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Planning for trail biking in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia Black, Elizabeth Mary 1977

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PLANNING FOR TRAIL BIKING IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  by ELIZABETH MARY BLACK B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y of Aberdeen, 197^  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  A p r i l , 1977 ®  E l i z a b e t h Mary B l a c k , 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  reference and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  g„v„^1  ^-P r . ^ T r m m ' t y  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  A p r i l 25th 1977  Columbia  and  R a t i o n a l Planning  iii  ABSTRACT T r a i l b i k i n g i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y has become popular as an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the 10  t o 15  years.  last  A major a t t r a c t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y i s the  freedom i t g i v e s the t r a i l b i k e r s to go almost However, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n ,  the number of areas  on which to r i d e t r a i l b i k e s has d i m i n i s h e d . ment of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d on s t i l l the number of complaints  anywhere.  With  encroach-  existing t r a i l bike  of n o i s e , t r e s p a s s ,  haunts,  environmental  damage and r e c r e a t i o n u s e r c o n f l i c t i s growing. P r o v i s i o n o i a s p e c i a l use a r e a f o r t r a i l  bikes  has proved an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n to s i m i l a r problems i n other p a r t s of North America.  On the s u r f a c e , i t seems l o g i c a l  t h a t a s p e c i a l use a r e a might be e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i n the study a r e a .  However, i t i s contended t h a t the Lower F r a s e r  V a l l e y p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t combination  of s o c i a l and  mental f a c t o r s , and t h a t the d e s i g n of an a c c e p t a b l e  environsolution  to  the t r a i l b i k e problem r e q u i r e s more than mere p r o v i s i o n  of  a s p e c i a l use  area.  Asaa methodology f o r d e s i g n i n g such a s o l u t i o n , a model based upon 'planning under u n c e r t a i n t y * i s u t i l i z e d . T h i s model c o n s i s t s of two and  the  cycles}  'plan implementing c y c l e ' .  the  'plan-making c y c l e '  iv  The o b j e c t i v e of the 'plan making' c y c l e i s t o d e s i g n an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n to the t r a i l b i k e problem i n the study a r e a . e x p l o r e d . 'The  First,  s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of the problem are  demand f o r t r a i l b i k e f a c i l i t i e s , and  t h i s demand has been met  i s examined.  The problems  by t r a i l b i k i n g i n the study area a r e i d e n t i f i e d and cussed.  how generated dis-  From these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , c r i t e r i a f o r an a c c e p t a b l e  s o l u t i o n are f o r m u l a t e d . r e s p e c t to these c r i t e r i a .  Four s o l u t i o n s are examined w i t h These are«  a) to do n o t h i n g ,  b) t o p r o h i b i t t r a i l b i k e use completely, c) t o p r o h i b i t b i k e use from c e r t a i n areas and d) t o accommodate t r a i l use.  Only the l a t t e r , or a combination  of p r o h i b i t i o n  trail bike  and  accommodation are c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e . However, even i f a s p e c i a l use a r e a i s p r o v i d e d , t h e r e i s no b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n , t h a t i t w i l l be used,  nor  t h a t i t w i l l be t o l e r a t e d by the r e s i d e n t s of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , nor i s i t known what w i l l be the environmental  con-  sequences of such a c t i o n . T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y i s reduced by e n t e r i n g the 'planimplementing  cycle'.  The purpose of t h i s c y c l e i s t o implement  the chosen s o l u t i o n f o r an experimental p e r i o d , and i n doing so monitor a s p e c t s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d as u n c e r t a i n . There a r e f o u r phases i n t h i s cycle»  a c t i o n , monitoring,  V  a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n . program a r e evaluated  The r e s u l t s of the m o n i t o r i n g  on the b a s i s o f how w e l l the *plan*  meets the s t a t e d c r i t e r i a f o r an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n w i l l determine i f the experiment should  continue  w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s based on the f i r s t round of a c y c l e , or i f a r e t u r n t o the plan-making c y c l e i s r e q u i r e d as a r e s u l t of unexpected  events.  T h i s model f o r p l a n n i n g under u n c e r t a i n t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d by d e s c r i b i n g how the p l a n implementing c y c l e c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n the study a r e a . Ridge as the experimental and m o n i t o r i n g  The case f o r choosing  s i t e i s s t a t e d and a s i t e  programme i s d e s c r i b e d .  Eagle plan  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES AEKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER ONE:  i  OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEMS  i i v i i x x X  1  1  CHAPTER TWOt THE PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY MODEL INTRODUCTION THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE PHASE 1* PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PHASE 2: PROBLEM EXPLORATION PHASE 3: PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS PHASE 4 : EXPOSURE OF UNCERTAINTY THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE PHASE 1: ACTION PHASE 2: MONITORING PHASE 3: ANALYSIS PHASE 4 : EVALUATION  14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 17  CHAPTER THREE: THE PLAN-MAKIN© CYCLE PHASE 1: PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATION BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY A^REA PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIL BIKES PHASE 2: PROBLEM EXPLORATION A. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE DEMAND FOR TRAIL BIKING FACILITIES IN THE STUDY AREA? 1 . NUMBER OF TRAIL BIKES 2. INVENTORY OF CURRENT TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS 3 . USER CHARACTERISTICS AND USE PATTERNS B. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TOWARDS MEETING THIS DEMAND? 1 . THE PRIVATE SECTOR 2. THE PUBLIC SECTOR PHASE 3 : PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS PHASE 4 : EXPOSING UNCERTAINTY  20 20 20 22 28 28 29 31 33 34 34 36 41 43  vii  PAGE CHAPTER FOUR:  THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE AS APPLIED TO THE PROBLEM OF TRAIL BIKING IN AN URBAN AREA  INTRODUCTION PHASE 1: ACTION SITE SELECTION CONTROL SITES SITE DESIGN ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS PHASE 2: MONITORING PHASE 3 i ANALYSIS PHASE 4: EVALUATION CHAPTER FIVEs  THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLEi AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE - THE CASE OF EAGLE RIDGE  INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA SITE SELECTION SITE DESCRIPTION IMPACTS TO SOCIETY CITY OF PORT MOODY COQUITLAM DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY ANMORE B.C. HYDRO GREATER VANCOUVER WATER DISTRICT OTHER INTERESTS IN THE LAND SITE DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS THE MONITORING PROGRAM PART As USE INFORMATION PART Bi THE REACTION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC PART Ci ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION COSTS I SITE DEVELOPMENT COSTS II MONITORING PROGRAM COSTS CHAPTER SIXs  CONCLUSION  45 45 46 46 51 51 55 57 59 6 l  64 64 64 67 69 76 76 77 77 77 78 79 79 81 83 83 85 87 94 97 97 98 99  BIBLIOGRAPHY  102  PERSONS CONTACTED DURING THE STUDY  108  viii  Page APPENDICES APPENDIX I II III IV V VI  ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF TRAIL BIKES AREAS IN THE STUDY AREA CURRENTLY IN USE BY TRAIL BIKERS SUMMARY OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STUDY AREA CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED IN RATING LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS. SOILS AND VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE CAPABILITY OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT TRAIL BIKE RIDING ON BIOPHYSICAL CRITERIA.  111 112 121 129 140 146 153  IX  LIST OP TABLES PAGE Number of T r a i l Bikes by B i k e Type  30  S i t e S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r T r a i l Bike Use Areas from a T r a i l B i k e r ' s Perspective  49  I l l j S i t e S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r T r a i l Bike Use Areas based on P o t e n t i a l Impacts  50  IVj Sampling S t r a t a f o r M o n i t o r i n g Environmental Impacts of Eagle Ridge  88  TABLE It Hi  x LIST OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e 1«  A Model f o r P l a n n i n g Under U n c e r t a i n t y  19  2:  The Boundaries of the GVRD Parks F u n c t i o n  21  3»  Process Chart f o r S i t e S e l e c t i o n of an 48  ORRV Area A General C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o i l s i n the Study Area Average Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the Study Area  68  L o c a t i o n of the Experimental and C o n t r o l Sites  70  Proposed Boundary of the Experimental T r a i l Bike Area  71  8i  Proposed S i t e Plan f o r Eagle Ridge  74  9t  E a g l e Ridge - Sampling S t r a t a  89  Diagram of S i t e s t o C o l l e c t Environmental Information  90  4» 5* 6: 7«  10i  66  xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e thanks go t o P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox of the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Westwater Research Centre, and Ken Peterson f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and guidance i n the development  and completion of  t h i s study. I a l s o wish t o thank L a r r y Emrick of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r showing me E a g l e Ridge, and the t r i a l s s e c t i o n s near l o c o , from a t r a i l bike r i d e r ' s  perspective.  CHAPTER ONE  OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM  The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to s e t out a  methodology, based on a 'planning under u n c e r t a i n t y ' model, for  d e a l i n g with the problem o f t r a i l b i k e s f o r outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n i n urban areas. of the Greater of B r i t i s h  S p e c i f i c a l l y i t examines the case  Vancouver Area, and the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  Columbia. I t has been observed t h a t the demand f o r motorized  r e c r e a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g i n North America as a r e s u l t o f more d i s c r e t i o n a r y time and income, the need to escape from the pressures 1971,  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , and i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n  (Stupay,  p. 15)• As a c o r o l l a r y to the l a t t e r , there has been  a decrease i n a v a i l a b l e l a n d on which to r e c r e a t e , and an i n c r e a s e i n l a n d use c o n f l i c t s .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n has been met  by the i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n land use, and a trend towards zoning  o f land f o r s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l  a c t i v i t i e s such as power b o a t i n g ,  snowmobiling, and t r a i l  biking. Good data on trends and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a i l do not e x i s t i n Canada, but Gardiner  biking  (1975, p. 1) t r a c e s the  o r i g i n o f the ' o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e ' phenomenum i n the U.S.A. to  2  the mid-50's when the s c a l e of motorcycle  sales figures  began to i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  20,000 motorcycles  were s o l d , and by I960 t h i s had  In 1955  i n c r e a s e d to 60,000.  Stupay  (1971» p. 15-16) estimates t h a t 125,000 motorcycles were s o l d on the average i n 1960-62, i n the USA, to  730,000 i n 1970.  of  1,700,000 by 1980.  !  Gardiner p r e d i c t s an annual  sales figure  Stupay*s e s t i m a t i o n i s lower;  u n i t s , w i t h r e g i s t r a t i o n r i s i n g from 2.7 5 m i l l i o n i n 1980.  and t h i s :;£ose  850,000  m i l l i o n i n 1970  to  N e i t h e r authors d e f i n e what i s i n c l u d e d  i n t h i s i n s t a n c e by the term 'motorcycle'.  'Trail  bike* f o r  the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , i s a general term used to d e s c r i b e motorcycles almost  r i d d e n o f f the p u b l i c highway.  a l l motorcycles  have a t one  'ORRV i s a term f r e q u e n t l y found with t r a i l b i k e s .  By t h i s  definition,  time been 'a t r a i l i n the l i t e r a t u r e  bike'. concerned  I t stands f o r 'Off Road R e c r e a t i o n a l  V e h i c l e ' and i s a b l a n k e t term f o r a v a r i e t y of v e h i c l e s used off  the p u b l i c highway i n c l u d i n g snowmobiles, dune  buggies,  four wheel d r i v e s , e t c . i n a d d i t i o n to t r a i l b i k e s .  Only  t r a i l b i k e s are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s although i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t , i f snow c o n d i t i o n s permit, a t r a i l  bike  use area c o u l d a l s o be used by snowmobiles i n w i n t e r . T r a i l b i k e s are r i d d e n i n competition on but unpaved courses such as t r i a l s  designated  s e c t i o n s or motocoss  t r a c k s , or r i d d e n f o r general r e c r e a t i o n purposes a l o n g  trails  3 such a s l o g g i n g r o a d s , o r i n g r a v e l p i t s and l a n d f i l l  sites.  T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f w e i g h t s , s i z e s a n d makes o f b i k e s . For  general  purposes, these include  road bike, the t r a i l 'woods b i k e ' ; year olds.  the dual purpose  on/off  b i k e , a l s o known a s a ' d i r t b i k e ' o r  and t h e m i n i - b i k e  Competition bikes  g e n e r a l l y r i d d e n b y u n d e r 15  include  the slower,  quieter  t r i a l s b i k e , and t h e f a s t e r , n o i s i e r r a c i n g b i k e .  A more  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f each b i k e  c a n be f o u n d i n G a r d i n e r  (1975, P. 15-20). There a r e t h r e e by  trail  major groups o f problems generated  b i k i n g t h a t have been cause f o r c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c ,  and  t o p u b l i c a g e n c i e s who have t o d e c i d e on l a n d a l l o c a t i o n  and  use.  These a r e :  1. S o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t r e s p a s s ; use  particularly with  disturbance, from t r a i l  particularly  bikes;  over a c c i d e n t  other,  c o n f l i c t over  land  non-mechanized r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ;  t o r e s i d e n t s by t h e n o i s e  emitted  and s a f e t y p r o b l e m s such as l a c k o f c o n t r o l  prevention  and f i r e  hazard.  2. E c o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e p h y s i c a l i m p a c t u p o n the r i d i n g s u r f a c e in  contact;  and v e g e t a t i o n  with which t r a i l  bikes  come  t h e i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p r e s e n c e h a s on w i l d l i f e  b e h a v i o u r and s u r v i v a l ;  and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s i l t a t i o n o f  a d j a c e n t w a t e r b o d i e s caused by t r a i l  bike  induced  erosion.  4  3. L e g a l a n d e n f o r c e m e n t p p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y t h e e x t e n sive nature  of t r a i l  of p o l i c i n g .  b i k i n g a c t i v i t y and thus t h e d i f f i c u l t y  Issues include safety requirements,  regulation, vehicle registration, of u t i l i z a t i o n . The aggravated  traffic  codes and  standards  (Thompson, 1973, p . 15)'  first  group o f problems a r e o b v i o u s l y  i n more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d The  noise  areas.  major arguments p r e s e n t e d  i n support  of t r a i l  b i k i n g i s t h a t i t i s a l e g i t i m a t e form o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as s t a t e d i n a q u o t a t i o n from K i n g " T r a i l b i k i n g ... i in the t r a d i t i o n a l packing, horseback mountain c l i m b i n g , boating."  (1972; p. 11-12):  s a s much a r e c r e a t i o n senses as h i k i n g , back r i d i n g , canoeing, h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and  "The c o n s t a n t n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l l i n g and b a l a n c i n g t h e m a c h i n e a s i t moves o v e r v a r y i n g t e r r a i n means t h a t t r a i l r i d i n g i n v o l v e s t h e whole body l i k e s k i i n g o r r o c k c l i m b i n g , and t h a t i t i s a very intense p h y s i c a l experience. No c o n s c i o u s ' s t e e r i n g * i s done a s t h e r i d e r moves a l o n g t h e t r a i l ; instead he ' r e a d s * t h e t e r r a i n a h e a d , p i c k i n g h i s r o u t e as t h e w h i t e water c a n o e i s t does and g u i d i n g t h e b i k e a l o n g t h e chosen p a t h by u s i n g i t as an e x t e n s i o n o f h i s body, c o n s t a n t l y moving t o s h i f t h i s w e i g h t a s he accommodates t h e m o t o r c y c l e to the t e r r a i n " (David Sanderson, as q u o t e d b y K i n g 1972). "... ( t r a i l b i k i n g ) ... i s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l and m e a n i n g f u l sense: i t r e f r e s h e s and r e s t o r e s body and m i n d . "  5 T r a i l b i k e r s t h e r e f o r e c l a i m t h a t they have as much r i g h t to use p i i b l i c  l a n d , as any  should  other  recreationists. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , there have been three major p o l i c y responses  to the t r a i l b i k e problem i n urban areas:  1. To do  nothing.  2. To p r o h i b i t t h e i r use completely  or i n c e r t a i n  3. To make e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r them i n c e r t a i n use areas, or along s p e c i f i e d  areas special  trails.  Doing n o t h i n g about t r a i l b i k e s has not made them go away.  A c c o r d i n g to the f o r e c a s t s quoted by Gardiner and  t h e i r numbers are s u b s t a n t i a l and USA. ing,  Stupay,  i n c r e a s i n g at l e a s t i n the  A v a i l a b l e land f o r t h e i r , and any other use i s d i m i n i s h people  are b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by them, environmental  has r e s u l t e d from t h e i r use and the problem w i l l not  damage disappear  u n l e s s there i s a very n e g a t i v e s h i f t i n demand. P r o h i b i t i n g the use of t r a i l b i k e s i n v o l v e s implementation mobile  of e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s .  nature  However, due  to the very  o f t r a i l b i k e s , which permits them to cover a  l a r g e geographic  area, g r e a t e r manpower and m o b i l i t y to p o l i c e  these r e g u l a t i o n s i s r e q u i r e d than i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to most r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s . larly difficult  The  s i t u a t i o n i s made p a r t i c u -  by the f a c t t h a t the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n  6  is  a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n many a r e a s .  banning t r a i l and  I n an u r b a n  area,  b i k e s i n one c o m m u n i t y o n l y i n c r e a s e s t h e i r u s e ,  thus the problems, i n another  community.  Agencies concerned w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n facilities,  commonly s u p p l y  t o expressed  demand.  Partially  f o l l o w i n g t h i s t r e n d and p a r t i a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e l a c k of success  of the f i r s t  have b e e n d e s i g n a t e d distance t r a i l  two p o l i c i e s ,  f o r use o f t r a i l  s p e c i a l a r e a s and bikes.  Creating a long  system f o r t r a i l b i k e s i m p l i e s extensive  a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l and w i l d e r n e s s facility  trails  i s outside  areas.  the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s .  s p e c i a l use area f o r t r a i l  Such a  Creating a  b i k e s i s seen as a l o g i c a l  of the p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g g o l f courses downhill s k i areas f o r downhill s k i e r s .  land  extension  for golfers, (Gardiner  and  1957  P«  12)  I n t h e o r y , a s p e c i a l use a r e a meets t h e needs o f t r a i l b i k e r s , and  will  t h u s a t t r a c t them away f r o m t h e n o n - d e s i g n a t e d , and  o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e , a r e a s t h a t they have p r e v i o u s l y used. Inappropriate  i n t h i s context  t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g : use  p r i v a t e land f o r which permission  has h o t been o b t a i n e d ,  trail  i s d e f i n e d a s a n y one o r c o m b i n a -  land designated  b i k i n g , environmentally  fragile  f o r use o t h e r  l a n d , and l a n d  to than  suffic-  i e n t l y close to r e s i d e n t i a l areas that r e s i d e n t s are disturbed by n o i s e .  If trail  b i k i n g c a n be c o n t a i n e d  i n s u c h a way,  7 r e g u l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those concerned with user s a f e t y , are e a s i e r to e n f o r c e .  I f the use area i s s e l e c t e d away from  r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , the n o i s e problem may ted.  be reduced or e l i m i n a -  I f the use area i s s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of i t s  'appropriate* negative  landscape f e a t u r e s ( t o be d e f i n e d  environmental aspedts may Bury et a l . (1976  be  later)  reduced.  p. 9) d e s c r i b e the US  Federal  p o s i t i o n on t r a i l b i k e s and a l l other ORRV'st "The major g u i d i n g f e d e r a l response to ORV problems has been P r e s i d e n t i a l Execut i v e Order 11644 which r e q u i r e s f e d e r a l agencies to adopt r u l e s r e g u l a t i n g ORV's on p u b l i c l a n d s . The Order a l s o r e q u i r e s these agencies to adopt processes f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n of ORV use areas and i n c l u d e s c r i t e r i a to be used i n the d e s i g n a t i o n process. A l l r e l e v a n t f e d e r a l agencies have adopted r e g u l a t i o n s ... Specific ORV management plans and r e g u l a t i o n s have been developed f o r N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s and many other s p e c i f i c resource management a r e a s . " A s p e c i f i c U.S. 1012  example of a s p e c i a l use a r e a i s a  h e c t a r e t r a c t of l a n d i n the Turkey Creek area of Land  Between the Lakes, which the Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y designated  i n 1972  f o r o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e use under the  v i s i o n of Land Between the Lakes s t a f f . of t r a i l s  I t provides  r e c e i v i n g v a r y i n g degrees of use.  super58  km.  Land Between  8  the Lakes i s a 68,800 hectare p e n n i n s u l a which i s b e i n g developed  by the Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y as a " n a t i o n a l demonstration i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and environmental education. Camping, f i s h i n g , hunting, b o a t i n g , h i k i n g , p i c n i c i n g and e n j o y i n g the outdoors are among the major recreational activities." (Land Between the Lakes Map  A c c o r d i n g to a US Department of the I n t e r i o r bulletin  (USDI, 1974,  p. 7) s t u d i e s conducted  and  Guide)  technical at t h i s  special  use area, i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s d e s i g n a t i o n and a l l a s p e c t s o f ORRV use were a success, and the r i d e r s were " s a t i s f i e d  with  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d to them". In Canada there i s no p o l i c y on ORRVs comparable to the US F e d e r a l p o l i c y . cerned w i t h snowmobiles.  P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y has been mainly A summary o f A l l T e r r a i n V e h i c l e  L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i n 1973 p. 21).  con-  can be found i n S e l l e s  As f a r as t r a i l b i k e s are concerned,  the  (1973,  initiative  has been l a r g e l y l e f t up to l o c a l government or p r i v a t e e n t e r prise.  An example of each are as f o l l o w s . A 22 hectare area w i t h i n C e n t e n n i a l Park  h e c t a r e s ) , two m i l e s from the Toronto  International Airport,  i n the Borough of E t o b i c o k e , O n t a r i o was Since t h i s area was  fenced i t has  (100  established i n  " g r e a t l y reduced,  1976.  i f not  9  e l i m i n a t e d the b i k e r i d i n g i n the remainder o f the park" (Jane L e a t , Park Planner, Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Dept., Borough of E t o b i c o k e , p e r s o n a l communication, February park i s managed by the Parks Superintendent,  1977)•  The  C e n t e n n i a l Park.  I t i s separated from the r e s t o f the park by Hydro E l e c t r i c Company l a n d s , and n o i s e i s b u f f e r e d by an a r t i f i c i a l  ski h i l l .  C e n t e n n i a l Park c o n t a i n s i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g soccer and f o o t b a l l f i e l d s ,  stadium,  tennis courts,  a down:-hill s k i a r e a on a l a n d f i l l a r e a e t c . An 18 hectare area i n the middle  o f an i n d u s t r i a l  area i n south e a s t e r n C a l g a r y , earmarked f o r f u t u r e development as a freeway and c l o v e r l e a f , has been l e a s e d to the C a l g a r y Motorcycle  Club from the C i t y o f Calgary s i n c e 1969.  P r i o r to  t h i s , "every a v a i l a b l e p i e c e c o f waste land was b e i n g used by t r a i l bikers".  Since the C i t y o f C a l g a r y has l e a s e d the l a n d  to the C a l g a r y Motorcycle Club "The complaints has dropped to almost day by day".  from c i t i z e n s  n i l " and the park i s " g e t t i n g more use  (Ron M a l l e t t , P r e s i d e n t , A l b e r t a Region, Canadian  Motorcycle A s s o c i a t i o n , p e r s o n a l communication, February  1977)•  There may a l s o be p r o v i s i o n by the c i t i e s o f Edmonton and Regina, were c o n t a c t e d .  but i n f o r m a t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e when they The C i t y o f K i t c h e n e r , O n t a r i o has a by-law  r e s t r i c t i n g o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s to designated areas which w i l l  10 n o t be s e t up b y t h e C i t y , b u t l e f t  to private  No o t h e r C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e s i n t r a i l  enterprise.  b i k e s p e c i a l use  a r e a s a r e known t o t h e a u t h o r , a l t h o u g h C o l i n G a r d i n e r in  a n M.Sc. t h e s i s f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n h a s o u t -  l i n e d a p r o p o s a l f o r one i n Red D e e r H i l l , It  Manitoba.  would appear from the examples o f Land Between  the L a k e s , E t o b i c o k e and C a l g a r y t h a t d e s i g n a t i n g a use  area f o r t r a i l  ful  s o l u t i o n to the t r a i l  a s i m i l a r approach  b i k i n g problem  areas.  of consider-  i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  these examples as evidence  b i k i n g problem  would  probably  of the s u i t a b i l i t y  v i d i n g a s p e c i a l use a r e a f o r t r a i l the t r a i l  i n these  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g procedure accept  special  b i k i n g h a s b e e n a n a c c e p t a b l e and s u c c e s s -  Thus t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s s u g g e s t ing  (1975)  of pro-  b i k e s as a s o l u t i o n t o  i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  Based  on p r e s e n t a n d p r o j e c t e d demand, a s i t e w o u l d be c h o s e n u s i n g g u i d e l i n e s s e t o u t b y t h e M o t o r c y c l e I n d u s t r y C o u n c i l (1973) or and  Gardiner  (1975»  P- 88) a n d t h e a r e a w o u l d be  d e s i g n a t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  correct.  developed  t h a t t h e s e demand d a t a w e r e  Minimum a t t e n t i o n w o u l d be p a i d t o v a r i a t i o n s  predicted behaviour  from  u n l e s s t h e s i t e was v e r y u n d e r u s e d , a n d  t h e r e w o u l d be no m o n i t o r i n g m e c h a n i s m s e m p l o y e d t o c h e c k the t r a i l  b i k e s i t e was s e r v i n g i t s p u r p o s e .  that  11  Since the experiences c i t e d are r e a l l y q u i t e l i m i t e d and c o n d i t i o n s vary so much from p l a c e to p l a c e t h e s i s advocates  a more f l e x i b l e approach.  this  The methodology  used i s based on a model o u t l i n e d by Wedgwood-Oppenheim (1972) which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  2.  The approach taken i s  an adaptive one i n which the i d e n t i f i e d problem i s e x p l o r e d more f u l l y to i d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a and  f o r an acceptable  to r e v e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s .  solution  The most f e a s i b l e  t i o n or s o l u t i o n s are then t e s t e d on an experimental  solu-  basis  which employs m o n i t o r i n g mechanisms to check that the p l a n i s b e i n g c a r r i e d out c o r r e c t l y , and t h a t the s o l u t i o n i s a c h i e v i n g i t s objectives. T h i s t h e s i s r e c o g n i s e s that a s p e c i a l use a r e a i s a p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f t r a i l b i k e s i n the study a r e a .  However, i t a l s o r e c o g n i s e s t h a t there a r e areas  of u n c e r t a i n t y surrounding t h i s s o l u t i o n .  For example, the  a c t u a l demand, i n c l u d i n g l a t e n t demand, f o r such a f a c i l i t y and how t h i s demand w i l l area i s not known.  change on p r o v i s i o n o f a s p e c i a l use  There i s no b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n t h a t such  a f a c i l i t y w i l l be used over other, non-designated t h a t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i l l accept i t . there are some reasons  a r e a s , nor  On the c o n t r a r y ,  to q u e s t i o n whether such t r a n s f e r s o f  use would occur because the American Motorcycle A s s o c i a t i o n  12 ( 1 9 7 2 , p. 14)  takes the f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i o n on s p e c i a l  use  areas: "At b e s t they are f i n i t e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l and thus i n c a p a b l e of s e r v i n g as subs t i t u t e s f o r the u n b r i d l e d freedom t h a t the t r a i l r i d e r seeks to f i n d " . One  f u r t h e r , and  important  a r e a of u n c e r t a i n t y i s  the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e concerning the consequences o f d e s i g n a t i n g such an a r e a . has been done has been conducted  environmental  The r e s e a r c h t h a t  under d i f f e r e n t  biogeoclim-  a t i c c o n d i t i o n s than t h a t of the study area which l i m i t s t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of t h e i r f i n d i n g s .  Examples of these s t u d i e s  i n c l u d e work i n the C a l i f o r n i a d e s e r t (Snyder Stebbins 1 9 7 6 ,  Davidson and Fox 1 9 7 4 ,  the F l o r i d a E v e r g l a d e s  the  et a l .  1976,  and B e r r y 1 9 7 3 ) . and i n  (Schemnitz and Schortemeyer 1 9 7 2 ) .  In order to minimize t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , i t i s recommended t h a t a s p e c i a l use area be chosen and for  an experimental  w i l l be  designated  p e r i o d , d u r i n g which a m o n i t o r i n g program  conducted. The remaining  chapters of the t h e s i s are  thus  organized i n the f o l l o w i n g way.  Chapter  2 d e s c r i b e s a model  for  Chapter  3 e x p l o r e s the problem  of  p l a n n i n g under u n c e r t a i n t y .  t r a i l b i k i n g i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y more f u l l y ,  examines p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , and  s t a t e s the case f o r s e t t i n g  up a s p e c i a l use area f o r an experimental  period.  The  13 The procedure f o r the s e l e c t i o n and development  o f the  experimental area, and the m o n i t o r i n g program t h a t must be s e t up i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 4.  Chapter 5 d e s c r i b e s how  t h i s procedure can be a p p l i e d to a s p e c i f i c s i t e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ;  the case o f Eagle Ridge.  CHAPTER TWO  THE PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY MODEL INTRODUCTION The recognises  essence o f a p l a n n i n g  approach which  t h e f a c t o r o f u n c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t i t be f l e x i b l e  and a d a p t i v e .  Such an approach a c c e p t s  that planning  prob-  l e m s do n o t a r i s e i n , a n d c a n n o t be s o l v e d b y i s o l a t i o n the r e s t o f the world;  t h a t t h e r e a r e many c o n t r i b u t i n g  factors that are u n i d e n t i f i a b l e or unquantifiable; change i s i n e v i t a b l e . programs with  from  As a d a p t i v e  approach thus  and t h a t  favours  a n d p o l i c i e s w h i c h c a n meet c h a n g e - a n d c h a n g e  change. T h i s a p p r o a c h i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more  traditional  master p l a n approach which q u a n t i f i e s t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e , and either ignores incrementalism'  t h e u n c e r t a i n o r deals w i t h i t by ' d i s j o i n t e d where o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l  changes  i npolicy are  made t h u s i n t r o d u c i n g a s f e w new s o u r c e s o f u n c e r t a i n t y a s possible.  The d a n g e r w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i f t h e  environment changes, t h e impact o f e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s changes.  (Wedgwood-Oppenheim F., 1972, p . 5 8 ) . An a d a p t i v e  ially  also  planning  c y c l i c a l methodology.  approach f o l l o w s an e s s e n t -  The m o d e l u s e d i n t h i s  thesis  15  covers two c y c l e s , r e f e r r e d to by Wedgwood-Oppenheim (1972) as  'the plan»making cycle'., and the 'plan-implementing c y c l e ' .  W i t h i n each o f these two c y c l e s there are s e v e r a l  phases  through which one must p r o g r e s s . THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE Phase. 1; J i P r o b l e m a l d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  W i t h i n the plan-making  c y c l e , the problem  must f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d , c o n s t r a i n e d  current  T h i s i s d e a l t w i t h i n Chapter 3-  knowledge.  by  Input  from managers, d e c i s i o n makers, experts and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s e s s e n t i a l even a t t h i s e a r l y stage. Phase 2;  Problem E x p l o r a t i o n .  phase o f problem e x p l o r a t i o n  Phase 1 i n i t i a t e s a second  whose purpose i s t o deepen the  understanding o f the important i s s u e s problem.  contained i n the  The important i s s u e s i n t h i s instance a r e :  1. What i s known about the demand f o r a t r a i l  biking  facility? 2. What has been done to meet t h i s demand? Phase 3-  Presenting  Possible  Solutions.  With g r e a t e r  under-  s t a n d i n g o f the problem b e i n g d e a l t w i t h , the t h i r d phase can be  entered.  The purpose o f t h i s phase i s to f i n d  to the problem.  Chapter 1 i d e n t i f i e d three  solutions  possible  s o l u t i o n s to the t r a i l b i k i n g problem: 1. To do n o t h i n g . 2. To p r o h i b i t t h e i r use completely or i n c e r t a i n a r e a s .  16  3-  To make e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r them i n c e r t a i n  use a r e a s , or a l o n g s p e c i f i e d solutions w i l l criteria In  trails.  p r o b a b l y be g o v e r n e d  The  special  choice of possible  by a s e t o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d  such as c o s t , urgency, c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y ,  t h i s t h e s i s , a combination of the l a s t  two  and  impact.  possible  s o l u t i o n s i s s e l e c t e d as p r o b a b l y o f f e r i n g the p r o s p e c t o f b e i n g t h e most P h a s e 4:  feasible.  Exposure  of Uncertainty.  However t h e r e  will  p r o b a b l y n e v e r be a r i g h t o r w r o n g s o l u t i o n , t h e r e a s o n b e i n g the  problem  of uncertainty.  U n c e r t a i n t y has been d e s c r i b e d  a s " t h e gap b e t w e e n what i s known and what n e e d s t o be to  make t h e c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s "  ( M a c k , 1972,  p. 1 ) .  known  Uncertain-  t i e s i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3 a r e : 1. W i l l of  the t r a i l  b i k e p a r k be u s e d by t h e t r a i l  bikers  the study area?  2. W i l l  the t r a i l  b i k e p a r k be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l  public? 3- What w i l l  be  the environmental consequences of p r o v i d i n g  such a park? E x p l o r a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y may or  r e v e a l more  change the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r o b l e m  plan-making  cycle continues;  problems,  and so  the  w i t h each round a t t e m p t i n g t o  reduce u n c e r t a i n t y f u r t h e r u n t i l  a p o i n t i s r e a c h e d where the  17 a d v a n t a g e o f e x t e n d i n g a n a l y s i s i s o u t w e i g h e d by o f commitment and This  advantages  action.  leads  i n t o the  f o u r phase  'plan-implementing  cycle'. THE  PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE  P h a s e 1:  Action.  a c t i o n on an  The  experimental  specified  objectives.  P h a s e 2:  Monitoring.  a)  p l a n as d e v i s e d  b a s i s under the  Monitoring  I t must c h e c k t h a t t h e ed  and  t h a t the  should  be  put  guidance  must p e r f o r m two  p l a n has  been c a r r i e d out  o b j e c t i v e s of the  into  of  functions: as  a c t i o n phase are  intendbeing  met. b)  I t must c o n t r i b u t e the  areas previously  P h a s e 3s  Analysis.  phase s h o u l d 1)  How  towards reducing  be  A n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s from the  concerned  the  3) D o e s t h e  p l a n h a v e t o be  b a s e d on t h e if  monitoring  mechanisms have been.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  Evaluation.  in  with:  2) What a r e  mine i f the  uncertainty  identified.  e f f e c t i v e the m o n i t o r i n g  P h a s e 4:  the  results?  further modified?  .Evaluation  experiment should  o f the  continue  analysis w i l l  with  deter-  modifications  f i r s t round of the plan-implementing c y c l e ,  a r e t u r n to the  or  p l a n - m a k i n g c y c l e i s r e q u i r e d as a r e s u l t  18  of unexpected The  events. p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n the  plan-implementing  c y c l e are discussed i n Chapter  and  Chapter 5 gives  illustration  put  i n t o p r a c t i s e i n the  o f how  they  c o u l d be  an  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . T h i s model f o r p l a n n i n g under u n c e r t a i n t y can represented  diagramatically;  as  shown i n F i g u r e  1.  be  Figure 1 :  A MODEL FOR PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY  THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE  THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE  CHAPTER THREE THE PLAN MAKING CYCLE PHASE L i  PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION  BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY AREA The  geographical  boundaries o f the Lower F r a s e r  V a l l e y Study Area a r e d e f i n e d by t h a t a r e a l y i n g south o f L i o n s Bay t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l border, and east from the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands and Vancouver C i t y t o Hope.  This  c o n s t i t u t e s a l a n d a r e a o f approximately 440,300 h e c t a r e s . Administrative Divisions The  study area i n c l u d e s the Greater  Vancouver  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y , the DewdneyA l l o u e t t e and the F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l the 1.2 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n  Districts.  i s concentrated  Most o f  i n the Greater  Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t which has seventeen member communities.  I n a d d i t i o n t o these,  f o u r other  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the GVRD parks f u n c t i o n .  communities,  These a r e the C i t y  o f Langley, Township o f Langley and the D i s t r i c t which a r e a l l p a r t o f the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y  o f Matsqui Regional  D i s t r i c t and the D i s t r i c t o f Maple Ridge which i s p a r t o f the Dewdney-Allouette Regional  District.  The boundaries o f  the GVRD Parks f u n c t i o n a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2.  igure2: THE BOUNDARIES OF THE Q.V.R.D. PARKS FUNCTION  Sourcet  Siemens, E d i t o r .  1966, p. 208.  22 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIL BIKES T r a i l b i k i n g as an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y has been pursued  i n the study a r e a f o r approximately  O r i g i n a l l y , o f t e n w i t h 'home converted* i n d i v i d u a l s had easy access t o almost t r a i l bike r i d i n g .  10-15  years.  s t r e e t b i k e s , a few  unlimited recreational  Now, p o p u l a t i o n growth and the spread o f  u r b a n i z a t i o n has swallowed up many o f these o l d haunts.  Trail  b i k e r s a r e f a c i n g the c h o i c e o f i l l e g a l use o f lands near t h e i r home, v e r s u s a l o n g d r i v e up the V a l l e y t o l e s s  pressured  areas. The problems thus generated  are the same as anywhere  e l s e , w i t h n o i s e complaints and r e c r e a t i o n a l use c o n f l i c t the most f r e q u e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d  being  grievances.  Noise As shown i n an Inventory o f t r a i l b i k e use areas i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (see Appendix I I ) ,  aoise disturbance  occurs mainly t o r e s i d e n t s such as those near I n v e r g a r r y Park, Surrey;  near the Canada Games P o o l , New Westminster;  and  p a r t s o f E l e c t o r a l Area B. Noise i s one o f the most severe n e g a t i v e of  t r a i l b i k e s s i n c e the frequency,  effects  d i s t r i b u t i o n l e v e l and  d u r a t i o n o f n o i s e can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the h e a l t h o f t r a i l b i k e o p e r a t o r s , t h e i r s p e c t a t o r s , and w i l d l i f e .  (Bury  23  et  a l 1 9 7 6 , p. 58 and  "ORV  Monitor"  Feb./March 1 9 7 5 ) .  The  q u e s t i o n o f damage to h e a r i n g from t r a i l b i k e s , e i t h e r to the t r a i l b i k e r or s p e c t a t o r i s not d e a l t with f u r t h e r i n this thesis.  However, i t i s an i s s u e t h a t should be examin-  ed, and the r e s u l t s o f such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be publ i c i z e d and  taken i n t o account when l e g i s l a t i n g a g a i n s t  t r a i l bike noise Two  emmission.  a s p e c t s must be c o n s i d e r e d when d i s c u s s i n g  t r a i l bike noise. 1. The  amount o f n o i s e emmitted by the t r a i l b i k e measured  i n d e c i b e l s , (db) 2. The / v a n i s h i n g d i s t a n c e * or d i s t a n c e a t which the n o i s e generated  by the t r a i l b i k e becomes i n a u d i b l e above the  ambient n o i s e .  V a n i s h i n g d i s t a n c e v a r i e s with topography,  v e g e t a t i o n , and atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s . Bury e t a l ( 1 9 7 5 p. 245-246 and 1976 p. summarize the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h e r s on motorcycle The v a r i a t i o n i n n o i s e generated  61-63) noise.  by t r i a l b i k e s i s g r e a t ;  one r e s e a r c h e r found a n o i s e i n t e n s i t y range o f 74db - 9 3 measured a t 15m 425-1300m.  on the  *A*  s c a l e , and a v a n i s h i n g d i s t a n c e o f  O p e r a t i o n o f two  or more t r a i l b i k e s  i n c r e a s e s t o t a l n o i s e generated n o i s e l e v e l a t 15m  db,  only s l i g h t l y .  together The  average  i n c r e a s e d from 64 db to 65.5 db i n one  24  experiment when two motor c y c l e s operated and f i n a l l y The  simultaneously,  t o 66db when t h r e e motorcycles  technology  operated  together.  e x i s t s t o make t r a i l b i k e s l e s s n o i s y , a l -  though only a t the expense o f speed.  However, the n o i s e  problem cannot be a l l e v i a t e d s o l e l y by imposing  standards on  the manufacturers;  many t r a i l b i k e owners remove m u f f l e r s  to maximize speed.  Thus e f f e c t i v e i m p o s i t i o n o f n o i s e  regulation i s required. A n t i - n o i s e l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i s p o s s i b l e a t a l l three l e v e l s o f government.  However,  the 1974 SPEC  Handbook on n o i s e a t t a c k s a l l three l e v e l s o f government f o r not making e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e i r powers. (S.P.E.C. 1 9 7 4 , p.  12-13). M o t o r c y c l e s manufactured f o r use on the road must  comply w i t h a F e d e r a l n o i s e r e g u l a t i o n . t h i s r e g u l a t i o n , a motorcycle  F o r the purpose o f  i s c l a s s e d as a l i g h t  v e h i c l e and must emit l e s s than 8 6 d b ( A ) . f a c t u r e d s t r i c t l y f o r off-highway  duty  M o t o r c y c l e s manu-  c o m p e t i t i o n purposes are  exempt from the F e d e r a l n o i s e c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l Motor V e h i c l e A c t , motorcycles  l i c e n s e d and oper-  a t e d on B.C. highways must comply w i t h P r o v i n c i a l as l a i d down i n D i v i s i o n 2 5 . 0 1 , schedule  Under the  standards  1 1 , standard 2 7 .  Noise emmission s h a l l n o t exceed 91 db(A).  Again, t r a i l  not l i c e n s e d f o r highway use a r e not governed by these  bikes  25 regulations. Land Use  Conflict &s shown i n an i n v e n t o r y o f t r a i l b i k e use areas  i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (see Appendix I I ) , l a n d use flicts  con-  occur mainly between t r a i l b i k e r s and h i k e r s or horse  r i d e r s i n areas such as Poco T r a i l , P o r t Coquitlam; s i t y Endowment Lands?  Univer-  Burnaby Lake T r a i l s , Burnaby?  Sea  and Iona Dykes, Richmond. S a f e t y Problems S a f e t y problems are f a i r l y s e r i o u s as, a t p r e s e n t , there i s no l e g i s l a t i o n t o enforce the use o f s a f e t y spark a r r e s t o r s , r i d e r t r a i n i n g programs e t c . C o u n c i l , no date;  ORC  1976(b) p. 4-5;  helmets,  (B.C. S a f e t y  Powers, 1 9 7 4 ;  p. 2)  E c o l o g i c a l Problems T e r r a i n damage by t r a i l b i k e s has been observed i n p a r t s o f Burnaby (Burnaby Horseman's A s s o c i a t i o n , p e r s o n a l communication,  August  1 9 7 6 ) , Surrey's ;Invergarry Park  Appendix I I I ) , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands.  (see  However, p e r s o n a l  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a r e a s used by t r a i l b i k e s near the thermal p l a n t a t l o c o , E l e c t o r a l Area B and on Eagle Ridge  indicated  t h a t damage, a t l e a s t by t r i a l s b i k e s i s no g r e a t e r than a moderately used h i k i n g t r a i l .  The  t r i a l s s e c t i o n s observed  had been used r e c e n t l y , although the i n t e n s i t y o f use, or f o r  26  how  l o n g they had been used was  had not been used f o r one  not known.  Sections that  to two y e a r s a c c o r d i n g to L a r r y  Emrick, Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s A s s o c i a t i o n , had remarkably w e l l .  T h i s was  area, a f t e r a wet  summer and  mented evidence  recovered  i n a mixed deciduous woodland a dry w i n t e r .  There i s no  docu-  of t r a i l bikes adversely a f f e c t i n g w i l d l i f e  behaviour or s u r v i v a l , w i t h i n the study area.  However, a  r e c e n t l e t t e r to the E d i t o r i n the Vancouver Sun and Guppy, Vancouver Sun,  March 3 0 t h 1977)  (Ballantyne  i n d i c a t e d that  waterfowl and r e p t o r s are b e i n g d i s t u r b e d a t Iona. L i t t l e o f s c i e n t i f i c value has been documented on the p e r n i c i o u s e f f e c t s o f t r a i l b i k e s beyond i d e n t i f y i n g key impacts;  s o i l compaction, s o i l e r o s i o n and  destruction.  These processes  o f use.  their  vegetation  occur r e g a r d l e s s of the  intensity  I t i s not known what i s the t h r e s h o l d o f use beyond  which even the most r e s i l i e n t v e g e t a t i o n i s damaged beyond r e c o v e r y by t r a i l b i k e s .  Obviously,  c l i m a t e , type o f v e g e t a t i o n and p l u s r i d e r , and ground.  t h i s depends upon the  s o i l , the weight o f machine  the s u r f a c e a r e a o f t i r e i n t e r f a c i n g with  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f environmental e f f e c t s o f t r a i l  should i n c l u d e not only these •system impacts'  'point impacts'  bikes  but a l s o the  such as s i l t a t i o n o f a nearby stream as a  r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d r u n - o f f caused by compaction and Using these  the  erosion.  f i n d i n g s , a t a b l e o f c r i t e r i a to be used i n r a t i n g .  27 landscape  u n i t s f o r t r a i l b i k e use a r e a c a p a b i l i t y i s drawn  up i n Appendix IV. Management techniques should  recognize  t h a t t r a i l b i k e s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t t h e i r environment, and they thus should be concerned  w i t h promoting maximum i n -  f i l t r a t i o n r a t e so as to minimize r u n - o f f , or i f r u n - o f f cannot be avoided, a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g i t s flow, and thereby the tendency f o r e r o s i o n , should be employed. Gardiner  (1975 P- 51-57) d e a l s w i t h t h i s aspect i n d e t a i l .  L e g a l and Enforcement Problems L e g a l and enforcement problems are acute i n the study a r e a and r e q u i r e review.  T h i s aspect was d i s c u s s e d i n  d e t a i l a t 'An A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e Meeting*  hosted by the Out-  door R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l o f B.C. on October 29th, 1976.  The  major recommendation ( c o n c e r n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n ) from t h i s meeting was t h a t the use o f a l l b u s i n e s s and r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f highway v e h i c l e s be r e g u l a t e d f o r environmental  and s a f e t y  means under an ammendment t o the P r o v i n c i a l A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e s A c t which c u r r e n t l y only a p p l i e s to snowmobiles.  The  A c t should r e g u l a t e o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e use on a l l l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e t h a t i s n o t a p u b l i c highway.  Registration of a l l  u n l i c e n s e d o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s should be manditory and admini s t e r e d through  the M i n i s t r y o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n  i n a manner s i m i l a r t o h u n t i n g  licenses.  28  T h i s meeting proposed t h a t t r a i l and use areas s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n urban and r u r a l areas, and t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government should p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l and planning assistance to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , regional d i s t r i c t s and c l u b s t o encourage t h i s . Within t h i s study area, c o m p e t i t i o n t r a i l r i d i n g , both observed  trials  and motocross, a r e c a t e r e d t o ,  but t h e r e i s a l a c k of areas simply t o p r a c t i c e Although  bike  riding.  t h e r e a r e c o m p e t i t i o n o r i e n t e d c l u b s , the  m a j o r i t y o f t r a i l b i k e s a r e not organized and thus have not s u f f i c i e n t impetus as a u s e r group t o o b t a i n f a c i l i t i e s by t h e i r own endeavours.  L o c a l , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  govern-  ments a r e aware o f the problem, but as y e t l i t t l e a c t i o n towards d e a l i n g with i t has been taken. PHASE 2i  PROBLEM EXPLORATION The problem e x p l o r a t i o n phase i s concerned  with:  A. What i s known about the demand f o r t r a i l b i k e f a c i l i t i e s i n the study area? B. What has been done towards meeting t h i s demand? A. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE DEMAND FOR TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES IN THE STUDY AREA? The demand f o r any r e c r e a t i o n i s hard t o estimate,  29 and  even harder t o p r e d i c t because o f l a t e n t demand.  Latent  demand r e f e r s t o t h a t group o f the p o p u l a t i o n who may wish to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y b u t do not f o r reasons  such as p e r s o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s  l a c k o f p u b l i c i t y about the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . t h a t do p a r t i c i p a t e , r e p r e s e n t expressed are s e v e r a l dimensions.  or  Those  demand o f which there  F o r example, expressed  demand can be  measured i n terms o f the number o f people i n a g i v e n r e s i d e n tial it  zone p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , or  can be expressed  l o c a t i o n or f a c i l i t y  as the number o f people u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r to recreate.  Two approaches were used t o examine expressed F i r s t l y , an attempt was made t o estimate  demand.  the number o f t r a i l  b i k e s c u r r e n t l y i n the study a r e a through a n a l y s i s o f s a l e s f i g u r e s and MVLB motor c y c l e r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s .  Secondly,  an i n v e n t o r y o f areas c u r r e n t l y i n use by t r a i l b i k e s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y was compiled.  Information was o b t a i n e d  from the GVRD (Powers, 1974), RCMP, and l o c a l p o l i c e ,  Municip-  a l Departments o f P l a n n i n g , and Park and R e c r e a t i o n , s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t r a i l b i k e r s and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . 1. Numbers o f t r a i l b i k e s . Many problems were encountered  i n securing accur-  ate d a t a on the mumbers o f t r a i l b i k e s s i n c e no one agency keeps a r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e data bank o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and  30  i t was i m p o s s i b l e j u s t to go a u t and count them. c i p l e sources were c o n s u l t e d ;  Two p r i n -  the P r o v i n c i a l Motor V e h i c l e  L i c e n s i n g Branch i n V i c t o r i a , and r e t a i l s t o r e s and d i s t r i b u t o r s o f t r a i l b i k e s i n the study a r e a .  The data  thus  c o l l e c t e d , and the assumptions made i n u s i n g i t , a r e d i s cussed i n Appendix I .  The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained, as i n  p o i n t e d out i n d e t a i l i n the appendix, i s e x c e e d i n g l y and consequently  n o t as r e l i a b l e as one would wish.  sketchy Neverthe-  l e s s , i t does g i v e some f e e l f o r the dimensions o f the 'problem'. The b e s t e s t i m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o date i s t h a t there are between 17,500 and 22,500 t r a i l b i k e s i n the Lower F r a s e r Valley. Table I g i v e s a break down o f types o f t r a i l based on percentages entatives.  quoted by motor c y c l e i n d u s t r y r e p r e s -  The range o f 17*500-22,500  approximately  bikes  was averaged  out t o  20,000 t r a i l b i k e s . TABLE I  Numbers o f T r a i l B i k e s by B i k e Type Type o f T r a i l B i k e  Estd. % of t o t a l  # i n study  General r e c r e a t i o n bikes  55  11,000  Trial  20  4,000  Motocross  25  5»000  area  31  It  should be p o i n t e d out t h a t these e s t i m a t e s a r e  based on two assumptions.  Firstly,  t h a t the motorcycle  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e c o r r e c t i n t h e i r estimated  percentage  breakdown - which a r e probably n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s and may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y apply t o the study a r e a .  Secondly,  i t i s assumed  t h a t each o f the 20,GOG t r a i l b i k e s f a l l n e a t l y i n t o one c a t e gory which i s almost  c e r t a i n l y n o t the case;  t r a i l b i k e s a r e used f o r non c o m p e t i t i v e  probably most  or r e c r e a t i o n a l  trail  r i d i n g a t some stage. 2.  Inventory  o f C u r r e n t T r a i l Bike Use Areas  At t h i s time there a r e no designated  trail  bike  areas i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y f o r g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n r i d ing.  The o n l y use areas t h a t a r e o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a r e  the three c o m p e t i t i o n t r a c k s f o r motocross and one f o r t r i a l s . These a r e summarized i n Appendix I I . are r i d d e n , o f t e n i l l e g a l l y , where there i s ' s u i t a b l e *  almost  terrain.  Otherwise t r a i l  bikes  anywhere i n the study  area  From a t r a i l b i k e r s p e r s -  p e c t i v e , t h i s i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y g r a v e l p i t s , m u n i c i p a l dumps and  i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s w i t h i n the urban a r e a , but back a l l e y s  and p e d e s t r i a n and e q u e s t r i a n t r a i l s i n P o r t Coquitlam, Use  such as the PoCo  trail  and the Burnaby Lake t r a i l s i n Burnaby.  occurs e x t e n s i v e l y r e g a r d l e s s o f p r o x i m i t y t o r e s i d e n t i a l  32  areas, o r another ively policed.  r e c r e a t i o n a l use u n l e s s the a r e a i s e f f e c t -  Even those areas t h a t have been  officially  banned from mechanized v e h i c l e use a r e s t i l l i n use i f the t r a i l b i k e r s can g e t away w i t h i t .  Because t r a i l b i k e r s do  not have t o be r e g i s t e r e d o r l i c e n s e d there i s no means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e a reduced  chance o f r e c o u r s e  by the p o l i c e . However, the number o f areas w i t h i n the urban a r e a t h a t a b i k e r can use i s s t e a d i l y d i m i n i s h i n g w i t h development, official  p r o h i b i t i o n and complaints  from r e s i d e n t s and other  recreationists. An i n v e n t o r y o f 47 use areas which a l s o i n c l u d e d areas used by snowmobiles and 4 wheel d r i v e s i s presented i n Appendix I I .  T h i s summarizes i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from many  sources i n c l u d i n g m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g , and parks and r e c r e a t i o n departments;  RCMP;  local police;  cycle sales representatives etc.  GVRD (Powers, 1974-), motor I t i s by no means exhaustive  s i n c e , as has been i m p l i e d , almost anywhere considered a b l e t o the t r a i l b i k e r i s used.  suit-  However,,.it does g i v e some  guide t o the u b i q u i t o u s n e s s o f t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t . Hence, the p r i n c i p l e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s t h a t g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n r i d i n g i s the major form o f t r a i l  bike  r e c r e a t i o n i n the study a r e a , f o r which there a r e no d e s i g nated  areas.  33 3. User C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Use P a t t e r n s No s t u d i e s have been made i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y on what s o r t o f person;  i n terms o f age, sex, income  bracket, education l e v e l e t c . , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t r a i l  biking.  T h i s i s a major d e f i c i e n c y i n t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to place, t r a i l b i k i n g i n the spectrum o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  activities.  However, the i n d i c a t i o n i s that t r a i l b i k i n g i s a f a m i l y s p o r t (Vancouver Sun, May 17, 1976) i n v o l v i n g mostly males of  a l l ages (Tom Tyre, J u l y 1976, p e r s o n a l  communication).  These t r a i t s a r e a l s o found i n the USA, as r e v e a l e d by G a r d i n e r ' s (1975» V> 21JP23) review o f socio-economic chara c t e r i s t i c s conducted t h e r e . No f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the study a r e a r e g a r d i n g use p a t t e r n s and requirements o f t r a i l biking.  Thus r e f e r e n c e must a g a i n be made to the American  context as reviewed by G a r d i n e r (1975*'p. 23-24).  H i s major  c o n c l u s i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : a) The most common use day i s Sunday, then Saturday. b) The number o f hours spent r i d i n g i s r e l a t e d t o the s i z e of  the b i k e ;  riding i t .  the b i g g e r the b i k e , the more hours a r e spent The average number o f hours spent t r a i l b i k i n g a t  weekends 4.1 t o 5-1 hours per day. hours maximum.  On weekdays i t i s 1.8  34  c) Few b i k e s a r e r i d d e n t o the s p e c i a l use area;  most  r i d e r s t r a n s p o r t t h e i r b i k e by t r u c k . 5. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TOWARDS MEETING THIS DEMAND? The  question  o f who should p r o v i d e  the land and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a t r a i l b i k e use a r e a r e a l l y depends on what k i n d o f f a c i l i t y  i s deemed s u i t a b l e ;  nated a r e a i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n .  i f indeed  a desig-  The problem f a c i n g  any agency who assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t h a t o f p r o v i s i o n of s u i t a b l e land;  s u i t a b l e i n terms o f s i z e , n a t u r a l proper-  t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y s o i l , drainage and topography, and s u i t a b l e i n terms o f a compromise between p r o x i m i t y t o the t r a i l b i k i n g p o p u l a t i o n b u t a t a d i s t a n c e from any c u r r e n t o r proposed r e s i d e n t i a l development. 1.  The P r i v a t e The  Sector  U.S. Department o f the I n t e r i o r Task Force on  Off-Road V e h i c l e s »USDI 1 9 7 1 , p. 38) f e l t  that  "The f u t u r e o f the o f f road r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e w i l l become more and more dependent upon the p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r programs, use areas and f a c i l i t i e s . " Appendix II summarizes the c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i l b i k e and other ORRV f a c i l i t i e s by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n the Lower F r a s e r Valley.  These a r e almost a l l competition  adequately provide  o r i e n t e d and do n o t  f o r non-competitive r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  35  In  a b r i e f presented by Pete Matheson t o the  Lower Mainland Parks A d v i s o r y A s s o c i a t i o n (LMPAA) i n 1975 (Matheson 1975)* the t r a i l b i k e users requested two l e v e l s of  facilities: a) A t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . 'any a c c e s s i b l e a r e a near the concent r a t i o n o f populated areas, b u t with s u i t a b l e b u f f e r boundaries: i . e . Hydro R i g h t s o f Way, g r a v e l p i t , i n d u s t r i a l areas ... minimal p o l i c i n g '  The t r a i l b i k e users see o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g o f areas b e i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l B.C. Motorcycle  Feder-  a t i o n members, the l o c a l p o l i c e , and the Lower Mainland  Parks  Advisory A s s o c i a t i o n . b) A t the R e g i o n a l  level.  A r e g i o n a l park o f over 2000 h e c t a r e s , i n c l u d i n g p a r k i n g , c o m p e t i t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , roads and a v a r i e t y o f t r a i l s and t e r r a i n i s requested by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t r a i l b i k e u s e r s (Matheson 1975)•  He proposed  t h a t t h i s would be planned  and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the B.C. M o t o r c y c l e F e d e r a t i o n d i r e c t o r s , LMPAA, p o l i c e and c o u n c i l members, P o l i c i n g , s a f e t y and funding  o f the r e g i o n a l park would be by, and a t the expense o f ,  the B.C. M o t o r c y c l e F e d e r a t i o n and i t s promotors, a l t h o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n would a l s o be made f o r a government g r a n t .  The  B.C. M o t o r c y c l e F e d e r a t i o n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the B.C.  36 S a f e t y C o u n c i l , Canadian M o t o r c y c l e A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. c y c l e Industry  A s s o c i a t i o n , and  the B.C.  Sports  Motor-  Federation  have s t a t e d t h a t they are prepared to o f f e r t h e i r  assistance  to f o s t e r and  develop motorcycle r i d i n g areas i n v a r i o u s  communities.  They are a l s o prepared to a s s i s t i n  - recognized  local  s a f e t y t r a i n i n g programs  - sound c o n t r o l l e v e l s - s e l f p o l i c i n g o f r i d i n g areas - l o c a t i o n o f areas and The B.C.  layouts.  Safety Council i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n a d r a f t proposal  an Off-Road T r a i n i n g Program i n Burnaby (B.C.  Safety  for  Council,  no date) wish to o f f e r an o f f - r o a d t r a i n i n g program aimed at promoting s a f e r . r i d i n g h a b i t s amongst younger r i d e r s .  Their  present  On-road t r a i n i n g courses take place a t the P r o f e s s i o n a l  Driver  Centre i n D e l t a .  o f f - r o a d t r a i n i n g , and t r a i n i n g centre 2. The  T h i s i s not a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r  i d e a l l y they would l i k e to s t a r t  a  i n Burnaby.  Public  Sector  a) P r o v i n c i a l Government To date the o n l y o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to mechanized v e h i c l e s i s the A l l T e r r a i n V e h i c l e s A c t , passed i n 1972, Recreation  and  and  administered  Conservation.  The  by the M i n i s t r y o f  a c t r e g u l a t e s the use  of  37 snowmobiles o n l y .  I t r e q u i r e s r e g i s t r a t i o n o f the snow-  m o b i l e , and p r e s c r i b e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o be d i s p l a y e d on machine.  I t s e t s a minimum o p e r a t i n g age,  and  the  requires  c e r t a i n standards o f o p e r a t i o n and a c c i d e n t r e p o r t i n g .  All  f e e s c o l l e c t e d under the A c t are p a i d to the M i n i s t e r o f Finance and  form p a r t o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d  Revenue Fund.  There are no immediate b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d by snowmobilers from t h i s money. A r e c u r r i n g problem i n d e a l i n g w i t h  trail  bikes  i s the d i f f i c u l t y o f e n f o r c i n g any r e g u l a t i o n s on them because o f t h e i r l a c k o f l i c e n s e number or o t h e r form o f i d e n t i t y . Thus, s e v e r a l agencies have requested ment to extend the ATV  the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-  a c t to t r a i l b i k e s .  the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby (Burnaby, 1975); R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l o f B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s (FBCN, 1976)  (ORC,  who  1976);  the Outdoor  Federation  a l s o requested  government to c o n s i d e r banning the use  These i n c l u d e ,  of  B.C.  the p r o v i n c i a l  o f 'motor b i k e s '  on  other than e s t a b l i s h e d roads i n f r a g i l e areas such as„arid g r a s s l a n d s and a l p i n e meadows. If question  the ATV  A c t i s extended to t r a i l b i k e s , then the  o f r e t u r n s beyond a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s on the r e g i s -  t r a t i o n f e e s thus imposed i s r a i s e d , i n terms o f e i t h e r b e n e f i t s and  f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i l b i k e r s or compensation f o r  i n j u r y or damage to p r o p e r t y  of n o n - t r a i l bikers.  The  Prov-  38  i n c i a l Government formed an Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Branch i n 1975 to t r y t o c o - o r d i n a t e the problems and s o l u t i o n s o f user groups and w i l l ,  u l t i m a t e l y , s t a r t l o o k i n g a t the p r o v i s i o n  o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes.  However, i t should be noted  t h a t 7 0 $ o f the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n are probably r e s i d e n t in  the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , and so perhaps the p r o v i s i o n o f  a t r a i l b i k e use a r e a should f a l l more l o g i c a l l y t o the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD).  I n a d d i t i o n , many lands  c u r r e n t l y used by t r a i l b i k e s f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f B.C.  Hydro and B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , both o f which have, w i t h i n  the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , begun t o assume a r e c r e a t i o n  provision  role. b) Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t The demand f o r a t r a i l b i k e use a r e a i s a r e g i o n a l one, and s i n c e the user groups themselves  have claimed t h a t  the s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r problems i s a r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t y ,  many  have looked t o the GVRD Parks F u n c t i o n t o take an a c t i v e p a r t i n meeting the t r a i l b i k e r s needs, and t o provide a s o l u t i o n t h a t blends w i t h the L i v e a b l e Region  Concept.  The GVRD's Parks Program has been i n e x i s t a n c e f o r ten years*  s i n c e 1966. A t t h a t time a number o f s i t e s i n the  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y were earmarked f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as p o t e n t i a l r e g i o n a l parks\ Board, 1966);  (Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l  Parks  Since then; 1620 h e c t a r e s i n 11 s i t e s have been  39 a c q u i r e d , b u t l i t t l e has been done beyond the a c q u i s i t i o n stage.  In 1975 a d e c i s i o n was made t o change the p o l i c y o f  the Parks F u n c t i o n from one o f a q u i s i t i o n to one w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis on development. to  At t h i s p o i n t i t became important  e s t a b l i s h some g u i d e l i n e s on* 1. What should be the r o l e o f the R e g i o n a l Parks i n  r e l a t i o n t o the programs o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e as w e l l as other f u n c t i o n s o f the GVRD? 2. What should be the p o l i c y o f f u r t h e r s i t e  aquisition,  development o f present and f u t u r e s i t e s , and programming i n these  sites? D u r i n g the summer o f 1976, a r e c r e a t i o n  facilities  i n v e n t o r y o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y was conducted  and the  r e s u l t s o f t h i s were used t o formulate a f i v e year  capital  and o p e r a t i n g budget. c) M u n i c i p a l Government Because many o f the t r a i l b i k e r s would l i k e , and c u r r e n t l y use, areas c l o s e t o t h e i r homes, the member munici p a l i t i e s o f the GVRD have been looked t o by the t r a i l b i k e r s to  p r o v i d e use a r e a s .  c u r r e n t unorganized  However, as a consequence o f the  use o f areas w i t h i n urban,  particularly  r e s i d e n t i a l , areas many complaints about n o i s e and e n v i r o n mental damage have been  generated.  40 Most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n response t o these r e q u e s t s tor  mechanical parks on one hand and peace on the o t h e r , do  r e c o g n i z e the need f o r some f a c i l i t y away from r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  In most cases a t p r e s e n t , t h a t i s as f a r as i t goes.  However, some have gone f u r t h e r and looked w i t h i n  their  m u n i c i p a l boundaries f o r a s u i t a b l e area from both the p o i n t o f view o f the t r a i l b i k e r s , and the p o i n t o f view o f the nonp a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t have concluded t h a t no such a r e a e x i s t s . In  these i n s t a n c e s the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g department  and r e c r e a t i o n department  o r parks  have endorsed the i d e a , and i n some  cases have o f f e r e d money and support f o r , the l o c a t i o n o f a facility  i n another m u n i c i p a l i t y or a r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t y  o u t s i d e o f t h e i r own boundaries. attempted  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , they have  t o r e g u l a t e the use o f t r a i l b i k e s w i t h i n  boundaries by use o f c u r r e n t by-laws o r proposed to by-laws,  also  their  ammendments  p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h i n the powers o f t h e i r m u n i c i p a l  zoning, parks or a n t i - n o i s e  by-laws.  Some have gone f u r t h e r i n t h e i r attempts t o accommodate t r a i l b i k e s , b u t p l a n s have been h e l d up o r thwarted by d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n and/or c u r r e n t l a n d use controls.  One m u n i c i p a l i t y has even gone as f a r as t o d e s i g n a t e  an a r e a on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s l e a v i n g p o l i c i n g and administ r a t i o n up t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t t h i s has f a i l e d due to i n e f f e c t i v e use c o n t r o l , and complaints about damage and n o i s e .  environmental  41  In summary then, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have g e n e r a l l y recognized  t h a t t r a i l b i k i n g should be accommodated, but  p r e f e r a b l y by somebody e l s e . be  The  g e n e r a l consensus seems to  t h a t urban areas are not compatable w i t h mechanical park  f a c i l i t i e s , and many have concentrated  their efforts  banning r a t h e r than accommodating t r a i l b i k e s .  on  Where c o n s i d -  e r a t i o n has been g i v e n to accommodating them, the process implementation and initial  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has not progressed  stages, a l t h o u g h the i n f e r e n c e has been t h a t  would l a r g e l y be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the t r a i l themselves. proved  However, one  of  beyond this  bikers  experiment along these l i n e s  has  unsuccessful. A morecldetailed summary o f how  some o f the municip-  a l i t i e s have d e a l t w i t h the t r a i l b i k i n g problem i s g i v e n i n Appendix I I I . PHASE 3t  PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS F l o w i n g from the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  a t i o n phases, an a c c e p t a b l e  explor-  s o l u t i o n to the t r a i l b i k i n g  problem i n the study area must meet the f o l l o w i n g  criteria.  1. I t must minimize the c u r r e n t widespread use o f r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a i l b i k e s on i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d i n the study area. Inappropriate  land i s defined  as  a) p r i v a t e l a n d f o r which p e r m i s s i o n  to use has  not  been  obtained. b) l a n d designated  f o r use  other  c) environmentally  fragile  land  than t r a i l  biking  d) land s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e to a r e s i d e n t i a l area r e s i d e n t s are d i s t u r b e d by t r a i l b i k e noise  that  emission.  2. I t must minimize the impact o f t r a i l b i k e r s on s o c i e t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y i t must a) reduce the s a f e t y hazards such as a c c i d e n t and  fire  presented by t r a i l b i k i n g . b) minimize the number o f people d i s t u r b e d by n o i s e t r e s p a s s of t r a i l 3.  bikes.  I t must minimize the impact o f t r a i l b i k e r s on  environment.  the  S p e c i f i c a l l y i t must  a) reduce the area and damage by t r a i l  s e v e r i t y o f s o i l and  vegetation  bikes.  b) minimize the p o t e n t i a l f o r s i l t a t i o n o f creeks other water  or  and  bodies.  c) minimize the impact on behaviour and  survival  of  wildlife. P a r t B o f the problem e x p l o r a t i o n phase o u t l i n e d how  the problems c r e a t e d by the demand f o r t r a i l b i k e use  has been met  w i t h i n the  study a r e a .  been d e a l t w i t h elsewhere was  How  discussed  areas  these problems have i n Chapter 1.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l f o u r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the  These trail  43 b i k e problem: 1. t o do n o t h i n g 2.  to p r o h i b i t t h e i r use  3.  to p r o h i b i t t h e i r use i n c e r t a i n areas  4.  t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l t r a i l b i k e use a r e a or a r e a s .  completely  S o l u t i o n 1 does not meet the s t a t e d c r i t e r i a f o r an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n .  S o l u t i o n 2 does meet the c r i t e r i a but,  i f on a l o c a l s c a l e , may  o n l y serve to t r a n s f e r the problems  elsewhere and thus may  be c o n s i d e r e d only as a l a s t  S o l u t i o n 3 by i t s e l f may  o n l y p a r t i a l l y meet the  resort.  criteria.  E x p e r i e n c e s from elsewhere i n North America have shown S o l u t i o n 4 to be an e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n .  However, experiences,by  munic-  i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the study a r e a suggest t h a t a combination S o l u t i o n s 3 and 4,  of  i e . t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l use a r e a o r areas  and p r o h i b i t t r a i l b i k e use i n other areas, may  be the most  e f f e c t i v e r o u t e t o take. PHASE 4:  EXPOSING UNCERTAINTY Feedback from c e r t a i n t r a i l b i k e r s presented w i t h  the p r o s p e c t o f a designated s p e c i a l use a r e a has been very positive.  However, the problems o f i d e n t i f y i n g the t r a i l b i k e  p o p u l a t i o n and subsequently conducting a meaningful  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o p i n i o n p o l l have a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out. S i m i l a r l y s u r v e y i n g the g e n e r a l p u b l i c adequately would be a mammoth t a s k , and s h o r t c u t s such as m o n i t o r i n g o p i n i o n i n the  44  l o c a l press are hardly representative.  T r a i l b i k e r s who a r e  e n t h u s i a s t i c about a s p e c i a l use a r e a may f i n d t h a t i t i s not so a p p e a l i n g once a r e a l i t y .  By the same token, d e s i g n o f a  t r a i l b i k e a r e a may seem t o t a l l y unacceptable on paper t o the 'general p u b l i c , b u t i n the p r a c t i c e i t may be found 1  t h a t the s o l u t i o n i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y than was a n t i c i p a t e d . , Although the nature o f the environmental impacts o f t r a i l b i k e s i s known, the magnitude o f these impacts a t any g i v e n s i t e i s not known. Thus the f o l l o w i n g u n c e r t a i n t i e s have been i d e n t i fied. 1. W i l l a s p e c i a l use a r e a be used by the t r a i l b i k e popul a t i o n o f the study area? 2. W i l l a s p e c i a l use a r e a be a c c e p t a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f the study area? and 3. What w i l l be the environmental consequences  of providing  such a park? It  i s suggested t h a t a s p e c i a l use area be d e s i g -  nated f o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d d u r i n g which a m o n i t o r i n g program w i l l be undertaken as the most e f f e c t i v e means o f r e d u c i n g these u n c e r t a i n t i e s .  CHAPTER FOUR THE  PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLE AS APPLIED TO THE  PROBLEM OF  TRAIL BIKING IN AN URBAN AREA INTRODUCTION T h i s chapter presents a s t r a t e g y f o r r e d u c i n g u n c e r t a i n t y a s s o c i a t e d with p l a n n i n g f o r urban t r a i l facilities,  as r e v e a l e d i n Chapter Three.  f l e x i b l e , experimental  the  bike  The case f o r a  c l i m a t e w i t h i n which to p l a n f o r t r a i l  b i k e r e c r e a t i o n a l use has a l r e a d y been argued.  Under t h i s  p r o p o s a l an a c t u a l t r a i l b i k e use a r e a , i s designated f o r an experimental  p e r i o d , and the i n t e r a c t i o n of a l l the u n c e r t a i n  v a r i a b l e s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d observed.  Such a  proced-  use must be conducted i n a proper, s c i e n t i f i c manner i f t h i s type of approach i s to make a meaningful c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g problems. The  s t r a t e g y as presented  a p r i v a t e owned and operated p u b l i c a l l y owned and  i s a p p l i c a b l e e q u a l l y to  t r a i l bike f a c i l i t y  operated f a c i l i t y .  Two  as to a  assumptions are  mades 1. That the l e g i s l a t i o n to a c q u i r e the l a n d and i t s use as a t r a i l b i k e park a l r e a d y  designate  exists.  2. That the framework f o r managing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g such a facility  has been l a i d out, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  delegated.  46  PHASE 1?  ACTION The  purpose o f the a c t i o n phase o f the p l a n -  implementing c y c l e i s to implement a p l a n t h a t w i l l  satisfy  the c r i t e r i a f o r an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n to the problem. in  t h i s context i t has three o b j e c t i v e s : 1. To p r o v i d e an experimental  use area t h a t w i l l  be  s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to t r a i l b i k e r s to reduce t h e i r of  Thus  other, non-designated  areas w i t h i n the urban study  use  area  boundary. 2. To minimize the environmental on that d e s i g n a t e d 3.  impacts  of t r a i l b i k e  use  area.  To l o c a t e such a f a c i l i t y  w i t h minimum s o c i a l  impacts  on the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . The  first  s t e p i n the a c t i o n phase i s optimum s i t e  selection. SITE SELECTION Gardiner  (1975.  92)  o u t l i n e s a f o u r s t e p method-  ology f o r s i t e s e l e c t i o n o f an ORRV a r e a .  T h i s can  be  summarized as: 1. The  e l i m i n a t i o n o f e x t e n s i v e areas unacceptable  f o r the  proposed developments 2. The r e d u c t i o n o f the remaining lands to a s e l e c t i o n o f alternatives.  47 3- An in-depth  comparative a n a l y s i s o f each a l t e r n a t i v e .  4. P r e l i m i n a r y design l a y - o u t s o f the remaining F i g u r e 3 shows a process  sites.  chart f o r s i t e s e l e c t i o n  o f an ORRV a r e a which has a l s o been d e v i s e d by Gardiner p. 98).  Objective  (1975#  ( l ) o f the A c t i o n Phase c o n s t i t u t e s the  •study o b j e c t i v e ' i n t h i s process  chart.  Table  I I summarizes  s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a from a t r a i l b i k e r ' s p o i n t o f view. These c r i t e r i a a r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f G a r d i n e r ' s  site selection  criteria. Table  I I I summarizes s i t e  s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a based  on p o t e n t i a l v e h i c l e impacts, and these s a t i s f y and  (3) o f the A c t i o n phase.  ication  o f Gardiner  o b j e c t i v e s (2)  These c r i t e r i a a r e a l s o a modif-  (1975. p. 99) and are based on Appendix IV.  48 Figure  3: • • • •  S i t e S e l e c t i o n P r o c e s s Chart i 'r  Study 'Objectives in  Determine T y p c ( s ) o f ORRV to be Planned F o r  •a  Define S e a r c h Area  4-  Land Ownership Access Size  U s e r Based S i t e S e l e c t i o n <Criteria  Non-ORRV Opportunities Type of T e r r a i n  Preliminary ORRV-Use Areas  Soils Vegetation Wildlife S u r f a c e Hydrology  Site Selection Criteris Based Upon P o t e n t i a l V e h i c l e Impacts  Final  Noise B u f f e r Isolation C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y co E x i s t i n g Land Uses  Alternatives  Comparative S i t e Analysis 4r  P r e l i m i n a r y Design Layouts  Type o f T e r r a i n Soils Vegetation Wildlife  in fo  in  n> •a Final Site Selection  F i n a l Design Layout  Source:  G a r d i n e r , 1975.  98  49 Table l i s  S i t e S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r Use Areas from a T r a i l Biker's Perspective.  Criteria  Description  Distance  3/4 to 1 i hour one-way t r a v e l time away from l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l users f o r one day o f use (40-60 m i l e s @ 50 mph.)  Terrain  a v a r i e t y of t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s with emphasis upon h i l l y or r o l l i n g t e r r a i n . presence of d i r t roads, f i r e b r e a k s or t r a i l s , d i s u s e d sand and g r a v e l p i t s or s t r i p mine areas f o r t r a c k events® . > a v a r i e t y of vegetation plus opportunities f o r s c e n i c views and n a t u r a l or c u l t u r a l p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t .  Access  I d e a l l y there should be only one acess to the chosen a r e a . F a i l i n g t h i s , there should be p o t e n t i a l f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f expected t r a f f i c to one entrance by upgrading access route and p r o v i d i n g good p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The a r e a should i d e a l l y have n a t u r a l boundaries.  Size  a minimum o f 800 h e c t a r e s i s reasonable f o r a 'regional* f a c i l i t y . Smaller 'municipal* f a c i l i t i e s would only r e q u i r e 4-16 h e c t a r e s .  50  TABLE I I I : S i t e S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r T r a i l Bike Use Areas Based on P o t e n t i a l Impacts. Criteria  Description  Topography  - s l o p e s should be predominantly  Soils  - g r a v e l l y , w e l l - d r a i n e d sandy loam t o loamy textured s o i l s .  less  than  - r o c k y or cobbly ground only on s l o p e s - not s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g , have water t a b l e c l o s e t o s u r f a c e or have i m p e r f e c t drainage. - s o i l depth should p r e f e r a b l y be 1-2 i n . or g r e a t e r , and l i t t e r l a y e r depth should p r e f e r a b l y be 20 cm or g r e a t e r . Vegetation  - v a r i e t y o f v e g e t a t i o n , b u t predominantly deciduous s p e c i e s . - moderate t r e e cover with dense understory, t h e r e should be a 7Qffo or g r e a t e r v e g e t a t i o n cover. - no r a r e o r endangered s p e c i e s on s i t e .  Wildlife  - low w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t c a p a b i l i t y - no r a r e o r endangered s p e c i e s on s i t e  Surface Hydrology  - there should be few, i f any streams, or d i t c h e s which must be c r o s s e d .  Precipitation  - medium t o low r a i n f a l l with l i t t l e a l i t y i s preferable.  Isolation  - there should be a n a t u r a l b a r r i e r between surrounding areas and proposed s i t e t o c o n t r o l access and prevent t r e s p a s s and vandalism on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y .  creeks  season-  - low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y on nearby l a n d .  51 Table I I I continued Criteria  Description  Noise b u f f e r  1.2 km b u f f e r o f open land o r .8 to 1.2 km b u f f e r o f deciduous t r e e s p e c i e s i f a r e a i s used o n l y i n summer and evergreen s p e c i e s i f year round.  Cultural history  past h i s t o r y o f e x t e n s i v e a l t e r a t i o n to the s i t e due t o man's a c t i v i t i e s such as wide s c a l e r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t ^ a t i o n , f i r e or f l o o d i n g . l i t t l e current i n t e r e s t i n land f o r p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g commercial or r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as t r e e farming o r backpacking. f u t u r e p l a n s f o r the a r e a such as s t r i p mining which w i l l r e s u l t i n the u l t i m a t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f much o f the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the s i t e .  CONTROL SITES Not o n l y should an experimental s i t e be chosen to serve as a designated t r a i l b i k e a r e a , b u t c o n t r o l s should a l s o be chosen w i t h which t o compare the r e s u l t s .  I n the  m o n i t o r i n g program o u t l i n e d l a t e r on, d i f f e r e n t c o n t r o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s examined. SITE-DESIGN Once a p o s s i b l e experimental s i t e i s p i c k e d a p r e l i m i n a r y s i t e p l a n must be drawn up, w i t h i n p u t from the t r a i l  52  bikers.  The  type and extent o f use t h a t i s not o n l y  expected  but d e s i r e d must be r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d . Good s i t e p l a n d e s i g n i s a powerful t o o l i n c o n t r o l l i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g use p a t t e r n s .  use  However, the danger o f over-  management, l e s s e n i n g the a t t r a c t i b i l i t y o f the s i t e ,  should  a l s o be r e c o g n i s e d . S i n c e the chosen s i t e i s to be designated f o r an experimental p e r i o d o n l y , i t i s suggested  t h a t the s i t e p l a n  i n c l u d e o n l y the minimum f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h room f o r f u r t h e r development i f the p r o j e c t so warrants.  S i t e design i s d i s -  cussed i n d e t a i l by G a r d i n e r (1975, p. 27-60).  However, f o r  the purposes of s e t t i n g up an experimental s i t e , the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r s i t e d e s i g n are g i v e n : 1. A good access road, with a c o n t r o l l a b l e e n t r y p o i n t , and l e a d i n g to good adequate p a r k i n g  facilities.  2. The p a r k i n g a r e a to be l o c a t e d on f l a t l a n d , p r e f e r a b l y , w i t h a gravel/loam base.  A c c o r d i n g to Fogg (1975) one acre o f  p a r k i n g l o t w i l l h o l d up to 75 c a r s w i t h 3' S e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s .  trailers.  Larger t r a i l b i k e parks c o u l d  have s p e c i f i c areas designated f o r motocross, t r i a l and recreation riding.  However, by v i r t u e o f the d i f f e r e n t  t e r r a i n needs o f each, s e p a r a t i o n may ally.  general  w e l l come about n a t u r -  A motocross t r a c k , i f d i s i r e d , would have to be  i n the f l a t t e s t s e c t i o n o f the experimental a r e a .  built  I t also  53  r e q u i r e s a p r a c t i c e a r e a and s p e c t a t o r stand.  Trial  sect-  i o n s , and t r a i l s i f they do not a l r e a d y e x i s t , should be l a i d out such t h a t they compromise the e r o s i o n hazard w i t h the c h a l l e n g e o f steep s l o p e s .  Thus they should f o l l o w contour  l i n e s as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , but a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e some v a r i a tion.  There i s some c o n t r o v e r s y as t o whether t r a i l s  be designated one-way or two-way.  should  Proponents o f the l a t t e r  feel  t h a t making a t r a i l one-way l u l l s one i n t o a f a l s e sense o f s e c u r i t y l e a d i n g to accidents: i s c o n s t a n t l y on the a l e r t .  w i t h a two way t r a i l system one  O b v i o u s l y a one-way t r a i l  system  i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r expense and more care i n s i g n p o s t i n g and enforcement.  T r a i l s b u i l t s p e c i a l l y should be l e s s than or  equal t o 2 metres wide w i t h many t u r n s o f t i g h t t u r n i n g r a d i i . ;  G a r d i n e r (1975» p. 29-30) recommends only two c l a s s e s o f t r a i l s , • c a s u a l ' t r a i l s f o r e a s i e r r i d i n g , and 'advanced' t r a i l s f o r more experienced r i d i n g .  He r e f e r s to a study i n Washington  S t a t e which r e v e a l e d t h a t r i d e r s q u i c k l y g a i n enough e x p e r t i s e to  use the advanced t r a i l s and recommended o n l y k0% o f the t o t a l  to be c a s u a l t r a i l s . 4. Washrooms. recommend 1 t o i l e t  The M o t o r c y c l e I n d u s t r y C o u n c i l ( 1 9 7 3 , p. 5 ) f o r every 250 expected  genous, p i t o f composting  s i t e users.  Andro-  t o i l e t s a r e adequate.  5. A means o f bounding the s i t e w i t h a p e r i p h e r a l n o i s e b u f f e r zone beyond which no r i d i n g i s p e r m i t t e d .  The problem  54  of  c o n t a i n i n g t r a i l b i k e r s w i t h i n the designated areas needs  close attention.  N a t u r a l boundaries  road e t c . are i d e a l .  such as a r i v e r ,  cliff,  F e n c i n g i s an obvious c h o i c e which  has  worked i n some areas (Jane Leat, Park Planner, Borough o f E t o b i c o k e , O n t a r i o , p e r s o n a l communication, February, 1977)  but  fences are e a s i l y t o r n down and v e r y c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y when the proposed  area i s large.  by a t r a i l b i k e r (Tom is  A possible alternative,  T y r e , p e r s o n a l communication March 1977),  to s i g n p o s t the ending o f a t r a i l where i t meets the bound-  ary,  and p r o v i d e a s m a l l c l e a r e d a r e a which i n c l u d e s a bench  on which the t r a i l b i k e r s can stop and 6. S i g n p o s t d e s i g n . to  suggested  rest.  Very c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d  s i g n p o s t d e s i g n , and i f s i g n s are a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n  a d j a c e n t areas then the d e s i g n o f these should be adopted f o r continuity.  I t i s suggested  t h a t u n i v e r s a l symbols be  used,  Mi* where wording i s n e c e s s a r y , i t should assume a p o s i t i v e tone, f o r example, e x p l a i n i n g the reasons f o r any or  r e g u l a t i o n and emphasizing  the c i t i z e n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  r e t a i n i n g the designated use a r e a beyond the p e r i o d by observance A map trail  prohibition  experimental  o f these r e g u l a t i o n s .  should a l s o be p r o v i d e d a t the e n t r a n c e ,  l e n g t h s w i t h l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e marked.  and  Symbols such  as are used to mark d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e on d o w n h i l l  55 s k i s l o p e s c o u l d be eg.  adopted O  •casual* t r a i l s  A  •advanced' t r a i l s  O b v i o u s l y the same symbols should be used f o r s i g n i n g t r a i l heads.  Boundaries  should a l s o be  signed.  ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS: 1.  Insurance The  experimental s i t e must be adequately  by p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e .  The  covered  only a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s  would be t o have a permit system where u s e r s o f the a r e a must s i g n a l e g a l waiver  to use the park, a c c e p t i n g a l l respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r a c c i d e n t or i n j u r y .  A l l persons under 19  years  o f age must have w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n from t h e i r p a r e n t s ,  who  i n t u r n w i l l acoept a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2. A f i r s t a i d p o s t should be present a t the s i t e , and means o f communication w i t h p o l i c e , f i r e and  a  ambulance.  3. R e g u l a t i o n s should be t a i l o r e d to each i n d i v i d u a l case, and should be kept to a minimum.  However, c e r t a i n  standard's  c o n c e r n i n g the use o f m u f f l e r s , spark a r r e s t o r s , maximum n o i s e l e v e l , s a f e t y helmets e t c . w i l l amost c e r t a i n l y be r e q u i r e d f o r insurance  purposes.  4. Enforcement. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r enforcement o f r e g u l a t i o n s  56  w i t h i n the park should f a l l on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency. S e l f p o l i c i n g by t r a i l b i k e r s , who park has bean suggested.  would a l s o a d m i n i s t e r  (Chapter 3 p. 36)  Outside the  p o l i c i n g must be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l authority.  park,  policing  The Borough o f Etobicoke found t h a t a one month  • b l i t z * , conducted  by the l o c a l p o l i c e , where m o t o r c y c l i s t s  o p e r a t i n g i n undesignated effective.  the  areas were charged,  was  very  (Jane Leat, p e r s o n a l communication, February  T h i s i m p l i e s l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t t r a i l b i k e r s found t h e i r t r a i l b i k e s o u t s i d e the experimental  1977).  using  t r a i l bike  park.  5' P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n campaign. C o i n c i d e n t w i t h the implementation  o f the experiment  should be p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of a p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n campaign concerning the need to preserve environment, r e s p o n s i b l e and  the  safe r i d i n g h a b i t s e t c .  A f t e r the p l a n has been drawn up, a p u b l i c meeting should be h e l d to g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r a t i o n a l e for  and nature o f the experiment, and  the p r o j e c t s h a l l be period. chapter.  judged  the c r i t e r i a by which  a t the end o f the  experimental  T h i s l a t t e r aspect w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r on i n t h i s In r e t u r n , the p u b l i c should be permitted to v o i c e  t h e i r concerns, and make improvements upon the p l a n .  57 A workshop i s suggested for  t h i s meeting.  The  procedure  as an a p p r o p r i a t e  format  includes:  a) ;a p r e s e n t a t i o n by the t r a i l b i k e experimental  park  planner. b) D i v i d i n g a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o groups of six  persons.  approximately  Each group i s to r e c e i v e atianap of the area  showing e x i s t i n g l a n d use, copies of the proposed t r a i l p l a n , f a c t sheets and blank p i e c e s of paper.  Everyone i s  g i v e n ^5 minutes to a c c e p t , modify, or develop a new  bike  completely  p l a n w i t h i n these groups. c) A f i v e minute p r e s e n t a t i o n i s then g i v e n by each group  on t h e i r recommendations t o the meeting. The recommendations should then be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p l a n . PHASE 2:  MONITORING Accompanying the f i n a l s i t e p l a n should be  for  the m o n i t o r i n g phase of the p l a n implementing c y c l e .  first  s t e p i s to decide the l e n g t h of the experimental  period;  two  years i s  Chapter ing  plans  phase.  being  time  suggested.  2 o u t l i n e d three f u n c t i o n s of the  monitor-  These can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c  o b j e c t i v e s f o r the purposes of the problem under 1.  review:  To check t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of the a c t i o n phase are met  The  58  i.e.  to  a) check t h a t the s o l u t i o n o f an experimental t r a i l a r e a , p l u s the o p t i o n o f p r o h i b i t i o n elsewhere, the use o f non-designated  bike  i s reducing  areas by t r a i l b i k e r s .  b) the s p e c i a l use a r e a i s designed and managed to maximize i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to t r a i l b i k e r s . c) there have been few or no i n c i d e n t s o f n o i s e , t r e s p a s s or s a f e t y complaints al  use  as a r e s u l t o f s e t t i n g up t h i s experiment-  area.  d) the environmental minimized  damage to t h i s use a r e a i s b e i n g  through good s i t e design and management.  2. That the m o n i t o r i n g program must c o n t r i b u t e towards r e d u c t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y by answering the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . a) i s the experimental  s i t e b e i n g used, and by whom?  b) has the a r e a been accepted by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ? c) what i s the magnitude o f environmental what extent can i h e environmentarecover These two w i t h responses concern; ment.  damage and  to  from b i k e use?  f u n c t i o n s o f the m o n i t o r i n g program d e a l  to the experiment from three d i s t i n c t areas o f  the t r a i l b i k e r s , the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and the e n v i r o n -  Thus a three p a r t program i s devised whose major  components are as f o l l o w s : P a r t A d e a l s w i t h responses t r a i l bikers.  I t monitors  t o the experiment from the  the use o f the experimental  trail  59 b i k e a r e a and s e l e c t e d c o n t r o l s i t e s b e f o r e and a f t e r the experiment commences.  I t a l s o examines use p a t t e r n s and  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t r a i l b i k e r s who are u s i n g the park, and determines where they a r e coming F i n a l l y , i t monitors the t r a i l b i k e r s o p i n i o n s  from.  about the park  and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement. P a r t B d e a l s w i t h responses t o the experiment from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  I t examines the number o f complaints  against t r a i l b i k e r s concerning noise, trespass etc. before and a f t e r commencement  o f the experiment near the e x p e r i m e n t a l  s i t e and near non-designated use s i t e s .  I t a l s o monitors the  r e a c t i o n s o f those who witiL be most a f f e c t e d by the experiment to  a d e s i g n a t e d use a r e a , b e f o r e and a f t e r commencement of the ;  experiment. P a r t C d e a l s w i t h the responses by the environment to  the experiment.  I t monitors changes t o the s o i l ,  w i l d l i f e and q u a l i t y o f a d j a c e n t water b o d i e s .  vegetation,  Examination  i s a l s o made o f the r e c o v e r y r a t e o f the s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n in out  s e l e c t e d areas o f the t r a i l b i k e park t h a t have been taken o f use.  PHASE 3»  ANALYSIS The data c o l l e c t e d from the m o n i t o r i n g program  w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n two waysi a) on a r e g u l a r review b a s i s w i t h r a p i d a n a l y s i s ,  evaluation  6o and,  i f necessary a c t i o n , d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d ,  b) a t the end o f the experimental p e r i o d . A n a l y s i s o f P a r t A w i l l examine a b s o l u t e use and use  dis-  t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s , e i t h e r as expressed i n the number o f t r a i l b i k e s by day, week or month, or the number o f user hours per day, week or month spent a t the s i t e , and  whether or not use o f other areas has d e c l i n e d  s i n c e the experiment age groups,  experimental  commenced.  I t w i l l determine  the  sex,  p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e e t c . o f t r a i l b i k e r s u s i n g the  s i t e and which management programs have been s u c c e s s f u l , where the s i t e d e s i g n , management, or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e q u i r e s improvement, and what i s the o v e r a l l impression o f the  park  by the u s e r s . A n a l y s i s o f P a r t B w i l l examine whether or not the experimental t r a i l b i k e park has had any e f f e c t upon the number o f complaints generated i n areas used by t r a i l b i k e r s p r i o r t o the experiment.  A n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o determine  r e a c t i o n s o f those immediately  the  a f f e c t e d by d e s i g n a t i n g the  experimental t r a i l b i k e park, b e f o r e and a f t e r the  experiment-  a l period. I&nalysis o f P a r t C w i l l examine the magnitude o f damage i n f l i c t e d by the t r a i l b i k e s , i n terms o f the e x t e n t of the  •disturbance* upon s o i l ,  vegetation, w i l d l i f e ,  and  61  a d j a c e n t water b o d i e s .  I t w i l l a l s o determine the degree  t o which the s o i l and v e g a t a t i o n a t c e r t a i n s i t e s recover BHASE 4;  can  i t s e l f over time. EVALUATION E v a l u a t i o n o f the a n a l y s i s leads to a choice  two  of  routes:  Route 1.  To a d j u s t the p l a n as i t stands by r e - e n t e r i n g  the  A c t i o n phase. Route 2.  To r e - e v a l u a t e  the p l a n by r e t u r n i n g to the  plan-  making c y c l e . The  e v a l u a t i o n phase has  two  functions:  1. To evaluate  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the m o n i t o r i n g  2. To evaluate  the r e s u l t s o f the m o n i t o r i n g  The  program.  program.  b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  the m o n i t o r i n g  program i s to examine how  stated objectives. the m o n i t o r i n g  w e l l i t meets i t s  T h i s e v a l u a t i o n should be based on whether  program determines how  effective  providing  an experimental  t r a i l b i k e park i s i n r e d u c i n g the use  other areas and  i n meeting the needs o f the t r a i l b i k e r s , and  i n minimizing  s o c i a l , and  a l s o examine how  environmental impacts;  e f f e c t i v e l y the m o n i t o r i n g  reduced u n c e r t a i n t y about use o f the s i t e , and  environmental r e s i l i e n c e .  It  program  of  should has  public reaction  62 Should the m o n i t o r i n g program be found  deficient  i n any o f these a s p e c t s , then r o u t e 1 should be f o l l o w e d , and the m o n i t o r i n g program r e d e s i g n e d . The b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f the m o n i t o r i n g program i s to examine what are t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s in  terms o f a c c e p t i n g a s p e c i a l t r a i l b i k e use a r e a as a  s o l u t i o n t o t h e t r a i l b i k e problem i n the study a r e a .  Eval-  u a t i o n should thus a l s o ask the f o l l o w i n g questionss a) I s the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to t r a i l b i k e r s to reduce t h e i r use o f other, areas,  and  i f so, w i t h i n how  nonrdesignated  l a r g e a r a d i u s o f the  site?  Should more s i t e s be designated and does i t matter how  close  they are to t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n s ? b) A r e  the n e g a t i v e impacts  on the r e s t o f s o c i e t y , m i n i m a l ,  and are they outweighed by the p o s i t i v e impacts, reduced  n o i s e complaints?  Or are negative impacts  s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to suggest a t o t a l ban c) Are the environmental  impacts  cause f o r concern?  Should another  these environmental  impacts  in  the study  the  on t r a i l  as  to s o c i e t y bikes?  on t h a t designated  site  l o c a t i o n be t r i e d or are  'best* t h a t can be  expected  area?  The  d e c i s i o n as to which r o u t e to take a f t e r  u a t i n g the experiment i n t h i s way is  such  r e s t s on how  eval-  much deviance  found between the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r an a c c e p t a b l e  63  s o l u t i o n and the r e s u l t s o f the m o n i t o r i n g program.  Small  deviances  t h a t can be e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d suggest f o l l o w i n g  r o u t e 1.  For example, i f low use o f the designated 8.2? *3 9, X S  p e r c e i v e d to be a consequence o f bad management p r a c t i c e s ; or e r o s i o n w i t h i n the park a consequence o f bad  site  or t r e s p a s s o f adjacent p r o p e r t y a consequence o f  design  inadequate  r e g u l a t i o n , a c c e s s c o n t r o l or s i g n i n g , these can be remedied f a i r l y q u i c k l y by r e - e n t e r i n g the a c t i o n phase. However, i f the deviance  i s l a r g e and,  f o r example,  there i s a p u b l i c o u t c r y about the use o f the a r e a as a designated park,  the p l a n making c y c l e must be  and the whole p r o j e c t reviewed  re-entered,  on the b a s i s o f what has been  l e a r n t from the plan-implementing  cycle.  CHAPTER FIVE THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLEt  AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE  THE CASE OF EAGLE RIDGE INTRODUCTION The  purpose o f t h i s chapter i s t o draw t o g e t h e r  the p r e c e d i n g two chapter by d e s c r i b i n g how an experimental t r a i l b i k e s i t e c o u l d be s e t up i n the study Chapter 3 concluded  area.  t h a t the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n  the study a r e a may be i n excess  of  a p o t e n t i a l designated a r e a should be to p r o v i d e  recreation riding.  of  20,000,  in  and the f u n c t i o n general  A r e l u c t a n c e by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to p r o v i d e  f a c i l i t i e s f o r reasons  such as l a c k o f s u i t a b l e  p o l i c e power was r e v e a l e d .  It i s felt  land,^and  t h a t the r e g i o n a l  and p r o v i n c i a l governments a r e b e t t e r able t o provide a s u i t a b l e experimental  site.  A ' r e g i o n a l ' s i t e , i n excess o f 800  h e c t a r e s was thus sought w i t h i n the study a r e a , f o r the . experimental  t r a i l bike  site.  DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA The  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s an a t t r a c t i v e  river  v a l l e y widening from 1-2 m i l e s a t Hope to 16-20 m i l e s a t i t s western e x t r e m i t y , bounded by the sea.  I t i s backed by  mountains t o the n o r t h , the Coast Mountains, which form a s o l i d wall reaching  5000*,  i n t e r r u p t e d o n l y by g l a c i a l l y  deepened H a r r i s o n , Stave and P i t t Lakes, and by the I n d i a n  65  Arm  o f the B u r r a r d I n l e t .  To the south are the Cascade  Mountains. (Stager and W a l l i s , 1968). S o i l Forming Deposits W i t h i n the V a l l e y there are two g r a p h i c types - uplands and lowlands.  distinct  The uplands,  physiowith  e l e v a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l hundreds o f f e e t have a mostly raarine and  g l a a i o - t i l l basis.  glacio-  Occasionally, a glacio-lacus-  t r i n e a r e a occurs and i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n there i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t c o v e r i n g o f loamy, wind blown m a t e r i a l . upland  s o i l s are medium t e x t u r e d and  Most  therefore r e l a t i v e l y  w e l l d r a i n e d , but numerous p o o r l y d r a i n e d depressions  also  occur. The 70'  lowlands range from sea l e v e l to e l e v a t i o n s o f  i n the E a s t and are g e n e r a l l y composed o f s i l t y and  clayey  p l a i n s which are the f l o o d d e p o s i t s o f the F r a s e r , C h i l l i w a c k , P i t t , Nicomekl and Serpentine lowlands s u f f e r from extremely  Rivers.  Large p o r t i o n s o f the  poor drainage  d u r i n g the  winter  months, and v i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e low-iiafid area has been s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g d u r i n g the worst o f the s p r i n g f l o o d y e a r s . (Winter 1968,  p. 103)  F i g u r e k shows a g e n e r a l i z e d  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s of t h i s area.  Figure 4: A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS IN THE STUDY AREA  67  Climate The  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s w e l l known f o r i t s  moderate c l i m a t e .  The w i n t e r s are m i l d , though wet,  and  summers are c o o l .  P r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i e s considerably within  t h i s a r e a as a r e s u l t o f the v a r i a t i o n i n topography, the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a i n shadow e f f e c t o f Vancouver the Olympic p e n n i n s u l a .  and  Island,and  G e n e r a l l y there i s a decrease  in  p r e c i p i t a t i o n from n o r t h to south and the p a t t e r n o f h i g h e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n a l o n g the mountain f r o n t p e r s i s t s eastward up the V a l l e y .  G e n e r a l l y the average annual  around 30-^0" a i n s , and  precipitation,is  i n the south-west, - 8 0 - 9 0 " , i i n the mount-  60-70"  i n the middle  and e a s t e r n lowland  plain.  See F i g u r e 5 (Stager and W a l l i s , 1968). SITE SELECTION Using the s i t e Chapter  selection c r i t e r i a outlined i n  4, the study a r e a was  imental t r a i l bike s i t e .  examined f o r a p o t e n t i a l  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was  exper-  p a i d to  s i t e s known to be i n use by t r a i l b i k e s as presented i n Appendix I I . due  Many o f these s i t e s were e l i m i n a t e d  immediately  t o t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to r e s i d e n t i a l areas or due,to t h e i r  small size.  Remaining a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c l u d e d the B i g Bend  i n d u s t r i a l a r e a i n Burnaby and Burns Bog D e l t a , but the s i t e t h a t b e s t met i s E a g l e Ridge i n n o r t h e r n  l a n d f i l l site in  the s i t e s e l e c t i o n  Coquitlam.  criteria  Figure 5 : AVERAQE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IN THE STUDY AREA  69  SITE DESCRIPTION Eagle Ridge l i e s i n Township 39 W.C.M., between Buntzen Lake and Coquitlam  River.  I t i s approximately  45  minutes t o 1 hour's d r i v e from downtown Vancouver, and w i t h i n two hours d r i v e o f a l l p o i n t s w i t h i n the study The  l o c a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 6. The boundaries  F i g u r e 7« The  area.  o f the proposed s i t e a r e shown i n  T h i s i s an a r e a o f approximately  800 h e c t a r e s .  l a n d i s crown owned, and l i e s a t an e l e v a t i o n between  240 m and 900m i n an area a t present h e l d under a Reserve by the G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t f o r watershed purposes. (B.C.  Land Commission, New Westminster, p e r s o n a l communication,  March 1977).  B.C. Hydro l e a s e s p a r t o f t h i s l a n d f o r a t r a n s -  m i s s i o n '.station, and t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . s t a t i o n occupies approximately  The t r a n s m i s s i o n  12 h e c t a r e s i n the f l a t ,  s o u t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the proposed experimental There i s a paved access road t o t h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n  site. station.  I n a d d i t i o n , there a r e s e v e r a l l o g g i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n roads, p l u s one o r two t r a i l s b u i l t by t r a i l b i k e r s . Above the t r a n s m i s s i o n s t a t i o n , the l a n d s l o p e s t o the north-west w i t h a 25$ s l o p e i n c r e a s i n g to a 3 0 % s l o p e about the 5 0 0 ra contour.  F u r t h e r towardstthe  north-eastern  boundary o f the proposed s i t e , s l o p e s i n c r e a s e t o about 5 0 % . The  southern and southwestern p o r t i o n s o f the s i t e are g e n t l y  s l o p i n g , w i t h s l o p e s between 15 and 25%.  Figures:  LOCATION  OF  T H E  EXPERIMENTAL & CONTROL  SITES  Figure 7 : PROPOSED BOUNDARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL TRAIL BIKE AREA  72  Thus the c r i t e r i a o f d i s t a n c e , t e r r a i n s i z e are met by the c h o i c e o f Eagle  acess and  Ridge.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y the s o i l s o f the e a s t e r n h a l f of the proposed  s i t e have been surveyed.  A g r i c u l t u r e , 1972)  (B.C. Dept. o f  The parent m a t e r i a l o f these s o i l s i s  predominantly coarse t o moderately  course t e x t u r e d g l a c i a l  till,  There are f o u r major s o i l  and c o l l u v i u m over bedrock.  complexes as shown i n Appendix V. o r t h i c ferro-humic p o d z o l s ,  These are  predominantly  (The System f o r S o i l  Classifica-  t i o n f o r Canada) which are moderately w e l l d r a i n e d . , However, there are i n s t a n c e s i n the southern p o r t i o n o f the. study a r e a o f i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d s o i l s , and t o a c e r t a i n extent i n the northern portion.  In c o n t r a s t , there are areas i n the middle  p o r t i o n t h a t have r a p i d drainage.  S o i l t e x t u r e s are mainly  loamy w i t h stones and g r a v e l s mixed throughout.  There, are  some areas o f sand loam and g r a v e l l y sand loam.  Soil  depths  vary from 15 cm near the top o f the r i d g e s t o i n excess o f lm. In the s o u t h - e a s t e r n f l a t a r e a , t h e r e are i n s t a n c e s o f compact impervious b a s a l t i l l  o c c u r i n g a t around 90 cm which  restricts  drainage and sub-surface water movement. On the upper s l o p e s , there are bedrock  outcrops i n  some a r e a s , and s o i l depths are g e n e r a l l y around 50 cm. l i t t e r l a y e r v a r i e s from 1.25  cm to 15 cm.  Thus the  The  73  p o t e n t i a l f o r e r o s i o n v a r i e s with the topography, l i t t e r cover and s o i l t e x t u r e , but g e n e r a l l y v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s low. The area r e c e i v e s a mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 200-300  cm. E a g l e Ridge l i e s i n the c o a s t a l Western Hemlock  b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone.  ( K r a j i n a , p u b l i s h e d by the B.C.  E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Committee). Western hemlock  The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s :  (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) with s m a l l amounts o f  Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) and some Western Red Cedar (Thu.ia p l i c a t a ) .  The shrub l a y e r i s low and  dense, and there i s e s s e n t i a l l y no herb l a y e r . Bell, 1976).  fairly  (Hubbard and  The s o i l r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the lower slopes  are w e l l s u i t e d f o r f o r e s t r y p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h a mean annual increment o f 161 t o 173 c u b i c f e e t per year. s l o p e s , f o r e s t growth i s f a i r .  On the upper  A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the e a s t -  ern s e c t i o n o f the proposed s i t e has been c l e a r c u t , and here there i s an e x t e n s i v e shrub l a y e r .  Appendix V g i v e s a more  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v e g e t a t i o n o f the a r e a . There are two creeks i n the a r e a , Noons Creek and S c o t t Creek, the l a t t e r o f which Kowalenko (1973# P- 11) has i d e n t i f i e d as having e x c e l l e n t f i s h i n g f o r c u t t h r o a t and cohoe j a c k s .  I t i s a l s o important  f o r pink salmon  spawning.  Appendix VI uses the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  74  FigureB:  PROPOSED EAGLE  SITE  PLAN  FOR  R1DQE  Intensity -of Trail _Use_:-  ce  lu- Light use mu- medium use hu- high use - transmission station - transmission Iii  road  T  N Scoti.  Cretfe.  •  scale 1  I  L  1 1  L  L  1 METRES  75  t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d to r a t e the proposed  experimental  s i t e based on 12 c r i t e r i a f o r l a n d c a p a b i l i t y d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix IV.  T h i s permits a 'use i n t e n s i t y ' zoning map  to  as shown i n F i g u r e 8.  be produced  S i n c e the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the proposed  s i t e are not completely s a t i s f a c t o r y c a u t i o n must be  e x e r c i s e d i n s i t e d e s i g n and m o n i t o r i n g environmental  impacts.  The a r e a i s not w e l l d e f i n e d by n a t u r a l boundaries, and thus care must be taken to c l e a r l y s i g n p o s t the l i m i t s of  the experimental s i t e .  to  the s i t e .  At present there i s m u l t i p l e access  In a d d i t i o n t o the B.C.  Hydro paved road, there  i s a l s o another access road, v i a Maude Road i n P o r t Moody. However, t h i s i s c u r r e n t l y a t b e s t f o u r wheel d r i v e standard, and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be r e p l a c e d under the P o r t Moody North Shore p r o j e c t .  (Jane B e s t , P l a n n e r , P o r t Moody, p e r s o n a l  communication March 1977)•  Access by t r a i l b i k e from the  Westwood r a c e t r a c k i s p o s s i b l e when the gate i s open.  Access  via  the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , e s p e c i a l l y from the Barnet High-  way  near the P o r t Moody/Coquitlam M u n i c i p a l boundaries, i s  a l s o p o s s i b l e by t r a i l b i k e . B.C.  I t i s suggested t h a t , i f the  Hydro road i s open t o p u b l i c use, and a good.spur road  were to be b u i l t f r o m i t to adequate p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , of  the other access r o u t e s would be almost  negligible.  use  76  IMPACTS TO SOCIETY The c h o i c e o f Eagle Ridge as a t r a i l "bike park has a p o t e n t i a l impact on t h r e e communities;  the C i t y of  P o r t Moody, Coquitlam D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e community o f Anmore i n unorganized E l e c t o r a l Area B,  B.C. Hydro and  the G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t would a l s o be a f f e c t e d . 1. CITY OF PORT MOODY: The proposed  experimental s i t e i s 1.25  c u r r e n t development i n P o r t Moody.  km from  However, under t h e P o r t  Moody North Shore P r o j e c t , low d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas a r e planned f o r p a r t of the North-east c o r n e r o f the C i t y . c l o s e s t to the proposed boundaries  The  of the park t h a t these sub  d i v i s i o n s w i l l come i s approximately 1 km.  Between the r e s i d -  e n t i a l a r e a and the park boundary there i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i t e and p u b l i c open space. The a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c r o u t e s and some o f the c o l l e c t o r r o u t e s of the P o r t Moody North Shore p r o j e c t have been l o c a t e d to permit e x t e n s i o n i n t o the Anmore d i s t r i c t to the n o r t h of the C i t y .  T h i s proposed road p a t t e r n w i l l com-  p l e t e l y r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g roads i n the area i n c l u d i n g the two p r e s e n t access roads t o Eagle Ridge Street.  Acess t o the proposed  i . e . Maude Road and Water  experimental s i t e w i l l be  under t h i s p r o p o s a l , v i a a new a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c route which passes through medium and h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s .  77  2. COQUITLAM DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY $ Although the s i t e l i e s w i t h i n the Coquitlam D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l boundaries, there i s no c u r r e n t or proposed development o f the proposed experimental s i t e .  The  closest  r e s i d e n t i a l development i s approximately 1 km from the  site,  and Coquitlam's proposed R e g i o n a l Town Centre does not extend any f u r t h e r n o r t h than p a r t way  up s e c t i o n 15 or .5 km  from  the proposed experimental s i t e . 3. ANMORE j The s i t e i s 1 km from c u r r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development.  No r e s i d e n t i a l development i s planned w i t h i n the  proposed e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e , and there w i l l be a .6 km  buffer  zone between the proposed urban expansion t o the Anmore Community (Urban Programme P l a n n e r s , 1975)  and the experimental  park boundaries. 4. B.C  HYDROs B.C.  Hydro's o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i s t o  m u l t i p l e use o f l a n d over which they have  encourage  jurisdiction.  However, they are concerned w i t h p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y and p r o tection of t h e i r property.  Thus i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the  experimental t r a i l b i k e park o p e r a t o r s are adequately covered for B.C  public l i a b i l i t y Hydro p r o p e r t y .  insurance i n c l u d i n g damage i n c u r r e d  on  The t r a n s m i s s i o n s t a t i o n a t Eagle Ridge  78  has a l r e a d y proved to be a t a r g e t f o r vandalism d u r i n g and s i n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant a twenty-four hour guard.  (Damian Dunne, Land Management and Development Depart-  ment, B.C.  Hydro, p e r s o n a l communication, March 1 9 7 7 ) .  If  the experiment i s p r o p e r l y s u p e r v i s e d , the f a c t t h a t t h e r e are r e s p o n s i b l e people around may  discourage vandalism.  5 . GREATER VANCOUVER WATER DISTRICT* The proposed e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a i n c l u d e s t h r e e community watersheds;  Noons Crrek (West B r a n c h ) , Noons  Creek ( E a s t Branch) and S c o t t Creek.  In a d d i t i o n i t en-  croaches upon Mossom Creek and Coquitlam Lake. "These watersheds are a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t , who have the l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r i g h t to p e r s c r i b e t o what uses the lands w i t h i n the »watersheds can be put. Since the i n c e p t i o n o f the GVWD i t has been the p o l i c y t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over land use a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the watersheds, and, w i t h i n l i m i t s t o exclude the p u b l i c , The p r i o r i t y p o l i c y o f the D i s t r i c t i s towards the maintenance o f wholesome domestic water f o r the u s e r s . However, the Water D i s t r i c t does n o t pursue an a b s o l u t e " c l o s e d door" management p o l i c y , ( f o r example) There i s c a r r i e d on, under s t r i c t c o n t r o l s , f o r e s t h a r v e s t i n g on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r e s t management program under a P r o v i n c i a l Manage?ment L i c e n c e where the timber i s v e s t e d i n the l e s s e e , but the net proceeds o f the s a l e s are payable to the l e s s o r . " (J.D. Watts, Chairman, Task F o r c e on M u l t i p l e Use o f Watersheds, S u p p l i e s , Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch, Department o f the Environment, B.C., p e r s o n a l communicat i o n , March 1977)  79 6. OTHER INTERESTS IN THE LAND: Approximately  540 h e c t a r e s w i t h i n the proposed  s i t e have been c l e a r c u t , and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n roads remaining as a consequence o f b u i l d i n g the T r a n s m i s s i o n station.  T h i s makes the a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e as an  experimental t r a i l b i k e s i t e , as i t a l r e a d y has been, a l t e r e d from i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e , and the l o g g i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n roads a r e used as motorcycle t r a i l s . been proposed  T h i s a r e a has a l r e a d y  by t r a i l b i k e r s as a s u i t a b l e s i t e f o r a t r a i l  b i k e park, and t h i s s u g g e s t i o n has been endorsed by the Federa t i o n o f Mountain Clubs o f B.C. and the Lower Mainland Advisory A s s o c i a t i o n .  Parks  (See Appendix I I , p. 135 )  SITE DEVELOPMENT 1.  Access B.C.  Hydro l e a s e s the r i g h t o f way f o r the paved  access r o a d t o t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n s t a t i o n from the Crown.  The  terms o f the agreement do not preclude p u b l i c use, and so perm i s s i o n t o use t h i s r o a d as an access t o the proposed e x p e r i mental a r e a may p o s s i b l y be secured p r o v i d e d t h a t B.C.Hydro is  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the plans f o r the experimental t r a i l  site.  bike  (Daraian Dunne, March 1977).  2. P a r k i n g A spur r o a d l e a d i n g from the paved road t o a p a r k i n g  80  a r e a would have t o be b u i l t .  A suggested l o c a t i o n i s shown  i n F i g u r e 8 i n v o l v i n g approximately and  a 1 hectare  300 m o f g r a v e l spur road  p a r k i n g l o t with a c a p a c i t y f o r approximately  210 t r u c k s and t r a i l e r s .  The proposed s i t e i s f l a t and has  a loamy s o i l w i t h g r a v e l mixed through. 3. S e p a r a t i o n  of A c t i v i t i e s  For the purpose o f the experiment t h i s area i s f o r g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n r i d i n g only.  As has been mentioned, there  i s a network o f t r a i l s and l o g g i n g roads i n the area. f i r s t s t e p , these should be surveyed  As a  t o e l i m i n a t e those  that  a l r e a d y r e q u i r e a r e s t i n g p e r i o d o r r u n - o f f management, such as areas s u f f e r i n g from ponding and/or showing s i g n s o f erosion.  Next, t r a i l s should be designated  e i t h e r one way or  two way, graded e i t h e r ' c a s u a l ' o r 'advanced' t r a i l s , and signed a p p r o p r i a t e l y . 4. Washrooms Since t h i s a r e a l i e s i n ,a watershed r e s e r v e , p i t t o i l e t s are probably n o t adequate.  Thus, composting t o i l e t s  are recommended, two w i l l probably be s u f f i c i e n t . 5• Bounding the Area '}.  The tive.  c o s t o f f e n e i n g such a l a r g e a r e a i s p r o h i b i -  Thus i t i s suggested t h a t :  81  i.  t h e r e be a map  the boundaries ii.  d i s p l a y e d &t the park entrance  o f the area, and f a c i l i t i e s  showing  including  a t the boundary, t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and t r a i l s  trails. be  s i g n p o s t e d , and a t the l a t t e r benches and garbage cans are provided. 6. S i g n p o s t i n g As has a l r e a d y been i n f e r r e d , there should be s i g n p o s t a t the entrance  a  to the park s t a t i n g t h a t the park  has  been d e s i g n a t e d a t r a i l b i k e a r e a f o r a two year experiment period.  At the p a r k i n g l o t there should be a map  showing the c a s u a l and advanced t r a i l s . should be signed i n accordance of  marked.  All trail  w i t h t h i s map,  the park, and o f the ' r e s t i n g areas*  o f the a r e a  and  should be  heads boundaries clearly  An example o f the wording t h a t could be:placed  these s i g n s i s as  on  followst  "You have now reached the boundary o f the d e s i g n a t e d t r a i l b i k e park. Please do not proceed f u r t h e r s i n c e the success o f the park as a t r a i l b i k e a r e a depends upon t r a i l b i k e r s s t a y i n g w i t h i n i t s boundaries." ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS 1. R e g u l a t i o n A hut should be e r e c t e d a t the p o i n t where the road to  the p a r k i n g s i t e l e a v e s the main paved road.  This w i l l  be  82  c o n s i d e r e d the  •entrance p o i n t * and i t i s here t h a t r e g i s t r a -  t i o n w i l l take p l a c e , and i n f o r m a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n should take the form o f maps, and a l i s t  of  regulations.  will  almost  These s h o u l d be kept t o a minimum, but  c e r t a i n l y be n e c e s s a r y p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i n s u r a n c e  reasons.  An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e g u l a t i o n should be g i v e n ,  i f not s e l f e v i d e n t . - s p e c i f i e d speed  Probable examples o f r e g u l a t i o n s a r e : limit  - a c l o t h i n g requirement,  p a r t i c u l a r l y helmets  m a maximum n o i s e emmission (random checks c o u l d be performed u s i n g a sound l e v e l meter). - spark a r r e s t e r s and m u f f l e r s r e q u i r e d . 2. Enforcement At the time the experimental park i s opened, the use o f t r a i l b i k e s should be p r o h i b i t e d w i t h i n a 20 km r a d i u s o f E a g l e Ridge.  T h i s should be s t r i n g e n t l y e n f o r c e d by  local  p o l i c e and RCMP f o r one month a f t e r the s t a r t o f the e x p e r i ment. 3.. P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Campaign At the time the experimental park i s opened, a p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n campaign should be i n i t i a t e d , and  maintained  t o i n f o r m u s e r s o f the need to preserve the environment, and f o r r e s p o n s i b l e behaviour e t c .  I t should be emphasized t h a t  the b e n e f i t s o f such behaviour w i l l be to m a i n t a i n the a r e a  83  as a t r a i l b i k e park beyond the two year experimental  period.  4. Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Park T h i s t h e s i s does not examine i n depth the prov i s i o n system f o r such a f a c i l i t y .  However, i t i s suggested  that the experiment should be a j o i n t P r o v i n c i a l and R e g i o n a l Government p r o j e c t .  The t r a i l b i k e c l u b s and i n d i v i d u a l  b i k e r s should be given the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e out the implementation  through-  o f the experiment, and the s i t e  s t r u c t i o n should p a r t i a l l y be t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  trail  con-  Adminis-  t r a t i o n o f the park should be a j o i n t g o v e r n m e n t / t r a i l b i k e club r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s t a f f i n g and p o l i c i n g should be l a r g e l y performed by t r a i l b i k e r s . THE MONITORING PROGRAM As o u t l i n e d i n Chapter falls  i n t o three p a r t s .  P a r t A:  USE I  and  4, the m o n i t o r i n g program  INFORMATION The use o f the experimental  t r a i l bike  three c o n t r o l s i t e s should be monitored  areas  b e f o r e the e x p e r i -  ment commences, and a t i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g the experimental period.  The suggested  c o n t r o l s i t e s are»  1. West o f the Thermal S t a t i o n a t l o c o i n E l e c t o r a l Area B. T h i s a r e a i s i n r e g u l a r use, p a r t i c u l a r l y by t r i a l s  r i d e r s and  84  l i e s approximately 5 km south-west  o f E a g l e Ridge.  2. PoCo H i k i n g T r a i l , s i t u a t e d around P o r t Coquitlam.  the p e r i p h e r y o f  T h i s t r a i l r e c e i v e s use e s p e c i a l l y  m i n i - b i k e r i d e r s who c o n f l i c t w i t h h i k e r s . between 5 and 10 km from Eagle  from  The t r a i l i s  Ridge.  3- I n v e r g a r r y Park i n S u r r e y .  T h i s i s a m u n i c i p a l park,  p a r t o f which was s e t a s i d e f o r t r a i l b i k e use u n t i l comp l a i n t s from nearby r e s i d e n t s caused i t s c l o s u r e i n February 1976.  I t l i e s approximately 1 3 km from Eagle Ridge. These are shown i n F i g u r e 6 p. 70Use surveys should be conducted  these s i t e s and Eagle Ridge on a sunny b e f o r e the experiment  simultaneously at  weekday and weekend  commences over a two hour time p e r i o d .  These areas should be r e s u r v e y e d every 6 months d u r i n g the two y e a r s .  T h i s i n v o l v e s a t o t a l o f 160 persons  hours  i n c l u d i n g t r a v e l time t o the s i t e . II  In a d d i t i o n , the use o f E a g l e Ridge  should be  c o n t i n u a l l y monitored u s i n g an automatic t r a f f i c counter on the spur r o a d t o the p a r k i n g l o t .  This w i l l give information  about use p a t t e r n s which can be r e l a t e d t o changes i n management p o l i c y .  S i n c e the counter does not d i s t i n g u i s h between  f o u r wheel p i c k up t r u c k s c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l t r a i l b i k e s , o r j u s t one, o r even s t r e e t l e g a l b i k e s r i d d e n t o the s i t e , a  85 p i l o t study l a s t i n g two weeks should he conducted the average  number o f t r a i l b i k e s p e r counter Ill  to  t o determine  unit.  O n - s i t e i n t e r v i e w s should be conducted  i n order  f i n d out how l a r g e o n a r e a E a g l e Ridge i s s e r v i n g , and the  socio-economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f those t h a t a r e u s i n g i t .  These i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d a l s o be used t o determine  t r a i l biker's  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the park, and t h e i r o p i n i o n s as t o how i t c o u l d be improved t o b e t t e r serve t h e i r needs. s h o u l d be conducted  Interviews  one month a f t e r the commencement o f the  experiment.  A minimum o f f o u r weekdays and two weekends should  be sampled.  Resurveys should be conducted  a f t e r dine y e a r and  at  the end o f the experimental p e r i o d .  of  120 person hours, i n c l u d i n g t r a v e l time t o and from the s i t e .  P a r t B:  This involves a t o t a l  THE REACTION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC I  Complaints  a g a i n s t t r a i l b i k e r s can be lodged  w i t h l o c a l p o l i c e and RCMP.  E a g l e Ridge f a l l s under the  j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Coquitlam detachment o f the RCMP who keep a d a i l y r e c o r d o f complaints.  These o f t e n number s e v e r a l  hundred i n one day and do n o t always i n c l u d e g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t t r a i l bikers.  ( R e c e p t i o n i s t , Coquitlam detachment o f the  RCMP,,personal communication, February 1 9 7 7 ) .  Arrangements  c o u l d be made w i t h the RCMP t o examine these r e c o r d s f o r a one year p e r i o d p r i o r t o the commencement  o f the experiment.  86  in  o r d e r t o document complaints s p e c i f i c a l l y a g a i n s t t r a i l  bikers.  A f t e r the experiment  commences, the RCMP should be  asked,to keep a separate r e c o r d o f complaints o n l y a g a i n s t t r a i l b i k e r s , and these should be documented a t the end o f the two y e a r experimental p e r i o d .  Documentation should show how  the number and nature o f complaints has v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o Eagle Ridge, l o c o and the PoCo t r a i l , which are a l s o under the Coquitlam detachment o f the RCMP.  I n v e r g a r r y Park i s  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Surrey detachment o f the RCMP, and so a s i m i l a r procedure  f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g changes i n  complaints should be conducted II  there.  The o p i n i o n s o f r e s i d e n t s and agencies who a r e  a f f e c t e d by t r a i l b i k e use a t Eagle Ridge, l o c o , Poco t r a i l , and I n v e r g a r r y Park should be surveyed. of B.C.  Thus, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Hydro, GVWD should be i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e the experiment  b e g i n s t o determine how they f e e l about the p r o s p e c t o f the experiment,  and what measures they f e e l should be taken t o  safeguard t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  A f t e r t h e experiment,  e n t a t i v e s should be r e - i n t e r v i e w e d t o determine c e p t i o n s o f the success o f the experiment,  these r e p r e s -  t h e i r per-  A sample o f the  r e s i d e n t s o f the North Shore o f P o r t Moody, Anmore, l o c o , Coquitlam n o r t h o f the Barnet Highway and west o f P i p e l i n e Road, P o r t Coquitlam, and Surrey immediately  surrounding  87  I n v e r g a r r y Park should be i n t e r v i e w e d before the experiment begins.  10,000  T h i s i m p l i e s s u r v e y i n g a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f about r e s i d e n t s o f which there w i l l be approximately  residences.  I f every f i f t h household i s sampled then  i n t e r v i e w s must be conducted.  Assuming a r a t e o f two  views per hour, t h i s i m p l i e s 250  person  hours.  r a t e o f k, i n t e r v i e w s per hour, t h i s i m p l i e s 125  2,500 500 inter-  Assuming a person hours  are r e q u i r e d . t o conduct the survey.  The  i n t e r v i e w should t r y  to e s t a b l i s h whether the i n t e r v i e w e e  i s a t r a i l b i k e r ,, and i f  not i f he or she i s aware t h a t t r a i l b i k e s are u s i n g c l o s e by and how  he or she f e e l s about t h i s .  should be resurveyed  a t the end o f the two  The  year  areas  population experimental  p e r i o d to determine the r e s i d e n t * s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e x p e r i ment. P a r t C:  ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION I  To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the environmental  impact o f t r a i l b i k e s on the s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n o f Eagle Ridge, i t i s suggested t h a t the a r e a be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s t r a t a as shown i n F i g u r e 9 . t e r r a i n and  These s t r a t a r e f l e c t  i n t e n s i t i e s o f t r a i l b i k e use.  different  The number o f  sampling s i t e s w i t h i n each s t r a t a ' s i s shown i n Table  IV.  T h e i r l o c a t i o n should be s e l e c t e d randomly along the d e s i g nated  1  trails.  C o n t r o l s i t e s should be s e l e c t e d to complement  88  each sampling s i t e .  These should be w i t h i n areas which a r e  u n l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e use from t r a i l b i k e s , c l o s e t o the sampling s i t e and with as s i m i l a r b i o p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s t o the sampling s i t e as p o s s i b l e . TABLE IV SAMPLING STRATA FOR MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF EAGLE RIDGE STRATA #  DESCRIPTION  PROPOSED DEGREE OF USE  # OF SAMPLING SITES  1  Flat  Intensive  6  2  Undulating  Intensive  6  3  Transmission Lines  Medium  3  Steep  Low  3 18 t o t a l  The  dimensions of the sampling s i t e s  a l o n g the t r a i l .  should be 8 m  With a 5m s t r i p an e i t h e r s i d e o f the t r a i l  as shown i n F i g u r e 10.  89  Figure  9: E A Q L E  RIDGE  - SAMPLING  STRATA  METRES  90  Figure 10: DIAGRAM OF. SITES TO COLLECT ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION : -«sampling site  site  The dimensions o f the c o n t r o l s i t e s should be the same.  The f o l l o w i n g base l i n e data should be r e c o r d e d f o r  each sampling and c o n t r o l s i t e : a) s o i l type  "]  A t the c e n t r e of  b) s o i l depth  r  the sampling and  c) s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y J d) dominant veg. s p .  control s i t e . H  e) Av. h e i g h t of d.v. s p .  W i t h i n whole sampling o r control s i t e .  f ) % veg. cover g) s l o p e  J  The r a t i o n a l e f o r c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s as follows: 1. P o i n t s b through f may be used f o r comparison  i n later  resurveys. 2, other  P o i n t s a through g may be used f o r comparison w i t h experiments.  91  A f t e r the experimental s i t e has been opened to t r a i l b i k e use as a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a , r e s u r v e y of the c o n t r o l and  sampling  s i t e s s h o u l d be conducted a t 6 month i n t e r v a l s throughout the experimental p e r i o d .  Photographs  s h o u l d be taken each time  measurements a r e made, and from the same p o i n t .  A similar  m o n i t o r i n g program a t the Land Between the Lakes took 20.3  one  cm x 28 cm b l a c k and white photograph, and one c o l o u r e d  slide* A s i m i l a r sampling procedure i n Land Between the Lakes f o r 20 sampling s i t e s took approximately 160 persons hours to conduct the i n i t i a l m o n i t o r i n g procedure the  controls, within a similar sized area.  v e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s case was of  including  The dominant  oak-hickory woodland.  Resurvey  these s i t e s took 50 person hours, or 2.5 person hours  per p l o t ( C o t t r e l l , p e r s o n a l communication,  February  1977).  Thus t o survey E a g l e Ridge, 360 person hours i s r e q u i r e d i n total.  E a g l e Ridge i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be important t o  w i l d l i f e (Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ) .  However, t h i s should be  confirmed b e f o r e the s i t e i s d e s i g n a t e d and, i f n e c e s s a r y , a m o n i t o r i n g program i n i t i a t e d t o i n v e n t o r y changes t o populat i o n d e n s i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n and behaviour i n r e l a t i o n to changes o c c u r i n g t o the h a b i t a t of each s p e c i e s . Regular water q u a l i t y checks s h o u l d be made of Noons Creek and S c o t t Creek s t a r t i n g b e f o r e the  experiment  92  commences and throughout  t h e experimental p e r i o d t o ensure  t h a t the park i s n o t i m p a i r i n g these  creeks,  I I One of t h e most important management p r a c t i c e s to a m e l i o r a t e environmental  damage i s t o take an  a r e a out o f use, and a l l o w i t t o ' r e c o v e r * .  •overused*  The problem l i e s  i n determining a t which p o i n t a s i t e has become  'overused*,  s i n c e l e t t i n g i t s t a y i n use too l o n g may r e s u l t i n i r r e p e r a b l e damage.  I f the l a n d i s s t i l l capable of r e c l a m a t i o n ,  r e c o v e r y r a t e s w i l l v a r y depending on t h e combination o f environmental  f a c t o r s present.  There has been very  little  s c i e n t i f i c work done on t h i s a s p e c t , but i t i s one t o which a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d . ( R u s s e l l Shay, E d i t o r , the ORV MONITOR, p e r s o n a l communication, March 1 9 7 7 ) . Thus i t i s suggested  t h a t d u r i n g t h e second year of  the experimental p e r i o d t r a i l s should be s e c t i o n e d o f f t o conduct  a r e c o v e r y r a t e experiment, and s i g n s be e r e c t e d  e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose o f t h e experiment. The c h o i c e of areas t o be s e c t i o n e d o f f w i l l be d i c t a t e d by t h e use p a t t e r n of the park i n the f i r s t  year.  I d e a l l y , t h r e e areas s h o u l d be p i c k e d r e p r e s e n t i n g ! a. LIGHT USE, where evidence of use i s f a i n t l y  visible,  b . MEDIUM USE, where evidence of use i s e a s i l y and t h e r e i s some bare ground.  visible  c. HEAVY USE, where t h e ground i s bare, compaction of the  93  s o i l i n d i c a t e s heavy use, and i n a t r a i l s i t u a t i o n , the t r a i l i s perhaps wider than those r e c e i v i n g medium use. W i t h i n the areas t h a t have been s e c t i o n e d o f f , sampling  s i t e s and c o n t r o l s should be p i c k e d .  The f o l l o w i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n should be c o l l e c t e d a t the o u t s e t t 1. Dimensions of zone of d i s t u r b a n c e (mapped) 2. S o i l  type  3. S o i l  depth  4. Depth of l i t t e r 5.  layer  a t the c e n t r e of the  S o i l bulk density  6. S o i l moisture  sampling J  7. Dominant v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s 8.  Av.  ^  h e i g h t of dominant veg.  9. % v e g e t a t i o n cover  sampling  w i t h i n whole  species  (mapped)  10. Slope of s i t e Whe  or c o n t r o l s i t e  J and c o n t r o l s i t e s  a f t e r 6 months and one y e a r , and  sampling  or  control  site  should be  resurveyed  the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  collected! 1. Dimensions of zone of d i s t u r b a n c e . (Mapped) 2. $ V e g e t a t i o n cover  (Mapped)  3« V e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s  present  4. Average h e i g h t of dominant v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s 5.  L i t t e r l a y e r depth  Photographs should be taken of each s i t e , and a t each r e s u r v e y ,  9k as d e s c r i b e d f o r m o n i t o r i n g s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n damage. M o n i t o r i n g r e c o v e r y r a t e s should take a t o t a l of 80-100 person  hours.  ANALYSIS AND  EVALUATION  The i n f o r m a t i o n thus c o l l e c t e d w i l l be a n a l y z e d and e v a l u a t e d as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 4.  During the experiment-  al  p e r i o d , feesdback from t r a i l b i k e r s about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  of  t h e experimental s i t e , and feedback  m o n i t o r i n g w i l l determine or  from  environmental  i f any changes i n the s i t e ' s design  management i s r e q u i r e d .  Feedback w i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e i f  the m o n i t o r i n g program i t s e l f needs t o be r e d e s i g n e d . E v a l u a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e m o n i t o r i n g program o f the end o f the experimental p e r i o d may r e v e a l one of  the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s * 1. Eagle Ridge has been w e l l used by t r a i l b i k e r s who a r e  r e s i d e n t w i t h i n a 10 km r a d i u s , and the environmental  impact  of  t h i s use has n o t been cause f o r concern.  Residents  to  the experimental s i t e a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t they a r e n o t  b e i n g a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d and the number o f complaints r e s i d e n t s near l o c o and the Poco T r a i l has dropped.  near  from However,  t h e r e i s no evidence t o suggest t h a t t r a i l b i k e use o f Surrey's I n v e r g a r r y Park has d e c l i n e d as a r e s u l t of d e s i g n a t i n g Eagle Ridge.  The recommended course o f a c t i o n i n t h i s  95  i n s t a n c e would be c o n s i d e r d e s i g n a t i n g more t r a i l b i k e areas c l o s e t o the urban area where the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n i s concentrated. 2. E a g l e Ridge has been w e l l used by t r a i l b i k e r s from a l l over the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , and t r a i l b i k e use o f l o c o , Poeo T r a i l and I n v e r g a r r y Park has dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y , as has complaints about t r a i l b i k e r s a t these s i t e s .  B.C. Hydro,  GVWD and the r e s i d e n t s o f P o r t Moody, Anmore and North lam a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t they a r e n o t b e i n g impacted a t i o n of Eagle Ridge. impacts  There i s evidence t h a t  Coquit-  by d e s i g n -  environmental  can be a m e l i o r a t e d by improved management p r a c t i c e s .  The recommended course o f a c t i o n i n t h i s i n s t a n c e would be t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether o r n o t d e s i g n a t i o n o f E a g l e Ridge has. reduced  t r a i l b i k e use i n other p a r t s o f the study a r e a , and  determine i f any more s i t e s a r e needed.  Since t r a i l  from a l l over the study a r e a a r e u s i n g Eagle Ridge,  bikes the l o c a -  t i o n o f these s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n i s shown t o be not so important. 3. S i n c e Eagle Ridge was designated as a t r a i l b i k e it  has n o t r e c e i v e d much more use than b e f o r e the experiment  commenced. of  park,  Use of o t h e r areas i s c o n t i n u i n g , and the number  complaints has n o t dropped.  The recommended course of  a c t i o n i s t o determine why Eagle Ridge i s n o t b e i n g used, and to  e n f o r c e a s t r i c t e r ban upon use a t l o c o , the PoCo T r a i l  96 and  I n v e r g a r r y Park. 4.  of  Eagle Ridge i s r e c e i v i n g q u i t e a l o t of use, but use  l o c o , the PoCo T r a i l and I n v e r g a r r y Park c o n t i n u e s , as do  the c o m p l a i n t s .  Environmental  some damage, and suggests c r i t e r i a be r e v i s e d .  impact i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l s  t h a t the b i o p h y s i c a l s i t e  selection  The recommended course of a c t i o n i s t o  c o n s i d e r other p o s s i b l e s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g those more than l i hours d r i v e from the main p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n . ban  A total  on t r a i l b i k e use i n t h e urban area should be e n f o r c e d . These a r e j u s t a few s c e n a r i o s of the p o s s i b l e  outcomes from the experiment and m o n i t o r i n g program.  What-  ever course of a c t i o n i s i m p l i e d , by e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of  the m o n i t o r i n g program, p l a n n i n g the next s t e p should be  g r e a t l y a i d e d by the reduced  uncertainty.  97  COSTS I  SITE DEVELOPMENT COSTS  $  91 m l o n g , 7 . 3 m wide spur road  3,000  1 h e c t a r e p a r k i n g l o t , w i t h 75 cm new g r a v e l 3 x 36 m 'Panabode s o l i d cedar hut ( I n c l u d i n g f l o o r , s y s t e m ^ o o f system, 1 entrance)  25,000  shingles 2,015  2 ' C l i v u s Multram* composting t o i l e t s (maintenance f r e e , made by C l i v u s Multram U.S.A. Inc.j includes i n s t a l l a t i o n costs)  4,000  Signing: (includes i n s t a l l a t i o n 1 Main Entrance s i g n  1,000  costs)  1 map and i n f o r m a t i o n board 20 t r a i l head s i g n s 9 $ 5 0 per s i g n (maintenance f r e e aluminium w i t h heat t r e a t e d v i n y l graphics) 100 p l a s t i c boundary  s i g n s @ $ 4 per s i g n  20 wooden benches @-$200 per bench Land  1,000 1,000 4oo  4,ooo Nil  acquisition  TOTAL  $41,415  II  MONITORING PROGRAM COSTS MIN  Part A $ - Use surveys of E a g l e Ridge and C o n t r o l S i t e s , 1 6 0 hours a t $ 5 per h r . 8 0 0 - automatic t r a f f i c counters " 1450 - on-site interviews, 170 hrs, a t $5 per hour 850 Part B documentation o f Noise complaints t o Coquitlam and S u r r e y detachments of RCMP b e f o r e and a f t e r the experiment, 35-70 h r s a t $ 5 p e r h r . Interviews o f a g e n c i e s and r e s i d e n c e s 1 2 5 - 2 5 0 hrs.. a t $ 5 p e r hour  $ 800 1450 850  175  350  625  .1250  Part C - Environmental m o n i t o r i n g 4 0 0 h r s a t $ 5 p e r hour 2,000 - Environmental r e c o v e r y m o n i t o r i n g 80-100 hra a t $ 5 p e r hour ' 400 TOTAL  MAX  6,300  2000 50* 6,700  - S e r v i c e s of a p a r t time planner to implement the m o n i t o r i n g program - $20,000 i n c l u d i n g overheads.' - TOTAL COST = $26,000 - $27,000  CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION  T h i s study has demonstrated t h a t t h e r e i s a demand for  t r a i l biking f a c i l i t i e s ,  riding facilities  e s p e c i a l l y f o r general r e c r e a t i o n  i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  The demand i s  c u r r e n t l y b e i n g expressed by use o f any a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the study  site  area.  Because o f t h e n e g a t i v e impacts  o f t r a i l b i k e s on  s o c i e t y and t h e environment, d e s i g n a t i o n o f s p e c i a l bike f a c i l i t i e s  needs s p e c i a l c a r e .  trail  However, even i f a seem-  i n g l y i d e a l s i t e i s chosen, i t i s n o t known whether  trail  b i k e r s w i l l use t h a t s i t e and s a c r i f i c e t h e i r c u r r e n t , i f illegal,  freedom.  r  I t i s a l s o u n c e r t a i n what c o n s t i t u t e s an  • i d e a l s i t e * , i n terms o f how l o n g t h a t s i t e can r e s i s t b i k e use b e f o r e i t i s i r r e p a i r a b l y damaged.  trail  Even i f the  d e s i g n a t e d s i t e i s used by t r a i l b i k e r s i t i s n o t known i f one s i t e w i l l be enough, o f i f they r e q u i r e more.  I f the  l a t t e r i s the case, i t i s u n c e r t a i n whether these should be l o c a t e d near t o the t r a i l b i k e p o p u l a t i o n i n order t o ensure t h e i r u s e , o r i f l o c a t i o n i s unimportant.  The r e a c t i o n o f  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o p r o v i s i o n of such a f a c i l i t y dictable.  i s unpre-  100  These u n c e r t a i n t i e s make i t i m p r a c t i a b l e to d e s i g n ate  a t r a i l b i k e a r e a without some means of m o n i t o r i n g  how  the s i t e has been r e c e i v e d by the t r a i l b i k e r s , the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and the  environment.  The study thus suggests t h a t an experimental approach be adopted.  T h i s begins w i t h a c a r e f u l l y  chosen  experimental s i t e and a m o n i t o r i n g pro gram b e f o r e and the s i t e i s d e s i g n a t e d .  after  The m o n i t o r i n g program examines use  of the s i t e and i t s impacts both t o the s i t e and the surroundings. a 12 km  These impacts a r e then compared t o c o n t r o l s i t e s  within,  radius. T h i s experiment and the m o n i t o r i n g program can be  used to l e a r n about the use an experimental s i t e r e c e i v e s i n terms of number of t r a i l b i k e r s , who come from.  13b can demonstrate  they a r e , and where they  whether d e s i g n a t i o n of a  s p e c i a l use a r e a w i l l d i m i n i s h use elsewhere, and,thus n o i s e and t r e s p a s s c o m p l a i n t s .  I t w i l l r e v e a l how  reduce  the p u b l i c ,  and agencies most a f f e c t e d by the s i t e f e e l about the e x p e r i ment.  The m o n i t o r i n g program can a l s o be used t o l e a r n about  environmental impacts upon t h a t p a r t i c u l a r combination of tt&ophysical  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the a b i l i t y of the s i t e t o  r e c o v e r from t r a i l b i k e use. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can thus be used t o decide the next  101  course of a c t i o n . ment and  E v a l u a t i o n of the r e s u l t s from the  i t s m o n i t o r i n g program may  show t h a t the  experi-  experimental  s i t e i s s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t s e l f , or t h a t more s i t e s a r e needed and  desirable.  The m o n i t o r i n g program should  b e s t l o c a t i o n s are f o r these s i t e s .  show where the  E v a l u a t i o n may  some m o d i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to the o r i g i n a l  show t h a t  p l a n and  a r e r e q u i r e d i n s i t e d e s i g n , management p r a c t i c e s and strengthening  that a  i n enforcement of t r a i l b i k e p r o h i b i t i o n out-  s i d e the s i t e i s n e c e s s a r y . e v a l u a t i o n may area  changes  Another a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t  the  demonstrate i s t h a t p r o v i s i o n of a s p e c i a l use  i s an unacceptable s o l u t i o n i n the study a r e a , and  a t o t a l ban  should be p l a c e d upon t r a i l b i k e  The  experiment and  seen as a f i r s t  use.  i t s m o n i t o r i n g program are  s t e p i n an incremental  that  thus  p r o c e s s towards  a c h i e v i n g an optimum s o l u t i o n to the problem of t r a i l b i k e in  the Lower F r a s e r  Valley.  use  102 BIBLIOGRAPHY O American M o t o r c y c l e A s s o c i a t i o n 1972» American M o t o r c y c l e A s s o c i a t i o n News. 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L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r e n t i t l e d • M o t o r c y c l i s t s d i s t u r b b i r d s ' March 3 0 t h , 1 9 7 7 . Wedgwood-Oppenheim, F. 1 9 7 2 . P l a n n i n g Under U n c e r t a i n t y . Land gov't S t u d i e s 2 A p r i l 1 9 7 2 pp. 5 3 - 6 5 . Inst, of L o c a l Government S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Birmingham, England, Winters, George R. 1 9 6 8 . " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y " i n Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y e v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape op. c i t .  108  PERSONS CONTACTED DURING THE STUDY  B e s t , Jane.  P l a n n e r , C i t y H a l l , P o r t Moody.  B.C. l a n d Commission, 100-403 S i x t h S t . New Westminster, V3L 3B1 Brown, G.W..Administrative O f f i c e r , Motor V e h i c l e I n s p e c t i o n , Motor V e h i c l e Branch, V i c t o r i a , B.C.  Chilman, K.C.. A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Dept. o f F o r e s t r y , Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y of Carbondale, Carbondale, I l l i n o i s , 62901. Costea, D . . D i r e c t o r of Parks and R e c r e a t i o n , Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Dept., P.O. Box 1790, Regina^ Sask. C o t t r e l l , R i c h a r d L.. C h i e f , Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , Land Between the l a k e s , Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y , Golden Pond, Kentucky, 42231. D * A l t r o y , Win. Burnaby Horseowners A s s o c i a t i o n . D i r e c t o r , Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Dept., Langley Dunne, Damian. Land Management and Development Dept. B.C. Hydro Emrick, L a r r y .  Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s A s s o c i a t i o n  Farmer, Ron. Track Manager and Clubs Member o f B.C. Custom Car A s s o c i a t i o n Gibson, Bob.  Parks O p e r a t i o n , G.V.R.D.  Hendricks, Barbara.  Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Dept., Burnaby  K r a t z e r , Pete. S a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r Yamaha Motor Canada L t d . , Western Branch L a k i n g , George. Alderman f o r P o r t Coquitlam, Lower Mainl a n d Parks A d v i s o r y A s s o c i a t i o n Committee member. L e a t , Jane. Park Planner, Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department, Borough of E t o b i c o k e , O n t a r i o .  109  Levy, Walt.  President  o f A l d e r g r o v e Motocross Club.  Lowes, Bryan, M o t o r c y c l e P a r t s , Dept. of Motor V e h i c l e s , P r o f e s s i o n a l D r i v e r Centre, B.C. S a f e t y C o u n c i l , Delta. M a l l e t t , Ron. P r e s i d e n t , A l b e r t a Region Canadian Motorc y c l e A s s o c i a t i o n , 24, H i l l e r y Ores. S.W., Calgary Alberta. Marston, R,E.. S u p e r v i s o r Revenue A c c o u n t i n g and Inventory U n i t , Motor V e h i c l e Branch, V i c t o r i a , B.C. McGavin, Bruce, Parks Department, GVRD Myers, R.V.. Head, Regulations Motor V e h i c l e T r a f f i c Ottawa, Ontario  Enforcement, Road and S a f e t y , Transport Canada,  Rasor, Robert, A s s o c i a t i o n D i r e c t o r , L e g i s l a t i v e Department, American M o t o r c y c l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , P.O. Box, 141, W e s t e r v i l l e , Ohio, 43081 RCMP. R e c e p t i o n i s t f o r Coquitlam Detachment. Waznay and Sweet.  Corporals  Shay, R u s s e l l . E d i t o r , the ORV MONITOR" ( p u b l i s h e d by the S i e r r a Club) 5 3 0 Bush S t . , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , 94108. S a d l e r , Roger. S a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , Tonka Motorcycle S a l e s L t d . , Vancouver. Seddon, A l a n .  P r e s i d e n t , Westwood M o t o r c y c l e B l u b .  S t a n b e r r y , F r e d W. D i r e c t o r , W i l d l i f e Management D i v i s i o n , F l o r i d a Game and Fresh Water F i s h Commission, 620 South M e r i d i a n , Bryant B u i l d i n g , T a l l e h a s s e e , F l o r i d a 32304 T a y l o r , Don., Taylormotive S e r v i c e L t d . , North Vancouver. T a y l o r , Janna. R e c r e a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n Centre Tyre, Torn? t r a i l  D i r e c t o r , Port  Coquitlam  biker  Watts, J.D. Chairman, Task Force on M u l t i p l e Use of Watersheds o f Community Water S u p p l i e s , Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Branch, Department o f the Environment, B.C.  110  Wolfe, L a r r y . Long Range P l a n n e r s , P l a n n i n g Dept. D i s t r i c t of Coquitlam.  APPENDICES  112 APPENDIX 1 ESTIMATION OP NUMBER OP TRAIL BIKES  Two approaches were used, both u s i n g percentage brea-k-downs s u p p l i e d by the motorcycle i n d u s t r y .  The f i r s t  approach uses Motor V e h i c l e L i c e n s i n g Branch r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r motorcycles and e x t r a p o l a t e s cycles.  t o o f f - r o a d motor-  The second approach computes from incomplete s a l e s  d&ta a t o t a l s a l e s f i g u r e f o r the l a s t f i v e years which i s an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e average l i f e span o f an o f f - r o a d b i k e . METHOD l i  USING MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSING BRANCH REGISTRATION FIGURES  1  a) R e g i s t r a t i o n and L i c e n s i n g of motorcyclest The  province  o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l  m o t o r c y c l e s r i d d e n on t h e p u b l i c highway be r e g i s t e r e d , l i c e n s e d and i n s u r e d . to off-road b i k e s i  These three s t i p u l a t i o n s do n o t apply  the 1972 A l l T e r r a i n V e h i c l e s A c t a t the  time o f w r i t i n g a p p l i e s o n l y t o snowmobiles. R e g i s t r a t i o n o f a motorcycle r e q u i r e s a b i l l o f s a l e and  a s m a l l f e e ($1 i n 1976).  assigned  The r e g i s t r a t i o n number then  t o the b i k e on payment o f t h i s f e e i s kept on micro-  f i l m by t h e MVLB.  R e g i s t r a t i o n occurs only once f o r each  •'•Supplied by t h e S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n o f the MVLB i n Victoria.  113  b i k e , and the r e g i s t r a t i o n number i s t r a n s f e r a b l e t o a new owner. sold.  Often a dealer w i l l r e g i s t e r a bike before i t i s Registration  i s surrendered when a b i k e i s sent f o r p  scrap,  suggested t h a t 6% o f r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s  Qne< source  are n o t i n use f o r amy purpose.  Although o f f - r o a d b i k e s do  not have t o be r e g i s t e r e d , many a r e as t h i s p r o v i d e s proof of ownership s h o u l d t h e b i k e be s t o l e n . Licensing  occurs a n n u a l l y .  To be l i c e n s e d a motor-  c y c l e has t o be s t r e e t l e g a l , i . e . i t has t o pass a P r o v i n c i a l t e s t by meeting c e r t a i n standards such as having t u r n and  lights.  Licensed  license plates.  signals  b i k e s must be i n s u r e d and d i s p l a y  Road b i k e s which a r e n o t r i d d e n  on the r o a d  thus do n o t have t o be l i c e n s e d . MVLB l i c e n s i n g f i g u r e s d i f f e r markedly from r e g i s tration figures.  I n B.C. i n 1974 there were l e s s than h a l f  as many l i c e n s e d motor b i k e s as there were r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s (21,184 l i c e n s e d b i k e s v e r s u s 54,186 r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s ) . 1 9 7 5 . t h e number o f r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s had i n c r e a s e d ,  In  but the  number o f l i c e n s e d b i k e s had decreased (19,971! l i c e n s e d b i k e s versus 62,370 r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s ) .  The drop i n l i c e n s e d motor-  c y c l e s probably r e f l e c t s the i n c r e a s e street legal bikes.  i n insurance r a t e s f o r  The d i f f e r e n c e between the two f i g u r e s  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y correspond t o the a c t u a l number o f o f f 2 Bryan Lowes, B.C. S a f e t y  Council.  114 road b i k e s f o r the same reason, and because some o f f - r o a d b i k e s are r e g i s t e r e d as s t a t e d b e f o r e . b) How  the R e g i s t r a t i o n F i g u r e s were used i n the  trail  bike calculation. The MVLB have compiled  r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s by  Motor V e h i c l e L i c e n s i n g D i s t r i c t o n l y f o r 1974 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the motorcycle  and 1975.  A  industry-^ estimates t h a t f o r  every 1000 r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s there are 300 u n r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s t h a t are r i d d e n ©ff the road.  In a d d i t i o n , 2 0 % of the b i k e s  t h a t are r e g i s t e r e d are r i d d e n o f f the r o a d .  This implies  t h a t t a k i n g 5 0 % of the number of r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s w i l l g i v e , an estimate  of the number of o f f - r o a d b i k e s .  ment to the r e l i a b i l i t y  of u s i n g 5 0 % was  Some r e i n f o r c e -  g i v e n by another  4 sales representative  i n a separate i n t e r v i e w , who  45-50% of motorcycles  are ORRBs.  estimated  These computations a r e performed on the r e l e v a n t r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by the MVLB f o r 1974 and the r e s u l t s a r e shown i n Table A - l and A - l l . seen from these t a b l e s , t h e r e was  a 12.3%  number of ORRBs over the two y e a r s . t r e n d c o n t i n u e d to 1976 the 1975  _ v  and  1975,  As can  be  i n c r e a s e i n the  I f i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s  then, by a p p l y i n g t h i s percentage to  f i g u r e s , i t i s estimated  t h a t t h e r e were 17,465  Tom Tyre, F r e d Deeley Imports, Richmond  ^Roger S a d l e r , Tonka Motorcycle  S a l e s L t d . , Vancouver  TABLE A -,T MOTORCYCLE REGISTRATION:'. - 1974 (Number o f Machines i n Lower F r a s e r  1  DISTRICT NAME  POPULATION  # REGISTERED 2. M/C  Abbotsford  1,010  Valley)  EST #' UNREG 3 ORRB*  EST # REG WORRB  TOTAL # o ORRB  303.0  202.0  505.0  35.1  23.4  58.5 117.0.  PARTICIPATION RATE (7„)  Agassiz  117 '  Aldergrove  234  : 70.2  46.8  2,769  ' 830.7  553.8  1,384.5  1,366  409.8  273.2  683.0  1,154  346.2  230.8  577.0  Haney  730  219.0  146.0  365.0  Hope  186  55.8-  37.2  93.0  Mission  357  107.1  71.4  178.5  126,240  3,023  906.9  604.6  1,511.5  1.2  126,145 '  2,434  730.2  486.8 •  .1,217.0  1.0  134  40.2  26.8  67.0  2,104  631.2  420.8  1,052.0  230  69.0  46.0  115.0  98,600  2,498  749.4  499.6  1,249.0  1.3  426,260  6,940  3,470.  0.8  Burnaby  125,660  Chilliwack Clovcrdale (Includes Langley)  New Westminster ( I n c l . P.C., C ,  26,615  P.M.)  North & West Vancouver P o i n t Roberts, U.S.A. Richmond & D e l t a  107,980 '  Squamish ( I n c l . Pcmb.) Surrey Vancouver TOTAL  25,386  1,388.  7,535.8  5,057.2  1971 Census T r a c t s ff \ Motor V e h i c l e L i c e n s i n g B r . -12,643 '••-12,643 "300 f o r every 1000 ( o r 307. of. t o t a l ) r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s a r e u n r e g i s t e r e d o f f - r o a d b i k e s " . Tom T y r e , 1'red D a c l c y Imports, Richmond. "207. of r e g i s t e r e d highway b i k e s a r e r i d d e n o f f - r o a d " , Tom T y r e . 5  2. 3.  2,082.  2.2  1.0  12,643.0 5. 507. o f t o t a l r e g i s t e r e d b i k e s = of ORRB. (Tom T y r e ) ( v e r i f i e d by 'Roger S a d l e r ( S a l e s Reo. w i t h Tonka)"50-557. M/C r i d d e n o f f ' road") * O R R B = OFF-ROAD RECREATION Blue  TABLE-A-fl • MOTORCYCLE REGISTRATIONS - 1975 (Number of Machines i n Lower Fraser Valley) DISI  NAME  POPULATION  Abbbtoford  1  # REGISTERED $. M/C  EST // UNREG 3> EST •// REG 4 ORRB* ORRB  TOTAL # $ ORRB  1,152  345.6  230.4  Aggasiz'  576.0  135  40.5  27.0  Aldcrgrovc  67.5  285  85.5  57.0  142.5  3,074  922.2  614.8  1,537. •  1,592  477.6  318.4  796.  1,193  357.9  238.6  596.5  253.2  168.8  422.  Eurnr.by  125,660  Chilliwack Ciovcrcale (Includes Langley)  26,615  PARTICIPATION RATS (%)  1.2  2.2  Haney  844 '  Hope  210  63.0  42.0  Mission  105.  401  120.3  80.2  200.5 .  126,240  3,295  988.5  659.0  . 1,647.5  1.3  126,145  2,666  799.8  533.2  1,333.0  •1.1  170  51.0  34.0  2,342  702.6  468.4  270  81.0  54.  98,600  2,880  864.0  576.0  1,440.  1.5  426,260  7,889  2,366.7  ,577.8  3,944.5  0.9  23,393  8,5i'9.4  5,679.4  New Westminster (Incl, P.C, C , P.M.) North & V/est Vancouver Point Roberts, U.S.A. .Richmond ( & Delta)  107,980  Squainish (Incl. Pemb.) Surrey Vancouver TOTAL Sources:  Same as Table R - l ,  *  OFF Roni  ORRB =  REcREfi-rioig  507. 14,199 BIKE  \  14,199  .  85,0 1,171.  1.1  135.  14,199  11?  off-road bikes METHOD 2t  i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i n 1976.  USING MOTOR CYCLE SALES FIGURES There are s i x major :  d i s t r i b u t o r s i n the Lower  F r a s e r V a l l e y and each was contacted Unfortunately,  t o obtain sales f i g u r e s .  the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n  was n o t always  a v a i l a b l e i n the same form, and i n some cases i t was n o t available at a l l . To f i l l representative  i n the gaps, t h e e s t i m a t i o n  of a sales  o f one o f the s m a l l e s t d i s t r i b u t o r s t h a t two  o f the other d i s t r i b u t o r s s u p p l i e d t o 50$ o f the market, was used.  T r a i l b i k e s a l e s f i g u r e s f o r these two makes o f b i k e  were a v a i l a b l e f o r 197^ and 1975 and 1976, and t o t a l l e d 6755 for  the three year p e r i o d .  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the  total  number o f t r a i l b i k e s s o l d between 1974 and 1976 was approximately 13,510.  Two s o u r c e s ^  independently stated that  the l i f e span o f a m o t o r c y c l e i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e depending on use and c a r e , b u t on average i s about 5 y e a r s .  A  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from one o f the two major d i s t r i b u t o r s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t s a l e s f i g u r e s have been constant  i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s , b u t two f u r t h e r  sources^  have i m p l i e d t h a t s a l e s have decreased due t o l a c k o f d e s i g n a t e d t r a i l b i k e use a r e a s .  However, i f i t i s assumed t h a t  s a l e s f i g u r e s have been constant  i n the l a s t 5 y e a r s ,  then  t h i s suggests t h a t there are 22,517 t r a i l b i k e s c u r r e n t l y i n -'Tom Tyre, F r e d Deeley Imports, Richmond and Bryan Lowes, Dept. o f Motor V e h i c l e s , P r o f e s s i o n a l D r i v i n g C e n t r e , B.C. Safety Council. 7 'Don T a y l o r , T a y l o r m o t i v e L t d . , North Vancouver  118 use  i n t h e Lower F r a s e r  Valley.  These two approaches suggest t h a t the number o f t r a i l b i k e s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s somewhere between  17,500  and  22,500.  estimate o f  T h i s compares w i t h an independent  20-25,000  B.C. S a f e t y C o u n c i l .  t r a i l b i k e s made by Bryan Lowes of t h e H i s e s t i m a t i o n was based on the assump-  t i o n t h a t two t h i r d s of m o t o r c y c l e s a r e i n t h e Lower Mainl a n d and Vancouver I s l a n d .  I t should be p o i n t e d  out t h a t  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has c e n t r e d  on the number of b i k e s and n o t  the number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , although i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t a t any one time there w i l l be most f r e q u e n t l y one r i d e r p e r bike. ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCREPENCIES I t i s obvious t h a t both approaches d e s c r i b e d are based on many p o t e n t i a l l y w i l d l y i n a c c u r a t e  here  assumptions.  Regarding the use o f motor v e h i c l e l i c e n s i n g branch r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s j 1. As i m p l i e d e a r l i e r , t h e f a c t t h a t a b i k e i s r e g i s t e r e d does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t i t i s used. 2. J u s t because a b i k e was r e g i s t e r e d a t a MVLB r e g i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t i t i s s t i l l  i n use i n t h i s  area.  3. The estimates o f percentage breakdown of r e g i s t e r e d  119  b i k e s t h a t a r e r i d d e n o f f the road and u n r e g i s t e r e d o f f r o a d b i k e s may 4.  be  incorrect.  There i s no r e a l f o u n d a t i o n t o the r a t i o n a l e t h a t the  r e g i s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e from 1975 12.3#  i n c r e a s e from 1974  t o 1976  t o 1975.  was  the same as the  In f a c t two  have i m p l i e d t h a t the number of t r a i l b i k e s has T h i s may  two in  8 ,  decreased.  p o s s i b l y be a r e s u l t of l a c k of areas i n which to r i d e . Regarding  1.  sources ^  the use of s a l e s f i g u r e s t  A fundamental assumption  i a t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n was  that  out of s i x d i s t i r b u t o r s h e l d 50% of the t r a i l b i k e market the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  There i s no way  t o prove  this  with c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e data. 2.  As i m p l i e d e a r l i e r , the l i f e span of a b i k e can be  h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , and a l t h o u g h the use of the 5 years f i g u r e was  based  on two  t h a t t h i s was 3.  Independent e s t i m a t e s , both sources s t a t e d  purely a personal  The assumption  guess.  t h a t s a l e s f i g u r e s have remained c o n s t a n t  over the p a s t 5 y e a r s does n o t concur w i t h the 12.3$ i n o f f r o a d b i k e s from 1974 tion figures. t h a t two  t o 1975  computed u s i n g r e g i s t r a -  Nor does i t concur w i t h the p o i n t a l r e a d y made  sources have independently s t a t e d t h a t motorcycle  s a l e s have decreased.  One  source  1 0  expressed t h i s as a  i n the motorcycle i n d u s t r y , although he f e l t Q Bryan Lowes, B.C. S a f e t y C o u n c i l Q 7  Bryan  Lowes, B.C.  Safety Council  'lull*  t h e r e had been  Don T a y l o r , Taylormotive L t d . , North Vancouver  1 G  increase  120  an i n c r e a s e i n the use  of motorcycles f o r t r a n s p o r t , and  t r e n d towards dual purpose b i k e s .  The  other*  " r e c r e a t i o n b i k e s a l e s have gone down" due designated  Don  1  stated that  to "the l a c k of  areas".  T a y l o r , Taylor-motive  a  L t d . , North Vancouver.  APPENDIX I I AREAS IN THE STUDY AREA CURRENTLY IN USE BY TRSIL BIKERS  AREAS USED FOR VEHICULAR RECREATION F l Q U R E G-V-R-B-  A ~ l  ffecgERTIONt  FRCILI  E5  1N\|£NTO£V-, 5oHM£R W7k  ^jf Snowmobilng • Off road motorbiking • Four wheel driving  A —  Motor race tracks Vehicular trails  Some power rights-of-way (not illustrated)also are used  123 TABLE A-III • OFF-ROAD RECREATION VEHICLE USE AREAS IN LOWER FRASER VALLEY Sourcei MAP #  GVRD Outdoor Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Inventory, Summer 1976.  LOCATION  PRESENT USE  1  Cypress Bowl West Van.  Provincial park snowmobiling t r a i l bikes, 4 wheel drive  2  Burke Mountain Coquitlam  3  Westwood, Area above the Race Track and gravel pits to West of Coquitlam River Coquitlam  Regional park snowmobiling, cross country skiing, t r a i l bikes, hiking 4 wheel drives Westwood Race Track used for competitions. B.C. Hydro R/W provides access  4  Eagle Ridge/ Cypress Lake Area of Eagle Mountain Electoral Area B and Coquitlam  5  B.C. hydro Thermal Plant, loco Electroal Area B  6  Vancouver Heights Park-present Burnaby t r a i l bike use not confirmed  PROBLEMS -conflict with cross country skiers - ORRV/ATV o f f i c i a l l y banned but area not effectivplv r>n"Hr»or1 ww  \J -i. t  L^-i_jr  XT  %t  - user conflict - terrain damage especially by 4 wheel drive - lease for Westwood . Race track expires 1981, and i s not to be renewed. - some residential complaints, envirDnniPntfl 1  rip mn era  B.C. Hydro R/W, -no police force/fire t r a i l bikes, k protection wheel drive and some road (highway) bikes on access road along edge of power 1ini t r a i l bikes -noise, no police force or f i r e protection in electoral' area B since i t i s  unnrcanl r o r l  - near residential area but background noise is high due to waterfront industry, r a i l tracks and Narrows Bridge. __  124  MAP #  LOCATION  PRESENT USE  7  Burnaby Mountain near S.P.U., h i k e r s Burnaby t r a i l bike use, k wheel d r i v e  8  Burnaby Lake Burnaby  9  University Endowment Lands Vancouver  10  11  12  13.  Regional park, h i k e r s , t r a i l bikes SE corner of Lnk« H i k e r s , k whhel drive, t r a i l bike  Blue Mountain Maple Ridge  PROBLEMS ORRV banned but no e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g - user finnf* 1 1 r>ta  ORRV/ATV banned but no e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g - user conflicts user c o n f l i c t noise environmental H a mo era uaniag^tT.«.  Forest S e r v i c e has designed and i a c o n s t r u c t i n g snowmobile t r a i l s Separate from cross country s k i t r a i l s Sea and Iona h i k e r s , t r a i l b i k e s , user c o n f l i c t s , Islands Dykes dune buggies noise scares b i r d s to the North of dyke damage Sea I s l a n d Richmond Kerr Dump t r a i l b i k e s - use near r e s i d e n t i a l Vancouver may have been d i s area continued bikes have been banned J u l y 1975, but p o l i c i n g not effective. i n v e r g a r r y Park Abandoned g r a v e l t e r r a i n damage Surrey p i t wa3 designated hear r e s i d e n t i a l f o r t r a i l bikes but area bikes have discontinued Feb. 76 been banned but May not be enforced p o l i c i n g not effective Big Bend Area T r a i l bikes were t e r r a i n damage Burnaby some plans to d e s i g nate areas but some t e r r a i n damage so 3JLiiia.t.ioxL_no.t clsar. /\nnacis I s l a n d Sewera e and i n d u s t - c o n f l i c t with i n I3elta t i a l use, dune buggies dustrial I S C not C f l n f 1 r m o r l -development I2nd of l6oth r r a i l bikes in residential I^ve. near Trans area cCanada Highway Surrey J* ± \s \* V _. V  15 16  •  O  125 MAP #  LOCATION  17  Burns Bog Landf i l l Area Delta  18  Sumas Mt. Sumas  19  Gravel pit on Jackman Road Langley  20  Port Moody Port Moodv Blair Rifle Range .North V f l n i M i n v p r Vedder Mt. T r a i l Chilliwack  21  22 23  Stride Pit Burnaby  24  Mosquito Creek N. Vancouver Above the ceraetry -N. Vnnnnnver Westview Shopping Centre N. Vannouvflr Trails adjacent to Montecito Housing Division Burnaby Douglas Forest Unorganized  25 26  27 28  29 30  Dept. of Defence area CMlliwaftk Cheam/Mt. Thurston unorganized  PRESENT USE T r a i l bikes. Part of Burns bog may be designated -discussion underway. 4 wheel drive, t r a i l bikes, Regional Park T r a i l bikes, Aldergrove Motorcycle club are drawing up lease with Langley Township. Scrambling area for motorbikes Dept. of Defense use not confirmed Hiking t r a i l provided by Provincial Parks Branch Gravel p i t and dump t r a i l bikes t r a i l bikes, hiking t r a i l bikes  PROBLEMS  user conflict  Conflict between hikers and t r a i l b ikers Conflict between t r a i l bikes and residential arpa user conflict  t r a i l bikes, shopping t r a i l bikes  snowmobiles B.C. Hydro rightof wav snowmobiles Dept. of Defence t r a i l bikes, snowshoeing, snowmobiles logging road, 4 wheel drives  noise  unlimited access jurisdiction jurisdiction unreliable snowfall  126 MAP #  32 33 n li  3^ 35 30  37  38  39  ^0 Ji 1 .  H-l TTO  4-2  LOCATION  PRESENT USE  Chilliwack Lake unorganized  some trail bikes hiking, camping, canoeing in summer snowmobiling in winter  Silver Creek/ Ross Lake unorganized Wahleach Creek unorganized  Bnowmobiles,  hiking, fishing logging road  PROBLEMS 4 wheel drives vs. snowmobiles use recreational conflicts not a very "Challenging" area for snowmobiles , access u n r e l i a b l e snow  snowmobiles,  trail bikes hiking, fishing, boating snowmobiles  Mt. Woodside Kent Chehalis area snowmobiles watershed a r e a unorganized S. o f Canada Games .•Brail bikes, environmental Pool, S. of 6 t h , mini bikes degradation user E. of McBride conflict New Westminster ' Along Brunette trail.bikes environmental River B. Hume degradiation Park and Burnaby user conflict Lake New Westminter Burnabv Port Mann Bridge/ mini bikes, recreational use P 0 C 0 Trail hiking conflict environPort Coquitlam fishing mental deerpfia + i <-m bewer Easement N. trail bikes noise of Broadway/E. of Springer Burnaby Nr. Third St. Park trail bikes West Vancouver Deas Island trail bikes Delta Blackie Spit trail bikes, recreational use Surrey beach activities conflict, trail waterfowl watching bikes banned inGarbage Dump nr. trail b i k e s Livingston Equesttrian Centre Langley ~f  —  C ~t T V P  T\r\  1 1  n ^ M r r  12?  MAP #  LOCATION  PRESENT USE  ^5  Davis Lake Prov. Park Haney  46  Gravel area owned by Andy Sterloff West Vancouver  47  Roaring Creek/ Norrish Creek Area unorganized  A  loco Observed Trials Area  B  Westwood Road Racing Track  C  Richmond Go Kart Track  D  Langley Stock Car Speedway  E  Aldergrove Motocross Track  F  Mission Motocross Track and Drag Strip  G  Agassiz Motocross Race Track  4 wheel drive water orientated activities  t r a i l bikers  snowmobiles B.C. Hydro right of way  PROBLEMS l i t t e r problem created by young adults, clean-up by 4 wheel drivers in exchange for use of the area owner lives on Bowen Island won't s e l l area used by his children limited acess jurisdiction  TABLE A-IV Source:  INFORMATION ABOUT RACE TRACKS  COMPETITION TRAIL BIKE FACULTIES IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY  G.V.R.D. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Inventory.  IOCO  AGASSIZ RACE TRACK  Summer 1976.  MISSION RACEWAY '  Size  150 acres  20 acres  48 acres  Type of Track  Trials  Motocross  Motocross  Drag  D e s c r i p t i o n of Track  Not r e a l l y a C i r c u i t : Hydro Right of Way  1 1/4 mi. Sand and D i r t 14 turns & 9 jumps  Approximately 1 mi. d i r t  3800' paved  No. o f Race Meets Per Year  1 per Month during Sept.June  3-6  8 Per Year  Other Events  Used Year Round Informally  Other Tracks o f Same Type i n Lower Mainland  None  Mission, Aldergrove  Agassiz, Aldergrove  Nearest Other Track  Victoria  E i t h e r of Above  E i t h e r of Above  Per Year  ALDERGROVE RACE TRACK  80-100 acres  Strip  Motocross  1 1/4 mi. Unpaved, 2 mi. of T r a i l s , Gravel P i t  14 Max. Per Y r . Depends on Weather  Once a Month Tho' Require Permission T i l l Become R e g i s t e r e d  "Grudge Race" etc.  Informal Use Most  None  Agassiz, Mission  ro  E i t h e r of Above  1  oo-  129  APPENDIX I I I SUMMARY OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STUDY AREAi  T h i s i s n o t so much an i n v e n t o r y as a summary o f how some o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have d e a l t with the t r a i l b i k i n g problem.  I t i s based l a r g e l y on i n t e r v i e w s and docu-  ments r e c e i v e d by t h e GVRD as p a r t o f a R e c r e a t i o n and F a c i l i t i e s Inventory conducted by the P l a n n i n g Department d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1976.  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s are dealt with  alphabetically. 1. BURNABY The m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby has looked i n t o t h e problem o f t r a i l b i k e s i n some d e * a i l , l a r g e l y i n response t o complaints from r e s i d e n t s about n o i s e c r e a t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r areas such as around Burnaby Mountain, the S t r i d e Dump and Burnaby Lake t r a i l s .  Burnaby has an a n t i - n o i s e by-law* w i t h  which the m o t o r c y c l i s t s must comply equipped w i t h proper m u f f l e r s ' .  'which i s i n essence b e i n g  Noise has been quoted as  b e i n g the c e n t r a l problem i n the i s s u e o f t r a i l b i k e s i n •a k Burnaby.-" The Muncipal Manager concluded i n h i s r e p o r t t o 1  B u r h a b y Noise o r Sound Abatement By-law 1972 #6052 administ e r e d by Burnaby H e a l t h Department.  RCMP r e p o r t on an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a complaint about t r a i l b i k e s on A p r i l 2 7 . 1976 quoted i n Burnaby Munic. C o u n c i l Meeting May 10th 1976. •^Report t o Parks and R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r from D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , Burnaby r e a r e p o r t on the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a mechanical park i n Bby., August 2 1 s t , 1974. Report t o t h e M u n i c i p a l Manager, Corp. o f D i s t r i c t o f Bby. from OI/C, Burnaby Dept. RCMP r e l i c e n s i n g o f o f f - s t r e e t r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s , August 12th, 1975. 2  130 c o u n c i l on May 10th,  1975  thati^  "the o p e r a t i o n of o f f - s t r e e t motor v e h i c l e s r e q u i r e s more c o n t r o l than a Noise Bylaw" He a t t r i b u t e d the l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o i s e  by-laws  t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of apprehension, and  the manpower r e q u i r e d .  to p r o p e r t y ,  trespass  He a l s o made r e f e r e n c e s  t o damage  andeconflicting recreational use.  . He noted t h a t i "the r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f V e h i c l e s has i n c r e a s e d from a modest b e g i n n i n g t o a major a c t i v i t y and t h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l no doubt c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e i n the future." He  concluded t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n t o " t h i s complex problem"  w i l l require a co-ordinated  i n p u t from s e v e r a l  municipal  departments. C o u n c i l , i n response t o t h i s r e p o r t d i r e c t e d the Manager t o form a committee o f s t a f f t o study the matter and submit recommendations i n one month's time. representatives  A committee with  from t h e Buraaby Manager's O f f i c e , H e a l t h  Department, Parks and R e c r e a t i o n  Department, P l a n n i n g Depart-  ment, G.V.R.D., S.F.U., R.C.M.P., AND B.C. Hydro met on May  26th, 1976.  Reference was made a t t h a t meeting to the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e g u l a t i n g t r a i l b i k e s under the Burnaby Zoning By-law.Excessive  noise  ^Burnaby M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l Meetings Item 21 Manager's Report #31 May 10th, 1976, r e . "Operation o f O f f - s t r e e t motor© vehicles". ^Burnaby M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l 1976. Minutes of the committee meeting on May 26th, 19761 To c o n s i d e r problems r e l a t i n g t o the o p e r a t i o n o f o f f - s t r e e t v e h i c l e s .  131  " i s t h e primary reason f o r the e x c l u s i o n of ... (Mechanical park o p e r a t i o n ) ... from the uses p e r m i t t e d ... (by t h i s bylaw) ... i n o r d e r t o develop a mechanical park t h e r e f o r e an ammendment would be necessary t o the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . " There i s some q u e s t i o n as t o the l e g a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of u s i n g the same by-law t o ban t r a i l  bikes.  The committee unanimously agreed a t t h a t meeting that "a t o t a l ban s h o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d on the o p e r a t i o n o f o f f - s t r e e t v e h i c l e s everywhere i n Burnaby". T h i s c o n c l u s i o n concurs w i t h t h a t made i n 1974 r e p o r t entitled  'The P o s s i b i l i t y o f E s t a b l i s h i n g a Mechanical Park m  i n Burnaby*,  (  where t h e recommendation was made by the  D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g t h a t a mechanical park be n o t l o c a t e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y b u t t h a t the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission endorse the concept of e s t a b l i s h i n g a mechanical park a t the r e g i o n a l  facility  level.  .However, l a r g e l y i n response t o r e q u e s t s from the l o c a l motorcycle c l u b s and t h e Lower Mainland A d v i s o r y AssocQ  iation,  -  the Burnaby Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department looked  Buraaby M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g Dept. 1 9 7 4 . Report from t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g t o Parks and R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r Aug. 2 1 , 1 9 7 4 . 'Report from R i t c h i e Smith, Lower Mainland Parks A d v i s o r y A s s o c i a t i o n (LMPAA) t o the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission, Burnaby r e Mechanical Parks. J u l y 1 1 t h , 1 9 7 5 * and Minutes of LMPAA meeting on Get, 2 3 r d , 1975» Ladner Community C e n t r e .  132  i n t o designated motorcycle 1976.  areas i n Burnaby i n May and June  The Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission approved i n  principle  the p r o p o s a l f o r an area i n the B i g Bend Ar£a o f Q  Burnaby t o be d e s i g n a t e d as a mechanical  park.  7  As i m p l i e d  e a r l i e r , a r e p o r t from the p l a n n i n g department was submitted to C o u n c i l opposing  the mechanical  park a t the same time as  Parks and R e c r e a t i o n made t h i s d e c i s i o n .  No d e t a i l s were  worked out b y Parks and R e c r e a t i o n a t t h a t time as t o the o p e r a t i o n o f the park should the p r o p o s a l be accepted. However, i t probably would be under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Burnaby Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department, and probably by l o c a l motorcycle  clubs.  policed  1 0  Thus, i n summary, Burnaby has been f a c e d with a t r a i l b i k e use l e v e l w i t h i n i t s m u n i c i p a l boundaries cannot be i g n o r e d .  which  Separate m u n i c i p a l departments have  examined t h e problem u s i n g both the approach o f banning  trail  b i k e s by ammending the c u r r e n t m u n i c i p a l zoning b y l a w , and T  the approach o f accommodating ORRBs as a l e g i t i m a t e s p o r t by p r o p o s i n g the d e s i g n a t i o n o f a 75-80 a c r e t r a c t of i n d u s t r i a l 75-80 a c r e t r a c t of l a n d l y i n g between P a t t e r s o n and Sussex Road allowances, and south of B.C. Hydro Railway. The southern boundary i s t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . The area i s zoned i n d u s t r i a l and there a r e no r e s i d e n t i a l areas a d j a c e n t . The area t o t h e n o r t h i s proposed p a r k l a n d i n c l u d i n g a g o l f course and s p o r t s complex* the area a l o n g the r i v e r i s proposed l i n e a r p a r k l a n d i and f o r f o r e s h o r e r e c r e a t i o n u s e . Barbara Hendicks, Burnaby Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Dept. p e r s o n a l communication, J u l y 1976.  133  zoned l a n d i n t h e B i g Bend Area as a mechanical park,  probably  t o be under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department, b u t p o l i c e d by t h e l o c a l motorcycle  clubs,  This  p r o p o s a l , however, contravenes the c u r r e n t zoning by-law. 2. TOWNSHIP OF CHILLIWACK C h i l l i w a c k proposed a t r a i l b i k i n g a r e a a t Henderson Road, b u t t h i s p r o p o s a l can o n l y be implemented i f l a n d , c u r r e n t l y under t h e B.C. Land Commission j u r i s d i c t i o n i s released.  1 1  3. COQUITLAM Coquitlam  has w i t h i n i t s boundaries t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l  Burke Mountain area which i s a mountainous area a t p r e s e n t s u p p o r t i n g s e v e r a l s m a l l s c a l e l a n d uses such as l o g g i n g , mining, 3 5 h o l i d a y c a b i n s , a d i s u s e d s k i lodge and tows, s e v e r a l e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g snowmobiling, t r a i l b i k e r i d i n g , f o u r wheel d r i v e use, c r o s s c o u n t r y  ski-  i n g , and h i k i n g , a l o n g w i t h some s m a l l s c a l e i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s such as camping and f i s h i n g i n t h e two a l p i n e l a k e s on t h e p l a t e a u o f Burke Mountain.  A substantial  acreage ( 6 3 6 7 a c r e s ) o f the upper p a r t o f the mountain i s P r o v i n c i a l owned and due t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o GVRD ownership 1 1  F r o m i n t e r v i e w s conducted by GVRD R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s Inventory team, summer 1 9 7 6 .  134  i n 1978  as a R e g i o n a l Park.  Access t o t h i s a r e a , a t  p r e s e n t , i s by a steep graced, p o o r l y maintained g r a v e l road approximately 3.5 m i l e s longt  the upper p a r t o f which i s a t  b e s t f o u r wheel d r i v e s t a n d a r d .  The mixing of mechanized  and non-mechanized r e c r e a t i o n a l use has caused problems, and suggestions have been made t h a t some s o r t of temporal or s p a t i a l zoning i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o separate these two 12 forms o f a c t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l use, t h e r e has been a p r o p o s a l f o r a major housing development on the southern s l o p e s o f Burke Mountain i n c o n n e c t i o n with the Coquitlam R e g i o n a l Town Centre Development.  Such a r e s i d e n t i a l area  would probably not be compatable w i t h mechanized v e h i c l e use oiE the immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s . To the west o f Burke Mountain, on the other s i d e of the Coquitlam R i v e r , l i e s the 330 a c r e s o f Westwood Racetrack (see Table A - I V ) .  T h i s complex has a s m a l l paved Go-Kart  r a c e t r a c k p l u s a standard paved r o a d - r a c e t r a c k f o r motorcycle and s p o r t s c a r r a c i n g .  I t i s on Crown Land, and operated by  the S p o r t s Car Club o f B.C. w i t h sub-leases t o Westwood M o t o r c y c l e Club and B.C. K a r t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n .  (  There i s a l s o  some i n f o r m a l use o f t r a i l b i k e s . Boyde, J i m 1974. 'Burke Mt. - a study o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Conflicts: Snowmobiling and Cross country s k i - i n g . ' -^Alderman George L a k i n g , P o r t Coquitlam, p e r s o n a l communic a t i o n , June 1976.  135 However, the l e a s e f o r Westwood e x p i r e s i n 1981, and t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t w i l l n o t be renewed, -' 1  although Westwood Racetrack has been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1 9 5 9 . The main reason f o r t h i s i s the encroachment o f urban l a n d on t h i s once i s o l a t e d a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y by Coquitlam*s proposed  Regional Town Centre. A popular c h o i c e by t r a i l b i k e r s f o r l o c a t i o n  of a  d e s i g n a t e d area i s the area known as Eagle Ridge between 14 Buntzen Lake and Westwood Racetrack.  The t e r r a i n and  v e g e t a t i o n has a l r e a d y s u f f e r e d from l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s , the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a B.Cx Hydro s u b - s t a t i o n and " t r a i l b i k e u s e . T h i s has thus reduced uses.  i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r other r e c r e a t i o n a l  The F e d e r a t i o n o f Mountain Clubs of B.C. have  t h i s c h o i c e on t h e i r b r i e f t o the Lower Mainland  endorsed  Parks  A d v i s o r y A s s o c i a t i o n , June 1 9 7 5 . ^ Thus Coquitlam has p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r a mechanical park, b u t other l a n d p r e s s u r e s may r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y . 4. DELTA  •'  In D e l t a ' s Comprehensive P l a n f o r 1976,  i t was  ^ A l d e r m a n George L a k i n g , P o r t Coquitlam, p e r s o n a l communica. t i o n , June 1976. L a r r y Emrick, Canadian P a c i f i c Motorcycle T r i a l s Assoc., p e r s o n a l communication, August 1976. r ^LMPAA minutes of meeting October 23, 1975• Ladner Communi t y Centre, and F e d e r a t i o n o f Mt. Clubs o f B.C. 1975* • R e c r e a t i o n a l Uses o f t h e Lower Mainland Indian ArmH a r r i s o n . A b r i e f t o the LMPAA* June 10th, 1975. from the R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n Committee o f the FMBC.  1  136  s t a t e d that* "these v e h i c l e s (motorized r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s ) ... need t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a l e g i t i m a t e r e q u e s t f o r a r a p i d l y growing s p c i a l i n t e r e s t group" 5. ELECTORAL AREA B E l e c t o r a l Area B i s unorganized and thus has no f i r e or police services.  F o r these reasons, the r e s i d e n t s  of t h i s a r e a a r e most concerned  t h a t a mechanical park be  not l o c a t e d i n E l e c t o r a l Area B . ^ 1  6. LANGLEY The A l d e r g r o v e Motocross  Club (84 members) has  used an 80-100 a c r e g r a v e l a r e a , owned by Langley M u n i c i p a l i t y , f o r the p a s t t h r e e y e a r s .  Langley M u n i c i p a l i t y ' ' s t a t e d 1  t h a t they w i l l c o n s i d e r drawing up a l e a s e f o r t h i s area p r o v i d i n g t h a t the A l d e r g r o v e Motocross Club become r e g i s t e r e d under the S o c i e t y ' s A c t , and thus o b t a i n proper i n s u r a n c e , (see Table Racetrack). bikes.  A-IV f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about A l d e r g r o v e The a r e a i s used mostly by enduro and motocross  There a r e r a c e meetings once a month, b u t t h e r e i s  i n f o r m a l use almost every n i g h t . 1  6  17  'Columbian 'Residents Win B a t t l e of the B i k e s ' , Feb. 21, 1976. Parks and R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r , Langley. Communication, J u l y 1976.  Personal  137  7. NEW WESTMINSTER The Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department of New Westm i n s t e r r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r a t r a i l b i k e a r e a . 8. PORT COQUITLAM P o r t Coquitlam  Parks and R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r s t a t e d  i n J u l y 1976 t h a t P o r t Coquitlam had looked w i t h i n i t s boundaries  f o r a p o s s i b l e t r a i l b i k i n g s i t e , b u t had been 19  unable t o f i n d a n y t h i n g s u i t a b l e .  7  9. SURREY In response of  t o e x t e n s i v e use by t r a i l b i k e r s o f one  i t s M u n i c i p a l Parks, I n v e r g a r r y Park, S u r r e y Parks and  R e c r e a t i o n Dept. r e s e r v e d an a r e a w i t h i n the park f o r mechanical  v e h i c l e use. "... l e a v i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c i n g the group w i t h the u s e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s experiment proved u n s u c c e s s f u l as the o p e r a t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o u t i l i z e the e n t i r e park a r e a . " The park was c l o s e d permanently t o motorized  v e h i c l e s commencing February 29th, 1976, mainly  i n response  to  complaints by r e s i d e n t s around I n v e r g a r r y Park about abuse  of  p r o p e r t y , and d e s t r u c t i o n o f t r e e s and shtrubs, and because  of concern f o r s a f e t y f a c t o r s s i n c e the area i s s u b j e c t t o 75 I n t e r v i e w conducted by GVRD R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s Inventory ,Qteam, Summer 1976. ^ D i r e c t o r o f Parks and R e c r e a t i o n , P o r t Coquitlam, J u l y Q 1 9 7 6 , p e r s o n a l communication. Surrey Parks and Rec. Commission press r e l e a s e , May 21st, 1976 2  138  s e r i o u s mud s l i d e s .  The Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission  were unable t o e n f o r c e a t o t a l ban on v e h i c l e s i n t h i s particular the  park, and so S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l ammended  T r a f f i c S e c t i o n o f t h e i r Parks by-law designed to« 1. Give t h e Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission more d i r e c t c o n t r o l over i r r e g u l a t i o n s i n park a r e a s . 2. P r o v i d e a l e g a l document which w i l l a l l o w RCMP t o p r o s e c u t e offenders o f t h i s by-law. Thus S u r r e y M u n c i p a l i t y have attempted t o accommo-  date t r a i l b i k e s through t h e i r Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission but  C o n f l i c t w i t h r e s i d e n t s and i n e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g have  made t h e experiment a f a i l u r e . 10.  VANCOUVER The K e r r Road Dump i n Burnaby was used  extensively  by t r a i l b i k e s u n t i l they were o f f i c i a l l y banned, i n J u l y 1975»  as a r e s u l t o f n o i s e complaints from nearby  residents.  The K e r r Road Dump i s under t h e custody and c a r e o f Vancouver Parks Board. able to police  There a r e c e r t a i n  enforcement procedures a v a i l -  w i t h i n t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r by-lawsJ  1. Parks By-law 2. S t r e e t and T r a f f i c By-law #2849 3. Impounding By-law #3519 The enforcement o f t h i s ban i s w i t h i n the powers o f  139 the Vancouver p o l i c e , however, the main problem of e n f o r c e ment i n s i d e the dump i s the d i f f i c u l t y o f access f o r the police*  'Novel and unorthodox t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods 21  would be e s s e n t i a l ' . However, i n a r e p o r t by S i t c h i e Smith, a member of 22 the LMPAA,  i t was s t a t e d t h a t the C i t y o f Vancouver was  prepared t o commit both funds and man hours t o a s s i s t i n a p r o j e c t t o e s t a b l i s h a temporary mechanical park i n D e l t a o r t h e B i g Bend A r e a o f Burnaby. 11. WEST VANCOUVER West Vancouver has a t one time d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d e s i g n a t e d mechanical park.  There i s an  a r e a i n t h e western p a r t o f West Vancouver t h a t c o u l d be s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r t r a i l b i k e s , between the o l d highway and the Upper L e v e l s Highway, where v i s u a l and n o i s e impacts can be minimized. -' 2  However, West Vancouver a l s o has an  a n t i - n o i s e by-law which would probably have t o be overcome i f such an a r e a was d e s i g n a t e d .  R e p o r t t o Superintendent T. Herdman from Sgt. Chernoff, PC 315 James E. Johnson and PC 107D. Duthie, D i s t r i c t 3* CPU Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e , re 'Kerr Road Dump - Evaluat i o n of Enforcement* June 11th, 1975. * R i t c h i e Smith, LMPAA, report to the Parks and Rec. ^Commission, Burnaby r e . Mechanical Parks, J u l y 11th, 1975. ^Outdoor Recreation Council 19?6, minutes of 'Urban T r a i l s Meeting* co-ordinated by the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. on Monday Feb. 16th, 1976. £A  APPENDIX IV CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED IN RATING LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS C r i t e r i a a r i s i n g out of the f a c t o r s of e r o s i o n and compaction caused by t r a i l b i k e s have been  identified.  These aret 1. p o t e n t i a l water i n f i l t r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n properties of the s o i l s .  Hydrologic  s o i l groups can be used  to estimate t h e a b i l i t y of water t o move i n t o and through a s o i l , and hence r u n - o f f p o t e n t i a l . (Hawes, 1975)* groups d e s c r i b e  the minimum r a t e of i n f i l t r a t i o n  f o r a bare s o i l a f t e r prolonged w e t t i n g . d e v i s e d by USDA S o i l Conservation  Hydrologic obtained  These have been  S e r v i c e , S o i l Survey Hand-  book, 1971. The groups aret GROUP A - s o i l s having h i g h i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s even when t h o r o u g h l y wetted, c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y of deep, w e l l t o r a p i d d r a i n e d sands and or g r a v e l . These s o i l s have a h i g h r a t e o f water t r a n s m i s s i o n and t h e r e f o r e low r u n - o f f p o t e n t i a l . GROUP B - s o i l s having moderate i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s when thoroughly wetted, c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y of modera t e l y deep t o deep,moderately w e l l t o w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s w i t h moderately f i n e t o moderately course t e x t u r e s . S o i l s have a moderate r a t e of water t r a n s m i s s i o n . GROUP C - s o i l s having slow i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s when thoroughly wetted, c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y o f , 1. s o i l s w i t h a l a y e r t h a t impedes downward movement o f water. 2. s o i l s w i t h moderately f i n e t o f i n e t e x t ure, slow i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s , and slow r a t e s o f water t r a n s m i s s i o n .  141 GROUP D - s o i l s h a v i n g v e r y slow i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s when thoroughly wetted c o n s i s t i n g of c h i e f l y 1. c l a y s o i l s with h i g h s w e l l i n g p o t e n t i a l 2. s o i l s w i t h a h i g h permanent water t a b l e 3. s o i l s w i t h a c l a y pan o r c l a y l a y e r a t o r near the s u r f a c e . 4. s h a l l o w s o i l s over n e a r l y impervious materials. Very slow r a t e s of water t r a n s m i s s i o n and h i g h r u n - o f f p o t e n t i a l . 2. Surface  s o i l s t a b i l i t y , or s o i l cohesion.  Soil  s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y i s the r e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e o f s o i l i c l e s to detachment and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . i s determined by i n h e r e n t and  Surface  stability  s o i l p r o p e r t i e s such as t e x t u r e  s t r u c t u r e (water s t a b l e aggregates),  the p r o t e c t i v e v e g e t a t i o n  part-  cover.  topography and by  S o i l surface s t a b i l i t y i s  i n t e r p r e t e d l a r g e l y from s o i l t e x t u r e , assuming some veget a t i o n disturbance. textured for  Well graded g r a v e l s and moderately f i n e  loams, because o f t h e i r coarseness and p o t e n t i a l  s t r u c t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y are considered  ations.  Both coarse t e x t u r e d  cohesive  p r o p e r t i e s , and f i n e t e x t u r e d  t o have few l i m i t -  sands and loamy sands which l a c k s i l t s and c l a y s with  l o o s e c o h e s i o n on s a t u r a t i o n and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o f r o s t deformation, a r e c o n s i d e r e d ation to s o i l s t a b i l i t y . 3. L i t t e r ive  l a y e r depth.  t o have a higher  degree of l i m i t -  (Hawes, 1975). The l i t t e r l a y e r forms a p r o t e c t -  cover over the s o i l s u r f a c e , and i s an important  consider-  a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g the s u r f a c e s o i l e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l . L i t t e r l a y e r depths v a r y with water regime, the angle of  142  s l o p e and 4.  1975)  r e c e n t v e g e t a t i o n h i s t o r y . (Hawes  Compactability.  Soil  of s o i l s t r u c t u r e , and t i o n r a t e s of s o i l s . erosion increases.  compaction (the b r e a k i n g  s o i l p o r e s ) , decreases the  down  infiltra-  Consequently s u r f a c e r u n - o f f  and  Compaction can be caused by r a i n f a l l  bare s o i l , or t r a i l b i k e s r i d i n g over the s u r f a c e of s o i l , or t r a m p l i n g .  The  soils  a t the time of d i s t u r b a n c e .  s o i l moisture  Very wet  are g e n e r a l l y more e a s i l y compactable.  t u r e d g r a v e l s , sands and  the  degree to which a s o i l i s s u s c e p t i b l e  t o compaction depends upon s o i l t e x t u r e and content  or v e r y  sandy loams g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e  have i n c r e a s e d l i m i t a t i o n s . (Hawes, Slope.  Slope i s one  off,  silts  1975)  With u n d i s t u r b e d  vegetation  w i l l be porous enough to have l i t t l e s u r f a c e  even on s t e e p e r s l o p e s .  However, w i t h s o i l  and v e g e t a t i o n d e s t r u c t i o n by t r a i l b i k e s , the c a p a c i t y i s decreased and  erosion p o t e n t i a l .  run-  compaction infiltration  the drainage p a t t e r n i n t e r r u p t e d .  As a r e s u l t , s t e e p e r s l o p e s have an i n c r e a s e d  few  few  of the most important determinants  of s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l . most s o i l s  dry  Coarse tex-  l i m i t a t i o n s , w h i l e moderately f i n e t e x t u r e d loams and  5.  on  Slopes of <15#  surface  are o f t e n quoted as  having  l i m i t a t i o n s t o r e c r e a t i o n a l use t h a t might induce e r o s i o n ,  s l o p e s >JOfo are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  to have severe  limit-  143  a t i o n s . (Hawes, 1975) 6.  Depth o f Bedrock.  s t a b l e than deep.  Shallow s o i l s  are o b v i o u s l y l e s s  Townshend (1974) r e p o r t e d s o i l s  o f < lm  as b e i n g s e v e r e l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o e r o s i o n by t r a m p l i n g . S o i l s >2m are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o have few l i m i t a t i o n s ( B r i e r e , 1975) 7.  V e g e t a t i o n Cover.  stability  V e g e t a t i o n cover i n c r e a s e s s o i l  by the b i n d i n g e f f e c t s o f r o o t s and the c o n t r i b u -  t i o n t h a t the v e g e t a t i o n makes towards o r g a n i c matter c o n t e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o Brander (1974), s o i l e r o s i o n does not become a problem u n t i l  ground v e g e t a t i o n cover i s l e s s than 70%.  8. R a i n f a l l .  R a i n f a l l may induce s u r f a c e e r o s i o n i f t h e  i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e o f the s o i l i s exceeded, thus the and frequency o f r a i n f a l l more important 9.  intensity  ( i e . i t s seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n ) i s  than the mean annual  Stoniness of rockiness.  precipitation,  Coarse fragments,  stones o r  rocks c o u l d pose a s a f e t y hazard t o t r a i l b i k e r s .  Stoniness  r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f stones over 10 inches i n diameter  i n o r on the s o i l .  10. P r o x i m i t y t o streams, r i v e r s and l a k e s . can cause s e r i o u s s i l t a t i o n thus the hydrology  Soil  erosion  problems i n nearby water b o d i e s ,  o f the a r e a must be c o n s i d e r e d .  144  These f a c t o r s i n Hawes (1975).  are rated  using three classes  defined  These are*  None t o s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n - i f t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s , they w i l l be g e n e r a l l y easy t o overcome without s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g or management procedures. Moderate l i m i t a t i o n s - l i m i t a t i o n s which can g e n e r a l l y be overcome w i t h good p l a n n i n g , design o r management. Severe l i m i t a t i o n - even w i t h good p l a n n i n g and management the l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o overcome. Areas w i t h severe l i m i t a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s p e c i a l and c o s t l y procedures t o make the landscape u n i t s s u i t a b l e f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose. Thus s o i l survey data c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n pertaining  t o the 10 l i s t e d  criteria  can be i n t e r p r e t e d  to  c l a s s i f y landscapes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y t o support t r a i l b i k i n g based on t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s as o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e A-V.  H5 TABLE CitlTERIA  COKSIDLRBJ  IK  R A T I K G  n-y LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR  TRAIL• BTKK USff.  C A P A B I L I T Y  Contributing factors  -^Increasing Hone t o  slight  Severe  1. W a t e r ' i n f i l t r a t i o n & transmission (Hawes 1975)  high i n f i l t r a t i o n capacity high saturated c o n d u c t i v i t y hydrologic grouos: A B .  2.  S o i l surface stability  loams gravels  (Hawes  strong  1975)  3. L i t t e r l a y e r (Hawes 1975) 4.  Cornnactability (Hawes 1975)  5. S l o p e  %  (Hawes 1975)  >  20  s e v e r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n  low low  infiltration s a t . conduct.  C  c l a y loams clays sandy loams  loamy sands s i l t loams  sands silts  structure-  cm.  gravels sands  structureless C  .5 - 2 0 c m  loamy sands- c l a y s sandy loams  5cm.  s i l t s , loams, s i l t y loams, c l a y loams  > 30?5  0-5%  Deep 6.. Depth t o >Zvw Bedrock ( B r i e r e 1975 Townshend 197/J  Medium  Shallow  7.  Vegetation Cover(Brander  70-90;b  470^i  S.  Rainfall  9.  Stoniness or Rockiness (Briere 1975)  10,  Proximity to water b o d i e s  J 91-100^ 1974) Low, even d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout year  Medium, some s e a s o n a l i t y  U3DA S o i l S u r v e y Classes 1 & 2  \one  High, Sea s o n a l  USDA S o i l Survey Classes  3, 4, 5 Far  (distance'  Near  (distance?)  146  APPENDIX V SOILS AND VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE  I.  SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE F i g u r e A - 2 shows a s o i l map o f the e a s t e r n  of the proposed experimental s i t e . s o i l s e r i e s i s g i v e n i n Table A-VI. survey of the Maple Ridge, P i t t (B.C.  Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  description  of each s o i l  d e s c r i p t i o n and land u s e .  A description The r e p o r t  portion  of each  on the s o i l  Meadows and Coquitlam Area  1972) g i v e s a more d e t a i l e d  series including a typical  profile  14?  gure  A-2: SOIL  MAP  OF  EAGLE  RIDQE  Soils are described in Table A-VI 148 p  -  Transmission Station  ~ ~ scale o  n  i 1  1  looo I  o '  ,000 1  z  1_ 2000  1  M l l r E  |ooo  I METRES  \Source of Mapping Information» B . C Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, S o i l Map of Maple Ridge, P i t t Meadows, Coquitlam, A r e a , Sheet No, 1,  TABLE A-VI Source:  MAP SYMBOL  SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE  B.C. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l Map o f Maple.Ridge, P i t t Meadows, Coquitlam Area; Sheet No. 1  SOIL NAME  SOIL CLASSIFICATION (SSCC, Canada Dept. of A g r i c . 1 9 7 0 )  GE  GOLDEN EARS  ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL  . MODERATELY COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL  S  SAYRES  LITHIC ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL  COARSE AND MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL AND COLLUVIUM OVER BEDROCK  MODERATELY WELL DRAINED  WH  WHONNOCK  GLEYED ORTHIC HUMIC PODZOL  MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL  IMPERFECTLY DRAINED  CI  CARDINAL  ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL  MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL  MODERATELY WELL DRAINED  CE  CANNELL  LITHIC ORTHIC HUMOFERRIC PODZOL  COARSE AND MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL AND COLLUVIUM OVER BEDROCK  RAPIDLY DRAINED  ST  STEELIIEAD  GLEYED ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL  MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL  IMPERFECTLY DRAINED  EU  EUNICE  LITHIC FOLISOL  SHALLOW ORGANIC ACCUMULATION OVER BEDROCK  WELL AND RAPIDLY DRAINED  e f 8 G  -  SOIL PARENT MATERIAL  moderately r o l l i n g 9+ to 15% s l o p e ' strongly r o l l i n g . 15+ to 30% slope "illy 30+ to 60% s l o p e very s t e e p l y s l o p i n g - simple topo - single slopes  DRAINAGE  MODERATELY • WELL DRAINED  complex topo. m u l t i p l e slopes  149  I I . VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE Figure A-3 shows a vegetation map experimental given below.  site.  of the proposed  A description of each plant community i s  Hubbard and B e l l (1976) give a more d e t a i l e d  description of vegetation species present i n each community. 32. Epiloblum-Hvpochareis Cutover Logging has recently taken place, and p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s marsh and pond areas, created by impeded drainage, occur i n depressions.  The condition of the overstorey  varies with both s o i l moisture and time since logging. Recently logged areas have a few scattered veterans or species of immature q u a l i t y .  Older s i t e s are dominated by dense  stands of young red alder (Alnus rubra). with some broad leafed maple (Acer macrophyllum), and i n most areas  extensive  coniferous regeneration, usually Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and/or western hemlock (Tsuga heterophvlla). The shrub layer i s generally extensive.  The species  complement varies with elevation, s o i l moisture and topography.  The herb layer i s characterized by remnants of  species that occured under natural conditions, together with various weedy and/or introduced species. 46. Tsuga-Gaultheria  Upland Forest  The overstorey i s generally moderately open.  Western  150  Figure A-3 : VEQETAT10N MAP OF EAQLE RIDGE  Vegetation Communities: 32- Epilobium-Hypochareis cutover 46- Tsuga-QauLtheria upland forest  METRES  Source o f Mapping I n f o r m a t i o n i  Hubbard and B e l l , 1976.  151  hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) i s dominant, with s m a l l amounts of Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menzies&i) and some western r e d cedar  (Tsuga p l i c a t a ) *  dense,  The shrub l a y e r i s low and f a i r l y  S a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) i s dominant with  occas-  i o n a l dwarf w i l d r o s e (Rosa gymnocarpa) and r e d h u c k l e b e r r y (Vacciniumlparvifolium)« Abies-Tsuga  There i s e s s e n t i a l l y no herb l a y e r ,  Midslopes  Western hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) i s dominant, and  there are a l s o considerably q u a n t i t i e s of P a c i f i c  fir  (Abies a m a b i l i s ) and s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f western r e d cedar  (Thuja p l i c a t a ) ,  silver  There i s abundant hemlock r e g e n e r a t i o n .  The shrub l a y e r v a r i e s from r e l a t i v e l y dense t o sparse,  A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y (Vaccinium alaskaense)  b l u e b e r r y (V, o v a l i f o l i u m ) a r e dominant.  and o v a l l e a f  There i s a l s o some  f a l s e a z a l e a ( M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a ) a n d white rhododendron (Rhododendron a l b i g l o r u m ) w i t h o c c a s i o n a l specimens o f s a l a l (Gaultheria shallon).  The herb l a y e r i s more sparse and t h e r e  i s e s s e n t i a l l y no moss l a y e r . 48. Blechnum-Tsuga Seepage Slopes T h i s community forms a mosaic with 47.  Western  hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) i s dominant and forms a t h i c k , w e l l developed  o v e r s t o r e y , with a few specimens o f P a c i f i c  s i l v e r f i r (Abies a m a b i l i s ) and western r e d cedar  (Thuja  152  plicata).  The  pockets and f a l s e azalea  shrub l a y e r i s very dense e s p e c i a l l y i n moist  i n c l u d e s D e v i l ' s c l u b (Oplopanax horridum). (Menziesia f e r r u g i n e a ) . salmonberry (Rubus  s p e c t a b i l i s ) and  e l d e r b e r r y (Sambucus racemosa).  APPENDIX VI CAPABILITY OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT TRAIL BIKE RIDING BASED ON BIOPHYSICAL CRITERIA  Using the c r i t e r i a l i s t e d  i n Appendix IV p. 145  and the s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n Appendix V, E a g l e Ridge can be r a t e d as t o i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o support t r a i l b i k e f a c i l i t i e s , as shown i n T a b l e  A-VII.  Assuming t h a t each f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e s e q u a l l y t o l a n d c a p a b i l i t y t o support t r a i l b i k i n g , a n u m e r i c a l can be assigned t o each l i m i t a t i o n None Moderate Severe  value  thus:  +-1 0 -1  T h i s g i v e s a maximum p o s i t i v e r a t i n g o f 10, and a maximum n e g a t i v e r a t i n g o f -10.  Using t h i s , each  complex has t h e f o l l o w i n g v a l u e : GE ~ S - WH  -2.0  CI „ CE G  -2.5  CI _ ST ef  -0.5  CE - EU  -3.0  fg  soil  154  TABLE A - V I I  LIMITATIONS OF THE SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT T R A I L BIKING  CONTRIBUTING FACTORS  LIMITATION OF SOIL COMPLEX GE-S-WH  CI-CE  CI-ST  CE-EV  fg  G  Water I n f i l t r a t i o n and T r a n s m i s s i o n  moderate  moderate  2.  Soil  none  none  none  moderate  3.  Utter  moderate to severe  moderate  moderate  moderate  A.  Compactability  moderate  moderate  moderate  moderate  5.  % Slope  moderate  moderate  moderate  to  to  moderate to severe  moderate  moderate  1.  6-  Surface  ef  moderate  fg  moderate to  Stability  Layer  Depth to Bedrock  severe  severe  moderate  moderate  to  to  severe  severe  to  severe  severe  7.  V e g e t a t i o n Cover  moderate  moderate  moderate  moderate  8.  Rainfall  severe  severe  severe  severe  9.  Stoniness or  moderate  moderate  moderate  moderate  moderate  moderate to s e v e r e  moderate to severe  moderate severe  10.  Proximity  Rockiness  to W a t e r  Bodies  to  severe  155 T h i s enables one t o zone the study area a c c o r d i n g t o the i n t e n s i t y o f use t h a t these f i n d i n g s imply can be supported. text.  T h i s i s shown i n F i g u r e £ p. 74 i n the main  

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