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The relationship between school size and school organizational climate in the Vancouver, B.C., Canada,.. 1977

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL SIZE.AND .SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL.CLIMATE IN THE VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA, SCHOOL DISTRICT, 39 by FRED H. BENNETT B. Comm., Un i v e r s i t y of Alb e r t a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS.FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s t hesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Spring, 1977 (c) FRED H. BENNETT, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s AHmini srrai-i rm The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date March 15, 1977 i i ABSTRACT Ap p l i c a t i o n a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of the Organizational Climate De s c r i p t i o n Questionnaire (OCDQ) has revealed that the majority of urban core school climates seemed to be "closed" rather than "open". E f f o r t s on the part of school administrators to a l t e r the "closed", "unhealthy" organizational climates i n t h e i r systems to more "open", "healthy" climates are premature because so l i t t l e i s a c t u a l l y known about how to change a climate. Since "closed" climate conditions seem to be almost synonomous with " l a r g e " school s i z e , the purpose of t h i s study has been to contribute some small measure of knowledge as to how to change a school climate by determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organizational climate measured by the eight OCDQ subtests—Disengagement, Hindrance, E s p r i t , Intimacy, Aloofness, Production Emphasis, Thrust, Consideration—and four objective organizational s i z e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — S c h o o l Area, Staff Members, Enrolment, and Human Density. The impact of these s i z e v a r i a b l e s i s examined based on data obtained through a f i e l d study i n v o l v i n g 20 schools and 116 teachers i n the Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia school system. The data were subjected to factor a n a l y t i c techniques. The r e s u l t s subsequently suggested that a f i v e - factor pattern of climate d i m e n s i o n s — P r i n c i p a l as Leader, Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception, Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n , Working Conditions, Hindrance V—was as s u i t a b l e as an eight-factor pattern. Consequently, the study design was expanded to accomodate the unanticipated r e s u l t s . In terms of i t s purpose, the study's f i n d i n g s can be b r i e f l y summarized as follows: 1) Reduction of Enrolment may prove useful i n i i i providing conditions r e l a t e d to the type of leadership behaviour—as described by the P r i n c i p a l as Leader dimension of school organizational c l i m a t e — n o r m a l l y associated with a more "open", "healthy" climate. 2 ) Reduction of S t a f f Members may influence the P r i n c i p a l as Leader dimension of school organizational climate i n much the same manner j u s t described for Enrolment. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p could w e l l reveal that the reduction of Staff Members, would increase E s p r i t for the remainder. A smaller s t a f f with higher E s p r i t w i l l , tend more toward the "open", "healthy" climate; 3 ) There i s a h i n t i n the find i n g s that the as s o c i a t i o n between Density and P r i n c i p a l as Leader and Area's a s s o c i a t i o n with both Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Hindrance (V) i s strong enough to j u s t i f y further research; 4 ) There Is l i t t l e I n dication that manipulation of any of the four s i z e v a r i a b l e s w i l l influence either, the Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n or the Working Conditions dimension of a school's organizational climate. Three basic implications are drawn from the findings and r e l a t e d empirical evidence provided by the l i t e r a t u r e : 1 ) Smaller schools are imperative i f the p r i n c i p a l ' s leadership i s not to be smothered by too many pup i l s and teachers, 2 ) School s i z e i n terms of i t s Area and i t s Density, i . e . , the number of square f e e t a v a i l a b l e to i t s occupants, may not have as much impact on the climate dimensions as a reduction i n Enrolment and Staff Members, but nevertheless, s u f f i c i e n t evidence does e x i s t to. imply that a l t e r i n g Area and Density might prove useful i n providing conditions s i m i l a r to those which are normally associated with an "open" climate, 3 ) Even though considerably more research i s required with respect to gaining much more i v knowledge concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between school s i z e and school climate, the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by t h i s study and several others reported i n i t , imply that the OCDQ i t s e l f should be subjected to further refinement before continuing to subject i t to such extensive use. V C O N T E N T S Page Abstract List of Tables Lis t of Illustrations I INTRODUCTION Research Area of Interest Statement of Purpose Plan of this Thesis II THE PROBLEM Importance of the School Size-Climate Relationship Review of Relevant Concepts and Literature Definition of Organizational Climate Theoretical Perspective of the School as a Social System Operational Concept of School Organization Climate Development of the OCDQ Climate Profiles Use of Climate Continuum "versus" Use of Climate Subtests Hypotheses-The Relationship Between School Size and Organizational Climate III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 43 Definition of Variables School D i s t r i c t Sampling Procedures Participating Teacher Sampling Procedures Study Limitations Data Analysis Procedures Five-Factor Pattern in Terms of the Conceptual Framework Five-Factor Climate Profiles Additional Null Hypotheses Based on Five^Factor Pattern IV FINDINGS 66 Null Hypotheses 1 through 8 Summary of the Findings V DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND RELATED LITERATURE 75 Enrolment and Principal as Leader Staff Members and Principal as Leader Enrolment and Staff Member Effects Climate's Influence on Leadership Leadership's Influence on Climate Leadership's Function Density and Principal as Leader Density and Disengagement Area Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Hindrance (V) Non-Classroom Teacher Satisfaction and Working Conditions i i v i i v i i i v i Page VI IMPLICATIONS AND SUMMARY 101 The Problem and How I t Emerged Importance of the Problem Purpose of the Study In View of the Problem Implications Smaller Schools Influence of the "Built-Environment" E f f i c a c y of the OCDQ Summary BIBLIOGRAPHY 11A APPENDICES 120 v i i v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. The School as a S o c i a l System 20 2. Paradigm - E f f e c t of Structure on Function 22 and Influence of Function on Structure 3. Eight Dimensions of the OCDQ: Form I I I 32 4. Comparison of An Open and a Closed Organization- 36 a l Climate on The Eight Subtests of the Organizational Climate Description Question- naire , FORM IV 5. Five Dimensions of the OCDQ: Form IV 60 6. Five Factor Climate P r o f i l e s f o r Five Sub- 63 tes t s Obtained From the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire, F6rm IV 7. Prototype of Paradigm I l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2 78 8. The Relationship Between S o c i a l Expectation and P r i n c i p a l P e r s o n a l i t y In Observed Behavior 83 1 I INTRODUCTION Research Area of Interest The notion of planned change and innovation has become quite apparent i n educational organizations i n the l a s t decade or so and subsequently both have been attempted at an ever increasing r a t e . There i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of a r e v e r s a l of t h i s trend; indeed, i f anything, increasing public pressure i s l i k e l y to escalate i t even further. Change, when considered as part of a growth strategy as Brown suggests, i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organizations.^" C l e a r l y r e l a t e d to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the atmosphere, or personality, or organizational c l i m a t e — a s . i t has come to be known— which e x i s t s i n an organization. 2 According to Lawler, H a l l & Oldham, a considerable amount of the recent organizational behavior l i t e r a t u r e has been concerned with the topic of organizational climate. Although many of the studies of organizational climate have used somewhat d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s and a v a r i e t y of measures (of climate) ,aarev.iew of the l i t e r a t u r e r.ev.eall's ta't l e a s t the following: (a) research on organizational climate has focused on a wide range of v a r i a b l e s and conceptualizations of the linkage between i n d i v i d u a l , structure- process, climate, and outcome v a r i a b l e s ; (b) most studies seem to agree that organizational climate can be viewed as an employee's subjective impressions or perception of c e r t a i n features of the organization (e.g.,\see ^ A.F. Brown, "Research i n Organizational Dynamics: Implications for School Administration", The Journal of Educational Administration, I (May, 1967), p. 42. 2 E.E. Lawler I I I , D.T. H a l l and G.R. Oldham, "Organizational Climate: Relationship to Organizational Structure, Process and Performance", Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, XI (1974), pp. 139-155. 2 3 the l i s t provided by L i t w i n & Stringer );; (c) climate has been shown to be related to behavior; (d) climate has been v a r i o u s l y considered as an independent, intervening, or dependent v a r i a b l e , depending on the taste continuum of the researcher and the set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s examined; (e) a somewhat concerted e f f o r t has emerged to provide d e f i n i t i o n s that are more operational than those of e a r l i e r studies; (f) continued e f f o r t to develop a_ p r i o r i as well as empirical taxonomies of climate i n both 4 5 i n d u s t r i a l settings and i n other types of organizations ; (g) more C T . Litwin and R.A. Stringer Jr., Motivation and Organizational Climate (Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Harvard Business School, 1968), 4 ."O See W.M. Evan, " C o n f l i c t and Performance i n R & D Organizations", I n d u s t r i a l Management Review, VII (1965), pp. 37-45. F. Friedlander and N. Margulies, "Multiple Impacts of Organizational Climate and Individual Value Systems Upon Job S a t i s f a c t i o n " , Personnel Psychology, XXII (1969), pp. 171-183. R. Kahn, et a l . , Organizational Stress: Studies i n Role C o n f l i c t and Ambiguity, (New York: Wiley, 1964). Lawler, H a l l , and Oldham, Structure, Process and Performance. L i t w i n and S t r i n g e r f M o t i v a t i o n and Organizational Climate. H.H. Meyer, " I f People Fear to F a i l , Can Organizations Ever Succeed?", Innovation, VIII (1969), pp. 57-62. J . J . Morse,"Organizational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Individual Motivation", i n J.W. Lorsch and P.R. Lawrence (Eds.) Studies i n Organization Design (Homewood, 111.: Richard D. Irwin and The Dorsey Press, 1970). B. Schneider and C.J. B a r t l e t t , "Individual Differences and Organizational Climate: Research Plan and Scale Development" Personnel Psychology, XXI (1968), pp. 323-333. R. T a g u i r i , "The Concept of Organizational Climate", In R. T a g u i r i and G.H. L i t w i n (Eds.), Organizational Climate, (Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Harvard Business School, 1968). ^ For example, see A.W. A s t i n and J.C. Holland, "The Environmental Assessment Technique: A Way to Measure College Environments", Journal of Educational Psychology, L I I (1961), pp. 308-316. E. G l a t t , "Professional Men and Women at Work: A Comparative Study i n A Research and Development Organization", Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Case I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio, June 1966. A.W. Halpin and D. C r o f t , The Organizational Climate of -Schools (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1963). M.M. McCarrey and S.A. Edwards, "Organizational Climate Conditions for E f f e c t i v e Research S c i e n t i s t Role Performance", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, IX (1973), pp. 439-459. CR. Pace and C C Stern, "An Approach to the Measurement of Psychological C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of College Environments", Journal of Educational Psychology, IL (1958), pp. 269-277. R.W. Stephenson, B.S. Gantz, and C.E. Erickson, "Development Organizational Climate Inventories for Use i n R & D Organizations", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, EM-XVIII (1971), pp. 38-50. 3 attempts to provide a rigorous v a l i d a t i o n of instruments , and (h) a concern with tapping more comprehensive sets of the many d i f f e r e n t aspects of organizational c l i m a t e 7 . These considerations are also apparent from several recent reviews of the organizational climate l i t e r a t u r e , which provide further elaboration on the state of the a r t regarding the concept g of organizational climate . In pragmatic terms, one issue of i n t e r e s t to administrators and managers concerns (a) whether the climate e x i s t s i n a state that i s receptive or amenable to the i i i i t r o d u c t i o n of organizational change e f f o r t s , and, (b) i d e n t i f y i n g relevant f a c t o r s amenable to manipulation i n order to provide an impact on the e x i s t i n g climate. Too frequently, while r e a l i z i n g that the organizational climate " i s the f i r s t and most important concern i n i n i t i a t i n g and sustaining change," they have i n c o r r e c t l y assumed that t h e i r organizations were "open" or ready for change and the consequences have 9 ranged from chaotic to disastrous. E f f o r t s on the part of administrators to change the "closed" organizational climate of those schools i n the i r systems which are trouble spots to more "open" climates while commendable, R.J. House and J.R. Rizzo, "Toward the Measurement of Organizational P r a c t i c e s : Scale Development and V a l i d a t i o n " , Journal of Applied Psychology, LVI (1972), pp. 388-396. 7 R.D. Pritchard and B.W. Karasick "The E f f e c t of Organizational Climate on Managerial Job Performance and Satisfaction',',"Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,.IX, (1973), pp. 126-146. g J.P. Campbell, e t . a l . , Managerial Behavior, Performance and E f f e c t i v e - ness, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970). D. H e l l r i e g e l and J.W. Slocum J r . , "Organizational. Climate: Measures Research and Contingencies", Academy of Management Journal, XVII (1974), pp. 255-280. L.R. James and A.P. Jones "Organizational Climate: A Review of Theory and Research", Psychological B u l l e t i n , LXXXI (1974), pp. 1096-1112. B. Schneider, "Organizational Climates: An Essay", Personnel Psychology, XXVIII (1975), pp. 447-479. 9 E. > D. D o a k ^ k y O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Educational Leadership, XXVII (February, 1970), p. 368. 4 are nonetheless premature, since "the blunt truth i s that we do not yet know very much about how to change a climate. More research i s needed before any of us can r i s k a headlong plunge into a c t i o n programs i n t h i s a r e a . " ^ Statement of Purpose In suggesting areas urgently r e q u i r i n g further research, Halpin implies that one physical aspect contributing to the high proportion of "closed", "unhealthy" organizational climates might be the sheer s i z e of some schools i n today's systems or, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , s i z e as described by the number of students and s t a f f i n r e l a t i o n to a v a i l a b l e space. Accordingly, the s p e c i f i c research area of t h i s thesis concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organizational climate (dependent variable) and several objective organizational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — S c h o o l Area, Staff Members, Enrolment, Human Density—(independent v a r i a b l e s ) . The impact of the independent v a r i a b l e s i s examined based on data obtained through a f i e l d study involving 20 schools and 116 teachers of the Vancouver, B.C. school system. In l i g h t of the data a v a i l a b l e and a review of relevant l i t e r a t u r e , a t t e n t i o n i s also paid to the appropriateness of describing the climate of an organization as "open" or "closed" rather than i n terms of data p r o f i l e s r e f l e c t i n g dimensions of organizational climate. Plan of t h i s Thesis Chapter I I considers t h e o r e t i c a l and empirical concepts relevant to the research area of i n t e r e s t . This includes a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , an o u t l i n e of the design and development of the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire, and the presentation of an operational conceptual ^ A.W. Halpin, "Change and Organizational Climate", The Journal of Educational Administration, V (May, 1967), p. 11. I b i d ; , p. 1-3. 5 framework. The chapter concludes with a statement of four hypotheses. In Chapter I I I , d e t a i l e d consideration i s given to the study design and methodology. Based on the methods of an a l y s i s employed i t i s suggested that a f i v e - f a c t o r pattern of climate dimensions may be as appropriate as the eight-factor s o l u t i o n suggested i n some other studies. Consequently, four a d d i t i o n a l hypotheses are formulated. The study's findings are presented i n Chapter IV. Subsequently, Chapter V provides a discussion of the findings with respect to rel a t e d findings a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F i n a l l y , Chapter VI. gives, consider-, a t i o n to a number of implications drawn from the two preceding chapters. 6 II THE PROBLEM Part of the administrator's problem of "guessing" whether his or her organization i s ready for planned change or innovation may have been elimin- ated as a result of Halpin and Croft's attempt to develop a method of 12 measuring the organizational climate of schools. Unfortunately though, subsequent use of this instrument known as the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ), has indicated that the vast majority of urban core school climates are "closed", not "open". For example,.in sum- marizing several studies which have utilized the OCDQ, Halpin writes that, one finding stands out . . . . The data from schools located i n urban core areas show that a preponderant ^ number of these schools are marked by "closed" climates. Moreover, i n discussing the OCDQ's development and their use of adjectives such as "healthy" and "unhealthy" to describe the "open" and "closed" organizational climate respectively, Halpin and Croft point out such labeling i s done with no intent to either praise or damn the climate of a particular school. Obviously we believe that a closed climate i s undesirable,.that i t i s crippling for both the faculty and students. Yet we prefer to view a closed climate as unhealthy or sick—not as e v i l . 12 A.W.. Halpin and D.B. Croft, The Organizational Climate of Schools (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The University of Chicago, 1963). 13 Halpin, "Change and Organizational Climate", p. 8. 14 A. W. Halpin, Theory and Research i n Administration (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1966), p. 137. (Chapter 4 of this reference i s an abridged version of the original monograph referenced in footnote 12). 7 Bearing the evident preponderance of "closed" climates and th e i r undesirable, "unhealthy" connotation i n mind, does i t not l o g i c a l l y follow that when an a p p l i c a t i o n of the OCDQ to a school does reveal a "closed", " c r i p p l i n g " climate, then every e f f o r t should be exerted to change that condition p r i o r to attempting any other type of change? Why r i s k almost c e r t a i n f a i l u r e of a planned change or innovation scheduled f o r a school that i s "sick"? Would i t not be prudent to determine those apparent causes underlying the undesirable climate and subsequently take such steps as may be necessary to change i t from i t s "closed", "unhealthy" state into an "open", "healthy" one? Should the research of the present study i n d i c a t e that a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p does indeed appear to e x i s t between c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c aspects of school s i z e and school climate the p o t e n t i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s with respect to the problem of changing a climate are obvious. For example, any a c t i o n program which i s designed to replace an "unhealthy" climate with an "open", "healthy" one could i l l a f f o r d to ignore the s i z e v a r i a b l e s of the school involved. Furthermore, i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t , then a l t e r i n g some of the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to school s i z e i n such a way as i s l i k e l y to engender conditions more conducive to an "open", "healthy" climate might prove to be of.considerable value i n the subsequent successful implementa- t i o n of planned change or innovation i n the school. . Importance of the School Size-Climate Relationship A review of the l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to the OCDQ and the e f f e c t s of an organization's s i z e i n terms of the problem addressed by t h i s study w i l l lead to at l e a s t two substantive reasons why i t i s important to begin to systematically study the size-climate r e l a t i o n s h i p . 8 The f i r s t , and perhaps the most obvious reason has already been touched upon: that i s , the evident preponderance of "closed" climates i n schools. Indeed, one central theme emerges from the OCDQ. literature concerned with school size and organizational climate—a large school i s generally synonomous with a "closed" climate. Irrespective of what size variable, or variables, are employed to define "large", the findings are almost invariably the same—large schools equal "closed climate con- ditions". For example, during the course of an investigation of the relation- ship between the psychological distance of school principals and selected dimensions of organizational climate, Watkins has noted that thirteen of thirty-six schools were "closed"''""'. He was so perturbed by the preponder- ance of "closed" climates i n his study that he subsequently questioned the validity of the OCDQ for use i n secondary schools; for support he cites an investigation designed by Morris to classify 146 Alberta, Canada, elementary and secondary schools on the basis of their organizational 16 climates. In both studies—Watkins' and M o r r i s 1 — there does appear to be a greater tendency for secondary schools to be characterized by "closed" climates than i s the case for elementary schools. It is on this basis that Watkins apparently chooses to ignore val i d i t y studies conducted by Andrews'*" J.F. Watkins, "The OCDQ—An Application and Some, Implications", Educational Administration Quarterly, IV, No.2 (Spring, 1968), pp.47-60, for a description of the actual study and discussion of the findings refer to pages 93-94 of this text. 16 D.V. Morris, "Organizational Climate of Alberta Schools", Canadian School Administration Bulletin, III (June, 1964) cited i n J.F. Watkins, Ibid., pp. 54-55. ^ J.H. Andrews, "School Organizational Climate: Some Validity Studies", Canadian Education and Research Digest, V (December, 1965), pp. 317-333. 9 and instead concludes that.the.OCDQ.is not a valid instrument for measur- 18 ing the organizational climate of "large" secondary schools. Why this conclusion i s reached, rather than one which considers that i t i s probably more difficult., for the larger secondary schools to obtain an "open" climate rating simply because of the actual nature of. the problems they must confront, as. a result of increased, size i s not. clear. The findings from both, studies, his own and Morris', would seem to support this latter conclusion as much, as the former. Carver and Sergiovanni consider Andrews' validity studies, but note that an investigation which they conducted, i n thirty-six I l l i n o i s 19 secondary schools found twenty-six "closed" climates. Owing to the similarity between their findings and. the results.obtained by both Watkins and Morris they decided to compare the. distribution of. climate types between Halpin. and Croft's elementary schools, Andrews' secondary, schools (average, of. twenty-five teachers), and Watkins' (average of fifty-two teachers) with those schools i n their own sample (average.of ninety-three teachers); lik e Watkins, they conclude that the OCDQ i s not a valid 20 instrument for use in large secondary schools. They propose three alternative- suggestions for their findings: 1. The OCDQ does not validly measure climate i n "large" secondary schools,. 2. "largef:secondary schools" by nature have Closed Climates; or, 2^ 3. gross sampling error. o 18 Watkins, "Application and Implications", p. 56. 19 F.D. Carver and T.J. Sergiovanni, "Some Notes'on the OCDQ", The Journal of Educational Administration, VI, No.. 1 (1969), pp. 78-81. 20 Ibid., p. 79. "Large" i s defined as a school whose mean teacher size i s greater than twenty-five to thirty. 21< Ibid. 10 and then proceed, f o r some unexplained reason, to r e j e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s two and 22 three". . . . out of hand". The mysterious r e j e c t i o n of two p o t e n t i a l l y v a l i d postulates "out of hand" i n favour of an equally untested t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s further complicated by noting that a majority of the teachers i n eighteen out of the twenty six"closed"climates under consideration by Carver and Sergiovanni 23 c l e a r l y perceived t h e i r assigned school climate as "closed". Coupling Andrews' s t a t i s t i c a l l y based conclusion that the OCDQ i s a v a l i d t e s t instrument i n secondary schools with the preponderance of closed elementary school climates previously noted by Halpin ( c i t e d on page 6) i t might be more l o g i c a l — t h o u g h admittedly equally as u n o b j e c t i v e — t o conclude that large secondary schools have, by v i r t u e of th e i r s i z e , "closed" climates. Further evidence of the "closed" climate i n large secondary schools i s a v a i l a b l e . A study by Hartley and Hoy used the OCDQ responses of almost 3000 teachers and administrators i n f o r t y - f i v e New Jersey high schools i n an e f f o r t to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the "openness" of school climate 24 and a l i e n a t i o n of high school students. They encountered some d i f f i c u l t y i n analysing the data i n that extremely "open", secondary schools were not found i n the sample.... Indeed, i t appears extremely d i f f i c u l t to f i n d 25 l a r g e r high schools with a c l e a r l y "open" c l i m a t e " i However, they were 22 Ibid . 2 3 I b i d . , p. 80. 24 M.C. Hartley and W.K. Hoy, "Openness of School Climate and A l i e n a t i o n of High School Students", C a l i f o r n i a Journal of Educational Research, XXIII,.Np. 1, pp. 17-24. 25 I b i d . , p. 23. 11 relatively unconcerned in that their results were consistent with those of Kolesar who had previously found that large "punishment-centered" or "closed",.bureaucratic high schools seemed to lead to a greater degree of alienation than was the case in high schools with a "representative", or 26 "open" organizational structure. From the foregoing i t i s indeed apparent that the relationship between "large" schools and "closed" climate conditions described by the OCDQ literature i s in general accord: "large" schools are generally synon- ymous with "closed" climates. Certainly they are conducive to "closed" climate conditions. Unfortunately, the prognosis for implementing planned change or innovativative methods in "large" schools with "closed","unhealthy" climates i s not good. This being the case, the preponderance of this kind of climate does dramatize as well as lend some impetus to the importance of studying the size-climate relationship with a view of isolating those physical size variables, i f any, which may contribute to "sickness". A second reason which tends to stress the importance of the need to study the size-climate relationship may be extracted from published material pertinent to the environmental design of schools. As a matter of fact, there does seem to be a substantial degree of agreement among environmental psychologists that a school's "built-environment", i.e., i t s physical features and layout, inclusive of i t s size, probably has a profound influence not only upon the teaching and learning processes, but also upon Ibid., Hartley and Hoy cite Henry Kolesar "An Empirical Study of Client Alienation in the Bureaucratic Organization", Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1967. 12 . •. . . -,-,27 s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l . Getzels, for example, has stressed t h i s point strongly i n h i s comments on the evolution of the conception of the learning process, from a) one which sees the learner as an empty organism who learns through a series of rewards and punishments at the command of the teacher, to b) an act i v e organism so l v i n g problems to s a t i s f y i n d i v i d u a l needs, to c) a s o c i a l organism who learns through i n t e r a c t i o n s with others, and f i n a l l y , on to d) a stimulus-seeker learning because, i n t r i n s i c a l l y , he has to do 28 so. He traces the changes i n arrangements and useage of school space corresponding to each epoch of the evolutionary process and notes that, as an expression of human nature, i t i s the p h y s i c a l , or "built-environment" 29 which i r r e s i s t a b l y works to t e l l "....us who we are and what we must do". In order to emphasize t h i s contention that, "Our habits impel our habitations and the habitations impel our l i v e s " , he c i t e s Winston C h u r c h i l l ' s observation, "We shape our buildings and afterwards our b u i l d - 30 ings shape us." If i n actu a l fact. Getzels i s correct, and the " b u i l t - environment" does indeed exercise such a profound e f f e c t upon the teaching and learning processes, then i t most c e r t a i n l y does underscore the need 27 See R.H. Moos and P.M. Insel (Eds.), Issues i n S o c i a l Ecology: Human Mil i e u s (Palo A l t o , C a l i f . : National Press Books, 1974). In p a r t i c u l a r , Part 4: Man-Made Designs and Psychosocial Consequences, pp. 180-238, and Part 5: Behavior Settings and Psychosocial Interactions, pp. 255-302, are both relevant to the topic under consideration here. 28 J.W. Getzels, "Images of the Classroom and Visions of the Learner", School Review, LXXXII (August, 1974), pp. 527-538. ^ I b i d . , p. 536. 3 0 I b i d . 13 31 to study what some of the effects may be. Coupling the notion that schools—obstensibly at l e a s t — a r e built to f a c i l i t a t e both of these processes, with the reality that the management of school space i s usually thought to come under the principal's purview, one of the more obvious relationships for research i s the effect of the school's group size—teachers, learners and principal—on the school's organizational climate. GetzelsjV' argument i s quite convincing. It i s not particularly d i f f i c u l t to visualize how school "crowding" or "density" could easily "shape" a school's climate conditions. In a similar vein, yet another reason to consider the school size- climate relationship as far as implementing planned change i s concerned, stems from the recognition that education i s a dynamic and changing process; thus, i t is unrealistic to expect i t to occur, or to be "shaped" in static, immutable places.^:\Gf eenGar.guesrghat- :ehviro~nmeH£â l>emâ  he V has defined as "....the appropriate disposition and use of space to meet current educational organization and processes", i s absolutely essential i f teachers, principals and students are not to be thwarted by mismatches ! 32 between the place and the instructional processes'! It i s unlikely that the kind of environmental management Green envisions could be judged success- f u l unless some research developed c r i t e r i a with respect to the effects of In a sense, Thomas David has taken the opposite point of view: he seriously questions whether or not the existing conception of the physical environment's role in education has kept pace with changing notions about learning. He i s careful to note, however, that the "manner in which the "built-environment" is structured ;*"will l i k e l y influence social or inter- personal variables". See Thomas David, "On Learning in Trees and Class- rooms", School Review, LXXXII (August, 1974), p. 523. 32 A.C. Green, "Planning for Declining Enrollments", School Review, LXXXII, (August, 1974),, pp. 598-99. 14 school s i z e upon school inhabitants has been obtained for use as a standard. In addressing the problem of the development and design of e f f e c t i v e environments, i . e . , "polar paradigms" for observing what kind of behavior can be e l i c i t e d from exceptional c h i l d r e n as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h e i r physical s e t t i n g , Spivackpisaev.idehtly.dihtwholehearted'eagr.eemen t h e s i s : Without much extra e f f o r t we may become a l e r t for i n d i c a t i o n s that the environment i s or i s not supporting the behavioral or other needs of the population with whom we work. Remaining a l e r t to these i n t e r a c t i o n s i s a basic s k i l l that i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the professional tools and t r a i n - ing of anyone i n a care-giving or educational r o l e . . . . P r ofessional l i f e i n these domains should include a continuing dialogue about the environment, the a r c h i t e c t u r e and the f i t t i n g s , the f u r n i t u r e , l i g h t i n g , and a c o u s t i c s — a diologue about the whole setting.33 Spivack even goes so f a r as to state that those i n d i v i d u a l s responsible for environmental management are unable to perform adequately, i . e . , avoid mis- matches between the place and behavioral process, because " i t i s a v i t a l missing element i n the t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e of. administrators who d i r e c t 34 i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with education...." In f a c t , though, l i k e Green's lack of judgemental c r i t e r i a , Spivack's "missing element" w i l l l i k e l y remain "missing" u n t i l p r a c t i c a l f i e l d research i s able to f i l l some of the gaps with respect to what influence the p h y s i c a l space a c t u a l l y may have upon organizational behavior. MaMer Spivack, "The Exceptional Environment: Strategies for Design", School Review, LXXXII, (August,1974), p. 648. 3 4 Ibid. 15 Proshansky emphasizes the need f o r comprehensive t h e o r e t i c a l 35 reasoning with regard to research r e l a t e d to the "built-environment". One of the areas he suggests f o r research, which conceivably could lead to the development of appropriate d e s c r i p t i v e concepts, i s the need to e s t a b l i s h those p h y s i c a l dimensions which a c t u a l l y f o s t e r , shape, and under- 36 l i e the complex human a c t i v i t i e s which go on i n complex s e t t i n g s . " The task Proshansky i s suggesting i s not a simple one. The influence which the ph y s i c a l dimensions may have upon d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s i s l i k e l y to f l u c t u a t e substantially., F i t t has noted, for example, that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s use of space may vary considerably depending upon h i s or 37 her p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e . Some people quite n a t u r a l l y seem to require a considerable degree of "spaciousness" to f e e l comfortable while others w i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y function better, i n smaller, more "cramped" areas: most people probably vary between the two extremes. Whether the people i n question are i n a school to teach, to l e a r n or to administer the teaching- learning processes, i s not as material to her argument as i s the notion t h a t — " s p a c i o u s " or "cramped" l i f e s t y l e s notwithstanding—the type of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n which w i l l take place i n the environment can not help 38 but be e f f e c t e d . 35 H.M. Proshansky, "Theoretical Issues i n Environmental Psychology", 'School Review, LXXXII, (August, 1974), pp. 540-55. ^ I b i d . , p. 552. 37 S. F i t t , "The Individual and His Environment", School Review, LXXXII, (August, 1974), pp. 617-20. 38 Ibid., p. 620. F i t t also decries the f a c t that l i t t l e research has been done on the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e and environmental structure. 16 Perhaps the lack of comprehensive theory and d e s c r i p t i v e concepts r e l a t e d to the "built-environment" may be a t t r i b u t e d to the apparent f a c t that, according to Propst, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been paid to the physical environment because of o v e r f a m i l i a r i t y with i t s overt character- 39 i s t i c s . . . . and the tendency of physical arrangements to s t a t i c f o r m a l i t y . " Propst f i r m l y believes that i n s p i t e of the evidence that school environments have become "design stereotypes", they s t i l l compel behavior and 40 influence s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . . . " In support of h i s contention that t h i s lack of a t t e n t i o n requires r e c t i f i c a t i o n , he c i t e s Farson's rather com- p e l l i n g reason for studying environments as a p o t e n t i a l change agent for people themselves: I spent my l i f e as a psychologist, t r y i n g to f i g u r e out ways i n which I could change people or enable them to change....I found that you can't r e a l l y change people....as i n d i v i d u a l s or as groups you have to understand whole organizations. So.I became interested i n organizations. F i n a l l y , I got interested i n environments, because no matter what scale you work on, you can't reform people, you can only create new forms. But people do change. They change almost e n t i r e l y according to the s i t u a t i o n i n which they f i n d themselves. I t i s not trimming people n e e d — i t ' s l i b e r a t i n g and environments can beryerylslibefaging. .. Let's go into the i n s t i t u t i o n s and organizations and see i f we can't arrange the kind of s o c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e that would. . .enable people to^ecome what they want to be i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s . In a very narrow sense, Farson's reason for studying environments i s also the crux for t h i s study: i f the physical school space—the " b u i l t - R. Propst, "Human Needs and Working Places", School Review, LXXXII, (August, 1974), p. 609. ^ Ibid.> p. 613. 41 R. Farson, "The Greatest R e a l i z a t i o n " , Environmental Planning and Design, VIII, (September, 1970), as c i t e d by Propst, I b i d . , p. 610. 17 environment"—can be a l t e r e d i n any way which w i l l cause or enable people to change i n a manner more l i k e l y to engender an "open" climate a l l concerned might reasonably be expected to b e n e f i t . In a s u b s t a n t i a l l y broader sense, though, Farson's reason for studying environments r e a l l y transcends merely changing organizational climate. According to Propst, I t i s , i n f a c t , a new l e v e l of agreement permitting the i n d i v i d u a l to implement a broader spectrum of changes at h i s d i s c r e t i o n . In a curious way, i t i s agreement that managers may also manipulate the work environmental to meet the dynamic needs of contemporary organizations;?? In any case the apparent profound influence of the physical environment upon the teaching and learning processes, and upon the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , when coupled with the importance of adequately managing school space i n order to meet the needs of a l l concerned, c e r t a i n l y does seem to stress the importance of studying the physical size-climate r e l a t i o n s h i p i n schools. However, u n t i l considerably more concrete knowledge concerning t h i s r e l a t i o n - ship becomes a v a i l a b l e i t i s u n l i k e l y that Farson's thesis can be modestly tested i n i t s narowest,-sense,let alone i n i t s considerably broader scope as envisioned by Propst. Review of Relevant Concepts and Related L i t e r a t u r e Terms such as "planned change" or "innovation" or manipulating " v a r i a b l e s " to improve school health are, of course, predicated on the assumption that any p a r t i c u l a r organizational occurrence takes place within a system of highly interdependent forces. Examination and analysis of the various e f f e c t s each force may have upon the remainder w i l l require an adequate d e f i n i t i o n of organizational climate, a r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r - c u t I b i d . , p. 612. 18 notion or theoretic perspective of the school as a s o c i a l system and an operational concept of the organizational climate of a school. D e f i n i t i o n of Organizational Climate Halpin and Croft quite frankly admit that there are numerous fa c t o r s which conceivably could define a school's climate: the socio economic status of the school's patrons; the biographical and personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r i n c i p a l and the teachers; the " q u a l i t y " of the students; the at t i t u d e s of the parents toward the school; the school's p h y s i c a l plant; the teacher's s a l a r y schedule; the educational and administrative p o l i c i e s of the school d i s t r i c t ; the l o c a t i o n of the school; ... t h e ' s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s that occur between the teachers and the p r i n c i p a l . ^ In f a c t , they l i s t these eight f a c t o r s as the very minimum which would have to be taken i n t o account i n order to obtain a global assessment of organiza- t i o n a l climate. They recognized that a l l of these facets could not be handled simultaneously and yet wishing to s t a r t somewhere, Halpin and Croft selected the " s o c i a l component"—the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s that occur between the teachers and t h e , p r i n c i p a l — a s a departure point. Some j u s t i f i c a t i o n for s e l e c t i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r component to define organizational climate to begin with does e x i s t i f there i s any v a l i d i t y to Halpin and Croft's suggestion that the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between school group membership i s determined to some degree by the "external" factors j u s t l i s t e d ; therefore t h e i r e f f e c t i s at l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y tapped by the OCDQ. Theoretical Perspective of the School as a S o c i a l System A theoretic model germane to the research area of i n t e r e s t of t h i s thesis has been formulated by Jacob Getzels; h i s model attempts to map a pattern of r e l a t i o n s h i p s within the school as a s o c i a l system while i n d i c a t i n g Halpin and Cr o f t , Organizational Climate of Schools, p. 7. 19 4 4 organizational effectiveness i n terms of goal achievement. He postulates two dimensions: the " i d i o g r a p h i c " and the "nomothetic". The former comprises those i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c l u s i v e * o f p e r s o n a l i t y and needs d i s p o s i t i o n s , within the school organization while the l a t t e r i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l dimension which consists b a s i c a l l y of r o l e s and the expectations which the organization holds f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s who occupy these r o l e s . These o r i g i n a l dimension's have been underlined i n Figure 1, page 20. Since organizational behavior i s seldom, i f ever, s o l e l y idiographic or nomothetic, most goal oriented behavior may be described as a r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the dimensions on three l e v e l s : i n s t i t u t i o n with i n d i v i d u a l , r o l e with personality, and r o l e expectations with needs- d i s p o s i t i o n s . Obviously, conditions contributing to psychological tension and c o n f l i c t w i l l a r i s e when i n s t i t u t i o n a l demands are contrary to i n d i v i d u a l demands and needs. However, i f the dimensions are integrated, or congruent, a state of zero tension e x i s t s , i . e . , a state of s a t i s f a c t i o n presumably e x i s t s , and organizational goals may be achieved. Other i n t e r a c t i o n s from without occur which a f f e c t the organizational behavior of the school as a s o c i a l system. Getzels and Thelen added two dimensions to the o r i g i n a l model to account for the influence of environment- 45 a l v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t of these a d d i t i o n a l dimensions i s anthropological 44 J.W. Getzels, "Administration as a S o c i a l Process", i n A.W. Halpin (Ed.), Administrative Theory i n Education, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1958), p. 156, for the two dimensional General Model i n i t i a l l y developed and underlined i n Figure 1. See Jacob W. Getzels and Herbert A. Thelen, "The Classroom as A Unique S o c i a l System", Chapter IV i n Nelson B. Henry (Ed.), The Dynamics of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Groups, The El%ty,-ndirith; Yearbook of the National Society. for- the Study of Education, Part I I , (U. of Chicago Press, 1960), pp. 53-80, for l a t e r refinements added to the model i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1. ^ Getzeiss and Thelen, "The Classrooms as A; Unique S o c i a l System", pp. 53-80. Anthropological Dimension Nomothetic Dimension The School as a / G e n e r a l S o c i a l < Dimension System Idiographic Dimension B i o l o g i c a l Dimension Ethos 1 •Institution* i b Group• Mores t •Role' t Climate Personality I Constitution Values 1 Expectations R a t i o n a l i t y Intentions •Needs Dis p o s i t i o n s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n L P o t e n t i a l i t i e s Goal Behavior FIGURE 1. THE SCHOOL AS A SOCIAL SYSTEM* The model s p e c i f i c a l l y describes the c l a s s , but i t generally applies to the school as w e l l . b Getzels o r i g i n a l two dimensional model has been underlined. * J.W. Getzels and H.A. Thelan. "The Classroom as A Unique S o c i a l System", i n N.B. Henry (Ed.) The Dynamics of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Groups, (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1960), Chapter IV. and, as shown i n Figure 1 consists of the c u l t u r a l ethos, mores and values of the larger s o c i a l system, i . e . , environment, i n which the school i s embedded. Interaction between t h i s anthropological dimension and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l dimension w i l l determine the organizational behavior. The second dimension i s b i o l o g i c a l and, as shown i n Figure 1 c o n s i s t s of the organism, i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n and i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . I n t e r a c t i o n between the b i o l o g i c a l dimension and idiographic dimension w i l l determine the i n d i v i d u a l behavior. F i n a l l y , another general dimension was u l t i m a t e l y added i n order to r e l a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n s between the o r i g i n a l nomothetic and idiographic dimension. As shown i n Figure 1, t h i s t h i r d a d d i t i o n a l dimension consists of the group, which i s a r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l ; the climate which Is a r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n between r o l e and personality; and the intentions of the r o l e incumbents which i s a r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n between r o l e expectations and needs-dispositions of the i n d i v i d u a l s comprising the group. Ultimately i t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n between the anthropological and nomothetic dimensions which provide the r a t i o n a l e for the organization's goal d i r e c t e d behavior, while the i n t e r a c t i o n between the b i o l o g i c a l and idiographic dimensions provide the i n d i v i d u a l with a means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the organization and i t s goals. Belongingness acts as axblanket force drawing the dimensions together toward achievement of s u i t a b l e goal directed behavior. Can G e t z e l s i and Thelan's s o c i a l system model i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1, page 20, provide an adequate, theoretic explanation of the apparent preponderance of "closed" climates which seemingly does pervade "large" schools? I t i s simple enough to v i s u a l i z e the s i z e of the group on the 22 general dimension as a function of the I n s t i t u t i o n on the nomothetic axis and the number of Individuals on the idiographic a x i s . But why i s the climate u s u a l l y "closed" i f the s i z e of the group i s "large"? What i s happening within the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the nomothetic p r i n c i p a l ' s Role and the idiographic teachers' Personality when the group i s "large"? The s o c i a l system model evidentlyiean account for organizational c l i m a t e — "open" or Mc 1lgsed|i2^b ut i t apparently w i l l not adequately account for the accordant a-.1 r e l a t i o n s h i p between "closed" climate and "large" schools. Indik has proposed a psycho-sociological paradigm which would seem to be capable of accounting for the f a i r l y consistent r e l a t i o n s h i p between "closed" climates and "large" schools. His suggestion, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2 i s that an increase i n organizationalor group s i z e generates a need for an increase i n the coordinative and supervisory function owing to the 46 need to f a c i l i t a t e the functions r e l a t e d to the group member's tasks. Size - Supervisory - - - - - - - - - - ^Bureaucratization Coordination — — " " Impersonal - - - - - - - - - - • A t t r a c t i o n to Control the^Organization Absence <— ~~ Turnover (Behavioral) the_Organizat: — " ( A t t i t u d i n a l ) Figure 2 Paradigm - E f f e c t of Structure on Function and Influence of Function on Structure* *Abstracted from B.P. Indik,"Some E f f e c t s of Organization Size on Member Attitu d e s and Behaviour" ,Human Relations, XVI, (1963) , p.378. B.P. Indik, "Some E f f e c t s of Organizational Size on Member Attit u d e s and Behaviour 1; Human Relations, XVI, (1963), pp. 369-384. 23 This increased need for coordination and supervision i n turn i leads to Bureaucratization, which, i n i t s turn, w i l l tend to the use of Impersonal Controls; Impersonal Controls are l i k e l y to be l e s s e f f e c t i v e than a f f e c t i v e interpersonal controls i n a t t r a c t i n g members to the organization ( e s p e c i a l l y those i n d i v i d u a l s who seem to need p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t u a l — n o t impersonal— c o n t r o l s ) ; the l e s s a t t r a c t i v e the members f i n d the organization the more l i k e l y they are to f a i l to a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e which".may be indicated by leaving the organization both temporarily (absence) and permanently (turn- over);, consequently, the larger the organization the greater the i n d i v i d u a l absence-rand ind;iv-idualbturnover i s l i k e l y to be.4'' Indik's p s y c o - s o c i o l o g i c a l paradigm conceivably could complement Ge t z e l s 1 and Thelan's s o c i a l system model i n that the latter.cannot adequately account, or explain t h e o r e t i c a l l y , the concept that organizational climate on the general axis of Figure 1 may not be a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the Roles and P e r s o n a l i t i e s of the P r i n c i p a l and Teachers. I t may, however, be an i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of at l e a s t two mediating v a r i a b l e s , that i s , an organizational, or nomothetic process, e.g., c o n t r o l , and a psychological, or idiographic process, e.g., p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate, both of which, i n turn, are a r e s u l t of the s i z e of the group. In support of h i s paradigm with respect to educational organizations, Indik c i t e s a study which has indicated that as school d i s t r i c t s i z e increases-^—elementary d i s t r i c t s , high school d i s t r i c t s , o r r u n i f i e d - d i s t r i c t s — the percentage of members i n the coordinative and supervisory component also tends to increase; but the increase i n the l a t t e r i s at a greater rate i n I b i d . , pp. 377-378. 2 4 o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h o s e f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s t a s k s . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , C a r v e r a n d S e r g i o v a n n i i n t u i t i v e l y s e e m t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s i n c r e a s e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p o n e n t a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l w h e n t h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t t o b e e f f e c t i v e t h e O C D Q m e a s u r e m e n t o f c l i m a t e i n l a r g e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w o u l d l i k e l y r e q u i r e a s h i f t i n t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f r o m t h e s c h o o l a s a u n i t t o a s u b u n i t s u c h a s d e p a r t m e n t c h a i r m e n w h o m a y b e m o r e w i t h i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a n d e f f e c t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s 4 9 o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n f o r r e s p o n d e n t s . " O p e r a t i o n a l C o n c e p t o f S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e S t e m m i n g a s i t d o e s f r o m s o c i a l s y s t e m s t h e o r y , G e t z e l s a n d T h e l e n ' s m o d e l c a n b e a d o p t e d a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f r o m w h i c h a n o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e o f a s c h o o l c a n b e d e r i v e d . I n d e e d , L o n s d a l e , w h o t r e a t s t h e t e r m s t a s k - a c h i e v e m e n t d i m e n s i o n a n d n e e d - a c h i e v e m e n t d i m e n s i o n s y n o n o m o u s l y w i t h t h e n o m o t h e t i c a n d i d i o g r a p h i c d i m e n s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , h a s b e e n c i t e d a s f o l l o w s : O r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e m i g h t b e d e f i n e d a s t h e g l o b a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t a s k - a c h i e v e m e n t d i m e n s i o n a n d t h e n e e d - s a t i s f a c t i o n d i m e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i n o t h e r w o r d s , o f t h e e x t e n t o f t h e t a s k - n e e d s i n t e g r a t i o n . ^ ^ 4 8 F . W . T e r r i e n a n d D . L . M i l l s , " T h e E f f e c t o f C h a n g i n g S i z e U p o n t h e I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , XXv,<!>95-5.):rlp.., fcl-fcfaft; ieieea'.ifinB'iR.,. I h d i i k , , I b i d . l S . p . 318. 4 9 S e r g i o v a n n i a n d C a r v e r , " N o t e s o n t h e O C D Q " , p . 8 1 . T . W . W i g g i n s , " P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r i n t h e S c h o o l C l i m a t e : A S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s " , E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , . ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 5 7 . C i t i n g f r o m R . C . L o n s d a l e " M a i n t a i n i n g t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n D y n a m i c E q u i l i b r i u m " , i n D . G r i f f i t h s ( E d . ) B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e a n d E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 6 3 r d Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N S S E , P a r t I I , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 6 6 . 25 Conceptually, then, the general dimension of the model which relates the interaction between the nomothetic and idiographic dimension does describe the organizational climate in terms of the interaction that occurs between organizational or group members who are acting within their prescribed roles while satisfying their particular needs. Operationally, this concept of organizational climate may be placed i n terms ofsehboiJ organizational climate by referring to the state, or condition, which ordinarily results from the various social interactions normally taking place between the teachers and principal as they attempt to f u l f i l l their prescribed roles while satisfying 51 their individual needs. Development of the OCDQ Having defined organizational climate as the social interactions that occur between teachers and the principal, Halpin and Croft began to concentrate on the central question of determining what new dimensions might be constituted to deal with this particular concept. Subsequently, an examination of available literature on leadership and group behavior led to a variety of classifications related to the attributes of either the leader, or the group, or both. Halpin and Croft have identified the following three schemata, which they feel effectively reduces the various taxonomies to a manageable form: 1) the locus or source from which inter- actions stemmed, 2) the "effectiveness", or vice verse, of the group or organization, and 3) the relationship between an individual's own social group needs as opposed to the social control imposed upon the individual An i l l u s t r a t i o n of this concept in operation has been provided by Guba and i s cited on page 81 in conjunction with the discussion of the principal's leadership. 26 as a p r i c e of being a group member. The f i r s t of these three themes—group interactions—may be cat- egorized as those determined p r i m a r i l y by the leader's behavior, or those a t t r i b u t a b l e to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group "qua" group and i n d i v i d u a l "qua" i n d i v i d u a l . Other i n t e r a c t i o n s might also stem from, or be determined by procedures, i . e . , actions of an executive h i e r a r c h i c a l l y superior to the group leader. The second theme—group, or organizational "effectiveness"—may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o four " i d e a l types" which deal with the " E f f e c t i v e " , the "Social-needs-oriented", the "Task-oriented" and the " I n e f f e c t i v e " 54 organization. An e f f e c t i v e group i s defined as one which must provide s a t i s f a c t i o n to group members i n two major respects.... a sense 55 of task accomplishment, and.... s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . " The Third scheme—social needs "versus" s o c i a l c o n t r o l — d e a l s with the balance which must be maintained between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l need s a t i s f a c t i o n and the organizational requirement to submit to such group d i s c i p l i n e as required for membership, e.g., the "nine ' t i l f i v e " routine. Halpin and Croft d e l i b e r a t e l y b u i l t the OCDQ around a c o l l e c t i o n of 1000 items which would representatively r e f l e c t a l l the categories posited by the three schemes described. C o r r e l a t i o n , content and c l u s t e r - a n a l y s i s 52 Halpin and Cr o f t , Organizational Climate of Schools, p. 16. Ib i d . I b i d . , pp. 16-17. "Ideal types" r e f e r s to pure, t h e o r e t i c a l types, not nec e s s a r i l y to an exemplary " i d e a l " . 55 l l b i d . 56 I b i d , , p. 8• 27 procedures were systematically applied to these items u n t i l 600 remained. Four si m i l a r OCDQ (150 item) versions were designed... and1, tested through Form I, Form I I , and Form I I I using the responses' from.1151 i n d i v i d u a l s represent- ing 71 elementary schools'".until 80 items remained. Each respondent was asked to rank on the following four point scale, the extent to which each item statement characterized h i s or her school: 1. Rarely occurs, 2. Sometimes occurs, 3. Often occurs, and 4. Very frequently occurs. C o r r e l a t i o n , content and c l u s t e r analysis procedures were again applied. Sixteen items were eliminated, and the 64 items remaining c o n s t i t u t e the 0CDQ-- Form IV. Each of the items was assigned to one of eight subtests, with each subtest presumably measuring a dimension of.organizational climate. The f i r s t four of these subtests (described i n Table I, page'28) pertain p r i m a r i l y to the behavior of the teachers and are designed to assess the climate dimensions defined i n Table IA, page 30. The remaining four subtests, described i n Table I I , page 29, pe r t a i n p r i m a r i l y to the behavior of the p r i n c i p a l . Table IIA, page 3T provides d e f i n i t i o n s of the corresponding climate dimensions. By using these d e f i n i t i o n s and descriptions the conceptual r e l a t i o n - ship between group i n t e r a c t i o n s and group or organizational effectiveness, as well as s o c i a l needs and s o c i a l c o n t r o l , may be i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3, see page 32. Factor a n a l y t i c techniques applied to the 64 x 64 item i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix did tend to j u s t i f y the manner i n which the items had been assigned to the subtests on the basis of content^and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . See Data Analysis Procedures, pages'47-49 for further more de t a i l e d discussion of th i s aspect of the OCDQ development. 28 TABLE I ITEMS THAT COMPOSE FOUR SUBTESTS: TEACHERS' BEHAVIOR** I - DISENGAGEMENT *1. The mannerisms of teachers at th i s school are annoying. (II) 2. There i s a minority group of teachers who always oppose the major ity. (II) 3. Teachers exert group pressure on nonconforming s ta f f members. (II) 4. Teachers seek specia l favours from the p r i n c i p a l . (II) 5. Teachers interrupt other s ta f f members who are ta lk ing i n s ta f f meetings. (II) 6. Teachers ask nonsensical questions i n s taf f meetings. (II) 7. Teachers ramble when they ta lk i n s taf f meetings. (II) 8. Teachers at th i s school stay by themselves during their " f r e e " school time. (II) 9. Teachers ta lk about leaving the school system. (II) 10. Teachers s o c i a l i ze together i n small se lect groups. (II) II - HINDRANCE *11. Routine dut ies i n te r fe re with the job of teaching. (V) 12. Teachers have too many committee requirements. (V) 13. Student progress reports require too much work. (V) 14. Administrat ive paper work i s burdensome at th i s school. (V) 15. S u f f i c i e n t time i s given to prepare administrative reports. (V) 16. Instruct ions for the operation of teaching aids are ava i lab le . (I) III - ESPRIT *17. The morale of the teachers i s high. (I) 18. The teachers accomplish their work with great vim, vigor and pleasure. (I) 19. Teachers at th i s school show much school s p i r i t . (I) 20. Custodia l serv ice i s ava i lab le when needed. (I) 21. Most of the teachers here accept the fau l t s of the i r colleagues. (I) 22. School suppl ies are readibly ava i lab le for use i n classwork. (I) 23. There i s considerable laughter when teachers gather informal ly. ( I l l ) 24. In s t a f f meetings, there i s the fee l ing of " l e t ' s get things accomplished". (I) 25. Extra books are avai lab le for classroom use. (I) 26. Teachers spend time af ter school with students who have ind iv idua l problems. (I) IV - INTIMACY *27. Teachers' c losest fr iends are other s ta f f members at th i s school. ( I l l ) 28. Teachers i n v i t e other s ta f f members to v i s i t them at home. ( I l l ) 29. Teachers know the family background of other s ta f f members. ( I l l ) 30. Teachers ta lk about their personal l i f e to other staff members. ( I l l ) 31. Teachers have fun soc i a l i z i ng together during " f r e e " school time. ( I l l ) 32. Teachers work together preparing administrative reports. ( I l l ) 33. Teachers prepare administrative reports by themselves. ( I l l ) * These items are the key ( i . e . , tracer) items i n each dimension. **Adapted from A.W. Halp in and D.B. C ro f t , The Organizational Climate of Schools, (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The Univers i ty of Chicago, 1963), p. 30. Roman numerals i n parenthesis define the items that compose f i v e subtests for the Vancouver data. See Table V, pp. 54-55. 29 TABLE II ITEMS THAT COMPOSE FOUR SUBTESTS: PRINCIPAL'S BEHAVIOR** V - ALOOFNESS *34. Staff meetings are organized according to a s t r i c t agenda. (IV) 35. Staff meetings are mainly p r inc ipa l - repor t meetings. (IV) 36. The p r inc ipa l runs the s ta f f meetings l i k e a business conference. (IV) 37. Teachers leave the grounds during the school day. (II) 38. Teachers eat lunch by themselves i n the i r own classrooms. ( I l l ) 39. The rules set by the p r inc ipa l are often questioned. (II) 40. Teachers are contacted by the p r i nc i pa l each day. (I) 41. School sec re ta r i a l service i s ava i lab le for teachers ' use. (I) 42. Teachers are informed of the resu l t s of a p r i n c i p a l ' s inspect ion. (I) VI - PRODUCTION EMPHASIS *43. The p r inc ipa l makes a l l c lass scheduling dec is ions. (IV) 44. The p r i nc i pa l schedules the work for the teachers. (XV) 45. The p r inc ipa l checks the subject matter a b i l i t y of teachers. (IV) 46. The p r i nc i pa l corrects teachers ' mistakes. (IV) 47. The p r inc ipa l ensures that teachers work to their f u l l capacity. (I) 48. Extra duty for teachers i s posted conspicuously. (IV) 49. The p r inc ipa l ta lks a great dea l . (II) VII - THRUST *50. The p r i nc i pa l 51. The p r i nc i pa l 52. The p r inc ipa l 53. The p r i nc i pa l 54. The p r i nc i pa l '55. The p r i nc i pa l 56. The p r i nc i pa l 57. The p r i nc i pa l 58. The p r inc ipa l sachers. (I) rd himself. (I) (I) •e teachers a r r i v e . (I) leas he has run across. (I) (I) (I) (I) VII I- CONSIDERATION (I) *59. The p r inc ipa l helps teachers solve personal problems. (I) 60. The p r i nc i pa l does personal favors for teachers. (I) 61. The p r i n c i p a l stays after school to help teachers f i n i s h the i r work. (I] 62. The p r i nc i pa l helps s ta f f members se t t l e minor d i f fe rences . (I) 63. Teachers help select which courses w i l l be taught. (I) 64. The p r i nc i pa l t r i e s to get better sa lar ies for teachers. (I) * These items are the key ( i . e . , tracer) items i n each dimension. **Adapted from A.W. Halpin and D.B. Crof t , The Organizational Climate of Schools, (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The Univers i ty of Chicago, 1963), p. 31 Roman numerals i n parenthesis def ine the items that compose f i v e subtests for the Vancouver data. See Table V, pp. 54-55. 30 TABLE IA THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE RELATING: TO-TEACHERS' BEHAVIOR*. .: 1. Disengagements r e f e r s to the teacher's tendency to be "not with i t " . This dimension describes a group which i s "going through the motions", a group that i s "not i n gear" with respect to the task at hand. I t corresponds to the more general concept of anomie as f i r s t described by Durkheim. In short, t h i s subtest focusses upon.the teacher's behavior i n a task-oriented s i t u a t i o n . 2. Hindrance r e f e r s to the teachers' f e e l i n g that the p r i n c i p a l burdens them with routine duties, committee demands, and other requirements which the teachers construe as unnecessary busy-work. The teachers perceive that t h e . p r i n c i p a l i s hindering rather than f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r work. 3. E s p r i t r e f e r s to "morale". The teachers f e e l that t h e i r s o c i a l needs are being s a t i s f i e d , and that they are, at the same time, enjoying a sense of accomplishment i n t h e i r job. 4. Intimacy r e f e r s to the teacher's enjoyment of f r i e n d l y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s with each other. This dimension described a social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y associated with task-accomplishment. * Adapted from A.W. Halpin and D.B. Croft,.The Organizational Climate of Schools, (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1963), p. 29. 31 TABLE IIA THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE RELATING TO:PRINCIPAL'S BEHAVIOR* 1. Aloofness refers to behavior by the principal which i s characterized as formal and impersonal. He "goes by the book" and prefers to be guided by rules and policies rather than to deal with the teachers i n an informal face-to-face situation. His behavior, in brief, i s universalr- i s t i c rather than particularistic; nomothetic rather than idio- syncratic. To maintain this style, he keeps himself—at least, "emotionally"—at a distance from his staff. 2. Production Emphasis refers to behavior by the principal which i s characterized by close supervision of the staff. He i s highly directive, and plays the role of a "straw boss". His communication tends to go i n only one direction, and he i s not sensitive to feedback from the staff. 3. Thrust refers.to behavior by the principal which i s characterized by his evident effort in trying to "move the organization". "Thrust" behavior i s marked not by close supervision, but by the principal's attempt to motivate the teachers through the example which he personally sets. Apparently, because he does not ask the teachers to give of themselves any more than he willingly gives of himself, his behavior, though starkly task-oriented,is nonetheless viewed favourably by the teachers. 4. Consideration refers to behavior by the principal which i s characterized by an inclination to treat the teachers "humanly", to try to do a l i t t l e somesbiheghing f6r*ithemhinahiiman^terms. * Adapted.from A.W. Halpin and D.B. Croft, The Organizational Climate of Schools (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The University of Chicago, 1963), p. 32. 32 GROUP LEADER Dimensions IV" I associated p r i m a r i l y E s p r i t Thrust with s o c i a l needs Intimacy Consideration. s a t i s f a c t i o n Dimensions I I I I l l associated p r i m a r i l y Disengagement Production Emphasis with aspects of s o c i a l Hindrance Aloofness control FIGURE 3 EIGHT DIMENSIONS - OF THE.OCDQ: FORM I I I (80-Items)* * Abstracted from A.W. Halpin and D.B. C r o f t , The Organizational Climate of Schools, (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The Un i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1963), p. 27. , T The dimensions contained.in quadrants I, Thrust and Consideration, and IV, E s p r i t and Intimacy, are pr i m a r i l y associated with s a t i s f a c t i o n of s o c i a l needs, while the dimensions contained i n quadrants I I , Production Emphasis and Aloofness, and I I I , Disengagement and Hindrance,are generally associated with s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Quadrants I and II of Figure 3 are basic to the behavior exhibited by group leaders, while quadrants I I I and IV are normally tr-elafced tougfoupollquachgrdup .behavior. From a t h e o r e t i c a l point of view, quadrant I i n Figure 3 may be said to define an " i d e a l - e f f e c t i v e " s i t u a t i o n i n that both a f e e l i n g of task 58 accomplishment and a s a t i s f a c t i o n of s o c i a l needs e x i s t s . "•-.Quadrant I I I describes an " i d e a l - i n e f f e c t i v e " s i t u a t i o n because the group i s neither experiencing a sense of task accomplishment nor adequate s a t i s f a c t i o n of Halpin and Cr o f t , Organizational Climate of Schools, p. 27 33 59 s o c i a l needs. Quadrant I I i s highly "task-oriented", but lacks a balance with s o c i a l need s a t i s f a c t i o n , whereas p r e c i s e l y the opposite s i t u a t i o n i s indicated i n quadrant IV. Neither the "task oriented" nor the "social-needs oriented" s i t u a t i o n should n e c e s s a r i l y be considered a "good"model for an organization to follow. However, both are l i k e l y to be considered more desirable than Quadrant I I I i n that each s i t u a t i o n does provide at l e a s t a portion of task accomplishment or s o c i a l needs s a t i s - f a c t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . ^ Climate P r o f i l e s Since the major purpose of Halpin and Croft's work was to describe the organizational climate, i . e . , " p e r s o n a l i t y " of s c h o o l s — a t l e a s t as i t i s perceived by t h e i r respective s t a f f s — a climate p r o f i l e was obtained for each of the 71 schools based on scores from the eight s u b t e s t s . ^ Factor a n a l y s i s of these p r o f i l e s extracted three f a c t o r s with s i x major patterns of loadings. An average p r o f i l e was computed for those schools within the set which were distinguished by a high loading on only one of the three p r o f i l e f a c t o r s . Then, on the basis of t h i s a n a l y s i s , s i x climates were conceptualized along what was construed as a continuum ranging from the "open" climate at one end to the "closed" climate at the other. An abbreviated d e s c r i p t i o n of Halpin and C r o f t ' s s i x organizational climates i s presented i n Table I I I , page 34. 5 9 TU-A I b i d . 6 0 I b i d . ^ The climate p r o f i l e obtained for each of the 20 Vancouver schools based on these scores may be found i n Appendix E. 34 TABLE I I I THE SIX ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATES* 1. The Open Climate describes an energetic, l i v e l y organization which i s moving toward i t s goals, and which provides s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r the group members' s o c i a l needs. Leadership acts .emerge e a s i l y and appropriately from both the group and> the leader. The members are preoccupied disproportionately with neither task nor social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n ; s a t i s f a c t i o n on both counts seems, to be obtained e a s i l y and almost e f f o r t - l e s s l y . The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s climate i s the "a u t h e n t i c i t y " of the behavior that occurs among a l l the members. 2. The Autonomous Climate.is described as one i n which leadership acts emerge p r i m a r i l y from'the group. The leader exerts l i t t l e c o ntrol over the group members; high E s p r i t r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n . S a t i s f a c t i o n from task achievement i s also present, but to a l e s s e r degree. 3. The Controlled Climate i s characterized best as impersonal and highly task-oriented. The group's behavior i s directed p r i m a r i l y toward task accomplishment, while r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s given to behavior- oriented or social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n . E s p r i t i s f a i r l y high, but i t r e f l e c t s achievement at some expense to social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n . This climate lacks openness, or " a u t h e n t i c i t y " of behavior, because the group i s d i sproportionately preoccupied with task achievement. 4. The Famil i a r Climate i s highly personal, but undercontrolled. The members of t h i s organization s a t i s f y t h e i r s o c i a l needs and pay r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n respect to task accomplishment. Accordingly, E s p r i t i s not extremely high simply because the group members secure l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n from task achievement. Hence, much of the behavior within t h i s climate can be construed as "inauthentic". 5. The Paternal Climate i s characterized best as one i n which the p r i n c i p a l constrains© the emergence of leadership acts from the group and attempts to i n i t i a t e most of these acts himself. The leadership s k i l l s within the group are not used to supplement the p r i n c i p a l ' s own a b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e leadership acts. Accordingly, some leadership acts are not even attempted. In short, l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n i s obtained i n respect to either achievement or s o c i a l needs; hence,.Esprit among the members i s low. 6. The Closed Climate i s characterized by a; high degree of apathy on the part of a l l members of the organization. The organization i s not "moving"; E s p r i t i s low because the group members secure neither social-needs s a t i s f a c t i o n nor the s a t i s f a c t i o n that comes from task achievement. The members' behavior can be construed as "inauthentic"; indeed, the organization seems to be stagnant. * Abstracted from J.B. Kenny and R.R. Rentz, "The Organizational Climate of Schools i n Five Urban Areas", The Elementary School Journal, (November, 1970), pp. 62-63. 35 Figure 4, page 36, denotes and compares the basic characteristics of the most "open" with the most "closed" organizational climates found by Halpin and Croft. The "Open" Climate. Clearly, in the "open" climate as i t i s ... depicted i n Figure 4, Disengagement and Hindrance are both relatively low in that the organization's members apparently are able to work reasonably well together with a minimum of squabbling and griping. Meanwhile, the leader's policies and related procedures do not particularly seem to hinder or burden them with numerous meetings and routine reports. Esprit i s high, but the group members, while friendly, evidently feel l i t t l e need for a great deal of intimacy. As a rule, they are l i k e l y to be pleased with their organization as well as their job within i t , and as a result they probably are sufficiently motivated to work out problems and.difficulties i n order to keep the organization "going". The leader is neither impersonal nor aloof i n either manner or rules and procedures. It would seem that he does not necessarily need to emphasize production owing to the relatively subtle direction and control provided by his policies and regulations. Indeed, Figure 4 would indicate that Production Emphasis i s low; thus, while maintaining complete control, the organization's leader is apparently able to permit the emergence of certain acts of leadership on the part of appropriate group members. Furthermore, he normally seems to set an excellent example through his own hard work, i.e., high Thrust, and thereby places himself i n a position to legitimately c r i t i c i z e certain actions as necessary or show relatively high degree of Consideration in assisting group members as required. The "Closed" Climate. Whereas the leader in the "open" climate may be labelled "effective", i.e., he directs his organization and his group CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEADER Disengagement Hindrance E s p r i t Intimacy Aloofness Production Thrust Consideration V Q / S t a n d a r d scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. FIGURE 4, COMPARISON OF AN OPEN AND A CLOSED ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON THE EIGHT SUBTESTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (FORM IV) Source; Halpin and C r o f t , The Organizational Climate of Schools, (Chicago: Midwest Administration Center, The Uni v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1963),p.3 37 members' a c t i v i t i e s while taking some i n t e r e s t i n their i n d i v i d u a l welfare as w e l l , the opposite i s generally the case i n the "closed" climate. The leader i s " i n e f f e c t i v e " . He neither s u c c e s s f u l l y d i r e c t s nor does he seem to take any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the group members personal welfare. As a r e s u l t , the membership seems to be unable to work well together, Figure 4 in d i c a t e s that they are Disengaged. Consequently any sense of task achievement i s probably obtained through attendance at numerous meetings and completion of a seemingly endless v a r i e t y of routine reports. Un- " fortunately even t h i s sense of achievement i s l i k e l y to be dulled as a r e s u l t of the leader's p o l i c i e s and procedures which may best be described as the locus or source of a high degree of Hindrance. Lacking both task and s o c i a l need s a t i s f a c t i o n , E s p r i t i s low. Nevertheless the group members are reasonably f r i e n d l y with one another as depicted by the average to s l i g h t l y above average degree of Intimacy i n Figure 4. The leader i n a "closed" climate i s l i k e l y to be impersonal i n both manner and procedures. A f a i r l y high degree of i n f l e x i b i l i t y i s probably noticeable i n the Aloof methods with which he attempts to c o n t r o l and d i r e c t the organization. As a r e s u l t . Production Emphasis, while r e l a t i v e l y high, i s somewhat meaningless i n that the personal example, or Thrust, evidenced by the leader i s poor. In f a c t , what he says and what he a c t u a l l y does are l i k e l y to be two d i f f e r e n t things. On one hand,heeseemssto.t expect d i l i g e n c e , hard work and the emergence of i n i t i a t i v e or leadership acts from h i s people, while on the other hand, he seems incapable of providing the freedom for any such performance to occur. Furthermore, he usually f a i l s to provide adequate leadership for the group and therefore places himself i n a p o s i t i o n whereby c r i t i c i s m i s resented. Perhaps the resentment may be a t t r i b u t e d to h i s evident lack of concern for the group members' s o c i a l • •• i ? -,-.-(/£!f ion 38 needs. There i s l i t t l e motivation to work out problems. The organization becomes almost stagnant. In fact both Consideration and Thrust are l i k e l y so low in the "closed" climate that the leader i s probably not perceived as "legitimate". To the contrary, he i s more li k e l y to be regarded as a "phoney" by the .group. -, Use of Climate Continuum "versus" Use of Climate Subtests The OCDQ has been subject to some relatively severe criticism as to the desirability of extending the data results so far as to develop an "open- closed" climate continuum rather than simply rely upon the subtest scores obtained as an adequate indicator of organizational climate. Generally speaking, only one argument favouring the continuum concept—other than Halpin and Croft's, of course—seems to have been put forward. Brown has attempted to replicate the original OCDQ analysis using 62 81 schools in the Saint Paul-Minneapolis area. He found that the inter- correlation pattern among the subtest scores was generally similar to the one 63 originally obtained. However, Brown's profile analysis of the data ultimately seemed somewhat more suitable for a four factor solution; thus leading him to conclude that eight organizational climates, not six, could be defined.^ 4 Which i s correct? Brown answers that "since identical procedures were used in the two cases i t i s impossible to say that one set of climates R.J. Brown, "Identifying and Classifying Organizational Climates in Twin Cities Area Elementary Schools", paper presented at the Chicago meeting of Educational Research Association, February 1965. Cited i n Halpin, "Change and Organizational Climate", p. 7. Ibid. Ibid. 39 i s correct and the other i s not."*'"' Liberally speaking, he agrees that even though i t may be possible to identify a continuum divisible into either six or eight discrete climates, conservatively speaking, he believes i t s use 66 would best be lef t !#or"'developing research hypotheses. In yet another case, an argument against the development and sub- sequent use of any climate continuum whatsoever has been formulated.by Andrews, who, in an effort to validate the OCDQ as a test instrument through a sample of 165 Alberta schools, untimatly. concludes that the OCDQ possesses good construct validity", and ".... the eight subtest scores are a good measure of the concepts they purport to measure", but the overall climate does not predict anything that i s not better predicted by the sub- test.^ 7 A plausible explanation accounting at least i n part for the con- troversy surrounding the use of climate continuum "Versus"subtest results may have been provided by''Hodgkinson's use of the OCDQ in his study of organizational influence on value systems using a sample of 40 schools in 68 the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan area. While analysing his data, Hodgkinson began to have some serious reservations regarding some of the st a t i s t i c a l techniques employed by Halpin and Croft to i n i t i a l l y develop the 69 climate continuum. In brief, the school profiles were formed by standard- izing the raw scores normatively (across the 71 schools sampled) and Ibid. Ibid. ^ % J.H.M'i: Andrews, "School Organizational Climate"., p. 333. 68 C. Hodgkinson, "Organizational Influence on Value Systems", Educational Administration Quarterly, 111„ Noiir3:m('Au fumn, pt9,7 0)V4|Sp .46-55-. 69 ' • Ibid., p. 51. 40 i p s a t i v e l y (across each of the subtest scores f o r each s c h o o l ) . ^ According- l y , Halpin and Cro f t state, "The standardized scores now tol d us two things .... a score above 50 on a p a r t i c u l a r subtest indicated, f i r s t , that the given school scored above the mean of the sample on that subtest, and second that the score on that subtest was above the mean of the school's other subtest scores ...."^^ The idea, according to Halpin and Cr o f t , i s to avoid confounding the interschool variance and the intraschool variance. However, Hodgkinson argues .... "that t h i s i s the very confusion which i s confounded. Not only i n t h i s process of double standardization w i l l the second normalization destroy the f i r s t , but the e f f e c t of the f i r s t (normative) standardization i s to remove the c a p a b i l i t y of i p s a t i v e com- 72 parison." F i n a l l y , Hodgkinson argues, what i s the point of either a sin g l e or double normalization i n the f i r s t place? There i s no need f o r either of them since the o r i g i n a l raw scores w i l l s u f f i c e f o r factor a n a l y t i c purposes. Like both Brown and Andrews, Hodgkinson's c r i t i c i s m s are dire c t e d 74 toward the climate continuum, not toward the climate subtests themselves. In response to the discrepancy between, s i x or eight d i s c r e t e climates which a continuum may be said to obtain, Halpin has noted that, as Brown's study suggests, the climates are not only not sacrosanct, but also that the continuum of the s i x climates that Croft and I conceptualized 70« TU-A I b i d . I b i d . , Hodgkinson i s c i t i n g from Halpin and Cr o f t , Organizational Climate of Schools. 72 Ibid.,.p. 52. 7 3 I b i d . 7 4 TU'A I b i d . 41 i s not so c l e a r - c u t as we had thought o r i g i n a l l y . " At the same time he agrees that he would not care to quibble with Andrews' expressed desire to deal with OCDQ data at the subtest l e v e l rather than with the s i x postulated c l i m a t e s . 7 ^ As yet, neither Halpin nor C r o f t appear to'have made any e f f o r t to respond to the c r i t i c i s m s Hodgkinson has brought forward regarding the s t a t i s t i c a l techniques employed to develop the climate .continuum. In any event, the findings of the three studies j u s t c i t e d are germane to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n that they cast considerable doubt on the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of developing and describing an organizations' "health" by a climate continuum. In f a c t , doing so apparently would r e f i n e the r e s u l t s considerably further than the data would seem to warrant. Consequent- l y , i n s p i t e of the obvious advantage oi dealing simply with a s i n g l e "open" or "closed" climate as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n must nec e s s a r i l y l i m i t the use of i t s data to the subtests and t h e i r r e l a t i o n - ship, i f any, with school s i z e . Hypotheses - The Relationship Between School Size and Organizational Climate With respect to appropriate measures of school s i z e , there i s general agreement i n the l i t e r a t u r e that objective i n d i c a t o r s are obtained by assess- ing s i z e i n terms o f : number of S t a f f Members;' School Area expressed i n square feet; Enrolment^ and Human.Density, expressed i n terms of the amount of a v a i l a b l e square feet for students, teachers and administrators. Halpin, "Change and Organizational Climates", p. 8 I b i d . 42 In order to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between.school organizational climate (as assessed by the OCDQ subtests) and the four school s i z e v a r i a b l e s , the following n u l l hypotheses were formulated: N u l l Hypothesis 1: School s i z e i n terms of School Area expressed i n square f e e t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Des c r i p t i o n Questionnaire. N u l l Hypothesis 2: School s i z e i n terms of the number of S t a f f Members employed therein i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the eight organiza- tib.nall climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Desc r i p t i o n Questionnaire. N u l l Hypothesis 3: School s i z e i n terms, of Enrolment i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. N u l l Hypothesis 4: School s i z e i n terms of Human Density, i s not s i g n i f i - cantly correlated, with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Level of S i g n i f i c a n c e : These hypotheses w i l l be tested at a 0.05 l e v e l of si g n i f i c a n c e . 43. I l l DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The OCDQ Form IV which was used to obtain data for t h i s study, i s , for a l l intents and purposes, i d e n t i c a l to the instrument o r i g i n a l l y develop- ed and published by Halpin and Croft i n 1963. For a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of minor word a l t e r a t i o n s which have been made to place a few of the items developed i n the United States i n a Canadian context, the reader i s referred to Appendix B. The purpose, design and development of the instrument has been discussed and described i n some d e t a i l within the conceptual framework presented i n the preceding chapter. D e f i n i t i o n of Variables * In a d d i t i o n to the general d e f i n i t i o n s pertaining to the d e s c r i p t i o n of teacher behavior ( T a b l e I, page 28, and Table I-A, page 30), p r i n c i p a l behavior (Table I I , page 29, and Table IIA, page 31), and the s i x climates (Table I I I , page 34), there are other v a r i a b l e s that need to be defined i n l i g h t of the hypotheses stated i n Chapter I I . Namely, these are school area, s t a f f members, enrolment and human density. The following operational d e f i n i t i o n s were used to provide i n d i c a t o r s for these four v a r i a b l e s of school s i z e : School Area;: The aggregate t o t a l area of a school ( i n c l u s i v e of wood portables, where applicable) i s defined as the school area. I t r e f e r s to outside measurement as expressed i n terms of square feet and coincides with the t o t a l area per school indicated i n the contractual agreement between the Vancouver Board of School Trustees and the Canadian Union of Public Employees representing D i s t r i c t 39 j a n i t o r s . Staff Members. The t o t a l number of f u l l time teachers employed i n each school has been obtained from the 1970-71 "Directory of Teaching S t a f f 44 by Schools" produced by the Vancouver Board of School Trustees. In a d d i t i o n , each school's p r i n c i p a l has also been included as an element wi t h i n the school's s t a f f member set. A l l other school personnel have been excluded. •Enrolment. Enrolment i s defined as the number of elementary school students registered i n kindergarten through grade seven with the Vancouver Board of School Trustees, D i s t r i c t 39, Department of Research and Special Services, as of September 30, 1970. Special classes have been excluded. Human Density. The amount of school area expressed i n square feet which i s a v a i l a b l e to each i n d i v i d u a l student, f u l l time teacher and p r i n c i p a l i s defined as density, or more p a r t i c u l a r l y , as human density. I t may be obtained simply by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l School Area by the sum of the Enrolment and Staff Members. Obviously, the larger the numeric value so obtained the more "expansive", i . e . , more square feet per i n d i v i d u a l , the human density. Conversely, a small numeric value expresses "compact" or "crowded" conditions, i . e . , r e l a t i v e l y few square feet per i n d i v i d u a l . School D i s t r i c t Sampling Procedures Twenty-four of the seventy elementary schools i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t have one or more annexes which are associated with them. Even though the annex i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the school's p r i n c i p a l much of the "over-seeing" i s apparently delegated to the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l or, i n some instances, a leading teacher. Consequently, e n t i r e schools having one or more annexes were eliminated from consideration i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n order to avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of "dual leadership" contaminating the organizational climate of either the school or the annex. 45 The f o r t y - s i x remaining schools are geographically d i s t r i b u t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y even fashion, ranging from a minimum of four to a maximum of nine, across eight zones i n the Vancouver D i s t r i c t . They average j u s t under six schools per zone. Twenty-one of f o r t y - s i x schools were selected at random for consideration i n t h i s study. Two or three schools—depending upon the zone's s i z e — w e r e then randomly selected from each* zone. The objective of the sampling procedures was to obtain a r e l a t i v e l y composite, cross s e c t i o n a l p i c ture of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t without having to survey every school. P a r t i c i p a t i n g Teacher Sampling Procedures A l e t t e r , which outlined the study's purpose and requested the p r i n c i p a l ' s authorization to include h i s school i n i t , was directed to each of the sample schools. (Refer to Appendix A). A copy of the OCDQ was included i n the l e t t e r so every p r i n c i p a l would be.alerted to the f a c t that to some extent h i s teachers would be "r a t i n g h i s leadership", i . e . at l e a s t r a t i n g i t as they perceived i t . (Refer to Appendix B). Where authorization was granted, as i t subsequently was i n 20 of the 21 schools' randomly selected from the 46 under consideration, each p r i n c i p a l was contacted personally. He was given a package containing a l i s t of h i s ent i r e f u l l time teaching s t a f f i n order of random s e l e c t i o n and s u f f i c i e n t Questionnaires f o r approximately one-third of that s t a f f . He was asked to query each s t a f f member i n the sequence l i s t e d with respect to h i s or her willi n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Those i n d i v i d u a l s responding a f f i r m a t i v e l y were- given a copy of the OCDQ along with a pre-stamped return mail envelope. In t h i s manner i t was hoped that a high degree of cooperation might be obtained without severely reducing the desired school sample s i z e . Indeed, 120 out of 128 questionnaires were returned. One hundred and sixteen 46 of them were usable: four were eliminated because the respondants f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e their, p a r t i c u l a r school's name i n the place provided for that purpose. Study l i m i t a t i o n s In a d d i t i o n to a "parsimony-imposed" l i m i t a t i o n related to s e l e c t i n g a.manageableunumber of s s o h o d l s i z e - z e v a r i a b l e s ? v t h i s study also has c e r t a i n basic methodological l i m i t a t i o n s inherent within i t . Namely, the develop- ment of the instrument, the nature of the data, sample information r e a l i a - b i l i t y , and uniqueness. Development of the Instrument. The f i r s t of these four l i m i t a t i o n s .. r.-r sp *- • i s r e l a t e d to the development of the instrument i t s e l f . The dimensions of organizational climate have been i d e n t i f i e d by devising taxonomies. Unfortunately, a taxonomy does not r e a d i l y lend i t s e l f to proof, or for that matter, v e r i f i c a t i o n . Halpin and Croft do not f e e l that t h i s i s a serious matter. They contend that even though i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not wholly i r r e l e v a n t , to question a taxonomy's v a l i d i t y i t s h e u r i s t i c value outweights t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . 7 7 Nature of the data. The second l i m i t a t i o n s i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the f a c t that the data supplied by group members describe the leader's behavior as each i n d i v i d u a l perceived i t . Obviously, t h i s may or may not n e c e s s a r i l y describe how he a c t u a l l y does behave. This l i m i t a t i o n i s not serious as long as the assumption i s c o r r e c t that how the leader i s perceived to behave may have much more influence on the group member's behavior than how the leader a c t u a l l y does behave. Halpin and C r o f t , Organizational Climate of Schools, p. 9 47 Sample Information R e l i a b i l i t y . Information based on a sample -obviously represents only a part, or p a r c e l , of the general population under consideration. As a r e s u l t such information does not n e c e s s a r i l y provide precise data pertaining to the actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population i n question. Nevertheless, c e r t a i n generalizations regarding the population may be extrapolated from information obtained by random sampling techniques. The degree of confidence that such extrapolations r e l i a b l y represent the actual s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population i n question may be a r i t h m e t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d . Tables i n d i c a t i n g the degree of confidence i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of the sample r e s u l t s obtained f o r each of the f i v e subtests from each school i n - cluded i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have been calculated and are included i n Appendix C. Generally speaking, the sample information does seem to reveal a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y i n the sense that the sample r e s u l t s pertaining . to the climate subtest of each school seem to adequately approximate the same score which might have been obtained i f every teacher i n each school had been included i n the survey. Uniqueness. Although the information obtained by sampling may be generalized to apply to a school, the sample r e s u l t s pertinent to any p a r t i c u l a r school are unique to that school. Subtest scores are l i m i t e d to the schools i n question and as such should neither be generalized to any other schools nor thought of as i n d i c a t i v e of norms i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . Data Analysis Procedures In Halpin and Croft's analysis of the o r i g i n a l data (n=1151), the procedure involved a p r i n c i p a l component factor a n a l y s i s of the 64 x 64 item 48 intercorrelation matrix, from which eighteen factors with eigenvalues above 1.00 were extracted. An eigenvalue represents the sum of the squared factor loadings for.each factor when the communalities of the variables are 1.00: i t indicates a factor's importance because i t describes the amount of variance accounted for by the factor. A factor loading w i l l indicate the extent to which each factor or dimension participates in the climate concept as illustrated in Figure 3. Halpin and Croft then departed from the "orthodox rules" for factor analysis and generated a varimax rotational solution for the f i r s t eight of the eighteen factors which had been extracted from the item intercorrelation 78 matrix. The basis for this departure stemmed from the premise that by successfully choosing the eight dimensions which would account "best" for the variance in the sixty-four items, then those items within each subtest would yield a high loading on one factor and load near zero on the other seven. Furthermore, they f e l t that i f each item loading was high on the same factor as other items in the same subtest, then i t would be safe to conclude that each item could be presumed to be measuring the same general type of social interaction as were the others within the set. In the original study this indeed i s the case as may be seen in Appendix D. After forcing an eight-factor varimax rotation structure, Halpin and Croft found the. factor pattern to indicate that most of the items i n the eight subtests loaded heavier on the same factor, and that each item within each subtest loaded high on the same factor as do the other items from the same subtest: therefore, each subtest would seem to be relatively i n - dependent. Moreover Rits score may be construed as representing a factor. Halpin and Croft, Organizational Climate of Schools, page 33. 49 From an examination of Appendix D, i t . i s apparent that, factors 2,5,7, and 3 represent.Disengagement, Hindrance,.Esprit, and.Intimacy, respectively. Factors 8,4,1, and 6, represent Aloofness, Production Emphasis, Thrust and Consideration, respectively. Replication of Original Procedures... - The data obtained.from the twenty Vancouver Schools (n=116) was analyzed.by generating.a principal- component factor analysis of the 64 x 64 item intercorrelation matrix. Fourteen factors with eigenvalues above 1.00 were, extracted: from this matrix. Then, following Halpin. and Croft's procedures, a varimax.rotation- a l structure, was subsequently generated for the f i r s t eight, of.the eighteen factors. These procedures yielded the factor pattern shown in Table IV, pages 52-53. Although the original study does, in. fact, yield a relatively pure loading for each item in the appropriate subtest.corresponding.to a particular factor, no such clean-cut array emerged for the.factor pattern, in this study. As a matter of fact, even the most casual comparison of. the factor pattern shown in Appendix D with that, of the present study (Table IV), reveals more discrepancies than, similarities between the two sets of data. For example, three of the four subtests which describe teacher's behavior—Hindrance, Esprit and Inlntiimacy-—fail to show, more than one item loading at 0.50. Moreover, in Table IV, Item 3 in the Disengagement, sub- test, i.e., Teachers exert group pressure on non-conforming staff members, is the only item which loads significantly on the factor. Obviously the subtests which generally load as expected_on the four dimensions pre- sumably measuring teacher's behavior i n the original study do.not load in any such similar manner in a sample of 20 Vancouver elementary schools. 50 Furthermore, a s i m i l a r conclusion may be drawn regarding the four subtests pertaining to the P r i n c i p a l ' s Behavior. The loadings i n Table IV for the Production Emphasis and Consideration subtests, for example, are unimpressive i n the Vancouver schools sampled. Aloofness has only one item showing any strength and Thrust, even with three items showing some degree of association, does not load very heavily on the remaining f i v e subtest items. Since the factor pattern obtained by following the o r i g i n a l procedures with the Vancouver data d i f f e r s so r a d i c a l l y from Halpin and Croft's eight dimensions, i t i s not i l l o g i c a l to conclude that the eight sets of item ,;. groups which they had chosen from t h e i r large sample simplys^o h o t . . " f i t " when the smaller Vancouver sample data i s substituted. As a matter of f a c t , i n the words of Halpin and C r o f t : If we had obtained a factor pattern i n which most of the items i n a given subtest had f a i l e d to load on the same fa c t o r , then we would have been forced to conclude that we had not chosen the "best" eight sets of item groups.79 What choice would c o n s t i t u t e the "best" set or sets of item groups for the Vancouver data? What dimensions would account "best" f o r the variance i n the s i x t y - f o u r items? Which items within each subtest would describe a dimension y i e l d i n g a r e l a t i v e l y high loading on one factor while loading near zero on other factors? Since the answers to these questions evidently do not l i e i n a r e p l i c a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l procedures with the Vancouver data another factor pattern must be considered. Five Factor Pattern. Accordingly, i n addi t i o n to following Halpin and Croft's methodology, i . e . , f o r c i n g eight f a c t o r s , the Vancouver data were simply subjected to standard factor a n a l y t i c procedures. (The resultant I b i d . , p. 33 . 51 f i v e f a c t o r s are shown i n Table V,pages 54-55) .The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group and the leader merge to a considerable extent, but with the exception of those items pertaining to Aloofness, which spread across three of the f i v e f a c t o r s , the f i v e dimensions basically, contain the merged subtests as a whole. Thrust and Consideration, for example, load e n t i r e l y on Factor I. 80 E s p r i t also loads on Factor I for a l l intents and purposes. Factor I I contains a l l the items pertinent to Disengagement plus the item, related to 81 the p r i n c i p a l t a l k i n g too much. Factor I I I , i s , for a l l intents and purposes, simply Halpin and Croft's Intimacy Subtest with the a d d i t i o n of a) an E s p r i t item r e l a t e d to the amount of Teachers' laughter at informal gatherings, and b) the Aloofness item r e l a t e d to teachers eating lunch alone. Factor IV contains most of the items r e l a t e d to the Production Emphasis sub- t e s t plus those Aloofness items which could be considered to r e l a t e to working conditions. Factor V i s , for a l l intents and purposes, the o r i g i n a l Hindrance subtest, with a negative loading value on a l l items except Item 14, i . e . Administrative paper work i s burdensome; apparently administrative reports do take up too much of the teacher's-time. Naming the Five-Factors. A p l a u s i b l e explanation for the merged five-dimensional OCDQ r e s u l t as opposed to the o r i g i n a l eight dimensional structure may have been provided by Kenny and Rentz, who have c a t e g o r i c a l l y 80 Item 23, i . e . , There i s considerable laughter when teachers gather informally, i s the only item from the E s p r i t subtest which f a i l s to load on Factor I but i t does seem more appropriate for Factor I I I which apparently has more i n common with s i t u a t i o n s encountered outside the classroom. 81 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s i s the only item r e l a t e d to p r i n - c i p a l ' s behavior which loads on what i s obviously a "teacher group" f a c t o r ; that i s a l l other items are generally r e l a t e d to how the teacher perceives the teacher group. I t i s conceivable that under c e r t a i n circumstances the p r i n c i p a l i s considered as a group member rather than group leader. 52 TABLE IV ' ROTATED ITEM FACTOR MATRIX FOR 64 ITEMS OF THE OCDQ, FORM IV, 8 FACTOR PATTERN . Vancouver Sample (n=116) FACTORS 'OCDQ S u b t e s t I tem I :.2" .3 .4 y5 . 16 7 8 D i sengagement 1. *50 -11 29 -03 37 -112 -13 -22 58 2. - 02 -02 *64 -07 08 -08 -02 -03 43 3. 00 *54 -12 05 -26 21 -05 11 44 4. -01 331 15 -15 -22 01 07 06 20 5. -21 - 1 0 12 11 16 - 05 04 - 1 0 73 6. 16 17 -13 12 . -18 -02 22 24 23 7. 02 -02 -06 * -41 09 -01 13 - 1 0 21 8. -34 - 3 0 14 10 - 0 0 01 -18 -12 28 9. * - 5 2 26 28 21 -04 -12 08 -03 4 9 10. - 23 -13 *40 04 07 -06 -08 07 26 H i n d r a n c e 11. 01 *61 08 -09 09 03 - 07 15 42 12. 20 39 06 21 -28 30 19 04 44 13. 16 10 01 -15 00 06 25 41 29 14. -14 -24 24 03 22 17 * - 4 3 - 2 0 44 15. - 03 *50 -34 08 -11 15 25 -01 47 16. - 1 0 13 *45 -02 -16 11 02 * -41 43 ' E s p r i t 17. * - 4 3 -14 14 -01 29 00 -11 - 2 9 40 18. - 1 0 13 *69 -07 . 16 06 -02 -12 55 19. -18 06 34 S l l 35 -12 -14 * - 4 9 ,"55 20 . 10 *56 06 - 2 9 -17 09 09 - 05 47 21 . 04 -36 08 12 15 16 -33 01 31 22. 26 24 - 1 8 10 -34 - 0 9 06 09 30 23. -14 59 13 -11 - 0 9 00 02 -15 42 24. * - 4 5 -18 19 00 *39 - 2 0 -24 - 0 9 53 25. * - 4 8 - 0 0 19 29 00 03 22 - 2 0 44 26. -07 * - 4 8 1110' -01 -08 10 - 05 -14 29 I n t i m a c y 27. 02 - 2 0 13 14 26 -07 -27 * - 4 2 39, 28 . * - 4 2 - 07 11 -11 10 -22 - 1 0 08 28 29. *43 14 07 * - 4 7 -07 224 - 0 0 21 54 30 . * - 4 2 - 2 9 " l O . - 06 24 12 - 1 0 -11 37 31 . - 1 0 . 34 -18 12 -33 2 4 15 -22 41 32. -24 -04 02 - 15 - 0 0 15 -56 06 42 33. - 3 9 -02 01 -18 -16 -03 -17 -01 24 53 TABLE IV, ( Con t i nued ) OCDQ S u b t e s t I tem 1 34. -07 35. -18 36. 33 37 . 31 38. 13 39. -05 40 . - 32 41 . *71 42 . -25 A l o o f n e s s 22 -02 09 * - 4 6 - 0 0 ^ 18 -23 -01 29 -07 -22 -35 06 02 07 -18 06 -06 . - 1 9 * - 6 5 1.0 06 -16 00 03 21, 16 03 10 21 05 04 -18 11 -07 06 6 7 8 h 2 1-5 04 01 30 16- 07 -68 61 -05 -14 -13 40 22 26 06 26 02 15 04 51 *65 - 1 0 01 47 -04 11 -31 29 -13 . 01 -11 60 14 01 16 13 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 43 . -05 02 05 - 0 9 09 12 *55 05 34 44. * - 5 9 21 27 15 00 -07 08 04 51 45 . 08 00 -03 - 0 9 -23 12 -11 -17 13 46 . * - 6 8 -19 01 12 03 - 0 0 -07 00 52 47 . * -41 06 -07 13 22 * - 4 9 -03 -07 48 48. * -71 08 - 1 0 -11 -13 -07 -06 -16 57 4 9 . - 1 9 - 0 9 11 09 19 01 -33 - 2 2 26 T h r u s t 50 . - 35 16 -04 - 0 0 12 12 -16 -08 21 51 . 25 21 04 * - 5 0 -24 -04 13 -06 44 52. 11 002 -07 - 0 9 -02 *63 00 -04 42 53. -06 13 07 . * - 5 9 - 05 09 -22 -02 43 54 . * - 6 5 -01 02 01 12 11 -14 -08 47 55 . * - 7 3 -08 -06 -02 -02 - 1 0 08 05 56 56. - 25 07 -11 -04 *46 26 18 -08 40 5 7 . * - 7 6 -05 -12 -06 33 -02 -04 -17 74 58. 04 14 04 06 -02 20 00 24 12 59. * - 6 2 -21 17 60. - 33 25 25 61 . -08 -18 * 5 6 62. -35 14 -11 63. 04r 03 09 64. * - 5 0 10 09 E l g e n v a l u e e 3 i10556 4.23 3.11 C u m u l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e 0.17 0.23 0.28 C o n s i d e r a t i o n 01 *40 -12 -06 - 0 9 65 03 35 -01 11 -22 42 04 -08 18 -03 -31 49 - 2 0 -23 13 -03 - 05 2 7 *.-63 - 0 0 15 01 05 44 20 01 10 -14 -08 34 2.11 1.82 1.55 1.36 1.29 2603y 41 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.39 0.41 These v a l u e s were computed f r om the o r i g i n a l u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r s . .-54 TABLE V ROTATED ITEM FACTOR MATRIX FOR 64 ITEMS OF THE OCDQ, FORM IV 5 FACTOR PATTERN . Vancouver Sample (n=116) FACTORS OCDQ S u b t e s t Item's I- I I I I I IV V- h n . ' r ; i- i n - a s Leader P r inc-i-pa-I— as—Leader- 50 . *69 -02 05 1B5 03 50 52. *69 -13 02 09 - 0 3 . 50 51 . *64 -08 -02 -01 -03 42 54. *63 - 0 8 . 09 01 -01 41 57. *59 -01 05 -04 -04 36 58. *55 -12 07 20 03 36 17. *54 -24 24 17- 12 45 53. *51 - 0 9 - -07 -02 03 28 19. *47 - 2 9 35 10 06 44 16. *46 -18 07 -16 j.12. 28 24. *45 -16 18 - 1 9 -01 29 18. *44 -33 229 00 _ 10 40 22. *44 -15 07 -02 12 24 55. *44 -05 05 - 0 0 -01 20 64. *42 10 04 04 15 21 56. 38 -08 01 -13 -03 17 61. 38 13 09 -13 - 0 0 19 60. 37 20 32 08 - 0 0 29 40 . 36 -04 12 - 1 0 01 16 4 7 . 36 04 02 -32 -02 24. 62. 35 14 11 -08 -02 17 25. 34 -14 09 -07 13 16 42 . 34 00 07 - 2 0 05 17 59 . 33 18 23 00. 01 19 20,' 28 -18 05 -09 06 13 26. 28 -08 21 - 0 9 - 0 0 14 41 . 27 00 01 -07 14 10 21 . 25 -21 24 03 00 16 63. 21 -02. 19 09 01 09 Tgaeher-.r "q\iaa"'Teacher- G g o u p p P e r c e p t i b n . 7. -08 *52 02 06 -07 28 6. -05 *50 -02 04 -02 25 5. 02 *49 12 11 -04 27 1. -09 *47 - 1 0 - 0 0 -07 25 2. -03 *44 -07 -07 -05 21 10. - 1 0 *44 -01 -11 04 21 3. -05 *42 - 0 0 -16 01 21 4. -03 *42 06 -03 -11 20 9. -26 32 -03 -21 -16 24 49 . -11 30 13 -17 -11 16 8. -05 23 -23 -12 - 1 0 13 39. 04 17 04 -06 -04 04 37. -04 15 05 - 07 -04 03 TABLE V (Con t i nued ) FACTORS OCDQ S u b t e s t Items P I I I I I IV V h' N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n 28. 08 -02 *51 - 0 5 : 05 27 23. 17 - 0 0 *49 14 -04 29 30. 02 13 *45 -05 00 22 29. 05 -03 *44 -01 -01 19 27. 08 00 *43 -06 00 19 31 . 08 11 *40 08 -02 18 32. 24 05 27 -13 02 15 38. 02 07 -14 -04 -13 04 33 . - 02 -05 -13 -07 -11 04 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 48. 19 -07 08 -21 -01 09 35. -23 12 -06 - 3 0 -07 17 34. 09 04 -06 -36 -15 17 36. 18 -02 - 1 0 -37 -08 19 44 . -05 06 00 -38 -08 15 43 . - 05 16 -06 * - 4 0 -03 19 4 5 . 36 10 01 * -41 05 31 46 . 18 13 06 * - 4 2 -08 23 H i n d r a n c e 15. 27 -03 08 -02 37 22 12. -05 12 05 -12 * - 4 6 25 13. -01 12 - 05 -09 *-51 28 14. 01 09 00 - 1 0 * - 5 4 31 11. - 1 0 15 01 -08 * - 6 0 40 1471/64= 23 E i g e n v a l u e s 3 7.44 3.02 1.80 1.31 1.10 C u m u l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.21 0.23 These v a l u e s were computed f rom the o r i g i n a l u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r s . OCDQ s u b t e s t i t e m s a r e shown i n T a b l e I and T a b l e I I , pp . 2 8 - 2 9 . 56 TABLE V I FOUR FACTOR VARIMAX ROTATIONAL SOLUTION FOR 64 ITEMS OF THE OCDQ, FORM IV, . KENNY AND RENTZ SAMPLE (n=2047) P r i n c i p a l a s A u t h o r i t y Teache r "qua?" T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teacher 5 Group P e r c e p t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n SUBTEST ITEM SUBTEST ITEM SUBTEST ITEM 50. 70 6. 58 30. 519 51. 66 - 7. 57 32. -.5'S 55. 64 2. 56 29. 54 52. 60 4. 55 28. 47 53. 58 5. 55 27. 35 57 . 58 1. 51 25. 33 58. 58 10. 51 26. -24 59 . 58 3. 46 21 . -41 62. . 57 18. 40 23. - 6 0 61. 5'2 9. 36 40 . 47 37. 33 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 60. 46 8. 29 4 5 . SUBTEST ITEM 45 38. 22 42 . 42 19. -42 14. 54 56. 41 35. • 46 32. 39 44. 43 41 . 36 11. 42 63. 36 12. 41 15. 33 34. 40 4 7 . 33 13. 39 24. 32 46. 38 22. 29 43 . 37 16. 29 36. 36 20. 21 48. 34 17. -44 33. 31 54. - 55 39. 24 48. 24 Adapted f r om Kenny and Rentz,, " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e i n Urban A r e a s " , p. 66. 57' stated that the instrument's o r i g i n a t o r s d e l i b e r a t e l y excluded urban core 82 schools from the sample used i n constructing and tes t i n g the OCDQ. Consequently, they contend that one should not nec e s s a r i l y expect to f i n d the same dimensions i f urban core schools are included i n a sample for use 83 with the instrument. In order to provide empirical evidence, Kenny and Rentz, c o l l e c t e d OCDQ responses from a sample of 2,047 teachers representing one hundred and twelve schools located throughout urban and suburban areas of the United States. (Urban and Suburban were defined as those areas with one m i l l i o n or more population). Their data seemed much more sui t a b l e for a four-factor s o l u t i o n , and, although i t i s not customary to rename the factors i n i t i a l l y developed by others' research, Halpin has given Kenny and Rentz e x p l i c i t 84 authorization to rename t h e i r four f a c t o r s . As shown i n Table VI, page 56, they chose to l a b e l s the factors " P r i n c i p a l as Authority", "Teacher 'qua' Teacher Group Perception", "Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n " and "Working 85 Conditions", r e s p e c t i v e l y . A comparison of Kenny and Rentz's r e s u l t s (Table VI) with the present study's r e s u l t s (Table V).£,).< w i l l reveal a rather strange-paradox. On the one hand there are three basic d i f f e r e n c e s between the factor patterns obtained for each i n v e s t i g a t i o n , while on the other hand, with the exception 82 JsBcsKenny.eand. R^R.RRentz, "The Organizational Climate of Schools j l n Five Urban Areas", The Elementary School Journal, (November,1970), p. 63. Ibid. ^ 4 I b i d . , p. 67. Ibid. 58 of a minor change to the f a c t o r labeled " P r i n c i p a l as Authority", the r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r enough to warrant applying the factor names selected by Kenny and Rentz to four of the f i v e f a c t o rs obtained i n t h i s study. The f i r s t and most obvious d i f f e r e n c e between Table VI and Table V i s , of course, the number of f a c t o r s involved. Most of those items comprising the o r i g i n a l Hindrance subtest, while spread accross a l l four of Kenny and Rentz's f a c t o r s , remain almost i n t a c t i n the 5-fac.tor s o l u t i o n . (Item 16, i . e . , Instructions f o r the operation of teaching aids are a v a i l a b l e , loads p o s i t i v e l y on Factor I i n both samples). The loadings, however, i n d i c a t e a negative relationship;, thus for the Vancouver teachers at l e a s t , the factor should be scored p o s i t i v e l y to i n d i c a t e Hindrance i n the sense o r i g i n a l l y intended. At any r a t e , there would appear to be l i t t l e need to rename the subtest for purposes of t h i s study. The second d i f f e r e n c e i n the four and f i v e f actor s o l u t i o n i s the loading of the E s p r i t items between the.Kenny and Rentz urban/suburban sample and the Vancouver sample. In the former sample, Table IV w i l l show that the E s p r i t items are spread across a l l four f a c t o r s . This implies .• that E s p r i t ' s relevance and influence was not p a r t i c u l a r l y strong, for the urban sample. In the l a t t e r sample, Table V w i l l show that v i r t u a l l y a l l E s p r i t items except Item 23, i . e . , There is. considerable laughter when teachers gather, informally, c l e a r l y load on Factor I. Therefore i t would seem that, i n the Vancouver sample, E s p r i t i s t i e d , or at l e a s t somehow d i r e c t l y influenced by the leadership of the "authority f i g u r e " . Conse- quently, custom notwithstanding, for t h i s study Factor I might be more des- c r i p t i v e l y labeled " P r i n c i p a l as Leader",rather than " P r i n c i p a l as Authority?.1. The t h i r d basic d i f f e r e n c e revealed through comparison of Table VI and Table V stems from the factor r e f e r r e d to as "Working Conditions".' I t 59 loads negatively i n the Vancouver sample whereas i n Kenny and Rentz's i n v e s t i g a t i o n the fac t o r loads p o s t i v e l y . In any event, i r r e s p e c t i v e of d i r e c t i o n , the term "Working Conditions" adequately names the factor obtain- ed from both samples, but i t i s apparent that the perceived r e l a t i o n s h i p between each of the two samples i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed one to the other. There i s no need to change the names which Kenny and Rentz have selected for Factors II and I I I . A comparison of the basic items which comprise Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Table VI with the items i n Table V w i l l show that the de s c r i p t i v e names appear to adequately describe the dimensions for both sample groups. Five Factor Pattern i n Terms of the Conceptual Framework The,five-factor pattern obtained from the data i n t h i s study does seem to ind i c a t e that, i n general, the OCDQ items are measuring some degree of i n t e r a c t i o n between the p r i n c i p a l ' s behavior as leader and the teacher's behavior as a group. Figure 5, page 60, attempts to i l l u s t r a t e the merged r e l a t i o n s h i p between group i n t e r a c t i o n s , group or organizational e f f e c t i v e - ness, and s o c i a l needs "versus" s o c i a l c o n t r o l f o r the f i v e dimensions of the OCDQ determined by t h i s study's data. In terms of the f i r s t of the three schemes i n the conceptual frame- work—igrp.up i n t e r a c t i o n s — i t would seem as though the E s p r i t of the Vancouver teachers may be t i e d so d i r e c t l y to the p r i n c i p a l i s leadership behavior,i.e., as expressed through Thrust and Consideration, that, as a group, they do not seem to perceive a cl e a r cut d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e i r own morale or - sp i r i t r a r i d t h e i r leader's behavior. What he Isdoes" seems to strongly influence what "occurs" among the group members. This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s 60 GROUP LEADER Dimensions associated IV I' p r i m a r i l y with s o c i a l Non-Classroom P r i n c i p a l as Leader needs s a t i s f a c t i o n Teacher ( E s p r i t , Thrust, Consideration) S a t i s f a c t i o n Dimensions associated I I I II p r i m a r i l y with aspects Teacher "qua" Working Conditions of s o c i a l control Teacher Group Perception Hindrance (V) FIGURE 5 FIVE DIMENSIONS OF THE OCDQ: FORM IV (64 items) 61 pictured by the spread of the items associated with these dimensions across quadrants I and IV i n f i g u r e 5 rather than remain d i s t i n c t l y separated between the two quadrants as the concept was o r i g i n a l l y mapped i n Figure 3 on page 32. In terms of the t h i r d of the three schemes which form the conceptual framework, quadrants I and IV remain p r i m a r i l y associated with the s a t i s r f a c t i o n of s o c i a l needs and quadrants I I and I I I remain generally associated with s o c i a l c o n t r o l with the obvious exception of one dimension. Aloofness items not only spread across s o c i a l needs and s o c i a l c o n t r o l , but they also transcend the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the behavior exhibited by group leaders—quadrants I and I I — a n d Group "qua" Group—quadrants III and IV. Indeed, owing to t h i s spread, Aloofness seems to lose much of i t s value as a concept within the five-dimensional framework. I t f a i l s to c l e a r l y delineate any of the three schemata involved. In terms of the second scheme—or,gani-rza<t±'o.nal'l. o.rrgroup-effectiveness— the lack of an Aloofness dimension coupled with the merger of the items rel a t e d to E s p r i t , Thrust, and Consideration under a s i n g l e dimension tends to t a r n i s h , though not destroy the four t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a l s r e l a t e d to the organizational or group effectiveness theme. Otherwise, from a " f i v e - dimensional-point-of-view", the r e l a t i o n s h i p between group i n t e r a c t i o n , effectiveness and s o c i a l needs "versus" s o c i a l c o n t r o l s t i l l seems to remain b a s i c a l l y i n accordance with the conceptual framework i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3, page 32. F Five Factor Climate P r o f i l e s Owing to the controversy surrounding the use of the subtest scores rather than a climate continuum (which has been previously o u t l i n e d ) , Figure 6.2, 6, page 63, contains only the extreme and mean scores obtained from the f i v e subtests. The dotted p r o f i l e s "a" and "b" depict "closed" and "open" climates r e s p e c t i v e l y , while the s o l i d l i n e , p r o f i l e "c", r e f l e c t s the sample norm i n that i t represents the mean score calculated for each sub-, 86 t e s t . A l l three p r o f i l e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 6 have been obtained simply by connecting the extreme and the mean scores obtained from the data: none of them represent an average "open" and "closed" p r o f i l e of those schools within the sample which were distinguished by a high loading on only one of three f a c t o r s extracted from an a n a l y s i s of standardized scores obtained from the f i v e subtests as i s the case with respect to those p r o f i l e s shown i n Figure 4, page 36. The "Open"Climate". Even though the method o r i g i n a l l y employed to develop a climate continuum has not been applied to the Vancouver data, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the "b" range scores—when interconnected as shown i n Figure 6 — c o u l d be considered the counterpart of the "Open Climate" i n Figure 4. Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception, Hindrance and Working Conditions scores i n Figure 6 are r e l a t i v e l y low. S i m i l a r l y the o r i g i n a l corresponding subtests, Disengagement, Hindrance and Production Emphasis are also r e l a t i v e l y low i n the "Open Climate" depicted i n Figure 4. Non-Class- room Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Figure 6 and the corresponding Intimacy subtest scores i n Figure 4 are both somewhat below average. F i n a l l y , i n both cases the P r i n c i p a l as Leader score i n Figure 6—represented by the E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration scores i n Figure 4 — i s r e l a t i v e l y high. The "Closed Climate". The same basic reasoning^jiist::applied to the "bUrr.ange scores would seem to apply equally well to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between The climate p r o f i l e obtained for each of the 20 Vancouver schools based on i t s i n d i v i d u a l subtest scores may be found i n Appendix E. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP MERGED LEADER/GROUP CHARACTERISTICS'. LEADER BEHAVIOR •qua" Teacher Teacher Group Perception Hindrance (V) Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n P r i n c i p a l as Leader Working Conditions 3.19 / S FIGURE 6 FIVE FACTOR CLIMATE PROFILES FOR FIVE SUBTESTS OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (FORM IV) Scores are based on 1. Rarely occurs, 2. Sometimes occurs, 3. Often occurs, and 4. Very frequently occurs. 64 the "a" range scores i n Figure 6 and the "Closed Climate" i n Figure 4. In Figure 6 the Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Hindrance (V) scores which correspond to Disengagement and Hindrance i n Figure 4 are r e l a t i v e l y high, while both Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n and i t s Figure 4 counter- p a r t — I n t i m a c y — s c o r e somewhat above average. F i n a l l y , Working Conditions and P r i n c i p a l as Leader i n Figure 6 show scores which are i n accord with the Production Emphasis, E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration scores denoting the "Closed Climate" pictured i n Figure 4 . In essence, then, the same r a t i o n a l e used to v e r b a l i z e the "open" and "closed" climate conditions as described by the climate continuum would seem to apply to the Vancouver data even though the suspect s t a t i s t i c a l methods o r i g i n a l l y employed have not been u t i l i z e d to develop the "b" ("Open Climate") and "a" ("Closed Climate") p r o f i l e s depicted i n Figure 4. A d d i t i o n a l N u l l Hypotheses - Based on Five-Factor Pattern Owing to the f a c t that the OCDQ.factor structure obtained for the Vancouver school sample data d i f f e r s decidedly from the expected factor structure i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by the instrument's o r i g i n a t o r s , i t should be b e n e f i c i a l to expand the study design i n order to accommodate the un- an t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t s . In a d d i t i o n to t e s t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the four n u l l hypotheses previously formulated i t should prove i n t e r e s t i n g to formulate and t e s t a s i m i l a r set of n u l l hypotheses r e l a t e d to the f i v e f actor r e s u l t s obtained from t h i s study. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n order to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between School Area, Staff Members, Enrolment, Human Density and school organizational climate as indicated by f i v e subtests obtained from the Vancouver data, four a d d i t i o n a l n u l l hypotheses may be formulated: 65 N u l l Hypothesis 5. School s i z e i n terms of School Area expressed i n square\ feet i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. N u l l Hypothesis 6. School s i z e i n terms of the number of Staff Members employed therein i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e o r ganizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. N u l l Hypothesis 7. School s i z e i n terms of Enrolment i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate D e s c r i p t i o n Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. N u l l Hypothesis 8. School s i z e i n terms of Human Density i s not s i g n i f i c a n t - l y c orrelated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. Level of S i g n i f i c a n c e . These hypotheses w i l l be tested at a 0.05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 66 IV FINDINGS A mean score for each s u b t e s t — e i g h t generated from Halpin and •"' Croft's data and f i v e generated by t h i s study—has been calculated for each school. This mean was obtained, i n two steps. F i r s t , a mean item score was calculated by f i n d i n g the sum of the school's respondent's scores for each subtest item and d i v i d i n g i t by the number of responses. The second step consisted of fi n d i n g the sum of these mean item scores and d i v i d i n g i t by the number of items representing each subtest. The r e s u l t i s a mean score for the school for the p a r t i c u l a r OCDQ subtest under consideration. Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed to determine the as s o c i a t i o n or r e l a t i o n , i f any, between school s i z e (independent variables) and the 87 OCDQ subtest mean scores (dependent variables) . To determine the si g n i f i c a n c e of a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t under the n u l l hypothesis i n question, a Student's " t " value was calculated and compared to Fisher and 88 Yates' Table of C r i t i c a l Values of t. Nu l l Hypothesis 1 School Size (expressed i n terms of school area as measured i n square feet) i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with any of the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 1. The findings reported i n Table VII, page'' 74 do not in d i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between ^school 87 See Appendix F for further, more s p e c i f i c information and a d e f i n i t i o n of the Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . 88 «t / 2 t = r t \ / n-2/l-r where the value defined by the formula i s d i s t r i b u t e d as Student's " t " with degrees of freedom or df=n-2 and n ^ 10. 67 area and the eight organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i z e v a r i a b l e and Disengagement, Hindrance, Intimacy, Aloofness, Thrust and Consideration probably occurred as a r e s u l t of chance. Assoc i a t i o n between Area, E s p r i t and Production Emphasis. Table VII does i n d i c a t e that a weak a s s o c i a t i o n between School Area, E s p r i t and Production Emphasis does e x i s t at the 0.10 and 0.20 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Consequently, even though the 0.393 and 0.311 c o r r e l a t i o n s are very weak i t i s f e a s i b l e that the a s s o c i a t i o n i s not a r e s u l t of pure chance. Nul l Hypothesis 2 School s i z e i n terms of the number of Staff Members employed therein i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 2. The findings reported i n Table VII do not i n d i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between Staff Members and the eight organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between Staff Members and Disengagement, Hindrance, Intimacy, Aloofness and Production Emphasis probably occurred as a r e s u l t of chance. Assoc i a t i o n between St a f f Members, E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration. Table VII does i n d i c a t e that a rather weak asso c i a t i o n may e x i s t between the number of Staff Members employed i n a school and the dimensions of E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration. E s p r i t and Thrust are s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.20 l e v e l while Consideration a t t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the 0.10 l e v e l . Consequently, even though the c o r r e l a t i o n s are not strong i t i s f e a s i b l e ' that the associations might not have occurred by accident. 68 Null Hypothesis 3 School si z e i n terms of Enrolment i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 3. The findings reported i n Table VII do not i n d i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between Enrolment and six of the eight organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between Disengagement, Hindrance, E s p r i t , Intimacy, Aloofness or Production Emphasis probably occurred as a r e s u l t of chance. Association between Enrolments and Consideration. From a conserva- t i v e point of view the -0.417 c o r r e l a t i o n between Enrolment and Consideration shown i n Table VII i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l a t the 0.05 l e v e l . I t w i l l obtain a c r i t i c a l " t " value of 1.944 where, for a two t a i l e d test and eighteen degrees of freedom, the c r i t i c a l value must be equal to or greater than 2.101 to be considered at the 0.05 l e v e l . Consequently the n u l l hypothesis w i l l be accepted for the Consideration subtest even though, from a l i b e r a l point of view, the 0.10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e shown i n Table VII does not adequately i n d i c a t e that the r e l a t i o n s h i p may not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t from chance. Reject N u l l Hypothesis 3 for Thrust. The c o r r e l a t i o n for Thrust at -0.460 indicated i n Table VII i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l . The N u l l hypothesis for t h i s subtest should be rejected, since i t i s improbable that a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i s strong would be obtained by accident. N u l l Hypothesis 4 School si z e i n terms of Human Density i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e - r l a t e d with the eight organizational climate subtest scores as measured by 69 the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 4. The findings recorded i n Table VII do not i n d i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between Human Density and the eight organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i z e v a r i a b l e and Hindrance, Intimacy, Aloofness and Production Emphasis probably occurred as a r e s u l t of chance. Assoc i a t i o n between Human Density, Disengagement, E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration. Table VII does indi c a t e that a rather weak as s o c i a t i o n may .exist between Human Density and the dimensions of Disengagement, E s p r i t , Thrust and Consideration. Disengagement, Thrust and Consideration are s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.20 l e v e l while E s p r i t a t t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the 0.10 l e v e l . Consequently, even though the c o r r e l a t i o n s are not strong i t i s f e a s i b l e that the a s s o c i a t i o n s — e s p e c i a l l y Esprit--might not have occurred by accident. N u l l Hypothesis 5' School s i z e i n terms of School Area expressed i n square feet i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured' by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 5. The findings i n Table VII do not in d i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between School Area and the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i z e v a r i a b l e and P r i n c i p a l as Leader, Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n and Working Conditions probably occurred as a r e s u l t of chance. 7.0 A s s o c i a t i o n between Area,Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Hindrance (V). Table VII does i n d i c a t e that a weak asso c i a t i o n between School Area, Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception and Hindrance (V) e x i s t s at the 0.20 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Consequently, i t i s f e a s i b l e i that the a s s o c i a t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y a c c i d e n t a l . Null Hypothesis 6 School si z e i n terms of the number of Staff Members employed therein i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver Schools. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 6. The findings recorded i n Table VII i n d i c a t e that the c o r r e l a t i o n s between St a f f Members and the dimensions of Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception, Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n , Working Conditions and Hindrance (V) are too small to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s indicated are probably a r e s u l t of chance. Assoc i a t i o n between Staff Members and P r i n c i p a l as Leader. From a conservative point of view the -0.435 c o r r e l a t i o n between Staff Members and P r i n c i p a l as Leader shown i n Table VII i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l . I t w i l l obtain a c r i t i c a l " t " value of 2.051 whereas, for a two t a i l e d test and eighteen degrees of freedom, the c r i t i c a l value must be equal to or greater than 2.101 to be considered s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l . Conse- quently, the n u l l hypothesis w i l l be accepted for the P r i n c i p a l as Leader subtest even though, from a l i b e r a l point of view, the 0.10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e shown i n Table VII does not adequately i n d i c a t e that the r e l a t i o n s h i p does not nec e s s a r i l y r e s u l t from chance. 71 Nu l l Hypothesis 7 School s i z e as measured by Enrolment i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. Accept N u l l Hypothesis 7 ; T h e f l n d i n g S shown i n Table VII in d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between Enrolment and the dimensions of Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception, Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n , Working Conditions, and Hindrance (V), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e l a t i o n s probably d i f f e r from zero (except Working Conditions which i s zero for a l l intents and purposes) only by chance. Reject N u l l Hypothesis 7 with respect to P r i n c i p a l as Leader. The c o r r e l a t i o n between Enrolment and P r i n c i p a l as Leader shown i n Table VII as -0.462 i s s i g n i f i c a n t l a t the 0.05 l e v e l . The n u l l hypothesis may be r e j e c t - ed since i t i s highly u n l i k e l y that a c o r r e l a t i o n t h i s strong would have been obtained merely by chance, w Null Hypothesis 8 School s i z e as measured by Human Density i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y cor- r e l a t e d with the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores as measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire data obtained from a random sample of Vancouver schools. Accept N u l l 'Hypothesis 8. The findings reported i n Table VII do not ind i c a t e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between Human Density and the f i v e organizational climate subtest scores at the 0.05 l e v e l . Any r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r i n g from zero between t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i z e v a r i a b l e and the f i v e subtests probably occurred by accident. 72 Associ a t i o n between Human Density arid P r i n c i p a l as Leader. Table VII does i n d i c a t e a rather weak as s o c i a t i o n .may e x i s t between Human Density and P r i n c i p a l as Leader. Since the 0.335 c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.20 l e v e l , i t i s f e a s i b l e that the r e l a t i o n s h i p might not r e s u l t from pure chance. Summary of the Findings With the exception of the subtest measuring Thrust f o r N u l l Hypothe- s i s 3 and the subtest P r i n c i p a l as Leader f o r N u l l Hypothesis 7, none of the n u l l hypotheses formulated f o r t h i s study may be rejected at the 0.05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, i n several instances enough a s s o c i a t i o n between the i n - dependent s i z e v a r i a b l e s and the dependent subtests has been obtained at the 0.10 and 0.20 l e v e l s to indicate that at l e a s t some degree of r e l a t i o n - ship may e x i s t which conceivably could warrant further consideration. In f a c t , the c o r r e l a t i o n between Staff Members and P r i n c i p a l as Leader and the c o r r e l a t i o n between Enrolment and Consideration, while t e c h n i c a l l y s i g n i f i - cant only at the 0.10 l e v e l , are nearly strong enough to j u s t i f y r e j e c t i o n of t h e i r respective n u l l hypotheses at the 0.05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Other r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent s i z e v a r i a b l e s and the dependent climate v a r i a b l e s at the 0.10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e are: 1) Area and E s p r i t , 2) S t a f f Members and Consideration, 3) Human Density and E s p r i t . Further associations between the independent s i z e v a r i a b l e s and the dependent subtest v a r i a b l e s at the 0.20 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e are: 1) Area with Production Emphasis, Teacher "qua" Teacher Group Perception, and Hindrance (V), 2) Sta f f Members with E s p r i t , and Thrust, and 3) Human Density with Disengagement, Thrust, Consideration, and P r i n c i p a l as Leader. 73 F i n a l l y , for t h i s study, there would appear to be l i t t l e , i f any, r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e v a r i a b l e s and Hindrance, Intimacy, or the Aloofness subtest. Moreover, the same may be said for t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t e d f i v e dimensional counterparts, Non-Classroom Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n and Working Conditions. TABLE V I I I TABLE OF FINDINGS: NULL HYPOTHESES 1-8 20 Vancouver S c h o o l s 3 1. 2. I- 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I I I I I I IV V C o r r e l a t i o n (r'»)> D isengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s P r o d u c t i o n Emphas is T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r Teacher " q u a " Teacher Group P e r c e p t i o n Non -C l a s s room Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n S c h o o l A r e a .267 .106 - . 3 9 3 ( 0 . 1 0 ) .069 .054 - . 3 1 1 ( 0 . 2 0 ) - . 2 0 9 - . 1 6 4 - . 2 4 0 .344(0 .20) - . 0 5 8 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e (V) S t a f f Members .224 .064 - . 3 0 2 ( 0 . 2 0 ) - . 0 9 5 .029 - . 1 0 4 - . 3 7 3 ( 0 . 2 0 ) - . 3 8 1 ( 0 . 1 0 ) - . 4 3 5 ( 0 . 1 0 ) .090 - . 0 3 7 - . 2 1 0 - . 0 2 9 .345(0 .20) .237 * T w o - t a i l e d t e s t , t=2.101 r e q u i r e d for>p < 0 . 0 5 ; 18 d f . L e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o b t a i n e d i s i n d i c a t e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s , ( a E n r o l m e n t .083 .127 -.125 -.090 -.016 -.143 -.460(0C05):* - .417(0 .10 ) - . 4 6 2 ( 0 . 0 5 ) * -.120 .087 .001 .255 ). Human D e n s i t y .311 (0 .20 ) -.211 - . 384 (0 .10 ) .003 - .097 -.161 .366 (0 .20 ) .376 (0 .20 ) .339 (0 .20 ) - .054 .221 .268 .093 -p- The c o r r e l a t i o n s between Human D e n s i t y and the Vancouver s u b t e s t s a r e based on 19 s c h o o l s . See Append ix F. - 7 5 V. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AMD. RELATED LITERATURE This chapter provides a discussion of the findings and draws on relevant parts of the l i t e r a t u r e i n order to provide an empirical base from which a number of implications may be drawn. If the findings of t h i s study are any i n d i c a t i o n , i t would appear, speaking i n the s t r i c t e s t s t a t i s t i c a l sense, that school s i z e i n terms of School Area, Staff Members or Human Density does not have much influence on either the eight or the f i v e dimensions which purportedly represent the organizational climate of a school. Evidently, a school can t o l e r a t e considerable f l u c t u a t i o n i n i t s s i z e as represented by these three v a r i a b l e s without experiencing any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s one way or another on i t s climate. Enrolment and P r i n c i p a l as Leader Enrolment, however, i s another matter. According to the f i n d i n g s , i t does appear as though a school's Enrolment i s very l i k e l y to s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence i t s c l i m a t e — a t l e a s t to the degree that the climate i s dependent upon the dimension described by the P r i n c i p a l as Leader. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5, page .6.0, t h i s dimension consists p r i m a r i l y of those OCDQ items which o r i g i n a l l y were expected to measure Thrust, Consideration and E s p r i t . Moreover, Table VII suggests that i t i s the Thrust, and to a s l i g h t l y l e s s e r extent, the Consideration items, which have led to the degree of s t a t i s t i c a l " : s i g n i f i c a n c e permitting t h i s conclusion. The negative d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p would i n d i c a t e that large Enrolment w i l l tend to r e s u l t i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l as l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n terms of both h i s own personal example, or Thrust, and the degree of Consideration he e x h i b i t s toward his s t a f f . Low Thrust and low Consideration tend toward "closed" climate conditions owing to u n f u l f i l l e d s o c i a l needs. 76 S t a f f Members arid P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r From a l i b e r a l p o i n t o f v i e w , the f i n d i n g s c o u l d be l o o s e l y i n t e r - p r e t e d to sugge s t t h a t a s c h o o l m i gh t n o t be c a p a b l e o f t o l e r a t i n g too much f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e number o f S t a f f Members i t employs w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c i n g some e f f e c t on i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . A p p a r e n t l y t h i s v a r i a b l e has some e f f e c t on the g r o u p ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r — t h e ; . P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r d i m e n s i o n — a n d i t s i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l c l i m a t e i s s i m i l a r to t h a t j u s t d e s c r i b e d f o r E n r o l m e n t . In t h i s c a s e , r e f e r e n c e to T a b l e V I I and the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between S t a f f Members and P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r i t would appear t h a t t he C o n s i d e r a t i o n i t e m s and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t t he T h r u s t and E s p r i t i t ems have l e d t o a c r i t i c a l v a l u e w h i c h i s c l o s e enough t o the " t " v a l u e r e q u i r e d ( i n t he s t r i c t e s t c o n s e r v a t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l sense ) t o j u s t i f y t h i s l i b e r a l c o n c l u s i o n . En ro lmen t and S t a f f Member E f f e c t s T h e r e i s one no tewor thy c o n t r a s t between t h e " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e t endency w h i c h would appear to r e s u l t f rom l a r g e E n r o l m e n t and the " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e t endency wh i ch e v i d e n t l y stems f rom too many S t a f f Members. The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e V I I i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n terms o f the E s p r i t i t e m s , t e a c h e r s seem to be much more t o l e r a n t o f " t o o - m a n y - p u p i l s " t han they a r e o f " t o o - m a n y - c o l l e a g u e s " . In t he f o rmer s i t u a t i o n the E s p r i t s u b t e s t s c o r e s a t t a i n no d e g r e e of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e wha t soeve r whereas i n t he l a t t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a 0.20 l e v e l has been o b t a i n e d . However, h a v i n g p r e v i o u s l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t f i v e d i m e n s i o n s — r a t h e r t h a n the o r i g i n a l e i g h t — a r e p r o b a b l y a b e t t e r measure o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e f o r t h e Vancouver s amp le , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f i s f a r t oo tenuous to j u s t i f y even the most remote a t t empt to i n f e r , " c e t e r i s p a r i b u s " , t h a t among s c h o o l s w i t h e q u a l 77 Enrolment, those with fewer Staff Members and larger classes are more l i k e - l y to have a more "open" climate than those with many Sta f f Members and smaller c l a s s e s . Nevertheless, the contrast., no matter how tenuous at t h i s point, could be strong enough to conclude that a d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be j u s t i f i e d . I r r e s p e c t i v e of which v a r i a b l e may exert the stronger influence, there i s l i t t l e doubt that the negative d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p does suggest that a large teaching s t a f f w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t perception of the p r i n c i p a l ' s behavior than w i l l a small teaching s t a f f . Under these circums- tances, though, he i s perceived as. l e s s considerate and h i s own personal e x a m p l e — T h r u s t — i s probably not quite as motivationally e f f e c t i v e as i t would be with a smaller s t a f f . The net r e s u l t of low scores on Consideration and Thrust items i s a low P r i n c i p a l as Leader dimension with u n f u l f i l l e d s o c i a l needs and a tendency toward a "closed", "unhealthy" climate. Furthermore, the negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between both Enrolment and S t a f f Members with P r i n c i p a l as Leader found i n t h i s study appear to be consistent with those r e s u l t s reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Large s c h o o l s — e s p e c i a l l y where " l a r g e " i s defined by the number of Staff Members— may i n f a c t be "closed" or "unhealthy" by v i r t u e of t h e i r s i z e . What i s causing the negative r e l a t i o n s h i p ? I f , as Indik suggests, organizational and psychological mediating v a r i a b l e s are involved, then organizational climate as a concept may prove to be considerably more complex—especially i n large o r g a n i z a t i o n s — t h a n i t s present mapping and measurement would seem to i n d i c a t e . Whether or not t h i s i s the case, i t would seem safe to suggest that future research u t i l i z i n g Getzels ; and Thelan-is model would be w e l l advised to couple i t with a prototype of 78 Indik's paradigm as illustrated i n Figure 7 below: 1 Independent Variable (Size) X Mediating Mediating Dependent Variable Variable Variable (Organiz-v » (a psycho- (Member a t i o n a l l o g i c a l Behavior) Process) Process) Figure 7*. Prototype of Paradigm I l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure '24 n. page - 22 ., *See B.P. Indik, Human Relations, XVI,. No. :.4'6(1963)'34pV. 340. This would permit consideration of coordination, c o n t r o l and communication as organizational mediating processes which may ultim a t e l y reduce an in d i v i d u a l ' s a t t r a c t i o n toward the organization and r e s u l t i n reduced p a r t i - c i p a t i o n . Moreover, i t should be f e a s i b l e to determine i f large school s i z e i n terms of both Enrolment and Staff Members i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to member p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and, i f so, does the reduction occur p r i m a r i l y i n 8.9; those schools which e x h i b i t a "closed" climate? Such research might shed some l i g h t on p o t e n t i a l causes of the negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between school s i z e and the P r i n c i p a l ' s perceived behavior i n terms of Thrust and Consideration, i . e . , P r i n c i p a l as Leader i n the Vancouver sample data. 89 Indik has, i n fact, tested the hypothesis that organizational size influences member participation indirectly through certain organizational processes i n ninety-six comparable organizations. He found a significant negative relationship. See:;B'ernard P. Indik "Organizational Size and Member Participation: Some Empirical Tests of Alternative Explanations", Human Relations, XVII'I?. .pp?3^9€3:50250-. 79 The t h e o r y o f " unde rmann ing " w h i c h has been p roposed by B a r k e r a l s o m i gh t be somewhat t e n u o u s l y t i e d , o r r e l a t e d to I n d l k ' s , p a r a d i g m . B a s i c a l l y , B a r k e r has p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t he i n t e n s i t y o f manning a v a i l a b l e pe r b e h a v i o r s e t t i n g , : i . e . , an e c o b e h a v i o r a l u n i t w h i c h may. be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e g u l a r l y o c c u r r i n g b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s a t a s p e c i f i a b l e t ime and p l a c e w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , i n f l u e n c e s the . s e t t i n g o c c u p a n t ' s o v e r t b e h a v i o r and 90 s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . A s u c c i n t summary o f t he t h e o r y has been p r o v i d e d by W i c k e r as f o l l o w s : Occupant s o f undermanned s e t t i n g s , r e l a t i v e to o c c u p a n t s o f overmanned s e t t i n g s were p o s t u l a t e d to work h a r d e r and spend more t ime i n s e t t i n g r e l e v a n t a c t i v i e s ; to engage i n a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f t a s k s ; to occupy p o s i t i o n s o f g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i - b i l i t y ; t o more a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t o ther s to h e l p m a i n t a i n the a c t i v i t y , even i f t he o t h e r s a r e o n l y m a r g i n a l l y q u a l i f i e d ; to a c h i e v e a l ower q u a l i t y p e r f o r m a n c e ; t o have more f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n s b i l i t y , i n v o l v e m e n t , s u c c e s s , f a i l u r e and i n s e c u r i t y ; and to v i e w t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s e t t i n g o c c u p a n t s more i n terms o f t a s k r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n i n terms o f p u r e l y s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 9 1 A l t h o u g h the t h e o r y has been t e s t e d a l m o r s t t e x e l u ' s i v e l y y w i t h r e s p e c t to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i e n t e l e , e . g . , s t u d e n t s and churehamembers r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s t a f f members, i t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r i n c i p a l - t e a c h e r group as w e l l . yu R<?G?r B a r k e r , " E c o l o g y and M o t i v a t i o n " Nebra ska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n 1960, V o l . V I I I , p p . 1-50. F o r f a r more e x t e n s i v e e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h i s . t heory , r e f e r to R. G tr.cBar ken r&.eP. aG.umff y . tB iguSchool ?, S m a l l IS c hop 1, : S t a n f o r d , C a l i f : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , ' 1964,Cha!p:t :e'r£j2 T d e a l - s - e x c l u s i v e - l y w i t h d e f i n i n g " b e h a v i o r s e t t i n g s " . 91 A.W. W i c k e r , J . E . McGra th and G.E.. A r m s t r o n g , O r g a n i z a t i o n S i z e and B e h a v i o r S e t t i n g C a p a c i t y as De te rm inan t s , o f Member P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , V o l . X V I I , 1972, pp.. 4 9 9 - 5 0 0 . The t h e o r y has f o u n d some c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t . I n a d d i t i o n ..to t h o s e s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d see - , a l s o L . L . B a i r d " B i g S c h o o l , S m a l l School:•••A C r i t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n " o f the H y p o t h e s i s " , J o u r n a l Of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , yT<x>(1QftQ) \:\ p p . 252 -260. 80 I ndeed , b e a r i n g I n d i k ' s pa rad i gm and the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n m i n d , i t would seem to be a p a r t i c u l a r l y . . f r u i t f u l a r e a f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F o r example , i t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t s i m p l y p e r m i t t i n g " unde rmann ing " to o c c u r by d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d i n g an i n c r e a s e i n the c o o r d i n a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y component w i t h i n c r e a s e d E n r o l m e n t w i l l a l m o s t a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n b e h a v i o r s e t t i n g s . I f s o , t h i s c o u l d , i n t u r n , l e a d to i n c r e a s e d membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h much the same d e s i r e d e f f e c t w h i c h m i gh t be a n t i c i p a t e d f r o m a r e d u c t i o n o f S t a f f Members and E n r o l m e n t . C l i m a t e ' s I n f l u e n c e on L e a d e r s h i p . N o r m a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , a c e n t r a l theme o u t l i n i n g the v a l u e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p : wh i ch " o u g h t " t o stem f r om a r e v i e w o f t he OCDQ r e l a t e d , l i t e r a t u r e does n o t m a t e r i a l i z e . G e t z e l s and T h e l a n ' s model does no t seem t o a d d r e s s t he q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e between the n o m o t h e t i c and i d i o g r a p h i c d i m e n s i o n s , t h a t i s , t he d i r e c t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p r i n c i p a l as l e a d e r and the t e a c h e r s as g r o u p . I t does, d e p i c t t h e need to a t t empt to s t r i v e toward m a i n t e n a n c e o f a " z e r o - s t a t e - o f . - t e n s i o n " i n o r d e r to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . I r o n i c a l l y , most o f t he r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the end r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s a t e a c h e r group and e n v i r o n - m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e upon the p r i n c i p a l a s l e a d e r w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r o n g - er than v i c e v e r s a . The i n f l u e n c e may be a n a l y s e d i n terms o f the t h e o r e t i c background o f the s c h o o l as a s o c i a l sy s tem as w e l l as what H a l p i n has d e s c r i b e d as t he " d i l e m a o f d e f i n i t i o n " i n t h a t t he term " l e a d e r s h i p " and the c o n c e p t i t r e p r e s e n t s , has i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n i t a d e s c r i p t i v e and an e v a l u a t i v e component: " . . . . one r e f e r s to a r o l e and. t h e b e h a v i o r o f a p e r s o n i n t h i s r o l e , and the o t h e r i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n the 81 92 r o l e . " The s c h o o l , a n a l y s e d as a s o c i a l system has an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e w h i c h has been d e f i n e d as t he i n t e r a c t i o n between o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members who e n c o u n t e r one a n o t h e r i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r : i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s as t h e s e r o l e s a r e d i r e c t e d toward f u l f i l l m e n t o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t he s c h o o l g o a l s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , though , does n o t d e s c r i b e the b e h a v i o r o f the p r i n c i p a l . What i s t he p r i n c i p a l ' s t a sk ? What govern s h i s r o l e and d i r e c t s h i s b e h a v i o r w i t h i n i t ? Guba o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s the t a s k as t h a t o f m e d i a t i n g b e t w e e n t w o s e t s ; o f b e h a v i o r - e l i c i t i n g f o r c e s , 93 t h a t i s , the n o m o t h e t i c and t h e i d i o g r a p h i c " i n a manner w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s a t once o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y u s e f u l a s w e l l 94 as i n d i v i d u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g . " W i g g i n s c l a r i f i e s " i n d i v i d u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g " b e h a v i o r as " t h a t w h i c h r e s u l t s a s t h e p r i n c i p a l . . . . a t t e m p t s to cope w i t h an env i ronment made up o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r h i s b e h a v i o r ( r o l e s ) i n ways 95 c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s own i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s , o f needs ( p e r s o n a l i t y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , " I n the p r o c e s s o f a c t u a l i z i n g h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t h r o u g h the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s r o l e , t h e p r i n c i p a l exchanges h i s b e h a v i o r f o r r e w a r d s . ^ B u t , owing t o the r e c i p r o c a l n a t u r e o f t he i n t e r a c t i v e v a r i a b l e s c o m p r i s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , as the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t e s h i s 92 H a l p i n ' , T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 82. 93 EGG.Guba, " R e s e a r c h i n I n t e r n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — W h a t Do We Know?", i n R.F. Campbe l l & J . M . L ipham (Eds} A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T h e o r y As A Gu ide to A c t i o n , 63rd Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, P a r t I I . C h i c a g o Midwest A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C e n t e r , 1960, p. 121. 94 - ' * H . Ib id. 95 T.W. W i g g i n s , . " P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r i n . t he S c h o o l Climate':.' A Systems A n a l y s i s " . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , XP7(^Sep 7tember, pl'971>)v p p . 57 . 9 6 I b i d . 82 b e h a v i o r to t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e w a r d s , he i s a t t he same t ime i n f l u e n c e d by i t . * ' 9 7 Between the i n f l u e n c e o f h i s own need f o r i n t e r n a l a p p r o v a l o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f and. h i s m o t i v a t i o n to seek a p p r o v a l f rom t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n - m e n t — t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and the. i n t e r n a l env i r onment o r s c h o o l c l i e n t e l e — i t must be a r a r e p r i n c i p a l who does n o t o c c a s i o n a l l y f e e l t h a t he has been caught between t h e p r o v e r b i a l " r o c k and a h a r d p l a c e " . On the one hand he f r e q u e n t l y must m e d i a t e between the two' s o c i a l i z i n g f o r c e s , w h i l e on the o t h e r hand , h i s own b e h a v i o r i s : b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d q u i t e i n t e n s e - l y by b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f o r c e s , i n the s o c i a l s y s tem. E v e n t u a l l y , i t has been s u g g e s t e d , the complex s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l r e s u l t i n a g r a d u a l d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l 1 s . p e r s o n a l i t y by the s c h o o l ' s e x p e c t a - 98 i t i o n s . More s u c c i n c t l y stated': ' . " T h e p r i n c i p a l can e x p e c t to f i n d t h a t 99 h i s b e h a v i o r i s l a r g e l y s u b j e c t t o the c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l c l i m a t e . " The r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p r e s s e d as a f u n c t i o n o f t ime may be i l l u s t r a t e d a s i n F i g u r e 8, page 83,' w h i c h may a s s i s t i n a c c o u n t i n g , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r the a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y o f the t e a c h e r s i n the Vancouver sample to s e p a r a t e t h e i r own E s p r i t f rom t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r . I t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t t he Vancouver p r i n c i p a l ' s l e n g t h o f incumbancy was such t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s may have been domina ted by t h e i r s c h o o l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l and the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . C o n v e r s e l y , would t h e s p r e a d o f E s p r i t i t e m s a c r o s s a l l f o u r o f Kenny and R e n t z ' s f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t most o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s were "new"and 97 98 99 I b i d . I b id : . , p . 5 8 . 3 r h £ . v i o r : % p„ 58, I b i d . 83 Newly A s s i g n e d P r i n c i p a l P r i n c i p a l w i t h l o n g e r . i n c u m b a n c y i P r i n c i p a l P e r s o n a l i t y S c h o o l I : . E x p e c t a t i o n s 1 T ime- ft. F i g u r e 8$ : The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S c h o o l E x p e c t a t i o n and P r i n c i p a l P e r s o n a l i t y i n Observed B e h a v i o r . A * A b s t r a c t e d f rom Wigg in s " P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r i n the S c h o o l C l i m a t e : A Systems A n a l y s i s " , E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 1971, p. 5 9 . had n o t y e t succumbed to group norm p r e s s u r e ? ' ' " ^ I f t h i s was the c a s e , t he p r i n c i p a l i s were p e r c e i v e d as " a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s " r a t h e r than a c c e p t e d as members o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s . R e s e a r c h to d e t e r m i n e what r e l a t i o n - s h i p , i f a n y , e x i s t s between t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s incumbancy and the E s p r i t s u b - t e s t m i gh t shed some l i g h t on the m a t t e r . I n any even t i t would u l t i m a t e l y seem t h a t the s c h o o l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , as e x p r e s s e d by the t e a c h e r g r o u p , c o u p l e d w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t he s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and the s c h o o l c l i e n t e l e , p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e the p r i n c i p a l as l e a d e r as much, o r pe rhap s e v e n more , t han he c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e s c h o o l by h i s own s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r . L e a d e r s h i p ' s I n f l u e n c e on C l i m a t e . W i gg in s r e p o r t s a s t u d y o f the b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r i n c i p a l s (as r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l c l i m a t e ) The d e s e g r e g a t i o n of. U n i t e d S t a t e s . S c h o o l s . w a s j u s t g e t t i n g w e l l under, way a t t he t ime Kenny and Ren tz commenced - the i r s t u d y . The u p h e a v a l no doubt d i d d i s r u p t the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r and s e v e r a l r e c e n t s t a f f and l e a d e r s h i p changes p r o b a b l y had o c c u r r e d . 84 c o n d u c t e d i n t h i r t y - f i v e s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s u s i n g the OCDQ to. measure t ype o f c l i m a t e , and the Fundamenta l I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p O r i e n t a t i o n - B e h a v i o r (F IRO-B ) , O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y and Su rvey o f I n t e r - p e r s o n a l V a l u e s (SIV) t o a s s e s s l e a d e r b e h a v i o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ' ' ^ " ' ' W h i l e the f i n d i n g s , d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the c l i m a t e o f h i s s c h o o l , they. d i d . l e n d overwhe lming s u p p o r t t o t h e a n c i l l a r y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t r e p l a c i n g the p r i n c i p a l would (1) no t a f f e c t the s t a b i l i t y o f t he s c h o o l ' s e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e and (2) t he p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r becomes, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the s c h o o l s 102 c l i m a t e as t he l e n g t h o f h i s incumbancy. i n c r e a s e d . D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f s p e c u l a t i n g why the f i n d i n g s d i d n o t s u p p o r t t he c o n s t r u c t t h a t the " p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t e s to and i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s c h o o l w i t h i n w h i c h he i s engaged" a s sugge s ted by G e t z e l s s . a n d T h e l a n d ' s m o d e l , W i gg in s assumes t h a t the s c h o o l must be a subsy s tem to w h i c h the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t e s by way o f h i s b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whereas the i n p u t s h a v i n g some i n f l u e n c e on t h e s e c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o n t r i b u t i n g to 103 h i s rewards stem f r om the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as the s y s tem. W i gg in s wonder s , t h e n , to what e x t e n t the s c h o o l as a subsys tem might be i n f l u e n c e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e o f the system?—the d i s t r i c t — i t s e l f ? P a r t o f t he answer may have been p r o v i d e d by Hughes i n T . W . ' W i g g i n s , "A Compara t i ve I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r and S c h o o l "" "~ " PP Sch C l i m a t e " . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , LXV.I, § N o . :<i3, (November, - ^ v ^ e P P i^rbp -103-105. 1 0 2 I b i d . , p p . 104-105, 103 I b i d . , p . 105. 85 h i s s t u d y i n t o the p r o c e s s o f i n n o v a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s to c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s i n the c e n t r a l o f f i c e s of. twenty "most i n n o v a t i v e " and twenty " l e a s t i n n o v a t i v e " s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . ' ' ' ^ He used a s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e OCDQ i n a sample o f t he c e n t r a l o f f i c e s o f t h o s e Ohio d i s t r i c t s w h i c h t h e B u r e a u . o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h o f Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y had r anked by the e x t e n t o f i n n o v a t i o n i n terms o f t he number o f d i f f e r i n g i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e s o n g o i n g a t t he t ime (1966) , to t e s t f o u r h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g the h i g h l y i n n o v a t i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h a more " o p e n " c l i m a t e than t h a t o f t he n o n - i n n o v a t i v e d i s t r i c t s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d sugges t t h a t t he s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ' c e n t r a l o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e i s , i n f a c t , p e r v a s i v e , sy s temwide. S p e c u l a t i n g t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l a t t r a c t and r e t a i n m a i n l y t ho se i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e l i k e l y to e v i d e n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c l i m a t e , Hughes a s k s : How l o n g . . . . would a s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g e l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t e d i n the new and u n t r i e d r e m a i n i n a d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h the c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n h i b i t e d h i s o r he r f a c u l t y ' s a t t e m p t s to adap t new i d e a s to t he l o c a l scene? F o r t h a t m a t t e r , how much chance would such an i n d i v i d u a l have o f o b t a i n i n g a b u i l d i n g l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n i n a d i s t r i c t com- m i t t e d to the " t r i e d and t r u e " ? 1 0 6 He an swer s , " T h e s e p e o p l e would move on o r would no t come i n the f i r s t i ,,107 p l a c e . 104 L" WW-;. Hughes "Or g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e — A n o t h e r D i m e n s i o n , - t o the P r o c e s s o f I n n o v a t i o n " , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , IV, N o . 3 , ( F a l l , 1968 ) , pp . 17 -28 . 1 0 5 I b i d . , pp . 18 -19 . 106 ' I b i d . , p. 25. 107 I b i d . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h I n d i k ' s pa rad i gm w i t h r e g a r d to s c h o o l s i z e . 86 O ther d i r e c t s u p p o r t f o r W i g g i n s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p r i n c i p a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the d i s t r i c t a s a sy s tem a f f e c t s h i s i n p u t i n t o the s c h o o l a s a subsys tem has been p r o v i d e d by a s u b - s t u d y c o n n e c t e d w i t h Andrews ' 108 OCDQ v a l i d i t y s t u d y . Schmidt used a. sample o f s i x t y s c h o o l s s t r a t i f i e d by c l i m a t e f rom Andrews o r i g i n a l sample o f 165 A l b e r t a ^ s c h o o l s to r e l a t e the e i g h t . O C D Q ' s u b t e s t s c o r e s t o t he t w e l v e s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t he L e a d e r s h i p B e h a v i o r D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and found s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s e x p e c t e d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t he n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n between S u p e r i o r 109 O r i e n t a t i o n and H i n d r a n c e . One c o n c l u s i o n i s s u b s e q u e n t l y drawn t h a t when the P r i n c i p a l has i n f l u e n c e w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r s , he i s a b l e to m i n i m i z e the impac t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o u t i n e o r i g i n a t i n g i n the s c h o o l 110 o f f i c e . Some i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t f o r Hughes ' s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a t t r a c t e d to c l i m a t e s w h i c h e v i d e n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r own may be found i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r l i t e r a t u r e . D a v i s , f o r example, , c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n f i v e W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , government o r g a n i z a - t i o n s wh i ch r anged i n s i z e f rom 180. to 6000 members i n an e f f o r t to d e t e r m i n e why some e x e c u t i v e s w i l l n o r m a l l y f o l l o w r u l e s w h i l e otherssse"emtto. n o r m a l l y d e v i a t e f rom f o l l o w i n g r u l e s . H e f o u n d , as e x p e c t e d , t h a t some o r g a n i z a - 108 Andrews, " S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e " , p. 326. 109 I b i d . , p. 327. S u p e r i o r O r i e n t a t i o n i s d e f i n e d on p. 3 o f t h e Manua l f o r the L e a d e r B e h a v i o r D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e — F o r m X I I , Co lumbus, O h i o ; Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , . B u r e a u o f B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h , 1963, by R.M. S t o g d i l l , a s " T h e L e a d e r m a i n t a i n s c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r ; ha s i n f l u e n c e w i t h them; i s s t r i v i n g f o r h i g h e r s t a t u s " . I b i d . J.W. D a v i s , J r . , " R u l e s H i e r a r c h y and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e " , P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ,XXXI,3No. 15o(May-Jun-e,^li968y^Bppnp50-55. 87 t i o n s a r e r u l e - b o u n d and h i e r a r c h i c a l w h e r e a s , a t t he o p p o s i t e extreme o t h e r s a r e f r e e w h e e l i n g ; he u l t i m a t e l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t " a n i n d i v i d u a l w i l l j o i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n he f i n d s , c o n g e n i a l o r i f he does n o t f i t i n " . . . he may 1 1 2 l e a v e a t the f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y . " The i m p l i c a t i o n i s o b v i o u s : i f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e i s s e l f p e r p e t u a t i n g , t h e n t h i s , i n t u r n , s u g g e s t s t h a t a l e a d e r may f a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i f he t r i e s to change h i s 1 1 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n f r om a r u l e o r i e n t e d c l i m a t e to a g o a l o r i e n t e d c l i m a t e . How does t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t r a c t members w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n - g r u e n t w i t h i t s c l i m a t e ? S c h n e i d e r p r o p o s e s t h a t what o c c u r s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y t r a n s m i t t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e t he o r g a n i - 1 1 4 z a t i o n s i m p l y by the way e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n members d e s c r i b e i t . To t e s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l e x i s t between i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f f u t u r e work c l i m a t e and the r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , a s i x d i m e n s i o n a l Agency C l i m a t e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d by f a c t o r a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e f o r o t h e r s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h was u s e d to c o l l e c t d a t a f rom two d i f f e r e n t l i f e i n s u r a n c e companies c o m p r i s i n g two hundred t w e n t y - e i g h t a g e n c i e s between t h e m . ^ " ' The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 1 1 2 I b i d . , p. 5 5 . A g a i n , t h i s t o o o i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h I n d i k ' s t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i z e . I b i d . 1 1 4 B. S c h n e i d e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e : I n d i v i d u a l E r e f e r e n c e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l R e a l i t i e s ; ' J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , L V J I ; : ~ N O . 3 . ; ( 1 9 7 2 ) > , ^ 2 1 1 ^ 2 ^ . 1 - 2 1 7 / T I b i d . , p. 2 1 2 . S i m i l a r r e s e a r c h and s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s a r e c i t e d by S c h n e i d e r : t he two most n o t a b l e c o n d u c t e d by V i c t o r H. Vroom ( 1 ) " O r g a n i - z a t i o n a l C h o i c e : A S tudy o f P r e and P o s t D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s " , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , 1 9 6 6 , V o l 1 , pp . 2 1 2 - 2 2 5 and ( 2 ) V i c t o r H. Vroom and E . L . D e c i , " T h e S t a b i l i t y o f P o s t - D e c i s i o n D i s s o n a n c e : A F o l l o w - U p S tudy o f the Job A t t i t u d e s o f B u s i n e s s S c h o o l G r a d u a t e s " , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , V o l . 6 , p p . 3 6 - 4 9 . 88 i n d i v i d u a l s do t end to j o i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n w h i c h they might be e x p e c t e d to f i t and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t he c l i m a t e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to 116 the e x i s t i n g agent p e r c e p t i o n s a t t h e . 0 . 1 0 l e v e l . Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e o r p e r c e i v e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e as a c c u r a t e l y a s i n s u r a n c e agent s ? The r e s u l t s : o f a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by H e l l e r i n t e n P e n n s y l v a n i a e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s u s i n g the OCDQ r e s p o n s e s f r om two hundred t w e n t y - n i n e s t a f f members t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g and d e s i r e d s c h o o l c l i m a t e s would sugge s t t h a t t h e y d o : he found t h a t a s a g e n e r a l r u l e , few r a d i c a l v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t e d between t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t he t o t a l membership o f t he f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i - z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e and t h o s e o f t he members o f t he i n f o r m a l g roups : i n any 117 g i v e n school ' . 1 Whether o r n o t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t he c l i m a t e i s communicated o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l i s unknown, but the m a t t e r c o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be s u b j e c t e d to e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . Two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s , F e i t l e r and B l u m b e r g , r e p o r t a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t e f f o r t d i r e c t e d toward c h a n g i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , o r c h a r a c t e r ; - ; o f a s c h o o l f rom one b e s t d e s c r i b e d as b o r d e r i n g on chaos to 118 one more i n a c c o r d w i t h one o f L i k e r t ' s m o d e l s . Even though t h e i r s t u d y d i d n o t u t i l i z e t h e OCDQ, t h e r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d h e r e p a r t i a l l y because o f t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n , but more i m p o r t a n t , because o f t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n I b i d . , p . 214. ^ 7 R.W. H e l l e r , " I n f o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n - a l C l i m a t e . o f S c h o o l s " , The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , L X I , No. 9, (May - June? .1968 ) , p. 410. 118 F . F e i t l e r , and A . B l umberg , " Chang ing the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r o f a S c h o o l " , The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , LXXXI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 1 ) , pp . 206 -215 . 89 t h a t t h e newly a p p o i n t e d p r i n c i p a l c o u l d n o t change the s c h o o l c h a r a c t e r 119 w i t h o t w i t h o u t d i s t r i c t s u p p o r t . In e f f e c t , t h e n , the e f f o r t to change t h e s c h o o l ' s c h a o t i c c h a r a c t e r was d i r e c t e d toward the t e a c h e r s , i . e . , as a g roup. ,whi le l e a d e r s h i p was, i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s e n s e , to be h e l d c o n s t a n t . To d e t e r m i n e whether o t n o t the change e f f o r t had been a t a l l s u c c e s s f u l , t he L i k e r t P r o f i l e o f a S c h o o l ( F o r m i ' f o r T e a c h e r s ) was' a d m i n i s t e r - edtfco t e a c h e r s who had s e r v e d f rom the t ime o f t h e new p r i n c i p a l ' s a r r i v a l u n t i l the c o n c l u s i o n o f the change e f f o r t . The r e s u l t s d i d i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i - c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r c e i v e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " t r e a t m e n t and f o u r o f t h e f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e d - - 120 xn t h e s t u d y . However, as would be e x p e c t e d f rom the c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d by b o t h D a v i s and Hughes, the change was no t a c h i e v e d p a i n l e s s l y , no r was i t w i t h o u t c o n f l i c t . F i e t l e r and B lumberg r e p o r t : " I n t h e p r o c e s s o f change , t e a c h e r s 121 l e f t and were a sked to l e a v e . " Thus , the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h the r e p l a c e m e n t s and the r e m a i n d e r p re sumab l y e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o r c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s more i n k e e p i n g , o r c o n g r u e n t w i t h the newly e v o l v i n g s c h o o l c l i m a t e . Pe rhaps even more i m p o r t a n t — a l t h o u g h the p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r d i d no t a l t e r 119 I b i d . , p. 209. 120 I b i d . , p . 2 1 2 . The Form f o r T e a c h e r s was adap ted by Jane G. L i k e r t and R e n s i s L i k e r t f rom a s i m i l a r fo rm found i n The Human O r g a n i z a t i o n s : I t s Management and V a l u e , (New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l Book C o . , 1961), by R e n s i s L i k e r t . The f i f t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c was no t found s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " p r o f i l e s was, o f c o u r s e , l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t t h i s was e x p e c t e d s i n c e , t he p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r was no t changed . 121 I b i d . , p. 214. - 90 a p p r e c i a b l y d u r i n g the s e v e n t e e n month t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d — t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s c h o o l ' s t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d a b e h a v i o r change : t h e p r i n c i p a l was now 122 s e e n n o t as a t h r e a t , b u t r a t h e r a s s u p p o r t i v e and f r i e n d l y . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , F i e t l e r and B lumberg c o n c l u d e t h a t the changes measured o c c u r r e d i n t he o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f and i n t he i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i v e 123 p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s c h o o l . " A t t h e r i s k o f e x p r e s s i n g - the o b v i o u s , t h i s i s s i m p l y a s t a tement o f t he d e f i n i t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e ; t h e r e f o r e , i n e f f e c t , i t would appear t h a t t he s c h o o l c l i m a t e was i n d e e d c h a n g e d , b u t t he p r i n c i p a l as l e a d e r had l i t t l e t o do w i t h i t . L e a d e r s h i p ' s F u n c t i o n . V i e w i n g the f i n d i n g s j u s t o u t l i n e d w i t h i n the t h e o r e t i c f ramework o f t h e s c h o o l a s a s o c i a l s y s t e m , i t does appear t h a t t he p r i n c i p a l i s an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t f o r c e i n a s c h o o l , a n d , as s u c h , g e n e r a l - i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g h i s b e h a v i o r a l i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d be a n a l y s e d i n terms o f o t h e r f o r c e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l , p o s s i b l y the l a r g e r d i s t r i c t , and p e r h a p s even the community i n w h i c h b o t h the s c h o o l and i t s d i s t r i c t a r e imbedded. T h i s does no t n e c e s s a r i l y sugges t t h a t beca u se the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e group i s e v i d e n t l y s t r o n g e r than t h a t e x e r c i s e d by the l e a d e r , t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p i s " i n e f f e c t i v e " o r " i n a d e q u a t e " . I ndeed , q u i t e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s i n t e n d e d to s u g g e s t t h a t h i s l e a d e r s h i p may be the k e y to a c h i e v i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e — t h e s t a t e o f z e r o t e n s i o n — b e t w e e n the n o m o t h e t i c and i d i o g r a p h i c d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h i s v i t a l to s a t i s f a c t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . G a l l a h e r i n d i r e c t l y t ouche s t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w when he c i t e s S p i n d l e r to s u p p o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l i s no t t h e one to a s s i g n to 122 123 I b i d . , p . 213. I b i d . 91 a d v o c a t e f u n c t i o n s s u c h as p l a n n e d change o r i n n o v a t i o n : H i s j o b i s i n l a r g e p a r t t h a t o f m a i n t a i n i n g a w o r k i n g e q u i l i b r i u m , o f a t b e s t a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e f o r c e s . T h i s i s one o f t he r e a s o n s why s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e r a r e l y o u t s p o k e n p r o t a g o n i s t s of. a c o n s i s t e n t and v i g o r o u s l y p r o - f i l e d p o i n t o f v i e w . G i v e n the n a t u r e o f our c u l t u r e and s o c i a l s y s t e m , and the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between the p u b l i c and the s c h o o l s he c anno t a l i e n a t e s i g n i f i c a n t segments o f t h a t p u b l i c and s t a y i n b u s i n e s s . Because t h e p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s i n a s o c i a l s y s tem w h e r e i n he i s a p p a r e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d as much o r p o s s i b l y even more by t h a t sy s tem than he can i n f l u e n c e the s c h o o l by h i s own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f o r t s , W i gg in s has •••mtten w r i t t e n : T h i s n o t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f much o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f s o - c a l l e d a d m i n i s t r a - t i v e l e a d e r s h i p — w h i c h presumes t h a t the power, a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e o f s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s p r o v i d e the major s o u r c e o f t h r u s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . 1 2 5 But what d i r e c t i o n , o r r o u t e , s h o u l d t h a t r e - e x a m i n a t i o n take? How can the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t to the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e ? Or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e l e v e l , how c a n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r group b e s t tend to be b a l a n c e d toward the z e r o s t a t e o f t e n s i o n n e c e s s a r y to a t t a i n the s c h o o l g o a l s ? I t would a l m o s t seem as though H a l p i n a n t i c i p a t e d q u e s t i o n s s u c h as t h e s e i n h i s o u t l i n e o f some p o s s i b l e advan tage s w h i c h may a r i s e f rom George S p i n d l e r ( E d ) . E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l ; A p p r o a c h e s , ( H o l t , R i n e h a r d t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1963), p . 2 3 8 , quoted i n A r t G a l l a h e r , J r . , " D i r e c t e d Change i n F o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s : The S c h o o l S y s t e m " , Change P r o c e s s e s i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , R.O. C a r l s o n , e t . a l . The C e n t e r f o r t he Advanced S tudy o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f O regon , Eugene, O regon , p. 50 . 125 W i g g i n s , " P r i n c i p a l Behavior ' , 1 , p . 59. »92 t h i n k i n g i n terms o f l e a d e r b e h a v i o r e x p r e s s e d a s I n i t i a t i n g S t r u c t u r e and C o n s i d e r a t i o n as opposed to s i t u a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p e x p r e s s e d b a s i c a l l y i n terms o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s . W i t h r e s p e c t t t o t h e l a t t e r he a r g u e s : To say t h a t l e a d e r b e h a v i o r i s d e t e r m i n e d e x c l u s i v e - l y by s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i s to deny to t h e l e a d e r f reedom o f c h o i c e and. d e t e r m i n a t i o n . T h i s v i o l a t e s common sense and e x p e r i e n c e . Even now, w i t h i n r e s e a r c h c i r c l e s , a g r a d u a l b u t g rowing c o u n t e r - r e a c t i o n i s t a k i n g s h a p e — a d raw ing away f rom t h e extreme s i t u a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . 1 2 6 W i t h r e s p e c t to t he f o r m e r , H a l p i n b e l i e v e s t h a t a s h i f t away f r om the emphas is o f l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t i v e n e s s , to an a n a l y s i s o f the b e h a v i o r o f t he l e a d e r may p e r m i t the a t t a i n m e n t o f two major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e s : In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , we can d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h o b s e r v a b l e phenomena and need make no " a p r i o r i " a s s u m p t i o n s about the i d e n t i t y o r s t r u c t u r e o o f whatever c a p a c i t i e s ( l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) may o r may no t u n d e r g i r d t h e s e phenomena. S e c o n d l y , t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n k e e p s a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f our t h i n k i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the d e s c r i p t i o n o f how l e a d e r s behave and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n r e s p e c t t o s p e c i f i e d p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a . 1 2 7 The " s i t u a t i o n a l - p o s i t i o n " r e s e a r c h t o w h i c h H a l p i n r e f e r s r e v o l v e s , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a round the c o n t i n g e n c y t h e o r y a p p r o a c h to e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . I t has " a s i t s major t h e o r e t i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p depends on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n 126 H a l p i n , T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 84. 127 I b i d . , p . 86 . 93 128 I n v o l v e d , " and a model w h i c h assumes t h a t t he l e a d e r s c o n t r i b u t i o n to group p e r f o r m a n c e depends on b o t h t he s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p ( t a s k o r i e n t e d v e r s u s p e r s o n o r i e n t e d ) and the f a v o r a b l e n e s s o f the s i t u a t i o n f o r t he 129 l e a d e r . " A l t h o u g h t h e r e does n o t y e t appear t o be a " g row ing c o u n t e r - r e a c t i o n " , to the s i t u a t i o n a l o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h , i f Ko rman ' s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t e x a m i n a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g s e v e r a l r e p l i c a t i o n f a i l u r e s a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , t he c o n t i n g e n c y a p p r o a c h i s , i n d e e d , h a v i n g i t s f a i r s h a r e o f p r o b l e m s . ' ' 3 ^ Some s u p p o r t f o r H a l p i n ' s argument t h a t t h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t - i v e n e s s o f l e a d e r b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o some s p e c i f i c p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e a p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n to r e - e x a m i n e l e a d e r s h i p i n the s c h o o l may be f o u n d i n the OCDQ l i t e r a t u r e . Wa tk in s has c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n the c o n t e x t o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h , i n a s e n s e , 131 a t t e m p t e d to r e p l i c a t e e a r l i e r c o n t i n g e n c y t h e o r y d e v e l o p m e n t a l work. He r e p o r t s t h a t he s e a r c h e d the s c h o o l o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r l i t e r a t u r e to f i n d an a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i a o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s s u i t a b l e f o r u se 128 A . K . Korman, "On the Development o f C o n t i n g e n c y T h e o r i e s o f L e a d e r s h i p : Some M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and a P o s s i b l e A l t e r n a t i v e " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , L V l t l , , - No. 3, p. 384. S p e c i f i c a l l y Korman d e f i n e s the c o n t i n g e n c y t h e o r y o f l e a d e r s h i p a s any t h e o r y wh i ch f o l l o w s the f u n c t i o n a l f o r m : " x " = a d i m e n s i o n o f l e a d e r b e h a v i o r , " y " = a c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h t he l e a d e r s e f f e c t i v e n e s s may be d e t e r m i n e d , and " z " = some s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e , t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n between " x " and " y " i s p r e d i c t e d to assume a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l f o rm a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f " z " . 129 G. G r a i e n , J . B . O r r i s and K.M. A l v e r e s " C o n t i n g e n c y M o d e l o f L e a d e r - s h i p E f f e c t i v e n e s s : Some E x p e r i m e n t a l R e s u l t s " , J o u r n a l Of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , <LV'/iNoV3],»Xl'^ZrlJ)T?Vp3.,.1.99.199- 130 Korman, "On The Deve lopment o f C o n t i n g e n c y T h e o r i e s o f L e a d e r s h i p " , pp . 384 -387 . J . F . W a t k i n s , "An E n q u i r y I n to the P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " , The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . LVI I I$.3 s No. 1, (September, 1969) p p . 11-15"! .94 , i n an a t t e m p t to r e p l i c a t e F i e d l e r ' s c o n c e p t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e i n 132 the s c h o o l , o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the b a s i s o f H a l p i n and C r o f t ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t " a u t h e n t i c i t y ' ' i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , b e h a v i o r was e x p r e s s e d by the " o p e n " c l i m a t e and t h e r e f o r e the OCDQ m i gh t p r o v i d e a b e t t e r c r i t e r i o n f o r m e a s u r - i n g s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s t han some o f the c r i t e r i a p r e s e n t l y u s e d , Wa tk in s s e l e c t e d the two c o n c e p t s o f T h r u s t , , as a measure o f t he p r i n c i p a l ' s a u t h e n t i c i t y , and E s p r i t as a measure o f group a u t h e n t i c i t y , to h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t (1) S c h o o l s w h i c h tend to have more " o p e n " c l i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l have p r i n c i p a l s who t end t o m a i n t a i n h i g h p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e ; a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between (2.) E s p r i t , (3) T h r u s t , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l 133 d i s t a n c e . The h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d i n i\ f o r t y - e i g h t s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s s c h o o l s u s i n g p r i n c i p a l s and 1,188 s t a f f members: t he l a t t e r re sponded o n l y to the OCDQ w h i l e t he f o r m e r c o m p l e t e d b o t h the OCDQ and t h e Assumed S i m i l a r i t y o f O p p o s i t e S c a l e s (ASO). The h y p o t h e s e s were no t s u p p o r t e d , 135 to the c o n t r a r y , a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found f o r each c a s e . Watk in s f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e F i e d l e r ' s r e s e a r c h c o n c l u s i o n s i n t he p u b l i c s c h o o l env i r onment l e d h im to r e v i e w s e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h c a u t i o u s l y , bu t p r o b a b l y q u i t e c o r r e c t l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t he t e a c h e r i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . He c i t e s , f o r s u p p o r t , r e s e a r c h by G r o s s and H e r r i o t w h i c h s u g g e s t s a need f o r i n c r e a s e d emphas i s on a 132 I b i d . , p. 12. 133 W a t k i n s , " P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " , pp . 12 -13 . 134 I b i d . , p . 13. The ASO w a s . t h e . f o r e r u n n e r o f the L e a s t P r e f e r r e d C o - worker (LPC) w h i c h i s u sed by F i e d l e r to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the L e a d e r s h i p S t y l e D i m e n s i o n i n h i s c o n t i n g e n c y t h e o r y m o d e l . 135 I b i d . , p . 12. 95 136 p r o f e s s i o n a l pee r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f , n o t e s t h a t G e t z e l s ' mode l would have p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e s u c h as t e a c h e r s 137 m o r e i d i o g r a p h i c a l l y i n c l i n e d than i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , and quo te s C a m p b e l l ' s v i e w t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r . . . . i s w o r k i n g w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s who f e e l , o f t e n r i g h t l y , ..that t h e y know more about t e a c h i n g and 138 l e a r n i n g than he d o e s . " He u l t i m a t e l y c o n c l u d e s t h a h i s f i n d i n g s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t c t h e p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . a r e p o s s i b l y d i f f e r e n t f r om t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s n o r m a l l y f o u n d i n t a s k o r i e n t e d 139 g roups such as t he ones s t u d i e d e a r l i e r by F i e d l e r . I f H a l p i n ' s argument w i t h r e s p e c t to t he advan tages o f t h i n k i n g i n terms o f l e a d e r b e h a v i o r r a t h e r t h a n s i t u a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p i s v a l i d — a n d the s t u d y j u s t o u t l i n e d would seem to sugge s t t h a t t h i s may w e l l be the c a s e f o r non. p r o f i t o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as s c h o o l s — t h e n i t would appear as though the tho rough r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he p o w e r - a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e o f t he s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l sugge s ted by W i g g i n s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward the o b s e r v a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s b e h a v i o r i n terms o f C o n s i d e r - a t i o n and I n i t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t an e v a l u a t i o n o f i t i n terms o f some s p e c i f i c p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a . E f f e c t i v e n e s s c an be e v a l u a t e d 136 NesN.. G r o s s and R.W. H e r r i o t , S t a f f L e a d e r s h i p s i n P u b l i c S c h o o l s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y , (New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons , 1965) , p. 94. C i t e d i n WatkinSj "An I n q u i r y I n to the P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " , p. 14. 137 J.W. G e t z e l s and E .G . Guba, " S o c i a l B e h a v i o r and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e s s " , The S c h o o l Rev iew, 'LXV, 65,. ( W i n t e r , 1957) PP- 4 3 6 - 4 3 7 ) . C i t e d i n W a t k i n s / " A n I n q u i r y I n t o the P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " , . p . 14. 138 R . F . Campbe l l , "What P e c u a l i a r i t i e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Make I t a S p e c i a l C a s e ? " - , A d m i n i s t f a t i v e Theory i n E d u c a t i o n , ((ed) A.W. H a l p i n ( C h i c a g o : M idwest A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1958 ) , p. 172. C i t e d i n W a t k i n s , " A n I n q u i r y I n t o the P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " , p. 14. I b i d . 9.6 i n B a r n a r d ' s terms o f f a c i l i t a t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e group a c t i o n t h a t i s b o t h " e f f e c t i v e " and " e f f i c i e n t " , i . e . , i n as much as the s u c c e s s f u l l e a d e r c o n - t r i b u t e s to b o t h major group o b j e c t i v e s o f " g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t " and " g roup ..140 m a i n t e n a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e s cope o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s b e h a v i o r a l i n f l u e n c e e v i d e n t l y does e x t e n d to t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and may ex tend as f a r as the community, r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to d e t e r m i n e the d i f f e r e n c e , i f a n y , between " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " , " a d v o c a t i v e " and " l e a d e r s h i p " b e h a v i o r . Can a p r i n c i p a l m a i n t a i n a w o r k i n g e q u i l i b r i u m between a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e f o r c e s and y e t p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n t o the " u n t r i e d and t r u e " a t t h e same t ime? I s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r d e s i g n e d to f a c i l i t a t e and e n s u r e smooth s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n — e v e n a v o i d i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n a t any c o s t — i n o r d e r to a s s i s t group ma in tenance o f t he e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a - t i o n a l c l i m a t e , and l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s i g n e d to u p s e t z e r o t e n s i o n i n o r d e r to move the s c h o o l toward an a d v o c a t e d p l a n n e d change o r i n n o v a t i o n ? Answers to q u e s t i o n s such as t h e s e m i gh t tend to b roa den the scope o f leadexsWip'''s f u n c t i o n to some c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . Human D e n s i t y and P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r In a d d i t i o n to the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between En ro lment and P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r , and the more l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h sugge s t s a p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between S t a f f Members and P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r , t h e r e i s a h i n t i n the f i n d i n g s t h a t t he a s s o c i a t i o n between D e n s i t y and P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r m i gh t have some s l i g h t i i n f l u e n c e C . I . B a r n a r d , The F u n c t i o n s o f t he E x e c u t i v e , (Cambr idge, M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938 ) , c i t e d f rom H a l p i n , T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 87.- 97 on a s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e as w e l l . M o r e o v e r , t he p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p would i n d i c a t e t h a t the. more e x p a n s i v e t he D e n s i t y , i . e . , l e s s " c r o w d e d - c o n d i t i o n s " , t h e more l i k e l y , t he s c h o o l c l i m a t e w i l l tend t o be " o p e n " . The low 0 .20 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o b v i o u s l y w i l l n o t j u s t i f y a c o n c l u s i o n to t h a t e f f e c t , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s i t may i n f e r t h a t f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h would p r o v e t o be w o r t h w h i l e . F a i l u r e to f i n d a s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Human D e n s i t y and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e d i m e n s i o n s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may stem f rom the semant i c c o n f u s i o n g e n e r a t e d by t h e i n t - e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f terms such a s " c r o w d i n g " , " o v e r p o p u l a t i o n " , and " d e n s i t y " . ' ' ' ^ S c h m i t t d e f i n e s " d e n s i t y " as " p o p u l a t i o n pe r n e t a r e a " and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t f rom " o v e r c r o w d i n g " w h i c h he d e f i n e s a s " p e r s o n s p e r r o o m " : 142 he c o n c l u d e s t h a t t he fo rmer i s t he more s i g n i f i c a n t o f t he two v a r i a b l e s . The semant i c c o n f u s i o n may be a r e s u l t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon t h a t " c r o w d i n g " would seem to be " . . . . o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to mere 143 numbers o r d e n s i t i e s o f p e o p l e " i n t h a t c e r t a i n I n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e i v a b l y r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y to t h e i r immedia te s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r example , a p e r s o n may, on the one hand , " f e e l c r o w d e d " among a few p e o p l e , w h i l e , on the o t h e r h a n d , no t n o t i c e any p a r t i c u l a r " c rowded f e e l i n g " among many. Some e v i d e n c e o f t h i s t ype o f c o n c e p t u a l c r o w d i n g — t h e h a l l u c i n a t o r y p r e s e n c e o f 141 J . E . S . Lawrence , " S c i e n c e and S e n t i m e n t : Overv iew o f R e s e a r c h on Crowd ing and Human B e h a v i o r " , P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , LJCXXI. No';!0• (1974) •< p. 715. 142 R.C. S c h m i t t , " D e n s i t y , H e a l t h .and S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f t he A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XM'I^I.^QlQ.fi&K) P- 39 . Net a r e a was n o t a v a i l a b l e fo r . t h i s s t u d y . 143 H. Pros.ha.nsky, W. I t t e l s o n and L . R i v l i n , "F reedom o f C h o i c e and B e h a v i o r i n a P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g " i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Psychology, . (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1970), p. 182, e d i t e d by the a u t h o r s c i t e d . ;98 o t h e r s — h a s been documented i n " l o n e i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s " , where the e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t , though c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d , r e p o r t s a " c rowded f e e l i n g " 144 as a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n or s e n s o r y o v e r l o a d . F i n d i n g s s u c h as t h e s e l e d i D e s o r t o seek s u p p o r t f o r h i s - t h e o r y " . . . . t h a t s u b j e c t ' s /Judgments of . c rowd ing a r e c o n t r o l l e d by o v e r a l l l e v e l 145 o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n " . . S u b s e q u e n t l y , s e v e n t y i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s were asked to p l a c e as. many human f i g u r e s as p o s s i b l e i n s c a l e d down rooms w i t h o u t 146 c r e a t i n g crowded c o n d i t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he p r e s e n t e d h i s s u b j e c t s w i t h p a r t i t i o n e d and u n p a r t i t i o n e d s p a c e s , two door and s i x door rooms, o r r e c t a n g u l a r and squa re rooms i n o r d e r to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the f i r s t o f each p a i r o f rooms p r e s e n t e d would i n d i c a t e l e s s c rowd ing s i m p l y by h a v i n g 147 more f i g u r e s p l a c e d i n them t h a n wou ld be the c a s e i n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s . The f i n d i n g s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s and t h u s l e n d some s u p p o r t to the t h e o r y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t one way o f a v o i d i n g the s e m a n t i c c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g terms such as " c r o w d i n g " , " o v e r p o p u l a t i o n " and " d e n s i t y " , would be to c o n d u c t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to s i z e and c l i m a t e u t i l i z i n g D e s o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f " c r o w d i n g " . C o n s i d e r i n g the f i n d i n g s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u c h r e s e a r c h m igh t b e s t be d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t t h e r e l a t i v e - l y weak s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between D e n s i t y , D i sengagement , E s p r i t , T h r u s t and C o n s i d e r a t i o n (shown i n T a b l e V I I ) f o r the e i g h t s u b t e s t s , o r P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r i n the f i v e d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , may a c t u a l l y o b t a i n a c o n s i d e r - 144 Lawrence , " S c i e n c e and S e n t i m e n t " , p. 716. 145 J . A . D e s o r , "Toward a P s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e o r y o f C r o w d i n g " , J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , XX I ? S N6YI1 1(49.72),pp.779. I b i d . 1 4 7 T ^ - A I b i d . 99 a b l y s t r o n g e r d e g r e e . o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h o u t the s u s p e c t e d c o n t a m i n a t i n g semant i c c o n f u s i o n . Human D e n s i t y and Disengagement. ' Some s u p p o r t f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l l y weak a s s o c i a t i o n between D e n s i t y and D i sengagement found i n t h i s s t u d y e x i s t s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Seidman has i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l openness and c l i m a t e openness u s i n g t h e OCDQ r e s p o n s e s o f 1763 t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g 98 s c h o o l s a c r o s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s and found 68 " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e s w h i c h appear to be a t t r i b u t e d 148 p r i m a r i l y to t e a c h e r D i sengagement . Open space s c h o o l s have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c l o s e c o o p e r a t i v e team t e a c h i n g , b u t , a c c o r d i n g to S iedman, i f t e a c h e r s do no t work w e l l t o g e t h e r as a team, s q u a b b l i n g and b i c k e r i n g 149 may l e a d t o D i sengagement . To what e x t e n t s u c h D i sengagement may be a t t r i b u t e d to a s e n s e o p f " c r o w d i n g " , i . e . , too much s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , i s a q u e s t i o n w h i c h would l e n d i t s e l f to c o n t r o l l e d t e s t i n g . In f a c t , f u r t h e r s t u d y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e and " c r o w d i n g " i n s c h o o l s — e s p e c i a l l y open space s c h o o l s — s h o u l d p rove f r u i t f u l . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , the l a c k o f p a r t i t i o n s i n s c h o o l s w h i c h may be d e s c r i b e d a s p h y s i c a l l y o p e n , would seem to p r e s e n t an open i n v i t a t i o n to " c r o w d i n g " i n i t s e l f . I f D e s o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n , h i s t h e o r y , and h i s f i n d i n g s a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d be a. more i n t e n s e l e v e l o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n i n a p h y s i c a l l y open s c h o o l . As a r e s u l t , t h i s t ype o f s c h o o l would be e x p e c t e d to e x h i b i t more o f a sense o f " c r o w d i n g " t h a n wou ld l i k e l y be f ound 148 M.R. Se idman, "Compar ing P h y s i c a l Openness and C l i m a t e Openness o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s " , E d u c a t i o n . , : *t£5„* lJo.r-"1^19i5!S).,4pp:RP345--34:9 149 * I b i d . 100 i n a comparab le s c h o o l w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l d e s i g n . Whether t h i s i s t he c a s e o r n o t i s s u b j e c t t o e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g . . I n any c a s e , what e f f e c t a s e n s e o f " c r o w d i n g " wou ld h a v e , I f any , on D i sengagement and E s p r i t , T h r u s t and C o n s i d e r a t i o n , i . e . , P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r i s n o t known, b u t ' i t does no t seem l i k e l y t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d be c o n d u c i v e to an " o p e n " c l i m a t e i n e i t h e r an o p e n - s p a c e o r t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e o f s c h o o l . A r e a , Teache r "qua'i' Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n and H i n d r a n c e (V) The same low 0.20 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o b t a i n e d f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n between A r e a and two o f t h e f i v e d i m e n s i o n s — T e a c h e r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n and H i n d r a n c e (V) would j u s t i f y a c a u t i o u s i n f e r e n c e t h a t a d d i t i o n - a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be w a r r a n t e d . The p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n - ship, s u gge s t s t h a t i n terms o f S c h o o l A r e a , l a r g e r s c h o o l s a r e more l i k e l y to e x h i b i t " c l o s e d c l i m a t e s " t han a r e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s . N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n and Work ing C o n d i t i o n s F i n a l l y , t he l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n between any o f t he s i z e v a r i a b l e s and Non -C l a s s room Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n o r Work ing C o n d i t i o n s w i l l i n f e r t h a t t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t e d t o any a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t by m a n i p u l a t i o n , o f S c h o o l A r e a , S t a f f ^Member s , E n r o l m e n t o r Human D e n s i t y . 101 V I , IMPLICATIONS AND SUMMARY P r i o r to, d i s c u s s i n g any i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h may be drawn f r om the f i n d i n g s , i t m ight be p r u d e n t to b r i e f l y r e v i e w t h e p r o b l e m a d d r e s s e d , how the p rob lem emerged, i t s i m p o r t a n c e and f i n a l l y the p u r p o s e o f t he s tudy i n v i e w o f t he p r o b l e m . The P rob lem and How I t Emerged The p r o b l e m , when narrowed down to i t s s i m p l e s t t e rms , stems f rom the f a c t t h a t v e r y l i t t l e i s known about how to change o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t he p r o b l e m . b e g a n to emerge when a p p l i c a t i o n a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e OCDQ r e v e a l e d t h a t the p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e s seemed to be " c l o s e d " , and as s u c h , a r e b e s t d e s c r i b e d as " u n - h e a l t h y " o r " c r i p p l e d " . G e n e r a l e f f o r t s t o " c u r e " o r change the. " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s t o a more " h e a l t h y " , " o p e n " s t a t e have been p rematu re and hence g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . Impor tance o f t he P r o b l e m The l a c k o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g how to change o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e m i gh t no t m a t t e r i f i t were n o t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t " s i c k " o r " c r i p p l e d " c l i m a t e s a r e u n d e s i r a b l e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t he p rob lem i s f u r t h e r u n d e r - s c o r e d i f e d u c a t i o n ' s c o n t i n u i n g need to implement p l a n n e d change and i n n o v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d ; the p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t i n g a change o r i n n o v a t i v e method i n a s c h o o l w i t h a " c l o s e d " , " u n h e a l t h y " c l i m a t e i s no t h i g h . M o r e o v e r , c o u p l i n g t h i s a s p e c t o f the p r o b l e m w i t h the i n f l u e n c e w h i c h t h e " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " p r o b a b l y has on t h e - t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o change a school's c l i m a t e , m a t t e r s a g r e a t d e a l . I t i s i n d e e d i m p o r t a n t — p e r h a p s even c r u c i a l — t o l e a r n 102 c o n s i d e r a b l y more t h a n i s p r e s e n t l y known abou t how to change o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . Pu rpo se o f the S tudy In V i ew o f the P rob lem I t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to e f f e c t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e s c h o o l ' s " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " p r o b a b l y does e x e r c i s e some i n f l u e n c e on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , i . e . , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , as w e l l . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d o n one h a n d , t h a t t h e " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " c a n b e a l t e r e d o r m a n i p u l a t e d i n s u c h a way as to p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t on a l l s c h o o l o c c u p a n t s . On the o t h e r hand , t he l i t e r a t u r e s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s H a l p i n ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e s i s p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t o f s hee r s c h o o l s i z e as d e s c r i b e d by t h e number o f s t u d e n t s and s t a f f i n r e l a t i o n to a v a i l a b l e s p a c e . Between them, the two s u g g e s t i o n s seem to p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l s i z e and s c h o o l c l i m a t e i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e some knowledge as t o what i m p a c t the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s i z e v a r i a b l e s m ight r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d to have on c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y has been to d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t f o u r s e l e c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g s c h o o l s i z e a r e r e l a t e d to the dependent v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t e d by the OCDQ s u b t e s t s w h i c h p u r p o r t e d l y measure the d i m e n s i o n s o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . I m p l i c a t i o n s Speak ing s p e c i f i c a l l y o f the f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d f rom the Vancouver sample d a t a , H a l p i n ' s s u s p i c i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n between " c l o s e d " , " u n h e a l t h y " s c h o o l c l i m a t e s and s h e e r s c h o o l s i z e i n terms o f too many s t u d e n t s and s t a f f i n r e l a t i o n to the space a v a i l a b l e to them does r e c e i v e some s u p p o r t f rom t h i s s t u d y . From a more g e n e r a l p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , when c o u p l e d w i t h the f i n d i n g s 103 o f o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n i t , p r o v i d e a r e a s o n b l y s e c u r e e m p i r i c a l ba se f r o m w h i c h a t l e a s t t h r e e i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s c h o o l s i z e - c l i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p may be drawn. From a p r a g m a t i c p o i n t o f v i e w s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y e a s i e r to p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e than a r e o t h e r s . I n terms o f d o l l a r s and c e n t s t he c o s t o f some o f t he i m p l i c a t i o n s ' a s p e c t s may a c t u a l l y p r e c l u d e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f them. I n any c a s e — c o s t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g — s c h o o l b o a r d s e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o l i c y and i f t h e s e b o a r d s w i s h to do whatever t h e y can to encourage " o p e n " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s w h i l e f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the framework o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h c o u l d be based on the i m p l i c a t i o n s stemming f r om t h i s . s t u d y . I m p l i c a t i o n s : S m a l l e r S c h o o l s The f i r s t o f t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n s s c h o o l s i z e i n terms o f En ro lmen t and S t a f f Members; the f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y f a v o u r s m a l l s c h o o l s . An " o p e n " c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r o n g P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r s c o r e s , whereas the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p — t o the d e g r e e i t i s measured by C o n s i d e r a t i o n and T h r u s t — d i m i n i s h e s as e i t h e r e n r o l m e n t o r t e a c h e r group s i z e i n c r e a s e s . P r a c t i c a l i t y . Even though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i m p l i c a t i o n does o b t a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l s u p p o r t f r om the Vancouver sample d a t a , f r om a p r a g m a t i c s t a n d p o i n t any p o l i c y o r a c t i o n d e s i g n e d to a l t e r e i t h e r s i z e v a r i a b l e i n s u c h a way a s t o accomodate o r f a c i l i t a t e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h may be more c o n d u c i v e to the emergence o f t h e t y p e o f P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r b e - h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d - w i t h a n " o p e n " , " h e a l t h y " c l i m a t e may p r o v e t o be a f o r m i d a b l e m a t t e r . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n E n r o l m e n t 104 sugge s ted by t h e f i n d i n g s c a n b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e n , i s e x p e n s i v e to say the l e a s t , b u t o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s do no t appear to be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . (The a p p a r e n t d e c l i n e i n b i r t h s i s , o f c o u r s e , h e l p f u l b u t t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t the t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e ) . Any e f f o r t , f o r example , to c h a n n e l c e r t a i n p u p i l s on t h e f r i n g e s o f a l a r g e s c h o o l ' s boundary i n t o o t h e r n e a r b y s c h o o l s — a s s u m i n g t h a t t he d i s t a n c e i s n o t too g r e a t and the a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s a r e no t overc rowded t h e m s e l v e s — w o u l d l i k e l y o n l y s p r e a d the " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e p r o b l e m — n o t a m e l i o r a t e i t . In the second i n s t a n c e , the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t he p r i n c i p a l ' s d i m i n i s h i n g l e a d e r - s h i p b e h a v i o r as group s i z e i n c r e a s e s p r o b a b l y does match r e a l i t y — a f t e r a l l t h e r e must be some l i m i t a s to how much one i n d i v i d u a l can d o . Any r e d u c t i o n i n t e a c h i n g s t a f f d e s i g n e d to a l l e v i a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be a c c o m p l i s h e d p a i n l e s s l y enough s i m p l y by n o t r e p l a c i n g t e a c h e r s who r e s i g n o r r e t i r e . The p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y l i k e l y to be e n c o u n t e r e d , t h e n , does no t r e l a t e so much to the r e d u c t i o n i n t e a c h i n g s t a f f i n o r d e r to r e d u c e s c h o o l s i z e as i t does to the f a c t t h a t s t r i c t ma in tenance o f t he e x i s t i n g p u p i M t e a c h e r r a t i o w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g to r e d u c e a s c h o o l ' s s i z e would be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t i f no t i m p o s s i b l e to a c c o m p l i s h . ( " E m o t i o n s " i n v a r i a b l y seem to s u r f a c e whenever any a l t e r a t i o n o f t he p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o i s c o n s i d e r e d ? However, t h e r e i s an " u n e m o t i o n a l " h i n t i n the f i n d i n g s t h a t , i f a n y t h i n g , t he p u p i l - t e a c h e r sr'^^ Low E s p r i t i s more l i k e l y to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " t o o - m a n y - c o l l e a g u e s " t han w i l l be the c a s e with* " t o o - m a n y - p u p i l s " . ) P o t e n t i a l P o l i c y . I t has a l r e a d y been no ted t h a t the expense o f p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s i s , l i k e l y t o p r e c l u d e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e d u c i n g e x i s t i n g s c h o o l en ro lment i n a d i s t r i c t . P l a n n i n g , however, i s 105 a n o t h e r m a t t e r : " b i g g e r " does n o t seem to be " b e t t e r " a s f a r a s s c h o o l c l i m a t e i s c o n c e r n e d . Owing to t h e l i m i t e d f u n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p a n s i o n , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t any boa rd would r e a l l y want to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a "mauso leum" r a t h e r than a s c h o o l where the p r i n c i p a l i s n o t i n n u n d a t e d by too many p u p i l s . He i s p a i d to p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p so i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e to a t t empt to p r o v i d e c o n - d i t i o n s where he may be p e r c e i v e d as d o i n g so by t h o s e he i s e x p e c t e d to l e a d . S c h o o l b o a r d s would p r o b a b l y do w e l l to f o r m u l a t e a " s m a l l e n r o l - ment " p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d to the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new s c h o o l s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . How a Board o f T r u s t e e s choo se s to d e f i n e " s m a l l e n r o l m e n t " would u n d o u b t e d l y v a r y f r om d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t , b u t i n v i e w o f t he e v i d e n t p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f e x i s t i n g " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e s i t i s r e a s o n a b l y s a f e to c o n c l u d e t h a t i n most c a s e s " s m a l l " c o u l d s a f e l y be d e f i n e d as a f i g u r e somewhat l e s s t h a n the d i s t r i c t ' s c u r r e n t norm. " S m a l l e r " s c h o o l s i n terms o f En ro lmen t s h o u l d r e s u l t i n a " s m a l l e r " t e a c h i n g s t a f f . The r e s u l t o f a p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of s m a l l e r s c h o o l s i n terms o f En ro lment and S t a f f Members w i l l n o t a l l e v i a t e any e x i s t i n g c l i m a t e p r o b l e m s , b u t i t may p r o v e u s e f u l i n a v o i d i n g the deve lopment o f f u t u r e d i f f i c u l t i e s wh i ch a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s . The r e l a t i v e e a s e o f r e d u c i n g s c h o o l s i z e as measured i n terms o f S t a f f Members has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d : t he i m p r a c t i c a l i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g a s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e to a " p r e - r e d u c t i o n " p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r and e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . What may no t be so c l e a r , t hough , i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t he p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p when c o n s i d e r e d i n v i e w o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the t e a c h e r s ' E s p r i t . Can a Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s a f f o r d , i n terms o f d o l l a r s and c e n t s , tor ' . ignore the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s 106 l e a d e r s h i p , and i t s e v i d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s i z e o f t h e t e a c h i n g group? C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t he S t a f f Members s a l a r i e s p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e e x p e n d i t u r e i n any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , i t i s no t ea sy to u n d e r s t a n d why a s c h o o l b o a r d would p e r m i t o r p e r h a p s even m a i n t a i n c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s w h i c h encourage a group t o become so l a r g e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p e f f o r t s — i f t hey do n o t a c t u a l l y become more i n e f f e c t u a l — a r e p e r c e i v e d to be l e s s e f f e c t u a l . I s a t e a c h e r whose E s p r i t i s low a b l e to t e a c h as e f f e c t u a l l y a s wou ld be t h e c a s e o t h e r w i s e ? Pe rhaps a s c h o o l boa rd would be w e l l a d v i s e d to c o n s i d e r t h e s e i s s u e s i n t he l i g h t o f such i n f o r m a t i o n as may be a v a i l a b l e and d e t e r m i n e whether o r no t t h e i r D i s t r i c t c an a f f o r d to m a i n t a i n the t ype o f c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . , " l a r g e " s c h o o l s a s measured by S t a f f Members, n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a " c l o s e d " , " u n h e a l t h y " c l i m a t e . I f the answer i s n e g a t i v e t h e n a p o l i c y wh i ch r e d u c e s s c h o o l s i z e by r e d u c i n g the t e a c h i n g s t a f f even though the p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o must i n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . I m p l i c a t i o n ; I n f l u e n c e o f t he B u i l t - E n v i r o n m e n t A second i m p l i c a t i o n stemming f rom the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p o t e n t i a l impac t wh i ch the " b u i l t ' i - e n v i r o n m e n t " m a y have upon s c h o o l i n h a b i t a n t s . The l a c k o f any s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between S c h o o l A r e a and Human D e n s i t y w i t h any o f t h e OCDQ s u b t e s t s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e " b u i l t — e n v i r o n m e n t " , a t l e a s t i n terms o f A r e a and D e n s i t y , may no t e x e r c i s e q u i t e as much i n f l u e n c e as was i n i t i a l l y thought c o u l d b e , t h e c a s e . . T h i s does no t sugges t however , t h a t the " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " , w h i l e festering and s h a p i n g human a c t i v i t i e s does no t e f f e c t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l a s i n f l u e n c e the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s . As an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t he l e v e l 107 o f s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d have been s e t as low as 0.10 (or p o s s i b l y even 0 .20 i n some i n s t a n c e s ) w i t h o u t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , no m a t t e r how tenuous t h e a s s o c i a t i o n may b e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h e f a c t i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e V I I t h a t some r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between A r e a and D e n s i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p no t o n l y emphas i zes t h e n o t i o n t h a t t he " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " m i gh t i n f l u e n c e i t s i n h a b i t a n t s t o some e x t e n t bu t i t a l s o does tend to l e n d some s u p p o r t to G reen and S p i v a k ' s argument p r e s e n t e d on pages 13 and 14 t h a t t h e " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " p r o b a b l y c a n b e managed i n s u c h a way a s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i n - h a b i t a n t s i n t e r a c t i o n s to one d e g r e e o r a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r " s i d e - o f - t h e - c o i n " to c o n s i d e r w i t h r e g a r d t o the f a i l u r e t o f i n d a s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a - t i o n between A r e a and D e n s i t y and the d i m e n s i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . In terms o f t he s t u d y ' s p u r p o s e , t he f a c t t h a t t h e r e e v i d e n t l y , i s l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n between t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f t he " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e measured by N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n and Work ing C o n d i t i o n s , i s a v a l i d c o n t r i b u t i o n to the knowledge sought w i t h r e s p e c t t o how to change o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . I n . s h o r t , m a n i p u l a t i o n o f these , p a r t i c u l a r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i s no t l i k e l y to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n o r have much impac t on the dependent . v a r i a b l e s--Nonr - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n and Work ing C o n d i t i o n s : — o n e way o r a n o t h e r . The l a c k o f a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e f a c t t h a t t he a s s o c i a t i o n between A r e a and D e n s i t y , a s e l ement s o f t he " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " , i s no t n e a r l y as s t r o n g as the a s s o c i a t i o n between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r and E n r o l m e n t , and P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r and. S t a f f Members does sugges t t h a t a s c h o o l ' s i n h a b i t a n t s a r e p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d much more •108 by t h e i r s c h o o l s i z e measured i n terms o f S t a f f Members and E n r o l m e n t , i . e . , t h e human e l e m e n t , t han they a r e by t h e i r " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f A r e a and D e n s i t y . I n s h o r t , w h i l e F a r s e n ' s t h e s i s i s p r o b a b l y b a s i c a l l y v a l i d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t sound l e a d e r s h i p — s o u n d i n terms o f T h r u s t and C o n s i d e r a t i o n — w i l l p r o b a b l y have a much more p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e upon the d i m e n s i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e and hence on " l i b e r a t i n g " p e o p l e than w i l l t h e i r p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . P r a t i c a l i t y . From a p r a c t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the f i n d i n g s tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t when p l a n n i n g new s c h o o l s o r c o n s i d e r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l a l t e r r . a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s ,a'aBoard o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s m ight do w e l l to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l s i z e as d e f i n e d by S c h o o l A r e a and Human D e n s i t y , and c e r t a i n d i m e n s i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e w i t h a v i e w toward a v o i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the c a s e o f S c h o o l A r e a answers s h o u l d be sought as t o why b o t h the t e a c h e r s ' E s p r i t and the p r i n c i p a l ' s P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s seem to d e c r e a s e w h i l e T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n and H i n d r a n c e i n c r e a s e as S c h o o l A r e a i s i n c r e a s e d . I n t he Human D e n s i t y c a s e , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m - a t i o n s h o u l d be sought as to why the b e h a v i o u r p u r p o r t e d l y measured by the P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r s u b t e s t w i l l a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s e as Human D e n s i t y , ( i . e . , s q u a r e f o o t a g e a v a i l a b l e to the s c h o o l ' s i n h a b i t a n t s i n c r e a s e s ) . The answers p r o v i d e d by such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e i v a b l y c o j i l d i n i t i a l l y e f f e c t s c h o o l p l a n n i n g and s c h o o l a l t e r a t i o n s i n such a way t h a t s c h o o l c l i m a t e i t s e l f would u l t i m a t e l y be e f f e c t e d . P o t e n t i a l P o l i c y . In s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p h y s i c a l s c h o o l s i z e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e a r e no t overwhe lm ing those w h i c h h a v e / b e e n d f b u n d x t o t e x i s t c a r v e i e b n s i s t e n t l y i n the d i r e c t i o n i n i t i a l l y p r e d i c t e d by H a l p i n . T ha t i s , a s A r e a i n c r e a s e s , o r 109 D e n s i t y becomes more compact , t he d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h a r e e x p e c t e d to measure o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e tend toward t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s . I t m igh t n o t be u n r e a s o n a b l e , under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r a Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s to m a i n t a i n a p o l i c y w h i c h t end s to l i m i t the S c h o o l A r e a to some e x t e n t w h i l e s t i l l p r o v i d i n g f o r a r e s o n a b l y e x p a n s i v e deg ree o f D e n s i t y f o r i t s o c c u p a n t s . I m p l i c a t i o n : E f f i c a c y o f t he OCDQ S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h have been made th roughou t t h i s r e p o r t . F o r example , i n terms o f the pu rpo se and p r o b l e m a d d r e s s e d by t h i s s t u d y , i t would be u s e f u l to have some i n d i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t . to: a) the d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n between b o t h E n r o l m e n t and S t a f f Members w i t h group member p a r t i c i p a t i o n and " c l o s e d " c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s , b) the r e l a t i o n between s c h o o l c l i m a t e and the d e g r e e o f undermanning i n v o l v e d , c ) whether o r n o t t he t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f a s c h o o l ' s c l i m a t e i s communicated to p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l , d) whether o b s e r v a t i o n o f l e a d e r b e h a v i o r as opposed to e v a l u a t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t i v e n e s s s h o u l d be p u r s u e d i n r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e) whether o r no t any p a r t i c u l a r d i f f e r e n c e may be o b s e r v e d to e x i s t between " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " , " a d v o c a t i v e " and " l e a d e r s h i p " b e h a v i o r , f ) t he c o r r e l a t i o n between D e n s i t y and P r i n c i p a l a s Leader u t i l i z i n g D e s o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f " c r o w d i n g " , and g) whether o r no t " p h y s i c a l l y " open s c h o o l s " v i s - a - v i s " more t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d s c h o o l s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e h a v i o r d e s c r i b e d as D i sengagement o r Teache r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n . However, the p rob lems e n c o u n t e r - ed i n t h i s s t u d y , and s e v e r a l o thers r e v i e w e d i n i t , tend t o c a s t some doubt on the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e OCDQ as a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . I ndeed , whether o r n o t t he OCDQ s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d w i t h the r e s e a r c h sugge s ted by the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . 110 W i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f some e x p l o r a t o r y work c o n d u c t e d by Watk in s t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f any e f f o r t to s u b j e c t the i n s t r u m e n t to an e x t e n s i v e deg ree o f r e f i n e m e n t . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h measure the c o n c e p t o f E x e c u t i v e P r o f e s s i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p (EPL) i d e n t i f i e d by G r o s s and H e r r i o t a s : . . . . the e f f o r t s o f an e x e c u t i v e ( the p r i n c i p a l ) o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y s t a f f e d o r g a n i z a t i o n ( the s c h o o l ) to con fo rm to a d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s r o l e t h a t s t r e s s e s h i s o b l i g a t i o n to improve the q u a l i t y o f s t a f f performance.-'-^-'- have been combined w i t h the OCDQ i t e m s w h i c h measure T h r u s t and E s p r i t . He c a l l e d t h e r e s u l t i n g t h i r t y - s e v e n i t e m i n s t r u m e n t t h e P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and used i t to o b t a i n d a t a f rom seven A labama s c h o o l s w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o b t a i n i n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between E s p r i t , T h r u s t and 152 EPL . I n f a c t , the c o r r e l a t i o n s , wh i ch r a n g e f rom 0.60 to 0.93 w i t h a c o m p o s i t e f i g u r e o f 0 . 8 8 , a r e so s t r o n g t h a t Wa tk in s c o n c l u d e s : A u t h e n t i c i t y o f p r i n c i p a l b e h a v i o r a s d i s c u s s e d by H a l p i n and C r o f t and E x e c u t i v e , P r o f e s s i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p a s d e f i n e d and measured by G r o s s and H e r r i o t a r e most c e r t a i n l y i n t he "same c h u r c h i f n o t i n the same pew".153 M o r e o v e r , he s u g g e s t s t h a t t he f i n d i n g s show c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o m i s e f o r 154 r e s e a r c h i f the r e s u l t s o f the two r e s e a r c h endeavour s a r e merged. J . F . W a t k i n s , " G r o s s and H e r r i o t t — H a l p i n and C r o f t : Two R e s e a r c h Teams on t h e Same C o u r s e " , J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , V L , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1970) pp, 2 7 - 3 0 . 151 ' j a G r o s s and H e r r i o t t , S t a f f L e a d e r s h i p i n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p. 22. 152 W a t k i n s , " G r o s s and H e r r i o t t — H a l p i n and C r o f t " , p . 27 . 153 I b i d . , p . 30 . I b x d . i l l Such a merger would be l i t t l e more than, an example o f what t h e OCDQ o r i g i n a t o r s had hoped would o c c u r when t h e y n o t e d i n t he i n i t i a l monograph t h a t t h e i r work and the c r i t i c i s m o f others/would u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n a l a r g e r , more e f f e c t i v e OCDQ f o r m . I n d e e d , t h e i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f ha s been somewhat i n j u d i c i o u s l y u s e d — t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Vancouver s t u d y b e i n g no e x c e p t i o n — i n the sense t h a t i t r ema in s i n i t s o r i g i n a l f o rm o v e r a decade a f t e r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . M e r g i n g t h e two r e s e a r c h endeavour s i s a t l e a s t an i n i t i a l s t e p i n r e f i n i n g t h e OCDQ, b u t some o f t he d i m e n s i o n s , n o t a b l y those p e r t a i n i n g to A l o o f n e s s , f o r example , a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n too few i t e m s t o a d e q u a t e l y t ap the domain i n q u e s t i o n . I f the OCDQ i s no t soon s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f i n e m e n t , i t i s sugge s ted t h a t much more c a u t i o n be e x e r c i s e d i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n has e v i d e n t l y been the c a s e t o d a t e . Summary o f t he S tudy The t h e s i s b a s i c t o t h e s t u d y i s t h a t i f any c o r r e l a t i o n does e x i s t between s c h o o l s i z e and s c h o o l c l i m a t e , knowing the n a t u r e o f t he r e l a t i o n - s h i p might make a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the knowledge as to how to change a s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . D a t a was o b t a i n e d f r om t e a c h e r s i n the Vancouver s c h o o l s y s tem to t e s t the a s s o c i a t i o n between f o u r s e l e c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s as i n d i c a t o r s o f s c h o o l s i z e and e i g h t dependent v a r i a b l e s — t h e OCDQ s u b t e s t s — a s i n d i c a t o r s o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e . H a l p i n and C r o f t ' s o r i g i n a l p r o c e d u r e s were a p p l i e d to the d a t a , but t he r e s u l t s u l t i m a t e l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a f i v e f a c t o r p a t t e r n wou ld be a s ' V s u i t a b l e a s the e i g h t d i m e n s i o n s i n i t i a l l y g e n e r a t e d . The f i v e s u b t e s t s g e n e r a t e d were s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n t he s t u d y . S i g n i f i c a n t F i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e does appear t o b e some s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the f o u r s i z e v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d — A r e a , S t a f f Members, En ro lment and Human D e n s i t y — a n d one or more o f t he c l i m a t e s u b - t e s t s o t h e r t h a n I n t i m a c y and A l o o f n e s s o r N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c - t i o n and Work ing C o n d i t i o n s , t he s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s , c o n - s e r v a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , i n d i c a t e t h a t t he s m a l l e r s c h o o l i n terms o f E n r o l - ment, and l i b e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i n terms o f S t a f f Members w i l l more l i k e l y e x h i b i t t he t ype o f P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " o p e n " c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s than w i l l be the. c a s e f o r a l a r g e r s c h o o l . Owing to the a p p a r e n t permanence o f change and i n n o v a t i o n i n s c h o o l s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e p o r t e d h e r e may d e r i v e i t s p r ime i m p o r t a n c e , i f a n y , no t so much f rom the s u p p o r t i t t ends to l e n d to H a l p i n ' s s u s p i c i o n t h a t one a s p e c t c o n t r i b u t i n g to " c l o s e d " , " u n h e a l t h y " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e s i s s h e e r s c h o o l s i z e i n terms o f too many s t u d e n t s and s t a f f f o r t he a v a i l a b l e s p a c e , bu t r a t h e r f rom the e f f e c t t he number o f s t u d e n t s and s t a f f seem to have on the s c h o o l ' s l e a d e r s h i p . M o r e o v e r , t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l t a k e on even more i m p o r t a n c e i f t h e y a r e c o u p l e d w i t h the s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t , owing- to the v e r y n a t u r e o f the t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h s e e m i n g l y i s r e q u i r e d f rom the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , he o r she may no t n e c e s s a r i l y be the one t o a s s i g n the f u n c t i o n o f a d v o c a t i n g p l a n n e d change o r i n n o v a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s c h o o l s i z e o r c l i m a t e . I m p l i c a t i o n s . T h r e e b a s i c i m p l i c a t i o n s have been drawn f rom the f i n d i n g s and r e l a t e d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a - t u r e . F i r s t , s m a l l e r s c h o o l s a r e i m p e r a t i v e i f the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p i s no t to be smothered by too many p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s . Second , m a n i - p u l a t i o n o f the " b u i l t - e n v i r o n m e n t " s i z e v a r i a b l e s may n o t have as much impac t on the dependent c l i m a t e v a r i a b l e s as would a r e d u c t i o n i n E n r o l - ment and S t a f f Members, b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e to 113 i m p l y t h a t a l t e r i n g S c h o o l A r e a and Human D e n s i t y m ight p r o v e u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to t h o s e w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n ' b p e n " c l i m a t e . T h i r d , even though c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o g a i n i n g much more knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l s i z e and s c h o o l c l i m a t e , t he d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by t h i s s t udy and s e v e r a l o t h e r s r e p o r t e d i n i t i m p l y t h a t t he OCDQ i t s e l f s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g to s u b j e c t i t t o s u c h e x t e n s i v e u s e . C o n t r i b u t i o n to Knowledge. In terms o f i t s p u r p o s e , the s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s c a n be b r i e f l y summarized as f o l l o w s : 1) R e d u c t i o n o f E n r o l m e n t may p r o v e u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t e d to t h e t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r — a s d e s c r i b e d by t h e P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r d i m e n s i o n o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e — n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a more " o p e n " , " h e a l t h y " c l i m a t e c o n d u c i v e to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p l a n n e d change and i n n o v a t i v e e f f o r t s ; 2) R e d u c t i o n o f S t a f f Members may i n f l u e n c e t h e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r d i m e n s i o n o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e i n much the same manner j u s t d e s c r i b e d f o r E n r o l m e n t . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d w e l l r e v e a l t h a t the r e d u c t i o n o f S t a f f Members, would i n c r e a s e E s p r i t f o r t he r e m a i n d e r . A s m a l l e r s t a f f w i t h h i g h e r E s p r i t w i l l tend more toward the " o p e n " , " h e a l t h y " c l i m a t e ; 3) T h e r e i s a h i n t i n the f i n d i n g s t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n between D e n s i t y and P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r and A r e a ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b o t h Teache r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n and H i n d r a n c e (V) i s s t r o n g enough to j u s t i f y f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ; 4) T h e r e i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f any o f t he f o u r s i z e v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n f l u e n c e e i t h e r t he N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n o r the Work ing C o n d i t i o n s d i m e n s i o n o f a s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e . 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrews, J . H . , " S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e : S o m e - V a l i d i t y S t u d i e s " . C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h D i g e s t , (December, 1965) , 317 -333 . A s t i n , A .W. , and H o l l a n d , J . C . " T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s ses sment T e c h n i q u e : A Way to Measure C o l l e g e E n v i r o n m e n t s " , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , L I I ( 1961 ) , 308 -316 . B a i r d , L . L . , " B i g S c h o o l , S m a l l S c h o o l : A C r i t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n o f the H y p o t h e s i s " , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , LX (1969) , 252 -260. B a r k e r , R .G . , " E c o l o g y and M o t i v a t i o n " . Nebra ska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n , V I I I ( 1960 ) , 1-50. B a r k e r , R.G. and Gump, P . , B i g S c h o o l , S m a l l S c h o o l . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. B a r n a r d , C . I . , The F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e . Cambr idge , Mas s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938. Brown, A . F . , R e s e a r c h i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Dynamic s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I (May, 1967) , 42 . Brown, R . J . , " I d e n t i f y i n g and C l a s s i f y i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e s i n Twin C i t i e s A r e a E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s " . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the m e e t i n g o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1 1 1 . , F e b r u a r y , 1965. C a m p b e l l , J . P . ; D u n n e t t e , M.D. ; L a w l e r , E . E . ; and We ick , K . E . , J r . , M a n a g e r i a l B e h a v i o r , P e r f o r m a n c e and E f f e c t i v e n e s s . New Y o r k : McGraw- H i l l , 1970. C a m p b e l l , R . F . , "What P e c u l i a r i t i e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Make i t a S p e c i a l C a s e ? " . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T h e o r y i n E d u c a t i o n . E d i t e d by Andrew W. H a l p i n . C h i c a g o : M idwest A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1958. C a r v e r , F . D . J and S e r g i o v a n n i , T . J . , "Some Notes on the OCDQ". The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V I I , No. 1, 7 8 - 8 1 . D a v i d , T . , "On L e a r n i n g i n T r e e s and C l a s s r o o m s " . S c h o o l Rev iew, LXXX I I , (Augus t , 1974 ) , 523. D a v i s , J . W . , J r . , " R u l e s H i e r a r c h y and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e " . P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , XXXI , No. 1 , (May -June, 1968) , 5 0 - 5 5 . D e s o r , J . A . , "Toward a P s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e o r y o f C r o w d i n g " . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , XX I , No. 1 (1972) , 79. 115 Doak, E . D . , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e : P r e l u d e to Change " . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . ( F e b r u a r y , 1970) , .368. E v a n , W.M., " C o n f l i c t and P e r f o r m a n c e i n R&D O r g a n i z a t i o n s " . I n d u s t r i a l Management Rev iew, V I I ( 1965 ) , 3 7 - 4 5 . F a r s o n , R., " T h e G r e a t e s t R e a l i z a t i o n " . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n , V I I I ( September, 1970 ) , 610. F e i t l e r , F . ; and B l u m - e r g , A . , " C h a n g i n g the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r o f a S c h o o l " . The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , LXX I , ( J a n u a r y , 1971, 206 -215 . F i t t , S. , " T h e I n d i v i d u a l and H i s E n v i r o n m e n t " . S c h o o l Rev iew, LXXXI I (Augus t , 1974) , 617 -618. 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Ph .D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Case I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , J u n e , 1966. G r a i e n , G . ; O r r i s , J . B . ; and A l v e r e s , K .M. , " C o n t i n g e n c y Mode l o f L e a d e r s h i p E f f e c t i v e n e s s : Some E x p e r i m e n t a l R e s u l t s " . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , L V , No. 3 (1971 ) , 199. G r e e n , A . C , " P l a n n i n g f o r D e c l i n i n g E n r o l m e n t s " . S c h o o l Rev iew, LXXXI I (Augus t , 1974) , 598 -99 . .116 G r o s s , N . , and H a r r i o t t , R.W., S t a f f L e a d e r s h i p s i n P u b l i c S c h o o l s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y . New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons , 1965. Guba, G . , " R e s e a r c h . i n I n t e r n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — W h a t Do we Know?". A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T h e o r y As A Gu ide t o A c t i o n . E d i t e d by R .F . C a m p b e l l and J . M . L i pham. 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S p i v a l e , M . , " T h e E x c e p t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t : S t r a t e g i e s f o r D e s i g n " . S c h o o l Rev iew, LXXXI I (Augus t , 1974) , 648. S t e p h e n s o n , R.W.; G a n t z , B .S . ; and E r i c k s o n , C . E . , "Deve lopment O r g a n i z - a t i o n a l C l i m a t e I n v e n t o r i e s f o r Use i n R&D O r g a n i z a t i o n s " . IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on E n g i n e e r i n g Management. EM-XVI I I ( 1971 ) , 3 8 - 5 0 . T a g i u r i , R., " T h e Concep t o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e " . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e . E d i t e d by R. T a g i u r i and G .H. L i t w i n . B o s t o n : D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s S c h o o l , 1968. T e r r i e n , F.W., and M i l l s , D . L . , " T h e E f f e c t o f Chang ing S i z e Upon the I n t e r n - a l S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s " . A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Rev iew, XX (1955) 11 -14 . Vroom, V . H . , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h o i c e : A S tudy o f P r e and P o s t D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s " . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , I (1966) , 2 1 2 - 225. Vroom, V . , and D e c i , E . L . , " The S t a b i l i t y o f P o s t D e c i s i o n D i s s o n a n c e : A F o l l o w - U p S tudy o f the Job A t t i t u d e s o f B u s i n e s s S c h o o l G r a d u a t e s " . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , V I , 3 6 - 4 9 . 119 W a t k i n s , J . F . , " A n I n q u i r y I n t o t he P r i n c i p a l - S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p " . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , X V I I I , No. 1 ( Sep tember , 1 9 6 9 ) , 1 1 - 1 5 . W a t k i n s , J . F . , " G r o s s and H e r r i o t t — H a l p i n and C r o f t : Two R e s e a r c h Teams o n t h e Same C o u r s e " . J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , V L , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y t 1 9 7 0 ) , 2 7 - 3 0 . W a t k i n s , J . F . , " T h e OCDQ—An A p p l i c a t i o n and Some I m p l i c a t i o n s " . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , IV, No. 2 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 8 ) , 4 7 - 6 0 . W i c k e r , A . W . ; M c G r a t h , J . E . j and A r m s t r o n g , G . E . , " O r g a n i z a t i o n S i z e and B e h a v i o r S e t t i n g C a p a c i t y a s D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Member P a r t i c i p a t i o n " . B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , XV I I ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 4 9 9 - 5 0 0 . W i g g i n s , T . W . , " A C o m p a r a t i v e I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r and S c h o o l C l i m a t e " . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h ; L X V I , No . 3 (November, 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 0 3 - 1 0 5 . W i g g i n s , T . W . , " P r i n c i p a l B e h a v i o r i n t h e S c h o o l C l i m a t e : A Sys tems A n a l y s i s " . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , ( Sep tember , 1 9 7 1 ) , 5 7 . 120 APPENDIX A L e t t e r R e q u e s t i n g P r i n c i p a l ' s P e r m i s s i o n f o r I n d i v i d u a l S c h o o l I n c l u s i o n i n t he S tudy DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH AND SPECIAL SERVICES iiftt 1595 WEST 1 0 T H A V E N U E VANCOUVER 9. B.C. TELEPHONE: 731-1131 BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES OF SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 39 'VANCOUVER' 121 May 3 1 , 1971 Dear Re: Research Proposal On The Relationship Between Organizational Climate, Space And Human density In Vancouver Elementary Schools Mr. F. H. Bennett, a graduate student i n Business Administration at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, has requested' permission to conduct a research study of Vancouver elementary schools. This study f o r a Master's thesis has been approved by the Planning and Evaluation Department. Schools which were randomly selected by Mr. Bennett are encouraged to co- operate; with t h i s research study. In each school Mr. Bennett plans to d i s t r i b u t e copies of the enclosed Organizational.Climate Description Questionnaire by ^ a l p i n and Croft to 5 - 9 teachers who were randomly chosen from the Teaching Staff Directory. Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary, teachers are encouraged to cooperate with the survey as the School Board has reduced the research sample to a minimum number for completing the study. ^ Although respondents need not sign the questionnaire, the school name i s requested as Mr. Bennett wants to rel a t e teachers' responses to pu p i l enrolment and f l o o r space information which w i l l be supplied by the School Board. Please be assured that the name of the school i s for research purposes only. The Vancouver School Boa.rd w i l l not examine the data p-rovided by teachers and Mr. Bennett has agreed not to reveal the i d e n t i t y of the schools i n his thesis. .As there i s a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time to complete t h i s research study, I w i l l assume, unless I hear to the contrary by June Uth, that you w i l l d i s t r i b u t e the survey questionnaires 'when Mr. Bennett brings them to your school. 2 123 APPENDIX B O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Form IV 124 The OCDQ a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s i d e n t i c a l to t he o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n d e v e l o p e d by H a l p i n and C r o f t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ' i t e m s wh i ch have been s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d to more p r o p e r l y f i t w i t h i n the C a n a d i a n con tex t : ' ' ' 1. The word " f a c u l t y " has been changed to " s t a f f " i n each a p p l i c a b l e i t e m . 2. I tem 23 o r i g i n a l l y r e a d . . . " L e t ' s ge t t h i n g s d o n e " has been changed to " l e t ' s ge t t h i n g s a c c o m p l i s h e d " to a v o i d p o s s i b l e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as " g e t t i n g i t o v e r w i t h " . 3. I tem 23 o r i g i n a l l y r e a d " T e a c h e r s have f u n s o c i a l i z i n g t o g e t h e r d u r i n g s c h o o l t i m e " has been changed to s o c i a l i z i n g t o g e t h e r d u r i n g t h e i r ' f r e e ' s c h o o l t i m e " to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n between " t e a c h i n g " t ime and " f r e e " t ime b e f o r e c l a s s e s commence, between c l a s s e s , and the end o f the s c h o o l day . 4. I tem 42 o r i g i n a l l y r e a d " T e a c h e r s a t t h i s s c h o o l s t a y by them- s e l v e s " has been changed t o , " T e a c h e r s a t t h i s s c h o o l s t a y by t h e m s e l v e s d u r i n g t h e i r ' f r e e ' s c h o o l t i m e " , t o a v o i d p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n between s c h o o l h o u r s and a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . 5. I tem 58 i s no t g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to B r i t i s h Co lumb ia s i n c e most d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d to c u r r i c u l u m a r e n o t made a t the s c h o o l l e v e l ; hence t e a c h e r s were a sked to answer on the b a s i s o f whatever p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d t ake p l a c e w i t h r e g a r d to t ho se c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a r e p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n the s c h o o l . The changes made have been recommended by D.M. MacKenz ie i n The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e and S o c i o - e c o n o m i c Background o f S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d A r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962, p p . 6 3 - 6 5 . 125 A g a i n , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t e m 63 i s no t s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a b l e . T e a c h e r s were a sked to r e s p o n d on the b a s i s o f what t h e y would e x p e c t i f o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r t e a c h e r s a l a r i e s a c t u a l l y was a no rma l p a r t o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s d u t i e s . I tem 64 o r i g i n a l l y r e a d "The r u l e s s e t by the p r i n c i p a l a r e n e v e r i q u e s t i o n e d ' ' , was a l t e r e d to a r e o f t e n q u e s t i o n e d " , to a v o i d p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n o v e r the s t r i c t , n e g a t i v e f o r m . I tem 76 o r i g i n a l l y r e a d , " T e a c h e r s a r e i n f o r m e d o f the r e s u l t s o f a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s v i s i t ' , ' , bu t s i n c e many, i f no t most t e a c h e r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y v i s i t e d the i t e m was changed to r e a d i n f o r m e d o f t h e r e s u l t s o f a p r i n c i p a l ' s i n s p e c t i o n . 126 ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE A. W. HALPIN AND DON B. CROFT The Items herein attempt to describe typical "behaviours or conditions that occur in an elementary school organization. It is not necessary to answer them on the basis of what you would consider as "desirable" or "undesirable" behaviour; simply c i r c l e the answer that corresponds closely with your own feelings regarding your school. You need not identify yourself in any way whatsoever. The purpose of this questionnaire is simply to secure a des- cription of the organizational climate of your school in order to relate i t to the amount of space available to you and your pupils. This instrument has been reproduced and i t s use sanctioned by A, W. Halpin and D. B. Croft. 127 1 PLEASE BE SURE THAT YOU MARK EVERY ITEM MARKING INSTRUCTIONS Circle the answer 1, 2, 3 cr 4 that most nearly corresponds to your feeling about your school, 1. Rarely occurs 2. Sometimes occurs 3. Often occurs 4. Very frequently occurs For example, teachers c a l l each other by their f i r s t names. 1 2 Qy k EXPLANATION In this example the respondent marked alternative 3 to show that the interpersonal relationship described by this item "often occurs" at his school. Of course, any of the other alternatives could be selected, depending upon your feeling as to how often the described behaviour actually does occur in your school. Work rapidly—your f i r s t impressions are probably the most accurate, PLEASE BE SURE THAT YOU MARK EVERY ITEM. 128 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 4. S choo l s ( W r i t e i n t h e name o f y o u r s c h o o l ) P l e a s e c i r c l e t he a p p r o p r i a t e number. 5. P o s i t i o n : P r i n c i p a l 1 T e a c h e r 2 O t h e r 3 6. Sex: Male 1 Fema le 2 P l e a s e w r i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t he space p r o v i d e d . 7-8 Age : , . 9-10 Y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n : . 11-12 Y e a r s a t t h i s s c h o o l : 1 2 9 - 3 1. Rarely occurs 2. Sometimes occurs 3. Often occurs 4 . Very frequently occurs 13. Teachers' closest friends are other s t a f f members at t h i s school. 1 2 3 4 14. The mannerisms of teachers at this school are annoying. 1 2 3 * * 15. Teachers spend time after school with students who have i n d i v i d u a l problems. 1 2 3 * * 16. Instructions f o r the operation of teaching aids are available. 1 2 3 * * 17. Teachers i n v i t e other s t a f f members to v i s i t them at home. 1 2 3 4 18. There i s a minority group of teachers who always oppose the majority. 1 2 3 4 19. Extra books are available f o r classroom use. 1 2 3 4 20. S u f f i c i e n t time i s given to prepare administrative reports. 1 2 3 4 21. Teachers know the family background of other s t a f f members. 1 2 3 4 22. Teachers exert group pressure on non-conforming s t a f f members.. 1 2 3 4 23. In s t a f f meetings, there i s a f e e l i n g of " l e t ' s get things accomplished." 1 2 3 4 24. Administrative paper work i s burdensome at t h i s school. 1 2 3 4 25. Teachers t a l k about t h e i r personal l i v e s to other s t a f f members. 1 2 3 4 26. Teachers seek s p e c i a l favours from the p r i n c i p a l . . . 1 2 3 * * 27. School supplies are readily available f o r use i n class work. 1 2 3 * * 28. Student progress reports require too much work, 1 2 3 * * 130 - 4 1. Rarely occurs 2. Sometimes occurs 3. Often occurs 4. Very frequently occurs 29. Teachers have fun s o c i a l i z i n g together during t h e i r "free" school time. 1 2 3 4 30. Teachers interrupt other s t a f f members who are t a l k i n g i n s t a f f meetings. 1 2 3 * * 31. Most of the teachers here accept the f a u l t s of t h e i r colleagues, 1 2 3 * * 32. Teachers have too many committee requirements, 1 2 . 3 4 33. There i s considerable laughter when teachers gather informally, 1 2 3 * * 34. Teachers ask nonsensical questions i n s t a f f meetings. . 1 2 3 * * 35. Custodial service i s available when needed. 1 2 3 4 36. Routine duties i n t e r f e r e with the job of teaching, 1 2 3 4 37. Teachers prepare administrative reports by themselves.- 1 2 3 4 38. Teachers ramble when they t a l k i n s t a f f meetings. 1 2 3 4 39. Teachers at t h i s school show much school s p i r i t . 1 2 3 4 40. The p r i n c i p a l goes out of his way to help teachers. 1 2 3 4 41. The p r i n c i p a l helps teachers solve personal problems. 1 2 3 4 42. Teachers at th i s school stay by themselves during t h e i r "free" school time? 1 2 3 4 43. The teachers accomplish t h e i r work with great vim, vigour, and pleasure. 1 2 3 4 44. The p r i n c i p a l sets an example by working hard himself. 1 2 3 4 45. The p r i n c i p a l does personal favours f o r teachers, 1 2 3 * * 46. Teachers eat lunch by themselves i n t h e i r own classrooms. 1 2 3 4 1 3 1 - 5 1. Rarely occurs 2. Sometimes occurs 3. Often occurs 4. Very frequently occurs 47. The morale of the teachers i s high. 1 2 3 4 48. The p r i n c i p a l uses constructive c r i t i c i s m . 1 2 3 ^ 49. The p r i n c i p a l stays a f t e r school to help teachers f i n i s h t h e i r work. 1 2 3 4 50. Teachers s o c i a l i z e together i n small, select groups. 1 2 3 ^ 51. The p r i n c i p a l makes a l l class-scheduling decisions. 1 2 3 ^ 52. Teachers are contacted by the p r i n c i p a l each day. 1 2 3 ^ 53. The p r i n c i p a l i s well prepared when he speaks at school functions. 1 2 3 ^ 54. The p r i n c i p a l helps s t a f f members s e t t l e minor differences. 1 2 3 4 55. The p r i n c i p a l schedules the work for the teachers. 1 2 3 4 56. Teachers leave the grounds during the school day. 1 2 3 4 57. The p r i n c i p a l c r i t i c i z e s a s p e c i f i c act rather than a s t a f f member. 1 2 3 4 58. Teachers help select which courses w i l l be taught. (Answer, on the basis of the amount of teacher par- t i c i p a t i o n i n any curriculum decisions made within your school.) 1 2 3 ^ 59. The p r i n c i p a l corrects teachers' mistakes, 1 2 J k 60. The p r i n c i p a l t a l k s a great deal. 1 2 3 ^ 61. The p r i n c i p a l explains his reasons for c r i t i c i s m to teachers, 1 2 3 4 62. The p r i n c i p a l t r i e s to get better s a l a r i e s for teachers. (Answer on the basis of the behaviour which you would expect i f t h i s were part of your p r i n c i p a l ' s duties,) 1 2 3 ^ 63. Extra duty f o r teachers i s posted conspicuously. 1 2 3 4 132 - 6 1. Rarely occurs 2. Sometimes occurs 3. Often occurs 4. Very frequently occurs 64. The rules set by the p r i n c i p a l are often questioned. 1 2 3 4 65. The p r i n c i p a l looks out f o r the personal welfare of teachers. 1 2 3 4 66. School s e c r e t a r i a l service i s available f o r teachers' use. 1 2 3 4 67. The p r i n c i p a l runs the s t a f f meeting l i k e a business conference, 1 2 3 * * 68. The p r i n c i p a l i s i n the building before teachers a r r i v e . 1 2 3 4 69. Teachers work together preparing administrative reports. 1 2 3 4 70. S t a f f meetings are organized according to a s t r i c t agenda. 1 2 3 4 71. S t a f f meetings are mainly principal-report meetings, 1 2 3 4 72. The p r i n c i p a l t e l l s teachers of new ideas he has run across. 1 2 3 4 73. Teachers t a l k about leaving the school system. 1 2 3 4 74. The p r i n c i p a l checks the subject-matter a b i l i t y of teachers. 1 2 3 4 75. The p r i n c i p a l i s easy to understand. 1 2 3 4 76. Teachers are informed of the results of a p r i n c i p a l ' s inspection. 1 2 3 4 77. Grading practices are standardized at t h i s school. 1 2 3 4 78. The p r i n c i p a l ensures that teachers work to t h e i r f u l l capacity. 1 2 3 4 79. Teachers leave the building as soon as possible at day's end. 1 2 3 4 80. The p r i n c i p a l c l a r i f i e s wrong ideas a teacher may have. 1 2 3 4 133 APPENDIX C CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR EACH SCHOOL SAMPLED 134 The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s have been c a l c u l a t e d f rom t h e g e n e r a l f o r m u l a r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s f o r p o p u l a t i o n means: - t t s x c ^ n - 1 where x = sample mean, t = c r i t i c a l v a l u e f rom " s t u d e n t ' s " t d i s t r i b u t i o n , s = sample s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , n-1 = d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m . S p e c i f i c a l l y s s x - t 9 7 5 yn -1 < JJi < x + t 9 7 5 ifr\-l y i e l d s an i n t e r v a l i n w h i c h yu , t he a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n mean, c an be r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t e d to l i e w i t h a 95 pe r c e n t d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y . However, i t e i t h e r does o r does no t l i e w i t h i n the i n t e r v a l ; t hu s the 95 per c e n t d e g r e e o f c o n f i d e n c e s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t ou t o f a l l p o s s i b l e samples o f s i z e " n " w h i c h c o u l d be drawn 95% w i l l f a l l w i t h i n the i n t e r v a l . 135 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL A •Sample S i z e : 6 P o p u l a t i o n : 18 F a c t o r . X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n h P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 3.19 0.41 2.72 - 3.66 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n Group 1.78 0.41 1.31 - 2.25 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.56 0.66 1.81 - 3.31 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.42 0.50 1.85 - 2.99 H i n d r a n c e 2.42 0.64 1.68 - 3.15 NINETY PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL* SCHOOL B Sample s i z e : 3 P o p u l a t i o n : 20 F a c t o r X Samplee s S t anda rd P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e Ave rage D e v i a t i o n L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s Leader 2.28 0.76 1.00 - 4 .00 Teache r " q u a " T e a c h e r . P e r c e p t i o n Group 1.83? 0.60 1.00 - 3.06 Wo N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.78 0.34 1.07 - 2.48 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.56 0.16 1.00 - 3.20 H i n d r a n c e 1.'50 0.41 1.00 - 2.34 * N i n e t y - f i v e pe r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l i s too w ide to y i e l d any m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f rom t h i s sample . 136 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT..CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL C Sample s i z e : 3 P o p u l a t i o n : 16 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n A P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.91 0.23 2.22 - 3.60 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 2.33 0.40 1.13 - 3.54 Non -C l a s s room T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.72 0.32 1.00 - 2.68 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.33 0.24 1.00 - 2.05 H i n d r a n c e 1.81 0.14 1.41 - 2.20 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL D Sample s i z e : 7 P o p u l a t i o n : 24 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.30 0.15 2.15 - 2.46 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.60 0.35 1.26 - 1.95 N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.38 0.29 2.09 - 2.67 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.84 0.35 1.49 i 2.19 H i n d r a n c e 1.86 0.46 1.41 - 2.31 137 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL E Sample s i z e : 4 P o p u l a t i o n : 21 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n A*- P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r . i n c i p a l s a s c L e a d e r 2.22 0.32 1.64 - 2.80 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n Group 1.75 0.21 1.36 - 2.14 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.83 0.24 1.40 - 2.27 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.37 0.37 1.69 - 3.05 H i n d r a n c e 2.00 0.25 1.54 - 2.46 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL F Sample s i z e : 8 P o p u l a t i o n : 25 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.98 0.32 2.69 - 3.26 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.32 0.67 0.72 - 1.92 Non -C l a s s room T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 0.46 1.84 - 2.66 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.50 0.42 2.13 - 2.87 H i n d r a n c e 1.91 0.61 1.36 - 2.45 138 •NINETY-FIVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL G Sample s i z e : 9 P o p u l a t i o n : 29 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.59 0.30 2.34 - 2.84 Teache r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.58 0.27 1.36 - 1.80 Non -C l a s s room Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.41 0.58 1.93 - 2.88 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.58 0.58 2.11 - 3.06 H i n d r a n c e 2.03 0.34 1.75 - 2.31 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL H Sample s i z e : 5 P o p u l a t i o n : 19 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.94 0.27 2.56 - 3.32 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.67 0.68 1.00 - 2.61 N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.13 0.59 1.31 - 2.95 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.27 0.20 1.99 - 2.54 H i n d r a n c e 1.60 0.56 1.00 - 2.38 , ,139 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL I Sample s i z e : 6 F a c t o r x Sample A v e r a g e P o p u l a t i o n : 20 fi- S t a n d a r d P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e D e v i a t i o n L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r Teache r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Work ing C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e 2.76 1.35 2.58 1.33 1.33 0.35 0.19 0.61 0.32 0.24 1.88 1.14 1.89 1.00 1.06 2.68 1.57 3.28 1.70 1.61 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL J Sample s i z e : 5 P o p u l a t i o n : 19 F a c t o r x Sample A v e r a g e S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Work ing C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e 2.47 1.69 2.47 2.27 2.20 0.40 0.52 0.78 0.86 0.64 P o p u l a t i o n Ave rage L i e s Between 1.92 1.00 1.38 1.07 1.31 3.02 2.41 3.56 3.46 3.09 140 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL K Sample s i z e : 9 P o p u l a t i o n : 32 . F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.52 0.61 1.76 - 2.75 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.91 0.51 1.50 - 2.33 N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.50 0.54 2.06 - 2.94 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.19 0.23 2.01 - 2.38 H i n d r a n c e 2.53 0.64 2.01 - 3.49 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL L Sample s i z e : 4 P o p u l a t i o n : 17 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e S Ji, S t a n d a r d -t.' P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e D e v i a t i o h o n L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r 3.00 0.17 2.70 - 3.31 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.56 0.21 1.17 - 1.94 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 0.43 1.45 - 3.05 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.46 0.56 1.43 - 3.48 H i n d r a n c e 1.56 0.11 1.37 - 1.76 141 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL M Sample s i z e : 4 P o p u l a t i o n : 13 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.56 0.43 1.76 - 3.36 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.58 0.16 1.28 - 1.89 N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 0.34 1.62 - 2.88 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.79 0.30 2.25 - 3.34 H i n d r a n c e 2.13 0.28 1.61 - 2.64 'N INETY-FIVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL N Sample s i z e : 5 P o p u l a t i o n : 15 F a c t o r X S a m p l e l e Averagege s S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 3.00 0.34 2.53 - 3.47 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.42 0.31 1.00 - 1.85 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.73 0.66 1.82 - 3.64 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.00 0.24 1.76 - 2.33 H i n d r a n c e 1.70 0.29 1.30 - 2.11 142 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT. CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL 0 Sample s i z e : 7 P o p u l a t i o n : 28 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.50 0.34 2.16 - 2.84 Teache r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.73 0.43 1.30 - 2.16 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.00 0.51 1.49 - 2.51 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.79 0.06 1.73 - 1.84 H i n d r a n c e 1.86 0.63 1.23 - 2.48 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL P Sample s i z e : 6 » u l a t i o n . ' ' P o p u l a t i o n : 19 F a c t o r x s jx. Sample / e S t a n d a r d P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e A v e r a g e D e v i a t i o n L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Work ing C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e 2.76 1.81 2.19 1.86 1.96 0.42 0.57 0.24 0 .30 0.81 2.27 1.16 1.92 1.52 1.03 3.24 2.47 2.47 2.20 2.89 143 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL Q Sample s i z e : 5 F a c t o r P o p u l a t i o n : 24 x s p, Sample S t a n d a r d P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e A v e r a g e D e v i a t i o n L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r Teache r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Work ing C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e 2.27 1.93 2.03 2.20 1.70 0.22 0.26 0.52 0.31 0.49 1.96 1.57 1.31 1.78 1.03 2.58 2.29 2.76 2.63 2.38 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL R Sample s i z e : 6 P o p u l a t i o n : 21 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.53 0.29 2.19 - 2.86 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.72 0.54 1.11 - 2.34 Non -G l a s s room T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.17 0.31 1.82 - 2.52 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s ( 1 . 7 5 0.19 1.53 - 1.97 H i n d r a n c e 2.21 0.34 1.82 - 2.59 144 NINETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL S Sample s i z e : 6 P o p u l a t i o n : 28 F a c t o r X Sample A v e r a g e s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r 1.96 . 0.41 1.50 - 2.43 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.83 0.46 1.31 - 2.36 N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.86 0.66 1.11 - 2.61 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.00 0.43 1.51 - 2.49 H i n d r a n c e 1.92 • 0.47 1.38 - 2.46 N INETY-F IVE PER CENT CONFIDENCE INTERVAL SCHOOL T Sample s i z e : 8 P o p u l a t i o n : 28 F a c t o r x Sample A v e r a g e S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n A v e r a g e L i e s Between P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.66 0.22 2 . 4 6 - 2 . 8 5 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n N o n - C l a s s r o o m Teache r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.83 0.86 1.07 - 2.60 2.29 0.46 1.88 - 2.71 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.79 0.40 1.44 - 2.15 H i n d r a n c e 1.84 0.45 1.44 - 2.25 145 APPENDIX D ROTATED ITEM FACTOR MATRIX FOR 64 ITEMS OF THE OCDQ FORM IV HALPIN & CROFT (n = 1151) 146 TABLE A ROTATED ITEM FACTOR MATRIX FOR 64 ITEMS OF THE OCDQ, FORM-!V ( n = i i 5 i ) . . . . OCDQ S u b t e s t . I t e m I I I I I I IV V V I V I I . V I I I h 2 1. Manner i sm -08 - 4 9 - 1 0 DISENGAGEMENT -01 06 .06 16 . -21 33 2. Oppose - 05 -44 - 05 05 02 . 08 14 . - 3 0 31 . 3 . P r e s s u r e - 1 0 -38 05 15 -0.6 11 15 - 3 2 32 4. Seek f v r - 06 -36 11 - 0 2 11 17 19 -33 33 5. I n t e r r u p t . . - 06 -63 06 -14 08 13 - 0 9 03 46 6. Nonsense -05 -58 - 0 5 01 05 07 11 08 37 7. Ramble -07 -68 -02 -01 12 -01 01 19 52 8. S t a y by -04 - 2 0 -23 13 07 • -08 . 12 - 4 0 30 9. L e a v i n g -18 - 2 9 05 26 17 -18 18 - 15 31 10. S o c i a l -02 -46 09 19 -11 -09 . . 21 -13 34 11. R o u t i n e -03 -13 03 HINDRANCE 06 68 - 0 9 05 -06 49 12. C t t e e - 05 -06 06 08 59 05 02 -11 38 13. Sent r e p -01 -06 - 0 6 . 04 62 06 . 04 -16 42 14. Paperwork 05 -08 -01 09 66 -01 01 01 46 15. Admin Rep 21 - 0 2 10 02 -51 . 08 -17 - 0 9 35 16. A i d s 35 14 05 12 -17 12. -37 - 1 2 3 5 : 17. M o r a l e 34 19 19 ESPRIT. -27 -13 32 -41 06 55 18. V im v i g o u r .221 29 18 - 1 0 - 0 9 34 - 45 01 50 19. S p i r i t 22 25 21 - 2 0 -03 43 -43 06 57 20 . C s t D i a l 25 10 04 10 - 0 9 • -06 - 3 5 04 22 21 . F a u l t s 16 11 21 - 0 6 04 04 -38 17 ' 26 22. S u p p l i e s 26 02 - 0 2 -08 - 15 17 - 05 -07 41 TABLE A ( C o n t i n u e d ) OCDQ S u b t e s t I tem 23 . 24. 25. 26. L a u g h t e r Get done E x t r a bks I n d i v pbm 17 35 21 12 147 I I I I I IV -08 18 04 11 55 12 02 20 -15 13 04 01 V 05 00 -16 01 VI V I I ESPRIT 01 18 11 22 -18 -31 -41 - 2 8 V I I I 16 - 2 0 04 - 2 0 42 35 25 23 27. F r i e n d s 02 11 53 13 28. I n v i t e 04 13 62 10 29. Backg round -05 06 52 -02 30. P e r s o n a l 04 - 2 0 59 05 3 1 / Have f u n 09 - 1 9 50 - 0 9 32. T o g e t h e r 04 01 22 18 33. Thems l v s - 05 - 0 0 - 1 5 - 0 6 INTIMACY -01 20 09 03 -06 16 07 02 01 - 12 - 1 0 - 0 3 -05 - 1 4 - 0 9 -01 02 - 0 2 - 1 0 07 02 46 - 07 12 13 - 1 7 - 2 6 - 2 5 36 45 31 42 31 31 21 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40 . 41 . 42. S t r i c t P r i n r e p t B u s i n e s s Grounds E a t l u n c h R u l e s C o n t a c t e d S e c y x i I n s p e c t i o n - 0 0 - 2 9 10 05 00 06 29 03 24 00 -16 12 -15 02 -26 04 -05 00 - 0 6 -01 -08 22 -12 09 14 -18 00 33 27 37 02 -12 03 05 05 31 ALOOFNESS 16 01 -22 05 -23 -18 07 -04 -24 12 02 04 -04 -14 -04 05 -14 00 02 -11 -11 15 - 2 2 42 - 2 6 28 -14 -33 -26 - 35 - 3 8 -54 -12 -21 10 15 30 33 32 28 34 12 23 32 27 148 TABLE A ( C o n t i n u e d ) OCDQ S u b t e s t I tem I 4 3 . C l a s s 44 . Sched Wrk 45 . A b i l i t y 46. C o r r e c t s 4 7 . C a p a c i t y 48. E x t r a D t y 49. T a l k s 50 . Out o f way 51 . Example 52 . C r i t i c i s m 53. Wei p r e p 54. E x p l a i n s 55 . W e l f a r e 56. A r r i v e 57. New i d e a s 58. E s s ay 59 . 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. S o l v e pblm Does f v r s . F i n i s h M ino r C o u r s e s S a l a r i e s -03 -06 20 12 21 11 -20 74 70 72 60 64 49 41 51 63 20 30 21 26 06 32 I I -08 07 -08 -16 -01 -02 - 3 9 06 05 09 10 02 -06 09 -03 11 - 0 9 -11 -08 -08 01 -12 I I I IV IV V I I V I I I - 0 0 05 - 05 06 -06 05 11 10 - 0 0 04 -03 07 07 02 -02 11 19 35 -01 08 15 -04 PRODUCTION EMPHASIS 58 54 47 - 05 01 - 05 09 04 54 37 23 21 THRUST -06 10 -04 07 05 00 19 07 -17 12 05 02 19 n -09 01 -01 -09 01 -01 02 06 -09 30 05 31 -04 04 23 11 12 04 17 -04 07 29 10 CONSIDERATION -01 01 -10 -01 15 09 -18 06 03 01 - 0 2 - 17 51 40 52 38 29 37 14 14 -19 -17 -20 -37 -10 03 -12 -17 -06 -20 -27 -11 -24 ^05 09 07 -04 -00 -15 -07 -01 -02 -05 06 - 05 04 16 -02 07 03 -06 14 00 -02 08 -03 £ 0 5 - 16 03 -11 -03 04 36 33 40 38 32 21 31 63 54 58 40 50 32 23 42 47 36 43 35 25 17 29 TABLE A ( C o n t i n u e d ) 149 E i g e n v a l u e a 8.15 3.79 2.60 2.05 1.82 1.62 1.47 1.44 C u m u l a t i v e P r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e .24 .35 .42 .48 .53 .58 .62 .67 *Adap ted f rom H a l p i n and C r o f t , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e o f S c h o o l s , ( C h i c a g o : M idwest A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C e n t e r , 1963, p p . 34 , 3 5 ) . 150 A P P E N D I X E C L I M A T E P R O F I L E S . B A S E D O N I N D I V I D U A L S U B T E S T S T w e n t y V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s F IVE AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : A A rea :48110 S t a f f : 18 E n r o l m e n t : 497 D e n s i t y : 9 3 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 3.19 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.78 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.56 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.43 H i n d r a n c e 2.41 2.15 1.67 2.69 3.02 2.40 2.63 P r o d u c t i o n 3 .69 2.86 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : B A rea :41267 S t a f f : 20 E n r o l m e n t : 527 D e n s i t y : 7 0 I I S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.28 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.81 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.78 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.56 H i n d r a n c e 1.50 2 1 1-97 1.72 2.70 1.81 2.11 1.76 2.33 1.67 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : C A r e a : 56555 S t a f f : 16 E n r o l m e n t : 1 9 2 D e n s i t y : 272 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.91 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 2.33 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.72 IV W o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s 1.33 H i n d r a n c e . 1.82 1 2.33 1.82 2.17 1.95 1.96 1.81 3.63 2.83 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : D A r e a : 64950 S t a f f : 24 E n r o l m e n t : 6 7 9 D e n s i t y : 9 2 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.30 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.60 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.38 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.83 H i n d r a n c e 1.86 4 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : E A r e a : 48590 S t a f f : 21 E n r o l m e n t : 621 D e n s i t y : 7 6 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.19 I I ' I I I IV T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Work ing Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s 1.75 1.83 2.35 H i n d r a n c e 2.00 Oi 1.68 2.13 2.33 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 1.78 2.19 2.15 P r o d u c t i o n I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s 4 5 6 2.22 1.75 T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : F A r e a : 52192 S t a f f : 25 E n r o l m e n t : 6 0 6 D e n s i t y : 8 3 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.98 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.32 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.50 V H i n d r a n c e 1.91 1.35 2.33 3.15 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 2.09 I n t i m a c y 4 2.43 A l o o f n e s s 5 2.29 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 3.21 2.46 T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : G A r e a : 56405 S t a f f : 29 E n r o l m e n t : 832 D e n s i t y : 66 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.59 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.58 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.41 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.55 V H i n d r a n c e 2.03 1.67 2.28 2.92 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 2.40 2.46 2.52 2.93 1.85 P r o d u c t i o n I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : H A r e a : 42080 S t a f f : 19 E n r o l m e n t : 351 D e n s i t y : 1 1 4 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.94 I I I I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.67 T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.13 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.27 H i n d r a n c e 1.60 1.64 2.10 3.02 2.29 2.44 2.31 3.56 2.33 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : i A r e a : 42527 S t a f f : 20 E n r o l m e n t : 5 3 5 D e n s i t y : 7 7 I I I I I I IV V S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Work ing S c o r e L e a d e r Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s H i n d r a n c e 2.76 1.35 2.58 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.94 3.25 2.40 1.83 _ 1 . 6 2 3.20 2.44 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l ! A r e a : 41345 S t a f f : 19 E n r o l m e n t : 457 D e n s i t y : 87 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.47 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.69 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.47 IV W o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s 2.27 V H i n d r a n c e 2.20 o 1.43 2.37 3.08 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 2.11 I n t i m a c y 4 2.29 A l o o f n e s s 5 2.35 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 2.44 2.17 T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : K A r e a : 73045 S t a f f : 32 E n r o l m e n t : 8 3 1 D e n s i t y : 8 5 S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.52 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.91 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.50 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.19 V H i n d r a n c e 2.53 1.79 2.52 2.68 2.41 2.30 2.12 3.10 2.33 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 3.00 A r e a : 35709 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.58 S t a f f : 17 E n r o l m e n t : 428 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.48 D e n s i t y : 8 0 V H i n d r a n c e 1.56 1.58 2.17 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e 1 2 3.15 E s p r i t 3 2.31 I n t i m a c y 4 2.44 A l o o f n e s s 5 3,.86 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 3.86 T h r u s t 7 1.69 C o n s i d e r a t i o n 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l ; M A r e a : 30935 S t a f f : 13 E n r o l m e n t : 346 D e n s i t y : 86 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.56 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.58 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.25 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.79 V H i n d r a n c e 2.13 1.45 D i sengagement 1 2.50 H i n d r a n c e 2 3.13 E s p r i t 3 2.29 I n t i m a c y 4 2.47 A l o o f n e s s 5 2.54 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 2.89 2.46 T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : N S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 3.00 A r e a : 32955 I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.42 S t a f f : 15 E n r o l m e n t : 454 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.73 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.00 D e n s i t y : 7 0 V H i n d r a n c e 1.70 ! - 7 0 2.07 3.37 2.48 2.11 „ 1.83, 3.33 3.00 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : 0 A r e a : 55925 S t a f f : 28 E n r o l m e n t : 8 5 0 D e n s i t y :64 I I S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.50 " q u a " T e a c h e r T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n 1.73 I I I N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 2.00 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 1.79 V H i n d r a n c e 1.85 ON 1.70 2.24 2.74 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 1.83 I n t i m a c y 4 2.06 A l o o f n e s s 5 1.84 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 2.78 T h r u s t 7 2.39 C o n s i d e r a t i o n 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : P A r e a : 43050 S t a f f : 1 9 E n r o l m e n t : 5 9 7 D e n s i t y :7Q S u b t e s t S c o r e P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r 2.76 I I I I I IV T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m W o r k i n g Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s 1.81 2.19 1.86 V H i n d r a n c e 1.96 ON ON 1.77 2.22 2.78 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 1.69 I n t i m a c y 4 1.76 A l o o f n e s s 5 2.12 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 3.35 Thrust 7 2.31 C o n s i d e r a t i o n 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : Q A rea :39515 S t a f f : 24 E n r o l m e n t : 5 2 4 D e n s i t y : 7 2 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.27 I I I I I T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 1.93 2.03 IV Work ing C o n d i t i o n s 2.20 V H i n d r a n c e 1.70 2.08 2.03 2.38 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 1.71 I n t i m a c y 4 2.00 A l o o f n e s s 5 2.14 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 2.64 T h r u s t 7 2.07 C o n s i d e r a t i o n 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : R A r e a : 42270 S t a f f : 21 E n r o l m e n t : 5 8 9 D e n s i t y : 6 3 I I I I I I IV V 1 1.72 1.86 3.30 1.81 1.96 1.98 2.85 2.18 P r o d u c t i o n D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : S A r e a : 57960 S t a f f 28 E n r o l m e n t : 7 6 7 D e n s i t y : 7 3 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 1.96 I I I I I IV T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Work ing Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s 1.83 1.86 2.00 V H i n d r a n c e 1.92 2.83 1.83 2.20 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 1.64 2.21 2.10 . 2.30 1.53 P r o d u c t i o n I n t i m a c y A l o o f n e s s Emphas i s T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 4 5 6 7 8 F I V E AND EIGHT FACTOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE SUBTEST SCHOOL PROFILE SCORES (Vancouver Da ta (n=116) S c h o o l : T A r e a : 6 6 9 2 0 S t a f f : 28 E n r o l m e n t : 772 D e n s i t y : 8 7 S u b t e s t P r i n c i p a l a s S c o r e L e a d e r 2.66 I I I U IV T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r N o n - C l a s s r o o m Work ing Group P e r c e p t i o n T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s 1.83 2.29 1.79 H i n d r a n c e 1.84 1.75 2.17 2.99 D i sengagement H i n d r a n c e E s p r i t 1 2 3 2.32 I n t i m a c y 4 2.21 A l o o f n e s s 5 1.86 P r o d u c t i o n Emphas i s 6 2.88 2.21 T h r u s t C o n s i d e r a t i o n 7 8 171 APPENDIX F EFFECT OF SCHOOL C ON DENSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE F IVE FACTOR SOLUTION 172 EFFECT OF SCHOOL C O N DENSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE F I V E FACTOR SOLUTION W h i l e a n a l y s i n g the d a t a two a p p a r e n t a n o m o l i e s seemed to s t and o u t . F i r s t , and p r o b a b l y most i m p o r t a n t , why d i d the t ype o f b e h a v i o r d e s c r i b e d by T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n i n c r e a s e w i t h " e x p a n s i v e " d e n s i t y , i . e . , w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f square f e e t a v a i l a b l e p e r per son? Second , why would the E s p r i t s c o r e s d e c r e a s e w i t h " e x p a n s i v e " d e n s i t y ? (Because the f i v e - f a c t o r p a t t e r n does " f i t " the d a t a b e t t e r t han t h e e i g h t - f a c t o r p a t t e r n , t he c o n c e r n was n o t so much r e l a t e d to the s e e m i n g l y u n u s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between E s p r i t and D e n s i t y as i t was to what the e f f e c t might be on P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r s u b t e s t wh i ch c o n t a i n e d t h e E s p r i t i t e m s . ) A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no r e a s o n to b e l i e v e t h a t the more " u n c r o w d e d " a s c h o o l was the more l i k e l y t he c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s would tend to be " c l o s e d " ( i n terms o f T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n b e h a v i o r and E s p r i t ) , "common s e n s e " would n e v e r t h e l e s s seem to d i c t a t e t h a t some i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the m a t t e r s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e any s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be drawn f rom the d a t a . In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e what m i gh t be " h a p p e n i n g " the extreme s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f o r T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n and E s p r i t were checked by s c a n n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l p r o f i l e s shown i n Append i x E. O n l y a c u r s o r y c h e c k beyond S c h o o l C was n e c e s s a r y . I t s p r o f i l e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l had o b t a i n e d no t o n l y the h i g h e s t extreme s c o r e f o r T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n and t h e l o w e s t ex t reme s c o r e f o r E s p r i t , bu t i t a l s o had by f a r the l e a s t " c r o w d e d " c o n d i t i o n s i n terms o f Human D e n s i t y . Whereas the sample a v e r a g e f o r Teache r " q u a " Teache r Group 173 P e r c e p t i o n was 1.71 (sample s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l to 0 . 2 3 ) , S c h o o l C o b t a i n e d the h i g h ext reme o f t he sample r a n g e , i . e . , 2 . 3 3 ; f o r E s p r i t the sample a v e r a g e was 2.84 (sample s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l to 0.35) w h i l e S c h o o l C o b t a i n e d t h e low extreme o f the sample r a n g e , i . e . ; 2 . 1 7 ; f o r D e n s i t y the sample a v e r a g e was 89.1 squa re f e e t ( sample s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l to 4 . 4 6 ) , w h i l e S c h o o l C o b t a i n e d the h i g h ext reme o f t he sample r a n g e , i . e . , . '272. Hav ing o b t a i n e d a l l t h r e e ex t remes i n q u e s t i o n ou t o f t he e n t i r e Vancouver sample the o n l y f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e seemed to r e v o l v e around the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f each o f the q u e s t i o n a b l e s t a t i s t i c s e x c l u d i n g S c h o o l C. In t h i s manner i t was hoped t h a t any c o n t a m i n a t i n g i n f l u e n c e caused by the c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f ex t remes would be c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by a c h e c k o f Append i x C i n t h a t S c h o o l C i s one o f the few s c h o o l s w i t h a sample s i z e too s m a l l to o b t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y na r row c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l . P e a r s o n ' s product -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , d e f i n e d as r = N S X Y - g X ( g Y ) ™ ^ N ? X 2 - ( S X ) 2 ^ N 2 Y 2 - ( S Y ) 2 was c a l c u l a t e d f o r D e n s i t y , i . e . , X and Y , i . e . , P r i n c i p a l a s L e a d e r , Teache r " q u a " T e a c h e r Group P e r c e p t i o n , N o n - C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r S a t i s f a c t i o n , Work ing C o n d i t i o n s and H i n d r a n c e (V), r e s p e c t i v e l y , and N i s the number o f c a s e s e x c l u d i n g S c h o o l C. The d e g r e e o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n cau sed by the t h r e e ext remes a t t r i b u t a b l e to a s i n g l e sample a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n page 3. 174 S u b t e s t s N=20 N=19 P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r 0.292 0.339 T e a c h e r " q u a " T e a c h e r 0.614 - 0 . 0 5 4 N o n - C l a s s r o o m S a t i s f a c t i o n - 0 . 3 4 6 0.221 Work ing C o n d i t i o n s - 0 . 3 3 7 0.268 H i n d r a n c e (V) - 0 . 0 3 9 0.093 The e f f e c t o f t he ex t remes i s d r a m a t i c w i t h r e g a r d to T e a c h e r " q u a " Teache r Group P e r c e p t i o n — e v e n to a change i n d i r e c t i o n — b u t the ext reme E s p r i t s c o r e e f f e c t on P r i n c i p a l as L e a d e r i s n e g l i g i b l e .

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