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Planning for trail biking in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia Black, Elizabeth Mary 1977

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PLANNING FOR TRAIL BIKING IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by ELIZABETH MARY BLACK B.Sc, University of Aberdeen, 197^ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 ® Elizabeth Mary Black, 1977 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of g „ v „ ^ 1 -^P r . ^ T r m m ' t y and Rational Planning The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April 25th 1977 i i i ABSTRACT T r a i l b i king i n the Lower Fraser Valley has become popular as an outdoor recreation a c t i v i t y i n the l a s t 10 to 15 years. A major a t t r a c t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y i s the freedom i t gives the t r a i l bikers to go almost anywhere. However, with increasing urbanisation, the number of areas on which to r i d e t r a i l bikes has diminished. With encroach-ment of r e s i d e n t i a l land on s t i l l e x i s t i n g t r a i l bike haunts, the number of complaints of noise, trespass, environmental damage and recreation user c o n f l i c t i s growing. Provision o i a s p e c i a l use area f o r t r a i l bikes has proved an acceptable solution to s i m i l a r problems i n other parts of North America. On the surface, i t seems l o g i c a l that a s p e c i a l use area might be equally acceptable i n the study area. However, i t i s contended that the Lower Fraser Valley presents a d i f f e r e n t combination of s o c i a l and environ-mental f a c t o r s , and that the design of an acceptable solution to the t r a i l bike problem requires more than mere provision of a s p e c i a l use area. Asaa methodology f o r designing such a solution, a model based upon 'planning under uncertainty* i s u t i l i z e d . This model consists of two cycles} the 'plan-making c y c l e ' and the 'plan implementing cycle'. i v The objective of the 'plan making' cycle i s to design an acceptable solution to the t r a i l bike problem i n the study area. F i r s t , several aspects of the problem are explored. 'The demand f o r t r a i l bike f a c i l i t i e s , and how t h i s demand has been met i s examined. The problems generated by t r a i l b i k i n g i n the study area are i d e n t i f i e d and d i s -cussed. From these investigations, c r i t e r i a f o r an acceptable solution are formulated. Four solutions are examined with respect to these c r i t e r i a . These are« a) to do nothing, b) to p r o h i b i t t r a i l bike use completely, c) to p r o h i b i t t r a i l bike use from c e r t a i n areas and d) to accommodate t r a i l bike use. Only the l a t t e r , or a combination of p r o h i b i t i o n and accommodation are considered acceptable. However, even i f a special use area i s provided, there i s no basis f o r prediction, that i t w i l l be used, nor that i t w i l l be tolerated by the residents of the Lower Fraser Valley, nor i s i t known what w i l l be the environmental con-sequences of such ac t i o n . This uncertainty i s reduced by entering the 'plan-implementing c y c l e ' . The purpose of t h i s cycle i s to implement the chosen solut i o n f o r an experimental period, and i n doing so monitor aspects that have been i d e n t i f i e d as uncertain. There are four phases i n t h i s cycle» action, monitoring, V analysis and evaluation. The r e s u l t s of the monitoring program are evaluated on the basis of how well the *plan* meets the stated c r i t e r i a f o r an acceptable s o l u t i o n . Evaluation w i l l determine i f the experiment should continue with modifications based on the f i r s t round of a cycle, or i f a return to the plan-making cycle i s required as a r e s u l t of unexpected events. This model f o r planning under uncertainty i s i l l u s t r a t e d by describing how the plan implementing cycle could be applied i n the study area. The case f o r choosing Eagle Ridge as the experimental s i t e i s stated and a s i t e plan and monitoring programme i s described. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v i LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x AEKNOWLEDGEMENTS X 1 CHAPTER ONE: OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEMS 1 CHAPTER TWOt THE PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY MODEL 14 INTRODUCTION 14 THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE 15 PHASE 1* PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 15 PHASE 2: PROBLEM EXPLORATION 15 PHASE 3: PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 15 PHASE 4 : EXPOSURE OF UNCERTAINTY 16 THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE 17 PHASE 1: ACTION 17 PHASE 2: MONITORING 17 PHASE 3: ANALYSIS 17 PHASE 4 : EVALUATION 17 CHAPTER THREE: THE PLAN-MAKIN© CYCLE 20 PHASE 1: PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATION 20 BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY A^ REA 20 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIL BIKES 22 PHASE 2: PROBLEM EXPLORATION 28 A. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE DEMAND FOR TRAIL BIKING FACILITIES IN THE STUDY AREA? 28 1. NUMBER OF TRAIL BIKES 29 2. INVENTORY OF CURRENT TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS 31 3. USER CHARACTERISTICS AND USE PATTERNS 33 B. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TOWARDS MEETING THIS DEMAND? 34 1. THE PRIVATE SECTOR 34 2. THE PUBLIC SECTOR 36 PHASE 3: PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 41 PHASE 4 : EXPOSING UNCERTAINTY 43 v i i PAGE CHAPTER FOUR: THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE AS APPLIED TO THE PROBLEM OF TRAIL BIKING IN AN URBAN AREA 45 INTRODUCTION 45 PHASE 1: ACTION 46 SITE SELECTION 46 CONTROL SITES 51 SITE DESIGN 51 ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS 55 PHASE 2: MONITORING 57 PHASE 3i ANALYSIS 59 PHASE 4: EVALUATION 6 l CHAPTER FIVEs THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLEi AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE - THE CASE OF EAGLE RIDGE 64 INTRODUCTION 64 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 64 SITE SELECTION 67 SITE DESCRIPTION 69 IMPACTS TO SOCIETY 76 CITY OF PORT MOODY 76 COQUITLAM DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY 77 ANMORE 77 B.C. HYDRO 77 GREATER VANCOUVER WATER DISTRICT 78 OTHER INTERESTS IN THE LAND 79 SITE DEVELOPMENT 79 ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS 81 THE MONITORING PROGRAM 83 PART As USE INFORMATION 83 PART Bi THE REACTION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC 85 PART Ci ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION 87 ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 94 COSTS 97 I SITE DEVELOPMENT COSTS 97 II MONITORING PROGRAM COSTS 98 CHAPTER SIXs CONCLUSION 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 PERSONS CONTACTED DURING THE STUDY 108 v i i i Page APPENDICES 111 APPENDIX I ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF TRAIL BIKES 112 II AREAS IN THE STUDY AREA CURRENTLY IN USE BY TRAIL BIKERS 121 III SUMMARY OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STUDY AREA 129 IV CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED IN RATING LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS. 140 V SOILS AND VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE 146 VI CAPABILITY OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT TRAIL BIKE RIDING ON BIOPHYSICAL CRITERIA. 153 IX LIST OP TABLES PAGE TABLE It Number of T r a i l Bikes by Bike Type 30 H i Site Selection C r i t e r i a f o r T r a i l Bike Use Areas from a T r a i l Biker's Per-spective 49 I l l j S i t e Selection C r i t e r i a f o r T r a i l Bike Use Areas based on Potential Impacts 50 IVj Sampling Strata f o r Monitoring Environmental Impacts of Eagle Ridge 88 LIST OF FIGURES x PAGE Figure 1« A Model f o r Planning Under Uncertainty 19 2: The Boundaries of the GVRD Parks Function 21 3» Process Chart f o r Site Selection of an ORRV Area 48 4» A General C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o i l s i n the Study Area 66 5* Average Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the Study Area 68 6: Location of the Experimental and Control Sites 70 7« Proposed Boundary of the Experimental T r a i l Bike Area 71 8i Proposed S i t e Plan f o r Eagle Ridge 74 9t Eagle Ridge - Sampling Strata 89 10i Diagram of Sites to C o l l e c t Environmental Information 90 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere thanks go to Professor Irving Fox of the School of Community and Regional Planning and Westwater Research Centre, and Ken Peterson f o r t h e i r advice and guidance i n the development and completion of th i s study. I also wish to thank Larry Emrick of the Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s Association f o r showing me Eagle Ridge, and the t r i a l s sections near loco, from a t r a i l bike r i d e r ' s perspective. CHAPTER ONE OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to set out a methodology, based on a 'planning under uncertainty' model, for dealing with the problem of t r a i l bikes for outdoor recreation i n urban areas. S p e c i f i c a l l y i t examines the case of the Greater Vancouver Area, and the Lower Fraser Valley of B r i t i s h Columbia. It has been observed that the demand for motorized recreation i s increasing i n North America as a r e s u l t of more discretionary time and income, the need to escape from the pressures of urbanization, and increasing population (Stupay, 1971, p. 15)• As a co r o l l a r y to the l a t t e r , there has been a decrease i n available land on which to recreate, and an increase i n land use c o n f l i c t s . This s i t u a t i o n has been met by the increased regulation of recreation land use, and a trend towards zoning of land for s p e c i f i c r ecreational a c t i v i t i e s such as power boating, snowmobiling, and t r a i l biking. Good data on trends and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a i l b i king do not e x i s t i n Canada, but Gardiner (1975, p. 1) traces the o r i g i n of the 'off-road v e h i c l e ' phenomenum i n the U.S.A. to 2 the mid-50's when the scale of motorcycle sales figures began to increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In 1955 20,000 motorcycles were sold, and by I960 th i s had increased to 60,000. Stupay (1971» p. 15-16) estimates that 125,000 motorcycles were sold on the average i n 1960-62, i n the USA, and t h i s !:;£ose to 730,000 i n 1970. Gardiner predicts an annual sales figure of 1,700,000 by 1980. Stupay*s estimation i s lower; 850,000 units, with r e g i s t r a t i o n r i s i n g from 2.7 m i l l i o n i n 1970 to 5 m i l l i o n i n 1980. Neither authors define what i s included i n t h i s instance by the term 'motorcycle'. ' T r a i l bike* for the purpose of t h i s thesis, i s a general term used to describe motorcycles ridden o f f the public highway. By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , almost a l l motorcycles have at one time been 'a t r a i l bike'. 'ORRV i s a term frequently found i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerned with t r a i l bikes. I t stands for 'Off Road Recreational Vehicle' and i s a blanket term for a va r i e t y of vehicles used o f f the public highway including snowmobiles, dune buggies, four wheel drives, etc. i n addition to t r a i l bikes. Only t r a i l bikes are under consideration i n t h i s thesis although i t i s recognized that, i f snow conditions permit, a t r a i l bike use area could also be used by snowmobiles i n winter. T r a i l bikes are ridden i n competition on designated but unpaved courses such as t r i a l s sections or motocoss tracks, or ridden for general recreation purposes along t r a i l s 3 such as l o g g i n g r o a d s , o r i n g r a v e l p i t s and l a n d f i l l s i t e s . There a r e a v a r i e t y o f w e i g h t s , s i z e s and makes o f b i k e s . F o r g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s , t h e s e i n c l u d e the d u a l purpose o n / o f f r o a d b i k e , the t r a i l b i k e , a l s o known as a ' d i r t b i k e ' o r 'woods b i k e ' ; and the m i n i - b i k e g e n e r a l l y r i d d e n by under 15 y e a r o l d s . C o m p e t i t i o n b i k e s i n c l u d e the s l o w e r , q u i e t e r t r i a l s b i k e , and the f a s t e r , n o i s i e r r a c i n g b i k e . A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f each b i k e can be found i n G a r d i n e r (1975, P. 15-20). There a r e t h r e e major groups o f problems g e n e r a t e d by t r a i l b i k i n g t h a t have been cause f o r c o n c e r n t o the p u b l i c , and t o p u b l i c a g e n c i e s who have t o d e c i d e on l a n d a l l o c a t i o n and use. These a r e : 1. S o c i a l problems such as t r e s p a s s ; c o n f l i c t over l a n d use p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h o t h e r , non-mechanized r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ; d i s t u r b a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o r e s i d e n t s by the n o i s e e m i t t e d from t r a i l b i k e s ; and s a f e t y problems such as l a c k o f c o n t r o l over a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n and f i r e h a z a r d . 2. E c o l o g i c a l problems such as the p h y s i c a l impact upon the r i d i n g s u r f a c e and v e g e t a t i o n w i t h which t r a i l b i k e s come i n c o n t a c t ; the i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p r e s e nce has on w i l d l i f e b e h a v i o u r and s u r v i v a l ; and the p o t e n t i a l f o r s i l t a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t w a t e r b o d i e s caused by t r a i l b i k e i n d u c e d e r o s i o n . 4 3. L e g a l and enforcementpproblems caused by the e x t e n -s i v e n a t u r e o f t r a i l b i k i n g a c t i v i t y and t h u s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f p o l i c i n g . I s s u e s i n c l u d e s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , n o i s e r e g u l a t i o n , v e h i c l e r e g i s t r a t i o n , t r a f f i c codes and s t a n d a r d s o f u t i l i z a t i o n . (Thompson, 1973, p. 15)' The f i r s t group o f problems a r e o b v i o u s l y a g g r a v a t e d i n more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . The major arguments p r e s e n t e d i n s u p p o r t o f t r a i l b i k i n g i s t h a t i t i s a l e g i t i m a t e form o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as s t a t e d i n a q u o t a t i o n from K i n g (1972; p. 11-12): " T r a i l b i k i n g ... i s as much a r e c r e a t i o n i n t he t r a d i t i o n a l senses as h i k i n g , back p a c k i n g , horseback r i d i n g , c a n o e i n g , mountain c l i m b i n g , h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and b o a t i n g . " "The c o n s t a n t n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l l i n g and b a l a n c i n g the machine as i t moves over v a r y i n g t e r r a i n means t h a t t r a i l r i d i n g i n v o l v e s the whole body l i k e s k i -i n g o r r o c k c l i m b i n g , and t h a t i t i s a v e r y i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . No c o n s c i o u s ' s t e e r i n g * i s done as the r i d e r moves a l o n g the t r a i l ; i n s t e a d he 'reads* the t e r r a i n ahead, p i c k i n g h i s r o u t e as the w h i t e water c a n o e i s t does and g u i d i n g the b i k e a l o n g the chosen p a t h by u s i n g i t as an e x t e n s i o n o f h i s body, c o n s t a n t l y moving t o s h i f t h i s wei g h t as he accommodates the m o t o r c y c l e t o the t e r r a i n " ( D a v i d Sanderson, as quoted by K i n g 1972). "... ( t r a i l b i k i n g ) ... i s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t h e most fundamental and m e a n i n g f u l sense: i t r e f r e s h e s and r e s t o r e s body and mind." 5 T r a i l bikers therefore claim that they should have as much r i g h t to use piiblic land, as any other r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , there have been three major p o l i c y responses to the t r a i l bike problem i n urban areas: 1. To do nothing. 2. To pr o h i b i t t h e i r use completely or i n certain areas 3. To make e x p l i c i t provision for them i n certain special use areas, or along s p e c i f i e d t r a i l s . Doing nothing about t r a i l bikes has not made them go away. According to the forecasts quoted by Gardiner and Stupay, t h e i r numbers are substantial and increasing at least i n the USA. Available land for t h e i r , and any other use i s diminish-ing, people are being disturbed by them, environmental damage has resulted from t h e i r use and the problem w i l l not disappear unless there i s a very negative s h i f t i n demand. Pr o h i b i t i n g the use of t r a i l bikes involves imple-mentation of e f f e c t i v e regulations. However, due to the very mobile nature of t r a i l bikes, which permits them to cover a large geographic area, greater manpower and mobility to police these regulations i s required than i s presently available to most regulatory a u t h o r i t i e s . The s i t u a t i o n i s made p a r t i c u -l a r l y d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t that the t r a i l bike population 6 i s a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n many a r e a s . I n an urban a r e a , b a n n i n g t r a i l b i k e s i n one community o n l y i n c r e a s e s t h e i r u s e , and t h u s the pr o b l e m s , i n a n o t h e r community. A g e n c i e s concerned w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , commonly s u p p l y t o e x p r e s s e d demand. P a r t i a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s t r e n d and p a r t i a l l y i n response t o the l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f the f i r s t two p o l i c i e s , s p e c i a l a r e a s and t r a i l s have been d e s i g n a t e d f o r use o f t r a i l b i k e s . C r e a t i n g a l o n g d i s t a n c e t r a i l system f o r t r a i l b i k e s i m p l i e s e x t e n s i v e l a n d a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l and w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . Such a f a c i l i t y i s o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . C r e a t i n g a s p e c i a l use a r e a f o r t r a i l b i k e s i s seen as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f the p r a c t i c e o f p r o v i d i n g g o l f c o u r s e s f o r g o l f e r s , and d o w n h i l l s k i a r e a s f o r d o w n h i l l s k i e r s . ( G a r d i n e r 1957 P« 12) I n t h e o r y , a s p e c i a l use a r e a meets the needs o f t r a i l b i k e r s , and w i l l t hus a t t r a c t them away from the n o n - d e s i g n a t e d , and o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e , a r e a s t h a t they have p r e v i o u s l y used. I n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s d e f i n e d as any one or combina-t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g : p r i v a t e l a n d f o r which p e r m i s s i o n t o use has h o t been o b t a i n e d , l a n d d e s i g n a t e d f o r use o t h e r t h a n t r a i l b i k i n g , e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y f r a g i l e l a n d , and l a n d s u f f i c -i e n t l y c l o s e t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t h a t r e s i d e n t s are d i s t u r b e d by n o i s e . I f t r a i l b i k i n g can be c o n t a i n e d i n such a way, 7 regulations, p a r t i c u l a r l y those concerned with user safety, are easier to enforce. If the use area i s selected away from r e s i d e n t i a l land, the noise problem may be reduced or elimina-ted. If the use area i s selected on the basis of i t s 'appropriate* landscape features (to be defined l a t e r ) negative environmental aspedts may be reduced. Bury et a l . (1976 p. 9) describe the US Federal p o s i t i o n on t r a i l bikes and a l l other ORRV'st "The major guiding federal response to ORV problems has been P r e s i d e n t i a l Execu-t i v e Order 11644 which requires federal agencies to adopt rules regulating ORV's on public lands. The Order also requires these agencies to adopt processes f o r the designation of ORV use areas and includes c r i t e r i a to be used i n the designation process. A l l relevant federal agencies have adopted regulations ... S p e c i f i c ORV management plans and regulations have been developed f o r National Forests and many other s p e c i f i c resource manage-ment areas." A s p e c i f i c U.S. example of a s p e c i a l use area i s a 1012 hectare t r a c t of land i n the Turkey Creek area of Land Between the Lakes, which the Tennessee Valley Authority designated i n 1972 f o r off-road vehicle use under the super-v i s i o n of Land Between the Lakes s t a f f . I t provides 58 km. of t r a i l s receiving varying degrees of use. Land Between 8 the Lakes i s a 68,800 hectare penninsula which i s being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority as a "national demonstration i n outdoor recreation and environmental education. Camping, f i s h i n g , hunting, boating, hiking, p i c n i c i n g and enjoying the outdoors are among the major recreational a c t i v i t i e s . " (Land Between the Lakes Map and Guide) According to a US Department of the I n t e r i o r technical b u l l e t i n (USDI, 1974, p. 7) studies conducted at t h i s special use area, indicated that i t s designation and a l l aspects of ORRV use were a success, and the r i d e r s were " s a t i s f i e d with the opportunities offered to them". In Canada there i s no p o l i c y on ORRVs comparable to the US Federal p o l i c y . P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y has been mainly con-cerned with snowmobiles. A summary of A l l Terrain Vehicle L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i n 1973 can be found i n S e l l e s (1973, p. 21). As far as t r a i l bikes are concerned, the i n i t i a t i v e has been la r g e l y l e f t up to l o c a l government or private enter-p r i s e . An example of each are as follows. A 22 hectare area within Centennial Park (100 hectares), two miles from the Toronto International Airport, i n the Borough of Etobicoke, Ontario was established i n 1976. Since t h i s area was fenced i t has "greatly reduced, i f not 9 eliminated the bike r i d i n g i n the remainder of the park" (Jane Leat, Park Planner, Parks and Recreation Dept., Borough of Etobicoke, personal communication, February 1977)• The park i s managed by the Parks Superintendent, Centennial Park. I t i s separated from the rest of the park by Hydro E l e c t r i c Company lands, and noise i s buffered by an a r t i f i c i a l s ki h i l l . Centennial Park contains intensive recreation f a c i l i t i e s including soccer and f o o t b a l l f i e l d s , stadium, tennis courts, a down:-hill s k i area on a l a n d f i l l area etc. An 18 hectare area i n the middle of an i n d u s t r i a l area i n south eastern Calgary, earmarked for future development as a freeway and cloverleaf, has been leased to the Calgary Motorcycle Club from the City of Calgary since 1969. P r i o r to t h i s , "every available piececof waste land was being used by t r a i l bikers". Since the City of Calgary has leased the land to the Calgary Motorcycle Club "The complaints from c i t i z e n s has dropped to almost n i l " and the park i s "getting more use day by day". (Ron Mal l e t t , President, Alberta Region, Canadian Motorcycle Association, personal communication, February 1977)• There may also be provision by the c i t i e s of Edmon-ton and Regina, but information was not available when they were contacted. The City of Kitchener, Ontario has a by-law r e s t r i c t i n g off-road vehicles to designated areas which w i l l 10 n o t be s e t up by the C i t y , b u t l e f t t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . No o t h e r Canadian e x p e r i e n c e s i n t r a i l b i k e s p e c i a l use a r e a s a r e known t o the a u t h o r , a l t h o u g h C o l i n G a r d i n e r (1975) i n an M.Sc. t h e s i s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington has o u t -l i n e d a p r o p o s a l f o r one i n Red Deer H i l l , M a n i t o b a . I t would appear from the examples o f Land Between the L a k e s , E t o b i c o k e and C a l g a r y t h a t d e s i g n a t i n g a s p e c i a l use a r e a f o r t r a i l b i k i n g has been an a c c e p t a b l e and s u c c e s s -f u l s o l u t i o n t o the t r a i l b i k i n g problem i n the s e a r e a s . Thus t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s suggest the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c o n s i d e r -i n g a s i m i l a r approach i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e would p r o b a b l y a c c e p t t h e s e examples as e v i d e n c e o f the s u i t a b i l i t y o f p r o -v i d i n g a s p e c i a l use a r e a f o r t r a i l b i k e s as a s o l u t i o n t o the t r a i l b i k i n g problem i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Based on p r e s e n t and p r o j e c t e d demand, a s i t e would be chosen u s i n g g u i d e l i n e s s e t out by the M o t o r c y c l e I n d u s t r y C o u n c i l (1973) or G a r d i n e r (1975» P- 88) and the a r e a would be de v e l o p e d and d e s i g n a t e d on the assu m p t i o n t h a t t h e s e demand d a t a were c o r r e c t . Minimum a t t e n t i o n would be p a i d t o v a r i a t i o n s from p r e d i c t e d b e h a v i o u r u n l e s s the s i t e was v e r y underused, and t h e r e would be no m o n i t o r i n g mechanisms employed t o check t h a t the t r a i l b i k e s i t e was s e r v i n g i t s purpose. 11 Since the experiences c i t e d are r e a l l y quite l i m i t e d and conditions vary so much from place to place t h i s thesis advocates a more f l e x i b l e approach. The methodology used i s based on a model outlined by Wedgwood-Oppenheim (1972) which w i l l be discussed i n Chapter 2. The approach taken i s an adaptive one i n which the i d e n t i f i e d problem i s explored more f u l l y to i d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a f or an acceptable solution and to reveal alternative solutions. The most feasi b l e solu-t i o n or solutions are then tested on an experimental basis which employs monitoring mechanisms to check that the plan i s being carried out cor r e c t l y , and that the solution i s achieving i t s objectives. This thesis recognises that a special use area i s a potential solution to the problem of t r a i l bikes i n the study area. However, i t also recognises that there are areas of uncertainty surrounding t h i s solution. For example, the actual demand, including latent demand, for such a f a c i l i t y and how t h i s demand w i l l change on provision of a spe c i a l use area i s not known. There i s no basis for prediction that such a f a c i l i t y w i l l be used over other, non-designated areas, nor that the general public w i l l accept i t . On the contrary, there are some reasons to question whether such transfers of use would occur because the American Motorcycle Association 12 ( 1 9 7 2 , p. 14) takes the following p o s i t i o n on special use areas: "At best they are f i n i t e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l and thus incapable of serving as sub-s t i t u t e s for the unbridled freedom that the t r a i l r i d e r seeks to f i n d " . One further, and important area of uncertainty i s the lack of information available concerning the environmental consequences of designating such an area. The research that has been done has been conducted under d i f f e r e n t biogeoclim-a t i c conditions than that of the study area which l i m i t s the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of t h e i r findings. Examples of these studies include work i n the C a l i f o r n i a desert (Snyder et a l . 1976 , Stebbins 1976 , Davidson and Fox 1974 , and Berry 1 9 7 3 ) . and i n the F l o r i d a Everglades (Schemnitz and Schortemeyer 1 9 7 2 ) . In order to minimize t h i s uncertainty, i t i s recommended that a special use area be chosen and designated for an experimental period, during which a monitoring program w i l l be conducted. The remaining chapters of the thesis are thus organized i n the following way. Chapter 2 describes a model for planning under uncertainty. Chapter 3 explores the problem of t r a i l biking i n the Lower Fraser Valley more f u l l y , examines possible solutions, and states the case for se t t i n g up a s p e c i a l use area for an experimental period. The 13 The procedure for the selection and development of the experimental area, and the monitoring program that must be set up i s outlined i n Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes how t h i s procedure can be applied to a s p e c i f i c s i t e i n the Lower Fraser Valley; the case of Eagle Ridge. CHAPTER TWO THE PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY MODEL INTRODUCTION The essence o f a p l a n n i n g approach which r e c o g n i s e s the f a c t o r o f u n c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t i t be f l e x i b l e and a d a p t i v e . Such an approach a c c e p t s t h a t p l a n n i n g p r o b -lems do n o t a r i s e i n , and cannot be s o l v e d by i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f the w o r l d ; t h a t t h e r e a r e many c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t h a t a re u n i d e n t i f i a b l e or u n q u a n t i f i a b l e ; and t h a t change i s i n e v i t a b l e . As a d a p t i v e approach thus f a v o u r s programs and p o l i c i e s which can meet change - and change w i t h change. T h i s approach i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the more t r a d i t i o n a l master p l a n approach w h i c h q u a n t i f i e s the q u a n t i f i a b l e , and e i t h e r i g n o r e s t h e u n c e r t a i n o r d e a l s w i t h i t by ' d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l i s m ' where o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l changes i n p o l i c y a r e made thus i n t r o d u c i n g as few new s o u r c e s o f u n c e r t a i n t y as p o s s i b l e . The danger w i t h t h i s approach i s t h a t i f the environment changes, the impact o f e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s a l s o changes. (Wedgwood-Oppenheim F., 1972, p. 58). An a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g approach f o l l o w s an e s s e n t -i a l l y c y c l i c a l methodology. The model used i n t h i s t h e s i s 15 covers two cycles, referred to by Wedgwood-Oppenheim (1972) as 'the plan»making cycle'., and the 'plan-implementing cycle'. Within each of these two cycles there are several phases through which one must progress. THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE Phase. 1; JiProblemaldentification. Within the plan-making cycle, the problem must f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d , constrained by current knowledge. This i s dealt with i n Chapter 3- Input from managers, decision makers, experts and the general public i s e s sential even at t h i s early stage. Phase 2; Problem Exploration. Phase 1 i n i t i a t e s a second phase of problem exploration whose purpose i s to deepen the understanding of the important issues contained i n the problem. The important issues i n t h i s instance are: 1. What i s known about the demand for a t r a i l biking f a c i l i t y ? 2. What has been done to meet t h i s demand? Phase 3- Presenting Possible Solutions. With greater under-standing of the problem being dealt with, the t h i r d phase can be entered. The purpose of th i s phase i s to f i n d solutions to the problem. Chapter 1 i d e n t i f i e d three possible solutions to the t r a i l biking problem: 1. To do nothing. 2. To prohibit t h e i r use completely or i n certain areas. 16 3- To make e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r them i n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l use a r e a s , or a l o n g s p e c i f i e d t r a i l s . The c h o i c e o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y be governed by a s e t o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a such as c o s t , u r g e n c y , c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y , and i m p a c t . I n t h i s t h e s i s , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the l a s t two p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s i s s e l e c t e d as p r o b a b l y o f f e r i n g the p r o s p e c t o f b e i n g the most f e a s i b l e . Phase 4: Exposure o f U n c e r t a i n t y . However t h e r e w i l l p r o b a b l y never be a r i g h t o r wrong s o l u t i o n , the r e a s o n b e i n g the problem o f u n c e r t a i n t y . U n c e r t a i n t y has been d e s c r i b e d as "the gap between what i s known and what needs t o be known to make the c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s " (Mack, 1972, p. 1). U n c e r t a i n -t i e s i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3 a r e : 1. W i l l the t r a i l b i k e p a r k be used by the t r a i l b i k e r s o f the s t u d y area? 2. W i l l the t r a i l b i k e p a r k be a c c e p t a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ? 3- What w i l l be the e n v i r o n m e n t a l consequences o f p r o v i d i n g such a p a r k ? E x p l o r a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y may r e v e a l more problems, or change the b o u n d a r i e s o f the o r i g i n a l problem and so the p l a n - m a k i n g c y c l e c o n t i n u e s ; w i t h each round a t t e m p t i n g t o reduce u n c e r t a i n t y f u r t h e r u n t i l a p o i n t i s r e a c h e d where the 17 advantage o f e x t e n d i n g a n a l y s i s i s outweighed by advantages o f commitment and a c t i o n . T h i s l e a d s i n t o the f o u r phase ' p l a n - i m p l e m e n t i n g c y c l e ' . THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE Phase 1: A c t i o n . The p l a n as d e v i s e d s h o u l d be put i n t o a c t i o n on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s under the guidance o f s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s . Phase 2: M o n i t o r i n g . M o n i t o r i n g must p e r f o r m two f u n c t i o n s : a) I t must check t h a t the p l a n has been c a r r i e d out as i n t e n d -ed and t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a c t i o n phase a r e b e i n g met. b) I t must c o n t r i b u t e towards r e d u c i n g the u n c e r t a i n t y i n the a r e a s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d . Phase 3s A n a l y s i s . A n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s from the m o n i t o r i n g phase s h o u l d be concerned w i t h : 1) How e f f e c t i v e the m o n i t o r i n g mechanisms have been. 2) What are t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s ? 3) Does the p l a n have t o be f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d ? Phase 4: E v a l u a t i o n . . E v a l u a t i o n o f the a n a l y s i s w i l l d e t e r -mine i f the e xperiment s h o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s based on t h e f i r s t round o f t h e p l a n - i m p l e m e n t i n g c y c l e , or i f a r e t u r n t o the p l a n - m a k i n g c y c l e i s r e q u i r e d as a r e s u l t 18 o f unexpected e v e n t s . The p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n - i m p l e m e n t i n g c y c l e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter and C hapter 5 g i v e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how t h e y c o u l d be put i n t o p r a c t i s e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . T h i s model f o r p l a n n i n g under u n c e r t a i n t y can be r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y ; as shown i n F i g u r e 1. Figure 1 : A MODEL FOR PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY THE PLAN-MAKING CYCLE THE PLAN-IMPLEMENTING CYCLE CHAPTER THREE THE PLAN MAKING CYCLE PHASE L i PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION  BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY AREA The geographical boundaries of the Lower Fraser V a l l e y Study Area are defined by that area l y i n g south of Lions Bay to the International border, and east from the University Endowment Lands and Vancouver C i t y to Hope. This constitutes a land area of approximately 440,300 hectares. Administrative D i v i s i o n s The study area includes the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , the Central Fraser Valley, the Dewdney-Allouette and the Fraser Cheam Regional D i s t r i c t s . Most of the 1.2 m i l l i o n population i s concentrated i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t which has seventeen member communities. In addition to these, four other communities, par t i c i p a t e i n the GVRD parks function. These are the C i t y of Langley, Township of Langley and the D i s t r i c t of Matsqui which are a l l part of the Central Fraser Valley Regional D i s t r i c t and the D i s t r i c t of Maple Ridge which i s part of the Dewdney-Allouette Regional D i s t r i c t . The boundaries of the GVRD Parks function are shown i n Figure 2. igure2: THE BOUNDARIES OF THE Q.V.R.D. PARKS FUNCTION Sourcet Siemens, E d i t o r . 1966, p. 208. 22 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIL BIKES T r a i l b i k i n g as an outdoor recreation a c t i v i t y has been pursued i n the study area for approximately 10-15 years. O r i g i n a l l y , often with 'home converted* street bikes, a few ind i v i d u a l s had easy access to almost unlimited rec r e a t i o n a l t r a i l bike r i d i n g . Now, population growth and the spread of urbanization has swallowed up many of these old haunts. T r a i l bikers are facing the choice of i l l e g a l use of lands near th e i r home, versus a long drive up the Valley to less pressured areas. The problems thus generated are the same as anywhere else , with noise complaints and re c r e a t i o n a l use c o n f l i c t being the most frequently a r t i c u l a t e d grievances. Noise As shown i n an Inventory of t r a i l bike use areas i n the Lower Fraser Valley (see Appendix I I ) , aoise disturbance occurs mainly to residents such as those near Invergarry Park, Surrey; near the Canada Games Pool, New Westminster; and parts of E l e c t o r a l Area B. Noise i s one of the most severe negative e f f e c t s of t r a i l bikes since the frequency, d i s t r i b u t i o n l e v e l and duration of noise can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the health of t r a i l bike operators, t h e i r spectators, and w i l d l i f e . (Bury 23 et a l 1976, p. 58 and "ORV Monitor" Feb./March 1975). The question of damage to hearing from t r a i l bikes, either to the t r a i l biker or spectator i s not dealt with further i n t h i s t h e s i s . However, i t i s an issue that should be examin-ed, and the r e s u l t s of such an inves t i g a t i o n should be pub-l i c i z e d and taken into account when l e g i s l a t i n g against t r a i l bike noise emmission. Two aspects must be considered when discussing t r a i l bike noise. 1. The amount of noise emmitted by the t r a i l bike measured i n decibels, (db) 2. The /vanishing distance* or distance at which the noise generated by the t r a i l bike becomes inaudible above the ambient noise. Vanishing distance varies with topography, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions. Bury et a l (1975 p. 245-246 and 1976 p. 61-63) summarize the findings of researchers on motorcycle noise. The v a r i a t i o n i n noise generated by t r i a l bikes i s great; one researcher found a noise i n t e n s i t y range of 74db - 93 db, measured at 15m on the *A* scale, and a vanishing distance of 425-1300m. Operation of two or more t r a i l bikes together increases t o t a l noise generated only s l i g h t l y . The average noise l e v e l at 15m increased from 64 db to 65.5 db i n one 24 experiment when two motor cycles operated simultaneously, and f i n a l l y to 66db when three motorcycles operated together. The technology exists to make t r a i l bikes less noisy, a l -though only at the expense of speed. However, the noise problem cannot be a l l e v i a t e d s o l e l y by imposing standards on the manufacturers; many t r a i l bike owners remove mufflers to maximize speed. Thus e f f e c t i v e imposition of noise regulation i s required. Anti-noise l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i s possible at a l l three l e v e l s of government. However, the 1974 SPEC Handbook on noise attacks a l l three l e v e l s of government for not making e f f e c t i v e use of t h e i r powers. (S.P.E.C. 1974, p. 12-13). Motorcycles manufactured for use on the road must comply with a Federal noise regulation. For the purpose of t h i s regulation, a motorcycle i s classed as a l i g h t duty vehicle and must emit l e s s than 86db(A). Motorcycles manu-factured s t r i c t l y for off-highway competition purposes are exempt from the Federal noise control regulations. Under the P r o v i n c i a l Motor Vehicle Act, motorcycles licensed and oper-ated on B.C. highways must comply with P r o v i n c i a l standards as l a i d down i n D i v i s i o n 25.01, schedule 11, standard 27. Noise emmission s h a l l not exceed 91 db(A). Again, t r a i l bikes not licensed for highway use are not governed by these 25 regulations. Land Use C o n f l i c t &s shown i n an inventory of t r a i l bike use areas i n the Lower Fraser Valley (see Appendix I I ) , land use con-f l i c t s occur mainly between t r a i l bikers and hikers or horse r i d e r s i n areas such as Poco T r a i l , Port Coquitlam; Univer-s i t y Endowment Lands? Burnaby Lake T r a i l s , Burnaby? Sea and Iona Dykes, Richmond. Safety Problems Safety problems are f a i r l y serious as, at present, there i s no l e g i s l a t i o n to enforce the use of safety helmets, spark arrestors, r i d e r t r a i n i n g programs etc. (B.C. Safety Council, no date; ORC 1976(b) p. 4-5; Powers, 1974; p. 2) E c o l o g i c a l Problems Terrain damage by t r a i l bikes has been observed i n parts of Burnaby (Burnaby Horseman's Association, personal communication, August 1976), Surrey's ;Invergarry Park (see Appendix I I I ) , University Endowment Lands. However, personal observations of areas used by t r a i l bikes near the thermal plant at loco, E l e c t o r a l Area B and on Eagle Ridge indicated that damage, at l e a s t by t r i a l s bikes i s no greater than a moderately used hiking t r a i l . The t r i a l s sections observed had been used recently, although the i n t e n s i t y of use, or for 26 how long they had been used was not known. Sections that had not been used f o r one to two years according to Larry Emrick, Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s Association, had recovered remarkably well. This was i n a mixed deciduous woodland area, a f t e r a wet summer and a dry winter. There i s no docu-mented evidence of t r a i l bikes adversely a f f e c t i n g w i l d l i f e behaviour or s u r v i v a l , within the study area. However, a recent l e t t e r to the Editor i n the Vancouver Sun (Ballantyne and Guppy, Vancouver Sun, March 3 0 t h 1977) indicated that waterfowl and reptors are being disturbed at Iona. L i t t l e of s c i e n t i f i c value has been documented on the pernicious e f f e c t s of t r a i l bikes beyond i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r key impacts; s o i l compaction, s o i l erosion and vegetation destruction. These processes occur regardless of the i n t e n s i t y of use. I t i s not known what i s the threshold of use beyond which even the most r e s i l i e n t vegetation i s damaged beyond recovery by t r a i l bikes. Obviously, t h i s depends upon the climate, type of vegetation and s o i l , the weight of machine plus r i d e r , and the surface area of t i r e i n t e r f a c i n g with the ground. Consideration of environmental e f f e c t s of t r a i l bikes should include not only these 'point impacts' but also the •system impacts' such as s i l t a t i o n of a nearby stream as a r e s u l t of increased run-off caused by compaction and erosion. Using these findings, a table of c r i t e r i a to be used i n r a t i n g . 27 landscape units f o r t r a i l bike use area c a p a b i l i t y i s drawn up i n Appendix IV. Management techniques should recognize that t r a i l bikes w i l l ultimately a f f e c t t h e i r environment, and they thus should be concerned with promoting maximum i n -f i l t r a t i o n rate so as to minimize run-off, or i f run-off cannot be avoided, a means of c o n t r o l l i n g i t s flow, and thereby the tendency for erosion, should be employed. Gardiner (1975 P- 51-57) deals with t h i s aspect i n d e t a i l . Legal and Enforcement Problems Legal and enforcement problems are acute i n the study area and require review. This aspect was discussed i n d e t a i l at 'An A l l - T e r r a i n Vehicle Meeting* hosted by the Out-door Recreation Council of B.C. on October 29th, 1976. The major recommendation (concerning l e g i s l a t i o n ) from t h i s meeting was that the use of a l l business and recreational o f f -highway vehicles be regulated f o r environmental and safety means under an ammendment to the P r o v i n c i a l A l l - T e r r a i n Vehicles Act which currently only applies to snowmobiles. The Act should regulate off-road vehicle use on a l l land i n the province that i s not a public highway. Registration of a l l unlicensed off-road vehicles should be manditory and admin-is t e r e d through the Ministry of Recreation and Conservation i n a manner s i m i l a r to hunting licenses. 28 This meeting proposed that t r a i l and use areas should be provided within urban and r u r a l areas, and that the P r o v i n c i a l Government should provide f i n a n c i a l and planning assistance to muni c i p a l i t i e s , regional d i s t r i c t s and clubs to encourage t h i s . Within t h i s study area, competition t r a i l bike r i d i n g , both observed t r i a l s and motocross, are catered to, but there i s a lack of areas simply to practice r i d i n g . Although there are competition oriented clubs, the majority of t r a i l bikes are not organized and thus have not s u f f i c i e n t impetus as a user group to obtain f a c i l i t i e s by th e i r own endeavours. Local, regional and pr o v i n c i a l govern-ments are aware of the problem, but as yet l i t t l e action towards dealing with i t has been taken. PHASE 2i PROBLEM EXPLORATION The problem exploration phase i s concerned with: A. What i s known about the demand f o r t r a i l bike f a c i l i t i e s i n the study area? B. What has been done towards meeting t h i s demand? A. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE DEMAND FOR TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES IN THE STUDY AREA? The demand f o r any recreation i s hard to estimate, 29 and even harder to predict because of latent demand. Latent demand re f e r s to that group of the population who may wish to pa r t i c i p a t e i n a given recreation a c t i v i t y but do not for reasons such as personal constraints, lack of f a c i l i t i e s or lack of p u b l i c i t y about the recre a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Those that do p a r t i c i p a t e , represent expressed demand of which there are several dimensions. For example, expressed demand can be measured i n terms of the number of people i n a given residen-t i a l zone p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a given recreational a c t i v i t y , or i t can be expressed as the number of people using a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n or f a c i l i t y to recreate. Two approaches were used to examine expressed demand. F i r s t l y , an attempt was made to estimate the number of t r a i l bikes currently i n the study area through analysis of sales figures and MVLB motor cycle r e g i s t r a t i o n figures. Secondly, an inventory of areas currently i n use by t r a i l bikes i n the Lower Fraser Valley was compiled. Information was obtained from the GVRD (Powers, 1974), RCMP, and l o c a l p o l i c e , Municip-a l Departments of Planning, and Park and Recreation, sales representatives, t r a i l bikers and personal observation. 1. Numbers of t r a i l bikes. Many problems were encountered i n securing accur-ate data on the mumbers of t r a i l bikes since no one agency keeps a r e a d i l y accessible data bank of t h i s information and 30 i t was impossible just to go aut and count them. Two p r i n -c i p l e sources were consulted; the P r o v i n c i a l Motor Vehicle Licensing Branch i n V i c t o r i a , and r e t a i l stores and d i s t r i -butors of t r a i l bikes i n the study area. The data thus c o l l e c t e d , and the assumptions made i n using i t , are d i s -cussed i n Appendix I. The information obtained, as i n pointed out i n d e t a i l i n the appendix, i s exceedingly sketchy and consequently not as r e l i a b l e as one would wish. Neverthe-le s s , i t does give some f e e l for the dimensions of the 'problem'. The best estimation available to date i s that there are between 17,500 and 22,500 t r a i l bikes i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Table I gives a break down of types of t r a i l bikes based on percentages quoted by motor cycle industry repres-entatives. The range of 17*500-22,500 was averaged out to approximately 20,000 t r a i l bikes. TABLE I Numbers of T r a i l Bikes by Bike Type Type of T r a i l Bike Estd. % of t o t a l # i n study area General recreation bikes 55 11,000 T r i a l 20 4,000 Motocross 25 5»000 31 I t should be pointed out that these estimates are based on two assumptions. F i r s t l y , that the motorcycle representatives are correct i n t h e i r estimated percentage breakdown - which are probably national figures and may not necessarily apply to the study area. Secondly, i t i s assumed that each of the 20,GOG t r a i l bikes f a l l neatly into one cate-gory which i s almost c e r t a i n l y not the case; probably most t r a i l bikes are used for non competitive or rec r e a t i o n a l t r a i l r i d i n g at some stage. 2. Inventory of Current T r a i l Bike Use Areas At t h i s time there are no designated t r a i l bike areas i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y for general recreation r i d -ing. The only use areas that are o f f i c i a l l y recognized are the three competition tracks f o r motocross and one for t r i a l s . These are summarized i n Appendix I I . Otherwise t r a i l bikes are ridden, often i l l e g a l l y , almost anywhere i n the study area where there i s 'suitable* t e r r a i n . From a t r a i l bikers pers-pective, t h i s includes not only gravel p i t s , municipal dumps and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s within the urban area, but back a l l e y s and pedestrian and equestrian t r a i l s such as the PoCo t r a i l i n Port Coquitlam, and the Burnaby Lake t r a i l s i n Burnaby. Use occurs extensively regardless of proximity to r e s i d e n t i a l 32 areas, or another rec r e a t i o n a l use unless the area i s e f f e c t -i v e l y policed. Even those areas that have been o f f i c i a l l y banned from mechanized vehicle use are s t i l l i n use i f the t r a i l bikers can get away with i t . Because t r a i l bikers do not have to be registered or licensed there i s no means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and therefore a reduced chance of recourse by the po l i c e . However, the number of areas within the urban area that a biker can use i s s t e a d i l y diminishing with development, o f f i c i a l p r o h i b i t i o n and complaints from residents and other r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . An inventory of 47 use areas which also included areas used by snowmobiles and 4 wheel drives i s presented i n Appendix I I . This summarizes information c o l l e c t e d from many sources including municipal planning, and parks and recreation departments; RCMP; l o c a l police; GVRD (Powers, 1974-), motor cycle sales representatives etc. I t i s by no means exhaustive since, as has been implied, almost anywhere considered s u i t -able to the t r a i l biker i s used. However,,.it does give some guide to the ubiquitousness of t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuit. Hence, the p r i n c i p l e conclusion of t h i s inventory i s that general recreation r i d i n g i s the major form of t r a i l bike recreation i n the study area, for which there are no desig-nated areas. 33 3. User C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Use Patterns No studies have been made i n the Lower Fraser Valley on what sort of person; i n terms of age, sex, income bracket, education l e v e l etc., pa r t i c i p a t e s i n t r a i l b iking. This i s a major deficiency i n that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to place, t r a i l biking i n the spectrum of recre a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . However, the i n d i c a t i o n i s that t r a i l biking i s a family sport (Vancouver Sun, May 17, 1976) involving mostly males of a l l ages (Tom Tyre, J u l y 1976, personal communication). These t r a i t s are also found i n the USA, as revealed by Gardiner's (1975» V> 21JP23) review of socio-economic char-a c t e r i s t i c s conducted there. No f i r s t hand information i s available for the study area regarding use patterns and requirements of t r a i l b i king. Thus reference must again be made to the American context as reviewed by Gardiner (1975*'p. 23-24). His major conclusions are as follows: a) The most common use day i s Sunday, then Saturday. b) The number of hours spent r i d i n g i s r e l a t e d to the size of the bike; the bigger the bike, the more hours are spent r i d i n g i t . The average number of hours spent t r a i l b i k i n g at weekends 4.1 to 5-1 hours per day. On weekdays i t i s 1.8 hours maximum. 34 c) Few bikes are ridden to the sp e c i a l use area; most r i d e r s transport t h e i r bike by truck. 5. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TOWARDS MEETING THIS DEMAND? The question of who should provide the land and administration f o r a t r a i l bike use area r e a l l y depends on what kind of f a c i l i t y i s deemed suitable; i f indeed a desig-nated area i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y solution. The problem facing any agency who assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s that of provision of suitable land; suitable i n terms of size , natural proper-t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y s o i l , drainage and topography, and suitable i n terms of a compromise between proximity to the t r a i l b i k i n g population but at a distance from any current or proposed r e s i d e n t i a l development. 1. The Private Sector The U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r Task Force on Off-Road Vehicles »USDI 1971, p. 38) f e l t that "The future of the o f f road r e c r e a t i o n a l vehicle w i l l become more and more dependent upon the private sector for programs, use areas and f a c i l i t i e s . " Appendix II summarizes the current provision of t r a i l bike and other ORRV f a c i l i t i e s by the private sector i n the Lower Fraser Valley. These are almost a l l competition oriented and do not adequately provide for non-competitive r e c r e a t i o n a l use. 35 In a b r i e f presented by Pete Matheson to the Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association (LMPAA) i n 1975 (Matheson 1975)* the t r a i l bike users requested two l e v e l s of f a c i l i t i e s : a) At the municipal l e v e l . 'any accessible area near the concen-t r a t i o n of populated areas, but with suitable buffer boundaries: i . e . Hydro Rights of Way, gravel p i t , i n -d u s t r i a l areas ... minimal p o l i c i n g ' The t r a i l bike users see organization and planning of areas being the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l B.C. Motorcycle Feder-ation members, the l o c a l p o l i c e , and the Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association. b) At the Regional l e v e l . A regional park of over 2000 hectares, including parking, competition f a c i l i t i e s , roads and a va r i e t y of t r a i l s and t e r r a i n i s requested by a representative of the t r a i l bike users (Matheson 1975)• He proposed that t h i s would be planned and administered by the B.C. Motorcycle Federation d i r e c t o r s , LMPAA, pol i c e and council members, P o l i c i n g , safety and fund-ing of the regional park would be by, and at the expense of, the B.C. Motorcycle Federation and i t s promotors, although ap p l i c a t i o n would also be made for a government grant. The B.C. Motorcycle Federation, i n conjunction with the B.C. 36 Safety Council, Canadian Motorcycle Association, B.C. Motor-cycle Industry Association, and the B.C. Sports Federation have stated that they are prepared to o f f e r t h e i r assistance to foster and develop motorcycle r i d i n g areas i n various l o c a l communities. They are also prepared to a s s i s t i n - recognized safety t r a i n i n g programs - sound control l e v e l s - s e l f p o l i c i n g of r i d i n g areas - location of areas and layouts. The B.C. Safety Council i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n a d r a f t proposal for an Off-Road Train i n g Program i n Burnaby (B.C. Safety Council, no date) wish to o f f e r an off-road t r a i n i n g program aimed at promoting safer. r i d i n g habits amongst younger r i d e r s . Their present On-road t r a i n i n g courses take place at the Professional D r i v e r Centre i n Delta. This i s not a suitable l o c a t i o n for off-road t r a i n i n g , and i d e a l l y they would l i k e to s t a r t a t r a i n i n g centre i n Burnaby. 2. The Public Sector a) P r o v i n c i a l Government To date the only o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining to mechanized vehicles i s the A l l Terrain Vehicles Act, passed i n 1972, and administered by the Ministry of Recreation and Conservation. The act regulates the use of 37 snowmobiles only. I t requires r e g i s t r a t i o n of the snow-mobile, and prescribes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to be displayed on the machine. I t sets a minimum operating age, and requires c e r t a i n standards of operation and accident reporting. A l l fees c o l l e c t e d under the Act are paid to the Minister of Finance and form part of the Consolidated Revenue Fund. There are no immediate benefits derived by snowmobilers from t h i s money. A recurring problem i n dealing with t r a i l bikes i s the d i f f i c u l t y of enforcing any regulations on them because of t h e i r lack of license number or other form of i d e n t i t y . Thus, several agencies have requested the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment to extend the ATV act to t r a i l bikes. These include, the Municipality of Burnaby (Burnaby, 1975); the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. (ORC, 1976); Federation of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s (FBCN, 1976) who also requested the p r o v i n c i a l government to consider banning the use of 'motor bikes' on other than established roads i n f r a g i l e areas such as„arid grasslands and alpine meadows. I f the ATV Act i s extended to t r a i l bikes, then the question of returns beyond administration costs on the r e g i s -t r a t i o n fees thus imposed i s r a i s e d , i n terms of either b e n e f i t s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i l bikers or compensation f o r i n j u r y or damage to property of n o n - t r a i l bikers. The Prov-38 i n c i a l Government formed an Outdoor Recreation Branch i n 1975 to t r y to co-ordinate the problems and solutions of user groups and w i l l , ultimately, s t a r t looking at the provision of land for recreation purposes. However, i t should be noted that 70$ of the t r a i l bike population are probably resident i n the Lower Fraser Valley, and so perhaps the provision of a t r a i l bike use area should f a l l more l o g i c a l l y to the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD). In addition, many lands currently used by t r a i l bikes f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of B.C. Hydro and B.C. Forest Service, both of which have, within the l a s t f i v e years, begun to assume a recreation provision r o l e . b) Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t The demand for a t r a i l bike use area i s a regional one, and since the user groups themselves have claimed that the solution to t h e i r problems i s a regional f a c i l i t y , many have looked to the GVRD Parks Function to take an active part i n meeting the t r a i l bikers needs, and to provide a solution that blends with the Liveable Region Concept. The GVRD's Parks Program has been i n existance for ten years* since 1966. At that time a number of s i t e s i n the Lower Fraser Valley were earmarked for consideration as po t e n t i a l regional parks\ (Lower Mainland Regional Parks Board, 1966); Since then; 1620 hectares i n 11 s i t e s have been 39 acquired, but l i t t l e has been done beyond the a c q u i s i t i o n stage. In 1975 a decision was made to change the p o l i c y of the Parks Function from one of a q u i s i t i o n to one with greater emphasis on development. At t h i s point i t became important to e s t a b l i s h some guidelines on* 1. What should be the r o l e of the Regional Parks i n r e l a t i o n to the programs of other agencies, both public and private as well as other functions of the GVRD? 2. What should be the pol i c y of further s i t e a q u i s i t i o n , development of present and future s i t e s , and programming i n these sites? During the summer of 1976, a recreation f a c i l i t i e s inventory of the Lower Fraser Valley was conducted and the r e s u l t s of t h i s were used to formulate a f i v e year c a p i t a l and operating budget. c) Municipal Government Because many of the t r a i l bikers would l i k e , and currently use, areas close to t h e i r homes, the member munic-i p a l i t i e s of the GVRD have been looked to by the t r a i l bikers to provide use areas. However, as a consequence of the current unorganized use of areas within urban, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l , areas many complaints about noise and environ-mental damage have been generated. 40 Most munic i p a l i t i e s , i n response to these requests tor mechanical parks on one hand and peace on the other, do recognize the need f o r some f a c i l i t y away from r e s i d e n t i a l areas. In most cases at present, that i s as far as i t goes. However, some have gone further and looked within t h e i r municipal boundaries for a suitable area from both the point of view of the t r a i l bikers, and the point of view of the non-part i c i p a n t s , but have concluded that no such area e x i s t s . In these instances the municipal planning department or parks and recreation department have endorsed the idea, and i n some cases have offered money and support f o r , the lo c a t i o n of a f a c i l i t y i n another municipality or a regional f a c i l i t y also outside of th e i r own boundaries. In addition to this, they have attempted to regulate the use of t r a i l bikes within t h e i r boundaries by use of current by-laws or proposed ammendments to by-laws, p r i n c i p a l l y within the powers of t h e i r municipal zoning, parks or anti-noise by-laws. Some have gone further i n t h e i r attempts to accommodate t r a i l bikes, but plans have been held up or thwarted by d i v i s i o n of opinion and/or current land use con-t r o l s . One municipality has even gone as far as to designate an area on an experimental basis leaving p o l i c i n g and adminis-t r a t i o n up to the par t i c i p a n t s , but t h i s has f a i l e d due to i n e f f e c t i v e use control, and complaints about environmental damage and noise. 41 In summary then, the municipalities have generally recognized that t r a i l biking should be accommodated, but preferably by somebody else. The general consensus seems to be that urban areas are not compatable with mechanical park f a c i l i t i e s , and many have concentrated t h e i r e f f o r t s on banning rather than accommodating t r a i l bikes. Where consid-eration has been given to accommodating them, the process of implementation and administration has not progressed beyond i n i t i a l stages, although the inference has been that t h i s would l a r g e l y be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the t r a i l bikers themselves. However, one experiment along these l i n e s has proved unsuccessful. A morecldetailed summary of how some of the municip-a l i t i e s have dealt with the t r a i l biking problem i s given i n Appendix I I I . PHASE 3t PRESENTING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Flowing from the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and explor-ation phases, an acceptable solution to the t r a i l b i k i n g problem i n the study area must meet the following c r i t e r i a . 1. I t must minimize the current widespread use of recreat-i o n a l t r a i l bikes on inappropriate land i n the study area. Inappropriate land i s defined as a) private land f o r which permission to use has not been obtained. b) land designated for use other than t r a i l b i king c) environmentally f r a g i l e land d) land s u f f i c i e n t l y close to a r e s i d e n t i a l area that residents are disturbed by t r a i l bike noise emission. 2. I t must minimize the impact of t r a i l bikers on society. S p e c i f i c a l l y i t must a) reduce the safety hazards such as accident and f i r e presented by t r a i l biking. b) minimize the number of people disturbed by noise or trespass of t r a i l bikes. 3. I t must minimize the impact of t r a i l bikers on the environment. S p e c i f i c a l l y i t must a) reduce the area and severity of s o i l and vegetation damage by t r a i l bikes. b) minimize the p o t e n t i a l for s i l t a t i o n of creeks and other water bodies. c) minimize the impact on behaviour and s u r v i v a l of w i l d l i f e . Part B of the problem exploration phase outlined how the problems created by the demand for t r a i l bike use areas has been met within the study area. How these problems have been dealt with elsewhere was discussed i n Chapter 1. These investigations reveal four possible solutions to the t r a i l 43 bike problem: 1. to do nothing 2. to p r o h i b i t t h e i r use completely 3. to p r o h i b i t t h e i r use i n c e r t a i n areas 4. to provide a s p e c i a l t r a i l bike use area or areas. Solution 1 does not meet the stated c r i t e r i a for an acceptable solution. Solution 2 does meet the c r i t e r i a but, i f on a l o c a l scale, may only serve to transfer the problems elsewhere and thus may be considered only as a l a s t r esort. Solution 3 by i t s e l f may only p a r t i a l l y meet the c r i t e r i a . Experiences from elsewhere i n North America have shown Solution 4 to be an e f f e c t i v e solution. However, experiences,by munic-i p a l i t i e s within the study area suggest that a combination of Solutions 3 and 4, i e . to provide a sp e c i a l use area or areas and prohibit t r a i l bike use i n other areas, may be the most e f f e c t i v e route to take. PHASE 4: EXPOSING UNCERTAINTY Feedback from c e r t a i n t r a i l bikers presented with the prospect of a designated s p e c i a l use area has been very p o s i t i v e . However, the problems of i d e n t i f y i n g the t r a i l bike population and subsequently conducting a meaningful and representative opinion p o l l have already been pointed out. S i m i l a r l y surveying the general public adequately would be a mammoth task, and short cuts such as monitoring opinion i n the 44 l o c a l press are hardly representative. T r a i l bikers who are enthusiastic about a sp e c i a l use area may f i n d that i t i s not so appealing once a r e a l i t y . By the same token, design of a t r a i l bike area may seem t o t a l l y unacceptable on paper to the 'general p u b l i c 1 , but i n the practice i t may be found that the solution i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y than was anticipated. , Although the nature of the environmental impacts of t r a i l bikes i s known, the magnitude of these impacts at any given s i t e i s not known. Thus the following uncertainties have been i d e n t i -f i e d . 1. W i l l a spe c i a l use area be used by the t r a i l bike popu-l a t i o n of the study area? 2. W i l l a spe c i a l use area be acceptable to the general public of the study area? and 3. What w i l l be the environmental consequences of providing such a park? I t i s suggested that a sp e c i a l use area be desig-nated f o r an experimental period during which a monitoring program w i l l be undertaken as the most e f f e c t i v e means of reducing these uncertainties. CHAPTER FOUR THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLE AS APPLIED TO THE PROBLEM OF TRAIL BIKING IN AN URBAN AREA INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a strategy f o r reducing the uncertainty associated with planning f o r urban t r a i l bike f a c i l i t i e s , as revealed i n Chapter Three. The case f o r a f l e x i b l e , experimental climate within which to plan f o r t r a i l bike recreational use has already been argued. Under t h i s proposal an actual t r a i l bike use area, i s designated f o r an experimental period, and the in t e r a c t i o n of a l l the uncertain variables that have been i d e n t i f i e d observed. Such a proced-use must be conducted i n a proper, s c i e n t i f i c manner i f t h i s type of approach i s to make a meaningful contribution to t h i s and future planning problems. The strategy as presented i s applicable equally to a private owned and operated t r a i l bike f a c i l i t y as to a p u b l i c a l l y owned and operated f a c i l i t y . Two assumptions are mades 1. That the l e g i s l a t i o n to acquire the land and designate i t s use as a t r a i l bike park already e x i s t s . 2. That the framework f o r managing and administering such a f a c i l i t y has been l a i d out, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y delegated. 46 PHASE 1? ACTION The purpose of the action phase of the plan-implementing cycle i s to implement a plan that w i l l s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a for an acceptable solution to the problem. Thus i n t h i s context i t has three objectives: 1. To provide an experimental use area that w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to t r a i l bikers to reduce t h e i r use of other, non-designated areas within the urban study area boundary. 2. To minimize the environmental impacts of t r a i l bike use on that designated area. 3. To locate such a f a c i l i t y with minimum s o c i a l impacts on the r e s t of society. The f i r s t step i n the action phase i s optimum s i t e s e l e c t i o n . SITE SELECTION Gardiner (1975. 92) outlines a four step method-ology for s i t e s e l e c t i o n of an ORRV area. This can be summarized as: 1. The elimination of extensive areas unacceptable for the proposed developments 2. The reduction of the remaining lands to a s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s . 47 3- An in-depth comparative analysis of each a l t e r n a t i v e . 4. Preliminary design lay-outs of the remaining s i t e s . Figure 3 shows a process chart for s i t e s e l e c t i o n of an ORRV area which has also been devised by Gardiner (1975# p. 98). Objective ( l ) of the Action Phase constitutes the •study objective' i n t h i s process chart. Table II summarizes s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a from a t r a i l biker's point of view. These c r i t e r i a are a modification of Gardiner's s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . Table III summarizes s i t e selection c r i t e r i a based on p o t e n t i a l vehicle impacts, and these s a t i s f y objectives (2) and (3) of the Action phase. These c r i t e r i a are also a modif-i c a t i o n of Gardiner (1975. p. 99) and are based on Appendix IV. 48 Figure 3: S i t e Selection Process Chart i Study 'r 'Objectives • • • • Determine Typc(s) of ORRV to be Planned For Define Search Area Land Ownership Access Size 4-User Based S i t e S e l e c t i o n <-C r i t e r i a Preliminary ORRV-Use Areas S o i l s Vegetation W i l d l i f e Surface Hydrology S i t e S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i s Based Upon P o t e n t i a l Vehicle Impacts F i n a l A l t e r n a t i v e s Comparative S i t e Analysis 4r Preliminary Design Layouts F i n a l S i t e S e l e c t i o n F i n a l Design Layout in •a Non-ORRV Opportunities Type of T e r r a i n Noise Buffer I s o l a t i o n C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y co E x i s t i n g Land Uses Type of T e r r a i n in S o i l s fo Vegetation W i l d l i f e in n> •a Source: Gardiner, 1975. 98 49 Table l i s Site Selection C r i t e r i a f o r Use Areas from a  T r a i l Biker's Perspective. C r i t e r i a Distance Terrain Access Size Description 3/4 to 1 i hour one-way t r a v e l time away from largest concentration of pot e n t i a l users for one day of use (40-60 miles @ 50 mph.) a va r i e t y of topographical features with emphasis upon h i l l y or r o l l i n g t e r r a i n . presence of d i r t roads, firebreaks or t r a i l s , disused sand and gravel p i t s or s t r i p mine areas for track events® .> a va r i e t y of vegetation plus opportunities for scenic views and natural or c u l t u r a l points of i n t e r e s t . I d e a l l y there should be only one acess to the chosen area. F a i l i n g t h i s , there should be p o t e n t i a l f o r manipulation of expected t r a f f i c to one entrance by upgrading access route and providing good parking f a c i l i t i e s . The area should i d e a l l y have natural bound-a r i e s . a minimum of 800 hectares i s reasonable for a 'regional* f a c i l i t y . Smaller 'municipal* f a c i l i t i e s would only require 4-16 hectares. 50 TABLE I I I : Site Selection C r i t e r i a for T r a i l Bike Use Areas  Based on Potential Impacts. C r i t e r i a Description Topography S o i l s Vegetation W i l d l i f e Surface  Hydrology P r e c i p i t a t i o n I s o l a t i o n - slopes should be predominantly l e s s than - gravelly, well-drained sandy loam to loamy textured s o i l s . - rocky or cobbly ground only on slopes - not subject to flooding, have water table close to surface or have imperfect drainage. - s o i l depth should preferably be 1-2 i n . or greater, and l i t t e r layer depth should preferably be 20 cm or greater. - v a r i e t y of vegetation, but predominantly deciduous species. - moderate tree cover with dense understory, there should be a 7Qffo or greater vegetation cover. - no rare or endangered species on s i t e . - low w i l d l i f e habitat c a p a b i l i t y - no rare or endangered species on s i t e - there should be few, i f any streams, creeks or ditches which must be crossed. - medium to low r a i n f a l l with l i t t l e season-a l i t y i s preferable. - there should be a natural b a r r i e r between surrounding areas and proposed s i t e to control access and prevent trespass and vandalism on private property. - low population density on nearby land. 51 Table III continued C r i t e r i a  Noise buffer C u l t u r a l h i s t o r y Description 1.2 km buffer of open land or .8 to 1.2 km buffer of deciduous tree species i f area i s used only i n summer and evergreen species i f year round. past hi s t o r y of extensive a l t e r a t i o n to the s i t e due to man's a c t i v i t i e s such as wide scale resource e x p l o i t ^ ation, f i r e or flooding. l i t t l e current i n t e r e s t i n land for po t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g commercial or r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as tree farming or backpacking. future plans for the area such as s t r i p mining which w i l l r e s u l t i n the ultimate destruction of much of the natural character of the s i t e . CONTROL SITES Not only should an experimental s i t e be chosen to serve as a designated t r a i l bike area, but controls should also be chosen with which to compare the r e s u l t s . In the monitoring program outlined l a t e r on, d i f f e r e n t controls were selected for the d i f f e r e n t aspects examined. SITE-DESIGN Once a possible experimental s i t e i s picked a pre-liminary s i t e plan must be drawn up, with input from the t r a i l 52 bikers. The type and extent of use that i s not only expected but desired must be r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c i l i t i e s provided. Good s i t e plan design i s a powerful tool i n c o n t r o l l i n g use and manipulating use patterns. However, the danger of over-management, lessening the a t t r a c t i b i l i t y of the s i t e , should also be recognised. Since the chosen s i t e i s to be designated f o r an experimental period only, i t i s suggested that the s i t e plan include only the minimum f a c i l i t i e s , with room for further development i f the project so warrants. Site design i s d i s -cussed i n d e t a i l by Gardiner (1975, p. 27-60). However, fo r the purposes of s e t t i n g up an experimental s i t e , the following guidelines for s i t e design are given: 1. A good access road, with a controllable entry point, and leading to good adequate parking f a c i l i t i e s . 2. The parking area to be located on f l a t land, preferably, with a gravel/loam base. According to Fogg (1975) one acre of parking l o t w i l l hold up to 75 cars with t r a i l e r s . 3' Separation of a c t i v i t i e s . Larger t r a i l bike parks could have s p e c i f i c areas designated for motocross, t r i a l and general recreation r i d i n g . However, by virt u e of the d i f f e r e n t t e r r a i n needs of each, separation may well come about natur-a l l y . A motocross track, i f d i s i r e d , would have to be b u i l t i n the f l a t t e s t section of the experimental area. I t also 53 requires a practice area and spectator stand. T r i a l sect-ions, and t r a i l s i f they do not already e x i s t , should be l a i d out such that they compromise the erosion hazard with the challenge of steep slopes. Thus they should follow contour l i n e s as nearly as possible, but also incorporate some v a r i a -t i o n . There i s some controversy as to whether t r a i l s should be designated one-way or two-way. Proponents of the l a t t e r f e e l that making a t r a i l one-way l u l l s one into a false sense of security leading to accidents: with a two way t r a i l system one i s constantly on the a l e r t . Obviously a one-way t r a i l system involves greater expense and more care i n signposting and enforcement. T r a i l s b u i l t s p e c i a l l y should be less than or equal to 2 metres wide with many turns of t i g h t turning ; r a d i i . Gardiner (1975» p. 29-30) recommends only two classes of t r a i l s , •casual' t r a i l s for easier r i d i n g , and 'advanced' t r a i l s f o r more experienced r i d i n g . He r e f e r s to a study i n Washington State which revealed that r i d e r s quickly gain enough expertise to use the advanced t r a i l s and recommended only k0% of the t o t a l to be casual t r a i l s . 4. Washrooms. The Motorcycle Industry Council (1973, p. 5) recommend 1 t o i l e t f or every 250 expected s i t e users. Andro-genous, p i t of composting t o i l e t s are adequate. 5. A means of bounding the s i t e with a peripheral noise buffer zone beyond which no r i d i n g i s permitted. The problem 54 of containing t r a i l bikers within the designated areas needs close attention. Natural boundaries such as a r i v e r , c l i f f , road etc. are i d e a l . Fencing i s an obvious choice which has worked i n some areas (Jane Leat, Park Planner, Borough of Etobicoke, Ontario, personal communication, February, 1977) but fences are e a s i l y torn down and very costly, e s p e c i a l l y when the proposed area i s large. A possible a l t e r n a t i v e , suggested by a t r a i l biker (Tom Tyre, personal communication March 1977), i s to signpost the ending of a t r a i l where i t meets the bound-ary, and provide a small cleared area which includes a bench on which the t r a i l bikers can stop and r e s t . 6. Signpost design. Very c a r e f u l attention should be paid to signpost design, and i f signs are already i n existence i n adjacent areas then the design of these should be adopted for continuity. I t i s suggested that universal symbols be used, Mi* where wording i s necessary, i t should assume a p o s i t i v e tone, f o r example, explaining the reasons for any pr o h i b i t i o n or regulation and emphasizing the c i t i z e n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r e t a i n i n g the designated use area beyond the experimental period by observance of these regulations. A map should also be provided at the entrance, and t r a i l lengths with l e v e l s of expertise marked. Symbols such as are used to mark d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of expertise on downhill 55 s k i slopes could be adopted eg. O •casual* t r a i l s A •advanced' t r a i l s Obviously the same symbols should be used f o r signing t r a i l heads. Boundaries should also be signed. ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS: 1. Insurance The experimental s i t e must be adequately covered by public l i a b i l i t y insurance. The only al t e r n a t i v e to t h i s would be to have a permit system where users of the area must sign a l e g a l waiver to use the park, accepting a l l respon-s i b i l i t y for accident or injury. A l l persons under 19 years of age must have written permission from t h e i r parents, who i n turn w i l l acoept a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2. A f i r s t aid post should be present at the s i t e , and a means of communication with p o l i c e , f i r e and ambulance. 3. Regulations should be t a i l o r e d to each i n d i v i d u a l case, and should be kept to a minimum. However, certa i n standard's concerning the use of mufflers, spark arrestors, maximum noise l e v e l , safety helmets etc. w i l l amost c e r t a i n l y be required for insurance purposes. 4. Enforcement. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for enforcement of regulations 56 within the park should f a l l on the administrative agency. S e l f p o l i c i n g by t r a i l bikers, who would also administer the park has bean suggested. (Chapter 3 p. 36) Outside the park, p o l i c i n g must be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l p o l i c i n g authority. The Borough of Etobicoke found that a one month • b l i t z * , conducted by the l o c a l p o l i c e , where motorcyclists operating i n undesignated areas were charged, was very e f f e c t i v e . (Jane Leat, personal communication, February 1977). This implies l e g i s l a t i o n against t r a i l bikers found using t h e i r t r a i l bikes outside the experimental t r a i l bike park. 5' Public education campaign. Coincident with the implementation of the experiment should be provision for the i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of a public education campaign concerning the need to preserve the environment, responsible and safe r i d i n g habits etc. After the plan has been drawn up, a public meeting should be held to give information concerning the rationale for and nature of the experiment, and the c r i t e r i a by which the project s h a l l be judged at the end of the experimental period. This l a t t e r aspect w i l l be discussed l a t e r on i n t h i s chapter. In return, the public should be permitted to voice t h e i r concerns, and make improvements upon the plan. 57 A workshop i s suggested as an appropriate format fo r t h i s meeting. The procedure includes: a) ;a presentation by the t r a i l bike experimental park planner. b) Dividing a l l participants into groups of approximately s i x persons. Each group i s to receive atianap of the area showing e x i s t i n g land use, copies of the proposed t r a i l bike plan, f a c t sheets and blank pieces of paper. Everyone i s given 5^ minutes to accept, modify, or develop a completely new plan within these groups. c) A f i v e minute presentation i s then given by each group on t h e i r recommendations to the meeting. The recommendations should then be incorporated into the plan. PHASE 2: MONITORING Accompanying the f i n a l s i t e plan should be plans fo r the monitoring phase of the plan implementing cycle. The f i r s t step i s to decide the length of the experimental time period; two years i s suggested. Chapter 2 outlined three functions of the monitor-ing phase. These can be translated into the following s p e c i f i c objectives f o r the purposes of the problem under review: 1 . To check that the objectives of the action phase are being met 58 i . e . to a) check that the solution of an experimental t r a i l bike area, plus the option of p r o h i b i t i o n elsewhere, i s reducing the use of non-designated areas by t r a i l bikers. b) the s p e c i a l use area i s designed and managed to maxi-mize i t s attractiveness to t r a i l bikers. c) there have been few or no incidents of noise, trespass or safety complaints as a r e s u l t of setting up t h i s experiment-a l use area. d) the environmental damage to t h i s use area i s being minimized through good s i t e design and management. 2. That the monitoring program must contribute towards reduction of uncertainty by answering the following questions. a) i s the experimental s i t e being used, and by whom? b) has the area been accepted by the general public? c) what i s the magnitude of environmental damage and to what extent can ihe environmentarecover from bike use? These two functions of the monitoring program deal with responses to the experiment from three d i s t i n c t areas of concern; the t r a i l bikers, the general public and the environ-ment. Thus a three part program i s devised whose major components are as follows: Part A deals with responses to the experiment from the t r a i l bikers. I t monitors the use of the experimental t r a i l 59 bike area and selected control s i t e s before and a f t e r the experiment commences. I t also examines use patterns and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a i l bikers who are using the park, and determines where they are coming from. F i n a l l y , i t monitors the t r a i l bikers opinions about the park and suggestions for improvement. Part B deals with responses to the experiment from the general public. I t examines the number of complaints against t r a i l bikers concerning noise, trespass etc. before and a f t e r commencement of the experiment near the experimental s i t e and near non-designated use s i t e s . I t also monitors the reactions of those who witiL be most affected by the experiment to a designated use area, before and af t e r commencement;of the experiment. Part C deals with the responses by the environment to the experiment. I t monitors changes to the s o i l , vegetation, w i l d l i f e and q u a l i t y of adjacent water bodies. Examination i s also made of the recovery rate of the s o i l and vegetation i n selected areas of the t r a i l bike park that have been taken out of use. PHASE 3» ANALYSIS The data c o l l e c t e d from the monitoring program w i l l be analyzed i n two waysi a) on a regular review basis with rapid analysis, evaluation 6o and, i f necessary action, during the experimental period, b) at the end of the experimental period. Analysis of Part A w i l l examine absolute use and use d i s -t r i b u t i o n patterns, either as expressed i n the number of t r a i l bikes by day, week or month, or the number of user hours per day, week or month spent at the experimental s i t e , and whether or not use of other areas has declined since the experiment commenced. I t w i l l determine the sex, age groups, place of residence etc. of t r a i l bikers using the s i t e and which management programs have been successful, where the s i t e design, management, or administration requires improvement, and what i s the o v e r a l l impression of the park by the users. Analysis of Part B w i l l examine whether or not the experimental t r a i l bike park has had any e f f e c t upon the number of complaints generated i n areas used by t r a i l bikers p r i o r to the experiment. Analysis w i l l also determine the reactions of those immediately affected by designating the experimental t r a i l bike park, before and a f t e r the experiment-a l period. I&nalysis of Part C w i l l examine the magnitude of damage i n f l i c t e d by the t r a i l bikes, i n terms of the extent of the •disturbance* upon s o i l , vegetation, w i l d l i f e , and 61 adjacent water bodies. I t w i l l also determine the degree to which the s o i l and vegatation at certain s i t e s can recover i t s e l f over time. BHASE 4; EVALUATION Evaluation of the analysis leads to a choice of two routes: Route 1. To adjust the plan as i t stands by re-entering the Action phase. Route 2. To re-evaluate the plan by returning to the plan-making cycle. The evaluation phase has two functions: 1. To evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring program. 2. To evaluate the r e s u l t s of the monitoring program. The basis f o r evaluation of the effectiveness of the monitoring program i s to examine how well i t meets i t s stated objectives. This evaluation should be based on whether the monitoring program determines how e f f e c t i v e providing an experimental t r a i l bike park i s i n reducing the use of other areas and i n meeting the needs of the t r a i l b i kers, and i n minimizing s o c i a l , and environmental impacts; I t should also examine how e f f e c t i v e l y the monitoring program has reduced uncertainty about use of the s i t e , public reaction and environmental r e s i l i e n c e . 62 Should the monitoring program be found d e f i c i e n t i n any of these aspects, then route 1 should be followed, and the monitoring program redesigned. The basis f o r evaluation of the r e s u l t s of the monitoring program i s to examine what are th e i r implications i n terms of accepting a special t r a i l bike use area as a solution tothe t r a i l bike problem i n the study area. Eval-uation should thus also ask the following questionss a) Is the designated area s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to t r a i l bikers to reduce t h e i r use of other, nonrdesignated areas, and i f so, within how large a radius of the s i t e ? Should more s i t e s be designated and does i t matter how close they are to t r a i l bike populations? b) Are the negative impacts on the r e s t of society,minimal, and are they outweighed by the positive impacts, such as reduced noise complaints? Or are negative impacts to society s u f f i c i e n t l y large to suggest a t o t a l ban on t r a i l bikes? c) Are the environmental impacts on that designated s i t e cause for concern? Should another location be t r i e d or are these environmental impacts the 'best* that can be expected i n the study area? The decision as to which route to take a f t e r eval-uating the experiment i n t h i s way rests on how much deviance i s found between the stated objectives f o r an acceptable 63 solution and the r e s u l t s of the monitoring program. Small deviances that can be e a s i l y explained suggest following route 1. For example, i f low use of the designated 8.2? *3 9, X S perceived to be a consequence of bad management practices; or erosion within the park a consequence of bad s i t e design or trespass of adjacent property a consequence of inadequate regulation, access c o n t r o l or signing, these can be remedied f a i r l y quickly by re-entering the action phase. However, i f the deviance i s large and, for example, there i s a public outcry about the use of the area as a designated park, the plan making cycle must be re-entered, and the whole project reviewed on the basis of what has been learnt from the plan-implementing cycle. CHAPTER FIVE THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING CYCLEt AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE THE CASE OF EAGLE RIDGE INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to draw together the preceding two chapter by describing how an experimental t r a i l bike s i t e could be set up i n the study area. Chapter 3 concluded that the t r a i l bike population i n the study area may be i n excess of 20,000, and the function of a po t e n t i a l designated area should be to provide general recreation r i d i n g . A reluctance by municipalities to provide f a c i l i t i e s for reasons such as lack of suitable land,^and police power was revealed. I t i s f e l t that the regional and p r o v i n c i a l governments are better able to provide a s u i t -able experimental s i t e . A 'regional' s i t e , i n excess of 800 hectares was thus sought within the study area, for the . experimental t r a i l bike s i t e . DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA The Lower Fraser Valley i s an a t t r a c t i v e r i v e r v a l l e y widening from 1-2 miles at Hope to 16-20 miles at i t s western extremity, bounded by the sea. I t i s backed by mountains to the north, the Coast Mountains, which form a s o l i d wall reaching 5000*, interrupted only by g l a c i a l l y deepened Harrison, Stave and P i t t Lakes, and by the Indian 65 Arm of the Burrard I n l e t . To the south are the Cascade Mountains. (Stager and W a l l i s , 1968). S o i l Forming Deposits Within the Valley there are two d i s t i n c t physio-graphic types - uplands and lowlands. The uplands, with elevations of several hundreds of feet have a mostly g l a c i o -raarine and g l a a i o - t i l l basis. Occasionally, a g l a c i o - l a c u s -tr i n e area occurs and i n the eastern portion there i s an intermittent covering of loamy, wind blown material. Most upland s o i l s are medium textured and therefore r e l a t i v e l y well drained, but numerous poorly drained depressions also occur. The lowlands range from sea l e v e l to elevations of 70' i n the East and are generally composed of s i l t y and clayey plains which are the flood deposits of the Fraser, Chilliwack, P i t t , Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers. Large portions of the lowlands suffer from extremely poor drainage during the winter months, and v i r t u a l l y the entire low-iiafid area has been subject to flooding during the worst of the spring flood years. (Winter 1968, p. 103) Figure k shows a generalized c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s of t h i s area. Figure 4: A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS IN THE STUDY AREA 67 Climate The Lower Fraser Valley i s well known for i t s moderate climate. The winters are mild, though wet, and summers are cool. P r e c i p i t a t i o n varies considerably within t h i s area as a r e s u l t of the v a r i a t i o n i n topography, and the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a i n shadow e f f e c t of Vancouver Island,and the Olympic penninsula. Generally there i s a decrease i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n from north to south and the pattern of higher p r e c i p i t a t i o n along the mountain front p e r s i s t s eastward up the Valley. Generally the average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , i s around 30-^0" i n the south-west, - 8 0 - 9 0 " , i i n the mount-ains, and 60-70" i n the middle and eastern lowland p l a i n . See Figure 5 (Stager and Wallis, 1968). SITE SELECTION Using the s i t e selection c r i t e r i a outlined i n Chapter 4, the study area was examined for a potential exper-imental t r a i l bike s i t e . P a r t i c u l a r attention was paid to s i t e s known to be i n use by t r a i l bikes as presented i n Appendix I I . Many of these s i t e s were eliminated immediately due to t h e i r proximity to r e s i d e n t i a l areas or due,to t h e i r small s i z e . Remaining alte r n a t i v e s included the Big Bend i n d u s t r i a l area i n Burnaby and Burns Bog l a n d f i l l s i t e i n Delta, but the s i t e that best met the s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a i s Eagle Ridge i n northern Coquitlam. Figure 5 : AVERAQE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IN THE STUDY AREA 69 SITE DESCRIPTION Eagle Ridge l i e s i n Township 39 W.C.M., between Buntzen Lake and Coquitlam River. I t i s approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour's drive from downtown Vancouver, and within two hours drive of a l l points within the study area. The l o c a t i o n i s shown i n Figure 6. The boundaries of the proposed s i t e are shown i n Figure 7« This i s an area of approximately 800 hectares. The land i s crown owned, and l i e s at an elevation between 240 m and 900m i n an area at present held under a Reserve by the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t f or watershed purposes. (B.C. Land Commission, New Westminster, personal communication, March 1977). B.C. Hydro leases part of t h i s land for a trans-mission '.station, and transmission l i n e s . The transmission station occupies approximately 12 hectares i n the f l a t , south-eastern portion of the proposed experimental s i t e . There i s a paved access road to t h i s transmission station. In addition, there are several logging and construction roads, plus one or two t r a i l s b u i l t by t r a i l bikers. Above the transmission s t a t i o n , the land slopes to the north-west with a 25$ slope increasing to a 30% slope about the 500 ra contour. Further towardstthe north-eastern boundary of the proposed s i t e , slopes increase to about 50%. The southern and southwestern portions of the s i t e are gently sloping, with slopes between 15 and 25%. F i g u r e s : L O C A T I O N O F T H E EXPERIMENTAL & CONTROL S I T E S Figure 7 : PROPOSED BOUNDARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL TRAIL BIKE AREA 72 Thus the c r i t e r i a of distance, t e r r a i n acess and size are met by the choice of Eagle Ridge. Unfortunately, only the s o i l s of the eastern h a l f of the proposed s i t e have been surveyed. (B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, 1972) The parent material of these s o i l s i s predominantly coarse to moderately course textured g l a c i a l t i l l , and colluvium over bedrock. There are four major s o i l complexes as shown i n Appendix V. These are predominantly o r t h i c ferro-humic podzols, (The System for S o i l C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n f o r Canada) which are moderately w e l l drained. , However, there are instances i n the southern portion of the. study area of imperfectly drained s o i l s , and to a cert a i n extent i n the northern portion. In contrast, there are areas i n the middle portion that have r a p i d drainage. S o i l textures are mainly loamy with stones and gravels mixed throughout. There, are some areas of sand loam and gravelly sand loam. S o i l depths vary from 15 cm near the top of the ridges to i n excess of lm. In the south-eastern f l a t area, there are instances of compact impervious basal t i l l occuring at around 90 cm which r e s t r i c t s drainage and sub-surface water movement. On the upper slopes, there are bedrock outcrops i n some areas, and s o i l depths are generally around 50 cm. The l i t t e r layer varies from 1.25 cm to 15 cm. Thus the 73 p o t e n t i a l f o r erosion varies with the topography, l i t t e r cover and s o i l texture, but generally v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s low. The area receives a mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 2 0 0 - 3 0 0 cm. Eagle Ridge l i e s i n the coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone. (Krajina, published by the B.C. Ec o l o g i c a l Reserves Committee). The dominant vegetation i s : Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with small amounts of Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and some Western Red Cedar (Thu.ia p l i c a t a ) . The shrub layer i s low and f a i r l y dense, and there i s e s s e n t i a l l y no herb layer. (Hubbard and B e l l , 1 9 7 6 ) . The s o i l report indicates that the lower slopes are well suited for for e s t r y production, with a mean annual increment of 161 to 173 cubic feet per year. On the upper slopes, forest growth i s f a i r . A large portion of the east-ern section of the proposed s i t e has been clearcut, and here there i s an extensive shrub layer. Appendix V gives a more det a i l e d description of the vegetation of the area. There are two creeks i n the area, Noons Creek and Scott Creek, the l a t t e r of which Kowalenko (1973# P- 11) has i d e n t i f i e d as having excellent f i s h i n g for cutthroat and cohoe jacks. I t i s also important for pink salmon spawning. Appendix VI uses the biophysical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s FigureB: P R O P O S E D S I T E P L A N F O R E A G L E R1DQE 74 Intensity -of Trail _Use_:-lu- Light use mu- medium use hu- high use ce - transmission station - transmission Iii road T N Scoti. Cretfe. • scale 1 1 L I L 1 L 1 METRES 75 that have been described to rate the proposed experimental s i t e based on 12 c r i t e r i a for land c a p a b i l i t y described i n Appendix IV. This permits a 'use i n t e n s i t y ' zoning map to be produced as shown i n Figure 8. Since the biophysical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the proposed s i t e are not completely s a t i s f a c t o r y caution must be exercised i n s i t e design and monitoring environmental impacts. The area i s not well defined by natural boundaries, and thus care must be taken to c l e a r l y signpost the l i m i t s of the experimental s i t e . At present there i s multiple access to the s i t e . In addition to the B.C. Hydro paved road, there i s also another access road, v i a Maude Road i n Port Moody. However, t h i s i s currently at best four wheel drive standard, and w i l l eventually be replaced under the Port Moody North Shore project. (Jane Best, Planner, Port Moody, personal communication March 1977)• Access by t r a i l bike from the Westwood racetrack i s possible when the gate i s open. Access v i a the transmission l i n e s , e s p e c i a l l y from the Barnet High-way near the Port Moody/Coquitlam Municipal boundaries, i s also possible by t r a i l bike. I t i s suggested that, i f the B.C. Hydro road i s open to public use, and a good.spur road were to be builtfrom i t to adequate parking f a c i l i t i e s , use of the other access routes would be almost n e g l i g i b l e . 76 IMPACTS TO SOCIETY The choice of Eagle Ridge as a t r a i l "bike park has a p o t e n t i a l impact on three communities; the C i t y of Port Moody, Coquitlam D i s t r i c t Municipality and the community of Anmore i n unorganized E l e c t o r a l Area B, B.C. Hydro and the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t would also be affected. 1. CITY OF PORT MOODY: The proposed experimental s i t e i s 1.25 km from current development i n Port Moody. However, under the Port Moody North Shore Project, low density r e s i d e n t i a l areas are planned f o r part of the North-east corner of the C i t y . The close s t to the proposed boundaries of the park that these sub di v i s i o n s w i l l come i s approximately 1 km. Between the r e s i d -e n t i a l area and the park boundary there i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i t e and public open space. The a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c routes and some of the c o l l e c t o r routes of the Port Moody North Shore project have been located to permit extension into the Anmore d i s t r i c t to the north of the City . This proposed road pattern w i l l com-p l e t e l y replace e x i s t i n g roads i n the area including the two present access roads to Eagle Ridge i . e . Maude Road and Water Street. Acess to the proposed experimental s i t e w i l l be under t h i s proposal, v i a a new a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c route which passes through medium and high density r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 77 2. COQUITLAM DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY $ Although the s i t e l i e s within the Coquitlam D i s t r i c t Municipal boundaries, there i s no current or proposed development of the proposed experimental s i t e . The closest r e s i d e n t i a l development i s approximately 1 km from the s i t e , and Coquitlam's proposed Regional Town Centre does not extend any further north than part way up section 15 or .5 km from the proposed experimental s i t e . 3. ANMORE j The s i t e i s 1 km from current r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment. No r e s i d e n t i a l development i s planned within the proposed experimental s i t e , and there w i l l be a .6 km buffer zone between the proposed urban expansion to the Anmore Community (Urban Programme Planners, 1975) and the experimental park boundaries. 4. B.C HYDROs B.C. Hydro's o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i s to encourage multiple use of land over which they have j u r i s d i c t i o n . However, they are concerned with public l i a b i l i t y and pro-tecti o n of t h e i r property. Thus i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the experimental t r a i l bike park operators are adequately covered for public l i a b i l i t y insurance including damage incurred on B.C Hydro property. The transmission station at Eagle Ridge 78 has already proved to be a target for vandalism during and since construction, s u f f i c i e n t to warrant a twenty-four hour guard. (Damian Dunne, Land Management and Development Depart-ment, B.C. Hydro, personal communication, March 1977). I f the experiment i s properly supervised, the fa c t that there are responsible people around may discourage vandalism. 5 . GREATER VANCOUVER WATER DISTRICT* The proposed experimental area includes three community watersheds; Noons Crrek (West Branch), Noons Creek (East Branch) and Scott Creek. In addition i t en-croaches upon Mossom Creek and Coquitlam Lake. "These watersheds are a l l under the j u r i s -d i c t i o n of the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t , who have the l e g a l administrative r i g h t to perscribe to what uses the lands within the »watersheds can be put. Since the inception of the GVWD i t has been the po l i c y to maintain control over land use a c t i v i t i e s within the watersheds, and, within l i m i t s to exclude the p u b l i c , The p r i o r i t y p o l i c y of the D i s t r i c t i s towards the maintenance of wholesome domestic water for the users. However, the Water D i s t r i c t does not pursue an absolute "closed door" management pol i c y , (for example) There i s carr i e d on, under s t r i c t controls, forest harvesting on a sustained y i e l d forest man-agement program under a P r o v i n c i a l Manage?-ment Licence where the timber i s vested i n the lessee, but the net proceeds of the sales are payable to the lessor." (J.D. Watts, Chairman, Task Force on Multiple Use of Watersheds, Supplies, Water Investigation Branch, Department of the Environment, B.C., personal communica-t i o n , March 1977) 79 6. OTHER INTERESTS IN THE LAND: Approximately 540 hectares within the proposed s i t e have been clear cut, and there are several construction roads remaining as a consequence of bu i l d i n g the Transmission st a t i o n . This makes the area p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable as an experimental t r a i l bike s i t e , as i t already has been, altered from i t s natural state, and the logging and construction roads are used as motorcycle t r a i l s . This area has already been proposed by t r a i l bikers as a suitable s i t e f o r a t r a i l bike park, and t h i s suggestion has been endorsed by the Feder-ation of Mountain Clubs of B.C. and the Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association. (See Appendix I I , p. 135 ) SITE DEVELOPMENT 1. Access B.C. Hydro leases the r i g h t of way for the paved access road to t h e i r transmission station from the Crown. The terms of the agreement do not preclude public use, and so per-mission to use t h i s road as an access to the proposed experi-mental area may possibly be secured provided that B.C.Hydro i s s a t i s f i e d with the plans f o r the experimental t r a i l bike s i t e . (Daraian Dunne, March 1977). 2. Parking A spur road leading from the paved road to a parking 80 area would have to be b u i l t . A suggested location i s shown i n Figure 8 involving approximately 300 m of gravel spur road and a 1 hectare parking l o t with a capacity f o r approximately 210 trucks and t r a i l e r s . The proposed s i t e i s f l a t and has a loamy s o i l with gravel mixed through. 3. Separation of A c t i v i t i e s For the purpose of the experiment t h i s area i s for general recreation r i d i n g only. As has been mentioned, there i s a network of t r a i l s and logging roads i n the area. As a f i r s t step, these should be surveyed to eliminate those that already require a r e s t i n g period or run-off management, such as areas s u f f e r i n g from ponding and/or showing signs of erosion. Next, t r a i l s should be designated either one way or two way, graded either 'casual' or 'advanced' t r a i l s , and signed appropriately. 4. Washrooms Since t h i s area l i e s i n ,a watershed reserve, p i t t o i l e t s are probably not adequate. Thus, composting t o i l e t s are recommended, two w i l l probably be s u f f i c i e n t . 5• Bounding the Area '}. The cost of feneing such a large area i s p r o h i b i -t i v e . Thus i t i s suggested that: 81 i . there be a map displayed &t the park entrance showing the boundaries of the area, and f a c i l i t i e s including t r a i l s . i i . at the boundary, transmission l i n e s and t r a i l s be signposted, and at the l a t t e r benches and garbage cans are provided. 6. Signposting As has already been i n f e r r e d , there should be a signpost at the entrance to the park sta t i n g that the park has been designated a t r a i l bike area for a two year experiment period. At the parking l o t there should be a map of the area showing the casual and advanced t r a i l s . A l l t r a i l heads should be signed i n accordance with t h i s map, and boundaries of the park, and of the 'resting areas* should be c l e a r l y marked. An example of the wording that could be:placed on these signs i s as followst "You have now reached the boundary of the designated t r a i l bike park. Please do not proceed further since the success of the park as a t r a i l bike area depends upon t r a i l bikers staying within i t s boundaries." ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS 1. Regulation A hut should be erected at the point where the road to the parking s i t e leaves the main paved road. This w i l l be 82 considered the •entrance point* and i t i s here that r e g i s t r a -t i o n w i l l take place, and information d i s t r i b u t e d . The information should take the form of maps, and a l i s t of regulations. These should be kept to a minimum, but w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y be necessary p a r t i c u l a r l y for insurance reasons. An explanation for the regulation should be given, i f not s e l f evident. Probable examples of regulations are: - s p e c i f i e d speed l i m i t - a clothing requirement, p a r t i c u l a r l y helmets m a maximum noise emmission (random checks could be performed using a sound l e v e l meter). - spark arresters and mufflers required. 2. Enforcement At the time the experimental park i s opened, the use of t r a i l bikes should be prohibited within a 20 km radius of Eagle Ridge. This should be stringently enforced by l o c a l p o lice and RCMP for one month a f t e r the s t a r t of the experi-ment. 3.. Public Education Campaign At the time the experimental park i s opened, a public education campaign should be i n i t i a t e d , and maintained to inform users of the need to preserve the environment, and f o r responsible behaviour etc. I t should be emphasized that the benefits of such behaviour w i l l be to maintain the area 83 as a t r a i l bike park beyond the two year experimental period. 4. Management and Administration of the Park This thesis does not examine i n depth the pro-v i s i o n system for such a f a c i l i t y . However, i t i s suggested that the experiment should be a j o i n t P r o v i n c i a l and Regional Government project. The t r a i l bike clubs and i n d i v i d u a l t r a i l bikers should be given the opportunity to par t i c i p a t e through-out the implementation of the experiment, and the s i t e con-struction should p a r t i a l l y be t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Adminis-t r a t i o n of the park should be a j o i n t government/trail bike club r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s t a f f i n g and p o l i c i n g should be lar g e l y performed by t r a i l bikers. THE MONITORING PROGRAM As outlined i n Chapter 4, the monitoring program f a l l s into three parts. Part A: USE INFORMATION I The use of the experimental t r a i l bike areas and three control s i t e s should be monitored before the experi-ment commences, and at i n t e r v a l s during the experimental period. The suggested control s i t e s are» 1. West of the Thermal Station at loco i n E l e c t o r a l Area B. This area i s i n regular use, p a r t i c u l a r l y by t r i a l s r i d e r s and 84 l i e s approximately 5 km south-west of Eagle Ridge. 2. PoCo Hiking T r a i l , situated around the periphery of Port Coquitlam. This t r a i l receives use e s p e c i a l l y from mini-bike r i d e r s who c o n f l i c t with hikers. The t r a i l i s between 5 and 10 km from Eagle Ridge. 3- Invergarry Park i n Surrey. This i s a municipal park, part of which was set aside f o r t r a i l bike use u n t i l com-pl a i n t s from nearby residents caused i t s closure i n February 1976. I t l i e s approximately 13 km from Eagle Ridge. These are shown i n Figure 6 p. 70-Use surveys should be conducted simultaneously at these s i t e s and Eagle Ridge on a sunny weekday and weekend before the experiment commences over a two hour time period. These areas should be resurveyed every 6 months during the two years. This involves a t o t a l of 160 persons hours including t r a v e l time to the s i t e . II In addition, the use of Eagle Ridge should be continually monitored using an automatic t r a f f i c counter on the spur road to the parking l o t . This w i l l give information about use patterns which can be related to changes i n manage-ment p o l i c y . Since the counter does not dis t i n g u i s h between four wheel pick up trucks containing several t r a i l bikes, or just one, or even stre e t l e g a l bikes ridden to the s i t e , a 85 p i l o t study l a s t i n g two weeks should he conducted to determine the average number of t r a i l bikes per counter unit. I l l On-site interviews should be conducted i n order to f i n d out how large on area Eagle Ridge i s serving, and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those that are using i t . These interviews could also be used to determine t r a i l biker's perceptions of the park, and t h e i r opinions as to how i t could be improved to better serve t h e i r needs. Interviews should be conducted one month a f t e r the commencement of the experiment. A minimum of four weekdays and two weekends should be sampled. Resurveys should be conducted a f t e r dine year and at the end of the experimental period. This involves a t o t a l of 120 person hours, including t r a v e l time to and from the s i t e . Part B: THE REACTION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC I Complaints against t r a i l bikers can be lodged with l o c a l p olice and RCMP. Eagle Ridge f a l l s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Coquitlam detachment of the RCMP who keep a d a i l y record of complaints. These often number several hundred i n one day and do not always include grievances against t r a i l bikers. (Receptionist, Coquitlam detachment of the RCMP,,personal communication, February 1977) . Arrangements could be made with the RCMP to examine these records f o r a one year period p r i o r to the commencement of the experiment. 86 i n order to document complaints s p e c i f i c a l l y against t r a i l bikers. After the experiment commences, the RCMP should be asked,to keep a separate record of complaints only against t r a i l bikers, and these should be documented at the end of the two year experimental period. Documentation should show how the number and nature of complaints has varied i n r e l a t i o n to Eagle Ridge, loco and the PoCo t r a i l , which are also under the Coquitlam detachment of the RCMP. Invergarry Park i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Surrey detachment of the RCMP, and so a si m i l a r procedure for in v e s t i g a t i n g changes i n complaints should be conducted there. II The opinions of residents and agencies who are affected by t r a i l bike use at Eagle Ridge, loco, Poco t r a i l , and Invergarry Park should be surveyed. Thus, representatives of B.C. Hydro, GVWD should be interviewed before the experiment begins to determine how they f e e l about the prospect of the experiment, and what measures they f e e l should be taken to safeguard t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . After the experiment, these repres-entatives should be re-interviewed to determine t h e i r per-ceptions of the success of the experiment, A sample of the residents of the North Shore of Port Moody, Anmore, loco, Coquitlam north of the Barnet Highway and west of Pipeline Road, Port Coquitlam, and Surrey immediately surrounding 87 Invergarry Park should be interviewed before the experiment begins. This implies surveying a t o t a l population of about 10,000 residents of which there w i l l be approximately 2,500 residences. I f every f i f t h household i s sampled then 500 interviews must be conducted. Assuming a rate of two i n t e r -views per hour, t h i s implies 250 person hours. Assuming a rate of k, interviews per hour, t h i s implies 125 person hours are required.to conduct the survey. The interview should t r y to e s t a b l i s h whether the interviewee i s a t r a i l biker ,, and i f not i f he or she i s aware that t r a i l bikes are using areas close by and how he or she f e e l s about t h i s . The population should be resurveyed at the end of the two year experimental period to determine the resident*s perceptions of the experi-ment. Part C: ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION I To obtain information about the environmental impact of t r a i l bikes on the s o i l s and vegetation of Eagle Ridge, i t i s suggested that the area be divided into four s t r a t a as shown i n Figure 9 . These s t r a t a r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t t e r r a i n and i n t e n s i t i e s of t r a i l bike use. The number of sampling s i t e s within each strata's i s shown i n Table IV. Their l o c a t i o n should be selected randomly along the desig-nated t r a i l s . Control s i t e s should be selected to complement 1 88 each sampling s i t e . These should be within areas which are u n l i k e l y to receive use from t r a i l bikes, close to the sampling s i t e and with as si m i l a r biophysical a t t r i b u t e s to the sampling s i t e as possible. TABLE IV SAMPLING STRATA FOR MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF EAGLE RIDGE STRATA # DESCRIPTION PROPOSED DEGREE # OF SAMPLING OF USE SITES 1 F l a t Intensive 6 2 Undulating Intensive 6 3 Transmission Lines Steep Medium 3 Low 3 18 t o t a l The dimensions of the sampling s i t e s should be 8 m along the t r a i l . With a 5m s t r i p an either side of the t r a i l as shown i n Figure 10. 89 F i g u r e 9: E A Q L E R I D G E - S A M P L I N G S T R A T A METRES 90 Figure 10: DIAGRAM OF. SITES TO COLLECT  ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION : -«sampling site site The dimensions of the control s i t e s should be the same. The following base l i n e data should be recorded f o r each sampling and control s i t e : a) s o i l type "] At the centre of b) s o i l depth r the sampling and c) s o i l bulk density J control s i t e . d) dominant veg. sp. H Within whole sampling or e) Av. height of d.v. sp. control s i t e . f ) % veg. cover g) slope J The rationale f o r c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s information i s as follows: 1. Points b through f may be used f o r comparison i n l a t e r resurveys. 2, Points a through g may be used f o r comparison with other experiments. 91 A f t e r the experimental s i t e has been opened to t r a i l bike use as a designated area, resurvey of the control and sampling s i t e s should be conducted at 6 month int e r v a l s throughout the experimental period. Photographs should be taken each time measurements are made, and from the same point. A s i m i l a r monitoring program at the Land Between the Lakes took one 20.3 cm x 28 cm black and white photograph, and one coloured s l i d e * A s i m i l a r sampling procedure i n Land Between the Lakes f o r 20 sampling s i t e s took approximately 160 persons hours to conduct the i n i t i a l monitoring procedure including the controls, within a s i m i l a r sized area. The dominant vegetation i n t h i s case was oak-hickory woodland. Resurvey of these s i t e s took 50 person hours, or 2.5 person hours per plot ( C o t t r e l l , personal communication, February 1977). Thus to survey Eagle Ridge, 360 person hours i s required i n t o t a l . Eagle Ridge i s not considered to be important to w i l d l i f e (Canada Land Inventory). However, t h i s should be confirmed before the s i t e i s designated and, i f necessary, a monitoring program i n i t i a t e d to inventory changes to popula-t i o n density, d i s t r i b u t i o n and behaviour i n r e l a t i o n to changes occuring to the habitat of each species. Regular water qua l i t y checks should be made of Noons Creek and Scott Creek s t a r t i n g before the experiment 92 commences and throughout the experimental period to ensure that the park i s not impairing these creeks, II One of the most important management practices to ameliorate environmental damage i s to take an •overused* area out of use, and allow i t to 'recover*. The problem l i e s i n determining at which point a s i t e has become 'overused*, since l e t t i n g i t stay i n use too long may r e s u l t i n i r r e p e r -able damage. I f the land i s s t i l l capable of reclamation, recovery rates w i l l vary depending on the combination of environmental factors present. There has been very l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c work done on t h i s aspect, but i t i s one to which attention must be paid. (Russell Shay, Editor, the ORV MONITOR, personal communication, March 1977). Thus i t i s suggested that during the second year of the experimental period t r a i l s should be sectioned o f f to conduct a recovery rate experiment, and signs be erected explaining the purpose of the experiment. The choice of areas to be sectioned off w i l l be dictated by the use pattern of the park i n the f i r s t year. Id e a l l y , three areas should be picked representing! a. LIGHT USE, where evidence of use i s f a i n t l y v i s i b l e , b. MEDIUM USE, where evidence of use i s e a s i l y v i s i b l e and there i s some bare ground. c. HEAVY USE, where the ground i s bare, compaction of the 93 at the centre of the sampling or control s i t e s o i l indicates heavy use, and i n a t r a i l s i t u a t i o n , the t r a i l i s perhaps wider than those receiving medium use. Within the areas that have been sectioned o f f , sampling s i t e s and controls should be picked. The following information should be c o l l e c t e d at the outsett 1. Dimensions of zone of disturbance (mapped) 2. S o i l type 3. S o i l depth 4. Depth of l i t t e r layer 5. S o i l bulk density 6. S o i l moisture J 7. Dominant vegetation species ^ 8 . Av. height of dominant veg. species 9. % vegetation cover (mapped) 10. Slope of s i t e J Whe sampling and control s i t e s should be resurveyed a f t e r 6 months and one year, and the following information c o l l e c t e d ! 1. Dimensions of zone of disturbance. (Mapped) 2. $ Vegetation cover (Mapped) 3« Vegetation species present 4. Average height of dominant vegetation species 5. L i t t e r layer depth Photographs should be taken of each s i t e , and at each resurvey, within whole sampling or control s i t e 9k as described f o r monitoring s o i l and vegetation damage. Monitoring recovery rates should take a t o t a l of 80-100 person hours. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION The information thus c o l l e c t e d w i l l be analyzed and evaluated as described i n Chapter 4. During the experiment-a l period, feesdback from t r a i l bikers about t h e i r perceptions of the experimental s i t e , and feedback from environmental monitoring w i l l determine i f any changes i n the s i t e ' s design or management i s required. Feedback w i l l also indicate i f the monitoring program i t s e l f needs to be redesigned. Evaluation of the information from the monitoring program of the end of the experimental period may reveal one of the following situations* 1. Eagle Ridge has been well used by t r a i l bikers who are resident within a 10 km radius, and the environmental impact of t h i s use has not been cause for concern. Residents near to the experimental s i t e are s a t i s f i e d that they are not being adversely af f e c t e d and the number of complaints from residents near loco and the Poco T r a i l has dropped. However, there i s no evidence to suggest that t r a i l bike use of Surrey's Invergarry Park has declined as a r e s u l t of design-a t i n g Eagle Ridge. The recommended course of action i n t h i s 95 instance would be consider designating more t r a i l bike areas close to the urban area where the t r a i l bike population i s concentrated. 2. Eagle Ridge has been well used by t r a i l bikers from a l l over the Lower Fraser Valley, and t r a i l bike use of loco, Poeo T r a i l and Invergarry Park has dropped considerably, as has complaints about t r a i l bikers at these s i t e s . B.C. Hydro, GVWD and the residents of Port Moody, Anmore and North Coquit-lam are s a t i s f i e d that they are not being impacted by design-a t i o n of Eagle Ridge. There i s evidence that environmental impacts can be ameliorated by improved management pra c t i c e s . The recommended course of action i n t h i s instance would be to investigate whether or not designation of Eagle Ridge has. reduced t r a i l bike use i n other parts of the study area, and determine i f any more s i t e s are needed. Since t r a i l bikes from a l l over the study area are using Eagle Ridge, the loca-t i o n of these s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n to the t r a i l bike population i s shown to be not so important. 3. Since Eagle Ridge was designated as a t r a i l bike park, i t has not received much more use than before the experiment commenced. Use of other areas i s continuing, and the number of complaints has not dropped. The recommended course of action i s to determine why Eagle Ridge i s not being used, and to enforce a s t r i c t e r ban upon use at loco, the PoCo T r a i l 96 and Invergarry Park. 4 . Eagle Ridge i s receiving quite a l o t of use, but use of loco, the PoCo T r a i l and Invergarry Park continues, as do the complaints. Environmental impact information reveals some damage, and suggests that the biophysical s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a be revised. The recommended course of action i s to consider other possible s i t e s , including those more than l i hours drive from the main population concentration. A t o t a l ban on t r a i l bike use i n the urban area should be enforced. These are just a few scenarios of the possible outcomes from the experiment and monitoring program. What-ever course of action i s implied, by evaluation of the res u l t s of the monitoring program, planning the next step should be greatly aided by the reduced uncertainty. COSTS 97 I SITE DEVELOPMENT COSTS 91 m long, 7 . 3 m wide spur road 1 hectare parking l o t , with 75 cm new gravel 3 x 36 m 'Panabode s o l i d cedar hut (Including floor, system^oof system, shingles 1 entrance) 2 'Clivus Multram* composting t o i l e t s (main-tenance f r e e , made by Clivus Multram U.S.A. Inc.j includes i n s t a l l a t i o n costs) Signing: (includes i n s t a l l a t i o n costs) 1 Main Entrance sign 1 map and information board 20 t r a i l head signs 9 $50 per sign (mainten-ance free aluminium with heat treated v i n y l graphics) 100 p l a s t i c boundary signs @ $4 per sign 20 wooden benches @-$200 per bench Land a c q u i s i t i o n $ 3 , 0 0 0 2 5 , 0 0 0 2 , 0 1 5 4 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 4oo 4,ooo N i l TOTAL $41,415 II MONITORING PROGRAM COSTS MIN MAX Part A $ $ - Use surveys of Eagle Ridge and Control S i t e s , 160 hours at $5 per hr. 800 800 - automatic t r a f f i c counters " 1450 1450 - on-site interviews, 170 hrs, at $5 per hour 850 850 Part B documentation of Noise complaints to Coquitlam and Surrey detachments of RCMP before and a f t e r the experiment, 35-70 hrs at $5 per hr. 175 350 Interviews of agencies and residences 125-250 hrs.. at $5 per hour 625 .1250 Part C - Environmental monitoring 400 hrs at $5 per hour 2,000 2000 - Environmental recovery monitoring 80-100 hra at $5 per hour ' 400 50* TOTAL 6,300 6,700 - Services of a part time planner to implement the monitoring program - $20,000 including overheads.' - TOTAL COST = $26,000 - $27,000 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION This study has demonstrated that there i s a demand fo r t r a i l biking f a c i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r general recreation r i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the Lower Fraser Valley. The demand i s currently being expressed by use of any avail a b l e s i t e within the study area. Because of the negative impacts of t r a i l bikes on society and the environment, designation of s p e c i a l t r a i l bike f a c i l i t i e s needs s p e c i a l care. However, even i f a seem-ingly i d e a l s i t e i s chosen, i t i s not known whether t r a i l bikers w i l l use that s i t e and s a c r i f i c e t h e i r current, i f r i l l e g a l , freedom. I t i s also uncertain what constitutes an •ideal s i t e * , i n terms of how long that s i t e can r e s i s t t r a i l bike use before i t i s i r r e p a i r a b l y damaged. Even i f the designated s i t e i s used by t r a i l bikers i t i s not known i f one s i t e w i l l be enough, of i f they require more. If the l a t t e r i s the case, i t i s uncertain whether these should be located near to the t r a i l bike population i n order to ensure t h e i r use, or i f loc a t i o n i s unimportant. The reaction of the general public to provision of such a f a c i l i t y i s unpre-d i c t a b l e . 100 These uncertainties make i t impractiable to design-ate a t r a i l bike area without some means of monitoring how the s i t e has been received by the t r a i l bikers, the general public and the environment. The study thus suggests that an experimental approach be adopted. This begins with a c a r e f u l l y chosen experimental s i t e and a monitoring pro gram before and a f t e r the s i t e i s designated. The monitoring program examines use of the s i t e and i t s impacts both to the s i t e and the surround-ings. These impacts are then compared to control s i t e s within, a 12 km radius. This experiment and the monitoring program can be used to learn about the use an experimental s i t e receives i n terms of number of t r a i l bikers, who they are, and where they come from. 13b can demonstrate whether designation of a s p e c i a l use area w i l l diminish use elsewhere, and,thus reduce noise and trespass complaints. It w i l l reveal how the public, and agencies most affected by the s i t e f e e l about the experi-ment. The monitoring program can also be used to learn about environmental impacts upon that p a r t i c u l a r combination of tt&ophysical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the a b i l i t y of the s i t e to recover from t r a i l bike use. This information can thus be used to decide the next 101 course of action. Evaluation of the r e s u l t s from the experi-ment and i t s monitoring program may show that the experimental s i t e i s s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t s e l f , or that more s i t e s are needed and desirable. The monitoring program should show where the best locations are f o r these s i t e s . Evaluation may show that some modification i s required to the o r i g i n a l plan and changes are required i n s i t e design, management practices and that a strengthening i n enforcement of t r a i l bike p r o h i b i t i o n out-side the s i t e i s necessary. Another a l t e r n a t i v e that the evaluation may demonstrate i s that provision of a s p e c i a l use area i s an unacceptable solution i n the study area, and that a t o t a l ban should be placed upon t r a i l bike use. The experiment and i t s monitoring program are thus seen as a f i r s t step i n an incremental process towards achieving an optimum solution to the problem of t r a i l bike use i n the Lower Fraser Valley. 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY O American Motorcycle Association 1972» American Motorcycle  Association News. 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"A Landscape Approach to Environmental C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the Upper Chilliwack Valley« Interpretation f o r selected rec a c t i v i t i e s " , i n Reg* jniSaa Natural Resources Planning A Framework  and i t s Application to the Chilliwack River Basin  i n B.C. 1975. W.M. Morton and Irving K. Fox, E d i t o r s . B.C. Dept. of Agric. Kelowna, B.C. 1972. S o i l map of  Maple Ridge. P i t t Meadows. Coquitlam Area Sheet number 1. Siz.e 1"* 2000* B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C. 1972. S o i l Survey of the Maple Ridge. P i t t Meadows. Coquitlam  Area. Preliminary Report No. 11 of the Lower Fraser Valley S o i l Survey S o i l s D i v i s i o n , B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C. 1972. B.C. Dept. of Rec. and Con. 1971. A l l Terrain Vehicles  Act and Snowmobile Regulations Queen's Pri n t e r s , V i c t o r i a . 103 B.C. Safety Council, no date. Draft proposal, off-road Training Program - Burnaby. from Colin Ives, Director of Training, Professional Driver Centre to the Chairman, Burnaby Parks and Recreation Commission. Burnaby, the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of, 1975. Off-street Recreational Vehicles - " A l l - T e r r a i n Vehicles Act". Motion passed by the Municipal Council of the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby an 2 3 r d June 1975. Burnaby Municipal Council 1976. Item 21, Manager's Report #31, Council Meeting, May 10, 1976. Ret Operation of o f f st r e e t motor vehicles. 1 •'••r:J:r-' Burnaby Municipal Council 1976. Minutes of the Committee Meeting May 26th, 1976 "To consider problems re l a t e d to the operation of o f f - s t r e e t v e h i c l e s " . Burnaby Municipal Planning Dept. 1974. Report from Director of Planning, The Corp. of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby to Parks and Rec. Administrator re» A report on the p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing a "Mechanical Park" i n Burnaby. Aug. 21, 1974 . Bury, Richard L, Stephen F. McCool, and Robert C. Wendling, 1975. Research on Off-road Recreation Vehicles t A summary of Selected reports and a comprehensive  bibliography, i n proceedings of the Southern States Recreation Research, Sept. 15-18, 1975. SE Forest Expt. Stn., Forest Service, USDA A s h e v i l l e , N.C. p. 234-255. Bury, Richard L., Stephen F. McCool, Robert C. Wendling, 1976. Off-Road Recreation Vehicles> A Research  Summary. 1969-19757 The Texas A g r i c u l t u r a l Experi-ment Station, Texas. Chernoff, Sgt. G. 1975. Memo to Suptd. Herdman r e i Kerr Road Dumpi Evaluation of By-law Enforcement, June 11th, 1975. COLUMBIAN, 1976. A r t i c l e e n t i t l e d ! "Residents win b a t t l e of the bikes", Feb. 21st, 1976. Davidson, E r i c and Martha Fox. 1974. "Effects of off-road motorcycle a c t i v i t y on Mojave Desert Vegetation and S o i l " Madrona. Vo l . 22 (8) Oct. 1974, pp. 381-390. 104 Federation of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s . 1976. Resolutions, A p r i l 1 0 t h , 1976. Federation of Mountain Clubs of B.C. 1975. Recreational  Uses of the Lower Mainland - Indian Arm to Harrison June 1 0 t h , 1975. A b r i e f to Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association from the Recreation and Conservation Committee, Federation of Mountain Clubs of B.C. Kogg, George E., 1975* Park Planning Guidelines. Spec. Public Series No. 15001. Washingtoni National . Recreation and Parks Association. Gardiner, Colin A. 1975. Identifying and developing o f f -road recreational veFicle-use areas (case i n p o i n t i  Red Deer H i l l . Manitoba) M.Sc. thesis Univ. of Washington. Hawes, Robert 1975. "A Landscape Approach to Environment C l a s s i f . i n the Upper Chilliwack V a l l e y i Inter-pretations of s o i l erosion and mass s o i l movement p o t e n t i a l " i n Regional Natural Resources Planning ' op. c i t . Hubbard, W.F. and M.A.M. B e l l , 1976. Preliminary Descrip-t i o n , mapping and interpretation of the vegetation  of the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , contract report to "Environment Canada, Forestry Service, P a c i f i c Forest Research Centre, V i c t o r i a , B.C." King, Frederick M. 1972. "The Off-Road Experimence" i n 'Trends' a publication of the Parks Practice Program (U.S.A.) Dept. of In t e r i o r , National Parks Service July/Aug./Sept. 1972 Vol. 9 No. 3. Kowalenko, Stephan 1973. 'Outdoor Recreation Opportunities i n the Coquitlam-Port Coquitlam D i s t r i c t * unpublished report. LMPAA Committee 1975* Memo to Parks and Rec. Commission Burnaby from Ritchie Smith, July 1 1 t h , 1975. Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Assoc. 1975* Minutes of LMPAA meeting, October 2 3 r d , 1975. Lower Mainland Regional Parks Board, 1966 "A Regional Parks Plan* 105 Mack, Ruth P. 1971. Planning on Uncertainty. Decision  making i n business and government administration. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Matheson, Pete 1975. Land Use f o r Motorcycles - a summary  of needs. A report prepared f o r the Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association, June 10th, 1975* Motorcycle Industry Council. 1973. Motorcycle Park Planning  and Management Second e d i t i o n . Published by the Motorcycle Industry Council, 1001 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D.C. Outdoor Recreation Council (1976(a)) Minutes of Urban Tracts Meeting co-ordinated by ORC of BC on Monday Feb. 16, 1976. Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. (1976(b)) Minutes of the •Al l - T e r r a i n Vehicle Meeting' held at the Richmond Inn, October 29, 1976. ORV MONITOR, 1975. "More S t a t i c about Noise" an a r t i c l e i n the February/March 1975 e d i t i o n . Published by the Environmental Defense Fund. Powers, Michael G. 1974. "Recreational Vehicles - S i t e Inventory and Analysis" A report prepared f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , December 3rd, 1974. RCMP, Burnaby Detachment, 1975. Ret "Licensing of Off-Street Recreation Vehicles" Memo to Municipal Manager, Burnaby from 0. l / c Burnaby Det. RCMP Aug. 12, 1975. Schemnitz, Sanford D and James L. Schortemeyer, 1972. "The influence of vehicles on F l o r i d a Everglades Vegeta-t i o n A preliminary report". F l o r i d a Game and Fresh Water F i s h Commission, Fort Lauderdale, F l o r i d a . S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and Environmental Control Society, 1974 Noise Handbook. 1974, published by SPEC. S e l l e s , Rein B.A. 1973. Report of the ' A l l Terrain Vehicle Study' f o r The Canadian Parks/Recreation Assoc. Aug. 1973. Siemens, A l f r e d H. Editor 1966. Lower Fraser Valley. Evolu-t i o n of a Cultural Landscape. B.C. Geographical Series, Number 9# Tantalus Research Ltd., 1966. 106 Snyder, C.T. et a l . 1976. Effects of off-road vehicle  Use on the Hydrology of Landscape of and Environ-ments i n Central and Southern C a l i f o r n i a Water-Resources Investigations 76-99 U.S. Geological Survey 1976. Stager, J.K. and J.H. Wallis, 1968. The Climatic Factor -Variations on a Mean", i n Lower Fraser Valley -Evolution of a Cultural Landscape 1968^ Edited by A l f r e d H. Siemens Tantalus Research Ltd. Stebbins, Robert C. 1974. "Off-road Vehicles and the Fr a g i l e Desert" Amer. B i o l . Teacher 34 (4) 203-208. 220. Stupay, Arthur M. 1971. "Growth of Powered Recreational Vehicles i n the 1970's" i n Chubb, Michael (ed.) 1971 Proceedings of the 1971 Snowmobile and Off  The Road Vehicle Research Symposium sponsored by the Dept. of Park and Rec. Resources and the Agric. Expt. both of Michigan State Univ. and the U.S. Bureau of O.R. Tech. report #8. Rec. Research and Planning Unit of the Dept., East Lansing, Mich. Tennessee Valley Authority 1973. 'Monitoring Plan f o r ORV area - 1973* A report of Land Between the Lakes monitoring plan. Thompson, Ross C. 1973* 'Impacts of Snowmobiling on Recreation and Resources! A Review" Report sub-mitted to the Manitoba Dept. of Tourism, Rec. and Cult u r a l A f f a i r s , Rennie, Manitoba. Townshend, R.B. 1974. S o i l s and t h e i r Interpretation f o r  Recreation i n the Knox Mt. Area, paper f o r S o i l Science 419, UBC. U.S. Department of the In t e r i o r , Task Force on Off-Road Vehicles, ORRVt OFF Road Recreation Vehicles. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Of f i c e , Washington, D.C. 1971 U.S Department of I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, 197^* Want to Rid Your Parks of T r a i l Bikes and  Motorcycles? Technical B u l l e t i n No. 1 May 1974, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, S.E. Regional O f f i c e . Urban Programme Planners, Community and Regional Planning Consultants. A Community Plan f o r Parts of E l e c t -o r a l Area B of the GVRD a report submitted to Mrs. V, Barrett, Director, E l e c t o r a l Area B, GVRD, Oct. 31. 1975. 107 VANCOUVER SUN, 1976. A r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Off-road r i d i n g area needed f o r bikers", May 1 7 t h , 1976. VANCOUVER SUN 1977. Letter to the Editor e n t i t l e d •Motorcyclists disturb b i r d s ' March 3 0 t h , 1977. Wedgwood-Oppenheim, F. 1972. Planning Under Uncertainty. Land gov't Studies 2 A p r i l 1972 pp. 53-65. Inst, of Local Government Studies, University of Birming-ham, England, Winters, George R. 1968. " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y " i n Lower Fraser Valley -evolution of a Cultural Landscape op. c i t . 108 PERSONS CONTACTED DURING THE STUDY Best, Jane. Planner,City H a l l , Port Moody. B.C. land Commission, 100-403 Sixth St. New Westminster, V3L 3B1 Brown, G.W..Administrative O f f i c e r , Motor Vehicle Inspection, Motor Vehicle Branch, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Chilman, K.C.. Associate Professor Dept. of Forestry, Southern I l l i n o i s University of Carbondale, Carbondale, I l l i n o i s , 62901. Costea, D..Director of Parks and Recreation, Parks and Recreation Dept., P.O. Box 1790, Regina^ Sask. C o t t r e l l , Richard L.. Chief, Outdoor Recreation, Land Between the lakes, Tennessee Valley Authority, Golden Pond, Kentucky, 42231. D*Altroy, Win. Burnaby Horseowners Association. Director, Parks and Recreation Dept., Langley Dunne, Damian. Land Management and Development Dept. B.C. Hydro Emrick, Larry. Canadian P a c i f i c T r i a l s Association Farmer, Ron. Track Manager and Clubs Member of B.C. Custom Car Association Gibson, Bob. Parks Operation, G.V.R.D. Hendricks, Barbara. Parks and Recreation Dept., Burnaby Kratzer, Pete. Sales representative f o r Yamaha Motor Canada Ltd., Western Branch Laking, George. Alderman f o r Port Coquitlam, Lower Main-land Parks Advisory Association Committee member. Leat, Jane. Park Planner, Parks and Recreation Department, Borough of Etobicoke, Ontario. 109 Levy, Walt. President of Aldergrove Motocross Club. Lowes, Bryan, Motorcycle Parts, Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Professional Driver Centre, B.C. Safety Council, Delta. Mallett, Ron. President, Alberta Region Canadian Motor-cycle Association, 24, H i l l e r y Ores. S.W., Calgary Alberta. Marston, R,E.. Supervisor Revenue Accounting and Inventory Unit, Motor Vehicle Branch, V i c t o r i a , B.C. McGavin, Bruce, Parks Department, GVRD Myers, R.V.. Head, Regulations Enforcement, Road and Motor Vehicle T r a f f i c Safety, Transport Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Rasor, Robert, Association Director, L e g i s l a t i v e Depart-ment, American Motorcyclist Association, P.O. Box, 141, Westerville, Ohio, 43081 RCMP. Receptionist f o r Coquitlam Detachment. Corporals Waznay and Sweet. Shay, Russell. Editor, the ORV MONITOR" (published by the S i e r r a Club) 530 Bush St., San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , 94108. Sadler, Roger. Sales representative, Tonka Motorcycle Sales Ltd., Vancouver. Seddon, Alan. President, Westwood Motorcycle Blub. Stanberry, Fred W. Director, W i l d l i f e Management D i v i s i o n , F l o r i d a Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 620 South Meridian, Bryant Building, Tallehassee, F l o r i d a 32304 Taylor, Don., Taylormotive Service Ltd., North Vancouver. Taylor, Janna. Recreation Director, Port Coquitlam Recreation Centre Tyre, Torn? t r a i l biker Watts, J.D. Chairman, Task Force on Multiple Use of Water-sheds of Community Water Supplies, Water Investiga-ti o n s , Branch, Department of the Environment, B.C. 110 Wolfe, Larry. Long Range Planners, Planning Dept. D i s t r i c t of Coquitlam. APPENDICES 112 APPENDIX 1 ESTIMATION OP NUMBER OP TRAIL BIKES Two approaches were used, both using percentage brea-k-downs supplied by the motorcycle industry. The f i r s t approach uses Motor Vehicle Licensing Branch r e g i s t r a t i o n figures f o r motorcycles and extrapolates to off-road motor-cycles. The second approach computes from incomplete sales d&ta a t o t a l sales f i g u r e f o r the l a s t f i v e years which i s an estimation of the average l i f e span of an off-road bike. METHOD l i USING MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSING BRANCH REGISTRATION  FIGURES1 a) Registration and Licensing of motorcyclest The province of B r i t i s h Columbia requires that a l l motorcycles ridden on the public highway be registered, licensed and insured. These three s t i p u l a t i o n s do not apply to off-road bikesi the 1972 A l l Terrain Vehicles Act at the time of writing applies only to snowmobiles. Registration of a motorcycle requires a b i l l of sale and a small fee ($1 i n 1976). The r e g i s t r a t i o n number then assigned to the bike on payment of t h i s fee i s kept on micro-f i l m by the MVLB. Registration occurs only once f o r each •'•Supplied by the S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n of the MVLB i n V i c t o r i a . 113 bike, and the r e g i s t r a t i o n number i s transferable to a new owner. Often a dealer w i l l r e g i s t e r a bike before i t i s sold. Registration i s surrendered when a bike i s sent f o r p scrap, Qne< source suggested that 6% of registered bikes are not i n use f o r amy purpose. Although off-road bikes do not have to be registered, many are as t h i s provides proof of ownership should the bike be stolen. Licensing occurs annually. To be licensed a motor-cycle has to be st r e e t l e g a l , i . e . i t has to pass a P r o v i n c i a l t e s t by meeting c e r t a i n standards such as having turn signals and l i g h t s . Licensed bikes must be insured and display l i c e n s e plates. Road bikes which are not ridden on the road thus do not have to be licensed. MVLB l i c e n s i n g figures d i f f e r markedly from r e g i s -t r a t i o n f i g u r e s . In B.C. i n 1974 there were les s than half as many licensed motor bikes as there were registered bikes (21,184 licensed bikes versus 54,186 registered b i k e s ) . In 1975. the number of registered bikes had increased, but the number of licensed bikes had decreased (19,971! licensed bikes versus 62,370 registered b i k e s ) . The drop i n licensed motor-cycles probably r e f l e c t s the increase i n insurance rates f o r str e e t l e g a l bikes. The difference between the two figures does not necessarily correspond to the actual number of o f f -2 Bryan Lowes, B.C. Safety Council. 114 road bikes f o r the same reason, and because some off-road bikes are registered as stated before. b) How the Registration Figures were used i n the t r a i l  bike c a l c u l a t i o n . The MVLB have compiled r e g i s t r a t i o n figures by Motor Vehicle Licensing D i s t r i c t only f o r 1974 and 1975. A representative of the motorcycle industry-^ estimates that f o r every 1000 registered bikes there are 300 unregistered bikes that are ridden ©ff the road. In addition, 20% of the bikes that are registered are ridden o f f the road. This implies that taking 50% of the number of registered bikes w i l l give , an estimate of the number of off-road bikes. Some re i n f o r c e -ment to the r e l i a b i l i t y of using 50% was given by another 4 sales representative i n a separate interview, who estimated 45-50% of motorcycles are ORRBs. These computations are performed on the relevant r e g i s t r a t i o n figures supplied by the MVLB f o r 1974 and 1975, and the r e s u l t s are shown i n Table A - l and A - l l . As can be seen from these tables, there was a 12.3% increase i n the number of ORRBs over the two years. I f i t i s assumed that t h i s trend continued to 1976 then, by applying t h i s percentage to the 1975 f i g u r e s , i t i s estimated that there were 17,465 _ vTom Tyre, Fred Deeley Imports, Richmond ^Roger Sadler, Tonka Motorcycle Sales Ltd., Vancouver TABLE A -,T MOTORCYCLE REGISTRATION:'. - 1974 (Number of Machines i n Lower Fraser Valley) DISTRICT NAME 1 POPULATION # REGISTERED 2. M/C EST #' UNREG 3 ORRB* EST # REG W-ORRB TOTAL #o ORRB PARTICIPATION RATE (7„) Abbotsford 1,010 303.0 202.0 505.0 Agassiz 117 ' 35.1 23.4 58.5 Aldergrove 234 : 70.2 46.8 117.0. Burnaby 125,660 2,769 ' 830.7 553.8 1,384.5 Chilliwack 1,366 409.8 273.2 683.0 Clovcrdale (Includes Langley) 26,615 1,154 346.2 230.8 577.0 2.2 Haney 730 219.0 146.0 365.0 Hope 186 55.8- 37.2 93.0 Mission 357 107.1 71.4 178.5 New Westminster ( I n c l . P.C., C , P.M.) 126,240 3,023 906.9 604.6 1,511.5 1.2 North & West Vancouver 126,145 ' 2,434 730.2 486.8 • .1,217.0 1.0 Point Roberts, U.S.A. 134 40.2 26.8 67.0 Richmond & Delta 107,980 ' 2,104 631.2 420.8 1,052.0 1.0 Squamish ( I n c l . Pcmb.) 230 69.0 46.0 115.0 Surrey 98,600 2,498 749.4 499.6 1,249.0 1.3 Vancouver 426,260 6,940 2,082. 1,388. 3,470. 0.8 TOTAL 25,386 7,535.8 5,057.2 12,643.0 2. 3. 1971 Census Tracts 5 f f \ Motor Vehicle Licensing Br. -12,643 '••-12,643 "300 for every 1000 (or 307. of. t o t a l ) r e g i s t e r e d bikes are unregistered off-road bikes". Tom Tyre, 1'red Daclcy Imports, Richmond. "207. of registered highway bikes are ridden off-road", Tom Tyre. 5. 507. of t o t a l r e g i s t e r e d bikes = of ORRB. (Tom Tyre) ( v e r i f i e d by 'Roger Sadler (Sales Reo. with Tonka)-"50-557. M/C ridden off' road") * O R R B = OFF-ROAD R E C R E A T I O N Blue DISI NAME Abbbtoford Aggasiz' Aldcrgrovc Eurnr.by Chilliwack Ciovcrcale (Includes Langley) Haney Hope Mission New Westminster (Incl, P.C, C , P.M.) North & V/est Vancouver Point Roberts, U.S.A. .Richmond ( & Delta) Squainish (Incl. Pemb.) Surrey Vancouver TOTAL TABLE-A-fl • MOTORCYCLE REGISTRATIONS - 1975 (Number of Machines in Lower Fraser Valley) POPULATION 1 # REGISTERED $. M/C 125,660 26,615 126,240 126,145 107,980 98,600 426,260 Sources: Same as Table R - l , * ORRB = O F F R o n i REcREfi-rioig B I K E 1,152 135 285 3,074 1,592 1,193 844 ' 210 401 3,295 2,666 170 2,342 270 2,880 7,889 23,393 507. 14,199 EST // UNREG 3> EST •/ REG 4 ORRB* ORRB 345.6 40.5 85.5 922.2 477.6 357.9 253.2 63.0 120.3 988.5 799.8 51.0 702.6 81.0 864.0 2,366.7 TOTAL # $ ORRB 8,5i'9.4 5,679.4 14,199 \ 14,199 PARTICIPATION RATS (%) 230.4 576.0 27.0 67.5 57.0 142.5 614.8 1,537. • 1.2 318.4 796. 238.6 596.5 2.2 168.8 422. 42.0 105. 80.2 200.5 . 659.0 . 1,647.5 1.3 533.2 1,333.0 •1.1 34.0 . 85,0 468.4 1,171. 1.1 54. 135. 576.0 1,440. 1.5 ,577.8 3,944.5 0.9 11? off-road bikes i n the Lower Fraser Valley i n 1976. METHOD 2t USING MOTOR CYCLE SALES FIGURES There are s i x major : d i s t r i b u t o r s i n the Lower Fraser Valley and each was contacted to obtain sales f i g u r e s . Unfortunately, the required information was not always av a i l a b l e i n the same form, and i n some cases i t was not avai l a b l e at a l l . To f i l l i n the gaps, the estimation of a sales representative of one of the smallest d i s t r i b u t o r s that two of the other d i s t r i b u t o r s supplied to 50$ of the market, was used. T r a i l bike sales figures f o r these two makes of bike were a v a i l a b l e f o r 197^ and 1975 and 1976, and t o t a l l e d 6755 f o r the three year period. This implies that the t o t a l number of t r a i l bikes s o l d between 1974 and 1976 was approx-imately 13,510. Two s o u r c e s ^ independently stated that the l i f e span of a motorcycle i s highly variable depending on use and care, but on average i s about 5 years. A representative from one of the two major d i s t r i b u t o r s i n the Lower Fraser Valley indicated that sales figures have been constant i n the l a s t three years, but two further sources^ have implied that sales have decreased due to lack of design-ated t r a i l bike use areas. However, i f i t i s assumed that sales figures have been constant i n the l a s t 5 years, then t h i s suggests that there are 22,517 t r a i l bikes currently i n -'Tom Tyre, Fred Deeley Imports, Richmond and Bryan Lowes, Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Professional Driving Centre, B.C. Safety Council. 7 'Don Taylor, Taylormotive Ltd., North Vancouver 118 use i n the Lower Fraser Valley. These two approaches suggest that the number of t r a i l bikes i n the Lower Fraser Valley i s somewhere between 17,500 and 22,500. This compares with an independent estimate of 20-25,000 t r a i l b i k e s made by Bryan Lowes of the B.C. Safety Council. His estimation was based on the assump-t i o n that two th i r d s of motorcycles are i n the Lower Main-land and Vancouver Island. I t should be pointed out that t h i s discussion has centred on the number of bikes and not the number of pa r t i c i p a n t s , although i t i s safe to assume that at any one time there w i l l be most frequently one r i d e r per bike. ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCREPENCIES I t i s obvious that both approaches described here are based on many p o t e n t i a l l y w i l d l y inaccurate assumptions. Regarding the use of motor vehicle l i c e n s i n g branch r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s j 1. As implied e a r l i e r , the f a c t that a bike i s registered does not necessarily mean that i t i s used. 2. Just because a bike was registered at a MVLB r e g i s -t r a t i o n o f f i c e i n the Lower Fraser Valley does not necessar-i l y mean that i t i s s t i l l i n use i n t h i s area. 3. The estimates of percentage breakdown of registered 119 bikes that are ridden o f f the road and unregistered o f f road bikes may be i n c o r r e c t . 4. There i s no r e a l foundation to the r a t i o n a l e that the r e g i s t r a t i o n increase from 1975 to 1976 was the same as the 12.3# increase from 1974 to 1975. In f a c t two s o u r c e s 8 , ^ have implied that the number of t r a i l bikes has decreased. This may possibly be a r e s u l t of lack of areas i n which to r i d e . Regarding the use of sales figurest 1. A fundamental assumption i a t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n was that two out of s i x d i s t i r b u t o r s held 50% of the t r a i l bike market i n the Lower Fraser Valley. There i s no way to prove t h i s with currently a v a i l a b l e data. 2. As implied e a r l i e r , the l i f e span of a bike can be highly v a r i a b l e , and although the use of the 5 years f i g u r e was based on two Independent estimates, both sources stated that t h i s was purely a personal guess. 3. The assumption that sales figures have remained constant over the past 5 years does not concur with the 12.3$ increase i n o f f road bikes from 1974 to 1975 computed using r e g i s t r a -t i o n f i g u r e s . Nor does i t concur with the point already made that two sources have independently stated that motorcycle sales have decreased. One s o u r c e 1 0 expressed t h i s as a ' l u l l * i n the motorcycle industry, although he f e l t there had been Q Bryan Lowes, B.C. Safety Council Q 7Don Taylor, Taylormotive Ltd., North Vancouver 1 G B r y a n Lowes, B.C. Safety Council 120 an increase i n the use of motorcycles f o r transport, and a trend towards dual purpose bikes. The other* 1 stated that "recreation bike sales have gone down" due to "the lack of designated areas". Don Taylor, Taylor-motive Ltd., North Vancouver. APPENDIX II AREAS IN THE STUDY AREA CURRENTLY IN USE BY TRSIL BIKERS AREAS USED FOR VEHICULAR RECREATION j^f Snowmobilng A Motor race tracks • Off road motorbiking — Vehicular trails • Four wheel driving Some power rights-of-way (not illustrated)also are used F l Q U R E A ~ l G - V - R - B - f f e c g E R T I O N t F R C I L I E5 1N\|£NTO£V-, 5oHM£R W7k 123 TABLE A-III • OFF-ROAD RECREATION VEHICLE USE AREAS IN LOWER FRASER VALLEY Sourcei GVRD Outdoor Recreation Facilities Inventory, Summer 1976. MAP # LOCATION PRESENT USE PROBLEMS 1 Cypress Bowl West Van. Provincial park snowmobiling t r a i l bikes, 4 wheel drive -conflict with cross country skiers - ORRV/ATV officially banned but area not effectivplv r>n"Hr»or1 2 Burke Mountain Coquitlam Regional park snowmobiling, cross country skiing, t r a i l bikes, hiking 4 wheel drives w w \J -i. t L ^ - i _ j r XT %t - user conflict - terrain damage especially by 4 wheel drive 3 Westwood, Area above the Race Track and gravel pits to West of Coquitlam River Coquitlam Westwood Race Track used for competitions. B.C. Hydro R/W pro-vides access - lease for Westwood . Race track expires 1981, and is not to be renewed. - some residential complaints, envir-DnniPnt f l 1 rip mn era 4 Eagle Ridge/ Cypress Lake Area of Eagle Mountain Electoral Area B and Coquitlam B.C. Hydro R/W, t r a i l bikes, k wheel drive and some road (high-way) bikes on access road along edge of power 1ini -no police force/fire protection 5 B.C. hydro Thermal Plant, loco Electroal Area B t r a i l bikes -noise, no police force or fire pro-tection in electoral' area B since i t is unnrcanl r o r l 6 Vancouver Heights Burnaby Park-present t r a i l bike use not confirmed - near residential area but background noise is high due to waterfront industry, r a i l tracks and Narrows Bridge. __ 124 MAP # LOCATION PRESENT USE PROBLEMS 7 Burnaby Mountain Burnaby near S.P.U., hikers t r a i l bike use, k wheel drive ORRV banned but no e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g - user finnf* 1 1 r>ta 8 Burnaby Lake Burnaby Regional park, hikers, t r a i l bikes SE corner of Lnk« ORRV/ATV banned but no ef f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g - user c o n f l i c t s 9 University Endowment Lands Vancouver Hikers, k whhel drive, t r a i l bike user c o n f l i c t noise environmental H a mo era 10 Blue Mountain Maple Ridge Forest Service has designed and i a constructing snow-mobile t r a i l s Separate from cross country s k i t r a i l s uaniag^tT.«. 11 Sea and Iona Islands Dykes to the North of Sea Island Richmond hikers, t r a i l bikes, dune buggies user c o n f l i c t s , noise scares birds dyke damage 12 Kerr Dump Vancouver t r a i l bikes- use may have been d i s -continued near r e s i d e n t i a l area bikes have been banned July 1975, but p o l i c i n g not ef f e c t i v e . 13. invergarry Park Surrey Abandoned gravel p i t wa3 designated f o r t r a i l bikes but discontinued Feb. 76 May not be enforced t e r r a i n damage hear r e s i d e n t i a l area bikes have been banned but pol i c i n g not effective Big Bend Area Burnaby T r a i l bikes were some plans to desig-nate areas but some te r r a i n damage so 3JLiiia.t.ioxL_no.t clsar. J* ± \s \* V _. V O t e r r a i n damage 15 / I \nnacis Island 3elta • Sewera e and indust-t i a l use, dune buggies I S C not C f l n f 1 rmorl c o n f l i c t with i n -d u s t r i a l -development i n r e s i d e n t i a l area 16 I I c 2nd of l6oth ^ve. near Trans Canada Highway Surrey r r a i l bikes 125 MAP # LOCATION PRESENT USE PROBLEMS 17 Burns Bog Land-f i l l Area Delta Trail bikes. Part of Burns bog may be designated -discuss-ion underway. 18 Sumas Mt. Sumas 4 wheel drive, t r a i l bikes, Regional Park user conflict 19 Gravel pit on Jackman Road Langley Trail bikes, Aldergrove Motor-cycle club are drawing up lease with Langley Town-ship. 20 Port Moody Port Moodv Scrambling area for motorbikes 21 Blair Rifle Range .North V f l n i M i n v p r Dept. of Defense use not confirmed 22 Vedder Mt. Trail Chilliwack Hiking t r a i l pro-vided by Provincial Parks Branch Conflict between hikers and tr a i l b ikers 23 Stride Pit Burnaby Gravel pit and dump t r a i l bikes Conflict between tr a i l bikes and residential arpa 24 Mosquito Creek N. Vancouver tr a i l bikes, hiking user conflict 25 Above the ceraetry -N. Vnnnnnver tr a i l bikes 26 Westview Shopping Centre N. Vannouvflr t r a i l bikes, shopping 27 Trails adjacent to Montecito Housing Division Burnaby tr a i l bikes noise 28 Douglas Forest Unorganized snowmobiles B.C. Hydro right-of wav unlimited access jurisdiction 29 Dept. of Defence area CMlliwaftk snowmobiles Dept. of Defence jurisdiction unreliable snow-fall 30 Cheam/Mt. Thurston unorganized tra i l bikes, snow-shoeing, snowmobiles logging road, 4 wheel drives 126 MAP # LOCATION PRESENT USE PROBLEMS Chilliwack Lake unorganized some trail bikes hiking, camping, canoeing in summer snowmobiling in winter 4 wheel drives vs. snowmobiles use -recreational con-flicts not a very "Challenging" area for snow-mobiles , 32 Silver Creek/ Ross Lake unorganized Bnowmobiles, hiking, fishing logging road access u n r e l i a b l e snow 33 n li Wahleach Creek unorganized snowmobiles, trail bikes hiking, fishing, boating 3 ^ Mt. Woodside Kent snowmobiles 3 5 Chehalis area unorganized snowmobiles watershed area 30 S. of Canada Games Pool, S. of 6 t h , E. of McBride New Westminster ' .•Brail bikes, mini bikes environmental degradation user conflict 3 7 Along Brunette River B. Hume Park and Burnaby Lake New Westminter Burnabv trail.bikes environmental degradiation user conflict 38 Port Mann Bridge/ P 0 C 0 Trail Port Coquitlam mini bikes, hiking fishing recreational use conflict environ-mental deerpfia + i <-m 3 9 bewer Easement N. of Broadway/E. of Springer Burnaby trail bikes noise ^ 0 Ji 1 Nr. Third St. Park West Vancouver trail bikes . H-l TTO Deas Island Delta trail bikes 4-2 Blackie Spit Surrey trail bikes, beach activities waterfowl watching recreational use conflict, trail bikes banned in-~f C ~t T V P T\r\ 1 1 n ^ M r r Garbage Dump nr. Livingston Equest-trian Centre Langley trail bikes — 12? MAP # LOCATION PRESENT USE PROBLEMS ^5 46 47 Davis Lake Prov. Park Haney Gravel area owned by Andy Sterloff West Vancouver Roaring Creek/ Norrish Creek Area unorganized 4 wheel drive water orientated activities t r a i l bikers snowmobiles B.C. Hydro right of way litter problem created by young adults, clean-up by 4 wheel drivers in exchange for use of the area owner lives on Bowen Island won't sell area used by his children limited acess jurisdiction A loco Observed Trials Area B Westwood Road Racing Track C Richmond Go Kart Track D Langley Stock Car Speedway E Aldergrove Motocross Track F Mission Motocross Track and Drag Strip G Agassiz Motocross Race Track TABLE A-IV COMPETITION TRAIL BIKE FACULTIES IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY Source: G.V.R.D. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Inventory. Summer 1976. INFORMATION ABOUT RACE TRACKS IOCO AGASSIZ RACE TRACK MISSION RACEWAY ' ALDERGROVE RACE TRACK Size 150 acres 20 acres 48 acres 80-100 acres Type of Track Tri a l s Motocross Motocross Drag Strip Motocross Description of Track Not rea l l y a Circuit: Hydro Right of Way 1 1/4 mi. Sand and Dirt 14 turns & 9 jumps Approximately 1 mi. d i r t 3800' paved 1 1/4 mi. Unpaved, 2 mi. of T r a i l s , Gravel P i t No. of Race Meets Per Year 1 per Month during Sept.-June 3 - 6 Per Year 8 Per Year 14 Max. Per Yr. Depends on Weather Once a Month Tho' Require Permission T i l l Become Registered Other Events Used Year Round Informally "Grudge Race" etc. Informal Use Most Other Tracks of Same Type in Lower Mainland None Mission, Aldergrove Agassiz, Aldergrove None Agassiz, Mission Nearest Other Track Vic t o r i a Either of Above Either of Above Either of Above 1 ro oo-129 APPENDIX III SUMMARY OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL TRAIL BIKE FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STUDY AREAi This i s not so much an inventory as a summary of how some of the municipalities have dealt with the t r a i l b i k i n g problem. I t i s based la r g e l y on interviews and docu-ments received by the GVRD as part of a Recreation and F a c i l i t i e s Inventory conducted by the Planning Department during the summer of 1976. Mun i c i p a l i t i e s are dealt with a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . 1. BURNABY The municipality of Burnaby has looked into the problem of t r a i l bikes i n some d e * a i l , l a r g e l y i n response to complaints from residents about noise created i n p a r t i c u l a r areas such as around Burnaby Mountain, the Stride Dump and Burnaby Lake t r a i l s . Burnaby has an anti-noise by-law* with which the motorcyclists must comply 'which i s i n essence being equipped with proper mufflers'. Noise has been quoted as being the central problem i n the issue of t r a i l bikes i n •a k Burnaby.-" The Muncipal Manager concluded i n his report to 1Burhaby Noise or Sound Abatement By-law 1972 #6052 adminis-tered by Burnaby Health Department. 2RCMP report on an investigation into a complaint about t r a i l bikes on A p r i l 27. 1976 quoted i n Burnaby Munic. Council Meeting May 10th 1976. •^Report to Parks and Recreation Administrator from Director of Planning, Burnaby re a report on the p o s s i b i l i t y of est-ablishing a mechanical park i n Bby., August 21st, 1974. Report to the Municipal Manager, Corp. of D i s t r i c t of Bby. from OI/C, Burnaby Dept. RCMP re l i c e n s i n g of o f f - s t r e e t recreation vehicles, August 12th, 1975. 130 c o u n c i l on May 10th, 1975 t h a t i ^ "the operation of o f f - s t r e e t motor vehicles requires more control than a Noise Bylaw" He a t t r i b u t e d the lack of effectiveness of the noise by-laws to several factors including the d i f f i c u l t y of apprehension, and the manpower required. He also made references to damage to property, trespass andeconflicting r e c r e a t i o n a l use. . He noted th a t i "the r e c r e a t i o n a l use of Vehicles has increased from a modest beginning to a major a c t i v i t y and t h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l no doubt continue to increase i n the future." He concluded that the soluti o n to "this complex problem" w i l l require a co-ordinated input from several municipal departments. Council, i n response to t h i s report directed the Manager to form a committee of s t a f f to study the matter and submit recommendations i n one month's time. A committee with representatives from the Buraaby Manager's O f f i c e , Health Department, Parks and Recreation Department, Planning Depart-ment, G.V.R.D., S.F.U., R.C.M.P., AND B.C. Hydro met on May 26th, 1976. Reference was made at that meeting to the p o s s i b i l i t y of regulating t r a i l bikes under the Burnaby Zoning By-law.Excessive noise ^Burnaby Municipal Council Meetings Item 21 Manager's Report #31 May 10th, 1976, re . "Operation of Off-street motor© v e h i c l e s " . ^Burnaby Municipal Council 1976. Minutes of the committee meeting on May 26th, 19761 To consider problems r e l a t i n g to the operation of o f f - s t r e e t vehicles. 131 " i s the primary reason f o r the exclusion of ... (Mechanical park operation) ... from the uses permitted ... (by t h i s by-law) ... i n order to develop a mechanical park therefore an ammendment would be necessary to the ex i s t i n g regulations." There i s some question as to the l e g a l ramifications of using the same by-law to ban t r a i l bikes. The committee unanimously agreed at that meeting that "a t o t a l ban should be i n s t i t u t e d on the operation of o f f - s t r e e t vehicles every-where i n Burnaby". This conclusion concurs with that made i n 1974 report e n t i t l e d 'The P o s s i b i l i t y of Establishing a Mechanical Park m i n Burnaby*, ( where the recommendation was made by the Director of Planning that a mechanical park be not located i n the municipality but that the Parks and Recreation Commission endorse the concept of establishing a mechanical park f a c i l i t y at the regional l e v e l . .However, l a r g e l y i n response to requests from the l o c a l motorcycle clubs and the Lower Mainland Advisory Assoc-Q -i a t i o n , the Burnaby Parks and Recreation Department looked Buraaby Municipal Planning Dept. 1974. Report from the Di r -ector of Planning to Parks and Recreation Administrator Aug. 2 1 , 1974. 'Report from Ritchie Smith, Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association (LMPAA) to the Parks and Recreation Commission, Burnaby re Mechanical Parks. July 1 1 t h , 1975* and Minutes of LMPAA meeting on Get, 2 3 r d , 1975» Ladner Community Centre. 132 into designated motorcycle areas i n Burnaby i n May and June 1976. The Parks and Recreation Commission approved i n p r i n c i p l e the proposal f o r an area i n the Big Bend Ar£a of Q Burnaby to be designated as a mechanical park. 7 As implied e a r l i e r , a report from the planning department was submitted to Council opposing the mechanical park at the same time as Parks and Recreation made t h i s decision. No d e t a i l s were worked out by Parks and Recreation a t that time as to the operation of the park should the proposal be accepted. However, i t probably would be under the administration of Burnaby Parks and Recreation Department, and probably policed by l o c a l motorcycle c l u b s . 1 0 Thus, i n summary, Burnaby has been faced with a t r a i l bike use l e v e l within i t s municipal boundaries which cannot be ignored. Separate municipal departments have examined the problem using both the approach of banning t r a i l bikes by ammending the current municipal zoning by Tlaw, and the approach of accommodating ORRBs as a legitimate sport by proposing the designation of a 75-80 acre t r a c t of i n d u s t r i a l 75-80 acre t r a c t of land l y i n g between Patterson and Sussex Road allowances, and south of B.C. Hydro Railway. The south-ern boundary i s the Fraser River. The area i s zoned indust-r i a l and there are no r e s i d e n t i a l areas adjacent. The area to the north i s proposed parkland including a golf course and sports complex* the area along the r i v e r i s proposed l i n e a r parklandi and f o r foreshore recreation use. Barbara Hendicks, Burnaby Parks and Recreation Dept. personal communication, July 1976. 133 zoned land i n the Big Bend Area as a mechanical park, probably to be under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Parks and Recreation Department, but policed by the l o c a l motorcycle clubs, This proposal, however, contravenes the current zoning by-law. 2. TOWNSHIP OF CHILLIWACK Chilliwack proposed a t r a i l biking area at Hender-son Road, but t h i s proposal can only be implemented i f land, currently under the B.C. Land Commission j u r i s d i c t i o n i s r e l e a s e d . 1 1 3. COQUITLAM Coquitlam has within i t s boundaries the controversial Burke Mountain area which i s a mountainous area at present supporting several small scale land uses such as logging, mining, 35 holiday cabins, a disused s k i lodge and tows, several extensive recreation a c t i v i t i e s including snowmobiling, t r a i l bike r i d i n g , four wheel drive use, cross country s k i -ing, and hiking, along with some small scale intensive recreation pursuits such as camping and f i s h i n g i n the two alpine lakes on the plateau of Burke Mountain. A substantial acreage (6367 acres) of the upper part of the mountain i s Pr o v i n c i a l owned and due to be transferred to GVRD ownership 1 1From interviews conducted by GVRD Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Inventory team, summer 1976. 134 i n 1978 as a Regional Park. Access to t h i s area, at present, i s by a steep graced, poorly maintained gravel road approximately 3.5 miles longt the upper part of which i s at best four wheel drive standard. The mixing of mechanized and non-mechanized recreational use has caused problems, and suggestions have been made that some sort of temporal or s p a t i a l zoning i s appropriate to separate these two 12 forms of a c t i v i t y . In addition to t h i s recreational use, there has been a proposal f o r a major housing development on the southern slopes of Burke Mountain i n connection with the Coquitlam Regional Town Centre Development. Such a r e s i d e n t i a l area would probably not be compatable with mechanized vehicle use oiE the immediate surroundings. To the west of Burke Mountain, on the other side of the Coquitlam River, l i e s the 330 acres of Westwood Racetrack (see Table A-IV). This complex has a small paved Go-Kart racetrack plus a standard paved road-racetrack f o r motorcycle and sports car racing. I t i s on Crown Land, and operated by the Sports Car Club of B.C. with sub-leases to Westwood Motorcycle Club and B.C. Karting Association. ( There i s also some informal use of t r a i l bikes. Boyde, Jim 1974. 'Burke Mt. - a study of Recreational  C o n f l i c t s : Snowmobiling and Cross country s k i - i n g . ' -^Alderman George Laking, Port Coquitlam, personal communi-cation, June 1976. 135 However, the lease f o r Westwood expires i n 1981, and there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that i t w i l l not be renewed,1-' although Westwood Racetrack has been i n existence since 1959. The main reason f o r t h i s i s the encroachment of urban land on t h i s once i s o l a t e d area p a r t i c u l a r l y by Coquitlam*s proposed Regional Town Centre. A popular choice by t r a i l bikers f o r l o c a t i o n of a designated area i s the area known as Eagle Ridge between 14 Buntzen Lake and Westwood Racetrack. The t e r r a i n and vegetation has already suffered from logging operations, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a B.Cx Hydro sub-station and "t r a i l bike use. This has thus reduced i t s attractiveness f o r other recreational uses. The Federation of Mountain Clubs of B.C. have endorsed t h i s choice on t h e i r b r i e f to the Lower Mainland Parks Advisory Association, June 1975.^ Thus Coquitlam has potential s i t e s f o r a mechanical park, but other land pressures may receive p r i o r i t y . 4. DELTA •' In Delta's Comprehensive Plan f o r 1976, i t was ^Alderman George Laking, Port Coquitlam, personal communica-.t i o n , June 1976. Larry Emrick, Canadian P a c i f i c Motorcycle T r i a l s Assoc., personal communication, August 1976. r 1^LMPAA minutes of meeting October 23, 1975• Ladner Commun-i t y Centre, and Federation of Mt. Clubs of B.C. 1975* •Recreational Uses of the Lower Mainland Indian Arm-Harrison. A b r i e f to the LMPAA* June 10th, 1975. from the Recreation and Conservation Committee of the FMBC. 136 stated that* "these vehicles (motorized recreational vehicles) ... need to be considered as a legitimate request f o r a r a p i d l y growing s p c i a l i n t e r e s t group" 5. ELECTORAL AREA B E l e c t o r a l Area B i s unorganized and thus has no f i r e or po l i c e services. For these reasons, the residents of t h i s area are most concerned that a mechanical park be not located i n E l e c t o r a l Area B. 1^ 6. LANGLEY The Aldergrove Motocross Club (84 members) has used an 80-100 acre gravel area, owned by Langley Municipal-i t y , f o r the past three years. Langley Municipality 1'' stated that they w i l l consider drawing up a lease f o r t h i s area providing that the Aldergrove Motocross Club become registered under the Society's Act, and thus obtain proper insurance, (see Table A-IV f o r further information about Aldergrove Racetrack). The area i s used mostly by enduro and motocross bikes. There are race meetings once a month, but there i s informal use almost every night. 1 6 'Columbian 'Residents Win Battle of the Bikes', Feb. 21, 1976. 17 Parks and Recreation Director, Langley. Personal Communication, July 1976. 137 7. NEW WESTMINSTER The Parks and Recreation Department of New West-minster recognizes the need f o r a t r a i l bike area. 8. PORT COQUITLAM Port Coquitlam Parks and Recreation Director stated i n July 1976 that Port Coquitlam had looked within i t s boundaries f o r a possible t r a i l b i king s i t e , but had been 19 unable to f i n d anything s u i t a b l e . 7 9. SURREY In response to extensive use by t r a i l bikers of one of i t s Municipal Parks, Invergarry Park, Surrey Parks and Recreation Dept. reserved an area within the park f o r mechanical vehicle use. "... leaving the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c i n g the group with the users. Unfortunately, t h i s experiment proved unsuccessful as the operators continued to u t i l i z e the entire park area." The park was closed permanently to motorized vehicles commencing February 29th, 1976, mainly i n response to complaints by residents around Invergarry Park about abuse of property, and destruction of trees and shtrubs, and because of concern f o r safety factors since the area i s subject to 75 Interview conducted by GVRD Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Inventory ,Qteam, Summer 1976. ^Director of Parks and Recreation, Port Coquitlam, July 2 Q1976, personal communication. Surrey Parks and Rec. Commission press release, May 21st, 1976 138 serious mud s l i d e s . The Parks and Recreation Commission were unable to enforce a t o t a l ban on vehicles i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r park, and so Surrey Municipal Council ammended the T r a f f i c Section of t h e i r Parks by-law designed to« 1. Give the Parks and Recreation Commission more d i r e c t control over irre g u l a t i o n s i n park areas. 2. Provide a l e g a l document which w i l l allow RCMP to prosecute offenders of t h i s by-law. Thus Surrey Muncipality have attempted to accommo-date t r a i l bikes through t h e i r Parks and Recreation Commission but C o n f l i c t with residents and i n e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g have made the experiment a f a i l u r e . 10. VANCOUVER The Kerr Road Dump i n Burnaby was used extensively by t r a i l bikes u n t i l they were o f f i c i a l l y banned, i n July 1975» as a r e s u l t of noise complaints from nearby residents. The Kerr Road Dump i s under the custody and care of Vancouver Parks Board. There are cer t a i n enforcement procedures a v a i l -able to pol i c e within three p a r t i c u l a r by-lawsJ 1. Parks By-law 2. Street and T r a f f i c By-law #2849 3. Impounding By-law #3519 The enforcement of t h i s ban i s within the powers of 139 the Vancouver p o l i c e , however, the main problem of enforce-ment inside the dump i s the d i f f i c u l t y of access f o r the police* 'Novel and unorthodox transportation methods 21 would be e s s e n t i a l ' . However, i n a report by S i t c h i e Smith, a member of 22 the LMPAA, i t was stated that the Ci t y of Vancouver was prepared to commit both funds and man hours to a s s i s t i n a project to es t a b l i s h a temporary mechanical park i n Delta or the Big Bend Area of Burnaby. 11. WEST VANCOUVER West Vancouver has at one time discussed the p o s s i b i l i t y of a designated mechanical park. There i s an area i n the western part of West Vancouver that could be s p e c i a l l y designated f o r t r a i l bikes, between the old highway and the Upper Levels Highway, where v i s u a l and noise impacts can be minimized. 2-' However, West Vancouver also has an anti-noise by-law which would probably have to be overcome i f such an area was designated. £ AReport to Superintendent T. Herdman from Sgt. Chernoff, PC 315 James E. Johnson and PC 107D. Duthie, District 3* CPU Vancouver City Police, re 'Kerr Road Dump - Evalua-t i o n of Enforcement* June 11th, 1975. * Ritchie Smith, LMPAA, report to the Parks and Rec. ^Commission, Burnaby re. Mechanical Parks, July 11th, 1975. ^Outdoor Recreation Council 19?6, minutes of 'Urban Trails Meeting* co-ordinated by the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. on Monday Feb. 16th, 1976. APPENDIX IV CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED IN RATING LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR TRAIL BIKE USE AREAS C r i t e r i a a r i s i n g out of the factors of erosion and compaction caused by t r a i l bikes have been i d e n t i f i e d . These aret 1. pote n t i a l water i n f i l t r a t i o n and transmission  properties of the s o i l s . Hydrologic s o i l groups can be used to estimate the a b i l i t y of water to move into and through a s o i l , and hence run-off p o t e n t i a l . (Hawes, 1975)* Hydrologic groups describe the minimum rate of i n f i l t r a t i o n obtained f o r a bare s o i l a f t e r prolonged wetting. These have been devised by USDA S o i l Conservation Service, S o i l Survey Hand-book, 1971. The groups aret GROUP A - s o i l s having high i n f i l t r a t i o n rates even when thoroughly wetted, consisting c h i e f l y of deep, well to rapid drained sands and or gravel. These s o i l s have a high rate of water transmission and therefore low run-off p o t e n t i a l . GROUP B - s o i l s having moderate i n f i l t r a t i o n rates when thoroughly wetted, consisting c h i e f l y of moder-at e l y deep to deep,moderately well to well drained s o i l s with moderately f i n e to moderately course textures. S o i l s have a moderate rate of water transmission. GROUP C - s o i l s having slow i n f i l t r a t i o n rates when thoroughly wetted, consisting c h i e f l y of, 1. s o i l s with a layer that impedes downward movement of water. 2. s o i l s with moderately f i n e to f i n e text-ure, slow i n f i l t r a t i o n rates, and slow rates of water transmission. 141 GROUP D - s o i l s having very slow i n f i l t r a t i o n rates when thoroughly wetted consisting of c h i e f l y 1. clay s o i l s with high swelling potential 2. s o i l s with a high permanent water table 3. s o i l s with a clay pan or clay layer at or near the surface. 4. shallow s o i l s over nearly impervious materials. Very slow rates of water transmission and high run-off p o t e n t i a l . 2. Surface s o i l s t a b i l i t y , or s o i l cohesion. S o i l surface s t a b i l i t y i s the r e l a t i v e resistance of s o i l part-i c l e s to detachment and transportation. Surface s t a b i l i t y i s determined by inherent s o i l properties such as texture and structure (water stable aggregates), topography and by the protective vegetation cover. S o i l surface s t a b i l i t y i s interpreted l a r g e l y from s o i l texture, assuming some vege-t a t i o n disturbance. Well graded gravels and moderately f i n e textured loams, because of t h e i r coarseness and poten t i a l f o r structure respectively are considered to have few l i m i t -ations. Both coarse textured sands and loamy sands which lack cohesive properties, and f i n e textured s i l t s and clays with loose cohesion on saturation and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to f r o s t deformation, are considered to have a higher degree of l i m i t -a t i o n to s o i l s t a b i l i t y . (Hawes, 1975). 3. L i t t e r layer depth. The l i t t e r layer forms a protect-ive cover over the s o i l surface, and i s an important consider-atio n i n determining the surface s o i l erosion p o t e n t i a l . L i t t e r layer depths vary with water regime, the angle of 142 slope and recent vegetation h i s t o r y . (Hawes 1975) 4. Compactability. S o i l compaction (the breaking down of s o i l structure, and s o i l pores), decreases the i n f i l t r a -t i o n rates of s o i l s . Consequently surface run-off and erosion increases. Compaction can be caused by r a i n f a l l on bare s o i l , or t r a i l bikes r i d i n g over the surface of the s o i l , or trampling. The degree to which a s o i l i s susceptible to compaction depends upon s o i l texture and s o i l moisture content at the time of disturbance. Very wet or very dry s o i l s are generally more e a s i l y compactable. Coarse tex-tured gravels, sands and sandy loams generally provide few l i m i t a t i o n s , while moderately f i n e textured loams and s i l t s have increased l i m i t a t i o n s . (Hawes, 1975) 5. Slope. Slope i s one of the most important determinants of surface erosion p o t e n t i a l . With undisturbed vegetation most s o i l s w i l l be porous enough to have l i t t l e surface run-o f f , even on steeper slopes. However, with s o i l compaction and vegetation destruction by t r a i l bikes, the i n f i l t r a t i o n capacity i s decreased and the drainage pattern interrupted. As a r e s u l t , steeper slopes have an increased surface erosion p o t e n t i a l . Slopes of <15# are often quoted as having few l i m i t a t i o n s to recreational use that might induce erosion, slopes >JOfo are generally considered to have severe l i m i t -143 ations. (Hawes, 1975) 6. Depth of Bedrock. Shallow s o i l s are obviously less stable than deep. Townshend (1974) reported s o i l s of < lm as being severely susceptible to erosion by trampling. S o i l s >2m are generally considered to have few li m i t a t i o n s (Briere, 1975) 7. Vegetation Cover. Vegetation cover increases s o i l s t a b i l i t y by the binding effects of roots and the contribu-t i o n that the vegetation makes towards organic matter content. According to Brander (1974), s o i l erosion does not become a problem u n t i l ground vegetation cover i s l e s s than 70%. 8. R a i n f a l l . R a i n f a l l may induce surface erosion i f the i n f i l t r a t i o n rate of the s o i l i s exceeded, thus the i n t e n s i t y and frequency of r a i n f a l l ( i e . i t s seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n ) i s more important than the mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , 9. Stoniness of rockiness. Coarse fragments, stones or rocks could pose a safety hazard to t r a i l b ikers. Stoniness refe r s to the r e l a t i v e proportion of stones over 10 inches i n diameter i n or on the s o i l . 10. Proximity to streams, r i v e r s and lakes. S o i l erosion can cause serious s i l t a t i o n problems i n nearby water bodies, thus the hydrology of the area must be considered. 144 These factors are rated using three classes defined i n Hawes (1975). These are* None to s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n - i f there are l i m i t a t i o n s , they w i l l be generally easy to overcome without sp e c i a l planning or management procedures. Moderate l i m i t a t i o n s - l i m i t a t i o n s which can generally be overcome with good planning, design or management. Severe l i m i t a t i o n - even with good planning and management the l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to overcome. Areas with severe l i m i t a t i o n s generally require s p e c i a l and c o s t l y procedures to make the landscape units suitable f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose. Thus s o i l survey data containing information pertaining to the 10 l i s t e d c r i t e r i a can be interpreted to c l a s s i f y landscapes according to t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y to support t r a i l b i k i n g based on t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s as outlined i n Table A-V. H5 TABLE n - y CitlTERIA COKSIDLRBJ I K R A T I K G LANDSCAPE UNITS FOR TRAIL• BTKK USff. C A P A B I L I T Y C o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s Hone to s l i g h t -^Increasing s e v e r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n Severe 1. W a t e r ' i n f i l t -r a t i o n & trans-mission (Hawes 1975) high i n f i l t r a t i o n capacity high saturated c o n d u c t i v i t y hydrologic grouos: A B . C low i n f i l t r a t i o n low sat. conduct. 2 . S o i l surface s t a b i l i t y (Hawes 1975) loams c l a y loams clays loamy sands sands gravels sandy loams s i l t loams s i l t s strong structure- structure-l e s s 3. L i t t e r l a y e r (Hawes 1975) > 20 cm. .5 - 2 0 c m C 5cm. 4. Cornnactability (Hawes 1975) gravels loamy sands- clays sands sandy loams s i l t s , loams, s i l t y loams, c l a y loams 5. Slope % (Hawes 1975) 0-5% > 30?5 6.. Depth to Bedrock (Briere 1975 Townshend 197/J Deep > Z v w Medium Shallow 7 . Vegetation J 91-100^ Cover(Brander 1974) 70-90;b 4 7 0 ^ i S. R a i n f a l l 9. Stoniness or Rockiness (Briere 1975) 10, Proximity to water bodies Low, even d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout year Medium, some se a s o n a l i t y High, Sea sonal \one U3DA S o i l Survey Classes 1 & 2 USDA S o i l Survey Classes 3, 4, 5 Far (distance' Near (distance?) 146 APPENDIX V SOILS AND VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE I. SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE Figure A-2 shows a s o i l map of the eastern portion of the proposed experimental s i t e . A description of each s o i l series i s given i n Table A-VI. The report on the s o i l survey of the Maple Ridge, P i t t Meadows and Coquitlam Area (B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, 1972) gives a more detailed description of each s o i l series including a t y p i c a l p r o f i l e d escription and land use. 14? g u r e A-2: SOIL MAP O F EAGLE R I D Q E Soils are described in Table A-VI p148 - Transmission Station ~n~ scale o i z 1 1 1_ looo o ,000 2 0 0 0 M l l r E|ooo I ' 1 1 I METRES \Source of Mapping Information» B.C Dept. of Agri c u l t u r e , Kelowna, S o i l Map of Maple Ridge, P i t t Meadows, Coquitlam, Area, Sheet No, 1, TABLE A-VI SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE Source: B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, S o i l Map o f Maple.Ridge, P i t t Meadows, Coquitlam Area; Sheet No. 1 MAP SYMBOL SOIL NAME SOIL CLASSIFICATION (SSCC, Canada Dept. of Agric. 1970) SOIL PARENT MATERIAL DRAINAGE GE GOLDEN EARS ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL . MODERATELY COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL MODERATELY • WELL DRAINED S SAYRES LITHIC ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL COARSE AND MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL AND COLLUVIUM OVER BEDROCK MODERATELY WELL DRAINED WH WHONNOCK GLEYED ORTHIC HUMIC PODZOL MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL IMPERFECTLY DRAINED CI CARDINAL ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL MODERATELY WELL DRAINED CE CANNELL LITHIC ORTHIC HUMO-FERRIC PODZOL COARSE AND MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL AND COLLUVIUM OVER BEDROCK RAPIDLY DRAINED ST STEELIIEAD GLEYED ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOL MOD. COARSE TEXTURED GLACIAL TILL IMPERFECTLY DRAINED EU EUNICE LITHIC FOLISOL SHALLOW ORGANIC ACCUMULATION OVER BEDROCK WELL AND RAPIDLY DRAINED e - moderately r o l l i n g 9+ to 15% slope' f - strongly r o l l i n g . 15+ to 30% slope 8 - " i l l y 30+ to 60% slope G - very steeply sloping - simple topo - single slopes complex topo. multiple slopes 149 II. VEGETATION OF EAGLE RIDGE Figure A-3 shows a vegetation map of the proposed experimental s i t e . A description of each plant community is given below. Hubbard and Bell (1976) give a more detailed description of vegetation species present in each community. 32. Epiloblum-Hvpochareis Cutover Logging has recently taken place, and partly as a result of this marsh and pond areas, created by impeded drain-age, occur in depressions. The condition of the overstorey varies with both s o i l moisture and time since logging. Recently logged areas have a few scattered veterans or species of immature quality. Older sites are dominated by dense stands of young red alder (Alnus rubra). with some broad leafed maple (Acer macrophyllum), and in most areas extensive coniferous regeneration, usually Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga  menziesii) and/or western hemlock (Tsuga heterophvlla). The shrub layer i s generally extensive. The species complement varies with elevation, s o i l moisture and topo-graphy. The herb layer i s characterized by remnants of species that occured under natural conditions, together with various weedy and/or introduced species. 46. Tsuga-Gaultheria Upland Forest The overstorey i s generally moderately open. Western 150 Figure A-3 : VEQETAT10N MAP OF EAQLE RIDGE Vegetation Communities: 32- Epilobium-Hypochareis cutover 46- Tsuga-QauLtheria upland forest M E T R E S Source of Mapping Informationi Hubbard and B e l l , 1976. 151 hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) i s dominant, with small amounts of Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menzies&i) and some western red cedar (Tsuga p l i c a t a ) * The shrub layer i s low and f a i r l y dense, S a l a l (Gaultheria shallon) i s dominant with occas-i o n a l dwarf wild rose (Rosa gymnocarpa) and red huckleberry (Vacciniumlparvifolium)« There i s e s s e n t i a l l y no herb layer, Abies-Tsuga Midslopes Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) i s dominant, and there are also considerably quantities of P a c i f i c s i l v e r f i r (Abies amabilis) and small quantities of western red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) , There i s abundant hemlock regeneration. The shrub layer varies from r e l a t i v e l y dense to sparse, Alaska blueberry (Vaccinium alaskaense) and oval leaf blueberry (V, ovalifolium) are dominant. There i s also some f a l s e azalea (Menziesia ferruginea)and white rhododendron (Rhododendron albiglorum) with occasional specimens of s a l a l (Gaultheria shallon). The herb layer i s more sparse and there i s e s s e n t i a l l y no moss layer. 48. Blechnum-Tsuga Seepage Slopes This community forms a mosaic with 47. Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) i s dominant and forms a thick, well developed overstorey, with a few specimens of P a c i f i c s i l v e r f i r (Abies amabilis) and western red cedar (Thuja 152 p l i c a t a ) . The shrub layer i s very dense e s p e c i a l l y i n moist pockets and includes Devil's club (Oplopanax horridum). f a l s e azalea (Menziesia ferruginea). salmonberry (Rubus  s p e c t a b i l i s ) and elderberry (Sambucus racemosa). APPENDIX VI CAPABILITY OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT TRAIL BIKE RIDING BASED ON BIOPHYSICAL CRITERIA Using the c r i t e r i a l i s t e d i n Appendix IV p. 145 and the s o i l s and vegetation information presented i n Appendix V, Eagle Ridge can be rated as to i t s c a p a b i l i t y to support t r a i l bike f a c i l i t i e s , as shown i n Table A-VII. Assuming that each factor contributes equally to land c a p a b i l i t y to support t r a i l biking, a numerical value can be assigned to each l i m i t a t i o n thus: None +-1 Moderate 0 Severe -1 This gives a maximum positi v e rating of 10, and a maximum negative r a t i n g of -10. Using t h i s , each s o i l complex has the following value: GE ~ S - WH -2.0 CI „ CE -2.5 G CI _ ST -0.5 ef CE - EU -3.0 fg 154 TABLE A - V I I LIMITATIONS OF THE SOILS OF EAGLE RIDGE TO SUPPORT TRAIL BIKING CONTRIBUTING FACTORS LIMITATION OF SOIL COMPLEX GE-S-WH f g C I - C E G C I - S T e f C E - E V f g 1. Water I n f i l t r a t i o n and T r a n s m i s s i o n moderate moderate moderate moderate to s e v e r e 2. S o i l S u r f a c e S t a b i l i t y none none none moderate 3. U t t e r L a y e r moderate to s e v e r e moderate moderate moderate A. C o m p a c t a b i l i t y moderate moderate moderate moderate 5. % S l o p e moderate to s e v e r e moderate to s e v e r e moderate moderate to s e v e r e 6- Depth to Bedrock moderate to s e v e r e moderate to s e v e r e moderate moderate to s e v e r e 7. V e g e t a t i o n Cover moderate moderate moderate moderate 8. R a i n f a l l s e v e r e s e v e r e s e v e r e s e v e r e 9. S t o n i n e s s o r R o c k i n e s s moderate moderate moderate moderate 10. P r o x i m i t y to Water B o d i e s moderate to s e v e r e moderate to s e v e r e moderate to s e v e r e moderate s e v e r e 155 This enables one to zone the study area according to the i n t e n s i t y of use that these findings imply can be supported. This i s shown i n Figure £ p. 74 i n the main te x t . 

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