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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Simulation of baggage handling at Vancouver International Airport Elliott, Martin Lloyd 1977

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SIMULATION OF BAGGAGE HANDLING AT VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Management S c i e n c e D i v i s i o n ) F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1977 M a r t i n L l o y d E l l i o t t by M a r t i n L l o y d E l l i o t t B. Sc Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 197 5 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /JAft/ZKi^ngA/T Sc-ietjce „ fftcuvn Of Coh.Hefi.cC The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 Date I i A b s t r a c t This thesis d e t a i l s a simulation study of the domestic deplaning passenger and baggage subsystem at Vancouver International Airport The present and future baggage systems are described and modeled and the model i s then validated., The capacity of the baggage claim area i s estimated. The use of t h i s simulation model as a t o o l for inexpensively investigating the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t f l i g h t schedules on queues i n the baggage claim area i s demonstrated. The simple alterations necessary to apply this model to di f f e r e n t a i r p o r t s are also described. i i T able Of Contents a b s t r a c t . I L i s t Of Tables ....................................... v L i s t Of F i g u r e s And I l l u s t r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i x 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 1.1 L i t e r a t u r e fleviea Of E x i s t i n g Models . . . . . . . . . 3 2 PROBLEM DEFINITION 8 2.1 O v e r a l l D e s c r i p t i o n .......................... 8 2.2 A i r p o r t Flowchart ............................ 10 2.3 Symptoms Of The Problem . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2.3.1 Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2.3.2 A i r p o r t L e v e l - o f - s e r v i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 2 .3.3 Delay D i s t r i b u t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 2.4 Choice Of Method 17 2.5 The S i m u l a t i o n Of The A i r p o r t System . . . . . . . . . 1 9 3 FORMULATION OF THE SIMULATION .20 3.1 Methodology 20 3.2 The Present System ...........................22 3.3 Changes In The System ........................ 26 3.4 Model Requirements ........................... 28 i i i 3.5 Data Requirements ............................29 3.5.1 Input Data 29 3.5.2 Output Data 32 3.5.3 Methods Of Data C o l l e c t i o n ........... 34 3.6 Formulation Of Time O r i e n t e d Mathematical Model ....................................... .35 3.7 Formulation Of Computer Model 37 3.7.1 S i m u l a t i o n Language .................. 40 3.7.2 Scope Of The Model ...................43 3.7-3 Model L o g i c .......................... 44 3.7.4 The Program ..........................54 4 SIMULATION RESULTS ...................................56 4.1 V a l i d a t i o n ................................... 56 4.2 S i m u l a t i o n Experiments .......................63 4.3 A n a l y s i s And R e s u l t s Of Simulation ....71 4.4 C o n c l u s i o n s .................................. 93 5 FOOTNOTES 95 6 BlBLIOGRAPHY ......................................... 96 i v 7 APPENDIX a d i s c u s s i o n o f a i r p o r t data c o l l e c t i o n .,,.....97 b suggested areas of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .......... 98 c a d d i t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r r i v a l s module ....100 d f l o w c h a r t ....................................102 e l i s t i n g of program ...........................110 f program output ...............................120 g a quick user's guide .................,,.,....131 V L i s t Of T a b l e s T a b l e I S e r v i c e P r i o r i t i e s Of B u s i n e s s And P l e a s u r e T r a v e l l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 T a b l e I I F a c i l i t y I n p u t Data ..........................29 T a b l e I I I T r a f f i c I n p u t Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 T a b l e IV O p e r a t i o n a l I n p u t D a t a .......................30 T a b l e V T r a f f i c Flow R e g i o n s Of I n t e r e s t .............32 T a b l e VI Occupancy Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 T a b l e V I I Summary T a b l e Of Dat a C o n t a i n e d In Model .....44 T a b l e V I I I V a l i d a t i o n R e s u l t s Of 3 Sample F l i g h t s ....... 57 T a b l e IX S c h e d u l e d I n t e r a r r i v a l s F o r 95% C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l ..........................90 v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s and I l l u s t r a t i o n s I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 Vancouver a i r p o r t ............................9 I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 747 And L-1011 Minimum Container Handling Times ........................................25 I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 Capsule Flowchart ............................ 42 FIGURE 1 A i r s i d e F u n c t i o n a l Flow Block Diagram ........10 FIGURE 2 The Output Of The A i r p o r t Landside A n a l y s i s ..14 FIGUHE 3 P r o b a b i l i t y Of Passenger Delay ...............16 FIGURE 4 General F e a t u r e s Of An A i r p o r t S i m u l a t i o n Model ................19 FIGURE 5 Methodology For Developing The A i r p o r t Landside Sim u l a t i o n - Model ............................. 21 FIGURE 6 The Path Of Passengers And Bags ..............23 FIGURE 7 Map Of C a r o u s e l Area 27 FIGURE 8 T y p i c a l Inputs And Outputs Of A Time O r i e n t e d Queueing Model ...............................35 FIGURE 9 I l l u s t r a t i v e Time Flow A n a l y s i s .............. 39 FIGURE 10 Caro u s e l A v a i l a b i l i t y ........................ 48 FIGURE 11 Cost Of Program Run As A F u n c t i o n Of Number Of T r a n s a c t i o n s .................... 55 FIGURE 12 Las t Bag On DC-9 F l i g h t s At Gate 4 Vs Number Of Passengers ......................61 FIGURE 13 Last Bag On 747»s And L-1011»s At Gate 10 Vs Number Of Passengers ....62 FIGURE 14 Simulated Waiting Time For Passengers v i i To R e c e i v e a l l Bags In C a r o u s a l firea .........65 FIGURE 15 S i m u l a t e d W a i t i n g Time F o r a l l Bags Of A P a s s e n g e r To a r r i v e 66 FIGURE 16 S i m u l a t e d P a s s e n g e r T r a n s i t Time And Bag T r a n s i t Time A n d . M a t c h i n g P r o c e s s ....,.,.67 FIGURE 17 V a r y i n g C o n v e y o r Speeds ......................72 FIGURE 18 V a r y i n g U n l o a d i n g R a t e s Of Bags (DC-9) .......74 FIGURE 19 V a r y i n g U n l o a d i n g R a t e s Of Bags {747) ........74 FIGURE 20 A v e r a g e W a i t i n g Time A t P o s i t i v e C l a i m C h e c k p o i n t Vs Number Of P a s s e n g e r s I n Baggage C l a i m Area ...........................76 FIGURE 21 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747«s (340 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g At V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r CP AIR On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System 78 FIGURE 22 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747*s (240 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g A t V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r CP AIR On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System .......79 FIGURE 23 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747's (440 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g At V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r CP AIR On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System .,...,...,...,.....80 FIGURE 24 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747*s (340 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g At V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 FIGURE 25 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747 *s (24 0 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g At V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System 83 FIGURE 26 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747»s (440 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g At V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada v i i i On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System ...................84 FIGUBE 27 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747»s (340 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g S i m u l t a n e o u s l y And F o r The A r r i v a l Of A DC-9 (100 P a s s e n g e r s ) At V a r y i n g I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada On New C a r o u s e l S y s t e m . . . . . . . . 87 FIGURE 28 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747's (240 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g S i m u l t a n e o u s l y And F o r The A r r i v a l Of A DC-9 (100 Passenger's) At V a r y i n g I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada On New C a r o u s e l System ..88 FIGUBE 29 Bag D e l i v e r y F o r Two 747's (440 P a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g S i m u l t a n e o u s l y And F o r The A r r i v a l Of A DC-9 (100 P a s s e n g e r s ) At V a r y i n g I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada On New C a r o u s e l S y s t e m ........89 FIGURE 30 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Between Two A i r Canada 747's On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System 91 FIGURE 31 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Between Two CP AIR 74 7's On P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l System .........91 FIGURE 32 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Between Two 7 4 7 » s And A DC-9 (100 P a s s e n g e r s ) F o r A i r Canada On New C a r o u s e l System ............92 Acknowledgement The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d f r o m many p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e 7 months o f r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . P a r t i c u l a r t h a n k s a r e g i v e n t o t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r Dean Oyeno o f t h e Management S c i e n c e Department a t OBC. H i s s u g g e s t i o n s , c r i t i c i s m and e n t h u s i a s m were o f g r e a t h e l p . T h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o t h e o t h e r two members of t h e a u t h o r ' s t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e . P r o f e s s o r Derek A t k i n s o f t h e Management s c i e n c e Department a t UBC and P r o f e s s o r A l b e r t D e x t e r o f t h e A c c o u n t i n g and Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems Department a t UBC e a c h gave v e r y u s e f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m t o t h e a u t h o r . O t h e r s who gave t h e i r t i m e and h e l p were Mr. Ken K r a u t e r , Mr., B e r t Saumur and Mr., Norm S t r e e t , a l l o f t h e V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t M a s t e r P l a n n i n g Team { T r a n s p o r t C a n a d a ) , Mr. D a v i s s o n , A s s i s t a n t A i r p o r t Manager, Mr. George P o p e n i u k o f t h e O p e r a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t , Mr. B i l l S h i l v o c k , s t a t i o n Manager o f CP AIR who a l l o w e d me t o o b s e r v e t h e CP baggage h a n d l i n g s y s t e m , and Mr. Bob B a i l l i e , A i r Canada Q u a l i t y A s s u r a n c e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e who p r o v i d e d me w i t h rauch i n f o r m a t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n d a t a . Thanks a r e a l s o g i v e n t o t h e a i r l i n e s which r e p l i e d t o t h e a u t h o r ' s w r i t t e n e n q u i r i e s : E a s t e r n A i r l i n e s , U n i t e d A i r l i n e s , American A i r l i n e s , and D e l t a A i r l i n e s . 1 1 INTRODUCTION A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has made the world seem much sma l l e r by d r a m a t i c a l l y reducing long d i s t a n c e t r a v e l time. A i r l i n e passengers can now t r a v e l from Montreal to Vancouver i n f i v e hours a i r time. F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n t o t a l t r a v e l time i s c o n s t r a i n e d by a i r p o r t delays which i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s are comparable t o a i r t r a v e l time. To obt a i n s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l savings i n o v e r a l l t r a v e l time with the accompanying d o l l a r savings and other b e n e f i t s , i t i s necessary t o reduce a i r p o r t d e l a y s . Most a i r p o r t d e l a y s are due to a i r p o r t l a n d s i d e congestion ( l a n d s i d e being d e f i n e d as t h a t part of the a i r p o r t from the a i r p o r t e n t r a n c e s / e x i t s t o the a r r i v a l / d e p a r t u r e g a t e s ) . In p a r t i c u l a r , one of the major sources of delay i n the domestic s e c t i o n o f the a i r p o r t i s i n the deplaning passenger and baggage flow. The l e n g t h o f time r e q u i r e d t o r e t r i e v e baggage i s a very common passenger complaint., According t o a CP AIR survey, baggage d e l i v e r y t o passengers ranks i n the top 4 of s e r v i c e p r i o r i t i e s { see TABLE I ) * . Computer s i m u l a t i o n o f f e r s an e f f e c t i v e and r e a l i s t i c approach to f u r t h e r study of the a i r p o r t l a n d s i d e problem as a system. Because o f the complex dynamic nature of the problem, computer s i m u l a t i o n may be the only f e a s i b l e and v i a b l e approach. T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s how s i m u l a t i o n o f the deplaning domestic passenger and baggage flow can be used to a c c u r a t e l y determine the l a n d s i d e flow and a s s o c i a t e d d e l a y s . Attainment of t h i s goal w i l l r e g u i r e v a l i d a t i n g the computer model a g a i n s t 2 t h e s y s t e m i t s i m u l a t e s . TABLE I SERVICE PRIORITIES OF BUSINESS AND PLEASURE TRAVELLERS R a n k i n g R a n k i n g ( A l l P a s s e n g e r s ) B u s i n e s s P l e a s u r e 1 Onetime D e p a r t u r e / a r r i v a l s 1 3 2 R a p i d , C o u r t e o u s A i r p o r t C h e c k - i n 3 2 3 F a s t Baggage D e l i v e r y A t D e s t i n a t i o n 2 4 4 Prompt, C o u r t e o u s R e s e r v a t i o n System 4 1 5 F l i g h t D e l a y A d v i c e And A s s i s t a n c e 5 5 6 A p p e a r a n c e / a t t i t u d e s Of F l i g h t A t t e n d a n t s 6 6 7 S e a t S e l e c t i o n A t A i r p o r t C h e c k - i n 7 8 8 A s s i s t a n c e From P e r s o n n e l On A r r i v a l / d e p a r t u r e 8 7 9 Smoking/no Smoking S e c t i o n s 11 9 10 F u l l T r a d i t i o n a l Meal S e r v i c e 9 10 11 R e a d i n g M a t e r i a l I n - f l i g h t 12 11 12 L i g h t M e a l s 14 12 13 I n - f l i g h t Bar S e r v i c e 10 14 14 I n - f l i g h t W i n e / l i g o u r 13 16 15 A u d i o E n t e r t a i n m e n t 15 15 16 No F r i l l S e r v i c e 16 13 17 I n - f l i g h t M o v i e s 17 17 3 1.1 LITERSTORE BEVIEI OF EXISTING MODELS E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h u n c o v e r e d o n l y s i x u s e f u l a r t i c l e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l i n g a p p l i e d t o a i r p o r t baggage h a n d l i n g . T h i s may i n p a r t be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t much o f t h e work i n t h i s f i e l d i s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t s o f c o m p e t i n g a i r l i n e s . However, i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t a i r p o r t models a r e o n l y j u s t b e c o m i n g p o p u l a r and a c c e p t e d as v a l i d p l a n n i n g t o o l s . The two A m e r i c a n a i r l i n e s t h a t g l a d l y a d m i t t e d p o s s e s s i n g s i m u l a t i o n models were two o f t h e l a r g e s t : U n i t e d A i r L i n e s and E a s t e r n A i r l i n e s . I n Canada, A i r Canada a n d t h e M i n i s t r y Of T r a n s p o r t have used s i m u l a t i o n models. K i m b a l l M o u n t j o y o f U n i t e d A i r L i n e s s t a t e s t h a t U n i t e d has f o u r a i r p o r t s i m u l a t i o n models 2 . One model a n a l y z e s m a i n t e n a n c e a l t e r n a t i v e s ; a n o t h e r model, "The A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g M o d e l " , was w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r U n i t e d ' s o p e r a t i o n a t 0*Hare I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t and e m p h a s i z e s t h e p r o b l e m s o f f l i g h t c o n n e c t i o n s under an i n c r e a s e d s c h e d u l e and o f t h e e f f e c t the new y e a r ' s s c h e d u l e w i l l have on baggage d e l i v e r y t i m e . The v a l i d a t i o n was a c c u r a t e and showed f o r example an a v e r a g e 13.9 m i n u t e s f o r s i m u l a t e d b a g d e l i v e r y compared t o an o b s e r v e d 13.6 m i n u t e a v e r a g e . One program i s t i t l e d t h e " T a x i i n g And Towing M o d e l " and i s w r i t t e n a g a i n f o r O'Hare A i r p o r t t o answer s u c h q u e s t i o n s as "what p e r c e n t o f f l i g h t s w i l l be u n a b l e t o t a x i d i r e c t l y t o t h e i r g a t e s ? " The f o u r t h model i s c a l l e d t h e " p a s s e n g e r Flow M o d e l " and d e a l s w i t h p a s s e n g e r h a n d l i n g w i t h i n t h e t e r m i n a l . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o answer s u c h g u e s t i o n s a s "What 4 t i c k e t c o u n t e r and baggage c h e c k - i n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be needed a t a s t a t i o n t o meet s e r v i c e g o a l s ? " The model i s s t i l l under d e v e l o p m e n t . The models a r e w r i t t e n i n GPSS . The p a p e r e n d s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e h a s been w i t h s e p a r a t e a i r p o r t models d e s i g n e d t o answer s p e c i f i c g u e s t i o n s . T h e i r a p p r o a c h o f d e t a i l i n g a r e a s o f c o n c e r n and s i m p l i f y i n g t h e r e s t i s p r a c t i c a l and s o u n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n one model c a n be a p p l i e d t o a n o t h e r s o t h a t t h e y become s u c c e s s i v e l y e a s i e r t o w r i t e . L.G. K l i n g e n o f E a s t e r n A i r l i n e s d e s c r i b e s s i x s i m u l a t i o n models c u r r e n t l y i n use ( a l l w r i t t e n i n GPSS) : an A i r p o r t Runway Model, a T e r m i n a l A i r s i d e M o d e l , a Baggage H a n d l i n g Model, a T i c k e t C o u n t e r Model, a C u r b s i d e Model and a M o b i l e Lounge M o d e l 3 . T h e i r baggage h a n d l i n g model i s a p p l i c a b l e t o d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s o n l y . When a f l i g h t a r r i v e s , b ags a r e u n l o a d e d o n t o t h e baggage c a r t which i s t h e n towed t o the bag c l a i m a r e a . T h i s model was us e d t o d e s i g n t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r M i a m i ' s a u t o m a t e d baggage h a n d l i n g s y s t e m . The C a n a d i a n M i n i s t r y Of T r a n s p o r t c o l l e c t e d d a t a t o c r e a t e a F o r t r a n model o f V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t . T h i s model s i m u l a t e s t h e whole a i r p o r t f r o m runway t o p a s s e n g e r e x i t a t a i r p o r t b o u n d a r y . , I t i s e x p e n s i v e t o r u n however and i s n o t used *. A i r Canada h a s a s i m u l a t i o n model t o t e s t i t s f l i g h t s c h e d u l e and g a t e a s s i g n m e n t . T h e r e i s no model i n use by A i r Canada t o a n a l y s e p a s s e n g e r and baggage f l o w a t V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t s . T h r e e j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b e d s i m u l a t i o n s t u d i e s o f 5 baggage h a n d l i n g ; one s t u d y was h y p o t h e t i c a l . The f i r s t a r t i c l e , by M e l l i c h a m p and F i l l m e r , d i s c u s s e s a GPSS model o f baggage h a n d l i n g o p e r a t i o n s a t A t l a n t a I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t *. T h i s model d e a l t w i t h t h e e n p l a n i n g module. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s i m u l a t i o n s t u d y was t o i m p r o v e the s y s t e m e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h r o u g h m o d i f y i n g o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s . Such m o d i f i c a t i o n s as c h e c k i n g i n " l u g g a g e l e s s " p a s s e n g e r s d i r e c t l y a t t h e g a t e a r e a and h a v i n g a s e p a r a t e c h e c k - i n c o u n t e r f o r e a c h o f an a i r l i n e ' s h i g h d e n s i t y r o u t e s were c o n s i d e r e d . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o u t i l i z a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s f o r t i c k e t c o u n t e r s , t h e a v e r a g e t i m e p a s s e n g e r s s p e n d i n t h e t i c k e t l i n e , and t h e a v e r a g e t i m e an i t e m o f l u g g a g e i s i n t h e s y s t e m . T h i s a r t i c l e c o n c l u d e s t h a t w i t h c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n p r o b l e m s b e i n g a s complex and i n v o l v i n g a s many v a r i a b l e s a s t h e y do, t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y o n l y t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s t o e v a l u a t i n g s y s t e m m o d i f i c a t i o n s : s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s ( c o n j e c t u r e ) , t r i a l and e r r o r , and s i m u l a t i o n . They c l a i m t h a t s i m u l a t i o n o f f e r s t h e o n l y v i a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f r e s p o n s e t o s y s t e m m o d i f i c a t i o n w i t h o u t t a m p e r i n g w i t h t h e r e a l s y s t e m . The s e c o n d a r t i c l e , by L u i , Nanda and Browne, d i s c u s s e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t by t h e P o r t Of New York A u t h o r i t y o f a GPSS model d e s i g n e d t o s i m u l a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l baggage o p e r a t i o n s a t J . F . Kennedy I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t 7 . T h i s was a v e r y u s e f u l a r t i c l e o u t l i n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r model l o g i c and t h e v a r i o u s GPSS mechanisms t h a t were empl o y e d . P a r t i c u l a r c a r e was t a k e n i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n . Data on 6 each o p e r a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by four to f i v e c o l l e c t o r s using a random c l u s t e r sampling method. Data c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d p e r i o d s of peak a c t i v i t y on a l l days of the week. A v a l i d a t i o n team of 26 people c o l l e c t e d data on the e n t i r e system f o r two days. A n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s showed good correspondence and c o r r e c t model l o g i c , The a r t i c l e s t a t e d t h a t at c e r t a i n t i m e s , however, simulated r e s u l t s f l u c t u a t e d more than the a c t u a l . The cause was t r a c e d to c e r t a i n extreme sample values from the cumulative d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n which were not sampled f r e q u e n t l y enough to reach t h e i r expected v a l u e s . As a r e s u l t extreme value s from these d i s t r i b u t i o n s were t r u n c a t e d . T h i s reduced the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the a c t u a l and the simulated t o an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l . The a r t i c l e concludes with the statement t h a t the s i m u l a t i o n program i s used to e v a l u a t e s h o r t range expansion plans f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n A r r i v a l s B u i l d i n g . The t h i r d a r t i c l e , by G.L. fiobinson, i s t i t l e d " Simulation Models f o r E v a l u a t i o n of A i r p o r t Baggage-handling Systems" 8. I t d e s c r i b e s the e v a l u a t i o n of h y p o t h e t i c a l baggage handling systems under d i f f e r e n t baggage loads. F i r s t the a r t i c l e c o n s i d e r s f o u r performance i n d i c e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e baggage c l a i m area: average delay f o r i n d i v i d u a l passengers, standard d e v i a t i o n of delay f o r i n d i v i d u a l passengers, maximum delay f o r i n d i v i d u a l passengers, and t o t a l delay f o r a l l passengers, i n passenger-hours. The study chooses t o t a l delay as the most ap p e a l i n g c r i t e r i o n because such an index c o u l d be converted to an estimated d o l l a r value of " l o s t " man-hours per f l i g h t . The a r t i c l e was h e l p f u l as an example of a s i m u l a t i o n study i n the baggage h a n d l i n g f i e l d and i t contained some 7 i m p o r t a n t comments on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s i m u l a t i o n r e s u l t s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f s e v e r a l r u n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f random numbers was s t r e s s e d . The c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r t h e mean v a l u e o f a p e r f o r m a n c e i n d e x c a n be made a s s m a l l a s d e s i r e d i n t h i s way. The l a s t a r t i c l e c o n s u l t e d was a g e n e r a l a r t i c l e on t h e " Use Of S i m u l a t i o n I n A i r p o r t s " , By Dana Low 9. P e r h a p s i t s most i m p o r t a n t message was t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e model u s e r and t h e model b u i l d e r . The a r t i c l e a l s o s t a t e s t h a t s o m e t h i n g on t h e o r d e r o f one t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l t i m e and b udget p e r m i t t e d f o r s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l i n g s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . The a r t i c l e had n o t h i n g s p e c i f i c t o s a y on b aggage h a n d l i n g models. C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s c o n v e y e d a good p i c t u r e o f t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a i r p o r t s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l i n g . 8 2 PROBLEM DEFINITION 2.1 OVERALL DESCRIPTION An a i r p o r t c o n s i s t s o f th r e e subsystems: the a i r s p a c e ( i n c l u d i n g runways), the a i r s i d e ( i n c l u d i n g runway t u r n o f f s and a i r l i n e g a t e s ) , and the l a n d s i d e ( i n c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g from the a i r l i n e gates t o the a i r p o r t boundaries). I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 shows these subsystems at Vancouver A i r p o r t ., T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with the deplaning domestic passenger module w i t h i n the l a n d s i d e subsystem. 10 2.2 AIRPORT FLOWCHART FIGDSE 1 i s a simple f u n c t i o n a l f l o w c h a r t of the a i r p o r t iandside a c t i v i t i e s . . Each f a c i l i t y (in blocks of FIGURE 1 ) may FIGURE 1 BAGGAGE CLAIM AIRCRAFT DOOR Z E E I GATE HOLDING ROOM BAGGAGE ROOM RENTAL CAR CHECK- I N SECURITY A I R L I N E C H E C K - I N TERMINAL BUILDING ENTRANCE/EXIT AIRPORT PARKING 1" F A C I L I T Y CURBSIDE F A C I L I T I E S — X PARKING LOT F A C I L I T I E S 4- - - 4 - -_ i 1 . AIRPORT ROAD F A C I L I T Y A L . AIRPORT BOUNDARY F i g u r e 1 A i r p o r t L a n d s i d e F u n c t i o n a l F l o w B l o c k D i a g r a m represent a network of s u b f a c i l i t i e s , which when l i n k e d 11 t o g e t h e r , s u p p o r t t h e complex a c t i v i t i e s o f movement and s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s . E n p l a n i n g p a s s e n g e r v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e a i r p o r t p r o c e e d t o t h e p a r k i n g l o t f o r l o n g o r s h o r t d u r a t i o n p a r k i n g , t o a r e n t a l c a r c h e c k - i n a r e a , o r t o t h e c u r b s i d e f o r u n l o a d i n g . The p a s s e n g e r s and v i s i t o r s t h e n p r o c e e d i n t o t h e t e r m i n a l . The p a s s e n g e r s may w a i t i n t h e t e r m i n a l a r e a o r p r o c e e d t o t h e t i c k e t c o u n t e r , baggage c h e c k - i n , t h e c a r r e n t a l c h e c k - i n c o u n t e r , o r t o t h e a i r p l a n e g a t e where t h e y must p a s s t h r o u g h a s e c u r i t y c h e c k b e f o r e e n p l a n i n g . The o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may be p e r f o r m e d ( e x c e p t f o r e n p l a n i n g ) i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f i x e d and depends upon f a c t o r s s u c h as t h e n a t u r e and o r i g i n o f t h e t r i p and t h e t e r m i n a l g e o m e t r y . E x c e p t f o r peak p e r i o d s and peak s e a s o n s s u c h as C h r i s t m a s t h e p a s s e n g e r and baggage f l o w o f t h e e n p l a n i n g s y s t e m g e n e r a l l y p r o c e e d s w i t h o u t any l o n g queues o r w a i t i n g p e r i o d s . The main w a i t i n g p r o b l e m s o c c u r f o r d o m e s t i c p a s s e n g e r s when t h e f l i g h t h as t e r m i n a t e d and p a s s e n g e r s must p r o c e e d t o p i c k up t h e i r b a g s . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e d e p l a n i n g s y s t e m . In t h i s s t u d y , a r r i v i n g p a s s e n g e r s e n t e r t h e model a t t h e a i r t e r m i n a l g a t e where t h e y e x i t f r o m t h e a i r p l a n e . D e p l a n i n g p a s s e n g e r s e i t h e r p r o c e e d t o a n o t h e r f l i g h t o r move t h r o u g h t h e t e r m i n a l t o t h e a i r p o r t b o u n d a r y . Many p a s s e n g e r s w i l l n eed t o g e t t h e i r baggage a t t h e baggage c l a i m f a c i l i t i e s . The model i n t h i s t h e s i s ends when t h e p a s s e n g e r h a s c l a i m e d h i s ba g s , matched t h e t a g s a t t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k and l e f t t h e baggage c l a i m a r e a . The r e s t o f h i s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e 12 l a n d s i d e s y s t e m does n o t u s u a l l y c a u s e any h o l d u p s o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f 15 m i n u t e s t o 1/2 h o u r t h a t c a n o c c u r i n t h e baggage c l a i m s t a g e . V 13 2.3 SYMPTOMS OF THE PROBLEM 2.3.1 CONGESTION C o n g e s t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m i n a d e q u a t e l y m e e t i n g t r a f f i c demands. C o n g e s t i o n can a r i s e i n two ways: (1) t h e t r a f f i c demands a p p r o a c h o r e x c e e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e f a c i l i t y and (2) a s e r v i c e f a c i l i t y m a l f u n c t i o n s o r some r e d u c t i o n i n s e r v i c e r e d u c e s t h e e f f e c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e s e r v i c e f a c i l i t y {such as o n l y one employee m a t c h i n g t a g s a t t h e baggage c l a i m a r e a ) . C o n g e s t i o n n o r m a l l y shows up a s q u e u e s . Queue l e n g t h may i n c r e a s e v e r y r a p i d l y a s t h e t r a f f i c demands e x c e e d t h e f a c i l i t y c a p a c i t y . The f a c i l i t y c a p a c i t y i s d e f i n e d a s t h e maximum f l o w o f t r a f f i c t h r o u g h t h e f a c i l i t y . . T h i s i s u s u a l l y measured i n p a s s e n g e r s p e r hour (or bags p e r h o u r ) . C o n g e s t i o n i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h peak h o u r a r r i v a l r a t e s . as t h e a r r i v a l r a t e s i n c r e a s e , c o n g e s t i o n shows up as l o n g e r queues a t s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and a s an i n c r e a s e i n a s s o c i a t e d d e l a y t i m e s . 14 2.3.2 AIRPORT LEVEL OF SERVICE The output of an a i r p o r t Iandside analysis should be measures of the ai r p o r t Iandside l e v e l of service based on s p e c i f i c input data (see FIGURE 2} A IRPORT INPUT DATA FIGURE 2 AIRPORT LANDSIDE ^ ANALYSIS MEASURES OF A IRPORT L A N D S I D E L E V E L OF S E R V I C E F i g u r e 2 T h e O u t p u t o f t h e A i r p o r t L a n d s i d e A n a l y s i s there are many possible measures of airport service such as yearly passenger flow, operations per hour and peak hour demands, depending on which service i s being studied. This thesis has assumed that passenger delay for sp e c i f i e d flow and holding times i s the desired measure of le v e l - o f - s e r v i c e in t h i s study. Therefore the pertinent variables considered i n t h i s study were passenger delays, gueue lengths, holding capacity of the baggage area and passenger flow., 15 2.3.3 DELAY DISTRIBUTIONS The s i m u l a t i o n model i n t h i s s t u d y u s e s e m p i r i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s t o c a l c u l a t e s e r v i c e t i m e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e t h e o r y which f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f a g u e u e i n g model. The i m p a c t o f c o n g e s t i o n on an a i r l i n e p a s s e n g e r c a n be measured by d e l a y w h i c h , i n t u r n c a n be e x p r e s s e d by d e l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n s a s d e s c r i b e d by Gordon 1 0 . The p a s s e n g e r d e l a y can t h u s be e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : a) p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t p a s s e n g e r d e l a y i s g r e a t e r t h a n t i m e t . B) p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e t i m e t o c o m p l e t e f a c i l i t y s e r v i c e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t i m e t . , C) p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e t i m e s p e n t w a i t i n g f o r s e r v i c e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t i m e t . F u n c t i o n (a) i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s (b) and ( c ) . An example o f a p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e l a y r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o n g e s t i o n i s shown i n FIGURE 3 . FIGURE 3 p r e s e n t s t h e d e l a y p r o b a b i l i t y a s a f u n c t i o n o f jj.t. p a r a m e t r i c i n p , where ju.= Mean S e r v i c e R a t e , p = R a t i o Of A r r i v a l Rate To S e r v i c e B a t e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n i s maximum a t t=0 and c a n n o t i n c r e a s e w i t h t . T h e r e f o r e , one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f an a i r p o r t d e s i g n i s t o keep t h e p r o b a b i l i t y P{0) a t t - 0 as s m a l l a s p o s s i b l e . However, a low v a l u e o f p{0) d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e a s a t i s f a c t o r y s y s t e m s i n c e , f o r t h a t , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y a t l a r g e v a l u e s o f t may n o t become i n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h a t i s , t h e FIGURE 3 16 O UJ 0.? Z D S o 0.6 U. f * O z > < i - I BABI CER 04 C Z a: O a. -J 0.2 POISSON ARRIVALS EXPONENTIAL SERVICE R e f e r e n c e io F i g u r e 3 P r o b a b i l i t y o f P a s s e n g e r D e l a y " t a i l " of the d i s t r i b u t i o n may s t r e t c h out to l a r g e v a l u e s . The time corresponding t o a p a r t i c u l a r l i k e l i h o o d l e v e l can be picked to show how f a r the t a i l s t r e t c h e s . For example, from FIGURE 3 i t can be seen forp=0.8 whenju>i, 30% of the w a i t i n g e n t i t i e s w i l l wait l o n g e r than 5 seconds. A l s o forp=0.8 when M=5, 30% of the w a i t i n g e n t i t i e s w i l l wait longer than 1 second. T h i s measure i s often c a l l e d the .grade of s e r v i c e . I n c r e a s i n g the mean a r r i v a l r a t e and/or d e c r e a s i n g the mean s e r v i c e r a t e tends to i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y that the passenger w i l l spend a time g r e a t e r than time t i n the f a c i l i t y . T h i s can be seen from FIGURE 3 by o b s e r v i n g t h a t as p i n c r e a s e s (that i s , as the r a t i o of a r r i v a l r a t e to s e r v i c e r a t e i n c r e a s e s ) the delay curves move f u r t h e r from the o r i g i n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y of passenger d e l a y . 17 2.4 CHOICE OF METHOD The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a i r p o r t l a n d s i d e c a p a c i t i e s and d e l a y s may be p e r f o r m e d by t h r e e methods: e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , a n a l y t i c a l m o d e l i n g and s i m u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a d e t a i l e d c o s t -b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s was n o t p e r f o r m e d , t h e i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n u s e d f o r s e l e c t i o n o f s i m u l a t i o n a s t h e method i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e a b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e t h e d e t a i l e d a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a i r p o r t . An e x p e r i m e n t a l program which would i n v o l v e a t e s t o f t h e a i r p o r t f l o w c a p a c i t y by e n a c t i n g peak l o a d i n g p r o c e s s e s would be unmanageable. , The l o g i s t i c s o f h a v i n g s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r o f f - h o u r e x p e r i m e n t s a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g and p e r f o r m i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t d u r i n g b u s i n e s s h o u r s might n e e d l e s s l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h a i r p o r t l a n d s i d e o p e r a t i o n s . t I n a d d i t i o n i t i s n o t e a s y t o a p p l y t h e c a p a c i t y and d e l a y s t a t i s t i c s f o r V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t t o a n o t h e r a i r p o r t s h o u l d i t be n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e a n o t h e r a i r p o r t . A n a l y t i c a l models which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by s o l u t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s a r e u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g f l o w s and d e l a y s a t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y s u c h as a c u r b s i d e o r a t i c k e t c o u n t e r . However, t h e g r e a t number o f i n t e r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s i n an a i r p o r t l a n d s i d e complex r e q u i r e t o o many s i m p l i f y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s t o p e r m i t d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e t a i l e d a c t i v i t i e s by a n a l y t i c methods. A n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h e s a r e f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e i n d e p e n d e n t l y f l u c t u a t i n g n a t u r e o f s e r v i c e and a r r i v a l r a t e s . The s i m u l a t i o n method was c h o s e n f o r t h i s p r o b l e m b e c a u s e i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e d e t a i l e d 1 8 a c t i v i t i e s of the a i r p o r t system i n a meaningful, manageable f a s h i o n . .. The s i m u l a t i o n model can i n c o r p o r a t e a l a r g e number of i n t e r a c t i o n s . Rates may be v a r i e d i n accordance with observed c o n d i t i o n s . The s i m u l a t i o n model opens up the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e a s i l y and q u i c k l y determining the impact o f changed i n p u t v a r i a b l e s and the s e n s i t i v i t y of the a i r p o r t Iandside o p e r a t i o n to such changes. For example i t i s easy t o change such v a r i a b l e s as passenger t r a f f i c volume, bags per passenger, number o f baggage p e r s o n n e l , s i z e o f baggage c a r o u s e l and other Iandside elements. S i m u l a t i o n models r e q u i r e some a d a p t a t i o n when a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t a i r p o r t s but such a d a p t a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y minor because the b a s i c processes to be simulated are i d e n t i c a l from a i r p o r t t o a i r p o r t . 19 2.5 THE SIMULATION OF THE AIRPORT LANDSIDE SYSTEM The g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h i s a i r p o r t s i m u l a t i o n a r e shown i n FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4 R e f e r e n c e 3 F a c i l i t y -D a t a T r a f f i c D a t a I n p u t < ( I n c l u d i n g D a t a ) . P a s s e n g e r s ) O p e r a t i o n a l D a t a S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l O u t p u t s per| F l i g h t D e l a y S t a t i s t i c s F l o w S t a t i s t i c s O u t p u t s p e r A i r p o r t D e l a y S t a t i s t i c s F l o w S t a t i s t i c s O c c u p a n c y S t a t i s t i c s F i g u r e k G e n e r a l F e a t u r e s o f a n A i r p o r t S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l S i m u l a t i o n i n p u t s a r e d e r i v e d from o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e s p e c i f i c a i r p o r t t o be s i m u l a t e d . However, some a s p e c t s s u c h a s o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a , may r e m a i n c o n s t a n t f r o m one a i r p o r t t o a n o t h e r and a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o any a i r p o r t . The t r a f f i c d a t a i n p u t r e f e r s h e r e t o p a s s e n g e r s and baggage. 20 3 FORMULATION OF THE SIMULATION 3.1 METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING THE AIRPORT LAN DSIBE SIMULATION MODEL To e s t a b l i s h a computer s i m u l a t i o n model f o r a s y s t e m as complex a s an a i r p o r t I a n d s i d e t r a f f i c s y s t e m , f o r example, a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d m e t h o d o l o g y i s r e q u i r e d . A s i m u l a t i o n c o m p u t e r model r e q u i r e s i n o r d e r p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n model r e q u i r e m e n t s m a t h e m a t i c a l models computer program r e q u i r e m e n t s c o mputer program f i e l d d a t a computer model v a l i d a t i o n s i m u l a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s FIGURE 5 shows t h e s e s t e p s i n f l o w c h a r t f o r m . P r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n s h o u l d e x p l i c i t l y c o v e r t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e work, so t h a t model r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . , The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s needed t o p r o v i d e b o t h i n p u t d a t a and d a t a t o be u s e d i n v a l i d a t i o n . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l model and t h e a s s o c i a t e d c omputer program s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e a i r p o r t I a n d s i d e i s a dynamic s y s t e m w i t h t i m e - v a r y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . The s i m u l a t i o n model must p r o v i d e a measure o f l e v e l - o f - s e r v i c e . The v a l i d a t i o n e f f o r t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e model v a l i d i t y b y c o r r e l a t i n g t h e s i m u l a t i o n o u t p u t d a t a w i t h measured f i e l d d a t a and d e t e r m i n e s , i f i n d e e d , 21 FIGURE 5 DEFINITION OF PROBLEM MODEL REQUIREMENTS COMPUTER PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS 1-4*1 H DATA COLLECTION EFFORT I FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FORMULATION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS 1 i r SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS VALIDATION, Reference 3 REJECT OR MODIFY ACCEPT Figure 5 Methodology for Developing the Airport Landside Simulation Model. t h e s i m u l a t i o n model meets t h e model r e q u i r e m e n t s . 22 3.2 THE PRESENT SYSTEM The d i a g r a m i n FIGURE 6 shows i n s i m p l i f i e d form t h e path o f a p a s s e n g e r and h i s bags from t h e a i r p l a n e g a t e t o t h e Baggage c l a i m a r e a . Some few p a s s e n g e r s w i l l have no b a g s t o p i c k up and w i l l l e a v e t h e s y s t e m a t t h e a i r p l a n e g a t e . O t h e r s w i l l be p a s s e n g e r s i n t r a n s i t who w i l l p r o c e e d t o t h e d e p a r t u r e s a r e a o f t h e a i r p o r t and whose bags w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r p l a n e . U s u a l l y most o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s w i l l , however, p r o c e e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e baggage c l a i m a r e a . The % c o n n e c t i n g a v e r a g e s t o 10% on A i r Canada. T h i s f i g u r e may be s e t by t h e u s e r . FIGURE 7 shows i n more d e t a i l t h e a c t u a l n e twork o f c o n v e y o r s a t V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t . When a p l a n e a r r i v e s a t a g a t e , baggage p e r s o n n e l open up t h e h o l d and u n l o a d . O b s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e h a t c h o p e n s w i t h i n 30 s e c o n d s t o 1 m i n u t e {with e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y i n t h i s i n t e r v a l ) o f t h e p a s s e n g e r p l a n e door o p e n i n g . One p e r s o n i n t h e h o l d l o a d s t h e bags one by one o n t o a s h o r t u n l o a d i n g c o n v e y o r . From t h i s c o n v e y o r a s e c o n d and sometimes a t h i r d man l o a d t h e bags o n t o w a i t i n g baggage t r u c k s . Sometimes t h e bag s a r e l o a d e d d i r e c t l y o n t o t h e t r u c k s i f t h e p l a n e h a t c h i s n o t t o o h i g h o f f t h e gr o u n d o r i f no b e l t l o a d e r i s c o n v e n i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . The r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g i s t h e same by e i t h e r method. T h e r e a r e u s u a l l y two c a r g o h a t c h e s on e a c h p l a n e from which b a g s a r e o f f l o a d e d . T h a t i s , e a c h p l a n e i s u s u a l l y met by a t l e a s t two baggage t r u c k s . The number o f t r u c k s t o meet an a i r p l a n e i s i n p u t t o the model t h r o u g h p a r a m e t e r 12 { r e f e r t o S e c t i o n 3.7»3 Model FIGURE 6 The Path of Passengers and Bags Bags per Passenger Assigned A / ,' i i ; bags Plane A r r i v e s Unload bags onto c a r t s (or ULD's i f 747 or L-1011) 6 •? 8 sec/bag Drive to Conveyor Unload bags onto conveyor P s e c / b a g Passengers Leave Plane e x i t rate x 3 sec/pass./ Passengers w/o bags? Connecting passengers?/ Leave Model Move on conveyor to carousel Connecting bags leave model Leave Model K Passengers walk to claim area walking speed v 1 f f t / s e c Baggage Claim Device -passengers and bags are matched. Bags are removed when matcned. removal time *° sec/bag r o s i t i v e Claim Check 24 L o g i c ) . The f u l l t r u c k s a r e t h e n d r i v e n a s h o r t way f r o m t h e a i r p l a n e g a t e t o t h e baggage c o n v e y o r . An employee t h e n u n l o a d s th e b a g s from t h e t r u c k s o n t o t h e c o n v e y o r which t a k e s them t o t h e c a r o u s e l i n t h e c l a i m s a r e a . , CP AIS h a s i n d i v i d u a l t r u c k s e a c h w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 80-90 hags. A i r Canada meets a p l a n e w i t h two t r a c t o r s e a c h t o w i n g a s u f f i c i e n t number o f t u b s t o c o p e w i t h t h e baggage l o a d . E a c h t u b has a c a p a c i t y o f 30-40 b a g s . I n t h e c a s e o f 7 4 7 , s and L-1011*s t h e r e a r e c o n t a i n e r s f o r baggage and c a r g o . . T h e s e a r e o f f i c i a l l y named U n i t L o a d i n g D e v i c e s o r ULD'S ., When t h e p l a n e a r r i v e s a t V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t the ULD's d e s t i n e d f o r V a n c o u v e r a r e u n l o a d e d i n p a i r s from e a c h o f two c a r g o d o o r s by 5-9 e m p l o y e e s , t a k e n t o t h e c o n v e y o r a r e a on c a r t s and a r e t h e n u n l o a d e d o n t o t h e c o n v e y o r l e a d i n g t o t h e c a r o u s e l . For a v i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e 747 and L-1011 c o n t a i n e r h a n d l i n g p r o c e s s s e e I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 **. . O b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t i m e s shown a r e s t r i c t l y minimum t i m e s . A c t u a l t i m e s v a r y w i t h i n a r a n g e o f v a l u e s . P o s i t i o n i n g e quipment f o r example c a n o c c u r anywhere i n t h e i n t e r v a l o f 2 t o 6 m i n u t e s . F r e q u e n t l y a l o c k o r c a t c h becomes s t u c k and u n l o a d i n g 2 c o n t a i n e r s c a n t a k e anywhere f r o m 3 t o 4 m i n u t e s . These ULD h a n d l i n g t i m e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e model by s a m p l i n g f r o m u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n s a b o u t t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r h a n d l i n g t i m e i n v o l v e d . 25 ILLUSTRATION 2 •jk-J nnri L-1011 - Minimum Container Handling, Times; • , AIRCRAFT TO TERMINALS (i) 7U7 Forvard Hold: l6 Containers (ii) 7U7 Rear Hold: Ik Containers ( i i i ) L-1011 Cargo Holds: 8 Containers Each TIME FRAME FOR B-7>*7 REAR HOLD Wheel Stop Pos'n Equip. °Pe9oS?iso Load 2'ULD's Raise Platfmv Lower P l a t f HIT Load to D o l l e T r a n s i t to =-! X i Terminal Return to ACTfT. Load to conveyor 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 lk 15 16 IT Elapsed time - minutes • 20 21 Reference 11 2 6 3.3 CHANGES IN THE SYSTEM C o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n s a r e b e i n g made i n t h e baggage s y s t e m a t V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t . T h r e e more c a r o u s e l s and an a s s o c i a t e d c o n v e y o r s y s t e m a r e b e i n g added t o e n l a r g e t h e d o m e s t i c baggage c l a i m a r e a ( see FIGURE 7 ) s i n c e i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m i s n o t a d e g u a t e t o c o p e w i t h t h e volume o f p a s s e n g e r s p r o j e c t e d t o 1980. T h i s new a r e a i s e x p e c t e d t o open i n September 1977. I t i s hoped t o use t h e model i n t h i s t h e s i s t o h e l p p r e d i c t t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e new s y s t e m d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s . S e v e r a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c h a n g e s a r e made i n t h e model t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e s y s t e m t o c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s ; 1) The number o f men u n l o a d i n g bags a t t h e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s c a n be v a r i e d by a l t e r i n g u n l o a d i n g t i m e s t o e s t i m a t e t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f l a b o u r on t h e movements o f t h e bags between t h e p l a n e and c o n v e y o r . 2) C o n v e y o r s p e e d s may be a l t e r e d up t o a c e r t a i n maximum which t h e MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT has l i m i t e d t o 100 f t / m i n . Above t h i s s p e e d b a g s b e g i n t o jam a t c o r n e r s o r a t t h e c a r o u s e l . 3) T r a f f i c d e n s i t i e s may be a l t e r e d . T h a t i s , d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s s e v e r a l p l a n e s may be s c h e d u l e d v e r y c l o s e t o g e t h e r . P a s s e n g e r s S . a r r i v e f r om g a t e s Bags * a r r i v e f r om g a t e s P r e s e n t u n l o a d i n g a r e a P r e s e n t Baggage C l a i m A r e a ( d o m e s t i c ) ® © 4 / FIGURE 7 Map o f C a r o u s e l A r e a P l a n n e d a d d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c c o n v e y o r s P a s s e n g e r s a r r i v e f r o m g a t e s Ground F l o o r A r r i v a l s L e v e l ro L, E n t r a n c e ) c a r r e n t a l s [ E n t r a n c e ( New E n t r a n c e 28 3 . 4 MODEL R E Q U I R E M E N T S The model w i l l b e g i n w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f an a i r p l a n e a t t i m e t=1. D i f f e r e n t s i z e s o f a i r p l a n e a r e p o s s i b l e . The model w i l l p r o v i d e measures o f a i r p o r t l e v e l - o f -s e r v i c e i n t e r m s o f queue l e n g t h s and p a s s e n g e r w a i t i n g t i m e s . The model i s a l s o d e s i g n e d t o p o s s e s s m u l t i - s t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t c a p a b i l i t y . A s m a l l amount o f a d d i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t would be needed t o l i n k i t t o models o f o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e a i r p o r t . F o r example, as i s e x p l a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x C, w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f more d a t a on p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f p r o c e s s i n g t i m e s t h r o u g h c u s t o m s , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r r i v a l s module c o u l d be e a s i l y added t o t h e d o m e s t i c module. The o u t p u t from t h i s module c o u l d a l s o be u s e d as i n p u t t o a model o f t h a t p a r t o f t h e I a n d s i d e s u b s y s t e m from t h e a i r p o r t t e r m i n a l t o t h e a i r p o r t b o u n d a r y . 29 3.5 DATA REQUIREMENTS 3.5.1 INPUT DATA I n p u t d a t a c a n be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : f a c i l i t y d a t a , t r a f f i c d a t a and o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a . The f a c i l i t y d a t a encompasses a l a y o u t and d i m e n s i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e I a n d s i d e c o m p l e x . TABLE I I p r e s e n t s t h e t y p e s o f f a c i l i t y d a t a r e g u i r e d . TABLE I I F A C I L I T Y INPUT DATA CORRIDOR l e n g t h CONVEYORS l e n g t h , s p e e d CAROUSELS c a p a c i t y , s p e e d (bags c a n n o t be f e d o n t o t h e c a r o u s e l a t a s p e e d f a s t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e r o t a t i n g c a r o u s e l ) BAGGAGE TRUCKS c a p a c i t y , s p e e d The t r a f f i c i n p u t d a t a r e g u i r e d i s p r e s e n t e d i n TABLE I I I on t h e n e x t page. 30 TABLE I I I TRAFFIC INPUT DATA AIRCRAFT t y p e , c a p a c i t y PASSENGERS a r r i v i n g , c o n n e c t i n g QUANTITY OF BAGGAGE a r r i v i n g , c o n n e c t i n g BAGGAGE PER PASSENGER The i n p u t o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of how t h e t r a f f i c and a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s behave o r o p e r a t e . TABLE IV p r e s e n t s a l i s t . T A BLE IV OPERATIONAL INPUT DATA EMPLOYEE WORK SCHEDULE & ALLOCATION OF EMPLOYEES TO WORK AREAS F A C I L I T Y SERVICE TIMES - s p e c i f i c a l l y , number o f em p l o y e e s on hand t o h a n d l e baggage. -number o f em p l o y e e s a t p o s i t i v e c h e c k p o i n t - r a t e o f f l o w o f p a s s e n g e r s l e a v i n g a i r c r a f t . - r a t e o f f l o w o f u n l o a d i n g bags P A S S E N G E R B A G G A G E T R U C K S 31 - a v e r a g e w a l k i n g s p e e d t o baggage a r e a - t i m e between a i r c r a f t and c o n v e y o r . 3.5.2 OUTPUT DATA The s i m u l a t i o n model o u t p u t s t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n : i ) p a s s e n g e r and baggage f l o w d a t a i i ) p a s s e n g e r and baggage c o u n t {occupancy) and queue l e n g t h . I i i ) p a s s e n g e r and baggage p r o c e s s i n g t i m e and d e l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n The f l o w d a t a i s b a s i c a l l y a c o u n t o f t h e t r a f f i c p a s s i n g a s p e c i f i c p o i n t f o r some t i m e i n t e r v a l . TABLE V i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f l o w o u t p u t s o f i n t e r e s t . The p e r i o d s o f peak t r a f f i c f l o w a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . TABLE V TRAFFIC FLOW REGIONS OF INTEREST PASSENGERS LEAVING BAGGAGE CLAIM AREA PER " ii . , I I HATE AT WHICH BAGS A E R I V E AT CAROUSEL PER 10 MINUTES 1/2 HOUR HOUR 10 MINUTES 1/2 HOUR HOUR The c o u n t d a t a i s t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s o c c u p a n c y o f c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d a s h o l d i n g rooms. TABLE VI p r e s e n t s a l i s t o f o c c u p a n c y d a t a t o be c o l l e c t e d . 33 TABLE VI OCCUPANCY MEASURES BAGGAGE CLAIM AREA queue l e n g t h s , number o f p a s s e n g e r s , number o f b a g s , number o f c a r o u s e l s i n u s e . The p a s s e n g e r and baggage p r o c e s s i n g t i m e and d e l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r i s e f r o m a g g r e g a t i n g a l l o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g o r d e l a y t i m e s on a p e r f l i g h t b a s i s . As each p a s s e n g e r o r p i e c e o f baggage i s p r o c e s s e d , p r o c e s s i n g t i m e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d and added t o t h e t o t a l . 34 3.5.3 METHODS OF DAT1 COLLECTION The s i m u l a t i o n model r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e d a t a f o r o p e r a t i o n and f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v a l i d i t y . In t h i s c a s e , much o f t h e d a t a was e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e from t h e a i r p o r t a u t h o r i t y . The m o n i t o r i n g methods t h a t t h e y used t o o b t a i n t r a f f i c and o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a v a r i e d among f o u r common a l t e r n a t i v e s . 1) t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s 2) p a s s e n g e r s u r v e y s 3) human o b s e r v e r s 4) movies o r v i d e o t a p e The p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e s r e g u i r e d i n t h e model were measured o f f a i r p o r t b l u e p r i n t s . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were made o f t h e a c t u a l a i r c r a f t u n l o a d i n g p r o c e s s t o s u p p l e m e n t d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e a i r l i n e s . R e f e r t o a p p e n d i x A f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . 35 3.6 FORMULATION OF TIME ORIENT ED MATHEMATICAL MODEL Most s i m u l a t i o n models r e p r o d u c e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s e i t h e r by a) c o n t i n u o u s s i m u l a t i o n o f dynamic e q u a t i o n s or by b) g e n e r a t i n g random o p e r a t i n g t i m e s which have t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n as t h e p r o c e s s b e i n g s i m u l a t e d . The model i n t h i s s t u d y u s e s t h e s e c o n d method. P r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s a r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a r r i v a l p a t t e r n s and s e r v i c e p r o c e s s e s . I n p u t s and o u t p u t s o f t h i s t y p e o f model a r e shown i n H I G U R E 8. F I G U R E 8 Reference 3 INPUTS ARRIVAL DISTRIBUTION MEAN ARRIVAL RATE SERVICE TIME DISTRIBUTION OUEUEIN'G DISCIPLINE RENEGING FREQUENCY NUMBER OF FACILITIES MEAN SERVICE RATE TIME-ORIENTED QUEUEING MODEL OUTPUTS DISTRIBUTION OF WAITING TIMES PASSENGER ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE TIMES ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE FLOW RATES QUEUE LENGTHS Fi g u r e 8 T y p i c a l Inputs and Outputs of a Time O r i e n t e d Queueing Model The i n p u t a r r i v a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e i n t e r v a l between s u c c e s s i v e a r r i v a l s . These v a r y s t o c h a s t i c a l l y , r e g u i r i n g a p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n , which f o r m s t h e b a s i s f o r random number g e n e r a t i o n , f o r c o m p u t i n g t h e 36 t i m e s o f a r r i v a l a t t h e s e r v i c e f a c i l i t y . The mean a r r i v a l r a t e , which may be f i x e d o r a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e <in t h i s c a s e f i x e d ) i s p a r t o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f the p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r - a r r i v a l t i m e s . S e r v i c e f a c i l i t y t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e a l s o s p e c i f i e d by a p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n and r e q u i r e a mean s e r v i c e r a t e t o g e n e r a t e t h e random s e r v i c e t i m e s . 37 3 .7 FORMULATION OF COMPUTER MODEL The model i s f o r m u l a t e d a s a module t h a t c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be c o n n e c t e d i f d e s i r e d i n t o a s e r i e s o f program modules where t h e o u t p u t o f one module i s t h e i n p u t f o r a n o t h e r module. Each l i n e c o n n e c t i n g b l o c k s i n t h e t i m e / d i s t a n c e d i a g r a m (FIGURE 9) r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i s t a n c e between e a c h a c t i v i t y and, d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p a s s e n g e r w a l k i n g s p e e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , a p a s s e n g e r t r a n s i t t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n be computed. D e p e n d i n g on u n l o a d i n g r a t e s , a bag t r a n s i t d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n a l s o be f o r m e d . The a r r i v a l o f t h e p a s s e n g e r bags i s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g w a i t i n g p a r a m e t e r f o r most d e p l a n i n g p a s s e n g e r s , flag a r r i v a l i s computed b a s e d on 1) t h e a v e r a g e u n l o a d i n g t i m e p e r bag 2) t h e c a p a c i t y o f bag c a r t 3) t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t i m e s r e q u i r e d t o move bags from a i r c r a f t t o c o n v e y o r 4) t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s f e r bags from c a r t t o bag c l a i m f a c i l i t y . , See FIGURE 9 f o r an i l l u s t r a t i v e t i m e f l o w a n a l y s i s w i t h sample numbers. The p a t h s o f p a s s e n g e r s and bag s a r e f o l l o w e d t o t h e a i r p o r t b o u n d a r y . T he numbers i n FIGURE 9 r e p r e s e n t a h y p o t h e t i c a l p l a n e a r r i v a l w i t h h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s . FIGURE 9 h e l p s e m p h a s i z e the o v e r l a p p i n g and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e d e p l a n i n g p r o c e s s . F o r example, t h e f i r s t p a s s e n g e r a r r i v e s a t 38 t h e baggage c l a i m between 6:32 and 6:33. By t h e t i m e he l e a v e s t h e t e r m i n a l e x i t t h e s p r e a d o f p o s s i b l e t i m e s l i e s between 6:34 and 6:39. When he l e a v e s t h e p a r k i n g e x i t t h e s p r e a d o f p o s s i b l e t i m e s h a s r i s e n t o between 6:37 and 6:45. C l e a r l y w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , t h e e x p e c t e d a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t p a s s e n g e r a t any p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t l i e s i n a l a r g e r and l a r g e r t i m e i n t e r v a l . a s i m u l a t i o n model o f t h e p a r k i n g l o t and s u p p o r t i n g g r o u n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o u l d use a s p a r t o f i t s i n p u t t h e o u t p u t o f t h i s model, namely t h e p a s s e n g e r f l o w s o u t o f t h e b a g g a g e c l a i m a r e a . 3 9 FIGURE ^ A i r c r a f t Opens Door at 6:30 Passengers Unload at Average Rate of Every 3 Seconds A i r c r a f t Passengers GATE F i r s t Passenger A r r i v e Between 6:32:23 and 6:33:33 RENTAL CAR COUNTER Passenger Search Time .5-90 sec 2.5 sec/bag unloading time 140 hags 6 Q b a g s / c a r t 3 carts cart t r a n s i t time 70+5 sec. 20-30 sec t r a n s i t time 120-180 sec Tr a n s i t time BAGGAGE CLAIM F i r s t Passenger A r r i v e s at the e x i t between 6:3^:11 and 6:39:50 Cart transfer rate-* 1.5 bags/sec 30-40 sees t r a n s i t time TERMINAL EXIT Bags a r r i v e at baggage claim between 6:33:36 and 6:37:35 120-180 sees •jrtransit time F i r s t PRIVATE Passenger CAR Ar r i v e s I PARKING Between 6:36:31 j and 6:42:50 ' 60-120 sees delay 30-40 sec t r a n s i t time RENTAL CAR PARKING TAXI/BUS/LIMO BOARDING AREAS PARKING EXIT F i r s t Passenger leaves parking l o t between 6:37:11 and 6:44:35 F i r s t Passenger Leaves A i r p o r t Between 6:37:41 and 6:45:35 A i r p o r t E x i t Reference 3 Figure 9 I l l u s t r a t i v e Time Flow Analysis 40 3.7.1 SIMULATION LANGUAGE The o p e r a t i o n modeled i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m u l t i s t a g e g u e u e i n g p r o c e s s . GPSS { G e n e r a l P u r p o s e S i m u l a t i o n Language) was c h o s e n as t h e most s u i t a b l e a n d e a s i e s t l a n g u a g e t o use b e c a u s e o f i t s f e a t u r e s f o r h a n d l i n g g u e u e i n g o p e r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d gueue s t a t i s t i c s . A l s o GPSS i s w e l l s u p p o r t e d a t UBC. The r e a d e r may r e f e r t o t h e a p p e n d i x f o r a l i s t i n g o f t h e GPSS program used h e r e t o model t h e d e p l a n i n g d o m e s t i c s y s t e m and f o r t h e c o m p l e t e f l o w c h a r t . I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 p r o v i d e s a c a p s u l e f l o w c h a r t o f t h e model. The c o r e o f t h e model c o n t a i n s f i v e b a s i c s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n i s t h e O r i g i n a t i n g F l i g h t S e c t i o n t h r o u g h which p a s s e n g e r t r a n s a c t i o n s move. The u s e r i n s e r t s t h e t i m e o f p l a n e a r r i v a l and a s s i g n s d i f f e r e n t p a r a m e t e r s s u c h as number o f p a s s e n g e r s and g a t e number. The c a r o u s e l i s a s s i g n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a l s o . B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h i s s e c t i o n t h e bag t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d . , The p a s s e n g e r s go t o t h e P a s s e n g e r P r o c e s s i n g S e c t i o n and t h e bags go t o t h e Baggage P r o c e s s i n g S e c t i o n . I n t h e P a s s e n g e r S e c t i o n p a s s e n g e r s l e a v e t h e p l a n e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n LVPLN and walk t o t h e c a r o u s e l w i t h w a l k i n g s p e e d and d i s t a n c e c a l c u l a t e d by V $ 8 A L K . A f t e r m a t c h i n g , p a s s e n g e r s l e a v e t h e model t h r o u g h t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k p o i n t . I n t h e Baggage S e c t i o n bags a r e f i r s t r e a r r a n g e d i n random o r d e r on a u s e r c h a i n r e f l e c t i n g t h e m i x i n g t h a t o c c u r s 41 i n l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g . Then t h e Equipment P o o l S e c t i o n i s t r i g g e r e d and t r u c k s (number s u p p l i e d i n P12 ) s t a r t t o f i l l up w i t h bags a t a r a t e d e s c r i b e d by 0FF1D . I h e n t h e c a p a c i t y o f the t r u c k i s r e a c h e d ( P3 o f t r u c k t r a n s a c t i o n ) t h e t r u c k d r i v e s t o t h e c o n v e y o r and u n l o a d s . F o r 747's and 1 - 1 0 1 l ' s a d i f f e r e n t b l o c k s e q u e n c e i s f o l l o w e d . OLD'S a r e u n l o a d e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d by I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 ., E g u i p m e n t i s p o s i t i o n e d w i t h i n a c e r t a i n t i m e i n t e r v a l and t h e OLD'S a r e o f f l o a d e d two by two f r o m e a c h h a t c h u n t i l a l l bags a r e o f f l o a d e d . , As soon a s OLD'S a r e on t h e d o l l y t h e y a r e t a k e n t o t h e baggage c o n v e y o r a r e a . The p a t h o f 747 b a g s t h e n j o i n s t h e p a t h o f r e g u l a r b a g s . The bags p a s s t h r o u g h a MATCH b l o c k c o n j u g a t e t o t h e p a s s e n g e r MATCH b l o c k and a f t e r w a i t i n g and t r a n s i t t i m e s a r e t a b u l a t e d t h e bag s l e a v e t h e model. 4 2 ILLUSTRATION 3 Capsule Flowchart Originating Flight Section GENERATE - create passenger transactions ASSIGN P1, P2, P3, P4 and P12 are user supplied ASSIGN P5 carousel •ASSIGN P6, P7, P8 SPLIT P6 create bag transactions Passenger Processing Section ADVANCE FN$LVPLN leave plane TEST E P6,2,0UT connection passengers leave model TEST E P7,0,0UT passengers without bags leave model ADVANCE V$WALK walk to assigned carousel MATCH wait for bags ENTER CLCHK enter positive claim ADVANCE FN$BLAY check tags LEAVE CLCHK leave positive claim TABULATE waiting and transit time TERMINATE Equipment Pool Section GENERATE create pool of , baggage trucks for CP and AC ASSIGN P3 capacity of truck TEST wait u n t i l a f l i g h t -*\— comes in ENTER BUSY enter busy status TEST is i t a 747 or L-1011? ADVANCE FN$OFFLD unload bag UNLINK SEQ1 remove bag from user chain LOOP P3 loop back u n t i l cart f u l l ADVANCE drive to conveyor area unload and test i f plane i s empty otherwise return to pool Baggage Processing Section 747 & L-1011 Baggage Handling ASSIGN P10 .rearrange bags i n random order SPLIT 2,LATER use two hatches LINK P4.10 LATER ADVANCE unload each pair of ULD's UNLINK P4,SEQ2,K100,,, NONE remove TRANSFER ,LATER bags from plane i r groups of 100 NONE TERMINATE LINK SPLIT P12 GATE SEQ1 GATE SEQ2ADVANCE ADVANCE MATCH TABULATE TERMINATE put bags on user chain create number of trucks required trigger equipment pool wait for f u l l truck drive to conveyor area and unload move on conveyor to carousel wait for matching waiting and transit times 43 3.7.2 SCOPE OF THE MODEL fi key p r o b l e m i n any s i m u l a t i o n and one on w h i c h i t s s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e may h i n g e i s t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e model's s c o p e . The r e a l s i t u a t i o n must be s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a model t h a t p r o v i d e s an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m . . k d e c i s i o n must be made on how much d e t a i l t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t h e model. A l s o , i n t h e c a s e o f a l a r g e s y s t e m l i k e an a i r p o r t , w i t h many i n t e r l i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s and i n t e r f a c e s a s e x p l a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 2.1, a d e c i s i o n must be made on where t o b e g i n and end t h e model. I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s i m u l a t i o n model h e r e s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h an a i r c r a f t a r r i v i n g a t a g a t e and end w i t h t h e e x i t i n g o f p a s s e n g e r s w i t h t h e i r baggage i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g l o b b y . Thus t h e model s t u d i e s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e o v e r a l l a i r p o r t s y s t e m , an a p p r o a c h recommended by M e l l i c h a m p * . 4 4 3 . 7 . 3 MODEL LOGIC D a t a f o r t h e model i s s t r u c t u r e d i n two ways: 1) c e r t a i n t i m e s and d i s t a n c e s a r e c o n s t a n t s . F o r exa m p l e , w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s from e a c h g a t e t o e a c h baggage c a r o u s e l a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a m a t r i x . 2 ) p a s s e n g e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o c e s s i n g r a t e s a r e s t o r e d i n c u m u l a t i v e d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n s {CDF). F o r example, t h e number o f bag s p e r p a s s e n g e r d e p e n d s on whether t h e p a s s e n g e r i s on b u s i n e s s o r on v a c a t i o n . The a p p r o p r i a t e p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bags i s t h e n s e l e c t e d . TABLE V I I shows a l i s t o f t h e d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e model s t r u c t u r e a l o n g w i t h i t s s o u r c e and e x a c t l y how i t i s w r i t t e n i n t o t h e model. TABLE V I I SUMMARY TABLE OF DATA CONTAINED IN MODEL CONSTANTS DATA FORM IN MODEL SOURCE-D i s t a n c e s f r o m c a r o u s e l s t o g a t e s M a t r i x "DIST" s a v e v a l u e s * Measured o f f b l u e p r i n t s a i r p o r t d i s t a n c e s f r o m g a t e s t o c o n v e y o r a r e a by c a r t m a t r i x "DFGTC" s a v e v a l u e s measured o f f b l u e p r i n t s a i r p o r t c o n v e y o r l e n g t h s t o c a r o u s e l s m a t r i x "CLGTH" s a v e v a l u e s measured o f f b l u e p r i n t s a i r p o r t 45 DATA EOBf l I N MODEL S O U f i C E c a p a c i t y o f OLD c a p a c i t y o f baggage c a r o u s e l number o f p e r s o n n e l a t p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k p l a n e t y p e number o f p a s s e n g e r s i n p l a n e a i r l i n e g a t e number number o f t r u c k s a v a i l a b l e a t a i r p l a n e g a t e t i m e o f a r r i v a l o f p l a n e e a c h OLD w i l l h o l d 3500 pounds o r a b o u t 45-55 b a g s . An a v e r a g e o f 50 b a g s / OLD i s a s s i g n e d . C a p a c i t y o f s t o r a g e s 61-67 c a l c u l a t e d f r o m d i m e n s i o n s o f c a r o u s e l a s s u m i n g 2 s g . f t p e r bag on a v g . C a p a c i t y o f s t o r a g e CLCHK p a r a m e t e r 1 p a r a m e t e r 3 p a r a m e t e r 2 p a r a m e t e r 4 p a r a m e t e r 12 C o p e r a n d g e n e r a t e b l o c k o f o b s e r v a t i o n ( a p p e n d i x ) measured o f f a i r p o r t b l u e p r i n t s u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d u s e r s u p p l i e d 46 CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS DATA FORM IN MODEL SOURCE % a r r i v i n g o r % c o n n e c t i n g p a s s e n g e r s f u n c t i o n AB'HCT u s e r s u p p l i e d % b u s i n e s s o r % v a c a t i o n p a s s e n g e r s f u n c t i o n PLEAS u s e r s u p p l i e d number o f bags p e r p a s s e n g e r f u n c t i o n BAG depends on b u s i n e s s o r p l e a s u r e u s e r s u p p l i e d r a t e o f p a s s e n g e r s l e a v i n g p l a n e f u n c t i o n LVPLN d a t a s u p p l i e d f r o m M.O.T. Stu d y ( a p p e n d i x ) p a s s e n g e r w a l k i n g speed f u n c t i o n VEL d a t a s u p p l i e d f r o m M.O.T. S t u d y : 29 p a s s e n g e r s / m i n u t e p e r d o o r and p l a n e t y p e s 1»2,3 (747, 1011, DC-10 ) ha v e 2 d o o r s f o r u n l o a d i n g . t i m e t o remove a bag from c a r o u s e l when b o t h p a s s e n g e r and bag a r e p r e s e n t f u n c t i o n DLAY v a r i e s u n i f o r m l y between 3 and 50 s e c . {the t i m e o f 1 r e v o l u t i o n o f c a r o u s e l ) . R o g e r s L u i 7 . r a t e o f i o a d i n g / u n l o a d i n g bags R a t e s o f 7.5 and 6 s e c / b a g were m a i n t a i n e d u s i n g f u n c t i o n OFFLD S CONLD A i r Canada Handbook o f S t a n d a r d s s e r v i c e t i m e t o match t a g s a t c l a i m c h e c k f u n c t i o n BLAY s a m p l e s a d i s c r e t e d i s t r i b u t i o n g i v i n g on a v e r a g e 4.5 s e c o n d s / b a g o b s e r v a t i o n ( a p p e n d i x A) c a p a c i t y o f baggage c a r t f u n c t i o n CAPCY v a r i e s u n i f o r m l y f r o m 80-90 bags A i r Canada Handbook o f S t a n d a r d s 47 The p a s s e n g e r and baggage f l o w t h r o u g h t h e d e p l a n i n g d o m e s t i c module i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a f l o w c h a r t i n FIGURE 6 . , At f i r s t t h e o n l y t r a n s a c t i o n s i n t h e model a r e p a s s e n g e r t r a n s a c t i o n s . Each p a s s e n g e r t r a n s a c t i o n e n t e r s t h e model t h r o u g h a GENERATE b l o c k so e a c h i s i n a d i f f e r e n t a s s e m b l y s e t . When t h e c a r o u s e l i s a s s i g n e d , a SPLIT b l o c k i s used t o c r e a t e bag t r a n s a c t i o n s . Each t r a n s a c t i o n h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g 12 p a r a m e t e r s : P1 = p l a n e t y p e 1=747, 2=L-1011, 3=DC-10, 4=OTHER P2 = a i r l i n e 2= CP AIR 1= AIR CANADA P3 = # o f p a s s e n g e r s i n p l a n e g r o u p P4 = g a t e number P5 = c a r o u s e l a s s i g n e d P6 = 1 = a r r i v i n g , 2 = c o n n e c t i n g P7 = # o f b a g s / p a s s e n g e r P8 = 1 = b u s i n e s s , 2 = v a c a t i o n P9 = bag w a i t i n g t i m e per p a s s e n g e r P10 = random number a s s i g n e d t o baggage P11 = bag w a i t i n g t i m e a t c a r o u s e l (maximum t i m e u n t i l a l l b a g s o f 1 p a s s e n g e r a r r i v e and a r e matched w i t h p a s s e n g e r ) P12 •= # o f baggage t r u c k s t o meet p l a n e P a r a m e t e r s 1,2,3,4,12 a r e i n p u t t o t h e model a t t h e u s e r ' s command and s e r v e t o i d e n t i f y i t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e t r a n s a c t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d . P a r a m e t e r P5 , c a r o u s e l a s s i g n e d , and the p a r a m e t e r s g i v i n g w a i t i n g t i m e s , P9 and P11 a r e a s s i g n e d by by t h e model l o g i c . P6, P7, P8 and P1G a r e a s s i g n e d u s i n g p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s . 4 8 D u r i n q c a r o u s e l a s s i g n m e n t o n l y c e r t a i n c a r o u s e l s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h f l i g h t a c c o r d i n q t o which a i r l i n e t h e f l i g h t b e l o n g s ( w i t h A i r Canada o r CP A I R i n t h i s m o d e l ) . The c a r o u s e l a v a i l a b i l i t y r u l e s a c c o r d i n q t o a i r l i n e which were u s e d h e r e a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F I G U R E 1 0 . T h e s e r u l e s may be a l t e r e d by t h e u s e r i f so d e s i r e d . FIGURE 10 Present System Figure 10 Carousel A v a i l a b i l i t y The l o g i c f o r c a r o u s e l a s s i g n m e n t s i s b a s e d c o n s i d e r i n g two t y p e s o f a i r c r a f t : 747*s and o t h e r t y p e s , b a s i c s e t o f r u l e s were d e v e l o p e d as f o l l o w s : on A 1) c a r o u s e l s a r e a s s i g n e d t o f l i g h t s i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r a r r i v a l . , 2) o n l y c e r t a i n c a r o u s e l s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h a i r l i n e ( FIGURE 10) 3) a f t e r one f l i g h t has been a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c a r o u s e l , t h e n e x t f l i g h t i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e c a r o u s e l w i t h t h e f e w e s t bags i n i t s s y s t e m . H e r e s y s t e m means bags i n t h e c a r o u s e l , bags i n c a r t o r OLD s t o r a g e , and b a g s s t i l l s i t t i n g i n a p l a n e d e s t i n e d f o r t h a t c a r o u s e l . 4) b o t h h a l v e s o f a 747 j e t a r e n o t a s s i g n e d t o t h e same c a r o u s e l u n l e s s a) t h e p l a n e had l e s s t h a n 250 p a s s e n g e r s , and b) t h e c a r o u s e l s a r e a l r e a d y so c o n g e s t e d t h a t i t makes more s e n s e t o p u t b o t h h a l v e s o f t h e 74 7 on t h e same c a r o u s e l i . e . t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e p l a n e would be s e r v i c e d more q u i c k l y i f b o t h h a l v e s were a s s i g n e d t o t h e same c a r o u s e l . The above r u l e s a r e t h e same as t h o s e u s e d a t V a n c o u v e r A i r p o r t . Bag t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e g e n e r a t e d i n t h e same s e q u e n c e a s p a s s e n g e r t r a n s a c t i o n s b u t a r e t h e n mixed r a n d o m l y . A random number i s a s s i g n e d t o p a r a m e t e r 10 o f e a c h bag t r a n s a c t i o n and 50 t h e bags a r e t h e n o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s random number s e g u e n c e (numbers from 0 -999). F o r a l l p l a n e s , b a g s o f a g i v e n f l i g h t a r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e baggage c o n v e y o r l e a d i n g t o t h e c a r o u s e l i n a number o f t r u c k l o a d s o r i n g r o u p s o f ULD'S i n t h e c a s e o f 7 4 7 » s . . F o r e a c h p l a n e a c e r t a i n number o f b a g g a g e t r u c k s a r e a s s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u s e r s u p p l i e d P a r a m e t e r 12. E a c h a i r l i n e has a p o o l o f t r u c k s . CP AIR h a s 10 t r u c k s and a i r Canada has 17 t r a c t o r s e a ch o f w h i c h c a n tow up t o f o u r t u b s . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m the CP AIS t r u c k s which c a r r y t h e bags on t h e t r u c k i t s e l f . I n t h i s model i t i s assumed t h a t t h e A i r Canada t r a c t o r s tow f o u r t u b s . T h i s i s t h e u s u a l number. The c a p a c i t y of f o u r t u b s i s 140 bags p l u s o r minus 10 b a g s . Not u n t i l a t l e a s t one t r u c k i s a v a i l a b l e c a n u n l o a d i n g b e g i n . A f t e r t h e f u l l t r u c k d r i v e s t o t h e c o n v e y o r and t h e b a g s a r e u n l o a d e d , t h e model c h e c k s i f t h e p l a n e i s c o m p l e t e l y u n l o a d e d . I f s o , t h e t r u c k r e t u r n s t o t h e p o o l o f t r u c k s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e a i r l i n e . , I f n o t , t h e t r u c k r e t u r n s t o t h e p l a n e t o c o m p l e t e t h e u n l o a d i n g . F o r 747*s t h e DID'S a r e u n l o a d e d d i r e c t l y from t h e p l a n e o n t o d o l l i e s and t h e n d r i v e n t o t h e c o n v e y o r where t h e y a r e o f f l o a d e d . , F o r 747*s , t r u c k s a r e used f o r 15-30 m i n u t e s per f l i g h t ( t h i s v a r i a b l e i s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d ) . The baggage a r r i v i n g a t t h e a s s i g n e d c o n v e y o r w i l l be l o a d e d o n t o t h e c o n v e y o r . I f a n o t h e r t r u c k i s s t i l l i n t h e p r o c e s s o f u n l o a d i n g t h e a r r i v i n g t r u c k w a i t s u n t i l i t c a n u n l o a d . The r a t e a t which b a g s a r e l o a d e d o n t o the c o n v e y o r i s l i m i t e d by t h e s p e e d o f t h e c o n v e y o r (100 f t / m i n o r a b o u t 15 bags/min a s s u m i n g an a v e r a g e o f 7 f e e t o f s p a c e per b a g ) . The 51 baggage e m p l o y e e s l o a d b a g s a t a c e r t a i n n o r m a l r a t e . T h i s r a t e i s r e c o r d e d i n t h e A i r Canada Handbook of S t a n d a r d s . P a s s e n g e r t r a n s a c t i o n s a r r i v i n g a t t h e a s s i g n e d baggage c a r o u s e l a r e r e u n i t e d w i t h t h e i r baggage t h r o u g h t h e use of a MATCH b l o c k . When a l l o f a p a s s e n g e r * s bags have a r r i v e d a t t h e c a r o u s e l he i s p e r m i t t e d t o l e a v e t h e MATCH b l o c k . , The baggage c l a i m a r e a a r o u n d t h e c a r o u s e l was t h e most d i f f i c u l t p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s t o model. Such f a c t o r s a s t h e number o f p a s s e n g e r s a b l e t o s e a r c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r t h e i r bags must be c o n s i d e r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a p e r by S o g e r s L u i e t a l , m o t i o n p i c t u r e a n a l y s i s o f p a s s e n g e r a c t i v i t y a r o u n d a c a r o u s e l i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l m o s t a l l p a s s e n g e r s remove t h e i r b a g s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c y c l e f o r w h i c h b o t h t h e p a s s e n g e r and t h e bags a r e i n the b aggage c l a i m a r e a . Hence, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m e a bag t a k e s t o c o m p l e t e a f u l l c i r c l e on t h e c a r o u s e l a CDF , C u m u l a t i v e D e n s i t y F u n c t i o n , i s us e d t o sample a v a l u e between 3 s e c o n d s and t h e t i m e o f 1 r e v o l u t i o n -50 s e c o n d s - b e f o r e t h e bag i s removed by a p a s s e n g e r . A f t e r l e a v i n g t h e baggage c a r o u s e l a r e a t h e p a s s e n g e r c h e c k s h i s bag s t h r o u g h t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k p o i n t . A d i s c r e t e e m p i r i c a l f u n c t i o n was f o r m e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d a t t h i s c h e c k p o i n t . B e f e r t o a p p e n d i x A f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e number o f bags a p a s s e n g e r had s c a r c e l y a f f e c t e d t h e t a g c h e c k t i m e ; the t i m e depended on t h e i n d i v i d u a l {Whether t h e t a g was r e a d y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o r whether i t was i n t h e i n s i d e r i g h t p o c k e t were t h e main v a r i a b l e s , n o t number o f b a g s ) . The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s summarize t h e l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s 52 made i n t h e model. 1) h a g s and p a s s e n g e r s a r e r a n d o m l y m i x e d . No p r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o t h e bags o f f i r s t c l a s s p a s s e n g e r s . T h i s was f e l t j u s t i f i e d b e c a u s e f i r s t c l a s s baggage d e l i v e r y i s o f t e n u n c e r t a i n . I f a g r o u p o f economy p a s s e n g e r s a r r i v e s l a t e , t h e i r b ags may be p a c k e d l a s t i n s t e a d o f t h e f i r s t c l a s s bags. I g n o r i n g f i r s t c l a s s was a l s o f e l t j u s t i f i e d b e c a u s e a i r l i n e s a r e s l o w l y p h a s i n g o u t f i r s t c l a s s on most d o m e s t i c f l i g h t s . 2) f o r a s s u m p t i o n s i n c a r o u s e l a s s i g n m e n t s e e page 50. 3} i t i s assumed t h a t p a s s e n g e r s r e t r i e v e t h e i r b ag f r o m t h e c a r o u s e l w i t h i n one r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c a r o u s e l f r o m t h e t i m e when b o t h bag and p a s s e n g e r a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e c a r o u s e l . The t i m e o f r e t r i e v a l between a minimum o f 3 s e c o n d s and a maximum o f 50 s e c o n d s i s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d u s i n g a CDF. 4) i t i s assumed t h a t t h e baggage e m p l o y e e s m a i n t a i n a n u n l o a d i n g r a t e o f a c e r t a i n number o f bags p e r m i n u t e . T h i s was measured s e v e r a l t i m e s by d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e s and a l s o f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d from t h e A i r Canada Handbook o f S t a n d a r d s . D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n v e r i f i e d t h e 5 3 Handbook r a t e o f . 2 5 man-minutes p e r bag a t t h e p l a n e and .1 man-minutes p e r bag a t t h e c o n v e y o r . 5) i t i s assumed t h a t t h e p o o l o f e q u i p m e n t a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h a i r l i n e i s f i x e d . However l i m i t a t i o n s c a n be i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e model by a l t e r i n g t h e number o f t r u c k s i n each a i r l i n e s p o o l and t h e t r u c k c a p a c i t i e s i f d e s i r e d . 6) a s soon as 01D»S a r e u n l o a d e d f r o m t h e p l a n e and p l a c e d on d o l l i e s t h e y a r e d r i v e n t o t h e c o n v e y o r . I t i s v a l i d t o assume a t r a c t o r w i l l be t h e r e t o t r a n s p o r t t h e c o n t a i n e r s s i n c e t h e t i m e t o o f f l o a d i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e t i m e o f a r e t u r n t r i p t o t h e c o n v e y o r . C l e a r l y many o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n t h i s model a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e human e l e m e n t . F o r example, i f a p a s s e n g e r w i t h a w h e e l c h a i r i s on t h e p l a n e , p a s s e n g e r d e p l a n i n g may be s l o w e d down. T h e r e i s a p o i n t i n any model i n which t h e l i m i t o f d e t a i l t o be i n c l u d e d must be d e c i d e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e model i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m and un d e r t h e p r e s e n t a s s u m p t i o n s a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d r e a l i t y . The c o m p a r i s o n t o r e a l s i t u a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1, H o d e l V a l i d a t i o n . 54 3.7.4 THE PROGRAM F o r a c o m p l e t e f l o w c h a r t o f t h e GPSS program and f o r a l i s t i n g o f t h e program, t h e r e a d e r may r e f e r t o A p p e n d i c e s D and E f o r g r e a t e r e a s e o f r e f e r e n c e . Program d i m e n s i o n s were a s f o l l o w s : 160 b l o c k s 4500 maximum number o f t r a n s a c t i o n s i n t h e s y s t e m a t one t i m e O t h e r l i m i t s c a n be s e e n on t h e REALLOCATE s t a t e m e n t s . About 2 m i n u t e s o f c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g t i m e i s r e q u i r e d t o s i m u l a t e a f o u r hour peak p e r i o d i n w h i c h up t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5000 t r a n s a c t i o n s { p a s s e n g e r s and bags) a r e p r o c e s s e d . FlGORE 11 shows t h e c o s t t o r u n t h e program as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f t r a n s a c t i o n s ( p a s s e n g e r s and bags) p r o c e s s e d . The c o s t i s a b o u t $10 p e r 1000 t r a n s a c t i o n s . T hus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o model two f u l l 747's, f o r example, f o r a b o u t $12. , 5 6 4 S I M U L A T I O N R E S U L T S 4. 1 VALIDATION V a l i d a t i n g t h e computer model was done by p e r f o r m i n g c o m p a r i s o n s between o b s e r v e d and computed q u a n t i t i e s . The s p e c i f i c f i g u r e s compared were f o r a s p e c i f i c f l i g h t : 1) t i m e o f a r r i v a l a t baggage c a r o u s e l o f f i r s t p a s s e n g e r and c f l a s t p a s s e n g e r . , 2) t i m e o f a r r i v a l a t baggage c a r o u s e l o f f i r s t bag and l a s t b a g. 3) t i m e o f f i r s t match and l a s t match o f p a s s e n g e r and bag. F o r t h i s v a l i d a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d and known f o r a g i v e n f l i g h t : 1) t h e number o f p a s s e n g e r s on t h e p l a n e 2) t h e number o f c o n n e c t i n g p a s s e n g e r s 3) t h e above m e n t i o n e d 3 t i m e p o i n t s . On t h e n e x t page i s a t a b l e o f v a l i d a t i o n r e s u l t s f o r two CP f l i g h t s . TABLE VIII V a l i d a t i o n Results of 2 Sample F l i g h t s CP 69 Gate 22 DC-8 65 passengers CP 63 Gate 23 737 58 passengers A r r i v a l of: 1st pass. observed simulated o b s e r v e d simulated 3.0 3.5 (.485 3.0 3.5 (.511) l a s t pass. 9.0 8.8 (.406) 8.5 9.3 (.918) 1st bag 9.0 9.0 (.408) 8.5 8.8 (.338) l a s t bag 15.0 14.7 (.961) 12.5 13.3 (.707) Time of: 1st match 9.5 9.6 (.094) 9.0 9.3 (.918) l a s t match 15.5 16.0 (.408) 13.0 13.6 (.624) Note: 1) A l l times arc i n minutes 2) Standard d e v i a t i o n i s i n parenthesis 3) Simulated r e s u l t s are averages over 5 runs 4) A l l r e s u l t s l i e within one standard d e v i a t i o n of observ. 58 The v a l i d a t i o n r e s u l t s i n TABLE V I I I show t h a t t h e mean o f t h e s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s l i e s w i t h i n a b o u t one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e d v a l u e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t i m e p o i n t s measured. The o b s e r v e d v a l u e s i n TABLE V I I I c o n t a i n a s m a l l measurement e r r o r . , T h e s t o p w a t c h was s t a r t e d when t h e f i r s t p a s s e n g e r s t e p p e d t h r o u g h t h e d o o r o f the p l a n e . The n e x t measurements were t a k e n when t h e f i r s t and l a s t p a s s e n g e r r e a c h e d w i t h i n 15 f e e t o f t h e c a r o u s e l . The l a s t p a s s e n g e r a r r i v a l c o u l d n o t be e x a c t t o more t h a n two o r t h r e e s e c o n d s due to d i f f i c u l t y i n s e e i n g t h r o u g h t h e crowd. On t h e f o l l o w i n g p ages i n FIGURES 12 and 13 a r e g r a p h s showing a c t u a l and s i m u l a t e d t i m e s o f l a s t bag a r r i v a l a s a f u n c t i o n o f number o f p a s s e n g e r s i n a DC-9 and a l s o i n t h e 747 and L-1011 ( c o n t a i n e r - h a n d l e d p l a n e s ) . The DC-9 a c c o u n t s f o r 50% o f A i r Canada's f l i g h t s . T h a t i s why i t i s s t u d i e d h e r e . F o r e a c h p l a n e t y p e o n l y one g a t e was c o n s i d e r e d a t a t i m e . H o l d i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e c o n s t a n t a l l o w e d e a s y c o m p a r i s o n o f p a s s e n g e r and bag t r a n s i t t i m e s . O t h e r w i s e , t h e t r a n s i t t i m e s from d i f f e r e n t g a t e s can v a r y w i t h i n a b o u t a minute. The o b s e r v e d p o i n t s were c o l l e c t e d i n Hay, 1977. The s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e o b s e r v e d v a l u e s i n FIGURES 12 and 13. The s i m u l a t e d mean v a l u e o f l a s t bag ( f o r 5 r u n s ) i s p l o t t e d w i t h c r o s s e s a t e a c h v a l u e f o r number o f p a s s e n g e r s . A s o l i d l i n e shows t h e t r e n d i n t h e s e r e s u l t s . D o t t e d c u r v e s a p p r o x i m a t e a 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e n v e l o p e o f s i m u l a t e d l a s t b a g v a l u e s a b o u t t h e s i m u l a t e d mean. T h e s e d o t t e d c u r v e s show more c l e a r l y how t h e s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s compare w i t h a c t u a l v a l u e s . 59 The a i r l i n e s i n t h i s model have p o l i c y s t a n d a r d s on l a s t bag a r r i v a l t o which r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be made. The a i r l i n e s hope t o a c h i e v e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d s 90% o f t h e t i m e : 1) L a s t 747 bag w i t h i n 30 m i n u t e s o f p l a n e a r r i v a l . 2) L a s t L-1011 and DC-8S bag w i t h i n 25 m i n u t e s . 3) L a s t DC-8 and 727 bag w i t h i n 20 m i n u t e s . 4) L a s t DC-9 bag w i t h i n 15 m i n u t e s . The o b s e r v e d l a s t bag t i m e s show more s c a t t e r t h a n t h e s i m u l a t e d r u n s show., I f more s i m u l a t e d r u n s had been made more s c a t t e r p o i n t s would have r e s u l t e d . I n t h e DC-9 c a s e ( FIGURE 12) a t r e n d i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n b o t h t h e s i m u l a t e d and o b s e r v e d p o i n t s . T h i s e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n c r e a s e i n l a s t bag t i m e as a f u n c t i o n of p a s s e n g e r l o a d . The s i m u l a t e d r u n s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h a p a s s e n g e r l o a d o f more t h a n 70 o r 80 p a s s e n g e r s , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o meet t h e 15 minute s t a n d a r d f o r l a s t b a g. I n t h e g r a p h f o r t h e l a r g e r p l a n e s , t h e 747 and L -1011, FIGUBE 13, t h e o b s e r v e d p o i n t s do n o t d i s p l a y n e a r l y a s c l e a r a t r e n d a s was f o u n d f o r t h e DC-9 . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t i m e s where t h e l a s t bag on a 7 47 i s d e l i v e r e d l a t e r t h a n t h e 30 m inute s t a n d a r d . The s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t f o r more than a b o u t 140 p a s s e n g e r s on a L-1011, t h e r e w i l l be d i f f i c u l t y i n m e e t i n g t h e 25 m i n u t e s t a n d a r d f o r l a s t b a g. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e b e g i n n i n g p r e s e n c e of o b s e r v e d p o i n t s o v e r t h e 25 m i n u t e mark a t t h e 140 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l . F o r t h e 7 47, t h e s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t f o r more t h a n 340 p a s s e n g e r s i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o meet t h e 30 minute s t a n d a r d o f l a s t bag. T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . above t h e 300 60 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l t h e r e a r e fe w e r i n s t a n c e s o f m e e t i n g t h e 30 m i n u t e d e a d l i n e . Note on FIGURE 13 t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t b r e a k i n the s i m u l a t e d r e s u l t s a t t h e 200 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a s s e n g e r volume a t which two c a r o u s e l s a r e a l l o c a t e d t o a 747. ,. The L-1011 and 747 a r e u n l o a d e d i n t h e same p a t t e r n s a s shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 2. The L-1011 i s a l w a y s a l l o c a t e d one c a r o u s e l . Below 200 p a s s e n g e r s , t h e 7 47 i s a l l o c a t e d o n l y one c a r o u s e l a l s o . 63 The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e f i g u r e s w h i c h show g r a p h i c a l l y some d i f f e r e n t w a i t i n g t i m e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e V a l i d a t i o n S e c t i o n t o h e l p i l l u s t r a t e t h e m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s and t o show t h a t i t i s modeled c o r r e c t l y . These p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e s were t a k e n from a s i m u l a t i o n r u n o f a 747 w i t h 340 p a s s e n g e r s a t g a t e 10. FIGUBE 14 shows t h e t i m e p a s s e n g e r s must w a i t f o r a l l t h e i r b a g s t o a r r i v e a t t h e c a r o u s e l . , , From t h i s g r a p h i t c a n be seen f o r example t h a t a f t e r 14 m i n u t e s 50% o f p a s s e n g e r s h a ve r e c e i v e d a l l t h e i r b a g s . A f t e r 19.5 m i n u t e s , 90% o f p a s s e n g e r s have r e c e i v e d a l l t h e i r b a g s . A l s o i t can be s e e n t h a t t h e minimum w a i t i n g t i m e o f a p a s s e n g e r f o r h i s b a g s was 6.5 m i n u t e s . T h i s i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a c t u a l d a t a which shows t h a t a l l p a s s e n g e r s h a v e a r r i v e d a t t h e baggage c l a i m a r e a from t h e g a t e w i t h i n 11 o r 12 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e p l a n e d o o r o p e n s . A c t u a l d a t a shows t h a t f o r 340 p a s s e n g e r s t h e l a s t bag commonly a r r i v e s i n a r o u n d 24 t o 25 m i n u t e s . Thus t h e above s i m u l a t e d m a t c h i n g r a t e seems r e a s o n a b l e . FIGUBE 15 shows t h e t i m e a bag must w a i t u n t i l a l l bags o f t h a t p a s s e n g e r a r r i v e . Thus t h i s g r a p h i s s i m i l a r t o FIGUBE 14 e x c e p t i t i s f r o m t h e bag*s p o i n t o f view. T h i s g r a p h shows t h e e f f e c t o f the random o r d e r o f bags on p a s s e n g e r w a i t i n g t i m e . From t h i s g r a p h one can form an i d e a o f t h e t i m e between bags o f one p a s s e n g e r . I t c a n be s e e n t h a t 55% o f a l l bags w a i t o n l y 30 s e c o n d s o r l e s s . T h i s w i l l m o s t l y be w i t h p a s s e n g e r s w i t h o n l y one bag. T h e s e t i m e s compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h . a c t u a l d a t a . A c t u a l d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t 5555 t o 58% o f p a s s e n g e r s u s u a l l y h a v e o n l y 1 bag ( t h i s d a t a i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e BAG f u n c t i o n ) and 95% t o 98% have 2 o r l e s s b a g s . I n FIGUBE 64 15, a f t e r 7.5 minutes of w a i t i n g , 90% of the hags have been matched and taken away. The g r e a t e s t spacing between the f i r s t and l a s t bag of a passenger was 11.5 minutes., A c t u a l data shows that f o r 340 passengers the spread between f i r s t and l a s t bag w i l l be 15 minutes on average (assuming .1 man-minutes unloading time per bag). FIGURE 16 i l l u s t r a t e s the combination of passengers a r r i v i n g , bags a r r i v i n g and the matching of passengers with t h e i r bags. For example, 100% of passengers a r r i v e by the 11 minute elapsed time mark. Since the f i r s t bags a r r i v e at 11.5 minutes, the f i r s t passengers then begin to r e t r i e v e t h e i r bags and l e a v e the c a r o u s e l area., The process c o n t i n u e s u n t i l the l a s t bag a r r i v e s at 25 minutes and the l a s t passenger l e a v e s with the l a s t bag at 25.5 minutes. T h i s compares a c c u r a t e l y with a c t u a l data which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f i r s t match occurs w i t h i n a minute of the f i r s t bag a r r i v i n g and the l a s t match occurs w i t h i n a minute of the l a s t bag a r r i v i n g . FIGURE , 14 100 — S i m u l a t e d W a i t i n g Time f o r P a s s e n g e r t o R e c e i v e A l l Bags i n C a r o u s e l A r e a • • • • • • • A f t e j c 13^ 5—mi-mitea— 90% o f p a s s e n g e r s have r e c e i v e d a l l t h e i r bags TT . A f t e r 14_m:Lniite_s _ 50% o f p a s s e n g e r s have r e c e i v e d a l l t h e i r bags Minimum w a i t i n g t ime o f a p a s s e n g e r f o r h i s • 'brag's ^a~5 ~p.~!b ^ m ^ t e s - f r ' 10 WAITING TIME (MINUTES) 15 20 66 "PIGURU 15 Simulated -Waiting Time Por A l l Bags of a Passenger to Ar r i ve 10(H 90 80 • o • • e o o 90/Q of bags_are_ raatched_0' and tafcen away with in a , 7.5 minutes of a r r i v a l of 1st bag of a passenger 0 • e o a f* greatest spacing between 1st and l a s t bag of a passenger was 12 minutes 70 ft60 O L -O 50 CD to cd +J g4C[ u CD P4 •H +> o 55/6 of bags are matched and taken away w i th in 30 seconds of t h e i r a r r i v a l !20 10 I 5 10 WAITING TIME (MINUTES) 15 FIGURE 16' Simulated Passenger Transit Time and Bag Transit Time and Matching Process Passenger Transit Time Example: Joe arrives X X Example: Joe 1s 2nd . bag arrives I m m f m * I 1 last bag arrives a l l passengers arrive by 11 minutes B Bag Transit Time Sum of Passenger Bag Wait Time and Transit Time Example: Joe's 1st arrives bag Example:| Joe has retrieved a l l his bags by this point and leaves last I passenger |leaves with bag(s) 10 TIME (MINUTES) 15 20 25 30 —4 68 4.2 SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS I n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s r u n w i t h t h e model a r e d e s c r i b e d . E x p e r i m e n t 1 ) The s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e s y s t e m t o c h a n ges i n baggage c o n v e y o r s p e e d was t e s t e d . P r e s e n t l y t h e s y s t e m r u n s a t t h e maximum recommended s p e e d o f 10 0 f t / m i n u t e . I f w i d e r and more modern c o n v e y o r b e l t s were i n s t a l l e d i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t s p e e d s o f 150 and 200 f t / m i n u t e might be a t t a i n e d . S i m u l a t i o n r u n s on a t y p i c a l f l i g h t were made u s i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n t c o n v e y o r s p e e d s . , E x p e r i m e n t 2 ) The r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g b a g s was a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e c h a n g e d . The r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g b a g s from a p l a n e o n t o t h e t r u c k s and from t h e t r u c k s o n t o t h e c o n v e y o r d epends on t h e number o f e m p l o y e e s w o r k i n g . The p r e s e n t u n l o a d i n g r a t e o b s e r v e d was 1 bag e v e r y 7.5 s e c o n d s on a v e r a g e a t t h e p l a n e and 1 b a g e v e r y 6 s e c o n d s a t t h e c o n v e y o r b a s e d on t h e d a t a i n t h e a p p e n d i x . The s e n s i t i v i t y o f a t y p i c a l f l i g h t t o u n l o a d i n g r a t e s o f 1 bag e v e r y 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 s e c o n d s was t e s t e d . E x p e r i m e n t 3 ) The number o f p e o p l e h e l p i n g t o c h e c k baggage t a g s a t t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m p o i n t was v a r i e d f o r d i f f e r e n t p a s s e n g e r l e v e l s and t h e gueue s t a t i s t i c s were n o t e d . E x p e r i m e n t 4 ) The f i r s t t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t s were a n a l y s e d by c o m p i l i n g s t a t i s t i c s on one t y p i c a l f l i g h t . The f o u r t h 69 e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v e s h o l d i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e v a r i a b l e s { c o n v e y o r s p e e d , u n l o a d i n g r a t e and c h e c k o u t p e r s o n n e l ) t o t h e i r p r e s e n t v a l u e s and a l t e r i n g t h e t r a f f i c f l o w t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m . T h a t i s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t a r r i v a l s c h e d u l e s , t h e gueue s t a t i s t i c s a r e o b s e r v e d . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h r e e s t a g e s ; 4a) u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m , two 747*s were s c h e d u l e d f o r CE AIR . I t was o b s e r v e d how c l o s e l y t h e y can a r r i v e w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e 3 0 minute s t a n d a r d f o r 747*s {the l a s t bag a r r i v i n g w i t h i n 30 m i n u t e s o f t h e p l a n e r e a c h i n g t h e g a t e ) . CP AIR has t h e u s e o f two c a r o u s e l s f o r t h e i r 7 47's p r o v i d e d t h e s e c o n d one i s f r e e and n o t used by A i r Canada . 4b) t h e same was done f o r A i r Canada under t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e y u s e 2 c a r o u s e l s p l u s 1 r a c e t r a c k . 4c) under t h e new c a r o u s e l s y s t e m , CP w i l l use t h r e e c a r o u s e l s w h i c h i s a s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r t o A i r C a n a da's p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n . However A i r Canada w i l l have f o u r c a r o u s e l s . Two 747*s were s c h e d u l e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s o c c u p i e s a l l f o u r c a r o u s e l s . A DC-9 was t h e n s c h e d u l e d a t v a r y i n g s u b s e g u e n t i n t e r v a l s . The t i m e o f f i r s t and l a s t bag o f b o t h t h e DC-9 and t h e 747 which i t f o l l o w s was measured. F o r t h e above t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f 70 e x p e r i m e n t f o u r , r e s u l t s were p l o t t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t p a s s e n g e r l e v e l s i n t h e 7 4 7 » s . Runs w i t h 240, 340 and 440 p a s s e n g e r s i n th e 747's were made. T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f c o n g e s t i o n . The DC-9, however, had 10 0 p a s s e n g e r s each t i m e . A f t e r t h e s e s i m u l a t i o n r u n s t h e f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s were made. Known d a t a on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t u a l p l a n e a r r i v a l s a b o u t t h e s c h e d u l e d a r r i v a l t i m e was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e month o f May. , The s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v a l between p l a n e s was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l . F i r s t , the a c t u a l i n t e r v a l was d e t e r m i n e d g r a p h i c a l l y ( e x p e r i m e n t s 4a-4 c ) . , S e c o n d l y , t h i s a c t u a l i n t e r v a l was expanded i n t o a l a r g e r s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v a l t o a s s u r e t h a t 95% o f t h e t i m e t h e a c t u a l i n t e r v a l d i d o c c u r . 71 4.3 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF SIMULATION F i g u r e s s u m m a r i z i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p ages. , I n e x p e r i m e n t 1/ 3 r u n s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t random number s e g u e n c e s were made f o r e a c h c o n v e y o r s p e e d . The mean o f t h e 3 r u n s was p l o t t e d . I n e x p e r i m e n t 2, two r u n s were made a t e a c h u n l o a d i n g r a t e and e a c h r u n v a s p l o t t e d . I n e x p e r i m e n t 3, e a c h p l o t t e d p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s 1 s i m u l a t i o n r u n . I n e x p e r i m e n t 4, e a c h p l o t t e d p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e mean o f 5 r u n s . More r u n s would p r o v i d e more a c c u r a c y , b u t time was a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . E x p e r i m e n t 1 i s su m m a r i z e d i n FIGURE 17. F o r c o n v e y o r s p e e d s o f 100, 150 a n d 200 f e e t / m i n u t e , t h e f i r s t and l a s t bag t i m e s o f a 747 w i t h 340 p a s s e n g e r s a t g a t e 10 were o b s e r v e d . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e mean bag a r r i v a l t i m e s d e c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o n v e y o r s p e e d . T h i s r e s u l t i s p l o t t e d i n FIGURE 17 to show c l e a r l y t h i s e f f e c t on bag d e l i v e r y . The f i r s t bag t i m e , a t 150 f e e t / m i n u t e , d e c r e a s e s 30 s e c o n d s f r o m t h e d e l i v e r y t i m e a t a c o n v e y o r s p e e d o f 100 f e e t / m i n u t e . The g a i n i s a f u l l m i n ute w i t h a 200 f e e t / m i n u t e c o n v e y o r s p e e d . The l a s t bag t i m e , a t 150 f e e t / m i n u t e , d e c r e a s e s 2.5 m i n u t e s from t h e d e l i v e r y t i m e a t a c o n v e y o r s p e e d o f 100 f e e t / m i n u t e . , A f u r t h e r 30 s e c o n d s i s g a i n e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e t o 200 f e e t / m i n u t e . The i n c r e a s e i s n o t l i n e a r f o r l a s t b ag a r r i v a l b e c a u s e t h e r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g o n t o t h e c o n v e y o r u l t i m a t e l y l i m i t s t h e t i m e o f l a s t bag. FIGURE 1-7* V a r y i n g C o n v e y o r Speeds -a L a s t Bag (340 p a s s e n g e r s 747 a t g a t e 10) - F i r s t Bag • t • t • i 1 i i i 1 1 1 1 100 150 CONVEYOR SPEED (FEET/M INUTE) 200 73 E x p e r i m e n t 2 i s summarized i n FIGURES 18 and 19. F o r t h e DC-9, v a r y i n g t h e u n l o a d i n g r a t e s a f f e c t s b o t h f i r s t and l a s t bag a r r i v a l t i m e s b e c a u s e t h e bags a r e u n l o a d e d i n d i v i d u a l l y b o t h f r o m t h e c a r t t o t h e c o n v e y o r and from t h e p l a n e t o t h e c a r t . T h e r e l a t i o n o f l a s t bag t i m e t o u n l o a d i n g r a t e i s l i n e a r . FIGURE 19 p r e s e n t s t h e same r e s u l t s f o r t h e 747. The f i r s t bag t i m e i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f l o a d i n g r a t e s i n c e t h e b a g s a r e u n l o a d e d o n l y a t one p o i n t . The l a s t bag t i m e i s r e l a t e d l i n e a r l y t o u n l o a d i n g r a t e e x c e p t a t below 4 s e c o n d s / b a g . , S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t u n l o a d i n g r a t e i s 6 s e c o n d s / b a g i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s n o t much room f o r a g u i c k e r u n l o a d i n g r a t e b e f o r e t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e c o n v e y o r i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Two men u n l o a d i n g a t 4 s e c o n d s / b a g i s t h e l i m i t . Or s i n c e one man n o r m a l l y u n l o a d s a t a r a t e o f a b o u t 6 s e c o n d s / b a g t h r e e men u n l o a d i n g a t a r a t e o f 6 s e c o n d s / b a g r e a c h e s t h e l i m i t on c o n v e y o r c a p a c i t y . FIGURE re Varying Unloading Kates of Bags » Last Bag F i r s t Bag (DC-9 80 passengers) J L _J I I I l_ 2 4 6 8 10 12 BAG UNLOADING RATE (SECONDS/BAG) FIGURE 1?_ Varying Unloading Rates of Bags (747 - 340 passengers at gate 10) F i r s t Bag 2 4 6 8 10 BAG UNLOADING RATE (SECONDS/BAG) 12 75 FIGURE 20 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i m e n t 3 which e x p l o r e d t h e a v e r a g e p a s s e n g e r w a i t i n g t i m e a t t h e p o s i t i v e c h e c k p o i n t f o r d i f f e r e n t p a s s e n g e r l e v e l s . The s i t u a t i o n f o r 2 e m p l o y e e s a t t h e c h e c k p o i n t i s a d e q u a t e ( a v e r a g e w a i t l e s s t h a n 30 s e c o n d s ) u n t i l t h e 500 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l . T h a t i s , when a f l i g h t ( o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f l i g h t s a r r i v i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r ) p l a c e s 500 p e o p l e i n t h e c l a i m a r e a w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r b a g s , t h e r e s u l t a n t f l o w f r o m t h e baggage c l a i m d e v i c e w i l l c a u s e an a v e r a g e w a i t o f 40 o r 50 s e c o n d s per p a s s e n g e r . Above t h e 500 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l , t h e a v e r a g e w a i t i n g t i m e r i s e s v e r y s t e e p l y . With 3 e m p l o y e e s a t t h e c h e c k p o i n t , t h e a v e r a g e w a i t a t t h e 500 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l i s r e d u c e d t o between 5 and 10 s e c o n d s . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , w i t h 3 e m p l o y e e s , t h e a v e r a g e w a i t i n g t i m e i n t h e t a g c h e c k gueue r e a c h e s 40 o r 50 s e c o n d s i n the r e g i o n between 900 and 1000 p a s s e n g e r s . Above t h e 900 p a s s e n g e r l e v e l , t h e a v e r a g e w a i t i n g t i m e a g a i n r i s e s v e r y s t e e p l y . 76 FIGURE 20 NUMBER OP PASSENGERS I N BAGGAGE CLAIM AREA 77 The r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i m e n t 4, p r e s e n t e d i n FIGURES 21-32, d e t e r m i n e t h e recommended i n t e r v a l s between p l a n e a r r i v a l s under d i f f e r e n t p a s s e n g e r l o a d s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a s t bag a r r i v e s w i t h i n t h e a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s ( d e s c r i b e d on page 5 9 ) . FIGURE 21 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e between two CP 747's s c h e d u l e d a t v a r y i n g i n t e r v a l s on c a r o u s e l s 3 and 4. The p u r p o s e o f t h e g r a p h i s t o show t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l between 747 a r r i v a l s a t w h i c h t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag f a l l s t o an a c c e p t a b l e minimum v a l u e ( a t l e a s t b e l o w t h e 30 m i n u t e l a s t bag s t a n d a r d ) . I n t h e c a s e o f 747's w i t h 340 p a s s e n g e r s , t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f l a s t bag does n o t come down t o 30 m i n u t e s u n t i l t h e 15 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l mark. a t t h i s p o i n t t h e f i r s t bag o f t h e s e c o n d 747 a r r i v e s a f t e r t h e l a s t bag o f t h e f i r s t 747. At t h e 5 minute i n t e r v a l f o r example t h e f i r s t bag of t h e s e c o n d 747 a r r i v e s a t 19.5 m i n u t e s w e l l b e f o r e t h e l a s t bag o f t h e f i r s t 747. The n o r m a l l a s t bag t i m e o f t h e f i r s t 747 a t 29 m i n u t e s i s pushed b a c k t o an u n a c c e p t a b l e 42 m i n u t e s . T h i s assumes t h e p l a n e s e a c h have 340 p a s s e n g e r s and t h a t t h e s e c o n d c a r o u s e l b e l o n g i n g t o A i r Canada c a n be used by CP AIR a t t h i s t i m e . FIGURES 22 and 23 show t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e between two CP 747's on c a r o u s e l s 3 and 4 a t p a s s e n g e r l o a d s o f 240 and 440 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ffith 240 p a s s e n g e r s t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag o f t h e s e c o n d 747 f a l l s below 30 m i n u t e s a t t h e i n t e r v a l o f 10 m i n u t e s . W i t h 440 p a s s e n g e r s t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag o f t h e s e c o n d 747 f a l l s t o a minimum v a l u e a t t h e 20 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l mark. 78 FIGURE 21 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r 2 747's A r r i v i n g (340 passengers) at v a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s For CP AIR on Present Carousel System TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2nd 747 ARRIVES (MINUTES) FIGURE 22 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 7 4 7 ' s (240 p a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g a t V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2nd 747 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 80 50 ^ FIGURE 23 40 2 0 i ^ 10 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 7 4 7 ' s (440 p a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g a t V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r CP AIR on p r e s e n t C a r o u s e l Sy s tem L a s t Bag o f 2nd 747 L a s t Bag o f 1 s t 747 F i r s t Bag o f 2nd 747 - -Xr F i r s t Bag o f 1 s t 747 10 15 TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2nd 747 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 20 81 FIGURE 24 shows t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h two A i r Canada 747's w i t h 340 p a s s e n g e r s a r r i v e a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s and u t i l i z e A i r C a n a d a ' s 2 c a r o u s e l s and 1 r a c e t r a c k . From FIGURE 24 i t c a n be s e e n f o r a p a s s e n g e r l o a d o f 340 t h a t t h e a c t u a l i n t e r v a l between 747*s s h o u l d be 12.5 m i n u t e s . A t t h i s i n t e r v a l between f l i g h t s , t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e l a s t bag d r o p s t o an a c c e p t a b l e 29.5 m i n u t e s . S i m i l a r l y FIGURES 25 and 26 show t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e between two A i r Canada 747's a t p a s s e n g e r l o a d s o f 240 and 440 r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i t h 240 p a s s e n g e r s , t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag d r o p s t o an a c c e p t a b l e 29 m i n u t e s a t t h e 5.5 minute i n t e r v a l mark. Wi t h 440 p a s s e n g e r s , t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag d r o p s t o a minimum l e v e l a t t h e 17.5 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l mark. 82 FIGURE 24 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 7 4 7 ' s (340 p a s s e n g e r s ) w A r r i v i n g a t V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s U F o r A i r Canada on P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l Sy s tem S2i M 5 40 -co M IS TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2nd 747 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 83 CO w EH MIN 40 —^* co M EH >H H 1-q pw 30 C J <=<! O O pq t-H < o M EH M P=! O NT] 20 S3 r— r— 'd a CM EH O KH > M PtJ 10 «: s o PH M EH 0 FIGURE 25 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 7 4 7 ' s (240 p a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g a t V a r y i n g Time I n t e r v a l s F o r A i r Canada on P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l Sy s tem "X^Las t Bag o f 2nd 747 X - - F i r s t J 3 a g _ o f J n d 747 X-L a s t Bag o f 1 s t 747 ? i r s t Bag o f 1 s t 747 5 10 TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2 n d - 7 4 7 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 15 84 v F i r s t Bag of 1 s t 747 10 15 TIME ELAPSED UNTIL 2nd 747 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 20 85 FIGURES 27-29 p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may o c c u r on t h e f u t u r e c a r o u s e l s ystem. FIGURE 27 shows t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a r r i v a l o f two A i r Canada 7 4 7 » s f o l l o w e d by a DC-9 a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s . A t t h e 5, 10 and 12.5 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l p o i n t s , t h e t i m e o f f i r s t b ag d e l i v e r y o f t h e 747 i s h e l d back by t h e l a s t b a g s o f t h e 747. I t i s n o t u n t i l t h e 22.5 minute i n t e r v a l mark t h a t t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag o f t h e DC-9 w i t h 100 p a s s e n g e r s s t a b i l i z e s . The l a s t bag i s t h e n d e l i v e r e d i n 17.5 m i n u t e s . Thus t h e DC-9 s h o u l d n o t a r r i v e u n t i l 22.5 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e two 747's. T h i s a c t u a l i n t e r v a l assumes t h e 747*s e a c h have a l o a d o f 340 p a s s e n g e r s . I n FIGURE 28 a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d e x c e p t e a c h 747 has o n l y 240 p a s s e n g e r s . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag o f t h e DC-9 s t a b i l i z e s a t t h e 18 minute i n t e r v a l mark. FIGURE 29 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h e a c h 747 has 440 p a s s e n g e r s . I n t h i s g r a p h , t h e a r r i v a l t i m e o f t h e l a s t bag o f t h e DC-9 s t a b i l i z e s a t t h e 25.5 minute i n t e r v a l mark. TABLE IX summarizes t h e c a l c u l a t e d s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v a l s . The s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v a l s were d e t e r m i n e d (as d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 4.2) t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e a c t u a l above e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r v a l s o c c u r 95% o f t h e t i m e . FIGURES 30 and 31 p r e s e n t g r a p h i c a l l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a s s e n g e r l o a d and t h e recommended i n t e r v a l between 747 f l i g h t s . T h e s e g r a p h s p o r t r a y t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n f o r A i r Canada and CP AIR. FIGURE 32 p r e s e n t s g r a p h i c a l l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p 86 between passenger l o a d and the recommended i n t e r v a l between f l i g h t s f o r the f u t u r e c a r o u s e l system. 87 CO w S-I § 40 FIGURE 27 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r Two 747's (340 passengers) A r r i v i n g Simultaneously and f o r the A r r i v a l of a DC-9 (100 passengers) at Varying Subsequent I n t e r v a l s f o r A i r Canada on the New Carousel System 30 \ L a s t Bag of \ DC-9 \ \ 20 10 5 10 15 TIME ELAPSED UNTIL DC-9 ARRIVES (MINUTES) 20 25 FIGURE 28 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 747's (240 passengers) A r r i v i n g Simultaneously and f o r the A r r i v a l of a DC-9 (100 passengers) At Varying Subsequent I n t e r v a l s For A i r Canada on the New Carousel System FIGURE 29 Bag D e l i v e r y f o r two 747 ' s (440 p a s s e n g e r s ) A r r i v i n g S i m u l t a n e o u s l y and f o r t h e A r r i v a l o f a DC-9 (100 p a s s e n g e r s ) a t V a r y i n g S u b s e q u e n t I n t e r v a l s f o r . A i r C a n a d a on the New C a r o u s e l Sy s tem TABLE IX Scheduled I n t e r a r r i v a l s f o r 95% Confidence I n t e r v a l CP AIR i n t e r v a l (minutes) AIR CANADA i n t e r v a l (minutes') A c t u a l Scheduled f o r ^  95% confidence Actual Scheduled f o r * 95% confidence Present Carousel System two 747's (240 pass.) 340 " AM) 10.0 15.0 ?o.o 18.2 23.2 28.2 5.5 10.0 17.5 13.7 18.2 25.7 Future Carousel System two 747's same as A i r Canada on present s v s t e m simultaneous (4 carousels) • two 747's (240 pass.) then a DC-9 (100 pass.) 17.5 22.1 -two 747's (340 pass.) then a DC-9 (100 pass.) 22.0 26.6 . two 747's (440 pass.) then a DC-9 (100 pass.) 25.0 29.6 * ca l c u l a t e d f o r 95% confidence by + 1.96^ where a sample 747 f l i g h t 149 was observed "~ /n fo r 27 days g i v i n g «r = 1 0 . 9 0 8 and n=27 and a sample DC-9 f l i g h t 237 was observed f o r 30 days g i v i n g <r-=6.368 and n=30 The assumption of a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n about the scheduled a r r i v a l time was v e r i f i e d : For the -747, f o r 3 degrees of freedom, the chi-square s t a t i s t i c was c a l c u l a t e d to be 4.834 and the tabulated maximum i s 7.815 f o r *=5%. For the DC-9, f o r 3 degrees of freedom, the chi-square s t a t i s t i c was A.^r>9. 91 w20 E H h on P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l S y s tem r-w •a 10 > w E H FIGURE 30 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Be tween two A i r C a n a d a 7 4 7 ' s ^ S c h e d u l e d f o r 95% c o n f i d e n c e A c t u a l CO £ 3 0 co 240 340 P a s s e n g e r L o a d FIGURE ?1 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Be tween two CP AIR 7 4 7 ' s o n P r e s e n t C a r o u s e l S y s t e m 440 y- S c h e d u l e d f o r 95% c o n f i d e n c e S5 EH w 20 pq > S5 10 240 340 P a s s e n g e r L o a d 440 9 2 i o « 53 w EH W « 101 w EH FIGURE 31 S i m u l a t e d A r r i v a l I n t e r v a l s Be tween two 7 4 7 * s and a DC-9 (100 p a s s e n g e r s ) f o r A i r C a n a d a on t h e New C a r o u s e l Sys tem to w £30 "Scheduled f o r confidence r^O A c t u a l 240 340 P a s s e n g e r L o a d 440 93 4-4 CONCLUSIONS T h i s t h e s i s h a s p r o v i d e d a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g s i m u l a t i o n m o d els f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s u b s y s t e m s o f t h e t o t a l a i r t r a n s p o r t w o r l d . B o t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e a i r p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h s i m u l a t i o n . T e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g s a r e a m o r t i z e d o v e r 20 y e a r s . A i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t t o d a y s h o u l d a n t i c i p a t e t h e accommodation o f a i r c r a f t t w i c e t h e s i z e o f t h e B o e i n g 747. T h i s s t u d y has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e v a l u e o f s i m u l a t i o n i n a n a l y s i n g a segment o f t h e a i r p o r t t h r o u g h which l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e p a s s . I t p r o v i d e s a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n needed f o r t h e p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e baggage c l a i m f a c i l i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p o s s i b l e d e n s i t y o f f l i g h t s c h e d u l e s i s p r e s e n t e d . A l s o t h e e f f e c t o f c h a n g i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s o f c o n v e y o r s p e e d and o f u n l o a d i n g r a t e s was d i s c u s s e d . The most i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n c r e a t i n g a s i m u l a t i o n model i s i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n . Hence much e f f o r t i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s i m u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s v a l i d a t i o n . In summary, t h i s model can be an i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n a l t o o l t o answer q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : What w i l l be t h e c o n g e s t i o n due t o c e r t a i n f l i g h t s a r r i v i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r ? How l a r g e a queue w i l l o c c u r w i t h 2 p e o p l e a t t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k p o i n t f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f a 747? What i s t h e e f f e c t o f an a d d i t i o n a l baggage h a n d l e r ( i . e . A c h a n g e i n u n l o a d i n g r a t e ) on baggage d e l i v e r y ? U s i n g t h i s s i m u l a t i o n model i s a g u i c k and i n e x p e n s i v e way t o a s c e r t a i n answers t o t h e s e g u e s t i o n s . 95 5 'FOOTNOTES . 1. F o r t e s c u e , R i c h a r d "Baggage M i s h a n d l i n g a t V a n c o u v e r a i r p o r t " , B.Comm. , T h e s i s , F a c u l t y o f Commerce, DBC, may 1976, p 88. 2. M o u n t j o y , K i m b a l l " a i r p o r t S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l s " AGIFORS 1969. 3. K l i n g e n , L.G. ( E a s t e r n a i r l i n e s ) "A Dynamic S i m u l a t i o n A p p r o a c h S o l v e s P r o b l e m s i n F a c i l i t i e s P l a n n i n g and Adds a New D i m e n s i o n t o C o n v e n t i o n a l C o s t A n a l y s i s " . AGIFORS 1971.., ( w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g n o t e s f r o m a t a l k g i v e n on t h i s a r t i c l e a t t h e 11th AGIFORS Symposium, 1971).,, 4. T r a n s p o r t C anada, P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h Hr. Ken K r a u t e r , December 1976. 5. A i r C anada, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h Mr. B. B a i l l i e , J u n e 17,1977. 6. M e l l i c h a m p , J o s e p h M. And James L. F i l l m e r , " S i m u l a t i o n a n d t h e S u p e r j e t s " . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , -W i n t e r 1973, pp 51-55. 7. L u i , R o g e r s , R a v i n d e r Nanda, James J . Browne, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a s s e n g e r and Baggage P r o c e s s i n g a t J o h n F. Kennedy I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , " I E E E T r a n s a c t i o n s On System, Man And C y b e r n e t i c s ^ V o l . SMC-2 NO. 2, A p r i l 1972, pp~221-225. 8. R o b i n s o n , G e r a l d L. " S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l s f o r E v a l u a t i o n o f A i r p o r t Baggage H a n d l i n g S y s t e m s . " B a t t e l l e M e m o r i a l I n s t i t u t e , Columbus, O h i o , 1969. 9. Lowe, Dana E. "Use o f S i m u l a t i o n i n A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n . " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , November 1974, pp 985-995. 10. G o r d o n , G e o f f r e y , System S i m u l a t i o n P r e n t i c e - H a l l . New J e r s e y , 1969, pp 118-121. 11* A i r Canada Handbook o f S t a n d a r d s . p u b l i s h e d p r i v a t e l y f o r A i r Canada u s e , u p d a t e d 1976. , 96 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY A i r Canada Handbook of Standards, published p r i v a t e l y for A i r Canada use, updated 1976. Gordon, Geoffrey, System Simulation P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New Jersey, 1969, PP 118-121. Fortescue, Richard "Baggage Mishandling at Vancouver A i r p o r t " , B.Comm. Thesis, Faculty of Commerce, UBC, May 1976, p 88. Klingen, L.G. (Eastern A i r l i n e s ) "A Dynamic Simulation Approach Solves Problems i n F a c i l i t i e s Planning and Adds a New Dimension to Conventional Cost Analysis", AGIFORS 1971. (with accompanying notes from a ta l k given on t h i s a r t i c l e at the 11th AGIFORS Symposium, 1971). Lowe, Dana E. "Use of Simulation i n A i r p o r t Planning and Design." Transportation Engineering Journal. November 1974, PP 985-995. L u i , Rogers, Ravinder Nanda, James J . Browne, "International Passenger and Baggage Processing at John F. Kennedy International A i r p o r t . " IEEE Transactions on System. Man And Cybernetics. V o l . SMC-2 No. 2, A p r i l 1972, pp 221-225. Mellichamp, Joseph, M. and James L. F i l l m e r , "Simulation and the Supersets", Transportation Journal. Winter 1973» PP 51-55. Mountjoy, Kimball " A i r p o r t Simulation Models" AGIFORS 1969. Robinson, Gerald L. "Simulation Models for Evaluation of Ai r p o r t Baggage Handling Systems." B a t t e l l e Memorial I n s t i t u t e , Columbus, Ohio, I969. 9 7 APPENDIX A: DISCUSSION OF AIRPORT DATA COLLECTION The d a t a f o r t h e model and f o r t h e v a l i d a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d i n two ways. P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were made on s e v e r a l t r i p s t o t h e a i r p o r t and a l s o f i g u r e s were t a k e n f r o m t h e A i r Canada Handbook of S t a n d a r d s . T h i s handbook i s used by the a i r l i n e t o m a i n t a i n q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s a t e a c h o f i t s o f f i c e s a c r o s s t h e w o r l d . Such v a l u e s as t h e maximum s p e e d o f t h e t r a c t o r s t o w i n g baggage c a r t s and t h e r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g bags have been measured by t h e a i r l i n e s and s e t down i n t h i s handbook., A i r Canada m a i n t a i n s a d a i l y r e c o r d o f t h e l a s t bag a r r i v a l t i m e f o r e a c h f l i g h t . However, t o o b t a i n more v a l i d a t i o n d a t a , p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were made a s shown i n TABLE V I I I . Two p e o p l e o b s e r v e d t h e f l o w s f o r a g i v e n f l i g h t . One p e r s o n met t h e f l i g h t and f o l l o w e d t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o t h e c a r o u s e l , t h e o t h e r p e r s o n f o l l o w e d t h e b a g s down t h e ramp and o b s e r v e d t h e p r o c e s s t a k i n g p l a c e f r o m t h a t a n g l e . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n BLAY o f p r o c e s s i n g t i m e a t t h e p o s i t i v e c l a i m c h e c k p o i n t , d a t a was c o l l e c t e d on t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o match t a g s o f e a c h p a s s e n g e r d e p e n d i n g on how many b a g s were c a r r i e d . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e number o f bags c a r r i e d was n o t an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e . The t i m e t o match t a g s r a n g e d from 1 t o 20 s e c o n d s w i t h a mean o f 4.5 s e c o n d s p e r p e r s o n o v e r 40 o b s e r v a t i o n s . The f u n c t i o n BLAY c o p i e s t h e e m p i r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . 98 APPENDIX B: SUGGESTED AREAS OF FURTHER RESEARCH There are two courses f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . . E i t h e r t h i s model c o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e the deplaning I n t e r n a t i o n a l A r r i v a l s Model {as e x p l a i n e d i n Appendix C) or models o f other areas of the A i r p o r t c o u l d be designed. Examples of models that c o u l d be developed e a s i l y at Vancouver A i r p o r t are: 1. an A i r p o r t Runway Model - to d u p l i c a t e the a r r i v a l s and departures of a i r c r a f t a t an a i r p o r t . I t c o u l d determine runway usage, the extent of ATC d e l a y s , c o n g e s t i o n a t the taxiways and runway c r o s s i n g problems.. 2. a Terminal A i r s i d e Model - t o s i m u l a t e the a r r i v a l s and departures of a i r c r a f t i n t o the t e r m i n a l . Such problems as gate assignment and eguipment a v a i l a b i l i t y would be modeled. 3. an Enplaning Baggage Handling Model - t o i n v e s t i g a t e the b e n e f i t s of c u r b s i d e versus t i c k e t counter c h e c k - i n . , 4. a T i c k e t c o u n t e r Model - t o c a l c u l a t e the number of t i c k e t c o u n t e r s and r e g u i r e d f l o o r s p a c e i n f r o n t of the counters. There are models a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . 5. a Curbside Model - t o c a l c u l a t e the r e g u i r e d amount of c u r b s i d e f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s of t r a f f i c and determine w a i t i n g times and times of v e h i c l e s . 6. an A i r Cargo Model - t o model the t r a n s p o r t of a i r cargo. P r e s e n t l y cargo waits i n c a r t s on the ramp u n t i l space i s a v a i l a b l e on an a i r p l a n e (passengers and baggage have f i r s t p r i o r i t y ) . The r a p i d growth o f a i r cargo may cause o p e r a t i o n a l problems i n t h i s area so an a i r cargo model would be e s p e c i a l l y 99 u s e f u l at t h i s time. I t i s important to n o t i c e that the above suggestions undertake to analyse one p a r t i c u l a r part or operation of the a i r p o r t at a time. Models of the whole a i r p o r t become too cumbersome and expensive t o run, whereas smaller modular s i m u l a t i o n s can he q u i t e inexpensive to run. 100 APPENDIX C: ADDITION OF INTERNATIONAL ftfiSIVALS MODOLE The a d d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e GPSS program t o accommodate I n t e r n a t i o n a l A r r i v a l s a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . The main p r o b l e m i s n o t w i t h program d e s i g n b u t w i t h c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a f o r t h e model. T h e p a s s e n g e r s must e n t e r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l a r r i v a l s a r e a , p a s s t h r o u g h - i m m i g r a t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y and t h e n c o l l e c t •' t h e i r bags and p a s s t h r o u g h a c u s t o m s i n s p e c t i o n . D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f i m m i g r a t i o n and c u s t o m s p r o c e s s i n g t i m e s must be o b t a i n e d . A l t h o u g h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n may be l e n g t h y , t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o add t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e a i r p o r t t o t h e model i s s t r o n g . L o n g gueues o f t e n e x i s t i n t h e c u s t o m s a r e a i f two l a r g e p l a n e s a r r i v e c l o s e t o g e t h e r . Such a model might h e l p c o o r d i n a t e a i r l i n e a nd c u s t o m s o p e r a t i o n s . To add i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r r i v a l s t o t h i s model, much o f t h e p r e s e n t l o g i c c a n be used . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a s s e n g e r s walk a d i f f e r e n t r o u t e and p a s s t h r o u g h a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s . Bags f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a s s e n g e r s p a s s t h r o u g h a d i f f e r e n t c o n v e y o r s y s t e m . However t h e p r e s e n t c a r o u s e l a s s i g n m e n t s e c t i o n c a n be e n l a r g e d w i t h a TEST b l o c k a t l i n e 280 t o s e p a r a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l and d o m e s t i c b a g s . , A s s i g n m e n t c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a s i n g l e SELECTMIN 5,8,9,,V. C a r o u s e l s 8 and 9 would be i n t e r n a t i o n a l . S i m i l a r l y , c o n v e y o r d i s t a n c e s 8 and 9 c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a t r i x CLGTH . The bags c o u l d t h e n be u n l o a d e d n o r m a l l y and p a s s t h r o u g h t h e p r e s e n t baggage s e c t i o n t o w a i t a t t h e MATCH b l o c k u n t i l c o l l e c t e d by t h e p a s s e n g e r . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a s s e n g e r s r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t 101 p r o c e s s i n g s e c t i o n f r o m d o m e s t i c p a s s e n g e r s . However, some o f t h e p r e s e n t l o g i c s u c h as l e a v i n g t h e p l a n e and w a l k i n g t o t h e c a r o u s e l a r e a may s t i l l be u s e d . At l i n e 353 a TEST f o r p a s s a g e t h r o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n c a n be made. I f p o s i t i v e , t h e n an ADVANCE fN$HAIT1 b l o c k w i t h s e r v i c e t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o a c e r t a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n can be e n t e r e d . R e t u r n i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t l o g i c , a t l i n e 354 t h e p a s s e n g e r who i s now t h r o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n c a n c o l l e c t h i s b a g . A g a i n , a TEST f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s i s made a t l i n e 362. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a s s e n g e r s t h e n p a s s t h r o u g h a s e g u e n c e : QDEDE CUSTM ADVANCE FN$WAIT2 DEPART CDSTM ENTER PCLM2 ADVANCE FN5>BL A l LEAVE PCLH2 A r e t u r n t o l i n e 368 t a b u l a t e s t r a n s i t t i m e and t e r m i n a t e s t h e p a s s e n g e r * s p a t h . A P P E N D I X D: FLOWCHART 1 0 3 GENERATE ,,1,350,3,12,H 1 .2 ( ASSIGN ~ J C 2,1 ASSIGN 3 3,350 f ASSIGN j c 4,25 ASSIGN 3 12,2 f ASSIGN "3 (BEGIN % IKK V11 FIFO) Complete Flowchart F i r s t Plane arrives ( ASSIGN } NEXT1 P1=plane type P2=airline P3= i of pass, i n plane P4= gate number P12= # of baggage trucks 1st pass, goes to JaEGIK, otners wa.it u n t i l carousel i s assigned. Restart scan, other pass, enter user chain. 1 (TYP47) Check for 747? (CPA) Which air l i n e ? Choose minimum loaded carousel (NEXT1) CP gets carousel 4 C KSAVEVALUE ) t , ^ i ..tore carousel |ASSKT,1,P4,P5,H| number for output ( F O L L O V11 ALL UNLINK bring forward other passengers I R A N s F E 3> ( F O L L O ) * jA7j,.Carousel Assignment 200 (ST3T) i f less than 200 pass, don't assign 2 carousels cn airline? choose carousel from AC side QKSAVEVALUE^store number 1 —1—'- '-———1 carousel assigned SELECT -K (K0T1) did we choose #1? choose from #2 & #3 Q HSAVE VALUE + | A S S M T , 2 , ? 4 , P T , H ore carousel # fRAN S FE>> (AFTER) B ^ Q we cnoose # 2? (N0T2) V3 (NEG) i s carousel n i less f u l l than #3? Q KSAVEVALUE ~~3 ASSMT,2,P4,K1,K store ?1 (AFTER) > KEG^jij MSAVEVALUE |ASSWT,2,P4,K3.H J store #3 rRANSFEJy> (AFTER) ^. \ y- — Hr 104 N0T2 ^  SELECT \J5,1.2,,Y choose from #1 & n store # CPA CP side chooses MSAVSVALUS ) #3 & #\ AFTER LAMDA 6,FKSARRCT f A S S I G N 3 P6= ^connecting 7,FK»BAG|  ( ASSIGN j P 7 " ' o f b a e s C 8,FNSPLEAS P8- ^business ASSIGN J 5,MHSASSMT(1,P4), KH$ASSMT(2,P4),,V (FOLLO) V11 ALL FOLLO ^assign only one carousel End of Carousel Assignment UNLINK] bring forward other pass. »{5,MHSASSMT(1 tP4)[  ( ASSIGN 3 SPLIT (BAGS) C P7 create xacts B 105 a QUEUE SEIZE P4) wait on plane for exit [ y ^ y enter plane DEPART X5> ADVANCE FNSLVPLN exit leave plane queue time to exit plane RELEASE v y leave plane V exit 2 (OUT) connecting? 0 (OUT) no bags? ADVANCE V$WA1K walk to carousel TABULATE V11| tab pass, tran s i t time to claim area ( MARK "^9; P9 marks passenger 1 " bag wait time ENTER MTCHA MATCH X ADVANCE FNSDLAY LEAVE RE7 TABULATE enter carousel area match passenger with bag(8) remove l a s t bag from carousel leave carousel area tab pass, bag wait time 1 TABULATE QUEUE vVr"1 tab pass. V 5 1 transit time plus bag wait time. POSCI) join positive claim check queue ENTER j ^ c T \ enter claim check storage DEPART POSCI) leave queue ADVANCE FN3BLAY LEAVE OUT Tag match time leave claim check tab total pass, transit time [TERMINATE) 0| passengers leave model 106 Baggage Section of Model A l l bags enter this section for random mix 747 and L-1011 Bags BAGS 10.RN2 ( ASSIGN yandom^number CP AIR ARCAN HOLD plane hold queue FIRST 2 (FIRST) i s i t a 747 or L-1011? P12 baggage trucks Join user chain (ARCAN) (HOLD) I trigger truck pool dummy block does not refuse entry -triggers truck pool wait for gate to be opened by truck ADVANCE 315.30 4.75-5.75 minutes to position equipment SPLIT (LATER) unload at 2 hatches SPLIT P12 LINK P4 10 (CONTU) reserve P12 trucks put parent xact on user chain with other bags LATER ADVANCE 210,30 (SEQ2) 3-4 minutes to unload each ULD pair UNLINK (NONE) ,w unhook 100| _ bags from user chain i f they are .there (LATER) go back to unload more ULD's a l l ULD's with bags are unloaded leave plane hold queue ADVANCE V12 drive to conveyor (JOIN) Join path of regular bags 1 0 ? ( SAVEVALUE 3 PGATE > p4,H| communicate (_ SAVEVALUE J parameters to baggage truck pool section -PCASL,P5,H ( SAVEVALUE ) ONHND c 13,?K^CAPCY ASSIGN W3CPAIR PLTYP.P1,H .,< C SAVEVALUE ) LOGIC ^ p|] close gate 19 again Li,iU-II»AlSj OJ truck triggering xacts leave model Pools of Baggage Trucks ONE / GENERATE) ,,,17,0,6 ) provide 17 AC baggage tractors truck ID # ACWT capacity 140+10 bags J (4 tubs ) -wait u n t i l AC plane arrives at block ARCAN (BLOKB) provide 10 CP M10,0,6, j baggage trucks \ 6.N3TWO} / A S S I G N - ) assign truck ID # — t z r _ _ _ BLOKB "\ capacity J85+! 5^ bags 0 wait u n t i l EEST / ^ P^-8-116 arrives at block CPAIR ENTER | / i r \ busy status LOGIC 19 open gate 1? PRIORITY BUFFER c restart scan, bring trigger xact thru "assign" blocks • 1 , XH&PLTYPI ASSIGN 3 2.XHSAIRLN ASSIGN c 4 , X H S P G A T E | D assigning relevant parameters communicated thru SAVEVALUES ASSIGN 3 5.XHSPCASL ASSIGN 2 (PLN47) i s i t a 74V or L-1011? GOON ADVANCE FNSOFFLD SAVEVALUE ) unload bag communicate OPEN.PfrHJtruck ID to bag (SEQ1) P4 K1 UNLINK] (LDUP) LOOP LDUP unload another bag i f plane not empty else go to LDUP Go back unload another bag i f truck not fuJ,J, LOGIC, P6 open P6 gate 108 V20 LOGIC ADVANCE 300 CH*4 / G wait to drive truck to conveyor close gate V20 on next truck delay 5 minutes to unload truck (NBUSY) PLN47 NBUSY ADVANCE 1420,420 i f more bags are on plane return else go to NBUSY (GOON) 747's use trucks for 15-30 minutes LEAVE leave busy status PRIORITY reset PR (ACWT) 'RANSFER? (ONHND) return AC and CP trucks to correct pools Path of Rap-ular Bags F _ i S E Q 1 'DEPART j Q J leave plane hold queue 12.XH80PEN with truck ID . reassign P12 P12 wait for truck to be loaded PRIORITY BUFFER Bring bags thru gate P12 LOGIC P12| close gate P12 ADVANCE V12 drive to conveyor LOGIC [V2151 R [—-I open truck release gate JOIN * 747 bags Join here ENTER /^30\ seize unloading J" employee ADVANCE FNSCONLD I bag unload time LEAVE~ j\V30/ release employee 1 (OUT) ENTER /V40\ ADVANCE V13 storage move on conveyor to carousel LEAVE M[4Q/ leave conveyor 109 TABULATE "v6T[ tab bag transit time ( MARK "TTTj start timing 1 bag wait 1— ENTER /V2*C\ enter carousel storage ,GATH" gather bags of each passenger together TABULATE tab time for a l l bags of each pass, to arrive LEAVE |\V20/ leave carousel storage ASSEMBLE MTCHB combine bags of 1 pass, into 1 xact MATCH TABULATE match bags with passenger tab tota l of bag waiting time + bag transit time tab bag wait time only TERMINATE) 0 bags leave model Timer Segment run model for 3 hours decrease termination counter by 1 A P P E N D I X E : L I S T I N G I ' ' * * * G P S S V - M I S V E R S I O N * * IBM PROGRAM PRODUCT 5 7 3 4 - X S 2 ( V 1 M 4 ) * * * SXA.I.EM.E.NI. R E A L L O C A T E B L 0 . 1 7 5 , o F A I a nr.AT F 01 I F . i i n . F A C , 3 2 , F U N , 5 1 , L O G , 3 0 , F M S , 1 , H M S , 4 Q T n . 4 7 . F W . 1 .HSV. 7.TAR .R3? . C H A • 132 NUMBER 1 ? R E A L L O C A T E V A R , 8 1 , B V R , 1 , X A C , 5 0 0 0 , C O M , 2 8 2 0 0 0 BLOCK M I I M R P Q -*i nr nPFRATTON A . R . C . D. E . F , G , H . I COMMENTS _ 3 STATEMENT NUMBER S I M U L A T E 4 5 p^ * V A R I A B L E S IN MODEL b 1 * V A R I A B L E Q 1 0 1 + S 2 1 BAGS IN P L A N E QUEUE + BAGS IN 7 8 9 * 2 3 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E Q102+S22 Q103+S23 CAROUSEL 10 11 12 4 5 6 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E Q104+S24 Q 105+S25 Q106+S26 13 14 15 7 V A R I A B L E Q107+S27 16 17 UIA1 K FVAR I ARii F MH*ni< ;Ti fP*> .P4J /FNAVFt . D I S T A N C E FROM GATE TO 18 * C A R O U S E L ( F T . ) / ' W A L K I N G : SPEED OF PASSENGER ( F T / S E C ) = T I M E i S E C J 19 20 =P FV A R T A F W F M H £ D F G T C ( P 5 , P 4 ) / 5 . 0 D I S T A N C E FROM GATE TO 21 * CONVEYOR ( F t T / A V G S P E E D OF CART ( 3 . 4 MPH) = T I M E ( S E C ) 13 F V A R I A B L E M H $ £ L G T H ( 1 , P 5 ) / 1 . 6 7 CONVEYOR LENGTH ( F T } / * C D C F H nc rnKiWFv.nft l i n n FT/MTN) = TTMF 1 S F C ) 22 23 24 10 20 30 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E P 5 + 1 0 0 P5+20 P5+30 THESE V A R I A B L E S ARE USED FOR I N D I R E C T A D D R E S S I N G DF STORAGES AND QUEUES AND F A C I L I T I E S 25 26 2.1 40 50 60 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E P5+40 P5+50 P 5 + 60 28 29 oO 70 * i 1 V A R I A B L E P 5 + 70 31 32 V A R I A B L E P4+10G THESE V A R I A B L E S ARE USED 3.3 21 31 41 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E VAR I ABL E P4+200 P 4 + 3 0 0 P 4 + 4 0 0 TO S P E C I F Y T A B L E # 34 35 *f> 51 61 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E P 4 + 5 0 0 P 4 + 6 C 0 37 38 39 81 V A R I A B L E P4+800 41 ft M A T R I X SAVFVAilJES 42 * DI ST •MATRIX H i 7 , 3 2 D I S T A N C E S FROM CAROUSELS TO GATES 43 44 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K l t l J M H11 4 , 1 ) M H K 7 , 1 ) , 3 9 5 / M H H 2 , 1) , 4 0 3 / M H K 3 , 1 ) , 4 4 0 , 4 8 5 / M H U 5 , 1 ) , 6 5 0 / M H H 6 , 1 ) , 6 0 5 , 5 7 5 / M H K l , 2 i f 5 2 5 / M H 1 ( 2 , 2 ) . 5 3 3 46 47 48 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 1 < 3 , 2 ) M H K 6 , 2.) M H 1 ( 2 , 3 ) , 5 7 0 / M H K 4 , 2 ) , 6 1 5 / M H 1 ( 5 »2 ) , 7 8 0 , 7 3 5 / M H 1 ( 7 , 2 ) , 7 0 5 / M H K 1,3} , 5 8 0 49 50 51 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 5 , 3.) MH1 { 1 ,4!) M H 1 ( 4 , 4 ) , 8 3 5 / M H K 6 , 3 ) . 7 9 0 / M H 1 I 7 , 3 ) , 7 6 0 , 7 1 5 / M H K 2 , 4 ) , 7 2 3 / M H U 3 , 4 } , 7 6 0 , 8 0 5 / M H K 5 . 4 3 . 9 7 0 / M H K 6 , 4 ) , Q ? 5 52 5 3 54 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H I ( 7 , 4 3 , 8 9 5 / M H K 1 , 5 ) , 7 6 0 / M H l ( 2 , 5 3 , 7 6 8 M H I 1 3 , 5 3 , 8 0 5 / M H I ( 4 , 5 ) , 8 5 0 / M H l { 5 , 5 ) , 1 0 1 5 J ! t L U J 5 u L 5 J L ^ 55 56 5 7 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MHH 2 , 6 3 , 8 9 8 / M H K 3 , 6 ) , 9 3 5 / M H K 4 , 63 , 9 8 0 M H 1 < 5 , 6 ) , 1 1 4 5 / M H 1 { 6 , 6 ) , 1 1 0 0 / M H I ( 7 , 6 3 , 1 0 7 0 M H l t 1 , 7 3 , 9 4 0 / M H U ? . 7 3 . 9 4 8 / M H 1 ( 3 . 7 3 , 9 8 5 58 59 60 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MHI ( 4 , 7 ) , 103 0 / M H H 5 , 7 ) , 1 1 9 5 / M H 1 ( 6 , 73 , 1 1 5 0 M H l t 7 , 7 3 , 1 1 2 0 / M H K 1 , 83 , 9 4 0 / M H K 2 , 8 ) , 9 4 8 61 62 63 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H I 1 6 , 8 ) , 1 1 5 0 / M H 1 ( 7 , 8 3 , 1 1 2 0 / M H I ( 1 , 9 ) , 9 4 0 M H 1 1 2 , 9 ) , 9 4 8 / M H I ( 3 , 9 3 , 9 8 5 / M H K 4 , 9 ) , 1 0 3 0 M H I 1 5 , 9 3 , 1 1 9 5 / M H I ( 6 , 9 3 , 1 1 5 0 7 M H 1 ( 7 , 9 3 , 1 120 6 4 65 66 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 1, 103 , 3 6 0 / M H K 2 , 103 , 3 6 8 / M H I ( 3 , 1 0 ) , 4 0 5 M H U 4 , 1 0 ) , 4 5 0 / M H K 5 , 10 ) , 6 1 5 / M H K 6 , 103 , 5 7 0 M H I < 7 , 1 0 ) , 5 4 0 / M H l ( 1 , 123 , 5 6 0 / M H 1 ( 2 , 12 3 , 568 6 7 6 8 6 9 IN I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H U 3 , 123 , 6 0 5 / M H I ( 4 , 123 , 6 5 0 / M H l j 5 , 1 2 3 , 8 1 5 M H I ( 6 , 1 2 ) , ? 7 0 / M H K 7 , 1 2 ) , 7 4 0 / M H K 1 , 1 3 3 , 6 1 0 M H I ( 2 , 1 3 3 , 6 1 8 / M H l ( 3 , 13 3 , 6 5 5 / M H 1 < 4 , 1 3 3 . 7 0 5 70 71 7 2 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H U 5 , 1 3 ) , 8 6 5 / M H U 6 , 1 3 ) , 8 2 0 / M H 1 ( 7 , 1 3 3 , 7 9 0 M H K 1 , 2 0 3 , 7 3 8 / M H 1 ( 2 , 2 0 3 , 7 6 8 / M H l ( 3 , 2 0 3 , 7 3 8 M j H J L L 4 j t 2 0 i , 7 2 3 / M H l < 5 f 2 0 ) , 4 9 8 / M H l 1 6 , 2 0 3 , 5 4 3 73 74 75 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 7 , 2 0 3 , 5 8 8 / M H K 1, 213 , 7 5 0 / M H 1 ( 2 , 2 1 3 , 7 8 0 M H 1 < 3 , 2 1 ) , 7 5 0 / M H l < 4 , 2 1 ) , 7 3 5 / M H 1 ( 5 , 2 1 ) , 5 1 0 M H K 6 , 2 1 ) , 5 5 5 / M H K 7 , 2 1 ) » 5 4 0 / M H 1 11 , 2 2 3 , 9 3 0 76 77 78 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 2 , 22 3 , 9 6 0 / M H K 3 , 223 , 9 3 0 / M H 1 ( 4 , 2 2 3 , 9 1 5 M H I ( 5 , 2 2 ) , 6 9 0 / M H U 6 , 2 2 3 , 7 3 5 / M H l i 7 , 2 2 3 , 7 8 0 M M J L L L L 2 J L J J L 2 3 J 0 / M H I ( 2 , 2 3 3 , 9 6 0 / M H 1 ( 3 , 2 3 1 , 9 3 0 79 80 8 1 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L IN ITT Al M H I ( 4 , 2 3 ) , 9 1 5 / M H I ( 5 , 2 3 3 , 6 9 0 / M H 1 < 6 , 2 3 ) , 735 M H I ( 7 , 2 3 3 , 7 8 0 / M H K 1 , 2 4 ) , 1 1 0 0 / M H 1 ( 2 , 2 4 ) , 1 1 3 0 M H U 3 , 2 4 ) , 1 1 0 0 / M H . l f 4 . 2 4 J . 1 0 8 5 / M H K 5 , 7 4 3 . 8 6 0 82 83 84 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MHI ( 6 , 2 4 ) , 9 0 5 / M H H 7 , 2 4 3 , 9 5 0 / M H U l , 2 5 3 , 1 1 1 0 M H U 2 , 2 5 ) , 1 1 4 0 / M H H 3 , 2 5 3 , 1 1 1 0 / M H i ( 4 , 2 5 ) , I 095 M H l . 1 5 . , 2 5 1 , 8 7 0 / M H K 6 , 2 5 3 , 9 1 5 / M H K 7 , 2 5 ) , 9 6 0 85 86 8 7 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 1 , 2 6 3 » 1 1 9 0 / M H I {2 , 2 6 3 , 1 2 2 0 / M H I ( 3 , 2 6 3 , 1 1 9 6 M H U 4 , 2 6 ) , 1 1 7 5 / M H K 5 , 2 6 3 , 9 5 0/MH 1 ( 6 , 2 6 ) , 9 9 5 M H 1 ( 7 , 2 6 ) , 1 0 4 0 / M H K 1 . 2 7 1 . 1 1 5 0 / M H 1 l ? * 7 7 1.13 8 0 88 89 9 0 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 3 , 2 7 ) , 1 1 5 0 / M H 1 ( 4 , 2 7 ) , 1 1 3 5 / M H 1 ( 5 , 2 7 ) , 9 1 0 M H U 6 , 2 7 ) , 9 5 5 / M H K 7 , 2 7 ) , 1 0 0 0 / M H 1 ( 1 , 303 , 6 3 5 MH1.I.2 ,3 .0 ) . . J .665/MHl . i3 . T J0.1 . . ,635/MHi ( 4 , 3 0 ) , 6 2 0 91 92 93 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 5 , 3 0 ) , 3 9 5 / M H l ( 6 , 3 0 ) , 4 4 0 / M H 1 ( 7 , 3 0 ) , 4 8 5 M H K . 1 , 32 3, 8 9 0 / M H I ( 2 , 3 2 3 , 9 2 0 / M H 1 < 3 , 3 2 3 , 8 9 0 M H K 4 . 3 2 3 . 8 7 5 / M H 1 1 5 . 3 2 ) , 6 5 0 / M H l ( 6 , 3 2 ) . 6 9 5 9 4 95 9 6 I N I T I A L M H K 7 , 3 2 3 , 7 4 0 97 O F G T C M A T R I X H » . 7 , 3 2 D I S T A N C E FROM G A T E S T O C O N V E Y O R A R E A 98 9 9 * I N I T I A L I N I T I A L BY C A R T M H 2 ( 1 , 1 3 , 2 5 0 / M H 2 ( 2 — 4 , 1 3 , 2 0 0 7 M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 1 3 , 3 0 0 MH2( 1 , 2 ) , 3 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 2 3 . 3 0 0 / M H 2 I 5 - 7 , 2 ) , 4 6 0 1 0 0 101 102 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L IN I T I A L M H 2 U , 3 ) , 4 O 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 3 3 , 4 0 0 / M H 2 <.5-7, 33 , 5 0 0 M H 2 < 1 , 4 3 , 4 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 4 3 , 4 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 4 ) , 5 0 0 MJH21JL. t5 ) , 5 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 5 3 , 5 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 5 3 , 5 0 0 103 1 0 4 105 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 2 { 1 , 6 ) , 5 4 0 / M H 2 { 2 - 4 , 6 ) , 5 4 O 7 M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 6 ) , 6 4 0 M H 2 1 l , 7 3 , 6 4 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 7 3 , 6 4 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 7 3 , 6 4 0 M H 2 1 l , 8 i ) , 7 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 8 ) , 7 0 0 / M H ? { 5 - 7 , 8 3 , 7 0 0 106 107 108 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 1 , 9 ) , 7 O 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 9 ) , 7 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 9 ) , 7 5 0 M H 2 ( 1 , 1 0 ) , 5 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 1 0 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 1 0 ) , 8 4 0 M . H . 2 ^ ( 2 - 4 , 12 3 , 9 5 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 12 3 , 1 1 4 0 1 0 9 1 1 0 111 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MH2 ( 1, 133 , 9 0 07MH2 ( 2 -4'•, 13 ji , 1 1 6 6 / M H2 ( 5 - 7 , 1 3 . ) , 1 3 0 6 MH2( 1,2 0) , 3 0 0 / M H 2 { 2 - 4 , 2 0 3 . 2 5 0 / M H 2 I 5 - 7 , 2 0 ) ,2 00 MH2 ( 1 , 2 1 3 , 4 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 2 1 ) , 3 50/M H2 ( 5 - 7 . 2 1 ) , 3 0 0 112 113 114 4 113 I N I T I A L MH2< 1 , 2 2 ) , 4 0 C / M H 2 l 2 ~ 4 , 2 2 ) , 3 5 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 2 2 ) , 3 0 0 I N I T I A L M H 2 U , 2 3 ) , 5 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 2 3 ) , 5 0 0 / M H 2 { 5 - 7 , 2 3 ) , 4 5 0 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( . 1 , 24 ).,.5Q0/.MH I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 1 , 2 5 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 2 5 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 2 5 ) , 6 0 0 I N I T I A L M H 2 U , 2 6 3 , 6 0 0 / M H 2 i 2 - 4 , 2 6 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 2 6 ) , 6 0 0 I N I T I A L MH2I 1 . 2 7 ) . 6 5 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 . 2 7 ) . 6 5 0 / M H 2 { 5 - 7 . 2 7 ) . 6 5 0 115 116 i l l 118 1 1 9 120 I N I T I A L MH2I 1, 3 0 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 2 - 4 , 3 0 ) , 6 0 0 / M H 2 ( 5 - 7 , 3 0 ) , 5 0 0 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 1 , 3 2 ) , 6 5 0 / M H 2 i 2 - 4 , 3 2 ) , 6 5 0 / M H 2 I 5 - 7 , 3 2 ) , 5 5 0 C L G T H M A T R I X H , 1 , 7 CONVE..YQ.R L E N G T H S T O LAR.QUS.E.LS. -I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 1 , 1 ) , 3 5 / M H 3 ( 1 , 2 j , 1 8 0 / M H 3 ( 1 , 3 ) , 165 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 1 , 4 ) , 180/MH.3 ( 1 , 5 ) , 2 1 0 / M H 3 J 1 , 6 ) , 2 1 0 I N I T I A L M H 3 < 1 . 7 1 . 1 8 0  ASSMT M A T R I X H , 2 , 3 2 S A V E V A L U E S OF C A R O U S E L S A S S I G N E D TO E A C H F L I G H T A C C O R D I N G TO G A T E S T O R A G E S IN MODEL 121 122 .123.... 124 1 2 5 1 2 6 1 2 7 1 2 8 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 131 132 S T O R A G E S l - S 7 , 5 0 0 P5 S T O R A G E : SHOWS # OF P E O P L E A T C A R O U S E L •* S T O R A G E S 2 1 - S 2 7 , 3 0 0 C A P A C I T Y OF B A G G A G E C A R O U S E L ( C O N T E N T S NOT T R U E R E F L E C T I O N D U E TO ' A S S E M B L E * B L O C K )  S T O R A G E S 3 1 - S 3 7 , 2 U N L O A D I N G E M P L O Y E E ( S ) S J G R A G E S 4 1 - S 4 J . . , 2 5 C O N V E Y O R C APAC.I T I.ES... S T O R A G E E M P L O Y E E ! S ) A T +VE C L A I M C H K P T 133 134 13 5... 1 3 6 137 138 139 140 .1.4.1... 1 4 2 143 144 S T O R A G E 2 7 P A R A M E T E R S I N m O E L * P I = P L A N E T Y P E 1 = 7 4 7 t 2 = L - 1 0 1 1 3 = D C - 1 0 4 = 0 T H E R 145 146 ...1.4.7.. 148 1 4 9 1 5 0 * P2 = A I R L I N E 1=A IR CANADA 2 = C P A I R * P3 = # C F P A S S E N G E R S IN P L A N E GROUP * P 4 = G A T E NUMBER 151 1 5 2 .1.5.3 1 5 4 155 156 * P5 = C A R O U S E L A S S I G N E D * P 6 = 1 = A R R I V I N G , 2 = C 0 N N E C T I N G * P 7 = # OF B A G S / P A S S .  * P8 = E B U S I N E S S , 2 = V A C A T I O N * P 9 = BAG W A I T I N G T I M E PER P A S S E N G E R * P 1 0 = RANDOM NUMBER A S S I G N E D TO B A G G A G E 1 5 7 158 ...159... 1 6 0 161 162 * P l l = BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L (=MAXIMUM T I M E U N T I L * A L L BAGS OF 1 P A S S E N G E R A R R I V E AND A R E M A T C H E D * W ITH P A S S E N G E R )  * P12 = # GF B A G G A G E T R U C K S A S S I G N E D T O P L A N E * ( M I N I M U M 2 FOR R E G U L A R F L I G H T , 3 FOR A 7 4 7 ) 163 164 165. 1 6 6 167 1 6 8 T A B L E S IN MODEL 112 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 P A S S E N G E R T R A N S I T T I M E * TO C L A I M AREA 2 1 2 T A B L E M P 9 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 P A S S . BAG W A I T I N G T I M E .312 T A B L E M l , 3 0 3 0 , 1 2 0 P AS S ENGER TR.ANS.I.I T I M E .+ P A S S . " * B A G W A I T I N G T I M E 4 1 2 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T O T A L P A S S E N G E R T R A N S I T * T I M E ( I N C L U D I N G P O S I T I V E C L A I M f.K 1 6 9 1 7 0 ' ...17.1... 172 1 7 3 1 7 4 512 T A B L E M 1 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 .612 T A B L E M 1.^.30 , 3 0 , 1 2 Q. 7 1 2 812 T A B L E T A B L E M P H , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . T O A R R I V E AT C A R O U S E L BAG I RAN.S.II T I M E I D CARQUS E L J i i L BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L T O T A L O F BAG W A I T I N G T I M E + BAG T R A N S I T T I M F  1 7 5 176 i l l . . . 178 1 7 9 180 1 1 3 T A B L E 2 1 3 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , M P 9 , 3 C 3 0 , , 3 0 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . , 1 2 0 BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L 181 182 183 3 1 3 T A B L E 4 1 3 T A B L E 5 1 3 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , M l , 3 0 , M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L B A G S OF A P A S S . 12 0 T I M E F O R A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . 1 8 4 185 186 6 1 3 T A B L E 7 1 3 T A B L E 8 1 3 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L B A G S OF A P A S S . M P 1 1 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L ...M 1 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L B A G S OF A P A S S . 1 8 7 1 8 8 189 1 0 4 T A B L E 2 0 4 T A B L E 3 0 4 T A B L E M l , . 3 0 , M P 9 , 3 0 M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , , 3 0 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E F O R A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . , 1 2 0 BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L B A G S OF A P A S S . 1 9 0 191 192 4 0 4 T A B L E 5 0 4 T A B L E 6 0 4 T A B L E M l , 3 0 , M l , 3 0 , M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E F O R A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . 1 2 0 T I M E F O R A L L BAGS OF A P A S S . 193 1 9 4 1 9 5 7 0 4 T A B L E 8 0 4 T A B L E * F U N C T I O N S I N M P 1 1 , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 BAG W A I T I N G T I M E AT C A R O U S E L M l , 3 0 , 3 0 , 1 2 0 T I M E FOR A L L B A G S OF A P A S S . MODEL 196 197 198 A R R C T F U N C T I O N 4 , F N 2 0 / 1 2 , F N 2 0 / 1 3 P 4 , E3 , F N 2 1 A R R I V I N G OR C O N N E C T I O N { D E P E N D S ON P L A N E AT P A R T I C U L A R G A T E } 199 2 0 0 2 0 1 •* 2 0 F U N C T I O N . 9 0 , 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 R N 2 , D 2 1= ARR I V ING 2 = C 0 N N E C T I 0 N 2 0 2 2 0 3 2 0 4 2 1 F U N C T I O N . 9 0 0 , 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 R N 2 , D 2 D I T T O 2 0 5 2 0 6 * 2 0 7 BAG F U N C T I O N 1 , F N 3 0 / 2 , F N 3 1 3 0 F U N C T I O N P 8 , E2 RN2.D.5 # OF B A G S D E P E N D S ON B U S I N E S S OR P L E A S U R E B A G S / B U S I N E S S P A S S . 2 0 8 2 0 9 2 1 0 . 0 8 9 , 0 / . 6 U , 1 / . 9 3 5 , 2 7 . 9 8 4 , 3 / 1 . 0 , 4 3 1 F U N C T I O N R N 2 , D 5 B A G S / V A C A T I O N E R . Q . 4 3 , 0 / , 6 2 4 , 1 / . 9 5 2 , 2 / . 9 9 6 , 3 / 1 . 0 , 4 211 2 1 2 2 1 3 * P L E A S F U N C T I O N 4 , F N 4 0 / 1 2 , F N 4 0 / 1 3 P 4 , E 3 , F N 4 1 P L E A S U R E , V A C A T I O N R A T I O D E P E N D S C N P A R T I C U L A R F L I G H T 2 1 4 2 1 5 2 1 6 4 0 F U N C T I O N . 5 , 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 4 1 F U N C T I O N R N 2 , D 2 R N 2 , D 2 1 = B U S I N E S S 2 = P L E A S U R E D I T T O 2 1 7 2 1 8 2 1 9 . 5 , 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 * L V P L N F U N C T I O N P 2 , E 2 T I M E TO E X I T P L A N E D E P E N D S ON P L A N E T Y P F 2 2 0 221 2 2 2 3 , F N 5 0 / 4 , F N 5 1 5 0 F U N C T I O N . 9 6 5 , 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 R N 2 , D 2 F A S T E R E X I T T I M E ON 7 4 7 , L - 1 0 1 1 L D C - 1 0 . 2 DOORS A V A I L A B L E , E A C H 2 2 3 2 2 4 51 F U N C T I O N . 0 5 , 1 / . 8 3 1 , 2 / 1 . 0 , R N 3 , D 3 3 AT 2 9 P A S S / M I N OR 1 P A S S / 2 . 0 6 9 S E C R E G U L A R P L A N E E X I T T I M E A V G . 1 P A S S . E V E R Y 2 . 0 6 9 S E C 2 2 6 2 2 7 22 8 * V E L F U N C T I O N RN2 .0 .5 . 0 1 , 1 / . 2 5 , 2 / . 6 0 , 3 / . 9 8 , 4 / 1 . 0 , P A S S . WALK ING S P E E D D I S T ' N r..5 2 2 9 2 3 0 0 , 3 / 1 , 5 0 RN2tC2 T I M E TO REMOVE BAGS FROM C A R O U S E L V A R I E S U N I F O R M L Y 8 E T W E E N 1 - 5 0 S E C ( P E R I O D OF 1 R E V . OF C A R O U S E L ) 2 3 2 2 3 3 ? 3 4 BLAY F U N C T I O N R N 2 , D 7 T I M E TO MATCH B A G G A G E T A G S A T C H E C K P T 23 5 . 1 2 5 t l / . 2 5 , 2 / . 5 8 , 3 / . 7 0 5 , 4 / . 8 3 , 5 / . 9 5 5 , 7 . / 1 . 0 , 18 2 3 6 * 2 3 7 O F F L D F U N C T I O N R N 2 , 0 2 CDF FOR U N L O A D I N G BAGS FROM P L A N E 23 8 . 5 , 7 / 1 . 0 , 8 A V G . 7 . 5 S E C / B A G 2 3 9 * 2 4 0 J C O N L D F U N C T I O N R N 5 , D 3 U N L O A D I N G BAGS FROM 2 4 1 < . 3 3 , 5 / . 6 7 , 6 / 1 . 0 , 7 C A R T TO C O N V E Y O R A V G . 6 S E C / B A G 2 4 2 2 4 3 C A P C Y F U N C T I O N R N 4 , C 2 RANDOM A S S I G N M E N T OF 2 4 4 0 , 8 0 / 1 . 0 , 9 1 T R U C K C A P A C I T Y 8 0 - 9 0 BAGS 2 4 5 2 4 6 A C C A P F U N C T I O N R N 5 , C 2 C A P A C I T Y OF AC T R U C K S 2 4 7 0 , 1 3 0 / 1 . 0 , 1 5 1 T R U C K C A P A C I T Y 1 3 0 - 1 5 0 BAGS C4 T U B S ) 2 4 8 2 4 9 * MODEL L O G I C B E G I N S 2 5 0 2 5 1 2 5 2 * P L A N E T R A N S A C T I O N S A R E E N T E R E D I N T H E MODEL U S I N G 2 5 3 * " G E N E R A T E " B L O C K S IN THE FORM B E L O W : 2 5 4 * G E N E R A T E A , B , C , D , E , F 2 5 5 * A = 0 2 5 6 * B = 0 2 5 7 * C = T I M E 1 S T P L A N E O F T H A T T Y P E IS TO A R R I V E 2 5 8 * AND NO P L A N E S CAN A R R I V E C L O S E R T H A N 1 SEC TO 2 5 9 * E A C H O T H E R . 2 6 0 * D = # OF P A S S E N G E R S TO A R R I V E ON P L A N E 2 6 1 * E = 3 S T A R T WITH P R I O R I T Y 3 2 6 2 * F = 12 P A R A M E T E R S 2 6 3 * G = H , HALFWORD P A R A M E T E R S 2 6 4 * F O L L O W E D BY 3 " A S S I G N " B L O C K S TO D E F I N E P A R A M E T E R S 2 6 5 * 1 ,3 AND 4 J T H E N A " T R A N S F E R , A A A " I S N E E D E D TO 2 6 6 * E N T E R THE MODEL P R O P E R . 2 6 7 * 2 6 8 1 G E N E R A T E , , 1 , 3 0 0 , 3 , 1 2 , H P L A N E AT T = l 2 6 9 2 A S S I G N 1,K1 P l = P L A N E T Y P E 2 7 0 .3 A S S I G N 2 , K 2 P 2 = A I R L I N E 1=A IR CANADA 2=CP A I R 2 7.1 4 A S S I G N 3 , K 3 0 C P3=# OF P A S S . I N P L A N E GROUP 2 7 2 5 A S S I G N 4 , K 1 2 P 4 = G A T E NUMBER ( 1 < P 4 < 3 2 3 2 73 * U N I Q U E , I E . ONLY 1 P L N / G A T E 2 7 4 6 A S S I G N 1 2 , K 2 P 1 2 = # OF B A G G A G E T R U C K S A S S I G N E D 2 75 * ? 7 6 7 AAA L I N K V l l , F I F O , B E G I N 1ST P A S S . GOES TO B E G I N , 2 7 7 * O T H E R S WAIT U N T I L G A T E 2 7 8 * IS A S S I G N E D . 2 7 9 8 B E G I N P R I O R I T Y 2 , B U F F E R O T H E R P A S S . E N T E R USER C H A I N 2 8 0 9 T E S T NE P 1 , 1 , T Y P 4 7 C H E C K FOR 7 4 7 ? 2 8 1 10 S T R T T E S T E P 2 , 1 , C P A NOT 7 4 7 , BUT WHICH F I N G E R ? 2 8 2 11 S E L E C T M I N 5 , 1 , 3 , , V C H O O S E MINIMUM L O A D E D C A R O U S E L 2 8 3 12 T R A N S F E R , N E X T 1 2 8 4 * 2 8 5 13 C P A A S S I G N 5 , K 4 C P A I R S I D E U S E S C A R O U S E L 4 ONLY 2 86 * 2 8 7 14 N E X T 1 M S A V E V A L U E A S S M T , 1 , P 4 , P 5 , H S T O R E C A R O U S E L # 2 8 8 15 U N L I N K V l l , F O L L O , A L L B R I N G FORWARD O T H E R P A S S . 2 8 9 1 6 T R A N S F E R , F O L L O 2 9 0 2 9 1 * T H I S S E C T I O N IS FOR A S S I G N I N G C A R O U S E L S TO 7 4 7 « S 2 9 2 f 2 9 3 1 7 T Y P 4 7 T E S T GE P 3 , 2 0 0 , S T R T I F < 2 0 0 P A S S . D O N ' T A S S I G N 2 9 4 2 CAROUSELS 295 18 TEST E P 2 , 1 , C P A 2 WHICH FINGER? 296 19 SELECTMIN 5 , 1 , 3 , tV AIR CANADA SIDE 297 20 MSAVE VALUE A S S M T , 1 , P 4 » P 5 , H ASSIGN 2 CAROUSELS FROM 298 21 TEST E P5 ,K1,N0T1 #1, #2, AND #3 299 22 SELECTMIN 5 , 2 . 3 , ,V 3 00 j 23 M SAVE VALUE A S S M T , 2 , P 4 , P 5 , H 301 < 24 * TRANSFER , AFTER 302 303 25 NOT1 TEST E P5 ,K2 ,NCT2 304 26 TEST L V 1 , V 3 , N E G 3 05 27 MSAVEVALUE ASSMT,2 , P 4 , K 1 . H 3 06 28 TRANSFER ,AFTER 307 29 NEG MS AV EVALUE A S S M T , 2 , P 4 , K 3 , H 308 30 TRANSFER ,AFTER 309 31 NGT2 SELECT MIN 5 , 1 , 2 , , V 310 311 32 MSAVEVALUE A S S M T , 2 , P 4 , P 5 , H 312 33 TRANSFER , AFTER 313 34 * CPA2 MSAVE VALUE A S S M T , 1 , P 4 , K 4 , H 314 315 35 MSAVEVALUE A S S M T , 2 , P 4 , K 3 , H CP SIDE, ASSIGN #3 £ #4 316 36 * AFTER ASSIGN 5,MH$ASSMT(2,P43 317 318 37 * * TEST L V*5 ,280 ,USLSS CHECK THAT 2ND CAROUSEL ASSIGNED HAS < 280 BAGS IN ITS SYSTEMj IF NOT, NO SENSE 319 320 i * DIVIDING PASSENGERS AMONG 2 CAROUSELS 322 38 UNLINK V l l , B E T A , A L L BRING FORWARD OTHER PASS. ' 323 39 BETA TRANSFER .5,GAMMA,DELTA DIVIDE PASS. AMONG 2 CAROUSE! S 374 40 GAMMA ASSIGN 5 , M H $ A S S M T U , P 4 ) 32 5 41 TRANSFER , LAMDA 326 42 DELTA ASSIGN 5,MH$ASSMT{2 aP4) 327 43 TRANSFER ,LAMDA 32 8 44 * USLSS SELECT MIN 5,MH$ASSMT(1,P43.MH$ASSMT{7.P4) . .V MAKE SURE YOU 329 330 i * HAVE THE SHORTEST 331 1 * CAROUSEL LINEUP. 332 ; 45 UNLINK V l l , F O L L O , A L L BRING FORWARD OTHER PASS. 333 46 FOLLO ASSIGN 5 ,MH$ASSMTU,P4 3 334 47 LAMDA ASSIGN 6 ,FN $ A RRC T P6=l ARRIVING, P6=2 CONNECTING 33 5 48 ASSIGN 7,FN$8AG P7=# OF BAGS OF P A S S . 33 6 49 ASSIGN 8,FN$PLEAS P8=l BUSINESS, P8=2 VACATION 337 50 SPLIT P7,BAGS CREATE BAG XACTS; SEND TO "BAGS" 338 i * PASSENGER SECTION OF MODEL 340 341 34? 51 PAXR QUEUE P4 QUEUE OF PEOPLE ON PLANE AT GATE P4 343 52 SEI ZE P4 ENTER EXIT AT GATE P4 344 53 DEPART P4 345 54 ADVANCE FNSLVPLN LEAVE PLANE IFUNCT. DEPENDS ON PLN TYPE 3 346 5:5 RELEASE P4 LEAVE EXIT 347 56 TEST NE P 6 , 2 , 0 U T CONNECTING PASS. LEAVE MODEL HERE 348 57 TEST NE P7 ,0 ,0UT PASS. W/0 BAGS « " " 349 58 ADVANCE V$WALK WALK TIME TO CAROUSEL DEPENDS ON 350 GATE #, CAROUSEL #, AND VELOCITY D I S T ' N . T=D/V 351 59 TABULATE V l l TABULATE PASS. TRANSIT TIME TO CLAIM AREA 352 353 60 MARK 9 START MEASURE OF WAIT TIME FOR BAGS 354 > j i in 61 E N T E R P 5 E N T E R C A R O U S E L S T O R A G E ( C A P = 5 0 0 ) 3 55 6 2 MTC HA M A T C H MTCHB M A T C H P A S S . WITH A L L H I S / H E R BAGS 3 5 6 63 A D V A N C E . F N S D L A Y T I M E TQ G E T BAGS O F F C A R O U S E L I S 3 5 7 * RANDOMLY S E L E C T E D FROM T I M E I N T E R V A L 3 5 8 1 - 50 SEC I P E R I O D OF R E V . OF C A R O U S E L 3 5 9 6 4 L E A V E P 5 L E A V E C A R O U S E L AREA 3 6 0 J 6 5 T A B U L A T E V21 T A B B A G W A I T I N G T I M E PER P A S S . 3 6 1 < 66 T A B U L A T E V 3 1 T A B P A S S . BAG WAIT T I M E P L U S T R A N S I T T I M E 3 6 2 3 6 3 6 7 Q U E U E P O S C L WAIT A T P O S I T I V E C L A I M C H E C K P T 3 6 4 6 8 E N T E R 8 C L A I M CHK STORAGE (1 OR MORE STAFF.) 3 6 5 6 9 D E P A R T P O S C L 3 6 6 7 0 A D V A N C E F N $ B L A Y T A G MATCH T I M E D E P E N D S ON # OF BAGS 3 6 7 71 L E A V E 8 3 6 8 72 T A B U L A T E V41 T A B T O T A L T R A N S I T T I M E OF P A S S . 3 6 9 73 OUT T E R M I N A T E P A S S . L E A V E S MODEL 3 7 0 * * B A G G A G E S E C T I O N OF MODEL 371 3 7 2 -•V * 74 7 AND L -1 0 1 1 BAGS 3 73 3 74 * 3 7 5 7 4 F I R S T If* A D V A N C E 3 1 5 , 3 0 4 . 7 5 - 5 . 7 5 M I N U T E S TO P O S I T I O N U N L O A D I N G E Q U I P M E N T 3 7 6 3 7 7 75 S P L I T 2 , L A T E R UNLOAD AT 2 H A T C H E S 3 7 8 76 S P L I T 2 , C 0 N T U R E S E R V E 2 T R U C K S 3 7 9 7 7 J, T L I N K P 4 , 1 0 PUT P A R E N T T R A N S A C T I O N ON USER C H A I N WITH OTHER BAGS 3 8 0 3 8 1 78 L A T E R * A D V A N C E 2 1 0 , 3 0 3 - 4 M I N U T E S U N L O A D I N G E A C H P A I R OF U L D * S 3 8 2 3 8 3 7 9 U N L I N K P 4 , S E Q 2 » X 1 0 Q , , « NONE UNHOOK 100 BAGS FROM 3 84 THE USER C H A I N IF T H E Y ARE T H E R E 3 8 5 80 T R A N S F E R , L A T E R GO BACK T Q UNLOAD MORE U L D ' S 3 86 81 NONE T E R M I N A T E A L L BAGS H A V E B E E N U N L O A D E D 82 S E Q 2 D E P A R T V I 0 L E A V E P L A N E HOLD 3 8 8 8 3 A D V A N C E V 1 2 D R I V E TO C O N V E Y O R 3 8 9 84 T R A N S F E R , J O I N J O I N P A T H OF R E G U L A R BAGS NOW 3 9 0 * * A L L BAGS E N T E R T H I S S E C T I O N FOR RANDOM MIX 3 9 1 3 9 2 3 9 3 8 5 BAGS A S S I G N 1 0 , R N 2 RANDOM NUMBER IN PI 0 3 94 86 Q U E U E V 1 0 P L A N E Q U E U E 3 9 5 8 7 L I N K P 4 , 1 0 , L I N E 1ST XACT GOES TO B U F F E R ; NEXT X A C T S 3 9 6 * A R E PUT ON C H A I N P4 IN RANDOM ORDER 3 9 7 88 L I N E T E S T G P I , 2 , F I R S T IS IT A 7 4 7 ? 3 9 8 89 S P L I T P 1 2 , C C N T U 3 9 9 90 L I N K P 4 , 1 0 4 0 0 91 C C N T U T E S T E P 2 , 2 , A R C A N 4 0 1 9 2 C P A I R T R A N S F E R , HOLD 4 0 2 93 ARCAN A D V A N C E 0 4 0 3 9 4 HOLD G A T E L S 19 4 0 4 95 S A V E V A L U E P G A T E , P 4 , H C O M M U N I C A T E P A R A M E T E R S 4 0 5 96 S A V E V A L U E P C A S L , P 5 , H TO BAGGAGE POOL S E C T I O N 4 0 6 ... 9 7 S A V E V A L U E P L T Y P , P 1 , H 4 0 7 —„• 9 8 S A V E V A L U E A I R L N , P 2 , H 4 0 8 *'"' 9 9 L O G I C R 19 4 0 9 100 A--a* T E R M I N A T E 4 1 0 * P O O L S OF B A G G A G E U N L O A D I N G T R U C K S 4 1 2 '* 4 1 3 1PJ ONE G E N E R A T E , . , 1 7 , 0 . 6 P R O V I D E 17 AC T R U C K S 4 1 4 119 1 0 2 103 1 0 4 ACWT A S S I G N A S S I G N T E S T G 6 , N $ G N E TRUCK ID # 3 , F N $ A C C A P C A P A C I T Y 1 4 0 + - 1 0 BAGS W $ A R C A N , 0 WAIT FOR AC P L A N E TO A R R I V E 4 1 5 4 1 6 4 1 7 ' 105 T R A N S F E R , B L O K B 4 1 8 106 TWO G E N E R A T E , , , 1 0 , 0 , 6 P R O V I D E 10 CP TRUCKS 4 1 9 4 2 0 1 0 7 1 0 8 1 0 9 ONHND A S S I G N A S S I G N T E S T G 6 , N $ T W 0 TRUCK ID # 3 , F N $ C A P C Y C A P A C I T Y 8 5 + - 5 BAGS W $ C P A I R f O WAIT FOR CP P L A N E T O A R R I V E 4 2 1 4 2 2 4 2 3 1 1 1 0 111 * BLOKB E N T E R L O G I C S 9 BUSY S T A T U S 1 9 O P E N STOP G A T E 4 2 4 4 2 5 4 2 6 1 1 2 1 1 3 -1 1 4 P R I O R I T Y A S S I G N A S S I G N 1, B U F F E R R E S T A R T SCAN 1 , X H $ P L T Y P 2 , X H $ A I R L N 4 2 7 42 8 4 2 9 1 1 5 116 117 ASS IGN A S S IGN T E S T G 4 , X H $ P G A T E 5 , X H $ P C A S L P 1 , 2 , P L N 4 7 IS I T A 7 4 7 ? 4 3 0 431 4 3 2 118 119 1 2 0 GOON A D V A N C E S A V E V A L U E U N L I N K F N $ O F F L D UNLOAD BAG 0 P E N , P 6 , H C O M M U N I C A T E TRUCK ID # P 4 , S E Q 1 , K 1 , * , L D U P 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 5 121 1 2 2 123 L D U P L O O P L O G I C S G A T E L S 3 , G O O N UNLOAD ANOTHER BAG I F NOT F U L L P 6 O P E N P6 G A T E V 2 0 4 3 6 4 3 7 4 3 8 1 2 4 ! 1 2 5 126 L O G I C R A D V A N C E T E S T G V 2 0 3 0 0 D E L A Y C A R T FOR 5 M I N U T E S T O UNLOAD C H * 4 , 0 , N B U S Y 4 3 9 4 4 0 4 4 1 1 2 7 128 1 2 9 P L N 4 7 A D V A N C E T R A N S F E R A D V A N C E V 1 2 GO BACK TO P L A N E , GOON 1 3 8 0 , 4 2 0 U S E T R U C K S FOR 1 5 - 3 0 M I N U T F S WITH A 747 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 1 3 0 131 132 N 8 U S Y L E A V E P R I O R I T Y T E S T E 9 L E A V E BUSY S T A T U S 0 R E S E T P R I O R I T Y OF TRUCK P 2 , 2 , A C W T R E T U R N AC AND CP T R U C K S S E P A R A T E L Y 4 4 5 4 4 6 4 4 7 1 3 3 T R A N S F E R ,ONHND 44 0 * * P A T H OF BAGS 4 4 9 4 5 0 1 3 4 1 3 5 SEQ1 D E P A R T A S S I G N V i O L E A V E P L A N E HOLD 1 2 , X H $ C P E N TRUCK ID # 4 5 1 4 5 2 136 1 3 7 138 G A T E L S P R I O R I T Y L O G I C R P 1 2 WAIT FOR TRUCK T O BE L O A D E D 1 , B U F F E R R E S T A R T S C A N , B R I N G BAGS THRU GATE P 1 2 P 1 2 C L O S E P12 G A T E 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 6 1 3 9 1 4 0 141 J O I N A D V A N C E L O G I C S E N T E R V 1 2 D R I V E TO CONVEYOR V 2 0 OPEN TRUCK R E L E A S E G A T E V 3 0 S E I Z E U N L O A D I N G E M P L O Y E E 45 7 4 5 8 4 5 9 142 143 1 4 4 A D V A N C E L E A V E T E S T £ . F N $ C C N L D V 3 0 R E L E A S E E M P L O Y E E P 6 , 1 , 0 U T C O N N E C T I N G BAGS L E A V E MODEL HERE 4 6 0 4 6 1 4 6 2 1 4 5 146 147 E N T E R A D V A N C E L E A V E V 4 0 CONVEYOR S T O R A G E V13 MOVE ON CONVEYOR TO C A R O U S E L V 4 0 4 6 3 4 6 4 4 6 5 148 149 1 5 0 T A B U L A T E MARK E N T E R V61 T A B B A G G A G E T R A N S I T T I M E i l S T A R T T I M I N G BAG W A I T I N G T I M E V 2 0 E N T E R S T O R A G E C A R O U S E L 4 6 6 4 6 7 4 6 8 151 152 * G A T H E R T A B U L A T E P 7 GATHER BAGS OF E A C H P A S S . T O G E T H E R V 5 1 T A B T I M E FOR A L L BAGS OF E A C H P A S S . TO A R R I V E 46 9 4 7 0 1 5 3 154 1 5 5 MTCHB L E A V E A S S E M B L E MATCH V 2 0 L E A V E C A R O U S E L PI COMB INE BAGS OF 1 P A S S . I N T O 1 XACT MTCHA N A T C H BAGS WITH P A S S E N G E R 4 7 2 4 7 3 4 7 4 j 1 5 6 T A B U L A T E V 8 1 ...1,5.7 T A B U L A T E V 7 1 1 5 8 T E R M I N A T E 1 5 9 G E N E R A T E 3 6 0 0 T A B T O T A L OF BAG W A I T I N G T I M E + BAG T R A N S I T T I M E TAB B A G W A I T I N G T I M E AT CAROUS EL 4 7 5 4 7 6 4 7 7 4 78 4 7 9 4 8 0 1 6 0 T E R M I N A T E 1 R M U L T 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 , 2 4 5 S E T RANDOM # S E E D S S T A R T 1 4 8 1 4 8 2 ...481.. 4 8 4 J 120 APPENDIX F: OUTPUT The t y p i c a l o u t p u t from a r u n o f t h i s s i m u l a t i o n model i s e n c l o s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. S t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d on many p a r t s o f t h e s y s t e m . F o r example t h e QUEUE POSCL shows a v e r a g e w a i t i n g t i m e and maximum number o f e n t r i e s i n t h e gueue a t t h e p o s i t i v e c h e c k p o i n t . The key f o r f a c i l i t y , s t o r a g e and t a b l e numbers i s o b t a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g t h e l i s t i n g . S t o r a g e s a r e on l i n e s 131 t o 146, t a b l e s a r e on 168 t o 190. G r a p h i c s t a t i s t i c s s u c h a s t h e example on t h e l a s t page o f t h i s s e c t i o n may be o b t a i n e d by i n c l u d i n g t h e s e g u e n c e : REPORT OUTPUT GRAPH TR,510 ORIGIN 50,10 X ,, 1,30,,54,NO Y 0,5,20,2 50 STATEMENT 1,7,TR: 510 ENDGBAPH a f t e r t h e START s t a t e m e n t f o r e a c h g r a p h . , The g r a p h s a r e o f t a b l e s 1 t o 8. R E L A T I V E C L O C K 3 6 0 0 A B S O L U T E C L O C K 3 6 0 0 B L O C K C O U N T S B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L B L Q C K T O T A L B L O C K CURRENT T O T A L BLOCK C U R R E N T T O T A L BLOCK CURRENT T O T A L 1 0 3 0 0 11 0 0 21 0 0 31 0 0 41 0 1 7 9 2 0 3 0 0 12 0 0 22 0 0 32 0 0 42 0 121 3 0 3 0 0 13 0 0 2 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 4 3 0 121 J 4 0 3 0 0 14 0 0 2 4 0 0 3 4 0 1 4 4 0 0 5 0 3 00 15 0 0 2 5 0 0 35 0 1 4 5 0 0 6 0 3 0 0 16 0 0 2 6 Q ......Q 3.6.... ; 0 . .. 1 4 6 0 0 7 0 3 0 0 17 0 1 2 7 0 0 3 7 0 1 4 7 0 3 0 0 8 0 1 18 c 1 2 8 0 0 38 0 1 4 8 0 3 0 0 9 0 1 19 0 0 2 9 o 0 3 9 0 3 0 0 4 9 0 3 0 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 7 9 50 0 7 0 4 B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L B L O C K CURRENT T O T A L BLOCK CURRENT T O T A L BLOCK CURRENT T O T A L B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L 51 0 3 0 0 61 0 2 5 0 71 0 2 5 0 81 0 2 91 0 2 52 0 3 0 0 62 0 2 5 0 7 2 0 2 5 0 8 2 0 4 0 4 9 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 0 0 6.3 0 2 5 0 73 0 3 3 0 83 0 4 0 4 93 0 0 5 4 0 3 0 0 64 0 2 50 7 4 0 1 84 0 4 0 4 9 4 0 2 55 0 3 00 6 5 0 2 5 0 7 5 0 3 85 0 4 0 4 95 0 2 5 6 0 3 0 0 66 0 2 5 0 7 6 0 3 86 0 4 0 4 96 0 2 5 7 0 2 7 4 6 7 0 2 5 0 7 7 0 1 87 0 4 0 4 9 7 0 2 5 8 0 2 5 0 6 8 0 2 5 0 78 0 7 88 0 1 9 8 0 2 5 9 0 2 5 0 6 9 0 2 5 0 7 9 0 7 8 9 0 0 9 9 0 2 6 0 0 2 5 0 7 0 0 2 5 0 8 0 0 5 9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L B L O C K CURRENT T O T A L BLOCK C U R R E N T T O T A L B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L B L O C K C U R R E N T .........I.OI.AL 101 0 17 111 0 2 121 0 0 131 0 2 141 0 4 0 4 1 0 2 0 17 112 0 2 122 0 0 132 0 2 1 4 2 0 4 0 4 103 17 17 1 1 3 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 133 0 2 143 0 4 0 4 1 0 4 0 G 114 0 2 1 2 4 0 . 0 134 0 0 1 4 4 0 4 0 4 1 0 5 0 0 1 1 5 0 2 12 5 0 0 135 0 0 1 4 5 0 3 7 4 106 0 10 116 0 2 126 0 0 136 0 0 146 0 3 7 4 1 0 7 0 10 1 1 7 0 2 1 2 7 0 0 137 0 0 1 4 7 0 3 74 1 0 8 10 12 1 1 8 0 0 128 0 0 1 3 8 0 0 148 0 3 7 4 1 0 9 0 2 1 1 9 0 0 1 2 9 0 2 139 0 0 149 0 3 7 4 1.10 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 1 4 0 0 0 150 0 3 7 4 B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L B L O C K CURRENT T O T A L BLOCK CURRENT T O T A L B L O C K C U R R E N T T Q T A L B L O C K C U R R E N T T O T A L 15 1 6 3 7 4 152 0 3 7 4 15.3 0 3 7 4 1 5 4 0 2 5 0 1 5 5 0 2 5 0 156 0 2 5 0 15 7 0 2 5 0 1 5 8 0 2 5 0 • 1 5 9 0 1 16 0 0 .1 •J*- V b s t s i , >1- %l/ A X J, X s3r sJU A- ss- V> J> s*» vA, J, st. sJs> sj, >J« s4~ -st, -A- «U «JL> -sJ'- st^  «V>W« A „!, JL- JL. s i , S.V * USER C H A I N S * USER C H A I N T O T A L A V E R A G E CURRENT A V E R A G E MAX IMUM 12 12 E N T R I E S 404 ?<?q T I M E / T R A N S 6 5 7 . 8 8 3 . 0 0 0 C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S 7 3 . 8 2 9 4 0 4 . 0 0 0 2.9.9 **************************************** * F A C I L I T I E S ' * **************************************** - A V E R A G E U T I L I Z A T I O N D U R I N G - ••••••••• T Y N U M B E R E N T R I E S •300 AVFRAGE T O T A L A V A I L . U N A V A I L . C U R R E N T P E R C E N T T R A N S A C T I O N N U M B E R T I M E / T R A N T I M E T I M E T I M E S T A T U S A V A I L A B I L I T Y S E I Z I N G P R E E M P T I N G i . n ? ^ .rift's 1 0 0 . 0 **************************************** * * * S T O R A G E S * * * **************************************** - A V F R A G F U T I L I Z A T I O N D U R I N G -E C A P A C I T Y 500 A V E R A G E C O N T E N T S 2 4 . 9 92 E N T R I E S 105 A V E R A G E T O T A L A V A I L . U N A V A I L . C U R R E N T P E R C E N T C U R R E N T T I M E / U N I T T I M E T I M E T I M E S T A T U S A V A I L A B I L I T Y C O N T E N T S 8 5 6 . 8 6 6 . 0 4 9 1Q 0 . . . 0 MAXIMUM C O N T E N T S J L M . . . ) 500 .3 27 3 9 . 4 1 9 . 3 0 6 . 8 8 6 145 2 5 0 2 9 7 8 . 6 7 6 . 0 7 8 1 0 0 . 0 4 . 4 0 0 . 1 0 1 1 0 0 . 0 1 5 9 5 . 5 0 0 . 0 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 145 3 2 \ e 3 0 0 300 4 . 2 2 7 6 . 0 8 5 1 6 3 211 9 3 . 3 5 0 . 0 1 4 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 3 . 8 2 5 . 0 2 0 1 0 0 . 0 38 43 2... Y 2 25 . 3 81 4 . 4 37 A .711 2 3 4 163 21 1 5 . 8 6 3 . 1 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 9 8 . 0 0 0 . 1 7 7 1 0 0 . 0 107.000 . 2 5 0 1 0 0 . 0 ... 2 25 ?5 «— " — • — — • • I I— — **************************************** * Q U E U E S & * * **************************************** M A X I M U M C O N T E N T S A V E R A G E C O N T E N T S T O T A L E N T R I E S Z E R O P E R C E N T A V E R A G E ^ A V E R A G E T A B L E C U R R E N T E N T R I E S Z E R O S T I M E / T R A N S T I M E / T R A N S N U M B E R C O N T E N T S 3 2 9 9 170 . 0 1 8 1 2 . 8 5 8 2 5 0 3 0 0 2 2 4 8 9 . 5 . 2 6 3 2 . 5 3 8 1 . 3 1 5 4 . 3 0 6 1 5 4 . 8 2 2 < A G E 234 T I M E / T R A N S 4 2 . 9 4 3 2 3 4 . 0 6 6 0 . 6 6 6 6 6 0 . 6 6 6 = A V E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S E X C L U D I N G Z E R O E N T R I E S J 12 112 E N T R I E S 4 0 4 2 9 9 T I M E / T R A N S 6 5 7 . 8 8 3 . 0 0 0 C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S 7 3 . 8 2 9 . 0 0 0 C O N T E N T S 4 0 4 2 9 9 < * F A C I L I T I E S ' * * _ * **** ** * ** * *** ********* ** **:*** *** * * * **** * - A V E R A G E U T I L I Z A T I O N D U R I N G -F A C 111 ^ Y N U M B E R ' A V E R A G E T O T A L A V A I L . 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C U R R E N T T I M E T I M E T I M E S T A T U S . 0 4 9 P E R C E N T C U R R E N T A V A I L A B I L I T Y C O N T E N T S 1 0 0 . 0 MAXIMUM C O N T E N T S 1 0 4 4 8 9 5 0 0 3 27 3 9 . 4 1 9 . 3 0 6 . 8 8 6 1 4 5 2 5 0 2 9 7 8 . 6 7 6 4 . 4 0 0 1 5 9 5 . 5 0 0 . 0 7 8 . 1 0 1 . 0 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 145 3 2 23 2 4 33 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 4 . 2 2 7 6 . 0 8 5 . 2 8 4 16 3 2 1 1 1 7 0 9 3 . 3 50 1 0 3 . 8 2 5 6 . 012 . 0 1 4 . 0 2 0 .14.1 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 3 8 4 3 .2 3 4 43 4 4 2 25 25 . 3 8 1 4 . 4 37 6 . 2 71 2 3 4 1 6 3 2 1 1 5 . 8 6 3 9 8 . 0 0 0 1 0 7 . 0 0 0 . 1 9 0 . 177 . 2 5 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 2 25 ?S »Jl* «JV «JU- mjf *Jm> ,^1* <r- 'J- V ^ •¥• ^ v * **************************** -Jr - r -* * Q U E U E S * * •.- •*!*• - i - •n*- ' i * -Q U E U E MAXIMUM C O N T E N T S A V E R A G E CONT ENTS T O T A L E N T R I E S ZERO E N T R I E S P E R C E N T A V E R A G E $AV E R A G E Z E R O S T I M E / T R A N S TI M E / T R A N S T A B L E C U R R E N T NUMBER C O N T E N T S P O S C L 1 2 1 0 3 3 2 9 9 1 7 0 . 0 1 8 1 2 . 8 5 8 3 0 . 9 7 9 2 5 0 3 0 0 170 2 2 4 1 8 9 . 5 . 2 6 3 2.5.3 8 . 3 1 5 4 . 3 0 6 1 5 4 . 8 2 2 . 0 6 5 6 . 0 4 6 6 5 6 . 0 4 6 1 0 4 $AV E R A G E 2 3 4 T I M E / T R A N S 4 2 . 9 4 3 2 3 4 = A V E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S E X C L U D I N G Z E R O .0 6 6 0 . 6 6 6 6 6 0 . 6 6 6 E N T R I E S > 123 " V 4* A * ^ ^ - f c & ^ * <r ^ \ * TAB! FS * j. ft************** * ^ : ^: ^: $ $ / T A B L E 1 1 2 \ E N T R I E S IN T A B L E 25 0 MEAN ARGUMENT 3 6 9 . 3 1 5 S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 1 1 9 . 5 6 2 SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 9 2 3 2 9 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D U P P E R L I M I T 3 0 O B S E R V E D F R E Q U E N C Y 0 PER C E N T OF T O T A L . 0 0 C U M U L A T I V E P E R C E N T A G E . 0 C U M U L A T I V E R E M A I N D E R 1 0 0 . 0 M U L T I P L E OF MEAN . 0 8 1 D E V I AT ION FROM MEAN - 2 . 8 3 7 6 0 90 1 2 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 6 2 . 2 4 3 . 3 2 4 - 2 . 5 8 7 - 2 . 3 3 6 - 2 . 0 8 5 1 5 0 1 8 0 2 1 0 0 3 15 . 0 0 1 . 19 5 . 9 9 . 0 1.1 7 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 9 8 . 7 9 2 . 7 . 4 0 6 . 4 8 7 . 5 6 8 - 1 . 8 3 4 - 1 . 5 8 3 - 1 . 3 3 2 2 4 0 2 7 0 3 00 23 17 19 9 . 19 6 . 7 9 7 . 5 9 1 6 . 3 2 3 . 1 3 0 . 7 8 3 . 6 7 6 . 8 6 9 . 2 . 6 4 9 . 7 3 1 . 8 1 2 - 1 . 0 8 1 - . 8 3 0 - . 5 7 9 3 3 0 3 6 0 3 9 0 2 5 18 26 9 . 9 9 7 . 19 1 0 . 3 9 4 0 . 7 4 7 . 9 5 8 . 3 5 9 . 2 5 2 . 0 41 . 6 . 8 9 3 . 9 7 4 1 . 0 5 6 - . 3 2 8 - . 0 7 7 . 1 7 2 4 2 0 4 5 0 4 8 0 27 18 16 1 0 . 7 9 7 . 19 6 . 3 9 6 9 . 1 7 6 . 3 8 2 . 7 3 0 . 8 2 3 . 6 1 7 . 2 1 . 1 3 7 1 . 2 1 8 1 . 2 9 9 . 4 2 3 . 6 7 4 . 9 2 5 5 1 0 5 4 0 5 70 15 8 6 5 . 9 9 3 . 19 2 . 3 9 8 8 . 7 9 1 , 9 9 4 . 3 1 1 . 2 8 . 0 5 . 6 1 .3 80 1 . 4 6 2 1 . 5 4 3 1. 1 7 6 1 . 4 2 7 1 . 6 7 8 6 0 0 6 3 0 6 6 0 8 3 0 3 . 19 1. 19 . 0 0 9 7 . 5 9 8 . 7 9 8 . 7 2 . 4 1 .2 1 . 2 1 . 6 2 4 1 . 7 0 5 1 . 7 8 7 1 . 9 2 9 2 . 1 8 0 2 . 4 3 1 6 9 0 7 2 0 7 5 0 0 0 0 . 00 . 0 0 . 0 0 9 8 . 7 9 8 . 7 9 8 . 7 1.2 1 . 2 i...*.j2!.„. 1 . 8 6 8 1 . 9 4 9 2 , 0 3 0 , 2 . 6 8 2 2 . 9 3 3 3....1S3 7 8 0 8 1 0 8 4 0 1 1 0 . 3 9 . 3 9 . 0 0 9 9 . 1 9 9 . 5 9 9 . 5 . 8 . 4 . 4 2 . 1 1 2 2 . 193 2 . 2 7 4 3 . 4 3 4 3 . 6 8 5 3 . 9 3 6 8 7 0 9 0 0 9 3 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 3 9 9 9 . 5 9 9 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 . 4 . 0 2 . 3 5 5 2 . 4 3 6 2 . 5 1 8 4 . 1 8 7 4 . 4 3 8 4 . 6 8 9 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S A R E A L L ZERO T A B L E 2 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E 2 5 0 MEAN ARGUMENT 9 2 7 . 5 1 5 S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 2 6 2 . 0 0 0 SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 2 3 1 8 7 9 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D U P P E R L I M I T O B S E R V E D F R E Q U E N C Y PER C E N T OF T O T A L C U M U L A T I V E P E R C E N T A G E C U M U L A T I V E R E M A I N D E R M U L T I P L E OF MEAN D E V I A T I O N FROM MEAN 3 0 6 0 90 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 3 2 . 0 6 4 . 0 9 7 - 3 . 4 2 5 - 3 . 3 1 1 - 3 . 1 9 6 1 2 0 1 5 0 1 80 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 2 9 . 1 6 1 . 1 9 4 - 3 . 0 8 2 - 2 . 9 6 7 - 2 . 8 5 3 2 1 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 2 6 - 2 . 7 3 8 1 i- V \ 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 58 - 2 . 6 2 4 2 7 0 0 .....o.o. ...0 .1.0.0 ...0 ...29 1 .. - 2 . 5 0 9 .. 3 00 1 . 3 9 . 3 9 9 . 5 . 3 2 3 - 2 . 3 9 5 3 3 0 1 . 3 9 . 7 9 9 . 1 . 3 55 - 2 . 2 8 0 3 6 0 1 . 3 9 1 .1 9 8 . 7 . 3 88 — 2 . 1 6 6 J 3 9 0 0 . 0 0 1.1 9 8 . 7 . 4 2 0 - 2 . 0 5 1 4 2 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 1 9 8 . 7 . 4 5 2 - 1 . 9 3 7 4 5 0 4 1 . 5 9 2 . 7 9 7 . 1 . 4 8 5 - 1 . 8 2 2 4 8 0 3 1. 19 3 . 9 9 6 . 0 . 5 1 7 - 1 . 7 0 8 5 1 0 3 1. 19 5 . 1 9 4 . 7 . 5 4 9 - 1 . 5 9 3 5 4 0 3 1 . 1 9 6 . 3 93 . 5 . 5 8 2 - 1 . 4 7 9 5 7 0 4 1 . 5 9 7 . 9 9 2 . 0 . 6 1 4 - 1 . 3 6 4 6 0 0 7 2 . 79 1 0 . 7 8 9 . 1 . 6 4 6 - 1 . 2 5 0 6 3 0 13 5 . 1 9 15 . 9 8 4 . 0 . 6 7 9 - 1 . 1 3 5 6 6 0 6 2 . 3 9 1 8 . 3 8 1 . 6 . 7 1 1 - 1 . 0 2 1 6 9 0 3 1. 19 1 9 . 5 8 0 . 4 . 7 4 3 - . 9 0 6 7 2 0 15 5 . 9 9 2 5 . 5 7 4 . 4 . 7 7 6 - . 7 9 2 7 5 0 9 3 . 5 9 29 . 1 7 0 . 8 . 8 0 8 - . 6 7 7 7 8 0 5 1 . 9 9 3 1 . 1 6 8 . 8 . 8 4 0 - . 5 6 3 8 1 0 5 1 . 9 9 33 . 1 6 6 . 8 . 8 7 3 - . 4 4 8 8 4 0 9 3 . 5 9 3 6 . 7 6 3 . 2 . 9 0 5 - . 3 3 4 8 7 0 8 3 . 19 39 . 9 6 0 . 0 . 9 3 7 - . 2 1 9 9 0 0 16 6 . 3 9 46 . 3 5 3 . 6 . 9 7 0 - . 1 0 5 9 3 0 11 4 . 3 9 5 0 . 7 4 9 . 2 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 9 9 6 0 9 3 . 5 9 5 4 . 3 4 5 . 6 1 . 0 3 5 . 1 2 3 9 9 0 10 3 . 9 9 5 8 . 3 4 1 . 6 1 . 0 6 7 . 2 3 8 1 0 2 0 9 3 . 5 9 6 1 . 9 3 8 . 0 1 . 0 9 9 . 3 5 2 1 0 5 0 13 5 . 19 6 7 . 1 3 2 . 8 1. 1 3 2 . 4 6 7 1 0 8 0 8 3 . 19 7 0 . 3 2 9 . 6 1 . 1 6 4 , 5 8 2 1 1 1 0 6 2 . 3 9 7 2 . 7 2 7 . 2 1 . 1 9 6 . 6 9 6 1 1 4 0 15 5 . 9 9 7 8 . 7 2 1 . 2 1 . 2 2 9 . 8 1 1 1 1 7 0 9 3 . 5 9 82 . 3 1 7 . 6 1 .26 1 . 9 2 5 1 2 0 0 7 2 . 7 9 8 5 . 1 1 4 , 8 1 . 2 9 3 1 . 0 4 0 12.30 8 3 . 1 9 88 . 3 11 . 6 1 . 3 2 6 1. 1 5 4 1 2 6 0 3 1 . 1 9 8 9 . 5 1 0 . 4 1 . 3 5 8 1 . 2 6 9 1 2 9 0 6 2 . 3 9 9 1 . 9 8 . 0 1 . 3 9 0 1 .3 83 1 3 2 0 0 . 0 0 9 1 . 9 8 . 0 1 . 4 2 3 1. 4 9 8 1 3 5 0 6 2 . 3 9 9 4 , 3 5 . 6 1.4.55 1 . 6 1 2 1 3 8 0 1 . 3 9 9 4 . 7 5 . 2 1 . 4 8 7 1 . 7 2 7 1 4 1 0 3 1. 19 9 5 . 9 4 . 0 1 . 5 2 0 1 . 8 4 1 1 4 4 0 4 1 . 5 9 9 7 . 5 2 . 4 1 . 5 5 2 1 . 9 5 6 1 4 7 0 3 1. 19 9 8 . 7 1 .2 1.5 8 4 2 . 0 7 0 1 5 0 0 0 . 0 0 9 8 . 7 1.2 1 .6 17 2 . 1 8 5 1 5 3 0 1 . 3 9 9 9 . 1 . 8 1 . 6 4 9 2 . 2 9 9 1 5 6 0 2 . 79 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 1 . 6 8 1 2 . 4 1 4 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S ARE A L L ZERO F A B L E 3 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E MEAN ARGUMENT S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 2 50 1 2 9 6 . 831 2 3 7 . 3 7 5 3 2 4 2 0 8 . 0 0 0 N G N - W E I G H T E D U P P E R G B S E R V E D PER C E N T C U M U L A T I V E C U M U L A T I V E M U L T I P L E D E V I A T I O N L IM IT F R E Q U E N C Y OF T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E R E M A I N D E R OF MEAN FROM MEAN 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 2 3 - 5 . 3 3 6 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 4 6 - 5 . 2 1 0 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 6 9 - 5 . 0 8 4 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 9 2 - 4 . 9 5 7 1 5 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 1 5 - 4 . 8 3 1 l i b 1 80 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 3 8 - 4 . 7 0 4 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 6 1 - 4 . 5 7 8 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1.0Q.0 , 1 8 5 - 4 , 4 . 5 2 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 0 8 - 4 . 3 2 5 3 00 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 3 1 - 4 . 1 9 9 3 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 5 4 - 4 . 0 7 3 3 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 7 7 - 3 . 9 4 6 3 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 0 0 - 3 . 8 2 0 4 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 .3.23 -,3.....69.3. 4 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 4 6 - 3 . 5 6 7 -4 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 7 0 - 3 . 4 4 1 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 L O O . O . 3 9 3 - 3 , 3 1 4 5 4 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 1 6 - 3 . 1 8 8 5 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 3 9 - 3 . 0 6 1 6 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 6 2 - 2 . 9 3 5 6 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 8 5 - 2 . 8 0 9 6 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 0 8 - 2 . 6 8 2 6 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 3 2 - 2 . 5 5 6 7 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 5 5 - 2 . 4 3 0 7 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 7 8 - 2 . 3 0 3 7 8 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 6 0 1 - 2 . 1 7 7 8.10 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 6 2 4 - 2 . 0 5 0 8 4 0 1 . 3 9 . 3 9 9 . 5 . 6 4 7 - 1 . 9 2 4 8 7 0 3 1 . 1 9 1. 5 9 8 . 3 . 6 7 0 - 1 . 7 9 8 9 0 0 10 3 . 9 9 5 . 5 9 4 . 3 . 6 9 3 - 1 . 6 7 1 93 0 5 1 . 9 9 7 . 5 9 2 . 3 . 7 1 7 - 1 . 5 4 5 9 6 0 3 1. 19 8 . 7 9 1 . 1 . 7 4 0 - 1 . 4 1 8 9 9 0 7 2 . 7 9 1 1 . 5 8 8 . 3 . 7 6 3 - 1 . 2 9 2 1 0 2 0 10 3 . 9 9 1 5 . 5 8 4 . 3 . 7 8 6 - 1 . 1 6 6 1 0 5 0 6 2 . 3 9 1 7 . 9 8 2 . 0 . 8 0 9 - 1 . 0 3 9 1 0 8 0 7 2 . 7 9 20 . 7 7 9 . 2 . 8 3 2 - . 9 1 3 11 10 12 4 . 7 9 2 5 . 5 7 4 . 4 .8.55 - . 7 8 7 1 1 4 0 11 4 . 3 9 2 9 . 9 7 0 . 0 .....8..7.9 -,...6.6.0 1 1 7 0 8 3 . 19 3 3 . 1 6 6 .8 . 9 0 2 - . 5 3 4 1 2 0 0 9 3 . 5 9 3 6 . 7 6 3 . 2 . 9 2 5 - . 4 0 7 1 2 3 0 8 3 . 19 3 9 . 9 6 0 . 0 . 9 4 8 — . 2 8 1 1 2 6 0 9 3 . 5 9 4 3 . 5 56 . 4 . 9 7 1 - . 1 5 5 1 2 9 0 9 3 . 5 9 4 7 . 1 52 . 8 . 9 9 4 - . 0 2 8 1 3 2 0 14 5 . 5 9 5 2 . 7 4 7 . 2 1 . 0 1 7 , .092 1 3 5 0 11 4 . 3 9 5 7 . 1 42 . 8 1 . 0 4 0 . 2 2 3 13 80 9 3 . 59 6 0 . 7 3 9 . 2 1 . 0 6 4 . 3 5 0 1 4 1 0 12 4 . 7 9 6 5 . 5 3 4 . 4 1 . 0 8 7 , 4 7 6 1 4 4 0 12 4 . 7 9 7 0 . 3 2 9 . 6 1 . 1 1 0 . 6 0 3 1 4 7 0 13 5 . 1 9 7 5 . 5 2 4 . 4 1. 1 3 3 . 7 2 9 1 5 0 0 6 2 . 3 9 7 7 . 9 2 2 . 0 1 , 1 5 6 ,..8.5.5 1 5 3 0 7 2 . 7 9 8 0 . 7 1 9 . 2 1 . 1 7 9 . 9 8 2 1 5 6 0 9 3 . 5 9 8 4 . 3 1 5 . 6 . 1 . 2 0 2 1. 1 0 8 1 5 9 0 6 2 . 3 9 8 6 . 7 1 3 . 2 1 . 2 2 6 1 . 2 3 5 1 6 2 0 6 2 . 3 9 8 9 . 1 1 0 . 8 1 . 2 4 9 1 . 3 6 1 1 6 5 0 4 1 . 5 9 9 0 . 7 9 . 2 1 . 2 7 2 1 . 4 8 7 1 6 8 0 10 3 . 9 9 9 4 . 7 5 . 2 1 . 2 9 5 1 . 6 1 4 1 7 1 0 7 2 . 7 9 9 7 . 5 2 . 4 1 . 3 1 8 1. 7 4 0 1 7 4 0 2 . 7 9 9 8 . 3 1 . 6 1 . 3 4 1 1. 8 6 6 1 7 7 0 4 1. 59 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 1 . 3 6 4 1 . 9 9 3 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S ARE A L L ; ZERO T A B L E 4 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E MEAN ARGUMENT S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 2 5 0 1 3 0 1 . 4 95 2 3 7 . 1 8 7 3 2 5 3 7 4 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D U P P E R O B S E R V E D PER C E N T C U M U L A T I V E C U M U L A T I V E M U L T I P L E D E V I A T I O N -L IM I T F R E Q U E N C Y OF T OT A l P E R C E N T A G E R E M A I N D E R OF MEAN FROM MEAN 3 0 0 . 0 0 ,.Q 1 0 0 , 0 , 0 2 3 - 5 , 3 6 0 60 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 4 6 - 5 . 2 3 4 90 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 6 9 - 5 . 1 0 7 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 9 2 - 4 . 9 8 1 150 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 1 5 - 4 . 8 5 4 < 1 8 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 3 8 - 4 . 7 2 8 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 6 1 - 4 . 6 0 1 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 8 4 - 4 . 4 7 5 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 0 7 - 4 . 3 4 8 3 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 3 0 - 4 . 2 2 2 3 30 0 . 00 . 0 . 100 .0 . 2 5 3 - 4 . 0 9 5 3 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 .2 7 6 - 3 . 9 6 9 3 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 9 9 - 3 . 8 4 2 4 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 2 2 - 3 . 7 1 6 4 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 4 5 - 3 . 5 8 9 4 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 , 0 . 3 6 8 - 3 . 4 6 3 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 9 1 - 3 . 3 3 7 5 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 1 4 - 3 . 2 1 0 5 7 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 3 7 - 3 . 0 8 4 6 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 6 1 - 2 . 9 5 7 63 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 8 4 - 2 . 8 3 1 6 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 0 7 - 2 . 7 0 4 6 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 3 0 - 2 . 5 7 8 7 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 5 3 - 2 . 4 5 1 7 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 7 6 - 2 . 3 2 5 7 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 9 9 - 2 . 1 9 8 8 1 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 6 2 2 - 2 . 0 7 2 8 4 0 1 . 3 9 . 3 9 9 . 5 . 6 4 5 - 1 . 9 4 5 8 7 0 3 1 . 1 9 1.5 9 8 . 3 . 6 6 8 - 1 . 8 1 9 9 00 6 2 . 3 9 3 . 9 9 6 . 0 . 6 9 1 - 1 . 6 9 2 9 3 0 8 3 . 19 7 . 1 9 2 . 7 . 7 1 4 - 1 . 5 6 6 9 6 0 4 1 . 5 9 8 . 7 9 1 . 1 . 7 3 7 - 1 . 4 3 9 9 9 0 7 2 . 7 9 1 1 . 5 8 8 . 3 . 7 6 0 - 1 . 3 1 3 1 0 2 0 6 2 . 3 9 1 3 . 9 86 . 0 . 7 8 3 - 1 . 1 8 6 1 0 5 0 9 3 , 5 9 1 7 . 5 8 2 . 4 . 8 0 6 - 1 . 0 6 0 1 0 8 0 6 2 . 3 9 1 9 . 9 8 0 , 0 . 8 2 9 - . 9 3 3 1 1 1 0 12 4 . 7 9 2 4 . 7 7 5 . 2 • 8 5 2 8 0 7 1 1 4 0 13 5 . 1 9 2 9 . 9 7 0 . 0 . 8 7 5 - . 6 80 1 1 7 0 7 2 . 7 9 3 2 . 7 6 7 . 2 . 8 98 - . 5 5 4 1 2 0 0 8 3 . 1 9 3 5 . 9 6 4 . 0 . 9 2 2 - . 4 2 7 1 2 3 0 9 3 . 59 3 9 . 5 6 0 . 4 . 9 4 5 - . 3 0 1 1 2 6 0 9 3 . 5 9 4 3 . 1 5 6 . 8 . 9 6 8 - . 1 7 4 1 2 9 0 9 3 . 5 9 4 6 . 7 5 3 . 2 . 9 9 1 - . 0 4 8 1 3 2 0 13 5 . 1 9 51 . 9 4 8 . 0 1 . 0 1 4 . 0 7 8 1 3 5 0 10 3 . 9 9 5 5 . 9 4 4 . 0 1 . 0 3 7 . 2 0 4 1 3 8 0 1 1 4 . 3 9 6 0 . 3 3 9 . 6 1 . 0 6 0 . 3 3 0 1 4 1 0 11 4 . 3 9 6 4 . 7 3 5 . 2 1 . 0 8 3 . 4 5 7 1 4 4 0 12 4 . 7 9 6 9 . 5 3 0 , 4 1 . 1 0 6 . 5 8 3 1 4 7 0 15 5 . 9 9 7 5 . 5 2 4 . 4 1 , 1 2 9 . 7 1 0 1 5 0 0 6 2 . 3 9 7 7 . 9 2 2 . 0 1 . 1 5 2 . 8 3 6 1 5 3 0 6 2 . 3 9 8 0 . 3 19 . 6 1 . 1 7 5 . 9 6 3 1 5 6 0 7 2 . 7 9 8 3 . 1 1 6 . 8 1 . 1 9 8 1 . 0 8 9 1 5 9 0 9 3 . 5 9 8 6 . 7 1 3 . 2 1 . 2 2 1 1 . 2 1 6 1 6 2 0 4 1 . 59 8 8 . 3 1 1 . 6 1 . 2 4 4 1 . 3 4 2 1 6 5 0 6 2 . 3 9 9 0 . 7 9 . 2 1 . 2 6 7 1 . 4 6 9 1 6 8 0 10 3 . 9 9 9 4 . 7 5 . 2 1 . 2 9 0 1 . 5 9 5 17 10 3 1. 19 9 5 . 9 4 . 0 1 . 3 1 3 1 . 7 2 2 1 7 4 0 6 2 . 3 9 9 8 . 3 1 .6 1 . 3 3 6 1. 84 8 1 7 7 0 4 1 . 5 9 1 0 0 . 0 .0 1 . 3 5 9 1 . 9 7 5 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S ARE A L L ZERO T A B L E 5 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E MEAN ARGUMENT STANDARD D E V I A T I O N SUM OF ARGUMENTS 3 7 4 1 3 0 9 . 1 6 8 2 2 9 . 5 6 2 4 8 9 6 2 9 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D \ UPPER O B S E R V E D PER C E N T C U M U L A T I V E „ . £ U M U L A I . I Y £ M U L T I P L E DEVI AT ION L I M I T F R E Q U E N C Y OF T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E REMA INDER OF MEAN FROM MEAN 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 2 2 - 5 . 572 6 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 4 5 - 5 . 4 4 1 90 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 6 8 - 5 . 3 1 0 120 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 9 1 - 5 . 1 8 0 1 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 1 4 - 5 . 0 4 9 1 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 3 7 - 4 . 9 1 8 2 10 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 6 0 - 4 . 7 8 8 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 1 8 3 - 4 . 6 5 7 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 0 6 - 4 . 5 2 6 3 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 2 9 - 4 . 3 9 6 3 30 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 5 2 - 4 . 2 6 5 3 6 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 2 7 4 - 4 . 1 3 4 3 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 .2 97 - 4 . 0 0 3 4 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 2 0 - 3 . 8 7 3 4 5 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 4 3 - 3 . ' 7 4 2 4 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 6 6 - 3 . 6 1 1 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 3 8 9 - 3 . 4 8 1 5 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 1 2 - 3 . 3 5 0 5 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 3 5 - 3 . 2 1 9 6 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 5 8 - 3 . 0 8 9 6 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 8 1 - 2 . 9 5 8 6 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 0 4 - 2 . 8 2 7 6 9 0 0 . 00 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 2 7 - 2 . 6 9 7 7 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 4 9 - 2 . 5 6 6 7 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 72 - 2 . 4 3 5 7 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 5 9 5 - 2 . 3 0 5 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 6 18 - 2 . 1 7 4 8 4 0 2 . 5 3 . 5 99 .4 . 6 41 - 2 . 0 4 3 8 7 0 11 2 . 9 4 3 . 4 9 6 . 5 . 6 6 4 - 1 . 9 1 3 9 0 0 7 1 . 8 7 5 . 3 9 4 . 6 . 6 8 7 - 1 . 782 9 3 0 4 1. 06 6 . 4 9 3 . 5 . 7 1 0 - 1 . 6 5 1 9 6 0 7 1 . 8 7 8 . 2 9 1 . 7 . 7 3 3 -1 . 5 2 1 9 9 0 11 2-. 94 1 1 . 2 8 8 . 7 . 7 5 6 - 1 . 3 9 0 1 0 2 0 7 1 . 8 7 1 3 . 1 8 6 . 8 . 7 7 9 - 1 . 2 5 9 1 0 5 0 11 2 . 9 4 1 6 . 0 83 . 9 . 8 0 2 -.1.12.8. 1 0 8 0 11 2 . 9 4 1 8 . 9 8 1 . 0 . 8 2 4 - . 9 9 8 1 1 1 0 10 2 . 6 7 2.1. 6 7 8 . 3 . 8 4 7 - . 8 6 7 1 1 4 0 12 3 . 2 0 2 4 . 8 7 5 . 1 . 8 7 0 - . 7 3 6 1 1 7 0 14 3 . 74 2 8 . 6 7 1 . 3 . 8 9 3 - . 6 0 6 1 2 0 0 12 3 . 2 0 3 1 . 8 6 8 . 1 . 9 1 6 - . 4 7 5 1 2 3 0 14 3 . 7 4 3 5 . 5 6 4 . 4 . 9 3 9 - . 3 4 4 1 2 6 0 13 3 . 4 7 3 9 . 0 6 0 . 9 . 9 6 2 - . 2 1 4 1 2 9 0 2 7 7 . 2 1 4 6 . 2 5 3 . 7 . 9 8 5 - . 0 8 3 j r 132 0 11 2 . 94 49 .1 5 0 . 8 1 . 0 0 8 . 0 4 7 1 3 5 0 16 4 . 2 7 5 3 . 4 4 6 . 5 1 . 0 3 1 . 1 7 7 1 3 8 0 2 0 5 . 3 4 5 8 . 8 4 1 . 1 1 . 0 5 4 . 3 0 8 1 4 1 0 16 4 . 2 7 63 .1 3 6 . 8 1 . 0 7 7 . 4 3 9 1 4 4 0 3 3 8 . 8 2 7 1 . 9 2 8 . 0 . 1 . 0 9 9 . 5 6 9 1 4 7 0 10 2 . 6 7 7 4 . 5 2 5 . 4 1 . 1 2 2 . 7 0 0 1 5 0 0 11 2 . 9 4 7 7 . 5 2 2 . 4 1 . 1 4 5 . 8 3 1 1530 1560 1590 12 13 3 3.20 3.47 .80 80. 7 84.2 85.0 19.2 15.7 14.9 1.168 1.191 1.2 14 .961 1.092 1.223 1620 1650 1680 17 18 5 4.54 4.81 1.33 89.5 94.3 9 5.7 10.4 5.6 4.2 1.237 1.260 1 .283 1.354 1.484 1.615 17 10 1740 REMAINING FREQUENCIES 12 4 ARE ALI , ZERO 3,20 1.06 98.9 100.0 1,0 .0 1 .306 1 .329 1. 746 1 .876 TABLE 612 E N I R I t S IN TABLE 374 MEAN ARGUMENT 12 09.908 STANDARD DEVIATION SUM 240.875 OF ARGUMENTS 452506.000 NON-WEIGHTED UPPER LIMIT 30 OBSERVED FREQUENCY 0 P ER OF CENT TOTAL 00 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE .0 CUMULATIVE REMAINDER 100.0 MULTIPLE OF MEAN .0 24 DEVI AT I ON FROM MEAN -4.898 60 90 120 0 0 0 .00 .00 . 00 .0 .0 .0 100. 0 100.0 100 .0 .049 .0 74 .099 -4.773 -4.649 -4.524 150 180 210 0 0 0 .00 .00 .00 .0 .0 .0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 .123 .148 .173 -4.400 -4.275 -4.151 240 270 300 0 0 0 .00 .00 .00 .0 .0 . 0 100.0 100,0 100.0 . 198 .2 23 .247 -4.026 -3.902 -3 .777 330 3 60 390 0 0 0 .00 . 00 .00 .0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .272 .297 .322 -3. 652 -3.528 -3.403 420 450 480 0 0 0 ,00 . 00 .00 .0 . 0 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .347 .3 71 .3 96 -3.279 -3.154 -3.030 510 540 570 0 0 0 .00 .00 .00 .0 .0 ,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .421 .446 .471 -2.905 -2.781 -2.656 600 6 30 660 0 0 0 . 00 .00 .00 . 0 .0 .0 100 .0 100. 0 100.0 .495 .52 0 • 545 -2.532 -2.407 -2.282 690 720 750 0 0 0 .00 . 00 .00 . 0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .570 .5 95 .6 19 -2.158 -2.033 - 1. 909 780 810 840 0 0 8 .00 .00 2. 13 . 0 .0 100.0 100.0 97.8 .644 .6 69 .694 -1.784 - 1.660 -1.535 870 900 ' 930 20 19 5 5.34 5.08 1 . 33 7.4 12.5 13.9 92. 5 87.4 86.0 .719 .743 .76 8 -1.411 - 1 . 286 - 1 . 162 960 990 1020 19 18 11 5.08 4.81 2.94 18.9 23 .7 26. 7 81.0 76.2 73.2 .793 .818 .843 -1.037 -.912 -.788 1050 1080 1110 12 20 13 3.20 5.34 3.47 29.9 35.2 38.7 70.0 64.7 61.2 .867 .892 .917 -.663 -.539 -.414 1140 1170 1200 13 15 17 3.47 4.01 4.54 42.2 46.2 50.8 5 7.7 53 . 7 49 .1 .942 .967 .991 -.290 -.165 -. 041 12 30 12 6 0 1290 14 12 19 3.74 3.20 5.08 54.5 57. 7 62.8 45.4 42 .2 3 7.1 1 .016 1.041 1.066 .083 .207 .332 13 20 1 3 5 0 1 3 8 0 10 1 7 14 2 . 6 7 4 . 5 4 3 . 7 4 6 5 . 5 7 0 . 0 7 3 . 7 3 4 . 4 2 9 . 9 2 6 . 2 1 . 0 9 0 1. 1 1 5 1 . 1 4 0 . 4 5 7 . 5 8 1 . 7 0 6 1 4 1 0 1 4 4 0 1 4 7 0 13 19 5 3 . 4 7 5 . 0 8 1 . 3 3 7 7 . 2 8 2 . 3 8 3 . 6 22 . 7 1 7 . 6 16 .3 1 . 1 6 5 1. 1 9 0 1.2 14 . 8 3 0 . 9 55 1 . 0 7 9 1 5 0 0 1 5 3 0 156 0 8 10 7 2 . 1 3 2 . 6 7 1 . 8 7 8 5 . 8 8 8 . 5 9 0 . 3 1 4 . 1 1 1 . 4 9 . 6 1 . 2 3 9 1 . 2 6 4 1 . 2 8 9 1 . 2 0 4 1 . 3 2 8 1 . 4 5 3 1 5 9 0 1 6 2 0 16 50 2 11 9 . 5 3 2 . 9 4 2 . 4 0 9 0 . 9 9 3 . 8 9 6 . 2 9 . 0 6 . 1 3 . 7 1 . 3 1 4 1 . 3 3 8 1 . 3 6 3 1. 5 7 7 1 . 7 0 2 1 . 8 2 7 1 6 8 0 1 7 1 0 1 7 4 0 3 7 4 . 8 0 1. 87 1 . 0 6 9 7 . 0 9 8 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 2 . 9 1 .0 . 0 1 . 3 8 8 1 . 4 1 3 1 . 4 3 8 1 . 9 5 1 2 . 0 7 6 2 . 2 0 0 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S ARE A L L . ZERO T A B L E 7 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E 2 5 0 MEAN ARGUMENT 13 2 . 9 8 3 S T A N O A R D D E V I A T I O N 2 0 1 . 2 5 0 SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 3 3 2 4 6 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D U P P E R L I M I T O B S E R V E D F R E Q U E N C Y PER OF CENT T O T A L C U M U L A T I V E P E R C E N T A G E C U M U L A T I V E R E M A I N D E R M U L T I P L E • F MEAN D E V I A T I O N FROM MEAN 3 0 6 0 90 147 5 5 5 8 . 79 I . 9 9 1 . 9 9 5 8 . 7 6 0 . 7 6 2 . 7 41 . 2 3 9 . 2 3 7 . 2 . 2 2 5 . 4 5 1 . 6 7 6 - . 5 1 1 - . 3 6 2 - . 2 1 3 1 2 0 1 50 1 8 0 5 7 9 i . 9 9 2 . 7 9 3 . 59 6 4 . 7 6 7 . 5 7 1 . 1 3 5 . 2 3 2 . 4 2 8 . 8 . 9 0 2 1 . 1 2 7 1 .3 5 3 - . 0 6 4 . 0 84 . 2 3 3 2 1 0 2 4 0 2 7 0 5 8 3 1 . 9 9 3 . 19 1 . 1 9 7 3 . 1 7 6 . 3 7 7 . 5 2 6 . 8 2 3 . 6 2 2 . 4 1.5 7 9 1 . 8 0 4 2 . 0 3 0 . 3 8 2 . 5 3 1 . 6 8 0 3 00 3 3 0 3 6 0 4 6 5 1 . 5 9 2 . 3 9 1 . 9 9 7 9 . 1 8 1 . 5 8 3 . 5 2 0 . 8 1 8 . 4 1 6 . 4 2 . 2 5 5 2 . 4 8 1 2 . 7 0 7 . 8 2 9 . 9 7 8 1 . 1 2 8 3 90 4 2 0 4 5 0 * 5 6 5 1 . 9 9 2 . 3 9 1 . 9 9 8 5 . 5 8 7 . 9 8 9 . 9 1 4 . 4 1 2 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 . 9 3 2 3 . 1 5 8 3 . 3 83 1.2 77 1 . 4 2 6 1 . 5 7 5 4 80 5 1 0 5 4 0 6 3 2 2 . 3 9 1. 19 . 7 9 9 2 . 3 9 3 . 5 9 4 . 3 7 . 6 6 . 4 5 . 6 3 . 6 0 9 3 . 8 3 5 4 . 0 6 0 1. 7 2 4 1 . 8 7 3 2 . 0 2 2 5 7 0 6 0 0 6 3 0 1 2 2 . 3 9 . 7 9 . 7 9 9 4 . 7 9 5 . 5 9 6 . 3 5 . 2 4 . 4 3 . 6 4 . 2 8 6 4 . 5 11 4 . 7 3 7 2 . 1 7 1 2 . 3 2 0 2 . 4 6 9 6 6 0 6 9 0 72 0 1 4 0 . 39 1 . 5 9 . 0 0 9 6 . 7 9 8 . 3 9 8 . 3 3 . 2 1 . 6 1 .6 4 . 9 6 3 5 . 1 8 8 5 . 4 1 4 2 . 6 1 8 2 . 7 6 7 2 . 9 1 6 7 5 0 7 8 0 8 1 0 2 0 1 . 7 9 . 0 0 . 3 9 9 9 . 1 9 9 . 1 99 . 5 . 8 . 8 . 4 5 .6 3 9 5 . 8 6 5 6 . 0 9 0 3 . 0 6 5 3 . 2 1 4 3 . 3 6 4 8 4 0 8 7 0 R E M A I N I N G F R E Q U E N C I E S ARE 0 1 A L L ZERO . 0 0 . 3 9 9 9 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 . 4 . 0 6 . 3 1 6 6 . 5 4 2 3 . 5 1 3 3 . 6 6 2 T A B L E 8 1 2 E N T R I E S IN T A B L E 2 5 0 MEAN ARGUMENT 1 2 7 1 . 5 6 7 S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 2 3 6 . 5 6 2 SUM OF A R G U M E N T S 3 1 7 8 9 2 . 0 0 0 N O N - W E I G H T E D m UPPER O B S E R V E D PER CENT C U M U L A T I V E C U M U L A T I V E M U L T I P L E D E V I A T I O N L I M I T F R E Q U E N C Y OF T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E R E M A I N D E R OF MEAN FROM MEAN 30 0 ...OQ ,0 100... o .023 -5 .248 60 0 .00 .0 100.0 .047 - 5 . 1 2 1 9 0 0 .00 . 0 100.0 .070 - 4 . 9 9 4 120 0 .00 .0 100.0 .0 94 - 4 . 8 6 7 150 0 .00 .0 100.0 .117 - 4 . 741 180 0 .00 .0 100.0 .141 - 4 . 6 1 4 210 0 ,00 .0 100.0 .165 - 4 , 487 240 0 . 00 . 0 100.0 .188 - 4 . 3 6 0 2 70 0 .00 .0 100.0 .212 - 4 , 2 3 3 300 0 .00 .0 100.0 .235 - 4 . 1 0 7 33 0 0 .00 .0 100.0 .2 59 - 3 . 9 8 0 360 0 .00 .0 100. 0 .2 83 -3 .853 390 0 .00 .0 100.0 .306 - 3 . 7 2 6 420 0 .00 .0 100.0 .3 30 - 3 . 5 9 9 450 0 .00 .0 100.0 .353 -3 .472 480 0 . 00 .0 100.0 .377 - 3 . 3 4 6 5 10 0 .00 .0 100. 0 .401 - 3 . 2 1 9 540 0 .00 .0 100.0 .424 - 3 . 0 9 2 570 0 .00 .0 100.0 .448 - 2 , 9 6 5 6 00 0 .00 .0 100.0 .471 - 2 . 8 3 8 630 0 .00 .0 100.0 .495 - 2 . 7 1 2 660 0 .00 . 0 100.0 .5 19 - 2 . 5 8 5 690 0 .00 .0 100.0 .542 - 2 . 4 5 8 720 0 . 00 .0 100.0 .566 - 2 . 3 3 1 750 0 .00 .0 100. 0 ,589 - 2 , 2 0 4 780 0 .00 .0 100,0 .613 - 2 . 0 7 7 810 0 .00 .0 100.0 .637 - 1 . 9 5 1 840 2 .79 .7 99. 1 .660 - 1 . 8 2 4 870 11 4 .39 5 . 1 94 .7 .684 - 1 . 6 9 7 900 5 1.99 7.1 92 .7 .707 - 1 . 5 7 0 930 3 1.19 8.3 91 .5 . 731 - 1 . 443 960 6 2. 39 10.7 89 .1 .754 - 1 . 3 1 7 990 10 3 .99 14.7 85. 1 .778 -1 .190 102 0 7 2 .79 17.5 82 .4 .8 02 - 1.063 1050 9 3 .59 21.1 78 .8 .825 - . 9 3 6 1080 9 3 .59 24.7 75.2 .849 - . 8 09 1110 9 3...5.9 2.8... 3 . 71 ,6 .8 72 - . 6 8 2 1140 9 3 .59 31. 9 68 .0 .896 - . 5 5 6 1170 8 3 . 19 3 5 . 1 64 .8 .920 - . 429 1200 10 3.99 39 .1 60.8 .943 - . 3 0 2 1230 10 3 .99 43. 1 56 .8 .967 - . 1 7 5 12 60 9 3 .59 46 .7 53 .2 .990 - . 0 4 8 129 0 15 5.99 52.7 47.2 1.0 14 ,077 1320 7 2 .79 55.5 44 . 4 1.03 8 .204 1350 12 4. 79 60 .3 39 .6 1.061 .331 13 80 10 3.99 64 .3 35.6 1.0 85 .458 1410 12 4 .79 69 . 1 30 .8 1. 108 . 5 85 1440 18 7. 19 76.3 23 .6 1.132 .711 1470 4 1.59 77 .9 22. 0 1 .156 .838 1500 8 3 . 19 81. 1 18.8 1.179 .965 1530 8 3 . 19 84.3 15 .6 1 .2 03 1.092 1560 6 2 .39 86.7 13.2 1.226 1.219 1590 2 .79 87.5 12.4 1 .250 1. 346 162 0 9 3 . 59 91. 1 8.8 1.274 1.472 1650 9 3 .59 94 .7 5 . 2 1.297 1, 599 1680 3 1. 19 95 ,9 4 .0 1.321 1.72 6 1710 7 2. 79 98. 7 1,2 1.344 1.853 1740 3 1.19 100 . 0 .0 1.368 1. 980 131 APPENDIX G: A QUICK USEE'S GUIDE To i n t r o d u c e a f l i g h t t o t h e model t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s must be m o d i f i e d : l i n e s 168-194 t h e number o f t a b l e s d e s i r e d must go h e r e w i t h t h e c o r r e c t g a t e number as l a b e l . E.G. 104 f o r t a b l e 1, g a t e 4. L i n e 192: The "E2" must match w i t h t h e number o f f l i g h t s {two her e ) . L i n e 193: Each g a t e ( f l i g h t ) a s s i g n e d has a p a r t i c u l a r a r r i v a l , c o n n e c t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . L i n e s 207-212: E a c h f l i g h t has a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f p l e a s u r e and b u s i n e s s p a s s e n g e r s . L i n e s 268-274: Each f l i g h t i s i n t r o d u c e d w i t h a s e c t i o n l i k e t h i s . The program c a n now be r u n . 

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