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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The search for objectivity and impartiality in French Canadian literary criticism Stewart, Elford Brinsley Alister 1976

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T H E S E A R C H F O R O B J E C T I V I T Y A N D I M P A R T I A L I T Y IN F R E N C H C A N A D I A N L I T E R A R Y C R I T I C I S M by E L F O R D B R I N S L E Y A L I S T E R S T E W A R T B . A . , H o n s . , U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , 1968 M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , 1969 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y in the Department . of F R E N C H We accept this thes is as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a r c h , 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i A B S T R A C T In F r e n c h Canadian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m there ex ist two d ist inct schools , namely the t rad i t iona l (pre - 1944-45 c r i t i c i s m ) and the c o n -temporary (post Wor ld War II c r i t i c i s m ) . Both schools have been e n -gaged in a search for object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y in an attempt to d i m i n -ish and negate the inf luence of excess ive b lame and excess ive p r a i s e . These shortcomings charac te r i zed c r i t i c i s m f r o m its beginnings in L a  Gazette L i t t e r a i re de M o n t r e a l . The rea lness of the s e a r c h just mentioned is best re f lec ted in the be l ie fs expressed by t rad i t iona l and contemporary c r i t i c s a l i k e , to the effect that they could and would surpass the efforts of their p r e d e c e s s o r s and co l leagues . Amongst t rad i t iona l c r i t i c s , A d o l p h e - B a s i l e Routhier in t imated that he would improve on the appreciat ions of H e n r i Raymond C a s g r a i n . C a s -gra in 's work , Routhier compla ined, was mot ivated by f r iendship and jea lousy . In l ike manner , W i l l i a m Chapman vowed that he would be just and i m p a r t i a l in commenting upon F rechet te ' s w o r k . C a m i l l e Roy s u g -gested that his own work as a c r i t i c would be m o r e complete than C a s -g r a i n ' s . The la t te r , Roy c l a i m e d , had neither the t ime nor the means to be a C r i t i c in the " s t r i c t s e n s e " of the word . With regard to contemporary c r i t i c s , Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s in terpreted C a s g r a i n ' s and Roy,'s " s i l e n c e " on F r e n c h authors as a sign of c r i t i c a l i i i inadequacy and fear of being r i d i c u l e d . L i k e w i s e G i l l e s M a r c o t t e and G e r a r d Besset te have spoken of the insuf f i c iency of h i s t o r y and biography as ins t ruments of apprec ia t ion . A l though the efforts made by both schools are c o m p a r a b l e , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s p roved to be less object ive and i m p a r t i a l than thei r s u c c e s s o r s . The f o r m e r were great ly inf luenced by c r i t e r i a unre la ted to L i t e r -ature . D e s i r e for l i t e r a r y g l o r y , f r i e n d s h i p , jea lousy , p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n and p a t r i o t i s m p layed a m o r e impor tant r o l e in their work than did purely-a r t i s t i c c r i t e r i a . C r i t i c i s m therefore did not ex is t as a "hea l thy" genre . On the c o n t r a r y , i t o s c i l l a t e d between savage attack and adulat ion. In fact Rober t Charbonneau's w o r k s , publ ished in the p e r i o d 1944 -47 , p rov ide the f i r s t instance of c r i t i c i s m b r e a k i n g over t l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y w i th p r a i s e and b lame in excess as w e l l as wi th the c o n s e r v a t i s m of most t rad i t i ona l c r i t i c s . Thereaf ter c r i t i c i s m is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by greater h u -m a n i s m of content, u n i v e r s a l i s m in appeal , d i v e r s i t y of method. Th is new or ientat ion has had the pos i t i ve effect of re legat ing b lame and p r a i s e in excess to the lower echelons of the c r i t i c a l l adder , of i n -s t i l l i n g m o r e s e r e n i t y , ob ject iv i ty , i m p a r t i a l i t y and l i b e r a l i s m into i n -digenous c r i t i c i s m . Roger D u h a m e l , E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , r e p r e s e n t a -t ives of contemporary c r i t i c i s m , be l ieve that a man of le t te rs ought to serve A r t whi le r e m a i n i n g true to h i m s e l f . A c c o r d i n g l y E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l , amongst o thers , have turned to m o r e u n i v e r s a l l y accepted aesthetic c r i t e r i a , and have commented with r e g u l a r i t y on non- indigenous l i t e r a t u r e . i v In like manner Marcotte and Bessette employ disciplines such as phenomenology and psychoanalysis as yardsticks of appreciation. Be-cause Marcotte and Bessette are pioneers in a f i e l d of endeavour new to French Canada, they r i s k losing themselves in conjecture, but assuredly not in excessive blame and pr a i s e , for these c r i t i c s are masters at the art of being politely rude. There is therefore an immense distance between traditional and con-temporary c r i t i c s . It is bridged, though not f i r m l y , by certain factors. Biography and history played a p r i m o r d i a l role in the commentaries of Casgrain and Roy. To a lesser extent these c r i t e r i a also influence Duhamel and Ethier - B l a i s . The interpretations of Marcotte and Bessette are also wrapped up in references to c u l t u r a l history and mental biogra-phy. Moreover, theories and practices of pure, c l a s s i c a l style are found in the works of Valentin Jautard, Roy and Dantin as w e l l as in those of E t h i e r - B l a i s and Marcotte. In addition, in M a r c e l Dugas' l i t e r a r y d i l e t -tantism and in Dantin's ecl e c t i s m one notices certain aspects of E t h i e r -B l a i s 1 belief in A r t as a self - s u f f i c i e n t d i s c i p l i n e . While it is true that contemporary c r i t i c s are more i m p a r t i a l and objective than their predecessors, it is also undeniable that the latter were handicapped in their attempt to be "just, " " i m p a r t i a l , " "construc-t i v e , " and "independent. " In traditional F r e n c h Canada intellectual ignorance was rampant. The educational system was ineffective as a means of forming "future w r i t e r s . " In short the healthy climate of in t e l l e c t u a l i s m , evident in con-t e m p o r a r y society, was non-existent in traditional F rench Canada, en-V gaged as i t was in a struggle for s u r v i v a l . In the 19th Century and. even in the early 20th the creation of li t e r a t u r e was considered a worthless task. Contemporary c r i t i c s have more time and opportunity to round them-selves intellectually: the progress r e a l i z e d by the march of c i v i l i z a t i o n has contributed to the diminution of the m a t e r i a l inconveniences which plagued tr a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . In view of these h i s t o r i c a l factors, in view of the no n - l i t e r a r y c r i t e r i a mentioned above, the reader can appreciate why tra d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s f r e -quently belied their theories of objectivity and i m p a r t i a l i t y . He can also understand why tra d i t i o n a l F r e n c h Canada was, from the point of view of c r i t i c i s m , a l i t e r a r y arena, as w e l l as a haven for a l l authors wishing to "repudiate a l l notions of colonialism, " l i t e r a r y and national inexistence. The search for objectivity and i m p a r t i a l i t y in indigenous c r i t i c i s m is not over. Blame and praise in excess s t i l l make their presence felt. Nevertheless, contemporary c r i t i c s do form a tribunal which, more often than not, dispenses "independent, sober, moderate and i m p a r t i a l " i n t e r -pretations. Contemporary c r i t i c s do not see fit to theorize on the bene-fits of such qualities, for they believe that these latter are inherent in their attitude and methods. Such a statement is perhaps the best com-ment on the high l e v e l of objectivity and i m p a r t i a l i t y present in contem-porary c r i t i c i s m . F r e n c h Canadian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m has often borrowed from its more we l l established metropolitan counterpart. Without renouncing the pos-iti v e r o l e to be played by France, indigenous c r i t i c s must seek their v i techniques wherever they may be found. B y so doing, c r i t i c i s m in F r e n c h Canada w i l l avoid a c e r t a i n f o r m of dogmatism. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , it w i l l thereby hasten the a r r i v a l of its own N o r t h r o p F r y e and without doubt contribute to the r e a l i z a t i o n of its ultimate maturity. v i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 I. T H E ABORTIVE BIRTH OF OBJECTIVITY AND IMPARTIALITY 11 EXCESSIVE B L A M E 14 EXCESSIVE PRAISE 38 II. CRITICISM AS AN AESTHETIC DISCIPLINE . 57 THE MAJOR LINKS B E T W E E N TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY CRITICISM 58 'AVEC SERENITE E T SANS CHAUVINISME" 81 III. T H E B R E A K B E T W E E N TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY CRITICISM 115 A R C H E T Y P A L CRITICISM IN THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL SETTING 125 PSYCHOANALYSIS IN ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PERSONAL AND C O L L E C T I V E M Y T H 140 CONCLUSION 156 FOOTNOTES 171 S E L E C T E D BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 v i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T I would l ike to express m y thanks and apprec iat ion to my wi fe , Susan. Without her s p i r i t u a l and in te l lec tua l aid this work would not have been r e a l i z e d . To her this work is dedicated. B r i n s l e y Stewart 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N In F r e n c h Canada c r i t i c i s m , m o r e than any other majo r l i t e r a r y genre, exper ienced great d i f f icul ty in establ ish ing i tse l f as a d i sc ip l ine worthy of the name of A r t . B y the end of the 19th Century , h i s to ry , poetry and novel 'enjoyed a mod icum of r e g i o n a l , if not u n i v e r s a l , renown. A t a comparat ive t i m e , c r i t i c i s m enjoyed no such renown. In fact it was engaged in a los ing battle to be objective and i m p a r t i a l . Despite the compla in ts , pleas and theories* of men of le t ters such as C r e m a z i e , C a s g r a i n , Hector F a b r e , and Char les D u c h a r m e , 19th Century c r i t i c i s m wal lowed in the m i r e of excess ive b lame and excess ive p r a i s e . C r i t i c i s m had acqui red these t ra i ts f r o m its very beginnings in L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e de M o n t r e a l (iHenceforth ca l led L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e ) of the 18th Century . C a m i l l e Roy and Lou is Dantin^chiefly because of their c l a s s i c a l p rose , ' and their thoughts on the ro le of the c r i t i c , aided c r i t i c i s m to attain a l e v e l higher than that of the late 18th Century . M a u r i c e Hubert, M a r c e l Dugas and J e a n - C h a r l e s Harvey were ins t rumenta l in assu r ing that this favourable l e v e l was mainta ined . 2 In 1907 Roy , whi le a f f i r m i n g the existence of c r i t i c i s m , spoke of its d i f f icu l t and tardy development. He c l a i m e d that c r i t i c i s m was often " i m p e r c e p t i b l e " and " intermit tent . " Roy also pointed out that c r i t i c s lacked exper ience , a fact wh ich , in his opinion, contr ibuted to the " u n -healthy s ta te" of c r i t i c i s m . 2 Roy was c o r r e c t in many aspects of h is observat ion . On the one hand, p r e - 2 0 t h Century c r i t i c i s m was indeed " in te rmi t tent " and " i m p e r -cept ib le . " In the 18th Century , the presence of c r i t i c i s m was fe l t , most l y in a negative manner , main l y in L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e . In the ear l y 19th Century , the b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l not ices and resumes of M i c h e l B i b a u d , in rev iews such as L e Spectateur , L a Bibl iotheque Canadienne, L ' O b s e r -vateur , and Le M a g a s i n du B a s - C a n a d a , constituted c r i t i c i s m . With the preponderance of rev iews in the second half of the 19th Century - L ' O p i -nion Pub l ique , Le J o u r n a l de L ' Inst ruct ion publ ique, L 'Svenement , L e s So i rees Canadiennes, L e C o u r r i e r du Canada, and L a Revue Canadienne -numerous l a y m e n , f r o m t ime to t i m e , jo ined C a s g r a i n and F a b r e , the best c r i t i c s of the day, in commenting upon the works of their c o n t e m -p o r a r i e s . But c r i t i c i s m did not exist as a d i sc ip l ined genre, for m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l preoccupations were important to a 'nat ion' in the throes of a battle for s u r v i v a l . On the other hand, because of their " inexper ience" 18th and 19th Century c r i t i c s , taken as a whole, r e g u l a r l y r e s o r t e d to c r i t e r i a having nothing to do with the art of c r i t i c i s m . Such " inexper ience , " m o r e r ight ly known as in te l lec tua l ignorance , was in great measure produced by the lack of an effective educational s y s t e m . A cer ta in " L u i S e u l " wr i t ing in L a Gazette L i t t e r a i re of 1778 thus complained about such a def ic iency: 3 Le defaut d'Education est un objet interessant: mais tracer un moyen qui plaise pour corriger les abus, c'est un peu difficile En Europe, des l'ctge de trois ans, on montre aux enfans a con-naitre les Lettres, a. peine peuvent-ils les prononcer. Ici a. l'age de huit ans, ils ne connaissent aucun Caractere. La. a. sept ans, ils vont dans les Ecoles publiques; i c i a. dix ans on craint de leur presenter un A. B.C. de peur de fatiguer leur sante, ou de les mettre de mauvaise humeur. La. des l'age de douze ans, un jeune homme Etudie les principes de sa Langue, et travaille pour l'apprendre. Ici a. trente et quarante ans on ne parle pas Francais [sic] , par consequent on ne peut l'ecrire; i l y a plus, on ne sait pas li r e ; car je n'appelle pas lire assem-bler les syllables et en former des mots: on leur apprend a li r e tant en Langue Latine qu'en Langue Francaise fjsic) . ^  More than one hundred and fifty years later in 1931, Albert Pelletier spoke vehemently of the absence of an effective educational system in French Canada. This complaint was often repeated in the early 20th Century. According to Pelletier, the educational system was directly responsible for the creation of "une litter aire encore indistincte. " In addition, the cri t i c pointed out that such a system fitted men of letters with "une imie blanche. . . ; une intelligence joliment vernie. . . ; un cer-veau de papier marche, nivele, art i f i c i e l , amorphe, sans vie propre. " Pelletier summed up his complaint with these strictures: Nos esprits les plus cultives et les mieux avertis se demandent si , en dehors de la formation des clercs, nos maisons d'edu-cation remplissent chez nous leur raison d'etre; si elles tendent en realite au developpement normal des facultes et des dispo-sitions naturelles du jeune Uge; s i elles concourent m&me v r a i -ment a la composition judicieuse d'une methode de travail qui encouragera ensuite l'adulte et l'homme fait a poursuivre une culture intellectuelle personnelle et fructueuse. . . ; s i , pour nos Sducateurs classiques, l a formation de l'intelligence n'est pas plutSt l'emmagasinement, par le seul medium de la memoire, de signes conventionnels et d'abstractions qui donnent au bache-lier une fatuite illimitee, en meme temps qu'une sorte d'inertie 4 paralyt ique dans l a v ie r e e l l e M a i s , par exemple , le cat i dechiquete dont on nous gomme n'est pas l a cul ture antique, n i r i e n qui l u i r e s s e m b l e ; et je ne c r o i s pas a l a ver tu educative de paragraph.es i so les et de bouts de phrases des id iomes anciens , sauf s i l 'educat ion consiste a c h l o r o -f o r m e r les inte l l igences et abol i r leurs qualites e s s e n t i e l l e s . . . . n ' e s t - c e pas prat iquer sur eux inconsc iemment , je le veux b ien , 1'emasculat ion systematique de toute v i r i l i t e in te l lec tue l le ? ^ P e l l e t i e r was jus t i f ied in r e f e r r i n g to "the sys temat ic emasculat ion of a l l in te l lec tua l v i r i l i t y " amongst men of l e t t e r s . How could any c r i t i c whose academic fo rmat ion was def ic ient pass sound judgment on works also produced by in te l lec tua l l y unprepared authors? C a m i l l e Roy f i r m l y be l ieved that a c l a s s i c a l f o r m of education would serve as an effective preparat ion for i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m for "nos futurs e c r i -va ins , " the young people of his epoch: C 'es t par un enseignement c lass ique secondaire toujours au point , par l ' u t i l i sa t ion des m e i l l e u r s l i v r e s et des m e i l l e u r e s methodes, par unevvie co l leg ia le de plus en plus penetree de savoi r et d ' idees , que les espr i t s seront i c i de mieux en mieux f o r m e s , que le gout des le t t res et des arts se f e r a plus intense et plus jud ic ieux , que l 'on c r e e r a enfin pour les generations nouvel les l 'a tmosphere qui manque encore , ou i l faut que les ames resp i ren t pour qu 'e l les vivent d'une forte v ie in te l lec tue l le . ^ The " inexper ience" mentioned by Roy was great ly respons ib le for excess ive b lame and excess ive p r a i s e in the works of many p r e - 2 0 t h Century c r i t i c s . It is i r o n i c however that Roy should have been so p e r -sp icac ious wi th r e g a r d to the "unhealthy s ta te" of c r i t i c i s m , for he h i m -self was often over ly indulgent, espec ia l l y where pat r io t ic l i t e r a t u r e was concerned. In fact , in c lose ly examining c r i t i c i sm~as it ex isted up to 1944-45, one notices that even the best and most we l l - i n tent ioned c r i t i c s were frequently either excess ive ly b lamefu l or excess ive ly laudatory . In our f i r s t chapter , for example , i t w i l l be seen that Va lent in Jautard despite h is pseudonym, " L e Spectateur T r a n q u i l l e , " was unable to always r i s e above the fau l t - f ind ing and n a m e - c a l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his e r a . L i k e w i s e , C a s g r a i n , despite his theory of a "healthy c r i t i -c i s m " based on " c a r e f u l study" and "ser ious examinat ion" of l i t e r a t u r e , was at t imes excess ive both in his b lame and h is p r a i s e . C a m i l l e Roy ' s "construct ive c r i t i c i s m " entai led not only point ing out e r r o r s of s ty le , but also frequently excusing them as being the signs of " inexper ience" amongst authors belonging to a 'nation' whose l i t e ra tu re was s t i l l "young. In rea l i t y the v i r u s which caused the "unhealthy" state of c r i t i c i s m was not l i m i t e d to pre-1907 c r i t i c s . The i l l n e s s caused by such a v i r u s was present in vary ing degrees in c r i t i c i s m up to the years 1944-45 (henceforth ca l led t rad i t iona l c r i t i c i s m ) . Such an i l l n e s s w i l l only have been la rge ly overcome by the less r e g i o n a l i s t i c , l ess chauv in is t i c , l ess emot ional , and l e s s pure ly judgmental and b i o g r a p h i c a l method of post 1945 c r i t i c i s m (hereafter ca l led contemporary^ 1 c r i t i c i s m ) . C r i t i c s of the latter pe r iod are more objective and i m p a r t i a l , m o r e humanis t i c and creat ive than their p r e d e c e s s o r s . Yet , one must not imagine that common bonds do not ex is t between t rad i t iona l and contemporary c r i t i c s . On the one hand, it may be sa id that there is a ' school of c l a s s i c i s m ' in indigenous c r i t i c i s m , having its o r ig in in Va lent in Jautard 's dogged attachment to the ru les of B o i l e a u , pass ing through P a m p h i l e L e m a y ' s awareness of the benefits of pur i ty of exp ress ion , through C a m i l l e Roy ' s and L o u i s D a n t i n ' s c l a r i t y , l o g i c of c o m p o s i t i o n and e l e g a n t s i m p l i c i t y and t e r m i n a t i n g in J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s ' and G i l l e s M a r c o t t e ' s c o n d e m n a -t ion of "le j o u a l . " O n the other h a n d E t h i e r - B l a i s and M a r c o t t e a l o n g w i t h R o g e r D u h a -m e l and G e r a r d B e s s e t t e a r e a l l c o g n i z a n t of a r o l e to be p l a y e d b y h i s -t o r y and b i o g r a p h y i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e . So w e r e C a s g r a i n and R o y . M o r e o v e r , M a r c e l D u g a s (because of h i s p r a c t i c a l h u m a n i s m and h i s c o n s t a n t effort to r i s e above the c e n t u r y - o l d p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r e g i o n a l i s m and p a t r i o t i s m i n l i t e r a t u r e ) f o r m s a l i n k b e t w e e n R o y and H a r v e y , and D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . In l i k e m a n n e r , D a n t i n , b e c a u s e of h i s l i t terary e c l e c t i s m , a d u m b r a t e s E t h i e r - B l a i s in c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s . D e s p i t e these c o m m o n b o n d s , t h e r e is a d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g c o n t e m -p o r a r y c r i t i c s f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . B l a m e and p r a i s e i n e x c e s s have not d i s a p p e a r e d t o t a l l y f r o m the w o r k s of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s but the l a t t e r have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the h e a l t h y state c u r r e n t l y enjoyed by c r i t i c i s m . C r i t i c s i n the v e i n of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s h a v e not only b r o u g h t a m o r e s e r e n e and l e s s c h a u v i n i s t i c attitude to c r i t i c i s m . T h e y h a v e a l s o l i b e r a l i z e d it b y c o m m e n t i n g r e g u l a r l y on n o n - i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . It is b e c a u s e of s u c h efforts that c r i t i c i s m i s no l o n g e r r e s t r i c t e d to the c l o s e d c o m p a r t m e n t of c o n s e r v a t i s m . T r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s a l s o differ f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n t h e i r m e t h o d s . F o r e x a m p l e , G i l l e s M a r c o t t e and G e r a r d B e s s e t t e a r e a w a r e of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of N e w C r i t i c i s m , w h i c h they h a v e a p p l i e d to 7 their apprec iat ions of indigenous l i t e r a t u r e . In the works of M a r c o t t e and Besset te (more so than in those of Duhamel and E t h i e r - B l a i s ) c l a s s i c a l judgment and explanations in the manner of Sa in te -Beuve have been r e -p laced by m o r e highly c r e a t i v e , in terpretat ive and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s tud ies . If the c r i t i c i s m of E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l is l e s s c h a u v i n -i s t i c and m o r e serene than that of their p r e d e c e s s o r s , the w o r k of New C r i t i c s l i ke M a r c o t t e and Besset te is m o r e qual i tat ive than that of the a fo re -ment ioned p r e d e c e s s o r s . It i s our contention that contemporary c r i t i c i s m is hea l th ie r and m o r e l i b e r a l than that which preceded it because it i s m o r e objective and m o r e i m p a r t i a l . It i s on th is dual aspect , o b j e c t i v i t y - i m p a r t i a l i t y , that we w i l l focus our attention in this d i s s e r t a t i o n . The absence of a p roper educat ional s y s t e m „ d e s c r i b e d in p rev ious pages, does not by i t se l f expla in the m i n i m a l ro le p layed by object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y in t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . N o r does it s ingly account for the fact that this genre o s c i l l a t e d between obl ig ingness and savage attack. In an evolut ionary and comparat i ve study such as this wh ich purpor ts to m e a s u r e the distance ex is t ing between two d is t inc t l i t e r a r y phenomena, it i s i m p e r a t i v e that ce r ta in w e l l - k n o w n s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l fac tors be taken into cons idera t ion . Servi tude to a h e r o i c and r e l i g i o u s past , a fee l ing of i n f e r i o r i t y due l a r g e l y to the Union of both Canadas in 1840, the threat posed to C a t h o l i c i s m by A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i a l development , the concer ted effort to es tab l i sh an identity are a l l factors which c o n c u r r e d to make 19th Century F r e n c h Canada a ' c l o s e d ' soc ie ty . It was easy to be 8 patr io t ic as w e l l as to f o r m f r iendsh ips . How then could a man of le t ters r e f r a i n f r o m p r a i s i n g the work of another, espec ia l l y s ince , in a l l p robab i l i t y , they would encounter each other in the street or at the pub l i sher ' s o f f ice? N e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s p a r a -ging r e m a r k s were exchanged between judges of l i t e r a t u r e , works were reduced to nothingness by a few w e l l - c h o s e n unsavoury r e m a r k s . F r e n c h Canada, i t must be r e m e m b e r e d , was f r o m a l i t e r a r y point of v iew a nation seeking to es tab l i sh a her i tage . A c c o r d i n g l y , there were those men of le t ters who strove to gain renown at any cost . Others were so i r k e d by their fee l ing of i n f e r i o r i t y , that they were unable to to lerate the l i t e r a r y shortcomings, of their f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s or judge indigenous l i te ra tu re without compar ing it to that of their m o r e fortunate m e t r o p o -l i tan b r o t h e r s . It is by p lac ing factors such as these in the r ight fu l perspect ive that we hope to pinpoint the search for object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y in F r e n c h Canadian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . In this survey which deals with c r i t i c i s m f r o m its fo rmat ive years to the contemporary p e r i o d , one cannot neglect SeVaphin M a r i o n ' s p i o -neer ing effort in L e s Le t t res Canadiennes d 'aut refo is . While acknow-ledging our indebtedness to M a r i o n , we have not hesi tated to d isagree wi th h i m when the evidence seemed to support our d i f fer ing v iews . In p a r t i c u l a r , we have subjected the f i r s t c r i t i c s in the h is to ry of F r e n c h Canadian l i te ra tu re to our own in terpretat ion . 9 Moreover, in view of the scope of our subject, it has been imperative that we l i m i t ourselves to discussing those c r i t i c s who, in our opinion, are most representative of an e r a or a trend. It is with this considera-tion in mind that Jautard, Adolphe-Basile Routhier, W i l l i a m Chapman, Casgrain, Camille Roy, Dantin and Dugas from the traditional period, and Duhamel, E t h i e r - B l a i s , Marcotte and Bessette amongst contempo-r a r y c r i t i c s play a more prominent role in our discussion than do their colleagues. In our f i r s t chapter, "The Abortive B i r t h Q'f Objectivity And Impar-t i a l i t y , " we intend to show that many traditional c r i t i c s deliberately chose to forget that the f i r s t quality of any judge is justice. The r e s u l t was that they f e l l either into the p i t f a l l of excessive blame or of excessive p r a i s e , thereby creating that "unhealthy state" mentioned by Roy. Because of jealousy such c r i t i c s as Routhier and Chapman did not, in practice, l i v e up to their theories of justice and i m p a r t i a l i t y . Others, Jules F o u r n i e r for example, attempted to circumvent one danger but sailed headlong into the other, while many, such as Casgrain and Roy, motivated by p a t r i o t i c and Catholic fervour were frequently blinded by unbridled enthusiasm. Our second chapter, " C r i t i c i s m As An Aesthetic D i s c i p l i n e , " is divided into two parts. In the f i r s t , "The Major Links Between T r a d i -tional And Contemporary C r i t i c i s m , " i t w i l l be seen that, because of certain s i m i l a r i t i e s , the distance between both schools of c r i t i c i s m is often not as great as i t may appear to be. Such a starting-point w i l l 10 afford us the opportunity, in the section entitled "Avec Sgrenite E t Sans Chauvinisme, " to study the new attitude brought to c r i t i c i s m by Duhamel and E t h i e r - B l a i s . They are representative of many contemporary c r i t i c s in their belief that a man of l e t t e r s , while remaining true to himself, should always work in the service of L i t e r a t u r e . Our t h i r d chapter, "The Break Between Tr a d i t i o n a l and Contempo-r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " is an appreciation of the schools of thought in New C r i t i c i s m . P a r t one of this chapter, "Archetypal C r i t i c i s m In The Phenomenological Setting, " deals with Marcotte's attempt to be objec-tive and i m p a r t i a l by employing certain aspects of Bachelard's method. P a r t two, "Psychoanalysis In Its Relationship With P e r s o n a l And C o l l e c -tive Myth, " shows how Bessette's hypothetical interpretations are also a source of "healthiness" in contemporary c r i t i c i s m . Unlike English Canada, French Canada does not have a c r i t i c of international stature. It is conceivable that l o c a l c r i t i c s w i l l continue to seek their l i t e r a r y techniques p r i n c i p a l l y amongst their metropolitan brothers un t i l a Northrop F r y e a r r i v e s on the scene. During the course of our survey we shall make reference to the influence of F r e n c h c r i t i c s on their F r e n c h Canadian counterparts. In our o v e r a l l conclusion we s h a l l speak b r i e f l y of this dependency on France. We s h a l l also state succinctly our findings to give an idea of what has been achieved and what remains to be done, for Fr e n c h Cana-dian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m to achieve its ultimate maturity. IT C H A P T E R I T H E A B O R T I V E B I R T H O F O B J E C T I V I T Y A N D I M P A R T I A L I T Y T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m never lacked in theoret ic ians of object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y . However , in p r a c t i c e , the per iod 1778 to 1944-45 p-roduced few c r i t i c s who consistent ly l i ved up to the p r i n c i p l e s of their theor ies . P o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , p a t r i o t i s m , f r iendship and jea lousy , a l l p layed a m o r e important ro le in c r i t i c i s m than did pure ly aesthetic c r i t e r i a . In a l lowing emot iona l i sm and par t ia l i t y to thus d i rec t their c o m m e n t a r i e s , the m a j o -r i t y of t rad i t iona l c r i t i c s inevi tably f e l l into the abyss of excess ive b lame or of excess ive p r a i s e . Even Va lent in Jauta rd , H . R . C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e Roy , the most reputable c r i t i c s of the i r respect ive epochs, f e l l at one t ime or another, into the above-ment ioned p i t fa l l s of c r i t i c i s m . Our f i r s t chapter therefore centers on the fo l lowing thes is : excess ive b lame and excess ive p r a i s e were the v i s i b l e inst ruments which destroyed c r i t i c a l object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y at their b i r t h . Consider f i r s t of a l l the intent of F l e u r y M e s p l e t in publ ish ing his Gazette L i t t i r a i r e . M e s p l e t , a we l l - educated man*, was aware of the ignorance rampant in F r e n c h Canada. A c c o r d i n g l y , he prefaced the f i r s t issue of his newspaper with what may be ca l led a ' c r i t i c i s m of awakening, ' 12 in the hope of r o u s i n g h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s f r o m t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l l e t h a r g y : II e s t p e u de P r o v i n c e s q u i aient b e s o i n d ' e n c o u r a g e m e n t en l i t e r a t u r e autant que c e l l e que nous h a b i t o n s . . . . S o u s l e r e g n e p r e c e d e n t vous n ' e t i e z en p a r t i e o c c u p e s que des t r o u b l e s q u i a g i t o i e n t v o t r e P r o v i n c e , vous ne r e c e v i e z de L ' E u r o p e que ce q u i p o u v o i t s a t i s f a i r e v o s i n t e r e t s et v o t r e a m b i t i o n , vous i g -n o r i e z q u ' i l £toit p o s s i b l e d'l^tre G r a n d s a n s r i c h e s s e s , et que l a S c i e n c e tenoit l i e u de b i e n s et d ' h o n n e u r s . . . ; s o u s le r e g n e p r e s e n t vous n ' a v e z p a s change d'objet , i l ne v o u s en a p o i n t ete offert d ' a u t r e . . . . II est quantity de j e u n e s G e n s q u i a v a n c e n t dans l a C a r r i d r e du S c a v o i r ; i l s t r o u v e n t a u j o u r d ' h u i l a f a c i l i t e d ' e s s a y e r l e u r s P r o d u c t i o n s sans £tre c o n n u s ; i l s s e r o n t sans doute crit ique's p a r l e u r s C o n d i s c i p l e s , m e m e sans le s o u p c o n n e r . C e s d i s p u t e s e x c i t e n t l ' e m u l a t i o n , (qui a toujours m a n q u e dans ce pays) et q u i est a b s o l u m e n t n e c e s s a i r e . . . . ^ A s a f o r m of A r t , l i t e r a t u r e was u n d o u b t e d l y a n o v e l e x e r c i s e i n late 18th C e n t u r y F r e n c h C a n a d a . T h e p r o s e and p o e t r y of the n u m e r o u s p e n -p u s h e r s w e r e s t r i k i n g m o r e b y t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l and s t y l i s t i c s h o r t -c o m i n g s than b y t h e i r q u a l i t i e s . N o t only was M e s p l e t j u s t i f i e d i n stat ing that l i t e r a r y w o r k s w o u l d be " c r i t i c i z e d ; " i n u s i n g this l a t t e r t e r m in its negative"^ ens e, he a l s o s h o w e d h i m s e l f c o g n i z a n t of the fact that c o m m e n -t a r i e s w o u l d b e , i n g r e a t p a r t , n o t h i n g but the s i m p l e , s u p e r f i c i a l and e a s i l y - a c h i e v e d " c r i t i q u e des d^fauts. " S e r a p h i n M a r i o n c i t e s the f o l l o w -i n g e x a m p l e of f a u l t - f i n d i n g c r i t i c i s m o f f e r e d by " O h ! le V i l a i n j o u r " to " L ' A m i des S c i e n c e s " : A p p r e n e z a p a r l e r F r a n c a i s — L a G a z e t t e , d i t e s - v o u s , v o u s a p l u au p r e m i e r coup d ' o e i l , m a i s vous ne dites p a s 1 ' i m p r e s s i o n q u ' e l l e a fait s u r vous au s e c o n d . L a L i t t e r a t u r e j u s q u ' a l o r s . S i vous e u s s i e z £ c r i t j u s q u ' a p r e s e n t , on vous a u r o i t e n t e n -d u . M e r i t e tout l ' E l o g e , je ne c o m p r e n d s pas b i e n ce que c e l a veut d i r e . P i q u e r 1 ' E m u l a t i o n ; on p i q u e un c h e v a l en l u i donnant de l ' e p e r o n dans l e f l a n c ; m a i s p i q u e r l ' E m u l a t i o n n ' e s t pas F r a n c a i s ; £sic] on vous eut p a s s e d ' a v o i r e c r i t , d ' e n -c o u r a g e r le m a v t r e , et d o n n e r de l ' e m u l a t i o n aux D i s c i p l e s . . . 13 L'Ignorance aneantie, et l a Grossi e r e t e disparoitre. Vous faites deux m i r a c l e s d'un seul coup de plume J'oubliois de vous dire que vous avez repete le mot Gazette troi s fois dans cinq lignes. Adieu l'Ami des Sciences, mefiez-vous de moi ^ ^ i t a l i c s in the o r i g i n a l ] . On another occasion, "J'entre en l i c e m o i " asked of "Le Canadien Curieux": Croyez-vous que votre derniere £lettre] a l'Insuffisant est quel-que chose de beau? Que signifient ces t r o i s exclamations dans le p remier paragraphe? Je croyais l i r e quelque mauvais s e r -mon. Que veut dire un ess aim de fourmis ? que decident tous ces supposes, qui bien lo i n de resoudre obscurcissent l a Ques-tion? L a premiere phrase du second paragraphe n'est composee que de que, qui et fi n i t par un peut-etre; le reste n'est pas plus consequent; et vous demandez hardiment pourquoi vous etes s i indifferent a. l'Academie, cherchez-en l a raison dans vos ecrits ^ [ i t a l i c s in the o r i g i n a l ^ . Fault-finding c r i t i c i s m of this type jus t i f i e s Marion's statement that the speciality of 18th Century c r i t i c s was to observe,"combien de fois t e l mot est employe dans telle page, dans tel chapitre, dans t e l l i v r e . " (op. cit. , p. 135) Despite the justness of Marion's observation, c r i t i c i s m of the type previously mentioned was the most effective means of a r r i v i n g at purity of style, the immediate goal of many 18th Century c r i t i c s . It was also considered a sound instrument for the eventual r e a l i z a t i o n of writings worthy of the name Li t e r a t u r e . Jautard explained thus his participation in fault-finding c r i t i c i s m : Si j'ai fait mettre sous l a presse des E c r i t s qui attaquent quel-que p a r t i c u l i e r , les faits qui y sont detailles etaient connus, et ce n'a £te seulement que pour les mettre sous les yeux du P u b l i c . . . , n' e s t - i l pas plus a. propos d'instruire l a Societe commune que de cacher les defauts de quelques p a r t i c u l i e r s ? L a publicite de leurs actions tend a les rendre plus exacts a r e m p l i r les devoirs de leur etat, plus reserves et plus circonspects dans 1 4 leur conduite dans les di f fer ends e m p l o i s , et c e c i tourne a l 'avantage de cette meme Soc ie te . ^ G iven their b e l i e f s , both Jautard and M e s p l e t were confident of the pos i t ive qual i t ies of " l a c r i t ique des defauts. " It may even be s a i d that M e s p l e t , because of h is sympathet ic attitude of encouraging a l l i n i t i a t i v e s , was a humanis t . Unfortunately l i ke most men of this nature , M e s p l e t lacked fo res ight . In suggesting that h is contemporar ies submit their wr i t ings "sans "etre connus, " M e s p l e t , without meaning to do so , set in mot ion a cur rent of anonymous and excess i ve l y b l a m e f u l c r i t i c i s m , wh ich would have r e p e r c u s s i o n s even in the 20th Century . E X C E S S I V E B L A M E In the l i t e r a r y a rena that was M o n t r e a l of the late 18th Century , no w r i t e r was content to take a back seat . On the c o n t r a r y , everyone wished to be head of the new movement towards i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . F o r example , in L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e dated 25th November 1778, " L ' A n o n y m e " a d -d r e s s e d s a t i r i c a l poems to " L a P r e s s e , " to the " P r e s i d e n t de l ' A c a d e m i e naissante de M o n t r e a l " and "aux gens senses , " to show h is ingenuity over " L e Spectateur T r a n q u i l l e , " Va lent in J a u t a r d , and thereby draw adherents to h is own s ide . ( X X V I , 1778, pp. 95-6) Such an e x e r c i s e is only one i l l u s t r a t i o n of the fo l lowing fact : the l i t e r a r y judges who were supposed to p lay an in teg ra l ro le in the c reat ion of in te l lec tua l fe rmentat ion , soon d ispensed wi th the object ive goal of fau l t - f i nd ing c r i t i c i s m . In i ts p lace were subst i tuted n a m e - c a l l i n g , excess i ve b l a m e and the f o r m a t i o n of many 15 offensive-defensive alliances, in which it was frequently impossible to distinguish the combatants. Throughout L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e one is confronted time and again with retorts such as, "auteur suranne, " "critique malavis'e, " " r e t r a c t e z -vous, " " v i i e c r i v a i n repondant vilement a ma juste cr i t i q u e , " "miserable auteur, " "reparer ta faute, " "despote l i t t e r a i r e , " "juge acaricltre, ". "censeur severe, " "ouvrage impie, " "critique deplace, " "fameux epi-loyeur de syllables. " Why? Because, in ;the effort to f u l f i l their dreams of l i t e r a r y glory, it was customary for c r i t i c s to begin their judgements with "une fanfaronnade" and to end it with "une invective. " Because he enjoyed the greatest reputation amongst his contempora-r i e s , Valentin Jautard was singled out as a target for abuse. The follow-ing letter written by "J'entre en l i c e m o i " to "Le Canadien Curieux" is t y p i c a l of the s p i r i t of combat with which the majority of judges entered into c r i t i c i s m . The former said of Jautard: Ce spectateur n'est pas aussi tranquille qu'il veut le par a i t r e . Dans le principe, sans egard i l a accable l'Ami des Sciences, le nouvel A m i des Sciences, le Montrealiste; i l a fait taire le bon P a t r i o t e . II n'a tente l a Jeunesse de Montreal que pour l a prendre plus aisSment. Ces appas tiennent un peu du sortilege et au Spectateur tranquille. ... Je suis resolu, d u t - i l m'en couter 4 minutes d'ouvrage par jour, de les fai r e t a i r e , l'eten-dard est leve. ^  It is understandable that such a c r i t i c a l stance should have been adop-ted by "J'entre en l i c e moi. " He himself admitted that he did not know how to " f l a t t e r " an author, that he was resolved "de ne r i e n menager des l ' i n -stant que je me deciderai d'entrer en l i c e . " (Ibid. , IX 1779, p. 34) It i s 16 r e g r e t t a b l e that c o m m e n t s of the type c i t e d above s h o u l d have b e e n f r e -quently a d d r e s s e d to J a u t a r d h i m s e l f , for he r e f u s e d to be c o n s i d e r e d a " C r i t i c " (Ibid. , IV 1778, p . 13) a n d , by h i s own a d m i s s i o n , was " o p p o s e n a t u r e l l e m e n t a. toute dispute d e r a i s o n n a b l e . " C o m m e n t s of the type m a d e by " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " f o r c e d J a u t a r d to a l ienate h i m s e l f f r o m h i s m o s t p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as a c r i t i c , n a m e l y , m o d e r a t i o n ; they a l s o c a u s e d h i m to l o s e s ight of h i s p u r p o s e , "de b l a m e r et d ' a p p r o u v e r sans p a r t i c u l a r i t y , " of t r e a t i n g i n depth a l l l i t e r a r y m a t t e r s p r o v i d e d they w e r e s u c h . In a d o p t i n g , d u r i n g the l a t e r stages of h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , the pseudonym** of " L e S p e c t a t e u r T u r b u -lent, " J a u t a r d b r o k e w i t h h i s t r a n q u i l i t y - o b j e c t i v i t y and r u s h e d h e a d l o n g into the p i t f a l l of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e , w h i c h he s t r o v e so h a r d to a v o i d . H e i n f o r m e d " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " : V o t r e ton i r o n i q u e m ' o f f e n s e , et le t e m p s de l a p r e t e n d u e r e -c o n c i l i a t i o n est p a s s e : r i e n ne m e gene a. p r e s e n t , et je peux a i n s i que v o u s e n t r e r en l i c e . U n h o m e C-i-c_ c o m m e v o u s ne m e r i t e aucun m a n a g e m e n t , et p o u r vous e n s e v e l i r dans v o t r e i g n o r a n c e , je vous dis que je r e n t r e en l i c e M o i , ^ i t a l i c s b i the o r i g i n a l } s e u l e m e n t p o u r vous f a i r e s u b i r le s o r t de tant d 1 autr e s A u t e u r s. ^ T h a t the m o s t t r a n q u i l and i m p a r t i a l c o m m e n t a t o r ( M a r i o n , op. c i t . , p a s s i m ) of the e r a s h o u l d be f o r c e d into b e c o m i n g " t u r b u l e n t , " i n s t e a d of g i v i n g h i s t o t a l attention to c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of p o e m s , a n e c d o t e s and s t o r i e s (the l i t e r a t u r e of the era) is c o m m e n t enough on the state of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e , r a m p a n t i n the c r i t i c i s m of the late 18th C e n t u r y . T h a t F l e . u r y M e s p l e t , i n o r d e r to p r e v e n t h i s G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e f r o m b e -c o m i n g "un l i b e l l e d i f f a m a t o i r e , " s h o u l d f a l l b a c k on h i s w o r d and d e m a n d 17 that a l l contr ibutors (and in p a r t i c u l a r a cer ta in "L 'Anonyme" ) s ign their names , is incontrover t ib le proof of our statement. In fact , when M e s -p let 's rev iew folded in June 1779, one year after i ts f i r s t pub l icat ion , object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y had been dealt a severe b low. One may c l a i m to see some s i m i l a r i t y between these 18th Century disputes and " L a Quere l le des Anc iens et des M o d e r n e s , " because of the combativeness of both schools of c r i t i c i s m . It is a w e l l - k n o w n fact that the 'Moderns , ' in an effort to estab l ish the supremacy of their own ideas , had ' r a i s e d the s tandard ' of revo l t against the 'Anc ients . 1 However , an author l ike P e r r a u l t had just i f ied h is notion of ' re lat ive beauty' by s o l i d , ra t iona l and cred ib le proof. P e r s o n a l denigrat ion had found no place in " L a Quere l le des Anc iens et des M o d e r n e s ; " this debate had always been c a r r i e d on s t r i c t l y at the l e v e l of l i te ra tu re as A r t . To commentators l i ke " l ' A n o n y m e " and "J 'ent re en l i ce m o i " so l id textual c o m p a r i s o n s , and ca re fu l study of works had l i t t le meaning . Even though they nur tured wi th Jautard the hope of seeing their contemporar ies s 8 wr i te in as c l e a r , p r e c i s e and f lowing a hand as M m e de Sevigne's , these two judges of l i te ra tu re are representat ive of the type, eas i l y m i s l e d into the p i t f a l l of excess ive b l a m e . Yet , one sympathizes with them: they had the misfor tune of being the f i r s t to i l l us t ra te a new genre. 18 C r i t i c s of the 19th Century , unl ike their 18th Century counterpar ts , could cer ta in ly not c l a i m the dubious d is t inct ion of being the f i r s t to a t -tempt c r i t i c i s m . F r e n c h Canada s t i l l l acked a l i t e r a r y her i tage at this t i m e . Such a fact notwithstanding, one would have thought that the exper ience of the past century would serve as an indicator of the mis takes to be avoided. On the cont rary , one encounters , in 19th Century c r i t i c i s m , the s h o r t -comings of "J 'entre en l i ce m o i " to an even greater degree. Pseudonyms ( "P lac ide Lep ine , " "Jean P i q u e f o r t " ) , seem to have become m o r e subtly p rovocat i ve . P o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s , s o c i a l groupings and f r iendsh ip p layed an important ro le in c r i t i c i s m , alongside l i t e r a r y jealousy . The fo l lowing statement made by Hector F a b r e in 1866 r e f l e c t s , in par t , the attitude of many c r i t i c s : L a cr i t ique est encore p a r m i nous dans l a dependance des a u -teurs e u x - m e m e s , de l a po l i t ique, des groupes d ' e c r i v a i n s , ou des personnal i tes l i t t e r a i r e s sa i l lantes qui aspi rent a l a d o m i -nation absolue sur le modeste domaine des Le t t res Canadiennes. E l l e s 'exerce dans des conditions completement etrangeres a l a l i t te ra ture et s ' i n s p i r e de mot i fs qui rendent suspects ses jugements. L ' in to le rance pol i t ique s 'etend jusqu 'a l a l i t te ra tu re ; i l faut avoir un p a r t i au P a r n a s s e comme en par lement . . . . On admet ou l 'on rejette un e c r i v a i n selon l 'un i fo rme q u ' i l po r te , les se rv i ces q u ' i l peut rendre a votre p a r t i , les compl iments q u ' i l vous a f a i t s , l a publ ic i te dont i t d ispose . On juge les l i v r e s \/ d-j'japres l a couleur de leur couver tu fe . L ' e c r i v a i n est derao-crate ou l 'on s ' imagine q u ' i l l ' es t , le devoir d'un bon c o n s e r -vateur est de ne pas l i r e son oeuvre et de le condamner l u i -rn&me, au suppl ice e terne l ; i l est conservateur ou c r o i t l ' e t r e , c 'est le devoir des democrates , qui ne peuvent d i s p o s e r , eux, que des c h E i t i m e n t s de ce monde, de le vouer du moins a. 1'exe-c rat ion popula i re . Le pub l ic , d'un autre cote, entend i m p a r -faitement l a c r i t ique . II juge les auteurs , non en tenant compte exactment de l a louange et du b l a m e , m a i s en ne s'attachant qu 'au b lame L e s auteurs e u x - m e m e s ne para issent pas savoi r ce que doit etre la critique, et ne s 'y font qu'avec peine. Vous critiquez un ecrivain, i l vous prend pour son ennemi personnel, cherche ce qu'il peut vous avoir fait, ne s'explique pas votre inimitie et finit par se mettre dans la tete que vous lui enviez sa place ou son talent. ... A l'heure qu'il est, les gens ne sont satis-faits que si on les appelle illustres; c'est l'epithete en vogue, le petit nom que l'on donne en public a ses chefs ou a ses amis. The "conditions etrangeres" mentioned by Fabre were not unique to the firs t half of the period 1850-1900, for in 1886 Charles Ducharme con-cluded his article on "Les critiques politico-litteraires " by stating: Et suffisamment renseignes la-dessus [sur l a politique d'un ecrivain] i l [sic} regagnent beatement leur sanctuaire de c r i -tique, ayant mis sur leur calepin tout ce qu'il faut pour gra-tifier l'auteur d'un ereintement en regie ou d'une bouffee d'en-cens. Aussi si la couleur et les tendances politiques du poete concordent avec celles du critique politico-litteraire, son vol-ume sera immediatement un bijou, un chef-d'oeuvre. . . . Par contre, le poete n'est point du parti du critique politico-litte-raire, i l l'a meVne attaque dans les journaux de l a presse enne-mie, aussifSt, son oeuvre est une elucubration, un fiasco complet; le talent et l'auteur n'ont jamais parcouru le meme sentier. L« volume est examine a. la loupe quant a. ses defauts. H.R. Casgrain's commentary on P. J.O. Chauveau** written in 187?. is a good example of Ducharme's examination "a la loupe. " With the ex-ception of "Les Joies naives, " Chauveau's poetry is for Casgrain nothing but "inexperience" of composition, clumsiness of style and naivety of inspiration. Even though he acknowledges Chauveau's talent for prose, Casgrain refrains from indicating how or where this talent manifests itself. Instead, the critic unearths all the weaknesses of Charles Guerin. If one is to believe Casgrain, Chauveau's style is totally obscure; the numerous phrases beginning with "ca" and "la., " incorrect grammar, and "composition hative" are all indications of this obscurity. According to 20 the c r i t i c Chauveau's i m m a t u r i t y of ta lent ' i s seen in the nove l i s t ' s a b -sence of l o c a l co lour . C a s g r a i n cites abundantly f r o m the passages "un coup de N o r d - E s t " and " l a M i - C a r e m e " to support his c l a i m . M o r e o v e r to emphasize the inauthenticity of this "pretendue etude" of l o c a l customs, C a s g r a i n compares the language of the characte rs in Char les Guer in with that of the characters in L e s F o r e s t i e r s et V o y a -geurs , and Les Anc iens Canadiens.. A c c o r d i n g to the c r i t i c , ^ the l a n -guage of the f o r m e r lacks authenticity because Chauveau, un l ike Joseph Tache and P h i l i p p e - A u b e r t de Gaspe , had not l i ved with the common peo -p le . C a s g r a i n ' s conc lus ion is that Char les Guer in is s i m p l y "une ebauche, une etude inachevee" on the character and l i fe of F r e n c h Canadians . A s for Chauveau's p o l i t i c a l p r o s e , C a s g r a i n suggested that it be co l lected into a single volume and rewr i t ten in p a r t s . In this manner it would be given as definite a f o r m as D i s r a e l i in Eng land , gave to his p o l i t i c a l w o r k s . One cannot hold it against C a s g r a i n if he chose to unearth the d e f i c -ienc ies of Chauveau. C a s g r a i n in his "sound and v igorous c r i t i c i s m " purported "de porter hard iment le s c a l p e l dans les e c r i t s de nos auteurs , de les analyser f ro idement {"italics not in the o r i g i n a l j et l i b r e m e n t , d'en m o n t r e r , sans cra inte les def auts. " But this c r i t i c i s m was also intended to be " i m p a r t i a l e , b ienvei l lante sans f latter i e , fe rme sans pass ion , et ser ieuse dans l a m e s u r e de nos f o r c e s " ^ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l j . ( L a Cr i t ique l i t t e r a i r e , pp. 8 - 9 and 24) Why then did C a s g r a i n not take pains 21 to point out, even i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , the " p r o g r e s s i v e i m p r o v e m e n t " o b s e r v e d i n a w o r k that h a d a l r e a d y s p a n n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of y e a r s ? 12 M o r e o v e r h a v i n g s t a t e d i n 1866 that C h a u v e a u ' s " s t r o p h e s r a v i s s a n t e s s u r l ' e n f a n c e , " w e r e e q u a l to V i c t o r H u g o ' s , that C h a u v e a u was one of the few e n l i g h t e n e d c r i t i c s of h i s t i m e , one w o n d e r s why in 1872 C h a u v e a u ' s w o r k r e p u l s e d C a s g r a i n to s u c h an extent, that its q u a l i t i e s , r a t h e r than its d e f e c t s , shone b y t h e i r a b s e n c e . P e r h a p s the c r i t i c ' s " s t r e n g t h " f a i l e d h i m i n h i s c o m m e n t a r y . H e w a s c e r t a i n l y not i m p a r t i a l . C h a u v e a u , b e c a u s e of the g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e of h i s l i t e r a r y w o r k , t h r e a t e n e d to d e p o s e C a s g r a i n f r o m h i s t h r o n e as the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . W h e n the l a t t e r w r o t e " L e m o u v e -m e n t l i t t e r a i r e au C a n a d a " i n 1866, h i s intent was to show l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n as f a v o r a b l e a l i g h t as p o s s i b l e . C a s g r a i n c o u l d t h e r e f o r e a f f o r d to 13 f latter C h a u v e a u , for p a t r i o t i s m took p r e c e d e n c e ; o v e r a l l other l i t e r a r y c o n c e r n s . In 187.2, C a s g r a i n m u s t h a v e felt the t h r e a t of w h i c h we spoke m o r e k e e n l y than in 1866. W h a t e v e r the c a s e m a y b e , one ought not to f o r g e t that C h a u v e a u p u b l i s h e d h i s w o r k s in L e J o u r n a l de l ' I n s t r u c t i o n p u b l i q u e , a l i b e r a l r e v i e w , r i v a l i n g the m o r e c o n s e r v a t i v e S o i r e e s C a n a -d i e n n e s and L ' E v e n e m e n t , i n w h i c h C a s g r a i n ' s w o r k s a p p e a r e d . E v i d e n t l y he c h o s e to e x a m i n e " a l a l o u p e " C h a u v e a u ' s c r e a t i o n s c h i e f l y b e c a u s e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e d . A d o l p h e - B a s i l e R o u t h i e r g i v e s c r e -dence to our s t a t e m e n t i n p r o c l a i m i n g : 22 On pardonnerai t ces t i rades demagogiques a M . L . H . F rechet te et a M . D e s s a u l l e s ; m a i s e l les sont deplacees dans l a bouche du p r e m i e r v i c a i r e de N o t r e - D a m e de Quebec. Ces tendances pol i t iques de l 'abbe C a s g r a i n , et une certa ine r i v a l i t e ont ete cause q u ' i l n 'a pas ete juste a l 'egard de M . Chauveau. Sa cr i t ique est mesquine et manque d ' i m p a r t i a l i t e . ^ In the l ight of a l l that has been sa id on this subject, one understands why C a s g r a i n chose to c a l l Chauveau "un accident l i t t e r a i r e " and " l 'enfant p rod igue" of 19th Century l i t e r a t u r e . (La Cr i t ique l i t t e r a i r e , p. 54) P a t -r i o t i s m as ide , C a s g r a i n shared nothing in common with Chauveau. It was therefore in h is in terest (Casgra in 's ) to speak d isparaging ly of an author who would probably dethrone h i m . On the cont ra ry , it is because an author such as Antoine G e r i n - L a j o i e belonged to Casgra in ' s s o c i a l c i r c l e that the latter p r a i s e d h i m e x c e s s i v e -15 * l y . C a s g r a i n thereby lanced with 'p lacides epines ' (Casgra in and Joseph M a r m e t t e compi led L e s Si lhouettes l i t t e r a i r e s under the pseudonymn " P l a -cide Lepine") those w r i t e r s outside his own s o c i a l c i r c l e . A d o l p h e - B a s i l e Routhier was one of those w r i t e r s who felt piqued by C a s g r a i n ' s pa r t ia l i t y to h is own f r i e n d s . Routhier was no m o r e d isposed to pardon excess ive p r a i s e than to excuse "demagogic t i r a d e s . " The s p i r i t of combat and contr ad i t t ion which pervades P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t te r a i res was induced by what Routhier cons idered as C a s g r a i n ' s absence of just ice in L e s Silhouettes l i t t e r a i r e s . Routh ie r ' s avowed goal was to aid the product ion of good books by i m p a r t i a l c r i t i c i s m having as its base re l ig ious m o r a l i s m : Nous ne c r i t iquerons pas pour le p l a i s i r de l a chose, sans tenir compte des lo is de l a ve r i te et de l a j u s t i c e . M a i s nous ne b ia i se rons pas devant les r i d i c u l e s dont se couvrent quelquefois 2 3 des ecrivains tres-bien doues d'ailleurs. Nous ferons l a part du talent avec toute l'impartialite qui doit distinguer l a vraie critique, mais nous n'oublierons pas que l'ecrivain a besoin qu'on l u i indique ses defauts, plutSt que ses qualites, qu'il r e -u s s i t toujours a. decouvrir lui-meVne. ^ Once again a c r i t i c , as in Jautard's time, s;aw ample need to have recourse to " l a critique des defauts. " Yet, in reacting d i r e c t l y against Casgrain's coterie, Routhier f e l l into the very narrow-mindedness which he, self-appointed i m p a r t i a l judge, wished to avoid. Speaking of Cas-grain's s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l group, Routhier complained: l i s ont leurs soirees ou i l s se lisent leurs oeuvres, comme on faisa i t au seizieme s i e c l e , en France. C'est Ronsard et ses amis, se croyant modestement les createurs de l a l i t e r a t u r e canadienne. Ils s'applaudissent, i l s se f&licitent, i l s s'admirent, i l s s'encouragent, et l a correction fraternelle est inconnue chez eux. Ils conjuguent entr'eux ce verbe favori: je te loue. . . , i l s se, vous, nous louent! ^ Routhier may have been c o r r e c t in speaking of the absence of '.'cor-r e c t i o n " between Casgrain and his friends. Nevertheless, Routhier's exclusion from this group evidently caused i l l feelings on his part. Besides, when one r e c a l l s that Routhier's C o u r r i e r du Canada, as Chauveau's r e -view, was in competition with Casgrain's Soirees Canadiennes, it is easy to see how wounded pride could have led the former to blame everything p r a i s e d by "Placide Lepine, " and to praise works blamed by the lat t e r . F o r example, Casgrain's quality of "romancier c h r e t i e n " aside, his prose, according to Routhier, contains only "du banal" and "du r i e n . " To show that Casgrain failed miserably to imitate Les M a r t y r s and P a r a -dise Lost, Routhier went so far as to dissect "La Jongleuse" and "La fantaisie. " Therein, the c r i t i c perceives absence of c l a r i t y , p r e c i s i o n and 24 s i m p l i c i t y , " l i cences poetiques, " " g a l i m a t i a s , " and "phrases ronf lantes . " On the defectiveness of style in L e s Legendes, Routhier concluded: A chaque l igne on sent le t r a v a i l , et un t r a v a i l penib le . C 'es t f o r c e , exagere , h e r i s s e de c h e v i l l e s , charges d 'en luminures . Chez un pre*tre surtout, on s'attend a plus de sobr iete dans le s ty le , a moins de caquet et a moins de pass ion pour l a m e t a -phore . In thus c r i t i c i s i n g C a s g r a i n ' s grandiloquent s ty le , Routhier impar ted nothing new to his con temporar ies . It seems to us that Routh ie r , in d i rec t contradict ion to h is p r o p o s a l , was " b l a m i n g " for the p leasure of so doing; C a s g r a i n h i m s e l f was aware of his s t y l i s t i c shor tcoming and of i ts source : S i j ' a i dans le coeur le sentiment de l a sol i tude, de l ' inconnu; s i j ' a i s a i s i quelques secrets de l a nature canadienne, s i j ' a i m i s de l a ve"rite et du c o l o r i s dans les descr ip t ions que j ' e n ai fa i tes , L i t a l i c s not in the or ig inal } en un mot , s i j ' a i eu q u e l -que vocation l i t t e r a i r e , toute petite qu'e l le puisse "etre, je l a dois a ces meditat ions nocturnes . Je l a dois a u s s i a d'autres nuits que j ' a i passees au fond de nos fore*ts v ie rges a ecouter les bru i ts m y s t e r i e u x qui s 'eve i l lent quand l a nature s 'endort . ^ Routhier may not have been aware of C a s g r a i n ' s ' romant ic nature . ' The c r i t i c does not deny that C a s g r a i n p r o g r e s s e d a r t i s t i c a l l y in s u b s t i -tuting h i s to ry for " l a l i t te rature l egere . " Never the less , in a manner s i m i l a r to that of C a s g r a i n comment ing on Chauveau, Routhier chose to h u r r i e d l y pass over Casgra in ' s qua l i t ies . In r e a l i t y , to say that the la t te r ' s talent lay only in h is stature as a " r o m a n c i e r chre' t ien" was to show s h o r t -s ightedness, for h is talent as a c r i t i c . Th is talent was a l ready mani fested in Casgrain 's a r t i c l e " L e mouvement l i t t e r a i r e au Canada, " p u b l i s h e d in 1866, before P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s (1872). A d o l p h e - B a s i l e Routhier would have learned something on the ar t of being i m p a r t i a l and just , had he read the se r ies of a r t i c l e s " E e r i v a i n s canadiens, wr i t ten by F a b r e between 1865-70 on C a s g r a i n and B o u r a s s a . T h e r e i n , F a b r e refused to c a l l C a s g r a i n " i l l u s t r i o u s " before examining his work or to r i d i cu le either nove l is t . Instead, he employed sympathy, encouragement and "des interessement analyt ique" to a r r i v e at "une c r i -tique independante, " in which the ro les of the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s , f o r m and substance were studied, the latter aspects for their l i t e r a r y wor th . S o c i a l and a r t i s t i c jealousy prompted Routhier to d i s c a r d as inauthen-t ic creat ions coming f r o m the pen of C a s g r a i n , co -author of L e s S i l h o u -ettes l i t t e r a i r e s and contr ibutor to L e s ' S o i r e e s Canadiennes. Despite h is theory of i m p a r t i a l i t y , Routhier in commenting on the work of " P l a c i d e L e p i n e " sought p r i m a r i l y to show that: Un f a r c e u r , meme s p i r i t u e l , n'est pas un bon c r i t i q u e , et, comme nous en aurons bientot des p reuves , i l rend quelque-fois r i d i c u l e s ceux qu ' i l voudrait combler d 'e loges. ? One can w e l l imagine how gr ievous ly Routhier must have suffered f r o m the favourable apprec iat ion given to M a r m e t t e ' s novel F r a n c o i s de B i e n -v i l l e , a few years before the publ icat ion of L e s Silhouettes l i t t e r a i r e s . Routh ie r , whi le wr i t ing under the pseudonym of "Jean P i q u e f o r t " w a s , without any doubt, the type of c r i t i c of whom F a b r e spoke, in point ing out the " fore ign condit ions " under which c r i t i c i s m ex is ted . In reading the p o l e m i c between Routhier and F r e c h e t t e , one is even m o r e aware of these "condi t ions , " and by extension of excess ive b l a m e , in 19th Century c r i t i c i s m . P o l i t i c a l l y speaking, F rechet te was a L i b e r a l and Routhier a Conservat i ve . It was therefore to their advantage, p o l i -t i c a l as w e l l as l i t e r a r y , to expose each other to the publ ic in as m a l e -volent a l ight as poss ib le . A c c o r d i n g l y not only did Routhier c l a i m that 26 F r e c h e t t e as a p o e t , h a d not p r o g r e s s e d f r o m M e s L o i s i r s to L a V o i x d ' u n e x i l e , he a l s o spoke of the f o r m e r w o r k i n these t e r m s : M . F r e c h e t t e a p u b l i e M e s L o i s i r s en 1863. II s ' e s t donne b e a u c o u p de p e i n e a f o r m e r ce peti t v o l u m e - b i e n a t o r t s e l o n m o i ; c a r , n i s o n p a y s , n i l u i , n ' e n a u r a i e n t ete p l u s m a l s ' i l n ' a v a i t pas vu le j o u r . Q u e l q u e s p i e c e s de v e r s , que M . F r e -chette avait p u b l i e e s a u p a r a v a n t dans l e s j o u r n a u x , et u n b o n n o m b r e de c h a n s o n n e t t e s dont l e s r e f r a i n s sont t o u j o u r s r e -petes p o u r g r o s s i r le v o l u m e ; b e a u c o u p de v e r s f a i b l e s , et b e a u c o u p de bouts r i m e s m e l e s a q u e l q u e s b e l l e s s t r o p h e s ; } p l u s i e u r s p i e c e s s e r i e u s e s en tete, b e a u c o u p de r i g o d o n s en queue; q u e l q u e s i d e e s t r e s - b i e n e x p r i m e e s , p u i s , du doux, du t e n d r e , du p a s s i o n n e , p o u s s e dans le s t y l e du M a r q u i s de M a s -c a r i l l e ; des i m a g e s , des m e t a p h o r e s , q u e l q u e f o i s b i e n t r o u v e e s , p l u s s o u v e n t dignes de C a t h o s et de M a d e l o n ; des e s s a i s m a l -h e u r e u x dans le g e n r e t e r r i b l e , de v a i n s efforts p a t h e t i q u e s , et p u i s . . . des m o t s , des m o t s et e n c o r e des m o t s ; v o i l a , en r e s u m e , ce que c o n t i e n n e n t M e s L o i s i r s . ^ N o one c a n deny that M e s L o i s i r s b e c a u s e of i ts p e r s i s t e n t m o n o t o n y l a c k s the p o e t i c i d e a s a n d , to a l e s s e r extent, the v i g o u r of F r e c h e t t e ' s s u b s e q u e n t w o r k s , F l e u r s B o r e a l e s and O i s e a u x de N e i g e . B u t the w o r k in q u e s t i o n c e r t a i n l y d e s e r v e d a b e t t e r fate than the c a t e g o r i c a l c o n d e m -n a t i o n of R o u t h i e r . H e m u s t h a v e b e e n a w a r e of the e x c e s s i v e b l a m e i n h i s P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s , for i n C o n f e r e n c e s et D i s c o u r s , he c o n f e s s e d : Je v i e n s de r e l i r e m e s p o l e m i q u e s d ' a l o r s , s u r t o u t c e l l e s que j ' a i s i g n e e s " J e a n P i q u e f o r t , " et j ' e n r e g r e t t e s i n c e r e m e n t l e s s e v e r i t e s d ' u n c a r a c t e r e p e r s o n n e l ; m a i s quant a ce q u i etait c r i t i q u e l i t t e r a i r e p r o p r e m e n t d i t e , je ne c r o i s p a s a v o i r b e a u -coup d e p a s s e ' l e s l i m i t e s p e r m i s e s a. l a s a t i r e . ^5 Is s a t i r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , e s p e c i a l l y when it s u b o r d i n a t e s o b j e c t i v i t y to e m o t i o n a l i s m ? R o u t h i e r s e e m e d to think s o . T h e m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n that he gave to the sty le and i n t e l l i g e n c e of 27 Frechette's mouth-piece, a certain Dessaulles, would, in our opinion, have made a c r i t i c a s combative as "J'entre en l i c e m o i " blush unashamedly: Je serais juste, et je ne rep r o c h e r a i pas \ M. Dessaulles de fai r e de phrases vides. Ses phrases sont pleines, mais pleines de choses creuses. II y met du s e i , autant qu'il peut - ce qui n'est pas beaucoup dire - mais ce sei est gros et imbibe' de narcotique. On s'endort vite a manger de ce s e l - l a . Ce que je dis des phrases de M. Dessaulles, je puis le dire de sa tete. E l l e n'est pas vide, mais t r e s - m a l meublee, et tout y est dans un p^le-m^le incroyable. Beaucoup de choses, mais r i e n de complet, r i e n de c l a i r , r i e n de b r i l l a n t , r i e n d'ordonne: un v r a i chaos Faisons un pas de plus, et entrons dans un examen plus detaille de ce mauvais style d'avoue . N i elegante, n i vive, n i cadencee, sa phrase se traine, se rriele, et a r r i v e peniblement au bout. Bien lo i n d'avoir des ail e s , elle n'a pas rneme des pieds, et quand elle s'^gare dans une proposition incidente, elle n'en peut plus s o r t i r Dissequons (^italics not in the o r i g i n a l ^ un peu cette phrase, quVon ne pardonnerait pas a un eleve de seconde. II ne s'agit plus i c i de style, mais de grammaire; et je demande bien pardon aux lecteurs des lecons, de syhtaxe que je vais 'Stre oblige de donner a M. Dessaulles. Routhier was certainly a better s t y l i s t than Dessaulles. Yet, it is i r o n i c that Routhier should have chastised him on the subject of grammar. Some grammarians would undoubtedly chastise Routhier himself for having employed the partitive a r t i c l e "des" after a verb in the negative. Whether or not our point is correct, Routhier's use of the partitive in the above text shows that the w r i t e r s of this period were often in disagreement on the concept of grammatical correctness. In dissecting Dessaulles' style and in characterizing him as "un e c r i v a i l l e u r sans style, n i grammaire, " Routhier not only exaggerated, he also f e l l into the "e'lu cub ration, " the 27 "fiasco complet, " mentioned by Charles Ducharme. 2 8 Frechet te ' s rep l ies to Routhier did nothing to help the cause of o b -ject iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y . On the cont ra ry , they m e r e l y se rved to push c r i t i c i s m m o r e deeply into the rut of excess ive b l a m e . In a se r ies of le t ters wr i t ten between 1871 and 1872, F rechet te r ight l y pointed out R o u -th ie r ' s inconstancy in c r i t i c i s m , "b ienvei l lante un jour , acerbe l ' au t re . " He also spoke of Routh ie r ' s p l a g i a r i s m , h is l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l jea lousy , and parod ied Routh ie r ' s Causer ies du dimanche with h is own Causer ies du lund i . T y p i c a l of the i rony employed by F rechet te is the fo l lowing passage M a i s ce n'est pas seulement par l a profondeur de vos idees et par votre surprenante erudi t ion que vous b r i l l e z , M . B a s i l e i vous faites en meme temps preuve d'une p e r s p i c a c i t e , d'une penetrat ion etonnantes. C o m m e le T r e s - H a u t , dont vous etes le representant p a r m i nous, vous sondez les re ins et les coeurs . Unfortunately the p o l e m i c inst igated by Routhier against F rechet te is not an i so lated instance of a 19th Century c r i t i c be ly ing in p rac t i ce h is theory of object iv i ty , just ice and i m p a r t i a l i t y , as inst ruments to be e m -ployed in the search for an author 's c reat ive o r i g i n a l i t y . In the " p r e f a c e " of L e L a u r e a t , W i l l i a m Chapman proposed to employ " just ice et v e r i t e " in the s e r v i c e of i m p a r t i a l c r i t i c i s m . A c c o r d i n g to Chapman, such c r i t i c i s m was destined to fac i l i ta te the t rans fo rmat ion of "une v i l l e b a s s e - c a n a d i e n n e " into the in te l lec tua l cap i ta l of A m e r i c a . ^ These noble intentions were quick ly forgotten and rep laced by a re lent less effort to dethrone F rechet te f r o m his pedestal of poet - laureate in F r e n c h Canada. Chapman frequently speaks not only of h is des i re to r i d the pub -l i c of its in te l lec tua l m y o p i a towards F r e c h e t t e ' s work , but as w e l l , of 29 his ambition to avenge a l l those w r i t e r s whom "le laure'at a toujiours es-saye d'ecraser de toute l a hauteur de sa reputation usurpee. " (Le Laureat, pp.v-xvi) Two truths are evident in this statement. In the f i r s t place, Chapman, like Routhier, believed in creative originality; secondly, and what is more important, Chapman bore a grudge as much against "l'Academie f r a n c a i s e " (for having crowned Les F l e u r s Boreales and Oiseaux de Neige with "le p r i x Montyon") as against Frechette himself and "les societes d'admir-ation mutuelle" in Montreal. They, as far as Chapman was concerned, handed out diplomas, certificates and "slaps on the back" to anyone who asked for them. Chapman's remarks r e c a l l to mind Routhier's complaints, founded in part on truth, on the practices of Casgrain's coterie. In the same manner as Routhier, Chapman obviously felt slighted, neglected, jealous and there-fore revengeful towards a group, from which he was excluded. It i s not su r p r i s i n g then that Chapman in 'imitating' his s p i r i t u a l brothers of the 18th Century, should on the one hand, have resorted to name-calling. " E c r i v a s s i e r , " "audacieux hableur, " "vulgaire v e r s i f i c a t e u r , " " r i d i c u l e poetereau, " such are the terms by which Chapman sought to reduce F r e -chette's l i t e r a r y reputation to nothingness. On the other hand, one imagines that it is with a certain goulish pleasure that Chapman devoted the greater part of Le_ Laureat to proving this idea: Frechette is "un plagiat ehonte. " According to the c r i t i c , Frechette copied unsuccessfully numerous authors, amongst them Joseph Tache, Francois Coppee, Lamartine, Cremazie, 30 A c h i l l e F r e c h e t t e ( b r o t h e r of L o u i s - H o t i o r e ) H e r e d i a and V i c t o r H u g o . F o r e x a m p l e F r e c h e t t e ' s attempt, i n L a L e g e n d e d ' u n p e u p l e , to i m i -tate H u g o ' s L e g e n d e des s i e c l e s r e m i n d s C h a p m a n of: L a g r e n o u i l l e q u i a v a i t v o u l u se g r o s s i r a l a t a i l l e du b o e u f et dont le v e n t r e , q u i n ' a v a i t r i e n de c o m m u n a v e c le v e n t r e du m o n d e , se d e g o n f l a s i b r u s q u e m m e n t et d'une s i t r i s t e f a c o n . F r e c h e t t e ' s w o r k c e r t a i n l y does not attain the s a m e e p i c h e i g h t s as does H u g o ' s . N e v e r t h e l e s s a m a n of l e t t e r s l i k e C h a p m a n , l e s s b u r d e n e d than h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s b y the p r o b l e m s of d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , i n a b e t t e r p o -s i t i o n to m o u l d h i m s e l f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y (because of the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g n u m -b e r of r e v i e w s and books) ought to h a v e r e a l i z e d , as d i d V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d , that "tous l e s h o m m e s ou p l u s i e u r s peuvent a v o i r l a me*me i d e e , m a i s l a m a n i e r e de l a r e n d r e est t o u j o u r s d i f f e r e n t e . " ( L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e , X I , 1778, p . 43) R a t h e r than c o n s t a n t l y c h a s t i s i n g F r e c h e t t e on the subject of p l a g i a r i s m , C h a p m a n , i n o u r o p i n i o n , w o u l d b e t t e r h a v e s e r v e d the c a u s e of " j u s t i c e " and " v e r i t e " h a d he opted to c o n g r a t u l a t e F r e c h e t t e for the s p i r i t of c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m w h i c h l e d h i m to see i n F r e n c h R o m a n t i c i s m q u a l i t i e s h e l p f u l to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of L i t e r a t u r e i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . H a d N e l l i g a n p r o d u c e d h i s w o r k s i n C h a p m a n ' s t i m e , it w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n t e r e s t i n g to h e a r C h a p m a n ' s c o m m e n t s t h e r e o n . N e l l i g a n ' s c o m -p o s i t e i n s p i r a t i o n ( N e l l i g a n was g r e a t l y i n s p i r e d by the F r e n c h S y m b o l i s t s ) w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e b e e n suff ic ient p r o o f , for C h a p m a n , of p l a g i a r i s m . One i m a g i n e s that the p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l and i n n e r s u f f e r i n g w o u l d h a v e m e a n t nothing to C h a p m a n . 31 Whatever derogatory comments Chapman may have m a d e , F r e c h e t t e ' s work has m o r e value than the c r i t i c attr ibuted to i t . The s m i l e which c r o s s e d the r e a d e r ' s l ips in seeing the c o m p a r i s o n made between Hugo and F r e c h e t t e , becomes a pea l of laughter when Chapman thus denounces F rechet te : II a , par son ins ign i f iance et ses p lag ia ts , rapetisse* nos h e r o s , jete le r i d i c u l e sur les actes les plus sub l imes de courage et de devouement dont s 'honore notre nat ional i te , t roub le ' les sources ou les poetes de l 'aveni r auraient pu pu ise r leurs i n -sp i ra t ions pour chanter les g lo i res d 'aut re fo i s , fausse l ' i m a -gination et le govit des eleves de nos col leges a qui L a Legende  d'un peuple et L e s F e u i l l e s Volantes ont ete donnes en p r i x , decourage' et i m m o b i l i s e b ien des talents par ses succes i m -m e r ites . 32 It i s i m p o s s i b l e to sympathize wi th a p o l e m i s t as Chapman who, for his pr i vate reasons d is f igures t ru th . If for no other reason than that of p a t r i o t i s m , F rechet te belonged to h is epoch. M o r e than any of h is c o n -t e m p o r a r i e s , Chapman may be accused of d i s s e r v i n g j u s t i c e , object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y by his excess i ve l y b l a m e f u l c o m m e n t a r i e s . B y ending his Deux Copains with the chal lenge, "mes l i v r e s sont la.. M e s a c c u s a -s 33 tions sont f o r m u l e e s . Je vous attends, " Chapman r e m i n d s us too keenly of 18th Century c r i t i c s to whom invect ive and boasts were n e c e s s a r y too ls . A s stated befo re , they had the excuse of being the f i r s t men of le t te rs to attempt c r i t i c i s m . Whether he was fatigued by his cont roversy wi th Routhier or whether he was so secure in his poetic c a r e e r as to be undis turbed by 'b lame for b l a m e ' s sake, ' F rechet te must be a d m i r e d for showing h i m s e l f less c a n -tankerous than before , less d isposed (than he had been wi th Routhier ) to doing l i t e r a r y battle with Chapman. F a b r e and Ducharme must have been thankful for F r e c h e t t e ' s 'con-sideration. ' In our present Century the excessive blame of traditional c r i t i c s is evident in the works of Claude-Henri Grignon and Jules F o u r n i e r . Unlike their predecessors, neither Grignon nor F o u r n i e r aspired to be king in the domain of l i t e r a t u r e . Neither did p o l i t i c s enter into their commen-tar i e s . Consequently, these latter r a r e l y deteriorated into the personal attacks of their predecessors. Just as Valentin Jautard preaching the c l a s s i c a l severity of Boileau, Grignon and Fournier hoped to hasten the production of indigenous mas-terpieces, which would r i v a l the works of metropolitan France. It is this preoccupation with masterpieces, suggestive of an i n f e r i o r i t y complex, which led Grignon, (writing under the highly significant pseudo-nym of "Valdombre") to r e f r a i n from speaking of authors, even the w e l l -known and well-respected, with any caution, unless their works reached the standards set by him. F o r example, in discussing H a r r y Bernard's work, Grignon stated that " i l appartient, du reste, a l a critique de juger " severement un auteur qui commence a devenir celebre. " Grignon, i t would appear, hardly concerned himself with the justness of his comments. To him severity was synonymous with appositeness. 33 Undoubtedly v ig i lance and vehemence were as necessary in the 20th Century as was fau l t - f ind ing in the 18th and 19th. Ye t , is not Gr ignon being excess ive ly b lamefu l and unkind in speaking of F r e n c h Canadian h is to r ians (except l 'abbe Groulx) in the fo l lowing t e r m s ? : Tous les autres se complaisent te l lement dans un style s i r u -peux ou de dentel les empesees , dans des nomenclatures s o -por i f iques de fa i t s , de dates et de rioms de personnages plus ou moins in te ressants , que l 'on en a garde un amer souveni r , quelque chose comme l ' i m p r e s s i o n d 'avoir ecoute pendant des nuits l a voix blanche d'un fantoVne parodiant un heros antique. Gr ignon is cer ta in ly entit led to his opinion that G r o u l x ' s sens i t i v i t y , object iv i ty of: method, and "prose emouvante, nette et b ien f r a n c a i s e , " set the lat ter above other l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s , such as Garneau and F e r l a n d . (Ombres et C l a m e u r s , pp. 95-108) Never the less , the c r i t i c ' s c o n d e m -nation "en m a s s e " of "tous les a u t r e s " has a hol low r i n g to i t . Th is is espec ia l l y so s ince Gr ignon h i m s e l f admits that M a r i e L e F r a n c ' s M a t i n de l ' E t r a n g e r , because of i ts beauty and s i m p l i c i t y , succeeded i n a l i e n -ating f r o m his c r i t i c a l s p i r i t : une fois pour toutes, ces accents de m i e v r e r i e , cette t i m i d i t e , d 'ec r i tu re qui a le pouvoir de m ' a r r a c h e r des epithetes v i o - lentes et i n u t i l e s ^ ^ i t a l i c s not in the original"}. Gr ignon is doubtlessly to be admi red for h is attempt to r a i s e the a r -t i s t i c l eve l of his t i m e . One regrets however that excess ive concern with maste rp ieces weighed so heavi ly on his m i n d , that it negated, m o r e often than not, any sympathy or encouragement. The place of these feel ings a l -ways seemed to be taken by aggress iveness and b l a m e , evident not only in the above-ment ioned c o m m e n t a r i e s , but a lso in the t i t le of Gr ignon 's major c r i t i c a l work , Ombres et C l a m e u r s . 34 It i s the s a m e c o n c e r n w i t h p e r f e c t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h gave b i r t h to a s p i r i t of c o m b a t , b l a m e and c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the w o r k of F o u r n i e r . In r e a d i n g F o u r n i e r ' s c o m m e n t a r i e s , one often gets the i m p r e s s i o n that h i s c l a s s i c i s m was e m p l o y e d m e r e l y to m a s k the attitude d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . F o r i n s t a n c e , when F o u r n i e r s p e a k s of H e c t o r B e r n i e r ' s A u l a r g e de l ' e c u e i l , it is i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to C a m i l l e R o y ' s c o m m e n t a r y on the s a m e w o r k , that he b e g i n s and ends h i s a r t i c l e : N o u s r e g r e t t o n s d ' a v o i r a le d i r e , m a i s i l faut b i e n tout de me*me y v e n i r : ce l i v r e , tant a d m i r e de M . l ' a b b e R o y , n o n s e u l e m e n t m a n q u e de sty le et de g r a m m a i r e , i l c o n s t i t u e e n c o r e , du c o m m e n c e m e n t a l a f i n , et sans i n t e r r u p t i o n l ' o e u v r e l a p l u s l u g u b r e m e n t bouffonne q u i ait j a m a i s v u le j o u r en n o t r e p a y s . . . . L e cas de M . H e c t o r B e r n i e r , t e l q u ' i l se m a n i f e s t e d ' u n bout a l ' a u t r e de s o n l i v r e , n ' e s t en effet p a s e x c e p t i o n n e l . II e s t au c o n t r a i r e r e p r e s e n t a t i f , au p l u s haut d e g r e , de l a m e n t a l i t e c o m m u n e a l ^ i m m e n s e m a j o r -i t e ' d e n o t r e j e u n e s s e s o i - d i s a n t " i n s t r u i t e " . 39 F o u r n i e r shows h i m s e l f as a w a r e , as was C a m i l l e R o y , of the i n -e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e a r l y ZOth C e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n ; but h i s e x a g g e r a t i o n r e -m a i n s u n j u s t i f i e d . H o w e v e r g r a v e B e r n i e r ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s m a y h a v e b e e n , h i s w o r k was c e r t a i n l y not " l a p l u s l u g u b r e m e n t bouffonne q u i ait j a m a i s vu le j o u r en n o t r e p a y s . " T h e p r o s e and p o e t r y of late 18th C e n t u r y p e n -p u s h e r s , the n u m e r o u s u n f i n i s h e d o r h a s t i l y w r i t t e n w o r k s s c a t t e r e d throughout l a R e v u e C a n a d i e n n e and 1 ' E v e n e m e n t , w e r e i n f e r i o r to A u  l a r g e de l ' e c u e i l . One c a n u n d e r s t a n d , i f not s y m p a t h i z e w i t h , F o u r n i e r in the attitude t a k e n t o w a r d s B e r n i e r and h i s w o r k . In 1907 F o u r n i e r equated l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the state of n o t h i n g n e s s : II n ' y a p a s de l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e. L a c h o s e ne se d i s c u t e p a s . II faut en effet se f a i r e une r a r e c o n c e p t i o n I 35 des choses pour appeler litterature [^italics in the original] l a collection lilliputienne des ouvrages ecrits en francais par des Canadiens et qui comptent mille fois moins encore par la va-leur que par le nombre. Camille Roy was certainly an indulgent critic; yet Fournier's appre-ciation of Bernier's work is excessively blameful. The critic's intent is too obviously contradictory, his language too severe, his overall attitude to local literature too negative. In addressing Louvigny de Montigny on the subject of language, it is once again a spirit of contradiction which guided Fournier in his appre-ciation: Vous voulez, mon cher Montigny, changer mon langage? Com-mencez done par me changer le cerveau! II n'y a pas en effet a sortir de La, et, de cerveaux pare.sseux, nonchalants, relaxhes, - tels que les n i t r e s , - de cerveaux a. moitie noye's et dissous dans l'a peu pres, vous ne tirerez pas plus, quoique vous fassiez, un langage precis, correct, fran-cais, en un mot, que vous ne ferez pousser des pommes ex-cellentes sur un vieux pommier tout branlant et tout rabougri .... Non! confrere, croyez-moi, ce ne sont pas les fruits qu'il faut soigner: c'est l'arbre; ce n'est pas notre langage: c'est l a mentalite qui le produit. ... Je le souhaite sans trop, comme dit l'autre, l'esperer, et, tout pantelant encore des  emotions dont je suis redevable a vos 220 pages, vous prie de  croire, mon cher confrere, a. l'assurance de mon profond  ahurissement (^italics not in the original ~\. Once more, the reader is in the presence of that "fanfaronnade" which usually ended the judgments of 18th Century c r i t i c s . One understands why Fournier considered French Canada "le paradis de l'homme d'affaires. . . , l'enfer de l'homme de lettres. " One also understands why Charles ab der Halden, in speaking favourably of local literature, was considered by Fournier to have "prodigue" beaucoup trop de fleurs. " (Mon Encrier, p. 48) 36 F o u r n i e r w i s h e d to d e s t r o y once: and for a l l "le t u m u l t e des l o u a n g e s a u s s i b a n a l e s q u ' a b s u r d e s q u i a c c u e i l l e n t i n e V i t a b l e m e n t chaque p r o d u c t i o n n o u -v e l l e . " ( " C o m m e p r e f a c e , " p . 24) C l a u d e - H e n r i G r i g n o n is r i g h t i n stat ing that: de l o u a n g e s b a n a l e s et t e l l e m e n t e d u l c o r a n t e s . II nous a s a u v e s d ' u n g r a n d p e r i l , et cette a c t i o n '.seule m e r i t e l a g l o i r e , l e s c o u r o n n e s . ^ What G r i g n o n f a i l s to m e n t i o n is that F o u r n i e r d i d not h e l p the c a u s e of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n c r i t i c i s m . In t r y i n g to c i r c u m n a v i g a t e the r o c k of e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e , F o u r n i e r f e l l h e a d l o n g intb:the w h i r l p o o l of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e . In s h o r t , by h i s d e p e n d e n c y on v e h e m e n c e , s a t i r e and b l a m e , F o u r n i e r as does G r i g n o n , s t r i k e s us as b e l o n g i n g to that g r o u p of m e n so at odds w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g bf i n s e c u r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y , that e v e n the c o m p l i m e n t s of an i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r (in this i n s t a n c e , the a f o r e -m e n t i o n e d c o m m e n t s of ab d e r H a l d e n ) i r k t h e m into p r o v i n g that i n f e r i o r i t y . B o t h F o u r n i e r and G r i g n o n w o u l d h a v e done w e l l i n h e e d i n g the type of a d -v i c e g i v e n by M a u r i c e H e b e r t . H e b e l i e v e d that i n s w e e p i n g away a l l a s -p e c t s of a w o r k w i t h v e h e m e n t c o m m e n t s : C^est done q u ' o n peut, p a r une i n s i s t a n c e a v e u g l e , d e ' t r u i r e u n l i v r e , me*me a c c e p t a b l e , a f o r c e d'y p r o m e n e r l a r a c l o i r , tout c o m m e on d e t r a q u e r a i t une m o n t r e en y i n s e r a n t l ' o u t i l ' t - 43 sans p r e c a u t i o n . U n d o u b t e d l y f a u l t - f i n d i n g , v i g i l a n c e , v i g o u r and f i r m n e s s w e r e n e c e s -s a r y tools i n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . D e s p i t e the g r a m m a t i c a l and s t y l i s t i c s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e i r w o r k s , m a n y a u t h o r s of the p e r i o d 1778-1945 w e r e egotists c l i n g i n g to the advantageous o p i n i o n f o r m e d of t h e i r a r t i s t i c a b i l -i t i e s . It was i m p e r a t i v e that s u c h s h o r t c o m i n g s be p o i n t e d out. N e v e r t h e -l e s s i n so d o i n g m a n y t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e too m o t i v a t e d by the " c o n -d i t i o n s e t r a n g e r e s " on w h i c h F a b r e d i s c o u r s e d . " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " and " L ' A n o n y m e " w e r e j e a l o u s of V a l e n t i n J a u -t a r d ' s r e p u t a t i o n . C a s g r a i n o b v i o u s l y s c r u t i n i z e d C h a u v e a u ' s w o r k , m a d e s o m e d e r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s t h e r e o n , to a s s u r e h i m s e l f that C h a u v e a u w o u l d not s n e a k into h i s p l a c e of h o n o u r , as b o t h t h e i r l i t e r a r y c a r e e r s p r o g r e s s e d . C r i t i c s s u c h as R o u t h i e r , C h a p m a n and F r e c h e t t e e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d it t h e i r duty to know the p o l i t i c a l c o l o u r s of an author as w e l l as the p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s of the r e v i e w to w h i c h the l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t e d . A r m e d w i t h s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , they e n t e r e d into c r i t i c i s m . G r i g n o n a n d F o u r n i e r i n t h e i r d e s i r e to p r o m o t e n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , d e m a n d e d f r o m t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w o r k s , w h i c h , i n fact, these l a t t e r w e r e i n c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g . A l l these c r i t i c s s h a r e d one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : h o w e v e r t r u t h f u l t h e i r f indings m a y , at t i m e s , have b e e n , they w e r e n e v e r s u f f i c i e n t l y , and m o s t often s i m p l y n e v e r , t e m p e r e d b y an a v e r a g e dose of s y m p a t h y a n d e n c o u r -a g e m e n t . In h i s t h e o r y of " i n d i f f e r e n c e l i t t e r a i r e , •" J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y ^ r e m a r k e d u p o n the n e e d for a b a l a n c e d type of c r i t i c i s m , i n w h i c h b o t h 38 b l a m e and p r a i s e , r e f u s a l s and e n c o u r a g e m e n t w o u l d be m o s t often p r e -sent. H a r v e y was i n c l i n e d to a p p r o v e of s e v e r i t y i n c r i t i c i s m , p r o v i d e d it d i d not (as i n the c a s e of G r i g n o n and F o u r n i e r ) b l i n d the c r i t i c f r o m o b s e r v i n g the h i g h p o i n t s of a w o r k . We s h a l l s e e , i n the p a g e s w h i c h f o l l o w , that e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e often s t e m m e d f r o m the i n s i s t e n c e on the t o o - o f t e n n o n - e x i s t e n t beauty of a w o r k . In other w o r d s p r a i s e , i n the s a m e m a n n e r as b l a m e , r e f u s e d to be b r i d l e d i n the hands of m o s t t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . E X C E S S I V E P R A I S E In r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on the p r e c e p t s of B o i l e a u , V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d ^ w a s , at t i m e s , s e v e r e i n h i s j u d g e m e n t s . B u t , he a l s o knew that a few w e l l -c h o s e n w o r d s of p r a i s e w o u l d s e r v e as e n c o u r a g e m e n t to h i s c o n t e m p o -r a r i e s . H e a d m i t t e d to " L e C a n a d i e n c u r i e u x " : " j ' e c r i s a l a v e i l l e d ' u n j o u r ou. l e s c o m p l i m e n t s sont u s i t e s , et m e m e n e c e s s a i r e . " £ s i c } ( L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e , I, 1779, p . 4) J a u t a r d r e a l i z e d , h o w e v e r , that, as l o n g as h i s c o l l e a g u e s d i d n o t h i n g but a d m i r e t h e m s e l v e s , they w o u l d a c h i e v e n o t h i n g of l i t e r a r y w o r t h . M o s t of J a u t a r d ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , s t r i v i n g at a l l c o s t s , to a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y (and t h e r e f o r e s e e k i n g to be a d m i r e d b e y o n d r e a s o n a b l e m e a s u r e ) c o n s i d e r e d s u c h an attitude n e g a -t i v e . B u t , it was the only m e a n s of a s s u r i n g that " 1 ' a m o u r - p r o p r e ne se change en o r g u e i l , c ' e s t l ' e c u e i l le p l u s a c r a i n d r e p o u r u n A u t e u r , et m e m e le p l u s d i f f i c i l e a e v i t e r . " (Ibid. , I X , 1778, p . 35) 39 S u c h b l o a t e d p r i d e is s e e n i n " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x . " J a u t a r d a d -v i s e d h i m , on one o c c a s i o n , to p r a c t i s e c o m p o s i n g s i m p l e w o r k s i n s t e a d of a t t e m p t i n g , without due e x p e r i e n c e , a m o r e d i f f i c u l t type o f . p o e t r y . J a u t a r d c o n t i n u e d : " i l est d ' u n P o e t e c o m m e d ' u n enfant — on ne le c o n -duit au s e r i e u x que p a r d e g r e s . " (Ibid. , X X I I , 1778, p . 84). A d d r e s s i n g h i s r e p l y to a c e r t a i n M o n s i e u r X X X , " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x " a s k e d : C r o i t - i l que le C a n a d i e n , sans m a t t r e , , doit e'er i r e a u s s i c o r -F o r two r e a s o n s , " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x " was j u s t i f i e d i n m a k i n g s u c h a s t a t e m e n t . F i r s t l y , i n the.18th C e n t u r y , m o r e so than i n the 19th, s o c i e t y was p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t a u t h o r s . A n y o n e who d e c i d e d to put pen to p a p e r was often r i d i c u l e d . S e c o n d l y the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m was i n -s u f f i c i e n t as a m e a n s of t e a c h i n g students the a r t of w r i t i n g . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , it is o b v i o u s that " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x " h a d not h e e d e d M e s p l e t ' s s t a t e m e n t that a u t h o r s w o u l d be " s a n s doute c r i t i q u e s p a r l e u r s c o n d i -s c i p l e s . " F o r t h e i r p o e m s and p r o s e (which w e r e often l i t e r a r y t r i v i a ) w r i t e r s e x p e c t e d a s i m p l e and g r a t u i t o u s " c r i t i q u e des b e a u t e s , " of the type to w h i c h " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " a l l u d e d i n w r i t i n g to J a u t a r d : T o u j o u r s c e n s e u r s e v e r e vous a v e z r e b u t e le C a n a d i e n C u r i -eux et L e S i n c e r e , p a r des c r i t i q u e s o u t r e e s . Q u e l l e n e c e s -si te de d i r e o u v e r t e m e n t que l e u r s P r o d u c t i o n s etaient p i l l e e s . P o u r q u o i ne p a s l e s a v o i r r e c u e s et se t a i r e ? p o u r q u b i n ' e t e s -vous pas s u p e r f i c i e l ? Q u e l avantage a v e z - v o u s d ' ^ t e r aux A u t e u r s le p l a i s i r d ' e c r i r e ; q u ' i l s d i s e n t b i e n ou m a l que vous q u e l q u e s e c r i t s . / i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l i m p o r t e ?' ,47 40 Ev ident l y , the i n f e r i o r i t y complex which would push Gr ignon and F o u r n i e r to excess ive b l a m e , showed i tse l f amongst 18th Century w r i t e r s in the f o r m of a s e l f - i m p o s e d super io r menta l i t y , r e q u i r i n g adulat ion at a l l t i m e s . Such a menta l i t y was incapable of to le ra t ing object ive and i m -p a r t i a l c r i t i c i s m , that was not f l a t t e r i n g . * * * In the 19th Century this fee l ing of i n f e r i o r i t y mani fes ted i t se l f in the excess ive p r a i s e p ro f fe red upon works i n s p i r e d by p a t r i o t i s m and Catho l i c dogma. In h is w e l l - k n o w n compla int made against excess i ve p r a i s e , C r e m a z i e spoke thus of c r i t i c i s m as i t ex is ted in F r e n c h Canada before his m i g r a -t ion to F r a n c e : Ce qui manquait chez nous, c 'est l a c r i t ique l i t te r a i r e . . . ; de mon temps c 'etai t p i toyab le , les journaux avaient tous l a nvSme f o r m u l e , qui cons is ta i t en une r e c l a m e d'une d iza ine de l i g n e s . P o u r p a r l e r des v e r s , on d i sa i t 'Notre poete, etc . ' S ' a g i s s a i t -i l de fa i re m o u s s e r l a boutique d'un chapel ier qui avait fa i t cadeau d'un gibus au redac teur , on d isa i t : 'Notre in te l l igent et entreprenant M..xxx v ient d' inventer un chapeau, etc . ' . R e c l a m e s pour poes ies , pour chapeaux, pour m o d e s , etc . , tout etait p r i s dans le mSrne tas . A few years l a t e r , in speaking of the need to approach works wi th " s o l l i c i t u d e " and " indulgence, " Hector F a b r e was a lso f i r m in h is c o n -demnation of " l a c r i t ique a. l 'eau de r o s e " : L a tSche l a plus del icate est r e s e r v e e a l a c r i t i q u e , et i l faudra i t pour en tenir le sceptre une main-douce et f e r m e , un e s p r i t qui 41 se l a i s s a t toucher par les fa ib lesses du talent et qui sut c e -pendant d i re l a v e r i t e , au r i sque de se l 'entendre d i re ensuite a l u i - m S m e . II est temps que nous mett ions de l ' o r d r e dans nos admi ra t ions , que nous fass ions cesser des confusions d e -courageantes pour le me'rite et in jur ieuses au talent. . . . II est done sage de ca lmer par un peu de cr i t ique independante de l a camarader ie et des ea te r ies , l 'e f fervescence a laquel le on se l a i s s e fac i lement entrainer pour peu que l 'on aime son pays et ses a m i s . . Soyons jus tes , soyons indulgents, n'oublions jamais en cr i t iquant un l i v r e que nous sommes peut-Stre les seuls a. le l i r e , t rai tons les ouvrages des autres comme s ' i ls etaient les n 8 t r e s . ^ The complaints of C r e m a z i e and F a b r e were repeated 'ad in f in i tum' in the 19th Century by men of le t ters d e s i r i n g to l i f t c r i t i c i s m to the l e v e l of a method ica l and d i sc ip l ined genre. Even in 1907, F o u r n i e r , with j u s -t i f i ca t ion , re leased his t i rade against the banal and absurd p r a i s e s greet ing each new product ion . ^ F o r the numerous l a y m e n - c r i t i c s of the 19th Century , c r i t i c i s m c o n -s is ted s i m p l y of heaping posi t ive hyperboles upon the pat r io t ic works of their colleagues invtfheshope that such works would engrave themselves in the minds of the pub l ic . A cer ta in P . B . Mignaul t wrote of E x i l et P a t r i e , a f ive act d r a m a : Voi la. une piece qui a un but doublement patr iot ique; le R . P . Hamon combat une des plus grandes p la ies de notre nat ional i te : Immigrat ion des Canadiens f ranca is aux E t a t s - U n i s , En meme temps i l indique, comme remade a ce m a l , l a grande oeuvre de l a colonisat ion de l a va l lee de l 'Qttawa. ^ Throughout the latter half of the 19th Century , A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i a l development had succeeded in l u r i n g many F r e n c h Canadians to the United States. To the extent that Mignau l t , as Hamon, was defending the 'Catho -l i c way ' of l i fe in Nor th A m e r i c a , one sympathizes with h i m . But h is 42 c r i t i c a l r e s u m e s l a c k e d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e of l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e . In e x a m i n i n g L e s E c h o s , it is not R o u t h i e r poet, who i n t e r e s t s M i g n a u l t , but r a t h e r R o u t h i e r , the poet who c o m b a t e d "ce s i e c l e de m a t e -r i a l i s m e . " C o n s e q u e n t l y R o u t h i e r ' s p r o s a i c e x p r e s s i o n s a r e q u i c k l y e x -c u s e d as s h o r t c o m i n g s r e f l e c t i n g "les m i s e r e s du m e t i e r " j^poetiquej and not as faults p e r s e . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , R o u t h i e r ' s faults " s o n t r a c h e -tees p a r l ' i n s p i r a t i o n c h r e t i e n n e du r e c u e i l . " ( L a R e v u e C a n a d i e n n e , X V I I I , 1882, p p . 500-509) " A r t for A r t ' s s a k e " d i d not e x i s t for l a y m e n -c r i t i c s l i k e M i g n a u l t and l ' a b b e J . B . P r o u l x . T h e l a t t e r spoke of l ' a b b e N a n t e l ' s A n t h o l o g i e de l a p o e s i e c a n a d i e n n e i n these s u p e r l a t i v e t e r m s : T o u t le r e c u e i l n ' e s t q u ' u n h e u r e u x m e l a n g e de n o b l e s s e dans l e s p e n s e e s , de m a g n i f i c e n c e dans l e s i m a g e s , de f o r c e dans l e s d e s c r i p t i o n s D a n s nos e c o l e s , p a r e x e m p l e , ne p o u r r a i t - o n pas c o n f i e r a l a m e m o i r e des enfants q u e l q u e s - u n e s de c e s s t r o p h e s ? e l l e s r e m p l a c e r a i e n t a v e c avantage c e r t a i n s m o r e e a u x f r a n c a i s q u i n 'ont p o u r nous aucun interest; e l l e s d e p o s e r a i e n t au fond de ces jeunes c o e u r s u n g e r m e d ' a m o u r p o u r l a r e l i g i o n et l a p a t r i e , q u i ne f e r a i t que se d e v e l o p p e r a v e c l e s a n n e e s ; et ce s e r a i t u n antidote c o n t r e l a m a l a d i e de l ' a n g l i f i c a t i o n ou l a f i S v r e de l ' e m i g r a t i o n q u i p o u r r a i e n t p e u t - e t r e l e s attaquer p l u s t a r d . . . . S i nous v o u l o n s a v o i r de g r a n d s p o e t e s , e n c o u r -ageons l a l i t t e r a t u r e n a t i o n a l e . ^ N a n t e l ' s w o r k does c o n t a i n s o m e of the b e s t p o e m s of the 19th C e n t u r y . T h e w o r k s of J . C . F i s e t , L e n o i r , C r e m a z i e , R o u t h i e r , L e m a y and F r e -chette" ' g r a c e its p a g e s . Y e t , f r o m P r o u l x ' s c o m m e n t s , i t is e a s y to see how a c r i t i c c o u l d confuse n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h l i t e r a r y n a t i o n a l i s m . In fact , n o w h e r e i n the h i s t o r y of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c i s m i s p r a i s e m o r e e x c e s s i v e , m o r e u n w a r r a n t e d than i n the c o m m e n t a r i e s of l a y m e n -43 c r i t i c s such as P r o u l x and Mignault. Since the latter intended to vulgar-ize indigenous l i t e r a t u r e , one can w e l l imagine that anthologies of Nantel's type abounded in the homes and boarding-houses of those who could afford them, as w e l l as in private and public l i b r a r i e s . It is not within the scope of this chapter to unearth a l l the instances of excessive praise which resulted from the publication of patriotic and m o r a l i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to note that unres-t r i c t e d adulation was not l i m i t e d to l i t t l e known c r i t i c s as P r o u l x and Mignault. In his a r t i c l e on French Canadian lit e r a t u r e and its m i s s i o n written 53 in 1880, Pamphile Lemay entered into a study of what he called " l a con-dition desavantageuse. . .£d']un peuple de colons. " Such a method affords the c r i t i c the opportunity to speak of l i t e r a r y achievements and of "l'ave-ni r glorieux, " which awaits the F r e n c h Canadian "race. . . , transformer depuis vingt ans en un peuple d'ecrivains. " What is p a r t i a l in Lemay's appreciation is the unchecked enthusiasm which pushes him to see a l l achievements with a favour able .eye. "Peintres fideles de l'h i s t o i r e , " "raconteurs charmants de l a chronique, " "athletes infatigables du jour-nalisme, " "portr a i t i s t e s habiles de l a biographie, " "ihventeurs heureux et amants passionnes du roman, " even "les juges trop souvent implacables-de l a critique, " are a l l spoken of with too much sympathy and indulgence. By 1880 a l i t e r a r y heritage had, without doubt, begun to establish i t -self in French Canada. Yet, Lemay, in deliberately construing as high points both the good and bad aspects of that heritage, strikes us as worthy 44 of the epithet "gardien de c i m e t i e r e , " jokingly concocted by J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e : II faut r a p p e l e r que l a plupart des c r i t i q u e s sont des hommes qui n'ont pas eu beaucoup de chance et qui, au moment ou i l s allaie n t desespe'rer, ont trouv£ une petite place t r a n q u i l l e de gardien de c i m e t i e r e . D i e u sait s i les c i m e t i e r e s sont p a i s i b l e s , i l n'en est pas de plus vivant qu'une bibliotheque. L e s m o r t s sont l a : i l s n'ont fait q u ' e c r i r e , i l s sont laves depuis longtemps du peche de v i v r e et d'a i l l e u r s on ne connait leur vie que par d'autres l i v r e s que d'autres m o r t s ont e c r i t s sur eux, ^ Sartre's comment, although it was made after W o r l d War II, would have been p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable to Routhier's Conferences et D i s c o u r s . Routhier, it seems, wished to prove not only that a beautiful f r u i t was the product of a beautiful tree, but also that a l l indigenous l i t e r a t u r e was beautiful. B e c a u s e C r e m a z i e was, for Routhier, the in c a r n a t i o n of the p a t r i o t i c slogan "je me souviens, " Routhier concludes his "confe'rence" by stating: A nous maintenant de l u i a c c o r d e r a. lui-mSme une place au pantheon de notre h i s t o i r e . Nous sommes plus obliges que nos compatriotes anglais de g l o r i f i e r les nStres, quand i l s sonts  m o r t s . E t , savez-vous pourquoi? — P a r c e que, regi e ge'ne'rale, nous leur rendons moins ju s t i c e de leur vivant; ^  £ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l ] . E v e n though the time had not yet come to pass "un jugement d ^ f i n i t i f " on P. J.O. Chauveau, Routhier was of the opinion that Chauveau, because he was a patriot, a Cathol i c and a man of l e t t e r s , ought to be lauded with-out delay: Nous ne devons pas l a i s s e r l a tombe se f e r m e r sur l u i sans m§ler quelques f l e u r s a nos r e g r e t s , et sans d i r e a nos lecfe-;, .... :teurs toute 1'admiration que nous gardons pour s a memoire, ^ [ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l ] . T h e w o r d s i t a l i c i z e d i n the quotations above s u g g e s t to us that R o u -t h i e r , l i k e m o s t 19th C e n t u r y m e n of l e t t e r s , c o u l d n e v e r f o r g e t L o r d D u r h a m ' s f a m o u s w o r d s , to the effect that F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s w e r e not a p e o p l e b e c a u s e they h a d no l i t e r a t u r e . S u c h w o r d s h a d c r e a t e d wounds 57 that r e m a i n e d agape e v e n i n the 20th C e n t u r y . M o r e o v e r i n s p e a k i n g of " j u s t i c e " a n d i n b e i n g e x c e s s i v e l y l a u d a t o r y , R o u t h i e r sought to atone for the e x c e s s i v e b l a m e i n h i s P o r t a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s . In fact, i n r e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e s et D i s c o u r s , one has the i m p r e s s i o n of h e a r i n g B o s s u e t ' s " o r a i s o n s f u n e b r e s " w i t h s l i g h t l y m o r e l i t e r a t u r e as s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g p o i n t s . R o u t h i e r h i m s e l f m u s t h a v e b e e n a w a r e of the i n -c o n s t a n c y and i n s i n c e r i t y of w h i c h F r e c h e t t e a c c u s e d h i m , for he s a y s of S i r J a m e s L e M o i n e : s i je d i s a i s que s o n style a l a c o r r e c t i o n des c l a s s i q u e s , le m o u v e m e n t et le c o l o r i s des r o m a n t i q u e s , i l s e r a i t le p r e m i e r v - S C O a douter de m a s i n e e r i t e . 7 It was b y the s a m e c l i c h e of c l a s s i c a l and r o m a n t i c style that R o u -t h i e r d e s c r i b e d C r e m a z i e ' s w o r k . ( C o n f e r e n c e s et D i s c o u r s , p . 379) F r e c h e t t e ' s c o m m e n t that R o u t h i e r ' s c r i t i c i s m was " b i e n v e i l l a n t e u n j o u r , a c e r b e l ' a u t r e , " i s m o s t j u s t i f i e d i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n that R o u t h i e r g i v e s of C a s g r a i n ' s w o r k . T h e c r i t i c s p e a k s of C a s g r a i n as "un a r d e n t t r a -v a i l l e u r . . . d 'une bonne f o r m a t i o n i n t e l l e c t u e l l e , " c l a s s i f i e s the s u m p t u o u s s t y l e , w h i c h so p r e v i o u s l y a n n o y e d h i m , ^ as l i t e r a r y i n e x p e r i e n c e and e x c u s e s L e s L e g e n d e s as "un e s s a i de ses f a c u l t e s . " R o u t h i e r c o n c l u d e s : E n m e m e t e m p s que son gout d ' a r t i s t e s ' e p u r a i t , s o n t r e s o r d ' e r u d i t i o n s ' e n r i c h i s s a i t , s a p e n s e e s ' e l a r g i s s a i t et s ' e l e v a i t , 46 son jugement se r e c t i f i a i t , et l'historien modifiait sa methode de maniere a. se rapprocher davantage des modeles. It i s , at f i r s t , d i f f i c u l t to imagine an individual as intelligent as Rou-thier the legal judge believing in the aesthetic value of his Conference et Discours. Yet, because Routhier thought that p a t r i o t i s m and faith by them-selves were capable of making good citizens, it becomes easier to see how he, in the manner of P r o u l x and Mignault, was convinced that the sweet-ness of his commentaries would aid the creation of a national l i t e r a t u r e . Amongst well-known 19th Century c r i t i c s , i t i-s perhaps in the work of Casgrain that one is most aware of p a t r i o t i s m and Catholic m o r a l i s m as yardsticks of appreciation. Not only was Casgrain's theory of l i t e r -6 2 ature based on pa t r i o t i s m , he staunchly refused, in theory, to make any comparisons between indigenous li t e r a t u r e and that produced in France. The disdain shown by "certaines plumes" against a l l that was published in Canada p a r t i c u l a r l y disturbed him: Tout en accordant une juste louange au merite, elles affectent d'etablir des paralleles ironi.ques entre les m e i l l e u r s ecrivains canadiens et les auteurs francais, mettant invariablement une distance immense entre les plus heureuses inspirations, les plus b^aux produits de notre s o l , et les oeuvres du genie f r a n -cais. s When one r e c a l l s that for Cremazie French Canada was nothing but "une societe d'epiciers, " that Garneau and F e r l a n d were "accidents l i t -t e r a i r e s , " that l o c a l orators were stammering improvisators when com-pared to their F r e n c h c o u n t e r p a r t s , ^ one can appreciate the truth of Casgrain's statement. It also becomes evident that the latt e r , because he was not prepared to admit to the l i t e r a r y i n f e r i o r i t y of French Canada, 47 was content to have c r i t i c i s m c i rcu la te in the c losed compartment of p a t -r i o t i s m and re l ig ious m o r a l i s m . On the single occas ion (as far as we know) that C a s g r a i n dared to compare l o c a l l i te ra tu re wi th that of metropo l i tan F r a n c e , he did not h e s -itate to place cer ta in works of F e r l a n d and P a r e n t on an equal footing wi th those of Octave F e u i l l e t and V i c t o r Cous in . C a s g r a i n also assured his readers that Chauveau was V i c t o r Hugo's equal in the composi t ion of "strophes sur l 'enfance. " (Oeuvres Completes , I pp. 362-364) 6 ^ The excess ive b lame that C a s g r a i n would pass on Chauveau s i x years later br ings us to this conclus ion: where indigenous l i te ra tu re as a l i v ing o rgan ism was concerned, C a s g r a i n would rather make and keep f r iends by being indulgent, than create enemies through objective and i m -p a r t i a l observat ions . In m o r e exp l i c i t t e r m s , C a s g r a i n , despite his the -ory of c r i t i c i s m as "une etude attentive, un examen se r ieux , " of l i t e r a t u r e , employed "une fade f l a t t e r i e " to cover "d'un grand m e r i t e " a lmost any work "portant l a rea l i te de l a vie de notre peuple. " Such is the case in his commentar ies on Joseph M a r m e t t e and Antoine G e r i n - L a j o i e . C a s g r a i n admits that the p r a i s e bestowed on M a r m e t t e ' s F r a n c o i s de B i e n v i l l e by Routh ie r , F rechet te and L e C o u r r i e r du Canada is suff ic ient reason for h i m to c l a s s i f y that novel as a "good book. " Of L'Intendant B igot , M a r m e t t e ' s subsequent nove l , the c r i t i c dec lares that there in the qual i t ies of F r a n c o i s de B i e n v i l l e "ont-. eclate plus b r i l l a n t e s et plus v igoureuses . 48 Where, might one ask, is " l a f roide r a i s o n " cons idered by C a s g r a i n as essent ia l in c r i t i c i s m ? It does not exist in h is study on M a r m e t t e , h is f r i e n d , s o c i a l companion and co -author of L e s Si lhouettes l i t t e r a i r e s . It is c l e a r l y absent in C a s g r a i n ' s "s i lhouet te" of G e r i n - L a j o i e for the c r i t i c h i m s e l f admits : "je c rayonnai l a si lhouette de G e r i n - L a j o i e et je l a f is avec amour , car G e r i n - L a j o i e etait pour m o i l ' i d e a l de 1 'homme par fa i t . " (Cami l le Roy , E s s a i s sur l a l i t te rature canadienne, p. 98) One can u n -derstand why Routhier cons idered " P l a c i d e L e p i n e " "un f a r c e u r . " C a s g r a i n would have contr ibuted even more greatly to the e s t a b l i s h -ment of "une saine c r i t i q u e " had he al lowed h i m s e l f to be guided by " l a f roide r a i s o n " in appreciat ions of the type given on G e r i n - L a j o i e . . Such a y a r d - s t i c k would have al lowed the c r i t i c not only to appreciate the "plan bien concu. . . , style nature l et r e l i g i e u x " of the nove l i s t , but also the op -portunity to d i scourse object ively on G e r i n - L a j o i e ' s "quelques i n e x p e r i -ences . " F o r these lacunae C a s g r a i n read i l y becomes the nove l i s t^ ' apo -log is t . (Les Silhouettes l i t t e r a i r e s , pp. 226 -235, pass im) C a s g r a i n ' s commentary on F r a n c i s P a r k m a n adheres m o r e c lose ly to his theory of "une saine c r i t i q u e " than do his appreciat ions of M a r m e t t e and G e r i n - L a j o i e . Even though the c r i t i c i s p a r t i a l in this a n a l y s i s , which is conducted s t r i c t l y "au point de vue cathol ique, " in his s u m m a r y , he s t r i ves to be objective in indicat ing P a r k m a n ' s inf luence: Notre o rgue i l nat ional est souvent f r o i s s e par les comment ta i res defavorables dont i l accompagne ses c i ta t ions . Nous y sommes d'autant plus sensib le que notre p a t r i o t i s m e , t o u -jours en e v e i l , nous a accoutume a envisager notre passe sous un aspect peut-e*tre trop idea l et plutot conforme a nos reves qu'lt l a realite' . T rop souvent on a fait des panegyriques au 49 l i eu de l ' h i s t o i r e . L e s l i v r e s de M . P a r k m a n ont du moins ce la de bon, qu ' i l s nous apprennent a examiner nos annales r avec les yeux de l a f ro ide r a i s o n . ^ Perhaps it was in reading C a s g r a i n ' s appreciat ions on his f r iends and enemies that C a m i l l e Roy a r r i v e d at this just conc lus ion : A l a v e r i t e , i l manquait a. l'abb£ C a s g r a i n , pour q u ' i l devint un cr i t ique l i t t e r a i r e au sens s t r i c t et complet de ce mot une sc ience assez etendue de l ' h i s to i re des l i t te ra tures c l a s s i q u e s , un certain entrainement dans l 'examen et l a d i scuss ion des fextes , une prat ique suff isante des doctr ines l i t t e r a i r e s . . . , i l faut aussi b ien connaTtre les lo is constitutives des genres l i t t e r a i r e s et les conditions de leurs developpements et de leurs evolut ions, pour avoir quelque chance d 'exce l le r dans l a c r i t ique : et ce sont des etudes auxquelles l'abb& C a s g r a i n n'eut n i 1'occasion n i peut -St re le temps de suf f isamment s 'appl iquer . Such an opinion is a lso true of Routh ie r , L e m a y , P r o u l x and Mignau l t . L i k e C a s g r a i n , they be l ieved in us ing p a t r i o t i s m and f r iendship as y a r d -s t icks for l i t e r a r y apprec iat ion , and excess ive p r a i s e to approve works adhering to such y a r d s t i c k s . It is regrettable that many 19th Century c r i t i c s were so misgu ided by antagonism towards the E n g l i s h , by emot iona l i sm and maudl in sent imen? ta l i t y , that they frequently lav ished p r a i s e on works which were not a e s -thet ica l ly sa t i s fy ing . The cause of nat ional l i te ra tu re and of object iv i ty and i m p a r t i a l i t y in c r i t i c i s m would have been great ly advanced had 19th Century c r i t i c s r i s e n frequently to the heights of 'Romant ic m o d e r n i s m . ' Chateaubr iand, M m e de S tae l , V i c t o r Hugo and Stendhal a l l be l ieved that l i t e r a t u r e , being a l i v ing o r g a n i s m , ought not to be r e s t r i c t e d to the c losed compartment of dogmas, p a r t i c u l a r l y c l a s s i c a l abso lu t i sms A c c o r -d ingly , they opted for a m o r e l i b e r a l f o r m of c r i t i c i s m . Such a notion 50 did not exclude pointing out the aesthetic shortcomings of a work. It c e r -tainly did not presuppose that a l l works were beautiful. On the contrary, its animated descriptions of beauty were l i m i t e d to masterpieces, even as Boileau's c l a s s i c i s m led him to castigate those works which did not conform to established rule s . C amille Roy and Louis Dantin contributed greatly to making c r i t i c i s m a more disc i p l i n e d genre than it had been previously. Jean;sCharles Har-vey, Maurice Hubert and M a r c e l Dugas were also instrumental in m a i n r taining c r i t i c i s m at a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l . Taken as a whole, a l l these c r i t i c s were more aware than their predecessors of the need to direct c r i -t i c i s m away from patriotic concerns. Yet, the same qualities which Cam i l l e Roy considered necessary to a good c r i t i c (and lacking in Casgrain) were sometimes absent from the works of traditional 20th Century c r i t i c s . On such occasions objectivity and i m p a r t i a l i t y once again suffered grievously at the hands of emotional-i s m and excessive praise. L i t e r a t u r e was s t i l l "young" and therefore needed to be treated with consideration, in early 20th Century French Canada, Dantin's theory of 69 " e c l e c t i s m " was aimed at analysing l i t e r a r y creations with "une l a r -geur sympathique. " Camille Roy's "constructive criticism"'was destined to judge works while respecting t h e i r authors. Roy spoke of his art as 51 "une critique qui au royaume encore jeune de nos lettres fasse regner en-semble l a lumiere et l a politesse de l'esprit. ""^ In the preface of Et d'un  l i v r e a 1'autre, Hebert expressed the hope that "ces simples travaux se-ront utiles a quelques-uns et point nuisibles aux autres. " (p. 7) Dugas' Apologies consists of "gloses" bound together "en gerbe de sympathies 7 1 critiques. " The c r i t i c "approaches" poets such as Grandbois and Hertel: avec amitie, desir de les comprendre, de signaler leur pas-sage, de rendre a leurs qualites un tribut d'eloges [de] marquer egalement sa vive estime pour des contemporains dont i l a connu l a co r d i a l i t e , l a camaraderie. ^ Dantin, Roy, Hebert and Dugas were therefore i l l - d i s p o s e d to p r a c -tise the condemnations "en b l o c " of Jules F o u r n i e r . ^  Nevertheless, in the same manner that Fournier's d i s l i k e of excessive praise led to ex-cessive blame, the "politesse de l ' e s p r i t " of some trad i t i o n a l 20th Cen-tury c r i t i c s resulted in excessive indulgence. F o r example, it is with jus t i f i c a t i o n that G e r a r d T o u g a s ^ speaks of Camille Roy's excessive admiration for Pamphile Lemay's "modest son-nets!'.. Such admiration i s also seen in Roy's attempt to reconstruct the physionomy, psychology and talent of early men of le t t e r s . In Manuel d'histoire de l a li t t e r a t u r e canadienne de langue francaise, Tableau de  l'histoire de l a li t t e r a t u r e canadienne-francaise, and Nos Origines l i t -t e r a i r e s , the c r i t i c speaks time and again of the "preoccupations u t i l i -t a i r e s " which explain the slow development of l i t e r a t u r e in F r e n c h Canada. So often is the reader faced with such explanations that they eventually strike him as l i t e r a r y crutches. H e n r i d'Arles r e f e r r e d to them as 52 "toutes les plaintives elegies sur nos indigences litteraires. One cannot deny that Roy's style becomes more polished, more con-cise, in keeping with his theories of writing, as his literary career pro-gressed. Nevertheless, given the disproportion between the subject men-tioned above and the ink devoted to it, one gets the feeling that Camille Roy's "humanisme plenier" is here subordinated to the "excessive pro-7 6 tectionism, " rejected by him in theory. Of the poetry of Alfred Gar-neau, Roy states emphatically: Qu'importe que cette oeuvre soit incomplete, inachevee, d£-fectueuse, s i parmi tous ces fragments &pars qui la composent et que l'on a rassembles, i l s'en trouve que l'on croirait de-taches d'un fronton ou d'une frise de marbre grec! ^ i t a l i c s not in the original] . It is perhaps in the light of his comments on Lemay, early men of letters and Alfred Garneau that Asselin's harsh remarks on Roy have some justification. The latter claimed that Camille Roy had "des toiles d'araignee sur les yeux" and "du coton dans l a boite cr'Snienne. " Samuel Baillargeon is less severe in stating that Roy "etait trop volontairement 78 'bon papa' pour faire un critique vigour eux. " Maurice Hebert 'contradicts' both Baillargeon and Asselin in a f f i r -ming that Camille Roy "incarnefr^ l'orateur en Demosthene ou en Ciceron, le poete en Virgile, le critique en Brunetiere et l'aede canadien-francais s 79 en Philippe-Aubert de Gaspe ! " One cannot overestimate the debt owed by French Canadian literature to Camille Roy. Yet, one is left to wonder whether Hebert, in talking in such superlative terms of his mentor, was not blinded by that same vene-ration which led many 19th Century authors to habitually call Casgrain 53 " i l l u s t r i o u s . " One w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d to h e a r H e b e r t ' s a f f i r m a t i o n m a d e by J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y an ' i n d i f f e r e n t " c r i t i c . C a m i l l e R o y h i m -s e l f h a d p r e f a c e d H u b e r t ' s D e L i v r e s en l i v r e s w i t h a h o n e y - s w e e t c o m -m e n t a r y . Was H e b e r t b e i n g as i m p a r t i a l as p o s s i b l e i n the a b o v e - c i t e d s t a t e m e n t , or was he m e r e l y a c q u i t t i n g h i m s e l f of a debt t o w a r d s h i s m e n t o r ? A d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r is not p o s s i b l e h e r e ; but the r e a d e r feels h i m s e l f to be once m o r e i n the p r e s e n c e of t h o s e " c o n d i t i o n s c o m p l e t e -m e n t etrange*res a. l a l i t t e r a t u r e " and those " m o t i f s q u i r e n d e n t s u s p e c t s ses j u g e m e n t s , " m e n t i o n e d by H e c t o r F a b r e . T h e r e i s no d e n y i n g the p r e s e n c e of these ' . 'condit ions" and " m o t i v e s " in S e r a p h i n M a r i o n ' s w o r k on e a r l y m e n of l e t t e r s . T h e c r i t i c c l a s s i f i e s the m e d i o c r e e s s a y s of these a u t h o r s as "de n o u v e a u x m o t i f s d ' e s p e r e r en l a s u r v i e du C a n a d a f r a n c a i s . " ( L e s L e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s d ' a u t r e f o i s , 0 r-' II P- 21) One cannot h o l d it a g a i n s t M a r i o n for e x p r e s s i n g s u c h an o p i n i o n ; t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e d o g g e d in t h e i r b e l i e f that a m a s t e r p i e c e w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be c r e a t e d i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . L e m a y , we n o t e d , f o r e s a w a " g l o r i o u s f u t u r e " for i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . M a u r i c e H e b e r t ' s t h e o r y of a "definite m e s s a g e " was b u i l t on the i d e a that an a u t h o r ' s f i r s t w o r k , a s p r i n g b u d , w o u l d t r a n s f o r m i t s e l f , i n s u m m e r , into a l o v e l y r o s e . What is d i s c o n c e r t i n g and " s u s p i c i o u s " about M a r i o n ' s w o r k is that w h i l e he " t r e p i d e de f a i r e l a n i q u e a. de p e n i b l e s . . . , h o n o r a b l e s d e b u t s , " he n e v e r t h e l e s s m a n a g e s to wax e c s t a t i c o v e r "une e x p o s i t i o n r e m p l i e djobjets d ' e t a g e r e et de b i b e l o t s de toutes l e s e s p e c e s . " ( L e s L e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s d ' a u t r e f o i s , I p p . 21-42 p a s s i m ) 54 It is anachronist ic that i n 1940 a c r i t i c should be so moved to d i s -prov ing L o r d Durham's r e m a r k s , that he saw a l l aspects of a modest beginning through r o s e - c o l o u r e d g l a s s e s . M a r i o n ' s i n f e r i o r i t y complex makes i tse l f felt in the many super la t i ves , r h e t o r i c a l quest ions, e x c l a -mat ion m a r k s , long ecstat ic sentences, which constitute his s ty le . Such r h e t o r i c , destined to excite pat r io t ic sentiments and to or ient students to the study of ear l y indigenous l i t e r a t u r e , is evident, in the fo l lowing passage: Sur l a m e r - t r e s orageuse des let t res canadiennes du X V I I I e s i e c l e , Va lent in Jauta rd , capitaine d'un tout petit bateau, a : tenu le gouvernai l d'une m a i n f e r m e , sinon toujours heureuse. A p r e s quelques mois de navigat ion, i l dut helas ! carguer ses vo i les et ren t re r dans un port inhosp i ta l ie r ou l 'attendait H a l -d imand. Qu ' impor te l a vie q u ' i l mena ensuite dans l a get5le m o n t r e a l a i s e ! ; Qu i sai t s i , place's sur un autre theatre , dans un autre s i e c l e , ces obscurs devanciers n'eussent pas soutenu, eux a u s s i , un tout autre r81e? P e u t - § t r e ne leur a - t - i l manque* que des i n -struments plus appropr i^s et une atmosphere plus favorable pour met t re beaucoup de r i c h e s s e s au jour , dans ces e m b l a -v u r e S g C ^ a n a d i e n n e s ou dormai t l a p romesse de lo intaines m o i s -sons. G iven the pat r io t ic s p i r i t under ly ing M a r i o n ' s work , it is to be ex -pected that the c r i t i c turns the ye l lowed pages on the or ig ins of l i t e ra tu re in F r e n c h Canada wi th " regret . " It is not our intent to be l i t t le the i n t r i n s i c value of M a r i o n ' s study. With p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on c r i t i c i s m in L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e , such a study is worthwhi le . Th is fact notwithstanding, one wonders whether M a r i o n , because of the fasc inat ion and excess ive p r a i s e evident in h is work , was ignorant of the fact that nosta lg ia has no place in l i t e r a r y c r i -t i c i s m . M a r i o n r e c a l l s to our mind those o r a t o r s who, by the power more of their eloquence than their thought, m o m e n t a r i l y h o l d spellbound an o v e r -ly excited audience. What is p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g is that the c r i t i c r e -minds the r e a d e r of those 1 9 t h Century adherents of e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e . They at least had the excuse of having keenly experienced c u l t u r a l i n f e -r i o r i t y . In the p r e c e d i n g pages, we endeavoured to follow the thread of ex-c e s s i v e blame and e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e running through t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . C e r t a i n facts become evident. On the one hand, it was noted that many judges of l i t e r a t u r e sought to set themselves up as a r b i t e r s in the r e a l m of c r i t i c i s m . Others, in s t r i v i n g to counteract e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e hoped to aid the c r e a t i o n of an indigenous m a s t e r p i e c e . Unfortunately, in seeking to a c c o m p l i s h their goals, c r i t i c s such as "J'entre en l i c e moi, " Routhier, Chapman and F o u r n i e r inevitably f e l l into the abyss of a simple and s u p e r f i c i a l " c r i -tique des defauts . " F a u l t - f i n d i n g in i t s e l f was a tool n e c e s s a r y to ensure that a m odi-cum of a r t i s t i c value was i n c o r p o r a t e d into w r i tings of the day. But, too often did it d e t e r i o r a t e into t i r a d e s , s a r c a s m , and p e r s o n a l attacks, in which the author and his work were both reduced to nothingness. On the other hand, because many t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s did not wish to h u r t the p r i d e of their colleagues and f r i e n d s , or to b e l i t t l e the worth of 56 i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e , e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e was e q u a l l y p r e s e n t i n c r i t i c i s m . T h i s d o u b l e - p r o n g e d s h o r t c o m i n g was c o m b a t e d by c e r t a i n c r i t i c s , who took s e r i o u s l y the t a s k of m a p p i n g out a h e a l t h y r o u t e for c r i t i c i s m . It i s r e g r e t t a b l e that s u c h a p r o g r a m m e r a r e l y went b e y o n d the stage of t h e o r y . T h e c o m p l a i n t s u t t e r e d . b y C r e m a z i e , F a b r e and D u c h a r m e a g a i n s t the u n h e a l t h y state of c r i t i c i s m b e a r w i t n e s s to the a b o v e - m e n -t i o n e d fact . T h e t h e o r i e s of R o u t h i e r , C h a p m a n , C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e R o y on i m p a r t i a l , j u s t , h e a l t h y and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , c o r r o b o r a t e 1 the fact of w h i c h we s p e a k . T h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h m a n y of the a b o v e - n a m e d c r i t i c s , i n p r a c -t i c e , b e l i e d t h e i r t h e o r i e s b r i n g s us to this c o n c l u s i o n . W h e n e v e r t r a -d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , c o n s i d e r e d 'en b l o c ' , put p e n to p a p e r , a l l the " f o r e i g n c o n d i t i o n s " of c r i t i c i s m m e n t i o n e d by F a b r e ( jealousy, p o l i t i c s , f r i e n d -s h i p , e t c . ) w e i g h e d v e r y h e a v i l y on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , these c r i t i c s w e r e f o r c e d to s u b o r d i n a t e c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and i m p a r t i a l c o m -m e n t a r y , to a d e l i b e r a t e and e m o t i o n a l s e a r c h for those a s p e c t s of a w o r k w h i c h , for one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , i n t e r e s t e d t h e m . " A r t for A r t ' s s a k e " was u n k n o w n to the m a j o r i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . 57 C H A P T E R II C R I T I C I S M A S A N A E S T H E T I C D I S C I P L I N E . In o u r f i r s t c h a p t e r , we a t t e m p t e d to show why a n d i n what m a n n e r e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e w e r e the d r i v i n g f o r c e s b e h i n d t r a -d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . P r i n c i p l e s h a v i n g n o t h i n g to do w i t h l i t e r a t u r e so of-ten e n t e r e d into c o m m e n t a r i e s that c r i t i c i s m was n o n - e x i s t e n t as a p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c g e n r e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 19th C e n t u r y when p a t r i o t i s m was the o r d e r of the day, e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and p r a i s e left l i t t l e r o o m for o b j e c t i v i t y and i m -p a r t i a l i t y . Y e t , these l a t t e r q u a l i t i e s w e r e p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f o r m of c l a s s i c i s m , b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s , the m a j o r l i n k s b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s . One ought not to i m a g i n e that D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , the r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of a e s t h e t i c i s m i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m r e s t r i c t t h e m s e l v e s to c l a s s i c i s m , b i o g r a p h y and h i s t o r y as c r i t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . N o r s h o u l d one b e l i e v e that e x c e s s i v e b l a m e a n d e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e h a v e c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m the f i e l d of c r i t i c i s m . E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of h i m s e l f as a " c r i t i q u e d ' h u m e u r s " * is i n d i c a t i v e of s o m e e m o t i o n a l i s m and p a r t i a l i t y i n h i s c r i t i c i s m . M o r e o v e r , b e c a u s e i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e s to n e e d e n c o u r -a g e m e n t and s u r v e i l l a n c e , p r a i s e and b l a m e i n e x c e s s r e m a i n a f e a t u r e 58 of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m . H o w e v e r , u n l i k e i n p a s t c e n t u r i e s , this f e a -t u r e h a s b e e n a s s i g n e d to its r i g h t f u l p l a c e at the b o t t o m of the c r i t i c a l l a d d e r . If t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a l i n k b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m -p o r a r y c r i t i c s , ther;e is a l s o a d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e m f r o m e a c h o t h e r . O u r o v e r a l l p u r p o s e i n this c h a p t e r is to m e a s u r e this d i s t a n c e . D u -h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s have r e n o u n c e d the p a t r i o t i c , r e g i o n a l i s . t i c and other n o n - l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n L i t e r a t u r e , the f o r m e r s e e k that w h i c h is u n i v e r s a l and h u m a n i s t i c . It is p a r t i c u l a r l y i n this s e n s e that one c a n put f o r w a r d s e r e n i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y as f o r c e s d i r e c t i n g the pens of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . T h e i r m e n t a l i t y is s u c h that i t r e f u s e s to be e n c l o s e d i n the c o m p a r t m e n t of c o n s e r v a t i s m and n e g a t i v e n e s s . T H E M A J O R L I N K S B E T W E E N T R A D I T I O N A L A N D C O N T E M P O R A R Y C R I T I C I S M F r o m V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d t h r o u g h P a m p h i l e L e m a y and C a m i l l e R o y to D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , c o n c e r n h a s a l w a y s b e e n s h o w n , i n t h e o r y as i n p r a c t i c e , for p u r i t y of f o r m . So constant has b e e n the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r e c i s e n e s s of v o c a b u l a r y , c l a r i t y of i d e a s , l o g i c a l , e l e g a n t a n d h a r m o n i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t of w o r k s , that one m a y s p e a k of 'the c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l of thought and a c t i o n ' i n c r i t i c i s m . C o n s i d e r for e x a m p l e V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d ' s t e c h n i q u e i n c r i t i c i s m . It c o n s i s t e d of two m a i n p a ^ t s . J a u t a r d p o i n t e d out to h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , the s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e d , i n d e l i c a t e , o b s c u r e and g r a m m a -t i c a l l y i n c o r r e c t s t y l e , ( o m i s s i o n , of p u n c t u a t i o n m a r k s and a c c e n t s , 59 i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g , inopportune use of latin) In frequently citing B o i l e a u , J a u t a r d also r e m i n d e d his colleagues that s t y l i s t i c p e r f e c t i o n , as the p r o -g r e s s i o n f r o m c r a w l i n g to walking, is achieved only by effort and by de-grees. In his attempt to have his contemporaries w r i t e (and speak) "sea-vamment" the F r e n c h language Jautard, as Du B e l l a y b e f o r e him, .was aware of the menace of domination posed by a f o r e i g n language. In l e a -fing through L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e one is so frequently confronted by L a -ti n , albeit used p r e t e n t i o u s l y and i n c o r r e c t l y , that i s understandable why Jau t a r d singled it out as the element most destructive to the e s t a b l i s h -ment of F r e n c h in its r i g h t f u l place in 18th Century l i t e r a t u r e . On one o c c a s i o n the c r i t i c spoke in these t e r m s "Aux Jeunes E m u l e s de Sciences": Je vois avec r e g r e t que vous n'avez aucune connaissance de l a V e r s i f i c a t i o n F r a n c a i s e , et que vous n'en r e c e v e z aucun p r i n c i p e ; cependant vous apprenez l e s Regies de l a V e r s i f i -cation L a t i n e . L'Eneide de V i r g i l e me flatte, m ais l'Henriade de V o l t a i r e m'enchante, j'admire les Satyres d'Horace et son A r t Poetique; m a i s les Satyres de B o i l e a u , et son A r t Poetique font en m o i une i m p r e s s i o n bien plus forte et plus agreable. On connait beaucoup mieux les beautes de s a langue n a t u r e l l e que celles d'une langue qu'on ne peut connaTtre qu ' imparfa i te -ment. In his condemnation of L a t i n , J a u t a r d was as j u s t i f i e d as was E t h i e r -3 B l a i s in his s t r i c t u r e s against "le j o u a l . " The m a j o r i t y of Jautard's colleagues thought of themselves as educated and budding w r i t e r s as soon as they were capable of understanding L a t i n and introducing i t into their v e r s e . T h e r e a f t e r the laws governing poetic composition were forgotten in favour of a r e l e n t l e s s quest for i m m o r t a l i t y in l i t e r a t u r e . Jautard, a F r e n c h m a n by b i r t h , obviously b e l i e v e d that sameness of 60 s p i r i t b e t w e e n h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n b r o t h e r s and the i n h a b i t a n t s of F r e n c h C a n a d a ought n e v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of w r i t i n g , to be d e s t r o y e d b y p h y s i c a l m i l i e u and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . T y p i c a l of the c r i t i c ' s c o n c e r n w i t h p u r i t y of f o r m is this c o m m e n -t a r y to " L e J e u n e M o n t r e a l i s t e C a n a d i e n , " c i t e d by M a r i o n : P e r m e t t e z - m o i de vous d i r e que v o t r e s t y l e est t r o p diffus; v o t r e l e t t r e est s e u l e m e n t en t r o i s p h r a s e s , dont deux sont a p e r t e de v u e , le L e c t e u r a o u b l i e le p r e m i e r m o t avant d ' a r r i v e r aux deux p o i n t s , et au point i l se t r o u v e en c h a m p p e r d u ; C ' e s t un defaut q u ' i l faut c o r r i g e r P o u r q u o i ces deux m o t s s u r p r i s e et e t o n n e m e n t ? Ils sont s i n o n i m e s , u n s e u l s u f f i s o i t . II n ' e t o i t p a s n e c e s s a i r e d ' a j o u -ter C a n a d i e n au m o t M o n t r e ' a l i s t e , q u i dit M o n t r e a l i s t e dit C a n a d i e n , M o n t r e a l f a i s a n t p a r t i e du C a n a d a . [ i t a l i c s i n the o r i g i n a l ] . C o m m e n t s of this type m a d e r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t to us a d e s i r e on J a u t a r d ' s p a r t to b r i n g the p r o s e of h i s e p o c h to the s a m e h e i g h t s a c h i e v e d i n 17«th C e n t u r y F r a n c e by M m e de S e v i g n e in l e t t e r w r i t i n g . T o " L e jeune C a n a d i e n p a t r i o t e " J a u t a r d w r o t e : " V o t r e style est l e g e r , c ' e s t le style e p i s t o l a i r e , vous p e n s e z t r e s - b i e n . " ( L a G a z e t t e l i t t e r a i r e , I V , 1778, p. 13) W h y ? B e c a u s e i n one of h i s p r o s e c o m p o s i t i o n s , the l a t t e r h a d shown r e f i n e m e n t of t a s t e , s o u n d r e a s o n i n g and k n o w l e d g e of the F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . In the 19th C e n t u r y the v e r b o s i t y and s u m p t u o u s n e s s of F r e n c h R o -m a n t i c i s m w e r e p r e v a l e n t . ^ C r e m a z i e ^ spoke of the l i n g u i s t i c s e r v i t u d e to w h i c h " l a langue de B o s s u e t et de R a c i n e " t e n d e d to r e d u c e l o c a l a u -t h o r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s a P a t r i o t l i k e P a m p h i l e L e m a y f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that c l a s s i c i s m was the o n l y l i n g u i s t i c s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c -t u a l d e c a d e n c e : 61 L e d e v o i r de nos e c r i v a i n s , est a u s s i de b i e n a p p r e n d r e cette langue s u p e r b e [ le f r a n c a i s ) que t r o p d ' h o m m e s n e g l i g e n t i m -p r u d e m m e n t , a f in de l ' e c r i r e dans s a p u r e t e , et de l a t r a n s -m e t t r e dans son i n t e g r i t e 7 [ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l ) . L e m a y ' s b e l i e f i n w o r k s b a s e d on l o c a l s u b s t a n c e and r e p o s i n g on a c l a s s i c a l f o r m was s h a r e d b y H e n r i d ' A r l e s . In h i s d i s c o u r s e on F r e n c h c u l t u r e and the benefi ts of l i n g u i s t i c u n i f i c a t i o n , the l a t t e r a f f i r m e d : Je r e p e t e que, en cette s p h e r e c o m m e dans l ' a u t r e , l a c u l t u r e c l a s s i q u e s e r a p o u r n o t r e r a c e une s o u r c e de r e g e n e r a t i o n . Init ies au gSnie de n o t r e langue p a r une longue f r e q u e n t a t i o n des m o d u l e s , en p o s s e s s i o n de tous s e s s e c r e t s a u g u s t e s , nos h o m m e s i n s t r u i t s se d o n n e r o n t p o u r r o l e d ' e n p r o c l a m e r l e s d r o i t s et de f a i r e d e s c e n d r e j u s q u ' a u x d e r n i e r e s c o u c h e s p o -p u l a i r e s le r e s p e c t et l ' a m o u r de n o t r e p a r l e r E t p o u r en v e n i r a une c o n c l u s i o n , l a c u l t u r e c l a s s i q u e , c o n -s e r v a t r i c e de n o t r e S m e , s a u v e g a r d e de n o t r e l a n g a g e , doit s ' e p a n o u i r c h e z nous en des o e u v r e s l i t t e r a i r e s q u i p o r t e n t / Q n o t r e e m p r e i n t e s p e c i a l e . F o r H e n r i d ' A r l e s , as for L e m a y and J a u t a r d , l i n g u i s t i c c h a r i t y b e -gan at h o m e ; h o m e was to be found in 17th C e n t u r y F r a n c e . P a r t i c u l a r l y a m o n g s t t r a d i t i o n a l 20th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s an effort was m a d e to s t r e n g t h e n the l i n g u i s t i c t ies e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n F r e n c h C a n a d a and m e t r o p o l i t a n F r a n c e . D a n t i n , H a r v e y , H e b e r t and R o y a l l s h a r e d the o p i n i o n that F r e n c h i n its c l a s s i c a l f o r m w a s a u n i v e r s a l i n s t r u m e n t w e l l - s u i t e d to the n e e d s of F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e . D a n t i n , f o r e x a m p l e , c l a i m e d : . II ne peut y a v o i r deux l a n g u e s f r a n c h i s e s n o t a b l e m e n t d i v e r s e s ; et ce s e r a toujours P a r i s , et non M o n t r e a l ou S h e r b r o o k e , q u i d e v r a d i r e le d e r n i e r m o t s u r ce q u i est f r a n g a i s et ce q u i ne l ' e s t p a s . M a i s cette r e g e n c e ii •'.impose aucune s e r v i t u d e . ^ T o D a n t i n the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w e r e e v i d e n t . T h e l i n g u i s t i c d e p e n -d e n c y on F r a n c e f e a r e d by C r e m a z i e was- " l o g i c a l " and "of n e c e s s i t y ,. i n t r i n s i c . " It was i m p o r t a n t to a l s o m a i n t a i n "the e s s e n t i a l unity." b e -tween F r a n c e and F r e n c h C a n a d a ; those a u t h o r s l i k e P e l l e t i e r and G r i g -n o n , 10 t 0 w h o m "le c a n a d i a n i s m e i n t e g r a l " was n e c e s s a r y , s h o u l d s e e k it b y p r a c t i s i n g "le f r a n c a i s i n t e g r a l . " (op. c i t . , p p . 172-77) One u n d e r s t a n d s t h e r e f o r e why D a n t i n r e j e c t e d * * " r i m e s i m p r o v i s e e s et i n c o r r e c t e s , " " v e r b e s en g u e r r e a v e c l e u r sujet, " " p e r i o d e s aux c l a u -s u l e s d i s j o i n t e s , " " e l i s i o n s i n c o n n u e s a l a m e t r i q u e , " m a n i f e s t i n the p o e t r y of S i m o n e R o u t i e r . T h e r e a d e r c o m p r e h e n d s a l s o why the c r i t i c spoke of "le don et s c i e n c e du l a n g a g e , " " l a s i m p l i c i t e p r i n c i e r e et p r o -d i g u e " of F r e r e M a r i e - V i c t o r i n , * ^ "un de nos s c r i b e s l e s m i e u x d o u e s , un de nos p l u s r a f f i n e s s t y l i s t e s . " ( G l o s e s c r i t i q u e s , p. 19) It is b e c a u s e the n o v e l i s t , u n l i k e S i m o n e R o u t i e r , c o n f o r m e d to that " s p l e n d e u r v i v a n t e de l a f o r m e " b y w h i c h D a n t i n d e s c r i b e d s t y l e . So d i d A l p h o n s e B e a u r e g a r d of w h o m D a n t i n w r o t e : II a p r o u v e q u ' u n C a n a d i e n , a u s s i b i e n q u ' u n a u t r e , p o u v a i t , dans u n f r a n c a i s de F r a n c e , ([italics not i n the o r i g i n a l ^ s ' a t t a -quer aux i d e e s g e n e r a l e s , c a p t i v e r l ' h a r m o n i e s e c r e t e des c h o s e s , a u s c u l t e r et n o t e r l e s p u l s a t i o n s i n t i r h e s du c o e u r . P a r l a , et sans p r e j u d i c e au m e r i t e de s e s d e v a n c i e r s , i l nous fait b i e n m e s u r e r tout le c h e m i n p a r c o u r u p a r n o t r e p o e s i e depuis C r e m a z i e et F r e c h e t t e . D a n t i n r e m i n d s the r e a d e r of V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d c o r r e c t i n g the g r a m -m a t i c a l l y w r o n g e s s a y s of " L e J e u n e M o n t r e a l i s t e C a n a d i e n , " and p r a i -s i n g the c l a s s i c a l p r o s e of " L e J e u n e C a n a d i e n P a t r i o t e . It i s not an e x a g g e r a t i o n to state that, f r o m a s t y l i s t i c v i e w p o i n t , H a r v e y , M a r i o n (at l e a s t i n E n f e u i l l e t a n t nos e c r i v a i n s ) and C a m i l l e R o y c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r w o r k s to p r o v e that the f i r s t q u a l i t i e s of the F r e n c h language a r e c l a r i t y and p u r i t y . 63 H a r v e y , b e c a u s e he thought of Q u e b e c as a " F r e n c h p r o v i n c e , " p o i n t e d to the a b s e n c e of p u n c t u a t i o n , a r c h a i c e x p r e s s i o n s , c a n a d i a n i s m s and a n g l i c i s m s as i n s t a n c e s of l i n g u i s t i c i m p u r i t y , to be a v o i d e d at a l l c o s t s . In h i s a r t i c l e " N o t r e langue e c r i t e , " the c r i t i c s t a t e d f i r m l y that h i s c o m p a t r i o t s w e r e c a p a b l e of w r i t i n g a language i d e n t i c a l to that of m e t r o p o l i t a n a u t h o r s ; m o r e o v e r , he b e l i e v e d that it was the duty of the f o r m e r to do so: Je c r o i s m e m e p o s s i b l e que, le j o u r ou n o t r e p a r l e r e g a l e r a c e l u i de l ' a n c i e n n e m e r e p a t r i e , nos l i v r e s d e v i e n d r o n t l e s h e u r e u x r i v a u x de nos a i n e s . ^ E l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1937, the c r i t i c thus r e a f f i r m e d h i s b e l i e f : D a n s tout p a y s , s u r t o u t dans u n p a y s c o m m e le n o t r e , l a p r e -m i e r e m a t i ^ r e a e n s e i g n e r a l ' e n f a n t , c ' e s t l a l a n g u e m a t e r -n e l l e , g e n e r a t r i c e d ' i d e e s , de bons sens et de c l a r t e . ^ L i k e D a n t i n , H a r v e y r e c a l l s to o u r m i n d V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d p r o f e s s i n g that the b e a u t i e s of o n e ' s m o t h e r tongue c a n be m o r e r e a d i l y and m o r e t h o r o u g h l y a s s i m i l a t e d than those of a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . In E n f e u i l l e t a n t nos e c r i v a i n s , M a r i o n s o l i c i t s h i s r e a d e r s ' a t t e n -t i o n t h r o u g h the i n t e r m e d i a r y of a p r e c i s e v o c a b u l a r y and a s i m p l e , c l e a r style w i t h i n the g r a s p of the a v e r a g e m a n . In the s a m e w o r k the c r i t i c h e s i t a t e s to a c c e p t " les a r c h a i s m e s s a v o u r e u x a. l a B r u n e t i e r e , " " les v o c a b l e s r a r e s , " and " les n e o l o g i s m e s d ' u n gout douteux, " o b s e r v e d i n M a u r i c e H e b e r t ' s D e L i v r e s en l i v r e s . M a r i o n p r o f e s s e s : ces p e r i o d e s h e r i s s e e s d ' i n e i d e n t e s p e u v e n t p l a i r e aux gens du N o r d , m a i s ne d e v r a i e n t pas ©tre p r o p o s e e s en e x e m p l e aux F r a n c a i s a m o u r e u x de c l a r t e et de c o n c i s i o n . ^ H e b e r t ' s style does tend at t i m e s to be i n v o l v e d and h e r m e t i c ; yet it i s of i n t e r e s t to note that he h i m s e l f , f r o m the p o i n t of v i e w of s t y l e , 64 was as f e r v e n t a c l a s s i c i s t as J a u t a r d and M a r i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , H e b e r t g ives h i s a p p r o v a l to the " c o u r t s e n s e m b l e s , f o r t s o i g n e s , t r e s s e r r e s , t r e s v u s , " to the " p l a n a r r e t e " of the n o v e l L a M a i s o n v i d e . In h i s o p i n -i o n , these q u a l i t i e s of H a r r y B e r n a r d r e f l e c t "une langue c h a t i e e - q u i nous r e p o s e de ces l a c h e s t i s s u s de p h r a s e s m o l l e s que l ' o n nous a fait p a r f o i s 18 l i r e c h e z n o u s . " M o r e o v e r , i n s h o w i n g h i s d i s f a v o u r w i t h the p r e s e n c e of c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s a l o n g s i d e those of the n o v e l i n R o b e r t de R o q u e b r u n e ' s D ' u n O c e a n a 1'autre, H e b e r t u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y i m p r e s s e s on our m i n d V o l t a i r e ' s l i f e l o n g fight a g a i n s t the p r e s e n c e of c o m e d y and t r a -gedy together i n "le d r a m e b o u r g e o i s " and in " l a c o m e d i e l a r m o y a n t e . " P e r h a p s the b e s t e x a m p l e of c l a s s i c i s m at w o r k i n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i -c i s m is s e e n in the w r i t i n g s of C a m i l l e R o y . B y its e l e g a n t s i m p l i c i t y , R o y ' s s t y l e is f a r - r e m o v e d f r o m the f l o w e r y , c i r c u m l o c u t o r y p r o s e of I 'abbe C a s g r a i n . B e s i d e s R o y r e c o g n i z e d that t h e r e a r e " r u l e s of s t y l e , " w h i c h a w r i t e r ought to o b s e r v e . T h e c r i t i c ' s t a s k , i n p a r t , is to e n s u r e that these r u l e s a r e not b r o k e n : P u i s q u ' i l est r e c o n n u que l ' a r t de l a c o m p o s i t i o n est ce q u i d i s t i n g u e le l i v r e f r a n g a i s , et l u i donne s o n i n c o n t e s t a b l e su;-p e r i o r i t e de f a c t u r e , i l faut b i e n que nos e c r i v a i n s c a n a d i e n s , e v e i l l a n t en eux tous l e s i n s t i n c t s t r a d i t i o n n e l s de l a r a c e , e s s a i e n t a l e u r t o u r de s ' e m p a r e r de cet a r t , de l a f a i r e p a s s e r et t r i o m p h e r dans l e u r s o e u v r e s . E t s ' i l s y echouent q u e l q u e -f o i s , i l s d o i v e n t s o u f f r i r q u ' o n l e s en a v e r t i s s e . In v i e w of R o y ' s f i r m a t t a c h m e n t to ' l a w s ' of good w r i t i n g , it is not s u r p r i s i n g that he c a s t i g a t e s S i m o n e R o u t i e r i n these g e n e r a l t e r m s on h e r o b s c u r i t y of s ty le and h e r i n c o r r e c t u s e of g r a m m a r : L a p o e s i e f r a n c a i s e doit e t r e faite s u r t o u t de clarte". O n exige du poete de langue f r a n c a i s e q u ' i l m o n t e et v o l e dans l a l u m i e r e . N o t r e langue est a i n s i faite q u ' e l l e ne se p r e t e p a s aux p e n s e e s 65 r e c h e r c h e le r e V e q u i In E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c o n d e m n a t i o n of "le j o u a l , " it is not d i f f i c u l t to see a l l the a s p e c t s of J a u t a r d ' s fight a g a i n s t L a t i n , D a n t i n ' s o p p o s i t i o n to "le c a n a d i a n i s m e i n t e g r a l , " and C a m i l l e R o y ' s d i s l i k e for o b s c u r i t y of s t y l e . In a l l t h r e e v o l u m e s of S i g n e t s , E t h i e r - B l a i s states that a n g l i c i s m s s h o u l d be absent f r o m the s p e e c h and w r i t i n g of the e l i t e . T h i s is the m o s t e f f e c -t ive m e a n s of a s s u r i n g that the a v e r a g e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n e m p l o y s h i s . l a n -guage s i m p l y , p u r e l y and e l e g a n t l y , i n s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e . In Signets II f o r e x a m p l e , the c r i t i c , i n s p e a k i n g of the F r e n c h l a n g u a g e , s t r e s s e s the i d e a that "nous s o m m e s p a r e l l e et nous ne s o m m e s que p a r e l l e . . . , e l l e est b i e n , a nos y e u x , un v e r i t a b l e ' d i m i d i u m a n i m a e n o s -21 t r a e . ' " In S i g n e t s III E t h i e r - B l a i s is e v e n m o r e f o r c e f u l : J e v e u x d i r e que c ' e s t p a r l a p e r f e c t i o n r e c h e r c h e e du l a n g a g e , et non p a r de g r i v o i s e s s i m u l a t i o n s U n g u i s t ique s, que l e s f o r c e s c e n t r i p e t e s de l a n a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e se r a s s e m b l e n t y 22 * b i e n m a l g r e e l l e s . T h e r e a d e r is v i v i d l y r e m i n d e d of D a n t i n ' s b e l i e f that F r e n c h is " o u r i n s t r u m e n t of e x p r e s s i o n , " w h e n E t h i e r - B l a i s s u g g e s t s that, i n w r i t i n g , p r i d e and a t a v i s m ("ces m o b i l e s affectifs") be r e p l a c e d b y " m o t i v e s of i n t e r e s t . " E t h i e r - B l a i s p r o f e s s e s : N o u s ne d e m e u r e r o n s Francais en A m e r i q u e n i p a r c e que n o t r e n i v e a u de v i e s e r a u n j o u r c e l u i des A m e r i c a i n s , n i p a r c e que nous c o n t i n u e r o n s pendant u n s i e c l e e n c o r e a p a r l e r une langue de petits b l a n c s qui r o u l e n t e a r r o s s e ; nous le d e m e u r e r o n s s i l a langue f r a n c a i s e (et n o n c e l l e q u i est en u s a g e au Q u e b e c . a u j o u r d ' h u i ) nous d e v i e n t n e e e s s a i r e , et done n a t u r e l l e . II faut p o u r c e l a , au p r e m i e r chef, une s e r i e de p l a n s d ' e c h a n g e e n t r e le Q u e b e c et l a F r a n c e , a tous l e s n i v e a u x , q u i p e r -m e t t e n t au p l u s g r a n d n o m b r e p o s s i b l e de C a n a d i e n s f r a n g a i s , p r o f e s s e u r s en p a r t i c u l i e r , de se r e t r o u v e r dans u n langage o b s c u r e s , et n o t r e e s p r i t e s t de tel le s o r t e q u ' i l t o u j o u r s l a p e n s e e p r e c i s e et, quand i l y a r e v e , se r e s o u t en s y m p o l e s ["sic"] a c c e s s i b l e s . ^ q u i s o i t f r a n c a i s . c : > F r o m the p a s s a g e s c i t e d a b o v e , it w o u l d a p p e a r that E t h i e r - B l a i s is c o n v i n c e d that F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s m u s t s t r i v e to r e m a i n F r e n c h m e n at a l l c o s t s . T o a c h i e v e s u c h a g o a l the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a m u s t s t r e n g t h e n , on a c u l t u r a l l e v e l , the s p i r i t u a l b r i d g e j o i n i n g F r e n c h C a n a d a to F r a n c e . One c a n t h e r e f o r e a p p r e c i a t e the fact that E t h i e r - B l a i s , e v e n as J a u t a r d , D a n t i n , R o y a n d M a r i o n b e f o r e h i m , is not p r e p a r e d to i g n o r e , or to t r e a t l i g h t l y the s t y l i s t i c d e f i c i e n c i e s of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . N o t only does the c r i t i c t h e o r i z e on the benefi ts of " p u r e l a n g u a g e " and the s e a r c h t h e r e f o r , he a l s o c l a s s i f i e s P a u l T o u p i n as a " l i b r e e s p r i t " w h o , by h i s s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y , has m a n a g e d to f o r g e a path of p u r i t y " a t r a v e r s l ' h o r r e u r g r a m m a t i c a l e de n o t r e m i l i e u ! ' : II se c o m p o s e u n u n i v e r s d ' e c r i t u r e fait de l ' h a r m o n i e i n t i m e des p e n s e e s , des m o t s q u i les t r a d u i s e n t et du r y t h m e savant q u i l e s u n i t l e s u n s aux a u t r e s . P a u l T o u p i n c r o i t a v e c f o r c e que l ' e c r i t u r e e s t le p l u s h u m a i n des a r t s , que le s t y l e , c ' e s t l a v i o l e n c e que l ' e c r i v a i n se fait a l u i - m e m e et que le n e c p l u s u l t r a de l ' a r t , c ' e s t toujours le d e p o u i l l e m e n t . T h i s c o m m e n t m a y be a p p l i e d to the style of E t h i e r - B l a i s h i m s e l f . T h e c r i t i c ' s c l a r i t y of e x p r e s s i o n , f i r m n e s s of h a n d , and e l e g a n c e of v o c a b u l a r y (these q u a l i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t i n the above quotations) a r e r e -m i n i s c e n t of D a n t i n ' s " s p l e n d e u r v i v a n t e de l a f o r m e . " In s h o r t E t h i e r -B l a i s ' a r t c o r r o b o r a t e s h i s t h e o r i e s on language and style and s e r v e s as a p o s i t i v e e x a m p l e of the " g r a m m a t i c a l h o r r o r " to be a v o i d e d by l o c a l a u t h o r s . R o g e r D u h a m e l m a y not have m a d e e x p l i c i t p r o n o u n c e m e n t s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c l a s s i c a l a p p r o a c h to w r i t i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it is p e r h a p s i n d i c a t i v e of h i s c l a s s i c a l m e n t a l i t y (as f a r as l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i -t i o n is c o n c e r n e d ) that he c h o s e i n L i t t e r a t u r e and L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n - c a i s to d i s c u s s at length w r i t e r s s u c h as L a B r u y ^ r e , R a c i n e , J o s e p h de M a i s t r e , L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d and P a s c a l . T h e y w e r e a l l p u r i s t s . O n a l -m o s t e v e r y o c c a s i o n that D u h a m e l m a k e s a f a v o u r a b l e c o m m e n t on s t y l e , m e n t i o n is m a d e of c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n . H e p o i n t s out that L a B r u y e r e : A fait p o u r l a p r o s e de s o n t e m p s l a r e v o l u t i o n de V i c t o r H u g o p o u r l ' a l e x a n d r i n , deux s i e e l e s p l u s t a r d . II l ' a a s s o u p l i e , c o u p S e , s i m p l i f i e ' e en ses d i v e r s e l e m e n t s . D ' o u le tour r a p i d e , c u r s if, v o i r e e'lliptique de s a p h r a s e . ^ Why is F r a n c o i s de S a l e s "un g r a n d e p i s t o l i e r , " "un b o n o u v r i e r du style f r a n c a i s ? " A c c o r d i n g to D u h a m e l , it i s b e c a u s e h i s l a n g u a g e is l i m p i d , h i s s e n t e n c e s w e l l - b a l a n c e d . ( L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p p . 42-47) J o -s e p h de M a i s t r e h e l p e d to c r e a t e "le g r a n d j o u r n a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , " b e c a u s e of the v e r v e , m o v e m e n t and c l a r i t y of h i s s t y l e . (Ibid. , p p . 140-141) In A u r e l i a , D u h a m e l s e e s "une c l a r t e du style q u i fait de ce l i v r e un e n c h a n t e m e n t r e e l . " T h e s e a r e but a few i n s t a n c e s of D u h a m e l ' s a d m i r a t i o n for w r i t i n g that is c l e a r , w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d and d e v o i d of f r i l l s . T h e e a s y r e a d i n g a f f o r d e d by h i s c r i t i c a l w o r k s is p e r h a p s the b e s t c o m m e n t a r y on h i s c l a s s i c a l m e n t a l i t y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . One c a n h a r d l y s p e a k of 'the i n f l u e n c e ' of J a u t a r d on D a n t i n , R o y o r H e b e r t . It w o u l d be an e x a g g e r a t i o n to i n f e r that the l a t t e r have i n f l u e n c e d E t h i e r - B l a i s or D u h a m e l . Y e t , when the c l a s s i c a l d o g m a t i s m of J a u t a r d and R o y is c o m p a r e d w i t h the m o r e subtle a p p r e c i a t i o n s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , one n o t i c e s a s a m e n e s s of s p i r i t , m a n i f e s t in the e m p h a s i s 68 p l a c e d on what H a r v e y c a l l e d "cette c h o s e r a r e , " the a r t of good w r i t i n g . U n l i k e C r e m a z i e who f e a r e d the d o m i n a n t effect that " R a c i n e ' s and B o s s u e t ' s l a n g u a g e " m i g h t have h a d on F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , J a u t a r d , L e -m a y , C a m i l l e R o y and E t h i e r - B l a i s c o n s i d e r e d ( E t h i e r - B l a i s s t i l l does) c l a s s i c a l F r e n c h to be the only m e a n s of a t t a i n i n g s t y l i s t i c p e r f e c t i o n . T h e s e c r i t i c s of 'the c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l of thought and a c t i o n ' " a s p i r e d to the c r e a t i o n of w o r k s r e s p e c t i n g the l a w s of good l i n g u i s t i c t a s t e . H a d s o m e o n e a s k e d t h e m 'why and for w h o m does one w r i t e ? ', it is c o n c e i v a b l e that they w o u l d have r e p l i e d i n this m a n n e r : to e x p r e s s in an e l e g a n t , yet e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d l a n g u a g e o n e ' s p e r s o n a l thoughts; i t is t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y to e m p l o y a language u n i v e r s a l in its a p p e a l , e s t a b -l i s h e d in i ts 1 r e n o w n , if one is to i m p r e s s the r e a d i n g p u b l i c . F o r e v e r y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a u t h o r , that language m u s t be F r e n c h in a l l its r i c h and p u r e s i m p l i c i t y . C l a s s i c i s m a p a r t , the m o s t v i s i b l e t ie e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n c o n t e m p o r a r y and t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s is that of b i o g r a p h i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . C a s g r a i n , C a m i l l e R o y , D u h a m e l and to a l e s s e r extent E t h i e r - B l a i s h a v e a l l u p h e l d i n t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n s , S a i n t e - B e u v e ' s m a x i m : " t e l a r b r e , t e l f r u i t . " C o n s i d e r f i r s t of a l l C a s g r a i n . A s s u g g e s t e d by t h e i r t i t l e s , C a s -g r a i n ' s " B i o g r a p h i e s " a r e b a s e d on an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a u t h o r ' s l i f e as it affected h i s w o r k s . C h i l d h o o d , a c a d e m i c f o r m a t i o n , f a m i l y , 69 r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l m i l i e u a r e a l l f a c t o r s to w h i c h the c r i t i c g i v e s i m -p o r t a n c e in h i s effort to d e t e r m i n e an a u t h o r ' s w o r t h and h i s p l a c e i n l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e . In d i s c u s s i n g L a u r e C o n a n ' s n o v e l A n g e l i n e de M o n t -b r u n , C a s g r a i n c o m e s to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : E n un m o t , c ' e s t u n l i v r e dont on s o r t c o m m e d'une e g l i s e , l e r e g a r d au c i e l , l a p r i e r e s u r l e s l e v r e s , l ' a m ^ ^ p l e i n e de c l a r -tes et les v ^ t e m e n t s tout i m p r e g n e s d ' e n c e n s . T h e c r i t i c f inds an e x p l a n a t i o n for the r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m of the n o v e l i n the a u t h o r ' s l i f e . A c c o r d i n g to h i m , L a u r e C o n a n was s t e e p e d i n s u c h g r e a t F r e n c h m o r a l i s t s as B o s s u e t , F e n e l o n and L a c o r d a i r e ; she was r a i s e d i n a h o m e w h e r e l o v e , t r a n q u i l i t y a n d s p i r i t u a l p e a c e w e r e r e v e r e d ; she w r o t e at a m o m e n t when C a t h o l i c i s m was t h r e a t e n e d by p r o t e s t a n t i s m . ( O e u v r e s c o m p l e t e s , I p p . 413-425) F o r C a s g r a i n , L a u r e C o n a n ' s w o r k is m o r a l i s t i c b e c a u s e she t r a n s p o s e d h e r p e r s o n a l ' e x p e r i e n c e s to i t . In l i k e m a n n e r C a s g r a i n c o n s i d e r s the A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i a n F r a n c i s P a r k m a n to have c o m p i l e d h i s w o r k t h r o u g h a " p r e c o n c e i v e d s y s t e m " of j u d g m e n t n a m e l y , p r o t e s t a n t i s m . S u c h a " p r i m o r d i a l i n f l u e n c e " i n P a r k -m a n ' s l i f e is to be s e e n in the n u m e r o u s c a l u m n i e s , and " u n t r u t h f u l s t o -r i e s " i n s p i r e d by h a t r e d and v e n g e a n c e , that const i tute P a r k m a n ' s h i s -t o r i c a l w o r k . C a s g r a i n t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s that P a r k m a n ' s h i s t o r y on F r e n c h C a n a d a , b e c a u s e it is so i n s p i r e d by the a u t h o r ' s p r o t e s t a n t b i a s , m u s t be r e a d c a r e f u l l y and not a c c e p t e d as fact i n its e n t i r e t y . (Ibid. , p p . 376-397) -In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s , G a r n e a u and F e r l a n d , C a s g r a i n t u r n s h i s attention m o r e to g e o g r a p h i c and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s than to 70 b i o g r a p h y . In the c a s e of G a r n ' e a u , the c r i t i c h i m s e l f c a s t s a b a c k w a r d g l a n c e to the e r a when G a r n e a u b e g a n h i s h i s t o r y , a r o u n d 1840. T h i s g l a n c e affords C a s g r a i n the o p p o r t u n i t y to b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e G a r n e a u ' s v i e w of h i s t o r y . T h e c o n s u m m a t i o n of the U n i o n of b o t h C a n a d a s i n 1840, the attendant s u p r e m a c y of the E n g l i s h i n the p o l i t i c a l , l i t e r a r y a n d s o c i o -e c o n o m i c f i e l d s , a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d as e x p l a n a t i o n s for the " e r r o r s of a p p r e c i a t i o n , " l o y a l l y c o m m i t t e d by G a r n e a u . C a s g r a i n a r r i v e s at this c o n c l u s i o n : L ' h e u r e etait done s o l e h n e l l e p o u r r e m o n t e r v e r s le p a s s e , et le s o u v e n i r des d a n g e r s q u i m e n a ^ a i e n t l a s o c i e t e c a n a -dienne p r $ t e un i n t e r ^ t d r a m a t i q u e a ses r e c i t s . O n y sent quelque c h o s e de cette e m o t i o n du v o y a g e u r a s s a i l l i p a r l a t e m -pe*te au m i l i e u de l ' O c e a n , et q u i , v o y a n t le n a v i r e en p e r i l , t r a c e q u e l q u e s l i g n e s d ' a d i e u , q u ' i l jette a l a m e r , p o u r l a i s s e r a p r e s l u i un s o u v e n i r C e coup d ' o e i l jete s u r l ' e p o q u e peut s e r v i r a e x p l i q u e r , s i n o n a j u s t i f i e r , c e r t a i n e s e r r e u r s d ' a p p r e c i a t i o n que l ' a u t e u r a d ' a i l l e u r s l o y a l e m e n t r e c o n n u e s p l u s t a r d : i l l u s i o n d'une a m e g e n e r e u s e , que l a v e r i t e r e f u t e , m a i s q u ' e l l e r e s p e c t e et h o n o r e . ^ In v i e w of the fact that m o s t 19th C e n t u r y w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r e d l i t e r -a t u r e as b e i n g the e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i e t y ( e s p e c i a l l y of the h e r o i c and r e -l i g i o u s past) i t is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e that C a s g r a i n s h o u l d thus have o b j e c t i v e -ly r e c r e a t e d the h i s t o r i c a l a t m o s p h e r e of G a r n e a u ' s w o r k , in an attempt to e x p r e s s s o m e a d m i r a t i o n for the l a t t e r ' s "faculte m a v t r e s s e , " p a t r i -o t i s m . D e s p i t e the c u r r e n t of p a t r i o t i s m w h i c h p e r v a d e s the m a j o r i t y of h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n s , it is p o s s i b l e to p e r c e i v e in C a s g r a i n ' s w o r k a few of D u h a m e l ' s l i t e r a r y t r a i t s . P a r t i c u l a r l y when the f o r m e r c l a s s i f i e s G a r n e a u and F e r l a n d as "two r a c e s of h i s t o r i a n s , " 71 on w h o m " m i l i e u " and " c l i m a t e " have h a d the s a m e s p i r i t u a l effect, but a d i f f e r e n t one s t y l i s t i c a l l y , the r e a d e r is r e m i n d e d of D u h a m e l ' s u s e of 29 " p s y c h o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s " 7 as an e x p l a n a t i o n of the R o m a n t i c m o v e -m e n t . In the p a s s a g e w h i c h f o l l o w s C a s g r a i n e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n of a " s e c r e t and i n t i m a t e h a r m o n y " b e t w e e n m i l i e u a n d the m a n - a u t h o r it h e l p s to f o r m : C e u x q u i sont f a m i l i e r s a v e c le p a y s a g e de Q u e b e c , c o n n a i s s e n t le d e l i c i e u x p a r c o u r s de l a r i v i e r e S a i n t - C h a r l e s , a u s s i b i e n que l e s b o r d s a u t r e m e n t a c c i d e n t e s de l a r i v i e r e M o n t m o r e n c y . L a p r e m i e r e , q u i s e r p e n t e p a i s i b l e m e n t a t r a v e r s l e s v a l l o n s q u ' e l l e e m b e l l i t et f e r t i l i s e et q u i se jette sans b r u i t dans le f l e u v e , r a p p e l l e le talent f a c i l e , c a l m e et m o d e s t e de l ' a b b e F e r l a n d ; tandis que l a c o u r s e a r d e n t e , l ' a i r de s a u v a g e r i e du M o n t m o r e n c y , q u i se d e c h a r g e en e"cume, fait s o n g e r ^ l a m a -n i e r e p l u s U p r e , p l u s m o u v e m e n t e e de l ' h i s t o r i e n G a r n e a u . L ' u n et l ' a u t r e sont des s o u r c e s de s c i e n c e s et de p a t r i o t i s m e dignes de l a r e p u t a t i o n q u i l e u r a ete f a i t e . C a s g r a i n was j u s t i f i e d i n e m p l o y i n g the g e o g r a p h i c a l and c l i m a t i c d e t e r m i n i s m of M o n t e s q u i e u , M i c h e l e t and T a i n e as a m e a n s of a r r i v i n g at p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and l i t e r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . O n the one h a n d , it is u n d o u b t e d l y t r u e that F e r l a n d b e l o n g s to that " r a c e " of h i s -t o r i a n s w h o , i n c o m p i l i n g t h e i r w o r k , m a k e an effort to m a s k t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t y . G a r n e a u b e l o n g s to the " r a c e " w h i c h m a k e s its p e r s o n a l i t y felt , and at t i m e s , too often. O n the other h a n d , it is c o n c e i v a b l e that G a r n e a u and F e r l a n d , r e -m o v e d f r o m the s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l and p a t r i o t i c Q u e b e c known to t h e m , w o u l d b o t h h a v e b e e n i m b u e d w i t h a l i t e r a r y s p i r i t , d i f f e r e n t to the one w i t h w h i c h they w e r e endowed. U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , both h i s t o r i a n s w o u l d h a v e c o m p o s e d w o r k s not i n the l e a s t 72 s i m i l a r to t h e i r a c t u a l c r e a t i o n s . C a s g r a i n ' s i n s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e of the s u b t l e t i e s of c r i t i c i s m m a y have p r o m p t e d a few u n k i n d , yet astute, r e m a r k s by C a m i l l e R o y . N e v e r -t h e l e s s one a p p r e c i a t e s the affinity e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n b o t h c r i t i c s , when R o y h i m s e l f has r e c o u r s e to c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s to e x p l a i n the e l e g a n t , c l e a r and m e t h o d i c a l f o r m of p o e t r y w h i c h r e p l a c e d the gay and j o c u l a r i n s p i -r a t i o n of M e r m e t and Q u e s n e l : N o u s s o m m e s devenus p l u s g r a v e s , p l u s r e V e u r s , p l u s p r o -f o n d e m e n t p a s s i o n n e s p e u t-Htre, et p l u s m e l a n c o l i q u e s a des c e r t a i n e s h e u r e s , c o m m e i l c o n v i e n t a des gens du N o r d . E t des l o r s , i l etait n a t u r e l que l ' h i s t o i r e de l a p o e s i e c a n a d i e n n e fut s u r t o u t e c r i t e p a r de t e n d r e s l a m a r t i n i e n s c o m m e le doux J o s e p h L e n o i r , p a r des p a t r i o t e s e m u s et a r d e n t s c o m m e G a r -n e a u et C r e m a z i e , p a r des r.heteurs g r a n d i l o q u e n t s c o m m e M M . F r e c h e t t e et C h a p m a n , p a r des t o u r m e n t e s et des a t t r i s -te*s c o m m e M . E m i l e N e l l i g a n , p a r u n T h e o c r i t e m e d i t a t i f , a m a n t e p e r d u de nos a g r e s t e s p a y s a g e s , p a r une a m e tour a tour m y s t i q u e et p a s t o r a l e c o m m e c e l l e de M . P a m p h i l e L e -M a y . N o t o n l y is s u c h an a p p r e c i a t i o n w o r t h y of T.aine or M o n t e s q u i e u , i t is a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t of C a s g r a i n ' s s t u d i e s on G a r n e a u and F e r l a n d . It has the m e r i t of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a d i s t i n c t i v e state of m i n d , by t o u c h i n g u p o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n its u s e of s u c h t e r m s as " p a s s i o n n e s , " " t e n d r e s , " " e m u s et a r d e n t s , " " t o u r m e n t e s , " " a t t r i s t e s , " and " m e d i t a -t i f s. " Without a doubt, C a m i l l e R o y as C a s g r a i n , d i d not c o n s i d e r h i s t o r y , b i o g r a p h y and g e o g r a p h y u n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n h i s effort to c o m p r e h e n d the g e n e s i s , e v o l u t i o n and i n f l u e n c e of the l i t e r a t u r e on w h i c h he c h o s e to c o m m e n t . R o y h i m s e l f d e c l a r e s : P o u r p e n e t r e r une o e u v r e j u s q u ' e n ce fond des c h o s e s et p o u r l ' a p p r e c i e r le c r i t i q u e a u r a b e s o i n de s o r t i r de l u i-mSme; i l 73 lui faudra, un moment, s'abstraire de sa propre mentalite pour entrer loyalement en celle d'autrui, et y surprendre le motif, le pourquoi de ses opinions ou de ses jugements. Bien des causes peuvent expliquer l'originalite d'un auteur, son etat d'ame habituel, ou, comme on dit aujourd'hui, sa mentalite. Les influences de milieu, d'education de lectures et d'etudes pesent de tout leur poids, qui n'est pas leger, sur nos espr^s, les font s i divers, parfois si opposes ou s i con-traires. Much in the vein of Casgrain commenting on Angeline de Montbrun, Roy explains Le Pelerinage au pays d'Evangeline by the happy, peaceful, sprightly, aristocratic yet simple and religious atmosphere which sur-rounded Casgrain in his manor-house at Airvault. According to Roy, one would be lacking in perception in not seeing in Les Legendes the recreation, by Casgrain, of the wide-open spaces of the countryside and the springtime virginity of L a Riviere-Ouelle, birthplace of Casgrain himself. To Roy, Les Legendes also reflect the influence of patriotic authors on Casgrain. (Essais sur la litterature canadienne, p. 33) Where Duhamel is concerned there is no doubt that in Litterature he sought primarily to seize the qualities that have given universal appeal to authors such as Villon, Corneille, Racine, Verlaine and Rimbaud. The critic frequently writes of that which is "vivant pour nous. " To realize his purpose the critic often resorts, as did Casgrain and Roy, to biogra-phy and history. For example, Duhamel tells us that if Corneille the dramatist "sings of glory" and considered every human being capable of great acts, it is because Corneille the man was witness to and a product of the heroism of 74 h i s e p o c h , as r e f l e c t e d i n the w a r s of r e l i g i o n . ( L i t t e r a t u r e , p p . 17-22) R a c i n e , D u h a m e l s t a t e s , r e n o u n c e d the t h e a t r e after P h e d r e not n e c e s s a r i l y b e c a u s e of the e m e r g e n c e of Q u i n a u l t and the O p e r a or the f a i l u r e of P h e d r e i t s e l f . A c c o r d i n g to the c r i t i c , the m o r e p l a u s i b l e e x -p l a n a t i o n for this r e n u n c i a t i o n is a f f o r d e d b y R a c i n e ' s d e s i r e to m a r r y "une honnete f i l l e , " to found a m o n a s t e r y , to r e t u r n to the t e a c h i n g s of P o r t - R o y a l . In s h o r t , R a c i n e f o r e s a w the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the m a t e r -i a l i s t i c w o r l d of the stage w i t h a m a n who d e s i r e d to " f a i r e r e t o u r en l u i -m e m e . " (pp. 31-37) In " N e r v a l ou 1 'extrSme l i m i t e du r o m a n t i s m e " D u h a m e l shows that N e r v a l ' s s e m i - l u c i d i t y n u r t u r e d by h i s v i s i t s to G e r m a n y ( D u h a m e l c a l l s it the c o u n t r y of d r e a m s , m y t h o l o g y , e v a s i o n and m y s t e r i o u s c o r r e s p o n -dances) is r e f l e c t e d i n the r e v e r y and m a d n e s s u n d e r l y i n g the s t r u c t u r e and s u b s t a n c e of h i s w o r k : D a n s A u r e l i a , nous a s s i s t o n s a u n effort d e s e s p e r e d ' u n h o m m e q u i veut s ' e l e v e r a un a u t r e m o n d e et se d e g a g e r de s a p r i s o n c h a r n e l l e . II v i t dans un r e v e e v e i l l e , hante p a r l a v i s i o n d ' u n d o u b l e , et r e t r o u v a n t dans l e s u n i v e r s fantast iques q u i se r e -v e l e n t a l u i le p a s s a g e et l a p r e s e n c e d ' A u r e l i a , s y n t h e s e de s o n a m o u r p e r d u . If V e r l a i n e and R i m b a u d spoke of j o y , h a p p i n e s s and s o r r o w , it is b e c a u s e , as V i l l o n h a d done b e f o r e t h e m , these "poetes m a u d i t s " e x p e -r i e n c e d the w h o l e r a n g e of h u m a n e m o t i o n s , f r o m p h y s i c a l m i s e r y and i n n e r d i s t r e s s to e x u l t a t i o n and s p i r i t u a l h a p p i n e s s . D u h a m e l offers this b i o g r a p h i c a l l y o r i e n t e d r e s u m e " of R i m b a u d , poet of "Une s a i s o n en enfer 1 Son e x p e r i e n c e h u m a i n e est p l u s s i g n i f i c a t i v e que ses tentat ives d ' e c r i v a i n ; p l u s j u s t e m e n t , c ' e s t a t r a v e r s ses tentat ives d ' e c r i -v a i n q u ' o n s a i s i t l ' i m p o r t a n e e de s o n e x p e r i e n c e h u m a i n e . U n e S a i s o n en E n f e r n ' e s t pas un v a i n e x e r c i c e l i t t e r a i r e d 'un jeune h o m m e en m a l d ' e c r i r e , c ' e s t l a d e s c e n t e v e r t i g i n e u s e aux a b f m e s d'une a m e t o r t u r e e et q u i se sent abandonnee du m o n d e , des h o m m e s et de D i e u . ^ S u c h b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e found t h r o u g h o u t the w o r k of D u h a m e l ; they f u r n i s h p r o o f of the fact that the c r i t i c , i n a m a n n e r s i m i -l a r to C a s g r a i n ' s and R o y ' s , is not i n c l i n e d to t r e a t g r a t u i t o u s l y an a u -t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as they affect h i s w o r k . P e r h a p s , it is in h i s study on the g e n e s i s and e v o l u t i o n of F r e n c h R o m a n t i c i s m that D u -h a m e l ' s l i k e n e s s to h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s is m o s t a p p a r e n t . In h i s effort to c l a s s i f y a u t h o r s w i t h i n the R o m a n t i c m o v e m e n t and R o m a n t i c i s m i t s e l f in the h i s t o r y of F r e n c h thought, D u h a m e l a d m i t s : II y a l i e u de t e n i r c o m p t e de toutes l e s c i r C o n s t a n c e s h i s t o r i q u e s et p s y c h o l o g i q u e s ; de c h e r c h e r plut&t a a s s o c i e r qu 'cL o p p o s e r , de c o n s e r v e r tous l e s e l e m e n t s de r i c h e s s e et de beaute p o u r l e u r a c c o r d e r l e u r r a n g dans l a t r a d i t i o n de l ' i n t e l l i g e n c e et de l a t • 35 p e n s e e f r a n g a i s e s . It i s not s u r p r i s i n g then that the c r i t i c s h o u l d d i v i d e F r e n c h R o m a n -t i c i s m into t h r e e d i s t i n c t p h a s e s , e a c h of w h i c h p a r a l l e l s the s o c i a l , p o -l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s a t m o s p h e r e of the e r a . T h e f i r s t p h a s e c o m p r i s i n g C h a t e a u b r i a n d , M m e de S t a e l and L a m a r t i n e is s e m i - c l a s s i c a l , m o n a r -c h i c and c h r i s t i a n . " L e m o m e n t de l ' a c c a l m i e " , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r a t i o n a l i s t i c i n its outlook, "fait r e m o n t e r a l a s u r f a c e des i n d i v i d u s o u b l i e s , des i d e e s d e s u e t e s " i n the p e r s o n s of C o u r r i e r and L a m m e n a i s . T h e t h i r d p e r i o d , that of l i b e r a l i s m i n p o l i t i c s and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r finds its l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n i n the "gaiete enfantine et g e n t i l l e " of M u s s e t , i n S t e n d h a l ' s t h e o r i e s of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n and m o d e r n i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n H u g o p l e a for m o r e r e a l i t y i n the d r a m a , in N o d i e r ' s " e x a l t a t i o n p e r m a n e n t e , 1 ' " and i n V i g n y ' s s t o i c a l c o n c e p t of l i f e . In e n t e r i n g into d e t a i l e d a p p r e c i a t i o n s of R o m a n t i c a u t h o r s , D u h a m e l ' s d e p e n d e n c y on " h i s t o r i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s " m a k e s i t s e l f m o r e c l e a r l y s e e n . F o r i n s t a n c e , M m e de S t a e l ' s f e m i n i s m is a t t r i b u t e d to h e r d i s l i k e of N a p o l e o n and h e r s u b s e q u e n t r e v o l t a g a i n s t h i m . L a m a r -t i n e ' s r e l i g i o s i t y is e x p l a i n e d by the i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on h i m b y h i s m o -t h e r ' s r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r . T h e p o e t ' s l o v e of n a t u r e is i l l u m i n a t e d i n g r e a t p a r t b y h i s r e a d i n g s of C h a t e a u b r i a n d and J e a n - J a c q u e s R o u s s e a u . D u h a m e l ' s e v e n t u a l p u r p o s e b e i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (it was a l s o the p u r -p o s e of C a s g r a i n and R o y ) h i s e m p h a s i s on " c i r c u m s t a n c e s " l e a d s to e f f i -c a c i o u s s y n t h e s e s i n w h i c h the a u t h o r ' s r o l e is u n d e r l i n e d . C o u r r i e r is the a n c e s t o r of the r a d i c a l - s o c i a l i s t s , "the s y m b o l of a s t r e a m of i d e a s . " T o D u h a m e l , C o u r r i e r ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e l i e s i n the fact that he i s : U n e c r i v a i n de bonne r a c e , l ' u n des s e u l s r e p r e s e n t a t i f s a u t h e n -t iques du c l a s s i c i s m e en face de l a m a r e e m o n t a n t e et t r i o m -phante du r o m a n t i s m e . ^ A c c o r d i n g to D u h a m e l , L a m m e n a i s , i n w r i t i n g L ' E s p e r a n c e a d o u c i t tout et l ' a m o u r r e n d tout f a c i l e : A m a r q u e l ' e x t r e m e l i m i t e du r o m a n t i s m e r e l i g i e u x et s o c i a l o u , p l u s e x a c t e m e n t , i l a annexe l a r e l i g i o n et l a s o c i o l o g i e au r o m a n t i s m e f u r i b o n d de s o n i r r e p r e s s i b l e n a t u r e . D ' o u s o n echo l a m e n t a b l e et r e t e n t i s s a n t et l ' e b r a n l e m e n t q u ' i l a p r o v o q u e en c e r t a i n e s ames.37 E v i d e n t l y , D u h a m e l r e f u s e d to e n v i s a g e g r a t u i t o u s l y the ' r o m a n t i c u n i v e r s e , ' w h i c h is n o t h i n g but the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s at the b a s e of a l i t e r a r y p h e n o m e n o n . In c o n c l u d i n g h i s study on F r e n c h R o m a n t i c i s m D u h a m e l thus s u m s up h i s r e c o u r s e to " c e r t a i n s a s p e c t s e x t e r i e u r s ": U n e e s q u i s s e des i d e e s l i t t e r a i r e s s ' a c c o m p a n g e f o r c e m e n t de c e r t a i n e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p o l i t i q u e s ; l a v i e d 'une socie'te re'agit toujours s u r l a v i e des id&es e x p r i m e ' e s dans l e s o e u v r e s des £ c r i v a i n s . C e q u i oppose D e l a v i g n e a l a jeune B*cole r o m a n -t i q u e , c ' e s t q u ' i l est u n r a t i o n a l i s t e attarde* du X V I I I e s i e c l e et que s o n v o l t a i r i a n i s m e est b i e n c o n n u . T h e r e a d e r is once a g a i n f a c e d w i t h the " n u m e r o u s c a u s e s " of w h i c h C a m i l l e R o y spoke i n h i s " l o y a l e n t r y " into the m e n t a l i t y of a u t h o r s . H e a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the fact that D u h a m e l ' s r e f e r e n c e s to p o l i t i c s do not l e a d to the " f i a s c o c o m p l e t " of R o u t h i e r or C h a p m a n , as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I. O n the c o n t r a r y , s u c h r e f e r e n c e s a r e e m p l o y e d i n the s e r v i c e of o b -j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y . T h e i d e n t i c a l c o m m e n t m a y be m a d e of E t h i e r - B l a i s ' r a p i d f o r a y s into the r e a l m of b i o g r a p h y a n d h i s t o r y . U n l i k e m o s t 19th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s who r e m a i n e d f i r m i n t h e i r b e l i e f that " l i t e r a t u r e is the e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i e t y , " E t h i e r - B l a i s is of the o p i n i o n that l i t e r a t u r e is the e x p r e s s i o n of s e l f t h r o u g h thought and s t y l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , h i s "trajets i n t e r i e u r s " a r e p r i m a r i l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of what is " i n t i m a t e " i n an a u t h o r . H i s t o r y and b i o g r a p h y p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y and b a c k g r o u n d for these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . If t h e r e f o r e the c r i t i c hints at the " p a s s i o n a t e e p o c h " in w h i c h L a u r e C o n a n l i v e d , it is b e c a u s e he r e -a l i z e s that the m o r a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e of h e r w o r k m a y , to a c e r t a i n d e g r e e , be e x p l a i n e d by h e r m i l i e u . E t h i e r - B l a i s ' r e s e m b l a n c e to C a s g r a i n i s e v i d e n t , even though the f o r m e r does not l i m i t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of L a u r e C o n a n ' s w o r k to r e f e r e n c e s to the i n f l u e n c e of r e l i g i o n a n d m o r a l i s m i n h e r l i f e : II faut tenter de s i t u e r L a u r e C o n a n dans s o n m i l i e u , s a v o i r ce q u ' o n l i s ait a s o n epoque, ce q u ' e l l e a p p o r t e de n o u v e a u , 78 q u i e l l e est , f o r c e r l e s e c r a n s de s a v i e i n t e r i e u r e , f a i r e a b -s t r a c t i o n de s o n style pUle et m o u , c r o i r e a s a c o n c e p t i o n de l a f e m m e . E t a p r e s cette longue m a r c h e dans des r e g i o n s oublie*es de l ' h i s t o i r e et d ' u n c e r t a i n c o e u r h u m a i n , le p a y s a g e i n t e l l e c t u e l , p s y c h o l o g i q u e et m o r a l q u i est , en d e f i n i t i v e , L a u r e C o n a n , n ' e s t p a s b e a u . ^ Why i s F e l i x - A n t o i n e S a v a r d ' s w o r k a " t r a g e d y of p a t r i o t i s m " , a. t r a g e d y of n a t u r e " ? E t h i e r - B l a i s s u g g e s t s n u m e r o u s r e a s o n s . T h e a u -thor found it i m p o s s i b l e to o v e r c o m e the i n f l u e n c e of L o h g u s , the F r e n c h R o m a n t i c s and l o c a l p a t r i o t i c w r i t e r s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t of a l l , was the a u t h o r ' s i n a b i l i t y to b r e a k w i t h a n a t i o n a l and h e r o i c p a s t , w i t h what one m a y c a l l h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n n e r b i o g r a p h y : C e t a p p e l a. l a f i d e l i t y aux t r a d i t i o n s s ' a c c o m p a g n e d ' u n i n -d e n i a b l e r e p l i e m e n t s u r s o i ; l ' o e u v r e de I'abbe" S a v a r d r e p o s e s u r le r e f u s d ' a c c e p t e r le c h a n g e m e n t , q u e l q u ' i l s o i t , et s u r l a m y s t i q u e de l a continuity i n e x o r a b l e de l a n a t i o n . L e l i e n q u ' i l e"tablit e n t r e l ' h o m m e et l a t e r r e est s i p u i s s a n t , s i g r a v e que l ' h o m m e ne peut v i v r e que dans l a m e s u r e ou s o n s o l est a l u i . L e p e r d - i l q u ' i l d e v i e n t fou. P e r h a p s E t h i e r - B l a i s ' study of M a r c e l D u g a s ' a l i e n a t i o n of s e l f f u r -n i s h e s the b e s t y a r d s t i c k for m e a s u r i n g the u s e m a d e , b y the c r i t i c , of b i o g r a p h y as an i n s t r u m e n t of p a s s a g e to " l a g e o g r a p h i e de l ' c i m e . " T o u n d e r s t a n d D u g a s ' r e f u s a l to a c c e p t h i s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y , E t h i e r -B l a i s t e l l s us that a l l a s p e c t s of h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s a r e of i m p o r t a n c e . " R i e n n ' e s t sans c o n s e q u e n c e . " T h e • c r i t i c t h e r e f o r e s p e n d s as m u c h t i m e e v o k i n g a s p e c t s of D u g a s ' s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y d i l e t t a n t i s m , as he does i n r e c a l l i n g to m i n d D u g a s ' -native v i l l a g e , p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s and c h i l d h o o d . F o r E t h i e r - B l a i s " p a r e n t s - m a g i s t r a t s , " " c h a p e a u x \ l a r a -p i n , " " c a n n e , " "gants b e u r r e - f r a i s , " " e x a l t a t i o n des n e r f s , " " r e g a r d d i s t a n t , " " s o u r i r e r a r e , " " a i r v o l o n t i e r s s e v e r e , " " l e v r e s p i n c e e s , " 79 " c o u d r o i t , " f r e m i s s e m e n t p a r t i c u l i e r du s t y l e , " " a r t m e l a n c o l i q u e , " a r e a l l e x t e r n a l i n d i c a t i o n s of D u g a s ' effort to e s c a p e f r o m h i s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , these i n d i c a t i o n s p u s h e d M a r c e l D u g a s to s e e k the A b s o l u t e b y m e a n s of the p o e t i c w o r d : M a r c e l D u g a s , a s a f a c o n , p l u s s o u p l e et d e l i c a t e , £que P a u l M o r k f ] e l e v e a u s s i , devant l ' a n g o i s s e des m e p l a t s , u n m i r o i r , c e l u i des m o t s q u i p i r o u e t t e h t , q u i s ' a p p e l l e n t p a r - d e l a l e s i m a g e s , qui s e r vent a e l o i g n e r une r e a l i t e i n a c e e p t a b l e . L e m i r o i r est m a s q u e . O n ne peut p a r l e r de s o i q u ' a p a r t i r des p r o f o n d e u r s de l a v i e , d'une v i e : l a s i e n n e . . . . M a r c e l D u g a s r e c h e r c h e dans le p u r objet a d e e r i r e u n c h a m p de fuite q u i l u i p e r m e t t r a de s ' e x p r i m e r l o i n de c e q u ' i l a v e r i t a b l e m e n t a d i r e ; d'ou. les i n v o c a t i o n s , l e s f e u i l l e s m o r t e s , l e s m a r b r e s , l e s c r i s v e r s une i n c o n n u e i n a c c e s s i b l e . T o u t i c i est f i g u r a -t i o n p u i s q u e le p e r s o n n a g e c e n t r a l , q u i est a l a fois M a r c e l D u g a s et son p a y s s a i s i dans s o n m o u v e m e n t , fait defaut. L u i - m S m e a a d m i r a b l e m e n t r e s s e n t i , en tant q u ' e c r i v a i n , cette a b s e n c e . II n ' h e s i t e r a j a m a i s , a l a f a v e u r de c i r C o n s t a n c e s a d -v e n t i c e s , a s ' a d r e s s e r au s o l c a n a d i e n ; m a i s ce s e r a p o u r e l u -d e r l a r e a l i t e de s e s r a p p o r t s a v e c l u i . . . . L ' a l i e n a t i o n i c i d e v i e n t a n n i h i l a t i o n , i m p o s s i b i l i t e d 'acce'der a l ' e x p r e s s i o n du m o i i n t e r i e u r . O n peut l i r e toute l ' o e u v r e p a r i s i e n n e de M a r c e l D u g a s sans d e v i n e r q u ' i l s ' a g i t d ' u n M o n t r e a l a i s , d ' u n C a n a d i e n , d ' u n N o r d - A m e r i c a i n . L e de'tachement t r i o m p h e . . L a l a n g u e , a v e c s o n c o r t e g e de s o n o r i t e s et de r y t h m e s , d e -v i e n t f a t a l e m e n t l ' i n s t r u m e n t de ce r e j e t . ^ E t h i e r - B l a i s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n s of F e l i x - A n t o i n e S a v a r d and M a r c e l Du-gas b e a r w i t n e s s to the p r e s e n c e of b i o g r a p h y a n d h i s t o r y in h i s "trajets i n t e r i e u r s . " Y e t , i t is b e c a u s e E t h i e r - B l a i s r e f u s e s to give s i n g u l a r i m -p o r t a n c e to the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c r i t e r i a that h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s are' m o r e subtly and a r t i s t i c a l l y p r o v o c a t i v e than the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of C a s g r a i n and R o y . ( T h i s point w i l l b e c o m e m o r e evident i n the s e c o n d p a r t of this chapter) " P a y s a g e i n t e l l e c t u e l , p s y c h o l o g i q u e et m o r a l , " " d e p a s s e m e n t de s o i , " " l ' i n t i m e , " " r e p l i e m e n t s u r s o i , " " g e o g r a p h i e de l ' a m e , " " e x p r e s -80 s i o n du m o i i n t e r i e u r , " s u c h a r e the a s p e c t s of an author and h i s w o r k w h i c h , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i n t e r e s t E t h i e r - B l a i s . T o a c h i e v e h i s g o a l , E t h i e r - B l a i s , e v e n as C a s g r a i n , R o y and D u h a m e l , finds s u p p o r t i n the e x p l a n a t o r y c r i t i c i s m of S a i n t e - B e u v e . It m a y be that the m o s t r e a l p r o o f of a l i n k , on the l e v e l of b i o g r a p h -i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m , e x i s t i n g between E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l on the one h a n d , and t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s s u c h as C a s g r a i n and R o y on the o t h e r , is to be found i n the s i m i l a r v o c a b u l a r y s o m e t i m e s e m p l o y e d by b o t h g r o u p s . " M i l i e u , " " v i s i o n du m o n d e , " " r e V e , " " u n i v e r s p o e t i q u e , " " f a c t u r e , " " i n s p i r a t i o n , " " c o m p e t e n c e , " " a r t , " " n o y a u , " " t r a i t s d o m i -n a n t s , " " p s y c h o l o g i e , " m e n t a l i t e , " " o r i e n t a t i o n , " " i n f l u e n c e , " " p o r t e e , " " p e n s e e , " " v a l e u r , " " s u b s t a n c e , " these a r e the t e r m s that one finds o f -ten in the w o r k s of s o m e t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s ( C a m i l l e R o y , L o u i s D a n t i n in p a r t i c u l a r ; at t i m e s a few a r e found in the w o r k of C a s g r a i n ) as w e l l as in E t h i e r - B l a i s ' and D u h a m e l ' s . T h e u s e of s u c h t e r m s p r o v e s that, on o c c a s i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m d i d r i s e above the l e v e l of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e . It is r e g r e t t a b l e n e v e r t h e l e s s that they w e r e , on the w h o l e , p r e o c c u -p i e d w i t h d i s c u s s i n g only l o c a l a u t h o r s . D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s h a v e s u p e r c e d e d the bounds of p a t r i o t i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m to g r a s p in L i t e r a -t u r e those q u a l i t i e s a n d i d e a s that a r e of benefit to s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . It is the f r e q u e n t i n c u r s i o n s into the r e a l m of n o n - i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a -t u r e , and the s e r e n i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y a f f o r d e d by s u c h e x e r -c i s e s , w h i c h a c c o u n t , in the m a i n , for the r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e i n the w o r k of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s s u c h as 81 E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l . " A V E C S E R E N I T E E T S A N S C H A U V I N I S M E " D e s p i t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e r e e x i s t s a d i s t a n c e b e -tween t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r e d 'en b l o c ' and those c o n t e m p o r a r y cri-< t i c s of w h o m E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h e l a t t e r have b r o u g h t to c r i t i c i s m an attitude of s e r e n i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y p r e v i o u s -ly u n k n o w n . B y t u r n i n g t h e i r attention to the d e t a i l e d and c a r e f u l study of F r e n c h L i t e r a t u r e , D u h a m e l ( L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , L i t t e r a t u r e , A u x S o u r c e s !> du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s ) and E t h i e r - B l a i s (Signets, I) h a v e a v a i l e d t h e m -s e l v e s of the o p p o r t u n i t y to test t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o w e s s , i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l i t e r a t u r e s u p e r i o r to that of t h e i r f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s . It is our b e l i e f that s u c h an a c t i o n , m o r e than any other f a c t o r , has c o n t r i b u t e d to the s e a r c h for o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n c r i t i c i s m . T h i s p o i n t l i s i m p o r t a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t of the d u a l s h o r t -c o m i n g of c r i t i c i s m d i s c u s s e d i n o u r f i r s t c h a p t e r . It is t r u e that b o t h D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s have c o m m e n t e d on d e c e a s e d F r e n c h a u t h o r s , a fact w h i c h u n d o u b t e d l y d i m i n i s h e d the r i s k of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e . T h i s fact n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e , b o t h c r i t i c s have b e e n able to judge, i n t e r p r e t and c r e a t e w o r k s without h a v i n g to c o n -c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h fear of r e d r e s s f r o m a s o c i e t y s t i l l i n the t h r o e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g an i d e n t i t y . In s h o r t , D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s have c o n t r i b u t e d to f i l l i n g the 8 2 n e e d for h u m a n i s m and c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m i n c r i t i c i s m . In 1964 J e a n M e -n a r d spoke i n t h e s e t e r m s of s u c h a n e e d : II faut e t u d i e r l e s l e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s a v e c s e r e n i t e et sans c h a u v i n i s m e . L ' o n r i s q u e de b i e n m a l c o n n a i t r e l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e d ' A m e r i q u e , s i l ' o n c o n n a i t m a l l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n -c a i s e d ' E u r o p e et s i dans l e s u n i v e r s i t e s on c o n s a c r e p l u s de t e m p s aux p i e c e s de F e l i x L e c l e r c q u ' a u x t r a g e d i e s de R a c i n e . II est c e r t e s e n c o u r a g e a n t de c o n s t a t e r q u ' a u m o m e n t m e m e ou p a r a i s s e n t des etudes i m p o r t a n t e s s u r l e s l e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s , des e c r i v a i n s du Q u e b e c p u b l i e n t des e s s a i s c r i t i q u e s s u r des e c r i v a i n s f r a n c a i s . C e q u i p r o u v e q u ' o n peut a i m e r l e s l e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s sans p r e c o n i s e r u n r e g i o n a l i s m e ' e t r i q u e . ^ M e n a r d is c o r r e c t i n stat ing that the study of F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d go h a n d i n h a n d w i t h that of i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . In the w o r k of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , s u c h an e x e r c i s e has c e r t a i n l y h e l p e d to s u b o r d i n a t e e m o t i o n a l i s m , p a r t i a l i t y a n d p a r t i c u l a r i s m to,the m o r e a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i -p i e s d e r i v i n g f r o m r a t i o n a l i s m , i m p a r t i a l i t y and h u m a n i s m . T o c o r r e c t l y m e a s u r e the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g c r i t i c s s u c h as E t h i e r -B l a i s and D u h a m e l f r o m C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e R o y , M e n a r d ' s s t a t e m e n t m u s t be ful ly a p p r e c i a t e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s of t r a d i t i o n -a l a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s . O f e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x c e s s i v e . p r a i s e we have a l r e a d y s p o k e n . L e t us c o n s i d e r t h e r e f o r e the attitude and o v e r a l l m e t h o d of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . In A u x S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s , D u h a m e l i n f o r m s u s : F a i t a s s u r e , le r o m a n t i s m e , c o m m e tout ce q u i est h u m a i n , ne m e r i t e pas l e s d i t h y r a m b e s et l e s d e n o n c i a t i o n s dont i l a ete I'objet. . . . M e f i o n s - n o u s des c a n t i q u e s de l o u a n g e s et  des e x c l u s i o n s a r b i t r a i r e s ^ ^ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l j. In the i t a l i c i z e d p a s s a g e was D u h a m e l a l l u d i n g to the w o r k s of h i s p r e -d e c e s s o r s , or was he s i m p l y r e m i n d i n g h i m s e l f to be o b j e c t i v e a n d i m p a r -t i a l ? "Whatever the c a s e m a y b e , D u h a m e l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n has a f a m i l i a r 83 r i n g to it . It r e c a l l s the t h e o r i e s , of m a n y of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . U n l i k e these l a t t e r often a d v o c a t i n g p o s i t i v e t h e o r i e s they c o u l d not f o l l o w , D u h a m e l s u c c e e d e d i n a t t a i n i n g a l e v e l of c r i t i c i s m w h i c h a v o i d e d b o t h " b l i n d p r a i s e " a n d ' p a s s i o n a t e r e f u s a l s . " T h e c r i t i c ' s s u c c e s s i s due m a i n l y to the d e v o t i o n a n d h a r d w o r k b r o u g h t to b e a r on h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s . N o t o n l y is D u h a m e l "one of the m o d e s t and f e r v e n t a r t i s a n s " of F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e , ( L i t t e r a t u r e , p . 8) h i s p a n o r a m i c e x p l o r a t i o n of the r o m a n t i c p h e n o m e n o n " i s i n d e e d a w o r k of p a t i e n c e . " (Aux S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s , p . 7) T h e c l a s s i c i s m of D u h a m e l ' s s t y l e and the f a c t u a l n a t u r e of h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r p a g e s , a r e e v i d e n c e of the c r i t i c ' s e r u d i t i o n and p a t i e n t r e s e a r c h . In c h o o s i n g to c o m m e n t u p o n s u b j e c t s as w e l l k n o w n as F r e n c h R o m a n -t i c i s m , 17th C e n t u r y m o r a l i s m a n d a u t h o r s as f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d as R a -c i n e , V i l l o n , S t e n d h a l a n d V a l e r y , D u h a m e l sought to r e a c h not o n l y the F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p u b l i c , but a l s o as m a n y F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e as p o s -s i b l e . B y its v e r y n a t u r e , s u c h a t a s k d e m a n d e d a s o l i d e r u d i t i o n , w h i c h as s t a t e d i n o u r I n t r o d u c t i o n , was l a c k i n g i n the m a j o r i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r a t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n b e a r s w i t n e s s to D u h a -m e l ' s k n o w l e d g e of F r e n c h m o r a l i s t s . D a n t i n , R o y and M a r c e l D u g a s a p a r t , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s as a r u l e w e r e i n c a p a b l e of m a k i n g s u c h a p p r e -c i a t i o n s : J o s e p h J o u b e r t m a r q u e , au p a s s a g e des X V I I I e et X I X e s i e c l e s , l a p e r m a n e n c e d a n s l e s l e t t r e s f r a n c a i s e s . II se d i s t i n g u e d e s a u t r e s m o r a l i s t e s , a l ' e x c e p t i o n de V a u v e n a r g u e s peut-e?tre, en ce q u ' i l n ' e s t n i c y n i q u e n i p e s s i m i s t e s u r l a n a t u r e h u m a i n e , q u ' i l l u i voue au c o n t r a i r e un a t t a c h e m e n t p r o f o n d et q u ' i l s ' e f f o r c e c o n s t a m m e n t de f a i r e r e s s o r t i r l e s b o n s cStes de l ' h o m m e . S o n o p t i m i s m e n ' a r i e n d ' a r t i f i c i e l , i l c o r r e s p o n d a une t e n d a n c e 84 f o r t e m e n t a c c u s e e de son e*tre. II a ete, sans exage'rat ion, p a r l a v e r t u de s o n h u m a n i s m e t r e s e l e v S , l ' a m e de s o n , 44 epoque. M o r e o v e r , one gets the i m p r e s s i o n that D u h a m e l is w e l l - r e a d i n l i t -e r a t u r e s other than F r e n c h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n . H e states that L e s  M a r t y r s b e c a u s e of its " b r e a d t h " and f u l l n e s s of s t y l e , the o v e r a l l m a j -e s t y of its c o n c e p t i o n is a k i n not only to T h e D i v i n e C o m e d y but a l s o to P a r a d i s e L o s t . (Aux S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s , p . 45-86) A c a n -. s  t a n k e r o u s and l e s s e r u d i t e c r i t i c s u c h as C h a p m a n , ^ w o u l d , i n a l l p r o b -a b i l i t y , h a v e s e i z e d upon C h a t e a u b r i a n d ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s to show how he h a d f a i l e d to attain the e p i c heights of those he w i s h e d to i m i t a t e . A n a n a l y s i s of s u c h p r o n o u n c e m e n t s b r i n g s us to the c o n c l u s i o n that D u h a m e l was not m o t i v a t e d b y e x t r a - c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as the quest for e v e r - f l e e t i n g i m m o r t a l i t y o r the i d e a of d e t h r o n i n g h i s f e l l o w c r i t i c s f r o m t h e i r r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y n o t o r i e t y . One s h o u l d not i m a g i n e , h o w e v e r , that D u h a m e l a l l o w e d an a u t h o r ' s r e p u t a t i o n to h o l d h i m i n awe or to p r o v o k e h i m into f o r m u l a t i n g the " u s e -l e s s e p i t h e t s " of G r i g n o n . D u h a m e l w r i t e s of P a s c a l : S a d o c t r i n e s e r a i t a p p l i c a b l e a. des s a i n t s , m a i s l a r e l i g i o n c h r e t i e n n e n ' e s t p a s faite p o u r des s a i n t s , e l l e est d e s t i n e e a. des h o m m e s q u i a s p i r e n t cl le d e v e n i r et q u i t o m b e n t s o u -vent dans le c h e m i n m o n t a n t de l a p e r f e c t i o n . . . . L e t o r t de  P a s c a l , £ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l ] ce fut de g e n ^ r a l i s e r a o u t r a n c e et de s ' e n f e r m e r dans une v o i e sans i s s u e , une v o i e ou. le c h r e t i e n r i s q u e r a i t de se p e r d r e en v o u l a n t f a i r e l ' a n g e . ^ H a d C a s g r a i n , a c r i t i c s t e e p e d i n C a t h o l i c m o r a l i s m , d a r e d to s p e a k of P a s c a l , a F r e n c h w r i t e r , it is c o n c e i v a b l e that he w o u l d not h a v e p o i n t e d to "the e r r o r " of an author w h o s e r e p u t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . H a d C a s -g r a i n done s o , he<would p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n c h a l l e n g e d by a d m i r e r s of 85 P a s c a l . One i m a g i n e s that s u c h an a c t i o n w o u l d , i n its t u r n , h a v e p r e -c i p i t a t e d a defence of s e l f a n d l e d to the " f i a s c o c o m p l e t " m e n t i o n e d by-C h a r l e s D u c h a r m e . In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n a u t h o r s who w e r e ' f o r e i g n ' to h i m and f a r r e -m o v e d i n t i m e , D u h a m e l m a y h a v e b e e n a w a r e of J u l e s L e m a i t r e ' s a d -m o n i t i o n c i t e d b y A l b e r t T h i b a u d e t : II n ' y a p e u t - e t r e de c r i t i q u e digne de ce n o m que c e l l e q u i a p o u r objet des o e u v r e s s u f f i s a m m e n t e l o i g n e e s de n o u s , et dont nous s o m m e s p e r s o n n e l l e m e n t d e t a c h e e s ^ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l j . E n c o r e f a u t - i l q u ' e l l e p o r t e s u r d ' a s s e z v a s t e s e n s e m b l e s p o u r que nous y p u i s s i o n s s a i s i r l e s j u s t e s r e l a t i o n s que s o u t i e n n e n t e n t r e e l l e s l e s o e u v r e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s . L a c r i -t ique au j o u r le j o u r , l a c r i t i q u e des o u v r a g e s d ' h i e r n ' e s t p a s de l a c r i t i q u e : c ' e s t de l a c o n v e r s a t i o n . C e sont p r o p o s s a n s " 47 c o n s e q u e n c e . ' L e m a i t r e ' s s t a t e m e n t is too a r b i t r a r y and at the s a m e t i m e , too d o g -m a t i c i n its c o n d e m n a t i o n of " l a c r i t i q u e au j o u r le j o u r , l a c r i t i q u e d e s o u v r a g e s d ' h i e r , " to be a c c e p t e d as a u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n the l i g h t of the e x c e s s i v e b l a m e a n d p r a i s e of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m and of D u h a m e l ' s m o r e i m p a r t i a l a n d o b j e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n s , s u c h a s t a t e m e n t d o e s c o n t a i n an e l e m e n t of t r u t h . It i s an e x p l a n a t i o n of D u h a m e l ' s a l i e n -ation f r o m the i n d u l g e n c e of C a m i l l e R o y and the hope of a " d e f i n i t e m e s -s a g e " e x p r e s s e d b y M a u r i c e H e b e r t . D u h a m e l i s as c o n c e r n e d , as w e r e these two c r i t i c s , w i t h s u b s t a n c e a n d s t y l e . B u t he d i s p e n s e s w i t h a d v a n c i n g t h e o r i e s on an a u t h o r ' s "future w o r k s . " Instead he p r o v i d e s h i s p u b l i c w i t h an ' e x p l i c a t i o n de texte, ' c e n t e r e d on the study of s t y l e , s u b s t a n c e a n d the " e s s e n t i a l " a s p e c t s of an a u t h o r ' s a c t u a l m e s s a g e . T h e m e t h o d d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , and w h i c h D u -h a m e l a p p l i e s to the a p p r e c i a t i o n of F r e n c h R o m a n t i c i s m , is c h a r a c t e r -86 i s t i c of h i s m a n n e r as a c r i t i c : U n b r e f c o m m e n t a i r e situe le p e r s o n n a g e dans s o n epoque; des textes c h o i s i s , au m i l i e u d'une o e u v r e p a r f o i s o p u l e n t e , p e r m e t t e n t de r e l i r e l ' e s s e n t i e l d ' u n m e s s a g e . L e s g l o s e s p e r s o n n e l l e s sont v o l o n t i e r s s c h e m a t i q u e s , l e s c i t a t i o n s a b o n -dantes: c ' e s t u n m e r i t e , ^ ^ D u h a m e l is t h e r e f o r e a v u l g a r i s e r of F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e , but i n the t r a d i t i o n of M m e de Stae'l^ 7" r a t h e r than of 19th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s . T h e s e l a t t e r , we have s e e n , e m p h a s i z e d the p a t r i o t i c and m o r a l i s t i c a s p e c t s of a book so that it w o u l d q u i c k l y b e c o m e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of e v e r y d a y l i f e . O n the c o n t r a r y D u h a m e l d i s c o u r s e s w i t h a r d o u r on those a u t h o r s w h o s e w o r k s t r a n s c e n d the b a r r i e r s of t i m e and p l a c e . W h y ? B e c a u s e the c r i t i c d e s i r e s to d e m o n s t r a t e how a p p l i c a b l e a r e the o b s e r v a t i o n s of F r e n c h m o r a l i s t s and R o m a n t i c i s t s to i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t y . D u h a m e l a f f i r m s that R o m a n t i c i s m ' c o r r e s p o n d a l ' u n e des t e n d a n c e s f o n d a m e n t a l e s de l a s e n s i b i l i t e h u m a i n e . " (Aux S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s , p . 7) H e i n f o r m s us that M o n t a i g n e ' s E s s a i s a r e "le m e s s a g e d ' u n h o m m e q u i ne c e s s e j a m a i s d ' e t re n o t r e c o n t e m p o r a i n . " ( L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n g a i s , p . 14) D u h a m e l a l s o s u g g e s t s that P a s c a l i n a l l h i s g r i e f a n d hope i s 'a m a n for a l l s e a s o n s ' and c o u n t r i e s , "le f r e r e de tous l e s p e c h e u r s , de tous l e s c o n -v e r t i s , de tous l e s b l e s s e s dont l a b l e s s u r e peut a chaque i n s t a n t se r o u v r i r . " (Ibid. , p. 60) V a u v e n a r g e s , r e m a i n s o u r c o n s t a n t c o m p a n i o n b e c a u s e : II n ' a pas a b d i q u e , i l n ' a pas s o m b r e dans le d e f a i t i s m e , i l n ' a p a s p e r d u f o i en l ' h o m m e . P a r l a t o u r n u r e d ' e s p r i t et p a r le s t y l e , i l annonce deja l e s m o d e r n e s . N o u r r i de l a c u l t u r e c l a s s i q u e , i l s ' e n a f f r a n c h i t et se r a p p r o c h e de n o u s . ^0 O n the c o n t r a r y R i v a r o l ' s p o l i t i c a l thought "se m a r i e m a l aux gouts a n t i m o n a r c h i q u e s de n o t r e epoque. " ( L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p p . 132-33) 87 T h e r e is no doubt that D u h a m e l b e s i d e s b e i n g a v u l g a r i s e r of F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e was a l s o a m o r a l i s t . H e s e e m s to h a v e c h o s e n a p r i o r i those a u t h o r s who by t h e i r s t u d i e s of M a n f u r n i s h h i m w i t h a t r e a t i s e on l i f e . B u t D u h a m e l ' s m o r a l i s m , a n c h o r e d i n h u m a n i s m , has n o t h i n g i n c o m m o n w i t h the p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m of 19th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s . In fact , h i s r e c o u r s e to b i o g r a p h y and h i s t o r y is but an o p e n i n g to a m o r e l i b e r a l and l i b e r a t e d f o r m of c r i t i c i s m e n t a i l i n g h u m a n i s m and the c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m of M m e de S t a e l . In a l l t h r e e of h i s w o r k s on F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e one e n c o u n t e r s so f r e -quently the t e r m s '.'.homme, " " h u m a n i s m e , " " h u m a i n " that one m a y r i g h t -ly c o n c l u d e thus: D u h a m e l ' s definite and p r e s e n t m e s s a g e to h i s c o n t e m -p o r a r i e s is that F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e m u s t p a s s f r o m p a r t i c u l a r i s m to u n i v e r s a l i s m . H i s c o m m e n t a r i e s on F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e show that he took h i s " m e s s a g e " s e r i o u s l y . It w o u l d be s h o r t - s i g h t e d to a s s u m e that c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and h u m a n -i s m w e r e n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . In h i s a r t i c l e on N a p o l e o n B o u r a s s a , H e c t o r F a b r e ^ * s u g g e s t e d that the n o v e l i s t " a u r a i t pu a c c e l e r e r l a m a r c h e de l ' a c t i o n , s e r r e r davantage le n o e u d de l ' i n t r i g u e , p u i s e r a. p l e i n e m a i n dans l ' a r s e n a l du r o m a n m o d e r n e " £ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l " ] . F a b r e r e c o g n i z e d the fact that e v e r y n o v e l i s t does not have B a l z a c ' s talent for h a s t i l y c o m p o s i n g w o r k s that w o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l . H e saw the n e c e s s i t y for a s s i d u o u s w o r k , f o r i m i t a t i o n of w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d n o v e l s . 52 J e a n du M e y n f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that, i f F r e n c h C a n a d a w e r e to o b -t a i n the b e s t i n s t r u c t o r s a v a i l a b l e , f r o m a n y w h e r e i n the w o r l d , the e d u -88 c a t i o n of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w o u l d be b e t t e r e d and t h e i r c u l t u r e e n l a r -g e n e d . L i k e w i s e , A l p h o n s e G a g n o n , h a v i n g o b s e r v e d an i d e n t i c a l d e f i c i e n c y in the e d u c a t i o n of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , d i d not h e s i t a t e to a d v i s e t h e m to study s u c h A m e r i c a n a u t h o r s as W a s h i n g t o n I r v i n g , F e n i m o r e C o o p e r , E d g a r A l l a n P o e , F r a n c i s P a r k m a n , L o n g f e l l o w a n d B a n c r o f t . G a g n o n thus t e r m i n a t e d h i s a r t i c l e , " L a l i t t e r a t u r e a m e r i c a i n e " : T o u t e f o i s , i l n ' e s t peut-e*tre p a s sans u t i l i t e et sans p l a i s i r p o u r nous de f a i r e p l u s a m p l e m e n t c o n n a i s s a n c e a v e c l a l i t -t e r a t u r e des A m e r i c a i n s , a v e c q u i nous avons d e j a tant de r a p -p o r t s , d'intere*t ou d ' a m i t i e . S ' i l est d ' o r d i n a i r e p e u c o n v e n a b l e de r e g a r d e r dans le c h a m p du v o i s i n , i l n ' y a pas d ' i n d i s c r e t i o n a. s ' o c c u p e r de s a l i t t e r a t u r e . ^ S u c h i n s t a n c e s of c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m i n the 19th C e n t u r y w e r e r a r e ; the m a j o r i t y of c r i t i c s saw no n e e d to h a v e l i t e r a t u r e step out of its s t i f -54 l i n g c o m p a r t m e n t of p a t r i o t i s m . C a s g r a i n , as a l r e a d y s t a t e d , s t a u n c h -ly r e f u s e d any c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n i n d i g e n o u s a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e s . F a b r e , du M e y n a n d G a g n o n m u s t t h e r e f o r e h a v e b e e n c o n -s i d e r e d t r a i t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the face of the p r o b l e m of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n m i g r a t i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . It was u n t h i n k a b l e to m o s t 19th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s to c o m m e n t on the a t t r a c t i o n s o r b e a u t i e s (or f o r that m a t t e r on the defects) of C h a t e a u b r i a n d ' s o r M m e de S t a e l ' s w o r k as d i d D u h a m e l . A l t h o u g h A d o l p h e - B a s i l e R o u t h i e r t a l k e d of F r e n c h a u t h o r s i n h i s C a u s e r i e s du d i m a n c h e , it w a s p r i n c i p a l l y to r e c o m m e n d to h i s r e a d e r s those a u t h o r s s u c h as L o u i s V e u i l l o t , who c o n f o r m e d to r e l i g i o u s m o r a l -i s m and to r e j e c t those who d i d not. R o u t h i e r t h e r e f o r e c o n g r a t u l a t e d ^ ^ 89 J o s e p h M a r m e t t e " d ' a v o i r m i e u x g r a v e dans l a m e m o i r e l e s e v e n e m e n t s hu.mai.ns et d ' a v o i r e n s e i g n e au p e u p l e le c h e m i n de l a g r a n d e u r et de l a v e r t u . " F o r R o u t h i e r , M a r m e t t e (in Francois de B i a n v i l l e ) was an e x -c e l l e n t a u t h o r , b e c a u s e he r e f u s e d to i m i t a t e " le p r o d u i t des c o r y p h e e s du r o m a n q u i s ' a p p e l l e n t B a l z a c , S u e , D u m a s , S a n d , " b e c a u s e he took c a r e to show the r o l e of P r o v i d e n c e i n the a c t i o n s of m e n , as d i d L o u i s V e u i l l o t . R o u t h i e r ' s c o m m e n t s l a c k e d h u m a n i s t i c content a n d the a p p r e -c i a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . S o m e t r a d i t i o n a l 20th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s w e r e m o r e e n l i g h t e n e d , m o r e l i b e r a l than t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . H a r v e y and R o y , for e x a m p l e , w e r e a w a r e of the b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d , b y l o c a l m e n of l e t t e r s , f r o m a l i t -e r a t u r e that was m o r e h u m a n i s t i c in its content. T h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e of r e g i o n a l i s m , i n the y e a r s 1900 - 1930, i n w o r k s s u c h as L e s C r o q u i s l a u r e n t i e n s and L e s H a b i t s r o u g e s m a d e H a r v e y c o m p l a i n : L e m a l de n o t r e l i t t e r a t u r e se p r o p a g e a p a r m i nous le j o u r ou des t h e o r i c i e n s denues de toute p s y c h o l o g i e p e r s u a d e r e n t a la j e u n e s s e que l ' e ' c r i t de c h e z nous s e r a i t fait de t e r r o i r ou ne s e r a i t p a s . D e s l o r s , i l y eut, d ' u n b o u t a l ' a u t r e du p a y s , une o r g i e de t e r r o i r . . . O n n ' a pas tenu c o m p t e du f a c t e u r h u m a i n . Sans doute, le t e r r o i r n ' e s t pas un g e n r e c o n d a m n a b l e en s o i . D e g r a n d s h o m m e s en ont fait a v e c s u c c ^ s ; m a i s i c i , dans cette p r o v i n c e ou l ' o n est ?. a c c o u t u m e a v o i l e r tant de s e n t i m e n t s p r o f o n d s , et des p l u s l e g i t i m e s , l ' e c r i v a i n r e s t e r a l a s u r f a c e des c h o s e s et a p p a r a i t , p r e s q u e toujours s u p e r f i c i e l , e t r i q u e , r o i d e , i n c o l o r e , i n o d o r e et sans s a v e u r . ^ H a r v e y it s e e m s w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d to see (and r i g h t l y so) w o r k s c o n s t r u c t e d a l o n g the l i n e s of N i v e l l e de l a C h a u s s e e ' s " c o m e d i e l a r -m o y a n t e , " and i n c o r p o r a t i n g at the s a m e t i m e the " d r a m a t i q u e " of V o l -90 t a i r e , the " r o m a n e s q u e " of B a l z a c , in s h o r t , h u m a n i s m in a l l its f o r m s . In A r t et C o m b a t he stated c a t e g o r i c a l l y that "the l o f t i e s t and m o s t b e a u -t i f u l " way of s e r v i n g c o u n t r y and n a t i o n a l i t y in l i t e r a t u r e was to w r i t e of l i fe and r e a s o n i n a f o r m w h i c h w o u l d h o n o u r h u m a n i t y , (p. 9) It is not s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e that H a r v e y d e v o t e d the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s a r t i c l e on N a t i o n a l i s m e et R e l i g i o n of L e P e r e L a c h a n c e to s h o w i n g the s u p e r i o r ity of " n a t i o n a l i s m e h u m a i n " o v e r " n a t i o n a l i s m e p a s s i o n n e . " (Ibid. , p p . 211-218) One a l s o expects the d i s f a v o u r w i t h w h i c h H a r v e y g r e e t e d " l ' e x o t i s m e p o s e u r et i n f a t u e " i n L e F r a n c a i s of D a m a s e P o t v i n . F o r 5 the c r i t i c , that e l e m e n t p r e c l u d e d "le g r a n d p r i n c i p e , l ' h u m a n i t e . " ( P a g de C r i t i q u e , p . 101) O n n u m e r o u s o c c a s i o n s , C a m i l l e R o y e m p h a s i z e d the n e e d for a " h u m a n i s m e p l e n i e r " in l i t e r a t u r e . H e c o n s i d e r e d it w i t h i n the s c o p e of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s to s i t u a t e , f r o m t i m e to t i m e , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s i n a m i l i e u that was not l o c a l , to study the m o s t g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s of p s y c h o -logy* to t r y to u n d e r s t a n d " l ' h o m m e ondoyant t e l q u ' i l e x i s t e p a r t o u t , " to e x p r e s s s e n t i m e n t s c o m m o n to a l l p e o p l e s , i n s h o r t to i m i t a t e a u t h o r s s u c h as V o l t a i r e , and M o n t e s q u i e u . T h e i r w o r k s " j a i l l i s s e n t du fond eter n e l , de l a c o n s c i e n c e h u m a i n e . " ( E s s a i s s u r l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e , p . 349) R o y e x p r e s s e d i n these w o r d s h i s t h e o r y of g r e a t e r h u m a n i s m i n i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e : L e point f a i b l e de n o t r e l i t t e r a t u r e , c ' e s t me*me q u ' e l l e n ' e s t pas a s s e z p r o f o n d e m e n t h u m a i n e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e que l a p e n s e e , l a s p e c u l a t i o n de l ' e s p r i t , l e s i d e e s g e n e r a l e s , l e s e l e m e n t s s p i r i t u e l s de l a c o n s c i e n c e ne s ' y r e n e o n t r e n t pas a v e c a s s e z d ' o r i g i n a l i t e , et ne s ' y e x p r i m e n t pas', p o u r cette mtjme r a i s o n et p o u r d ' a u t r e s , a v e c a s s e z de p u i s s a n c e . C e q u i a m a n q u e 91 a l ' e s p r i t c a n a d i e n p o u r p r o d u i r e une p l u s f o r t e l i t t e r a t u r e , c ' e s t une p l u s forte c u l t u r e i n t e l l e c t u e l l e , une p l u s r i g o u r e u s e d i s c i p l i n e , des h a b i t u d e s p l u s m e t h o d i q u e s et p l u s l a b o r i e u s e s de t r a v a i l . ^ H a r v e y and R o y w e r e a w a r e of the n e c e s s i t y for h u m a n i s m i n l i t e r -a t u r e . F a b r e , du M e y n and G a g n o n w e r e c o g n i z a n t of the b e n e f i t s of c o s -m o p o l i t a n i s m . Y e t , d e s p i t e the s h a r p n e s s of t h e i r v i s i o n i n t h e o r y , i n spite of R o y ' s w o r k L a C r i t i q u e l i t t e r a i r e au X I X e s i e c l e , they a r e a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c o n s e r v a t i v e attitude of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . T h e y n e g l e c t e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r t h e o r i e s by f r e q u e n t u t t e r a n c e s on a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n s p i r e d b y the w o r k s of F r e n c h w r i t e r s . In this r e s p e c t , M a r c e l D u g a s a n d R o b e r t C h a r b o n n e a u a d u m b r a t e D u h a m e l a n d E t h i e r -B l a i s . It i s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e he spent so m u c h of h i s adult l i f e in P a r i s , s t r i v i n g to b r e a k the bonds of r e g i o n a l i s m , h o p i n g to attain u n i v e r s a l r e n o w n b y h i s w o r k s , that M a r c e l D u g a s is m o r e a c o n t e m p o r a r y than a t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c . D u g a s u n d o u b t e d l y s e r v e s to l i n k the ' t h e o r e t i c a l h u m a n i s m ' of H a r v e y and R o y w i t h the m o r e p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h of D u h a -m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . Of D u g a s , the l a t t e r s a y s : Ses j u g e m e n t s , sous des d e h o r s p a r f o i s s u p r e n a n t s , sont e x -c e l l e n t s . L ' h o m m e c o n n a i s s a i t l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e et, l o r s - q u ' i l s ' a d r e s s e a des C a n a d i e n s , i l n ' o u b l i e j a m a i s l e s m o d e l e s f r a n c a i s . E n s o r t e q u ' i l ne c£de j a m a i s devant l a f a c i l i t e de l ' e l o g e . l i n e s ' a g i t p a s , dans ses e c r i t s , de j u g e m e n t s c r i t i q u e s tant que de f o r m a t i o n de gou%v M a r c e l D u g a s est le p r e m i e r c r i -t ique de langue f r a n c a i s e au C a n a d a q u i s o i t u n a r t i s t e , q u i se s o i t p r e o c c u p e des p r o b l e m e s du langage au n i v e a u h a r m o n i q u e , q u i a M c h o i s i de d e p a s s e r , sans e s p r i t de r e t o u r , l e s g r a n d s  t h e m e s p a y s ans ^8 ^ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l ^ . E t h i e r - B l a i s is c o r r e c t , for D u g a s , i n h i s t h e o r y of L i t e r a t u r e , e m -p h a s i z e d the fact that A r t p r e s u p p o s e s m o r e than good i n t e n t i o n s , p o l i t -92 i c a l , p a t r i o t i c and r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s and f r i e n d s h i p b e f o r e it c a n c l a i m e x c e l l e n c e : L ' a r t se suffit a l u i - m e m e : i l n ' e s t pas un s e r v i t e u r , p l u s ou m o i n s m a n i a b l e , des gdu*ts de l a m u l t i t u d e , des p a s s i o n s p o -l i t i q u e s ou r e l i g i e u s e s . II c o n s t i t u e u n etat dans un etat. .•. . P h i l o s o p h i e , h i s t o i r e , q u e s t i o n s p o l i t i q u e s et m o r a l e s peuvent e t r e b i e n s e r v i e s p a r l a l i t t e r a t u r e , m a i s e l l e s ont une e x i s t e n c e e n s o i , i n d ^ p e n d a n t e , v i a b l e . L ' a r t , l u i a u s s i , se m e u t p a r l u i -m e m e , et i l a p a r fait , d e p u i s l o n g t e m p s , s a g l o r i e u s e et l i b r e a v e n t u r e L e g r a n d a r t d e m e u r e e t r a n g e r a des c l a s s e m e n t s a r b i t r a i r e s , aux n o r m e s i n v e n t e e s p a r des s o p h i s t e s . II ne doit pas non p l u s , se c o n v e r t i r en i n s t r u m e n t q u e l c o n q u e de r e g n e p o l i t i q u e s u r l e s m a s s e s m o u t o n n i e r e s . ^ 7 One is not s u r p r i s e d that at its p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1917 D u g a s ' V e r l a i n e was c o n s i d e r e d a r e v o l u t i o n a r y d o c u m e n t in M o n t r e a l , o r that a h u m a n -i s t l i k e E t h i e r - B l a i s w o u l d b e s y m p a t h e t i c to this w o r k . ^ In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , e a r l y 20th C e n t u r y Q u e b e c was s t i l l w r a p p e d up i n its batt le for l i t e r a r y , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l e x i s t e n c e . In the s e c o n d pliace, D u g a s ' t h e o r y of A r t , "etat dans u n e t a t " i s c o m p a r a b l e to E t h i e r - B l a i s ' thought that an author w h i l e r e m a i n i n g t r u e to h i m s e l f ought a l w a y s to w o r k i n the s e r v i c e of L i t e r a t u r e : L a r e l i g i o n peut d o n n e r n a i s s a n c e a l ' a r t ; s o u v e n t e l l e le fait . M a i s l ' a r t peut v i v r e sans e l l e . II en v a de m e m e p o u r l e s ide"es n a t i o n a l e s . L ' e * c r i v a i n n ' e s t p a s , et ne doit p a s e t r e , au s e r v i c e d 'une c a u s e , m a i s de l u i - m e m e et de s e s d o n s . L a defense de l a n a t i o n v i e n d r a en quelque s o r t e p a r s u r c r o i t , p u i s q u e s a g r a n d e u r est i m p l i c i t e dans l a p e r f e c t i o n du l a n -gage, dans le genie de l ' e c r i v a i n a u q u e l e l l e a donne j o u r . S e u l e s sont i m p o r t a n t e s les q u e s t i o n s d ' e s t h e t i q u e p u i s q u e ce sont e l l e s q u i d e c i d e n t de l a r e u s s i t e d'une o e u v r e L e s g r a n d s m a i t r e s de l a l i t t e r a t u r e d o i v e n t s e r v i r d ' e x e m p l e s ; et l e s c r i t i q u e s d o i v e n t s e r v i r l a l i t t e r a t u r e . C ' e s t ce que n ' a v a i e n t pas c o m p r i s l e s abbes C a s g r a i n et R o y , i l l u s t r e s p r e -d e c e s s e u r s . ^ * 93 It is p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e D u g a s c h o s e to w o r k i n the s e r v i c e of L i t e r -a t u r e that he often c e n t e r e d h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s (as does D u h a m e l ) on that w h i c h is s o l i d , d u r a b l e and of i n t e r e s t for a l l h u m a n i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , D u g a s s e e s i n A l b e r t L o z e a u a poet who r e f u s e d to a l l o w the s o l i t u d e of h i s l i f e to e x p r e s s i t s e l f too p e r s o n a l l y i n p o e t r y . L o z e a u , D u g a s i n f o r m s u s , " s ' h u m a n i s e et t ient de toutes s e s f i b r e s a l a j o i e et a l a d o u l e u r des h o m m e s . " ( A p o l o g i e s , p . 33) D u g a s c o n s i d e r s R e n e C h o p i n as b e l o n g i n g to "une h u m a n i t e de t o u j o u r s . " A c c o r d i n g to the c r i t i c , C h o p i n e m p l o y e d a l l four p o e t i c m o v e m e n t s 17th C e n t u r y c l a s s i c i s m , R o m a n t i c i s m and the P a r n a s s i a n a n d s y m b o l i s t i d e a l to a v o i d b a n a l i t y , to c r e a t e a " s t r o n g i n n e r l i f e . " (Ibid. , p p . 91-108) It is u n f o r t u n a t e that a c r i t i c s u c h as D u g a s was ' f o r c e d ' by the c o n -s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e of h i s s o c i e t y to r e n o u n c e h i s " q u e b e c i t u d e " i n o r d e r to be a h u m a n i s t . It is this f a c t o r w h i c h s e p a r a t e s h i m f r o m D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s and p l a c e s h i m i n the ' n o - m a n ' s l a n d ' of i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m . E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l in l i k e n e s s to t h e i r i m m e d i a t e p r e d e c e s s o r R o -b e r t C h a r b o n n e a u , i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r " q u e b e c i t u d e " into t h e i r h u m a n i s m . It is i n d e e d b e c a u s e C h a r b o n n e a u was the f i r s t c r i t i c (sas f a r as we know) to p r o f e s s and p r o v i d e a p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e of n a t i o n a l i s m , c o s -m o p o l i t a n i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m i n i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m , that we c h o s e the date 1944-45 as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e of a l i n e of d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n t r a d i -t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m . F a b r e , du M e y n and A l p h o n s e G a g n o n c o n t e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e -o r i z i n g on the benefi ts of c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m i n L i t e r a t u r e . J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y and C a m i l l e R o y a l s o l i m i t e d t h e i r h u m a n i s m to t h e o r i e s . D u g a s 94 went b e y o n d the l i m i t s of t h e o r y but* i n so d o i n g , a l i e n a t e d h i m s e l f b o t h s p i r i t u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y f r o m h i s p l a c e of b i r t h . O n the c o n t r a r y , not only d i d C h a r b o n n e a u c o m m e n t f r e q u e n t l y on n o n - i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e , he a l s o s h o w e d how a l i t e r a t u r e s e e k i n g a u t o n -o m y m u s t p a s s to an a u d i e n c e of the u n i v e r s e , e v e n though n a t i o n a l i s m m a y be one of its d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s . 6 2 In m o r e c o n c r e t e t e r m s , C h a r b o n n e a u i n 1944 t u r n e d h i s attention not only to the study of M a u r i a c , ' H e n r y B e r n s t e i n , B e r n a n o s , R o m a i n s and C l a u d e l , but a l s o to other f o r e i g n w r i t e r s s u c h as O ' N e i l l , Ibsen and D o s t o ' i e v s k i . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r i n L a F r a n c e et N o u s the c r i t i c spoke f o r c e f u l l y of the n e e d for l o c a l a u t h o r s to d i s c o v e r and a s s u m e t h e i r " A m e r i c a n i d e n -tity; " t h e i r " C a n a d i a n p e r s o n a l i t y , " without o p p o s i n g t h e m s e l v e s to F r e n c h -m e n . C h a r b o n n e a u r e c o g n i z e d that it w o u l d be t r a g i c f o r F r e n c h C a n a d a , if F r a n c e w e r e to l o s e its o v e r a l l a u t h o r i t y as a g u i d i n g l i g h t i n the w o r l d of l i t e r a t u r e , to N e w Y o r k o r M o s c o w . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he p r o f e s s e d that "le p r e m i e r p a s d'une l i t t e r a t u r e v e r s l ' a u t o n o m i e , c o n s i s t e "a. r e p u d i e r toute c o n c e p t i o n c o l o n i a l e de l a c u l t u r e . " ( L a F r a n c e et N o u s , p . 12) W h y ? It i s b e c a u s e C h a r b o n n e a u r e a l i z e d that c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and u n i v e r -s a l i s m w o u l d be m o r e r e a d i l y a c h i e v e d , not m e r e l y b y e m p l o y i n g l i t e r a r y t e c h n i q u e s a c q u i r e d f r o m F r a n c e , but f r o m a l l c o u n t r i e s enjoying an a r -t i s t i c r e p u t a t i o n : P o u r a v a n c e r , i l faut m a i n t e n a n t , sans c e s s e r d ' e t u d i e r les F r a n c a i s , e t e n d r e nos r e c h e r c h e s a d ' a u t r e s t e c h n i q u e s et a d ' a u t r e s o e u v r e s . D e cette f a c o n , i l nous s e r a p l u s f a c i l e de r e s t e r n o u s - m o n i e s , U n e s e u l e i n f l u e n c e d e g S n ^ r e eri i m i t a t i o n ; p l u s i e u r s se c o m p l e t e n t et sont, a l a longue p l u s f e c o n d e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y when C h a r b o n n e a u sees in A n n e H e b e r t , J e a n B r u c h e s i , D u h a m e l , G u y S y l v e s t r e , Choquette and G r a n d b o i s , w r i t e r s c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g "des o e u v r e s d'une p o r tee u n i v e r s e l l e " (Ibid. , p p . 22-23) he s e r v e s as a f o r e r u n n e r to E t h i e r - B l a i s . T h e l a t t e r thus e x p r e s s e s h i s hope for the c r e a t i o n of a " u n i v e r s a l w o r k " i n F r e n c h C a n a d a : C o m m e je souhaite q u ' u n C a n a d i e n f r a n g a i s d e r i v e u n j o u r (et c e l a p r e n d r a cinquante ans) une g r a n d e o e u v r e , q u i a g i s s e s u r le m o n d e e n t i e r ! . . . D a n s l e contexte g l o b a l du C a n a d a , c ' e s t cette o e u v r e u n i v e r s e l l e q u i nous p e r m e t t r a de nous a f f i r m e r ; e l l e a g i r a c o m m e le s igne a v a n t - c o u r e u r d'une v i c t o i r e , de l a p e r m a n e n c e de n o t r e e t r e n a t i o n a l . ^ T o a g r e a t e r extent than M a r c e l ' D u g a s , C h a r b o n n e a u s e r v e s to l i n k the t h e o r i e s of C a m i l l e R o y and J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y w i t h the p r a c t i c e s of D u h a m e l a n d E t h i e r - B l a i s . In v i e w of the happy m i x t u r e of n a t i o n a l i s m , c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m i n C h a r b o n n e a u ' s w o r k , he f o r m s a w a t e r s h e d b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s . It is c o n c e i -v a b l e that M e n a r d ' s s t a t e m e n t , n a m e l y , " o n peut a i m e r l e s l e t t r e s c a n a -d i e n n e s sans p r e c o n i s e r u n r e g i o n a l i s m e e t r i q u e , " was i n d u c e d by h i s r e a d i n g of C h a r b o n n e a u ' s w o r k . S u c h a d e d u c t i o n i s not s u p p o r t e d b y e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , t h e r e is no doubt that E t h i e r - B l a i s , i n m u c h the s a m e m a n n e r as C h a r b o n n e a u , has m a n a g e d to r e c o n c i l e h i s " q u e b e c n e s s " w i t h h i s h e e d to be u n i v e r s a l . F o r e x a m p l e , i n h i s a r t i c l e * ^ on R i m b a u d , m o n b e a u s a l a u d , E t h i e r -B l a i s c h a s t i s e s C l a u d e J a s m i n for n e g l e c t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of h i s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y . A c c o r d i n g to the c r i t i c , J a s m i n has i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f too m u c h w i t h R i m b a u d , w i t h things F r e n c h . Y e t , E t h i e r - B l a i s c l a i m s that i f l o c a l a u t h o r s m u s t i m i t a t e or identify w i t h s o m e o n e , they ought to t u r n to the " g i a n t s " of l i t e r a t u r e , they ought to l e a v e b e h i n d what he c a l l s t h e i r " c r i t e r e s p a r a - l i f t e r ' a i r e s ": C ' e s t p o u r q u o i ce que l ' o n a appele "le r e c o u r s au p a y s " m e s e m b l e d a n g e r e u x . . . . II faut t r a n s c e n d e r l a b a n a l i t e du q u o -t i d i e n , c ' e s t - a - d i r e l a m o d e , et l e s p e t i t e s s e s de l a p o l i t i q u e p o u r a r r i v e r a. l ' e x p r e s s i o n de s o i . It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h e r e f o r e that although L ' I n n o c e n c e d ' I s a b e l l e of R o g e r F o u r n i e r is a ' b e a u t i f u l w o r k " f r o m the p o i n t of v i e w of its t e c h -n i q u e , E t h i e r - B l a i s s p e a k s of the , " r i d i c u l o u s n e s s " of its s u b s t a n c e . In fact the c r i t i c s t a t e s ' t h a t this l a t t e r a s p e c t has a m u s e d h i m for "ce sont l e s p r e t e n t i o n s de M . R o g e r F o u r n i e r a. nous f a i r e l a lec^on de s e n t i m e n -t a l i t e p o l i t i q u e . C ' e s t nous d i r e que l a l i b Oration p o l i t i q u e inte'grale de Q u e b e c est l i e e a ses t h e s e s de l i b e r a t i o n s e x u e l l e . " ( L e D e v o i r , L X 144, J u n e , 1969, p . 12) O b v i o u s l y E t h i e r - B l a i s has not a l l o w e d the "weight of t h i n g s " and a " c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " to d o m i n a t e h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y and c r e a t i v e a b i l -ity as a m a n of l e t t e r s . S u c h a s t a t e m e n t is g i v e n s u b s t a n c e b y the i n t r o -s p e c t i v e s e a r c h for the s o u r c e of h i s " q u e b e c i t u d e " into w h i c h the c r i t i c e n t e r s in h i s a r t i c l e " l a p o e s i e de l ' h i s t o i r e . " H e i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the f a c -t o r s w h i c h have m a d e of h i m a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n b e f o r e anything e l s e . C h i l d h o o d , a n c e s t o r s , study of p a t r i o t i c l i t e r a t u r e a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d i n this " i n n e r v o y a g e . " A t its e n d , E t h i e r - B l a i s ' d i s c o v e r s ' what he s e e m s to h a v e known a l l a l o n g , n a m e l y that " l a q u e b e c i t u d e , c ' e s t a u s s i l a 97 m i e n n e , avec le b e s o i n d ' a p p a r t e n i r a l ' u n i v e r s , " "je ne s u i s que m o i -m e m e et ne t i r e de cette v i e que je r a c o n t e . . . , aucune l e c o n s i n o n que je v i s . " (Signets, III p p . 13-50, p a s s i m ) T h e s e w o r d s a r e i m p o r t a n t to anyone who w i s h e s to u n d e r s t a n d the attitude and m e t h o d of J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s , c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , they r e v e a l in E t h i e r - B l a i s a d e s i r e to o v e r c o m e the agony of l i v i n g w h i c h he h i m s e l f o b s e r v e s in the t h e m e s of snow a n d e m p t i n e s s 68 in c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y . S e c o n d l y the c r i t i c ' s u s e of the v e r b " v i v r e " s e e m s to us d e l i b e r a t e , and e m p l o y e d i n the s a m e h u m a n i s t i c s e n s e as G i d e ' s T h e s e e p r o c l a i m i n g after the h a z a r d o u s e x p l o i t s of h i s y o u t h , " j ' a i *• 69 v e c u . " In other w o r d s , E t h i e r - B l a i s is p r e p a r e d to a s s u m e i n f u l l h i s l i t e r a r y l i b e r t y i n going b e y o n d the b o u n d s of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . E t h i e r - B l a i s is as h u m a n i s t i c a c r i t i c as C h a r b o n n e a u and D u h a m e l for he s t r i v e s to p a s s f r o m r e g i o n a l i s m and p r o v i n c i a l i s m to u n i v e r s a l i s m . H i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of L i o n e l G r o u l x ' s u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l as a h i s t o r i a n f u r -n i s h e s an e x a m p l e of the c r i t i c ' s b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p e a c e f u l c o -e x i s t e n c e of n a t i o n a l i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m in l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e : C ' e s t p a r c o n t r e dans l ' i m p r e c i s i o n de n o t r e n a t i o n a l i s m e que se r e t r o u v e l a d y n a m i q u e c r e a t r i c e q u i , autour de I 'abbe G r o u l x , a quelque c h a n c e de nous a r r a c h e r au neant D e p u i s 1760, de quelque cote que se t o u r n e n t l e s y e u x , se r e t r o u v e le r e f u s f o n d a m e n t a l d ' a s s u m e r en e n t i e r l ' e t r e q u e b e c o i s , dans le d y n a m i s m e de s o n d e s t i n , au c o e u r de s o n h i s t o i r e i n e v i t a b l e . L e n a t i o n a l i s m e de I'abbe G r o u l x et de ses a m i s r e p r e s e n t e le s e u l m o m e n t h i s t o r i q u e ou u n g r o u p e u n i t a i r e , se p e n c h a n t s u r ce d e v e n i r , a c h e r c h e a c r e e r une i d e o l o g i e de c o m p r e h e n s i o n et de d e p a s s e m e n t . C ' e s t p o u r q u o i , en d e r n i e r e a n a l y s e , de 1908 a 1948, c ' e s t l u i q u i o c c u p e le t e r r a i n . ^ It is b e c a u s e of the i m p r e c i s e n a t u r e of t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m that E t h i e r -B l a i s d e c l a r e s i n S i g n e t s , II that he w o u l d opt for the f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r s , 98 w e r e h i s c h o i c e of l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e l i m i t e d to a few w o r k s : G r o u l x (for r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d above) F e l i x - A n t o i n e S a v a r d (because a l t h o u g h i n M e n a u d , m a t t r e - d r a v e u r he is i n f l u e n c e d by H o m e r , L o n g u s and the R o m a n t i c s , S a v a r d ' s m e s s a g e is p e r s o n a l ) B e r t h e l o t B r u n e t , ( s u r e , a l e r t j u d g m e n t ) F r a n c o i s H e r t e l , ( b e l i e v e s i n the g o o d n e s s of man) A l a i n G r a n d -b o i s , P a u l - M a r i e L a p o i n t e a n d G a t i e n Lapointe, . (poets who t r e a t u n i v e r s a l t h e m e s i n p e r s o n a l ways) (pp. 12-13) U n l i k e h i s 19th C e n t u r y c o u n t e r p a r t s , E t h i e r - B l a i s r e a l i z e s that n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e is not to be c o n f u s e d w i t h l i t e r a r y n a t i o n a l i s m . T h e c r i t i c e n v i s a g e s i n this m a n n e r the i d e a of a l o c a l , h u m a n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e : P a r ce b e s o i n m e m e d ' u n i v e r s a l i s a t i o n , q u i d 'une c e r t a i n e m a n i e r e l a p o r t e r a a se detacher u n j o u r du c o r p u s i n t e l l e c -t u e l f r a n c a i s , l a literature c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e s o u l i g n e l e fait q u ' e l l e e s t f r a n c h i s e d ' o r i g i n e , c a r c ' e s t ce s o u c i d ' u n i v e r -s a l i s a t i o n q u i a fait de l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e ce q u ' e l l e e s t . T o u t se t ient: s o c i a l i s e r l e s s t r u c t u r e s e c o n o m i q u e s et i n t e l l e c -t u e l l e s du Q u e b e c , e c r i r e u n b e a u l i v r e , f a i r e une de"couverte s c i e n t i f i q u e , c ' e s t , au Q u e b e c d ' a u j o u r d ' h u i r e f r a n c i s e r en p r o f o n d e u r . D o n e c ' e s t d i r e que, dans u n c e r t a i n s e n s , i l n ' y a d ' a v e n i r p o u r n o u s que f r a n c a i s , E t h i e r - B l a i s r e m i n d s one of C h a r b o n n e a u , s e e k i n g f o r i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e w o r k s of u n i v e r s a l i m p o r t , " s a n s c e s s e r d ' e t u d i e r l e s F r a n -c a i s . " What is e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t , is that E t h i e r - B l a i s i s f a r r e m o v e d f r o m the g r e a t e r n u m b e r of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , for w h o m l i t e r a t u r e was a l w a y s ' t h e e x p r e s s i o n of l o c a l s o c i e t y . ' E t h i e r - B l a i s ' fight a g a i n s t "le j o u a l , " h i s b e l i e f i n c r i t i c i s m as an a e s t h e t i c d i s c i p l i n e and in the u n i v e r s a l i t y of l i t e r a t u r e a r e a l l a s p e c t s of l i b e r a l i s m of c o n c e p t a n d attitude i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m . A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the c r i t i c ' s m e t h o d ' p e r s e ' r e v e a l s m o r e r e a d i l y its novelty than any abundance of new in format ion brought to l ight on authors . This is p a r t i c u l a r l y true of h is studies of F r e n c h authors . One does not need to read Signets , I to l e a r n of S a i n t - S i m o n ' s l i fe at court , of Chateaubriand's at Combourg , o f , P r o u s t ' s Jewish complex , or to r e a l i z e that Stendhal's heroes mould their dest in ies to suit t h e m -se lves . Such facts are w e l l - k n o w n . So are L a u r e Conan's f e m i n i s m and r e l i g i o s i t y , F rechet te ' s ins is tence on the permanence of the defeats suf -fe red by F r e n c h . Canadians at the hands of the E n g l i s h in 17 59. What is important in a l l three volumes of Signets is that E t h i e r - B l a i s 1 comments are not mot ivated by f r iendsh ip , p a t r i o t i s m , petty j ea lous ies , po l i t i cs or r e l i g i o n . It would be fo l ly to assume that a c r i t i c who h i m s e l f admits that his ar t is a "c r i t ique d ' h u m e u r s " does not at t imes r e s o r t to p ra i se and b l a m e . On the one hand, E t h i e r - B l a i s speaks wi th enthusiasm of R i n a L a s n i e r poetry . (Le D e v o i r , L X 132 M a y , 1969, p. 15) Even though he does not ag-ree with W y c z y n s k i , " theor ic ien de l a pocesie, " the c r i t i c p r a i s e s the l a t -te r ' s r e s e a r c h abi l i ty in these t e r m s : "Nous n'avons pas assez de ces m a i t r e s d'oeuvre qui savent entreprendre et mener a bonne f in un t r a v a i l composite en l u i donnant l a n e c e s s a i r e uni te . " (Le D e v o i r , L X 290, D e c e m b e r , 1969, p. 16) E t h i e r - B l a i s also makes ment ion of the "pleasant h o u r s " that the reader would spend in perus ing the f i r s t two volumes of P i e r r e de Grandpr^ 's H i s t o i r e de l a l i t te ra ture f ranca ise du Quebec. The * c r i t i c admi res de Grandpre ' s courage, " ca r i l est d i f f i c i l e de t r a v a i l l e r en equipe a. Quebec. " He c loses his r e m a r k s by c l a s s i f y i n g the work in question as "une v ra ie h i s t o i r e de l a l i t te ra ture quebecoise, " an 1 ' i n d i s -100 p e n s a b l e " c r e a t i o n w h e r e i n de G r a n d p r e " h a s c h o s e n " u n i v e r s a l i t y " as h i s " f i r s t c r i t e r i o n . " ( L e D e v o i r , L X 219, S e p t e m b e r , 1969, p . 12). In a p p r e -c i a t i o n s of the types d e s c r i b e d above t h e r e is a d m i r a t i o n on E t h i e r - B l a i s 1 p a r t . B u t the m a u d l i n s e n t i m e n t a l i t y of C a s g r a i n and M a r i o n and the i n -d u l g e n c e of C a m i l l e R o y a r e s t r i k i n g by t h e i r a b s e n c e . O n the other h a n d , E t h i e r - B l a i s c a n a l s o be f i r m i n h i s c o n d e m n a t i o n s . H e does not l i k e F r e c h e t t e and he s a y s s o . H e e v e n a g r e e s w i t h Chapman', i n s t a t i n g that F r e c h e t t e " a r e f u s e de d o n n e r s a m e s u r e . " (Signets, II p . 102) B u t , n o w h e r e i n h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n does he e m p l o y the c o m b a t i v e 7 2 language of C h a p m a n . E v e n in h i s e m o t i o n a l and e x c e s s i v e l y b l a m e -ful c o m m e n t a r y on C r e m a z i e , C h a p m a n , L e m a y a n d A l f r e d G a r n e a u , E t h i e r - B l a i s is f i r m but not b e l l i g e r e n t in the m a n n e r of " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " o r A d o l p h e - B a s i l e R o u t h i e r . E t h i e r - B l a i s c l a i m s that the a b o v e -m e n t i o n e d p o e t s : N ' o n t r i e n a. f a i r e a v e c l a v r a i e l i t t e r a t u r e . C e sont des t a -c h e r o n s a q u i l e s m o y e n s t e c h n i q u e s de l ' e c r i t u r e ont fait defaut. U n h o m m e c o m m e P a m p h i l e L e m a y ne p o u v a i t e t r e r i e n d ' a u t r e q u ' u n r i m e u r . ^ E t h i e r - B l a i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r s the p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e " F i d e s " l a c k -i n g i n good taste for h a v i n g p l a c e d "toutes l e s o e u v r e s du p a s s e " u n d e r the t i t le " c l a s s i q u e s . " In the s a m e c a t e g o r y he p l a c e s a l l p r o f e s s o r s who c o n -done the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of " F i d e s " b y e x p o s i n g t h e i r students to the d e t a i l e d study of the 19th C e n t u r y poets a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . E t h i e r - B l a i s in this . i n s t a n c e r e m i n d s us of b o t h L e m a y h i m s e l f a n d of J u l e s F o u r n i e r . T h e f o r m e r , we p o i n t e d out, c o n s i d e r e d a l l the w o r k s of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s b e a u t i f u l . H e was t h e r e f o r e w o r t h y of the n a m e " g a r d i e n de c i m e t i e r e . " 101 T h e l a t t e r u n c e a s i n g l y d e m a n d e d f r o m h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w o r k s w h i c h they d i d not h a v e the a b i l i t y to p r o d u c e . E t h i e r - B l a i s , it s e e m s to u s , has r e f u s e d to judge the w o r k s of C r e -m a z i e , L e m a y and C h a p m a n in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the g e n e r a l l e v e l of l i t e r -a t u r e of the e p o c h . M o r e o v e r , he has f a i l e d to p e r c e i v e what L e m a y h i m -s e l f saw too k e e n l y n a m e l y , that the w o r k s of 19th C e n t u r y poets is i n d i c -ative of a c o n s c i o u s effort to e s t a b l i s h a l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e in F r e n c h C a -n a d a . One c a n w e l l i m a g i n e that E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c o n d e m n a t i o n of the l i t e r -a r y taste of the. p u b l i s h e r s " F i d e s " and of c e r t a i n p r o f e s s o r s , a l o n g w i t h h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to be p o l i t e l y r u d e , has c r e a t e d m a n y e n e m i e s for h i m a m o n g s t l o c a l m e n of l e t t e r s . A p p r e c i a t i o n s of the above type p r o v e that b l a m e and p r a i s e a r e not absent f r o m the w o r k of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s . Y e t , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s s u c h c r i t e r i a a r e r e l e g a t e d to the l o w e s t r u n g s of the c r i t i c a l l a d d e r , for E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c r i t i c i s m is a n c h o r e d i n a t o t a l contact w i t h the text. F r o m this c o n t a c t , one l e a r n s as m u c h of E t h i e r - B l a i s , m a n of l e t t e r s as one does of the w r i t e r s d i s c u s s e d . " J e p a r l e r a i de m o i " the c r i t i c a d m i t s i n S i g n e t s , I (p. 7) t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g that he w i l l r e m a i n faithful to h i m s e l f w h i l e w o r k i n g i n the s e r v i c e of A r t . T h r o u g h o u t h i s Signets not only i s the r e a d e r a w a r e of E t h i e r - B l a i s ' t h e o r i e s of l i t e r a t u r e as d e s c r i b e d i n p r e v i o u s p a g e s , he a l s o r e a l i z e s , for e x a m p l e , that r e a d i n g , the m o s t e l e m e n t a r y f o r m of c r i t i c i s m , is an i m p o r t a n t t o o l in E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . It is the i n i t i a l m e e t i n g of two m i n d s on an i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , a m e e t i n g that w i l l e v e n t u a l l y i n c o r -p o r a t e the c r i t i c ' s r e a d i n g p u b l i c , w h e n he t r a n s c r i b e s h i s thoughts into 102 w o r d s . E t h i e r - B l a i s t h i n k s that e v e r y r e a d e r , w o r t h y of s u c h a n a m e , is c a p a b l e of s e i z i n g what is " t r u e " and " i n t i m a t e " i n an a u t h o r . H e t h e r e f o r e p r o f e s s e s h i s fa i th i n the p o w e r of c a r e f u l r e a d i n g : L ' u n des p l u s g r a n d s p l a i s i r s de l a l e c t u r e , c ' e s t le d e p a y s e -m e n t h i s t o r i q u e et p s y c h o l o g i q u e . L ' u n de ses g r a n d s m e r i t e s , c ' e s t que ce d e p a y s e m e n t s o i t c r e a t e u r . L ' i m a g i n a t i o n s ' e l e v e r a f f e r m i e d ' u n b o n texte. E n ce s e n s , l a c o l l e c t i o n des C l a s -s i q u e s c a n a d i e n s p e r m e t a n o t r e e s p r i t de c o n c e v o i r , t e l q u ' i l fut, le d y n a m i s m e de n o t r e h i s t o i r e et de n o s l e t t r e s . ^ It is i m p o r t a n t to note that E t h i e r - B l a i s u s e s the t e r m " s p i r i t " and not ' h e a r t ' i n p o i n t i n g out the p o s s i b l e effect of r e a d i n g on h i m . In the c a s e of m o s t t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , the h e a r t , r a t h e r than the " s p i r i t , " w a s i n f l u e n c e d . M o r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d , C a s g r a i n ' s "etude a t t e n t i v e , " h i s " e x a m e n s e r i e u x " was often c e n t e r e d on a d e l i b e r a t e a n d e m o t i o n a l s e a r c h f o r the p a t r i o t i c a n d r e l i g i o u s q u a l i t i e s of a w o r k . C a m i l l e R o y ' s " c r i t i q u e c o n s t r u c t i v e " and " l o y a l e n t r y " into the m e n t a l i t y of a u t h o r s f r e q u e n t l y l e d to a s u p e r f i c i a l " c r i t i q u e d e s b e a u t e s . " O n the c o n t r a r y , E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c r e a t i v e r e a d i n g goes b e y o n d the b o u n d s of the o b v i o u s to u n e a r t h and then r e a s s e m b l e , i n an o r i g i n a l and s y n t h e t i c w h o l e , "the i n t i m a t e , " the not so o b v i o u s . E t h i e r - B l a i s 1 a r t is one w h i c h c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h b i o g r a p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n , the s e a r c h f o r p u r i t y of s t y l e a n d the u n i v e r s a l a s p e c t s of a w o r k o n l y after the c r i t i c has a l l o w e d h i s " s p i r -i t " to be ' i n f l u e n c e d ' b y a c e r t a i n m e t h o d of thought. In this r e s p e c t E t h i e r - B l a i s r e s e m b l e s A l b e r t T h i b a u d e t who w r o t e : N o u s entendons p a r c r i t i q u e u n h o m m e q u i l i t u n l i v r e n o n p a s s e u l e m e n t , non p a s p r i n c i p a l e m e n t , p o u r y p r e n d r e un c e r t a i n p l a i s i r (le p l a i s i r du l e c t e u r d e v i e n t v i te un d e v o i r du c r i t i q u e , c o m m e les p l a i s i r s de l a lune de m i e l d e v i e n n e n t le d e v o i r conjugal) m a i s p o u r le p l a c e r dans u n o r d r e , p o u r le p e n s e r 7 5 s e l o n u n o r d r e . 103 T h e " o r d e r " i n w h i c h E t h i e r - B l a i s " p l a c e s " a b o o k and " t h i n k s " of it h a s i ts s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n r e a d i n g . . S u c h i s the c a s e i n the e x a c t s p i r i t -u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e c r e a t i o n of a t m o s p h e r e that the c r i t i c d e m a n d s for an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e i n t e g r a t i o n of the w o r k of C o l e t t e and P r o u s t . " R e v e r a s e s c r e a t u r e s " i s not m e r e l y a study of the r o l e p l a y e d by c r e a -t u r e s in C o l e t t e ' s w o r k . It is p r i m a r i l y an a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d the a u t h o r ' s tendency to i d e a l i z e n a t u r e i n a l l i ts f o r m s as w e l l as h e r a b i l -ity to r i s e above the d e c e p t i o n s of l i fe t h r o u g h h e r language and s t y l e . A c c o r d i n g to E t h i e r - B l a i s , it is t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y to r e a d C o l e t t e ' s w o r k i n the r i g h t f r a m e of m i n d , i n o r d e r to c o m p r e h e n d the m o t i v e s b e h i n d the i m p o r t a n t r o l e she gives: to a n i m a l s . H e c l a i m s that to r e a d C o l e t t e is to take h e r by s u r p r i s e , to j o i n h e r i n h e r c o m m u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e : L e m o y e n d ' a p p r e n d r e a l ' a i m e r , c ' e s t n u l doute de l i r e C o l e t t e c o m m e e l l e s ' e c r i t ; en r o u t e a v e c e l l e , les b r a s c h a r g e s de f l e u r s q u ' e l l e c u e i l l e au h a s a r d des c h a m p s L e sty le de C o l e t t e se r a p p r o c h e de c e l u i de L e a u t a u d ; aucune p o s e c h e z ces e c r i v a i n s ; m a i s une p h r a s e d'une s e u l e v e n u e , q u i e x i s t e c o m m e on r e s p i r e . II faut e v i d e m m e n t , p o u r en a r r i v e r a cette m a i t r i s e , se c o n n a i t r e p a r f a i t e m e n t s o i - m e m e ; l ' e c r i t u r e d e v i e n t le r e l i e f et le m i r o i r de son souffle i n t e r i e u r ; un e c r i v a i n q u i ne se c o n n a i t pas ne s a u r a i t s ' e x p r i m e r que p a r s a c c a d e s , que p a r des coups p o r t e s dans le n o i r de son e t r e . II f r a p p e p a r f o i s j u s t e ; m a i s c ' e s t le h a s a r d q u i guide s a m a i n . U n e c r i v a i n c o m m e C o l e t t e , p a r c o n t r e , noue l e s r a m i f i c a t i o n s , de son e t r e i n t e r i e u r , i l se p o s s e d e , se r e s o r b e p s y c h o l i g i q u e -m e n t . Sans q u o i , l a m a i t r i s e du s t y l e f a i l l i t ; b i e n p l u s e l l e n ' e s t p a s p o s s i b l e . ^ One now u n d e r s t a n d s our a s s e r t i o n that E t h i e r - B l a i s 1 " trajets i n -t e r i e u r s " a r e m o r e subtly p r o v o c a t i v e and h i g h l y i n t e r p r e t a t i v e than the b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of C a s g r a i n a n d C a m i l l e R o y . E t h i e r - B l a i s ' b i o g r a p h i c a l e n t r y into the author C o l e t t e i s o n l y a s t a r t i n g -1 0 4 point for the r e c r e a t i o n , by c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and elegant w r i t i n g , of h e r w o r k and h i s g r a s p i n g of h e r m o s t " i n t i m a t e " q u a l i t y , s t y l e . T h e c r i t i c ' s ' c r e a t i v e r e a d i n g ' and r e c e p t i v i t y to an a u t h o r ' s w o r k is a l s o s e e n i n h i s study of the m o t i v e s b e h i n d P r o u s t ' s w r i t i n g s . W h e n E t h i e r - B l a i s i n f o r m s us that r e a d i n g P r o u s t l a b o r i o u s l y , w i t h -out a b r e a k , and p u r e l y for a e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s is b e t r a y i n g the a u t h o r , the r e a d e r is left w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n that the c r i t i c has h i m s e l f p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an e f f o r t l e s s r e a d i n g , a l l o w i n g h i m to p e r c e i v e that P r o u s t ' s m o t i v e s a r e h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l r a t h e r than a e s t h e t i c : II s ' a g i t i c i de l i r e P r o u s t au h a s a r d , de s ' e n f a i r e u n a m i . L e r e s u l t a t , c ' e s t de p e r m e t t r e a. P r o u s t d ' e t r e l ' h o m m e i n -s i d i e u x q u ' i l e s t , de le l a i s s e r a g i r en n o u s , de l a m e m e f a c o n q u ' i l s ' e s t conduit a v e c l a s o c i e t e q u ' i l a d e p e i n t e . D e t e m p s a a u t r e , une p a g e ; on l a i s s e l a v o i x du r o m a n c i e r , du p o e t e , du p r o p h e t e , m o n t e r et d e s c e n d r e , s ' e t o n n e r , e x p l i q u e r . P u i s on r e f e r m e le l i v r e . Q u e l q u e s j o u r s a p r e s , n o u v e l l e l e c t u r e ; ce q u ' o n a lu a u p a r a v a n t e s t devenu p a r t i e de s o i - m e m e . L a v o i x nous e s t d e j a c o n n u e , et c h e r e . O n e n s a i s i t a u s s i t o t le t i m b r e et sous le m a s q u e de l a l a n g u e u r , l a v e r i t e des p r o p o s . O n d i r a que ce n ' e s t p l u s l i r e P r o u s t ; p e u t - e t r e b i e n , c ' e s t d i a l o g u e r a v e c l u i , c ' e s t se l i v r e r a. l a t r a n s - s u b s t a n t i a t i o n p r o u s t i e n n e [ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l } . C ' e s t v i v r e , s e n t i r , d e v e n i r P r o u s t L a l e c t u r e de P r o u s t est d ' a b o r d u n " e x c i t a n t , " ce je ne s a i s q u o i de m y s t e r i e u x q u i nous f o r c e l ' a m e et nous o b l i g e a s o r t i r de n o u s - m e m e s . C e t a r t t r i o m p h e a i n s i . ^ C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e R o y b o t h b o r r o w e d at t i m e s the v o c a b u l a r y of 78 p s y c h o l o g y , i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s m e r e l y t o u c h e d u p o n the t o t a l and ' p a s s i v e l y a c t i v e ' p a r t i c -i p a t i o n of the r e a d e r - c r i t i c , c o n s i d e r e d of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e by E t h i e r -B l a i s in the r e c r e a t i o n of an a u t h o r ' s w o r k . A m o n g s t t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s only L o u i s D a n t i n r e c o g n i z e d the benefit of a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f to be i n v a d e d and s e d u c e d b y the w o r k to be a n a l y s e d . 105 D a n t i n p r e f a c e d h i s c o m m e n t a r y on P o e m e s of A l i c e L e m i e u x b y c l a i m -S i , en l i s ant u n l i v r e l a c r i t i q u e .:;§. l e v e i l l e l a p r e m i e r e , c ' e s t m a u v a i s s i g n e ; s i e l l e r e s t e d ' a b o r d c o n q u i s e , h y p n o t i s e e , et se t r a i n e a l a suite du c h a r m e p r o d u i t , c ' e s t que le c h a r m e i c i est l ' e s s e n c e p r i n c i p a l e ; e l l e n ' a g u e r e p l u s a l o r s q u ' a j u s -t i f i e r son a d m i r a t i o n , en c h e r c h a n t , c o m m e p a r h a b i t u d e , quelques b r i n s e c h a p p e s aux m a i l l e s ou quelques t a c h e s s u r le p o l i . 7 9 S u c h a s t a t e m e n t e x p l a i n s why D a n t i n adopted e c l e c t i s m as h i s c r i -t i c a l p r i n c i p l e , why he w a s c o n v i n c e d , that a c r i t i c , i n a t t e m p t i n g to g r a s p an a u t h o r ' s i d e a s and r e p r o d u c e t h e m i n h i s own w r i t i n g , ought to h a v e a " v e r s a t i l e and subtle s o u l , " " a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s p i r i t . " (Poetes  de l ' A m e r i q u e f r a n p a i s e , p p . 15-16) T h e s e a s p e c t s of D a n t i n ' s c r i t i c i s m a r e e v i d e n t a l s o i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the n o v e l G r a n d L o u i s l ' I n n o c e n t . T h e c r i t i c s u g g e s t s that s u c h a n o v e l ought to be r e a d i n an a e r o p l a n e , or on the Indian O c e a n w h e r e the r e a d e r w o u l d be a l o n e . C l e a r l y , D a n -t i n r e a l i z e d that the n o v e l in q u e s t i o n , b e i n g at the o p p o s i t e p o l e to r e a l -i t y , d e m a n d s a n e f f i c a c i o u s m i l i e u , b o t h s p i r i t u a l and s p a t i a l , i f i ts " s e -c r e t de s u g g e s t i o n m a g i q u e et m y s t i q u e " is to be c a p t u r e d . P e r h a p s the b e s t i n d i c a t i o n of D a n t i n ' s s u b m i s s i o n to an a u t h o r ' s w o r k , ( E t h i e r - B l a i s ' ' c r e a t i v e r e a d i n g ' ) is the "fo'l e n t h o u s i a s m e " of w h i c h he s p e a k s i n the face of R o b e r t C h o q u e t t e ' s p o e t r y : II f a u d r a i t p o u r l a b i e n j u g e r , se f a i r e a s o i - m e N n e , une a m e j e u n e , o u b l i e r l a t e c h n i q u e , l ' e x p e r i e n c e , se p r e n d r e au f o l e n t h o u s i a s m e , a c c l a m e r 1' intention p o u r ce q u ' o n y d e v i n e , et j u s q u ' a u x e c a r t s p o u r l e u r agite et l e u r fougue. . . . L u s dans cet e s p r i t s y m p a t h i q u e , l e s v e r s de M . Choquette m ' o n t tout d ' a b o r d s a i s i , e n l e v e " a t r a v e r s l e s v e n t s " , b r o u i l l a n t m o n o e i l c r i t i q u e , coupant l ' h a l e i n e a m o n d i s c e r n e m e n t n o r m a l . M a i s , a p r e s a v o i r r e p r i s t e r r e , et p o u r de s a i n e s et f r o i d e s  r a l s o n s , j ' e n c o n s e r v e a u t r e c h o s e que l a m e m o i r e de m o n d e s 106 e n t r e v u s et d ' u n t r e s jeune p i l o t e catapultant dans l e s n u a g e s : j ' e n g a r d e l ' i m p r e s s i o n d ' a v o i r g r a v i sous s a conduite des a t -m o s p h e r e s r a r e s et fendu r s i c ^ l ' a z u r m e m e de l a p o e s i e ^ * ^ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l j . Without any doubt D a n t i n was c o n v i n c e d that h i s ' fo l e n t h o u s i a s m e ' , h i s ' p a s s i v e l y a c t i v e ' r e c e p t i v i t y was as r e l i a b l e an i n s t r u m e n t of c r i -t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n as was h i s " d i s c e r n e m e n t n o r m a l , " h i s state of r a t i o n -a l i t y . E t h i e r - B l a i s , i n c o m p a r i n g D a n t i n and C a m i l l e R o y , shows h i s a d -m i r a t i o n for the f o r m e r by p o i n t i n g out that, " D a n t i n v e c u t p o u r l ' a m o u r des l e t t r e s . . . , i l a s s i g n e a l ' a r t une p l a c e e l o i g n e e de l a m o r a l e . " ( S i -gnets, III p . 105) It is D a n t i n ' s o v e r a l l e c l e c t i s m w h i c h p l e a s e s E t h i e r -B l a i s . G i v e n the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r b e l i e f , that r e a d i n g and the r i g h t a t m o s p h e r e a r e n e c e s s a r y for a t r u e r e c r e a t i o n of an a u t h o r ' s w o r k , one is l e d to think that E t h i e r - B l a i s w o u l d h a v e a p p r o v e d of the a b o v e - m e n -t i o n e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of D a n t i n . E t h i e r - B l a i s c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c has r o o t s , as does D u h a m e l , in the i m m e d i a t e p a s t . In the w o r k of D u g a s and C h a r b o n n e a u , the i d e a is e x -p r e s s e d that l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d be m o r e h u m a n i s t i c and m o r e u n i v e r s a l . D a n t i n ' s e c l e c t i s m p l a c e d r e a d i n g as the f i r s t and m o s t i m p o r t a n t p h a s e in a c r i t i c ' s c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e r e m a i n s one a s p e c t to E t h i e r - B l a i s ' c r i t i c i s m i n w h i c h he has not b e e n p r e c e d e d b y a n y o n e , e x c e p t another c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c G i l l e s M a r c o t t e . We a r e a l l u d i n g h e r e to a f o r m of t h e m a t i c c r i t i c i s m , i n w h i c h E t h i e r -B l a i s c o n s i d e r s c e r t a i n i m a g e s as an i n d i c a t i o n of a c o l l e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s , a m o n g s t l o c a l a u t h o r s of the n e e d to a s s u m e t h e i r " q u e b e c n e s s " i n its 1 0 7 e n t i r e t y . E t h i e r - B l a i s spoke of G r o u l x ' s " i m p r e c i s e nat ional ism"83. . a £ the o n l y m o m e n t i n the h i s t o r y of i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e that a g r o u p of a u t h o r s saw fit to s t r i v e to s u r p a s s the n o t h i n g n e s s a n d e m p t i n e s s to w h i c h t r a -d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e h a d a c c u s t o m e d s o c i e t y . T h e c r i t i c does a d m i t that P a u l e t t e C o l l e t ' s b o o k on w i n t e r w o u l d p r o v i d e p r o f e s s o r s of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to s p e a k " e n c o n n a i s s a n c e de c a u s e l i t t e r a i r e . " (Signets, II p . 33) It d e a l s w i t h the s p i r i t u a l and i n -t e l l e c t u a l c o l d n e s s i n F r e n c h C a n a d a , the a g e - o l d r e f u s a l to s u r p a s s the e m p t i n e s s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s in i m a g e s s u c h as town, f i r e , e a r t h a n d w a t e r , p r e -v a l e n t i n the w o r k s of n u m e r o u s c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t s , E t h i e r - B l a i s s e e s an attempt to s e e k the e t h e r a l , the p u r e , the s o l i d , the p o e t i c a b s o l u t e , i n s h o r t an attempt to a s s u m e what the c r i t i c h i m s e l f c a l l s "le d e v e n i r c o l l e c t i f . " F o r e x a m p l e , he c l a i m s that N e l l i g a n and L ' E c o l e l i t t e r a i r e de M o n t r e a l , by g i v i n g a p r i m e p l a c e to the t h e m e of town, r e c o g n i z e d that m a n ' s d e s t i n y is to be p l a y e d out i n that l o c a l e and not a r o u n d a b e l -f r y , " s o l i t a i r e b e r g e r . " T h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n p r o v i d e s a s y n t h e s i s of E t h i e r - B l a i s ' b e l i e f i n l i n g u i s t i c p u r i t y , and in the i m p o r t a n t r o l e to be p l a y e d by F r a n c e and b y the t h e m e of town i n the d e v e l o p m e n t of l i t -e r a t u r e : C ' e s t au m i l i e u de m i l l i o n s d ' e t r e s que se joue n o t r e d e s t i n , et non p l u s autour d ' u n c l o c h e r , s o l i t a i r e b e r g e r . L a d o u l e u r d ' u n S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , l a c r u a u t e de C l a i r e M a r t i n , l e s c r i s et les r i r e s d ' A n d r e M a j o r sont i s s u s de l ' u n i v e r s des v i l l e s . II est u n fait p l u s i m p o r t a n t e n c o r e et q u i v i v i f i e r a ou d e t r u i r a n o t r e l i t t e r a t u r e : c ' e s t a. M o n t r e a l que se joue l ' a v e n i r de n o t r e l a n g a g e . II y a deja. eu d i v o r c e s u r le p l a n de l a p e n -see e n t r e l e s e c r i v a i n s et le p e u p l e . M a i s p euple et e c r i v a i n , dans une l a r g e m e s u r e , p a r l a i e n t le m e m e l a n g a g e . C e a q u o i 108 nous a s s i s t o n s , c ' e s t a u n a f f a i s s e m e n t general de l a langue c h e z le p e u p l e a u q u e l c o r r e s p o n d c h e z l e s e c r i v a i n s une c e r -taine r e c h e r c h e de p u r e t e l i n g u i s t i q u e . . . . L ' a v e n i r de nos l e t t r e s , c ' e s t c e l u i de l a f r a n c i s a t i o n de n o t r e p e u p l e . Sans ce d e v e n i r c o l l e c t i f f r a n c a i s , nous nous c o n d a m n o n s a v i v r e et a. e c r i r e u n j o u r dans des v i l l e s i n e r t e s , p a r c e q u ' e l l e s ne nous c o m p r e n d r o n t p l u s et q u ' e l l e s ne s e r o n t p l u s a n o u s . In the d u a l t h e m e of l i m p i d i t y - f l u i d i t y and w o m a n s e e n i n R o b e r t C h o -quette 's Suite m a r i n e , E t h i e r - B l a i s p e r c e i v e s a l o v e for l i f e , an effort — j to s e i z e i n p o e t r y that w h i c h is s o l i d and l a s t i n g , a c e r t a i n o p t i m i s m i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n s h o r t , another attempt to shake off the s p i r i t u a l and i n -t e l l e c t u a l - c o l d n e s s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d : J a m a i s dans nos l e t t r e s , une f e m m e n ' a et€ chantee s u r ce t o n , ou le m o u v e m e n t de l ' e a u se p e r d dans l e s e t o i l e s . R o b e r t Choquette r a m e n e tout a e l l e . Iseut v e i l l e p a r t o u t , d e e s s e t u -t e l a i r e des m e a n d r e s de cette p e n s e e c o s m i q u e . L e s v e r s g l i s s e n t s u r e l l e , a l a suite l e s uns des a u t r e s , p o u r ne d e v e n i r , a l a f i n , qu'une t r a m e e x t r a o r d i n a i r e d ' e n t r e l a c s ou se denouent . o r l e s f i l s de l a p u i s s a n c e c r e a t r i c e et de l ' e x i s t e n c e . E t h i e r - B l a i s is c e r t a i n l y not a N e w C r i t i c . Y e t , h i s e r u d i t i o n does not e x c l u d e the f i e l d of N e w C r i t i c i s m . T h e c r i t i c does not s p e a k of a r -chetypes and c o m p l e x e s as do M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e r e s p e c t i v e l y . H o w -e v e r the v e r t i c a l i t y and i m a g e s of a d e d a l i c and g e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e ( " t e r r e , " " i l e s et r i v a g e s , " " e s p a c e s s t e l l a i r e s , " " u n i o n m i r a c u l e u s e de l a t e r r e et du c i e l " ) u n d e r l i n e d i n the p o e t r y of G r a n d b o i s a r e not o n l y i m a g e s of s t a b i l i t y , hope and the p o e t i c a b s o l u t e . T h e s e i m a g e s a l s o r e m i n d us of P o u l e t ' s c o n c e r n w i t h s p a c e a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t i v e of E t h i e r - B l a i s ' e n d e a v o u r to g r a s p G r a n d b o i s ' c r e a t i v e c o n s c i e n c e at w o r k . T h e c r i t i c s u m s up h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n i n t h e s e w o r d s : L ' u n i o n m i r a c u l e u s e d'une t e r r e q u i se f o r m e e t e r n e l l e m e n t et d ' u n c i e l d ' o u toutes l e s e t o i l e s a u r o n t ete' a r r a c h e * e s ; cette u n i o n , n o y a u de l a p o e s i e de G r a n d b o i s , q u ' e s t - e l l e , s i n o n 1 0 9 l a v i s i o n c r e a t r i c e , p a r m i n o u s , d ' u n p r e t r e du r e e l ? ^ E t h i e r - B l a i s a l s o v i s u a l i z e s f i r e as a p r i m o r d i a l i m a g e i n R i n a L a s n i e r ' s w o r k . H a v i n g r a p i d l y p a s s e d o v e r the i n f l u e n c e p l a y e d on the poet b y h e r p a r e n t s ( influence of p u r i t y and c r e a t i v i t y ) the c r i t i c i n f o r m s us that R i n a L a s n i e r is a " p o e t e - s o l a i r e , " one f o r w h o m f i r e , b e i n g " p r i m e -a m o u r , " s u p e r c e d e s a l l n e g a t i v e i m a g e s , (night, d e a t h , o b s c u r i t y , d e n -s i t y , sol i tude) E t h i e r - B l a i s thus s y n t h e t i c a l l y r e c r e a t e s R i n a L a s n i e r ' s u s e of the i m a g e of f i r e as an i n s t r u m e n t i n the s e a r c h for p a r a d i s e a n d p u r i t y , for the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of l i f e : R i n a L a s n i e r est le poete de l ' a m o u r donne', r e c u , a m o u r -e c h a n g e . L a p u d e u r , on l a t r o u v e dans l ' u t i l i s a t i o n d ' u n v o c a -b u l a i r e e s o t e r i q u e et dans le feu des i m a g e s . L ' a r b r e q u ' e l l e d e c r i t , au m o m e n t m e m e q u ' i l se c o n s u m e devant e l l e , est le s y m b o l e de cette p o e s i e ou le don d e v i e n t c o n s o m m a t i o n , done d i s p a r i t i o n . L a p i e r r e s e u l e "ecoute s a d u r e e . " T o u t e a u t r e m a t i e r e est a p p e l e e a. d i s p a r a i t r e dans l a m e s u r e ou le p o e t e , l a n o m m a n t , fait acte d ' a m o u r . ^7 T h e r e a d e r m a y not be c o m p l e t e l y i n the r e a l m of p h e n o m e n o l o g y in the m a n n e r of B a c h e l a r d , but he is c e r t a i n l y not i n the p r e s e n c e of C a s g r a i n ' s p a t r i o t i c and m o r a l i s t i c c o m m e n t a r i e s , of C a m i l l e R o y ' s c l a s s i c a l d o g m a t i s m or e v e n of D a n t i n ' s l i m i t e d e e l e c t i s m . F o r E t h i e r -B l a i s a w o r k owes i ts e x i s t e n c e to b i o g r a p h i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s ( " l ' e x t e r n e " ) as w e l l as to its a c t u a l c r e a t i o n , ( " l ' i n t i m e " ) W r i t i n g is t h e r e f o r e the v i s i b l e p r e s e n c e of what is " i n t i m a t e " i n an a u t h o r , as s e e n t h r o u g h a p a r t i c u l a r i m a g e . - F o r E t h i e r - B l a i s e v e r y r e a d e r - c r i t i c ought to be able to d i s c e r n an a u t h o r ' s intent b e h i n d the w r i t t e n i m a g e : T o u t l e c t e u r e s t un p e u v o y e u r , et i l le d e v i e n t de p l u s en p l u s , dans l a m e s u r e m e m e ou. s o n gout s ' a f f i n e , ou s e s c o n n a i s s a n c e s p r o p r e m e n t l i t t e r a i r e s s ' a p p r o f o n d i s s e n t , ou. s o n j u g e m e n t v a d l i n s t i n c t v e r s ce q u i est v r a i dans l ' e c r i t u r e . . . . II y a le J e a n 110 S i m a r d d'avant les m o t s , et ce lu i d 'apres , chacun d'eux v a l a b l e , m a i s l 'un est le gestateur et l 'aut re est son image . In the studies he makes of native poets one can cer ta in l y say that there ex ists an E t h i e r - B l a i s , thoughtful reader and an E t h i e r - B l a i s , c reat i ve and in terpretat i ve w r i t e r . They both come together in the f o r m of a c r i t i c seek ing , in such images as town, wate r , woman , f i r e , bones, the co l lec t i ve consc iousness of contemporary poets s t r i v i n g to al ienate themselves f r o m the myth of nothingness, empt iness , s p i r i t u a l and i n -t e l l e c t u a l co ldness . Anne Heber t ' s ins is tence on the theme of bones is an ind icat ion of a preoccupat ion wi th sel f ; it i s a lso a s y m b o l of s e c u r i t y " le d e r n i e r r e c o u r s contre l a dest ruc t ion de s o i - m e m e . " (Signets, II p. 201) Yves Pre fonta ine is "en p ro ie a des m e c a n i s m e s v e r b a u x " and uses " images qui na issent d'une sorte de re f lex ion mathemat ique , " b e -cause, l i k e Grandbois and the two Lapointes he wishes to t r a n s f o r m "snow into f i r e . " (Ibid. , III, p. 249-258) It is perhaps in the synthesis that he gives of Gat ien Lapointe that one apprec iates the f u l l m e a s u r e of E t h i e r - B l a i s as an i m p r e s s i o n i s t , c reat i ve and in terpretat ive r e a d e r - w r i t e r : Nous sommes devant un p o e t e - t e m o i n , qui veut, par le t r u c h e -ment de sa p ropre personne, a s s u m e r le dest in de son peuple. E t Gat ien Lapointe y parv ient , grace a une langue drue , qui ne se paie pas de m o t s , qui est la. d ressee sur. le paysage de notre poes ie , comme l 'un de ces a r b r e s qui l u i sont s i c h e r s . Cette evolut ion est du res te symptomat ique . Nos poetes, depuis Grandbois et R i n a L a s n i e r , se sont acc roches a notre nature comme a. ce qui nous a ete donne de plus s tab le . Ils y assoc ient les etres qu ' i l s a iment ; l a femme de Grandbois se p r o f i l e sur son r o c h e r . L e s paysages i m a g i n a i r e s de R i n a L a s n i e r s ' e n -fuient comme des va isseaux fantomes dans le vent n o r d - a m e r -i c a i n , i l es emportees au lo in avec leur ca rga ison d 'humains heureux et ma lheureux , en quete de l a m a l e m e r . II en va de meme chez Gat ien Lapo in te , qui ne p a r l e n i de ce q u ' i l a i m e , I l l n i du devenir d'une i le dans le f leuve, qui ne par le que de l u i . II s ' imbr ique dans l a vie de notre nature. II suff it que le f leuve f r issonne pour que le poete sente en l u i l a v ie qui rena i t . 'Un f r i s s o n , un seul sur le f leuve, E t l ' ombre de"croit en m o i , M a sol itude un instant r e s p i r e : on Je peux reprendre m a route. 7 Thus far in this chapter we have endeavoured to point out ce r ta in factors which have contr ibuted to the establ ishment of c r i t i c i s m as a t ru ly aesthetic d i s c i p l i n e . C l a s s i c a l pur i ty of f o r m , biography and h i s -t o r i c a l in terpretat ions , we observed , are c r i t e r i a employed by both t r a -d i t ional and contemporary c r i t i c s , as p r inc ip les of object iv i ty and i m -p a r t i a l i t y . We also noted that, a few t rad i t iona l c r i t i c s touched on c r i -t e r i a used extensively by contemporary c r i t i c s . Lou is Dant in , for e x a m -p l e , saw the necess i ty for ca re fu l reading and the s p i r i t u a l , and spat ia l rec rea t ion of the atmosphere of an author 's work . Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s also f i r m l y be l ieves in the importance of such f a c t o r s . In the works of F a b r e , du Meyn and Alphonse Gagnon, it was sugges -ted that F r e n c h Canada should open wide its doors to the l i t e r a r y t e c h -niques and educational methods of other count r ies . L i k e w i s e , J e a n -Char les Harvey and C a m i l l e Roy made s i m i l a r recommendat ions in their theor ies of a humanis t ic indigenous l i t e r a t u r e . Except in the work of M a r c e l Dugas, these theor ies of cosmopo l i tan ism and human ism never became p rac t i ce amongst t rad i t iona l c r i t i c s . Duhamel and E t h i e r - B l a i s , unl ike C a s g r a i n , Roy and Dant in , the 112 most well-known c r i t i c s of their e ras, refuse to be caught in the web of r e g i o n a l i s m and p a t r i o t i s m . The erudition of the f o r m e r , their human-is m , their l i b e r a l attitude towards L i t e r a t u r e a l l p revent them f r o m t o l -e r a t i n g such a s t i f l i n g existence. E v e n as Robert Charbonneau and M a r -c e l Dugas, Duhamel and E t h i e r - B l a i s have confidence i n their i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y they have no fear that:their commentaries would become the laughing stock of the l i t e r a r y world. In d i s c u s s i n g Dantin's and Roy's " s i l e n c e " on F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e , E t h i e r - B l a i s suggests that such fear may have been in their hearts:; M a i s sur B a u d e l a i r e (qu 1 aim-ait L o u i s Dantin), sur V e r l a i n e , sur les grands e c r i v a i n s du debut de X X e s i e c l e , r i e n . On ne peut v o i r la. que l a marque d'un e s p r i t c r a i n t i f , qui pense que ses jugements ne sont valables que dans l a m e s u r e ou i l s ne quittent pas nos bords. A L o u i s Dantin tout comme a C a -m i l l e Roy, i l a u r a manque d'avoir medite, l a plume a l a main, sur de grandes et puis sante s oeuvres. ^ E t h i e r - B l a i s is j u s t i f i e d in his explanation of Dantin's and Roy's " s i l e n c e " on great F r e n c h authors. B e s i d e s the former's statement r e -c a l l s to our m i n d a factor which played an important p a r t in the attitude and works of many t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s : the ineffective nature of the edu-cati o n a l s y s t e m and the preoccupation with s u r v i v a l at a l l l e v e l s . In Chapter I, a passage was cited i n which C a m i l l e Roy suggested that C a s -g r a i n was not a c r i t i c in the s t r i c t sense of the word. Roy explained this s h o r t c o m i n g by stating that C a s g r a i n had neither the opportunity nor the time to su f f i c i e n t l y apply h i m s e l f to the study of L i t e r a t u r e s , their evo-91 lution^and laws. C a m i l l e Roy, too, was j u s t i f i e d , i n his a s s e s s m e n t of Casgrain's worth as a c r i t i c . Roy's explanation is one which may e a s i l y be applied to h i m s e l f and 113 to other t r a d i t i o n a l 20th C e n t u r y c r i t i c s . O f c o u r s e c r i t i c s l i k e R o y , D a n t i n and H e b e r t w e r e m o r e w e l l - r o u n d e d than t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . Y e t , one is left to w o n d e r whether any F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p r i e s t c o u l d e v e r d e -vote h i m s e l f t o t a l l y to L i t e r a t u r e , thus i g n o r i n g the fai thful w h o m he o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d to s e r v e . A c r i t i c s u c h as C a m i l l e R o y , f o r c e d to s h a r e h i s t i m e b e t w e e n two o c c u p a t i o n s c o u l d c e r t a i n l y not be e x p e c t e d to be as ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' as D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , c r i t i c s m o r e w e l l -r o u n d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and l i t t l e c o n c e r n e d w i t h any s t r u g g l e for s u r v i v a l . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s not o n l y l a c k e d the p r o p e r i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r m a t i o n to d e a l s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h n o n - i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . T h e y a l s o l a c k e d the t i m e i n w h i c h to do s o . M a n y of t h e m c a r r i e d out the funct ions of c l e r g y i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r w o r k i n l i t e r a t u r e . B e s i d e s , it s e e m s to u s that after d e v o t i n g t h e i r e n e r g i e s to s p e a k i n g k i n d l y of the p a t r i o t i c w o r k s of a " y o u n g " n a t i o n , o r i n t e a r i n g to s h r e d s the w o r k s of a r i v a l , m o s t t r a d i t i o n a l c r i -t i c s w e r e too i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a n d s p i r i t u a l l y d r a i n e d , too p h y s i c a l l y f a t i g u e d , to see b e y o n d the f i e l d of i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . S u c h " r e g i o n a l i s m e e t r i q u e " d i d n o t h i n g to h e l p the a d v a n c e m e n t of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n c r i t i c i s m . We b e l i e v e that D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , b e c a u s e they t r u s t t h e i r i n t e l l e c t c o m p l e t e l y , b e c a u s e they h a v e no f e a r of b e i n g r i d i c u l e d , b e c a u s e they have the t i m e to study other l i t e r a t u r e s , h a v e b r o u g h t m o r e h u m a n i s m , u n i v e r s a l i s m , l i b e r a l i s m , s e r e n i t y and t r a n q u i l l i t y of attitude to c r i t i c i s m than e v e r b e f o r e e x i s t e d . T h e c r i t i c i s m of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s has c e r t a i n l y f o l l o w e d the c o u r s e of p o s t - W o r l d W a r II l i t e r a t u r e t o w a r d s g r e a t e r h u m a n i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m . S u c h c r i t i c i s m t h e r e f o r e has l i t t l e i n c o m m o n w i t h its 114 t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t . D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s a r e not C o n s e r v a t i v e s , but L i b e r a l s , i n the f i e l d of c r i t i c i s m . T h e y a r e b o t h a w a r e of the i n n o -v a t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e i n L i t e r a t u r e ; they have i n v e s t i g a t e d n o n - i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e to c h a l l e n g e t h e i r own c a p a c i t y for i n t e l l e c t u a l j o u s t i n g . T h e y have a l s o u n d e r t a k e n s u c h a t a s k to a p p r i s e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s of that w h i c h is " l i v i n g " and u s e f u l i n such, l i t e r a t u r e . T h e y have not, h o w e v e r , f o r g o t t e n to c o m m e n t u p o n l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e . E v e n the f i e l d of N e w C r i t i c i s m has not e s c a p e d the r o v i n g eye of E t h i e r - B l a i s for h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s on c e r t a i n l o c a l poets r e v e a l that he is a w a r e of B a c h e l a r d ' s p h e n o m e n o l o g y . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , E t h i e r -B l a i s is a c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c not o n l y b e c a u s e of the a e s t h e t i c intent of h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s , but a l s o b e c a u s e l i k e B e s s e t t e and M a r c o t t e , 7 ^ he is c o g n i z a n t of the r o l e to be p l a y e d b y the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n i n the r e i n t e g r a t i o n of an a u t h o r ' s w o r k , as w e l l as i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s own. So f a r r e m o v e d a r e D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s f r o m the n o n - a r t i s t i c c r i t e r i a of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s that, a l o n g w i t h i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c s s u c h as M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , they u n d o u b t e d l y f o r m a t r i b u n a l w h i c h has not f o r g o t t e n that the f i r s t q u a l i t y of any judge is j u s t i c e . 115 C H A P T E R III T H E B R E A K B E T W E E N T R A D I T I O N A L A N D C O N T E M P O R A R Y C R I T I C I S M R o g e r D u h a m e l and J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s who h a v e a i d e d the c a u s e of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r -t i a l i t y c h i e f l y t h r o u g h the u s e of a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a . In C h a p t e r II we u n d e r l i n e d those p o i n t s i n d i c a t i v e of s u c h a fact. It was n o t e d , for e x a m p l e , that r e g i o n a l i s m , p a t r i o t i s m , r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m , p o l i t i c s , f r i e n d s h i p and j e a l o u s y a r e m o s t often a b s e n t f r o m the w o r k s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . In t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m these f a c t o r s a c c o u n t for the d o m i n a n t r o l e p l a y e d by e x c e s s i v e b l a m e a n d e x -c e s s i v e p r a i s e . In the c o m m e n t a r i e s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d i n g r e a t p a r t by i m p a r t i a l i t y a n d o b j e c t i v i t y . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of these q u a l i t i e s h a s b e e n a i d e d by the u n i v e r s a l i s m , c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m j a h d h u m a n i s m p e r v a d i n g the w o r k s of t h e s e c r i t i c s . We a l s o r e m a r k e d that s o m e t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s s u c c e e d e d , at t i m e s , i n b e i n g o b j e c t i v e and i m p a r t i a l . In s u c h i n s t a n c e s , c l a s s i c i s m , h i s t o r -i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s (the m a j o r l i n k s b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s ) were, the f o c a l p o i n t s of c o m m e n t a r i e s and f r e -quently the only y a r d s t i c k s of a p p r e c i a t i o n . B y r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on t h e s e 116 p r i n c i p l e s , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h b r i n g i n g out i n s t r o n g r e l i e f the m a i n o u t l i n e s of a w o r k , and w i t h j u d g m e n t and c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n t h e r e o f . J u d g m e n t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o e x i s t i n the w o r k s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s ; but for t h e m , the p r i n c i p a l function of h i s t o r y and b i o g r a p h y , we p o i n t e d out, is to p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d and c o n t i n u i t y to the c r i t i c a l p i c -t u r e b e i n g p a i n t e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o m m e n t a r i e s of E t h i e r - B l a i s , it was s e e n that the i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s own w o r k and the r e i n t e g r a t i o n of an a u t h o r ' s a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s i n the c r e a t i o n of this p i c t u r e . E t h i e r -B l a i s m a k e s u s e of c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and a p e r s o n a l and p o w e r f u l s t y l e of w r i t i n g to a c h i e v e h i s g o a l . We c o n c l u d e d that l i b e r a l i s m of attitude and m e t h o d has b e e n i n s t r u -m e n t a l i n the d i m i n u t i o n of e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and of e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e i n the w o r k s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . A m o n g s t c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s , t h e r e e x i s t s another ' s c h o o l ' w h i c h has p l a y e d a p a r t i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y on a s o l i d f o o t i n g . We a r e r e f e r r i n g h e r e to the l e s s a e s t h e t i c but m o r e i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y f o r m of c r i t i c i s m of w h i c h G i l l e s M a r c o t t e and G e r a r d B e s s e t t e a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . W h e r e M m e de S t a e l , G i d e , and T h i b a u d e t s e e m to h a v e b e e n the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s g u i d i n g the pens of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , i n the c a s e of M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , B a c h e l a r d and F r e u d r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e f r e q u e n t l y at the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l h e l m . It is i n t e r e s t i n g to note a l s o that, u n l i k e D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e do not c o n s i d e r it i m p e r a t i v e to d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o w e s s by r e g u l a r l y c o m m e n t i n g u p o n F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e . 117 S u c h ' n e g l e c t ' ts not to be c o n s t r u e d as another i n s t a n c e of c h a u v i n i s m , " r e g i o n a l i s m e etrique', " o r fear of b e i n g r i d i c u l e d . O n the c o n t r a r y , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e a t t e m p t to c o m p r e h e n d an author and h i s w o r k as a t o t a l i t y . In t u r n i n g t h e i r attention to c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of N e w C r i t i c i s m , these two c r i t i c s s e e k to d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m away f r o m the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of t r a -d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s . W h i l e s u c h a s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t e s that t h e r e is i n d e e d a d i f f e r e n c e of t e c h n i q u e b e t w e e n E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l , and M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , it a l s o s u g g e s t s that the d i s t a n c e e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n these l a t t e r and t r a -d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s i s i m m e n s e . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e r e is l i t t l e r o o m for e x c e s s i v e b l a m e and e x -c e s s i v e p r a i s e in the q u a l i t a t i v e , r e c r e a t i v e and s y n t h e t i c c o m m e n t a r i e s of M a r c o t t e a n d B e s s e t t e . F o r e x a m p l e , B e s s e t t e r e m a r k s that e x c e s s i v e a d m i r a t i o n for " m e -d i o c r e w o r k s " w h i c h r e f l e c t l o c a l m i l i e u c a n give r i s e to "un s t e r i l e n a r -c i s s i m e m a s o c h i q u e . " It can a l s o l e a d c r i t i c s to e n v e l o p an author a n d h i s w o r k in a " m y s t i c a l h a l o . " B e s s e t t e p o i n t s to J a c q u e s F e r r o n , H u b e r t A q u i n and R e j e a n D u c h a r m e as a u t h o r s on w h o m e x c e s s i v e a d m i r a t i o n has h a d a d i s a s t r o u s effect. T h e c r i t i c c l a s s i f i e s L e s R o s e s s a u v a g e s , L a C h a i s e du m a r e c h a l -f e r r a n t and L e S a i n t - E l i a s as "de p u r s r adotages " when c o m p a r e d to F e r r o n ' s e a r l i e r w o r k s , C o n t e s du p a y s i n e e r t a i n and H i s t o r i e t t e s . B e s -sette a l s o i n f o r m s us that e v e n though A q u i n ' s f i r s t w o r k , P r o c h a i n E p i -s o d e , was a good n o v e l , h i s s e c o n d w o r k was " m e d i o c r e " and h i s t h i r d 118 " u n r e a d a b l e . " T h e c r i t i c c o n c l u d e s : L a g r a d a t i o n r o m a n e s q u e de D u c h a r m e a ete, e l l e a u s s i , u n i -f o r m e m e n t d e s c e n d a n t e . P o u r t a n t l a . " c o t e " de c e s t r o i s a u t e u r s , ne s e m b l e g u e r e a v o i r b a i s s e . l i s r e stent toujours des " m o n s t r e s s a c r e s " , ce q u i , en l e s e n c o u r a g e a n t a p u b l i e r des t o r c h o n s , est a u s s i nefaste p o u r l e u r a v e n i r l i t t e r a i r e p r o p r e que p o u r c e l u i des jeunes q u i p e r s i s t e n t a. l a s t a t u f i e r . II est e m i n e m m e n t s o u h a i t a b l e que, a l ' a v e n i r , nos c r i t i q u e s et l e s l e c t e u r s q u e -b e c o i s en g e n e r a l jugent les o e u v r e s des m o n s t r e s s a c r e s en s o i {"italics in the o r i g i n a l " ] et n o n p a s d 1 a p r e s l a r e p u t a t i o n , i m a g o i q u e de l e u r s a u t e u r s . * E v i d e n t l y B e s s e t t e , as d i d J u l e s F o u r n i e r , r e f u s e s to c r o w n e v e r y new p u b l i c a t i o n w i t h e x c e s s i v e and b a n a l p r a i s e . M o r e o v e r B e s s e t t e , u n l i k e P a m p h i l e L e m a y , r e a l i z e s ' t h a t t h e r e a r e good and b a d a s p e c t s to a l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e , and that p r a i s e and b l a m e i n e x c e s s w o u l d c e r t a i n l y not a i d the c a u s e of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y in c r i t i c i s m . It is for the above r e a s o n s that the c r i t i c s u g g e s t s that the " l i t e r a r y " j u d g m e n t s of V i c t o r - L e v y B e a u l i e u on A n d r e L a n g e v i n , s h o u l d be r e a d w i t h c a u t i o n , for B e a u l i e u h a s " l ' e p i d e r m e s e n s i b l e . " M o r e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , B e s s e t t e contends that B e a u l i e u ' s c o n d e m n a t i o n of L ' E l a n d ' A m e r i q u e i s an e m o t i o n a l and i r r a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n to L a n g e v i n ' s r e f u s a l to a c c e p t le j o u a l i n l i t e r a t u r e . W h i l e a d m i t t i n g that L a n g e v i n ' s " l o n g s i l e n c e " m a y have c o n t r i b u t e d to the " o b s c u r i t y " of L ' E l a n d ' A m e r i q u e , B e s s e t t e h i m s e l f is f i r m in h i s j u d g m e n t t h e r e o f . T h e c r i t i c a g r e e s w i t h M a r c o t t e that L a n g e v i n ' s h e r o e s a r e not h u m a n enough. A c c o r d i n g to B e s s e t t e , these l a t t e r a r e " t r o p e n -gages dans l a v i e p r e m i e r e de l ' e x p e r i e n c e l q u e b e c o i s e l p o u r l e u r d o n n e r l a v i e s e c o n d e . " In a d d i t i o n , L a n g e v i n ' s " i m m a t u r i t y " i s s e e n i n h i s i n a -b i l i t y to e x p r e s s i n an a c c e p t a b l e l i t e r a r y f o r m the " O c t o b e r c r i s i s " of 119 1970, as w e l l as the p a t e r n i t y of h i s p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r , A n t o i n e . In c o n -c l u s i o n , B e s s e t t e c o n d e m n s L a n g e v i n ' s r o l e as " o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r . " S u c h a t e c h n i q u e , the c r i t i c c l a i m s , c r e a t e s "un b r o u i l l a g e affectif et t e m -p o r e l " i n L ' E l a n d ' A m e r i q u e . ( T r o i s R o m a n c i e r s q u e b e c o i s , p p . 143-177) E v e n though L a n g e v i n ' s e a r l i e r n o v e l s a r e e x c e l l e n t , B e s s e t t e r e f u s e s to c o n s i d e r L a n g e v i n as a " m o n s t r e s a c r e . " One m a y r i g h t l y c o n c l u d e that w h e r e b l a m e is evident i n h i s i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s , B e s s e t t e , i n l i k e n e s s to M a r c o t t e , shows h i m s e l f f i r m and a m a s -ter of the a r t of b e i n g p o l i t e l y r u d e . In an a p p r e c i a t i o n w h i c h p a r a l l e l s that g i v e n on L a n g e v i n , B e s s e t t e thus v o i c e s h i s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h C l a u d e -H e n r i G r i g n o n as n o v e l i s t , o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r and l i t e r a r y judge: C e q u i est a r r i v e , c ' e s t que G r i g n o n n ' a p a s s u f f i s a m m e n t p r i s ses d i s t a n c e s a. l ' e g a r d de Se"raphin, s u r t o u t du S e r a p h i n s e n -s u e l , e r o t i q u e . U n b r o u i l l a g e affectif pre*cede (et p r o v o q u e ) un b r o u i l l a g e dans l ' e x p r e s s i o n . G r i g n o n p a r a i t i n c a p a b l e de se d i s s o c i e r s u f f i s a m m e n t de s o n h e r os p o u r ne pas i n t e r v e n i r . N o n s e u l e m e n t i l le juge et le c o n d a m n e (ce q u i est deja t r e s agacant p o u r le l e c t e u r , toujours d e s i r e u x de f o r m e r s a p r o p r e o p i n i o n ) , m a i s i l l u i coupe s o u v e n t l a p a r o l e , ou plutot , l a p e n -see ce q u i const i tue p o u r u n p e r s o n n a g e u n d a n g e r m o r t e l . II faut que S e r a p h i n ait l a v i e d r S l e m e n t c h e v i l l e e au c o r p s p o u r n ' y pas s u c c o m b e r . ^ •2 A c o m p a r i s o n of B e s s e t t e ' s c o m m e n t s w i t h those m a d e b y C a s g r a i n on C h a u v e a u w o u l d s e r v e to i n d i c a t e that t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s and t h e i r c o n -t e m p o r a r y i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o u n t e r p a r t s s h a r e l i t t l e i n c o m m o n . W h e r e p r a i s e m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f , it is c e r t a i n l y not i n d u c e d b y the i n -f luence of s o c i a l g r o u p i n g , f r i e n d s h i p , p a t r i o t i s m or r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m . M a r c o t t e s p e a k s , i n an a l m o s t t o o - c o n t r o l l e d tone of v o i c e , of the i m p o r -tant r o l e p l a y e d b y " L ' H e x a g o n e " i n c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y : M a i s on peut a s s u r e m e n t d i r e que depuis l a f o n d a t i o n de l ' H e x a -120 gone u n des buts g e n e r a u x de l a p o e s i e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e ^ a ete de r e p r e n d r e en c h a r g e une m e m o i r e et u n d e s t i n c o l l e c -t i f s , de b r i s e r une c e r t a i n e f o r m e d ' i s o l e m e n t . U n g r a n d r e V e s ' y i n c a r n e , c e l u i d'une p o e s i e q u i s o r t i r a i t de s a p r i s o n d o r e e p o u r e t r e l a v o i x d'une c o l l e c t i v i t e . N o u s s a v o n s que, dans n o t r e c i v i l i s a t i o n , u n t e l r e y e ne peut etre que d e c u , et que nous s o m m e s e n c o r e t r e s l o i n de 1-'oeuvre "faite p a r t o u s " dont a u r a i t r e V e L a u t r e a m o n t . M a i s i l a i m p r i m e a l a p o e s i e du C a n a d a , f r a n c a i s une t e n s i o n c r e a t r i c e q u i se r e c o n n a i t dans l e s o e u v r e s l e s p l u s d i v e r s e s i 7 ^ In p l a c i n g " L ' H e x a g o n e " i n its r i g h t f u l p e r s p e c t i v e v i s - a - v i s c o n t e m -p o r a r y p o e t r y , M a r c o t t e shows h i m s e l f f a r r e m o v e d b o t h f r o m the u n b r i -d l e d e n t h u s i a s m g r e e t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of e v e r y new l i t e r a r y w o r k i n the 19th C e n t u r y and f r o m the v e n e r a t i o n shown b y M a u r i c e H e b e r t for h i s m e n t o r C a m i l l e R o y . ^ S e c o n d l y , and as has b e e n a l r e a d y stated, M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , in t h e i r efforts to g r a s p the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n at w o r k , h a v e r e j e c t e d as insuff icient, but not as u s e l e s s , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . T h i s p o i n t i s i m -p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the m e a s u r e of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y b r o u g h t to c r i t i c i s m by the a b o v e - n a m e d c r i t i c s , for they a r e b o t h c o g n i z a n t of the p o s i t i v e v a l u e of b i o g r a p h y and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n U n e L i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait , ^ M a r c o t t e p o i n t s out the i n f l u e n c e of A l b e r t L o z e a u ' s i l l n e s s on the t h e m e of e x i l e in h i s p o e t r y a n d r e c o g n i z e s N e l l i g a n ' s debt to c e r t a i n F r e n c h p o e t s . T h e c r i t i c a l s o i n d i -cates how " l ' e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r i e u r e de d e l a i s s e m e n t , d ' h u m i l i a t i o n , de s o l i t u d e " of S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u ' s J o u r n a l is t r a n s p o s e d to h i s p o e t r y . F o r M a r c o t t e b i o g r a p h y and h i s t o r y a r e effective a i d s in the e l u c i d a t i o n of an a u t h o r ' s w o r k . Y e t , n o w h e r e i n the c r i t i c ' s w o r k s does one f i n d the p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e that C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e R o y gave to s u c h a i d s . ^ 121 M a r c o t t e employs biography in much the same manner as does E t h i e r -B l a i s : to give background and continuity to his work. Indeed it is worthwhile to note that Marcotte, while not intent on be-l i t t l i n g the value of Dantin's study on Ne l l i g a n , suggests that the c r i t i c ' s point of view i s "assez etroitement esthetique. " He also makes mention of Dantin's fear of the " i r r a t i o n a l , " and concludes in the following text, that if " G e r t r u d e " r e p r e s e n t s Nelligan's s i s t e r , then there is need for a ps y c h o a n a l y t i c a l study of the poet's v e r s e : Voila. qui est p rSc ieux m a i s qui, a u s s i , nous donne envie d'en connaitre plus long sur les r e l a t i o n s de N e l l i g a n avec ses soeurs, avec s a mere, avec ce complexe f a m i l i a l enfin dont a. p l u s i e u r s i n d i c e s , l a marque apparait t r e s forte dans s a p o e s i e . ^ M o r e o v e r Marcotte, while admitting that the poems brought to light by L u c L a c o u r c i e r e "offrent l'image d'un N e l l i g a n beaucoup plus p r e s de son drame i n t e r i e u r " £que l'image peinte par Dantin^ thus emphasizes the need for a more comprehensive approach to understand " l a t e r r i f i a n t e a n g o i s s e " of N e l l i g a n : E n fait, sur ce plan comme sur les autres, M. L a c o u r c i e r e s'est borne a f a i r e oeuvre d'erudition: c'est-a-dire a. f a i r e bonne j u s t i c e des legendes et a eta b l i r des dates avec p r e c i -sion. II est bien entendu que ce t r a v a i l etait indispensable, m a i s i l s e r a i t heureux qu'un autre c r i t i q u e maintenant p a r t i t de ces donnees £biographiques] pour r e s t i t u e r l a fi g u r e vivante de N e l l i g a n , a peine esquissee par Dantin. 9 Bess e t t e may have been aware of Marcotte's suggestions, for in Une li t t e r a t u r e en ebu l l i t i o n (pp. 27-90) he pro v i d e s his r e a d e r s with a psy-cho a n a l y t i c a l appreciation of Nelligan's poetry. Whatever the case may be, B e s s e t t e evidently shares Marcotte's s k e p t i c i s m with r e g a r d to the powers of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . 122 On the one hand, he considers historical c r i t i c i s m as being too con-cerned with investigating the external aspects of a work. Bessette finds it impossible to completely tolerate a method which "se contente de deter-miner le cadre historique et social qui a entoure'leur parution Jparution d'oeuvres litterairesj| ainsi que les faits significatifs de la vie de leurs auteurs." Besides, claims Bessette, historical c r i t i c i s m "consiste fondamentalement \ vouloir juger l a valeur litteraire d'une oeuvre d'apres  sa stricte correspondance avec le r ^ e l " ^italics not in the original^. (Une litterature en ebullition, p. 27 and p 220) On the other hand, because Bessette seeks to bring to light "les pul-sions d'un ecrivain, " he is not enamoured of "la critique fonciere. " In the critic's opinion, it leaves as many loose ends as does historical c r i -ticism. "La critique fonciere, " Bessette states, "considere le fond, le contenu des oeuvres, en discute les idees et la philosophie, les compare a d'autres travaux analogues et porte sur elles des jugements. " (Ibid. , p. 27) Yet, as in Marcotte's case, Bessette's rejection of "le r e e l " is not total, for he frequently corroborates his Freudian analyses by an inves-tigation into the author's mental biography. He tells us, for example, that the sado-masochistic tendency to mutilation in Anne Hebert's poetry is induced by a deep oniric past. According to Bessette, Anne Hebert's jansenist education, her recollection of a dominant mother and her atten-dant desire to cut the umbilical cord, constitute a "personal myth" in her poetry. (Ibid. , pp. 13-23) In like manner, the critic by drawing upon information obtained in his interview with Gabrielle Roy concludes that 123 B o n h e u r d ' o c c a s i o n , "avant d ' e t r e un r o m a n s u r le s o c i a l . . . , est , p l u s p r o f o n d e m e n t un r o m a n s u r le f a m i l i a l , le f a m i l i a l " i n t e r i o r i s e " de G a b r i e l l e R o y . " (Ibid. , p . 301) G i v e n B e s s e t t e ' s b e l i e f , the r e a d e r i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s e d that i n h i s "sondages p s y c h o - b i o g r a p h i q u e s " of the n o v e l in q u e s t i o n , he r e f e r s to c e r t a i n " a n a l o g i e s p s y c h i q u e s " b e t w e e n the n o v -e l i s t and m a n y of h e r c h a r a c t e r s . T h e s e two i n s t a n c e s of an a u t h o r ' s intent i l l u m i n a t e d by m e n t a l b i o -g r a p h y l e a d us to this c o n c l u s i o n : in h i s own r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h " r e a l i t y , " B e s s e t t e , u n l i k e C a s g r a i n and C a m i l l e R o y , does not s e e k to e x p l a i n the f r u i t n e c e s s a r i l y by the t r e e , but p a r t i c u l a r l y b y its n u t r i e n t s , the not s o - e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e m a t e r i a l w h i c h n u r t u r e d and s u s t a i n e d it . B e s s e t t e is the s p i r i t u a l b r o t h e r of M a r c o t t e b e c a u s e he p r e f e r s e l u -c i d a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c r e a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n to j u d g m e n t and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n . W i t h this o b j e c t i v e i n m i n d B e s s e t t e p r o f e s s e s an a t t a c h m e n t to " l a c r i t i q u e f o r m e l l e . " T h e r e b y he s t u d i e s i m a g e s , m e t a p h o r s , u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s of t e c h n i q u e , i n s h o r t the " f o r m a l " and " t e c h n i c a l " a s p e c t s of a w o r k , the s u b t l e t i e s of l i t e r a r y a r t i s t r y . B e s s e t t e b e l i e v e s that it is only b y this p r o c e d u r e that a c r i t i c c a n d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the s p a t i a l , s p i r i t u a l and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u of a w o r k is " v i v a n t , c o h e r e n t , suggest i f . " " L a c r i t i q u e f o r m e l l e " he c o n c l u d e s , p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y " d ' e n ^ u n texte l i t t e r a i r e ] s e n t i r l a v r a i s e m b l a n c e i n t C r i e u r e , d ' a p p r e ' c i e r l a c o n -v e r g e n c e des effets, l a c o h e s i o n des p e r s o n n a g e s , 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n des s c e n e s , le d y n a m i s m e des t a b l e a u x , etc. . " (Ibid. , p . 222) S i n c e h i s t o r y and b i o g r a p h y do not suffice M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e as 124 i n s t r u m e n t s of c r i t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n , b e c a u s e these c r i t i c s a s s i g n b l a m e and p r a i s e to the l o w e r e c h e l o n s of the c r i t i c a l l a d d e r , t h e r e e x i s t s an i m m e n s e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n the a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d c r i t i c s a n d t h e i r p r e d e -c e s s o r s . It is not an e x a g g e r a t i o n to s p e a k of an i m m e n s e d i s t a n c e i n this context, f o r , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e b o t h b e l i e v e that a l i t e r a r y w o r k s t e m s (as does an a u t h o r ' s p s y c h e ) as m u c h f r o m a m a n i f e s t as f r o m a latent s o u r c e . A s c r i t i c s , they s e e k to d i s c e r n the p a r t p l a y e d i n c r e a t i o n by this latent s o u r c e , of w h i c h the v i s i b l e e l e m e n t s a r e the i m a g e s e m -p l o y e d by the author . In this c h a p t e r we i n t e n d to p i n p o i n t this fact: not only do M a r c o t t e a n d B e s s e t t e s h a r e l i t t l e i n c o m m o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , they a r e a l s o the s p i r i t u a l b r o t h e r s of D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . T h e s e two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c i s m a r e as f a i t h -ful to t h e m s e l v e s , and as c o s m o p o l i t a n and h u m a n i s t i c as D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s T h e f o r m e r a r e a l s o l i b e r a l , for e v e n though they b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r m e t h o d s a r e the m o s t effective m e a n s of s e r v i n g A r t , they a l s o a d m i t to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p l u r a l i t y of m e a n i n g s i n a text. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , it is p e r h a p s t h e i r v e r y d e d i c a t i o n to L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h e x p l a i n s the i n c u r s i o n s m a d e by M a r c o t t e a n d B e s s e t t e into the r e a l m of p h e n o -m e n o l o g y and p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . It is at the r i s k of b e i n g too d e d i c a t e d , too c o m p r e h e n s i v e , and of b e i n g p i o n e e r s : i n a b r a n c h of c r i t i c i s m , h i t h e r t o g r e a t l y i g n o r e d in F r e n c h C a n a d a , that M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e , have c o n t r i b u t e d to the g r o w t h of i m p a r t i a l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i n c r i t i c i s m . 125 A R C H E T Y P A L C R I T I C I S M IN T H E P H E N O M E N O L O G I C A L S E T T I N G In C h a p t e r II we t e r m i n a t e d our r e m a r k s on E t h i e r - B l a i s by o b s e r v i n g that he is a w a r e of the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c i s m . E t h i e r -B l a i s ' c o m m e n t a r i e s on the i m a g e s of f i r e , snow, w a t e r , b o n e s , town, h a r d n e s s and v a s t n e s s i n c e r t a i n c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t s , l e d us to this c o n -c l u s i o n : the c r i t i c is of the o p i n i o n that an a u t h o r ' s c r e a t i v e faculty is often r e f l e c t e d i n h i s i m a g e s . T o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e than E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e m a y be c l a s s i f i e d as a p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t . In b o t h Une L i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait and L e T e m p s des p o e t e s , he e n d e a v o u r s to g r a s p c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l p o e t i c i m a g e s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an a r c h e t y p e s t e m m i n g f r o m the s u b c o n s c i o u s m i n d of t h e i r c r e a t o r s . In the f o r m e r w o r k , the a r c h e t y p e e x i l e - a b s e n c e affords M a r c o t t e the o p p o r t u n i t y of s p e c i f y i n g i n what m a n n e r , poets f r o m C r e m a z i e to N e l l i g a n and R o l a n d G i g u e r e (despite d i f f e r e n c e s of f o r m a n d l i t e r a r y f i l i a t i o n s ) have e x p r e s s e d t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to c o m e to t e r m s w i t h a m i l i e u , w h e r e i n they a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y i l l at e a s e . M a r c o t t e s u g g e s t s that these poets have e x p e r i e n c e d , in v a r y i n g d e g r e e s and i n one way or a n o t h e r , the s t r a n g e f e e l i n g of b e i n g F r e n c h m e n l i v i n g in A m e r i c a . L e T e m p s des poetes m a y be c o n s i d e r e d as the l o g i c a l c o n t i n u a t i o n of U n e L i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait . T h e r e i n M a r c o t t e p r o p o s e s language as a " c o m m o n t h e m e " t h r o u g h w h i c h c o n t e m p o r a r y poets s t r i v e to b r e a k w i t h "a c e r t a i n f o r m of s o l i t u d e . " T h e s e p o e t s , he t e l l s u s , continue to e x p r e s s t h e i r own a n x i e t i e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , as w e l l as those of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . 126 W h i l e thus p r e o c c u p i e d , they do not n e g l e c t to s e e k the p o e t i c A b s o l u t e , "cet a i l l e u r s , cet a u t r e r i v a g e , q u i est le r £ v e e*ternel de l a p o e s i e . " C o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t s , M a r c o t t e c o n c l u d e s , h a v e d i s c o v e r e d the m e a n i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s o l i d a r i t y . U n e L i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait r e f l e c t s a n e g a t i v e a r c h e t y p e , a b s e n c e -e x i l e ; L e T e m p s des p o e t e s is i n d i c a t i v e of the t o t a l i t y of p r e s e n c e . M a r c o t t e ' s d i a l o g u e w i t h l i t e r a t u r e i n the p r o c e s s of e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f r e v e a l s to h i m an u r g e n c y on the p a r t of c e r t a i n l o c a l m e n of l e t t e r s to be u n i v e r s a l a n d h u m a n i s t i c . W i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to p o e t r y it a l s o b r i n g s to l i g h t an i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n : L ' e x i l que s u b i t l a p o e s i e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e e s t c e l u i , s a n s f o r m e n i v i s a g e , q u i se loge au c o e u r , et n o u r r i t l a t e n t a t i o n de l ' a b s e n c e . A b s e n c e a l a r e a l i t e e x t e r i e u r e , a l a real i te" s o c i a l e O n se t ient a l ' S c a r t , dans une i n t i m i t e d o u l o u r e u s e , ou l ' e x -t e r i e u r n ' e s t a d m i s q u ' a p r e s a v o i r p e r d u s a q u a l i t e d ' a u t r e . C e q u ' o n a c o u t u m e d ' a p p e l e r le r e e l d e v i e n t i c i u n j e u d ' i m a g e s p u r e s , s a n s a u t r e a p p u i , s a n s a u t r e t i t r e a. l ' e x i s t e n c e , que l e u r r e s o n a n c e i n t e r i e u r e L a p o e s i e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c h i s e a t r o u v e s o n c e n t r e : a v a n t toutes c h o s e s , e l l e c o n f e s s e u n e d i v i s i o n i n t e r i e u r e , u n p r o f o n d m a l a i s e a. v i v r e . D ' A n n e H e b e r t a A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , de J e a n - G u y P i l o n a R o l a n d G i g u e r e , i l n ' e s t pas a u j o u r d ' h u i , au C a n a d a f r a n -c a i s , de p o e s i e digne de m e n t i o n , q u i ne se m e s u r e d ' a b o r d au p e r i l de l ' a b s e n c e . C ' e s t dans ce c o m b a t q u ' e l l e a f f i r m e , de  p l u s en p l u s l a r g e m e n t s o n h u m a n i t e , et q u ' e l l e r e j o i n t l e s p o e s i e s c o n t e m p o r a i n e s l e s p l u s s i g n i f i c a t i v e s 1 u {^italics not i n the o r i g i n a l j . • M a r c o t t e i n t e r p r e t s d e a t h i n C r e m a z i e ' s p o e t r y , a u t u m n a n d c e m e t e r y i n A l f r e d G a r n e a u ' s , a n d e s c a p e t h r o u g h d r e a m i n L o z e a u ' s as i n s t a n c e s of e x i l e - a b s e n c e . T h e c r i t i c i n r e l i v i n g the " d y n a m i c c h a r a c t e r " of C r e m a z i e ' s i n n e r b e i n g d e d u c e s that the poet e x p e r i e n c e d h i s d i c h o t o m y too k e e n l y . C r e -127 m a z i e was unable to r e s o l v e into an acceptable whole his longing for the i n t e l l e c t u a l atmosphere of F r a n c e and his d e s i r e for the p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e of the province of Quebec. M a r c o t t e therefore speaks of Cremazie's "double e x i l , " p e r s o n i f i e d by death, simultaneously the image of aborted happiness and d e l i v e r a n c e f r o m su f f e r i n g . Summing up Cremazie's i n -t e r n a l d r a m a of " d i v i s i o n , " Ma r c o t t e writes: II l u i manquait le m i n i m u m d'unite i n t e r i e u r e indispensable a. l a cr e a t i o n poetique M a i s i l a p a r l e d'une solitude et d'une menace de m o r t qui etaient l a fi g u r e meme de l ' e x i l , amorcant a i n s i une p r i s e de conscience qui devait etre le t r a v a i l p r i n c i p a l de l a poesie canadienne-francaise. ** Given the fact that Cremazie's poetry is for M a r c o t t e not only the e x p r e s s i o n of inner d i s t r e s s but also "le p a r f a i t symbole du drame cana-d i e n - f r a n c a i s , " one v i s u a l i z e s how the c r i t i c is able to r e l a t e this poetry to that of Anne Hebert. Bones like death are an assurance of t r a n q u i l l i t y , a refuge f r o m a lif e that is i n t o l e r a b l e . Having r e t r a c e d the path of Anne Hebert's poetic voyage M a r c o t t e p r o f e s s e s : Puisqu'on ne peut posseder le monde, puisque toute communion, puisque tout amour est i m p o s s i b l e , on se r e s o u d r a a f a i r e de l a f solitude sa '-'seule et epouvantable r i c h e s s e " . A l o r s s u r g i t le theme des os, qui r e p r e s e n t e ce qu'on possede de plus sur et de plus i r r e d u c t i b l e , le d e r n i e r r e c o u r s de l a solitude et.sa d e r n i e r e complaisance. L a chair devait nous f a i r e communi-quer avec le monde, et elle nous a t r a h i . Tandis qu'avec les os on peut etre t r a n q u i l l e , meme s i c'est une tranquillite" a l'image de l a mort. The e x p l i c i t c o m p a r i s o n made between C r e m a z i e and Anne Hebert is not an is o l a t e d example of the synthetic intent of Marcotte's a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m . I m p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e is made to C r e m a z i e , 'ancestor' of the 128 h o m o g e n o u s i m a g e e x i l e , when M a r c o t t e d e c l a r e s that L o z e a u " r e s t e u n t e m o i n s i n g u l i e r e m e n t attentif du d r a m e de n o t r e s o l i t u d e . " C r e m a z i e was u n a b l e to r e c o n c i l e both h a l v e s of h i s b e i n g . L o z e a u was able to face the r e a l w o r l d s o l e l y t h r o u g h the i n t e r m e d i a r y of p o e t i c d r e a m . M a r c o t t e o b s e r v e s i n these t e r m s how agony is c r e a t e d b y the too u n i l a t -e r a l n a t u r e of L o z e a u ' s o n i r i s m : Q u a n d i l 1 le r e v e j e s t c u l t i v e ' p o u r l u i - m e m e , i l se m e t b i e n t o t a t o u r n e r a v i d e , i l e p u i s e des f o r c e s v i t a l e s q u i ne sont- p l u s r e n o u v e l e e s p a r des r e n c o n t r e s a v e c le m o n d e . E t a l o r s c ' e s t l a s o l i t u d e , c ' e s t l a s e n s a t i o n d ' a p p a u v r i s s e m e n t i n t e r i e u r , de neant, q u ' e x p r i m e A l b e r t L o z e a u dans le sonnet i n t i t u l e P r o d i g a l i t e : ^ Qtalics i n the o r i g i n a l ^ . L a t e r i n h i s study, M a r c o t t e a s s u r e s us that b e t w e e n the two G a r -n e a u s , A l f r e d and S a i n t - D e n y s , "des c o r r e s p o n d a n c e s e x i s t a i e n t , n o n s e u l e m e n t e n t r e l e u r s p o e s i e s , ^ d e s p a i r and s o l i t u d e ^ m a i s a u s s i e n t r e l e u r s d e s t i n s ^ p r e c o c i t y and l i t e r a r y r e n o w n j c o m m e s i le p r e m i e r p r o p o s a i t une e s q u i s s e de l a t o i l e que le s e c o n d d e v a i t p e i n d r e . " (Une l i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait , p . 85) C o m p a r i s o n s of the above types m a d e b e t w e e n poets s e p a r a t e d b y a d i s t a n c e of t i m e , p r o v i d e M a r c o t t e ' s r e a d e r s w i t h m a t e r i a l other than the " e t e r n e l l e s r e f e r e n c e s a l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e . S u c h r e f e r e n c e s w e r e r i f e i n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . C a s g r a i n it was o b s e r v e d , ^ c o m p l a i n e d of t h e i r d e m e a n i n g effect on i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e . C a m i l l e R o y ' s l a u d a t o r y c o m m e n t s w e r e often p r o m p t e d by the v e r y " p r o t e c t i o n a o u t r a n c e " for l o c a l l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h h e , i n t h e o r y , r e j e c t e d . M a r c o t t e , i n o u r o p i n i o n , s u f f e r s f r o m none of the d e l u s i o n s of g r a n d -129 eur w h i c h h a u n t e d C a s g r a i n and R o y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one c a n w e l l i m a g -ine that M a r c o t t e ' s c o m p a r i s o n s w o u l d h a v e e a r n e d the a p p r o v a l of C a s -g r a i n and R o y . M a r c o t t e ' s s t u d i e s a v o i d the r i s k so f e a r e d by C a s g r a i n of a t t r i b u t i n g "un b r e v e t d ' i n f e r i o r i t e ' " to the c r e a t i o n s of l o c a l m e n of l e t t e r s . W h e t h e r o r not o u r s u r m i s e i s c o r r e c t , i t ought now to b e m o r e e v i -dent why we spoke of a b r e a k b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l a n d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c s . M a r c o t t e , u n l i k e C a s g r a i n and R o y , s e e k s not the p a t r i o t i c , but r a t h e r the C a n a d i a n content of l i t e r a t u r e as it m a k e s i t s e l f felt i n " p o e t r y of s o l i t u d e . " T h e s o l i t u d e of poets f r o m C r e m a z i e to G i g u e r e m a y h a v e b e e n p r o m p t e d b y c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n i q u e to F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . H o w e v e r s o l i t u d e , r e g a r d l e s s of its s o u r c e , is a f e e l i n g c o m m o n to h u m a n i t y . One u n d e r s t a n d s at this point why the c r i t i c n o t e d that i n d i g e n o u s p o e t r y is a f f i r m i n g i t s e l f b y b e i n g h u m a n i s t i c and c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s : l i t -e r a t u r e b y M a r c o t t e ' s d e f i n i t i o n ought not to be l i m i t e d to the e x p r e s s i o n of p a t r i o t i c c o n c e r n s . If, t h e r e f o r e , M a r c o t t e d i s p e n s e s w i t h d i s c o u r s i n g u p o n the w e l l -known i n f l u e n c e s e x e r t e d on N e l l i g a n b y F r e n c h p o e t s , i t is c e r t a i n l y not b e c a u s e he was affected b y C a s g r a i n ' s f o r m of i n s e c u r i t y . O n the c o n -t r a r y the c r i t i c f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that i n e l u c i d a t i n g "les c o n s t a n t e s o n i r i q u e s " of N e l l i g a n ' s p o e t r y , h i s own a p p r e c i a t i o n of the C a n a d i a n a n d h u m a n e s s e n c e of N e l l i g a n ' s " i n n e r d r a m a " w o u l d be g r e a t l y a u g m e n t e d . B y its attempt to d i v u l g e the s p i r i t u a l and h u m a n i s t i c content of i n -s 17 digenous l i t e r a t u r e , U n e L i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait goes b e y o n d the b o u n d s of m e r e s y n t h e s i s . It r e j o i n s the h u m a n i s m , u n i v e r s a l i s m and c o s m o -130 politanism of Duhamel and E th ie r -B la i s . I In the light of this statement, one can appreciate the full significance of Marcotte's meditation on "1 'homme canadien-francais " and "l 'ame canadienne-francaise" in Al f red Garneau's poetry. One also comprehends why Saint-Denys-Garneau's work reflects not only " la plainte vers laquelle convergent toutes les lignes de notre destin , " but also "une rigoureuse fidelite'aux images permanentes de l'experience humaine": Saint-Denys-Garneau, que cela plaise ou non aux consciences tranquilles, nous represente. II a assume jusqu'k ses der-nieres limites un poids de solitude que laissait entendre toute : l a litterature precedente, et que soulignent avec force les oeuvres les plus significatives d'aujourd'hui. Solitude, isole-ment:: ce sont des realites inseparables de toute vocation d ' E c r i -vain, mais elles definissent de fagon bien speciale la condition  de l ' ecr iva in , et de tout le peuple canadien-fr ancais 1 8 ^ i tal ics not in the or ig inal j . Is it because Garneau's work is the 'culminating' point of the arche-type exile that Marcotte carefully retraces the route taken by the poet's creative imagination? It is not important to establish a causal relation-ship between the creations of both authors. However, it is undoubtedly true that in his search for the subconscious source of Garneau's "exile, " Marcotte rel ies heavily on Bachelard's theory of the "materia l imagina-tion. " • ' Where death, bones and autumn were the signs of solitude in the works of pre-1937 poets, Marcotte points to the elements^ 9 air and water, as the images which explain why Regards et jeux dans l'espace "marquent une victoire , qui est celle de 1'imagination poetique sur-les fantSmes qui l'assiegent. " (Une Litterature qui se fait, p. 173) Marcotte expresses the thought that if Saint-Denys-Garneau's poetry 131 i s , i n its s u b s t a n c e , c e n t e r e d on e x i l e , it has a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h the " d r e a m of f l i g h t " (which c o n s t i t u t e s its technique) an i d e a l of " p u r e l u m i e r e , " "eau p u r e , " and " l a f o r m e p u r e du j e u . " In m o r e e x p l i c i t t e r m s , M a r -cotte equates w a t e r w i t h f l u i d i t y of language in R e g a r d s et j e u x dans 1 'es- p a c e . A i r and its a c c o m p a n y i n g i m a g e s of t r e e , d a n c e , and s p a c e e p i t -o m i z e G a r n e a u ' s s u c c e s s f u l effort to b r e a k w i t h the p h a n t o m s of e x i l e . In s h o r t M a r c o t t e ' s c o g i t a t i o n on G a r n e a u ' s " i m a g i n a t i o n l i q u i d e , " on " l a p r i m a u t e d'une v a l o r i s a t i o n v e r t i c a l e , . done de l ' l l e m e n t a e r i e n dans s o n o e u v r e , " (Ibid. , p p . 205 - 206) r e c a l l s to m i n d B a c h e l a r d ' s o p i n i o n : a p o e t i c i m a g e is t r u e o r f a l s e a c c o r d i n g to w h e t h e r or not it is r o o t e d i n its r i g h t f u l m a t t e r . In L ' E a u et l e s r e V e s B a c h e l a r d w r i t e s : P o u r qu'une r e v e r i e se p o u r s u i v e a v e c a s s e z de Constance p o u r d o n n e r une o e u v r e e c r i t e , p o u r q u ' e l l e ne s o i t p a s s i m p l e m e n t l a v a c a n c e d'une h e u r e f u g i t i v e , i l faut q u ' e l l e t r o u v e s a j u s t e m a t i e r e . II faut q u ' u n e l e m e n t m a t e r i e l l u i donne s a p r o p r e s u b s t a n c e , s a p r o p r e r e g i e , s a poetique s p e c i f i q u e . ^ M o r e o v e r i n the s a m e m a n n e r that B a c h e l a r d i n t e r p r e t e d m a t e r i a l i m a g e s as the l i v i n g e l e m e n t s of " a y o u n g l a n g u a g e , " M a r c o t t e i n t u r n d e m o n s t r a t e s how a e r i a l i m a g e s i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e an effective m e a n s of e x p r e s s i o n for G a r n e a u ' s " f o r c e i m a g i n a n t e . " T h e c r i t i c c i t e s the r e p e -t i t i o n of the noun " j o y " and the a b s e n c e of p u n c t u a t i o n i n the p o e m " A c c o m -p a g n e m e n t " as an e x a m p l e of G a r n e a u ' s " e t h e r e a l i m a g i n a t i o n " b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d into the f o r m of h i s p o e t r y . In s u m m a t i o n M a r c o t t e d e c l a r e s that the s o - c a l l e d " b i z a r r e " f o r m of R e g a r d s et j e u x dans l ' e s p a c e is i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s u b s t a n c e of G a r n e a u ' s o r i i r i s m : S e l o n les l o i s de ce que B a c h e l a r d a p p e l l e " l a d e c l a m a t i o n m u e t t e " , * cette v a l o r i s a t i o n de 1'element e t h e r e c o m m a n d e l a f o r m e m a t e r i e l l e du p o e m e , s a v e r s i f i c a t i o n . . . . L e poete 132 v r a i m e n t c r e a t e u r p a r l e s e l o n q u ' i l r e v e . S i , c o m m e c h e z S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n se m e u t dans une m a -t i e r e e t h e r e e , on peut s ' a t t e n d r e que le v e r s s e r a d ' a b o r d l e g e r e t e , p u r b o n d , g r a t u i t e T o u t le m o r c e a u £"Accompagnement"3 est fait de cette m a -t i e r e d i a p h a n e , r e p o n d au m e m e d e s i r de d e m a t e r i a l i s a t i o n . A i n s i le r e v e d i v o l s ' i n s c r i t dans u n p o e m e a s o n i m a g e . L i r e l e s R e g a r d s et jeux dans l ' e s p a c e , c ' e s t f o n d a m e n -t a l e m e n t e p r o u v e r le d y n a m i s m e des s e n s a t i o n s de fuite dans l ' e s p a c e . Cette p o e s i e a r a i s o n , [[ i ta l ics i n the o r i g i n a l ] ] q u i est f idele a ses i m a g e s , et dont l e s i m a g e s v i v e n t . It is not only t h r o u g h the i m a g e s of a i r and w a t e r that M a r c o t t e d i s -c l o s e s how G a r n e a u , "poete v r a i m e n t c r e a t e u r , p a r l e s e l o n q u ' i l r e v e . " S o l i t u d e s , M a r c o t t e i n f o r m s u s , is not a f l ight t o w a r d s open s p a c e s , but t o w a r d s " l a p r i s o n m i e u x f e r m e e de s o i . " T h e i m a g e s of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n ("pas p e r d u s " ) and p e t r i f i c a t i o n ("os") i n d i c a t e this f l ight. G a r n e a u ' s w o r k , as that of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s is p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n v a d e d by d e s p a i r . T h i s d e s p a i r is r e f l e c t e d in the p o e t ' s s t y l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e : A l o r s le v e r s s ' e l a r g i t , c o m m e s i , r e n o n ^ a n t aux r i g u e u r s de l ' a v e n t u r e i d e a l e , le poete p o u v a i t c o m p t e r s u r u n t e m p s et u n e s p a c e p l u s l i b r e s . L e s p o e m e s de l a d o u l e u r conf es s e e , l u c i d e , r e s i g n e e , et ceux de l a r e v o l t e , ont de c o m m u n q u ' i l s s ' e c r i v e n t dans le t e m p s r e c o n n u , devant u n e s p a c e p o s s i b l e . F o r M a r c o t t e , as for E t h i e r - B l a i s , an i m a g e b e c a u s e it r e p r e s e n t s a u n i q u e m o m e n t i n an a u t h o r ' s c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , d e m a n d s c a r e f u l a t t e n -t i o n on the p a r t of the r e a d e r - c r i t i c . T h e r e i n l i e s the r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s M a r c o t t e g i v e s to b o n e s i n G a r n e a u ' s p o e t r y . In R e g a r d s et J e u x dans l ' e s p a c e , b o n e s s u g g e s t e d s o l i d i t y and perma.r. n e n c e . In S o l i t u d e s on the c o n t r a r y they b o r e w i t n e s s to p e t r i f i c a t i o n . G i v e n this q u a l i t y of " n e w n e s s , " a t t r i b u t e d to i m a g e s , one a p p r e -c i a t e s why M a r c o t t e a s s o c i a t e s w a t e r (and f i r e ) i n G i g u e r e ' s " p o e t r y of 133 r e v o l t , " w i t h h i s " p r o s e h a c h e e , h a l e t a n t e , q u i d i r a i t - o n s u r v o l e s e s m o t s . " ( I b i d . , p p . 116-117) In G a r n e a u ' s p o e t r y w a t e r , we s a w , r e f l e c -ted f l u i d i t y of l a n g u a g e . F o r M a r c o t t e n o t h i n g , l e a s t of a l l the i m a g e , is g r a t u i t o u s i n p o e t r y . F o r h i m , as for B a c h e l a r d , an i m a g e is the m o s t " i n n o v a t i v e " p a r t of l a n g u a g e . It u n c e a s i n g l y d i r e c t s the r e a d e r - c r i t i c b a c k to the s o u r c e of an a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s , h i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . A n i m a g e , the s u b -l i m a t i o n of an a r c h e t y p e , takes shape i n an a u t h o r ' s c o n s c i o u s m i n d w h e n the i m a g i n a t i o n f e e l s the u r g e n c y to e x p r e s s i t s e l f . M a r c o t t e i n c i t i n g a b u n d a n t l y f r o m G a r n e a u ' s " M o n o l o g u e f a n t a i s i s t e s u r le m o t , " a l l u d e s to the fact that i m a g e s , i n other w o r d s G a r n e a u ' s p o e t r y , a r e a r e s p o n s e to " l ' a p p e l des m o t s , l a t e r r i b l e e x i g e n c e des m o t s q u i ont s o i f de s u b s t a n c e . " T h e c r i t i c s u m m a r i z e s in t h e s e t e r m s the p o s i t i v e p u s h a n d p u l l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n thought and w o r d , c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n a n d i m a g e : P a r l a p a r o l e , le poete " b r i s e l a s o l i t u d e de toutes c h o s e s " , c a r i l p a r t i c i p e p e r s o n n e l l e m e n t a. l a r e g i o n e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t c o m m u n e ou tout est a s s u m e dans l ' i n t e l l i g i b l e . II n o u r r i t le m o t , q u i a s o n tour le n o u r r i t . T e l e s t le m y s t e r e du p o e m e . H e r e a g a i n M a r c o t t e ' s i n d e b t e d n e s s to B a c h e l a r d i s a p p a r e n t . T h e l a t t e r c l a i m e d : L a p o e s i e n ' e x p r i m e pas quelque c h o s e q u i l u i d e m e u r e e t r a n g e r . M e m e une s o r t e de d i d a c t i s m e p u r e m e n t p o e t i q u e , q u i e x p r i -m e r a i t de l a p o e s i e , ne d o n n e r a i t pas l a v r a i e f o n c t i o n du p o e m e . II n ' y a pas de p o e s i e ^ i t a l i c s in the o r i g i n a l ] ] antecedente a. l ' a c t e du v e r b e p o e t i q u e . II n ' y a pas de real i te" antece'dente "a l ' i m a g e l i t t e r a i r e . L ' i m a g e l i t t e r a i r e ne v i e n t pas h a b i l l e r une i m a g e n u e , ne v i e n t pas d o n n e r l a p a r o l e a l ' i m a g e m u e t t e . L ' i m a -g i n a t i o n , en n o u s , p a r l e , nos r £ v e s p a r l e n t , nos p e n s e e s p a r l e n t . T o u t e a c t i v i t e h u m a i n e d e s i r e p a r l e r . Q u a n d cette p a r o l e p r e n d 134 c o n s c i e n c e de s o i , a l o r s l ' a c t i v i t e h u m a i n e d e s i r e e c r i r e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e a g e n c e r l e s r e V e s et l e s p e n s e e s . L ' i m a g i n a t i o n s ' e n c h a n t e de l ' i m a g e l i t t e r a i r e . L a l i t t e r a t u r e n ' e s t done le s u c c e d a n e d ' a u c u n e a c t i v i t e . E l l e a c h e v e u n d e s i r h u m a i n d ' e c r i r e , de p a r l e r ses r e V e s , s o n i m a g i n a t i o n . E l l e r e p r e -sente une e m e r g e n c e Pitalics i n the o r i g i n a l ^ de l ' i m a g i n a t i o n . ^ M a r c o t t e ' s e n d e a v o u r to h i m s e l f e x p e r i e n c e the f o r c e f u l and a c t i v e n a t u r e of the i m a g i n a t i o n s w h i c h c r e a t e d the a r c h e t y p e of e x i l e r e c a l l s to us our c o m m e n t s on E t h i e r - B l a i s ' a c t i v e l y p a s s i v e r e a d i n g . B o t h m e t h o d s s e e m to have b e e n c u l t i v a t e d , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , f r o m B a c h e l a r d ' s p r e f e r e n c e for le " b i e n r e V e r " to le " b i e n v o i r . " M a r c o t t e and E t h i e r - B l a i s s h a r e i n c o m m o n (and w i t h B a c h e l a r d ) a b e l i e f i n w r i -t ing as a s y n t h e s i s of what E t h i e r - B l a i s c a l l e d the author " g e s t a t e u r " 2 ^  and the a u t h o r , " i m a g e du gestateur. ." T h e m o t i v e s w h i c h p r o m p t e d us to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M a r c o t t e and E t h i e r - B l a i s have now b e e n m a d e c l e a r e r . W r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l and language i n p a r t i c u l a r p l a y an e v e n m o r e i m -p o r t a n t r o l e i n L e T e m p s des p o e t e s . T h e " m o u v e m e n t d ' e n s e m b l e , " de r e c o n n a i s s a n c e et de c o n s o l i d a t i o n " w h i c h M a r c o t t e u n d e r t a k e s to define i n this w o r k was i m p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t * n U n e l i t t e r a t u r e q u i se fait . H e dates the b i r t h of this m o v e m e n t , that • is to s a y , of c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y i n 1937 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of R e g a r d s et j e u x dans l ' e s p a c e . In the f o l l o w i n g text the c r i t i c p i n p o i n t s the d i f -f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t s : L e s a n c i e n s p o e t e s , ou c e l e b r a i e n t une r e a l i t e ' f i g e e , ou l a n i a i e n t d'une m a n i e r e s i a b s o l u e q u ' i l ne l e u r r e s t a i t p l u s que  des b r i b e s de l a n g a g e ; [ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l J l e s n o u v e a u x s a v e n t que tout est a f a i r e , tout a. d i r e , tout a i n v e n t e r . C ' e s t a p a r t i r de cette p e r t e de d e f i n i t i o n , de cette e x p e r i e n c e du c h e m i n e m e n t que se c r e e r a au C a n a d a f r a n c a i s u n v e r i t a b l e 1 3 5 mouvement de poesie, constitue d'oeuvres d i v e r s e s mais fortement apparentees l e s unes aux autres par le sentiment d'oeuvrer a l a fondation d'une parole qui prenne en charge les besoins et les d e s i r s de l a c o l l e c t i v i t e ^ ^ ^ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l j . Marcotte's use of the future and subjunctive in the above quotation should not l u l l the r e a d e r into assuming that the c r i t i c b e l i e v e s that the e r a of l o c a l poets l i e s somewhere in the offing. "Un l i e u commun, " "poesie pour nommer, " "appel a l a communaute des l i e u x et des etres, " "deflagrations a p a r t i r du s u r r e a l i s m e , " a few of the chapter headings of Marcotte's work, a l l bear witness to the c r i t i c ' s conviction that s o l i -d a r i t y through common language exists as a new poetic archetype. M o r e o v e r the vocabulary of L e Temps des poetes ("operations l a n -gagieres, " "exigence du langage, " "parole ouverte a Hinquietude com-mune, " "autosuffisance de l a poesie, " "volonte d'elucidation et de com-munication, " "entrer^en r e l a t i o n dynamique avec le c o l l e c t i f , " " r e c o u r s au pays et l ' a s p i r a t i o n a l'univers e l , " "engagement s o c i a l , " "accroche le destin de s a p a r o l e a. c e l u i d'une l i b e r a t i o n , d'une reconquete c o l l e c -tives") also attests to this fact e s p e c i a l l y when it is compared to that of Une l i t t e r a t u r e qui se fait, ("exil total, " "alienation i n t e r i e u r e , " " c l a u s -tration f r u s t r e e , " "existence d'affreuse solitude, " "ame d'etranger, " "image d'extreme dechirement, " "plainte d'amoureux decu") Despite the obvious diffe r e n c e of tenor i n the l i n g u i s t i c t e rminology of both works, Marcotte's vocabulary en bloc p r o v i d e s further evidence of a b r e a k between i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c s and their p r e d e c e s s o r s . M a r -cotte's language because it is an effective v e h i c l e f or a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m , d i f f e r s as greatly as does Bessette's, 2 7 f r o m the too-often s t r i c t l y judge-136 mental and classificatory linguistic repertoire** 8 of Casgrain, Roy and Dantin. Given the zeal with which Marcotte discussed the theme of exile in the works of Rina Lasnier, A n n e Hebert, Alain Grandbois and Saint-Denys-Garneau, one is at first taken aback by his suggestion of a debt owed to them as precursors of the theme of solidarity-presence. Yet, the critic astutely points to certain images which, in his opinion, reflect a concern with the problem of communication, as engendered by the act of writing. Marcotte advances the notion that Anne Hebert's work through images of hunger, work, bread and wine passes from "concentration" to "dilatation, " from "introspection" to "ascetism. " He writes: " cette poesie de la s o l i -tude est en meme temps parole pour l'autre et forme habitable. " (Le Temps des poetes, p. 47) It is also Marcotte's belief that Rina Lasnier's "Malemer" is simul-taneously an example of the poetic act and an effort to capture the reality of everyday life. Presence de l'absence, Marcotte apprises us, is poetry "qui plonge sans cesse dans les profondeurs ou. s'affrontent et se marient les E l i t e ' s que la conscience c l a i r e dit inconciliables [ i t a l i c s not in the original^. (Ibid. , p. 51) In like manner, the critic hints at the significant role played by the subconscious in Grandbois' act of writing. Despite the "rigueur impla-cable" of the latter's poetry, Marcotte proclaims that it "ne cesse pas de jeter le plus violent defi a ce qui n'est pas l"immortel instant' de l a poesie. " Grandbois' work achieves this goal, states Marcotte, through 137 its f r e e v e r s e and the b r e a d t h and f u l l n e s s of its o v e r a l l s t y l e . (Ibid. , p. 56) A s for G a r n e a u , it is o n c e m o r e h i s a e r i a l and l i q u i d i m a g e s " q u i f o r c e n t le langage a quitter l e s r i v a g e s d'une t r a d i t i o n p u i s s a m m e n t e n -t r e t e n u e p o u r se l i v r e r a. l a m u l t i p l i c i t e i n d e f i n i e du s e n s , a l ' i n d e t e r -m i n a t i o n du p o s s i b l e . " (Ibid. , p . 46) H e b e r t , L a s n i e r , G r a n d b o i s and G a r n e a u a r e u n i t e d not only by s o l i -tude but a l s o by t h e i r a w a r e n e s s of the n e c e s s i t y to p a r t w i t h it . In s u m -m a r i z i n g the r o l e of f o r e r u n n e r p l a y e d by these p o e t s , M a r c o t t e e m p h a -s i z e s the l i b e r a t i n g effect of the p o e t i c w o r d i n its e m e r g e n c e f r o m the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n : " l i s " , " o n " , "eux": c ' e s t l a s o c i e t e g l o b a l e q u i est a c c u s s e e . L a s o l i t u d e , l ' i s o l e m e n t , p o u r ces p o e t e s , n ' e s t pas d ' a b o r d u n c h o i x , m a i s une c o n d i t i o n s u b i e , i m p o s e e : n o n s e u l e m e n t l a s e p a r a t i o n , m a i s l ' e x c l u s i o n . E t ce m a l h e u r ne r e l e v e p a s que de c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p s y c h o l o g i q u e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s , i n d i v i d u e l l e s . L ' e x i l g e o g r a p h i q u e d ' A l a i n G r a n d b o i s et l ' e x i l i n t e r i e u r de S a i n t -D e n y s - G a r n e a u f i g u r e n t le d i v o r c e r a d i c a l q u ' e p r o u v e le poete e n t r e son langage et c e l u i de l a s o c i e t e a l a q u e l l e i l a p p a r t i e n t L a s o l i t u d e s u b i e i m p l i q u e l ' e s p e r a n c e d 'une c o m m u n a u t e .  Q u a n d le poete l a n o m m e , i l d e n o n c e non pas tant ses p r o p r e s  r e f u s , ses p r o p r e s e v a s i o n s , s e s p r o p r e s i n s u f f i s a n c e s . . . ,  que le f o s s e q u i e x i s t e e n t r e le langage p e r s o n n e l et le langage  c o m m u n , e n t r e l ' a s p i r a t i o n p o e t i q u e , l a volonte de l i b e r e r l a  p a r o l e dans des f o r m e s n o u v e l l e s , et l e s c o n t r a i n t e s i m p l i c i t e s  d ' u n langage s o c i a l ^ 9 ^ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l ^ . C o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t r y , h a v i n g b e e n g i v e n this i m p e t u s t o w a r d s the r e a l i z a t i o n of s o l i d a r i t y b y poets s t e e p e d i n s o l i t u d e , has e n t e r e d into a new p h a s e . M a r c o t t e d e s c r i b e s it i n this m a n n e r : L a p o e s i e entend se d e p o u i l l e r de ce q u i n ' e s t pas s o n p r o p r e l a n g a g e , et a. cette a s c e s e p r o p r e m e n t l i t t e r a i r e c o r r e s p o n d une a s c e s e d ' o r d r e s p i r i t u e l . E n se penchant s u r s e s p r o p r e s s e c r e t s , e l l e v a l o r i s e du m e m e coup l ' h o m m e i n t e r i e u r (par 138 o p p o s i t i o n a l a p o e s i e d e c o r a t i v e ) et 1 'homme u n i v e r s e l (par o p p o s i t i o n au p a r t i c u l a r i s m e r e g i o n a l i s t e ) . . . . D a n s ce t r e s s e v e r e a f f r o n t e m e n t , aux r a c i n e s m e m e s du langage et de l a v i e n o u v e l l e , l a p o e s i e p r o d u i t i n e v i t a b l e m e n t du s e c r e t ; e l l e eonstitue des u n i v e r s i n t e r i e u r s s o i g n e u s e m e n t g a r d e s , ou. l e s f o r m e s du m o n d e t e l q u ' o n le v o i t ne peuvent e n t r e r q u ' a p r e s  a v o i r ete p r i v e e s de l e u r a c t u a l i t e , de l e u r s c o n t o u r s p a r t i c u - l i e r s ^ 1 ^ i t a l i c s not in the o r i g i n a l j . T h e i t a l i c i z e d s e c t i o n s of the above text h o l d t h e - k e y to a f u l l c o m -p r e h e n s i o n of M a r c o t t e ' s a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m i n L e T e m p s des p o e t e s . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , they a f f i r m our o p i n i o n that M a r c o t t e is as h u m a n i s t i c a c r i t i c as D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s . S e c o n d l y , these s e c -t ions a r e an o v e r t c o n d e m n a t i o n on M a r c o t t e ' s p a r t of the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of the " b r i b e s de l a n g a g e , " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t r y . T h i r d l y a n d by i m p l i c a t i o n , the s e c t i o n s to w h i c h r e f e r e n c e is m a d e suggest that a l l c o n t e m p o r a r y p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s a r e effective i n s t r u m e n t s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n the c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n the poet and h i s u n i v e r s e . M a r c o t t e , i n d i s c u s s i n g the v e r s e of the d e c a d e 1950-60, e n u m e r a t e s the o c c a s i o n s when p o e t r y "se d e v e l o p p e , se r a m i f i e , se l i v r e aux m u l -t i p l e s i n s t a n c e s de s o n p r o g r e s . " In this c a t e g o r y , the c r i t i c p l a c e s the " v e r b a l and m o r a l a g g r e s s i o n " of P a u l - M a r i e L a p o i n t e , C l a u d e G a u v r e a u , G i l l e s H e n a u l t and R o l a n d G i g u e r e . T h e i n c o m p l e t e n a t u r e of P i e r r e P e r r a u l t ' s style a l o n g w i t h h i s f o r a y s into the f i e l d of r a d i o and c i n e m a a r e i n t e r p r e t e d b y M a r c o t t e as a w i l l i n g n e s s " d ' a t t e i n d r e a l a p a r f a i t e l i b e r t e d'une p a r o l e q u i ne d o i v e r i e n aux c o n v e n t i o n s l i t t e r a i r e s . " ( L e T e m p s des p o e t e s , p . 122) C o m m u n i c a t i v e p o e t r y is a l s o s e e n in G i l l e s V i g n e a u l t ' s s o n g s , i n the v e r s e of J a c q u e s Godbout and G e r a l d G o d i n , " i m p a t i e n t s d ' a l l e r j u s -139 q u ' a u bout des r e s s o u r c e s de langage q u i l e u r sont d o n n e e s " (Ibid. , p. 116), as w e l l as i n the " p o e s i e p o u r n o m m e r " of F e r n a n d D u m o n t , R e g i n a l d B o i s v e r t , J e a n - G u y P i l o n , G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , L u c P e r r i e r a n d F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e . T h e s e few e x a m p l e s of s o c i a l contact t h r o u g h p o e t r y d e m o n s t r a t e once m o r e the tendency to s y n t h e s i z e i n M a r c o t t e ' s a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m . It is not s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e that the c r i t i c s h o u l d c o n s t r u e d e s c r i p -t ive p r e c i s i o n , e r u d i t e l a n g u a g e , p o p u l a r yet p u r e l a n g u a g e , i n p o e t r y of the y e a r s 1950-60, as i n s t a n c e s of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e n d e a v o u r to est-t a b l i s h "une d e m e u r e h a b i t a b l e q u i r e s i s t e au t e m p s . " (Ibid. , p . 216) T h e r e a d e r is s y m p a t h e t i c to M a r c o t t e ' s b e l i e f that the f r e q u e n c y of i m a g e s of s tone, i c e , m e t a l and f i r e i n this p o e t r y r e f l e c t s "une l i t t e r a t u r e du d e f i , " the o p p o s i t e p o l e of B a c h e l a r d ' s " m o l l e e n f a n c e . " T h e r e a d e r a l s o s h a r e s M a r c o t t e ' s o p i n i o n that t h e m e s of A m e r i c a ( M i c h e l V a n S c h e n d e l ) " c o u n t r y " and " m e m o r y " ( J a c q u e s B r a u l t and J e a n -G u y P i l o n ) d e m o n s t r a t e an effort to e x p l o i t h e r i t a g e , to f i n d h a p p i n e s s i n the s h o r t s p a c e of t i m e b e t w e e n dawn a n d d u s k . In s h o r t , g i v e n the w e l l - k n o w n fact that the d e c a d e 1940-1950 h e r a l d e d the e r a of h u m a n i s m i n i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e , it is d i f f i c u l t not to a g r e e w i t h M a r c o t t e that c o n t e m p o r a r y poets as a w h o l e s e e k to d e a l w i t h p r o b -l e m s that a r e p e r s o n a l , c o l l e c t i v e and u n i v e r s a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s the r e a d e r is d i s q u i e t e d b y the a b s t r u s e n a t u r e of M a r -cotte 's w o r k . T h e s a m e n e s s of tone and the s t e r e o t y p i c n a t u r e of M a r -cotte 's s ty le c r e a t e a c e r t a i n m o n o t o n y , w h i c h f o r c e s the r e a d e r to b r e a t h e a s i g h of r e l i e f , once he has l e a f e d t h r o u g h L e T e m p s des p o e t e s . 140 D o the n u m e r o u s poets on w h o m M a r c o t t e d i s c o u r s e s ( r a t h e r h u r r i e d -ly i n s o m e i n s t a n c e s ) a l l f a l l into the a r c h e t y p e of s o l i d a r i t y - p r e s e n c e , o r is the c r i t i c f o r c e d to v a l i d a t e a m e t h o d c h o s e n a p r i o r i by i n n u m e r -able r e f e r e n c e s and c o m p a r i s o n s ? M o r e o v e r is it p o s s i b l e for any c r i t i c to t r u l y g r a s p the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n at w o r k , p a r t i c u l a r l y when this i m a g i n a t i o n , f o r the p u r p o s e of r e d u c i n g its c r e a t i o n s to an a r c h e t y p e , is t e c h n i c a l l y s t r i p p e d of its i n d i v i d u a l i t y ? M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y is M a r c o t t e ' s c r i t i c i s m , e s p e c i a l l y i n L e T e m p s des p o e t e s , m e r e l y an e r u d i t e f o r m of the v u l g a r i s a t i o n p r a c t i s e d by E d m o n d L a r e a u ? ^ S u c h q u e s t i o n s , a p p l i c a b l e a l s o to the w o r k of B e s s e t t e w i l l c o n s t i -tute a s t a r t i n g point for o u r e v a l u a t i o n of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c i s m . P S Y C H O A N A L Y S I S IN I T S R E L A T I O N S H I P W I T H P E R S O N A L A N D C O L L E C T I V E M Y T H In h i s t h e o r y of " l a c r i t i q u e f o r m e l l e " d i s c u s s e d in e a r l i e r p a g e s of this c h a p t e r , B e s s e t t e e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n that c o h e r e n c e of a l i t e r a r y w o r k is b e s t o b t a i n e d b y i l l u m i n a t i n g its latent s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n . A s a p r e l u d e to h i s a n a l y s i s of U n h o m m e et s o n p e c h e , the c r i t i c i n s i s t s on the p r i m o r d i a l r o l e of the s u b c o n s c i o u s : U n e p l e i n e l u c i d i t e est s o u v e n t , a. m o n s e n s , p l u s n u i s i b l e q u ' u t i l e a l ' e c r i v a i n d ' i m a g i n a t i o n . L e s p e r s o n n a g e s r i s q u e n t a l o r s de d e v e n i r des " c o n s t r u c t i o n s " , des r o b o t s . U n e c e r -taine i n c o n s c i e n c e dans l a c o n c e p t i o n , dans l ' e l a b o r a t i o n des p r o t a g o n i s t e s et s u r t o u t de l ' a t m o s p h & r e m e p a r a i t done s o u v e n t s o u h a i t a b l e . P o u r l a t e c h n i q u e , c ' e s t une a u t r e h i s t o i r e . L a i l m e s e m b l e que l a l u c i d i t e est e s s e n t i e l l e . ^2 141 In u n d e r t a k i n g to e n l i g h t e n h i s r e a d e r s on the p a r t p l a y e d by this s u b -c o n s c i o u s , B e s s e t t e , u n l i k e M a r c o t t e , c h o o s e s to e n t e r at l e n g t h into the r e a l m of d r e a m s as w e l l as that of m y t h o l o g y and o b s e s s i o n a l p a t t e r n s . A c c o r d i n g l y i f the c r i t i c states that a M a u r o n or W e b e r type i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n is n e e d e d to f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a c e r t a i n text, c h a r a c t e r i z e d , by h i m , as " u n des s o m m e t s de B o n h e u r d ' o c c a s i o n (Une U t t e r a t u r e en e b u l l i -t i o n , p . 272) one ought not to be m i s l e d into t h i n k i n g that B e s s e t t e h i m s e l f is i n c a p a b l e of s u c h an e x e r c i s e . U n e l i t t e r a t u r e en E b u l l i t i o n i s n o t h i n g but the s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s to the study of the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n s and c o n s t a n c y of the m y t h of O e d i p u s as a p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l e c -t ive c o m p l e x a m o n g s t F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . In T r o i s R o m a n c i e r s q u e b e c o i s B e s s e t t e f o l l o w s o n c e m o r e the p a t h of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , w h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g the p e r s o n a l r a t h e r than the c o l l e c t i v e m y t h of a u t h o r s a n a l y s e d . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e s u p p o r t e d b y the c l i n i c a l t e r m s ( " c h a r g e e m o -t i v e , " " i l l o g i s m e e r o t i q u e , " " n e v r o s e , " " e x c e s s i v e p u d e u r , " " r e g r e s s i o n f a n t a s m a t i q u e et t r a n s f e r e n t i e l l e , " " p s y c h i s m e p r o f o n d , " " m e n t a l i t e ' a m o u r e u s e , " " p s y c h e h u m a i n e , " " e c o n o m i e l i b i d i n a l e , " " o b s e s s i o n o r -n i t h o l o g i q u e , " " c o q c a s t r a t e u r , " " d e m i - c o n s c i e n c e f o e t a l e , " " p s y c h o -tique i r r e c u p e r a b l e , " " o r p h e l i s m e o e d i p i e n , " " m a t r i c i d e i m a g i n a i r e , " " e q u i v a l e n t s o m a t i q u e , " " f i x a t i o n o r a l e , " " r e m o r d s refoule' , " " f o r t e s t e n d a n c e s h o m o s e x u e l l e s ") w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e B e s s e t t e ' s l a n g u a g e . S u c h t e r m s a l s o p e r m i t us to a p p r e c i a t e the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g B e s s e t t e f r o m " l a c r i t i q u e h i s t o r i q u e " a n d " l a c r i t i q u e f o n c i e r e " of D a n t i n a n d W y c z y n s k i . In fact " N e l l i g a n et l e s r e m o u s de s o n s u b c o n s c i e n t " b e g i n s w h e r e E m i l e N e l l i g a n left off. W y c z y n s k i o r i e n t e d h i s study of N e l l i g a n ' s p o e t r y 142 t o w a r d s a study of its m a n i f e s t s o u r c e s . B e s s e t t e ' s i n t e r e s t l i e s in e l u c i d a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y and p a r -t i c u l a r l y of m o t h e r on N e l l i g a n ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . N e l l i g a n ' s m e n t a l b i o g r a p h y t h e r e f o r e c o m e s to the f o r e . T h e poet, B e s s e t t e i n f o r m s u s , was r a i s e d in a f e m i n i n e en tou r age b y a d e l i c a t e , r e l i g i o u s - m i n d e d and m u s i c a l l y t a l e n t e d m o t h e r . She taught h e r s o n the d a n g e r s of i m p u r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e v e a l e d t h e m s e l v e s in the c h a r a c t e r of N e l l i g a n ' s f a t h e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , B e s s e t t e c l a i m s , p u r i t y and i n n o c e n c e i n N e l l i g a n ' s v e r s e a r e s y n o n y m o u s w i t h things f e m i n i n e , w i t h a " m a t e r n a l f ixation! ' : E s t - i l b e s o i n de r a p p e l e r que l e s p i e c e s c l o s e s , les objets c r e u x , s e l o n 1 ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p s y c h a n a l y t i q u e , s y m b o l i s e n t l a f e m m e ? C h e z N e l l i g a n , i l s indiquent a n ' e n p a s d o u t e r u n d e s i r de se j o i n d r e a. s a m e r e , de r e t o u r n e r dans le s e i n m a -t e r n e l . C e b e s o i n d ' e n f o u i s s e m e n t , de p r o t e c t i o n , d ' u n i o n i n t i m e , cette p e u r du m o n d e , cette p h o b i e de " f r a n c h i r le p o r t a i l des vingt a n s " c o n s t i t u e n t le p S l e p o s i t i f de 1 ' a m b i v a l e n c e dont nous avons p a r l e c i - d e s s u s , tout c o m m e l a p e u r de l ' a m o u r , le d e s i r de fuite, d ' e v a s i o n , etc . , en r e p r e s e n t e n t l e p S l e negatif . ^ D e s p i t e the h i g h i n c i d e n c e of m a t e r n a l and f e m i n i n e i m a g e s w h i c h B e s s e t t e d i s c o v e r s i n N e l l i g a n ' s p o e m s he d i s a g r e e s w i t h W y c z y n s k i that these l a t t e r a r e t o t a l l y " p u r e . " T h e y m a y be " f r a n c h e m e n t feminins " B e s s e t t e a d m i t s , but they a l s o r e f l e c t N e l l i g a n ' s s t r u g g l e w i t h h i s c o n -c u p i s c e n c e , h i s fight a g a i n s t " l ' o b s e d a n t e p o u s s e e de l a s e x u a l i t e . " W i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to " L e V e n t , le vent t r i s t e de l ' a u t o m n e , " B e s s e t t e p r o f e s s e s that " s o n style h a c h e , h a l e t a n t , t r e s d i f f e r e n t du s t y l e n e l l i g a n i e n o r d i n a i r e , " b e a r s w i t n e s s to the p o e t ' s d i s a r r a y in the p r e s -ence of p h y s i c a l l o v e . F u r t h e r m o r e the c r i t i c s e e s the u n i t y of " C h a -teaux d ' E s p a g n e " as s t e m m i n g f r o m its " s e n s u a l i t e f r e m i s s a n t e " : 143 S e n s u a l i t e ' n o n pas p r o v o c a n t e ou l u x u r i e u s e , m a i s c a c h e e s o u s u n r e s e a u de s y m b o l e s q u a s i o n i r i q u e s . L a s e x u a l i t e m a l e s ' y e x p r i m e d ' a b o r d p a r le l a b a r u m q u i synthetase a l a fois l a p o u s s e e b r u t a l e du c o n q u e r a n t a l ' a t t a q u e et l a m y s t i c i t e du c r o i s e . D e ce s y m b o l e ou p a l p i t e n t l e s a i g l e s i m p e r i a l e s des l e g i o n s r o m a i n e s , on p a s s e tout n a t u r e l l e m e n t a une s e r i e d ' o i s e a u x c a r n i v o r e s , aux b e e s a c e r e s , q u i r e p r e s e n t e n t s o u -vent en p s y c h a n a l y s e l ' o r g a n e m a s c u l i n , de m e m e que le s o l e i l ( " b r u l e r au s o l e i l m e s deux a i l e s de g l o i r e ) repre*sente l a p a s s i o n de v o r ante, l a f e c o n d i t e \ l a p a t e r nite*. ^ ^ T o B e s s e t t e it is n a t u r a l that m y t h o l o g y s h o u l d h a v e s e r v e d as an i n s t r u m e n t of e x p r e s s i o n for N e l l i g a n ' s s e x u a l i t y . T o the c r i t i c it is a l s o u n d e r s t a n d a b l e that the p o e t ' s w o r k s h o u l d h a v e the a p p e a r a n c e of p u r i t y . N e l l i g a n d i d not w i s h to offend h i s m o t h e r . H e m a y h a v e b e e n i l l at e a s e w i t h h i s s e x u a l d e s i r e s but the fact that he d i d e x p r e s s t h e m (albeit i n v e i l e d t e r m s ) f i l l e d h i m w i t h the s a m e f e e l i n g of g u i l t , r e m o r s e a n d r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y , w h i c h h a u n t e d O e d i p u s . T h e r e a f t e r the p o e t ' s o n l y s a l v a t i o n is to hope for p u n i s h m e n t t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h . B e s s e t t e s u g g e s t s t h e r e f o r e that N e l l i g a n ' s " i n n e r d i s t r e s s " h a s i ts s o u r c e , not i n the i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on h i m b y p a r t i c u l a r F r e n c h p o e t s , but , i n the p o e t ' s a t t a c h m e n t to h i s m o t h e r . T h i s l i a i s o n i n t u r n was p r o m p t e d by N e l l i g a n ' s i n a b i l i t y to f o r m a m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r . T h e " I r i s h s t r a n g e r " as B e s s e t t e r e f e r s to h i m o f f e r e d no f e e l i n g of l o v e to h i s s o n . N e l l i g a n i n t u r n sought the affect ions of h i s m o t h e r , affect ions w h i c h he w a s f o r c e d to s h a r e w i t h the f a t h e r he d i s l i k e d . Is B e s s e t t e j u s t i f i e d i n s p e a k i n g of "un a t t a c h e m e n t o m b i l i c a l p r o l o n g e ' i n N e l l i g a n ' s w o r k ? Is the c r i t i c ' s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l study m o r e o b j e c t i v e a n d i m p a r t i a l than W y c z y n s k i ' s m o r e a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n ? O n e i s t e m p t e d to a n s w e r a f f i r m a t i v e l y to b o t h q u e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in r e c a l l i n g 144 to m i n d the i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d i n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e b y w o m e n . N o one c a n deny that, s i n c e the e a r l y d a y s of F r e n c h c o l o n i z a t i o n i n A m e r -i c a , the m a l e , s y m b o l of a u t h o r i t y , was f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d to absent h i m s e l f f r o m h o m e t h r o u g h n e c e s s i t y to t i l l the l a n d , l a b o u r i n the f o r e s t s or to fight off h i s a d v e r s a r i e s . It was m o s t often left to h i s f e m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t to m a k e the h o m e and i ts e n v i r o n s a h a b i t a b l e d w e l l i n g . She it was who c o n s t a n t l y gave l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g to h e r c h i l d r e n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y it was w i t h h e r that the l a t t e r m o s t often i d e n t i f i e d . S u c h an i m a g e of the " s t r o n g a n d m y t h i c a l " w o m a n i s r e f l e c t e d i n w o r k s s u c h as L e s A n c i e n s C a n a d i e n s , M a r i a C h a p d e l a i n e , and B o n h e u r d ' o c c a s i o n to n a m e only those few w o r k s . A c c o r d i n g l y it i s not e a s y to f i n d fault w i t h B e s s e t t e w h e n , i n p a s s i n g f r o m the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l to c o l l e c t i v e m y t h , he contends that N e l l i g a n ' s " u m b i l i c a l a t t a c h m e n t " is a c o m p l e x " q u i s e m b l e b i e n h a n t e r l a c o l l e c t i v i z e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e ! " It i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t not to a d m i t that B e s s e t t e ' s c o m m e n t a r y (in k e e p i n g w i t h h i s t h e o r y of " l a c r i t i q u e f o r m e l l e " ) is " s u g g e s t i v e " of the " s p i r i t u a l , " " s p a t i a l , " and " c u l t u r a l " a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h a i d e d N e l l i g a n i n c o m p o s i n g h i s p o e t r y . H o w e v e r r h e t o r i c a l m a y be the q u e s t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g text, B e s -sette is j u s t i f i e d i n h a v i n g a s k e d t h e m . T o us they a r e b a s e d on e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h , i n t u r n , , has b e e n s h r e w d l y a p p l i e d to the e l u c i d a t i o n of N e l l i g a n ' s p e r s o n a l m y t h : C o n v i e n t - i l m a i n t e n a n t a l a f i n de l a p r e s e n t e etude d ' a l l e r p l u s l o i n et de se d e m a n d e r s i 1 'adolescent N e l l i g a n , du fait q u ' i l avait u n p e r e anglophone ( r e p r e s e n t a n t p o u r l u i 1'autorite, l a d o m i n a t i o n ) et une m e r e f r a n c o p h o n e ( r e p r e s e n -tant l a t e n d r e s s e et l ' a r t ) se s o i t t r o u v e a r e p r e s e n t e r e x e m -145 p l a i r e m e n t l u i - m e m e l a s i t u a t i o n p o l i t i q u e et l i n g u i s t i q u e de n o t r e p e t i t p e u p l e a d o l e s c e n t et st l u i s e r v i r , s u r le p l a n p s y -y* y y chique p u i s l i t t e r a i r e , " d ' e c h o s o n o r e " ou de c a i s s e de r e s o -n a n c e ? N e s o m m e s - n o u s p a s , nous a u s s i , p a r - d e l a . l e s v i t r e s , p a r - d e l a l e s f r o n t i e r e s du m o n d e c a n a d i e n - f r a n c a i s , c o l l e c t i v e -m e n t hantes et c o n d i t i o n n e s , m e m e quand nous n ' y p e n s o n s p a s , p a r une p r e s e n c e , une a u t o r \ t £ p a t e r n e l l e ou une i n f l u e n c e p a -t e r n a l i s t e , a u t o r i t e q u i m e n a c e d ' e n v a h i r et e n v a h i t e f f e c t i v e - i m e n t q u e l q u e f o i s n o t r e f o y e r , n o t r e v i e p e r s o n n e l l e , tout c o m m e D a v i d N e l l i g a n r e v e n a i t c h e z l u i , p a r d r o i t de m a r i a g e , a l a m a i s o n o u , p a r c o m p e n s a t i o n , s o n f i l s f a i s a i t de l a p o e s i e , a l o r s que l u i , le p e r e m a t t e r - o f - f a c t et r e a l i s t e , tenait l e s c o r d o n s de l a b o u r s e et detenait l a p u i s s a n c e v e r i t a b l e ? . . . J e m e contente de p o s e r ces q u e s t i o n s a u x q u e l l e s p e r s o n n e , je c r o i s , ne peut r e p o n d r e a v e c c e r t i t u d e et a u x q u e l l e s N e l l i g a n l u i - m e m e n ' a v a i t p r o b a b l e m e n t j a m a i s songe**. . . E n guise de c o n c l u s i o n , je r e p e t e r a i une fois de p l u s une p h r a s e dont a i m a i t se s e r v i r u n de m e s a n c i e n s p r o f e s s e u r s : on ne pre^te q u ' a u x r i c h e s : c e l a est a u s s i v r a i en l i t t e r a t u r e que dans l e s a f f a i r e s . Suffice it to s a y at this p o i n t that B e s s e t t e ' s w o r k on N e l l i g a n is no l e s s i m p a r t i a l o r object ive than W y c z y n s k i ' s . M o r e o v e r the c r i t i c r e -m a i n s t r u e to h i m s e l f w h i l e s e r v i n g A r t . B e s s e t t e ' s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l study of N e l l i g a n ' s p s y c h e a c c o r d s w i t h h i s p u r p o s e of a c c o u n t i n g for " l o o s e e n d s , " in this c a s e the a p p e a r a n c e of p u r i t y i n N e l l i g a n ' s w o r k and the m i s c o n c e i v e d i d e a of the p o e t ' s l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y . A s is the c a s e w i t h M a r c o t t e ' s a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m , B e s s e t t e ' s study of N e l l i g a n ' s v e r s e has the ' p o s i t i v e ' v a l u e of not s u b j e c t i n g the r e a d e r to " c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s " to F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e . B e s s e t t e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Y v e s T h e r i a u l t ' s a n d V i c t o r - L e v y B e a u -l i e u ' s n o v e l s r e p r e s e n t an e v e n g r e a t e r attempt to r e t r a c e the p a t h of o n i r i s m f o l l o w e d b y an a u t h o r ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . S i n c e B e s s e t t e h i m s e l f states that " l a l i s t e des m o r t s v i b l e n t e s et des b l e s s u r e s t r a u m a -t i q u e s . . . n ' e s t p a s - m o i n s i m p r e s s i o n n a n t e c h e z B e a u l i e u que c h e z Y v e s T h e r i a u l t , we s h a l l l i m i t our own d i s c u s s i o n to an e x a m i n a t i o n of the 146 c r i t i c ' s a n a l y s i s of T h e r i a u l t ' s w o r k . In the s a m e m a n n e r that M a u r o n d i s c o u r s e d on the m e t a m o r p h o s i s and c o n s t a n c y of a p e r s o n a l m y t h i n R a c i n e ' s t r a g e d i e s , 8^ B e s s e t t e , i n " L e p r i m i t i v i s m e dans l e s r o m a n s d ' Y v e s T h e r i a u l t " u n d e r l i n e s the s t r u c -t u r e s and m e t a p h o r s i n d i c a t i v e of an O e d i p u s c o m p l e x . T h e o b s e s s i o n a l t h e m e s of m u t i l a t i o n , c u l p a b i l i t y - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p r i m i t i v e m i l i e u , "acte m a n q u e , " the i m a g e s of death a n d " t o t e m i c a n i m a l , " the f r e q u e n c y of d r e a m s a r e a l l m o u l d e d by B e s s e t t e into a s y n t h e t i c w h o l e . T h i s m o u l d affords h i m the o p p o r t u n i t y to p o i n t out this p r e c o n c e i v e d p l a n i n T h e r i a u l t ' s n o v e l s : 1. Un(e) E n f a n t offense (fait m o u r i r ) u n P a r e n t (du meVne sexe p a r l e q u e l i l se sent lese* ( p r i v e de s o n d r o i t a l ' a m o u r ) ; 2. E n r e t o u r , L ' E n f a n t subit une e p r e u v e (un c h a t i m e n t ) m u t i -l a t o i r e . D a n s cette f o r m u l e E n f a n t et P a r e n t (avec des m a j u s c u l e s ) peuvent a u s s i b i e n d e s i g n e r u n enfant (et u n parent) s y m b o l i q u e s que r e e l s . L e s e x p r e s s i o n s e n t r e p a r e n t h e s e s e x p r i m e n t une tendance plutot qu'une r e g i e a b s o l u e s i on l e s a p p l i q u e a I ' e n s e m b l e de I ' o e u v r e r o m a n -ee:sque de T h e r i a u l t . ^ T h e c r i t i c f u r n i s h e s m a n y e x a m p l e s of w e l l - p l a n n e d m u t i l a t i o n s i n T h e r i a u l t ' s w o r k . E d i t h , " l a f i l l e l a i d e , " e n t e r s into a s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the h u s -b a n d (Fabian) of h e r p a t r o n e s s , B e r n a d e t t e L o u b r o n . E d i t h ' s s o n is b o r n d e a f - m u t e and b l i n d ; this l a t t e r o c c u r r e n c e B e s s e t t e equates w i t h O e d i p u s putt ing out h i s own e y e s . M o r e o v e r , E d i t h b e c o m e s p e r m a n e n t l y s t e r i l e . V i c t o r D e b r e u x ( C u l - d e - s a c ) d e s p i t e h i s fight a g a i n s t the p l e a s u r e s of the f l e s h , c o m m i t s the O e d i p e a n offense of c a r n a l k n o w l e d g e w i t h h i s c o u s i n F a b i e n n e w h o , i n the c h i t i c ' s o p i n i o n r e p r e s e n t s h i s m o t h e r . T h e r e -after D e b r e u x is c o n s t a n t l y t o r m e n t e d b y the v i s i o n of h i s m o t h e r . L i k e -147 w i s e , H e r m a n n ( L e D o m p t e u r d ' o u r s ) though p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g is m e n -t a l l y w e a k . H e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e a t h of h i s " p a r e n t ) ' a w o l f f o r w h i c h he t e n d e d . H e r m a n n too is o v e r c o m e b y gui l t . It is B e s s e t t e ' s o p i n i o n that T h e r i a u l t was s u b c o n s c i o u s l y m o v e d to m u l t i p l y i n g a d i n f i n i t u m i n s t a n c e s of o f f e n s e - g u i l t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - p u n i s h -m e n t a n d d e s i r e for m o t h e r l y l o v e , b y the i n s e c u r i t y i n h e r e n t i n F r e n c h -C a n a d i a n s : L e f a n t a s m e de r e t o u r au s e i n m a t e r n e l q u i , s o u t e r r a i n e m e n t o m n i p r e s e n t , e m e r g e ou a f f l e u r e s i s o u v e n t dans l a p s y c h e des p e r s o n n a g e s t h e r i a u s i e n s m e p a r a i t , t o u j o u r s s u r le p l a n c o l -l e c t i f , b e a u c o u p p l u s r e v e l a t e u r (ou s y m p t o m a t i q u e ) . C o m m e n t ne p a s v o i r la. l a tendance de l a c o l l e c t i v i t e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e a se r e p l i e r en qu el qu e s o r t e f o e t a l e m e n t s u r s o i , a. i n v e s t i r d ' a n g o i s s e et ou a m y t h i f i e r s e s o r i g i n e s , a. se r a p p e l e r d o u -l o u r e u s e m e n t le t r a u m a de l a conqu^te, done l a s e p a r a t i o n d ' a v e c l a m e r e - p a t r i e ; a. v o u l o i r , p a r c o n s e q u e n t , r e t o u r n e r dans le s e i n de l a F r a n c e . . . , a m a n i f e s t e r des s e n t i m e n t s a m -b i v a l e n t s c h a r g e s d'une e m o t i o n i n t e n s e a. l ' e g a r d de l a l a n g u e m a t e r n e l l e , e t c . , e tc . L a p r e s e n t e pole*mique q u ' o n p o u r r a i t a p p e l e r l a q u e r e l l e des j o u a u x et des a n t i - j o u a u x e s t , c e r t e s , s u r le p l a n m a n i f e s t e (et r e e l ) une q u e r e l l e l i n g u i s t i q u e m a i s , p a r d e l a l a l a n g u e , c ' e s t a u s s i une q u e r e l l e i n t e s t i n e ou o m -b i l i c a l e ^ ^ ^ i t a l i c s i n the o r i g i n a l ] . In what a p p e a r s to be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n on h i s p a r t B e s s e t t e a d m i t s the s u p e r f i c i a l n a t u r e of the above f i n d i n g s , w h i l e p r o f e s s i n g that s u c h f i n -d i n g s p r o v e that " a g r e a t w r i t e r " cannot h e l p but r e f l e c t the s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he l i v e s . (Une l i t t e r a t u r e en e b u l l i t i o n , p. 202) B e s s e t t e ' s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y a n o t h e r e x a m p l e of the r h e t o r i c w h i c h tends to obfuscate the e m p i r i c a l d a t a , the e v i d e n c e of c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y (and of m e n t a l b i o g r a p h y ) on w h i c h h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s a r e b a s e d . In fact B e s s e t t e , i n e x p l a i n i n g the l a c k of m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t in T h e r i a u l t ' s A r y a n h e r o e s b y the i r r e f u t a b l e p r o o f of " t r a u m a t i s m e de 148 l a n a i s s a n c e , " r e m i n d s us of this fact: on i n n u m e r a b l e o c c a s i o n s ^ * the g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of Q u e b e c f r o m F r a n c e has b e e n a d v a n c e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n of the t a r d y d e v e l o p m e n t of l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . H e n r i d ' A r l e s , we saw, felt s u c h a n n o y a n c e at the f r e q u e n c y of thes e x p l a n a t i o n s that he c a l l e d t h e m "toutes les p l a i n t i v e s e l e g i e s s u r nos i n d i g e n c e s l i t t e r a i r e s . " W i t h r e f e r e n c e to the n o v e l s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d B e s s e t t e states that E d i t h , H e r m a n n and D e b r e u x a r e e m o t i o n a l l y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d b e c a u s e , in l i k e n e s s to T h e r i a u l t ' s f o r e f a t h e r s , t h e i r l i v e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y c e r -t a i n c o m p l e x e s . In the c a s e of E d i t h a n d H e r m a n n , the "house c o m p l e x " e x p l a i n s the m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . E d i t h is o b s e s s e d w i t h b e i n g i n s i d e h o u s e s . T h i s f i x e d i d e a of E d i t h ' s , B e s s e t t e c l a i m s , s i g n i f i e s a d e s i r e to b e a l w a y s c l o s e to h e r p a t r o n e s s , a wlish to r e t u r n to the w o m b , "une parente" affective et t r a n s f e r e n t i e l l e . " O n the c o n t r a r y , H e r m a n n a new a r r i v a l i n a s t r a n g e c i t y , as was O e d i p u s , a v o i d s e n t e r i n g h o u s e s . T o p e r f o r m s u c h an a c t i o n w o u l d be t a n t a m o u n t to s e x u a l p e n e t r a t i o n on h i s p a r t . H e r m a n n t h e r e f o r e l e a d s the l i f e of a h e r m i t on a m o u n t a i n , " l a m e r e n o u r r i c i e r e . " D e b r e u x is an " a r r i e r e ' " af fect i f" i n two r e s p e c t s . H e n u r t u r e s the t r i p l e hope of b e i n g f o n d l e d and p a m p e r e d by h i s m o t h e r , of h u m i l i a t i n g h i s father and of r e d u c i n g the n u m b e r and i m p o r t a n c e of h i s s i s t e r s . H e a l s o t u r n s to a l c o h o l as a substitute for m o t h e r ' s m i l k and b e f r i e n d s p e o p l e , a c e r t a i n H u s m e r for e x a m p l e , who r e m i n d h i m of h i s m o t h e r . 149 T h e r i a u l t ' s h e r o e s , B e s s e t t e i n t i m a t e s , r e f l e c t the a u t h o r ' s s u b c o n -s c i o u s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the o n i r i s m of p r i m i t i v i s m , w i t h the f l e e t i n g and i m p o s s i b l e d r e a m of b e i n g F r e n c h m e n i n A m e r i c a . T h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s i n U n e  L i t t e r a t u r e en e b u l l i t i o n i s a c c e n t e d not only when B e s s e t t e c l a i m s that B e r n a d e t t e L o u b r o n ' s death is p r e f i g u r e d i n h e r " r e v e d ' a n t i c i p a t i o n . " It i s a l s o s e e n i n the "vaste f a n t a s m e , " the " r e v e e v e i l l e " b y w h i c h B e s -sette d e s c r i b e s C u l - d e - S a c : S i l ' o n veut c o m p r e t i d r e c l i n i q u e m e n t C u l - d e - S a c (et c e l a m e p a r a i t u n p r e r e q u i s p o u r j u g e r l ' o e u v r e ) , i l faut 1 ' i n t e r p r e t e r d ' a b o r d c o m m e s i l ' e n s e m b l e des e v e n e m e n t s et des p e r s o n -nages etaient des p r o j e c t i o n s ou des f a n t a s m e s de ce " g i b i e r de p s y c h i a t r i e " ^ 0 q u ' e s t V i c t o r D e b r e u x . J e ne v e u x p a s d i r e que c e s p e r s o n n a g e s ou ces e v e n e m e n t s , D e b r e u x l e s invente tous de toutes p i e c e s . M a i s le l e c t e u r doit s u s p e n d a n t s o n j u g e m e n t , f a i s a n t a b s t r a c t i o n du " p r i n c i p e de r e a l i t e " a c c e p t e r l e s p e r s o n n a g e s , l e s c o m p o r t e m e n t s , l e s faits i m -p r o b a b l e s c o m m e s ! i l s ' a g i s s a i t des p r o j e c t i o n s du " m y t h e p e r s o n n e l " du h e r o s n e v r o s e . C a r toute l a v i e de D e b r e u x est u n a c h e m i n e m e n t a r e c u l o n s , s i l ' o n peut d i r e , v e r s le c a u c h e m a r f i n a l de ta c r e v a s s e ^ 2 [ i t a l i c s not i n the o r i g i n a l ^ . T h e r e a d e r now c o m p r e h e n d s why B e s s e t t e c l a i m e d that t o t a l l u c i d -ity i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of a w o r k is h a r m f u l to i ts c r e a t o r . B y e x t e n s i o n the c r i t i c who s e a r c h e s for that l u c i d i t y is a s s u r e d of h a v i n g " l o o s e e n d s " i n h i s w o r k . A c c o r d i n g to B e s s e t t e , G u y R o b e r t w o u l d p e r h a p s hot h a v e c h i d e d T h e r i a u l t for the a b s e n c e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y i n D e b r e u x , h a d h e , R o b e r t , g i v e n h i s attention to the o n i r i s m in C u l - d e - S a c . B e s s e t t e ' s a l l u s i o n s to d r e a m s a r e only one i n s t a n c e of a debt o w e d to F r e u d . T h e c r i t i c r e f e r s e x p l i c i t l y to the G e r m a n p s y c h o a n a l y s t in s p e a k i n g of S e r a p h i n P o u d r i e r ' s (hero of U n h o m m e et s o n peche) i n a b i l -i ty to f u n c t i o n s e x u a l l y as "un acte m a n q u e au sens f r e u d i e n . " (Ibid.., 150 p. 99) T h e c r i t i c a l s o has r e c o u r s e to F r e u d i n s u g g e s t i n g that s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y a c c o u n t s for A g a g u k ' s d e p a r t u r e f r o m h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e " p a r animosite** o e d i p i e n n e " : T o u t se p a s s e c o m m e s i l ' i n t e r d i t s e x u e l q u i , s e l o n F r e u d , p e s a i t s u r l e s f i l s dans l a h o r d e p r e h i s t o r i q u e , a c c o m p a g n a i t le jeune E s q u i m a u a u s s i l o n g t e m p s q u ' i l se sent e n c o r e dans 1'atmosphere de l a t r i b u , c ' j e s t - a - d i r e dans l a s p h e r e d ' i n f l u -ence p a t e r n e l l e . II s 'agit p o u r l u i d ' u n t a b o u ^ A g a g u k i s not a l l o w e d to s e x u a l l y p o s s e s s I r i o o k on the night of t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g ^ a u q u e l i l se s o u m e t sans se p o s e r de q u e s t i o n s . ^ B e s s e t t e ' s n u m e r o u s i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s to F r e u d , r e -fleet an u r g e n c y on the c r i t i c ' s p a r t to lodge the w o r k s of T h e r i a u l t , G r i g n o n , A n n e H e b e r t , N e l l i g a n , G a b r i e l l e R o y , V i c t o r - L e v y B e a u l i e u and A n d r e L a n g e v i n u n d e r the s o l e aegis of an O e d i p e a n c o m p l e x . In this r e s p e c t the r o b o t - l i k e n a t u r e of B e s s e t t e ' s c r i t i c i s m b e c o m e s e v i d e n t . T h e c r i t i c has c h o s e n b e f o r e h a n d , and in a t o t a l l y l u c i d f r a m e of m i n d , a m e t h o d w h i c h c o n f o r m s to h i s p u r p o s e . H e h i m s e l f a d m i t s that h i s a n a l y s i s of N e l l i g a n ' s " L e j a r d i n d ' a n t a n " is effectuated "dans l ' o p t i q u e q u i nous i n t e r e s s e . " (Ibid. , p . 30) A c c o r -d i n g l y N e l l i g a n ' s p a s s a g e f r o m the p r e s e n t to the p a s t tense is for B e s -sette i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e e v i d e n c e of N e l l i g a n ' s O e d i p e a n c o m p l e x . F o r r e a s o n s a l r e a d y s t a t e d , it is nbt e a s y to f i n d fault w i t h s u c h an i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . It is a l s o d i f f i c u l t not to a d m i t that B e s s e t t e ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n in T h e r i a u l t ' s h e r o e s as w e l l as h i s p s y c h i c a n a l o g i e s b e t w e e n G a b r i e l l e R o y and h e r p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r J e a n L e v e s q u e and A l e x a n d r e C h e n e v e r t a r e p l a u s i b l e . T h e f o r m e r d e d u c t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y B e s s e t t e ' s knowledge of i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e , the a n a l o g i e s 151 by h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h G a b r i e l l e R o y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one feels that the t o t a l c o h e r e n c e w h i c h the c r i t i c c l a i m s to have g i v e n to The'r i a u l t ' s n o v e l s is i n c o m p l e t e . H e i n f o r m s us that Ikoue (Le R u d'Ikoue') al though h a u n t e d b y the p r i m i t i v e p h a n t o m s of D e b r e u x , E d i t h and H e r m a n n , does not suffer f r o m " a r r i e r a t i o n affective. " B e c a u s e Ikoue', l i k e A g a g u k , is y o u n g , n o r m a l and n o n - A r y a n , L e R u d'Ikoue is " l ' h i s t o i r e d'une v i e qui se fait . " C u l - d e - S a c on the c o n t r a r y is " l ' h i s t o i r e d'une v i e q u i se defait . " In fact B e s s e t t e s p e c i f i e s that only T h e r i a u l t ' s A r y a n h e r o e s a r e o v e r w h e l m e d by the O e d i p e a n c o m p l e x . S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n , although d e d u c e d by B e s s e t t e ' s l u c i d contact w i t h T h e r i a u l t ' s w o r k , i m p l i e s that the l a t t e r l a c k e d knowledge of n a t i v e I n -d i a n h i s t o r y . Was T h e r i a u l t u n a w a r e of the fact that I n d i a n s , l i k e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , have s u f f e r e d the h e a r t b r e a k of c o n q u e s t , the t r a u m a of r e b i r t h a n d r e -s e t t l e m e n t , the d e n i a l of the r i g h t to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ? If s u c h w e r e the c a s e , then it is c o n c e i v a b l e that the n o v e l i s t was m o t i v a t e d only b y the m y t h of O e d i p u s . A c c o r d i n g l y t h e r e is c o m p l e t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n for B e s -sette 's p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l study. Y e t , i t is d i f f i c u l t to i m a g i n e that "un g r a n d r o m a n c i e r , " and as i n -t e l l i g e n t a m a n of l e t t e r s , as T h e r i a u l t was not c o g n i z a n t of the p a r a l l e l -i s m b e t w e e n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a n d n a t i v e Indian h i s t o r i e s . In other w o r d s it is quite p o s s i b l e that the n o v e l i s t , in c h o o s i n g to e n d c e r t a i n of h i s w o r k s p o s i t i v e l y and o t h e r s n e g a t i v e l y , m i g h t j u s t as e a s i l y h a v e b e e n m o t i v a t e d b y a c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e to show that " l i f e is what y o u m a k e it , " as by a s u b c o n s c i o u s n e e d to w r i t e of the a p p o s i t e n e s s of the O e d i p e a n 152 m y t h i n i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t y . T h e s o u r c e of Y v e s T h e r i a u l t ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y be the subject of c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n for m a n y y e a r s . T h e r e f o r e r a t h e r than d w e l l u p o n T h e r i a u l t ' s i g n o r a n c e or knowledge of n a t i v e Indian h i s -t o r y , it is m o r e r e a l i s t i c to s p e a k of the u n i l a t e r a l n a t u r e of B e s s e t t e ' s c r i t i c i s m . It is i n d e e d in the o n e - s i d e d n e s s of B e s s e t t e ' s a p p r o a c h (this is a l s o the c a s e w i t h M a r c o t t e ) that one finds the w e a k n e s s and s t r e n g t h of h i s " c r i t i q u e f o r m e l l e . " T h e a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c i s m of M a r c o t t e a n d the p s y c h o a n a l y s i s of B e s -43 sette r e p r e s e n t an. e n d e a v o u r on the p a r t of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c r i t i c s to r e l a t e to the c r e a t i v e c o n s c i e n c e of c e r t a i n i n d i g e n o u s a u t h o r s . In s o d o i n g , b o t h c r i t i c s m a y be a c c u s e d of l i t e r a r y i m p a t i e n c e , of b e i n g o v e r -z e a l o u s and too c o m p r e h e n s i v e . T o t h e m a l m o s t a l l a s p e c t s of an a u t h o r ' s w o r k a r e i n s t a n c e s of an a r c h e t y p e or of o b s e s s i o n s , for t h e i r t e c h n i q u e s f o r c e t h e m to fit l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l into a m o u l d e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e h a n d . W h i l e M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e c a r r y out t h e i r t a s k w i t h g r e a t a p l o m b , the s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of t h e i r w o r k s n e v e r t h e l e s s m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f . B e s s e t t e ' s f r e q u e n t u s e of the w o r d " i f " p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e of this s u b j e c t i v i t y . H a v i n g s p o k e n of the " a n a l o g i e s p s y c h i q u e s " b e t w e e n G a b -r i e l l e R o y and J e a n L e v e s q u e , the c r i t i c c o n c l u d e s : E n effet, s i m o n h y p o t h e s e est j u s t e , G a b r i e l l e R o y avait b e s o i n de c r e e r J e a n L e v e s q u e p o u r p r e n d r e c o n n a i s s a n c e de c e r t a i n e s c o u c h e s p r o f o n d e s de s a p r o p r e p s y c h e et p o u r se l i b e r e r d ' u n 153 obs c u r s e n t i m e n t de c u l p a b i l i t e . ^ In m u c h the s a m e m a n n e r , M a r c o t t e ' s b e l i e f that t h e r e w e r e two a r c h e t y p e s s t e m m i n g f r o m the s u b c o n s c i o u s of S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , R i n a L a s n i e r , A n n e H e b e r t a n d A l a i n G r a n d b o i s is b y its v e r y n a t u r e a p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n c o r r o b o r a t e d b y c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . Y e t , g i v e n the s u b j e c t i v i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r m e t h o d s , one m i g h t w e l l a s k this q u e s t i o n : does t h e r e e x i s t a f o r m of c r i t i c i s m of w h i c h the o r i g i n is not r o o t e d in p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e ? L e t us again point out that E t h i e r - B l a i s a d m i t t e d that i n h i s " c r i t i q u e d ' h u m e u r s , " he w o u l d s p e a k of h i m s e l f . T h i s is a l s o what M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e have done. B u t u n l i k e m a n y of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , they h a v e the f o r e s i g h t to i n s u r e that t h e i r c o m m e n t a r i e s do not b e c o m e t r e a t i s e s c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l i s m or d o g m a t i s m . In fact it is B e s s e t t e ' s f r e q u e n t r e c o u r s e to the w o r d " i f " w h i c h h e l p s to p r e v e n t h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s f r o m d e t e r i o r a t i n g into the d o g m a t i s m of C a m i l l e R o y o r the m a u d l i n s e n t i m e n t a l i t y of C a s g r a i n . L i k e w i s e , M a r c o t t e ' s a w a r e n e s s of two d i s s i m i l a r a r c h e t y p e s in the w o r k s of c e r t a i n poets is an a d m i s s i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p l u r a l i t y of m e a n i n g s i n a text. A c r i t i c as h u m a n i s t i c and as l i b e r a l - m i n d e d as M a r -cotte c o u l d t h e r e f o r e n e v e r be j u s t i f i a b l y c a s t i n the m o u l d of E d m o n d L a r e a u . O b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y a r e as i n h e r e n t to the w o r k of M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e as is s u b j e c t i v i t y . O n the one h a n d t h e i r type of c r i t i c i s m p r e v e n t s t h e m f r o m b r i n g i n g 154 out c l a s s i c a l s t r a i t j a c k e t s for r o m a n t i c a u t h o r s , or s y m b o l i s t a p p a r e l for S u r r e a l i s t s . C r e m a z i e the R o m a n t i c and G i g u e r e the S u r r e a l i s t a r e both e x a m i n e d u n d e r the eye of the a r c h e t y p e e x i l e . N e l l i g a n the S y m b o l i s t and G a b r i e l l e R o y the R e a l i s t a r e b o t h , in t u r n , s u b j e c t e d to c l i n i c a l p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . O n the other h a n d the w o r k of M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e is c o r r o b o r a t e d not only by r e f e r e n c e to m e n t a l b i o g r a p h y but m o r e i m p o r t a n t b y the e v i -dence of c u l t u r e . N e i t h e r c r i t i c m a i n t a i n s that " l i t e r a t u r e is the e x p r e s -s i o n of s o c i e t y , " but they c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e to the i d e a that a l i t e r a r y w o r k cannot be r a d i c a l l y d i s a s s o c i a t e d f r o m the p r o b l e m s of c u l t u r e p o s e d by its e r a of c o m p o s i t i o n . F o r M a r c o t t e a n d B e s s e t t e , an author m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d i n the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t of h i s g e s t u r e s , i n the m o s t s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s of h i s c o n d u c t . T h e s e f a c t o r s , they t e l l u s , m a y h a v e s u b c o n s c i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d the a u -t h o r . T h e w o r k i t s e l f m u s t t h e r e f o r e be s t u d i e d in its s y s t o l e and d i a s t o l e and for its latent as w e l l as for its m a n i f e s t content. It ought now to be e v i d e n t why we s t a t e d that it is at the r i s k of b e i n g too c o m p r e h e n s i v e that M a r c o t t e a n d B e s s e t t e h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d to the g r o w t h of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n c r i t i c i s m . In n e g l e c t i n g to s p e a k of the m a n i f e s t content of a w o r k , these c r i t i c s r i s k l o s i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n r h e t o r i c and h y p o t h e s i s . It is quite p o s s i b l e that the i n t r i n s i c s o u r c e of an a u t h o r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n m a y l i e in the m a n i f e s t content of h i s w o r k . H o w e v e r , in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s M a r c o t t e ' s and B e s s e t t e ' s a r t , c r e a t i v e and at the s a m e t i m e c o - e x i s t e n t i a l w i t h the w o r k it s t u d i e s , is a c o r r e c t i v e to u n b r i d l e d e d u l c o r a t i o n , a c h e c k on r a b i d and e a s i l y m a d e d e n i a l s , an 155 a l t e r n a t i v e to e x c e s s i v e h i s t o r i c i t y , a c o m p a n i o n to p u r e j u d g m e n t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . J e a n - J a c q u e s R o u s s e a u once c l a i m e d that the r o l e of the c r i t i c is to p e r s u a d e , to t e l l l i e s as if they w e r e t r u t h s . " O n ne p a r l e j a m a i s b i e n 4 R que l o r s q u ' o n sent ce q u ' o n dit . " M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e m a y not d e l i b e r a t e l y e x p r e s s u n t r u t h s , but we b e l i e v e that they r e f l e c t R o u s s e a u ' s o p i n i o n in the happy m i x t u r e of 'subjectivity and o b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h p e r v a d e s t h e i r w o r k s . 156 C O N C L U S I O N In the i n t r o d u c t i o n we p r o f e s s e d our i n t e n t i o n to show how F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c i s m has sought, f r o m its b e g i n n i n g s , to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as an object ive and i m p a r t i a l d i s c i p l i n e . In d i s c o u r s i n g on c e r t a i n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e c r i t i c s , we s u g g e s t e d that t h e r e a r e two s c h o o l s of thought and a c t i o n i n c r i t i c i s m , n a m e l y the t r a d i t i o n a l and the c o n t e m p o r a r y . D e s p i t e c e r t a i n c o m m o n d e m o n i m a t o r s t h e r e e x i s t s an i m m e n s e d i s -tance between both s c h o o l s . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e c o g n i z a n t of the fact that o b j e c t i v i t y and i m -p a r t i a l i t y of m e t h o d w o u l d f u n c t i o n as an effective i n s t r u m e n t for c r e a t i n g a g e n r e w o r t h y of the n a m e C r i t i c i s m , t h e r e b y a i d i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . C r e m a z i e , R o u t h i e r , C a s g r a i n , C h a p m a n , F a b r e , D u c h a r m e , and C a m i l l e R o y a m o n g s t n u m e r o u s other judges of l i t e r a t u r e , a d v a n c e d , t i m e and a g a i n , t h e o r i e s of i m p a r t i a l i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y , c o n s t r u e -t i v e n e s s , v i g o u r , h e a l t h i n e s s and i n d e p e n d e n c e for c r i t i c i s m . F l e u r y Mesipltet: offer ed h i s G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e as a v e h i c l e i n w h i c h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s c o u l d p u b l i s h t h e i r p r o s e , p o e t r y and a n e c d o t e s , as w e l l as j u d g m e n t s t h e r e o n . V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d went so far as to adopt the p s e u d o n y m of " L e S p e c t a t e u r T r a n q u i l l e " to e m p h a s i z e the s e r e n t i y of h i s attitude and the j u s t intent of h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s . T o t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s of the 19th a n d 20th C e n t u r i e s it was not n e c e s -s a r y to d e c o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h n o m e n c l a t u r e s s u g g e s t i v e of i m p a r t i a l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y . Y e t C a s g r a i n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s c r i t i c i s m as a " s e r i o u s e x a m i n a t i o n " and an "attentive s t u d y " of l i t e r a t u r e a i d e d by " l a f r o i d e r a i s o n j " and C a m i l l e R o y ' s " l o y a l e n t r y " into the m e n t a l i t y of a u t h o r s 157 w e r e i d e a s not too f a r r e m o v e d f r o m J a u t a r d ' s " t r a n q u i l " attitude. So was D a n t i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the c r i t i c as an e c l e c t i c p o s s e s s i n g a " v e r s a -t i l e , " " s u p p l e , " and " c o m p r e h e n s i v e " s p i r i t and not i n the l e a s t n i g g a r d l y i n his. s y m p a t h y . T h e c r i t i c i s m of J a u t a r d , C a s g r a i n , R o y and D a n t i n r e f l e c t s i n p a r t a c o n s c i o u s and d e l i b e r a t e effort m a d e b y t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s to e x p r e s s t h e i r thoughts o b j e c t i v e l y and i m p a r t i a l l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e t h w a r t e d , as m u c h b y i g n o -r a n c e of the a r t of c r i t i c i s m as by e g o t i s m and the c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e of s o c i e t y , in t h e i r efforts to be o b j e c t i v e a n d i m p a r t i a l . G i v e n the fact that the c r e a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e w a s , for a lengthy p e r i o d of t i m e , c o n s i d e r e d a h o p e l e s s t a s k i n F r e n c h C a n a d a , one u n d e r s t a n d s why t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e often a c a d e m i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y u n p r e p a r e d to p a s s j u d g m e n t on the w r i t i n g s of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . S u c h is the c a s e w i t h the m a j o r i t y of 18th C e n t u r y p e n p u s h e r s and w i t h C h a p m a n , R o u t h i e r a n d F r e c h e t t e . In the w o r k s of the f o r m e r , c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a n d p u n c t u a t i o n w e r e r a r e q u a l -i t i e s . T h e l a t t e r f r e q u e n t l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h e a c h other on the r u l e s of g r a m m a r i n p a r t i c u l a r a n d on the p r i n c i p l e s of good l i t e r a r y taste i n g e n e r a l . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s a l s o f a i l e d to l i v e up to t h e i r t h e o r i e s b e c a u s e m a n y of t h e m w e r e e g o t i s t s . If a m a n of l e t t e r s enjoyed a good r e p u t a t i o n , or if h i s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l l e a n i n g s d i d not c o n f o r m to those of a p a r -t i c u l a r c r i t i c , b l a m e i n e x c e s s b e c a m e the o r d e r of the d a y . C a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of w o r k s and i m p a r t i a l j u d g m e n t t h e r e o n w e r e d e l i b e r a t e l y b a n i s h e d f r o m the c r i t i c ' s f i e l d of v i s i o n . " J ' e n t r e en l i c e m o i " and 158 " L ' A n o n y m e " w r i t i n g i n La. G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e of 1778-79, as w e l l as C h a p m a n , F r e c h e t t e , R o u t h i e r and C a s g r a i n w e r e gui l ty of s u c h p r a c -t i c e s . L i t e r a r y d i s p u t e s i n t e n d e d to c r e a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l f e r m e n t a t i o n b e c a m e a m e a n s of b e l i t t l i n g an author and h i s w o r k . In no way d i d these d i s p u t e s r e s e m b l e the 17th C e n t u r y " Q u e r e l l e des A n c i e n s et des M o -d e r n e s . " C r e a t i o n s w o r t h y of the n a m e L i t e r a t u r e d i d not f l o u r i s h i n t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h C a n a d a . It is t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e why w r i t e r s at t i m e s e x -p r e s s e d r e s e r v a t i o n s on the e x i s t e n c e of l i t e r a t u r e , why they w e r e s e v e r e i n t h e i r c o m m e n t a r i e s on m e d i o c r e w o r k s . J u l e s F o u r n i e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n s w e r e not only s e v e r e , v e h e m e n t , and v i g o r o u s they w e r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i r o n i c and d e m e a n i n g b e y o n d j u s t m e a s u r e . F o u r n i e r c l a i m e d i n 1907 that F r e n c h C a n a d a h a d no l i t e r a t u r e , that its " l i l l i p u t i a n c o l l e c t i o n , " of w r i t i n g s was e q u a l to a state of n o t h i n g -n e s s . S u c h a s t a t e m e n t m u s t c e r t a i n l y r a n k as the m o s t e x c e s s i v e l y b l a m e f u l , n a r r o w - m i n d e d , s h o r t - s i g h t e d and u n w i t t i n g l y p r o - L o r d D u r -h a m c o m m e n t e v e r o f f e r e d b y a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c on h i s own l i t e r -a t u r e . If F o u r n i e r h a d b e e n as k e e n l y s u b j e c t e d , as w e r e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , to m a t e r i a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e s of l i f e , and h a d he b e e n a poet or a n o v e l i s t , one feels a s s u r e d that he w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n a b l e to p r o d u c e the v e r y m a s -t e r p i e c e s so e a g e r l y e x p e c t e d f r o m h i s c o l l e a g u e s . W h e r e c r i t i c i s m is c o n c e r n e d , t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h C a n a d a was an a r e n a into w h i c h , f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , b l i n d and h a l f - s i g h t e d m e n of l e t t e r s e n t e r e d i n the hope (and v e r y often u n d e r the p r e t e n c e ) of l e a d i n g t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s out of the d o l d r u m s of l i t e r a r y o b s c u r i t y . 159 B u t t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h C a n a d a was a l s o a h a v e n for a u t h o r s s e e k i n g to " r e p u d i a t e a l l n o t i o n s of c o l o n i a l i s m , " and to p r o v e that F r e n c h C a n a -d i a n s w e r e i n d e e d c a p a b l e of l i t e r a r y a c h i e v e m e n t s . In the f i r s t r e s p e c t , " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x " was c e r t a i n l y not j u s t i f i e d in s e e k i n g u n b r i d l e d a d m i r a t i o n for h i s l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s . T h e y w e r e f r e q u e n t l y r i d d l e d w i t h g r a m m a t i c a l and s t y l i s t i c e r r o r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he was c o r . r e c t i n s u g -g e s t i n g that V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d , a F r e n c h m a n by b i r t h ought not, i n j u d g i n g i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e , to a l w a y s c o m p a r e it to that of F r a n c e . In l i k e m a n n e r , C a s g r a i n d i s c o u r s e d on the u n j u s t n e s s of c o m p a r i n g a " y o u n g " l i t e r a t u r e to one whvch h a d b e g u n to a s s e r t i t s e l f s i n c e the M i d d l e A g e s . C r e m a z i e , h a v i n g r e j e c t e d c l a s s i c a l F r e n c h as b e i n g u n -r e l a t e d to the l i n g u i s t i c needs of h i s c o u n t r y m e n , t h e o r i z e d on the b e n e -fits of a h o m o g e n o u s l a n g u a g e , s i m i l a r to that s p p k e n b y the I r o q u o i s and the A l g o n q u i n s . P e l l e t i e r and G r i g n o n f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that "le canadiarffr fvjisme i n t e g r a l " w o u l d p r o v i d e i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e w i t h an i d e n t i t y of its own. T o " L e C a n a d i e n C u r i e u x , " C a s g r a i n , C r e m a z i e , P e l l e t i e r and G r i -gnon, l i t e r a r y r e c i p r o c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y at the l e v e l o f . l a n g u a g e , was i n -d i c a t i v e of c o l o n i a l i s m . C o l o n i a l i s m was an u n n e c e s s a r y e v i l . S e c o n d l y , the weight of E n g l i s h s u p r e m a c y i n a l l w a l k s of l i fe c a u s e d l o c a l m e n of l e t t e r s to s e e k refuge i n p a t r i o t i s m and C a t h o l i c d o g m a . W i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to 19th C e n t u r y s o c i e t y , it was d i f f i c u l t for the a v e r a g e m a n to f o r g e t the defeat of 1759, the U n i o n of b o t h C a n a d a s i n 1840 and L o r d D u r h a m ' s d e r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s on the n o n - e x i s t e n c e of F r e n c h C a n a d a as a n a t i o n . N o r was it e a s y to t u r n a b l i n d eye to the 160 p r o b l e m of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n m i g r a t i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T o many-c r i t i c s t h e r e f o r e , . p a t r i o t i s m and r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m b e c a m e y a r d s t i c k s of a p p r e c i a t i o n . W o r k s w h i c h c o n f o r m e d to these c r i t e r i a w e r e e x c e s -s i v e l y l a u d e d . L a y m e n - c r i t i c s of the 19th C e n t u r y s u c h as J . B . P r o u l x and P . B . M i g n a u l t as w e l l as R o u t h i e r , C a s g r a i n , R o y and M a r i o n a l l i n d u l g e d i n " l a c r i t i q u e a l ' e a u de r o s e . " A r t i s t i c s h o r t c o m i n g s w e r e r e p e a t e d l y e x c u s e d as the s i g n of " i n e x p e r i e n c e " i n l i t e r a t u r e . I r o n i c a l l y it is i n the n a m e of n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e that m a n y t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s l a v i s h e d p r a i s e on w o r k s for w h i c h i s i l e n c e w o u l d have s u f f i c e d as a f o r m of c o m -m e n t a r y . T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t m a d e b y D e s m o n d P a c e y on the " t e n d e r -h e a r t e d n e s s " of E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c i s m c i r c a 1949 is a p p l i c a b l e to t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c i s m : A s e c o n d c o n s e q u e n c e for our c r i t i c i s m of this l a c k of an o u t -s t a n d i n g w r i t e r is f u r t h e r p r o o f of h i s p o t e n t i a l v a l u e . I r e f e r to o u r constant and r a t h e r p a t h e t i c s e a r c h for h i m . A n author of g r e a t m e r i t but not of t r a n s c e n d e n t e x c e l l e n c e is c h o s e n by the c r i t i c , h i s s t r e n g t h s a r e m a g n i f i e d a n d h i s w e a k n e s s e s  i g n o r e d or e x c u s e d , u n t i l the c r i t i c f i n a l l y p e r s u a d e s h i m s e l f  that he has found the m a s t e r he s e e k s ([ i tal ics not i n the o r i g -i n a l J^. If no w r i t e r of e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n c a n be found s u i t a -b l e for s u c h a b u i l d - u p , ,then s o m e new f i g u r e on the h o r i z o n is s e l e c t e d as the c o m i n g genius of the age. H e n c e the p e r p e t -u a l h o p e f u l n e s s of our c r i t i c i s m , the o f t - d i s a p p o i n t e d but n e v e r d i s c a r d e d b e l i e f that C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y g r e a t n e s s is j u s t a r o u n d the c o r n e r I l o o k f o r w a r d to the day w h e n , f r o m a c a d e m i c a n d n o n - a c a d e m -i c s o u r c e s a l i k e , t h e r e w i l l flow a steady s t r e a m of c l e a r , d i -r e c t , and v i g o r o u s c r i t i c i s m u p o n our l i t e r a t u r e of the p a s t a n d p r e s e n t . It s h o u l d be c r i t i c i s m w h i c h b r i n g s to b e a r u p o n the w o r k of our w r i t e r s the f i n e s t i n s i g h t s of the b e s t c r i t i c a l m i n d s . It s h o u l d be c r i t i c i s m w h i c h is u n a f r a i d and u n i n h i b i t e d , w h i c h r e f u s e s to m a k e c o m p r o m i s e s w i t h or c o n c e s s i o n s to our p r u d e r y , 1 6 1 our c o n v e n t i o n s , and our t o o - t e n d e r s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s . T h e e m e r g e n c e of s u c h a c r i t i c i s m w i l l be the m o s t c e r t a i n s i g n that "our day of d e p e n d e n c e is over., " that o u r c u l t u r a l i m -m a t u r i t y is on the w a n e . * P a c e y ' s r e m a r k is s u g g e s t i v e of the s y m p a t h y a n d the h i g h t h r e s h o l d of t o l e r a n c e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p r a i s e - o r i e n t e d c o m m e n t a r i e s of C a s g r a i n , R o u t h i e r and R o y . B y r e c a l l i n g to m i n d M a u r i c e H e b e r t ' s t h e o r y of a "definite m e s s a g e , " L e m a y ' s b e l i e f i n "un b r i l l a n t a v e n i r p o u r nos l e t t r e s toujours a l ' e t a t de j e u n e s s e , " F o u r n i e r ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m a s t e r p i e c e s a n d the e a g e r n e s s w i t h w h i c h m a n y t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s g r e e t e d the m e d i o c r e c r e a t i o n s of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , the r e a d e r is able to f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of P a c e y ' s o b s e r v a t i o n . It is i n -d i c a t i v e of the f a i l u r e of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s to be c o n s i s t e n t l y o b j e c t i v e and i m p a r t i a l . In a m o r e l i m i t e d s e n s e it a l s o h o l d s s o m e t r u t h for c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m . E t h i e r - B l a i s for e x a m p l e w i s h e d a r d e n t l y .'that a F r e n c h C a n a -d i a n w o u l d one day c o m p o s e a " g r e a t w o r k . " B u t , i n l i k e n e s s to D u g a s , D u h a m e l and C h a r b o n n e a u , E t h i e r - B l a i s is h u m a n i s t i c enough to r e a l i z e that s u c h a w o r k s h o u l d be " u n i v e r s a l i n its a p p e a l " and c a p a b l e of h a v i n g m e a n i n g for the " e n t i r e w o r l d . " • In m o r e e x p l i c i t t e r m s , E t h i e r - B l a i s and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s on the w h o l e a r e as f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m s h o p e , n a t i o n a l i s m , p a t r i o t i s m and r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m a s . w e r e C a s g r a i n and R o y . H o w e v e r , if c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s a r e l e s s " t e n d e r - h e a r t e d , " " u n -a f r a i d and u n i n h i b i t e d " than w e r e t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , it is for the f o l l o w -i n g r e a s o n s . T h e y u n t i r i n g l y s e e k to p l a c e i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e in a 162 g l o b a l context. T h e y t h e m s e l v e s have c o n t r i b u t e d to<the r e a l i z a t i o n of this g o a l b y f r e q u e n t l y d i s c o u r s i n g on a u t h o r s who a r e not F r e n c h C a n a -d i a n s . C a s g r a i n and R o u t h i e r w o u l d c e r t a i n l y not h a v e s a n c t i o n e d s u c h a c t i o n . C o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s have not a l l o w e d t h e i r " q u e b e c n e s s " to negate t h e i r b a s i c " c o n d i t i o n " as i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r t h e m l i t e r a t u r e knows no b a r r i e r s . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s w e r e f i r m i n t h e i r o p i n i o n that " l i t e r a t u r e i s the e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i e t y , " that n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e was s y n o n y m o u s w i t h l i t e r a r y n a t i o n a l i s m . C o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s s u c h as D u h a m e l and E t h i e r -B l a i s b e l i e v e t h a t : l i t e r a t u r e is the e x p r e s s i o n of s e l f i n as h u m a n i s t i c and u n i v e r s a l a m a n n e r as p o s s i b l e . D u h a m e l , E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e have s u c c e e d e d in e x t r i c a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r o m a t r a d i t i o n r o o t e d i n the s o i l , and for too l o n g the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d a c r i t i c i s m b a s e d on r e g i o n a l i s m , C a t h o -l i c i s m , p a t r i o t i s m , savage attack and m a u d l i n s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . In a t t e m p t i n g to m e a s u r e l i t e r a r y w o r t h t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , i t s e e m s to u s , a s k e d the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . ' W a s this w o r k w r i t t e n b y m y f r i e n d or m y e n e m y ? ' 'Is s u c h a w o r k c e n t e r e d on p a t r i o t i s m and C a t h o l i c d o g -m a ? ' B y g i v i n g p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e to a n s w e r i n g these q u e s t i o n s , t r a d i -t i o n a l c r i t i c s r e d u c e d the p o s s i b i l i t y for o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n t h e i r w o r k . O n the c o n t r a r y D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s appear to a s k the q u e s t i o n : 'Is this w o r k , b a s e d as it m a y be on l o c a l s u b s t a n c e , of benefi t to s o c i e t y ? ' T h e r e is t h e r e f o r e s o m e f a c t o r other than that of d e a l i n g w i t h the w e l l -k n o w n c o l l e c t i v e f r u s t r a t i o n s of a n a t i o n i n f l u e n c i n g the thought and a c t i o n 163 of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s . T h e e x p e r i e n c e s of 20th C e n t u r y m a n s e e m to h a v e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n c e for t h e m than does "the w e i g h t of t h i n g s , " the h i s t o r y of F r e n c h C a n a d a . F o r e x a m p l e , is it not p o s s i b l e that the ef-f o r t s m a d e by a l l the g r e a t nations to c o e x i s t p e a c e f u l l y , i n the a f t e r m a t h of the r a v a g e s of W o r l d W a r II, have t h e i r l i t e r a r y r e s o n a n c e i n the h u -m a n i s m p e r m e a t i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e ? Is it not t h e r e -f o r e p l a u s i b l e to s u g g e s t that the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n of E t h i e r - B l a i s and B e s s e t t e , for e x a m p l e , is g u i d e d b y an a r c h e t y p e of u n i v e r s a l s o l i -d a r i t y attainable t h r o u g h this c o m m o n b o n d of h u m a n i s m i n L i t e r a t u r e ? / M o r e o v e r w h i l e it is not i m p e r a t i v e that any m a n of l e t t e r s s h o u l d s c u r r y to the four c o r n e r s of the e a r t h to d e v e l o p h i m s e l f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , one cannot deny the f o l l o w i n g w e l l - k n o w n fact. T h e advent of r a p i d t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d to the e a s e w i t h w h i c h c o n -t e m p o r a r y m e n of l e t t e r s a r e able to a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s (through i n t e r -v i e w s , s e m i n a r s , d i s c u s s i o n s , c o n f e r e n c e s , v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r s h i p s , etc. .) w i t h the i n n o v a t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e in l i t e r a t u r e and w i t h the i n t e l l e c -tuals r e s p o n s i b l e for s u c h i n n o v a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n i m p r o v e m e n t s i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of l i fe i n c o n t e m -p o r a r y Q u e b e c ^ have r e d u c e d the b u r d e n of e k i n g out a d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . T h i s b u r d e n w e i g h e d h e a v i l y on the s h o u l d e r s of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s . J a u -t a r d and R o u t h i e r b o t h h a d to d i v i d e t h e i r t i m e b e t w e e n l e g a l and l i t e r a r y a f f a i r s . F r e c h e t t e and C h a p m a n w e r e p o l i t i c i a n s as w e l l as m e n of l e t t e r s . C a s g r a i n and R o y w e r e not only a u t h o r s but a l s o c l e r g y m e n . B y c o m p a r -i s o n , c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . D u h a m e l has b e e n i n v o l v e d s o l e l y w i t h l i t e r a t u r e for the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s adult l i f e , c o n t r i b u t i n g 164 a r t i c l e s to L i b e r t e , L e D r o i t and L ' A c t i o n U n i v e r s i t a i r e . In l i k e m a n n e r , E t h i e r - B l a i s t o i l e d c r e d i t a b l y for L e D e v o i r b e f o r e b e c o m i n g a t o t a l l y ' i n d e p e n d e n t ' c r i t i c . B e s s e t t e , n o v e l i s t and c r i t i c , , h a s d e v o t e d h i s l i fe to l e t t e r s . So has M a r c o t t e . In c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y , t h e r e e x i s t s a c l i m a t e f a v o u r a b l e to i n t e l l e c -t u a l i s m and L i t e r a t u r e . C o n t e m p o r a r y m e n of l e t t e r s a r e not f a c e d w i t h the s t i g m a of b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d u s e l e s s to s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e is i n p r e s e n t day Q u e b e c a t r u e i n t e l l e c t u a l f e r m e n t a t i o n h a v i n g l i t t l e i n c o m m o n w i t h the p i o n e e r i n g efforts of M e s p l e t and J a u t a r d . In c o n t e m -p o r a r y F r e n c h C a n a d a , it is j u s t as a c c e p t a b l e for one to be an a c a d e m i c , as a c l e r g y m a n , d o c t o r o r l a w y e r . H a d H e c t o r F a b r e l i v e d i n p r e s e n t day Q u e b e c h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s on its l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e a f f o r d e d as m a n y h o u r s of p l e a s a n t r e a d i n g as do E t h i e r - B l a i s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h e h u m a n i s m and l i b e r a l -i s m m a n i f e s t in c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m a r e s e e n i n t h e i r infant stage i n F a b r e ' s t h e o r y of " i n d e p e n d e n t " c r i t i c i s m , as w e l l as i n h i s " d e s i n t e r e s s e -m e n t a n a l y t i q u e , " h i s b e l i e f i n c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m in L i t e r a t u r e , h i s s o u n d a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n s . O u r c o n t a c t w i t h F a b r e ' s w o r k l e a d s us to b e l i e v e that, i f h i s c r i t i c a l effort h a d b e e n m o r e s u s t a i n e d , he w o u l d have s u r p a s s e d C a s g r a i n i n s t a t u r e . H e r e we a r e t o u c h i n g on a s u b j e c t w h i c h s e e m s to m e r i t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , and w h i c h c o u l d have as its a i m an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the w o r t h of b o t h c r i t i c s . G i v e n the fact that c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s a r e in a b e t t e r s p i r i t u a l , i n -t e l l e c t u a l a n d m a t e r i a l s i t u a t i o n , than w e r e t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , to f o r m 165 t h e m s e l v e s m o r e t h o r o u g h l y , one w o n d e r s w h e t h e r the l a t t e r , h a n d i c a p p e d as they w e r e , d i d not a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y of w h i c h they w e r e c a p a b l e . T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a d e r m i g h t b a l k at g i v i n g an u n c o n -d i t i o n a l ' y e s ' in r e p l y . Y e t , he ought a l s o to be h e s i t a n t a n d s y m p a t h e t i c if h i s a n s w e r is n e g a t i v e . W h e n the e x c e s s i v e l y a d u l a t o r y c o m m e n t a r i e s of R o u t h i e r , C a s g r a i n and R o y a r e p l a c e d i n t h e i r r i g h t p e r s p e c t i v e , one c a n n o t f a i l to a d m i t the a e s t h e t i c r e l a t i v i s m of t h e i r content. P a t r i o t i s m a n d r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s m w e r e p r i n c i p l e s as v a l i d to t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s as a r e the m o r e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a of D u h a m e l a n d E t h i e r - B l a i s and the i n t e r d i s -c i p l i n a r y p r i n c i p l e s of M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e . T h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t m a d e by M m e de Sta'el i n 1813 to e x p l a i n the a s c e n d a n c y of R o m a n t i c i s m i n F r a n c e p r o v i d e s a t e r s e e x p l a n a t i o n of, and a f i t t ing a n a l o g y to, the d i c h o t o m y e x i s t i n g i n i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m : V i n g t ans de r e v o l u t i o n ont donne a 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n d ' a u t r e s b e s o i n s que c e u x q u ' e l l e e p r o u v a i t q u a n d l e s r o m a n s de C r ^ b i l l o n p e i -g n a i e n t l ' a m o u r et l a s o c i e t e du t e m p s . 2 If the c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a d e r f inds it d i f f i c u l t to s y m p a t h i z e w i t h the c r i t e r i a e m p l o y e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s , he c a n see w h y , i n the p o o r l y -s t o c k e d a r s e n a l of the l a t t e r , D a n t i n ' s e c l e c t i s m m a y h a v e b e e n the m o s t s o l i d w e a p o n . In m u c h the s a m e m a n n e r as M m e de S t a e l , D a n t i n r e a l i z e d that c u r r e n t t r e n d s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e in d i c t a t i n g the l i t e r a r y t a s t e s of an e r a : N o n s e u l e m e n t i l faut j u g e r l e s o e u v r e s a v e c une l a r g e u r s y m -p a t h i q u e : i l faut l e s r e p l a c e r dans l e u r m i l i e u , dans l e u r e p o q u e , et l e s j u g e r aux n o r m e s de l e u r t e m p s . A cote des p r i n c i p e s c o n s t a n t s q u i r e g i s s e n t l a beaute", i l y a, on n ' e n peut d o u t e r , des m o d e s e s t h e t i q u e s , a u s s i c h a n g e a n t e s et c a p r i c i e u s e s que 166 c e l l e s du c o s t u m e f e m i n i n . II y a des f o r m u l e s , des f a c o n s d ' e c r i r e , et m ^ m e de p e n s e r , p a r t i c u l i e r e s a. une e'poque, q u i p a s s e n t a l o r s p o u r le d e r n i e r m o t de l ' a r t , et que l ' e p o q u e suivante r e l e g u e aux v i e i l l e s a r m o i r e s c o m m e l e s c h a p e a u x de l ' a n p a s s e L e c r i t i q u e , p o u r j u g e r l e s o e u v r e s des a n c e t r e s , doit a s s u m e r l ' a m e des a n c e t r e s et a c c e p t e r p r o v i s o i r e m e n t l e u r s c r i t e r i u m s de b e a u t e . F a u t e de cet e c l e c t i s m e , on me'connaTt de r e e l s poetes dont le s e u l t o r t est d ' e t r e ties t r o p tot. ^ D a n t i n s h o w e d p e r s p i c a c i t y in thus d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the c r i t i c , for l o c a l c r i t i c s , w h i l e r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on F r a n c e for t h e i r t e c h n i q u e s , h a v e often j u d g e d l i t e r a t u r e " i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the n o r m s of its t i m e . " F o r e x a m p l e V a l e n t i n J a u t a r d , f a c e d w i t h the p r o b l e m of s ty le and • i f o r m , t r u s t e d i n c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h e r e w i t h to judge the c o m p e t e n c e of h i s c o l l e a g u e s . So d i d C a m i l l e R o y and D a n t i n h i m s e l f . B u t R o y a l s o f r e q u e n t l y r e s o r t e d to the b i o g r a p h i c a l m e t h o d of S a i n t e - B e u v e b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d , as d i d C a s g r a i n , that i n d i g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e was i n f l u e n c e d b y h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and b i o g r a p h y . In the l i g h t of the h u m a n i s m e v i d e n t i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , D u h a m e l and E t h i e r - B l a i s h a v e t u r n e d to M m e de S t a e l , G i d e and T h i b a u d e t , a u t h o r s w h o s e thoughts t r a n s c e n d the b a r -r i e r s of t i m e and p l a c e . M a r c o t t e , i n an attempt to see how the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n s , has found h i s m a s t e r i n B a c h e l a r d . Is this r e l i a n c e on m e t r o p o l i t a n F r a n c e for its t e c h n i q u e s a s i g n that "the day of d e p e n d e n c e " for i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m is not o v e r , that its " c u l -t u r a l i m m a t u r i t y " is not "on the w a n e ? " F o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s it w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t to give a c a t e g o r i c a l ' y e s ' to this q u e s t i o n . E t h i e r - B l a i s and D u h a m e l have b r o u g h t m o r e f i r m n e s s and s e r e n i t y to c r i t i c i s m . D a n t i n , C h a r b o n n e a u and E t h i e r - B l a i s . h a v e c o m m e n t e d upon f o r e i g n a u t h o r s other than F r e n c h m e n . B e s s e t t e has t u r n e d m o r e d i r e c t l y to F r e u d than to 167 M a u r o n for h i s c r i t i c a l m e t h o d . T h e s e facts p r o v e i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l y that i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m , w h i l e it has not yet m a p p e d out its own r o u t e b y i t -sel f , has p r o g r e s s e d to a point w h e r e one c a n s p e a k of its c u l t u r a l m a t u -r i t y . Y e t , u n t i l F r e n c h C a n a d a p o s s e s s e s a c r i t i c of N o r t h r o p F r y e ' s s t a t -u r e , it is c o n c e i v a b l e that the i n f l u e n c e of F r a n c e w i l l continue to m a k e i t s e l f f o r c e f u l l y felt i n i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c i s m . O n c e a g a i n we a r e e m b a r k i n g u p o n a subject w h i c h c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h e d . T h e n a t u r e of our own study m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t an e v a l u a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of F r e n c h c r i t i c s on t h e i r F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . B u t s u c h an e v a l u a t i o n , t o u c h e d on by our f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s to F r e n c h c r i t i c s , c o u l d i n d e e d be i n t e r e s t i n g and w o r t h w h i l e . A l m o s t one h u n d r e d y e a r s after C a m i l l e R o y ' s r e m a r k , it is s t i l l d i f f i c u l t to p e r c e i v e at a l l t i m e s the path f o l l o w e d b y l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . T h i s path c o n t a i n s n u m e r o u s z i g z a g s a n d m e a n d e r i n g s . B e c a u s e we have found it d i f f i c u l t to e x p l o r e a l l these w i n d i n g s , our i n -v e s t i g a t i o n though s y n t h e t i c m a y not be c o m p l e t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s it m a y not be without v a l u e . T h e r e is a d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s b e -c a u s e the f o r m e r d i d not, to any a p p r e c i a b l e d e g r e e , s u c c e e d i n b e i n g i m -p a r t i a l and o b j e c t i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e was r o o m for i m p r o v e m e n t i n c r i t i c i s m . D u h a m e l , E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e and B e s s e t t e a r e c o g n i z a n t 168 of this fact. T h e y h a v e e n d e a v o u r e d b o t h c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y to atone for the s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . T h e fact that c r i -t i c i s m , m o r e than any other m a j o r g e n r e , has p r o g r e s s e d m o s t r a p i d l y and s t e a d i l y o v e r the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s is due l a r g e l y to the o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y of the a b o v e - n a m e d c r i t i c s . C o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s h a v e not p a r t e d c o m p l e t e l y w i t h p r a i s e and b l a m e i n e x c e s s o r w i t h h i s t o r i c i t y and b i o g r a p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . B u t , i t i s p e r h a p s an i n d i c a t i o n of the h i g h l e v e l of o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y w h i c h they h a v e a t t a i n e d , that D u h a m e l , E t h i e r - B l a i s , M a r c o t t e and B e s -sette do not waste t h e i r e n e r g i e s on t h e o r i z i n g on the b e n e f i t s of "just, " " h e a l t h y , " " i n d e p e n d e n t " and " c o n s t r u c t i v e " c r i t i c i s m . B e c a u s e t h e s e c r i t i c s b e l i e v e that s u c h q u a l i t i e s a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r a r t , t h e i r e n e r g i e s a r e d i r e c t e d to a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h and a t o t a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n of the text. T h e " f o r e i g n c o n d i t i o n s " about w h i c h F a b r e r i g h t l y c o m p l a i n e d a r e so absent f r o m the w o r k of c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s that the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -m e n t m a d e by B e n j a m i n Suite i n 1874, has l i t t l e or no r e l e v a n c e to p o s t 1945 c r i t i c i s m . Suite not only p o i n t e d out that c r i t i c i s m was a n o v e l a r t i n h i s e p o c h , he a l s o c l a i m e d that: " i l n ' e x i s t e p a s e n c o r e une v e r i t a b l e t r i b u n e d ' o u p a r t e n t l e s e n s e i g n e m e n t s d'une c r i t i q u e i n d e p e n d a n t e , s o b r e , m o d e r e e et i m p a r t i a l e . ^ " ^ In the e r a of C a m i l l e R o y and D a n t i n , s u c h a s t a t e m e n t w o u l d s t i l l have c o n t a i n e d a g r e a t e l e m e n t of t r u t h . T h e s e a r c h for o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m has b e e n a lengthy and a r d u o u s t a s k . T h o u g h p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a d e , the t a s k is not c o m p l e t e . C o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m is no l o n g e r " u n h e a l t h y " and " i n t e r m i t t e n t ; " 169 on the c o n t r a r y it is " h e a l t h y " and " r e g u l a r . " T o a c h i e v e its u l t i m a t e m a t u r i t y , F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m m u s t continue to p u r s u e the c o u r s e o f . o b j e c t i v i t y , i m p a r t i a l i t y and l i b e r a l i s m . G i l l e s M a r c o t t e t o u c h e d on s u c h an i d e a i n p r o f e s s i n g that " l a c r i t i q u e r e g u l i e r e ne peut e t r e feconde que dans l a d i v e r s i t e . O u r own thoughts on the subject a r e b e s t e x p r e s s e d by P i e r r e de G r a n d p r e who states: L ' e s p r i t c r e a t e u r etant a l a fois " a g i " et " a g i s s a n t " p a r r a p p o r t au m i l i e u , l a c r i t i q u e l a p l u s u t i l i s a b l e et l a m i e u x adaptee a son objet est c e l l e q u i , a s s e z l a r g e en s a c o n c e p t i o n p o u r a s s u -m e r l e s m e t h o d e s l e s p l u s d i v e r s e s , en t i r e r p a r t i et l e s de.^ p a s s e r du d o g m a t i s m e e s t h e t i q u e aux i m p r e s s i o n n i s m e s , des tentatives d ' o b j e c t i v i t e s c i e n t i f i q u e aux efforts de c r i t i q u e c r e a t r i c e — — d e m a n d e a" l a l i t t e r a t u r e , c o m m e "a chaque o e u v r e , q u e l l a s p e c t du m o n d e e l l e e x p r i m e , q u e l l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e l l e en a p p o r t e , et q u e l l e est l a v a l e u r a u s s i b i e n de cette e x p r e s s i o n que de cette i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ^ F r o m a c u l t u r a l point of v i e w F r e n c h C a n a d a s h a r e s m o r e i n c o m m o n w i t h F r a n c e than w i t h any other c o u n t r y . It w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be h a r d l y s u r -p r i s i n g if l o c a l c r i t i c s w e r e to devote m o r e attention to t e c h n i q u e s c o m i n g f r o m P a r i s than f r o m M o s c o w , L o n d o n , B e r l i n o r N e w Y o r k . Y e t , b e -c a u s e F r e n c h C a n a d a l i e s i s o l a t e d on the N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t f r o m the m a i n c e n t r e s of l i t e r a r y f e r m e n t a t i o n , it cannot a f f o r d to be e x c l u s i v e in its b o r r o w i n g s . P a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e F r e n c h c r i t i c s have t h e m s e l v e s b o r r o w e d on o c c a -s i o n s f r o m the t e c h n i q u e s of f o r e i g n e r s , it is i m p e r a t i v e that i n d i g e n o u s c r i t i c s go d i r e c t l y a n d often to the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e ( s ) of new c r i t i c a l p r i n -c i p l e s . E x c l u s i v e n e s s i n c h o i c e w i l l s e r v e o n l y to c r e a t e a f o r m of d o g -m a t i s m , a p i t f a l l to be a v o i d e d at a l l c o s t s . C o n t e m p o r a r y Q u e b e c is s t i l l e n g a g e d i n a s t r u g g l e to e s t a b l i s h its 170 i d e n t i t y . T h e " O c t o b e r c r i s i s " of 1970 and P r e m i e r R o b e r t B o u r a s s a ' s r e c e n t " L a n g u a g e B i l l N o . 2 2 " f u r n i s h p r o o f of s u c h a s t a t e m e n t . It w o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e for l o c a l c r i t i c s to s e e k o r i g i n a l i t y b y p a y i n g attention to the p r o b l e m s of t h e i r " r a c e " and b y a c t i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to l o c a l m i l i e u . N e v e r t h e l e s s they m u s t r e m a i n c o n s t a n t l y a w a r e of this fact: e x c e s s i v e attention d i r e c t e d to the a f f a i r s of Q u e b e c c o u l d r e s u l t in. the r e s u r g e n c e of c o n s e r v a t i s m and " r e g i o n a l i s m e etrique'. " S h o u l d s u c h an u n h e a l t h y s i t u a t i o n b e c o m e a r e a l i t y , the c r e a t i o n of " a steady flow of c l e a r , d i r e c t and v i g o r o u s c r i t i c i s m " m e n t i o n e d b y P a c e y w o u l d n e v e r be ful ly r e a l i z e d . In a w o r l d w h e r e h u m a n i s m , c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m a n d u n i v e r s a l i s m h a v e e x e r t e d a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e s i n c e W o r l d W a r II, it is of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e that F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c r i t i c s s e e k t h e i r c r i t e r i a w h e r e v e r they m a y be found, a m o n g s t t h e m s e l v e s , i n the a c c e p t e d l i t e r a r y c a p i t a l s of the W o r l d , even a m o n g s t those nations i n the p r o c e s s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a . l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . It is s o l e l y b y g i v i n g attention to s u c h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n that the s e a r c h for o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m w i l l continue to be m e a n i n g f u l i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . F O O T N O T E S 171 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1. T h e s e c o m p l a i n t s , p l e a s and t h e o r i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C H A P T E R I. 2. C a m i l l e R o y , E s s a i s s u r l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e (Quebec: L i b r a i r i e G a r n e a u , 1 9 0 7 ) , p . 8. 3. L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e de M o n t r e a l , I ( M o n t r e a l : F . M e s p l e t , 1 7 7 8 ) , p . 10. In a l l p a s s a g e s c i t e d f r o m L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e we have r e -t a i n e d the s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n of the e r a . 4. A l b e r t P e l l e t i e r , C a r q u o i s ( M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n c a n a d i e n n e -f r a n c a i s e , 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . 1 3 - 1 5 . 5. C a m i l l e R o y , R e g a r d s s u r l e s l e t t r e s (Quebec: L ' A c t i o n s o c i a l e , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 13. 6. It is a w e l l - k n o w n fact that F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e of the p o s t W o r l d W a r II e r a d i f f e r s i m m e n s e l y f r o m that w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t . In g e n e r a l , t h e r e is l e s s c o n c e r n w i t h p a t r i o t i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m i n p o s t 1 9 4 5 l i t e r a t u r e . M e n of l e t t e r s have m a d e a g r e a t e r effort to e n s u r e that l i t e r a t u r e p a s s e s f r o m p a t r i o t i s m and p r o v i n c i a l i s m to h u m a n i s m and an a u d i e n c e of the u n i v e r s e . In c r i t i c i s m this new a t -titude is s e e n i n C o n n a i s s a n c e du P e r s o n n a g e ( 1 9 4 4 ) and L a F r a n c e et N o u s ( 1 9 4 7 ) , w o r k s of R o b e r t C h a r b o n n e a u . C h a r b o n n e a u ' s s u c c e s s -ful a t tempt to c o m b i n e p a t r i o t i s m , c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m into an a c c e p t a b l e w h o l e e x p l a i n s why we h a v e c h o s e n the p e r i o d 1 9 4 4 -4 5 as a l i n e of d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i -t i c s . C h a r b o n n e a u ' s w o r k s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C H A P T E R II. C H A P T E R I 1. S e r a p h i n M a r i o n , L e s L e t t r e s c a n a d i e n n e s d ' a u t r e f o i s , II (Ottawa: E d i t i o n s L ' E c l a i r , 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 1 2 - 1 4 . 2. L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e de M o n t r e a l , I ( M o n t r e a l : F . M e s p l e t , 1 7 7 8 ) , p . 1. In a l l p a s s a g e s c i t e d f r o m L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e , we h a v e r e -t a i n e d the s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n of the e r a . 3. M a r i o n , op. c i t . , pp. 1 3 3 - 3 4 . 4. L a G a z e t t e L i t t e r a i r e , I X , 1 7 7 9 , p . 3 4 . 172 5. Ibid. , X I X , 1779, p. 73. 6. Ibid. , II, 1779, p. 5. 7. Ibid. , X V , 1779, p. 5 9 . ' 8. See C H A P T E R II p. 60. 9. Hector F a b r e , " E c r i v a i n s canadiens M . N . B o u r a s s a , " L a Revue Canadienne, III (Montreal : E . Seneca l , 1866), pp. 7 2 7 - 2 9 . 10. Char les Ducharme, " L e s c r i t iques p o l i t i c o - l i t t e r a i r es , " L a Revue  Canadienne, X X I V , 1886, pp. 2 4 2 - 4 3 . 11. H . R . C a s g r a i n , -Cr i t ique l i t t e r a i r e (Quebec: C . Darveau I m p r i m e u r -E d i t e u r , 1872), pp. 1 -56 , p a s s i m . 12. H . R . C a s g r a i n , Oeuvres completes , 1 (Montrea l : C . - O . Beauchemin et f i l s , 1896), pp. 362-64" 13. See p p . 4 0 - 5 5 . 14. A d o l p h e - B a s i l e Routh ie r , P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s in L e s Guepes Canadiennes, II, compi lees et annotees par Auguste L a -p e r i e r r e (Ottawa: A . B u r e a u , 1881), p. 285. 15. See p. 48. 16. Routh ier , op. c i t . , p. 259. 17. I b i d . , p. 264. 18. I b i d . , p. 273. 19. C a m i l l e Roy , E s s a i s sur l a l i t te ra ture canadienne (Quebec: L i b r a i r i e Garneau , 1907), pp. 39-40? 20. C a s g r a i n , Oeuvres completes , I, pp. 3 5 3 - 7 5 . 21. Hector F a b r e , " E c r i v a i n s canadiens L'abbe C a s g r a i n , " L a Revue Canadienne, II, 1865, pp. 289 -306, and " E c r i v a i n s canadiens M . N . B o u r a s s a , " L a Revue Canadienne, III, 1866, pp. 7 2 7 - 5 0 . 22. Routh ie r , op. c i t . , p. 260. 23. S e e p . 47. 24. Routh ie r , P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s , p. 321. 25. A d o l p h e - B a s i l e Routh ie r , Conferences et D i s c o u r s , 2 e se r ie (Mont-r e a l : L i b r a i r i e B e a u c h e m i n , 1904), p. 331. 26. Routh ie r , P o r t r a i t s et P a s t e l s l i t t e r a i r e s , pp. 3 7 2 - 7 3 . 27. S e e p . 19. 28. L o u i s - H o n o r e F rechet te , " L e t t r e s de M . F rechet te a M . Routh ie r , " L e s Guepes Canadiennes, II, p. 25. 29. W i l l i a m Chapman, Le Laureat ; c r i t ique des oeuvres de M . Lou is F r e - chette (Quebec: Leger B r o u s s e a u , 1894), pp. v - x v i , p a s s i m . 173 30. Chapman spent 15 years of his l i fe in this pursu i t . In Nos Immorte ls he attacked F r e c h e t t e , as w e l l as Routhier and S i r James L e m o i n e . 31. Chapman, L e L a u r e a t , p. 49. 32. Ibid. , p. 322. 33. W i l l i a m Chapman, Deux Copains ; repl ique a M M . F rechet te et S a u - va l le (Quebec: Leger B r o u s s e a u , 1894), p. 152. 34. In Le Laurea t manque, F rechet te contented h i m s e l f wi th showing that Chapman's l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l fa i lu res were the source of his j e a l -ousy. F rechet te also pointed out in Chapman L e s F e u i l l e s d 'erable and L e s Quebeco ises , the p laces in which the latter p l a g i a r i z e d h i m . .35. C l a u d e - H e n r i G r ignon , Ombres et C l a m e u r s ; regards sur l a l i t t e r a -ture canadienne (Montrea l : Ed i t ions A l b e r t Levesque , 1933), p. 174. 36. Ibid. , pp. 106-07. 37. Ibid. , p. 15. 38. Ju les F o u r n i e r , Mon E n c r i e r . Introduction d ' A d r i e n T h e r i o . P r e -face d 'O l i va r A s s e l i n (Montrea l : F i d e s , 1965), pp. 226 -46 . 39. See I N T R O D U C T I O N p. 4. 40. Ju les F o u r n i e r , " C o m m e P r e f a c e A Son A l t e s s e S e r e n i s s i m e l a C r i -t ique; a. ses a m i s ; a. ses ennemis , " L a Revue Canadienne, II, p. 25. 4 1 . F o u r n i e r , M o n E n c r i e r , p. 48. 42. G r ignon , op. c i t . , p. 92. 43. M a u r i c e Heber t , E t d'un l i v r e a. 1'autre; nouveaux essa is de cr i t ique  l i t t e r a i r e canadienne (Montrea l : Ed i t ions Levesque , 1932), p. 9. 44. J e a n - C h a r l e s Harvey , A r t et Combat (Montrea l : Ed i t ions de l ' A . C F . , 1937), pp. 2 2 2 - 2 3 . ~~ " 45. In C H A P T E R II mention is made of Jautard 's c l a s s i c i s m . F o r a c o m -plete d i scuss ion thereof see M a r i o n L e s Le t t res canadiennes d ' a u t r e -f o i s , II. 46. L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e , V , 1779, p. 18. 47. Ibid. , X V I , 1779, p. 62. 48. Octave C r e m a z i e , P o e s i e s , publ iees sous le patronage de L ' Inst i tut Canadien de Quebec (Montreal : L i b r a i r i e B e a u c h e m i n , 1925), pp. 2 7 - 8 . 49 . Hector F a b r e , "On Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " T ransact ions of a L i t e r a r y  and H i s t o r i c a l Society of Quebec, Sess ion of 1865 paper V (Quebec: Middleton and Dawson at the "Gazet te" G e n e r a l P r i n t i n g P r e s s , 1867), p. 100. 50. See p . 36. 174 51. P . B . Mignault, "Bulletin Bibliographique, " L a Revue Canadienne, XVIII, 1882, p. 255. 52. J . B . Proulx , "Les F leurs de la poesie canadienne, " L a Revue Cana- dienne, VI, 1869, pp. 528-33;. 53. Pamphile Lemay, " L a Litterature canadienne -fr angaise et sa miss ion, " L a Fete nationale des Canadiens-Frangais celebre'e a Quebec en 1880, I (Quebec: A . C o t e e t c i e . , 1881), pp. "J374-"83~l ~ 54. Jean-Paul Sartre, Qu'est-ce que la litterature? (Paris : Editions G a l l i -mard , 1948), pp. 35-6. 55. Routhier, Conferences et Discours , p. 381. 56. Ibid. , p. 47. 57. Seraphin Marion's study of early men of letters seems to have been done mainly to belie L o r d Durham's opinion that French Canada was not a nation because it had no literature. 58. See pp. 22-27. 59. Routhier, Conferences et Discours , p. 274. 60. See.p. 24. 61. Routhier, Conferences et Discours , p. 336. 62. Casgrain, Oeuvres completes, I, pp. 368-70. 63. Ibid. , pp. 362-63. 64. Cremazie , op. cit. , pp. 19-31>. 65. See.pp. 19-22. 66. H . R . Casgrain and Joseph Marmette, Les Silhouettes l itteraires in Les Guepes Canadiennes, II, 1881, pp. 253-54. 67. Casgrain, Oeuvres completes, I, p. 395. 68. Roy, Essa i s sur la litterature canadienne, pp. 95-96. 69. Louis Dantin [^Eugene Seers}, Poetes de l 'Amerique francaise; etudes  critiques, 2 e m e s e r i e (Montreal: Albert Levesque, 1934), pp. 17-18. 70. Camil le Roy, Manuel d'histoire de la litter ature canadienne (Mont-real : L ibra i r i e Beauchemin, 1939), p. 193. 71. M a r c e l Dugas, Apologies (Montreal: Paradis-Vincent , 1919), p. 10. 72. M a r c e l Dugas, Approches (Quebec: Editions du Chien d'or, 1942), pp. 7-8. 73. See pp. 34-36. 175 74. G e r a r d Tougas, H i s t o i r e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-francaise, 2 e edition revue et augmentee ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1964), p. 109. 75. H e n r i d'Arles ^ H e n r i B e a u d l ] , Nos H i s t o r i e n s ; cours de c r i t i q u e  l i t t e r a i r e p r o f e s s e a. M o n t r e a l sous les auspices de 1'Action f r a n - c a ise (Montreal: Bibliotheque de l'Action f r a n c a i s e , 1921), p. 31. 76. See p. 51. 77. Roy, E s s a i s sur l a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne, p. 313. 78. Samuel B a i l l a r g e o n , L i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-francaise, 3 e edition (Montreal: F i d e s , 1957), p. 304. * 79 • M a u r i c e Hebert, De l i v r e s en l i v r e s ; e s s a i s de c r i t i q u e l i t t e r a i r e (Montreal: L o u i s C a r r i e r et c i e . , 1929), p. 45. 80. M a r i o n , op. cit. , pp. 189-91. C H A P T E R II 1. Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s , Signets, I (Ottawa: Le C e r c l e du l i v r e de F r a n c e , 1967), p. 7. 2. L a Gazette L i t t e r a i r e de M o n t r e a l , XI (Montreal: F. Mesplet, E d i -teur, 1778), p. 43. 3. See p. 65. 4. Seraphin M a r i o n , L e s L e t t r e s canadiennes d'autrefois, II (Ottawa: Ed i t i o n s de l'Univer site d'Ottawa, 1940), pp. 148-49. 5. See C H A P T E R I p. 24. 6. Octave C r e m a z i e , P o e s i e s , publiees sous le patronage de L'Institut Canadien de Quebec (Montreal: L i b r a i r i e Beauchemin, 1925), p. 42. 7. P a m p h i l e Lemay, " L a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-francaise et sa m i s s i o n , " L a Fete nation ale des Canadiens - F r a n c a i s celebre*e a Quebec en 1880, " Q u e b e c : A. Cote et c i e . , 1881), p. 3*82. 8. H e n r i d'Arles ^ H e n r i Beaude"}, Estampes (Montreal: Bibliotheque de l'Action f r a n c a i s e , 1926), pp. 41543. 9. L o u i s Dantin ^Eugene S e e r s J , G l o s e s c r i t i q u e s (Montreal: E d i t i o n s A l b e r t Levesque, 1931), pp. 172-73. 176 10. A l b e r t P e l l e t i e r , C a r q u o i s ( M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e d ' a c t i o n c a n a d i e n n e -f r a n ^ a i s e , 1931), p p . 7-33 and C l a u d e - H e n r i G r i g n o n , O m b r e s et C l a m e u r s ; r e g a r d s s u r l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s A l b e r t L e v e s q u e , 1933)~pp. 191-192. 11. L o u i s D a n t i n [ E u g e n e S e e r s " ] , P o e t e s de L ' A m e r i q u e f r a n c a i s e ; etudes c r i t i q u e s , 2 e m e s e r i e ( M o n t r e a l : A l b e r t L e v e s q u e , 1934), p p . 142-43. 12. In A r t et C o m b a t ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s de L ' A . C F . , 1937), p p . 87-89 J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y c l a s s i f i e s L e s C r o q u i s l a u r e n t i e n s as b e i n g " e c r i t s en f r a n c a i s . " H e c a l l s F r e r e M a r i e - V i c t o r i n " l ' u n des p l u s p u r s e c r i v a i n s du C a n a d a , " and "le p l u s n a t u r e l et le p l u s s i m p l e de nos r e g i o n a l i s t e s . " 13. L o u i s D a n t i n j^Eugene S e e r s ' ] , P o e t e s de L ' A m e r i q u e f r a n c a i s e ; etudes  c r i t i q u e s ( M o n t r e a l : L o u i s C a r r i e r et c i e . , 1928), p . 54. 14. See p. 60. 15. J e a n - C h a r l e s H a r v e y , P a g e s de c r i t i q u e s u r q u e l q u e s a s p e c t s de l a l i t t e r a t u r e f r a n g a i s e au C a n a d a (Quebec: C o m p a g n i e d ' I m p r i m e r i e L e S o l e i l , 1926?, p. 4T. 16. H a r v e y , A r t et C o m b a t , p . 172. 17. S e r a p h i n M a r i o n , E n f e u i l l e t a n t nos e c r i v a i n s ; etude de l i t t e r a t u r e  c a n a d i e n n e ( M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e , 1931), p . 29. * 18. M a u r i c e H e b e r t , D e L i v r e s en l i y r e s ; e s s a i s de c r i t i q u e l i t t e r a i r e  c a n a d i e n n e ( M o n t r e a l : L o u i s C a r r i e r et c i e . , 1929), p. 180. 19. C a m i l l e R o y , E s s a i s s u r l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e (Quebec: L i b r a i r i e G a r n e a u , 1907), p . 21. 20. C a m i l l e R o y , R e g a r d s s u r l e s l e t t r e s (Quebec: L ' A c t i o n s o c i a l e , 1931), p . 108. 21. J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s , S i g n e t s , II (Ottawa: L e C e r c l e du l i v r e de F r a n c e , 1967), pp 47. 22. J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s , S i g n e t s , III (Ottawa: L e C e r c l e du l i v r e de F r a n c e , 1973), p. 140. In L e T e m p s des p o e t e s; d e s c r i p t i o n c r i t i q u e de l a p o e s i e a c t u e l l e au C a n a d a f r a n c a i s ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s H . M . H . , 1969), p . 116, M a r c o t t e , i n l i k e m a n n e r to E t h i e r - B l a i s , c o n d e m n s "le j o u a l . " M a r c o t t e states that G e r a l d G o d i n ' s " langue n e r v e u s e , p e t a r -dante, " has n o t h i n g i n c o m m o n w i t h "le j o u a l ; " " m e l a n g e i n f o r m e de f r a n c a i s et d ' a n g l a i s . " In c o n c l u s i o n the c r i t i c c l a i m s that "le j o u a l " , 177 c ' e s t l ' i n f o r m e . O r c ' e s t en v i r t u o s e que G e r a l d G o d i n u t i l i s e le langage p o p u l a i r e . " 23. E t h i e r - B l a i s , III, p . 60. 24. E t h i e r - B l a i s , II, p. 1 9 6 . 25. R o g e r D u h a m e l , L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s ; etudes et c h o i x de textes (Ottawa: E d i t i o n s de L ' U n i v e r s i t e d ' O t t a w a , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 97/. 26. R o g e r D u h a m e l , L i t t e r a t u r e , l e r e s e r i e ( M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e s L a p l a n t e et L a n g e v i n , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 8 2 . 27. H . R . C a s g r a i n , O e u v r e s c o m p l e t e s , I ( M o n t r e a l : C O . B e a u c h e m i n et f i l s , 1 8 9 6 ) , p . 4 1 3 . 28. C a s g r a i n , II, 1 8 9 7 , p p . 1 2 1 - 2 2 . 2 9 . S e e p . 7 5 . 3 0 . C a s g r a i n , I, p. 4 0 9 . 31 . C a m i l l e R o y , N o s O r i g i n e s l i t t e r a i r e s (Quebec: L ' A c t i o n s o c i a l e , 1 9 0 9 ) , p . 2 0 3 . 32. R o y , E s s a i s s u r l a l i t t e r a t u r e ! c a n a d i e n n e , p p . 2 3 - 3 3 . 3 3 . D u h a m e l , L i t t e r a t u r e , p p . 8 1 - 8 2 . 3 4 . I b i d . , p . 9 3 . 3 5 . R o g e r D u h a m e l , A u x S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s (Ottawa: E d i -t ions de L ' U n i v e r s i t e d ' O t t a w a , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.. 2 0 . 3 6 . Ibid. , p. 1 2 5 . 3 7 . Ibid. , p . 1 3 3 . 3 8 . Ibid. , p . 2 0 0 . 39 . E t h i e r - B l a i s , II, p. 115. 4 0 . Ibid. , p . 1 3 5 . 4 1 . E t h i e r - B l a i s , III, pp. 1 6 0 - 6 1 . 4 2 . J e a n M e n a r d , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " R e c h e r c h e et L i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e -f r a n c a i s e . C o l l o q u e a L ' U n i v e r s i t e d ' O t t a w a le 2 5 et le 2 6 O c t o b r e , 1 9 6 8 . (Ottawa: E d i t i o n s de L ' U n i v e r s i t e d ' O t t a w a , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 2 3 . 4 3 . D u h a m e l , A u x S o u r c e s du R o m a n t i s m e f r a n c a i s , p . 2 0 . 4 4 . D u h a m e l , L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p . 1 8 5 . 4 5 . See C H A P T E R I p p . 2 8 - 3 4 . 4 6 . D u h a m e l , L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p p . 6 2 - 6 3 . . 5 4 7 . J u l e s L e m a i t r e , L e s C o n t e m p o r a i n s , V I I , c i t e d by A l b e r t T h i b a u d e t , P h y s i o l o g i e de l a c r i t i q u e ( P a r i s : L a N o u v e l l e R e v u e c r i t i q u e , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 28. _ 178 48. D u h a m e l , L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p . 8. 49. In D e L ' A l l e m a g n e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e H a c h e t t e , 1958), M m e de S t a e l [ G e r m a i n e S t a e * l - H o l s t e u f J , r e v e a l e d G e r m a n l i t e r a t u r e to h e r c o n t e m -p o r a r i e s , i n the hope of p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h a new s o u r c e of i n s p i r a -t i o n . 50. D u h a m e l , L e s M o r a l i s t e s f r a n c a i s , p . 111. .51. H e c t o r F a b r e , " E c r i v a i n s c a n a d i e n s M . N . B o u r a s s a , " L a R e v u e C a n a d i e n n e , III ( M o n t r e a l : E . S e n f c a l , 1866), p p . 735-47. 52. J e a n du M e y n , " N o t r e e d u c a t i o n l i t t e r a i r e , " L a R e v u e C a n a d i e n n e , L , 1906, p p . 139-49. 53. A l p h o n s e G a g n o n , " L a l i t t e r a t u r e a m e r i c a i n e , " L a R e v u e C a n a d i e n n e , X X X V , 1899, p . 14. ; 54. See C H A P T E R I p . 46. 55. A d o l p h e - B a s i l e R o u t h i e r , L e s C a u s e r i e s du d i m a n c h e ( M o n t r e a l : C . - O . B e a u c h e m i n et V a l o i s , 1871), p . 250. 56. H a r v e y , P a g e s de c r i t i q u e , p p . 94-95. 57. C a m i l l e R o y , M a n u e l d ' h i s t o i r e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e de langue  francaise ( M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e B e a u c h e m i n , 1939), p . 190. 58. E t h i e r - B l a i s , III, p. 115. 59. M a r c e l D u g a s , A p o l o g i e s ( M o n t r e a l : P a r a d i s - V i n c e n t , 1919), p p . 58-59 and 89. 60. E t h i e r - B l a i s , III, p . 156. 61. Ibid. , pp. 105-17. 62. R o b e r t C h a r b o n n e a u , C o n n a i s s a n c e du P e r s o n n a g e ( M o n t r e a l : E d i -t i o n s de L ' A r b r e , 1944). 63. R o b e r t C h a r b o n n e a u , L a F r a n c e et N o u s ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s de L ' A r -b r e , 1947), p p . 12-31. 64. I b i d . , p . 13. 65. E t h i e r - B l a i s , II, p . 15 66. J e a n E t h i e r - B l a i s , " C ' e s t c o m m e le p r e m i e r c r i d ' u n h o m m e , " L e  D e v o i r , L X 126, ( M a y , 1969), p . 15. 67. E t h i e r - B l a i s , " Q u e l q u e s s u r p r i s e s et une c e r t a i n e g e n e , " L e D e v o i r , L X 149, (June, 1969), p . 13. 179 68. See p. 107. 69. A n d r e G i d e , T h e s e e (New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n B o o k - S t r a t f o r d P r e s s , 1946), p . 123. 70. E t h i e r - B l a i s , S i g n e