection of jottings, different versions 84 of certain sections of Tandai. early i n 1809. During the last years of his life—perhaps as much as the last decade—Akinari was working sporadically on his second major work of fic t i o n , Harusame monogatari. It was read i n manuscript form by a small number of admirers, but was not published u n t i l 1907, and then only partially* Not u n t i l after the Pacific War did the complete text 85 become available i n print. It may indeed have been Akinari's inten-tion that the work never be published, for i t s contents are not aimed! at the general reader. A work of deep meaning, i t Is pervaded by a philosophical element, and covers a wide range of subjects, including historical events, literature and l i t e r a r y conventions, religion, ethics, -244-and social problems, and Akinari's views on them* An outstanding fea-ture Is i t s lack of form* The ten tales have no uniformity of length, the longest one being about twenty times the length of the shortest. Some of the stories are scarcely worthy of the name, being l i t t l e more than collections of random thoughts or disjointed narrations of events* Even those which do qualify as tales suffer from Imperfect organization and roughness of narrative* Of course some of this may be no more than evidence that Akinari was s t i l l revising Harusame when he died, but i n any case, because of the unevenness of the collection, i t Is best appreciated by examining i t s component parts rather than the work as a whole* Since the second tale i s a continuation of the f i r s t , the two stories that begin the collection may be considered together* "Chi katabira" \jH&pi 1/' i s set i n the early Heian period* The emperor Heizei (774-824; r . 806-809) i s the central character, and his gentle and upright nature the focal point of the story. Heizei i s the embodi-ment of naoki kokoro Ji *ty , that mythical quality of the ancients that encompassed the virtues of purity and sincerity and total lack of deceit, leading them to do that which was right and proper as a matter of course* The tranquility of the realm i s i d y l l l c a l l y portrayed, but It soon becomes apparent that this Is a facade* Heizei i s a vanishing species, for the native Japanese virtues are being assailed by corrupt-ing influences from China* In contrast to the simple and guileless Heizei stands his brother, the Crown Prince Kamino. Well versed i n Buddhist and Confucian teachings, and continental manners and culture i n general, he i s talented and sagacious, and above a l l , ambitious* -245-Although supernatural manifestations portend disaster, Heizel proceeds with his plans to abdicate, and retires to the former capital of Nara. Here scheming courtiers, led by Fujiwara no Nakanarl and his sister Ku-surlko, conspire to persuade Heizei to rescind his abdication, r a l l y support to his side, and declare Nara to be the imperial capital once again* Prince Kamino, now reigning as the emperor Saga (r* 809-823), hears of the plot and has Nakanarl put to death* Kusuriko i s placed i n confinement, but stabs herself to death, unrepentent. The extent of her corruption and the depth of her resentment are made clear when the blood that has stained her clothing refuses to dry* Arrows cannot cause her robe to move, and swords shatter against i t * Recognizing his own negligence i n not being aware of the conspiracy, Heizei takes monastic vows* "Amatsu otome , ,^;^j^i^ continues the action of "Chi katabira," but i t i s just a collection of brief episodes, and does not succeed as a story* The efforts of Saga and his successors, Junna (r* 823-833) and Nlmmyo (r* 833-850), to reproduce i n Japan the splendor of China, with the further r i s e of continental Influences, the Increasing luxury and f r i v o l i t y of the court, further plots against the throne, Buddhist Influence on domestic p o l i t i c s , and the concomitant decline of the Japanese s p i r i t are a l l portrayed, but the material i s not clearly presented* The sentence structure lacks polish, and the events are Isolated from one another, not following smoothly i n logical sequence* The didactic element overshadows the story i n "Chi katabira," and overwhelms It In "Amatsu otome*" In these two tales Akinari used l i t e r a -ture as a podium from which to propound his view of history as a process -246-decay, not of progress. He saw the early Heian period as a tine of upheaval i n Japanese thought which had led to the corruption of the native s p i r i t . Confucian and Buddhist teachings, with their promise of limitless rewards had. he believed, stimulated human desires, causing men to forget the simple virtues of the past and giving rise to power struggles even among members of the imperial family, who ought to have been above such things. Thus i n "Chi katabira" i t i s continental learning that has corrupted Prince Kamatari and made him eager for authority. Heizei i s portrayed as a good man, but anachronistic. His nature i s better suited to the past, when ruler and subject alike pos-sessed upright hearts, and the Japanese emperor could rule l i k e the Taoist sage-king, through non-action. In his own day, Heizei's extreme simplicity appears not so much as m virtue as an unfortunate naivete, but Akinari's tone i s not condemnatory. Rather he i s lamenting for a bygone era. Retaining his own virtue while others are losing theirs, Heizei transcends the corruption around him with a kind of greatness— but though he transcends, he lacks the power to overcome, and therein l i e s the tragedy. Akinari saw the decay that had begun i n the Heian period as ex-tending to his own time. His later writings, especially Tandai sho- shln roku. are f i l l e d with passages lamenting that things are no long-er as they were i n his youth. Everything had changed, and for the worse. Scholars had become lax, no longer rigorous In their pursuit of truth. Artists were no longer striving for excellence, but thought only of money. In former times courtesans had been good-hearted, wearing simple costumes with few adornments, and had been besieged by -247-wealthy patrons; now the courtesans had become scheming women with petty thieves for customers* Even the sump champions of his old age were Inferior to those of his youth, he f e l t , succeeding only through lack of competition* "In Shikoku," he once said, " i t i s badgers that possess people; i n Kyushu, water imps* In Kyoto and Osaka i t i s cour-tesans, teachers, and tea masters who possess you and cause you grief* 86 Tou cannot be at ease anywhere i n this world*" The third tale, "Keizoku",^$^, takes as i t s setting Kl no Tsura-yukl's voyage back to the capital after completing his term as governor of Tosa* In his Toj£jgkki^, Tsurayuki spoke repeatedly of the danger of pirates, though none were actually encountered, but i n Akinari's version a pirate does overtake the ship and come aboard* His objec-tive, however, i s not to plunder but to c r i t i c i z e Tsurayuki and expound his own views on poetry, scholarship, and society* At this point the narrative gives way to an undisguised polemic that touches on the cor-rect interpretation of the Man'yoahu t i t l e , whether the varieties of poetry can be classified or whether they are as numberless as the range of the human emotions they express, the doubtful propriety of including poetry about i l l i c i t love i n the Imperial anthologies, and other mat-ters* Probably most readers w i l l find this the least satisfying of the ten items* It begins quite well as a tale, but does not f u l f i l l i t s promise* The story stops i n midstream to end i n a welter of dis-connected scholarly arguments, most of them hair-splitting and pedantic, and not clearly presented* The story and the polemic stand apart from from each other* There i s no fusion of the two, and neither Is really successful* -248-After these f i r s t three attempts, however, Akinari managed to settle into the role of storyteller and yet retain that of moral apolo-gist* The next two tales, while quietly didactic, remain stories from beginning to end* "Nise no e n n ^ $ > i s a s a t i r i c a l tale with a religious theme* A young farmer s i t s up reading late one night, and becomes aware of the sound of a b e l l ringing* Mystified, he searches for i t s source, f i n a l l y determining that i t comes from beneath a stone i n a corner of his garden* Next morning, when his servants excavate the site, they unearth a coffin In which l i e s a man, old and shrivelled, his hair grown down past his knees, but alive* They realize that he i s a priest i n a state of zen.lofej^, a trancelike condition of sus-pended animation said to be achieved by certain devout followers of religious disciplines* They f i n a l l y succeed i n reviving him, but the words of inspiration they expect to hear are not forthcoming* The priest cannot even remember his own name, l e t alone his former l i f e or the paradise he sought* As his condition improves, he exhibits an or-dinary man'8 desire for food, including forbidden things such as fish* When he has recovered fu l l y , he makes his l i v i n g at the lowest sort of menial labor* He takes a wife, and proves to have a normal sexual ap-petite* He displays anger* His wife nags and henpecks him* Such i s the man who had thought to attain spiritual greatness* He seems, i f anything, even lower than the average man, as though his religious austerities have had a negative effect* With this example of the fru i t s of piety before them, the villagers lose their faith and turn away from religious activity, disregarding their priests' efforts to explain the situation* -249-Observers laughingly suggest that the priest has remained In the world i n order to f u l f i l l the saying, "Fufu wa nlse"=f-fr.^.j -,^r. re-ferring to the Buddhist teaching that the relationship of a married couple extends from this l i f e Into the next* The implication i s that the man's new wife i s a reincarnation of his former mate, but a pun i s probably intended as well* The words, "Nise no en" may be Interpreted to mean "fake destiny," as the Buddhist teachings on the relationship of cause and effect are made to look false* S t i l l , one must avoid getting the impression that Akinari was simply anti-Buddhist* for i t becomes clear i n subsequent tales that this was not the case* It was not religion as such, but the hypocritical practice of religion for ostentatious display or personal gain that he was opposed to* He rec-ognized that there were many among both clergy and l a i t y who were moti-vated by selfish concerns* and he abhored that kind of piety, but true religious devotion, which led to personal peace of mind and rectitude of heart, remained his ideal* "Me hitotsu no kami" $ z> t n may remind readers of Ugetsu. for i t has the strongest supernatural element of a l l the Harusame tales, but i t i s a light-hearted and amusing supernatural—the world of "Muo no rigyo" and "Hinpukuron." Aspiring to become an accomplished waka poet, a youth from Sagaml, i n the uncultured eastern part of the coun-try, sets out for Kyoto to take Instruction from the masters there. On the last night of his journey he l i e s down to sleep i n a forest, i n front of a small shrine. He i s awakened by the arrival of a Shinto priest, an Itinerant Buddhist mendicant, and two women (actually foxes In disguise), and a weird-looking deity with only one eye, who emerges -250-from the shrine to join them* Terrified, the youth pretends to be s t i l l asleep* A cask of wine i s carried i n by a monkey and a hare, and the group begins to drink. At length they c a l l on the boy to join them* The situation i s reminiscent of that.on Mt* Koya i n "Bupposo," though these supernatural beings are a good-humored, harmless l o t , and the sinister and terrifying atmosphere of that tale i s totally missing* As the boy consumes wine with the group, the one-eyed god counsels him against going to study under the so-called masters of poetry i n the capital* Such men are a l l impostera with no real a b i l i t y , he says, and i n any case, i t i s better to develop one's talents alone* He con-cedes that a teacher may be necessary to get started, but maintains that true poetry comes only from the heart and cannot be learned* The story concludes with the youth agreeing to accept this advice, and be-ing whisked back to his home i n Sagami by supernatural power* In this tale, the polemic element does not intrude into the story* It f i t s i n smoothly, and Is kept short enough to prevent i t from overshadowing the action* The mood Is light and entertaining throughout* Akinari was very successful i n this attempt to t e l l a story and at the same time restate his oft-repeated views on poetic talent* It should not be overlooked that he himself was a one-eyed person when he wrote the tale* In four of the last five stories, overt didacticism virt u a l l y disappears, and the emphasis shifts from scholarship to human inter-est, with stress on what Akinari considered virtues to be cultivated and vices to be avoided* "Shikubl no egao'V^ TtL^ M J , , a tragic tale of romantic love, i s based upon the same incident that Takebe -251-Ayatari had used as his source for Nishiyama monogatari. There are varying reports of the actual event, but the basic facts are that i n 1767, i n a village on the northern outskirts of Kyoto, a youth named Watanabe Unai, the son of the village headman, f e l l i n love with Wata-nabe Tae, who lived i n the neighboring house with her mother and two brothers. The families, though related by blood, were on bad terms, and the aff a i r was carried on secretly u n t i l i t became a matter for village gossip. The g i r l ' s mother had her elder son, Genta, try to arrange.a marriage, but Unai's father refused the family's overtures and sent his son to the home of a relative. Finally, for reasons that are not clear, the mother sent her daughter, attired as a bride, to her lover's home, escorted by Genta. When the father ordered them away, Genta abruptly drew his sword and decapitated his sister on the 87 spot. Akinari had long been Interested i n the incident, and i n 1806 he had been able to meet Watanabe Genta i n person and hear his version of the a f f a i r . Following this encounter, Akinari wrote Masurao mono- gatari,. i n which he related the facts as Genta had explained them, and condemned Ayatari (for whom, i t w i l l be remembered, he had l i t t l e re-go gard) for his distortion of the truth i n Nishiyama. Nevertheless, after setting the record straight, Akinari went a-head to adapt the events to suit his own purpose. Gosoji, as the father i n "Shikubi" i s called, i s a very prosperous sake brewer, but the epi-tome of miserliness* His son, Gozo, i s quite a different person, ac-complished i n the arts, refined i n his behavior, and considerate of others. Nearby lives Hune, the daughter of a once-wealthy family, now forced to rely upon the meager wages of the son, Motosuke, to maintain -252-a state of genteel poverty* Gozo and Mune pledge themselves to each other, but Gosoji violently opposes a marriage with a g i r l from such a family, and forbids his son to v i s i t her home* His wife i s more sym-pathetic, but. begs Gozo to obey, even so* Mune becomes genuinely i l l with grief, and her mother summons Gozo i n desperation* He goes and reaffirms his vow to Mune, whose condition thereupon shows a marked improvement, but then he must return home to face his father*s wrath and his mother's pleas* He begs their forgiveness, and thereafter spends each day diligently working i n the brewery, obeying his father's every command, but meanwhile Mune again starts to pine away* When she seems to be at the point of death, word i s sent to Gozo* Going to her home, he t e l l s her mother to send her to his house the next day as his bride* Together they celebrate the betrothal before he has to leave* Next.morning, when Motosuke and his sister, dressed for her wedding, appear at his door, Gosoji i s taken completely by surprise and orders them away* Gozo apparently has not spoken to his father* Now he at-tempts to leave bis home and family, taking Mune with him, but Motosu-ke forestalls such action by drawing his sword and striking off his 8lster*8 head* Throughout the story he has presented an a i r of i n d i f -ference, but at last this i s revealed as stolid self-control, not i n -sensitivity. He has k i l l e d his sister i n order to spare her the dis-grace of going into l i f e as the wife of a disinherited son* He has f e l t deeply and acted i n accordance with those feelings, and yet avoid-ed any display of emotion* Although his i s a capital crime, when Jus^ tlce i s meted out he i s l e t off with banishment because of bis pure motives* He continues as a f i l i a l son, working to support his mother, -253-who accompanies him into exile. Gosoji's wealth and property are con-fiscated* and he and Gozo are likewise banished from the province. Un-repentent and greedy to the end* Gosoji disinherits his son and goes into exile vowing to become rich once more* Gozo himself becomes a priest* Akinari l e f t no doubt as to where his sympathies lay i n this con-f l i c t between romantic love and f i l i a l duty, but Gozo's behavior i s subject to differing interpretations* On the surface, he appears to be vacillating, f i r s t being led by love to pledge himself to Mune, then by duty to obey his parents, and lacking the determination to ad-here s t r i c t l y to either course* The tragedy may be seen to be the re-sult of his indecision, and thus his entering the priesthood as an act of penance* But this i s probably not what Akinari had i n mind* More li k e l y , considering his praise of Gozo's character, he wanted to por-tray him as striving to win his parents' approval for his love through exemplary'conduct as a son. But this i s nowhere exp l i c i t l y stated, and the resulting ambiguity i s the story's fundamental weakness* There Is no such uncertainty as to his view of the other characters, however* Mune, who dies a martyr to her love, and Motosuke, who saves her from disgrace, both display the courage and uprightness of heart that Aki-nari so admired* Unable to wed the man of her choice, Mune seals her love for him with her death, and the smile that remains on her l i f e -less face symbolizes the victory of this pure love over the squalid world she has l e f t * But, Akinari would appear to be saying, such pur-i t y has l i t t l e place i n the present day* One must leave the contempo-rary world i f one Is to be unsullied by i t * The gap between the ideal -254-and the rea l i t y cannot be bridged any other way. "Suteishimaru" fefi* also has i t s roots i n fact, though much more loosely that "Shikubi." It was suggested by the construction of the Ao no Domon^;^f^ tunnel by the priest Zenkai^;^) i n the mid-eighteenth century* Zenkai spent thirty years digging this tunnel i n order to bypass a precipitous mountain route i n what i s now Shimoge-— 89 gun, Oita-ken, over which many travellers had lost their l i v e s * Aki-nari *s story begins i n the far northeastern part of Honshu* Suteishi-maru i s the servant of a wealthy landowner* He i s a large, exceeding-l y strong man, unrefined, naive and simple, uneducated, and relatively untouched by philosophies or r e l i g i o n — a natural man. The master, an inveterate tippler, often invites Suteishimaru to join him i n his cups. During one such spree Suteishimaru, befuddled by drink, begins- to strug-gle with his master, and thinking he has k i l l e d him, takes f l i g h t . When the master actually does die during the night, Suteishimaru i s branded a murderer. The master's son, Kodenji, i s ordered by the local magistrate and the provincial governor to go and bring back the sup-posed k i l l e r ' s head, or have the property to which he i s heir confis-cated. Kodenji i s neither physically strong nor skilled i n the use of weapons, but he spends the next two years assiduously training under a master of the martial arts, and then sets off on his mission of revenge* Meanwhile, Suteishimaru makes his way to Edo where, after spending some time as a* sumo wrestler, he enters the service of a certain dai-myo and goes to the domain i n Kyushu* At length his habit of drinking to excess produces abscesses i n his legs which render him a cripple* Now he begins to reflect on his past l i f e , and Is struck with remorse -255-at having k i l l e d his former master* To atone for his crime he vows to spend the rest of his l i f e digging a tunnel through the nearby moun-tain, making a route that i s safe for travellers* Thus when Kodenji, after three years of searching, at last tracks him down, i t i s to find him engaged i n this labor* Touched by bis virtue, Kodenji loses a l l desire for revenge, but stays to help dig the tunnel* Together they work on, and complete the task shortly before Suteishimaru dies* Aki-nari was not the only person to write a fictionalized version of Zen-90 kal's labor, but while others concentrated on the avenger's change of heart, he placed the emphasis on Suteishimaru's spiritual growth, which changes him from a natural man to a saint* He saw the simple, unsophisticated Suteishimaru as the clay from which a Buddha may be fashioned* It i s the same theme that he developed more f u l l y i n "Han-Miyagi, the heroine of "Miyagi ga t s u k a " ^ ^ * - ) ^ , evokes memo-rie s of the Miyagi of "Asaji ga yado" and Fujino of Seken tekake kata-gi-—the gentle, pure, self-sacrificing, and above a l l fai t h f u l woman whose virtue transcends the worldly corruption around her* Miyagi i s the daughter of an imperial councilor who dies, leaving her and her mother and a servant of the family i n desperate poverty* Through the machinations of the servant, Miyagi i s sold to a brothel* Though hat-ing the l i f e she must now lead, Miyagi dutifully accepts her fate for her mother's sake* Soon she becomes a celebrated beauty, beloved of Jutabei, a wealthy and refined young man who determines to ransom her and make her his own* But Miyagi i s also coveted by Fujidayu, a man of considerable authority* He has Jutabei k i l l e d , then courts Miyagi, -256-who, unaware of his responsibility for her lover's death, f i n a l l y yields to him. Then, to her dismay, she learns the truth* Just at that time, i t happens, the priest Honen, known as the founder of the Jodo sect of Buddhism, i s about to depart from the capital to go into exile i n Shi-koku. Hearing that his boat i s to pass her way, Miyagi arranges to have herself taken out into the middle of the river to meet him* As the priest's boat draws near she cal l s out to him, asking what a per-son lik e herself must do to obtain salvation* Then and there Honen teaches her the efficacy of the nembutsu. whereupon Miyagi, chanting this Invocation to Amida Buddha, casts herself into the river and drowns* Akinari's tale of Miyagi was based on an episode that was said to have been.true* The grave of the real Miyagi was located at Kanzaki, just across the river from Akinari's dwelling at Kashima-mura, where he had f i r s t heard her story more than thirty years before* The tale closes with an account of his v i s i t to her grave and with the nagauta he had composed i n her memory* His lingering affection for the area i s apparent In this postscript, but more Important i s his,view of Mi-yagi herself* He portrayed her as a strong, Intelligent, f a i t h f u l , and pure woman whose s p i r i t remains, unsullied by what her body i e com-pelled to do* She was only the latest manifestation of this kind of woman i n his writings, showing that Akinari retained her as his ideal a l l his l i f e . The polemic element revives br i e f l y i n "Uta no homare"^> H itl • This tale i s no more than a short discourse; Akinari did not even at-tempt to t e l l a story* Rather he presented four waka from the Man'yo--257-shu. each of which describes cranes crying out as they f l y over the sea* The wording i n a l l four poems i s similar* This fact i s not due to plagiarism, says Akinari, for the upright men of old would never have stooped to pirate another's work* In former times, he maintains, since people were not burdened with restraining conventions, they simply expressed i n poetry what they perceived with their senses* The result was a brand of verse independent of theory and rules, which came directly from the heart of man* Since two upright hearts would see the same thing i n the same way, i t was only to be expected that they would describe i t i n similar terms* Thus, he argues, the four poems were composed independent of one another, and their common ex-pressions are a reflection of the s p i r i t of ancient times* Finally there i s "Hankal*" It i s the story of a rough, ignorant, wild, and impulsive young man who fears neither gods nor men and makes no distinction between good and e v i l , relying on his own near-super-human strength to surmount a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s * He i s very similar to Suteishimaru* His character becomes apparent right at the beginning of the tale when, challenged to pay a nocturnal v i s i t to the shrine of a ferocious deity, he goes with no hesitation* He i s punished for his sacrilege and returns home chastened and subdued, but the lesson does not last* Greed leads him to steal from his family and murder his father and brother, and he must flee* Akinari uses this f l i g h t to take his hero on a journey to enlightenment—an odyesey whereby he comes to recognize the limits of his strength, to discern right from wrong, and at last to change from a scoundrel into a saint* As Hankal begins his journey he i s much the same as he has always -258-been, l i v i n g by his own means, removing obstacles by brute force* In Hakata and Nagasaki he makes his way by gambling; i n Shikoku he joins a band of robbers* Gradually, however, i t becomes apparent that his character i s not a l l bad* He saves a family from being deceived by a dishonest merchant, for example* During the winter he cultivates his own musical talent* After robbing the treasury of a wealthy man, he handsomely rewards his friend who had once saved his l i f e * And i n Edo he risks his own l i f e i n genuine concern for the welfare of his two comrades* The action moves rapidly from one place to the next* One may feel, with some justification, that Akinari was manipulating his character, not always logically, i n order to give him the experiences prerequisite to his conversion* The tale does tend to be episodic, but the grand tour of Japan on which the reader i s taken i s engrossing In Itself* There are two key episodes i n Hankai'S transformation* The f i r s t takes place i n the dilapidated temple, where for the f i r s t time i n his l i f e he i s soundly beaten In a fight—and by a most unlikely opponent— and comes to realize that he i s not invincible* The second occurs on the Nasuno Plain where, Impressed by the virtue of a priest he has robbed, he experiences an abrupt but lasting change of heart* No de-t a i l s of his subsequent l i f e are given, but when we next see him It i s as the abbot of a Zen temple i n northeastern Honshu, at the point of death* Akinari's f i n a l comment on the action: " A l l who rule their pas-91 sions have the Buddha nature; a l l who set them free are monsters," sums up the theme of "Hankai." It Is well to note that Hankai, lik e -259-Suteishimaru, reforms not through the preaching of others, but through himself* His salvation i s not something acquired, but simply the re-sult of his own innate goodness coming to the fore; i t comes; not so much through religious or philosophical teachings as through cultiva-tion of qualities already i n him* This i s not to say that Akinari re-jected such teachings* He recognized their value, and they do prove helpful to Hankai i n his quest for enlightenment* Akinari himself was a f f i l i a t e d with religious institutions throughout his l i f e * As we have seen, i t was the misuse of religion, not religion as such, that he was against* He had no sympathy for those who self-consciously strove for salvation as personal gain, or who sought for magical formulas which would produce salvation without effort on their own part* In sum, he believed that i n ancient times people had been good by nature* By his own day, this human nature had become corrupt* It was not possible to go back to the past, but one could, nevertheless, incorporate the spi-r i t of former times into oneself* The virtues of old Japan had not vanished, they had merely become tarnished* A man could s t i l l dis-cover this ideal nature within himself and nourish i t to fruition* But there were no shortcuts; to rely on them was to shirk responsibili-ty* It was only through simple l i v i n g , shunning of worldly matters, upright conduct, and s t r i c t self-mastery that one could obtain peace within his own mind and i n the world* Such was Akinari's conviction, and i f one looks for a common theme running through the diversities of Harusame monogatari. this must be i t . Indeed, i t runs through much of his other writing as well. It i s not always the work into which a writer puts his greatest -260-effort that wine the most favor. Harusame i s a good example. The complete text has only recently become available, so i t has not as yet been f o l l y evaluated, but on the whole, though recognized as an impor-tant work, i t has suffered from the natural tendency to compare i t with Ugetsu. It i s true that the style of Harusame i s relatively straightforward, with l i t t l e a r t i s t i c embellishment, and i t s structure and organization are lacking i n polish, and reading i t i s a far cry from the aesthetic experience that reading Ugetsu i s . In part this may simply be a; reflection of the fact that Akinari was i n poor health when he wrote i t , and the likelihood that he died before he was satis-fied with i t , but his intentions when he wrote the two works were not the same. Ugetsu was conceived and executed as a work of pure l i t e r a -ture; Harusame more as a summary of what Akinari considered the truth to be. When writing the latter, he saw his role as one of informing his readers more than pleasing them. This was relative, of course. Some of the Harusame tales are first-rate examples of the storyteller's craft, and Akinari's opinions are propounded to some degree i n a l l of the Ugetsu pieces. But even i n the Ugetsu tales which are openly d i -dactic, Akinari paid such attention to the a r t i s t i c elements that they remain primarily literature, and only secondarily intellectual dis-courses. The essential difference between Ugetsu and Harusame i s that In the former work the scholarly and lit e r a r y qualities are fused and digested; i n the latter they tend to be separate. Harusame i s clearly unequal to Ugetsu as a work of literature, but such a comparison i s neither f a i r nor, i n the end, possible, for they are not really speci-mens of the same kind of writing. -261-In 1808, the same year that Harusame monogatari and Tandai sho-shin roku were completed, Akinari declared that he had cast his writing 92 brush away. In 1809 he did, as mentioned earlier, revise some of his entries i n Tandai. and he apparently wrote a new draft of Harusame as well, but his statement was probably an accurate reflection of his state of mind, nevertheless. Tandai and Harusame together amounted to a summation of what he wanted to leave behind. As such, " A l l who rule their passions have the Buddha nature; a l l who set them free are mon-sters," may be seen as not only his f i n a l comment on "Hankai," but as his f i n a l comment on l i f e . He now fel t that his work was finished. There was l i t t l e more to say, and he was almost totally blind and his general health was f a i l i n g rapidly. He was well enough to make the journey to Osaka toward the end of 93 1808 to observe his father's f i f t i e t h death anniversary, but he had l i t t l e time remaining. Sometime i n 1809, probably sensing that the end was truly near, he l e f t his Nanzenji dwelling to l i v e once again at the home of Hakura Nobuyoshi. It was there that, August 8, 1809, (Bunka Era, 6th year, 6th month, 27th day), the death he had so long awaited claimed him at las t . His grave may s t i l l be seen today, standing by i t s e l f i n honored isolation i n the garden of the Saifukuji Temple, marked by a stone monument that his surviving friends erected 94 on the thirteenth anniversary of his death. Akinari was already an acclaimed author before his death. Both Ota Nampo and Takizawa Bakin had given him high praise, and the contin-ing popularity of Ugetsu and Sekenzaru. and the posthumous publication -262-of some of his. other works, attests to the regard i n which he was held* The Meiji Restoration brought i n i t s wake a general preoccupation with things Western, and a corresponding indifference to traditional Japan-ese culture* Akinari's popularity suffered accordingly, but by the last decade of the century the pendulum was swinging back* Akinari again became a subject for appreciation and, for the f i r s t time, schol-arly research* C r i t i c a l articles about him began to appear i n academic journals* The general unavailability of any works except Ugetsu was an impediment to research, but the publication of Pe<V\ Aklnarl zenshu i n 1918 and Mftf^rf flhMt>- which Included the f i r s t real biography of Akinari, i n 1919, removed this obstacle and sparked a flurry of inter-est* Nevertheless, as late as 1941 a man was able to purchase a manu-script copy of the long-lost and much-sought-after Harusame monogatari 95 i n a second-hand bookstore for a mere twenty sen. And there i s the apocryphal story of the researcher who, searching for the Kaguwashi Jlnja, went to a nearby elementary school to ask directions, and upon saying that he was seeking information on Ueda Aklnarl, was promptly 96 asked the student's school year and class number* Since the end of the Pacific War, study of Akinari has flourished* Some of the stimulus, i n both Japan and the West, may be credited to Mlzoguchl Kenji's film, Ugetsu monogatari,* based on the tales "Asaji ga yado" and "Jasei no i n , " which won the grand prize at the Venice Film Festival and remains an international classic to this day* The discovery of the complete text of Harusame. and i t s publication i n 1951, made possible more extensive scholarship on that-work, which has led to a more complete appreciation of Akinari's talents* It may be -263-l n part the emphasis on scholarship and waka; verse In Harusame that has sent some researchers delving Into Akinari 1s role as a kokugakusha and poet* Much remains to be done, especially i n these latter areas, but the trend shows every sign of continuing, and i s gradually round-ing out the general view of the man who was once known almost exclu-sively as a writer of supernatural fiction* In the West, Akinari has attracted attention ever since Lafcadio Hearn retold "Kikuka no chigi-r i " and *Muo no rlgyo" i n his A Japanese Mj^cftiignv i n 1905* English translations of individual Ugetsu tales have been appearing since 1927, and two complete versions have come out i n the 1970*s. Ugetsu has also recently appeared i n French, Hungarian, Polish, Spanish, and; Czech* A complete English translation of Harusame as well has recently 97 come off the press* Study of Akinari's works i s rewarding not just for i t s own sake, but for the debt that other Japanese writers owe him* Tanizakl Jun-ichiro, Ishikawa Jun, Mishima Yukio, Sato Haruo, Kawabata Yasunarl, Koda Rohan, Izumi Kyoka, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, Dazal Osamu, Ibuse Masu-j l , and Enchi Fumiko have a l l acknowledged such a debt* Today Akinari's place i n the literature of Japan i s secure* Interest i n him i s , i f anything, growing* It i s as though there i s something i n our age of rational skepticism and scientific technology that sends people back to the haunting Imagery, absorbing fantasy, and pursuit of traditional beauty to be found i n his works* Likewise, i n our world of confusion with the breakdown of long-cherished social and moral attitudes, one may find i n the study of Akinari's l i f e a man who did not seek to i n -gratiate himself with the world, but strove, sometimes unsuccessfully -264-but without ceasing, to l i v e according to his own principles and be-l i e f s * NOTES 1* See MacJhjbunl, Ibun,, p. 224. 2* An interpretation of the passage preceded by the words, "Onna [or perhaps musume] no moto e k o t a u " ^ <ry\ r. x. , i n FuroAhoffl» ZSSr shu. I, 216, 217. 3* Suggested by Takada i n Akinari nempu. p. 165. 4. See Yowotffflfrujnl. Zene^, I, 132, 133. 5. Takada, Akinari nemnu. pp. 223, 244. 6. The events of this excursion are described i n Akinari's Yama- g i r l no k i . Ibun. pp. 287-314; for the date, see p. 314. See also Ama lmam^^^->" * 2sa§kE» X. 109-112. 7. See Macfrj,bupfl, Ibun. p. 224. 8. See yaflaglr^ no jkfl,, Jbuq, pp. 289, 290. 9. fonkad,9 nftkk^, P* 416. 10. See Xamqgftri, no kjL, ^bun, P. 288. 11. Jftzj hakflgafcft. Ibun., P* 499. -265-12. See Yamaglri no k l . ;Ebunt pp. 290, 291, 314. 13. K ^ k ^ nifcfcl. pp. 424, 425. 14. It must have been then that he took up residence at Nobuyo-shi' s home, as i n 1803, U t h month, he said that he had been there for six yearB. See SSBlSSL^ » Zenshu. I, 131, 132. In any case, he was definitely at Nobuyoshi's place by the third month of the following year. See M&take §9,11,, Zenshfl, I, 71, 80. 15. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 295. 16. See Machibuml. Ibun. p. 235. The time when their association began cannot be firmly established, but Kiminori's death i n 1800 pro-vides an upper l i m i t . 17. From a manuscript i n the Tenrl Library, quoted i n Takada, ff^wfl mmr P* 134. 18. See Tandai. no. 98, NKBT, LVI, 310; MaqftyMimfT Ibun. p. 238. 19. The Introductory portion of Nara no soma i s Included i n Ibun. pp. 597-625; for the date of writing, see p. 625. 20. Letter to the abbot of the Jippo-in, Ibun. pp. 631-633. 21. See V o f l o t ^ ^ P f t r Zenshu. I, 132. 224 Ibid., p. 134. 23. See Machlpuml. Ibun. p. 236; FumlhOKU. Zenshu. I, 205-207. -266-24. Presumed because the Kaguwaahi Jlnja preserves verses written by Akinari which give his age as sixty-seven and sixty-eight* indicat-ing that he visited the shrine i n both 1800 and 1801* Since we know that he was i n the area during the latter part of 1800, not healthy enough to travel extensively, and considering his close ties with the Fuji family, i t i s logical that these verses were written on a single prolonged v i s i t * See Noma Koshin, "Kashima insei j i d a i no Akinari," Kamieata. 68 (Aug. 1936), 2-10. This excursion i n 1800 was his last v i s i t to Yuishin of which there i s any record. His? only known reference to her after t h i s was i n Mizu yari hana). ^  ijfe , written i n 1802 after the heavy rains and disastrous floods of that year. He said that he had been told Yuishin had gone to Osaka shortly before the calamity, and that she had not returned by the time he commenced writing* See Takada, Akinari nemnu. pp. 281', 282* 25. For Nampo's account of this meeting, see his; Choyashitsu no \A&$L%%L » l n Tsuzurabuml. Zenshu. I, 124; for the year, see Nampo's postscript to Tsuzurabuml. p. 142* In his diary, Ashi no wakaba f(,n teenth day of the sixth month, though he did not mention Akinari by name* The passage i s quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 265* For Akinari's account of their meeting, see Tandai. no* 108, NKBT, LVI, 315, 316. Nampo spoke of a. poetry session held at the Joganji on the six-26* Tandai. no. 108, NKBT, LVI, 316; see note 12 on the source of Nampo's statement* -267-27. Ibid., no. 10, pp. 256, 257. 28. Nara no soma. Ibun. p. 597. 29. Tandai. no. 2, NKBT, LVI, 251. 00. See Umaki*s letter to Akinari i n Fumlhogu. Zenshu. I, 193. 31. Tandai. no. 51, NKBT, LVI, 285. 324 Ibid., no. 94, p. 308. 33. See Asano,.Akinari zenkashu. pp. 524-527. 34. See TsuJlmori, Ueda Akinari no shogal. pp. 129, 130. 35. Kashlma Inari Sha ken'ei waka. Zenshu. I, 150-155. The e l -ection i s dated Kyowa Era, 1st year (1801), 9th month. Since i t i s not certain when he returned to Kyoto, he may s t i l l have been v i s i t i n g at the shrine when he wrote these poems. 36. See Kobal|-f pj. Zenshu. I, 122-124; Ota Nampo, Choyashitsu no  k i . Zenshu. I, 124. See also a letter, apparently from Akinari, to Morikawa Chlkuso, quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 275. 37. See Shodo's preface to Tsuzurabumi. Zenshu. I, 3,4. 38. T^mrahuinlr Zenshu. I, 1-142. quoted i n Takada, -268-40. See Akinari, Makura no naaare ffl<n ~k. , Zenshu. I, 129-131. 41. See Akinari, A f r ^ r * W> ftll^<&'^- IMfi. PP« ©25, 626. For a l i s t of the participants and the poems that each one contributed, see Takada, Akinari nemnu. pp. 290, 291. 42. See Fumihogu. Zenshu. I, 225. The date i s not included i n the published version, but i t does appear on the original manuscript copy, according to Takada i n Akinari nempu. p. 30. 43. For Akinari's account of this meeting, see Tandai. no. 108, NKBT, LVI, 316. Nampo stayed i n Osaka from the tenth to the eighteenth of the eighth month of that year. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 301. 44. Nampo, Mizunoe inu kiko j, fjfoif > quoted i n Takada, Ak^narJ, nempu. p. 276. 45. Tanomura Chikuden, Toseki sasarokn. quoted i n Takada, Aklnarl  nempu. p. 326. 46. Nampo's postscript appears i n Zenshu. I, 142. Actually i t was written quite early i n the winter, as we see from Nampo's letter to Akinari In Iwah'ashi Koyat% "Uedai no hitsu j i " £. V0 ^  z*iL" , KZ, 33, No. 6 (June 1927), 29-48, N.B. p. 31. 47. See Maruyama Sueo, "Akinari no haikai to waka," KKK. 265 (June 1958), 12-19, N.B. p. 16; Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 314, 321. It i s the 1806 version that i s included i n PedatAkinari zenshu. 48. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 328. -269-49. See Jiden. Ibun. p. 256. 50. Klnsa, Zenshu. II, 21-216; Klnsn .1oaen. Zenshu. II, 217-234. For Jogen's date of completion, see p. 234; for Akinari's statement that he had written Klnsa' that same year, p. 226. 51. Klnsa. Zenshu. II, 40. 52. See Yamamura ffaqtan, J^-fl £ jg , Ibufl, pp. 451, 452; Fuja^ogu, Zenshu. I, 213, 215. Zenshu. p. 213 gives 1806 as the date of moving to the Saifukujl, but i t i s clear from the other sources that this: was a.', s l i p of the pen. 53. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 295. 54. See San'vo. Zeneftfl, I, 132. 55. See Akinari, Saikei Hakova no vama &£f£frK\, Ibun. pp. 384-388. For the date of the v i s i t , see p. 384; for his daughter's pres-ence, p. 387. 56. According to a passage i n the manuscript copy of Fumlhogu. not included i n the published version. See Takada, "'Akinari nempu' hoi,"'pp. 110, 111. 57. See Akinari, Tsuigi kaeetsurei , Ibun. pp. 175-189, N.B. 175. 58. For the original story, see F u j i i Otoo, "Akinari itsubun" Jfffitftfi* Kokubuneaku ko* tflfrgffT , 1, No. 2> (April 1935); for comments, Nakamura Yukihlko, "Akinari den no mondalten," KKK. 265 (June 1958), -270-7-11, N.B. 10, 11, and Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 310, 311. 59. See Kltano Kamo n l mozuru k i . Ibun. p. 373; Tandai. no. 29, NKBT, LVT, 271. 60. See Shlchl-.1u-nl ko £ f - ff; , 2bj&>PP» 125-174, N.B. p. 125. 61. Tandai. no. 69, NKBT, LVI, 295. 62. These anecdotes are related i n Iwahashi Koyata, "Zuiryusan ka no Ueda Akinari," Wakatake. 13, No. 3 (March 1920), 5-10; No. 5 (May 1920), 7-13. 63. Akinari, Donkodo no k l ^ f f j d ^ . Ibun, pp. 487-491. On p. 491 his age i s given as seventy-three, and the time i s specified as mid-autumn i n the text. 64. See Asano, "Akinari den ni okeru n l , san no mondalten," pp. 50,.51. These entries were made during the early months of 1807. Con-sidering the Saifukuji's proximity to the Nanzenji, there i s no reason to accept Asano1s contention that Akinari was actually residing at the Saifukuji at that time. 65. See Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 306. 66. SMgM-,lfi-nl, I b u n > PP* 125-174. 67. Tsuigj kagetsurei. Ibun. pp. 175-189. 68. Their meeting took place on the f i f t h day of the eleventh month. See Nampo, Koharu kiko,), i n Cta Shokusan.lin zenahu. I, -271-252. 69; Kaido k.vo utaawase, Ibun. pp. 335-344; Fop the date of com-position, see the note on the manuscript copy, quoted in Takada, Aki-nari nemnu. p. 316. 70. Machibumi. £buE, p. 213. 71. Tandai. nos. 108, 139, NKBT, LVI, 315, 343, 344. 72. See Akinari's request to Yotsugl (here called KyozentelyJ^'^), appended to the tale in Ibun. pp. 399, 400. 73. According to manuscripts in the Tenri Library, quoted in Ta-kada, Akinari nemnu. p. 323. 74. See Tandai. no. 108, NKBT, LVI, 317. 75. There are two extant Chaka snigen manuscripts. One, in Aki-nari's own hand, contains sixty-six sections; the other, written by a scribe, only fifty-six. Forty of the sections are common to both manuscripts, but even most of those have their differences. Both ver-sions are reproduced, with introductory comments, in Nakamura, Kinsei sakka kenkrn. pp. 219-249. 76. Tandai. no. 98, NKBT, LVI, 310. 77. Fumlhogu. Zenshu. I, 227; trans. Zolbrod, Ugetsu. p. 28. 78. See Nakamura, Kinsei sakka kenkvn. p. 247. -272-79. F u j i l , "Peda Akinari den," Jbjjn., p. 48. 80. Akl no kuroo. Zenshu. I, 157-164. On p. 164 he gives his age as seventy-four at the time of writing. 81. On the larger collection, see Asano. Akinari zenkashu. pp. 477-509. 82. Publication data i n Zenshu I, 228. For the o f f i c i a l version of i t s compilation, see pp. 191, 228. 83. Presumed by F u j i l Otoo, who gave the manuscript i t s t i t l e . See his preface to Ibun. p. 5. The date of i t s composition i s inferred from Akinari's statement that he was seventy-five at the time. See Ibun. p. 256. 84. This was Ihon Tandai shSshin roku. NKBT, LVT, 370-377. See p. 377 for his statement that he was seventy-six when he wrote i t . 85. For an account of the various Harusame manuscripts, and their discovery and publication, see Barry Shelton Jackman, The Harusame Monogatari of Peda Akinari (1734-1809). Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia Univer-sity, 1973, pp. 14-19. 86. Tandai. no. 35, NKBT, LVI, 276. See also nos. 54, 55, 70, 138, pp. 287, 295, 341-343. 87. Readers who are interested i n the actual incident should con-sult Asano Sampel, "Genta sodo to Ayatari, A k i n a r i " ^ J ^ J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . ^ J ^ (1962), i n Akinari. ed. Nihon Bungaku Kenkyu Shiryo Kankokal, pp. 231--273-246. 88. "Masurao monogatari" was, i n fact, the name given to this work by F u j i i Otoo when compiling Akinari ibun. Akinari's own manu-script was untitled. 89. See Dai Nihon hvakka Jiten. I, 69. 90. "Onshu no kanata n f ^ ^ f j t ^ ^ b y Kikuchi Kan^g £ i s the best-known work of fi c t i o n based on this episode, but Akinari's "Sute-lshimaru" was unknown at the time i t was written, and so could not have had any influence. For comparative notes on the two tales, see Morita Klro, Ueda Akinari (Tokyo: Kinokuniya Shoten, 1970), pp. 189, 190; Jackman, Harusame. pp. 123-125. 91. NKBT, LVT, 247. 92. Jiden. Ibun. p. 256. 93. Letter to a Mr. K i n ' y a ^ ^ ^ , quoted i n Takada, Akinari nempu. p. 344. 94. See Takada, Ak3,n,ara, nam^, p. 348. 95. Reported i n Nihon Dokusho Shimbun i3 Aug. 30, 1950, p. 4. Although the copyist had purposely omitted "Suteishimaru" and "Hankai," this was the most complete version of Harusame to be dis-covered up to that time. Edited by the finder, Urushiyama Matashiro, It was published as Urushiyama bon Harusame monogatari by Iwanami Bun-ko i n 1950. -274-96* Related by Shigetomo KI In "Akinari no i s e k i " j>C$>j|? , i n Akinari no kenkyu. pp. 520-523. 97. Tales of the Staring Rain, trans. Barry Shelton Jackman (Tokyo? University of Tokyo Press, 1975). For a good summary of scholarship on Akinari i n both Japan and the West, see Zolbrod, Ugetsu. pp. 77-82. -275-BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Collections of Akinari's Works Aklnarl i b i m & f t / ^ . f . Ed. F u j i ! OtooghfZ % . Tokyo: Shubunkan, 1919. Hanabusa zoehi. Nishiyama monogatari. Ugetsu monogatari. Harusame mono-,B8ti&£$fot.<&Mb)&M t\]$)ife,$H(W£)t& • Ed.. Nakamura Yukihiko *f;P] vfT'i) , Takada Mamoruv#jpg , Nakamura_ >Hlroyasuf /^Ji$• Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshu, Vol. 48. Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1973. Harusame monogatari. Ed. Asano SampeiJ^P^*- ^ • Tokyo: Ofusha, 1971. Harusame monogatari. Ed. Maruyama Sueo/liLi/f*^ • Tokyo: Koten Bun-ko, 1951. Harusame monogatari. Ed. Nakamura Yukihiko. Osaka: Sekizenkan, 1947. Kakizome kigenkai^, jt/l|%-t# -fo . Ed. Maruyama Sueo. Tokyo: Koten Bunko, 1951. Ueda Akinari shu. Ed. Nagai Kazutaka/Kff - -A . Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko, 1931. Ueda Akinari shu. Ed. Nakamura Yukihiko. NKBT, Vol. 56. Tokyo; Iwa-naml Shoten, 1959; rpt. 1968. Ueda Aklnarl shfi. Ed. Shigetomo Ki<| &|%, . Nihon Koten Zensho. To-kyo: Asahi Shimbunsha, 1957; rpt. 1970. Ueda Akinari zenshu. Ed. Iwahashi Koyata$^)/}x$y£# 2 vols. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankokai, 1918; rpt. 1969. Ueda Akinari zenshu. Ed. Suzuki T o s h i y a ^ ^ j f ^ . Tokyo: Fuzambo, 1938. Urushivama bon Harusame m o n o g a t a r i f f i , L E d . Urushiyama Matashiro ;^#<#f|> . Tokyo: Iwanaml Shoten, 1950. B. Translations of Akinari's Works i n Western Languages Allen, Lewis. "'The Chrysanthemum Vow,' from the Ugetsu Monogatari (1776) by Ueda Akinari." Durham University Journal. 28, No. 2 (1967), 108-116. -276-Blacker, Carmen and W, E. Skiliend. "Muo no rigyo (The Dream Carp)." Selections from Japanese Literature (12th to 19th Centuries). Ed. F. J . Daniels. London: Lund Humphries, 1959, pp. 91-103, 164-171. Bohackova, Libuse. Vypraveni za mesice a deste. Prague: Odeon, 1971. Chambers, Anthony. "Hankai: A Translation from Harusame monogatari by Ueda-Akinari." MN, 25 (1970), 371-406. Hamada, Kengi. Tales of Moonlight and Rain: Japanese Gothic Tales by Uyeda Akinari. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1971. Hani, Kjoko and Maria Holti. ESQ es hold nesei. Budapest: Europa, 1964. Hansey, Alf. "The Blue Hood." The Young East. 2, No. 9 (Feb. 1927), 314-319. Hearn, Lafcadio. "Of a Promise Kept," "The Story of Kogi the Priest." A Japanese Miscellany; Strange Stories-Folklore Gleanings-Studies Here & There. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1967; rpt. 1971, pp. 11-17, 61-71. Jackman, Barry Shelton. Tales of the Spring Rain. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1975. Sakai, Kazuya. Cuentos de i l l u v l a y de luna: tradu,cc;ton de,3, ori.gina3, iapones. Mexico City: Ediclones Era, 1969. Saunders, Dale. "Ugetsu Monogatari, or Tales of Moonlight and Rain." MN, 21 (1966), 171-202. Sleffert, Rene, Conges fle pl\4e et fle luge (Ufletsq Mpnoga.frarJ,) f Trad-uction et commentaires. Paris: Gallimard, 1956. Ueda, Makoto. "A Blue Hood." Sag Francisco Review. 1, No. 4 (1960), 42-47. Whitehouse, Wilfrid and M. A. Matsumoto. "Ugetsu Monogatari: Tales of a Clouded Moon." MN, 1, No. 1 (1938), 242-258; 1, No. 2 (1938), 257-275; 4, No. 1 (1941), 166-191. Young, Blake Morgan. "•Hankai,' a Tale from the Harusame monogatari by Ueda Akinari (1734-1809)." HJAS. 32 (1972), 150-207. Zolbrod, Leon M. "Shiramine (White Peak), from Ugetsu Monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain), by Ueda Akinari (1734-1809)." Literature East and West. 11 (1967), 402-414. • Pfietsfl Monogatari,? Tal,eg 0* M o o n l i t anfl R^ M** London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1974. -277-C. Books and Articles i n Japanese Akinari. Ed. Nakamura Yukihiko. Nihon Koten Kansho Koza, Vol. 24. Tokyo: Kadogawa Shoten, 1966. Akinari. Ed, Nihon Bungaku Kenkyu Shiryo Kankokal G/hX$0t> 0. P( • Tokyo: Yflseido, 1972. Asano Sampei. "Akinari den n i okeru n i , san no mondalten" n •JVf* ;s.. • K K B - 38, No. 6 (June 1961), 42-52*. s 1 — • Jk?W*l$i fff^A*yffl to s o n o kenkyu ^£/&/^ft| t '•{/> Tokyo: Gfusha, 1969. —•• . - "Harusame monogatari to bukkyo" ^ hfi&%|£ t fa jg£. JK, 43 (Nov. 1966), 73-82. — . "Kakizome kigenkai n i tsuite." KKB. 35, No. 2 (Feb. 1958), 41-49. . "Mittsu no fushiteki sakuhin: 'Kakizome kigenkai,» 'Kuse monogatari,' 'Manih5shu'« 2~>"tAfi{t)ft;v fyjfr&i f0 $]% • KKK. 23, No. 6 (June 1958), 42-46. J ^ . "Seken tekake katagi wo megutte--Shokoku kaisen dayori, Utamakura someburoshiki ni oyobu" t£ m$iS ftykyi<",'l—$j6$ W®> 'it -fet • -2S» 3 6 » N o * 5 ( M a y 1 9 5 9 > » 38-48. . "Shodo klklmlml, sekenzaru r o n " | M $ ? • JK, 15 (Oct. 1959), 46-56. . "Ugetsu monogatari to Manihoshu." JK, 22 (July 1961), 1-16. • "Ueda Akinari no shussei to kazoku"£ $t£ k f c ^ . JK, 36 (Feb. 1965), 1-10. Aso lao&jfciPbK _. Edo bungaku, tp ffi^EfflffltfTO <c £ #?jcf • Tokyo: Sanseldo, 1946. Kinsei seikatsu to kokubungaku . Tokyo: Shibundo, 1925. Bunka rvoran $Jt%&<&^ • Ed. Nakamura Yukihiko & Nishiyama Matsunosuke yfyhfi'UzQp . Nihon Bungaku no Eekishi, Vol. 8. Tokyo: Kadogawa* Shoten, 1967. F u j l i Otoo. Edo bungaku kenkyu zL?j$,-Xrf% • Tokyo: Naigai Shuppan Kabushiki Kalsha, 1921. '. Edo bungaku sosetsu ffi . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1931. -278-Fukunaga S M z u y a ^ ^ f j ^ ' . "Akinari to Norinaga no ronso" ^fX./^ • JS, 31 (Dec. 1963), 7-19. Goto TanJijfJ^j'$ • "Akinari no kyusaku to Ugetsu monogatarif-Seken-zaru, Tekake 'katagi no saigen"$^,0{<f %fflfiik.&ffl t\ Kokubungaku (Kansai Daigaku Kokubun Gakkal), 9 (Jan. 1953). 25-36. . "Gozasso to Ugetsu monogatari" t ^ y J g ^ . Rekishi Nihon &f*fr t 1, No. 6 (Dec. 1942), 162-166. . "Ugetsu monogatari shutten wo sagura"^/^^!^);^ •% 2 . KKK. 265 (June 1958), 52-64. Hakura Yoehihisav^^JJ^i . "Usda* Akinari to Ozawa Roan." KZ, 55D (June 1954), 126-132. Ishikawa Jun /^n];| • "Akinari shir on" ^ # ^ j 3 r » Bungaku. 27, No. 8 (Aug. 1959), 83-88. Ishizaki Matazo^J-^i^ • Kinsei Nihon ni okeru Shinai zokugo bungaku shl ^ ^ , ^ m < #r.f 7Q ^ Sbl&t&XJ^^ • Tokyo: Shimizu KobundS Shobo, 1967. Ito A k i h l r o ^ / $ ^ ^ . "Ueda Akinari no ukiyo-zoshi." Kinsei ehosetsu; shirvS tjjT /,\ & fff u Kokubungaku Ronso, Vol. 6. Tokyo: Shibundo, 1963. Iwahashi Koyata. "Futatabi Ueda Akinari no koto ni tsuite" ^ c, \J^t0^X^ flf i s f O l • — » 1 6 » N o * 5 ( M a y 1 9 1 0 > » 542-545. : . "Haijin Mucho"4f/ Ni^{| . KZ, 18, No. 7 (July 1912), 55-62. : . "Reigotsu ron"$|&|! J ^ i . Geibun , 14, No. 8 (Aug. 1923), 47-56. . "Reigotsu y o r o n " # ^ | ^ ^ • Saibjja, 21, No. 2 (Feb. 1930), 76-81. • " h i t s u j i " ^ - ^ » [)' . Kg, 33, No. 6 (June 1927), 29-48. • "Ueda Akinari to Man'yoshu;" Wakatake^ ^  iff . 5, No. 10 (Oct. 1912), 10-14. . "Zulryusan ka no Ueda. Akinari" *$jfi/|ik'f-<*£,# PfL Ac • Waka- take. 13, No. 3 (Mar. 1920), 5-10; No. 5 (May 1920), 7-13. Kaguwashi Jln.1a to Uedm Akinari no s h i o r i ^ f l l<h*^'pt.<Jft&&os% . Osaka: Kaguwashi Jlnja Keishin KenkSkal, 1965. -279-Kayanuma Noriko-^^ "Ueda Akinari no shiso~-kokugaku shiso kara m i t a " j l v a ^ ^ ^ ( ^ - F 6 } ^ ^ . ^ ^ t < • m% 22, No. 6 (June 1973), 39—53. Kitajima Masamoto jL • Edo .lidal. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1958. Maeno Sadao^fe^^ . "Ueda Akinari no Man'yogakui!" KBKKK. 4, No. 7 (June 1959), 62-71. Maruyama Sueo. "Akinari no haikai to waka." KKK. 265 (June 1958), 12-19. . "Akinari no Umaki nyumon no nendai sono ta" !$^ch^$k)\\ KfU • Waglmo&ffi . 13, No. 3 (Mar. 1936), 42-45. . "Roan to Akinari." KZ, 43, No. 10 (Oct. 1937), 52-65; No. 12 (Dec. 1937), 57-73. . "Ueda Akinari to Man'yoshu." Wagimo 13, No. 5 (May, 1936), 23-25; No. 6 (June, 1936), 42-47. 7 Matsuo Yasuaki^;y|_^y^r . Kinsei no bungaku. Tokyo: Bunka Shoin, 1965. Misawa J u n j i r o ^ ^ l f . "Akinari den no naka no ayamari hitotsu" KK\i*^^l%<> • 5£» 2 8 » N o « 7 ( J u l y 1 9 5 9 > » 3 1"3 5» • Shonen Uedai Akinari den. Tokyo:: Daldokan Shoten, 1933. Miyajima Natsuki ^  fe^^^f.I. "Ueda Akinari." KKB. 16, No. 10 (Oct. 1939), 174-195. • "Ueda Akinari ron—sono shiso to seikatsu n i furete" $ t ^ ^ i ^ A i • 3 8 » N o * 4 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 1 ) » 7 1 ~ 8 1 , . "Ueda Akinari shuyo chosaku k a i d a l " 5 l t f i # C & % /i,ffft%& • KBKKK. 4, No. 7 (June 1959), 40-52. ~ Mori S e n z o & H ^ . "Mucho Okina z a k k i " ^ ^ fMsVc* KamigatatL* , 45 (Sept. 1934), 54-62. ™ " * Morita Kiro &$<h • "Tsuzurabumi ni tsuite." Kinsei bungel. 11 (Nov. 1964), 24-30. • UedatAkinari. Tokyo: Kinokunlya Shoten, 1970. Moriyama Shlgeo&^^Lifc « "Akinari kenkyu no gendankai to mondaiten" • K B K K K - ** N o » 7 <Ju*e 1 9 5 9 > » 33-39. . "Akinari no ukiyo-zoshi." KKK, 265 (June 1958), 23-30. .280-• Chusei to kinsei no genzo fa 4&, . Tokyo: Shin-dokushosha, 1965* — . Hokan, s^opjft bungaku, no kenkyu; ^ £$'.frj • Tokyo:-. San'ichi Shobo, 1960; rpt. 1971. • Ugetsu monogatari. Harusame monogatari: Akinari no bun- gaku. Tokyo: Nihon Bungaku Shinsho, 1956. Muramatsu SadatakaM/KE,^ . "Izumi Kyoka to UedaaAkinari." Qakuen Igfc , 266 (Aug. 1960), 2-15. Murata Noboru^ # j f . Kinsei bungel no bukkvoteki kenkyu £ „ J A $ C W f 1 l # T o k y 0 ! Hyakkaen, 1963. Nakamura Hiroyasu. "Uedai Akinari no shinpi .shiso" XLtf) Kokubungaku.kenkyu. 26 (1962), 96-105. Nakamura lukihiko. "Akinari den no mondaiten." KKK. 265 (June 1958), 7-11. — — — — . "Akinari n i egakareta hitobito"4/($^ Kbo^ft- (/- A n • 32, No. 1 (Jan. 1963), 1-11; No. 6 (June 1963), 50-62. . Kinsei sakka kenkyu # f ^ f c f t f g , Tokyo: San'ichi Shobo, 1961. T Z • Kinsei shosetsu shi no kenkyu ^€'lM,t/}^% • Tok^o: Ofusha, 1961. '. • "Uedav Akinari no monogatari kan" t-® 4'&i 4 J ^ H ' f ^ • Koku- bungaku (Kansai Daigaku), 23 (Oct. 1958), 52-60. Nihon bungaku shi. Ed. ELsamatsu S e n ' i c h i l ^ -~ 2nd ed., 6 vols. Tokyo: Shlbundo, 1964. Noda*Hisao^^/j^ . "Kai-i shosetsu no keifu to Akinari" ifef^ i t <n • Koza Nihon bungaku M ^ t i ^ f . . Ed. Zenkoku Daigaku Kokugo Kokubun Qakkai.14 vols. (Tokyo: Sanseido, 1968-71), VIII (1969), 35-54. s . Kinsei bungaku no halkei < £ , < \ . Tokyo: Ko shobo, 1964; rpt. 1971. • "Tandai shoshin roku." KKK, 265 (June 1958), 47-51. Noma K o s h i n f f ^ j M . "Kashima insei didai no Akinari" f<l jfa fj.rfi • Saaisaiat 68 U«s. 1936), 2-10. ^ v Oba Shunsuke fefyfcty)* Ak^^ar^ no tenkangh,? *9 4?BQffi fo^i jfe\Pr k f > £ / » Tokyo: Ashi Shobo, 1969. ••/•J7n~ -281< 01 MitsukojC^f^-> • "Ugetsu monogatari 'Aozukin' no bungelsel." Zei-3» N o « - 4 (April 1951), 19-21. Qiso Y o s h l o X ^ t l ^ t . "Ueda Aklnarl wa futarl i t a " ^ ^ * * ' * fc . Kokugo kokubungaku h5 ifetefeflygflK , 13 (April 1961), 11-16. Qkubo Tadashi;CU5f. i t . "Akinari to Norinaga." KBKKK. 12, No. 10 (Aug. 1967), 121-126. Owa Yasuhiro^j^t&g • "Shoki yomihon seiritsu no ichimen--Ueda Aki-nari wo chuehin t o s h i t e J J \ « "fa — ^ $ jfvCbV i f V tt-Z • Kinsei shosetgu: kenkyu to shiryo* _Ed. Keio Gljuku Daigaku Koku-bungaku Kenkyukai. . Kokubungaku Ronso, Vol. 6, 187-205. Rai Momosaburojfe/J^^ . "Akinari den k i k i g a k i " ^ ^ £§> 8, No. 6 (June 1959), 6-10. Sakada Motokoflktf \\ • "Ueda Akinari to senchado" X ^ ^ j ^ k ^ , ^ ^ , • J£, 31 (Dec. 1963), 62-76. Sakai K o i c h l ^ ' / t " • "Harusame monogatari." KKK. 265 (June 1958), 35-42. • Ueda*Akinari. Tokyo: San'ichl Shobo, 1959. Sato Haruo/,^^^ • Ueda Akinari. Tokyo: Togensha, 1964. Shidehara Michitaro '$ffi&f^%$ • "Kaigai n i shokai sareta Ueda Akinari*' t£jf£ • K B K K K > «» No. 7 (June 1959), 53-61. Shigetomo K i . Akinari no kenkyu. Tokyo: Bunri Sholn, 1971. Kinsei bungaku shi no shomondai^ p?j%.^^f^te . To-kyo: Meiji Shoin, 1963. rpt. 1969. -• Nihon kinsei bungaku sh i . Tokyo: Iwanami Zeneho, 1950; . "Saikaku to Akinari." Koten kenkyu" ^  fffff . 4, No. 10 (Oct. 1939), 15-28 ". "Ueda Akinari no sakkateki shogai" $ JW' KKK. 265 (June 1958), 2-7. s h o g a i - M ^ w f mH:A' Ugetsu monogatari hyoshaku.ft (\ fy^xj^ • Tokyo: Meiji Shoin, 1957. Shiina.Hirokol^H? f j f i • "Ueda Akinari shoron." Kokubun (Ochanomizu Joshi Daigaku), 16 (Jan. 1962), 21-34. Shindo Kazuyoshi|<f§^i:. Ueda^ Akinari no Man'yogaku. Tokyo: Ofusha, 1974. -282-Suzuki Toshiya. Klndal kokubungaku aotere-vfrA- • Tokyo: Meguro Shoten, 1934* . "Kal-i shosetsuka toshite no Ueda Akinari" /&$i)$b%< U x " X # j J £ & » Koten kenkyu. 4, No. 10 (Oct. 1939), 29-46. — . Kinsei Nihon shosetsu shi: kowaku to gen'yo to no bungei. i £ x qfaVStlL, $ J * t £o-# £ g • 5 M e s u r o S n o t e n » 1 9 2 ° * . "Shosetsuka toshite no Akinari." KamJgata. 45 (Sept. 1934), 17-31. Takada Mamoru. "Akinari wo kenkyusuru hito no tame n i . " KBKKK. 4, No. 7 (June 1959), 77-80. Ueda Akinari kenkyu .losetsu r. \? *£jK#f£ Tokyo: Nara Shobo, 1968. : . Ueqa, Akj,nar4, nemnn kgsetsu, Tokyo: Mei-zendo Shoten, 1964. "'Ueda Akinari nempu kosetsu' hoi"^«^X>^^$£jl J Kinsei chuki bungaku no shomondai \§ Miff}*!® • Ed. Kinsei Bungaku Shi Kenkyu" no Kai.' Tokyo: Melzendo, 1966, pp. 69-113. Teruoka Yasutaka 0f . Buson: shogai to gei.1ntsu it Tokyo: Meijl Shoin', 1954. ' • "Ugetsu monogatari n i tsuite." Asukagfl*3 <fe , 8, No. 4 (April 1943), 3-7. Tsujimori S h u e i \ f ^ 4 ^ . Ueda,Ak^nar^, no shogafl,. Tokyo: Yukosha, 1942. Ueda Akinari: k a l - i yokel no bungaku aruiwa monogatari no kvokuhokn >tf Itfji , f t fab*\1 0} $%H%fL • Ed. Kuwahara ShigeoX ft Tokyo: Shichosha, 1972. * ^ Ueda Yone £ 0 ^  • "Kuse monogatari no fushi n i t s u i t e " ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f t ^ " - ^ ' — » 3 1 ( D e c # 1 9 6 3 > » 3--43. Uzuki H i r o s h i J ^ 3> . "Akinari bungaku no tenkai" jf/Jifcf *jbJX\ • KBKKK. 4, No. 7 (June 1959), 5-13. . "Akinari no bungaku to fudo: »Ugetsu monogatari' no fudo-sei to h i f u d o s e i " $ j ^ %£ fc / f t * . — T ^ i f ^ j ^>/fl^'lf v # $ • KBKKK. 8, No. 4 (Mar. 1963), 71-78. . "Shltto to enkon no bungaku"^^ Y,&-\&<* 0% • A e u k a ' 26» No. 4 (Apr. 1961), 18-20. . Ugetsu monogatari hyoshaku. Tokyo: Kadagawa.Shoten, 1969. -283-Yamaguchl Takeshit) i U |^ <). Edo bungaku kenkyq. Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1933; rpt, 1942. • Kinsei shSsetsn. 3 vols. Tokyo: Sogensha, 1941. Yamazakl FamotOiL, • "Tandai shoshin roku ni tsuite." Koten ken- kyu. 4, No. 10 (06Y. 1939), 47-63. D. Books and Articles In Western Languages Arakl, James T. "A C r i t i c a l Approach to the Ugetsu monogatari." MN, 22 (1967), 49-64. Casal, U. A. "Far Eastern Monkey Lore." MN, 12 (1956), 13-49. Dore, R. P. Education i n Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley:; University of California Press, 1965. Hibbett, Howard. The Floating World i n Japanese Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Humbertclaude, Pierre. "Essai sur l a vie et l'oevre de Ueda;Akinari, 1734-1809." MN, 3 (1940), 98-119; 4 (1941), 102-123, 454.-464;; 5 (1942), 52-85. Jackman, Barry Shelton. The Harusame Monogatari of Ueda Akinari (1734-1809). Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, 1973. Lane, Richard. "The Beginnings of the Modern Japanese Novel (Kanazo- shi. 1600-1682)." BJAS. 20 (1957), 644-701. McCune, George B. "The Exchange of Envoys Between Korea and Japan Dur-ing the TokugawaiPeriod." Japan: Enduring Scholarship. Ed. John A. Harrison. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 1972, pp. 83-100. Morris, Ivan, ed. & trans. The Life of an Amorous Woman and Other  Writings by Ihara Saikaku. Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1963. Rucinskl, Jack. "A Japanese Burlesque: Nise Monogatari." MN. 30 (1975), 1-18. Zolbrod, Leon M. "A Comparative Approach to 'Tales of Moonlight and Rain'." Humanities Association Bulletin, 21, No. 2 (Spring 1970), 48-56. -284-. Taklzawa Bakln. New York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1967. — — — — . "Yomihon: The Appearance of the Historical Novel i n Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century Japan." JAS, 25 (1966), 485-498. E. Miscellaneous References Buson ehv&Mf . Ed. Otani Tokuzo"Xjrj§ » c k a d a R l b - e i $ 0 » & Shimai Kiyoshi J?; jsf, ~r% • Koten Haibungaku Taikei $ * 4 , Vol.12. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1972. Dai Nihon hyakka .1i^en^ W%Jn$)r%'<& (Encyclopedia Japonica) • 23 vols. Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1967-72. Dokushi bivo ^ t f • Ed. Tokyo Telkoku Daigaku Shiryo Hensan Jo ^ ^ X f e M & J f - ^ f • To^o' Naigai Shoseki Kabushiki Kaisha, 1933. mteLAaimmjff^^W • Ed. Teteuojf!££»« , et a l . Tokyo: K e i j i Shoin, 1957; rpt. 1966. K g S f e a ^ L s J k k l ^ f • Ed. Mizuta N o r i h i e a ^ fej^ . Osaka, 1972. Kyoto igo Osaka shmn>an_shoseki mokuroku | $ IVUfiiMt fa&StWt- • Ed. Osaka Tosho Shuppangyo Kumiai -K'fa\f)% £ tffrtf&g* Osaka: Osaka Tosho Shuppangyo Kumiai, 1936. ^ Nihon bungaku dal.litenti itf^xty f . E d . Fujimura TBUkurujjftf^ K . 8 vols. Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1950-52. N&hoffi bungaku, kanshp .Uten,: fro^S W&fr^^^S§&!> Ed* ^oshida Seiichi£j# Tokyo: Tokyodo, I960. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Trans. W. G. Aston. 2 vols^in one. London:: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1956. Setsuyo k^kafl^^feftfl , vol. 32. Naniwa sosho^MSMr . Ed. Funakoshi S e i i c h i r o ^ ^ ^ ^ . Vol. 4 (Osaka, 1927), IV, 83-159. Shin hyakka zeirin Shoku